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Full text of "National geographic index, 1888-1946 inclusive"

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USA 



VOLUME XXXI 



^^-^^/iC^ 



JAN —JUNE, 1917 



&:^ 



The NATIONAL 

GEOGRAPHIC 
MAGAZI 



INDEX 



January to June, 1917 



Volume XXXI 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

HUBBARD MEMORIAL HALL 
"WA-SHINGTON, D.C. 



mm 



■ACOP^ 



\AJi 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

HUBBARD MEMORIAL HALL 
SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS, WASHINGTON. D. C. 



O. H. TITTMANN PRESIDENT 

GILBERT H.GROSVENOR, DIRECTOR AND EDITOR 
JOHN OLIVER LA GORGE . ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
O. p. AUSTIN SECRETARY 



JOHNE.PILLSBURY vice-president 

JOHN JOY EDSON .... TREASURER 
GEORGE W. HUTCHISON. ASSISTANT secretary 
WILLIAM J. SHOWALTER . ASSISTANT EDITOR 



1915-1917 

Charles J. Bell 

President Amerioin Security 
and Trust Company 

John Joy Edson 

President Washington Loan & 
Trust Company 

David Fairchild 

In Charse of Agricultural Ex- 
plorations. Dept. of Asric. 

C. Hart Merriam 

Member National Academy of 
Sciences 

O. p. Austin 

Statistician 

George R. Putnam 

Commissioner U. S. Bureau of 
Lishthouses 

George Shiras, 3d 

Formerly Member U. S. Con- 
gress, Paunal Naturalist, and 
Wild-Game Photosrapher 

Grant Squires 

New York 



BOARD OF MANAGERS 
1916-1918 

Franklin K. Lane 

Secretary of the Interior 

Henry F. Blount 

Vice-President American Se- 
curity and Trust Company 

C. M. Chester 

Rear Admiral U. S. Navy, 
Formerly Supt. U. S. Naval 
Observatory 

Frederick v. Coville 

Formerly l-residentof Wash- 
i ngton Academy of Sciences 

John E. Pillsbury 

Rear Admiral U. S. Navy. 
Formerly Chief Bureau of 
Navigation 

Rudolph Kauffmann 

Manasins Editor The Evening 
Star 

T. L. Macdonald 

M. D., F. A. C. S. 

S. N. D. North 

Formerly Director U. S. Bu- 
reau of Census 



1917-1919 

Alexander Graham Bell 

Inventor of the telephone 

J. Howard Gore 

Prof. Emeritus Mathematics, 
The Geo. Washington Univ. 

A. W. Greely 

Arctic Explorer, Major Qen'l 
U. S. Army 

Gilbert H. Grosvenor 

Editor of National Geographic 
Magazine 

George Otis Smith 

Director of U. S. Geological 
Survey 

O. H. TiTTMANN 

Formerly Superintendent of 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey 

Henry White 

Formerly U. S. Ambassador to 
France, Italy, etc. 

John M. Wilson 

Brigadier General U. S. Army. 
Formerly Chief of Engineers 



To carry out the purpose for which it was founded twenty-eight years 
ago, namely, "the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge,'' 
the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine. All receipts 
from the publication are invested in the Magazine itself or expended 
directly to promote geographic knowledge and the study of geography. 
Articles or photographs from members of the Society, or other friends, 
are desired. For material that the Society can use, adequate remunera- 
tion is made. Contributions should be accompanied by an addressed 
return envelope and postage, and be addressed : 

GILBERT H. GROSVENOR. EDITOR 



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 



A. W. Greely 
C. Hart Merriam 

O. H. TiTTMANN 

Robert Hollister Chapman 
Walter T. Swingle 



Alexander Graham Bell 
David Fairchild 
Hugh M. Smith 
N. H. Darton 
Frank M. Chapman 



Copyright, 1917, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. All rights reserved 



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COLUMBIA 



BARRIBNTOS 

THE new-found treasure-voice of the Metropolitan Opera— 
the world's greatest coloratura soprano — can now be heard 
on Columbia Records exclusively. 

All the exquisite art of Barrientos is reflected in her first Columbia 
recordings of ''Silence O'er All" and the ''Mad Scene'' from "Lucia/' 
and the "Valse" from Gounod's "Mireille/' 

Columbia Records are living reflections of the art of the greatest singers 
of opera. They have the voice, the interpretation, the persojialtty of such 
world-famed artists as Lazaro, Fremstad, Sembach, 
Barrientos, Bonci, Gates, Macbeth. 

Hear these records at your dealer's today — and 
you will have heard the artists the?nsehes! "Hearing 
is believing!'' 

New Colombia Records on sale the 20th of every month 




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m 




iinniiiiiiiiiiniiiii] 



For 7-passenger Six — 48 h. p. 
127-inch Whcelbase. 



$1460 

<t 1 1 C A ^°^ Mitchell Junior— 40 h. p. 
^1 lOU 120-inch Whcelbase Six. 

Both Prices f. o. b. Racine 



Mr, Bate's New Extras 



Every dollar we save by John W. 
Bate's efficiency methods goes into the 
Mitchell car. 

In this model factory — covering 45 
acres — we are building a fine car for less 
than anyone else. For at least one-fifth 
less than anyone else could build it. 
The result shows in Mitchell extras. 

24% Extra Luxury 

This year we build our own bodijps, 
open and enclosed. Every penny of that 
saving goes into added luxury. It en- 
ables us to add 24 per cent to the cost 
of finish, upholstery 
and trimming. The 
result is a car which 
stands out clearly as 
the handsomest car in 
its class. 

31 Extra 
Features 

This year'3 Mitch- 
ell embodies 31 extra 



TWO SIZES 



l^l'i'r^liAll'^ roomy, T-pasteneer 
jyiirCneii six, with 127-liich wheel- 
base. A hiffh speed, economical 48-faor8e- 
power motor. Diaappearinv extra seats 
and 31 extra features included. 

Price S1460^ /. o. b. Racine 

Mitchell Junior-slltlir^fiS 

lines with 120-inch ^firheelbase. A40-horse- 
power motor— K-inch smaller bore than 
larser MitchelL 

Price SllSO, f. a. b. Racine 
Also all styles of enclosed and convert* 
ible bodies. Also demountable tops. 



features, all paid for by factory saving:s. 
These are features which other cars 
omit because of their added cost. They 
cost us this year about $4,000,000. 

100% Over-Strength 

This year we announce, for the first 
time, double strength in every Mitchell 
part. It has taken three years to attain 
it Now every part which gets a strain 
is twice as strong as need be. 

All this — to attain a lifetime car — is 
paid for by factory savings. 

We urge you to see these results of eflGi- 
ciency .They are found 
in no other high- 
grade car. You will 
want these extras — 
all of them. Only the 
Mitchell has them. 



They mean 20 per 
cent extra value. 

MITCHELL MOTORS 

COMPANY, Inc. 
Racine, Wis., U. S. A. 



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Any Weather Is Billiard 

\\7 J.L. I ^^ ^y Home Has Room 

W ea.tner : For a BRUNSWICK Table 

Carom and Pocket Billiards are a captivating All reproduced in actual colors in our de luxe 

sport, and nowadays the Brunswick Home Table catalog. Write for free copy today, 
is the family playground. IVken school Ms 

out it quickens home-bound footsteps. Lo^ PricCS— Free Trial 

Soon then the chckmg balls proclaim that 

eager eyes are training to debate dad*8 mastery Test any Brunswick 30 days at home 9J\Apay 

when he arrives from work. while you play^ if you keep the table. Prices 

This manly love of skillful achievement is are low because we are selling to thousands, 

builtright into these scientific Bninswicks. They Balls, Cues, Expert Book of 33 games, etc., 

are packed full of health, they are wrapped with given free with each table, 

tense moments, and Mail This 

7alght^r ^"^^ ^"^ ^SlvVJ^O fVXv^l\^ Learn how our 

Used By ExDcrts HOME BILLIARD TABLES "QuickDemountabies" 

wsea Dy iiiXpero can be set up anywhere 

Many professionals g^aa^^^MaaaM^aa^aa^MMMi and put in a closet when 

use Brunswick Home 1^.1, iiDtt..r«iij/« I notinuse. See the 

Tables. Accurate an- | DeS^SJ^ 623^33 sTw^b^^ I "Grand ''and celebrated 

gles, fast ever-level beds J Chicago. 1 * 'Baby Grand." 

and quick-acting Mon- ■ Without Incurrin&r any oblisration Iwould ! Get full information 

arch cushions give them | '^^ to receive a copy of your color-catalog | j^id color-pictures of ta- 

expert playing qualities. l " Billiard*— Th« Hoin« Magn«t" | bles in our latest catalog 

Fine oak and hand- - ■ —Billiards- "The Home 

somely fieured mahog- ■ ^<^»^ Magnet." The coupon 

any, richly inlaid and | ... I brings a copy free by 

built to last a lifetime. | ^^ I return mail. Send today. 

uiii:i;iuiitiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiuuuiiuuuuuiuuuuuuuiiiiiuiiuiuuuiuuiiiiiiiiiuiiiLM wm ^ ^ ^m ^m ■■■ MM ^ ■■■ ■■■■ MM B^ MM MM ■■Aiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiuiiiiiitiiiiuiiiiiuiiiiiiiiuii;uiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuMiiuuiuuiiuiaini 



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No Other Six Resembles 
Hudson Super-Six 

Don't Be Misled — ^It is a Hudson Invention 

Sixes have come into renewed popularity since the Super- 
Six won the top place. But the Super-Six invention- 
controlled by our patents— added 80 per cent to. the six-type 
efficiency. And that 80 per cent is what gave it supremacy, 
when the V-types threatened to displace the Six, 



Late in 1913, remember, the Six was a 
waning type. .Even the Light Six, which 
Hudson gave first rank, had revealed some 
vital engineering limitations. 

It had not solved the problem of motor vibra- 
tion. It bad not minimized friction and wear. 
Its endurance had proved disappointing. 

Sizes at that time held hardly a single 
record. They were mostly held by Fours. 

And leading engineers, including the Hud- 
son, were seeking a remedy in Eights and 
Twelves. At that time the Six, for high- 
grade cars, seemed verging on diplacement. 

What Saved the Day 

It was the Super-Six invention, remember, 
which then saved the day for the Six. 

Hudson engineers discovered the short- 
cominq. By a basic invention they corrected 
the fault. They ended nearly all the vibration. 
They doubled the motor's endurance. Thus 
they created a motor which has since won all 
the worth-while records. 

But that doesn't mean that the old-type 
Six is any better than it was. 

' Tivas the Super-Six 
That Won 

The Super-Six, in a hundred tests, has out- 
performed all other motor types. It has not 
merely broken records. It has made new records 
which, a year ago, no man considered possible. 

It broke the 24-hour endurance record by 
52 per cent. ^ It broke the transcontinental 
record twice in one round trip. A Super- 
Six touring car went from San Francisco to 
New York and back in 1 days and 2 1 hours. 



It beat twenty famous rivals up Pike's Peak. 
It broke all stock-car speed records, and all 
for quick acceleration. 

Then,^ after 7,000 record-breaking miles, it 
showed itself in new condition. Not a part 
or bearing showed evidence of wear. 

No other motor ever built has shown any- 
where near such endurance. 

All By Saving Waste 

The Super-Six develops no more power 
than other like-size motors. It simply de- 
livers more. It almost eliminates motor fric- 
tion and wear by ending nearly all the 
vibration. 

That vibration, which wasted power, was 
the great fault of the Six. It is that which 
led to the Ejght and Twelve as a possible 
solution. Any motor in which that fault 
remains can't compare with the Super-Six. 

A New Gasoline Saver 

The Hudson Super-Six, in endurance and 
performance, stands foremost in the world. 
The new style bodies which we have created 
make the car look its supremacy. A new 
exclusive feature — a gasoline saver — gives it 
this year another advantage. 

It now outsells any other front-rank car. 
It has 25,000 enthusiastic owners, who knbw 
that no rival can match them. 

You can prove in one hour, at any Hudson 
showroom, that this car deserves its place. 
And that no other car, at any price, can be 
classed with it. Do that before the spring • 
demand overwhelms us. 



Phaeton, T-passenffer . $1650 
Roadster, l-paaaenffer . 1650 
Cabriolet, S-passenffer . 1950 



Tourins Sedan .... $2175 Town Car $2925 

Limousine 2^25 Town Car Landaulet . 3025 

{AllPricmmf, o. 6. Dmtroit) Limousine Landaulet . 3025 



HUDSON MOTOR CAR COMPANY, DETROIT, MICfflGAN 






''Mention the Geographic-— It identifies you.** 



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Eood Value-Always Browing Greater 



As the improvements are made in 
Dodge Brothers car nothing is said 
to Dodge Brothers dealers, or to 
the pubhc, about them. 
This is in pursuance of a policy in- 
augurated by Dodge Brothers at 
the very outset. 

They look upon the progressive 
improvement of the car as a matter 
of cfourse. 

It is a plain duty they owe to them- 
selves and to the public. 
There is no necessity of heralding 
these improvements in advance. 
The public finds out about them 
in due time, and expresses appre- 
ciation and approval. 
And so, while the process of better- 
ment goes on every day, nothing is 
scud of it until after it is accomplished. 
The car is basically the same car 
as it was two years ago. 
Yet there isn't a bit of doubt but 
that it is a better car. 
The car of today is worth more money 
than the car of Jtwo years ago. 
The price is the same, but the car 
is a better car. ^ 

Not because the costs of materials 
have increased — although they have. 
But especially because the standards 
of construction have been steadily 
raised — the shop practice made 
steadily finer. 

And still, the buyers of the first 
cars, and every subseqyent car, re- 
ceived full value. 

That is proven by the fact that all 
of the cars, no matter how long ago 
they were built, are giving good ser- 
vice today. 

It is still further proven by the high 
price they command when sold at 
second hand. 



Any car built by Dodge Brothers com- 
mands a high price — whether it was 
built twenty-two months, or twelve 
months, or two months ago. 

This high valuation on any car bearing 
Dodge Brothers* name has been fixed, 
not by them, but by the public. 

Dodge Brothers have had few market 
problems to bother them» and practi- 
cally nothing to do but make the car 
better. 

They are their own severest critics, 
and they will never wait for the public 
to ask for a better car from them. 

They try to anticipate— to travel ahead— 
to give even more than is expected. 

No materii^l, no part, and no acces- 
sory is barred from Dodge Brothers 
car because it is too high priced. 

.The only question asked, the only 
proof demanded, is of its goodness. 

When the car was designed, its parts 
were charted and chosen according to 
quality, and with a total disregard of 
price. 

That policy still prevails, only it has 
been intensified. 

No source of supply can have too high 
a standard for Dodge Brothers — 
nothing too good can be offered for 
Dodge Brothers car. 

That policy, plus a process of research, 
test, refinement and proof, make for 
continuous progress. 

That is why it is still the same car, 
and yet a much finer car. 

That is why it is worth more money 
than ever, though still sold at the same 
price. 

That is why its value is always grow- 
ing greater. 



Touring Car or Roadster, $785. In Canada, $1 100 
Winter Touring Car or Roadster. $950. In Canada. $ 1 335 
Sedan. $1185. In Canada. $1685 
A II prices f. o. b. Detroit 

DooGE Brothers, Detroit 




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The Hours W 
Don't Forgei 

The Same Good-Nights for a 
Hundred Years Will be Said 
Over Dishes of Puffed Grains 

The little ones in countless homes 
will tonight float Puffed Grains in 
their bowls of milk — 

Puffed Wheat, Puffed Rice or Corn 
Puffs. 

In times to come, their children's 
children will do the same, no doubt. 
For no man can ever make from 
wheat, rice or corn a better food than 
these. 

The Pinnacle Foods Forever 

Hundreds of foods have been made from these grains. But Puffed Grains mark 
the apex. They can never be excelled. 

Prof. Anderson' s process takes whole wheat or rice and makes every atom digestible. 
Every food cell is exploded. Every granule is fitted to feed. No one can ever go further. 

These grains are sealed in guns. For an hour they are rolled in 550 degrees of 
heat. The moisture in each food cell is changed to steam. The guns are shot and 
that steam explodes. 

There occur in each grain a hundred million explosions — one for every food cell. 
The grains are puffed to eight times normal size. They come out airy, flaky bubbles, 
as you see. 

No other cooking process breaks more than half of the food cells. None can 
ever break more. So these must forever remain the sovereign foods produced from 
wheat, rice or corn. 



Puffed 


Puffed 


Wheat 


Rice 


and Corn Puffs 


Each 15c Except in 


Far West 



These are not mere morning dainties. They are all-day foods. Folks use them 
like nuts in candy-making, or as garnish for ice cream. They serve them as wafers in 
soup. Between meals they eat them dry. And no other morsels are so ideal for 
serving in bowls of milk. 

Serve a different one each day. 

The Quaker Qats Ompany 

Sole Makers (1452) 



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Higher Mileage 

from both oil and gasoline 
follows lubricating efficiency 



THE careful motorist to- 
day wants high mileage 
from his lubricating oil. 
For high mileage is significant 
in many ways. 

Higher mileage from an oil 
means more work, less waste. 

Higher mileage results from 
a more complete piston-ring seal. 
That means practically elimi- 
nating oil working into the 
combustion chambers. It means 
cutting down the gasoline waste 
past the piston rings. It means 
sealing-in the power, which then 
acts with full force on thepistons. 

And a higher mileage oil 
must naturally be one which 
withstands the intense working- 
heat in the cylinders. 



The high mileage from 
Gargoyle Mobiloils is causing a 
marked reduction in many an- 
nual oil bills. But, much more 
important, it points plainly to 
greater lubricating efficiency. 

A Massachusetts garage man 
writes us: "Some motorists say 
Gargoyle Mobiloils go J to^ further. 
In our seven livery cars we get 20 
to 25 miles more per quart than 
with anything else on the job." 

A prominent manufacturer of 
motor trucks and tractors found that 
Gargoyle Mobiloils cut gasoline 
consumption 28% when compared 
with one oil and 41% when com- 
pared with another. 

We constantly hear of such ex- 
periences. 



iiiiiiimiiiiiiiHiiiiimimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiunHiiiiiiiiiiiniH 



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Frequently two friends own the same 
make and model of car. 

Both are satisfied with gas and oil mile- 
age until they compare results. Then 
comes a surprise to one of them. 

We recommend that you compare re- 
sults on your own car, as follows : 

An Economical Demonstration 

It will probably cost you less than $i.oo to 
fill your reservoir with the grade of Gargoyle 
Mobiloils specified for your car. The garage or 
dealer you trade with has it, or can promptly 
secure it for you. 

Ask him to empty your reservoir of its 
present oil and fill it with the correct grade of 
Gargoyle Mobiloils. You can then judge for your- 
self the results in gasoline economy and reduced 
oil consumption, to say nothing of reduced carbon 
deposit. If your car is not listed in the partial 
chart to the right, a copy of our "Correct Lubri- 
cation" booklet containing the complete Chart will 
be sent you on request. 



cf^Spf 




Mobiloils 

A grade for each type of motor 

The four grades of Garjroyle Mobiloils for gasoline 
motor lubrication, purified to remove free carbon, 

are: 

Gargoyle Mobiloil <'A'* 
Gargoyle MobOoil ''B'* 
Gargoyle MobUoU <*£** 
Gargoyle Mobiloil "Arctic" 

Eltdtdc V«Mcies — For motor bearings and enclosed 
chains use Gargoyle Mobiloil *'A" the year 'round. 
For open chains and differential use Gargoyle 
Mobiloil "C" the year 'round. £ccip(ioir— For 
fuinUr lubrication of pleasure cars use Gargoyle 
Mobiloil "Arctic" for worm drive and Gargoyle 
Mobiloil "A" for bevel gear drive. 
In buying Gargoyle Mobiloils from your dealer, it 
is safest lo purchase in original packages. Look for 
the red Gargoyle on the container. For information, 
kindly address any inquiry to our neaurest o£Sce. 

VACUUM OIL COMPANY 

Rochester, N. Y., U. S. A. 

Specialists in the mmaiilactureof high grad* lubricaiits for every 
class of machinenr. Obtainable eTerywhere in the world. 

n «j^ Detroit ChicsTO Minneapolis 

* "'^— Philadelphia IMttsburch 

Kansas City, Kan, 



Correct Automobile Lubrication 

ExpJoiMitiM: In the Chart below, the letter 
oppohiie tlie car indicates the grade of Gar- 
goyle Mobiloils that should be used. For 
example," A" means Gargoyle Mobiloil" A." 
"Arc" means Gargoyle Mobiloil •Arctic" 
etc. The recommendations cover all models 
of both pleasure and commercial vehicles 
unless otherwise noted. 



IndJ 

De« Moines 



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lEXAMPLE NO. 31 



Ui 



Pec^y^^ Cypress Used as Interior Trim ! 

on one of the most artistic of America's great estates. 

VO. 3 in SERIES SHOfTIffG "PECKr* CYPRESS IN MR. HENRY FORD'S NEIT RESIDENCE. 



Another Corner in the "Fisuy* Room-. Estate op Henry Ford. Esq., Dearborn, Michioan. 
Mr, W. H. Van Tine, Architect, Detroit. 

Remarkably skillful artistic use of the LOWEST GRADE of Cypress, **the 
Wood Etemar* is shown above. The architect deliberately sougfht the parts of 
the Cypress logs which retain the visible evidence of ATTACKS BY ROT- 
GERMS and their COMPLETE DEFEAT. This is the confirmation, to the most 
cynical, of the longevity of Cypress. Mr. Van Tine writes as follows: 

** April 19, 1916. — My object in using Cypress is the fact that I get better quality of wood 
for many purposes than other kinds and grades of lumber. The object of this room (the one 
shown above) was to produce an old, quaint effect .... The selection of the worm-eaten 
and old wood ("Pecky") has taken on a very important factor in the room. I have found 
Cypress a very satisfactorv material and RELIABLE for OUTSIDE and INSIDE work, and 
take pleasure in making this statement." (Signed) W. H. VAN TINE. 

JUST IVRITE FOR VOL. 2—irS A FASCINATOR AS WELL AS A MONEY-SAVER. 

( * ^Pecl^ • • Cypress is the Lowest Grade of Cypress ^ * Uhe Wood Etemar ' — but it ^s fine for ivhat it's good for, ) 

Let our "ALL-ROUND HELPS DEPARTMENT" hdp YOU. Our entire resources are at your senricc with Reliable CounseL 

SOUTHERN CYPRESS MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION 

1224Hi1>eniia Bank Buildins, New Orleans, La., or 1224 Heard National Bank Bldg., Jackaonville, Fla. 



INSIST ON CYPRESS AT YOUR LOCAL LUMBER DEALER'S. IF HE HASN'T IT. LET US KNOW IMMEDIATELY. 



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Wanted-A ^50.000 Man 



THE response to this advertisement, run by 
a big Boston corporation, was enormous. 
Hundreds of applicants presented them- 
selves, but one by one they were turned down. 
Their training and knowledge of business princi- 
ples were not broad enough to fit them for the 
position. What was wanted was a man with a 
trained mind— a man who knew the great funda- 
mental principles upon which all business is built. 

There are many big positions waiting, right 
now, for men who are prepared to fill them. Yet 
qualified men are seldom found. There is a 
dearth of good material, a famine in the market. 
In almost every big business there are $10,000— 
and even $15,000— positions open waiting for the 
right men to step in. 

The big fundamental principles 
behind your work 

You feel and know that you have the capacity for 
sreater success. But conscientious work alone will not 
fit you to get ahead. You mufit be prepared before you can 
hope to rise much above your present position. You must 
master the bitr fundamental ttrincibles behind the 7vork you 
are now doing and which underlie the job ahead of you. 

It is this broad grasp of the fundamentals of business 
that the Alexander Hamilton Institute is teaching to more 
than 50.000 men in America today. 

Based upon the actual experience of thousands 

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Both business and educational authority of the highest 
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Send me '* Forging: Ahead in Business **— FREE 




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ard equipment. Frice, »l.;i50 1. o. h. Uctroit. 



There Is a Strong Public Belief 
In the Superiority of Saixon "Six" 



At last it has dawned upon 
motor-car buyers in general 
that, strictly speaking, there 
is no rivalry between a car 
of less than six cylinders 
and Saxon "Six.** 

Why this is true is easily 
grasped. 

With less than six cylinders 
propelling the car, there are 
bound to be slight intervals 
between explosions. 

With six cylinders, as in 
Saxon "Six,** these intervals 
between impulses are elimi- 
nated and the power- stream 
produced is of practically 
perfect continuity. 

Necessarily, then, in the 
"less than six,*' with fewer 
impulses at any given time, 
the force of each impulse 
must be more severe 
upon all moving parts. 

In Saxon "Six,** for in- 
stance, as compared 
with one of the best 
known "less than six- 



cylinder*' cars of like price, 
there is nearly 98% more 
impulses per minute at 20 
miles per hour. 

So naturally each impulse 
at any given time is far less 
severe upon moving parts. 

A gradual awakening to 
the disadvantages of the 
"less than six** has incited 
buyers to a more careful 
investigation before pur- 
chasing. 

And investigation has 
usually terminated in the 
same clear-cut conclusion — 
that Saxon "Six" is un- 
matched by any less-than- 
six-cylinder motor of like 
price. 

So that public preference 
has swung strongly toward 



SAXON "SIX" 

A BIO TOURING CAR FOR FIVE PBOFLE 

Saxon Motor Car Corporation, Detroit 

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Saxon "Six" as the best car 
at less than $1,200. 

To such an extent that produc- 
tion has never proved quite great 
enough to satisfy the demand. 

This in the face of the fact that 
each year has seen double the 
number of Saxon "Sixes** built. 

Saxon **Six,** of course, has other 
very material advantages. 

For one, it accelerates with un- 
usual rapidity, going from stand- 
ing start to 45 miles per hour in 
23 seconds. That is 22% faster 
than the time of the best "less- 
than-six** we know of. 

For another is the tremendous 
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There is a greater amount than 
you are ever likely to require. 
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conditions can ever balk you. 



And another is the economy of 
Saxon **Six" in the matter of re- 
pairs and gasoline, too. 206 stock 
model Saxon "Sixes** in 
a 300- mile none-stop run 
established an average of 
23.5 miles per gallon of 
gasoline. 



Saxon "Six- is $865.00 
f. o. b. Detroit. (709) 



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This Is Oxir 
Work 

T^ULFILLING the 
^ vision of its founder, 
this institution serves 
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serve its double func- 
tion in providing safe 
investments for the 
funds of the public and 
the upbuilding of this 
nation's permanent 
prosperity. 

PROMOTING thrift, 
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providing for such ac- 
cumulations a form of 
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giving to each investor, 
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B«tat>- 

lished 

1882 



&Co. 



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'•- po rated 
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NEW YORK CHICAGO 

150 Broadway Straus Bldg. 

DETROIT MINNEAPOLIS 

Penobscot Bldg. Loeb Arcade Bldg. 

SAN FRANCISCO CINCINNATI 
Crocker Bldg. MercantileLibraryBldg. 

35 years without loss to any investor 



A Comparison 
of Yields 

Income from Municipal Bonds which we are 
now offering compared with that of similar 
bonds in January, 1901 : 





1901 


1916 


Buffalo, N. Y. 


3.15% 


3.70% 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


2.90% 


3.78% 


South Carolina 


3.70% 


3.80% 


St. Paul, Minn. 


3.20% 


3.82% 


Lackawanna Co., Pa. 


3.10% 


3.82% 


Baltimore, Md. 


3.35% 


3.90% 


Hudson County, N. J. 


3.25% 


3.85 C^ 


New York City 


3.00% 


4.00% 


Lakewood, Ohio 


4.00% 


4.20% 



The Federal Income Tax Law of 1914 and 
the Postal Savings Act of 1910 (both revised 
in 1916) are factors to be considered in pui^ 
chasing Municipal Bonds. 

Send for Municipal U»t AN.54. 

The National City 
Company 

National City Bank Building 
New York 



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All Essential Features 
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Nionefy 

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which will be sent promptly upon request, 

Peabo%; 
HonglLteling&€o. 

(Established 1865) 
10 South La Salle Street, Chicago 



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We Invest Our Own Money in i 
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the transaction. This means when these bonds are offcTred to 
you they have measured up to our high standard. 

^ ' ' *ng the safety and absolute depend- 
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strated this to us. 1 

To thousands of experienced 
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on Company stands first in conserva- 
tism, safety and service. We would like to serve you. 

A Few of Our Attractive Municipal Issues: 

Rate Due YieU About 

State of California. Direct Obligations 4^ 1985-Option 1950) 3.751^ 

City of New York. Direct Obligations A\i 1966 4.10^ 

City of El Paso, Texas. School Bonds Si 1954-55 4.20^ 

Lawrence Co., Tenn.,Rds. Direct Obligations 5^ 1936-56 4.50^ 
Haskell Co., Okla. Township Direct Obli- 
gations bi 1941 5.00^ i 

Cypress Creek Drainage, District of Ark. SH 1935-46 5.05^ § 

We offer Municipal Bonds in glOOO, $5,00, and $100 
amounts netting Ai to Shi>, Send today to our nearest office 
for our Free Booklet, N 1, **The Premier Investment," and 
large list of offerings. 

\ A/llliam R^fprnpton fpmpany 

New York ii>f • • i o j ^^' ^^"'s m 

14 Wall Street Municipal Bonds 433 OUve street I 

Chicago "^''' ^ ^"^'''^'' ^''"^"'-y '■" ^" ^««w.." Cincinnati % 

W5 S. La Salle Street 102 Union Trust BIdg, 



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THE charm of the Colonial is the in- 
spiration for many of the most beau- 
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Directions for deanins over a hun- 
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Ivory Soap'*. Thousands of wo- 
men have found it very helpful. 
You should have a copv. It is free. 
Address The Procter tt Gamble 
Co., Dept. 23-A, Cincinnati, O. 



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Vol. XXXI, No. 1 




WASHINGTON 



January, 1917 




THE 

MATflONAL 
GEOGIRAPMHC 
\AQAZl 




OUR BIG TREES SAVED 



IN THE scenic heart of the Sequoia 
National Park, the only section of 
the magnificent 160,000 -acre play- 
ground situated in California which is 
at the present time accessible to motor- 
driven and horse-drawn vehicles, stands 
a group of trees, the Sequoia washing- 
toniana, known as the Giant Forest, and 
in this forest grow the loftiest and most 
venerable living things that Nature has 
produced. 

The Sequoia National Park was con- 
stituted a government preserve to safe- 
guard these very trees, some of which 
were 2,000 years old when the Christian 
era dawned. But it was a preservation 
that did not protect, for the very acres 
upon which grew the finest specimens of 
the Sequoia washing toniana remained in 
the possession of private parties to whom 
they had been patented before the park 
was created. 

Some months ago the Department of 
the Interior, realizing that the constantly 
increasing value of timber had become 
a rapidly growing temptation to these 
owners to convert the trees into lumber, 
secured from Congress an appropriation 
of $50,000 to purchase the coveted land. 
When the effort was made to buy the 
holdings, however, it was discovered that 
the owners could not fairly part with 
their sequoia trees except on condition 
that adjacent property be purchased also, 
the supplementary lands bringing the 
price up to $70,000. 

After learning from their expert ap- 
praisers that the actual market value of 
the timber standing on these holdings 
amounted to $156,000, and that the price 



of $70,000 was, therefore, most reason- 
able, showing that the owners wished to 
cooperate in their preservation, the de- 
partment secured an option on the land 
for six months. 

With the expiration of the option only 
three weeks off, and with no prospect 
of being able to secure the necessary 
additional appropriation of ^0,000 from 
Congress during its pre-holiday session, 
the Department of the Interior had prac- 
tically lost all hope of saving these most 
highly prized of all trees for the Ameri- 
can people. 

In this predicament one of the officials 
of the department recalled the splendid 
work which has been done for a number 
of years by the National Geographic So- 
ciety in stimulating public interest in the 
preservation of the nation's playgrounds 
and in safeguarding our song birds and 
wild lifie. Why not appeal to this Society, 
whose more than half a million members 
represent every State in the Union, and 
who would be deeply interested, individu- 
ally as well as collectively, in the preser- 
vation of this forest wonderland? The 
suggestion was adopted and the appeal 
was submitted to the Society's Board of 
Managers. 

As was so earnestly hoped, the So- 
ciety's governing body immediately appre- 
ciated the exceptional opportunity which 
was about to be lost to the American 
people, and at a meeting attended by 
every member of the Board excepting 
two, who were out of town, gladly ap- 
propriated the necessary $20,000. And 
thus was accomplished a unique coopera- 
tion of a great national scientific society 



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Photograph by ,V. K. Moore 

A 25-FOOT SAW USED FOR FKIXING BIG TREES 

While wedges are required to keep the tree from "pinching'* the saw, and a good supply 
of axle grease or other lubricant is necessary to overcome friction, elbow grease in liberal 
quantities is the lirst essential in handling one of these big blades. 



with the national government, whereby 
one of the country's noblest scenic re- 
sources has been presented to the Ameri- 
can people for their perpetual enjoyment. 

When one recalls that the Giant Forest 
is the largest intact body of trees of this 
species in existence, with the General 
Sherman as its king — a wonderful speci- 
men 103 feet in circumference, 280 feet 
tall, as high as the dome of the National 
Capitol* — our hearts thrill that these 
masterpieces of nature have been rescued 
from the axe. 

.\ thousand years may not bring them 
to their full stature, but a few days may 
wipe them out forever. Unafraid of 
wreck and change, untouched even by 
**tinie's remorseless doom," they have 
come down to us through centuries — aye, 
through millenniums ; and now will live 
on through other centuries, a link to bind 
the future with the past. 

Whoever has stood beneath these tow- 

*A photogravure of this magnificent tree, 
23 x8j 2 inches, was published in the April, 
1916, number of the Geographic Magazink. 



ering giants of the forest feels a rever- 
ent love for these grizzled patriarchs! 
The oldest living thing! There is not a 
nation on the face of the earth today but 
what was born, mayhap, a thousand years 
after they reached their maturity. 

Nations have risen, reached their 
prime, and passed on to the decay and 
oblivion that is the ultimate fate of all 
things temporal, and other nations have 
succeeded them, in their turn to be fol- 
lowed by still others, since the great trees 
began their existence. World powers 
have arisen, run their course, and disap- 
peared — meteors, as it were — in the sky 
of history, and the big trees still live on ! 

Who could replace them? Not man, 
for never yet in all his existence has he 
had contintiity of purpose enough to plan 
2,000 years ahead. The mutations of 
time in twenty centuries leave only here 
and there a silent monument to speak of 
the past, and even these have been the 
prey of generations coming after their 
builders. Some of the most magnificent 
marbles in Athens and Rome w^ere burnt 



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Photograph by A. R. Moore 

A CALIFORNIA SEQUOIA WASHINGTONIANA LOG, 26 FEKT IN DIAMETER 

A thousand years scarcely serve to bring a sequoia to its maturity, and it may be hale 
and hearty still when three thousand summer suns have looked down upon it; but a day 
ipay lay it low forever. 



into lime for agricultural purposes, and 
even the Pyramids have served as quar- 
ries to the indifferent successors of those 
who raised them. 

Yet when unnumbered thousands of 
Egyptian slaves were laboriously trans- 
porting the stones for Cheops across the 
Nile Valley and hoisting them into posi- 
tion, these hoary old veterans of the Cali- 
fornia mountains were sturdy saplings. 

The human progress they must have 
witnessed ! In their early youth the chil- 
dren of Israel were wandering through 
the Wilderness of Sin. When the Star of 
Bethlehem shone down over that lowly 
manger in Judea, proclaiming the second 
deliverance of mankind, who knows but 
that these monarchs of the California 
forest which have just been rescued from 
the woodman's axe joined in singing 
"Glory to the Highest," as the winds of 
the East swept over the West ! 

The very race that has risen up to save 
them was perhaps overrunning Europe, 
wrapped in skins, living by the chase, and 



using the bow and arrow, when they were 
taking root. Instead of medicine, men 
were resorting to amulets and charms. 
The most complicated piece of machinery 
that had yet been invented was the hand- 
loom. There was not a screw, a bolt, or a 
nut in existence. There was no printing 
press, no steam-engine, no microscope, no 
telescope, no telegraph, no telephone. 
The tallow dip was the only method of 
lighting;- the caravan, the sail and row 
boat, and the runner were the only means 
of international communication. 

As a hunter keeps a record of the bears 
he has killed by the notches in his gun- 
stock, so the big tree keeps an account of 
the years it has lived by rings concealed 
within its trunk. Every year that it lives 
it grows in girth a tiny bit — in youth 
faster, in age slower, in fat years more 
and in lean ones less. But it never fails 
to add its ring with each passing year. 
Examine the next pine stump you come 
to and you will see how these rings start 
out from the center like those on the 



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A CALIFORNIA LOGGING SCENE 



Photograph by A. R. Moore 



In estimating the age of a standing tree the rings on the end of a log of a fallen one 
are counted, and the number of years required for an inch of average circumferential growth 
determined. If the fallen tree is in the immediate neighborhood and of approximately the 
same diameter of the one whose age is to be estimated, the remainder of the problem ^ 
simply one of determining this diameter in inches and multiplying it by the average number 
of rings to the inch. 



water of a pond where a pebble falls. 
Count them and you can know to a cer- 
tainty the age of the tree. 

The purchase was completed and the 
title to the Big Trees passed to the U. S. 
Government on January 17, 191 7. 

By direction of the Board of Managers 
of the National Geographic Society, the 
official correspondence on the subject is 
published below. 

National Geographic Society, 
November ii, 191 6. 
Dear Secretary Lane: 

I have much pleasure in advising you 
that the Board of Managers of the Na- 
tional Geographic Society, being informed 
of your efforts to enable the United 
States Government to secure possession 
of the Giant Forest in the Sequoia Na- 
tional Park, and of the urgent necessity 
of $20,000 being made immediately avail- 
able for the purchase (in addition to the 
$50,000 appropriated by Congress for the 



purpose), at a meeting yesterday unani- 
mously adopted the following resolution : 

''Resolved, That the Board of Mana- 
gers of the National Geographic Society 
authorizes the expenditure of not exceed- 
ing $20,000 for the purchase of private 
lands in the Sequoia National Park, to 
be donated to the National Government 
for park purposes, in accordance with 
the provisions of the Act of Congress, 
July I, 1916, Public 132, 39 Stat., 308, 
and that this sum shall be paid from the 
Research Fund of 1916; and that there 
is given to the President, the Director 
and Editor, and the Chairman of the Fi- 
nance Committee, as representatives of 
the Society, authority to arrange with the 
Secretary of the Interior the details of 
the purchase and donation." 

The National Geographic Society has 
watched with keen interest the rapid de- 
velopment of our national parks by the 
Department of the Interior and heartily 



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;• ^ , Photograph by A. R. Moore 

A GIANT SKOUOIA THAT SPLIT IN FALLING 

John Muir counted four thousand rings from the heart out of one fallen giant. That 
tree was a thriftv sapling when Abraham went into Egypt. It was already a seed-hearer 
when Sodom and' Gomorrah were destroyed. It was as old as American civilization when 
Joseph was sold into Egvpt. It was nearly a thousand years old when David slew Goliath. 
And it was older when Christ was born than the Christian religion is today. 



congratulates you upon the work which 
you have done in safeguarding these great 
national playgrounds for the coming gen- 
erations and in making them accessible 
to visitors. 

Assuring you that the National Geo- 
graphic Society, through its Board of 
Managers, is very glad to have the privi- 
lege of cooperating with the government 
in preserving these priceless natural 
treasures to posterity, I am, 
Yours very sincerely, 

Gilbert H. Grosvenor. 

The Secretary of the Interior, 
November 20, 1916. 
My Dear Mr. Grosvenor: 

I beg to acknowledge your favor set- 
ting forth the resolution of the National 
Geographic Society by which it is made 
possible for us to secure, on behalf of 
the government, certain of the private 
lands in the Giant Forest of the Sequoia 
National Park. 



This act on the part of your vSociety 
I know will meet with the. highest com- 
mendation from its great iliembership, 
because thereby you render to the (^jOv- 
ernment of the United States and to all 
of its people a lasting service and in a 
sense create a monument to the honor of 
your Society itself. 

The trees which your money, together 
with that appropriated by Congress, en- 
able us to purchase are the ohlest living 
things uj)on this continent. They are the 
original ])i oncers. To have them fall be- 
fore the axe of the woodman would have 
been a lasting crime, reflecting seriously 
upon the people of our country. 

It will be many centuries before they 
die, and throughout their life I hope it 
may be known that they were kept alive 
by the generosity and foresight of your 
people. We will be pleased to have placed 
on one of the trees of the grove a tablet 
of commemoration. 

Cordially yours, 
(Signed) Franklin K. Lane. 



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Photograph by Lindley Kddy 

ONE OF god's First ticmplks, in the giant forp:st 

Dead indeed must be the soul of the man whose heart is not quickened, whose spirit is 
not moved to reverence, whose thoughts do not reach out and beyond, and whose inmost being 
does not look up through Nature to Nature's God, amid such surroundings as these! 



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Photograph h^ I^indley Eddy 

IN THE HEART OF THE GIANT FOREST 

''The big tree is Nature's masterpiece. It has a strange air of other days about it, a 
thoroughbred look inherited from the long ago — the auld lang syne of trees. ... As far 
as man is concerned, it is the same yesterday, today, and forever — emblem of permanence." — 
John Muir. 



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THE VALLEY OF TEN THOUSAND SMOKES 



National Geographic Society Explorations in the 
Katmai District of Alaska 

By Robert F. Griggs, of the Ohio State University 
Leader of the Society's Mount Katmai Expeditions of 1915 and 1916 



THE eruption of Mount Katmai in 
June, 1912, was one of the most 
tremendous volcanic explosions 
ever recorded. A mass of ash and pum- 
ice whose volume has been estimated at 
nearly five cubic miles was thrown into 
the air. In its fall this material buried 
an area as large as the State of Con- 
necticut to a depth varying from 10 
inches to over 10 feet, while small 
amounts of ash fell as much as 900 miles 
away. 

Great quantities of very fine dust were 
thrown into the higher regions of the 
atmosphere and quickly distributed over 
the whole world, so as to have a profound 
effect on the weather, being responsible 
for the notoriously cold, wet summer of 
that year. 

The comparative magnitude of the 
eruption can be better realized if one 
should imagine a similar eruption of 
Vesuvius. Such an eruption would bury 
Naples under 15 feet of ash ; Rome would 
be covered nearly a foot deep ; the sound 
would be heard at Paris ; dust from the 
crater would fall in Brussels and Berlin, 
and the fumes would be noticeable far 
beyond Christiania, Norway. 

Readers of The Geographic will re- 
member the accounts of the eruption by 
Capt. K. M. Perry and Dr. Geo. C. Mar- 
tin, which appeared in the magazine for 
August, 1912, and February, 1913, re- 
spectively. 

Fortunately the volcano is situated in 
a country so sparsely inhabited that the 
damage caused by the eruption was in- 
significant — very much less than in many 
relatively small eruptions in populous 
districts, such as that of Vesuvius, which 
destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum. 
Indeed, so remote and little known is the 



volcano that there were not any witnesses 
near enough to see the eruption, and il 
was not until the National Geographic 
Society's expeditions explored the district 
that it was settled definitely which of 
several near-by volcanoes was really the 
seat of the disturbance. 

The most important settlement in the 
devastated district is Kodiak, which, al- 
though a hundred miles from the volcano, 
was buried nearly a foot deep in ash. 
This ashy blanket transformed the "Green 
Kodiak" of other days into a gray desert 
of sand, whose redemption and revege- 
tation seemed utterly hopeless. When I 
first visited it, a year later, it presented 
an appearance barren and desolate. It 
seemed to every one there that it must 
be many years before it could recover its 
original condition. 

the eruption was the best thing that 
EVER happened to kodiak 

What, then, was my surprise on re- 
turning after an interval of only two 
years to find the ash-laden hillsides cov- 
ered with verdure. Despite the reports 
I had received, I could not believe my 
eyes. Where before had been barren ash 
was now rich grass as high as one's head. 

Every one agrees that the eruption was 
"the best thing that ever happened to 
Kodiak." In the words of our hotel 
keeper, "Never was any such grass 
known before, so high or so early. No 
one ever believed the country could grow 
so many berries, nor so large, before the 
ash." 

Were the title not preempted, Kodiak 
might have been called the "Emerald 
Isle" quite as well as Ireland. Its situ- 
ation in the Pacific is indeed very similar 
to that of Ireland in the Atlantic, for it 



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THE TOWN OF KODIAK, ALASKA, AFTKR TIIK ERUPTION OF KATMAI 

The town is loo miles from the volcano. Note the heavy deposits of white ashes covering 
hillsides and town. Dust fell as far away as Juneau. Ketchikan, and the Yukon \ alley, 
distant 750, 900, and 600 miles, respectively, from the volcano. 



owes its climate, as does Ireland, to the 
tropical ocean current which bathes its 
shores. It is indeed a hundred and fifty 
miles farther north than Ireland, but this 
is more than counterbalanced by the pro- 
tection from the Arctic Ocean aflforded 
by the mainland. 

Many people will no doubt be aston- 
ished to learn that the winter of Boston 
is far more severe than that of Kodiak, 
which more nearly resembles that of 
Washington, D. C. Indeed, an old lady, 
who had lived all her Hfe in Kansas, 
found on returning there after two or 
three winters in Kodiak that the climate 
was almost unbearable and has been anx- 



ious ever since to return to the mild 
climate of Kodiak. 

The eastern half of the island is occu- 
pied by a dense forest of spruce, whose 
trees reach a great size. Beyond the for- 
est it is covered by a luxuriant grass land, 
which, in the abundance and fine quahty 
of its hay and forage, surpasses any 
grazing lands in the United States proper 
and finds a parallel only ni the "guinea- 
grass" pastures of the tropics. 

At present this country is lying almost 
entirely neglected, but as Alaska passes 
from the stage of exploitation to that of 
development, these lands are destined to 
be much sought after for stock-raising. 



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IMioloKrapli by R. 1'. driggs 

KODIAK FROM THE SAME) POSITION FOUR YEARS LATER, AUGUST 25, 1916 

Kodiak enjoys the unique distinction of having been benefited by a volcanic eruption. 
The grass has come through the ash better than ever before. The whole hillside has come 
up to grass as abundantly as the foreground. 



The eruption, of course, destroyed 
these pastures, so that the live stock 
nearly perished from starvation. The 
herd of the Government Experiment Sta- 
tion was shipped back to the States until 
it could be determined whether it might 
be i)ossible to grow forage enough to 
support them on the ash-covered land. 
When they were shipped there was scant 
hope that they could ever be brought 
back again ; but at the end of only two 
years the pastures had so far recovered 
that they were returned with full assur- 
ance that they could be maintained with- 
out difficulty (see page 22). 

Places which three years ago were sand 
plains, with hardly a green leaf, have 
now come up into luxuriant meadows of 
blue-top grass. In some places the grass 
is still in scattered bunches, but in others 
it covers the whole ground in pure stands 
six or seven feet high. Where the mead- 
ows are com])letely grown up, the grass 
is finer than ever before (see page 18). 



Of the berries, the most important is 
the salmon or "]\Iohna" berry (Rubns 
spectabilis), which is allied to our black- 
berries and raspberries, but somewhat in- 
termediate between them, having much 
the shape and appearance of a blackberry, 
but coming loose from the receptacle like 
a raspberry. 

Salmon-berries were of course com- 
mon before the eruption, but the ash pro- 
vided such greatly improved conditions 
for them that the plants have made un- 
usually vigorous growth (see page 24). 

The ash also smothered and weeded 
out the smaller plants which formerly 
competed with the berries and apparently 
acts somewhat like a mulch, protecting 
the soil from excessive evaporation, for 
the berries did not sufTer in the unprece- 
dented drouth of 191 5 as they are said 
to have done in less dry seasons before 
the eruption. 

]>ut although the country is in places 
clothed with vegetation as richly as be- 



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Photograph by D. B, Church 
A PLOWED FIELD, PART OF WHICH WAS CULTIVATED JUST BEFORE THE ERUPTION 

The line between cultivated and fallow ground remains perfectly distinct after four 
years. Cultivation just before the eruption destroyed most of the weeds and no new ones 
have been able to start. The uncultivated land has grown a mass of fireweed, whose bloom 
is conspicuous for miles — illustrating the importance of residual vegetation. 



fore, it must not be supposed that the old 
order of things has completely returned. 
The new vegetation is not altogether the 
same as that which was destroyed. It is 
true that the species are the same as those 
dominant before the eruption, but the 
smaller species which formerly grew with 
the dominant plants were unable to pierce 
the ash blanket and were smothered. 
This is particularly true in the bogs or 
tundras, which formerly covered consid- 
erable areas. Even four or five inches of 
the ash was fatal to the bog plants, whose 
extermination was so nearly complete 
that it is difficult to find even individual 
survivors. 

Thus while the salmon-berries and 
high-bush blueberries are finer than ever, 
the low-bush blueberries and cranberries 
are entirely lacking. 

The exposed mountain tops were for- 
merly covered with an alpine heath con- 
taining many of the same species that 
grew in the bogs, and to them the erup- 
tion was similarly fatal. While the sides 



of the mountains are covered with ver- 
dure, their tops are largely barren wastes 
covered with ash drifts and the skeletons 
of the former vegetation. 

THE NEW VEGETATION CAME FROM OLD 
ROOTS 

One would have supposed from the 
appearance of the country at the end of 
the first season after the eruption that 
practically all plants except the trees and 
bushes had been destroyed, and that re- 
vegetation must be due to new seedlings 
started on the ash. Such, however, is 
not the case. Excavation of the root sys- 
tems of the new plants shows that they 
are old perennials which have come 
through the ash from the old soil. 

Where cultivation destroyed the weeds, 
the land is still absolutely bare except for 
an occasional weed which escaped de- 
struction by the plow. The fallow ground, 
on the other hand, is a mass of fireweed 
whose bloom is conspicuous for miles 
(see the picture above). 



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Photograph by D. B. Church 

A DUNE OF WIND-BLOWN ASH : WOMEN's PENINSULA, NEAR KODIAK 

This blowing ash lodges behind any obstruction, like snow. Among the weeds at the 
edge of cultivated fields and along the fence rows drifts two feet deep have been formed. 
On mountain tops and in other places wherfe there is no vegetation to catch the blowing ash 
it forms dunes like those on a seashore. 



THE SAND BLAST 

While these weeds protect the surface 
of the fallow ground, ash from the bare 
surface is picked up in clouds by every 
wind, forming a sand blast which is very 
hard on the few plants that have per- 
sisted. All of them are lopped over be- 
fore the wind, and their lower leaves are 
cut to pieces by the sharp sand or are 
buried beneath it. 

The particles of ash are all very sharp, 
sharper than ordinary sand. Indeed, vol- 
canic ash forms the basis of such scour- 
ing agents as "Old Dutch Cleanser.'* 
The ash is also finer and much lighter 
than shore sand, so that it is more easily 
carried by the wind. Consequently this 
sand blast is a very different thing from 
the sand drift common among beach 
dunes. Standing before it is like facing 
a blast of "Old Dutch Cleanser" in one's 
face and is at times exceedingly unpleas- 
ant (see also page 2'j), 

One might suppose that the frequent 



rains which characterize the climate of 
the region would have the effect of check- 
ing the sand blast, but it is surprising 
how quickly it starts up again after the 
rain stops. We found once, for example, 
after a day of soaking rain, that the sand 
was blowing early the next morning, al- 
though only the very surface had dried 
off. 

It was of the utmost importance for 
the welfare of the country that the 
ground be covered with vegetation, re- 
gardless of the value of the plants making 
the cover. Of all the native plants, the 
one which could grow through the deep- 
est ash and, once through, could spread 
most rapidly on the bare surface was the 
field horsetail {Eqiiisctum anrnse). This 
is a common weed of railway embank- 
ments and such places with us. In Ko- 
diak scattered individuals were frequent 
before the eruption, though they formed 
no noticeable element in the landscape. 
But it has come up everywhere through 



17 



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20 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



the ash and spread out on the surface, 
forming in many places a beautiful 
greensward, where hardly anything else 
can come through. 

Its present abundance contrasts so 
greatly with its former state that, accord- 
ing to Mr. Snodgrass of the Experiment 
Station, some of the natives thought that 
it must have "come with the ash," and 
could only be convinced of the contrary 
when he dug out the rootstocks and 
showed that they originated in the old 
soil beneath the ash. While a deposit of 
ID or 12 inches would have been fatal to 
most plants, the horsetail in many places 
came through from 30 to 36 inches of ash. 

CONTRAST BETWEEN K0DI.\K AND THE 
MAINLAND 

Nothing could oflfer greater contrast to 
the rehabilitation of Kodiak than the con- 
dition of the country on the mainland 
near the volcano. The village of Katmai, 
whjch was the nearest settlement affected, 
is in an altogether different state from 
Kodiak. While Kodiak is rejoicing in 
the prospect of a prosperity beyond that 
of former days, Katmai is sinking deeper 
into desolation. 

In fear of their lives, the people of 
Kodiak deserted their town for a few 
days; but the natives of Katmai, w^ho, 
fortunately, were away fishing at the 
time of the eruption, w^ere never allowed 
to return to their homes, but were re- 
moved in a body and settled in a new 
town built for them by the government. 
The grass has returned to cover the hill- 
sides of Kodiak as richly as ever before, 
but the former luxuriance of Katmai 
Valley is replaced by a barren waste, 
whose few spots of green serve only to 
heighten the weird effect. 

OUR TRIP TO THE MAINLAND 

It IS not to be supposed that Katmai 
village was at all near the crater, how- 
ever. Situated at a distance of 25 miles, 
it was five times as far from the volcano 
as was Pompeii from Vesuvius or St. 
Pierre from Mt. Pelee. More important 
still, Katmai village w^as not in the main 
track of destruction, but lay at one side, 
near the edge of the ash fall. 

To make the trip to Katmai, we se- 
cured the services of Mr. Albert Johnson, 



of Uyak, who undertook to land us at 
Katmai and- come and take us off again 
when we had finished our exploration. 
Mr. Johnson proved himself not only 
trustworthy, but a first-class seaman and 
a man of very good judgment as well, all 
of which qualities are essential in one 
w^ho would successfully navigate the dan- 
gerous waters of Shelikof Strait, which 
lies between Kodiak Island and the main- 
land, for it has justly acquired the repu- 
tation of being one of the most treacher- 
ous pieces of water in the world. There 
were three of us in the party: Mr. B. B. 
Fulton, Entomologist of the New York 
Experiment Station, who accompanied 
me throughout the summer, a most effi- 
cient and loyal assistant, and Mr. Lucius 
G. Folsom, manual-training teacher of 
Wood Island, near Kodiak, who by his 
resourcefulness and never- failing opti- 
mism helped to carry the expedition by 
many an obstacle which might otherwise 
have turned us back. 

A WEIRD, FANTASTIC SCENE 

The scene which met our eyes as we 
entered Katmai Bay was fantastic and 
weird in the extreme. Quantities of fresh 
pumice were floating about as though 
thrown out by a recent eruption. The 
sun was shining brightly, but the sky was 
filled with haze from the volcanic dust in 
the air, which increased the ghastly and 
mysterious appearance of the desert land- 
scape and veiled the upper reaches of the 
valley and the volcanoes we hoped to 
visit. 

As soon as we landed, we began to see 
evidences of the great flood, which was 
to be the source of much concern to us. 
The flats were everywhere covered ankle 
deep with soft, sticky mud. We were 
unable to find any place to pitch our camp 
between the precipitous mountain sides 
and the flooded flats, except a mound of 
avalanche detritus, which we felt was too 
dangerous, for boulders and small ava- 
lanches were rolling down the mountain 
sides all around us every few minutes. 
We finally reached a bed of pumice which 
had been floated into place in a grove of 
poplars. Although there w^as very wet 
mud only a few inches below it, the sur- 
face was fairly dry. We were in con- 



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Photograph by R. F. Griggs 
ROLLING HAY DOWN THE MOUNTAIN SIDE AT KODIAK 

The native method of harvesting hay is certainly one of the most curious bits of agri- 
cultural practice to be found anywhere. The hay is cut high up on the mountain side, done 
up into bundles in fish nets, and sent tumbling end over end to the bottom, there to be picked 
up and carried home, oftentimes in boats. 



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SHEEP FOR STOCKING A SETTLERS RANCH BEING LANDED ON KODIAK ISLAND 

At present this country is lying almost neglected, but as Alaska passes from the stage 
of exploitation to that of development, these lands are destined to be much sought after for 
stock-raising. 



Photographs by R. F. Griggs 

SLEEK GALLOWAY CATTLE BELONGING TO THE EXPERIMENT STATION AT KODIAK 

After the eruption the station herd had to be taken to "the States" for the first two 
years; but their pastures made such a remarkable recovery that they were soon returned. 
A stranger would hardly suspect that this country was buried under a foot of ash only four 
years ago. 



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SKETCH MAP OF KATMAI VOLCANO AND VICINITY 



stant fear, however, that the water would 
suddenly rise in the night and drive us 
out. 

The desolation of the country beggars 
description. All of the trees had per- 
ished except such as were favored by 
some special circumstance, such as prox- 
imity to the protecting mountain sides. 
In one way the trees and bushes suffered 
more seriously than the herbage, for 
wherever the ground had been swept 
bare of ash the old roots of the herbage 
sent up new shoots, so that in a few for- 
tunate spots flowers were blooming in 
their pristine profusion. 

But where the ash remained to the 
depth of a foot or more, the ground 
under the dead trees was absolutely bare. 
Xo vegetation had come through cracks, 
as at Kodiak, and indeed such cracks 
may not have been formed because the 
deposit here is much coarser grained. 



Under the mountain sides, where a few 
remnants of the forest remained alive, 
different species had suffered in different 
ways. The only large trees were the bal- 
sam poplars. All of the growing parts 
and ordinary buds of these had been 
killed, but some of the dormant buds, 
buried deep in the bark, had survived and 
grown out into short, bushy branches 
which gave the trees a most bizarre ap- 
pearance. 

The alder, which is the most character- 
istic Alaskan bush, everywhere was sim- 
ply exterminated. For our purposes this 
was somewhat fortunate, for it was easy 
to break our way through the branches 
of the dead thickets, which otherwise 
would have made traveling difficult. Not 
a single live sprig of alder was seen until 
after we had explored considerable coun- 
try, and then only two or three very small 



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Photograph by M. G. Dickman 
A BRANCH OF SALMON-BERRIES, INDICATING THE PROFUSION OF WILD BERRIES AT 

KODIAK SINCE THE ERUPTION 

These berries are somewhat like the persimmon, in that they have an astringent taste 
that disappears only when they are dead ripe. They have, however, a distinctive and 
extremely delicate flavor, and when served with sugar and cream equal or surpass any other 
berry with which the author is acquainted. 



shoots were seen coming up from the 
roots. 

When we arrived at the village, the 
magnitude of the flood was impressed on 
us as it could not be in the brush-covered 
dunes. The church where the people had 
worshiped undisturbed for years was 
standing in a sea of liquid mud. The 
high-water mark could be plainly seen 
across the front about five feet and a half 
from the ground. 

Some of the native houses were filled 
solid full to the eaves with pumice. Some 
had been completely submerged, as might 
be seen by the stranded pumice which 
had floated onto their roofs. The roof 
of one had been floated away from the 
body of tlie house and lay at a little dis- 
tance. The church had evidently floated 
free from its foundation, for the high- 
water marks across it were somewhat 
diagonal (see opposite page). 



A RIVER FIVE MILES WIDE AND FIVE 
INCHES DEEP 

The river, whose former bed was close 
by the houses, had subsided from the 
flood condition enough to show its char- 
acter. Where formerly was deep water 
was now a maze of quicksands and inter- 
twining streams. So much material had 
been dumped into it that the level of its 
bottom was several feet above its former 
channel. We could see no indication of 
the farther bank. Somewhere out be- 
yond the range of our vision were one or 
more main channels in which a formida- 
ble volume of water was running, as we 
later found to our cost. But except for 
these shifting main channels it could be 
described as five miles wide and five 
inches deep. 

We ventured far out from shore to see 
whether it would be possible to cross, but 



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THE GREEK CHURCH AT KATMAI VILLAGE STANDING IN THE MUD AND WRECKAGE 

LEFT BY THE GREAT FLOOD 

This part of Alaska is still "Russian America." Russian is the language of the common 
people, and the Greek Church is the only religious institution. 



Photographs by D. 6. Church 

A "baRABARA" buried by the pumice brought DOWN BY THE GREAT FLOOD! 

KATMAI VILLAGE 

These huts, comparable to the sod-houses of the plains, are well adapted to afford protection 

from the intense gales of winter 



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Photograph by R. F. Griggs 
A FOX CUB DRINKING CONDENSED MILK: KODIAK 

Foxes are abundant in this region, and it was not intended to establish a precedent by 
feeding this one condensed milk, especially during these days of the high cost of living. 
Other foxes must continue to ''rustle their own grub." 



soon found ourselves miring in the quick- 
sands, so that we were glad to hurry back 
to terra firma. 

The condition of this river is undoubt- 
edly the most serious obstacle to the ex- 
ploration of the district. While the bot- 
tom is too treacherous to travel afoot, 
especially under a pack, the greater part 
of it could be easily traversed with snow- 
shoes or some similar contrivance, which, 
however, would be a fatal encumbrance 
in the swift currents of the deeper chan- 
nels. A boat might be used were it not 
for the fact that the current is too strong 
for rowing, the bottom is too uncertain 
for poling, and there is no place to land. 

MYSTERIOUS SOURCE OF FLOOD 

Conditions at the village greatly in- 
creased our respect for the magnitude of 
the flood, but failed to enlighten us as to 
its cause. The volume of water had been 
tremendous, considering the size of the 
watershed, for although the main stream 
is less than forty miles long and has a 



steep gradient through much of its course, 
the water had filled the whole valley, six 
miles wide, many feet deep. We knew 
of no general storm which could have 
caused any such unusual quantity of rain. 

Our first thought was that the spring 
tides, which had just passed, had over- 
whelmed the land ; but a little examina- 
tion showed that the high water had been 
far above any tide-mark. We then 
thought of volcanic rains up the valley, 
for we had no knowledge of the condi- 
tion of the volcanoes. 

But the examination of the village was 
reassuring in one respect : Although there 
could be no doubt but that the flood had 
culminated only a day or two before our 
landing, everything indicated that it was 
a very exceptional event. 

EXPLORING IN A DUST-STORM 

When we awoke the next morning 
we found that a westerly gale which had 
started during the night had picked up 
the fine dust from the mountains until it 



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Photograph by R. F. Griggs 



LANDING ON KATMAI BEACH 



Only in perfectly calm weather can the landing be undertaken, the water being normally 

very rough 



had changed the haze of previous days 
into a terrific dust-storm. The dust was 
so thick that it obliterated everything be- 
yond the immediate vicinity. It per- 
meated everything about our camp. We 
were extremely worried lest it should get 
into our cameras and ruin all our films. 

It matted our hair so that we could not 
comb it for days. The sharp particles 
caused acute discomfort in our eyes, and 
at first we were afraid that it might do 
us permanent injury ; but after a time the 
irritation stimulated an increased flow 
from the tear glands, which helped to 
keep the eyes washed out. 

During this day of dust-storm we ex- 
plored the valley as far as Soluka Creek. 
The dust heightened the already weird 
character of the landscape, giving it an 
indescribably unearthly appearance. The 
effect was much like that of a heavy snow- 
storm. This was increased by the out- 
lines of the bare trees. Indeed, so keen 
were the visual sensations .of a snow- 
storm that every little while I would 
realize with a start of surprise that I was 
not cold (see also page 17). 



About noon we fell to speculating on 
the state of the weather above the dust- 
storm and were surprised on searching 
the sky at being able to find the sun, 
whose disc was just visible, a pale white, 
something like the moon in daytime, but 
fainter. 

It would be quite impossible adequately 
to describe our feelings on this day, as 
we groped our way forward into new 
country, utterly different from any we 
had ever seen before. Fortunately the 
loose sandy surface of the ash every- 
where held our tracks, so that even with- 
out our compass we could hardly have 
become lost. 

FOLLOWING A BEAR TRAIL 

We followed all the way a well-worn 
bear trail which skirted the foot of the 
mountain, finding that the bears had se- 
lected the easiest going to be had. It was 
very noticeable that the bear trails, except 
for an occasional side branch into the 
mountains, all ran lengthwise up and 
down the valley. They had made no 
attempt to cross the river. Apparently 



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Photograph by R. F. Griggs 



A KODIAK BEAR SKIN 



Although by no means a large skin, as Kodiak bears go, comparison with the mountain-lion 
skin to the right shows how much larger the bear is than the panther 



they had learned by experience not to try 
that. 

Ever}'^vhere we kept a sharp lookout 
for bears, but, although we found a great 
many tracks belonging to at least a half- 
dozen sizes of bears, we did not see any 
of them. At first we were rather con- 
cerned for fear that we should come 
upon one suddenly, for in such a barren 
country we could not but believe that 
they must be hungry, and in any event a 
she bear with cubs is an ugly customer 
to settle with on short notice. The bears 
of this region are only slightly inferior 
in size to the Kodiak bear, which is the 
largest carnivorous animal in the world, 
so large as to make a full-grown grizzly 
look like a cub by comparison. 

Later, after we had traveled many days 
without seeing one, we began to be as 
much concerned for fear we should not 
see a bear as we had been at first for 
fear we should. 

They doubtless saw us many times, but 
were shy and kept out of our way. In- 
deed, once we thought a mother and cubs 



who had been advancing toward us had 
turned and retreated on our approach, 
for we found where their tracks, appar- 
ently just made, suddenly reversed and 
turned up the valley. We often found 
on returning over one of our trails that 
a bear out of curiosity had tracked us 
for some distance, and when we saw be- 
side our own footprints enormous bear 
tracks measuring nine by fourteen inches 
we could not avoid having somewhat of a 
creepy feeling. Some of the bear tracks 
were so clear that we could see the marks 
of the creases in their soles, and had we 
been palmists doubtless we could have 
read the fortune of the possessor or at 
least have learned his disposition. 

OTHER SIGNS OF ANIMAL LIFE 

Besides bears, foxes were very abun- 
dant, and we could frequently get their 
scent as we traveled along. Wolverines 
were also frequent travelers along the 
trails we used. .One of the latter must 
have passed close beside us one day as 
we climbed a mountain, for we found his 



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Photograph by R. F. Griggs 

FLOATING ROCK — LUMPS OF PUMICE PICKED UP ON THE BEACH : KATMAI BAY 

The foot rule gives the scale. The violence of the explosion was so great that all the 
pumice was blown to small bits. There were few pieces more than six inches in diameter 
from Mount Katmai. These came from one of the subordinate vents in the Valley of the 
Ten Thousand Smokes. 



fresh tracks on the pass at the top, and 
on returning followed his trail across our 
own. How he managed to hide from us 
in a country so destitute of cover is not 
clear, but probably he had ample notice 
of our approach and secreted himself 
somewhere behind a rock. Of the smaller 
mammals we saw not a sign, although 
the surface of the ash preserves tracks 
to a remarkable degree. 

We were surprised to find a few small 
fish like minnows in the river, for with 
the ash fall all the streams were entirely 
filled up for a time, and even the wver 
must have been nearly choked. There 
was no evidence, however, anywhere of 
salmon, which must have formerly en- 
tered the river in large numbers. 

The means of subsistence of so many 
large animals was very much of a mys- 
tery to us; yet they must have found 
something to eat, for they were evidently 
at home and not merely passing through. 
Moreover, if they had not found food 
they could easily have migrated, for a 
journey of 20 miles to the westward 



would have taken them into a country 
rich in berries, mice, ground-squirrels, 
and marmots, besides large game such as 
caribou, and, most important of all, in 
the summer, salmon in the streams. The 
only evidence we could secure in this 
matter beyond our own conjectures was 
obtained from the character of the bear 
droppings, which much resembled horse 
dung, as though the animals had been 
living on grass. The quantity of grass 
obtainable, however, seemed entirely in- 
adequate to feed even one bear. 

FIRST VIEW OF THE VOLCANOES 

On the 1 6th, having previously broken 
the trail as far as Soluka Creek, we 
packed up our outfit and as much food 
as we could carry and started up the 
valley for the volcanoes. Our remaining 
provisions, together with everything not 
essential to our work, were left in the 
base camp. Although we had made 
things as snug as we could, it was not 
without considerable trepidation that we 
tiprned our back on our supplies ; for in 



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THE VALLEY OF TEN THOUSAND SxMOKES 



33 



such a desert country we were absolutely 
dependent on our provisions, and if a 
bear or wolverine should take it into his 
head to wreck our camp in our absence 
we should have been in a bad way. 

Three or four miles up the valley we 
came out into the open, where we could 
see the distant mountains of the main 
range. Standing square across the head 
of the valley stood Mount Mageik, its 
magnificent three-peaked snow-cap bril- 
liant in the sunshine. From a small 
crater east of the central peak issued a 
column of steam, which, although clearly 
visible for 50 miles out to sea, appeared 
diminutive in comparison with the bulk 
of the-mountain (see page 30). 

Mount Katmai itself was concealed be- 
yond the bend of the valley, so that we 
were to have no glimpse of it until we 
-encamped at its foot. 

A NEW VOLCANO NAMED FOR DR. MARTIN 

But to the west of Mageik, in a posi- 
tion where no volcano is indicated on the 
maps, was rising from a comparatively 
low mountain a tremendous cokmin of 
steam a thousand feet in diameter and 
more than a mile high. 

Comparison with Horner's picture 
showed at once that this was the moun- 
tain he photographed as "Mt. Katmai," 
when he penetrated to the upper valley in 
191 3. It was clear enough from its loca- 
tion that it could not be the mountain 
called Katmai on the maps, which is east 
of Mageik. Even from our position it 
was evident that this was at present the 
most active volcano of the district. 

And it was not at all certain but that 
this, rather than Katmai, had been the 
seat of the great eruption whose eflfects 
we were studying ; for, curiously enough, 
there has never been any very positive 
evidence, beyond the statements of a few 
natives who saw the beginning of the 
eruption, that it was Katmai, rather than 
some other volcano in the vicinity, which 
exploded. Indeed, there was one well- 
informed marl in Kodiak who assured us 
that he had climbed the mountains back 
of Amalik Bay and taken bearings which 
fixed the location of the vent nearer the 
coast, in a position which he indicated by 
a cross on my chart (see map, page 23). 



Fortunately we were able later to ob- 
tain evidence which fixed the seat of the 
great eruption beyond question. In the 
first place, we found that the deposits 
became progressively deeper as we ap- 
proached ]Mt. Katmai, while the volcano 
of Hesse and Horner's photographs was 
near the edge of the ash fall. Thus the 
deposits on the lower slopes of Katmai 
are 15 feet deep on the level ; but 10 miles 
farther south, near the other volcano, 
their depth is to be measured by as many 
inches, and only a mile or two beyond the 
country is covered with vegetation, so 
rapidly do the deposits thin out in that 
direction. 

Moreover, great as is the activity of 
this volcano, its crater, in comparison 
with the great caldera, which we later 
found in Mount Katmai, is relatively di- 
minutive and quite too small to have 
thrown out such a tremendous quantity 
of ash and pumice in so short a time. 
Further, great as must have been the 
changes wrought in the landscape in the 
sudden opening of a vent a thousand feet 
in diameter, they were relatively insig- 
nificant beside the tremendous change we 
found in Mount Katmai itself. There 
can be no question therefore that the 
eruption was from Mount Katmai and 
not from any other vent. 

But if we were convinced that the vol- 
cano of Hesse and Horner's photographs 
was not Katmai, we were equally uncer- 
tain of what it was, for none of the maps 
show any volcano near its location nor 
give any name to the mountain, and there 
appears to be neither record nor tradition 
of any volcano in that quarter. 

There is every reason to believe, there- 
fore, that this new volcano sprung into 
being at the time of the great explosion. 

But tremendous as is the phenomenon 
of the opening of such a gigantic vent 
through a mountain, we were to find later 
other accompaniments of the great erup- 
tion of even greater magnitude. 

In order to discuss the new volcano, it 
is necessary to give it some designation. 
It seemed to us as we watched the new 
"steamer" that no name could be more 
appropriate than one commemorating the 
work of Dr. George C. Martin, whose 
explorations and report for the National 



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Photograph by D. B. Church 
A CAMP SITE OF I915: TRKES ALL KILLED BY BLAST FROM THB) VOLCANO 

On our first expedition our camp stood on the bank of Fickle Creek, whose channel, six 
feet deep, occupied the foreground of the present picture. During the year the channel 
completely rilled up, so evenly that the location of the former bank could not be detected, 
and a new channel has been dug a thousand feet away. Yet so gently was this filling accom- 
plished that the embers of our camp-fire, on the same level and only a few feet away, were 
not disturbed. Compare the picture on the opposite page. 



Geographic Society will always stand as 
the first authoritative account of the great 
eruption of Blount Katmai. We there- 
fore suggest that this new volcano be 
called Mount ^lartin. 

We were not able to determine the po- 
sition or altitude of this new volcano with 
precision, but have located it approxi- 
mately on the map given on page 23. 
Although situated in the main range, it is 
considerably lower than the neighboring 
mountains. Its altitude is approximately 
5,000 feet. 

ASII SLIDES MORE THAN A THOUSAND 
FEET HIGH 

When we reached Soluka Creek we 
found it much more formidable than our 
reconnoiters in the dust storm had indi- 
cated. Leaving the others on the bank, I 
dropped my pack and waded out through 
the dead forest for half a mile in the icy 



water. From that distance it looked 
wider, deeper and swifter than from the 
starting point. I therefore decided it was 
impracticable to attempt to cross under 
our heavy packs, so we camped that night 
in the dead forest on the flat near by. 

Next morning, starting to hunt for a 
practicable ford, we climbed up on to the 
shoulder of a mountain where we could 
get a bird's-eye view of the creek below 
and select the likeliest place to try. 

Here we found a new experience in 
climbing the great ash slides with which 
the lower slopes are covered. Wherever 
the mountains were precipitous and too 
steep for the ash to slick, it slid down 
into the valleys, covering tiie lower slopes 
with great fans of sand, which stand at 
the critical angle ready to slide down at 
the slightest provocation. Some of these 
ash slopes are more tlian a thousand feet 
high. Their surface is loose, rolling sand, 



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Photograph by R. F. Griggs 
THE DKD or FICKLE CRKEK IN I916: IT HAD SHIFTED A THOUSAND FEET IN THE YEAR 



into which one sinks to his ankles, while 
new sand continually slides down on to 
him. 

Often the whole slide ahove one will 
begin to move and then he is placed in a 
tread-mill, where he must keep moving 
or sHde to the bottom- (see page 2^7) * 
Such climbing was of course hard work, 
and we soon cut up our finger-nails and 
wore the tips of our fingers down to the 
quick in the sharp sand by using our 
hands to help us in climbing. 

rORDIXG A MILE OF OnCKSAXD 

When we descended to the ford we 
found that the bottom was a continuous 
quicksand clear across. 

Sometimes the surface would hold like 
the crust of a snowdrift; but we were in 
constant fear of going down, for on 
sounding with our alpenstock we discov- 
ered that the whole length of the stick 
went down into the sand anywhere with- 
out finding bottom. Often our footing 
gave way and we found ourselves floun- 
dering up to our middle in quicksand. 

With all our crossings in the two ex- 
peditions no one ever got in so deep that 
he could not get out alone. But there 
was the ever-present knowledge that we 
never tx)uched the bottom and the fear of 
what might happen next time. 

Besides this the labor of carrying a 



pack through such mire is so great as to 
defy description. It must be experienced 
to be appreciated. Every step takes all 
one's strength and soon one's weary mus- 
cles ache from the strain. But once in, 
there is no chance to rest until one 
reaches the farther shore, for there is no 
place to lie down or sit down, and if one 
even stands still he immediately begins to 
sink. Even the strongest man is well- 
nigh exhausted after a mile of such work. 

The condition of streams choked with 
ash and pumice is peculiar in the ex- 
treme. They spread out over their whole 
floodplain, wandering this way and that 
through the dead forest in a most fan- 
tastic way, changing their courses con- 
tinually, so tliat the stream is never the 
same for half an hour at a time. The 
whole bottom is rapidly traveling down- 
stream, its continuous, steady motion re- 
sembling one of the moving platforms 
which are sometimes used to transport 
passengers. 

One stream near our camp had cut 
clear through the accumulated mass of 
ash just below a fall, forming a bluff 
some 70 feet high. A hundred yards 
downstream, however, the slope, though 
still very steep, was less, and the stream 
had been completely overcome by the 
enormous quantity of pumice in its way. 

It was ludicrous to watch the struggles 



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Photograph by R. F. Griggs 
ASH SLIDKS IN UPPER KATMAI VAhU\Y 

"Wherever the mountains were precipitous and too steep for the ash to stick, it sHd down 
into the valley, covering the lower slopes with great fans of sand" (see text, page 34) 



of this stream as it wrestled with the 
pumice in its bed. Dammed up in the 
failure of a previous attempt, it would 
gradually accumulate enough energy for 
a new effort. Then suddenly breaking 
loose from its bonds, it would rush for- 
ward down the slope, pushing a pile of 
pumice before it, as though to engulf the 
onlooker, writhing this way and that hke 
a live thing, picking up pieces of pumice 
and floating them along as it came. Be- 
fore it had gone far, however, its new 
load would literally choke it, and it would 
give up the struggle in a hiss of grating 
pumice stones. 

It was quite a problem to secure water 
from such streams. The water always 
carried such quantities of large angular 
pumice fragments, not to speak of sand 
and mud, that it was out of the question 
to attempt to wash in the brooks. If we 
tried, the pumice would so grind into our 
flesh as to prohibit any further efforts at 
cleanliness. But while washing is a mat- 
ter of choice, one must drink whether or 
jio. We were obliged everywhere to 



strain our water through one of our food- 
bags. Often we would have to strain a 
quart of pumice to get a pint of water. 
The stream changed so rapidly that we 
sometimes had to move before we could 
fill a bucket. Straining, of course, re- 
moved only the coarser grit. 

At one of the camps our water was so 
full of mud that Mr. Folsom refused to 
wash his face for three days, because he 
"did not want to dirty it with the water 
we had to drink." 

CAVKRNS FORMED BY SNOW MELTING 
BENEATH THE ASH 

The day after crossing Soluka Creek 
we climbed the mountain to the west in 
hopes of seeing the volcano, for we 
feared lest the fine weather which had 
favored us would come to an end before 
we should attain our object. Our quest, 
however, was vain, for when we reached 
the summit we found that another sum- 
mit, not marked on our map, cut off our 
view so that we could not see Mount Kat- 
mai. This we called Barrier Mountain. 



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Photogrrapli by R. F. Griggs 



AN ASH SLIDE: SOLUKA CREEK 



Some of these slides spread out into gigantic fans more than a thousand feet high. 
Standing at the critical angle, their slopes are very hard climbing. We soon ground our 
finger-nails to the quick in the sharp sand of these slides. 



We tried to cross the pass to reach a 
position where we could see the condi- 
tion of the volcano, but were balked by 
a new kind of difficulty. On the way up 
one of us, sticking his staff, into the 
ground harder than usual, discovered that 
it went through into a cavern beneath. 
Examination showed that we were sup- 
ported on an arch of ash a foot thick, 
spanning a deep hole. 

We found that the mountains every- 
where were deeply covered with snow, 
which was concealed by a mantle of ash 
and pumice blown over it by the wind. 
The snow beneath was rapidly melting 
out in the warm weather, leaving the ash 
surface standing as smooth as ever above 
the cavity. 

Such small holes as the one into which 
we had accidentally broken were, of 
course, of no consequence; but as we 
looked down one of the side valleys, we 
could see great cave-ins in an apparently 
smooth ash field, where a stream burrow- 
ing through the snowdrifts beneath had 
undermined the surface. For half a mile 
or so the tunnel thus made had caved in, 
and then for another half mile it was still 
intact, giving no indication of its presence 
to an unwary traveler (see page 41). 

Reflecting on the significance of such 



phenomena for us, we carefully chose a 
path free from all appearance. of buried 
snowdrifts. We had not gone a hundred 
yards, however, when I happened to 
stamp my foot and was astonished to hear 
the ground beneath me ring hollow. We 
quickly retreated, spread out, and tried 
another place. We had not gone far 
when all three of us at once, though 50 
feet apart, detected a cavern beneath us. 
We had absolutely no means of judging 
whether the hole was 5 feet deep or 50, 
nor of estimating the strength of the roof. 
The danger of such a situation was 
altogether too great to undertake, so we 
reluctantly turned back, with as yet no 
view of the volcano. 

AN AWE-INSPIRING VALI.EY OF DEATH 

The following day we started to en- 
circle the mountains into upper Katmai 
Valley. As we proceeded the country 
became progressively more desert. Small 
birds which were common in the lower 
valley were absent here. The stillness of 
the dead forest was oppressive. One 
could travel all day without hearing a 
sound but his own footfalls and the 
plunge of rushing water. The bear trails 
persisted until we turned the corner into 
the upper valley, but there they disap- 



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Photograph by O. It. Church 

THE GLOOMY STRETCIIKS OF SOLUKA CRKEK : TREKS ALL DEAD 

I must confess that even after many crossings of this sinister stream without mishap 
I could never plunge in without a shudder of dread. So wide that from the middle we 
could see neither shore, its swift current everywhere churning the quicksand, it presents a 
formidable obstacle to a man carrying a pack. I was in constant fear lest some member of 
the party would be mired in its depths, for, although we seldom sank below our knees, we 
could plunge the full length of our alpenstock into the quicksand anywhere without finding 
bottom (see text, page 35). 



peared. Beyond that point there were no 
signs of animal life, except a pair of bald 
eagles, which rccoiuioitered ptir camp the 
lirst night, a few mosquitos, and, curi- 
otisly enough, a humming-bird moth, 
which seemed strangely out of place in 
such a valley of death. 

Clouds hung so low that everything 
above a thousand feet was obscured, but 
as we pushed up into the valley a feeling 
of tremendous awe possessed us. We 
had quite exhausted our stock of super- 
latives in the lower valley and found our- 
selves altogether withotit means of ex- 
pressing the feelings that arose in us or 
of describing the scene before us. 

MORE EVIDENCE OF A TREMENDOUS 
FLOOD 

As we proceeded, evidences of flood 
damage rapidly increased ; but we noticed 
that none of the tributary streams had 



been aflected, and when we reached the 
forks of the river we found that the 
whole flood had come down from under 
the volcano itself, wreaking havoc in its 
way. A deep channel had been eroded 
in the pumice deposits. Part of the way 
it had washed out all of the pumice and 
had cut into its original bed besides. 

For miles where thick forests had stood 
the trees were sheared off at the surface 
of the ash (see picture on page 42, taken 
a year later, after the stream had cut 
away the pumice, exposing the stumps). 
The few trees which remained were bent, 
twisted, splintered, and broken in every 
describable manner. In places, sheltered 
from the extreme fury of the waters, the 
trees were piled high with driftwood. 

The volume of water had been enor- 
mous. We found high- water marks 
25 feet above the bed of the stream 
where the valley was two miles wide. 



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Photograph by B. B. Fulton 

THE AUTHOR STRUGGLING THROUGH THE QUICKSAND OF KATMAI RIVER 

The swift water running over the ash and pumice packs the surface, giving it a crust 
which sometimes holds a man and sometimes breaks under his weight. Crossing these flats 
is somewhat like traveling in snow with a weak crust. One will go along easily ankle deep 
for a few steps and then suddenly drop down to his waist. The labor involved in such travel 
cannot be described, but must be experienced to be appreciated (see text, page 41). 



As we gradually came fully to compre- 
hend what a tremendous catastrophe this 
flood had been, we were more and more 
thankful for the good luck which had 
delayed our expedition until after it had 
passed. If we had landed a week earlier, 
we would certainly have been over- 
whelmed, unless by chance we had hap- 
pened to be on high ground, out of the 
valley, at the time of the disaster. 

We had finally penetrated as far as we 
could up the valley and camped, as we 
hoped, about opposite Mount Katmai; 
but we could not be sure of our position, 
for the clouds hung low. 

A FLOW OF BRIGHT RED MUD MORE THAN 
TWO MILES LONG 

Here we beheld a formation quite dif- 
ferent from anything else we had seen. 
A ravine which branched off from the 
main valley behind a spur of the moun- 
tain was filled by what looked like a great 
glacier, except that its color was a bright 



terra-cotta red. In every detail of its 
form except for its crevasses it was ex- 
actly like a glacier: beginning at a con- 
siderable elevation, where the ravine was 
narrow, it sloped evenly down to the 
valley level, widening as it descended, so 
as to assume a triangular form. 

If the color had not been so different 
from everything else in the landscape, we 
would have been quite sure it was a 
glacier covered with dirt. But in such 
a situation no glacier could have escaped 
without a thick covering of the omni- 
present ash. \\'e concluded, therefore, 
that it must be a mass of mud which had 
run down off the volcano. 

Later, when we visited it, its structure 
confirmed this theory. As it lay on top 
of the ash, it had evidently been formed 
since the eruption. Although it was hard 
and firm, so as to be easy walking, both 
its structure and its form showed clearly 
that it had reached its position in a semi- 
fluid condition. Like a glacier, it had a 



39 



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RESTING ON THE TRAIL 



Photograph by 1,. G. Folsom 



relatively steep front and was convex, 
highest in the middle, so as to turn the 
drainage off to the edges, along each of 
which a deep canyon had been cut. 

But despite the indications that it had 
once been fluid, we saw no mud-cracks 
or other evidence of shrinkage upon dry- 
ing out, such as one would have expected 
to find in a mud-flow. Its length we 
estimated by our pedometer at 2j^ miles. 
Its highest part attained an elevation of 
nearly i,ooo feet, from which point it 
sloped to about 300 feet at the base. We 
were not so well able to estimate its thick- 
ness. But along the edges where it was 
cut into by the streams a section about 
50 feet thick was exposed. In the middle 
it may have been much thicker, both on 
account of the convexity of the surface 
and the greater depth of the valley floor. 

Under erosion, this and other similar 
mud-flows, later found, develop very 
striking bad-land topography, so that on 
a bright day one might almost imagine 
himself to be in western North Dakota 
if it were not for the streams trickling 
everywhere from the melting snows. 
When the mud dries it becomes hard and 
holds its shape, so that the sides of the 



gullies remain vertical, as they are cut by 
the streams, and do not crumble away as 
would softer soil. 

LAVA ALL BLOWN TO FRAGMENTS 

We were very much surprised at the 
character of the ejecta close to the crater. 
Post-cards are current in Alaska show- 
ing great rocks which are said to have 
been "hurled from the volcano," and we 
ourselves had expected to find something 
of the sort. 

The fact is, however, that the violence 
of the explosions was so great that every- 
thing which came out of the crater was 
blown to "smithereens." Pieces of pum- 
ice six inches in diameter were hard to 
find, and the very largest piece we could 
discover near Mount Katmai was less 
than nine inches in its longest dimension. 

Nowhere was there any flow of lava in 
connection with the recent eruption. 
This is due to the fact that the lava as it 
rose through the throat of the volcano 
was so heavily charged with gases, mostly 
steam, under enormous pressure, that on 
reaching the surface it was either blown 
into a froth of pumice by the sudden ex- 



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Photograph by D. B. Church 

A SNOWDRIFT COVERED BY TWO FEET OF WIND-BLOWN ASH, NEAR KATMAI VILLAGE, 

AT SEA-LEVEL, JULY 1 5 

Thus protected from the sun, melting of the snow is so retarded that in many places 
formerly uncovered early in the season the snow now fails to melt away and is accumulating 
year by year. 



pansion of the included gas or exploded 
and was completely disrupted, forming 
ashes and dust. 

On first thought one is apt to be more 
awed by a force that could hurl great 
rocks through the air than one which 
merely throws up ashes and dust. But 
when one reflects that ash and pumice are 
rock blown to fragments by the violence 
of the explosion, he realizes that much 
mightier forces are involved than would 
be required to toss boulders about. 

CROSSING THE RIVER 

In spite of the desolation of the valley, 
even in the shadow of the volcano, some 
few remnants of plants persisted in shel- 
tered nooks on the steep mountain side. 
In our climb we found living plants of 
devil-club, lady-fern, salmon-berries, a 
willow, a sedge, and a bedstraw. The 
leaves of most of these were injured 
around the margins, and in general they 
appeared more dead than alive, though, 



of course, still retaining the possibility of 
later becoming the means of revegetating 
the country. 

Our next venture was to try to cross 
the river to examine the lower slopes of 
the volcano and the mud-flow. This we 
found a very formidable undertaking. 
Although the stream was divided into- 
many channels, none of which was deep, 
it was so swift as almost to carry us 
away. Indeed, both Fulton and I went 
down under its current and succeeded in 
getting out only with difficulty. We did 
not mind the ducking, even though the 
water was icy cold, but we were in fear 
of wetting our precious cameras (see 

page 39)- 

A SECOND NEW VOLCANO — THE TRIDENT 

After two days of waiting, the sky 
cleared, and when we woke we beheld 
the whole range. Off to the westward 
was a steady column of steam rising from 
Mount Martin, which was concealed be- 



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Photograph by R. F. Griggs 

THE GREAT ASH SLIDE OF SLIDE MOUNTAIN 

Our experience in taking this picture furnished an amusing example of our inability, 
even accustomed to stupendous dimensions as we were, to form any real conception of the 
size of the wonders by which we were surrounded. Desiring to have a scale by which the 
size of the slide could be gauged, I sent one of the men up on it for that purpose; but, to 
my astonishment, when he emerged from the forest and began to climb up the slope I could 
barely make him out, much less find him in the resulting picture. Our triangulation gave it 
a height of nearly 1,900 feet (see text, page 34). 



hind a foothill, which, from its position, 
we named Observation Mountain. Next 
were the three peaks of Mount Mageik 
(see page 32), covered with newly fallen 
snow. Across its northwestern slopes 
formerly ran the trail to Bering Sea, 
across Katmai Pass, which, though re- 
puted difficult and dangerous, looked very 
easy from our position. 

On the northeast side the pass is 
flanked by a lofty three-peaked volcano, 
which we called The Trident (see page 
65). Its three peaks are arranged in 
semicircular fashion, leaving between 
them an amphitheater open toward Kat- 
mai Valley, which looks somewhat like 
an ancient crater breached on one side. 
The highest peak appears from the valley 
like an almost perfect cone, truncated at 
the top as though by a crater. Its height 
as given by the chart is 6,790 feet. 

The present crater is a fissure at the 



base of this peak (altitude about 3,500 
feet), from which issued, somewhat in- 
termittently, a column of steam. Al- 
though the volume of this steam was 
quite small in comparison with that of 
Mageik and Martin, it sometimes as- 
sumed quite respectable proportions, ris- 
ing 3,000 feet or more. There is good 
reason to believe that this vent also ap- 
peared in connection with the great 
eruption. 

OUR FIRST SIGHT OF MOUNT KATMAI 

Next in line beyond a wide pass stood 
Mount Katmai itself. This was quiescent 
during our visit and at first sight pre- 
sented a rather disappointing appearance, 
for its glaciers and snowfields were so 
covered with ash as to make it suffer 
from comparison with Mount Mageik. 
As we studied it, however, we saw that 
its great bulk reduced its apparent height. 



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The crest, as seen 
from the valley, forms 
a great arc some three 
miles in length, high- 
est at the ends, and 
broken in the middle 
by a sharp, tooth-like 
rock, which stands up 
out of the lowest 
place in the rim. 
Even from the valley 
the edges of this curv- 
ing rim are so sharp 
as to give the top a 
hollow appearance, in- 
dicative of the great 
crater within (p. 48). 

MOUNT KATMAI IS 
NOW MKRELV A STUB 
OF ITS FORMER BULK 

Although Mount 
Katmai was seen by 
many white men be- 
fore the eruption, 
there is no record of 
any photograph or de- 
scription of it ; so that 
there is no very defi- 
nite means of deter- 
mining the configura- 
tion of the mountain 
before the explosion. 
It was higher than 
Mageik. however, and 
originally must have 
quite overshadowed 
the latter, because, 
though much less con- 
spicuously placed in 
the valley, it gave its name to both river 
and town. The Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey's chart of the district shows a three- 
peaked mountain with an elevation of 
7.500 feet. The highest peak was to the 
south, while the middle one was 7,360 
feet and the north 7,260 feet high re- 
spectively. 

From the contours of the chart I have 
made a diagram of the mountain before 
the eruption for comparison with its pres- 
ent condition (see page 49). But even 
without the information given by the 
chart, it is evident that the present motm- 
tain is merely a stub of a much greater 
peak of former days. 

Coming back into the lower valley after 
the total desolation of the country in the 



Photograph by R. F. Griggs 
A ROCK WHICH ROLLED OFF THE MOUNTAIN SIDE ACROSS OUR 
TRAIL WHILE WE WERE UP THE VALLEY 



shadow of the volcanoes was like regain- 
ing the earth after a visit to the inferno. 
How green the trees looked ! How the 
birds sang! How beautiful the green 
mountains ! And this was the country on 
which we had exhausted our superlatives 
of devastation in an effort to compare it 
with Kodiak! We ourselves had not 
fully realized the awful devastation near 
the volcano until we felt the relief from 
its contemplation in the comparative ver- 
dure of the vicinity of the ruined village. 

We were much relieved to find our 
base camp intact. Although a wolverine 
had been prowling around, he had evi- 
dently been suspicious of such fresh signs 
of man and had not disturbed anything. 

On July 29 we began to look for Mr. 



43 



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Photograph by B. B. Fulton 
AN ASH ACCUMULATION ON A TRIBUTARY OF SOLUKA CREEK 

The streams covered their beds with many feet of ash after the eruption. Later they 
began to remove the ash, sometimes cutting deep canyons, as in this scene, where the human 
figure indicates the tremendous depth of the ash fall. 



44 

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Photograph by R. F. Griggs 



ON THE TRAIL IN THE UPPER VAU.EY 



Since the country was completely devastated, it was necessary to carry everything we had; 
if any essential thing had been forgotten the expedition would have been stumped 



Johnson to come to take us back to 
Kodiak, according to appointment. We 
learned later that he tried to reach us 
T>oth that day and the next, but was un- 
able to land. On the 31st, however, the 
weather was clear and calm, so that he 
was able to get ashore. 

We were rejoicing in the prospect of 
a speedy return to Kodiak, but soon 
found that our troubles were not over, 
for before he could get us off a "north- 
easter" blew up, so that he had to aban- 
don us hastily on the beach and make for 
his boat with the word "Back at the first 
chance." The sea rose so quickly that he 
had difficulty in regaining the sloop and 
reaching a place of safety. It was not 
for three days that he was able to return, 
-and then, although there was considerable 
surf running, we lost no time in getting 
aboard (see page 2'j), 

ORGANIZING THE EXPEDITION OF I916 

The expedition of 191 6 was carried out 
on substantially the same lines as that of 
the preceding year, except that it was 
possible to organize the work more thor- 



oughly and to provide against various 
contingencies which could not have been 
foreseen without the experience of the 
previous year. The party consisted of 
Mr. Folsom, Mr. D. B. Church, as pho- 
tographer, and myself. The experience 
of the previous year showed the necessity 
of the employment of a packer also. 

Here we met one of our most difficult 
problems, for we found that the natives 
were afraid of the volcano and could not 
be induced to go to the mainland. When 
we broached the matter to the chief, he 
said at once very positively, "]\le no Kat- 
mai," and we learned later that he had 
advised his followers, "Life is better than 
money." 

The problem was most happily met, 
however, when we thought of Walter 
Matroken, the celebrated one - handed 
bear hunter of Kodiak. He agreed to go 
without any hesitation and stuck to his 
promise, although, as we found after- 
ward, the other natives used all sorts of 
arguments to dissuade him. 

Already a hero among his fellows be- 
cause of his many exploits as a hunter. 



45 



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he was doubly so when 
he returned safely, 
having actually looked 
into "The Hole" out 
of which had come 
the devastating blast. 
Even Walter, how- 
ever, was very nerv- 
ous on the crater rim, 
keeping sheltered be- 
hind a rock a good 
share of the time and 
shifting about uneasily 
as he watched us 
work, finally remark- 
ing when he thought 
we had overstayed our 
time. **Can't make 
nothing up here." 

THE BEAR HUNTER OF 
KODIAK 

Walter was one of 
those strong char- 
acters whom one finds 
among all classes, who 
stand out superior to 
their fellows. De- 
prived of his right 
hand by a hunting ac- 
cident in his youth, he 
has so overcome the 
handicap that with 
his one hand he can 
accomplish more than 
most men with two. 
We found nothing he 
could not do, even to 
tying knots and roll- 
ing cigarettes. 

But -when there 
came a place where 
we needed some one to handle a boat I 
supposed that finally I had found his 
limit, for I could not imagine how any 
man could handle two oars in one hand. 
Not so, however, for in a flash he had 
somehow lashed one oar to his stub and 
was rowing along as well as anybody. 

The general appearance of the country 
was much the same as it had been the 
year before ; but the mountains were 
greener, and even on the flat seedlings 
were beginning to start. When we began 
to examine old landmarks, however, we 
found that while the general appearances 
were unaltered, there had been great 
changes in detail. 



Photograph by R. F. Griggs 
DEAD INSECTS UNDER A SOLITARY TUFT OF HERBAGE IN THE 
UPPER VALLEY 

Under these plants was half a teacupful of dead insects of many 
species (seen as black spots on the ground), which had been at- 
tracted by the isolated herbage and come thither in a vain search 
for food. Perhaps the most striking change in the upper valley 
observed in 1916 was the great abundance of insects, where there 
had been practically none the year before. 



The site of our camp of the previous 
year we found buried under 20 inches of 
fresh pumice, washed oflf the mountain 
side, while a stream had cut its bed across 
the place where our tent had stood. The 
year before this stream had been 50 yards 
distant and we never dreamed that it 
might come our way. As we journeyed 
up the valley, we found other similar 
changes, but the general conditions were 
but little different. 

Soluka Creek was the same maze of 
quicksands that had almost turned us back 
the year before. I must confess that as 
many times as we crossed Soluka Creek 
I never got used to it. Although we 



47 



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ORIGINAL MOUNTAIN 



AN ILLUSTRATION OF MOUNT KATMAI AS IT WAS AND IS 

Showing the original mountain reconstructed, the present crater rim, and the crater with 
ns boihng lake. .The Woolworth Building, drawn to the same scale, gives an idea of the 
depth of the crater. 



never had an accident, I never could free 
myself from the dread of the crossing 
and the fear that the next time it would 
**get" one of us. 

GRAND VIEW CAMP 

When we arrived at the head of the 
flat we picked our camp site so as to 
command a view of the surrounding 
mountains. The marks of the great flood 
were no longer fresh on the ground and 
it was evident that there had been no 
similar catastrophe during the year that 
had elapsed. We therefore had no fear 
of a repetition of the flood and did not 
hesitate to camp out in the open, choos- 
ing, in fact, an island in the river, which, 
although being cut away by the swift 
water at the rate of several yards a day, 
was safe enough for the period of our 
visit. 

I never expect to be privileged to have 
a camp site surrounded by grander scen- 
ery than was this island. On the east 
side of the valley was the waterfall that 
we christened Fulton's Fall, nearly a 
mile away, but the more impressive for 
its distance, framed in between the bril- 
liant orange and green slopes of two 
mountains, which we called Slide Moun- 
tain and Avalanche Mountain, and backed 
by the rich red precipices of Barrier 
Mountain. The latter, though in reality 
several miles away, at the head of a val- 
ley, appeared set just a few hundred feet 
back of the fall, which has the majestic 
sweep attained only by falls of much 
greater height than breadth. 



Farther up at the head of the valley 
stood the 1,500-foot cliffs which guard 
the entrance to the inner canyon of Kat- 
mai River, while towering aloft over in- 
accessible precipices the summits of Slide 
and Avalanche Mountains themselves 
presented fine enough spectacles to com- 
mand attention in any other setting. But 
here they were eclipsed, for on the other 
side of the valley we could see the whole 
chain of glacier-covered volcanoes of the 
main range in continuous series, broken 
only by Katmai Pass, whose 2,700 feet 
looked low indeed by comparison. 

From north to south were Katmai, 
Trident, Mageik — partly hidden behind 
Observation Mountain, and finally the 
distant steam from Martin (map, p. 23). 

It was evident that the activity of all 
the vents was somewhat greater than the 
year before: There could be no longer 
any doubt but that considerable steam 
was rising from Katmai, whereas the 
year before we could not be certain of 
any activity. The column from Mageik 
was larger, and there was a small column 
rising from a point well down on the 
slope of Martin which we had not seen 
before. 

INDICATIONS OF ACTIVITY ON TIII^ BERING 
SEA SIDE OF THE RANGE 

In addition to these vents, every time 
it was clear we saw very definite indica- 
tions of more volcanoes on the other side 
of the range. Through Katmai Pass we 
could see two large clouds when every- 



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THE VALLEY OF TEN THOUSAND SMOKES 



51 



where else all was clear except the 
"steamers." Over the isthmus connect- 
ing Katmai and Trident we saw, as we 
had in 191 5, similar signs of activity. 

These were, however, very puzzling, 
elusive, uncertain^-quite different from 
the steady columns rising from Mageik 
and Martin ; for they were not only in- 
constant and variable in volume, but 
equally uncertain in position, appearing 
now at one point and now at another 
(see page 65). 

STARTING FOR THE FIRST ASCENT 

On finding the sky clear and bright 
the morning after our arrival, July 19, 
we decided to see how the river was and 
to reconnoiter the volcano with a view to 
picking our path for the climb when the 
proper time should come. 

\\Tien we started we had little idea of 
making the ascent, expecting to content 
ourselves with reconnoitering the lower 
slopes. But as we went on we became 
more and more anxious to try the climb. 
So, leaving the mud-flow at about 800 
feet, we started up the long ridge which 
runs out parallel with the canyon. This 
was easy going, with a gentle ascent up 
to 2,000 feet, when we suddenly came 
into sight of the upper valley of Katmai 
River. 

THE TREMENDOUS FLOOD EXPLAINED 

We found that the canyon was only as 
long as Mount Katmai itself, while far- 
ther on, the valley tttrhed to the east and 
expanded again into a flat, in which we 
discovered three large lakes, blue as the 
sky, in strong and grateful contrast to the 
gray land. 

But what especially surprised us was 
suddenly to discover the origin of the 
flood which had so sorely puzzled our 
party the year before (see pages 20 and 
38). A stream flowing between Katmai 
Volcano and its neighbor had piled up 
an immense dam across its valley. Be- 
hind this darri a vast lake had accumu- 
lated until the pressure of the impounded 
water became irresistible, when the dam 
burst and the torrent, like a Johnstown 
flood, rushed seaward, fortunately with- 
out human toll. 

Turning from the lakes with the hope 



that we might be able to return and ex- 
plore them, we roped ourselves together 
and decided to have a try at the slopes 
above. 

We were on dangerous ground from 
the outset. The surface was covered by 
many feet of ash overlying snow, which, 
melting out from beneath, made the sur- 
face slump away and crack open in all 
directions, while at intervals boiling tor- 
rents issued from the cavernous depths. 
No experience with snow bridges could 
give any precedent for judging the 
strength of such ash bridges and we had 
no means of knowing what to expect. 

It was with fear and trembling that I 
ventured out across the first and, as it 
proved, the worst of these bridges. It 
was only a few feet wide, with perpen- 
dicular edges 30 feet high, while from 
beneath came a roaring torrent, which 
divided just below, part going down be- 
hind the arrete we had come up and part 
tumbling directly down the face of the 
mountain. 

CLIMBING THE MUD-PLASTERED SLOPES 

The slopes were all plastered with mud 
of varied colors — ^gray, yellow, chocolate, 
red, black, and blue — the results of the 
last spasms of the great eruption. 

At the lower levels the mud was dry 
and hard, making easy going ; but as we 
ascended, it soon became slippery, and a 
little higher soft and sticky. Most of the 
way it was about ankle deep, but in spots 
we went in nearly to our knees ; and at 
times it required all our strength to ex- 
tricate ourselves (see page 53). Un- 
pleasant and laborious as walking through 
deep mud is under any circumstances, we 
found traveling up the slope very hard 
work indeed. 

Above 4,000 feet the way was mostly 
through soft snow, with only occasional 
mud patches, and the slope became 
steeper as w^e advanced. 

As we reached the higher levels the 
scenery became superb. We could see 
Kodiak Island across the strait over the 
tops of the nearer mountains, which pre- 
sented a magnificent mass of sharp peaks 
and intervening snow-fields. 

But finer than these was the canyon of 
Katmai River, which lay stretched below 
us. Flanked by the multicolored mud- 



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Photograph by R. F. Griggs 
STEAM RISI^X FROM MOUNT KATMAI : VIEW FROM PROSPECT POINT 

The ash slides of the recent eruption contrast with the massive ancient lava flows. At 
the right are two fine waterfalls. The summit stands about a mile above the observer (see 
text, page 55). 



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. .. / 

all to do over again tomorrow. perpendicular and great masses of snow 

As it began to cloud up, we were afraid and mud were cracked off from the 

we would not be able to see anything if edges, ready to fall in ; so that I did not 

we did reach the rim. All the other sum- dare to look over the edge, even though 

mits as far as we could see were clear, anchored by the rope, until I could find a 



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Photograph by R. F. Griggs 
AX ASH-COVERED SNOW RRTDGK SPANNING A STREAM WHICH CUT ITS WAY THROUGH 

BENEATH 

The caving in of such bridges, which are often concealed, constitutes one of the most serious 
dangers to which the explorer is subject 



place which looked safer. Then we ap- 
proached the edge. Nothing could be 
seen through the rising steam. 

But, as we looked, there came a little 
rift and we could see something blue far 
below us. Then the steam cut us off 
again and we waited. Again it blew 
away and we were struck speechless by 
the scene, for the whole crater lay below 
us. It was of immense size and seemed 
of an infinite depth. 

A VITRKOLIC LAKE 

About half of the bottom was occu- 
pied by a wonderful blue and green vit- 
reolic lake, with the crescent-shaped re- 
mains of an ash cone near the middle. 
In the larger end was a circle of lighter- 
colored water which was in continual 
ebullition. 

Around the margin were a thousand 
jets of steam of all sizes, issuing from 
every crevice with a roar like a great 
locomotive when the safety valve lets go. 
On the far side, close to the water, were 
two large, bright yellow spots of sulphur, 
while in two angles of less activity there 
were snow-fields. 

The perpendicular sides near us were 
comi)osed entirely of frozen mud and 
fragments of various sorts of ejecta, and 



nowhere in the whole ascent did we en- 
counter bedrock. On the opposite side 
of the crater we could see that the greater 
part of the wall was composed of lava 
and tufa, the successive flows giving it a 
roughly stratified appearance. 

\\'e were powerless to form any real 
estimate of the size of this stupendous 
hole. It was clear, however, that it oc- 
cupied all of the area within the rim, 
which from below appears three miles 
long. As to the depth, the best I could 
do was to look in and then try to carry 
the same level to the slope up which we 
had come. Thus estimated, the depth 
was apparently about 1,500 feet. This 
estimate wc subsequently had to enlarge. 

All this we took in almost at a glance. 
Before we could get our tripod set up 
tlie cloud closed in again and we waited 
amid a thunderous roar of escaping 
steam. Were we to be cheated of the 
coveted i)ictures after all? Finally the 
cloud lifted a little and frantically we 
made our exposures. 

I had planned to take bearings and 
measurements which would permit more 
accurate determination of the depth and 
size, but we were vouchsafed so few 
clear moments that we could not make 



54 



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them. We had 
reached the rim at 
5.05 p. m. The mo- 
ment we stopped mov- 
ing we beo^n to suffer 
so from our cold, wet 
feet that waiting was 
torture; but we lin- 
gered on the edge for 
50 minutes hoping for 
better views, but as 
the clear intervals be- 
came less and less fre- 
quent we had to give 
it up and descend. 
None of us fully real- 
ized, I think, how far 
we had come till we 
found how long the 
return journey was, 
but we reached our 
camp safely at 10.20 
p. m. 

