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TORONi 
LlBRAkY 



VOLUME XXXVII 



JAN.-JUNE, 1920 



NATIONA 

GEOGRAPHI 
MAGAZIN 




INDEX 



January to June, 1920 



VOLUME XXXVII 



PUBLISHED BY THE 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

HUBBARD MEMORIAL HALL 
\VASHINGTON, D.C. 




NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

GEOGRAPHIC ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS 
SIXTEENTH AND M STREETS NORTHWEST, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

GILBERT GROSVENOR, President HENRY WHITE, Vice-President 

JOHN JOY EDSON, Treasurer O. P. AUSTIN, Secretary 

BOYD TAYLOR, Assistant Treasurer GEORGE W. HUTCHISON, Associate Secretary 

EDWIN P. GROSVENOR, General Counsel 



EXECUTIVE STAFF OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 
GILBERT GROSVENOR, EDITOR 

JOHN OLIVER LA GORGE, Associate Editor 



WILLIAM J. SHOWALTER 
Assistant Editor 



CHARLES j. BELL 

President American Security and 
Trust Company 

JOHN JOY EDSON 

Chairman of the Board, Wash- 
ington Loan & Trust Company 

DAVID FAIRCHILD 

In Charge of Agricultural Ex- 
plorations, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture 

C. HART MERRIAM 

Member National Academy of 
Sciences 

O. P. AUSTIN 
Statistician 

GEORGE R. PUTNAM 

Commissioner U. S. Bureau of 
Lighthouses 

GEORGE SHIRAS, 30 

Formerly Member U. S. Con- 
gress, Faunal Naturalist, and 
Wild-game Photographer 

GRANT SQUIRES 

Military Intelligence Division, 
General Staff, New York 



RALPH A. GRAVES 
Assistant Editor 

JESSIE L. BURRALL 
Chief of School Service 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 



C 






Star 

T. L. MACDONALD 
M. D., F. A. C. S. 

S. N. D. NORTH 

Formerly Director U. S. Bureau 
of Census 

JOHN OLIVER LA GORGE, 
Associate Editor National Geo- 
graphic Magazine. 



FRANKLIN L. FISHER 

Chief of Illustrations Division 



ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL 
Inventor of the telephone 

J. HOWARD GORE 

Prof. Emeritus Mathematics, The 
George Washington University 

A. W. GREELY 

Arctic Explorer, Major General 
U. S. Army 

GILBERT GROSVENOR 

Editor of National Geographic 
Magazine 

ROBT. E. PEARY (Died Feb. 20) 
Discoverer of the North Pole, 
Rear Admiral, U. S. Navy 

GEORGE OTIS SMITH 

Director of U. S. Geological 
Survey 

O. H. TITTMANN 
Formerly Superintendent of U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey 

HENRY WHITE 

Member American Peace Com- 
mission, and Recently U. S. 
Ambassador to France, Italy, 
etc. 



ORGANIZED FOR "THE INCREASE AND DIFFUSION OF GEOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE" 

To carry out the purpose for which it was founded thirty-two years ago, the National Geographic So- 
ciety publishes this Magazine. All receipts from the publication are invested in the Magazine itself or ex- 
pended directly to promote geographic knowledge and the study of geography. Articles or photographs 
from members of the Society, Or other friends, are desired. For material that the Magazine can use, gener- 
ous remuneration is made. Contributions should be accompanied by an addressed return envelope and post- 
age, and be addressed: Editor, National Geographic Magazine, i6th and M Streets, Washington, D. C. 

Important contributions to geographic science are constantly being made through expeditions financed 
by funds set aside from the Society's income. For example, immediately after the terrific eruption of the 
world's largest crater, Mt. Katmai, in Alaska, a National Geographic Society expedition was sent to make 
observations of this remarkable phenomenon. So important was the completion of this work considered 
that four expeditions have followed and the extraordinary scientific data resultant given to the world. In 
this vicinity an eighth wonder of the world was discovered and explored "The Valley of Ten Thousand 
Smokes," a vast area of steaming, spoilting fissures, evidently formed by nature as a huge safety-valve for 
erupting Katmai. By proclamation of the President of the United States, this area has been created a 
National Monument. The Society organized and supported a large party, which made a three-year study 
of Alaskan glacial fields, the most remarkable in existence. At an expense of over $50,000 it has sent a 
notable series of .expeditions into Peru to investigate the traces of the Inca race. The discoveries of these 
expeditions form a large share of the world's knowledge of a civilization which was waning when Pizarro 
first set foot in Peru. Trained geologists were sent to Mt. Pelee, La Soufriere, and Messina following the 
eruptions and earthquakes. The Society also had the honor of subscribing a substantial sum to the historic 
expedition of Admiral Peary, who discovered the North Pole April 6, 1909. Not long ago the Society 
granted $20,000 to the Federal Government when the congressional appropriation for the purchase was 
insufficient, and the finest of the giant sequoia trees of California were thereby saved for the American 
people and incorporated into a National Park. 



Copyright, 1920, by National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C. All rights reserved. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 
Around the World with the Salvation Army. By EVANGELINE BOOTH, Commander 

Salvation Army 346 

Asia Minor in the Time of the Seven Wise Men. By MARY MILLS PATRICK, President' 

of the American College for Girls, Constantinople 47 

By Motor Through the East Coast and Batak Highlands of Sumatra. By MELVIN A. 

HALL 68 

Common Mushrooms of the United States. By LOUIS C. C. KRIEGER 387 

Crow, Bird Citizen of Every Land, The: A Feathered Rogue Who Has Many Fascinat- 
ing Traits and Many Admirable Qualities Despite His Marauding Propensities. By 

E. R. KALMBACH, Assistant Biologist, U. S. Biological Survey 322 

Formosa the Beautiful. By ALICE BALLANTINE KIRJASSOFF 246 

Hurdle Racing in Canoes : A Thrilling and Spectacular Sport Among the Maoris of 

New Zealand. By WALTER BURKE 440 

Last Israelitish Blood Sacrifice, The : How the Vanishing Samaritans Celebrate the 

Passover on Sacred Mount Gerizim. By JOHN D. WHITING I 

Malta: The Halting Place of Nations: First Account of Remarkable Prehistoric Tombs 

and Temples Recently Unearthed on the Island. By WILLIAM ARTHUR GRIFFITHS.. 445 

Massachusetts Beehive of Business. By WILLIAM JOSEPH SHOW ALTER 203 

Mind's-Eye Map of America, A. By FRANKLIN K. LANE 479 

Mushrooms, United States. Color insert. XVI plates 423 

National Geographic Society's Notable Year, The 338 

Our National Parks. Color insert. VIII plates 511 

Peary as a Leader: Incidents from the Life of the Discoverer of the North Pole Told 
by One of His Lieutenants on the Expedition Which Reached the Goal. By 

DONALD B. MACMILLAN 293 

Peary's Explorations in the Far North. By GILBERT GROSVENOR, President of the 

National Geographic Society v 319 

Peru's Wealth-Producing Birds : Vast Riches in the Guano Deposits of Cormorants, 

Pelicans, and Petrels Which Nest on Her Barren, Rainless Coast. By R. E. COKER. 537 
Removal of the North Sea Mine Barrage, The. By Lieutenant-Commander NoEL 

DAVIS, U. S. Navy . .... 103 

Saving the Redwoods. By MADISON GRANT 519 

Skiing Over the New Hampshire Hills : A Thrilling and Picturesque Sport Which Has 

a Thousand Devotees in the Dartmouth Outing Club. By FRED H. HARRIS 151 

When the Father of Waters Goes on a Rampage: An Account of the Salvaging of 

Food-Fishes from the Overflowed Lands of the Mississippi River. By HUGH M. 

SMITH, United States Commissioner of Fisheries 369 

Where the World Gets Its Oil : But Where Will Our Children Get it When American 

Wells Cease to Flow? By GEORGE OTIS SMITH, Director United States Geological 

Survey 181 

Winter Rambles in Thoreau's Country. By HERBERT W. GLEASON 165 

Winter Scenes. Duotone insert. XVI plates .-...-..... -.-..; 135 



INDEX FOR VOL. XXXVII (JANUARY-JUNE), 1920 



AN ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED INDEX 



ENTRIES IN CAPITALS REFER TO ARTICLES 



Page 

Aberdeen, Scotland 303 

Abishua Codex: First photograph of ill. 12 

Abishua, Great-grandson of Aaron: Reference to 

the Abishua Codex 12, 23 

Abortive Clitopilus mushroom (Clitopilus aborti- 

vtts) ill. 396 

Abu el Hassan, Son of the late High Priest 

Jacob : Photograph of ill. 1 3 

Achin, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 79 

Achinese war 79 

Acre, Syria: Knights of St. John 453 

Acropolis of Samaria, Palestine ill. 5 

Adalia, Asia Minor 54 

Adams, John : Reference to 209 

Adirondack Mountains, N. Y. : Victory Park.. ill. 508 

Adriatic 445 

^Egean Sea, Islands of 47, 49, 51, 67 

Aerial trolley used for conveying guano, Peru 

ill. 561; text 564 

.fljsop fables 57 

Afghan, Persia 101 

Afiun-Karahissar, Asia Minor ill. 62; text 58 

Africa 51 

Africa, South: Salvation Army. .ill. 353, 364; text 363 
Africa, South: Salvation Army workers and their 

native associates ill. 364 

Africa, South: Zulu wards of the Salvation Army 

ill. 353 

Agassiz Basin, N. H 158 

Agriculture, Massachusetts 204-206 

Agrippina, Julia: Mention of Plate IX, 423-438 

Ahab's palace, Samaria, Palestine: Reburying. .ill. 6 

Ai, Palestine 13 

Aidin, Asia Minor 50 

"Aiyue" (guardsmen) Formosa, Pacific Ocean.... 274 

"Akid eh Niyeh" (Samaritan prayer) 33 

Ak-Kom-Mo-Ding-Wa : Smith Sound native. .. .ill. 310 

Alaska 482-483, 487, 519 

Albatrosses, Peru 559 

Albert I, King of the Belgians: Mention of.. 498, 504 
Albert Hall, London, England: International Con- 
gress of the Salvation Army 363, 368 

Alcatraz, see Pelicans. 

Alcott, Louisa: "Thoreau's Flute" 169 

Alert (Steamship) 311 

Alkaios, Poet: Reference to 57 

Alkman : Choir song for girls 61 

Almond groves, Goodnoe Hills, Klickitat Co., 

Wash.: Destruction of by crows 337 

Almost a Dog Mountain, Glacier National Park, 

Mont 501 

Al-Ning-Wa: An Eskimo woman ill. 308 

Altar of Seth, Mount Gerizim, Palestine 31 

Altar, Tarxien Temple, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 

ill. 475; text 474-475 
Amanita mushroom species: Underground portions 

of the ill. 389 

Amazons, Legend of the 66 

American Falls, Idaho 496 

Americanism 479, 510 

Americanization 479 

Amherst College, Amherst, Mass 207 

Ami savages, Formosa, Pacific Ocean: Dance of 

the ill. 291 

Amsterdam-Deli Company, Medan, Sumatra, Dutch 

East Indies 75, 79, 81 

Amundsen, Capt. Roald: National Geographic So- 
ciety Banquet, 1913 ill. 320 

Anak kajoe (poles for tobacco drying) Sumatra, 

Dutch East Indies 69 

Anatolia (Asia Minor) 52, 59 

Anchobetas, Peru 543, 552-553 

Andover, Mass 245 

Andrews Glacier, Rocky Mountain Park, Colo. . . 502 
Anglo-Bavarian Langues, Malta, Mediterranean 

Sea 453 

Animals' tracks in the snow, Massachusetts . . ill. 1 76- 

177, 179 
Animals, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 274-275 



Page 

Animals, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies ill. 74 

Antaeus : Strength received from the earth 510 

Antigua, Nicaragua: Delegates to Salvation Army 

International Congress, London 368 

Antiochus II : Reference to 50 

Ants as cultivators of mushrooms 399, 401 

Apache Indians, Arizona 495-496 

Appistoki Mountain, Glacier National Park, Mont. : 

Summit of ill. 485 

Apples, Washington 487 

Arabs 63, 86 

Arabs, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 453 

Aragon, Spain: Knights of St. John 453 

Aratiatia Rapids, North Island, New Zealand 440 

"Arbutus": Crow roost near Baltimore, Md 325 

Arcata, Calif. : Redwood trees 525 

Archaeology, Malta, Mediterranean Sea. 111.466-468, 

470-472, 474-478; text 448-450, 455-457, 459, 463, 
465-469, 473-475, 477-478 

Archilochus: Poems of 61 

Arctic Circle 482 

Arctic stove: Admiral Peary's 308 

Arizona: Vice-President Stevenson's visit to 495 

Armington Pond, N. H 158 

Armistice, The 104-105 

Armstrong Grove, Calif. : Redwood trees 527 

Archangel, Russia 340 

Arrow Rock Dam, Idaho 496 

AROUND THE WORLD WITH THE SALVA- 
TION ARMY. BY EVANGELINE BOOTH, 

COMMANDER SALVATION ARMY 346 

Arctic archipelago 340 

Argentina: Delegates to Salvation Army Inter- 
national Congress, London - 368 

Arkansas: Fishes rescued by government 375 

Arlington, Va. : Crow roosts 325-326 

Arklio : An Eskimo dog-driver 308 

Asia Island, Peru: Guano 559 

ASIA MINOR IN THE TIME OF THE SEVEN 
WISE MEN. BY MARY MILLS PATRICK, 
PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN COL- 
LEGE FOR GIRLS, CONSTANTINOPLE... 47 

Asia Minor, Map of 46 

Asia Minor market-place, Arriving at an ill. 48 

Askar (Ancient Sychar) Palestine, .ill. 16; text 17, 31 

Assuan Dam, Nile, Egypt 498 

Astronomy: Thales' School of Philosophy, Miletus, 

Asia Minor 64 

Astrup, Eivind: Mention of 319 

Atap, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 69 

Atayal savages, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 282; 

text 275 

Athens, Greece 51 

Attleboro, Mass.: Jewelry trade ". . . 242 

Audubon, John James: Mention of 331 

Augusta Sandstone Bridge, Utah 491 

Augustus, Emperor: Presentation of Shechem to 

Herod the Great 5, 21 

Auckland, New Zealand 440 

Auk (Mine-sweeper) 124 

Australia 202 

Automobile difficulties, Sumatra, Dutch East In- 
dies .92-95, 97, 99 

Automobiles, United States 187 

Awerta, Palestine 31 

Axel Heiberg Land, Arctic Region.. 294, 299-300, 314 
Ayasoulouk, Asia Minor ill. 59 



Baffin Bay, Arctic Region 301 

Baffin Land, Canada 307 

Baffin, William, British navigator: Discovery of 

Hakluyt Island, Greenland 302 

Bahria, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 456 

Balanced Rock, Colo ill. 503 

Bale of cotton, A ill. 206 

Bale-breaker, Cotton ill. 207; text 211 

Ballestas Islands, Peru ill. 540, 559, 561; text 545, 

547, 554, 559, 561-562 



INDEX FOR VOLUME XXXVII, 1920 



Page 

Baltimore, Md. : Crow roosts 325 

Bamboo poles, Formosa, Pacific Ocean: Savages 

carrying water in ill. 288 

Bamboo rafts, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 246; 

text 247 

Band of the Salvation Army, India ill. 352 

Bandar Baroe, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. .. .81, 84 

Bandjarese 71, 99 

Bandoening, Java, Dutch East Indies: Children's 

home established by the Salvation Army 363 

Banquets, Ancient 61 

Barents, William: Mention of 319 

Barnyards, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies ill. 78 

Baros, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 83 

Bartlett, Capt. Robert A.: Reference to.... 296, 305, 

309, 314, 3!7 

Batak Highlands, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies... 83 
Bataks, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies.. 80, 83-86, 89, 94 

Batavia, Java: Dutch East Indies 70 

Battle Harbor, Labrador 317 

Battle of the Nile 454 

Battleship, German ill. 112 

"Battleship, The," Grand Canyon of the Colorado 

ill. (color insert) Plate VIII, 511-518 

Bay of Independencia, Peru -553, 558 

Bay of Marsa Scirocco, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 

455-456 
Bay State, see Massachusetts. 

Bears, Polar ill. 312; ill. (duotone insert) Plate 

IX, 135-150 

Beaufort Sea, Arctic Region 340 

Beef-tongue mushroom (Fisttilina hepatica) . . . .ill. 407 

Beetles, May: Crows' destruction of 332-333 

Begbie, Harold: Mention of 351 

Belawan, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 73, 102 

Belgium 185 

Bellevue, Iowa: Fishes rescued by government... 375 

Bengalis, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 79 

Benihi trees, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 257 

Berenger, M. : Quotation 185 

Bering Strait, Siberia 340 

Berkeley: Quotation on mushrooms 418 

Bernadotte, Prince: Mention of 363 

Besdeguma, Aidin Vilayet, Asia Minor ill. 52 

Bethesda, Md 230 

Betrothed ill. 34 

Bias of Priene 47, 67 

Biblical salutation, Palestine ill. 44 

Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris 67 

Big Basin, Calif.: Redwood trees 527 

Big Lagoon, Orick, Calif.: Redwood Trees 531 

Bigelow, Erastus: Mention of 243 

Bingham, Col. Hiram: Life membership in the 

National Geographic Society bestowed upon. .342-343 
Bird's nest, Massachusetts: "Snowy egg" in a.. ill. 180 

Black bass, Mississippi River 375, 383 

Black cuer-co de mar, or "Sea crow", Peru 552 

Black Hawk (Repair Ship) 114, 129 

Blackfeet Indians, Montana ill. 486; text 501 

Black-stem rust, United States 399 

Black Sea 52 

Bladensburg road, District of Columbia: Crows 326-327 

Blake (Steamship) 345 

Blanchard, Thomas : Reference to 243 

Blusher mushroom (Amanita rubescens) .ill. 390 

"Bob Townsley" (Dog) ill. 482 

Bobolink (Mine-sweeper) 117, 119, 121 

Bocche di Cattaro, Austria 96 

Boegangan, Java, Dutch East Indies: Leper Hos- 
pital maintained by the Salvation Army 359 

Boekit Barisan Mountains, Sumatra, Dutch East 

Indies 83, 96 

Boiling, Col. : Memorial to 534 

Booth, Evangeline: Around the World With the 

Salvation Army 346 

Booth, General William: Addressing a multitude 

in Japan ill. 356 

Booth, General William: Faith in religion. .. .351, 354 
Borg en Nadur, Malta, Mediterranean Sea: Mega- 

lithic ruin of 456, 459 

Borneo, Dutch East Indies 69, 71, 82, 85 

Borup, George: Reference to 305, 309 

Bosporus Strait, Turkey in Europe 7 

Boston, Mass. ...ill. 244; text, 114, 204, 210, 243, 245 

Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me 319 

Boyans, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 80 

Bracket-fungus mushroom (Polyporus applanatus) 

ill. 409 



Page 
Brahmin Temple, Grand Canyon of the Colorado 

ill. 500 
Brick-red Hypholoma mushroom (Hypholoma sub- 

lateritium) ill. 40 1 

Bridal Veil Falls, Yosemite National Park, Calif. 

ill. (color insert) Plate V, 511-518 

Bridge near Brusa, Asia Minor: Turkish ill. 56 

Bridgeboro, N. J. : Crow roosts 325 

Bridges, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 276-277, 279 

British Mediterranean fleet, Valletta, Malta, Med- 
iterranean Sea ill. 446 

British Museum, London 53, 67 

British North Pole Expedition of 1875-1876. .296, 311 

British Red Cross Society 454 

British Saluting Battery, Grand Harbor, Malta, 

Mediterranean Sea ill. 446 

Brockton, Mass.: Shoe manufactures 228-233, 

235-236, 245 
Bronze Age dwellers, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 

449, 469 

Brooks, Col. Alfred H.: Life membership in the 
National Geographic Society bestowed upon. . . . 342 

Brooks, Sidney: Phrase of 197 

Brown Gyromitra mushroom (Gyromitra brunnea) 

ill. 421 

Bruce, Lieut. Frank: Death of 117 

Brusa, Asia Minor 56, 58 

Bryce Canyon, Utah 498 

Bryce, James: National Geographic Society Ban- 
quet, 1913 ill. 320 

Buffalo cart, Chinese coolie mending a ill. 102 

Buffalo farm, Yellowstone National Park, Wyo. 

ill. 490 

Buffaloes, Water, Formosa, Pacific Ocean... ill. 253- 
254; text 257, 276, 279 

Buffalo-fishes, Mississippi River 375 

Bull and sow carved in relief on one of the walls 
of the Tarxien Temple, Malta, Mediterranean 

Sea ill. 478 ; text 477 

Bull Creek Flat, Calif.: Redwood trees.. 525, 527, 531, 

533. 536 
Buller, Prof.: Investigation of Giant puff-ball 

mushrooms 415 

Bulletins, National Geographic Society: News.... 343 
Bullock carts, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. .. .ill. 74; 

text 80 

Bulmer, Capt. R. C. : References to in, 124-125 

Buoy-laying Squadron, North Sea 121, 127, 129 

Buoy markers, North Sea ill. 106; 

text 121, 129, 132 

Burke, Walter: Hurdle Racing in Canoes 440 

Burnt offering, Feast of the Passover, Mount 

Gerizim, Palestine ill. 32; text 38-39 

Buzzards, Peru 559 

BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST 
AND BATAK HIGHLANDS OF SUMATRA. 

BY MELVIN A. HALL 68 

Byron, Lord: Reference to Malta, Mediterranean 
Sea 445 



Cactus, Mount Ebal, Palestine 5, 7. 9 

Caesarea, Palestine: Ruins of 31 

Caesar's mushroom, or Imperial Agaric (Amanita 

Casarea) ill. (color insert) Plate IX, 423-438; 

text 391-392, 422 

Cagni, Capt. Umberto: Mention of 308 

Cairo, 111.: Drainage district under flood waters 

ill. 382 

Cairo, 111.: Fishes rescued by government 375 

Calendars, Jewish 23, 25 

Calendars, Samaritan 23, 25 

Calico, Manufacture of ill. 207-225; text 211-225 

California 203, 487, 489, 495 

California Highway Commission 5 2 9. 534 

California: Redwood trees.. ill. 520, 522-524, 526, 528, 

530, 532, 535-536; text 519, 521, 525, 527, 529, 531, 

533-534 
California: Saving the Redwoods. By Madison 

Grant 5*9 

California State Highway: Redwood trees along 

the 529, 531 

California: Yosemite National Park ill. 482-483; 

ill. (color insert) Plate V, 511-518 

Californiacs 489 

Camanaies, see Piqueros. 

Cambridge, Mass 244. 



VI 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Page Page 

Camel boy ill. 49 Children learning to swim, Palisades Interstate 

Camphor chips, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 268 ; Park ill. 506 

text 271-272 Children, Samaritan ' ill. 8, 34-35 

Camphor, Germany: Synthetic 265 Chile: Delegates to Salvation Army International 

Camphor industry, Formosa, Pacific Ocean . . ill. 263, Congress, London 368 

265-270; text 265-267, 271-272 China 63 

Camphor stills, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 263, China: Salvation Army 355> 358-359 

268-270; text 271-272 Chincha Islands, Peru ill. 539-542, 546, 563; 

Camphor trees, Formosa, Pacific Ocean... ill. 263-267; text 545-547, 552, 554, 558-559 

text 247, 264-267, 271 Chinese coolie mending the harness of his buffalo 

Camphor vats, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 270; cart ill. 102; text 101 

text 272 Chinese, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 75, 99, 101 

Camphor workers, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 265- Chios Island, -lEgean Sea, Turkey in Asia.. 47, 61, 67 

269; text 266-267 Chiquitoys, see Patillos. 

Camping Grounds, California ill. 533 Chirotes, Peru 559 

Camping party, Palisades Interstate Park ill. 509 Choate, Rufus: Mention of 133 

Camps, Dartmouth Outing Club, New Hampshire Chuitas, see Patillos. 

ill. 155, 157; text 151, 158 Cinnamon Cortinarius mushroom (Cortinarius cin- 

Canada 483, 519 namomeus) . . . ill. (color insert) Plate VII, 423-438 ; 

Cannibalism, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 86-87 text 39 2 > 4'4> 4 J 6 

Canoes, Hurdle Racing in. By Walter Burke . . . 440 Citharas 57 

Canoes, New Zealand ill. 441-444; text 440 Citta Vecchia, Malta, Mediterranean Sea ill. 450, 

Cans of fish being loaded on a truck ill. 374 453, 461, 464 

Canton, Mo.: Fishes rescued by government 375 Civil War, United States 183 

Canyon of the Yellowstone National Park, Wyo. 501 Clark College, Worcester, Mass 207 

Cape Baird, Arctic Region 296 Clarke Institute, Northampton, Mass 207 

Cape Chelyuskin, Arctic Region 340 Clarksville, Mo. : Fishes rescued by government. . 375 

Cape Columbia, Arctic Region 296 Claudius Caesar: Reference to Plate IX, 423-438 

Cape Isabella, Arctic Region ill. 311 Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park, Colo., .ill. 493 

Cape Sabine, Arctic Region: Cloud and sun effect Cloth factory, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies: Na- 

over ill. 316 tive ill. 85 

Cape Sabine, Arctic Region: Peary's hut ill. 295 Clouds Rest and Half Dome, Yosemite National 

Cape Sheridan, Arctic Region 296, 300 Park, Calif ill. 483 

Cape York, Greenland: Welcome of Rear- Admiral Coffins of laborers buried in old guano, Peru.. ill. 566 

Peary by Eskimos 305 Coin of Cyzicus 53 

Capitol, Washington, D. C ill. (duotone insert) Coins, Origin of 53 

Plate IV, 135-150 Coker, R. E.: Peru's Wealth-Producing Birds 537 

Carafa, Grand Master: Tomb of in St. John's Coker, Prof. W. C. : Report on a variety of Vol- 

Church, Valletta, Malta, Mediterranean sea . . ill. 454 varia speciosa 407 

Carding machine, Delivery end of a ill. 210 Colorado 52, 495, 501, 504 

Carelton, John: Reference to 163 Colorado: Balanced Rock ill. 503 

Caribbean Sea, Islands of the: Guano beds 538 Colorado Desert, Calif.: Sand-dunes ill. 494 

Carpenter, Frank G. : Geographic research work.. 342 Colorado: Mesa Verde National Park, Cliff Palace 

Carpenter, Frank G. : Life membership in the Na- ill. 493 

tional Geographic Society bestowed upon 342 Colorado National Monument ill. 497 

Carps, Mississippi River 375 Colorado River 499 

Cars for the transportation of fish, United States Colorado: Rocky Mountain National Park.... ill. 492, 

Bureau of Fisheries 383 502, 505; ill. (color insert) Plate I, 511-518; text 501 

Carson Woods, Fortuna, Calif 531 Colorado: Rocky Mountain National Park: Long's 

Cart ruts, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 449, 455 Peak ill. (color insert) Plate II, 511-518. 

Carts, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 255 Colorado: Zigzag road near Denver ill. 498- 

Carts, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies ill. 74 Columbia River 324, 337, 480, 487 

Casal Paula, Malta, Mediterranean Sea.. 459, 469, 476 Columbia River Highway: Multnomah Falls... ill. 480 

Cascade Mountains, British Columbia. .Plate X, 135-150 Columbus, Christopher: Mention of 322 

Castile, Spain: Knights of St. John 453 Comino, Mediterranean Sea 461 

Catalonia, Spain: Knights of St. John 453 Cominotto, Mediterranean Sea 461 

Catfishes, Mississippi River 375, 383, 385 Commander King (Destroyer) 126 

Cathedral Rocks, Yosemite National Park, Calif. Common meadow mushroom (Agaricus campester) 

illus. 482; ill. (color insert) Plate V, 511-518 ill. 400; (color insert) Plate I, 423-438; text 387- 

Catholic Church, California 489 388, 392, 401-402 

Caves, Malta, Mediterranean Sea: Tomb 448, 450 COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED 

Celebes, Dutch East Indies: Delegates to Salva- STATES. BY LOUIS C. C. KRIEGER 387 

tion Army International Congress, London.... 368 "Common People's Gospel." By Colonel Yamamuro 

Cemetery for criminals, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 469 Gunpei 361 

Centerton, N. J. : Crow roosts 325 Communal houses, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. . . 

"Cepe" of Commerce mushroom (Boletus edulis) ill. 87, go- 
ill. 406; (color insert) Plate IV, 423-438; text 387, Concord, Mass 245 

404-405 Concord, Mass.: Winter Rambles in Thoreau's 

Cerro Azul No. 4, Mexico ill. 196-199 Country. By Herbert W. Gleason 165 

Cerro Azul, Peru ill. 564; text 559 Condors, Peru 559 

Ceylon, India 80, 82 Connecticut 203 

Challenger deep-sea expedition 445 Connecticut River, Conn 245 

Champion-International Company, Lawrence, Mass. : Connecticut River, N. H 151, 156 

Paper mills of the ill. 234-241 Constant, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone Na- 

Chantrelle mushroom (Cantharellus cibarius) . .ill. tional Park, Wyo Plate VII, 135-150 

(color insert) Plate VII, 423-438; text 416 Constantinople 62 

Chapel of Bones, Valletta, Malta, Mediterranean Constitution (Frigate) 455 

Sea ill. 456 Cook, Dr. Frederick A.: Reference to 314-315. 317 

Charles V of Spain: Grant of the Order of St. Cook, O. F. : Life membership in the National 

John of Jerusalem to Malta and Gozo 453 Geographic Society bestowed upon 342 

Charters, Eastern Mediterranean schools 64, 66 Coolies, Javanese 7 J -73 

Chase, Salmon P.: Reference to 133 Coolies packing Oolong tea, Formosa, Pacific 

Chelsea, Mass 245 Ocean ill. 250 

Chengtingfu, China: Salvation Army 358 Coolies working a foot pump, Formosa, Pacific 

Cherokee Indians^ North Carolina 507 Ocean ill. 254 ; text 276 

Chestnut trees: Effect of Endothia parasitica upon 399 Copper, Alaska 483 

Chicago, 111 504 Copper, Montana 486 

Children, Adalia, Asia Minor ill. 54 Coral Hydnum mushroom (Hydnum coralloides) 

Children, Eskimo ill. 309 ill. 410 



INDEX FOR VOLUME XXXVII, 1920 



VII 



Page p age 

Coral insects, Malta, Mediterranean Sea: Founda- Crows, Klickitat County, Wash.: Poisoned almonds 

tions laid by 445 fed -,_ 

Coral mushroom (Clavaria flava) ill. 412; text 407 Crows, Mississippi Valley '.'.'... 323 

Coral mushroom (Hydnum laciniatum) : Growth Crows, Newfoundland !!...! 323 

on a fallen tree ill. 41 1 Crows, Onago, Kans. : Destruction of grasshoppers 

Coral mushroom (Various species of Clavaria) by ,,^ 

ill. (color insert) Plate V, 423-438; text 407 Crows, Ontario County, N. Y.: Dead .'.'ill. 330 

Corfu, Mediterranean Sea 445 Crows, Oregon '. . .' 323 

Cormorants, Ballestas and Chincha Islands, Peru Crows, Migration of 323-327 

ill- 539, 54, 542; text 545, 547, 552, 554 Crows, Puget Sound, Wash ........... 323 

Cornwall, England 449 Crows, Quebec, Canada 323 

Corradino Temple, Malta, Mediterranean Sea.. 449, "Crows' roost, A" ill. 327 

456, 459, 473 Crows, South America ' 322 

Costa Rica: Delegates to Salvation Army Inter- Crows, Stomachs of 3 3!) 333-334 

national Congress, London 368 Crows, Manitoba, Canada 323 

Costumes, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 33, 84-85 Crows, Ontario, Canada 323 

Cotton bale-breaker at work, A ill. 207; text 21 1 Crows, Siberia 322 

Cotton being delivered from the tenter treatment Crows, Value of 332-333, 337 

ill. 223 Crows, United States: Species 323 

Cotton card at work, A ill. 209 Crows, Washington ' ' 323 

Cotton cloth, Dyeing of ill. 225 Crows, Washington, D. C ill. 328; 

Cotton, Folding the finished print goods ill. 224 text 324-327, 333 

Cotton mills, Lawrence, Mass ill. 215-216, 220-221, Crude oil i 92 , 201 

224-225; text 211-225 Cuba: Delegates to Salvation Army International 

Cotton mills, Massachusetts, .ill. 206-225; text 209-225 Congress, London 368 

Cotton pickers, Intermediate ill. 208; text 212 Cube Mount Cabin, Dartmouth Outing Club, New 

Cotton Printing machines, Lawrence, Mass ill. Hampshire ill. 157; text 158 

220-221 ; text 223-224 Culture, Ancient 53-55, 57 

Cotton, Singeing of ill. 219; text 222 Cup-shaped puff-ball mushroom (Calratia cyathi- 

Cotton-spinner, A ill. 214 formis) ill. 4 i6 

Cotton, Stretching of in a tenter ill. 222 Curlew (Mine-sweeper) I23 

Countermining ill. 122; text 112, 115, 123 Curlews, Peru S5 8 

Country schools, see Rural schools. Cyclopean Canyon of the Colorado: Looking east 

"Court Group," Colorado National Monument, from Hopi Point. . .ill. (color insert) Plate VIII, 

Colo ill. 497 _ 511-518 

Cowdray, Lord: Petroleum staff 202 Cyprus, Mediterranean Sea: Knights of St. John 453 

Crappies, Mississippi River 375, 385 Cyrus: Reference to 47 

Crater Lake National Park, Ore ill. (color in- Cyzicus, Coin of 53 

sert) Plate VI, 511-518; text 487 

Crete, Mediterranean Sea: Axe worshipers 467 

Croesus, King of Lydia: Reference to 47 

Crompton, George 243 

Crow and a dog, A ill. 336 Daitotei, Taihoku, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 248, 

"Crow and its Relation to Man' : U. S. Depart- 249,258; text 258-262, 264 

ment of Agriculture, Bulletin 621 323 Dall, Dr. William H.: Life membership in the Na- 

Crow at the nest edge, Mother ill. 325 tional Geographic Society bestowed upon .. . 142 

CROW, BIRD CITIZEN OF EVERY LAND, Dances, Formosa, Pacific Ocean: Ami f, ...ill 291 

THE: A FEATHERED ROGUE WHO HAS Dardanelles, Turkey in Europe ., 44? 

MANY FASCINATING TRAITS AND MANY Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H.:' Skiing Over 

ADMIRABLE QUALITIES DESPITE HIS the New Hampshire Hills. By Fred H Harris 151 

MARAUDING PROPENSITIES. BY E. R. Dartmouth Outing Club, Hanover, N. H.: Camps ' 

KALMBACH, ASSISTANT BIOLOGIST, O f the .ill. 155, 157; text 151, 158 

U. S. BIOLOGICAL SURVEY 322 Dartmouth Outing Club, Hanover, N. H.: Mem- ' 

Crow roosts, Arlington, Va 325-326 bers of the .ill. 133-134, 152-156, 160-164 

Crow roosts, Baltimore, Md 325 Dartmouth Outing Club, Hanover, N. H. : Skiing 

Crow roosts, Bridgeboro, N. J: 325 Over the New Hampshire Hills. By Fred H. 

Crow roosts, Centerton, N. J 325 Harris 151 

Crow roosts, Delaware Valley 324 Davis, John, English navigator: Mention of. .302, 319 

Crow roosts, Hainesport, N. J 325 Davis, Lieut-Commander Noel: Removal of the 

Crow roosts, Merchantville, N. J 325 North Sea Mine Barrage, The 103 

Crow roosts, Mississippi River 324 Davis, Lieut.-Commander Noel: Photograph of 

Crow roosts, Ohio River 324 ill. IO 6 

Crow roosts, Oklahoma 324, 326 Dayaks, Borneo, Dutch East Indies 272 

Crow roosts, Peru, Nebr 325 Dead Sea 9 

Crow roosts, Reedy Island, Delaware River 325 Deadly Amanita, or Destroying angel mushroom 

Crow roosts, St. Louis, Mo 325 (Amanita phalloides and its varieties) ill. (color 

Crow roosts, United States 324-327, 337 insert) Plates V, X, XVI, 423-438; text 388-389, 

Crow roosts, Washington, D. C 324, 327 39 2) 409, 411 

Crow roosts, Woodridge, D. C. ...ill. 328; text 326-327 Dearborn, Dr. Ned: Food required to sustain a 

Crows, Africa 324 crow 333 

Crows, Alaska 3 2 3 Dearborn, Dr. Ned: Story of a crow and farmer's 

Crows, Anecdotes of, by Nelson Wood 330-33 1 dog ill. 336; text 329-330 

Crows, Australia 322 Deep-level mine, Explosion of ill. 123 

Crows, California 3 2 3 Deer on a station platform near Yellowstone Na- 

Crows, China 322 tional Park, Wyo ill. 504 

Crows, Columbia River 324, 337 Deer, Yellowstone National Park, Wyo.: Feeding 

Crows, Destruction of other birds 334 ill. 489 

Crows, Diseases of 327 Del Norte County, Calif.: Redwood trees 527, 531, 533 

Crows, Extermination of 337 Delaware Valley: Crow roosts 324 

Crows, Fish 323, 334 Deli Company, Medan, Sumatra, Dutch East In- 

Crows, Florida 3^3 dies 75, 79, 81 

Crows, Food of the ill. 332, 335; text 331-337 Deli River, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 69 

Crows, Habits of 328-331, 333-337 Deli, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 69, 71, 79, 83-84 

Crows, Home life of 323-324 Delicious or Orange-milk Lactar mushroom (Lac- 
Crows, India 322 tarius deliciostts) . . . ill. (color insert) Plate VII, 

Crows, Indiana 333 423-438; text 417-418 

Crows, Japan 322 Delphi, Greece 66 

Crows, Kansas: Destruction of May beetles by... 333 De Seynes: Quotation on mushrooms 418 



VIII 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Page 

European war: Oil consumed 185 

Evening prayers, Mount Gerizim, Palestine. . .ill. 37; 

text 39-41 

Evgenoff, Lieut.: General Greely's tribute to.... 340 
Ewing, Judge: Story of Vice-President Stevenson's 

campaign in the West 495 

Expedition against savage tribes, Formosa, Pacific 

Ocean ill. 278 

Explosions, Mine, North Sea.... ill. 109-110, 117-118, 
1 120-122, 125 



Page 
Destroying* Angel, or Deadly Amanita mushroom 

(Amanita phalloides var virosa) ill. (color in- 
sert) Plate X, 423-438; text 388, 392,, 409, 4'i 
Detroit, Mich.: Ice fountain. . .ill. (duotone insert) 

Plate XIII, i35-!SO 

Devonport, England J '7 

Diana, Temple of 55, 59, 67 

Dinner call, The 32 

Dionysus, God of Wine 6 7 

Disco, Greenland 33 

Discovery (Steamship) 392, 311 

Doffer girl in a Lawrence cotton mill ill. 215 

Dog and a crow A "' 336 

Dog team, Etah, Greenland: MacMillan's ill. 313 Fabre, J. Henri: "The Life of the Fly": Refer- 

Dogs Eskimo ill. 39, 3 I2 -3 r 3 ence to 391 

Dogs' Yosemite National Park, Calif ill. 482 Factory, Cloth, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. . .ill. 85 

Dogwood berries, Massachusetts: Poison ill. 175; Fair Haven Hill, Concord, Mass ill. 170; text 166 

text 179 Fairbanks, Alaska i 482 

Dolmens, Hagar Kim Temple, Malta, Mediter- Fairfield, Marian: Photograph of ......ill. 159 

ranean Sea 459 Fairport, Iowa : United States Fisheries Biological 

Dolmens, Mnaidra Temple, Malta, Mediterranean Laboratory near .. . 383 

g ea 459 Fairy-ring mushroom (Marasmius oreades) .... ill. 397 ; 

Donkey and camel boy, Asia Minor ill. 49 text 388 

Dragut A Turkish corsair: Siege of Malta, Medi- Faldetta (Headgear of Malta women) ill. 462 

terranean Sea 447 Fall River, Mass ; - 20 4> 244 

Drake Edwin L.: Discovery of oil 181-182,201 False Chantrelle, or Jack-o -Lantern mushroom 

Drake' oil well near Titusville, Pa 181 (Clitocybe illudens) . .ill. (color insert) Plate III, 

Drama, Greek 61 423-438; text 392, 403-404 

"Drift Man," Malta, Mediterranean Sea 448 Far East, Castes ............ .354 

Ducks, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 251 Farlow, Dr. W. G.: Rules for the guidance of 

"Dunes, The," Illinois 504 mushroom-hunters 391 

Dungeons, Hal Saflieni Temple, Malta, Mediter- Farm tractors, United States 187, 189 

ranean Sea . ill- 47 2 Feast Day illumination, Malta, Mediterranean 

Dutch East Indies," Sumatra':' By Motor Through Sea: A Church ready for the ill. 458 

the East Coast and Batak Highlands of Su- ' Feeding breast (Mount Tacoma) 487 

matra By Melvin A. Hall 68 Female porters, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 73 

Dyerville Flats, Calif.: Redwood trees ill. 535! Fengchen, China: Salvation Army invasion of 355 

text 527, 531, 533 Fern Lake, Colo 503 

Ferns, Redwood groves, Calif ill. 522, 524, 526, 

"E" 53.2, 536 

Field or Horse mushroom (Agaricus arvensis) 

Karly Pholiota (Pholiota prcecox) ill. (color in- ill. (color insert) Plate I, 423-438; text 388, 402 

sert) Plate VIII, 423-438; text 392 Filfla Island, Mediterranean Sea 457 

Earrings, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies ill. 77! Finland: Delegates to Salvation Army International 

text 85 Congress, London 368 

Eastern Shore of Maryland 487, 489 "First and Last Lodging House," Valletta, Malta, 

Ebal, Mount, Palestine 1-2, 5, 13, 31 Mediterranean Sea ill. 451 

Education, Massachusetts 207-209 Fish killed by mine explosions, North Sea ill. 114 

Edwin Span, Natural Bridges National Monument, Fish retaining station, Bellevue, Iowa ill. 383 

Utah ill. 49 1 Fish retaining station, La Crosse, Wis ill. 381 ; 

Eel River, Calif.: Redwood trees along 525, 527, 529, text 383 

531, 533 Fish-crow 323, 334 

Egypt i, 13, 31, 45, 5i, 64, 498 Fishermen's landing place, Valletta, Malta, Medi- 

Bider (Flagship) 124 terranean Sea ill. 452 

Edible Boletus, the "Cepe" of Commerce mush- Fishes, Mississippi River: When the Father of 

room (Boletus edulis).. . .ill. (color insert) Plate Waters goes on a Rampage. By Hugh M. Smith 369 

iy, 423-438; text 387, 404-405 Fishes, Mississippi Valley 375, 377, 383 

El Capitan, Yosemite National Park, Calif. . . ill., 482 ; Fitchburg, Mass 245 

ill. (color insert) Plate V, 511-518 Flamingo (Mine-sweeper) 125 

El Portal, Calif 482 Flattop Mountain, Rocky Mountain National Park, 

Electrical Protective Device 112, 114 Colo ill. 505; ill. (color insert). Plate II, 511-518 

Elephans Mnaidrensis. Malta, Mediterranean Sea. 459 Floating mines, North Sea ill. no, 116 

Ellesmere Land, Arctic Region 296 Flood refugees, Mississippi River ill. 384-386 

Emden (Cruiser) 445 Floods, Mississippi River ill. 382, 384-385 ; 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo: Reference to 55 text 369, 373, 385 

Emperor of Japan: Annual fund granted the Sal- Florida 334, 342, 507 

ration Army 35 J Flowers, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 247 

Encampment of the Israelites, Mount Gerizim, Flume, New Hampshire: Icicle formation in the 

Palestine 26 ill. (duotone insert) Plate II, 135-150 

Endothia parasitica : Effect upon chestnut trees ... 399 Flutes 57 

England 51 Fly-mushroom (Amanita muscaria) . .ill. (color in- 
English Channel 113 sert) Plate II, XV, 423-438 ; text 403 

Ephesus, Asia Minor ill. 66; text 49, 59 Foch, Marshal: Quotation 185 

Ephraim, Tribe of, Palestine ._ 23 Fog, Peru 547 

Equestrian Tricholoma mushroom (Tricholoma Foot pumps, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 254; 

equestre) ill. (color insert) Plate VII, 423-438; text 276 

text 392, 417 Forbush, Edward Howe: Food required to sustain 

Erebus ( Steamship) 303 a crow 333 

Eskimo dogs 309, 312-313 Ford, Rock Creek Park, Washington, D. C., ..ill. 

Eskimo eating meat, An ill. 310 (duotone insert) Plate VI, 135-150 

Eskimo girls on the main deck of the Roosevelt Ford, Dr. W. W. : Reference to the poisons of 

ill. 300 Amanita phalloides 391 

Eskimo women 300, 307-308 Forest ghost, Flattop Mountain, Rocky Mountain 

Eskimo's high regard for Rear- Admiral Peary National Park, Colo ill. 505 

300, 305 Forests, New Hampshire ill. 154, 156 

Etah, Greenland .307, 313-315 Formosa, Pacific Ocean : Japanese influence upon 

E-Tooka-Shoo: Eskimo dog driver 311, 314 2 go, 292 

Eudon, Asia Minor 50 Formosa, Pacific Ocean: Map of ill. (map) 262 

Euphrates River, Turkey in Asia 498 Formosa, Pacific Ocean: Population of.. 272, 287, 290 



INDEX FOR VOLUME XXXVII, 1920 



IX 



Page p age 

Formosa, Pacific Ocean: Size of f 247 Goats, Malta, Mediterranean Sea: Milch ill A 

FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL. BY ALICE Goddess of Life and Fertility, Tarxien Temole 

BALLANTINE KIRJASSpFF 246 Malta, Mediterranean Sea. . . . . 47X474 

Fort St. Angelo, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 433 "Goedang" of Rice granary, Sumatra, Dutch East 

Fortifications, Valletta, Malta, Mediterranean Sea Indies :ii g, 

ill. 448 Goff oil well, West Virginia'. . .'.'.'. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.' ' 189 

Fortuna, Calif.: Redwood trees 531 Going-to-the-Sun Mountain, Glacier National Park 

Forum, Samaria, Palestine: Ruins of the ill. 7 Mont _ SOI 

Foulke Fiord, Greenland 305 Gold, Alaska '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. ', 483 

"Fountain-breast of Milk-white Waters" (Mount Gold, Colorado 

Rainier) Plate III, 511-518 Golden Gate, Calif !"!!!!!.' '.527 

Fountain scene, Asia Minor ill. 65 Goodnoe Hills, Klickitat Co., Wash.: Almond 

Fountain, Washington Boulevard, Detroit, Mich. groves destroyed by crows 3^7 

ill. (duotone insert) Plate XIII, 135-150 Goodsell, Dr. J. W.: Mention of ....'.... 309 

Fox (Steamship) Wreck of the ill. 303 Gorge of the Rimac, Peru: Terraces on the sides 

Fox, Tracks of in the snow, Massachusetts . . . .ill. 176 of the jll t jjg 

France 103, 185, 449 Government fish rescue crews 373 

Franconia, N. H 158 Gozp, Mediterranean Sea: Temple of Gigantia, 449, 469 

Franconia Mountains, N. H.: Icicle formation in Grain, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies: Pounding, .ill. 91 

the Flume ill. (duotone insert) Plate II, 135-150 Grand Canyon National Park, Utah 499 

Franconia Notch, N. H. : Skiing in ill. 134 Grand Canyon of the Colorado {11.409-500; 

Franklin Polar Expedition of 1845 303 ill. (color insert) Plate VIII, 511-518 

Franklin, Benjamin: Birthplace of 244 Grand Harbor, Malta, Mediterranean Sea ill. 446; 

Franklin, Lady: Efforts to trace the survivors of text 450, 453, 459 

the Franklin Expedition of 1845 303 Grant Land, Arctic Region. .296, 300, 305, 307-308, 314 

Franklin, Sir John: Disappearance of 303 Grant, Madison: Saving the Redwoods 519 

Freshets, Mississippi River: Destruction of fishes Grasshoppers, Indiana: Destruction of by crows.. 333 

369, 373 Grasshoppers, Onago, Kans. : Destruction of by 

Fresno, Calif. : Smyrna figs 342 crows 333 

Friars Point, Miss.: Fishes rescued by govern- Great Bear Cabin, Dartmouth Outing Club, New 

ment 375 ~ Hampshire j 5 g 

Friendliness of tree and snow ill. (duotone in- Great Falls, Potomac River 182 

sert) Plate XI, 135-150 Great Lakes jgi 

Fries, Elias, Swedish botanist: Study of fungi. . . 410 Greece 49 

Fronton, Peru: Guano , 559 Greek colonies 66 

Frost crystals, Concord, Mass ill. 167; Greek peasants dancing on the hills near Ephesus, 

text 175, 177 Asia Minor ill. 49 

Frosty morning, Massachusetts: A ill. 178 ~ f eek poetry 57 

Frosty morning on the open road .... ill. (duotone S re , Pse 55 

insert) Plate XVI, 135-150 freely, Maj.-Gen. A. W ill. 318; text 338 

Frozen mist, Massachusetts 175 Greely, Maj.-Gen. A. W. : Tribute to Vilhjalmur 

Fruit, Mount Gerizim, Palestine i _ Stefansson 339-340 

Fruit, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 98 Gree y Expedition 2 g6 

Fruit-bearers, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 256 Greely International Polar Expedition of 1881- 

Fu-kien, China 290 ^ l8 ^4 338, 340, 342 

Fuel oil, United States 186, 192-193, 195 Greely, Peary, and Stefansson: Photograph of.. ill. 318 

Fungi 392, 399 Green Mountains, Vt 1 5 g 

Fungi, Poisonous: Test of 391 Green-gilled Lepiota mushroom (Lepiota morgani) 

Fungi, Yeast 399 ^ , T> , , ilL ?93 ; text 391 

Greenish Russula mushroom (Russula virescens) 

"G" r . , ill- 396 

Greenland.. 293-294, 300, 319-321 

Galilee, Palestine 21, 31 r^ wn" tam> * M if SS ' ' ', ^ 2 3 ' * 45 

Gannets, Peruvian, see Piqueros. Griffiths, William Arthur: Malta: The Halting 

Gaberville, Calif. : Redwood trees 529, 531 r Place f * at ' on .? u ' v 445 

Garden of Eden: Location of 498 Gr -i?* s .' P \r Robe r. t . P ; : ?< lfe membership in the 

Gardenias, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 264 National Geographic Society bestowed upon . . 342-343 

Gardiner's Levee Angle, Modoc, Ark 386 Gr \?$ s ' P {- t Robe rt F- = R ePrt of the sixth expe- 

Garlic mushroom (Marasmius scorodonius) ill. _ dltlon to Mount Katmai, Alaska. . . . . 338 

(color insert) Plate VI, 423-438; text 413 F^North Peary s Explorations in the 

Gate to 6 Valletta', 'Malta,' Mediterranean' Sea 1 . .. !ilL 447 Grosvenor, Gilbert: Ejected President of the Na- 

Gemmed puff-ball mushroom (Lycoperdon gemma- r tlo - nal V e I gr J lp Soclet X 345 

ium) ill. 414 Guanape Islands, Peru ill. 544-545; text 559 

General Sherman tree 522, 525 Guanays see Cormorants. 

Genoa, Italy 203 uano - Ballestas Islands, Peru 555, 559 

Geographic explorer building a snow house .... ill. Guano, Cerro Azul, Peru 559 

(duotone insert) Plate VIII, 135-150 Guano, Chincha Islands, Peru. ... 547, 552, 559 

Geographic Harbor, Alaska 338 R uan ' fe obos de A ?, Uera ; Lo , b S I , slands > Pe J u ' 555, 565 

Geofraphic News Bulletins 343 r ' P"" ' P ' ' '' \ A ^A*'- tCXt n -' 6 /' 5 t 4 ' s66 

Geologists 190-191, 195, 202 Gu ^ n ^i %? : U S Wealth - Producln g B ' r ds. By 

Gerizim, Mount, Palestine ill. 18-22, 36-39,42-43; ~ K ' \ . ? ,' V> Vi ' V " V'i "J' ' '-ii -\,' 537 

text 1-3, 5, 13, i7-i8, 20, 23, 25-26, 29, 31, 34- Guano-bird colony, Ballestas Islands, Peru.... ill. 540 

>, *e *f* Vjruaiemaia 202 

Germany *^g g Sg : Axis of the 

^^^^^^^^ ~ 

&^^te^^^ 1? ^^^^<~^;A^ I91 

Glacier National Park Mont. HI 484.486; G of WHnkled pholiota mushroom g*pl* ; 

Gleason, Herbert wVwIntr^^^^^ ^ ta ) "' < color '"^ Plate 423-438; 

County 165 text 392, 439 

Glistening Coprinus mushroom (Coprinus micaceus) "H" 
ill. 404; ill. (color insert) Plate VII, 423-438; 

text 388, 392 Hadley Falls, Mass 245 

Gloucester, Mass.: Sail-boats ill. 243 Hagar Kim Temple, Malta, Mediterranean Sea.. 

Goats, Asia Minor ill. 53 449, 457, 459, 463, 465, 469 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Page Page 

Hainesport, N. J.: Crow roosts 325 Homer, Minn.: Fishes rescued by government 375 

Hakluyt Island, Greenland: Southern shore... ill. 302 Homer: Odyssey 53-54 

Hal Saflieni Temple, Malta, Mediterranean Sea.. Homer: Reference to Thessalian legions 399 

ill. 467-468, 470-472; text 448-449, 456-457, 459, 463, Homeric poems 61 

465, 469 Honey-colored mushroom, or Oak fungus (Armil- 

Half Dome and Clouds Rest, Yosemite National laria mellea) . . .ill. 394; (color insert) Plate VI, 

Park, Calif il}- 43 423-438; text 392, 395, 396, 411, 413 

Half-free Morchella mushroom (Morchella semi- Honey merchants, Malta, Mediterranean Sea.. ill. 460 

libera) ill- 4 21 Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Ocean 501 

Half-way House, White Mountains, N. H 164 Hoover, Herbert: Reference to 501 

Halibut caught near Orkney Islands, Scotland, ill. 115 Hope Natural Gas Company 189 

Hall, Melvin A.: By Motor Through the East Hopi Point, Grand Canyon of the Colorado 

Coast and Batak Highlands of Sumatra 68 ill. (color insert) Plate VIII, 51 1-518 

Hallett Glacier, Rocky Mountain National Park, Horgan, James C. : Bequest of the National Geo- 

Colo. : Interior of -ill- 5 2 graphic Society 338 

Hammond Lumber Company : Redwood trees owned Home, Prof. W. T.: Fungus Pest 411 

by 531 Hotel de Boer, Medan, Sumatra, Dutch East In- 
Hand looms, Formosa, Pacific Ocean: Cloth. . .ill. 288 dies 75, 79 

Hand looms, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies ill. 86 Houses, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 253, 280-281 

Hands outspread to heaven ill. 39 Houses, Kebon Djahe, Sumatra, Dutch East In- 
Handsome Volvaria mushroom ( Volvaria speciosa) dies 95-96 

ill. (color insert) Plate V, 423-438; text 392, 497 Houses, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies: Native 

Hanover, N. H .151, 158, 161 ill. 78, 87-88, 90 

Hapgood, Asa: Reference to 243 Hubbard Gold Medal of the National Geographic 

Harangaul, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 96 Society 293, 322 

Hardstoft, Derbyshire, England '. 202 Hudson Bay, Canada 307 

Hare, Tracks of in the snow, Massachusetts. . . .ill. 177 Hudson, Henry: Mention of 322 

Hari-bazar, Medan, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. . 75 Hudson River, N. Y 487, 509 

Harps 57 Huka Falls, North Island, New Zealand 440 

Harrill, Lieut. W. K. : Photograph of ill. 106 Humboldt, Alexander, baron von: Introduction of 

Harriman Park, Rockland County, N. Y 509 Peruvian guano to Europe 543 

Harris, Fred H.: Skiing over the New Hampshire Humboldt County, Calif.: Redwood trees 525, 

Hills 151 527. 53i, 533 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass 207, 244 HURDLE RACING IN CANOES: A THRILL- 

Hassan Abu -el, Son of the Late High Priest Jacob: ING AND SPECTACULAR SPORT AMONG 

Photograph of ill. 13 THE MAORIS OF NEW ZEALAND. BY 

Hassan el Suri, Samaritan priest: Reference to.. 33 WALTER BURKE 440 

Havasu Canyon, Grand Canyon of the' Colorado: Hurricane, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone Na- 

Mooney Falls ill. 499 tional Park, Wyo Plate VII, 135-150 

Haverhill, Mass.: Slipper manufacturers 229, 245 Hyofupa, Formosa, Pacific Ocean, The 289 

Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Ocean 479, 482 

Headgear, Formosa, Pacific Ocean... ill. 289 

Headgear, Malta, Mediterranean Sea ill. 462 

Head-hunters, Formosa, Pacific Ocean Ice, Polar Basin, Arctic Region: Rough ill. 299 

266-267, 273, 283-285 "Ice storm," Massachusetts: After an ill. 173; 

Hebrew prayer posture, Mount Gerizim, Palestine: text 177, 179 

Ancient ill- 22 Icicle formation in the Flume, New Hampshire.. 

Hebron, Palestine 31 ill. (duotone insert) Plate II, 135-150 

Hedgehog mushroom (Various species of Hydnum) , Icicle "organ-pipes," Concord, Mass ill. 167; 

ill. 412 (color insert) Plate VI, 423-438; text 414 text 179 

Henry VIII, King of England : Interest in the dis- Idaho 496 

covery of the North Pole 319 Igloo, Smith Sound, Arctic Region: Rock ill. 306 

Henson, Matthew: Rear-Admiral Peary's colored Illinois 203, 495, 501, 504 

assistant ill. 304; text 308-310 Imperial Agaric, or Caesar's mushroom (Amanita 

Heraclitus of Ephesus: Reference to 55 Ctesarea) ilL (color insert) Plate IX, 423-438; 

Hercules Archigetas: Reference to 456 text 391-392, 422 

Hertnon, Mount, Palestine 31 Imperial Valley, Calif 489, 495' 

Herod, "The Great" 5, 21 Imtarfa barracks and Citta Vecchia railway termi- 

Herodotus, Greek historian: lonians 51 nus, Malta, Mediterranean Sea ill. 464 

Heron (Mine-sweeper) 119 Inca Garcilasso de la Vega: Account of the guano 

Herons, Louisiana: Destruction of by crows 334 industry 541 

Herons, Santee, S. C. : Destruction of by crows . . 334 India 63 

Herons, White, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 279 India: Delegates to Salvation Army International 

Hesiod, Greek poet: Reference to 61 Congress, London 368 

Hewett, Sir John: Interest in Salvation Army... 351 India: Hindu version of the bass drum, tambou- 

Hicks' Camp, California 529 rine, and trumpet ill. 348 

High Priest, Samaritan Passover, Mount Gerizim, India: Salvation Army ill. 346, 348-350, 352; 

Palestine ._ ill. 30 text 351, 354, 368 

"High Priest's Palace" (Hagar Kim Temple, Malta) 459 India: Salvation Army School for girls ill. 349 

Hill of Samaria, Palestine ill. 4 India: Salvation Army worker ill. 350 

Hindu recruits of the Salvation Army, India... ill. 352 Indian Harbor, Nova Scotia, Canada 317 

Hindu version of the bass drum, tambourine, and Indian oxen 80 

trumpet ill. 348 Indian schools, United States 507 

Hinoki forests, Mount Arizan, Formosa, Pacific Indians, Oklahoma . 507 

Ocean ill. 273 Industries, Massachusetts ill. 204-241 ; text 204, 

Hittite ..'... 59 209-233,235-236,239-245 

Hokumongai Street, Daitotei, Taihoku, Formosa, Inglefield Gulf, Greenland 294 

Pacific Ocean. 262, 264 Ink mushrooms or Ink-caps (Species of Coprinus) 

Holland 71, 79, 363 ill. (colored insert) Plate XII, 423-438; text 388, 439 

Holmes, William Henry: Life membership in the Inky Coprinus mushroom (Coprinus atramentarius 

' National Geographic Society bestowed upon, 342-343 variety) ill. 405 

Holy Land, Map of 46 International Congress of the Salvation Army, 

"Holy of Holies," Hal Saflieni Temple, Malta, Albert Hall, London, England 363, 368 

Mediterranean Sea ill. 468, 470; text 463, 465 Inverness, Scotland 107-109, in, 113-114, 127 

Holy of Holies, Mount Gerizim, Palestine 33 Ionia, Asia Minor 51, 53-55, 61, 64, 66 

"Holy of Holies," Tarxien Temple, Malta, Medi- lonians 51 

, , terranean Sea 475 Ireland 449 

Holy Rock, Mount Gerizim, Palestine 31, 33 Ishmaelite tribes, India: Management of by Salva- 

Holyoke College, Holyoke, Mass 207 tion Army 351 

Holyoke, Mass 225, 245 Islands of the ^Egean Sea 47, 49, 51, 67 



INDEX FOR VOLUME XXXVII, 1920 



XI 



Page 

Islas Santa, Peru : Guano 559 

Israelites, Encampment of, Mount Gerizim, Pales- 
tine 26 

Italy 185, 363 



Jack-o'-Lantern mushroom, or False Chantrelle 
(Clitocybe illudens) ill. (colored insert) Plate III, 

423-438; text 392, 403-404 

Jacob, Son of Aaron ill. 14 

Jacob's Well, near Sychar, Palestine ill. 17; 

text 13, 31 

Jaffa, Palestine 31 

Japan, Emperor of: Annual fund granted Salva- 
tion Army 351 

Japan: General William Booth addressing a multi- 
tude ill. 356 

Japan: Salvation Army ill. 355-357; text 361, 363 

Japanese infantry, Savage district, Formosa, Pacific 

Ocean ill. 274 

Java, Dutch East Indies 71-73, 79, 84, 101-102 

Java, Dutch East Indies: Ants 401 

Java, Dutch East Indies: Leper colony 359 

Java, Dutch East Indies: Salvation Army 

ill. 350, 353-354; text 359, 363 

Javanese 71-73, 79 

Javanese coolies 71-73 

Jehovah, Origin of name 22 

Jericho, Palestine , 13 

Jerusalem, Palestine i, n, 16, 23, 31 

Jerusalem, Palestine: Hospital dedicated to St. 

Jqhn 453 

Jewelry trade, Attleboro, Mass 242 

Jews 23, 25 

Jews, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 450 

Johnson, Rev. R. E. : Contribution to Dartmouth v 

Outing Club 151 

Jones Sound, Arctic Region 302, 314 

Jordan River, Palestine 21 

Jordan Valley, Palestine 31 

Joy Farm, Ohio: Number four oil well ill. 185 

Jubbie (Outside prayer garment of a Samaritan) . . 33 

Judea, Palestine j 21 

"June rise" : Mississippi River 369 

Junks, Tamsui River, Formosa, Pacific Ocean.... 

ill. 259; text 264-265 
Jusserand, Hon. Jean A. A. J. : National Geographic 

Banquet, 1913 ill. 320 

Juvenal: Quotation on mushrooms 422 



Kaibab Plateau, Grand Canyon of the Colorado, .ill. 500 
Ka-Ko-Tchee-A : An Eskimo feeding MacMillan's 

dog team at Etah, Greenland ill. 313 

Kalmbach, E. R. : Crow, Bird Citizen of Every 

Land, The 322 

Kampanzan, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 275, 283, 287 

Kampanzan savages, Formosa, Pacific Ocean... ill. 284 
Kampong Kinalang, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies: 

Communal house ill. 87 

Kampongs, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 90 

"Kanafie" (pastry), Nablus, Palestine 2, 5 

Kansas: Vice-President Stevenson's visit to 495' 

Karenko, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 274 

Karluk (Steamship) 340 

Karo-Batak market, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, .ill. 72 
Karo-Batak Plateau, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. . 83 
Karo-Batak, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies: Com- 
munal house , ill. 90 

Karo-Batak women at market, Sumatra, Dutch 

East Indies ill. 89 

Karo-Bataks, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 86 

Karolanden, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 89 

Kebon Djahe, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 

ill. 76, 80; text 89-92, 95 

Kelung, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 247, 258, 264 

Kennedy Channel, Arctic Region 296 

Kennan, George: Life membership in the National 

Geographic Society bestowed upon 342 

Kent, William: Preservation of Redwood trees in 

California 527, 533 

Kerosene 185-186, 202 

Kim Soan: Story of 275,283-285, 287 

Kinalang, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 95-97 

King, Commander Frank R. : Death of 126 

King of Sweden : Mention of 363 

"King of the Belgians, Albert I: Mention of.. 498, 504 



Page 

Kingdom of Israel 1 6 

Kingdom of Judah 16 

"King's Bed" (Stone pillar, Mnaidra Temple, 

Malta) 459 

"King's Palace" (Mnaidra Temple, Malta) 459 

Kirjassoff, Alice Ballantine: Formosa the Beauti- 
ful 247 

Kirkwall, Scotland ill. 113; text 112-114, 117, 123. 

. , Ct 127-128, 130-131 

Kit e (Steamship) 319 

Kites, Mine-sweeping 105, in, 116, 125, 129 

Klamath Lake, Calif 489 

Klamath River, Calif.: Redwood trees. ..ill. 520, 528; 

Klings (Tamils) Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. . .71, 78-80 
Knights of Malta, Order of the.... 447, 453, 457, 461 

Knights of St. John 453-455 

Kobe, Japan 247 

Konieh, Asia Minor 62 

Korea: Salvation Army distributing rice ill. 358; 

text 359 
Krieger, Louis C. C. : Common Mushrooms of the 

United States 387 

Kuala Belawan, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 69 

"Kuds el Akdas" (Samaritan Holy of Holies).. 31, 33 



La Gorce, John Oliver: Vice-Director of the Na- 
tional Geographic Society, elected to Board of 

Managers 345 

La Honda, Calif. : Redwood trees 527 

La Valletta, Jean Parisot de la, see Valette, Jean 
Parisot de. 

Labor, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 71 -73 

La Crosse, Wis. : Fishes rescued by government . . 375 

La Crosse, Wis.: Fish retaining station ill. 381; 

text 383 

Lady Franklin Bay, Arctic Region 296 

Lafayette, Mount, N. H 155 

Lake Chaugogagogmanchaugagogchau b u na gu n ga- 

maug, Mass 203 

Lake Chelan, Wash ill. 481 

Lake Monomonac, Mass 203 

Lake No. i oil well, West Virginia ill. 189 

Lake Tahoe, Calif 519 

Lake Tarleton Club, New Hampshire 158 

Lake Taupo, North Island, New Zealand 440 

Lakeview Gusher, California 191 

Lambs, Feast of the Passover, Mount Gerizim, 

Palestine ill. 19, 24-25, 27; text 34-35. 37-39 

Lancaster Sound, Canada 302 

Land grants to American soldiers 507, 509-510 

Lane, Franklin K. : Mind's- Eye Map of America, 

A 479 

Langue d'Angleterre ; 453 

Langue de France .. 453-454 

Laodicea, Asia Minor: Ruins of ill. 50 

Laodiceans 50 

Lapwing (Mine-sweeper) 123 

Larson, Capt.: Salvation Army officer 359, 361 

LAST ISRAELITISH BLOOD SACRIFICE, 
THE: HOW THE VANISHING SAMARI- 
TANS CELEBRATE THE PASSOVER ON 
SACRED MOUNT GERIZIM. BY JOHN D. 

WHITING r 

Lawn mushrooms (including Naucoria semiorbi- 
cularis and Pholiota prtecox) . . .ill. (color insert) 

Plate VIII, 423-438; text 422 

Lawrence, Mass 204, 245 

Leland Stanford Junior University, Palo Alto, 

Calif 501 

Lemon-yellow Amanita mushroom (Amanita cit- 

rina) ill. (color insert) Plate V, 423-438; 

text 392 

Leper colony, Java, Dutch East Indies 359- 

Lerwick, Shetland Islands, Scotland 113 

Lesbos (Mitylene Island) Asia Minor 48, 61 

Lexington, Mass 204, 245 

Lincoln, President Abraham: Argument of facts 510 
Lincoln, President Abraham: Quotation from.... 361 

Lion from Miletus, Asia Minor 67 

Little duck (patillo) 552- 

Little Wheel mushroom (Marasmius rotula) . .ill. 

(color insert) Plate VI, 423-438; text 413-414 

Littleton, N. H 158 

Lobos de Afuera, Lobos Islands, Peru: Guano and 

Guano birds of ill. 547-551, 553; text 554- 

555, 557-558 



XII 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Page 

Lobos de Tierra, Lobos Islands, Peru ill. 563; 

text 554, 5S9-S 60 , 5 6 4, 566 

Lobos Islands, Peru: Guano and birds of.. ill. 547-55 1, 

553; text 554-555 

Long Island, N. Y.: Oil tank i]}. 193 

Long's Peak, Rocky Mountain Park, Colo.... .ill. 

(color insert) Plate II, 511-518 

Looms, Cotton -I 11 - 2l8 

Looms, Primitive, Kinalang, Dutch East Indies 

ill. 84-86; text 95 

Lost River District, White Mountains, N. H 158 

Louisiana : Herons 334 

Lowell, Mass o;'V 2 2 4 ' 244 ~ 245 

Lubricating oil ; 186-187, 189-190, 195 

Lydia, Asia Minor 53, 59 

Lucca, Ark.: Mississippi River levee i. 34 

Lynn, Mass.: Shoe Manufactures 229, 245 

Lyres " 7 

"M" 

M'Clintock, Capt. Leopold: Search for survivors 

of the Franklin Expedition of 1845 303 

McCormick Bay, Greenland 3 r 9 

McDermott Lake, Glacier National Park, Mont. ... 44 

McGill College, Montreal, Canada 160-161 

Macabi Island, Peru: Guano 5 

Machu Picchu 342-343 

Mackenzie Basin, Arctic Region 340 

MacMillan, Donald B.: Peary as a Leader...... 293 

MacMillan, Donald B. : Dog team, Etah, Greenland 

ill. 3!3 
Mseander River (Ancient name of Mendere River) 50 

Magellan, Ferdinand: Mention of : 322 

Mail found at Cape Isabella, Arctic Region, by 

E-Tooka-Shoo VV V-' ' ' 3I * 

Main Altar, Tarxien Temple, Malta, Mediter- 
ranean Sea - -ill. 477 ; text 474 

Main Hall, Hal Saflieni Temple, Malta, Mediter- 
ranean Sea ill- 467; text 463 

Maine .:,- 'S O1 

Mainsprings, Cutting of *" 2 3 2 

Malacca Strait, Dutch East Indies 09 

Malay Archipelago 7 1 

Malay States, Malay Peninsula 7 2 

Malayan coast 9 

Malays, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 99 

Maiden, Mass 2 45 

Malta, Mediterranean Sea: Delegates to Salva- 

tion Army International Congress, London.... 368 
Malta, Mediterranean Sea: Early inhabitants of.. 449 

Malta, Mediterranean Sea: Foundation of 445, 44 

Malta, Mediterranean Sea: Goats ill. 460 

Malta, Mediterranean Sea: Headgear ill. 462 



Malta, Mediterranean Sea 
Malta, Mediterranean Sea 

the Citta Vecchia termin 
Malta, Mediterranean Sea 
Malta, Mediterranean Sea 
Malta, Mediterranean Sea 
Malta, Mediterranean Se 

ill. 466-468, 470-478; tex 



Malta, Mediterranean Sea 



Honey merchants, .ill. 460 
Imtarfa barracks and 

us ill- 464 

Map of ill. (map) 449 

Mortuary ill. 455 

Origin of name... 451, 460 
; Temples, Prehistoric 
t 448-449, 456-457, 459, 



46 , 465-469, 473-475, 477-478 
Malta, Mediterranean Sea 



Valletta ill. 446-448, 

450-452, 454, 456-457 

..., Water wagons ... ..ill. 461 

MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OF NA- 
TIONS. FIRST ACCOUNT OF REMARK- 
ABLE PREHISTORIC TOMBS AND TEM- 
PLES RECENTLY UNEARTHED ON THE 
ISLAND. BY WILLIAM ARTHUR GRIF- 
FITHS 445 

Maltese Islands, Mediterranean Sea: Malta. By 

William Arthur Griffiths 445 

Maltese language 459 

Mangroves, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 69 

Manila, Philippine Islands, Pacific Ocean 501 

Manitoba, Canada: Grouse 334 

Manka, Taihoku, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 248 

Manns Hill, N. H 158 

Manufactures, Massachusetts 204, 209-243 

Maori canoe, New Zealand: Thirty-man-power 

dugout .-, -ill- 443 

Maoris, New Zealand: Canoe racing feats of the 

ill. 441-444; text 440 

Map, Asia Minor ill. (map) 46 

Map, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. (map) 262 

Map, Holy Land ill. (map) 46 



Page 
Map, Malta, Mediterranean Sea: Sketch ill. (map) 449 

Map, Mine groups: North Sea ill. (map) 105 

Map, North Sea: Showing location of mine groups 

ill. (map) 104 
Map of America, A Mind's-Eye. By Franklin K. 

Lane 479 

Map, Peary's Polar Explorations ill. (map) 297 

Map, United States : Showing oil pipe-lines . . . ill. 

(map) 183 

Map, United States: Showing production of pe- 
troleum ill. (map) 187 

Map, World: Oil resources ill. (map) 200 

Marble blocks, Ephesus, Asia Minor ill. 66 

"Mardi Gras of the North," Dartmouth College, 

New Hampshire 158-161, 164 

Mariposa Grove, California 519 

Marker Buoys, North Sea. . .ill. 106; text 121, 129, 132 

Markers, Historic, Massachusetts 206-207 

Market-place, Asia Minor: Arriving at a ill. 48 

Markham, Sir Albert Hastings: Mention of 320 

Marl beds, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 445 

Marriage customs, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies.. 90 

Marsa, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 459 

Marsamuscetto Harbor, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 450 

Marsh, George P. : Mention of 133 

Martial: "Epigrams" 422 

Marvin, Prof. Ross G. : Mention of 309 

Maryland: Electric power 496 

Massachusetts Agricultural College 206 

MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSI- 
NESS. BY WILLIAM JOSEPH SHOWAL- 
TER 203 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cam- 
bridge, Mass 207^ 244 

Massachusetts: Population of 203-204, 243 

Mather, Stephen T. : Interest in the National Park 
System 343 

Mather, Stephen T. : Life membership in the Na- 
tional Geographic Society bestowed upon. . .342-343 

Mather, Stephen T. : Preservation of Redwood 
trees in California 533 

Matting, Bandjermasin -. 69 

Mausoleum, Hal Saflieni Temple, Malta, Medi- 
terranean Sea 466-467 

May beetles, United States: Crows' destruction 
of 332-333 

Medan, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies.. 73, 75, 79, 81, 

IOI-IO2 

Mediterranean Sea 9, 31, 47, 51-52, 64 

Mediterranean Sea: Malta. By William Arthur 

Griffiths 445 

Medina (Popular name for Citta Vecchia, Malta) 464 

Melkarte, Lord of Tyre: Reference to 456 

Melville Bay, Greenland 305 

Members of the Dartmouth Outing Club, Hanover, 

N. H ill. 133-134, 152-156, 160-164 

Members of the Salvation Army, South America 

ill. 368 

Memorial Training College, Sweden 363 

Memphis, Tenn 210 

Men Lou, Shantung, China: Salvation Army 358 

Mendocino County, Calif 527 

Merced, Calif 527 

Merchantville, N. J. : Crow roosts 325 

Merriam, Dr. John C. : Executive control of "Save 

the Redwoods League." 533 

Mesa Verde National Park, Colo.: Cliff Palace, .ill. 493 

Meteorite Island, Greenland 305 

Methodist minister, Eastern Shore, Maryland : 

Story of a 487, 489 

Metropolitan Lumber Company: Redwood trees 

owned by 531 

Mexico 343 

Miles Standish State Forest, Plymouth County, 

Mass 245 

Miletus, Asia Minor 47, 64, 67 

Military Garrison, Savage district, Formosa, Pa- 
cific Ocean ill. 275 

Mills Creek, Calif.: Redwood trees 527 

Milton, John : Quotation from -540 

MIND'S-EYE MAP OF AMERICA, A. BY 

FRANKLIN K. LANE 479 

Mine Barrage, North Sea : Removal of the. By 

Noel Davis 1 03 

Mine explosions, North Sea ill. 109-110, 117-118, 

120-122, 125 

Mine fields, North Sea: Map of ill. (map) 104 

Mine groups, North Sea ill. (map) 105; text 115, 

117, 119, 122, 127-128, 130 



INDEX FOR VOLUME XXXVII, 1920 



XIII 



Page Page 

Mine-sweepers, North Sea: American ill. 109-110, Mount Tacoma, see Mount Rainier, Wash. 

116-119, 123-130, 132; text 111-127, 129-132 Mount Tamalpais, Calif.: Redwood trees 527 

Mine-sweepers, North Sea: British 130 Mount Tom, Mass 245 

Mine-sweeping kites, North Sea. .105, in, 1 16, 12,, 129 Mount Washington, N. H 151, 161, 164 

Mine with its anchor ill. 119 Mount Zion, Palestine 23 

Mines, Floating, North Sea ill. no, 116 'Mountain That was God" (Mount Rainier) .. .ill. 

Mines, "Horntype" 107 (color insert) Plate III, 511-518 

Mines, North Sea: Drawing showing location of Mountains of Gilead, Palestine 31 

ill. 1 08 Muir Woods, Mount Tamalpais, Calif.: Redwood 

Minidoka, Idaho: Electrical power 496 trees 527 

Minnesota 180 Multnomah Falls, Ore .' ill. 480 

Minnesota: Fishes rescued by government 375 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass 7 

Minute Man, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone Museums, Formosa, Pacific Ocean: Skull ill. 

National Park, Wyo Plate VII, 135-150 286-287; text 273 

Mission Fathers, California 489 Mushroom clubs, United States 388,392 

Mississippi: Fishes rescued by government 375 Mushroom collectors 388, 391-392 

Mississippi River bottom land: Government fish- Mushrooms, Edible ill. 390, 394-398, 400, 402-407, 

ing crew going through a section of the ill. 379 410-414, 416, 418-421; (color insert) Plates I, 

Mississippi River levee, Lucca, Ark.: Broken.. ill. 384 IV, VI-IX, XII-XIV; text 388, 401-402, 404, 407, 

Mississippi River: When the Father of Waters 411, 413-414, 416-418, 422, 439 

Goes on a Rampage. By Hugh M. Smith 369 Mushrooms, Edibility doubtful ill. 401, 421; 

Mississippi Valley 203, 375, 377, 383 (color insert) Plates V, XI; text 407, 422 

Missouri River 496 Mushrooms of the United States, Common. By 

Missouri River: Fish conservation 385-386 Louis C. C. Krieger 387 

Missouri: Vice-President Stevenson's visit to 495 Mushrooms, Origin of 392 

Mitvlene Island, ^Sigean Sea, Turkey in Asia Mushrooms, Poisonous ill. 388, 393; (color in- 

47-48, 64, 67 sert) Plates II-III, V, VIII, X, XV-XVI; text 

Mizpah, Palestine 3* 388-389, 391-392, 403-404, 409, 411, 418 

Mnaidra Temple, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 449, Mushrooms, United States (color insert) 

456, 459, 469 XVI plates, 423-438 

Modoc, Ark.: Flood refugees ill. 385, 386 Mushrooms, Wild species 387-388 

Monarch, Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone Na- Music, Ancient 57, 61 

tional Park, Wyo i Plate VII, 135-150 Musical instruments, Ancient 57 

Monarch of the North ill. (duotone insert) Musk-oxen, Canada 483 

Plate IX, 135-150 Musk-oxen, Forsheim Peninsula: Herd of ill. 314 

Monkeys, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 81-82 Mussels, Mississippi River: Propagation of... 381, 383 

Montana 5 O1 Mytilene Island, see Mitylene Island, JEgean Sea. 

Montana: Glacier National Park ill. 484-486 

Montenegrin Pass 96 ,,-vr,, 

Monterey, Calif. : Redwood trees 527 

Montgomery Grove, Calif.: Redwood trees. . .527, 5' Nablus> Palestine in . 2 . text ,. 2> s p> 26> 3j 6 

Montreal, Canada ; 2I "Nalegak" (Leader or chief among men) . . . .300, 305 

Mooney Falls, Havasu Canyon, Grand Canyon of Nansen, Fridtjof : Mention of...* 308 faS 

the Colorado HI. 499 Naples Italy 201 

Moose Mountain Cabin New Hampshire ..151,154, 158 Napole on I : b'c'c'upa'tion' of' Malta', ' Mediterranean 

Moreh, Plain of, Palestine 13 g ea ... 

Morel mushrooms ill. 420-42 1 ; text 388 4 1 7 Napoleon' i'. ' R e f e'r'enc'e to' Chink'. '. ". '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. 355 

Morel, or Sponge mushroom (Morchclla cornea) Nareg) Sir George Strong . Mention of 311, 321 

,,, llL . 4 , 2 , o; J te r t . 3 < 4I7 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY'S NOTA- 

Morel, or Sponge mushroom (Morchella delictosa) BLE YEAR THE 338 

/*r m ;4?o; text 388 417 Nationa i p ar ks, United' States.' .'.'.'ill'. '482-486', '488-490, 

Morel, or 'Sponge mushroom (Morchellaesculenta) 492-493, 502, 505; (color insert) VIII plates, 511- 

ill. (color insert) Plate VII, 423-438; text 388, 417 5I g. text 501 

Moriah, Mount, Jerusalem 31 National Redwoods Park: Plan to provide a.'. .... 533 

Mormon Church, Utah 49& Natural Bridges National Monument, Utah ill. 491 

Morrison, Mount, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 277 Navarino Battle of 455 

Mortuary, Malta, Mediterranean Sea: Mural deco- Navarre, 'Spain: Knights of St! 'j'o'hn. ! ! '. '. . . '. . . '. '. 453 

rations V .;;: ! 45S Nashawtuc Hill, Concord, Mass ill. 171 

Moslem loungers in an Asia Minor town ill. 52 National Geographic Magazine: Circulation of 343 

Moslems ,>'' 3 National Geographic Magazine: Dog number 343 

Mosquito Lake, Wash Plate A, 135-150 National Geographic Magazine: Flag number 343 

Mother crow at the nest edge.... ill. 325 National Geographic Magazine: Maps to be pub- 

Motion-picture industry, United States 479 lished 343 

Motor trucks, United States 187 National Geographic Magazine: Military Insignia 

Mount Baker, Wash ill. (duotone insert) number 343 

Plate X, 135-150 National Geographic Magazine: Paper material for 

Mount Ebal, Palestine 1-2, 5, 13, 31 the ill. 234-241 ; text 204, 245 

National Geographic Society: Aim of the 345 

Mount Ephraim, Palestine 13 National Geographic Society Banquet, 1913: Photo- 
Mount Etna, Sicily 452 graph of ill. 320 

Mount Gerizim, Palestine ill. 18-22, 36-39, 42-43; National Geographic Society: Life membership... 342 

text 1-3, 5, 13, 17-18, 20, 23, 25-26, 29, 31, 34-37, National Geographic Society: News Bulletins 343 

45-46 National Geographic Society: Pictorial Geography 343 

Mount Hermon, Palestine 3 1 National Geographic Society: Sixth expedition to 

Mount Katmai, Alaska Plate VI, 511-518 Mount Katmai, Alaska 338 

Mount Katmai, Alaska: Sixth expedition of the Natives, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 246, 249-252, 

National Geographic Society to 338 254, 256, 260, 265-267, 280-282, 284-286, 288-292; 

Mount Lafayette, N. H iSS text 272-273, 275, 287, 290 

Mount McKinley National Park, Alaska 483 Navy Cliff, Arctic Region :_ American flag raised at. 295 

Mount Mazama, Crater Lake National Park, Ore. Neapolis (Nablus, Palestine) i 

Plate VI, 511-518 Near East s6, 65 

Mount Moosilauke, N. H 158 Neblett, Miss. : Refugees on a log raft at ill. 384 

Mount Moriah, Jerusalem 31 Nelson, Edward W. : Investigations of animal life 

Mount Morrison, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 277 published in the National Geographic Magazine. 342 

Mount Olympus (Kechish Dagh) Asia Minor... ill. 58 Nelson, Edward W. : Life membership in the Na- 

Mount Rainier, Mount Rainier National Park, tional Geographic Society bestowed upon 342 

Wash ill. (color insert) Plates III-IV, Nelson, Edward W. : Scientific explorations in 

511-518; text 487 Alaska and Mexico 342 

Mount Shasta, Calif 489, 521 Nests of patillos, Peru ill. 556 



XIV 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Page 
Nests of white-breast cormorants, Chincha Islands, 

Peru ill. 540 

New Bedford, Mass 204, 244 

New England 203 

New England: Winters 169, 172 

New Hampshire 203 

New Hampshire: Endothia parasitica 399 

New Hampshire Hills: Skiing Over the. By Fred 

H. Harris 151 

New Jersey 509 

New Mexico: Vice-President Stevenson's visit to.. 495 

New York 487, 501 

New York. Adirondack Mountains: Victory Park 

ill. 508 
New York City: Snowstorm. . .ill. (duotone insert) 

Plate XII, 135-150 
New Zealand: Hurdle Racing in Canoes. By 

Walter Burke 440 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, England 125 

Newton, Mass 245 

Ngaruawahia, North Island, New Zealand: Canoe 

races 44O 

Niagara Falls, N. Y ill. (duotone insert) 

Plate XIV, 135-150; text 180-181 

Niagara of the Northwest ill. (color insert) 

Plate VII, 511-518 

Niacaragua 34 3 22 

Nicholas II Land, Arctic Region 340 

Nichols, Lieut. D. A in 

Nikolsky, Lieut.: General Greely's tribute to 349 

Nile Valley, Egypt '489 

Nitrates, Peru 537-539, 547 

Nitrogen 538-539, 547 

Norfolk, Va 114 

Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, 

Wyo ill. (duotone insert) Plate VII, 135-150 

North Carolina: Cherokee Indians 507 

North Dakota 180 

North McGregor, Iowa: Fishes rescued by govern- 
ment 375 

North Island, New Zealand 440 

North Polar Expedition, 1898-1902 321 

North Pole: Admiral Peary's photograph of the, ill. 321 

North Pole: Attempts to reach the 319 

North Pole: Peary as a Leader. By Donald B. 

MacMillan 293 

North Sea 340 

North Sea: Map showing mine fields. .. .ill. (map) 104 
North Sea Mine Barrage, Removal of the. By 

Noel Davis 103 

North Sea, Mine groups: Map of ill. (map) 104 

North Woodstock, N. H 158 

Northampton, Mass 245 

Northrop, John D. : British petroleum investments 201 

Norway 103 

Notabile, see Citta Vecchia, Malta, Mediterranean 

Sea. 

Number four oil well, Joy Farm, Ohio ill. 185 



Oates, Lawrence Edward Grace: Death of 309-310 

Odessa Lake, Colo 503 

Ogrim, Commissioner: Mention of 363 

Ohio River: Crow roosts 324 

Ohio River: Fish conservation 385-386 

Oil, Africa 195 

Oil, California. .. .ill. 184, 186, 188, 191; text 190, 195 

Oil companies, Oklahoma 191 

Oil consumed by U. S. Army 186 

Oil Creek, Pa.: Site of pioneeer oil well ill. 182 

Oil, Crude 192, 201 

Oil, England ill. 201 ; text 202 

Oil, Far East 195 

Oil fields, California, Southern ill. 1X6 

Oil, Fuel: United States 186, 192-193, 195 

Oil investments, Great Britain 197, 201 

Oil, Lubricating ..186-187, 189-190, 195 

Oil, Mexico ill. 196-199; text 181-182, 195, 197 

Oil, Near East 195 

Oil, Ohio ill. 185 

Oil, Oklahoma 190-191 

Oil, Pennsylvania ill. 182; text 181, 183 

Oil pipe lines, United States. . .ill. (map) 183; text 183 

Oil, Products of 185-186 

Oil resources of the world, .ill. (map) 200; text 195, 197 

Oil, Rumania 195 

Oil, Russia 181 

Oil shales, United States 193 



Page 

Oil, South America 195 

Oil tank farm 192 

Oil tank, Long Island, N. Y ill. 193 

Oil tank set on fire by lightning ill. 194 

Oil tanks, Burning ill. 192, 194 

Oil, Texas 191 

Oil, United States Army: Consumption of 186 

Oil, United States Navy: Consumption of 186-187 

Oil, United States: Where the World Gets Its Oil. 

By George Otis Smith 181 

Oil well, Derbyshire, England. ...... .ill. 202; text 201 

Oil wells, Mexico ill. 196-199 

Oil wells, Ventura County, Calif ill. 184 

Oil, West Virginia ill. 189 

Oil, Where the World gets Its. By George Otis 

Smith 1 8 1 

Oklahoma 324, 326, 507 

Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, 

Wyo ill. 488; text, Plate VII, 135-150 

"Old Man of the Mountains," New Hampshire.. 158 
Old pump, Thawing out the... ill. (duotone insert) 

Plate III, 135-150 

Old South Church, Boston, Mass ill. 244 

Omri, Sixth King of Israel: Samaria, Palestine 4, 21 

Onaga, Kans. : Crows 333 

Ontario County, N. Y. : Dead crows ill. 330 

Open air skull museum, Formosa, Pacific Ocean, .ill. 286 
Open road, A frosty morning on the. . . .ill. (duo- 
tone insert) Plate XVI, 135-150 

Open trail, Glacier National Park, Mont ill. 484 

Open-air grocery store, Sumatran ill. 100 

Opium, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 251; text 292 

Opium Monopoly Bureau, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 

ill. 251 

Oracle, Delphi, Greece 66-67 

Oracle Room, Hal Saflieni Temple, Malta, Medi- 
terranean Sea 465 

Orange-cap Boletus mushroom (Boletus versipellis) 

ill. 406; text 405 

Orang-outangs, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 82-83 

Orchestra of Chinese "Sing-song" girls, Formosa, 

Pacific Ocean ill. 252 

Order of St. John of Jerusalem 453-455 

Order of the Knights of Malta 447, 453, 457, 461 

"Organ-pipes," Concord, Mass.: Icicle ill. 167; 

text 179 

Oregon 487, 489, 495, 501 

Oregon: Crater Lake National Park.... ill. (color 

insert) Plate VI, 511-518 

Oregon, Multnomah Falls ill. 480 

Orick, Calif. : Redwood trees 531 

Orkney Islands, Scotland 113, 115 

Orphic mysteries 67 

Osage Indian lands 191 

OUR NATIONAL PARKS. . .Color insert, VIII 

plates, 511-518 

Oxen, Indian 80 

Oyster Bay, N. Y '.' 301 

Oyster birds, Peru 558 

Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) ...... .ill. 402; 

text 388 
"P" 

Pabellon de Pica, Chile: Guano 559 

Pacific Islands: Formosa the Beautiful. By Alice 

Ballantine Kirjassoff 246 

Pacific Islands, New Zealand: Hurdle Racing in 

Canoes. By Walter Burke 440 

Pacific Islands, Sumatra: By Motor Through the 
East Coast and Batak Highlands of Sumatra. 

By Melvin A. Hall 68 

Pacific Lumber Company: Redwood trees owned by 531 

Pacific Mills, Lawrence, Mass 221 

Packwood Glacier, Goat Mountains, Wash. : Cross- 
ing ill. 344 

Paiwan savages, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 289 

Pajaro nifios, see Penguins. 

Paita, Peru 559 

Palaver-house, Formosa, Pacific Ocean: Savage, .ill. 280 
Palestine: Last Israelitish Blood Sacrifice, The. 

By John D. Whiting . I 

Palisades Interstate Park ill. 506, 509 

Palominos, Peru: Guano 559 

Panxolus mushrooms. .. .ill. (color insert) Plate 

VIII, 423-438; text 392, 418 

Panama: Delegates to Salvation Army Interna- 
tional Congress, London 368 

Pandora (Steamship) 311 

Panorama of Smyrna, Asia Minor ill. 60 



INDEX FOR VOLUME XXXVII, 1920 



xv 



Page Page 

Panther (Repair ship) 129 Perennial polystictus mushroom (Polystictus per- 

Paper Mills, Lawrence, Mass 111.234-241; ennis) ill. (color insert) Plate VII, 423-438; 

text 204, 245 text 416 

Paracas Peninsula, Peru 557 Peru: Climate 537 

Parasol mushroom (Lepiota procera) . . . .ill. (color Peru: Coffins of laborers buried in old guano., ill. 566 

insert) Plate XIV, 423-438; 16x1388,392, 439 Peru: Cormorants, .ill. 539-542; text 544-547,552, 554 

Paros Island, Greece 61 Peru: Delegates to Salvation Army International 

Parry, Sir William Edward: Mention of 320 Congress, London 368 

Passover camp, Mount Gerizim, Palestine ill. 18 Peru: Heaping screened guano for transfer to the 

Passover, Mount Gerizim, Palestine: Last Israel- mainland ill. 562 

itish Blood Sacrifice. By John D. Whiting.... i Peru, Neb.: Crow roosts 325 

Passover Services, Mount Gerizim, Palestine 31, Peru: Salvation Army officer in his picturesque 

33-35, 37-41, 44-46 costume ill. 367 

Passover sacrifice, Mount Gerizim, Palestine: Kill- Peru: Nests of patillos ill. 556 

ing of the ill. 24 Peru: Pelicans ill. 548-551, 553-555! text 553-556 

Passover sacrifice, Mount Gerizim, Palestine: Sa- Peru: Piqueros ill. 544-547; text 552-553 

maritans eating of the ill. 28-29; text 44-45 Peru: Sea-gulls, Scavenger 558 

Patapsco (Mine-sweeper) ill. 125; text 108-109, PERU'S WEALTH-PRODUCING BIRDS: 

in, 123 VAST RICHES IN THE GUANO DEPOSITS 

Patillos, Peru: Nests of ill. 556 OF CORMORANTS, PELICANS, AND PET- 

Patillos, Peru ill. 557 ; text 552 RELS WHICH NEST ON HER BARREN, 

Patrick, Mary Mills: Asia Minor in the Time of RAINLESS COAST. BY R. E. COKER 537 

the Seven Wise Men 47 Peruvian Current 537, 543, 560 

Patuxent (Mine-sweeper). .. 108-109, i", 114, i?6, 132 Peruvians, Ancient: Agricultural methods of. .ill. 538; 

Pear-shaped puff-ball mushroom (Lycoperdon pin- text 541 

forme) ill. 418-419; text 388 Peteravik. Arctic Reeion- Snow house ill 208 

PEARY AS A LEADER: INCIDENTS FROM Peterhead Scotland IOQ MI 

THE LIFE OF THE DISCOVERER OF THE Petrels Peru . .'. .V.VsVV '554 ' 556-557' 550 

NORTH POLE TOLD BY ONE OF HIS Pet rels San Gallan Island Peru. 

^ss^ss B 8v^s>^ xP ^gsE Rasa ??& ""^ A * - % 

ALD B. MACMILLAN. 293 Phallic symbols of the cone and the ball, Tarxien 

Peary, Rear- Admiral Robert E.: Accident on board Temple, Malta, Mediterranean Sea ill. 475 

the Kite 319 Phidias: Statues by 529 

Peary, Rear-Admiral Robert E.: Association with Philadelphia (Alasher) Asia Minor 50 

the National Geographic Society 322 Phillips, Dr. John C.: Donation for the preser- " 

Peary, Rear-Admiral Robert E.: Awarded Special vation of the Redwood trees, California. .. .533-534 

Gold Medal by the National Geographic Society 322 Philosophy, First school of 64 

Peary, Rear-Admiral Robert E- : Awarded the Hub- Phoenicia, Syria 51 64 

bard Gold Medal of the National Geographic Phoenicians .'.....'.'....'...'.' ...'.'.'..'.'....' 66 

Society . 322 Phoenicians, Malta, Mediterranean Sea. . .449-450, 456 

Peary, Rear- Admiral Robert E. : Cabin and record, Phosphates, Idaho 496 

Axel Heiberg Land, Arctic Region ill. 294 Phrygian, Asia Minor 59 

Peary, Rear- Admiral Robert E.: Explorations in Pictorial Geography, National Geographic Society 343 

search of the North Pole 293-296, 300-301, Piermont Mountain, N. H 158 

308-311, 314, 320-322 Pigeon-house, Kebon Djahe, Sumatra, Dutch East 

Peary, Rear- Admiral Robert E. : Hut, Cape Sabine, Indies ill. 80; text 91 

Arctic Region ill. 295 Pi gs> Sumatra, Dutch East Indies: Transportation 

Peary, Rear-Admiral Robert E. : Map record of of ill. 92 

Polar explorations ill. (map) 297 Pikes, Mississippi River 375 

Peary, Rear-Admiral Robert E. : National Geo- Pike's Peak, Colo 501 

graphic Society banquet, 1913 ill. 320 Pill-coating room of a Massachusetts drug com- 

Peary, Rear-Admiral Robert E. : Reply to Presi- pany ill. 204 

dent Roosevelt upon the presentation of the Pillsbury, Rear- Admiral John Elliot -ill. 341; text 345 

Hubbard Medal of the National Geographic Pillsbury, Rear- Admiral John Elliot: Obituary no- 
Society 293 tice 345 

Peary, Rear-Admiral Robert E.: Traits of char- Pinan, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 274 

acter 293, 296, 300-301, 305, 317, 322 Pine foliage after an ice-storm, Concord, Mass... 174 

Peary, Rear- Admiral Robert E. : Tribute to Vil- Pineapples, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 256 

hjalmur Stefansson 339-34, 342 Pine-crested ridge, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 272 

Peary, Rear-Admiral Robert E. : Trips across Pioneer oil well, Oil Creek, Pa. : Site of ill. 182 

Greenland 319-320 Piqueros, Peru ill. 544-547; text 552-553 

Peary, Mrs. Robert E. : National Geographic So- Pisco, Peru 539, 545, 552-553, 562 

ciety banquet, 1913 ill. 320 Pittakos of Mitylene 47, 55, 67 

Peary, Stefansson, and Greely: Photograph of . .ill. 318 Pittier, Henry: Life membership in the National 

"Peary-ark-suah" (Big Peary) 305 Geographic Society bestowed upon 342 

PEARY'S EXPLORATION IN THE FAR Plain of Moreh, or Sychar, Palestine 31 

NORTH. BY GILBERT GROSVENOR, Plants, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies ill. 74 

PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL GEO- Plato: Mention of 64 

GRAPHIC SOCIETY 319 Pleurotus mushroom: Growth on a fallen log,. ill. 403 

Peasants, Asia Minor ill. 49, 58 Pliny: Reference to poisonous serpents and fungi 389 

Peck, Dr. Charles H. : Quotation on mushrooms. . 418 Plovers, Peru 559 

Peking, China: Salvation Army 355, 358 Plymouth, Mass 203 

Pematang Rajah, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 97 Plymouth Rock, Mass 245 

Pematang Siantar, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. .99, 101 Pneumatic tubes 209 

Pelican (Mine-sweeper) ill. 124; text 123-125 Poerba Dolok, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 97 

Pelicans, Peru ill. 548-551, 553-555; text 553-556 Poison-dogwood berries, Massachusetts ill. 175; 

Penguin (Mine-sweeper) 123 text 179 

Penguins, Peru 544, 547, 557-558 Polar Basin, Arctic Region: Rough ice in the. .ill. 299 

Penguins, Vieja Island, Bay of Independencia, Polar bear held at bay by dogs ill. 312 

Peru 558 Polar Ocean 321 

Peninsula of Paracas, Peru 557 Polar Sea 293, 296, 300, 305-309, 314, 321 

Pennsylvania: Electric power 496 Polo, Marco: Visit to Sumatra 77 

Pentateuch ill. 12, 42; text 23, 33, 40 Polycarp's Tomb, Smyrna, Asia Minor 60 

Pepo savages, Formosa, Pacific Ocean: Water- Polyporus frondosus mushroom, Edible ill. 408 

bearers of the ill. 291 Ponds, Cleaning up small ill. 376 

Perches, Mississippi River 375 Pools, Seining small ill. 376 

Pergamos (Bergama) Asia Minor 50 Poppy fields near Afiun-Karahissar, Asia Minor 

Periodicals, Salvation Army: Circulation of 347 ill- 63 



Page 

Port Said, Egypt 445 

Portable tubs, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 256; 

text 275-276 
Porters, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies: Female.. ill. 73 

Portugal 453 

Portuguese East Africa: Salvation Army 363 

Potomac River 182 

Potoyuncos, see Petrels. 

Pottery, Hal Saflieni Temple, Malta, Mediter- 
ranean Sea 468-469 

Pottery, Tarxien Temple, Malta, Mediterranean 

Sea 469, 474 

Powell, Maj. J. W. : Memorial altar erected to, 

in the Grand Canyon of the Colorado ill. 

(color insert) Plate VIII, 511-518 

Praxiteles, Statues by 529 

Prayer books, Samaritan 15 

Presidential Range, White Mountains, N. H 158 

Prickly-pear, Mount Ebal, Palestine 5, 7, 9 

Priest writing a Samaritan Pentateuch 15 

Primus (Arctic stove) 308 

Prince Patrick Island, Arctic Region 340 

Profile Lake, Franconia Notch, White Mountains, 

N. H ill. 153 

Profile Notch, White Mountains, N. H 158 

Prose, Greek 55 

Prostitution, Tokyo, Japan 363 

Provincetown, Mass '. 245 

Pulp-wood, Lawrence, Mass ill. 234-235 

Pump, Thawing out the old... ill. (duotone insert) 

Plate III, 135-150 

Push-cars, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 260-261; 

text 279 
Pythagoras: Mention of 66 



"Q" 
Quincy, 111.: Fishes rescued by government 375 



"R" 

Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Mass ......... 207, 

Railway bridge, Ako, Formosa, Pacific Ocean, .ill. 

Railway terminus and Imtarfa barracks, Citta 

Vecchia, Malta, Mediterranean Sea ......... ill. 

Ranger oil field, Texas ........................ 

Ras el Ain, Palestine .......................... 

Ravens, South America ........................ 

Ravens, United States ........................ 

Red Fern (Sail-boat) .................. 108-109, 

Red Mountain, Calif.: Redwood trees ............ 

Red Rose (Sail-boat) .................. 108-109, 

Redwood Creek, Calif.: Redwood trees. . .525, 533, 
Redwood trees, Arcata, Calif .................... 

Redwood trees, Bull Creek Flat, Calif ....... 525, 

531, 533, 

Redwood trees, California: Saving the Redwoods. 
By Madison Grant .......................... 

Redwood trees, Del Norte County, Calif.. .527, 531, 
Redwood trees, Dyerville Flat, Calif ......... ill. 

text 527, 531, 
Redwood trees, Eel River, Calif ........ 525, 527, 

Redwood trees, Fortuna, Calif ................... 

Redwood trees, Garberville, Calif ............ 529, 

Redwood trees, Humboldt County, Calif ......... 

527, 531, 
Redwood trees, Klamath River, Calif ..... ill. 520, 

Redwood trees, La Honda, Calif ................ .' 

Redwood trees, Mills Creek, Calif ............... 

Redwood trees, Monterey, Calif ................. 

Redwood trees, Mount Tamalpais, Calif ..... ...... 

Redwood trees, Muir Woods, Mount Tamalpais, 
Calif ....................................... 

Redwood trees, Orick, Calif ..................... 

Redwood trees, Red Mountains, Calif ............ 

Redwood trees, Redwood Creek, Calif... 525, 533, 
Redwood trees, Santa Cruz Grove, Calif .......... 

Redwood trees, Scotia, Calif ..................... 

Redwood trees, Sierra Nevada Mountains, Calif. 

Redwood trees, Smith River, Calif ........... 527, 

Redwood trees, Sonoma County, Calif ........... 

Redwood trees, South Fork, Eel River, Calif ____ '.' 

5^9, 
Redwood trees, Ukiah, Calif ................. 527, 



244 
279 

464 

191 

2 

322 
323 
in 
529 
m 
536 
525 
527, 
536 

519 
533 
535; 
533 
529, 

531 
531 

525, 
533 

528; 

527 

527 
525 
527 

S27 
53 1 
529 
536 
527 
531 

519, 
521 
533 
527 

527, 
533 
529 



Page 

Redwood trees, Willits, Calif 529 

Redwoods League, see Save the Redwoods League. 

Reedy Island, Delaware River: Crow roosts 325 

Refugees on a log raft, Neblett, Miss ill. 384 

Refugees on a mound at Modoc, Ark ill. 386 

Reindeer, Alaska 482-483 

Relics, Hal Saflieni Temple, Malta, Mediterra- 
nean Sea , 466-468 

Relics, Tarxien Temple, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 

469, 473-474 
Religious procession, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 

ill. 458 

REMOVAL OF THE NORTH SEA MINE 
BARRAGE, THE. BY LIEUTENANT-COM- 
MANDER NOEL DAVIS, U. S. NAVY 103 

Requa, Mr.: Development of oil 193 

Revere, Paul : Reference to 203 

Rhapsodists, Ancient 61 

Rhode Island 203 

Rhodes, Mediterranean Sea 454 

Rhodes, Mediterranean Sea: Historic crozier. . . . 454 
Rhodes, Mediterranean Sea: Knights of St. John 453 

Rice fields, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 256; 

text 257, 275 
Rice granary ("Goedang") Sumatra, Dutch East 

Indies ill. 83 

Richard Bulkeley (Trawler) 125-126 

Richmond, Ensign K. C. : Photograph of ill. 106 

Richon: Quotation on mushrooms 418 

Ridgway, Robert: Plant-pulling proclivities of crows 329 
River Channel, Massachusetts: Opening of the. .ill. 166 
Road leading to Citta Vecchia, Malta, Mediter- 
ranean Sea ill. 461 

Roads, Colorado: Zigzag ill. 498 

Roads, Massachusetts 206 

Roads, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies.. 80, 92-95, 97, 101 

Robeson Channel, Arctic Region ill. 301; text 296 

Rock bass, Mississippi River 375 

Rock Creek Park, Washington, D. C. : Ford in... 

ill. (duotone insert) Plate VI, 135-150 
Rock portals of the Yosemite Valley, Yosemite 

National Park, Calif ill. (color insert) 

Plate V, 511-518 

Rocky Mountain National Park, Colo ill. 492, 502, 

505; ill. (color insert) Plate I. 51 1-518: text 501 
Rocky Mountain National Park, Colo.: Flattop 

Mountain ill. 505 

Rocky Mountain National Park, Colo.: Hallett 

Glacier ill. 502 

Rocky Mountain National Park, Colo. : Long's 

Peak ill. (color insert) Plate II, 511-518 

Roger, Grand Count of Sicily: Reference to 453 

Roman forum, Samaria, Palestine: Ruins of.. . .ill. 7 

Rome, Italy: Catacomb days of 467 

Rome, Italy : Fall of 451 

Roof of the Continent in Rocky Mountain National 

Park, Colo ill. (color insert) Plate I, 511-518 

Roosevelt Dam, Ariz 495 

Roosevelt Park 495 

Roosevelt (Steamship) ill. 300-301; text 296, 305, 

;>o;. 114, 321 
Roosevelt, President Theodore: Belief in Rear- 

Admiral Peary 301 

Roosevelt, President Theodore: Presentation of 
the Hubbard Gold Medal of the National Geo- 
graphic Society to Admiral Peary 292, 322 

Rooted collybia mushroom (Collybia radicata) . .ill. 398 
Roving frames in a Massachusetts cotton mill. .ill. 213 

Roze: Quotation on mushrooms ,418 

Rubber plantations, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 101-102 

Ruins, Laodicea, Asia Minor ill. 50 

Ruins of the Roman forum, Samaria, Palestine, .ill. 7 

Rural schools, United States 504 

Russia 340, 359, 3i 



Sabbir (Arabic name for the Prickly-pear) 9 

Sacred scroll, Samaritan ill. 12, 42, 45 

Sacred sites, Mount Gerizim, Palestine 29, 31 

Sail-boats, Gloucester, Mass ill. 243 

St. Andrews Bay, Scotland in 

St. Francis Xavier: Reference to China 355 

St. Helena Island, Atlantic Ocean: Salvation Army 363 
St. John's Church, Valletta, Malta, Mediterranean 

Sea ill. 454, 457 ; text 453-454 

St. John's Ambulance Society 454 

St. Louis, Mo. : Crow roosts 325 

St. Lucia, British West Indies: Delegates to Sal- 
vation Army International Congress, London... 368 



INDEX FOR VOLUME XXXVII, 1920 



XVII 



Page Page 

St. Mary's Lake, Glacier National Park, Mont. .ill. 486; Savage children, Formosa, Pacific Ocean: Schools 

text 501 for ill 2 8o; text 287 

St. Patrick's Day, New Zealand: Canoe races on 440-441 Savages, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 280-282, 

St. Paul: Reference to his stay in Malta, Mediter- 284-286, 288-292; 16x1272-275 

ranean Sea 450-451, 464 Savages, Formosa, Pacific Ocean: Expedition against 

"Salat el Dabih" (Sacrificial prayers) 41 ill. 278 

"Salat el Garub" (Sunset prayers) 41 Save the Redwoods League 495, 533-534 

"Salat el Jismeet" (Scalding prayers) 41 SAVING THE REDWOODS. BY MADISON 

Salem, Mass 245 GRANT 519 

Salisbury, Mass 203 Scapa Flow, Scotland 112, 117, 125 

Salt Covenant, Mount Gerizim, Palestine ill. 27 "Scarecrow," Sumatra, Dutch East Indies ill. 91 

Salt Lake City, Utah 498 School for savage children, Kampanzan, Formosa, 

Salt River project, Arizona 495 ( Pacific Ocean ill. 280; text 287 

Salvation Army, Around the World with the. By School of Sappho, Mitylene Island, ^Egean Sea, 

Evangeline Booth 346 Turkey in Asia 64 

Salvation Army, China ill. 355; text 355, 358-359 Schools, Eastern Mediterranean: Charter of 64 

Salvation Army Headquarters, Tokyo, Japan.. ill. 355 Schools, United States 504-505, 507 

Salvation Army, Holland 363 Scotia, Calif.: Redwood trees 531 

Salvation Army home for native boys, Java, Dutch Scotland 103 

East Indies ill. 353 Scott, Capt. Robert F. : Mention of 310 

Salvation Army, India ill. 346, 348-35. 35 2 '. Scurvy, Arctic Region: Treatment of 307 

text 351, 354, 368 Sea-lions: Guano of 564 

Salvation Army, International Congress: Albert Sea of Marmora, Turkey in Europe 58 

Hall, London, England 363, 368 Sea-gulls, Peru: Scavenger ill. 558 

Salvation Army, Italy 363 Seal Islands, Peru, see Lobos Islands, Peru. 

Salvation Army, Japan ill. 355-357! text 361, 363 Seattle, Wash 487 

Salvation Army, Java, Dutch East Indies.. ill. 350, 354; Sebaste, Name of Samaria, Palestine after the time 

text 359, 363 of Herod the Great ill. 9; text 5, 21 

Salvation Army, Korea ill. 358; text 359 Seine haul on the shore of a large lake ill. 371 

Salvation Army Jenny Lind leading a street meet- Seines set by the use of a boat ill. 374 

ing in Sweden, A ill. 366 Seines, Washing of in a shallow bayou ill. 377 

Salvation Army lassies ill. 360-362 Seining crew on the march ill. 380 

Salvation Army, Peking, China 355, 358 Seining under thin ice ill. 372 

Salvation Army: Periodicals of the 347 Seminole Indians, Florida 507 

Salvation Army, Peru: An officer of the ill. 367 Sentinel Dome, Yosemite National Park, Calif. ..ill 482 

Salvation Army, Petrograd, Russia: Work of the Seoul, Korea: Salvation Army school for girls... 359 

ill. 365 Sepulchers, Mount Ebal, Palestine 5, 7 

Salvation Army, Portuguese East Africa 363 Sequoia gigantea, Sierra Nevada Mountains, Calif. 

Salvation Army, Russia 359, 361 521, 525 

Salvation Army, St. Helena Island, Atlantic Ocean 363 Sequoia National Park, Calif 495 

Salvation Army school for girls, India ill. 349 Sequoia National Park, Calif. : Forests 521 

Salvation Army, Serbia 363 Sequoia National Park, Calif.: Preservation of big 

Salvation Army, South Africa ill. 368; text 363 trees by National Geographic Society 338 

Salvation Army, Switzerland 363 Sequoia trees, California 489, 495, 519, 521, 525 

Salvation Army: Training schools 347 Sequoia trees, Sequoia National Park, Calif 521 

Salvation Army work in the World War 363 Serbia: Salvation Army 363 

Samaria, Palestine ill. 4; text 21 Ser-mik-suah (Arctic Region) 293 

Samaritan high priest ill. 30 Seth, Altar of, Mount Gerizim, Palestine 31 

Samaritan High Priest Jacob leading the Passover Seven Cabiri of the Phoenicians, Hagar Kim Tem- 

service, Mount Gerizim, Palestine ill. 20 pie, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 459 

Samaritan Holy of Holies ("Kuds el Akdas")..3i, 33 Seven Wise Men of Ancient Greece 47, 49, 51, 

Samaritan Passover Camp, Mount Gerizim, Pales- 53-55, 61, 64, 67 

tine ill. 1 8 Seward Peninsula, Alaska 482 

Samaritan Pentateuch. .. .ill. 12, 42; text 15, 23, 33, 40 Shaggy-mane mushroom (Coprinus comatus) . . . . 

Samaritan Pentateuch, Priest writing a ill. 15 ill. (color insert) Plate XII, 423-438; text 388, 439 

Samaritan pilgrims at prayer, Holy Rock, Mount Shanghai, China: Salvation Army 368 

Gerizim, Palestine ill. 43 Shansi Province, China 358 

Samaritan prayer books 15 Shechem (Nablus, Palestine) i, 4-5, 9, 13, 16, 21, 23, 31 

Samaritan prayer service, Mount Gerizim, Pales- Shechem Valley, Palestine 13 

tine: Costume of 3^-33 Sheep, Packwood Glacier, Goat Mountains, Wash. 

Samaritan sacred scroll. . .ill. 12, 42, 45; text 23, 33, 40 ill. 344 

Samaritan synagogue, The ill. 10 Sheffield, Mass 203 

Samaritans ill. ?6; text 1-46 Sheik Ghanim, Mount Gerizim, Palestine 29 

Samaritans, Passover of the: Last Israelitish Blood Shelley, Percy Bysshe: Quotation on Ink Mush- 
Sacrifice. By John D. Whiting i rooms 439 

Samos Island, .djgean Sea 47 Shoes, Manufacture of, Brockton, Mass 228-233, 

Sampans, Formosa, Pacific Ocean. .. .ill. 248; text 271 235-236 

Samuels, E. A.: Food required to sustain a crow 333 Shoes, Manufacture of, Lynn, Mass 229 

San Francisco, Calif 495, 519, 527, 529 Shoes, Manufacture of, Massachusetts ill. 230-231; 

San Gallan Island, Peru: Petrels 554, 557 text 227-233, 235-236, 239 

San Lorenzo Island, Peru 559 Shoo-E-Ging-Wa: An Eskimo child ill. 309 

Sandy Island, Scotland 131 Showalter, William Joseph: Massachusetts Bee- 
Sand-dunes, Colorado Desert, Calif ill. 494 hive of Business 203 

Sanderling (Mine-sweeper) 119 Shumway, Franklin P.: Reference to 151 

Sandpipers, Peru 559 Sibajak Mountain, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. . 

Santa Barbara County, Calif.: Summerland oil ill. 68; text 83 

field ill. 188 Siberia: Sequoia trees, Fossil remains of 519 

Santa Cruz Grove, Calif. : Redwood trees 527 Sicily 448-449, 453, 456 

Santa Rosa Island, Bay of Independencia, Peru.. Sierra Nevada Mountains, Calif.: Redwood trees.. 

Santee, S. C.: Herons 334 Sikhs, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 80, 99 

Santiago, Siege of . 345 Silk, Manufacture of, Holyoke, Mass 225 

Sappho: Reference to -. . . . .47, 61, 64, 67 Silk, Manufacture of, Massachusetts 225-227 

Sappho, School of: Mitylene Island, ^gean Sea.. 64 Silver gates, St. John's Church, Valletta, Malta, 

Sardinia, Mediterranean Sea 449 Mediterranean Sea ill. 457; text 454 

Sardis (Sart) Asia Minor ...-47, 50 Simelungen, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 89 

Sariboe Dolok, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies.. 89, 92-93 Sinaboeng, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 83 

Sarongs, Kinalang, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies: Singapore, Malay Peninsula 69, 72, 102 

Weaving of the ill. 84; text 95, 99 "Sing-song" girls, Formosa, Pacific Ocean. .. .ill. 252; 

Saskatchewan, Canada: Ducks 334 text 259 



XVIII 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Page 

Sintian, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 271 

Sketch, Tarxien Temple, Malta, Mediterranean 

Sea ill. 473; text 473-475, 477-47% 

Ski dash, Dartmouth Outing Club, Hanover, N. H. 

ill. 1 60 
Ski junipers, Dartmouth Outing Club, Hanover, 

N. H ill. 133, 161-164; text 159-161 

Ski Runner, Dartmouth Outing Club, Hanover, 

N. H ill. (duotone insert) Plate I, 135-150 

Skiing, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H ill. 133- 

134, 159. 161-164; text 158-161, 164 

Skiing, Franconia Notch, N. H ill. 134 

Skiing, Mount Washington, N. H ill. 153; text 164 

SKIING OVER THE NEW HAMPSHIRE 
HILLS: A THRILLING AND PICTUR- 
ESQUE SPORT WHICH HAS A THOU- 
SAND DEVOTEES IN THE DARTMOUTH 
OUTING CLUB. BY FRED H. HARRIS... 151 

Skip-jacks, Mississippi River 383 

Skull, or Brain-shaped puff-ball mushroom (Cal- 

vatia craniiformis) ill. 419 

Skyline Farm, New Hampshire 158 

Slippers, Manufacture of, Haverhill, Mass 229 

Slivers, Cotton ill. 210-211; text 213-216 

"Slubber" machines at work in a cotton mill, 

Massachusetts ill. 212 

Smith College, Northampton, Mass 207 

Smith, George Otis: Where the World Gets Its 

Oil 181 

Smith, Hugh M.: When the Father of Waters 

Goes on a Rampage 369 

Smith River, Calif.: Redwood trees 527, 533 

Smith, Sir James: Opinion of the Delicious, or 

Orange-milk Lactar mushroom 417 

Smith, Miss Jane M. : Endowment fund bequeathed 

National Geographic Society 342 

Smith Sound, Arctic Region 298, 302, 305-306, 

309. 3iS 

Smyrna, Asia Minor ill. 56, 60; text 50, 56, 61-62 

Smyrna figs, California: Walter T. Swingle's de- 
velopment of the 342 

Snake River, Idaho 496 

Snoqualmie Falls, Wash ill. (color insert) 

Plate VII, 511-518 

Snow drifts, Concord, Mass ill. 168 

Snow house, Geographic explorer building. . (duo- 
tone insert) Plate VIII, 135-150 

Snow house, Peteravik, Arctic Region ill. 298 

Snow record, Massachusetts ill. 179 

Soan, Kim: Story of 275,283-285, 287 

Soap, Nablus, Palestine i 

Society for the Preservation of New Hampshire 

Forests: Club-house of the 158 

Soil, Formation of 392, 399 

Soldier eating a doughnut ill. 362 

Soldiers, United States: Land grants to. .507, 509-510 

Solomon : Temple of 16 

Solon of Athens: Quotation from 47, 55, 67 

Somerville, Mass 245 

Sonoma County, Calif.: Redwood trees 527 

Sonoma Flat, Calif.: Redwood trees 525 

Sooty Lactar mushroom (Lactarius ligniotus) ill. 

(color insert) Plate XI, 423-438; text 422 
Sound-magnifying chamber, Hal Saflieni Temple, 

Malta, Mediterranean Sea 465 

South America: Ants 401 

South America: Members of the Salvation Army 

ill. 368 

South Fork, Eel River, Calif.: Redwood trees... 527, 

529, 533 

South Wales 449 

Spain 51, 449 

Sparassis herbstii mushroom ill. 413 

Sperry Camp, Glacier National Park, Mont ill. 

(duotone insert) Plate XV, 135-150 

Spinning-room in a Lawrence cotton mill ill. 216 

Spitzbergen, Arctic Region: Sequoia trees, Fossil 

remains of 519 

Sprague's Glacier, Rocky Mountain National Park, 

Colo 502 

Springfield, Mass 245 

S. S. Vedic (British transport) 131 

"Standing Stones" (Hagar Kim Temple, Malta) 457 

State forests, Massachusetts 245 

Stavanger, Norway 128 

Stefansson, Peary, and Greely: Photograph of . .ill. 318 

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur ill. 318;; text 322, 338-340 

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur: Admiral Peary's tribute 
to 339-340, 342 



Page 
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur: Awarded the Hubbard 

Gold Medal of the National Geographic Society 338 
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur: General Greely 's tribute 

to 339-340, 342 

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur: Musk-oxen in Canada. .482-483 

Stephenson, Captain : Mention of 311 

Stern's Camp, California: Redwood trees 529 

Stevens, Thaddeus: Mention of 133 

Stevenson, Vice-President Adlai: Ewing's Story 

of his success as a campaigner in the West... 495 
Stone Age Temple, Malta, Mediterranean Sea: 

Sacrificial tables ill. 466; text 457 

Stone blocks, Tarxien Temple, Malta, Mediter- 
ranean Sea 473 

Stone pillar, Tarxien Temple, Malta, Mediter- 
ranean Sea: Mystic ill. 474; text 474-475 

Stone, Tarxien Temple, Malta, Mediterranean 

Sea : Curious ill. 476 ; text 473 

Stoves, Arctic 308 

Strada Santa Lucia, Valletta, Malta, Mediter- 
ranean Sea ill. 450 

Strait of Malacca, Dutch East Indies 69 

Strauss, Rear-Admiral Joseph ill. 106; text 107, 

IH-II2, 114-115, 119, 130-131, 133 
Strauss, Rear- Admiral Joseph: Life membership 
in the National Geographic Society bestowed 

upon 342 

Street, Samaritan Ghetto, Nablus, Palestine. . .ill. 3 
Street scene, Taihoku, Formosa, Pacific Ocean... 249 

Streets, Nablus, Palestine 2-3 

Streets, Valletta, Malta, Mediterranean Sea... ill. 450 

Stump Lake, N. D. : Waterfowl 334 

Sub-chasers ill. 127, 130; text 113, 123, 127 

Submarines, German 103-105, 107, 115 

Sugar-cane, Formosa, Pacific Ocean: Fields of . .ill. 255; 

text 279 
Sumatra, By Motor Through the East Coast and 

Batak Highlands of. By Melvin A. Hall 68 

Sumatra, Dutch East Indies: Delegates to Salva- 
tion Army International Congress, London.... 368 
Sumatra, Putch East Indies: Women of.... ill. 72-73, 
77-78, 84-86, 91, 93-94, 98, too 

Sumatran freight train ill. 68 

Sumatran open-air grocery store ill. 100 

Summerland oil field, Santa Barbara County, Calif. 

ill. 1 88 

Sun River irrigation project, Montana 501 

Sundas, Dutch East Indies 99 

Sunfishes, Mississippi River 375 

Sunrise Point, Arctic Region 305 

Sunset from the Tamsui River, Formosa, Pacific 

Ocean ill. 258 ; text 264 

Suez Canal: Effect on Malta, Mediterranean Sea 455 
Suleiman the Magnificent, Sultan: Siege of Malta, 

Mediterranean Sea 447 

Sverdrup, Otto: Mention of 308 

Sweden: Salvation Army lassie leading a street 

meeting ill. 366 

Sweep-wire 105, 107, 109, 111-113, 119 

Swimming hole near Moose Mountain Cabin, 

New Hampshire 154 

Swingle, Walter T. : Development of the Smyrna 

figs in California 342 

Swingle, Walter T. : Life membership in the Na- 
tional Geographic Society bestowed upon 342 

Switzerland : Salvation Army 363 

Sychar, Palestine ill. 16; text 17, 31 

Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada: Welcome to Rear- 

Admiral Peary 317 

Synagogue curtains, Palestine: One of the ill. n 

Syria i 



'T" 



Tacoma, Wash Plate III, 511-518 

Taft, President William Howard: Order safe- 
guarding America's oil supply 193-194 

Tahosa Valley, Colo ill. 492 

Taihoku, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 249, 258; 

text 257-258, 263, 271 
Taipeh, Formosa, Pacific Ocean, see Taihoku, 

Formosa, Pacific Ocean. 

Taiwan, Pacific Ocean, see Formosa, Pacific Ocean. 
Tamils, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies.. 71, 79-80, 84, 99 

Tamsui, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 264 

Tamsui River, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 258-259; 

text 264 
"Tank" farm, A ill. 192 



INDEX FOR VOLUME XXXVII, 1920 



XIX 



Page Page 

Tanoor, or Ground oven, Mount Gerizim, Pales- Tucker, Judge F. de Latour Booth: Interest in 

tine 25-26 Salvation Army . 351 

Tarshish: Ships of 45 Tuckerman's Ravine, New Hampshire 161 

Tarxien Temple, Malta, Mediterranean Sea ill. 473- ufts Colle .ge, Massachusetts 207 

478; text 449, 456-457, 465, 469, 473-475, 477-478 Tunis, Africa 445, 448 

Tattooing, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 282, 292 Turkey 50 

Tatungfu, China: Salvation Army invasion of . .355, 358 Turkish peasants gathering opium in the poppy 

Tea Formosa, Pacific Ocean, Shipment of 262 fields near Afiun-Karahissar, Asia Minor ill. 63 

Tea, Formosa, Pacific Ocean., ill. 250; text 25?. 261-262 Two Medicine Valley, Glacier National Park, 

Tea-pickers, Daitotei, Taihoku, Formosa, Pacific j^V r>V " " D "i " 'A' " ' 'XT' ' " ' V VI 'I 1 ' 48s 

Ocean ill- 250; text 261 Tyndall Glacier, Rocky Mountain National Park, 

Tea, Pouchong, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 262 c lc) 52 

Teachers, United States . 504-505, 57 T yP h n wall, Taihoku, Formosa, Pacific Ocean . . 249 

Teakwood, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, .ill. 70; text 102 ,,^,, 

Teal (Mine-sweeper) 124 

Tebing Tinggi, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 101 Uk{ah> Calif . Redwood trees 

T6k-pai or Bamboo raft, Formosa, Pacific Ocean. . Unbleached muslin, Manufacture of. . . . .211-221 

. ill. 246; text 247 United States 51 

Temples, Malta, Mediterranean Sea: Prehistoric. . United States Army: Oil consumed by the 186 

ill. 466-468, 470-478; text 448-449, 456-457, 459, 463, United States Bureau of Education: Geographic 

465-469, 473-475, 477-478 Bulletins 343 

Tepees, St. Mary's Lake, Glacier National Park, United States Bureau of Fisheries: Biological 

Mont ill- 486 Laboratory, Mississippi River 383 

Terns, Peru 55$ United States Bureau of Fisheries: Cars for fish 

Terpander : Reference to 6 1 transportation 383 

Terraces on the sides of the gorge of the Rimac, United States Bureau of Fisheries: Fish rescue 

Peru ill- 538 work, Mississippi River. .369, 377, 381, 383, 385-386 

Terror (Steamship) 303 United States Bureau of Fisheries: Mussel propa- 

Textile industries, Massachusetts ill. 206-229; gation 383 

text 209-216, 218-227 United States Bureau of Mines 186-187, 1 9 l 

Thales of Miletus, Asia Minor 47, 64, 67 United States Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 

Thales' School of Philosophy, Miletus, Asia Minor 64 621: "The Crow and Its Relation to Man" 323 

Themistocles: Reference to 66 United States Department of the Interior 504 

Thiasos, Eastern Mediterranean schools 64, 66 United States Department of the Interior, Bureau 

Thirty-man-power dugout Maori canoe, New Zea- of Education: Geographic News Bulletins 343 

l and HI. 443 United States Geological Survey 190 

ThoreauY Henry 'bavidY.YsY.'i 65,' "169, 170, 172, 175, United States: Massachusetts Beehive of Business. 

i 77, 179-180 By William Joseph Showalter 203 

Thoreau's Country, Winter Rambles in. By Her- United States: Mind's-Eye Map of America. By 

bert W. Gleason 165 Franklin K. Lane.... ;v'-V *%> 

Three-mile Hill, New Hampshire 158 United States Navy: Oil consumed by the. . . 186-187 

Thyatria (Akhissar) Asia Minor 50 U l ted States Navy : Removal of the North Sea 

Ticknor, George: Mention of .33 TT M ' n , e ^rrage By>oel Davis ... 103 

Tientsin, China: Salvation Army 358 United | tates: Oj 1 P'l* hnes ' . 1 - < ma ") l8 3.= text 183 

Tigers, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 99 United States: Map showing oil pipe lines in the 

Tigris River, Turkey in Asia 498 TT ... , Ct ,, , , . IIK ( ma P' I8 3 

Timur the Lame : Reference to 5 Unlted States : Map showing production of petro- 

T 1M T fPirnlnsiv^ IDS 108 Icuminthe ill. (map) 187 

U\^m*D^''M'&K:::v.. $ K n ^ *&** Sh ^ ng o oard ; h --N--- * 

95 97 99 United States: Skiing Over the New Hampshire 

Tob, Meer called Se, of Toba (Job, Lake) ' . sJ.f!& ?%& Wa^s Goes '*' 

rSS"^$ffi-^.*K Un S-E^.E-fcSi Sfobn." * 3 " 

Tokio, Japan, see Tokyo, Japan. Cporo-p Otis Smith 181 

Tokyo, Japan: Salvation Army headquarters. . .ill. 355 TTnlted StateV Wint'eY ' Rambles ' 'in' ' Thore'au'i 

M \_ c r*- j * i /-* OJ.TU* /"*u u U niLcQ oiatcs . vv inicr jxdirmics in i norctiu s 

Tomb of Grand Master Caraf a, St. John s Church, Country. By Herbert W. Gleason 165 

Valletta, Malta, Mediterranean Sea ... ... -ill. 454 University of Minnesota: Redwood trees in Cali- 

Tooth paste filling room of a Massachusetts drug fofnia - Qwned by the $3I 

company . . . . . .... . . . ...... . . ill. 205 University of Washington. . : 487 

Torgnak (Evil spirit of the North) 296 Unleav ened bread, Samaritan ill. 40; text 3 5 

Tower of Babel: Reference to the 445 Upper-level mines, North Sea: Explosion of. ... 

Toyen, Formosa, Pacific Ocean 275 ;jj I2 _. text IJ5 

Tracks of a fox in the snow, Massachusetts. . .ill. 176 Ura ^ Formosat p ac ifi c Ocean.... . 271 

Tracks of a hare in the snow, Massachusetts, .ill. 177 Uruguay: Delegates to Salvation Army Interna- 

Tractors, Farm, United States. ..... ... . . ... .187-188 tional Congress, London 368 

Trail of the Dartmouth Outing Club, New Hamp- Utah 495-496, 498-499, 501 

shire 158 Utah : Natural Bridges National Monument, Edwin 

Training schools, Salvation Army 347 Span ill. 491 

Tralles, Asia Minor: Ruins of ill. 50 

Transportation, Primitive, Sumatra, Dutch East "V" 

Indies ill. 74 

Trawlers 126-127 Vallette, lean Parisot de la: Reference to 447, 453 

Trees, California: Saving the Redwoods. By Valletta, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 111.446-448, 

Madison Grant 519 450-452, 454, 456-467 

Trees, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 257, 263-267, Valley of the Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska: Study 

272-273; text 247, 265-267, 271 ma de of by the National Geographic Society... 338 

Trench-altar, Feast of the Passover, Mount Geri- Vats, Camphor, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 270; 

zim, Palestine ill. 21 ; text 26 text 272 

Tresness Bay, Scotland 125 Veatch, A. C. : Mention of 202 

Tribe of Ephraim, Palestine 23 Vegetables, Sumatra, Dutch Indies 98 

Tripoli, Africa 445 Vegetation, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies ill. 96; 

Tsalisen savages, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 292 text 81 

Tschudi, Johann Jakob von: Guano produced by Velvet-stemmed Collybia mushroom (Collybia ve- 

piqueros 553 lutipes) ill. 398 

Tsuo savages. Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 289 Ventura County, Calif.: Oil wells ill. 184 

Tube-fungi, Poisonous fleshy 404 Vermont 158 

Tubs, Portable, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 256; Vesuvius (Cruiser) 345 

text 275-276 Victoria Island, Canada 340 



XX 



Page 
Victory Park, Adirondack Mountains, N. Y. : Scene 

in ill. 508 

Vieja Island, Bay of Independencia, Peru.... 558-559 
Vilkitsky, Captain: General Greely's tribute to.... 340 

Virginia 203, 399 

"Vishnu Temple," Grand Canyon of the Colorado 

ill. (color insert) Plate VIII, 51 1-518 

Volcanoes, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies 69, 83 

Von der Weide, Dutch planter: Quotation from... 95 
Vonum savages, Formosa, Pacific Ocean. ..... .ill. 290 



Waikato River, North Island, New Zealand: Canoe 

races 44 

Walden Pond, Concord, Mass ill. 166 

Walrus, Bull, Etah, Greenland: Head of a ill. 3*5 

"War Cry" of the Salvation Army, China 359 

"War Cry" of the Salvation Army, japan 363 

Warp thread, Making of . . . 216-220 

Warping machine in a textile factory ill. 217 

Washburn, Ichabod: Reference to 243 

Washington 487 

Washington, D. C 181, 507 

Washington, D. C. : Crow roosts 324-327 

Washington, D. C. : Green-gilled Lepiota mush- 
rooms ill- 393 

Washington, George: Mention of 207 

Washington: Lake Chelan ill. 481 

Washington, Mount, N. H 151 

Washington: Mount Rainier National Park, Mount 

Rainier ill. (color insert) Plates III-IV, 511-518 

Washington, Snoqualmie Falls... ill. (color insert) 

Plate VII, 511-518 

Watch chains, Attleboro, Mass. : Making of 242 

Watch factory, Massachusetts: Cutting main- 
springs ill. 232 

Watch factory, Massachusetts: Repairing balance- 
wheels ill. 233 

Watch making, Massachusetts ill. 232-233; 

text 239-242 

Water-carriers, Asia Minor ill. 65 

Water-carriers, Formosa, Pacific Ocean ill. 291 

Waterfalls, United States, Grand Canyon of the 

Colorado : Mooney Falls ill. 499 

Waterfalls, United States, Oregon: Multnomah 

Falls ill. 480 

Waterfalls, United States, Washington: Snoqual- 
mie Falls ill. (color insert) Plate VII, 511-518 

Waterfowl, Stump Lake, N. D 334 

Water wagons, Malta, Mediterranean Sea ill. 461 

Waterfront, Valletta, Malta, Mediterranean Sea 

ill. 446 

Webster, Daniel: Mention of 133 

Webster Slide, New Hampshire 158 

Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass 207 

Wells, Malta, Mediterranean Sea: Bottle-necked.. 456 
WHEN THE FATHER OF WATERS GOES 
ON A RAMPAGE: AN ACCOUNT OF THE 
SALVAGING OF FOOD-FISHES FROM THE 
OVERFLOWED LANDS OF THE MISSIS- 
SIPPI RIVER. BY HUGH M. SMITH, 
UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER OF 

FISHERIES 

WHERE THE WORLD GETS ITS OIL: BUT 
WHERE WILL OUR CHILDREN GET IT 
WHEN AMERICAN WELLS CEASE TO 
FLOW? BY GEORGE OTIS SMITH, DI- 
RECTOR UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL 

SURVEY 

White bass, Mississippi River 

White House, Washington, D. C ill. (duotone 

.,;. insert) Plate V, 135-150 

White Mountains, N. H 151, 158, 161 

White pine blister rust, United States 399 

White Sea, Russia 340 

Whiting, John D.: Last Israelitish Blood Sacrifice . i 

Whitney, Eli: Reference to 243 

Willcocks, Sir William: Garden of Eden 498 



369 



375 



Page 

Willamette Valley, Ore 501 

Willits, Calif.: Redwood trees 529 

Wildwood, N. H .. 158 

William Darnold (Mine-sweeper) 123 

Williams College, Williamstown,. Mass 207 

Wilmington, Del 210 

Wilson, Brig.-Gen. John M.: Obituary notice.... 345 

Winchendon, Mass 245 

Windward (Steamship) Deck-house of the ill. 295 

Winter carnival, Dartmouth Outing Club, New 

Hampshire 158-161 

Winter home of the Smith Sound native ill. 306 

Winter, New England 169, 172 

WINTER RAMBLES IN THOREAU'S 

COUNTRY. BY HERBERT W. GLEASON.. 165 

WINTER SCENES (duotone insert) 

XVI plates, 135-150 
Winter sunset from Fair Haven Hill, Concord,- 

Mass ill. 170 

Wire entanglements, Formosa, Pacific Ocean : Live 274 

Wisconsin: Fishes rescued by government 375 

Wise Men of Ancient Greece, Seven 

47, 49, 5i, 53-55, 61, 64, 67 
Wizard Island, Crater Lake National Park, Ore. . . 

ill. (color insert) Plate VI, 51 1-518 

Women, Eskimo ill. 300, 307-308 

Women, Mount Gerizim, Palestine: Feast of the 

Passover 41 

Women, Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. . .ill. -72-73, 77-78, 
84-86, 91, 93-94, 98, 100 

Wonder-workers ill. 190 

Wood, Nelson: Anecdotes of crows 330-331 

Woodridge, D. C. : Crow roosts. . . .ill. 328; text 326-327 

Wool carded in a Massachusetts factory ill. 226 

Wool-combing machine ill. 227 

Woolen industry, Massachusetts 225 

Woolen mills, Lawrence: Drawing wool ill. 228 

Woolen mills, Massachusetts ill. 226-229; text 225 

Worcester, Mass 243 

World War: Salvation Army work in the 363 

World's greatest oil well: Cerro Azul, No. 4, 

Mexico ill. 1 96- 1 99 

"Wotan's Throne," Grand Canyon of the Colo. . . 

ill. (color insert) Plate VIII, 511-518 

Wrangell Island, Arctic Region 340 

Wrinkled Pholiota, or The Gypsy mushroom (Pho- 

liota caperata) . . . .ill. (color insert) Plate XIII, 

423-438; text 392, 439 

Wyoming 495, 501 

Wyoming: Yellowstone National Park ill. 488-490 



Yahweh, The unpronounced Hebrew name for 

God 13, 22, 33 

Yamamuro, Col. Gunpsi: "Common People's 

Gospel" 361 

Yellowstone National Park, Wyo ill. 488-490 

Yosemite Canyon, Yosemite National Park, Calif.. 519 

Yosemite National Park, Calif ill. 482-483; 

ill. (color insert) Plate V, 511-518 
Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, Calif. 

ill. 482 ; ill. (color insert) Plate V, 511-518; 
text 489, 495, 527 

Young, Sir Allen : Mention of 311 

Young, Brigham: Reference to 496, 498 

Youth and old age ill. 292 

Yuma, Ariz 495 



Zambesi, Rhodesia, Africa: Salvation Army 363 

Zammit, Prof. T. : Excavation of the Hal Tarxien 

Temple, Malta, Mediterranean Sea.. 469, 473 

Zigzag mountain road near Denver, Colo ill. 498 

Zion, Mount, Palestine 23 

Zoroaster Temple, Grand Canyon of the Colorado 

ill. 500 
Zulu wards of the South African branch of the 

Salvation Army ill. 353 



PRESS OF JUDD & DETWEILER, INC., WASHINGTON, D. C. 



VOL. XXXVII, No. 1 WASHINGTON 



JANUARY, 1920 






THE LAST ISRAELITISH BLOOD SACRIFICE 

How the Vanishing Samaritans Celebrate the Passover 
on Sacred Mount Gerizim 

BY JOHN D. WHITING 

ArTHrR rp "FROM JERUSALEM TO ALEPPO," "VILLAGE LIFE IN THE HOLY LAND," AMD 
"JERUSALEM'S LOCUST PLAGUE," IN THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 

Illustrated with the only set of night photographs ever taken of this ancient cere- 
mony, and numerous other unique pictures, by the American 
Colony Photographers, Jerusalem, Palestine 



SHECHEM, Samaria, and Neapolis 
were once great cities of the ancient 
civilized world. Today their glory 
and importance are no more, save in his- 
tory. Here alone we find a dying and al- 
most extinct community of Samaritans, 
the remnant of a once numerous sect, 
whose persistent continuation and literal 
performance of the Passover Sacrifice 
have attracted the attention of students 
for more than three centuries. 

Nablus, the modern Shechem, the only 
home of the Samaritans of today, is a 
town of about 27,000 inhabitants, lying 
some forty miles north of Jerusalem. The 
population is chiefly Moslem, the remain- 
der being composed of various Christian 
sects, together with a mere handful of 
Samaritans. But as yet no Jew has set- 
tled there, the Biblical axiom still holding 
good, "for the Jews have no dealings with 
the Samaritans." 

Besides being a center of trade, Nablus 
has gained a little fame for its soap, made 
of pure olive oil, a variety which, though 
crudely manufactured, is used almost ex- 
clusively by the people of the city, and is 



much prized by the natives of Syria and 
Egypt. 

The town nests in a confined valley run- 
ning east and west, between twin moun- 
tains Ebal, some 3,000 feet above sea- 
level, which looms up on the north, and 
the lesser Gerizim, about 150 feet lower, 
which closes in on the south, with its base 
in places only a few hundred yards from 
that of its mate. 

From the lower slopes of Gerizim issue 
numerous and copious springs. The mod- 
ern town has therefore crept up in their 
direction. These waters, after filling the 
demand made upon them by the city, find 
their way into extensive gardens to the 
west, where flourish fig trees, laden with 
delicious fruit, pomegranates hung with 
scarlet bloom and fruit, yellow quinces, 
walnuts, mulberries, olives, and occasional 
bitter-orange trees raised for the perfume 
extracted from the flowers. Among the 
trees many varieties of vegetables grow in 
abundance. 

The houses of the town are dome- 
roofed and lattice-windowed, constructed 
from the soft, white limestone of Mount 




NAHUJS (THE MODERN SHECHEM), THE ONLY HOME OF THE SAMARITANS TODAY 

The town nestles in the valley which lies between Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim. 
The picture is taken from the lower slopes of Gerizim, near Ras el Ain, while Mount Rhal 
is seen in the background (see map, page 46). 



Ebal. The streets are picturesquely nar- 
row and most of them are paved with 
cobble-stones, with here and there an arch 
thrown across and supporting a room 
above. 

THE HOME CITY OE THE SAMARITANS 

In the "souks," or markets, as in most 
Syrian towns, the stores are so small that 
the customer stands outside to examine 
the meager display of European and na- 
tive (Damascene) wares. Here are rows 
of silversmith shops, where the artisans 



work cross-legged, producing from crude 
silver elaborate ornaments for the peasant 
women. Here are the coffee shops, the 
street in front blockaded with men sitting 
upon low stools, sipping the thick, hot 
beverage from tiny cups and smoking the 
long, red-piped, bubbling narghile as they 
gossip and play a game of "tawla." 

Next are the sweetmeat venders, from 
whose stalls large trays of "kanafie" pro- 
trude into the street. This pastry dish, 
for which Nablus is noted, has a filling of 
fresh, sweet cheese. After it is baked, 




A STREET IN THE SAMARITAN GHETTO OF NABUJS 

From the main market-place, long, dark, tunnel-like lanes lead to the Samaritan Quarter, at 
the foot of the sacred Mount Gerizim. 




THE HILL OF SAMARIA 

Omri, the sixth king of Israel, in the ninth century B. C., bought an isolated hill a few 
miles west of Shechem, where he built his capital and named it Samaria, after its original 
owner. 





THE ACROPOLIS Of SAMARIA 

The city of Samaria from its inception overshadowed its riva, Shechem, and perhaps 
under Roman rule attained the pinnacle of its glory. The Emperor Augustus presented 
it to Herod the Great, who rebuilt and embellished it after the Roman style and renamed 
it Sebaste. 



melted butter and thick syrup are poured 
over it until it is literally soaked with the 
mixture. 

From the chief market-place the Sa- 
maritan Quarter of Nablus is approached 
from the north through long, tunnel-like 
lanes which lead to the very foot of the 
sacred mountain. 

Just above the city, Gerizim is steep 
and rocky, and the trees disappear. In 
summer the mountain side is gray and 
barren, but in winter even the smallest 



patches of earth are scratched with 
primitive plows and sown with wheat or 
barley. 

THE FRIENDLY CACTUS 

Across from the town the slopes of 
Ebal present a very different picture. 
Equally rocky, they are still perennially 
green with cactus bushes planted among 
the rock ledges, which are curiously stud- 
ded with ancient sepulchers, whose open 
doors from a distance reveal only the 




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RUINS OF THE ROMAN FORUM AT SAMARIA 

Note the weather-beaten tops of the columns, while the lower parts retain their original 
whiteness, showing how deep these ruins were covered by debris when the work of excava- 
tion was undertaken, with the aid of American research funds, under the auspices of the 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 



darkness within. Some of these tombs 
were rifled centuries ago; others have 
come to light within the past few years. 
Many have stone doors and stone hinges, 
with stone locks still in working condition 
if the keys, probably of bronze, could be 
found. 

But the modern inhabitants do not 
pride themselves on this interesting ceme- 
tery, as did the peoples of bygone times. 
To the Arabs of today antique relics are 
of no import ; but they feel justly proud 



of the cactus or prickly-pear bushes, which 
present a weird spectacle and cover every 
available space in this oriental God's 
Acre. The fame of these bushes reaches 
as far as the Bosporus, where the much- 
prized fruit is a favorite gift among the 
notables of Constantinople. 

The prickly-pear cactus was first intro- 
duced into Palestine by the Crusaders ; 
today it is grown throughout the length 
and breadth of the land, being valuable 
not only for its fruit, but also as an ex- 




8 

M 
W 

a 




O W 




A VIEW OF MODERN" SEBASTE AND THE SURROUNDING HILLS 

After climbing to the zenith of might, Sebaste slowly relapsed into insignificance. Today, 
amid the ruins of a splendid past, a squalid mud village occupies the site and retains the 
name. 



cellent hedge. The natives, however, do 
not yet appreciate its great value as forage 
for cattle. The camels help themselves 
to it whenever they get a chance, their 
mouths being so tough that, regardless of 
the spines, they devour the leaves with 
unmistakable relish. The Ebal cactus' 
superiority lies in the extra large size of 
its fruit, the tenderness of its seeds, and 
its sweet and luscious flavor, due both to 
the peculiar soil and to the protection af- 
forded from the cold north winds. The 
Arabic name for the pear, sabbir (pa- 
tience), seems eminently appropriate to 
one who has innocently handled the un- 



pealed fruit and had his hands filled with 
the microscopic spines, which can be ex- 
tracted only by painful laboriousness. 

SHECHEM, WHERE THE BIBLE INTRODUCES 
ABRAHAM 

The first city built in this valley was 
Shechem, which occupied a site a short 
distance to the east of Nablus. Here, at 
the highest point of the valley, where the 
rains to the east find their way to the 
Dead Sea and those to the west to the 
Mediterranean, is a small artificial hill. 
Recent excavations by archeologists have 
revealed a city wall encircling the re- 




THE SAMARITAN SVNAGOGU1 



This, the only house of worship which the Samaritans possess, is a very plain building 
and only a few hundred years old. In the recess to the left, behind ornamented curtains, are 
primitive safes and cupboards containing many parchments and Pentateuchs, among them 
the noted Abishua Codex (see illustration, page 12). 




ONE: OF THE SYNAGOGUE CURTAINS 

This silken curtain, heavily embroidered in gold, is used in the synagogue to hang in front 
of the scroll chests. The designs represent the cup of manna, ark of the covenant, Aaron's 
rod blossoming, the seven-branched candlestick, the table of shew-bread, the golden censer, 
and other temple furnishings such as existed in the temple at Jerusalem. 




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mains of houses and have laid bare numer- 
ous ancient earthenware vessels. 

As we look upon these primitive habi- 
tations, more than 3,000 years old, it is 
hard to realize that we are not actually 
looking on the oldest city built here, but 
upon a town that, at this early date, had 
already had a long existence. 

It is at Shechem, then called "Sichem," 
and the plain of Moreh, into which the 
Shechem gorge opens at its eastern ex- 
tremity, that Biblical history introduces 
.. Abraham, the father of the Hebrews, in 
Canaan. Likewise Jacob made this lo- 
cality his first halt on returning from his 
sojourn with Laban in Haran. Here he 
purchased the parcel of ground whither, 
at a later date, Joseph's bones were 
brought from Egypt to be buried, and 
where today Jacob's well is pointed out 
as the spot at which Jesus and the Sa- 
maritan woman met (see map, page 46). 

Immediately following the Israelitish 
invasion of Canaan and the taking of 
Jericho and Ai, Joshua built upon Ebal 
the first altar of sacrifice erected by his 
people in the new land. 

The Shechem Valley now became the 
theater of the first general convocation, 
and, according to the Mosaic injunction, 
the whole congregation was assembled, 
"half of them over against Mount Geri- 
zim and half of them over against Mount 
Ebal." From Ebal were to be proclaimed 
the curses against those who should for- 
sake the law of their God, and from 
Gerizim the blessings that would result 
in the following of Yahweh (the unpro- 
nounced Hebrew name for God). 

Here also, just before his death, Joshua 
addressed the last assembly of the people, 
making a covenant with them. 

We HOW come to the broader period of 
its history. Ephraim, destined to figure 
as the leading tribe of the Northern King- 
dom, had the lot of jts possession fall to 
the district wherein Shechem lay. This 
territory was then known as "Mount 
Ephraim." 

The town of Shechem itself was appor- 
tioned to the Levites, since they, being 
a tribe of priests, received no inheritance 
except cities and their suburbs in which 
to dwell throughout all the tribes. She- 
chem was also selected as one of the cities 
of refuge, and throughout the Hebraic 
occupation held an important place. 




ABU EL HASSAN, SON OF THE LATE HIGH 
PRIEST JACOB 

All the Samaritan priests wear long hair, 
which they wind under their dome-shaped 
fezzes. "And the Lord said unto Moses, speak 
unto the priests and say unto them that they 
shall not make baldness upon their heads ; nor 
shall they shave off the corner of their beards" 
(Lev. 21 : 1-5). 




JACOB, SON OF AARON, LATE SAMARITAN HIGH PRIEST 

Members of the present priestly family trace their ancestry to the tribe of Levi. The direct 
Aaronic line that existed till modern times has now failed. 




A YOUNG PRIEST WRITING A SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH 

All the Samaritan Pentateuchs and prayer books, as well as the books used by the school 
children, are hand-written. Parchment was used up to two centuries ago; since then paper 
has come into vogue. Aside from the fact that the poverty of the modern Samaritan com- 
mends the use of paper, which is much cheaper, the orthodox scholar will not write on 
leather unless the hide from which it is prepared has been taken from an animal slaughtered 
l>y a priest. 

'5 




THE VILLAGE OF ASKAR, ANCIENT SYCHAR 

Just behind the village is Jacob's well. The mountain in the background is Gerizim, 
while the mosque on its summit marks the site of the Samaritan temple to which, no doubt, 
the Samaritan woman pointed when conversing with Jesus. 



During the period of the Judges little of 
importance is heard of Mount Ephraim, 
except that Abimelech, son of Gideon by 
a Shechemite concubine, was made "King" 
of Shechem, and ruled three years. 

With the advent of David came the 
Golden Age of the Hebrews. The capi- 
tal was moved to Jerusalem, where, upon 
his succession, Solomon built the re- 
nowned Temple and established thereby 
a center of worship. 

But this unified kingdom was short- 



lived, and with the death of Solomon, his 
son, Rehoboam, proceeded to Shechem, 
where all Israel was gathered to make him 
king. Instead of this being consummated, 
ten tribes revolted and made Jeroboam, 
an attache of Solomon's court, king. Jero- 
boam selected Shechem as his home. 
Thus the northern ten tribes established 
the Kingdom of Israel, now forever rent 
from the Kingdom of Judah, which was 
composed of the two remaining tribes, 
Judah and Benjamin. 



16 







NEAR SYCHAR IS JACOBUS WKLL ; ITS DEPTH IS INDICATED BY THE LENGTH OF 

THE ROPE 

To the east, towering above the encampment, is the loftiest of Gerizim's peaks, crowned with 
ruins a spot where once temples stood. 




THE SAMARITAN PASSOVER CAMP, THE ONLY REMAINING ISRAEUTISH CAMP IN 

THE WORLD 

To the east, towering above the encampment, is the loftiest of Gerizim's peaks, crowned with 
ruins a spot where once temples stood. 




LAMBS SELECTED FOR THE SACRIFICE OF THE PASSOVER 




THE CONGREGATION GATHERING FOR THE SACRIFICIAL CEREMONY 

As they assemble one by one they spread small prayer cloths upon the ground. Upon these 
they stand with bare feet, having dropped their prayer slippers behind them. 




THE; SAMARITAN HIGH PRIEST JACOB LEADING THE PASSOVER SERVICE 

Note the prayer cloth on which he stands. Some of these have the prayer-niche design 
identical with those of the Moslems. The Samaritans always face their Holy of Holies (the 
holy rock on the crest of Mount Gerizim) when worshiping. 




THE TRENCH-ALTAR PREPARED FOR THE SAMARITAN PASSOVER 

Two large copper kettles filled with water are placed over this altar. At a short dis- 
tance, and higher than the altar level, is the tanoor, or ground oven, for the sheep-roasting. 
The men in the right background are tending the oven. 



Omri, the sixth king of Israel, in the 
ninth century B. C., bought an isolated 
hill a few miles west of Shechem, on the 
north side of the valley, and there built 
his capital, naming it Samaria, after its 
original owner. At the time of the First 
Captivity the Kingdom of Israel lost its 
northernmost tribes and its possessions 
beyond the Jordan. From them Galilee 
was then created, while the remaining 
southern part inherited the name of its 
once important capital, Samaria, and be- 
came a State subject to Assyria. Thus 
was the land cut up into three districts 
Galilee, Samaria, and Judea. 

SEBASTE, CITY OF HEROD 

The city of Samaria, from its incep- 
tion, overshadowed its rival, Shechem, 
and probably attained the height of its 
glory under Roman rule; for the Em- 
peror Augustus presented it to his pro- 
curator, Herod the Great, who rebuilt 
and embellished it after the Roman style, 
and renamed it Sebaste (Greek for Au- 



gusta).. Much of Herod's work still re- 
mains, notably a double colonnade en- 
circling the hill's crest. 

An Arab proverb says, "Beyond every 
mountain ascent there is a descent." And 
Sebaste, after climbing to the zenith of 
power, slowly relapsed into insignifi- 
cance; so that today, amid the ruins of 
its splendid past, a squalid mud village 
bears the once grand title (the name in 
Arabic being slightly altered to "Sebas- 
tieh"). Here is a rare instance, possibly 
the only one in Palestine, where the 
Greek name has outlived the older Se- 
mitic form. 

Sebaste had become a place of no im- 
portance more than four centuries before 
the Emperor Vespasian founded Neap- 
olis (New City) in the Shechem vale, 
west of the older town, in 67 A. D. This 
"New City" soon outstripped the older 
Shechem, and in the fourth century be- 
came one of the foremost cities of Pales- 
tine a distinction which it still enjoys 
under its Arabic name of Nablus. 



21 




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THE LAST ISRAELITISH BLOOD SACRIFICE 



23 



The Samaritan religion is closely akin 
to that of the Jews, the chief differences 
being that the cult of the former centers 
about Gerizim, while that of the Jews 
centers about Zion, and that the Samari- 
tan canon of Scripture is restricted to the 
Pentateuch, or "Five Books of Moses." 
The later writings, including the Prophets 
and Psalms, the Samaritans repudiate as 
uninspired. 

In view of the similarity in their be- 
liefs and practices, it seems strange that 
there exists and always has existed the 
fiercest animosity between Jew and Sa- 
maritan, but it is the animosity that in- 
variably exists between an original and a 
schism. 

The Samaritans maintain that they are 
the remnants and descendants of the once 
great tribe of Ephraim, and that the split 
between them and the Jews came about 
through the maladministration of the 
priesthood by Eli's sons. Followers of 
the Jewish Church are looked upon as 
dissenters from the pure faith of Israel, 
and the forming of a center of worship 
in Jerusalem by Judah is condemned 
upon the ground that the land of Eph- 
raim, with Shechem and its mountains, 
figured in the earliest history of the He- 
brews ; that here the first Israelitish altars 
were erected, and that these were the only 
specific parts of the Land of Promise 
mentioned by Moses in the wilderness. 

THE RENOWNED SAMARITAN SCROLL 
PHOTOGRAPHED AT LAST 

The most precious document of this 
sect is the renowned Samaritan scroll 
Pentateuch. This scroll is some seventy 
feet long, and toward the end its columns 
are divided vertically by a small gap. 
often occurring between the letters of 
the same word. Into this gap is carried 
and written any letter that occurs in the 
lines which fits into the writing of the 
date, so that when reading the text it fills 
its place, while on the other hand these 
separated letters when read collectively 
from the top of the column to the bot- 
tom, like the Chinese, spell out the name 
and date of the writer, etc., thus making 
it impossible for the date to have been of 
a later writing than that of the scroll 
itself. 

The Samaritans assert that the scroll 



was written by Abishua, the great-grand- 
son of Aaron, in the early years of the 
entrance into Canaan, but no impartial 
student will allow it this very remote ori- 
gin, although it is believed to be the most 
ancient copy of the Pentateuch in exist- 
ence. 

So jealously guarded is this scroll that 
few non-Samaritans have ever seen it, 
and many of the Samaritans themselves 
have not seen it except as it is exhibited 
on rare occasions at feasts, rolled up and 
covered with a silken cloth and with but 
one column exposed. 

The scroll has recently been photo- 
graphed from end to end, and will soon 
be published for the benefit of Hebrew 
scholars. 

It is, of course, impracticable to display 
this very fragile parchment continually, 
but it is unfortunate that the modern 
Samaritans impose uoon their guests by 
showing them a scroll of much later date 
than the one which all so covet to see. 
The imposition has gone further, for all 
photographs made heretofore supposedly 
of the original Abishua scroll, as it is 
called, have in reality been of the later 
copy. 

While the Jews have scattered all over 
the "world since the captivities and have 
absorbed much that is foreign, in many 
instances adapting their religious prac- 
tices to their new environment, the Sa- 
maritans have during the same lapse of 
time lived in the land of their fore- 
fathers, among Semitic peoples akin to 
the Hebrews, and because of this fact 
have handed down to the twentieth cen- 
tury a glimpse of the old Jewish Church 
almost in its purity. A notable instance 
of the survival of an ancient religious 
ceremony is the celebration of the Pass- 
over Sacrifice. 

One of the distinctive differences be- 
tween the Samaritan and the Jew lies in 
their methods of computing the calendar. 
Instead of adopting the lunar year solely. 
the Samaritans base their calculations on 
the moon but they are at the same time 
also governed by the movement of the 
sun. The system is so complicated as 
to form one of the chief studies of the 
young priests. Basing their authority on 
the first chapter of Genesis for thus dif- 
ferentiating from the Hebrew calendar, 




KILLING THE PASSOVER SACRIFICE 

The caldrons of water are already boiling. "Then shall all the convocation of the as- 
sembly of Israel slay it between the two evenings." As these words are read, with one deft 
stroke downward, each of the three slaughterers cuts the throat of one lamb and jumps to 
the next. 



24 




THE; SPITTED SACRIFICIAL LAMBS 

On oaken spits slightly longer than the depth of the ground oven, the dressed lambs are 
placed lengthwise, the heads hanging down. "Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with water; 
his head with his legs, and with the purtenance thereof." 



they point out that, in the history of crea- 
tion, when the sun and moon are intro- 
duced, it is said of them jointly, "Let 
them be for signs, and for seasons, and 
for days and years" (Gen. I : 14). For 
the above reasons the Samaritans some 
years celebrate their Passover with, or 
nearly with, the Jews, while at other 
times their fourteenth of Abib comes a 
month behind. 

PREPARING FOR THE FEAST OF THE 
PASSOVER 

A few days before the Passover the 
Samaritan ghetlo becomes the scene of 



much activity. Mules and donkeys are 
loaded with tents and other necessities, 
while young and old, sick and well, quit 
their homes to make the pilgrimage to 
Gerizim, in obedience to the command, 
''Thou mayest not sacrifice the Passover 
within any of thine own gates, but in the 
place which Yahweh thy God shall choose 
to make a habitation for His name." 
Often, persons seriously ill are carried in 
their sick beds to the camp, and here not 
infrequently babes are born. 

Prior to the date appointed, much time 
is spent in arranging the camp, rebuild- 
ing the tanoor, or ground oven, used in 



2G 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



roasting the sacrifice, and in procuring 
the necessary wood and brush for fuel. 

The ascent to the camp spot on Geri- 
zim requires usually an hour, whether 
mounted or on foot. Nablus is left be- 
hind by a path leading up from its west- 
ern suburbs, and passing the Samaritan 
cemetery, an open field, its rocky and 
stone-strewn surface overgrown with 
weeds on which donkeys and cattle may 
be seen browsing. The trail leads up in 
short, stiff, winding courses through a 
slight depression where olives and other 
trees grow vigorously. The way soon 
becomes so steep that beasts as well as 
pedestrians are forced to halt at intervals 
for breath. But the time is not wasted, 
for the view of the town in its glaring 
whiteness below, fringed with verdant 
gardens and nestling between the twin 
mountains, is a scene truly beautiful. 

ENCAMPMENT Of THE ISRAELITES 



Once up this steep ascent, the ridge is 
gained. Along it the path, now fairly 
level, leads to a slight depression in the 
saddle, where suddenly the visitor sees 
before him more than forty white Egyp- 
tian and Damascus tents, the only ver- 
itable Israelitish encampment of religious 
significance in the world. 

A pity it is that these more modern 
tents are used instead of the primitive 
goat-hair ones of the Bedouins, which 
would more nearly, if not entirely, re- 
semble those used during the Exodus. 

To the east, towering above the en- 
campment, is the loftiest of Gerizim's 
peaks, crowned with ruins, a spot where 
once temples stood. 

It is Passover eve. Selected sacrificial 
lambs are contentedly wandering about, 
unconscious of their impending fate. 
They have been purchased some days in 
advance of the Passover, in obedience to 
the law, "in the tenth day of this month 
they shall take to them every man a 
lamb. . . . Your lamb shall be with- 
out blemish, a male of the first year. . . . 
And ye shall keep it up until the four- 
teenth day of the same month." 

But the scene is not quiet. Scores of 
people, non-Samaritan, young and old, 
have come up to "smell the air," for to 
the Nablus people, and especially for the 



lads, it is a day of excitement not to be 
missed. 

The camp ground is a small, elongated 
field, the property of the Samaritans. 
No special system is observed in pitching 
the tents, beyond leaving a path between 
the two uneven rows. Each family has 
one tent ; a few have two. 

At the eastern extremity of the camp 
is the kiniseh (synagogue), where the re- 
ligious rites are observed while in camp. 
It is a small, oblong plot surrounded by 
a low rubble wall except to the east, 
where terrace above terrace, now much 
dilapidated, rises in step form to the 
mountain crest beyond. 

THE TRENCH-ALf AR 

At the northern end .of this space, or 
prayer inclosure, a trench has been dug 
and lined with uncut stone. "An altar of 
earth shalt thou make unto me. . 
And if thou wilt make an altar of stone, 
thou shalt not build it of hewn stone ; for 
if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast 
polluted it." 

Across this altar two large copper ket- 
tles, filled with water, are placed. Beyond 
the northeastern end of the inclosure, 
and higher than its level, is the tanoor, 
or ground oven, for the sheep- roasting. 
It is a pit, the depth equal to a man's 
height, from five to six spans in diam- 
eter, and lined in a circular form, like a 
well, with rough stones. Here the rock 
crops out so near the surface that, in 
order to get the tanoor deep enough, it 
has to be built partly above the surface 
and a terrace filled in about it, thus of 
necessity elevating it above the rest of 
the space devoted to the Passover ob- 
servances. 

It is about three hours before dark as 
we arrive, and since the Samaritan time 
starts its count from sunset, let us forget 
our Western watches while we remain on 
Gerizim's heights. 

On approaching the camp, one of the 
first things to attract our attention is the 
cloud of smoke pouring forth from the 
tanoor and curling skyward from beneath 
the kettles, for five hours of steady heat 
produced by burning "saris" brush and 
thorn bushes are required before the 
oven is ready for fleecing the sheep. 




THE; SALT COVENANT 

As the preparation of each lamb is completed much salt is rubbed into the flesh. "And 
every oblation of thy meat offering shalt thou season with salt, neither shalt thou suffer the 
salt of the covenant of thy God to be lacking from thy meat offering." 



27 




"NEITHER SHALL YE BREAK A BONE THEREOF 

No forks, knives, or spoons are used at the feast and great care is observed not to break 
a bone. The fingers are the Samaritan's only eating utensils on this occasion. 



28 




EATING THE PASSOVER 

The members of the six families collect, each around one of the lambs men, women, chil- 
dren, and nursing babies. 



To escape the confusion caused by the 
swarms of sight-seers, boys galloping 
about on their horses or urging on lazy 
donkeys, hawkers calling out in loud 
voices as they peddle small cakes, 
oranges, or sweetmeats, we follow a 
friend, one of the priests, up to the crest 
of Gerizim. This, to the Samaritan, is 
the holiest part of the earth and crowded 
with sacred spots and associations. 

THE SACRED SITES OF GERIZIM 

Here one is shown the place where 
Joshua built the first altar of sacrifice 



with twelve stones taken from the Jor- 
dan. Just above it are the foundations 
of St. Mary's Church, built by the Em- 
peror Zeno and restored by Justinian. 
Adjoining these ruins is a small domed 
mosque, Sheik Ghanim, now in a neg- 
lected condition. A Moslem shrine and a 
Christian church each in succession built 
on the site from materials supplied by 
the remains of a Roman temple ! 

Proceeding southward along the out- 
most ledge of the plateau, the priests 
point to spots where tradition says the 
altars of Adam and of Noah stood. Be- 



29 




YE SHAIJ, LET NOTHING OF IT REMAIN UNTIL THE) MORNING 

The feast itself is of short duration. After the meat has been eaten the high priest, 
leaning picturesquely upon his staff, recites a short prayer. Every bit of bone remaining is 
now collected and taken to the altar. "And that which remaineth until the morning ye shall 
burn with fire." Note the two crouching figures in the foreground busily engaged in col- 
lecting and eating fragments of the roasted meat. 



THE LAST ISRAELITISH BLOOD SACRIFICE 



31 



low is the path by which Adam was ex- 
pelled from Paradise, after having been 
created from the dust of Gerizim. 

Beyond is the altar of Seth, a stone 
circle with a pavement of large uncut 
stones (probably of megalithic origin). 

Just beyond Seth's shrine, farther 
south, is a ditch sunk into a rock protrud- 
ing boldly from the mountain side. It is 
the Samaritan rival to Mount Moriah, in 
Jerusalem. Here the Samaritans believe 
that Abraham prepared to offer up in 
sacrifice his only son, and just behind 
is the place where the ram was found 
caught in the thicket. 

Almost at our feet, far below, in the 
plain of Askar (Sychar), lay Jacob's 
well, concealed beneath an uncompleted 
church erected upon Crusader founda- 
tions. Under the spell of the hour and 
the scene, one could almost picture the 
Samaritan woman pointing to Gerizim 
and saying to Jesus, "Our fathers wor- 
shiped in this mountain, and ye say that 
in Jerusalem is the place where men 
ought to worship" (John 4:20). 

THE SAMARITAN HOLY OF HOLIES 

In the center of the plateau is a large 
flat rock which the Samaritans call 
"Kuds el Akdas" ; for, according to their 
tradition, it formed the Holy of Holies 
of their temple. They approach it only 
on certain festal occasions and with bared 
feet. This rock at once calls to mem- 
ory the rival Rock Moriah lying beneath 
the gorgeous Dome of the Rock in 
Jerusalem. 

Although less extensive than that from 
its taller mate, Mt. Ebal, which cuts off 
the distant Galilee view northward, the 
scene from Gerizim is broad and grand. 
In the spring the Plain of Moreh, or 
Sychar, just at its feet, is a patchwork of 
small fields in different stages of growth. 
Near the village of Askar (Sychar), 
watered from a copious spring, large 
patches of onions and garlic flourish, 
their green varying with that of the wav- 
ing barley and wheat beyond and con- 
trasting with the bare and rocky sur- 
rounding hills. The elevations are dotted 
with villages, and among them, to the 
southward, is Awerta, where, under the 
shade of a great tree, the tombs of 



Aaron's son and grandson, Eleazer and 
Phinehas, lie. 

Directly to the east, separated from the 
foreground by the deep Jordan chasm, rise 
the Mountains of Gilead. Like Moab, of 
which fhey are a continuation northward, 
they ar.e suffused with a mysterious and 
fascinating translucent blue, resembling 
some precious stone, and never cease to 
captivate the vision, especially upon clear 
days. The highest peak, Jebel Osha, 
crowned by the reputed tomb of Hosea, 
stands out conspicuously. Towering at 
the head of the Jordan Valley, Hermon, 
with its perennial snow-cap, closes the 
northern limit of this eastern view. 

At the foot of Mt. Ebal and bordering 
upon the plain directly below us are the 
excavations of ancient Shechem. Near 
them a small white dome marks the tra- 
ditional site of the tomb of Joseph. 
Southward the view stretches over the 
long mountain range which is the back- 
bone of Palestine, rising between the 
Phoenician plain and the deep Jordan 
chasm. When viewed from the Mediter- 
ranean, the only break seen in the range 
is this Valley of Nablus, while its rivals 
in historic importance, Jerusalem and 
Hebron, are hidden from view. Mizpah 
is easily visible, but no glimpse of Jeru- 
salem save a little of its suburbs under 
favorable conditions. 

Turning westward, the mountains and 
hill country, dotted with villages, drop off 
gently into a plain which extends to the 
blue Mediterranean. The ruins of Csesa- 
rea, which under Roman rule became the 
most important city and seaport in Pales- 
tine, and often connected with the history 
of the Apostles and the early Church, are 
visible under favorable conditions; also 
the orange groves of Jaffa. 

Now the sun is soon setting, and we 
shall have to hurry back to camp if we 
are to see all the service which com- 
memorates the Exodus from Egypt. 

PRAYER POSTURE AND ROBES SIMILAR 
TO MOSLEMS 

As we descend, white-robed figures are 
seen collecting about the smoking trench- 
altar. As they slowly gather one by one 
they spread on the ground small prayer 
cloths, upon which they stand with bare 




THE BURNT OFFERING 

All the viscera are emptied of undigested food and then thoroughly salted and with the 
fat from the inwards and kidneys are placed upon cloven pieces of wood laid across one end 
of the trench-altar. The burning goes on slowly till the early morning hours. 



THE LAST ISRAELITISH BLOOD SACRIFICE 



33 



feet, having discarded their prayer slip- 
pers. 

While witnessing this ceremony we 
were impressed by the striking resem- 
blance to the Moslem garb and posture 
during prayer. The clothing of the Sa- 
maritan on this occasion is, in the main,, 
white, the outside garment being a jubbie 
made of muslin, identical in cut with that 
worn by Mohammedan religious sheiks 
and by the old-style city Moslems, who 
happily are not adopting western ideas 
and modes of clothing. Around a dome- 
shaped fez the priest winds a white tur- 
ban, sometimes embroidered in amber 
silk. 

The older men of the laity use the same 
turban, with the customary flat-topped 
fez, while the young men and boys, 
like the Mohammedan youths, wear no 
turbans and are usually clad in white 
shirts and drawers. The Samaritans, ex- 
cept when in prayer, wear deep wine- 
colored turbans, as the result of an edict 
of one of the caliphs, to distinguish them 
'from their Mohammedan neighbors, for 
originally they wore white and were often 
mistaken for Moslem sheiks learned in 
the Koran. Similarly, the Jews formerly 
used black as a distinguishing hue. 

Before all prayers, the Samaritan goes 
through prescribed ablutions, washing 
with water three times each the hands, 
mouth, nose, face, ears, and feet, in this 
order, and, like the Moslem, he spreads 
the prayer cloth, which in some instances 
has the mihrab design. 

FACING THE HOLY OF HOLIES 

Now all have congregated. The vener- 
able high priest, Yakoub (Jacob), feeble 
and infirm, clad in a pale-green jubbie, 
takes his place in front of the congrega- 
tion. The two second priests, Ishak 
(Isaac) and Tewfik, stand slightly behind 
the high priest. Then come in rows the 
elders according to rank. Now all the 
males of the community are present, the 
smallest boys lining up at right angles to 
the foremost ranks. 

On every hand the walls and terraces 
are jammed with onlookers, mostly boys 
and youths of Nablus. 

Facing the holy rock on the crest east- 
ward, the worshipers now bow to the 
earth in prayer, for the Samaritans al- 



ways face their Holy of Holies wherever 
they are. 

The service begins with a prayer writ- 
ten some seven centuries ago by the priest 
Hassan el Suri. As it is repeated in con- 
cert, the rows of the older men and the 
priests kneel, or rather sit upon their 
heels, with hands on the knees or out- 
stretched to heaven whenever any peti- 
tion is asked. They bow their heads in 
unison, touching their foreheads to the 
ground. Some of the younger men stand- 
ing behind, also with outstretched hands, 
join in the prayer. Throughout the serv- 
ice it is most interesting to watch the tiny 
little fellows,, each beside his parent, while 
all follow in the repetition with as much 
earnestness as the grown-ups and entirely 
unconscious of their surroundings. 

Simultaneously with the beginning of 
the service the sacrificial lambs have been 
driven into the inclosure and wander 
about at will, grazing upon the few tufts 
of green or treading upon the high priest's 
prayer rug till driven orT. 

The prayer is ended with a loud Amen ! 
Whereupon all rise and remain perfectly 
erect, while in silence they repeat another 
prayer, called "Akid el Niyeh," a medi- 
tation which denotes the consecration of 
their souls to prayer. It consists of re- 
peating the five articles of their creed 
belief in God, in Moses, the Pentateuch, 
Mount Gerizim, and the Day of Judg- 
ment. 

This and the story of creation precede 
all prayers. When ended a hymn is sung 
in praise of Yahweh, the little fellows 
stretching their mouths to their utmost 
capacity, while the older leaders, turning 
about from time to time, prompt and en- 
courage the others to more fervent utter- 
ances. All these prayers, readings, and 
hymns are, of course, in the Samaritan 
Hebrew, the oldest form of that language 
in use. 

Next, from the hand-written Penta- 
teuch which each carries, they read in 
unison 21 selections, in which Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob are mentioned ("in mem- 
ory of the fathers"). During the read- 
ing each time God's name is mentioned 
the men stroke their beards downward 
thrice. Likewise whenever passages are 
recounted enjoining them to remember 
their God, they bow, swinging the body 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




BETROTHED 

Among the Samaritans, as with most Ori- 
entals, the parents of the children arrange the 
matches. The betrothal often takes place when 
the bride and bridegroom are mere infants, 
while early marriages are the rule. 

forward from the hips, in token of rever- 
ence and submission. 

The high priest, who has been facing 
the crest of Gerizim with the congrega- 
tion, now turns about and repeats an anti- 
phon, to which the leading men reply, and 
in conclusion a psalm is sung. 

The aged high priest now mounts the 
fragment of an ancient column and in a 
low, quavering voice sings a short hymn. 



With his eyes upon the setting sun, he 
reads the first twelve verses of the twelfth 
chapter of Exodus, wherein are given the 
first commands regarding the observance 
of the Passover. 

KILLING THE SACRIFICE 

In the meantime the youths and boys 
have carried out the lambs and are hold- 
ing them in a circle about the trench- 
altar, where the caldrons of water are al- 
ready boiling. 

Over the lambs stand three slaughterers 
with glistening knives of razor sharpness, 
for, like the Jews, only those recognized 
as knowing the laws regarding kosher and 
taraf (ritually clean and unclean meat) 
are allowed to do the killing. As the 
reading proceeds, it is so arranged that, 
as the passage "then shall all the convo- 
cation of the assembly of Israel slay it be- 
tween the two evenings" is spoken, at 
the word "slay," with one deft stroke 
downward, each of the three slaughterers 
cuts one throat and jumps to the next. 

In a few seconds all have been sacri- 
ficed, the white clothing of the boys hold- 
ing the struggling lambs being much be- 
spattered with blood. Thus the passage 
"between the evenings" the Samaritans 
translate to mean between sunset and 
dark, the twilight hour in these lands be- 
ing very short. "Thou shalt sacrifice the 
Passover in the evening, at the going in 
of the sun, at the very time thou earnest 
forth out of Egypt." 

As the slaying commences the great 
throngs of Samaritans and Gentiles cease 
to crowd about the priest who is reciting 
and press around the altar. All is a 
veritable Babel, with prayers repeated, 
shouting, singing, and clapping of hands. 

The joy exhibited is akin to that of 
our children on Christmas morning or 
when around the blazing tree, and re- 
minds one of the light-heartedness of the 
Jews when celebrating the feast of Purim, 
commemorating as it does the destruction 
of their enemy, Haman. During all this 
excitement some of the little Samaritan 
girls and boys make their way amonjf the 
sacrifices, and the latter with their finger 
ends dot their faces with daubs of the 
paschal blood. 

One of the young priests collects a 
quantity of the fresh blood in a basin and 



THE LAST ISRAELITISH BLOOD SACRIFICE 



35 



with a bunch cf wild thyme vigorously 
stirs it ; then rushes away to put a dab of 
it above each tent door. Upon returning 
he empties the remainder into the fiery 
ditch. "And ye shall take a bunch of hys- 
sop, and dip it in the blood that is in the 
basin and strike the lintel, . . . for 
the Lord will pass through to smite the 
Egyptians ; and when he seeth the blood 
upon the lintel the Lord will pass over 
(Passover) the door, and will not suffer 
the destroyer to come unto your houses to 
smite you" (Ex. 12:22, 23). 

Incidentally it is of great interest that 
the thyme is used. Botanists have differed 
as to what herb the hyssop might be. 
Here we learn that this wild thyme has 
properties which keep the blood from 
coagulating. Besides, this custom having 
been handed down in unbroken succes- 
sion, little if any room is left for doubt 
as to its identity with hyssop. 

UNLEAVENED BREAD AND BITTER HERBS 

While the lambs are giving their last 
life struggle, youths pass among the peo- 
ple bearing large trays piled high with 
bitter herbs, a sort of wild Isttuce that 
grows on Gerizim, rolled in thin sheets of 
unleavened bread. Rolls are distributed 
among non-Samaritans as a token of 
friendship. 

As the killing of the lambs commemo- 
rates the sacrifice that saved the first-born 
of the Hebrews from the fate of their 
Egyptian neighbors, so here also the eat- 
ing of the bitter herbs and unleavened 
bread is, a reminder of the bitterness of 
the Egyptian tyranny and the haste with 
which Israel left the land of the Pha- 
raohs. "And they baked unleavened bread 
of the dough they brought forth out of 
Egypt, for it was not leavened ; because 
they were thrust out of Egypt and could 
not tarry, neither had they prepared for 
themselves any victuals" (Ex. 12 :39). 

The bread is identical with that used 
by the Bedouin and journeying peasants, 
since the baking apparatus is simple and 
portable, and quite likely is akin to that 
used during the Exodus. The loaf re- 
sembles a gigantic but very thin pancake, 
being pliable and not crisp like the "mot- 
sis," or unleavened bread used by the 
Jews at Passover. 

At the sacrificial altar the older men 




A SAMARITAN BABY 

When photographed, this child was the pic- 
ture of health. Shortly after, he became ill and 
the mother always attributed the misfortune 
to the "evil eye" of the camera or of the 
photographer. 

and some of the priests, who now stand 
about those to whom is delegated the 
task of dressing the lambs, have kept up 
the reading of the story of the Exodus 
as far as to Miriam's song of triumph. 
Meanwhile, as soon as the lambs have 
become lifeless, boiling water from the 
caldrons is poured over them, while sev- 
eral boys and men crowd about in the 
semi-darkness and pluck off the wool in- 
stead of skinning the victims, the object 
being to protect the flesh while roasting 
in the ground oven. 

THE RITUAL INSPECTION 

Next the ritual inspection takes place, 
for as each lamb is fleeced it is suspended 










SAMARITANS AT PRAYER ON THE EVE OF THE PILGRIMAGE 

During the entire week following the Feast of the Passover, the Samaritans remain en- 
camped upon Mount Gerizim. On the last day of the encampment they begin at dawn a 
pilgrimage to the crest of the sacred mount. Before setting forth on this pilgrimage, how- 
ever, the men spread their prayer cloths and repeat the creed and the story of the creation 
in silence, after which, in a loud voice, they read in unison the Book of Genesis and the 
first quarter of the Book of Exodus, ending with the story of the Passover and the flight 
from Egypt. 




COLLECTING FOR EVENING PRAYERS ON GERIZIM 

Before all prayers the Samaritan observes prescribed ablutions, almost identical with the 
present customs of the Moslems, and like them he now spreads his prayer cloth. 



by its hind legs on a long pole resting on 
the shoulders of two of the men. The 
work of removing the offal, the heart, 
liver, and lungs is done by lantern light. 
Great care is taken throughout this in- 
spection not to mutilate a bone, for the 
command "neither shall ye break a bone 
thereof" is strictly observed. Any car- 
cass found ritually unfit is put on the 
burning altar and consumed with the 
offal. This, however, is a rare exception. 
The last time it happened was some five 
years ago, when a lamb was found minus 
a kidney. 



Unlike the Jews, who will not eat of 
the hind quarters of any animal until all 
the sinews have been entirely removed, 
the Samaritans claim to know exactly the 
cord the angel touched while wrestling 
with Jacob at the ford of the Jabbok, and 
now a deep incision is made in the flank 
and it is taken out. "And Jacob was left 
alone; and there wrestled a man with 
him. And when he saw that he prevailed 
not against him, he touched the hollow 
of his thigh ; and the hollow of Jacob's 
thigh was out of joint. . . . There- 
fore the children of Israel eat not of the 



38 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




TII1C SACRED ROCK 



A few of the devout members of the congregation do not dare advance to the rock itself 
because of certain scruples regarding their ablutions. These individuals may be descried 
in the background kneeling like their brothers on the rock, their faces turned toward the 
holy spot. 



sinew which shrank, which is upon the 
hollow of the thigh, unto this day" (Gen. 
32:24-32). 

Deep gashes are made in the fleshy parts 
in order that the salt may penetrate, 
while the right shoulder is cut off to be 
roasted on a separate spit, being a priestly 
portion. Pieces of the head are also re- 
served for the priests. Only the males 
of the priestly family and women of the 
same blood, if unmarried into other fam- 
ilies, may partake of them. "And this 
shall be the priest's due from the people, 
from them that offer a sacrifice, whether 
it be ox or sheep ; and they shall give 
unto the priests the shoulder and the two 
cheeks." 

Now an oaken spit, the length being 
slightly greater than the depth of the 
ground oven, is thrust through each 
dressed lamb lengthwise, the head hang- 
ing downward. To prevent the meat slip- 
ping off, a wooden pin is driven through 
the spit three or four spans above the 
lower end, and on it rests a cross-board. 



As the preparation of each lamb is 
completed, much salt is rubbed into the 
flesh. "And every oblation of thy meat 
offering shalt thou season with salt, nei- 
ther shalt thou suffer the salt of the cove- 
nant of thy God to be lacking from thy 
meat offering: and with all thy offerings 
thou shalt offer salt" (Lev. 2: 13). 

THE BURNT OFFERING 

This mandate is also closely observed 
in the matter of the burnt offering, for 
the viscera as collected are emptied of 
undigested food and then thoroughly 
salted, and, with the fat from the inwards 
and the kidneys are placed upon cloven 
pieces of wood laid across one end of the 
ditch-altar, and the fuel under it now is 
ignited from the fire beneath the cal- 
drons. The burning goes on slowly till 
the early morning hours. 

But long before these preparations have 
been completed the readings have come 
to an end, while all those at work and the 
onlookers shout incessantly, "We call and 



THE LAST ISRAELITISH BLOOD SACRIFICE 




HANDS OUTSPREAD TO HEAVEN 

"And it was so, that when Solomon had made an end of praying r.ll this prayer and sup- 
plication unto the Lord, he rose from kneeling on his knees with his hands spread up to 
heaven." It was then the custom with the Hebrew nation, as still with the small remnant 
of the Samaritans, to spread forth the hands toward heaven. One object entirely out of 
harmony with the picturesqueness of this scene is the 20th century steamer chair in the 
center of the group of worshipers. It appealed to the Samaritans, however, as a convenient 
resting place for the sacred scroll in preference to the quaint but clumsy wooden stands of 
the synagogue. 



we affirm, there is no God but God." In 
fact, they aim to keep this up all night, 
but there are numerous interruptions. 

Once the service has come to an end, 
all those not engaged bow forward and 
kiss the hand of the high priest, saying 
in Hebrew, "Every year may you have 
peace." He in turn gives each his bene- 
diction and retires to his tent. 

HOW THE MEAT IS COOKED 

It is now only about four hours before 
midnight and the sides of the ground 
oven are glowing with heat. The white- 
robed figures, with much shouting and 
commotion, bring the spits forward, 
holding them in a circle about the fiery 
pit. With loud voices they repeat, "Hear 
O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord," 
and passages of Scripture in which they 
are admonished to observe diligently the 
law. 



Suddenly the spits are simultaneously 
lowered into the oven and a wickerwork 
lid made of sticks placed over the top, 
the spits protruding slightly and so held 
in place. Grass, sod, and mud, previ- 
ously collected for the purpose, are placed 
over this, closely sealing the lid, so that 
no smoke or steam can escape, and thus 
extinguishing the fire ; but the heat of the 
stones is sufficient to roast the tender 
mutton. "Eat not of it raw, nor sodden 
at all with water, but roast with fire ; his 
head with his legs, and with the purte- 
nance thereof" (Ex. 12:9). 

THE EVENING PRAYER 

Once these duties are over the men 
again collect for prayer. It is now well 
into the night. Beginning, as usual, in 
silence, with their creed and the repeti- 
tion of the story of creation, Pentateuch 
selections pertaining to the Passover and 



40 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




SAMARITANS BAKING UNI&WND BREAD 

The bread is made with flour quickly kneaded with water only and baked on a convex 
disk of sheet-iron. It is identical with that used by the Bedouin and journeying peasants. 
Since the baking apparatus is so simple and portable, the bread probably is much the same as 
that used during the Exodus. The loaf resembles a gigantic but very thin pancake. 



the patriarchs are read. Between the 
first selections hymns are sung. 

A lengthy rotation now takes place : 
Joshua's prayer, one that Samaritan tra- 
dition asserts he was in the habit of 
using ; singing the song of Moses at the 
Red Sea, and the "Angel's Song." The 
main feature, however, is the clothing of 
the high priest or his representative with 
a silken cloth. The priest now presents 



to view one of the ancient Pentateuchs, 
one in book form, written on parchment. 
It is an impressive sight when these 
white figures in the bright moonlight, 
kneeling thrice and prostrating them- 
selves to the ground, always toward their 
Holy of Holies, repeat in unison, "It is a 
night to be much observed unto the Lord 
for bringing them out of the land of 
Egypt; this is that night of the Lord to 



THE LAST ISRAELITISH BLOOD SACRIFICE 



41 



be observed of all the children of Israel 
in their generations." 

Thus the three Passover services are 
ended. The first, before the lambs are 
slaughtered, is called "Salat el Dabih" 
(Sacrificial prayers) ; the next, while the 
fleecing is taking place, "Salat el Jismeet" 
(Scalding prayers), and "Salat el Garub" 
(Sunset prayers). Under ordinary cir- 
cumstances prayers are always said at 
even, but since the Passover service is 
the more important, the evening prayer 
is unavoidably delayed. 

ARE THE WOMEN? 



During the afternoon and the early 
evening the women have played no role 
in the scene. They have kept to their 
tents, while those unable to make their 
ablutions, and therefore prohibited from 
eating the Passover, are confined in one 
tent. 

Like the older but now passing Jewish 
and native Christian custom, the Samari- 
tan women do not strictly hide from men, 
but only veil when on the street and 
keep out of the way when strangers are 
present. 

The present paper is written after hav- 
ing witnessed the Passover ceremony 
four times twice before the great world 
conflict and twice during it. The first 
occasion was when the author was a 
youth, the second in 1914. 

On both of those occasions the women 
were hardly seen, eating their portion of 
the sacrifice in the tents, some of the little 
girls alone showing themselves. During 
the years of the war this phase of the 
scene materially changed. There were no 
tourists or professors, with large cork 
hats and western clothing; no note books 
and pencils ; no inquisitive questions to 
embarrass the women or to mar the an- 
cient atmosphere of the spectacle. 

Once the sacrifice had been slain, the 
crowds from Nablus, smaller these years 
than usual, descended and the Samaritans 
were left alone. In the moonlight there 
was no sight nor sound foreign to the 
surroundings to distract one's attention, 
and the imagination was given rein. The 
conception wandered back thousands of 
years, and one only awoke with a start to 
the reality of living in the twentieth cen- 
tury when a sudden flash of magnesium 



powder lit up the sky and then left all in 
deep darkness. 

The evening prayers over, some retire 
to rest in their tents, some pray or read 
to keep awake, while not a few sit around 
the smouldering altar watching that every 
scrap is burned. 

No sooner are we left alone with the 
Samaritans than the women begin to ap- 
pear. They whose lives are so immersed 
in small things that they seldom leave 
their homes, the older women having no 
education at all, find great pleasure in the 
freedom of sitting around the sacrificial 
altar, conversing in their native tongue 
with Mrs. Whiting, and enthusiastically 
displaying their babies, awake or asleep, 
at this late hour. 

OPENING THE ROASTING PIT 

Thus the three to four hours between 
putting the lambs to roast and the time 
of the feast roll quickly by. Incidentally 
we retire to our tent and dine on roast 
lamb, killed and prepared by peasants of 
the neighboring villages in identically the 
same style as the paschal lambs, except 
that the skin is removed, for no non- 
Samarit'an is ever allowed to partake of 
the sacrifice. "And the Lord said to 
Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance 
of the Passover : There shall no stranger 
eat thereof." 

It is because of this injunction that the 
Samaritans so scrupulously collect and 
burn any scraps cut away during the in- 
spection, and that the burning altar is so 
rigorously guarded. 

Even after the ceremony is at an end, 
the ditch and oven are filled with stones 
lest any remaining charred bone or frag- 
ment fall into the possession of a Gentile. 

As the midnight hour approaches, the 
sleepers are awakened by callers and sud- 
denly the camp is again astir. The youths 
with hands and hoe remove the seal from 
the oven, and clouds of steam pour out; 
so that, even with the aid of a lantern, 
little can be seen. It is interesting to no- 
tice the air of hurry, although time is of 
no consequence. The cover is now lifted 
with much shouting and screaming, and 
the same prayer said as when the lambs 
were placed in the oven. At once the 
spits are withdrawn and closely guarded 
while the meat is slipped off, each lamb 






WAVING THE SACRED SCROLL, ONE OF THE CEREMONIES DURING THE SAMARITAN 

PILGRIMAGE TO THE HOLY ROCK, WHICH FOLLOWS THE 

CELEBRATION OE THE PASSOVER 

The high priest, taking the sacred scroll from its resting place, holds it in his arms. 
Then he raises it over his head and the copper case is unfolded, so that the parchment is 
exposed toward the devotees, who stroke their faces and beards in reverence. 




SAMARITAN PILGRIMS AT PRAYER IN FRONT OF THE HOLY ROCK 

During the greater part of the service the high priest with staff in hand stands facing 
the sacred scroll, which has been placed before the Rock. He leads the congregation in 
reading. 



43 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




THE BIBLICAL SALUTATION : PALESTINE 

Embracing one another, the head is put on the other's shoulder or neck, the latter being 
bent forward, and in doing so the cheek or neck is kissed, alternating from one shoulder to 
the other. "And Esau ran to meet him (Jacob) and embraced him, and fell upon his neck, 
and kissed him." The Samaritans are the tallest people in Palestine. 



into one of the great copper pans, the 
shoulders being put with the portion for 
the priestly family and taken to the 
prayer inclosure, just beyond the still 
burning altar. 

EATING THE MEATS OF THE PASSOVER 

Some of the flesh, being overdone, falls 
from the spits, and one of the men volun- 
teers to rescue it. Winding bits of sack- 
ing about his hands to prevent blister- 
ing them, he is lowered into the oven. 
Quickly the meat is collected in a basket. 



Only two men have remained near the 
pit, and they become so engrossed with 
the meat basket that the man in the pit is 
temporarily forgotten. The heat is more 
than anyone can endure longer than a 
few seconds, but the shouts of the unfor- 
tunate go unheeded until a Gentile sends 
his fellows to the rescue. 

The members of the six Samaritan 
families have now collected each around 
one of the lambs men, women, children, 
and nursing babies. The elders and the 
priests arrive, each girded about his 



THE LAST 1SRAELIT1SH BLOOD SACRIFICE 



45 



Outer clothing, shod 
and bearing a staff 
or cane in imitation 
of the equipment on 
the flight from Egypt. 
Now the meat is 
sprinkled with minced 
bitter herbs, and straw 
trays of unleavened 
bread are placed at 
hand. The high priest, 
in the midst, in qua- 
vering tones, says : 
"In the name of God 
I call, 'Hear O Israel, 
our God is one God,' " 
etc., while all voices 
join in singing an an- 
cient Exodus hymn in 
which mention is made 
of the multitudes of 
Israel that left Egypt 
as the issue of only 
seventy souls who 
went down into that 
land in the days of 
Joseph. 

Every one now be- 
gins to eat ravenously, 
pulling the meat from 
the bones with the 
fingers. No forks or 
knives are used, and 
great care is observed 
not to break a bone. 
The flesh is consumed 
quickly, for the de- 
vout are truly hungry, 
having eaten little sub- 
stantial food during 
the previous day. 
"And they shall eat 
the flesh in that night, 
roast with fire, and unleavened bread ; 
and with bitter herbs they shall eat it. 
And thus shall ye eat it : with your loins 
girdled, your shoes on your feet, and 
your staff in your hand : and ye shall eat 
it in haste : it is the Lord's Passover" 
(Ex. 12 : 8 and n). 

Those who are unable to leave their 
tents because of sickness have a portion 
sent to them, and, no matter how ill, 
they always partake of a little. Even the 
nursing babies have their lips touched with 
a morsel, all in literal compliance with 




THE SACRED SCROLL OF THE SAMARITANS USED ON GERIZIM 
(REAR VIEW) 

The scroll is contained in a copper case inlaid with silver and 
gold, with designs representing the temple sacrificial altar, table of 
shewbread, the golden censer, cup of manna, and other temple 
furnishings. 



the command that any one refraining 
from eating it shall be cut off from Israel. 
Within a few minutes the meal is over 
and the high priest, leaning picturesquely 
upon his staff, recites a short prayer. 
Every bit and bone remaining is now col- 
lected and taken to the altar. Across the 
end where the offal has been burned the 
wickerwork oven cover is now thrown, 
and upon it all the spits are piled, to- 
gether with the bones and leavings. A 
fire is lighted under them. Every person 
now washes with hot water from the ket- 




Drawn by A. H. Bumstead 
A MAP OF ASIA MINOR AND THE HOLY LAND 

Showing the home cities of the Seven Wise Men of ancient Greece (see the succeeding 
article) and the land of the Samaritans. (Note, in the small inset map, the relative location 
of Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal and the historic cities, ancient and modern, which 
have clung to their slopes see text, pages 1-21}. 



lies, pouring it over his hands from 
ewers, so that it also flows into the ditch- 
altar, lest even this infinitesimal quan- 
tity of the sacrifice should fail to be 
destroyed by fire. . "And ye shall let 
nothing of it remain until the morning; 
and that which remaineth until the morn- 
ing, ye shall burn with fire" (Ex. 12 : 10). 

Thus the sacrifice and ceremony com- 
memorating the Exodus are ended. 

Each celebrant now goes to his tent 
for a few hours' sleep. Early the next 
morning the congregation again gathers 
for prayers, the day being observed as a 
Sabbath ; the first day of the feast of un- 
leavened bread. 

As the onlooker retires to his tent or 
descends the path to Nablus in the hush 
of early morning, the scene, brightly lit 
by the moon, is one not to bs forgotten. 



From beyond the camp a great white 
cloud of smoke curls skyward. Now 
and then a red flame licks the sky or a 
white, ghost-like figure adds some fuel. 
It is a picture which cannot bs repro- 
duced with the camera ; only to the mind's 
eye can it be painted. The wood-cuts 
and steel-engravings found in our old 
family Bibles, where the Israelitish camps 
are shown with the pillar of cloud and 
fire, come nearest the present reality, but 
are lacking in color and atmosphere. 

As we turn for one last glance at the 
moon-lit camp and the redder glow of 
the flame with the pillar of smoke, we 
cannot but realize that here we have seen 
the eating and burning of the last Hebrew 
blood sacrifice, and there comes the 
thought that it may never be seen again, 
for the Samaritans are a dying people. 



46 



ASIA MINOR IN THE TIME OF THE SEVEN 

WISE MEN 



BY MARY MILLS PATRICK 

PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE FOR GIRLS, CONSTANTINOPLE 



A~IA MINOR was the home of the 
Seven Wise Men, with some ex- 
ceptions. There is great disagree- 
ment among ancient authorities as to who 
all of the Seven Wise Men really were, 
and only four of them are the same in 
all the lists given. 

The four about whom we,, are sure are 
Bias of Priene, Pittakos of Mitylene, 
Thales of Miletus, and Solon of Athens, 
and three of these four were from places 
on the eastern Mediterranean. (See map 
of Asia Minor on opposite page.) ' 

Even if we take the whole list of the 
seven as they are sometimes given, four 
of them were. .from Asia Minor or the 
JEgean Islands, and only three from 
Greece proper. Furthermore, Solon of 
Athens, the most important of those 
from Greece, appears to have greatly en- 
joyed traveling in the provinces of Asia 
Minor, for in regard to his journeys in 
the East we have many stories, both true 
and false. 

One familiar story concerns his visit 
to Croesus, the richest of the kings of 
Sardis. After his royal host had shown 
him all the glory of the court and the 
treasures of silver and gold, Solon was 
asked whom he considered the most for- 
tunate man in the world, the expectation, 
of course, being that the Wise Man 
would name the great and powerful 
Croesus as the most fortunate individual 
who had ever existed. 

Solon, to the king's surprise, however, 
named certain obscure people who had 
done their duty and were loved by their 
neighbors and afterward died the death 
of simple but honored citizens. 

A TAI.E DESTROYED BY HISTORICAL 
CRITICISM 

The noble words of Solon had a great 
effect on Croesus, and were remembered 



at the tragic moment when Cyrus was 
just about to burn him to death, and 
were the means of saving his life. 

We all know this story, but,: unfortu- 
nately, it can not be true, for Solon would 
have been too old and Croesus too young 
for any time of meeting to have been 
possible; and so we must yield this de- 
lightful tale, with many others, to the 
destruction of historical criticism. 

Another story which connects Solon 
with the East may be genuine, as far as 
its chronology is concerned. It is said 
that the great law giver, hearing his 
nephew singing one day, asked him who 
was the author of the song. The youth 
replied that it was one of Sappho's 
poems ; and Solon was so much impressed 
with its beauty that he exclaimed, with 
admiration, "Let me not die before I 
have learned it." 

PICTURING THE HOME LIFE OF ASIA 
MINOR 2,5OO YEARS AGO 

The centers of interest and activity 
among the Greeks at the time of the 
Seven Wise Men were in 'Asia Minor, 
and such familiar names as Samos, Chios, 
Miletus, Mitylene, Smyrna, and many 
others were connected with the great 
events that occupied the minds of the 
people in that era. 

All who are familiar with the scenes 
of the eastern Mediterranean love them 
and enjoy reproducing the history of 
their past, reviving the descriptions of 
the busy life that came and went from 
one generation to another in those sur- 
roundings. 