Next day I was up 
at 5.30 to take pic- 
tures of the moun- 
tains, for practically 
the only opportunities 
to get good pictures 
of the volcanoes came 
early in the morning. 
The sky was clear ex- 
cept for a few very 
delicate cirrus clouds 
above the mountains 
to the east. They 
were long combed out 
and lay in horizontal 
Hues, drifting slowly 
toward Katmai. 



rhi)t()3raph by L,. C. Folsom 
THE ASCENT OVER MUD-COVERED SNOW 

The climbers are within a few hundred feet of the crater rirn 
(see text, page 51) 



THE WONDERFUL SCENERY OF THE 
CANYON 

Our distant view from the mountain 
of the second Katmai \'alley, with its 
lakes, and especially the dam, which had 
caused the great flood, made us anxious 
to penetrate the canyon and examine the 
upper valley in detail. But we found it 
impossible to penetrate beyond the mouth 
of the canyon, being stopped on the brink 
of a 500- foot precipice, which we named 
Prospect Point. 

The magnificence of the view from this 
point was simply beyond description. 

It is like the Grand Canyon and the Ca- 
nadian Rockies all put together and then 



the volcanoes added. The desert land- 
scape, covered with the many-colored muds 
from the volcano, together with the fine 
colors of the rock walls, recall the Oand 
Canyon. But the upper slopes, with their 
sharp summits occupied by snow-fields 
and glaciers, remind one of the Canadian 
Rockies, in particular of such places as 
the "Valley of the Ten Peaks." 

Down the sides pour numerous water- 
falls, some of which are of great beauty. 
( )pposite Prospect Point is ore whose 
thin, misty streams drop 1,500 feet from 
the top of the inner canyon clear to the 
bottom (see page 61). Two more, each 
several hundred feet high, may be seen 
on the slopes of Katmai (see page 52). 



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Photograph by I^. G. Folsom 
PHOTOGRAPHING THE CRATER, SECOND ASCENT 



The two sides of the canyon show very 
different rock structure. The east wall 
is a 1, 500- foot cliff, of delicate ^reen sed- 
imentaries, but little metamorphosed, al- 
though shot through by numerous dikes 
of igneous rock, also pale green. But on 
the west the river is hemmed in by great 
mahogany - colored lava flows, whose 
massive cliffs rise 2,000 to 2,500 feet be- 
fore giving way to the gentler slopes of 
the plateau. At least three successive 
flows may be made out lying superposed 
one on the other. All appear to have 
come from Katmai itself, but none of 
them is recent. 

In the more exposed situations the 
wind has often cut through the different 
layers of ash, leaving the hillsides marked 
with rpany bands and circles, where de- 
posits of different colors have been alter- 
nately uncovered. 

EXPERIENCES IN A TERRIFIC GALE 

Where the unprotected positions were 
occupied by birches, their dead trunks 
often bear evidence of the power of wind 
erosion ; for on the northwest side their 
bark has been all cut away, and in many 
cases the wood deeply abraded by pieces 
of ash and pumice flying before the wind 
(see page 66). 

But even such evidences of the power 
of the wind could not have given us any 
conception of the terrific violence of the 



gales if we had not had the misfortune 
to experience one. For 48 hours it blew 
with such fury that we were in constant 
fear lest our tent should be torn to shreds. 
I would never have supposed that any 
tent could have stood up under the strain. 
We had it double-guyed at each end with 
our Alpine rope, but were not able to 
keep the pegs from pulling Out at the 
bottom. We could not have held it down 
without the floor. Several times we held 
it in place by lying on the floor until the 
pegs could be driven in again around the 
bottom (see also pages 17 and 26). 

Only less noisy was the bombardment 
of the sand-blast, which drove against the 
tent like showers of hail. The power of 
the wind was such that pieces of pumice 
even an inch in diameter were picked up 
and carried away, while others twice as 
big went rolling along the slopes. 

The wind was so fierce that we could 
not keep a fire, nor could we have cooked 
anything if we had. for we no sooner put 
on a kettle of water than it began to fill 
with sand, so that it could not be used. 

THE SECOND. ASCENT 

On July 30, for the first time since our 
arrival in the valley, the steam from 
^Nlageik rose straight up into a cloudless 
sky (see page 30). We therefore decided 
the conditions auspicious to try for a 
second view into the crater. This time 



$6 



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Photograph by R. F. Criggs 

LOOKING DOWN INTO KATMAl'S CRATER 

At the right is the main column of steam, 3,000 feet high. Little jets may also be seen 
rising from the surface of the boiling lake. Curiously enough, the heat does not melt the 
snow, which may be seen stretching close up to the escaping steam, its surface grooved by 
the innumerable rolling-stones which fall in from the cliffs where we stood (see text, 
page 54). 



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THE VALLEY OF TEN THOUSAND SMOKES 



59 



I chose a path over the lava plateau 
from near the base of the mud-flow. 
From the valley the ground did not seem 
especially favorable, and we were by no 
means sure of reaching the rim when we 
started; but I was anxious to examine 
the Trident at close range, and especially 
to see what might be behind the isthmus 
connecting it with Katmai, because of our 
suspicions of activity in that direction. 

We got a fine view of Trident, whose 
crater proved to be a simple fissure, out 
of which steam was continually issuing 
in a comparatively small volume (see 
page 65). But we were disappointed in 
our hopes of seeing anything over the 
divide between Trident and Katmai. 

Ahhough we traversed the whole 
length of the nearly level neve at an alti- 
tude of about 4,200 feet, we could see no. 
indications of volcanic activity beyond. 
There were several jagged minor sum- 
mits, but no large mountain and no 
clouds; so that we quite dismissed the 
idea of a volcano in that quarter. 

How greatly in error I was in this con- 
clusion I was to find only the next day. 

For a good share of the way beyond 
2,000 feet our path this time lay across 
the lines of drainage, which had gashed 
the level surface of the ash with innumer- 
able gullies anywhere from two to ten 
feet deep. On our first ascent we had 
followed straight up a single ridge, and so 
avoided the necessity of crossing the gul- 
lies. This time we soon found that con- 
tinued jumping across or scrambling up 
and down the sides of these ravines is 
very fatiguing and were thoroughly tired 
of the job long before we got through 
them. 

For the last 1,500 feet our way led 
across much - crevassed snowfields and 
glaciers, which, while easier going for 
the most part, kept us in constant fear 
of cave-ins on account of the uncertain 
conditions introduced by the ash- fall. In 
places we traversed as nasty a series of 
seracs as one would care to find. 

We found that the glacial seracs ex- 
tended clear up to the very rim of the 
crater, above whose depths the loose 
blocks hung with a precarious hold. 

We did not dare to approach the edge 
over such ground and had to make our 



way around, descending somewhat until 
we finally reached the rim at the lowest 
notch, at an altitude of 5,200 feet, beside 
the rock which breaks the regularity of 
the arc at that point (see page 56). 

This from the valley appears as a small 
tooth-like projection. Near at hand it is 
seen to be a great neck of jointed col- 
umnar basalt two or three hundred feet 
high, which evidently owes its preserva- 
tion to its superior hardness, which en- 
abled it to resist the force of the explo- 
sion that blew away the softer rock all 
around it. Its position and structure in- 
dicate that it was formerly a vent filled 
with liquid lava which, cooling in place, 
formed the massive neck that remains. 

IN.\BIUTY TO JUDGE HEIGHT OR DISTANCE 

From our position directly under it, its 
perpendicular cliffs, though insignificant 
from the valley, appeared immeasurably 
high! Frequently in this land of stu- 
pendous dimensions we had occasion to 
realize how little conception we could 
really form of the true sizes of the fea- 
tures around us. 

When one stands directly beneath ' a 
cliff or at its brink and looks up or down, 
200 feet appears as an immeasurably 
great height. Ten times as much appears 
no greater unless there are trees, houses, 
or some such familiar objects beyond, by 
which one can form an independent judg- 
ment of their distance. In a desert coun- 
try without such objects, we were fre- 
quently unable to form any estimate at 
all of the size of the various features 
which met our view. 

We had an amusing instance of this 
when, sending a man to climb the great 
ash slide to serve as a scale for a picture, 
I found that he was hardly visible to the 
naked eye and utterly lost in the picture 
(see page 42). We nearly always found 
that our estimates were too small rather 
than too large, and throughout the pres- 
ent paper I have endeavored to scale 
down my statements of size, so that any 
errors should be in the direction of min- 
imizing rather than of exaggerating the 
things we have to report. 

Standing on the edge of the crater, we 
recognized our total inability to form any 
judgment of its depth by the ordinary 



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irnoiograpa oy u. u. v,iiurcii 

CROSSING ONE OF THE CHANNELS OF THE KATMAI RIVER 

While the lower reaches of this river are full of quicksand, farther up it is a rushing 
mountain torrent, so swift that it was hard to cross even supported on a rope (see text, 
page 41). 



methods one uses in estimating such 
things. But, using the shape of the vol- 
cano as a whole and such differences in 
altitude of the parts of the crater rim as 
we could see from the valley for our 
guide, we concluded that our former es- 
timate must be too small, and that it must 
be at least 2,000 feet in depth. 

THE SECOND VIEW OF THE CRATER 

Both the weather conditions and our 
position were much more favorable for 
observation of the crater this time than 
on our first ascent. The sun shone 
brightly, and it became evident why we 
had had so much trouble with the steam 
on the first ascent, for we found that the 
point which we had reached the first time 
stood directly above a prominent fissure 
extending in an easterly direction from 
the edge of the lake to the crater wall. 
Its direction was significant in connection 
with what we were to discover the next 
day. 

The boiling lake this time was all cov- 
ered with little (so they appeared from 



our position) wisps of steam curling up 
everywhere from its surface. The vapor 
thus given off condensed into a hazy 
cloud, which hung in the mouth of the 
crater, so that the part of the rim op- 
posite us was veiled. This haze made 
it impossible to secure as clear photo- 
graphs of the crater as we would have 
wished. 

At the northeast angle we could see 
another low notch in the rim of about the 
same altitude as the one where we stood. 
But this one was occupied by a wall of 
ice which rose perpendicular, flush with 
the crater walls, as though it had been 
sheared off by the explosion. It was in- 
deed curious that a moving glacier, how- 
ever it might have been affected by the 
eruption, should remain in such a posi- 
tion. It is probably to be accounted for 
by the falling away of the crater rim, 
which continually exposes a new section 
of the ice cliff. As we had made the 
summit by 3 o'clock, this time we were 
not so late in getting back, reaching camp 
again at 8.30. 



60 



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Photograph by D. B. Church 

ACROSS KATMAI CANYON FROM TlIIv LOWKR SLOPES OF MOUNT KATMAI 

The scale may be judged by the man, who may barely be made out on the trail near the 
center of the picture. The waterfall is 1,500 feet high. 



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THE VALLEY OF TEN THOUSAND SMOKES 



63 



The next day, July 31, dawned as clear 
and bright as the former; but the cloud 
from ilageik this time drifted off to the 
northwest, and small clouds were begin- 
ning to gather on the west side of the 
valley, so that I knew it was to be the 
last day of good weather. 

A MUD-FLOW COVERING TEN SQUARE 
MILES 80 FEET DEEP 

I had hoped to take a two-days' trip 
across the pass to see if we could find 
the source of the clouds which had 
aroused our suspicions. But remember- 
ing the bad name given Katmai Pass by 
Spurr, who states that it was the most 
difficult pass crossed by his party in their 
long and adventurous journey in 1898, 
I had no desire to be caught short of 
provisions on the wrong side, and so gave 
up the projected trip and decided to 
reconnoiter instead. Planning to make 
an easy day of it, for we were tired after 
our ascent of Katmai the day before, we 
climbed around the shoulder of Obser- 
vation Mountain and descended into the 
upper valley of Mageik Creek, where we 
found the largest and most striking ac- 
cumulation of ash observed anywhere. 

The whole flat, occupying a triangular 
space five miles on a side, was filled many 
feet in depth by the ash, which had 
slumped off the mountain sides. One 
section we traversed was no less than 125 
feet thick, and two others 80 feet. 

ASCENT TO KATMAI PASS 

Having stopped a little while to exam- 
ine the character of the Mageik mud- 
flow and to eat our lunch, we made our 
way forward across the bad lands toward 
the pass, following now the ridges of the 
mud-flow% now the bottom of the canyon, 
which rose in a gentle slope. 

As we ascended the valley past the 
highest peak of Trident, we came into 
view of the hollow between it and the 
next peak, from which I had thought 
several times I saw clear indications of 
rising steam. The sun was shining into 
it brightlv, so that I could see it all 
clearly. There was not the smallest puff 
of steam anywhere to be seen. We were 
up now to 2,500 feet and could see a long 



way through the pass, and there was no 
steam to be seen there either. 

So again I concluded, as I had the day 
before, that we had seen nothing more 
than the ordinary clouds which gather so 
easily around the summits of all high 
mountains. 

Church, jaded from thfe continual hard 
work, had given out and we left him be- 
hind with the 'packs, much against his 
wishes, several hundred feet below, while 
Ifolsoip and I went forward a little far- 
ther to see what we could discover. We 
were both tired from our hard climb the 
day before, ^nd traveling transversely 
across the sflillied "bad lands" of the 
mud-flow, <\\^nich was necessitated by the 
condition of the canyon below, was very 
laborious; so that I was ready to turn 
back satisfied with having seen through 
the pass and, as I believed, having laid 
another ghost. 

THE FIRST FUMAROLE 

But ju^t as I was about to suggest 
turning back to Folsom I caught sight of 
a tiny puff of vapor in the floor of the 
pass. I rubbed my eyes and looked again. 
Yes, there it was, a miniature volcano 
sending up a little jet of steam right in 
the pass. When I saw this I decided that 
we must go on to investigate, because the 
very smallness of this steam jet made it 
of as much interest as a large volcano. 

For one of the most striking features 
of the eruption of Katmai — one which 
was without parallel in other great erup- 
tions — was the absence of subordinate 
manifestations of vulcanism outside the 
main theater of action. I had been con- 
tinually surprised at the absence of para- 
sitic cones, fumaroles, mud craters, hot 
springs, and the like in so great an erup- 
tion. 

Earlier in the day we had found the 
stream from the hot springs near the 
pass, mapped by Spurr; but aside from 
that, this fumarole was the first thing of 
its sort to be observed. When we reached 
the pass we found its floor all shot 
through with cracks and small fissures, 
from which issued half a dozen good- 
sized jets of steam and perhaps a hun- 
dred small ones. 



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Photograph by L. G. Folsom 

WARMING MY HANDS AT ONE OF THE LITTLE FUMAROLES IN THE PASS 

The ground was encrusted with bright-colored sublimations from the escaping gases (see 

text below) 



With some trepidation we approached 
over the fissured surface and discovered 
that most of the steam issued from small 
openings a few inches in diameter, 
whence it came with considerable veloc- 
ity, giving forth a low, roaring sound. 

We could come quite close and warmed 
our hands in the steam, which, though 
very hot as it emerged, soon cooled like 
the vapor from a tea-kettle. 

Coming oiT with the steam were vari- 
ous other substances, which gave rise to 
curious evil-smelling odors and precipi- 
tated a highly colored crust on the 
ground. Prominent among these was the 
"rotten-egg" smell of hydrogen sulphide 
and of sulphur dioxide, while crystals of 
sulphur gave a yellow tinge to the parti- 
colored sublimations of the crust. 

I was anxious to return to Church, for 
we had already been gone much longer 
than we had expected when we left him. 
So, starting to return, I had reached a 
little eminence, for the fumaroles were 
just over the pass, when, turning around 
to urge Folsom to hasten, I saw far down 
the valley, over the top of some rising 
ground beyond us, a puff of steam. This 
had not been there when we came over 
the pass and was evidently considerably 
larger than the jets we had been examin- 



ing, and as the obstructing hill was not 
far away I decided, late as it was, to go 
forward and have a look. 

THE VALLEY OF THE TEN THOUSAND 
.SMOKES 

I can never forget my sensations at the 
sight which met my eyes as I surmounted 
the hillock and looked down the valley; 
for there, stretching as far as the eye 
could reach, till the valley turned behind 
a blue mountain in the distance, were 
hundreds — no, thousands — of little vol- 
canoes like those we had just examined. 
They were not so little, either; for at 
such a distance anything so small as the 
little fumaroles at which we had been 
warming our hands would not be no- 
ticed. 

]\Iany of them were sending up col- 
umns of steam which rose a thousand 
feet before dissolving. After a careful 
estimate, we judged there must be a thou- 
sand whose columns would exceed 500 
feet (see page 62). 

It was as though all the steam-engines 
in the world, assembled together, had 
popped their safety-valves at once and 
were letting off surplus steam in concert. 
Some were closely grouped in lines along 
a common fissure; others stood apart. 



64 



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Photograph by R. F. Griggs 



THK TRIDENT FROM THK ISLAND CAMP 



The conspicuous column of steam rising behind Trident comes from the "Valley of the Ten 

Thousand Smokes" 



The biggest of all, whose steam had 
first caught my eye, stood well up on the 
mountain side, in a nest of fissures which 
looked like the crevasses of a glacier, and 
were big enough to be plainly visible, 
though more than five miles away. 

Fortunately a strong wind was blow- 
ing across the pass, carrying the fumes 
all down the valley and away from us, or 
we might not have dared to go on. In 
addition to the active fissures, there were 
thousands more that were quiescent at 
the time of our visit, but which had en- 
crusted the ground round about with col- 
ored deposits like the others. If all of 
these vents were to be counted, their 
numbers would undoubtedly reach into 
tens of thousands. 

CHARACTER OP THE VENTS 

In some cases the orifice from which 
the steam issued was a large, deep hole ; 
in others there was no opening at all, the 
steam simply escaping through the inter- 
stices of the soil particles. There was no 
relation between the size of the vent and 



its output. Some of the largest had no 
visible opening at all, while from some 
cavernous holes issued only faint breaths 
of steam. In many cases steam issued 
from the sides of the gullies cut by water 
from the melting snow on the mountain 
sides where it did not break through the 
more compact surface layer of mud. 

In some places the ground was warm 
beneath our feet, and had we not been 
solicitous for our shoe leather doubtless 
we could have found places as hot as we 
might have desired. 

Although there is every reason to sup- 
pose that the vigor of the action is vari- 
able, there was in most cases no evidence 
of explosive action, such as remnants of 
ejecta around the vent. Most of the 
steam jets came out of cracks in the level 
mud floor of the valley. But some, on 
the contrary, had built up small cones 
around themselves or formed a small- 
sized crater by hurling away the ground 
around the vent. 

I wish my vocabulary were adequate to 
describe the curious mixture of foul 



65 



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Photograph by D. B. Church 

BIRCHES WITH TIIF. BARK CUT OFF BV SAND BLAST 

But even such testimony can give one no idea of the terrible seventy of the northwest 
gales. For forty-eight hours one of them bombarded our camp. Every moment we expected 
the tent to be torn to shreds. We could never have kept it in place had it not been for 
the floor, which we weighted down when the pegs pulled out. For two nights sleep was 
impossible, and during the day we could cook no food (see text, page 56). 



odors which they gave forth. ]\Iixed 
with the omnipresent sulphurous gases 
were others which had a strangely or- 
ganic smell, recalling at once burning 
wool, the musky smell of a fox den, and 
the odors of decay. 

We could not tell to what extent, if 
any, odorless asphyxiating gases, such as 
carbon dioxide, might be present in the 
complex. We did not notice any ill- 
efTects from the fumes, but we took good 
care to keep to windward most of the 
time. 

BRANCH VALLEYS ALSO FULL OF STEAM 
JETS 

Three or four miles down the valley, 
beyond the mountains next to the pass, 
we came to a place where lateral valleys 
come in from both sides at once. Here 
new wonders awaited us. The southern 
branch, leading off in the direction of 
Mount Martin, was full of fumaroles and 
looked like the main valley. We did not 



go far enough to see what might lie fur- 
ther up, because of the evident interest of 
the opposite branch which bore off to the 
northeast toward Mount Katmai, whose 
jagged crater walls appeared in full view 
in the distance. 

TWO MORE NEW VOLCANOES OF THE FIRST 
MAGNITUDE 

Up this valley was a prodigious column 
of steam. As we drew nearer we saw 
that the main body of this steam was 
rising from a central mass of rock, sur- 
rounded by a comparatively low ring of 
cinders, the whole extending across the 
valley and blocking further progress. 
This I interpret as a plug of lava being 
slowly pushed up through a vent which 
was formerly rather violently explosive; 
so that instead of building a high cinder 
cone, most of the ejecta were scattered 
far and wide and only a small ring was 
formed around the vent. 

The surface of the cooling lava plug 



66 



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THE VALLEY OF TEX THOUSAND SMOKES 



67 



was covered in most fantastic fashion 
with sharp irregular cinders, the result 
of the too sudden cooling of the molten 
magma, much in the same way that a 
piece of melted glass fragments if sud- 
denly plunged into cold water. 

Farther on up the valley, on the back 
side of the isthmus between Katmai and 
Trident, was another volcano, with a 
crescent-shaped summit, the side of the 
crater toward us being open. From this 
also a considerable body of steam was 
rising, evidently furnishing part, at least, 
of the clouds which had excited our sus- 
picions from the other side of the range. 
Beyond this there may have been yet an- 
other volcano, but the rising column of 
steam from the lava near us obscured the 
view to such an extent that we could not 
see clearly. 

AN INTERPRETATION OF THE VALLEY OF 
THE TEN THOUSAND SMOKES 

Even the hurried observations we had 
been able to make were sufficient to bring 
out distinctly, in its larger outlines, the 
significance of the phenomenon. It was 
evident that the valley of the ten thousand 
smokes is underlain by a great fissure 
extending northwest from Katmai Pass 
along the line of the old trail toward 
Naknek Lake. This might be appropri- 
ately denominated the "Naknek Fissure." 
It is evident that the steam issuing from 
this fissure and seeping through the mass 
of accumulations from recent eruptions 
finds its vent in the myriad fumaroles in 
a similar fashion to the many small leaks 
one finds on the surface of an old bicycle 
tire when there is a single puncture of 
the inner layer of rubber. 

While the main line of this fissure ex- 
tends up to Mageik, the lateral fissures 
branch oflf toward Martin and Katmai. 
Katmai stands, therefore, like Krakatoa, 
at the junction of two lines of fissures: 
one, the Aleutian fissure, which finds its 
vent in the long line of volcanoes reach- 
ing down the Alaska Peninsula and out 
into the Aleutian Islands, has been long 
known as one of the greatest lines of 
volcanic activity on the globe ; the other, 
this newly discovered Naknek fissure, has 
never been previously recognized and 



perhaps did not exist before the great 
eruption of 1912. 

That there were no signs of volcanic 
activity in this direction as recently as 
1898 is evident from Spurr's narrative 
of his journey across the Alaska Pen- 
insula from Naknek to Katmai, which is 
the only description of the country ever 
published. 

This remarkable valley, like the other 
volcanic activities of the district, there- 
fore, probably burst forth at the time of 
the great eruption. 

THE RETURN JOURNEfcT 

We had now seen as much as could be 
observed without extended exploration, 
so we turned our steps homeward and 
hurried to rejoin Church, who had shiv- 
ered for five hours, even with the extra 
clothes of all three of us. Once across 
the gullies, which were hiore than ever a 
terror to us, now that -We were nearly 
exhausted, we made good speed back to 
camp, which we reached a little after 10 
o'clock. 

Here we found that the river, showing 
the eflfects of the warm weather on the 
snow-fields, was beginning to rise so rap- 
idly that we were afraid of being caught 
miserably on the wrong side. How we 
wished we could have returned and ex- 
plored the wonderful valley we had dis- 
covered ! But we were not equipped for 
such an undertaking and it was better to 
get back with what we had than to risk 
it all for the sake of more. So, hoping 
that we might be permitted to return and 
finish the job, we decided on a riiove, and 
before 5 the next morning we were up 
and breaking camp. The event proved 
that we had lost nothing, for, although 
the boat to take us back to Kodiak did 
not come for ten days,' only once in that 
time did the clouds break away again. 

Looking back at the work after one 
has had time to forget the excitement 
and labor of the daily routine and take 
a calmer survey of results, the one thing 
which stands out is the great magfnitude 
of the emotion. Evident from the first 
reports, this has grown with increasing 
knowledge. No one, not even those of 
us who have lived in the desolation of 



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68 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



the thing, can form any adequate concep- 
tion of the stupendous catyclasm that 
occurred. 

This explosion is easily to be ranked 
among the first dozen known within his- 
toric times. Previously Krakatoa has 
held first place in the minds of most, but 
the quantity of material thrown out by 
Katmai was so much greater as to put it 
into an altogether different class. In- 
deed, the whole island of Krakatoa could 
be dropped into the crater of Katmai. 

We so- inevitably estimate the magni- 
tude of natural phenomena by their effect 
on human affairs that an eruption like 
this in an uninhabited district seems un- 
important in corriparison, for example, 
with that of Pelee, with its great loss of 
life. Yet there may have been in the 
present case tornadoes of hot gas greater 
than that which overwhelmed St. Pierre 
and killed 25,000 people ; but the destruc- 
tion by other agencies was so great as to 
leave little evidence of them if they oc- 
curred. 

IMAGINE KATMAI'S KRUPTION OCCURRING 
IN NEW YORK 

The magnitude of the eruption can 
perhaps be best realized if one could 
imagine a similar outburst centered in 



New York City. In such a catastrophe 
all of Greater New York would be buried 
under ten to fifteen feet of ash and sub- 
jected to unknown horrors from hot 
gases. The column of steam and ashes 
would be plainly visible beyond Albany, 
but the continued activity of the volcano 
would probably prevent any one from 
approaching for several months to view 
the ruins nearer than Patterson, N. J. 

Philadelphia would be covered by a 
foot of gray ash and would grope in 
total darkness for sixty hours. Wash- 
ington and Buffalo would receive a quar- 
ter of an inch, with a shorter period of 
darkness. Small quantities of ash would 
fall over all of the Eastern States as far 
as the gulf coast. 

The sounds of the explosions would 
be heard as far as Atlanta and St. Louis. 
The fumes would be noticed as far as 
Denver, San Antonio, and Jamaica. 

Not even the most vivid imagination 
could picture the destruction of life and 
property which would result from such 
an eruption in a thickly populated coun- 
try. We may be profoundly grateful 
that we have had vouchsafed us such a 
wonderful opportunity to study the phe- 
nomena of volcanoes without any of the 
horrors usually attendant on their action. 



TN VIEW of the extraordinary conditions of 
the Katmai region^ unparalleled anytvhere 
in the world, the Board of Managers of the 
National Geographic Society has made a further 
grant of $12,000 for explorations of Katmai 
during the summer of 1917, the expedition to he 
in charge of Prof. Robert F. Griggs, who was 
the leader of the Society^s 1915 and 1916 ex- 
peditions. 



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A GAME COUNTRY WITHOUT RIVAL 

IN AMERICA 

The Proposed Mount McKinley National Park 

By Stephen R. Capps, of the U. S. Geological Survey 



IN THE spring of 1916 a bill was 
presented to Congress to establish in 
Alaska the Mount McKinley Na- 
tional Park. This bill was passed by the 
Senate during the summer, and its final 
enactment into law now requires favor- 
able action by the House and the Presi- 
dent. Before this article is published the 
necessary legislation may have been com- 
pleted and the dream of this new park 
have become a reality ; but in any event 
every one of us who loves outdoor life 
should realize what a wonderful coun- 
try — 3. country of impressive mountain 
scenery and big game — we have in that 
northern territory, and how seriously the 
wild life of that region is menaced. 



Two parties from the U. S. Geological 
Survey were detailed to a part of the 
proposed park in 1916. We proceeded 
into interior Alaska by the usual route 
down Yukon River, and disembarked at 
the new town of Nenana, at which place 
construction on the new government rail- 
road is in progress. 

The 55-mile trip over a little-used trail 
up Nenana River was eventful enough.. 
We had only a badly damaged and leaky 
boat to cross that swollen and turbulent 
stream, and for the better part of a day 
the horses refused to swim the icy tor- 
rent. Then, too, in the forested lowlands 
the mosquitos surrounded us in clouds. 
We could protect ourselves with gloves 



Photograph by J. S. Sterling 



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OUTLINE MAP OF THE PROPOSED MOUNT MC KINLEY NATIONAL PARK, FROM SURVEYS 

BY THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



and head nets, but the horses were con- 
stantly covered with the insects, so that 
all of them — white, bay, and black — took 
on the dirty gray color of the mosquitos 
themselves. 

We began our surveys at Nenana 
River, east of the park, and extended 
them westward over several thousand 
square miles. 

We had spent only a short time in the 
field when we discovered that the park 
had been laid out in a most admirable 
way. It is true that there is fairly abun- 
dant big game and much country of great 
scenic beauty outside the boundaries, but 
we entered a game paradise and a land 
of unrivaled scenery when we crossed the 
park line. Singularly enough, too, when 
we were once within the high mountains 
of the park we left behind us most of the 
mosquitos, and for a month were almost 
free from the exasperating attacks of 
these annoying pests. 

When, in the spring, we had first 
learned of the proposal to establish this 
park and had plotted its outline on the 
map, w^e wondered at its curious shape. 
Once we were on the ground, the reason 



for this shape became evident. The long 
dimension follows the general course of 
the Alaska Range from Mount Russell to 
Muldrow Glacier, the park including all 
the main range from its northwest face 
to and beyond the summit. East of 
Muldrow Glacier the range widens to- 
ward the north and consists of a number 
of parallel mountain ridges separated by 
broad, open basins. 

THE HIGHEST CLIMB ABOVE SNOW-LINE 
IN THE WORLD 

There, at the headwaters of Toklat and 
Teklanika rivers, sheep and caribou range 
in greatest abundance, and the northern 
part of the park includes the best of the 
game country. The reentrant angle in 
the park line north of Muldrov/ Glacier 
was so placed as to exclude the Kantishna 
mining district and the hunting ground 
from which the miners obtain their sup- 
ply of meat. The total area of this great 
playground is about 2,200 square miles. 

In scenic grandeur the stupendous mass 
of which Mount McKinley is the culmi- 
nating peak has no rival. The snow-line 
here lies at about 7,000 feet, and above 



71 



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that elevation only a few sharp crags and 

^ seemingly perpendicular clifts are free 

1 g from the glistening white mantle. From 
^ g the valley of McKinley Fork, which is at 
^ ^ the north base of the mountain and lies 

at an elevation of only 1,500 feet, the 

bare rocks of the lower mountains extend 

^ ^ upward for about 5,500 feet, and above 

2 2 them Mount McKinley rises in majestic 
g g whiteness to a height of 20,300 feet— the 

W loftiest peak on the continent. 

^ The upper 13,000 feet of the mountain 

^^ IS clad in glaciers and perpetual snows, 

^ thus offering to the mountaineer the high- 

g est climb above snow-line in the world. 

;^ The rise of 18,000 feet from the lower 

^ end of Peters Glacier, north of the moun- 

^ tain, to the highest peak is made in a dis- 

< tance of only 13 miles. In no other 
^ mountain mass do we find so great a 
Q vertical ascent in so short a distance. 
^ The peaks of the Colorado Rockies, 
:- though wonderful, rise from a high pla- 
^ teau, so that at most points from which 
^ they can be seen they stand only 7,000 
D g or, at most, 8,coo feet above the observer. 
S 5^ Mount St. EHas, an i8,ooo-foot moun- 
^ 2 tain, may be seen from sea-level, but the 
^ « peak stands 35 miles from the coast, and 
g 2 so loses in height to the eye by the dis- 
2 w tance from which it must be viewed. 

;; o Similarly the high volcanic peaks of 

ui < Mexico and South America and the 

< world's loftiest mountains in the Hima- 
1< layas rise from high plateaus, which di- 
^ minish by their own elevation the visible 
g magnitude and towering height of their 
g culminating peaks. 

^ THE artist's color BOX IS SURPASSED 

H Southwest of Mount McKinley, 15 

u, miles away from it, stands Mount For- 

^ aker, only 3,300 feet lower and almost 

< equally imposing. If it stood alone, 
a Alount Foraker would be famous in* its 
« own right as a mighty peak, having few 
P equals; but in the presence of its giant 
^ neighbor it is reduced to secondary rank. 
g These two dominating peaks, standing 
^ side by side and known to the interior 
^ natives as Denali and Denali's Wife, far 
^ outrank the flanking mountains to the 
B northeast and southwest, among which, 
§ however, there are a score of other peaks 
S that rise to heights between 7,000 and 
^ 14,000 feet, well above snow-line, and 

that are the gathering ground for many 
glaciers. 



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Photograph by S. R. Capps 
THE MASSES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS, NOW STANDING VERTICAL, GIVE A HINT OF 
THE TITAN FORCES THAT BUILT THE RANGE 



Of the glaciers that the tourist will 
visit in the park, the largest and most 
accessible is Muldrow Glacier. This ice- 
tongue, 39 miles long, flows from the 
summit of Mount McKinley and makes 
a great fish-hook curve to the northeast 
and north. 

Not the least impressive feature of this 
part of the Alaska Range is the tremen- 
dous scale upon which the foundations 
of the earth are exposed to view. Espe- 
cially in the valley heads, where vegeta- 
tion is sparse or lacking, the high moun- 
tain ridges, cut by deep valleys, offer im- 
pressive sections for the study of the 
earth's structure. 

Here great lava flows and volcanic in- 
trusions, in vivid shades of red, purple, 
brown, and green, will tax the color box 
of the artist. Masses of sedimentary 
rocks, first deposited as flat-lying beds, 
but now standing vertical or twisted into 
giant folds, give a hint of the Titan forces 
that build a mountain range. 

And near the eastern border of the 
park, at the Nenana coal field, the trav- 
eler can see how Nature, by her generous 
placing and preservation of coal within 
the rocks, makes possible the industrial 
prosperity of our nation by furnishing 
the fuel needed for its manufactures. 



OUR LAST CHANCE 

The Mount McKinley region now offers 
a last chance for the people of the United 
States to preserve, untouched by'civiliza- 
tion, a great primeval park in its natural 
beauty. Historically this country is new 
It was not until 1897 that W. A. Dickey, 
after having explored in the upper Su- 
sitna basin the previous summer, pub- 
lished a description of Mount McKinley. 
made his remarkably accurate estimate of 
20,000 feet as the height of the mountain, 
and gave it the name it now bears. In 
1898 the first actual survey in the neigh- 
borhood of the park was made near its 
east side by George H. Eldridge and Rob- 
ert Muldrow, of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey. In 1899 an army expedi- 
tion, in charge of Capt. Joseph S. Herron, 
explored a part of the area near the 
southwestern boundary of the park. 

In 1902 the first surveying party that 
actually reached the vicinity of Mount 
McKinley was conducted by Alfred H. 
Brooks and D. L. Raebum, of the Geo- 
logical Survey. This party entered the 
park at its southwest border and trav- 
ersed it from end to end, bringing out 
the first authentic information in regard 
to an unexplored area of many thousand 



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COAL BEDS NEAR THE EASTERN END OF THE PARK 

"At the Nenana coal field the traveler can see how nature, by her generous placing and 
preservation of coal within the rocks, makes possible the industrial prosperity of our nation 
by furnishing the fuel needed for its manufactures" (see text, page 73). 



square miles and determining the posi- 
tion, height, and best route of approach 
to the base of Mount McKinley. 

Inspired by the information furnished 
by the Brooks party, the first attempt to 
climb this great mountain was made in 
the summer of 1903 by James Wicker- 
sham, now delegate to Congress from 
Alaska and sponsor for the pending bill 
to create this great national park. Judge 
Wickersham's party succeeded in reach- 
ing an elevation of 10,000 feet, but a lack 
of proper equipment and sufficient pro- 
visions prevented them from climbing to 
the summit. 

The highest peak remained uncon- 
quered until 1913, when, on ]\Iarch 17, 
Archdeacon Hudson Stuck, Harry Kar- 
stens, and two companions left the mouth 
of Nenana River, traveled by dog sled to 
the Kantishna district to pick up supplies 
landed there by boat in the fall of 19 12, 
and proceeded to the basin of Clearwater 
Folk, at the north base of Mount Mc- 



Kinley. After preparing their own pem- 
mican from wild meat obtained near 
camp, they began the actual ascent about 
the middle of April and reached the peak 
on June 7, 191 3. Thus the mountain 
summit was scaled seventeen years after 
its first adequate description was pub- 
lished. 

A BIG-GAM IC PARADISE 

As a game refuge the new park in- 
cludes an area that is unique on this con- 
tinent, and few regions in the world can 
vie with it. Many parts of Alaska are 
famous for big game, and hunters have 
come half around the world to that terri- 
tory to obtain trophies of their skill. It 
has been my good fortune to visit several 
of the choicest game ranges in Alaska, 
notably that east of Nenana River, adja- 
cent to the Mount McKinley district, and 
the much praised White River country. 
Both of these regions are well stocked 
with game, but for abundant sheep, cari- 
bou, and moose over wide areas neither 



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A GA^IE COUNTRY WITHOUT RIVAL IN AMERICA 



77 



of them compares with the area within 
the limits of the new game preserve. 

The mountains at the head of Toklat 
and Teklanika rivers literally swarm with 
the magnificent white bighorn sheep, 
which are elsewhere extremely wary and 
difficult to approach, but which in sum- 
mer are here so little disturbed that they 
move off only when one comes to close 
range. A day's travel along one of these 
valleys will usually afford the casual trav- 
eler a view of many bands of sheep. 
The sheep range on the lower slopes of 
the mountains, especially in the upper 
reaches of the streams, near the glaciers 
at the valley heads, or even in the valley 
bottoms. 

I have counted over 300 in a single 
day's journey of 10 miles along the river 
bars, and doubtless as many more were 
unobserved in the tributary valleys be- 
yond my view. From a single point at 
my tent door one evening I counted nine 
bands of sheep, containing in all 171 ani- 
mals. 

The bighorn sheep prefers the slopes 
of high, rough mountains for its range, 
and may be found only in the mountains, 
within easy reach of rugged crags, to 
which it may retreat for safety from its 
enemies. Its range, therefore, lies be- 
tween timber-line and the level of per- 
petual snow. It is difficult to make an 
accurate estimate of the number of sheep 
within the new park, but in the part that 
w^e visited there are easily 5,000 sheep, 
their range extending westward through- 
out the mountainous portion of the park. 

THOUSANDS OF CARIBOU EVERYWHERE 

I remember well my first big day for 
caribou. The pack-train had gone ahead 
to pitch camp at a prearranged spot near 
the last spruce timber on the main Tok- 
lat, and I was examining the rocks a few 
miles east of the camping place. Herds 
of sheep were scattered along the ridges, 
some feeding on the tender grasses, some 
sleeping in the sun. I was far above 
timber-line and my view was unob- 
structed for miles in all directions. With 
my glass I had already counted half a 
dozen solitary caribou, all young bulls, 
grazing among the stunted willows of the 
stream flats. 



Soon my attention was attracted by a 
sight unusual in this district — a fright- 
ened caribou bull, which was running 
from the direction in which my pack- 
train had gone. Soon two yearlings came 
rushing from the same quarter; then a 
cow and a young calf in full flight, the 
cow •with tongue out and sides heaving 
and the calf following closely, but in no 
apparent distress. Then more came, 
singly or in twos and threes. Soon a lone 
calf, lost from its mother, passed close to 
me, uttering plaintive grunts. As I ap- 
proached the main river valley from 
which the frightened animals came, I met 
the main herd, twenty-five or more, walk- 
ing slowly up a narrow gulch a hundred 
yards from me, and apparently urrwor- 
ried by the presence of strangers on their 
range. 

During the next few days I saw more 
caribou than I dreamed existed in any 
one locality, including a herd of 200 
which was viewed at close range on the 
Toklat bars. In the pass between Toklat 
and Stony rivers the two pack-trains and 
eight men stood in the midst of a vast 
herd, scattered for miles in all directions. 

CARIBOU AVOID THE MOSQUITO PLAINS 

We counted with the naked eye over a 
thousand within half a mile of us, and 
hundreds of others could be seen too far 
away for accurate count. In order not to 
exaggerate, even to ourselves, we esti- 
mated the number in sight at one time as 
1,500, and I believe that this is an under- 
statement of the number actually there. 
Most of them were cows and calves or 
yearlings, but there were a few old bulls, 
conspicuous for their towering horns. 
During the following week we constantly 
saw herds of caribou, some of them num- 
bering hundreds. 

Most of these herds were on the bare 
gravel bars, where the strong winds af- 
ford some relief from the attacks by flies 
and mosquitos. Other herds were high 
on rugged mountain ridges, and several 
large droves were observed far up on the 
glaciers, well toward snow-line, seeking a 
little respite from insect pests. 

In other parts of Alaska caribou at 
times appear in huge droves as they mi- 
grate from place to place, but they stay 



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Photograph from Dora Keen 

SIX-roOT YUKON SNOW-SHOES 

For breaking a trail or crossing wide crevasses they are the 
ideal type, but for climbing steep slopes or traveling where they 
have to be carried considerable distances they are too long and 
cumbersome. 

only a short time in any one locality. In 
the Toklat basin and in the vicinity of 
Muldrow Glacier, however, the caribou 
are at home, and they remain there 
throughout the summer to rear their 
young. 

DIFFERENCES IN ANIMAL BEHAVIOR 

There is abundant indication that this 
is a permanent range. Deeply worn trails 
form a veritable labyrinth along the 
stream flats, and bedding grounds, old 
and new, occur everywhere. The miners 



from the Kantishna 
report that caribou 
may always be seen 
in great numbers on 
this range. 

There is a striking 
difference between 
the actions of caribou 
and those of the big- 
horn sheep when sur- 
prised by man. A 
sheep, once aroused, 
knows exactly where 
he wants to go, and 
usually starts, with- 
out a moment's hesi- 
tation, on the shortest 
route to some rugged 
mountain mass. He 
may stop to look 
around and appraise 
the danger, but he is 
sure to follow the 
route he first chose. 

By contrast, the 
caribou appears a 
foolish animal; he 
seems at a loss to de- 
cide whether it is nec- 
essary to run away at 
all. Then, when con- 
vinced that danger 
threatens, he has diffi- 
culty in making up his 
mind which way to 
run. He has sharp 
eyes for any moving 
obicct, but evidently 
reJFuses to trust his 
sight until his nose 
confirms his sense of 
danger. 

I have many times 
seen a caribou, after 
he has discovered me 
at a distance of no more than lOO yards, 
stand and look, snort, lower his head half 
a dozen times, then run wildly off for a 
short distance, turn back toward me, re- 
peat the same maneuvers, and make sev- 
eral false, zigzag sprints, all within easy 
gunshot, before he finally ran to leeward, 
got the man scent, and started off for 
good in great panic. In this region, with 
proper caution and a favoring wind, one 
can approach within 200 yards or less of 
a band of caribou, even in the open, be- 
fore they take alarm and move away. 



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MOOSe ARE WARY ANIMALS 

Moose are very plentiful in certain 
parts of the new park, but are not so 
commonly seen as sheep and caribou. As 
their food supply consists of willow and 
birch twigs and leaves and the succulent 
roots of water plants, they stay much of 
the time in timbered and brushy areas, 
where they are inconspicuous. By na- 
ture, too, the moose is a wary animal and 
permits much less familiarity than the 
caribou. 

The best moose country in this region 
lies in the lowlands north of the main 
Alaska Range, outside of the boundaries 
of the proposed park; but some moose 
were seen within the park lines, and 
doubtless more of them will take refuge 
in this game preserve when they are more 
vigorously hunted in the neighboring re- 
gions. It is said that there is an excellent 
moose range within the park, in the area 
southwest of that which we visited. 

There are some black, brown, and 
grizzly bears in this district, but the bear 
hunter has a much better chance of ob- 
taining a hide in other parts of Alaska 
than he has here. All told, only eight 
bears were seen by the members of the 
two survey parties during the last sum- 
mer, and bear sign was so little noted in 
this region that it cannot be considered 
an especially good bear country. 

The park contains good trapping 
grounds for the fur hunter, and a num- 
ber of trappers spend part of each winter 
there. Foxes are plentiful, and an un- 
usually large proportion of the pehs 
taken are Of silver gray or black fox. 
One trapper told me that in Toklat basin 
the winter's catch for a number of years 
has yielded one silver gray fox skin for 
every eight foxes caught, and of the re- 
maining seven, several are likely to be 
good cross-fox. We saw a good many 
foxes and found two dens around which 
young ones were playing. Lynx are also 
plentiful, and numerous mink, marten, 
and ermine have been taken. 

MANY AND BUSY BEAVERS 

Beaver were seen in the park, but are 
exceptionally abundant in the marshy 
lowlands north of it. On our trip down 
Bearpaw River, in the fall, while we were 
on our way to Tanana, we saw every- 
where along the banks signs of beaver. 





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A PAGE FROM THE AUTHOR S DIARY, SHOW- 
ING GAME SEEN IN AND NEAR TlfE 
PROPOSED PARK (see TEXT) 

Freshly cut cottonwood and willow trees 
lie along the shores, and the trails used 
by the beaver to bring sections of trees 
down the banks were seen at short in- 
tervals. 

Night after night we would hear the 
sharp splash of the swimming animals as 
they whacked their tails upon the surface 
of the stream. Beaver are protected by 
law until 1920, and under this protection 
have greatly increased in numbers. In 
the lowlands they have so much ob- 
structed all the smaller streams with their 
dams that foot travel overland is impos- 
sible until ice forms. 

In order to give the reader an idea of 
the abundance and variety of game to be 
seen by the traveler in the Mount McKin- 
ley Park, I am showing above a photo- 
graph of a page taken from my diary, in 
which I each day made record of the big- 
game animals I saw. In making my 



70 



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Photograph by R. B. Murray 

A trapper's reuef cabin up in the hills: alaska 

"Every one of us who loves out-of-door life should realize what a wonderful country — 
a country of impressive mountain scenery and big game — we have in the northern territory, 
and how seriously the wild life of that region is now menaced" (see text, page 69). 



count I was perhaps ovcrmoderate, for if 
in a trip up a valley I saw 90 sheep, and 
on my return by the same route I saw 
the same number, I added nothing to my 
count, presuming that the sheep last seen 
were the same as those counted earlier in 
the day. Thus while traveling among 
herds of animals that were in constant 
movement from one feeding ground to 
another I may have failed to make record 
of many new herds that came into sight, 
because I was not sure they were new 
herds. The same practice was followed 
in counting caribou. 

GAMELESS DAYS ARE RARE 

An examination of that diary or rec- 
ord, which was ma^le from day to day in 
the field, shows how wisely the park lines 
were estabhshed so as to include the best 
game ranges. Until July 8 we wert out- 
side the park, and although we were in a 
good game country, we saw compara- 
tively few animals on any one day, and 
on some days none. Our crossing of the 
park line was coincident with a remark- 



able increase in the number of animals 
seen, and afterward there was a steady 
succession of days in which game was 
sighted. 

The decrease in numbers on July 26, 
2^, and 28 was due not to a paucity of 
game in that part of the park, but to a 
violent rain-storm that kept us in camp. 
Even then we had only one gameless day, 
for our record was kept almost unbroken 
by caribou that passed close to our tents 
on two of the three bad days. 

I have tried to make plain the fact that 
the area within the proposed national 
park is a game country without rival in 
America. That is certainly true today, 
but unless this game refuge is immedi- 
ately reserved a few years may see these 
great herds destroyed beyond hope of re- 
establishment. .Even today the encroach- 
ments of the market hunter are serious. 
True, there are game laws in Alaska, but 
they are by no means everywhere strictly 
enforced, and many sled-loads of wild 
meat are carried into the towns during 
the winter. The town of Fairbanks, 



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IN A TRAPPER S CAMP: ALASKA 

Part of a winter's catch, consisting of 74 lynxes (hung in bunches), eight foxes (one 
silver, four cross, three red) ; also (hung in center) 54 rabbits, shot in 45 minutes by three 
rifles while driving through the willows on an island during the winter. 



about 100 miles away from the new park, 
and the largest settlement in the interior, 
is the destination of most of the wild 
meat killed on the north side of the 
Alaska Range. The mountains just south 
of Fairbanks and east of Nenana River 
offered a convenient field for the market 
hunter, and for years large numbers of 
mountain sheep were killed there for the 
Fairbanks market. 

THE POT-HUXTERS' DESTRUCTIVE TOLL 

Within the last few years, however, the 
sheep herds in the nearer mountains have 
become so depleted that the hunter has 
been forced to go constantly farther from 
his market, and now f\n<ls the most satis- 
factory hunting ground within the limits 
of the proposed reserve. 

I talked with several men who take 
sheep meat to Fairbanks for sale, and one 
of them estimated that each winter for 
the last three years from 1,500 to 2,000 
sheep have been taken from the basin of 
Toklat and Teklanika rivers. Only a 
part of these reaches Fairbanks, for the 



sled dogs must be fed during the hunt 
and on the trail, and some hunters leave 
behind all but the choicest hind quarters. 

It can be readily seen that slaughter on 
such a scale can last only a short time, 
until the game here, too, has been nearly 
exterminated. The sheep, being of 
choicest flavor, are taken first, but the 
moose and caribou will not escape after 
the sheep become harder to get. 

The absence of a supply of wild meat 
in Fairbanks and other interior towns 
will work no hardship on the residents, 
for there is already a well-established 
trade in refrigerated domestic meat, and 
the dealers will readily supply all the 
fresh meat for which there is a demand, 
and at a cost little, if any, above that 
charged by the market hunters for game. 

A BIG-GAME PARADISE 1 5 MILES FROM A 
RAILROAD 

Such are the conditions today, even in 
a region so difficult of access. How^ much 
more rapidly will the game disappear 
when the railroad is completed to a point 



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Photograph by Thomas Riggs 

HEADED FOR THE ANNUAL CARIBOU HUNT 

Charley Blackfox and family off for the hills. The poles are tent poles, as the hunting will 
probably be well above timber-line. Note the packs on the dogs. 



within IS miles of this game paradise! 
The establishment of a town at Nenatia, 
where the railroad crosses Tanana River, 
has even now brought a market for game 
some so miles nearer the sheep hills of 
the Toklat. 

Already homesteads have been taken 
up along the railroad, and in a few years 
this untouched wilderness will hear the 
sound of the mower and the clatter of 
railroad trains. If the park is established 
now, the game can be saved and will re- 
main for other generations to enjoy. If 
action is postponed a few years, the mar- 
ket hunter and sportsman will have done 
their work and the game will have gone 
forever. 

Most of the larger streams of the park, 
heading as they do in glaciers, are so 
muddy that fish will not live in them. All 
of the smaller tributary creeks that carry 
clear water, however, are stocked with 
grayling and furnish excellent fishing. 
The grayling, a relative of the trout, is a 
game fish, rises well to the fly, and af- 
fords excellent sport. In texture and 



flavor it compares well with the trout and 
is a welcome addition to the menu of the 
camper. 

As will be seen from the photographs, 
the new park lies almost entirely above 
timber-line. Trees grow along the val- 
leys of the main streams to an elevation 
of about 3,000 feet above sea-level, but 
the timbered areas comprise only a small 
fraction of the whole. The only trees of 
importance are the spruce, birch, and 
Cottonwood, and none of these are large. 
The best patches of trees afford logs big 
enough for making log cabins, but there 
is no merchantable timber in the park. 
Willow brush and some alders grow 
somewhat farther up the valleys than the 
trees and enable the camper to find fuel 
for his fire in some areas where trees are 
lacking. 

THE PARK IS EASILY ACCESSIBLE 

On the completion of the new govern- 
ment railroad, now under construction* 
the park will immediately become acces- 
sible. The railroad line runs within 15 



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miles of the east park line. On leaving 
Seattle one can then plan to reach Sew- 
ard or Anchorage within a week, spend a 
single day on the railroad to the park 
station, and in another day or two, by 
saddle-horse, penetrate well into the park 
and into the midst of its game herd^. 

With a completed wagon road built 
from the railway, it should be an easy 
half day's journey of 80 miles by auto- 
mobile from the railroad to the center of 
the park, the whole route traversing 
mountains of wonderful scenic beauty 
and teeming with big game. 

At the western terminus of the wagon 
road there will some day be a hotel for 
the accommodation of tourists and moun- 
tain climbers. There, below the terminus 
of Muldrow Glacier, in constant view of 
the mighty snow-clad monarchs to the 
south, one will be able to find complete 
rest in the grandest of natural surround- 
ings, or will have close at hand tasks of 
mountain-climbing that will tax the re- 
sources of the sturdiest. Few regions 
offer the inducements to the mountaineer 
that can be found here. 

The highest point of Mount McKinley, 
the lord of the range, has been scaled but 
once, and only one route on that vast ice- 
dome has been explored. Mount Fora- 
ker, only less majestic than McKinley and 
I7,cxx) feet in elevation, is still uncon- 
quered, and associated with Foraker and 
McKinley there are many peaks that rise 
from 4,000 to 8,000 feet above the line of 
perpetual snow (see pictures, page 70). 

All this great group of noble moun- 
tains, until now so remote as to be im- 
possible of attack except by elaborately 
prepared expeditions, will be easily acr 
cessible to even the modestly equipped 
explorer. The main highway of travel 
through the park will pass within 20 or 
30 miles of the highest mountains. Thus 
that bugbear of the climber in so many 
regions — the task of getting within strik- 
ing distance of his chosen peak — is here 
a matter of no great difficulty. 

So much for the park itself — its mar- 
velous advantages as a national reserve, 
its unequaled scenic beauty, and its abun- 
dance of big game. I have tried to tell 
something of what is there for the people 
of the United States, to be had merely 
for the taking. The question may be 
asked, "How necessary is it that this park 



Photograph by Curtis & Miller 
AN EDUCATED BEAR AT ST. MICHAEI. 

should be reserved immediately, rather 
than at some indefinite date in the future? 
Is there any danger that the park will not 
keep, even if not reserved?" 

The answer is plain and admits of no 
argument. The scenery will keep indefi- 
nitely, but the game will not, and it must 
be protected soon or it will have been de- 
stroyed. 

WILI. IT PAY? 

Considered as a purely business meas- 
ure, without taking account of the es- 
thetic value of such a permanent national 
reserve in its influence on the develop- 
ment of the American people, the Mount 
McKinley National Park will be a tre- 
mendous financial asset to the territory 
of Alaska and to the United States as a 
whole. 

Prodigal as nature has been in endow- 
ing us with unrivaled scenery, we have 
until recent years been blind to the money 
value of this resource. Other nations not 
so blessed with fertile soils, vast forests, 
and mines of almost fabulous value have 



«3 



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84 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



widely advertised their natural beauties 
in a way to attract the tourist, so that for 
years American travelers have spent 
abroad millions of dollars that might have 
yielded them no less pleasure if they had 
spent it in seeing America first. The 
good roads, well-equipped hotels, and 
beautiful mountains of the Swiss and 
Italian Alps attract the traveler like a 
magnet. Even our nearer neighbor on 
the north, by judicious advertising and 
careful attention to the comfort of the 
traveler, attracts great numbers of our 
people to her western mountains. 



If the United States wishes to share 
in the profits of the tourist business it 
may readily do so, for any well-chosen 
expenditure made in building good roads 
and ^hotels in our national parks will 
return large dividends not only in dol- 
lars and cents, but in the health, enjoy- 
ment, and education of our people. And 
the traveling public will soon learn that 
one of the grandest of our parks, one 
of those most worth visiting, is that 
which, let us hope, is soon to be es- 
tablished in the Mount McKinley re- 
gion. 



ONE HUNDRED BRITISH SEAPORTS 



WITH a deadline of i,6oo nau- 
tical miles to guard, measured 
from headland to headland, 20 
miles oflFshore ; with 1 19 ports, large and 
small, to seal up, 80 of which, even at low 
tide, are open to vessels that can navigate 
14 feet of water; with a larger number 
of bays and other navigable indentations 
to watch than are to be found anywhere 
else in the world in the same length of 
straightaway shorelines, Germany's plan 
to blockade the British Isles seems as 
near a proposal to accomplish the impos- 
sible as anything to which any nation 
hitherto has committed itself. 

Indeed, undertaking to combat at once 
the sinuosities of a shoreline lending it- 
self better to defense against blockade 
than any other of equal length in the 
world and the greatest navy civilization 
has ever seen, it is difficult to imagine 
how success could even be hoped for by 
those putting the plan into execution. 

Something of the extraordinary inden- 
tations of the shoreline of the United 
Kingdom may be gathered from the map 
on page 85. 

England is so deeply indented that no 
part is more than 75 miles from the sea, 
while Scotland has the most rambling 
coastline of any country in the world. 

Ireland is not as deeply indented as 
England and Scotland ; but with all that 
it has shores that make the way of the 
blockader difficult. 

The vast proportions of the British 



shipping industry which the German sub- 
marine blockade is attempting to destroy 
defies our comprehension. In normal 
years an average of 214 ships arrive at 
United Kingdom ports from foreign 
waters every day in the year. In addi- 
tion to that, there are 780 arrivals from 
home ports every day in the year of ships 
in the coastwise trade. 

British merchant ships have a greater 
aggregate tonnage than those of all the 
other countries of the world together. 
The merchant marine of that nation in- 
cludes nearly 12,000 ships of all kinds. 
Oi these, about 2.800 are sailing ships 
and 5,300 steam vessels employed in the 
home trade. There are approximately 
4,000 ships engaged in sailing between 
British and foreign ports. These latter 
have an average capacity of more than 
2,500 net register tons. 

How rapidly Oreat Britain has been 
replacing the losses sustained by her 
shipping as a result of Germany's sub- 
marine attacks is disclosed by the fact 
that at the end of 1916 there were 465 
steam vessels under construction in Brit- 
ish shipyards, more than half of them 
being ships of more than 5,000 tons bur- 
den. The aggregate capacity of these 
ships is 1,788,000 tons, so that both in 
tonnage and in number the new craft are 
replacing those sunk by the enemy. 

Few countries in the world are so de- 
pendent on the importation of foodstuffs 
as the. United Kingdom, and for her not 



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SKETCH MAP INDICATING THE MULTITUDE OF BRITISH HARBORS 

The United Kingdom and Ireland contain 119 seaports, of which 80, even at low tide, 
are open to vessels drawing 14 feet of water. At average tide they will admit vessels 
requiring much greater depths. The seas surrounding the islands are very shallow, making 
it easy to anchor mines to destroy shipping and also to moor nets to trap submarines. If 
the waters of Dover Strait were to subside 100 feet, an isthmus would connect England and 
Holland. If the waters subsided 300 feet, Ireland and the whole of the British Islands 
would once more be connected to Continental Europe. 



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Photograph by A. :W. Cutler 

A RURAL CONVERSATION IN THE HEART Oi^ RUSTIC WORCESTERSHIRE , 

This primitive old place, by the way, is the post-office at Grafton Flyford. Snuff has never 

lost its devotees here. Note the sign. 



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Photograph by Emil P. Albrecht 
TOO OIJ5 TO GO TO THE FISHING GROUNDS, BUT STURDY STILI* AND FUI,LY COMPETENT 
TO MOOR NETS TO TRAP SUBMARINES 

To the seas which surround them, the British Islands are indebted for the mildness of 
their climate, their security from invasion, their commerce, and the wealth yielded by pro- 
ductive fisheries. 



to possess the strongest navy in the world 
would be to leave her of all nations per- 
haps the most vulnerable. Probably 90 
per cent of all the food her 45,000,000 
people consume is brought in by ships 
engaged in foreign trade. 

On the other hand, the splendid coal 
deposits and the abundant supplies of 
iron make British industries largely free 
from blockade dangers. Producing one- 
fourth of the world's coal, the United 
Kingdom has little to fear from a coal 
shortage, no matter what the character 
of a blockade around her. 

The port of London handles approxi- 
mately one-third of all the exports and 



imports of. the United Kingdom. The 
ships of the whole world visit it in nor- 
mal times, and there is scarcely a mer- 
chant flag that civilization knows that is 
missing in the Thames in other than war 
times. 

Liverpool has some of the most modern 
docks in the world. Flanking the Mer- 
sey River for a distance of -seven miles, 
the 60 docks, having 26 miles of quay 
and covering 428 acres of ground, are 
equipped with every aid known to indus- 
try for the rapid handling of the immense 
quantities of merchandise. 

Cardiff is far down the list in the num- 
ber of ships arriving, but ranks third in 



87 



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• Photograph by A. W. Cutler 

"fish cottages": blocklky, Worcestershire 

Here for 70 years Mrs. Keyte lived with her family. Close by is a trout pond. One of 
the fish became so tame that it would eat worms from its mistress' hand. The cottage is over 
300 years old (see next page). 



90 Digitized by GOOglC 



Aberdeen, with the largest fishing fleets They generally can carry a most limited 

in existence; Newlyn and Brixham, number of torpedoes, without which they 

homes of the mackerel fisheries, and Mil- are ineffective, and in addition they are 

ford and Fleetwood, the ports the hake severely handicapped by the very nature 

has made famous, are all places full of of their operations. 

91 Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Photograph by A. W. Cvitler 

A REMINDER OP "ye GOODE OLD DAYS" I STOCKS AND WHIPPING-POST 

Situated, as was the custom, opposite the church at Rock, Worcestershire. The supremely 
contented expression on the face of the gentleman on the right may be accounted for by the 
fact that he knew he would receive one shilling upon being released from the stocks. 



Photograph by A, W. Cutler 
THIS IS A CURIOUS ACCIDF.NT THAT OCCURRED RECENTLY ON THE LONDON ROAD 

These two young men were bringing this car into Worcester for repairs, when suddenly, 
without warning, the machine burst into flames. There were three two-gallon tins of gasoline 
in the automobile, and it did not take those two young men long to get out of the car. 
Buckets of water thrown on the burning mass proved unavailing. Traffic on either side was 
tied up for over an hour, expecting every moment that the petrol would explode. Strange 
to say. it didn't! The car, a Panhard, was totally destroyed — a loss of $1,500. 



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Photograph by A. W. Cutler 
THE PICTURESQUI; SUN-DIAL HOUSE: HOLM WOOD, SURREY 



The ordinary blockade is not subject to 
these limitations. A blockade established 
upon the surface of the ocean can main- 
■ tain a constant lookout over a wide ex- 
panse of the sea. By use of search- 
lights, it can be carried on at night as 
well as by day. Cruisers may be coaled 
at sea and provided with ammunition 
openly. The submarine may not. With- 
out a base or a hovering fleet of "mother 
ships," the submarine cannot do continu- 
ous duty on blockade or otherwise. 

If it is planned to operate the subma- 
rine blockade of the British Isles in re- 
lays, the number of ships on duty at a 
given port will be thereby halved, to the 
detriment of the blockade's effectiveness. 
Two submarines to a port could hardly 
maintain a blockade in the condition 
which the ordinary interpretation of in- 
ternational law has required to give it 
recognition among neutrals. 

British domination of the sea has not 
come about by chance. England's geo- 
graphic limitations have compelled her to 
keep the avenues of ocean traffic open 



through constant readiness to render na- 
val protection to her carrying trade ; and it 
is the result of her insular position that her 
activities have developed on sea and land. 

What Nature has always done for the 
children of the wild by rendering them 
adaptable, through habit and through 
equipment, to the environment in which 
they are placed, the English people have 
done for themselves. Cribbed, cabined, 
and confined upon a group of islands lim- 
ited in area and capable of inadequate 
productiveness, even with the most inten- 
sive of cultivation, they were forced, first, 
to command the avenues of supply for 
themselves and, in order to meet the in- 
creasing expense of such necessity, sec- 
ond, to develop their manufacturing re- 
sources to the highest degree. 

To this they owe the great number of 
ports which they now possess and which, 
by their very numbers, render a blockade, 
however attempted, a herculean task. A 
clearer example of how nations are lim- 
ited or advanced by their geographic en- 
vironment could hardly be found. 



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Photograph by A. W. Cutler 

"wEivCOME HOME, grand-dad": a glimpse of rural life at elmley castle, 

WORCESTERSHIRE 

With sons at the front the path to the village post-office is a beaten track for this aged 
couple and thousands like them. And, alas» only too often does the weary trip bring the 
news from "Somewhere in France" that death has been the soldier's crown ! 



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IVajru Strttt Hill. Dttnh — /r9m an actual fhtUgraph 

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The administrati've center of the 
Affterican Republic— the National 
Capitol^ Washington, D. C, 



All That Tires Can 





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" KODAK" 

Is our Registered and common- 
law Trade-Mark and cannot be 
rightfully applied except to 
goods of our manufacture. 

If a dealer tries to sell you, under the 
Kodak name, a camera or films, or 
other goods not of our manufacture, 
you can be sure that he has an inferior 
article that he is trying to market on 
the Kodak reputation. 

If it isn't an Eastman, it isn't a Kodak, 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, 

ROCHESTER, N. Y., T/ie Kodak City. 



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characteristic of Italian Renaissance FRENCH GOTHIC 

(OAK) 7 feet 6 inches long and 6 feet 3 inches high 

f^ery early XVI Century^ illustrating tAi 

parchment panel in its best form 



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UnSTORlC CABINETS %^S:^00^ and dcrmi 

V^WSICS Kg'-CB^AllCm^ IN HAND MADE CABINETS 
REPRODUCED FROM OLD l^^RLD MASTERPIECES FOR 

5^c NEW EDISON 

'^ the phonograph "with a soul'' 

enius and $3,000,000 familiar kinds of talking machine cabinets as the New 
ly spent in research Edison is superior, in a musical sense, to all other de- 
:o the world an instru- vices for the reproduction of musical sounds. A corn- 
forms of music. To petition was held among designers and two master 
Lappold, Anna Case, craftsmen were selected, who have produced what are 
ther great artists have not alone the finest phonograph cabinets in the world, 
d sung in direct com- but also deserve to take place with the finest furniture 
their voices. Three of any description to be found in America. The illus- 
ve heard these aston- trations on these pages give but a faint idea of these 
the music critics of wonderful cases. Licensed dealers will show you large 
principal newspapers, prints in colors. 

[qualification that the In addition to the historic hand made cabinets pictured 

artist's voice cannot on these pages the New Edison is supplied in other 

Instrumentalists have period models at $100 to $375. There is no Edison 

ults. Edison has ac- cabinet which will not appeal to sophisticated taste, 

s Re-Creation. and there is an artistic type for every setting. You 

lould be a demand for will oblige us if you will write for a booklet depicting 

furniture sense, to the less expensive models in colors. 

THAT WE MAKE THE FOLLOWING ANNOUNCEMENT: 

**Those who are concerned solely in obtaining pensive models. It is in fact the model we have used 

the best musical result need not pay more than $250, m the public comparisons at Carnegie Hall and else- 

as the Official Laboratory Model, which sells at where between the living voice and our Re-Creation 

^250, is equal in a musical sense to the most ex- of it." 

zr rArTTDrcrm t\t T'e/p TESTS TO fFHICH 

THE BOOKLET ''fTHAT THE CRITICS SAY'' 
IS if you intend to attempt to play them on any other instrument 
! true musical quality of Edison Re-Creations. Furthermore, 
n on an ordinary phonograph or talking machine. 

., Dept. 1501, Orange, N. J. 



Chintu motifs, a form ^f 

tmbtllithment much in 

favor at that time 



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This line shows sets of the 
Britannica already sold 



This line shows the few remaining sets of the Britannica printed on genuine 

India paper 




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long-distance service such as we have here was not to be had in Europe, 
e war, at any price. And exchange service in Europe, despite its inferior 
ore in actual money than here. 

is the criterion for all the world, and the Bell organization is the most 
well as the most efficient servant of the people. 

American Telephone and Telegraph Company 

And Associated Companies 

One Policy One System Universal Service 



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The Long Arm of 

Westinghouse 

Service 



No matter where in the United States they 
may be, owners of Westinghouse-Equipped 
motor cars are always in the zone of West- 
inghouse Service. 

For Westinghouse Service follows the car 
from coast to coast and from the Red River 
to the Rio Grande. Its long arm reaches 
into every State. 

Westinghouse Service Stations are main- 
tained in 90 cities, and if the car-owner is not 
in immediate reach of a service station, he 
can get the attention his equipment requires 
by communicating with the nearest one. 

Every Westinirhouse Service man, moreover, has been 
trained In the Westinrhousc plant or by Westinebouse experts 
so that he can give advice and assistance based on tborouch 
knowledfe of the equipment. 

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC 4 MFG. CO. 

Autemtbilt Equipment Drpartmmt 
Shadysidk Works. Pittsburgh. Pa. 



J T.TrtMTTMO ^^ A IGKITION EQUIPMENT 



^ ,J. UGHTING 



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From Napkins Plus to Napkins Minus 

HE HAD an overshipment of ness,$S07.20. Sales cost, seven-tenths 

400,000 paper napkins to of one per cent. -. 

dispose of or return to the Will M. Ross, Statesan, Wisconsin, 

mill. Which course should js the man who accomplished this 

he take? result. 

Beside his desk was a Multigraph Will is a good salesman. This per- 

Junior— and he knew its possibihties. formance proves that. The Multi-* 

Aletter was written, Multigraphed, graph Junior is a good sales assistant. 

and eighty copies were mailed to in-. This performance proves that. Put 

stitutions— sanatorium s and the like, a good salesman and the Multigraph 

The postage was a dollar sixty, together and the combination will 

Other costs— a few hours time for sell paper napkins, automobiles, life 

setting up, running and distributing insurance, or anything else — mer- 

the ^pe; envelopes and letter-heads, chandise or service. 

Four dollars — three and three-quarter If you haven't looked into your 

cents apiece— would cover the total sales possibilities— as they are widened 

cost and leave enough for the with the Multigraph — Senior or 

movies. Junior — maybe this little account 

Result— one week later— the 400,- f^om the experience of just one user 

000 napkins sold— additional orders ^^^y prompt you to investigate, 

for 80,000 more — side orders for The coupon won't start you in the 

$60.80 for other goods— and four napkin business, but it may be the 

new accounts opened. The napkin means of changing some of your sales 

business was $446.40. The total busi- minuses to pluses. Clip— sign— mail. 

^^ M Bx)duccs real printing and /orm-fypewn'ting^rapfdii 

\. M economicaJ/y. privatefy, in your omr estabiishment A 

You can^t buy a Multigraph . 
unless you need it. 

The Multigraph, 1821 East 40th Street, 
Cleveland, Ohio 

Tell me more about using the Multigraph in 
sales work. 

Name ^ ■ 

Official Position . 

Firm ■ . 

Street Address ^ 

Town State 

^ , _ , ,. I am interested particularly in * — ^^ — — ( 

Iniltigraph Junior— An efficient nand-operated machme for ^ 

high-^n^c f orm typewriting and simpleoffice printing. Price, 

complete, $200.00. Easy payments. - 




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Rurpee's 



SSVS AIR MOISTENER 



\ 



Fill with water, iiang on bacic 
off any radiator out off sigiit 

Converts dry indoor air into a moist, wholesome, 
healthful atmosphere. 

IT WILL SAVE "^ 

Your Health. 

Furniture from shrinking. 
Piano from warping. 
Palntkiaa from oraoklng. 
Wall Paper from peeling. 
Book Bindings breaking. 
House Plants from dying. i 
Whole family from coMs. 
TlirMSIzn-S2.00. S1.75. and S1.00. 
Vrila f w Free BMklet. 

SaVo Manuffacturing Company 

31 S Ww Yorfc lift Bulldm Chlcip. Illl-lt 



In spite of the great rise in the cost of 
raw materials, there has been no change in 
the quality of the ingfredients entering into the 
composition of 

SPRATT'S 

Dog Cakes and Puppy Biscuits 

Remember that a dog fed on SPRATT'S is al- 
ways a credit to his master. 

Sent/ stamp for catalogue, 

SPRATT'S PATENT, LIMITED 

NEWARK, N. J. 



Water- Works Systems 

Put your water-supply problems up 
to our engineering department. Let 
us work out the most effective and 
economical system that will meet your 
requirements. 

We have filled over 1 $.000 orders for tanks, towers, 
and water-supply systems of every kind— from our 
pneumatic simplex system, furnished complete as low 
as S42 for country homes, to 
plants such as are required 
by country estates, railroads, 
municipalities, or factories. 
State your needs and ask for 
special circular Na US. 

The Baltimore Co., Baltc, Md. 




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South Sea Islands 

Fascinatine new tour, far from the beaten trade to 
the wonderlands off the great South Pacific including 
Hawaii. Samoa. I^ii. New Zealand. Australia, 
Tasmania. Rarotoneat and TabitL 
Leaving San Frandsco Mardi 7 and Mardi 13. 

South America 

Delightful tours of this wonderful continent cave Fcfo. 10. 24 and 

Mar. 14. Small parties. LeisurdytraveL Experienced tour Managers. 

Also Tours to California and Hnw^aii, Japan and 

China, and Cruises to tlie West Indies. 

Send for booklet desired 

RAYMOND & WHITCOMB CO. 

Dept. 7, 17 Temple PL, Boston, Mass. 
NewToric Pliiladelpliia aicaco SaaFnuMdsco LMAofdes 



No. 23, Wren No 

** America First*' is all right, but Conserva- 
tion of Bird Life should come a close second. 
Make a start by sending $1.25 for one or $3.50 
for the three Rustic Cedar Bird Houses. 

Booklet, ^Bird Architecture^ free mjith enjery order. 

Crescent Company, Toms River, N. J. 



JUDD & DETWEILER, Inc. 

Master Printers 

420422 Eleventli Street N.W. 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



What 15 cts.X You 'r Nation's Capital 

The little matter of 15c in stamps or coin will bring yon the Pathfinder for 13 weeks on trial. The Pathfinder is an illustrated ■weekly, pob- 
Usbed at the Nation's Cantar, for the Nation; a paper that prints all the news of the world and that tells the truth and only the truth; now 
in its 23d year. This paper fills the bill without emptying the purse; it costs but $1 a year. If you want to keep posted on what is goins 
on In the world, at the least expense of time or money, this is your means. If you want a paper in your home which is sincere, reliable, 
entertaining, wholesome, the Pathfinder is yours. If you would appreciate a paper which puts everything clearly, fairly, briefly— here it Is. 



Send 15c to show that you might like such a paper, and we will send the Pathfinder on probation 13 weeks. The 15c does not repay us, 
but we are glad to invest in New Friends. THE PATHFINDER PUBLISHING CO.» Box 88, WA8HINQTON. D. G. 



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For nearly three centuries this unpainted house has stood 
exposed to the weather. ' Continuously occupied and still 
almost perfectly preserved, it offers convincing proof of 
the enduring qualities of 

White Pine 

Ever since the Pilgrims landed, White Pine has been universally 
recognized as the wood preferred above all others in home-building. 
And figuring value in terms of service, it is the most economicaL 

White Pine does not shrink, swell, crack, twist, warp or rot; and 
once in place it "stays put,*' after years of exposure, even in the 
closest fitting mitres and in delicate mouldings and carvings. It 
takes paints and stains perfectly. 

Investigation of the merits of White Pine will well repay anyone 
seeking a wise choice of building materials. 

Send today for our free booklet, "White Pine in Home-Building." It is beautifully illus- 
trated and full of valuable information and suggestions on home-building. If there are children 
in your home, send also for "The Helen Specr Book of Children's White Pine Toys and Fur- 
niture," a fascinating plan book, from which a child may build itis own toys and toy furniture. 

Repr^endng WhITE PiNE BuREAU, . . 

The Northern Pin. Manu&cturen' 1123 MERCHANTS BanK BuILDING, St. PaUL, MiNN>; 

Asaocution or Minnesota, Wisconsin ' ' 

and Michigan, and The Assodeted 
White Pine Manufacturers of Idaho 



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NEW-YORK LIFE 

INSURANCE COMPANY 

346 AND 348 BROADWAY . NEW YORK CITY 



TO THE POLICY-HOLDERS AND THE PUBLIC ; 

A brief of the chief activities of this Company during 1916 
runs as follows: 

New Paid Business $263,048,300.00 

Of this total $239,090,873 was secured in the United States. 

Total Income $138,559,395.79 

Total Payments to Policy-holders . . $81,415,138.36 

Of this total $19,551,361 was paid in dividends. 

Invested During the Year in Bonds and Mortgage Loans, $70,717,602.17 

To pay 5.26% 

Added to Legal Reserves ^124,676,393.00 

Market Value of Assets, Dec. 31, 1916 $866,988,841.57 

Legal Liabilities $728,226,426.34 

Reserved for Dividends and Contingencies $138,762,415.23 

Outstanding Insurance $2,511,607,274.00 

Represented by 1,228,601 policies. 

The actual mortality of the Company, expressed in the per cent which it bears 
to the expected death losses according to the tables of mortality adopted by the State for 
valuation purposes through a period of years, is as follows : 

1912 Actual death losses 76% of the ** expected" 

1913 Actual death losses 73% of the ** expected " 

1914 Actual death losses 73 % of the ** expected " (5 mos. of war) 

1915 Actual death losses 73% of the ** expected " (12 mos. of war) 

1916 Actual death losses 71% of the ** expected " (12 mos. of war) 

Significant Facts: 

Mortality Rate reduced; Expense Rate reduced; Interest Rate 
increased; New Business increased. 

The Seventy-second Annual Statement of the Company will be filed at once 
with the Department of Commerce in Washington and with each State of the United 
States and each country where we do business. A brief of that statement will be sent 
gratis to any person asking for it. 

DARWIN P. KINGSLEY, 

President, 



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Within your reach? YES! 

The very same stone that has been used for manv years in the finest build- 
ings, tNDth public and private, in every State in the Union—a natural stone 
so remarkable that if you are about to build or interested in building, you 
should certainly know a// about it The U. S. Government is one of the 
biggest users of this "Aristocrat of Building Materials," Yet it is even 
more reasonable in price than artificial materials. 

You are familiar with buildings built of Indiana Limestone, but probably 
do not know it by name. Most likely it has never occurred to you that 
this beautiful material is quarried in such quantities that the price is 
wittiin your easy reach. 

You do know that nothing in the world gives the impression of dignity, 
costliness, refinement and beauty like natural stone, the genuine handi- 
work of nature, and we want you to know about Indiana Limestone, "The 
Aristocrat of Building Materials." to hold apiece in your hand, and to de- 
cide for yourself about the new building. (See FREE OFFER below.) 



■ 


TES— Indiana 








YES— Whether 


1 


Limestone is a 








for the whole or for 


■ 


badge of dis- 
tinguished taste as 
shown by hundreds 
of the finest houses, 
great and smalL 








trinmiing Indiana 
Limestone denotes 
the "class" that 
pays cash on your 
rent roll 


FOR ANY BUILDING YOU EXPECT 


TO LIFE 


IN, 


TO LOOK UP ro^ 


OR LOVE-^INDIANA LIMESTONE^ 


NOTHING SURPASSES IT. 


m 


YES— Nothing 
better expresses the 
high function of the 
church edifice than 
Indiana Limestone 
the product of Na- 
ture's wonder- 
processes. 






li 
1 
1 
i 


YES— You may 
pattern by the 
Grand Central Ter- 
minal (N. Y.) and 
himdreds of fine 
buildings from sky- 
scrapers to smart 
little stores. 


YOUR BOY WILL BE INTERESTED IN 


THE 


frONDERl 


^UL FOSSIL SHELL 


FORMATION 


OF INDIANA LIMESTONE 


AS 


TOLl 


[), IN OUR BOOK. 



Handsome paperweight of Indiana Umestone showing sev- 
I era! finishes, with a handsomely illustrated interesting book. 

Sen J fir them tot/ay, 

INDIANA LIMESTONE QUARRYMEN'S ASS'N.S?; BEDFORD. IND. 



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irf11CRO(3S4nfV^ 

IJiSMVBSC0L0RPHaro6R»PHi 

IF you thoroughly understood 
how inexpensive and easy it 
now is to take color photo- 
graphs without the need of a special 
camera, but with any camera you 
already have, you and every trav- 
eler, scientist, professional and ama- 
teur photographer would specialize 
in color photography at once. 

The Hiblock 

a pack of two sensitized blue and 
red plates with a green film inter- 
posed, bound together as one, which 
fits into any camera in a special 
holder which we furnish, makes this 
possible. One exposure is all that 
is necessary. And you use your own 
camera. Send for booklet 

H£ss-IvES Corporation 



1201 Race Street 



Philadelphia 



The Manor 



Albemark Park 

ASHEVILLE, N. C 



A charming English Inn set in a blossomlns^ park on a Iifllsfde, 2500 feet 
elevation. Offers real Southern hospitality, clear, dry. life-invinir atmos* 
phere of the "Land of the Sky." Unusual -facilities for all outdoor sport* 
and pastimes the year round. PERFECT GOLF IN A PERFECT 
ClAMATU—lS-hcies—ttir/trretMS, Write for booklet. 



RECOMMENDATION FOR MEMBERSHIP 



in the 



National Geographic Society 

The Membership Fee Includes Subscription to the National Geographic Magazine 

DUES: Annual membership in U. S., $2.00; annual membenhip 'abroad. $3.00; Canada. $2.50; life memberahip. 
$30. Please make remittances payable to National Geoaraphic Society, and if at a distance remit by N. Y. draft. 



postal or express order. 



Please detach and fill in blank below and send to the Secretary 



_/9/ 



^o the Secretary, National Geographic Society, 

SixleenthanJMSlrcela NoHhicest. 

Washington, D, C. : 



I nominate- 
Address- 



for membership in the Society. 



(Write your a'ldrcss) 



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THE LOVE OF FLOWERS IS UNIVERSAL 

Twenty-six years devoted to originating and specializing in CrlRYSANTnLMUMS 
speaks for Itself. 

Our products are known in every land where Chrysanthemums are grown. 

You should have our CATALOGUE; it Is authentic, fully illustrated, and includes all the best. 

IT IS FREE ELMER D. SMITH & CO., Adrian, Mich. write today 

The only firm In America growing Chrysanthemunrw exclusively. 



Ittl^ 



tpE GAMlf^N mw: 



U ^ 






r. ^l 



m DROMEDARY DATES 



~lring the Blue-Birds 
^foT Happiness! 

A Dodsen Hooae, bnTU by the "man 
the birds lore,*' wiU brinf a family of 
these "bappinMB" birds to live in your 

frard. Mr. Dodion baa apent 2S years 
earnias bow to baild boosea that tba 
' btrd» like. Bird Lodse, bis beautiful 
borne, is thronred with d«IIt6 birds. 
IVrens, blue-birds, martins, each mnsft 
hare a special style boose. Prices range 
from $1.60 to $13. Buy now and let your 
houses "weather." The birds like 
them better. 
Bird Book Free-Send for Mr. Dod- 

eon's book which tells how to win bird 

$5 For Thie 4-Sooai friends to jroor cardeB.]>escribes booses, 

Sloe^Bird BoHM birds, baths, winter feeding devices. 

Solid Oak. Cypress SblBflee, 2S f ^!f!!;«Vn\ wX?^^^ 

JOSEPH H. DODBON, of Bird Lodge 

INrector, American Audobon Society 



Copper Coping. Bluebirds raise 
8 or 8 broods a year— but nerer 
in the same nest. Ihey move 
from room to room in this 4« 



room Dodson House. 



[10] 702 Harrlaon Ato. Kankakee* ni. 



You can have apples, pears, cher- 
ries, peaches, grapes in your own 
yard. Don't buy them when you can 
grow them. Send today for our 

New Fruit Tree Book 

which tells hoiv you can have fruits, flowers, 

yegetables. and what varieties we consider best. For 63 /^f>. ^ 
years we have sold the highest quality stock direct to the 
planter— we have do agents. Write today for catalogue. J^^ 

The Storrs & Harrison Co. (J * A^ 
Box 331, PainesviMe, Ohio J^V^ 



High School Course 
in Two Years 

LEARN in your own home. Here is a thorougrh and 
. aimplifled hitrh echool course that you can complete in 2 
^ years. AfMte eoUege entrance rtquirementa. Prepared 
by leamng members of faculties of oniversities and academies. 

Study in Your Own Home 

This course was prepared especially for home train- 
inir. What if you did not get a high school education? You can 
make up for lost time now. Idle eveninsrs can be apent in pleas- 
ant reading that wdl give yon a thorough high school tnuning. 

WHie ior Our Booklet! 

Send your name and address today for our booklet 
and fnU partieolars. No obligaUons whatever. Wnte NOW I 

Amoi-lean Schc>Q.I 
of Correspondence. Cr 

Da»f. PfSSI 



»hicBgo, 



DOl 

usTa 



Elec'tric 



The DIM-A-LITC ^ivesydu soft, 
electric twilight. Fine for bath 
room, sick room, nursery, 
hall. Turns electric lights 
up and down like gas. 

DIM«A-|.ITE AttachmMic 




DIM-A-LITE Portable wuh C..4 ».d piua 

Ask «ny dealer, or by (Rail, postpaid. 
Write for "Facts on paving of Current. 

WIRT COMPANY 5518 Lena St.. Phllad'a. Pa. 



D I IVI '' ^ "^iiS^Itf^ES 



ygIgJLD©G<nr 



Lantern Slides 

from 

Photographs in 

National Geographic Magazine 

MANY REQUESTS are being con- 

1 stnntly received regarding lantern 
slides from the copyright photographs 

ill the Geographic that arrangements have 
been completed to supply them to members 
of the Society. Slides n re not Ivept in stock, 
each order being made up as received, and 
will be delivered within two weeks after 
receipt of order, unless otherwise advised. 
The copyright notice must appear on each 
slide. The purchase of lantern slides does 
not carry with it the authority to publish 
the pictures and they cannot be used for 
advertising purposes. 

Slides cannot be sent upon approval and a 
remittance must accompany each order. The 
slides will be carefully packed and sent by 
express collect. Prices in the United States 
(standard size), black and white, 75 cents 
each; colored, $1.50. Address, 

Dept. L, National Geographic Magazine 
WASHINGTON. D. C. , 



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ing, MAZDA Service se- 
lects for the makers of 
MAZDA Lamps, only 
those developments in 
design, materials and 
methods that will im- 
prove the light you enjoy 



-The Meaning of MAZDA- 



MAZDA la the trademark ofa world-wide Mrrioe to certaio lamp MAZDA Servieeia oeoterad in llie ReacarchtaL w a t w i ea of the 

na B o llM^im e i B, Ita pnrpoae ia to collect and acJect adentific and Geneial Electrio Compaaj at Scheaectadr* Mew York* Tlie 

practical iufmuia lion cooceraing pro gica a and derelopmenta in — rfc-MA7.riA«^ii>p|i— yrti*lyrtiiUwipawhi Amw» tK«»— MMla>J« 

the art oflnfamliiajffnf lamp ■wi«i»f«*H iiriiig«inl t^jlitriKwt** thu of MAZDA Serrice^ It ia tnua an aaanranoe of cmalitj. Thia 

iiiftwiiialiiiw to the mmpanint cnlilled to racaivo thia Serrioe. trademark ia the pr o p er l y of the General Electric Omipany. 



RESEARCH LABORATORIES OF GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 



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All Aboard the Magic Carpet 

The magic carpet, famed in Arabian Nights, carried its fortunate 
owner safely and conveniently Tvherever his heart desired. 

"A. B. A." Cheques have been likened to a "modem magic carpet" 
because they are the form of funds on which the modem tourist can 
safely and conveniently travel all over the globe. 

The safety of "A.B. A." Cheques lies chiefly in their not being usable 
until the owner coimtersigns them, and in the possibility of replacing 
them in case of loss. 



"A.B.A. 



yj 



American 

Bankers 

AsscKiiation 



Cheques 



Their convenience is manifold. An 
'*A.B.A/' Cheque does not need to be 
cashed; in a very real sense it is cash, 
both domestic and foreign, because it 
is accepted just as if it ^vere the 
actual currency of whatever country 
the traveler happens to be in. 



When you are in America your 
"A. B. A." Cheque spells dollars; when 
in Russia it spells rubles; in Italy, 
lire; in France, francs; in Germany, 
marks; in Great Britain and her 
Colonies, pounds and shillings, and 
so on. 



You pay for your tickets and hotel service in San Francisco^ 
or New York, or Paris, or in some remote little town, with 
"A.B.A." Cheques; you pay for ivories in Peldn, for tea- 
house refreshments in Tokyo, for laces in Venice, for 
rugs in Tabriz; for most anything, most anywhere— with 
*'A. B. A." Cheques. 

You can obtain "A. B. A.*' Cheques in denominations of 
$10, $20, $50, and $100 at almost any bank. 

Write to Bankers Trust Company, New York, for information 
as to where in your vicinity you can obtain these cheques. 



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* 'Mention the Geographic — It identifies you." 

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VOLUME XXXI 



^i^M, 



NUMBER TWO 



The NATIONAL 



EOG 



lie 



MAGAZI I 

FEBRUARY, 1917 

+ 

CONTENTS 
16 Pages of Photogravure 
Our Foreign-Born Citizens 

39 lUiMtrationa 

Prizes for the Inventor— Some Problems 
Awaiting Solution 

7 lUustntions ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL 

Little Citizens of the World 

16 Photogravure Illustrations 



Bohemia and the Czechs 

With 35 lUustrations 



ALES HRDLICKA 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

HUBBARD MEMORIAL HALL 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

HUBBARD MEMORIAL HALL 
SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS, WASHINGTON. D. C. 



O. H. TITTMANN . . PRESIDENT 

GILBERT H.GROSVENOR. DIRECTOR AND EDITOR 
JOHN OLIVER LA GORGE . ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
O. P. AUSTIN SECRETARY 



JOHN E. PILLSBURY VICE-PRESIDENT 

JOHN JOY EDSON .... TREASURER 
GEORGE W. HUTCHISON. ASSISTANT SECRETARY 
WILUAM J. SHOWALTER . ASSISTANT EDITOR 



1915-1917 
Charles J. Bbll 

President American Security 
and Trust Company 

John Joy Edson 

President Washinston Loan & 
Trust Company 

David Fairchild 

In Charse of Asricultural Ex- 
plorations. Dept. of Asric. 

C. Hart Mbrriam 

Member National Academy of 
Sciences 

O. p. Austin 

Statistician 

Georob R. Putnam 

Commissioner U. S. Bureau of 
Lighthouses 

Georoe Shiras, 3d 

Formerly Member U. S. Con- 
gress. Paunal Naturalist, and 
Wild-Oame Photographer 

Grant Squires 

New York 



BOARD OF MANAGERS 
1916-1918 

Franklin K. Lane 

Secretary of the Interior 

Henry F. Blount 

Vice-President American Se- 
curity and Trust Company 

C. M. Chester 

Rear Admiral U. S. Navy. 
Formerly Su|»t. U. S. Naval 
Observatory 

Frederick V. Covillb 

Formerly Presldentof Wash- 
i nston Academy of Sciences 

John E. Pillsbury 

Rear Admiral U. S. Navy. 
Formerly Chief Bureau of 
Navisation 

Rudolph Kauffmann 

Managlns Editor The Evening 
Star 

T. L. Macdonald 

M. D.. F. a. C S. 

S. N. D. North 

Formerly Director U. S. Bu- 
reau of Census 



1917-1919 

Alexander Graham Bell 

Inventor of the telephone 

J. Howard Gore 

Prof. Emeritus Mathematics. 
The Oeo. Washington Univ. 

A. W. Greely 

Arctic Explorer. Major Qen'l 
U. S. Army 

Gilbert H. Grosvbnor 

Editor of National Qeosraphic 
Magazine 

George Otis Smith 

Director of U. S. Geological 
Survey 

O. H. TiTTMANN 

Formerly Superintendent of 
U . S. Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey 

Henry White 

Formerly U. S. Ambassador to 
France. Italy, etc 

John M. Wilson 

Brigadier General U. S. Army. 
Formerly Chief of Engineers 



To carry out the purpose for which it was founded twenty- eight years 
ago, namely, ''the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge/' 
the National Qeogr&phic Society publishes this Magazine. All receipts 
from the publication are invested in the Magazine itself or expended 
directly to promote geographic knowledge and the study of geography. 
Articles or photographs from members of the Society, or other friends, 
are desired. For material that the Society can use, adequate remunera- 
tion is made. Contributions should be accompanied by an addressed 
return envelope and postage, and be addressed : 

GILBERT H. GROSVENOR. EDITOR 



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 



A. W. Greely 
C. Hart Mbrriam 

O. H. TiTTMANN 

Robert Hollister Chapman 
Walter T. Swingle 



Alexander Graham Bell 
David Fairchild 
HuoH M. Smith 
N. H. Darton 
Frank M. Chapman 



Entered at the Post-Office at Washington, D. C, as Second-Class Mail Matter 
Cop3rright, 1917, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C All rights reserve^ -_ 

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m;i 



I^^IkJ: 




Yes, a Monopoly 



IN HUDSON SUPER-SIX 

But Note How We Employ It 



It is true, as some say» that the Super-Six motor constitutes a Hudson 
monopoly. We control it by basic patents. One must buy a Hudson to 
get it. But note how far the Super-Six unde^ells many cars which it 
out-performs. 



We must expect that every possible 
argument will be used against the Super- 
Six. 

The arguments used a year ago have 
all been disproved and abandoned. Over 
28»000 Super-Six owners have proved 
every suspicion baseless. 

Now some say, *' We also have an im- 
proved Six.** Some argue Eights and 
Twelves. And some reflect on the Super- 
Six monopoly. 

Mark the 
Hudson Value 

But remember that Hudson has won by 
performance the pinnacle place in Motor- 
dom. 

The Super-Six motor has added 80 per 
cent to the car*8 efficiency. 

It has proved an endurance which is yet 
beyond measure — probably a doubled 
endurance. 

Against all other t3rpe8, however costly, 
it has won all the worth-while stock-car 
records. 

And a year has been spent to make this 
car, in every detail, worthy of its front- 
rank place. 

Yet note now many rivals — all without 
the Super-Six motor — sell above the Hud- 
son price. Every buyer of the Hudson 
Super-Six gets a value of performance 
which can*t be matched. 

Why Another 
Type? 

Then why consider another type of 
motor in bu3ring a high-grade car? 

Not because of performance. The rec- 
ords of the Super- Six prove it supreme 
in that. 




Not because of endurance. The Super- 
Six excelled — as high as 32 per cent — in 
the feats which prove that. 

Not because of smoothness. The whole 
Super-Six supremacy comes through mini- 
mized vibration. 

Not because of anything. If any other 
motor type were better, don't you know 
that Hudson would adopt it? Rival types 
are not controlled by patents. 

The Friction 
Question 

The only question is. What motor best 
reduces friction ? For that is the aim of all. 

It is motor friction that wastes power, 
that limits performance, and that causes 
wear. 

Friction was the limitation of the old- 
type Six. Friction caused the trend to- 
ward Eights and Twelves. And the 
solution of this problem is what stopped 
that trend. The Super-Six invention, by 
reducing friction almost to nil, gave the 
crown to a new-type Six. 

It isn't speed, or power, or hill-climbing 
ability which makes the Super-Six su- 
preme. It is endurance, due to lack of 
friction. That is what won those records. 
If that is important, the Super-Six is im- 
portant. 

A New Gasoline 
Saver 

The latest Hudsons haite a new gasoline 
saver which adds greatly to their economy. 
They have bodies which show our final 
attainment in beauty, finish, and luxury. 

To own a Hudson Super-Six means to 
rule the road. And this car, in any crowd, 
looks the monarch that it is. 



Phaeton, Z-passeofirer . $1650 
Cabrio1et.3-pa88enser . 1950 
Touring Sedan 2175 



Limousine $2925 

Pricma f, o. b. Dmtroit 



Town Car $2925 

Town Car Landaulet . 3025 
Limousine Landaulet . 3025 



HUDSON MOTOR CAR COMPANY, DETROIT, MICHIGAN 



I'JOgMjMMMNMKMMySM)^ 



,__«„_- ^ JL"^u'^^m\Z"C[^^'w^mn^^M^*L^^ ^..^^^ 

irununuru'tyflununuRunHnunynun^utynununtfnur.nynunynu^y'^ununwnH^ununuiiununMnMnuntanununiinunuiMnynynunununHi 



i-'Vj5 




WyF^gflVnyny(1uny%nynyf»yiii/f«fly3 



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$1150 



F.o.b. 
Racine 

Mitchell Junior-a40b. p. Six 
129-inch Wheelbase 




SIXES 



JP 1 4 6 Racine 

7-Pa88enger— 48 Horsepower 

127-inch Wheelbase 



Now An $1150 Model, Too 



This year we bring out Mitchell Junior 
— a smaller Mitchell Six. But not too 
small. The wheelbase is 120 inches — 
the motor 40 horsepower. So all the ad- 
vantages of Mitchell efficiency can now 
be had in two sizes of cars, at two prices. 

More Extras 

Both of the Mitchells embody hundreds 
of extras, paid for by factory savings. They 
give you at least 20 per cent extra value 
over other cars in their class. All because 
John W. Bate, the great efficiency expert, 
has cut our factory costs 
in two. 

There are 31 extra 
features — things which 
other cars omit. On 
this year's output, these 
extras alone will cost us 
about iWjOOO, 000. 

Our new body plant 
means another big fac- 
tory saving. 

Out of this saving, we 
add 24 per cent to the 



TWO SIZES 

lYlllUICil ^ith i27.inch wheellMse. A 
iiigfa-speed. economical. 48-lioreepower motor. 
Disappearing extra seats and 31 extra features 
included. 

Price SI 460, /. o. b.. Racine 

Mitchell Junionj^^-rjgjjjj 

lines with IJ^toth wheelbase. A 40-horse- 

B»wer motor— M •inch smaller bore than larger 
itchell. 

Price $1150, /. o. b. Racine 

Also an styles of enclosed and convertible 
Also demounubie tops. 



cost of finish, upholstery and trimming. 
And now, for the first time, we an- 
nounce double strength in every important 
part. Our margins of safety — once 50 
per cent — are increased to 100 per cent. 

See. the Results 

We urge you to see the extra values 
our factory efficiency gives you. 

They are numbered by the hundreds. 
They show the result of John W. Bate's 
methods, which cut our factory cost in two. 
No other high-grade car offers any- 
where near such value. 
You can easily prove 
that. And the factis win- 
ning tens of thousands 
to this Bate-built car. 
There is not a single 
Mitchell extra which 
you don't want in a car. 

MITCHELL MOTORS 

COMPANY, Inc., 
Racine, Wis., U. S. A. 



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tiuiiara Jtiour" is best. Thea 
fathers and mothers gather with 
their happy brood around the 
Brunswick Carom or Pocket Table, 
now the life of thousands of homes. 



starts, ana sportis iung uii oea ume 
comes. 

For parties, holidays and leisure 
hours — for health and happiness — 
your home needs billiards! 



-BRUNSWICFl, 

HOME BILLIARD TABLSS 



Live cushions, true angles, fast ever- 
level bed — on Brunswick Tables your 
skill will triumph most. 

A Size for Every Home 

"Quick Demountables" can be setup 
easily anywhere and folded away in a 
closet when not in use, 

**Baby Grand" and "Reg^ilation 
Grand" for hon:tes with space to spare 
for a table. 

Beautifully built of mahogany and 
oak. Cues, Balls, Markers, etc.— com- 
plete playing outfit included free! 

Illlllllllllllli 



Write for Color-Catalog 

Low prices, easy terms and home trial oflPer 
all explained in our handsome billiard book and 
catalog— "Billiards— Tho Home Magrnet." 

Get this book by return mail free. Send today. 

The Bmnsvrick-Balke-CoIIender Co. 
Dept.46J 623-633 S. Wabash Ave. Chicaco 



Send Your Address For Catalog 



The Bnmtfrirk-Balke-Collender Co. 

Dept. 46 J, 623-633 S. Wabash Ave., Chicaco 

Send free, postpaid, a copy of your billiard book and 
color catalo«r-"BILLIARDS-THE HOME MAGNET* 

and tell about your home trial offer. 

Nanu — - 

Address.. ■ 



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Bubb 



Puffed Wheat and Rice are 

times normal size. 

Before we explode them they an 
So they seem like nut meats m 

If you ate them with your eyes shi 

They are 

But don't treat them like confectior 
These are whole-grain foods. By P 

every atom of the whole g^rain feeds. 
Don't be too sparing of these daint 

form those elements are all made availah 

Don't confine them to breakfast, 
bowls of milk. 

Between meals, when children get h 
the grains dry, or doused with melted bu 

Let Puffed Grains displace sweetme 
just as delightful. And which one can < 

Not one child in ten ever gets enoug 



Puff 
Whc 

at 

Each 11 



Here are three grains— wheat, rice, 
steam-exploded. Every granule is fitted 

Elach has a different flavor. Each a 
an endless variety. And all are fascinati 

Puffed Rice excels in nut-like flav 
excels as a food. 

Keep all three on hand. 



TheQual 



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In the Wake of 

Weed 




Tire 
Chains 

In any Big 
American City 



They start with a steel-forged safety guarantee 
on the wheels - Weed Chairw. 



W 



A safe split- second stop 




Safely over slippery car tracks. 




Safel^arrivin^aMhei^estinoti^^ 



TATCH — over there— that pulsing, hovering 
hawk of the streets — the taxi. A door- 
man's shrill whistle — the hawk swoops — 
a fare— the door slams— and they're off. Through 
a bewildering traffic web— crowding every inch. 
Suddenly the brakes grind and the chains grip 
without a slip for a safe split-second stop. 

Again the slurring over slippery car tracks— whip- 
ping swiftly along on the sleek, wet asphalt— with 
Assurance behind the wheel because there is 
Insurance on the wheels— Weed Tire Chains. 

When the public demanded "Safety First", the 
better taxicab companies immediately safeguarded 
their interests. Now — at the first indication of 
slippery going— you will find their cars carrying 
a steel-forged safety guarantee. They are 
equipped with Weed Tire Chains. 

Taxi drivers have the reputation of being an 
efficient, hard-driving lot Upon their reputation 
depends their job. They know the penalty of the 
menacing skid — the utter foolhardiness of gam- 
bling with chainless tires. 

And if they won't gamble— you can't afford to. 
The great joss Luck does not play favorites— 
consistently. 

IVeeJ Chains are recommended and 
sold hjf dealers everywhere for all 
sizes of tires tvith their hundred and 
more "fanqj tread designs* " 



AMERICAN CHAIN COMPANY, Inc. 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF WEED CHAINS 

Bridgeport \c / Connecticut 

In Canada — Dominion Cbain Co. Ltd., 
Niagara Fall*, Ontario 




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X-Ray Reflectors are corrugated and j/Zoer coated. The corrugations break up the light rays and completely 
diffuse them. The silver coating reflects all the light. Thus in X-Ray Lighting there are neither eye-blind- 
ing bright spots nor deep shadows. Rooms are flooded widi beautiful light By actual test X-Ray Lighting 

Tires Eyes Less Than Direct or Semi-Direct Light 

You can work or read bv it without the slightest stalled by men who know. Investigation will satisfy 

eye-strain. Its absence or glare keeps the pupil of you that X-Ray Lighting means 100 per cent light 

the eye relaxed. The eyes do not tire. And it costs no more — 10 per cent less to maintttiru 

In offices, schools, churches, public buildings, stores. Ask your Architect or have the nearest X-Ray 

homes — people eoeryvfhere are installing X-Ray Light- Dealer show you. Their lighting knowledge will 

ing — the only engineered lighting — planned and in- prove valuable. 



* 'Mention the Geographic — It identifies you.'* 

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This Great Car Leads All Sixes Because 
of Its Marvelous Motor 



THOUSANDS of men and women who would pay 
hundreds of dollars more for an automobile, if paying 
more would get them more, choose the Chandler. They 
are not seekers after alow price. They desire the best 
six-cylinder motor, regardless of price. They desire a Six 
because time has shown that a six-cylinder motor, cor- 
rectly desijrned, gives all the power and all t\ic flexibility 
of power that any motor can give; that such a motor 
has the life and snap and "go" they desire; that such 
a motor is genuinely economical in cost of operation. 

So these devotees of the Six choose the Chandler, 
because through four years of intelligent, conscientious 
manufacturing effort, and without radical or experimental 
changes of design, the Chandler motorhas been developed 
to a point approximating perfection. 

Chandler Loiv Price is Important.^ Too 

While with so many the question of price is of sec- 
ondary consideration, still Chandler leads in price today 
quite as distinctly as it has always led. 



In the face of advanced cost of all materials and labor, 
the Chandler price is but $100 higher than two years 
ago. And the car is finer than then. Not a feature 
has been cut out of it. Much has been added. 

And other cars in the Chandler field ha^ve ad'vanced 
as much as three hundred dollars the past year^ either 
because of necessity or opportunity. 

The Chandler Company has not been willing to take 
advantage of a situation which would have permitted 
price inflation. 

And this year we shall probably build and sell more 
cars than any other manufacturer building a car of even 
similar quality. 

Wide Choice of Beautiful Bodies 

. You who demand such a motor as the Chandler 
demand grace of body design, also, and richness of 
finish. Chandler offers you five beautiful types of body, 
each mounted on the one standard Chandler chassis. 



Seten-Passenger Touring Car, $1395 

Four-Passenger Roadster^ $1395 Senjen-Passenger Con^oertible Sedan, $1995 

Four-Passenger Con'vertible Coupe, $1995 Limousine, $2695 

All prices f o. b. Cleveland 

DEALERS IN HUNDREDS OF TOWNS AND CITIES 

Catalogue Mailed Upon Request. Address Dept. O 

CHANDLER MOTOR CAR COMPANY 



CLEVELAND, OHIO 
New York City Office, 1790 Broadway Cable Address: 



'Chanmotor" 



CHANDLER SIX $(395 



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Read This Eleventh Hour Warning 



We would like to impress upon you one very important 
fact, and that is that the few sets we have left of The 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Handy Volume" issue, printed on 
India paper, are the last that can be had. 

We simply cannot get any more because the publishers 
cannot get any more India paper; the war has ruined that 
industry as far as this country is concerned. You have not 
yet bought the Britannica. It may be because you have 
forgotten; it may be that you have simply put off the matter 
thinking that you could buy it at any time. 

(Please understand that this latter supposition is V 
entirely wrong. If you are going to purchase The Encyclopaedia m 
Britannica, printed on India paper, you will have to do so I 
immediately. m 

India paper has enabled the Britannica to do what the 
telephone and the automobile have done— to broaden the outlook 
of every man who possesses one of these three utilities. 
Make up your mind now that you do want the Britannica or that 
you don't. But if you make up your mind that you do want the 
Britannica, take our advice and act at once, 

SEARS, ROEBUCK AND CO. 
Chicago, February 10, 1917. 



ling an index of 500,000 facts) is a 
lutKoritative, most modern, most 
; authoritative because its 4 1 ,000 
ation; most modern because its 
St men and women of the present 
appeals alike to college professor 

ow all about everything. But the 
ix civilization are such that each 
note and more every day. And 
where to find out about what we 

» where the Britannica serves its 
atest utilitarian purpose — it is a 
never-failing store-house of infor- 
mation. Not merely a book to 

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Here are 
the Facts— 

The stock of India 
the Britannica is m 

When the last rei 
more can be offer 

India paper makes the Britannica as light and easy 
to handle as this magazine. 

War has completely stopped the import of the flax 
fibre for the making of the genuine India paper. No 
more can be made — the unsold sets of the Britannica 
on this superb paper are the last. Act immediately. 

Coupon on next page will bring you 
a book giving all information about the 
Britannica and its practical value to you 



be read as literature, or for its absorbing 
stories of men and nations; but also a practical 
book to be used in connection with your 
every-day work, whether you are engaged in 
manufacturing or business or scientific pursuit. 

To an extent never before realized, the 
Britannica is cosmopolitan. Each article was 
written by the highest authority available, 
irrespective of where he happened to live. 
The contributors included 214 American 
scientists, engineers, economists, historians, 
university presidents, manufacturers, and 
business men. 

One of the most convincing evidences of the 
practical value of the Britannica is the fact 
that it is owned and used daily by I 70,000 
Americans— including 100,000 business men 
and women. These include captains of in- 



dustry, great merchants, leading financiers, 
famous scholars and scientists, and thousands 
of others who are still in the ranks. 

The Britannica never has been published 
solely as a commercial venture, but rather for 
the wider diffusion of knowledge. In the 
splendid "Handy Volume" form, printed on 
genuine India Paper (selling for about 60^ less 
than the "rich manes'* Cambridge Issue) it is 
within the reach of every one. 

And you can obtain the entire set (29 volumes) 
for a first payment of only $1, the balance 
payable in small monthly amounts. But you 
must act at once. Act to-day— NOW. 