We may study with interes^. Asia 
Minor under the Roman occupation, at 
the time of St. Paul ; or we may go far- 
ther back, to the period of the Kings of 
Pergamus ; or we may try to picture the 
life of the eastern Mediterranean in the 



47 




ARRIVING AT AN ASIA MINOR MARKET-PLACE 

Why it should be considered an insult to call a man a donkey cannot be understood by 
those who know life in the Near East, for the patient, sure-footed, dependable little beast 
of burden has as many virtues as he has duties. Though the ways in which they are em- 
ployed differ greatly, the caravan master would feel as much at a loss without his donkey as 
would the Scotch shepherd without his collie. 



I 




Photographs from Mary Mills Patrick 

THE CITY OF MITYLENE HAS GIVEN ITS NAME TO THE ISLAND WHICH WAS THE 

HOME OF SAPPHO 

Lesbos, as the little island of Mitylene was called until the Middle Ages, was the home 
of the JEolian school of lyric poetry. Beauty and profligacy were the main attributes of the 
Lesbian women, but neither characterizes the present inhabitants. 




GREEK PEASANTS DANCING ON THE HILLS NEAR EPHESUS 

These lineal descendants of the Greeks of ancient days have retained much of the grace 
and appreciation of rhythm which distinguished the race in the time of the Seven Wise Men, 
when a knowledge of music and poetry was universal in Greece, the islands of the yEgean, 
and the Ionian colonies of Asia Minor. 




Photographs by Cass Arthur Reed 
DONKEY AND CAMEL BOY ARE THE PACE-SETTERS FOR THE NEAR EASTERN CARAVAN 

The camel is too dull a creature to be without a leader, so the donkey leads the long 
line of patient beasts of burden. The paving here seen is exceptionally fine for Asia Minor, 
but when wet and slippery it offers an insecure footing. 




RUINS AT LAODICEA, CITY OF ONE OF THE SEVEN CHURCHES OF THE APOCALYPSE 

Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea are well 
known to students of Revelation. The Laodiceans were lukewarm in their belief and were 
so self-satisfied in their material wealth that Paul censured them severely. This fine city, 
named for the wife of Antiochus II, suffered at the hands of Timur the Lame and was re- 
peatedly damaged by earthquakes. 




Photographs from Mary Mills Patrick 

GUZELHISSAR, MEANING BEAUTIFUL TOWERS, IS THE TURKISH NAME FOR ANCIENT 

TRALLES, WHOSE RUINS ARE TO BE FOUND EIGHT MILES FROM 

THE BANKS OF THE M/EANDER RIVER 

The town, which is found on English maps as Aidin, sits astride the Eudon, an affluent 
of the historic Mscander. The tanning of morocco leather and the export of cotton and figs 
are the chief industries, but to the epicure of Turkey the city is famous for its sweetmeats. 
Tralles was once the strongest fortress in the broad valley of the winding river from which 
we derive the word "meander." 



ASIA MINOR IN THE TIME OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN 



51 



even earlier period of the Seven Wise 
Men, which was from 650-550 B. C. It 
was a time of unique interest in history, 
for much of our present thought-life 
owes its origin to movements which be- 
gan in the days of the Wise Men. 

Can we put ourselves back in that far- 
away time and picture something of the 
homely, every-day life of the people? 
Can we find out how they thought and 
felt? 

What we wish is not the historical facts 
about that age, nor the translation of the 
writings that have come down to us from 
it, but the human living, which was the 
cause of the history and of the litera- 
ture, something which books cannot give 
us a comprehension of the throbbing, 
pulsing life that was strong and vivid 
enough to make itself felt, even to the 
present time. 

THE CHARM OF ISLAND LIFE IN THE 



The outward surroundings we can re- 
produce, for they are still practically the 
same. The eastern Mediterranean is one 
of the gardens of the world. The sea is 
bluer than other seas; the tints of the 
skies are softer, the violet and rose blend 
more marvelously in the sunsets, the 
mountains have a sensuous attraction, 
and the sails on the horizon allure. 

There is a wonderful charm also in 
the island life of the yEgean, and that 
charm must be in many ways the same 
at the present time as it was in the dis- 
tant age of which we are speaking. 

Other parts of the world have changed 
under the transforming power of modern 
enterprise, but the shores and islands of 
of the vEgean have thus far largely es- 
caped the influence of modern business 
life. As yet, no sky-scrapers nor com- 
mercial storehouses, few railroads, auto- 
mobiles. and electric trolleys mar the ef- 
fect with their harsh lines and shrill 
sounds. 

The calm and peace of country scenes 
have remained, and in their natural fea- 
tures we may still find the surroundings 
of the old life, for the environment of 
the new scenes gives us the probable set- 
ting of the old. 

The shipping also has not wholly lost 
its ancient form. It is true that the pic- 



turesque warships, with their banks of 
oars each side, have disappeared; but 
the craft which lazily sail from one port 
to another today may well remind us 
of the descriptions of the old merchant 
vessels. 

ALWAYS THE SEA FOR REFUGE 

A great wave of colonization had 
passed over that part of the world just 
before the time of the Wise Men, and 
the colonies, after the struggle for ex- 
istence of the eirly years in new sur- 
roundings, had emerged into a larger life. 
In finding larger life the sea always 
helped them ; for, in political strife within 
and the need of protection from without, 
there was always the sea for refuge. 
People who can sail away from trouble 
at home always find resources, and the 
sea was the source of many treasures. 

The growth of the colonies was rapid, 
for other reasons. How could it be 
otherwise in such beautiful and fruitful 
surroundings ! As Herodotus says, "The 
lonians built their cities under the finest 
sky and in the finest climate in the world, 
for neither the regions above nor below 
nor the parts to the East or West are at 
all equal to Ionia." 

IONIA THE CENTER OF THE WORLD'S 
COMMERCIAL LIFE 

People of the twentieth century look to 
England and the United States as among 
the countries where the comforts of liv- 
ing and opportunities of learning how to 
do things are very great, but men went 
to Ionia, in Asia Minor, for these ad- 
vantages in the age of the Wise Men. 

To be up to date at that time one had 
to live in Ionia, where life was luxurious. 
There, things were produced richly with 
little effort ; grapes were abundant and 
the wine the best in the world, and ships 
laden with olives and wine and oil sailed 
to all ports of the Mediterranean Egypt 
and Phoenicia, Italy and Northern Africa, 
and even as far west as Spain bringing 
back the luxuries of other lands. 

Long before Athens joined the circle 
of commercial cities, the riches of the 
entire eastern world were represented in 
Ionia. The market-place in both large 
and small towns was the central point 
and constituted a kind of bourse in fact, 




MOSLEM LOUNGERS IN FRONT OF A COFFEE-HOUSE IN AN ASIA MINOR TOWN 

Since the Turks took possession of Asia Minor, in the fifteenth century, it has been 
known as Anatolia, a word derived from the Greek meaning "rising" or "East." It com- 
prises the entire peninsula which forms the western extremity of Asia lying between the 
Black Sea on the north and the Mediterranean on the south. Its total area is about twice 
that of the State of Colorado. 




Photographs by Cass Arthur Reed 

BESDEGUMA, A VILLAGE IN THE AIDIN VILAYET OF ASIA MINOR, WHICH is SELDOM 

VISITED BY STRANGERS 

Even in remote districts the camera is recognized and the ordinary business of the town 
is suspended while the strutting braves "have their picture took." The coffee-house is the 
Turk's cafe and club, and even in the busy season muleteers and laborers take time to gossip 
and drink the thick black coffee which takes the place of alcoholic beverages. 




Photograph from Mary Mills Patrick 
MILKING A GOAT OUTSIDE A CUSTOMER'S HOUSE 

A goat can thrive where cattle would starve and sheep would hunger. Europeans be- 
lieve that goat milk, if used unboiled, will cause Malta fever, but the Asia Minor natives 
drink it fresh and warm. 



was the Wall Street of the town where 
the excitement of trade ran so high that 
a market-master was necessary to con- 
trol it. 

THE FIRST COINS 

The question naturally arises: "How 
was business carried on, by barter or by 
some primitive kind of banking system?'' 

Our chief testimony on this point is 
furnished by the coins of the period, for 
coinage originated in Asia Minor, and as 
early as the time of the Wise Men coins 
were in common use. There are very 
few specimens of that age now in ex- 
istence, yet some are preserved in the 
British Museum and in other collections. 

The first coins were made of electrum, 
which is a mixture of gold and silver and 
which was found in natural form in the 
mountains of Lydia. There were no in- 
scriptions on them, but emblems of re- 
ligious worship and also of trade. The 
connection of the coins with religion may 
have been because everything in that time 
was associated with religion. Possibly 
the priests in the temples were the first 



to invent coins. On the other hand, the 
association may simply indicate that the 
two things about which the people cared 
most were religion and trade. 

Of this type the coin of Cyzicus, on 
the Marmora, is well known. It bsars 
the figure of a tunny fish decorated with 
a sacrificial fillet. The great trade of 
Cyzicus at that time was in tunny fish, 
which belongs to the mackerel family 
and is found in the Sea of Marmora. 
The fillet expressed the religious ac- 
knowledgment. 

The coins were very primitive in ap- 
pearance and irregular in shape, some 
round and some oblong, and all of them 
much thicker than coins of a later day. 

HOW THE CULTURE OF A PAST AGE IS 
STUDIED 

The age of the Wise Men was an age 
of a certain type of culture. There are 
two conditions necessary for culture : one 
is freedom, and the other is a fair degree 
of material comfort. As Homer says in 
the Odyssey: 



53 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Ernest L. Harris 
FOUR YOUNG ADAIJANS AND THEIR PLAYMATE 

Just as Smyrna is the center of Greek hopes for influence in Asia Minor, Adalia is the 
city where Italian ambitions find expression. Adalia is the most picturesque city on the 
southern coast of Anatolia and many of its buildings are richly ornamented. There is a 
small inner harbor and a larger outer harbor, both of which at one time could be closed 
with chains. 



The heaven-taught poet and the enchanting 

strain, 
These are the products of a peaceful reign. 

For some of the successful people of 
Ionia, pleasure consisted in the possession 
of objects of oriental luxury, in pomp 
and in the lazy idleness to which the 
Eastern climate always tempts us ; but 
for those who cared to attain to higher 
things, the opportunity came in the 



spirit being free from sordid care and 
from the pressure of daily need, with 
leisure to think. 

The culture of the age depended, how- 
ever, not only upon economic causes, but 
also to a large degree upon the inspira- 
tion given by intercourse with other na- 
tions, bringing about exchange of ideas 
and increased knowledge. 

The age of the Wise Men was before 



ASIA MINOR IX THE TIME OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN 



the time of Greek history, and there are 
few records from which o reproduce it. 
In trying to describe the culture of an 
age wholly different from anything which 
we have ever known, the chief authority 
is from internal evidence of writings of 
the time, largely poetry, which now exist 
for the most part in fragments, quoted 
by later writers, and also from pictures 
or vases belonging to that period. 

The pictorial representations on the 
vases of the stories of the gods renroduce 
the ordinarv customs of daily life in re- 
gard to religious worship, dress, use of 
chariots and horses, weapons of war. 
varieties of musical instruments, habits 
of sitting and standing, wedding and 
funeral ceremonies, and many other 
things. 

Are we justified in calling the period a 
cultured one? 

It seems to me that we are justified in 
attributing culture to people who could 
produce and enioy the best lyric poetry 
which the world has ever known, and 
who could originate lines of thinking that 
have had a permanent significance in the 
development of the intellectual life of 
later times. 

Emerson says that the flower of civili- 
zation is the finished man, the man of 
sense, of grace, of accomplishment and 
social power, and of such there were 
many in that age. 

We find in the late seventh and sixth 
centuries B. C. the beginning of modern 
systematic knowledge, and a careful study 
of the thought of the time will give us an 
insight into the origin of modern science 
and philosophy, for our present use of 
language and our ideas of the world are 
permeated with the results of that ancient 
thinking. 

Even the emancipation from traditions 
and the desire for independent individual 
thought, which characterize modern 
ideals, find their counterparts in the age 
of the Wise Men. 

ANCIENT CULTURE WAS ADDRESSED TO 
THE EARS 

The culture that arose in Ionia was 
very different in its form, however, from 
any development of later times, and most 
difficult for us to understand. 



It was, first of all, addressed to the ears' 
and not to the eyes. We are now essen-' 
tially an eye-minded people, and measure 
our learning by the books that we read 
and write and collect in libraries 'and by 
other things that we can see with our 
eyes, but the sixth century B. C. was an 
age without any free distribution of writ- 
ten records and only the beginnings of 
libraries, which were mostly collections 
of wooden tablets. Some of the great 
men of the latter part of the period each 
wrote a book, but it was a laborious 
process. 

Heraclitus of Ephesus was one of 
those who wrote a book which was kept 
for safety in the Temple of Diana at 
Ephesus ; for a book was not a thing to 
be lightly regarded, and the process of 
writing was so difficult that it was far 
easier to remember what one had written 
than to decipher it from the book. 

Solon and Pittakos wrote their laws on 
wooden tablets. However, they did not 
write them for general circulation among 
their friends, but rather to preserve the 
laws that they had promulgated. 

LABORIOUS TO WRITE, WRITING DIFFICULT 
TO READ 

Greek writing at the time of the Wise 
Men was not easy to read, for neither the 
words nor the sentences were divided 
from each other, and the lines ran both 
from right to left and from left to right. 

The length of time which archeologists. 
even when they are good Greek scholars, 
give to puzzling out insertions which 
belong to that period would not lead us 
to suppose that any writing of the time 
would form easy reading for an evening 
by the fireside or an afternoon siesta. 

During the t>eriod of the Wise Men. 
however, writing was becoming more 
common, as it was in that age that we 
had the beginning of Greek prose; and 
while it is easy to conceive of poetry be- 
ing communicated from one generation 
to another by constant repetition, it would 
not be the same with prose, at least in the 
case of prose that followed any consecu- 
tive train of thought. 

There were certain forms of prose, 
however, in the age of the Wise Men that 
could be easily remembered, such as the 
so-called gnomic sayings, which were 




Photograph from Mary Mills Patrick 
AN OLD TURKISH BRIDGE NEAR BRUSA 
The silting up of the river beds in the Near East shows the deplorable effects of deforestation. 




Photograph by Cass Arthur Reed 

THE CARRIAGE, THE CAMEL TRAIN, THE GREEK PRIEST SEATED SERENELY ASTRIDE 

A DIMINUTIVE DONKEY, AND THE PEDESTRIANS ARE ALL 

TYPICAL OF MODERN SMYRNA 

This city, like six others of Greece, the ^Egean archipelago, and Asia Minor, lays claim 
to the distinction of being Homer's birthplace. The poet was once worshiped here in a 
magnificent building known as the Homereum. 



ASIA MINOR IN THE TIME OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN 



57 



mostly proverbs, and also fables. 
and his fables belong to that era, although 
JEsop himself, who is one of our most 
precious literary heroes, is, I regret to 
say, tottering somewhat under the attacks 
of historical criticism. 

HOW GREEK POETRY WAS PRESERVED 

Culture was certainly not measured by 
book-learning, but every educated man or 
woman had to be ready with his lyre, 
when called upon after dinner, to accom- 
pany an improvisation,, which might be 
good or bad, according to his ability. If 
he could not improvise, he repeated some 
of the wonderful poetry which was the 
inheritance of the age, for the highest 
expression of the culture of the time was 
in its poetry. 

The older epic poetry and the lyric 
poetry of the era of the Wise Men would 
furnish the means of culture to any age. 
There was a freshness in the thought and 
delicacy in the use of words in the Greek 
lyrics different from anything found in 
later literature, and it is in the poetry that 
we find the real soul of the age. Many 
fragments of it have been preserved, not 
by any special effort at the time, but be- 
cause it was a part of the life of the 
people and must live. 

Greek lyrics were the result of many 
generations of poetical and musical ex- 
pression, and they show the real creative 
work of the era and furnish us with the 
most subtle refinement of word pictures 
that the world has ever known. 

Musical and poetical contests were 
common, in which the music and poetry 
were given together and depended on 
each other for the complete effect desired, 
and it is difficult to know which was the 
more important, the music or the poetry. 

We are familiar in classic study with 
the names of many of the great lyric 
poets of that period, but they themselves 
were as frequently called musicians as 
poets. For instance, the poet Alkalos had 
the reputation of being one of the great- 
est musicians who had ever lived. 

A profound moral and physical influ- 
ence was attributed to music. Good 
music was considered to have the power 
to reform the character and to heal dis- 
ease, and to interpret poetry and make it 



intelligible to the inner nature. The art 
of music was, therefore, one of the finest 
things in the education of that time. It 
was much simpler than the music of mod- 
ern times and was entirely subordinate to 
the words sung or repeated. 

The charm of the music of this age 
seems to have been partly in the extreme 
precision of rhythmic treatment and in a 
protracted dwelling of the voice on one 
syllable. When . the words which the 
music accompanied were improvised, the 
improvising took place under definite 
rules, and the learning of these rules 
formed the most important part of the 
education of a poet. 

To the reciting and the music there was 
also added a rhythmic motion of the body, 
so that the entire personality of the per- 
former was absorbed in the attempt to 
express the thought of the poem. The 
music was constant though subordinate, 
and the whole performance produced 
effects of which the most melodious of 
modern poets could never dream. 

MANY MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 

There were many kinds of musical in- 
struments, but the cithara and the lyre 
were the ones commonly used in accom- 
panying poetry, while the flute was played 
by both men and women, in furnishing 
martial music to the soldiers in time of 
war. Musical bands marched to war with 
the soldiers and played on flutes, pipes, 
and harps. 

For private use, the lyre and the harp 
were preferred, for it was thought that 
they did not prevent one from remaining 
master of himself a free and thinking 
man or woman while the flute, pipe, or 
clarinet put the man beside himself and 
obscured reason. 

There is a story of a harpist which 
might belong to any age. He started a 
school in which to teach harp-playing. 
He had in his school nine statues of the 
nine muses and one of Apollo, but only 
two pupils. When some one asked him, 
however, how many pupils he had, he 
said : "Gods and all, twelve !" 

There were extensive choirs, whose 
music was distinctly connected with the 
religious life of the people. These choirs 
were composed of both men and women 




60 



ASIA MINOR IN THE TIME OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN 



61 



rand w^er^teg^^^for public and private 
religious lsTivaTs : to celebrate, perhaps, 
a victory, a death, a holy day, a birth, or 
a marriage. We are told that Alkman, 
who lived as early as 650 B. C., wrote a 
choir song for girls which was a dramatic 
part song. 

RHAPSODISTS PRECEDED DRAMATISTS AND 
ACTORS 

There was, however, no drama strictly 
speaking ; the place which the drama sub- 
sequently occupied was filled by the rhap- 
sodists. A rhapsodist was one who sang 
professionally or intoned to music the 
poems of his age and of earlier ages. 
For this purpose some part of the so- 
called Homeric poems was usually se- 
lected, an introduction and some closing 
words added, and it was presented to 
companies of people in private houses. 

A professional rhapsodist would nat- 
urally choose the most popular parts of 
Homer; but if he were a man of some 
thought power, he might present his own 
compositions, although that would hap- 
pen more rarely. 

Whenever a banquet was given, the 
best rhapsodist to be procured was en- 
gaged, one who could recite not only 
Homeric poems, but those of Hesiod and 
Archilochus, not neglecting the lyric com- 
posers of his own time. 

In this way the best of the world's 
poetry became a part of the familiar 
thinking of the common people, and it 
was surely a much easier and pleasanter 
way of learning than through studying 
from books. There were so many rhap- 
sodists in the latter part of the period 
that they were organized into guilds and 
schools. 

PREPARATIONS FOR A BANQUET 

The room in the house which was used 
for entertaining was usually rather large, 
with an earthen floor, which was care- 
fully swept before a feast was given. 
Before the guests arrived, the hosts and 
hostesses washed their hands and the 
goblets were all rinsed. In the center of 
the room stood an altar, which was cov- 
ered with wreaths of flowers. The large 
wine bowl was filled to the brim. 

The guests arrived wearing crowns of 



flowers, and the wine-cup, with wine and 
water, usually mixed half and half, was 
passed around, but not before libations 
were poured upon the ground for the 
gods. 

There was very free use of many kinds 
of ointments and perfumes, some of 
which were very costly, made from all 
kinds of flowers. As a poet of the age 
writes : 

From the slender vase 

A willing youth presents to each in turn 

A sweet and costly perfume. 

Honey and cheese were given the place 
of honor among the refreshments. The 
house resounded with music and song. 

Now the rhapsodist enters, wearing his 
white robe and golden crown. There is a 
man or woman with him who also wears 
a crown and who sings or plays a low 
accompaniment to the poetry which the 
rhapsodist recites. 

He begins, perhaps, with selections 
from Homer, whose poems always had 
first place in the literary life of the day, 
and then follow some of the lyric poems 
of Terpander and Archilochos, Sappho, 
and others. He naturally selects the poet 
that belongs to the place where the feast 
is given. 

In Lesbos one would sing of Terpan- 
der, Alkaios, or Sappho, and in Paros of 
Archilochos, and in Smyrna or Chios of 
Homer. 

WOMEN SHARED IN A1X CIVIC ACTIVITIES 

Social life in Ionia and the islands was 
the life of men and women together, for 
women were free in that age to share in 
all the activities, even in public athletic 
exercises in the gymnasium of the town, 
as we read of their doing in the Island of 
Chios. 

There were, to be sure, no suffragettes, 
for formal voting by citizens of any class 
was a thing of later times, but the life of 
all was free and open and natural, and 
the standards of morality were much 
higher than in subsequent periods of 
Greek history. It is to the corruption of 
later times that we owe the calumnies 
that injured the fame of Sappho, for the 
free life of the era of the Seven Wise 
Men was not appreciated by succeeding 
ages. 




63 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Celebrations, whether public or pri- 
vate, to be sufficiently distinguished, de- 
manded something new a new poem, 
new music, new dance motions. Thus 
arose the professional schools of the time, 
where girls and women were taught to 
write poetry and music. The best known 
of these was the School of Sappho at 
Mitylene, although there were many 
others two others even in Mitylene. 

Sappho's school was in a house in the 
city, and young women came from all 
that part of the world to attend it. We 
know the name of one girl who came 
from Greece itself to join this school. 
They were taught the rules of poetry, and 
to compose music and poetry, for the life 
of the people called for new music and 
new poetry almost every day. 

There was a great demand also for new 
hymns to the gods, as each town wished 
to surpass the others in its festivals, and 
each great victory in war or celebration 
of some local event depended for success 
on the poetry and music of the occasion. 

In time of peace, wedding songs were 
constantly needed, as every bridegroom 
then, doubtless, as at the present time, 
considered his own bride the most beau- 
tiful of all living women, and desired to 
provide the newest and the best poetry 
for the nuptial ceremony. Thus it came 
about that the wedding songs written by 
Sappho were among the most beautiful 
of her poems. 

These early schools for music and 
poetry, which provided for the artistic 
needs of the people, seem to have existed 
before any school of philosophy was 
known. 

THE FIRST SCHOOL, OF PHILOSOPHY 

The first school of philosophy was es- 
tablished in Miletus by Thales, one of 
the Wise Men, and was quite a remark- 
able institution, exerting an influence for 
more than a century. 

Thales seems to have given himself 
more entirely to this school than to any of 
his other undertakings. There is a legend 
that he never married, and when his 
mother pressed him to do so he said : "It 
is not yet time." After his youth was 
passed she again urged him to marry and 
he said : "It is no longer time." 



Many of the subjects taught in his 
school, such as astronomy, geometry, and 
geography, show the influence of Egypt 
and Phoenicia; but the philosophy was 
probably an original product, for while 
some of the sciences were somewhat ad- 
vanced, the philosophy was apparently a 
first attempt at an explanation of the 
origin of the world. It originated a 
movement which culminated more than 
a century later in the idealism of Plato. 

We may perhaps understand something 
of the attitude of the common people to- 
ward Thales' School of Philosophy from 
the story of the old woman who laughed 
when the master fell backward into a 
ditch after gazing too long at the stars. 
The old woman not only laughed, but 
she is said to have called after him: "If 
you cannot see what is under your feet, 
how can you understand what is in 
heaven ?" 

GEOGRAPHY AND ASTRONOMY WERE THEN 
PRIMITIVE STUDIES 

The geography and astronomy taught 
in this school were very primitive: The 
earth was flat ; the sun circled around it 
horizontally, being concealed at night by 
high hills. One writer of the time de- 
scribes the world in the following poeti- 
cal way : "God makes a mantle, large and 
fair, and embroiders on it earth and 
ocean and ocean's dwellings." 

It is probable that the schools of the 
eastern Mediterranean possessed an an- 
cient form of charter which consecrated 
them to the purpose of learning and pre- 
vented interference in their activities by 
the city. 

In their charter, some god was selected 
for the patron deity, and his statue would 
be the first thing seen on entering the 
school building or the grounds. Sacrifices 
were offered to this particular deity, and 
processions and banquets were made in 
his honor and holidays were given on his 
feast days. Frequently some of the god- 
desses or muses were selected, for one of 
the poets says : "Loud crying is not fitting 
in a house dedicated to the muses." 

This form of charter was called a 
thiasos, and is fully described in later 
times in connection with the schools of 
Athens. The strongest reason for be-^ 




Photograph by George M. Kyrpie 

WATER-CARRYING HAS ITS COMPENSATIONS IN THE NEAR EAST, FOR IT FOSTERS 
SOCIAL INTERCOURSE AMONG THE WOMEN 

.At times thirty or forty women may be seen discussing for hours the news of the day 

at such a fountain. 



65 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Cass Arthur Reed 

THE GREAT MARBLE BLOCKS JUST OUTSIDE 

THE THEATER AT EPHESUS SHOW HOW 

SPLENDIDLY THE CITY WAS BUILT 

At Ephesus the Phoenicians introduced the 
religious cult of their moon goddess, protect- 
ress of trade. The temple was defended by 
armed virgins, and when the Greeks under 
Androclus met the fierce resistance of these 
women warriors the world gained the legend 
of the Amazons. The supremacy of the heathen 
goddess was unchallenged until Paul preached 
the gospel which caused Demetrius, the idol- 
maker, to fear that his profession would be 
harmed by such doctrines. 

lieving that the custom of the thiasos ex- 
isted in such an early age is the subtlety 
and force with which religious thought 
penetrated all the life of the period. 

There seems to have been a shrine at 
almost every turn of the mountain path 



and a religious ceremony for every act 
of daily life. There were spirits in every 
wood and stream and spring. 

The people thought oj their religion 
in connection with every event and al- 
ways consulted the oracle whenever they 
undertook anything new. The oracle that 
they honored most was far away at 
Delphi, in Greece, and before going to 
war, or building a town, or forming an 
alliance, a messenger was sent there to 
ask advice of the oracle. 

Delphi held the imagination as the 
place where the gods spoke to men, in- 
spiring the priestesses with divine words. 
Yet I fancy that when feeling ran high 
the people did not always wait to send a 
messenger to Delphi, which would be a 
matter of several weeks at least. Prob- 
ably they often acted without the au- 
thority of the oracle and then secured it 
afterward. 

People visited Delphi, however, from 
all parts of the Grecian world to get ad- 
vice, and the place became not only a 
kind of inspiration bureau, but also a 
bureau of information, for the priestesses 
saw and talked with people from many 
places and became very wise in the politi- 
cal affairs of their time and often were 
able to give extremely good advice. 

Their influence was felt all through 
the Greek colonies, and one of them, 
Themistoclea, is said to have been the 
teacher of Pythagoras. 

THE DELPHIC ORACLE AS A GREAT DEPOSI- 
TORY OF WEALTH 

The oracle did not, however, send ad- 
vice free of payment. Rich presents were 
expected in return, and Delphi became 
a kind of national banking-house for the 
cities of Ionia, with different treasuries 
to contain offerings from the different 
places. Gifts of every form and degree 
of value were sent there iron spits on 
which to roast oxen used in the sacrifices ; 
bowls of gold and silver, and all kinds 
of the choicest treasures of the richest 
cities. 

When the sayings of the oracle failed 
to prove true, however, complaints were 
sometimes made, and the priestess would 
be obliged to justify herself. So it was 
usually found wiser to be rather non- 
committal and to give commands that 



ASIA MINOR IN THE TIME OF THE SEVEN WISE MEN 



67 



could be carried out in more than one 
way; to send an inscrutable answer, that 
sounded deep and wise and would allow 
those who sent to consult the oracle the 
privilege of doing their own way. 

Yet the power of the oracle was almost 
unlimited and controlled even the rights 
of kings in the most distant parts of the 
Grecian world. 

There was, however, another side to 
the religious life of that time more diffi- 
cult to understand. During the sixth 
century B. C. there arose a great wave 
of religious emotions, affecting every 
oracle and popular temple and influenc- 
ing even some of the philosophical teach- 
ing. It seemed to appear first as an out- 
burst of personal miracle-working in con- 
nection with the worship of Dionysus 
and was especially strong in Asia Minor. 

It taught the purging of sin by sacri- 
fice, the immortality and divinity of the 
soul, eternal reward to the pure, beyond 
the grave, and retribution to the impure, 
the pure being those initiated into these 
teachings. This was the religion of the 
common people and was closely connected 
with the Orphic mysteries which were 
practiced in secret, took the form of secret 
societies, and therefore are almost impos- 
sible to investigate. 

THE BELIEF IN INCARNATION 

Certain of these cults believed in the 
incarnation and suffering of Dionysus 
Zagreus. Zagreus was a god who was 
born again as a man, yet was a god, was 
received into heaven, and became the 
highest and, in a sense, the only god. An 
individual who worshiped Dionysus Zag- 
reus could himself develop his potential 
divinity. 

Dionysus was explained in the Orphic 
mysteries as the god within the spirit of 
worship, as inexplicable joy, as the per- 
sonification of the spirit of ecstacy, and 
the impulse above reason that lifts man 
out of himself and gives him power and 
blessedness. These mysteries were in 
part dependent upon the singing and 
playing of sacred music. 

In the time of the Wise Men many of 
the old temples were rising on the coast 
of Asia Minor. The Temple of Diana 
of Ephesus, one column of which is now 
in the British Museum, was begun. 



There is also to be seen in the British 
Museum a lion of colossal size from 
Miletus, carved in marble, on which the 
name of Thales, the Wise Man, is in- 
scribed. 

Sculpture had been for some time an 
acknowledged art and figures were made 
of gold and silver as well as of marble. 
Iron also was sometimes used for orna- 
ments, as soldering in iron was discov- 
ered in that age by a man in Chios. 

The pottery was perhaps the most 
artistic product of the time, and the 
earliest known vase bearing a Greek in- 
scription, now in the British Museum, 
was from one of the ^Egean Islands. It 
is ascribed to the early part of the period 
of the Wise Men. 

THE HALLS OF FAME AND HOSPITALITY 

The social life was first of all religious, 
as the worship of the gods and goddesses 
involved many public and private cere- 
monies, but there was also public politi- 
cal life in various forms. 

In every large city there was a pry- 
taneum, where national heroes were hon- 
ored and where public feasts were given. 
Among the cupbearers who served the 
wine were sons of most noble families. 
One of Sappho's brothers was a cup- 
bearer in the prytaneum in Mitylene. 
The prytaneum was the state hearth, 
where the sacred fire was ever burning, 
and there was the center of the life of 
the whole city and of the colonies sent 
out from that city. 

Of the details of the lives of the Wise 
Men we know very little, and the stories 
told about them are probably mythical. 
Bias of Priene is sometimes placed at 
their head, but Thales and Solon are the 
best known. Pittakos was a wise re- 
former and king in Mitylene, and there 
is one figure of his head in existence 
which is found in the Bibliotheque Na- 
tionale, in Paris, on a coin of later date 
from Mitylene. 

The life of each one of them "was 
doubtless thrilling with interest, but the 
utmost that we can do to revive their ac- 
tivities is to associate the few events that 
are known with the places which were the 
theater of their actions and which are also 
a part of our own surroundings. 




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BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST AND 
BATAK HIGHLANDS OF SUMATRA 

BY MELVIN A. HALL 

With Photographs by the Author 



A FEW low islands, eventually to be 
gathered to the shores of the im- 
mense mother-island by steadily 
encroaching alluvial deposit, appeared 
and dropped from sight in the sultry haze 
of mid-afternoon as we steamed up the 
Straits of Malacca. Sumatra itself was 
never visible, although on the other side 
of the Straits, to the northeast, the palm- 
fringed Malayan coast and blue dorsal 
range of the interior remained all day in 
view. 

But the Sumatran east coast is so low 
and flat that its long, dark-green out- 
line can seldom be distinguished above 
the black water before the ship actually 
approaches its harbor. 

It is a swampy, unhealthy coast, formed 
by the deposits of silt washed down from 
the mountains in the periodic inundations 
of an enormous annual rainfall. In this 
way the whole of the broad plain be- 
tween mountains and sea, which, behind 
its mangrove fringe, forms the splendidly 
rich lands of rubber and tobacco estates, 
has gradually been built up and is steadily 
being extended. 

The mangrove plays a considerable 
part in this extension because of its re- 
markable powers of reproduction. Grow- 
ing partly in the shallow water of the 
littoral, these trees spread out a labyrinth 
of surface roots that act as a framework 
for the accumulating mud, which in the 
course of time rises above the surface 
and forms land. 

CURIOUS SIGHTS ON THE RIVER 

The ripe seeds of the mangrove do not 
fall off, but germinate upon the parent 
tree, growing downward in long, straight 
shoots. Eventually these drop from their 
own weight, and, falling upright in the 
shoal water, sink to the muddy bottom 
and there take root. Many fall beyond 
the outer edge of the swamp, and as the 



process continues more land is formed 
and the coast-line is gradually pushed 
farther out into the sea. 

The morning after leaving Singapore 
we sighted the thin, dark line of the 
shore as the ship steamed in between 
the closely set bamboo-and-string nets 
of the Malay coast fishermen. Then the 
water became the color of pea soup from 
the river-brought silt of volcanic moun- 
tains, and shortly after the first glimpse 
of Sumatra we crept into Kuala Belawan, 
one of the mouths of the Deli River, the 
screw churning up the dirty yellow mud 
into a frothy trail. 

The shallow water and shifting mud- 
banks of the coast make the location of 
ports unreliable and frequently necessi- 
tate their removal or abandonment after 
they have once been established. 

Although large steamers now dock in 
the port of Deli, like most other Sumatran 
ports it is but a broad, mud-colored 
stream, winding sluggishly through dense 
equatorial swamps. 

The ship ploughed over the bar into 
the midst of scenery typical of low rivers 
near the line. Dripping mangroves, with 
black, snake-like roots, shut in the river's 
edge, only here and there grudgingly 
yielding a little space to tiny coconut 
groves where palm-thatched huts roosted 
high on piles above the oily water. 

A few sampans and narrow dug-out 
canoes idled along the banks, the fierce 
rays of the sun reflected from the ripples 
in their wake and glistening on the bare 
brown backs of their oarsmen. 

Farther up-river a line of high-sterned 
praus from Borneo, gayly colored and 
carved, regarded the steamer with mis- 
trustful, painted eyes. Their cargoes of 
Bandjermasin matting for tobacco bales, 
and anak kajoe (poles for tobacco dry- 
ingf), and atap for thatchine roofs lay 
piled high around their curious masts, 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




DRIVING THROUGH A TEAK FOREST NEAR MEDAN, AN IMPORTANT SEAPORT ON THE 

NORTHEAST COAST OF SUMATRA 

Of all the timbers of the world, teak is the most valuable. Its durability is remarkable, 
rafters in some of the temples of India having served their purpose for more than a thou- 
sand years. It is used for shipbuilding and interior paneling and in the manufacture of 
furniture. It can be easily worked and is susceptible of a high polish. When properly sea- 
soned, it neither cracks, shrinks, nor alters its shape. The teak is not one of the giants of 
the jungle, however, for it seldom attains a height greater than 150 feet. 



one rising upright amidships, the other 
with a weird forward rake near the 
sharp-pointed bow. Beyond, the steamer 
rounded a bend in the river and tied up 
to the dock, where groups of men in 
immaculate white suits and white topees 
awaited its arrival. 

LANDING LABOR FOR SUMATRA 

While waiting to supervise the unload- 
ing of my automobile, I watched all the 



fourth-class passengers as they were 
counted, checked off, and landed. 

The latter process, however, was so 
interesting that I did not begrudge the 
time it required. 

All the deck space not reserved for 
first-cabin passengers was packed with 
coolies from Batavia and littered with 
their effects. A considerable number of 
them had camped in, on, and under my 
motor chattering, smoking, combing 



BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST OF SUMATRA 



71 







&, : ' ' ' ,,M . ^ , if" 




DRYING-SHEDS FOR CURING THE FAMOUS SUMATRAN TOBACCO 

These atap-thatched buildings are no longer used for tobacco, however, for this plain has 
been given over to rubber trees, which are being extensively planted nowadays. 



each other's hair, tending their babies, 
and munching little packages of strange 
food folded up in plantain leaves. 

They were contract coolies on their 
way to labor on the tobacco and rubber 
estates of Deli and were chiefly Javanese, 
though a few Bandjarese from Borneo, 
Klings of southern Indian origin, Malays, 
and other nationalities appeared among 
them. 

SUMATRA is THIRTEEN TIMES THE SIZE 

OF HOIXAND 

Sumatra is an immense island, nearly 
four times the size of Java and thirteen 
times larger than Holland itself, but its 
war-decimated population amounts to less 
than 3,200,000, most of which, for vari- 
ous reasons, is not available for labor. 
Because of this the island is barely be- 
ginning to attract attention, although 
more favorably situated than Java and 
richer in natural resources. 
'~ >/Vt Java is a country of magnificent reali- 
zation, Sumatra one of great future." 
In the development of that future practi- 
cally all the labor has to be imported on 
short-term contracts. Chiefly it is Chinese, 
which is expensive ; Kling, which is 



viewed with disfavor by the British In- 
dian Government, or Javanese, which is 
unwilling to come and does not thrive in 
the climate. 

The tribulations of a labor contractor 
from the time of collecting his gang to 
their final safe delivery in Sumatra are 
legion and, to one disinterested, very 
amusing. 

The Javanese is tractable and physi- 
cally a fair laborer, but neither very am- 
bitious nor reliable. He likes his feast 
days, his rice harvesting, his little com- 
forts and luxuries, and is not eager to 
forego them for the uncertain induce- 
ments of foreign lands. But his mind 
is receptive, and the clever contractor, 
fortifying it with well-chosen stories of 
fortunes easily made, belittling the coolie's 
fears and objections, is often able to se- 
cure his contract by the timely offer of a 
new sarong (the chief article of dress 
worn in the Malay Archipelago) and 
perhaps a month's wages in advance. 

But here the contractor's troubles be- 
gin. Unless carefully guarded, the cool- 
ie's enthusiasm is very apt to wane, and 
the moment for departure arrives with 



72 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A UTTLE GOSSIP NOW AND THEN IS RELISHED EVEN BY PRIMITIVE WOMEN: AT A 

KARO-BATAK MARKET 



coolie, new sarong, and month's wages 
unaccounted for. 

LURING THE JAVANESE COOLIE FROM THE 
CONTRACTOR 

Even when safely gathered on board 
ship and the coast of Java has been sunk, 
there remains still to be cleared the inter- 
vening port of Singapore. There, in dis- 
guise, wily touts for the Malayan coolie 
brokers smuggle themselves aboard, no 
matter how vigilant the ship's officers 
may be, for labor is everywhere in de- 
mand. With much astuteness they pro- 
ceed to poison the minds of the already- 
frightened Sumatra-bound Javanese. 

"Sumatra? A country of tigers and 
ferocious savages who eat nothing but 
coolies; a cold land, where there is no 
sun, no rice ; where laborers are unpaid, 
cruelly treated, and whence they rarely 
return !" 

So the tout whispers on, adding terror 
to their own premonitions, refuting all 
that the contractor had said, and in the 
end offering to aid in their immediate 
escape from the horrible fate in store, to 



the tempting security of fortune and hap- 
piness in the Malay States. 

Strict watch is kept over the ship while 
in Singapore, but scarcely a trip is taken 
that a few of those under contract are 
not among the missing when the final 
count is made. For every one lost the 
first mate is personally fined, I think 
about fifty gulden ; but if he brings a cer- 
tain percentage safely to their destination 
he receives a liberal bonus. Consequently 
the final checking off is fraught with deep 
anxiety for all concerned. 

STRIKING COLOR EFFECTS IN WOMEN'S 
ADORNMENTS 

Single file, as I watched, the ship-load 
of coolies passed before me and down the 
gangway between two officers and a con- 
tractor's agent, who checked them as they 
went men, women, boys, and girls, with 
folded mats under their arms and their 
possessions tied up in long cloths slung 
around their necks and resting on their 
hips. Only those with babies were kept 
apart and counted last, lest one tiny head 
should be overlooked. 



BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST OF SUMATRA 



73 




THESE FEMALE PORTERS ARE NOT AS HEAVILY BURDENED AS THEY APPEAR TO BE | 
THEIR HEAD PACKS CONSIST OF FINE MATTING 



They were a picturesque lot in their 
gay-colored clothes. Most of the women 
were bareheaded, their black hair brushed 
back and knotted behind, with strings of 
coral beads hanging around their necks 
and big buttons of gold and silver, jade, 
amber, or ebony extending their pierced 
ear-lobes. Brilliant scarves half-con- 
cealed their fresh white corsages, and 
leather belts with massive silver buckles 
encircled sarongs of many hues. 

Around the heads of nearly all the men 
were twisted the universal brown ker- 
chiefs of Java flaunting starched corners ; 
and, in addition to their sarongs and a 
few short coats and pajama tops, there 
was a noticeable partiality for white un- 
dershirts and long pink drawers. 

Following the others came a tall Pun- 
jabi Mohammedan with a long gray 
beard. His dignified bearing and the 
striking eyes of the Indian Mussulman, 
which looked straight out from under an 
enormous turban, marked him at once as 
a very different type from his casual Ma- 
lay brethren. 

Two hours more elapsed before the 



next landing party, ourselves and the car. 
finally left the ship. The dock was many 
feet below the deck and the spaces in 
which the car had to be turned were all 
shorter than its length. 

A mathematician might have amused 
himself by figuring out the possible com- 
binations in which that car could have 
been jammed I am sure we missed 
none and when finally it was disentan- 
gled from the forest of stanchions, rail- 
ings, projecting corners, and other checks 
to its progress, the crew and I breathed 
deep sighs of relief. 

But as Belawan is isolated in the man- 
grove swamps, except for the long new 
bridge of the Deli Railway, one further 
struggle was necessary before the motor 
was really "landed" in Sumatra, and we 
toilsomely manipulated it onto an under- 
sized railway truck. Then I relaxed into 
a seat and made faces back at the silver- 
gray monkeys which derided me from the 
trees, as the train took us up to Medan, 
fourteen miles inland. 

The capital of the Government of the 
East Coast of Sumatra and headquarters 




EVEN THE CARTS IN SUMATRA ARE THATCH-ROOFED 

Central Africa has not a greater variety of animal life than Sumatra. Elephants, tigers, 
myriad apes and monkeys, two-horned rhinoceroses, and the most gorgeous butterflies in the 
world are to be found in the magnificent jungles of the island. The plant life is amazing 
in its luxuriance. Some varieties of bamboo shoot up like giant stalks of asparagus, at the 
rate of a foot or more a day, and in three or four months are waving their fronded tops 
above centuries-old monarchs of the forest. 




PRIMITIVE TRANSPORTATION AND MODERN COMMUNICATION SIDE BY SIDE IN 
SUMATRA. NOTE THE TELEPHONE WIRES 



74 



BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST OF SUMATRA 



75 



of the Amsterdam-Deli Company, the 
most important tobacco company of the 
Indies, is a modern town, created by the 
Dutch and laid out in a very attractive 
manner. 

MEDAN A CITY OF MANY MIXED RACES 

There is an airy appearance and a cheer- 
ful, "white-man's" atmosphere about the 
official buildings around its spacious 
square and the cool, shaded streets of its 
European quarter. 

The white bungalows are extremely 
attractive in their green and well-kept 
grounds, shaded by tall royal palms, rub- 
ber trees, bamboo, banyans, "flames of 
the forest," travelers' trees, and other 
tropical growth. 

The huge buildings of the Deli Com- 
pany, with a European hospital and a 
well-appointed asylum for native immi- 
grants, are almost hidden in the dense 
verdure of a park filled with beautiful 
shade trees. 

Farther out are the native compounds 
and various Asiatic quarters, having each 
its own characteristics. 

The Chinese compound, with its elab- 
orate temple, bears the unmistakable 
mark of the Celestial Republic, with adap- 
tations to East Indian conditions. Its 
houses, joined together in even-fronted 
rows, faced with cement or white and 
tinted plaster, with carved and colored 
decorations and roofs flaring slightly up- 
ward at the corners, are much the same 
as are found in Malayan towns. Many 
of the stores and a large part of the trade 
of Medan are in the hands of Chinese, 
who, as usual, are extremely prosperous. 

Medan's prosperity and importance are 
due to its location in the center of the 
rich tobacco lands; and owing to this, 
with the consequent demand for labor 
and to the scarcity of native Sumatrese, 
its population of about 14,000 is a very 
mixed one. 

THE "BIG DAY," SUBSTITUTE FOR SUNDAY 

We had arrived in the midst of hari- 
basar and so were immediately intro- 
duced to this interesting feature of Su- 
matran life. 

The tobacco, rubber, and various other 
estates of the east coast are spread over 



such a vast amount of territory, with so 
comparatively small a number of white 
men in their administration, that the 
Dutch planters and managers outside of 
the head office and shipping ports are apt 
to be more or less isolated from the so- 
ciety of their own kind. Since it is quite 
without significance to the Asiatic labor- 
ers, Sunday is not recognized as a holiday 
on the estates, but in its place a substitute 
has been instituted in the fortnightly 
hari-basar, occurring about the first and 
fifteenth of each month and literally 
meaning "big day" or "holiday." Both 
are pertinent. 

On these days all the planters the 
general term for white men in any capac- 
ity on an estate, either their own or a 
company's who are able to do so, flock 
in from their estates to the towns, those 
within reach of Medan naturally seeking 
the capital. 

Very few are free to celebrate every 
hari-bazar, and when they do come into 
town, usually arriving the night before 
the "big day" with weeks of silence and 
loneliness to make up for, they waste very 
little of their time in sleep. Neither does 
any one else whose room happens to be 
in the vicinity of their gathering places. 

The club and hotels are filled, as they 
were the night we arrived, with ruddy, 
healthy-looking Dutchmen in fresh white 
suits, sitting around big tables in unre- 
mitting conversation, while vast quanti- 
ties of gin and bitters and other beverages 
are consumed, but with very little effect 
on these hardy men of the open air. 

COMFORT AND PRIVACY IN A MEDAN 
HOT-EL 

Among its other advantages, Medan 
possesses one of the best hotels in the 
Netherlands Indies. The Hotel de Boer 
is built upon the plan largely used 
throughout Farther India the dining- 
room, cafe, office, and kitchen by them- 
selves in one single-story building, open 
on all sides to the air and shaded by large 
covered verandas and splendid big trees. 
Around this, forming three sides of a 
square separated by a driveway from the 
central building, the bed-rooms occupy 
the entire depth of a second single-story 
structure. 




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77 




DWELLING IN SUMATRA IS ITS OWN BARNYARD 

Contrary to the custom, the floor of this porch is made of whole bamboo poles rather 
than the split pieces. The floors of most of the houses sag in the middle. The roofs are 
of thatch, made of the leaves of the atap palm. 



78 



79 



Each room has its own covered veranda 
in front, cool and shady and screened 
from view, and its own bath in the rear. 
The comfort and privacy of this style of 
construction is unequaled for warm cli- 
mates. 

With the aid of the proprietor of the 
hotel, I procured a servant, a Malay- 
speaking Kling, to take with us into the 
interior. Kling is the term used in Malay 
countries for Tamils and occasionally for 
other races of Southern India who come 
to these countries as settlers or for trade. 
(All other continental Indians are called 
Bengalis.) Joseph was a Tamil, a Cath- 
olic from French Pondicherry, and a very 
good servant. 

THE WHITE) MAN'S ADVENT RESISTED 
WITH FANATICAL COURAGE 

The whole of Sumatra has presented 
a very different problem to Dutch coloni- 
zation from the organization of Java, 
with ten times its population. The in- 
habitants of the larger island, though 
few in numbers, have resisted foreign 
interference with the most stubborn and 
fanatical courage. Each one of its nu- 
merous tribes and principalities has had 
to be subdued in turn, a long and difficult 
process, as there was none of the almost 
docile submission of the Javanese. 

Sumatra is immense in area and be- 
tween its different sections there is little 
inland communication, that which exists 
being of a treacherous and warlike char- 
acter. Much of the island remains un- 
explored ; other parts, as the whole of 
Achin, in the north, are still in a state of 
protracted warfare, which seems destined 
to end only with the eventual extermina- 
tion of the resisting tribes. 

The Achinese war alone has cost over 
200.000 lives and been an expense to Hol- 
land of $200.000,000. The first hostili- 
ties date back to 1599, but for the last 
forty years fighting has been continuous, 
a guerrilla warfare of surprises and am- 
bushes in the jungles, in which the deter- 
mined resistance of the Achinese contin- 
ues undiscouraged, although their gov- 
ernment has been deposed and all their 
towns and strategic positions occupied by 
Dutch troops. 

Leaving the capital, our road at first led 



through some miles of country dense and 
green with vegetation, with tiny thatched 
native huts making picturesque brown 
spots in the midst of fruit trees and coco 
palms. As we approached nearer to the 
hills, this gave way to open plains cov- 
ered with high grass and low bushes, the 
characteristic tobacco land of Deli. 

THROUGH THE FAMOUS TOBACCO LANDS 

The larger estates, especially those of 
the Deli Company, are divided into sec- 
tions under the administration of assist- 
ant managers. Each year only one-tenth 
to a fifth of their enormous area is under 
cultivation, since to maintain the high 
quality of the tobacco grown the land is 
left fallow for from five to ten years after 
each crop. During the first year the na- 
tives are permitted to grow rice upon the 
fallow fields ; then the soil is left to itself 
and to the bushes and rank grass which 
soon cover it. 

The tobacco crop is a rich one, but the 
demands it makes upon the land and upon 
labor are such that it is npt surprising to 
find the newer estates annually devoting 
more and more of their attention and ter- 
ritories to rubber and other less exacting 
products. 

Gradually ascending in altitude, we 
passed through many miles of these mon- 
otonous, fallow-lying plains, their deso- 
late appearance only increased by an oc- 
casional row of unused drying-sheds 
and a few fire-blackened trunks of huge 
toealang trees, solitary survivors of the 
primeval forest. 

The sections actually in cultivation, 
however, were extremely interesting, with 
many acres of magnificent tobacco plants 
growing to a height of five or six feet in 
closely planted parallel ridges. Frequently 
they hedged the road on both sides and 
extended in unbroken rows as far as the 
eye could follow over the rolling fields. 

EACH RACE TO ITS OWN TASK 

The work of the plantation is many- 
sided and the various nationalities em- 
ployed are usually engaged in their own 
distinctive branches of labor. Thus, al- 
though sometimes replaced by other races, 
Chinese predominate in the actual work 
on the 1 tobacco plants ; the bullock-cart 



80 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




AN ELABORATE PIGEON-HOUSE IN THE VILLAGE OF 
KEBON DJAHE 

Sumatra has an area exceeding the combined areas of the 
New England States, New York, and Pennsylvania. If it 
were superimposed on this continent, it would extend from 
St. Louis to Boston. 



drivers are Klings ; the carpenters are 
Boyans ; the Javanese are woodmen, 
road-builders, and gardeners ; and the 
Bataks and Sumatra Malays, who are not 
obtainable in large numbers nor reliable 
for sustained labor, clear the land pre- 
paratory to planting, and build roads and 
sheds. 

The ubiquitous Sikh is often found in 
his favorite capacity of guard or police- 
man. 

At the time of our trip the tobacco 
plants were half to three-quarters grown 



and the drying-sheds were 
being prepared to receive 
them. Upon some of the 
more advanced estates the 
lower leaves of the plants 
had already been picked 
and were hanging in the 
sheds, threaded on long 
strings and labeled, while 
wood fires smouldered at 
intervals on the ground. 

Lines of two - wheeled 
bullock carts with loose 
roofs of thatched palm 
leaves, matting, or even 
sheet tin, rumbled slowly 
up and down the roads, 
hauling supplies and ma- 
terial for the estates. Many 
of the slow-plodding Indian 
oxen were magnificent big 
Guzerat animals, with large 
humps and long silky dew- 
laps, and, with their red- 
turbaned Tamil drivers sit- 
ting on the floor of the 
open- fronted carts, were 
strongly reminiscent of the 
tea plantations of Ceylon. 

THE HIGHWAYS OF 
SUMATRA 

The road was very good, 
wide, well made, and much 
better than I had expected. 
There is practically no rock 
in this part of the island, 
and the metaling for the 
roads must be imported ; 
nevertheless, the chief high- 
ways of the coastal plains 
and the pass over the moun- 
tains are all macadamized. 
In the highlands, where metaling has 
not yet been attempted, such roads as 
exist are of a very different type. These 
are of dirt or clay, well built and main- 
tained, and said to be very good in dry 
weather. 

Unfortunately, we were there when 
seventeen days of continuous rainfall had 
reduced them to an almost impassable 
state of soft mud and slippery clay, and, 
while our experience is perhaps hardly 
a fair criterion, I can scarcely believe that 
with the enormous annual rainfall of 



BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST OF SUMATRA 



Sumatra such is not the condition a large 
part of the time. 

The road from Medan to the interior, 
however, gave no warning of what was 
to follow. Leaving the plains and the 
tobacco plantations, it gradually ascended 
through wilder country, and presently, 
with well-engineered zigzags, began to 
climb into the mountains. 

At 3,000 feet altitude we came to the 
tiny sanatorium of Bandar Baroe, a re- 
cuperating station in the clearer atmos- 
phere of the hills for Europeans of the 
Deli Company enervated by the un- 
healthy life of the lowlands. It was a 
wee bungalow of three or four rooms 
with a wide, pointed roof of thatch, and 
from its perch on top of the usual piles 
it looked out between tall tree-ferns 
over the plain below. 

Here we spent the night, having first 
applied to the Controleur for permis- 
sion. The native in charge had no sup- 
plies, so we had recourse to our own for 
the first of a series of "tinned meals" 
that continued without interruption until 
we returned to Medan. 

A WAGON TRAIN OF SHIFTING SHADOWS 

In the evening, stretched out in com- 
fortable wicker chairs on the bungalow's 
little veranda, we watched a train of 
loaded buffalo carts winding stiffly up 
the hill in a heavy rain. The air was so 
fresh and cool it was difficult to think 
of the hot, sultry coast less than forty 
miles away. The rain pattered gently 
on the ground and rolled off the over- 
hanging thatch of the eaves in big drops, 
while the creaking of wheels and soft 
cries of the drivers drifted up from the 
laboring freighters on the road. 

For more than an hour the train crept 
slowly past in a single file of vague, in- 
determinable shapes, with swaying lan- 
terns casting dim circles of light and 
queer shifting shadows in the misty 
darkness. We watched in fascination 
while the tiny spots appeared out of the 
jungle below and lengthened into a twink- 
ling line which wound up past the bunga- 
low and disappeared one by one above us 
into the night and the forest. 

Early the next morning we continued 
our climb over the pnss. The semi- 
tropical vegetation which had succeeded 



the coarse grass of the denuded plains 
gave way in turn to magnificent virgin 
forests, unbroken except for the narrow, 
winding path of the road. 

THE SUMATRAN JUNGLE 

The enormous straight-trunked trees, 
ensnared by giant creepers, vines, and 
huge air plants, made so thick a canopy 
overhead that only a dim twilight filtered 
in, and that failed to reach the ground 
through the dense, impenetrable tangle of 
vegetation. 

Little brooks of clear water rushed 
steeply down the mountainside, hurrying 
along to the sluggish yellow rivers of the 
plains their tiny contributions for the ex- 
tension of Sumatra's coast. Butterflies 
flitted in the blue-black shadows ; jungle 
fowl, their brilliance all subdued in the 
obscure half light, vanished silently from 
the edges of the road as we approached, 
and other little creeping and fugitive 
things sought the security of the unbe- 
traying jungle. 

Insects with voices out of all propor- 
tion to their probable size screamed 
shrilly from the branches, and the occa- 
sional whistle of a bird or the dull boom 
of a falling tree echoed through the 
silent, dark recesses of the wood. 

Much of the life of the jungle we saw 
along this little frequented road which 
opened up the very heart of the virgin 
forest, but infinitely more were we our- 
selves observed. Sometimes the crack 
of a broken branch betrayed the hurried 
withdrawal of a larger animal, or a 
whirr of wings that of some startled 
bird ; but only one's own sixth sense told 
of the hidden watchers who silently fol- 
lowed our progress with wondering, un- 
friendly eyes. 

PURSUED BY HOSTS OF CURIOUS MONKEYS 

The swaying of branches overhead as 
we zigzagged up the pass did not mean 
wind in the quiet forest ; it meant mon- 
keys, and their antics were an unfailing 
amusement, whether we kept on or stop- 
ped to watch them. Some waited in 
silence until we drew near, then plunged 
back into the forest with a crash of 
branches which inevitably produced on 
us the shock they seemed to have de- 
signed. Some tore furiously along be- 



82 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



side us through the trees in a desperate 
attempt to cross in front of the car be- 
fore we could catch up to them. 

When they did cross, far overhead, in 
a stream of small gray bodies flying 
through the air between the treetops, 
they as furiously raced along on the other 
side and crossed back again. Others 
clung to swaying branches and bounded 
up and down in a frenzy of excitement, 
shrieking gibes in sharp crescendo as we 
passed. 

Often in the midst of their agitation 
they suddenly lost all interest and forth- 
with paid no more attention to us ; or sat 
in silence with weazened, whiskered 
faces peering solemnly down from the 
trees. 

As in Ceylon, it would have been dis- 
astrous to leave the motor unguarded 
anywhere in a Sumatra forest, for every- 
thing that prying fingers could unscrew 
or remove would soon be reposing merrily 
in the tree-tops. 

There were many tribes of the monkey 
people : little black fellows with very long 
tails ; troops of impudent brown ones ; 
shy black-and-white monkeys with fine 
silky coats ; and hordes of big gray beasts 
who chased and tweaked each other, 
evoking shrieks of protest. 

Near by, yet aloof from the bands that 
fed and gamboled together, were a few 
enormous black bulks which from the 
distance might have been curious vegeta- 
ble formations in the trees. But they 
moved, and I stopped to examine one 
through the glasses, when my mother 
suddenly called my attention to some- 
thing on the other side. 

From a leafy branch less than forty 
feet away a great round head protruded 
and a solemn black face, comically like a 
sulky old savage, gazed out upon us. For 
a few minutes it stared in silence ; then 
with unhurried, deliberate movements re- 
turned to a leisurely search for food. 

WATCHING THE POWERFUL ORANG- 
OUTANG 

"Orang-outang," I whispered. "Only 
found here and in Borneo. There are 
two more on the other side. . . . See 
him pull that branch down !" He reached 
up one tremendous, sinewy arm and with 



the greatest ease drew down a branch that 
would scarcely have bent beneath the 
weight of a heavy man. Holding it with 
one hand, he pawed idly over it with the 
other, occasionally transferring some 
morsel to his mouth and promptly spitting 
it out if it displeased him. 

When the branch was duly inspected 
he released it, and the swish! of leaves 
as it flew back through the air gave some 
idea of the strength that had bent it. 

There was no need of whispering, for 
although we watched this one for half an 
hour with the glasses he ignored our pres- 
ence completely, and except for the first 
brief inspection not one of the big apes 
showed a sign of consciousness of our 
proximity. They were very well aware 
of it, but were too powerful for fear, and 
the orang-outang rarely troubles those 
who do not bother him. We were not 
inclined to regret this indifference, how- 
ever, for the "old man of the forest" 
can be extremely disagreeable when he 
chooses. 

AN UNSOCIABLE JUNGLE BEAST 

The other monkeys and apes all moved 
in troops, but the orang-outangs went 
alone severely alone for their smaller 
relations seemed to give them a wide 
berth. 

Unlike the monkeys, they appeared con- 
servative of energy, and every movement 
was carried out with a careful delibera- 
tion most amusing to watch. Their huge 
black bodies were very conspicuous in the 
trees ; their trunks thicker than a man's, 
with short, heavy legs and arms of extra- 
ordinary length and power. 

Apparently quite satisfied with the food 
within reach, the great apes moved lazily 
along the branches, holding on with their 
feet and scarcely changing their positions 
while we watched them. One eventually 
decided to transfer his operations else- 
where and sauntered off through the 
trees, swinging his upright body from 
branch to branch with powerful, far- 
reaching arms. His movements were still 
slow and deliberate, but the progress he 
made was astonishing, though now and 
then interrupted as he stopped to investi- 
gate some delicacy. 

The last we saw of him he was hang- 



BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST OF SUMATRA 



83 




IN FRONT OF EACH SUMATRAN DWELLING THERE STANDS A SMALL SQUARE BUILDING 
WHICH IS USED FOR A "GOEDANG," OR RICE GRANARY 



ing serenely by one long arm, indolently 
exploring a branch with both feet and his 
other hand. 

The Boekit Barisan, a series of moun- 
tain ranges running the whole length of 
the island near the western coast, splits 
in the north into parallel chains which en- 
circle the broad Karo-Batak plateau and 
the vast area of Toba Lake. In these 
partially explored ranges there have al- 
ready been discovered ninety volcanoes, 
twelve of which are now active, the con- 
structive and destructive forces of Su- 
matra's formation. 

The road from Deli crosses over the 
northeastern part of the parallel chains 
into the Batak Highlands, as the plateau 
is called, by a pass between the mountains 
Sibajak and Baros. 

As we neared the summit of the pass a 
narrow break in the forest revealed a 
superb view through the trees, over the 
blue ravine and densely timbered moun- 
tainside, to the wide coastal plain shim- 
mering in the heat-haze below ; then the 
foliage again closed in until we reached 
the height-of-land and looked out on the 
other side. 



A dull, treeless expanse, scarcely lower 
than the top of the pass, stretched out 
before us in limitless brown waves, a 
desolate tangle of grass broken only by 
detached volcanic heights. Two active 
volcanoes, the northernmost of the range, 
towered threateningly above the others 
Sibajak guarding the entrance through 
which crept the highland road ; Sinaboeng 
rising from the plateau in majestic isola- 
tion, its smoke-crowned peak and deep 
purple sides outlined against the heavy 
white clouds that hung behind it. 

A LAND THAT NEEDS PEOPLE 

The first strong impression of loneli- 
ness and monotonous solitude that the 
highlands gave was little changed by the 
few scattered compounds and occasional 
patches of cultivation later revealed as 
we progressed. 

In common with the greater part of 
Sumatra, which could easily support 
twenty-five times its present population, 
this section is sparsely inhabited and the 
villages are small and far apart. 

The Batak tribes lead a communistic 
life, and outside of the hedged confines 



84 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




THE SUMATRAN MOTHER IS NEVER PREVENTED FROM DOING HER DAILY STINT 
WEAVING BY HER LATEST BORN, WHO IS STRAPPED ACROSS HER BACK 



of their compounds each a little cluster 
of huts around a large central house 
very few buildings are found. The Ba- 
taks are mostly peaceful and industrious, 
occupying themselves with agriculture 
and farming as well as in hunting and 
fishing. Their agriculture depends upon 
the rainfall, which, however, rarely fails ; 
but it consists only of little patches of 
rice and other grain struggling weakly 
against the all-encompassing rank growth 
and is barely sufficient to supply their own 
modest needs. 

Not far from the top of the pass we 
overhauled the long train of freighters 
which we had watched in the rain of 
the evening before creeping up the moun- 
tain side past Bandar Baroe. The two- 
wheeled carts, with low, roughly thatched 
roofs of branches, extended in a close 
single file far out across the plain, with 
the thin legs of their red-turbaned Tamil 
drivers dangling between the shafts. 

The buffaloes were dry and dusty, and 
by the discouraged droop of their heads 
seemed to express deep discontent with 
the wallowless uplands. Among the slate- 
gray backs of the slow-plodding line, half 
a dozen light pink albinos an absurd 



color on an animal of that size regarded 
us suspiciously out of curious white eyes. 

THE SIMPLICITY OE THE WOMEN'S ATTIRE 

Except for this train, we saw no vehi- 
cles in the highlands, but several times 
passed little groups of pedestrians walk- 
ing single file along the roadside, on their 
way to or from one of the markets that 
are held at intervals in the different 
Batak villages. Some were even tramp- 
ing from the other side of the mountain, 
for since the building of the road the 
Bataks frequently trade with the nearer 
compounds of the Deli plain. 

Almost all were women, balancing 
heavily packed baskets of fine matting on 
their heads, with babies astride their hips, 
supported by a long scarf tied over one 
shoulder. The simplicity and similarity 
of their dress was striking, after the 
variegated colors favored in Java and 
Malaya, ope dark blue garment a long 
sarong hung loose from under the arms 
or around the waist sufficing in the ma- 
jority of cases. 

Their turban-like head-dresses were of 
the same dark - blue cloth, peculiarly 
folded, with drooping corners sometimes 



BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST OF SUMATRA 



85 




A NATIVE CLOTH FACTORY 
Evidently "industrial employment" does not tend to race suicide in Sumatra. 



used to support part of the weight of 
enormous coiled silver earrings. 

We rarely saw men on the road ; the 
few that accompanied the women strolled 
along behind, quite unencumbered with 
either baggage or babies, and saluted us 
with a friendly courtesy rather unex- 
pected in a tribe once so notorious for 
cannibalism. Their garments were quite 
similar to those of the women, with a 
shorter sarong tied around the waist, and 
often a coat or short pair of breeches in 
addition. 

Both men and women were barefoot, 
as usual, and although a stripe or a plaid 
occasionally varied the dark blue of their 
clothes, exceptions to the general style 
were very rare. 

The earrings worn by many of the 
women were of extraordinary dimen- 
sions. Only the wealthier could afford 
them, for each pair was worth about one 
hundred and fifty gulden and must have 
represented a considerable part of the 
family treasure. They consisted of long 
circular rods of solid silver, about three- 
eighths of an inch in diameter, passed 



through the upper part of the ear and 
bent back into the form of double, re- 
versed coils, the coils projecting far for- 
ward on the left side, to the rear on the 
right. Their weight would have torn 
them from the ears had they not been 
partially supported by the corners of the 
headdresses, and there was apparently no 
way of removal without first uncoiling 
one side. 

THE BATAKS, KINDRED OF THE HEAD- 
HUNTING DAYAKS 

The Batak people are in many ways 
the most interesting and remarkable of 
all the tribes of Sumatra, although as yet 
comparatively little is known of them. 
Ethnologically they are related to the 
head-hunting Dayaks of Borneo.* Their 
type has not been modified by contact 
with the outside world, nor even with 
the more advanced peoples of the coast, 
and their state of civilization and de- 
velopment is still quite rudimentary, al- 

*See "Sarawak, the Land of the White 
Rajahs," by Harrison W. Smith, in THE GEO- 
GRAPHIC for February, 1919. 



86 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




AS A SOCIAL CENTER THE HAND LOOM AND THE YARN REEL IN SUMATRA TAKE THE 
PLACE OF THE VILLAGE FOUNTAIN IN THE NEAR EAST 

Many of the sarongs made by the natives are elaborately interwoven with gold threads. 
They are lacking in originality of pattern, however. The silver filigree-work of the men is 
much more artistic. 



though it is thought that they were once 
more advanced than they are today. 

The reports of early Arabs trading 
with the Sumatran coast gave the Bataks 
their evil notoriety as cannibals, eaters 
of captives, foreigners, and their own 
aged and decrepit relatives. 

The half million Bataks scattered 
throughout the mountains and uplands 
of northern and central Sumatra are 
roughly divided into groups according to 
differences in dialect. Over a fifth pro- 
fess Mohammedanism and about half 
that number Christianity ; but in both 
cases the faith amounts to little more 
than a form of superstition, showing only 
vague traces of those beliefs and hardly 
affecting the village law of racial customs 
and traditions. 

The remainder, including the Kara- 
Bataks and the tribes of Toba Lake, are 
animistic pagans, and the circumcision 
practiced by the former, although doubt- 



less due to some forgotten Mohammedan 
influences, is not a religious rite. 

It is now general in the case of most of 
these tribes to refer to cannibalism as a 
practice of the past and at present non- 
existent. 

CHEATING DEATH BY GIVING ONE'S BODY 
TO BE EATEN 

As to whether or not any tribes con- 
tinue the practice of eating their aged 
and decrepit relatives I found a diverg- 
ence of opinion among the European 
residents of Sumatra. This form of 
cannibalism is by no means rare, and 
usually consists of the ritual killing and 
consumption of old and infirm males by 
the younger members of their own tribe. 

When the aging warrior feels the wan- 
ing of his powers, he climbs into a tree 
encircled by his relations, who dance and 
chant below. The old man presently 
drops to the ground, symbolic of the fall 



BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST OF SUMATRA 



87 




THE COMMUNAL HOUSE AT KAMPONG KINALANG, SUMATRA 

Note the means by which the thatched roof is anchored, awakening recollections of the 
stone-weighted chalets of Switzerland. Many of the houses in Sumatran villages are com- 
munal in character, three or four families living in the same dwelling. In places where the 
natives have come in contact with the Dutch, the interiors of their homes are not without 
modern conveniences, such as beds, pillows, and canopies. These houses are more comfort- 
able than those of any other people in the Dutch East Indies- 



.of a ripe fruit, and is knocked on the 
head and promptly eaten. In this both 
parties are mutually benefited: the con- 
sumers in partaking of the wisdom of 
their late progenitor; the eaten ancestor 
by finding immortality as a dimly con- 
scious member of the bodies of his strong, 
young descendants. 

To an animistic form of religion which 
regards the decay of a body in the ground 
as the end of all existence, this method 
of cheating death is welcomed alike by 
the failing tribesman and his younger re- 
lations. Not infrequently the practice is 
extended to the unfortunate strangers 
falling into the hands of such tribes, who 
are devoured that their capturers may 
receive the benefit of whatever wisdom 
they happen to embody. To this, rather 
than to a mere partiality for human 
flesh, cannibalism as practiced by many 
tribes may probably be attributed. 

Dark clouds presaging the usual rain 
of afternoon had already appeared on 
the horizon when we stopped for a hasty 



tiffin by the roadside. The rains of many 
afternoons had reduced the road to a 
bottomless morass of mud and clay, for 
we had left behind the last traces of 
metaling a few miles after clearing the 
mountains. 

While the average altitude of the plains 
is about four thousand feet, the level of 
the rolling surface varies more than a 
thousand, and the steep clay hills become 
appallingly slippery when wet. Up these 
the car barely crawled, moving crab- 
fashion, with the rear wheels revolving 
furiously in spite of "non-skid" tire 
chains, and flinging unbroken streams of 
clay-mud in all directions, which my boy 
Joseph vainly tried to dodge while he 
threw armfuls of cut grass under our 
track. 

On the down grades we tobogganed 
with hair-raising speed, wheels locked, 
and the whole road surface sliding with 
us, frequently finishing up in the ditch 
if there happened to be curves on the 
descent. Fortunately the ditches were 




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BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST OF SUMATRA 



89 



not very deep, but they were quite 
enough, in their saturated condition, to 
call out the shovel before the car could 
be extricated. 

Near the mud-hole in which we elected 
to stop for tiffin, fifty or sixty Batak 
women were holding a market, all squat- 
ting about on the ground, surrounded by 
piles of dried palm leaves, rattan, and 
big woven baskets full of grain, dried 
fish, and various other comestibles. 

As seemed generally to be the case 
throughout the highlands wherever work 
was in progress, men were conspicuously 
absent, and the women bargained and 
gossiped or waited for some one to come 
and bargain with them, paying little heed 
to my intrusion in search of photographs. 
A few were young and not uncomely in 
feature, but the vast majority appeared 
old and hideous, the inevitable results of 
early jnarriage, overwork, and, above all, 
the custom of filing the teeth. 

THE PRACTICE OF FILING THE TEETH 

This practice is quite common among 
the tribes of Sumatra, and with the 
Bataks it is invariable among both sexes. 
The operation, an extremely painful one, 
is begun at an early age and continued 
until maturity, when both sets of teeth 
have been completely filed away down to 
the jawbone. Although the Bataks' usual 
food of rice, syrup, and finely chopped 
meat and fish is soft and easily digested, 
their inability to chew must be a serious 
physical disadvantage. 

The custom originated as a form of 
personal adornment, no more strange 
than many similar practices among other 
wild tribes of the tropics ; but the reasons 
for it do not seem to have been inherited 
with the practice itself. To my repeated 
inquiries the answer was always the same, 
the usual native explanation for native 
customs "Batak people have always 
done so." 

The afternoon rain came up earlier 
than usual and caught us on a winding 
ascent to one of the higher levels of the 
plain. Our doubts of ever reaching the 
top grew very acute, but after many 
futile attempts and the burial of a great 
deal of grass in the deep ruts made by 
the whirling rear wheels, the car strug- 



gled up and we were saved from another 
night in the open. 

The rain was falling in floods when we 
finally splashed and skidded into the lit- 
tle compound of Sariboe Dolok and 
sought the meager protection of a tiny 
rest-house. It had two dark little rooms 
with a kitchen house in the rear, and as I 
groped my way inside I sprawled over 
the body of a large tiger. It was quite 
dead, but the encounter was somewhat 
startling. 

The house boasted of little in the way 
of furniture or supplies and the night 
was very cold, but we were comparatively 
dry and were offered the luxury of a 
chicken for supper. 

"Luxury" is perhaps a trifle eulogistic 
for the rubber-like fowl that was set be- 
fore us. Had we been able to eat him, 
we might, like the Batak cannibals, have 
absorbed the wisdom of his hardy ex- 
perience; but life had been too long and 
death too recent to admit of any such 
liberties with the corpse. , 

Sariboe Dolok, the capital of Simelun- 
gen and Karolanden, is not of the impor- 
tance that its official title might suggest. 

It is a lonely settlement of eight or ten 
native houses, an opium store, the guest- 
house, and the bungalow of the Assistant 
Resident, whose life there must be any- 
thing but socially gay. This courteous 
official spoke excellent English, as do the 
majority of Dutch in the colonies, and, 
besides affording a great deal of informa- 
tion, made us a present of six eggs a 
welcome addition to our tinned supplies, 
as we had found eggs an unprocurable 
commodity, even where chickens were 
to be had. 

I also learned from him that the Kam- 
pong Kebon Djahe, architecturally the 
most interesting of the Karo-Batak vil- 
lages and the one I was most anxious to 
see, lay about twenty-five miles back by 
the way we had come, on a hill nearly a 
mile off, and not visible from, the main 
road. 

So the following morning we retraced 
our way over the fearful clay-mud track, 
by no means improved by the evening's 
downpour, until we came to a half-oblit- 
erated trail leading westward toward two 
isolated little white houses. These formed 



90 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A COMMUNAL HOUSE IN THE KARO-BATAK COUNTRY 

The independence of the native women impresses European trav- 
elers as most unusual for an Oriental country. This independence 
may be the outgrowth of curious marriage customs. For instance, 
among some tribes a man and woman do not establish a home of 
their own. The husband remains among his own circle of relations 
and resides only temporarily with his wife. The children remain in 
the mother's custody and inherit all of her property, as well as half 
of that earned by the father and mother together. The remaining 
half goes to the father's sisters or to the children of those sisters. 



the "Government Center," or "European 
Quarter," of Kebon Djahe, and half a 
mile beyond, perched on the top of a 
steep clay bank above a small river, the 
remarkable buildings of the native kam- 
pong lay hidden away in a clump of trees. 

A REMARKABLE BATAK COMMUNITY 

In their chief features, all Batak kani- 
pongs are more or less alike, but in ar- 



chitectural elabora- 
tion Kebon Djahe is 
unique. Confined, as 
usual, within a rect- 
angular space of 
smooth -trodden clay 
hedged by a bamboo 
thicket, the buildings 
were all raised on 
wooden piles, their 
immense thatched 
roofs and extraordi- 
nary decorations com- 
pletely dwarfing the 
low, windowless sides. 
Clumps of plantains, 
encircled by fences of 
woven bamboo, sprung 
like oases from the 
hard clay ground, and 
innumerable evil-look- 
ing dogs, chickens, and 
black pigs scratched 
or rooted in the rub- 
bish beneath the 
houses. The build- 
ings ranged in size 
from little granaries 
and storehouses of 
quaint and graceful 
design to the huge 
communal house, 
where the men delib- 
erate and banquet and 
where the fetishistic 
treasures of the vil- 
lage are kept and 
friendly strangers en- 
tertained (see illustra- 
tion on this page and 
on page 76). 

Each end of the 
larger houses termi- 
nated in a narrow 
veranda of bamboo 
poles, with a bamboo 
ladder or a notched log leading up to 
the small opening which it gave into the 
dark interior. 

The immense roofs sloped uniformly 
on the sides from widely flaring ridges to 
low, overhanging eaves, but the ends were 
broken in about half way down, forming 
great gables beneath the jutting ridge- 
poles. Brilliantly colored matting woven 
into artistic designs filled these triangular 



BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST OF SUMATRA 



91 




AN ELABORATE "SCARECROW" ERECTED TO 
PROTECT SUMATRAN GRAIN FIELDS 

This lookout is made of bamboo, and from 
the numerous poles long strings are run to all 
parts of the field. On these strings are tied 
bits of cloth, which are made to dance as the 
boy watchman strikes the pole whenever feath- 
ered marauders appear. 

spaces and closed the similar ends of 
huge dormer-like projections thrown out 
from the roofs of the more pretentious 
buildings. 

On the communal house and a few 
others, the vast roofs had a double over- 
hang, with gigantic, top-heavy cupolas 
towering above them, thatched and 
shaped in miniature of the dormered 
roofs below. From their corners, and 
from the ends of all the ridge-poles and 
the blind dormers carved wooden buffalo 
heads with arched, white-painted necks 
and savagely lowered horns, looked 
fiercely down to challenge the intruder. 

The cupolas were surmounted by curi- 
ous wooden figures, some on foot, some 
riding Batak ponies, but all, brilliantly 



POUNDING GRAIN : IN SUMATRA THE 
MILLER IS THE DAUGHTER 

The European traveling in this island fre- 
quently finds it difficult to get food, especially 
in the season when vegetables are scarce. Dur- 
ing the wet season the natives live almost ex- 
clusively on rice. The cereal is cooked very 
dry and eaten with salt and peppers. 

colored, facing out over the treetops, with 
hands raised in supplication toward the 
little white house of the Dutch Con- 
troleur on the plain. 

A PIGEON-HOUSE AND A TOMB 

Beside the communal house stood two 
remarkable structures quite similar in de- 
sign, both gay with colored carving and 
decoration. One was a pigeon-house; 
the other a tomb, from within which the 
upright body of the last head-man looked 
out on the village he had once directed. 

Under the thatched roof of an open 
building near by, a group of women with 
long poles were pounding grain in hol- 
lowed-out wooden logs, while other blue- 
garbed figures, bearing flat trays or 



92 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




* 




TWO LITTLE PIGS WENT TO MARKET 



The live-stock market of a Sumatran village is a lively scene, 
with its excellent cattle, closely resembling the Alderney type, its 
porkers, wiry little ponies, goats, and Indian buffalo. 



with deepest suspicion 
and not infrequently 
thwarted. With the ad- 
ditional limitations of 
low-hanging clouds and 
lack of direct sunlight, 
and the penetrating 
moisture so disastrous to 
films, photographic re- 
sults in the Batak coun- 
try were never wholly 
dependable. 

Kebon Djahe was un- 
like any other village I 
have ever seen. For sev- 
eral hours we roamed 
around, exploring the 
compound, fascinated by 
all its singular pictur- 
esoueness the remark- 
able sky-line of the roofs 
and their fantastic dec- 
orations, the blue - clad 
figures grouped at their 
divers tasks below, and 
the effective blending of 
brilliant colors with the 
green of bamboo leaves 
and grayish brown of 
the moss-covered thatch. 

THE AUTOMOBILE DROWNS 
IN MUD 

The sun had gone 
down unobserved in the 
clouds and the early twi- 
light had fallen before 
we left Kebon Djahe. 



woven baskets on their heads, moved 
about the inclosure at their various occu- 
pations. A few men idled around, but 
showed little interest in any work more 
strenuous than chewing sirih or follow- 
ing the various strategies I had to employ 
to obtain the photographs I wanted. 

STRENUOUS OBJECTION RAISED TO THE 
CAMERA 

As was often the case in the highlands, 
the natives, especially the women, were 
averse to having a one-eyed devil-box 
aimed at them, and even my disguised 
efforts in this direction were regarded 



Vaeue misgivings of the 
road from there to Sari- 
boe Dolok in the dark 
had begun to assail my mind, when the 
car, which had bsen rocking and skid- 
ding over the rain-soaked trail, suddenly 
plunged deeper into the mud, stopped 
short, and began to sink. 

There was a little hole in the center of 
the track, no bigger than a man's hand, 
which on the way up had scarcely been 
noticeable, but in passing over it in re- 
turning, the whole road seemed to open 
up and engulf us. A furious effort to 
clear the chasm, whatever it might be, 
only succeeded in hastening our doom. 
When we stopped settling the car was so 
deep that a list to the right brought the 



BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST OF SUMATRA 



93 



top, which was up, to the 
level of the road surface, 
while between the top and 
the ground on the other 
side there was barely 
enough space left to crawl 
through. 

Any further sinking of 
the car might have perma- 
nently imprisoned us, so we 
hastily crept out on our, 
stomachs through the sticky 
clay-mud and viewed the 
catastrophe. It was not en- 
couraging. A careful sur- 
vey of the car showed it to 
be hopelessly buried, be- 
yond any possibility of my 
disinterring it unaided. 

The chain falls, in the 
equipment box on the rear, 
were completely out of 
sight some four feet un- 
derground; but even had I 
dug them out there was 
nothing to which to attach 
them, and in any case the 
car was too thoroughly in 
the grip of the mud to have 
yielded to single-handed ef- 
forts. 

With some difficulty I 
discovered the cause of the 
accident. A bamboo cul- 
vert far under the road, 
which had rotted peacefully 
and undisturbed since it 
had been laid, had finally 
collapsed from our weight, 
after being weakened by our first pas- 
sage over it. 

To extricate the car was a task for a 
first-class train-wrecking crew, and I felt 
little confidence of being able to raise 
half a dozen helpers in that country, 
especially as I had left Joseph in Sariboe 
Dolok and would be unable to explain 
our predicament to any natives I might 
meet. 

Kebon Djahe seemed the one light on 
the situation; but night was falling rap- 
idly, and as my speedometer cable had 
broken in the morning and there were 
no noticeable landmarks, I had only a 
dim idea how far away the compound 
might be. 




EVERY MOTHER IS HER OWN PERAMBULATOR 
IN SUMATRA 



For my mother to be left alone at night 
in the wilds of a country until recently 
addicted to cannibalism, while I set out 
on an indeterminate search for help was 
an unpleasant prospect; but as Kebon 
Djahe might have been eight or ten 
miles away a nasty walk in the mud and 
the dark that seemed the only solution. 

NATIVE PRISONERS MARCH TO THE RESCUE 

For over an hour I walked, or rather 
waded, down the road in the utter still- 
ness of the desolate highlands. Then a 
few barely audible shouts drifted up 
from across the plain, and I struggled 
through the grass in their direction to a 
tiny paddy field on the top of a low hill. 



94 



THE NATIONAL. GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




WOMEN Of CERTAIN SUMATRAN TRIBES ARE NOTED THROUGHOUT THE DUTCH 

INDIES FOR THEIR BEAUTY 

On "Passar," or market days, wonderful arrays of strange fruits and vegetables are 
displayed for sale, and on special occasions children's toys, ornaments for head-dresses, 
cooking utensils, and cloth of gay colors may be purchased. Among the tempting edibles 
are peanut cheese and pineapple sauces. The palm wine of Sumatra is most refreshing on 
a hot day and all days are hot in the lowlands. 



Through the dusk I could see a little 
bamboo lookout, such as is erected in 
every grain field, and, squatting on its 
platform, two blue - clad figures, who 
stopped their shouting as I approached. 
But to my weak efforts in Malay they 
merely stared in silence and continued to 
jerk on the strings which, tied with flut- 
tering bits of cloth, intersected the field 
to frighten away feathered marauders. 

From the hill, however, I discovered 
in the twilight two solitary little white 
houses about a mile away and struck off 
to investigate. Soon a tiny light sprang 
out of the darkness, and when I arrived 
in its cheery glow I found the Dutch 
Controleur just returning from inspect- 
ing a jail which was in course of con- 
struction, and I accosted him with my 
tale of disaster and appeal for help. 

"Certainly," he promptly said, as if 
foreign motorists mired in the interior 
of Sumatra came to him everv day with 
requests to be dug out, "I will lend you 
my prisoners." 

Although his jail was not yet built, he 



had a fine collection thirty-eight Bataks 
and Achinese in whom respect for Dutch 
control had not been sufficiently evident. 
This was my wrecking crew, and joined 
by a Dutch planter, who was recuperat- 
ing in the higher altitude of the Batak 
lands from an assault made on him by 
two coolies, we marched as if on a night 
attack back to the buried motor, with two 
armed native soldiers as a guard. 

A "SHIVERY" EXPERIENCE FOR A WOMAN 

I had been absent several hours before 
the lanterns picked out ahead of us the 
dark outline of the sunken car blocking 
the road. As we approached I saw the 
figure of my mother apparently seated 
in the clay mire of the roadside, with a 
dozen motionless forms standing in a 
shadowy row on the bank behind her. 
She struggled stiffly to her feet, reveal- 
ing one of the mud-soaked seat cushions 
that she had succeeded in dragging from 
the car, and the silent row melted back 
into the darkness. 

"Who are your friends?" I asked, 



BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST OF SUMATRA 



95 



after ascertaining that she had suffered 
nothing more than an unpleasant wait. 

"I don't know," she replied, "but I'm 
very glad to have you back. I've felt 
rather 'shivery' ; first watching them ap- 
pear out of the dark, one or two at a 
time ; then hearing them talk in low 
voices. I didn't know whether they were 
planning to eat me or simply discussing 
why I chose this particular place to sit 
in. But for the last half hour they have 
stood like a row of vultures and haven't 
made a sound, and that was the worst 
of all !" 

"These are not bad people around 
here," said Mr. von der Weide, the Dutch 
planter; "but they are not always to be 
trusted. I do not think it well to be alone 
in the highlands at night." 

Armed with native spades, shaped 
somewhat like a wide-bladed adze, and a 
small forest of strong cut poles which 
we had fortunately discovered piled by 
the roadside, the crew attacked the motor. 

The prisoners were strong and willing ; 
my training in the recovery of automo- 
biles from strange places had been varied 
and thorough, and, aided by the untiring 
efforts of Mr. von der Weide, we soon 
had a wide excavation made around the 
car, supporting it meanwhile with shores 
to prevent further sinking. 

Then with the poles as huge levers we 
pried up each end of the machine a little 
at a time, filling the chasm underneath 
with a cob-house of other poles cut into 
various lengths, until the car, resting on 
a wooden pier, rose to the road level 
and was dragged to comparatively firm 
ground. I scraped off the worst of the 
clinging mud from those parts that were 
completely choked with it, and coaxed 
the motor into starting. 

There seemed to be no damage except 
for twisted mudguards, and we ran back 
to Kebon Djahe accompanied by Mr. von 
der Weide, who insisted on our spending 
the night there we did not require 
much urging while our army was 
marched ceremoniously back to jail. 

The night was extremely cold, at least 
for within three degrees of the equator, 
but we had been spared the usual evening 
storm and although plastered from head 
to foot with clay mud when we came in, 
we were very comfortable. 



In the morning, after a very early 
breakfast of Dutch cheese, brown bread, 
and delicious cocoa, and another hour or 
more spent in wandering about the fasci- 
nating buildings of the native compound, 
we ran back to Sariboe Dolok. The 
road, although still in a wretched con- 
dition, had dried considerably, as there 
had been no rain the previous day, and 
we reached Sariboe Dolok without diffi- 
culty, picked up Joseph, and kept on to- 
ward Toba Lake. 

HOW THE NATIVE MOTHERS WEAVE 

Not far beyond the Assistant Resi- 
dency was the small compound of Kina- 
lang where we made another long stop. 
It was concealed by the customary 
thicket of bamboo, and although the 
houses were smaller, poorer, and not 
nearly so elaborate in design as those of 
Kebon Djahe, the native life was even 
more interesting. 

Scattered about the inclosure were 
crude bamboo frames, attached to the 
piles of the houses or to poles driven 
into the ground and fastened at the cor- 
ners with straw rope. At these the 
women of the village were seated their 
legs stretched out on the ground before 
them and one end of the frame in their 
laps and with the most primitive kind 
of equipment were producing the sarongs 
for which Kinalang is noted throughout 
the highlands (see illustration, page 84). 

Their movements seemed in nowise 
hampered by the babies tied on their 
backs, nor were the babies themselves in 
the least disconcerted at having their 
small heads almost snapped off as their 
mothers worked. 

Large bamboo reels held the yarn to 
be transferred to the spindles, and in lit- 
tle bamboo pails beside each frame were 
the strong vegetable dyes which the 
weavers applied on their work, spreading 
the color with bunches of chicken feath- 
ers, while they kept shooting the spindles 
from side to side between the separated 
strands of the warp. 

In spite of its thriving industry in 
sarongs, the houses of Kinalang showed 
none of the neatness and decorative fea- 
tures of those of Kebon Djahe. All, ex- 
cept the huge, oddly shaped communal 
building, were loosely thrown together, 



96 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




SUMATRA PROBABLY HAS THE MOST REMARKABLE VEGETATION IN THE WORLD 

Here are seen the giant "elephant ears" and other characteristic plants and vines which 
the jungle sends out to recover the land stolen from it. One plant, the tjindawanmatahara, 
has a blossom more than three feet in diameter. 



sided with strips of split bamboo or rat- 
tan, carelessly thatched, and appearing as 
if the first strong wind would blow them 
to pieces. 

The interiors were dingy, littered with 
utensils, and filled with smoke and soot 
from the open fires that burned in the 
center of their bamboo floors, while dogs 
and chickens shared with the owners what 
little space was left. 

SUMATRA'S LARGEST LAKE 

About two miles from Kinalang the 
road descended in a sharp curve, plunged 
through a narrow cut, and, emerging 
abruptly on the sheer edge of the plateau, 
revealed a superb view of Toba Lake, 
over a thousand feet below. 

Toba Meer the Sea of Toba, as it 
is called is the largest inland body of 
water in the Dutch Indies. It covers an 
area of nearly eight hundred square miles, 
entirely hemmed in by the mountains 
of the Boekit Barisan, at an altitude of 
about 3,100 feet, and it averages nearly 
1,400 feet in depth. 

We followed the uncompleted road to 



its sudden end, about two miles below, 
and then stopped to eat our tiffin and en- 
joy the magnificent view. The rugged 
mountains rising precipitously from the 
dark water, and the narrow, fjord-like 
recesses of its winding arms, gave an 
extraordinary beauty to the great high- 
land lake, which from that point was not 
unlike the Bocche di Cattaro seen from 
the Montenegrin Pass. 

A cataract tumbled down the mountain 
side opposite ; far below us the fantastic 
roofs of the village of Harangaul showed 
picturesquely above a grove of fruit trees 
in the midst of the green paddy fields of 
the rich ravine, while out in the lake the 
long, narrow canoes of the Batak fisher- 
men slipped through the blue shadows, 
with an occasional glint of wet paddles 
and dripping nets. 

We left reluctantly to return to where 
the road had branched off, backing up to 
the plateau again because the unprotected 
trail was too narrow to enable us to turn 
the car, then continued down the lake. 

The road had dried off rapidly and for 
more than half the distance was vastly 



BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST OF SUMATRA 



better than above, as well as traversing 
a more wooded and much prettier coun- 
try. There were, to be sure, two narrow 
rain-soaked cuts where the water had not 
run off, through which the car barely 
succeeded in struggling; but the high- 
land roads had made us indifferent to 
anything short of being permanently 
mired. 

A MEETING Of BATAK AND MALAY 
HEADMEN 

We made further stops at two other 
diminutive compounds. In Poerba Dolok, 
as at Kinalang, the women were weaving 
sarongs and pounding rice ; at Pematang 
Rajah there was a market, and a meeting 
of Batak and Malay headmen gor- 
geously dressed, with huge golden but- 
tons in their jackets, finely wrought 
bracelets around their arms, and kris 
with beautifully carved hilts stuck into 
the brilliant sashes at their waists. 

As we left this picturesque group and 
drove slowly on, a bamboo chair swung 
high on the shoulders of four bearers 
appeared hurriedly up the road, and from 
it, as we passed, a wife of one of the 
chiefs gazed curiously down at our un- 
familiar equipage. 

Shortly behind her, preceded by dire 
shrieks, three men in equal haste to reach 
the market came trotting around a cor- 
ner, each carrying two live black pigs 
tightly bound in split bamboo and pro- 
testing volubly, as they were swung at 
the ends of the shoulder poles. 

We ran over a swampy road, gradually 
working upward, across a desolate, grass- 
covered plain. Only a few mountains 
dim in the distance gave any sense of 
limit to the rolling plateau, and except 
for the swift-flying wild pigeons, a few 
of which I shot to add variety to our 
larder, there was nowhere any sign of 
life. 

Dark, ominous clouds bore down upon 
us as we splashed over the soft level 
stretches, skidded down short, slippery 
descents, and labored on the upgrades 
among the holes and crevasses of deep 
washouts. 

In one place the road was evidently 
being lowered, and for several hundred 
yards more than half of it had been cut 



away, leaving a shelf on one side too nar- 
row to drive on, and on the other a six- 
foot trench which was simply a morass 
of mud and water. As the shelf was 
quite impossible, I chose the trench, 
started up it with a rush, and promptly 
stuck fast. 

No efforts could move the car in either 
direction. The sticky clay formed solid 
disks about the flying wheels, completely 
hiding tire-chains and rope under its 
smooth yellow coating. 

After an hour of unavailing labor, 
Joseph and I abandoned the effort to 
extricate the machine, and as darkness 
was rapidly falling we held a hurried 
consultation to determine what should be 
done. It was finally decided to desert 
the car and attempt to flounder through 
the mud to the nearest native village. It 
was a desperate: decision, but the only 
alternative was a night in the car. 

Detaching one of the side lamps, 
whose fitful rays would enable us to 
avoid the deepest pools of water, the 
three of us began the sliding, splashing 
tramp. 

About a mile beyond where the car 
was entombed we came to a cut, and at 
its edge the dull rays of another lantern 
showed half a dozen natives putting away 
some tools in a little shed. Joseph and I 
immediately scrambled over to question 
them. Only one spoke Malay ; the others 
were part of his gang of road laborers 
an evil-looking lot. 

I was surprised at finding human be- 
ings there, and, feeling consequent mis- 
givings over the security of our aban- 
doned car and luggage, I asked the man 
in charge if he or one of his men would, 
for a suitable consideration, spend the 
night in an automobile about a mile down 
the road, to guard it from being molested 
during my absence. To my astonishment 
he promptly refused, and, asking the 
question in turn of his men, met with, 
immediate negatives. 

THE NATIVES* DREAD OF TIGERS 

I could not account for their unwilling- 
ness. The cushions of the tonneau would, 
surely afford as comfortable quarters as 
any they were accustomed to; it could 
not be the storm of which men of the 




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BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST OF SUMATRA 



99 



highlands were afraid; and the reward I 
had offered, though small enough, was 
probably equivalent to about a week's 
income. 

Then it occurred to me that they were 
afraid of the automobile itself, and I 
hastened to assure them that it was not 
only dry and comfortable, but quite safe ; 
that I had locked it up, and that it could 
not move until I myself released it. 

"Oh, it is not that," said the spokes- 
man, with an air of having slept in auto- 
mobiles most of his life. 

"Well, what is it then?" I was both 
curious and a trifle annoyed. 

"Tigers." 

"Tigers?" 

"Yes, indeed," said Joseph nervously, 
translating. "He say plenty of tigers 
here come down sure and eat him up !" 

"But not in the automobile," I objected. 

"Oh, no ; tiger first take him out." 

I readily persuaded the men to help 
carry our luggage to the village, five 
miles as he estimated it, but nothing 
would induce any of those natives to 
spend the night within reach of the great 
prowling beasts. 

A walk down the mountain to the rest- 
house on the lake was quite as arduous 
as we had feared. The trail descended 
some 1,500 feet in long zigzags. When 
we finally reached our destination, my 
mother was nearly exhausted, and we 
were both too grateful for the shelter 
to be critical of what we found. But 
even so, one could hardly have called 
the accommodations luxurious. The 
whole building leaked ; it was overrun 
"with toads, lizards, spiders, cockroaches, 
and various other pests. 

We rose stiff and unrested in the 
morning, but when the early mists had 
lifted from the green island facing us, 
the beauty of the clear highland lake 
"banished every thought of weariness and 
discomfort. 

Few lakes in all the world can offer 
such a setting as the Toba Meer. The 
encircling mountains of the Barisan chain 
rise sheer from the water's edge, their 
guttered sides white - flecked with the 
foam of many rain- fed cataracts. 

In the purple shadows along this som- 
ber rim, indistinct little villages cling pre- 
cariously to the steep slopes, checkered 



with the tiny squares of a few light green 
or yellow paddy fields. 

Overhead the winds of the monsoon 
may moan and whistle about the peaks, 
but the deep blue surface of the lake is 
seldom ruffled, save by the V-shaped 
wakes of the dug-out canoes, which skim 
about like tiny water-bugs in the vast di- 
mensions of the silent mountain amphi- 
theater. 

Amid such surroundings we lost all 
count of 'time until hunger necessitated 
our return to the motor, car, which was 
salvaged from the mud only with great 
difficulty. 

Many trials and adventures were en- 
countered in making our way down from 
the heights, but when we reached Pema- 
tang Siantar we were out of the high- 
lands and back again on the coastal plain, 
although still at a considerable elevation 
and a long distance inland. The moun- 
tains from this point sloped quite grad- 
ually toward the sea. It was again warm 
at night, warm and soggy, and we re- 
turned to sleeping on the bedclothes, after 
the unaccustomed treat in the highlands 
of sleeping under them. 

A MALAY COSMOPOLIS 

Siantar forms a trade link between the 
highlands and the coastal regions, and at 
its market half the nationalities of the 
Sundas may be found, beside many from 
the rest of Malaysia, from India proper, 
and from the extreme East. There in 
the morning I wandered for over an hour 
between rows of women and boys who 
squatted on their heels behind their trays 
and baskets, while the stream of different 
tribes flowed steadily past. 

Mostly they were Bataks, hideous with 
red-stained, toothless mouths ; Sumatra 
Malays in brilliantly flowered sarongs; 
and blue-trousered Chinese wearing the 
typical broad brown topees, or straw af- 
fairs woven in the form of baskets and 
filled with a kind of lacquer. 

Others bargained, gossiped, or wan- 
dered aimlessly among them Malays 
from far corners of the archipelago; 
pretty Sundanese girls with white jackets 
and smoothly combed hair ; Tamil women 
in scarlet sari, and Tamil men with white 
dhoti and red turbans ; Bandjarese, 
Sikhs, and even wandering Pathan, trad- 




SALESGIRLS IN THEIR SUMATRAN OPEN-AIR GROCERY STORE 

The young woman standing in the central background is wearing the curious coiled 
silver earrings peculiar to the island. The preparation for the reception of these earrings 
begins in babyhood, when the lobe of the ear is pierced and a bit of tightly coiled banana 
leaf is inserted. The puncture is gradually expanded by the pressure of the unrolling leaf. 



BY MOTOR THROUGH THE EAST COAST OF SUMATRA 



101 



ers from the Afghan frontier, long- 
haired and dirty, with heavy, boat-shaped 
shoes and Inngi trailing from their rak- 
ishly set caps. 

THE CHINESE COOUE's GROWING POWER 

There were many more, but of every 
five two were Chinese. Some were nearly 
naked, half-starved new arrivals peddling 
trays of small nicknacks hung from poles 
across their calloused, sweating shoul- 
ders. Others, laborers earning high 
wages on the plantations, squatted about 
a native restaurant in one corner of the 
market, talking at high speed with their 
mouths full of rice or sundry delicacies 
that no one else would eat. 

And there were many, sleek, well 
dressed, and bejeweled, who had passed 
in a brief time through both these first 
stages and now showed the result of in- 
difference to privation and an infinite 
capacity for overwork, the only assets 
brought with them from the Middle 
Kingdom. 

The irrepressible Chinese immigrant 
coolie seems destined to become the 
financial power of Sumatra, as he already 
is in Malaya, Java, and elsewhere in the 
East Indies. 

From Siantar we ran back to Medan. 
The road was hard and dry, a trifle 
rough at first, but such a transition from 
the soft ditches we had been following 
through the highlands that the very 
steadiness of our progress began to alarm 
us. 

After the conditions of Batak high- 
ways, an uninterrupted run of thirty-five 
miles makes one gravely expectant of 
dire things to follow ; but the road grew 
better instead of w r orse, and we drove 
into Medan early in the afternoon with a 
ninety-mile run behind us our longest 
in Sumatra. 

Before we reached Medan we passed 
a heavy, two-wheeled transport cart on 
its way to some estate, drawn by the 
most enormous buffalo I had even seen. 
A thin, sweating Chinese coolie walked 
beside it, wearing a battered pair of blue 
trousers and a round, peaked hat of 
bamboo, undoubtedly the aggregate of his 
worldly possessions. Just as we drew 
alongside, the buffalo got wind of a 
near-by wallow, stretched his neck, and 



snapped the extremely simple harness a 
piece of rope holding the wooden collar 
to the shafts. 

While the huge beast ambled off to 
enjoy his mud bath the coolie repaired 
the harness by unraveling a few lengths 
of thread from some burlap sacking in 
the cart, plaiting it into a cord, and then 
splicing the broken rope. This done, he 
extracted from the waistband of his 
trousers what appeared to be a handful 
of dried peas probably counted down to 
the last grain that would support life 
ate his meal, and set out to recover his 
cumbersome charge. But the buffalo was 
otherwise minded. 

For thirty-five minutes the patient 
Chinaman vainly tried to make the huge 
animal leave the mud-hole, himself get- 
ting plastered with slime and deeply 
scratched on some dead branches. 

At last the relentless yanking on his 
nose-rope spoiled the buffalo's repose, 
and he followed his driver to the cart 
with a fine effect of being very bored. 
When the collar was again fitted over his 
neck the oversized animal swung his 
head fretfully and the harness promptly 
snapped once more. Without a change 
in expression the coolie started to make 
a new repair, and the last we saw of him 
was a patient figure squatting on the 
road, laboriously sawing off with his 
teeth the end of the buffalo's nose-rope. 

From Siantar to Tebing Tinggi the 
road had passed through dense forest, 
the edges of the right of way choked 
with wild plantains, "elephant ears," and 
all the quick-growing plants and vines 
that the jungle sends out to recover the 
land stolen from it. 

Only a few ambitious tobacco estates 
broke in on the ranks of the vine-en- 
tangled, straight-trunked trees ; but from 
Tebing Tinggi the run to Medan took us 
through some of the most thriving estates 
in Sumatra. In that fertile section was 
represented nearly every variety of plan- 
tation found on the island. 

THE RUBBER PLANTATIONS OF SUMATRA 

Second in extent and in importance to 
the vast tobacco fields surpassing them 
in many cases were the acres devoted to 
rubber, both indigenous Ficus clastica, 
nany branched and buttress-rooted like a 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A CHINESE COOLIE: MENDING THE HARNESS OF HIS BUFFALO CART 
In the meantime the buffalo is taking his daily noonday bath and siesta in a near-by mud-hole. 



"banyan, and Hc\pca brazilicnsis, enor- 
mously popular in Malaya. 

Siberian coffee thrived in the shade of 
the hc\vca or under the protection of 
vast coco-palm groves ; ten-foot pepper 
Tines climbed thickly up the trunks of 
small trees, clumps of tall areca palms 
waved their graceful fronds high in the 
air, and dense forests of teakwood, 
planted in even rows, overhung and 
shaded the road. 

Other things without end grew in like 
profusion, and all helped prove what the 
planter enthusiasts had told of the is- 
land's future. With rich alluvial soil, 
.unfailing rainfall, and tremendous nat- 
ural resources, only the lack of labor 
and the deterrent influence of warring 
tribes has held Sumatra practically at a 
standstill while its sister island, Java, has 
flourished so greatly. 

Sumatra's exploitation has been carried 
on very slowly and cautiously, it is true, 
but without the aid of the severe though 
wonderfully beneficial methods of the 
Java culture system ; and before the close 
of many years its economic development 



and wealth will astonish even those fa- 
miliar with the statistics of Java. 

We reached Medan early in the after- 
noon, and the next morning ran down 
ten miles to the end of the road and took 
the Deli railway for two or three miles 
to the port of Belawan, in the mangrove 
swamps. 

A wearying two-hour struggle ensued 
in the moist, oppressive heat of the low 
coast a contest against heavy odds in 
the shape of booms that were too short, 
planks that were too weak, spaces too 
narrow, and stanchions that interfered, 
and all the other things that make a 
nightmare of loading and unloading 
motor cars on ships unprepared to handle 
them. 

But we w r on in the end, with the help 
of a placid Dutch officer, who showed 
no anxiety over the disruption I was 
causing the company's sailing schedule ; 
and when the car was at last on board, 
the Rnmphius dropped down the river to 
the Straits, swung southeast for Singa- 
pore, and shortly sunk the low east coast 
of Sumatra in the haze of late afternoon. 



VOL. XXXVII, No. 2 WASHINGTON 



FEBRUARY, 1920 







BY LIEUTENANT-COMMANDER NOEL DAVIS, U. S, NAVY 

Photographs from the U. S. Navy Department 

For an account of the extraordinary feat of the U. S. Navy in planting 
56,611 mines in the North Sea, the reader is referred to ''The North Sea Mine 
Barrage," printed in THE GEOGRAPHIC, February, /p/p. The removal of the 
mines zvas perhaps an even more remarkable achievement, and was under the direct 
command of Rear-Admiral Joseph Strauss, who also had command of the expe- 
dition that laid the mines. THE EDITOR. 



WHEN time and study have en- 
abled an accurate history of the 
World War to be written, it is 
not at all unlikely we shall read that the 
North Sea Mine Barrage was primarily 
responsible for the collapse of Germany. 
The inconceivably great task of closing 
the exits of the North Sea had been ac- 
complished ; an impregnable wall of mines 
stretching from Scotland to Norway, a 
distance of 240 miles, had become a re- 
ality, and that deadly weapon, the sub- 
marine, which had daily brought us 
nearer to inevitable defeat, regardless of 
the gallant efforts on the battlefields of 
France, at last was bottled up within the 
North Sea, no longer free to carry on its 
depredations. 

The construction of the barrage was a 
magnificent achievement, typically Amer- 
ican, demanding the concentrated efforts 
of many of our largest manufacturing 
establishments to produce the countless 
complicated parts which make a mine ; 
the building of huge assembly plants in 
Scotland ; a special fleet of mine-layers ; 
and then, in the face of the enemy, the 



laying of these thousands upon thousands 
of delicately adjusted spheres, one at a 
time, each in its predetermined position 
in the North Sea. 

The hitherto intrepid submarines were 
conquered, because they would not risk a 
passage across the barrage. Several tried 
and were destroyed ; others, critically 
damaged, managed to reach port and told 
of this new danger which confronted 
them. And here it was that the barrage 
became most fruitful. 

As long as the submarines had an even 
chance in battle, they were willing to con- 
tinue. Now the realization was forced 
upon them that they faced an intangible 
foe, an ever-present foe, always waiting 
and ready to explode upon the slightest 
contact. Realization grew into fear, the 
fear to mutiny ; new crews could not be 
mustered, and so the U-boat menace was 
ended. 

WHEN GERMANY'S ONLY CHANCE otf 
VICTORY FADED 

With the collapse of the submarine 
campaign, Germany's only chance of vie- 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




MAP SHOWING THE LOCATION OF THE MINE) FIELDS 

The narrow Straits of Dover had been closed previously by mines and nets. With the 
completion of the North Sea Barrage, stretching from Norway to the Orkney Islands, the 
fate of the German submarine was sealed. . 



tory faded. She knew it better than we, 
and at once circuitously sent forth her 
first proposals for peace, which developed 
with such remarkable rapidity that a few 
weeks later the Armistice was signed and 
the war was over. 

Then came the period of reconstruc- 
tion, with tasks almost as great as those 
of the war itself. The havoc and devas- 
tation had been frightful. Cities and 



farms without number must be rebuilt, 
millions of starving people had to be fed, 
and, perhaps most immediately serious of 
all, the thousands upon thousands of 
mines which had been laid must now be 
cleared away, in order that the countless 
vessels loaded with food and troops might 
navigate in safety the long-obstructed 
ocean highways. 

Concentrated in the North Sea Barrage 



REMOVAL OF THE NORTH SEA MIXK BARRAGE 



105 




DETAIL MAP OF THE MINE GROUPS 

The mines laid by the United States Xavy are represented by full lines, and are further 
distinguished by group numbers. The broken lines indicate the mines laid by Great 
Britain. 



were more than 70,000 mines more than 
had been laid during the entire war in all 
the other waterways combined and of 
these slightly better than 80 per cent had 
been laid by the United States Navy dur- 
ing the six months preceding the Armis- 
tice. Now, with the arrival of peace, we 
had accepted the responsibility of remov- 
ing every mine that we had laid. 

Think what it meant. Here was a death 
trap containing more than 21,000,000 
pounds of TNT and extending over an 
area of approximately 6,000 square 
miles ! This mighty belt of destruction 
had plucked from Germany her only hope 
of victory, because the crews of her sub- 
marines, after losing their comrades, who 
tried in vain to cross it, mutinied and re- 
fused to risk their lives in what appeared 
a certain death (see maps, pages 104 
and 105). 

Although the Germans had learned the 
secret of our mines within a month after 
the first one was laid, they were unable 
to devise any means of safeguarding their 
ships to prevent them from exploding 
these delicate weapons we?oons which 
now confronted us with all the potential 



destruction that had been designed to 
subdue an enemy. 

We had veritably sown our wild oats, 
and now we had to reap them ; for the 
only means of removing the mines was to 
cross and recross the mine fields, time 
after time, until we were sure that not a 
single mine was left. 

HOW MINES ARE SWEPT 

Sweeping mines, for by such name is 
the process of removing them called, is 
not a particularly intricate art. It con- 
sists essentially in dragging a heavy wire 
between two vessels. In order to bury 
the wire to a sufficient depth beneath the 
surface to insure catching the mines, 
"kites" are attached to the sweep-wire 
just astern of each vessel. These kites 
fly down in the water in much the same 
manner that an ordinary kite flies up in 
the air (see page 108). 

When a mine is caught in the sweep- 
wire, it is dragged along until the slender 
wire which holds it to its anchor breaks, 
allowing the mine to rise to the surface, 
where it is destroyed. This is ordinarily 
done by puncturing it with rifle-shots, so 
that it sinks and becomes innocuous. No 




REAR-ADMIRAL JOSEPH STRAUSS AND HIS STAFF ON BOARD HIS FLAGSHIP, THE 

"BLACK HAWK" 

Left to right: Lieut.-Commander Noel Davis, Rear- Admiral Joseph Strauss, Lieut. W. K. 
Harrill, arid Ensign K. C. Richmond. 




MARKER BUOYS TO INDICATE THE POSITIONS OF THE LINES OF MINES WERE PLACED 
AT INTERVALS OF THREE MILES THROUGHOUT THE LENGTH OF EACH GROUP 

Besides a differently arranged flag, each buoy was painted to show which line of mines 
it marked and its position in the group, in much the same manner that the signs on the 
street corners indicate the streets. The buoys were assembled on board, using the sphero- 
cylindrical cans which are seen on the stern of the ship. 



106 



REMOVAL OF THE NORTH SEA MINE BARRAGE 



attempt is made to recover the mines, for 
the risk involved is far greater than the 
mine is worth (see pictures, pages no 
and 116). 

During the war the German submarines 
laid hundreds of mines in the entrances 
to European harbors, and toward the end 
had scattered some along our own At- 
lantic coast. Permanent sweeping forces 
were required to keep the channels 
cleared, and, while vessels so engaged 
were occasionally lost, our chief concern 
was from a totally different source. 

These mines which Germany had laid, 
likewise the British mines, were what is 
known as the "horn type." Leaden horns 
project from the mine and must be struck 
and broken before the mine explodes. 

Our mine was different. Invented 
shortly after the United States had en- 
tered the war, it had made the construc- 
tion of the North Sea Barrage possible. 
A piece of metal the size of a nail was 
sufficient to explode it. Furthermore, a 
long antenna stretching up above the mine 
enormously increased its radius of action. 
Vessels built of anything but wood could 
not survive in such a field. Even the 
sweep-wire was sufficient to detonate the 
mine, and, worse, one mine frequently 
caused other mines to countermine, and 
if one of these should be beneath a 



sweeper ! 

THE MAN CHOSEN FOR THE INTRICATE 

TASK 

The task before us indeed was deli- 
cate. It called for concentrated genius 
and iron-handed resolution to tackle such 
a problem, and Rear-Admiral Joseph 
Strauss, United States Navy, was selected 
for the job. Possessing an intricate 
knowledge of explosives and their ca- 
prices, a knowledge derived from long 
periods of duty in the Bureau of Ord- 
nance, and having personally directed the 
actual construction of .the barrage, he 
was, without qualification, the one man 
in the Navy best suited for such an ex- 
acting undertaking. But even he didn't 
have the faintest idea what the ultimate 
method of sweeping would be. 

Every possible scheme must be tried 
with the hope of finding a solution a so- 
lution not only for clearing the mines in 
the shortest possible time, so that ship- 



ping might resume its normal routes, but, 
primarily, one which would afford the 
maximum safety to the men who were to 
be engaged in this hazardous work, for 
human life had at last returned to par. 

The first thing to be done was to ascer- 
tain the then existing condition of the 
barrage. 

It was now December. The mines had 
been laid from three to six months. In 
order to limit the depredations of the U- 
boats as quickly as possible, it had been 
necessary to lay these newly developed 
mines without subjecting them to the ex- 
haustive tests so essential to the logical 
development of all intricate and delicate 
mechanisms. Perhaps the firing batteries 
had become exhausted or some other un- 
foreseen defect had rendered them inac- 
tive. This we must know at once ; for, 
aside from the shortness of the winter 
days in such high latitudes (60 degrees 
north), gale follows gale with such ra- 
pidity that small craft are scarcely ever 
safe, and sweeping during the winter 
would be impossible. 

If we were to complete our task dur- 
ing the coming summer, everything must 
be in readiness to begin active operations 
at the first break of spring. 

MAKING SAILING-SMACKS MINE-PROOF 

Steel vessels could not, of course, be 
used for this first experiment, and self- 
propelled wooden vessels invariably have 
so many iron fittings about their hulls 
that they, too, would be in constant dan- 
ger. Admiral Strauss therefore borrowed 
from the British two of the only type 
of vessels left wooden sail-boats sixty- 
nine feet long. 

Sweep mines with these ? The idea was 
discouraged from the beginning. How 
could two small fishing-smacks, with their 
sterns tied together by a heavy sweep- 
wire, keep position on each other, pass 
sweep, and maneuver back and forth 
across the mine field? Ridiculous as the 
idea seemed, it was our only chance to 
gain the information that was needed. 

The first step was to make them mine- 
proof, as far as such a thing were possi- 
ble. They were hauled out upon the 
ways at Inverness, the hulls inspected, 
nail-heads driven in and plugged, and 
other metal fittings sheathed with wood. 



108 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



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They then were given a 
heavy coating of tar. 

Manned with volunteer 
crews, these little vessels, 
the Red Rose and the Red 
Fern, got under way from 
Inverness with the two 
tugs, Patapsco and Patitx- 
ent, at sundown, December 

22, 1918. 

The Patuxcnt and Patap- 
sco were to escort them as 
far as the mine fields, stand 
by while the experiments 
were being made, and then 
give them assistance, if re- 
quired, when they again 
were off the field. 

THE FIRST MINE EXPLODES 

The next morning found 
the Red Rose and Red Fern 
on the southern edge of the 
barrage. There was a 
threat in the air as the little 
vessels stood up to each 
other, passed the sweep, 
and headed across the lines 
of mines; low-flying black 
clouds scudded rapidly 
across the gray sky, while 
the barometer went down 
with alarming rapidity. 

Then, grr-ung! 

A towering column of 
white water impelled by the 
explosion of 300 pounds of 
TNT sprang high above the 
masts of the Red Rose. 
Separated by only a short 
length of manila rope, 
which insulated the sweep- 
wire from the ship, the ex- 
plosion virtually lifted the 
little vessel from the water, 
shaking her until it seemed 
as if the timbers in her hull 
would fly apart. When she 
settled down again the sea 
gushed in between the 
planks until the pump could 
scarcely keep the vessel dry. 

This was the first mine. 
Five others followed, most 
of them, fortunately, fur- 
ther astern. .It was indeed 
a pretty sight to see these 



REMOVAL OF THE NORTH SEA MINE BARRAGE 



109 



tiny vessels tacking and wearing 
in perfect unison, keeping sta- 
tion on each other by furling top- 
sails or streaming sea anchors. 

But the experiments were cut 
short by the gale foretold by the 
morning's sky, which broke with 
the fury of a hurricane in the 
early part of the afternoon. The 
sweep was cut adrift, sails reefed, 
and course set to pick up the 
Patapsco and Patuxent, who by 
now had been left out of sight 
beyond the horizon. 

EXPERIENCING ONE OF THE GALES 

THAT MAKE THE NORTH 

SEA NOTORIOUS 

By 3 o'clock the sun had set 
and the oncoming darkness added 
to the difficulties. Shortly be- 
fore midnight the tugs were over- 
taken, but they were suffering 
equally in the gale, and a few 
minutes later were again out of 
sight. 

How it blew ! The Red Rose 
was hove to under storm- jib and 
staysail forward and triple-reefed 
mizzen aft. First, the jib went, 
followed by the topmast, then 
but a bare pole. A few hours 
later the mizzen-boom snapped, 
and for the next 36 hours the 
Red Rose wallowed in the North 
Sea waves vicious waves, that 
seemed to come at once from all 
directions. 

The Patuxent's rudder was 
carried away, and she had to re- 
turn to port. 

Not knowing whether the Red 
Rose and Red Fern were safe, a 
number of British men-of-war 
were sent out to join the search, 
but most of the would-be rescue 
ships had to return to port, for 
they could not weather the gale. 

Then followed days of anxiety 
at Inverness. Had it been ask- 
ing too much of such fragile 
craft to undertake this expedition 
at this period of the year? The 
North Sea is notorious the world 
over for its violent weather. But, 
when hope had almost ebbed 
away, word came from Peter- 






REMOVAL OF THE NORTH SEA MINE BARRAGE 



111 



head that the Red Rose had reached 
port on Christmas morning. The next 
day the Red Fern anchored in St. An- 
drews Bay, blown 200 miles from her 
destination. 

So ended the first experiment on the 
mine fields. Six mines out of 56,000 had 
been destroyed a negligible number, of 
course ; but we had found what we had 
set out to find the mines were still 
there, waiting for us now, as they had 
waited for the enemy's submarines previ- 
ously. 

To clear the whole barrage by means 
of sail-boats was, of course, impossible. 
From the outset Admiral Strauss realized 
that rugged, powerful vessels, able to 
keep the sea in practically all weather, 
would be required to do this work. 
Furthermore, the United States Navy at 
last possessed an ample fleet of vessels 
of this type, for almost every week one 
of the new mine-sweepers was being com- 
pleted and placed in commission. 

But here, again, we were confronted 
with that ever-baffling problem : How 
could we protect these vessels so that 
they could cross the mine fields and 
strike the mines without exploding them ? 

Sheathe them with wood? It would 
take a year to fit out the necessary ships, 
if it could be done at all. Paint them 
heavily w r ith tar or other non-conductor? 
Not sufficient protection. 

THE MIRACULOUS HAPPENS 

It began to look as if the task were 
impossible of accomplishment. Then the 
miraculous happened. I can remember 
it as if it were yesterday. A timid knock 
at the Admiral's door and Ensign D. A. 
Nichols (now lieutenant) hesitated and 
came in. 

"I have a scheme, sir," he addressed 
the Admiral, "for protecting ships against 
the mines ; but it is so simple that I'm 
almost ashamed to suggest it." 

It was simple, too, but one of those 
simple things which require the mind of 
a genius to discover. Fifteen minutes 
later the necessary gear to test the scheme 
was being assembled, and that same aft- 
ernoon the tests were carried out and 
were successful ! 

Our greatest handicap was now re- 
moved and we were free to use steel 



ships for sweeping the barrage as soon 
as they could be fitted with the Electrical 
Protective Device ! 

More exhaustive tests were carried 
out rigid to a detail to find if there 
were any points which had been over- 
looked ; but every test proved even more 
conclusively the effectiveness of the de- 
vice. Specifications for its construction 
were cabled to Washington and the actual 
manufacture began a few days later. 

OUTFITTING THE MINE-SWEEPERS 

Our most pressing task now was to 
get the new mine-sweepers, which were 
still scattered among the various ports 
on the Atlantic coast, equipped with this 
device, fitted with sweep-gear, provis- 
ioned for a long period away from home, 
and then get them started for the North 
Sea to begin actual work at the break of 
spring. 

Admiral Strauss returned to the United 
States to supervise this work, leaving 
Captain R. C. Bulmer, U. S. N., in com- 
mand of the mine-sweeping detachment 
at Inverness, to make the necessary ar- 
rangements preliminary to the arrival of 
the mine-sweepers. 

A base for operations had to be se- 
lected ; fuel and water facilities provided ; 
suitable sweep-gear must be developed, 
and, if possible, further experiments car- 
ried out to gain some definite knowledge 
of the behavior of the mines. 

It was March before the Patuxent's 
rudder had been replaced, and while this 
was being done both she and the Patap- 
sco were equipped with home-made elec- 
trical protective devices, so they might 
cruise in safety through the fields of 
mines. 

Newly developed kites, capable of at- 
taining the great depth at which we were 
required to sweep, were borrowed from 
the British Admiralty, together with a 
few lengths of serrated sweep-wire, so 
called because of its peculiar lay, which 
enables it to saw the mooring of a mine, 
and the Patapsco and Patuxent set out 
for the barrage to experiment with this 
equipment, which was later to be used 
by the vessels fitting out at home. 

The sweep was passed and sounding 
tubes were slid down to the kites to 
measure the depths at which they were 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




ONCE A MIGHTY UNIT OF GERMANY'S PROUD HIGH SEAS FLEET 

Kirkwall, the base of the American mine-sweepers, is separated from Scapa Flow by 
only a narrow neck of land. When it was known that the interned German fleet was being 
scuttled by the men on board, Admiral Strauss ordered all his fleet then in harbor to pro- 
ceed at full speed to Scapa, hoping that they might succeed in beaching some of the vessels 
before they had filled and sunk. But the work of destruction was so complete that our 
vessels were of no assistance. 



flying; then the course was altered to 
head across the mine field. 

The first few explosions were well 
astern and in the center of the sweep, 
and although the terrific concussion shook 
the ships from end to end, the men 
quickly became used to the novel sensa- 
tion and apparently enjoyed it. Mines, 
too, kept popping up behind the sweep, 
having been cut from their moorings be- 
fore the sweep-wire could reach the mines 
and cause them to explode. 

A MINE EXPLODES BENEATH THE 
"PATUXENT" 

Then suddenly it seemed as if all bed- 
lam had broken loose. Towering col- 
umns of water were belched up on every 
side ! The Patuxent seemed to stop for 
a moment as if stunned, and then, as the 
spray and water settled back again, great 
clouds of black smoke, mingled with 
flame, poured from her funnel. 



The lights below decks dimmed and 
went out; the floor plates in the fire- 
rooms had been hurled from the decks ; 
an ever-widening circle of brown, dis- 
colored water spread out around the ship. 
The vessel had been countermined. 

Luckily, the mine which had exploded 
below her had been planted at the deep- 
est level, and, aside from minor damages, 
which could be repaired in a few hours, 
she had not been injured. A mine fired 
by the sweep-wire had caused these others 
to explode sympathetically. 

We had sampled a danger with which 
we were to be faced constantly in the 
coming months a danger that no human 
effort could avert. 

Many of the supersensitive mines had 
exploded prematurely shortly after the 
barrage was laid, and we had hoped that 
only those possessing normal stability 
now were left ; but such was not the 
case. The Electrical Protective Device 



REMOVAL OF THE NORTH SEA MINK BARRAGE 



113 




THE LITTLE TOWN of KIRKWALL, SCOTLAND, WITH ITS BARREN, WIND-SWEPT HILLS, 

HAS PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN AMERICAN NAVAL 

LIFE DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS 

Hundreds of patrol craft engaged in hunting submarines and in escort work were based 
here until the Armistice. Four months later the Mine-Sweeping' Force made this its base 
while clearing the North Sea Barrage. 



would prevent mines from exploding 
when in contact with the ship, but against 
these countermines it was of no avail 
and an upper-level countermine beneath 
sweeper would undoubtedly destroy her. 

KIRKWALL, AMERICA'S MINE-SWEEPING 
BASE IN THE ORKNEYS 

The next mine encountered in the 
sweep exploded, shattering the sweep- 
wire, and before the break was mended 
a blinding snow-storm cut short further 
experiments. The two ships then pro- 
ceeded to Lerwick, a drowsy little town 
in the Shetland Islands, and later to 
Kirkwall, in the Orkneys, choosing the 
latter place as our base for the coming 
operations. 

During this experimental trip twenty- 
five mines were exploded and fourteen 
were cut adrift. As many of these float- 
ing mines as possible were sunk by rifle 
fire, but it was difficult to find them after 
they had once been lost to sight. It was 
evident that special ships would be re- 
quired to follow up each pair of sweepers 



and sink the mines as fast as they ap- 
peared. The only vessels then available 
were the little sub-chasers, which had 
been doing patrol duty in the English 
Channel, and twenty of them were ob- 
tained and sent to Inverness. 

By the middle of April all arrange- 
ments were completed and we were ready 
to begin actual sweeping the moment that 
the mine-sweepers arrived. Oil-ships, 
colliers, gasoline, and water boats had 
been borrowed from the British Admi- 
ralty ; the sub-chasers had been drilled in 
their new duties: special buoys had been 
obtained for marking the barrage, and the 
sweepers were by then halfway across 
the Atlantic. 

THE SWEEPERS ARRIVE FOR THE BIG TASK 

On April 20, 1918, the first twelve of 
these sturdy little vessels arrived in In- 
verness. What a weird future confronted 
them! 

A veil of mystery surrounded every- 
thing, even more than in the silent oper- 
ations of the war. Those who manned 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




THOUSANDS AND THOUSANDS OF FISH 

WERE KILLED BY THE EXPLOSIONS 

OF THE MINES 

The sub-chasers kept the larger ships con- 
stantly supplied with cod, pollack, and herring, 
which are most abundant in the North Sea. 
Occasionally a curious specimen, such as shown 
above, was picked up by a vessel. 

the sweepers only knew that they had 
been selected to sweep the hitherto invin- 
cible barrage. The ships had suddenly 
been ordered to the navy yards at Boston 
and Norfolk, where curious appliances of 
every description had been placed on 
board. Workmen invaded the ships and 
began stringing wires and installing elab- 
orate electrical panels. Some one said 
these were to keep the mines from ex- 
ploding when their vessels struck them. 



Then, too, rumors had reached home that 
the Patuxent had narrowly escaped de- 
struction while experimenting in the bar- 
rage. 

The day following the arrival of the 
sweepers Rear-Admiral Strauss returned 
to Inverness and hoisted his flag on the 
Black Hawk, the flag and repair ship of 
the force. 

Not a moment was to be lost. If 
humanly possible, the barrage must be 
cleared away during the year, and that 
meant by October, for from then on the 
short days and severe storms would make 
our efforts futile. 

As soon as the necessary overhaul inci- 
dent to a transatlantic voyage had been 
completed, the mine force got under way ; 
the sweepers and six chasers headed for 
the barrage ; the Black Hawk and other 
chasers for their new base at Kirkwall. 

THE RESULTS OF THE FIRST TRIP 

No attempt was to be made on this 
first operation to clear a definite area of 
mines. The object was experimental. 
Several appliances remained to be tested, 
chiefly an amplification of the Electrical 
Protective Device whereby the mines 
would all be exploded by an electrical 
connection to the sweep-wire ; also, we 
must know more definitely the present 
condition of the field what percentage 
of the mines remained, and were they 
still in the positions in which originally 
planted, or had the storms and currents 
scattered them about. 

At the end of two days the ships re- 
turned to port, having accounted for 221 
mines less than half of I per cent of 
the total number we had laid. The elec- 
trical scheme for exploding the mines 
was not successful, and, even worse, it 
had a most alarming effect on the mag- 
netic compasses. The powerful solenoids 
caused by the current in the insulated 
sweep-wire wound around the drums had 
made the compasses point as much as 
ninety degrees from the magnetic me- 
ridian ; and the navigators found their 
ships actually going east or west when 
they were thought to be headed north. 

The mines, as far as could be told, 
were still in place and had not dragged 
from their original positions. 



REMOVAL OF THE XORTH SEA MINE BARRAGE 



115 



None of the ships had been damaged, 
although numerous instances of counter- 
mining had occurred. 

From the results of these first two days 
it was obvious that at the present rate of 
sweeping it would be impossible to com- 
plete the work within the year; so Ad- 
miral Strauss cabled a request to Wash- 
ington that sixteen additional sweepers 
be fitted out and dispatched as expedi- 
tiously as possible. He also made ar- 
rangements to charter from the British 
Admiralty twenty newly built steam 
trawlers and man them with our own 
crews, these vessels being required as 
marker boats to enable the sweepers to 
maintain their positions while maneuver- 
ing upon the field. 

A BARRIER 260 FEET DEEP IMPENETRABLE 
FOR SUBMARINES 

By the loth of May the sweepers were 
ready to go out again. This time a 
definite area was to be cleared. 

The barrage was composed of thirteen 
separate groups of American mines. 
Each group consisted of from two to six 
parallel rows of mines, and the mines in 
each row were laid at one of three 
levels upper, middle, or lower the 
three forming a complete barrier in a 
vertical plane to a depth of 260 feet. 

The average group contained five rows, 
and of these three were laid at the upper 
level to give the surface barrage the 
greatest density. The reason was psy- 
chological : Submarines, knowing the bar- 
rage was there, would prefer to risk 
crossing on the surface, even if they 
knew their chances were less. 

The upper-level mines were now our 
gravest concern, for the damage done a 
sweeper by the explosion of one of these 
would, of course, be far more serious 
than from a lower-level mine. 

Group 12 (see chart, page 105) was 
selected to be cleared on this coming op- 
eration, since it consisted of only three 
rows of mines, only one of which was 
laid at the upper level. 

With the danger from countermining 
reduced to the minimum, the experience 
gained in sweeping this group might pro- 
vide a further means of safeguarding 
the ships before the more dangerous 
groups were undertaken. 







A GIANT HALIBUT, WEIGHING MORE THAN 

4OO POUNDS, CAUGHT NEAR THE 

ORKNEY ISLANDS 

In order to reduce the possible effects 
of countermining still further, each pair 
of sweepers was to work independently 
of the others, so that all pairs should be 
evenly spaced along the length of the 
field. Then, if an exploding mine should 
cause others in its vicinity to countermine, 
the possibility of damaging other sweep- 
ers than the one pair was very remote. 

The method of sweeping to be used 
was what is called transverse sweeping 
that is, the sweepers were to cross the 
lines of mines perpendicular to their di- 
rection, then turn, recross, and so on. 
This method is much more laborious than 
attempting to keep a line of mines be- 



110 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A MINE; FOUL OF THE "PATUXENT'S" KITE; 

In less than a minute after the picture was taken the mine exploded, blowing several 
men overboard and slightly injuring the commanding officer. Most of the force of the 
explosion was expended in the air, however, and the damage to the ship was not extensive 
(see text on this page). 



tween the pair of sweepers and steaming 
longitudinally down its length (longi- 
tudinal sweeping), but was deemed to be 
safer, since the possibility of being above 
a mine when it exploded was considered 
less. 

THE; CASUALTIES BEGIN 

No sooner had the sweepers reached 
the field than the casualties began, and, 
curiously, the cause was from an. en- 
tirely unexpected source. From now on 
this same thing happened so frequently 
that it seemed almost incredible that it 
had not occurred before. 

The Patuxent was the first victim. 
Her sweep had been severed by the ex- 
plosion of a mine and had to be hauled 
on board to be repaired. By the time the 
kite was within sight (it can be seen only 
a few feet below the surface), a mine 
could be seen floating near it. Evidently 
its mooring had fouled the kite and it 
was necessary, of course, to clear it be- 
fore the kite could be lifted. 

The commanding officer, realizing the 
danger, sent all hands forward and went 
aft himself to do the work, assisted by 
one man. 



The mine was within four or five feet 
of the ship's side when, suddenly, with- 
out warning or apparent cause, it ex- 
ploded. 

For an instant the entire ship was 
obscured in the mass of flying spray, and 
when it had subsided four of the crew 
could be seen struggling in the water. 
Fortunately, all of them were rescued by 
their comrades. The captain was, per- 
haps, the luckiest of all; standing only 
a few feet from the mine when it had 
detonated, the only injury he sustained 
was the loss of his right thumb, which 
had been amputated by a flying frag- 
ment. 

Since the mine was not submerged, the 
force of the explosion was largely spent 
in the air, and consequently the damage 
to the ship was not serious. A few days 
in dry-dock were sufficient to repair her. 

Up to the time of this accident, when 
mines were found foul of the kites or the 
sweep they had been regarded more or 
less as curios. Many had been hauled on 
board ; for, according to design, they were 
supposed to be quite safe when on the 
surface. Xow no one trusted them. One 



REMOVAL OF TIIF. XORTH SEA MTXE BARRAGE 



117 




A CURIOUS EXPLOSION 

While a sweeper was going alongside her mate to pass the sweep, a mine, from some 
unknown cause, exploded between them. The entire after part of this vessel was drenched, 
but the damage, fortunately, was not serious. 



ship which at the time had a mine on 
board even went so far as to double the 
risk by throwing it back into the sea. 

Infinite care, however, could not en- 
tirely eliminate this particular danger. In 
the first place, the mine could never be 
seen until it was dangerously close to the 
ship; then the course of action that was 
chosen might or might not prove the 
proper one. 

A TRAGIC MISHAP 

Two days after the Patuxent was dam- 
aged an identical casualty befell the Bob- 
olink, but with far more serious conse- 
quences. The captain, as in the Patit.v- 
ent's case, went aft to clear the mine 
himself, sending all hands forward to a 
place of safety except those actually re- 
quired to assist him. 

The towing engine had been stopped as 
soon as the mine was sighted, leaving it 
somewhat submerged. It exploded be- 
fore anything could be done to clear it. 

The commanding officer, Lieutenant 
Frank Bruce, U. S. N., was killed. The 
first lieutenant and several men were 



blown into the water, the first lieutenant 
falling 100 feet from the ship. The men 
who plunged in after them succeeded in 
saving all, even though the first lieuten- 
ant had been rendered unconscious by the 
fall. 

The Bobolink was critically damaged 
by the explosion. The entire after body 
had been distorted, parts of the plating 
being driven in two to three feet by the 
concussion. The rudder was gone, the 
engine disabled, and the ship was leaking 
badly. Her boilers, which are well for- 
ward, were not injured and enabled the 
powerful wrecking pumps to take care of 
the water. 

Two other sweepers towed the dam- 
aged vessel to Scapa Flow, near Kirk- 
wall, where she was docked and tempo- 
rary repairs made. Later she was towed 
to Devonport, where she still remained in 
dock when the Mine Force sailed for 
home, five months later. 

Seventeen days after the operation be- 
gan, Group 12 was completed and the 
vessels returned to port. Several other 
accidents had happened, two of which 



118 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




DUE; TO AN ELECTRICAL PROTECTIVE DEVICE, THE LAPWING SUCCEEDED IN PASSING 

SAFELY OVER THIS MINE, WHICH EXPLODED AS SOON AS IT WAS OUTSIDE THE 

RADIUS OF IMMUNITY ESTABLISHED BY THAT REMARKABLE CONTRIVANCE 

Aside from shaking the vessel severely and breaking such articles as chinaware and lamp 
globes, no damage was ordinarily incurred by an explosion so far astern. 



necessitated docking the sweepers to stop 
the leaks caused by explosions. 

The rate of sweeping had been far be- 
low our expectations, but we were learn- 
ing. 

VAST QUANTITIES OF SWEEPING GEAR 
BLOWN AWAY 

The most serious factor, aside from 
the loss of life, was the expenditure of 
sweeping gear. Thousands upon thou- 
sands of fathoms of serrated sweep-wire, 
together with more than fifty plunger 
kites, had been blown away by the ex- 
ploding mines. Our original estimates 
had not anticipated so large a loss for the 



entire barrage as had been expended by 
this single operation. Moreover, both of 
these articles were exceedingly difficult to 
obtain. 

Our present rate of work was far too 
slow to complete the barrage within the 
year, and even the thought of the. idle 
winter days in that miserable climate, 
while we waited again for spring weather 
to resume operations, was most disheart- 
ening. 

WORKING EIGHTEEN HOURS A DAY 

Every minute on the mine fields was 
being utilized. In that high latitude, 
where the summer days are so unusually 



REMOVAL OF THE NORTH SEA MINE BARRAGE 



119 



long, the sweepers worked 
from four in the morning 
until ten, and sometimes 
even later, at night. 

The days in port were 
equally busy. Fuel, water, 
provisions, and new sweep 
gear had to be obtained ; 
boilers had to be cleaned 
and many repairs were al- 
ways required. The ma- 
chine-shops on the two re- 
pair-ships buzzed inces- 
santly, and as soon as 
everything could be finished 
the ships were under way 
once more for the barrage. 

Group 9, the largest 
group of mines that has 
ever been laid, was selected 
for the next operation. 

Five thousand five hun- 
dred and twenty mines had 
been laid within its bound- 
aries. The same method of 
sweeping was to be used as 
on the previous operation, 
except that the three pairs 
of sweepers were to work 
together, sweeping their 
section of the field longi- 
tudinally instead of trans- 
versely. It was a bold ex- 
periment, but if they could 
demonstrate that the danger 
was no greater than in the 
other form of sweeping 
(this largely depended on 
their ability to keep be- 
tween the invisible lines of 
mines), then there might 
yet be a possibility of finishing the task 
before winter. 

Admiral Strauss spent several days on 
one of these sweepers in order personally 
to judge the relative merits of the two 
methods. 

A SUBMARINE WRECK CAUGHT IN THE 

SWEEP-WIRE 

An interesting indication of the success 
of the barrage was encountered while 
sweeping in the central portion of this 
group. The Heron and Sanderling, while 
crossing the lines of mines, were suddenly 
brought almost to a standstill ; then their 




A MINE WITH ITS ANCHOR, WHICH FOULED THE SWEEP 
AND WAS HAULED ON BOARD 

This extremely dangerous practice was automatically discon- 
tinued after the Bobolink's disaster (see page 117). 



sweep-wire snapped. A few minutes later 
a huge patch of oil rose to the surface 
and spread out astern of them. The 
sweep had fouled the wreck of a subma- 
rine which had been sunk in the barrage. 
Curiously, the mining squadron, when 
passing close to this same spot a few days 
after they had laid the field, sighted the 
dead body of a German sailor floating in 
the water. 

From the records of the Admiralty the 
wreck was presumed to be the U. B. 127. 

The sweeping progressed slowly. The 
weather, although it was now June, was 
almost as violent as it had been during 



120 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




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the winter months. Not until 27 
days after the operation had be- 
gun was the group finally com- 
pleted. Some improvement had 
been made. No ships had been 
seriously damaged, although 
many minor accidents had hap- 
pened. 

There was some consolation 
that our rate of sweeping was 
slightly better than that of the 
two British detachments engaged 
in clearing their portions of the 
barrage ; but it was far from 
satisfactory; the rate had to be 
tripled if we were to finish in 
1919! 

THE CHIEF CAUSES FOR SLOW 
PROGRESS 

The principal losses of time 
were due to the frequency that 
sweeps parted, with the conse- 
quent delay in repairing them, 
and to the difficulty in navigat- 
ing with sufficient accuracy to 
insure that every square foot 
of the field had been covered. 
This latter difficulty necessitated 
sweeping the same area over and 
over again to make sure no mines 
were left. 

The first cause offered little 
room for improvement; with 
practice, the sweeper crews be- 
came more dexterous in mending 
sweeps and repassing them, but 
the explosions which parted the 
wires could not be avoided. 

The second cause of loss of 
time presented many possibilities 
for improvement : First, by plac- 
ing all the vessels in formation, 
so that all the ground could be 
definitely covered ; then have 
them steam longitudinally down 
the field. The experiment made 
by the three pairs of sweepers 
on the previous operation showed 
that this was practical ; they had 
suffered no greater losses than 
the other sweepers, and, although 
their rate of sweeping was no 
faster than the others, it was 
plainly due to the difficulty of 
telling where they were. 






REMOVAL OF THE NORTH SEA MINE BARRAGE 



121 



The second possibility for im- 
provement lay in defining accu- 
rately each row of mines with 
suitable buoys before the sweep- 
ers were sent out. Some doubt 
existed if such a thing were pos- 
sible, for it had appeared in 
previous sweeping that the mines 
exploded or rose to the surface 
in such apparent disorder that 
to place marker buoys in exact 
positions relative to the individ- 
ual rows of mines was almost 
out of the question. But we at 
least could try. 

The Admiral directed that a 
Buoy-laying Squadron should be 
fitted out at once, in order to 
have the new fields marked by 
the time the overhaul and refit 
of the sweepers was completed. 

THE BUOY-LAYING SQUADRON 
BEGINS WORK 

Since the Buoy-laying Squad- 
ron automatically took over the 
duties which the trawlers had, in 
a lesser way, been performing, it 
was decided to fit out ten of these 
vessels for sweeping (they had 
been built expressly for that pur- 
pose by the Admiralty), using 
them astern of the regular sweep- 
ers to catch any mines which 
might have escaped the initial 
sweep. This would give a large, 
compact formation, with suffi- 
cient breadth to cover the entire 
width of the group. 

In order to reduce as much as 
possible the loss of time due to 
parted sweeps, three pairs of 
sweepers were to steam in col- 
umn along each row of mines ; 
then, when the sweep of the lead- 
ing pair was broken, they should 
drop out of formation, repass, 
and take position as the last pair. 
In this manner it was hoped that 
the sweepers as a unit might 
sweep continuously the full 
length of the field, keeping at 
least one pair in action on each 
line of mines, so as not to lose 
track of its position. 

Five days after the ships re- 



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122 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A COUNTERMINE (SEE PAGE 112) 

When least expected, the sea, with a mighty roar, would oftentimes belch up a pillar of 
white, shattered water. The cause of countermining could never be determined. Occurring 
always when least expected, this was a constant source of danger to the vessels in the field. 



turned to port they were under way again 
for the mine field. Not much rest after 
27 days at sea, where Sundays and holi- 
days were omitted from the calendars. 

The buoying of the little Group 12 A 
had been successfully completed, and 
seven hours- and forty minutes after the 
sweepers began not a single mine re- 
mained. 

It seemed incredible, impossible, that 
this could be true ! Ordinarily it would 
have taken us five times that long. 



Here indeed was real cause for jubila- 
tion. The enthusiasm of the force was 
unbounded, and for the first time it be- 
came possible to foresee the end of our 
task. 

AN IMPRESSIVE SIGHT 

By this time the buoying of the large 
Group ii was far enough advanced for 
the sweeping to begin immediately. 

On they came, 24 sweepers, 10 trawl- 
ers, and an equal number of the little 
sub-chasers. 



REMOVAL OF THE NORTH SEA MINE BARRAGE 



123 




EXPLOSION OF A DEEP-LEVEL MINE 

Due to the tremendous pressure of the water on top of the mines which were planted at 
the lowest level, the force of the explosion was not sufficient to throw the water high into 
the air, as is done by the upper-level mines. The shock of the explosion was felt immedi- 
ately. The ''slick" did not appear until approximately thirty seconds later. 



It was an impressive sight to see that 
armada, formed for sweeping, standing 
up the mine field, the air reverberating 
with the continuous roar of the explod- 
ing mines, and simultaneously the glis- 
tening pillars of white water springing 
up behind the sweepers, poising for an 
instant, and then disappearing. 

Still farther astern the fainter plop- 
plop of the rifles and machine-guns could 
be heard, as the chasers filled the floating 
mines with holes. 

A SHORT-LIVED TRIUMPH 

The triumph of the day was contagious. 
No casualties had occurred to mar the 
inauguration of this new method of 
sweeping, and it began to look as if the 
solution of our difficulties had been ac- 
complished. 

But the morrow held in store a flood 
of catastrophes of every kind the worst 
day we should have to face during the 
entire operations. 

The first victim was the Curlew, which 
was crippled by the explosion of a mine 
fouled in her kite and was forced to re- 



turn to Kirkwall for repairs. A few 
minutes later three mines were counter- 
mined beneath the Patapsco; but fortu- 
nately the damage was not serious. 

The Penguin followed, with numerous 
minor damages from a mine foul of her 
kite, and the same thing befell the Wil- 
liam Darnold almost at the same time. 
Both ships were able to make temporary 
repairs on the field and continued opera- 
tions. 

The Lapwing was next. She was 
seriously countermined and had to return 
to port. 

Sub-chaser 46 exploded a mine while 
sinking it, and was injured so badly she 
could not remain at sea. 

A BATTLE WITH THE ELEMENTS 

As if such havoc were not sufficient 
for a single day, six upper-level mines 
were countermined beneath or close 
aboard the Pelican. When the mass of 
water had subsided and the vessel could 
again be seen, she was sinking. Then 
began one of the most remarkable strug- 



124 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 

r 




SAVING THE PELICAN 

Seventeen minutes after the hull of the Pelican had been shattered by a series of suc- 
cessive countermines, the Auk on one side and the Eider on the other had made fast and, 
with their wrecking hoses spanning the intervals between them, were pumping to their maxi- 
mum capacity to keep the vessel, whose high bow was then but two feet above the water, 
afloat until they could reach port. 



gles of will power against the elements 
ever recorded. 

Seventeen minutes after the explosions, 
Captain Bulmer, who had gone out to 
direct personally the sweeping operation, 
had placed his flagship, the Auk, along- 
side the Pelican, and her powerful wreck- 
ing pumps were throbbing to their full 
capacity to keep the riddled ship afloat. 
A few moments later the Eider had made 
fast on the other side, and her pumps 
were doing likewise. The Teal then 
passed her towline to the Pelican, and 
the four vessels, lashed together, headed 
slowly for port. 

At that time the weather was good, 
and the Auk and Eider were able to keep 
the Pelican fairly well afloat ; but when 
they were still 50 miles from land a head 
sea began to rise and the situation grew 
rapidly worse. 

As the vessels were tossed about by 
the sea, the pump-lines parted, and be- 
fore they could be repaired the water 



had gained until the Pelican's bow was 
practically submerged, while her stern 
projected high above the water. To add 
to the difficulties, nightfall had overtaken 
them. 

The Pelican sank lower and lower ; her 
forward fire-room bulkhead, which alone 
kept her afloat, was buckled and distorted 
by the pressure of the water on the for- 
ward side. As the water crept higher 
and higher, the bulkhead was expected to 
burst at any moment. The crews on the 
Auk and Eider worked desperately to 
get the pumps started again. 

Since the vessel was in danger of sink- 
ing at any moment, it was unwise to keep 
unnecessary men aboard ; so Captain Bul- 
mer asked for twelve volunteers to re- 
main to do the necessary work. 

Every man stepped forward ! 

The twelve strongest were chosen and 
the rest had to be ordered off their ship 
against their will. It was a sight that 
dimmed the eyes, to see these twelve men, 



REMOVAL OF THE NORTH SEA MINE BARRAGE 



125 




. J 



THE EXPLOSION OF AN UPPER-LEVEL MINE ASTERN OF THE PATAPSCO 

The darker central portion of the upheaval which rises after the first white spouts of water 
break the surface is discolored by the gases of the TNT. 



when nothing- further could be done, 
grouped together on the stern, high out 
of water, singing old-fashioned melodies 
throughout the night. 

Then at last, after nineteen hours of 
struggling, this cortege of ships suc- 
ceeded in reaching the sheltered waters 
of Tresness Bay with the Pelican still 
afloat. The dogged determination and 
skillful seamanship of Captain Bulmer 
alone had saved her. 

Such holes as could be stopped were 
plugged, and the following day the ships 
proceeded to Scapa Flow, where the Peli- 
can was docked and sufficiently patched 
to permit her being towed to Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, where extensive repairs were 
undertaken. 

The morning following the Pelican ac- 
cident a curious mishap befell the Fla- 
mingo. After the day's sweeping was 
completed the vessels used to anchor near 
the mine fields in order that all hands 
might get as much rest as was possible in 
the few short hours of darkness. The 
deep water and the soft bottom of the 



open sea do not, however, make an ideal 
harbor, and on this occasion the Flamingo 
found herself at daybreak several miles 
south of the spot where she had anchored 
the night before. While weighing her 
anchor, which was secured to the end of 
her sweep-wire, her stern was virtually 
lifted from the water by the shock of an 
exploding mine. She had dragged during 
the night until she was in another group 
of mines. The damage done by the ex- 
plosion necessitated docking before she 
could resume her operations. 

AN OFFICER AND SIX MEN SINK WITH 

THE "BULKELEY" 

On the 1 2th of July, two days after the 
Flamingo was damaged, our most serious 
accident occurred. Again it was due to 
a mine fouling a kite. Before the trawler 
Richard Bulkcley could take any steps to 
remedy the situation, the mine exploded 
and her hull collapsed under the terrific 
concussion. 

Within seven minutes the vessel had 
gone down. The other vessels in the 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




B 



THE FEW DAYS IN PORT BETWEEN THE SWEEPING OPERATIONS WERE EQUALLY AS 

BUSY AS THE DAYS AT SEA 

Besides fueling, watering, and filling up again with stores, the sweeping gear had to be 
overhauled and repaired, the boilers cleaned, and as many of the leaks stopped as was possi- 
ble without docking the ship. 



vicinity had cut their sweeps, rushed to 
her assistance, and succeeded in rescuing 
all except one officer and six men. 

AN INSPIRING ACT Of HEROISM 

A moment or two before the Bulkcley 
had disappeared from sight, one of those 
inspiring deeds occurred which live for- 
ever in our memories and glorify the 
noblest traditions of the service. A man, 
dazed by the shock of the explosion, 
struggled to the deck. Seeing that he had 
no life-belt, Commander Frank R. King, 
U. S. N., took off his own, and, quickly 
buckling it about the man, helped him to 
get clear of the ship before she took her 
final plunge. A moment later the Bulke- 
ley had disappeared, carrying down with 
her, in the vortex of swirling water, this 
gallant officer, who gave his life that an- 
other might live. (To perpetuate his 
memory, the Secretary of the Navy, a 
few months later, named a new destroyer 
in honor of Commander King.) 



The remainder of the operation was 
completed without further serious acci- 
dent. 

From a standpoint of time, the results 
had been splendid; our rate of sweeping 
had actually been tripled. On the other 
hand, the casualties had been enormous 
one ship sunk, one permanently disabled, 
three damaged so badly that docking was 
necessary, three forced to return to port 
for repairs, while three had been able to 
complete repairs on the mine field. 

A careful review of the accidents, how- 
ever, showed that the majority had been 
due to causes independent of the method 
of sweeping, and the rapidity with which 
they had occurred had been proportional 
to the number of mines destroyed per 
day; so, evidently the ultimate losses 
would be equal, and the preference lay 
decidedly with the more rapid method. 

One thing, however, was apparent ; it 
was not safe to sweep with trawlers. Al- 
though the British had successfully used 



REMOVAL OF THE NORTH SEA MINE BARRAGE 



127 







A FLOTILLA OF SUB-CHASERS AT REST 

When these small but active war craft were in port they tied up alongside the repair 
ships in order to facilitate repairs, replenish their stores, and to give their crews as much 
relaxation as possible. 



them for years, their structural strength 
was far too light to withstand the ex- 
plosions of the American-made mines. 
Arrangements were therefore made to 
return thirteen of these vessels to the 
Admiralty, six being retained for trans- 
porting gear and supplies from Inver- 
ness to Kirkwall and for the delivery of 
sweeping material to the vessels on the 
mine field. 

The new sweepers which the Admiral 
had requested in May now began to ar- 
rive, fortunately just in time to replace 
the vacancies caused by turning back the 
trawlers and the absence of the ships 
which had been crippled by explosions. 
Eight had reached Kirkwall within the 
week, so that now the total force con- 
sisted of 32 sweepers, 24. sub-chasers, and 
6 trawlers, besides the two repair ships. 

SWEEPERS SET NEW RECORDS 

When all the vessels were in port the 
little harbor of Kirkwall bristled with 
activities, resembling more the busy har- 



bor of New York than that isolated little 
village bordering on the Frigid Zone. 

After five days in port the sweepers 
headed once more for the mine fields. 
The two groups designated to be cleared 
were finished in such record-breaking 
time that the sweepers asked permission 
to try to do two more before going back 
to port. 

The Buoy-laying Squadron was rushed 
out to mark the new fields, but were no 
longer able to keep ahead of the sweep- 
ers, and another pair of vessels had to 
be added to their force. 

At the end of sixteen days Groups 3, 
5, 6, and 7 were all swept. The casualties 
had been remarkably light. Fifty-five per 
cent of the barrage was now cleared, and 
although it was the middle of August, 
with the best part of the summer gone 
and the days rapidly growing shorter, 
every officer and man was determined 
he would not give up until the last mine 
in the North Sea had been destroyed. 

Of the remaining six groups, five were 



128 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




CLEARING THE MINES BORDERING THE NORWEGIAN COAST THE SWEEPERS 
PUT INTO STAVANGER 

This is a bustling little town, made prosperous by the war. The American mine-sweepers 
came here to obtain fresh water and redistribute their sweep-gear. 



at the extreme eastern side of the bar- 
rage. The other, Group 8, began just 
off the entrance to Kirkwall, but could 
not be undertaken until the British had 
removed their line of mines, laid closely 
parallel to ours ; for theirs, which were 
only six feet below the surface, were 
more dangerous to us than ours to them, 
and consequently should be undertaken 
first. 

Four days sufficed this time for repairs 
and overhaul in port. To a man aboard 
a sweeper it seemed as if he lived con- 
tinuously at sea ; and for such small 
ships, too, it was indeed an enviable en- 
durance record they were making. 

Even the routine affairs of administra- 
tion, which almost invariably take place 
in port, had to be conducted on the mine 
field. An interesting example of this 
occurred when the annual examination 
of enlisted men for promotion to war- 
rant officers fell due. 

A storm was raging at the time, mak- 
ing it impossible to sweep and equally 



impossible to transfer the candidates 
from their various vessels in order that 
they might appear before the examining 
board on the flagship ; so that most valu- 
able invention, the radio-telephone, was 
resorted to, and by this means each candi- 
date was simultaneously asked the suc- 
cessive questions of the examination 
while he sat at a desk on his own ship. 

A SHORTAGE OF KITES THREATENS THE 
WORK 

Aside from the delays caused by the 
gales, which now came on in greater vio- 
lence and frequency, the sweeping pro- 
gressed without interruption or serious 
casualty. The speed at which we now 
were working, however, introduced a fac- 
tor which threatened daily to delay us. 
Sweep-wire and kites essential imple- 
ments were being used up faster than 
we could obtain them. Besides the steady 
shipments from the United States, British 
manufacturers were producing at their 
maximum capacity. We had already 






REMOVAL OF THE NORTH SEA MINE BARRAGE 



129 




BY SETTING THE STAYSAILS, IT FREQUENTLY WAS POSSIBLE TO ADD A KNOT OR TWO 
TO THE SPEED MADE GOOD IN EVEN THE WORST OF WEATHER 



drained the Admiralty of all that they 
could spare, and still the supply was in- 
sufficient. 

The two repair ships, Black Hawk and 
Panther, therefore, had to lay aside the 
construction and repair work for the 
sweepers and chasers and devote their 
energy to the manufacture of kites, to 
enable the sweepers to continue operat- 
ing. 

Throughout the entire sweeping of the 
barrage we never had sufficient gear at 
any time to equip fully all sweepers for 
their contemplated stay at sea, and so it 
frequently was necessary after the day's 
work was over for one vessel, whose ex- 
penditures had been comparatively light, 



to go alongside one less fortunate and 
divide the supply of kites and sweep-wire 
that remained. 

A TASK FOR IRON CONSTITUTIONS 

Buoys, too, for marking the new fields 
were equally in demand, and, in order 
not to lose any of the valuable hours of 
daylight which could be used for locating 
the positions of the markers, it frequently 
was necessary for the Buoy-laying Squad- 
ron to spend the entire night in going 
from one sweeper to another to gather 
up the buoys which had been weighed 
after the sweeping of a group had been 
completed. 

Think of the physical endurance this 



130 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




LIFE ON BOARD THE SUB-CHASERS WAS CONCENTRATED HARDSHIP 

With the ships rolling and pitching incessantly, the crews lived largely on cold canned 
foods, slept in wet bunks, in unheated compartments, and sank mines as fast as the sweepers 
cut them up. Small as they are, the sub-chasers are marvelous sea boats and were able to 
stay out in weather that would have driven far larger vessels into port. 



work required ! The sweeping itself was 
fatiguing enough ; it was an all-hands' 
job. But, after it was finished for the 
day, to spend a part, sometimes all, of 
the night in getting ready for the next 
day's work was a task for nothing less 
than iron constitutions. 

Nothing could have been more mag- 
nificent than the splendid manner in 
which the officers and men stood up 
under the terrific strain. With never a 
murmur, never a complaint, sometimes 
going for months without setting foot on 
shore, these officers and men toiled on 
day after day. 

A comparison of the British mine- 
sweepers with our own is interesting. 
Their crews consisted entirely of volun- 
teers and were given nearly double pay, 
as well as a large bonus for each mine 
that they destroyed. We had no volun- 



teers ; it was the work of the Navy and 
we took it as such. We received no extra 
compensation nor any bonus for the 
mines that we destroyed. 

On the 1 3th of September, 32 days 
after leaving Kirk wall, the fleet returned 
to port. Five and a half out of the six 
remaining groups had been completed. 
The British sweepers had not yet com- 
pleted clearing their single line of mines 
to the southward of Group 8, and there- 
fore only the northern half of our group 
could be cleared at that time. The Brit- 
ish were expected to finish any day, after 
which we would be free to sweep the 
remainder of our group. When that was 
done Admiral Strauss desired to make a 
general test sweep of a large portion of 
the barrage to prove definitely that our 
work had been thoroughly done. 

It was now the critical season of the 



REMOVAL OF THE NORTH SEA MINE BARRAGE 



131 




THE LAST TWO WEEKS OF MINE-SWEEPING WERE ACCOMPLISHED UNDER ALMOST 

SUPERHUMAN DIFFICULTIES 

Storm followed storm with steadily increasing frequency and violence, until it seemed 
impossible that ships could actually be operating. The foremast of a sweeper can be seen 
in the center of the picture, while in the upper left-hand corner, perching on the crest of the 
wave, is the silhouette of a tiny sub-chaser. 



year. A careful analysis of the meteoro- 
logical records covering years of obser- 
vation showed that in all probability the 
equinoctial storms could be expected 
within the next few days, and after they 
had broken the winter weather would set 
in with such fury that further operations 
would be practically impossible. 

THE SWEEPERS ENCOUNTER A NORTH SEA 
STORM 

Every minute must be saved. As soon 
as the ships had anchored the Admiral 
made a signal, asking how many could 
go out again at the end of three days. 
After 32 days at sea, it was asking a 
lot more than could be expected, even 
of battleships but in less than half an 
hour 23 of the sweepers reported that 
they would be ready! Actually, 28 of 
them managed to sail at the end of the 
third day. 

Group 8 was finished in two days, but 
before the test sweep could be started the 



equinoctial storms bore down upon us 
with the violence of a hurricane. For 
three days the storm continued. The 
sweepers had sought shelter in the lee of 
Sanday Island, where the anchor chains 
of many snapped as if they had been 
made of cordage. In Kirkwall two of 
the ships were blown ashore and rescued 
only with the greatest difficulty. A large 
British transport, the S. S. Vcdic, was 
driven on a reef a few miles north of 
where the sweepers lay and four of them 
were sent to her assistance. 

DAYS OF MISERY 

The following days were days of mis- 
ery for the sweepers. Storm followed 
storm with such rapidity that the seas 
seemed ever to climb higher under the in- 
termittent acceleration of the succeeding 
gales. 

As long as it was possible to run be- 
fore the seas, those sturdy little vessels 
would manage by one means or another 



132 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




EVEN IN THE ROUGHEST WEATHER IT CONSTANTLY WAS NECESSARY FOR THE SHIPS 
TO GO ALONGSIDE EACH OTHER AT SEA TO TRANSFER 
SWEEP-GEAR OR BUOY MATERIAL 

All hands were required to wear life-preservers, on account of the danger of being washed 

overboard by a mine explosion. 



to rig out their sweeps. It seemed incred- 
ible that they could actually be working, 
as they perched for a moment on the crest 
of a wave, then disappeared almost from 
sight, as they slid into the hollows of the 
seas, pitching and rolling sometimes as 
much as fifty degrees each side of the 
vertical. 

Still the work continued. The nights 
were even worse than the days, for then 
it was necessary to lie to, trying, some- 
times vainly, to keep a tiny marker buoy 
in sight by playing a flickering search- 
light on it, as the ship lurched to and 
fro, for it was imperative we should know 
our position in the morning. 

THE DAY OF DAYS 

But at last our efforts were rewarded. 
That day of days came the day which 
had at first seemed almost beyond attain- 
ment. And what a sight it was ! The 
Patuxent had planted the last buoy, mark- 



ing the goal of our ambition; and as the 
sweepers, pair by pair, steamed past it 
and slipped sweep for the last time, the 
exultation of the victorious conquest of 
an invisible enemy burst forth in whole- 
hearted cheers from every officer and 
man. 

Whistles and sirens, too, were opened 
wide, while a wireless operator with a 
humorous turn coupled a phonograph to 
the radio-telephone and regaled the fleet 
with the welcome strains of "Home, 
Sweet Home !" 

During the last two weeks 864 square 
miles of the barrage had been reswept to 
make absolutely certain that the work had 
been thoroughly done. Where approxi- 
mately 35,000 mines had been anchored a 
few months prior, not a single one could 
now be found, except in one small pocket 
which had been skipped and was marked 
by buoys to enable it to be cleared on this 
final operation. 



REMOVAL OF THE NORTH SEA MINE BARRAGE 



133 



The test sweep was conclusive that the 
work had been thorough. The sagacious 
judgment of the Admiral in driving the 
force to the limit of physical endurance, 
coupled with the unparalleled loyalty of 
the officers and men, had enabled that 
gigantic task to be completed just as the 
violent winter storms were making fur- 



ther operations throughout the North Sea 
impossible. 

The mighty wall of mines which had 
confined the enemy's submarines and 
barred the commerce of the seas for bet- 
ter than a year had been destroyed, and 
the Xavy's obligation to humanity, to the 
freedom of the seas, had been fulfilled. 




Photograph by Kenneth D. Smith 

A MEMBER OF THE DARTMOUTH OUTING CLUB SOARING ON SKIS : HANOVER, 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

For an account of this thrilling winter sport, fostered by the famous New England 
College, alma mater of Daniel Webster, Rufus Choate, George Ticknor, George P. Marsh, 
Thaddeus Stevens, and "Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, see article on page 151. 




Photograph by Kenneth D. Smith 

SKIING IN FRANCONIA NOTCH, NEW HAMPSHIRE; 

Three student members of the Dartmouth Outing Club starting for a long excursion over the 

frozen trail. 



I.-U 




Photograph by Kenneth D. Smith 

A LONE SKI RUNNER ON A WINDING TRAIL 

The coming of winter does not drive the college man indoors. Rather it gives him a chance 
to exchange his football letter for the white badge of the Dartmouth Outing Club, which means long 
hikes to lovely scenes and long swift sweeps on skis down open fields of snow. 




Photograph by Kenneth D. Smith 

ICICLE FORMATION IN THE FLUME: NEW HAMPSHIRE 

At this spot in the Franconia Mountains, a small stream flows between precipitous rocky walls, 
and the cold winds create wonderful ice formations from the water which filters down into this shadowy 
rift from the sunny slopes above. 



II 




Photograph by R. R. Sallows 

THAWING OUT THE OLD PUMP 

To the philosophic country-dweller, thawing out the pump whose throat has suffered from a night 
of exposure is as much a part of the day's work as " breaking out the roads " or blanketing the family 
Dobbin. 



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XII 




Photograph from Detroit News 



DETROIT'S WEDDING-CAKE ICE FOUNTAIN 

In Washington Boulevard at Michigan Avenue, Jack Frost and the Detroit City Water Works 
collaborate in the erection of this towering crystal confection, the beauty of which ii as unstudied as if 
it were some natural geyser transfixed by the breath of Boreas in some remote wilderness instead of in a 
city park. 

XIII 










Photograph hy Ernest Fox 

NIAGARA FALLS IN ITS WINTER ARMOR 

Impressive as Niagara is when its rush of waters appals the beholder and clouds of spray rise from 
the chaos, in the midst of which a cockle-shell boat impudently noses the flood, it does not surpass the 
view in winter when the Frost King has spanned the river with heaving masses of ice and concealed 
behind alabaster columns the mighty torrent as it thunders toward the sea. 

XIV 




Photograph by A. J. 

SPERRY CAMP IN GLACIER NATIONAL PARK 

What is more beautiful than a distant mountain peak poised majestically on a " throne of rocks, 
in a robe of clouds, with a diadem of snow" ? In winter, when the mass of driven white stretches un- 
broken from the lofty summit to the timber line, there is a grandeur that no other mood of the moun- 
tain conveys. 

XV 




Photograph by A. B. Wilse 

A FROSTY MORNING ON THE OPEN ROAD 

What Spanish moss is to the trees of the far South, the frosty touch of winter is to the roadside 
trees of the colder North. Shiny trails which bright steel runners make and hard pressed lumps of 
snow, thrown from the flying feet of man's best friend, mark the journey past such lovely scenes to 
warmth and comfort by the blazing fire within the home. 

XVI 



SKIING OVER THE NEW HAMPSHIRE HILLS 



A Thrilling and Picturesque Sport Which Has a Thou- 
sand Devotees in the Dartmouth Outing Club 

BY FRED H. HARRIS 



CLIMATE and geography mold the 
sports of colleges as well as of 
nations. 

The fact that Dartmouth College is 
situated in the sequestered town of Han- 
over, New Hampshire, among the foot- 
hills of the White Mountains, where the 
hand of winter lies heavy on the land dur- 
ing a large part of the scholastic year, is 
responsible for the organization of an 
athletic association unique in the annals 
of student life in America. 

Unlike football, baseball, hockey, and 
basket-ball teams, each of which in its 
ultimate development enlists the active 
efforts at play of a limited number of 
athletes, the Dartmouth Outing Club is 
composed of more than a thousand mem- 
bers nearly two-thirds of the entire stu- 
dent body. 

The long months of cold and the deep 
snows that serve to isolate this college 
community have, through the Outing 
Club, been converted into an asset rather 
than a liability, and today Dartmouth is 
a pioneer institution in the movement to 
enlist the entire student body in healthful 
sport, instead of offering the colleg? 
"letter" only to those whose physical 
prowess is proved. 

In the Outing Club all who love the 
wide spaces, all who delight in the still- 
ness of the winter woods, all who feel the 
lure of the frozen trail, are welcomed as 
of the elect. 

THE CLUB'S EARLY EXCURSIONS 

Beginning modestly, with sixty mem- 
bers a few years ago, the Club in its in- 
cipiency confined its excursions to Satur- 
day afternoon jaunts on skis and snow- 
shoes. Toward the end of the afternoon 
a halt would be called and coffee made 
over a crackling fire, under the shelter of 
snow-laden trees. The trips grew in fre- 
quency and the parties grew in number. 
By the end of the first season scores of 



students had become interested in the ex- 
cursions, and, as Thoreau said of his 
Concord, the members "had traveled a 
great deal in the vicinity of Hanover." 

Today the Saturday afternoon trips of 
old have expanded into week-end jour- 
neys ; the radius of the excursions has in- 
creased from a few miles to tens of miles, 
and instead of confining their explora- 
tions to the foothills along the banks of 
the frozen Connecticut, the enthusiasts 
now make Mount Washington, the high- 
est peak of the North Atlantic States, 
their furthest objective. The camp-fire 
of crackling twigs under the trees has 
been superseded by the cheerful glow of 
logs in the open fireplaces of comfortable 
cabins, which shelter those who wish to 
extend their outing overnight. 

BUILDING A CHAIN Of CABINS 

The first of the chain of cabins for the 
week-end devotees of the Outing Club 
was established on the site of an old lum- 
ber camp at the base of Moose Mountain, 
seven miles from the college. Built 
through the efforts of a dozen club mem- 
bers who elected to spend their Easter 
vacation as carpenters, and through the 
material assistance of a Boston alumnus, 
Franklin P. Shumway, its immediate 
popularity was so pronounced that no 
propaganda was necessary to insure the 
enthusiastic support of the student body 
for the movement subsequently inaugu- 
rated by another alumnus, the Rev. J. E. 
Johnson, of Philadelphia. 

Mr. Johnson has raised an endowment 
fund of $40,000 for the construction and 
maintenance of these combination rest- 
cabins and rustic club-houses which ex- 
tend, at intervals of a day's trip apart, 
from the college campus to the slopes of 
the White Mountains. 

Close beside Moose Mountain Cabin 
flows a brook which has been dammed to 
form a deep pool, and the fact that this 



151 




Photograph by Fred H. Harris 
COMING THROUGH WOODS WITHOUT CAPS OR SHIRTS 

Not only has the Outing Club improved the physical well-being of Dartmouth's student 
body, but faculty statistics show that scholarship has profited by the week-end excursions 
of skiing parties. 




Photograph by Kenneth D. Smith 

SHOOTING THE SNOW CHUTES ON A SHOVEL 
A novel way of traversing the skiing course to the landing stage of the big jump at Hanover. 




v ,>*'"- 

Photograph by Fred II. Harris 

READY FOR THE WINTER ASCENT OF THE TAUJvST PEAK IN THE NORTH 

ATLANTIC STATES 

Until the feat was actually accomplished by Dartmouth students, a ski climb to the summit 
of Mount Washington was considered impossible. 




Photograph by Kenneth D. Smith 



'THE BEST DRINK ON EARTH" 



After skiing for fifteen or twenty miles without drinking, one appreciates water. Drinking 
out of Profile Lake, in Franconia Notch, White Mountains. 



153 




WHEN THE HOLLOWS OF THE WOOD ARE COVERED WITH WINTER'S CARPET 




Photographs by Fred H. Harris 

THE OLD SWIMMIN'-HOLE IN A NEW MOOD 

Here is a test of bodily vigor which few city dwellers would care to undergo. Near the 
Moose Mount Cabin of the Dartmouth Outing Club the members have dammed a small brook 
to make this winter open-air bath. It is usually necessary to break a sheet of ice before the 
bather can take his plunge. 

154 




Photograph by Kenneth D. Smith 

MEMBERS OF THE DARTMOUTH OUTING CLUB ON TOP OF MOUNT LAFAYETTE: ONE OF 
THE ANNUAL WINTER PILGRIMAGES OF THE TRAIL-FOLLOWERS 




Photographs by Fred H. Harris 
SLEEPING ON THE FLOOR OF ONE OF THE CABINS 

Gathered about the roaring logs of an open fireplace, these Dartmonth Outing Club enthusi- 
asts do not even demand the comfort of bunks. 



55 




156 







157 



158 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



open-air bath, available only after the 
thick crust of ice is broken, is in use 
throughout the severest winter weather 
needs no commentary to prove the hardi- 
hood which the Outing Club engenders in 
some of its members. 

THE M PANDERINGS OF THE TRAIL, 

An Outing Club trail from Hanover to 
the White Mountains is a skiway leading 
through grandeurs of winter scenery 
wholly unknown to those who nestle be- 
side steam radiators and gaze out upon a 
world blanketed in white, or who gain 
their sole idea of a snowclad landscape 
through the windows of automobile or 
swift-flying train. 

Sometimes the trail, in companionable 
fashion, follows some meandering back- 
country road; then it dips off suddenly 
into the forest to seek solitude in the sol- 
emnity of Nature's cathedral trees. It 
descends into deep ravines, it mounts bil- 
lowing slopes of white ; sometimes it 
skirts the edge of a logging camp deso- 
late in its evidences of former habitation. 
Now it runs straight over hedge and 
copse, now it sinuously mounts a gleam- 
ing summit from whose eminence the 
winter world unfolds in all its splendor. 

Twenty-three miles beyond Moose 
Mountain Cabin stands the Cube Mount 
Station, tucked away in a grove of white 
birches, with the evergreen slopes of the 
mountain rising as a background for the 
picture. To the west the noble panorama 
of the Green Mountains unfolds along 
the Vermont skyline. 

Sheltered by a cluster of whispering 
pines on the eastern shore of Armington 
Pond, a third cabin is built in the shadow 
of Piermont Mountain, which rises ab- 
ruptly on the opposite shore. . A short 
walk from the cabin is the famous Lake 
Tarleton Club, and some distance further 
along the trail which winds through Web- 
ster Slide is the Great Bear Cabin, deriv- 
ing its name from the fact that students 
who were prospecting for the site found 
the tracks of a black bear in the neighbor- 
hood. 

A FIVE-MILE SUDE 

Over the shoulder of Mount Moosilauke 
goes the traveler after he leaves Great 



Bear Cabin, and from this eminence the 
ski sportsman has one of the most de- 
lightful experiences of his excursion, as 
he slides almost without effort for a dis- 
tance of five miles to the picturesque 
hamlet of Wildwood. 

One of the most popular camps of the 
Dartmouth Club is located in the famous 
Agassiz Basin, ever to be associated with 
the great naturalist's elaboration of his 
theory of glaciers. Here is the Lost 
River District, little known to the average 
White Mountain tourist of the summer 
season, but one of the most interesting 
regions of the New England States. 

Lost River is important for what it has 
beqn rather than for what it is. In the 
distant past great torrents of water from 
a melting glacier flowed here, and once 
an earthquake shattered the mountain- 
side, hurling huge boulders into the bed 
of the rnrer, practically burying the 
stream. Immense "potholes" were carved 
in the rocks by the action of the water, 
enabling the student of geology to read 
aright the sermbns which that mystic, 
Nature, has written in the stones. 

Near the point where the river disap- 
pears for its journey of a quarter of a 
mile underground is the cosy club-house 
of the Society for the Preservation of 
New Hampshire Forests. 

THE PAGEANT OF THE PRESIDENTIAL, 
RANGE 

After passing North Woodstock, which 
lies beyond Agassiz Basin, the Outing 
clubman comes to Profile Notch, with its 
famous "Old Man of the Mountains." 
Then for a swift slide down Three-mile 
Hill to Franconia, north to Littleton, to 
Manns Hill, and finally to Skyline Farm, 
where ends the trail. Here the whole 
pageant of the Presidential Range of 
mountains is spread before the view of 
the winter visitor a matchless picture 
of serrated summits and tree-clad slopes 
wrapped in an Arctic mantle of iridescent 
beauty. 

But hiking is not the be-all and the end- 
all of the Dartmouth Outing Club. There 
is the spectacular Winter Carnival, staged 
for the delight of the friends of the stu- 
dents as well as for their own pleasure. 

During this "Mardi Gras of the North" 



SKIING OVER THE NEW HAMPSHIRE HILLS 



159 




Photograph by Kenneth D. Smith 
MARIAN FAIRFIELD, OF HANOVER, AT THE MOMENT OF LANDING FROM A SKI JUMP 

This young miss has just gone over the "big jump" of the Dartmouth College skiing course 
a feat which many experienced athletes have refused to attempt. 



there is a succession of spirited races 
ski and snowshoe sprints, cross-country 
ski races, testing the stamina of the con- 
testants as do few other college sports, 
and obstacle races. 

The crowning event of the carnival, 
however, is the ski-jumping contest, 
which is to the occasion what the chariot 
race of the Olympic games was to the 
ancients. Thousands of spectators can 
be accommodated on the slopes surround- 



ing Dartmouth's great ski-jumping 
course. 

THE SKI-JUMPING COURSE 

The approach of the ski-jump is down 
a steep 300- foot pathway cut through a 
pine forest. At the top is a wooden 
trestle, which enables the contestant to 
acquire a tremendous initial momentum 
for his rush down the course to the 
"jump" itself,, which is a level platform 



160 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




fifty feet long, with a "take-off" eight 
feet above the slope. 

The steep slopes of the hill have been 
so terraced that the spectators are en- 
abled to get a close view of the jumper 
from the moment he begins his spectac- 
ular slide. 

Poised 150 feet above the heads of the 
onlookers, the contestant hesitates for a 
moment, breathes deeply, and then waits 
with every muscle taut and every nerve 
atingle for the signal. It is given. In- 
stantly he tips over the brink of the 
trestle, at the same time assuming the 
crouching position which offers the least 
possible wind resistance to his flight. 

As he sweeps down the glassy incline 
he keeps his body in perfect balance, his 
skis together and parallel. As he gains 
impetus he resembles a human missile 
shot from some gigantic catapult. 

WHAT WILL HAPPEN WHEN HE HITS? 

Out upon the jumping platform he 
slides with lightning speed, and at the 
critical moment, with all the strength of 
his lithe body concentrated in his knees, 
he springs. Like a soaring bird, he 
launches upward and out into space. For 
a moment he seems to pause in midair, 
then quickly describing an arc, down, 
down, down, he swoops with the speed of 
thought. 

What will happen when he hits? This 
is the harrowing question which comes 
to the mind of every spectator who is 
watching the thrilling sport for the first 
time. But he does not hit; he seems 
merely to meet the snow track at the bot- 
tom of the jump. And that is exactly 
what does happen; for, as the jumper 
rushes through space, he is describing a 
curve of thirty degrees, and the track is 
so arranged that at the point where he 
alights the slope also inclines at an angle 
of thirty degrees, and the moment of con- 
tact is thus robbed of all its shock. 

The jumper, provided he alights with 
his skis together and at the correct angle, 
simply glides on, at terrific speed, until, 
with a perfectly executed telemark swing, 
he brings himself to a halt in a whirl of 
snow. 

These contests do not take place among 
the students of Dartmouth only. McGill 
College, of Montreal, Canada, frequently 



SKIING OVER THE NEW HAMPSHIRE HILLS 



161 



sends a team of jumpers to the carnival, 
when the struggle for supremacy assumes 
an intercollegiate and an international 
flavor. 

EXECUTING A SOMERSAULT ON SKIS 

Every jump brings a thrill to spectator 
as well as to participant, but the supreme 
moment of the carnival conies when a 
master of the skis executes some such 
spectacular antic in the air as a forward 
somersault. 

As the stellar performer prepares for 
the jump, a hush sweeps over the spec- 
tators, for every one knows that unless 
his timing is accurate to the fraction of 
a second and his spring from the plat- 
form is perfect, contusions and broken 
bones will be his reward. 

Down he rushes to the platform. A 
sudden contraction of all the muscles of 
the body, a magnificent leap into the air, 
a somersault completed at the instant of 
landing all in the time of a held breath ! 
There is wild applause from the relieved 
spectators, as they realize that the sensa- 
tional "stunt" is successfully accom- 
plished. 

In many respects ski jumping is an 
even more exhilarating sport than flying. 
As one shoots out and down through the 
keen, bracing air with no windshield to 
protect him, the sensation is beyond de- 
scription. Unlike the aviator, the ski 
jumper has no ailerons, no rudder, no 
"flippers" to aid him. The whole success 
of the venture depends solely upon the 
human machine, upon the proper co- 
ordination of the muscles and upon the 
ability of the jumper to judge with abso- 
lute accuracy the precise moment for the 
spring. 

SKIING UP AND DOWN MT. WASHINGTON 

When the snows begin to melt around 
Hanover in the spring the Outing Club 
gives its final winter party a three days' 
trip into the White Mountains. From 
headquarters at the foot of Mount Wash- 
ington, the sportsmen climb the moun- 
tain, plunge into Tuckerman's Ravine, 
and see aspects of the outdoors which 
are never revealed to summer visitors. 
The snows have begun to disappear in 
the southern portion of the State, but 
drifts to a depth of 100 feet in the ravines 
are still to be found here. 




Photograph by Kenneth D. Smith 

FRONT VIEW OF A SKI JUMPER IN FLIGHT 

Not even aviation can provide more thrilling 
sport than that afforded the expert on skis. 




K. G. Dewey 



SOMERSAULTING THROUGH SPACE ON SKIS 



The first of a remarkable series of photographs illustrating one of the most thrilling ex- 
hibitions of the mid-winter carnival at Hanover, New Hampshire. 




THE SOMERSAULT HALF COMPLETED 



K. O. Dewey 



This spectacular test of skill is accomplished in a few seconds, but it provides the thousands 
of spectators a topic of conversation for months. 



162 




THE THIRD EVOLUTION OF THE SOMERSAULT 



One of America's foremost adepts in the performance of this "stunt de luxe" is a Dartmouth 

sophomore, John Carelton. 




E. G. Dewey 



HE WILL BE HEAD-UP WHEN HIS SKIS TOUCH THE SLOPE 



The ability to judge the exact moment for the leap into the air while traveling at the 
rate cf forty miles an hour is an essential factor in the successful accomplishment of 
this feat. The knees act as shock-absorbers. 



16? 



164 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Dr. Iceland Griggs 



ALT, OFI- TOGETHER 



A ski threesome lakes the air for the downward drop at the Dartmouth "Mardi Gras of 

the North." 



On several occasions members of tbe 
Club have succeeded in climbing on skis 
to the summit of Mount Washington, a 
feat which, until accomplished by these 
Dartmouth students, was deemed impos- 
sible. 

The difficulty of the ascent is not to l:e 
discounted by its accomplishment, how- 
ever ; and the descent, especially down 
the icy, wind-driven slopes above the tree 
line, is an even more hazardous test of 
skill. 

Usually the ski men rope themselves 
together like the sealers of Alpine crags ; 
but, once over the dangerous part of the 
course, the .stalwart mountaineers find 
rare ddight^ in the long glide down the 
carriage road from Half- way House. 

The start for this last fascinating stage 
of the trip is usually made in the late 
afternoon, when the light is fading and 
the snow particles come hissing down 
from the heights, bringing with them a 
penetrating cold. 



Now there is no inclination on the part 
of the travelers to tarry. With a vigor- 
ous push of the ski poles, the rush 
begins. 

On the steep slope the speed is quickly 
accelerated to forty miles an hour, as the 
skis sing and whistle over the snow. On 
through the woods, at ever-quickening 
pace, the hikers go, sometimes forced 
from the path by the rapidity with which 
they take the curves in the road. Not 
infrequently there is a spill in the snow, 
as the moon casts deceptive shadows 
along the way. 

Now and again the incline flattens out 
almost to a plane and the pace slackens 
instantly, but in another hundred yards 
the traveler is again speeding before his 
shadow. 

It is a wonderful course, 21,120 feet 
in length, with a drop of 2,000 feet, and 
a member of the Dartmouth Outing 
Club has set a record of twelve and a 
half minutes for the journey! 



WINTER RAMBLES IN THOREAU'S COUNTRY 



BY HERBERT W. 

AUTHOR OF "THROUGH THE YEAR WITH THOREAU" 

With Illustrations from Photographs by the Author 
"I have traveled a great deal in Concord." THOREAU. 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGA- 
ZINE being pre-eminently a maga- 
zine of travel, it is not inappro- 
priate to call the attention of its readers 
to the journeyings of one of the most 
original, observant, and wholly entertain- 
ing travelers whom the continent of 
America has produced. To be sure, his 
travels did not cover a very wide field, 
geographically : they consisted chiefly of 
daily walks afield or boating trips on 
the river to various points in his imme- 
diate neighborhood ; yet they resulted in 
giving to his name a higher place in the 
temple of fame than that of many an- 
other who has roamed the seven seas and 
encompassed the ends of the earth. 

Henry David Thoreau was born in 
Concord, Massachusetts, a little more 
than a century ago, and, with the excep- 
tion of a few brief and unimportant ex- 
cursions away from home, his entire life 
of forty-five years was spent within the 
confines of his native town. 

So far, however, from lamenting this 
as a misfortune, he actually gloried in the 
supposed limitation. "It takes a man of 
genius," he declared, "to travel in his own 
country, in his native village; to make 
any progress between his door and his 
gate. If a man is rich and strong any- 
where," he confided to his journal, "it 
must be on his native soil. Here I have 
been these forty years, learning the lan- 
guage of these fields that I may the better 
express myself. 

PREFERRED HIS OWN VILLAGE TO THE 
PROUDEST PARIS 

"If I should travel to the prairies, I 
should much less understand them, and 
my past life would serve me but ill to de- 
scribe them. Many a weed here stands 
for more of life to me than the big trees 
of California would if I should go there." 

Somebody once suggested to him a trip 



to Paris. But why should he go to Paris ? 
"It would be a wretched bargain to ac- 
cept the proudest Paris in exchange for 
my native village. At best, Paris could 
only be a school in which to learn to live 
here, a stepping-stone to Concord, a 
school in which to fit for this university." 

"THE ONLY TRAVEL THAT is GOOD" 

And so he records his solemn convic- 
tion: "If these fields and streams and 
woods, the phenomena of nature here, 
and the simple occupations of the inhab- 
itants should cease to interest and inspire 
me, no culture or wealth would atone for 
the loss." 

"My feet forever stand 
On Concord fields, 
And I must live the life 
Which their soil yields." 

Now, all this, of course, is at a wide 
remove from commonly accepted ideas, 
and many a Cook's tourist will smile 
superciliously on reading this pronuncia- 
mento of a confirmed stay-at-home. Yet 
Thoreau never meant to disparage for- 
eign travel, as such. Indeed, from his 
own account it may fairly be assumed 
that his familiarity with the best books 
of travel far exceeded that of most peo- 
ple of his time, and certainly few people 
of any time have possessed, both by na- 
ture and training, a keener appreciation 
of the advantages which travel brings. 

He was simply trying to enforce, in 
somewhat vigorous fashion, the truth that 
to a man with receptive mind and studi- 
ous purpose there is to be found in his 
immediate environment a richness of ex- 
perience and a depth of satisfaction which 
cannot" be had in diffuse wanderings, 
however extended. "Only that travel is 
good," he claimed, "which reveals to me 
the value of home and enables me to en- 
joy it better." 



165 




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FANTASTIC SNOW-DRIFTS 

Tn the ice of open stone walls, the wind, blowing through the chinks, carves the snow into 
many novel and picturesque forms. "This is the architecture of the snow." 



168 



WINTER RAMBLES IX THOREAU'S COUNTRY 



169 



Thoreau found such endless charm in 
the mystery and beauty of Concord fields 
and woods, so many fascinating problems 
requiring solution, such infinite variety in 
flower and bird and butterfly, such fresh 
delight in watching the progress of the 
seasons, as well as so much food for 
thought and inspiration in the human life 
around him, that he had no time for for- 
eign travel. And for this he is sincerely 
grateful. 

"I cannot but regard it," he says, "as a 
kindness in those who have the steering 
of me that, by the want of pecuniary 
wealth. I have been nailed down to this 
my native region so long and steadily, and 
made to study and love this spot of earth 
more and more. What would signify in 
comparison a thin and diffused love and 
knowledge of the whole earth instead, got 
by wandering?" 

And there was a providence in this for 
others besides Thoreau. With his rare 
powers of observation, his innate sym- 
pathy with Nature, his keen sensitiveness 
to beauty wherever found, and his won- 
derful gift of verbal description, he has 
given us an unsurpassed picture of New 
England outdoor life which is destined 
to afford enjoyment and inspiration to 
thousands of people through all the years 
to come. It goes without saying that he 
never could have drawn this picture had 
he given much of his time to travel 
abroad. 

Louisa Alcott, in her beautiful poem 
on "Thoreau's Flute," put the matter 
concisely : 

"Above man's aims his nature rose. 
The wisdom of a just content 
Made one small spot a continent. 
And tuned to poetry life's prose." 

FOLLOWING THOREAU'S FOOTPATHS 

It has been the writer's esteemed privi- 
lege during the past fifteen years and 
more to make many rambling trips to 
Concord, lured thither by Thoreau's vivid 
descriptions of Nature's beauty in his 
home surroundings. Without purposely 
attempting to repeat Thoreau's "travels," 
there has been found a peculiar pleasure 
in seeking out his favorite haunts, identi- 
fying places with which he was closely 
associated and which he named after a 
fashion of his own, and at the same time 



securing photographs of a great number 
of the actual scenes and phenomena in 
which he delighted. 

These trips have been undertaken in all 
seasons of the year, coinciding so far as 
possible with Thoreau's own records and 
duplicating to a large degree many of his 
most enjoyable experiences. Especially 
has the winter season, which to many 
people is so burdensome and even repel- 
lant, proved wonderfully fruitful in sub- 
jects of interest and beauty. 

DAYS OF NEW OPPORTUNITY 

Thoreau was an enthusiast over the 
New England winter. He hailed its ad- 
vent, noted every step of its progress, 
and found much of interest even in its 
lingering departure. At the close of the 
long, cold winter of 1855-56, with its 
record of ninety-nine consecutive days 
of sleighing in Concord a period, one 
would think, long enough to upset the 
complacency of a man like Thoreau he 
wrote, under date of April 10: "I look 
with more than respect, if not with regret, 
on its last dissolving traces." 

There was something in winter's bare- 
ness and ruggedness, its simplicity and 
severity, its imperative challenge and its 
unexplored grandeur, which appealed 
irresistibly to his stalwart soul. And 
even stronger was the appeal to his es- 
thetic sense. He never ceased to adore 
the spotless purity of the snow. Every 
snowstorm was a fresh revelation to him 
of Nature's inexhaustible beauty. 

Days of intense cold were days of new 
opportunity to him. He was abroad in 
all kinds of weather, in all degrees of 
frost. The ice of the ponds and river he 
was diligent in exploring, both superfi- 
cially and in its interior structure, and he 
was rewarded with exquisite displays of 
crystallization which very few people are 
ever privileged to see. Indeed, so ex- 
tended and minute were his studies of 
winter's varying aspects that he could say 
on one occasion, as Emerson pleasantly 
relates, when returning a copy of Kane's 
"Arctic Explorations" which had been 
loaned to him, that "most of the phe- 
nomena noted might be observed in Con- 
cord !" 

The winter climate of New England 
has been much reviled on account of its 




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172 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



being so capricious. Sleet, slush, snow, 
hail, rain, freezing, thawing, blizzards, 
and sunshine make up a program which 
certainly does not lack in point of variety. 
Yet to this very fact is due much of the 
beauty of the New England winter. 
Were the cold uniform, did the snow 
which falls in December remain until 
April conditions which obtain in certain 
other parts of the continent the winter 
would lose a good part of its charm. 

The winters in Concord today are just 
as changeful as in Thoreau's time, and 
one finds the same succession of varied 
phenomena which compelled his wonder 
and admiration. 

WONDER IN THE WEAVING OF THE SNOW 
BLANKET 

First of all, of course, there is the snow 
"blanket" enwrapping the earth, which to 
Thoreau was so suggestive both of utility 
and beauty "a pure garment, as of white 
watered satin, over all the fields." There 
is wonderful fascination in the weaving 
of this blanket. The falling snow what 
an incredible spectacle to one who has 
never seen it ! And how the mystery and 
witchery of it persist even after one has 
seen it a thousand times ! 

To go abroad in Concord fields and 
woods during a snow storm is a memora- 
ble experience, especially if the snow is 
a little damp and clings to the trees and 
bushes in masses. Thoreau devotes many 
pages of enthusiastic description to a 
"lodging snow" : 

"The woods were incredibly fair, white 
as alabaster. Indeed, the young pines 
reminded you of the purest statuary, and 
the full-grown ones towering around af- 
fected you as if you stood in a titanic 
sculptor's studio, so purely and delicately 
white, transmitting the light. . . . 

"Imagine the innumerable twigs and 
boughs of the forest crossing each other 
at every conceivable angle on every side, 
from the ground to thirty feet in height, 
with each its zigzag wall of snow four or 
five inches high, so innumerable at differ- 
ent distances one behind another that 
they completely close up the view, like a 
loose-woven downy screen." 

And then, after the snow has fallen and 
the sun shines once more, the wind takes 



up the snow and whirls it into drifts, 
burying the fences and choking the high- 
ways. In the lee of open stone walls 
these drifts become curiously fantastic, 
the snow being carved by the wind, which 
whistles through the chinks in the wall 
into many novel and picturesque forms. 
"It builds up a fantastic wall behind the 
first a snowy sierra. Astonishingly 
sharp and thin overhanging eaves it 
builds, even this dry snow, where it has 
the least suggestion from a wall or 
bank less than a mason ever springs his 
brick from. This is the architecture of 
the snow." 

With the coming of the sun, too, there 
appear those exquisite blue shadows on 
the snow. Given the right conditions of 
atmosphere and temperature, these shad- 
ows are captivating to every one who 
possesses the least sense of color values. 
What makes them so blue "celestial 
blue" ? "I think I never saw," says 
Thoreau, "a more Elysian blue than my 
shadow. I am turned into a tall blue 
Persian from my cap to my boots, such 
as no mortal can produce, with an ame- 
thystine hatchet in my hand. I am in 
raptures at my own shadow. What if 
the substance were of as ethereal a na- 
ture ?" 

READING THE SECRETS OF THE WILD 

In his tramps afield after every fresh 
snowfall Thoreau took keen delight in 
reading the story of the wild life of the 
woods found in the tracks of fox and 
otter, squirrel and rabbit, crow and par- 
tridge, mouse and mink. The snow, he 
declared, is the great revealer, and he 
learned many secrets of the wild in these 
footprint studies. 

Of all the denizens of the woods, how- 
ever, Reynard held for him the greatest 
interest, and more than once he would 
spend a large portion of the day follow- 
ing the tracks of a fox and unraveling 
the record of its wanderings. Concord 
is so far from being wholly urbanized in 
these days that the wood-folk still linger 
within its precincts, and judging from 
the snowy tale of their gambols and jour- 
neyings they are scarcely less numerous 
than in Thoreau's time. 

But Thoreau held that we may find in 




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AFTER AN ICE-STORM : MASSACHUSETTS 

"Seen at the right angle, each ice-encrusted stubble shines like a prism with some color of 
the rainbow. What a crash of jewels as you walk!" 



173 




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PINE FOLIAGE AFTER AN ICE-STORM 

"The pines are as white as a counterpane, with raised embroidery and white tassels and 
fringes. Each fascicle of leaves or needles is held apart by an icy club surmounted by a 
little snowy or icy ball." 



1/4 



the snow the footprint of a life superior 
to anything of which zoology takes cog- 
nizance. "Why do the vast plains give 
us pleasure," he asks, "the twilight of the 
bent and half-buried woods? Is not all 
there consonant with virtue, justice, 
purity, courage, magnanimity? Are we 
not cheered by the sight? And does not 
all this amount to the track of a higher 
life than the otter's, a life which has not 
gone by and left a footprint merely, but 
is there with its beauty, its music, its per- 
fume, its sweetness, to exhilarate and 
recreate us? 

"Did this great snow, come to reveal 
the track merely of some timorous hare, 
or of the Great Hare whose track no 
hunter has seen?" 

A SPECTACLE OF ENCHANTMENT 

Apart from the phenomena of the 
snow, there occurs at rare intervals dur- 
ing the winter what Thoreau speaks of 
as a "frozen mist," when the trees and all 
other outdoor objects are covered in the 
early morning with a delicate hoar frost. 
This, of course, soon melts under the rays 
of the sun ; but while it lingers the spec- 
tacle is one of enchantment. 

"No snow has fallen, but, as it were, 
the vapor has been caught by the trees 
like a cobweb. The trees are bright, 
hoary forms, the ghosts of trees. Closely 
examined or at a distance, it is just like 
the sheaf-like forms of vegetation and 
the diverging crystals on the window- 
panes. You look up and behold the 
hugest pine, as tall as a steeple, all frosted 
over. Nature has now gone into her 
winter palace." 

Akin to this phenomenon are the crys- 
tallized "rosettes," as Thoreau calls them, 
which are found sprinkling the surface 
of the ice after a night of severe cold. 
"They look like a loose web of small 
white feathers springing from a tuft of 
down, as if a feather bed had been shaken 
over the ice. They are, on a close exami- 
nation, surprisingly perfect leaves, like 
ferns." 

Frequently accompanying these feath- 
ery crystals, which are "so thin and frag- 
ile that they melt under your breath while 
looking closely at them," there is another 
form of needle-shaped crystals in bun- 




POISON-DOGWOOD BERRIES: MASSA- 
CHUSETTS 

Thoreau has numerous references in his 
winter notes to the novelty and beauty of the 
fruit of the poison-dogwood, which hangs in 
clustered panicles from the leafless stems of 
the shrub. 



1 75 



- 




FOX TRACKS IN THE SNOW I MASSACHUSETTS 

Thoreau took keen delight in reading the story of wild life in the woods as shown by 
the tracks in the snow, especially those of the fox. The foreground of the picture shows 
where the fox was digging for mice. 



176 



dies, or "as if oats 
had been spilled, like 
fibers of asbestos 
rolled." Both forms, 
he thinks, result 
from vapor congeal- 
ing as it finds its way 
through interstices in 
the ice, and both are 
uniquely beautiful. 

THE ICE-STORM 

Rarest and most 
beautiful of all, how- 
ever, are the phe- 
nomena attendant 
upon an "ice-storm" 
something which does 
not occur every win- 
ter. In fact, it was 
only after several 
years of patient wait- 
ing that the writer 
was able to secure 
photographs illustrat- 
ing this striking event. 

The necessary con- 
ditions are : a gently 
falling rain, a stratum 
of air next the earth 
with temperature be- 
low the freezing point, 
and this overlaid with 
warmer strata from 
which the rain pro- 
ceeds. Thus the rain 
freezes as fast as it 
falls, and there is 
gradually built up 
around every object 
a coating of ice. Then, 
when the sun comes 
world is turned into a veritable crystal 
palace. 

"All objects, even the apple trees and 
the rails, are to the eye polished silver. 
It is a perfect land of fairy. 

"Seen at the right angle, each ice-en- 
crusted stubble shines like a prism with 
some color of the rainbow intense blue, 
or violet, and red. 

"What a crash of jewels, as you walk! 

"The fine spray of a myriad of bushes 
on the edge of the bank sparkles like 
silver. 

"The drooping birches along the edges 
of the woods are the most feathery, 




./ 






"Did this great 
timorous hare, or 
seen?" 

out, the whole 



TRACKS OF A HARE 

snow come to reveal the track merely of some 
of the Great Hare, whose track no hunter has 



fairy-like ostrich plumes of the trees. 
The pines are as white as a counterpane, 
with raised embroidery and white tassels 
and fringes. Each fascicle of leaves or 
needles is held apart by an icy club sur- 
mounted by a little snowy or icy ball. 
Finer than the Saxon arch is this path 
running under the pines, roofed, not with 
crossing boughs, but drooping ice-cov- 
ered twigs in irregular confusion. 

"God exhibits himself to the walker in 
a frosted bush today, as much as in a 
burning one to Moses of old." 

Thus, for page after page, Thoreau at- 
tempts to convey some idea of the beauty 
of this icy wonderland. But no words 




A FROSTY MORNING: MASSACHUSETTS 

Occasionally during the winter there occurs what Thoreau speaks of as a "frozen mist," 
when the trees and all other outdoor objects are covered in the early morning with a deli- 
cate hoar-frost. 