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]i!iiinii;[i!iiiiii:iii;:i!ii;iii:;ii 



i::'!ii;ici!iiii:iiiiiii!:iii::iii:i:iiiiiiii;i!i:!i!!;:i:i;;iiiii!iiii!!i;:ii^ 



Enters a new business a 
nOOlOOO a year 

The Board of Directors of a gigantic wholesale grocery concern 
had gathered to select a new president. 

A keen, broad-minded director arose and said : *'l know the man 
we want. * * He named one of the officers of a great National Bank. 



"What!" cried one astonished director, "What 
does a banker know about our business.^" 

"This man knows more than just banking/' was 
the answer. "Banking, like wholesaling, is only 
one phase of business. This man is not limited 
to any one field. He knows all the departments 
of business — finance, economics, organization, sell- 
ing, accounting." They discussed the matter from 
all standpoints. Finally they unanimously agreed 
to get him if they could. 

The banker accepted the presidency of the 
wholesale grocery concern at a salary of 
$100,000. 

He knew business fundamentals 

In a surprisingly short time he had completely 
reorganized the whole concern. 

New, well-planned office short cuts replaced 
the old, roundabout methods. Means of shipment 
and distribution were completely revolutionized. 

Today the company is reaping the benefits of 
these changes. Dividends have been increased by 
many thousands of dollars. 

The inspiring success of this banker, in a busi- 
ness totally new to him, was the result of his 
broad business training. His greatness lay in his 
knowledge of business fundamentals. Each move, 
each decision he made was backed up by a clear, 
intelligent grasp of the why and the how of the 
problem he had to solve. 

It is this broad grasp of the fundamentals of 
business that the Alexander Hamilton Institute is 
giving to more than 50,000 business men today. 

The Modern Business Course and Service of 
the Institute gives you a logical foundation on 
which to build your future business knowledge 



and experience. All departments of business are 
covered and presented to you in interesting, prac- 
tical form. 

The kind of men enrolled 

Presidents of big corporations are often en- 
rolled in the Alexander Hamilton Institute along 
with ambitious clerks in their employ. Among the 
50,000 subscribers are such men as : H. C. Osborn, 
President, American Multigraph Sales Co.; Mel- 
ville W. Mix, President of the Dodge Mfg. Co.; 
Geo. M. Verity, President of the American Rolling 
Mills; Wm. H. Ingeisoll, Marketing Manager of 
the biggest watch company in the world; N. A. 
Hawkins, General Sales Manager of the Ford 
Motor Co. — and scores of others equally promi- 
nent. 

Advisory Council 

Business and educational authority of the high- 
est standing are represented in the Advisory Coun- 
cil of the Alexander Hamilton Institute. This 
Council includes Frank A. Vanderlip, President of 
the National City Bank of New York; Judge E. 
H. Gary, head of the U. S. Steel Corporation; 
John Hays Hammond, the eminent engineer; 
Joseph French Johnson, Dean of the New York 
University School of Commerce, and Jeremiah W. 
Jenks, the statistician and economist. 

''Forging Ahead in Business" 

A careful reading of this 135-page book, "Forging 
Ahead in Business," copy of which we will send you free^ ' 
will repay you many times over. It will help measure 
what you know — what you don't know, and what you 
should know — to make success sure. If you feel uncer- 
tain of yourself, if you long for bigger responsibilities, 
power, influence, money — this Course and Service will fit 
you to grasp the opportunities that arc bound to come 
to those who are prepared. 




ALEXANDER HAMILTON INSTITUTE 

562 ASTOR PLACE, NEW YORK, N. Y. 



Send me **Forging Ahead in Business"— FREE 

Name 

Business Address 

Business Position 

DaOil!KIIlllllIll!llIilIll!!IIHI!'lli;ii;ilJi;!l!lli!^ 

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^ 



B E E MAN'S 

PEPSIN CHEWING GUM 



Many Illnesses can be traced to Indigestion 

It is the lack of a sufficient quantity of the gastric 
juices of the mouth that causes many cases of 
indigestion. 

Improperly digested food, as everyone knows, 
interferes seriously with the functions of all the 
vital organs, and frequently leads to serious 
illnesses. 

The chewing of Beeman's Pepsin Gum, into 
which I have put pure chicle and pepsin in nicely 
balanced proportions, releases the gastric juices 
of the mouth which make up largely for what was 
lacking when the food causing the indigestion 
was eaten. 



VU/ft%CU9^ 



Doctor E. E. B 






1 
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A 

CHICLI 

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AMERICAN CHICLE COMPANY 



-:,r^!MPi.r|,nH;f47 



i-j j f f ■;! J !' ;r .!^ i §0 i f tr:^^ >if I"' !^" |,|F niLif WZ I :^ 



■ihf „i \i'*l- 1^ ■^lii.ll „!.,.!' ,jl*. 






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BUILT by the Bossert Logical, Permanent 
Method of Construction, it is sturdier than any 
other type of frame construction, and yet it can 
be unassembled and put up again any number 
of times without damage or deterioration. This 
house is not painted, but stained a beautiful 
brown color with creosote, which not only pre- 



5r Camp 

VR in a house 

like this next 

imer, far from 

city's dust and 

se. You can have 

n the shore of a 

untain lake, on 

the banks of 

your favorite 

trout stream. 

serves the wood, but brings out beautifully the 
natural grain. 

It contains three bed-rooms, a 12x15 living 
room, and a 6x9 kitchen in extension. 

Economies in the Bossert method of construc- 
tion enable us to offer this camp complete at 
Five Hundred Dollars f. o. b. Brooklyn. 



Send 12 cents today for catalog show- 
ing details of Bossert construction. 

LOUIS BOSSERT & SONS, INC., 1313 Grand St, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



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A Car Whose Quality Lifts It Above 
the Level of Its Price 



Though priced at less than 
$1000, Saxon "Six" has 
forced—actually compelled 
— people to think of it in 
the terms of costly cars. 

No other car we know of 
has ever accomplished this 
feat 

Can you think of any car 
in any other price class 
whose superiority is as dis- 
tinct and pronounced as 
that of Saxon "Six/* among 
cars costing less than 
$1200? 

The answer, of course, is 
in the motor— the famous 
Saxon "Six" high-speed 
motor. 



Its performance today is 
probably as nearly 
perfect as has ever 
been attained. 



of similar price and good 
reputation. 

At a speed of twenty miles 
per hour this "less-than- 
six" under test developed 
1,512.73 power impulses 
per minute. 

Saxon "Six" showed 2,993,- 
923 impulses per minute. 

It is quickly apparent that 
the **less-than-six" motor 
leaves much to be desired. 

For the less the number of 
impulses per minute the 
less smooth is the power- 
flow^ and the greater is the 
vibration. 



you kno'VNT, the fiercest foe 
a motor car has to face. 

Now you will see just how much 
advantage accrues from the 98% 
smoother power- flow^ of Saxon 
"Six.- 

This well-known car of less-than- 
six cylinders, previously men- 
tioned, in repeated trials required 
30 seconds to reach a 43 miles per 
hour speed from a stock-still 
stand. 

Under the same conditions Saxon 
"Six" time and again duplicated 
this feat in 23 seconds. 

This shows 22% faster pick-up 
in favor of Saxon ** Six." 

This instance pictures with fair- 
ness, we believe, the inherent 
superiority of Saxon '* Six " over 
any other at less than $1200. 



And vibration induces fric- 
tion, which is, as of course 



Consider, if you will, 
a certain car of "less- 
than-six cylinders'* 



Saxon "Six" is $865; "Six" Sedan, 
$1250; "Four" Roadster, $495, 
f. o. b. Detroit. CanadiaH 
prices: "Six" Touring Car, 
$1175; "Six"Sedan. $1675; 
"Four" Roadster, $665. 
Prices of special export 
A BIG TOURIN G CAR FOR FIVE FBOFLB models— "Six," $915; 

"Four," $495. All prices 
are f. o. b. Detroit. (79^) 



SAXON "SIX" 



Saxon Motor Car Corporation, Detroit 



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rcSTABuaMED .aas:aiimiiinmillllin 



Investments Secured 
by Farms 

• Farm mortgages or farm mortgage 
bonds should be secured by properties 
in established localities with good 
climatic conditions, ample rainfall, 
sufficient supply of experienced labor, 
good transportation facilities, and 
proximity to market 

6% Farm Land Bonds 

secured by property in high cultivation 
in a section which has never known 
a crop failure. Conservative valua- 
tion of security over twice entire issue 
and net income largely in excess of 
all requirements. 

Send for Circular No. 944 D 

Peabo^, 
Hdnghleling&Co. 

(Established 1865) 
10 South La Salle Street, Chicago 



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i 



I 



I 



New York 

14 Wan Street 

Chicago 

ItfS. La SaUe Street 



Invest Your Surplus Funds in 

MUNICIPAL BONDS 

For business houses and individuals there is no investment so 
safe, so good in yield, so convenient, so readily marketable as 
Municipal Bonds. 

Municipals are the only securities^ besides Government bonds, 
accepted by the . United States Government to secure Postal 
Saving^ Deposits. 

Confidence of our cHents in us and the Ser*vtce we give them, have 
created a most extensive business and enviable reputation for the 
William R. Compton Company. We shall be pleased to serve you. 

Our Free Booklet N2 ,**The Premier Investment,'* gives com- 
plete information about Municipal Bonds. Write for it t<>-day. We 
offer Municipal Bonds in $1,000, $500 and $100 amounts netting 
4% to Syi% and free from Federal Income Tax. 

\ A^lliam R,fompton fpmpany 



Municipal Bonds 

**Omr a QwnrUr Ctntmry in TkU Bwinwm** 



St. Louis 

416 OUve Street 

Cincinnati 

112 Union Trust Bldff . 



i 



i 







Continued 


Safe 51^% 


Investment Buying 


Bonds 


is steadily diminishing 
the supply of standard 


Complete safety of principal. 
Prompt payment in cask. 


Railroad Bonds 


Choice of maturities— two to ten years. 




Widest diversification. 


available at attrac- 
tive prices. 


Stability in value. 

Reasonable assurance of market 


Upon request for Cir- 
cidw- AN.55, we shall 


These are among the merits of the first 


mortgage 3 j fo serial bonds, underwritten and 


be pleased to send our 
list of Railroad Bonds 
yielding 


safeguarded in accordance with the Straus 
Plan. Write for 


4.00% to 6.03% 






SM^STRAUS & CO. 


The National City 


Founded 16S2 Incorporated 1905 


Company 


150 Broadway Straua Building 
NEWYORK CHICAGO 


National City Bank Building 


Detroit Cincinnati Minneapolis San Francisco 


New York 


35 years without loss to any investor. 



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I hard game is the bath that follows it. For 
when you realize for the first time how warm 
that the cooling, soothing, refreshing qualities 

It feels grateful to the sweating skin and tired 
mder the rushing water removes every particle 
eaves the body aglow with health, and muscles 

ly without irritation to the skin that makes 
letes. In it quality and purity combine to 
ectly luider every conceivable condition. 



Wort 



IT FLOATS 



i! 



1 



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Vol. XXXI, No. 2 




February, 1917 




THE 

NATflONAL 
GEOGRAIPHflG 
AGAZH 




OUR FOREIGN-BORN CITIZENS 



ALTHOUGH the immigrants who 
/\ have flocked to our shores sinqe 
1 \ 1776 have mingled their blood 
with pre - Revolution strains until the 
American of unadulterated colonial an- 
cestry is the exception and not the rule; 
although a great political party was 
formed and the presidential campaign of 
1856 was fought with the immigration 
question as practically the paramount 
issue; although the coming of the Irish 
and of the eastern European each in turn 
stirred the nation, there never has been a 
time when the subject of our foreign-born 
population occupied such a deep place in 
the minds of the people as it does today. 
Should we have departed from our 
time-honored custom of making America 
a homeland for whoever loves freedom 
for himself and craves liberty for his 
children, whether he be literate or illit- 
erate? Would our polyglot population 
be a menace in war time, or would it, as 
we have proudly thought in the past, be 
fused into one liberty-loving, flag-defend- 
ing race ? And when the war is over and 
the world escapes from the horrible night- 
mare of blood and carnage and hate, will 
the consequent burdens drive hordes of 
people to America, as did the potato fam- 
ine in Ireland, the social and political un- 
rest in Germany in the decade preceding 
our Civil War, and other economic hard- 
ships in continental countries? 

TH^ MOST FREQUENTLY VETOED MEASURE 
IN AMERICAN HISTORY 

Never in the history of the American 
people has a measure been passed by 



Congress as often and vetoed by the 
President as many times as the immigra- 
tion bill recently enacted into law. Three 
Presidents of the United States have felt 
so keenly that the founders of the gov- 
ernment and their successors were right 
in holding that the lack of opportunity to 
learn to read and write should not bar an 
alien from freedom's shores, that they 
have overridden the will of four Con- 
gresses and have interposed their veto 
between the congressional purpose and 
the unlettered immigrant's desire. 

But Congress was strong enough at last 
to override the presidential veto, and so 
the immigration doctrines of a century 
and a quarter are changed and the prac- 
tices of generations are to be made over. 
Hereafter no one above the age of i6 
who cannot read and write may enter. 

The efi"ect of the literacy test applied 
to the immigration of the future may be 
shown by a few figures. More than one- 
fourth of all the immigrants admitted to 
the United States in the past two dec- 
ades who were over 14 could neither 
read nor write. Out of 8,398,000 ad- 
mitted in the ten years ending with 1910, 
2,238,000 were illiterate. And yet so rap- 
idly does illiteracy melt away that, add- 
ing to this number all the illiterates here 
before these came, there were only 
1,600,000 illiterate foreigners in the 
United States when the census of lOio 
was taken. 

Under a literacy test we will turn back 
one-fourth of the Armenians, two-fifths 
of the Serbians, Bulgarians, and Monte- 



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SCOTCH CHILDREN 



Photograph from Frederic C. Howe 



Taunted with the fact that in England oats were fed to horses and in Scotland to men, 
a famous Scot replied that England was famous for its horses and Scotland for its men. 
America knows how much it is indebted to Scotland and the Scotch-Irish. Nearly half of 
our Presiaents have been either Scotch or Scotch-Irish. 



negrins, more than a fourth of the Jews 
and Greeks, more than half of the South 
Italians, more than a third of the Poles 
and Russians, and a fourth of the Slo- 
vaks. 

Who can estimate our debt to immigra- 
tion? Thirty-three million people have 



made the long voyage from alien shores 
to our own since it was proclaimed that 
all men are born free and equal, and lib- 
erty's eternal fire was kindled first on 
American soil ! It is as if half the Ger- 
man Empire should embark for America, 
or all of England except the county of 



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Photograph from Frederic C. Howe 
FOUR LITTLE DUTCH KIDDIES JUST ARRIVED 

Generations of careful living such as is always necessary in a country of narrow bound- 
aries and expanding population has developed in the Dutch a frugality and a contentment 
with simple pleasures that cannot be excelled. 



Kent. It is as if all of the population of 
all of the States of the United States west 
of the Alississippi, plus that of Alabama, 
should have come bodily to America. 

History records no similar movement 
of population which in rapidity or vol- 
ume can equal this. Compared to it, the 
hordes that invaded Europe from Asia, 



great and enormous as they were, were 
insignificant. 

Of the 33,000,000 who have come 
more than 14,000,000 still live among us, 
and their children and children's children 
are now in good truth bone of our bone 
and blood of our blood. 

Not lone: aero America crossed the hun- 



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dred-million line in the number of its 
citizens, and it is interesting to note the 
composition of that population. 

To begin with, there are 11,000,000 col- 
ored people, including negroes, Indians, 
Chinese, etc. Then there are 14,500,000 
people of foreign birth among us. In ad- 
dition to these, there are 14,000,000 chil- 
dren of foreign-bom fathers and mothers 
and 6,500,000 children of foreign-born 
fathers and native mothers, or vice versa. 
When all of these have been deducted 
from the 100,000,000, only 54,000,000 
remain of full white native ancestry. 

NOTABLE PEOPLE OF FOREIGN STOCK 

Yet the 35,000,000 American people 
who are of foreign stock — that is, foreign 
bom or the children of a foreign-bom 
parent — include some of the most illus- 
trious citizens of our Republic. Even 
the President of the United States him- 
self has only one ancestor who was born 
in America, and the list is long and nota- 
ble of statesmen, captains of industry, 
leaders of finance, inventors, makers of 
literature and progress, who have strains 
of blood not more than one generation 
on this side of the sea. 

An examination of the statistics of 
American immigration shows that since 
the foundation of our government the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland have contributed 8,400,000 of her 
people and Germany more than six mil- 
lion. Ireland, with more than four mil- 
lion ; Great Britain, with a little less than 
four million, and Scandinavia, with some- 
thing less than two million, have, to- 
gether with Germany, contributed more 
than half of the total immigration to our 
shores since the beginning of the Revo- 
lutionary War. 

When we take the German immigra- 
tion of the United States between 1776 
and 1890 and compare it with that from 
other countries, a somewhat startling re- 
sult, and one usually unsuspected, is dis- 
closed. The total arrivals of aliens in 
those 114 years aggregated 15,689,000, of 
whom more than 6,000,000 were British 
and Irish and 5,125,000 were Germans, 
which shows that one alien out of every 
three arriving in America during more 
than a century of our existence was a 
German. Only the United Kingdom 
shows a greater proportion. 



Photograph from Frederic C. Howe 
TTPICAI, HEAD-DRESS OF ITALIAN WOMEN 

Since 1890 the trend has been very dif- 
ferent. With more than 17,000,000 im- 
migrant arrivals since that date, only 
1,023,000 have been Germans. If from 
this number a proper deduction is made 
for those who returned to their homeland 
and those who have died since their ar- 
rival, it will be seen that there are fewer 
than a million former subjects of the 
Kaiser in this country who have not been 
here more than twenty-six years. Of 
more than 8,000,000 people of German 
birth and immediate ancestry among us, 
less than i ,000,000 fail to have the back- 
ground of birth or long residence in 
America behind them. 

Ireland's gift to America 

It is interesting to note the other for- 
eign elements that have entered into the 
make-up of American population since 
1776. What a wealth of blood that won- 
derful little island, Ireland, has given us ! 
More Irish people have crossed the seas 
to become part of us than have remained 



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Photographs trom Frederic C Howe 
A RUSSIAN VEGKTARIAX A BAVARIAN PEASANT 



behind. It is remarkable that so small an 
island — smaller, indeed, than the State 
of Maine — could in a century and a half 
send us enough people to duplicate the 
present population of eleven of our States 
having an aggregate area as large as the 
United Kingdom, France, Germany, and 
Austria-Hungary together. 

Austria-Hungary stands next on the 
list of contributors to the immigrant 
stream that has flowed from Europe to 
America. Although Austro-Hungarians 
began to immigrate in considerable num- 
bers only when the arrivals from western 



Europe had begun to fall off, sufficient 
have coTne from the dual monarchy to 
populate the State of Texas to its present 
density. Italy has sent us enough of her 
people to duplicate the population of 
Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon, Ne- 
vada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New 
Mexico, while England's and Scotland's 
contribution, 3,889,000 in all, together 
with Ireland's 4.500,000, gives a total of 
8,389,000, or plenty to populate all of the 
States lying west of Texas and the Da- 
kotas. The Russians who have come to 
our shores number 3,419,000. They could 



102 



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Photograph from Frederic C. Howe 
CHILDREN FROM THE BALKAN STATES 

"Such pretty dollies as they do have in America! 'Course I'll have my picture taken if you 

let me hold that sweet Httle dollie!" 



replace one-half of the population of 
New England. 

Although the people of foreign birth 
constitute only one-seventh of the coun- 
try's population, they contribute nearly 
one-fourth (22 per cent) of the arm- 
bearing strength of the nation. At the 
last census many of the States had a 
greater number of foreign-born men of 
arm-bearing age than they had of native- 
ancestry citizens, among them Massachu- 



setts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New 
York, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, and North Dakota. Taking the 
States where those of foreign birth and 
their sons together constitute a major 
portion of the men between the ages of 
18 and 44, it will be found that the list 
includes the above States and the fol- 
lowing: New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, 
Michigan, South Dakota, Nebraska, Mon- 
tana, Idaho, Arizona, Utah, Nevada^ 



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Washington, and California — in all 20 
States. We have considerably over 20,- 
000,000 men of military age in the United 
States. 

the: immigrant's preferhxcc i^or city 

LIFE 

Another striking fact of our immigra- 
tion situation is the unusual preference 
of the foreign born and their children for 
the cities. Of the 35,000,000 foreign- 
stock whites Hving in the United States, 
approximately 23,000,000 live in the 
cities. In only 14 of the 50 leading cities 
of the country do the whites of full na- 
tive parentage constitute as much as half 
of the total population. Only one-fifth 
of the population of New York and Chi- 
cago is of native white ancestry. Less 
than a third of the populations of Bos- 
ton, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Detroit, Buf- 
falo, San Francisco, Milwaukee, New- 
ark, Minneapolis, Jersey City, Provi- 
dence, St. Paul, Worcester, Scranton, 
Paterson, Fall River, Lowell, Cambridge, 
and Bridgeport are of native ancestry. 

Conditions have played some curious 
pranks in the distribution of the immi- 
grant population in the United States. 
More than two-thirds of the Germans 
live between the Hudson and the Missis- 
sippi and north of the Ohio. The same 
is true of the Austrians, the Belgians, the 
Hungarians, the Italians, the Dutch, the 
Russians, and the Welsh. 

New York, Pennsylvania, and New 
Jersey have 47 per cent of the Austrians, 
34 per cent of the English, 30 per cent of 
the Germans, 54 pef cent of the Hun- 
garians, 45 per cent of the Irish, 58 per 
cent of the Italians, 56 per cent of the 
Russians, 34 per cent of the Dutch, and 
46 per cent of the Welsh in the United 
States. 

NINETEEN-TWENTIETHS OF OUR FOREIGN 
BORN CAME FROM COUNTRIES AT WAR 

An examination of the data at hand 
shows that nearly nineteen-twentieths of 
our foreign-born population come from 
the countries in Europe now at war. 
With such a surprising number of people 
among us who first beheld the light of 
day under flags now flying over Europe's 
battlefields, does it not speak well for our 
country's adopted children that there 
have been no more evidences of hyphen- 



photograph from Frederic C. Howe 
IN MATTERS OF COSTUME AMERICANIZA- 
TION OFTEN PROCEEDS ALI. BUT 
TOO RAPIDLY 

ism than the past thirty months have dis- 
closed ? 

The war in Europe has largely closed 
the gates of that continent to the emi- 
grant. But three short years ago Ellis 
Island, the greatest immigrant gateway 
in the world, was one of the busiest 
places on the face of the earth. The 
wheels of the great machine that carried 
the incoming alien through the doors of 
America turned fast and long. Morning, 
noon, and night, the men who manned 



105 



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Photographs from Frederic C. Howe 
A TURKISH BANK GUARD EVEN ALGERIA SENDS ITS QUOTA TO 

AMERICA 



this wonderful mechanism labored as sel- 
dom men have to work in order to keep 
the machine moving fast enough to take 
care of the vast flood of humanity pre- 
senting itself there for inspection and 
adoption. 

Now all is different. Military neces- 
sity must be served, and hundreds of 
thousands, perhaps millions, of those who 
would have come to man our ever-ex- 
panding industries are now on the battle- 
fields of Europe, some still surviving the 
awful avalanche of fire and steel, and 



others, alas, asleep in those last trenches 
where the unending truce of death has 
stilled the enmities of life! And so Ellis 
Island is a somewhat lonesome place to- 
day. The twelve hundred thousand who 
came in 191 4 are followed by the three 
hundred thousand of 1916. 

THE war's RELATION TO IMMIGRATION 

But what of the morrow of American 
immigration ? Will the war, whose mili- 
tary necessities all but stopped the immi- 
grant tide from Europe, be followed by a 



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IMMIGRANTS IN RAILWAY WAITING-ROOM 



Photograph by A. F. Sherman 
ELLIS ISLAND 



Having passed muster with the doctor and the inspector at the nation's gate, it has 
swung open to these new arrivals, and now they are in free America, ready to journey 
unhindered to their respective destinations. 



peace whose economic opportunities will 
have the same effect ? 

One searches the pages of history in 
vain for a satisfactory answer. The his- 
tory of past wars throws no certain light 
upon it. After our own Civil War, the 
South, burdened with debts, wanted a 
million things. But empty pocketbooks 
and poor credit form a combination that 
has httle buying power. And so the 
South, unable to solve its economic diffi- 
culties at once, had to sit by and see thou- 
sands of its people go into the North and 
West to start over again. The end of 
the Russo-Japanese War brought great 
hordes of Russians to our shores, eco- 
nomic necessity impelling them to leave 
their homelands. 

The Franco - Prussian War, on the 
other hand, sent only a normal number 
of French people to America as one of 
its aftermaths, and all the people who left 
Europe following the Napoleonic wars 
were fewer in number than those coming 



here in a single three-months* period of 
our normal immigration history. 

There are those who say that the rea- 
son the South could not rebuild after the 
Civil War was because it did not get the 
support of the Federal Government — a 
support which the governments of Eu- 
rope will give their people. They point 
out that none of the warring nations, 
however much they may owe, have bor- 
rowed as near to the margin of their 
credit as many Latin- American countries, 
and that people who would not buy their 
war bonds will take their peace obliga- 
tions readily. They point to the experi- 
ence of Baltimore and San Francisco to 
show how new prosperity and fresh re- 
sources can arise out of the ashes of 
calamity. 

SIX PANAMA CANALS A YEAR INTEREST 
CHARGE 

But the difference between an isolated 
city and practically a whole continent is 
too great for such an analogy to be sig- 



107 



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THIS ILLUSTRATION SHOWS 
IRELAND, 



Courtesy of U. S. Census Bureau 
WHERE OUR IMMIGRANTS FROM GERMANY, SCANDINAVIA, 
AND AUSTRIA-HUNGARY HAVE SETTLED 



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RUSSIA AND FINLAND 

THOUSANOa 

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ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, AND WALES 



CANADA AND NEWFOUNDLAND 

THOUSANDS 



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Courtesy o£ U. S. Census Bureau 
THIS ILLUSTRATION SHOWS WHERE OUR IMMIGRANTS FROM RUSSIA, ITALY, CANADA, 
AND GREAT BRITAIN HAVE SETTLED 



109 



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Photograph from Frederic C. Howe 
A LAPLAND WOMx\N 

nificant. Furthermore, no State, no na- 
tion, no continent has ever before stag- 
gered under under such an overwhelm- 
ing debt. If the war were to end now, 
its financial obligations alone, to say 
nothing of the devastation, would reach 
a total of $60,000,000,000. Think of a 
continent, with much of the flower of its 
brains and brawn either dead or maimed, 
and vast areas of its productive territory 
in ruins, facing a debt whose interest 
charges alone annually will equal the cost 
of six Panama canals ! And that conti- 
nent one which, before the war, sent us 
a million of its people every year because 
living was hard at home ! 

Whoever has stood at the gate at Ellis 
Island and watched the human tide surge 
through, and whoever has traveled among 
the peasants of Europe must realize how 
narrow before the war was the margin 
between their total income and their nec- 
essary outgo. Against these things must 
be matched the efficiency that the war 
has forced upon the people and the na- 
tions and the spirit of self-sacrifice it has 
engendered. 

America has always been a polyglot 
nation, although all tongues do finally 
melt into hers. It is said that twenty 



years after Hudson discovered Manhat- 
tan fourteen languages were spoken in 
New Amsterdam. The religious wars in 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
sent thousands and tens of thousands of 
French Huguenots, German Protestants, 
and English Puritans to our shores. One 
American-built vessel is said to have 
made 116 round trips between New York 
and Liverpool in nineteen years, during 
which time it brought 30,000 immigrants 
to America. 

A MAN VALUED AT FIFTY DOLLARS 

The first colonial charter granted by 
England for the purposes of new settle- 
ment was conditioned on homage and 
rent. This was the Virginia charter for 
the land extending from Cape Fear to 
Halifax, the rent of which was to be one- 
fifth of the net produce of gold, silver, 
and copper. The land aristocracy was 
promoted by the provision that a planter 
might add fifty additional acres of land 
for every person he would transport into 
A^irginia at his own cost. When the Pil- 
grims were outfitting, each immigrant 
was rated at a capital of ten pounds. No 
divisions of profits was to be made for 
seven years. 

In the early days the people who came 
were largely of the sturdy pioneer type. 
A great many of them could neither read 
nor write, while most of those who could 
were able to do so only in a limited way. 
The transpositions in many names in 
America came from the carelessness or 
inability of public officials in spelling 
men's names straight in deeds, wills, and 
other documents. 

GOVERNOR BERKELEY OPPOSED THE 
PRINTING PRESS 

In 1718 three hundred and nineteen 
Scotch-Irish empowered their agent to 
negotiate terms with the Governor of 
^Massachusetts for their settlement in that 
colony. Ninety-six per cent of the whole 
number wrote their names out in full. It 
has been said that at that time in no other 
part of the British Empire could such 
a proportion of men miscellaneously se- 
lected have written their names. Twenty- 
six per cent of the German male immi- 
grants above sixteen years of age who 
came to America in the first half of the 
eighteenth century made their marks. 



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OUR FORRIGX-BORX CITIZENS 



111 



Different communities took different 
views as to education in those early 
times. In Connecticut every town that 
did not keep school for at least three 
months in the year was liable to be fined. 
In X'irginia, Governor P>erkeley thanked 
God that there were no free schools, nor 
printing presses, and expressed the hope 
that they would not arrive during his 
century, since he believed that learning 
brought disobedience, heresy, and sects 
into the world, and printing developed 
them. At one time in Virginia, out of 
12,455 male adults who signed deeds and 
depositions, 40 per cent made their 
marks. 

Immigration to the United States was 
not large in the early history of the coun- 
try. Europe did not look upon the young 
republic with any favor, and the people 
of that continent did not regard America 
as offering attraction for the ambitious 
home-seeker. Between 1776 and 1820, 
a period of 44 years, less than 250,000 
immigrants are believed to have arrived 
in the United States — an average of 
fewer than 6,000 a year. 

The students of immigration differenti- 
ate between the immigrants from north- 
western Europe and those from southern 
and eastern Europe by calling them "old" 
and "new" respectively. The "old" im- 
migrant arrived with his family and came 
with a desire to make America their 
home. Only sixteen out of every hun- 
dred of the "old" immigrants returned to 
Europe, and more than two-fifths of 
those who came were females. On the 
other hand, thirty-eight out of every hun- 
dred of the "new" immigrants return to 
» their native lands, while only one-fourth 
of those who come are females. It will 
be seen from this that proportionately 
more than twice as many of the "new" 
immigrants return to Europe as of the 
"old," while the number of women 
among the "new" is vastly smaller. 

labor's dert to immigratiox 

Northwestern Europe has given us 
17.000,000 immigrants, where southern 
and eastern Europe have sent us 15,000,- 
000. 

The labor supply which immigrants 
have brought to the nation constitutes an 



incalculable debt. Seven out of every 
ten of those who work in our iron and 
steel industries are drawn from this 
class ; seven out of ten of our bituminous 
coal miners belong to it. Three out of 
four of those who work in packing towns 
were born abroad, or are children of 
those who were born abroad ; four out of 
five of those who make our silk goods, 
seven out of eight of those employed in 
our woolen mills, nine out of ten of those 
who refine our petroleum, and nineteen 
out of twenty of those who manufacture 
our sugar are immigrants or children of 
immigrants. 

The story of Calumet, in the northern 
part of Michigan, shows how much of a 
monopoly the immigrant has in the min- 
ing industry in America. It is a city of 
45,000, who live and work in the copper 
mines under Lake Superior. Twenty dif- 
ferent races share in its population, and 
not even Babel heard more tongues. 
Sixteen nationalities are represented on 
its school-teaching force. In New York 
the foreigners colonize, as on the East 
Side ; in Calumet it is the native popula- 
tion that colonizes, the American colony 
there being known as Houghton. 

Americans sometimes are inclined to 
complain about the lowering of wage 
standards through the advent of the 
"new" immigrant. Where once the na- 
tive citizen and the home-builder from 
northwestern Europe had to engage in 
ditch digging and in dirty and dangerous 
occupations, the coming of the "new" 
stream of humanity has released them 
from such task and has permitted them 
to take higher positions in the industrial 
world. The Irish, German, Welsh, and 
Scandinavian within our gates, along 
with the native American working-man, 
are now able to give their time almost 
wholly to work in the field of skilled 
labor, and as overseer for the "new" im- 
migrant in the industrial centers. The 
latter has been the ladder on which his 
predecessor has climbed. 

MOVING INTO BETTER QUARTERS 

Go to New York or any other principal 
city, and you will find that the quarters 
that were once occupied by the Germans, 
the Irish, the Enghsh, and the Scandina- 



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Photograph from Frederic C. Howe 

MONTENEGRINS IN THEIR NATIVE COSTUMES 

Mountaineers by birth and environment, the people of Montenegro are a tall, upstanding, 
sinewy race. Physical perfection must be inherited, but education may be acquired, and the 
Montenegrin bequeaths the one and a desire for the other to his American-born posterity. 



vians are now occupied by the Italians, 
the Slavs, and the immigrant Jew. Their 
coming has permitted the foreign born 
who came in earlier decades to command 
better positions and to live under better 
conditions than they otherwise could have 
done. 

From whatever country the immigrant 
comes, lie is, as a rule, above the average 
of the working classes in his community ; 
for money is scarce in southern and east- 
em Europe, and the peasant who can ac- 
cumulate enough to bring him to the 
United States must have some purpose in 



life, a fair share of ambition, and no little 
ability to practice self-denial. The great 
majority have come from the small vil- 
lages in the rural districts. 

That the alien's children are less illit- 
erate than he is; that they commit less 
crime than he does, and have less ten- 
dency to insanity than he is shown by the 
statistics gathered by the United States^ 
Bureau of the Census and by the Immi- 
gration Commission of 1911. 

Furthermore, these statistics prove that, 
his grandchildren are about as free from 
illiteracy as the American child of na- 



113 



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Photograph by Frederic C. Howe 

CHILDREN OF ALL NATIONS ON FXLIS ISLAND ROOF GARDEN 

Many of the poor little boys and girls who arrive at Ellis Island do not know how 
American kiddies play, but the roof-garden romps one may see every fair day show that 
they are apt at learning. 



tive lineage, and even less disposed to in- 
sanity than the child whose ancestry may 
be traced to colonial times. In everything 
that goes to show good citizenship the 
grandchild of the immigrant stands the 
statistical test as well as the child of na- 
tive parentage. How many immigrants 
we shall receive in the future no one can 
say. But, assuming that we have no im- 
migration, and that the United States will 
^row as fast during the three centuries 



ahead of us as Europe grew from 1812 
to 191 2, we \y'\\\ have a population of 
nearly 500,000,000 in 2217, or approxi- 
mately 166 to the square mile. 

Agricultural students have declared 
that the soil of the United States has a 
sustaining power of 500 to the square 
mile. Assuming that one-third of the 
country is occupied by waste land, we 
have room on this basis for 900,000,000 
people. 



114 



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Photograph from Frederic C. Ilowe 

NORWEGIAN CIULDRKN IN PEASANT COSTUME 

Of all the countries of the earth, only Ireland has contributed a greater proportion of 
ner sons and daughters to the development of America than Norway. We now have one- 
third as many Norwegians and their children as the homeland itself. 



115 

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Photograph from Frederic C. Howe 

A FINNISH FAMILY 

There are about six thousand Finns in the United States. Hardy, self-reliant, industrious, 
they make good citizens of the type that Scandinavia sends us. 



ii6 

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Photograph from Frederic C. Howe 

KOUMAXIAN SUCPIIERDS 

Three-fifths of all the Roumanians who have come to America were farm laborers in 
the old country ; yet it is rare, indeed, that one is found in the United States elsewhere than 
in the factory, the mine, and the railroad construction gang. 



117 

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Photograph from Frederic C. Howe 

A SLOVAK MOTHER AND CHILDREN 

The Slovaks are an agricultural people, occupying all of northern Hungary except 
Ruthenian territory. Nearly a half million of them have come to America, though many 
return to Europe. They came^so rapidly in the years before the war that whole villages 
were all but depopulated, and wages increased loo per cent in many places as a result of 
their departure for America. 



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Photograph from Frederic C, Howe 
A RUSSIAN MOTHER AND HER FLOCK 
'*No, I was not sleeping. I just couldn't help sneezing when the camera shutter clicked.' 



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Photograph from Frederic C. Howe 
A GREKK SOLDII-R OF THE ROYAL GUARD 

The Greek shoe-shining emporium and the Greek popular-priced restaurants have served 
to distribute the Hellenic immigrants better than almost any other race of the "new" immigra- 
tion; and distribution is solving the problem of their assimilation. 



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Pliotogra|)h from Frederic C. Howe 
AN ITALIAN BOV DRESSED AS A SOLDIER 

Who knows but that the blood of a Caesar, an Anthony, or a Seneca may course through 
the veins of this little future American? 



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photograph from Frederic C. Howe 

TIIREK COSSACKS AT ELLIS ISLAND 

These warriors of the Russian plain make sturdy Americans — as industrious in peace as 

they were intrepid in battle 



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A RUSSIAN GIANT, SEVEN FEET NINE INCHES TALL, WITH TWO MEN OF NORMAL SIZE 

The Russians who come to America are a sturdy, hardy, seasoned race, but not all of them 
are as large as this giant, who can look down upon 99.9999 per cent of all mankind 



130 

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PRIZES FOR THE INVENTORY 



Some of the Problems Awaiting Solution 
By Alexander Graham Bell 



WHAT a glorious thing it is to 
be young and have a future be- 
fore you. To the graduates, 
especially, of a scientific technical school 
like the McKinley Manual Training 
School the outlook for the future looks 
bright and promising. 

When I was a young man the institu- 
tions of learning, the higher schools and 
colleges, paid a great deal more attention 
to the teaching of Latin and Greek than 
to the study of science ; they made schol- 
ars rather than scientists. 

The war has changed all that, and the 
man of science will be appreciated in the 
future as he never has been in the past. 
Knowledge is power ; and we now realize 
that the nation that fosters science be- 
comes so powerful that other nations 
must, if only in self-defense, adopt the 
same plan. It is safe to say that scien- 
tific men and technical experts are des- 
tined in the future to occupy distin- 
guished and honorable positions in all the 
countries of the world. Your future is 
assured. 

WE PROORKSS FROM CANDLES TO ELEC- 
TRICITY IN ONE LIFETIME 

I said it was a glorious thing to be 
young; but it is also a glorious thing to 
be old and look back upon the progress 
of the world during one's own lifetime. 

Now, I don't mean to insinuate that I 
am old, by any means ! I had in mind an 
old lady, who is now living in Baltimore, 
at the age of one hundred and seven- 
she is now in her one hundred and eighth 
year — with mental faculties unimpaired. 
Possessed of a bright and active mind, 
she is able, from her own personal recol- 

♦An address to the graduating class of the 
McKinley Manual Training School, Washing- 
ton, D. C, February i, 1917, revised for the 
National Geographic Magazine. 



lections, to look back upon a whole cen- 
tury of progress of the world. 

She was born in England and came 
over to America when quite young; and 
it is rather interesting to know what 
brought the family here. The father was 
a wholesale candlemaker in London and 
his business was ruined by the introduc- 
tion of gas ! 

Gas as an illuminant is now being re- 
placed by electric lighting ; and there are 
many people in this room who saw the 
first electric lights. \ 

I, myself, am not so very old yet, but I 
can remember the days when there were 
no telephones. 

I remember, too, very, distinctly when 
there were no automobiles hero. There 
were thousands of horses,' and Washing- 
ton, in the summer-time, smelled like a 
stable. There were plenty of flies, and 
the death rate was high. 

Now, it is very interesting and instruc- 
tive to look back over the various changes 
that have occurred and trace the evolu- 
tion of the present from the past. By 
projecting these lines of advance into the 
future, you can forecast the future, to a 
certain extent, and recognize some of the 
fields of usefulness that are opening up 
for you. 

Here we have one line of advance from 
candles and oil lamps to gas, and from 
gas to electricity: and we can recognize 
many other threads of advance all con- 
verging upon electricity. We produce 
heat and light by electricity. We trans- 
mit intelligence by the telegraph and tele- 
phone, and we use electricity as a motive 
power. In fact, we have fairly entered 
upon an electrical age, and it is obvious 
that the electrical engineer will be much 
in demand in the future. Those of you 
who devote yourselves to electrical sub- 
jects will certainly find a place and room 
to work. 



131 



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PRIZES FOR THE INVENTOR 



133 



FROM THE "hobby-horse" TO THE 
MOTOR-CYCLE OF I30 MILES SPEED 

Then there is that other line of ad- 
vance typified by the substitution of au- 
tomobiles for horse-drawn vehicles. In 
line with this is the history of the bicycle. 
First, we had the old French "hobby- 
horse," the ancestor of all our bicycles 
and motor-cycles. Upon this you rode 
astride, with your feet touching the 
ground, and propelled the machine by the 
action of walking. Then came the old 
"bone-racker," in which your feet were 
applied to pedals attached to a crank- 
shaft on the front wheel of the machine. 

This was superseded by a bicycle with 
an enormous front wheel, about six feet 
in height, with a little one behind — a most 
graceful machine, in which the rider ap- 
peared to great advantage. There was 
none of that slouchy attitude to which 
we are so accustomed now. The rider 
presented a graceful and dignified ap- 
pearance, for he had perforce to sit up- 
right, and even lean a little backward, to 
avoid the possibility of a header! The 
large wheel also appeared behind and the 
small one in front, and a tumble over 
backward was felt to be less disasti;ous 
than a header forward. It was much 
safer to alight upon your feet behind 
than to be thrown out forward upon your 
head. 

Then came the "safety bicycle" — a re- 
turn to the form of the old "hobby- 
horse," but not a "bone-racker," because 
provided with rubber tires. In this ma- 
chine the power was transmitted from 
the feet to the wheels by means of gear- 
ing. This is still the form of the modern 
bicycle; but a gasoline motor has been 
added to do the work of the feet, giving 
us the power of g6ing faster than rail- 
road trains, on the xgmmon roads of the 
country, and without any physical exer- 
tion at all. I believe the speed record 
upon race-tracks stands at about 137 
miles an hour. 

MANY CHANCES FOR THE INVENTOR 

On every hand we see the substitution 
of machinery and artificial motive power 
for animal and man power. There will 
therefore be plenty of openings in the 



future for young, bright mechanical en- 
gineers working in this direction. 

There is, however, one obstacle to fur- 
ther advance, in the increasing price of 
the fuel necessary to work machinery. 
Coal and oil are going up and are strictly 
limited in quantity. We can take coal 
out of a mine, but we can never put it 
back. We can draw oil from subterra- 
nean reservoirs, but we can never refill 
them again. We are spendthrifts in the 
matter of fuel and are using our capital 
for our running expenses. 

In relation to coal and oil, the world's 
annual consumption has become so enor- 
mous that we are now actually within 
measurable distance of the end of the 
supply. What shall we do when we have 
no more coal pr oil ! 

, Apart from water power (which is 
strictly limited) and tidal and wave power 
(which we have not yet learned to util- 
ize), an,d the employment of the sun's 
rays directly as a source of power, we 
have little left, excepting wood, and it 
takes at least /twenty-five years to grow a 
crop of trees, ^.^ ^ 

POSSIBIL'iXlES OH ALCOHOL 

There is, however, one other source of 
fuel supply which may perhaps solve this 
problem of the future. Alcohol makes a 
beautiful, clean, and efficient fuel, and, 
where not intended for consumption by 
human beings, can be manufactured very 
cheaply in an indigestible or even poison- 
ous form. Wood alcohol, for example, 
can be employed as a fuel, and we can 
make alcohol from sawdust, a waste 
product of our mills. 

Alcohol can also be manufactured from 
corn stalks, and in fact from almost any 
vegetable matter capable of fermentation. 
Our growing crops and even weeds can 
be used. The waste products of our 
farms are available for this purpose and 
even the garbage from our cities. We 
need never fear the exhaustion of our 
present fuel supplies so long as we can 
produce an annual crop of alcohol to any 
extent desired. 

The world w^ill probably depend upon 
alcohol more and more as time goes on, 
and a great field of usefulness is opening 
up for the engineer who will modify our 



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machinery to enable alcohol to be used 
as the source of power. 

Evolution in science has not always 
been accomplished by a series of gradual 
changes, each small in itself, but cumu- 
lative in effect. There have also been 
sudden "mutations" followed by advances 
of knowledge by leaps and bounds in a 
new direction, and the establishment of 
new and useful arts never before even 
dreamed of by man. 

Although Clerk - Maxwell and others 
had long ago enunciated the theory that 
light and electricity were vibratory move- 
ments of the so-called "ether" or lumi- 
niferous medium of space, differing 
chiefly in frequency from one another, 
the world was not prepared for the ex- 
periments of Hertz, who demonstrated 
the reality of the conception and actually 
measured the wave-length of electrical 
discharges. Still less was it prepared for 
the discovery that brick walls and other 
apparently opaque objects were as trans- 
parent to the Hertzian waves as glass is 
to light. These experiments formed the 
basis for numerous other startling dis- 
coveries and practical applications for 
the benefit of man. 

WE CAN SEE OUR OWN HEARTS BE.\T 

Flesh proved to be transparent to the 
Roentgen rays, and the world was fairly 
startled by the first X-ray photographs 
of the bones in the living human hand. 
Now physicians and surgeons use X-ray 
lamps to enable them to see bullets and 
other objects imbedded in flesh, and have 
even devised means of observing the 
beating of the heart and the movements 
of other internal organs without pain to 
their patients. 

Other developments of the Hertzian 
waves have resulted in the creation of the 
new art of wireless telegraphy. Most of 
us, I think, can remember the first S.O.S. 
signals sent out by a ship in distress and 
the instant response from distant vessels 
equipped with the Marconi apparatus. 
Then came the rush of vessels to the 
scene of disaster and the rescue of the 
passengers and crew. 

Developments of wireless telegraphy 
are proceeding with great rapidity, and 
no man can predict what startling discov- 



eries and applications may appear in the 
near future. Here may be an opening 
for some of you, and I know of no more 
promising field of exploration to recom- 
mend to your notice. 

HONOLULU EAVESDROPS WHILE WASHING- 
TON TALKS TO PARIS 

Already privacy of communication has 
been secured by wireless transmitters and 
receivers "tuned," so to speak, to respond 
to electrical vibrations of certain fre- 
quencies alone. They are sensitive only 
to electrical impulses of definite wave- 
length. The principle of sympathetic vi- 
bration operating tuned wireless receivers 
has also been applied to the control of 
machinery from a distance and the steer- 
ing of boats without a man on board. 
The possibilities of development in this 
direction are practically illimitable, and 
we shall probably be able to perform at 
a distance by wireless almost any mechan- 
ical operation that can be done at hand. 

Still more recently wireless telegraphy 
has given birth »to another new art, and 
wireless telephony has appeared. Only 
a short time ago a man in Arlington, Va., 
at the wireless station there, talked by 
word of mouth to a man on the Eiffel 
Tower in Paris, France. Not only that, 
but a man in Honolulu overheard the 
conversation ! The distance from Hono- 
lulu to the Eiffel Tower must be 8,goo 
miles at least — one-third the distance 
around the globe — and this achievement 
surely foreshadows the time when we 
may be able to talk with a man in any 
part of the world by telephone and with- 
out wires. 

OUR MOST CHERISHED THEORIES UPSET BY 
A WOMAN 

The above illustrations exhibit what we 
might call ''mutations" of science; but 
the greatest of all these mutations was 
the discovery that opened the twentieth 
century, and I may add for the encour- 
agement of our young lady graduates 
that it was made by a woman. I allude 
to the discovery of radium by Madame 
Curie of Paris. 

Radium has recently upset our most 
cherished theories of matter and force. 
The whole subject of chemistry has to be 



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rewritten and our ideas of the constitu- 
tion of matter entirely changed. Here is 
a substance which emits light and heat 
and electricity continuously without any 
apparent source of supply. It emits light 
in. the dark, and in a cool room maintains 
itself constantly at a higher temperature 
than its environment. 

It emits the Roentgen rays without any 
-electrical machinery to produce them, and 
we have now discovered emanating from 
that substance several different kinds of 
rays of the unknown or X-ray variety; 
and we now recognize the Alpha, Beta, 
and Gamma rays as distinct varieties, 
having different properties. 

Though radium behaves like an ele- 
mentary substance, it is found in process 
of time to disintegrate into other elemen- 
tary substances quite different from the 
•original radium itself. Helium is one of 
its products, and, after several transmu- 
tations, it apparently turns into lead! 

Our forefathers believed firmly in the 
transmutation of metals, one into the 
other, and vainly sought a means of 
transmuting the baser metals into gold. 
' Radium shows that there is some foun- 
-dation for the transmutation theory, and 
that at least some of the so-called ele- 
ments originate by a process of evolution 
from other elements quite distinct from 
themselves. Where this line of develop- 
ment is going to lead is a problem indeed, 
and radium still remains the great puzzle 
of the twentieth century. 

DYING OF THIRST IN A FOG 

I cannot hope to bring to your atten- 
tion all of the problems that are awaiting 
solution, but I think it may be interesting 
to you to hear of a few upon which I 
myself have been working. What inter- 
-ests me will probably interest you, and 
perhaps some of you may carry out the 
experiments to a further point than I 
have done. 

You know that although I am a lover 
of Washington, yet, when the summer- 
time comes, I go just as far away from 
Washington as I can in the direction of 
the North Pole. I have a summer place 
in Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, 
ivhere I can always be sure of cool, fresh 



breezes, while you poor people are broil- 
ing here in Washington. 

A good many of the people on Cape 
Breton Island are fishermen, who make 
their living on the Banks of Newfound- 
land ; and one of the men employed upon 
my place had two uncles who were fisher- 
men on the Banks. One day they left 
their vessel in a dory to look after their 
nets, and while they were gone a fog 
came up and they were unable to find 
their way back. The dory drifted about 
in the ocean for many days and was then 
picked up with their dead bodies on 
board ; they had perished from exposure 
and thirst. 

Now it is not a very unusual thing on 
the Banks of Newfoundland for fisher- 
men to be separated from their vessels by 
fog. Every year dories are picked up at 
sea, and the occupants are often found 
to be suffering terribly from thirst. They 
have found "water, water, everywhere, 
but not a drop to drink." Now, it seemed 
to me that it was really a reflection upon 
the intelligence of man that people should 
die of thirst in the midst of water. 

There is the salt water of the sea, and 
all you have to do is to separate the salt 
from the water and drink the water. 
That is one problem. 

CONDENSING THE WATER VAPOR IN TH^ 
HUMAN BREATH 

But there is also the fog which pre- 
vents you from reaching your vessel, and 
what is fog but fresh water in the form 
of cloud. Therefore all you have to do 
is to condense the fog arid drink it. That 
is another problem. 

But there is still another alternative. 
Water vapor exists in your breath. Why 
not condense your breath and drink it? 
This problem is easily solved; just 
breathe into an empty tumbler and at 
once you have a condensation of moisture 
on the inside. If you have the patience 
to continue the process for a few min- 
utes, you will soon find clear water at the 
bottom of the tumbler. 

I took a bucket of cool salt water from 
the sea, put it down in the bottom of a 
boat between my knees, and then put into 
it a large empty bottle the size of a beer 
bottle, which floated in the water with 



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138 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



the neck of the bottle resting on the edge 
of the bucket. Then I took a long glass 
tube, over a meter in length, and put one 
end into the bottle and the other end in 
my mouth. I sat back comfortably in a 
chair with the tube between my lips and 
inhaled through the nostrils and blew 
down through the tube. This process 
was so easily performed that I found I 
could read a book while it was going on. 

I therefore continued the experiment 
for over two hours, and then I found a 
considerable amount of water in the bot- 
. tie, quite enough for a moderate drink. It 
might not be very much for us, but if 
you were dying of thirst on the open sea 
you would be glad enough to get what 
was there. I tasted the water and found 
it quite fresh, although I must confess it 
did not have a very palatable taste ; in 
fact, the water condensed from my breath 
had a taste of — of tobacco ! But I don't 
suppose that would have mattered much 
to a man wtio was dying of thirst. 

I have also made experiments to con- 
dense drinking water from fog. A large 
pickle jar was provided and two long 
glass tubes were let down through the 
cork. The jar was then submerged at 
the wharf, with the two pipes sticking up 
above the surface. The experiment was 
then made to pump fog down through 
one of the pipes, the other serving as a 
vent. This was accomplished by means 
of a pair of bellows provided with a 
spiral spring between the handles to keep 
them apart. This apparatus was fastened 
on top of the wharf. A heavy log of 
wood was floated upon the water below, 
connected by means of a string with the 
upper handle of the bellows. 

THE CORK THAT FAILED 

The waves moved this log up and down 
and worked the bellows. The nozzle was 
connected to one of the pipes leading to 
the submerged empty jar and at once the 
bellows began to pump the fog into the 
jar. It continued pumping all night, and 
I let it go on pumping all of the next day, 
because there was to be a meeting of men 
on my place the next evening, and I 
thought it would be interesting to open 
the jar at the men's meeting. With great 
ceremony the jar was removed to the 



warehouse and was found to be nearly 
full of beautiful clear water. A British 
naval officer was present and offered to 
be the first to taste the water condensed 
from fog. He took a good mouthful of 
it, while the men gathered around in great 
excitement and shouted, "Fresh or salt ?" 

He did not reply, but made a face. He 
then rushed for the window, spat the 
water out, and exclaimed, "Salt!" Now, 
this failure did not by any means prove 
that the process was wrong, but simply 
showed that it might be advisable in the 
future, if you use a cork, to employ one 
that fits tightly and does not leak. The 
one I used had a hole in it, I found out 
afterward. 

An involuntary experiment relating to 
the condensation of fresh water from the 
sea was made in Cape Breton. A man 
fell overboard and was rescued, with his 
clothes wringing wet with sea-water. 
There was a cold wind blowing and he 
took refuge in a little cabin on the boat 
covered with a tarpaulin awning. In a 
little time he began to steam. The heat 
of his body warmed the sea-water in his 
clothes, and there actually arose a cloud 
of steam which condensed on the cold 
tarpaulin and ran down the sides. It was 
fresh water, and if it had been collected 
in a jar there would have been quite 
enough for a drink. 

"we do not boil the sea" 

On large ocean steamers all the drink- 
ing water used is condensed from the 
sea; and we somehow or other have the 
idea that it is necessary to boil the sea- 
water, or at least have it very hot, and 
then condense it by means of ice or some- 
thing very cold. Now, that is not neces- 
sary at all. Just think of this: All the 
fresh water upon the globe comes from 
the sea, and we do not boil the sea. Water 
vapor is given off by the sea everywhere 
and at all temperatures ; it is even evap- 
orated from ice and snow. Of course, 
the warmer the sea-water is, the greater 
is the amount of water vapor thrown 
out ; but water vapor is everywhere pres- 
ent, and the main point in condensation 
IS that it is removed from the surface by 
the action of the wind and carried to 
cooler places, where condensation occurs 



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BRINGING INTO SAN DIEGO HARBOR A LOG RAFT CONTAINING 5,000,000 FlvET 

The raft has journeyed down the coast from Portland, Oregon, where this type of raft was 

invented 



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in the form of cloud or rain. No great 
amount of heat is required to produce 
evaporation and no great amount of cold 
is necessary to effect condensation. 

Such considerations as these may lead 
to some cheap industrial process for the 
manufacture of fresh water from the sea. 
All that is necessary is a current of air 
over your salt water to remove the water 
vapor collected there, and then the carry- 
ing of this confined current into a cool 
reservoir where the water may condense. 

TlII^ TIIKRMOS-BOTTLE IDKA APPLIED TO A 
WATER TANK 

As little or no artificial heating is re- 
quired, a great saving can be effected in 
the matter of fuel. It is extraordinary 
how wasteful we are in our means of 
producing heat and in retaining it after 
it has been produced. It is safe to say 
that a great deal mor.e heat goes up the 
chimney than we utilize from a fire. 
Then when we cook our -dinner or boil 
water, we allow the heat to escape by 
radiation and the things soon *cool. 

A cosy for our teapot, a'fireless cooker 
for our dinner, and a thermos bottle for 
our heated liquids show how much heat 
may be conserved by simply taking pre- 
cautions to prevent radiation. Our hot- 
water boilers are not protected by cover- 
ings of asbestos paper or other insulating 
material, so that the water gets too cool 
for a warm bath very soon after the fire 
is put out. 

I have made experiments to ascertain 
whether some of the heat wasted by radi- 
ation could not be conserved by insulat- 
ing materials, with rather astonishing re- 
sults. A large tank of zinc was made 
which would hold a great deal of water. 
This was inclosed in a box very much 
larger than itself, leaving a space of about 
three or four inches all around, which 
was filled with wool. I then found that 
hot water put into that tank cooled al- 
most as slowly as if it had been a thermos 
bottle. 

I then attempted to save and utilize 
some of the heat given off by a student's 
lamp. A couple of pipes were led out of 
this insulated tank and placed in a hood 
over the lamp. Thus a circulation of 
water was effected. The water heated by 



the lamp found its way up into the tank 
and produced a sensible rise of tempera- 
ture there. Next day when the lamp was 
again lighted it was found that the water 
in the tank still felt slightly warm. It 
had not lost all of the heat it had received 
at the former heating. When the lamp 
was again put out, the temperature of the 
tank was considerably higher than on the 
former occasion. 

This process of heating was continued 
for a number of days, and it became ob- 
vious that a cumulative effect was pro- 
duced, until at last the water in the tank 
became too hot to hold the hand in, and 
it was determined to see how long it 
would hold its heat. The temperature 
was observed from time to time, and 
more than a week after the lamp had 
been put out the water was still so warm 
that I used it for a bath. 

CUTTING DOWN THE CHIMNEY TAX 

Since then this insulated tank has been 
taken up to the attic of my house in Nova 
Scotia and has been installed there as a 
permanent feature. I have the habit of 
working at night and like to take a warm 
bath .somewhere about 2 o'clock in the 
morning. Unfortunately the heating ar- 
ratigenients in the house have given out 
long before that hour and only cold water 
comes 'from the kitchen boilers. I con- 
nected the insulated tank with an iron 
pipe let down my study chimney in the 
hope of savings and utilizing some por- 
tion of the heat that escaped up the chim- 
ney every time the fire was lighted. 

I have had this apparatus in use for 
over a year, and find that at any time of 
the day or night I am always sure of a 
wariyi bath from the heat that used to be 
\vasted in going up the chimney. In this 
case there was only one straight pipe, so 
that the amount of heat recovered bears 
only a small proportion to that still 
wasted. A coil of pipe in the chimney or 
special apparatus there would, of course, 
be much more efficient. 

I think that all the hot water required 
for the use of a household, and even for 
warming a house, could be obtained with- 
out special expenditure for fuel by utili- 
zation of the waste heat produced from 



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the kitchen fire and the heat given off by 
the illumipants employed. 

Of course, water can only be heated to 
the boiling temperature; but there are 
many liquids that can be heated to a very 
much higher temperature than this with- 
out boiling. I took a tumbler of olive oil 
and heated it by means of a thin iron 
wire connected with a voltaic battery. I 
placed in the tumbler of oil a test-tube 
filled with water. In a short time the 
water was boiling, but the oil remained 
perfectly quiescent. If you store up hot 
oil instead of water you will have at your 
command a source of heat able to do all 
your cooking, and even produce steam 
power to work machinery. 

We have plenty of heat going to waste 
in Washington during the summer-time, 
for the sun's rays are very powerful, and 
we do not use the roofs of our buildings 
except to keep off the rain. What wide 
expanses of roof are available in all our 
large cities for the utilization of the sun's 
rays! Simple pipes laid up on the roof 
and containing oil or some other liquid 
would soon become heated by the sun's 
rays. The hot oil could be carried into 
an insulated tank and stored. You could 
thus not only conserve and utilize the 
heat that falls upon the tops of your 
houses, but effect some cooling of the 
houses themselves by the abstraction of 
this heat. 

THE REASON WE CANNOT KEEP OUR 
HOUSES COOL 

I was once obliged, very much against 
my will, I can assure you, to remain in 
Washington right in the midst of the 
summer, and the thought kept constantly 
recurring to my mind, If man has the 
intelligence to heat his house in the win- 
ter-time, why does he not cool it in the 
summer ? We go up to the Arctic regions 
and heat our houses and live. We go 
down to the Tropics and die. In India 
the white children have to be sent home 
to England in order to live, and all on 
account of the heat. The problem of 
cooling houses is one that I would recom- 
mend to your notice, not only on account 
of your own comfort, but on account of 
the public health as well. 

Now, I have found one radical defect 



in the construction of our houses that 
absolutely precludes the possibility of 
cooling them to any great degree. You 
will readily understand the difficulty 
when you remember that cold air is spe- 
cifically heavier than warm air. You can 
take a bucket of cold air, for example, 
and carry it about in the summer-time 
and not spill a drop ; but if you make a 
hole in the bottom of your bucket, then, 
of course, the cold air will all run out. 

Now, if you look at the typical tropical 
houses, you will find that they are all 
open on the ground floor. Supposing it 
were possible to turn on a veritable Ni- 
agara of cold air into a tropical house, it 
wouldn't stay there five minutes. It 
would all come pouring out through the 
open places below and through the win- 
dows and doors. If you want to find your 
leakage places, just fill your house with 
water and see where the water squirts 
out! 

I began to think that it might be pos- 
sible to apply the bucket principle to at 
least one room in my Washington home, 
and thus secure a place of retreat in the 
summer-time. It seemed to be advisable 
to close up all openings near the bottom 
of the room to prevent the escape of cold 
air and open the windows at the top to 
let out the heated air of the room. 

MY OWN EXPERIMENTS 

Now, it so happens that I have in the 
basement of my house a swimming tank, 
and it occurred to me that since this tank 
holds water, it should certainly hold cold 
air; so I turned the water out to study 
the situation. The tank seemed to be 
damp and the sides felt wet and slimy. 

I reflected, however, that the condensa- 
tion of moisture resulted from the fact 
that the sides of the tank w^ere cooler 
than the air admitted. Water vapor will 
not condense on anything that is warmer 
than itself, and it occurred to me that if 
I introduced air that was very much 
colder than I wanted to use, then it would 
be warming up in the tank and becoming 
dryer all the time. It would not deposit 
moisture on the sides and would actually 
absorb the moisture there. 

I therefore provided a refrigerator, in 
which were placed large blocks of ice 



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PRIZES FOR THE INVENTOR 



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covered with salt. This was placed in 
another room at a higher elevation than 
the tank, and a pipe covered with asbestos 
paper was employed to lead the cold air 
into the tank^ 

The first effect was the drying of the 
walls, and then I felt the level of the cold 
air gradually rising. At last it came over 
my head. The tank was full, and I 
found myself immersed in cool air. I 
felt so cool and comfortable that it 
seemed difficult to believe that Washing- 
ton stood sizzling outside. I climbed up 
the ladder in the swimming tank until my 
head was above the surface, and then 
found myself breathing a hot, damp, 
muggy atmosphere. I therefore speedily 
retreated into the tank, where I was per- 
fectly cool and comfortable. 

Guided by this experience, I tried an- 
other experiment in my house. I put the 
refrigerator in the attic and led the cold 
air downward through a pipe covered 
with asbestos into one of the rooms of 
the house. The doors were kept shut and 
the windows were opened at the top. 
The temperature in that room was per- 
fectly comfortable, about 65 degrees. 

At that time the papers were speaking 
of some ice plant that had been installed 
in the White House and congratulated 
the President upon a temperature of only 
80 degrees when the thermometer showed 
100 degrees outside. At this very time I 
enjoyed in my house a temperature of 65 
degrees (the ideal temperature), with a 
delicious feeling of freshness in the air. 
Even when the air had risen to the same 
temperature as the rest of the house, as 
measured by a thermometer, the room 
still felt cool, because the air was drier, 
thus promoting perspiration that cooled 
the skin. 

SELLING COLD AIR IN PARIS 

In this connection I may say that there 
is a very interesting cooling plant in 
Paris, France, run by the Societe de TAir 
Comprime. Very many of the cafes and 
restaurants in Paris have cold rooms for 
the storage of perishable provisions, and 
these rooms are cooled by compressed air 
supplied by this company. 

The plant consists of large pipes laid 
down under the streets of Paris, with 



small branch pipes leading into the cafes 
and restaurants. At a central station 
steam-engines pump air into the pipes and 
keep up a continuous pressure of from 
four tQ five atmospheres. As there are 
several hundred kilometers of these pipes 
under the streets of Paris, they form a 
huge reservoir of compressed air at the 
ground temperature. 

In the cooling room of a cafe they 
simply turn a little cock and admit the 
compressed air into the room. A gas 
meter measures the amount of air ad- 
mitted and charges are made accordingly. 

The compressed air, by its expansion, 
produces great cold, and the cooling effect 
is still further increased by allowing the 
air to do work during the process of ex- 
pansion. Dumb-waiters, elevators, and 
even sewing-machines are thus run very 
economically in connection with the sys- 
tem by means of compressed-air engines. 

WILL OUR CITIES BE ARTIFICIALLY 
COOLED? 

Now, it appears to me that this process 
might very easily be developed into a 
plan for the cooling of a whole city* 
You would simply have to turn a cock 
in your room to admit the fresh air ; and 
if you then take precautions to prevent 
the cold air from running away by having 
your room tight at the bottom and open 
at the top, you could keep your room cool 
in the hottest summer weather. 

I must confess that there is one other 
subject upon which I would like to say a 
few words before closing. 

One of the great evils attending our 
civilization is the extreme congestion of 
the population into the larger cities, and 
one of the great problems of the future 
is how to spread the population more 
equally over the land. 

The congestion is caused by difficulties 
of transportation ; for, of course, it costs 
much more to send a person to a distant 
place than to one near at hand. 

But did you ever think of this : that it 
also costs more to send a letter to a dis- 
tant place than to one near at hand, and 
yet a two-cent stamp will carry your 
letter anywhere within the limits of the 
United States, and even beyond. 



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146 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



COUIyD POSTAGE STAMPS BE USED IN 
TRANSPORTATION OF PERSONS? 

So many more letters are sent to places 
near at hand than to the remoter parts of 
the country that an average rate of post- 
age very slightly in excess of the cost for 
short distances pays for the deficit on the 
longer routes. Now, the thought that I 
would like to put into your minds is this : 
Why could not the postage stamp princi- 
ple be applied to the transportation of 
persons and goods? Why should it not 
be possible to charge an average rate for 
transportation instead of a rate increas- 
ing with the distance traveled ? 

We have already begun to apply this 
principle in municipalities. We no longer 
charge by distance in our large cities, and 
a five-cent fare will carry you anywhere 
you want to go within the limits of the 
municipality Involved. As a consequence 
we find in these cities the poorer people 
abandoning tenement houses and going 
out into the country to live, where their 
children have room to grow. This relief 
of congestion pervades all classes of the 
community, and you see homes springing 
up everywhere in the suburbs of our 
great cities. 

The benefits resulting from a uniform 
rate of transportation increase in geo- 
metrical proportion to the distance trav- 
eled, and the possible radius of travel 
should therefore be extended to the great- 
est practicable degree. 
- It may well be doubted whether it will 
ever be possible to buy a ticket for any- 
where in the United States at an .average 



rate ; but it might be practicable to apply 
the principle to some at least of the 
smaller States. A citizen of Rhode 
Island, for example, might for a very 
small amount be enabled to travel any- 
where within the limits of that State. 

It would certainly be advisable to re- 
duce our charges for transportation to 
the minimum amount possible. This can 
be done, first, by adopting the principle 
of an average rate, and, secondly, by re- 
ducing the actual cost of the transporta- 
tion itself. 

WILL AERIAL LOCOMOTION SOLVE THE 
ROAD QUESTION? 

Now, it is noteworthy that the main 
element of cost resides not so much in 
the vehicles and locomotives employed as 
in the cost of the roads on which they 
have to run; it is this element that in- 
creases with the distance. 

The railroads, for example, have to ex- 
pend millions of dollars in the construc- 
tion of railroad tracks; and what would 
the automobile be worth without a good 
road on which to travel? Water trans- 
portation is much cheaper than railroad 
transportation, chiefly because we do not 
have to build roads in the sea for our 
ships. 

I will conclude with this thought : that 
a possible solution of the problem over 
land may lie in the development of aerial 
locomotion. However much money we 
may invest in the construction of huge 
aerial machines carrying many passen- 
gers, we don't have to build a road. 




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PhoCoffraph by Hany F. Blanchard 

THE APPLE OF DISCARD 
Nature's gift to the world's small boy is an appetite all out of proportion to his capacity. This 
"future president" evidently has repaired to the apple cellar and made inroads upon the wmter s supply 
of pippins. From the expression on his face, preliminary pangs in the region of his waistband are inducmg 
solemn reflection upon the enormity of his offense. 



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Photograph by Hufo firehm* 

A "CHILD OF SORROW AND WOE": MEXICO 
Without t tqutre metl, t soft bed or a clean suit, what wonder that the bright tun of the Mexican 
highlands and the multi-hued birdt and flowen cannot ditpel the darkness of distress, or drive out the 
woe-begone look from the peon child's eye? 



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Plwtofraph by A. W. Cntlcr 

OF COURSE GRANDPA DOESNT KNOW WHO 
The old-ftthioned gtme of '* Guest Who" it tt univeftti at childhood ittelf. Thit typical old Eng- 
lith fanner wat probably thinking about cutting hit clover on the morrow, when a pair of little handt 
were clapped over hit eyet and a well-known little voice piped, "Who it it, granddad?" 



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Copyriiht by Doiuld Mac L«Wi 

THE LIGHT AND SHADE OF THE DESERT: BISKRA, ALGERIA 
Eveiy day like the preceding one, every yetr a duplicate of the one that went before, every century 
no different from the one it succeeded; the world may move elsewhere, but who can say that it moves in 
Biskra? 



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A SAHARA JACK HORNER c,p,rH,h. b, d«-m »... u.* 



When told that hit picture wtt to visit the tix hundred thousand homes of the American boys 
_irls who love the Geographic, he tried to look as dignlfieif 
solemn as a priest. And somehow he seems to have succeeded. 



and girls who love the G^graphic, he tried to look as dignified as a judge, as wise as a lawgiver, and as 
eno 



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Copyricht by RolMid W. Reed 

LITTLE CHIEF PACK-A-BACK GRAVELY INSPECTS THE CAMERA 
This little scion of the Ojibwav tribe, who lives up in northern Minnesou, will some day be t *'bis 
chief" of his people, but now he is onlv a small papoose who travels on his mother's back. In his restricted 
position, tightly wrapped to prevent his squirming out, he can move only his head and crane his neck to 
see the strange "paleface" with a queer black box on three legs — the camera which takes his picture. 



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"WELL BACK" IN SOUTH AMERICA 
The younff Venezuelan attride the hind quarters of hit patient palfrey guides his mount with one 
rein of rope. The sleepy appearance of the charger indicates that not much restraint is necessary and 
suggests that in order to be guided he must first be surted. 



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Photoffttph by Chariet Martin 

LOOK OUT, OR OFF GOES YOUR HEAD! 
This youthful hetdhunter of the Philippine Itltndt is a son of t chief of the warlike Ilongote tribe, 
and he lives in the mountains of northern Luzon. The greater part of his costume is worn upon Kis head, 
and the little omamenu that look like trout flies are really tassels of white horsehair, fiighly prizea 
by these people. Indeed, strands of horsehair are often more desirable than money in these mountain 
fastnesses, and burden carriers who have earned a dollar by swinsing along difficult trails under a load of 
eighty pounds for three days have been known to refuse coins in favor of horsehairs. 



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Photocnpb by DoaaM ICae L«l«li 

"FEEDING THE MOTHERLESS LAMB" 
This little Auttritn bojr, who lives ftr up in the Tyi^l^^n Alps, has his cosset in fond embrtce. It 
looks like "forcible feeding," but perhaps the supply of milk is to be conserved for another meal and there 
is difficulty in retrieving the bottle. 



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BOHEMIA AND THE CZECHS 

By Ales Hrdlicka 
Curator op Physicai. Anthropology in the U. S. National Museum 



IN THEIR memorable answer to the 
President of the United States on 
the conditions under which they 
would conclude peace with Germany, the 
AlHes announced, as one of these condi- 
tions, the liberation of the Czecho-Slo- 
vaks from Austria-Hungary. 

This introduces on the international 
forum a most interesting new factor, of 
which relatively little has been heard dur- 
ing the war and which in consequence 
has largely escaped, in this country at 
least, the attention which it deserves. 

The same natural law of preservation 
that rules over individuals rules also over 
nations^-only the strongest survive the 
struggle for existence. Not the strongest 
in numbers, nor even physically, but the 
richest in that healthy virginal life-cur- 
rent which suffers under defeat, but is 
never crushed ; which may be suppressed 
to the limit, yet wd\s up again stronger 
and fresher than ever, the moment the 
pressure relaxes. 

One such nation is surely, it seems, 
that of the Czechs or Bohemians. A 
1 ,500-year-long li f e-and-death struggle 
with the race who surround it from the 
north, west, and south, with a near-burial 
within the Austrian Empire for the last 
three centuries, have failed to destroy the 
little nation or break its spirit. 

As President Wilson has said: "At 
least two among these many races [of 
Austria], moreover, are strenuously, 
restlessly, persistently devoted to inde- 
pendence. No lapse of time, no defeat 
of hopes, seems sufficient to reconcile the 
Czechs of Bohemia to incorporation with 
Austria. Pride of race and the memories 
of a notable and distinguished history 
keep them always at odds with the Ger- 
mans within their gates and with the gov- 
ernment set over their heads. They de- 
sire at least the same degree of autonomy 
that has been granted to Hungary." * 

*The State, by Woodrow Wilson, revised 
edition, 1911, page 740. 



The Czechs are now more numerous, 
more accomplished, more patriotic than 
ever before, and the day is inevitably ap- 
proaching when the shackles will fall and 
the nation take its place again at the 
council of free nations. 

WHO ARE THE BOHEMIANS 

The Czechs* are the westernmost 
branch of the Slavs, their name being de- 
rived, according to tradition, from that 
of a noted ancestral chief. The term Bo- 
hemia was applied to the country prob- 
ably during the Roman times and was 
derived, like that of Bavaria, from the 
Boii, who for some time before the Chris- 
tian era occupied or claimed parts of 
these regions. 

Nature has favored Bohemia perhaps 
more than any other part of Europe. Its 
soil is so fertile and climate so favorable 
that more than half of the country is cul- 
tivated and produces richly. In its moun- 
tains almost every useful metal and min- 
eral, except salt, is to be* found. It is the 
geographical center of the European con- 
tinent, equally distant from the Baltic, 
Adriatic, and North seas, and, though in- 
closed by mountains, is so easily accessi- 
ble, because of the valleys of the Danube 
and the Elbe rivers, that it served, since 
known in history as the avenue of many 
armies. 

Beside Bohemia, the Czechs occupy 
Moravia and adjacent territory in Silesia. 
The Slovaks, who show merely dialectic 
differences from the Czechs, extend from 
Moravia eastward over most of northern 
Hungary.! 

The advent of the Czechs is lost in an- 
tiquity; it is known, however, that they 
cremated their dead, and cremation bur- 
ials in northeastern Bohemia and in Mo- 
ravia antedate 500 B. C. Their invasions 
or spread southwestward, so far as re- 

♦The Cz pronounced like ch in cherry. 
t See "Map of Europe," published by the 
Geographic Magazine, August, 1915. 



163 



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Photograph from Francis P. Marchant 
the: famous astronomical clock of THH: old town hall of PRAGUE, DATING 

FROM 1490 A. D. 

In front of the town hall, during the fierce reprisals of Ferdinand II, after the heroic 
efforts of the Bohemians had been foiled at the battle of White Mountain, forty-eight promi- 
nent nobles and citizens of Prague met torture and the block with great fortitude. The 
astronomical clock at the entrance, with figures of our Lord and the Apostles, is one of the 
oldest in Europe. Inside the building are the dungeons where the patriots were confined 
before execution. 



164 

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BOHEMIA AND THE CZECHS 



165 



corded in tradition or history, were of a 
peaceful nature, following the desolation 
and abandonment of the land through 
wars. 

Like all people at a corresponding stage 
of development, they were subdivided 
into numerous tribes which settled differ- 
ent parts of the country, and the names 
of some of these clans, with remnants of 
dialectic, dress, and other characteristic 
differences, persist even to this day. 

Their documentary history begins in the 
seventh century, at which time they al- 
ready extend as far south as the Danube. 
They are agricultural and pastoral peo- 
ple, of patriarchal organization. Their 
government is almost republican, under a 
chief, elected by an assembly of repre- 
sentatives of the main classes of the peo- 
ple. Later this office develops into that 
of hereditary kings, whose assumption of 
the throne must nevertheless be in every 
instance ratified by the national diet. 
The nation possesses a code of formal 
supreme laws, and the people are noted 
for their physical prowess, free spirit, 
love of poetry, and passionate jealousy 
of independence. 

CHRISTIANITY ACCEPTED 

In the ninth century the pagan Czechs 
accept Christianity, with Slav liturgy, 
which becomes at once one of their most 
cherished endowments, as well as a 
source of much future hostility from 
Rome. The various tribes become united 
under the Premysl Dynasty, begun by the 
national heroine Libussa, with her plow- 
man husband, and lasting in the male line 
until the first part of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. 

Under their kings the Czechs reach an 
important position among the European 
nations. They rule, in turn, over large 
parts of what are now Austrian prov- 
inces, and briefly even over Hungary, 
Poland, and Galicia. But their fortune 
varies. From the time of Charlemagne 
they struggle, often for their very exist- 
ence, with their neighbors, irritated by 
their presence, their racial diversity, and 
their riches. 

The first recorded war with the Ger- 
mans dates from* 630, when the Frank 



Dagobert endeavors by force of arms to 
impose vassalage on the Czechs, but suf- 
fers defeat; and from this time on the 
Bohemian history is replete with records 
of fighting with the Germans. How the 
nation escaped annihilation must remain 
a marvel of history. It is sometimes re- 
duced to almost a German vassal ; yet it 
is never entirely overcome, and rises 
again and again to assert its individuality 
and independence. 

GERMANS COLONIZE BOHEMIA 

Some of the Bohemian kings, under 
political and other influences, permit, and 
even invite, settlements of Germans on 
the outskirts of Bohemia. This is the 
origin of the German population of the 
country, which has played and still plays 
such a large part in its politics. 

The latter part of the thirteenth cen- 
tury is a most critical period of Bohemia. 
Under Otakar II, one of its ablest kings, 
the country has reached the acme of its 
power. It extends from Saxony to the 
Adriatic, and Vienna is its second capital. 
Many of the German principalities are its 
allies and the king comes near to being 
called to head the Holy Empire. 

But Rudolph of Habsburg is elected to 
this office, and from the moment of the 
advent of the house of Habsburg com- 
mence Bohemia's greatest misfortunes. 
The only offense of the Bohemian king is 
that he is Slav, but that, with the jealousy 
of his power, the democratic institutions, 
and the wealth of his country, which con- 
tains the richest mines of silver in Eu- 
rope, is sufficient. Great armies, German 
and Hungarian, are raised against him; 
finally he is treacherously slain in battle, 
his kingdom torn apart, and Bohemia is 
ravished and reduced almost to a "pos- 
session" or a fief of the Empire. 

Yet the wound is not mortal, the nation 
IS too strong ; it rises again, and within a 
few decades, under Otakar's son, regains 
Its independence and much of its former 
power. In 1306, however, the last Bo- 
hemian king of the great Premysl family 
is slain by an assassin, and there begins 
a long period of dynastic difficulties, 
which become in time the main cause of 
Bohemia's downfall. 



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BOHEMIA AND THE CZECHS 



167 



A GODSEND TO HIS COUNTRY 

The next Bohemian ruler of some note 
is John of Luxembourg, married to Eliza- 
beth, the last princess of the Premysl 
house, and killed, fighting for France, at 
the battle of Crecy, on the Somme 
(1346). The knightly John does little 
for Bohemia, but he gives it Karel 
(Charles IV), his and Elizabeth's son, 
who proved a god-send to the country. 

In Bohemian history he is known as 
"the father of his country." Under his 
long, wholesome, patriotic, and peace- 
ful reign (1347-1378) the whole nation 
revives and strengthens. Independence 
of the country, except for the honorable 
connection with the Roman Empire, is 
fully reestablished. Education, art, and 
architecture thrive. The University of 
Prague is founded (1348) on the basis 
of the high seat of learning established a 
century before by Otakar. The medicinal 
waters of Karlovy Vary (Carlsbad) are 
discovered and the city of the same name 
rises on the site ; and Prague, as well as 
other cities, are beautified. 

Charles is elected Emperor of the Ro- 
mans in 1348, and Bohemia stands "first 
in the world in power, wealth, progress, 
and liberty." The excellent relations of 
the country with England culminate in 
1382 in the marriage of Richard II with 
Anne of Bohemia. 

THE MARTYRDOM OF JOHN HUSS 

But Charles is succeeded by a weak 
son, and it is not long before Bohemia 
suflFers again from its old enemies. 

A great national and religious leader 
arises in the person of John Huss. But 
Rome excommunicates John Huss and 
accuses him of heresy. He is called to 
report to the Council at Constance and 
leaves with a written guarantee of safe 
conduct from Sigismund, the king and 
emperor, which, however, proves a "scrap 
of paper." Huss is not permitted to ade- 
quately defend the truth, nor to return ; 
he is thrown in prison ; his teachings are 
condemned; and July 6, 141 5, he is mar- 
tyred by being burnt at the stake. The 
very ashes are ordered collected and cast 
into the Rhine, lest even they become 
dangerous. 



The shock of the death of Huss and of 
his fellow-reformer, Jeronym, burnt a 
little later, fire Bohemia with religious 
and patriotic zeal and lead to one of the 
most wonderful chapters in its and the 
world's history, the Hussite Wars. A 
military genius arises in Jan Zizka, and 
after him another in Prokop Holy; a new 
system of warfare is developed, includ- 
ing the use of some frightful weapons 
and of movable fortifications formed of 
armored cars ; and for fifteen years wave 
after wave of armies and crusaders from 
all Europe, operating under the direction 
of Rome, Germany, Austria, and Hun- 
gary, are broken and destroyed, until re- 
ligious and national freedom seem more 
secure. 

As an eventual result and after many 
serious internal difficulties of religious 
nature, another glorious period follows 
for Bohemia, both politically and cultur- 
ally, under the king George Podiebrad 
(1458-1471). One of their enemies of 
this period. Pope Pius II (^neas Syl- 
vius) cannot help but say of them: "The 
Bohemians have in our times by them- 
selves gained more victories than many 
other nations have been able to win in all 
their history." And their many other 
enemies find but little more against 
them. 

Xo Inquisition, no evil of humanity, 
has ever originated in Bohemia. The ut- 
most reproach they receive, outside of 
the honorable "heretic," is "the hard 
heads" and "peasants." Few nations can 
boast of as clean a record. 

Bohemia's fatefui. hour 

The fateful period for Bohemia comes 
in the sixteenth century. The people are 
weakened by wars, by internal religious 
strifes. A fearful new danger threatens 
central Europe — the Turks. In 1526 the 
Bohemian king, Ludvik, is killed in a bat- 
tle with the Turks, assisting Hungary; 
and as there is no male descendant, the 
elective diet at Prague is influenced to 
oflfer the crown of Bohemia, under strict 
guarantees of all its rights, to the hus- 
band of Ludvik's daughter, Ferdinand of 
Habsburg, archduke of Austria. 

Hungary, too, joins the union, and the 
beginning of the eventual empire of 



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Photograph by EJrdelyi 
A SLOVAK BRID^ AND GROOM 

Some peasant women wear huge boots like the Wellington pattern, doubtless comfortable 
and protective against weather, but lacking in the grace traditionally expected in feminine 
footgear. 



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Photograph by Kdgar K. Frank 

POWDER TOWER, AT PRAGUE, BOHEMIA 

There was a time when Shakespeare's shipwreck on the shores of Bohemia, described in 
'^Winter's Tale," was a possibility, as the dominions of King Premysl Ottokar were washed 
by the Baltic and the Adriatic seas. A stone thrown at Prague, it has often been said, 
carries a fragment of history (see page 165). 



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Photograph by D. W. Iddings, Keystone \'iew Co. 
GENI-RAL VIEW O^ PRAGUE FROM THE PETRTN HILL 



Austria has been effected. Continuous 
wars with the Turks and a terrible plague 
further weaken the Czechs. 

Ferdinand proves a scourge. Rehgious 
persecution and then general oppression 
of Bohemia follow. The freely chosen 
king becomes tyrant and before long the 
greatest enemy of Bohemia. Backed by 
the rest of his dominion, by Rome and 
Spain, he tramples over the privileges of 
Bohemia ; depletes its man-power as well 
as treasury ; by subterfuge or treachery 
occupies Prague and other cities, and 
follows w^ith bloody reprisals and con- 
fiscations, which lead to an era of ruth- 
lessness and suffering such as the coun- 
try has not experienced in its history. 
The weakened state of the country allows 



of no effective protest, and of its former 
allies or friends none arc strong enough 
to offer effective help. 

THE TVKAXXV OF FIIRDINAXD 

Yet even worse was to come from the 
Mabsburgs, the association with whom 
for Bohemia was from the beginning of 
the greatest misfortune. During the 
reign of Ferdinand's immediate succes- 
sors there is a breathing spell for the 
Czechs; but in 1616 another Ilabsburg, 
Ferdinand II, again under force of cir- 
cumstances, is elected king of Bohemia, 
only to prove its greatest tyrant. Within 
two years the I>ohemians are in open 
revolt, and in another year the king is 
deposed. 



170 



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Photograph from R. D. Szalatnay 

A BOHEMIAN PEASANT GIRL WORKING ON A PIECE OF EMBROIDERY 

Many of the Czech as well as Slovak embroideries are ethnological documents as well as 

most interesting works of art 



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BOHEMIA AND THE CZECHS 



175 



The stranger elected in his place, 
Frederick of the Palatinate, son-in-law 
of the King of England, however, proves 
an incompetent weakling. The Czech 
armies are disorganized, and November 
8, 1620, the main force of 20,000 is de- 
feated at Bila Hora, near Prague, by an 
army of Germans, Spaniards, Walloons, 
Poles, Cossacks, and Bavarians. 

The following part of the Bohemian 
history should be read in detail by all its 
friends — ^by all friends of humanity. It 
is a most instructive, though most grue- 
some, part of the history, not merely of 
Bohemia, but of Europe, of civilization. 
In Bohemia itself it is a period of con- 
centrated fiendishness under the banner 
of religion, and of suffering, of thirty 
years duration. Beginning with whole- 
sale executions, it progresses to the 
forced exile of over 30,000 of the best 
families of the country, with confiscation 
of their property, and to orgies of de- 
struction of property and life. 

Under the leadership of fanatics, every 
house, every nook, is searched for books 
and writings, and these are burned in the 
public squares "to eradicate the devil" of 
reformation. Rapine reigns, until there 
is nothing more to burn, nothing to take, 
and until three-quarters of the population 
have gone or perished — a dreary monu- 
ment to the Habsburg dynasty, to the 
status of mankind in the 17th century. 

Had not Germany itself been ravaged 
by the religious wars thus kindled, this 
period would probably have been the last 
of the Czechs ; as it was, there were not 
enough Germans left for colonizing other 
countries. Yet many came in the course 
of time, as settlers. German becomes 
the language of commerce, of courts, of 
all public transactions; the university is 
German, and in schools the native tongue 
finds barely space in the lowest grades. 

Books have been burnt, educated pa- 
triotic men and women driven from the 
country, memories perverted. It would 
surely seem that the light of the nation 
would now, if ever, become extinct. And 
it becomes obscured for generations — yet 
is not extinguished. The roots of the 
stock prove too strong and healthy. 

The people sleep for 150 years, but it 
is a sleep of rest, not death — a sleep heal- 



ing wounds and allowing of a slow gath- 
ering of new forces. 

BOHEMIA REAWAKENED 

Toward the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury the Czech language is almost wholly 
that of the untutored peasant. But the 
time of quickening approaches. First 
one cell, one nerv^e, one limb of the pros- 
trate body revives ; then others. The his- 
tory of the nation is resurrected and 
proves an elixir of life; to learn it is 
to a Czech enough for a complete awak- 
ening. But the awakening period be- 
comes one of constant struggle against 
all the old forces that would keep him 
down ; yet step by step he advances, over 
prisons and gallows. 

Literature, science, art arise again; 
journalism begins to develop. The uni- 
versity is regained ; Prague, the "mother" 
of Bohemian cities, is Tegained, and 
others follow. Education reaches a higher 
level ultimately than anywhere else in 
Austria. A great national society of So- 
kols (*' falcons") is formed to elevate the 
people physically, intellectually, and mor- 
ally. 

Bohemian literature, music, art, science 
come against all obstacles to occupy again 
an honorable position among those of 
other nations. 

Agricultural and techhical training 
progresses until the country is once more 
the richest part of the empire. Finally 
journalism has developed until, just be- 
fore the war, there are hundreds of Czech 
periodicals. The Czech language is again 
heard in the courts, in high circles, in the 
Austrian Reichstag itself; and, though 
still crippled, there is again a Bohemian 
Diet. 

Where after the Thirty Years' War 
there were but a few hundred thousands 
of Czechs left, there are now in Bohemia, 
Moravia, and Silesia alone seven mil- 
lions; besides which there are over two 
million Slovaks in the adjacent area 
under Hungary. 

Such is the very brief and imperfect 
abstract of the history of the Czech peo- 
ple, who see once more before them the 
dawn of liberty which they so long cher- 
ished. 



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176 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



WHAT HAVE THE BOHEMIANS ACCOM- 
PUSHED AS A. NATIONALITY? 

It may be well to quote on this subject 
a paragraph from an American author, 
Robert H. Vickers (History of Bohemia, 
8% Chicago, 1894, p. 319) :* "The fixed 
rights, the firm institutions, and the un- 
failing gallantry of Bohemia during 
eight hundred years had constituted a 
strong barrier against the anarchy of the 
darkest ages. The manly independence 
and the solicitude for individual political 
rights always exhibited by the Bohemian 
people have rendered them the teachers of 
nations; and their principles and parlia- 
mentary constitution have gradually pen- 
etrated into every country under heaven. 

"They protected and preserved the 
rights of men during long ages when 
those rights were elsewhere unknown or 
trampled down. Bohemia has been the 
birthplace and the shelter of the modern 
politics of freedom." 

But Bohemia has also been for centu- 
ries the culture center of central Europe. 
Its university, founded in 1348, at once 
for the Czechs, Poles, and Germans, not 
only antedated all those in Germany and 
Austria, but up to the Hussite wars was, 
with that of Paris, the most important of 
the continent. In 1409, when the Ger- 
man contingent of the university, failing 
in its efforts at controlling the institution, 
left Prague to found a true German uni- 
versity at Leipzig, the estimates of the 
number of students, instructors, and at- 
tendants who departed average over 
10,000. 

WYCLIEFE ENCOURAGES THE CZECHS 

Sigismund, the emperor and deposed 
king of Bohemia, in writing of it, in 1416, 
to the Council of Constance, says : "That 
splendid University of Prague was 
counted among the rarest jewels of our 
realm. . . . Into it flowed, from all 
parts of Germany, youths and men of 
mature years alike, through love of vir- 
tue and study, who, seeking the treasures 
of knowledge and philosophy, found 
them there in abundance." 

Last, but not least, Bohemia led in the 

*See also W. S. Monroe, Bohemia and the 
Czechs, Boston, 1910. 



great struggle for freedom of thought, 
religious reformation. Encouraged by 
the writings of WycliflFe, in England, and 
by such meager sympathy from conti- 
nental Europe as they could obtain in 
those dark times, the Czech puritans, re- 
gardless of the dire consequences which 
they knew must follow, rose in open, bold 
opposition to the intellectual slavery in 
which nearly the whole of Europe was 
then held. They paid for this with their 
blood, and almost with the existence of 
the nation; but Luther and a thousand 
other reformers arose in other lands to 
continue on the road of liberation. 

For a small nation, not without the 
usual human faults, and distracted by 
unending struggles for its very existence, 
the above contributions to the world dur- 
ing the dark age of its rising civilization, 
would seem sufficient for an honorable 
place in history. 

THE CHARACTERISTICS OE THE CZECHS 

As to the modern achievements of the 
nation, they follow largely in the foot- 
steps of the old. Notwithstanding the 
most bitter struggle for every right of 
their own, the Czechs have extended a 
helpful hand to all other branches of the 
Slavs, in whose intellectual advance and 
solidarity they see the best guarantee of 
a peaceful future. They have eittended 
their great organization Sokol, which 
stands for national discipline, with phys- 
ical and mental soundness, among all the 
Slavic nations, and they are sending 
freely their teachers over the Slav world, 
and this while still under the Habsburgs. 

To attempt to define the characteristics 
of a whole people is a matter of difficulty 
and serious responsibility even for one 
descended from and well acquainted with 
that people. Moreover, under modern 
conditions of intercourse of men and na- 
tions, with the inevitable admixtures of 
blood, the characteristics of individual 
groups or strains of the race tend to be- 
come weaker and obscured. 

Thus the Czech of today is not wholly 
the Czech of the fifteenth century, and to 
a casual observer may appear to differ 
but little from his neighbors. Yet he 
differs, and under modern polish and the 
more or less perceptible effects of cen- 



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Photograph from Francis P. Marchant 

THE TYN CHURCH OF PRAGUE (FORMERLY HUSSITE CHURCH) 

Prague is also known as "the city of hundred towers (or steeples)"; but the towers are now 
lifeless; their great sonorous bells have been confiscated for Austrian cannon 



177 

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Photograph by A. W. Cutler 

SLOVAKS AT POSTYEN ATTENDING A CELEBRATION OF MASS ON SUNDAY MORNING 

Thero being no room in the church, these devout people take part in the services outside; 
even when the ground is wet and muddy they kneel thereon 



178 

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BOHEMIA AND THE CZECHS 



179 



turies of oppression, is still in a large 
measure the Czech of the old. 

He is kind and with a stock of native 
humor. He is musical, loves songs, 
poetry, art, nature, fellowship, the other 
sex. He is an intent thinker and restless 
seeker of truth, of learning, but no apt 
schemer. He is ambitious, and covetous 
of freedom in the broadest sense, but 
tendencies to domineering, oppression, 
power by force over others, are foreign 
to his nature. He ardently searches for 
God and is inclined to be deeply religious, 
but is impatient of dogma, as of all other 
undue restraint. 

He may be opinionated, stubborn, but 
is happy to accept facts and recognize 
true superiority. He is easily hurt and 
does not forget the injury ; will fight, but 
is not lastingly revengeful or vicious. 
He is not cold, calculating, thin-lipped, 
nor again as inflammable as the Pole or 
the southern Slav, but is sympathetic and 
full of trust, and through this often open 
to imposition. 

His endurance and bravery in war for 
a cause which he approved were prover- 
bial, as was also his hospitality in peace. 

He is often highly capable in lan- 
guages, science, literary and technical 
education, and is inventive, as well as in- 
dustrial, but not commercial. Imagina- 
tive, artistic, creative, rather than frigidly 
practical. Inclined at times to melan- 
choly, brooding, pessimism, he is yet deep 
at heart for ever buoyant, optimistic, 
hopeful — hopeful not of possessions or 
power, but of human happiness, and of 
the freedom and future golden age of not 
merely his own, but all people. 

COMENIUS — OXK OF THE GREAT MEN OF 
ALL TIME 

Every nation has its local heroes, local 
geniuses, but these mean little for the rest 
of the world. Bohemia had a due share 
of such among its kings, reformers, gen- 
erals, and especially writers; but it also 
gave the world many a son whose work 
was of importance for humanity in gen- 
eral and whose fame is international. 
Not a few of these were exiles or erpi- 
grants from the country of their birth, 
who, having settled permanently abroad, 
are only too readily credited to the coun- 



try that gave them asylum. Germany 
and Austria, as the nearest geographic- 
ally and with a language that the Czech 
youth were forced to learn, received most 
of such accessions; but some reached 
Holland, France, England, and even 
America. 

One of the most honored names in the 
universal history of pedagogy is that of 
the Czech patriot and exile, Jan Amos 
Komensky, or Comenius (1592-1671), 
the last bishop of the Bohemian Brethren. 

Driven away, in 1624, after all his books 
and manuscripts were taken and burnt, 
he settles for a time in Poland, then in 
Holland. His pedagogical writings con- 
stitute the foundations of modern educa- 
tion. His best-known works in this con- 
nection are Janua linguariim reserata 
(1631), Labyrinth of the World (1631), 
Opera didactica magna (1657), and Orhis 
pictus (1658). This latter work is the 
first children's picture-book. He con- 
demns the system of mere memorizing in 
school, then in use, and urges that the 
scholar be taught to think. Teaching 
should be, as far as possible, demonstra- 
tive, directed to nature, and develop 
habits of individual observation. 

All children, mithout exception — rich 
or poor, noble or common — should re- 
ceive schooling, and all should learn to 
the limits of their possibilities. "They 
should learn to observe all things of hn- 
portance, to reflect on the cause of their 
being as they are, and on their interrela- 
tions and utility; for the children are 
destined to be not merely spectators in 
this world, but active participants." 

"Languages should be taught, like the 
mother tongue, by conversation on ordi- 
nary topics; pictures, object lessons, 
should be used ; teaching should go hand 
in hand with a happy life. In his course 
he included singing, economy, politics, 
world history, geography, and the arts 
and handicrafts. He was one of the first 
to advocate teaching science in schools." 

The child should "learn to do by do- 
ing.** Education should be made pleas- 
ant ; the parents should be friends of the 
teachers ; the school-room should be spa- 
cious, and each school should have a good 
place for play and recreation. 



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Photographs from R. D. Szalatnay 
GENERAL VIEW OF THE OLD CITY OF PRAGUE AND THE RIVER VLTAVA, WHICH THE 
COMPOSER DVORAK IMMORTALIZED IN A MUSICAL POEM 



180 

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THK HUNDRED-TOWERED PRAGUE 

Besides Prague, other notable cities of Bohemia and Moravia are: Carlsbad, whose 
healthful springs, magnificent pine forests, and picturesque setting have delighted thousands 
of Americans; Pilsen (Plzen), Budweis (Budejovice), Briinn (Brno), and Olomoric 



Such were, during one of the darkest 
periods of European history and when 
schooling was so debased, the notions of 
this great exile whose life-long desire 
was to return to Bohemia; he was not 
permitted to do so and died at Amster- 
dam, Holland, predicting the fall of the 
Habsburgs and the future freedom of his 
country. 

For a century and a half following the 
debacle of Bila Hora (see page 175) the 
exhausted, ravaged nation produces no 
men of more than local reputation; but 



in 1773 there is some feform of schools, 
and the development of a whole series of 
eminent men, not a few of whom reach 
international reputation, promptly fol- 
lows. 

SOME OF THE MEN BOHEMIA HAS 
PRODUCED IN RECENT TIMES 

The year 1798 sees the birth of the 
greatest Bohemian historian, Frantisek 
Palacky (1798-1876). Writing in Czech, 
as well as German, he edits the Bohemian 
Archives, publishes what has been saved 



181 



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BOHEMIA AND THE CZECHS 



183 



in Europe from the old Bohemian his- 
torians. His historical works, as well as 
his statesmanship and other important 
activities, bring him the name of the 
"father of the nation." He is regarded 
as the foremost Bohemian of the nine- 
teenth century; and his monument in 
Prague is one of the most remarkable 
works of art in Europe. 

In the line • of invention this earlier 
period gives Prokop Divis (1696- 1765), 
the discoverer of the lightning rod 
(1754), and Josef Ressl (1793- 1857), the 
inventor of the screw propeller. 

In science and medicine there stand 
foremost Jan Evang. Purkinje (1787- 
1869), founder of the first physiological 
institute in Germany and father of ex- 
perimental physiology ; Karel Rokytanski 
(1804-1878), the most deserving pioneer 
of pathological anatomy; Josef Skoda 
(1805-1881), the founder of modern 
methods of physical diagnosis of disease ; 
Edward Albert (1841-1912), the great 
surgeon of the Vienna University; Ant. 
Fric (1832-1913), the noted paleontolo- 
gist. 

BOHEMIAN COMPOSERS AND MUSICIANS 

The Bohemian pantheon is particularly 
rich in composers and musicians. Of the 
former one of the best known to the 
world is Bedfich Smetana (1824-1884), 
the founder of the modern school of Bo- 
hemian music and the composer, among 
many other exquisite works, of the **Pro- 
dana Nevesta" (The Bartered Bride), a 
national opera which has appeared re- 
peatedly within the last few years at the 
Metropolitan Opera Plouse, New York. 
The great cycle, "!Vly Country," with the 
"Libuse" and **Dalibor," are a few other 
of his compositions. 

Anton Dvorak (1841-1904) was ad- 
mittedly the greatest composer of his 
time. His "Slavonic Dances" and his 
symphonies are known everywhere. In- 
vited to this country, he was for several 
years director of the National Conserva- 
tory of Music in New York City, during 
whicli time he made an effort to develop 
purely American music based on native, 
and especially Indian, motives. 

Among musicians the name of Jan 



Kubelik ( 1880- . . . . ) and Kocian are too 
well known in this country to need any 
introduction, and the same is true of the 
operatic stars Slezak and Emmy Destin. 

Of poets the two greatest are Svatopluk 
Cech (1846-1910) and Jaroslav Vrch- 
licky (1853-1912). They are not as 
well known in foreign lands as the 
Bohemian composers and musicians only 
because of the almost unsurmountable 
difficulties w^hich attend the translation 
of their works. In novelists and other 
writers, of both sexes, Bohemia is rich, 
but as yet translations of their works 
are few in number and they remain 
comparatively unknown to the world at 
large. 

The above brief notes, which do but 
meager justice to the subject, would be 
incomplete without a brief reference to 
a few of the most noted Bohemian jour- 
nalists and statesmen of more than local 
renown. Of the former at least two need 
to be mentioned — Karel Havlicek (1821- 
1856), martyred by Austria, and Julius 
Greger (1831-1896), the founder of the 
Narodni Listy, the most influential of 
Bohemian journals. 

The most prominent modern statesmen 
of Bohemia are Karel Kramaf (1860- 
....), since the beginning of the war in 
Austrian prison, and Thos. G. Masaryk 

(1850- ), since the war a fugitive 

from Austrian persecution, now at Ox- 
ford University, England. The sister of 
the latter is well known in this country 
and her recent liberation from a prison 
in Vienna was in no small measure due 
to the intervention of her American 
friends.* 

BOHEMIANS IN THE UNITED STATES 

It seems a far cry from Bohemia to 
this country, yet their relations are both 
of some import and ancient. The man 
who made the first maps of Maryland 
and Virginia, introduced the cultivation of 
tobacco into the latter State, and for these 
and other services became the lord of the 
"Bohemia Manor" in Maryland, was the 

♦Those who may be more closely interested 
in the more recent and still living men of note 
of Bohemia should consult Narodni (National) 
Album, Prague, 1899, which contains over 1,30a. 
portraits, with biographies. 



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Photograph by A. W. Cutler 
A SLOVAK PEASANT FAMILY IN EVERY-DAY DRESS 

Note the Norman arch; it is typical of Slovak homes. Note the fringe at bottom of 
trousers, which are pretty wide when compared with English or American trousers, but 
positively skin-tight in comparison with the trousers of a Hungarian peasant. They are a 
highly respectable, hard-working community and may be seen in large numbers throughout 
the Vag Valley. 



exiled Bohemian Jan Herman, as were 
the parents of Philip, lord of the Philip's 
Manor on the Hudson, one of whose de- 
scendants came so near becoming the 
bride of Washington. Not a few of the 
Czechs came into this country with the 
Moravian brethren; and Comenius (see 
page 179) was once invited to become the 
President of Harvard University.* 

The immigration of the Czechs into 

♦"The Bohemians," E. F. Chase, N. Y., 1914. 



this country dates very largely from near 
the middle of the last century, when, fol- 
lowing the revolutionary movements of 
1848, from which Bohemia was not 
spared, persecution drove many into for- 
eign lands. During our Civil War many 
Czechs fought bravely in the armies of 
the North. 

The total number of Czechs now liv- 
ing, exclusive of Slovaks, is estimated at 
9,000,000, of whom 7,000,000 are under 
Austria-Hungary; in the United States 



184 



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Photograph by Erdelyi 
YOUNG SLOVAK BEAUX 

In the background are highland cottages. Note the embroidered trousers and shoes. 



there are about 500,000, of whom one- 
half were born in this country. 

They are found in practically every 
State of the Union, though the majority 
live in the Central States. Many are in- 
dependent farmers or artisans, and it is 
only fair to say that they are everywhere 
regarded as desirable citizens. They take 
active part in the political and public life 
of the country. Two United States Con- 



gressmen, a number of members of State 
legislatures, and numerous other public 
officials are of Czech descent. 

DISTINGUISHED CZECH-AMERICANS 

In American science the names of men 
like Novy (Ann Arbor), Shimek (Iowa 
University), or Zeleny (University of 
Minnesota) are well known and honored, 
while the number of university students 



185 



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Photograph by A. W. Cutler 
SLOVAK MOTHER AND CHILD, SHOWING QUAINT CRADLES USED 

Granny, who stands behind, is wearing a very comfortable coat, made of sheepskin; the wool 
is inside. It fits well and looks well, and granny knows it. 



i86 

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BOHEMIA AND THE CZECHS 



187 



of Bohemian parentage is exemplified by 
the "Federation of Komensky (Comc- 
nius) Educational Clubs," with its many 
branches, and by the fact that the Bohe- 
mian language is now taught at the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska and several other in- 
stitutions of higher learning. 

The true Bohemian here and elsewhere, 
as can easily be understood, has nothing 
but the bitterest feelings toward Austria, 
the stranger and usurper, who, since the 
war started, is once more in the full 
swing of his persecutions. The Czech 
sympathies are wholly with Belgium, 
Russia, Serbia, France, and Great Brit- 
ain. And what is true of the Czechs is 
also true of the Slovaks, who suffer even 
more under Magyar oppression. 



The Czechs and Slovaks in Austria- 
Hungary fight only under compulsion; 
their unwilling regiments were deci- 
mated ; their political and national leaders 
fill the Austrian and Hungarian prisons. 
Thousands of Bohemian and Slovak vol- 
unteers are fighting enthusiastically under 
the banners of France and Great Britain, 
and there are whole regiments of them 
attached to the Russian army. 

Here in the United States the very word 
of Austria sounds strange and unnatural 
to the Bohemian. They have found here 
their permanent home, and while hoping 
and even working for the eventual free- 
dom of Bohemia, and proud of their de- 
scent from the Czech people, they are, 
citizens or not yet citizens, all loyal 
Americans. 



FRAUDULENT SOLICITORS 



THE ATTENTION OF THE MEMBERS of the National Geographic Society is invited 
to the fact that we are receiving reports of the activities of many fraudulent 
agents who are operating in various sections of the country, representing them- 
selves to be authorized "agents" of the National Geographic Society. We are 
advised that these persons solicit membership in the Society and subscription to 
the Magazine at a reduced price. 

Many complaints have been received from persons who have paid in advance 
for maps and other publications of the Society which, of course, they have never 
received, since no knowledge of the transactions ever came to us. 

The National Geographic Society has no authorized agents and employs no 
solicitors in the field. Therefore it is suggested that members of the Society send 
direct to the Society all orders, remittances, or communications of any kind. 

Should you hear of any person claiming to be an authorized representative of 
the Society and soliciting orders, you will render a great service it you will imme- 
diately telegraph the facts to the National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. 



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A CITIZEN OF BAGDAD 

For descriptions of Mesopotamia and Bagdad, the City of the Caliphs, recently captured 
"by the British forces, see "The Cradle of Civilization," by James Baikie, and "Pushing Back 
History's Horizon," by Albert T. Clay, Nation ai. Geographic Magazine, February, 1916; 
and "Where Adam and Eve Lived" and "Mystic Nedjef," by Margaret and Frederick Simpich, 
Nationai, Geographic Magazine, December, 1914. 



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Photograph from George L. Robinson 

Abraham's oak, near hebron, preserved by the Russian orthodox church 

Abraham, wandering slowly with his possessions of cattle, sheep, and goats, made his 
headquarters for a long time at the oak of Mamre. Here it was that Sarah died, and 
Abraham went to Ephron, the Hittite, and bargained for the cave of Machpelah for a 
burial place. 

For articles on the Holy Land in the Nationai, Geographic Magazine, see "From 
Jerusalem to Aleppo," January, 1913; "Village Life in the Holy Land," March, 1914; "Jerusa- 
lem's Locust Plague," December, 1915 — all by John D. Whiting. 



189 Digitized by VjOOQIC 



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A thin, slim camera for pictures of the somewhat 
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A Road in tht 

Berkshire Hilby Massachusetts 



THEN we tell vou 



COHD TI 




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SAVE THIS AD.— It will not appear again 



NEARLY EVERY 
LAWN IS STARVED 

and will respond imme- 
diately to Takoma Lawn 
Plant Food. 

Lawn Grass Requires 

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Takoma Odorless Plant Foods 

Prepared Especially for Suburban Needs 
Concentrated— Scientifically Correct- 
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latn Plant Foai Bardm Plant Foai 

10 lbs. enouirh for 1000 s. f . Sl.OO 
25 lbs. enough for 2500 s. f . 11.75 
50 lbs. enough for 5000 s. f. >2.75 
100- 200 lbs. at 4^ cents per lb. 
200- 500 lbs. at 4 cents per lb. 

500-1000 lbs. at 3J< cents per lb. . 

1000 lbs. ormore at 3^4 cents per lb. 1000 lbs. or more at 4H cents per lb. 
Above prices /. o. b. cars U'ashinston 

Orders shipped same day they are received. 

ODORLESS PLANT FOOD COMPANY 

Takoma Park P. O. 

WASHINGTON. D. C. 

To Have Good Flowers 

and 

Vegetables 

It is not snfflcient to mere- 
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expect to obtain perfect 
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trated in the seed catalogrs. 

Send for Instructive Book: 
**The Maintenance of Lawns and Golf Courses." 



10 lbs. enouKh for 400 s. f. Sl.lO 
25 lbs. enoiijfh for 1000 s. f. $2.00 
50 lbs. enough for 2000 s. f. 13.25 

100- 200 lbs. at 5 Mi cents per lb. 

200- 500 lbs. at 5 cents per lb. 

500-1000 lbs. at AVi cents per lb. 





ATUNSiYUKON 

Find out about this ideal Northern trip 
before deciding on any trip for next summerl 
** Opinions,*' our 36-page booklet, gives you 
a wonderful insight into this great Wonder- 
land—the unusual trip, whose grandeur will 
fill you with awe and whose beauty will 
delight you! 

See the Inland, too 

Sail down the famous Yukon throusrh the Five Pin- 
srers Rapid to Dawson in the Marvelous Klondike; or 
on down, crossing and recrossingr the Arctic Circle, 
where you will see that never-to-be-equaled wonder. 
The Midnight Sun; to Fairbanks and Nome, and 
return via Seward, Valdez, and Cordova. No conti- 
nent can offer you more trlorious beauty than our 
own Alaska. See America tintl 

Most Modern Steamers— Perfect Cuisine— Frequent 
Sailinsrs— Ideal Service. Special Rates during- the 
Summer. 

HVi^e Today for "OpinioM" 



HERMAN WEIG. G. P. A. 

lit W.WsiUagton St, Chicsffo 



A.F.ZIPF.T.M. 
MS Akska Bidlff.. S«sttk,W«iL 



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A Bee-Line to Everyone 



Straight as the bee flies and quick 
as though caught by lightning the 
voice in the telephone carries near 
and far over this Nation. 

This meurvelous instrument is the 
pre-eminent vehicle of speed and 
speech. Railroads cover the country, 
but your traveler often must alight 
with beig and baggage and change 
trains to get to a given point. Railroads 
reach cities* towns and villages. The 
telephone reaches the individual. 

The telephone offers continuous 
passage for the voice and unbroken 
connections to the uttermost places be- 
cause it is a united System co-ordi- 



nated to the single idea of serving the 
entire people of this country. 

It has been a powerful factor, along 
with the transportation systems, in the 
magnificent achievements of the 
United States — ^helping to prepare the 
way where latent possibilities of mines, 
forests and farms were to be developed. 

The continued growth of our 
national prosperity depends in a great 
measure upon the maintenance and 
continued growth of the utilities which 
furnish the means of intercourse and 
interchange. They are the indispen- 
sable servants of the individueJ, the 
community and the entire nation. 




AMERICAN Telephone and Telegraph Company 

And Associated Companies 
One Policy One System Universal Service 



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BIND 

YOUR 

National Geographic Magazines 

as receired and have a handaomely bouDd book mtteuA of 
a pile of loose magazmeft. No cutting, no prnwhag, Mcurely 
faateoed. yet mstantljr inserted or removed for nwmancat 
binding. A Giliner Binder for one Tolunie of Natoonal 
Geosraphic MaMzine. beautifalljr bound m Libniy BucIdmb, 
Cold Siamped Titles, postpaid for $1 7$ 

MONEY BACK IF YOU WANT IT 
CnJIER BINDERS, be. 1611 CWUnt St, PyUa^Ua. U5JL 




$5.M for this 4«room 
Dodson Wren House; 
buOt of oak ; roof of cy- 
press, with copper cop- 
ing. Wrens won't live 
in a one-room house; 
they want a fresh room 
for each brood. 



Hang Up aDodsonWren House 

These friendly Httle brown birds will 
soon be here loolcini; for a home. Hani; 
up my 4-room Wren Bunsralow and a 
family will move right in and raise 2 or 3 
broods. 
* I have studied bird habits and worked 

for bird protection for 22 years. My houses 
dHftg' the birds because the birds tike 
them. Entire collection described in cat- 
alog, with prices. Includes bird baths, 
feeding devices, etc. Ail are patented. 

Bird Book Free, My illustrated book 
tells how to attract birds to your garden. 
With it I send free my beautiful 
•• Nature Neighl>ors" folder, together with 
a colored bird picture worthy of framing. 
Write to (11) 



JOSEPH H. DODSON 

Director of the National Audubon Ass'n 

191 HarmoB At*., Kukdrae, lU. 



t^iir 



No. 60. Robin No. 61. Wren No. 62. Bluebird 

Back-to-Natnre movement among the Birds 

— Birds, as well as persons of good taste, like these 
g^den fixings to be Rustic. 

«1.25 each. 3 for #3.50. Booklet. "Bird 
Architecture," free with every order. 

CRESCENT CO., **BirdTme," TOMS RIVER, N. J. 



JUDD & DETWEILER, he 

Master Printers 

420422 Eleventh Street N.W. 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 



FIRE INSURANCE 



JEtna Insurance Company 



HARTFORD, CONN. 



What 15 cts. B^. You 'r Nation's Capital 

The little matter of ISc in stamps or coin will bring you the Pathfinder for 13 weeks on (rial. The Pathfinder is an illustrated Iweelcly, pub- 
lished at tiM Nation's Centar, for the Nation; a paper that prints all the news of the world and that tells the truth and only the truth; now 
in its 23d year. This paper fills the bill without emptying the purse; it costs but $1 a year. If you want to keep posted on what is golnc 
on in the world, at the least expense of time or money, this is your means. If you want a paper in your home which is sincere, reliable* 
entertaining, wholesome, the Pathfinder is yours. If you would appreciate a paper which puts everything clearly, fairly, briefly— here it b. 
Send ISc to show that you might like such a paper, and we will send the Pathfinder on probation 13 weeks. The 15c does not repay to. 
but we are glad to invest in New Friends. THE PATHFINDER PUBUSHING CO., Box 33» WASHINGTON. D. £ 



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LaAe Shore Concrete Road Near Kenosha^ Wis., Built for thu State Highiuay Department 
by G. /e. IVade, oj Kenosha, in 1915 

Good Roads Saved Paris 

An English general, when asked what he thought was the greatest feat in 
the present war, replied: **The way General Joffre saved Paris by comman- 
deering 20,000 autos and motor busses and moving an army overnight against 
Von Kluck* s flank. " Without a great number of automobiles and every road 
good, this couldn't have been done. 

In 1915 there were 122,000 automobiles in France. There are now three 
million in the United States. We have the - automobiles, but mighty few good 
roads for them to run on. 

Concrete has been in satisfactory use for many years and the mileage is 
increasing by leaps and bounds — 17,000,000 square yards in 1915 and 
25,000,000 in 1916. Clean— even— gritty— it is comfortable and safe every 
day in the year. 

The materials are the same as those used in such important structures 
as the Panama Canal and big railroad bridges. Portland cement is a 
staple product, on sale everywhere. Sand and broken stone, or pebbles, 
are equally available. Common labor under skilled supervision can do the 
work. 

It is easy for you to find out about this important subject. A free copy 
of ''Concrete Facts About Concrete Roads'* will be sent on request. Ask for 
Bulletin No. 136. One of our Road Engineers will gladly call on you and 
discuss means of financing and building a system of concrete roads in your 
community. He will also help you to get your neighbors and road officials 
interested. 

PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION 



ATLANTA 

Hurt Buildins 
DENVER 

Ideal Bttflding 
NEW YORK 

101 Park Arenue 
SALT LAKE CITY 

Keanis Buildins 



Offices at 
CHICAGO 

1 1 1 ^ est Washington St. 
INDIANAPOUS 

Merchants Bank Building 
PARKERSBURG 

Union Trust Building 
SAN FRANCISCO 

Rialto Building 



DALLAS 
Southwestern Life Building 

KANSAS crrv 

Commerce BuOdmg 
PITTSBURGH 

Farmers Bank Bmklmg 
SEATTLE 

Northern Bank &Tnist Bldg. 



CONCRETE FOR PERMANENCE 



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Meehan's 
Mallow Marvels 

These absolutely hardy perennials, 
originated by us, are of such surpass- 
ing beauty that they are considered 
the sensation of the plant world today. 

From mid-summer until frost, when 
the sturdy bushes are covered with 
their gorgeous blossoms, the effect is 
really dazzling. 

Even a single specimen, while in bloom, is the 
most conspicuously beautiful feature of the 
lawn or yard, and, used in masses, they domi- 
nate the entire srounds. No flower-lover can 
afford to be witnout them. 

Our 1917 Hand Book 

ffives details and prices of Meehan^s Mallow 
Marvels and hundreds of other specially 
choice, well-grown trees, shrubs, ana hardy 
flowering plants. Write for it today. Mailed 
Free. 

THOMAS MEEHAN & SONS 

6705 Chew St., Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Chinese Woolflower 

id by us three years zgo is now ac- 
icd to be the irreatest new garden 
It is a success everywhere, plants 
2 to 3 feet, a pyramid of color, its 
inches bearine ereat baDs of wool- 
jtance and most intense crimson 

rs develop in June and none fade 
06t{ ever brilliant and showy be- 
ief S«edpcrpkt.iac.,3far2Sc. 
kttodoB P«D^«. For immense 
nderful colors and vigor they are 

Sccdperpkt. 10c, SforiSc. 
»looHiaf Sweet WillaB,a startling 
blooming in 60 days from seed, 
I g all the season, and every sea- 
son being hardy. Flowers large, colors ejiquisttc— pkt. 18c. 

TkcM 3 great Novelties. wHk two aore (S ) , f or only 20 cts. See Catalog 
for colored plates, culture, etc. 

Ov Big Catalog of Flower and Veirctnlilp Seeds, Bulbs. Plants and rare 
new fruits free. We arelhc ljrsres.1 uro^ers in the world of Gladiolus, Cannas, 
Dahlias, Lilies. Iris, etc, 

JOHN LEWIS CHILDS, Inc., Floral Park, N. Y. 



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3ul Coal Cost 
$ 50.00 




if^ 



IVirfA a £Teaf deal more Comfort into the Bargain! 

Open space all around this big lO-room house. And in a part of the country where 
the mercury tries to drop clear through the glass in winter. Makes no difference to 
the Williamson UNDERFEED, though. A fifty dollar coal-saving and more comfort 
in spite of it all. Read the letter: 

"Mine is a ten-room house, and always cost me over $100 to heat with the old boiler* This 
Winter cost $50 with the UNDERFEED, and we had a great deal more comfort^72 or 
over in the coldest weather, A fuel-sacer, time-saver, and dirt-saver, 

(Signed) DR. W, /. MORGAN, Mineral P6int, Wiu 

WnilAMSON Ondereeed S^oTiV?: 

Cut Coal Bills Vi to Vi Guaranteed 

Please let this fact sink in: A H to ^ saving in coal co6t is actually guaranteed with the Williamson UNDERFEED, whether yoa 
beat with warm air. hot water, steam, or vapor. 

That h panly because the UNDERFEED burns the cheaper erades of coal as efiectively as others burn the costlier grades. That's a bi£ 
sarinr at the very outset— money you save by keeping it i n your pockeL Another reason is the scientific principle of combosdon. In the 
UNDERFEED coal is fed from below. Tlie hot. clean fire is always on top — never smothered or chilled by fresh coal being dumped on. 
All smoke, sooc. and gas must pass up through the fire and so be transformed into dean, usable, effective heat. 

No waste whatever. No clinkers. No partly burned coaL No soot-encrusted pipes. 






Money-Saving Book Free 

And a boy of twelve can operate the UNDER- 
FEED successfully. No stooping. All done 
from a standing position. 

There's an interesting book, "From Overfed to UNDERFEED." 
which pktures and describes it all. Free for the asking. Simply 
send coupon. It wUl save you many a dollar when yoa come to 
i mail that new beating system. Remember, ^ to ^ coal cost actually 
guaranteed whh a Williamson Underfeed. Send the coupon now. 

THE WILLIAMSON HEATER CO. 
28 Fifth Avenue Cincinnati, O. 



r 



THE WILLIAMSON HEATER CO. 

28 Fiftli Avenue, Cincinnati, O. 
Tell me how to cut my coal bills from- ^ to JJ 
with a Williamson UNDERFEED. 



Steam or Hot Water — 

(Mark X after System interested In) 



Name- 



Address . 

My Heating Contractor's Name is.. 



Heating Contractors: Let us tell you about the WnUamson UNDER- 
FEED and our new proposition. Both are winners. 




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In Your Home 

The Silent Si-wel-do • 

Place the Silent Si-wel-do and any other 
closet side by side — ^the difference in ap- 
pearance does not disclose to you the 
mechanical superiority or silence of oper- 
ation of one over the other. 

You cannot tell which will clog and foul under use or 
which set of fittings will get out of order first and make 
an expensive plumbing job. 

body's word for it. 

>ilent Si-wcl-cio, by reason of years 
ion of the merits of different closets, 
u expert advice in closet installation 



roN POTTERIES ca 




CLOSET 



H^riie fitr **Bathnoms of Char- 
acter." You will find it instruc- 
tive in planning your bathrooms. 
Ask for Booklet P-27 



lanical features a water closet should 

raordinary quiet operation. One is 

me owner as the other. Why disturb the feeling of security fix>m 

itaining or installing an old-time, noisy closet? 

el-do is your protection against dissatisfaction. The name is 
t so you cannot be deceived. In fact, it will pay you to see that 
1 the Circle" trade-fnark appears on all your plumbing fixtures. 

TON POTTERIES COMPANY 

BENTON, NEW JERSEY, U. S. A. 

RGEST MAKERS OF ALL-CLAY PLUMBING FDCTURBS 



1916-BOUND VOLUMES— 1916 

OF THE 

National Geographic Magazine 



Nowhere else can be found such a wealth of pbotoirraphic reproduction, 
not only in black and white, but scores of paces of four- and eight-color 
work, pbotofrairures, panoramas, and maps which vitalize the authoritatitre 
articles specially prepared by the foremost scientists, explorers, and trarelera 
in the world. 

A limited number of volumes for 1916. with index, have been beautifully 
bound in half morocco, containing 1,400 paces of text, with 1.200 pagea of 
illustrations, indudinir color work, photocravure, maps, etc. Bound in 
two volumes (6 months each). Price for both. S6.00 Sent prepaid in the 
United Sutes. Address, Dept. B. 



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You and a Thousand Times You 



SUPPOSE a day had thirty-six hours in- 
stead of twenty-four — and you had four 
hands instead of two — and you could be 
two places at the same time instead of one — 
You'd be a superman, wouldn't you? 
But it hasn't, and you haven't, and you 
can't! 

There is only one You. If you could give a 
thousand men your knowledge of the busi- 
ness— ^^«r ambition — your personality — then 

It would, and you would, and you could ! 

The thing that makes you you isn't the way 
you comb your hair or wear your clothes. It 
isn't your person — but your personality. 

Put that personality into a thousand Multi- 
graphed letters and you can accomplish thirty- 
six hour results in twenty-four hour time — do 
the work of four hands (or more) instead of 
two — be two places (or more) at the same 
time instead of one. 

That's one Multigraph accomplish- 
ment — to carry your message — ^your person- 
ality — ^you — ^into all parts of your business 
world. 

Think of the possibilities when you, plus a 
thousand times you, work together in carrying 
out your plans. 

Or, make it ten thousand or a hundred thou- 
sand times you — for it's all one and the same 
to the Multigraph. 

Are you confined, restricted, tied down to 
you, twenty-four hours, two hands and one 
place? Expand, man, expand, and take your 
business along with you ! 

The Multigraph is the easiest way — the cou- 
pon the quickest route. 



The Multigraph Senior 

ELECTRICALLY driven 
and completely equipped 
for high-grade printing — 
with printers' ink, type, or elec- 
trotypes; or for producing type- 
written letters in quantities. 

Prices, ;g670 to g720. Hand- 
driven models, S200 up. Easy 
payments. 



You can't buy a Multigraph 
unless you need it 




Name 



The 

Multigraph, 

1821 E. 40tk St.. O fficial Posi tion 

CIcTcland, 

Ohio. Firm 



Show me how I street Addrcsa 
can expand mu 
penonality and 
my business. 



Town 



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The Manor 

15 Albemarle Park 

asheville; n. c. 

'*Ia The Land of the Sky" 

IN AMERICA • AN ENGLISH INN 



PBIFECT 60LF M A PERFECT CUMTE 

/* holes— Turf greens 
Famous the year round for its South- 
ern hospitality. Most delii^htftil in 
Lite Winter and early Sprint;. Write 
for Booklet. Make reservations. 



HOT SPRINGS 

ARKANSAS 

Creatm»t Hmalth and Plmaaurm RmMort in thm World 
Ownmd by thm 

U. S. Government 

The curative pfbperties of the waters of Arkansas Hot Sprines are 
known the world over. Their use is endorsed and regulated by the 
GovemmenL The climate is bracing, scenery beautiful; social life 
and sport in abundance. 

For information, iiiastratmd frooA/«f* mtc. , writm 

Department of the Interior 

Waahington, D, C, 

This ad\'ertisement inserted by the Arlington-Eastman Hotels. 



RECOMMENDATION FOR MEMBERSHIP 



in the 



National Geographic Society 

The Membership Fee Includes Subscription to the National Geographic Magazine 

DUES: Annual membership in U. S.. $2.00; annual membership abroad. $3.00; Canada. $2.50; life membership. 
$50. Please make remittances payable to. National Geographic Society, and if at a distance remit by N. Y. draft. 



postal or express order. 



Please detach and fill in blank below and send to the Secretary 



_/9/ 



*Tjo the Secretary, National Geographic Society, 

Sixteenth and M Sireeis Northwest, 

Washington, D. C. ; 



/ nominate- 
Address 



for membership in the Society. 



(Write your address) 



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1.&5S-IVES COLOR PHOTOGRKPHI 

MAKE your spring campaign 
with the camera a color 
campaign. 'With your own 
camera you can now take photo- 
graphs in color by using 

The Hiblock 

This is a pack of t^vo sensitized blue 
and red plates with a green film in- 
terposed, bound together as one. 
It fits into your own camera, whether 
a film Kodak with a combination 
plate back, or any other that will take 
a plateholder, so that you may take 
color photographs when you like — as 
many reproductions as you like — or 
use your camera for black and white 
work as heretofore. Let us tell you 
about this most notable development 
in color photography. Send for booklet. 

Hess-Ives Corporation 



1201 Race Street 



Philadelphia 



DENBY 



TRUCKS 



Much of the 

rapidly-growing 
preference for in- 
ternal-gear driven 
trucks is due to the 
performance of the 
Denby, a pioneer 
in this field. 

Denby Motor Truck 
Company 

Dept- M Detroit, Midu 



Heatherhome Seed 

AND 

Plant 5ook 

A MASTERPIECE OF GARDEN CATALOGUES 

Tells just tKe iKtngs;^ ^vTutt to know. 356 
pages, antique VSP^lt DOun<i in Heatherhome 
olue, in a box. FkEE. A beautiful, fascinating 
book. We guarantre your pleasure in it just as 
we guarantre to gro^. an<i to be as described, 
even? seed and plant that comes from the "Home 
of Heather." Write for it nrw. 

KNIGHT & STRUCK CO. 

PLANTSMEN - SEEDSMEN 
360 FIFTH AVENUE. NEW YORK 




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VOLUME XXXI 



NUMBER THREE 



S 



The NATIONAL 



-EOG 
MAGAZI 



lie 



MARCH, 1917 

+ 

CONTENTS 
16 Pages in Four Colors 
What Great Britain Is Doing 

7 Illustrations SYDNEY BROOKS 



Russia's Democrats 



24 Illustrations 



MONTGOMERY SCHUYLER 



Republics— the Ladder to Liberty 

7 Illustrations DAVID JAYNE HILL 

War, Patriotism, and the Food Supply 

FREDERICK V. COVILLE 

Soldiers of the Soil 



The Ties That Bind 

Illustrated 



DAVID F. HOUSTON 



JOHN SHARP WILLIAMS 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

HUBBARD MEMORIAL HALL 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

HUBBARD MEMORIAL HALL 
SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS. WASHINGTON. D. C. 



O. H. TITTMANN PRESIDENT 

GILBERT H.GROSVENOR. director AND editor 
JOHN OLIVER LA GORGE . associate editor 

O. P. AUSTIN . SECRETARY 



JOHN E. PILLSBURY VICE-PRESIDENT 

JOHN JOY EDSON .... TREASURER 
GEORGE W. HUTCHISON. ASSISTANT SECRETARY 
WILLIAM J. SHOWALTER . ASSISTANT EDITOR 



1915-1917 
Charles J. Bell 

President American Security 
and Trust Company 

John Joy Edson 

President Washinston Loan & 
Trust Company 

David Pairchild 

In Charxe of Agricultural Ex- 
plorations. Dept. of Asric. 

C. Hart Merriam 

Member National Academy of 
Sciences 

O. P. Austin 

SUtistidan 

Georob R. Putnam 

Commissioner U. S. Bureau of 
Lighthouses 

George Shiras, 3d 

Formerly Member U. S. Con- 
gress, Faunal Naturalist, and 
Wild-Oame Photographer 

Grant Squires 

■New York 



BOARD OF MANAGERS 

1916-1918 
Franklin K. Lane 

Secretary of the Interior 

Henry F. Blount 

Vice-President American Se- 
curity and Trust Company 

C. M. Chester 

Rear Admiral U. S. Navy, 
Formerly Supt. U. S. Naval 
Observatory 

Frederick V. Coville 

Formerly President of Wash- 
i ngton Academy of Sciences 

John E. Pillsbury 

Rear Admiral U. S. Navy, 
Formerly Chief Bureau of 
Navigation 

Rudolph Kauppmann 

Manasins Editor The Evenins 
Star 

T. L. Macdonald 

M. D., F. A. C. S. 

S. N. D. North 

Formerly Director U. S. Bu- 
reau of Census 



1917-1919 

AlexanderGraham Bell 

Inventor of the telephone 

J. Howard Gore 

Prof. Emeritus Mathematics. 
The Ceo. Washinston Univ. 

A. W. Greely 

Arctic Explorer, Major Gen'l 
U. S. Army 

Gilbert H. Grosvenor 

Editor of National Oeosraphic 
Masazine 

George Otis Smith 

Director of U. S. Qeolosical 
Survey 

O. H. TiTTMANN 

Formerly Superintendent of 
U . S. Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey 

Henry White 

Formerly U. S. Ambassador to 
France, Italy, etc 

John M. Wilson 

Bricadier General U. S. Army, 
Formerly Chief of Engineers 



To carry out the purpose for which it was founded twenty-eight years 
ago, namely, **the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge," 
the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine. All receipts 
from the publication are invested in the Magazine itself or expended 
directly to promote geographic knowledge and the study of geography. 
Articles or photographs from members of the Society, or other friends, 
are desired. For material that the Society can use, adequate remunera- 
tion is made. Contributions should be accompanied by an addressed 
return envelope and postage, and be addressed : 

GILBERT H. GROSVENOR. Editor 



A. W, Greely 
C. Hart Merriam 

O. H. TiTTMANN 

Robert Hollister Chapman 
Walter T. Swingle 



contributing editors 

Alexander Graham Bell 
David Pairchild 
Hugh M. Smith 
N. H. Darton 
Frank M. Chapman 



Bntered at the Post-Office at Washington, D. C, aa Second-Class Mail Matter 
Copyright, 1917, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C All rights reserved 



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Two chains, one on each rear wheel, are 
absolutely necessary — 



One 18 rather a detriment and in most cases 
is even inclined to accentuate the skid and throw 
the car out of balance, 

h it any uHmder the differential looka 
pained €ind worried yrhen inexperienced motor- 
isto insist upon working it overtime 7 

Do you know the purpose of the differential 
and how it operates ? 

Without it no motor car would be able to 
turn a comer evenly and smoothly. 

Power is supposed to be transmitted evenly 
to both driving wheels. When either of these 
wheels meet with resistance, the ever watchful 
differential transmits that power to the other 
where there is less resistance. 

Now, what is the result when a chain is 
used on only one wheel? 

A certain amount of resistance or gripping. 
So the power naturally goes to the other wheel 
and as this has no gripping surface it spins. 



The specific purpose of the chain is thwarted, 
worse still, it has a natural tendency to accentu- 
ate the skid. 

Furthermore, can't you see this spinning will 
unnecessarily wear the tire and throw your 
whole car out of alignment ? 

Suppose one of your brake rods smashed and 
only one remained effective. What vrould 
happen when you applied the one brake > 

Your car would swerve, of course. An added 
uneven strain would be thrown upon the whole 
mechanism, doing probably irreparable damage. 

The conditions are eimUar, 

The necessity for brakes for both wheels and 
chains for both wheels is obvious and clearly 
defined. 

I f one chain would do the work, why use more? 

But motorists and mechanics who are well 
posted gaxe with pity at the men who foolishly 
drives with only one chain when two are abso- 
lutely necessary on the rear wheels and two on 
the front wheels are an added precaution. 



Weed Chains for a//5(y/e3 and Sizes of Tires are sold ij? Dealers Everywhere. 



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The Good 
Things 

Some 
Boys Get 

In homes that serve Puffed 
Wheat and Rice, boys carry the 
grains at play. 

Sometimes they are simply 
salted — sometimes doused with 
melted butter. And these bub- 
ble-like grains, toasted, flavory, 
crisp, and flaky, form real food 
confections. 

Those Boys Say This: 

Boys with Puffed Grains always treat other boys. And they say something like 



this: 



' Why, we have Puffed Grains every day in our house. 
** I get them sometimes for supper, in a bowl of milk. 



I get a dish every morning. 
Sister uses them in candy- 
making. And I get them like this after school. 

Sometimes it is Puffed Wheat, sometimes Puffed Rice, and sometimes it is Corn 
Puffs. But one is as good as another. * ' 



Children who get PufFed Grains talk about them. And children who don*t, envy the rest. 

For these are the foods that taste like nuts. That are airy and thin and flimsy. And that seem 
like confections served by the dishful. 

Children who don't get Puffed Grains get nothing else that's like them. There is no other way 
to make whole grains into such inviting morsels. 



Puffed 


Puffed 


Wheat 


Rice 


and Corn Puffs 


Each 15c Except in 


Far West 



The purpose of puffing^, by Prof. Anderson's process, is to make whole grains wholly digestible. 
By terrific heat and shooting from guns, every food cell is exploded. 

What cooking does in a partial way, this process does completely. Thus every element is made 
available, and every atom feeds. 

People need whole-grain foods. But they need them so the whole grain will digest. Puffed 
Wheat and Rice supply them. So every dainty tidbit forms a perfect food. Let children eat all they will. 



PieQuakerOa^&0>inpany 

Sole Makers 



(1540) 



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GlacierNAtion<\l P^rk 



C. W. PITTS 

AmL GenermI Paasenger Agent 

210 South Clark Street 

Chicago 

S.LOUNSBERY 

General Agent, Passenger Dept. 

1184 Broadway 

New York 



C. E. STONE. Pass. TrafRc Mgr., Great Northern Ry.. i 

Dept. K, St. Paul, Minn. : j 

Please send roe Aeroplane map folder and descriptive Glacier ■ 

National Park and Lake Cbelan literature free. | 

Sam* I 

j4ddr,ss J 

City Staff ■ 



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iilililiUilillilili 



fWfTm 



ffWffWM 



M 



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The statements in this advertisement referring to performances of Hudson 
Super-Sizes in certified trials and in competition are approved as to facts. 

Richard Kennerdell, 
Chairman Conksl Board, Jlmtrican Jiutomohik JlsaodaHon. 

The Long-Life Record 
HUDSON SUPER-SIX 

Will Hold First Place Forever, We Believe 

One year of the Super-Six seems to mark it the permanent lead- 
ing tjrpe. Many other sensations had their day and departed. But 
the Super-Six gains prestige every month. And it comes too dose 
to a perfect motor to ever be far excelled. 

For your own sake, don't get a wrong The Super-Six principle gets from that 

conception of the Hudson Super-Six. size all of this extra efficiency. It does it 

It is a Six, but not like other Sixes. by saving friction. Would you have less 

This basic invention, controlled by our speed, less power in a motor, because of 

patents, added 80 per cent to our six-type more friction and wear? 

* vtT^% in a better, simpler way, what To Doubls Endurance 

we attempted in our Eights and Twelves. The Super-Six was invented to double 
For we built those types for testing, as indurance. That it makes the car a record- 
did others, when the seeming trend was breaker is simply incidental, 
that way. The records we value most are long- 
T^» D Lt c t J distance records. Under sanction of the 
This Problem Solved Contest Board of the American Automo- 

_, ^ ^. , bile Association, the Super-Six broke the 

The Super-Six gete its wondrous power. 24-hour stock chassis record by 328 miles, 

speed, and endurance by mimmmng And in the famous non-stock Pike's Peak 

fnction. Hill Climb, sanctioned by the Contest 

That 8 what every type attempted. 3^^^^ ^f ^^ American Automobile As- 
Thats why men once thought that V-types .ociation. a Super-Six Special made the 
would supersede the Six. Vibration best time through endurance, 
causes fnction, and fnction causes wear. ^ Super-Six Touring Car twice broke 
And the type which brings vibration the Transcontinental record in one con- 
lowest will hold first place forever, just as tinuous JOOOmile round trip. All Super- 
^^X^' « o. . 1 r^ Six speed records have been made be- 

The Super-Six is that type. Every cause of endurance, 

block test proves It. And a hundred road w r\rr x^ 

records confirm it. It now holds every it Offers YoU This 

worth-while record of endurance and It offers you a car which, by a hundred 

speed for a stock car. records, is the most capable car in the 

world. 

Another Possible Error J* offers you endurance, far beyond any 

previous attainment. 

Some men still tell Hudson dealers It offers you pride of ownership— the 

that our records show qualities not wanted, feeling that you rule the road. The knowl- 

They cannot use such speed, such power, edge that ^ours is the greatest car in per- 

"And other cars are good enough hill- formance that's built, 

climbers.*' It offers you beauty and luxury which 

But vou must presume we know that. make the car look its supremacy. 

We have not increased our motor size. It offers you. in our latest models, a 

We are using a small, light Six — exactly wonderful gasoline saver, 

the size we used before this invention. Will you want a car which offers less 

And a size now very common. when you buy a car to keepP 

Phaeton, 7-pas8enffer $16M Town Car Landaulet $2925 

kMiirMriMiQV Cabriolet. 3-pas8ensrer .... 1950 Limousine 2925 

^^iSS/m Tourini? Sedan 2175 Limousine Landaulet 3025 

TmW '^®^" ^■«' 2925 iAli Prices f. o. 6. Detroit) 

HUDSON MOTOR CAR COMPANY, DETROIT, MICHIGAN 







l'lil-''!l!|1l1t|l'':'l''Ptfl'l|ir| 



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**War Loans 

and the 

United Slates'' 

The Story of War Financing and 
Its Bearing on National Growth 

HISTORY proves that the sacrifices and discipline 
of War have served to increase thrift, create 
efficiency and develop resources. The financial 
record of American Wars is one of patriotism and vision. 
War obligations have been readily met and economic 
progress made. 

For the first time in its history, the United States 
has now become a creditor nation, and by meeting the 
needs of other nations is able to strengthen its own 
financial and commercial position. 

Every citizen is concerned in the situation presented 
and its relation to his own affairs. 

How American Wars since 1776 have been financed 
and these War debts discharged ; the economic effect of 
War loans in this country and in Europe; lessons taught 
by experience and the opportunities offered for the future 
are described in a booklet entitled "War Loans and the 
United States'', issued and sent upon request by the 

Guaranty Trust Company 
of New York 

140 Broadway 
Capital and Surplus • • • • • $40,000,000 
Resources more than .... $500,000,000 



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Btiilds city of 75X)00 

There is a busy town in the Middle West The knowledge he finally gained in this way was the 

that has been described as being literally intoxi- «- ^o^^6,.^^.t^^^^^oc^ ^^6 -ery^big^buri- 

cated with an all-pervading prosperity. learning. Unlike this man. most of us need to have 

In a short time its population has increased l**?* principles crystallized and set down in writing 

r.^..^ « « ^^^ 1. m.^ ^^-. T4. t. i. r a oetorc we can aosorD tnem. 

from 13,000 to 75,000. It boasts of 182 men t* • au- u • 1 1 j xf ^ n* j 

,.ri,^ i,«* ^ ^^aL t^^4,„^^^ t^ -T ^.^Z."Z. It »s this business knowledge, this crystallized ex 

Who have made fortunes from $100,000 to pcrience of thousands of America's most successful 

$D,000|000. men, that the Alexander Hamilton Institute is giving 

. This boom-thlS city and fortune building- '" '"^'^ *^"" ^cooo business men today. 

is the work of one man. Yet, big as this work Based on the actual experience of thousands 

is. it is only one phase of this man's gigantic of successful business men 

enterprises. The Institute collects, classifies, and transmits to 

Today he is the directing head of several P" It*"" ^J?* Modern Business Course and Service the 

:^A,.^t.^:^^ -««-«« «.• 1 ^ ^ £ •'cst thought and practice in modern business. It will 

industries representing an annual output of give you a thoro and sound training in the fundamental 

$200,000,000, employing 36,500 men. principles underlying all departments of business — it 

This man started in a humble way as an employee "*;!". ^^^^^^ ^^k* >^o^»«^8e Jhat could otherwise be 

in a lumber mill. At twenty-one he said he had mw- o^tamed only by years of bitter expenence-if at all. 

tered the business and was ready for something else j^^ j^jn^ ^f n,en enrolled 

A number of industries required bolstering. He 

gave them new life. The town water-works were in a Presidents of big corporations are often enrolled for 

bad way. He put them on a sound basis. this Course and Service along with ambitious young 

Later he organized a carriage company. Then a "»«" in their emplov. Among the 50,000 subscribers 

motor-car company. In ten years he was a multi-mil- ^J^^.^uch men as H. C. Osborn, President American 

lionairc and was building fortunes for other men. Multigraph Sales Co.; Melville W. Mix, President of 

the Dodge Mf^. Co.; Geo. M. Verity, President of the 

He knew the underlying principles of American RollmK Mills; William H. Ingersoll, Market- 

hu«in»<« «iirr^«ft >ng Manager of the biggest watch company in the 

DUSiness success ^»^,^. p^ ^ Hawkins, General Sales Manager of the 

Some men will tell you his success was due to a Ford Motor Company, and scores of others equally 

series of "lucky breaks. Others will say he is one of prominent. 

the men who get all the opportunities. «i? «^ au ^ 1 d • »» 

But the fact is. this man sterted at scratch— he was Forging Ahead in Business 

born with nothing more than most of us are born with. j^ ^^eful reading of this uspage book, "Forging 

The laws of business success do not vary ^^^^^ ».", Business.' a copy of which we will send you 

This man had to master the laws of business before measure what you know, what you don't know, and 

he could become a success. His text-book of business what you should know to make success sure. Every 

knowledge was the experience of others and the facts business man with either a business or a career to 

of his own daily experience. He was able to crystallize G[uide to bigger, surer success should read this book, 

these experiences into working principles. Simply fill out and send the coupon below. 

ALEXANDER HAMILTON INSTITUTE, 663 Astor Place, New York, N. Y. 

Send me ''Forging Aliead in Business'' — FREE 

Name • 

Business 

Address 

Business 

Position 




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Hoiue on Fresh Pond Parkway ^ Cambridge ^ Mass, Charles R» Greco, JrchiUct, Boston, Mass, 



"White Pine io Hoiii«-Baildinc'*i8 beau- 
tifully illustrated and full of valuable 
information and suggestions on home- 
building. Send today for this booklet 
— free to all prospective home-builders. 
"The Heleo Spe«r Book of Ouldrea's 
White Pino Toja and Furniture"— a fas- 
cinating children's plan^ book, from 
which a child may build its own toys 
and toy furniture. Prepared by Helen 
Speer, the toy expert. If there are chil- 
dren in your home, sent free on request. 



ALL woods have certain uses for which 
IJL they are especially adapted by reason 
of the peculiar qualities and characteristics 
which nature has given them; and on their proper 
selection for these uses, hinges the whole problem 
of economy in wood construction. 

Three centuries of experience in this country have 
demonstrated that no other wood lasts as long or gives 
such satisfactory service as 

White Pine 

for outside finish lumber — siding and corner boards; 
wndow sash, frames and casings; outside doors, door 
frames and casings; outside blinds; all exposed porch and 
balcony lumber; cornice boards, brackets, ornaments and 
mouldings; and other outside requirements, not includ- 
ing shingles. 

If your lumber dealer is unable to supply White Pine, we should 
appreciate the opportunity of being helpful to you in securing it. 

Address White Pine Bureau, 

1323 Merchants Bank Building, St. Paul, Minn. 

Represendns 
The Northern Pine Manufacturers* 
AModadon 6f Minnesota, Wisconsin 
and Michigan, and The Associated 
White Pine Manufiuxurers of Idaho 



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$1150 

Mitchell Junior--a40 h. p. Six 
120-incli Wheelbase 



F.o.b. 
Racine 




$1460 



SIXES 



F. o.b. 
Racine 

7-Pa88encer— 48 Horsepower 
127-iiich Wheelbase 



$4,000,000 In Extras 



You will find in Mitchells many 
extras not found in other cars. Hun- 
dreds of them which, on this year's out- 
put, cost us $4,000,000. 
31 unique features— 
24 per cent added luxury^ 
100 per cent over-strength. 

These things are paid for by factory 
savings, due to John W. Bate. He 
has built and equipped this mammoth 
plant to build this one type economi- 
cally — way below what this car would 
cost elsewhere. 

His methods save us the $4,000,000, 
which pays for these added attractions. 
Our new body plant 
this year brings 
another big saving, 
which pays for this 
added luxury — 24 per 
cent. 

One result is a com- 
plete car— no wanted 
feature lacking. 

Another is such 
luxury and beauty as 
you rarely see. 



TWO SIZES 

MitcheU-s,rr.h°&i:ar;3Sis: 



base and a hifflily - developed 48 • horse- 
power motor. 

Frice S1460, f. o. 6. Racine 

Mitchell Junior2ll??2SIE 

lines, with 120^inch wheelbase and a 40- 

horsepower motor— ^-inch smaller bore. 

Frice SI ISO, f. o. 6. Racine 

Alsosix styles of enclosed and convert* 
ible bodies. Also new CInb Roadster. 



But the greatest result is a lifetime 
car, due to this double strength. We 
have doubled our margins of safety. 

Over 440 parts are built of toughened 
steel. All safety parts are vastly over- 
size. All parts which get a major 
strain are built of Chrome- Vanadium. 
Several Bate-built Mitchells have 
already exceeded 200,000 miles. In 
two years not a single Bate cantilever 
spring has broken. 

New $1150 Size 

There are now two sizes — Mitchell 

and Mitchell Junior. But the smaller 

size has 120-inch wheelbase. See 

whith size you like 

besf , whibh . b o d y- 

style, which price. 

Compare these cars 
with cars which lack 
these extras. You 
are bound to choose 
the Mitchell car, if 
you do that. 



MITCHELL MOTORS 

COMPANY, Inc. 
Racine, Wis., U. S. A. 



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IMPORTANT NOTICE to LUMBER USERS: 

THE SOUTHERN CYPRESS MANUFACTURERS: ASSOCIATION HEREBr 
INFORMS rOUTHATALL CYPRESS NOWJND HEREAFTER SHIPPED 
Br MILLS WHICH ARE MEMBERS OF THE ASSOCIATION WILL BE 

IDENTIFIED 
BY THIS MARK 

ThAOE Mauk Reg. U.S.PAr.OrncB 
This registered trade-mark will be, henceforth, 

rOUR INSURANCE POLICY OF QUALITY. 

It will appear stamped (mechanically and ineradicably) on 
one end, or both ends, of EVERY board and timber of 




CYPRESS 



'TBE WOOD 
ETERNAL.** 



CYPRESS FLOORING. SIDING, MOULDING AND SHINGLES, 
which come in bundles, will bear the same mark on EVERY BUNDLE. 

The legal right to apply this epoch-making symbol of strict 

RESPONSIBILITY IN LUMBER MAKING AND SELLING 

is, of conrse, restricted to those Cypress mills which, by their membership in the Southern 
Cypress Manufacturers' Association, attest their devotion to its Principles of Sbrvicb to the 
CoNSUMBR and their f oresighted appreciation of its open and progressive educational methods. 

Only mills cutting * 'Tide-water*' Cypress are eligible for membership. (Cypress which 
grows too far inland is not equally noted for the * 'Eternal,'* or decay-resisting, quality.) 

Only mills which subscribe to the Association's standard of scrupulous care in methods 
of MANUFACTURE, INTEGRITY OP GRADING and ACCURACY OF COUNT can 
belong to the Association. These responsible "A-1" mills the Association now licenses to 



CERTIFY THEIR CYPRESS l^, 



appiytaMT the 




TuM Hau Rcc U.SPk'^O'nct 



BY THIS MARK YOU KNOW THAT 
IT'S CYPRESS, "THE WOOD ETER- 
NAL," AND WORTHY OF YOUR FAITH. 
rr IS WELL TO INSIST ON SEEING 
THIS TRADE -MARK ON EVERY 
BOARD OFFERED AS "CYPRESS." 




'PuM Ham Rk. U.$^|¥|:OvnGi 



Let our ALL-BOUND HELPS DBPABTMENTlMlpTOUJlfORff. Oar entire t 



■ are at sroor ewiee with BeUeble OoobmI. 



Southern Cypress Maniifactiirers' Association 

1224 HIBEEinA BANK BLDG.. NEVT OBLEANS. LA., er 1224 HEABD NATIONAL BANK BLOC, JACKS0NVI11B» fU. 
INSIST ON TBADB-MABKBD CYPRESS AT TOUR LOCAL LUMBER DEALER'S. IF HE HASN'T rr, LET US KNOW. 



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G>n8ider This Certain and Positive Proof 
of Saxon "Six^^ Supremacy 



Let U8 dispense with fine 
phrases and seek facts. 

For facts alone form a stable 
basis upon which to ad- 
judge nxotor-car values. 

First of all, turn your atten- 
tion to the Saxon "Six" 
motor. 

Compare it with the car of 
less than six cylinders that 
stands highest in your esti- 
mation. 

TTiough that "less-than-six** 
may be developed to the 
full limit of its possibilities, 
you still will find lapses 
between its power impulses. 

These lapses, you know, 
produce the vibration and 
friction that are the bane 
of motor life. And they 
exert considerable in- 
jurious effect upon the 
p€Uts, too. 



Acceleration slows up and 
pulling power lessens. 

Finally we see them re- 
vealed in growing repair 
and replacement bills. And 
shortly the car has reached 
the end of its usefulness 
long before it should. 

On the other hand, the Saxon 
motor, with its six cylinders, de- 
velops a continuous flow of 
power. Vibration has been re- 
duced to a minimum. Uniform 
torque, the ambition of all motor 
designers, is attained. 

Take, for example, a certain' well- 
known car of less than six cyl- 
inders, tested under the same pre- 
vailing conditions as Saxon "Six/* 

At a speed of 20 miles per hour 
the Saxon "Six** motor developed 
98% more impulses per minute 
than did the "less-than-six.** 

This 98% greater percentage of 
impulses is' vitally significant. 



Gear-shiftingbecomes 
more and more fre- 
quently a necessity. 



And its significance is concretely 
expressed in the fact that when 
this '* less-than-six '* and Saxon 
"Six" were tested for accelera- 
tion, Saxon *'Six'* revealed 22% 
faster pick-up. 

Nor is it in acceleration alone that 
this smoother power- flow gives 
the advantage to Saxon "Six.** 

In every phase of performance 
Saxon "Six** must be considered 
supreme among cars costing less 
than $1,200. 

Under the most drastic and gruel- 
ling conditions of public and 
private tests it has earned top 
place. 

Probably you may never feel the 
inclination or necessity to call 
upon Saxon *' Six *' to the full 
limit of its speed and power. 

Nevertheless it is reassuring to 
know that should the time come 
you have the extra speed and 
power at your command. 

Saxon "Six** is $865; "Six**Sedan, 
$1,250; "Four** Roadster, $495, 
f. o. b. Detroit Canadian 
prices: "Six** Touring Car, 
$ 1.1 75; ySix **Sedan, $ 1 .675; 
"Four** Roadster, $665. 
Price of special export 

models: "Six,** $915; 

"Four,** $495, f. o. b. De. 
Saxon Motor Car Corporation, Detroit troit. (910) 



SAXON "SIX" 

A BtO TOURING CAR FOR FIVE PEOPLB 



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nPHE quarrels among the trees, love affairs of the birds, the 

1 intrigues of the flowers, the waning of the wild hearts — 

•11 tUs is thriUinglytold in the greatest Nature set ever written. 

The New Nature Library 

La]rs before you all the secrets of forest, field and stream. 
Now yours on special terms if you act quickly. Gives a new 
delight to all outdoors. Brings nature into your home. Chil- 
dren love the fascinating stories and many pictures, and it will 
give you the most wonderful romances you ever read. 
Greatest experts inthe country have contributed to thesebookt — 
Dr. David Starr Jordan of Leland Stanford University, Dr. 
Howard of U.S. Department of Agriculture, Dr. Evermann of 
U. S. Fish G>mmis8ion, Dr. Holland of Carnegie Museum, 
and Neltje Blanchan. 

She of Yoloma, 7^ inches z 9H inches. Hondredi of iDuilnlions. 
Thounndt of pages of faadnatina test matter. Bound in durable green 
dolh, or a flexible black leather. Gilt to|M, nlk headbnndi. decorated end 
papen. Order while the edition lails. 

Splendid Pictures! 

A vail collection of wondefful color plates made dnect from Nature. 
Shows you Jwl how the brnk, animak, fish, trees and flowen look in dteir 
native MunIs 

CnA/»v/yl 0#y^s> 1^« «lition is Bmited. It will y 
OpeCiai Urrer ^onnmout The next edition ^-^ 
win undoubtedly cost more. Do not postpone semfing. y C ,, , 

Send this Coupon > .^DSfij^' 

We ship the boob at once. You pay only >^Ci^^^5l!" 
$1.00 with the order and $3.00 a month /SSNSSSTu&tT*! 
until $34.50 is paid if you choose the doth, y ^ ■» enekwlnv f i with c^ 
or $4.00 • month untSmSO is paid if /p.?S«JSS ^S? S:*^S? S 
you prefer the leattier. If you are not x ^^SM.Mhaab««ap*id.lf Ikeep 
perfec*M»tbfi«l w|A *• book. w. /.^.•AS^^ 2S^^'^,'^ 
vnil refund your doHai — but you y^ •>*• torvfuodmy doiiu-. 
must act at once. Remember, .^ Not*: if/oawuttlM rich. Ifanp leather 
the edition is small Act / p^«,74!aiSS'»;jP'^h%'rS'°!!^:!?-^' 
/ N«n. ... 

hm M t kr , PSfi A t immy Addre« « 

fatoOy.lteirYork ^^ luft^Ki. 



■llilllilllillllllMlllllfcsTABuaHlDlaa? 



A Broad and Attractive List of 

6% Investments 

$100,$S00,<md $1,000 Denominationm 

We are fortunate in having available 
a desirable selection of high-grade 
6 % investments at a time when there 
is a noticeable shortage in the supply 
of such securities and a tendency to- 
wards lower rates. 

Send for Circular No. 975D, which ofTers 
investments — 
Well secured by various classes of property ^' 
Protected by large established earnings; 
Maturing from two to twenty-five years; 
Bearing our strongest recommendation, 
based upon complete investigation and 
long experience. 

Peabo^, 
Honghtelmg&Go. 

(ESTABLISHED 1865) 

10 South LaSaUe Street^Chicago 



liimiiiimiiiiiiimiif mtabushed i665!8iiiiiiiiimi|ini|||ia 



$ 

i 



Brings the Birds 

TUs 4-niB DsIns WvBB Bmm b kfll sf «sk* 
Cy^rat rMf v^canNr coptet . Will M« 

Q^ flBS MIwO WTSBiSBMMS to BvS Witt 9SM— » 

|^ttstKral»nisMlF» wiics l wra Bsi^Mnb 
[.Order Now— lh« Birds are 




BnilS fov 
tha wrens 
by th« 
man the 
birds loT« 



^ 



Every day sees new arrivals looking for 
a home. Send for your Dodson houses 
today. A few wren houses, a martin house, 
will nil your ^rden with insect-destroying 
son; birds. Entire collection described In 
catalog. Wren and blue-bird houses. $5.00. 
Martin houses, $12. Nesting 8helTes,SL50 
up. Bird baths, fcedlnif devices. 
BIRD BOOK FREE 

In it Mr. Dodson, Vice-President and Director of 
the American Audubon Association, tells you how 
he attracts hundreds of birds to Bird Lodsre,his beau* 
tiful home. Sent free with beautiful bird picture In 
color uken from "Nature Neighbors." "Write to 
Jo«cpliH.I>oaM^707HsrrisoaAT«.,KaBkskM,m. 



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I 



Income Assured — Principal Safe 

Municipal Bonds 

The family income secured by Municipal Bonds brings a decided 
feeling of contentment and safety. 

Municipal Bonds are safe, dependable, convenient, readily market- 
able, and free from Federal Income Tax. We offer them in 
$1,000, $500, and $100 amounts yielding 4 to 5>^ per cent. 

The house of William R. Compton Company, with its extensive facilities, 
resources, and experience, is ready to act as your Investment Banker. Conserv- 
atism and protection of patrons* interests are foremost considerations with us. 

An interesting booklet, N3, "The Premier Investment," is ready to mail you. Ask for it. 

^ A/iiliam R.fbropton (ompany 



NewYoffk 

14 Wan 8ti«et 

Chicaflro 

les S. La Salle Street 



Municipal Bonds 

**Ovw a Quurttr C^niwry in Tki» Bm^imw" 



St Louis 

408 OUve Street 

Cinciniiati 

lt2 Unioa Trust Bldff . 



Conservatism 

THE truly conservative inves- 
tor is contented with a reason- 
able income yield in order to make 
sure that his funds are safe, and 
deals only with a House he can 
rely on. 

THE first mortgage serial SVzfo 
bonds underwritten by us in 
accordance with the Straus Plan, 
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Vol, XXXI, No. 3 




GTON 



March, 1917 






WHAT GREAT BRITAIN IS DOING 

By Sydney Brooks 



THERE was a very striking pas- 
sage in the speech which Mr. 
Lloyd-George recently delivered at 
the Guildhall soon after his return from 
the Allied conference at Rome. "There 
is one thing," he said, "that struck me 
and that strikes me more and more each 
time I attend these conferences and visit 
the Continent — I mean the increasing ex- 
tent to which the Allied peoples are look- 
ing to Great Britain. They are trusting 
her rugged strength and great resources 
more and more. She is to them like a 
great tower in the deep. She is becom- 
ing more and more the hope of the* op- 
pressed and the despair of the oppressor, 
and I feel confident that we shall not fail 
the people who have put their trust in 
us." 

It would be singularly unbecoming on 
the part of any British subject to seek to 
exalt the contribution that his own coun- 
try is making to the common cause above 
that of any of the Allies. We can never 
forget our obligation to Belgium's heroic 
stand in crucial days, to the impassable 
wall of steel maintained by unselfish 
France until we could raise, train, and 
equip our armies, and to the brave and 
effective efforts of Russia in the east and 
united Italy to the south. 

If we are now in a position to do rather 
more than any of them, it is because we 
have suffered less, because we have been 
spared the well-nigh mortal blow of an 
invasion of our territory, and because 
time has been vouchsafed to us in which 



to develop and organize our power. But 
there need be nothing vainglorious — 
nothing, indeed, but a sober recognition 
of f^ts and their responsibilities — in sub- 
scribing to Mr. Lloyd-George's estimate 
of the present situation. 

Those who looked at the war with dis- 
cerning eyes knew from its very begin- 
ning that Great Britain was, and could 
not help being, the linch-pin of the whole 
alliance. It has taken curiously long for 
that elementary fact to sink into the gen- 
eral consciousness. America, I should 
say, is only just beginning to realize it. 
No doubt it is largely our own fault. 

If we had even one-tenth of the Ger- 
man genius for self-advertisement, the 
world would long ago have understood 
that without British power the Allies 
could never have withstood the Prussian 
onset, and that with British power an 
Allied victory — complete, smashing, and 
final — is as certain as the rising of to- 
morrow's sun. 

As it is, Americans in general seem 
even now to have but an imperfect idea 
of what Great Britain has accomplished 
in this war. It is not, in my judgment, 
that they do not wish to know. It is 
mainly, I think, that they have been de- 
luded by our old and deceptive trick of 
taking what we do well for granted and 
saying nothing about it, while we shriek 
our blunders from the housetops. 

We are by all odds the worst adver- 
tisers in the world. We are the most in- 
veterate self-detractors in the world. We 



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WHAT GREAT BRITAIN IS DOING 



195 



are the most persistent grumblers in the 
world. Nothing that other people say 
about Englishmen can ever hope to equal 
what Englishmen say about themselves. 

And, being a strong, rebellious, self- 
sufficient people, tirelessly given to speak- 
ing out, we have naturally found in the 
dislocations and drama and surprises of 
the war an endless theme for self -de- 
preciation. 

Mr. Dooley once accused us of doing 
our national housecleaning by sweeping 
things under the sofa and sprinkling the 
walls with eau de cologne. There has 
been none of that in this war. We have 
published every blunder, we have exposed 
every shortcoming, we have taken every 
opportunity of informing our rulers in 
the plainest possible language just what 
we thought of them. 

THE WAV OF DEMOCRATIC PEOPLES 

Compared with the silence of Prus- 
sia — a silence never deeper than when 
concealing some untoward incident, some 
prodigious miscalculation — our British 
turmoil has seemed a token of confusion 
and inefficiency ; but in reality it has been 
just the rough, wholesome, Anglo-Amer- 
ican, democratic way of doing things. 
That is how all self-governing peoples 
who are used to free speech and who are 
not used to the discipline of universal 
military service must inevitably act when 
caught in a great crisis and obliged to 
shift the whole basis of public and pri- 
vate life in order to strip themselves for 
a fight for existence. 

The Prussians from the first day of the 
war have shown themselves consummate 
masters of the art of magnifying all their 
successes and minimizing all their fail- 
ures. Mirabeau more than a hundred 
years ago declared, and declared truly, 
that war was the national industry of 
Prussia. But Prussia since then has sup- 
plemented that industry with another — 
the manufacture of opinion, and not 
merely German opinion, but foreign opin- 
ion. The submissive intelligence of her 
own people she can, of course, mould as 
she pleases; but it is astonishing how 
often she succeeds in imposing upon dis- 
passionate and even hostile onlookers in 
neutral lands. 



At this game of words and appearances 
and making out a case she leaves every 
one of the Allies, and indeed all of them 
combined, very far in the rear. 

Take, for instance, the Roumanian 
campaign of last fall. It was unques- 
tionably a German military success. But 
it was nothing like the success that head- 
quarters in Berlin tried to make out and 
that Americans were very largely induced 
to believe. 

All those tales that came clicking over 
the wireless of the capture of huge stores 
of grain and oil were fables out of whole 
cloth. The Allies set fire to the oil wells 
one by one as the Roumanians retreated 
and removed or destroyed just as sys- 
tematically almost the whole supply of 
foodstuflfs. 

The present position is that while the 
great bulk of Roumania has been over- 
run, from one-half to two-thirds of the 
Roumanian army is still intact, is being 
reformed and rearmed for the coming 
offensive, and that the Germans have to 
maintain an extra 300 miles of front that 
would not have been added to their com- 
mitments had Roumania remained neu- 
tral. From the standpoint of the war as 
a whole, we have, for the time being, but 
I agree quite unnecessarily, and as the 
result of some bad bungling somewhere, 
lost a pawn, and a pawn that, if em- 
ployed in another direction, might and 
should have been extremely useful. 

But Prussia has gained nothing ex- 
cept a barren kudos ; the Roumanian ter- 
ritories she occupies are a liability and 
not an asset ; to defend them she has to 
draw upon her swiftly diminishing re- 
sources of man-power; a few more such 
victories and she would be undone. Yet 
she has undoubtedly managed to fill the 
unthinking public in more than one neu- 
tral land with the idea that her successes 
in Roumania were in some sort a turning 
point in the war. I have read I know 
not how many articles in the American 
press gravely admonishing us to give up 
the Balkans as a bad job and withdraw 
our forces around Saloniki. 

EXAGGERATIONS ARE AVOIDED 

And in the same way it has been very 
noticeable how skilfully the Prussians be- 



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196 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



littled and how carefully the British and 
the French refrained from exaggerating 
the significance of the great retreat from 
the Somme. 

. The moral to be drawn is, I think, this : 
that you can cut all Prussian boastings 
and all British lamentations in half, and 
that when the Prussians are silent it is a 
sign of failure and when the British are 
silent it is a proof that all is going well. 
One could easily multiply instances of 
this. 

Take, for example, our intelligence serv- 
ice. You never hear anything of it. It 
works as a secret service ought to work — 
in secret. It enjoys not one-half of the 
reputation, it attracts not one-tenth of 
the notoriety, of the German intelligence 
service. Yet those who are at all behind 
the scenes know very well that there is 
precious little hidden from it in any part 
of the world where it is at work and, 
least of all, at the front. \\'hat our men 
do not find out about the numbers, dis- 
tribution, equipment, and morale of the 
German troops along the Somme may 
safely be left out of the reckoning. 

Similarly, without saying much about 
it, we quietly at the beginning, or, rather, 
before the beginning, of the war, rounded 
up all the Prussian spies in the British 
Isles, and have so handled matters that 
none of their successors, to the best of 
my knowledge and belief, has done us 
any appreciable harm. 

This policy of leaving what we do well 
to speak for itself has been closely fol- 
lowed in the case of our flying corps and 
our submarines. We have no aviation 
heroes. In fact, we rather make a point 
of having as few heroes of any kind as 
possible. There are at least a dozen of 
our flying men whose records in bringing 
down enemy machines would compare 
quite favorably with those of the much- 
trumpeted German champions — Immel- 
mann and Boelcke. 

But we never hear of them. Their 
doings are merged in the general record 
of our armies at the front, where divi- 
sions are very rarely named, regiments 
and battalions scarcely at all, and indi- 
viduals practically never. Instead of the 
flashy prominence of a few men here and 
there, we are quite content to shelter be- 



hind the anonymous but incontestable 
superiority of our flying . corps as a 
whole — a superiority so great that during 
the latter months of the battle of the 
Somme the Germans were virtually fight- 
ing blindfold. 

PRUSSIAN SUnMARINES INEFFECTIVE 

And just as we never advertise the 
feats of our armies, so we allow the 
world to think that the Prussians are hav- 
ing it pretty much their own way with 
their submarines. As a matter of fact, 
the German submarines have scored very 
few legitimate successes — by which I 
mean successes that conform to the 
usages of civilized warfare. It must be 
nearly two years since they sank any 
British men-of-war of any importance. 

As pirates preying upon fishing smacks, 
trawlers, Atlantic liners, and the mer- 
chantmen of all nations, they have added 
a new and infamous chapter to naval his- 
tory. Otherwise it is, I believe, the opin- 
ion of most naval men that in German 
hands the submarine has proved disap- 
pointingly ineffective. 

What tlie British submarines have ac- 
complished in the Dardanelles, in the Sea 
of Marmora, and in the Baltic has been 
far more remarkable, though far less 
known, than the exploits of the German 
U-boats. 

Moreover, it has to be remembered that 
the Germans have something like a hun- 
dred chances to our one; that our fleets 
are constantly cruising in the North Sea, 
where the German dreadnoughts and 
cruisers very rarely venture ; and that if 
our submarines had been offered any- 
thing like the opportunities we are cease- 
lessly dangling before the Germans, and 
if by now they had not sent several Ger- 
man battleships to the bottom of the sea, 
the world would have justly said that 
they had bungled their business. 

People, I remember, were thrown into 
a state of quite unbalanced admiration 
when the Deutschland appeared in Amer- 
ican waters. It was spoken of as one of 
the most remarkable achievements of the 
war. Few stopped to remember — even 
indeed if they ever knew — that the war 
was only a few months old when ten 
British submarines crossed the Atlantic 



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CASTING THIRTY TONS OF MOLTEN STEEL IN ONE OF CANADA'S LARGE STEEL PLANTS 

"The rally of the Empire to the side of the motherland has, indeed, been one of the most 
marvelous and one of the most momentous episodes of the war. . . . When the storm 
gathered, the Dominions said with one voice : 'Whatever happens, we are with you.* When it 
burst, they said : 'Everything we have is yours.' " 



197 

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198 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



from Halifax to the British Isles — the 
first submarines in naval history to make 
the journey under their own power. 

We could, of course, if we liked, if we 
were given to that kind of grand-stand 
play, arrange for a succession of British 
submarines to pop up with the most dra- 
matic effect in every single one of the 
American east coast harbors. But as we 
prefer the realities of sea-power to its 
tinsel, the inducement to any such theat- 
ricalities is largely lacking. 

THE SILENT VOICE 

Similarly, while we publish a list of all 
the vessels sunk by Prussian submarines, 
we say ript a word about the U-boats 
whose careers are brought to a sudden 
stop. For myself, I honestly do not know 
how many of them we have caught, sunk, 
or destroyed. It may be i8o; it may be 
200; it may be 220. They come out and 
they do not return, and there is no one in 
Germany, and perhaps not half a dozen 
people in England, who know what be- 
cor4p§ of them. 

rhe reasons for our secrecy must be 
tolerably obvious to any one who thinks 
the matter over. All that the Germans 
are able to infer from the failure of any 
given U-boat to return to port is that 
somehow or other it has been lost. . But 
how or where they cannot tell. 

It may have been through some error 
of structure or design — a thought to send 
a chill down the spine of every admiralty 
official. It may have been through a mis- 
take in navigation. It may have been 
throijgh one or other of the endless and 
constantly changing devices that British 
ingenuity has evolved and brought into 
play against the new piracy. It may, too, 
have happened near the German coast or 
after the U-boat had reached its ap- 
pointed station. They cannot tell. 

They are faced with a blank wall of pos- 
sibilities that they have no means of veri- 
fying. Weeks must often elapse before 
they can be sure that a submarine which 
they thougtit was operating in a certain 
area had really perished, and that another 
boat should be dispatched to take its place. 

And from another point of view the 
reasons for reticence are not less urgent. 
The British admiralty is frequently un- 



able itself to decide from the reports of 
the naval officers who have come to grips 
with the submarines whether the enemy 
vessel was actually destroyed. Some 
cases are clear ; in many there is a margin 
of doubt; and there can be no question 
that it is better to say nothing at all than 
to put forward official claims which can- 
not be substantiated and which the enemy 
may be in a position to disprove. 

Sometimes, however, the veil of mys- 
tery is partially lifted. Sometimes a Ger- 
man U-boat is towed up the Thames, 
moored to the embankment, and from 
$75,000 to $100,000 collected for some 
naval charity by throwing it open to the 
public. Sometimes if you are dining with 
a naval officer you will hear wondrous 
tales of submarines netted, bombed by 
aeroplanes even when they are well below 
the surface, hunted and caught by de- 
stroyers, induced by one ruse after an- 
other to show themselves where they can 
be got at. 

Sometimes, too, in a British port the 
men of the merchant marine will tell you 
of Homeric combats that would have 
warmed the heart of Nelson and Parra- 
gut and made Drake and Probisher gasp 
and stare. 

But these are mere haphazard personal 
gleanings. No one knows the full extent 
of the harvest or how it has been gath- 
ered in. But we do know enough — or at 
anyn rate we think' we do — to feel fairly 
confident that the Germans can attempt 
nothing^ and can invent nothing that we 
canpot find the means of countering; and 
that confidence has be^n rather more than 
justified by all that l^as happened since 
Pebruary i. 

With the Prussians succeeding in sink- 
ing only about one in every hundred 
ships that enter or leave the British 
ports ; with three-fourths of all our mer- 
chantment that are armed successfully 
resisting destruction ; with the speeding 
up of shipbuilding and the multiplication 
of means of defense; with both imports 
and exports not merely not falling off, 
but steadily and positively increasing — 
with these as the first fruits of the in- 
tensified submarine campaign, we feel 
that while there may be cause for appre- 
hension, there is little or none for alarm. 



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TH^ REASONS OF BRITAIN'S POWER 

But unquestionably our habit of not 
talking except when things are going 
awry has led to some curious misunder- 
standings and underestimates of the 
scope and character of the British effort ; 
and I can well imagine that Mr. Lloyd- 
George's statement, with which I opened 
this article — his statement about the in- 
creasing dependence of all the Allies upon 
Great Britain and about the main burden 
of the war falling on our shoulders — must 
have been received by many Americans 
with something like incredulity. 

It is worth while, therefore, to examine 
it more closely and to inquire in some 
detail what it is that has given Great 
Britain in this immeasurable cataclysm 
her extraordinary position as the axle on 
which all else depends. 

It is, first, her naval power; it is, sec- 
ondly, her wealth ; thirdly, it is her indus- 
trial resources ; fourthly, it is that serene 
and silent doggedness in the national 
character which in two and a half years 



has converted an unarmed, commercial, 
and f^thtr easy-going nation into a mili- 
tary power of the very first rank, and 
that animates all the Allies with the 
knowledge that Great Britain can be re- 
lied upon to the uttermost. 

THE BRITISH FLEET 

I like to think of some future Mahan 
using the history of this war to point the 
deadly realities of sea-power. He will 
need no other example. Everything that 
naval supremacy meailS or can ever mean 
has been taught in the past 32 months in 
a fashion that he who runs may read. 

Suppose Great Britain had remained 
neutral and the British navy had never 
moved. What would have happened? 
The German and Austrian dreadnoughts, 
with a five-to-one preponderance over 
the combined dreadnought strength of 
France and Russia, would have held an 
easy command over the sea. Germany 
could then have supplemented her land 
attack by disembarking troops on both 



199 



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WHAT GREAT BRITAIN IS DOING 



201 



the Russian and the French coasts in the 
rear of the Russian and French armies ; 
she would have shut off all the French 
oversea trade; she would have captured 
or destroyed or driven into port practi- 
cally the whole of the French and Rus- 
sian merchant marine; France would 
have been blockaded; with her chief in- 
dustrial provinces in German occupation, 
she would have been prevented from im- 
porting any food, any raw material, any 
munitions; while Germany would have 
been free to draw on the resources of the 
entire world. In less than six months, 
for all her magnificent valor, France 
could not but have succumbed. 

That was the Prussian calculation and 
it was a perfectly sound one ; but it fell 
like a house of cards when Great Britain 
intervened. Instead of securing at once 
the command of the sea, Germany lost it 
at once. Everything that she had hoped 
to inflict upon France and Russia by 
maritime supremacy was in fact inflicted 
upon herself. What has made it possible 
for us to land some 2,000,000 men on the 
Continent of Europe, equipped with every 
single item in the infinitely varied para- 
phernalia of modern war? 

AN UDIOUITOUS AND UNSHAKABLE POWER 

How have we been able to conduct 
simultaneous campaigns in Egypt, East 
Africa, the Cameroons, Southwest Af- 
rica, the Balkans, and the Pacific ? There 
are Russian troops fighting at this mo- 
ment in France and round Saloniki. How 
did they get there ? 

From all the ends of the earth British 
subjects in hundreds upon hundreds of 
thousands have flocked to the central 
battlefield. What agency convoyed them ? 
What power protected them ? 

The United States has built up with 
the Allies a trade that throws all previous 
American experience of foreign com- 
merce into the shade. But how many 
Americans, I wonder, stop to ask them- 
selves how it is that this vast volume of 
merchandise has crossed the Atlantic in 
the midst of the greatest war in all his- 
tory almost as swiftly and securely as in 
the days of prof oundest peace ? 

One by one Germany's colonies have 
been torn from her grasp — those over- 



sea possessions the children of so many 
hopes, the scenes of such unremitting 
labor, the nursing plots of such vast am- 
bitions; and not a single blow has been 
struck in defense of them by the father- 
land itself. One and all have had to rely 
on their own isolated and local efforts. 

They have looked in vain to Germany. 
Germany — paralyzed by what power? 
held down in helplessness by what mys- 
terious spell? — has impotently watched 
her beginnings of a world-wide empire 
shattered beneath her eyes. 

How is it, again, that the Belgian army 
has been rearmed, reconstituted, and re- 
equipped? How is it that the Serbian 
forces have similarly been rescued and 
remade ? How is it that Russia has been 
remunitioned, that Italy has been enabled 
to overcome her natural deficiencies, that 
France, in spite of the loss of some of 
her most highly industrialized districts, 
is still, for purposes both of war and of 
commerce, a great manufacturing nation, 
and that all the Allies can import freely 
what they need from the neutral world ? 

To what ubiquitous and unshakable 
power, stretching from Iceland to the 
Equator and back again, guarding all 
oceans, girdling the whole world, are 
these miracles due? They are due to 
just one thing — the British navy. Be- 
cause of the British navy, Germany is a 
beleagured garrison, her strength stead- 
ily, ceaselessly sapping away ; her people 
languishing physically under the stress of 
the blockade, and financially and econom- 
ically under the total loss of her foreign 
trade. 

IT SUPPORTS THE EDIFICE 

Defeat the British navy and the war is 
over in six weeks. There lies Germany's 
nearest road, not only to peace, but to 
full and final victory. Take away from 
the Grand Alliance the support of the 
British navy and the whole structure col- 
lapses into nothingness. 

Some Americans may have wondered 
why Prussia last fall should have begun 
to squeal for peace and why, on failing 
to get it, she should have renewed, even 
in face of the almost certain prospect of 
uniting nearly the whole neutral world 
against her, her campaign of murder on 
the high seas. 



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WHAT GREAT BRITAIN IS DOING 



203 



But the answer is very simple. It is 
because the British navy is preying upon 
her vitals; because the pressure of our 
naval thumb upon her windpipe is never 
relaxed for one moment ; because all tri- 
umphs on land are illusory and untenable, 
with privation and discontent mounting 
up at home ; because by commanding the 
seas we hold the master key to all eco- 
nomic vitality and to all strategic mo- 
bility. 

Germany has really had no option but 
to. use her submarines for all they are 
worth. Her one chance of staving off 
defeat is to raise the British blockade, to 
break British sea-power, to starve Brit- 
ain into surrender. It is a ten or a twenty 
to one chance against success. But what 
does that matter when it is her only 
chance ? 

She sees and sees correctly that our con- 
trol of the oceans is not a mere adjunct 
to the strength of the Alliance. It is its 
basis. It supports the whole edifice. 
Without it all that the Allies have built 
up would crumble to pieces. With it they 
can erect, as on a rock, the instruments 
of certain victory. 

But sea-power is not the only, though 
it is by far the greatest, of the contribu- 
tions that make Great Britain the main- 
stay of the Alliance. We are its bankers, 
as well as its guardians on the sea. By 
now we must have advanced to our Allies 
not less than $4,000,000,000. \'irtually 
we have taken on our shoulders the re- 
sponsibility for the credit of the Alliance 
abroad. 

Britain's war finances 

And at the same time that we are ren- 
dering this service we are spending more 
in a month than the United States Gov- 
ernment, not by any means the most 
economical in the world, has been com- 
pelled to spend in the whole of the last 
year; our weekly outlay averages some 
$200,000,000; we have raised on credit 
over $25,000,000,000, or about five times 
the generally accepted estimate of the 
cost of the entire Civil War; our yearly 
revenue, •about four-fifths of which is. 
raised by direct taxation — there are many 
men in Great Britain at this moment who 
are paying out to the State more than 



half their income — amounts to some $2,- 
500,000,000. 

And as for the unstinted outpouring of 
private generosity, let this one fact suf- 
fice: that a single London newspaper, 
acting on behalf of a single fund, has 
raised nearly as much money as all the 
American people, the whole hundred 
millions of them — and they most cer- 
tainly have not been behindhand in their 
generosity — have given to all the war 
charities combined. I should judge that 
by now the British people must have sub- 
scribed for their own sufferers by the 
war and for their Allies at least $500,- 
000,000. 

But besides placing our purse and our 
fleets at the service of the Alliance we are 
also its main arsenal and workshop. To 
Great Britain all who are fighting with 
her turn as to an inexhaustible treasure- 
house and rarely turn in vain. Is it ships, 
or provisions, or clothing, or raw ma- 
terial, or coal, or guns, or shells, or any 
other item in the endless catalogue of 
war? At once and unhesitatingly, for 
whatever they may happen to need, the 
Allies with one accord come to us; and 
it is our proud privilege to satisfy, as far 
as we can, every one of their demands. 

A NATION REWROUGIIT INDUSTRIALLY 

I am not sure that in this country there 
is much more than a very hazy concep- 
tion of the industrial revolution that has 
been wrought by the war in Great Britain. 
It is not merely that we have scrapped 
old machinery with a more than Amer- 
ican ruthlessness. It is not merely that 
some of the best and most scientific 
brains in the Kingdom are now giving 
their attention, and with astounding re- 
sults, to the problems of manufacture, or 
that capital and labor were never work- 
ing more harmoniously together, or that 
trade-union practices which interfered 
with the maximum production have been 
done away with. 

It is not merely that over 4,500 firms, 
not one of which before the war even 
dreamed of making munitions, are now 
engaged on nothing else, or that we have 
erected over 100 colossal government fac- 
tories for turning out shells, guns, pow- 
der, and the implements of trench war- 



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A POPULAR DEMONSTRATION BY THE NEI.SON COLUMN IN TRAFALGAR SQUARE, 

LONDON, ON NELSON DAY 



fare ; or that we have trained and organ- 
ized and are now employing on war work 
some 3,500,000 people; or that we have 
discovered and utilized the immense, the 
hitherto unused, industrial capacities of 
women. 

It is not merely that the government is 
branching out in a hundred helpful direc- 
tions and backing up our merchants and 
manufacturers with all the resources at 
its command. It is not merely that our 
biggest firms are everywhere getting to- 
gether and organizing the trades to which 
they belong as they have never been or- 
ganized before. 

Nor is it merely that questions of in- 
dustrial welfare and efficiency and the 
whole economy of production are being 
studied with incomparable zeal, and that 
nothing since the introduction of the 
steam-engine has so renovated, sent such 
a stir through all branches of British in- 
dustry, as this war. 

These are not the things that matter. 
What matters is that Britain is work- 



ing ; has taken off her coat ; has ceased to 
be a land of leisure, and has become a 
land of infinite labor. And to what ef- 
fect she is working may be judged by the 
fact that in spite of the vast exodus from 
industry to the army and navy, and in 
spite of the concentration of the main la- 
bor force upon munitions, her exports of 
ordinary commercial commodities reached 
last year a value only once exceeded in 
the most prosperous times of peace. 

A MIRACLE OF ACHIEVEMENT 

Talk of German efficiency and German 
organization ! I know of nothing in Ger- 
many's conduct of the war that for sheer 
genius and flexibility surpasses the indus- 
trial transformation that the past thirty 
months have produced in Great Britain. 

How we have worked up our output 
of high explosive shells to a point where 
it leaves the German factories far be- 
hind — and less than two years ago Ger- 
many was turning out a hundred times as 
many of these shells as we were ; how we 



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WHAT GREAT BRITAIN IS DOING 



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have grappled with and solved pretty 
nearly every one of the technical prob- 
lems that the war has sprung upon us, 
and how in doing so we have had to turn 
all our industrial arrangements upside 
down and to create what is nothing less 
than a new industrial order — all this it 
would need a volume, and a very fasci- 
nating one, to describe. 

We were set what seemed a hopelessly 
impossible task and we have accomplished 
it; and our present independence of 
America in the supply of munitions and 
the fighting throughout the latter half of 
19 16 on the Somme front are more elo- 
quent than any statistics could be of the 
magnitude of our effort. 

But I should just like to say a word or 
two as to the services that in this way we 
have been able to render the Allies. I 
suppose that we must have placed at their 
disposal not less than 500 British ships. 
There are special factories in Great Brit- 
ain solely devoted to meeting the arma- 
ment needs of Russia, of France, and of 
Belgium. Shells, field howitzers, heavy 
guns, grenades, machine-guns, and small 
arms leave British ports in immense 
quantities day after day for the use of 
our Allies. 

THESK WOXDERFUL FEATS MADE POSSIBLE 
BY WOMEN 

One-third of our total production of 
shell steel goes to France. That fact 
alone, to those who understand the char- 
acter of this war, is an epitome of Great 
Britain's industrial contributions to the 
common cause. Three-fourths of the 
steel-producing districts of France are 
occupied by the enemy, and our ally ab- 
solutely depends on us and on our com- 
mand of the sea to procure the essential 
basis of all modern warfare. 

It is the same with other metals — with 
copper, for instance, antimony, lead, tin, 
spelter, tungsten, mercury, high - speed 
steel, and other less vital substances. All 
these we are manufacturing in Great 
Britain or in other parts of the Empire, 
or purchasing in neutral lands and deliv- 
ering "to our Allies, under the protection 
of the British navy, to the value of over 
$30,000,000 a month. 

Millions of tons of coal and coke reach 



them from our shores every week; one- 
fifth of our total production of machine 
tools is set aside for them, and huge car- 
goes of explosives and machinery are 
daily dispatched to their address. 

It was with the products of British 
workshops, rushed to the Mediterranean 
in British ships and guarded by the Brit- 
ish navy, that the Italians were able to 
push back the Austrian offensive of last 
May ; and the shells and guns which we 
had manufactured for and transported to 
Russia were the real starting point of 
Brusiloff's triumphant sweep through 
Galicia. 

The immensity of productive effort re- 
quired to meet these demands could never 
have been sustained had it. not been for 
the women. They have entered pretty 
nearly every trade and occupation, how- 
ever arduous and dangerous, in the in- 
tensity of their desire to "do their bit," 
and it is one of the compensations of the 
war that it should have revealed to us - 
the full splendor of British. womanhood. 

Nor could we have borne our unique 
burden without organizing powers of the 
highest efficiency. There is a legend 
abroad, which we are much too busy and 
also much too lazy to refute, that Great 
Britain in this war is following her nor- 
mal habit of "muddling through." As a 
matter of fact, she owes her present pre- 
dominance precisely to. the efficiency 
which the struggle has surprised out of 
her. 

PROPHETIC MEASURES 

In almost all the big commercial and 
administrative undertakings that are in- 
separable from war, and without which 
victory cannot be achieved, the British 
Government has come off with flying 
colors. Its statesmanship, for instsuice, 
in the early days of the war saved the 
fabric of international credit from what 
might have been irreparable ruin. 

The measures by which it assumed 
control of the railways and has since di- 
rected them were so well thought out that 
scarcely a life, or an hour of time, or a 
ton of stores or equipment has been lost 
in the whole tremendous business of 
transporting and supplying our armies 
overseas. 



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A SAMPLE OF CANADA S CONTRIBUTION TO THE BRITISH FORCES 



One might recall, again, how its scheme 
for insuring cargoes and hulls gave in- 
stant confidence to the shipping world 
and went far toward maintaining that 
regularity of our food supplies which so 
far has been one of the wonders of the 
war. 

One might recall, too, how it bought 
up some $90,000,000 worth of sugar and 
succeeded for a long while in keeping 
that essential commodity cheaper in Eng- 
land, which has to import it, than in Ger- 
many, which produces it. 

Similarly, it got a not less effective con- 
trol of the refrigerated meat trade; it 
made enormous purchases of wheat and 
oats without any one, even in the Chicago 
pit, suspecting that the British Govern- 
ment was the buyer; it bought up the 
whole of the Norwegian fish supply; it 
has regulated the price of coal ; it has 
overridden not less successfully the ordi- 
nary laws of supply and demand in the 
case of wool, flax, and jute, to the im- 
mense benefit of the State, of the textile 
trades, and of our Allies. 

It is now, under Mr. Lloyd-George's 



leadership, branching out into a far more 
minute scheme for controlling the pro- 
duction and distribution of the food of 
the entire country. It is taking over the 
shipping trade, the mining industry, and 
most of the liquor trade. 

It is feeling its way toward a system 
of compulsory civil service as a comple- 
ment to compulsory military service, so 
that every man not wanted in the army — 
and every woman, too — may be set to 
work where his or her labor can be most 
useful to the State. 

There is not the smallest doubt that it 
will prove as efficient in these as it has 
in all its other business enterprises — as it 
proved, for instance, in devising and in 
inducing Holland, Norway, and Denmark 
to accept its plan for rationing those 
countries more or less in accordance with 
their ante-bellum needs ; and as it also 
proved in the very complicated arrange- 
ments that have to be made with the cot- 
ton, metal, and textile trades in the 
United States. 

Even our press censorship, for all its 
stupidities in the opening months of the 



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WHAT GREAT BRITAIN IS DOING 



207 



war, has triumphantly fulfilled its main 
purpose, that of preventing the publica- 
tion of any news which might be of use 
to the enemy; and if Americans will 
quietly sit down and imagine the entire 
American press muzzled into a similar 
innocuousness they will begin to appre- 
ciate at least one of the many hundred 
problems that the British Government has 
had to solve. The censorship of the mails 
is another masterpiece of organization. 

Certainly the civilian, English or Amer- 
ican, who visits the British front these 
days and who realizes that every man and 
every ounce of stores and every pound 
of equipment, and, indeed, the whole 
army and all it eats and wears and uses, 
and the weapons wherewith it fights, have 
been brought there after two railway 
journeys and one sea journey, involving 
at least four and possibly six changes 
and transshipments, becomes just a little 
tired when he hears the British accused 
of inefficiency. And the longer he ex- 
plores the bases and takes in the perfec- 
tion of all the arrangements for feeding, 
supplying, and nursing these tremendous 
hosts and for making good the casualties 
to material, the more he perceives that 
Great Britain is winning this war by the 
rapidity and completeness with which 
she has thrown overboard all the slouchy 
standards of peace. 

"evhrvtiiixg we havk is yours" 

And when I say Great Britain I mean, 
of course, not the men and women of the 
United Kingdom only, but all British sub- 
jects everywhere. The rally of the Em- 
pire to the side of the motherland has, 
indeed, been one of the most marv'elous 
and one of the most momentous episodes 
of the war. 

Wherever the British flag waves, in 
places the ordinary Englishman has 
barely heard of, among peoples of whom 
he knows next to nothing there is today, 
as there has been since the war began, 
but one impulse and one resolve. From 
the 450,000,000 British subjects, infinitely 
varied in speech and creed and color, in 
habits and geographical distribution, in 
economic circumstances and pursuits, 
there breathes the single intense determi- 



nation to persist in this struggle till vic- 
tory has crowned our united arms. 

The world has never seen anything like 
it. The Crusades bore but the faintest 
resemblance to this spontaneous rising of 
the free communities, scattered over the 
seven seas, on behalf of a cause that pas- 
sionately appeals to their sense of right. 
The poet's prayer has been answered. 
"In the day of Armageddon, at the last 
great fight of all," it has been proved that 
"our house stands together and the pillars 
do not fall." The Prussians always knew 
that at the touch of war the British Em- 
pire would rise. They were quite right. 
It has risen. But not precisely in the way 
they expected. 

When the storm gathered, the Domin- 
ions said with one voice : "Whatever hap- 
pens, we are with you." When it burst, 
they said : "Everything we have is yours." 

Canada proposed sending an expedi- 
tionary force two days before war was 
declared. Australia put the Australian 
navy and 20,000 men at the complete dis- 
posal of the home government. New 
Zealand, five days before the war broke 
out, declared her intention to send her 
utmost quota of help in support of the 
Empire. South Africa at once assumed, 
and very brilliantly carried out, full re- 
sponsibility for her own defense. New- 
foundland engaged on the spot to meet 
all the local expenses of raising 1,000 
men for the naval reserve. 

MARVELOUS GIFTS FROM IXDIA 

As for India, a veritable tidal wave of 
loyalty and sacrifice swept from the Him- 
alayas to Cape Comorin. The rulers of 
the native States, nearly 700 in all, of- 
fered the King-Emperor their personal 
services and their local resources. There 
are 2^ States in India that maintain Im- 
perial service troops. One and all of 
these corps were literally flung at the 
head of the Viceroy. 

Money, jewelry, horses and camels and 
men poured in upon the government. 
The Dalai Lama of Tibet, oflfered 1,000 
troops. The chiefs of the frontier tribes 
pressed their services. Sir Pertab Singh, 
though in his seventieth year, would take 
no denial, and his spirit was the spirit of 
all the diverse millions in the dependency. 



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208 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



A vast competition ensued to see which 
State, which prince, could do most for 
the Empire. Faction ceased; grievances 
were put on one side ; discontent was 
smothered. When the news came that 
the King-Emperor would use the valor 
of his Indian subjects, the whole penin- 
sula rang with joy. 

All this in the first month of the war. 
Soon the stream became a mighty tor- 
rent fed from every corner of the Em- 
pire. All the fruits of the earth, all the 
products of the factory, all the resources 
of public treasures and private purses, 
all the accessories of war that individual 
generosity could furnish, were lavished 
without stint upon the government in 
London. 

Time and again the Colonial office had 
to refuse gifts that it felt would be put- 
ting too great a strain on the donors. 
From the seamstresses and market- 
women of the Bahamas, with their offer- 
ings of two or three shillings, to the Ni- 
zam of Hyderabad, with his initial gift 
of $2,000,000; from East African chiefs, 
with their contributions of bullocks and 
goats, to the millions forwarded in money 
and goods from the self-governing do- 
minions — one common passion to give 
and spend swept through the Empire. 

If it had been confined to men and 
women of British blood and origin, it 
would still have been wonderful enough ; 
but what gave and gives it — for the tide 
still runs flood high — its preeminent sig- 
nificance is that the native rulers and peo- 
ples have been everywhere foremost in 
words and deeds. They hastened as one 
man to show their gratitude for what 
British justice and British government 
had done for them; and the more they 
knew of Prussian rule the more quickly 
they hastened. 

Not in a thousand years could the Ho- 
henzollerns earn such touching and un- 
forced tributes of loyalty and affection as 
Sir Hugh Clifford on the Gold Coast and 
Sir Frederic D. Lugard in Nigeria — to 
mention but two instances — have been 
privileged to receive. 

And what have the men of the domin- 
ions and of India achieved in the war? 
They have seized the German possessions 
in the Pacific ; they have conquered Togo- 



land and German Southwest Africa and 
the Cameroons; they hold virtually the 
whole of German East Africa in their 
grip ; they made an end of the Emden; in 
Flanders and the Dardanelles, at the head 
of the Persian Gulf, in Egypt, in Arabia, 
and along the course of the Tigris and 
Euphrates, Indians and New Zealanders, 
Australians and Canadians, have shed 
their bravest blood. 

Before the war is ended the Empire 
overseas will have thrown into the strug- 
gle well over 1,000,000 men, unsurpassed 
the world over in physique, intelligence, 
and the qualities of daring initiative. 

It is a superb record. No Britisher 
can even think of it without a feeling of 
awe mingling with his pride. Far beyond 
any material strengthening, it has brought 
to the motherland the inspiration of the 
real sense of oneness that underlies all 
the peoples of the Empire. 

This war will change many things ; on 
the structure and machinery of the Brit- 
ish Empire its mark will be indelible. No 
one after the experience of the first two 
and a half years can think it possible to 
maintain much longer the arrangement 
by which policies that affect the govern- 
ments and peoples of the entire Empire 
and involve them in unlooked-for perils, 
sacrifices, and responsibilities are decided 
in London by the leaders of a single Brit- 
ish political party, without any consulta- 
tion whatever with the statesmen of the 
dominions. That is an anomaly which 
will have to go. But to uproot it means 
not merely to alter, but to revolutionize, 
the constitution of the British Empire. 

AS IP AMERICA SHOULD RAISE 11,500,000 
TROOPS 

Meanwhile to make the rounds of any 
of the British fronts at any of the thea- 
ters of war is to view a microcosm of the 
Empire. It is, indeed, the climax to all 
our other services and achievements that 
we should have turned ourselves into a 
military power of the first order. People 
talk of Great Britain being slow to wake 
up to the realities of the war. So we 
were in some ways. But 2,000,000 men 
enlisted in the first year of the war, 
which seems to show a certain conscious- 
ness that at any rate something unusual 



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WHAT GREAT BRITAIN IS DOING 



209 



was going on. And before conscription 
came into force in May of last year — 
that is, before the war was two years 
old — 5,000,000 men, or more than 1 1 per 
cent of the total population of the British 
Isles, had volunteered. 

If Americans will imagine themselves 
raising a volunteer army of 11,500,000 
men — ^which is what they would have to 
do to parallel the British achievement — 
they will get some idea of the magnitude 
of what has been accomplished. Alto- 
gether . it seems probable that at least 
6,500,000, and possibly 7,000,000, men of 
the United Kingdom will have served 
with the colors before the war is over. 

Our old army that formed the expedi- 
tionary force to France ; that covered it- 
self with credit during the retreat from 
Mons; that helped to save the French 
forces from being outflanked, and that 
barred the way to Calais against a Ger- 
man army that outnumbered it by more 
than four to one, was, I suppose, one of 
the most wonderful military instruments 
that has ever been fashioned. 

A DEMOCRATIC ARMY 

But it was a profession, a caste, apart. 
The new armies, however, are not a caste ; 
they are the nation itself. They are 
drawn from every class and trade and 
profession in the Kingdom, and they 
proved conclusively on the Somme that 
they could beat the Germans at their own 
game. 

They gave the German army such a 
mauling as seldom any army has ever re- 
ceived since warfare first began. The 
battle of the Somme was not only by far 
the biggest battle of the war; in duration, 
in the numbers engaged, and in the in- 
tensity of the artillery fire it was the big- 
gest battle the world has yet seen. Some 
750,000 of the enemy were put out of 
action before it ended. Our troops cap- 
tured position after position, each one 
stronger than any the Germans have 
taken since the beginning of the war. 

They made "the blood bath of the 
Somme" a name of terror throus^hout the 
fatherland, charged 'with horror no less 
deep than that of Verdun. They com- 
pelled the greatest retreat that it has so 
far fallen upon the German troops to 



execute. They pounded the heart out of 
them, and they have followed the enemy 
to his new lines with a definite conviction 
that they have at last the upper hand. 

But our men who are thus helpino: to 
wear down the most formidable foe that 
has ever assaulted the freedom of Eu- 
rope, who have captured Bagdad, and are 
contributing to end Turkish rule in Asia 
Minor ; who have mopped up the German 
colonies, while preserving intact the in- 
tegrity of all British possessions, and who 
are holding up their end in the difficult 
warfare of the Balkans — these men are 
something more than the backbone of 
Britain during the struggle. They will 
be its backbone also in the hardly less 
anxious years of peace. They will be the 
pivot of the new England that is being 
forged in the furnace of the war. 

LESSONS OF THE WAR 

And that new England is a very dif- 
ferent country from the old one. A po- 
litical democracy we have long been. A 
social democracy before the war we were 
not. But we are now. Some six or seven 
million men, as I have said, have mingled 
with one another ; have learned to under- 
stand and sympathize with one another 
in the new armies ; have been trained into 
an equal brotherhood in the severest 
school of courage, efficiency, and disci- 
pline ; have had most of the nonsense of 
social distinctions knocked out of them. 

Gone is the vicious consideration that 
wealth has always claimed and received 
in the plump security of the British Isles. 
Duke's son and cook's son are fighting 
shoulder to shoulder ; great ladies do the 
waiting in the soldiers* refreshment buf- 
fets ; work like sewing maids in the Red 
Cross arsenals ; like factory hands in the 
munition works; a shop walker and a 
grocer's assistant wear the Victoria 
Cross — the new patent of nobility; for 
the convalescent wounded there is a 
boundless outpouring of hospitality and 
aflFection, free from the remotest tinge of 
condescension; the impulse to succor, to 
link hands, to know and understand one 
another, is universal. 

We have learned from this war, and 
perhaps nothing else could have taught 
us, the nobility of sacrifice and of work. 



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210 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



We have learned the full meaning of citi- 
zenship. We are going through an ordeal 
that has called into play every faculty we 
possess, and that will leave us facing life 
sanely, distinguishing very sharply be- 
tween its realities and its solemn plausi- 
bilities and a hundred times more efficient 
than we were for meeting all its emer- 
gencies. 

You must not think of England as de- 
pressed. She is^ facing her task, she is 
bearing her titanic load, with a tenacity 
that is wonderfully serene. She is serene 
not only because she is confident of her 
power, but because she knows she is fight- 
ing for the noblest causes that ever sum- 
moned a nation to arms, and because she 
knows, with an equally passionate cer- 
tainty of conviction, that honor and duty 
left her no alternative. 

A NATION IN transition" 

Although nowadays in England there 
is httle social life — people have no time 
in which to see anybody — and little travel, 
and practically no sport, and few oppor- 
tunities and less inclination for amuse- 
ment, and although we have to get along 
as best we can without servants, or with 
very few of them, without letters — every- 
body is too busy to write except to the 
men at the front — without motoring, 
without lights in the towns after dark, 



and without Paris fashions and dinner 
parties and balls, and although every 
morning there stares us in the face the 
ghastly list of the fallen and the wound- 
ed, still we are buoyed up by the knowl- 
edge that the cause, the great cause, is 
worth all sacrifices and all privations. 

That is why we have gladly surren- 
dered our most cherished liberties, turned 
our parliamentary system inside out, and 
submitted to a multitude of restrictions 
and inconveniences any one of which in 
the little days of peace would have started 
a rebellion. 

Great Britain, that seemed so fixed, is 
now in transition ; the foundations of its 
whole scheme of life are shifting, even if 
they are not breaking; habits and preju- 
dices and old instinctive attitudes of mind 
are in process of dissolution; economic 
conditions that one thought were rooted 
in the deeps are made plastic and ad- 
justable; and from this welter of re- 
newal there is springing up an England 
strengthened by enormous sacrifices for 
great ideals, ennobled by poverty, disci- 
plined without losing her characteristic 
flexibility and self - reliance, knowing 
more than a little of the true faith of 
social equality, and proud to have played 
once more, and not without honor, her 
historic role as the defender of the lib- 
erties of Europe. 



RUSSIA'S DEMOCRATS 

By Montgomery Schuyler 



THERE is nothing new under the 
sun. Recent events in Russia 
have not introduced an entirely 
new system of government into that great 
empire, but the revolution of the past few 
weeks, as we hastily but inaccurately call 
it, is in truth a reversal to an earlier form 
of democratic government in which the 
Russian people centuries ago had made 
great progress and in which they stood in 
the forefront of the European nations. 

The leaders of thought in Russia today 
have not evolved a novelty, nor are they 



experimenting with a novelty ; they have 
simply brought back to life the centuries 
old popular saying of the people in Rus- 
sia: "If the prince is bad, into the mud 
with him." 

We must admit, of course, that it has 
not been exactly the custom in the past 
few hundred years to act upon this say- 
ing in the case of rulers who had made 
themselves disliked by their subjects, but 
the underlying spirit was always there, 
waiting with infinite Russian patience for 
the men and the hour. 



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Copyright II. C. White Company, 1916 
THE MONUMENT OF FAME: PETROGRAD r 

In the square to the east of the Trinity Cathedral towers this cast-iron shaft surmounted 
by a bronze figure of Victory. The monument was erected in 1886 to commemorate the 
events of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. Five rows of captured Turkish cannon form 
the flutes of the Corinthian column and ten captured guns decorate the base. The adjacent 
cathedral occupies the site of the wooden chapel in which tradition says Peter the Great was 
married on a November night in 1707 to Catherine, the future empress. 



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RUSSIA'S DEMOCRATS 



213 



The whole social fabric of the early 
Slav was of a communal kind, but of a 
communism very different from that 
which afterward grew up embracing 
comm.on property. Collectively the Slavs 
tilled the soil and carried on other occu- 
pations and collectively they lived in 
large timber houses. 

It was an excellent system for the de- 
velopment of certain features of self- 
government; but in the troublous times 
in which it started, it was not sufficient 
to give any one collection of people a 
preponderance over other groups, and it 
was not suited to any great advance in, 
civilization. 

In time it was realized that some 
stronger and more centralized form of 
control was needed for the piio^ection of 
the Slavs from their more warlike neigh- 
bors, the Asiatic tribes, by whom they 
were surrounded. 

They took, then, voluntarily one of the 
most remarkable steps recorded by his- 
tory, or at least vouched for by legend: 
they themselves called in to govern them 
two Scandinavian princes and a prin- 
cess — Rurik, Igor, and Olga — and said 
to them, according to the story: "Our 
country is wide and fertile, but there is 
no order. Come and govern us." 

Eventually these princes and their fol- 
lowers became the new aristocracy of the 
time, very much as happened in England 
with the Normans, who were, if we be- 
lieve tradition, the same race of people. 

The union of the two elements gave 
the people what they lacked and formed 
the beginnings of the Russian Empire of 
today, with their mixture of democratic 
ideas with perfunctory obedience to es- 
tablished rulers. 

In the early days princes could not ex- 
act obedience against the wish of the peo- 
ple. Unpopular rulers were dismissed 
with scant ceremony in medieval Russia 
and, especially in the palmy days of Nov- 
gorod "the Great," there was a real self- 
governing republic in the heart of Russia. 

THE TATAR CURSE 

In spite of the new blood thus ac- 
quired and the traditions of democracy 
which were rapidly and widely develop- 
ing from these factors, the geography of 



the country once more showed its power 
in influencing history. The Russian com- 
munities were spreading and scattering 
all over the plain, and while they were 
laying the foundations for future great- 
ness of empire there was not sufficient 
cohesion among them to develop the 
broad unity of purpose which was to be 
found so necessary if these little States 
were to resist invasion. 

For along with the growth of the prin- 
cipalities came the great vital fact which 
stands out and dominates everything else 
in the history of medieval Russia, name- 
ly, the later Tatar invasions and the grad- 
,AX^\ subjugation by them of the Russian 
jpriiices. In another country the inhabit- 
-i^nts could have retreated to mountain 
\and desert regions and held off the new- 
''comers for centuries. 

But the peaceful and peace-loving Rus- 
sians were in no condition to resist these 
formidable barbarians, who, under the 
celebrated Genghiz Khan and other lead- 
ers, rapidly overran Russia and in a com- 
paratively short space of time had 
brought the whole country under their 
rule. The very nature of the loose and 
highly localized government of the princes 
was their undoing and they suffered by it 
for centuries, and in fact until they took 
a leaf from the conquerors' book and 
themselves built up the central power 
they needed. 

We must therefore, I think, regard the 
Mongol invasions as the underlying cause 
of the development of the autocratic prin- 
ciple in Russia. They built up a super- 
structure of Oriental despotism and au- 
tocracy, which, in one form or another, 
has lasted in Russia until the present time. 
Even in far-away times the Russian 
peasant was impatient of too much con- 
trol over his personal liberty and his 
property, and when he was not strong 
enough to resist or powerful enough to 
drive out the offending prince he did the 
next best thing — disappeared himself, 
with all his belongings, and founded a 
new settlement elsewhere. This fact must 
be kept constantly in mind in any study 
of the reasons why the Tatars obtained 
and kept for so long such a hold upon 
the Russian principalities ; the people and 
their rulers were not united by bonds 



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216 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



sufficiently strong to make them fight 
against the invaders. 

The peasants were originally holders 
of land and members of rural communes ; 
they were constantly trying to maintain 
their rights of freedom of domicile and 
movement, but the princes and nobles 
were as constantly attempting to limit 
and nullify these rights, so that they 
might not be deprived of the services of 
the peasants on their lands. 

In the reigns succeeding that of the 
terrible Ivan, the principles of autocracy 
replaced whatever forms of popular gov- 
ernment there had been. The state of 
the small farmers and peasants slowly 
became worse and they degenerated into 
thie position of appanages of the land on 
which they lived. 

THE FIRST ROMANOFF WAS ELECTED, TSAR 
BY AN ASSEMBLY 

. It is a curious fact, and one little ap- 
preciated now, that after some years- of 
trouble and rebellion, Michael RomanoflF, 
first Tsar of that. name, was elected by 
an assembly. He did not succeed to the 
throne, nor had he any particular, right 
to be chosen. 

Once more for a time the Tatar teach- 
ings were forgotten in Russia to some ex- 
tent and there was a partial retitrrt to the 
older methods. 

The fact that Michael had been -elected 
limited to some extent his autocratic 
powers, the more so as his election was 
the result of several compromises be- 
tween the diflferent factions of the no- 
bles and courtiers, and he did not feel 
strong enough in the support of any one 
group to oppose the will of other cliques. 

He, therefore, returned to the system 
of obtaining counsel and support from 
the people by means of "zemskii sobory," 
which were not exactly parliaments, but 
assemblies representing diflferent districts 
and classes of society. In these conven- 
tions the greatest part ^as taken by the 
representatives of the middle classes. 
One result of these assemblies was the 
production of a new code of laws. 

But Michael's successor, Alexis, sup- 
pressed them and put autocracy firmly on 
its feet, there to remain until the present 
day. 



ABSOLUTISM WA^ THEN NEEDED 

However much we may regret -the dis- 
appearance of popular .government from 
Russia under the early Romanoflf emper- 
ors, we must admit that it was necessary 
for the growth and expansion of the Em- 
pire. The Tatars probably never would 
have been driven out when they were 
under the old system of petty multitudes 
of principalities, each jealous of the other 
and intriguing against it at the court of 
the khanS. . 

Absolutism at that Aage of the world's 
development was n^ded for the firm 
control of an^enormobs territory such as 
was the Russiaji plain, which of itself 
formed no obstatt^ lo. foreign invasion 
and which tended to produce a uniformity 
of race and government. 
' Peter the Great could not have done 
what he did in bringing his country into 
the ranks of modem Stdtes^f he had not 
had an autocratic form of government. 
He realized fully the influence of the 
army in establishing him firmly in the 
new absolutism, and in 1716, in his mili- 
tary statutes, he declared : "His Majesty 
is sovereign and autocrat. He is account- 
able to no one in the world." 

From the time of Ivan the Terrible it 
was autocracy which, more than anything 
else, contributed to the long history of 
territorial extensions of Russia and her 
prestige, such as it was, abroad. In an 
endless cycle, territorial expansion led to 
political extension of this doctrine, and 
this to new territorial growth. 

By the end of the reign of Peter an 
autocratic emperor was head of the na- 
tion, the church, and the army, and held 
absolutely in his own hands all spiritual 
and temporal power. 

THE RESTORATION OF SELF-GOVERNMENT 
BEGUN 

The famous Emancipation Act of the 
Emperor Alexander II in 1861 suddenly 
altered the status of the peasants and 
from a condition of practical slavery 
made them freemen once more. 

It was soon found necessary to give 
them a certain share in local self-govern- 
ment and a somewhat complicated adjust- 
ment of this matter was arranged. There 



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RUSSIAN OFFICERS TAKING TEA IN THEIR CASINO 

When, by imperial rescript, Nicholas II put an end to the manufacture and sale of 
vodka, the national alcoholic beverage, there was much groaning among the 120,000,000 white 
Russians, but the effect was miraculously salutary, both upon the civilian population and the 
soldiers. 



was a village council called the volost; 
this was composed solely of peasants and 
was a sort of development historically of 
the ancient mir, or commune, a survival 
of the old family rule. The volost, how- 
ever, was soon seen to be inadequate and 
a larger unit, the zemstvo, was created by 
an imperial decree in 1864. 

The best English translation of this 
word, perhaps, is "county council." It is 
an assembly of deputies from the volosts, 
to which are added a certain number of 
nobles, so that peasants and proprietors 
are seated together. Above the district 
zemstvo again are the provincial councils, 
consisting of chosen representatives of 
the lower councils. 

This system worked fairly satisfac- 
torily for a number of years and had 
made the beginning of self-government 
in parliamentary fashion once more in 
current use in Russia. In 1889, how- 
ever, the government decided to have its 
own direct officers in each rural district, 



and for that purpose appointed zemski 
iiGtchalniki, or rural overseers, to live in 
each district. 

As these petty officials were appointed 
not by the people, but by the central ad- 
ministration, their presence was not wel- 
come, and their interference with local 
affairs and their constant surveillance of 
the people brought about many conflicts 
with the local authorities. They were 
designed to be a sort of guardian for the 
peasants, on the theory that the latter 
were unfit to govern themselves, but in 
reality, of course, they were spies. 

The legal economic status of the peas- 
antry, it must be remembered, is that of a 
minor not fully competent as yet to man- 
age his own business or private affairs. 

The decision, however, that the peas- 
ants of Russia were not capable of self- 
government, even in the ordinary affairs 
of the community, while convenient for 
the bureaucracy, was not very successful 
as a way out of the practical difficulties 



217 



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RUSSIA'S DEMOCRATS 



221 



arising from the making of freemen out 
of serfs in such enormous numbers. 

BUT THE people's GREATEST NEED — 
EDUCATION — WAS DENIED 

What the great mass of the Russian 
people needed and what should have been 
put into execution as soon as the emanci- 
pation of the serfs was effected was a 
system of popular education embracing 
the whole people, in the course of which 
they should have received the instruction 
necessary for their first attempts to re- 
sume any self-government on the new 
scale. 

Had this course been at once followed 
and continued until the present time, it 
is very doubtful if Russia would have 
had on her hands the terrible tragedies 
which followed the emancipation. 

The government seemed to be afraid 
to give the common people any education, 
even to the extent of allowing them to 
read and write. It thought, apparently, 
that with education would come dissatis- 
faction with the existing form of govern- 
ment, and that with dissatisfaction would 
come some attempt to bring about re- 
forms. 

So the bureaucracy adopted the old 
expedient of burying its head in the sand 
and in refusing knowledge to the people. 
This was naturally only partially success- 
ful. Education in schools might be lack- 
ing, but it was impossible to keep a hun- 
dred and fifty million human beings per- 
manently in the dark and without knowl- 
edge as to how the rest of the world was 
living and progressing. 

The Russian peasants may be illiterate, 
as, indeed, according to statistics, about 
70 per cent of them are, but they have 
the shrewd intelligence of the peasant all 
over the world, and their sturdy common 
sense makes up for lack of schooling to a 
great extent. 

Thus, in spite of all opposition, the 
rural and urban assemblies retained the 
germ of local government, and in spite 
of the dual control, as the result of which 
much of their influence was nullified, 
they did have a certain value in airing 
abuses and suggesting improvements. 
Their existence was often threatened, but 
never entirely stopped. 



Note, however, that there was no na- 
tional congress or assembly of any kind 
from the eighteenth century down to the 
foundation of the new Imperial Duma, 
in 1906. 