THE SNOW RECORD 

From left to right: I. Tracks of a pheasant retreating hastily. 2. The same pheasant 
approaching cautiously from cover. 3. Tracks of a rabbit, also probably alarmed. 4. Tracks 
of a partridge. Tracks of a fox coursing along the edge of the swamp are also discernible. 



and no photograph can do more than 
merely hint at the reality. Whoever has 
once witnessed the phenomenon of a New 
England ice-storm can never forget its 
ravishing beauty. 

THE ORGAN-PIPES OF ICE 

Another icy spectacle which Thoreau 
always took pains to observe on its an- 
nual recurrence was the formation of 
icicle "organ-pipes" on the face of a cer- 
tain cliff in Concord, and one can find the 
same process in operation, under suitable 
conditions, in exactly the same spot today. 
The water from melting snow trickles 
down over the perpendicular rock- face, 
and "its constant drip at night builds 
great organ-pipes of a ringed structure, 
which run together, buttressing the rock. 

"Behind these perpendicular pipes, or 
congregated pillars, or colonnades run 
together are formed the prettiest little 
aisles or triangular alcoves with lichen- 
clad sides. The shadow of the water 
flowing or pulsating behind this trans- 
parent icy crust or these stalactites in the 
sun imparts a semblance of life to the 
whole." 



This suggestion of life, by the way, 
was always a most welcome feature of 
Thoreau's winter walks. Any reminder 
of the past summer, such as a bird's nest 
with its "snowy egg," or the persistent 
panicles of poison - dogwood berries, 
"beautiful as Satan," or the scarlet fruit 
of the black alder, gave him keen 
pleasure. 

Likewise the least promise of the com- 
ing spring, like the opening of the river 
channel, or the breaking up of the ice in 
the ponds, or a distant bluebird's warble. 
Even so simple a thing as a running 
brook called forth his enthusiasm. "Per- 
haps what most moves us in winter," he 
wrote, "is some reminiscence of far-off 
summer. How we leap by the side of the 
open brooks ! What beauty in the run- 
ning brooks ! What life ! What society ! 
The cold is merely superficial ; it is sum- 
mer still at the core, far, far within." 

INTERPRETING THE "GRAND OLD POEM 

WINTER" EVERYWHERE 

Thoreau made all his observations of 
winter phenomena in Concord, but it by 
no means follows that one need make a 



180 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A BIRD'S NEST WITH ITS "SNOWY EGG" 

During his winter walks Thoreau always 
took keen delight in discovering any reminder 
of the past summer, even if it was only a 
deserted bird's nest filled with snow. 

journey to Concord to witness and enjoy 
the same phenomena. All through the 
northern portion of the United States, ex- 
cept upon the Pacific coast, there is an- 
nually staged upon the platform of winter 
the same drama of wonder and beauty 
which so aroused his admiration. 

Indeed, in certain sections there some- 
times occur spectacular effects of which 
Thoreau never witnessed anything more 
than the merest suggestion, such as the 
brilliant "sun-dogs," "inverted rainbows," 
and kindred atmospheric phenomena 
which frequently accompany days of in- 
tense cold in Minnesota and North Da- 
kota. Also, in connection with many of 
the higher waterfalls of the northern 
States, there are superb displays of frost 
magic, such as that which annually draws 
a throng of visitors to Niagara, far tran- 
scending in magnitude and beauty any- 
thing which Thoreau ever saw on his 
winter visits to the tiny waterfalls of 
Concord. 

But the ordinary aspects of winter, so 
familiar to all who dwell in regions peri- 



odically visited by the Ice King, Thoreau 
has made the subject of graphic descrip- 
tion. The snow crystals falling upon his 
coat sleeve, the icy fretwork on the pud- 
dle by the roadside, the "booming" of the 
pond on cold evenings, the snow-encased 
pump, the farmer piloting his ox-sled 
through the drifts, the lisping of chick- 
adees among the snow-laden hemlocks, 
the fisherman with his string of pickerel 
caught through the ice, the close-wrapped 
buds of trees and shrubs, the humming 
of the telegraph "harp," the snow-bunt- 
ings and tree-sparrows "true spirits of 
the snowstorm," the red alder catkins 
"switching in the face of winter and 
bragging for all creation," the woodchop- 
per and his noonday lunch, the scream of 
the blue-jay "a sort of wintry trumpet," 
the snow-fleas in the wheel-ruts, the 
frost-tracery on the window pane all 
these and many other incidents and phe- 
nomena of the winter are faithfully and 
lovingly recorded. 

Trivial matters ? Yes, and yet they are 
so charmingly treated in Thoreau's inter- 
pretation of "that grand old poem called 
winter" that we forget their trivial and 
commonplace character and are made to 
see how much they contribute toward the 
beauty and the harmony of the whole. 

NEW PICTURES PAINTED AT EACH SUNSET 

There is one very common phenome- 
non of the winter time a daily occur- 
rence, in fact which Thoreau dwells 
upon with marked frequency and always 
in a mood of special exaltation. To him, 
in all seasons of the year, the holiest 
hour of the day was the hour of the set- 
ting sun, and in the winter season its ap- 
peal was most potent. 

Under date of January 7, 1852, he 
wrote : "I go forth each afternoon and 
look into the west a quarter of an hour 
before sunset, with fresh curiosity, to see 
what new picture will be painted there, 
what new panorama exhibited, what new 
dissolving views. Can Washington Street 
or Broadway show anything as good ? 
Every day a new picture is painted and 
framed, held up for half an hour, in such 
lights as the Great Artist chooses, and 
then withdrawn, and the curtain falls." 



WHERE THE WORLD GETS ITS OIL 



But Where Will Our Children Get It When American 
Wells Cease to Flow? 

BY GEORGE OTIS SMITH 



DIRECTOR UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



IN THE course of the centuries the 
raw-material 'issue changes. In the 
long-bow epoch of England's mili- 
tary strength the conservationist feared 
a depletion of the yew wood which might 
give the Teuton, backed up by his larger 
forests, an obvious advantage in light 
ordnance. Later, when Great Britain's 
naval power depended upon her wooden 
ships of war, the anxious naval chief 
foresaw a possible shortage of the oak 
which made the walls that stood between 
England and her enemies. 

The yew and the oak are no longer es- 
sential to national defense, for steel has 
proved the substitute in both arms and 
armor plate. Yet today those who plan 
for the future prosperity of their nation 
realize the extent to which other raw ma- 
terials are essential to the general well- 
being, and for some of these we can see 
no adequate substitutes. 

Foremost among these most useful and 
least abundant, if not, indeed, irreplace- 
able, commodities stands mineral oil, or 
petroleum, and not only the conservative 
Briton, but the most optimistic American, 
may well ask himself. Where will my 
children and children's children get the 
oil that they may need in ever-increasing 
amounts ? 

THE WORLD'S GREATEST OIL PRODUCER 
AND CONSUMER 

The leadership of the United States as 
an oil producer and consumer is spectac- 
ular enough to satisfy our American love 
of doing things on a big scale. For sixty 
years, except in 1898 to 1901, when Rus- 
sia reached the peak of its past petroleum 
production, the United States has led the 
rest of the world with its steadily increas- 
ing flow of oil. 

But while we have contributed far 
more than half (61 per cent) of the oil 



that the world has used in all these years, 
we have already reached the point where 
we are consuming more oil than we pro- 
duce. Is this position of the world's 
greatest user of petroleum as safe as it is 
spectacular ? 

The story of the petroleum industry in 
the United States extends back only sixty 
years. On August 28, 1859, oil was struck 
in the Drake well, near Titusville, in 
northwestern Pennsylvania, and when 
the pumping began the oil flowed in a tiny 
stream of 40, and later only 15, barrels a 
day ; but since that day of small things 
the tide of oil has mounted higher and 
higher: 5 million barrels were produced 
in 1870, 26 million in 1880, 45 million in 
1890, 63 million in 1900, 209 million in 
1910, and 356 million barrels in 1918, 
with the output last year perhaps 20, or 
even 30, million barrels in excess of that 
record. The crest of this flood of oil 
must surely soon be reached. 

A NIAGARA OP OIL 

We are the world's greatest consumers 
of petroleum ; but, impressive as are the 
1918 figures of consumption 413,- 
077,113 barrels no mind can easily 
grasp the idea of that quantity. Truly it 
is a flood of oil ; for, if spread over the 
60 square miles of the District of Colum- 
bia, these 413 million barrels would cover 
the area to a depth of nearly a foot and 
a half. 

Or perhaps the eye can better visualize 
the torrent of oil that flows each year 
from the 203,400 wells, is pumped 
through the long pipe lines, and is 
brought up from Mexico in huge tankers, 
if we figure that a year's supply of oil 
equals the flow 7 of the waters from the 
Great Lakes and their vast drainage 
basin over Niagara Falls for three hours 
and four minutes ; or, in terms of the 



181 



182 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph from Dr. D. T. Day 

THE SITU OF AMERICA'S PIONEER OIL wEu, 

A new chapter in industrial history began sixty years ago with the flow of petroleum 
from this 6o.-foot bore-hole on Oil Creek, Pennsylvania. Edwin L,. Drake did not strike it 
rich, receiving only an annuity from the Keystone State and a monument from the industry 
he founded. 



smaller stream flowing past the Nation's 
Capital, if the Potomac at Great Falls 
were a river of crude oil, the nation's an- 
nual requirements could be met only with 
the flow at the summer rate for nearly 
four days and a half. 

So it is that while in 1918 our "home 
fires" in power plant, blast furnace, loco- 
motive, and residence consumed a moun- 
tain of coal a mile and a third in diameter 



and nearly 2.000 feet high, we also used 
a river of oil. 

Credit is often due to the silent partner 
in a business, and the marvelous growth 
of our oil industry owes much to its own 
transportation system, unseen and un- 
known by most citizens, yet far more 
efficient than the railroad lines of which 
we are so proud. 

Beginning with four miles of iron pipe 



WHERE THE WORLD GETS ITS OIL 



183 



'ARKANSAS./ " V \ X 



kv>?. A 




A SKKTCII MAP SHOWING THE ELABORATE OH, PIPE-LINE SYSTEM WHICH FORMS A 
NETWORK BENEATH THE SURFACE OF THE EASTERN HALF OF THE UNITED STATES 

There are enough oil pipe lines in the United States to girdle the earth at the equator and 

have 5,coo miles to spare. 



laid down in western Pennsylvania at the 
close of the Civil War, this system now 
embraces a huge network of buried pipes 
from four to eight inches in diameter, 
trunk lines and laterals, aggregating 
nearly 30,000 miles (see map above). 

A VAST NETWORK OF OIL PIPE LINES 

Along these hidden transportation lines 
there are pumping stations every 40 miles 
or so, but the daily circulation of oil in 
these long arteries is appreciated only by 



the oil operators who sell their product 
at one end and the refiners or shippers 
who receive it at the other end. 

Another measure of this pipe-line sys- 
tem is given in the fact that it would 
take approximately two days' flow from 
the 200,000 wells of the country simply 
to fill these pipes. 

Petroleum's rank among the minerals is 
won not by attractive appearance, but by 
sheer usefulness. Few of us fully appre- 
ciate how essential this mineral oil is in 




Photograph from U. S. Geological Survey 
OIL WELLS IN VENTURA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA 

The topography and the locality suggest "nothing venture, nothing have," which is one of the 

rules in hunting oil. 



184 




Photograph from U. S. Geological Survey 

NUMBER FOUR WELL AT JOY FARM, OHIO, DRILLED IN 1864 AND STILL 

PRODUCING OIL 



the world economy or realize all the 
changes that have come about in its use 
within a decade or two. 

OIL NO LONGER OUR LIGHT BY NIGHT, BUT 
PREMIER POWER SOURCE 

When most of us were in school, "oil" 
meant kerosene, and gasoline or benzine 
was something to be bought in a bottle at 
the drug-store or the paint shop. In 
those earlier days the oil refiner put as 
much gasoline in his kerosene product as 
the traffic would allow ; today the auto- 
mobilist complains that his gasoline con- 
tains too much kerosene. The refiner 
simply robs his less marketable kerosene 
of the more inflammable content; so 
that, as has been suggested, if Widow 
O'Leary's cow again kicked over the 
lamp, in all probability the spilt oil would 
not set Chicago or any other city on fire. 

In those earlier days, too, fuel oil 
played no part in industry. Then, petro- 
leum's future mission seemed to be to 
light up the dark corners of the world 
to be the handmaiden of Minerva ; today, 
oil has become the premier motive power, 
not only on land and sea, but even in the 



heavens above and the depths below 
truly the best servant of Mars and Mer- 
cury. 

Marshal Foch is quoted as saying that 
"a drop of gasoline was worth in war a 
drop of blood," and M. Berenger, the 
French Commissioner-General of Petro- 
leum, expressed the same idea when he 
called attention to the fact that victory on 
the battlefields of Belgium, France, and 
Italy "could not have been gained with- 
out that other blood of the earth which 
is called oil." 

"And if petroleum has been the life 
blood of the war, it will be still more the 
life-blood of peace." The strategy of 
peace should, however, lead us so to plan 
for wise use of this precious fluid that 
Mother Earth will not too soon be "bled 
white." 

MORE THAN 300 PRODUCTS oF 

PETROLEUM 

The number and variety of uses of pe- 
troleum and its products are continually 
increasing, but even more striking is our 
increased dependence upon a few of the 
products of the oil refinery, notably gaso- 



185 



1.86 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




line, kerosene, the many types of 
lubricating oils, and fuel oil. 

There are said to be 300 or 
more products of petroleum, each 
with its own use. Some of these 
products serve merely our con- 
venience, such as the artificial 
"vanilla" flavoring or the cover 
of paraffine on the jar of jelly or 
marmalade; others were found 
during the war period to be ab- 
solutely essential to industry on 
a large scale for example, the 
heavy oil used in tempering steel 
plates. 

One picture of the demand for 
the principal petroleum products 
can be seen in a recent statement 
of United States Army peace- 
time requirements, which in- 
cluded 74 million gallons of fuel 
oil, 1 1 million gallons of gasoline, 
two million gallons each of lubri- 
cating oil and grease, and one 
million gallons of kerosene. Not 
only will the size of this single 
order open some eyes, but its 
make-up is significant and dis- 
concerting. 

Taking the figures of the Bu- 
reau of Mines on refinery pro- 
duction last year, we find that 
the output of gasoline was not 
quite double that of kerosene, 
and the output of lubricants was 
less than half that of kerosene, 
and here the army wants eleven 
times as much gasoline as kero- 
sene, and twice as much lubri- 
cating oil. The discord between 
demand and supply in this one 
order is even worse for fuel oil, 
of which the output last year 
was about five times that of kero- 
sene; and yet the army wants 
74 times as much. 

LUBRICANTS ARS THE BAROMETER 

OF BUSINESS 

Too broad an inference from 
any one set of figures is unwise, 
but other statistics point in the 
same direction: Fuel oil is used 
on 357 vessels of our navy, and 
the Shipping Board has an- 



WHERE THE WORLD GETS ITS OIL 



187 




From "World Atlas of Commercial Geology," U. S. Geological Survey 

MAP SHOWING PRODUCTION OF PETROLEUM IN THE UNITED STATES IN IQlS, AND 
THE OUTLINES OE THE PETROLEUM AREAS 

Each black dot represents one per cent of the total production of petroleum in the United 
States. The dotted lines surround oil-producing areas. Where the production is less than 
one per cent, the area is indicated by the cross. 



nounced that there will soon be 1,731 
oil-burning vessels of the merchant ma- 
rine under the American flag ; gasoline is 
now sold at every cross-roads, and we 
know that the use of this fuel in auto- 
motive engines has more than quadrupled 
during the present decade ; and the coun- 
try's demand for lubricating oil, which 
is an essential in every phase of modern 
civilization, increases so rapidly that we 
must agree with the Bureau of Mines in 
the belief that the current consumption 
of lubricants is an excellent barometer 
of business and industrial conditions. 

SIX MILLION PLEASURE CARS IN THE 
UNITED STATES 

Inventive genius and economic neces- 
sity may from time to time change the 
relative demands for this or that petro- 
leum derivative, but the sum total of 
these demands must increase as the num- 
ber of swiftly turning wheels in the 
world increases. 

It is when we think of the marvelous 
growth of the automotive industry that 



we realize a future demand for lubri- 
cation that staggers even the prophetic 
statistician. With more than six million 
pleasure automobiles operated in the 
United States alone, we have an annual 
consumption estimated, by the officials of 
the foremost company manufacturing 
high-grade lubricants, at 120 million gal- 
lons of lubricating oil, where twenty 
years ago the demand for this purpose 
was practically nothing. 

Moreover, today a fleet of half a mil- 
lion motor trucks travel up and down 
our city streets and State roads, deliver- 
ing every kind of commodity from eggs 
to pianos, and these powerful motors 
furnish a market for 37*^ million gal- 
lons of lubricating oil. But while we 
may expect the demand for oil by auto- 
mobiles to continue to increase rapidly 
and the requirement by trucks may possi- 
bly double within a few years indeed, a 
tire company estimates that even now a 
million trucks are in service who can 
even guess at the number of tractors that 
may be operating on our farms within 














Photograph from Hope Natural Gas Company 
THE DEEPEST HOLE IN THE WORLD 

America leads in courage and skill in exploring the earth's crust in the search for oil 
and gas. The Lake No. I well in West Virginia had reached a depth of 7,589 feet, or 240 
feet deeper than the deepest well in Europe, when the steel cable parted nearly three-fourths 
of a mile below the surface. This is the second world record established by the Hope 
Natural Gas Company, the Goff well being 7,386 feet deep, but neither of these West Vir- 
ginia wells has yielded anything but facts for the geologist. 



the next five years ? Already the number 
of tractors in operation is estimated as a 
third of a million, and they consume 
about 35 million gallons of lubricating 
oil. 

We have, then, a total of fully 200 
million gallons of lubricating oil already 
required to keep the automotive equip- 
ment of our country running smoothly, 
and we must not shut our eyes to the 
fact that millions and millions of gallons 
more will be needed each year. 

HOW OIL SAVES POWER 

The steady growth of industrial 
America is observed by all, but we need 



the help of census statistics to realize the 
rate of that growth. The power used in 
our manufacturing has about doubled in 
the past sixteen years ; the kilowatt-hours 
turned out by our public-utility stations 
have increased eight or nine fold in that 
same period. Indeed, the single State of 
New York will use far more electric 
power this year than the whole country 
did in 1902. 

And so the demand for lubricants be- 
comes stronger on the road, on the farm, 
and in the mill. Still, while we think of 
this rapid development of power as using 
increased amounts of oil, it is equally 
true that oil saves power; so that if ma- 



190 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph from D. A. McDannald, Orange, Calif. 
THE WONDER- WORKERS 
Drillers whose skill taps the oil-sands half a mile or more beneath the surface. 



chinery multiplies man-power, lubricat- 
ing oil is a good and faithful servant that 
deserves more than a passing thought. 

With all these demands for fuel and 
lubricants, who can venture an estimate 
of our needs even ten years hence? 
Whence will the petroleum come to meet 
these needs? That river of oil repre- 
senting our 1918 consumption drew from 
the ground more than one-twentieth of 
the quantity estimated by the United 
States Geological Survey geologists as 
the content of our unrecovered under- 
ground reserve, and it also took nearly 
one-fifth of the oil stored above ground. 

The estimate of about 6]/ 2 billion bar- 
rels as now available is far less impressive 
when we realize how fast we are using 
it up and that while we have burned 
and wasted less than i per cent of the 
coal resources of the United States in 



the last 100 years we have apparently- 
used up 40 per cent of our available oil 
supply in only 60 years. 

This is why the hunt for oil has become 
world-wide and suggests a compelling 
reason for Americans to lead in that 
hunt. 

A HUNTER WHOSE WEAPON IS THE DRILL 

The geologist has lately come into his 
own. as a money-saver in the employ of 
oil companies. Today not less than 750 
geologists are in the employ of corpora- 
tions, large and small, selecting the most 
promising fields for oil exploration and 
sites for new oil wells. Where it costs 
from $8 to $20 a foot to drill a well and 
the oil sands are 3,000 to 4,500 feet be- 
neath the surface, as in California; or 
450 to 3,600 feet, as in Oklahoma; or 
possibly as much as 3,600 feet, as in the 



WHERE THE WORLD GETS ITS OIL 



191 




THE; LAKEVIEW GUSHER 



Photograph from Mining Review, Los Angeles 
OF CALIFORNIA 



In its day a record-breaker, but not comparable to the Mexican "gushers." The spectators 
on the sand-bag embankment later discovered their linen to be spotted with oil-mist. 



new Ranger field in Texas, the expense 
attending the drilling of a single well is 
something to be considered in the econ- 
omy of the business, especially when, as 
the Bureau of Mines states, oil wells, like 
everything else, cost about twice as much 
as they did before the war. 

The geologist simply applies his science 
to the problem of making as many wells 
as possible successful and of preventing 
drilling where oil cannot be found. Every 
"dry hole" is, in the last analysis, a tax 
on the consumer, that patient Atlas of 
the world's ever-mounting load of high 
costs. 

A recent study of the results of ex- 
tensive geologic examinations on the 
Osage Indian lands shows conclusively 
that in this region, which rather favors 
the Government geologist in his effort to 
locate oil, his geology was right 87 per 
cent of the time, when tested by the drill. 
Business can ask of science no better 
percentage of success than that, and the 



money and labor and supplies that can 
thus be saved to the nation constitute no 
small item. 

A BIG LEAK THE STOCK PROMOTION GAME 

One of the leaks in the nation's task 
of finding oil is nearer home to many of 
us. The stock-promotion game attracts 
too many dollars to no useful purpose. 

It has been stated that two years ago 
these much-advertised oil companies, 
with more assets on paper than on the 
ground or under the ground, were to be 
credited with a very small fraction of 
i per cent of the oil yield of Oklahoma ; 
indeed, the issue of stock certificates 
reached the point where for every $555 
of ill-advised investment only one dollar's 
worth of oil was produced. Thus does 
the combination of unscrupulous stock- 
peddler and ignorant investor undo much 
that the conscientious oil-producer is 
striving to accomplish in getting the 
most oil out of the ground at lowest cost. 



192 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph from Bureau ot Mines 



TANK FARM 



Where one of the group of huge storage tanks has. been set on fire by lightning. In our 
automobiles we also use the electric spark for ignition, but to better purpose. 



Conservation touches petroleum at 
many points. There is need for a coun- 
try-wide thrift campaign looking to the 
saving of this essential resource. Man- 
power and oil ought to be conserved at 
all stages of production and consumption 
by better methods in the discovery, drill- 
ing, recovery, transportation, refining, 
and use of petroleum and its products. 

The price of crude oil has just reached 
a new level, and eventually this must in- 
fluence the price of the refinery products, 
a fact that ought to give impetus to thrift 
among users of every petroleum product. 

THE WASTE BEGINS 



Unwarranted optimism, which seems 
indigenous in most parts of the United 
States, has led both the oil industry and 
the public to waste this best of fuels. 
The program of wastage begins below 
the ground with only partial recovery, 
goes on above the ground with leakage 
and evaporation, and continues all along 



the line to the indiscriminate burning of 
fuel oil under boilers with regard for 
convenience rather than for efficiency, or 
to the even less defensible use of pe- 
troleum for oiling our roads. 

In oil-field operation, in refinery prac- 
tice, and in the use of oil everywhere, too 
often the dollar test of economy is the 
only one applied. The situation, how- 
ever, is critical enough to demand an- 
other rule that of taking thought of the 
morrow and of weighing the questions 
of ultimate supply and demand. 

But. with those early forest conserva- 
tionists of old England in mind, the ques- 
tion may be asked, Are there no practical 
substitutes or other adequate sources? 
The obvious answer is in terms of pres- 
ent prices ; the real answer is in terms 
of cost in man-power. 

THE ADVANTAGES Of OIL, OVER COAL 

Whether on land or sea, fuel oil is 
preferred to coal because it requires less 



WHERE THE WORLD GETS ITS OIL 



193 




Underwood & Underwood 



WORKING NEAR THE FIRING-LINE 



The lineman repairing wires close to the huge oil tank, which the firemen are trying to 
keep below the explosion temperature. This $2,000,000 fire on Long Island caused the greatest 
call for fire apparatus that New York City has ever known. 



bunker space and fewer firemen; and, 
back of that, in the man-power required 
in its mining, preparation, and transpor- 
tation, the advantage on the side of oil is 
even greater. So, too, the substitute for 
gasoline in internal-combustion engines, 
whether alcohol or benzol, means higher 
cost and larger expenditure of labor in 
its production. Moreover, for alcohol 
agricultural land would be required, and 
for benzol in the quantities needed a far 
greater coal consumption than is now 
necessary. 

Again, while we fortunately have our 
great reserve of oil shales as an inde- 



pendent source at some future date, we 
do well to consider the practical contin- 
gency suggested by Mr. Requa, that to 
develop this source on a scale comparable 
in output with our present oil supply 
"would require an industrial organization 
greater than our entire coal mining or- 
ganization." Plainly, our country can not 
afford to support another such army of 
workers until we reach another stage in 
our industrial development. 

The question of safeguarding Amer- 
ica's oil supply has been prominently be- 
fore the American people for more than 
ten years. In September, 1909, President 




Photograph from Bureau of Mines 

AN OIIv TANK SET ON FIRE BY LIGHTNING 
A pillar of smoke by day that represents a total loss to the world that needs oil. 



194 



Taft ordered that all pub- 
lic lands believed to contain 
petroleum should be re- 
served from disposition un- 
til a law could be passed 
that might assure an ade- 
quate supply of fuel oil and 
lubricating oil for our navy 
and in some degree check 
the wasteful overproduc- 
tion in the rich oil fields of 
California. Such a law is 
now under consideration by 
the conference committee 
of the two Houses of Con- 
gress. 

WHERE WE SHALL GET OUR 
OIL IN FUTURE 

Ten years is a long 
period for these "tempor- 
ary" withdrawals to run 
pending the enactment of 
suitable legislation, and in 
that time the country's need 
of oil, as measured by its 
consumption, has doubled. 
If in 1909 our Chief Ex- 
ecutive had reason to plan 
the safe and sane disposal 
of the petroleum still in 
public ownership, in 1920 
we surely need to look even 
further and see if possible 
where our children will get 
the oil they will require in 
increased amount. 

On the accompanying 
map of the world (see 
page 200) , are indicated the 
regions from which, ac- 
cording to present information, the oil 
supplies of the future are to be drawn. 

The diagrammatic representation of the 
relative abundance of the oil resources in 
the ground in different countries is at 
best highly speculative. Most of the other 
countries outside of Europe have not 
been covered so thoroughly by geologic 
examinations as the United States. In 
fact, some of the oldest and most highly 
civilized countries have not been studied 
by geologists specially trained in the geol- 
ogy of oil and gas, as is shown by the fact 
that it remained for an American expert 
to bring to the attention of the British 
the probabilities of the occurrence of oil 
fields in old England itself. 




Photograph from M. L> Alexander 

ENGINEERING EXPERTS BRINGING UNDER CONTROL A 
"WILD WELL" IN LOUISIANA 



A glance at the map shows that outside 
of the United States the great oil supplies 
of the future, so far as now known, are 
centralized mainly in the Near East, in 
South America, and in Mexico. Accord- 
ing to reports, there may be great reserves 
of oil in Africa, and it is also possible 
that eventually considerable supplies may 
be discovered in the Far East. 

In general, the regions developed first 
and drawn on most heavily are, of course, 
likely to be soonest exhausted. There- 
fore it is practically certain that, as the 
oil resources of the United States and 
Rumania diminish and the reserves of 
Mexico also yield under the pressure of 
rapidly increasing exploitation, the world 



Photograph from Mexican Petroleum Co. 
THE WORLD'S GREATEST OIL WELL 

A well in Mexico named Cerro Azul No. 4 shot a column of oil higher than our Wash- 
ington Monument and drenched the country with a rain of oil for two miles around. Engi- 
neer measurements showed the column to be 600 feet high and the flow to have been more 
than a million barrels in the week before man harnessed this great force. 



196 



will have to look for its 
oil supplies to those re- 
gions where inaccessi- 
bilities and lack of de- 
mand, due to the social 
and industrial backward- 
ness of the peoples, have 
hitherto retarded ex- 
ploration and production. 

HOW MEXICO'S OIL HAS 
BEEN EXPLOITED 

The rapidity with 
which a region of rela- 
tively recent develop- 
ment may be exploited 
is illustrated in Mexico, 
whose petroleum output 
has risen since 1910 until 
it is second only to the 
United States, having 
doubled in the last five 
years. Mexico has been 
a land of oil-gushers and 
big wells, and with less 
than 300 producing wells 
the potential daily pro- 
duction has been esti- 
mated as about one and 
a half million barrels, 
but the actual output is 
not much more than 10 
per cent of that. 

The increases in pro- 
duction in the United 
States and Mexico for 
the year 1918, as com- 
pared with 1917, are re- 
spectively twenty mil- 
lion and eight million 
barrels. This shows how 
large a responsibility for 
the world's oil supply 
Mexico is already assuming. 

What is to happen when, following the 
United States, Mexico must reduce her 
output with the progressive exhaustion 
of her oil resources, and what are to be 
the competitive conditions in the United 
States when the other great nations of 
the world, whose use of petroleum is now 
relatively insignificant, awaken to the 
realization of the unique and almost 
priceless advantages of this great natural 
resource ? 

The United States, though the largest 
producer and consumer of oil, has given 




Photograph from Mexican Petroleum Co. 
THE CERRO AZUL NO. 4 IN FULL FORCE 

The great volume of gas and oil completely wrecked the der- 
rick, and in the first blast of gas threw the 2-ton drill-bit high in 
the air, landing 125 feet from the well and within three yards of 
a "movie" photographer. Photographing a wild well is not with- 
out discomfort and danger. 



too little heed to the future ; Great Brit- 
ain, almost the smallest producer, has 
been the first to foresee petroleum's 
"transcendental importance to the world's 
industrial future," and, following up vis- 
ion with action, has been the most active 
in providing for that future. 

BRITAIN'S METHOD OF CONTROLLING OIL 
SUPPLIES 

Sidney Brooks's phrase, "commercial 
statesmanship," may be the transatlantic 
term for "dollar diplomacy," but it aptly 
describes the British method of seeking 



197 



to c 




198 




Photograph from Mexican Petroleum Co. 

THE VICTORY WON: THE WORLD'S PREMIER OIL GUSHER HARNESSED 

The successful issue of a week's campaign, for which there had been months of prepara- 
tion. The valve is in position and ready to close. All of the flow now passes through the 
pipe, and the great reservoir of oil, 1,752 feet below the surface, is thus connected up with 
the 8-inch pipe lines running down to Tampico, where tankers load to supply the oil-hungry 
world (see other photographs of the Cerro Azul well on pages 196, 197, and 198, constituting 
a pictorial history of the great Mexican gusher). 

199 




o ~ 
w 

M s 




ENGLAND'S DISCOVERY WELL 



Photograph from Arthur C. Veatch 



Located in Derbyshire by an American geologist, drilled by American engineers and 
skilled workmen, with American machinery and well supplies, this all-American well struck 
oil in England almost exactly 60 years after Drake discovered oil in Pennsylvania. 



control of an oil supply adequate for the 
nation's needs. John D. Northrop, in a 
review of the political and commercial 
control of the petroleum resources of the 
world, thus sums up the British position : 

"The strength of Great Britain's present 
position in the world's petroleum affairs 
lies in a strong governmental policy in the 
matter and in the wide scope of British 
petroleum investments, embracing practi- 
cally every country of which petroleum is 
an important product and nearly every 
country of which it is a product of poten- 
tial importance." 

Not only do the British oil companies 
rejoice in such suggestive names as "Brit- 
ish Controlled Oilfields," but at the stock- 
holders' meetings the policy is stated in 
plain language as providing the safeguard 
of a voting trust so that no financial con- 
trol "can divert even a single barrel of 
oil from national or imperial require- 
ments." 

It is easy to see that Great Britain's 
world-trade policy has given oil this "im- 
perial" recognition ; and when we picture 
the return of the American flag to the 



seven seas, we too must plan for an oil 
supply available wherever needed. Any 
nation which today aspires to a large part 
in world commerce imposes upon itself 
an oil problem, for the future freedom of 
both the sea and the air will be defined 
in terms of oil supply. 

AMERICAN SHIPS AND THEIR APPETITE 
FOR OIL 

The new demand of our shipping pro- 
gram alone involves fuel oil in quantities 
equivalent to nearly one-half of the pres- 
ent domestic output, and, unless tliere is 
some corresponding decrease in other de- 
mands, this new requirement must be met 
with an increase in production of crude 
oil of nearly 200 million barrels. 

The United States shipping program 
further calls for a chain of oil stations en- 
circling the globe. The Shipping Board 
has already announced that the first steps 
have been taken to establish fuel stations 
along the trade lanes as well as at the 
world's cross-roads, and thus to assure 
unrestricted operation of our ships in the 
world's trade. 



201 



202 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



But economy on a large scale will mean 
that not only must the oil supply be put 
where it is needed, but the oil must come, 
if possible, from near-by sources. Amer- 
ican tankers encircling the world with 
cargoes of Texas cr California oil appeal 
to the imagination, but involve too high 
a transportation cost; better, some con- 
trol of oil supply on other continents. 

America's experience on the world 
scale has been gained as an oil merchant 
more than as an oil-producer. The illu- 
mination of the Orient with American 
kerosene has been followed by the lubri- 
cation of the whole world with special 
oils from American refineries ; and now 
we hear of a garage in Guatemala 7,000 
feet above the sea, or another in far-off 
Australia using American gasoline and 
lubricants exclusively. 

This commercial campaign has been a 
worthy one, especially in its far-seeing 
outlook ; but do we look far enough ? 
We have been draining our own oil pools 
in part to supply the needs of the rest of 
the world, but we hive made little effort 
to render the rest of the world self-sup- 
porting in oil production. Whether such 
a national policy is to be characterized 
as that of a spendthrift or that of an 
altruist, it is certainly too short-sighted. 

NEED FOR OIL, PIONEERS 

The facts of the present situation call 
for some new pioneering by the United 
States. This appeal to American brains 
and American dollars is made for the 
patriotic purpose of providing for the 
future well-being of our own country. 
Already American geologists have helped 
to develop the oil resources of every con- 
tinent', the latest contribution being that 
of A. C. Veatch, who as chief geologist 
for Lord Cowdray located the discoverv 
well at Hardstoft, Derbyshire, England. 
This pioneer well struck oil at a depth of 
3,078 feet, and since June has been flow- 



ing at the rate of 12 barrels of high-grade 
oil a day. 

Central England has thus been shown 
to be of importance as a source of pe- 
troleum ; and it is gratifying to note that 
American geologists, American engineers 
and drillers, American rigs, and Ameri- 
can oil-well supplies thus all "did their 
bit" for Great Britain at the time when 
the submarine menace led Lord Cowdray 
to place his petroleum staff at the dis- 
posal of the nation. 

This pioneering spirit should now lead 
American capital and American engineer- 
ing to seek new sources of petroleum 
supplies in foreign fields for the benefit 
of the America of tomorrow. Nor can 
this be done without popular support, in- 
spired by general appreciation of oil as 
our servant, a servant that works 24 
hours a day and 7 days a week. 

The "open-door" policy is best for 
America and the world ; encourage 
Amercan capital to enter foreign fields 
and protect foreign capital wherever in- 
vested in our country. However, the 
spirit of reciprocity does not require that 
the United States shall always keep its 
own door of opportunity open to the 
nationals of all nations, irrespective of 
their attitude to Americans in the other 
parts of the world. 

The part our Government should take 
in planning to meet our future needs is 
to give moral support to every effort of 
American business to expand its circle 
of activity in oil production, so that it 
will be coextensive with the new field of 
American shipping. 

This may mean world-wide explora- 
tion, development, and producing com- 
panies, financed by United States capital, 
guided by American engineering, and 
safeguarded in policy because protected 
by the United States Government. 

Thus only can our general welfare be 
promoted and the future supply of oil be 
assured for the United States. 



INDEX FOR JULY-DECEMBER, 1919, VOLUME READY 
Index for Volume XXXVI (July-December, 1919) will be mailed to members upon request 



VOL. XXXVII, No. 3 WASHINGTON 



MARCH, 1920 




T 





COPYRIGHT, 1920. 1 



MASSACHUSETTS-BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 

BY WILLIAM JOSEPH SHOWALTER 



E XI PUT in area, Brobdingnag in 
industry; forced to get its bread 
elsewhere, but helping to clothe na- 
tions ; longest American, except Virginia, 
in the span of its history, yet least Amer- 
ican, except Rhode Island and the Can- 
ada-bordering States of the Mississippi 
Valley, in the ancestral stock of its pres- 
ent inhabitants ; losing half of its im- 
proved farm lands in thirty years, while 
doubling its population Massachusetts 
rewards the investigator of its twentieth 
century status with manv contrasts and 
not a few paradoxes. 

Everybody knows that the Bay State is 
one of the smallest of the Commonwealths 
that compose the United States of Amer- 
ica, but who realizes that it takes as many 
Massachusetts to make a United States 
as it takes days to make a leap year ? Or 
who appreciates the fact that in area there 
are as many Bay States in California as 
there are holes in a full golf course. 

A GIANT IN AU, SAVE SIZE 

The crow needs to fly only 135 miles in 
going from Sheffield to Salisbury, or only 
180 miles in winging its way from Grey- 
lock's summit to Chatham's sands, while 
the distance between Lake Monomonac, 
which spans the New Hampshire bound- 
ary, and Lake Chaugogagogmanchaugag- 
ogchaubunagungamaug, which touches 
Connecticut, is only a little longer than 
the name of the latter. 

But this midget in domain is a giant in 
power. Measured by the products of its 



factories, by its financial contributions to 
the Federal Government, it occupies fifth 
place in the sisterhood ; measured by the 
money it annually appropriates for its 
own betterment, it attains fourth place 
from the top, and is a lively disputant 
with Illinois for third ; measured by the 
debt it has dared to incur in order to pro- 
mote the welfare of its people, it takes 
second place, despite the fact that there 
are seven States that surpass it in wealth. 

This year Plymouth, Massachusetts, 
plans to entertain the country in honor of 
the 300 years that will have passed since 
New England was born. There are citi- 
zens in the Bay State who have ten gen- 
erations or more of American blood in 
their veins. Yet two-thirds of the people 
of the Commonwealth have sprung from 
parents one or both of whom were born 
under alien flags. 

Where Paul Revere lived in Revolu- 
tionary times is now Little Italy, almost 
as foreign in the tongue spoken as Naples 
or Genoa. With only a third of the 
State's population born of parents who 
first saw the light in America, how small 
must be the percentage born of full 
colonial lineage ! 

But is Massachusetts less American for 
its tremendous foreign stock? Look at 
the recruiting records holding sixth 
place in population, but fifth in voluntary 
enlistments for the World War. Look 
at the Liberty Loan records third place 
in the first and second loans and fourth 
place in the other three. 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by L,eon H. Abdalian 

THE PIUv- COATING ROOM OF A MASSACHUSETTS DRUG COMPANY 
As these huge containers revolve they sugar-coat pills at the rate of 12,000,000 in 24 hours. 



Eight people out of nine in Fall River 
may have foreign blood in their veins, but 
Fall River never failed to go over the top 
with every drive. Seven out of eight of 
the inhabitants of Lawrence, where the 
paper for THE GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE is 
made (see also pages 234-238), may have 
grandparents born under alien flags, but 
in the Third Liberty Loan drive only six 
of the major cities of the United States 
showed a greater proportion of sub- 
scribers. 

MANUFACTURES THRIVE AT THE EXPENSE 
OF AGRICULTURE 

Manufacturing thrives in Massachu- 
setts, but it does so at the expense of agri- 
culture. No other State in the American 
Union has such a small proportion of its 
people engaged in the oldest of civilized 
vocations. Only one breadwinner in a 
score finds his food in farming, forestry, 
animal husbandry, and fishing. 

What pathos there is in the thought 
that more than half of the ground the 



Pilgrim people for two centuries fought 
so hard to wrest from forest and stone 
should have been surrendered to weed 
and brush during the last three decades ! 

Motor out from Boston to Lexington, 
and thence by Bedford to Lowell. Did 
ever a hardy and spirited race leave a 
greater monument to its determination in 
combating inhospitable Nature than the 
farmers of bygone generations left in the 
thousands of miles of stone walls one 
sees in this part of Massachusetts? 

Not only did they have to clear the 
ground of a stumpage that yielded little 
as lumber bv way of compensation, but 
also of a vast amount of loose rock that 
occurs so frequently where the soil is 
best. 

The result was that fences were built, 
not with reference to the needs of height 
and width in field boundaries, but rather 
of dimensions sufficient to provide a stor- 
age place for the vast amount of rock that 
had to be removed before the plow and 
the harrow could make ready the soil or 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



205 




Photograph by Leon H. Abdalian 
FILLING TUBES WITH TOOTH PASTE: MASSACHUSETTS 

The big containers are full of paste. Each girl can fill 10,000 tubes a day. Everywhere 
one goes in the Bay State labor-saving machinery is in evidence. Yet everywhere the more 
labor is saved the more work there is for labor to do. 



the corn and wheat find a place to grow. 
Some of these stone fences are so thick 
that a carriage and pair could drive along 
the tops. 

THE FARMER'S LOSING BATTLE 

For more than two centuries the sturdy 
yeomen of Massachusetts waged an ag- 
gressive battle against the forests to ob- 
tain room for their crops. Then, in 1850, 
came a stalemate, and for thirty years 



the battle line between the field and the 
forest showed a little wavering, but no 
real change. 

But when it seemed that a draw was 
the inevitable end of the struggle a new 
ally appeared on the side of the forest. 
High Wages and short hours for labor in 
urban industries began to cause whole- 
sale desertion from the forces of the 
farm. 

Then the line wavered and broke; in 



206 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




COTTON AS IT COMES INTO THE FACTORY 

When cotton reaches the factory in the bale the fibers are kinky 
and tangled, like a bunch of snarled hair. One pound out of 
every four of the bale's weight is due to the dirt, sand, and other 
foreign substances in it. Massachusetts annually spins a million 
bales like the one shown here. 



the thirty years, 1880-1910, that followed, 
the forest was able to retake from the 
field half of the territory the hardy 
farmer had won, and has left the State 
only a little more than a million acres of 
improved land where formerly it had 
considerably more than two million. 

Nor is it to be doubted that this year's 
census will show even larger losses in 
improved land. One has only to motor 
through the better farming communities 
to see thousands of acres that have been 
abandoned recently, and to find "For 
Sale" signs along every highway; for 
how few farmers can withstand the lure 
of $40 a week for himself, $30 for his 
wife, and $25 for his daughter, with 
eight hours a day for everybody ! 



This tremendous 
slump in agriculture has 
taken place in spite of 
the fact that, acre for 
acre, the value of Mas- 
sachusetts crops is prob- 
ably higher than that of 
any other State in the 
American Union. Fur- 
thermore, it is in spite 
of the fact that some of 
the most fertile farming 
land in America is to be 
found in the Bay State 
adapted for the growth 
of specialties, seeds, on- 
ions, etc. 

The Massachusetts 
Agricultural College is 
intelligently striving to 
offset the sweep of the 
tide that is carrying peo- 
ple from the farm to the 
factory. The task is a 
hard one and the odds 
against its accomplish- 
ment are tremendous, 
but much good is being 
done. 

Massachusetts was one 
of the first to appreciate 
the advantage of good 
roads and to undertake 
a State-wide program of 
highway construction. 
Many millions of dol- 
lars have been spent in 
perfecting a system of trunk lines. The 
result is that the whole State is a paradise 
for the summer motorist, and tens of 
thousands of Americans gather in this 
vacation land, which can suit every taste 
and pocketbook. 

A statistician has estimated that sum- 
mertime visitors swell the population by 
one-fourth. That is probably an over- 
estimate, but it gives some idea as to the 
influx of folk on vacation bent. 

HISTORIC ASSOCIATIONS PRESERVED 

Just as Massachusetts was a pioneer 
in recognizing the advantage of good 
automobile roads, it was also the first 
State to appreciate the development of 
its historic resources. There are mark- 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



207 




THE BALE-BREAKER AT WORK 

After the bale of cotton has been opened, the workmen feed it into the machine shown 
here. This machine loosens the mass and delivers it to an endless belt (shown on the right), 
which carries it to the feeders (see page 211). 



ers from mountain to sea, telling in brief 
outline the history of hallowed spots. 
Only those who have traveled through 
the State can appreciate the extent of 
this work or realize how much it adds to 
a pilgrim's pleasure and stirs anew the 
Americanism within him. 

The irreverent outsider may be dis- 
posed to smile at the fact that there is 
not an elm tree under which George 
Washington is known to have stood that 
does not bear a distinguishing legend. 
He may even think that the Bay State 
overplays its history. 

MASSACHUSETTS THE PATRON Of 
EDUCATION 

But it were more nearly the truth to 
say that other States have underplayed 
theirs, and that every American would 
be a better American if all the States 
followed the example of Massachusetts 
in perpetuating the shrines of history in 
a way that would permit every passerby 



to read and reflect upon the nation's 
glorious, heritages. 

From its earliest days the State has led 
the nation in matters educational. Here 
the first colonial grammar school was 
established, the first college, the first ele- 
mentary free school, the first academy, 
the first high school, and the first normal 
school. 

Call the roll of the higher institutions 
of learning Harvard and Holyoke, Am- 
herst and Williams, Smith and Wellesley, 
Tufts and Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, Clark and Radcliffe, Clarke 
Institute of Northampton, and many 
others and most of them will be found 
to have been pioneers in their respective 
fields and to stand today each for some 
special ideal. 

But Massachusetts is entirely demo- 
cratic in her educational activities. The 
unfavored many have as much right to 
their opportunity for training as the 
fortunate few. High schools of excep- 



208 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




THE INTERMEDIATE; PICKER, WHICH CONTINUES THE WORK OF CLEANING 

RAW COTTON 

From the bale-breaker the raw cotton goes through the feeder to the opener, and thence 
to the three "pickers," which still further loosen it and release each fiber from the grasp of 
its neighboring fibers. The four "laps" (the round cotton mass) of cotton on the machine 
are being combined into one lap (see picture on opposite page). 



tional merit are to be found in every 
community and technical schools in the 
larger industrial centers. 

In 1913 a law was enacted requiring 
every town without a high school of its 
own to pay tuition in other towns for its 
high-school pupils, and to pay their trans- 
portation back and forth, up to $1.50 a 
week, thus guaranteeing to every boy 
and girl in the Commonwealth who de- 
sires it a free high-school education. In 
1918 another law was enacted granting 
State aid to struggling high schools. 

As in so many other directions in the 
educational world, Massachusetts was a 
pioneer in exchanging the little red 
school-house on the hill, with its un- 
graded course of studies, its untrained 
teacher, and its poor facilities, for the 
consolidated school, with its fewer and 
better teachers, its carefully planned 
courses of study, etc. It did so on the 
basis that four good teachers in one con- 
solidated school could teach twice as 



many children twice as much as eight 
poor teachers in eight little red school- 
houses. 

Latterly the children at distant points 
have been conveyed to and from school 
at State expense. It costs half a million 
dollars a year to convey to school those 
children who do not live within walking 
distance, but that is only a trifle com- 
pared to the advantages which result 
from educating the 20,000 children af- 
fected. Of this number nearly half go 
by trolley, nearly a third by horse-drawn 
vehicles, and a fifth by motor busses. 
The figures indicate that it costs less to 
take the children to school in motor cars 
than in horse-drawn vehicles. 

But with all the progress which Massa- 
chusetts has made educationally, there 
are still 600 teachers in the State with 
salaries of less than $550 a year. Ade- 
quate pay for teachers is recognized as 
one of the first requirements in any cam- 
paign for an improved education pro- 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



209 



gram, and the Bay State is moving in 
that direction. 

THE HOME OF THE CONVEYING MACHINE 

Massachusetts has long been preemi- 
nent in the development and introduction 
of labor-saving devices, but in no field 
more so than in the evolution of auto- 
matic conveying machines. 

Go into a chain drug store, a large de- 
partment store, or a big business office, 
and the pneumatic tubes and cash-carriers 
installed there probably came from Mas- 
sachusetts. Very probably your sterilized 
milk is handled in the dairy on Massa- 
chusetts-made gravity conveyers. 

Indeed, at every turn one comes into 
contact with something that has been car- 
ried by these Massachusetts step-savers 
mail, shoes, hats, watches, money, books, 
hotel food. 

Mechanical messengers "made in Mas- 
sachusetts," which are as fast as their 
human prototypes are slow, are found in 
every State. Some of them seem to act 
with even more intelligence than the lead- 
shod messenger of flesh. In one type 
there may be a dozen or more receiving 
stations along its route, but it unfailingly 
carries its burden to the one to which it 
is directed by the sender. 

In a big bank the paying tellers cannot 
always tell the status of certain accounts 
when checks are presented ; but down be- 
neath the counter of their cages they have 
pneumatic tubes. Into one of these the 
teller puts the check in question ; it is 
conveyed to the bookkeeper, who scrib- 
bles his initials of approval upon it, and 
before the patron at the window has time 
to suspect that the drawer's account is 
being examined, the check has been re- 
turned to the teller and payment is made. 

MASSACHUSETTS ANNUALLY MAKES A 

SHOE FOR EVERY FOOT IN THE 

UNITED STATES 

Space forbids even the enumeration of 
the many services, performed by gravity, 
pneumatic and electric belt carriers, but 
millions of hours of labor, millions of 
dollars' worth of customers' time are 
saved every day in America by "made in 
Massachusetts" automatic messengers 
and merchandise movers. 




A COTTON CARD AT WORK 

Here the big rolls of "Inp" are fed between 
two cylinders which are covered with leather 
or cloth, studded with tens of thousands of 
tiny spikes. These barely miss each other, but 
they comb out the fibers of cotton until they 
all lie parallel to one another (see page 212). 

The story of the factories of the Bay 
State is a narrative of an astonishing 
concentration of human endeavor. 

In quantity no less than in value do the 
manufactures of Massachusetts amaze. 
A boot, shoe, or slipper for every human 
foot in the United States; more cotton 
goods than the whole world produced 
when John Adams was President ; enough 
hosiery to cover 40,000 miles of feet and 
legs ; sufficient woolen goods to put a 
twenty-foot bandage around the waist of 
Mother Earth these are some of the 
yardsticks that measure the annual ac- 
tivities of this beehive of industry. 

Of course, when one thinks of Massa- 
chusetts industry, the manufacture of tex- 
tiles comes immediately to mind. 

Think of twelve million flying spindles 
converting fiber into yarn and thread, 
each of them dancing around its own axis 
at rates varying from 5,000 to 10,000 



210 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




THE DELIVERY END OF A CARDING-MACHINE 

Here we see the "lap" spread out in gossamer-like thinness over the card cloth. The 
filmy sheet is then gathered into the "sliver" ; the sliver is the white streamer clearly pictured 
on the extreme left. The second stage in the conversion of raw cotton into plain yarn now 
begins. 



turns a minute. Placed end to end, these 
dancing dervishes of the textile industry 
would reach from Montreal, Canada, to 
Memphis, Tenn. 

EIGHT MILES OF COTTON CLOTH MADE 
EVERY MINUTE 

Then there are the looms, a quarter of 
a million of them. Put these cloth-mak- 
ing 1 machines together, end to end, with 
no aisles between them, and the weaving 
shed required to house them would begin 
at Boston, Mass., and end at Wilmington, 
Del. Every third spindle and loom in the 
United States is humming away in the 
cities and towns of the Bay State. 

Of the textiles, cotton is first, some 
two billion yards of woven goods leaving 



the cotton looms every year. That means 
cloth flowing from machines at the rate 
of nearly eight miles a minute ! It is suffi- 
cient piece goods to make a woven belt 
long enough to hitch the moon to the 
earth and more than six feet wide! Of 
sheetings, shirtings, and muslins Massa- 
chusetts produces about thirteen yards 
for every person in the United States ; of 
fancy woven material, nearly four yards ; 
of napped fabrics, more than one yard; 
of velvets, corduroys, etc., nearly a yard. 

THE STORY OF A YARD OF CALICO 

A piece of simple calico seems a mere 
trifle; but the story of its manufacture is 
an epic of genius. Followed from the 
raw cotton in the bale to the bolt of cloth 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



211 




DRAWING 



SLIVERS IN A COTTON MILL, ONE OF THE STEPS PRELIMINARY 
TO SPINNING 



When the sliver comes from the card, as shown in the preceding picture, it is received 
into one of the cans shown here. Six of these slivers pass through the drawing frame, as 
explained on page 214, and are combined into one, as long as the combined length of the six, 
but of the diameter of one of the originals. Each sliver passes through a number of drawing- 
machines, each time entering as six and coming out united into one, and correspondingly 
lengthened. 



in the warehouse, it leads one a merry 
chase up and down countless flights of 
stairs and keeps the mind busy enumerat- 
ing the processes involved. 

Lawrence has one of the largest cotton 
mills in the world and, connected with it, 
the largest print works in existence. Let 
us there follow the processes of convert- 
ing cotton into calico. We shall appre- 
ciate the clothes we wear the more when 
the journey's end is reached. 

When the cotton comes to the miU it is 
in the familiar bales of commerce, 500 
pounds to the bale. After being opened, 
the cotton is fed to a machine known as 
the bale-breaker. Here the matted cotton 



is loosened and torn into small bunches, 
which are delivered to an endless belt that 
carries them to the "feeder" (see page 
207). 

The feeder is a machine containing a 
series of pin-studded slats which carry 
the bunches of cotton in regular quantity 
into the next machine, known as the 
"opener." 

The opener gives the cotton a warm 
reception a terrific beating, indeed. It 
has a shaft on which there are mounted 
two rows of arms. This shaft revolves 
at from i ,200 to 1 ,800 times a minute, so 
that the cotton gets from forty to sixty 
slaps a second. The result is that the 



212 



THK NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




StUBBER MACHINES AT WORK IN A COTTON 

In this picture we see the slivers being drawn out of the cans on the right. As they 
pass through the slubber they are given a twist which makes each fiber take hold of its 
neighbor, and here they begin to acquire tensile strength. They emerge from the machine 
on bobbins as "roving." The cotton in the cans is "sliver," while that on the bobbins in the 
foreground is "roving" (see text, page 215).. 



sand and other foreign matter in the 
cotton lose hold. The opener then con- 
tinues the work of picking the cotton to 
pieces. When the task is completed the 
staple is in tiny tufts. These are caught 
up by air suction, the dirt being left be- 
hind, and carried to the fourth machine, 
a "breaker picker." 

The breaker picker gives the tiny tufts 
another beating, to remove persistent 



dirt, and then rolls them together in a 
great downy sheet on a rod. This sheet 
is known as "lap" (see page 208). 

Four of these laps are fed simultane- 
ously into a fifth machine, known as the 
"intermediate picker." Still another 
beater plies its flails upon the cotton as it 
comes in. The four laps that go into this 
machine come out as one. 

In turn, four of these laps are fed into 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 







THE FINE ROVING FRAMES IN A MASSACHUSETTS COTTON 

Here we see another step in the long process of converting cotton first into "lap" (pages 
212 and 213), then into "roving" (page 215), and then into yarn. The machines in this 
picture give the roving the final stretching and twisting before it goes to the spinning frames, 
where it is converted into yarn (see text, page 216). 



the sixth machine, known as the "finisher 
picker." It beats the cotton some more, 
and the four laps come out a further puri- 
fied single lap, which looks like cotton 
batting sixteen original laps condensed 
into one (see page 209). 

After all these several and sundry beat- 
ings, one might think that no dirt would 
remain, but there are still some particles 
of leaf, seed pods, etc., clinging fast. 
Moreover, the fibers, which in ordinary 
cotton are about an inch long, are more 
or less matted. 

So a seventh machine, known as the 
"card," is assigned the task of removing 
the remaining impurities, and of loosen- 
ing or separating the fibers, so that they 
can be drawn parallel with each other. 
The card has two big drums, each cov- 
ered with a wire-studded cloth and re- 
volving so as barely to miss touching one 



another. There are some 72,000 of these 
projecting wires to every square foot and 
no fiber has a chance to escape its comb- 
ing. 

PREPARING TO MAKE THE THREAD 

As it leaves the big drums the loose 
cotton is beautiful to behold. Perhaps 
forty inches wide, it is as thin as the skift 
of snow that falls on a late autumn morn- 
ing. But promptly it passes through a 
set of reducing rolls which convert it into 
a rope about an inch in diameter, known 
as a sliver. This is coiled in a large can 
about three feet high and a foot in diam- 
eter (see page 210). 

One might well think that, with such a 
great array of manhandling as this, the 
cotton would be ready for weaving; but 
in point of fact the process of reducing it 
to yarn is only barely begun. 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A COTTON-SPINNER KEEPING THE THREADS OF ROVING RUNNING PROPERLY FROM 

BOBBIN TO BOBBIN 

In spinning, the roving from the bobbin on top of the frame is fed through a little trum- 
pet, and then through drawing 1 rolls which further stretch the strand and make it smaller. 
After this it goes through a whirling piece of steel called the traveler, which winds it on 
another bobbin and gives it another twist. In the process of converting raw cotton to thread, 
the cotton fibers pass through six to twelve twisting-machines, depending on the quality of 
the thread to be produced. 



The next step is to put the sliver 
through the drawing frames. Six slivers 
as they come from the card are combined 
into one in the first frame, which consists 
of a series of rolls, the last pair of which 
revolve six times as fast as the first pair, 
thus making the sliver that comes out of 
the frame six times as long, but of the 



same diameter, as the ones that went in. 
Six of these latter slivers, in their turn, 
are fed into the second drawing frame 
and transformed into one. The final 
frame takes six of these, in turn, and 
transforms them into one (see page 211). 
In other words, just as the final lap is 
composed of sixteen original laps, so the 



MASSACHUSETTS-BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



215 




A DOFFER GIRL IN A LAWRENCE COTTON MILL 

This young lady takes the bobbins from the spinning frame as they become full of yarn. 
Acres and acres of fast-flying spindles and whirling bobbins are found in Massachusetts. 
All the bobbins, placed end to end, would reach from Montreal, Canada, to Memphis, 
Tennessee. 



final sliver is made up of' 216 original 
slivers ; but it has gained in length all that 
has been lost in diameter. 

But up to date the sliver is only a mass 
of parallel fibers and has no strength 
whatever. The succeeding three opera- 
tions are intended to give it a certain 
amount of twist, so that the fibers will 
cling together, while the size is reduced. 

In the first of these operations final 



slivers from the drawing machine are fed 
into a machine known as a "slubber." It 
takes these and simultaneously twists and 
stretches them into one strand, much 
longer, but with a diameter reduced to 
that of a clothes-line ; this it winds on a 
headless - spool bobbin. This resulting 
material is called "roving" (see p. 212). 
Two strands of this roving from the 
slubber are next twisted and stretched 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A SPINNING-ROOM IN A LAWRENCE COTTON MILL 

The cross-threads, 'or woof, of cotton goods are not twisted as much as the lengthwise, 
or warp, threads. The function of spinning is to twist the fibers together tight enough to 
give the yarn or thread the desired strength. If a thread be completely untwisted, it will be 
found to be nothing more than a series of fibers an inch or an inch and a half long. 



into one, which is wound on bobbins of 
the "intermediate frames." 

Two of 'these intermediate rovings in 
their turn are twisted and stretched into 
a final roving, which has about the diam- 
eter of the string which the grocer uses 
in tying packages. 

Sixteen laps to a sliver, 216 slivers to a 
roving, 8 rovings to a strand of yarn 
27,648 doublings from original lap to 
unspun yarn ! 

The bobbins containing the final roving 
are now set up on the creels in the spin- 
ning frame. A strand of the roving goes 
through a trumpet and then through a set 
of three rolls running at different speeds, 
which still further stretch it, until it be- 
comes the size of yarn wanted. Next it 
passes through a small rounded piece of 
steel, called the "traveler," which runs at 
a very high speed sometimes fifty miles 



an hour on a ring, in the center of 
which is the fast revolving spindle. From 
the traveler the yarn is wound on the 
bobbin on the spindle and gets the re- 
quired twist. 

If the yarn is intended for "woof," or 
across-the-goods thread, it is wound on 
appropriate bobbins and is ready for the 
loom. The cotton has passed through 
fourteen machines to reach the woof 
stage seven, up to and including the 
carding machine, three drawing machines, 
three roving machines, and the spinning 
frame. 

MAKING THE; WARP THREAD 

But if it is to become "warp" thread, 
that which runs lengthwise of the goods, 
the yarn has yet to go a considerable 
journey. 

The bobbins of warp are taken from 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 

ii 



217 




Underwood & Underwood 



A WARPING-MACHINE IN AN UP-TO-DATE TEXTILE FACTORY 

Here is shown the process of assembling the warp threads on the "loom beam" ready 
for weaving cloth. After the yarn has been sufficiently twisted to give it the required strength 
for warp, it is wound on spools. The contents of these spools, in turn, are wound upon the 
large rolls seen in the foreground, some 400 threads to the roll. These rolls are placed in the 
creel, or frame shown at the left in this picture, perhaps six at a time. There the threads 
are unwound from them, and, passing through a "slasher," or stretching and drying machine, 
they are consolidated on one great roll known as the loom beam. The loom beam may be 
seen on the right. With its load of thread, perhaps 2,400 individual strands, this- loom beam 
is put into the loom (see next page, 218), and each thread through its particular '"eye" in 
the loom harness, and then the conversion of thread into cloth weaving is ready to begin 
(see text, page 220). 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




American Woolen Mills 



A GROUP OF LOOMS IN A MASSACHUSETTS 



These are the machines that receive the loom beams shown in the preceding picture and 
convert the yarn into cloth, weaving the warp and the woof together. In the simplest woven 
goods the shuttles containing the woof ply back and forth across the loom, passing under 
each alternate warp thread and over the others. In the fancy weaves the warp may go 
through half a dozen or more harnesses, instead of the two used in simple weaves. 



the spinning frame and put on the 
"spooler." Here the yarn is wound upon 
large spools that hold about a mile of 
thread. For tying the ends together, the 
girl in charge of the spooler has a novel 
knot-maker that fits in the palm of her 
left hand. She takes the two ends, places 
them across a little hook, shuts her hand 
and opens it again, when, presto! the 
knot is neatly tied and the ends cut off ! 

After the warp is wound on the spools, 
three or four hundred of the latter are 



set in a frame known as the "warper 
creel." These threads are all tightly 
wound, side by side, on a big reel, known 
as a "warper beam." 

To make an average piece of goods 
forty inches wide requires about two to 
three thousand warp threads; if 2,000, 
five warper beams, each containing 400 
threads, are put into a machine known 
as the "slasher." Their yarn is un- 
wound and passed through a box of hot 
starch and then around two copper cylin- 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



219 




SINGEING CLOTH PREPARATORY TO PRINTING 

Before cloth can be printed, all the little knots and threads and fuzz must be eliminated. 
A machine working on the principle of a lawn-mower first passes over it and eliminates all 
the knots and threads. Then the cloth goes through a singeing-machine, passing over a gas 
flame at a speed which permits all the fuzz to be burned off, but which saves the cloth from 
being scorched. 



ders filled with live steam. Thus starched 
and dried a process serving to make the 
yarn less apt to tangle and less liable to 
injury by the friction of the shuttle it 
is wound around the "loom beam." 

When the housewife uses her sewing- 
machine she has to "thread" it first. So, 
also, in weaving, the loom must be 
threaded with the warp. For plain weav- 



ing there are only two sets of "needles" 
to be threaded. These are known as 
harness, and consist of wires or twine 
cords, each with an "eye" in the middle. 
Each alternate thread goes through an 
"eye" of one harness, and the others 
through the corresponding "eyes" of the 
other harness. 

Fancy weaves require more harnesses 



220 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC .MAGAZINE 




A CLOTH-PRINTING MACHINE): LAWRENCE, MASSACHUSETTS 

To see white cloth entering one of these big presses and coming out at a speed of thou- 
sands of yards an hour, with a dozen different colors, every one in perfect register, is to 
realize how much science has done to give us attractive clothes. 



and complicated threading, but they need 
not be described here. 

HOW THE CLOTH IS WOVEN 

In the weaving process for plain cloth 
the one harness goes up as the other goes 
down, so that the shuttle with the woof 
passes under every other thread and over 
the alternate ones. Next trip through it 
passes over the ones it went under before 
and under those it passed over. 



When a new lot of identical warp is 
to be put into the loom, the slow process 
of threading the harness is not resorted 
to ; rather the ends of the old are knotted 
to the ends of the new. 

To tie 2,000 knots is no mean job. It 
is performed by a little machine that can 
tie 240 knots a minute four a second. 
The ends of the threads of the old warp 
are placed alongside those of the new 
and the tying mechanism set in motion. 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



221 




A BATTERY OF FORTY-EIGHT PRINTING-MACHINES AT WORK: LAWRENCE, 

MASSACHUSETTS 

One Massachusetts cotton mill produces five hundred miles of cloth a day, and a large 
percentage of this passes through the printing-machines here shown, said to be the largest 
group of its kind in the world. 



It rattles off the knots about as fast as a 
machine-gun pumps out bullets. If it 
fails to get both ends properly in its 
grasp, it makes a second effort. If this 
be not successful, it tries a third, a fourth, 
and even a fifth time. If it still fails, it 
stops and refuses to budge until the at- 
tendant gives it the missing thread. 

With 24 miles of looms and 62 miles 
of whirling spinning-frame bobbins, to 
say nothing of pickers, drawing frames, 
rovers, and spoolers, and with an output 
of five hundred miles of cloth every 
working day, it is but natural that the 
Pacific Mills of Lawrence should require 
every device to prevent defective work. 
If a drawing frame did not stop as soon 
as a break in the sliver occurred, or a 
warper as soon as a thread pulled apart, 
or a loom as soon as a thread in the warp 
snapped, there would be defective ma- 



terial at every stage of the proceeding. So 
every strand passes through its own little 
guide, which consists of a tiny lever. The 
moment the thread breaks this lever is 
released, and by its own weight shuts 
off the power and stops the machine. 

Our cloth is now woven. It is known 
as "gray" cloth in the mills, but at the 
dry-goods stores is called unbleached 
muslin. After careful inspection to lo- 
cate imperfections, it is sent to the print 
works. 

REMOVING THE Fuzz FROM CLOTH 

Here it goes through another long 
series of operations. In the first place, 
it must be made into great rolls, like the 
paper for a newspaper press, so the ends 
of many pieces are sewed together. This 
makes possible the handling of many 
yards in one length. Many operations 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




STRETCHING CLOTH IN THE TENTER IN A MASSACHUSETTS PRINT WORKS 

After the cloth has been printed, it is thoroughly dried, and then filled with steam, so as 
to make the colors "fast," or, paradoxically, to prevent them from "running." After that it 
is washed and dried again, then starched. Following the starching, it is put into the tenter 
frames. These are about one hundred feet long and have an endless chain on each side and 
steam pipes underneath. In them the cloth is dried and stretched to a uniform width. 



are continuous, and to stop often means 
waste. 

As the cloth comes from the looms it 
has a loose fuzz all over the surface, and 
if the operators tried to print on it in that 
condition, they would get about the same 
result that is secured when trying to 
write on coarse, rough paper with a 
sharp-pointed pen the lint adhering to 
the pen causes the ink to spread and 
make blotches. To overcome this the 
cloth is first put into a machine called 
the "cotton shear." This acts like a lawn- 
mower, clipping off all loose threads and 
knots and trimming the edges. 

But still the lint adheres, and it must be 
removed before the cloth is in condition 
for printing. Whoever has watched a 
housewife singeing a chicken after pick- 
ing it can understand both the reason for 
and the method of singeing the cloth. It 
is passed around rollers and through a 



gas flame at just such a speed that will 
allow the flames to burn off all the lint, 
but will not let it scorch the cloth. 

From the singeing machine the cloth 
next goes to the bleaching kettles kiers, 
as they are known in the print works. 
Here it is boiled for about twelve hours 
in a solution of caustic soda. Then it is 
washed and soaked for several hours in 
bins containing dilute acid, which takes 
out iron rust, stains, etc. It next gets 
another twelve hours of boiling, another 
washing, and another trip through a so- 
lution of bleaching powder. After that 
it is put into a pit and allowed to steep 
for several hours. 

The effect is similar to the sun-bleach- 
ing on the grass out in the door yards of 
our grandmothers. It becomes pure white 
instead of dirty yellow, and more readily 
absorbs the dye when it goes through the 
printing machine. Once more it is washed 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



223 




CLOTH BEING DELIVERED FROM THE TENTER TREATMENT 

The cloth is laid out in neat folds by the swinging arm of this machine, vibrating back 
and forth. It is then taken to the presses, where it passes between heavy polished steel rollers 
and receives its ironing (see text, page 225). 



and then dried by being drawn over cop- 
per drums filled with hot steam, after 
which it is wound into big rolls about the 
diameter of a large bass drum. It is now 
ready for printing. 

Suppose our piece of calico is to be 
printed with a design of eight colors. 
Eight rollers are etched, and the eight 
pots of dye, or "color," mixed, the mix- 
tures consisting of gums from Asia and 
Africa, starches from Iowa, and dye- 



stuffs from everywhere, boiled and re- 
duced to the consistency of glue. 

The printing-machine is a large iron 
frame supporting a cylinder four or five 
feet wide. Arranged around it are the 
copper rollers, each ready to put on its 
color as the cylinder revolves, bearing 
the cloth to each in turn. 

Each of the eight rollers runs in its 
own particular pan of color. A revolv- 
ing brush spreads the color on the rollers, 



224 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 







FOLDING FINISHED PRINT GOODS: LAWRENCE, MASSACHUSETTS 

Here the cloth is folded in layers a yard long. Forty yards make a bolt, and this is cut off 
and folded by hand. It is then ready for market. 



and a sharp knife scrapes off all except 
that which is left in the little groove 
etched for the part in the pattern. As 
the roller comes into contact with the 
cloth the color is transferred to its proper 
place. 

From roller to roller the cloth passes, 
until it has received its full assortment of 
colors, each in its exact place, and with 
the base coloi* added last. 

The color must be dried in the cloth, so 
it is passed over a series of steam-filled 



drums, then put into iron boxes filled 
with live steam. 

But even now your handful of cotton 
has not become your yard of calico. The 
cloth must be washed and dried and 
passed through boxes of hot starch. 

It is put into a tenter- frame and 
stretched and dried. This frame is about 
a hundred feet long, underlaid with 
steam-pipes. On each side is an endless 
chain having clips which grip the edges 
and stretch the cloth to a uniform width. 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



225 



I 



Then follows the 
ironing process. To 
iron four or five mil- 
lion yards of cloth a 
week would be too 
much of a task for 
even a regiment of 
laundresses ; so great 
presses having pol- 
ished steel rollers are 
employed. They put 
a tremendous amount 
of mechanical "elbow 
grease" on the fab- 
ric, and as it comes 
through this fi n a 1 
stage it is ready to 
make its bow as "fin- 
ished" calico. 

Finally, it is me- 
chanically measured 
and cut into forty- 
yard lengths, after 
which it is folded into 
the shape one sees it 
in the dry-goods 
stores. 

A long story, this 
converting cotton into 
calico ! Forty differ- 
ent machines to pass 
through, for a kind of 
cloth that before the 
war became so cheap 
as to lose caste as 
dress goods. 

The processes of 
spinning yarn and 
weaving goods in the 
wool industry are not 
dissimilar to those 
employed in the cot- 
ton mills, though the 
preparation of the wool is different in 
that before it can be used it must first be 
scoured to get the grease out of it. 

The total output of the looms of Mas- 
sachusetts, in pure woolens, amounts to 
about 115,000,000 square yards a year 
enough to make a blanket a mile wide and 
thirty-seven miles long. This is more 
than a third of all the woolens made in 
the United States. In addition, the State 
produces almost as much more goods that 
are either a mixture of cotton and wool 
or have cotton warp and wool filling. 




DYEING CLOTH IN A LAWRENCE if ILL 

Goods are given their color in three ways: Some goods are dyed 
in the yarn, so that fancy patterns can be made by the weaving 
process. Others are dyed in the piece; these are solid color goods. 
Still others are printed by processes explained elsewhere in this 
article (see text, page 223). 



Silk differs from cotton and wool in its 
preparation, in that it is a long thread and 
not a short fiber. In the article entitled 
"The Industrial Titan of America," in 
the May, 1919, number of THE; GEO- 
GRAPHIC, the story of silk up to the weav- 
ing stage was told. 

MASSACHUSETTS SILKS 

Holyoke, Massachusetts, is the home 
of what is perhaps the purest silk goods 
made in America. Though the prices of 
raw silk have risen from $4 to $12 a 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




CARDED WOOL IN A MASSACHUSETTS WOOLEN FACTORY 

There are two objects in combing wool: first, to straighten the fibers and lay them parallel 
to one another, and, second, to eliminate the short fibers. The long fibers are used in the 
higher-grade yarns. 



pound, and the temptation everywhere is 
to "load" it with tin, so that much of the 
silk goods one buys today has more metal 
than fiber in it, and consequently "cuts" 
and wilts away in a manner very disap- 
pointing to the wearer, a few manufac- 
turers still adhere to the production of 
"unweighted" silks. 

Pure silk is one of the most durable of 
all cloths. One may judge of its lasting 
qualities from the experience of a Massa- 



chusetts manufacturer whose silks are 
known everywhere. A half century ago 
his little mill, nestling close to the eastern 
slope of the Berkshire Hills, was caught 
in a flood that carried it away. To this 
day little bobbins of the silk from that 
mill are sometimes upturned by the plows 
of the farmers in the valley below. The 
wood of the bobbin has rotted away, but 
the silk fiber remains as strong as the day 
it was wound. 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



227 




Photograph from American Woolen Company 
A WOOL-COMBING MACHINE IN OPERATION 

Here the fibers are being combed out and placed parallel, ready for the twisting that 

converts wool into yarn. 



Do pure silks cost much in these days 
of skyrocketing prices? With the raw 
silk at $12 a pound and the throwing, 
dyeing, and weaving all done by wage- 
earners who command the best wages 
paid in the entire textile industry, it could 
hardly be otherwise. But the woman who 
demands the silk as the worm spun it 
never knows what it is to have silk "cut." 
She can distinguish the pure from the 
"loaded" silk by the simple test of putting 
a match to a tiny piece of it. If it burns 
quickly and cleanly, leaving a soft, gray- 
ish-black ash, it is pure silk. If it smoul- 
ders like punk, leaving a red, gritty ash, 
it is "loaded" with tin. 

ENOUGH SHOES TO COVER 1,000 ACRES 

The American people would either be a 
very poorly shod folk or else would have 



to import vast quantities of footwear, if 
it were not for Massachusetts. Two out 
of every five Americans one meets are 
shod with Bay State shoe leather. The 
men of the nation wear more shoes than 
the women, and the factories of the Pil- 
grim Commonwealth produce propor- 
tionately more shoes for men. If all the 
shoes manufactured in the Bay State 
every year were set side by side and end 
to end, they would cover nearly a thou- 
sand acres of ground. 

To satisfy the demands for footwear, 
Massachusetts has to make heavy drafts 
upon the animal world. The shoe manu- 
facturers of the State usually carry in 
stock the skins of more than 135,000 
kangaroos and wallabies and a third of a 
million high-grade sheepskins. Nearly 
3,000,000 goats and kids go to the slaugh- 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




DRAWING WOOL IN A LAWRENCE WOOLEN MILL 

In the transformation of combed wool into unspun yarn it is passed through from six to 
nine machines, each of which unites- many slivers of its predecessor into one of its own. 
For instance, in the first machine six slivers are united into one, stretching one yard into 
eight yards. In each drawing that follows a number of the next preceding slivers are con- 
solidated into one and drawn out, so it often happens that a single strand of worsted yarn 
is the consolidated and drawn-out product of hundreds of thousands of original slivers as 
they came from the wool-combing machine. One inch of original sliver may share in the 
making of several miles of thread. 



ter pen every twelve months to give 
milady shoes for her dainty feet. A mil- 
lion ordinary sheep and lamb skins and as 
many more calfskins represent the nor- 
mal stock of Massachusetts manufac- 
turers, to say nothing of the thousands of 
hides that come from cattle and horses. 



It is a far cry from the village cobbler 
who pegged his life away over his lasts to 
the Massachusetts factory with its thou- 
sands of hands, its scores of processes, its 
dozens of kinds of machines, and its mil- 
lions of shoes. 

At Brockton one may see more shoes 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



229 




Photograph from American Woolen Company 
INSPECTING THE FINISHED CLOTH IN A WOOLEN MILL 

In weaving it is inevitable that threads occasionally break and that knots appear. Expert 
menders go over the cloth yard by yard and mile by mile, with eagle eyes, for defects that 
they mend with astonishing speed and skill. 



being made than in any other city on the 
globe. It is interesting to journey there 
and see how modern men are shod. 

First of all, it will be discovered that 
Brockton is preeminently the man's shoe 
town. Lynn claims first place in the 
manufacture of woman's shoes, and 
Haverhill prides itself upon being the 
slipper city of the world. 

Being the greatest shoe-wearing as well 
as the leading shoe-producing country in 



the world, the American market is such a 
large one that not only do cities specialize 
in types of shoes, but manufacturers 
carry the specialization even further. 
Massachusetts makes more shoes than 
Great Britain or Germany and has an ex- 
port trade that reaches ninety countries 
and colonies. 

Following a stream of shoes through a 
factory from uncut leather to ready-to- 
wear product may be rather a long ram- 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Leon H. Abdalian 
CUTTING "UPPERS" SHOE LEATHER IX A MASSACHUSETTS FACTORY 

The average American wears three pairs of shoes a year. Massachusetts makes nearly half 
of them. For the pedigree of a shoe see text below. 



ble, but the trip shows to what perfection 
the Yankee shoemaker has carried the art 
of quantity production. 

FOLLOWING A SHOE THROUGH A BROCKTON 
; FACTQRY 

Before going on this pilgrimage, which 
is in a factory making a specialty of welt 
shoes, it must be remembered that there 
are four general types of footwear, ac- 
cording to the manner in which the soles 
are attached to the "uppers." The lead- 
ing type is the welt. It has a small strip 
of leather sewed fast, first to the upper, 
and then to the sole, so that upper and 
sole are not joined directly. Welt soles 
are used mainly in higher-grade men's 
and boys' shoes and in women's walking 
shoes. 

The McKay sewed shoe is the second 
type. In it the sole is sewed directly to 
the upper. The cheaper grades of stiff- 
soled sewed shoes are made by this 
method. 

The turned shoe is the third type. In 



it the sole is joined to the upper with the 
whole shoe inside out, then turned. 
Women's pliable-soled shoes are made in 
this fashion. 

The nailed, pegged, or screwed-on <sole 
represents the fourth type and goes 
with cheaper grades of shoes. 

A merchant in Bethesda, Maryland, 
say, has sent to the factory we are to 
visit an order for ten dozen pairs of 
shoes. After the order is entered upon 
the records four sets of tags are made 
out. One set goes to the uppers ma- 
terial department, another to the uppers 
stitching department, the third to the 
sole-leather department, and the fourth 
to the making department. 

A MASTER HIDE-MEASURING MACHINE 

As uppers leather comes into the fac- 
tory it has the irregular outlines of a hide 
or skin, as indented as the coast of Maine, 
and by hand could be measured only by 
a master of trigonometry, through a long 
process of calculations, but a machine 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 
il / f / ^ 



231 




Photograph by Leon H. Abdalian 

WHERE "UPPERS" MEET AND ARE JOINED TO THEIR "SOLE-MATES" IN A 

SHOE FACTORY 

If all the American people wore hand-made shoes, as they did in Washington's time, at least 
two million men would be required to keep the nation shod. 



has been invented that can calculate 
more areas in half a minute than a 
mathematician could in half a day. The 
hide or skin is fed through this device 
as cloth through a clothes-wringer, and 
a hand on a dial above points to the 
number of square feet in it, just as the 
hand on a catch-penny weighing-machine 
points to the number of pounds the per- 
son on the platform weighs. 

"How much leather does this skin con- 



tain?" queries the operator, in effect. 
"Zip, zip, zip," it answers, as its pointer 
turns to 9.9 feet. Saying "Jack Robin- 
son" takes longer than measuring a hide 
in this factory. The machine is so deli- 
cate that it has to be adjusted to tem- 
perature every day. 

It would be tedious to note every person 
engaged, every machine, and every proc- 
ess in the making of a fur o* shoes, for 
that would introduce ntty machines, a 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph from Waltham Watch Company 
CUTTING MAINSPRINGS IN A MASSACHUSETTS WATCH FACTORY 

A single Massachusetts factory makes fourteen tons of these tiny springs a year. The 
variation. of even 1/500 of an inch in the thickness of the mainspring will affect the time- 
keeping qualities of a good watch. 



hundred people, and two hundred proc- 
esses, and serve to confuse the most pa- 
tient reader, so only the salient features 
of the shoe's journey through the factory 
will claim attention. 

In the linings department are big ma- 
chines that cut uppers cloth, twenty to 
forty thicknesses at a clip, as easily as a 
cake-cutter cuts dough. 

Beyond is the uppers leather depart- 
ment. Here a trained man, with stubby 
bladed, razor-edge knife, takes the skin, 
lays it on his cutting board, and, running 
his knife around his several aluminum 
patterns, cuts out vamp and quarter and 
toe piece with accomplished art in getting 
the maximum of pieces out of the mini- 
mum of skins. When he has finished 



with a skin it looks like shapeless strings 
bordering a series of irregular holes. 

In cheaper grades of shoes the leather 
also is cut by "dinking" machines me- 
chanical cake-cutters applied to shoe- 
making. Only one ply is cut at a time, 
but there are series of dies for the dif- 
ferent parts. 

After, the quarters, vampSj toe caps, 
tc., have been cut the leather must be 
"skived," so as to prevent any raw edges 
showing in the finished shoe. The edges 
are fed through a machine that shaves 
the unfinished side down to a bevel. This 
is then covered with cement and the thin 
edges folded over, much as a seamstress 
lays a hem. 

There are some twenty-odd parts in 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



232 




Photograph by Leon H. Abdalian 
REPAIRING BALANCE-WHEELS IN A MASSACHUSETTS WATCH FACTORY 

The balance-wheel must divide time correctly, to the infinitesimal fraction of a second. 
It plies back and forth nearly half a million times a day. To make one of these wheels re- 
quires some six hundred detailed operations. 



the upper of a button shoe and more in 
a lace shoe. To have each bit of lining 
and each piece of leather meet its respect- 
ice seam-fellow and counterpart, at the 
proper moment, in the stitching depart- 
ment, is a task for the organizer. 

The linings go from the assembly 
room to be transformed from individual 
pieces into the canvas counterpart of the 
leather upper. The quarters are joined 



at the back and stayed with a reinforce- 
ment. The vamps are cemented into 
shape ready for inclusion in the finished 
upper. 

The tips go to the toe-cap room, where 
they are perforated at the edge to give 
them a pleasing appearance on the foot 
of the wearer. Fourteen different proc- 
esses are required to transform a piece 
of tip leather into a finished cap, with 




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MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



235 




GEOGRAPHIC PAPER MATERIAL READY FOR CONVERSION INTO PULP 

The wood from which THE GEOGRAPHIC paper is made is first converted into chips. It 
is then put into huge steel digesters, where, with the use of chemicals and under a high 
steam pressure, it is converted into pulp, much as the juices of the stomach digest food. The 
digesters are directly under these bins, and are filled by pulling a slide at the bottom of the 
bins. Both acids and alkalis are used in converting wood into pulp. In general practice, 
sulphurous acid is used in treating the long-leaf, coniferous woods, having the longer fibers, 
such as spruce, hemlock, and fir, and caustic soda in treating the broad-leaf woods, such 
as poplar and chestnut, having the shorter fibers. 



its box to hold the shape of the shoe 
and canvas lining to protect the hose of 
the wearer. 

It is interesting to pause in the button- 
hole department and there watch a ma- 
chine cutting and working buttonholes in 
one operation, and another putting the 
eyelets and hooks in a shoe more quickly 
than one can tell about it. 

The next step in the journey is that 
of joining the quarters and vamp. This 
must be done with great care, so that 
there is neither unevenness nor rough- 
ness. It is the most difficult task in the 
making of the upper of a shoe. Judg- 
ment and care are required and much 
strength of hand-. .. Other minor processes 
follow, and presently the finished upper 



fares forth to meet its sole-mate in the 
making department. Before it goes, if 
it be a laced upper, a girl puts it through 
a machine that laces it up and ties it in 
the twinkling of an eye a machine that 
would be a glorious aid to a fat man. 

JOINING THE UPPER TO THE SOLE 

Preparatory to its alliance with the 
sole, the upper is lasted. The insole has 
been tacked on the last, and the upper is 
now pulled tightly over the last with a 
machine that has pincers which act like 
human fingers. They draw the whole 
upper in tightly over the last, so that 
there is not a wrinkle left, and tack it 
down on the bottom. The toe and heel 



236 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A CORNER OF THE BEATER-ROOM, WHERE THE DIGESTED WOOD IS FURTHER TREATED 
BEFORE BECOMING READY FOR CONVERSION INTO PAPER 

In this room digested spruce wood, treated with sulphur fumes, and digested poplar 
wood, treated with caustic soda, are mixed the one to give strength and the other bulk to 
the paper, long-fibered wood making strong paper just as long-staple cotton makes strong 
cloth. Clay, used for filler, and other materials are then added, and the mass is thoroughly 
beaten and mixed and brought to a proper consistency for use in the paper-making machines. 



require a little extra attention and are 
held down by a piece of fine wire. 

The lasted shoe next goes through a 
trimming machine that removes all sur- 
plus leather, while a mechanical hammer 
pounds the leather smooth. Then it goes 
to another machine, where the toes and 
heels are beaten smooth, making the shoe 
ready for welting. 

The welt is so prepared that it can be 
sewed to the insole and the upper in one 
sewing, and later have the outsole sewed 
to it. After the joining of insole and up- 
per to the welt, the shoe is passed through 
the inseam trimming-machine. Next it 
goes to a machine where a small hammer 
gives the welt a terrific beating. The 
insole and welt are then covered with 
rubber cement, as is the waiting sole. 
When this has dried slightly, the sole is 



laid on and the shoe is put into a press- 
ing-machine, where the cement dries. 

Next it goes to the rough rounding- 
machine, which rounds sole and welt, 
allowing them to extend out from the 
upper at all points. Looking at the shoe 
on your foot, you will see that this ex- 
tension is less at the shank than at the 
ball, and less on the outer side than on 
the inner side of the foot. The rough 
rounding-machine also cuts a little groove 
around the bottom of the sole for the 
purpose of receiving and covering the 
stitching, to follow. The welt extends 
back only to the heel. The latter has no 
welt, but is stitched directly and has its 
own special treatment. 

One could write much more, telling of 
the preparation of the soles ; how they 
are rolled under tremendous pressure to 










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238 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




IN THE COATING-ROOM 

This picture shows the rolls of paper made on the machine shown on page 237, just 
starting on the coating-machines. The paper passes through a bath of coating material ; then 
through felt-covered rolls ; then between vibrating brushes, which lay the coating material 
evenly and smoothly on the paper. It then passes out at the left into the drying-room (see 
following illustration). 




THE DRYING-ROOM IN THE COATING MILL AT LAWRENCE, MASS. 

After the paper has received its coating from the coating-machine shown in the previous 
picture, it passes in a continuous web to the drying-room. Blasts of hot air coming out of 
galvanized ducts beneath support it for a distance of 100 feet, until it reaches the drying- 
chamber in the rear of the room. Here it hangs in festoons much like those of cotton cloth 
shown on page 219. In the picture the paper is passing from right to left. After leaving the 
drying-room it is wound on rolls, as shown in the next picture. 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



239 




PAPER READY FOR THE CALENDER PRESSES , 

This picture shows the paper after it has been coated and dried, as shown on page 238, 
and is being rolled at the end of the coating-machine. It is now ready to be sent to the big 
presses which calender it (or iron it, as popular parlance would have it). The pictures 
on pages 238 and 239 show a continuous process over a single machine ; but, on account of 
the length of the machine, the process is illustrated in sections. 



solidify the leather, just as the village 
cobbler beats them under his wide-faced 
hammer; or of the heeling-machine, that 
sets the heel in place and drives all of 
the nails at one operation; or 'of the 
counter-making machines, that give stiff- 
ness to the spur piece of the heel. 

One shoe factory in Massachusetts has 
a daily output of 14,000 pairs, each pair 
marching through the factory in four- 
teen days in ordinary times. 

THE PECULIAR LANGUAGE OF THE SHOE 
FACTORY 

The industry has its own peculiar par- 
lance. A "cripple girl" is not crippled at 
all. Rather she looks after the "cripples," 
as defective parts of a shoe are known. 



"Vamping" has nothing whatever to -do 
with the activities of sirens, but is only 
the process of joining the vamps and 
quarters to the shoe. "Blackball" doesn't 
relate to club proceedings, but rather to 
a mixture of grease and lampblack for 
blacking the edges of shoe soles. A 
"cack" is an infant's shoe, and a "pac" a 
duplicate of an Indian moccasin. An 
"iron" is a unit of thickness in sole 
leather, and a "lift" is one thickness of 
leather in the heel. A "nullifier" is a 
shoe for house wearj having a high vamp 
and quarter, dropping low at the. sides, 
with a short rubber goring. 

It would be idle to attempt in a few 
paragraphs to describe the hundreds of 
processes and the scores of intricate 



240 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A BATTERY OF CALENDER PRESSES AT WORK FINISHING MAGAZINE PAPER 

After the coated paper has been dried and put into rolls, as shown in the preceding pic- 
tures, it is brought to the room shown here. A roll is put in the reel at the man's shoulder 
in the foreground and started through the machine. It passes between the two top rollers, 
and then in and out between the succeeding rollers, until it reaches the bottom. Many tons' 
pressure have ironed it before it comes out and is rolled up again. This process gives it the 
finish that the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC must have to maintain its high standard. 



machines employed in the making of 
watches ; but to visit a great Massa- 
chusetts watch factory and there to see 
some of the operations of making a good 
timepiece is to behold the highest de- 
velopment in mechanical accuracy and 
quantity production. 

STEEL HAIRSPRINGS WORTH $49,OOO A 
POUND 

Here one sees alloy steel wire worth 
five dollars a pound being converted into 



hairsprings, some so delicate that they 
are worth $49,000 a pound. There a 
machine is taking in steel wire and turn- 
ing out microscopic screws with perfect 
heads and threads and slots, yet so small 
that the ordinary eye wants a magnifying 
glass to perceive that they are aught but 
specks of steel. In another place is a 
machine which transforms bare blanks 
into completely bored movement plates 
without the interposition of a human 
hand. 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



241 




THE ASSORTING-ROOM IX THE PAPER MILL 

After the paper has been calendered, the big rolls are put into a cutting-machine that 
cuts the continuous roll into sheets of the desired size. These are then examined, sheet by 
sheet, by the women shown in the picture. All perfect sheets are put into one pile and the 
imperfect ones are placed in another pile. The perfect sheets are then ready, after trimming, 
for the presses of the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC. 



To see a skilled hairspring-maker take 
three little pieces of flat wire and coil 
them together with the aid of a pencil- 
like rod slotted at the end, putting the 
coil into a tiny copper case just large 
enough for the reception of the untem- 
pered spring, looks so easy that one 
thinks that anybody could do it; but on 
the day that a GEOGRAPHIC representative 
was studying the factory in question the 
foreman of the department in charge of 
hairsprings said to the secretary of the 
establishment, "I took two new girls on 
yesterday. One of them got one spring 
wound yesterday and one today, but the 
other has not succeeded in getting a single 
spring into the tempering box." Yet so 
skilled do the women spring-winders be- 
come that an expert can finish one every 
few minutes. 

There are three slots in the end of the 
winder. Into one of these goes the alloy 



steel wire that is to constitute the hair- 
spring. Into the others go soft steel 
wires of corresponding dimensions. Be- 
tween the steel wires is sandwiched the 
one of alloy. 

The little copper .boxes are then sent 
to the annealing furnace and heat-treated. 
When this process is finished the soft 
wires are thrown away, leaving the alloy 
wire a perfectly wrought hairspring, the 
price of the smallest of which is seven 
dollars a dozen, or more than a hundred 
times their weight in gold. 

SCREWS SO SMALL THAT 5O,OOO MAKE A 
THIMBLEFUL 

But, tiny as they are, these infinitesimal 
springs must impart to the balance-wheels 
of the watches they regulate 432,000 im- 
pulses a day, and must measure time cor- 
rectly, down to an astonishingly small 
fraction. 



242 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



The machine that makes the tiny watch 
screw is a marvel of mechanism. In the 
morning it is given a long steel rod of 
small diameter, and is then left to its 
own resources. Now a tiny section is 
turned into the shape of a finished screw ; 
then the thread is cut ; next the slot is 
cut in the head, and finally a mechanical 
hand deposits it in a bath of oil, where it 
stays until fished out with a tiny steel 
net like a tea-strainer. A sharp eye is 
required to recognize it as a screw. It 
would take 50,000 of them to make a 
thimbleful. 

A WIZARD OF MACHINERY 

j 

The most dramatic machine in this ; 
veritable maze of intricate and wonder- 
working mechanisms is that which makes 
the lower movement plates. 

On one side is a magnified dime savings 
bank, mounted so that the "blanks" it 
contains will present themselves one by 
one at the bottom. A mechanical hand 
reaches over, and, taking one of these 
blanks, gives it to the first part of the 
mechanism, which grasps the blank and 
bores several holes. Then another me- 
chanical hand takes the blank and pre- 
sents it to the second section, which doss 
its "stint" in the process of plate-making. 
A third hand next takes the blank and 
presents it to the third section of the ma- 
chine, which contributes its share in the 
conversion. These three operations finish 
one side of the plate. 

Thereupon comes a fourth hand and 
passes the plate to a fourth part of the 
mechanism ; but in doing so it turns the 
plate over and presents the unfinished 
part to the drills. A fifth hand, a sixth, 
and a seventh pass the plate on to the 
several remaining sections of the ma- 
chine, and a final presents it, completed, 
to the reservoir beyond. 

One hundred and forty-one operations 
on one little disk of metal, all without 
the aid of a human hand and each per- 
formed with an accuracy of a fraction of 
an inch that reaches to the fourth decimal 
place ! 

A CITY FAMOUS FOR ITS JEWELRY 

One who wanders around the Bay State 
looking for startling applications of ma- 
chinery to the making of articles useful 



and ornamental will find things that 
amaze in almost every town. 

Think of ten thousand different kinds 
of watch-chain links produced in a single 
establishment ! Or of a machine that 
converts gold wire into watch chain by 
the hour without let or hindrance from 
any man ! Such machines are busy 
throughout the year in Attleboro. 

Rolled jewelry is finding a tremendous 
sale all over the world, and the Attleboro 
factories are months behind in filling 
their orders. 

In one plant the first step in making 
a filled watch chain is to prepare an ingot 
of copper and zinc alloy about a foot 
Jong ; and 'an inch and a half in diameter. 
Over this is put a sleeve of, say, I4~carat 
gold, 'cast to a perfect fit. This gold- 
filled ingot is then put into a machine 
which hammers it, reducing its diameter 
and increasing its length. The process 
is repeated by other machines until finally 
it becomes small enough to be drawn 
through dies as wire, each time growing 
thinner and longer until it has the di- 
ameter of the wire in the chain link. 

From this stage the wire may be fash- 
ioned into links and chains either by hand 
or by machinery. In the latter case the 
wire is automatically fed into the chain 
machine. A small knife comes out and 
cuts off the length required to form a 
link. Two little jaws close and the bit 
of wire becomes the shape of a capital U. 
Then a tiny hammer taps the open U in 
such a way that it becomes an O, which, 
with another movement, has its position 
switched from horizontal to upright. 
Then the wire is fed through the finished 
link and the process repeated, the chain 
growing longer at the rate of many feet 
an hour. 

MASSACHUSETTS MAKES EVERYTHING, 
FROM SUSPENDERS TO SILVERWARE 

There are many lines of manufacture 
in which Massachusetts is the nation's 
leader other than those already noted. 
The State makes seven-eighths of the na- 
tion's whips; more than two-fifths of its 
gum shoes, rubber boots, and linen goods ; 
one-third of its leather belting, bicycles, 
and motorcycles ; a fourth of its en- 
velopes, fireworks, silverware, sporting 
and athletic goods, stationery, suspenders 



MASSACHUSETTS BEEHIVE OF BUSINESS 



243 




Photograph by Herbert B. Turner 
DRYING SAILS AFTER THE STORM : GLOUCESTER, MASS. 

One gets a vivid idea of the wealth of the sea at Gloucester. Cod and mackerel, haddock, 
herring, and halibut; tautog and quahog; scup and sculpin; swordfish and spikefish ; tinkers, 
cusk, and eels ; blue fish and butterfish ; flounder, perch, and sea trout ; oysters, lobsters, and 
clams one must tax his fishing lore to enumerate the species that are brought into port daily. 



and garters ; and in all these lines sur- 
passes every other State. 

With such a vast concentration of light 
manufactures, it is only natural that Mas- 
sachusetts should have many cities and 
towns ; but one is hardly prepared to be- 
lieve that this small Commonwealth has 
32 cities of 20.000 population and up- 
ward, more than any other State of the 
Union. More than 100 of its smaller 
municipalities have populations above the 
5,000 mark. 

"THE HEART OF THE COMMONWEALTH" 

About each of the principal cities a 
word must suffice. As Boston will later 
be described in the "Big City" series of 
articles appearing from time to time in 
THE GEOGRAPHIC, no mention of it need 
be made here. 

The second city of the State is Worces- 



ter, which calls itself the "Heart of the 
Commonwealth." A busy metropolis, it 
has been a cradle of invention and is a 
center of industry. Within a radius of 
fifteen miles of its central square were 
born Eli Whitney, whose gin made cotton 
the fabric of civilization ; Ichabod Wash- 
burn, who drew the first piano wire in 
America ; Erastus Bigelow, the inventor 
of the carpet machine ; Thomas Blanch- 
ard, who designed a machine for making 
tacks and a lathe for turning irregu- 
lar shapes ; George Crompton, the in- 
ventor of the power loom for weaving 
fancy cottons ; and Asa Hapgood, in- 
ventor of the upper berth in sleeping cars. 
Worcester has drawn enough wire to 
girdle the globe a thousand times. It has 
made enough corsets to fit out every fem- 
inine form on the earth. It has facilities 
for producing enough envelopes to carry 



244 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Leon H. Abdalian 

IN THE SHADOW OF THE OLD SOUTH 
CHURCH, BOSTON 

Erected in 1729, Old South Church has lived 
through the vicissitudes of war and peace for 
nearly two centuries. Diagonally across the 
street from it, Benjamin Franklin was born. 
Within its walls were held many of the town 
meetings that crystallized the purposes of the 
colonists to be free. Not many years ago 
commerce would have razed its walls and 
reared on its site an office building. But the 
people of Boston raised $.!Oo,ooo to keep it 
as a shrine of our national beginnings. 



the correspondence of the world. It has 
the largest belt factory, the largest loom 
works, the largest grindstone plant, and 
the largest automobile crank-shaft forg- 
ing plant in existence. 

AMERICA'S FOREMOST MILL TOWN 

Fall River, third in population among 
the cities of Massachusetts, h America's 
foremost "mill town." It has 148 textile 
mills and employs 40,000 operatives. 
That it can bring coal for power from 
Pennsylvania and cotton from the South, 
paying the high freight rates, and still 
compete with the South in the manufac- 
ture of cotton goods is a proof of its 
energy and efficient organization. Every 
day the city weaves enough cloth a 
yard wide to reach from New York to 
Panama. It produces more goods than 
any State in the Union except its own. 

A close competitor of Fall River is 
New Bedford, making fewer yards of 
cloth than its rival, but specializing in 
finer grades, which it produces at the 
rate of a. mile a minute. New Bedford 
has a twentieth-century prosperity based 
on cotton as great as that in the seven- 
teenth century based on the whaling in- 
dustry. 

AMERICA'S CAPITAL OF EDUCATION 

Cambridge is so nearly part and parcel 
of the New England metropolis that it 
seems to have lost its identity in almost 
every way except legally. When one is 
reminded that this city, with its popula- 
tion of 113,000, is without a daily news- 
paper, or a good hotel, or a modern 
theater, one can readily see that its 
identity, except for purposes of taxation 
and local law, has been thoroughly welded 
into that of Boston. 

But in education it can almost claim to 
be the nation's capital. With Harvard 
and Radcliffe and Technology, its influ- 
ence reaches wherever religion, philoso- 
phy, science, and engineering extend. 

But Cambridge is more than a univer- 
sity town. It is one of the principal 
manufacturing centers of the Common- 
wealth. 

"THE WORKSHOP OF THE WORLD" 

Lowell proudly calls itself the "work- 
shop of the world." It is a busy town, 



245 



possessing the. world's largest hosiery 
and underwear mills, as well as its most 
extensive sail-cloth factory, upper shoe- 
leather tannery, cash-carrier and pneu- 
matic-tube factories. It also has what is 
considered the highest type of textile 
school to be found anywhere. 

SPRINGFIELD, LYNN, AND LAWRENCE), A 
THRIVING TRIO 

Admirably situated in the Connecticut 
Valley, at the cross-roads of east and 
west and north and south trade, Spring- 
field is a thriving municipality, its in- 
dustries alive to the possibilities of the 
future, and its civic spirit a contagion 
that infects resident and visitor alike. 
The city claims that its municipal build- 
ings constitute the finest civic group in 
the United States. In one of these build- 
ings is an auditorium with a seating ca- 
pacity of 4,500. 

Lynn and Lawrence are such close 
rivals in point of population that it will 
require this year's census to decide their 
relative rank. Lynn is the woman's shoe 
capital of the world, and Lawrence is a 
great mill town, with textiles and paper 
its principal products. It is at Lawrence 
that the paper for THE GEOGRAPHIC 
MAGAZINE is manufactured (see pictures, 
pages 234-241). 

CITIES FAMOUS FOR MEN'S SHOES, GUM 
SHOES, AND SLIPPERS 

Following in order of population are 
Somerville, part and parcel of the Boston 
community, but still as independent of 
the Hub, governmentally speaking, as if 
it were at the other end of the State ; 
Brockton, where men's shoes are pro- 
duced by the millions of pairs ; Holyoke, 
where the Connecticut River surrenders 
its power at Hadley Falls for paper 
mills, silk factories, and similar indus- 
tries operated by water power at only a 
fifth the cost of steam power; Maiden, 
the "gum-shoe" city; Salem, once the 
witch city, but now a staid and solid 
commercial community ; Haverhill, the 
"slipper city" ; Chelsea, industrial bor- 
ough of Boston ; and Newton. 

Fitchburg brings up the rear of the 
line of cities with 40,000 population and 
upward. It reminds the world that it 



makes three revolvers a minute, five pairs 
of shoes, four cans of axle grease, three 
shirts, eight miles of yarn, ten paper 
boxes, fifty paper bags, fifteen pounds 
of brass, and other things in proportion. 

One passes by with regret a hundred 
other splendid cities and towns, for in 
their history, their achievements, and 
their beauty each of them challenges at- 
tention. 

Likewise Plymouth Rock and Prov- 
incetown, Lexington and Concord, and 
a score of such places are shrines that 
live in the hearts of all Americans. 

MASSACHUSETTS' PARKS AND FOREST 
RESERVATIONS 

In the establishment of public parks 
Massachusetts has displayed the same 
appreciation of esthetic and humanitarian 
values that has characterized her in 
other fields. Greylock, the State's high- 
est peak, has been set aside for the pub- 
lic, a reservation of 9,000 acres around 
its summit having been created. 

Mount Tom, which rises like a sentinel 
lookout guarding the cities of Northamp- 
ton, Holyoke, and Springfield, is another 
place under State jurisdiction where one 
may go and commune with nature. 

A number of State forests have also 
been established. One in Plymouth 
County, covering 7,000 acres, is appro- 
priately named the Miles Standish State 
Forest. Another, in the vicinity of An- 
dover, contains 1,200 acres, while a third, 
in the vicinity of Winchendon, contains 
1,700 acres. There are two in the Berk- 
shire Hills aggregating 2,200 acres. The 
most modern forestry methods are prac- 
ticed in these areas, and the State is 
striving energetically to remedy the loss 
of her timber at the hands of an un- 
restrained commercialism in bygone dec- 
ades. 

In her verdict of November 4, 1919, 
Massachusetts earned the gratitude of 
the country and showed that the spirit 
that founded the greatest republic and 
won a world to liberty still survives and 
stands committed to law and order. No 
praise is too high for this new declara- 
tion against class tyranny, this -new stand 
for the ideals that have always made 
Massachusetts great. 



246 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




TEK PAI IS THE NAME GI\ 7 EN THIS BAMBOO RAFT IN FORMOSA 

The craft is characteristically Formosan. Although there is a type of bamboo raft found 
along the China coast, it is not nearly so large as that of Formosa, since the bamboos on the 
mainland cannot compare in size with those growing on this island. There is a round wooden 
tub in the center for luggage, and when the sea is rough the passengers sit in it, too. 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



BY ALICE BALLANTINE KIRJASSOFF 

Illustrated u'ith photographs by the official photographer of the Government of 
Tavwan and from the Chief of the Camphor Department 



I 



"TLHA FORMOSA," beautiful isle, 
early Portuguese voyagers called 
the island now owned by Japan 
and known to them as Taiwan. The 
Portuguese name has clung to it in all 
European countries, and never was a 
more appropriate name given to an isle 
of the sea. 

If you care to confirm this in one of 
several pleasant ways, sail along the west 
coast of Formosa in a tek pai (or bamboo 
raft, see page 246) on a clear clay, and 
you will witness a pageant of mountain 
scenery that will haunt the memory for 
many a day. 

Beyond the fertile plain, with its emer- 
ald paddy-fields and its picturesque lit- 
tle villages dotted here and there on 
the banks of meandering streams, foot- 
hills with unending variations of con- 
tour silhouette their tree-fringed sum- 
mits against the paler screen of more 
distant mountains. Of these, sometimes 
five and sometimes even six parallel 
ranges are visible at once, each a separate 
ribbon of color, shading from the deepest 
sapphire to the palest azure and extend- 
ing in an unbroken chain of beauty from 
north to south. 

On the east of the island you can see 
the highest coastal cliffs known, at some 
places rising abruptly to an elevation of 
about 6.000 feet, and affording an im- 
pregnable wall of defense to the wild 
aboriginal tribes living in the mountains 
back of them. 

AN ISLAND OF AMAZING VARIETY OF 
VEGETATION 

Formosan scenery is unusual in its 
diversity of vegetation within such nar- 
row confines the greatest length of the 
island from north to south is about 
264 miles and 80 miles is its greatest 
width. 

From the palms and tropical fruit-trees 
of the western plain it is only a short 
step to the slopes of the lower mountains, 



with their exuberant jungles of various 
growths the bearded banyans, the grace- 
ful tree-ferns, which in sheltered nooks 
attain the height of palms, and the 
ubiquitous bamboo grass. 

Here, among moss-strung trees, is 
found growing the beautiful butterfly 
orchid, while in exposed spaces, nestling 
among the rocks, rose-pink azaleas flaunt 
their gay blooms. A little higher are 
plateaus covered with camphor laurel, 
the largest tracts of these valuable trees 
in the world, while still higher grow the 
forests of coniferous trees the giant 
benihi, similar to the redwoods of Cali- 
fornia, the largest trees in the East and 
the second largest in the world; the val- 
uable hinoki, or Japanese cypress, and 
the pine, cedar, and spruce of the New 
England States ; and higher yet the 
craggy peaks of the tallest mountains, but 
sparsely covered with vegetation of any 
sort, where eagles build their nests, and 
which for the greater part of the year 
lie beneath a mantle of snow. 

"THE SECOND WETTEST PORT IN T>HE 
WORLD" 

The usual approach to the island is the 
port of Kelung, in the extreme north. It 
was here that the author of this paper 
landed after a four days' steamer journey 
from Kobe. The rain was coming down 
in sheets, obscuring the hill-crested har- 
bor, and all looked gloomy except for 
one bright patch of sky, where the sun 
was struggling to come through. 

I remember reading in my old gram- 
mar-school geography that Kelung is the 
second 'wettest port in the world, and I 
have no trouble in believing it. I have 
been there manv times, and each time it 
has rained. Without showers, Kelung 
would wear an unrecognizable face, like 
a person without spectacles who was ac- 
customed to wearing them. 

After disposing of the numerous por- 
ters who escorted me from the steamer, 



247 



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SAMPANS NEARING THE BUND: TAIHOKU, FORMOSA 



d 




DAITOTEI IS UNNATURALLY CLEAN FOR A CHINESE CITY 

Formerly Manka, Daitotei, and Taihoku proper (within the castle walls) were three 
independent cities, but with the establishment of the Governor General's Office in the castle 
and the principal administration offices around it, the three sections became amalgamated 
into Taihoku. Daitotei is the Chinese section of Formosa's busy capital. 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



249 




THIS IS NOT CHINATOWN IN VENICE; ONLY A STREET SCENE IN THE CHINESE 
QUARTER OF TAIHOKU AFTER A TYPHOON 




VIEW OF THE DAITOTEI BUND SHOWING THE TYPHOON WALL: TAKEN FROM THE 
EXTREME SOUTHERN END OF TAIHOKU 

Formosa is frequently swept by violent storms, the sea immediately to the south of the 
island being known as the "birthplace" of typhoons. In an easterly storm which visited 
Taihoku 22 years ago the wind attained a velocity of 97 miles an hour. 



250 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




TEA-PICKING GIRLS IN DAITOTEl : FORMOSA 

"Seated on low stools before wide wicker trays, these bright-eyed maids in their peacock- 
blue smocks, their front hair clipped in bangs, and with a gay posy or two stuck in the 
braided knots at the backs of their necks, were in animated contrast to their rather drab 
surroundings." 




COOLIES PACKING OOLONG TEA 

Nine-tenths of Formosa's Oolong tea finds its way to the United States. It is shipped 
in lead-lined boxes to protect the sensitive leaves from tlie salt air of the sea voyage and from 
contamination with the odors of other freight. Even this precaution cannot safeguard 
Oolong from some cargoes copra, for example. If an Asiatic disease makes its appearance 
on board and the vessel is subjected to fumigation, the cargo of the tea ship is practically 
ruined. 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



251 




A DUCK-TENDER GIVING HIS BROODS A SWIM 

Formosans are extremely fond of ducks. On a walk through country districts the 
traveler frequently encounters a youth with a long pole acting as tender for two or three 
hundred, sometimes a thousand, birds which have no special feeding ground, but wander over 
the countryside, eating and drinking wherever they choose. 




SCENE IN FORMOSA'S OPIUM MONOPOLY BUREAU : THE ROUND BALLS oF CRUDE 

OPIUM ARE IMPORTED FROM INDIA AND THE FLAT 
PARCELS COME FROM PERSIA 

Opium smoking is controlled by license. About 2 per cent of the Chinese in Formosa 
are still addicted to the habit, but year by year the practice is being checked. The island has 
a population of more than 3,600,000, more than 92 per cent of whom are classified as 
"Formosans," mainly people of Chinese blood ; a little more than 3 per cent are Japanese, and 
ZVz per cent are aborigines ("ripe" and "raw" savages; see text, page 272). 




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252 




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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




COOLIES WORKING A FOOT-PUMP AND A BUFFALO PLOWING IN THF, 
BACKGROUND: FORMOSA 

Very picturesque are these foot-pumps, worked by three and sometimes four coolies, which 
raise water from one field to another. 




A WATER BUFFALO WITH HIS SMALL CHINESE DRIVER 

No rural Formosan landscape is complete without at least one of these hulking creatures, 
with its threatening horns and great staring eyes. Most of the plowing on the island is 
done with these animals. They are strong and can endure much hard work, provided they 
have plenty of water, which must be poured over their backs as well as given them to drink. 
They may be seen on the outskirts of any large town, standing in tanks six or seven feet 
square while their drivers administer "shower baths." 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



255 




THE TYPE OF CART USED IN THE SUGAR-CANE DISTRICTS OF FORMOSA 

As the axles of the wheels are never greased, the approach of these sugar-cane-laden carts 
is heralded from afar by strident squeakings. 




FIELDS OF FORMOSAN SUGAR-CANE 

For the first time in its history, Formosa exported sugar to the United States in 1917- 
The other principal exports to America are Oolong tea and camphor. Although the island 
is world-famous for its camphor, the value of its sugar exports during one year of the 
World War was fourteen times greater than that of the camphor-tree product. 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




FRUIT-BEARERS RESTING ON THEIR WAY TO MARKET 

Formosan pineapples are smaller than the Hawaiian varieties, but they make up in flavor 
what they lack in size. The smaller fruit are longans. From the green leaves of the pine- 
apple the Formosans get a fiber which they convert into a cool summer cloth. The island is 
no less famous for its flowers than for its fruit. 



I 




LABORERS THRESHING RICE 

The portable tubs constituting the Formosan's threshing apparatus look for all the world 
like sails, in the wake of which follow the threshers with their bundles of grain. These they 
rap smartly against the corrugated boards affixed to the tubs, to separate the rice from the 
blade. 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



257 



I boarded a train for 
Taihoku, the capital 
city, which on most 
maps still bears its 
old Chinese name of 
Taipeh. 

In about ten min- 
utes we passed 
through a long tun- 
nel, and when we 
came out on the other 
side of the mountain 
gap the landscape was 
flooded with sunshine. 
Rain seemed as out 
of place in this new 
world as stars in the 
broad daylight. 

The lush green rice- 
fields, with the denser 
green hills and purp- 
ling mountain back of 
them, lay glancing in 
the sunlight with a 
brilliancy that con- 
trasted sharply with 
objects but so re- 
cently viewed through 
the rain. 

Here and there we 
passed the low, mud, 
thatched dwelling of 
some Chinese home- 
steader with a pool of 
water by way of front 
yard, where huge 
slate - colored buffa- 
loes were taking their 
noonday siesta, a 
goodly number of 
ducks and geese keep- 
ing patrol as they slept, while on the 
brink would waddle a black sow or two, 
of an elongated variety, with backs that 
sagged in the middle, their numerous off- 
spring following grunting at their heels. 

I looked about in vain for a barn of 
some sort to house these creatures by 
night, but was told to my surprise that 
they were all dearly beloved members of 
one household and lived together most 
amicably under the same roof with their 
owner. 

At length we arrived at Taihoku, cov- 
ering the distance of twenty miles in a 




A BENIHI TREE (Cham&citaris formosensis MATS.) 

The giant benihi of Formosa, similar to the redwood of Cali- 
fornia, is the largest tree in the East and the second largest in the 
world. 



little more than an hour. I was amazed 
at the westernized appearance of the 
city the broad streets, the beautiful 
parks, and the imposing public buildings. 

A JAPANESE HOUSE-CLEANING TWICE A 
YEAR 

Japanese cities, which I had so recently 
visited, possessed the picturesqueness of 
the Orient, and I had expected even more 
of this quality in what I had looked upon 
as a most out-of-the-way corner of the 
globe. Only the gateways of the old wall, 
which surrounded the ancient Chinese 



258 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




SUNSET FROM THE BUND, THE WATERFRONT IN DAITOTEI, THE CHINESE SECTION 
OF TAIHOKU, CAPITAL OF FORMOSA 

At sunset dusky ghosts of sampans, laden with families living up the river, glide home- 
ward against a jonquil sky. Taihoku, a city the size of Lowell, Mass., is situated 20 miles 
southeast of the port of Tamsui, at the mouth of the Tamsui River, and 18 miles southwest 
of Kelung, the seaport possessing the best harbor of the island (see map, page 262). 



city, remain, looking as out of place in 
their rejuvenated setting as the Egyptian 
obelisk in Central Park. 

I found more of the quality I had 
looked for in Daitotei, the Chinese sec- 
tion of Taihoku; but even Daitotei was 
unnaturally clean for a Chinese city. 

The Japanese insist upon two official 
house-cleanings a year, and as they are 
executed under a policeman's vigilant eye, 



you may be sure that there is nothing 
slipshod in the undertaking. All a man's 
chattels, his Lares and Penates, his wives 
and children (I say wives advisedly, for 
if a Chinaman can afford it you can count 
on his having more than one), even to his 
cherished opium pipe, all are heaped un- 
ceremoniously in front of his dwelling, 
and the work of scouring begins. 

Everything he owns is washed, within 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



2-59 







A JUNK ON THE TAMSUI RIVER 

The antique sails, patched and repatched, speed the oarsmen when sailing down-stream 

with the wind. 



and without, except his wives and chil- 
dren, and this additional sanitary measure 
would round out a very good beginning 
toward that attribute which is attested as 
next to godliness. 

MUSIC TO SAVE THE DYING FROM EVIIy 
SPIRITS 

However, in respect to noise, Daitotei 
is characteristically Chinese. There is 
never an hour of the day without some 
puppet show and its accompaniment of 



drums and cymbals, or a marriage pro- 
cession, or a funeral procession, or, at 
best, a few bunches of fire-crackers to 
celebrate the birthday of some indulged 
urchin, the apple of his father's eye. 

If any of the sounds attendant on these 
rites are lacking, there can always be 
heard the piercing music of "sing-song" 
girls, entertaining tea-house habitues, the 
far-reaching cries of push-cart vendors, 
the high-pitched, unintelligible chatter of 
the passers-by, and, at the risk of intro- 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



to, 




Photograph by B. Boning 



PASSENGER PUSH-CARS IN FORMOSA 



ducing an anti-climax, I might add the 
cackle of hens ; for so numerous are these 
denizens of the barnyard that it seems to 
the nervous onlooker as" if some one has 
either just stepped on one or just avoided 
stepping on one. 

I shall never forget my first night in 
Daitotei. I was tired out by an arduous 
day, but my determination to retire early 
was dealt a sudden blow by the outbreak 
of a Chinese orchestra in the narrow 
alley at the back of our house. Its irritat- 
ing discordances, repeated fortissimo in 
rapid, monotonous succession, not only 



drove away all idea of sleep, but inci- 
dentally nearly drove me mad. 

Our servant, upon being questioned, in- 
formed us but not in just these words 
that our next-door neighbor, a wealthy 
Chinese money-lender, was about to give 
up the ghost. After repeated objections 
on my part as to the advisability of ac- 
celerating his end in this violent manner, 
I was assured that the music was intended 
only to drive off such evil spirits as might 
be lurking about the house. 

There is no doubt that the music was 
admirably adapted for this objective, and 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



261 




PUSH-CARS BEARING IMPERIAL JAPANESE MAIL, 

All the baggage push-cars are third class. The passenger cars are first class and have 
the right of way. The third-class cars have to be derailed to allow the first-class cars to 
pass, although it would be far more convenient if the first-class cars were derailed, as the 
others are usually heavily loaded. 



seeing that there was no hope of relief, I 
resigned myself to the rather meager con- 
solation of playing the innocent's role in 
suffering for the guilty. However, when 
I was told that the Japanese have insti- 
tuted a ruling whereby all music of this 
nature must cease at midnight, I felt a 
more substantial basis for thankfulness. 

THE TEA-PICKING GIRLS AT WORK 

During the summer months Daitotei 
presents its busiest face, for it is then that 
the tea season is in full swing. The col- 
onnades of the tea hongs, if such an im- 
posing architectural term as colonnades 
can be fittingly applied to such unimpos- 
ing structures, are ahum with the stac- 
cato accents of chattering tea-pickers. 
These are generally young girls, as old 
hands are too numb for the deft manipu- 
lation of the tea leaves. 

Seated on low stools before wide wicker 
trays, these bright-eyed maids, in their 
peacock-blue smocks, their front hair 
clipped in bangs, and with a gay posy or 



two stuck in the braided knots at the 
backs of their necks, are in animated con- 
trast to their rather drab surroundings. 

With flying wisps of fingers, at least 
one of which on each hand has a long, 
carefully trained nail, a rather inconven- 
ient concession to a fashion which origi- 
nally spelled leisure, they separate the 
coarser twigs from the partially fired tea 
leaves ; and, just as in all probability well- 
bred western matrons will exchange a few 
words of gossip over their cups of tea, 
these cheerful tea-picking girls start the 
ball a-rolling on this side of the globe. 

Not so many years ago the tea-chests 
were decorated by lightning artists with 
tropical-looking birds and beasts, but now 
designs are stenciled on sheets of paper, 
which are pasted on the boxes and glossed 
over with varnish. 

Everywhere we saw coolies packing 
these gaily-flowered, lead-lined boxes that 
carry their sensitive freight of tea to 
America. I say America, for about QO 
per cent of Formosa Oolong goes to the 



202 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



CHIN 



F U - K I E N 





I \ (TAIWAN) 

' 




A MAP OF FORMOSA (TAIWAN) SHOWING ITS GEOGRAPHICAL, RELATION TO JAPAN, 

CHINA, AND THE PHILIPPINES 



United States. The little that goes to Eng- 
land is generally used in making choice 
blends in combination with other teas. 

GUARDING TEA FROM OBNOXIOUS FREIGHT 

As an additional protective measure, 
each chest is sewn up in reed matting. 
So sensitive is tea to other freight that a 
tea merchant, before he loads his cargo, 
has to find out what goods a ship is 
carrying in her hold. Tea and copra, 
for instance, cannot travel together with 
anything approaching congeniality. More- 
over, if it so happens that some Asiatic 
disease breaks out on the ship and the 
hold is fumigated, the tea might just as 
well have caught the disease and died, 
for its commercial life is at an end. 

Besides the Oolong tea, whose natural 



fragrance is of the sort to commend it- 
self to the most fastidious tea-bibber, 
there is an artificially scented tea, called 
Pouchong, produced in Formosa. This 
is exported chiefly to the Philippines and 
the Straits Settlements for Chinese con- 
sumption. 

Four kinds of flowers are used in the 
process of scenting Pouchong two va- 
rieties of jasmine, white oleanders, and 
gardenias. These flowers are grown in 
great quantities outside the city of Tai- 
hoku for this purpose, and are bartered 
on a certain street corner in Daitotei. 

I shall always recall this street corner 
as the abode of Perfume an oasis of 
Fragrance in a hostile desert. Coming 
down Hokumongai, the principal street 
in Daitotei, the sensitive western nose is 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



263 




A NATIVE CAMPHOR STIU, IN THE HEART OF A CAMPHOR FOREST 

Native stills are scattered here and there throughout the camphor districts, where crude 
camphor is collected, packed in tins, and carried down precipitous mountain paths on coolies' 
backs to the nearest railway line, whence it goes to the refinery in Taihoku. 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A CAMPHOR TREE 

The camphor trees are unusually beautiful, with shapely trunks 
and wide-spreading branches profusely covered with graceful 
leaves of a soft green. According to an article appearing recently 
in a semi-official publication of Formosa, the camphor produced 
in the island at the present time is obtained entirely from natural- 
grown camphor trees, the supply of which, it is anticipated, will 
be exhausted within ten years. For more than a decade, however, 
the camphor monopoly bureau has been planting camphor trees 
at the rate of more than 3,000 acres a year. In 1919 its program 
was expanded to more than 12,000 acres, and this will be the 
annual acreage planted in future. 



regaled by a thousand conglomerate 
Chinese odors Chinese joss-sticks -and 
Chinese fire-crackers. Chinese clothes 
and Chinese food. Chinese shops and 
Chinese houses, Chinese men and Chinese 
women. Then of a sudden comes this 
flower mart. 

The handkerchief drops to the lap and 
the owner of the sensitive nose "sits up 



and takes notice." Are 
these white waxen blos- 
soms really the gardenias 
we were wont to revere 
on account of their ex- 
pensiveness ? Let us try 
to imagine the qualms of 
some Fifth Avenue flor- 
ist if he could but see 
so many potential bou- 
tonnieres, at a dollar 
apiece, so carelessly 
heaped up in baskets, lin- 
ing the dingy pavement. 

SEARCHING FOR SMUG- 
GLERS 

However, it is to the 
waterfront of the Tam- 
sui River, commonly 
called the Bund, that we 
must go if we wish to 
see the most picturesque 
part of Daitotei. Here 
it is that junks, with 
great eyes painted on 
the sides of the bow, 
bring cargoes from the 
ports of Tarnsui and 
Kelung. Their antique 
sails, patched and re- 
patched, speed the oars- 
men when sailing down- 
stream with the wind, 
but against both wind 
and the tide the prog- 
ress of these clumsy 
craft is slow indeed. 

The custom's jetty is 
the scene of the most 
animated discussions, for 
the customs officials are 
very thorough in their 
search for smuggled 
goods, and the junk- 
owners, many of whom 
bring wares from the 
China coast, are just as eager to as- 
sert their innocence. More often the 
barter is merely in local products, such 
as charcoal from some hillside kiln a few 
miles upstream, or sweet potatoes, which 
with the soaring price of rice are a chief 
staple of diet among the poor. 

A junk's crew has no regular meal 
hours. At almost any time, while the 



265 




A CHINESE FAMILY WORKING A CAMPHOR TREE 

Few trees can rival the camphor in value. An average tree, twelve feet in circum- 
ference at its base, will yield about fifty piculs of camphor (approximately 6,660 pounds), 
which at the present market price is worth about $5,000. 



boats weigh anchor, a small party can be 
seen in the stern, clustering about a char- 
coal brazier a woman busy dishing out 
bowls of soup and macaroni, and men in 
palm-leaf hats, their bronzed bodies 
stripped to the waist, hurriedly scooping 
up steaming threads with the aid of long 
wooden chop-sticks. 

Every hour of the day the river is 
aglow with life women washing their 
clothes ; the footsore washing their feet ; 
duck-tenders giving their broods a swim ; 
fishermen trying their luck ; housewives 
cleaning their vegetables and strips of 
pork ; cattle and their owners fording 
the stream at low tide ; and, at sunset, 
dusky ghosts of sampans, laden with 
families living up the river, gliding home- 
ward against a jonquil sky. 

FORMOSA THE HOME OF CAMPHOR 

The population of Formosa is mainly 
agricultural. The cultivation of rice, and 
more especially sugar-cane, is encour- 
aged by the government, and these are 
grown in great quantities. 



However, the most interesting indus- 
try is the production of camphor, and 
it can truly be said to be peculiar to the 
island, when it is remembered that For- 
mosa holds a practical monopoly in the 
world's market of this valuable drug. 

Before the war, Germany, by a secret 
process, succeeded in manufacturing 
some synthetic camphor, but so expensive 
was the labor entailed that the artificial 
product could not compete with the 
natural camphor, nor is it likely to do so 
for some time to come. 

Shortly after the Japanese came to 
Formosa, 25 years ago, the camphor in- 
dustry became a government monopoly. 
Before that time there had been a great 
deal of ruthless waste, both in the cut- 
ting down of trees and in extracting 
camphor from them. 

At first the Japanese, too, were care- 
less in this respect, for the supply of 
camphor trees seemed practically limit- 
less, but the great increase in the demand 
for the product in late years has made 
scientific afforestation necessary. Now 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




IN MANY DISTRICTS CAMPHOR WORKERS REQUIRE THE PROTECTION OF 

ARMED GUARDS 

Tales of the camphor workers recall the days of our pioneer fathers, who constantly faced 
the dangers of tomahawk and scalping-knife. 



large tracts of land are given over to the 
cultivation of the camphor laurel. The 
oldest of these cultivated trees are now 
twenty years of age, and these, I am in- 
formed, are to be cut down next year. 

Paradoxical as it may seem at first 
glance, the savage head-hunters of For- 
mosa have been both an impediment and 
a boon to the camphor industry. 

As the forests are cut down, the head- 



hunters have to be driven further back 
into the mountains. These expeditions 
against the savages are never very suc- 
cessful, encountering as they do heavy 
obstacles in the way of dense forests, 
rapid streams without bridges, steep 
mountains without trails, and, above all, 
the danger of sudden attack. 

The life of a camphor worker is in- 
deed an adventurous one ; he is never 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



267 




GOUGING CHIPS FROM A CAMPHOR 

The adz is used in reducing the camphor tree to chips, which can be placed into retorts for 
the distillation process (see illustration on the next page). 



safe. Although a woodsman with an axe 
never moves except in the company of 
an armed guard, there is always danger 
of an ambush. 

Tales of the camphor workers recall 
the days of our pioneer fathers in the 
times of the tomahawk, the poisoned 
arrow, and the scalping-knife. And yet 
if this menace had not existed, the cam- 
phor forests would have disappeared 
long ago. Thanks to the head-hunters, 



there are 'still large tracts of virgin cam- 
phor forests in Formosa. 

Camphor trees grow best on moderate, 
well-drained slopes, not over 4,000 feet 
in elevation, where the sun's rays can 
reach them. 

Nowhere else in the world have these 
trees attained such height and girth. In 
the past, trees with a basal circumfer- 
ence of from 35 to 40 feet have been 
noted, but these have inevitablv fallen 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




PLACING CAMPHOR CHIPS IN THE CHIP RETORT 

The retort is above boiling water. Beneath is a furnace. To the right a man is removing 
the chips from which the camphor has been extracted. 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



269 




DRAINING OFF THE OIL FROM THE CAMPHOR: FORMOSA 

Here \ve see the camphor placed on wooden troughs, and whatever free oil it contains drains 

off into tin pails. 





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FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



271 



victims to the woodsman's axe. Perhaps 
in the uncharted forests, where the savage 
still holds sway, more of these noble 
specimens still grow unscathed. At 
present a camphor tree with a basal cir- 
cumference of 20 feet is considered a 
very ample specimen. 

A SINGLE: TREE PRODUCES $5,000 WORTH 
OF CAMPHOR 

In point of view of value, few trees 
can rival the camphor. An average tree, 
say with a basal circumference of 12 feet, 
will yield about 50 piculs of camphor 
(approximately 6,660 pounds), which, at 
the present market price, is worth about 
$5,000. 

Strictly speaking, there are no cam- 
phor forests, as the camphor laurel is 
only one of a number of trees growing 
together. The camphor trees are un- 
usually beautiful, with shapely trunks 
and wide-spreading branches profusely 
covered with graceful leaves of a soft 
green. 

Native stills are scattered here and 
there throughout the districts where 
crude camphor is collected, packed in 
tins, and carried down precipitous moun- 
tain paths on coolies' backs to the "near- 
est railway line, whence it goes to the 
refinery at Taihoku. 

It was my good fortune to visit one of 
these native stills in the district about ten 
miles beyond Urai, the first savage vil- 
lage with a police garrison to the south 
of Taihoku. 

We motored as far as Sintian. and 
from there the stronger members of the 
party "hiked," while the rest alternately 
\valked and rode in sedan chairs. 

We had to cross many streams and we 
always found a Chinese ferryman with a 
sampan awaiting us on the bank, for our 
route had been kindly prearranged by the 
Japanese official from whom we obtained 
permission to enter the savage zone. 
There seemed to be no fixed fare, and the 
sampan owner accepted, as a matter of 
course, the few coins we tossed him on 
alighting. 

AN ENCOUNTER WITH A "BROTHER" 
FORMOSAN 

The ferryman at the last stream we 
crossed was an old "ripe" savage, with a 



face seared and seamy. A veritable 
Charon he looked, and this resemblance 
was heightened by a dark-colored shawl 
thrown over his head, for the poor fellow 
suffered from ague. 

He regarded us with much solemnity, 
and I for one was trying to fathom his 
thoughts, when quite unexpectedly he 
spoke. "You and I are- brothers. We are 
not like these," and he indicated the few 
Japanese and Chinese passengers at the 
rear of the sampan. 

I was somewhat surprised, but found 
that all the Formosan savages have this 
idea. Besides themselves the world con- 
tains for them but two groups, the Chi- 
nese and the Japanese ; so when they meet 
persons belonging to neither of these, by 
a process of elimination they claim them 
as relations. 

At Urai we stopped for luncheon at a 
Japanese inn, and the entire savage popu- 
lation turned out to watch us eat. It hap- 
pened that we had some caviar sand- 
wiches* in our lunch baskets, and when 
we had finished eating, as I had one left 
I gave it to an old savage chief. He ate 
it with great relish, and when he was 
through he signified his desire for more. 
Then I gave him a plain bread-and-butter 
sandwich, and his disgust was amusing 
to behold. 

Whenever I hear of savages assimilat- 
ing most eagerly the evils rather than the 
more substantial benefits of civilization, 
I think in particular of this born epicure. 
I am sure he would have preferred cham- 
pagne to beer at first draught. 

THE SIMPLICITY OF THE CAMPHOR STILL 

The still we visited, was operated by 
the members of one Chinese family. 
When our party approached, some of the 
men were gouging chips from the trunks 
of camphor trees with adzes, while others 
were in the still feeding the fires. 

Adjoining the still was a shanty, where 
the workers lived, and in front of the 
door was a woman preparing the after- 
noon meal, while beside her a little boy 
was busy playing blocks with chips from 
which the camphor had been extracted. 

The stills are operated in a very simple 
manner. Camphor chips are placed in a 
chip retort over boiling water, and as the 
camphor vaporizes it passes through 



272 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A PINE-CRESTED RIDGE 

This photograph might have been taken in New England except for the "ripe" savages carry- 
ing guns. The border savages are often employed to assist the police guard. 



pipes into submerged vats, which are so 
arranged that cool water from a moun- 
tain stream can run over them to acceler- 
ate crystallization. After the camphor 
has crystallized the vats are opened, and 
the product is placed on wooden troughs 
to allow whatever free oil there may be 
to drain off. This oil will yield 90 per 
cent of crude camphor in the process of 
refining. 

THE PEOPLE; OF FORMOSA 

Ever since we have any authentic rec- 
ord, Formosa has been peopled with wild 
tribes of probably Malayan and Polyne- 
sian origin. They are nearest in point of 
resemblance to the Dayaks of Borneo, 
and although their origin has never been 
proved beyond a doubt, they are suffi- 



ciently like certain of the South Sea 
tribes to justify us in ascribing to them a 
common ancestry. 

They are found on the island today in 
all stages of development. The "raw" 
savages, as the Chinese term them, live 
much as their ancestors did centuries ago, 
while the "ripe" savages, living on the 
borderland between their wild kin and 
Chinese settlers, have more or less as- 
similated Chinese ways of life. 

The savage population of Formosa is 
estimated at about 150,000. There are 
eight main groups of savage tribes on the 
island, each group with fairly well-de- 
fined differences of dress, speech, and 
customs, and in many cases the tribes 
that make up a group display minor dif- 
ferences among themselves. 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



273 




LUMBERING OPERATIONS IN THE HINOKI FORESTS ON MOUNT ARIZAN 

Next to the camphor laurel, the hinoki, or sun trees, are the most valuable trees in 
Formosa. The tallest specimens attain a height of 130 feet and are of such girth as to enable 
a dozen people to stand on the stump of a tree that has been felled. 



Although in most instances the simi- 
larities are more striking than the differ- 
ences in the various groups, still they are 
sufficiently unlike to lead us to suppose 
that they migrated to Formosa at differ- 
ent times and perhaps from different 
places. 

A PASSION FOR HEAD-HUNTING 

There is one trait that all the "raw" 
savages possess in common, and that is 
their passion for head-hunting. With 
some of the groups the practice is closely 
bound up with their religious and social 
life, while with others it is more espe- 
cially a question of prowess, and the 
brave who can display the greatest array 
of skulls is regarded as the greatest hero. 

The "ripe" savages have, of course, 
abandoned the practice altogether, but 
they still cherish a sneaking affection for 
it, as is shown by their adherence to the 
old dances which originated in the fes- 
tivities over the capture of heads. 

In every savage village the open-air 
skull museum is a matter of civic pride, 



and most chiefs have their private collec- 
tion of skulls as well. 

At the time that the Chinese army of 
occupation left Formosa and the Japanese 
entered their new domain, guns were at 
a premium. As the Chinese residents 
were not allowed to retain fire-arms, 
nearly all the rifles belonging to the de- 
parting army, numbering about 20,000, 
were sold by Chinese traders to the sav- 
ages. It is this possession of fire-arms 
that makes the head-hunters particularly 
dangerous to cope with. 

THE LIVE-WIRE BARRIER 

It is so common for some Chinaman 
living near the savage border to lose his 
head that not much attention is paid to 
the incident, unless his relatives band to- 
gether to avenge the murder. But if 
some Japanese policeman, official, or sol- 
dier falls a victim, there is always an ex- 
pedition to avenge his death. A village 
is forewarned, and if the culprit is sur- 
rendered all are spared except the guilty 
one, who pays the death penalty. 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




JAPANESE INFANTRY DESCENDING A MOUNTAIN IN THE 
SAVAGE DISTRICT : FORMOSA 

The men employed to safeguard the camphor workers are known 
as "Aiyue" (Guardsmen), and their outpost line as "Aiyu-sen" 
(Guard-line). The line is established by cutting a path along the 
crest of mountains, after which the jungle is cleared away for 18 
or 20 feet on both sides : guard-houses are established at strategic 
points and wire entanglements charged with electricity are con- 
structed. 



At present Formosa enjoys greater 
freedom from savage attacks than ever 
before in her history. This is due to the 
fact that the Japanese have installed a 
live-wire barrier from Karenko, about 
midway on the east coast, to Pinan, in 
the south, a distance of- about a hundred 
miles, to serve as a protection against 
savage raids. 

The trees for twenty feet on both sides 
of the barrier have been cleared awav to 



prevent the savages 
from crossing the 
wire by felling trees 
on it. 

At distances of 
every half mile along 
the route blockhouses 
are stationed, and a 
sentry paces the beat 
between two posts all 
day long to see that 
the wire has not been 
tampered with or any 
holes burrowed un- 
derneath. 

At first the electric 
current was turned 
on only at night, the 
usual time for a sav- 
age raid, but the wily 
head-hunters soon dis- 
covered this, as they 
noticed that no smoke 
issued from the 
power-house by day. 
Then, as they turned 
their night raids into 
daylight expeditions, 
the Japanese were ob- 
liged to turn on the 
current by day as well. 
This device, al- 
though not exactly a 
cheap one, has done 
much to develop the 
fertile plain to the 
west of the barricade, 
as many Japanese 
agriculturists have 
been attracted to this 
region, now that they 
can live there in com- 
parative safety. 

Even now traders, 

who go as far as the barricade to ex- 
change small wares for deer horns and 
tortoise shell, occasionally lose their lives, 
when they venture singly or are careless 
about going unarmed. 

There are two kinds of deer, Formosa 
spotted deer and Swinhoe's rusa deer, 
that roam in large numbers on the moun- 
tains occupied by the savages, and. on the 
seacoast back of them are found enor- 
mous turtles, varying from three to five 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



275 




A MILITAKV GARRISON ON THE BORDER OF THE SAVAGE DISTRICT I FORMOSA 

These temporary structures serve as the headquarters of the commanding officer during an 

expedition against the savages. 



feet in length and from 200 to 400 pounds 
in weight. 

DIFFICULT TO STUDY THE SAVAGES 

It is through a study of some newly 
conquered tribe that we come to know 
the characteristics of the Formosan 
savage. 

Even though the ardent student of 
anthropology cared to risk his life among 
the "raw" savag'es, permission to enter 
the danger zone could not be obtained 
from the Japanese authorities. In fact, 
the Japanese are so careful in this respect 
that even when foreigners want to visit a 
village of "ripe" savages they must al- 
ways be accompanied by a police escort. 

It is not my purpose here to write a 
descriptive history of the savage tribes 
on this island, having no first-hand 
knowledge on the subject, but I wish to 
relate the story of a trip I took to Kam- 
panzan, a little savage village in the north 
of the island, and of an interesting en- 
counter with Kim Scan, a savage, which 
throws some new sidelights on the life 



of his tribe, the Atayals of North For- 
mosa. 

We started out by train to Toyen, a 
two hours' ride, on a beautiful day last 
autumn. It was the time of the second 
rice harvest, and in the paddy-fields were 
scattered little groups of laborers in their 
broad palm-leaf hats, some reaping the 
grain with sickles, others threshing, and 
still others plowing the fields for the new 
seedlings. 

Sunny blue skies overhead and the 
soft browns of the ripened grain, inter- 
spersed with vivid green patches of the 
young seedlings, formed the color scheme 
of the picture before us, and the frame 
was the encircling mountains. 

WESTERN INVENTIONS BECOME ORIENTAL 
COMMONPLACES 

Very picturesque were the portable 
tubs with their canvas awnings, looking 
for all the world like sails, in the wake 
of which followed the threshers with 
their bundles of grain, which they rapped 
smartly against the corrugated board 



276 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A BRIDGE CONSTRUCTED BY THE SAVAGES 
Of course, when the heavy rains come, this bridge will be carried down-stream. 



affixed to the tub, to separate the rice 
from the blade. 

Picturesque, too, were the foot pumps, 
worked by three and sometimes four 
coolies, in pumping water from one field 
to another. These were the invention of 
a Spanish missionary and are used in 
China as well. 

It would be interesting indeed to find 
out how many of the inventions of which 
we think as typically Oriental have origi- 
nated in Western brains. I call to mind 
the tonga, a vehicle used all over Central 



India, the invention of an American 
missionary; and more especially -the jin- 
rikisha, the first one of which was con- 
structed by an American missionary in 
Japan for his lame wife, and which is 
now used all over the East. 

EVERY BUFFALO HAS ITS FRIENDLY HERON 

The plowing is done by water buffa- 
loes, which are brought down from their 
mountain pastures, where they return to 
graze when their work is finished. No 
rural Formosan landscape is complete 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



277 




A RATTAN SUSPENSION BRIDGE CONSTRUCTED BY THE JAPANESE IN THE 

SAVAGE COUNTRY 

The longest structure of this kind in the island is more than 400 feet in length. Even in flood 
times this footbridge swings safely above the foaming waters. 




MOUNT MORRISON, 13,075 FEET IN ELEVATION, THE HIGHEST PEAK IN THE 

JAPANESE EMPIRE 




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278 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



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without at least one of these hulking 
creatures, with its lowering horns and 
great staring eyes. Their hides are just 
the shade of weathered rock, and so 
motionless do they stand for hours while 
grazing on some grassy slope that they 
look, even from a short distance away, 
as if they were carved from stone. 

Wherever there are buffaloes, graceful 
white herons are seen perched on their 
backs. It seems, indeed, that each buffalo 
has a particular heron for a pal. who 
takes care to rid him of smaller friends, 
just as devoted, perhaps, but less de- 
sirable. 

At Toyen we took push-cars. These 
are small, wicker-covered chariots on 
narrow-gauge rails. The seats are just 
large enough to accommodate two pas- 
sengers, and there is a small platform 
behind, where the two coolies who push 
the car on the upgrade can stand and 
ride when the route lies down hill. 

The confirmed motorist would find 
these push-cars a bit tedious on the level 
or upgrade, but going down mountains 
they leave nothing to be desired in the 
way of thrills. 

Our route lay for the first hour through 
level country. We passed through fields 
of sugar-cane, with occasional patches of 
sweet potatoes, cabbages, and pumpkins. 
And now and then we came upon some 
Chinese village near a stream, where our 
approach was heralded by the shouts of 
children. 

Women tugging small babies would 
hobble out of their doorways as fast as 
their bound feet would permit and ex- 
change laughing comments on our ap- 
pearance. Young men would frankly 
jeer at us, and only the old men, like 
figures in ivory yellow with age, gazed 
upon us with imperturbable calm. 

A JOURNEY WITH EVERY VISTA A PICTURE 

At length we started the ascent. At 
first our way lay through terraced tea 
gardens and groves of pineapples, ba- 
nanas, and citrus fruits ; but as we 
progressed the mountain sides became 
covered with Nature's own rich mantle. 
Ornamental grasses fringed our path, 
while through the bracken and lichened 
rocks projecting overhead little bubbling 
freshets trickled down at our feet. 



280 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




THE SCHOOL FOR SAVAGE CHILDREN AT KAMPANZAN, A MOUNTAIN VILLAGE IN 

NORTHERN FORMOSA 








A SAVAGE PALAVER-HOUSE 

Most of the savage groups have these dwellings, which serve the double purpose of club- 
houses and bachelor dormitories. 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



281 




A THATCHED-ROOF TYPE OF SAVAGE DWELLING 
These natives are displaying some of their hand-made pottery. 




A SAVAGE DWELLING WITH SKULLS HANGING FROM THE RAFTERS 

Whenever savages live in the vicinity of slate quarries they construct their homes from 

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282 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



283 



Every bend in the path brought to 
view some new slope more exquisitely 
arrayed than the last a profusion of 
tropical foliage plants, elephants' ears, 
plantains, and tree-ferns intermingled 
with flowering shrubs of many varieties, 
wild hydrangeas, morning-glories, pink 
oleanders, hibiscus, and the lovely gold- 
banded lilies of Japan. 

Kampanzan itself is not over 2,000 feet 
in elevation, but the mountains surround- 
ing it form a splendid setting, the lower 
hills densely wooded and the higher 
veiled in clouds and snow. 

Toward dusk we arrived at the savage 
village, tucked away in a valley between 
two mountains. Smoke clouded the door- 
ways of the mud, grass-roofed huts, for 
within savage mothers were boiling their 
evening meal of sweet potatoes over 
wood fires in the center of the floor. 

Children ran out at our approach, their 
eyes quite wet and streaming tears from 
their recent smoke bath, while their 
sires, one-time braves, but now mere 
blear-eyed phantoms of savagery, squat- 
ted in front of their houses and blinked 
at us, as we passed, between puffs from 
long thin pipes. 

THE STORY OF KIM SOAN 

We went to a small Japanese inn, and 
it was here that we met Kim Soan, after 
we had finished supper and were wonder- 
ing how to spend the hour before bed- 
time. 

He came as the messenger from the 
chief police official to inquire w r hether 
we had everything we needed for our 
comfort. A member of our party, who 
has lived many years in Formosa and 
speaks fluent Chinese, requested him to 
convey our thanks to the police official, 
and then return to us for a talk. After 
he had gone our friend said, "I know 
that man ; his face comes back to me," 
and he told us what he knew of Kim 
Soan's history. 

When the Chinese were still in posses- 
sion of Formosa a period of gross mis- 
rule, from all accounts there seems to 
have been one governor with a few ad- 
vanced ideas. He conceived the scheme 
of educating the young boys of conquered 
savage tribes and sending them back as 
apostles of light to their people. But he 



reckoned without the volition of his 
pupils, as in the case of Kim Soan, who 
was one of these boys, and who after he 
had become attached to the amenities of 
civilization refused to return to savagery. 

Later, when the Japanese came to the 
island, Kim Soan was commissioned to 
accompany two Japanese officials who 
were going to enter the savage territory 
to take the census. The three set out. all 
dressed alike in Japanese garb, and they 
had not proceeded very far when they 
were attacked by some savages, who 
killed the two Japanese, but spared Kim 
Soan. 

He returned to report the murders to 
the authorities, and they, in turn, con- 
demned him to die, deeming him respon- 
sible for the two deaths. He managed to 
escape, however, and fled to the moun- 
tains, where he stayed for eight years. 
Then he received his pardon, returned to 
the plains, and was made an instructor in 
the school for savage children at Kam- 
panzan. 

"lIOW MANY HEADS DID YOU CUT OFF?" 

Our companion had hardly finished this 
narrative when Kim Soan himself reap- 
peared. The conversation which took 
place between the two follows : 

"Don't you remember me, Kim Soan, 
and the little school at Tamsui that you 
used to attend ?" 

"Oh, sir, that is a long time ago so 
long that it seems like a dream." 

"So you became a savage again. How 
many heads did you cut off?" 

This remark had the effect of a bomb. 
Instantly Kim Soan leaped to his feet, 
and raising his hand, his voice choking 
with emotion, said very solemnly, "I 
swear by the heavens above and the earth 
below my feet that I have never been 
guilty of taking any human life." 

"But you have the tattoo-marks on 
your forehead that indicate that you have 
been admitted into the council of the men 
of your tribe. Surely you must have pro- 
cured at least one head to enable you to 
accomplish that?" 

Again he asserted his innocence with 
the same impressive solemnity. 

"Then you must have accompanied the 
others on some head-hunting raid. You 
couldn't refuse to go, could you?" 



284 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by T. MacGregor 



A GROUP Of KAMPANZAN SAVAGES 



The savages in the northern half of the island are distinguished from the southern 
natives by their tattooing. The southern savages are not given to this practice. Of the 
northern tribes the one scattered over the largest area is the Atayal group, to which the 
Kampanzan savages belong. They live in mountain recesses, are among the least civilized 
of all the inhabitants of Formosa, and are especially partial to head-hunting. 



"Xo, I couldn't refuse. I always tried 
to find some excuse, but finally our chief 
said, 'Tomorrow you go.' Then we shook 
a tree full of birds to read the omens 
from their flight, and the old woman of 
our tribe said, 'It is well ; you will be suc- 
cessful.' 

THE DOUBLE ASSASSINATION 

"That night I went to bed with a heavy 
heart, and when I slept I dreamed that 



we would meet a woodsman with an axe 
and a guardsman with a rifle. 

"On the next day it turned out even as 
I dreamed. My companions shot the 
guardsman through the heart from an 
ambush ten feet distant, and the woods- 
man threw up his hands and begged for 
mercy. 

"I pleaded with my companions to spare 
his life, and they said, 'Fie! shame upon 
you ! You have a Chinese heart.' Then 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



285 



they turned upon me 
to kill me as well, so 
I withdrew my peti- 
tion. After that they 
cut off the woods- 
man's head, and we 
returned home." 

"And didn't you 
take part- in any more 
raids after that?" 

"Yes, one more. 
Once we lay in am- 
bush in some tall 
grass as some Jap- 
anese infantry were 
coming along. They 
were very brave, 
those men, for though 
we shot down the first 
ones, the others kept 
right on coming. Soon, 
however, we were 
forced to make our 
escape, for they far 
outnumbered us. We 
respect the courage of 
the Japanese soldiers, 
but the Japanese po- 
licemen bah ! they 
scuttle away like mice 
at the first glimpse of 
us." 



WOODEN 

EXPLODE 

Then we asked Kim 
Soan many questions, 
and he gave us many 
interesting answers. 
He told us of the 
blacksmiths of every tribe who kept the 
guns in good condition. He contradicted 
the rumor that arms and ammunition 
are still smuggled into the savage terri- 
tory. 

He related to us how the savages make 
bullets from the heart of a very hard 
wood cured by a special process. These 
bullets are only effectual when fired from 
a short range, and when they lodge in the 
flesh they explode like dumdum bullets. 

He also explained to us the ingenious 
way in which the men of his tribe make 
caps. Two small disks are cut from the 
striking side of a safety match-box, the 
tip of a match is placed between, and then 




HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO MEET US IN THE DARK? 

An old savage chief and his wife. The former was told to dress up 
as he would to go on a head-hunting raid. 



the disks are glued together. He told us 
that they were always able to buy as 
many matches as they wanted from Chi- 
nese traders. 

For hunting birds and beasts, he stated, 
bows and arrows were used, and all their 
ammunition was saved to hunt men. 

THE BLOODY HAND A PASSPORT TO THE 
SAVAGE HEAVEN 

"But why do your people hunt heads? 
Is it true that a man must procure a head 
before he can claim a bride?" 

"No, it isn't that; but, of course, the 
women prefer the men that have brought 
back the most heads. But it's this way: 



286 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




THE HOME OF A SAVAGE CHIEF: FORMOSA 

In nearly all the savage groups the home of the chief is distinguished by the crude carvings 
of human figures ove'r the doorways. Note the skull on the shelf at the left. 




AN OPEN-AIR SKULL MUSEUM 
"In every savage village the open-air skull museum is a matter of civic pride." 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



2S7 



all my people believe 
that when we die we 
all must walk up the 
rainbow to the Land- 
of-After-Death. 

"At the end of the 
rainbow the gateman 
stands, and when we 
come he will say to 
us, 'Show me your 
hand.' And he will 
look at our hand, and 
if he finds it clean he 
will say, 'Go to the 
right,' and he will 
kick us into the dark 
nothingnes s below; 
Taut if he looks at our 
hand and finds it 
stained he will say, 
'You may enter,' and 
he will allow us to 
pass within." 

JAPANESE SCHOOL FOR 
SAVAGE CHILDREN 

Before we left 
Kampanzan we visited 
the savage school in 
which Kim Scan was 
a teacher. The chil- 
dren sang the Japan- 
ese national anthem 
for us with very 
pleasing voices. I 
"have never heard Jap- 
anese or Chinese chil- 
dren sing half so well. 

Then several of 
the children made 
speeches, which were very amusing, as 
they were so obviously the product of the 
teacher's pen. Each speech started some- 
what as follows : "I am a poor little sav- 
age boy. Before the kind Japanese came 
here, I was very ignorant. Now my kind 
teacher is teaching me many things," and 
more of the same sort. 

The Japanese are taking steps to train 
the savages in certain manual arts, chiefly 
cloth-weaving on hand-looms, so that 
they can earn their living, now that they 
can no longer follow the more exciting 
life of the chase. 

I left Kampanzan with a feeling of 
depression. There is something poig- 




"ALAS, POOR YORICK, i KNEW HIM WELL!" 

A nearer view of a skull museum, showing the trophies placed on 
bamboo poles. 



nantly pathetic in the spectacle of these 
wild creatures of the forest tied down to 
a dull domesticity, even as wild beasts 
captive in cages. 

FORMOSA ONCE THE STRONGHOLD OF JAP- 
ANESE AND CHINESE PIRATES 

The bulk of the population of Formosa 
is, of course, Chinese. Several centuries 
ago the island used to be the stronghold 
of both Chinese and Japanese pirates, 
who found it a very convenient base 
from which to intercept vessels follow- 
ing the trade routes between Japan and 
the rest of the Orient. 

It was not until the fourteenth century 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




SAVAGES CARRYING WATER IN BAMBOO POLES 

This practice is only one of many points of resemblance between Formosan savages and 

South Sea tribes. 




A SAVAGE WOMAN WEAVING CLOTH ON A HAND-LOOM 



FORMOSA THE BEAUTIFUL 



289 




BLACK TEETH AND FLAT, ROUND BAMBOO EARRINGS ARE HIGHLY PRIZED AMONG THE 
SAVAGES OF THE TAIWAN GROUP OCCUPYING SOUTHERN FORMOSA 

It was upon the Paiwan savages that the Japanese wreaked a bitter vengeance in 1872, follow- 
ing the massacre of a crew of shipwrecked Japanese sailors. 




FANTASTIC EFFECTS IN MILLINERY DISTINGUISH THE ORNAMENTATION OF BOTH 
MEN AND WOMEN OF THE TSUO GROUP 

This tribe has a unique organization. All the land is owned by one clan, the Hyoft'pa, 
to whom every tribesman gives a tithe of his annual harvest. A public council hall, called 
the Kutsuba, is used as a lodging place for all unmarried youths more than 12 years of age. 
These boys are subjected to Spartan hardships in training to foster discipline, courage, and 
virtue. 



290 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




THE BELL-SHAPED EARRINGS AND CHAPLETS OF BONE AND BEADS INDICATE THAT 
THESE SAVAGES BELONG TO THE VONUM GROUP 

According to a tribal legend, the Vonum Group of Formosan mountain savages lived in 
the plains until the misfortune of an all-destroying deluge befell them. With the flood came 
a huge serpent, which swam through the stormy waters toward the terrorized people. They 
owed their deliverance from the great snake to the timely appearance of a monster crab, 
which, after a terrific battle, succeeded in killing the reptile. 



that the first industrial class of Chinese, 
the agriculturist Hakkas, who were out- 
casts in their own country, came to settle 
in Formosa. After that, at the time of 
the Tatar invasion, several thousand 
Ming loyalists sought refuge on the 
island. 

Then there has always been more or 
less of an influx of immigration from the 
overpopulated province of Fu-kien, just 
across the Formosa Straits. These Chi- 
nese from Fu-kien far outnumber the 
others, and their speech, known as the 
"Amoy dialect," is the vernacular of the 
island. 

When the Japanese came into control 
of the island after the Chino-Japanese 
War, in 1895, a third element was added 
to the population. 

THE WORK OF THE JAPANESE 

The Japanese have instituted great ma- 
terial improvements in Formosa. The 



most important, of course, are the mod- 
ern courts of justice in lieu of the old 
mandarin courts, where the man with the 
greatest "pull," which, needless to say, 
spelled money, invariably won out. There 
is also greater security to life and limb 
now, for not only is the Japanese police 
system a most thorough and efficient or- 
ganization, but the sanitary measures 
that they have adopted have practically 
eradicated such diseases as malaria and 
bubonic plague. 

AN ERA OF PROSPERITY 

Harbor improvements, railways, and 
bridges have greatly facilitated traffic, 
but the road systems, as yet, outside the 
city of Taihoku, leave much to be de- 
sired. 

Education, too, has been advanced, 
but, owing to the policy of assimilation, 
native schools are not encouraeed, and 
the percentage of Chinese children at- 



FORMOSA THE BE.U'TIFUL 



291 




A DANCE OF THE AMI GROUP : FORMOSA 

The Amis have discontinued head-hunting, but they still adhere to the old dances, which 
originated in the festivities over the capture of heads. 




WOMEN WATER-BEARERS OF THE PEPO GROUP 

The members of this group are scattered over the broad tracts of level land in the 
western parts of Formosa. They long had intercourse both with the Dutch and the Chinese. 
Today they are scarcely distinguishable from the Chinese. 



292 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




YOUTH AND OLD AGE 

This tattooed design is peculiar to the Tsalisen Group, whose members ceased to hunt 
heads more than a century ago. They are now good farmers, and through their frequent 
intercourse with the Chinese have become skillful blacksmiths and carvers. Many of the 
women of this tribe wear dresses with long trailing skirts. 



tending public schools is only a little over 
13 as against a rate of over 95 for the 
Japanese children of the island. Opium 
smoking is controlled by license. About 
2. per cent of the Chinese at present 
smoke opium, but eventually this will 
stop entirely. 

The future of Formosa under its pres- 



ent benevolent paternal government looks 
bright, indeed. Never before has this 
island, so beautiful to the eye, enjoyed 
such a degree of prosperity. Old in- 
dustries are thriving, new industries are 
cropping forth, foreign trade increases 
yearly, and the general welfare of the 
Formosan people is steadily improving. 



NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY NOTICE 

The Board of Managers of THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY report to the members 
the following proposed changes in the By-Laws of the Society : 

That Section 2. of Article VII of the By-Laws be amended to read as follows : 

''The annual dues of members shall be $2.50, payable in January. 
"This amendment shall be effective as of January i, 1920, but shall not apply to 
members who have paid their dues prior to its adoption." 

That article XII be amended to read as follows : 

"These By-Laws may be amended at any meeting of the Board of Managers by a 
two-thirds vote of the members present ; provided, however, that notice of intention 
to amend said By-Laws has been sent to all members of said Board not less than 
thirty days prior to such meeting." 

A special meeting of the members of the Society is hereby called and will be held on the 
I5th day of March, 1920, at Hubbard Memorial Hall, Washington, D. C., at two o'clock p. m., 
for the purpose of voting on the above amendments. 

By order of the Board of Managers: O. P. AUSTIN, Secretary. 



VOL. XXXVII, No. 4 WASHINGTON 



APRIL, 1920 






PEARY AS A LEADER 

Incidents from the Life of the Discoverer of the North 

Pole Told by One of His Lieutenants on the 

Expedition Which Reached the Goal 

BY DONALD B. MACMILLAN 



/^TARS AND STRIPES nailed to 

W the Pole!" 

k^J Tne accomplishment of that 
which had been declared repeatedly to be 
the impossible, that which our strongest 
nations had striven to do for more than 
three hundred years, at the cost of many 
lives and the expenditure of millions of 
dollars, demanded great leadership. 

What manner of man was this who 
persuaded the polar Eskimos to penetrate 
to the interior of the great ser-mik-suah, 
the abode of evil spirits; induced them 
to leave their homes and journey seven 
hundred miles due north ; to travel out 
over the drift-ice of the Polar Sea so 
far that they declared that they would 
never again see their wives and children? 

What was the secret of that power 
which he possessed over his white men 
that, had he wished, they would have 
followed him through broken ice, would 
have crossed treacherous thin leads, sur- 
mounted pressure ridges, and clung to 
him until the last ounce of food was gone 
and the last dog eaten ? 

We find the key to Rear Admiral Rob- 
ert E. Peary's character in his reply to 
the late ex-President Roosevelt upon the 
presentation of the Hubbard Medal of 
the National Geographic Society upon 
the explorer's return in 1906 from the 



world's record of "Farthest North," when 
he said : 

"The true explorer does his work not 
for any hopes of reward or honor, but 
because the thing which he has set him- 
self to do is a part of his being and must 
be accomplished for the sake of its ac- 
complishment. 

"To me the final and complete solution 
of the polar mystery, which has engaged 
the best thought and interests of some of 
the best men of the most vigorous and 
enlightened nations of the world for 
more than three centuries, and which to- 
day stirs the heart of every man or 
woman whose veins hold red blood, is 
the thing which should be done for the 
honor and credit of this country, the 
thing which it is intended that I should 
do, and the thing that I must do." 

Here we have energy, purpose, de- 
termination, and love of country some 
of the essentials of a great leader, and 
as such we who had the honor of serving 
under him like to think of him, and such 
we know he was. 

DEFYING THE GODS OF THE FROZEN 
SAHARA 

On the 1 5th of July, 1886, far in on 
the back of the great ice-cap of Green- 
land, at an altitude of 7,525 feet, lay two 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Donald B. MacMillan 

A MEMBER OF THE MAC MILLAN EXPEDITION FINDING PEARY'S CABIN AND RECORD 
AT THE NORTHERN END OF AXEL HEIBERG LAND, MAY, 1914 

The Arctic explorer reached this point in June, 1906, on his return from "Farthest North," 
87 6', reached in April of that year (see map, page 297, and text, page 300). 



forms huddled in the snow. For forty- 
eight hours they listened to the sullen 
roar of wind and drifting snow across 
their bodies. 

The jealous gods of that great frozen 
Sahara, guarding its secrets down through 
the ages, were justly alarmed at this in- 
vasion and looked in wonder at these 
pioneers who had the temerity to leave 
the comforts of civilization and flower- 
bedecked slopes of the Warm Greenland 



fiords and advance into the great white 
unknown, with its attendant severity of 
cutting winds and drifting snows. 

These same gods must have laughed 
aloud five years later upon seeing a man 
lashed to a plank and landed upon their 
shores with a broken leg, far up at the 
head of Inglefield Gulf. This American 
explorer would not go home; he would 
do what he came to do! 

And when the ship steamed out through 



PEARY AS A LEADER 



295 



*". 




Photograph by Donald B. MacMillan 

PEARY'S HUT AT CAPE SABINE, FROM WHICH THE EXPLORER MADE HIS DASH TOWARD 

THE POLE IN 1900 

This refuge was formerly the deck-house of the steamship Windward, used by Peary in his, 

1898-1902 Expedition. 



the broken fields of ice and disappeared 
over the southern horizon, these gods 
knew that here in the little tent on the 
beach was a man against whom immedi- 
ate warfare must be declared and their 
strongest forces united (see also p. 319). 

"MAN WAS NOT BORN TO DIE BENEATH 
SUCH A SKY" 

At the first peep of dawn of the long 
Arctic day we find Peary accepting the 



challenge and assembling his forces at 
the edge of the ice-cap. On Independ- 
ence Day the American flag was unfurled 
at Navy Cliff, some six hundred miles to 
the north. 

When, weeks later, he struggles to- 
ward home over that apparently endless 
white waste, with inflamed eyes, frost- 
bitten and sunburnt face, dropping dogs, 
and food nearly gone, he looks up into 
the clear heavens and declares that 



296 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



"man was not born to die beneath such 
a sky." 

Here was belief in self, hope, optimism. 

Six years later, contrary to all Arctic 
precedent, he dared to harness his dogs, 
leave his ship frozen in the ice, and sledge 
northward in the middle of the big Arctic 
night. 

With the thermometer at fifty and 
sixty below zero, not a particle of food 
in his sledges, he groped his way along 
the eastern shores of Ellesmere Land, 
around Cape Baird, and into Lady 
Franklin Bay, searching for the head- 
quarters of the Greely Expedition, aban- 
doned sixteen years before. 

He stumbled through the door with 
both feet frozen to the ankles. Nothing 
could be done here to relieve his suffer- 
ing. Toe after toe sloughed off. Finally 
he was lashed to a sledge and carried 
through the broken ice of bays and in- 
lets and along the ice foot back to his 
ship, two hundred miles to the south. 
And with him, to aid in the amputation 
of the stumps of eight toes, went a can 
of anesthetic, found there in the house 
and brought into the Arctic regions in 
1881. 

Now a cripple? Within thirty-seven 
days following the final amputation he 
was headed north again, equipped with 
crutches ! 

The antagonistic elements of the North- 
land should have submitted meekly and 
bowed humbly, as this plucky litt)e cara- 
van wound its way up through Kennedy 
and Robeson channels with the great 
unknown as its objective point. 

FIGHTING FOR THE; LIVES OF HIS NATIVES 

Two years later we find this intrepid 
man encamped on the bleak shores of 
Cape Sabine, surrounded by his loyal 
Eskimos, patiently perfecting his equip- 
ment and preparing for that hazardous 
trip of eight hundred miles to the top of 
the earth. 

Every attack had been made upon him 
that Torgnak, the evil spirit of the North, 
could devise bitter cold, cutting winds, 
blinding drift, treacherous thin ice, rough 
ice, pressure ridges, crevasses, piblocto 
among his dogs, frost-bitten face, fingers, 
feet, and starvation ; yet his will was 



adamant, his body strong, his purpose 
unshaken. 

And now a new mode of attack to 
thwart his plans, one cunningly devised 
and relentlessly executed deprive him 
of the valuable services of his loyal 
Eskimos! Those were the darkest days 
of Peary's career, fighting not for the 
Pole, but for the lives of his natives, and 
with the same energy and determination 
which characterize all of his work. Six 
mounds of rock within a few yards of 
his wooden shack testify to his losing 
fight. 

THE "ROOSEVELT" BEGINS HER CAREER 

Four years he remained in the North, 
and returned scarred and temporarily 
beaten, but with a knowledge of why he 
was beaten the secret of final success. 
His staunch friends believed in him and 
gathered around him, and in the fall of 
1904 they saw the sturdy Roosevelt be- 
ginning to take shape under the skillful 
hands of Maine shipbuilders. 

With engines throbbing under high 
pressure and smoke belching from her 
funnel, Peary and Bartlett fairly hurled 
this first American-built Polar ship 
around Cape Sheridan and into the Polar 
Sea, farther north than any other ship 
had ever steamed. She had done what 
she was planned to do ; she had justified 
her existence ; and there she lay, on the 
northern shore of Grant Land, panting 
like an athlete at the end of the race. 

The sun dropped below the hills, dark- 
ness crept over the land, and in that great 
white expanse of snow and ice one thing 
alone betokened that man lived in what 
was apparently a world long dead or one 
unfinished by the hand of the Creator a 
warm beam of light from the cabin of 
the ship. 

Long before the sun returned the 
ninety-mile trail to Cape Columbia was 
patted down with the feet of more than 
two hundred dogs. From that point to 
the Pole the course lay straight out over 
the drift-ice of the Polar Sea for 413 
miles. 

"Impossible !" was the word brought 
back to the British Government by the 
British North Pole Expedition of 1875- 
76. Peary never recognized this word in 
connection with his life's work. 



PEARY AS A LEADER 



297 



Paary, arrived April 6, 1SO9 

North * Pole 

ViPeary, left April 7, 19O9 



Continual Day 
March nffo September 23 

\\ 



The inhabUaofeeoaat of Greenland 
is under the juimdhtion of the 

Government^exeept Cape York 
region 



ERIOR is entirely covered 



to W.OUOf 

d its, 924 feet; Peary, 
than a,ooo feet. 




A MAP RECORD OF REAR ADMIRAL PEARY'S 2O YEARS OF POLAR EXPLORATION, 
FINALLY CROWNED WITH SUCCESS APRIL 6, IQCX) 




298 




2Q9 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph from Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary 
AN ESKIMO SEXTET ON THE MAIN DECK OF PEARY'S ARCTIC SHIP "ROOSEVELT" 

"Let there be no doubt as to Peary's popularity in the Far North. Absolutely square 
and honest in all his dealings with these black-haired children of the Arctic, firm but ever just 
and kind in all his relations, he remains to them as the great 'Nalegak,' a leader or chief 
among men" (see text, page 305). 



With the ever-repeated "FJuk! Huk!" 
and the snapping of whips, men, dogs, 
and sledges were swallowed up in the 
rough sea ice. And again silence reigned 
along the shore, along the face of the 
cliff, and in and about the deserted snow 
village. 

PEARY WITHIN 174 MILES OF HIS GOAL 

All went well for a few days, which is 
but a friendly ruse of the Arctic to in- 
spire confidence, and then it happened 
a six-day blizzard, obliterating the trail, 
smashing up the ice of the Polar Sea, 
scattering and destroying caches of food, 
and driving all natives, white men, and 
dogs 60 miles to the east (see map, p. 297) . 

One by one the various divisions strug- 
gled shoreward ; but Peary and his men, 
although knowing that no relief could be 
expected from the rear, that all food sup- 
plies were gone, deliberately turned their 
backs toward home and their faces to- 
ward their objective point and plodded 



on until they stood at the world's record 
of "Farthest North," 174 miles from the 
Pole. 

Weeks later that tired little band 
climbed feebly up over the ice foot on 
the northern coast of Greenland, burned 
their last sledge for fuel, ate one of three 
dogs, and began their long walk back to 
the ship, frozen in the ice at Cape Sher- 
idan. Within two weeks this indomita- 
ble man was heading west along the 
northern shores of Grant Land, in a 
thousand-mile trip to the northern shores 
of Axel Heiberg Island ! 

Such a journey immediately following 
such an experience in the Polar Sea was 
so improbable and apparently impossible 
so late in the year that many were in- 
clined to doubt Peary's claim to have 
reached that distant point. Our finding 
of his record there in 1914* removes all 
doubt as to his achievement. 

* See the records of the Donald B. MacMillan 
Arctic Expedition, 1913-1917. 



PEARY AS A LEADER 



301 




Photograph from Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary 

PEARY'S ARCTIC SHIP "ROOSEVELT" ICE-BOUND IN ROBESON CHANNEL 

The Roosevelt was 184 feet long, 35.5 /feet broad, 16.2 feet deep, with a gross registered 
tonnage of 614 tons. The frames of the hull were of oak; the planking was double, yellow 
pine inside and oak outside. Its engines developed 1,000 horse-power, driving a single eleven- 
foot propeller. In addition, it carried 14 sails, with a sail area somewhat less than that of a 
three-masted coasting schooner of the same size. 



In 1906 Peary arrived in America, re- 
porting that he had failed to reach the 
Pole, but declaring that he would make 
another and last attempt. 

NO MISUNDERSTANDING ON THE PART OF 
PEARY'S ASSOCIATES 

What young man with red blood 
wouldn't follow such a man and spend 
every ounce of his energy to help place 
him at the goal of his ambition? Not 
one who signed his contract in the old 
Grand Union Hotel in New York ex- 
pected to go to the Pole ; not a man went 
north for that purpose. Each wanted to 
do his little and that little his best to 
place Peary there. Such was our admi- 
ration for this great explorer. I write 
this in answer to the oft-repeated state- 
ment that Peary's men were very much 
disappointed in not being permitted to 
accompany their commander to his last 
camp. 



We entered upon this enterprise with 
no misunderstanding. We knew what 
we were facing, for we had followed him 
in our reading for years. We knew that 
this was probably his last attempt, and 
that he might go beyond the limit of 
safety, but, if so, then we all wanted to 
be with him and were eager for the start. 

As we steamed along the Labrador 
coast and out into the ice of Baffin Bay, 
we began to know our commander and 
were drawn strangely toward the man 
whom we recognized as one thoroughly 
versed in ice technique a master of his 
profession. We often recalled the part- 
ing words of President Roosevelt at 
Oyster Bay: "Peary, I believe in you, 
and if it is possible for man to get there. 
I know you'll do it !" 

We all had this same faith in the man, 
and now that we saw him in action, that 
faith was even strengthened. 

Decks were cleared for our battle in 




J=J5 



302 




303 



304 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




THE; ONLY MAN BESIDES ADMIRAL PEARY AND FOUR ESKIMOS WHO STOOD AT THE 

TOP OF THE WORLD 

Matthew Henson, the expert colored assistant, had been with Peary since his second 
expedition to Nicaragua, in 1887, and on all his Arctic expeditions except the first, in 1886. 
The leader considered him the best dog-driver living, except some of the best of the Eskimo 
hunters themselves (see page 310). 



PEARY AS A LEADER 



805 



Melville Bay. Holds were carefully re- 
stored; necessary food and equipment 
made readily accessible ; boats supplied 
with provisions, rifles, and ammunition 
for a retreat following a possible loss of 
our ship, and all without a single order 
from the man who has been called tyrant 
and martinet. To us, his assistants, it 
was always : "I would like to have you 
do this"; "Some time today"; "Tomor- 
row will do," etc. We were amazed, for 
we did not expect such consideration. 
Kindness toward his men was apparent 
at every stage of our voyage. 

Borup was summoned to Peary's cabin 
from the after hold, where he was mis- 
erably seasick but pluckily sticking to his 
job of packing away skins, with now and 
then a dash to the rail. He returned an 
hour later, enthusiastic over his visit and 
over the kindness shown him by the 
leader of the expedition. 

PEARY REVERED BY THE ESKIMOS 

Those happy days of wending our way 
northward in and out between floes and 
icebergs passed all too quickly. Finally 
that day arrived when we passed in under 
the big hills of Meteorite Island and 
heard the glad cry of those Far North 
natives upon beholding "Peary-ark-suah" 
(Big Peary) back again. 

Let there be no doubt as to Peary's 
popularity in the Far North. Absolutely 
honest and square in all his dealings with 
these black-haired children of the Arctic, 
firm but ever just and kind in all his re- 
lations, he remains to them as the great 
"Nalegak," a leader or chief among men. 

We can never forget this reception at 
Cape York kayaks darting about the 
ship, the shouts of his former dog drivers, 
men who had starved with him on the 
Polar Sea, others on the shore standing 
at the water's edge ready to grasp the 
bow of our boat, women laughing, babies 
crying, and half-grown children with that 
look of mingled fear and animal curiosity. 

How happy they were to see him back 
and how eagerly and how impatiently 
they awaited the word to pack their 
world's goods and transfer all to the deck 
of the Roosevelt for the long voyage 
northward. 

And so it was at every village ; the best 
men in the whole tribe awaited his call 



a fact not without significance, in view 
of oft-repeated statements that Peary was 
unkind to his native help. 

INTO THE HEAVY ICE 

Some three weeks later, with decks al- 
most awash and black and fuzzy with 
dogs and Eskimos, the saucy - looking 
Roosevelt swung around Sunrise Point 
and into the heavy ice of Smith Sound, 
her destination the northern shores of 
Grant Land, far up at the edge of the 
Polar Sea. 

Behind us, upon the shores of Foulke 
Fiord, was a reserve of coal and food, to 
which Peary and his men could retreat 
if their ship was crushed. Such wise 
precaution was the result of his years of 
labor in the North and his repeated fail- 
ures. 

The successful negotiation of this last 
dangerous stretch Peary considered as 
the crucial link in the long chain of suc- 
cess. That no opportunity for advance 
should be lost was very evident from his 
almost constant vigil on the bridge, in the 
main rigging, or in the crow's nest. 

Bartlett and Commander were a per- 
fect team ; the former young, intensely 
energetic, courageous ; the latter experi- 
enced, cautious, of excellent judgment, 
constantly advising and holding his cap- 
tain in check. 

No braver man ever trod the quarter- 
deck than Bartlett. I sometimes think 
that Bob would rather lose his ship for 
the pure love of the fight southward in 
the drift-ice or in open boats than sail 
into port with his charge staunch, trim, 
and unscarred. 

FARTHER NORTHWARD THAN ANY OTHER 
SHIP EVER STEAMED 

Together they drove their ship farther 
northward than any other ship ever 
steamed. Boats were ready for immedi- 
ate launching ; food lined the rail ; emer- 
gency bags were packed. 

Once in our winter quarters, Peary 
again displayed his qualities of leadership 
by removing from the ship everything 
absolutely needed for the attainment of 
the Pole and the retreat southward, if the 
vessel should be crushed, carried away by 
the ice, or burned. 

In spite of the loss of the Roosevelt, 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Donald B. MacMillan 
THE WINTER HOME OF THE SMITH SOUND NATIVE, THE ROCK IGLOO 

The sides ar4 banked with sod, the roof is covered with grass and the summer tent, and 
lastly with snow, making a very comfortable habitation. Access is gained by a tunnel, 
some twelve feet in length, which leads to a hole in the floor. The window, which has the 
appearance of a large striped flag hung against the rocks, is made of the intestines of the 
seal or walrus. It is translucent, not transparent. 



the work would have been carried out as 
planned. Even houses were built to shel- 
ter the large contingent of seventy-five 
men, women, and children. 

MEN CONSTANTLY ON THE MOVE 
THROUGHOUT THE WINTER 

With the Arctic night now coming on, 
the problem presented itself of how to 
preserve the health and happiness and 



good spirits until the time of our depar- 
ture out over the ice of the Polar Sea, 
five months later. 

At this stage of the battle many a 
leader has failed because he has not ap- 
preciated the full value of work, and nec- 
essarily out-of-door work, as shown by 
oft-repeated statement in books on the 
Arctic, such as : "No work can be done 
during the darkness of the Arctic win- 



PEARY AS A LEADER 




Photograph by Donald B. MacMillan 
ESKIMO WOMEN AT ETAH CHEWING SKINS 

The one on the left is chewing sealskin out of which she will make a pair of mittens. 
The one on the right is chewing a boot sole in order that she may pass the needle through 
it more readily and that it may be more comfortable to the foot. 



ter" ; "It is positively suicide to sledge 
during the winter," etc. 

Peary laughed at such ideas. His men 
were away with crack of whip and 
laughter and enthusiasm almost as soon 
as our keel touched bottom at the edge 
of the Polar Sea, and they continued to 
come and go throughout the year, far 
into the interior of Grant Land, in quest 
of musk-oxen, caribou, and Arctic hare ; 
for Peary, who never had a single case 
of scurvy on any of his expeditions, 
fully appreciated the value of fresh meat 
as an antiscorbutic. 

Fresh vegetables, acids, and fruits are 
not necessary. This fact we have known 
for at least a half century, having ac- 
quired it from the experience of the 
American whaling captains when winter- 
ing on the shores of Baffin Land and 
Hudson Bay. Scurvy-stricken patients 
were always dispatched by them immedi- 
ately to the igloos of the Eskimos, there 
to be restored to health by consuming 
raw frozen meat. 



These excursions were not merely J :o 
keep us in good health and contentment ; 
every move was directe'd toward the suc- 
cess of the expedition, geographically 
and scientifically. There were no schools 
between decks for the men, as in olden 
days ; no weeks of preparation for farce 
or drama ; no weekly or monthly periodi- 
cal published ; no roped promenade from 
berg to berg; no long hours in bed be- 
tween meals. 

We were either away with our dog 
teams among the mountains of Grant 
Land hunting reindeer, musk-oxen, or 
Arctic hare or were one hundred miles 
up or down the coast, living in snow 
houses, engaged in taking tidal observa- 
tions, or at the ship working upon our 
equipment for the Polar dash. 

If one word was written large upon 
the face of every man and upon the 
walls of every little stateroom in the 
steamship Roosevelt, it was the word 
enthusiasm, which may be translated into 
good leadership ; for we felt our strength 



308 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Donald B. MacMUlan 

AL-NING-WA, AGED TWENTY-TWO, WIFE OE ARKUO, A DOG- 
DRIVER OE THE MAC MILLAN EXPEDITION, 
DRESSED IN BLUE-EOX SKINS 



and our knowledge in Arctic matters in- 
creasing day by day and beheld an equip- 
ment being perfected which we knew 
must win. 

Certain items were so far superior to 
anything yet devised for Arctic work 
that their value, even to a novice, was 
obvious. Such were perfected by Peary 
following years of repeated struggle. 

PEARY DEVISED A NEW ARCTIC STOVE 

Do not forget the great word experi- 
ence. As an illustration, previous to the 
1908 trip the most satisfactory stove for 
Arctic sledge-work was the so-called 



Primus, which con- 
verts cracked ice at 
60 below zero into a 
gallon of tea in about 
20 minutes. Peary 
reasoned that the 
more rapid his stove, 
the more sleep for 
his men at the end of 
the long march. He 
thereupon devised a 
stove which is so eco- 
nomical in fuel con- 
sumption and so quick 
in its action that many 
are almost inclined to 
doubt the fact that 
we had our gallon of 
tea in nine minutes 
from the time that the 
match was applied. 

Our clothing, that 
of the Smith Sound 
Eskimo, could not be 
improved upon. Our 
food was amply suffi- 
cient for the mainte- 
nance of health and 
strength. Our sledges 
were modeled by 
Peary for the rough 
ice of the Polar Sea 
and skillfully fash- 
ioned by our master 
mechanic, Matt Hen- 
son. Our equipment 
was without a doubt 
the most nearly per- 
fect yet devised for 
Polar work. 

Peary's plan for advance and attack 
upon the Pole, based upon his experience 
and failure in 1906, was unique and a 
large factor in his final success. 

From the time when one leaves the 
northern shores of Grant Land or Green- 
land, one must depend wholly upon the 
food on the sledges for sustenance of 
men and dogs. An occasional bear or 
seal might be secured, but such would 
be the exception, as proved by the ex- 
perience of Nansen, Sverdrup, Captain 
Cagni, Peary, and every man who has 
been north of 84. 

To feed Peary and his men until he 



PEARY AS A LEADKR 



309 




Photograph by Donald B. MacMillan 

SHOO-E-GING-WA, A UTTLE ESKIMO GIRL OF ETAH, AGED SEVEN 
The Eskimo puppy-dogs are the common playthings of the Smith Sound children. 



was within striking distance of the Pole 
and selfsupporting for the five hundred 
miles of the return trip was the work 
assigned to the so-called supporting par- 
ties under the command of Henson, Bart- 
lett. Marvin, Borup, Goodsell, and my- 
self. 

Every five days a white man and his 
Eskimos were to return to land with an 
amount of food equal to one-half con- 
sumed in the outward trip, with orders 
to double march, and if held up by open 
water to eat the dogs. The work of this 
division was done ; it was no longer 
needed in a task where one's life might 
depend upon ounces, not pounds ; where 



every additional particle of food is a 
synonym for miles of travel, and where 
the last ounce might mean the last mile 
and success in one's life-work. 

AN INSTANCE OF HEROIC SACRIFICE 

In general, the American people have 
minimized the dangers of travel on the 
Polar Sea and have overestimated the 
narrow margin of safety of even a small 
party five hundred miles from land. 

The presence of one man not absolutely 
needed in the work endangers the lives 
of all, for that man must be fed and must 
receive an equal amount of the last bite. 

Do you remember the brave Gates, of 



310 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Donald B. MacMillan 

AK-KOM-MO-DING-WA EATING MEAT IN THE USUAI, MANNER OF THE SMITH 

SOUND NATIVE 

There are no plates and no forks ; consequently the meat is grasped in the hand, shoved into 

the mouth, and cut off at the lips. 



the Scott starvation party, who, realizing 
that his presence meant the loss of all, 
calmly remarked to his commander, "I 
am going out for a little while; I may. 
not come back" ? 

With the dropping of the tent flap and 
the disappearing of that stumbling frost- 
bitten form into the swirling snows of 
the Antarctic ice-cap, there ended the 
most pathetic and the most heart-stirring 
scene ever enacted upon the stage of 
Polar work. All honor to such a hero ! 

Every white man realized what the 
success of this trip meant to Peary, and 
each man knew that the sooner he re- 
turned to land after he had finished his 
work, the better the chances of Peary 
reaching his goal. 



When we heard the words, "You are 
to go back tomorrow," let me emphasize 
the fact that every man did so cheerfully 
and willingly, knowing that it was for the 
best interests of the expedition. No man 
expected to go at the start and no man 
complained at the finish. 

Peary owed it to himself, to his friends, 
to his country, to rid himself of all en- 
cumbrances, of all superfluous material, 
and strip for action. It was his fight 
now, not ours ; ours only just as long as 
we were needed. 

And the negro ? He was indispensable 
to Peary and of more real value than the 
combined services of all four white men. 
With years of experience equal to that 
of Peary himself, an expert dog-driver. 



PEARY AS A LEADER 



31.1 




Photograph by Donald B. MacMillan 

E-TOOKA-SHOO FINDING, AT CAPE ISABELLA, IN APRIL, IQI/, THE MAIL LEFT BY 
SIR ALLEN YOUNG, OF THE "PANDORA," FOR THE BRITISH 
NORTH POLE EXPEDITION OF 



The packet contained two letters for Captain Nares, of the Alert, and one letter for Captain 

Stephenson, of the Discovery. 



a master mechanic, physically strong, 
most popular with the Eskimos, talking 
the language like a native, clean full of 
grit, he went to the Pole with Peary be- 
cause he was easily the most efficient of 
all Peary's assistants (see page 304). 

UNREASONABLE DOUBT CAUSED BY PEARY'S 
SPEED 

Weeks later the little band of six re- 
turned, clearly revealing the terrible 



strain and anxiety during that rapid 
dash to land over ice fields which threat- 
ened to be rent asunder by the high tides 
of the approaching full moon. In fact, 
the work was too well done, as many a 
doubt as to Peary's achievement was 
based upon the time of his return. 

During the days of that most unfortu- 
nate controversy enough consideration 
was not given by the public to the fol- 
lowing all-important facts: 




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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 






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First. Peary's supporting par- 
ties placed him at nearly the 88th 
parallel. 

Second. The observations at this 
point were taken and signed by 
Captain Bartlett, of the Roosevelt. 

Third. From this point on Peary 
had five well-provisioned sledges, 
five of the best men of 25, 48 o'f 
the best dogs of 250, and only 120 
miles to go. 

Fourth. The trail to land was 
well marked and broken ends knit 
together by the retreat of the vari- 
ous divisions. 

Fifth. All expeditions for a 
half century have double-marched 
and even triple-marched on the 
return trip. 

How often have I heard the as- 
se"rtion that Peary told none of his 
men that he had reached the Pole 
until he learned of Dr. Cook's 
attainment ! Far up on the north- 
ern shores of Grant Land, at the 
edge of the Polar Sea, there stands 
a cairn, Peary's announcement of 
the attainment of his life's work, 
built there twelve weeks before we 
reached civilization. He did not 
forget his men. The names not 
only of his assistants, but of every 
man on board the Roosevelt, are 
written there and placed under 
glass as a protection against the 
weather. 

PEARY DELAYS NEWS OF HIS 

TRIUMPH IN ORDER TO 

HELP ESKIMOS 

Upon our arrival at Etah, sev- 
eral weeks later, Dr. Cook's two 
Eskimo dog drivers, E-took-a- 
shoo and Ah-pellah, came on 
board and told us that in company 
with Cook they had been living 
down in Jones Sound for nearly 
a year, and that at no time had 
they been farther north than a 
spot which they indicated on the 
map close to the northern shores 
of Axel Heiberg Land, distant 
500 miles from the Pole. - 

Naturally eager to steam south- 
ward to proclaim to the world the 
news of his discovery after so 



PEARY AS A LEADER 



315 




Photograph by Donald B. MacMillan 
THE HEAD OF A BULL WALRUS KILLED AT ETAH, GREENLAND 

The Atlantic walrus is not as large as the Pacific, but specimens have been secured in 
Smith Sound weighing 3,000 pounds. On a walrus hunt, which is the most dangerous sport 
in the Arctic regions, the whale-boats are painted white to resemble pieces of ice, and the 
rowlocks are muffled, to enable the hunters to steal upon their quarry without detection. 



many years of hardship, yet Peary felt 
that his first duty was toward his Eski- 
mos, those natives who made it possible 
for him to win out. And there we re- 
mained, killing walrus and supplying 
them with food for the long winter night 
to come, while Cook was wearing roses 
and being feted by kings and queens. 
Peary's attitude upon reaching the 



Labrador coast has been grossly misun- 
derstood. Not only did he not mention 
his rival's name in his first telegrams, but 
expressly requested us to refrain from 
doing so ; and this in view of the fact that 
he knew that an impostor was being pro- 
claimed as the real discoverer. He was 
not, however, to be permitted to retain 
this role of stoic. 




3i6 



PEARY AS A LEADER 



317 



We steamed southward from Indian 
Harbor, and upon our arrival at Battle 
Harbor our Commander was met by a 
flood of telegrams from the press and 
from various geographical and scientific 
societies at home and abroad, all request- 
ing that he give them his honest opinion 
as to Dr. Cook's achievement. 

What should he do? 

At this crucial point in his career the 
average man believes that Peary failed. 
But the average man has not slept with 
his back against a sledge at fifty and sixty 
degrees below zero, with biting winds 
whipping the snow over his body, dead 
tired with the day's work ; has not crossed 
treacherous black ice on snow-shoes ; has 
not staggered back beaten to his little hut, 
followed by one shadow of a dog ; has 
not returned to home, family, and friends 
year after year with the one word failure 
on his lips ; has not in the flush of victory 
seen an impostor bowing to the plaudits 
of the multitude. 

Was his one public telegram in answer 
to urgent requests too severe in condem- 
nation of one whose claims have since 
been discredited by every scientific so- 
ciety in the world : "Dr. Cook has handed 
the people a gold brick. When he claims 
to have discovered the Pole over his own 
signature, I shall have something de- 
cidedly interesting to say" ? 

Peary could have shifted the responsi- 
bility for that answer upon Captain Bart- 
lett or any of his assistants ; but all who 
know Peary know that the thought of 
doing so never entered his mind, as he 
restlessly paced the floor of his little cabin 
in that northern port. 

That bitter controversy is dismissed 
today with "most unfortunate" ! 

As we steamed southward on our last 
lap with this great explorer, we often 
reviewed the year that had gone so 
quickly, and our relations with our 
leader, all so pleasant. 



Ever kind and thoughtful and consid- 
erate of his young and inexperienced 
men, he treated them as a father would 
treat his sons. He helped us lash and 
pack our sledges, untangled and repaired 
our frozen and knotted traces. 

When struggling along far in the rear, 
with refractory dogs and heavy loads, an 
Eskimo would often be detailed to re- 
lieve us of a part of our load and pilot 
us safely across an open lead, and if we 
arrived with frost-bitten face, it was 
often the Commander's warm hand that 
brought the blood back to the surface. 

SOLICITUDE) FOR HIS ASSOCIATES' WELFARE 
ONE OE PEARY'S NOTEWORTHY TRAITS 

I well remember falling through the ice 
at 59 below zero. With sealskin boots 
filled with water and rapidly stiffening 
clothes, I arrived at our encampment of 
snow houses. He beat the ice from my 
bearskin pants, pulled off my boots, and 
wiped my feet and legs with the inside of 
his warm shirt. And when covered with 
blood, a heavy 40-82 bullet having passed 
through my arm, into my shoulder, and 
out through the back, and clipping the 
side of one finger, he remarked : "I would 
much rather had that thing happen to me 
than to you !" 

This does not sound like "martinet" or 
"tyrant" or "unkind to-; his men." His 
last words to Marvin, lost on the return, 
"Be careful of the leads, my boy," is 
characteristic of the man. 

Is it any wonder, then, that we as as- 
sistants, when we heard the blowing of 
the whistles of Sydney, N. S. ; beheld the 
line of craft circling out to escort us into 
the harbor; saw waving flags and docks 
black with people, should be almost sorry 
that he had won out ? 

We knew that never again would we 
have the honor and the pleasure of serv- 
ing under such a leader. 





Photograph by Charles Martin 

PEARY, STEFANSSON, AND GREELY, A TRIUMVIRATE IN POLAR EXPLORATION 

ACHIEVEMENT 

This photograph, made at the Washington headquarters of the National Geographic 
Society in January, 1919, was the last taken of Rear-Admiral Peary, discoverer of the North 
Pole, who stands at the left. In the center is Vilhjalmur Stefansson, who had just been 
awarded The Society's Hubbard Gold Medal for his work in adding 100,000 square miles to 
the mapped Polar regions of the Western Hemisphere. At the right is Major-General A. W. 
Greely, leader of the Greely International Polar Expedition of i88i-'84. 



BY GILBERT GROSVENOR 

PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 



THE struggle for the North Pole 
began nearly one hundred years 
before the landing of the Pilgrim 
Fathers at Plymouth Rock, being inaugu- 
rated (1527) by that king of many dis- 
tinctions, Henry VIII of England. 

Scores of hardy navigators British, 
French, Dutch, German, Scandinavian, 
and Russian followed Davis, all seek- 
ing to hew across the Pole the much- 
coveted short route to China and the In- 
dies. The rivalry was keen and costly in 
lives, ships, and treasures; but from the 
time of Henry VIII for three and one- 
haW centuries, or until 1882 (with the 
exception of 1594-1606, when, through 
"William Barents, the Dutch held the rec- 
ord). Great Britain's flag was always 
waving nearest the top of the globe.* 

Immense treasures of money and lives 
were expended by the nations to explore 
the northern ice world and to attain the 
apex of the earth ; but all efforts to reach 
the Pole had failed, notwithstanding the 
unlimited sacrifice of gold and energy 
and blood which had been poured out 
without stint for nearly four centuries. 

PEARY'S INTEREST IN THE ARCTIC 

AWAKENED IN l886 

A brief summer excursion to Green- 
land in 1886 aroused Robert E. Peary, a 
civil engineer in the United States Navy, 
to an interest in the Polar problem. 
Peary a few years previously had been 
graduated from Bowdoin College second 
in his class a position which means un- 
usual mental vigor in an institution which 
is noted for the fine scholarship and in- 
tellect of its alumni. He realized at once 
that the goal which had eluded so many 
hundreds of ambitious and dauntless men 
could be won only by a new method of 
attack. 

The first Arctic problem with which 
Peary grappled was considered at that 

* In 1882 Lockwood and Brainard, of Greely's 
expedition, won the record of Farthest North 
for the United States, and we held it until 
Nansen's feat of 1896. 



time in importance second only to the 
conquest of the Pole, namely, to deter- 
mine the insularity of Greenland and the 
extent of its projection northward. At 
the very beginning of his first expedition 
to Greenland, in 1891, he suffered an ac- 
cident which sorely taxed his patience as 
well as his body, and which is mentioned 
here as it illustrates the grit and stamina 
of his moral and physical make-up. 

As his ship, the Kite, was working its 
way through the ice fields off the Green- 
land shore, a cake of ice became wedged 
in the rudder, causing the wheel to re- 
verse. One of the spokes jammed Peary's 
leg against the casement, making it im- 
possible to extricate himself until both 
bones of the leg were broken. 

The party urged him to return to the 
United States for the winter and to re- 
sume his exploration the following year ; 
but Peary insisted on being landed, as 
originally planned, at McCormick Bay, 
stating that the money of his friends had 
been invested in the project, and that he 
must "make good" to them. 

The assiduous nursing of Mrs. Peary, 
aided by the bracing air, so speedily re- 
stored his strength that at the ensuing 
Christmas festivities which were ar- 
ranged for the Eskimos he outraced on 
snowshoes all the natives and his own 
men! 

HE ASCENDS THE GREENLAND ICE-CAP 

In the following May, with one com- 
panion, Astrup, he ascended to the sum- 
mit of the great ice-cap which covers the 
interior of Greenland, 5,000 to 8,000 feet 
in elevation, and pushed northward for 
500 miles over a region where the foot 
of man had never trod before, in tem- 
peratures ranging from 10 degrees to 50 
degrees below zero. Imagine his sur- 
prise on descending from the table-land 
to enter a little valley radiant with gor- 
geous flowers and alive with murmur- 
ing bees, where musk-oxen were lazily 
browsing. 

This sledding journey, which he dupli- 



319 



320 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Harris and Ewing 

THE DISCOVERER OF THE NORTH POLE GREETING THE DISCOVERER OE THE SOUTH 
POLE AT A NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY BANQUET 

It was upon this occasion that Rear-Admiral Peary, on behalf of The Society, presented- 
to Captain Roald Amundsen a special gold medal for his Antarctic achievement resulting in 
the attainment of the South Pole. Mrs. Peary at extreme left, Ambassador James Bryce at 
right of Peary, and Ambassador Jusserand at extreme right. 



cated by another equally remarkable, 
crossing of the ice-cap, three years later, 
defined the northern extension of Green- 
land and conclusively proved that it is an 
island instead of a continent extending 
to the Pole. In boldness of conception 
and brilliancy of results, these two cross- 
ings of Greenland are unsurpassed in 
Arctic history. The magnitude of Peary's 
feat is better appreciated when it is re- 
called that Nansen's historic crossing of 
the island was below the Arctic Circle, 
1,000 miles south of Peary's latitude, 
where Greenland is some 250 miles wide. 

HE TURNS HIS ATTENTION TO THE POLE 

Peary now turned his attention to the 
Pole, which lay 396 geographical miles 
farther north than any man had pene- 



trated on the Western Hemisphere. To 
get there by the American route he must 
break a virgin trail every mile north from 
Greely's 83 24'. No one had pioneered 
so great a distance northward. Mark- 
ham and others had attained enduring 
fame by advancing the flag considerably 
less than 100 miles, Parry had pioneered 
150 miles, and Nansen 128 from his ship. 
His experiences in Greenland had con- 
vinced Peary, if possible more firmly than 
before, that the only way of surmounting 
this last and most formidable barrier was 
to adopt the manner of life, the food, the 
snow houses, and the clothing of the 
Eskimos, who by centuries of experience 
had learned the most effective method of 
combating the rigors of Arctic weather; 
to utilize the game of the Northland, the 



PEARY'S EXPLORATIONS IN THE FAR NORTH 



321 



Arctic reindeer, musk-ox, etc., which his 
explorations had proved comparatively 
abundant, thus with fresh meat keeping 
his men fit and good-tempered through 
the depressing winter night ; and, lastly, 
to train the Eskimo to become his sledg- 
ing crew. 

In his first North Polar expedition, 
which lasted for four years, 1898-1902, 
Peary failed to get nearer than 343 miles 
to the Pole. Each successive year dense 
packs of ice blocked the passage to the 
Polar Ocean, compelling him to make his 
base approximately 700 miles from the 
Pole, or 200 miles south of the head- 
quarters of Nares, too great a distance 
from the goal to be overcome in one 
short season. During this trying period, 
by sledging feats which in distance and 
physical obstacles overcome exceeded 
the extraordinary records made in Green- 
land, he explored and mapped thousands 
of miles of coast line of Greenland and 
of the islands west and north of Green- 
land. 

PEARY LED HUNDREDS INTO THE ARCTIC 
WITH ONLY TWO TRAGIC ACCIDENTS 

On the next attempt Peary insured 
reaching the Polar Ocean by designing 
and constructing the Roosevelt, whose 
resistless frame crushed its way to the 
desired haven on the shores of the Polar 
sea. From here he made that wonderful 
march of 1906 to 87 6', a new world's 
record. Winds of unusual fury, by open- 
ing big leads, robbed him of the Pole and 
nearly of his life. 

The last Peary expedition, 1908-1909, 
resulted in the discovery of the Pole and 
of the deep ocean surrounding it. The 
396 miles from Greely's farthest had 
been vanquished as follows: 1900. 30 
miles; 1902, 23 miles; 1906, 169 miles; 
1909, 174 miles. 

No better proof of the minute care 
with which every campaign was prear- 
ranged can be given than the fact that, 
though Peary has taken hundreds of men 
north with him on his various expedi- 
tions, he has brought them all back, and 
in good health, with the exception of 
two, who lost their lives in accidents for 
which the leader was in no wise respon- 
sible. What a contrast this record is to 
the long list of fatalities from disease, 




ADMIRAL PEARY'S PHOTOGRAPH o THE 

NORTH POLE 

The northern axis of the globe is in the midst 
of a vast Polar Sea, and the mound of the 
photograph is a mere mass of snow and ice 
utilized by Peary as a pinnacle for the Amer- 
ican flag which floats at the top. On his re- 
turn journey, five miles from the Pole, the ex- 
plorer came upon a narrow crack in the ice, 
through which he attempted a sounding. The 
length of his apparatus was 9,000 feet, but the 
lead did not strike bottom. So, the depth of 
the sea at the Pole is still undetermined. 

frost, shipwreck, and starvation which in 
the popular mind has made the word 
arctic synonymous Avith tragedy and 
death. 