THE FIRST NATIONAL CONGRESS IN 280 
YEARS 

The members of this body were to be 
chosen by electors from all over the coun- 
try. The new law gave the suffrage to 
every man over 25 years of age who had 
a fixed domicile and a certain property 
qualification. In rural districts those 
peasants had votes who were fathers of 
families, together with the rural land- 
owners, nobles, merchants, and members 
of the clergy ; in the cities, State officials, 
members of the public services, and pro- 
prietors with certain qualifications. In- 
dustrial workers who could prove six 
months' continuous labor in establish- 
ments having at least fifty employees 
could also vote. 

The Duma could express views, but 
was nearly helpless in carrying into effect 
any reforms. But it had a certain influ- 
ence for good in its very existence, and 
after a succession of abortive sessions, 
the later assemblies developed a courage 
which was truly remarkable when the 
forces opposed to it are considered. 

It is not too much to say, in the light 
of recent events, that the Duma and what 
it stands for is responsible directly and 
primarily for the overthrow of the Ro- 
manoff dynasty and the establishment of 
a new form of government in Russia. 

The reason for the failure of the revo- 
lutionary movement which convulsed 
Russia in the years immediately succeed- 
ing the Russo-Japanese War is that the 
methods were too radical and too remi- 
niscent of the old nihilism to be popular, 
even with the milder groups of revolu- 
tionists. 

The arguments of that time consisted 
in bombs thrown at unpopular ministers 
or officials who, although not disliked 
personally, were supposed to embody the 
principles of the autocratic regime too 
closely. It is doubtful if these enthusi- 
asts ever had the support of any large 
element of the Russian population out- 



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RUSSIA'S DEMOCRATS 



223 



side of the acknowledged "advanced" 
visionaries. 

The leaders of the movements of 1905 
and the succeeding years were men whose 
abilities and whose methods in no way 
held the confidence either of the middle 
classes or the peasants. 

In fact, what with the devotion of the 
peasant to the "Little Father" as typify- 
ing the supreme head of Church and 
State, and his innate distrust of all 
strangers, it had never been possible for 
the revolutionists to get any wide sup- 
port among the low^er classes. In many 
cases the transplanted peasants who made 
up the industrial classes in the cities had 
quite openly taken that side, but indus- 
trialism as opposed to agriculture had 
never enough votaries to make their sup- 
port effective. 

The riots and general disturbances of 
1905 were largely confined to the cities 
and to workers on the various railways 
who had been in sufficiently close touch 
with urban life to make them quicker to 
feel the need of change and progress. 

THE PRESENT LEADERS ARE FAR-SIGHTED 

The leaders of the new movement, 
however, have learned their less.on. In- 
stead of sporadic instances of terrorism, 
followed by violence, they have entered 
upon a campaign of education, carried 
out systematically and with restraint, for 
the purpose of having all the people with 
them when the opportune time to strike 
should come. 

They eagerly seized the opportunity of 
the war and its consequent needs to illus- 
trate in a practical way how much better 
they could manage things if given the 
power, and the Russian, who may be 
slow, but who is not dull, has learned the 
lesson so graphically put before him. 

It is, of course, too soon after the stir- 
ring events of the last few weeks to esti- 
mate with any degree of accuracy just 
what result the overthrowing of abso- 
lutism will have on the future of the 
Russian people. The peasants — that is, 
of course, the vast majority of the in- 
habitants of the Empire — have, since the 
emancipation, been singularly indifferent 
to their government except in the way of 
interest in the whole agrarian question. 



If the dynasty and the bureaucracy had 
seen fit to give the peasants a satisfactory 
solution of the problems arising from 
land ownership, as they so easily could 
have done, I doubt greatly if there would 
have been any revolution at the present 
time. 

Even a fairly good rule would have 
satisfied these simple people. The lim- 
ited amount of self-government they en- 
joyed in the rural assemblies, hampered 
though it was, was enough for the most 
pressing questions of local interest. 

These assemblies, however, naturally 
had no authority to dig down to the root 
of the peasants' grievances — the unequal 
distribution of land and the lack of any 
just system for adjusting complaints 
thereon — and could not on that account 
be considered satisfactory. 

What undoubtedly had more effect 
than anything else in influencing the peas- 
ant favorably toward the new govern- 
ment and against the old was the fact 
that shortly after the beginning of the 
present war it was seen that the regular 
commissariat department of the War Of- 
fice was quite unequal to carrying out the 
tasks imposed by the mobilization of the 
millions of men called to the colors in 
Russia, namely, of provisioning, clothing, 
and transporting the men according to 
requirements. 

ASSOCIATIONS OF THE PE0PI.E 

The first mobilization was carried out 
in 1 9 14, in the summer-time, and did not 
entail any great amount of physical hard- 
ship on the recruits. When the winter 
of that year had arrived, however, and 
the cold had made transportation difficult, 
the suffering was great. 

In many cases troops had to be sent 
several weeks' journey by rail in unheated 
freight cars, without any conveniences, 
and if it had not been for the splendid 
work of the zemstvo committees thou- 
sands would have frozen and starved. 

Each local assembly, both in city and 
country, formed special committees, as 
they had done in the Japanese war, and, 
working with that perfect spirit of co- 
operation which distinguishes Russians 
of every walk in life when interested in 
any common object, they rapidly and 



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Photograph trom J. C, Grew 

THE BIGGEST MONOLITH OF OUR TIMES — THE ALEXANDER COLUMN: PETROGRAD 

In the center of the Dvortzovaya Square, before the Winter Palace, towers this huge 
pillar of polished red Finnish granite, nearly ico feet high and 13 feet in diameter. The 
height of the whole monument, including the bronze angel clasping a 20-foot cross, is 153^2 
feet. It was erected in 1834 hy Tsar Nicholas I to the memory of his brother, Alexander I. 
On the side facing the Winter Palace is the inscription, "Grateful Russia to Alexander I." 



energetically took over practically the 
whole task of providing food and other 
needed supplies for the soldiers. 

Booths were established at railway sta- 
tions where the men could get bread and 
hot tea on the arrival of the troop trains ; 
nurses and doctors were on hand to look 
after any who might need their services, 
and a whole system of first aid was soon 
in effect. 

Soon it was found necessary for these 
committees to take up the question of 



buying supplies in quantity and in trans- 
porting these supplies to where they were 
needed. This was followed by the organ- 
ization of boot and clothing factories, 
help in munition works, and gradually, 
but steadily, the zemstva took over prac- 
tically every function of the quartermas- 
ter's department of the army and navy. 

THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE DRUNKARD 

Another phase, and one perhaps as im- 
portant, if not more so, than the develop- 



224 



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Photograph by Gilbert H. Grosvenor 
A STREET SCENE IN MOSCOW, RUSSIA 

The low-hung, single-passenger vehicle, with its ponderously yoked horse, is as typical 
of Russia as is the howdah-equipped elephant of India or the man-power jinrikisha of Japan. 
Carriages for infant Russia are not in universal use, however, as evidenced by the little 
mother in the picture with her arms full of baby. 



225 Digitized by GoOglC 



AFTERNOON TEA IN RUSSIA 

The popularity of the cup which cheers but does not inebriate has increased enormously 
since vodka went out of fashion. Another favorite table beverage of the Russians is kvass, 
the liquor drawn off soaked black bread or white bread. 



ment of popular aid to the military forces 
of the country, is the immense expansion 
of the already existing cooperative socie- 
ties since the beginning of the war. This 
growth is very closely connected with the 
abolition of vodka and the consequent 
entire sobriety of the whole nation for a 
period which is already of nearly three 
years' duration. 

Strong drink had always been the one 
absolutely essential thing for the peasant. 
Whatever else he lacked, he must have 
his drunken spree once in so often, and 
no obligation, no duty, and no work ever 
interfered with the far more important 
task of periodically getting drunk. 

As each spree took at least three days' 
time — one day to get drunk, one to lie 
drunk, and one to recover his senses — 
the working time of the average peasant 
was greatly diminished. To this was 
added the due observance of all State 
and Church holidays and anniversaries, 



and also bad weather, so that in all prob- 
ability 150 days would be a large labor 
average for a year. 

When the Emperor "by a stroke of the 
pen," as is so often said, wiped out the 
great curse of drink from the people, he 
not only added greatly to their economic 
forces, but to their military fitness. It is 
now widely felt that one of the most po- 
tent reasons for the ill-success of the 
Russian arms in the Japanese war was 
the constant state of intoxication of so 
many of the officers and men. 

With the ending of vodka, however, a 
great deal of spare time was thrown on 
the people. Drinking was one of the 
chief amusements of millions of men who 
could neither read nor write, and if dis- 
orders, if the mischief which Satan al- 
ways finds for idle hands, was to be 
avoided, something must be substituted 
in the way of clean and healthful recrea- 
tion. 



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SIBERIAN HIDES AND VILLAGE OF THE TATARS: NIZHNI- NOVGOROD, RUSSIA 

Live-stock breeding is second to agriculture as a pursuit among the inhabitants of 
Siberia, a region one and a half times as large as all Europe and forty times larger than the 
British Isles. 



It must be remembered that, as a result 
of the dislike of the authorities for all 
assemblies of people, no matter of how 
innocent a character, there had been prac- 
tically no lectures, concerts, theaters, or 
other forms of pastime, if we except the 
excellent military band concerts in the 
public parks on summer evenings. 

One of the first cares of the coopera- 
tive societies, with their millions of mem- 
bers, after the abolition of drink was to 
get up diversions for the neighborhood, 
which were usually held in the lofts over 
the cooperative stores or warehouses in 
the villages. Cinematographs, amateur 



theatricals, concerts, and other commu- 
nity activities were started and had great 
success. 

The money once spent for drink now 
stays in the peasants* pockets or is put in 
the rural branches of the government 
savings bank, and the total deposits of 
that institution have swelled incredibly 
in the past two years. 

GROWTH OF THE PEOPLE'S ASSOCIATIONS 
IS PHENOMENAL 

The growth of these cooperative socie- 
ties has been phenomenal. For instance, 
in one district alone the number has been 



227 



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228 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



increased from 50 to 302. The societies 
for wholesale purchase have increased 
from 40 to 400. 

There are now 60 credit unions work- 
ing, with some 10,000 separate coopera- 
tive credit societies. In IMoscow there 
has been organized a Central Cooperative 
Credit Bank, which in 191 5 did a busi- 
ness of $140,000,000. 

It is impossible to imagine how wide- 
spread have become the ramifications of 
these unions and societies. There are 
now building or in operation flour mills, 
oil works, starch works, paper and sugar 
plants, and machine shops. In one town 
we have an electric-light plant, giving 
people light for a dollar a year. 

There is no doubt that in thus helping 
their members to the number of millions 
these societies have in no small degree 
contributed to the military successes of 
Russia, for in every instance they can be 
found working in close harmony with the 
committees of the zemstvbs engaged in 
the buying and furnishing of the enor- 
mous quantities of supplies needed by the 
armies. 

Under the leadership of devoted and 
able administrators, the numberless com- 
mittees appointed by the various zemstvos 
have been untiring in reaching out for 
new fields of activity, and only the sus- 
picion and jealousy of the official classes 
has prevented them from turning Russia 
into one great communistic settlement. 

The catalogue of the work undertaken 
and carried to success by these commit- 
tees would be long and meaningless. 
Some of the more interesting of these 
phases, however, may properly be 
touched upon. 

Let us take, for example, almost any 
point on any railroad leading from the 
interior to the fighting front of Russia 
at the present time. As you emerge from 
your railroad car at the station, you prob- 
ably see on a switch in the yard a long 
train of cars painted gray, with big, red 
crosses on the sides, and, on looking 
closer, you can read, '^Hospital train for 
active army service of the . . . Zems- 
tvo." Into this train stretcher-bearers are 
carrying wounded men from motor am- 
bulances outside the station, similarly 
marked, which have just come in from 



the temporary hospitals established by the 
same committee just behind the lines of 
trenches. 

IN COOPER.ATIVE EF'FORT RUSSIA CAN 
TEACH US MUCH 

Nurses, orderlies, doctors, medicines, 
and dressings — all are provided by these 
same units and without expense to the 
government. In each city, town, and vil- 
lage women are organized into groups — 
sewing, making bandages, knitting warm 
sleeping things, or doing something else 
useful — much as they are in all the other 
belligerent countries, but with a far 
greater degree of coordination and less 
of confusion and duplication of effort 
than is to be found anywhere else. 

In a country so singularly inefficient as 
Russia is in many ways, there is yet much 
for us to learn in the way of cooperative 
effort and aid. 

One of the most interesting private in- 
stitutions, which works along the same 
lines as do the committees just de- 
scribed, is what is known as "Purushke- 
vitch Points.'' Mr. Purushkevitch has 
been a member of several of the Dumas, 
and at the beginning of the war organ- 
ized at his own expense a number of 
"points.'* 

I visited and made a thorough inspec- 
tion of a "point,'' situated not far from 
the city of Dvinsk, on the northern front 
of Russia. We started out in a fast 
American automobile and, after going as 
far as was thought safe for the car to- 
ward the front-line trenches, we left it 
and proceeded on foot to the point. This 
was a settlement some couple of miles 
behind the front trenches. 

A Sister of Mercy was in general 
charge of the whole work. Under her 
were three doctors — ^men too old for the 
active work at the front, but quite ready 
to perform any minor operations or give 
any necessary dressings or other aid. 
They had a well-equipped hospital in a 
tent surmounted by a large Red Cross 
flag. 

Other tents were dining, dressing, and 
sleeping rooms, and still others contained 
supplies and quarters for the large staff 
of orderlies and attendants. 

The sister in charge told me that there 



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THE GEORGIAN MILITARY ROAD OVER THE CAUCASUS 

This great highway, over which motor omnibuses are operated regularly in peace times 
for six months of the year (April 15 to October 15), is one of the most beautiful mountain 
roads in the world. It ascends ihe valley of the Tcrck and crosses the Krestovaya Pass at 
an elevation of 7,800 feet, then descends to the famous city of Tiflis. It was under con- 
struction for more than half a century, being completed in 1864. For a distance of eight 
miles the road runs through an awe-inspiring gorge, flanked by precipitous walls of rock 
more than a mile high. 



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Photograph by C. S. Alden 

SAFETY RAZORS HAVK NEVER DEEN POPULAR IN RUSSIA. AS BEARDS ARE THE FASHION 

Only about one-half the land of the province of central Russia known as Nizhni-Nov- 
gorod is suitable for agricultural pursuits, and of this three-fifths is owned by noblemen and 
only about one-sixth by the hardy peasantry. Although much of the land is the fertile "valley 
black earth," the yield of wheat, rye, barley, oats, and potatoes is frequently insufficient for 
the population, so that nearly every year more than ioo,oco persons leave their villages in 
quest of tcmnorary work in neighboring provinces, or "governments,'' as the more than one 
hundred subdivisions of the empire are called. Owing to the efforts of the Nizhni-Novgorod 
zemstvo, there has been more progress in education in this district than in many of the other 
governments. 



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had formerly been three 
sisters there, but that the 
cold and dampness had 
been too much for the 
others, who had been 
forced to go home to re- 
cover their health. She 
showed me a new hut 
which was being built 
for her under the shelter 
of a near-by hill, which 
it was hoped would be 
drier and more comfort- 
able than the tent she 
had. 

There are about 25 of 
these "points" scattered 
at various places along 
the front, and the inten- 
tion at each one of them 
is that anybody who 
comes along shall be 
taken in, whether pris- 
oner, officer, visitor, gen- 
eral, or private, and 
given whatever he may 
be in need of. 

Facilities are provided 
for hot baths and clean 
suits of underwear for 
tired soldiers; good and 
bountiful meals are sup- 
plied smoking hot for 
any one who is hungry; 
beds are there for as 
long a stay as may be 
found necessary, and in no case are ques- 
tions asked. 

I enjoyed a very good dinner during 
my visit. The fittings were of the sim- 
plest, but everything was clean and good. 
I peeked into the bath-house and found 
there some half dozen soldiers thoroughly 
enjoying a steaming vapor bath. They 
had just been allowed to come from the 
trenches and were shortly going back. 
Other groups of soldiers were lying about 
at rest, enjoying a smoke and perhaps a 
game of some kind. 

This work is the nearest approach to 
what would be called Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association effort in this country 
which I found anywhere on the Russian 
front. In general the men simply lie 
around their barracks when they are not 
working, unless they are attending church 
or playing some game in the open. 



Photograph by Gilbert H. Grosvenor 
FKATIIERED FORTUNE-TELLER AND IIIS KEEPER AT THE 
FAMOUS NIZHNI-NOVGOROD FAIR 



THE GRATITUDE OF THE SOLDIERS 

All of this work was at first greatly 
resented by the officials who should have 
done it themselves, but before long even 
they realized what was being done in this 
quiet, inconspicuous way, and today the 
whole army realizes that without this 
splendid service the war, so far as Rus- 
sia is concerned, would have been over 
long ago. 

Under these circumstances the defects 
of bureaucracy and the good work of the 
unofficial organizations became more of 
a reality to the peasant soldier than they 
could otherwfse have been, and his grati- 
tude, while silent, was none the less sin- 
cere. 

The zemstvo assemblies, which have 
long been the most liberal influences at 
work in Russia, have now become the 
most popular. They have unbounded in- 



237 



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Photograph by C. S. Alden 
RUSSIAN PEASANTS AT THE FAIR! NIZHNI- NOVGOROD 

Situated on the River Volga, the great artery of Russian trade, Nizhni-Novgorod is 
world-famous for its fair, held each year from July 29 to September 10, during which time 
the value of goods sold and ordered sometimes amounts to nearly $200,000,000. Cotton, 
woolen, linen and silk stuflFs, furs, iron ware, pottery, salt, fish, wines, teas, and leather are 
important articles of barter. As the capital of the government of the same name, the city 
ordinarily has a population of 100,000, but during the fair it is visited by 400,000 people 
from all parts of Russia and many points in Asia. The importance of the trading center 
dates almost from its founding, in 1221, as a barrier against the inroads of the Mordvins 
and Bulgarians. 



fluence on the people, and under the able 
and devoted leadership of such men as 
Prince Lvoff, President of the Associa- 
tion of Zemstvo Committees, and other 
patriots, they have, more than anything 
else, contributed toward the present 
changes in Russia. 

The Liberal element, under the leader- 
ship of men like Paul Milyukoff, now 
Minister for Foreign Affairs ; Alexander 
Guchkoff, President of the Third Duma, 
and a small group of far-seeing men, has 
had to contend, on the one hand, with 
the old regime, the dynasty, and the bu- 
reaucracy, and on the other with that far 
larger number of men and women who 
in their desire for a new and free gov- 
ernment have not stopped at any means 
to attain their ends, and whose preaching 
and carrying out of the doctrines of an- 



archy and terrorism have retarded by so 
many years the establishment of free and 
representative government throughout 
the length and breadth of the great Rus- 
sian Empire. 

Russia's strength 

What will be the result of the revolu- 
tion on the present war? That is the 
question now uppermost in the minds not 
only of Allied statesmen, but of every 
one in the United States as well. Cer- 
tainly, in a general way, this is not diffi- 
cult of answer. 

If the new leaders can succeed in bring- 
ing actively to their side, without foolish 
opposition from the more radical ele- 
ments, the vast majority of the people and 
the rank and file of the army, they will 
have no trouble in bringing, or rather 



238 



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Photograph from Boston Photo News Company 
THE CHURCH OF THE IMPERIAL, PALACE OF PETERHOF 

Eighteen miles from Petrograd is the town of Peterhof, founded by Peter the Great in 
l/ii. The imperial palace is built in imitation of Versailles, the main building being in three 
stories and connected with the wings by galleries. It was built by Peter the Great in 1720 and 
enlarged 30 years later for the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna. This church, with its five gilt 
cupolas, is the work of Rastrelli. 



239 

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240 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



keeping, Russia in the war, in a position 
of greatly increased strength and vigor. 

The mere fact that in the course of a 
long and bloody war Russia has been able 
at the same time to fight her foes at home 
and abroad proves most strongly her in- 
nate strength and steadfastness. 

I have often been asked why Russia 
has not done better in this war ; why, with 
her millions of man-power, she has seemed 
to have had victory time and time again 
in her grasp only to lose it by some mis- 
take. 

It has been impossible to make people 
realize what Russia was fighting — two 
foes at once, more than any of the other 
nations engaged in the war has had to 
contend against. We shall probably not 
know for long, if ever, what a struggle 
has been carried on within Russia against 
the forces which souorht to deliver her 



helpless and bound to her enemies abroad. 
Up to now the news has all seemed to 
favor the probability that the new Russia 
will succeed in forming a stable and pow- 
erful government on the ruins of the old, 
and in doing so she will have the earnest 
good wishes of all her allies and all her 
friends, and in the latter category may 
now be placed for the first time the whole 
of the United States. 

For it must be admitted that in this 
country one of the strongest reasons for 
not entering the war, either actively or 
passively, on the side of the Allies has 
been the thought that in so doing we were 
backing Russian absolutism,. the antithe- 
sis of everything for which our own 
form of government stands, the symbol 
of absolutism and terrorism, of autocracy 
against democracy, of darkness against 
light. 



REPUBLICS-THE LADDER TO LIBERTY 

By David Jayne Hill 

Formerly U. S. Minister to Switzerland, to the Netherlands^ and 
Formerly Ambassador to Germany 



IF WE spread out a map of the world, 
for the purpose of comparing the 
territorial extent of the different 
kinds of government existing at the pres- 
ent time, we find that the area covered 
by "republics" occupies approximately 
30,250,000 square miles, or considerably 
more than one-half the habitable surface 
of the globe. 

If we add the area of the British Em- 
pire, the spirit of whose government is 
now entirely democratic, and whose "au- 
tonomous colonies," as the Dominions 
are now called, are virtually republics, 
the area of free government reaches the 
enormous total of about 41,500,000 square 
miles, or about four-fifths of the inhab- 
ited earth. 

Turning now to the proportions of the 
population of the globe under the "re- 
publics" and other forms of government, 
we find that of the total inhabitants of 
the earth, estimated at 1,600,000,000, 
more than 850,000,000 are living under 



nominal republics ; and if we add the pop- 
ulation of the British Empire, which may 
be called a commonwealth of republics, 
the total would be about 1,250,000,000, or 
more than three-fourths of the human 
race. 

If to these areas and populations we 
add those under constitutional govern- 
ments, excluding all those under avow- 
edly absolutist rule, we find only a small 
fraction of the globe still adhering to a 
system which only a centtjry and a half 
ago was practically universal (see maps, 
pages 242 and 243). 

FEW republics in 1776 

These facts are the more astonishing 
if we consider what the result of such an 
examination would have been if made, 
let us say, in the year of our Declaration 
of Independence, 1776. At that time 
there would have been found upon the 
map of the world, apart from a few iso- 
lated so-called "free cities" — like Ham- 



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REPUBLICS— THE LADDER TO LIBERTY 



in 



burg, Liibeck, Bremen, and Geneva — 
only three or four little patches of color 
to which the name "republics" could 
properly be applied — the United Nether- 
lands, the Swiss Confederation, the Re- 
public of Venice, and the Republic of 
Genoa. 

At an earlier time there would have 
been found on the map of Europe a num- 
ber of Italian city-states, like Florence, 
Padua, and others, that were called "re- 
publics," and one great area marked on 
the map as Poland, which was also called 
a republic; but in 1776 the Italian repub- 
lics, with the exception of Venice, had 
totally lost what liberties they had pre- 
viously been able to maintain and had 
become hereditary despotisms, while Po- 
land, after having been partly partitioned 
between Prussia, Russia, and Austria, 
had sought refuge from utter dissolution 
by becoming in effect a protectorate of 
Russia. 

With these examples before us, it 
would be extremely difficult to frame a 
definition of the word "republic," ex- 
pressed in positive terms, that would fit 
all of them ; for no two of them were in 
all respects alike. Not one possessed a 
written constitution in the modern sense. 
Not one admitted universal suflfrage. 
The one common characteristic was the 
negative quality of repudiating an over- 
lord. 

They were not, as the national mon- 
archies — with the exception of Britain — 
at that time were, the private possessions 
of dynastic rulers, who regarded the ter- 
ritory over which they ruled as. crown 
estates and their inhabitants as subjects, 
to be transmitted by heredity from gen- 
eration to generation or acquired by mar- 
riage, like ordinary private property. 

In the commonwealths called "repub- 
lics" the res publica was considered as 
vested in the community as a whole, espe- 
cially with regard to legislation and ad- 
ministration ; and yet the relation of the 
individual to the State was not very pre- 
cisely defined in any one of them. 

The prominence of negative over posi- 
tive attributes in these eighteenth-century 
republics is explained by the fact that 
they were all brought into being by revolt 
against some form of arbitrary power. 



They were monuments of protest rather 
than embodiments of a constructive idea. 

VENICI^ A REPUBUC IN NAME ONLY 

Venice, the oldest of these four at- 
tempts at self-government, was founded 
by refugees from the Italian mainland, 
who in the fifth century had sought ref- 
uge from the power of Attila in the 
islands of the lagoons at the head of 
the Adriatic. For self-preservation the 
islanders united, elected a leader, or doge, 
and formed a new State. This com- 
munity was long considered as a depend- 
ency of the Eastern Empirq, from which 
it did not become wholly independent 
until the tenth century. 

In perpetual conflict with the imperial 
pretensions of the East or the West, \^en- 
ice became through commerce and con- 
quest a great maritime power, dominat- 
ing not only the Adriatic and the lands 
bordering upon it, but also many of the 
ports of Greece, and possessing even a 
portion of Constantinople, which it held 
until the capture of that city by the 
Turks, in 1453, to whom it continued to 
offer a long and courageous resistance. 
At the end of the fifteenth century it had 
become the first maritime power of Eu- 
rope, an ascendency which it did not en- 
tirely lose until the discovery of the sea 
route to India by the Cape dealt its com- 
merce a death blow by making the Atlan- 
tic the main highway for Eastern trade. 

Venice was never in reality a democ- 
racy. The doge, elected for life, in con- 
junction with the Senate, the Council of 
Ten, and other aristocratic bodies, ruled 
at times with almost absolute authority. 

Although the Venetian republic was in 
no sense a democracy, it is interesting to 
trace the development of its safeguards 
of liberty. The perils to which the re- 
public was exposed required both unity 
and continuity in the direction of its af- 
fairs. This use of centralized power was 
confided to the doge, but it was intended 
that he should never become a monarch. 

Living, he was subject to the advice of 
the councils and the restraint of many 
legal limitations; and, even when dead, 
his administration was open to review by 
an examining body, and in case of con- 
demnation reparation was exacted of his 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



heirs. Although elected for life, the av- 
erage service of a doge did not in fact 
exceed sixteen years, only men of middle 
age being regarded as eligible to the 
office. 

The oath of the doge involved an ex- 
plicit renunciation of sovereign rights. 
He was required to promise not only to 
execute the laws and decrees of the coun- 
cils, but not to correspond directly with 
foreign powers, or to open letters ad- 
dressed to him, even by Venetians, with- 
out the presence of a councillor. He 
could hold no property outside the terri- 
tory of Venice ; he could not intervene in 
any judgment, either of fact or of law; 
none of his relatives could be appointed 
by him to any civil, military, or ecclesi- 
astical office ; he was prohibited from per- 
mitting any citizen to kneel before him 
or kiss his hand. But as a symbol of the 
State he was clothed with magnificence, 
and stood before the world as the out- 
ward representative of supreme power. 

GENOA WAS I.IKE VENICE 

Like Venice, Genoa, which was founded 
as a city in the eighth century B. C., in 
the tenth century of our era threw off the 
imperial yoke and became an independ- 
ent republic. Like Venice, it also devel- 
oped into a great maritime and commer- 
cial power, extended its territory by con- 
quest, and was the possessor of valuable 
colonies. Subjected to French rule in the 
fourteenth century, it afterward regained 
its independence, but in 1746 fell for a 
time under the power of Austria. By 
1776 it had lost most of its colonies, hav- 
ing been obliged in 1768 to cede Corsica 
to France. 

Internal discord had completely deliv- 
ered the republic into the hands of the 
aristocratic party. Four hundred and 
sixty-five families of the nobiHty were in- 
scribed in the "Golden Book" and divided 
among themselves all the public powers, 
honors, and offices, to the exclusion of 
the middle class and the common people. 
A Council of 400 members chose the Sen- 
ate ; the Senate chose the eight governors 
who formed the Executive Council, and 
this body chose from its own number the 
doge, who represented the nation. 



THE SWISS REPUBI^IC IS VERY OLD 

Altogether different in form and struc- 
ture was the Swiss Confederation. It, 
too, came into being through a revolt 
against external authority. The three 
^'Forest Cantons" — Uri, Schwyz, and 
Unterwalden — comprised in the duchy of 
Suabia had fallen under the rule of the 
counts of Hapsburg. Upon the death of 
Rudolf, in 1291, **in view of the malice 
of the time," these cantons formed a de- 
fensive league and resolved to recognize 
no chief who was not of the country, and 
to maintain the peace and their rights by 
their own armed force. 

The parchment upon which their com- 
pact was written is still preserved, and 
bears as seals the cross of Schwyz, the 
bull's head of Uri, and the key of Unter- 
walden. 

This document was not a declaration 
of independence and retained a trace of 
feudalism; for it enjoined that "who- 
ever hath a lord let him obey him, ac- 
cording to his bounden duty." But it was 
a declaration of rights and a firm resolu- 
tion that they should never J^e taken away 
by the power of a usurper. The efforts 
of the Hapsburg emperors to reduce the 
cantons to subjection gave repeated op- 
portunities for the fulfillment of this 
pledge. 

In 1 513 the Confederation had grown 
to thirteen cantons, Berne, Zurich, Lu- 
cerne, Friburg, Zug, Claris, Bale, So- 
leure, Schaffhausen, and Appenzell hav- 
ing united with the **Forest Cantons" ; but 
this expansion had entirely transformed 
the original league. Subject territories, 
added by conquest, now formed part of 
the republic. The cities had contributed 
decisive elements of change, for they 
were less democratic than the "Forest 
Cantons." In truth, in some instances, 
the cities had developed the attributes of 
ambitious and oppressive oligarchies. 

t.A CHILD OF BLOOD AND HEROISM 

Like the Venetian and the Swiss re- 
publics, the United Netherlands was a 
child of revolution, but of a far more 
dramatic kind. In November, 1565, 
twenty confederates met at Brussels to 
form a league to resist the Spanish In- 



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Photograph by Edwin I^evick 

THE STATUE OE LIBERTY IN NEW YORK HARBOR 

This glorious symbol of freedom, towering 300 feet above the waters of New York 
harbor, was purchased by popular subscription and presented to the United States by the 
people of France in commemoration of the hundredth anniversary of the Declaration of 
Independence and in token of the undying bond of sympathy and friendship that exists 
between the citizens of the two great republics — a love which Lafayette and Rochambeau 
brought into being more than a century ago. The statue itself is 151 feet in height from 
base to torch, and is the work of the eminent French sculptor, Bartholdi. 



245 

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REPUBLICS— THE LADDER TO LIBERTY 



247 



quisition, and in the following year a 
wave of popular indignation against the 
royal edicts, which condemned to be 
burned fifty or sixty thousand persons, 
swept over the Netherlands. 

The Duke of Alba was sent to execute 
the orders which the Prince of Orange 
refused to obey and to exterminate the 
heretics. A reign of terror followed, 
during which the Prince of Orange raised 
armies, which he led with consummate 
military genius ; but they steadily melted 
away before the Duke's superior power, 
until heresy and patriotism seemed fatally 
crushed. 

With unfaltering faith, however, the 
Prince of Orange pursued his resistance, 
steadily demanding the withdrawal of the 
Spaniards from the Netherlands, the free 
exercise of religion, and the restoration 
of the ancient rights and liberties of the 
land. By the Union of Delft, in 1576, 
he had federated Holland and Zeeland. 
In 1579, by the Union of Utrecht, Hol- 
land, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Fries- 
land, Overyssel, and Gronigen united to 
sustain the freedom of religion and re- 
nounce allegiance to the King of Spain. 

These seven provinces, presided over 
by the Prince of Orange as elective Stadt- 
holder, formed a confederation with a 
central legislative body called the States 
General ; but so jealous of all central au- 
thority were the provinces that no laws 
or engagements could become effective 
without the sanction of a majority of the 
separate provincial assemblies. In 1650 
the anti-monarchical sentiment was so 
strong that even the elective stadtholder- 
ate was abolished; to be restored, how- 
ever, in 1672, and made hereditary in 
1674. 

Like Venice, the Dutch Republic be- 
came a maritime power of great impor- 
tance, waged war on land and sea, and 
acquired by conquest valuable colonies. 

FREEDOM HAS ALWAYS BEEN A DELICATE 
ELOWER TO KEEP ALIVE 

All these republics, as we have seen, 
were primarily based jpon the repudia- 
tion of autocratic po\/er ; but no perma- 
nent political organization can bi sus- 
tained by a mere negation. At the basis 
of republicanism in every form is a con- 



ception of liberty united with a sense of 
social solidarity. 

The positive element in the conception 
of a republic is the freedom of the indi- 
vidual, which rests upon the conviction 
that there are in the nature of man cer- 
tain innate qualities that may justly claim 
the right of expression, and which, there- 
fore, ought not to be suppressed by arbi- 
trary power. 

The chief problem for a republic has 
always been the organization of liberty 
in such a manner as to render it perma- 
nently secure. In this no one of the 
republics of antiquity had ever entirely 
succeeded. The Greek city-states — like 
Athens, Sparta, Thebes, and Argos — 
wavered between aristocratic and demo- 
cratic control ; but the existence of slavery 
and a subject class rendered all of them 
to some extent oligarchical. 

The Roman city-republic was sub- 
merged by its own internal expansion of 
power and its external growth of respon- 
sibility, which created conditions that no 
democracy could satisfy or control. The 
later Italian city-states were either ab- 
sorbed by more powerful neighbors or 
in their efforts at self-preservation from 
foreign intrusion degenerated into tyran- 
nies, as the Greek republics often had 
before them. 

Freedom has always proved a delicate 
flower to keep alive. Oligarchy has 
tended to narrow the depositories of 
power until it became the possession of a 
single master; while democracy, on the 
other hand, recognizing in emergencies 
the weakness of divided counsels, has 
tended to confide its power to the hands 
of a dictator. 

REPUBLICS THAT HAVE FAILED 

In no form of government is equilib- 
rium so unstable as in a republic, which 
is essentially a balance of forces, any one 
of which, if exaggerated, is capable of 
consummating its destruction. In addi- 
tion to this inherent internal instability, 
upon which the demagogue skilfully plays 
for the accomplishment of his selfish 
designs, a republic is always peculiarly 
exposed to the intrusion of foreign 
influences and to the peril of foreign 
attack. 



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248 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



For this reason, republics have usually 
sought to find a safeguard in federation, 
through which alone the republics of the 
eighteenth century were able to survive. 
Those which failed to avail themselves 
of this principle have been short-lived. 

It was owing to this failure on the part 
of the Greek republics that Macedonian 
supremacy was finally established over 
the whole of Greece. A different foreign 
poHcy on the part of Athens, which might 
have united the rest of the Greek cities 
for common defense, would, in the opin- 
ion of historians, have saved the Greek 
republics from extinction ; but democra- 
cies have usually been short-sighted in 
matters of foreign policy. 

For obvious reasons, republics have as 
a rule possessed but a limited territorial 
extent ; but magnitude alone is not a 
source of strength. Before the first par- 
tition, in 1772, Poland covered a larger 
area of territory than Spain, or France, 
or all the States of Germany put together. 

A turbulent nobility had completely 
throttkd the elective monarchy. It was 
the triumph of an oligarchy of landed 
proprietors whose anarchy was balanced 
by no industrial and commercial middle 
class, and which failed to evolve a leader 
sufficiently pow^erful to impose unity of 
action upon the nation. 

By the libernm veto, adopted in 1650, 
a single member of the Polish Diet could, 
from that time onward, nullify the reso- 
lutions of the entire assembly, thus para- 
lyzing every policy for the conservation 
of the republic. 

THI; LOVE OF IJBERTV SPRE-\DS IX FRANCE 

Between 1776 and 1806 profound 
causes of change were introduced into 
the European system, some of them from 
within and others from without, which 
at first greatly promoted the development 
of republics and afterw^ard nearly de- 
stroyed them altogether. 

It is important to note that in 1776 
there was no expectation that a revolu- 
tion would occur in France such as, fif- 
teen years later, w^as to shake the conti- 
nent of Europe to its foundations and in- 
stitute, for a time at least, a wholly new 
order of things. No contemporary could 
possibly have foreseen this process of 



political evolution, for the causes of it 
were not confined to Europe. 

The accession of the young king, Louis 
XVI, to the throne of France, in 1772, 
had aroused the hope that the evils 
brought upon Europe by the age of abso- 
lutism were likely to be remedied by a 
better administration of public affairs. 

In 1776 there was not the slightest sign 
of the general upheaval that came to Eu- 
rope during the young monarch's reign. 
There had been, it is true, much radical 
speculation regarding the nature of gov- 
ernment. Montesquieu, Voltaire, Dide- 
rot, Mably, and Rousseau had spoken out 
boldly for greater liberty. In fact, their 
work of iconoclasm was already finished, 
so far as mere discussion was concerned. 
Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws, in 
which he extolled the English system of 
government as the most perfect guaran- 
tee of freedom that had ever been de- 
vised, had been published a whole gener- 
ation earlier, in 1748. Young men who 
had read Rousseau's Social Contract in 
its first edition, in 1762, had passed into 
middle life. 

OUR FIRST AND GREATEST AMERICAN 
INVENTION 

Although the sovereignty of the people 
and the right of the majority to rule, ad- 
vocated by Rousseau, were theoretically 
hostile to the "old regime," they had pro- 
duced in 1776 no actual fruit. Not one 
of the philosophers of the enlightenment 
had propounded a concrete program of 
political reconstruction. 

Such literature as theirs might have 
existed forever without producing a revo- 
lution; and, in 1789, when the earliest 
tokens of a real revolutionary movement 
in France were perceptible, no definite 
proposition had been offered by any of 
the philosophical writers that could be of 
practical utility in guiding the nation in 
its desire to abolish the abuses of power 
from which France was then suflFering; 
yet a whole generation had come to man- 
hood since Rousseau's eulogy of democ- 
racy had appeared. 

But in the meantime something of 
great import had happened. In America 
thirteen British colonies had, in 1776, de- 
clared their independence and had repu- 



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Photograph by James F. lluges Co. 

WASHINGTON MONUMENT AT MOUNT VERNON PLACE, BALTIMORE 

This was the first monument ever reared to the memory of the Father of his Country — 
a country whose principles of justice and whose economic opportunities have drawn more 
people to its shores than ever journeyed to any other. 



240 

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•REPUBLICS— THE LADDER TO LIBERTY 



251 



dialed the Crown and the Parliament. 
Thirteen little republics had been created 
and federated. They possessed written 
constitutions which Franklin had trans- 
lated, distributed, and expounded in 
France. The French armies that had 
aided in the War for Independence had 
returned to France full of enthusiasm. 
The Constitution of the United States 
had just been adopted. Lafayette was 
demanding the convocation of the long- 
forgotten States General, in order that 
France also might have a constitution. 

The innovation in government intro- 
duced by the United States of America, 
an invention as essentially American as 
the telegraph and the telephone, was to 
revolutionize the governments of the 
world as completely as the telegraph and 
the telephone have changed our methods 
of communication. 

It is not necessary here to follow in 
detail the development of the French 
Revolution. The circumstances of the 
time demanded a change, and the specu- 
lations of the philosophers had justified 
it, but it was the American example that 
marked out a pathway to effective action. 

THE REASONS FOR THE COLLAPSE OF THE 
FIRST FRENCH REPUBLIC 

Unfortunately, however, it was not the 
guarantees of the American constitu- 
tions, but the unrestrained democracy ad- 
vocated by Rousseau that took possession 
of the French mind. The Constitution 
of the United States, as finally adopted, 
unlike any other that had ever existed, 
while securing the rights of the citizens, 
placed limits on the powers of govern- 
ment. The French Constitution, on the 
contrary, simply transferred absolute 
power from one government to another. 
What was most original in the unique 
American invention was entirely over- 
looked. 

The Revolution, which in its early 
stages promised to be a new organization 
of Hberty, soon became a new form of 
despotism. 

Then began the titanic struggle of ab- 
solute popular sovereignty with the es- 
tablished power of royal absolutism — 
the general war of French democracy 
upon all kings — which brought a young 



Corsican officer to the surface, and at 
last carried him, in the guise of an apos- 
tle and protagonist of liberty, to the im- 
perial throne of France. Unbridled de- 
mocracy demanded and found, first, a 
servant and then a master. 

It is not difficult to comprehend how 
the conservative eighteenth century re- 
publics were swept off their feet by the 
flood-tide of a larger liberty. They were 
not entirely unwilling victims of con- 
quest. Everywhere the doctrines of the 
Revolution preceded its armies and pre- 
pared the way for them. The Declara- 
tion of the Rijhts of Man and the Citizen 
announced the approach of a liberator. 
Even in the republics, the people had 
their grievances, which the new order of 
things that the French Directory pro- 
claimed promised to abolish. Republics 
sprang up like mushrooms under the pro- 
tection of the French armies. 

As a result of the obstinacy and trea- 
son of Louis XV^I, the French Republic 
had come into being on September 21, 
1792. By the end of January, 1795, the 
United Provinces were in the possession 
of the French army, and the Batavian 
Republic was proclaimed on the model of 
the French Republic. In the meantime 
the Polish patriots, under the leadership 
of Kosciuszko, who had received a wel- 
come in France, endeavored to restore 
the Polish Republic, but without success, 
and the final partition was arranged by 
Prussia, Austria, and Russia in 1795. 

Bonaparte was sent to Italy as a con- 
queror, but his conquests were made in 
the name of liberty. Outwardly the obe- 
dient servant of the Directory, even then 
he meant to be in due time the master of 
France and of all that the Republic might 
acquire. 

First of all, however, there was neces- 
sary the conquest of men's minds, which 
could only be made in the name of free- 
dom ; and freedom was, therefore, Bona- 
parte's constant watchword. 

But his vision of his goal was from the 
first perfectly clear. Speaking to Miot, 
the French ambassador at Florence, he 
said in 1797 of the destinies of France: 
"What is needed is a chief illustrious by 
glory and not by theories of govern- 
ment — ^the mere phrases and discourses 



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252 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



of ideologues — of which the country 
understands nothing." 

And, turning to Melzi, one of his 
Milanese adjutants, he continued: "As to 
your country, it has still less than France 
the elements of republicanism, and it is 
necessary to make less ado about it than 
with any other. We shall do what you 
wish, but the time has not arrived. We 
must yield to the fever of the moment. 
We shall arrange here for one or two re- 
publics in our own fashion." 

THE CARDIIOUSE OF REPUBLICS 

"The fever oi the moment" was the 
orders of the Directory, which had re- 
solved to impose the French constitution 
on all the conquered States of Europe. 
Bonaparte understood the expediency of 
obedience, but, referring to himself as 
conquerer, he said to Miot: "I wish to 
quit Italy only to play in France a role 
similar to that I play here, but the mo- 
ment is not yet come. The pear is not 
ripe!" 

, At Venice, where he was received with 
honor and his wife Josephine was loaded 
with ornaments, -the consummate diplo- 
macy which had in so many emergencies 
averted calamity failed to maintain the 
independence of the Republic. Austria 
coveted its maritime advantages, while 
France wanted a free hand at Milan and 
the Rhine frontier, which Austria could 
accord. Accordingly, by the treaty of 
Campo-Formio that bargain was made 
and the Venetian Republic was delivered 
into the hands of Austria. 

The remainder of Italy was promptly 
republicanized, partly to its liking and 
partly against its will. In rapid succes- 
sion, in 1797-1798, the territories of Milan 
and the Lombard plain, at first intended 
to be divided into two, were constituted 
into the Cisalpine Republic. Genoa and 
the neighboring coast were transformed 
into the Ligurian Republic. Rome and 
the States of the Church, from which the 
Pope was expelled, were erected into the 
Roman Republic. Finally, Naples and the 
other continental provinces of the King- 
dom of the Two Sicilies were taken from 
King Ferdinand and became the Parthe- 
nopean Republic. 

Even the Swiss Confederation did not 



escape from the hand of the conqueror. 
Most of the cantons were feudal and 
oligarchical. Catching from France the 
contagion of revolution, in 1798 the peo- 
ple of the Pays de Vaud rose in rebellion 
against the Canton of Berne. In other 
cantons insurrection broke out; appeal 
was made by the peasants for aid from 
France; Switzerland was invaded by a 
French army ; a constituent assembly was 
summoned, and the Helvetian Republic 
was proclaimed with a constitution on the 
French model. 

But the Swiss found it inconvenient to 
be reformed by strangers. The "Forest 
Cantons" — Schwyz, Uri, and Unterwal- 
den — revolted, and in the end the French 
were as cordially detested as they had at 
first been cordially welcomed by the Swiss 
people, whose problem then was how to 
regain their independence. 

In 1804 this whole card-house of re- 
publics fell, and Napoleon I was pro-"" 
claimed "Emperor of the French and 
King of Italy." 

Then followed the grand distribution 
of crowns. Joseph Bonaparte was made 
King of Naples and afterward of Spain; 
Louis, King of Holland; Jerome, King 
of Westphalia ; Murat, a brother-in-law, 
King of Naples after Joseph was sent to 
Spain ; Prince Borghese, another brother- 
in-law, Duke of Guastalla; Eugene de 
Beauharnais, a stepson. Viceroy of Italy. 
More than thirty of Napoleon's marshals 
and generals were made princes or dukes. 

In 1806 there was only one republic on 
the map of Europe — the Swiss Confed- 
eration ! 

THE INFLUENCE OF THE UNITED STATES 
INCALCULABLE 

All the more wonderful, in view of 
these events, is the fact of the present 
vast extension of the republican form of 
government in every part of the world. 
What has brought it about? Undoubt- 
edly the spread of democratic ideas 
throughout Europe during the Revolu- 
tion of 1789 greatly promoted the con- 
stitutional movement between the Peace 
of Vienna and the Revolution of 1848, 
which made France a republic for the 
second time and caused great gains for 
constitutionalism everywhere. 



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Photograph by Rau Art Studios 

THE LIBERTY BELL IN INDEPENDENCE HALL: PHILADELPHIA 

Until Freedom's tocsin called to arms a people in defense of their unalienable rights to 
Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness, the **music of the spheres" was deemed a Pytha- 
goran fancy. But the defiance to oppression which throbbed from the throat of Liberty Bell 
in 1776 will go ringing down the centuries as a paean of praise from liberated mankind and an 
anthem of aspiration for those peoples still struggling toward the goal of self-government. 



But it should not be overlooked that 
the continuous, unbroken development of 
the United States of America under a 
republican constitution has been an in- 
fluence of incalculable consequence. The 
whole South and Central American de- 
velopment has found its inspiration in 



this influence, and a close study of the 
growth of the constitutional idea shows 
that there has been no instance of its 
adoption where this influence has not 
operated to some degree. 

It has often resulted in a compromise, 
involving the retention of the monarchical 



253 



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254 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



tradition under constitutional limitations ; 
but its logical outcome is the practical 
abolition of royal authority, which has 
been almost everywhere displaced by the 
authority of the people. It has been the 
chief cause of the gradual triumph of 
democracy. 

ALL THE PEOPLE UNLIKELY TO GO WRONG 
AT THE SAME TIME 

The strength of republicanism lies in 
the fact that all the people are not likely 
to go wrong at the same time. A mon- 
archy or an oligarchy is liable to that 
calamity. Men may, however, go wrong 
in a republic also, and even a majority 
may sometimes do so. 

There is for that reason need of con- 
stitutional limitations in a democracy as 
well as in other forms of government. 
Liberty can be secured only by restric- 
tions upon the power of government, no 
matter what its form may be. These re- 
strictions consist in the division of pub- 
lic powers, in deliberation of procedure, 
and the application of general principles 
of justice to all particular cases. 

Herein lies the chief value of a consti- 
tution, and it is the combination of these 
qualities that gives to the Constitution of 
the United States its unique excellence. 
It renders possible the free selection of 
the wisest legislators. This is representa- 
tive government. It divides by law the 
powers of government. This defines and 



limits official authority. It declares cer- 
tain rights to be beyond the power of 
government to take away. This furnishes 
guarantees for life, liberty, and property. 
Finally, it places private rights under the 
protection of the judiciary. This insures 
that the citizen shall not be divested of 
his rights without due process of law. 

But the supreme merit of such a con- 
stitution, united with the principle of 
federation, is that it applies to a great 
area and a great population, as well as to 
a small one, to which democracy was al- 
ways before supposed to be necessarily 
confined. 

But there is, in fact, no limit as respects 
territory or population to which the re- 
publican system may not bet extended, 
provided it retains its truly constitutional 
character as just described. It is as good 
for 48 States as for 13. It may be as 
good for China or for Russia as for the 
original American colonies. 

But an absolute democracy, a democ- 
racy that sets no bounds to its own arbi- 
trary will, a democracy that is based on 
impulse and appetite, and not on reason 
and justice, is for any community of men 
an illusion and a danger. Any nation that 
is capable in the full sense of realizing 
this truth is ripe for self-government. A 
nation that does not realize it, no matter 
how glorious its past, is falling into decay 
and will not long survive as a free and 
independent republic. 



WAR, PATRIOTISM, AND THE FOOD SUPPLY 

By Frederick V. Coville 
Of the United States Department of Agriculture 



A HUNDRED milHon Americans 
are searching heart and mind to 
determine in what way each can 
contribute most to the success of his 
country in the war. We are remote from 
the battle line, and few of us, relatively, 
can take part in the actual fighting. It is 
everywhere recognized that our financial 
and industrial cooperation with the Allies 
will have a far greater effect in hastening 



the conclusion of the war than would the 
equipment and sending of a great Amer- 
ican army to Europe. 

In the industries fundamental to the 
manufacture of munitions we are in a 
position to wield an immense influence. 
So widely is this appreciated that the pro- 
posal to exempt from direct military serv- 
ice the skilled workmen of the munition 
industries meets with general approval. 



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WAR, PATRIOTISM, AND THE FOOD SUPPLY 



255 



The people of the United States, how- 
ever, have not yet come to appreciate 
fully that our most important duty in this 
war lies in still another direction, indi- 
cated also by our economic and geo- 
graphic position. I refer to the mainte- 
nance of an adequate food supply for the 
British and the French. 

The armies of France and the British 
Empire must be well nourished. The 
British and French industrial workers 
who supply those armies with munitions 
must be well nourished also. Within the 
last few weeks Argentina has declared an 
embargo on the export of wheat. More 
than ever before, therefore, is it Incum- 
bent on us to maintain a wide and con- 
stant stream of food supplies to France, 
Great Britain, and to Italy also. If we 
fail to do so 

But we shall not fail. Our duty is 
clear. The task is large. Understand- 
ing and organization will enable us to ac- 
complish it. Understanding and organi- 
zation are at work upon it. The United 
States Department of Agriculture, State 
agencies and county agencies, all are car- 
rying the message to every farmer in the 
country. 

OUR DEMANDS FOR FOOD ARE INCREASING 

MUCH MORE RAPIDLY THAN OUR 

PRODUCTION 

There are limitations, however, to the 
amount of food that can be grown on 
American farms, and none of these lim- 
itations is more potent than the scarcity 
of farm labor. Even in normal times the 
supply of efficient agricultural labor is, in 
general, inadequate. More land is avail- 
able than can be farmed effectively. The 
town outbids the farmer for his labor by 
higher wages, or shorter hours, or fan- 
cied superiority of recreation, or by all 
these combined. 

In war times the attraction of agricul- 
tural labor away from the farm becomes 
greater than ever. ^Military service, mu- 
nitions manufacture, and the other indus- 
tries of war all tend to take their quota 
from the farm. The establishment of an 
ammunition factory near the city of 
Washington has combed the labor from 
the farms, either directly or by progres- 
sive replacement in other pursuits, for 



miles around. The suburbs of many 
other cities where munition plants exist 
are having similar experiences. 

As long ago as 1898 it was contended 
by Sir William Crookes, and the conten- 
tion was sustained by one of our fore- 
most agricultural statisticians, that by the 
year 193 1 the increasing population of 
America was likely to consume all the 
wheat we raised. 

We are already more than half way on 
the road to that destination. Increased 
acreage and improved agricultural meth- 
ods have, it is true, intervened to increase 
our crops ; but our consumption of food 
has also increased enormously, and the 
difference between what we raise and 
what we eat is shrinking year by year. 

PRODUCE SOME FOOD IF YOU POSSIDLV CAN 

One does not question that the Amer- 
ican farmer will do his duty, or that the 
wide-spread movement for city gardening 
will contribute somewhat to the extension 
of our food surplus ; but there remains a 
large class of our population favorably 
situated for food production and well 
able to take part in it, whose contribution 
is only a small fraction of what it might 
be made. I refer to the man whose busi- 
ness ordinarily is in town, but whose resi- 
dence in the country gives him access to 
an area of ground varying in size from a 
small garden to an ample farm, used, 
however, only in small part or not at all 
for gardening or farming purposes. 

Usually such country dwellers have the 
equipment for gardening or for farming, 
but make only such limited use of it as 
suits their convenience or their demands 
for recreation. 

The time is now at hand when every 
non-farmer who has unemployed farm- 
ing or gardening land, and every summer 
resident in the country, can contribute 
patriotically to the welfare of his country 
and the progress of liberty by producing 
all the fruit and all the vegetables he con- 
sumes, and in some cases also the eggs 
and poultry that he needs. And I mean 
not merely the fruits and vegetables that 
he uses in summer, but those he will re- 
quire in the following winter. 

Our grandmothers knew how to pre- 
serve fruit for winter use by drying it 



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256 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



and by canning it, but they did not know 
how to can vegetables. Modern science 
has found out how to do this, and now 
the girls in the department of domestic 
science in every agricultural college and 
every agricultural high school in the 
country are taught how to take vegetables 
at the time when their flavor is most de- 
licious and their texture the most tender 
and put them up in glass jars for winter 
use. 

Such preserved vegetables are far supe- 
rior to those we ordinarily buy in tin 
cans, for they receive a care in selection 
and preparation that commercial can- 
neries seldom give. 

Every poimd of food grown and used 
in this way is a contribution of just that 
amount to the great stream of supplies 
that we are passing on to the British and 
the French soldier at the front, for what- 
ever each of us consumes he must take 
from that stream unless he produces it 
himself. 

THE WORK IS NOT SO DIFFICULT AS OF OLD 

In modern gardening the backache- 
breeding hoe and weeder of a generation 
ago have been replaced by those wonder- 
ful little implements set on wheels and 
pushed in front of one .by two handles 
like a plow. The heavy plowing and 
planting of spring is still a man's task; 
but these little hand cultivators make the 
later care of a garden a happy outdoor 
task for women and half -grown children. 
It brings the bronzed cheek of summer 
and the elastic step and clear mind of the 
winter that follows. 

The congestion of freight traffic dur- 
ing the last year was due primarily to the 
scarcity of ships for the oversea trade, 
the consequent filling up of warehouses 
at the seaboard, and the delay of loaded 
freight cars waiting their turn to deliver 
their freight. The congestion was greatly 
increased, however, through an agricul- 
tural practice that has been growing up 
in the United States for many years : the 
raising of a special crop in that particular 
part of the country in which it can be 



grown most economically or in the great- 
est perfection and its shipment very long 
distances by rail to the consumer. 

In times like the present every ton of 
food that can be grown where it is con- 
sumed, or not far from its place of con- 
sumption, will relieve our railroads of 
just that much space needed for the ur- 
gent transportation demands of war. 

IT WILL HELP THE BELGIANS 

Because I suggest to the country dweller 
that in growing his own supplies he will 
be practising sounder economy and will 
have better food, better health, and the 
gladness of heart that comes from a pa- 
triotic act, let no one lose sight of the fact 
that the suggestion is made not primarily 
for those reasons, but for the sake of that 
gallant soldier who fights under the ban- 
ner of "liberty, equality, fraternity," and 
that other soldier who carries grimly in 
his heart the message written in stone in 
Trafalgar Square: "No price can be too 
high when honor and freedom are at 
stake.'' 

And the Belgians. What of them? 
When in schoolboy days we used to read 
the words, *'Horum omnium fortissimi 
sunt Belgae/' we did not fully grasp their 
meaning; but after Liege and Namur, 
when Belgium stood broken and bleed- 
ing, but still fighting and unafraid, the 
spirit of the phrase burst upon us. "The 
bravest of all these are the Belgians," the 
very words that Julius Caesar wrote two 
thousand years ago. 

No service in this war appeals to Amer- 
ica more than to carry food to the Bel- 
gians, in order to keep from hunger that 
little nation which, single-handed, de- 
fended the gateway of liberty. 

But first we must furnish food to the 
British, the French, and the Italians. In 
doing so we shall have the added satis- 
faction of knowing that in spirit, if not 
indeed in physical fact, we are taking it 
also to the people of Belgium. 

Let each of us do his share toward 
bearing bread to the Belgians. 



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A SPANISH GYPSY 
This beautiful girl of Granada represents the highest type of the aristocracy of gypsydom. She 
would lose caste at once if she were to work, but it is perfectly all right for her to beg or steal — 
your heart. 



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A GARDEN IN THE HOLY LAND 
In days gone by, many of the city houses of the more prosperous residents of Jerusalem were 
built around an open court so that the Moslem women, although secluded, could have a garden, 
thus affording a measure of outdoor life. This is now the home of an American. 



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AN AUTOMOBILE OF THE ORIENT 
The donkey is the patient burden-bearer of Northern Africa just as he is in many other parts of 
the world. He has carried heavy loads from time immemorial — both passengers and freight — and 
makes no protest until the accumulation of trouble swells his heart and he seeks relief through an 
impassioned bray. 



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THE ABANDONED COTTON MARKET, JERUSALEM 
One of the entrances to the temple area within which stands the Mosque of Omar. There is a 
biblical atmosphere about this old passageway, the cobbles of which have been worn smooth by 
the weary feet of the ancients. 



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A DESERT FLOWER 
•* Somewhere in the Sahara " lived this child of the Desert until she came to Biskra, the ** Garden of 
Allah," to earn her dowry as a dancer. One would imagine thatsheis dreaming of some turbaned 
knight left behind and counting the days until she may return to her natal tent. 



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A DAUGHTER OF ARABY 

** Full many a flower is born to blush unseen. 

And waste its sweetness on the desert air." 



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A MINSTREL OF THE ORIENT 
This old beggar of Tangier, Morocco, is singing a monotonous, wailing chant to attract the 
attention of the passers-by. He is a cheerful soul, however, and a pleasant contrast to some of the 
members of his brotherhood who capitalize their deformities 



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NIGHT IN TETUAN, MOROCCO 
Even in daylight one is impressed with the mysterious atmosphere pervading the quiet streets in 
the old Moorish quarter of Tetuan. Here one is among a strange and alien people, widely differ- 
ent in religion and custom. The eerie quality of the streets is accentuated at night, and the soft 
radiance of the moonlight and even an occasional flickering lamp are welcome to the wayfarer. 



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'*AN ARAB SHOD WITH FIRE" 
She is a dancer of Algeria and the slow, throbbing music of the Orient is just as necessary for her 
happiness as the jewels and coins with which she adorns herself. 



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SPANISH GYPSY GIRLS 
Picturesque in their rags, the girls and women ** tell fortunes," and to those who refuse to have 
their fortune told is flung this quaint curse : ** May you be made to carry the mail and have 
sore feet." 



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THE PATIO IN THE HOUSE OF THE DUKE OF ALBA, SEVILLE, SPAIN 
A fitting companion of the beautiful Alcazar, Seville's rival of Granada's splendid Alhambra in 
beauty and in historical renown, is the magnificent palace of the Dukes of Alba. Dating from 
the fifteenth century, this palace, in its architecture, combines the soft lines of Moorish ideals and 
the sharp ones of Gothic conceptions, and is a fine example of the blending of the two. 



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A DANCER OF THE CAFES, ALGERIA 
Their faces clouded with a dark paint to increase the natural effect of the desert sun on their skin, 
their nails darkened with henna, and their cheeks faintly tattooed in blue to show their caste, 
these beauties of the Ouled Nail tribe furnish much local color in the crowded cafes of Northern 
Africa. Their costumes are gorgeous and their heavy ornaments are largely of gold and 
silver coins. 



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FROM THE THRONE ROOM OF THE MOORS 
One of the embrasures, or window alcoves, of the Hall of the Ambassadors in the Alhambra at 
Granada, Spain. In this room met the last assembly of the Moors, summoned by Boabdil to 
consider the surrender of Granada to the Spanish King Ferdinand just before Columbus dis- 
covered America. The visitor is impressed with the fact that the depiction of living things is 
avoided in Moorish architecture and that the decoration is accomplished with geometrical designs 
which are astonishingly beautiful. 



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A BEDOUIN BEAUTY 

** Around her shone 
The nameless charms unmarked by her alone, 
The light of love, the purity of grace." — Byron, 



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SOLDIERS OF THE SOIL 
Our Food Crops Must Be Greatly Increased 

By David F. Houston 

United States Secretary of Agriculture 



THE importance to the nation of a 
generously adequate food supply 
for the coming year cannot be 
overemphasized, in view of the economic 
problems which may arise as a result of 
the entrance of the United States into the 
war. Every eflfort should be made to 
produce more crops than are needed for 
our own use. 

Many millions of people across the 
seas, as well as our own people, must rely 
in large part upon the products of our 
fields and ranges. This situation will con- 
tinue to exist even though hostilities 
should end unexpectedly soon, since Eu- 
ropean production cannot be restored im- 
mediately to its normal basis. 

It is obvious that the greatest and most 
important service that is required of our 
agriculture under existing conditions is 
an enlarged production of the staple food 
crops. Because of the shortage of such 
crops practically throughout the world, 
there is no risk in the near future of ex- 
cessive production such as sometimes has 
resulted in unremunerative prices to pro- 
ducers. This is particularly true of the 
cereals and of peas, beans, cow-peas, soy- 
beans, and buckwheat. 

there is xo dancer of overprodlxtiox 

In view of the world scarcity of food, 
there is hardly a possibility that the pro- 
duction of these crops by the farmers of 
the United States can be too great this 
year, and there is abundant reason to ex- 
pect generous price returns for all avail- 
able surplus. 

The most effective step that may be 
taken to increase the production of these 
crops is to enlarge the acreage devoted to 
them in the regions where they are grown 
habitually. This expansion of acreage 
should be to the limit permitted by avail- 
able good seed, labor, and equipment. 



The placing of too great emphasis on 
production in new regions is inadvisable, 
since the introduction into a farm opera- 
tion of a crop not usually grown fre- 
quently involves practical difficulties not 
easily foreseen nor quickly surmountable. 

Taking the winter-wheat territory as a 
whole, winter killing has occurred to an 
extent very much greater than usual. 
This, obviously, if not compensated for 
in some way, will mean a material reduc- 
tion in the supplies of our most impor- 
tant bread cereal. Where winter wheat 
has been damaged sufficiently to justify 
the abandonment of fields, it should by 
all means be replaced by spring-planted 
food crops, preferably small grains or 
com. 

The condition of our winter wheat, as 
shown by the Department in its report of 
April 7, is more than 25 per cent below 
the average "condition April i" for the 
past ten years. This condition forecasts a 
production this year nearly 243,000,000 
bushels less than the crop of 191 5 and 
52,000,000 bushels less than that of 1916, 
when our harvest of winter wheat was 
also poor. 

What this loss means will be appre- 
ciated from the statement that one bushel 
of wheat contains sufficient energy to 
support the average working man for 15 
days. By producing 240,000,000 bushels 
of winter wheat less in 191 5 we have lost 
enough flour energy to support 10,000,- 
000 people for one year. But as no man 
lives on bread alone, this shortage repre- 
sents wheat sufficient for the needs of 
20,000,000 men for a year. 

THE USEFULNESS OF OATS AND BARLEY 

If land intended for spring wheat can- 
not be put into good condition early 
enough for seeding, oats or barley can be 
substituted to good advantage in the sec- 



273 



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tions where these crops are known to do 
well. Barley can be relied on in the 
proved areas of Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
Iowa, the Dakotas, and Montana, while 
oats have a much wider -range. 

The ease with which barley may be 
substituted directly for wheat in human 
food and its usefulness to replace wheat 
milling by-products as feed in the pro- 
duction of the milk supply render its 
abundant production important. Barley, 
where it succeeds, yields a larger weight 
of feed per acre than any other small 
grain crop. 

With an abundance of oats and barley 
available, much closer milling of wheat 
than at present could be practiced, if nec- 
essary, without endangering the milk sup- 
ply, which constitutes so important an 
element in the dietary of consumers. 

The place of rye under present condi- 
tions IS an important one. The crop this 
year should be harvested and utilized 
with more than the usual care. Consid- 
erable acreage is planted in some sections 
for plowing under in the spring for green 
manure. Where conditions are suitable, 
part of this acreage might well be held 
for harvesting, and followed with a suit- 
able summer or fall crop for plowing in 
later. 

Buckwheat may be planted later than 
any similar crop, and often does well on 
old meadows or waste land that can be 
broken after the more exacting crops are 
planted. 

In some sections, where experience has 
demonstrated that the cereals, except rye, 
cannot be relied on, buckwheat is a crop 
of considerable importance. The acreage 
could well be increased, especially in por- 
tions of New York, Pennsylvania, and 
New England, where the crop now is 
grown to a considerable extent. 

Rice at present prices provides more 
food value for the money than most of 
the other cereals. Fuller appreciation of 
its value should stimulate production 
quickly in Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, 
and California to an extent that would 
increase the total food supply greatly. 

EXPAND THE CORN ACREAGE 

Corn is the leading food and feed crop 
of the United States in geographic range 



of production, acreage, and quantity of 
product. The vital importance of a large 
acreage of this crop, properly cared for, 
therefore, is obvious. Because of the 
prices obtained for the last crop and the 
world demand for this grain, its profit- 
ableness to the American farmer during 
the approaching season is clear. The 
ip5»954»ooo acres planted to corn in 1916 
yielded 2,583,000,000 bushels, or more 
than 400,000,000 bushels less than the 
large crop of 1915, and considerably less 
than the five-year average — 2,732,457,000 
bushels. 

Conditions now warrant the planting 
of the largest acreage of this crop which 
it is possible to handle effectively. 

Although fall is the proper time for 
breaking sod for corn, there are many 
unproductive and foul meadows and in- 
different pastures in Illinois, Indiana, 
Ohio, and the Middle Atlantic and North- 
eastern States that, under existing condi- 
tions, can be broken and planted now to 
advantage. The resulting reduction of 
hay and pasture would be more than re- 
placed by the com stover, ensilage, and 
grain produced. 

Earliness of maturity, other factors be- 
ing equal, is advantageous in the case of 
practically all grain crops. Relatively 
early maturing varieties should be se- 
lected where possible, and the planting 
should be done at the earliest suitable 
date. With the small grains an advance 
of three or four days in stage of maturity 
frequently saves a crop from serious 
damage by rusts. With corn a similar ad- 
vantage is obtained by early maturity, 
when severe droughts are encountered 
and when killing frosts occur toward the 
end of the season. 

COW-PEAS AND SOY-BEANS VAI,UABI,E FOR 
FOOD 

The usefulness of cow-peas and soy- 
beans as human food has been recognized 
only recently in this country. Existing 
conditions warrant the planting of all the 
available seed of varieties known to do 
well in the several sections. The soy- 
bean, in particular, has proved sufficiently 
resistant to cold in spring and to adverse 
weather during summer to warrant heavy 



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SOLDIERS OF THE SOIL 



277 



planting, especially throughout the South. 
The value of the beans for oil produc- 
tion, as well as for human food, has be- 
come recognized so quickly and so gen- 
erally during the past year that the crop 
has acquired a commercial standing far 
in excess of its previous status. 

The high food value of field beans and 
the shortage of supply due to the light 
yields of 1915 and 1916 render them of 
great importance in the regions to which 
they are adapted. This is especially the 
case in portions of the New England 
States, New York, Michigan, and Cali- 
fornia, where the chief supply has been 
grown for many years, and in sections of 
Idaho, Colorado, New Mexico, and other 
Western States where beans have at- 
tained importance recently. 

The seed supply, while high in price, is 
well distributed. 

RESERVE SUFFICIENT HAY, FORAGE, AND 
PASTURE lyAND 

A deficiency of hay and forage for the 
next winter would jeopardize the future 
meat and dairy supplies of the country 
and result in a shortage of roughage for 
military draft and saddle animals. 

In regions where dairying dominates, 
the full acreage of clover, alfalfa, and 
the grasses that is in productive condi- 
tion should be maintained. Under the 
conditions prevailing in most dairying 
sections, these crops can be carried with 
less man-power than that required for 
tilled crops. 

The older, thinner, and less productive 
grass lands, however, frequently can be 
made to produce much larger yields of 
feed in corn than if left, as they are, in 
unproductive grass. The seeding down 
of small grain fields for next year's mow- 
ing should by no means be neglected, for 
the maintenance of effective rotations of 
crops will be found as important in the 
future as in the past. 

For the Gulf States, perhaps no forage 
crop of which the available seed supply 
is relatively abundant exceeds the velvet 
bean in potential value. This legume pos- 
sesses also' the ability to make a crop 
when planted relatively late. 

Seed potatoes should be conserved by 



planting on the best lands available for 
them and planning for thorough tillage 
and protection of the crop against disease 
and insect pests. 

POTATOES AND VEGETABLES ' 

Potatoes can be grown most advanta- 
geously near the centers of population in 
the Northern States, where transporta- 
tion cost may be reduced to a minimum. 
This crop is capable of quick and large 
increase of production when conditions 
are favorable. 

There is, however, considerable risk of 
unprofitable production of potatoes when 
they are grown at long distances from the 
consuming markets, owing to their dis- 
proportionate weight and bulk in com- 
parison with the cereals. 

Such vegetable crops as carrots, ruta- 
baga turnips, onions, and cabbage are 
worthy of much more attention than they 
generally receive, especially in the east- 
ern United States. All these crops are 
capable of large production on suitable 
land, under intensive culture, throughout 
the more densely populated portions of 
the country. The supply of seed is am- 
ple and their culture comparatively simple. 

The holding of these vegetables for the 
winter food supply is relatively easy 
where suitable, inexpensive pits, cellars, 
or lofts are' prepared in time. 

THE OLD PRACTICE OF DRYING VEGETABLES 
IS REVIVED 

The practicability of quickly drying 
vegetables for longer preservation was 
demonstrated on a large scale last year in 
western New York, where quantities 
were dried in the available apple evap- 
orators and in rapidly constructed dry- 
kilns, for export as army supplies. 

This was a repetition of the experience 
of the Civil War period, when desiccated 
vegetables assumed considerable impor- 
tance in the army ration, and the equip- 
ment required for their preparation 
proved the forerunner of our present 
fruit-drying equipment. Existing condi- 
tions warrant heavier planting than usual 
of staple winter vegetables in the sections 
where canneries and fruit evaporators 
exist, and probably in some sections 



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279 



where the provision of such facilities 
later in the season may be justified. 

In the southern half of the country 
perhaps no crop has larger possibilities 
for quick increase of production of food 
for both men and animals than the sweet 
potato. Methods of handling and stor- 
ing this product, demonstrated and advo- 
cated by the Department workers for 
several years, make possible much fuller 
utilization of it than has occurred gen- 
erally in the past. 

The peanut, in many sections of the 
South, also is capable of greatly enlarged 
production, with little risk of oversupply, 
as it is in demand for oil and peanut- 
butter manufacture, as well as for direct 
use as food, both for man and hogs. 

increase; farm production of vege- 
tables AND poultry 

The high prices for foodstuffs that 
have prevailed during the last few months 
have stimulated interest in the increase 
of home supplies of vegetables, poultry, 
and dairy products on farms. 

This interest has been quickened most 
noticeably in the South, where for several 
years this Department and the States, 
through their extension workers, have 
urged such an increase as necessary for 
economic reasons, even under normal 
conditions. Other parts of the country 
have responded to these appeals, but 
emphasis on this feature should be con- 
tinued by all agencies in position to op- 
erate effectively. 

Through increased attention to poultry 
on farms, it is possible to add quickly and 
materially to the food supply. Because 
of the importance of an increased supply 
of eggs, under present exigencies, far- 
mers should not market hens of the egg 
breeds, such as the leghorns, which are 
less than three years old, or of the larger 
breeds which are less than two years old. 

By the immediate preservation of eggs 
for home consumption through the use of 
water glass or lime water, larger supplies 
of fresh eggs may be made available for 
marketing later in the season, when pro- 
duction is less and prices higher.^ 

Every person who raises chickens, from 
the novice to the poultry husbandman, 



should see that infertile eggs are pro- 
duced and all surplus marketed promptly, 
so as to eliminate waste through spoilage. 

When conditions render it feasible, 
small flocks of poultry should be kept by 
families in villages, towns, and especially 
in the suburbs of large cities. The need 
for this extension of poultry-raising is 
particularly great where consumption ex- 
ceeds production, as in the Northeastern 
States. 

Through utilization of table waste, 
scraps, and other refuse as poultry feed, 
much wholesome food in the form of 
eggs and poultry for home use may be 
produced at relatively low cost. 

Many families in the villages and on 
the outskirts of cities also should con- 
sider the advisability of keeping a pig, if 
sanitary regulations permit. In most 
cases, however, it will be profitable to 
keep a pig only when a sufficient surplus 
from the household and the garden is 
available to furnish a considerable por- 
tion of the pig's food. 

Consumers living in villages and in the 
suburbs of cities do not appreciate suffi- 
ciently the possibility of adding materially 
to their food supply by utilizing suitable 
idle soil in yards, vacant lots, and unused 
outlying fields. The total contribution to 
the food supply of families and communi- 
ties which can be brought about through 
such activities is great. 

Gardening is peculiarly an activity in 
which the family and the community may 
share with resultant mutual helpfulness 
and benefit. 

The duty of the individual farmer, at 
this time, is to increase his production, 
particularly of food crops. If he has 
control of tillable land not in use, or 
money lying idle, or labor unemployed, 
he should extend his operations so as to 
employ those resources to the fullest 
extent. 

This does not mean that he should rob 
his land, waste his capital, or expend his 
labor fruitlessly, but that by wise plan- 
ning and earnest effort he should turn 
out a greater quantity of food crops than 
ever before. He will not lose by it, and 
he will perform an important service in 
supporting his country in the task that 
lies before it. 



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THE TIES THAT BIND 



Our Natural Sympathy with English Traditions, the French 
Republic, and the Russian Outburst for Liberty* 

By Senator John Sharp Williams 



I JOIN the President in having no 
hostility to the German people. I 
spent two and a half years of my life 
with them and I love them — a whole lot 
of them. The man w^ho inhabits the bor- 
ders of the Rhine, the man who inhabits 
Bavaria and Wurttemberg — easily moved 
to tears, and easily moved to laughter, 
and easily moved to rage — is a man whom 
I have learned to love ; and I have always 
believed that this war in Europe, brought 
on by the obstinate refusal of the Kaiser 
to leave either to a tribunal of arbitration 
or to a concert of Eur6pe the question at 
issue between Austria and Serbia, and 
inspiring Austria to refusal, is a proof of 
the truth of the adage, "Whom the gods 
would destroy, they first make mad." 

I am a little tired, Mr. President, of 
utterances like that of the Senator in de- 
nouncing the Entente powers. Who are 
the Entente powers? France, "La Belle 
France," "Sunny France," sweet France — 
the most companionable people on the 
surface of the earth ; the country of La- 
fayette and Rochambeau and De Grasse ; 
the country of Victor Hugo and Moliere 
and Racine ; the country of the men who 
imitated our American example when 
they flung to the breeze banners with 
"Liberty, equality, fraternity" inscribed 
upon them, although they carried the 
banner to a bloody end that was not justi- 
fied — to a Reign of Terror against those 
whom they deemed traitors at home — 
which has been exceeded by the German 
Reign of Terror in Belgium, greater in 
atrocity and less provoked. 

Then the gentleman undertakes to 
"twist the British lion's tail." We have 
had a whole lot of demagogues who habit- 
ually do that. It started soon after the 

♦An address to the U. S. Senate April 4, 
1917, specially revised by Senator Williams for 
the National Geographic Magazine 



Revolution, but not with those of us 
whose forefathers fought under George 
Washington in the Continental line to es- 
tablish American independence. 

The War of Independence was really 
carried on against the will of the English 
people by the German king, who happened 
to be then the King of Great Britain, with 
hired Hessians, who were also Germans, 
against the leadership of that greatest 
Englishman that America ever pro- 
duced — George .Washington. 

Edmund Burke, the eider Pitt, who was 
then Lord Chatham, and Charles James 
Fox came much nearer representing real 
English sentiment than the Hanoverian 
King George IIL 

OUR DKBT TO ENGLAND 

I have a hearty contempt for the man 
who does not know his environment and 
his kindred and his friends and his coun- 
try. It may be narrow, but I love my 
plantation better than any other planta- 
tion, my county better than any other 
county, my State better than any other 
State in the Union, and my country better 
than any other country in the world, and 
my race — the English - speaking race — 
better than any other race. 

Whence do we get our laws ? Whence 
do we get our literature ? Whence do we 
get our ethical philosophy? Whence do 
we get our general ideas of religion? 
From the people who sired our fathers 
before they came here. 

I am tired of men telling me — Welsh- 
man, Scotchman, Englishman in blood, 
as I am — that "the hereditary enemy of 
the United States is England" or Wales 
or Scotland — that it is Great Britain. 
Magna Charta, the Declaration of Rights, 
the Bill of Rights included in the Consti- 
tution in its first ten amendments — the 
very principles embodied in the Constitu- 



281 



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MESSENGERS OF THE AIR: THE FRENCH ARMY AUTO AT THE FRONT FOR 

CARRIER-PIGEONS 



tion derived from colonial experience 
under English rule — all come from Brit- 
ain, a country whose high priest was John 
Milton, whose sweet singer was Burns, 
whose great intellect was Shakespeare, 
whose great warriors for liberty were 
Hampden and Sidney and Simon de 
Montfort. 

I would rather have heard the Senator 
eulogize the best offshoots of that branch, 
and those offshoots right here in Canada 
and Australia and in South Africa, than 
to have heard his eulogy of Prussia. 
They are the branches of the old stock 
that had the courage to leave their neigh- 
borhood and environment and seek out a 
new habitat and adapt themselves to it, 
and who won the American fight for lib- 
erty and equal opportunity — who, like 
our ancestors, plowed the field with the 
rifle on their shoulder, while they held 
the plow with the other hand. They were 
English and Scotch and Welsh and Irish. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON WAS ENGLISH 

It was an Englishman of the English- 
men, as far as his blood is concerned — 
George Washington, of Mount Vernon — 
who would have preferred to have the 



people speak of him as "George Wash- 
ington of Mount Vernon," his plantation 
name, rather than by some other name — 
who led the American forces that fought 
against the dictates of a German-blooded 
king, backed up by Hessian hirelings. 
George Washington warned against en- 
tangling alliances and warned against an- 
other thing — an infuriate and insensate 
hatred of some particular people — be- 
cause a man with that poison in his blood 
is incapable of being a real, good Amer- 
ican citizen in a country where the melt- 
ing pot will finally operate. 

I do not like the arraignment which the 
Senator made of the English people or 
the English Government, even more dem- 
ocratic than our own. I do not like it 
because it was not correct historically, 
because it was not true in sentiment, and 
because it was an insult to the gentlemen 
from whose loins I sprang, when they 
themselves fought against people of like 
blood who wanted to oppress them. What 
did they fight for? They fought for 
this — Thomas Jefferson and old Samuel 
Adams were pretty nearly the only ones 
of them who then had a larger vision — 
George Washington and Lincoln and 



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THE AUTOMOBILE SEARCHLIGHTS WHICH ARE MOST EFFECTIVE IN SEARCHING OUT 
THE ENEMY^S ZEPPELINS, THUS AIDING IN BRINGING THEM DOWN 



Greene and the balance of them fought 
for "the inherited rights of Englishmen, 
belonging/* as they contended, "to Eng- 
lishmen in America as well as to Eng- 
lishmen in England." Those "inherited 
rights of Englishmen" were expressed in 
the Constitution of the United States. 

Thomas Jefferson and Samuel Adams 
had a bit broader vision and view; they 
went a bit farther; and Thomas Jeffer- 
son's vision went into the Declaration of 
Independence, which includes not only 
the rights of Englishmen, but "the rights 
of man," which were later embodied in 
the Declaration of the French Republic. 

OUR DISLIKE OF ARROGANCE 

Somebody said to me the other day, 
"You seem to be angry and in a passion 
about this German question," and 1 said, 
"I am." Next to the indignation of God 
is the righteous indignation of a true man 
with a soul in him and red blood, instead 
of bluish milk, in his veins, against the 
German assumption of German superi- 
ority and arrogance and injury and in- 
sult ; but, above all, insult. 



I know it will sound to a lot of you 
curious, but the thing I believe that I re- 
sent most is what Germany said to us 
about painting our ships like the display 
window of a barber shop, when we could 
go, by her allowance, once a week into 
one port in one country, more than I do 
even the sinking of our ships and the 
drowning of our citizens. I think nearly 
every gentleman resents insult more than 
he resents injury. A man who comes 
upon my place and goes through a path- 
way that is not a public highway, or who 
incidentally destroys some property that 
is growing, I can forgive; but one who 
comes up to me and tells me that he is 
going to do it whenever he pleases, be- 
cause he is stronger than I am, is a man 
whom I cannot forgive. 

Germany thought she was stronger 
than we; and she is right just now. 
These ready nations assume a great deal 
in connection with the unready nations. 
We two branches of the English-speak- 
ing race — across the sea and here — have 
always been unready for war, thank God, 
and shall remain so, because we think it 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



is better to call out the full power of the 
people when the emergency comes than 
it is to keep them weighted down for 20 
years in order to do one year's fighting. 
As a rule, people do one year's fighting 
out of each 20 years of their actual ex- 
istence. We have done less, of course. 

Which would you rather do — fight 
Prussia now, with France and England 
and Russia to help you, or fight her later, 
when she is foot-loose, by ourselves? 
You have got to do one or the other. 

A whole lot of people tell me that the 
nations of the Entente are bound to win 
the war in Europe. I tell you they are 
not. I tell you that with that line, almost 
like a right-angle triangle, with a salient 
here, with Robert E. Lee behind that line, 
with a capacity to reinforce one part of 
it from the other, while the enemy has to 
go all around, he would win that war. 

I tell you, furthermore, that the Italian 
barrier cannot be protected if there are 
enough German people put in, and when 
once it is broken France will be attacked 
upon the south — unfortified and unde- 
fended — on the Italian side. 

I tell you, moreover, that if Germany 
does win that fight upon the Continent of 
Europe — with Belgium already a vassal 
State, Holland to become one, France 
likewise, by defeat — with all their forts 
and naval stations and shipyards open as 
well as her own, she will begin to get 
ready to whip us, unless England's fleet 
prevents it. 

Now, Great Britain can, by sea-power, 
defend herself almost indefinitely — de- 
fend herself long enough for us to get 
ready to help her defend us. You can 
put it in your pipe and smoke it — this 
fact : whether you are going to fight Prus- 
sia now, with assistance, or whether you 
are going to fight her later, when we have 
no assistance, you have got to fight her. 

THE OTHER NEUTRAL NATIONS 

Then the Senator says that "the other 
neutral nations are not taking the course 
that we are taking." No; they are not. 
But why ? There is Norway, the land of 
the free and the brave, and the true coun- 
try whence the Normans came and 
whence almost all the blue blood of Eu- 
rope's rulers came. Why does not Nor- 
way resent these insults ? Oh, Mr. Presi- 



dent, it is a sad and tragic thing; but 
Norway is too weak. Why does not 
Denmark act? Because her very hands 
are in the mouth of the mad dog. 

Why does not Holland act? Again, 
because she dares not. German troops 
are lined across her border, ready to walk 
over her prostrate body as they walked 
over the body of Belgium ; to shoot her 
civilians -if they express sympathy for 
themselves against the German enerny ; to 
burn down her schools, her libraries, and 
her cathedrals, as the Germans burned 
down those in Belgium. Holland is 
cowed. 

A brave race are the Dutch. They 
faced Spain in its pride and power, with 
the help of England. They fought and 
died for liberty to speak and to worship. 
But, Mr. President, almost any people in 
the world, no matter how brave, now and 
then can be cowed and for a time act like 
whipped slaves. It is the most tragic and 
pathetic thing in all history when that 
happens either to a man or to a nation. 

I have spoken of France ; I have spoken 
of Great Britain. How about Russia? 
Up to a short time ago, so far as Russia 
is concerned, any animadversions that the 
Senator chose to make would have met 
with a good deal of sympathy upon my 
part ; but once more I see a people throw- 
ing off their shackles, who have at last 
"declared" that they are free. Time will 
test the question whether they can prove 
that they are worthy to be free or not; 
but they have at least expressed the desire 
and the intention to be free, and, as a 
rule, where the desire and the intention 
go, the fact exists. 

We have got to go into this war now, 
and we are going into it for all we are 
worth, for all our capital is worth, for all 
our bodies are worth, for all that we have 
and all that we are ; and I, for one, hope 
that we will never make peace until the 
universal decree of the civilized world 
has gone forth to the effect that the 
Hapsburgers and the Hohenzollerns have 
ceased to reign. 

The Hohenzollerns have been able; 
they have been efficient : they have been 
all that; but a race infected with the 
poisonous idea that it is ruling by divine 
ordinance is crazv. 



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fe^»fii!ir^«ifiir^i^iiMj!fi»Mi» s 



PI 



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Do your floors need refinishing? 

Have they lost their soft gleaming lustre and their 
unmarred smoothness? Are they beginning to collect 
dust or getting a bit dingy? 

Then they need refinishing. Not ordinary "doing 
over'' — but refinishing with a varnish that will keep 
them looking like new. No ordinary varnish will serve 
— you need good varnish and good work. 

Murphy Transparent Floor Varnish 

" fhe varnish that lasts longest " 

will keep your floors at their best all the time. It reveals 
all the beauty of the wood and covers it with a protective 
coating that resists wear and can easily be kept immacu- 
late with a damp cloth. It lasts much longer than 
ordinary varnish and saves the expense of refinishing. 

Your painter or dealer can supply Murphy Transparent 
Floor Varnish and any of these Murphy finishes for 
beautifying your home. 

Murphy Transparent Interior Varnish Murphy Univernish 
Murphy Transparent Spar Varnish Murphy White Enamel 

Send for illustrated book, "The House that Found Itself". 

Murphy Varnish Company 

Franklin Murphy y jr,. President 



Newark New Jersey 



Chicago Illinois 




Dougall Varnish Co., Ltd., Montreal, Canadian Associate 



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CORD TIRE 




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Onl:? tKe most expert mechanics arc employed, aiuj 

practically every labor-sa-Oind device known to modem 

sKop practice Has been installed to insure economic pro- 

duction. 
TKe Paige Car is superbly built. For that reason it is a 

glutton for Ward 'work and constant service. 
The Paige Car is superbly designed. For that reason it is 

uni-Oersallp; recognized as "The Most Beautiful Car in 

America. 

Stratford, "Six-51." 7-passenger - $1495 f.o.b. Detroit 

Fairfield. " Six-46, * 7-passenger - $1375 f.o.b. Dcttoit 

Lin^ood, ']Six-39." 5-passenger - $1175 f.o.b. Detroit 

Dartmoor. "Six-39,"p or 3 -passenger, $1175 f.o.b. Detroit 

Brooklands, "Six-51," 4-passenger - $1695 f.o.b. Detroit 
A complete line of enclosed cars 

Paige-Detroit Motor Car Company, Detroit, Mickif an 



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CHANDLER SIX $(393 



THOUSANDS of men choose the Chandler because of its mechanical 
superiority, which to them is so obvious, while other thousands choose 
it for its beauty of design, its grace of line, its roominess and its comfort. 

All who choose the Chandler have reason for pride in their possession. 
For this splendid car combines, in an unusual degree, good taste, style and 
dependability. If one Chandler feature predominates over all others, it is 
doubtless the exclusive Chandler motor, now commonly called **The Mar- 
velous Motor, '* refined throughout four years of conscientious manufacture, 
without radical or experimental changes, to a point approximating per- 
fection. 

Seven- Passenger Touring Car^ $1395 

Four-Passenger Roadster ^ $1395 Seven-Passenger Connjertible Sedan, $2095 

Four-Passenger Convertible Coupe, $1995 Limousine, $2695 

AH pacts F. 0. B. Cltvtland 

Dealers in Hundreds of Towns and Cities. Catalog Mailed upon Request. Address Dept. O 

CHANDLER MOTOR CAR COMPANY 

New York Office: 1790 Broadway CLEVELAND, OHIO Cable Address: **Clianmotor" 

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The Fruits of Understanding 



Throughout the vast area of this 
country prevails a commoi^ tongue. 
The whole of Europe hardly exceeds 
our territory, yet Europe has more than 
a score of nationcJities and many dif- 
ferent languages. 

In the United States the telephone, 
as exemplified by Bell System, renders 
a matchless service in its mastery of 
distsuice and in encouraging the use 
of a universal leuiguage. This accom- 
plishment is in spite of the great influx 
of population from every country in 
the world. 

In Europe the independent coun- 
tries, sepsurated by bsurriers of language. 



and lacking efficient telephone service^ 
suffer from inadequate facilities for 
inter-communication. 

We now talk from the Atlantic 
Coast to the Pacific, and eliminate 
more than three thoussmd miles. In 
Europe, contending with a babel of 
Voices and unrelated telephone sys- 
tems, a bare quarter of that distance 
has been bridged with difficulty. 

The ideal of the Bell System has 
been day by day to extend its service 
in the interest of all telephone users. 
Its efforts have resulted in providing 
the facilities to unite cities and rural 
districts in true American democracy. 



American Telephone and Telegraph Company 
And Associated Companies 
^^^^ One Policy One System Universal Service 




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nVESTINGHOUSE 
ELECTRIC 



% 



Making Men 
Who Know 



All over the United States Westinghouse 
men are constantly traveling for you. 

These men are instructors, experts, super- 
visors. They establish service stations, train 
service men, and help keep present stations up 
to Westinghouse standards, so that at home 
or on tour you may be sure of satisfactory 
assistance in any emergency affecting your 
car's electrical system. 

To be satisfactory, such assistance must 
be g^ven by men who know, as the electrical 
units— rugged though they be— demand ex- 
pert knowledge and skill for proper adjust- 
ment and repair. 

Thaf s why at the 90 or more Westincbouse Automobile 
Equipment Service Stations you will find men who have been 
trained in the Westinehouse plant orby We«tinehouse experts. 
They know the two essentials of £ood service— how to locate 
troubles and how to remedy them— promptly. 

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC A MFG. CO. 

jluttmobilt Etid$mnU Dtfartmmt 
Shaoysidb Works Pittsdurgh. Pa. 



tin^Riflse 

UGHTING C7& IGNITION EQUIPMENT 



«»^w. UGHTING 



TOWNSEND'S TRIPLEX 



Floats Over the Uneven Ground 
as a Ship Rides the Waves. 

One mower may be climbing a knoll, the second 
skimming a level, while the third pares a hollow. 
Drawn by one horse and operated by one man, 
the TRIPLEX will mow more lawn in a day 
than the best motor mower ever made ; cut it 
better and at a fraction of the cost. 

Drawn by one horse and operated by one man, it will mow more 
lawn in a day than any three ordinary horse-drawn mowers with 
three horses and three men. 

Dors not smash the grass to earth and plaster it in the mud in 
sprin^ime, neither dors it crush the life out of the erass between 
hot rollers and hard, hot ground in summer, as does the motor 
mower. 

The public is warned not to purchase mowers infringing the 
Townscnd Patent, No. 1.209.519, December 19ih. 1916. 

ffriu for catalog iUustratinz all typts of Lawn Movoers. 

S. p. TOWNSEND & CO. 
27 Central Avenue Orange, New Jersey 



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Save a day! When printers 
say **tomorrow'' to your call for 
hurry-up forms, letters, price-lists or 

bulletins, just tell your secretary to have 
them mimeographed — "ri^ht now'' — five 
thousand in an hour! No waits for typesetting, 
cut making, "OK's," or presses — and probably you'll 
feet a better looking job of printing. No overtime 
to pay for — no promiscuous "handling of confidential proofs. 
Independence! With the mimeograph, not only typewriting but 
lon^and and line illustrations are immediately — flawlessly — du- 
plicated, in your own office. It's easily operated by a typist — and 
the ways it will serve you are multifold. It makes office duplicat- 
ing proof afeainst printers* delays — and wonderfully economical. 
Write for booklet "D." A. B. Dick Co., Chica&o— and New York. 




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Hot Pace and Cooling Heels 

COOLING Heels tra 
He's better knov 
than sanctum sanctc 

Jones believes neither in j 
nor home-office follow-u] 
know Cooling Heels men 
for somebody/' Both he 
and his line are a nonen- 
tity. 

Hot Pace travels for 
Smith. 

He's better known in 
sanctum sanctorums than 
outer offices. 

Buyers give him the 
glad hand, because they 
know when he is coming 
and what he has to sell. 
To them he is * ' Hot Pace, 
of Smith." Both he and 
his line are established. 

Exaggerated? No! 

Every salesman who 
has traveled with a Multigraph introduction and left behind him a Multi- 
graph follow-up knows the difference between the hot pace and the cooling 
heels — 

Knows how smooth the road to the man who is expecting you; how 
easy the order when he knows the line — 

Knows the **open sesame" that goes with Multigraph letters, folders, 
mailing cards before and after the call — 

Knows how easy it is to set a hot pace on a Multigraph trail. 

What pace do your men set on the trail of your business ? 

Have you Cooling Heels or Hot Paces representing you ? 

Think — act — mail the coupon ! 

Perhaps you've yet to strike the real stride in your business. 




Tbe Name 

Multigraph, 

1821 E. 40Ck St., Officia l Position 

Clerdaiid, 

Ohio. Firm 



Show me how I street Addrggn 
eantetahot ' 

pace in my _ 



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Oil Economy 



GARGOYLK 
MOBILOIL 




MORC 

GARGOYLC 

MOBILOIL 




This motorist pays a fair price for scientific lubrication. 



CHCAP 
OIL 



.^^fcAA 



MORC 

CHEAP 

OIL 



Ql^!^m 




This motorist pays less per gallon — but more per year. 



YOU no doubt can 
tell about how 
much you paid for oil 
last year. And you 
know there is a cost 
difference per gallon 
between ordinary and 
scientific lubrication 
— Gargoyle Mobiloils. 

But do you know this: 
Ordinary oil frequently 
costs far more by the year 
than Gargoyle Mobiloils. 

Why? 



Because poor lubri- 
cation immediately im- 
poses two cash penalties: 

(i) More oil per mile (fre- 
quently twice as much.) 

(2) More gasoline per mile 
(frequently 10% to 20%.) 

These two losses make 
oil which is cheap by the 
gallon — expensive by the 
yean 

In effect you then pay 
the price of high-grade lu- 
brication but secure only 
low-grade protection. 



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An Economical Demonstration 

It will probably cost you less than 
$ I .GO to fill your reservoir with the 
grade of Gargoyle Mobiloils specified 
for your car. The garage or dealer 
you trade with has it, or can promptly 
secure it for you. 

Ask him to empty your reservoir of 
its present oil and fill it with the correct 
grade of Gargoyle Mobiloils. 

You can then judge for yourself the 
results in gasoline economy and reduced 
oil consumption, to say nothing of re- 
duced carbon deposit. 

If your car is not listed in the partial 
Chart to the right, a copy of our " Correct 
Lubrication" booklet containing the com- 
plete Chart will be sent you on request 



o>*^^ 




Mobiloils 

A grade for each type of motor 

The four grades of Garpoyle Mobiloils for ji^asoline 
motor lubrication, purified to remove free carbon, 
are: 

Gargoyle Mobiloil "A" 

Gargoyle MobiloU ''B'' 

Gargoyle MobiloU <"£'' 

Gargoyle Mobiloil '^Arctic'* 

Uattnc VieJUda— For motor bearinjrs and enclosed 
chains use Gargoyle Mobiloil "A" the year 'round. 
For open chains and differential use Gargoyle 
Mobiloil **C** the year 'round, fjrccptibii— For 
winUr btbrication of pleasure cars use Gargoyle 
Mobiloil "Arctic" for worm drive and Gargoyle 
Mobiloil "A" for bevel gear drive. 
In ba3ring Gargoyle Mobiloils from your dealer, it 
is safest to purchase in original packages. Look for 
the red Gargoyle on the container. For information, 
kindly address any inquiry to our nearest office. 

VACUUM OIL COMPANY 
Rochester, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Sp«cialisla in th* manufacture of hish-grada lubricants for 
every class of machinery. Obtainable everywhere in the world. 



BnmAa: 



Detroit 


Chicago 


Minneapolis 


Boston 


Philadelphia 


Pittsbur^'h 


New York 


Iudianai>olis 


Kansas City. Kan 


Oes Moines 







Correct Automobile Lubricatioii 

Explanal&ons In the Chart below, the letter 
opposite the car indicates the grade of Gar- 
goyle Mobiloils that should be used. For 
example/'A" means Gargoyle MobiloU" A." 
"Arc** means Gargovle MobiloU '"Arctic." 
etc. The recommendations cover all models 
of both pleasure and commercial vehicles 
unless otherwise noted. 



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Manufacturen of the famous " Miller Standard " line of Druggists' SundHes, Surgeon's Gloves, Balloons, Novelties, Etc. 
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I 



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History of the Republic 

The discovery of the Prodium Process of 
compounding: rubber is as momentous as was 
Republic* s invention of the non-skid tire. 

R£PUoI#IC PROCESS I11C£S 

Prodium Process makes rubber wondrously tough, 
with much greater resistance to wear. It increases 
strength, A strip of Prodium Rubber one inch square 
will support 3400 pounds. 

It puts longer life into Republic Tires. Even after 
the Staprgard studs are worn smooth, thousands of miles 
of service remain in the tire. 

Send for a sample of Pr&dium Rubber 

Republic Black'Line Red Inner Tubes have a 
record free frbm trouble 




HARRISON MEMORIALS of CHARACTER 

Offices in principal cities. Write for Booklet 3. 

HARRISON GRANITE COMPANY 

200 Fiftli ATCBve, New York CHy Work? : Barre. Vt. 



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p 

if 



^3 



One Word from a Woman's Lips 

How it gave to this country its finest watch 



O ACK in the days when our grandmothers 
^^ were girls, Romance began working 
changes in the watch making industry of this 
country. 

Sailing over the sea came Dietrich Gruen, 
a brilliant young horologist, to visit a brother 
in America. 

And here he fell in love. The word he 
won from his sweetheart's lips changed all 
his plans and made him decide upon America 
instead of Switzerland as the place to carry 
out his lifelong ambition to be a watch manu- 
facturer. 

A business built on ideals 

Dietrich Gruen started his business with 
the ideal of giving America a watch of ex- 
ceptional merit. But for its production his 
thoughts turned naturally to Switzerland, 
where from time out of mind the finest 
watches have been made. 

There he gathered together a group of the 
finest craftsmen, and established his first fac- 
tory for the production of watch movements, 
importing these movements and adjusting 
them to their cases in America. 

About 1874 Dietrich Gruen conceived the 
idea of reducing the size of watches. He suc- 
ceeded in producing the i6-size. For many 
years thereafter this was the popular size 
watch, and is the size made today by all 
watch manufacturers for railroad use, so that 
Dietrich Gruen may be said to have been 
the first railroad watch 
manufacturer in Amer- 



A new ideal 



QRU 



Gruen saw that all VBR-ITHINl 
watches were not only 

too large, but too thick. He determined that 
the Gruen watch should be the pioneer thin 
watch, as it had been the pioneer i6-size watch. 

He began then a series of experiments to- 



ward that end, trying for a new principle 
that would enable him to secure watch thin- 
ness without cutting down the size and 
strength of parts. 

The eldest of Gruen's three sons had grown 
up and been traihed, here and abroad, in the 
watch-making skill of his race. This eldest 
son, Fred, now took up with his father the 
latter's ambition, and together they worked 
to realize it. 

How they at last accomplished it is shown 
by the wheel train illustration below. In 
Europe and America the Gruen Verithin im- 
mediately took the lead as the thinnest accu- 
rate watch made — a position it has held ever 
since. 

With cunning fingers the watchmakers of 
Madre-Biel, Switzerland, adjust and finish 
the machine-made parts by hand after the 
original model. In Cincinnati, located on 
"Time Hill," is the beautiful American Serv- 
ice Plant and Gold Case Factory^ where the 
gold cases are made and the watches receive 
their final adjustments. Here, too, duplicate 
parts are kept always on hand. 

The demand for these ivatches during the past 
se'ven years being greater than the production^ 
obliges us to limit their sale through about 1^200 
jetueler agencies, but those nvho n.vant a nvatch 
for long ser^ice^ a mjatch in whose accuracy and 
beauty they imill ahvays take pride ^ luill find 
among the best je^velers in e^very locality one or 
t<wo <who are proud to 
display the Gruen agency 
signsj as shoivn here. 

Fixed PricM : #27.50 toS200; 
Ultra-thiii«,«165to S250; Diet- 
rich Gruenx. S300 to S6$0. 
Hiebcst perfection attainable in 
irrades marked "Precision.'* If 
your jeweler cannot supply you. 
write us, naming model you are interested in. and we will ar- 
range for you to see it. THE GRUEN WATCH MANUFAC- 
TURING CO.,Depi. D."Time Hill." Cincinnati. Ohio. **Maiert 
of thtfamms Gruen Watthts sintt J874.''* Factories: Cincinnati 
and Madre-Biel, Switzerland. Canadian Branch, Toronto, Canada. 




WATCH 




de the J'frithin fossihle 



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r 



Plant 
Specialties 



17o«>a>'o This new edition 

Farr S contains 112 pages 

.. I f^m of text matter, with 

Hardy Plant S'Vlf^n^S: 

and is more com- 
plete and helpful 
than any of its 
predecessors. It is a book that no reader 
of the National Geographic Magazine 
will wish to be without. 

Some Special Features 

In the Iris section there are many of my own 
seedlings, including the Panama-Pacific Gold 
Medal Collection ; also notable new introduc- 
tions from Europe. 

AmonKthePeoniesareanumber of rare varie- 
ties which I have been unable to offer before, 
owing to limited stock. The fortunate pur- 
chase in France of a noted collection of Tree 
Peonies enables me to offer a unique assort- 
ment of over 300 varieties. 
Lemoine's complete collection of Lilacs, Phil- 
adelphus, and Deutzias, with many of the new 
Chinese Barberries. Cotoneasters, and other 
introductions of Mr. E. H. Wilson, add to the 
value of this book. 

If you arm intmrm^tmd in gardening and ufoald iikm 
a copy, it will bm mailmd to you on TOQUoat 

3ERTRAND H. FARR 

Wyomiaaing Nuraeriea Co. 
110 Garfield Ave. WyomininK, Penna. 



JUDD & DETWEILER, Inc. 

Master Printers 

420-422 Eleyenth Street N.W. 

WASHINGTON, D. C 



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loiier will greauy neip lo preserve ine aeiicaie lexiure ana coloring or me 
complexion far beyond the time when most women lose them. 

Even if the skin is alretidy in bad condition with pimples, redness or roughness, 



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5r Camp 

' the man who 
ss the great out- 
ers this camp has 
in especially de- 
led. It offers 
[i(ort,durability, 
and harmony 
with its sur- 
roundings. 



THIS camp is of single wall construction, 
unlike the all year round larger Bossert- 
built houses. It is not painted, but stained a 
beautiful brown color with creosote, which 
not only preserves the wood, l^ut .brings out 
beautifully the natural grain. 

Five Hundred Dollars f. o. b. Brooklyn 

Send 12 cents today for catalog showing details of Bossert construction 

LOUIS BOSSERT & SONS, INC, 1313 Grand St, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Contains three bed-rooms, a 12x15 living 
room, and a 6x9 kitchen in extension. Vital 
economies effected by the Bossert method of 
buying and construction enable us to offer 
this camp at 



RECOMMENDATION FOR MEMBERSHIP 

in the 

National Geographic Society 

The. Membership Fee Includes Subscription to the National Geographic Magazine 

DUES: Annual membership in U. S., $2.00; annual membership abroad. $3.00; Canada, $2.50: life membership. 
$50. Please make remittances payable to National Geographic Society, and if at a distance remit by N. Y. draft, 
postal or express order. 

Please detach and fill in blank below and send to the Secretary 



_/9/ 



^o the Secretary, National Geographic Society, 

Sixteenth and M Streets Northioest, 

Washington, D. C : 



/ nominate- 
jJJJress 



for membership in the Society, 



( Write your address) 



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Write it on the film — at the time. 

Make every negative more interesting, more valuable by permanently recording at 
the time of exposure the all important — who, when, where. It's a simple and almost 
instantaneous process with an 

Autographic Kodak 

Ask your dealer or write -us for catalogue. 

EASTMAN KODAK CO., Rochester. N. Y., The Kodak City. 



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CAMP PENN 

Valcour Island, Lake Champlain, N. Y. 

llth Season 

One of the finest campe in the East for &oim c/ 
from 9 to 16 years, indvaioe 

Camp Penn will appral to thoufhful parents who wish for their 
sons a real *'woodsy'* camp, which will bring out the best that is in 
them, with carefully chosen companionship and under expert super- 
vision. We would be pleased to send yoo our booklet and make clear 
not only what we do for our boys, but, which ia infinitely more 
important, what our boys do for themselves i Camp Penn ia a very 
real kind of camp, with just a touch of the military in iL 

Five hundred acres of woods and meadow, resident phjrsician, 
exclusive dairy, a splendid record for health and lack of aoddenU and a 
moderate amount of military drill, thorousbly fiven. 

CHARLES K. TAYLOR, M. A., Director 
St. Martins, Philadelphia, Pa. 



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When You Have Brushed 
Your Teeth 

your mouth toilet is only one-half 
complete. The other, and more im- 
portant half, is 

To Clean the Mouth 

To clean the mouth thoroughly — to keep 
it in such a healthy condition that disease 
germs cannot thrive in it — use 



Di 



{a teaspoonful in a quarter glass of water) 
mornino' and evenine^. as a mouth 




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Two Cars Crashed. One Turned Over. Fire! 



Three children pinned beneath the 
wreckage ! 

I grabbed Psrrene from our car 
and put out the fire before anybody 
was burned. 

Think what a tragedy there wouM 
have been without Psrrene ! The fine 
car burned to a skeleton. The chil- 
dren, imprisoned; held like rats in a 
trap.. 

What if they were your children! 

Imagine yourself tugging, straining, 
frantk, unable to lift that 3000 



pound car one inch. Your wife— dumb 
with horror. 

Every hour you put off getting 
Pjrrene for your automobile and 
Pyrene for your home is a monstrous 
gamble. 

Sold by hardware and auto supply 
dealers. 

Saves 15% on auto insurance cosL 

* Saves money as well as life. 

Pjrrene Manufacturing Co., New York 
Every Appliance for Fire Protection 




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DENBY 



TRUCKS 

FOR TRAfL ORMV£M£Nr 



1 HE internal- 
gear axle as used 
in the Denby is 
one of the vital 
factors of a truck 
which we believe 
to be the most 
efficient ever pro- 
duced. 

Denby Motor Trudk 
Company 

Detroit^ Michigan 



You can get this most delightful of soaps at your 
favorite department store or dniffffist. 

And once used, you will realize why for over sixty years women of refine- 
ment in every civilized land have made it their all-lime choice. 



^§)%rcerii^Sp 



Pure and transparent as choicest materials and skill can make It, No. 4711 
White Rose Glycerine Soap ifives a skin clear and velvety. Delicately per- 
fumed, its rich, abundant lather makes each day's use a fresh delight. 

For the sample cake, send 2c. stamp; or for 10c. In stamps we wnll send you 
a package containing a sample cake of No, 4711 White Rose Glycerine Soap, 
a sample bottle of No. 4711 Bath Salts, and a sample bottle of No. 4711 hau 
de Colotrne. 

MULHENS & KROPFF, D«pt. IS. 2S Wwt iSth Street. New York 



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LANTERN SLIDES 

from Photographs in National Geographic Magazine 

SO MANY REQUESTS are being constantly received regarding lantern slides from 
the copyright photographs in the Geographic that arrangements have been com- 
pleted to supply them to members of the Society. Slides are not kept in stock, 
each order being made up as received, and will be delivered within two weeks after 
receipt of order, unless otherwise advised. The copyright notice must appear on each 
slide. The purchase of lantern slides does not carry with it the authority to publish 
the pictures and they cannot be used for advertising purposes. 

Slides cannot be sent upon approval and a remittance must accompany each order. 
The slides will be carefully packed and sent by express collect. Prices in the United 
States (standard size), black and white, 75 cents each; colored, $1.50. Address, 

Dept. L., National Geographic Magazine WASHINGTON, D. C. 



$157,000,000.00 PAID FOR LOSSBS 

TELL YOUR AGENT YOU MUST HAVE THE 

Aetna (Fire) Insurance Company of Hartford, Conn. 

Incorporated in 1819 



VlfEBSTERS NEW ^^^^^^^ your quesfiom^be ii fhe pronunciation 
of a new term; the spelling of a puzzling word 
me location of Nigeria* iKe nr%eanin|S of 
l^l^yMyaQY ESa tractor, wKHecoal eic. •-this New Creation 
l#l V 1 1 VllllK I ^ contains a clear, accurate, final answer. 

G.&C.MERRIAM CO.,SPRINGFIELD«MA5S. 



INTERNATIONAL 



Ple»«« amnd m« •P«ci-f ig amp 

I mmn p»^*s and < n«lri6»- — 

>REE POCKET MAPS I ADDRESS.. 



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May we send postpaid 



t 



f\ 




New Catalog 

XT IS a fascinating 
book, filled with 



illustrations — 
many in actual colors— 
of the quaint and curious objects of art 
and jutihty collected by the Vantine rep- 
resentatives in Japan, China, Persia, and 
other Oriental countries. 

As a reader of xht National Geographic 
KA^^.^:^^ «.-. *--i «,,g yQ^j yf]]i be 

antine Catalog 
ises geographic 

:ins or dcficribins the 
il creations of the a rti- 
inds beyond the seas. 

and address on a pos- 
it obli ration we shall 
is delisrbtful book of 
dress Dept. N. 

ne & Co.» Inc. 
e. and 39th St 
swYork 



=c^ 



1201 Race Street 



jnCROGRAKIY 

EVERY camera is a color 
camera, now. Remember 
this in looking forward to 
your Spring photographic campaign. 
You can slip a 

Hiblock 

into your own camera, make your 
exposure and obtain as many re- 
productions as you wish. You'll 
want to take a supply of Hiblocks on 
your next trip. A pack of two sen- 
sitized plates and one film, bound to- 
gether as one, the Hiblock slips into 
your own camera like an ordinary 
plate. Only one exposure is neces- 
sary. Let us tell you more about 
this invention that at last brings 
color photography within your 
reach without entailing the purchase 
of a special camera. Send for booklet 

Hess-Ives Corporation 



Philadelphia 



AVfidi- rirt \Jir£i Itr^drfe R^r 



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HOT SPRINGS 

ARKANSAS 

Grmatmmt Health andPleoBarm Rmaort in the World 
Owned by the 

U. 5. Government 

The cnrative propeniec of the waten of Arloinns Hoc Sprines are 
known the world over. Their lue is endorsed and reeuUted by the 
Govemnient. The dinute is bracing, scenery beantiful; social life 
and spoit in abundance. 

For information, iilaatratmd booklet, etc, • write 

Department of the Interior 

Washington, D. C. 

This advertisement Inserted by the Iron Mountain Route. 



HODGSON 



Portable 
HOUSES 



Are yoa thinldnff of erecting a small bnildlng? If it's anything from a bird 
house to a cottasre— listen. There are Hodsson bungalows, garages, play houses, 
screen houses, chicken houses, dog houses and every other kind of houses 
imaginable. Get a catalog and you'll see them alL 

They can be quickly and easily erected by unskiUed workmen. They with- 
stand all kinds of weather. 

Here is the best way to buy. By paying 2Si( of the price of your house we will 
prepare and hold it until wanted. This saves you money and insures prompt de- 
livery. Our Catalog is illustrated with photographs— and prices, too. Send for it 

E. F. HODGSON COMPANY 

24<,II6Waafcii«tMStiMt,BwlM,lla«. < East 39lk StiwC. New Totk Gly 




(he Hou aLetlerWrifcn an tfdVerlisingiMan^a College Sbdeniallser of English? 

Here ft a neW book made ^nteei^your needs - a Meiricun -Webster DicUonory— 

HcCOLLEGIATE 

THIRD EDITION, JUST ISSUED 



^bridaedfromfhefomoua NEW INTERNATIONAL. AnsWers 
oil kinds of quesiions likeV 4o come up in your Work. 

100,000 Words. ITOOniusirafions. 1248 Paaea. 
Scofiish Gloasary, GaxaHeer, Vocabulary of Rimes, E4c 



REGULAR AND THIN-PAPBR EDITIONS. il^REE I 

Order from your Bookseller or from the publishers. | . ^. 

G.& C. MERRIAM C0.,SPRINGFIELD»MASS. j IVi9es lAddress 



I Noma 



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=^ 




Wanderlust! Already the days are 
lon^ — and winter-weary folk have be^un 
to respond to the call of tantalizing Spring 



Green ma^c of the open! 
Is it yours — now that the 
youn^ years exhilarating 
wine fires the blood with crav^ 
ing for new, wide horizons? 

A better car this season — 
a car that will give the ut- 
most, demand the least, and 
leave more freedom for the 
stimulating joys of the road! 

Why not? 

All the miles you can 
crowd into the day — all the 



speed the highway will per- 
mit — all the power any road 
condition can demand — and 
the confidence that you ride 
in the best of form without 
excessive cost — are yours if 
you drive a Twin-six. 

A Packard exactly to your 
liking — now! You'll want 
the particular design you 
want — this Spring. 

The days are long — and the 
time for action is short. 



A.sJi the man who ovi/ns one 



Twenty distinctive styles of Twin-six motor carriages. Prices, open cars, 
$3050 and $3500, at Detroit. Packard dealers in all important cities 

Packard Motor Car Company — Detroit 




TWIN-6 



di 



j^ 



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VOLUME XXXI 






T/jr^ 



NUMBER FOUR 



rTHENATlONAO 



-EOG 
MAGAZI 



lie 



APRIL, 1917 

+ 

CONTENTS 

8 Pages in Four Colors 

Do Your Bit for America woodrow wilson 

A Tribute to America Herbert henry asquith 

Friends of Our Forests 

With Color Illustrations HENRY W. HENSHAW 

The Burden France Has Borne 

With 19 Illustrations GRANVILLE FORTESCUE 

The Gail to the Colors 

With 17 Illustrations 

The Outspeaking of a Great Democracy 

ALEXANDER RIBOT-RENE VIVIANI-PAUL DECHANEL 

The Oldest of the Free Assemblies 

ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR 

The Russian Situation and Its Significance 
to America 

With 10 niustrations STANLEY WASHBURN 

PUBLISHED BY THE • 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETTY 

HUBBARD MEMORIAL HALL 
WASHIKGTON, D.C. 




NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

^ HUBBARD MEMORIAL HALL 

SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS. WASHINGTON. D. C. 



O. H. TITTMANN PRESIDENT 

GILBERT H.GROSVENOR. director and EDITOR 
JOHN OLIVER LA GORGE . ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
O. P. AUSTIN .... SECRETARY 



JOHN E. PILLSBURY VICE-PRESIDENT 

JOHN JOY EDSON . . TREASURER 

GEORGE W. HUTCHISON, ASSISTANT SECRETARY 

WILLIAM J. SHO WALTER . assistant EDITOR 



1915-1917 

Charles J. Bell 

President American Security 
and Trust Company 

John Joy Edson 

President Washinston Loan & 
Trust Company 

David Fairchild 

In Charge of Agricultural Ex- 
plorations, Dept. of Asric 

C. Hart Mbrriam 

Member National Academy of 
Sciences 

O. P. AUSTIN 

Statistician 

Georcb R. Putnam 

Commissioner U.S. Bureau of 
Lighthouses 

George Shiras, 3d 

Formerly Member U. S. Con- 
gress. Faunal Naturalist, and 
Wild-Qame Photosrapher 

Grant Squires 

New York 



BOARD OF MANAGERS 
1916-1918 

Franklin K. Lane 

Secretary of the Interior 

Henry F. Blount 

Vice-President American Se- 
curity and Trust Company 

C. M. Chester 

Rear Admiral U. S. Navy. 
Formerly Supt. U. S. Naval 
Observatory 

Frederick V. Coville 

Formerly President of Wash- 
inston Academy of Sciences 

John E. Pillsbury 

Rear Admiral U. S. Navy. 
Formerly Chief Bureau of 
Navlsation 

Rudolph Kauppmann 

Manasins Editor The Evenins 
Star 

T. L. Macdonald 
M. D.. F. a. C. S. 

S. N. D. North 

Formerly Director U. S. Bu- 
reau of Census 



1917-1919 

Alexander Graham Bell 

Inventor of the telephone 

J. Howard Gore 

Prof. Emeritus Mathematiqs, 
The Geo. Washinston Univ. 

A. W. Greely 

Arctic Explorer, Major Oen'l 
U. S. Army 

Gilbert H. Grosvenor 

Editor of National Oeosraphic 
Masazine 

George Otis Smith 

Director of U. S. Oeolosical 
Survey 

O. H. TiTTMANN 

Formerly Superintendent of 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey 

Henry White 

Formerly U. S. Ambassador to 
France. Italy, etc 

John M. Wilson 

Brisadier General U. S. Army. 
Formerly Chief of Ensineers 



To carry out the purpose for which it was founded twenty-eight years 
ago, namely, ''the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge,'* 
the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine. All receipts 
from the publication are invested in the Magazine itself or expended 
directly to promote geographic knowledge and the study of geography. 
Articles or photographs from members of the Society, or other friends, 
are desired. For material that the Society can use, adequate remunera- 
tion is made. Contributions should be accompanied by an addressed 
return envelope and postage, and be addressed : 

GILBERT H. GROSVENOR. EDITOR 



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 



A. W. Greely 
C. Hart Merriam 

O. H. TiTTMANN 

Robert Hollister Chapman 
Walter T. Swingle 



Alexander Graham Bell 
David Fairchild 
Hugh M. Smith 
N. H. Darton 
Frank M. Chapman 



Entered at the Post -Office at Washington, D. C, as Second-Class Mail Matter 
Copyright, 1917, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. All right«,.reserved j 

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Medium Sto 

npH AT term, me 
"^^ stout, is the 
clothing men des< 
such a figure as 
young men, or oldei 
They think th( 
"hard-to-fit" and p 
tailor big prices to f 
it. 

We make clothes desig] 
fit such figures; they do fit 
label means satisfaction g 
teed; a small thing to loc 
a big thing to find. 

Hart SchaflFner & T 

Good Clothes Makers 



CApyright Hart Schaflaer & Mant 



.^ A. -*^ -».-... 



. ^ -• ^ 



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iiJiiliiiiJiliiiialiiiililiih^ 



$1150 



F.o.b. 
Racine 

Mitchell Junior—a 40 h. p. Six 
120-inch Wheelbase 




$1460 



jTT|i|:|ini|iii:'|jr |n':^:ii:|rp]i:i'[i!tinip'|'|r!|',r;i'':';in \.'\ 



F.o.b. 
Racine 
7-Passenser— 48 Horsepower 
SIXES 127-inch Wheelbase 



Plus 31 Extras 



In the Mitchell there are 31 extras added to 
the usual type of fine car. Each is something 
you will want. 

These extras will cost us, on this year's out- 
put, about $4,000,000. They cost you nothing, 
because they are paid for by factory efficiency. 

The Mitchell now offers, in every vital part, 
100 per cent over-strength. That is twice our 
old margin of safety. 

This means a lifetime car. Several Mitchells 
have been run over 200,000 miles each. It 
means a safe car, a car of low upkeep. Over 
440 parts are built of tough- 
ened steel. 



Due to 
John W. Bate 

The Mitchell extra values 
are due to John W. Bate. 
He built and equipped this 
45-acre plant to build this 
one type economically. His 
methods have cut our fac- 
tory cost in two. 



TWO SIZES 

li/ittnVki^} 1 •"• 7-pa«8enger Six with 
lYUiUieU 127-inch wheelbase and 
__ jloped 48" 
31 extra features. 

Price SI 460, f, o. h. Racine 

Mitchell Junior 7*r sS^S; 

lH^inch wheelbase and a 4Mor8epower 
motor. 26 extra features. 

Price SI ISO, f. o. h. Racine 

Also six styles of enclosed and convert- 
ible bodies. Also new Club Roadster. 



This year our new body plant brings an- 
other big saving. And from it we've added 
24 per cent to the cost of finish, upholstery 
and trimming. The Mitchell is now the 
beauty car of its class. 

They Are Unique 

Mitchells are unique in over-strength, in 
beauty and equipment. The body styles are 
exclusive— designed by our artists, built by our 
own craftsmen. No attraction is omitted. 

Mr. Bate has traveled half the world to gain 
ideas for Mitchells. In 1913 he spent a year in 
Europe. He has 'forked 
out more than 700 improve- 
ments. 

Go see the results of his 
methods. See what a Six 
$1150 buys in the Mitchell 
Junior. See the many fea- 
tures in the larger Mitchell, 
which other cars omit. The 
difference will amaze you. 

MITCHELL MOTORS 

COMPANY, Inc. 
Racine, Wis., U. S. A. 



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Help Us Focus the Condemning Light of Public Opinion on 

THE SLIP-SHOD DRIVER— n^ Greatest Enemy of Motoring 

The 5/1^-shod driver is one who leaves tire chains in the locker when 

careful drivers put them on their wheels. Driving with chainless 

tires over wet-slippery-skiddy streets he gambles with 

the lives and property of everyone in his path. 



Only two things can reach the slip-sYiod driver- 
fear of the law and the mightier power of 
public opinion. So, we ask you to help us 
arouse and concentrate a public opinion that 
will compel the //(^-shod driver to. use intelli- 
gence and judgment that will safeguard 

all of us against all preventable 

accidents. 



Concentrate your light of condemnation on 
every driver who cuts comers ; who does not 
signal when stopping or turning ; who does not 
grive a warning signal of his approach \ who ex- 
ceeds a safe speed limit ; who does not inspect his 
brakes and stearing gear, and who does not stop 
to put on tire chains at the first indi- 
cation of wet, slippery, skiddy streets. 




Help Us Insure Motoring Safety for Everyone. 

AMERICAN CHAIN COMPANY, Incorporated 
SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF WEED CHAINS 




Bridgeport, \^X Connecticut. 

In Canada ; Dominion Chain Company, Ltd., Niagara Falls, Ontario. 



Th* €ibove advertisement was sugi^ested by a car OTvner who has the best interests 0/ motoring at heart. Please show it to all slipshod 
drivers you meet and ask them to spread its doctrines to others iu their class. Help forge an endless chain camMign to imnre motoring 
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How Hudson Solved the 

GasoUne Problem 

Now Furnished on the New Light Super-Six 

The gasoline saver is one more new We made those records of endurance 

invention of the Hudson Super-Six. for acceleration and speed with cars of 

It was shown for the first time at the the earlier production. No one has yet 

New York Automobile Show in January. equaled anything we have done with stock 

Now most all Hudson dealers are showing Super-Six cars. And yet the cars we 

the new cars equipped with thU and ten turn out today are infinitely better because 

other important new features. The gaso- ff ^^ increased skill and experience 

line saver is the only new feature shown Hudson workmen have acquired m build- 

on automobiles at this year s shows. J"8 ^« 25.000 cars that were produced 

last year. 

Overcomes the Poor Gasoline Think What a Year 

Hard starting and wasteful gasoline con- HaS ShoWn 

sumptionduetocoldweatheranddielow- Remember what was claimed for the 

grade gasolme are overcome Radiator guper-Six one year ago. Then we had 

and hood covers are not needed on the ^^, ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ show-records 

new Hudson Super-Sixes, even m the proving the Hudson Super-Six the fastest 

coldest weather. ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

This device has been m use on hundreds We then had established only the 100- 

of Hudson Super-Sixes during the coldest mile and the one-hour records for a f uUy 

winter weather. Its effectiveness has been equipped stock touring car. But since we 

proved. It is as easily operated as the have won the 24-hour record for a stock 

damper on a stove. chassis, the Transcontinental Run both 

Low-grade gasoline gives low mileage ways, the fastest stock chassis mile, and 

and is wasteful and harmful to the engine. have outsold any other high-grade car in 

unless the motor is operated 8tea<;Jily at a the world. So if you want a fine car that 

high temperature. out-performs any other car that is built, 

your choice must be a Hudson Super-Six. 

Primer Insures Easy Starting ^^^^^^ ^^.^^j ^^^ ^^^^^^ 

In «5ro weather, even at 20 below, the ^^ ^j^j^ ^^^ ,^^^ ^^^^^ ^, j^„ exceeded 

new Hudson Super-Six motor starts. The ^^^ production by 8.000. At no time 

pnmeris another new feature of the new ^uri„g the season were there enough 

Super-Six. Hudsons to go around. From this you 

On the new cars there are also other can see what the demand will be this year, 
worth-while features you should see. We are only producing 30.000 cars as 
There is the new plaited upholstering. against last year's 25,000 because we can- 
more attractive door fasteners, hard rubber not build more and build them welL That 
handles, an improved body finish, and other is not a large increase. It shows, however, 
details you can see. And then we have that if you want a Hudson you cannot 
made many improvements in the building afford to postpone buying. Unless you 
of the car. The car that last year won act now you may be like other thousands 
every worth-while record is a much better who will be disappointed this year because 
automobile now. because we have learned they could not get prompt deliveries, 
to build them better. Don t fail to see the gasoline saver. 

Phaeton. 7-pas8enger $1650 Town Car Landaulet $3025 

kuiincnMA^ Cabriolet, S-passenger .... 1950 Limousine 29K 

K^Sonjm Touring Sedan 2175 Limousine Landaulet ^3025 

r«x4r Town Car 2925 {All Price* f, o. 6. Dmtroit) 

HUDSON MOTOR CAR COMPANY, DETROIT, MICHIGAN 




'I HM I i| NT II n i| r ■' r 'M i ^ ' I M ' !' i M <''''' > ' " 



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INSOMNIA DUE TO INDIGESTION 

When indigestion or dyspepsia is the 
cause of insomnia, one of the most satis- 
factory methods of securing relief is to 
chew a piece of Beeman's Pepsin Gum — a 
chewing gum made from a scientific for- 
mula of my own. 

If you suffer at all from insomnia, al- 
ways have a piece of my gum within easy 
reach, for many times it may turn a sleep- 
less night into one of restful slumber. 



I 



JtM^pva^*^ 



Doctor E. E. B( 



A 

CHICLE 

V 



AMERICAN CHICLE COMPANY 




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Making a 

Food Confe 

of Four Things Folks I 

The four best-liked foods, pro 

Fruits — Nuts — Sugar - 

Most sweetmeats are made 

They are now being served— in 
bination— on a million breakfasts 

But, instead of nuts, use nut-like 
bles of wheat or rice. They 
are thin and crisp and flaky. 
And they taste like toasted 
nut meats. 

Prof. Anderson rather ob- 
jects to treating Puffed Grains 
as tidbits. To him they are 
scientific whole-grain foods. 
They are shot from guns. Every food cell is exploded for easy, complete digestion. 

But Puffed Grains got their world-wide welcome because they are delightful. No 
other grain food so fascinates the young. So we urge their daintiness to bring you 
their good. 

You will never find a morning dish folks like so well as Puffed Grains 



Puffed 


Puffed 


Wheat 


Rice 


and Corn Puffs 


Each 15c Except in 


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The Dairy Dish 



Thousands of men now avoid dulling luncheons 
by eating Puffed Grains in milk. Thousands of chil- 
dren go to bed on this ideal good-night dish. 

It means a whole-grain food, with every element 
anybody needs. It means easy digestion — no tax on 
the stomach — for the food cells are all exploded. 

And it means toasted grain bubbles, flimsy and 
crisp, with a flavor that never was imitated. 

Three grains are now prepared in this form, giving you variety. And they should 
be served in place of flour foods wherever they apply. Keep all three kinds on hand. 



The Quaker O^^ 0>mpaiiy 

Sole Makers 



(1555) 



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Department N Cambridge, Massachusetts j 



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ASBESTOS ROOFING 



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He Turned the Light Shade Upside Down 



'N a sick room, a 
distracted hus- 
band turned the 
light shade up- 
side down to re- 
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It was a touch 

of inspiration — 

the beginning of X-Ray Lighting. 

That makeshift indirect light of 
the despairing husband showed the 
way to better lighting. It estab- 
lished the guiding principle funda- 
mental to the X-Ray Lighting sj^em. 

The source of the light is always 
out of sight. 

So, from the lofty Woolworth 
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the country dealer's show-case — 
wherever you do not see the light, 
but do see the object alone, beauti- 
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there is X-Ray Lighting. 

Wherever there is attractive 
lighting that rests and comforts the 
eyes, from the searching, high- 
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ter — and you do not see the 
light source — there is X-Ray 
Lighting. 




♦ Whether it is source-concealed 
direct X-Ray light for the rushing 
factory, or source-concealed indi- 
rect X-Ray light for the quiet 
home; in either case it is a sunny, 
daylight brightness, radiantly uni- 
form and clear. 

In every case the light is con- 
cealed in the opaque X-Ray re- 
flector, with its wonderful silvered 
corrugations that difluse and temper 
the light perfectly. 

Directed ceilingward, so that no 
part of the light reaches the eye 
directly, X-Ray reflectors produce 
real (not semi) indirect lighting, 
efficiently and economically. 

Doctors prefer X-Ray Lighting 
because of its cheerful, eye-saving 
character; architects favor its fix- 
ture beauty; home-makers like its 
artistic effect ; business men value 
its economy. 



We have published a series of 
valuable^ illustrated books on bet- 
ter lighting for offices and stores, 
churcheSj schools, public build- 
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we will send you the right book 
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Chicago: 240 West Jackson Boulevard 
New York: 31 West 46th Street 



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THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 
RECOGNIZES THE SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS OF 

MUNICIPAL BONDS 

With the exception of government bonds. Mu- 
nicipal Bonds are the only securities accepted by 
the United States Government to secure Postal 
Savings Deposits. 

To thousands of experienced Municipal Bond in- 
vestors aU over the country the house of WiUiam R. 
Compton Company stands first in conservatism, safety 
and service. We would Hke to serve y6u. 

We always have on hand several miUion dollars' 
worth of Municipals which are constantly changing 
from day to day. The following are selected from our 
large list. 

Your money invested in tlieseboiids will earn you the interest as specified: 
ISSUE SIZE OF BOND INTEREST 

Troy,NewYork $875&$l,n00 3^% 

Hamilton Co., Ohio $500 3.90% 

New Orleans, La $100, $500 & $1,000 4.15% 

El Paso, Texas $1,000 4.20% 

Mississippi Supervisors Districts $500 & $ 1 , 000 4^ % 

Oklahoma Townships $1,000 5% 

Arkansas Drainage Districts . . $100, $500 & $1,000 5% to 5% % 

You can invest $1,000 and larger amounts or $500 and 
$100, paying you four to five and one-eighth per cent interest 
— free from Federal Income Tax, Write for our latest 
Bond List N4. 

filliam R.(Qmpton(Qmpany 

Municipal Bonds 

"Over a Quarter Century in Thie Bueineae" 

NEW YORK: 14 Wall Street ST. LOUIS: 408 Olive Street 

CHICAGO: 105 S. La SaUe Street CINCINNATI: 102 Union Tni8t Bldg. 



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We Have Available Choice 

Chicago Investments 

Netting 5X% and 6% 
These offerings include bond^ of 
2100, $500, and $1,000 denomina- 
tions, secured in every case by first 
mortgage upon vt^ell-located property 
of ample earning power to safeguard 
interest and principal. 

Our recommendation is further 

based on : 

Fifty-one years' experience of this 
house in successfully handling Chicago 
investments. 
Conservative appraisements by our 

own experts. 
Outright purchase of securities which 
we, in turn, offer to investors. 
Write for Circular No. 978-D. 

Peabo^, 
HougilLteling&Co. 

(ESTABUSHED 1865) 

10 South La Salle Street, Chicago 



,Our Service 

Its Distinctive Features 

No. 2 — Opportunities 

The extent of our resources, 
our facilities for handling large 
issues, and the breadth of our 
distributing organization, facil- 
itate the successful negotiation 
of many attractive bond issues. 
We maintain upon our lists con- 
tinually a selection of bonds 
suitable for every institutional 
and individual investment re- 
quirement. 

Send for Current List AN-S7. 

The National City 
Company 

National City Bank Building 
New York 



$2,000,000 

California Hotel Company 

Fmt Mortgage ^1o Serial Bonds 

Secured by 

Huntington, Green and 
Maryland Hotels 

Pasadena, CaL 

A closed first mortgage on one of 
the largest and most valuable hotel 
properties in the country, valued by 
independent appraisals at more than 
double the total amount of the bonds. 

Price, Par and Interest 

Write for Circular No. D-708 

s:w:sTRAiJs&co- 

Pounded 1882 Incorporated 1905 

150 Broadway Straus Building 

NEW YORK CHICAGO 

Detroit Cincinnati MinneapoHa 

Kansas City San Francisco 

35 years without loss to any investor. 



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Vol. XXXI, No. 4 




WASHINGTON 



April, 1917 





TIME 

ATflONAL 
OGIAPHH 
AGAZD 




DO YOUR BIT FOR AMERICA 

A Proclamation by President Wilson to the American 

People 



MY Fellow-Countrymen : 
The entrance of our own be- 
loved country into the grim and 
terrible war for democracy and human 
rights which has shaken the world creates 
so many problems of national life and 
action which call for immediate consid- 
eration and settlement that I hope you 
will permit me to address to you a few 
words of earnest counsel and appeal with 
regard to them. 

We are rapidly putting our navy upon 
an effective war footing and are about to 
create and equip a great army, but these 
are the simplest parts of the great task 
to which we have addressed ourselves. 

There is not a single selfish element, 
so far as I can see, in the cause we are 
fighting for. We are fighting for what 
we believe and wish to be the rights of 
mankind and for the future peace and 
security of the world. 

To do this great thing worthily and 
successfully we must devote ourselves to 
the service without regard to profit or 
material advantage and with an energy 
and intelligence that will rise to the level 
of the enterprise itself. We must realize 
to the full how great the task is and how 
many things, how many kinds and ele- 
ments of capacity and service and self- 
sacrifice it involves. 

These, then, are the things we must do, 
and do well, besides fighting — the things 



without which mere fighting would be 
fruitless : 

We must supply abundant food for 
ourselves and for our armies and our sea- 
men, not only, but also for a large part 
of the nations with whom we have now 
made common cause, in whose support 
and by whose sides we shall be fighting. 

THE THOUSAND NEEDS FOR VICTORY 

We must supply ships by the hundreds 
out of our shipyards to carry to the other 
side of the sea, submarines or no sub- 
marines, what will every day be needed 
there, and abundant materials out of our 
fields and our mines and our factories 
with which not only to clothe and equip 
our own forces on land and sea, but also 
to clothe and support our people, for 
whom the gallant fellows under arms can 
no longer work ; to help clothe and equip 
the armies with which we are cooperating 
in Europe, and to keep the looms and 
manufactories there in raw material ; coal 
to keep the fires going in ships at sea and 
in the furnaces of hundreds of factories 
across the sea ; steel out of which to make 
arms and ammunition, both here and 
there; rails for worn-out railways back 
of the fighting fronts ; locomotives and 
rolling stock to take the place of those 
every day going to pieces ; mules, horses, 
cattle, for labor and for military service ; 
everything with which the people of Eng- 



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Photograph by International Film Service 

BEFORE THE STATUE OF NATHAN HALE^ CITY HAI.L SQUARE, NEW YORK 

A patriot of 1917 becoming imbued with the patriotism of the Revolutionary hero who, 
upon being led forth to die, voiced the inspiring regret that he had but one life to lose for 
his country. 



2Q0 

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DO YOUR BIT FOR AMERICA 



291 



land and France and Italy and Russia 
have usually supplied themselves, but can- 
not now afford the men, the materials, or 
the machinery to make. 

It is evident to every thinking man that 
our industries — on the farms, in the ship- 
yards, in the mines, in the factories — 
must be made more prolific and more effi- 
cient than ever, and that they must be 
more economically managed and better 
adapted to the particular requirements of 
our task than they have been ; and what 
I want to say is that the men and the 
women who devote their thought and 
their energy to these things will be serv- 
ing the country and conducting the fight 
for peace and freedom just as truly and 
just as effectively as the men on the battle- 
field or in the trenches. 

SOLDIERS BEHIND THE FIRING LINE 

The industrial forces of the country, 
men and women alike, will be a great 
national, a great international, service 
army — a notable and honored host en- 
gaged in the service of the nation and the 
world, the efficient friends and saviors of 
free men everywhere. 

Thousands — nay, hundreds of thou- 
sands — of men otherwise liable to mili- 
tary service will of right and of necessity 
be excused from that service and assigned 
to the fundamental, sustaining work of 
the fields and factories and mines, and 
they will be as much part of the great 
patriotic forces of the nation as the men 
under fire. 

I take the liberty, therefore, of address- 
ing this word to the farmers of the coun- 
try and to all who work on the farms: 
The supreme need of our own nation and 
of the nations with which we are coop- 
erating is an abundance of supplies, and 
especially of foodstuffs. 

The importance of an adequate food 
supply, especially for the present year, is 
superlative. Without abundant food, alike 
for the armies and the peoples now at 
war, the whole great enterprise upon 
which we have embarked will break down 
and fail. 

The world's food reserves are low. 
Not only during the present emergency, 
but for some time after peace shall have 
come, both our own people and a large 



proportion of the people of Europe must 
rely Upon the harvests in America. 

WHERE THE FATE OF THE WAR RESTS 

Upon the farmers of this country, 
therefore, in large measure rests the fate 
of the war and the fate of the nations. 
May the nation not count upon them to 
omit no step that will increase the pro- 
duction of their land or that will bring 
about the most effectual cooperation in 
the sale and distribution of their prod- 
ucts? 

The time is short. It is of the most 
imperative importance that everything 
possible be done, and done immediately, 
to make sure of large harvests. 

I call upon young men and old alike 
and upon the able-bodied boys of the land 
to accept and act upon this duty — to turn 
in hosts to the farms and make certain 
that no pains and no labor is lacking in 
this great matter. 

I particularly appeal to the farmers of 
the South to plant abundant foodstuffs, 
as well as cotton. They can show their 
patriotism in no better or more convinc- 
ing way than by resisting the great temp- 
tation of the present price of cotton and 
helping, helping upon a great scale, to 
feed the nation and the peoples every- 
where who are fighting for their liberties 
and for our own. The variety of their 
crops will be the visible measure of their 
comprehension of their national duty. 

The Government of the United States 
and the governments of the several States 
stand ready to cooperate. They will do 
everything possible to assist farmers in 
securing an adequate supply of seed, an 
adequate force of laborers when they are 
most needed, at harvest time, and the 
means of expediting shipments of fer- 
tilizers and farm machinery, as well as of 
the crops themselves when harvested. 

A democracy's CHANCE TO MAKE GOOD 

The course of trade shall be as unham- 
pered as it is possible to make it, and 
there shall be no unwarranted manipula- 
tion of the nation's food supply by those 
who handle it on its way to the consumer. 
This is our opportunity to demonstrate 
the efficiency of a great democracy, and 
we shall not fall short of it ! 



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Photograph from Ledger Photo Service 
PLIGIITINX ANEW THEIR FEALTY TO THE FLAG 

Assembled in Independence Square, Philadelphia, thousands of patriotic Americans re- 
cently pledged their unanimous support to the President in the following stirring resolutions • 

"Meeting on the eve of a great crisis affecting our national life and on the sacred ground 
where, 141 years ago, the fathers of the Republic declared belief in the unalienable right of 
man to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, we citizens of Philadelphia, following the 
traditions of the fathers, here publicly renew our oath of allegiance to the Constitution and 
the laws of the Republic, pledging to the President of the United States our loyal support in 
any action which, in the exercise of his constitutional powers, he may deem necessary to the 
protection of American rights upon land and sea. Because the common defense is a common 
duty, universal military training is the only system that is fundamentally democratic and 
fair. We urge upon Congress the prompt enactment of a bill to put this system into imme- 
diate operation." ^-^ -_ 

292 Digitized by VjOOQIC 



DO YOUR BIT FOR AMERICA 



293 



This let me say to the middlemen of 
every sort, whether they are handling our 
foodstuffs or our raw materials of manu- 
facture or the products of our mills and 
factories : The eyes of the country will be 
especially upon you. This is your oppor- 
tunity for signal service, efficient and dis- 
interested. The country expects you, as 
it expects all others, to forego unusual 
profits, to organize and expedite ship- 
ments of supplies of every kind, but espe- 
cially of food, with an eye to the service 
you are rendering and in the spirit of 
those who enlist in the ranks, for their 
people, not for themselves. I shall con- 
fidently expect you to deserve and win 
the confidence of people of every sort and 
station. 

To the men who run the railways of 
the country, whether they be managers or 
operative employees, let me say that the- 
railways are the arteries of the nation's 
life, and that upon them rests the im- 
mense responsibility of seeing to it that 
those arteries suffer no obstruction of any 
kind, no inefficiency or slackened power. 

To the merchant let me suggest the 
motto, "Small profits and quick service," 
and to the shipbuilder the thought that 
the life of the war depends upon him. 
The food and the war supplies must be 
carried across the seas, no matter how 
many ships are sent to the bottom. The 
places of those that go down must be 
supplied, and supplied at once. 

STATESMEN AND ARMIES HELPLESS 
WITHOUT MINERS 

To the miner let me say that he stands 
where the farmer does — the work of the 
world waits on him. If he slackens or 
fails, armies and statesmen are helpless. 
He also is enlisted in the great service 
army. 

The manufacturer does not need to be 
told, I hope, that the nation looks to him 
to speed and perfect every process ; and 



I want only to remind his employees that 
their service is absolutely indispensable 
and is counted on by every man who 
loves the country and its liberties. 

Let me suggest, also, that every one 
who creates or cultivates a garden helps, 
and helps greatly, to solve the problem 
of the feeding of the nations; and that 
every housewife who practices strict 
economy puts herself in the ranks of 
those who serve the nation. This is the 
time for America to correct her unpar- 
donable fault of wastefulness and ex- 
travagance. 

Let every man and every woman as- 
sume the duty of careful, provident use 
and expenditure as a public duty, as a 
dictate of patriotism which no one can 
now expect ever to be excused or for- 
given for ignoring. 

THE SUPREME TEST HAS COME 

In the hope that this statement of the 
needs of the nation and of the world in 
this hour of supreme crisis may stimulate 
those to whom it comes and remind all 
who need reminder of the solenm duties 
of a time such as the world has never 
seen before, I beg that all editors and 
publishers everywhere will give as promi- 
nent publication and as wide circulation 
as possible to this appeal. 

I venture to suggest, also, to all adver- 
tising agencies that they would perhaps 
render a very substantial and timely serv- 
ice to the country if they would give it 
wide-spread repetition. 

And I hope that clergymen will not 
think the theme of it an unworthy or in- 
appropriate subject of comment and hom- 
ily from their pulpits. 

The supreme test of the nation has 
come. We must all speak, act, and serve 
together ! 

WooDRow Wilson. 

The White House, April 15, 191 7. 




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A TRIBUTE TO AMERICA 

By Herbert Henry Asquith 

Formerly Prime Minister of Great Britain 



IT IS only right and fitting that this 
House, the chief representative body 
of the British Empire, should at the 
earliest possible opportunity give definite 
and emphatic expression to the feelings 
which throughout the length and breadth 
of the Empire have grown day by day in 
volume and fervor since the memorable 
decision of the President and Congress 
of the United States. 

I doubt whether, even now, the world 
realizes the full significance of the step 
America has taken. I do not use lan- 
guage of flattery or exaggeration when I 
say it is one of the most disinterested acts 
in history. For more than lOO years it 
has been the cardinal principle of Ameri- 
can policy to keep clear of foreign en- 
tanglements. A war such as this must 
necessarily dislocate international com- 
merce and finance, but on the balance it 
was doing little appreciable harm to the 
material fortunes and prosperity of the 
American people. 

What, then, has enabled the Presi- 
dent — after waiting with the patience 
which Pitt described as the first virtue of 
statesmanship — to carry with him a 
united nation into the hazards and hor- 
rors of the greatest war in history? 

Not calculation of material gain, not 
hope of territorial aggrandizement, not 
even the pricking of one of those so- 
called points of honor which in days gone 
by have driven nations, as they used to 
drive individuals, to the duelling ground. 

It was the constraining force of con- 
science and humanity, growing in strength 
and compulsive authority month by 
month, with the gradual unfolding of the 
real character of German aims and meth- 
ods. It was that force alone which 
brought home to the great democracy 
overseas the momentous truth that they 

♦An address in the House of Parliament 
April 17, 1917. 



were standing at the parting of the ways. 
The American nation had to make one of 
those great decisions which in the lives of 
men and nations determine for good or 
ill their whole future. 

What was it that our kinsmen in Amer- 
ica realized as the issue in this unexam- 
pled conflict? The very things which, if 
we are worthy of our best traditions, we 
are bound to vindicate — essential condi- 
tions of free and honorable development 
of the nations of the world, humanity, 
respect for law, consideration for the 
weak and unprotected, chivalry toward 
mankind, observance of good faith — 
these things, which we used to regard as 
commonplaces of international decency, 
one after another have been flouted, men- 
aced, trodden under foot, as though they 
were effete superstitions of a bygone 
creed. 

America sees in this clear issue some- 
thing of wider import than the vicissi- 
tudes of the battlefields, or even of a re- 
arrangement of the map of Europe on 
the basis of nationality. 

The whole future of civilized govern- 
ment and intercourse, in particular the 
fortunes and faith of democracy, has 
been brought into peril. In such a situ- 
ation aloofness is seen to be not only a 
blunder, but a crime. To stand aside 
with stopped ears, with folded arms, with 
averted gaze, when you have the power 
to intervene, is to become not a mere 
spectator, but an accomplice. 

There was never in the minds of any 
of us a fear that the moment the issue 
became apparent and unmistakable the 
voice of America would not be heard. 
She has now dedicated herself without 
hesitation or reserve, heart and soul and 
strength, to the greatest of causes, to 
which, stimulated and fortified by her 
comradeship, we here renew our fealty 
and devotion. 



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FRIENDS OF OUR FORESTS 



By Henry W. Henshaw 

Author o^ "Common Birds of Town and Country/' 

Geographic Magazine 



IN THE National 



Illustrations by Louis Agassis Puertes 



AT EVERY stage of their growth, 

/\ from the seed to the adult tree, 

i\ our forest, shade, and orchard 

trees are subject to the attacks of hordes 

of insect enemies, which, if unchecked, 

would soon utterly destroy them. 

What the loss of our forest and shade 
trees would mean to us can better be 
imagined than described. Wood enters 
into so many products that it is difficult 
to think of civilized man without it, while 
the fruits of our orchards also are of the 
greatest importance. Aside from the eco- 
nomic loss, which can hardly be imagined, 
much less estimated, how barren the 
world would seem shorn of our forests 
and beautiful shade trees! 

Fortunately, the insect foes of trees are 
not without their own persistent enemies, 
and among them are many species of 
birds whose equipment and habits spe- 
cially fit them to deal with insects and 
whose entire lives are spent in pursuit of 
them. Many insects at one or another 
stage of their existence burrow deeply 
into the bark or even into the living 
wood of trees, and so are quite safe from 
ordinary bird enemies. Woodpeckers, 
however, being among the most highly 
specialized of birds, are wonderfully 
equipped to dig into wood and to expose 
and destroy these hidden foes. 

Certain insects that largely confine their 
attacks to the smaller branches and ter- 
minal twigs are sought out and preyed 
upon by nuthatches, creepers, titmice, and 
warblers. Others, and their number is 
legion, attack the blossoms and foliage, 
and here the nimble and sharp-eyed warb- 
lers render supreme service, the number 
of plant lice and lepidopterous larvae they 
destroy in a single day almost challenging 
belief. 

Thus our woodland songsters are 
among the most important of all our 
birds, and in their own field render man 



unequaled service. Moreover, very few 
have any injurious habits, and the little 
harm they do, if any, weighs as nothing 
in the balance when compared with the 
good. By reason of their numbers and 
their activity in hunting insects, our 
warblers take first place as preservers of 
the forest, and the following account, 
which treats of about half the total ntun- 
ber, is devoted to the more conspicuous, 
the more important, and the commoner 
species. 

THE WARBI^ER FAMILY 

Our wood warblers are assembled in a 
rather loosely defined family (the Mnio- 
tiltidae), embracing in all about 140 spe- 
cies, of which more than a third are 
visitors to the United States. They are 
fairly well distributed over the country 
at large, although more species make their 
summer homes in the eastern half of the 
United States than in the western. 

A number of notable species, however, 
summer in the West, as they do also in 
the Southern States. Our New World 
warblers are quite unlike their Old World 
relatives, the Sylviidae, or true warblers, 
whose family includes some 75 genera 
and between 500 and 600 species. 

Not only do our American species dif- 
fer structurally in many particulars from 
their Old World representatives, espe- 
cially in possessing nine instead of ten 
primaries, but they differ markedly also 
in appearance and habits. It may be said 
in passing that while our warblers are 
brilliantly colored and many of them 
sexually dissimilar, those of the Old 
World are not only small, but plainly 
plumaged ; moreover, the sexes are gen- 
erally alike in coloration. 

The larger number of our warblers, as 
well as the most characteristic, are in- 
cluded in the one genus Dendroica, which 
is notable, since it includes more species 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



than any other genus of North American 
birds. 

HAUNTS OF WOOD WARBLERS 

Fortunately for the bird lover, our 
wood warblers are not recluses. They 
are creatures of light and sunshine. Some 
of them, it is true, retire to the mountain 
fastnesses or the depths of coniferous 
forests during the nesting period; but 
the number of these is small and their 
withdrawal for only a comparatively 
short time, while the majority at all times 
of the year favor the edges of the forest, 
open woods, or brushy clearings. 

Their preference for such situations 
brings many within the bounds of civil- 
ization and renders it comparatively easy 
for any one so inclined to make their ac- 
quaintance. As during migration they 
assemble in flocks, they are, on the whole, 
pretty well known ; and since, as a rule, 
they are not shy, they have long been 
favorite objects of observation and study. 

WARBLERS AS SONGSTERS 

Despite their name, which would seem 
to imply musical ability of no mean order, 
our wood warblers, with few exceptions, 
occupy no very high place in the musical 
galaxy. All sing, however, after a fash- 
ion, and the musical efforts of some are 
pleasing, even according to human stan- 
dards. While most warblers are prodigal 
enough with their music and sing early 
and often, especially prior to and during 
the nesting season, their music is fre- 
quently so faint as to be audible only to 
the trained ear of the bird lover. 

As if aware of their musical inferior- 
ity, few display much enthusiasm in their 
vocal efforts, but sing while they work, 
or while pausing for a brief moment as 
they move among the foliage hunting for 
food. With them, singing appears to be 
an audible expression of general content 
and well being, and, no doubt, an effort 
to please and attract their mates. 

Certain members of the thrush and 
thrasher families, on the contrary, which 
contain in their ranks the prima donnas 
of our bird world, as if conscious of their 
supremacy, are wont to mount a com- 
manding perch when about to sing, and to 
pour out their melody for all the world 
to hear. With them, singing is not merely 



incidental to the day's work. It is a con- 
scious and supreme effort, and is much 
too important to be slighted or shared 
with any other function. Apparently 
they appreciate to a great extent and en- 
joy their own outpourings, and, if we 
may interpret their feelings by human 
standards, are conscious that their musi- 
cal offerings entitle them to an audience. 

TROPICAL ORIGIN OF WARBLERS 

Not only do their bright colors suggest 
a tropical origin of our warblers, but 
their whole make-up is in keeping with 
tropical surroundings. Warblers are 
thinly feathered and delicately organized 
and most of them incapable of withstand- 
ing any great degree of cold. They are 
also almost exclusively insect eaters, only 
a few of the family being at all vege- 
tarian, and these only to a comparatively 
small extent. 

Hence, with them, migration is not a 
matter of choice, but is imperative. They 
come to us on a particular errand for a 
few short months, and when family cares 
are at an end, back they hie to the tropics, 
the lands of warmth and sunshine, which 
lend them to us for a brief season. Thus 
the true home of our warblers is not 
where they nest, but where they spend 
three-fourths of their lives — not the 
north, but the south — not in the temper- 
ate, but in the tropical zones. 

THE SPECTACULAR MIGRATION OE 
WARBLERS 

That wonderful phenomenon, bird mi- 
gration, is illustrated by few birds so 
clearly and convincingly as by our wood 
warblers. Assuredly no other birds — 
unless it be the geese — migrate in such a 
spectacular manner. The stroller, in late 
August or September, finds himself in the 
woods, the silence being broken only by 
the drumming of a distant partridge, the 
chirping of insects, or other familiar 
sounds which only emphasize the general 
quiet that prevails. 

Presto! The scene changes! The 
woods, apparently almost tenantless but 
a moment before, are now filled with 
life of the most animated and intense 
kind. Every shrub, every tree, has its 
feathered occupant. Our observer recog- 



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FRIENDS OF OUR FORESTS 



299 



nizes perhaps a dozen or twenty species, 
representing several distinct families ; but 
prominent among them, by reason of 
numbers, variegated plumage, graceful 
forms, and active motions, are the wood 
warblers. 

Every individual is alert and busy, 
gliding from one twig to another near by, 
or flying from one tree to the next, while 
from all sides come the soft calls and 
notes of individual members of the flock, 
whose friendly converse has the effect, if 
not the purpose, of keeping the individ- 
uals of the assemblage in touch with each 
other and with the flock as a unit. In a 
few moments silence again reigns where 
all was commotion and activity. The 
birds have passed on their seemingly aim- 
less course. 

^ If the observer would learn the solu- 
tion of the mystery of the birds" evident 
hurry, he has only to follow them for a 
time, when he will find that, however er- 
ratic may seem the course of individual 
members of the flock, the flock as a whole 
is steering a tolerably straight course 
southward. In other words, he is in the 
midst of a flock of birds en route to their 
winter quarters and, in order to econo- 
mize time, feeding as they go. This, 
however, is not the only way warblers 
migrate, nor is it the most important, 
since the greater part of the long journey 
of many is performed by night. 

Any one with good ears has only to 
listen on a clear, frosty night in fall to 
hear hundreds of warblers and other 
birds as they flit by, a few hundred yards 
above the earth, the call notes coming in- 
cessantly out of the darkness. The route 
of these flying hosts often carries them 
above cities, and one cannot be insensible 
to the incongruity between his surround- 
ings and the woodland scenes, so vividly 
brought to mind by the lisping notes com- 
ing from the darkness overhead. The 
subject of migration has not inspired our 
poets so often as might be expected, but 
Longfellow, in his "Birds of Passage," 
gives us the followinp^ wonderfully sug- 
gestive lines: 

But the night is fair, 
And everywhere 
A warm, soft vapor fills the air, 
And distant sounds seem near; 



And above, in the light 
Of the star-lit night, 
S\vift birds of passage wing their flight, 
Through the dewy atmosphere. 

I hear the beat 

Of their pinions fleet, 

As from the land of snow and sleet 

They seek a southern lea. 
I hear the cry 
Of their voices high, 
Falling dreamily through the sky, 

But their forms I cannot see. 

Probably because insects constitute 
such an important part of their food, 
warblers, as a rule, migrate early in fall 
and late in spring. It is true that in fall 
many linger till frosts nip the vegetation ; 
but insects are abroad even later than 
this, and it is only necessary to watch 
these late migrants for a short time to 
learn that their search for insects is be- 
ing well rewarded. 

Only a few species come north early 
in spring, the great bulk of the warblers 
evidently having been taught by bitter ex- 
perience that in spring, at least, it is not 
the early bird that finds most worms or 
finds them easiest. 

FLOCKING OF SMALI. BIRDS 

Just why small birds, when migrating, 
congregate in large flocks and troop 
through the woodlands has often been the 
subject of speculation. Juncos, several 
species of sparrows, woodpeckers, nut- 
hatches, chickadees, creepers, and, above 
all, warblers, combine to swell the ranks 
of these migrating companies. As many 
as a dozen or more species of warblers 
may often be seen in one flock, which, in 
addition, may include 200 or 300 indi- 
viduals, representing a number of fam- 
ilies whose tastes and habits in every-day 
life differ very widely. 

Yet here are these incongruous ele- 
ments mingling together on terms of the 
utmost friendliness. Since birds are so- 
ciable beings, except during the short 
time when family cares prompt to jealous 
vigilance, sociability alone may be the 
bond of union; added, however, to the 
kindly feeling of companionship probably 
is a feeling of increased security which 
comes from numbers. Certainly no enemy 
can approach one of these bird assem- 
blages without being spied by at least one 



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300 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



pair of vigilant eyes, when the flock is 
immediately notified by a few sharp 
chirps — warning for every individual to 
seek safety in flight or to scurry to cover. 

WHAT MYSTERIOUS SENSE GUIDES THEM 
IN THEIR LONG JOURNEYS? 

In what manner warblers migrate — 
that is, how they are guided on their long 
journeys — is a moot question. Little 
mystery attaches to their ability to find 
their way north or south in daylight, 
since the recognizable landmarks are 
many and prominent. As most birds, es- 
pecially the warblers, choose starlight and 
moonlight nights for their trips, perhaps 
they are similarly guided by night, and 
natural landmarks, as mountains, rivers, 
and the coastline may point out much, if 
not all, of their way. 

However plausible this explanation 
may sound in the case of birds migrating 
over land, it utterly fails when applied to 
migrants whose journeys north and south 
necessitate flight over long stretches of 
ocean, in some instances at least 2,000 
miles, quite out of sight of land and of 
all landmarks. 

In seeking an explanation of the mys- 
tery of birds' ability to find their way 
under such circimistances, many are in- 
clined to reject the one-time sufficient 
answer, "instinct," in favor of the more 
recent theory, the possession by birds of 
another faculty, the so-called "sense of 
direction." This added sense enables 
birds to return to a known locality with 
no other aid than an ever-present knowl- 
edge of the right direction. 

But, in the case of our wood warblers, 
there is little need of appealing to another 
sense to guide them in migration, or, in- 
deed, to anything out of the ordinary save 
excellent memory and good eyesight. The 
five-hundred-mile flight toward the trop- 
ics across the Gulf of Mexico is made by 
preference, and however it originated as 
a fly line, had it proved to be extra haz- 
ardous, it might have been abandoned at 
any time in favor of the apparently safer 
West Indian route. 

But, after all, the Gulf trip involves few 
hazards other than those connected with 
storms, since the flight across the water, 
even at a slow rate, would necessitate a 



journey of less than 24 hours, and this, 
no doubt, is quite within the capacity of 
even the smallest and weakest of the 
family. Moreover, the South American 
Continent is too big a mark to be easily 
missed, and an error of a few hundred 
miles north or south would make little 
diff^erence in the safety of the birds. 

WHY WARBLERS MIGRATE 

It may be set down as an axiom that 
all birds which travel south in fall do so 
because they must migrate or freeze or 
starve. Why some of them leave early, 
when food in their summer home is seem- 
ingly so abundant, is indeed a puzzle. 
Once the nestlings are on the wing and 
ready for the journey, oflF they go, old 
and young. 

Nevertheless, by an apparently prema- 
ture start they only anticipate by a few 
weeks the time of scarcity when they 
must go, and perhaps the lesson of bitter 
experience in the history of the several 
species has taught them to go when all 
the conditions are favorable. It is true 
that every winter a few birds, often a 
few individuals of a given species, winter 
far north of the customary winter home. 
Some of these are evidently stragglers or 
wanderers which, for some unexplained 
reason, failed to accompany the rest of 
their kind on the southward migration. 
They in no wise aflFect the general state- 
ment, being exceptional in every way. 

A few of our warblers in Florida and 
on other parts of our southern coast do 
not migrate ; but the almost universal rule 
in the family is to abandon the summer 
home when the care of the young ceases 
and to go far southward ere they stop for 
the winter. Indeed, the males of many 
species do not trouble themselves much 
with the care of the nestlings, but prepare 
to migrate before the young are well on 
the wing. 

A still more flagrant case is that of the 
hummingbirds. The male deserts the 
female when she is still on her eggs, 
shifting the responsibility of caring for 
the family entirely on her devoted head, 
while he disports himself among the 
flowers, leaving for the south long before 
his exemplary mate and the young are 
ready. 



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FRIENDS OF OUR FORESTS 



301 



Some of our species, however, while 
migrating southward, are satisfied to re- 
main all winter within our boundaries. 
Thus the pine and palm warblers winter 
in the Gulf States, while a greater or less 
number of individuals, representing sev- 
eral species, winter in southern Florida. 
The great majority, however, winter 
south of the United States, in Central 
and South America. 

Thus Professor Cooke tells us: "The 
prairie, black-throated blue, Swainson's, 
Bachman's, Cape May, and Kirtland's 
warblers go only to the West Indies. The 
worm-eating, myrtle, magnolia, chestnut- 
sided, black-throated green, hooded, blue- 
winged, Nashville, orange-crowned, pa- 
rula, palm, and Wilson's warblers, and 
the chat, go no farther than Central 
America, while many species spend the 
winter in South America, including some 
or all the individuals of the black and 
white, prothonotary, golden-winged, Ten- 
nessee, yellow, cerulean, bay-breasted, 
black-poll, Blackbumian, Kentucky, Con- 
necticut, mourning, and Canada warb- 
lers, the redstart, oven-bird, and both the 
water-thrushes. Nearly all the warblers 
of the western United States spend the 
winter in Mexico and the contiguous por- 
tions of Central America.*' 

VAST NUMBERS SUCCUMB 

The northward journey in spring, away 
from the land of sunshine and plenty to 
the land of uncertain spring weather, is 
another matter. Probably if all birds 
that habitually abandon the north and 
winter in the south were to nest there, 
their quota, added to the number resident 
in the tropics, would be too great for the 
means of subsistence. 

Nevertheless, birds are not forced away 
from their winter quarters by inclement 
weather or impending famine, but by the 
subtle physiological change which warns 
them of the approach of the mating sea- 
son and fills them with new desires, 
among which is the compelling one of a 
return to the spot where they first saw 
the light, or where they reared last sea- 
son's brood. 

Whatever the cause, the birds are not 
discouraged by the many and great perils 
that attend migration, and vast numbers 
every year succumb to them. Storms, 



especially off-shore storms, constitute the 
gravest peril, and there is abundant evi- 
dence that millions of birds are annually 
blown out to sea to find watery graves. 
Perhaps no family suffers more in the 
aggregate than the warblers. Thinly 
feathered, delicately organized, highly in- 
sectivorous, they are exposed to unusual 
dangers while birds of passage to and 
from their nesting grounds. 

It is a matter of common observation 
that every few years in some given lo- 
cality, perhaps embracing a region of con- 
siderable size, a particular species of 
warbler or other bird suddenly becomes 
rare where before common. After a sea- 
son or so, though sometimes not for 
years, the equilibrium is reestablished 
and the numbers are as before. These 
changes very probably are the visible 
signs of migration catastrophes, the re- 
sult of the sweeping away of a migration 
wave, composed of one or of many spe- 
cies, in the path of some sudden storm. 

Again, many of us have witnessed the 
dire effects of a prolonged rain and sleet 
storm in spring, when thousands of luck- 
less migrants find only too late that they 
have prematurely left the warmth and 
plenty of their tropical winter refuges. 
Under such circumstances thousands of 
migrants perish from the combined effects 
of cold and starvation, and among them 
are sure to be great numbers of warblers. 

ECONOMIC VALUE OF WARBLERS 

From the esthetic point of view, our 
warblers, as a group, occupy a high and 
unique position. They also occupy no 
uncertain place in the list of our useful 
birds. Preeminently insectivorous, they 
spend their lives in the active pursuit of 
insects. They begin with the eggs, prey- 
ing upon them whenever and wherever 
found, and continue the good work when 
the egg becomes the larva and when the 
larva becomes the perfect insect. 

They are especially valuable in this re- 
spect because of the protection they lend 
to forest trees, the trunk, bark, and foli- 
age of which they search with tireless 
energy. Their efficiency is vastly in- 
creased because the many different spe- 
cies pursue the quest for food in very 
different ways. While some confine their 
search chiefly to the trunks and large 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



branches and examine each crack and 
crevice in the bark for eggs or larvae, 
others devote their energies to the twigs 
and foliage, scanning each leaf and stem 
with eager eyes. Still others descend to 
the ground and examine the rubbish and 
grass for hidden prey, while nearly all 
are adept at catching insects on the wing. 

Each species, however, has a method 
of its own, more or less unlike that of its 
fellows, and each excels in some specialty. 
Not only does the group as a whole spe- 
cialize on insects, but each individual 
member of the group still further special- 
izes, so as to leave no loophole for the 
escape of the enemy. 

The quantity of animal food required 
to drive the avian engine at full speed is 
so very great that it is no exaggeration 
to say that practically all the waking 
' hours of our warblers, from daylight to 
dark, are devoted to food-getting. What 
this never-ceasing industry means when 
translated into tons-weight of insects, it is 
impossible even to guess, but the practical 
result of the work of our warblers and 
other insectivorous birds is that we still 
have our forests, and shall continue to 
have them so long as we encourage and 
protect the birds. 

In the case of orchards and shade trees, 
there are other means at our disposal of 
controlling the insect enemy, notably the 
use of sprays. Sprays are very impor- 
tant, since birds are too few in number 
immediately to control insect outbreaks, 
especially nowadays, when the number of 
destructive native insects has been so 
greatly increased by importations from 
all quarters of the globe. But for the 
preservation of our forests we must rely 
largely upon our birds, since the use of 
sprays or of other agencies over our vast 
woodland tracts would be too expensive, 
even were it not quite impracticable for 
many other reasons. 

MEANS OF INCREASING THE NUMBER OF 
WARBLERS 

Insects are very numerous, and there is 
reason to believe that much benefit would 



result if we could multiply the present 
number of their enemies — the birds. The 
erection of bird boxes and shelters is an 
easy way to increase the number of cer- 
tain species of birds, like swallows and 
chickadees. Unfortunately, with few ex- 
ceptions, our warblers do not build their 
nests in cavities, and hence can not be 
induced to occupy bird boxes. 

Many of them, however, nest in bushes, 
vines, and shrubbery, and by planting 
clumps of these near houses something 
can be done toward increasing the num- 
bers of certain species, as the yellow 
warbler and the redstart. Because our 
warblers are chiefly insectivorous, their 
food habits bar them from the usual bird 
lunch-counter in times of hard storms. 

During migration, warblers are pecu- 
liarly exposed to the danger of prowling 
cats. Many species feed close to or even 
on the ground, and then they are so much 
concerned with their own business that 
any tabby, however old and lazy, is equal 
to catching one or more individuals daily. 
The bird lover can do good service by 
summarily disposing of vagrant cats, 
which, during migration, work havoc in 
the ranks of our small birds. 

They can also restrain the pernicious 
activities of their own pets, for these, 
however well fed, are still subject to the 
predatory instincts of their wild ancestry, 
which impel them to stalk a live bird with 
all the zeal and cunning of their fore- 
bears. 

PLUMAGES OF WARBLERS 

Little difficulty is experienced, even by 
the tyro, in distinguishing warblers from 
other birds, but to recognize the several 
species is not so easy, particularly as the 
adult males and females of many species 
are markedly dissimilar, while the young, 
both in the first and second plumages, 
often diflFer from the adults. So far as 
possible the various plumages are shown 
in the illustrations of the artist, which 
are so admirable as to do away with the 
need of descriptive text. All are ap- 
proximately one-half life size. 



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THE WARBLERS OF NORTH AMERICA 



INDEX TO TEXT AND ILLUSTRATION PAGES 



Illus- 

Text tratlon 

page. page. 

Audubon's Warbler 307 309 

Bay -breasted Warbler 318 316 

Black and White Warbler. 307 309 

Blackburnian Warbler 315 313 

Black-poll Warbler 315 313 

Black-throated Blue Warbler 311 312 

Black-throated Gray Warbler 318 316 

Black- throated Green Warbler 318 316 

Blue-winged Warbler 311 308 

Canada Warbler 314 320 

Cape May Warbler 310 312 

Chestnut-sided Warbler 314 313 

Connecticut Warbler ^21 320 

Golden-winged Warbler. 306 308 

Hooded Warbler 321 320 

Kentucky Warbler 314 317 

Louisiana Water- thrush 319 317 

MacgilUvray Warbler 321 320 



Illus- 

Text tratlon 

page. page. 

Magnolia Warbler 315 313 

Maryland Yellow- throat 304 305 

Mourning Warbler 321 320 

Nashville Warbler 311 312 

Northern Water-thrush 319 317 

Orange-crowned Warbler. 306 308 

Oven-bird 304 305 

Palm Warbler 319 317 

Parula Warbler 310 312 

Pine Warbler 318 316 

Prairie Warbler 319 317 

Red-faced Warbler 304 305 

Redstart 307 309 

Tennessee Warbler. 310 312 

Wilson's Warbler 314 320 

Worm-eating Warbler 306 . 308 

Yellow-breasted Chat 304 305 

Yellow Warbler 307 309 



YOUNG FISH-HAWKS ABOUT TO LEAVE THEIR NEST: GARDINEr'S ISLAND, NEW YORK 

Photograph by Frank M. Chapman, and from his book, *'Camps and Cruises of an Orni- 
thologist" 



303 



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MARYLAND YELLOW-THROAT 
(Geothlypis trichas and variety) 

Length, about 5^ inches. Mostly green above, 
yellow below. Distinguished from other war- 
blers by broad black band across forehead, bor- 
dered narrowly with white. 

Range: Breeds from southern Canada to 
southern California, Texas, and Florida; win- 
ters from the southern United States to Costa 
Rica. 

This little warbler is common throughout the 
Eastern and Southern States, frequenting 
thickets and low bushes on swampy ground. 
He is not a tree lover, but spends most of his 
time on or very near the ground, where he 
hunts assiduously for caterpillars, beetles, and 
various other small insects. Among the pests 
that he devours are the western cucumber 
beetle and the black olive scale. He has a 
cheery song of which he is not a bit ashamed, 
and when one happens to be near the particu- 
lar thicket a pair of yellow-throats have chosen 
for their own, one has not long to wait for 
vocal proof that the male, at least, is at home. 
The yellow-throat has the bump of curiosity 
well developed, and if you desire a close ac- 
quaintance with a pair you have only to 
"squeak** a few times, when you will have the 
pleasure of seeing at least one of the couple 
venture out from the retreat far enough to 
make sure of the character of the visitor. 

YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT (Ictcria 
virens and subspecies) 

Length, about 7>4 inches. Its size, olive- 
green upper parts, and bright yellow throat, 
breast, and upper belly distinguish this bird at 
a glance. 

Range : Breeds from British Columbia, Mon- 
tana, Wisconsin, Ontario, and southern New 
England south to the Gulf States and Mexico; 
winters from Mexico to Costa Rica. 

The chat is one of our largest and most 
notable warblers. It is a frequenter of brushy 
thickets and swampy new growth, and, while 
not averse to showing itself, relies more upon 
its voice to announce its presence than upon 
its green and yellow plumage. Not infre- 
quently the chat sings during the night. The 
song, for song we must call it, is an odd jumble 
of chucks and whistles, which is likely to bring 
to mind the quip current in the West, "Don't 
shoot the musician; he is doing his best." In 
this same charitable spirit we must accept the 
song of the chat at the bird's own valuation, 
which, we may be sure, is not low. Its nest is 
a rather bulky structure of grasses, leaves, and 
strips of bark, and is often so conspicuously 
placed in a low bush as to cause one to wonder 
how it ever escapes the notice of marauders 
fond of birds' eggs and nestlings. 

The chat does no harm to agricultural inter- 
ests, but, on the contrary, like most of the 
warbler family, lives largely on insects, and 
among them are many weevils, including the 
alfalfa weevil and the boll weevil so destruct- 
ive to cotton. 

(See Biol. Surv. Bull. 17, p. 18 et seq.; also 
Circular 64, p. 5.) 



OVEN-BIRD (Seiurus aurocapillus) 

Length, a little over 6 inches. Above mostly 
olive green; below white, breast and sides 
streaked with black. 

Range: Breeds from southern Mackenzie, 
Ontario, southern Labrador, and Newfoundland 
south to Wyoming, Kansas, southern Missouri, 
Ohio Valley, and Virginia; also in mountains 
of Georgia and South Carolina; winters in 
southern Florida, southern Louisiana, Bahamas, 
West Indies, and southern Mexico to Colombia. 

The oven-bird is one of our best-known 
birds and one the woodland stroller is sure to 
get acquainted with, whether he will or no, so 
common is it and so generally distributed. In 
moments of ecstacy it has a flight song which 
has been highly extolled, but this is only for 
the initiated ; its insistent repetition of "teacher, 
teacher, teacher," as Burroughs happily phrases 
it, is all the bird vouchsafes for the ears of 
ordinary mortals. Its curious domed-over 
grass nest is placed on the ground and is not 
hard to find. The food of the oven-bird does 
not differ greatly from that of other warblers, 
notwithstandmg the fact that the bird is strictly 
terrestrial in habits. It consists almost exclu- 
sively of insects, including ants, beetles, moths, 
span worms, and other caterpillars, with a few 
spiders, millepods, and weevils. 

(See Biol. Surv. Bull. 17; also yearbook for 
1900, p. 416.) 

RED-FACED WARBLER (CardcUina 
rubrifrons) 

Range: Mainly in Transition Zone in moun- 
tains of southern Arizona and southwestern 
New Mexico and south through Mexico to the 
highlands of Guatemala. 

So differently colored from our own North 
American warblers generally is the little red- 
face that one might at once suspect it to be a 
stranger from a strange land. So at least it 
seemed to me when, in the mountains near 
Apache, Arizona, in July, 1874, I saw the first 
one ever detected within our borders. Later in 
the same year I found others on Mount Graham. 
It is a Mexican species which has obtained a 
foothold along our southern borders in Arizona 
and New Mexico. As I noted at the time, I 
saw flocks of ten or fifteen among the pines 
and spruces, the birds frequenting these trees 
almost exclusively, only rarely being seen on 
the bushes that fringed the stream. In habits 
red-faced warblers are a rather strange com- 
pound, now resembling the common warblers, 
again recalling the redstart, but more often, 
perhaps, bringing to mind the less graceful mo- 
tions of, the familiar titmice. Their favorite 
hunting places appear to be the extremities of 
the limbs of spruces, over the branches of 
which they quickly pass, with a peculiar and 
constant sidewise jerk of the tail. Since 1874 
other observers have had a better chance to 
study the bird and a number of nests have been 
taken. These were under tufts of grass, and 
in the case of one found by Price was "such a 
poor attempt at nest-building and made of 
such loose material that it crumbled to frag- 
ments on being removed." 



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MARYLAND YELLOW-THROAT 

Female and Male 



OVBN-BIRD 



YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT 



RED-FACED WARBLER 



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WORM-EATING WARBLER 
(Helmitheros vermivorus) 

Range: Breeds mainly in the Carolinian 
Zone from southern Iowa, northern Illinois, 
eastern and western Pennsylvania, and the 
Hudson and Connecticut River valleys south 
to southern Missouri, Tennessee, Virginia, and 
mountains of South Carolina; winters from 
Chiapas to Panama, in Cuba and the Bahamas. 

He who would make the acquaintance of 
the worm-eating warbler must seek it in its 
own chosen home, far from which it never 
strays. It is a bird of shaded hillside and 
dark thickets along watercourses. Though 
nimble in its movements and an active insect 
hunter, it is an unobtrusive little warbler, 
garbed in very modest colors, and is likely 
wholly to escape the notice of the unobservant. 

There seems to be an unusual degree of 
jealousy among the males, and a pair, the 
hunting and the hunted, are often seen pur- 
suing a rapid, zigzag flight through trees and 
bushes. I imagine that in such cases the pur- 
suing male, whose angry notes show how much 
in earnest he is, is asserting the right of do- 
main over his own hunting grounds, and 
driving from his preserves an intruder. 

Like several of our terrestrial warblers, the 
worm-eater has caught the trick of walking, 
perhaps borrowing it from his thrush neigh- 
bors, and he rarely or never hops. In his case 
the term "terrestrial" must be modified by 
the statement that to a certain extent he is 
a connecting link between the arboreal mem- 
bers of the family, as the black-throated green 
and Tennessee, which descend to the ground 
only casually, and such species as the Con- 
necticut and the Swainson, which seek their 
food chiefly on the ground. Of the musical 
ability of the worm-eating warblef little is to 
be said save that his song is so very feeble that 
one must listen carefully to hear it at all, and 
that it much resembles that of our familiar 
"chippy" when heard a long, distance off. 
This warbler nests on the ground, often on a 
hillside or in a shallow depression, and the 
pairs seem so much attached, to their old home 
that they may confidently be looked for in 
the same place year after year. 



GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER 
(Vcrmivora chrysoptera) 

Range : Breeds in Alleghanian Zone from 
central Minnesota, southern Ontario, and Mas- 
sachusetts south to southern Iowa, northern 
Illinois, northern Indiana, northern New Jer- 
sey, and northern Georgia; winters from Gua- 
temala to Colombia. 

Though less gaudily colored than certain 
others of our warblers, the golden-wing ranks 
high in the family for beauty, and its trim 
form and tastefully contrasted tints of gray, 
black, and yellow may well excite admiration. 
It is almost wholly hmited to eastern States, 
rarely indeed being found west of the Missis- 
sippi, and its summer haunts are in the north- 
ern parts of its range. Though common in 
some localities, the golden-wing in most places 



is sufficiently rare always to interest the bird 
observer, and in Massachusetts if several are 
heard or seen in a long tramp the day may well 
be esteemed a red-letter day. The bird is to 
be looked for in deciduous timber, and is espe- 
cially fond of elms and birches as hunting 
grounds. I have often seen it busy in elms so 
high up that only with difficulty could it be dis- 
tinguished from the Tennessee, Nashville, and 
other strikingly different warblers in company 
with it. Like the blue-wing, it has the habit of 
clinging to the tip of a branch or cluster of 
flowers, back downward, examining the spot 
with the most exact scrutiny. 

Once heard, its song is not to be forgotten 
nor mistaken for that of any other warbler, 
unless possibly the blue-wing. It possesses a 
buzzing, insectlike quality and is well repre- 
sented to my ears by the syllables se-ze-ze-ze, 
the latter notes in a higher pitch. It seems 
strange that a bird so distinctly arboreal in 
habits should choose to nest on the ground; 
but numerous nests of the golden-wing have 
been found, all of them practically on or a few 
inches from the earth, though usually sup- 
ported by weed stalks or grass stems. 



ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER 
(Vcrmivora celata celata) 

Range : Breeds in lower Hudsonian and Can- 
adian Zones from Kobuk River, Alaska, south- 
east to central Keewatin and Manitoba, and 
south locally in the Rocky Mountains to New 
Mexico ; winters in the Gulf and South Atlan- 
tic States to South Carolina and south through 
Mexico to Mount Orizaba. 

The orange-crowned warbler is much better 
known as a migrant, especially a fall migrant, 
than as a summer resident. Its summer home, 
in fact, is so far north that it is beyond the 
ken of most observers, although the bird occa- 
sionally summers, and no doubt nests, in 
Maine and Wisconsin. Seton found it a com- 
mon summer resident in Manitoba; Kennicott 
discovered it nesting about the Great Slave 
Lake among clumps of low bushes ; while Nel- 
son found it common in summer in the wooded 
regions of northern Alaska. For some reason 
or other of late years the orange-crown seems 
to be a much commoner migrant in Massa- 
chusetts, and perhaps generally in New Eng- 
land, than formerly, and the sight of three or 
four in a day occasions no great surprise. It 
winters in Florida and in other of the South 
Atlantic States, and the cause of its rarity in 
the Eastern States in spring is due to the fact 
that it migrates up the Mississippi Valley. The 
orange-crown is one of the most plainly col- 
ored of the warbler tribe, and there is little 
about it to attract the notice of the casual 
observer. The song is said to consist of a 
few sweet trills, and, as is the case with the 
ditties of so many of its kind, has been likened 
to that of the familiar little "chippy." 



BLUE-WINGED WARBLER (Vcrmivora 
pinus) 



(For text, see page 311) 



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BLACK AND WHITE WARBLER 
(Mniotilta varia) 

Length, about 4^4 inches. Easily known by 
its streaked black and white plumage. 

Range: Eastern North America. Breeds 
from central Mackenzie, southern Keewatin, 
northern Ontario, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, 
and New Brunswick to eastern Texas, Louisi- 
ana, central Alabama, and northern Georgia, 
west to South Dakota; winters in Florida and 
from Colima and Nuevo Leon to Colombia, 
Ecuador, and Venezuela. 

A warbler in form and general make-up, a 
creeper by profession and practice, this readily 
identified species, in its striped suit of black 
and white, may be observed in any bit of east- 
ern woodland. Here it flits from tree to tree 
or climbs over the trunks and branches, scan- 
ning every crack and cranny for the insects 
that constitute its chief food. Though not a 
lover of open country, it frequently visits the 
orchard, where it performs its part in the task 
of keeping insect life within due bounds. It 
nests on the ground and hides its domicile so 
skillfully that it is not often found. None of 
the warblers are noted as songsters, but the 
black and white creeper, as I like best to call 
it, emits a series of thin wiry notes which we 
may call a song by courtesy only. In scramb- 
ling over the trunks of trees it finds and de- 
vours many long-horned beetles, the parents of 
the destructive root-borers ; it also finds weev- 
ils, ants, and spiders. 

YELLOW WARBLER (Dcndroica aestiva 

and races) 
\ 

Length, little more than 5 inches. Mostly 
yellow, breast and belly streaked with reddish 
brown. 

Range: North America, breeding generally 
throughout its range south to California, New 
Mexico, Missouri, and northern South Caro- 
lina ; winters in Central and South America. 

The "yellow bird," or wild canary, as it is 
sometimes called, is one of the commonest of 
the warbler tribe and ranges oyer a vast extent 
of territory, being found here and there from 
ocean to ocean. Unlike some of its relatives, 
it prefers open thickets, especially of willows, 
to thick woodland, and often builds its pretty 
nest by the roadside or in garden shrubbery. 
Though not an expert musician, the yellow 
warbler sings early and often, and in zeal 
makes up what it lacks in quality of voice. 
Because its nest is easily found by the initiated, 
this warbler is often victimized by the infa- 
mous cowbird, and is forced to bring up one, 
or even two, young cowbirds in place of its 
own rightful progeny. It is pleasant to be able 
to record the fact that sometimes the clever 
warbler knows enough — how it knows it is an- 
other matter — to evade the unwelcome respon- 
sibilities thus thrust upon it, and builds a plat- 
form over the alien egg, and then continues its 
domestic affairs as originally planned. Indeed, 
cases are on record when two cowbirds' eggs 
have been found in a nest, each covered up by 
a separate layer of nest material. 

(See Biol. Surv. Bull. 17, p. 20 et seq.; also 
Bull. 29.) 



AUDUBON'S WARBLER (Dendroica 
auduboni) 

Length, about 5 inches. Much like the yel- 
low-rump, but with yellow crown and throat 
patch. 

Range: Breeds from central British Colum- 
bia, Alberta, and southwestern Saskatchewan 
to our southern border, east to South Dakota 
and Nebraska; winters from California and 
Texas south to Guatemala. 

No member of the wood warbler family is 
more characteristic of the group than this 
JDeautiful bird. In voice, coloration, and habits 
it is almost the counterpart of the yellow-rump 
of the Eastern States, for which indeed it 
might easily be mistaken were it not for its 
yellow throat, the corresponding area in the 
yellow-rump being white. It summers in the 
mountains and shows off to advantage against 
the dark foliage of the pines. It seems to have 
little fear of man and in winter frequents 
orchards, gardens, and dooryards. Wherever 
it may be, it keeps up an incessant hunt for its 
insect food, in the pursuit of which, like many 
others of its family, it sometimes essays the 
role of flycatcher, being very expert and nimble 
on the wing. This warbler also devours large 
numbers of ants, flies, scale and plant lice, and 
noxious bugs. 

(See Biol. Surv. Bull. 30, pp. 43-46.) 



REDSTART (Sctophaga ruticilla) 

Length, nearly 5 J/2 inches. To be distin- 
guished from other warblers by its coloration 
and its motions. (See below.) 

Range : Breeds from central British Colum- 
bia and eastern Canada to Washington, Utah, 
Colorado, Oklahoma, and North Carolfna; win- 
ters in the West Indies and from Mexico to 
Ecuador. 

Its beauty of form and plumage and its 
graceful motions place this dainty bird at the 
head of our list of wood warblers — a place of 
distinction indeed. The bird appears to be the 
incarnation of animated motion and fairly 
dances its way through the forest. Spanish 
imagination has coined a suggestive and fitting 
name for the redstart, candelita, the little 
"torch-bearer." The full appropriateness of 
the name appears as the graceful creature flits 
through the greenery, displaying the salmon- 
colored body and the bright wing and tail 
patches. The redstart is not unknown in some 
parts of the West, but it is essentially a bird 
of the Eastern States, where it is a common 
inhabitant of open woodland districts. While 
it builds a rather neat and compact structure 
of strips of bark, plant fibers, and the like, 
placing it in a sapling not far from the ground, 
the nest is not the thing of beauty one might 
be led to expect from such a fairy-like crea- i 
ture. Ornamental as the redstart is, it pos- 
sesses other claims on our gratitude, for it is 
a most active and untiring hunter of insects, 
such as Epittle insects, tree-hoppers, and leaf- 
hoppers, and both orchard and forest trees are 
benefited by the unceasing warfare it wages. 

(See Biol. Surv, Bull. 17, p. 20 et seq.) 



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, V 






\ 






xj^^y^/'uffm g 







WORM-EATING WARBLER 



ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER 



GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER 

Male and Female 



BLUE-WINGED WARBLER 



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BLACK AND WHITE WARBLER 



AUDUBON WARBLER 



YELLOW WARBLER 



REDSTART 

Female and Male 



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TENNESSEE WARBLER (Vcrmivora 
pereghna) 

* Range: Breeds in Canadian Zone from up- 
per Yukon Valley, southern Mackenzie; cen- 
tral Keewatin, southern Ungava, and Anticosti 
Island south to southern British Columbia, 
southern Alberta, Manitoba, northern Minne- 
sota, Ontario, New York (Adirondacks), 
northern Maine, and New Hampshire; winters 
from Oaxaca to Colombia and Venezuela. 

The Tennessee warbler is by no means as 
local as its name would imply, but is likely to 
be found in migration almost anywhere in 
eastern United States, although it is much 
more numerous in the Mississippi Valley. Un- 
pretentious both in dress and character, this 
little bird seems to 'possess no very salient 
characteristics. It is, however, not likely to be 
mistaken for any other species save the Nash- 
ville, which it resembles rather closely. Pur- 
irtg spring migration the Tennessee is apt to be 
overlooked, smce it is prone to keep in the 
tree-tops. In fall, however, it is found lower 
down, usually in coiopany with flocks of other 
warblers, among which it becomes conspicuous 
by reason of its very inconspicuousness and in 
contrast with its more gaudy fellows. 

Its song has been variously described and 
may be said to be a simple trill not unlike the 
chippy. It appears to be certain that the Ten- 
nessee, like the Nashville, nests on the ground, 
but apparently the nesting habits of the bird 
are comparatively unknown, or at least have 
not as yet been very fully recorded. 



NORTHERN PARULA WARBLER 
(Compsothlypis americana usneae) 

Range: Breeds mainly in Transition and 
Austral Zones, from^ eastern Nebraska, north- 
ern Minnesota, central Ontario, and Anticosti 
and Cape Breton Islands south to central south- 
ern Texas, southern Louisiana, Alabama, Vir- 
ginia, and Maryland; winters probably in the 
Bahamas and West Indies to Barbados, and 
from Vera Cruz and Oaxaca to Nicaragua. 

The northern parula, smallest of our war- 
blers, with prevailing colors blue and yellow, 
is generally distributed during migration and 
usually found in company with other war- 
blers in leafy trees, which it explores from the 
lower to the topmost branches. It is one of 
the most active of the tribe, and is untiring 
in its pursuit of the minute insects which form 
its food. Its habit of hanging head down- 
ward as it explores a cluster of blossoms sug- 
gests a chickadee, and the little fellow is a 
combination of warbler, kinglet, and chickadee. 
It is very partial to nesting in usnea moss 
and so is found in summer along streams or 
in swampy localities where long streamers of 
the usnea festoon the trees. The preference 
of the parula for this moss as a site for its 
nest is exemplified by a nest I once found in 



Maryland on the bank of the Potomac, which 
had been built in the frayed end of an old 
rope hanging to a sapling and which a short 
distance away looked to me — and no doubt 
to the bird — exactly like a clump of usnea. 
As no usnea occurred in this locality, the bird 
accepted the frayed rope as a satisfactory 
substitute, and in so doing followed the spirit 
if not the letter of family tradition. How- 
ever, the parula is not strictly limited to usnea 
for a nesting site and I once saw a pair 
carrying shreds of bark into a juniper on an 
island in the Potomac River, the nest being 
already far advanced toward completion. The 
parula has a short, buzzing song of which it 
is prodigal enough, but it is weak and can be 
heard at no great distance. 



CAPE MAY WARBLER (Dcndroica 
tigrina) 

Range : Breeds in Canadian Zone from south- 
ern Mackenzie, northern Ontario, New Bruns- 
wick, and Nova Scotia south to Manitoba, 
northern Maine, aiijd New Hampshire, and in 
Jamaica ; winters in the Bahamas «tnd the West 
Indies to Tobago. 

Not only is the Cape May one of our most 
beautiful warblers, but its rarity adds greatly 
to the zest with which one hails the discovery 
of even an individual. This species, however, 
is far more numerous even in New England, 
especially in fall, than it used to be, and in 
time the bird may even be listed in many of 
the Eastern States as among the more common 
migrants. 

Although the bulk of the species undoubtedly 
migrates north through the Mississippi Valley, 
rarely a spring passes that a few individuals 
are not reported about Washington, D. C, and 
I have seen several in a day. At this time of 
year the Cape May often forsakes the wood- 
lands and appears in orchards or even in city 
parks, and probably not a season passes that 
one or more do not visit the Smithsonian or 
Agricultural Department grounds. Chapman 
tells us that in Florida he has seen the species 
"actually common feeding in weedy patches 
among a rank growth of pokeberries.** 

The bird is a rather sluggish, l^ut persistent, 
insect hunter, though it adds to its bill of fare 
one item, grapes, which is bringing it into ill 
repute in parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia. 
The sharp-pointed bill of the Cape May enables 
it readily to puncture the skin, its apparent 
purpose being to satisfy its thirst with the 
sweet juice. 

The Cape May is a persistent songster, but 
its song is weak and squeaky and by no means 
worthy of so superb a creature. Comparatively 
little is recorded of this bird's nesting habits. 
It is known to summer from northern Maine 
northward. A nest found by Banks at St. 
Johns, New Brunswick, was built in a cedar 
less than three feet from the ground. 



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BLUE-WINGED WARBLER (Vcrmivora 
pinus) 

(For illustration, see page 308) 

Range: Breeds from southeastern Minne- 
sota, southern Michigan, western New York, 
Massachusetts (rarely), and southern Con- 
necticut south to northeastern Kansas, central 
Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, an# Delaware; 
winters from southern Mexico (Puebla) to 
Guatemala. 

Like the golden-wing, the blue-winged war- 
bler is confined to the Eastern States, but it 
ranges considerably farther west than that 
species and occurs almost or quite to the 
Plains. The blue- wing is in many ways an 
inconspicuous member of the warbler group, 
but, because of its perplexing relationship with 
the golden-wing, Brewster*s >yarbler, and Law- 
rence's warbler, its ornithological interest is ex- 
celled by few. Like the golden- wing, it prefers 
deciduous trees and second growths and shuns 
the deeper parts of the forests. It has the 
habit — shared by the golden-wing and chicka- 
dee — of hanging from the under side of any 
particular cluster it wishes to investigate, and 
no doubt it makes sure of insects that defy 
the less careful search of most other species. 
The ordinary song of the blue-wing is com- 
parable to the golden-wing's, being in fact little 
else than an apology for a song, with the same 
insectlike quality. This warbler, though of 
distinctly arboreal habits, prefers to nest on 
the ground, or a few inches above it, in a tuft 
of grass, a clump of goldenrods, or at the foot 
of a sapling. 

The nest is rather bulky, composed of leaves 
and grasses, put together after the artless man- 
ner of its kind ; but it is usually well congealed 
by the surrounding screen of grass or weeds 
from any but chance discovery. 

BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER 
(Dendroica caenilescens caenilescens) 

Range: Breeds in Canadian and Transition 
Zones from northern Minnesota, central On- 
tario, and northeastern Quebec south to cen- 
tral Minnesota, southern Michigan, southern 
Ontario, Pennsylvania (mountains), and north- 
ern Connecticut; winters from Key West, 
Florida, to the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and 
Cozumel Island. 

The male black-throated blue warbler is one 
of the most conspicuous of the warblers, his 
black throat and blue back serving to distin- 
guish him at all times and all seasons. The 
female, despite her inconspicuous coloration, 
may always be identified by the white spot on 
the primaries. The bird is common and ranges 
widely through eastern North America, and 
few flocks of migrating warblers are without 
a greater or less number of this species. 
Though in the main a comrtipn resident of the 
northern woods, in the mountains it breeds as 
far south as Maryland, whiFe a color variety 
of the bird (Dendroica ccerulescens cairnsi) 
nests in the southern Alleghenies from Penn- 
sylvania south to Georgia. 



Thayer, as quoted by Chapman, says of the 
song: "There is not a more regularly and 
amply versatile singer among our eastern war- 
bJlers than the black-throated blue. It has at 
least four main songs, on which it is forever 
playing notable variations." 

Whether in its northern or southern home, 
the black-throated blue warbler builds its nest 
of bark, roots, and other pliant material, loose 
and rather bulky, in a variety of saplings, 
bushes, and weeds, byjl^a>»»»ys a few inches 
or a few feet from;tpe grottf^. 

.i- 

NASHVILLE WARBLER (Vcrmivora 
nibricapilla nibricapilla) 

Range: Breeds in Canadian and Transition 
Zones from southern Saskatchewan, northern 
Ontario, central Quebec, and Cape Breton Is- 
land south to Nebraska, northern Illinois, 
northern Pennsylvania, northern New Jersey, 
and Connecticut; winters from Vera Cruz and 
Chiapas to Guatemala. 

As Wilson never saw but three individuals 
of the Nashville warbler, all taken near Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, he not unnaturally named his 
new discovery for that city, apparently believ- 
ing it to be a local species. Far from being so, 
however, it is now known to inhabit most of 
the eastern United States. Without doubt the 
bird is much more common than it was in Wil- 
son's time, perhaps due to the fact that second 
growth and areas of low woods, its preferred 
haunts, have largely replaced the denser forests 
of the early part of the nineteenth century. 
One cannot wander far afield in Massachusetts 
in summer time without hearing its song or 
songs, since it is not only a frequent and viva- 
cious songster, but has a number of ditties in 
its repertoire, including a flight song. 

I never found but one nest, and this was on 
a little pine-wooded knoll in a small depression 
in the earth, only partially concealed by thin 
grass. I should never have found it but for 
the fact that the bird flushed from between my 
feet. So far as known, the Nashville always 
nests on the ground. Its preference for the 
ground as a nesting site is the more remark- 
able, since the bird rarely or never hunts there, 
but prefers to seek its insect food among the 
foliage, often of the tallest elms and chestnuts 
and other giants of the forest. 

The Calaveras warbler {Vcrmivora ruhri- 
capilla gutturalis) is a form closely allied to 
the Nashville, but confined chiefly to the Pacific 
coast, extending eastward to eastern Oregon 
and northern Idaho. Fisher is quoted by Chap- 
man as saying: "The Calaveras warbler is a 
characteristic denizen of the'cUaparral and is 
found on both slopes of the ISierra Nevadas 
about as far south as Mount Whitney. It fre- 
quents the belts of the yellow, sugar, and Jeffry 
pines, and ranges up into trf^ red-fir zone. 
During the height of the nesting season, while 
the female is assiduously hunting among the 
dense cover of bushes, the male is often sing- 
ing in a pine or fir, far above mundane house- 
hold cares." 



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T 






1 


5 






^ A " ■■ w^^'/ .^^ 


J 


^^WBESj^^ 







NASHVILLE WARBLER 
TENNESSEE WARBLER 



CAPE MAY WARBLER 
Male and Female 



PARULA WARBLER 
Male and Female 



BLACK-THROATED BLUB WARBLER 

Female and Male 



312 



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MAGNOLIA WARBLER 

Adult and Immature Male 



BLACK-POLL WARBLER 

Male and Female 



CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER 
Male, Immature Male and Female 



BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER 
Male and Female 



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CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER 
(Dendroica pcnsylvanica) 

Range: Breeds mainly in the Transition 
Zone from central Saskatchewan, northwestern 
Manitoba, central Ontario, and Newfoundland 
south to eastern Nebraska, Illinois, Indiana, 
northern Ohio, northern New Jersey, and 
Rhode Island, and south in the Alleghenies to 
Tennessee and South Carolina; winters from 
Guatemala to Panama. 

Since the days of Wilson, Audubon, and 
Nuttall there is little doubt that the chestnut- 
sided warbler has increased in numbers, and 
within its range it is now one of the commoner 
of the family. It is trim of form and its colors, 
though not gaudy, have a quiet elegance all 
their own. During the fall migration it shows 
little preference in its hunting grounds, but is 
found with others of its kin in all sorts of 
woodland haunts and in deciduous as well as 
coniferous trees. It frequents open woodland 
tracts in summer and loves to nest in low 
thickets of hazel and barberry. In favorable 
localities in Massachusetts I have frequently 
found half a dozen nests in a morning's search. 
The nests are made of shreds of bark and 
grasses and are put together so loosely and 
carelessly that, in connection with their situa- 
tion, they unmistakably betray their ownership. 



KENTUCKY WARBLER (Oporornis 
formosus) 

(For illustration, see page 317) 

Range: Breeds in Carolinian and Austrori- 
parian Zones from southeastern Nebraska, 
southern Wisconsin, southeastern and south- 
western Pennsylvania, and the Hudson Valley 
south to eastern Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, 
and northern Georgia; winters from Tabasco, 
Campeche, and Chiapas through Central Amer- 
ica to Colombia. 

The Kentucky warbler, with its rich colors 
and symmetrical form, is to be classed among 
the elect of the warbler tribe. Moreover, while 
locally common it is never so abundant that it 
does not excite a thrill of interest in the breast 
of even the most blase of bird observers. It 
loves the deep, dark forest and shaded ravine, 
where the foliage overhead casts heavy shad- 
ows on the plentiful under^owth beneath and 
where even m midsummer it is moist and cool. 

The bird is a persistent singer, and in its 
own chosen haunts its loud, sweet song may be 
heard all day long. There is a curious resem- 
blance between its ditty and that of the Caro- 
lina wren, and while no one can mistake the 
two songs when heard close by, at a distance 
even the expert may be puzzled. This warbler 
finds most of its food on the ground, and the 
thick undergrowth in which it hunts makes it 
difficult to learn much of its habits by observa- 
tion, since it is difficult to keep an individual 
in sight many minutes at a time. 

It builds a rather loose, bulky nest, largely 
of leaves and grasses, which is placed either 
on or just above the ground, and although it 
may seem to have been rather artlessly located 
it is in reality well protected by the surround- 
ing vegetation with which it blends, and hence 
generally escapes the observation of all but the 
most persistent and sharp-sighted of observers. 



WILSON WARBLER (Wilsonia pusiUa 
pusilla) 

(For illustration, see page 320) 

Range: Breeds in Boreal Zones from tree 
limit in northwestern and central Mackenzie, 
central Keewatin, central Ungava, and New- 
foundland south to southern Saskatchewan, 
northern Minnesota, central Ontario, New 
Hampshire, Maine, and Nova Scotia; winters 
in eastern Central America from Guatemala to 
Costa Rica. 

This tiny warbler ventures farther north than 
many bigger and apparently hardier species, 
and Nelson found it in Alaska "one of the 
commonest of the bush-frequenting species, 
. . . extending its breeding range to the 
shores of the Arctic Ocean wherever it finds 
shelter." Cooke also found it in Colorado 
breeding from 6,000 to 12,000 feet elevation. 

The black-cap is a nervous, energetic, little 
fellow, now essaying the role of flycatcher, now 
huntfttgrp^or insects among the foliage, while 
ever and aiion it jerks its tail up and down as 
though constant motion were the chief end of 
existence. It has a short, bubbling, warbling 
song which has been likened to the songs of 
several other species, but which possesses a 
tone and quality all the bird's own. Its nest is 
built on the ground, is composed chiefly of 
grasses, and the eggs do not differ in essential 
respects from those of other warblers. 

It is noteworthy that the West Coast form 
of the black-cap chryseola breeds as far south 
as Los Angeles, and that its nest instead of 
being built on the ground is placed in the 
crotch of a limb or in a bunch of weeds or 
nettles. 

CANADA WARBLER (WUsonia 
canadensis) 

(For illustration, see page 320) 

Range: Breeds in the Canadian Zone and 
casually in the Transition from central Alberta, 
southern Keewatin, northern Ontario, northern 
Quebec, and Newfouadland south to central 
Minnesota, central Michigan, southern Ontario, 
central New York, and Massachusetts, and 
along the Alleghenies to North Carolina and 
Tennessee; winters in Ecuador and Peru. 

The Canada warbler is always associated in 
my mind with the black-cap, in company with 
which it is frequently found during migration. 
The association is purely accidental and results 
from a common preference for the same hunt- 
ing grounds. A path or road through swampy 
ground, especially if bordered by old willow 
trees, is sure to have its quota of this warbler 
and the Wilson black-cap during migration. 

Like the black-cap, the Canada warbler is 
half flycatcher, half warbler, and the click of 
the bird's mandibles as they close on some 
hapless insect caught in mid-air is often the 
first indication of its presence. Unlike many 
of the family, it sings much during its spring 
migration. The song is loud for the size of 
the warbler and is very characteristic. The 
bird builds a rather bulky nest of leaves and 
grasses, which it places in a mossy bank or 
under a moss-grown log. It is an assiduous 
and active insect hunter and gleans among the 
leaves and twigs after the fashion of the 
parula warbler. 



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MAGNOLIA WARBLER (Dendroica 
magnolia) 

Range : Breeds in Canadian and upper Tran- 
sition Zones from southwestern Mackenzie, 
southern Keewatin, northern Quebec, and New- 
foundland south to central Alberta, southern 
Saskatchewan, Minnesota, northern Michigan, 
and northern Massachusetts, and in the moun- 
tains of West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylva- 
nia, and New York;* winters from southern 
Mexico (Puebla and Chiapas) to Panama. 

The magnolia, or black and yellow warbler, 
as I like best to call it, is one of our most 
beautiful warblers, and fortunately, being one 
of the commonest of the. tHbe, is easily met 
with by any one willing ip take a little pains. 
When busy at its self-imposed task of hunting 
insects — and when is it not busy — it is by no 
means shy, and may be watched at close range 
with or without the aid of a field glass. When- 
ever or however met, the sight of a full-plu- 
maged male resplendent in the gold and black 
livery of spring is worth a long journey. 

The bird ranges over much of eastern North 
America as far west as the Plains, and toward 
the north reaches the Mackenzie region. In 
the mountains it breeds here and there as far 
south as Maryland. In migration the magnolia 
shows no preference for special localities, but 
occurs in upland woods and lowland shrubbery 
where is promised a good harvest of insects. 
Like so many of its fellows, it finds rich hunt- 
ing grounds in gray birches, and few large 
companies of warblers traverse gray birch 
woods without their complement of these beau- 
tiful and sprightly wood nymphs. The mag- 
nolia warbler is a versatile, though scarcely an 
accomplished, songster, and phrases its song in 
a number of different ways. Many of its nests 
have been found in the northern woods, some 
of them in small firs or spruces only a few feet 
from the ground. 



BLACK-POLL WARBLER (Dendroica 
striata) 

Range: Breeds in Hudsonian and Canadian 
Zones from limit of trees in northwestern 
Alaska, northern Mackenzie, central Keewatin, 
northern Ungava. and- Newfoundland south to 
central British Columbia, Manitoba, Michigan, 
northern Maine, and mountains of Vermont 
and New Hampshire; winters from Guiana 
and Venezuela to Brazil. 

The black-poll is one of our commonest 
warblers, in both spring and fall, and probably 
heads the warbler list in point of numbers. So 
far as superficial observations go. the bird 
would seem to be no spryer, no more indus- 
trious, and no more adept in hunting food than 
its compeers; but for some reason or other, 
possibly greater adaptability, it seems to have 
succeeded beyond most of its kind in extending 
its breeding range and in multiplying. It is a 
late migrant, both spring and fall, and when 
the hordes of black-polls put in an appearance. 



especially in the vernal season, one may know- 
that the end of the migrating season is at 
hand. A laggard in spring, it is also a loiterer 
in fall, and occasionally a flock of black-polls 
will linger in some sheltered valley where food 
is abundant till long after others of the family 
have passed southward. 

The bird nests chiefly in the far north, 
though it summers as far south as the Adiron- 
dacks. As it winters in South America, there 
are thus at least 5,00a miles between its ex- 
treme northern- and southern habitats. Chap- 
man notes that it is one of the very few war- 
blers that migrate directly across the West In- 
dies from South America to Florida. It makes 
its appearance in the Gulf States about the 
last of April. As pointed out by Professor 
Cooke, the black-poll is "one of the greatest 
travelers among the warblers. The shortest 
journey that any black-poll performs is 3,500 
miles, while those that nest in Alaska have 
7,000 miles to travel to their probable winter 
home in Brazil." One can only wonder that 
so small a bird has the requisite courage and 
strength to undertake twice a year such a vast 
journey, every stage of which is compassed by 
dangers of one sort or another. 

BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER 
(Dendroica fuspa) 

Range : Breeds in lower Canadian and upper 
Transition Zones from Manitoba, southern 
Keewatin, central Ontario, Quebec, and Cape 
Breton Island to central Minnesota, Wiscon- 
sin, northern Michigan, Massachusetts, and 
Connecticut, and in the Alleghenies from Penn- 
sylvania to Georgia and South Carolina: win- 
ters from Colombia to central Peru and less 
commonly north to Yucatan. 

The Blackburnian, one of the gems of the 
warbler tribe, has a rather wide range in east- 
ern North America, extending west as far as 
the Plains and north to Manitoba. Apparently 
it is nowhere, at least in migration, an abun- 
dant warbler, and there are few field observers 
so seasoned to the sight of its beautiful colors 
as not to be thrilled by sight of the bird. In 
migration its habits offer nothing peculiar. In 
the Atlantic States in September careful scru- 
tiny of a migrating band of warblers and other 
birds will often reveal the presence of one or 
perhaps half a dozen Blackburnians. About 
Mount Monadnock, Gerald Thayer finds it a 
"very common summer resident. It is one of 
the four deep- wood warblers of this region, 
the other three being the black-throated blue, 
the Northern parula, and the Canada." 

The Blackburnian favors very big trees, par- 
ticularly hemlocks, and spends most of its life 
high above the ground. As Thayer says, the 
Blackburnian is the "preeminent forest warbler 
of the group, the lover of deep mixed growth 
and the upper branches of the biggest conifers.*' 
The bird has a thin, shrill voice and utters at 
least two songs or variations which some think 
resemble the black-throated green's. Whatever 
the tree selected, be it a hemlock or a deciduous 
tree, the nest is placed well up among the 
branches and well out toward the end. where 
it is safe from all enemies that do not possess 
wings. 



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BAY.BREASTED WARBLER BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER 

Male and Female Male and Female 

BLACK-THROATED GRAY WARBLER PINE WARBLER 



316 

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PALM WARBLER NORTHERN WATER-THRUSH 

YELLOW PALM WARBLER LOUISIANA WATER-THRUSH 

PRAIRIE WARBLER KENTUCKY WARBLER 

Male and Female Male and Female 



317 

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BAY-BREASTED WARBLER (Dendroica 
castanea) 

Range: Breeds in Canadian Zone from 
northeastern Alberta, southern Keewatin, 
southern Ungava, and Newfoundland south 
to southern Manitoba, northern Maine, and 
mountains of New Hampshire; winters in 
Panama and Colombia. 

The bay-breast appears to be increasing in 
numbers. Forty years or so ago it was rare 
in Massachusetts in fall, and search by the 
most vigilant collector during the entire 
autumn migration was rarely rewarded by 
the sight of more than one or two. Today 
it is far different, and not a season passes 
that at the proper time and place careful 
search will not reveal a dozen or more mingled 
with others of the warbler family. In spring 
the bird has always been uncommon or alto- 
gether wanting in the Eastern States, as it 
migrates up the Mississippi Valley, spreading 
out to occupy notthetn,. Maine and other of 
its northern summer haunts. In summer it 
frequents coniferous forests, and often nests 
in hemlocks. 

BLACK-THROATED GRAY WARBLER 
(Dendroica nigresccns) 

Range: Breeds in Transition Zone from 
southern British Columbia. Nevada, northern 
Utah, and northwestern Colorado south to 
northern Lower California, southern Arizona, 
and northern New Mexico ; winters in southern 
Lower California and in Mexico from Du- 
rango to Michoacan, Vera Cruz, and Oaxaca. 

The handsome black-throated gray warbler 
is exclusively western in distribution, from our 
southern border to British Columbia. Though 
I have seen it many times, I am unable to re- 
call any especially salient characteristics pos- 
sessed by the species. Like others of the fam- 
ily, the black-throat is an active insect hunter, 
both among the oaks' and various kinds of 
scrub growths of the valleys and the conifers 
of higher altitudes. The bird seems naturally 
to suggest the black-throated green warbler of 
the Eastern States, but I am not aware that 
in habits it is more nearly comparable to that 
species than to others. In choice of nesting 
sites it exhibits a wide range of taste, and 
nests have been found in scrub oaks, pines, and 
firs, and varying in height from the ground 
from 3 or 4 feet up to 50 feet or more. 

BLACK-THROATED GREEN WAR- 
BLER (Dendroica virens) 

Range : Breeds in lower Canadian and 
Transition Zones from west, central, and 
northeastern Alberta, southern Manitoba, 
central Ontario, northeastern Quebec, and 
Newfoundland south to southern Minnesota, 
southern Wisconsin, northern Ohio, northern 
New Jersey, Connecticut, and Long Island, 
New York, and in the Alleghenies south to 
South Carolina and Georgia; winters in 
Mexico (Nuevo Leon to Chiapas and 
Yucatan). Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panama. 

What true bird lover is there who does not 



cherish fond memories of certain birds? The 
very name of black-throated green warbler 
carries me back to boyhood days and to a 
certain pine-crested hill in Massachusetts, 
from which was wafted on an early spring 
morning the song of this warbler, heard by 
me then for the first time. The many years 
since elapsed have not effaced the sweet 
strains, and I seem to hear them now as they 
were borne that morning by the pine-scented 
spring breeze. I can vividly recall the pleasure 
the song occasioned and the satisfaction of 
having added one more bird to my small list 
of avian acquaintances. Those were the days 
of mystery, when the woods seemed filled with 
unknown birds, and secrets lurked in every 
thicket and met the seeker at every turn. 
They were the times when bird books were 
few, keys unknown, and the keen eyes of 
youth far more satisfactory than the best field 
glasses of the present day. 

The black-throated green is one of the com- 
moner of our eastern warblers and one of the 
first to engage the attention of the bird stu- 
dent. During migration it may be met with 
in every kind of woodland, where it is at home, 
both high and low, ever pursuing with tireless 
energy its quest for insects. It has two songs, 
or rather one song delivered in two different 
ways, sprightly, sweet, and perfectly character- 
istic. In summer it is partial to coniferous 
woods, especially white pines and hemlocks, 
and it frequently nests in these, though also in 
birches and alders. 

PINE WARBLER (Dendroica vigorsi) 

Range: Breeds in Transition and Austral 
Zones from northern Manitoba, northern Mich- 
igan, southern Ontario, southern Quebec, and 
New Brunswick south to east-central Texas, 
the Gulf States, and Florida ; winters from 
southern Illinois and coast of Virginia to Flor- 
ida, eastern Texas, and Tamaulipas. 

Few of our birds are so aptly named as the 
pine warbler, which first, last, and all the time, 
except in migration, resorts to pine woods. It 
summers in them in the north and it winters 
in them in the south. Even its feathers often 
bear conclusive evidence of its predilection for 
pines, being often besmeared with their gum. 
Among its bright-hued relatives the pine war- 
bler cuts but a poor show with its somber green 
and brown coat, which, at least in Florida, is 
often dingy and smoke-begrimed from contact 
with burnt timber. 

Though distinctively a warbler and not a 
creeper, the pine warbler is more deliberate in 
its motions than most of its kind and, some- 
what in the manner of the creeper, moves 
among the branches or over the trunks in 
search of its insect food. For a warbler it is 
an early migrant and reaches the latitude of 
Massachusetts soon after the middle of April. 
Indeed, its nest contains eggs or young while 
the late migrants are still passing north. Its 
song has little variation, but while monotonous 
is pleasing and sweet, far sweeter than the trill 
of the chipping sparrow, which it recalls. Nat- 
urally the pine warbler nests in pines, usually 
rather high up. either on a horizontal limb or 
among the twigs at the extremity of a limb. 



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PALM WARBLER (Dendroica palmanim 
palmarum) 

Range : Breeds in Canadian Zone from south- 
ern Mackenzie (Fort Simpson) and central 
Keewatin south and southeast to northern Min- 
nesota; winters from southern Florida and the 
Bahamas to the Greater Antilles and Yucatan. 

The palm warbler, including under this name 
both the eastern and western, or yellow {Den- 
droica palmarum hypochrysea), representatives 
of the species, is for the most part an inhabit- 
ant of the Mississippi Valley and the region 
eastward, spending its nesting season chiefly 
north of our northern frontier. It is, there- 
fore, as a spring and fall migrant that it is best 
known. Its somewhat subdued tints of olive 
and yellow streaked with brown class it among 
the less conspicuous members of the warbler 
group, but its motions and habits unmistakably 
distinguish it from its fellows. Though often 
associating with other warblers as they flit 
from tree to tree, the palm warbler keeps close 
to Mother Earth and not infrequently visits 
pastures and stubble far from cover of any 
sort. Favorite hunting grounds are old fences 
and even buildings. 

Perhaps the most salient characteristic of 
this little warbler is the almost incessant tip-up 
motion of its tail, in which respect it recalls a 
bird in no wise related to it — the spotted sand- 
piper, or "tip-up," of pond and stream. It nests 
on the ground. Its song is a low, faint trill, 
characteristically ^yarblerlike, but in no way 
remarkable. It winters in great numbers in 
Florida, and in 1871 I found it wintering in 
loose flocks of considerable size near Lakes 
Borgne and Ponchartrain, Louisiana, where it 
fed chiefly on the ground and among low 
bushes. 

PRAIRIE WARBLER (Dendroica discolor) 

Range: Breeds chiefly in Carolinian and 
Austroriparian Zones from southeastern Ne- 
braska, eastern Kansas, southern Ohio, south- 
western Pennsylvania, southern New Jersey, 
and (along the coast) from Massachusetts 
south to southwestern Missouri, northern Mis- 
sissippi, northwestern Georgia, Florida, and 
the Bahamas, and north locally to central Mich- 
igan, southern Ontario, and New Hampshire; 
winters from central Florida through the Ba- 
hamas and the West Indies. 