THE PRIZE OE FOUR CENTURIES IS HIS 
REWARD 

Thus Robert E. Peary crowned a life 
devoted to the exploration of the icy 
North and to the advancement of science 
by the hard-won discovery of the North 
Pole. The prize of four centuries of 
striving yielded at last to the most per- 
sistent and scientific attack ever waged 
against it. Peary's success was made 
possible by long experience, which gave 
him a thorough knowledge of the diffi- 
culties to be overcome, and by an un- 
usual combination of mental and phy- 



322 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



sical power a resourcefulness which en- 
abled him to find a way to surmount all 
obstacles, a tenacity and courage which 
knew no defeat, and a physical endow- 
ment such as Nature gives to few men. 

It has been well said that the glory of 
Peary's achievement belongs to the world 
and is shared by all mankind. But we, 
his fellow-countrymen, who have known 
how he struggled those many years 
against discouragement and scoffing and 
how he persevered under financial bur- 
dens that would have crushed less stal- 
wart shoulders, especially rejoice that he 
"made good at last," and that an Ameri- 
can has become the peer of Hudson, 
Magellan, and Columbus.* 

PEARY'S ASSOCIATION WITH THE NA- 
TIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

Peary's first address to the National 
Geographic Society was in the fall of 
1888, when The Society was only a few 
months old. He then described an ex- 
pedition which he had led across Nica- 
ragua. He was actively associated with 
its. work ever since those early days, 
and on his return from each of his ex- 
peditions to the Far North, his first pub- 



lic address was to the National Geo- 
graphic Society. His last public -appear- 
ance was on the platform of the National 
Geographic Society when in January, 
1919, he introduced Stefansson, who had 
just returned from the Canadian North. 

It was at a National Geographic So- 
ciety meeting in 1907 that he was pre- 
sented the Hubbard Gold Medal of The 
Society by President Roosevelt, and in 
1909 a Special Gold Medal for his dis- 
covery of the North Pole, and later he 
became a member of its Board of Man- 
agers. 

It was my privilege to know Admiral 
Peary intimately for twenty years, and 
I find it difficult to express my admira- 
tion and affection for his personal quali- 
ties, the bigness of his heart and per- 
sonality, his loyal devotion to his friends, 
his generous enthusiasm at real 'accom- 
plishment by others in any field, his 
rugged integrity, and his love for every- 
thing American. 

As long as the National Geographic 
Society lives, its members can take pride 
in the fact that the organization did its 
utmost to help Peary "nail the Stars and 
Stripes to the Pole." 



THE CROW, BIRD CITIZEN OF EVERY LAND 

A Feathered Rogue Who Has Many Fascinating Traits 

and Many Admirable Qualities Despite 

His Marauding Propensities 

BY E.R. KALMBACH 



ASSISTANT BIOLOGIST, U. S. BIOLOGICAL SURVEY 



OUR American crows, with all 
their thousands, comprise but a 
small contingent of the corvine 
hordes that are to be found in one form 
or another in almost every inhabitable 
land. Crows are present throughout a 
large part of the North American Conti- 
nent, the tundras of Siberia, in the thickly 
settled valleys of central Europe, along 
the shores of the Mediterranean, in Af- 
rica, India, China, Japan, throughout 
many of the islands of the Eastern archi- 



pelagoes, as well as on that biologically 
unique continent of Australia. 

South America alone seems to be de- 
void of representatives of that group of 
birds classified as crows and ravens. 

It is true this host is composed of a 
great number of different species, mainly 
black fellows, and frequently with repu- 
tations appropriately associated with such 
a garb ; but, with all its species, this group 
of birds is a wonderfully distinct one. 

These royal rogues, like clannish races 



* The preceding paragraphs are extracted from a brief history of North Polar explorations 
written by Gilbert Grosvenor for the Foreword of Admiral Peary's book, "The North Pole" 
(F. A. Stokes Company). 



THE CROW, BIRD CITIZEN OF EVERY I. A. XI) 



328 



or certain religious sects, have to a re- 
markable degree preserved their odd 
mannerisms through many ages. Their 
bold sagacity and. above all, their ability 
to eke out a living in environments that 
Nature seems to have neglected have 
stood them in good stead in their strug- 
gle for existence. Be it a raven, or jack- 
daw, chough, rook, or crow, its corvine 
attributes are at once recognizable. 

Each of the species has peculiarities all 
its own, but the characteristics that are 
common to all, the family marks of rec- 
ognition, are the ones that readily appeal 
to any one, and have resulted in the crows 
and ravens holding a distinctive place in 
bird lore. 

A SUBJECT FOR POETS, FABULISTS, AND 
MEN OF SCIENCE 

Probably more has been written of 
crows and ravens than any other group of 
birds. From ancient myth and fable to the 
poetry and prose of modern times, litera- 
ture is replete with allusions to them. 

In this article the author will endeavor 
to present, in a way understandable to all, 
some of the principal findings of his in- 
vestigation of the food habits of our 
crows, the full results of which were pub- 
lished as Department Bulletin 621 of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture "The 
Crow and its Relation to Alan." 

The preparation of this bulletin en- 
tailed the examination of the stomachs of 
more than 2,100 crows from all parts of 
the bird's range, supplemented by field 
observations of many able ornithologists 
and practical farmers. A period of about 
five years, with some interruptions, was 
consumed in stomach examinations alone, 
using the best of laboratory equipment, 
including extensive collections of insects, 
crustaceans, mollusks, vertebrates, seeds, 
and other possible food items for com- 
parison, and with the collaboration of 
specialists in the different groups. 

Future days may bring about changes 
in the relative abundance of crows, in the 
character of crops raised, or even in the 
feeding habits of the birds themselves, 
but while present conditions prevail the 
results of this investigation must be 
looked upon as authentic (see page 331). 

To most people a crow is a crow, and 
few realize that within the borders of the 



United States there are no less than nine 
different forms of corvine birds. Three 
of these are ravens and six are crows. 

At least four of the six recognized 
forms of crows present in the United 
States are simply geographical races of 
the one species, the common crow, differ- 
ing chiefly in the dimensions of the wing, 
tail, and bill, and in any treatment of the 
subject outside of the naturalist's cloister 
may well be considered as one. In food 
habits, and hence in economic signifi- 
cance, the members of these four races 
are as much alike as the varying food in 
their respective ranges permits. Another 
form, inhabiting the coastal region from 
Puget Sound to Alaska, is by some au- 
thorities also considered a geographic 
race, but in food habits this bird, the 
northwest crow, is quite distinctive. 

The combined breeding ranges of these 
five races give a distribution to the com- 
mon crow that extends to the North 
nearly to the Arctic Circle, throughout 
northern Manitoba, Ontario, central Que- 
bec, and eastward into Newfoundland. 
It is found all along our Atlantic sea- 
board, well down into the peninsula of 
Florida, and throughout the Mississippi 
Valley, south to the Gulf coast. In the 
West crows are found locally in Califor- 
nia and abundantly in Washington and 
Oregon in diminishing numbers north 
to Alaska. Throughout the Rocky Moun- 
tain area and the arid regions of the 
Southwest they are not common. 

In addition to the widely distributed 
common crow, there is one other form, 
quite distinct from it in food habits and 
economic influence, the fish-crow of the 
South Atlantic and Gulf coasts. While 
something is known of the food prefer- 
ences of this odd maritime species, a full 
appreciation of its economic influence is 
dependent on more extensive laboratory 
and field work. 

CROWS ARE MODEL PARENTS 

The home life of crows is very orderly 
and need hardly be mentioned. As par- 
ents, they are models in the avian world. 
The nest, which is well concealed from 
below during the breeding season, is 
placed at heights varying from 20 to 60 
feet. Here are laid from three to seven 
eggs, which in our Southern States may 



324 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 







Photograph by William L,. Finley and H. T. Bohlman 
THE THEME OF POETS, FABULISTS, AND ME,N OF SCIENCE 

The crow is equally at home throughout the continent of North America, in the tundras 
of Siberia, along the shores of the Mediterranean, in Africa, India, China, Japan, and on 
many of the islands of the Eastern archipelagoes. South America alone knows him not. 



be found as early as the end of February. 
Young crows may be found from the 
middle of March, in the South, to as late 
as July along our northern border. 

The voracious young remain in the nest 
for about three weeks, and even after 
they learn to fly are fed to some extent 
by their parents. Throughout July and 
August crows may be found in family 
parties or in small flocks, living comfort- 
ably on a commendable diet into which 
enters a variety of insects, though the 
annual crop of grain furnishes a portion 
of the subsistence. 

MIGRATION BEGINS IN SEPTEMBER 

By September, however, begins the fall 
migration, and associated with it the es- 
tablishing of crow roosts, by all odds the 
most interesting phenomena connected 
with these birds. 

From September to March of each year 
the migratory habits of these birds bring 
together in two comparatively small areas 
the bulk of the crow population of North 
America. One of these nuclei is located 



east of the Alleghanies, with its center in 
the lower Delaware Valley; the other 
centers about the junction of the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers. The western con- 
centration, however, covers a much larger 
area, and roosts of enormous size may be 
found as far south as Oklahoma. 

In the Far West there is also a con- 
densation of the crow population in the 
winter months, particularly along the 
Columbia River and near the coast, but 
the number of birds involved is in no 
way comparable to the mammoth gath- 
erings farther east. 

While these clannish birds may be 
noted gathering in colonies of as many 
as several hundred in northern localities 
in August and September, it is not until 
about the first of October that the large 
conclaves in the latitude of Washington, 
D. C., begin to take on the aspect of their 
winter popularity. There is considerable 
fluctuation in numbers from day to day, 
and in periods of mild weather a roost 
previously established may wholly dis- 
appear. 



THE CROW, BIRD CITIZEN OF EVERY LAND 



325 




Photograph by William L,. Finley and H. T. Bohlman 
A MOTHER CROW AT THE NEST EDGE 

The nestling crow is one of the most voracious members of the animal kingdom. Most 
of its "growing pains" are in its stomach, and one baby bird consumes from eight to ten 
ounces of food every day (see chart, page 335 ). 



In late January these nightly congre- 
gations reach their greatest size, and by 
the first of March the birds are well on 
the northward journey to their breeding 
grounds. 

REMARKABLE CROW CITIES IN WINTER 

Words fail to describe adequately to 
one who has never witnessed it the 
nightly gathering at a large winter roost 
of crows. I consider such congregations 
the most remarkable ornithological phe- 
nomena that in this day and age can still 
be witnessed in the thickly settled sec- 
tions of our country (see page 328). 

And, strange to relate, an extremely 
small part of the populace realizes the 
significance of those seemingly endless 
streams of black forms passing twice 
daily to and from the roosts, sometimes 
directly over thickly settled metropolitan 
sections. Fewer still have any conception 
of the countless thousands that gather 
at the hub of the converging streams. 
Mention of the numbers estimated at 



several of the better-known roosts may 
give some impression of the immensity 
of these conclaves. 

One of the most notable roosts was that 
formerly located at Arlington, Va., where 
at the height of its occupancy from 150,- 
ooo to 200,000 crows gathered nightly. 

The so-called "Arbutus" roost, near 
Baltimore, Md., contained in 1888 about 
200,000 birds. At about the same time 
one or more roosts in the vicinity of St. 
Louis, Mo., harbored from 70,000 to 
90,000 crows, and the one at Peru, Nebr., 
had from 100,000 to 200,000. Other 
roosts in which it was estimated the in- 
dividuals aggregated more than 100,000 
were formerly located at Hainesport, 
Merchantville, Bridgeboro, and Center- 
ton, N. J., and on Reedy Island, in the 
Delaware River. 

Some of these roosts, or their suc- 
cessors near by, still shelter many thou- 
sands of birds, although I am inclined to 
believe that in the East the crow roosts 
are becoming smaller. But the total num- 



326 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Crow roosts are 
usually located in 
sparsely settled sec- 
tions, but with the 
constant encroach- 
ment of man on virgin 
tracts the bird has 
found it increasingly 
difficult to find its 
former seclusion. 
Even in face of this, 
the crow maintains its 
interesting roosting 
habit, with the result 
that now we may wit- 
ness this phenomenon 
in places readily ac- 
cessible. 

FAMOUS CROW COLO- 
NIES NEAR WASH- 
INGTON 

In the winter of 
1912-1913 several 
thousand crows es- 
tablished a roost 
northwest of Wash- 
ington within a few 
hundred feet of the 
Connecticut Avenue 
Boulevard, where trol- 
ley cars and automo- 
biles passed every few 
minutes throughout 
the night. 

The former location 
of the Woodridge 
ber of these birds appears to be about roost, northeast of the National Capital, 
the same. In the winter of 1910-1911 a was in a small strip of Virginia pines 
roost near Woodridge, D. C., which ap- near the station of Rives, on the Balti- 
pears to have been the successor to the more and Ohio Railroad. The passing 
Arlington roost, was estimated to con- trains caused no end of uproar while the 
tain 270,000, while in 1914 only about clans were assembling, but when dark- 




Photograph by William L. Finley and H. T. Bohlman 
THE DINNER CALL 

Grasshoppers, mice, May beetles, mollusks, frogs, caterpillars, and 
a score of other crow dainties are required to sate the appetite of 
this inordinate young feaster. 



30,000 birds could be accounted for. 



ness came they paid little attention to 



There is evidence that leads one to the noise, 
think that in parts of Oklahoma some The present location of the Woodridge 
of the roosts have increased materially roost, while in a more secluded place than 
within recent years a situation that may formerly, is still readily accessible and 
have been brought about by the increas- forms an important attraction to the bird- 
ing acreage of sorghum in that section, lovers of Washington. Just south of the 
as this grain serves as an admirable Bladensburg road and at a point about 
winter food for these birds. Absolutely one-third of a mile northeast of the 
no credence, however, need be given to Pennsylvania Railroad bridge lies a tract 
reports, which at times have had wide of woodland that extends in a long nar- 
circulation, of roosts totaling "millions row strip to the south. 



of birds." 



At the southern end there is still much 



THE CROW, BIRD CITIZEN OF EVERY LAND 



327 



of the virgin stand left, but throughout 
most of this stretch a more or less muti- 
lated second growth furnishes the nightly 
abode for many thousands of crows. 
Here, thanks to regulations prohibiting 
hunting in this part of the District of 
Columbia, the birds have found a fair 
measure of safety, though at times ad- 
venturous boys or thoughtless adults can- 
not resist the temptation to shoot up the 
roost. 

Time will come when the clearing of 
this land will drive the birds away, but 
until then let us hope the Woodridge 
crows may continue unmolested their 
wonderful winter performance. 

BIRD ASSASSINS RAID THE ROOSTS 

At the roosts, where some conclude 
crows gather for mutual protection from 
enemies, the mortality is often high. 
Here the great horned owl wreaks cruel 
vengeance for the mobbing it receives at 
their hands in daylight hours, and the 
gaunt specter of disease at times stalks 
through their ranks. 

A malady that has been erroneously 
termed roup leaves in its wake a certain 
toll every winter, and, when it appears in 
virulent form, the occupants of large 
roosts may be practically exterminated. 
This disease, affecting the mucous mem- 
branes of the throat and nostrils, also 
causes a whitish, translucent film to form 
over the eyes. Blindness follows, and I 
have seen hapless victims groping along 
the branch upon which they stood, ap- 
parently in a vain search for food. 

Under the rigors of the disease, with 
gradual starvation sapping their strength, 
and with the relentless elements making 
suffering more intense, these unfortu- 
nates may succumb by the thousands in 
the course of a few weeks (see p. 330). 

HOW THE MIGHTY FLOCK ASSEMB'LES 

The assemblage of one of these mighty 
concourses is a sight that will move even 
the least impressionable, and it never 
loses its grandeur by repetition. Scores 
of times have I watched the gathering 
hosts at the Woodridge roost ; but the 
sight is no less appealing today than it 
was on the occasion when I first observed 
it. Essentially the procedure is the same 
from day to day, but, like a crackling 




Photograph from H. M. Stowe 

"A CROWS' ROOST" 

As a pet the crow provides endless enter- 
tainment and not a little worry, for the bird is 
mischievous, ubiquitous, and resourceful, 

fire or the battle of the surf, never be- 
comes monotonous. 

Like a human rabble, these mighty 
flocks always seem to have their moods. 
There are clear days, with the birds fly- 
ing high, when all appear festive bound ; 
there are short days with leaden skies, 
when sullenness pervades ; and there are 
tragic days days with deep snow and 
high winds, when the spirit of grim de- 
termination alone brings back to the roost 
those that the elements have spared. 

The battle for existence in the short 
days of January and February is indeed 
a cruel one for the crow ; and when I 
see it in endless thousands engaged in a 
life-and-death struggle against the ele- 
ments, starvation, disease, and even man 
himself, and it persists in fighting the 
battle on the same lines as its ancestors 



328 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Official photograph U. S. Biological Survey 
ROOSTING CROWS (SEE PAGE 325) 

Few sights in the bird world equal in impressiveness the assem- 
blage of a large crow roost. This photograph was taken after sun- 
down, with an exposure of several minutes, at the Wopdridge roost, 
near Washington, D. C. The air was filled with flying birds, but 
only those that remained stationary for the greater part of the ex- 
posure made a conspicuous photographic impression. 



fought centuries before, that black specter 
ceases to be a mere bird. It becomes the 
embodiment of a courageous spirit, living 
true to a cherished tradition. It is then 
that I admire the bird. 

THE PERSONALITY OF THE CROW 

The old adage, that familarity breeds 
contempt, has no place in a consideration 
of the relation between the crow and 
man. Undue familiarity with crops, wild 
birds, and poultry on the part of the 



crow has resulted in 
opinions regarding it 
that are far from com- 
plimentary ; but I have 
never heard any one, 
even a confirmed ene- 
my of the bird, refer 
to it in words of utter 
contempt. More inti- 
mate acquaintance 
may increase antago- 
nism, but with it 
grows apace a greater 
appreciation of the 
crow's resourceful- 
ness. 

Notwithstanding 
that in the wild state 
it constantly avoids 
close association with 
man, the crow, when 
captured as a nestling, 
readily lends itself to 
domestication and, as 
a pet, reveals many 
fascinating traits. 

I know of no bird 
that will furnish such 
an endless variety of 
entertainment, and, I 
may add, as much 
trouble, as a pet crow. 
They may be taught 
to utter a few words 
of articulate speech, 
but this is frequently 
interspersed with a 
choice assortment of 
ordinary corvine jar- 
gon that at times bor- 
ders on the ridiculous. 
To perfect a crow in 
this respect, continu- 
ous association with 
the bird and infinite patience are neces- 
sary. The splitting of the tongue, so 
frequently recommended, adds nothing to 
the crow's ability as a linguist. 

The intensity of corvine curiosity is 
almost feminine, and, if given a few 
trinkets, a pet crow will find no end of 
amusement. 

Above all, crows are notorious thieves 
and hoarders, and if permitted the free- 
dom of the dooryard will establish numer- 
ous caches of treasure. 



THE CROW, BIRD CITIZEN OF EVERY LAND 



329 



I distinctly recall a 
friend's pet crow that, 
by its confiding na- 
ture, had earned an 
affectionate place in 
the household. The 
bird was always in- 
terested in garden op- 
erations, and when 
work was being done 
in the flower beds was 
sure to be present. 
One summer morning 
found its mistress 
busily engaged in 
weeding an aster bed. 
The refuse had been 
carefully raked into 
neat piles between the 
rows when a telephone 
call took her away for 
a moment, and in the 
brief absence the crow, 
that no doubt had been 
paying some attention 
to the operations, com- 
pleted the job by pull- 
ing up the asters and 
depositing them in 
equally neat piles be- 
side the refuse. 

Another crow, 
whose plant-pulling 
proclivities had been 
developed almost to 
the point of an ob- 
session with respect 
to a certain potted ge- 
ranium, is the subject 
of a story once told 
by Mr. Robert Ridg- 
way, the eminent or- 
nithologist. This crow 




Official photograph U. S. Biological Survey 

THE GAUNT SPECTEJR OF DISEASE AT TIMES STALKS THROUGH 
THE RANKS OF CROW ASSEMBLAGES 

This disease, affecting the mucous membranes of the throat and 
nostrils, also causes a whitish, translucent film to form over the 
eyes. Blindness follows ; then these hapless creatures may be seen 
groping along the branches of trees, apparently in a vain search for 
food (see page 330). 



persisted in removing a particular plant, 
despite all that Mrs. Ridgway could do 
to keep it growing. 

On one occasion the bird was observed 
busily engaged in grubbing for insects 
in the garden. It suddenly ceased its 
diligent search, paused for a moment 
with its head alert, then proceeded, half 
hopping, half flying, through the garden, 
the gate, and up the back stairs, di- 
rectly to the doomed geranium, which 
was straightway pulled up and deposited 
neatly beside the pot. This done, the 



bird returned to its place in the garden 
and continued its methodical search for 
grubs. 

DOG AND CROW, BOON PLAYMATES 

Dr. Ned Dearborn has related an in- 
teresting story of a crow and a farmer's 
dog that grew up together. The dog en- 
joyed chasing sticks and stones, and it 
remained for the observant * crow to 
evolve a plan for mutual amusement. 
The fracas would usually start whenever 
the crow found the dog enjoying a noon- 



330 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Prof. E. H. Eaton 
THE DEATH TOLL OF A SINGLE NIGHT AT A CROW'S ROOST 

In December, 1901, the crows of Ontario County, New York, suffered severely from a 
malady erroneously termed roup. In the illustration are the bodies of 73 dead crows, photo- 
graphed where they fell, in an area about 150 feet in diameter (see page 327). 



day snooze. Finding a stick of con- 
venient size, the bird would approach the 
dog, lay it down within easy reach, and 
then give its canine friend a nip or two 
on the heels. 

As the startled dog awoke, the crow 
would grasp the stick in its bill and, fly- 
ing about four feet from the ground, 
would start across the fields with the dog 
in hot pursuit. This continued until both 
had reached the point of exhaustion ; 
whereupon each would return to its 
respective place of rest, the dog on the 
door-step and the bird on a nearby shed. 

Mr. Nelson Wood, of the U. S. Na- 
tional Museum, who has had extensive 
experience with domesticated crows, sev- 
eral of which developed the power of 
speech to a remarkable degree, tells many 
interesting anecdotes of these birds. One, 
whose cage extended over the top of an 
inclined cellar door, once discovered that 
the cover of a baking-powder can with 
which it had been playing would readily 
slide down this incline. After experi- 



menting with this toy for some time in 
various ways, it accidentally stepped into 
it while at the top of the incline. That 
was enough. Thereafter this avian 
"shoot-the-chute" furnished no end of 
amusement for both bird and spectators. 

A CROW'S REVENGE 

Another pet, whose linguistic powers 
were above the average, would increase 
its range of tone by thrusting its head 
into a tin can and there give vent to its 
thoughts. The activities of this same 
bird form the basis of an incident which 
I hesitate to construe as a manifestation 
of corvine strategy and desire for re- 
venge, but an imaginative mind might so 
interpret the circumstances. It neverthe- 
less makes a good story. 

"Jack" had been severely reprimanded 
and, I believe, punished for alleged of- 
fenses in a neighbor's cabbage patch. 
These cabbages were choice plants a 
fact that even "Jack" seemed to appreci- 
ate after he had been taken to task, as 



THE CROW, BIRD CITIZEN OF EVERY LAXD 



331 



thereafter an overhanging tree was his 
nearest approach to the patch. 

For a week or more the cabbages pros- 
pered wonderfully, but one day, as the 
neighbor was busily engaged in his cellar, 
he heard coming from the patch a "swish, 
swish" that strongly suggested the tear- 
ing of cabbage leaves. On rushing to the 
door he beheld "Jack," flying a few feet 
from the ground and with leisurely wing 
beats traveling up and down the rows. 
Behind him, in mad pursuit and with 
utter disregard for his master's prize cab- 
bages, was the neighbor's own dog. 

Another exasperating trick, but one 
that seems to reveal the crow's love of 
pure devilment, is related by Mr. Wood, 
and I believe the account of a similar in- 
cident has appeared in literature. In 
these cases the crows amused themselves 
by pulling all the clothes-pins off the line 
just after the week's washing had been 
put out. 

THOUSANDS OF BIRDS' STOMACHS MUST BE 
STUDIED 

Two underlying factors make the crow, 
economically speaking, one of our most 
important birds. It is abundant and it is 
large. Birds, on the whole, require a vol- 
ume of food in direct ratio to the size of 
their bodies, and no one has yet advanced 
the theory that crows are modest or re- 
strained when dining. It follows, then, 
that what facts are determined regarding 
the character of the crow's food habits 
must be given more than ordinary con- 
sideration. Even a minor food habit of 
a bird so voracious and numerous as the 
one under discussion may have most im- 
portant influences for good or harm. 

How, then, it is asked, can one know to 
the point of exactness the food prefer- 
ences of the crow? This is a most log- 
ical question. Ornithological literature is 
burdened with generalities regarding the 
food of birds yes, and, I may add, inac- 
curacies copied verbatim from some 
earlier writer, who in turn has simply 
served to pass the word along, so that 
today one can find many of Audubon's 
statements still doing overtime duty. 

No element of disparagement of Au- 
dubon's work, which when published was 
the most exact of its kind, is implied by 
this statement ; but modern necessity de- 



mands, and is rapidly securing, results 
far more accurate than the data secured 
by the field ornithologists of the early 
days. 

The method employed involves exten- 
sive and intensive examination of the 
stomach contents of the birds under in- 
vestigation. In this work the United 
States, through the agency of the U. S. 
Biological Survey, now leads the world. 

Xo one, however, has ever looked upon 
economic ornithology, even in its most 
modern form, as one of the exact sci- 
ences. In dealing with birds we are deal- 
ing with living creatures vivacious, 
whimsical, often erratic creatures that 
sometimes seem never to do the same 
thing twice. But experience has shown 
that the benevolent law of averages, when 
applied even to a series of examined bird 
stomachs, produces results that are so 
close an approximation to the truth that 
the addition of large quantities of ma- 
terial fails to affect appreciably the result. 
Thus the greater the material, the more 
accurate the result. 

In the case of the crow 2,118 stomachs, 
collected in 39 of our States, the District 
of Columbia, and some of the Canadian 
provinces, were available, and of these 
778 were of nestling birds. This is the 
third largest quantity of stomach material 
ever used in the study of the food habits 
of a single species of bird. 

THE CROW ENJOYS A VARIED MENU 

The crow is primarily a terrestrial 
feeder and a most resourceful one. More 
than 625 specifically different items are 
at present known to furnish it sustenance. 
Herein lies the reason that it can survive 
the rigors of winter, and, when the hal- 
cyon days of early summer arrive, it 
knows also how to live and rear its young 
in true avian opulence. And the young, 
let me assure you, never languish for 
want of proper food, either in kind or 
quantity. 

About 28 per cent of the animal food 
of the adult crow is secured from the 
animal kingdom and from fully a dozen 
different groups in that kingdom. In ad- 
dition to such lowly organized creatures 
as earthworms, it secures nourishment 
also from crustaceans, all the common 
orders of insects, spiders, snails, and 



332 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Chart from E. R. Kalmbach 
A GRAPHIC PICTURE OF THE CROW'S FOOD, MONTH BY MONTH 

The relative proportions of the principal food items are shown throughout the yearly 
cycle. The varying width of the bands representing the several items corresponds to the 
quantity of each food taken in successive months. The crow, like most birds, eats that which 
is most abundant and hence easiest to get. May beetles are taken mainly in May and June, 
grasshoppers from July to November, and other insect life is present throughout the warmer 
months. Corn constitutes the largest part of the crow's annual sustenance, but most of this 
is waste grain. The broken line dividing the corn sector separates that which is secured 
from the sprouting crop, in April, May, and June, and the ripening crop, in September, Octo- 
ber, and November, from corn which is evidently waste. 



numerous vertebrates, including fish, am- 
phibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. 

It is in the consumption of certain of 
its animal food items that the crow ren- 
ders man its greatest service, and in feed- 
ing on others has brought upon its head 
condemnation without end. 

In its choice of insect food, which forms 
a little less than a fifth of the yearly sus- 
tenance, the crow leaves little to be de- 
sired. In this portion of the diet are 
found some of the worst pests with which 
the farmer has to contend wireworms, 
cutworms, white grubs, and grasshoppers. 

From the beginning of May until well 
into September, over a third of the crow's 



food is derived from insects alone, and 
were these creatures available the year 
around, the crow would be found doing 
yeoman duty throughout the seasons. 

AN ENVIOUS RECORD IN THE DESTRUCTION 
OF INSECTS 

As an effective enemy of May beetles, 
the parents of the destructive white grub, 
and of grasshoppers, no bird in the east- 
ern United States is the equal of the crow 
in the point of numbers consumed. In 
May the beetles mentioned above consti- 
tute more than a fifth of the food of adult 
crows, while in August and September 
grasshoppers constitute nearly an equal 



THE CROW, BIRD CITIZEN OF EVERY LAND 



333 



portion. Nestling crows also are fed 
large quantities of each of these insects. 

A better idea of the avidity with which 
crows seek and devour such insect prey 
can be gained from the following presen- 
tation : 

Of 197 adult crows collected in the 
month of May in many different States, 
156 had fed to some extent on May bee- 
tles, and in several of the stomachs these 
pests formed more than 90 per cent of 
the contents. 

A brood of three partly grown nestlings 
secured in Wisconsin had been fed on 
nothing else. Another brood of five from 
the District of Columbia had subsisted to 
the extent of nearly three-fourths of their 
food on these insects, an aggregate of 
about 70 individuals being consumed. 

It remained, however, for 12 nestlings 
(three broods) raised in Kansas to carry 
off the honors as destroyers of May bee- 
tles. These 12 birds had at their last 
meal cared for 301 individuals, one tak- 
ing as high as 53. 

As grasshopper destroyers crows do 
even better. One wise old bird from 
southern Indiana had reduced the grass- 
hopper population by 123, but among the 
young crows the laurel must again be be- 
stowed upon the Kansas delegation. The 
most noteworthy work of grasshopper 
destruction by crows of which I have 
knowledge was performed by a half- 
grown brood of four secured at Onaga. 
These birds had consumed 133, 106, 105, 
and 74 respectively a total of 418, or an 
average of about 104 apiece. Another 
nestling had eaten the surprisingly large 
number of 143 ! 

It is noteworthy that these birds were 
all collected in years of normal grasshop- 
per abundance, and what the crows would 
do during periods of grasshopper out- 
break is an interesting subject for con- 
jecture. 

Aside from their war on May beetles 
and grasshoppers, the latter of which 
alone is charged with inflicting damage to 
the crops of American farmers totaling 
$50,000,000 annually, the crow renders 
invaluable service in other directions. 
The cotton-worm, the army-worm, the 
fall army-worm, the tussock moth, the 
spring canker-worm, the tent caterpillar, 
the gypsy and brown-tail moths, and the 



chinch-bug what a rogues' gallery of 
the insect, world! all must attribute a 
part of their struggle for existence to the 
vigilance of the crow. 



HOW MUCH DO CROWS 

Some experiments have been made to 
determine the quantity of insect and other 
food required to sustain a crow. Mr. 
E. A. Samuels has stated that captive 
birds in his possession ate as much as 
eight ounces of animal food daily, while 
Forbush in working on young crows 
found "that when they were fed less than 
eight ounces per day they either did not 
increase in weight or fell off, and it was 
not until each crow was fed ten or more 
ounces that their weight increased." Dr. 
Ned Dearborn informs me that an adult 
crow in his possession ate an average of 
4.83 ounces of animal food in a day. 

Consider for a moment, then, the daily 
grasshopper consumption of a family of 
six crows, two old and four young, lo- 
cated, we will say, at Onaga, Kans., 
where in 1913 crows were found subsist- 
ing on grasshoppers to the extent of 
about 42 per cent of their food. 

Allowing each of the young ten ounces 
of food a day and each of the adults five, 
it would take a daily ration of 50 ounces 
to supply their wants. Interpreting 42 
per cent of this into terms of medium- 
sized grasshoppers, at the rate of about 
87 per ounce, we find that such a corvine 
household under normal conditions would 
destroy over 1,827 of these pests every 
day the young were in the nest, and for 
the entire nestling period of about three 
weeks the surprising total of 38,367 hop- 
pers would have been cared for ! 

AS A PREDACIOUS BIRD 

Bird-lovers generally and sportsmen, 
game-keepers, and poultrymen in par- 
ticular are vitally concerned with the 
crow's relation to other wild or domestic 
birds. There is no question that in part, 
at least, their apprehension, frequently 
expressed, is warranted. While the crea- 
tion of game farms and preserves has 
served to bring this subject to the fore in 
recent years, the predatory habits of the 
crow are by no means recently acquired. 
The egg-stealing and bird-killing crow 
was present under primeval conditions, 



334 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



and today is simply living true to its in- 
herited instincts. 

In the heronries along the out-of-the- 
way watercourses of Louisiana, under 
conditions wholly unaltered by the hand 
of man, I have seen these black marau- 
ders taking their toll ; and again among 
the herons of the lower Santee, in South 
Carolina. 

The anhingas and egrets of central 
Florida, the gulls and other waterfowl 
at Stump Lake, N. Dak., the sharp-tailed 
grouse of Manitoba, and the ducks of 
Saskatchewan are in these years fighting 
the same battles their ancestors fought 
centuries before. Are they fighting a los- 
ing battle, and does all of this mean that 
in the end the crow, not man, shall decree 
which of our birds posterity shall enjoy 
and which are to go? 

Stomach examination in this case lends 
valuable but not complete information. 
The albumen of an egg or the soft body 
of a nestling bird soon disappears under 
the powerful digestive juices, and, even 
with the most careful work, items of this 
kind may be overlooked. The laboratory, 
however, has indicted the egg-stealing 
and bird-killing crow, but at the same 
time it conclusively refutes the exagger- 
ated statements of extremists. 

THE; CROW is NOT OFTEN A CANNIBAL 

Wild birds and their eggs constitute 
only about one-third of i per cent of the 
annual food of the 1,340 adult crows ex- 
amined. This resort to cannibalism oc- 
curred chiefly in the months of May, 
June, and July, the period in which the 
crow has to provide a copious animal diet 
for its young. 

Under normal conditions about \y 2 per 
cent of the food given to nestling crows 
also is secured at the expense of other 
birds. About I in every 28 adult crows 
and i in every u of the nestlings ex- 
amined had partaken of the forbidden 
food. 

Such incriminating evidence cannot be 
turned aside lightly. But there are miti- 
gating circumstances that must be taken 
in consideration. In the first place, most 
of this destruction takes place during the 
nesting season of the crow, sufficiently 
early in the year to permit those species 
that have lost a first setting of eggs to 



lay and incubate a second clutch at a time 
when they will be little molested by the 
crow. 

A goodly portion of the adult birds 
which the crow secures no doubt are 
cripples or weaklings, their elimination 
increasing the virility of the species 
preyed upon. And then, too, it must be 
borne in mind that crows habitually pass 
to each of their nestlings a portion of so 
dainty a meal as another bird's egg or 
young, with the result that, when stom- 
achs are examined, a single act of vandal- 
ism may be recorded in each of four or 
five stomachs. 

Distinction also should be made be- 
tween the common crow and the fish- 
crow, which is notoriously a worse pil- 
ferer of nests. 

In summing up the evidence that has 
come to hand, I am forced to the con- 
clusion that in the vicinity of game farms 
and preserves, where it is the desire to 
foster certain species in an abundance 
greater than that decreed by Nature, the 
crow must be held in check. 

Under natural conditions, game and 
insectivorous birds will hold their own, 
regardless of the crow, if furnished the 
necessary cover and not shot too close. 
Consequently, I doubt the wisdom of ex- 
tensive crow campaigns, conducted with 
the sole object of improving game con- 
ditions over a large area. 

Poultry furnishes about as much food 
for the crow as does wild-bird life; but 
most of this loss can be prevented by 
more careful housing. The shift-for- 
itself method of poultry-raising will al- 
ways pay its toll to crows, hawks, and 
owls. 

Chicken-stealing appears to be largely 
the trait of individual birds, which, by 
reason of the proximity of their nests or 
the accessibility of the poultry yard, have 
been afforded an easy means of getting 
a plentiful supply of nourishing food. 
The killing of one or two engaged in the 
practice will usually put a stop to such 
raids. 

As a ravager of certain other forms 
of animal life, the crow exerts influences, 
some good and some bad. In feeding on 
mollusks and fish, nothing of great eco- 
nomic significance is involved. The frogs, 
salamanders, and toads it consumes are 



THE CROW, BIRD CITIZEN OF EVERY LAND 



335 




From E. R. Kalmbach 



WHAT IT TAKES TO RAISE A CROW 



The nestling crow requires about 10 ounces of food per day, or about 13^5 pounds for its 
nestling life of three weeks. At the end of that time it will weigh about a pound. During 
this period it will have eaten two and a quarter times its own weight of May beetles. The 
grasshoppers it has eaten would, if combined, form a mammoth insect about twice the size of 
the bird. Wild birds and poultry would each form a mass about a fifth of the crow's weight 
and corn about one and one-half times its mass. Here are pictured a fully fledged young 
crow and its principal food items. These include small mammals, spiders, caterpillars, May 
beetles, poultry, wild birds, miscellaneous beetles, carrion, corn, amphibians, crustaceans, and 
grasshoppers. These are all drawn to a scale that approximately represents the aggregate 
mass of the different items consumed during the nestling life, compared with the bird that ate 
them. 



mainly insectivorous, and their loss is to 
be deplored, but in the destruction of 
mice of various kinds the crow serves 
the best interests of the farmer. 

THE CROW IN THE CORN-FIELD 

The crow and the corn crop are in- 
separable. Corn is the crow's staff of 
life, though much of what it takes is 
eaten more from dire necessity than from 



choice. Corn forms over 38 per cent of 
the adult crow's food; but by far the 
largest portion is consumed from the 
middle of November to the end of March, 
a time when there is no sprouting grain 
to be had and when the crop of the year 
should be securely housed. It appears, 
then, that waste grain forms the greater 
portion of the crow's corn diet. 

This fact, however, does not absolve the 



336 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Dr. J. B. Pardoe 

BLACK AND WHITE, A STUDY IN CONTRASTS 

A dog and a crow would seem to be strange playmates, but a student of bird life tells of 
two such comrades who were raised on a farm. The chief sport of the crow consisted in 
laying a stick within easy reach of the dog while the latter slept, then waking him with a nip 
on the heels. Whereupon, the bird would seize the stick and fly across the field with the dog 
in hot pursuit. The chase would continue until both play-fellows were exhausted (see text, 
page 329). 



crow from all blame in connection with 
the damage inflicted on sprouting corn 
or on the harvest before it has been re- 
moved from the fields. It is one case 
where stomach examination is hardly 
necessary; but stomach examination has 
been made and it has convicted the bird. 
The court of last appeal has returned an 
adverse verdict, with, however, a recom- 
mendation for clemency. 

In the Middle West, where fields of 
corn reach to the horizon and beyond, the 
crow is an unimportant factor, though it 
is present in considerable numbers. The 
birds, no doubt, take their toll, but the 
crop is so great that their depredations 
are insignificant. 

In smaller fields for instance, in the 
hilly sections of northern New Jersey 
damage is often severe. But even here 
one can resort to measures that in the 



main will frustrate the crow's intentions. 
That same shrewdness that stands the 
crow in such good stead in its struggle 
for existence may be used by man to ac- 
complish his own ends. No bird detects 
danger and remembers unfortunate ad- 
ventures more readily than the crow.' 
Even the use of coal-tar, with its gassy 
smell, applied to seed grain has brought 
relief from the corn-pulling crow, and 
the killing of a few birds, either by shoot- 
ing or by the use of poisoned grain, will 
usually secure immunity for small fields. 

THE; CROW LEARNS HIS LESSON IN WASH- 
INGTON STATE; 

While poison should be used spar- 
ingly and judiciously, so as not seriously 
to endanger other wild life, there is no 
question of its efficacy against crows. 

This fact was never more forcefully 



THE CROW, BIRD CITIZEN OF EVERY LAND 



337 



demonstrated than during the past sea- 
son, when the crows of Klickitat County, 
Washington, were attempting to repeat 
their annual feast in the groves of green 
almonds at Goodnoe Hills. For several 
years these birds, roosting in thousands 
in the hilly country bordering the Colum- 
bia River, had been growing increasingly 
bold in their sorties. 

The loss to some growers was .100 per 
cent, for when a flock of 10,000 or more 
crows settled in a grove of fifteen acres 
a few hours' feast would strip the trees. 

Scare-crows had availed nothing and 
shooting brought only temporary relief. 
Even sporadic efforts at poisoning, in 
which carcasses and grain had been used 
as bait, failed to serve the purpose. A 
few crows were killed, with the result 
that the rest studiously avoided the car- 
casses and the grain, but kept on eating 
the nuts. 

It was not until some one conceived the 
idea of feeding the marauders poisoned 
almonds that relief was gained. Only a 
few crows were killed by this method, 
but their comrades had witnessed their 
fall. Abject despair seemed to seize the 
mighty host. The flock rose from the 
grove as a monstrous black cloud, and, 
with a deafening roar of protesting 
voices that could be heard for miles, it 
left Goodnoe Hills. Some almond groves 
of the Hills were severely damaged, even 
this year, but in those where a few 
poisoned almonds had been placed crow 
damage had been reduced from a possible 
loo to about 2 per cent. 

A WAR OF CROW EXTERMINATION NOT 
WARRANTED 

Our enormous corn crop has greatly 
simplified the crow's winter task of mak- 
ing a living, as the other vegetable food 
items of the crow constitute by no means 
a highly nutritious assortment. 

The hardened fruits of dogwood, sour- 
gum, greenbrier, smilax, Virginia creeper, 
sumac, poke-weed, a few acorns, and the 
wax-covered seeds of bayberry, poison 
ivy, and poison oak constituted the chief 
sources of food for the North American 
crows in pre-Columbian times. Today 
they still get a portion of their suste- 



nance from these sources, and at their 
winter roosts may be found heavy de- 
posits of the indigestible portions of 
these fruits. 

When all is said and done, one is forced 
to the conclusion that legislation which 
permits the killing of crows whenever 
they are doing damage is necessary. Such 
permission is now granted under the laws 
of all States in which crows are numer- 
ous. 

On the other hand, bounty laws that 
result in the killing of crows in places and 
at times when they may be doing great 
good are reactionary. Only in rare cases 
is it conceivable that drastic control meas- 
ures for the protection of crops are war- 
ranted for areas as large as an average 
State. Misguided efforts that at times 
gain impetus for nation-wide crow cam- 
paigns on the pretext that a near or com- 
plete extermination of the bird would 
benefit the American farmer cannot be 
justified if all the evidence is fairly pre- 
sented. 

THE HUMAN ATTRIBUTES OF THE ROBIN 
HOODS OF THE BIRD WORLD 

Aside from any economic considera- 
tions which are sufficient in themselves, 
the passing of the crow would leave a dis- 
tinct void in our attractive bird life. Its 
crimes are many, but its virtues must not 
be overlooked (see also page 334). 

Who can deny that our Robin Hoods 
and other adventurous spirits have left 
us in the story of their lives, though 
checkered, much that is good and much 
to be admired? The world would have 
been poorer without them. To one whose 
association with the crow has been at all 
intimate, there comes a bit of the same 
feeling. 

There is much of human character 
fear and boldness, affection and hate, in- 
genuity, perseverence, and revenge to be 
found in the life habits of this interesting 
bird. Let those who would actually ex- 
terminate it pause long enough in their 
efforts to learn more of the crow's real 
and potential powers in the control of 
certain pests. Then, and only then, will 
the general attitude toward the bird be- 
come an intelligent one. 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY'S 
NOTABLE YEAR 



NOTABLE advance in usefulness 
and growth in membership have 
marked the history of the Na- 
tional Geographic Society during the 
past year. Its accomplishments in the 
increase and diffusion of geographic 
knowledge are the occasion for cordial 
congratulation of the more than 750,000 
individual members ; it is their faith and 
their support of the organization's aims 
that have heartened and encouraged those 
to whom has been entrusted the direction 
of The Society's activities. 

In recognition of The Society's service 
to geography, and particularly in appre- 
ciation of its grant of funds which saved 
some of the Big Trees of the Sequoia 
National Park, California, from destruc- 
tion at the hands of commercial interests, 
James C. Horgan, of Los Angeles, made 
a bequest during the year of $8,000, the 
income from which is to be used for The 
Society's work. 

THE SOCIETY ADDS TO THE) WORLD'S 
KNOWLEDGE OF VOLCANIC ACTION 

Foremost among the achievements of 
The Society during the past few months 
was the splendid success of the sixth 
expedition dispatched to the region of 
Mount Katmai, the world's largest active 
volcano. There an exhaustive study was 
made of the now famous "Valley of Ten 
Thousand Smokes," discovered by an 
earlier Geographic expedition and recog- 
nized today as perhaps the most remark- 
able natural phenomenon on the face 
of the globe an area where chemists, 
physicists, geologists, and petrographers 
may actually study the processes by 
which the earth has evolved through the 
ages from a seething mass of matter 
into a habitable planet. 

A SPLENDID HARBOR DISCOVERED 

The 1919 expedition, which sailed from 
Seattle eleven months ago and which 
completed its work late in the autumn, 
was equipped at a cost of more than 
$30,000, but the treasure of knowledge 
which it brought back to The Society's 
members and which is to be given to 
the scientific world represents inestimable 
dividends in the form of facts. 



One of the most significant accomplish- 
ments of this expedition was the dis- 
covery of a magnificent harbor, christ- 
ened Geographic Harbor in honor of 
The Society, near the entrance to the 
valley. This find will result inevitably 
in the opening of this region to tourist 
travel, and it requires no prophetic vision 
to see Mount Katmai and its surround- 
ing wonderland, already a national monu- 
ment by presidential proclamation, ele- 
vated in the near future to the impor- 
tance of a national park, in which all 
America may enjoy the marvels of its 
awesome majesty, the beauty of its fairy 
flowerland in summer, the charm of its 
woodlands, and the fascination of its 
wild life. 

The findings of the sixth expedition 
were recorded by both motion picture 
and color photography. The films of 
the former have been shown to the mem- 
bers in the National Capital, and it is 
hoped that arrangements can be made to 
exhibit them to Geographic members 
throughout the United States. The offi- 
cial report of the leader of the expedi- 
tion, Prof. R. F. Griggs, will, as in the 
case of all previous expeditions organized 
by The Society, be told, with a wealth of 
illustrations, in an early number of the 
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE. 

HUBBARD MEDAL AWARDED TO 
STEFANSSON 

Supplementing its own achievements 
in the world of exploration, the National 
Geographic Society saw fit to pay tribute 
to the services of a distinguished ex- 
plorer who has added more than 100,000 
square miles to the mapped area of the 
Western Hemisphere. This explorer, 
Vilhjalmur Stefansson, was awarded the 
Hubbard Gold Medal of The Society, 
and upon that occasion the recipient of 
the honor was introduced to the members 
present by two of the foremost figures 
in the history of Polar exploration 
Rear Admiral Robert E. Peary, dis- 
coverer of the North Pole, and Major- 
General A. W. Greely, leader of the 
Greely International Polar Expedition of 
i88i-'84, and for 14 years holder of the 
record for the Farthest North. 



338 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY'S NOTABLE YEAR 



339 



ADMIRAL PEARY S LAST PUBLIC APPEAR- 
ANCE; 

It was at this meeting of The Society 
that Admiral Peary made his last public 
appearance to pay the following tribute 
to his fellow-explorer: 

"Fellow-members of the National Geo- 
graphic Society: 

"Today we add another to the long list 
of Polar explorers, both north and south, 
whom our Society has welcomed and to 
whom our members have listened with 
absorbing interest. 

"Six years ago, in the parlor of a hotel 
in Rome, I said good-bye to another con- 
fident young friend of mine who was 
starting then for home in order to begin 
one of our latest Polar quests. I met 
him here today for the first time since 
then. How much has happened to him 
in those six years I need not attempt to 
relate. Five and one-half years of those 
six this man has been there in the Arctic 
regions adding to the sum of the world's 
knowledge. Five and one-half years ! 

A NEW TYPE OF EXPLORER COMING 

"It is not my intent to go into a resume 
of his work. He is going to tell you that 
himself, but I can note very briefly that 
within that time Stefansson has added 
more than 100,000 square miles to the 
maps of that region the greatest single 
addition made for years in Arctic regions. 
He has outlined three islands that were 
entirely unknown before, and his obser- 
vations in other directions, the elimina- 
tion of the continental shelf, filling in of 
unknown gaps in the Arctic archipelago, 
and his help in summing up our knowl- 
edge of those regions are in fact invalu- 
able. 

"Stefansson is perhaps the last of the 
old school, the old regime of Arctic and 
Antarctic explorers, the worker with the 
dog and the sledge, among whom he 
easily holds a place in the first rank. 
Coming Polar explorers, both north and 
south, are quite likely to use modern 
means which have sprung into existence 
within the last few years. 

"According to my own personal im- 
pressions aerial flights ; according to 
Stefansson, he would like to try his 



chances with a submarine ; but whether 
it be aeroplane or submarine, it will mean 
the end of the old-time method with the 
dog and the sledge and man trudging 
alongside or behind them. 

"What Stefansson stands for is this: 
he has grasped the meaning of Polar 
work and has pursued his task in the 
Arctic regions section by section. He 
has profited by experience piled upon 
experience until he knows how to face 
and overcome every problem of the 
North. His method of work is to take 
the white man's brains and intelligence 
and the white man's persistence and 
will-power into the Arctic, and sup- 
plement these forces with the wood-craft, 
or, I should say, polar-craft, of the 
Eskimo the ability to live off the land 
itself, the ability to use every one of 
the few possibilities of those frozen 
regions and concentrate on his work. 

"Stefansson has evolved a way to make 
himself absolutely self-sustaining. He 
could have lived in the Arctic fifteen and 
a half years just as easily as five and a 
half years. By combining great natural, 
physical, and mental ability with hard, 
practical, common sense, he has made an 
absolute record. 

"Stefansson has not only fought and 
overcome those ever-present contingen- 
cies of the Arctic region cold and hun- 
ger, wet and starvation, and all that goes 
with them but he has fought and over- 
come sickness first, typhoid ; then pneu- 
monia, and then pleurisy up in those 
forbidding regions, and then has been 
obliged to go by sled four hundred miles 
before finding the shelter of a hospital 
and the care of a physician." 

GENERAL GREELY'S TRIBUTE TO 
STEEANSSON - 

Major General Greely likewise paid a 
memorable tribute to the Hubbard Gold 
Medalist : 

"At this meeting of the members of 
the National Geographic Society to do 
honor to an American explorer, there 
rises in my mind a throng of memories 
of that three years of Arctic service, so 
far buried in the past, when it was ac- 
tion, action, always action, and not, as 
now, the uttering of a word. 

"The Bible tells us that Isaiah saw a 



340 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



word that is, a vision over the Holy 
Land centering in known Jerusalem. 
We, too, had visions which were over the 
vast expanse of the white north, unseen 
by human eye since the dawn of creation. 
Though barren, desolate, unknown, and 
strangely mysterious, it has been a goal 
for the adventurous of all nations. 

"Among such seekers we are honored 
tonight by the presence of two officers of 
the Russian navy, Lieutenants Nikolsky 
and Evgenoff. With Captain Vilkitsky, 
they were the first to navigate from east 
to west the Siberian ocean, from Bering 
Strait to the North Sea. They also gave 
to the world a new Arctic archipelago, 
Nicholas II Land, north of Cape Chely- 
uskin, the promontory that projects far- 
thest into that ice-encumbered sea. They 
were brought near in sympathy and help- 
fulness to the speaker of the evening, for 
they tried, though in vain, defeated by the 
pack, to rescue the survivors of the Kar- 
luk, then marooned on Wrangell Land. 

"We come together especially to wel- 
come back Vilhjalmur Stefansson, whose 
published obituary you have read, but 
who insists with Mark Twain that the 
account of his death has been greatly ex- 
aggerated. However, it told indirectly 
the tale of his dangers and hardships. 

"THE WORLD'S RECORD FOR CONTINUOUS 
POLAR SERVICE" 

"Stefansson has several unique Arctic 
records. His five and a half years is the 
world's record for continuous Polar serv- 
ice. A pioneer in living on the game of 
the region, whether on the ice-covered 
sea or on the northern lands, he also 
initiated distant journeys on the ice-floes 
of an unknown sea, which carried him 
hundreds of miles from the nearest land. 

"The contributions of his expeditions 
are important and extensive. Besides the 
natural history and geologic knowledge, 
he has made inroads into the million 
square miles of unknown Arctic regions, 
the largest for many years. His hydro- 
graphic work is specially important, in 
surveys and in magnetic declinations. 
His numerous soundings not only outline 
the continental shelf from Alaska to 
Prince Patrick Island, but also disclose 
the submarine mountains and valleys of 
the bed of Beaufort Sea. 



"From the unknown regions of Arctic 
land and sea he has withdrawn areas 
amounting to approximately 100,000 
square miles. These discoveries com- 
prise about 65,000 square miles of Beau- 
fort Sea to the north of the Mackenzie 
basin, 10,000 square miles of the Arctic 
Ocean west of Prince Patrick Island, 
over 3,000 square miles along the north- 
east coast of Victoria Island, and over 
15,000 square miles of land and sea to 
the northeast of Prince Patrick Island. 
In the last-named region three large and 
other small islands were discovered be- 
tween latitude 73 degrees and 80.2 de- 
grees north and between longitude 98 de- 
grees west and 115 degrees west. 

"These new islands unquestionably fill 
in the last gap in the hitherto-unknown 
seaward limits of the great Arctic archi- 
pelago to the north of the continent of 
America. 

"The spirit as well as the material re- 
sults of exploration should be recognized. 
Tonight the borderland of the White Sea 
is in the thoughts and hearts of many, 
for there, in the gloom of Arctic twilight, 
and in the cold of a Polar winter, the 
heroic men of this great nation are en- 
during fearful hardships and periling 
their young lives to restore peace and 
give freedom to unfortunate Russia. 

"Recall that in the dawn of that na- 
tion's history, through this sea and the 
port of Archangel only could Russia be 
reached. More than three and a half cen- 
turies ago, the first great maritime expe- 
dition of England sailed to the White 
Sea, and Chancellor's visit had potent 
results in the development of both Eng- 
land and Russia. 

"Of this great voyage Milton said: 'It 
was an enterprise almost heroic were it 
not for gain.' Stefansson's explorations 
are untainted by motives of materialism. 

"WE WHO ARE ABOUT TO DIE SALUTE HIM" 

"In recognition both of the idealistic 
spirit and of the geographic importance 
of the discoveries made by Vilhjalmur 
Stefansson, the Board of Managers of 
the National Geographic Society unani- 
mously direct me to present to him the 
Hubbard Medal. 

"It is to be added that the three sur- 
vivors of the so-called Greely Interna- 




Harris & Ewing 

REAR ADMIRAL JOHN ELLIOTT PILLSBURY, U. S. N., LATE PRESIDENT OF THE 
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY 

The distinguished naval officer and authority on the Gulf Stream, who died December 
30, 1919, had been a member of the National Geographic Society's Board of Managers for 
more than ten years, and had served as its Vice-President from 1915 until his election to the 
Presidency of the organization, April 16, 1919. 

341 



342 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



tional Polar Expedition are too far ad- 
vanced in years again to hazard Polar 
work; but as explorers of the igth cen- 
tury who first wrested from England a 
record held for three hundred years 
that of the farthest north they wish to 
honor the explorer of the 2Oth century 
who surpasses them. 

"Appreciative of Stefansson's endur- 
ance of hardships, recognizing his ability 
in devising new methods, his courage in 
testing such methods, and his standing 
as a typical Arctic explorer, the members 
of the Greely Expedition, who are about 
to die, salute him." * 

EIGHT GEOGRAPHERS AWARDED JANE M. 
SMITH LIFE MEMBERSHIPS 

The Society also recognized the achieve- 
ments of eight other distinguished geog- 
raphers by electing them to life member- 
ship under the terms governing the en- 
dowment fund of $5,000 bequeathed by 
the late Miss Jane M. Smith, of Pitts- 
burgh. The men thus honored were : 

Rear Admiral Joseph Strauss, U. S. N. ; 
E. W. Nelson, Frank G. Carpenter, Prof. 
Robert F. Griggs, Walter T. Swingle, 
O. F. Cook, William H. Holmes, and 
Stephen T. Mather.f 

Reasons underlying the choice of these 
men of science reveal a fascinating story 
of geographic achievement. 

Checking Germany's U-boat warfare 
by the North Sea mine barrage is univer- 
sally accounted to have been a major 
factor in the Allied victory. Preliminary 
to this gigantic task a needful element to 
the success of the operation was a study 
of the geography of the North Sea re- 
gion a study made by Rear Admiral 
Joseph Strauss, who was in command of 
the expeditions that laid and removed the 
mines.J 

*A most interesting article, "The Develop- 
ment of Northern Canada," by Mr. Stefansson, 
will appear in an early number of THE GEO- 
GRAPHIC. 

t Only five other life memberships have been 
awarded previously under the provisions of 
Miss Smith's bequest, those being to Colonel 
Hiram Bingham, Colonel Alfred H. Brooks, 
Dr. William H. Dall, George Kennan, explorer 
and first Secretary of the National Geographic 
Society, and Henry Pittier. 

$ See NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, Feb- 
ruary, 1920, and February, 1919. 



Beside this recent mark of distinction, 
Admiral Strauss already was known for 
his invention of the superposed turret 
system of mounting guns on battleships, 
for his part in the blockade of the Cuban 
coast, for his experimental work in tor- 
pedoes, and for his writings on ordnance 
and ballistics. 

Walter T. Swingle's name is associ- 
ated with the American raising of 
Smyrna figs; for until he introduced the 
insect necessary for fertilization of this 
variety, at Fresno, California, in 1899, 
the imported fig trees grew, but bore no 
fruit. Mr. Swingle has also devised 
numerous improvements to microscopes, 
made agricultural explorations in many 
lands, originated "citranges" by hybridi- 
zation, in Florida, and introduced the 
date palm, pistachio nut, and other plants 
of Mediterranean origin into the United 
States. 

Known to every student of animal life 
is the work of Edward W. Nelson, Chief 
of the U. S. Biological Survey, who has 
contributed notably to the information 
concerning animal life of North America, 
from the time when he conducted pioneer 
scientific explorations in Alaska, forty 
years ago, to his more recent expeditions 
to examine the zoology and botany of 
Mexico. Results of a major line of his 
investigations have been published by the 
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE and 
later by the Society in a volume entitled 
"Wild Animals of North America." 



No less important than the increase 
of geographic knowledge, the National 
Geographic Society has always held, is 
its diffusion, and on this basis, especially, 
recognition was accorded Frank G. Car- 
penter. First as a newspaper corre- 
spondent, later as a travel writer, and 
also as an author of some admirable 
school geographies, Mr. Carpenter has 
stimulated interest in geographic knowl- 
edge and made intelligible to the general 
public a vast amount of informative 
data. 

O. F. Cook was honored for his studies 
of Machu Picchu, the lost city of the 
Incas, which was found by Colonel Hiram 
Bingham, leader of the National Geo- 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY'S NOTABLE YEAR 



343 



graphic Society's Peruvian expeditions. 
In the vicinity of Machu Picchu were 
discovered many remarkable ruins of a 
pre-Columbian civilization, including the 
wonderful hanging gardens, where it is 
thought that great food resource, the 
potato, originated.* 

Prof. Robert F. Griggs was honored 
for service rendered to science while at 
the head of National Geographic Society 
expeditions to Mount Katmai (see page 

338), . 

William Henry Holmes, now Head 
Curator of Anthropology, National Mu- 
seum, has left his impress both in science 
and art. In the former field his original 
work in ethnology, archeology, and geol- 
ogy have valuable geographic significance. 

In recognition of his substantial serv- 
ice in the upbuilding of the national park 
system, of the marked impetus he has 
given to interest in America's natural 
beauties and wonders, and his success in 
making these national play places acces- 
sible, Stephen T. Mather, Director of the 
National Park Service, was elected a 
Jane M. Smith life member. 

THE GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE GOES TO 
75O,OOO HOMES 

Month by month The Society's official 
organ, the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGA- 
ZINE, with a steadily increasing number 
of readers, has been instrumental in 
diffusing geographic information in 75<V 
ooo homes by removing the padlock of 
technicality from the most inclusive of 
all sciences that which "treats of the 
earth and its life, the description of land, 
sea, and air, the distribution of plant and 
animal life, including man and his in- 
dustries, with reference to the mutual 
relations of these diverse elements." 

The Society has a warehouse full of 
map paper, representing an investment 
of $50,000, and as soon as the various 
commissions have defined the new fron- 
tiers of Europe, Asia, and Africa, it is 
the intention of the Magazine to print a 
complete set of maps. 

Two recent numbers have been espe- 
cially noteworthy contributions to knowl- 
edge the Dog Number, with color por- 

* See "Staircase Farms of the Ancients" by 
O. F. Cook, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, 
May, 1916. 



traits of 73 species of man's historic and 
best-loved animal friend, and the Mili- 
tary Insignia Number, of special value 
and interest to the 4,000,000 Americans 
who were in the uniformed service of 
their country during the World War, 
and to their relatives and friends. The 
latter number, superbly illustrated in 
colors, gave an epitomized history of the 
medals, decorations, ribbons, and organi- 
zation shoulder insignia authorized by 
the United States Government, and 
proved an especially valuable sequel to 
The Society's famous Flag Number of 
October, 1917. 

GEOGRAPHIC BULLETINS REACH TWELVE 
MILLION READERS 

Through the columns of more than 
550 of the leading American newspapers, 
The Society's daily Geographic News 
Bulletins are reaching twelve million 
readers. By means of these bulletins, 
which are furnished to the daily press 
without charge, The Society is enabled 
to interpret the historic and geographic 
backgrounds which give significance to 
news dispatches from every corner of 
the globe. 

So important have these bulletins 
proved as an educational force, that 
through the co-operation of the United 
States Department of the Interior, Bu- 
reau of Education, the urgent appeals of 
more than 60.000 school teachers have 
been met and this geographic informa- 
tion, in attractive illustrated form, is 
now being issued weekly for class-room 
use. Thus educators in every State of 
the Union are receiving the assistance of 
The Society in vivifying and vitalizing 
for their pupils the mere names of places 
into communities where human beings 
live and move and have their being. 

A further educational activity inaugu- 
rated by The Society in recent months is 
its PICTORIAL GEOGRAPHY. By means of 
this series of loose-leaf geographic text 
and pictures, the bewildering "dots and 
dashes" of the average map and the tech- 
nical phraseology of physical geography 
are deciphered into mental pictures of 
busy places, living peoples, beautiful 
landscapes. Nature's moods and proc- 
esses, for America's millions of school 
children. 




344 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY'S NOTABLE YEAR 



345 



DEATH REMOVES THREE DISTINGUISHED 
LEADERS 

Unhappily, The Society's most success- 
ful year has been saddened by the death 
of three of its leaders Brigadier-Gen- 
eral John M. Wilson, Rear Admiral 
John E. Pillsbury, and Rear Admiral 
Robert E. Peary. 

General Wilson, who had been a mem- 
ber of The Society's Board of Managers 
for fourteen years, had a distinguished 
military career. He was at one time 
Superintendent of the United States 
Military Academy at West Point, was 
Chief of Engineers of the Army during 
the Spanish-American War, and, to quote 
from the resolutions passed by his col- 
leagues on The Society's Board, follow- 
ing his death, "It is a noteworthy' co- 
incidence that the Washington Monu- 
ment, ideal symbol of the character of 
the first President of the Republic, was 
completed under the direction of General 
Wilson, thus serving as a memorial to an 
officer and public servant of similar in- 
tegrity of character and unselfish service 
to his fellow-men." 

THE LATE PRESIDENT ADMIRAL PILLSBURY 

In the death of Admiral Pillsbury, on 
December 30, 1919, The Society lost its 
President and a distinguished contributor 
to its magazine. As a naval officer he 
served with distinction during the Span- 
ish-American War, being in command of 
the dynamite cruiser Vesuvius at the 
siege of Santiago, but it is on account 
of his notable work in studying the Gulf 
Stream that Admiral Pillsbury's name 
is written largest in the history of his 
country. 

As commander of the Coast Survey 
steamer Blake, he employed a device of 
his own invention to anchor that vessel 
in depths of more than two miles, and 
studied currents there by means of con- 
trivances also of his own making. Thus, 
after seven years of study, he established 
the position of the axis of the Gulf 
Stream and determined many of the laws 
by which its flow is governed. 

A digest of his work in this important 
field of oceanography was written for 
the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 
and published in August, 1912. Admiral 



Pillsbury became a member of The So- 
ciety's Board of Managers in 1909, was 
elected Vice-President in 1915, and be- 
came President April 16, 1919. 

An outline of the career of Rear 
Admiral Peary, the third member of the 
Board of Managers to be removed by 
death within recent months (February 
19, 1920), is given in the preceding pages 
of this number of THE GEOGRAPHIC. 

THE NEW PRESIDENT 

Upon the death of Admiral Pillsbury, 
the Board of Managers of The Society 
elected as his successor to the Presidency 
Gilbert Grosvenor, for twenty-one years 
the Editor of THE GEOGRAPHIC MAGA- 
ZINE and the Director of The Society. 
Under Mr. Grosvenor's direction, the 
membership of The Society has increased 
from 900, in 1899, to more than 750,000. 
Mr. Grosvenor continues as the Editor. 

John Oliver La Gorce, Vice-Director 
of The Society and Associate Editor of 
the magazine, was elected to succeed to 
the place on the Board of Managers left 
vacant by Admiral Pillsbury's death. 

In the history of civilization, there is 
no other instance of a vast cooperative 
educational and scientific association or- 
ganized and developed like the National 
Geographic Society and commanding such 
widespread public support. 

It is not a commercial enterprise but 
an altruistic institution, and the only 
dividend which it pays is the geographic 
knowledge it disburses primarily to all 
its members and secondarily to the world 
at large. 

In The Society's constructive service 
to humanity in a wounded and distrust- 
ful world, its members have cause for 
pride and personal satisfaction. As their 
agency, The Society is one of the most 
effective forces in bringing about a better 
understanding among the nations of the 
world. To millions of Americans, The 
Society's pictures and descriptive articles 
have made foreign races and their lands 
human realities rather than mere dots 
on maps or political boundary lines. 

The Society has grown because it 
ministers to the basic desire of intelligent 
citizens to understand other peoples and 
to know better the earth whence they 
derive their livelihood. 




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BY EVANGELINE BOOTH 

COMMANDER SALVATION ARMY 



FOR more than half a century the 
historic banner of the Salvation 
Army has been raised over the bat- 
tered towers and broken gates of despair- 
ing, wounded humanity, but half of the 
world never knew about it. It took the 
blood and agony of a great war to dem- 
onstrate the fire of a faith which has 
planted its standards in every country on 
the earth. 

"Around the world with the Salvation 
Army" is not a challenge or a prophecy; 
it is an accomplished fact. 

The Army is working in sixty-three 
countries and colonies, preaching the 
gospel in forty languages. Our periodi- 
cals, printed in thirty-nine different lan- 
guages, reach a circulation of 1,184,000 
a week. More than 23,000 officers and 
cadets plan and execute our strategy 
against insidious foes poverty, sin, sick- 
ness, and despair. It was for that we 
were called an army. 

Wherever there is an earthquake, a 
fire, a world war, or any great human 
need, there you will find the Salvation 
Army. It seems quite natural to report 
that more than 105,000 Salvationists 
fought in the different armies on the Al- 
lied fronts. 

So, step by step, the Army is marching 
on. It has crossed lances with Buddha 
and Confucius. Offering ministration to 
the forgotten ones in desolate places, 
Salvation Army lassies and men have 
gone into leper colonies and planted the 
Cross on pagan soil. 

INTENSIVE TRAINING FOR SALVATION 
ARMY OFFICERS 

Few have even a remote idea of the 
extensive training given to all Salvation 
Army officers by our military system of 
education, that covers all the tactics of 
the particular warfare to which they 
have consecrated their lives the service 
of humanity. We have in the Salvation 
Army thirty-nine training schools in 



which our men and women, both for our 
missionary and home fields, receive intel- 
ligent tuition and practical training in the 
minutest details of their service. 

They are trained in the finest and most 
intricate of all the arts, the art of dealing 
ably with human life. 

It is a wonderful art which transfig- 
ures a sheet of cold, gray canvas into a 
throbbing vitality, and on its inanimate 
spread visualizes a living picture. 

It is a wonderful art which takes a 
rugged block of marble, standing upon a 
wooden bench, and cuts out of its un- 
comely crudeness as I saw it done the 
face of my father, \vith its every feature 
illumined with prophetic light, so true to 
life that I felt that to my touch it surely 
must respond. 

But even such arts as these crumble: 
they are as dust under our feet compared 
with that much greater art, the art of 
dealing ably until human life in all its 
varying conditions and phases. 

It is in this art that we seek by a most 
careful culture and training to perfect 
our officers. 

They are trained in those expert meas- 
ures which enable them to handle satis- 
factorily those who cannot handle them- 
selves ; those who have lost their grip on 
things, and who, if unaided, go down 
under the high, rough tides. 

Trained to meet emergencies of every 
character ; to leap into the breach ; to span 
the gulf; to do it without waiting to be 
told how. 

Trained to press at every cost for the 
desired end. 

Trained to obey orders willingly and 
gladly and wholly, not in part. 

Trained to give no quarter to the 
enemy, no matter what the character, nor 
in what form he may present himself. 

Trained in the art of the winsome, at- 
tractive coquetries of the round, brown 
doughnut ! And all her kindred. 



347 




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THE SALVATION ARMY 



351 



Trained, if needs-be, to seal their serv- 
ices with their life blood. 

One of our women officers on being 
told by the colonel of a regiment that 
she would be killed if she persisted in 
serving her doughnuts and cocoa to the 
men while under heavy fire, and that she 
must get back to safety, replied : "Colo- 
nel, we can die with the men, but we 
cannot leave them." 

SEVENTY-ONE: NATIONALITIES UNDER ONE 

BANNER 

By imperial decree the Emperor of 
Japan recently granted an annual fund 
for the work of the Salvation Army in 
his kingdom. India has turned over to 
the Army the management of its great 
criminal tribes and the problems of its 
poor. 

As the work has grown, it has been in- 
creasingly apparent that the faith which 
regenerates men recognizes no barrier of 
nationality or geographical limitation. 
Seventy-one nationalities are now mar- 
shaled under the banner of blood and fire, 
working to destroy old idols of wood and 
stone and turning the temples of the 
gods, after due cleansing, into Christian 
meeting-places. 

The work in India will be forever 
linked with the name of its pioneer com- 
missioner, F. de Latour Booth Tucker. 
Judge Tucker was greatly interested in 
the Salvation Army while in the service 
of the British Crown in India in the early 
days of the movement. There came a 
time when he gladly resigned his govern- 
ment position, with all that it meant to 
him personally in the way of official suc- 
cess, and came into the Army to wear the 
flowing robes of the natives and to ex- 
tend the work in the very heart of the 
continent. 

Salvation Army settlements for crim- 
inal tribes are unique in the annals of 
social work throughout the world. Out 
in the hill country there are entire tribes 
of criminals for which the prevailing 
caste system is largely responsible. They 
marry and intermarry, and their children, 
born outcasts, are doomed to go through 
life branded as criminals. 

For years these Ishmaelites have been 
a source of constant worry to the British 



Government. Finally, in an effort to 
reach a practical solution and meet the 
growing need, the government turned 
over the management of these tribes to 
the Salvation Army. 

Sir John Hewett came to terms with 
General Booth. The British Govern- 
ment agreed to provide the territory and 
the Salvation Army undertook to pro- 
vide the men. The criminal tribes were 
to be brought into a certain territory and 
the Salvationists were to be responsible 
for their regeneration. 

It was Harold Begbie who first re- 
ported the historic meeting of Sir John 
Hewett, then Lieutenant-Governor of the 
United (Indian) Provinces, with my 
father, the late General and founder of 
our organization. 

Sir John had heard of the Army's 
work in salvaging men, and it struck him 
at once that similar methods might be 
successful with the wandering tribes 
which roamed the hills, a menace to the 
people and a vexing political problem. 
He visited General Booth and together 
these two, so unlike in many ways, dis- 
cussed methods of reclaiming men, of 
making them over into useful citizens. 

"YOU CANNOT MAKE A MAN CLEAN BY 
WASHING HIS SHIRT" 

The old patriarch brought to the mind 
of the statesman one of the great funda- 
mental truths of human experience, too 
often neglected by legislators and some- 
times conveniently ignored by the ene- 
mies of religion: 

"You cannot make a man clean by 
washing his shirt," General Booth ex- 
claimed. "If you have a bad man to deal 
with, you must first seek to alter the set 
and current of his soul. I will tell you 
the secret of governing tribes and nations 
of evil-doers. It is religion. 

"Give them religion. If you alter the 
circumstances of a man's life, and set 
him in conditions where his liability to 
vice is small, and where he knows his 
sins will be most surely punished, you 
will not go far, if that is all you have to 
give him. 

"You cannot deal with the body of a 
man when it is his soul that is the cause 
of all the trouble ; that is to encounter 



352 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




HINDU RECRUITS OF THE SALVATION ARMY IN INDIA 

Note the Mohammedan woman, who, despite her adoption of the Christian faith, adheres to 
the practice of her people in shielding her face from the eye of the camera. 




A HOME-MADE SALVATION ARMY BAND IN INDIA 

The Salvation Army workers in the Far East are no respecters of the man-created caste 
system which has blighted oriental life for centuries. 



THE SALVATION ARMY 



353 




ZULU WARDS OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN BRANCH OF THE SALVATION ARMY 

'We look through the exterior, look through the shell, look through the coat, and 

find the man." 




A SALVATION ARMY HOME) FOR NATIVE BOYS IN JAVA 

This organization now has 21,000 commanding officers who voice their doctrine of deeds in 

forty tongues. 



354 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




WITH THE SALVATION ARMY IN JAVA 
The man at the reader's right is wearing the regulation Salvation Army uniform of the 



Javanese branch of this world-wide organization. 



inevitable failure. Only one power is 
known in all the long experience of hu- 
man history by which a bad man can be- 
come a good man, and that power is 
religion." 

Years passed and the work of the Sal- 
vation Army strengthened and grew. 
There was just one way to success, and 
that was to remake men into some sem- 
blance of law-abiding, useful citizens. It 
was the human equation which counted 
and by this test must the work of the 
Salvation Army be gauged in India, as 
elsewhere. 

"Boom marches" constitute a phase of 
the work conducted in India. Groups of 
four or five Salvationists in native dress 
tramp the roads that lead into the in- 
terior. From the roadside in heathen 
villages and towns they proclaim with 
simplicity and force the unsearchable 
riches of Christianity. In careful detail 



to the 



they explain what it all means 
head man of the village tribe. 

Very often the villagers keep the 
marchers with them and ask them for 
songs and music, and very frequently 
they ask for instruction in the Christian 
religion. 

These marchers go far afield, reaching 
out to all classes in India, irrespective of 
the man-created caste system which has 
brought about conditions in the Far East 
not easy to overcome. 

THE SALVATIONISTS AMONG THE CHINESE 

Long before Christian missionaries 
went forth to fulfill the divine behest, 
"Preach the gospel to every creature," 
there existed a Chinese nation, with its 
vast possibilities for happiness and for 
good. Only the Egyptians, the Assyrians, 
and the Jews were their contemporaries. 

Three and a half centuries have passed 



THE SALVATION ARMY 



355 



f 




ORGANIZATION'S HEADQUARTERS IN TOKYO: THE SALVATIONIST'S COUNTRY is 

THE WORLD 

"We recognize our brother in all the families of the earth." 



since Saint Francis Xavier, in his dying 
hour, exclaimed in an agony of despair 
over his supreme discouragement in try- 
ing to evangelize China, "Oh, rock, rock, 
when wilt thou open ?" 

Years have passed since Napoleon, with 
far different motives, looked on the an- 
cient century-defying nation and said, 
"The giant is asleep. Do not awake 
him." 

But now the rock has opened, the giant 
is awake. 

For years these people lay heavily on 
my father's heart. Their needs were con- 
tinually discussed ; they were the founda- 
tion of some of his most burning public 
utterances. He saw them in his dreams 
by night and thought and planned for 
them by day. Somehow I feel he still 
waits and watches for their salvation 
from the battlements of glory. 

Our present General's deep and pas- 
sionate interest in China is well known. 



All during the war the Army's blood-and- 
fire flag was raised beside that of the new 
Chinese Republic, while the work was 
steadily carried on by heroic men and 
women who labored as pioneers. 

A new corps was recently opened in 
Peking. The hall is situated in the north- 
eastern part of the South City, in the 
busiest commercial district. The build- 
ing was formerly used as an old food 
shop. It has been remodeled until it can 
now care for about 250 people. 

A VENTURE OP FAITH 

Beyond the great wall, to the north of 
Tatungfu, lies Fengchen. Back in this 
robber-infested district the Army made 
its first venture of faith into the interior 
of China. No part of the earth is too 
far . removed for the truth to reach it, 
and the Salvationists, unarmed and unes- 
corted, trailed their way into the moun- 
tains to preach to brigands and robbers. 




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358 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




One of the few policewomen 
in China lives at Tatungfu, 
in the northern part of the 
Shansi Province. The Salva- 
tion Army made its first visit 
to Tatungfu a year ago, and 
now the town boasts this very 
progressive guardian of the 
peace, who delights in wear- 
ing a brass badge on her arm 
and in carrying a cane. It is 
her duty to see that small 
girls in the vicinity are not 
subiected to foot-binding. 

Fifteen or twenty young 
girls from a near-by govern- 
ment school recently called 
upon the Salvation Army offi- 
cers, who sang for them and 
tiught them to sing a few 
choruses of simple hymns. 
They were greatly impressed. 
One of the girls admitted that 
she was interested, but she 
had alwavs imagined that God 
loved only foreigners ! 

The territorial leader for 
northern China arrived in 
Peking early in 1918. He 
found 30 officers, who had 
been wrestling with the diffi- 
culties of the Chinese lan- 
guage for nearly a year, able 
to lead meetings and to give 
simple talks which could be 
understood by the people. 
They were eagerly waiting 
their appointments in the 
country of their adoption. 

Very often our officers and 
cadets carry their beds with 
them, as the Chinese do when 
traveling. A thin mattress 
filled with cotton and a small 
coverlet and pillow are rolled 
into a case and carried as lug- 
gage. 

Tientsin, the commercial 
capital of North China, re- 
cently opened three corps, 
with a contingent of nine offi- 
cers, while Chengtingfu, a 
large walled city, and Men 
Lou, in the Shantung Prov- 
ince, have received officers 
and cadets. 



THE SALVATION ARMY 



359 



The War Cry, issued by the Army 
press in China, is as popular over there 
as it is here. A song book has also been 
published containing translations of well- 
known popular Army songs. 

THE ARMY TEACHES THE CHINESE 
TO SING 

According to Western standards, the 
Chinese are not musical, but the Salva- 
tion Army has found a way to teach 
them to sing. A beginning is made by 
teaching songs to the children when a 
congregation does not seem to get the 
idea. Very soon the little ones are heard 
singing the favorite tunes of the Salva- 
tionists in the streets and lanes, and in 
this way they eventually have their elders 
singing with them. 

During the winter of 1918 the Army 
did trencher duty for flood sufferers at 
Tientsin. 

Korea is now receiving assistance from 
Salvationists sent especially for work in 
that country. Last winter rice was very 
high and the poor suffered greatly. The 
Army immediately established a free 
meal department and a station where rice 
and fuel could be purchased cheaply. 

On account of the conversion of men 
who were formerly great drunkards, the 
wine shops in some of the villages of 
Korea lost so much trade that they were 
compelled to move to other places. 

We started our operations in Korea in 
1908. There are now 69 corps and out- 
posts in that country, 106 officers, cadets 
and employees, and 175 local officers. At 
Seoul, in addition to the headquarters, 
there is a training garrison, citadel, and 
a school for girls. 

In the East the translation of Salvation 
Army is "Army to Save the World." 

LENDING A HAND TO THE LEPERS 

It has often been said that the mass of 
men lead lives of quiet desperation ; that 
what is called resignation is in reality 
"confirmed desperation." In its work 
around the world the Salvation Army 
has always thought first of the men who 
go about the day's business lost in the 
hopelessness of confirmed desperation. 

There are men like that in the leper 
colony in Java, men who wait with grim 



certainty for the dark, dreadful, still 
years to pass. We have gone out to help 
them in order that these years may not 
be full of pitiful things. The men and 
lassies who go to these Jeper colonies can 
never come out. 

They lay down their lives for those 
they go out to save. 

Recently I received a report from a 
Salvation Army lassie who has spent 
four years in Java. The institution main- 
tained by the Army at Boegangan cares 
for more than 360 patients, all native 
Javanese. 

One Salvationist has already been smit- 
ten with the dread disease. Only by per- 
sonal report can one visualize the need 
of these people. Last Christmas time we 
received this message from the officer in 
charge : 

"We had a Christmas tree for them 
and they all received presents. Clothing 
was especially needed, as most of them 
have only one set of clothes, and when 
they wash these few rags they must wait 
for them to dry before dressing. Many 
of their clothes are in such a condition 
they are afraid to wash them, for fear 
there will be nothing left to put on. 

"Of course, we have the poorest of the 
poor here at Boegangan ; yet, with it all, 
I love my work." 

When a lassie can face the world with 
such courage as that, in the midst of the 
greatest grief and loneliness human 
hearts can bear, where men live as out- 
casts, alone and forgotten by the world, 
we feel that our efforts are bearing fruit 
of untold value. 

Even the Red Terror and Bolshevism 
could not keep the Salvation Army out 
of Russia. 

Within three months after the open- 
ing of our work twelve outposts were 
established in various cities in Russia and 
several hundred soldiers and recruits, as 
well as thirty officers, were enlisted. 

A training center for officers was 
started, two homes for. refugee women and 
children were established, and a shelter 
for aged women opened. Since then our 
workers have installed five more corps. 

Captain Larson, a Swedish officer, 
working from headquarters in Finland, 
was instrumental in forming the nucleus 



360 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




WAITING AND WATCHING AT THE FRONT 

Two Salvation Army girls standing at the door of their hut ready to cheer and minister to 
the World War soldier, whether wounded, weary, or homesick. 



THE SALVATION ARMY 



361 




DOUGH FOR THE DOUGHBOY 

It was not the Salvation Army doughnuts and pies themselves which won the hearts of 
American soldiers in France, but the spirit of geod cheer with which the Salvation Army 
lassies rendered their every service. 



of the Salvation Army in Russia at the 
time when its very existence was out- 
lawed by the authorities. 

In Petrograd our people are free to 
conduct meetings at the corners of the 
streets and in the parks. 

FACING BOLSHEVISM IN RUSSIA 

Unafraid of flying bullets, the Girl 
with the Tambourine sings and prays in 
the midst of street-fighting in Russia 
today. 

One of our chief difficulties is that of 
traveling. Train service is unspeakable. 
Much of our work has been accomplished 
by traveling in sleighs in the winter time. 
Recently one of the lassies wrote to our 
headquarters in this country that a sleigh- 
driver informed her on one of these trips 
that all town lights must be out at 10.30, 
as that was the time set for the plunder- 
ing to begin. 

Trains so crowded that passengers had 
to cling to car couplings and precarious 



footholds on locomotives were a com- 
mon sight. To spend the night thus, 
traveling in the bitter cold, in addition to 
other dangers, gives one some idea of the 
divine courage which it takes to carry the 
message through Russia during these 
dark days of fear and wild revolution. 

In the early days of the Army in Japan, 
Colonel Gunpei Yamamuro, a native 
Japanese, wrote a book entitled "The 
Common People's Gospel." It was printed 
in native characters and had a phenom- 
enal circulation among the masses, who 
thus learned, in the most direct sort of 
way, the first news of the gospel. 

THE ARMY'S CRUSADE IN JAPAN 

This book simply brought out once 
again the truth of Abraham Lincoln's 
assertion, that the Lord must have had a 
great love for the common people of the 
earth, otherwise He would not have 
created so many of them. 

One of the first important accomplish- 




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THE SALVATION ARMY 



363 



ments in the land of cherry blossoms was 
the definite crusade against prostitution 
in Tokyo. 

In the ultra-conservative Orient, for 
years prostitution had been looked upon 
as a social necessity. When Colonel 
Yamamuro understood what the Army 
had been doing for the protection of 
women all around the world, he decided 
that he would enlist its aid for the women 
of his own country. 

He made a special appeal to the moral 
sense of the community. Then he pre- 
pared a special Rescue Edition of the 
Japanese War Cry and secured its entree 
by thousands of copies into the segre- 
gated districts of the city. In the mean- 
time homes were prepared for girls who 
might wish to change their mode of 
living. 

A BITTER STRUGGLE AGAINST TRADITIONS 
OF THE EAST 

Then began that long and bitter strug- 
gle against the traditions and customs of 
the East; but in the end the Army tri- 
umphed, with the help of the best ele- 
ments in the ancient city. Today what- 
ever of the "social evil" exists in Tokyo 
certainly exists as a voluntary and not a 
compulsory system. 

Many of the prominent men in Japan 
are sponsoring the Army and all that it 
stands for. 

For a period of ten years the Emperor 
has promised annual funds as an im- 
perial contribution to further the work 
of the Army. 

Relief-work was organized by the Sal- 
vation Army in Switzerland and in Italy 
for the benefit of the thousands of ref- 
ugees who fled before the invading Aus- 
trians during the World War. 

Officers were dispatched to Serbia to 
conduct relief-work, and when the Ser- 
bians began streaming into Italy, as early 
as January, 1916, the Army homes were 
crowded to their capacity. In connection 
with other work in the war zone, the 
Army organized to care for interned 
prisoners of war in Holland. This work 
later received special mention by the 
Dutch Government. 

A new field recently entered by the 
Salvation Army is that opened in Portu- 
guese East Africa. 



At Bandoenig, Java, a new children's 
home has just been opened under the 
auspices of the Governor General's wife. 

In connection with the Memorial Train- 
ing College in Sweden, Commissioner 
Ogrim was successful in raising an en- 
dowment fund, to which the King of 
Sweden and Prince Bernadotte were 
among the principal contributors. 

A WORLD CONGRESS OF SALVATION ARMY 
WORKERS 

It was in 1883 that the Salvation Army 
first opened fire in South Africa. Now 
our organization is working in Zambesi, 
Rhodesia, and the desolate island of St. 
Helena. Seven industrial homes for 
women are now in operation in South 
Africa. 

The story of the Salvation Army must 
be told as the history of a world-wide 
organization. Upon its flag the sun never 
goes down. There is a picture in my 
memory which illustrates this in a mar- 
velous way. It is a picture full of won- 
derful color and brings back the gather- 
ing of our last international congress in 
Albert Hall, London. 

There, under one great roof, 14,000 
people were gathered from the ends of 
the earth, dressed as they were when the 
Salvation Army found them. The Zulu 
was there, with his shining brown shoul- 
ders and his loins girded\with the skin 
of some wild beast of the snake-infested 
jungles; there was the yellow-skinned 
Chinaman, \vith the colors of his univer- 
sity, royal blue and dark yellow ; there 
were the glossy-haired East Indians, with 
their scarlet cotton coats and yellow tur- 
bans ; and Maori girls dressed in rainbow 
colors. The East Indians expressed all 
the Anglo-Saxon language they knew in 
the three words, "Salvation Army, halle- 
luiah !" 

DELEGATES IN WHITE FROM JAVA'S LEPER 
COLONY 

In this picturesque gathering there 
were one or two who wore clinging snow- 
white garments. They came from the 
sad little island of Java, where Salvation 
Army men and lassies give their lives to 
help the lepers. 

There were picturesque mountain- 
climbers from the Alps, with their staffs 




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36G 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A SALVATION ARMY JENNY LIND LEADING A STREET MEETING IN A SWEDISH CITY 
No organization believes more strongly in the potency of song than the Salvation Army. 



THE SALVATION ARMY 



367 




A SALVATION ARMY OFFICER OF PERU IN HIS PICTURESQUE UNIFORM 
"Trained to obey orders willingly and gladly and wholly, not in part." 



368 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




MEMBERS OF THE SALVATION ARMY IN SOUTH AMERICA WEAR RESPLENDENT REGALIA 

But their service to their fellow-men is as simple, as earnest, and as self-sacrificing as is 
that of their brother workers in the slums of Shanghai and in the hills of Hindustan. The 
Salvation Army has been picturesquely described as a great empire an empire without a 
frontier, an empire composed of fragments separated by vast stretches of land and immense 
sweeps of sea, but all bound together by the common cause of service to mankind. 



and horns and their yodels, mingling 
their songs with the Germans, French, 
Italians, Scandinavians, South Ameri- 
cans, Canadians, Britishers, and 850 
Americans. 

Delegates were in that hall who came 
from Celebes, Sumatra, Costa Rica, Ar- 
gentina, Cuba, Malta, Uruguay, Panama, 
Chile, Peru, Saint Lucia, Finland, and 
Antigua. 

Out of this great mass of humanity our 
beloved General called to the front six 
little girls from the Criminal Tribes of 



India. They made a pathetic picture, 
with their little feet and legs bare, their 
slender forms wrapped in pieces of yel- 
low cotton. As they stood before that 
vast audience they lifted up their dusky 
little faces and told the reason for it all 
in the song which they sang in broken 
English : 

"Tell it again, tell it again, 

Salvation's story repeat o'er and o'er, 
Till none can say of the children of men, 
Nobody ever has told it before." 




WHEN THE FATHER OF WATERS GOES 
ON A RAMPAGE 

An Account of the Salvaging of Food-fishes from the 
Overflowed Lands of the Mississippi River 

BY HUGH M. SMITH 



UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER OP FISHERIES 



Photographs from the Bureau of Fisheries 



ONE of the most important of the 
varied functions of the United 
States Bureau of Fisheries is a 
mighty effort to undo one of Nature's 
apparent blunders and mitigate the dam- 
age done annually to the prospective food 
supply of the country by a cataclysm in- 
volving untold millions of the best fishes 
in the Mississippi River and its tribu- 
taries. 

This effort, yielding large practical re- 
sults and coming at a period when there 
is most urgent demand for the preven- 
tion of waste and the maintenance of re- 
sources, must be rated as of great public 
importance and as worthy of general 
recognition and support. 

The Father of Waters is a serious 
offender against the host of food and 
game fishes which populate its turbulent 
course, and exhibits marked disregard 
for the welfare of the entire fish tribe. 
Every year, and several times a year, it 
overflows its banks, wanders far from its 
proper haunts, and then subsides, leaving 
behind temporary pools, ponds, and lakes 
in which are myriads of young fishes 
whose destruction is inevitable unless 
human agency comes to their aid. Inas- 
much as these fishes represent a large 
part of the future adult supply of all the 
leading species, their rescue and return 
to the main stream is a matter of the 
utmost importance. 

For many years there has been a reali- 
zation of this stupendous annual waste 
of food-fishes, and steps have been taken 
to repair some of that waste. It was only 
recently, however, that the efforts bore 
an adequate ratio to the magnitude of 
the task, and it was not until 1919 that 
the operations assumed a scope and 



yielded results that could be regarded as 
fairly commensurate with the need. 

The annual freshet in the Mississippi 
River of greatest importance to the fish- 
eries is the one known as the "June rise," 
which usually occurs about the time when 
most of the river fishes are ready to 
spawn. It is somewhat later than the 
freshet caused by the melting snows, but 
is usually of equal volume and represents 
surplus rainfall that is seeking a south- 
ern outlet. 

PREHISTORIC GLACIERS CUT A WIDE 
VALLEY 

In prehistoric times great glaciers, 
moving down from the north, seem to 
have cut a wide, deep valley through the 
upper reaches of the river, and through 
this passage frequent floods have for 
ages brought down and deposited silt and 
drift in such quantities that the main 
channel has been crowded from the cen- 
ter toward one of the precipitous banks 
on either side, while the remainder of 
what formerly constituted the river bed 
is now a low table-land, with a gradual 
ascent toward the hills. 

It would appear that at one time the 
main river flowed unhindered through 
what is now r wooded, lake-covered terri- 
tory, and that great drifts graduallv 
formed and divided the old bed into land- 
locked ponds, many parts of it with the 
lapse of time becoming so completely 
filled in as to provide secure anchorage 
for trees and other vegetation. 

As the river rises it first submerges the 
adjacent lowlands, making ponds and 
lakes on the nearest levels ; with its con- 
tinued rise, lakes are formed at higher 
levels, and so on until the flood stage has 



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WHEN* THE FATHER OF WATERS GOES OX A RAMPAGE 



been reached, when depressions are often 
filled quite remote from the main channel. 

Pursuing their natural instincts, the 
adult fishes at flood time leave the main 
channel and seek quiet back-waters in 
which to deposit their eggs. The eggs 
are laid under conditions that appear to 
be favorable for their development and 
for the hatching and growth of the 
young, and the latter may attain a length 
of several inches before the freshet be- 
gins to subside. With the recession of 
the flood waters, the adults turn their 
noses in the direction of safety and most 
of them ultimately reach the main stream. 
The young, however, fail to react 
promptly to the falling waters, and a very 
large proportion of them sooner or later 
are cut off and become permanently 
landlocked. 

The temporary pools, ponds, lakes, and 
canals left by the subsiding flood waters 
are of various shapes, sizes, and depths. 
Some of them become dry in a few days ; 
others may persist for weeks or months, 
while their water is gradually lost by 
evaporation and seepage ; others, in 
smaller number, continue until winter, 
when they soon become solidly frozen. 

YOUNG FISHES DOOMED TO DIE 

The larger pools that survive the sum- 
mer are often rich feeding grounds for 
the young fish, which grow with such 
amazing rapidity that many of them may 
attain a length of 8 to 10 inches by early 
November. 

In any event, the fish contained in the 
landlocked waters necessarily die. The 
mortality may ensue quickly, as when a 
small pool becomes completely dry in a 
few days, or it may be gradual and long 
drawn .out, as in a pond or lake of some 
acres area. 

The frightful conditions that prevail 
as the water becomes reduced and the 
fishes more and more concentrated can 
well be imagined. The fishes' suffering 
from lack of water and air is usually 
aggravated by starvation, by the daily 
heating of the water by the sun's rays to 
a point that is almost intolerable and 
often fatal, by cannibalism, and by wad- 
ing birds, snakes, turtles, mammals, and 
other fish-eating creatures from which 
there is no escape. The pools that per- 



sist until winter are so shallow that the 
fishes are killed by smothering, even if 
the water does not freeze to the bottom. 

HOW THE FISHES ARE RESCUED 

The work of salvaging food-fishes is 
simple, direct, and effective. It consists 
of netting the fishes from their unfavor- 
able environment and depositing them in 
the open water of the Mississippi, and is 
accomplished by properly equipped res- 
cue parties dispatched to the flooded dis- 
tricts from conveniently located bases or 
headquarters. 

A government fish rescue crew con- 
sists of six to eight men, who employ a 
small launch in going to their field of 
operations and in returning to their base. 
The necessary equipment comprises fine- 
mesh seines of various lengths, small dip- 
nets, galvanized iron washtubs of one- 
and-a-half bushels capacity, tin dippers, 
and a flat-bottom rowboat. 

The seining crews begin their work 
each season as soon as the floods subside 
sufficiently to disclose conditions. The 
active operations, as a rule, begin in July 
and continue in a given section until the 
allotted task is accomplished or the 
waters freeze, usually early in December. 

The size and depth of given waters de- 
termine whether the men shall set their 
seines by wading or from a boat. As the 
net is carefully hauled and bunted, the 
fish are sorted into tubs, then carried as 
soon as practicable to the nearest point 
at which open water may be reached and 
there liberated. 

The cut-off waters are for the most 
part in the bottom lands on both banks, 
usually within a few hundred yards of 
the river. In some sections, however, 
where the surface configuration permits 
a wide lateral dispersal of the flood 
waters, the temporary ponds that demand 
attention may be several miles back. It 
therefore happens that, while under ordi- 
nary circumstances the seining crew can 
easily carry the tubs of fish to the place 
of deposit, sometimes teams and motor 
trucks are employed. 

Some of the landlocked waters are 
veritable lakes in which many seine hauls 
may be required to secure all or most of 
the fishes ; others are so small that they 
may be thoroughly fished with a single 





374 



WHEN THE FATHER OF WATERS GOES ON A RAMPAGE 



375 



haul of a short seine; and others are so 
extensive at the time of the first visit that 
they may properly be left for future at- 
tention when their size shall have become 
reduced to a point where thorough sein- 
ing is possible. 

156,657,000 FOOD-FISHES WERE RESCUED 

LAST SEASON 

It may not appear to be a matter of 
great practical importance to know how 
many fishes of the different species are 
saved in the course of a season's work, 
but it is at least a matter of considerable 
interest to have, such a record for each 
of the various sections of the river and 
for a series of years. Accordingly, the 
seining parties are under orders to make 
a count of the number of each species 
taken from each body of water. 

The counting is done at the time the 
fish are lifted from the seines into the 
tubs with dip-nets. The tubs are half- 
filled with pure water, and fish of given 
sizes and species are counted into the 
tubs until the water level rises to a ring 
six inches below the top. 

Subsequently, actual counting may not 
be necessary, but the number may be de- 
termined with sufficient accuracy by not- 
ing the water displacement. Frequent 
test countings are made in the course of 
the season, and a definite ratio of num- 
ber to bulk is established for each aver- 
age size of fish and each species. 

When the weather is warm or the dis- 
tance to the planting place is consider- 
able, the welfare of the fishes densely 
crowded in the tubs requires that the 
water be kept well aerated. This is ac- 
complished by dipping up a little water 
at a time and letting it fall back from a 
height of several feet, and is always aided 
by the squirming of the mass of fish, 
which keeps the surface water agitated 
and often frothy. Under the care of the 
vigilant and skilled fish men, the mor- 
tality among the rescued waifs while in 
transit is negligible, and when released 
the fish are healthy and active. 

Throughout the entire length of the 
Mississippi River, except where the 
banks are protected by levees or where 
bluffs occur in proximity to the shores, 
the annual floods leave temporary lakes, 



ponds, and pools that contain food-fishes 
whose salvage is demanded. 

The territory covered by the govern- 
ment's rescue operations in 1919 ex- 
tended from Minnesota and Wisconsin 
to Arkansas and Mississippi. The places 
that were headquarters for rescue parties 
were Homer, Minn. ; La Crosse, Wis. ; 
Bellevue and North McGregor, Iowa; 
Quincy and Cairo, 111. : Clarksville and 
Canton, Mo. ; and Friars Point, Miss. 

The record-making efforts in 1919 re- 
sulted in the saving of about 156,657,000 
food-fishes. All parts of the river are 
not equally productive and all sections 
were not covered with the same degree 
of thoroughness. The territory reached 
from the base stations in Minnesota, 
Wisconsin, and Iowa yielded by far the 
largest returns in rescued fishes. There 
the conditions are especially favorable for 
an enormous annual destruction, and .the 
need for salvage work is most pressing. 

All the major and many of the minor 
food-fishes of the river are represented 
on the lists of those saved. Predominat- 
ing in numbers are the staple fishes, 
which support commercial fishing and 
contribute largely to the food supply of 
the region, notably the buffalo-fishes, 
carps, catfishes, pikes, crappies, sunfishes, 
and perches. 

Among the rescued game fishes the 
large-mouth black bass holds an impor- 
tant position, and with it may be classed 
also the crappies, rock bass, white bass, 
and various other excellent fishes which, 
while taken for market, are much sought 
by anglers throughout the Mississippi 
Valley. 

THE FOOD-FISHES SAVED ARE WORTH MIL- 
LIONS OF DOLLARS 

The young fishes that are salvaged and 
replanted in the parent stream are of 
rapid growth. A few of them may at- 
tain marketable size in the year after 
their rescue, and all of them are likely to 
be available for human use in two or 
three years. 