The prairie, a dainty little warbler in its 
variegated black, yellow, and chestnut dress, is 
common from Florida to the New England 
States and from Nebraska and Kansas east to 
the Atlantic. Its choice of habitat varies con- 
siderably locally ; but wherever it may be found 
there is nothing in the habits of the bird that 
justifies its common name, which is entirely 
misleading, since it has no predilection for 
prairies or indeed for open country of any sort. 
In Massachusetts it frequents rocky barberry 
pastures on open hillsides dotted with cedars. 
About Washington it frequents sprout lands, 
and when it first arrives from the south is 
found almost exclusively in groves of the Jer- 
sey scrub pine or in junipers. It is an active 
insect hunter, moving rapidly among the foli- 
age, now here, now there, ever and again send- 
ing forth its characteristic song. Its unusually 
compact and pretty nest is often placed in the 
crotch of a barberry bush in Massachusetts or 
elsewhere in junipers or in low deciduous 
bushes. 



NORTHERN WATER-THRUSH (Sciunis 
noveboracencis noveboracensis) 

Range : Breeds chiefly in Canadian Zone from 
northern Ontario, northern Ungava, and New- 
foundland south to central Ontario, northwest- 
ern New York, and northern New England, 
and in mountains south to Pennsylvania and 
West Virginia; winters from the Valley of 
Mexico to Colombia and British Guiana, and 
from the Bahamas throughout the West Indies. 

So far as appearance, motions, and habits go, 
the water-thrush is more thrush than warbler, 
and one who sees him for the first time walk- 
ing sedately along with teetering tail may well 
be excused for declining to class him with the 
warbler family. He is partial to swamps and 
wet places, is a ground frequenter, and in no 
real sense arboreal. Though an inhabitant of 
the wilds and showing strong preference for 
swampy ground, he not infrequently visits gar- 
dens even in populous towns, and seems to be 
quite at home there in the shade of the shrub- 
bery. A sharp and characteristic alarm note 
often calls the attention of the chance passer- 
by, who would otherwise overlook the bird in 
its shady recesses. 

Few who are privileged to hear its notes will 
dissent from the opinion that the water-thrush 
is one of the foremost of the warbler choir 
and a real musician. The bird is a ground 
builder, placing its nest under the roots of an 
upturned tree, in banks, or in cavities of vari- 
ous sorts. 



LOUISIANA WATER-THRUSH 
(Seiurus motacilla) 

Range: Breeds mainly in Carolinian Zone 
from southeastern Nebraska, southeastern Min- 
nesota, and the southern parts of Michigan, 
Ontario, New York, and New England south 
to northeastern Texas, northern Georgia, and 
central South Carolina; winters from northern 
Mexico to Colombia, the Greater Antilles, An- 
tigua, and the Bahamas. 

The Louisiana water-thrush, though not un- 
like its northern relative in general appearance, 
is very different in disposition and habits, and 
I know of no bird more shy and difficult to 
watch. It frequents the banks and neighbor- 
hood of clear streams that run through wood- 
lands and tangles of laurel. One hears the 
sharp note of challenge or the wild ringing 
song, but any attempt to see the singer, unless 
made with the utmost caution, will end in dis- 
appointment or in a casual glimpse of a small, 
brown bird flitting like a shadow through the 
brush. 

The song of either water-thrush is of a 
high order of excellence. I cannot but think, 
however, that the song of the Louisiana water- 
thrush gains over that of its tuneful rival by 
partaking somewhat of the nature of its wild 
surroundings, and that its song is enhanced by 
its accompaniments — the murmur of the wood- 
land brook and the whisper of the foliage — 
among which it is heard. Quite a number of 
our birds habitually teeter or wag their tails, 
but few as persistently as the water-thrushes. 

KENTUCKY WARBLER (Oporomis 
formosus) 



3»9 



(For text, see page 314) 

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CONNECTICUT WARBLER 

MOURNING WARBLER 
MACGILLIVRAY WARBLER 

HOODED WARBLER 
Male and Female 



WILSON WARBLER 

Male and Female 



CANADA WARBLER 



320 



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CONNECTICUT WARBLER (Oporomis 
agilis) 

Range : Breeds in Canadian Zone from Mani- 
toba to central Minnesota and northern Mich- 
igan; winters in South America, probably in 
Colombia and Brazil. 

Discovered by Wilson in Connecticut early 
in the last century, the Connecticut warbler re- 
mained almost unknown for many years until, 
September 7, 1870, I found it numerous in the 
fresh pond swamps of Cambridge. The bird 
thus rediscovered rapidly came into the lime- 
light, and there are few eastern observers of 
the present day who are not tolerably familiar 
with the appearance and habits of this warbler. 
In fall it is common throughout eastern United 
States in low, swampy thickets. It habitually 
feeds on the ground, and is so silent and shy 
as easily to escape the notice even of one on 
(tie lookout for it, especially as its single chirp 
of alarm is infrequently uttered. In fact, the 
only way to be sure that one or more Con- 
necticut warblers are not concealed in the 
shrubbery of a suspected locality is to beat 
over it systematically, not once, but many times. 

When started, the warbler flies noiselessly to 
the nearest shaded perch, and there sits mo- 
tionless, watching the intruder, till it decides 
either to renew its interrupted search for food 
or to seek some distant place, far from the dan- 
ger of intrusion. Under such circumstances its 
motions are highly suggestive of the staid and 
quiet thrushes, and in no respect similar to the 
sprightly warblers. The Connecticut is one of 
the few species that for some reason choose 
distinct routes of migration, as in spring it 
passes up the Mississippi Valley instead of 
through the Atlantic Coast States, which form 
its southern route in fall. The bird is known 
to breed in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
Manitoba, and elsewhere in the north. The 
only nest so far found, however, appears to be 
one discovered by Seton in Manitoba. As was 
to be expected, it was on the ground. 

MOURNING WARBLER (Oporomis 
Philadelphia) 

Range : Breeds in lower Canadian Zone from 
east central Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, 
southwestern Keewatin, Nova Scotia, and Mag- 
dalen Islands south to central Minnesota, 
Michigan, central Ontario, and mountains of 
New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and 
West Virginia; winters from Nicaragua and 
Costa Rica to Coloipbia and Ecuador. 

The mourning warbler is a near cousin of 
the Maryland yellow-throat and, like that bird, 
sticks rather closely to Mother Earth, being no 
lover of tree-tops. Unlike the yellow-throat, 
however, it is one of the rarest of the family, 
and few ornithologists have ever enjoyed op- 
portunity to get on familiar terms with it and 
to observe its habits adequately. 

^lost observers, like myself, have come across 
a few in migration from time to time, chiefly 
in spring, when the birds* habits may be de- 
scribed in general terms as a combination of 
those of the Maryland yellow-throat and the 
Connecticut warbler. During the spring mi- 
gration it freguents brushy hillsides and damp 
thickets, and in the nesting season seems par- 



tial to briar patches, in which it places its 
bulky nest of leaves and stalks. 

The song is said to be rich and full and has 
been compared with that of the Maryland yel- 
low-throat and the water-thrush. 

MACGILLIVRAY WARBLER 
(Oporomis tolmiei) 

Range: Breeds mainly in the lower Cana- 
dian and Transition Zones from central 
British Columbia, central Alberta, and south- 
ern Saskatchewan south to southern Cali- 
fornia, southern Arizona, and northern New 
Mexico, and from the Pacific coast to the 
eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains and 
southwestern South Dakota; winters from 
Lower California to Colombia. 

Though closely resembling the mourning 
warbler in appearance and representing that 
bird in the west, the Macgillivray warbler 
differs widely in habits. Thus it is far more 
generally distributed, both in the mountains 
and in the lowlands, and is much more numer- 
ous. In my own experience I have found it 
in summer chiefly in moist thickets of willows 
or other brush along streams, and a suitable 
locality is rarely without a pair or two. Other 
observers, however, have found the bird on 
dry brushy hillsides. This warbler nests from 
a few inches to a few feet above the ground. 
It has a short, though pleasing, song which is 
repeated at brief intervals. 

HOODED WARBLER (Wilsonia citrina) 

Range: Breeds in Carolinian and Austrori- 
parian Zones from southeastern Nebraska, 
southern Iowa, southwestern Michigan, central 
New York, and the lower Connecticut Valley 
south to Louisiana, Alabama, and Georgia; 
winters from Vera Cruz and Yucatan to Pan- 
ama. 

While the hooded warbler has a wide range 
in eastern United States, its center of abun- 
dance is the lower Mississippi . Valley. It is 
common only locally and wholly absent from 
many sections except as a casual migrant. Of 
the bird, one of our most beautiful warblers, 
Chapman says : 

"To my mind there is no warbler to which 
that much misused word lovely' may be so 
aptly applied as to the present species. Its 
beauty of plumage, charm of voice, and gen- 
tleness of demeanor make it indeed not only a 
lovely, but a truly lovable bird. Doubtless, 
also, the nature of the hooded warbler's haunts 
increases its attractiveness not merely because 
these well-watered woodlands are in them- 
selves inviting, but because they bring the bird 
down to our level. This creates a sense of 
companionship which we do not feel with the 
bird ranging high above us, and at the same 
time it permits us to see this exquisitely clad 
creature under most favorable conditions." 

WILSON WARBLER (Wilsonia pusUla 
pusilla) 

(For text, see page 314) 

CANADA WARBLER (Wilsonia 

canadensis) 

(For text, see page 314) 



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THE BURDEN FRANCE HAS BORNE 

By Granville Fortescue 



FRANCE has taken war's foulest 
blows full on her breast. During 
the first two years of conflict Ger- 
man armies spread across her most pro- 
ductive provinces like a gray corroding 
acid, eating through farm, orchard, fac- 
tory, home, destroying the most valuable 
property and most useful lives of the 
French nation. 

But this scorification did not crush 
the spirit of France. Rather the enemy 
outrages — ruined cathedrals, ransacked 
homes, ravaged women — roused the 
French people to a terrible realization of 
the German threat against the world. 

For the French man and woman, love 
of France, under the scourge of war, be- 
came a religion — 2l religion where fathers, 
mothers, sons, daughters, claimed the 
highest privilege accorded the Crusader 
and the ultimate sacrifice that gained the 
martyr's crown. 

The battle which checked the greatest 
expression of organized savagery the 
world has seen in 3,000 years is often 
called the Miracle of the Mame. Surely 
it was a miracle. During three days lust- 
ful Uhlan outguards pointed their blood- 
stained lance tips at the Eiflfel Tower, 
saying confidently, "Within the week and 
our fkg will float from the highest pin- 
nacle in France." But the God who 
weaves the world's destiny in mystery 
heard the prayers of France. The mira- 
cle was performed. Paris, the most beau- 
tiful achievement of man on earth, was 
saved from sack and rapine. 

INTERPRETING FRENCH PATRIOTISM 

It is no easy task to try to interpret 
French patriotism to our home-staying 
Americans. Only sympathetic hands can 
inscribe the tong, sad stories of sacrifice 
which mark the stations of the war in 
France. When one has lived in the sacred 
atmosphere of a people daily immolated 
on the altar of patriotism, one feels a cer- 
tain unworthiness in sounding the depths 



of this feeling, of analyzing its springs, 
of calculating its results. 

When the earth's last judgment is given 
on this great war, France will be deemed 
to have saved the world from despotism. 
Diplomats, during many years, have 
prophesied the contest between democ- 
racy and despotism for the domination of 
the world. In the struggle that endures 
France is the true champion of democracy, 
and no better expression of this demo- 
cratic spirit exists than the French army. 

When the Fr^ch army is mentioned 
today, the French people is implied, for 
the whole nation is bound by the most 
sacred ties to the trials and triumphs of 
the fighting section of the populace. 

THE IDEALS OF FRANCE 

Contrasting the French with the Ger- 
man army, we discover, though both are 
grounded on conscription, they are radi- 
cally different in their inspiration of serv- 
ice. The French and the German armies 
are completely separate in soul. History 
gives us the analogue of variance be- 
tween the French and German military- 
systems in the story of Greece and Rome. 
The Roman armies were organized for 
conquest, with the aim of spreading Ro- 
man "kultur" to the southernmost bound- 
aries of Carthage and the northernmost 
villages of Gaul. The Roman eagle, like 
his Prussian descendant, sank his beak 
into the breast of the world. Roman 
power, like Prussian power, sprang from 
the will of the Emperor. 

In Greece, in the age of Pericles, the 
demos was the fountain of power, and 
the army was the guardian of the free- 
dom of the people. The ideals which in- 
spired the Athenians, honor gained in 
serving the country, is today the ideal in- 
spiring the soldiers of France. 

In analyzing the spirit of the French 
soldier, bear in mind this vital fact — 
fighting is an emotional act; and it is 
admitted that an emotion springing from 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



an ideal is necessarily finer than one 
founded on a person. The German goes 
to battle with the Kaiser's sparkling fig- 
ure in the back of his mind, while the 
Frenchman fights for all that is connoted 
in the one word — France. 

Frankly, the German honors, reveres, 
sanctifies war ; the Frenchman hates, de- 
spises, abhors war. I have seen the sol- 
diers of both nations in battle. I have 
studied them and talked with them after 
battle. I have watched for some uncon- 
scious expression that would give the 
clue to the real feelings of the French 
and German soldier, and when some 
phrase of the lips or flare of the eye 
marked the true state of the inward soul, 
I have noted it. 

In countless ways the German shows 
it is the Kaiser he fights for ; that domi- 
nant, disdainful figure symbolizes the 
Teutonic system, inspiring the German 
race to the ultimate sacrifice in the eflFort 
to spread that system over the face of 
the earth. 

Never has the French soldier given any 
indication other, than that he fights for 
his country, his cities, his farms, his 
homes. Never does he give way to the 
lust of battle for battle's sake. He sees 
in this war an evil, a scourge laying waste 
his beloved country, and he conceives it 
to be his duty to his forefathers, himself, 
and his children to rid the earth of this 
plague. The cultivated Frenchman will 
take pains to explain to you how illogical, 
unintelligent, uncivilized is war ; yet you 
will see this same cultivated Frenchman 
wearing the uniform of his motherland 
racing like a fighting fury to the muzzles 
of the machine-guns. 

THE TRUE HERO OF WAR 

Will not the man who recognizes the 
brutal side of war, still does not hesitate 
to pay its penalty, merit more the title of 
hero than he who fights to gratify am- 
bition ? 

The paradox of the French way of 
thinking about war and acting in war is 
carried out in the organization of the 
army. The wide, unbridgable chasm of 
caste which exists between the officer and 
the private in the German company is but 
the step of necessity in French battalions. 



French soldiers recognize the need for 
discipHne, of the value of team-work, and 
the urgency of obeying in battle, as the 
very foundation of their worth as citizen 
soldiers. They know also that they of 
their own volition have created the au- 
thority behind the officer, and for this 
reason there can be nothing degrading in 
the surrender of personal privilege in the 
crisis of war. 

Discipline is not maintained through 
fear, but by public opinion. Each private 
soldier recognizes that his individual 
efficiency and eflFectiveness, and conse- 
quently the efficiency and eflFectiveness of 
the whole French army, is based on his 
prompt and intelligent obedience of or- 
ders delivered by military superiors. 

He knows that his officers are trained 
specialists in war, and he puts himself 
freely in their hands, so that the nation's 
will in war may be accomplished. He 
understands the successive limitations of 
military authority — the private to the ser- 
geant, the sergeant to the lieutenant, the 
lieutenant to the captain, the captain to 
the major, and so on through grade after 
grade, up to General Nivelle, who in turn 
is responsible to France. With this con- 
ception of his duty, the most difficult part 
of military instruction is readily instilled 
into the French recruit. 

HIGH STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE 

Thoroughly to appreciate the relations 
of officer to soldier in the French army, 
they must be seen together in the trenches. 
The captain watches over his men like a 
father. He shows a sympathetic under- 
standing of their difficulties, while de- 
manding in the common cause a rigor- 
ous adherence to their duties. The officer 
sets the highest standard of performance 
for himself and exacts the best each of 
his men can do. 

But the soldier knows he can go to his 
officer with his private troubles and re- 
ceive helpful advice. He knows he will 
never meet with intentional injustice. 
And what gives him supreme confidence 
is the knowledge that he will be led with 
intelligence and skill. 

The French officer is constantly alert 
to take advantage of the enemy and safe- 
guard his own men. The greatest crime 



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WEARING GAS Z^IASKS 



l*lK)tograph by American Press Association 
AT THK BENCHES 



It is not alone in the trench that the soldier must guard against poisonous gas and dust. 
These women soldiers of the munitions plants must be similarly protected. 



in the officer's calendar is wantonly to 
waste the life of a subordinate. Circum- 
stances may call for the last sacrifice at 
times, but short of this condition the 
French commander husbands the lives of 
his men as a miser his pieces of gold. In 
an attack he will plan how they must 
creep from shell-hole to shell-hole, keep- 
ing as safe as possible from the enemy's 
artillery fire. He will study the ground 
in front of his trench for every available 
bit of cover, and so maneuver his men 
that they will gain its every advantage. 
He will elaborate trench and sap until his 
men are as safe as the battle front per- 
mits, feeling his duty to his country de- 



mands not only that he defeat the enemy, 
but that he defeat him with the minimum 
expenditure of the lives under his com- 
mand. 

Men learn quickly to appreciate this 
quality in their officers, and this appre- 
ciation brings about a sense of loyalty 
which closely knits an army into an un- 
beatable whole. 

THE TEST OF THE TRENCHES 

The test of the trenches also brings out 
the indomitable spirit of France as could 
no other circumstance. I saw this spirit 
in its concrete cheerfulness during a visit 
to the battle line beyond the Somme. 



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iO American Press Association 
J'RENCPI WOMEN WORKING IN AMMUNITION FACTORIES 

Mythology relates that Jupiter, as a reward for the excellence of the thunderbolts forged 
by his crippled son, Vulcan, bestowed upon him the hand of the fairest of the immortals — 
Venus. The daughters of France have inherited their beauty from the Cytherean goddess 
and their skill in making modern thunderbolts of battle from the Olympian blacksmith. 



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Photogravh by Paul Thompson 
WOMEN ENGAGED IN RESEARCH WORK FOR THE BENEFIT OF FRENCH SOLDIERS 

This war has given women their opportunity, which they have not been slow to seize 
upon ; but in no sphere of usefulness has this been more pronounced than in Red Cross work. 
Here nurses are seen engaged in research work to benefit the particular cases they have in 
hand. 



It had rained for two weeks and it still 
rained. The battle ground, a great patch 
of black, desolate earth, looked as if for 
an age it had been submerged beneath the 
slimy waters of some flood. Gaunt and 
murky tree stumps marked the residue of 
woodlands. A thousand shell pits pocked 
the ground. Into these drained the top 
soil of the earth in flux. 

The Germans kept up a sullen shelling 
of the French trenches, zigzagging across 
these fields of desolation. Depression 
hung like a lowering cloud over the scene. 
Yet as I passed along the communication 
trenches I heard a voice in blithe song 
issuing from the depths of a dug-out. A 
sodden rain was falling, adding the last 
dismal touch to conditions, yet the singer 
chanted gaily: 

"Elle a perdu son parapluie, tant pis 
pour elle.'' 

In a moment a mud-spattered soldier 
appeared from the dark of the cave. 

"Good morning," he said, cheerily 
throwing the carcasses of two huge rats 



over the parapet. "There goes the night 
hunting." 

The cheerfulness of this soldier per- 
sonified the spirit of France. 

war's awful cost to FRANCiv 

In the proportion to her population, 
France has given more of her citizens to 
battle than any other nation. It would be 
valuable information to the enemy to give 
the exact figures of losses, so the French 
general staff publishes no record of the 
cost of victory. But from a study of 
such data as is available an estimate can 
be made. Counting the dead, the per- 
manently disabled, and the prisoners, 
France's contribution to the holocaust of 
war is more than two millions. 

The price France pays in flesh and 
blood is a greater sacrifice than has been 
yet demanded from any of the allied na- 
tions. In computing the value of this 
sacrifice, all the conditions of French 
population must be taken into account. 
Chief among these must be placed the ab- 



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Photograph by American Press Association 

THE FAIR CHAUFFEUSE OF A SHELI. SEDAN 

This is the type of electric cart used in the munitions factories for the transportation of 
shells. It requires a steady hand and a sure eye to pilot this machine when it is laden with 
a cargo of canned death. 



normally low annual increase in the num- 
ber of French citizens. Taking only the 
figures for native-born Americans during 
the last forty years, and the increase in 
population in the United States has been 
over thirty millions, while during the 
same period in France the increase has 
been less than three millions. 

If the loss continues at the same rate, 
in another year France will lose the total 
surplus in citizens she has gained since 
the war of 1870. And it must be remem- 



bered that the death lists today are not 
compiled from the aged and sickly, but 
from the youth and health of the land. 

Through the sacrifices in men lost dur- 
ing the early battles of the war France 
was able to check the German rush and 
gain time for England to prepare. The 
French army met the German army at its 
full strength and defeated it. The victory 
of the ]\Iarne was due to the tactics em- 
ployed and the blows struck by the 
French army. When the facts are finally 



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THE BURDEN FRANCE HAS BORNE 



329 



revealed, history will grant France this 
honor. But it is an honor paid for in the 
best blood of the country. 

Up to the present it has been the 
French army, the French citizen soldier, 
who has saved the world from German 
conquest. 

A SPARTAN MOTHER AND WIFK 

As an example of what France gives, 
let me quote the story of General Castle- 
neau. He is a valiant, generous gentle- 
man — a soldier with the soul of a Spartan. 

He and his sons were among the first 
to draw their sabers in defense of their 
land. During the first year of the war, 
when he was pressed down with the cares 
of one of the most important commands 
in the French army, news was brought to 
General Castleneau, first, that one of his 
sons had been killed; then in a few 
months a second died for his country. 

The third son fought in the army com- 
manded by his father. He was his father's 
favorite. Little more than a boy, in the 
first battles he had shown a courage that 
won him honor and rapid promotion. 
Then in one of those attacks, where regi- 
ment upon regiment charged through the 
fields of death, this third son was mortally 
wounded. 

Upon the death of this boy, broken by 
his sorrows and the strain of war. Gen- 
eral Castleneau thought to give up his 
high command and live out his last days 
on his home farm. Then his wife*came 
to him. He told her his thought. 

"No," said this French wife and 
mother, "you have given the best of your- 
self to your country. You have nothing 
left to give save these last years. We 
must keep up the fight." General Castle- 
neau today is still at his post of duty. 

RESOURCEFUL FRANCE MEETS NEW 
CONDITIONS 

Not only has France given the bodies 
of her sons in the sacrifice of battle, but 
she has also given the fruits of their 
brains. The trained professional officers 
of the French army have been the intelli- 
gence which directed the military opera- 
tions of the Entente armies. These offi- 
cers were instructors in the art of war to* 



the allied forces, and while acting in this 
capacity they evolved new tactics which 
so eflfectively thwarted German ambitions. 

The new tactics were the outcome of 
trench warfare, which had brought into 
use weapons long since discarded in 
modern armies. When the war opened 
French battalions, a thousand strong, had 
the organization common to most armies, 
namely, four companies and a mitrail- 
leuse section of two guns. The men were 
armed wholly with rifle and bayonet ; but 
French ingenuity was quick to see the 
changes of organization and armament 
made necessary by the new warfare. 

Today half the battalion have discarded 
the rifle and carry grenades or one-man 
machine-guns. Three of the original 
companies are still infantry, while the 
fourth has been changed to a machine- 
gun company with eight mitrailleuses. 

The infantry companies are subdivided 
into sections and armed with special 
weapons: first, the hand-grenade throw- 
ers ; second, the rifle grenade soldiers, 
who, instead of throwing the grenade, fire 
it from their guns ; third, the soldiers fir- 
ing automatic rifles, and these are fol- 
lowed by the ordinary infantry, using 
rifle or bayonet. 

The machine-guns as employed by the 
Germans were the great bugbear of the 
trenches. These weapons would mow 
down a whole company of advancing 
soldiers in the charge. French officers 
set themselves to solving this problem 
and devised the small cannon to be used 
in the assault. The gun, i^-inch caliber 
rapid fire, was dragged forward with the 
charging line. When brought into action 
it soon mastered the fire of any hidden 
machine-gun. 

THE WORK OF THE RIFLE GRENADE 

That ingenious weapon, the rifle gren- 
ade, merits special citation. It consists 
of an iron receptacle, clamped to the end 
of the regular rifle, in which a special 
type of grenade is placed, and the rifle 
fired. The explosion sends the grenade 
about 200 yards through the air, while 
the rifle bullet, piercing the center of 
the bomb, sets free the fulminate, which 
causes the grenade to explode on landing. 

I have no intention of going into a 



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330 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



technical discussion of the French in- 
fantry in attack, and only give the outline 
of tactical changes in order to indicate 
how the French people are fighting with 
their intellects. They have no belief in 
brute force in war ; if they had, they long 
ago would have surrendered to the Ger- 
mans. Their faith is pinned to their own 
finesse — a finesse which exasperates and 
thwarts the enemy. 

As instructors, French officers have 
been of inestimable value to the English. 
In the beginning of the war the British 
army was deficient in artillery — a defi- 
ciency which was rapidly remedied in 
material, for England turned out guns 
for the army from the naval-gun foun- 
dries. But gunners, who are soldier 
specialists, were not available for the bat- 
teries. 

In this dilemma England turned to 
France, the country that had developed 
the finest corps of artillerists the world 
has ever seen. French officers were de- 
tailed to the English batteries, and Eng- 
lish officers also were taken into French 
artillery units and learned their art in the 
actual practice of war under the tutelage 
of the most competent teachers. 

I have referred to French artillerists 
as the finest in the world. The statement 
is made without qualification; and were 
I seeking the factor of greatest single 
importance in the military strength of 
France, I should decide upon the artillery. 

A HUMAN MACHINE IN ACTION 

It was given me to see the French guns 
go into action in one of the early attacks 
of the war — the engagement at Dinant. 
Aside from its spectacular interest, the 
performance was one of the most perfect 
exhibitions of artillery technique I have 
ever witnessed. The guns were driven, 
wheeled, and unlimbered with the pre- 
cision of parade-ground maneuvers. The 
men dropped into their appointed places 
like the parts of a geared machine. Then 
guns were loaded, aimed, fired, reloaded, 
without an ounce of lost motion. When 
the projectiles exploded, and I could see 
the effect through my binoculars, I want- 
ed to cheer for the gunners of France. 
They had scored four direct hits. 

The guns of this battery were the 



"soixante quinze" caliber, since become 
the most famous cannon of the war. 

The construction of this cannon was a 
jealously guarded military secret up until 
the time of the opening of hostilities. 
Other nations knew that France pos- 
sessed a field gun of exceptional proper- 
ties, and while they had hints of its ef- 
fectiveness, as demonstrated in peace, it 
needed the brutal test of war to prove the 
superiority of this weapon above all sim- 
ilar makes of artillery. 

It is readily understood that, with a 
cannon which shoots farther and faster 
than the enemy, the French army pos- 
sessed an asset of great military advan- 
tage. 

I have heard French artillerymen state 
that the superiority of their "soixante 
quinze*' batteries made up for the Ger- 
man preponderance of numbers in the be- 
ginning of the war, and that the destruc- 
tiveness of these guns was so great that 
they almost equalized the tactical value 
of the forces of France and Germany 
after several hours of actual fighting. 

The gun is a marvel of fitted mechan- 
ism ; breech-block, recoil cylinders, sight- 
ing apparatus, all the puzzling pieces of 
hardened steel which open and close the 
cartridge chamber, function with the 
smoothness of a dynamo. 

In the process of loading and firing, it 
gives the impression of some sentient 
organism rather than a machine of turned 
steel. This impression is heightened by 
the stiort, dry sound of the explosion 
when the shell is fired — a sound that awes 
and electrifies when first heard, and which 
has come to be far more characteristic of 
battle than the conventional "boom" sup- 
posed to convey the noise of cannon. 

GERMANY BEATEN AT THE ARTILLERY 
GAME 

As soon as the superiority of the French 
cannon was recognized, the great arms 
factories of France were enlarged and 
worked to the limit of capacity, not only 
to furnish new guns for the French army, 
but also to supply the enormous demands 
of the Russian army. Later Serbia and 
Roumania were also supplied with field 
batteries from French foundries, and in 
4hese countries officers and men accom- 



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Photograph by Paul Thompson 

FARES TO THE FAIR 

Among the many occupations which the women pi France are pursuing, in order that 
men may be released for service in the army, are those connected with the street railway 
systems of Paris and other cities. Motorwomen, girl conductors, ticket sellers, and ticket 
takers are now the rule rather than the exception. Here a young girl is seen wearing the 
uniform cap of a surface-car conductor. From her shoulders hangs the big leather bag in 
which she deposits the passengers* sous and centimes. 



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BORDEAUX-BEGLES : GENERAL WAREHOUSES OF THE HEALTH SERVICE 

Like her chief munitions works at Le Creusot, France, finds it expedient to keep her 
principal stores of surgical cottons and health-service supplies far removed from the imme- 
diate scenes of hostility. Not- only are these warehouses beyond the zone of possible air- 
plane raids, but, being at Bordeaux, they are convenient depots for the receipt of Red Cross 
shipments from England and America. 



panied the guns to insure efficient hand- 
ling. 

From the above it is seen how gener- 
ously France came to the support of her 
allies in the most important branch of 
military science; and when we reflect on 
the enormous amount of material de- 
stroyed during the two and one-half 
years of war, we begin to perceive what 
a drain this has been on the resources of 
France. 

Reliance upon the decisive effect of ar- 
tillery in battle has been a tradition with 
the French army since the victories of the 
first Napoleon. He it was who originally 
employed artillery in a massed formation. 
At Wagram, at Lutzen, at Hanau, this 
maneuver of concentrated artillery fire 
gave the victory to the armies of France. 
Xapoleon III tried to continue the theo- 
ries of his brilliant ancestor, but failed; 
yet the influence of the great master of 
tactics continued ; so it is but natural that 
the use of artillery in war should reach 



its highest perfection through French de- 
velopment. 

The French have relied for success in 
the fighting today on the ancient maneu- 
ver of the Napoleonic era — a mass of 
guns firing at a given point in the enemy 
line. At the same time they endeavored 
to make the practice of concentrated fire 
more effective through increased speed 
and accuracy of fire. 

THE BIG GUX vs. THE LIGHTER ONE 

Before the opening of the great war 
there were two schools of artillery tac- 
tics — the French, which believed in the 
above theory of rapid field-gun shelling, 
and the German, which pinned its faith 
to the effectiveness of huge guns having 
a greater range than the ordinary field 
gun and of course throwing a far more 
destructive exploding charge. The ex- 
treme of the German theory was the 
widely advertised 42-centimeter cannon, 
supposed to be able to reduce the strong- 



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BOUND FOR PARIS 



Photograph from Paul Thompson 



A French Red Cross train bearing sick and wounded soldiers to Paris after passing 
through a field hospital. One of the nurses is making a tour of the train, distributing coffee 
to the slightly wounded and sick men. 



est fortress to ruin with three well-di- 
rected shots. 

The actual practice of war and the pe- 
culiarities of trench fighting developed 
the fact that neither of these schools was 
wholly right. The light French guns were 
ineffective against troops hidden in well- 
constructed trenches, while the difficul- 
ties of transportation involved in moving 
the giant German guns from point to 
point outbalanced their ultimate effect- 
iveness. 

French artillery experts began at once 
to experiment toward developing the 



most serviceable gun under actual condi- 
tions of war, and the result of this ex- 
periment can be gauged by the different 
caliber of cannon now used in the French 
army. Here is the list given in meters 
and the approximate caliber in inches : 

First the 75 millimeter, the standard 
field gun, 3-inch caliber; the 95 milli- 
meter, 3^ inch; 305 millimeter, 12 inch; 
370 millimeter, 15 inch; 400 millimeter, 
16 inch, and last the largest cannon in the 
world, 520 millimeter, or 20 inches. 

I give the list in full to impress upon 
my reader the extraordinary complication 



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of industry involved 
in the casting, turn- 
ing, and assembling of 
these various types of 
cannon. Special ma- 
chinery must be em- 
ployed in each in- 
stance where there is 
a variation in caliber. 
Complete foundries 
are given over to the 
manufacture of the 
separate parts of the 
gun and gun carriage. 
The industrial organi- 
zation for one size of 
gun alone is greater 
today than the total 
pre-war ordnance or- 
ganization. 

THE 20-INCH CANNON 
OF FRANCE 

From the failures 
of the Germans the 
French found that the 
problem of heavy ar- 
tillery in the field 
was transportation ; 
so French artillery ex- 
perts began at once to 
try to solve this diffi- 
culty. They have suc- 
ceeded in their task. 
Their triumph is the 
construction of a rail- 
road truck upon which 
is mounted a 20-inch 
cannon, the heaviest 
piece of artillery in 
the world. 

The marvelous man- 
ner in which the 
French have overcome 
the mechanical diffi- 
culties that hitherto 
confined heavy artil- 
lery to fortress or 
siege operations is a striking example of 
what French brains are doing in this war. 
Firing a 12-inch gun from a foundation 
built along a spur of railway was consid- 
ered a mechanical impossibility before 
General Joflfre's expert artillerists dem- 
onstrated the success of the idea. 

It was not only in the construction of 
these guns that France showed her skill, 
but in their operation. French gunners 



THE SHOWER BATH 

Judging by this contraption, the French soldier has developed a 
modicum of Yankee ingenuity. A water-wheel motor operates a 
hydraulic lift, which supplies a bucket reservoir with the "makings" 
of a sprinkle. The apparatus works, but it looks as if it might have 
been modeled after a comic cartoonist's distorted dream. 



first developed indirect fire — ^the art of 
hitting an unseen target — and in this war 
they have brought indirect fire to tech- 
nical perfection and even applied its prin- 
ciples in new ways. 

Undoubtedly, in accounts of present-day 
battles in Europe, the reader has met the 
phrase curtain or barrage fire. He may 
have guessed something of the nature of 
this artillery expedient* 



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Photosraph by Paul Thompson 
ISSUING A roOD TICKET TO TOMMY ATKINS 

The offices of the Gare du Nord, Paris, have been converted to the uses of organizations 
for the relief of suffering among the refugees and victims of the war. A British soldier is 
seen accepting an order for a meal. 



The phrase means, in untechnical lan- 
guage, the art of aiming a mass of cannon 
in a manner that the projectiles from all 
of them fall in a given area in such a 
shower as to form a curtain or barrage 
of exploding iron. 

This curtain may be dropped behind 
an enemy position so that reinforcements 
cannot come to his aid when attacked, or 
it may be used to check an advance. 

THE SYNCHRONIZED FIRE OF 4OO GUNS 

Accurately to synchronize the action of 
50 or 100 batteries, 200 or 400 guns, so 
that while firing from widely separated 
positions at a target that is not in view 
the projectiles arrive simultaneously along 
a defined and predetermined line, is a 



matter of the highest technical skill and • 
calculation. To the French belongs the 
honor of first employing this effective 
artillery principle. 

I have seen these great pieces of ord- 
nance, equal in size to the major guns of 
a battleship, moving from point to point 
along specially built lines of lateral rail- 
roads, running in rear of the trench posi- 
tion on the Somme. At the will of the 
commander they are brought into action 
wherever the press of battle w^arrants. 

This development and operation of ar- 
tillery is the most impressive manifesta- 
tion of the colossal expansion of modem 
war. Consider the tons of metal molded 
into each of these great cannon, and then 
reflect that wherever the trucks upon 



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PIUNG UP SHELL CASES FOR 75-MILLIMETER GUNS 

"The French 'soixante-quinze' gun is a marvel of fitted mechanism. In the process of 
loading and firing it gives the impression of some sentient organism rather than a machine 
of turned steel. This impression is heightened by the short, dry sound of the explosion 
when the shell is fired — a sound that awes and electrifies." 



VIEW OF YPRES: PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN FROM A FLYING MACHINE 

The pitiful ghost of one of ravaged Belgium's most beautiful and historic cities. In the 
central foreground may be seen the roofless remains of the famous Cloth Hall, the largest 
edifice of its kind in the kingdom, begun by Count Baldwin IX of Flanders in the year 1200. 
Just beyond looms the scarred and desecrated Cathedral of St. Martin. On all sides are 
ruin and desolation, where three summers ago dwelt nearly 20,000 happy, thrifty people, 
engaged chiefly in the peaceful pursuit of making Valenciennes lace. 



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RESERVES CROSSING A RIVER ON THE WAY TO VERDUN 

"They shall not pass" is a phrase which for all time will be associated with the heroic 
defense of Verdun. To future generations of French people it will bring a thrill of pride 
even surpassing that enkindled by the glorious **The Old Guard dies, it never surrenders." 
The guardians of the great fortress on the Meuse have proved themselves invincible in 
attack, invulnerable in defense. 



which they are mounted move, bridges, 
culverts, even the road-bed itself, of the 
railroad line must be strengthened to sup- 
port the load. 

Further, in order that the giant cannon 
shall have the mobility for effective use, 
new sections of railroad must be built 
whenever the army advances. 

If you analyze the process of manu- 
facture and the details of transportation 
involved in the creating and bringing of 
each one of the new heavy field guns to 
the front, you arrive at an understanding 
of the important part played in the war 
by the French industrial organizations. 

A WONDERFUI. PRODUCTION OF SHELLS 

I was witness to another phase of the 
effectiveness of this organization, as 
shown in the munition industry in France. 
Taking the number of units produced 
daily as a standard, the greatest single 
business of the war is the making of 
shells. This comes about through the 



enormous disproportion in the time con- 
sumed in the production and the distribu- 
tion of shells compared with the time 
needed to expend them. 

Consider the making and the breaking 
of the shell. One is a tedious, toilsome, 
exacting, and complicated process, begin- 
ning with the digging of iron ore from 
the earth, its transportation to steel mills, 
its transfusion and casting into ingots. 

These ingots are the raw material of 
the shell casing only. The production of 
the explosive that serves as the bursting 
charge is an industry in itself, while the 
construction of the mechanism of the 
fuses requires almost as much skill as 
watch-making. 

In the first year of the war, the critical 
period of the conflict, France led all the 
Entente nations in the production of 
shells. As was the case with guns, France 
had to supply her ally, Russia, with the 
munitions so necessary to the effective- 
ness of the armies fighting in Poland and 



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Photograph by Paul Thompson 
. A WAGON-LOAD OF HELMETS OR CASQUES FOR FRENCH SOLDIERS LEAVING THE 

FACTORY 

At the outbreak of the world war the French fighting man wore a long-visored, tall- 
crowned cap, but this picturesque headgear soon yielded to the utility of the metal head- 
piece, which furnishes a certain degree of protection from the shrapnel that bursts above 
the trenches and sows the seeds of destruction in the furrows of death. 



the Carpathians. To meet this drain the 
industries of the country were reorgan- 
ized. The products of peace gave way 
before the demands of war. 

The concrete example of this is the 
transformation of the plants of the Re- 
nault automobile works to the making 
of munitions. In one factory, formerly 
wholly concerned with the forging and 
fitting of motor machinery, 15,000 men 
and 4,000 women are now employed 24 
hours of each day grinding and filling 
high-explosive shells. The work, divided 
into shifts, never halts, and from this one 
plant 11,000 projectiles are daily sent for- 
ward to the front. 

THE VASTNP:SS of the expenditure OF 
STEEL 

But during periods of heavy fighting, 
when the cannon is playing its important 
part in the tragedy of battle, the calcu- 
lated average expenditure of ammunition 



by one army corps is 29,000 shells per 
day. So the total effort of 19,000 work- 
ers employed during 24 hours furnishes 
somewhat more than one-third the am- 
munition used by a small part of the 
army. 

The number of army corps holding the 
front in France is a military secret, and 
as the United States is now ranged on the 
side of France in the war, it would he 
injudicious to try and probe that secret. 
We violate no confidence when we state 
that it is more than thirty. This figure 
will give us a basis for calculating the 
number of shells produced by the muni- 
tions factories of France. 

There are long periods when the ex- 
penditure of ammunition in no way ap- 
proximates the figures given above, and 
it is during these periods when the guns 
are comparatively silent that production 
catches up with consumption. 

It may be true that England is grad- 



339 



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Photograph by Paul Thompson 
HKAVY TRAINING FOR FRENCH SOLDIERS 

The making of men taken from civilian life into well-trained soldiers has been a problem 
in England as in France. Business hours left the Frenchman with little time for exercise. 
Their training in the manner here shown quickly made them fit, and soon after leaving the 
counter, lathe, or desk they have proved themselves able to undertake with endurance the 
long marches and successful offensives against the common enemy with complete success. 
Every Frenchman entering the army undergoes a preparation in gymnastics as here show^n, 
where men of the new armies are being made fit at the Physical Training School near 
Vincennes. 

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Photograph by Paul Thompson 

now TO TAKE A BUILDING BY STORM : A LESSON AT THE PHYSICAL TRAINING SCHOOL 

OF VINCENNE^ 

Although there have been innumerable new engines of destruction employed in the 
present world war, such as the submarine, the airplane, and the high-explosive shell, the 
fighting forces of Europe have also hied back to ancient and medieval principles of warfare 
with astonishing frequency. For example, we have seen the recrudescence of the **Greek 
fire" idea in *'liquid fire," the evolution of the' Chinese stinkpot in the new poisonous gas, 
the reappearance of the armored knight in the soldier wearing a steel helmet, and the glori- 
fication of the battering ram in the lumbering new "tank." As shown in the above illustra- 
tion, the modern soldier is trained to scale walls, just as were the soldiers of Darius the 
Great, Alexander the Great, Alfred the Great, and Charlemagne. There are variations, but 
no new principles, in the crude art of destroying human life. 



ually approaching France, both in the 
manufacture of heavy guns and the pro- 
duction of munitions ; but this condition 
appears after two and a half years of 
war. During those two and a half years 
it was the French cannon, French shells, 
French soldiers, and Franch brains that 
checked the military ambitions of Ger- 
many. 

NEW MIRACLES OF SURGERY 

With all this effort applied to improve 
her killing power, France did not neglect 
the complement of war destruction — 
healing. The best surgical and medical 
minds of the country pondered long on 
the problem of saving all that was possi- 
ble from the human wreckage of war. 



The fruit of this thought is exemplified 
in the work of Doctor Carrel, whose 
achievements under the Rockefeller Foun- 
dation are well known in the United 
States, and Doctor Dakin. 

These two men put all their efforts into 
curing the evil of infection. They had 
found in their work among the wounded 
that 75 per cent of deaths, after the first 
24 hours, were due to infection; that 80 
per cent of amputations were due to in- 
fection, and that 95 per cent of secondary 
hemorrhage came through infection. 

While the work incidental to healing 
the wounded was going on, Doctors Car- 
rel and Dakin established a research labo- 
ratory in conjunction with their military 
hospital at Compeigne. 



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A CHURCH CONVERTED INTO AN EMERGENCY HOSPITAI. : THE OPERATING TABLE 

"With so much of its skill and thought applied to the development and perfection of her 
killing power, France has not neglected the complement of war destruction — healing. The 
best surgical and medical minds of the country have wrestled with and mastered the problem 
of saving all that is possible from the human wreckage of modern battle." 



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HOSPITAL UNPREPAREDNESS : AN OBJECT-LESSON FOR AMERICA 

In the early days of the war, before the French Red Cross had fully organized its 
resources, it frequently happened that straw strewn upon marble flags was the only make- 
shift for beds which could be provided for the wounded. This straw proved most unfortu- 
nate for the wounded, as it was often infected with tetanus germs. Here, beneath the ahar 
of their faith, in the Church of Aubigny, converted into a hospital, the fighting men of France 
reconsecrated their lives to the cause. 



It IS not necessary to give the details 
of the experiments of these two scientists. 
Today, by the application of the Carrel- 
Dakin method of sterilizing wounds, one 
amputation is performed wh^re formerly 
twenty were necessary, and where there 
were ten deaths one now occurs, and the 
time of convalescence is reduced from 
three to six months to four or, at the 
most, SIX weeks. 

It has been found that the method of 
Doctor Carrel applied to the formula of 
Doctor Dakin has not only shortened con- 
valescence, but in consequence reduced 
the strain on doctors and nurses and the 
cost of hospital maintenance; also it has 
minimized pain. But more than all this, 
it has resulted in a great saving of limbs 
and lives to France. 

THE HEROISM OP THE FRENCH WOMEN 

Turning from the purely military side 
of war to the economic side, we find an- 



other picture of French sacrifice. In this 
picture the French woman holds the fore- 
ground. 

In the time of war every physically fit 
male in France can be called upon to 
shoulder rifle and fight the battles of his 
country. When this call sounds, it might 
be thought that the agricultural and in- 
dustrial structure of the nation would be 
reduced to chaos. 

But for the sturdy heroism of the 
women of France such might have been 
the case. When the men were called to 
the colors, the women came forward to 
fill the gaps in the farming and manufac- 
turing armies. 

French women, aided by their children, 
plowed the fields, sowed the seed, har- 
vested the crops that during two years 
have fed the soldiers of France. French 
women tended the vines, gathered the 
grapes, and pressed the wine which 
France exports throughout the world. 



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344 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



French women became conductors, motor 
operators, ticket-sellers on the subways 
of Paris ; they took the positions vacated 
by men in the post-office department; 
they were employed in the street-cleaning 
and other municipal departments. 

In all industries, public or private, 
women replaced the men called to the 
front, and, what is much more to the 
point, they made good in their new work. 

UXREMITTING TOIL FOR A FREE FRANCE 

As farmers, as vintners, as laborers, as 
munition workers, French women toil 
without ceasing to save France and take 
some of the burden of war from the 
shoulders of the men. In their own field, 
as housewives who understand the impor- 
tance of thrift, they have saved the eco- 
nomic situation. 

The enormous financial burden which 
war has so unjustly thrown on France 
has been lightened by the thousand econo- 
mies put into practice by French women 
in their homes. All the little dainties of 
table, the little coquetries of dress, the 
little temptations of amusement, have 
been sternly put aside for the duration of 
the war. 

Sugar means money spent abroad; 
therefore the French woman gives up 
pastries, sweets, and reduces the amount 
of sugar used in the household. Coal is 
needed to keep the munition factories up 
to the maximum of production, so the 
French woman reduces the amount of 
gas and electricity used in her home, as 
these are the products of coal. 

Thus French women, through practicing 
direct and indirect economies, actually re- 
duce the cost of the war to France ; and, 
more than this, when any money is saved 
to them from these economies they invest 
the saving in government war loan, mak- 
ing every copper do double work in the 
defense of the country. 



In this article I have outlined what 
France has done in the war. I have men- 
tioned the work of the army which met 
and turned the heaviest blows the mili- 
tary power of Germany could muster. I 
have mentioned how the artillery, the 
product of French brains, bulwarked the 
eflforts of the soldiers. I have referred 
to the work of the women of France and 
their splendid stand under the strain o*f 
war, and I have mentioned the spirit of 
France. 

AN UNCONQUER^VBLE SPIRIT 

In conclusion, I must again allude to 
that spirit. French men and women 
know that the resources of their nation 
in property and lives are being consumed 
in the furnace of war. They know what 
the death of their soldiers means to the 
nation in the future. They realize the 
terrible consequences of German occupa- 
tion. Yet in the face of all these bitter 
trials the people have never faltered. 

Throughout the misery, the suft'ering, 
the brutal injustice of this war, France 
has fought valiantly for one ideal — the 
ideal upon which that nation and our own 
is founded — the right of the citizen to 
liberty. 

Each day as the French armies press 
the enemy back from the territory so long 
occupied, the sacrifices of France are 
proved with greater poignancy. 

The band of blackened land now given 
over to desolation is the visual testimony 
of what the \var has meant to France. 
But it is not only the losses of today, but 
what those losses mean in the future, that 
must be reckoned as part of the burden 
France bears. This is a sacrifice no man 
can gauge. 

When democracy rises triumphant 
from the struggle with despotism, and 
when the last page of war history is 
written, the world will gladly acknowl- 
edge its debt to France. 




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THE CALL TO THE COLORS 



© Underwood & Underwood 

500 NEWLY MADE BLUEJACKETS 01^ THE U. S. NAVY RE^U)Y FOR ACTIVE SERVICE 

Having completed the necessary course of instruction at the Naval Training Station, 
Newport, R. I., these youths, bearing their white canvas bags, vi'hich in the navy take the 
place of "wardrobe trunks," stand on the threshold of the great adventure — war — with honor 
and sacrifice for country as the two great prizes. The Newport Naval Training Station is 
to the bluejacket what West Point is to American army officers and Annapolis is to the 
future admirals of our fleets. Here he receives instruction in the essentials of seamanship. 
At the present time all the pupils at this school are undergoing intensive training to fit them 
for the immediate needs of the hour. 



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C) American Press Association 

A NAVAL MILITIA BUGLER SOUNDING A CALL "TO THE COLORS" 

In twenty million American homes fathers and sons are waiting for this call, and when 
the summons comes there will be no shirking of responsibility. Mothers, wives, and daugh- 
ters also will hear this challenge, and with hearts steeled to sacrifice will bravely bid farewell 
to those who go to battle for America and humanity. 



346 

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© Underwood & Underwood 

A NATIONAL GUARDSMAN COMPLETELY EQUIPPED FOR SERVICE 

On his back this American fighting man carries his blanket roll, small shovel, bag, etc. 
His canteen is at his belt. He is armed with a ^o caliber U. S. Army rifle. Minimum 
weight for maximum efficiency is the principle upon which his whole outfit has been designed. 



147 

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BATTLESHIP ABLAZE IN MID-OCEAN 

Owing to the perfect organization of the crew of a thousand or more men on a super- 
dreadnought, a fire at sea is not usually so serious as a landsman would imagine. With the 
first alarm each individual on board becomes a fire-fighter, rushing to his post of duty. 
Water compartments are closed and preparations are made for flooding the magazines if 
the flames threaten these store-rooms of destruction. 



360 

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SALUTING TIIIv FLAG 

An impressive ceremony which took place in Fifth Avenue, New York, opposite the 
Union League Club reviewing stand during the recent "Wake Up, America" celebration. 
Thousands marched in the procession; hundreds of thousands lined the great thoroughfare 
and voiced their approval in a succession of cheers. 



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THE OUTSPEAKING OF A GREAT DEMOCRACY 



The Proceedings of the Chamber of Deputies of France 

on Friday, April 6, 1917, as Reported in the 

'Journal Officiel de La Republique Francaise' 



(( 



PRESIDENT OF THE CHAMBER OF 
Deputies: The President of the 
Council has the floor. 
Mr. Ribot, President of the Coun- 
cil, Minister of Foreign Affairs: Be- 
fore the Chamber adjourns the Govern- 
ment asks it to address a cordial greet- 
ing to the great Republic of the United 
States. {Cheers. All the deputies rise, 
turn toward the diplomatic gallery, and 
applaud [the Ambassador of the United 
States being in the gallery]. Many cries 
of ''Long live the Republic/') 

You have read the admirable message 
of President Wilson. We all feel that 
something great, something which ex- 
ceeds the proportions of a political event, 
has been accomplished. ( Cries of assent. ) 
It is an historic fact of unequaled im- 
portance (applause) — ^this entry into the 
war on the side of us and our allies by 
the most peaceful democracy in the 
world. {Loud applause.) After having 
done everything to affirm its attachment 
to peace, the great American nation de- 
clares solemnly that it cannot remain 
neutral in this immense conflict between 
right and violence, between civilization 
and barbarism. {Loud and prolonged 
applause.) It holds that honor requires 
it to take up the defiance flung at all rules 
of international law so laboriously built 
up by civilized nations. {Applause.) 

It declares at the same time that it is 
not fighting for self-interest, desires 
neither conquest nor compensation, in- 
tends only to help toward a victory of the 
cause of law and liberty. {All the depu- 
ties rise and applaud.) 

A MESSAGE OF DELIVERANCE 

The grandeur, the nobility, of this ac- 
tion is enhanced by the simplicity and 
serenity of the language of the illustrious 
leader of that great democracy. {Loud 
applause.) 



." 



If the world had entertained the least 
doubt of the profound meaning of this 
war in which we are engaged, the mes- 
sage of the President of the United 
States would dissipate all obscurity. It 
makes apparent to all that the struggle is 
verily a struggle between the liberal spirit 
of modern societies and the spirit of op- 
pression of societies still enslaved to mili- 
tary despotism. {Prolonged applause.) 
It is for this reason that the message 
rings in the depths of all hearts like a 
message of deliverance to the world. 
{Applause.) 

The people which, under the inspira- 
tion of the writings of our philosophers, 
declared its rights in the eighteenth cen- 
tury, the people who place Washington 
and Lincoln foremost among their heroes 
{applause) y the people who in the last 
century suffered a civil war for the aboli- 
tion of slavery {cheers; the whole Cham- 
ber rises and applauds), were indeed 
worthy to give such an example to the 
world. 

Thus they remain faithful to the tradi- 
tions of the founders of their independ- 
ence and demonstrate that the enormous 
rise of their industrial strength and of 
their economic and financial power has 
not weakened in them that need for an 
ideal without which there can be no great 
nation. {Applause.) 

A FRIENDSHIP RATIFIED IN BLOOD 

What touches us particularly is that 
the United States has held to the friend- 
ship which at an earlier time was ratified 
in blood. {Applause.) We bear witness 
with grateful joy to the enduring sym- 
pathy between the peoples, which is one 
of the delicate virtues the bosom of a 
democracy can nourish. 

The Star-spangled Banner and the Tri- 
color will fly side by side ; our hands will 
join; our hearts beat in unison. This 



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THE OUTSPEAKING OF A GREAT DEMOCRACY 



363 



will mean for us, after so much suffer- 
ing, heroically borne, so many bereave- 
ments, so many ruins, a renewal of the 
sentiments which have animated and sus- 
tained us during this long trial. The 
powerful, decisive aid which the United 
States brings us is not only a material 
aid ; it will be especially moral aid, a real 
consolation. (Loud applatise.) 

Seeing the conscience of peoples every- 
where in the world awake and rise in an 
immense protest against the atrocities of 
which we are the victims, we feel more 
keenly that we are fighting not only for 
ourselves and for our allies, but for some- 
thing immortal (applause), and that we 
are laying the foundations of a new or- 
der. (Loud applause.) Thus our sacri- 
fices will not have been in vain ; the gen- 
erous blood poured out by the sons of 
France will have sowed fertile seeds in 
the ideas of justice and of liberty funda- 
mentally necessary to concord between 
nations. (Applause,) 

In the name of the whole country, the 
government of the French Republic ad- 
dresses to the government and people of 
the United States, with the expression of 
its gratitude, its warmest good wishes. 
(Prolonged cheers. All the deputies rise 
and turn applauding to the diplomatic 
gallery.) 

THE HARVEST OF JUSTICE • 

Many voices : The proclamation ! 

Mr. Paul Dechanel, President of 
THE Chamber: The proclamation of the 
speech which the Chamber has just ap- 
plauded is asked. There is no opposi- 
tion? The proclamation is ordered. 

The French Chamber greets with en- 
thusiasm the verdict of the President of 
the Republic of the United States, who 
has indeed spoken for justice, and the 
vigorous decision of the Federal Senate 
accepting the war imposed by Germany. 

^schylus says in "The Persians": 
"When insolence takes root, it grows 
into crime ; the harvest is suflfering." 

And we can say: "The growth of the 
crime brings vengeance ; after the harvest 
of suffering comes the harvest of jus- 
tice!" (Loud applause.) 

The cry of the women and children 
from the depths of the abyss where hide- 



ous wickedness flung them echoed from 
one end of the earth to the other. Wash- 
ington and Lincoln trembled in their 
graves; their great spirit has roused 
America. (Loud applause.) 

And is it a question only of avenging 
Americans? Is it a question only of 
punishing the violation of treaties signed 
by the United States? No; the eternal 
truths proclaimed in the Declaration of 
1776, the sacred causes which La Fay- 
ette and Rochambeau defended (ap- 
plause), the ideal of pure consciences 
from which the great Republic was 
born — ^honor, morality, liberty — these are 
the supreme values which shine in the 
folds of the Star - spangled Banner. 
(Loud applause.) 

all AMERICA ARRAYED AGAINST MAD 
ARROGANCE 

Descendants of the Puritans of New 
England, brought up on the precepts of 
the Gospel, and who under the eyes of 
God are about to punish the infernal 
creation of evil, falsehood, perjury, as- 
sassination, profanation, rape, slavery, 
martyrdom, and all kinds of disasters; 
Catholics, struck to the heart by curses 
against their religion, by outrages against 
their cathedrals and statues, reaching a 
climax in the destruction of Louvain and 
Rheims; university professors, trust- 
worthy guardians of law and learning; 
industrialists of the East and Middle 
West, farmers and agriculturists of the 
West ; workmen and artisans, threatened 
by the torpedoing of vessels, by the in- 
terruption of commerce, revolted by the 
insults to their national colors — all are 
arrayed against the mad arrogance which 
would enslave the earth, the sea, the 
heavens, and the souls of men. (Pro- 
longed applause and cheers.) 

At a time when, as in the heroic times 
of the American Revolution, the Amer- 
icans are to fight with us, let us repeat 
once more: We wish to prevent no one 
from living, working, and trading freely ; 
but the tyranny of Prussia has become a 
peril for the New World as for the Old, 
for England as for Russia, for Italy as 
for Austria, and for Germany itself. 
(Applause.) To free the world, by a 
common eflfort of all democratic peoples, 



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THE OUTSPEAKING OF A GREAT DEMOCRACY 



365 



from the yoke of a feudal and military 
caste in order to found peace upon right, 
is a work of human deliverance and uni- 
versal good. (Applause.) 

THE IMMORTAL ACT OI^ A GLORIOUS 
NATION 

In accomplishing, under an adminis- 
tration henceforth immortal (applause, 
cheers; all rise and applaud) , the great- 
est act in its annals since the abolition of 
slavery, the glorious nation whose whole 
history is but a development of the idea 
of liberty (applause) remains true to its 
lofty origin and creates for itself another 
claim to the gratitude of mankind. (Ap- 
plause.) 

The French Republic, across the ruins 
of its cities and its monuments, devas- 



tated without reason or excuse by shame- 
ful savagery (loud applause), sends to 
its beloved sister Republic in America 
the palms of the Marne, the Yser, and of 
Verdun and the Somme, to which new 
victories will soon be added. (Prolonged 
applause, cheers; all the deputies rise.) 

Many voices : We call for the procla- 
mation ! 

Mr. Colliard: I ask that the two 
speeches which the Chamber has just 
heard be issued as proclamations and 
read in the schools of France. 

Mr. Mauger: I second the motion. 

President of the Chamber: The 
proclamation of the speeches which the 
Chamber has just heard is requested. 
There is no opposition? The proclama- 
tion is ordered. 



OUR heritage of liberty 

An Address Before the United States Senate by M. Viviani, President of the 
French Commission to the United States, May i, 1^17 



MR. President and Senators: 
Since I have been granted the 
supreme honor of speaking be- 
fore the representatives of the American 
people, may I ask them first to allow me 
to thank this magnificent Capital for the 
welcome it has accorded us ? Accustomed 
as we are in our own free land to popular 
manifestations, and though we had been 
warned by your fellow-countrymen who 
live in Paris of the enthusiasm burning in 
your hearts, we are still full of the emo- 
tion raised by the sights that awaited us. 

I shall never cease to see the proud 
and stalwart men who saluted our pas- 
sage ; your wom^en, whose grace adds 
fresh beauty to your city, their arms out- 
stretched, full of flowers ; and your chil- 
dren hurr>'ing to meet us as if our com- 
ing were looked upon as a lesson for 
them — all with one accord acclaiming in 
our perishable persons immortal France. 

And I predict there will be a yet 
grander manifestation on the day when 
your illustrious President, relieved from 
the burden of power, will come among 
us bearing the salute of the Republic of 
the United States to a free Europe, whose 
foundations from end to end shall be 
based on right. 



It is with unspeakable emotion that we 
crossed the threshold of this legislative 
palace, where prudence and boldness 
meet, and that I for the first time in the 
annals of America, though a foreigner, 
speak in this hall which only a few days 
since resounded with the words of virile 
force. 



A magnificent example FOR 

democracies 



ALL 



You have set all the democracies of the 
world the most magnificent example. So 
soon as the common peril was made mani- 
fest to you, with simplicity and within a 
few short days you voted a formidable 
war credit and proclaimed that a formi- 
dable army was to be raised. President 
Wilson's commentary on his acts, which 
you made yours, remains in the history 
of free peoples the weightiest of lessons. 

Doubtless you were resolved to avenge 
the insults offered your flag, which the 
whole world respected ; doubtless through 
the thickness of these massive walls the 
mournful cry of all the victims that crim- 
inal hands hurled into the depths of the 
sea has reached and stirred your souls; 
but it will be your honor in history that 



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Photograph by Paul Thompson 

BARRELS OF PORCELAIN AT THE DOORS OF A FRENCH FACTORY READY FOR SHIPMENT 

TO THE UNITED STATES: LIMOGES, FRANCE 

Those industrial institutions whose skilled workmen were required neither for the 
trenches nor for the munition factories France has endeavored to operate without interrup- 
tion. The ceramic establishments which were not requisitioned for the manufacture of 
crucibles needed in producing high explosives have continued to make beautiful porcelain, 
thus contributing their bit toward the financial welfare of the nation. 



you also heard the cry of humanity and 
invoked against autocracy the right of 
democracies. 

And I can only wonder as I speak 
what, if they still have any power to 
think, are the thoughts of the autocrats 
who three years ago against us, three 
months ago against you, unchained this 
conflict. 

Ah! doubtless they said among them- 
selves that a democracy is an ideal gov- 
ernment ; that it showers reforms on man- 
kind ; that it can in the domain of labor 
quicken all economic activities. And yet 
now we see the French Republic fighting 
in defense of its territory and the liberty 
of nations and opposing to the avalanche 
let loose by Prussian militarism the union 
of all its children, who are still capable 
of striking many a weighty blow. 

And now we see England, far removed 
like you from conscription, who has also, 
by virtue of a discipline all accept, raised 
from her soil millions of fighting men. 



And we see other nations accomplishing 
the same act; and that hberty not only 
inflames all hearts, but coordinates and 
brings into being all needed eflforts. 

And now we see all America rise and 
sharpen her weapons in the midst of 
peace for the common struggle. 

ORGANIZING THE FEDERATION OF THE 
WORLD 

Together we will carry on that strug- 
gle, and when by force we have at last 
imposed military victory our labors will 
not be concluded. Our task will be — I 
quote the noble words of President Wil- 
son — to organize the society of nations. 

I well know that our enemies, who have 
never seen before them anything but ho- 
rizons of carnage, will never cease to jeer 
at so noble a design. Such has always 
been the fate of great ideas at their birth ; 
and if thinkers and men of action had 
allowed themselves to be discouraged by 
skeptics, mankind would still be in its 



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THE OUTSPEAKING OF A GREAT DEMOCRACY 



367 



infancy and we should still be slaves. 
After material victory we will win this 
moral victory. 

We will shatter the ponderous sword 
of militarism; we will establish guaran- 



ties for peace ; and then we can disappear 
from the world's stage, since we shall 
leave at the cost of our common immola- 
tion the noblest heritage future genera- 
tions can possess. 



THEIR MONUMENT IS IN OUR HEARTS 

Address by M, Viviani Before the Tomb of Washington, at Mount Vernon, 

April 2p, IQ17 



WE COULD not remain longer 
in Washington without accom- 
plishing this pious pilgrimage. 
In this spot lies all that is mortal of a 
great hero. Close by this spot is the 
modest abode where Washington rested 
after the tremendous labor of achieving 
for a nation its emancipation. 

In this spot meet the admiration of the 
whole world and the veneration of the 
American people. In this spot rise be- 
fore us the glorious memories left by the 
soldiers of France led by Rochambeau 
and Lafayette ; a descendant of the latter, 
my friend, M. de Chambrun, accompanies 
us. 

And I esteem it a supreme honor, as 
well as a satisfaction for my conscience, 
to be entitled to render this homage to 
our ancestors in the presence of my col- 
league and friend, Mr, Balfour, who so 
nobly represents his great nation. By 
thus coming to lay here the respectful 
tribute of every English mind he shows, 
in this historic moment of communion 
which France has willed, what nations 
that live for liberty can do. 

When we contemplate in the distant 
past the luminous presence of Washing- 
ton, in nearer times the majestic figure of 
Abraham Lincoln ; when we respectfully 
salute President Wilson, the worthy heir 
of these great memories, we at one glance 
measure the vast career of the American 
people. 

It is because the American people pro- 
claimed and won for the nation the right 
to govern itself, it is because it proclaimed 
and won the equality of all men, that the 
free American people at the hour marked 
by fate has been enabled with command- 
ing force to carry its action beyond the 



seas ; it is because it was resolved to ex- 
tend its action still further that Congress 
was enabled to obtain within the space of 
a few days the vote of conscription and 
to proclaim the necessity for a national 
army in the full splendor of civil peace. 
In the name of France, I salute the 
young army which will share in our com- 
mon glory. 

riGHTlXG FOR WASHINGTON'S IDEALS 

While paying this supreme tribute to 
the memory of Washington, I do not 
diminish the effect of my words when I 
turn my thought to the memory of so 
many unnamed heroes. I ask you before 
this tomb to bow in earnest meditation 
and all the fervor of piety before all the 
soldiers of the allied nations who for 
nearly three years have been fighting 
under different flags for some ideal. 

I beg you to address the homage of 
your hearts and souls to all the heroes, 
born to live in happiness, in the tranquil 
pursuit of their labors, in the enjoyment 
of all human affections, who went into 
battle with virile cheerfulness and gave 
themselves up, not to death alone, but to 
the eternal silence that closes over those 
whose sacrifice remains unnamed, in the 
full knowledge that, save for those who 
loved them, their names would disappear 
with their bodies. 

Their monument is in our hearts. Not 
the living alone greet us here ; the ranks 
of the dead themselves rise to surround 
the soldiers of liberty. 

At this solemn hour in the history of 
the world, while saluting from this sacred 
mound the final victory of justice, I send 
to the Republic of the United States the 
greetings of the French Republic. 



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THE OLDEST FREE ASSEMBLIES 



Address of Right Hon. Arthur J. Balfour, in the United 
States House of Representatives, May 5, 1917 



MR. Speaker, Ladies and Gentle- 
men OF THE House of Repre- 
sentatives : Will you permit me, 
on behalf of my friends and myself, to 
offer you my deepest and sincerest thanks 
for the rare and valued honor which you 
have done us by receiving us here today ? 

We all fe6l the greatness of this honor ; 
but I think to none of us can it come 
home so closely as to one who, like my- 
self, has been for 43 years in the service 
of a free assembly like your own. I re- 
joice to think that a member — a very old 
member, I am sorry to say — of the Brit- 
ish House of Commons has been received 
here today by this great sister assembly 
with such kindness as you have shown 
to me and to my friends. 

Ladies and gentlemen, these two as- 
semblies are the greatest and the oldest 
of the free assemblies now governing 
great nations in the world. The history 
indeed of the two is very different. 

The beginnings of the British House 
of Commons go back to a dim historic 
past, and its full rights and status have 
only been conquered and permanently 
secured after centuries of political strug- 
gle. 

Your fate has been a happier one. 
You were called into existence at a much 
later stage of social development. You 
came into being complete and perfected 
and all your powers determined, and 
your place in the Constitution secured 
beyond chance of revolution ; but, though 
the history of these two great assemblies 
is different, each of them represents the 
great democratic principle to which we 
look forward as the security for the fu- 
ture peace of the world. 

ALL FREE ASSEMBLIES MODELED AFTER 

THE BRITISH PARLIAMENT AND 

AMERICAN CONGRESS 

All of the free assemblies now to be 
found governing the great nations of the 



earth have been modeled either upon 
your practice or upon ours or upon both 
combined. 

Mr. Speaker, the compliment paid to 
the mission from Great Britain by such 
an assembly and upon such an occasion 
is one not one of us is ever likely to for- 
get. But there is something, after all, 
even deeper and more significant in the 
circumstances under which I now have 
the honor to address you than any which 
arise out of the interchange of courte- 
sies, however sincere, between the great 
and friendly nations. 

We all, I think, feel instinctively that 
this is one of the great moments in the 
history of the world, and that what is 
now happening on both sides of the At- 
lantic represents the drawing together of 
great and free peoples for mutual pro- 
tection against the aggression of military 
despotism. 

I am not one of those, and none of you 
are among those, who are such bad dem- 
ocrats as to say that democracies make 
no mistakes. All free assemblies have 
made blunders ; sometimes they have 
committed crimes. 

PURSUING THE APPALLING OBJECT OF 
DOMINATING CIVILIZATION 

Why is it, then, that we look forward 
to the spread of free institutions through- 
out the world, and especially among our 
present enemies, as one of the greatest 
guaranties of the future peace of the 
world? I will tell you, gentlemen, how 
it seems to me. It is quite true that the 
people and the representatives of the 
people may be betrayed by some mo- 
mentary gust of passion into a policy 
which they ultimately deplore; but it is 
only a military despotism of the German 
type which can, through generations if 
need be, pursue steadily, remorselessly, 
unscrupulously, the appalling object of 
dominating the civilization of mankind. 



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TYPES OF THE MEN WHO DEFENDED WARSAW TII.I. THE END 



Photographs by George H. Mewes 

RUSSIAN WOUNDED GOING TO THE REAR 

Motor ambulances are a rare luxury in Russia and the wounded arc frequently two and three 
days in peasants' carts before they reach the railhead or base hospitals 

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THE RUSSIAN SITUATION 



371 



And, mark you, this evil, this menace 
under which we are now suffering, is not 
one which diminishes with the growth of 
knowledge and the progress of material 
civilization, but, on the contrary, it in- 
creases with them. 

When I was young we used to flatter 
ourselves that progress inevitably meant 
peace, and that growth of knowledge 
was always accompanied, as its natural 
fruit, by the growth of good will among 
the nations of the earth. Unhappily, w^e 
know better now, and we know there is 
such a thing in the world as a power 
which can with unvarying persistency 
focus all the resources of knowledge and 
of civilization into the one great task of 
making itself the moral and material 
master of the world. 

It is against that danger that we, the 



free peoples of western civilization, have 
banded ourselves together. It is in that 
great cause that we are going to fight, 
and are now fighting this very moment, 
side by side. 

In that cause we shall surely conquer, 
and our children will look back to this 
fateful date as the one day from which 
democracies can feel secure that their 
progress, their civilization, their rivalry, 
if need be, wmII be conducted, not on 
German lines, but in that friendly and 
Christian spirit which really befits the 
age in which we live. 

Mr. Speaker, ladies and gentlemen, I 
beg most sincerely to repeat again how 
heartily I thank you for the cordial wel- 
come which you have given us today, and 
to repeat my profound sense of the sig- 
nificance of this unique meeting. 



THE RUSSIAN SITUATION AND ITS 
SIGNIFICANCE TO AMERICA 

By Stanley Washburn 



NOW that America has entered the 
world war and, in spirit if not 
by treaty, has become one of the 
Allies who are engaged in this incom- 
parable conflict for the idea of world 
democracy, it becomes of fundamental 
importance that we, as a people, realize, 
and at once, the factors in this war with 
which and through which we must work 
in order that by our united effort we may 
consummate the sacrifice of blood and 
treasure by the achievement of an en- 
during peace in Europe and throughout 
the world. 

Of France, our traditional friend, we 
know much. Our realization of what 
England has done in the war is, for the 
first time, receiving the appreciation 
which is its due. . 

Of far and distant Russia there seems 
to be apparently little known in America. 
The world is aware in a general way that 
the Russians have made huge sacrifices 
and have been fighting an uphill battle 
on the far eastern front. 



At this time, when we must in so large 
a measure depend on the cooperation and 
assistance of the great Republic, it is im- 
portant that it should be realized exactly 
what Russia has contributed to the war 
and what her remaining in the war until 
the end means to the Allies, and to 
America in particular. For this reason 
I wish to trace briefly Russia's part in 
this conflict and what it has represented. 

To understand the almost insur- 
mountable handicaps under which the 
Russians have been laboring, it is neces- 
sary to appreciate the nature and impor- 
tance of the German influence in Russia, 
which for the last few decades has be- 
come such a vital menace to the inde- 
pendence of the Russian people. 

TEUTON INFLUENCES IN RUSSIA 

After the Franco-Prussian War, when 
the new economic and industrial era be- 
gan to develop in the Teuton Empire, it 
was but natural that the Germans should 
look to Russia for their most important 



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THE RUSSIAN SITUATION 



373 



market. At first this outlet for their 
trade was a luxury t6 their economic de- 
velopment, but as, to a greater and 
greater extent, their trade became com- 
mitted to this vast territory it became 
more and more of an economic necessity 
that they retain and increase their grip 
on Russia. 

The northern or Baltic provinces of 
Russia are very largely populated by 
persons of German blood who have for 
many generations been Russian subjects. 
It is natural that these people, in a meas- 
ure, should feel and understand German 
aspirations and aid and abet in their plans 
where possible. 

By this I do not mean to assert that 
all Baltic Russians are pro-German, for 
some of the ablest and most loyal men 
and devoted troops have come from this 
part of Russia ; but it is true that many 
of the worst influences have also been of 
Baltic province extraction. For ten years 
before the war we can trace the German 
influence moving through every specious 
channel of intrigue and malevolent ac- 
tivity to gain ascendency in the internal 
policies of the Russian Government. 

GERMANS OPPOSE A LIBER.\L RUSSIA 

There is little reason to doubt that the 
German influence has aimed in every way 
to check the growth of liberalism in Rus- 
sia. There are many who believe that 
but for the German influence there would 
have come the abolition of vodka five 
years before the war. The elimination 
of this curse would have meant educa- 
tion, and with education inevitably must 
have come a demand for a more liberal 
government and a ministry responsible 
to the Duma. 

Alone the Germans could not have 
hoped to exert this influence; but we 
find in Russia another group, commonly 
known as the bureaucracy, who had a 
community of interests with the Teutons. 
The bureaucracy represents the office- 
holders and officials appointed by the 
Throne, who have for generations, and 
one might almost say for centuries, 
preyed upon the resources of the Rus- 
sian Empire, which, unchecked, have 
flown irresponsively through a small 



group of public buildings in the Russian 
capital. 

There has been during and before the 
war a cooperation between these two 
parties, the enduring prestige of which 
depended on German victory and Rus- 
sian defeat. It is clear that if Germany 
had been overwhelmingly defeated, both 
the pro-Germans and the bureaucrats 
would have lost the hold they had on the 
Russian Empire. 

Russia's unpreparedness 

It is probably true that none of these 
dark forces had any great apprehension 
at the beginning of the war that Ger- 
many could lose ; for, being well aware of 
Russia's unpreparedness, it seemed in- 
credible that she could triumph over her 
enemy — efficient, complete, and ready for 
the war. 

Russia owes to the Grand Duke Nich- 
olas Nicholaievitch the salvation of the 
Russian cause, for during the first six 
months, with the absolute power dele- 
gated to him by the Tsar, he completely 
upset the original military program of 
the Russian General Staflf in Petrograd 
and of the ^Minister of War, Sukomlinov, 
afterward removed for corruption and 
alleged treachery. 

The original Russian program seems 
to have contemplated an early defensive. 
By a suspicious coincidence the German 
plan of campaign had anticipated the sup- 
posed negative campaign of the Russians 
and little effort had, therefore, been made 
for the defense of East Prussia, the 
greater part of German energy being di- 
rected toward the invasion of France. 

The Grand Duke, loyal to the cause of 
the Alhes and faithful to the interests of 
Russia, in quick response to the appeals 
from France, upset, almost over night, 
the original defensive program and 
launched his East Prussian campaign. 

The Germans were probably taken by 
complete surprise as perhaps was the 
Russian Minister of War in Petrograd. 
The result of the Grand Duke's offensive 
in August, 1914, was to fill the Unter den 
Linden in Berlin with refugees fleeing 
panic stricken from East Prussia. It was 
impossible for the Kaiser to advertise,, 
convincingly, successes in the west when 



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THE RUSSIAN SITUATION 



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every day filled the streets of the capital 
with refugees fleeing from the east. 

RUSSIA AIDS AT THE MARXE AND CALAIS 

Ten days before the battle of the 
Marne the Germans transferred six army 
corps from the west to the east and Paris 
was saved. The Germans, utilizing to 
capacity their wonderful system of rail- 
roads, were able to make a concentration 
of troops in the east which almost an- 
nihilated the Russian army in East Prus- 
sia. The Russians accepted this disaster 
with extraordinary complacency on the 
ground that it was their contribution to 
the war, and that if they had saved Paris 
their losses were quite justified. 

Later in the fall, when the Germans 
were making their terrific drive on Calais, 
in their eflfort to strike more directly on 
England, the Grand Duke again launched 
a new and unexpected campaign on Ger- 
many, this time advancing from his base 
in Warsaw and striking at the enemy 
from the Polish frontier. Again the Ger- 
mans were obliged to divert huge bodies 
of troops to meet this menace of the Rus- 
sian invasion. By December i the Rus- 
sians had been driven back to the Bzura 
line outside of Warsaw. It is true that 
they had suffered reverses, but it had 
taken sixteen German army corps to drive 
them back, and Calais was saved ! 

In 1 91 5, when the one cherished stra- 
tegic aim of the Germans was to crush 
either England or France, their program 
was again upset, this time by the activity 
of the Russian armies in Galicia and the 
Bukovina. By the latter part of March 
the Russians had made such progress in 
the southwest as vitally to threaten the 
Hungarian plains, resulting in political 
chaos in Austria and Hungary. This be- 
came such a menace to the whole situa- 
tion that the Germans were obliged to 
abandon whatever plans they had in tlie 
west and give their immediate attention 
to backing up the dual monarchy, lest it 
be seduced from its alliance. 

DRAWS HORDES OF GERMANS FROM THE 
WEST 

Beginning in May, the Germans began 
pouring their troops into Galicia, and for 
six months there was an unending flow 



of German divisions and of army corps 
directed against the Russian front with 
an extraordinary supply of munitions, 
while even in men the Russians were out- 
numbered at strategic points by two or 
three to one. 

The Germans were able to drive 
through Galicia and bring about the fall 
of Warsaw in August, 191 5. Contrary 
to their expectations, they were unable to 
bring about an independent peace, and 
instead of seeing the collapse of their 
enemy they beheld the legions of the 
Tsar slip from out their grasp and retire 
into the vast spaces of the Empire. From 
August until October the great retreat 
continued, until exhaustion and falling 
morale of the invader made it necessary 
for the Germans to dig in for the winter. 

The Germans claimed that this was the 
appointed place that they had elected to 
reach for the winter, but I would state, 
unequivocally and without fear of con- 
tradiction, that the German advance 
stopped there, not because it wished to, 
but because it literally was unable to con- 
tinue the invasion any farther. Any ob- 
server who has seen their lines as I have 
in many places would concur in the belief 
that no army would elect to spend the 
winter on a line which ran through forest, 
swamp, and plain, achieving, for the most 
part, no strategic asset. 

RUSSIA GIVES ENGIvAND AND FRANCE 
OPPORTUNITY TO PREPARE 

The world at large looked upon 191 5 
as a year of Russian defeat, failing to 
realize that it took between thirty-five 
and forty corps of German troops, op- 
erating in the east, to bring about the 
Russian disaster. The withdrawal of 
these corps from the west gave England 
and France an opportunity to prepare 
after the war what lack of vision had not 
done before. When the Germans, in the 
spring of 191 6, sick of their empty ad- 
vances in the wastes of Russia, attacked 
the French at Verdun they found them 
prepared, and their efforts, as the world 
now knows, to break the French line 
proved ^abortive. 

By June of 1916, when the Germans 
were assembling troops for some other 
strategic aim, BrusillofF launched his of- 



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TYPICAL REFUGEES FROM THE BATTLE ZONE RELATING THEIR EXPERIENCES 



fensive on the southwestern front, which 
continued without intermission for sev- 
enty days. The capture, during the sum- 
mer and early fall, of 456,000 prisoners 
and nearly 500 guns so demorahzed the 
Austrians that whatever plan the Ger- 
mans may have had for that summer had 
to be abandoned and supports hurried to 
Galicia and Volynia to save again the 
dual monarchy from collapse. 

ANOTHER FRONT FOR THE GERMANS TO 
FACE 

This tremendous diversion of troops 
against the Russians last summer made 
It possible for the British and the 'French 
to commence their blows in the west on 
the Somme, operations which are still in 
progress. 



By September i Germany was again 
beginning to accumulate a strategic re- 
serve which might have made it possible 
for her to strike either on the east or 
west. At this moment Roumania, daz- 
zled by Russian successes, entered the 
war, and the Germans, again menaced on 
the east, were obliged to send thirty divi- 
si<)ns to the Balkans to drive the Russians 
out of Roumania. We see, then, that 
ever since the beginning of the war the 
pressure of the Russians, directly and in- 
directly on the east, has robbed the Ger- 
mans of their strategic opportunities on 
the west. 

Prior to the entrance of Roumania into 
the war the pro-German alliance in Petro- 
grad had been viewing the situation with 
the gravest fear. For the first time it was 



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THE RUSSIAN SITUATION 



377 



beginning to see the great possibility of 
defeat. The Tsar, himself a well-mean- 
ing and patriotic man, was surrounded 
by a clique inimical to the Allies, eager 
to bring about a cessation of hostilities as 
the only means of preserving their power 
and prestige in Russia. The removal in 
the early summer of Sazanov, and every 
man in the foreign office known to be 
loyal to the Allies, provided a mechanism 
for negotiating an independent peace. 

SCHEMERS EXPOSE THEIR OWN PLOTS 

The little clique who had been engi- 
neering this enterprise had been so intent 
on their own interests that they utterly 
failed to appreciate the fact that every 
other faction in Russia saw and clearly 
realized their aims. The fall of Bu- 
charest gave them their opportunity, but 
so powerful had become the Duma and 
the Council of the Empire that the gov- 
ernment dared not move openly at that 
time. 

Probably it was felt that the condition 
in Russia economically would be so des- 
perate in the spring that the people would 
demand a cessation of the war and little 
intriguing would be necessary, but when 
spring arrived with its inevitable unrest, 
and the Emperor endeavored to dissolve 
the Duma, there came not the demand 
for an independent peace, but a demand 
for the overthrow of the government 
whose incompetence and double-dealing 
had brought about the wide-spread suf- 
fering and disorders in Russia. 

The ease with which this revolution 
was accomplished was due entirely to the 
fact that every faction in Russia realized 
the truth as to the government, learned 
by thirty months of observation of in- 
competence and munition shortage, which 
had resulted in the sacrifice of millions of 
men at the front, and made manifest at 
home by the fact that in Russia more than 
thirteen million refugees were forced to 
flee for safety to the heart of the Empire 
because an army had not been given rifles 
and munitions with which to guard the 
Russian front. 

We now approach the period of the 
present, when America has elected to en- 
ter the world war, and if America would 
realize what Russia means to this cause 
It must understand that the Russians at 
the present time are holding on their 



eastern front, from the Baltic to the 
Danube, nearly three million enemy 
troops, perhaps a million and a half of 
these being Germans. 

WHAT Russia's elimination would 

MEAN 

If, by disaster at the front or by in- 
trigue at home, Russia is forced out of 
the war during the coming summer, we 
may anticipate the early transfer of a 
large portion of this vast mass of men 
to the western, front, and we will see the 
beginning of what in reality is an entirely 
new war. 

We must now consider what is our 
duty toward ourselves and toward our 
Allies. The minute a nation by declara- 
tion of war engages in hostilities with an 
enemy nation it becomes the duty of the 
government and the people of that gov- 
ernment to commence striking at that 
enemy with every means which is at its 
disposal — moral, financial, economic, and 
military. 

If this country is to be of actual and 
vital assistance to the Allies who are 
fighting this war for world democracy 
and the cause of humanity against the 
German Government, which represents 
neither, the first and most essential re- 
quirement today in America is the realiza- 
tion on the part of the people of this 
country that the Germans are not on the 
point of collapse. 

SEEDS OF DISASTER SOWN BY UNDERESTI- 
MATING THE ENEMY 

I have been in three countries at the 
beginning of the war — England, Russia, 
and Roumania — ^and in each of these 
countries the seeds of future disaster, 
later paid for by the sacrifice of hun- 
dreds of thousands of lives, were sown 
in the belief among the people that the 
struggle was to be of an approximately 
short duration, and that it would be un- 
necessary to exert the entire national 
eflfort to defeat the enemy. I heard many 
Englishmen in the early days of the war 
express their hesitancy in enlisting for a 
year's training before going to the front, 
because they believed the conflict would 
be over before they ever could reach the 
fighting line. 

In the fall of 1914 the Russian Min- 
ister of War had almost ceased ordering 



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THE NATIONAL CzROGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



ammunition, expressing^ the opinion that 
the war would be over before the time of 
delivery came, while in December of that 
first year men of highest importance in 
the Russian Empire labored under the 
belief that Austria, exhausted by her 
early sacrifices, was on the point of mak- 
ing an independent peace. Roumania, in 
September of 1916, believed that the war 
was practically over. 

The result of this general misconcej)- 
tion in England was that the mobilization 
of British resources did not take place 
until the spring of 191 5 and conscription 
until 1916. In Russia the truth was 
realized only when the army ran out of 
suppKes early in 191 5, when she paid for 
the lack of vision of her government by 
the sacrifice of thousands of lives in the 
great retreat, while Roumania, as the 
world now knows, has lost three-quar- 
ters of her territory as a price for her 
undue optimism as to the German ca- 
pacity to continue the war. 

FALLACIOUS ARGUMENTS HEARD HERE 

In 19 1 7 we hear in America the same 
fallacious arguments that one has heard 
for three years in Europe, namely, that 
Germany is at the end of her resources, 
and that it is not worth while for indi- 
viduals to enlist, as the chances are they 
will never have the opportunity to leave 
American shores. 

The prevalence of this opinion is in 
reality of the greatest assistance to the 
Germans, and by the wide-spread belief 
in this we are actually making the dura- 
tion of the war infinitely longer. To 
those who believe that the German Gov- 
ernment is about to break on account of 
the reverse on the western front, I would 
call attention to the extraordinary psy- 
chology of the German people, which is 
so different from that of all other coun- 
tries engaged in this war that compari- 
son is impossible. 

It is difficult for Americans to realize 
the discipline and lack of intellectual in- 
itiative which exists in the German army 
and among the German people. 

Ever since he became Emperor, Wil- 
helm has been instilling his extraordinary 
beliefs into his army and into his people, 
until today we have a psychology in the 
Teuton Empire which will probably make 



it possible for the military autocracy to 
continue the war to a far greater length 
than would be conceivable in any other 
country in the world. 

THE PERVI'RTED TEACHINGS OF THE 
KAISER 

In the early nineties the Kaiser sounded 
the keynote of his own character and 
point of view in a speech he made to a 
regiment in northern Germany, when he 
said to them: *'I would rather see my 
forty-five million Prussians dead on the 
field of battle than see one foot of the 
soil taken in 1870 given back to France.'' 

And several years later, in addressing 
a body of recruits in Potsdam, the Kai- 
ser is reported to have said: "Now that 
you have donned my uniform it must be 
your pleasure and your duty to fellow 
my wishes, realizing that I rule Germany 
by the direct will of God, and you must 
willingly obey my commands, even 
though I require you to shoot down your 
own fathers and brothers in response to 
my dictates." 

With such ideas as these being in- 
stilled into the German army and Ger- 
man people year by year, we must not 
believe that at the first sign of reverse 
they will forget the teachings of forty 
years and demand consummation of im- 
mediate peace; and we must likewise 
realize that a revolution in Germany at 
this time has far less opportunity for 
success, for there is every probability 
that the German soldiers would fire upon 
their own people with the same sub- 
servience to their officers that they show 
in all their military operations. 

THE war's end not AT HAND 

While the military operations in the 
west are of vast importance to the situ- 
ation and must unquestionably demoral- 
ize the Germans to a certain extent, I see 
no reason to believe that the events of 
this month in France have created a con- 
dition from which we may expect any 
immediate results looking toward peace. 

When we read that the French and 
English have taken 33,000 prisoners and 
330 guns in the month of April, we must, 
of course, rejoice ; but we must at the 
same time guard against an optimism 
which leads to the belief that our only 



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photograph by George H. Mewes 
RUSSIAN TROOPS AWAITING A GERMAN ATTACK 

This is a typical rear-guard trench, characteristic of the field fortifications of the great 

retreat 



379 Digitized by GoOglC 



Photograph by George H. Mewcs 
THE STAFF OF THE 5TH SIBERIAN CORPS 

The last corps to leave Warsaw and one of the first in action on the southwestern front in 

the summer of 1916 



duty in this war is financial and eco- 
nomic. 

These losses of the Germans, while en- 
couraging, are in reality but a drop in 
the bucket. It might be well to remem- 
ber that Brusilloff, in a little over two 
months' operations on the southwestern 
front in Russia during the summer of 
19 1 6, took 450,000 prisoners and 496 
guns ; and yet this far greater loss to the 
enemy, as one now realizes, has exerted 
but transitory influence on the world 
situation. 

In order fully to appreciate the Teuton 
strength, it is necessary to give the Ger- 
mans the credit which is their due. One 
must, I think, consider broadly their 
whole point of view and realize that the 
power of the Central Empire, and no one 
at this time will question its strength, is 
due to the German virtues and not to the 
German vices. 

Now that the bitterness against the 
Germans is so intense, it is difficult to 
wipe away the prejudices one feels and 
give them the benefit of the extraordi- 
nary values which they have as a people ; 
but if we underestimate these virtues, we 



fail to understand the causes which have 
made it possible for the Germans to do 
what they have done. 

WHY THE GERMAN WAR MACHINE IS 
STRONG 

Much as I disapprove of the German 
point of view and of the spirit which has 
been manifested by the Germans of 
nearly all classes in this war, I still re- 
main of the opinion that, taken from the 
internal point of view, our enemies pos- 
sess almost every virtue which makes for 
military strength. 

In the first place, no one who has seen 
and talked with the German troops can 
question the sincerity of their belief in 
the righteousness of the German cause. 
I have talked with prisoners from the 
Baltic to the Bukovina, and I have never 
yet met one who did not believe implic- 
itly in the statement of the Kaiser, made 
at the beginning of the war, to the eflFect 
that "in the midst of perfect peace we 
have been treacherously surprised by a 
ring of enemies jealous of our genius 
and intent on our destruction." 



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THE RUSSIAN SITUATION 



381 



THE PRUSSIAN CAPACITY FOR SACRIFICE 

With this idea dominant in the Ger- 
man mind, and probably now accepted as 
a truth even by the Kaiser himself, who 
has come to believe implicitly in his own 
statements, the fallacies of which his 
lack of imagination has made him inca- 
pable of seeing, there has been produced 
in Germany a national fortitude and a 
capacity for sacrifice rarely equaled and 
never surpassed in the history of the 
world. 

Having spent in the achievement of 
what they regard as their national de- 
fensive aims four and one-half million 
casualties gross, we need not imagine 
that the loss of a few hundred thousand 
in the west is going to exert any funda- 
mental or far-reaching influence on the 
German ultimate capacity of resistance. 

I believe it to be an absolute truth that 
if America prepares for war with the 
idea that this conflict is to last for three 
years we may expect the end of the war 
before 1918; but if we elect to make the 
same psychological mistake that the other 
Powers have made and cling to the belief 
that the war is almost over, and prepare 
in the belief that the Germans will be ex- 
hausted this year, it is perfectly possible 
that the war may last for another two 
years. 

now WE MAY PROIyONG THE WAR 

If we raise a trifling army of half a 
million to a million men, it is quite possi- 
ble that before this war is over we may 
suffer a million casualties on the western 
front alone; whereas if we accept the 
necessity of sacrifice and prepare our- 
selves as we would do were we fighting 
Germany alone and for our national ex- 
istence, and formulate plans for a three- 
years war, involving ultimate capacity to 
deliver on various European fronts five 
million men, fully equipped and trained, 
it is my opinion that, with the possible 
exception of an expeditionary force for 
moral eflfect on the situation, none would 
ever reach a European front. 

It must be realized at this time that a 
dominant feature in the world has be- 
come the visible supply of man power. 
The German staflf has carefully analyzed 
the European situation, has reckoned with 
this visible supply in Russia, France, and 



England, and has, to its own satisfaction, 
reached the conclusion that Germany has 
a sporting chance of outHving her ene- 
mies in this competition of death. The 
staff has not, at any time, I am certain, 
included in its figures the possibility of 
five million Americans being potentially 
available to fill the losses of the Allies in 
1 91 8, 1 91 9, and possibly 1920. 

A WHEAT MARKET ANALOGY 

In this matter of the visible supply of 
human material I see a direct analogy in 
the wheat market. If a Chicago operator 
contemplates a comer in May or July 
wheat and learns many months before 
that the acreage in Argentina is to be 
increased 200 per cent, his plans are af- 
fected and defeated, not when this wheat 
really comes on the Chicago market, but 
when he receives information of the con- 
templated acreage in distant fields of pro- 
duction. 

Thus the price of wheat in other rul- 
ing markets is affected even before a seed 
is planted. And so, I believe, it is with 
this military situation. If our plans con- 
template the raising of an army of five 
million men within a certain period, the 
Germans feel the military and moral ef- 
fect before we have enlisted the men; 
for it means that a staff already des- 
perately pressed to provide men for this 
year's campaign must extend its vision to 
contemplate the possibility of raising in 
1 918, for delivery at the same time and 
place, approximately an equivalent num- 
ber of troops as contemplated in our mili- 
tary program. 

THIS YEAR OR NEVER W^ITH THE GERMANS 

The realization of this potential situ- 
ation must convince the enemy that what 
they cannot accomplish during this sum- 
mer they can never accomplish, and the 
necessity of peace late in the fall or early 
winter must be apparent to even the 
frozen imagination of the German people. 
It is for this reason that I believe our 
second fundamental duty is the adoption 
of a military program on the basis of 
three years of war. 

The third fundamental and, in my 
opinion, the most necessary action which 
this country should take is that which our 
President and government are already 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



taking in the support of the new provis- 
ional government in Russia. Inasmuch 
as we cannot at present strike the enemy 
with any military force of our own, we 
must strike by assisting, to the greatest 
extent possible, that member of the Allies 
who is in the greatest need of assistance. 
It must be evident now that the Ger- 
mans have lost for the present the possi- 
bility of achieving any objective in the 
west which might bring them peace. It 
is clear, then, that they must turn their 
minds toward the adjustment of peace 
with Russia; for, if this end can be ob- 
tained, between two and three million 
available troops would be released for 
operations in the west, and an access to 
food supplies and raw materials in Russia 
would largely neutralize the eflfectiveness 
of the British blockade and give the Ger- 
mans the capacity to fight indefinitely. 

DANGERS OF A TEUTON DRIVE ON 
PETROGRAD 

While I am not a pessimist as to the 
situation in Russia, I am certainly of the 
opinion that it is more than a military 
possibility for the Germans to take Petro- 
grad between now and the first of Sep- 
tember. 

Were they to do this, they would strike 
a terrific moral blow at the Empire and 
an equally heavy economic one by the. 
capture of the greatest munition and 
manufacturing base in Russia. At the 
same time they would isolate the Russian 
fleet in the Baltic and threaten potentially 
the lines of communication between Eng- 
land and Russia, throwing a terrific bur- 
den on the Trans-Siberian Railroad. 

There is no question but that the pres- 
ent provisional government in Russia is 
composed of the most far-seeing and pa- 
triotic men of the nation. Perhaps no 
revolution in history has produced a finer 
group of patriots than this Russian 
twelve ; but we in America must not ex- 
pect the impossible, even from these dis- 
tinguished and highly intelligent gentle- 
men. 

In the face of military disaster, the 
possibility of which we must recognize, 
and the loss of the capital, whose security 
we must not too certainly depend upon, 
and with the ammunition and supplies 
from the outside threatened, if not cut 



off, we must discount the possibility of 
an extremely dangerous situation in the 
east during the coming summer. 

We must always count on German in- 
trigue exerting malevolent influence in 
Russia whenever the news from the front 
is in the least bit pessimistic. It is for 
the reason mentioned above that I believe 
our President has shown great wisdom 
and foresight in giving his immediate at- 
tention to the Russian situation in pref- 
erence to any other of the Allies at the 
present time. 

NO DOUBT AS TO THE WAR'S OUTCOME 

As to the ultimate outcome of the war 
there is, of course, not the slightest doubt 
in my mind, nor has there ever been. 
The only danger was as to whether or not 
Germany's material preparations would 
be able to crush the Allies before the 
character of their people had had time to 
crystallize and prepare itself first for de- 
fense and then for offensive operations. 

With nations as with individuals, it is 
character that is the ultimate test. Forty- 
two centimeter guns are worn out, muni- 
tions are shot away, and food supplies 
are eaten up, but the moral character of 
the people remains the one enduring 
asset which makes sacrifice possible and 
victory assured. 

The American Revolution was won, 
not at Yorktown, but at Lexington, when 
it became apparent for the first time what 
was the fiber of the American people; 
and so this war was won when it became 
evident that the people of France, of 
England, and of Russia preferred sacri- 
fice and death to defeat. 

That all these sacrifices are justified 
those who have followed the situation 
closely cannot doubt. 

I am personally of the opinion that an 
enduring moral idea is the greatest in- 
heritance which one generation can leave 
to its successor. 

The establishment of the democratic 
idea, based on morals, ethics, equity, and 
justice, which must come from this war, 
is worth, not a million or ten million 
casualties, but fifty million, if from this 
struggle there emerge an enduring con- 
ception as to the fundamental basis on 
which society, progress, and civilization 
must rest in perpetuity. 



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jer than other tires, 

jer, go farther, serve 

cost less in the end. 

exible, they ride easier, 
5e less fuel, require less 

jr effect make their slighdy 
price the part of economy. 

tire of America, they 
)ur car. 

►'w, Heavy Tourist Tubes 
Saver* * Accessories are 
from Goodyear. Service 
balers everywhere, 

re & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio 




X E^klC 



AKRON 



CORD TIRC 




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Keeps Your "Going'' Business Going! 

This is how the Grinnell does it 



A BAD fire will give any business, how- 
ever prosperous, a solar-plexus blow 
and knock it out ! 

But you're insured against fire, you say? 

Oh, yes, of course; we know that. But 
if you have a big fire your business will 
come to a full stop, won't it ? 

You'll plead for "kind consideration" 
from your customers and urge them to wait. 

You'll call in your salesmen and tell them 
not to sell for a while. 

You'll keep men on the pay-roll without 
work. 

You and all your executives will work 
eighteen hours a day. 

You'll telegraph frantically and vainly 
for new machines, new stocks, and new raw 
materials. 

You'll not be able to start again with 
experienced workmen while the present 
shortage of labor continues. 

Your business will be in a state of sus- 
pended animation for at least three months 
and weakly convalescent for another six. 



And your annual statement will be 
marked apologetically, "This was the year 
of the fire." 

That's what happens in any business when 
a fire starts and is allozved to finish its work. 

That's why it will pay you to have a sys- 
tem that puts out a fire as soon as it starts. 

One of the greatest automobile manufac- 
turers won't do business with any source of 
supply which is not protected against busi- 
ness interruption and demoralization by a 
modern automatic-sprinkler system. He 
can't aflford to take chances on a stoppage 
of supplies. 

That is the modern view. Conflagrations 
are a proof of slipshod business methods; 
a needless nuisance to every interlocking 
business relation ; obsolete in the most up- 
to-date businesses. 

A business safeguarded by Grinnells is 
considered so thoroughly safe by the insur- 
ance companies that the insurance rate is 
cut away down as soon as the system is in 



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put out hy Crinnells. 



operative condition, 
diminished hazard. 



That tells the story of 



Not being an insurance expert, you may 
think, "Oh, there's not much chance of a 
big fire in my place!" But the insurance 
rate, based on statistics, tells the unwelcome 
truth about it. 

So do thousands of business fires a year. 

Don't stick your head in the sands of 
self-complacency ! Your business will never 
be safe until it is protected by automatic 
sprinklers. 

Fireproof construction ? That won't save 
you. Coal will burn in a fireproof grate, 
and, likewise, your business will burn in a 
concrete cage. 

Sprinklers rank far ahead of fireproof 
construction as rate-reducers on everything 
inside a building. 

A sprinkler system is a large and impor- 
tant investment, and when once installed 
can never be economically changed for an- 
other kind. 

Play safe, therefore, and buy the stand- 
ard system, the Grinnell. It protects more 
property than all other sprinkler systems 
put together and is assembled to order in 
our plants, which are the largest and best 



equipped of their kind in the world. The 
system, therefore, comes to you complete 
except for a few last connections, and you 
can rest assured that it is the best, because 
it has behind it a big six-million-dollar cor- 
poration, with over thirty-four years' ex- 
perience in the art of automatic fire-pro- 
tection. 

Don't theorize— ^et the figures! 

We publish a blank form which we will 
be glad to send to you without charge. It 
is called the Grinnell Exemption blank be- 
cause it is the first step toward gaining 
exemption from the high cost of insurance. 
Thousands of business men have been ex- 
empted from a large part of their insurance 
"tax" by the underwriters as a result of 
taking this easy first step. When you fill 
it out with the facts that are called for, we 
can tell you something pretty definite about 
what Crinnells will do for you. 

A postal request will bring the blank. 
Tell your stenographer to send it — now! 
Even an hour's delay may prove costly! 
Write — now — ^to the General Fire Extin- 
guisher Company, 293 West Exchange 
Street, Providence, R. I. 



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BETTER THAN LEATHER 




"AT THE END OF THE TRAIL" 
Frazser*s Statue ^ to be erected at the 
western end of the L incoln Highway. 



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Standards of Service 



In rural communities clusters of 
m€ul delivery boxes at the crossroads 
evidence Uncle Scuii*s postal service. 
Here the neighbors trudge from their 
homes — perhaps a few yeurds, perhaps 
a quarter mile or so — for their mail. 

Comprehensive as is the govern- 
ment postal system*^ still the service 
rendered by its mail carriers is neces- 
sarily restricted, as the country dweller 
knows. 

Long before rural delivery was es- 
tablished the Bell System began to link 
up the farmhouse with the neighbor- 



ing towns and villeiges. One-fourth of 
die 10,000,000 telephones in the Bell 
System are ruraL They reach more 
places than there are post offices. 
Along the highways and private lanes 
the telephone poles lead straight up 
to the f £urmer*s door. 



He need not stir from the cheerful 
hearth ablaze in winter, nor grope 
along dcurk roads at night for friendly^ 
news or aid in time of trouble. Right 
in the heart of his home is his tele* 
phone. It is the American farmer*& 
key to the outside world, and in no 
other countiy is it found. 




American Telephone and Telegraph Company 

And Associated Companies 
One Policy One System Universal Service 



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Great corporation Kead is 
amazed at the skill & devotion 
of DaveyTree Surgeons ^ 



Correspondence between W« W. Salmon, 
President of the General Railway Signal Com- 
pany, and M. L. Davey, General Manager of the 
Davey Organization— a message of vital Impor- 
tance to every owner of trees. 

GENERAL RAILWAY SIGNAL COMPANY 

Principal Office: 

Rochester, N. Y., U. S. A. 

W. W. Salmon, President. 

New York City. Sept. 29. 1916. 
Mr. M. L. Davey, Davey Tree Expert Co., Kent, Ohio. 
Dear Mr. Davey: • 

Enclosed herewith please find my check to your order for 
$1,081 .33 in full for tree surgery on my i>roperty at Beechmont, 
New Rochelle. 

In makinff this remittance permit me to express my appre- 
ciation of the capable, interested service rendered by your or- 
ganization. Your New York Office as well as your Westchester 
representative and your foreman, have one and all given the 
most painstaking attention to my needs, and I have been so much 
impressed with the efficiency of your organiaation as I have come 
in contaa with it, that it womd please me greatly if. when you 
can find time, you will have the goodness to furnish me with 
any data at your command, showing how you have built up and 
maintained tt in such a way as to bring about the devotion and 
enterprise so evident in your representatives whom it has been 
my pleasure to meet. Yours very truly, 

W. W. Salmon. 

Kent, Ohio. Oct. 3, 1916. 
W. W. Salmon, Esq., "Beechmont," New Rochelle, N. Y. 
Dear Mr. Salmon: ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ , , 

Acknowledging your esteemed favor of Sept. 29thj I want to 
aartare you that such a voluntary expression of satisfaction is 
more than a pleasure — ^it is an inspiration. The public as a 
whole has been very gracious to us in return for our conscientious 
dOtorts to give Otuuity First Tree Surgery and honest service. 

I believe that most worthy things, especially along the line 
oi organization, are the result of evolution based upon a f imda- 
menw policy. Our purpose from the beginning has been to give 
maximum service, whtch means perfuted methods, high type men 
and an organisation ideal, , 

Perhaps the thing of first unix>rtance is the men — ^the men 
who actually do the work. The people whom we serve are not 
iwrticularly interested in my theories or my knowledge or my 
abiUty. They measure the Davey organization by the men 
whom they see, and rightly so. Consequently, we have en- 
deavored to get the right kind of men. 

We go on the theory that "A leopard cannot change his 
spots. If a man is dishonest, if he is lazy, if he is c 



indifferent, if he lacks intelligence, if he lacks the spirit of < 
operation and devotion to his work wad his employers — if he 
lacks these fundamental things, no argument and no appeal 
and no inducement will make him a good man. We, ther^are, 
eliminate the poor oHes as fast as we find them, keeping only those 
who have in them the qualities which have impressed you. The 
good ones we boost and encourage and try to inspire as soon. 
as we find that they are good, we pay these good men well 
and pay them niore as soon as they prove they are worth 
more. The foreman who had charge of your work will be 
given a raise immediately on the strength of your letter. Is 
It not reasonable to sui>po6e that he will strive still harder to 
please every other client? Every man in the Davey organisa- 
tion-knows that his advancement depends upon his servue and 
upon no other thing. 

While we pay well we demand much in return. If a man 
fails to live up to our high standard, we do not want him and 
will not have him. // our service at any time falls below this 
high standard, we let the offender go and make good to the client. 
Thus the process of elimination leaves us the good men, those 
who are intelligent, industrious, honest and devoted to theirworlc 

Our men are aU trained in the Davey organisation. We take 
no man's recommendation of himself. He must go through 
the mill and show us. Every man is responsible to us for his 
work and his conduct, whidi is the measure of his service. 



Bcarel^sand 



Thus the client gets, through us, the highest possible . 
guaranteed service. We, who know values in Tree Surgery, 
select the man who is to handle your priceless trees and we stand 
back of it with the whole strength of our organisation and reputation. 

We have devoted ourselves unceasingly to the perfection of 
our methods, with the result that our work is in reality prac- 
tically perfect both mechanically and scientifically. We main- 
tain our own school at a considerable annual expense for the 
specific purpose of training our men according to the Davey 
methods and Davey standard. 

Every year we have a Convention, when we bring all of our 
responsible men together, including foremen, special repre- 
sentatives, officers, students and school faculty. We had our 
usual Convention last March, We had more than sixty foremen 
in attendance. The average length of their experience was a6oMl 
five years, with the result that more than three hundred years of 
actual experience was concentrated, massed, on the problems cgf 
Ttee Surgery, We had a week's demonstration work, during 
which time we discussed everything from the most important 
down to the seemingly trivial things. Everything was put to 
the test of experience. We wanted no theories. We demanded only 
the definite results of ripe experience. The result is not only a 
constantlpf rising standard, but a very grat^ying and va lu Me 
uniformity of methods and policy. 

We had with us during our last annual Convention, Dr, 
H, D, House, New York State Botanist, who was formerly 
Professor in the Biltmore Forestry School. We wanted him here 
so that he could look us over. He expressed himself as amased 
at the character of our organisation and said that he could now 
understand why we had made a success of our work. Among other 



From Mr. Wm. M. Wood. Pres. 
Am. Woolen Co.. Boston, Mass. 

"Your work upon my trees bears the 
mark of expert Icnowledge, and I am 
looking forwtuti confidently to the best 
possible results from your intelligent 
treatment. Your success in tree pres- 
ervation makes you a real public bene* 
factor." 

From Mr. G. M. Palmer, Pres. 
Hubbard Milling Co.. ^^. 

Manlcato, Mmn. 

"I was very much pleased with the 
work of your men on my trees. They 
seem to tmderstand thoroughly then- 
business and I am sure they have put 
my trees in first class condition." 



From Mr. W. H. Mullins. Pres. 
The W. H. MuUins Co.. Salem, O. 

"The work done by your men on my 
trees has been very satisfactory and I 
hope will be the means of prolonging 
their life for many years." 



From Mr. Ezra F. Hershey, 
Hershey Chocolate Co. 
Hershey, Penn. 

"It is a pleasure to me, and I feel it a 
duty, to recommend any work that is 
done as intelligently as you handled my 
work here." 



<^ 



DaveyTree 

FOR SAFE TREE SURGERY 



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things he said, "These men 
would do honor to any insti- 
tution of learning in America." 
A thing which greatly im- 
pressed nim was the fact that 
our men, these fellows of 
broad, practical experience, 
were absolutely unammoua on 
every vital pomt. 

Then ihire is the question qf 
organisation spirit. Our men 
have been made to feel that 
they are engaged in a great 
work—n worh whidt is alto- 
gether worthy of them and the 
best thai is in them. They 
have been made to realize 
that their future success is in- 
separably interwoven with 
the future and the success of 
the Davey orsanization. We 
have appealed to their self- 
interest, their desire for suc- 
cess and for financial return. 
We have shown them that there 
is only one way for them to 
advance their saf -interest and 
that is to five devoted service 
to their Company and its 
dients. Without the right 
kind of men such an appeal 
would be as wasted as a single 
rain on a desert. With the 
right kind of men as we have, 
such an appeal finds ready 
response, which grows and 
grows in beauty and in prac- 
tical utility. 

You as a business man 
know the inspiration which 
comes from definite achieve- 
ment, from approaching a 
fixed goal. I find more satis- 
faction in this achievement 
than in the profit which 
comes from it. / believe that 
a business ideal is a source of 
power and serves to draw sue- 
cess as a magnet. 

Ten years ago the Davey 
organisation was only a mere 
himdful doing a business of 

about ten or twelve thousand dollars per year. Today we 
have an organisation of about three hundred built along the 
lines which I have indicated. Our business this year will 
exceed three hundred thousand dollars and I am very glad to say 
it leaves in its wahe an almost general feeling of satisfaction such 
as you have expressed. 

Let me assure you that we very deeply appreciate the oppor- 
tunity of serving you and the honor of your full confidence and 
Sincerely yours, 
THE DAVEY TREE EXPERT CO. 
M. L. Davey, General Manager. 




Rochester, N. Y., Nov. 17, 1916. 
Mr. M. L. Davey. General Manager. 

The Davey Tree Expert Co., Kent, Ohio. 
Dear Mr. Davey: 

Please accept my sincere thanks for your most illuminating 
letter of October 3rd. 

Your story, interesting in itself, is most admirably told. 



though in its telling it apiiears 
to me that you have failed to 
mention the one element with- 
out which the "perfected 
methods, high type men and 
organisation ideaf' would not 
have come into being. That 
unnamed element I suspect to 
have been Davey, who first 
conceived the ideal, then de- 
termined the methods and 
later found and inspired with 
some part of his own enthu- 
siasm the men who are 
actually canying out the 
work. 

Shortly after receiving your 
letter I read it to the aepart- 
ment heads qf the General 
Railway Signal ComPanv^ 
while at luncheon^ and the 
interesting discussion that ftA- 
lowed led me to show the letter 
to some of my business friends, 
who are at the head of com- 
panies employing a peat many 
men. In each such instance 
I have been ashed for a copy of 
the letter-— in order that they 
may have their men read and 
proAt by it. 

Will you have the goodness 
to write me at my home ad- 
dress whether I have voor 
consent to make and send oat 
to my business friends toch 
oopies? 

Sinoerelyyours, 
W. W. Salmon. 

Write today for 
FREE examina^ 
Hon of your trees 

— and booklet, "When Your 
Trees Need the Tree Sur^ 
geon." What is the real con- 
dition of your trees? Only 
the experienced Tree Surgeon 
can tdl you fully and defi- 
nitely. Without cost or obligation to you, a DaveyTree 
Surgeon will visit your place, and render an honest verdict 
xegutling their c on di t km and needs. Write today. 

The Davey Tree Expert Co., Inc. 

isis Elm St.* Kent, Ohio 
(Operating the Davey Inititute of Tree Surgery) 

Bnmdi Offices witli telepiione connecdonat 

225 Fiftli Ave., New York 

2117 Land Title Bldg., Philadelphia 

4N McCormick Bldg., Chicago 

Permanent representatives located at Boston, Newport, Lenox, 
Hartford, Stamford, Albany, Pou^ikeepsie. ,WWte Plains, 
Jamaica, L. I., Morristown, N. J., Philadelphia, Hamsbui]^, 
Baltimore, Washington, Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Cleveland. Detroit, 
Cincinnati. Louisville, Chicago, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, St. 
Louis. Kansas City. Canadian Address, 81 St. Peter St.. Quebec. 



From Mr. Henry A. Everett. Pres. 
Northern Ohio_Traction 8k, Light Co. 



From Mr. Samvel G. Allen, Prea. 
Franklin Railway Supply Co. 



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CHANDLER SIX $(393 



THE CHANDLER CHECKS 
JVith High-Priced Cars 



/^^ HANDLER checks in the most essential 
^^ features of design and construction and 
equipment with the high-priced cars. Chandler 
performs with the high-priced cars. 

The manufacturer of one Six can make just 
as big claims as any other. The Chandler 
Company likes to deal in facts. 

For years the Chandler Company has made 
the Chandler ay^f/-car, not a cla'tm-Q^s, Claims 
sell a lot of cars, but facts sell more cars, just as 
fast as the buyers learn the facts. 

The Chandler is honestly built and mod- 
erately priced. There is no other Six, selling 
at anything like the Chandler price, which will 
give you so much dependable service. 



Thousands of motor-car buyers recognize 
the mechanical superiority of the Chandler 
Six, mechanical superiority achieved through 
the Marvelous Motor — the exclusive Chandler 
Motor, powerful, flexible, simple, and econom- 
ical — and through the excellence of design and 
construction of the entire Chandler chassis. 

So many recognize its superiority that the 
Chandler has earned a front rank position in 
the industry. So many recognize it that twenty- 
five thousand buyers this year will choose the 
Chandler as the Six to be preferred above all 
Sixes. 



FIVE PLEASING TYPES OF BODY 

Seven 'Passenger Touring Car^ $1395 

Four-Passenger Roadster^ $1395 Seamen -Passenger Convertible SeJan^ $2095 

Pour-Passenger Connjertible Coupe^ $1995 Limousine^ $2695 

Ail prices F. O. B, Cie<velanJ 

Write us today for cataloir and booklet. " Sec How the Chandler Checks with High-Price<l Cars," This booklet tells how 
ethrr medium-priced sixes do not check with hifh-piiced cars. Write today, and see your dealer. Address Dcpt. O 

CHANDLER MOTOR CAR COMPANY 

New York Office: 1790 Broadway CLEVELAND, OHIO Cable Address: **Chanmotor" 

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/ 



The Eiends of "TbeMost 
Lutifiil Qr in America" 



^"^^y{: 



Tolk for ten minutes ^tk any man vtho oiJtxs 
a Paige car. You then will realize tKat 
tKe most priceless assets of tkis company do 
not appear on our financial statement as 
"Bills Receivable" or "Plants and Ma- 
cKinei^/' 

TKe loyalty of our o^^ners; the implicit confi- 
dence of our owners ; the ynrm friendship 
of our owners — tKese are the tKings ^\at 
Kave made the Paige Companj^ what it is 
today. 

TKese are tKe assets tKat mone^ cannot hvcy. 
TKese are tKe assets tKat fire and flood can- 
not destroy. TKese are tKe assets tKat Kav« 
Kuilt an impregnable bulwark of Reputation 
and Prestige around tKe name Paige. 

Call tKem intangible, if you will, j^et tKese are 
tKe tKings tKat Kave made possible " TKe 
Most Beautiful Car in America." 

Stratford "Six-Sl/'seven-passensrer - S 1495 f.o.b. Detroit 
Hairri<M"Six-46."scvpn-pnsscinrcr - f 1375 f.o.b. Detroit 
Linwoo.l "Six 39." five-passcnifcr - $1 175 f.o.b. I>etioit 
Brooklands"Six-5l."iour p.is5enffer- S 1695 f.o.b. Detroit 
Dartmoor "Six -39." 2 or 3-passenspr - $1175 f.o.b. Detroit 
Complete line ol enclosed cars 

Paiffc-Detrott Malar Car Coatpaay, Datroit, Hick. 



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iiiiiiiinii] 



14'ina 
Gratot 

Quarter-turn unvt in 
tht Donovan LMmber Co. 
\ Aberdeen, ^''(tsh. 



6RATON& KNIGHT 

Standardized Series 

LEATHea B6LTINO 

Taiwtd by mfor be^ng ms 

Graton & Knight Leather Belts are 
uniform— 

Because Graton & Knifi:ht are the larg:est 
belt makers, because they purchase and tan 
285,000 hides a year, because their brands 
are selected and g:raded to the hig:hest de- 
gree of uniformity from this enormous supply 
of raw material. 

Uniformity is the most important factor 
in belting quality. A belt, like a chain, is no 
better than its poorest piece. 

* * :(: 

Only a big firm like Graton & Knight could 
establish and maintain an equal degree of imiformity 
in its belting. 

And Graton & Knight are the largest leather-belt 
makers in America. 

This minute control of uniformity is possible only 
because of their large supply of leather tanned by 
them for belting use . A smaller supply would prove 
a constant temptation to put dissimilar pieces of 
leather into the same belt. 

Graton Sc Knight hides are tanned in the Graton 
& Knight tannery, especially for belting purposes, 
by processes perfected in 53 years of belting tannage. 
It would be impossible for them to maintain ecfual 
imiformity if they used several different tannages. 

Finally, Graton 8c Knight in the manu&icture of 
their by-products use bellies, shoulders, and other 
parts of hides not suited for belting— there is no 
temptation to include these in their lilting. 

* :|c 9|C 

This is why Graton 8c Knight can make a com- 
plete and standardized series of leather belting, and 
maintain so high and so fixed a degree of imiformity 
in each brand. 

It is why Graton 8c Knight First Quality meafu 
first quality— absolutely free from any mixture of 
seconds, shoulders, or worse. 

Write today for the Graton & Knight Belting Book— 
or have tlie nearest Graton & Knight representati¥e 
callonyott. 

The Graton & Knight Mfg. Company 

Oai Ltathtr Tantun, Mahrt nf IsaAtr Bshini, Uathtr Padt- 
tni, LtaAtr SkndrUs and Sftdabies, Cmnttrs and Stitu 

Worcester, Massachusetts, U. S. A. 

wtrtv**^ and DistribatDn in all Principal Cidea 



GRATON 
& KNIGHT 



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Concrete on the Me- 
dkna-Hartland Higk- 
way,N.T. Si»mties 
of durable road. En- 
gineer^J.N Carlitle. 
State Highway De- 
partment. Contrac- 
tor, J. A. Culkin, 
Osv/ego, N T 



You can live betide a. 
conereteroadordriv^ 
upon it free from th^ 
annoyance ofduMt and 
mud. Nature keeps it 
clean. Automobiles do 
isot skid on concrete 
roads. 



How Concrete Roads Increase 
the Value of Your 



ITS WORTH is not what you put into it, but what you get out of it — how far, 
how quickly, how comfortably, how cheaply and how safely it carries you — in 
other words, upon the mileage of good roads available and upon the contmuity of 
that mileage. 

Permanent roads should be built in connected systems — noi in scattered stretches, with 
ruts and mud-holes in between. And they should be built of concrete. 



Concrete roads not only add to the safety and com- 
fort of driving, they very much reduce operating 
costs. Less gasoline is required on the hard , even sur- 
face; tires are not strained and bruised as when lung- 
ing and plunging over ruts, stones and holes. The 
chassis suffers none of the racking of rough going. 
It lasts longer and keeps in much better repair. 
The motorist is quite as much interested in con- 
crete roads from the standpoint of low maintenance 



cost as from the standpoint of comfortable driving. 
It is chiefly the extensive motor traffic which is tear- 
ing our highways to pieces, involving repair bills 
so heavy that sooner or later the burden is likely to 
be collected back in higher license fees. 
For the sake of his pocket book, as well as for safe, 
comfortable driving, the motorist should actively 
promote good roads bond issues to build at once 
needed systems of permanent highways. 



Concerted action is certain to be felt by your road authorities. We have 
convincing facts and figures about the durability of concrete. It is most 
suitable for road work as it is for the building of great engineering 
structures, dams, bridges, aqueducts, etc. Write for Bulletin No. 136. 

PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION 



ATLANTA 

Hurt Bnildinff 
DALLAS 

Southwestern Life Bnildlng 
DENVER 

Ideal Cement BolUUng 



at 

CHICAGO 1 1 1 Weet Washington Street 
INDIANAPOLIS NEW YORK 

Merchants Bank Budding 101 Park Avenue 

KANSAS GIT7 PARKERSBURG 

Commerce BuUdfaig Union Trust Building 

MOiWAUKEE PITTSBURGH 



First National Bank BuUding 



Fanners Bank Building 



SALT LAKE CITY 

Keams Building 
SAN FRANCISCO 

Rialto Building 
SEATTLE 

Northern Bank & Trust Bldg. 



CONCRETE FOR PERMANENCE 



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MarmfadurtTZ of the famous ** Millet Standard" Ifp^ of Dmggiata' Sundries, Surgeon's Qoves, BaUoons, Nooeliks, £Ste. 

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Thb Atlas Portland Cbmrnt Co.; 30 Broad Street, New York, or Com Exchange Bank Building, Chicago. Send to name and 
address below book on Color Stucco. I am interested in Houses costing about $ Oarages costing about $_ 



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two-c" 
mr pocket 



It fits. 



The 2C KODAK Jr. 

For pictures of the somewhat elongated post-card 
shape, but just a trifle smaller, — 2^x4^ inches. And 
this elongated shape in the picture makes possible a 
slim, thin camera, that^/j* the pocket. 

The 2C Autographic Kodak Junior has a capacity of ten exposures without reloading, it 
has the Kodak Ball Bearing shutter with cable release, working at speeds of 1/25, 1/50 and 1/ 100 
of a second and of course the usual '* bulb " and time actions. The camera has brilliant revers- 
ible finder, two tripod sockets, black leather bellows, is covered with fine grain leather, is well 
made and beautifully finished. It is autographic, of course, and is extremely simple to use. 

Furnished with a choice of lens equipment as listed below: 

No. 2C Autographic Kodak Jr., meniscus achromatic lens, . $12.00 

Ditto, with Rapid RectiHnear lens, 14.00 

Ditto, with Kodak Anastigmat lens, /.7.7, 19.00 

All Dealers', 

EASTMAN KODAK CO., Rochester, N. Y., The Kodak City. 



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Try My Delightful 
J. R. W. Cigar Free 

I want to convince you of the 
real quality of my J. R. W. Cigar. 
I know how difficult it is to 
persuade a man to try a cigar he 
has never smoked. But I also 
know that once you have tasted 
my J. R. W. cigar you will be 
a lifelong customer. 



IS AAA Mon A<n.AA WUL M^ 



1 



iC ™..-j 

KXACT Smoke five with me. If you 

like them, send me a check for 
$2.60 for the full fifty. Write today and 
be convinced. 

J. ROGERS WARNER 

220 Lockwood Building 
BUFFALO, N.Y. 



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On the Show 
Streets of 
the World 



Touring Car 

$1395 
Six-4S 

Ciuh Roadster 

$1485 
Six'66 

66 Horse- Power 
Actual Brake Test 

Touring and 
Club Roadster 

$1750 

Prices subject to a Joan ce 
wUhout notice 



— the Moon car is conspicuous 

for its downright good looks. Its double- 
cowled Delaunay-Belleville body design, 
ijsually associated ^vith the higher-priced 
European models — and its charming 
Spanish leather upholstery give the 
Moon car a Patrician look — surprising 
in a car of its cosl With a mechanism 
which is famous in the field of automo- 
bile engineering, the Moon Car justifies 
the judgment and good tciste of exacting 
buyers who appreciate the niceties 
of hfe. 



MOON 



A few of their splendid specifications 

Red Seal Continental motor — Rayfield carbure- 
tor — smart slanting windshield — long wheel base 
— vacuum feed — Delco starting, lighting and 
ignition system — one-man top — motor-driven 
tire pump — Gemmer steering gear — extra long 
springs — complete chassis and body equipment 
and appointments. 

MOON MOTOR CAR CO.. ST. LOUIS. U. S. A. 




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New Forces from Old Sources 



Fire and water have built civiliza- 
tion out of barbarism and savagery. 

But (or generations man used 
these sources of energy clumsily, 
through machinery that was expen- 
sive in operation, limited in capacity, 
and extremely local in application. 

Today we are entering upon a 
new age of greater achievement 
because we have learned to trans- 
late natural resources into a more 
efficient, economical, and conve- 
nient form of energy — electricity. 

It can be generated at lower cost, 
transported to greater distances, 
transformed at will into light, heat, 
and power. 



Herein is one of the great con- 
tributions to civilization by George 
Westinghouse and his successors: 
that they have not confined their 
activities to the designing of appa- 
ratus for the use of electricity alone. 

They went back of the current 
to the primal source — that power 
might be more economically gen- 
erated and more widely distributed. 

Westinghouse water-turbine, gen- 
erators were the first to turn the power 
of Niagara to mans advantage. 

Westinghouse stokers under thou- 
sands of boilers save labor, improve 
combustion of coal, and therefore 
reduce the cost of steam. 




PRIME MOVERS ^^ AND GENERATORS 

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The Regeneration of Power 



Westinghouse turbo-generators in 
Central Stations and power plants 
utilize steam more economically and 
turn it into the alternating form of 
current which, largely through the 
development of Westinghouse ap- 
paratus for transformation and con. 
version, has made possible a wider 
distribution of light, heat, and power ^ 

Where gas or oil are more eco- 
nomical, there again you find West- 
inghouse generators translating en- 
gine-power into the invisible current 
that does more work at less expense. 

Whatever your individual power 
problem, whether of generation or 
application, Westinghouse engineers 
can help you arrive at the most 
economic£j and efficient tjrpe of 



apparatus, and Westinghouse manu- 
facturing facilities cover everything 
needed for complete equipment of 
any power plant, large or small. 

Westinghouse Electric engineer- 
ing and designing are equally promi- 
nent in the domain of current-using 
apparatus of every tjrpe, from elec- 
tric locomotives and steel-mill mo- 
tors to fans and electric ware for 
the home. 

Westinghouse Electric equipment 
for power plants includes, among 
other items, stokers, condensers, 
turbo-generator units, generators, 
transformers, rotary converters, mo- 
tors, switchboards, meters, etc, etc. 

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC ft MANUFACTUtlNG CO. 
East Pittibvik, Pa. 




PRIME MOVERS ^7 AND GENERATORS 

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THE most Batisfying trip in America for health and 
recreation. Almost 1000 miles of lakes, rivers and 
rapids, including the Thousand Islands, the exciting 
descent of the marvelous rapids, the historic associations 
of Montreal, Quaint old Quebec, with its famous miracle- 
-working shrine of Ste. Anne de Beauprd* and the famous 
8agiienay River with its stupendous Capes, "Trinity** and 
**Eternity,** higher than Gibraltar. 

Send 2C poetage for Illustrated booklet, map and guide, to John P. 
Pierce, AssisUnt PaMcneer Traffic Manager, Canada Steamship 
Lines, 107 R. & O. Building, Montreal, Canada. 

Canada Steamship Lines 



TOWNSEND'S TRIPLEX 



Floats Over the Uneven Ground 
as a Ship Rides the Waves. 

One mower may be climbing a knoll, the second 
skimming a level, while the third pares a hollow. 
Drawn by one horse and operated by one man, 
the TRIPLEX will mow more lawn in a day 
than the best motor mower ever made 5 cut it 
better and at a fraction of the cost. 

Drawn by one horse and operated by one man. it will mow more 
lawn in a day than any three ordinary horse-drawn mowers with 
three horses and three men. 

Does not smash the rrass to earth and plaster it in the mod in 
sprin£time, neither does it crush the life out of the ens* between 
hot rollers and bard, hot ground in summer, as does the motor 
mower 

The public is warned not to purchase mowers infringinf the 
Townscnd Patent, No. 1,209,519, December 19ih, 1916. 

ff rite for catalog illustrating all types t/Laum Mnctrs. 

S. p. TOWNSEND & CO. 
27 Central Avenue Orange, New Jersey 



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Wliat lies back of the 
brilliance of a MAZDA 
lamp? All the facilities 
of tiie world's greatest 
lamp - makers support- 
ing the standards set by 
MAZDA Service. 









IVfATT)^ 






DA 

I semooto cwtuD 
ect •nd tdcctKi* 
I progreM and de» 
up manufiKtuiiikc 
:ompaiues entitled 
m centered in the 
ctric Company at 
'A can appear only 
:DA Service. Itia 
irk ia the property 



rORIES OF 
COMPANY 




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DENBY 



TRUCKS 

FOR rRA/l ORmV£M£Hr 




Etfery Brmexe an Ocean Breexe 

Cape Cod 

Where you'll enjoy a Quiet 
Restful, Healthful Vacation 

A Summer Playgromid 
without a peer 



Bathing in ocean or inland lakes. 
Fishing that's worthy of a king. 
Motoring over superb roadways. 
Golf that delights enthusiasts. 

"Quaint Cape Cod" or ''Buzzards Bay'* 

Illustrated booklets. Write Vacation Bureau « 
Room 463, 171 Broadway, New YorL 

New York, New Hayen & Hartford R. R. 



between Compo-Board and all other wall- 
boards. 




is actually in a class by itself. It is the 
only wall-board made with a center core 
of kiln-dried wood slats. 

That* 8 what makes the difference^ in strengiiiy 
in durability, in its moisture-proofnessy in its 
ability to keep out cold in winter and heat in 
summer. 

That*8 why it doesn't warp, shrink^ or buckle, 
even if papered; that's why it saws with smooth 
edfes, so you don't have to panel Compo-Board 
wJls to cover unsightly cracks. Use an y decora- 
tive method or scheme— simple or elaborate. 

Look for the wood core when jroa order Compo-Board— and 
die name on the tnrface. Don*t accept it unless they're there, 
^rfte /tr samfU and Inttrtsting botkUi 

THE COMPO-BOARD CO. 
4512 Uadale Ave. N.. MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 



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Crtuul Prix, Pam^Grand Prixe, St. LomB 

HE BALDWIN tone is intimate, sympsL- 
thetic, warm, mellow. Because; of these 
human qualities, the really great artists 
such as Levitzki, De Pachman, Sembrich, 
Bachaus, Alda, Scharwenka, La Forge and 
I Eddy Brown are satisfied with no other. 
In the opinion of those who rate pianos according to 
true musical worth, the sheer loveliness of its tone 
places the Baldwin beyond comparison. 

Wherever you live, you can hear the Baldwin Piano and 
take advantat^e of the attractive proposition now offered 
to prospective buyers of hi^-grade instruments by all 
Baldwin dealers. Write to nearest address today. 

Wl)t PalbtDm $iano Company 



CincinnaU ...142 W. Fourth St. 

Chicago J23 S. Wabash Av. 

St. Louis -...1111 Olive St. 



Denver 1636 California St. 

San Francisco 310 Sutter St. 

Indianapolis 18 N. Penn'a St. 

isville 521 S. Fourth Av. 

;)11 Elm St. 




RECOMMENDATION FOR MEMBERSHIP 

in the 

National Geographic Society 

The Membership Fee Includes Subscription to the National Geographic Magazine 

DUEIS: Annual membership in U. S.. $2.00; annual membership abroad, $3.00; Canada, $2.50; life membership, 
$50. Please make remittances payable to National Geographic Society, and if at a distance remit by N. Y. draft, 
postal or express order. 

Please detach and fill in blank below and send to the Secretary 



.191 



Vo the Secretary, National Geographic Society, 

Sixteenth and M Streets Northwest, 

Washington, D, C. : 



/ nominaie- 
ylddress 



for membership in the Society, 



(Write your address) 



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sr Camp 

HIS durable.com- 
[ortable camp has 
n specially de- 
led for people who 
e the great out- 
>rs. It can be 
:kly put up by un- 
skilled labor on 
the banks of 
your favorite 
stream. 

THIS camp is of single wall construction. Contains three bed-rooms, a 12x15 living 

unlike the all year round larger Bossert- room, and a 6x9 kitchen in extension. Vital 

built houses. It is not painted, but stained a economies effected by the Bossert method of 

beautiful brown color with creosote, which buying and constnictioo enable us to offer 

not only preserves the wood, but brings out this camp at 
beautifully the natural grain* 

Five Hundred Dollars f. o. h. Brooklyn 

Send 12 cents today for catalog showing details of Bossert construction 

LOUIS BOSSERT & SONS, iNC, 1313 Grand St, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



After many centuries of dignified 
and unchallenged supremacy, OAK, 
•*The Pride of the Permanent 
Home," remains today the world's 
premier hardwood. (And everybody 
knows it.) OAK is the first hard- 
wood you naturally think of, and 
the last for which you will ever re- 
linquish your inherited preference. 

GOOD OAK FURNITURE 
justifies a keen search, critical insis- 
tence and a special order if need be. 

The American Oak Mprs. Assn. 

Imow the whys and hows of Oak. Ask 
tbem any sort of questions. Please address 
R.1416, 14 Main St, Memphis, Tenn. 




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rfpGR06R4ni\^ 

lJESMVES00lj0RPH(ni06R»PHL 

VOfJ ca** ^ovr photograph in color 
with your own camera, using 

The Hiblock 

a pack of two sensitized plates and a 
sensitized film. Let us send you free 
booklet 

Hess-Ives Corporation 

1201 Race Street Philadelphia 



YOU CAN HEAR! 

Toa Bee the wonderful inraroved Acoasticon has 
now enabled 276^000 deaf people to hear. We are Boxe 
it will do the same for yoa; are bo abeolately eertiin of 
it that we are eager to Bend yoa the 

1917 Acousticon 

On FREE TRIAL 

No Deposit»N6 Expense 

There Is nothing yoo will hare to do bat aak for yoor free 
trial. NomoDeytopay.noredtape,iioreaervatioiiBtothl«off«r. 
Oar eonfidence in the present Aeoostioon is so complete that we 
will gladly take all the risk in provinir beyond any doubt that 

The Joy of Hearing Can Be Yours Againl 

The Acoostieon has impro?enients and patented f eatorea 
which cannot be doplieated, so no matter what yoa have ever 
tried, Jast ask for a free trial of the New Acoostieon. Yoo'U 
net it promptly, and if it doesnt makeyoo hear, retom it and 
yoawiUoweoBDothinv-DOtoiMeent. AddrsBB 

GENERAL ACOUSnC C0„ Ull Caadkr BUg .. NevTerkCly 
, 121 IM Birks III 





Write for a free copy of 

Vantine's Catalog 



It is s fasdnatin^r book, filled widi illuKn- 
^ tions— many in actual colon— of the qnaint and 
r curious objects of art and utility collected by the 
^ Vantine rcpresentatires in Japan, China. Penia. 
' and other Oriental coantries. 
_ ' As a reader of the National Gtojrraphie MagajHnt 
we feel sure ybu will be interested, for the Vantine Catalogr "in- 
creases and diffuses ireosrraphic knowledfe " by inustratins or 
describing the distinctive and individual creations of the artisans 
in the mystical lands beyond the seas. 

Write now— your name and address on a postal wiU do—and with- 
out obliffation we shall send, postpaid, this deUgrhtful book of the 
Orient. Address Dept. N. 

A. A. VANTINE & CO.«Inc. 
Fifth Ave. and 39th Street , Nfew York 



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lUDD GUM 



"AMERICA'S FINEST CABINET WOOD" 



KEfU GUM 



Sis 

^14 



31 



1^ 



I 



IS' 



Put Up Thb Flicker Hoi 



rletyc 



Che flicker TptEerwlae Inown m the -^ — - 

winged woodpecker). ThU IntereetTag va. 
•^^f woodpecker Is ma*eMUy attracted 
» «uar sarden by this snug, safe home. 
Boilt of best Norway, p/p; v.__i- ^ 

roof,. copDer copins. 

popular. Price IS.OO. 



M shingle A 
and very % 

There's a i 



Dodson wren and blne-blrd honses. 
vooma. very ornamental, R-w» !*"*»' 
house, ffl rooms, and att C^fc. There's i 
Dodson house for every bird. Frioos il.oO at 

Valuable Bird Book Free 

■Yodf Bird PrienA. .ndagr to WInThem' 



bird picture in colors for framing. 

JOSEPH H. DODSON 

Vke.Fisiiasit tad Diractor. AsMriesaAoMM 
702 Harrison Ave^ KANKAKEE. ILLl 



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VOLUME XXXI 



The NATIONAL 



GEOG 
MAGAZI 



lie 



MAY, 1917 



CONTENTS 



On the Monastir Road 



HERBERT COREY, 



Niagara at the Battle Front william joseph sho walter 

Our Armies of Mercy 

The Needs Abroad 

Belgium's Plight 

Bind the Wounds of France 

Devastated Poland 

America's Duty 

Stand by the Soldier 

A Poisoned World 

The Red Cross Spirit 






HENRY P. DAVISON 

IAN MALCOLM 

JOHN H. GADE 

HERBERT C. HOOVER 

FREDERICK WALCOTT 

NEWTON D. BAKER 

JOHN J. PERSHING 

WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT 



ELIOT WADSWORTH 

PUBLISHED BY THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

HUBBARD MEMORIAL HALL 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

HUBBARD MEMORIAL HALL 
SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS. WASHINGTON. D. C. 



O. H. TITTMANN PRESIDENT 

GILBERT H.GROSVENOR. DIRECTOR AND EDITOR 
JOHN OLIVER LA GORGE . ASSOCIATE EDITOR 
O. P. AUSTIN SECRETARY 



JOHN E. PILLSBURY vice-president 

JOHN JOY EDSON .... treasurer 
GEORGE W. HUTCHISON, assistant secretary 
WILLIAM J. SHOWALTER . assistant editor 



1915-1917 

Charles J. Bell 

President American Security 
and Trust Company 

John Joy Edson 

President Washington Loan & 
Trust Company 

David Fairchild 

In Charge of Aflrriculturat Ex- 
plorations. DepL of Asric 

C. Hart Merriam 

Member National Academy of 
Sciences 

O. p. Austin 

Statistician 

George R. Putnam 

Commissioner U. S. Bureau of 
Lishtliouses 

George Shiras, 3d 

Formerly Member U. S. Con- 
gress. Fauna! Naturalist, and 
Wild-Game Photosrapher 

Grant Squires 

New York 



BOARD OF MANAGERS 

1916-1918 

Franklin K. Lane 

Secretary of the Interior 

Henry F. Blount 

Vice-President American Se- 
curity and Trust Company 

C. M. Chester 

Rear Admiral U. S. Navy. 
Formerly Supt. U. S. Naval 
Observatory 

Frederick V. Coville 

Formerly President of Wash- 
i ngton Academy of Sciences 

John E. Pillsbury 

Rear Admiral U. S. Navy. 
Formerly Chief Bureau of 
Navigation 

Rudolph Kauffmann 

Manasine Editor The Evenins 
Star 

T. L. Macdonald 

M. D., F. a. C. S. 

S. N. D. North 

Formerly Director U, S. Bu- 
reau of Census 



1917-1919 
AlexanderGraham Bell 

Inventor of the telephone 

J. Howard Gore 

Prof. Emeritus Mathematics. 
The Geo. Washington Univ. 

A. W. Grebly 

Arctic Explorer, Major Qen'l 
U. S. Army 

Gilbert H. Grosvenor 

Editor of National Oeosraphic 
Magazine 

George Otis Smith 

Director of U. S. Geological 

Survey 

O. H. TiTTMANN 

Formerly Superintendent of 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey 

Henry White 

Formerly U. S. Ambassador to 
France. Italy, etc. 

John M. Wilson 

Brigadier General U. S. Army. 
Formerly Chief of Enarineers 



To carry out the purpose for which it was founded twenty-eight years 
ago, namely, **the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge," 
the National Geographic Society publishes this Magazine. All receipts 
from the publication are invested in the Magazine itself or expended 
directly to promote geographic knowledge and the study of geography. 
Articles or photographs from members of the Society, or other friends, 
are desired. For material that the Society can use, adequate remunera- 
tion is made. Contributions should be accompanied by an addressed 
return envelope and postage, and be addressed : 

GILBERT H. GROSVENOR. EDITOR 



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 



A. W. Grebly 
C. Hart Merriam 

O. H. TiTTMANN 

Robert Hollister Chapman 
Walter T. Swingle 



Alexander Graham Bell 
David Fairchild 
Hugh M. SMrrn 
N. H. Darton 
Frank M. Chapman 



Entered at the Post -Office at Washington, D. C, as Second-Class Mail Matter 
Copyright, 1917, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. All rights resep,»«d j 

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^■S'S\^r;x\-< : -v % NT t^T 'cry^^^v^^^::^r'iX7: r7rrrTj rrrr^^rT:2'^ ^ 




*'Tbo Watob of Railroad Accuracy'* 

Used for Navigation—* * Far 
more accurate than the 
average chronometer, ** 
I says Captain in U. S. N. 

% The follofwing letter, recently recei'ved from an 
officer of the Na^, speaks for itself. The 
signer* s name is omitted for reasons of 
na<val etiquette, 

Hamilton Watch Company 

Lancaster. Pa. 
Gentlemen : —The watch purchased from yon in December. 
1913. is a marvel of accuracy. On January 1. 1914. it was 
set 22 seconds fast, on standard mean time, and throuchout 
; the year frequent comparisons were made which showed a 
/ steady and regular irain. On January 1, 191$. it was acain 
compared and was found to be 1 minute 3 $ seconds fast, or 
a tain of 1 minute 13 seconds in 365 days, which is 
equivalent to a eainine rate of 0.2 second a day, or 6 sec- 
onds a month. 

Had the rate of cain been variable, it would have been very 
different, but running as steadily and uniformly as it did. I 
would have no hesitancy whatever in using it for navigational 
purposes, as it is far more accurate than the average chro- 
nometer used for this purpose, and much more convenient. 
(Signed) 

IMAGINE yourself carrying this very watch — it was not 
an expensive watch. Wouldn't you derive an immense 
satisfaction from the comfort, convenience and companion- 
ship of so accurate a watch ? Every Hamilton Watch sold has 
Hamilton Accuracy and Hamilton Durability. 

Prices of Hamiltons : The lowest-priced Hamilton is a movement alone for $13.00 $14.00 
in Canada). The highest-priced Hamilton is our Masterpiece at $150.00 in 18-k. heavy gold 
case. Other Hamiltons at $26.50, $30.00, $40.00, S55.00, etc. Hamiltons are made in many 
models— in cased watches ; also in movements alone which your jeweler can fit to your present 
watch-case. 



:?^"7^ 









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WEED 

TIRE CHAINS 

Attached without the Use 
of a Jack or Other Tools 



Lay chains over wheel Start car forward just Hook chains as tightly 

with hooks toward rear, enough to run over slack as possible by hand, 

and tuck the slack under ends, 
front part of wheel. Do Not Anchor 

Chains must be free to **Creep" — to Shift their 
Position on the Tires Continually — or they will 
Injure Tires. 

Weed Chains do "creep'' — a patented principle 

AMERICAN CHAm COMPANY, Inc. 

BRIDGEPC-HT K^/ CONNECTICUT 




In Canada: DOMINION CHAIN COMPANY, Ud., Niajjara Falls, Ontario 

Largest Chain Manufacturers in the World 

THE COMPLETE CHAIN LINE-ALL TYPES. ALL SIZES, ALL STYLES 
From Plurabers* Safety Chain to Ships' Anchor Chain 



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^'t'P^^i!'i''i'i^''!ii'':'''^^ 



li;lii,ililillliiliiiiiiiLi,i,iiiLilllilililiililii 



Suppose All Could Use the 
HUDSON SUPER-SIX 

Would Other Types Remain? 



In the present conflict of types — Fours, 
Sixes, and V-tjrpes— it is well to consider 
what would happen if the Super-Six were 
free. Our patents confine it to the Hudson. 

As it is now, numerous fine-car makers 
advocate other types, and tell you reasons 
for it 

Some still cling to Fours. Some urge 
Elights and Twelves. But the weight of 
opinion favors the small-bore Six. 

What would come of this conflict, think 
you, were the Super-Six not patented ? 

These Are the Fads 

The Super-Six last year won all the 
worth-while records. In a hundred hard- 
fought contests, against all types, it proved 
itself supreme. 

As for the Light Six, in our final per- 
fection the Super-Six invention increased 
its efficiency by 60 per cent 

As for Eights and Twelves, our expe- 
rience with motors of that type which we 
built made them seem to us unnecessary. 

And the Super-Six has made the Hud- 
son the largest-selling front-rank car. Last 
year it outsold any car with a price above 
$1100. 

The Vital Supremacy 

One may say, " I don*t care for speed, or 
great reserve power, or a marvelous hill- 
climber.** " 

Then why added cylinders, or extra 
valves, or anything else to that end > 

You do want superlative capacity, 
whether you use it or not You certainly 
want it when it means no added size or 
cost — when it means simply ended friction. 

That's the great point The Super-Six 
motor is small and light and simple. We 
have not aimed at excessive speed or 



power. We have simply minimized fric- 
tion. 

We have done— but done better— what 
every engineer has been aiming at for 
years. And for the same result — more 
speed and power, without added compli- 
cations. Also multiplied endurance. 

Endurance was the chief aim. It is fric- 
tion that causes wear. We have so reduced 
it that we attain what is proved the greatest 
motor in the world. And certainly you 
want it 

What One Year Did 

Mark how the Super-Six, in one year, 
sprang to the pinnacle place. There are 
now 30,000 running. This year brings 
nothing to rival it So it is bound to gain 
multiplied prestige. 

This year's bodies also give to Hudson 
leadership in style. The ablest artists and 
craftsmen gave their best to these models. 
Each is a study in motor car luxury. Each 
is a pattern type. 

This vear we add a great gasoline 
saver — shutters on the radiator — which by 
controlling the heat of the motor in part 
overcomes the disadvantage of the con- 
stantly falling quality of gasoline. We add 
a pneumatic engine primer. We add 
plaited upholstery. 

Our patented carburetor — on Hudsons 
alone — is self-adjusting to every engine 
speed. 

So Hudson supremacy does not lie in 
the Super-Six motor only. 

When you buy a fine car- a car to 
keep — you are bound to wcmt the Hudson. 
You want the car which outperforms and 
outshines other cars. If you wcmt such a 
car this spring, we urge a prompt decision. 
Last year many buyers waited months for 
delivery. 




Phaeton, 7-pas8enser $1650 

Cabriolet 3- passenger .... 1950 

Touring Sedan 2175 

Town Car 2925 



Town Car Landaulet $3025 

Limousine 2925 

Limoudine Landaulet 3025 

(All Pric9» f. o. b, Dmtroit) 



HUDSON MOTOR CAR COMPANY, DETROIT, MICHIGAN 



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It's a pretty good idea (now that the lumber mills in 
the Southern Cypress Mfrs. Assn. are identifying every 

CYPRESS BOARD THEY SAw) tO MENTION TO YOUR LUMBER 
DEALER, CONTRACTOR OF CARPENTER — and tO ASK YOUR 

ARCHITECT to SPECIFY— that your Cypress must be 



IDENTIFIED BT 
THIS TRADE-MARK 

Stamped In the End of Every FIcce 

or AFPUED TO EVERT BUNDLE 




Tuoe Mark Reg. U.S. Pat-O^cc 



When a manufacturer places his Imprint Indelibly upon his product it evidences to the 
consumer two factors of value which, together, are the sum total of all any buyer wants ; 
these factors are Integrity of purpose and complete responsibility on the part of the 
maker of the desired commodity. 

The above legally registered * 'Tidewater Cypress^' trade-mark is 
now YOVR INSURANCE POLICYof LUMBER QUALITT. 

It appears stamped mechanically into the end of EVERY board and timber of 



«THE WOOD 
ETERNAL.** 



CYPRESS 

Thoroughly dependable Cypress Flooring, Sidine, Moulding, and Shingles, etc., 
which come in bundles, bear the same mark on EVERY BUNDLE. 

The legral right to apply this epoch-making symbol of STRICT RESPONSIBILITY IN 
LUMBER MAKING AND SELLING is restricted to those Cypress mills which, by their 
membership In the Southern Cypress Manufacturers* Association, attest their devotion 
to Its Principles of Sebvice to the Consumer. Only mills cutting "Tidewater" Cypress 
are eligible for membership. ( Cypress which grows too far Inland Is not equally noted for 
the "Eternal," or decay-resisting, quality.) Only mills which subscribe to the Associa- 
tion's standard of scrupulous care In Methods of MANUFACTURE, INTEGRITY OF 
GRADING and ACCURACY OF COUNT can belong to the Association. These respon- 
sible mills the Association now licenses to CERTIFY THEIR CYPRESS by applying the 
registered trade-mark with their identifying number Inserted. 

BY THIS MARK YOU KNOW THAT 
IT'S CYPRESS. "THE WOOD ETER- 
NAL," AND WORTHY OP YOUR FAITH. 
IT IS WELL TO INSIST ON SEEING 
THIS TRADE-MARK ON EVERY 
BOARD OFFERED AS "CYPRESS." 




IWt Not Rn.U.SP»OmGi 




1%Mt Not Rn. u.SPKr.QnMl ^ 



Let our ALL-ROUND HELPS DEPARTMENT help YOU MORE, Our entire resources are at j'our service with Reliable CounseL 

Southern Cypress Manufacturers' Association 

12Z4 HIBERNU BANK BLDG., NEW ORLEANS. U., or 1224 HEARD NATIONAL BANK BLDG.. JACKSONVILLE* FLA. 

INSIST ON TKADB-MARKED CYPRBSS AT YOUR LOCAL LUMBER DEALER'S. IF HB HASN'T IT, LET US KNOW, 



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Add 
Exploded 

Wheat 
Grains 

And Make That Dish 
Complete 

The bowl of milk is ideal 
food for noons or nights in 
summer. But what will 
you put in it ? 

Bread or crackers — made from just the inner parts of wheat? Why not all 
the wheat? Then you have in one dish all that human bodies need. 

The Scientific Food 

Puffed Wheat— invcnte/d by Prof. Anderson— stands first among the hygienic grain foods. 

It is whole wheat puffed to eight times normal size. Every food cell is exploded, so digestion 
is easy and complete. All the food elements are made available. 

After an hour of fearful heat, the grains are shot from guns, and a hundred million steam 
explosions occur in every kernel. 

The grains come out like bubbles— flaky, toasted, crisp. When eaten, they seem to melt 
away. They taste like porous nut-meats. 

Yet these delightful morsels — these seeming confections — are this premier grain food, fitted 
for digestion as it never was before. 

Add these to the milk dish. Then you'll have a dish containing 16 foods in one. 



Puffed 


Puffed 


Wheat 


Rice 


and Corn Puffs 


Each 15c Except in Far West 



Flaky Titbits 

Thin, crusty morsels to mix with fruit, or 
with sugar and cream, to make a morning food 
confection. 



Like Bubbles 

Airy, flimsy, toasted globules to float in 
bowls of milk. Very easily digested. 



Keep well supplied in summer. Use in candy-making or as garnish for ice cream. Let hungry 
children eat them dry or doused with melted butter. Every ounce is an ounce of ideal nutrition. 



TheQuakerO&^&0>inpaiiy 



Sole Makers 



(1580) 



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BETTER THAN LEATHER 




.Leather has had its dcg 

A new motor car xxpKol^ery is taking 
its place -DURATEX ^ ^ 

Here is a material not only as fine as the 
fine^ leather but more comfortable -mote 
durable and infinitely more beautiful . 

And besides— no visions of the brutality 
and die endless slaug^iter involved in the 
pnxlucflion of leather can ever disturb the 
perfection of your comfort and" pride in 
a car uphoktered with DURATEX. 

THE DURATEX COMPANY 

NewaJrk . New Jersey 



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Life-Long Service 

Aimed at in This Double Strength 



Perhaps men will tell you that 
no car needs 1 00 per cent over- 
strength. So we thought once 
ourselves. Our former margin of 
safety was 50 per cent. 

But the greatest engineers— 
particularly in Europe— have long 
aimed at twice the needed strength. 
It was after a year in Europe that 
John W. Bate established that 
standard here. 

This double- 
strength means a 
lifetime car. That 
meant less when 
types were chang- 
ing. Now, with 
standardized cars, 
it means much. 

It means safety, 
low upkeep, endur- 
ance. It means a 
car that stays new. 
We intend it to 
mean200,000miles 
of service. Two 
Mitchell cars have 
already run that 
far. One conspicu- 




SIXES 
TWO SIZES 

a highly developed 48-bonepower motor. 

$1460 

FowvPaaoenger Roadster, $1 49 fi. 

Sedan* $2175. Cabriolet, $1895. 

Coupe, $1995. 

Also Town Car and Limousine. 



MitchellJumor-v^^:;i?Xw1ih 

1 20-inch wheelbase and a 40-horsepower 
motor; K-inch smaller bore. 



ous result shows in springs. Not 
a single Bate cantilever spring has 
ever been broken. Yet Mitchell 
owners buy no shock absorbers, 
rebound straps, or snubbers to 
facilitate easy riding. 

Other Extras 

This 100 per cent over-strength is a 
costly Mitchell extrsu In addition, there 
are 31 features which mcst cars omit. 
There is 24 per cent 
added luxury over our 
last-year models. And 
there are 10 exclusive 
body styles, all designed 
by our artists and built 
in our shops. 

The Mitchell differs 
in a hundred ways. 
See these distinctions 
and judge them for 
yourself. They are all 
due to factory effi- 
ciency, as evolved by 
John W. Bate. On 
this year*s output these 
extras cost us about 
$4,000,000. 



$1195 

All Prices f.o.b.Racin; 



MITCHELL MOTORS 

COMPANY, Inc. 
Racine, Wis., U. S. A. 



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Situated 2300 feet above sea level — never any extremes — Agreeable mornings, cloudless 
skiesy balmy noons, wonderful and incomparable sunsets. It would be difficult to £nd a 
more delightful spot for a vacation. At no other place is there found such ideal 
conditions for rest, recreation and recuperation. No otner resort offisrs so many advan* 
tages at such a reasonable price. 



I 



The Homestead Hotel 

^00 bright, airy rooms, degandyr furnished — Excel- 
lent cuisine — lac 



Qcompafable drinking water — attrac- 
tive ball room — Perfect equipment and service. 
Quiety dignified and homelike in every appointment. 
Many Diversified Recreations— Two splendid, 

" fine 



sporty golf courses. 



day 



Seven exceptionally fi 
tennis courts. Fascinating drives. Interesting 
trails and bridle paths. 200 saddle and driving 
horses. Magnificent mountain scenery. 



The Healing Water 

( NaturaUy Heated io6<') 
Baths given in water as it flows from tpringk 
Waters not artificially heated. Hot Springs the only 
cure in the world where temperature prescribed 
for hot baths is that at which water actually emer- 
ges fix>m earth. At none of the celebrated places 
in Europe are the waters as charged by nature with 
their gases and health giving qualities. 

The Famous Spout Bath for Gout, Rheumatism, Nervous Diseases, Sciatica, Nervous Ptostration, 
Liver Troubles and old joint injuries — Modem and complete bath equipment, Swedish Gymnastics, massage 
and hot air treatments — Needle, Spray, Electric, Medicated and other baths. Physicians of international 
reputation. Experienced and careful attendants. 



Not a single case of Infantile Paralysis at Hot Springs during 1916 



The Homestead Book tS^^^^^ui^ 

and its surroundings in natural colors — graphically illustrates and describes 
the many charms of this ideal summer resort and fiiUy dilates upon the thera* 
peutic values of the fiunous waters — We will gladly send copies upon request. 

H. ALBERT, Resident Manager, Hot Springs, Virginia 
Booking Offices— RUx^arHon HokUr-Ntw York—Phlladehhla 




M 



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Chandler Power IS Power 

CHANDLER power is power on the hills and mountain-sides; it is power 
in the mud and sand. . 
Four years of skilful and conscientious manufacturing effort have developed 
and refined the Chandler motor to a point approximating perfection. Chandler 
owners long ago named it The Marvelous Motor, and now, more than ever 
before, it is the wonder Six, powerful, flexible and enduring. 

On^ high gear and without apparent labor it pulls the hard, steep grades 
and winding hill roads where other motors shift to second. 

In crowded traffic it responds to every demand. 

On open roads it answers every call for speed. 

The Chandler motor is a fact-motor. 

What any Chandler will do every Chandler can do. 

The Chandler Company has never built a special demonstrating car. 

The Chandler Company has never furnished to any Chandler dealer a 
si>ecial gear ratio. 

Every Chandler is a demonstrator. 

FIVE PLEASING TYPES OF BODY 

Seven- Passenger Touring Car, S^J9S 

Four-Passenger Roadster, $1395 Seven-Passenger Convertible Sedan, $2ogs 

Four-Passenger Convertible Coupe, $iggs Limousine^ $26gs 

All prices F. O. B. Cleveland 

Write us today for catalog and booklet "See How the Chandler Checks With High-Priced Cars.'* 

This booklet tells how other medium-priced sixes do not check with high-priced cars. 

Write today » and see your dealer. Address Dept. O. 

CHANDLER MOTOR CAR COMPANY 



New York Office: 1790 Broadway 



CLEVELAND, OHIO 



Cable Address: "Chanmotor" 



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1 

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ruin. Write today for adjuster. 

the "What To Do" Why not profit by this > 

Miller Tires are for sale by Geared-to-the-Road dealers and 
It illustrates and shows the distributors everywhere, 

cause of common tire iniu- 
ries and explains how tires. ™E MILLER RUBBER COMPANY. AKRON, U. S. A. 

though badly injured, may MamfaeSunnof the durable, economkal. and UghUufelghl 

be saved at slight expense. Rhin^O-Hlde Fibre Soles for men's and women's shoes. 



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THE Moon car is designed to appeal 
to people who are distinguished from 
the masses by higher ideals — not necessa^ 
rily by larger bank accounts. 

It meets their requirements in looks, 
comfort and service. Its superb coach- 
worh — exclusive upholstery and grace of 
design lend charm and beauty to its 
reliable mechanical construction. 

MOON 

A few Moon features 

Red Seal Continental motors — ^Rayfield carburetors 
— ^long -wheel base — ^Delco starting, lighting and 
igniting — one-man top — extra long springs — com- 
plete chassis and body equipment. 

The Moon Sixes 

8bc-43 — 5-Pa88enger Touring Car — 11395 

Six-45— 4-Pa88enger Cluh Roadster— 11485 

Six-66— 7-Pa88enger Touring Cai— 4-Pa88enger Cluh Roadster— fl750 

MOON MOTOR CAR CO,, ST, LOUIS. U. S. A. 

Prices suhfect to advance without notice. 



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L 



Our Service- 
Its Distinctive Features 

No, 3— Securities 
Previously Purchased 

Investors who desire current and 
relevant information regarding 
securities in their possession are 
at liberty to utilize the facilities 
provided by our Service Depart- 
ment. 

This service includes the appraisal 
of values, the status ot bonds 
under the Income Tax Law, the 
legality of bonds and their adapt- 
ability to your specific require- 
ments. 

Correspondence invited 

The National City 
Company 

National Citjr Bank Building 
New York 



|in iiiiiiniiiiiif t5i»eu»HeD law aiiiiiiiinmnminii 



Diversified hyestments 
For Your Present Funds 

Successful, experienced investors 
agree that for utmost safety it is ad- 
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properties of varied character and location. 

We have an exceptionally broad list of di- 
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the most exacting requirements. We offer, 
and particiJarlyrecommendforyour present 
funds, four bond issues secured by these dif- 
ferent classes of property: Established In- 
dustrial Property; Farm Land; Improved 
Chicago Real Estatcj Natural Resources. 

Recommendations are based on long experi- 
ence, complete investigation by our experts, 
and outr^ht purchase. Write for Circular 
No, 982D, giving details.' 

Peabodbp; 
Hoiighteling&€o* 

(EMabUshed 1865) 
10 South La Salle Street, Chicago 



■iiiiiiiiiiiiimHiiiHif eaTABusHED 1665^1 nifmimnir 



America's Greatness 

EVERY first mortgage bond, 
safeguarded under the Straus 
Plan, is in the broadest and truest 
sense an investment backed by the 
nation's prosperity and greatness. 

SECURITIES founded on the land 
and the improvements thereon, 
which give it value and earning 
power, are always least affected in a 
period of stress, such as war-time. 

WRITE for our booklet "Add 
Tests of Investments in War- 
Time," and for our list describing 
sound first mortgage serial bonds 
based on the land, netting SVz — 6%. 
Ask for Investment List Na E-706 

SM^STRAUS & CO. 

Pounded 1882 Incorporated 1903 

NEW YORK CHICAGO 

150 Broadway Straus Building 

Branch Offiem: 

Detroit Minneapolis CInelnnad 

boston San Francisco Kansas Cfty 

i'hiladelphia U ayton Rochester 

35 years without loss to any investor. 




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SAFEGUARD YOUR FUTURE BY 
INVESTING IN 

t 

MUNICIPAL feONDS 

Systematic saving is the first essential in building 
for an assured income. Equip your surplus funds, 
however small, with power to increase month by 
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Your opportunity is in Municipal Bonds, the only 
securities, except government bonds, which are accepted 
by the U. S. Government to secure Postal Savings 
Deposits. 

We have several million dollars' worth of Municipals 
for you to select from. The following are especially 
recommended: 

Interest 

HamOton Coimt7, Ohio 3.90% 

Niagara Falls, N.Y •••••.. 3.95% 

Corsicana, Texas 4.50% 

George County, Mississippi ••••••..•• 4.50% 

Creek County, Manuford Township^ Oklahoma • • 5.00% 

Cypress Creek District, Arkansas • • • 5.05% 

One thousand dollar, five hundred and one hundred 
dollar bonds paying four to five and one-eighth per cent 
interest. Alt free from Federal Income Tax. 

Satisfactory service to investors for over 27 years 
gives us complete confidence in our ability to meet your 
most exacting requirements. Booklet N5, **The Pre- 
mier Investment," is yours free for the asking. 

llliam R.(Qmpton(Qmpany 

Municipal Bonds 

**Over a QuarUr Century in Thi» Btuine$af 

NEW YORK: 14 WaU Street ST. LOUIS: 408 OUve Street 

CHICAGO: 105 S. La SaUe Street CINCINNATI: 102 Union Trust Bldg. 




I 

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Vol. XXXI, No. 5 




WASHINGTON 



May, 1917 




THE 

ATDONAL 
OGMAIPEII 
AGAZH 




ON THE MONASTIR ROAD 

By Herbert Corey 



THE story of Macedonia today is 
the story of the Monastir road. 
Along this highway Alexander and 
Xerxes and Galerius once tramped with 
their legions. It has been the link be- 
tween the Adriatic and the uEgean seas 
ever since history was written. 

For centuries it has carried its ox-carts 
with their solid wooden wheels, and long 
trains of donkeys and peasant women 
bowed under packs. Serb and Bulgarian 
raiders have descended on Saloniki along 
it. For thirty centuries fighting men and 
peasants and thieves and slaves have 
marched through its bottolnless mud. 

Today it is kaleidoscopic as it could 
never have been in the >^orst days of its 
bad history. To the ox-Carts and donkeys 
have been added great camions and whirl- 
ing cars filled with officers in furs and 
gold. Natty Frenchmen in horizon blue, 
Englishmen in khaki, Italians in gray 
green, Russians Jn brown, Serbian sol- 
diers in weather-washed gray, bead its 
surface. Fezzed Turks are there and 
Albanians in white embroidered with 
black, and Cretans in kilts and tights and 
tasseled shoes. 

COLOR AND MOVEMENT FILL THE ROAD 
TODAY 

Airmen, so wrapped in furs that they 
remind one of toy bears, dash by in cars 
that are always straining for the limit of 
speed. Arabs, perched high on their little 
gray horses, direct trains of the blue carts 
of the French army. Gaudy Sicilian carts 



with Biblical scenes painted on their side- 
boards are dragged through the mire. 

Senegalese soldiers, incredibly black, 
watch with an air of comical bewilder- 
ment the erratic ventures of donkeys that 
seem to have been put under pack for the 
first time. Indo-Chinese soldiers in pa- 
goda-shaped hats, tipped with brass, put- 
ter about at mysterious tasks. Blackish- 
brown men from Madagascar carry bur- 
dens. Moroccans in yellowish brown 
swing by under shrapnel helmets. 

SOLDIERS OF ALLIES TREAD HISTORIC 
GROUND 

New levies marching toward the front, 
the sweat beads standing out on their 
pale foreheads as they struggle under 
their 6o-pound packs, give the road to 
the veterans of six months' service — hard, 
capable, tireless. Overhead the fliers 
purr on the lookout for the enemy. Big 
guns lumber along behind caterpillar 
tractors. Ammunition dumps line the 
road and hospitals dot it. Girl nurses 
from France and the United States and 
all the British Empire ride over it. 

Always the ambulances are there. 
They are always given the road. The 
men who turn out for them anticipate the 
day when, in their turn, they will be rid- 
ing in a Red Cross car toward Saloniki 
and home. 

At the farther end of the road is Mo- 
nastir, taken last winter by the Allied 
forces in a battle that in any other war' 
would have been set down as great. At 



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ON THE MONASTIR ROAD 



385 



the sea end of the -road is Saloniki, the 
Allied base, where Cicero lived for a time 
and St. Paul shook the dust from off 
his feet as a testimony against the Thes- 
salonians of his day, and where Suleiman 
the Magnificent built the White Tower, 
in whose oubliettes bones still moulder 
of the victims of 500 years of Turkish 
rule. 

At right angles to that road, as though 
they were the bent bow of which the road 
is the arrow, are half a million fighting 
men of the Allied forces. Not many in 
this conflict, perhaps. Macedonia is rare- 
ly mentioned in the communiques. Yet 
the British did not employ so many men 
in South Africa during the whole Boer 
War. In one day I have counted the uni- 
forms of twenty fighting peoples on the 
road. 

Campaigning in Macedonia differs for 
the correspondent from campaigning else- 
where. In the greater armies in the 
greater fields a correspondent is cared 
for, guarded, watched, night herded. 
Everything is provided for him except 
his uniform and his wrist watch. He 
rides out in fast cars ; he is taken to high 
hills from which to watch the distant ac- 
tion ; he sleeps in hotels of differing de- 
grees of excellence. 

In Macedonia he first secures creden- 
tials permitting him to visit the Allied 
armies; then he buys an outfit — tent, 
cooking pots, blankets, water bucket — all 
complete ; headquarters gives him an or- 
derly, and he takes to the road. Things 
begin to happen. 

WANDERING IN MACEDONIA HAS A 
SPORTING FLAVOR 

I found myself occupying a position 
somewhere between that of an honored 
guest and a hobo. Although permission 
was given me to visit the other units, I 
was formally attached to the Serbian 
army. The Serbs would be the most 
generous hosts in the world if they could 
be, but they have so little. They are the 
poor relations of the Allies. They are 
armed with the old St. Etienne rifle 
which the French discarded. The artil- 
lery in support has been cast from other 
fronts. Their surgeons are borrowed 
surgeons, for the most part. 



They are uniformed and fed by the 
French and Great Britain loans them 
money. They never have enough cars, 
even for staff use. Sometimes they have 
not enough food. But they always have 
enough ammunition and they find enough 
fighting for themselves. Doubtless I am 
influenced by my affection for the Serbs. 
Later I shall tell why I think this army 
is today — what little there is left of it — 
the most efficient fighting force in the 
war. ^ 

There were moments when I found 
myself at the right hand of a general, 
dazed by the earnestness with which 
some officer was responding to the toast 
"America." That same night I might be 
traveling by freight train to another 
point of the front. If I was very lucky 
the orderly found an empty box car. In 
it he would erect the camp cot and pro- 
vide canned food and candles and read- 
ing matter and then go away to tell his 
mates in the next car of the eccentrici- 
ties of the foreign Guspodin. 

HEROISM OF SERBS IN I916 CAMPAIGN 

If it was raining^t usually was rain- 
ing — it ordinarily fell to my lot to ride 
on a flat car. Sometimes I crouched 
under a canvassed gun on its way to the 
front. It was no drier under that gun. 
It did not even seem drier. But the silent 
guardsmen gave me the place as the place 
of honor. It was the one courtesy in 
their power to show. 

Last winter's campaign of the Serbian 
army was one of the most heroic on any 
front in this war. I do not mean to com- 
pare the Serb with his allies to the dis- 
advantage of the latter. He was at all 
times loyally supported. If it was the 
generalship of Voivode Mischitch and 
the incomparable courage and endurance 
of his men that directly resulted in the 
capture of Monastir, this could not have 
been accomplished except for the frontal 
attack by the French through the plains 
of Monastir or the bulldogging by the 
British of Turk and Bulgarian in the 
swamps of the Struma and the wet 
trenches of the \^ardar. But it is only 
fitting that what the Serb has done 
should be made known. Let us go back 
a little. 



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Photograph by Herbert Corey 
SERB SOLDIERS WEARING FRENCH TRENCH HELMETS MAKING THEIR WAY UP A PATH 

ON DOBRAPOLYA MOUNTAIN 

In the background are the lines of trenches,, while the roads leading to the valley are shown 

in the middle distance 



The Serbian army began the great re- 
treat of 191 5 250,000 strong. Not more 
than 150,000 reached asylum on the 
island of Corfu after the winter's fight 
through the snow-filled passes of Albania 
and Montenegro. In the confusion of 
those days some one had forgotten. 
There was not sufficient food or clothing 
or medicines or nursing waiting them. 
Men who had struggled through the 
winter died on the open beaches of the 
island of Vido. 

Dying men dug their own graves and 
then dug the graves of the men already 
dead. Not more than half were fit to 
serve again when the fall campaign of 
1916 began. 

AN ARMY OF OLD MEN IN THE FIGHTING 
LINE 

It was a sad army — a bitter army — 
but not a despairing army that I accom- 
panied last winter. Many of these men 
were "cheechas," in the Serb phrase. 
When a man reaches the age of forty he 



becomes "uncle" to his neighbors. Some 
of these men were in the fourth line be- 
fore the war. 

Serbia to the Serb peasant means the 
little white cottage, the plum orchard, 
the ten acres of ground. Few of them 
had been fifty miles away from home 
when war began five years ago in the 
Balkans. Fewer have seen their homes 
since. They have received no news from 
their wives and families, for the Austro- 
Bulgarian censorship has been extremely 
severe. They had seen their comrades 
die. Most of them — ^three men out of 
five in some units — had been wounded at 
some time during the war. 

There were no songs upon the march 
except during those vivid days when the 
Bulgarians were being forced out of 
Monastir. There was no light-hearted 
talk about the camp fires. There was no 
music, except that now and then one 
heard the weird and complaining tones 
of a one-stringed fiddle which some pa- 
tient soldier had made out of the material 



386 



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Photograph by Herbert Corey 

WHERE NATURE MAY BE EITHER ALLY OR ENEMY 

The picture gives an excellent idea of the country through which the Serbian army forced 
the Bulgarians during the drive at Monastir. The mountain in the distance is Sokol. 



at hand. They kept to themselves or in 
little groups of twos and threes. At 
night scores of tiny fires would sparkle 
in the open land on either side of the 
Monastir road, where the paired com- 
rades were cooking their evening meal. 
They marched badly, slowly, slouching, 
their old shoulders bowed under their 
packs, their grizzled faces deeply lined. 
Yet these men were the cutting edge of 
the weapon that bent back the Bulgarian 
lines. 

One division — the Morava — remained 
in the aggressive for 95 days without 
rest. During that period they had but 



one trench — the front trench. They had 
no second line, no reserve, no rest camp. 

One regiment of the Choumadia di- 
vision lost 1,100 out of 1400 men in tak- 
ing Vetternik Mountain, and then held 
that mountain under fire from the Rock 
of Blood, which dominated the summit, 
for 20 days until relief came. Even then 
the men of the regiment which had been 
so nearly wiped out did not go to rest. 
They stayed on Vetternik. 

In the taking of Kaymakchalan half 
of some organizations were killed out- 
right. They were enabled to do these 
things partly because of the experience 



387 



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Photograph by Herbert Corey 
MACEDONIAN TYPES AT SOUBOTSKO ON A MARKET DAY 
"But there is always something at hand which marks this land as the East. ... It may 
be a cynical and discontented peasant in a town that has escaped injury." 



gained in five years of almost constant 
fighting. Another factor was the spirit 
of the men. They no longer hoped for 
anything for themselves. They expected 
to die. Those who still remain expect to 
be killed in action. But they intend that 
the bill of Serbia shall be paid. 

If one could forget the foreground, a 
Macedonian winter landscape would re- 
mind one of Wyoming or Montana. 
There are the same brown, shallow swells 
with patches of scrubby brush. There 
are the same washed-out ravines, the 
same distant hills clothed with dark 
wood, while here and there a great bare 
eminence thrusts upward. Shepherds 
herd their sheep within sound of the 
guns. Women wash their clothes at the 
river side, and do not even look up when 
the infantry tramp by on the Monastir 
road. Little black, galloping figures 
might be cowboys if the glasses did not 
prove them to be uniformed men. 

But there is always something at hand 
which marks this land as of the east. It 
may be a Turkish drinking fountain 



through whose old pipes the water still 
trickles. Perhaps it is a Turkish grave- 
yard — neglected, weedgrown — among 
whose tumbled stones the cattle graze. 
It may be a cynical and discontented 
peasant in one of the towns that has 
escaped injury. . 

"Neither Bulgar nor Serb," said one 
such old woman, defiantly, when we left 
the Monastir road at Dobraveni. "I am 
Macedonian only and I am sick of war." 

MASTERLHSS DOGS ROAM THE BARREN 
IIII^LS 

And everywhere are the dogs. In this 
country of shepherds every peasant's cot- 
tage has d moving fringe of dogs. In the 
East the dog is neither fed nor petted, 
so that he feels himself outcast and de- 
spised. During this war first one army 
and then the other has swept over north- 
ern Macedonia, driving the peasants be- 
fore them. The dogs have been left be- 
hind. At night one hears them howling 
on the desolate hills. 



388 



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Photograph by Herbert Corey 

A FRENCH COOK JUST OUTSIDE OF MONASTIR 

Despite the fact that the Bulgarians were at the moment shelling the camp heavily, his one 
concern was to assume a properly martial air 



The tainted breeze that comes down 
the valley hints at the ghastly food on 
which they live. By day every man 
shoots at every dog save the few that 
cling close to an inhabited cottage. They 
slink, coyote fashion, behind rocks. At 
night one hears their feet padding behind 
him on the lonely roads. Their eyes 
shine in the flare of the electric torch. 
Every one carries arms in ^lacedonia at 
night, not against man, but as a protec- 
tion against the dogs. 

The fighting here has been of an oddly 



personal character. On the western front 
war is confusing in its immensity. Hun- 
dreds of guns roar. Thousands of men 
advance over a front miles long. One as 
completely fails to comprehend in detail 
what is going on as though he were 
caught in an earthquake. Here opera- 
tions are watched in the open. One 
crouches in an artillery observation post 
on the tip of a hill and watches the little 
gray figures go forward to the charge on 
the slope opposite. Sometimes they are 
broken, and one sees them run down hill 



389 



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THE MAN WITH PEAKED CAP AND PIPE IS A NOTED SWISS CRIMINOLOGIST INVESTI- 
GATING CONDITIONS IN THE RECAPTURED PORTION OK SERBIA AT THE 
REQUEST OK THE SERBIAN GOVERNMENT 



Photoerraphs by Herbert Corey 
A CROUP OK ENGLISH, KRENCH, AND SERBIAN OKKICERS AT SAKULEVO, ON THE 

SALONIKI KRONT 



*390 Digitized by 



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Photograph by Herbert Corey 
TWO WOUNDED SERBIAN SOLDIERS BEING CARRIED TO THE FIELD HOSPITAL ON A 

WING-TYPE MULE LITTER 
Compassionate comrades are giving them a drink of water from an old Turkish fountain 



again, dodging from rock to rock, hiding 
in the crevices of the surface. 

Occasionally the drama takes on an 
intimate — almost a neighborly — touch. 
Five cold men of the Choumadia division 
became aware last winter that in the Bul- 
garian dugout just opposite their post — 
not 50 feet away — three fur-coated offi- 
cers often met. 

"Let us get the fur coats," said the five 
cold Serbs. 

The story of the getting is too long to 
be told here. But during the two weeks 
in which the five cold men intrigued and 
maneuvered for those three fur coats 
their entire regiment became aware of 
the play and watched it as one might a 
particularly entertaining movie. In the 
end the five cold men succeeded. Lives 
were lost on both sides; but that is be- 
side the point. From the colonel down 
the men of that regiment rejoiced over 
the strategy of the five cold men. For 
the remainder of the winter they luxuri- 
ated in fur. The bitter winds of Dobra- 
polyi Mountain had no terrors for them. 



There was the old woman of Polok, 
too. Polok IS hardly a hamlet. It is just 
a huddle of stone huts, stained by the 
ages, each crowned with a blackened and 
disheveled thatch. For weeks the Serbs 
attacked Chuke Mountain, in a dimple of 
whose shoulder Polok rests. Each day 
the village had been under bombardment. 
The artillery observers from their high 
posts could see the lone old woman going 
about her business. No other peasants 
were seen in Polok; but she milked her 
cows and drove them to water, as though 
peace reigned in the land. Once she was 
seen chasing a group of Bulgarian sol- 
diers with a stick, as though they were a 
parcel of mischievous boys. 

Twice the hamlet was taken in hand- 
to-hand fighting and lost again. The 
third time the Serbs held it. 

The old woman picked her way down 
the cluttered hillside, past the dead men 
and the wounded, and through the shell 
holes and amid the ruins of the other 
huts, until she found the officer com- 
manding: 



391 



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ST. PAUL S ROCK IN SALONIKI 



Photograph by Herbert Corey 



According to a local tradition that has persisted for centuries, St. Paul fulfilled in 
Saloniki the scriptural injunction of "shakinsf off the very dust from his feet" as a testimony 
against the Thessalonians of his day. That they took to heart his act is witnessed by this 
historic rock on its three-step pedestal. 



"And who is to pay me for my cow ?'' 
she asked. "What have I to do with 
your war ? I want pay for my cow that 
is dead." 

GERMAN FLIERS WATCH THE ALLIED 
PLANS 

Sometimes the enemy fliers visit the 
Monastir road. On many a pleasant day 
they fly over Saloniki, lOO miles distant 
from their lines, on missions of recon- 
naissance. It is desirable to know how 
many ships there are in the harbor, for 
in this way they can keep an eye upon 
the Allied plans. 

It is not often that they drop bombs. 
Usually they come at the noon hour, when 
all leisured Saloniki is taking its coffee in 
front of its favorite cafe. No one goes 
to shelter ; it isn't worth while. Perhaps 
no bombs will be dropped, and if bombs 
are dropped experience has told those be- 
neath that running and dodging are futile 
ways in which to attempt to escape. 

It is not this conviction of futility, but 



real indifference, however, which keeps 
most men and women in their seats. 
They are "fed up" on aeroplanes, as the 
British say. 

Sometimes this indifference is carried 
to an extreme. One day I visited for the 
first time a hospital on the Monastir road. 
There were pretty girl nurses there — 
several of them. Next door was an am- 
munition dump. Further on were hang- 
ars for the war fliers. On a recent visit 
an enemy plane, no doubt intending to 
bomb the ammunition depot, had dropped 
bombs instead in the midst of the hos- 
pital tents. 

The surgeon in charge was a practical 
man of forethought and reason. He had 
funk-holes dug all over the place — many 
funk-holes. No matter how unexpect- 
edly a flier appeared, one had but to dive 
for the entrance of a funk-hole. It was 
somewhat rabbity, perhaps, but the plan 
was sound and safe. 

"Boche coming," trilled one of the 
pretty nurses. 



392 



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OPEN-AIR BARBERING AT IVKN 



Photograph by Herbert Corey 



Where one of the most noted Serbian divisions, that of the Morava, had its camp at the time. 
Two peasant children are watching the operation. 



"To the funk-holes, girls ; hurry," said 
the doctor. 

He stood at the mouth of his indi- 
vidual funk-hole and waited. Like a 
captain whose duty it is to stand by his 
ship, he felt that he must see his nurses 
secure. They had but to get into the bot- 
tom of the funk-holes and take a half 
turn to the left and there they were 
safe — at least as safe as could be ex- 
pected. 

NO ONE WORRIES ABOUT BOMB DROPPERS 

The girls ran. But instead of running 
to the funk-holes they ran to their tents 
and produced minute cameras, each hav- 
ing a possible range of about 40 feet. 
They stood there in the open and snap- 
shotted the flier and uttered small, ex- 
cited squeaks of satisfaction. The doctor 
did not go down into his funk-hole. He 
showed a regrettable lack of moral cour- 
age. I could not go either, for I was 
talking to the doctor. 

Always the Monastir road is lined with 
road-menders. Some wear the dirty 



brown uniform and the Russian cap of 
the Bulgarian army. They are not par- 
ticularly happy, but they are frankly at 
ease. Broadly speaking, the Bulgarian 
does not seem to know what the war is 
all about. If it were only to fight the 
Serb, he would not mind. He has always 
fought the Serb. He dislikes the Serb 
quite as cordially as the Serb detests him. 
But he remembers that only a little while 
ago he was at work, having just returned 
to his farm from the last war, in which 
he fought the Serb to his heart's content. 
This time he was called out to fight 
Great Britain and Russia, countries 
which have always been known to the 
Bulgarian as his country's friends. He 
is puzzled and says so. Very often he is 
so puzzled that he deserts. 

GERMANS BOSS THE ROAD MENDER OF THE 
MONASTIR ROAD 

If there are helmeted Germans on the 
road, they are the gang bosses. The Ger- 
man is an excellent gang boss. His Bul- 
garian underlings are made to work much 



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ON THE MONASTIR ROAD 



395 



harder than when a Serbian soldier is 
bossing them, for it must be admitted 
that the Serbian sympathizes with people 
who do not like to work. 

Driving along the roads, one finds Bul- 
garians asleep under bushes, stretched 
face down on the sand, examining their 
foot-gear, doing anything but work. In 
that case one is very apt to see a com- 
plaisant Serbian sentry sitting under a rock 
not far away, smoking a cigarette and 
quite at peace with the world. He would 
cheerfully kill that one of his charges 
who sought to escape, but he is open- 
minded in regard to industry. 

"He just got in today," one such sentry 
told me, nodding at a particular contented 
Bulgarian who was actively killing time. 
"He came in from the front, thirty-five 
kilometers away." 

The prisoner explained that he had de- 
serted, hidden his rifle, and started out to 
give himself up. The whole countryside 
is crawling with Bulgarian prisoners, so 
that no one paid the least attention to 
him. He walked on and walked on, ex- 
amining gang after gang, until he found 
one in which the dignity of labor was 
respected. 

His only complaint was that after he 
had properly surrendered he was obliged 
to walk three kilometers farther, until he 
found an officer at Vertekopp who would 
receipt for him properly. He thought this 
formality might have been attended to by 
mail. 

PEASANTS ARE SOURLY PHILOSOPHIC 

Along with the prisoners one also finds 
press gangs of the peasants of the vicin- 
ity. They are heartily discontented, al- 
though they are paid for their work. 
One cannot wonder at their attitude. 
Throughout the centuries there have been 
wars in Macedonia, and with each war 
the overlordship of the peasant changed. 
But a little while ago he owned allegiance 
to the Turk. Then the Greeks took Mace- 
donia and began to tax him. Then the 
Bulgars established themselves, and right 
on the retreating heels of his new masters 
came the Serbs, accompanied by a swarm 
of strange men wearing many uniforms 
and speaking in many tongues. The peas- 
ant takes refuge from his confusion in a 
sour philosophy. 



"One year the crops fail," he says, 
"and the next year there is war. It is all 
one to the poor man." 

Along the Monastir road there is a con- 
tinuous, dribbling stream of refugees — 
not many at a time. Sometimes half a 
dozen will trudge by in the course of a 
day. Sometimes an entire village has 
been evacuated farther up the line, and 
the fifty or so who have held on to the 
bitter end tramp stolidly and unwillingly 
to safety. These poor folk never leave 
their homes until they have been com- 
pelled to. The outer world is a strange 
and hostile place to them. Perhaps not 
one in an hundred has ever been twenty 
miles away from his hamlet. 

WOMEN RETURN AT NIGHT TO THEIR 
ABANDONED HOMES 

They pile their poor eflfects on donkeys, 
put the babies on top, and load the women 
with what there is left. If there is a 
spare donkey, the man of the house al- 
ways rides. If there are two spare don- 
keys, the eldest sons ride. The women 
always walk. Only once did I see a man 
walking while his wife rode the donkey. 
The road buzzed with the gossip of it. 

They have suffered greatly, these poor 
folk. Yet candor compels me to say that 
at first sight the diflference between a 
Macedonian peasant evicted and a Mace- 
donian peasant at home is so slight that 
it fails to arouse much sympathy. These 
poor folk seem to a westerner always on 
the edge of starvation. The principal 
item of their diet is maize, so poorly 
ground by crude water-turned wheels 
that their bodies are repulsively swollen 
from the resultant indigestion. 

A man with a yoke of oxen and forty 
sheep is rich. 

Their homes are mere inclosures of 
stone, topped with a blackened thatch, 
without windows and sometimes without 
other door than a blanket or a bit of 
flapping skin. Often the fire is lighted 
in the middle of the dirt floor and the 
smoke seeps out through the crevices of 
the walls and the holes in the roof. Baths 
seem unknown and vermin are a common- 
place of their existence. 

Yet they cling blindly to these hovels. 
When they hide themselves from an in- 



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Photograph by Herbert Corey 
REFUGEE TENTS JUST OUTSIDE THE OLD CITY WALL AT SALONIKI 



vader they always choose some nook in 
the hills from which they may watch 
their black roofs. They cache foodstuffs 
in secret places, from which they take a 
handful of corn or a cheese of ewe milk 
at night. 

When they are driven out the men go 
silently. Sometimes they are sullen. 
Sometimes they smile at the soldiers in 
a sort of twisted, sidewise fashion, in a 
poor attempt at propitiation. The women 
follow at their heels patiently. After the 
first outcry against the order of eviction 
they never openly defy the soldiery. Yet 
it is the women who most flagrantly dis- 
obey. 

They return at night to the abandoned 
homestead, taking their children with 
them. To do so they must evade the 



guards and tramp across a desolate coun- 
try in the darkness, in continual danger 
from the prowling dogs or from the rifles 
of the sentries. Somehow they manage 
to do it. Humanity requires that these 
little villages in the war zone be emptied 
to the last human, for in the rear is food 
and shelter, while at the front is only 
starvation and danger. 

Yet little by little the inhabitants trickle 
back. At first they are unobtrusive. Al- 
though fifty may be living in a hamlet, 
one sees no more than four or five at a 
time. Eventually they resume their for- 
mer mode of life, so far as that is possi- 
ble. Sometimes they live on the hidden 
stores of food. Sometimes it is quite im- 
possible to discover how they live at all. 

Some such thing happened at Brod. 



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Photograph by Herbert Corey 
CHARACTERISTIC COSTUMES IN THE SALONIKI STREETS 



This IS a fair-sized town for the northern 
Macedonian country. There are perhaps 
150 houses scattered on the slopes of a 
rocky hill or sunk in the abominable mud 
of the Cema Valley. Here the Bulga- 
rians behaved "fairly well," the peasants 
said. Some of the men were beaten, and 
some were taken away to dig trenches, 
and some ran away to the hills ; but the 
town was not burned and the women 
were not abused. The peasants were 
grateful. 

AMERICAN NURSE FED THE STARVING AT 
BROD 

When the Serbians took the town they 
found several hundred of the people still 
there. There was no food. The village 
was under constant bombardment. Each 
Macedonian peasant is a potential spy, 
for lineage and allegiance are too mixed 
for either side to place reliance in his 
loyalty. The people of Brod were moved 
out to the last man and baby. The Serbs 
searched the houses one by one , and 
looked under the caving bank of the 
Cerna and hunted over the bare hillside. 
There was none left. The village head- 
man swore it. 



Yet a little later, when the Serbs had 
given place to the Italians, the mired and 
filthy streets of Brod suddenly became 
alive with children. Children were every- 
where ; starving children, impossibly dirty 
children, children that were verminous 
and pallid and so ragged that the snow- 
struck against bare flesh through the 
holes in their garments. No men and 
few women were seen at this time. The 
Italian soldiers fed these little outcasts 
with the scraps of their rations. A mili- 
tary ration is scientifically adjusted to 
the needs of the soldier. There is no ex- 
cess to be devoted to charity. 

Miss Emily Simmonds, of the Amer- 
ican Red Cross, relieved this situation. 
Miss Simmonds secured an assignment 
as nurse in a near-by hospital and while 
there learned of the children's famine at 
Brod. She moved in one night without 
a pass, without a guard, and equipped 
only with a small tent that was so im- 
perfect a shelter that the constant rains 
rotted the mattress of her bed. She took 
a census of the starving ones. 

By this time there were 40 women and 
200 children, and there was not a bite to 
eat, nor a stick of fuel nor a blanket. 



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Photograph by Herbert Corey 
A TYPICAL MARKKT-DAY CROWD AT SOUBOTSKO 



They lived in that defiance of natural law 
which seems the rule of the destitute in 
the Balkans. Most of the time they were 
starving. They slept in heaps, like ani- 
mals, in order to keep from freezing. 

"Send food," Miss Simmonds tele- 
graphed, "especially beans." 

PEASANT WOMEN TRIED TO CHURN CON- 
DENSED MILK 

The beans came, but nothing else. 
There was no salt, no meat, no anything 
but beans. Boiled beans become singu- 
larly unpalatable after one has lived a 
few days on bean au naturel. Yet the 
nurse and the refugees were thankful for 
beans that week. They were kept from 
starvation. Later on other supplies ar- 
rived. The poor women, faithful to that 
domestic instinct implanted in every wo- 
man's breast, made a pathetic attempt to 
resume housekeeping along familiar lines. 
But soon they cante to the nurse indig- 
nant and complaining. The delegates 
placed before her bowls of the prepared 
condensed milk she had issued: 

"A devil has entered it," they said 



with conviction. "For hours upon hours 
we have churned it and yet the butter 
will not come." 

It was at Slivitska that I began to sus- 
pect that these poor devils have a sense 
of humor. I had gone to the townlet 
with a Serbian officer who was inquiring 
into the recent behavior of the Bulga- 
rians. We held court in a cow stable 
during a pouring rain. 

Outside a German prisoner wandered, 
asking an unintelligible question. He 
had lost his wits completely during the 
battle. He fumbled about aimlessly. 
Sometimes he stood opposite the open 
door of our cow stable, the tears on his 
cheeks mingling with the rain. Wounded 
meii lay on the sopping straw. 

A dozen or so compact, sturdy, cheer- 
ful little French soldiers dried their 
clothing at the fire which smoked on the 
dirt floor. A notably sullen priest stood 
by. A peasant told the village story. 

"The Bulgarians were unkind to our 
father here;," said he, indicating the pope. 
"Also they were cruel to us." The pope 
sneered ostentatiously. I have never seen 



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Photograph by Herbert Corey 
THREE GENERALS STANDING BY THE SIGNAL POST. AROUND WHICH AERIAL 
OBSERVERS WERE WONT TO CIRCLE AND DROP THEIR MESSAGES 

At the extreme left is General Jerome, of the French army; in the center is Voivode 
Mischitch, the Serbian strategist of the Macedonian campaign, and at the right is General 
Sicard, of the French army. 



a pope who seemed on such bad terms 
with his parishioners. He half turned 
to go away. Then he turned back, as 
though to listen to the story. 

**The Bulgarians said they would hang 
our pope at noon if we did not give them 
200 dinars," said the peasant, impres- 
sively. It seemed to me that he did not 
meet the eye of the pope. 

"What did you do?" asked the Ser- 
bian officer who was conducting the ex- 
amination. The peasant explained that 
they were poor folk at Slivitska. They 
did not have 200 dinars. Furthermore, 
most of the people of Slivitska had hid- 
den in the hills when the Bulgarians 
came. 

"So the only thing we could do for 
our father," said the peasant, suavely, 
"was to ask the Bulgarians to postpone 
the event until 4 o'clock. That would 
give our people time to come in from the 
hills and see our father hanged." 

^lacedonian mud coupled with the 



Monastir road is a formidable opponent 
of the Allied forces here. The Monastir 
road, in spite of its centuries of use, is 
of an incredible badness. It has no bot- 
tom in wet weather. In dry weather it 
is but a dust-bin, so that one can trace 
the course of a moving column for miles 
by the pillar-like cloud that rises. 

MAKING A BAD ROAD BEHAVE 

The Allies have done what they could 
to make the road behave itself. But the 
Saloniki base is at an average distance of 
100 miles from the front line, and those 
goods which cannot be carried upon the 
two single-track railroads must go by the 
Monastir road. The railroads are gen- 
erally in an acute state of congestion. 

At all times the native ox-cart is the 
last line of transportation defense. In 
bad weather the railroad bridges wash 
out. The little De Cauville railroads that 
net the hills go completely to pieces after 
each downpour. Their tiny tracks slip 



401 



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Photograph by Herbert Corey 
MISS EMILY SIMMONDS, ONE OP THE MOST NOTED NURSES OF THE AMERICAN RED 
CROSS, LUNCHING WITH THE TWO "CHEECHAS" WHO HAD BEEN 
ASSIGNED TO HER FOR A PERSONAL GUARD AT BROD 



sidewise on the slopes or the soft dirt 
ballasting oozes out from beneath the 
ties. 

On the big road the great motor lor- 
ries slip and strain and beat the surface 
into huge ruts. When a car is stranded 
it is pushed into the ditch by the side. 
The men attached to it paddle about 
barefooted, hopelessly, doing little things 
they know will do no good. They must 
wait for the road to come to its senses. 
The pack-trains abandon the road com- 
pletely and strike across the open coun- 
try. 

OX-CARTS THE FINAL RELIANCE OF 
TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT 

But the ox-carts groan and creak and 
waggle on. The little oxen sway and 
grunt under the goad. Progress is in- 
finitely slow, but there is progress. In 
the end they reach the place appointed. 

The Allied forces have built 2,000 miles 
of main and branch roads in Macedonia 
during the occupancy and dry weather 
conditions are slightly improved. But 
the loose Macedonian soil and the sandy 
Macedonian rock is not good road metal. 
When the Allies leave Macedonia and 
the people come back to these poor vil- 



lages that are scattered through the hills, 
the big road will go back to that state in 
which Alexander put it, perhaps, or 
Darius found it. Until it is bettered and 
the roads that lead from it are made 
sound for traffic, there can be no perma- 
nent improvement in the internal condi- 
tions of northern Macedonia. Where 
Macedonia is not hilly it is a swamp. 
During the winter Macedonian hills defy 
nature and become swamps. 

If the road is an irritation as well as 
a necessity, the malaria-bearing mosquito 
is a really dangerous enemy. Last year 
the Allied troops did not realize what the 
Macedonian mosquito can do, apparently. 
They were not prepared. In consequence 
fully one-half of their strength was out 
of action because of malaria. 

During one period more men were in- 
valided home than arrived on ships. I 
heard of battalions with 75 per cent of 
their men on their backs, and of com- 
panies in which only five men were fit for 
duty. The well men watched the trench 
while the invalids groaned in their dug- 
outs, but the sick men responded to call 
when an attack was made. Even in the 
midst of winter one saw yellow-faced men 
faltering along the Monastir road toward 



402 



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Photograph by Herbert Corey 
THE THREE GRACES OF SALONIKI 

Persistent beggars, but so adorably sunny that they were forgiven and enriched 



some near-by hospital. It often took 
them a day to cover five miles. At night 
they sometimes slept in the mud, wrapped 
in blankets that had been soaked by the 
day's rain. They did not complain. 
What was the use ? 

MALARIA-BEARING MOSQUITO IS THE MOST 
DANGEROUS ENEMY 

Conditions have improved for future 
campaigns. The Allies are on higher 
ground, for one thing. They have cut 
their way through the Bulgarian lines 
until they have reached the hills. There 



will be malaria, of course. There will 
always be malaria here until Macedonia 
is drained and oiled, Panama fashion. 
But the doctors are learning how to treat 
it and the equipment of prevention has 
become almost formidable. Men now 
wear mosquito gloves and masks and 
neck covers, and sleep in nets inside tents 
that have been made mosquito-safe. 

The difficulty is to make the men make 
use of these safeguards. They become 
irritable during the Macedonian heats, in 
which their strength is fairly drained 
from them. They tear oflF the head cov- 



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PEASANTS ON THE ROAD TO SAFETY 

In this case their exodus had been so hurried that they had not even time to load their 

donkeys 



Photographs by Herbert Corey 
GROUP OF REFUGEE CHILDREN IN MONASTIR, SHOWING THE VARIETY OF TYPES 

OBSERVABLE IN THE CITY 



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Photograph by Herbert Corey 
A GRAVE AND COURTEOUS IJTTLK GENTLEMAN 

Although his home had been turned behind him and the other members of his family had 

disappeared 



ers to get a breath of air and draw the 
gloves from hands that have been 
bleached and thinned by the fllow of per- 
spiration. Then the mosquito does his 
perfect work. 

Today the road ends at Monastir. 
True, a branch wanders north to Nish 
and Uskub and Prilip, and another branch 
crosses the hills to the Adriatic Sea. But 
across these branches the Bulgarian line 
is thrown. Monastir is a town of 40,000 
people, pretty clean by eastern standards, 
well built, with wide streets and a tink- 
hng river running through its handsome 



boulevard. It was captured by the Allies 
in November, 1916, but the Bulgarians 
held the hills from which it is command- 
ed. They shelled it every day until the 
middle of April, and they may be shelling 
it now for aught I know. 

It was even a contemptuous sort of 
shelling they gave it. Although they had 
a sufficiency of big guns, and sometimes 
dropped a 210 shell in the middle of a 
promenade to prove it, most of the firing 
on the town was from the field pieces of 
'j'j caliber. They were so near at hand, 
you see — only four or five kilometers 



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Photograph by Herbert Corey 
ORDERS HAD JUST BEEN RECEIVED TO MOVE THE BATTERY ON, AS THE BULGARIANS 

WERE RETREATING 
Twelve horses were needed to tear the gun out of the reluctant mud 



away. At night the tapping of the mi- 
trailleuse seemed in the very edge of 
town. 

It was too large a town to be hurriedly 
evacuated. There are few asylums for 
refugees in this land of ruined villages 
and minute farms. So that only the very 
poor — perhaps ten thousand in all — who 
had no food and no money and no hope, 
were sent away to Saloniki and elsewhere 
at the start. The richer ones trembled at 
home. 

One by one they were permitted to 
leave ; but when I saw Monastir for the 
last time, in January, fully one-half of 
its population were still hiding in the 
cellars and hoping that the Bulgarians 
might be driven on. The streets were 
empty. The one cafe that remained open 



was tenanted only by French soldiers, 
singing a rousing Gallic chorus; and in 
the single restaurant the only guests be- 
side myself were the Italian officers. At 
night there is never a light in the city. 

I have never felt so absolutely alone as 
in wandering through these broad, white, 
moonlighted streets. When a regiment 
of tired men shuffled by, their hobnails 
scraping on the cobbles, I sat down on 
the curb to watch them. They took the 
curse of emptiness off the town. 

Then an English officer came up and 
asked the sort of a question one learns to 
expect from an Englishman and from no 
other man on earth. 

"Where," said he, "can I find a piano? 
We want to have a sort of a sing-song 
tonight." 




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NIAGARA AT THE BATTLE FRONT 

By William Joseph Showaltkr 



NIAGARA FALLS, held in rever- 
ence for its beauty by generations 
of nature-loving Americans, has 
enlisted for the war and is doing its bit in 
the cause for which the people of the 
United States have pledged anew their 
lives, their fortunes, and their sacred 
honor. 

Aided by science, it has transformed 
the silvery sheen of its whitened waters 
into the fateful furies of the artillery 
duel and the infantry charge. The placid 
flood of the upper river has become 
hardness in steel, speed in manufacture, 
healing in antiseptics, whiteness in linen, 
cheapness in automobiles, durability in 
machinery. 

It has lengthened the lives of big guns ; 
it has multiplied the power and the num- 
ber of shells; it is standing guard over 
every mile of war-carrying railroad track, 
and is protecting every engine axle and 
car wheel from failure in the rush of 
material to the front. Aye, who knows 
but that the very scales of victory will be 
turned by the weight* it throws into the 
balance ? 

The story of Niagara's role in the battle 
of the nations is an epic in the history 
of war. 

Twenty-seven years ago certain manu- 
facturers, seeing the tremendous amount 
of power running to waste where the 
waters of Superior, Michigan, Huron, 
and Erie leap from lake level toward sea- 
level, undertook the installation of a great 
hydro-electric plant at Niagara. Later 
other power-developing interests entered 
the field, and then began a legislative and 
diplomatic war between those who would 
utilize some of the power of Niagara and 
those who would keep it untouched by 
the unsentimental hand of commercialism. 

Finally the governments of the United 
States and Canada made a treaty regu- 
lating the amount of water that could be 
diverted for power purposes. Canada 
has used her share to the last second-foot, 
but the United States has never permitted 



the utilization of a considerable share of 
her allowance. 

A VAST EI.ECTRICAI, I.AB0RAT0RV 

But for the part used there has been 
rendered by the users one of the most 
remarkable accounts of stewardship in 
the history of commercial progress. The 
cheap power obtained made Niagara a 
laboratory where great ideas could be 
transformed into nation-benefiting enter- 
prises. 

When Niagara power was first devel- 
oped, efforts to make artificial grinding 
materials were proving a failure because 
of a lack of electric current at a price the 
new venture could afford to pay. Those 
who backed the process thereupon went 
to Niagara Falls, set up a plant, and 
founded the artificial abrasive industry. 
How much its success means to America 
cannot be overestimated. 

Take the grinding machinery out of 
the automobile factories, remove it from 
the munition plants, eliminate it from the 
locomotive works, car foundries, and ma- 
chine shops of the country and you would 
paralyze the nation's whole industrial 
system. And that would have happened 
ere now had not Niagara's artificial abra- 
sives stepped in to save the day when the 
war shut out our natural supply of em- 
cry and corundum from Asia Minor. 

There is not a bearing in your auto- 
mobile but is ground on Niagara-made 
grindstones; crankshafts are roughened 
and finished with. them, pistons and cylin- 
ders are made true, camshafts likewise, 
and a hundred critical parts of every car, 
whether of the cheapest or the most ex- 
pensive make. It would be impossible to 
build anything of tool steel on a commer- 
cial basis without Niagara's abrasives. 

NIAGARA SIIAPKS AND IIARDKNS OUR 
SllEhhS 

No shell goes to Europe whose nose 
has not been ground into shape on Ni- 
agara-made grindstones. Likewise it is 



413 



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Photograph by Ernest Fox 



HORSESHOE FAI,LS FROM GOAT ISI.AND 



The shimmering softness of the cataract has been transformed by a miracle of industry 
mto a sure rock of defense. From the seemingly insecure wooden causeway shown to the 
left the spectator commands a wonderful panoramic view of the very heart of Niagara. 



414 



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Photograph by Ernest Fox 
AMlvRICAN FALLS FROM GOAT ISLAND 

Directed by the magic of man's ingenuity, the resistless energy of these raging waters is 
transmuted into hardness in steel, speed in manufacture, healing in antiseptics, whiteness in 
linen, cheapness in automobiles, durability in machinery. 



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I'hotograph by Ernest Fox 

THlv AMERICAN FALLS IN THEIR PLUNGE OF 167 FEET 

A modern Orpheus, science has lured the mighty waters of Niagara to follow it into the 
channels of utility, yet without sacrificing the beauty and grandeur of the world's noblest 
cataract. 



416 Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Photograph by Ernest Fox 

HORSESHOE ealls From the Canadian side 

The ceaseless flow and measureless power of Niagara are symbolic of America's purpose 
and resources, which will be mobilized for service in the cause of humanity on the battlefields 
of Europe. No hand can stay the nation, no fleets or armies turn it from its goal — ^the 
emancipation of mankind from the tyranny of despots. 



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Photograph by Ernest Fox 

Niagara's cave of the winds 

The Niagara that mantles itself in ice at the silent touch of the Frost King, in its turn 
touches sand and coke, and they become near-diamonds ; water and salt, and they become 
purity in drinking water ; clay, and it gives forth a marvelous metal ; a dead wire, and it lights 
a city or drives a car; carbon and silica, and they are transformed into lubricants or inks. 



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NIAGARA AT THE BATTLE FRONT 



419 



Niagara's abrasives that have done more 
than any one other thing to master the 
"hot box," that bete noire of the Amer- 
ican railroad man and the worst enemy 
of schedule-time train transportation the 
world around. 

While the processes of carborundum 
manufacture were being perfected an- 
other lesson was learned. Quartz, you 
remember, is \ the geologist's thermom- 
eter, for it is formed between narrow 
ranges of temperature. If the materials 
from which Nature makes it are sub- 
jected to more than so much heat, they 
take on an entirely different character 
from quartz. The same is true if they 
are subjected to less than a certain 
amount of heat. 

So, also, it is with carborundum. In 
its manufacture a large quantity of a 
mixture of coke and sand, with a touch 
of sawdust and a dash of salt, is put into 
an electric furnace. A heavy current of 
electricity is passed through this for 48 
hours, heating it to 1,350 degrees centi- 
grade. 

If it is properly heated, there forms 
around the central core of coke a great 
array of crystals, large and small, almost 
as hard as diamonds. If too much heat 
is applied, instead of forming into crys- 
tals, the material breaks up into fine 
particles of black dust and you have 
graphite. 

LKADS FOR pencils; ELECTRODES FOR 
FURNACES 

Therefore, largely by the same process, 
the electric furnace produces from the 
same materials the near-diamond of the 
artificial grindstone and the microscopic 
dust that becomes lead for a pencil, color 
for ink, base for lubricants, electrodes 
for furnaces and death chairs, or a thou- 
sand other things, under the manipula- 
tions of industrial science. 

In making carborundum wheels, whet- 
stones, and other grinding implements, 
the crystals are separated, graded, mixed 
with various binders, pressed into the 
shapes desired, dried, and then baked in 
kilns, like porcelain or other ceramic 
products. In some cases binders are 
used which do not permit exposure to 
heat, as in the case of emery cloth. 



Carborundum has a companion, alun- 
dum, as an abrasive, each having its more 
advantageous uses. In the manufacture 
of the latter certain clays are used. One 
of these is bauxite. This is first purified 
and then put into a water-jacketed elec- 
tric furnace, which fuses the aluminum 
oxide. The fused material is taken out, 
crushed, and prepared for use much after 
the manner of carborundum. 

Between the two, Niagara has suc- 
ceeded in saving American industry from 
the calamity that would otherwise have 
ensued as a result of the cutting off of 
our supply of natural abrasives. For 
more than two years Niagara's abrasive 
industry has been mobilized against the 
Central Powers with an effect that can* 
not be measured. 

GIVING STEEL A GREATER HARDNESS 

But Niagara's bit in behalf of Ameri- 
can arms does not end with the story of 
sfbrasives; indeed, it only well begins. 
The story of ferro-silicon is another il- 
lustration of how beauty under the al- 
chemy of science is transmuted into grim- 
visaged war. 

Last year this country made more steel 
than the whole world produced when 
William McKinley became President of 
the United States. Nearly three-fourths 
of that steel vi^s made by the open-hearth 
process, and ferro-silicon was used as a 
deoxidizer, to purify it by driving out 
the oxygen. Furthermore, in the making 
of big steel castings that alloy is practi- 
cally indispensable in the elimination of 
blow-holes. 

The entire ferro-silicon industry, prac- 
tically, is centered at Niagara, which thus 
gives pure steel and sound castings as 
another part of America's contribution to 
the cause of Allied victory. Every con- 
tract for shell steel that has been made in 
two years calls for a content of ferro- 
silicon. 

There is another alloy of iron indis- 
pensable in war, and well-nigh so in 
twentieth century peace — f erro - chro- 
mium. This is the alloy which gives that 
peculiar hardness to steel which makes it * 
resistant almost beyond human concep- 
tion. It has been estimated that a modem 
14-inch shell, such as our Navy is ever 



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420 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



holding in readiness for the possible dash 
of a German fleet, has a striking mo- 
mentum at a distance of eight miles equal 
to the colliding force of a modern express 
train running at top speed. 

Yet this shell must have a nose so hard 
and so perfect that, although the entire 
force of the impact is upon its narrow 
point when it strikes the armor plate, it 
will pierce the plate without being de- 
formed itself. 

NIAGARA PROTECTS YOUR AUTOMOBILE 
AXLE 

Not only does ferro-chromium go into 
the shells of American manufacture, giv- 
ing them hardness and death - dealing 
qualities which must make the stoutest 
enemy heart quail, but it gives strength 
to the tool steel shaft, life to the auto- 
mobile axle and gear, and serves peace 
and war alike with equal fidelity. And 
Niagara produces half of America's sup- 
ply of ferro-chromium today. 

Other alloys indispensable to our suc- 
cess in the great war, in the production 
of which Niagara is a contributing factor, 
are tungsten, vanadium, and molybdenum. 
Some of these alloys are made there, but 
in the production of the part that is not 
Niagara contributes the aluminum which 
makes their preparation possible. To- 
gether with chromium, they give us our 
high-speed steels, gun steels, etc. 

America has been able to turn out mu- 
nitions with a rapidity that has astonished 
the world and even ourselves, because 
through Niagara's influence the high- 
speed tool reached an unprecedented de- 
velopment in days of peace. 

In the old days of carbon steel the ma- 
chine that would cut rapidly would heat 
the steel so hot as to ruin its temper. 
Today alloy steel is not even fretted, 
much less put out of temper, by cutting 
speeds that would have been fatal to any 
carbon steel ever produced. 

Niagara's gift of aluminum 

Where once a cool cutting edge was 
absolutely indispensable, now even a huge 
battleship shaft can be turned down, re- 
volving at a speed of 30 feet a minute 
and giving oflf shavings more than half 
an inch thick. 



It was the touch of Niagara that trans- 
formed aluminum from a laboratory curi- 
osity into one of the most essential of all 
the minor metals, one with which it would 
now be difficult to dispense and which 
has been power to the Allied arm in the 
European war. Take it out of the auto- 
mobile industry, and the stream of cars 
America is sending to the battle front 
would fall to low-water mark, instead of 
rising above it. 

Then there is silicon metal which keeps 
transformer steel in electric transmission 
from ageing, and which, in conjunction 
with caustic soda, will produce the gas 
for the army's hydrogen balloons, and 
titanium — both Niagara products which 
cannot be overlooked in any summary of 
Niagara's part in America's war. 

Between Niagara's alloys and her 
abrasives, it is estimated that every in- 
dustry utilizing steel has multiplied its 
productive powers by three. Engineers 
who know every phase of the processes 
of automobile manufacture declare that 
if it had not been for these abrasives and 
alloys, every motor-car factory in Amer- 
ica would have had to slow down to one- 
fifth of its normal production when the 
war broke out. 

preparedness against the dynamite 

PLOTTER 

Calcium carbide is another product of 
the electric furnace which Niagara is giv- 
ing to the nation in vast quantities. One 
furnace uses egg-size lime and chestnut 
coke in the proportions of 3 parts lime 
and 2 parts coke and is able to produce 
as much calcium carbide in a day as the 
original furnace could produce in a year. 
This compound is the only commercial 
source of acetylene, whose many uses are 
well known. 

In every big industrial plant in the 
country there is fear of the spy, and 
every oxy-acetylene blow - pipe in the 
neighborhood is registered, so that in the 
event of a wrecked plant the work of 
rescue and restoration can begin at once. 

When the Eastland went down in Chi- 
cago harbor it was the cutting power of 
the oxy-acetylene flame that liberated the 
imprisoned people. Calcium carbide is 
also the material from which calcium 



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Photograph by Ernest Fox 

ICICI^ES UNDER THE HORSESHOE FALLS I NIAGARA 

When Nature desires an altar dedicated to her own glory she seeks Niagara in winter 
and there creates gigantic monoliths of ice and snow, carves them with her chisels of wind 
and water, quickens them with color snatched from a sunbeam, and lo I her worshipers come 
to gaze in silent adoration in the aisled and vaulted temple of her matchless handiwork. 



42^ Digitized by Google 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



cynamid, essential in the fixation of nitro- 
gen, is obtained. 

But Niagara does not stop with these 
things. In the trenches of Europe there 
must be pure water lest epidemic disease 
sweep over them, destroying more than 
the shells, shrapnel, and machine-guns of 
the enemy; and Niagara comes forward 
with chlorine, or an allied product, which 
kills the germs of disease, yet leaves the 
drinker untouched. 

In the simplest form, the process of 
breaking up salt and getting command of 
the qualities of the two elements in it con- 
sists of dissolving about one part of com- 
mon salt in eight parts of water and pass- 
ing a given current of electricity through 
it. The resultant fluid is a great bleacher 
and disinfectant. A gallon of it will kill 
all the germs in a day's drinking water of 
a city like Washington. Of course, the 
processes of manufacturing chlorine, 
bleaching powder, and other compounds 
is more complex. 

A thousand American cities sterilize 



their water with these products, which 
have done more than any other agency 
in the hands of the sanitariums to wipe 
out water-borne epidemics. In the hos- 
pitals of France and England they form 
the active part of mixtures used to steri- 
lize the wounds of the soldiers. Without 
them there would be no book or letter 
paper; cotton dresses and sheets would 
be no longer white ; our every-day chem- 
ical fire extinguisher would disappear. 

One might go on showing how Niagara 
aids America in her preparedness cam- 
paign. Its laboratories are producing the 
materials from which picric acid and 
other powerful explosives are made. 
They also are producing metallic soda 
from which is manufactured sodium 
cyanide, used alike in extrarcting gold and 
silver and in electro-plating. 

All these things Niagara has been able 
to do without detracting at all from its 
beauty — even without exhausting the 
amount of water authorized by the Cana- 
dian-American treaty. 



HELP OUR RED CROSS 



^HE RED CROSS needs at this time more than it ever 
^ needed before the comprehending support of the 
American people and all the facilities which could he 
placed at its disposal to perform^ its duties adequately 
and efficiently. 

I believe that the American people perhaps hardly yet 
realize the sacrifices and sufferings that are before them. 

We thought the scale of our Civil War was unpre- 
cedented, but in comparison tvith the struggle into which 
we have now entered the Civil War seems almost insig- 
nificant in its proportions, and in its expenditure of 
treasure and of blood. And, therefore, it is a matter of 
the greatest importance that we should at the outset see 
to it that the American Red Cross is equipped and pre- 
pared for the things that lie before it. 

It will be our instrument to do the work of alleviation 
and of mercy which will attend this struggle. 

WooDRow Wilson. 



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OUR ARMIES OF MERCY 



By Henry P. Davison 
Chairman of the War Councii. of the American Red Cross 

Probably every member of the National Geographic Society, if not already 
in service, has at least one near relative or dear friend preparing cheerfully and 
unselfishly for the battle lines on sea and land. Those who cannot go are search- 
ing for means to help their loved ones and our beloved country. In order to assist, 
in their patriotic ambition to be of service, those who must stay at home, the 
National Geographic Magazine, by courtesy of the American Red Cross, pub- 
lishes herewith the principal addresses at one of the most awakening meetings that 
has ever assembled in America — that of the American Red Cross War Council, 
held in Washington on May 24 and ^5. 

The meeting had been called by the President of the United States to plan 
means for raising immediately an immense Red Cross war fund. Every one who 
reads the addresses by General Pershing, Henry P. Davison, Ian Malcolm, John 
H. Gade, Herbert C. Hoover^ Frederick Walcott, Secretary Baker, Eliot Wads- 
worth, and ex-President Taft tvill appreciate the imperative necessities of our 
Department of Mercy. 

The members of the National Geographic Society are urged to cooperate with 
the Red Cross through their local Red Cross chapters, but, for the convenience of 
the many thousands of members l