The most critical period in the life of 
fishes is during a few weeks immediately 
after hatching. For most of the fishes 
rescued the principal danger from nat- 
ural enemies and physical catastrophes 



376 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 







CLEANING UP A SMALL POND 

Just as millions of dollars of taxes are made up of the pennies collected on small pur- 
chases of soda water and movie tickets, so 156,657,000 fishes were rescued from landlocked 
ponds, many of them, like this one, little more than puddles after the waters subside. Thrift 
in such little things makes national wealth. 




SEINING A SMALL POOL, POSSIBLY SIXTY FEET WIDE; FOUR MONTHS BEFORE IT 
COVERED ABOUT TWELVE ACRES 

When visited by a rescue party in November the pond had seeped and evaporated until it 
was 14 inches deep, and was easily handled with a 25-foot seine. Ten kinds of fish, aggre- 
gating 150,000, were saved. (See NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE for June, 1916, page 572.) 



WHEN THE FATHER OF WATERS GOES OX A RAMPAGE 



377 






' 




WASHING A MUD-CLOGGED SEINE IN A SHALLOW BAYOU 

Some of the landlocked pools and bayous have soft, muddy bottoms, and when the seine 
is hauled in, fish and mud are mingled in a dense mass. By lifting the lead line and moving 
the seine away from the shore, a gentle rocking motion of the net easily rids the seine of mud 



has passed, the degree of safety depend- 
ing largely on the size attained. 

In the opinion of State and Federal 
fish culturists familiar with conditions in 
the Mississippi Valley and experienced 
in the rearing of the local fishes, at least 
25 per cent of the fishes rescued may be 
expected to survive to a marketable or 
legal size, and will reach an average 
weight of not less than one and a half 
pounds in two or three years. Assuming 
that all the surviving fishes will then be 



caught for market and sold by the fisher- 
men at the prices prevailing for the re- 
spective species in the local markets in 
December, 1919, the fishes salvaged by 
the Bureau in 1919 are estimated to have 
a prospective value of $6,527,000. 

THE COST OE THE WORK IS SURPRISINGLY 
SMALL 

The fish-rescue work, however bene- 
ficial from the standpoint of fish conser- 
vation, would hardly be justified if the 



378 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




SORTING AND COUNTING A SMALL S3INIC HAUL 

It is a matter of interest to know the relative abundance of the different kinds of food- 
fishes in different parts of the Mississippi Valley and to be able to determine the unit cost of 
operations. In 1919 the actual outlay for saving this valuable food supply was about 1/50 of 
a cent per fish. 



expense were disproportionate to the 
value of the results. It is therefore 
proper to note that the unit cost is only 
nominal, and even the total money outlay 
for operations of the magnitude of those 
in 1919 is surprisingly small. 

Five years ago, when this work was 
undertaken on a limited scale and in- 
volved the salvaging of less than 2,500,- 
ooo fishes, the average cost per thousand 
fish saved was $3.18. In 1919, owing 



partly to the magnitude of the operations 
and partly to increased efficiency and 
better organization, the average cost per 
thousand was reduced to less than 20 
cents. The cost in some of the less pro- 
ductive fields, where fixed overhead 
charges were applied to a comparatively 
small output, was somewhat higher, but 
75 to 80 per cent of the fish were rescued 
and replanted at a cost of only 13 cents 
per thousand. 



WHEN THE FATHER OF WATERS GOES ON A RAMPAGE 



379 




PLANTING RESCUED FISHES IN THE RIVER 

At least one-fourth of the fishes rescued may be expected to survive to a marketable or 
legal size, and will reach an average weight of not less than one and a half pounds in two 
or three years. 




IN A MISSISSIPPI RIVER JUNGLE 

A government fishing crew going through a dense section of Mississippi River bottom 
land with their tubs full of rescued fishes, to be planted as soon as the river is reached. 
Only six of these rescued fish in a thousand are planted outside of the Mississippi basin. 



380 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



^dKUKV*! v 

V^!3fc>t ' : 




A SEINING CREW ON THE MARCH 

The party is proceeding in late autumn between two isolated lakes in a wooded bottom 
In summer the small ditch was full of water and the lakes were connected with the river. 
The crew is here seen hauling a small boat from one lake to another. 



Throughout the Mississippi Valley 
in the States of Minnesota, Iowa, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Missouri, Arkansas, 
and Mississippi as well as in various 
other States, there are Federal establish- 
ments known as pond-culture stations, at 
which are reared some of the same fishes 
that are rescued in the salvage operations 
along the river, the principal species 
handled being the black basses, crappies, 
sunfishes, and catfishes. 



The peculiarity which distinguishes 
these stations from the ordinary hatch- 
eries is that the ripe eggs are not taken 
"from the fishes by the fish-culturist, as in 
the case of trout, salmon, whitefish, shad, 
etc., but the fishes are allowed to spawn 
naturally. 

Most of the pond fishes make nests 
and guard their eggs and young. It is 
therefore usually the case at these sta- 
tions that a relatively large proportion 



WHEN THE FATHER OF WATERS GOES ON A RAMPAGE 



381 




RETAINING STATION AT LA CROSSE, WISCONSIN 



At this little adjunct of the rescue work, on the Mississippi River in southwestern Wis- 
consin, 150,000 salvaged fishes may be held for hardening, pending shipment to interior waters. 
When first rescued from landlocked waters the young fish cannot undergo the strain of a 
long railway journey. 



of the progeny of a given pair of fishes 
is reared to a stage where the young are 
able to take fairly good care of them- 
selves, although the actual number pro- 
duced is small. 

The results of the operation of pond 
stations are of interest because of their 
bearing on the value of the rescue work. 
It may therefore be noted that the com- 
mon practice among both Federal and 
State fish-culturists is to distribute pond 
fishes after they have been reared to a 
"fingerling" size. A fingerling is less 
than one year old, and may be from one 
to six inches long when planted. 

The average length of the pond fishes 
sent out from the nurseries is two to 
three inches. A government pond sta- 
tion may produce, rear, and plant from 
250,000 to 1,000,000 such fishes in a sea- 
son, and the combined output of six 
typical stations in 1919 may be placed at 
2,725,000 a cost of $5.50 per thousand. 

From these figures it appears that the 
number of fishes rescued in 1919, if they 
had been produced and reared in the 
ordinary way at established plants, would 
have required 345 pond stations and the 
actual cost of production would have 



been about $860,000. To this sum, how- 
ever, should be added the year's cost of 
the regular station staffs and general 
charges for maintenance, which would 
have been over $2,000,000. 

There should also be taken into con- 
sideration the initial cost of construction 
of the pond stations, estimated at not 
less than $12,000,000. Against these 
large hypothetical charges is to be placed 
the actual aggregate cost of the salvage 
operations in 1919, namely, $31,000. 

THE PEARL BUTTON INDUSTRY EMPLOYS 
2O,OOO PEOPLE 

The perpetuation of the fish supply in 
the Mississippi and its tributaries in- 
volves a very important industry besides 
fishing. Investigations conducted for the 
Bureau of Fisheries years ago showed an 
intimate relation between certain kinds 
of fishes and the mussels, which yield 
valuable pearls and support a pearl-but- 
ton industry which gives employment to 
about 20,000 persons and has a product 
worth from $5,000,000 to $6,000,000 an- 
nually. 

The young mussels, of microscopic 
size when thrown off by their parents in 




382 



WHEN THE FATHER OF WATERS GOES ON A RAMPAGE 



383 



myriads, need to pass the first few weeks 
of their independent existence on the 
gills of fishes. If the fishes are not pres- 
ent at the proper time, the mussels can- 
not survive. Furthermore and this is 
a most interesting feature of the co-rela- 
tion of fishes and mussels the young of 
particular kinds of mussels require the 
gills of particular kinds of fishes as 
nurseries. 

The black bass is host for several sorts 
of mussels, the crappies for several 
others, the catfishes for others. The 
skip-jack, a kind of herring, is the only 
known host for the best of all mussels; 
and as this fish is not by any means abun- 
dant, its maintenance is of prime impor- 
tance to the welfare of the button indus- 
try. In 1919 more than one and a half 
million skip- jacks were rescued. 

AN IMPROVEMENT ON NATURE 

The peculiar requirements of the 
young mussels having been carefully de- 
termined, the Bureau of Fisheries has 
gone extensively into the business of arti- 
ficial propagation of pearly mussels by a 
method which is a vast improvement on 
nature. The spawning mussels, held in 
ponds, are at the critical period provided 
with the special fishes needed for the at- 
tachment of the young. The fishes ob- 
tained in the rescue operations are turned 
into the ponds at the time the mussels 
are spawning and become thickly inocu- 
lated. They are then liberated in the 
open water and distribute themselves and 
the mussels throughout a wide stretch 
of river. Thus two important branches 
of the Bureau's work go hand in hand. 

The artificial propagation of fresh- 
water mussels is one of the functions of 
the United States Fisheries Biological 
Laboratory located on the Mississippi 
River near Fairport, Iowa. Each year 
from 200,000,000 to 300,000,000 young 
mussels are thus brought in contact with 
the gills of rescued fishes and given a 
proper start in life. The maintenance 
of the mussel supply is thus being greatly 
aided. 

That this work is not a mere experi- 
ment, but is yielding practical results, is 
shown by various pieces of evidence. For 
instance, pearl buttons have been made 
from Mississippi River mussels grown 



from larvae that had been artificially im- 
planted on the gills of a black bass less 
than two years before and had been 
under constant observation. These mus- 
sels would have attained full commercial 
size at the age of four and a half years. 

DISTRIBUTION OF FISHES TO OUTSIDE 
WATERS 

This, account of the rescue work would 
be incomplete if no reference were made 
to the sending of small numbers of 
salvaged fishes to waters more or less re- 
mote from the Mississippi. These fishes 
serve the same purpose as do the product 
of the hatcheries. They are intended for 
replenishing depleted waters or for stock- 
ing newly formed lakes and ponds that 
may have no fish life or no suitable sup- 
ply of food or game fishes. 

Fishes as taken from the landlocked 
waters of the Mississippi Valley are not 
in a condition to stand distant shipment. 
It is therefore necessary to subject them 
to a hardening process before it is : safe 
or wise to send them on a long railway 
journey. The hardening is done at sev- 
eral depots along the river, notably at 
La Crosse, Wis., and Bellevue, Iowa. 
At these and several other points are 
small buildings containing tanks in which 
the fish are kept, without food, in cool, 
clear, running water for several days. 

The fish, then ready for shipment, are 
placed in large cans and loaded into 
railway cars, in which they make their 
journey in safety and comfort. Minor 
shipments for short distances may be 
made in baggage cars, with an attendant. 

The new all-steel distributing cars of 
the Bureau of Fisheries embody the very 
latest ideas in fish transportation. These 
cars, with their permanent crews and 
with all modern improvements for keep- 
ing fish supplied with water and air, are 
hauled on fast passenger trains and have 
been used for forwarding from the Mis- 
sissippi the special lots of rescued fishes 
designed for planting in adjoining States. 

Sometimes a car-load of fish may be 
taken in its entirety to a single point of 
deposit, but more frequently detachments 
are delivered en route to applicants who 
have been notified in advance, by mail 
or telegraph, to meet a given train with 
receptacles for taking their fish away. 



384 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 





A BROKEN MISSISSIPPI RIVER LEVEE AT LUCCA, ARKANSAS 

Not only Holland and the Acadian home of Evangeline have protected themselves by dikes, 
but scores of the great rivers of the world are paralleled by earthen or stone embankments. 




Photograph from H. C. Frankenfield 
REFUGEES ON LOG RAFT AT NEBLETT, MISSISSIPPI, WAITING FOR A STEAMER 

Face to face with a common peril, the people of the flooded districts unite in building 
log rafts that, with the arrival of more refugees, come to have as many necessaries and such 
luxuries as the Swiss Family Robinson salvaged from the wreck. 



WHEN THE FATHER OF WATERS GOES ON A RAMPAGE 



385 





Photograph from H. C. Frankenfield 

FAMILY ARKS IN WHICH REFUGEES FROM A MISSISSIPPI RIVER FLOOD SEEK SAFETY 
AFTER THE DESTRUCTION OF THEIR HOME: MODOC, ARKANSAS 



Lest there may be created the impres- 
sion that large numbers of salvaged 
fishes that should be returned to the 
parent stream are being diverted to out- 
side waters, it may be stated that in 1919 
less than six-tenths of I per cent of the 
fishes saved from the Mississippi floods 
were consigned to outside waters. This 
altogether negligible number consisted 
chiefly of catfishes, sunfishes, crappies, 
and basses. 

From what has already been stated, it 
must be apparent that this work on which 
the fisheries service of the Federal Gov- 
ernment has voluntarily embarked is of 
very great value, not only to the States 



immediately concerned, but also to dis- 
tant parts of the country, for the food- 
fishes of the Mississippi basin receive a 
wide distribution in the trade. As a 
matter of fact, the importance of this 
effort as a means of maintaining and in- 
creasing the food supply of the country 
can hardly be equaled in any other field 
when cost, certain results, and quick re- 
turns are taken into consideration. 

In most of the States bordering on the 
Mississippi there is a growing public in- 
terest in and urgent demand for a con- 
tinuation and extension of the rescue 
work ; and along the Ohio, Missouri, and 
other tributaries of the Mississippi, 



386 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 





Photograph from H. C. Frankenfield 



REFUGEES ON A MOUND AT MODOC, ARKANSAS, JUST BELOW THE SCENE OF A 

CREVASSE IN GARDINER'S LEVEE ANGLE 



where there prevail essentially the same 
conditions as in the main stream, the de- 
sirability of this form of food conserva- 
tion is being- seriously considered. 

In the districts now only partly cov- 
ered and in the sections where up to this 
time it has been impossible to undertake 
any operations, there exists an opportu- 
nity for very productive work. There 
are unbroken stretches of river 500 miles 
in length, where the floods are yearly 
causing large sacrifice of food-fishes, on 
which no attempts at rescue have here- 
tofore been made because of lack of 
funds and personnel, and the major trib- 
utaries of the Mississippi present a virgin 
field of unknown possibilities. 



It should be understood that Congress 
does not appropriate funds especially for 
this particular Work, and that the money 
now employed is in reality part of a gen- 
eral appropriation for fish culture, and 
the persons and equipment detailed for 
the rescue operations are temporarily 
drawn from other branches of the serv- 
ice. 

What is needed, in order that this serv- 
ice may be conducted in a manner and on 
a scale that its Importance justifies, is 
specific recognition by Congress through 
the providing of special funds and per- 
sonnel, so that the work may not be con- 
tingent on the' necessities of other duly 
established activities. 



VOL. XXXVII, No. 5 WASHINGTON 



MAY, 1920 






COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED 

STATES 

BY Louis C. C. KRIEGER 

Continuing its policy of presenting to its readers comprehensive and especially 
timely articles and illustrations in color which stimulate a keener interest in and 
a more satisfying enjoyment of the glories and wonders of Nature's forests, plains, 
and hills, the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE publishes the accompanying series 
of matchless mushroom paintings and intimate descriptions by L. C. C. Kriegcr, 
who is associated with Dr. Hov:ard A. Kelly, of Baltimore. 

The delicacy of coloring and variety of hues, the curious forms and astound- 
ing fertility of mushrooms, will amaze the reader. It is believed that Geographic 
members will take the same delight in their ''Mushrooms" Number that they have 
expressed previously in such Nature-study numbers as "Birds of Town and 
Country," "American Game Birds," "Mankind's Best Friend The Dog," "Our 
State Flowers,'' "Wild Animals of North America" etcetera. 

The reader is especially cautioned, hoivever, that the illustrations and text 
MUST NOT be used as final authority in deciding whether a particular specimen is 
an edible or a poisonous fungus, because no treatise within the limits of a single 
number of even THE GEOGRAPHIC could be sufficiently detailed and complete to 
protect the novice against the deadly species, which are very numerous. For those 
who desire more detailed description of mushrooms, this article is being amplified 
with much technical data and can be obtained separately, bound in cloth, at $3.00 
per copy, postpaid. 



MORE than thirty-eight million 
pounds of edible mushrooms 
were imported into our country 
during the five years immediately pre- 
ceding the World War. In addition to 
this vast amount, we consumed not only 
the large output of our own growers, but 
quantities of wild species besides. 

The species imported from France 
comprise the cultivated variety of the 
common meadow or pasture mushroom, 
Agaricus cam pester (for illustrations see 
Plate I and page 400) ; the expensive 
truffle; the cepe (B. edulis, illustrated 
in Plate IV and on page 406). 



China sends us certain species largely 
for the use of her own people resident 
among us. Our own producers limit 
themselves to the cultivated variety of 
the meadow mushroom. 

The names of the wild species mar- 
keted cannot be ascertained definitely, 
since there is with us no such legal con- 
trol of the sale of mushrooms as obtains 
in most cities in continental Europe. 
Gatherers in the United States either eat 
their finds themselves or sell them pro- 
miscuously to any mushroom-hungry in- 
dividual who lias the temerity or the 
knowledge to venture purchasing. 



388 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by A. G. and B. L,eeper 
ONE OF THE POISONOUS MEMBERS OF THE AMANITA MUSHROOM FAMILY 

The top view of the specimen on the right shows that the deadly Amanitas peel as readily as 
the edible mushrooms. "Peeling" is, therefore, no sign of edibility. 



From personal observation, however, 
and from a perusal of the popular litera- 
ture which advises the consumption of 
certain species, we may judge that the 
following species most frequently find 
their way into the kitchen: Agaricus 
campester, Agaricus arvensis (see Plate 
I), the Parasol mushroom (Lcpiota pro- 
ccra, see Plate XIV), certain species that 
grow on trees (Pleurotus ostreatus, etc., 
see page 402), ink-caps (species of Cop- 
rinus, see Plates VIII and XII), "fairy- 
ring" mushrooms (see page 397), puff- 
balls (pages 414-419), and, of course, 
Morels (Plate VII and pages 420, 421). 

Since the establishment of mushroom 
or mycological clubs in some of our large 
cities, considerable interest has been 
aroused, with the result that members 
and their friends have learned to recog- 
nize many of the lesser known, yet 
equally safe and good species. The war, 
too, has had its effect. Food is scarce 
and high-priced, and people, following 
suggestions offered in the public prints, 



are turning to hitherto unknown or dis- 
regarded sources of food supply, includ- 
ing the spontaneously growing crop of 
wild mushrooms. 

RATTLESNAKE DENS VERSUS POISONOUS 
MUSHROOMS 

But those who, unadvised or ill-advised, 
would gather wild species for the table 
should remember that they are embark- 
ing upon an adventure that may lead to 
a sudden and horrible death. 

To ask a person to gather his own 
mushrooms for the table, without previ- 
ous instruction that will enable him to 
avoid the deadly kinds, is equivalent to, 
if not worse than, inviting him to put his 
unprotected hand into a den of rattle- 
snakes. Indeed, of the two risky per- 
formances, the latter would be the safer; 
for there are at least two known anti- 
dotes for rattlesnake venom, whereas 
there is none for the poison or poisons 
of the exceedingly common Amanita 
phalloidcs (see Plates X and XVI) and 
its multitudinous forms- and varieties. 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



389 




SPRETA PHALLOIDES 

. VERNA 



PHALLO/DES 



THE; DANGER SIGNALS, OR DEATH-CUPS, WHICH NATURE PLACES ON THE BASES OR 
UNDERGROUND PORTIONS OF THE AM ANITA SPECIES 

The death-cup is technically knowu as the volva and at first encloses the entire plant 
just as the egg-shell does the egg. As the plant grows the stem lengthens, and in doing this 
ruptures the bag. The illustration shows how the death-cup, or volva, differs in structure 
with the various species of Amanita. There are two distinct types of death-cups, the bag-like 
type (Nos. 10 and n), and the more or less fragile, crumbling, or scaly type (Nos. i, 2, and 
3). Both types are subject to variation, the variations being characteristic for different 
species or groups of species. Number 7 represents a diabolical attempt on the part of one 
Amanita to camouflage its identity, both bulb and bag-like volva being difficult to discern. 
A reduction of the "friable" (crumbling) type of volva is seen in No. I, only a few grains 
being left to tell the tale, and sometimes even these are absent. When absent from the bulb, 
however, they are usually to be found on the ground, leaves, twigs, or needles immediately 
surrounding the base, or on top of the cap, where they form warts, provided rain has not 
washed them away. The beautiful Amanita casarea, Plate IX, and the Blusher (page 390) 
are two exceptions in the dangerous Amanita family, being edible though possessing death-cups. 



In this connection it is of interest to 
note that poisonous serpents and fungi 
were associated in the mind of man from 
early times. 

Pliny writes : "Noxious kinds must be 
entirely condemned ; for if there be near 
them a hobnail or a bit of rusty iron or 
a piece of rotten cloth, forthwith the 
plant, as it grows, elaborates the foreign 
juice and flavors into poison ; and coun- 
try-folk and those who gather them are 
alone able to discern the different kinds. 



"Moreover, they imbibe other noxious 
qualities besides; if, for instance, the 
hole of a venomous serpent be near and 
the serpent breathe upon them as they 
open, from their natural affinity with poi- 
sonous substances, they are readily dis- 
posed to imbibe such poison. Therefore 
one must notice the time before the ser- 
pents have retired into their holes." 

Were it not that the subject is such a 
serious one, we should feel inclined to 
laugh at the simplicity of the ancients. 



390 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by A. G. and B. Leeper 

THE BLUSHER (Amanita rubescens) is EDIBLE 

There are many thousands of species of mushrooms and many strange forms, as the 
succeeding photographs show. The collector observes especially variations in the cap (i), 
gills (2), ring (3), stem (4), volva (see page 389), and color of the spores (for an account 
of these marvelous reproductive bodies, see pages 392, 402, 415). 

Though edible, the Blusher is a member of the dangerous genus Amanita, and should 
therefore be eaten only by those who are thoroughly familiar with a large number oi 
Amanitas. Its volva has disappeared into warts on the cap, see description of figure i, 
page 389. It may be yellowish, entirely white, and often very much deformed or aborted in 
shape, and quite frequently specimens are found that refuse to "blush." The Blusher is 
found in thin and dense woods, solitary or scattered ; time, July to September ; distribution, 
United States, east of the Mississippi, and in Europe. About natural size. For color figures 
of Amanitas, see Plates- II, V, IX, X, XV, and XVI. 



COMMON* MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATICS 



391 



Curiously enough, some of the ancient 
beliefs as to the origin of poisonous fungi 
persist at the present time in Italy. A 
Sicilian laborer whom the writer inter- 
rogated on the "funghi," vouchsafed the 
""information" that the poisonous kinds 
grow from rusty iron (nails, etc.) in the 
ground, but that they are easily to be dis- 
tinguished from the wholesome kinds in 
the process of cooking by simply drop- 
ping a piece of bright silver (a new coin 
or the like) into the stew: if the fungi 
.are poisonous, the silver will blacken ; if 
not, it will retain its luster. The efficacy 
of this "test" is believed in by an aston- 
ishing number of people. 

But not only tradition is active in pro- 
mulgating error in this life-and-death 
matter. Newspapers occasionally and in- 
advertently publish "general rules" that 
are often misleading. For example, an 
article in a representative daily in one of 
our large cities, after assuring the reader 
that there are but six poisonous kinds 
among more than a thousand, adds : 

"No poisonous mushroom is ever found 
growing in cluster form." 

In refutation of such a generality, the 
reader is referred to the symptom pro- 
duced by Olitocybe illudens, a poisonous, 
though not a deadly poisonous, agaric 
that grows in dense clusters (see Plate 
III and text, page 403). 

GENERAL RULES FOR BEGINNERS 

General rules for the guidance of 
-mushroom-hunters are trustworthy and 
serviceable only when formulated by ex- 
perienced botanists. The following six 
rules* by the late Dr. W. G. Farlow, Pro- 
fessor of Cryptogamic Botany in Har- 
vard University, will prevent, if scrupu- 
lously observed, the eating of notoriously 
-poisonous species : 

"(i) Avoid fungi when in the button 
or unexpanded stage ; also those in which 
the flesh has begun to decay, even if only 
slightly. 

"(2) Avofd all fungi which have death 
cups, stalks with a swollen base sur- 
rounded by a sac-like or scaly envelop, 
especially if the gills are white. (Study 
the Amanitas and diagram, page 389.) 

"(3) Avoid fungi having a milky juice, 
unless the milk is reddish. 

* Published in Bulletin No. 15, U. S. Dept. 
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 



"(4) Avoid fungi in which the cap. or 
pileus, is thin in proportion to the gills, 
and in which the gills are nearly all of 
equal length, especially if the pileus is 
bright-colored. 

"(5) Avoid all tube-bearing fungi in 
which the flesh changes color when cut 
or broken or where the mouths of the 
tubes are reddish, and in the case of 
other tube-bearing fungi experiment with 
caution. 

"(6) Fungi which have a sort of 
spider web or flocculent ring round the 
upper part of the stalk should in general 
be avoided." 

Professor Farlow adds that "Rules I, 
2, and 5 may for the beginner be re- 
garded as absolute, with the exception to 
Rule 2, Amanita Cfcsarca (Plate IX), the 
gills of which are yellow. Rules 3, 4, 
and 6 have more numerous exceptions, 
but these rules should be followed in all 
cases unless the collector is content to 
experiment first with very small quanti- 
ties and learn the practical result." 

Other rules that will help to protect 
from serious poisoning are : 

Do not collect mushrooms in or near 
wooded areas except for study purposes. 

This rule is very general, as it does 
not protect against the green-gilled Le- 
piota (see illustration on page 393), nor 
against an occasional Amanita and some 
others ; but it does prevent the beginner 
from entering the very "lair" pf the man- 
killers. 

Do not accept mushrooms from a self- 
styled expert, even if you have to dis- 
oblige a dear friend. Learn the subject 
yourself. 

That an animal (insect, squirrel, turtle, 
etc.) has eaten of a mushroom is no cri- 
terion of the edibility of that mushroom 
for man. Insect larvae thrive and grow 
fat on the violently poisonous Amanita 
phalloides (Plates X and XVI). 

Soaking or boiling in water does not 
render a poisonous species edible.* The 
poisons of Amanita phalloides are de- 
stroyed only by continued boiling in pow- 
erful acids. (Dr. W. W. Ford.) 

* J. Henri Fabre, in his "The Life of the Fly," 
relates that the peasants of Serignan, in the 
south of France, render such notoriously 
poisonous species as Amanita fianthcrina and 
Amanita citrina (Plate V) edible by parboiling 
in water. Other reliable evidence speaks 
against this practice, however. 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



The truth is that inviting any one to 
become a mushroom-eater is tantamount 
to asking that person to become some- 
what of a botanist, assuming, of course, 
that one has no ulterior motives on his 
or her life. 

HOW WE; MAY ACQUIRE THIS KNOWLEDGE 

The preceding paragraphs are likely to 
dampen the ardor of those who would 
be pleased to learn how to collect and 
select their own mushrooms, but who are 
not sufficiently interested to go to the 
length of acquiring the necessary knowl- 
edge that will enable them to do this with 
safety. Those who are so affected had 
better do without mushrooms for the rest 
of their lives, bearing in mind that, so 
far, there is no "player attachment" to 
the study of mushrooms. 

The most expeditious way of acquir- 
ing this knowledge is to join a mushroom 
club, if there happens to be such an or- 
ganization in the city of one's residence. 
Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, and 
Detroit have, or have had, such clubs. 

MUSHROOMS ARE THE FRUIT OF FUNGI 

The removal of the bark from a rotting 
tree-trunk or the disturbance of the dense 
mat of decaying leaves on the floor of the 
forest will reveal fine threads, usually 
white in color. These threads may be 
loosely scattered and mould-like, com- 
pacted into a dense meshwork of cords, 
or spread out in flat sheets of the texture 
of white kid leather. In old mines the 
timbers ,are often festooned with long 
streamers of this soft substance, which 
to botanists is known as "mycelium," to 
mushroom growers as "spawn." 

As every one who has cultivated these 
plants knows, mushrooms grow from 
these threads, not, however, as the apple 
tree grows from its roots, but rather as the 
apple grows on the tree, for the mycelium 
is the olant, the mushroom the fruit. 

THE MARVELOUS SPORES 

Every mushroom species arises from a 
mycelium of its own ; yet, to distinguish 
between species, students rely exclusively 
on the forms, colors, and microscopic 
characters of the fruit-body (the mush- 
room), the mycelium rarely presenting 
characters sufficiently distinct for identi- 
fication purposes. 



The forms of mushrooms are ex- 
tremely varied, but all have in common 
the ripening and liberation of the micro- 
scopic spores ("seeds" or reproductive 
bodies), by means of which the species 
are enabled to spread over wide areas. 
Some of the remarkable qualities of these 
spores are told on pages 402 and 415. 

The mushroom collector can make 
some interesting experiments with the 
spores, as follows : 

If the expanded cap of the common 
pasture mushroom (Agaricus campester} 
(see Plate I) be removed from its stem 
and placed upon a sheet of white paper, 
gill side downward, and left there under 
cover of a finger-bowl for an hour or 
two, there will be formed a beautiful de- 
posit ("spore-print") of the microscopic, 
purple-brown spores. 

If an Amanita (Plates II, V, IX, X, 
XV, and XVI), a Lepiota (Plate XIV), 
a Tricholoma (Plate VII), a Clitocybe 
(Plate III), or an Armillaria (Plate VI) 
be treated in the same way, a white spore- 
print will result. With a Volvaria (Plate 
V) the deposit will be reddish or pink- 
ish. Pholiotas (Plates VIII and XIII) 
and Cordnarii (Plate VII) will throw 
down spores of some shade of brownish 
yellow, rusty brown, or cinnamon. Cop- 
rinus (Plates VIII and XII) and Panae- 
olus (Plate VIII) species precipitate 
black or blackish spores. 

Similar experiments may be made with 
other varieties. 

FUNGI IN NATURE'S ECONOMY 

The Fungi, a class of plants of which 
mushrooms are the most familiar exam- 
ples, play an important role in their influ- 
ence on the higher forms of life. As 
parasites on plants, animals, and man, 
they cause destruction on an almost in- 
calculable scale. As scavengers and as 
rock-disintegrators, on the other hand, 
they accomplish work that is basic for 
the very existence of all life. 

Rock is the raw material of the farmer's 
soil ; but before the farmer can have this 
soil it must first be made. How is it 
made ? 

Violent weather changes heat, cold, 
rain, snow, and ice start the breaking- 
up process. Associated with these agen- 
cies, the lichens begin their work. Dry, 
crusty things, these plants produce an 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



393 




Photograph by C. Cramer 

THIS GREEN-GILDED LEPIOTA (Lepiota Jiwrgani) is POISONOUS 

Beware of this false Parasol mushroom. It differs from the true edible Parasol mush- 
room (Plate XIV and page 439) in its greenish gills, coarser scales, and larger size. These 
two young specimens were photographed on a lawn in Washington, D. C. Approximately 
natural size. This Goliath of Mushrooms, the green-gilled Lepiota, is especially plentiful in 
the Mississippi Valley, but it also occurs in the Middle and South Atlantic States, in South 
America, in the West Indies, and probably in Bohemia and in the Philippines. Its habitat is 
in rich pastures, cultivated ground, in open woods, and on lawns in cities; time, June to 
October. 



394 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by George Shiras, 3d 

THE; EDIBLE HONEY-MUSHROOM (Armillaria mellea) "FINISHING" A 

This mushroom is the bane of the orchardist. The growth extended eight feet up the 
maple tree and four feet at the base (see text, page 411, and Color Plate VI, upper figure, 
and opposite page). 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



395 




Photograph by George Shiras, 3d 
"A TRAGEDY IN THE FOREST" 

Armillaria mcllea is here shown at its destructive work. This tree is doomed. This 
species of fungus is also shown as the upper figure of Color Plate VI and on opposite page. 
If you chop off the mushrooms, others will soon replace them, for they are simply the fruit 
of a parasite infesting the tree (see page 392 and the bracket fungus, page 409). 




THE ABORTIVE CLITOPILUS (Clltopilus dbortiviis) AND ABORTIVE FORMS, THE LATTER 
SHOWN ON THE RIGHT. EDIBLE. ONE-HALF NATURAL SIZE 

The eye that is sensitive to subtle color arrangements always meets with pleasure the 
unobtrusive habitant of our woodlands, known as the Abortive Clitopilus. When specimens 
are found, they are almost invariably accompanied by the odd, puff-ball-like masses, 1^4 to 
2^2 inches in diameter, irregular in shape, and of a whitish tint, shown in the right of the 
photograph. It would be interesting to ascertain whether these queer masses are caused by 
insects or by some parasitic fungus. An inspection of the interior will show that there is no 
differentiation of tissues into cap, stem, and gills. Similar masses are found accompanying 
the Honey mushroom (see Color Plate VI) and other species. Both the perfectly developed 
and the aborted forms are edible. They should be thoroughly cooked to bring out the flavor. 




Photographs by A. G. and B. Leeper 

THE GREENISH RUSSULA (Russula vircscens) . EDIBLE 

The various Russulas are difficult to distinguish from each other. This species, however, 
is sufficiently well marked to be recognized by the layman. Painted with the hues of the 
rainbow, the Russulas bring a touch of brightness into the gloomy depth of the forest. 
Vivid reds, greens, purples, violets, and yellows predominating, these conspicuously colored 
agarics are at the same time the joy of the painter and the despair of the student who at- 
tempts their classification. The Greenish Russula grows in thin woods and in grassy, 
open places ; time, July and August : distribution. Maine to Virginia, and west to Ohio and 
Michigan; also in Europe. About one-half natural size. 




THE FAIRY-RING MUSHROOM (Marasiimis orcadcs). EDIBLE 

The specimens shown grew in the grounds of the White House, Washington, D. C. Approxi- 
mately one-half natural size. 




Photographs courtesy of U. S. Department of Agriculture 

A "FAIRY-RING" FORMED BY Marasmhts or cades, ONE OF THE BEST EDIBLE 

MUSHROOMS 

The beginning of a "fairy-ring" may be a single mushroom which drops its spores or 
seeds in a circle about the base. The next season the small ring of mushrooms drops a 
larger ring of spores, and so the circle expands, year by year, exactly as the ripples spread 
out on the surface of a millponcl when a rock is cast into the water. Fairy-rings, formed in 
Colorado, have been estimated to be about 600 years old. Legend informs us that these rings 
are the magic circles within which elves and other nimble fairy folk hold their revels at mid- 
night on our lawns. There is another superstition that the rings mark the spots where bolts of 
lightning have struck the ground. Marasmius oreades is found in grassy places (lawns, 
pastures, and by the roadside) from May to October, being widely distributed in both the 
Xorth and South Temperate zones. 



398 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




THE VELVET-STEMMED COLL YBIA (Collybia velutipes} . EDIBLE 

In winter time the mushroom lover yearns for a taste of wild species. This he may 
have if he will be on the lookout for this tree-inhabiting Collybia. About one-half natural 
size. With its stem encased in a suit of dark-brown velvet, its rich yellow cap protected by 
a mucilaginous covering, the plant is admirably adapted to stand the rigors of the boreal 
season. This mushroom is gathered in the spring, autumn, and winter; distribution, eastern 
United States as far west as Kansas and Iowa; probably in the Pacific Coast States; also in 
Europe and Mexico; a variety (spongiosa) in Alaska. 




Photographs by A. G. and B. Leeper 

THE ROOTED COLLYBIA (Collybia radicata) . EDIBLE 

With its yellow-brown, wrinkled caps perched on a tall stem, this Collvbia is met with almost 
immediately one enters a beech or pine forest. About one-half natural size. 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



399 



acid that crumbles the hardest rock. 
Rains wash the disintegrated particles 
into cracks, crevices, and crannies down a 
slope. The remains of the dead lichens 
are added to the debris to form the first 
beginnings of soil in which other lichens, 
small ferns, and seed plants find a place 
to thrive and eventually die, each plant 
leaving behind some small particles of 
matter. Gradually, with infinite patience, 
Nature thus deposits soil in the valleys. 
Ages of this slow but cumulative work, 
in which soil bacteria and other fungi 
play an essential role, and we have rich, 
virgin soil ready to receive the precious 
grains of wheat. Then the eye of hungry 
man is gladdened by the sight of acres 
of the golden crop. 

FUNGI RAISE THE DOUGH 

Bread made from unleavened dough is 
not to the taste of most of us. It must 
be light and spongy to be palatable. To 
obtain these qualities we are again de- 
pendent on the fungi. The good house- 
wife buys yeast, dissolves it in water, and 
adds the fluid to the heavy dough, which 
is then thoroughly kneaded and set aside 
overnight in a suitable temperature. The 
next morning she is pleased to note that 
the dough has risen. After further 
kneading, it is placed in the oven and 
baked into appetizing loaves. On being 
cut, the bread exhibits a multitude of 
small bubbles of nearly equal size. 

The little Brownies that labored^while 
others slept are microscopic fungus cells 
that were introduced with the yeast. 
Given sugar, starch, moisture, and warmth, 
these cells multiply with incredible ra- 
pidity, at the same time giving off carbon- 
dioxide and another product. The car- 
bon-dioxide gas collects in bubbles, and 
thus distends and lightens the dough. 

If bread be left in a moist place it will 
mould. Here, too, we have fungous ac- - 
tion. 

Moulds, like bacteria and yeast fungi, 
are ever present and ready to alight and 
feed upon organic substances suitable to 
their taste. Roquefort cheese owes its 
flavor to a certain mould. Another is 
known to plug up the human ear. 

Some of the industries in which the 
action of the ferment fungi is essential 
are: The making of buttermilk and 
cheese, the tanning of leather, tobacco- 



curing, the fermentation of vegetables 
(sauerkraut, fodder in silos, etc.), all 
bread-making where yeast is used, and all 
fermentation processes in which alcohol 
is produced. 

FUNGI DESTROY WHEAT, TREES, AND WOOD 

In 1916 the black-stem rust destroyed 
in the United States and Canada 280,- 
000,000 bushels of wheat. Add*to this a 
15 to 25 per cent reduction of the barley 
and oats crops, and we become aware of 
the appalling destruction that a single 
fungous disease can cause. 

One of these, Endothia parasitica, 
threatens with extinction the glorious 
chestnut trees of our eastern coast. The 
disease caused by this fungus fiend, the 
chestnut bark disease, starting in the vi- 
cinity of New York City about 1904, 
spread rapidly as far north as New 
Hampshire and south to Virginia. In its 
devastating march it has destroyed tim- 
ber valued at more than two hundred 
million dollars, and the end is not yet. 

Another disease, the white pine blister 
rust, though not yet as widely known 
as the chestnut disease, is likely to be- 
come so unless preventive measures are 
adopted and cooperatively carried out by 
the States concerned. 

While the destruction of living woody 
tissues is steadily going on in the forests, 
dead wood, including that used in build- 
ings, railroad ties, etc., is likewise being 
destroyed by species that specialize in 
saprophytism or scavenger-work. 

ANTS "CULTIVATE" MUSHROOMS 

The almost human sagacity of the ant 
has interested man from earliest times. 
Isn't it possible that Homer called the 
Thessalian legions "myrmidons" because 
they swarmed like ants and fought with 
the cunning and bravery of these insect 
warriors ? The foresight exhibited by the 
ant in storing its food, furnished ^sop 
with the theme for one of his most de- 
lightful fables. Later, upon closer obser- 
vation, we were startled to learn that 
Mr. Ant is also a good "dairyman,"* 
milking his "cows" whenever he wants 
"milk" ; but it was not until recently that 

* See "Notes About Ants and Their Resem- 
blance to Man," by Dr. William Morton 
Wheeler, in the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGA- 
ZINE, August, 1912. 



400 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photographs by A. G. and B. Lecper 

THE COMMON MEADOW MUSHROOM (Agaricits canipcstcr). EDIBLE 

Brownish, scaly variety above; white, smooth variety below. Before the war America 
imported annually millions of pounds of this delicacy from France, and our own producers 
and bountiful Nature have assisted materially in meeting the ever-increasing demand. Do 
not attempt to gather this or any ether mushroom for eating purposes unless you have a 
competent authority with you (see Color Plate I and text, page 401). When picked they will 
fruit again as a continuous crop when cultivated in special mushroom cellars, and out-of- 
doors as long as the weather is propitious. 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



401 




Photograph by A. G. and B. keeper 

THE BRICK-RED HYPHOLOMA (H\pholoina sublateritium) . EDIBILITY DOUBTFUL 

Few mushrooms are commoner than the Brick-top. It grows in dense clusters at the base 
of old chestnut and oak trees. About one-half natural size. 



we were apprised of the fact that mush- 
room-growing" is also one of his accom- 
plishments. 

Scientific travelers in Java and South 
America record that some of the larger 
species, the termites, construct veritable 
mushroom-cellars, in which they "culti- 
vate" (on the mycelium of some large 
fungi) little globular bodies as food for 
themse'ives. 

Mushroom-growing is a most uncertain 
business unless conditions favorable to 
the growth of the spawn are rigidly 
maintained. The ants know this, too, and 
take precautions necessary to insure a 
good "crop." 

THE COMMON MEADOW MUSH- 
ROOM (Agaricus campester) 

(See Color Plate I) 

When the average person uses the word 
"mushroom" the common Meadow mushroom, 
or Pink Gill (Agaricus campester) is meant 
(see Color Plate I and photographs on page 
400). Imported from France in enormous 
quantities before the war ; cultivated by our 
own growers with ever-increasing zeal, and 
gathered in the wild state as soon as it makes 



its appearance in the fall, it is so well known 
that even the most timid feel no hesitation in 
ordering their juicy tenderloin "smothered 
with mushrooms." 

The records, however, show that not infre- 
quently other deleterious species are eaten 
along with, or in the place of, the common 
mushroom. It therefore behooves the eater of 
mushrooms to be as cautious with this species 
as he would be with one less well known. 

Of course, only the most careless or unin- 
formed would mistake the poisonous Amanitas 
for the Agaricus; but there are other poison- 
ous species, not necessarily deadly, that are 
apt to get by the eye and into the mouth if one 
is unaware of, or neglects to observe, the 
botanical characters that distinguish the good 
from the bad. Species that are likely to be 
mistaken for the common mushroom are dis- 
cussed further on. 

Remarks on the preparation of the Meadow 
mushroom for the table are superfluous, as any 
cook-book will give full directions. 

The common Meadow mushroom is at home 
in grassy places, lawns, pastures ; never in 
thick woods; also (when cultivated) in cellars, 
caves, abandoned mines, and in other places 
where the temperature can be held between 
50 and 65 F. and where moisture conditions 
can be controlled ; time, when growing wild, in 
August and September, occasionally in the 
spring; when cultivated under suitable condi- 
tions, throughout the year; distribution, cos- 
mopolitan. 



402 



' THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by A. G. and B. L,eeper 



THE OYSTER MUSHROOM (PleUrOtltS OStrCCltlls) . EDIBLE 

The name of the luscious bivalve was given this species because of a fancied similarity 
in appearance. The plants may be found from June until late in the Autumn, growing on 
deciduous trees. About one-third natural size. 

If one has discovered one or more trees that bear Pleuroti, it is a good plan to water the 
spots from which specimens have been taken. In this way the plants may be "cultivated," as 
new "fruit" will appear in a week or two. 

When specimens are brought indoors and placed in a sunny nook, away from drafts, the. 
interesting phenomenon of spore-discharge may be watched. Like twisting, curling spirals 
of smoke from the burning end of a cigar, the fine spore-rain drifts off into space in quest 
of tree wounds where it may lodge and start a mycelium that in turn will produce more 
Pleuroti. 



Related species and poisonous species are 
sometimes eaten in place of it, though Agari- 
cus campester is so well marked that it is in- 
conceivable how poisonous species, especially 
Amanitas, can be eaten by mistake. 

A mere glance at the illustrations of the 
common mushroom and those of the Amanitas 
(see Plates II, V, X, XV, and XVI) ought to 
prove instructive, even to the most superficially 
observing, and, if in addition the descriptions 
be compared, wide differences will at once be- 
come apparent. To call attention to a few : 
Agaricus camficster has a squattier appear- 
ance ; lacks a bag, or volva ; has pink gills that 
turn to a chocolate brown, and never grows 
in woods or forests, preferring rich, well-ma- 
nured ground, such as old pastures, where 
horses are turned loose. 

The Amanitas rarely occur anywhere except 
in woods, or in places where woods have re- 
cently stood, such as lawns in new suburbs ; 
throw down from their gills a white spore- 
powder, and have, in addition to the ring, a 
more or less pronounced volva at the usually 



bulbous base of the stem (for figures of the 
various forms of the Volva, or Death-cup, see 
Nature's Danger Signals, page 389). 

THE FIELD, OR HORSE MUSHROOM 
(Agaricus arvensis). Edible 

(Sec Color Plate I) 

This coarse and heavy species is edible only 
when young and tender. Some epicures object 
to its anise-like odor. The distinguishing fea- 
tures are: its large size (breadth of cap some- 
times more than a foot) ; peculiar ashy-pink 
tint of the young gills ; large, thick, double 
ring (the lower one split radiately) ; the bulb- 
ous stem, and the tendency to turn yellow on 
the slightest bruise. 

It is not so choice in its habitats as the com- 
mon mushroom, growing in cultivated fields, 
grassy pastures, in waste places, under old 
hedges, and occasionally near trees, and in 
the borders of thin woods. It should be sought 
from July to September. Occasionally it forms 
huge fairy-rings (see page 397). 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



403 



THE FLY MUSHROOM (Amanita 

muscaria and its varieties). 

Deadly poisonous ! 

(See Color Plate II for mature plant 
and Color Plate XV for 
young specimens) 

Beauty, though attractive, is often 
deceptive. This is admirably illus- 
trated in Amanita muscaria, the 
''most splendid chief of the agaricoid 
tribe," as Greville, an eminent Scotch 
botanist, describes it. 

"In the highlands of Scotland," he 
continues, "it is impossible not to ad- 
mire it, as seen in long perspective, 
between the trunks of the straight fir 
trees ; and should a sunbeam pene- 
trate through the dark and dense foli- 
age and rest on its vivid surface, an 
effect is produced by this chief of a 
humble race which might lower the 
pride of many a patrician vegetable." 

Contrast with this the dire effects 
of its .poisons on the human system. 
Very shortly after eating the fungi 
(from one to six hours, depending 
upon the amount eaten) the victim 
exhibits excessive salivation, perspira- 
tion, flow of tears, nausea, retching, 
vomiting, and diarrhea. The pulse is 
irregular and respiration accelerated. 
Giddiness and confusion of ideas are 
also present. 

Delirium, violent convulsions, and 
loss of consciousness develop in rapid 
succession when large quantities have 
been eaten, the patient sinking into 
a coma that is followed by death. 
In light cases the patient, after an at- 
tack of vomiting and diarrhea, falls 
into a deep sleep, from which he 
awakes several hours later profoundly 
prostrate, but on the road to recov- 
ery. Within two or three days, in 
such cases, complete recovery takes 
place. 

Atropin is the perfect physiological 
antidote for muscarin, one of the 
poisons present. However, being a 
poison itself, it should not be ad- 
ministered except by a physician. The 
early appearance of the symptoms is 
characteristic of poisoning by this 
species, those caused by Amanita phalloides 
presenting themselves much later (see this 
species, .Plates V. X, and XVI). 

The AtiTanita muscaria is very common in 
woods, thickets, in open places, and sometimes 
in pastures, from June until the first frosts. 

THE JACK-O'LANTERN MUSHROOM, 

OR FALSE CHAJSITRELLE (Clito- 

cybe illudens). Poisonous 

(See Color Plate III) 

To see light emanating from a mushroom 
is at least a novel experience that is possible 
if one views perfectly fresh specimens of the 




Photograph by George Shiras, 3d 



A SPECIES OF PLEUROTUS MUSHROOM GROWING 
FROM A FALLEN LOG 

A sight such as this is calculated to make the mush- 
room-hunter's mouth water. Note that the central, ec- 
centric, or lateral attachment of the stem to the cap is 
a matter of position of growth ; the caps on the side of 
the log have lateral stems, those on the top central, or 
very nearly central, ones (see illustration, page 402). 



Jack-o'-Lantern by night ; but this is the limit 
of its interest for us. As an edible species, it 
is not to be thought of ; for, though pleasant 
enough to the taste and enjoyed without in- 
convenience by some, it acts as a powerful 
emetic with most people. Moreover, recent 
chemical investigation of the plant has demon- 
strated the presence of muscarin in its tissues, 
the same substance that plays such an impor- 
tant role in poisoning by Amanita muscaria 
(see text on this page). 

Dense clusters of this Clitocybe may often 
be seen growing on or about old stumps of 
chestnuts, oaks, and other deciduous trees. 
Occasionally, such clusters contain hundreds 



404 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by A. G. and B. Leeper 

THE GLISTENING COPRINUS (Coprinus micoceus} . EDIBLE 

Soon after the first showers in April this tiny ink-cap emerges from the ground in 
clusters of hundreds of individuals. The best harvesting implement is a pair of scissors. 
It grows at the base of old trees, stumps, and from buried wood in lawns. Caps tawny, and 
glistening with minute, mica-like particles; stems white. About natural size (see figure, 
lower left, Color Plate VIII). 



of individuals. It should be looked for in the 
autumn. 

The caps often measure as much as ten 
inches across, the stems being proportionately 
long. 

Pleurotus olearius, another phosphorescent 
mushroom that parasitizes the olive tree in 
southern Europe and is also poisonous to hu- 
man beings, is closely related to, if not iden- 
ical with, this plant. 

EDIBLE AND POISONOUS FLESHY 
TUBE-FUNGI (Various species 
of Boletus) 

(See Color Plate IF) 

Though similar in shape, the fleshy tube- 
fungi differ in one important point from the 
gill-fungi; instead of gills, the under side of 
the cap exhibits a layer of small, vertically 
placed tubes, on the inside of which the spores 
are borne. 

The Boleti are fairly safe; yet the beginner 



ought to be forewarned against certain species 
that are likely to cause illness when eaten. 
Chief among these is a group collectively 
known as the Luridi. The prime distinguish- 
ing mark of species belonging to this group is 
the more or less bright red, orange-red, or 
maroon coloring of the tube-mouths ; also, all 
Boleti that show the slightest tendency to as- 
sume some shade of blue when broken or 
bruised should be avoided. Bitter species, too, 
should not be eaten, especially B. fclleus, a 
somewhat robust plant with pinkish flesh- 
colored tubes. 

The edible Boletus, the cepe of commerce 
(Boletus edulis}, Plate IV, is the well known 
and much sought cepe of the French. Before 
the war, a regular article of commerce, one 
could purchase it, either dried or canned, at 
the little delicatessen shop "around the corner." 
Now we are dependent upon our own supply, 
which is none too plentiful. In the coast coun- 
ties of California, however, it seems to be 
fairly abundant, for the writer has seen Italian 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



405 




Photograph by Roland McKee 

THE INKY COPRINUS (Coprinus atraiiiciitarius VARIETY). EDIBLE 

This variety lacks the fine scales on the top of the cap, which are prominent in the typical 
form. The very delicate silvery gray luster of the cap vanishes with the slightest touch. 
The "ink" from this mushroom makes a forgery-proof writing fluid (see page 439). Natural 
size. 



residents there return from collecting trips 
with their automobiles laden with them. 

In preparing it, either for immediate use or 
for pickling or canning, the layer of tubes and 
the tough portion of the stems should be re- 
moved. When used fresh, the cooking should 
be rapid over a brisk fire. Frying or broiling 
with butter or olive oil, with the usual spices 
added, seems best adapted for this fungus. 
When pickled, add cloves, bay leaves, and other 
spices. 

Except for the stem, which is at times much 
shorter, and club- or pestle-shaped, the illus- 
tration shows a fully matured plant. When 
young, the tubes are pale, creamy white, but 
as the plant develops they become greenish, 
and when touched or bruised change to a 
greenish-ocher color, not to blue. 



The species is extremely variable, both as to 
shape* and color, some specimens showing a 
brownish-lilac color on both cap and stem. 
The constant features, however, are the colors 
and color changes of the tube layer, and the 
fine mesh of white lines on the stem, usually 
but not always confined to the upper part. 

The edible Orange-cap Boletus (Boletus 
versipcllis) is much coarser and larger than 
the cepe and not so desirable. Still, in the ab- 
sence of something better, it is eaten by those 
who must have their mushrooms (see page 
406). 

It is quite common and easily recognized by 
the numerous rough, blackish points on the 
stem and by the overlapping margin of the red- 
dish- or orange-colored cap. Its flesh changes 
color to a neutral, reddish gray. 




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406 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



407 




Photograph by A. G. and B. Leeper 

THE EDIBLE BEEF-TONGUE MUSHROOM (Ftstnliiia hepatita) 

Cap blood-red, pores (on under side of cap) creamy pink, flesh streaked with red and 
pink, this fungus grows on chestnut and oak stumps from July to October. The plant is so 
distinct that it is not easily confounded with other species. The illustration is about one-half 
natural size. 



THE HANDSOME VOLVARIA (Volva- 
ria speciosa). Edibility doubtful 

(See Color Plate V) 

Opinion as to the edible qualities of the 
Handsome Volvaria diverges considerably. 
While some speak of it as ''a fine edible agaric," 
others pronounce it "watery and unpleasant to 
the taste," or even poisonous. - Since the plant 
is somewhat variable, and therefore not clearly 
separated, except by spore characters, from 
the very poisonous Voh'aria gloiocephala, it is 
advisable to let it alone. 

Only recently Prof. W. C. Coker, of the 
University of Xorth Carolina, reported a 
variety of V . speciosa from the sand dunes 
of Smith Island, North Carolina. His plant 
had spores larger than those of the type and 
differed in other characters. 

In the eastern United States it is of infre- 
quent occurrence, but on the Pacific coast, 
especially in California, it is so abundant dur- 
ing April and May that one finds it wherever 
the soil is rich with decaying vegetable matter. 

The odor of the fresh plant is repellent, re- 
sembling verv markedly that of rancid lard. 

The Handsome Volvaria is gathered from 
April to October ; distribution, temperate 
North America, Europe, and North Africa. 



CORAL MUSHROOMS (Various species 
of Clavaria). Edible 

(Sec Color Plate V} 

"But that is not a mushroom !" exclaims the 
tyro, seeing his first Clavaria. "Why, it looks 
like coral." 

It is true that these plants show no differen- 
tiation into cap, gills, tubes, or teeth, but they 
are, nevertheless, true fungi, the spores being 
borne on the exterior of the branches. 

With the exception of a single species, all, 
so far as known, are good to eat, provided the 
taste is agreeable and the specimens are fresh 
and free from insect attack. The exception is 
a species (C. dichotoma) in which the branches 
are rather thin, flaccid, whitish, and divided 
regularly into twos. 

Clavaria fiisifonuis (see Color Plate V) is 
long, bright orange-yellow with a delicate 
bloom, dark-tipped, and usually grows in tufts. 
The interior is solid at first, then hollow. Oc- 
casionally specimens are found that are vari- 
ously bent, twisted, or malformed. 

Clavarias may be sought in both deciduous 
and coniferous woods from July to September 
(see illustration, page 412). 

Other edible species are Clavaria flava and 
Clavaria botr\tes. 




408 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



409 




Photograph by George Shiras, 3d 

A BRACKKT-FUNGUS (Polyponis applaiiatiis} 

Note the concentric zones marked with match-sticks. Each zone indicates the limit of 
a year's growth. The under side of this woody fungus makes an admirable sketching sur- 
face. A sharp twig will do for a pencil. The bracket fungus is the fruit-body of a destructive 
parasite very common in our forests (see page 417). You do not rid the infected tree of its 
fungus parasite by removing the fruit-bodies. The disease is produced by the mycelium (or 
spawn) threads, which (more or less compacted into tissues) permeate the wood of the 
tree. This particular species has a whitish, porous surface, which is easily embrowned on the 
slightest touch hence its use as a sketching surface. 



THE DEADLY AMANITA, OR DE- 
STROYING ANGEL (Amanita phal- 
loides and its varieties). Deadly poison- 
ous ! 

(Sec Color Plates V, X, and XVI) 

"Do not eat mushrooms and you will not be 
killed by them." 

If every one followed this injunction, fur- 
ther advice would be superfluous. That it is 
not universally followed is certain, for each 
year brings new records of poisoning cases, 
most of which are caused by species of Aman- 
ita. The first duty of those who insist on eat- 
ing mushrooms is, therefore, to become thor- 
oughly familiar with the botanical features of 
this genus. These once impressed upon the 
mind, the danger from Amanita poisoning will 
be much reduced if not entirely eliminated. 

The following characterization of Amanitas 
should be memorized by the beginner as he 
would memorize a theorem in geometry : 

Any white-scored, more or less free-gilled 
fungus that possesses both ring and rolra is a 



member of the rery dangerous genus Amanita 
(see chart, page 389). 

Extremely common in all parts of the coun- 
try from June until the first frosts, the deadly 
Amanita grows singly or scattered, in and 
near both deciduous and coniferous woods, in 
the soil, among leaves, particularly where the 
ground is low, wet, and not too sandy ; also in 
places where woods have recently been cut 
down, such as lawns, pastures, and fields in 
new suburbs. 

The symptoms of poisoning from this fungus 
appear much later than those due to Amanita 
muscana. The unfortunate victim remains 
quite well until seized suddenly with violent 
abdominal pain, in from six to fifteen hours 
after eating the fungi. Excessive vomiting, 
thirst, and either diarrhea or constipation ac- 
company the abdominal pain. 

The paroxysms of pain may be so severe 
that the face becomes drawn, pinched, and of 
a livid color (Hippocratic face). The attacks 
of pain and vomiting come on periodically, the 
patient loses strength rapidly, jaundice fre- 
quently sets in, and coma finally develops, fol- 




410 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



411 




Photograph by George Shiras, 3d 

AN UNUSUALLY BEAUTIFUL CORAL MUSHROOM (Hydnitin laciniatuni) GROWING ON 

A PROSTRATE TREE 

The species is closely related to H. coralloides, shown on page 410. It is edible when white 
and fresh. Size : Individual clumps up to 10 inches. 



lowed by death. Convulsions may or may not 
occur toward the end. 

The duration of the illness is from three to 
eight daj-s, depending upon the age of the 
patient and upon the amount of fungus eaten. 
There is no known antidote for the poisons, 
and the death-rate is, therefore, very high, 
ranging from 60 to 100 per cent. 

A description of Atnanita fhalloldes and its 
varieties : Cap 2 to 6 inches broad, fleshy, at 
first egg-shaped to bell-shaped, then obtusely 
convex, finally plane or depressed (concave 
when old and overexpanded), usually a little 
elevated in the center, but not umbonate, white 
(in the spring form, A. t-erna, and in A. ivrosa, 
the latter illustrated in Plate X), light yellow- 
ish-white, dull yellow or light brown, grayish, 
grayish-brown or olive-brown (livid purplish- 
brown in A. porfhyria), the disk frequently 
darker in some individuals, approaching black 
(see Plate XVI), citron-yellow (A. citrina, 
illustrated by the figure on the extreme right 
in Plate V), greenish yellow, green or olive- 
green, occasionally streaked with darker shades 
of the prevailing color or with dull reds. 

THE HONEY-COLORED MUSHROOM, 

OR OAK FUNGUS (Armillaria 

mellea). Edible 

(Upper figure, Color Plate ^7) 

Tete de Medusc is a French common name 
for this agaric, the appearance of which in an 



orchard is as much feared by the owner of the 
trees as was the Gorgon head of old. 

Its appetite for living, ligneous substance is 
truly astounding. With equal zest it feeds 
upon oaks, chestnuts, pines, larches, hemlocks, 
and white cedars, reserving for dessert the 
grapevine and most fruit trees. When times 
are hard and "pickins' -slim," it turns upon 
the humble potato. Once, so far as we know, 
its attack was met, and this by an orchid. 
After a battle for supremacy, the two finally 
came to an understanding and decided to work 
together for their mutual benefit. 

Like most successful organisms, it has a 
great capacity for adapting itself. Equally 
at home on plains, mountain peaks, and in 
mines, it pursues its prey relentlessly, its rapid 
propagation being aided by blackish cords 
(rhizomorphs) that do reconnoitering duty 
under the ground and under the bark of trees. 
Even the orchardist plowing over the site 
of a tree killed by the Armillaria unwittingly 
assists in its distribution by scattering frag- 
ments of these rhizomorphs over new feeding 
ground. 

Much work has been done to combat this 
fungus pest, latest among which is that by 
Prof. W. T. Home, of the University of Cali- 
fornia. 

As might be expected in so widely dis- 
tributed and adaptable a plant, its tendency 
to vary, both in color and in structure, is al- 
most limitless (see pages 394 and 395). 



412 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




THE HEDGEHOG HYDNUM (Hydnum erinaceus). EDIBLE 

Not infrequently the assiduous mushroom-hunter, "new to the game," finds specimens 
that do not tally with his conception of what a mushroom should be like. This is one of 
those surprises. Whitish to creamy-white when fresh. Somewhat under natural size. 







Photographs by A. G. and B. Leeper 

A CORAL MUSHROOM (Clavaria flava). EDIBLE 

The novice seeing this remarkable growth for the first time finds it difficult to believe 
that it is a mushroom. Branches pale yellow ; base and main stems white. Common in woods 
from July to September. .Somewhat under natural size. (For another Clavaria, see Color 
Plate V, middle figure.) 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



413 




A HUGE, CONSPICUOUS MUSHROOM SOMETIMES FOUND IN FORESTS 

herbstii). EDIBLE 

This rare and beautiful fungus should be looked for in oak woods. About one-half 

natural size. 



Because of the acrid taste that is usually 
present in the raw plant, it is not rated very 
high as an edible species. 

This mushroom grows wherever there is 
wood to be attacked in the open, commonly in 
woods, on the ground, or on decaying stumps 
and trunks of trees, singly, scattered, or in 
dense clusters; time, mainly in the autumn, 
though it may occur as early as June; distri- 
bution, cosmopolitan. 

THE GARLIC MUSHROOM (Marasmius 
scorodonius). Edible 

(See Color Plate VI) 

Some people enjoy the flavor of garlic. To 
these it will be interesting news that they may 
have their garlic in mushroom form if they 
will enter a pine or spruce forest. Here, in 
vast hordes, covering the fallen twigs, sticks, 
and needles, grows the little Marasmius. One 
cannot mistake the plant, for the odor is so 
pronounced that the "nose knows" it before 
the eye sees it. 

It may be used like garlic, in dressings, and 
as a flavor for roasts, etc. Since it occurs in 
great abundance and dries readily, it can be 
stored for use in the winter, when it will also 
prove a reminder of the pleasant days spent 
in mushroom-hunting. The dried plants must 
be steeped in water before they are employed 
in the kitchen. 



The. Garlic mushroom grows in woods, espe- 
cially of pines, on needles, twigs, etc.; time, 
July to October, very plentiful after heavy 
rains ; distribution, temperate North America 
and Europe ; also in Siberia. 

THE LITTLE WHEEL MUSHROOM 
(Marasmius rotula). Edible 

(See Color Plate VI) 

After a summer shower it pays to scrutinize 
closely the decaying debris of a near-by wood. 
Almost certainly one will see on bark, roots, 
and old leaves tufts of this delicate and mar- 
velously made little agaric. 

Note particularly the manner in which the 
hair-like stem is set into the tiny socket, the 
sparsity of the gill development, and the fine 
furrows and scallopings of the margin of the 
cap. A Swiss watchmaker could not excel 
such workmanship. 

During dry weather the plants shrivel into 
invisibility, but, like all members of the genus 
Marasmius, they regain their pristine freshness 
with the return of rain. Sometimes, as if fa- 
tigued from the production of so much minute 
workmanship, the plants fail to produce caps, 
and the stems, too, are often abnormally grown 
together in a branching manner. 

For culinary purposes this species is used as 
an addition to gravies. When garnishing veni- 



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THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by A. G. and B. Leeper 

THE; GEMMED PUFF-BALL (Lycopcrdon gemmatum) FOUXD EVERYWHERE 

Though small, this "gem-studded" species is much sought by mushroom-eaters and may be dis- 
covered growing scattered or in tufts, usually on the ground. About one-half natural size. 



son, it adds the appropriate touch of the wild 
woodlands. 

This species grows on decaying wood (bark, 
roots, and stumps) and on old leaves in woods 
of maple, beech, etc. ; time, June to Septem- 
ber; distribution, temperate North America, 
Europe, and South Africa. 

HEDGEHOG MUSHROOMS (Various 
species of Hydnum) 

(Sec Color Plate VI} 

Not infrequently the assiduous mushroom- 
hunter, "new to the game," finds specimens 
that do not tally at all with his conception of 
what a mushroom should be like. He has soon 
learned, of course, to recognize the gill tribes 
(see page 390), and the Boleti (see page 406), 
and perhaps the Clavarias (see page 412), but 
should he encounter a toadstool with "teeth," 
he will be nonplussed, until assured by his 
mycological mentor that there are such "ani- 
mals," and that they go by the name of Hedge- 
hog mushrooms. 

They are not as frequent as the others, and 
therefore all the more of a surprise when met 
with. Some are conspicuously beautiful, and 
the story that the great Swedish mycologist, 
Elias Fries, was attracted to the study of the 
fungi on beholding in his youth a specimen of 
the snowy-white coral Hydnum may well be 
believed (see illustration, page 410). 



The teeth, varying in size and color in dif- 
ferent species, clothe the lower side of the 
fruit-bodies, which may be cap-like, as in 
agarics and boleti, branched, solidly formed 
into tuberous, fleshy masses, or spread out in 
a flat layer. No poisonous species are known, 
though many are tough, bitter, or malodorous, 
and thus naturally unattractive to the my- 
cophagist. 

Hydnum fennicuin, the Finnish Hydnum (see 
Color Plate VI), is too bitter to be eaten, 
but its general aspect gives some idea of the 
appearance of the edible H. imbricattim. The 
latter species has a more umber-colored, less 
reddish cap, no blue discoloration in the flesh 
of the stem, a less bitterish taste, and coarser 
teeth. Deer are said to be fond of it. 

THE CINNAMON CORTINARIUS 
(Cortinarius cinnamomeus). Edible 



Plants belonging to the bulky genus Corti- 
narius are very numerous in our forests dur- 
ing the autumn months ; yet. except for a few 
well-characterized species, one and all are left 
severely alone by the average student of mush- 
rooms; this not because of any fear from poi- 
soning the genus is a fairly safe one but 
because of the difficulties attending their study. 

It is easy enough to say that one has found a 
"Cort" the term of endearment for members 
of this "offish" genus. To determine the plant 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



415 




Photograph by A. G. and B. Leeper 

GIANT PUFF-BALL (Calvatid gigantea) 

The best-known of all puff-balls. A single specimen will suffice for the largest family. 
Diameter often fourteen inches and over. 

As children, we have all squeezed the puff-ball to make it "puff," little realizing that in 
doing this we were liberating billions of spores, which if everything went well with them 
would produce in turn billions of puff-balls. But there is "many a slip" in the life of a puff- 
ball spore. Were this not so, the whole country at the proper season, would be paved with 
puff-balls. 

A recent investigator, Professor Buller, computing the number of spores in a single 
good-sized specimen of the giant puff-ball, found that it contained about seven trillions 
(7,000,000,000,000) ; and yet this species is by no means as common as those who know its 
delicious flavor would like it to be. One is inclined to ask as we do about the fate of pins 
what becomes of them all? . . . The plant grows in grassy places, in August and Sep- 
tember, sometimes in "fairy-rings." It is not very common, we regret to say. 

To escape acceptance of the theory of the spontaneous generation of life, it has been 
suggested that extraordinarily minute organisms (bacteria, for example), or their spores, 
propelled alive through space, might be capable of carrying life to planets. When it is con- 
sidered that the vitality of some spores remains unimpaired after prolonged exposure to 
liquid air and even liquid hydrogen, the suggestion seems plausible. 

See also pages 392 and 402. 



416 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by A. G. and B. Leeper 

THE CUP-SHAPED PUFF-BALL (Calvatio. cyathiformis) COMMON IN FIELDS 

The purplish-brown surface, cracked like an alligator's skin, is the distinguishing feature 
of this much-hunted species, which grows in pastures and in cultivated lands during August 
and September. Less than one-half natural size. 



specifically, however, is a different problem, 
largely for the reason that it is essential to 
have more than one specimen, preferably a 
whole series, covering the development from 
extreme youth to full maturity. 

If such a series is at one's disposal, impor- 
tant notes can be made first, on the difference 
in the gill-color of young and old specimens ; 
second, on the color of the cobweb-like veil, 
present in all true Cortinarii, and on the pres- 
ence or absence of a secondary or universal 
veil ; third, on the shape, color, and general 
surface characters (including degree of sticki- 
ness) of the plants. 

The species included here and figured in 
its natural colors is sometimes found. The 
change in the color of the gills is shown, as is 
also the difference in the general aspect due 
to growth. The amateur would scarcely con- 
sider the two plants as belonging to one spe- 
cies. To complicate the situation further, this 
species has several varieties, one of which, with 
blood-red gills, is quite common. 

Many species of Cortinarius exhibit beauti- 
ful coloration, the light lavender, blue, and 
violet-colored ones being noted in this respect. 
A few have bright red bands encircling their 
stems, as in the common C. armillatus. 

THE CHANTRELLE (Cantharellus 
cibarius). Edible 

(See Color Plate VII) 

On special state occasions the golden Chan- 
trelle graces the festive board, yet there is no 



reason in the world why it should not be on 
every man's table throughout the land and 
throughout the year. Abundant and easily 
recognized, any one may gather it in quantity 
and without fear of being poisoned. 

Its natural habitat is in forests of spruce, 
pine, hemlock, beech, and other trees ; com- 
monly found growing in troops, from June to 
October. Long cooking over a slow fire, in 
a covered vessel, improves both flavor and 
consistency. The dressing may be simple or 
very elaborate. It dries readily. 

Though a somewhat variable fungus, both as 
to shape and color, its characteristic, dull- 
edged, irregularly forked gills render identifi- 
cation easy, 

It is a cosmopolitan species, but limited, as 
are most fleshy fungi, to the more temperate 
regions of the earth (see Clitocybe illudens, the 
False Chantrelle, Plate III). 

THE PERENNIAL POLYSTICTUS 

(Polystictus perennis) 

(See Color Plate VII) 

When in the woods, "stalking" the edible 
fungi, the hunter, sensitive to the beautiful as 
well as the useful, cannot but stop to admire 
the little cinnamon-colored cups of various 
Polystictus species that stud his pathway. The 
present species is one of the commonest. A 
West African species, the magnificent Poly- 
stictus sacer is an object of religious worship 
with the natives. Let us hope that it is merely 
a worship at the shrine of beauty. 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



417 



The genus Polystictus is a member of a 
large family, the Polyporaceap. Some of the 
bracket- or hoof -shaped species of the poly- 
pores are familiar objects to the forest ram- 
bler. Unfortunately, they are only too familiar 
to the forester, many being very destructive 
to our trees. Polypoms applanatus, a common 
bracket fungus, deserves notice because of the 
use to which it is put by the collector who 
combines artistic proclivities with his myco- 
logic ones. The under, or hymenial, surface 
of this fungus is almost white. Upon the 
slightest scratch, however, the white is re- 
moved and a dark line appears. 

Provided with nothing more than a good 
fresh specimen of this fungus and a stylus 
in the form of a sharp-pointed branchlet, con- 
veniently picked up at his feet, the artist- 
mycologist may proceed to sketch the land- 
scape. If he has the ability of a Seymour 
Hayden or a Pennell, the result will compare 
favorably with a good etching. After the fun- 
gus is thoroughly dry, the picture is perma- 
nently fixed, and it mav then be set up in the 
summer bungalow to recall a day pleasantly 
and profitably spent (see page 409 for illustra- 
tion of P. applanatus}. 

THE EQUESTRIAN TRICHOLOMA 

(Tricholoma equastre). Edible 

{Lower left figure, Color Plate VII) 

The Tricholomata are attractive agarics. 
Clean, trim, often of elegant stature and beau- 
tiful coloring, they have become known in some 
countries under the attractive name of Knightly 
mushrooms. The time for their appearance 
is rather late in the autumn, when the air is 
a little chill and the forest foliage is beginning 
to glow with Titian's tints. 

The present species, the Equestrian tricho- 
loma, is one of the better-known examples of 
the genus. It is edible and therefore eagerly 
sought as soon as the weather is propitious. 
The taste is apt to be a little unpleasant in 
uncooked plants, but this is true of a number 
of edible species, notably of Armillaria mellea 
( Plate VI) and of Lactarius piperatus, a very 
large, coarse, white, "milk"-exuding species, 
common in woods. Conversely, some of the 
deadliest species of Amanita give no forewarn- 
ing at all through the sense of taste. 

The Equestrian tricholoma is found in pine 
woods; time, September to November; distri- 
bution, North America and Europe. 

MORELS. (Edible) 
(See Color Plate VII) 

The Morel, or Sponge mushroom, belongs 
with the Ascomycetes, fungi quite distinct 
from those which bear gills, tubes, teeth, etc. 
Not only is there a marked departure in the 
external form, but the microscopic features, 
likewise, show a fundamental difference (see 
pages 420-421). 

The normal time for Morels to appear is in 
spring, though they have been known to occur 
in autumn. After a gentle April shower, the 



fungus-hunter, betaking himself to the nearest 
apple or peach "'orchard, or to recently burnt- 
over wooded areas, searches for the light 
brownish, fawn-colored, or olive gray, pitted 
heads. If luck is with him he doesn't search 
long, for he soon finds enough of the coveted 
'sponges" to give him his first taste of fresh 
mushrooms of the year. 

For centuries the Morels have been favorites 
with the fungus-epicures. Indeed, so highly 
were they regarded by some European peoples 
that forests were burned down by them to ob- 
tain the substratum best suited to their de- 
velopment a method of procedure that recalls 
Ho-ti's way of roasting pigs. In recent years 
efforts have been made by French investigators 
to grow the plants artificially. 

Before proceeding to cook them, the plants 
should be washed to remove any earth that 
may be lodged in the pits of the cap. Then, 
cutting off as little of the stems as possible, the 
hollow interior must be thoroughly rinsed with 
hot water. Having further assured one's self 
that the plants are perfectly fresh, crisp, and 
clean, cooking can begin. 

The methods of preparation for the table are 
various. Stuffed with veal, chicken, or ancho- 
vies, and garnished as elaborately as one 
pleases, they are especially delicious. But they 
lend themselves to any mode of cooking. Penn- 
sylvania farmers, who know them as "Mer- 
kels," prefer them in a pot-pie. 

Different species have been distinguished, 
but they are one and all edible when in first- 
class condition. Some, like M. esculenta (Color 
Plate VII), have a more or less rounded cap; 
others are conical in shape (M. conica, page 
420), and one, which is said to be better than 
the rest, has a somewhat oblong, cylindrical, 
olive-gray cap, which is often a little curved 
(M. deliciosa, page 420). The species M. semi- 
libera is shown in the illustration on page 421. 

THE DELICIOUS, OR ORANGE-MILK, 
LACTAR (Lactarius deliciosus). Edible 

(See Color Plate VII) 

When injured, certain fungi have the pecu- 
liarity of exuding a colored, uncolored, or 
color-changing juice, called "milk," or latex. 
Among the larger gill-fungi that have this 
property are the members of the genus Lac- 
tarius. 

Of the numerous edible species, the Orange- 
Milk Lactar so named because of its orange- 
colored milk is the most generally known, 
its reputation extending back to the 'old herb- 
alists of the sixteenth century, and possibly to 
ancient Roman days, for a picture of this spe- 
cies, said to be the earliest representation of a 
fungus extant, was discovered on a wall in 
ill-fated Pompeii. 

The following quotations will convey some 
idea of the esteem in which it was and is still 
held. 

Sowerby says: "It is very luscious eating, 
full of rich gravy, with a little of the flavour of 
mussels." Sir James Smith pronounces it "the 
most delicious mushroom known." Other 



418 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Natural size or a 



Photograph by A. G. and B. lyeeper 

THE PEAR-SHAPED PUFF-BALL (Lycoperdon piriformc} 

This small, edible species may be found on almost any rotting 
stump or log from July to late in the autumn, 
little under (see also picture on opposite page). 

commendatory comments are : "Good, pre- 
served in vinegar" (Richon and Roze) ; "Most 
excellent" (Berkeley) ; "Fried with butter and 
salt, it has a taste like lamb" (De Seynes). 

Dr. Peck, our own more recent authority, 
says, it is "one of our most valuable mush- 
rooms, but scarcely equal to the best. Doubt- 
less differences of opinion concerning it may be 
due in part to different methods in cooking," 

With regard to tastes, it is always well to 
remember that they are individual; "other- 
wise moths would not eat cloth." 

When eaten in the raw state, the Orange- 
Milk Lactar develops an acrid taste, and when 
old its bright-orange coloring changes to dull, 
grayish-greenish, unattractive hues. It is, 
therefore, inadvisable to eat uncooked or old 
specimens. Pickled in vinegar, however, it 



is very appetizing when 
served as a relish with 
cold meats. 

This desirable species 
is found in moist, mossy 
woods of pine, tamarack, 
hemlock, etc. : time. July 
to October: distribution. 
North America and 
Europe. 

PANJEOLUS Species 

Poisonous 

(See Color Plate VIII) 

Every collector of edi- 
ble species should learn 
to distinguish the Pan- 
aeoli from Agaricus cam- 
pcstcr and the Coprini. 
Because of the dark, 
blackish coloring of their 
gills, they are very apt 
to get into a mess of 
either of these species, 
and when this happens 
the eater is almost sure 
to experience symptoms 
of poisoning. The differ- 
entiation of the species 
is an extremely difficult 
matter, but, generically, 
they are easily recog- 
nized by their slender 
stems, grayish or reddish- 
brown (sometimes hy- 
grophanous), commonly 
bell-shaped or obtusely 
expanded caps, and most 
important by the black, 
or very nearly black, 
spores that are borne on 
non-deliquescent gills, 
generally in spot-like 
areas, causing the gills 
to appear mottled with 
black. 

The symptoms from 
Panaeolus poisoning ap- 
pear very soon after the 

fungi have been eaten, sometimes within fifteen 
minutes. They seem to vary slightly, depending, 
presumably, upon the species and the amount 
consumed. The following have been recorded : 
failure of muscular coordination, giddiness, 
difficulty in standing, inability to walk, drowsi- 
ness, lack of control of the emotions (inordi- 
nate hilarity), incoherent or inappropriate 
speech. The sight is usually affected, causing 
the furniture to appear bent, pliable, and in 
motion; and there are visions of beautiful 
colors. Temporary paralysis of a limb may 
occur. 

The effects of the intoxication are said to 
pass off within a few hours ; still, it would seem 
that emetics ought to be administered without 
delay to prevent the complete absorption of 
the poisons. 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



419 




.Photograph by George Shiras, 3d 

THE PEAR-SHAPED PUEE-BALL (Lycopcrdon piriforme) 

It is seen growing on and about the base of a tree (for another illustration of this species, see 
page 418). The plants are edible as long as the "flesh" is white. 




Photograph by A. G. and B. Leeper 

THE SKULL- OR BRAIN-SHAPED PUEE-BALL (Cdlvatia craniiformis) 

One of the best, so long as the interior is white. Once the color changes, it is very 
bitter. Should be looked for in the autumn, in thickets by roadsides. About one-third 
natural size. 



420 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 





Photographs by A. G. and B. Leeper 

MORELS: UPPER FIGURE, Morchella ddiciosa; LOWER FIGURE, MorchcUa cornea. 

EDIBLE 

After a gentle April shower the fungus-hunter will find these delectable mushroom 
morsels growing in old apple and peach orchards or in recently burnt-over wooded areas. 
The plants vary m height from two to six inches (see figure, lower right, Color Plate VII 
and text, page 417). 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



421 





THE BROWX GYROMITRA (Gyromitra brunnca}. EDIBILITY DOUBTFUL 

Since one species of Gyromitra is known to be poisonous, it is perhaps just as well to let 
them all alone. G. bntnnea reaches a height of seven inches. 




Photographs by A. G. and B. Leeper 

THE HALF-FREE MORCHELLA (Morchclla scmi-libera). EDIBLE 

This morel is small and not as sapid as the larger species. The term "half-free" refers 
to the attachment of the cap to the stem. The sectional view on the extreme right shows that 
the cap is only half-attached, or half-free. (For other Morels, see page 420 and figure in 
lower right, Color Plate, VII.) 



422 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



LAWN MUSHROOMS (including Nau- 
coria semiorbicularis, edibility doubtful, 
and Pholiota praecox, edible) 

(Sec Color Plate VIII) 

Some one has said that he who wishes to 
explore the world should begin at his own 
doorstep. Addressed to the incipient mush- 
room collector, this maxim imparts wholesome 
advice, for without stirring far from home 
yes, within eyeshot of his front door he can 
collect enough species to make a respectable 
list, and not a few that will give him some- 
thing more substantial in the way of a de- 
licious snack of mushrooms; also, he is likely 
to encounter some that are poisonous. 

Among the species to be looked for on lawns 
and other grassy places are : 

Naticoria semiorbicularis (see Color Plate 
VIII, the small cluster and single figure in 
upper right), is very common on lawns. The 
caps are somewhat sticky in wet weather and 
the stems have a characteristic, easily removed, 
pale pith within. Edibility doubtful. 

Pholiota frcccox, the early Pholiota (see 
Color Plate VIII, showing two plants, young 
and old, lower right). This is another com- 
mon, edible, mushroom of our lawns. Appears 
early in the spring. The young plant shows 
the ring before it becomes detached from the 
edge of the cap ; the older one shows this 
tissue hanging down and covered with a dense 
deposit of the rusty-brown spores. The cap 
of the early Pholiota varies in color from 
darkish ochcr and brownish to a creamy white 
more or less pale. Occasionally the surface is 
finely cracked into little areas. The variety 
shown here grows in thin woods. In young 
plants the gills are colored a beautiful warm 
gray. 

THE GLISTENING COPRINUS 
(Coprinus micaceus) 

(See Color Plate VIII) 

The Glistening Coprinus (Cof>rinus mica- 
ceus), illustrated on page 404, is familiar 
to ever}' one. It is one of the first mushrooms 
to respond to the showers of early spring. Al- 
most any stump will yield hundreds of speci- 
mens. To save trouble, the abundant crop 
should be "harvested" with a pair of shears. 
When simmered down they make an excellent 
ketchup. 

The minute glistening particles on the cap 
and the fine, long grooves on the margin of 
the same at once mark the species. 

THE IMPERIAL AGARIC, OR CAE- 
SAR'S MUSHROOM (Amanita 
caesarea). Edible 

(See Color Plate IX) 

This brilliantly colored, stately agaric is the 
famed "boletus" served at the feasts of the 
emperors of ancient Rome, and lauded in prose 
and verse by the writers of that period. So 
highly was it esteemed by epicures that they 



prepared and cooked the plants themselves, per- 
forming these operations with utensils of am- 
ber and gold. Special vessels, "boletaria," were 
used in cooking the boleti, though in some 
households they doubtless got mixed occasion- 
ally with other pots and pans. Martial, in his 
"Epigrams," lets one that was so treated bewail 
its fate : 

"Although boleti have given me 
so noble a name, I am now 
used, I am ashamed to say, for 
Brussels sprouts." 

From Juvenal we learn that the preparing of 
boleti by the young patricians themselves was 
regarded as a sign of the mollycoddle, for he 
writes : 

''Nor will that youth allow any 
relative to hope better of him 
who has learnt to peel truffles 
and to pickle boleti." 

Caesar's mushroom grows with us today, its 
distribution being limited, however, to the 
States east of Ohio. It is especially abundant 
in the South, and occurs sparingly as far north 
as Nova Scotia. If there is much showery 
weather, it may be looked for in open conif- 
erous and deciduous woods from July to Octo- 
ber. Occasionally it forms huge "fairy-rings." 

Except for the very real danger of confound- 
ing it with the deadly Anton ft a uniscana 
(Color Plates II and XV, and chart, page 
389), there is no reason why it should not 
again become a favorite with those who, like 
the old Romans, are fond of rare delicacies. 
But those who wish to try it should postpone 
the pleasure until they are thoroughly familiar 
with a considerable number of Amanitas, as 
an error in observation may mean death, pre- 
ceded by horrible agonies (see the symptoms 
of poisoning by Amanita nuiscaria, on page 
403). 

No difficulty will be experienced in avoiding 
the citron-colored variety of the deadly Amanita 
phalloides (see figure at extreme right of Plate 
V). The cap in that variety is never orange, 
the gills and stem are never clear yellow, and 
the volva is composed of short, thick segments 
surrounding the upper part of the large, globu- 
lar base of the stem. 

[For Color Plate X, see the Deadly Ama- 
nita, page 409). 

THE SOOTY LACTAR (Lactarius lig- 
niotus). Edibility doubtful 

(See Color Plate XI) 

To the city dweller, who through lorce of 
circumstances is allowed a limited number of 
cubic feet of air in which he must "live, move, 
and have his being," it must be tantalizing to 
read that this attractive lactar leads its life in 
the cool, mossy depths of the vast fir forests. 
In the hot months of July and August, the time 
of its occurrence, it is well to have ready this 
excuse for an outing: "I am going in quest 
of the sooty lactar." 




THE FIELD, OR HORSE MUSHROOM (AGARICUS ARVENSIS): Edible 

The large plant and sectional view. Somewhat reduced in size. 

The strong, sweetish odor given off by this agaric is objectionable to some. 

THE COMMON MEADOW-MUSHROOM (AGARICUS CAMPESTER): Edible 

Figure at lower right. Under natural size. 
When the average person says " mushroom," it is this species that is meant. 





THE FLY-MUSHROOM (AMANITA MUSCARIA): Deadly poisonous 

Mature specimen. Somewhat under natural size. 

This species and Amanit.a phalloides (see Nos. X and XVI) are the common causes of serious mushroom- 
poisoning (for figures of young plants, see No. XV). 





JACK-O'-LANTERN (CLITOCYBE ILLUDENS): Poisonous 

About four-fifths natural size. 

A conspicuous object by daylight, this Clitocybe is also visible in the profoundest darkness, the phos- 
phorescent light which it emits betraying its presence. Should not be confounded with the edible Chantrelle 
(see No. VII, figure at upper right). 

Ill 




I 





THE EDIBLE BOLETUS, THE "CEPE" OF COMMERCE (BOLETUS EDULIS) 

Somewhat under natural size. 
The mushroom connoisseur should cultivate the acquaintance of this most excellent species. 

IV 





Upper figure: THE HONEY MUSHROOM, OR OAK FUNGUS (ARMILLARIA MELLEA) : 
Edible. This common agaric is the bane of the orchardist (see also photographs and text). Figure in the 
middle on the left: THE GARLIC MUSHROOM (MARASMIUS SCORODONIUS) : Edible. The 
odor of garlic is so pronounced in this little species that the " nose knows " it before the eye sees it. Figure 
in the middle on the right : THE LITTLE WHEEL MUSHROOM (MARASMIUS ROTULA): Edible. 
When garnishing venison, this dainty Marasmius adds the appropriate touch of the wild woodlands. Lower 
figure: THE FINNISH HYDNUM (HYDNUM FENNICUM). This species is too bitter to be eaten, 
but the nearly related H. imbricatum is a great favorite with European peoples. All figures about two-thirds 
natural size. 




Upper left: THE CINNAMON CORTINAR1US (CORTINARIUS CINNAMOMEVS). The Cin- 
namon Cortinarius is not highly recommended as an edible species. Upper right : THE CHANTRELLE 
(CANTHARELLUS C1BARIUS): Edible. (See Clitocybe illudens, No. Hi.) Upper middle: THE PER- 
ENNIAL POLYSTICTUS (POLYSTICTUS PERENNIS). "Stalking" fungi, the hunter, sensitive to 
beauty as well as usefulness, must stop to admire this species. Lower left : THE EQUESTRIAN TRI- 
CHOLOMA (TRICHOLOMA EQUESTRE): Edible. They appear in our forests late in autumn. Lower 
right: THE MOREL (MORCHELLA ESCULENT A): Edible. Esteemed by epicures. Lower middle: 
THE DELICIOUS, OR ORANGE-MILK LACTAR (LACTARIUS DELICIOSUS) : Edible. " It is 
very luscious eating, full of rich gravy, with a little of the flavour of mussels." All figures about two- 
thirds natural size. 






Upper left : A species of PAN^OLUS (poisonous). Upper right : NAUCORIA SEMI-ORBICU- 
LARIS (edible qualities doubtful). Lower left : THE GLISTENING COPRINUS (COPRINUS MICA- 
CEUS): Edible. Lower right: THE EARLY PHOLIOTA (PHOL1OTA PR&COX): Edible. All 
figures about two-thirds natural size. 

VIII 





. 






8' 




CESAR'S MUSHROOM (AMANITA CJESAREA): Edible 

Somewhat under natural size. 

History tells us that a dish of this mushroom, "seasoned" with mineral poisons, constituted the last 
meal of the Roman Emperor, Claudius Caesar. His wife, Agrippina, did the seasoning. 

IX 



I 



THE DESTROYING ANGEL (AMANITA PHALLOIDES VAR. VIROSA). 

Deadly poisonous. About four-fifths natural size. 

One of the worst of the man-killing mushrooms. Note the "death-cup" at the base of the stem (see 
No. XVI ; and No. V, figure oh right). 

X 





THE SOOTY LACTAR (LACTARIUS LIGNIOTUS): Edibility doubtful 

Somewhat under natural size. 
The play of light on the velvety coat of this species attracts the artist who delights in texture rendering. 

XI 







THE SHAGGY-MANE (COPRINUS COMATUS): Edible 

About four-fifths natural size. 

The oval caps of the Shaggy-mane, poised on end, like Columbus' egg, are familiar objects on lawns 
and other rich grounds. Note the " cord " suspended in the hollow of the stem. 

XII 













THE GYPSY (PHOLIOTA CAPERATA)-. Edible 

Somewhat under natural size. 

Though commonly known as Pholiota caperata, this species has been so much thrown about, from genus 
to genus, that, like the gypsies, it may be said to be quite homeless ; whether this is the reason for its com- 
mon name has not been ascertained. 



XIII 





"~~ 








THE PARASOL MUSHROOM (LEPIOTA PROCERA) -. Edible 

About four-fifths natural size. 

The Parasol is a prime favorite with mushroom eaters so much so, that one shares a mess of it only with 
one's best friend. 



XIV 










THE FLY-MUSHROOM (AMANITA MUSCARIA): Deadly poisonous 

Young specimens. Natural size. 
A mature specimen is shown in No. II. 

XV 










THE DEADLY AMANITA (AMANITA PHALLOIDES) 

Somewhat under natural size. 

The avoidance of Amanita Phalloides and A. muscaria (see No. II) should be the first concern of the 
mycophagist. 



XVI 



COMMON MUSHROOMS OF THE UNITED STATES 



439 



Fully to appreciate its beauty, one should see 
the plant in Nature's own setting, as it reposes 
upon a fresh, green, mossy bank at the foot 
of a great fir, with the crystalline drops of the 
morning dew still studding the smooth, velvety 
coat, with birds singing overhead and squirrels 
scolding us for calling at such an unseasonable 
hour in the morning. 

THE INK MUSHROOMS, OR INK- 
CAPS (Species of Coprinus) 

(See Color Plate XII) 

The Ink-caps need no formal introduction, 
for every one has seen the "Shaggy-mane" 
(Coprinus comatus) (Color Plate XII) stand- 
ing on end, like Columbus' egg, in lawns and 
other grassy places. If one returns later one 
may behold 

"Their mass rotted off them flake by flake, 
Till the thick stalk stuck like a murderer's 

stake. 

Where rags of loose flesh yet tremble on high, 
Infecting the winds that wander by." 

Shelley's lurid lines allude to the liquefaction 
of the caps, a feature which at once distin- 
guishes the Coprini from other black-spored 
agarics. It is, however, not a process of putre- 
faction, as the poet would have us believe, but 
a natural physiological one. 

Shaggy-manes are rapid growers, and, com- 
ing up in dense masses, as they sometimes do, 
thej' are capable of producing considerable 
pressure upon objects that obstruct their 
growth. The writer knows of a case where a 
thick, newly laid concrete walk was broken up 
for some distance by a colony of these large, 
yet tender, mushrooms. 

The black "ink" into which the caps of Cop- 
rini dissolve can be employed for writing. In- 
deed, in France, during the war, it was pro- 
posed that Coprinus ink be used in place of the 
regular article, which was becoming more and 
more expensive. But even in peace times the 
mushroom ink would prove valuable, as it 
could be used in legal documents or in any 
important papers that are apt to be fraudu- 
lently imitated. 

Ink from some especially rare species with 
well-marked spore characters would be well- 
nigh impossible to imitate, as the microscope 
would divulge instantly and beyond peradven- 
ture whether the fluid was obtained from the 
rare Coprinus. To make matters still more 
difficult for forgers, characteristic, easily rec- 
ognized spores from other rare species not 
necessarily black-spored nor from agarics 
could be added to this forgery-proof and in- 
delible writing fluid. Small amounts of gum 
arabic and essence of cloves in the ink will 
give adhesiveness and a pleasant odor. 

The edibility of the Coprini (see also Glis- 
tening Coprinus, Color Plate VIII) is unques- 
tioned by most writers, but care should be ex- 
ercised that only fresh specimens are utilized, 
and that they be cooked without delay, as 
deliquescence sets in very soon. 



THE WRINKLED PHOLIOTA, OR 

THE GYPSY (Pholiota caperata). 

Edible 

(See Color Plate XIII) 

The ocher-colored cap with whitish, fleecy, 
silky fibrils scattered over the central portion, 
the brownish-yellow, longitudinally wrinkled, 
saw-edged gills, together with the slightly vol- 
vate, whitish stem that bears a double-edged 
ring about midway of its length, make the 
Wrinkled Pholiota one of the most easily 
recognized species. 

It is quite common, growing scattered or 
gregariously in woods (especially of pine), in 
mossy swamps, and in open places, from July 
to October. Its edibility is unquestioned. 

THE PARASOL MUSHROOM (Lepiota 
procera). Edible 

(See Color Plate XIV) 

Happy is the mushroom-hunter if, after a 
foray, his "bag" includes many Parasols, for it 
is not often that he encounters this most de- 
sirable species in sufficient quantity to satisfy 
his appetite. 

Though pretty effectually camouflaged in 
coloring, its great height makes it a conspicu- 
ous object. A giant specimen once reported to 
the writer measured seven inches across the 
cap and twenty-two inches in stem length. 
This monster mushroom was found growing 
among low blueberry bushes a fact that would 
seem to indicate an acid food requirement for 
the species. 

Successful efforts have been made in France 
to cultivate the plant from its spores, and Pro- 
fessor Duggar, in this country, has demon- 
strated that it responds vigorously to the 
tissue-culture method. It is to be hoped that 
some of our pure-culture spawn-producers will 
take up the problem and produce the spawn on 
a commercial scale, so that it may be bought 
by growers. Lepiota rhacodes, a near relative 
and just as desirable, might prove even more 
responsive to culture methods. 

In the opinion of gourmets, the Parasol 
mushroom is at its best when quickly broiled 
over the live embers of a camp-fire, with just 
enough basting with hot butter to keep it from 
burning. Then, properly seasoned and served 
with a partridge or two, the gustatory appara- 
tus experiences sensations not readily for- 
gotten. 

Such an eventuality as an oversupply almost 
never happens, but if by rare chance more 
specimens should be collected than can be at 
once disposed of, it is well to remember that 
dry they are even better than fresh. 

The habitat of the Parasol mushroom is 
meadows, pastures, and open, thin woods; 
time, summer and early autumn; distribution, 
cosmopolitan. 

[For Color Plate XV, see the Fly Mush- 
room, page 403.] 

[For Color Plate XVI, see the Deadly Ama- 
nita, page 409.] 



HURDLE RACING IN CANOES 



A Thrilling and Spectacular Sport Among the Maoris 

of New Zealand 



BY WALTER BURKE 



THE title of this article sounds like 
a fairy tale; yet hurdle racing in 
canoes is a highly developed sport 
among the Xe\v Zealand Maoris. 

Two or three things are necessary for 
the sport: First, the canoes must be dug- 
outs. The dainty canoes so popular on 
the American lakes and rivers and the 
beautiful birch-barks of the Canadian 
voyageurs would be too fragile, crump- 
ling up like matchwood at the first hurdle. 

A swift-running river is also desirable, 
in order that the crews may have the help 
of the increased speed given by the cur- 
rent to carry the centers of the canoes 
over the hurdle. This is an important 
consideration, as can be seen from the 
photographs. And the contestants must 
be good swimmers. As every Maori 
man. woman, or child is, there is no risk 
of drowning, even in the roughest water. 

One sees the game at its very best at 
Ngaruawahia, a village in the North 
Island, a little south of Auckland, on the 
seventeenth of March in any year St. 
Patrick's Day. 

At this point the Waikato. one of the 
finest rivers in the Dominion, widens out 
and sweeps round a bend to meet another 
branch. The river carries a great volume 
of water, draining an enormous water- 
shed in the center of the island, including 
Lake Taupo, into which some thirty 
streams discharge. The Waikato plunges 
over the Huka Falls, a miniature Ni- 
agara, below which are the Aratiatia 
Rapids, quite impassable for any boat. 
It is at this point that it is proposed to 
generate sufficient electricity to run the 
railway system of the North Island. 

Prior to the day, the Maoris collect 
from all the adjacent territory, bringing 
with them their prize canoes, each dug 
out of the trunk of a tree. Some of these 
boats are large enough to carry a crew r of 
from thirty to more than forty paddlers. 
These are not for hurdling, however! 



The secret more or less trials pro- 
ceed : training is keen and hard ; the bet- 
ting heavy, for most Maoris are well-to- 
do and are keen sportsmen, willing to 
gamble on anything, from "fly loo" to a 
horse-race ! The excitement progresses 
till the eventful day. when special trains 
bring immense numbers of Maoris and 
Pakehas (white people) from far and 
near. 

The program includes many and varied 
events, but the great attraction is the 
hurdle racing, just as the steeplechase 
attracts the eager crowd at a turf event. 
Of course, in saying this, I am not belit- 
tling the excitement over the big canoe 
races. There is not the fun in these, 
however, as there are no accidents, while 
the hurdle racing is one continuous series 
of them a spill at practically each hur- 
dle, of which there are usually three or 
four. 

Unless the bow of the canoe is well out 
of the water, it cannot take the hurdle, 
which is from twelve to eighteen inches 
above the surface. The object is to get 
up such speed that when the bow slides 
on to the hurdle the smooth and well- 
greased bottom will continue to glide till 
past the center of gravity, when the mem- 
bers of the crew run forward and their 
weight causes the bow to go down with a 
"flop" and the stern slides off. The bow 
usually dips under and partly fills the 
canoe with water, which is removed by 
rocking or is splashed out with the aid 
of the flat of the paddle. 

This is the program when all goes well ! 
And it will probably happen when one 
canoe can shoot away from the others 
and negotiate the first hurdle alone. But 
usually about four or five canoes come 
down almost simultaneously, the crews 
yelling like fiends, and there is a thrilling 
mix up, from which the brainiest crew, 
with the best of luck, gets out of the ruck 
and away. 



HURDLE RACING IX CANOES 



441 




Walter Burke 

MAORI WOMEN ARE SKILLFUL PARTICIPANTS IN THESE CONTESTS: THIS IS A RACE 

FOR MATRONS 

One boat has upset. The Maori women, like the men, are expert swimmers and a spill in 
the water is not fraught with danger. 




:r Burke 



NINETY PADDLES CHURNING THE WATER 



Note the uniformity of stroke and the level keels. The use of a hollowed log as a canoe 
makes skill a necessity. The principal races among the Maoris of New Zealand take place 
on St. Patrick's Day. 




442 




443 




444 



MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OF NATIONS 



First Account of Remarkable Prehistoric Tombs and 

Temples Recently Unearthed on the Island 

/ 

BY WILLIAM ARTHUR GRIFFITHS 

Original photographs by courtesy of R. Ellis and Lieutenant Tickle 



MALTA is but a tiny island, less 
than a hundred square miles in 
area, with no special beauty of 
hill or dale, almost without tree or stream, 
yet by the inscrutable decree of Destiny 
it has been called to fill a great role in 
the history of the world. 

Situated in the narrowest part of the 
Mediterranean, it lies in the direct route 
from Gibraltar to Port Said or the Dar- 
danelles, midway from Italy to its turbu- 
lent colony of Tripoli and from the 
French territory of Tunis to their watch- 
tower at Corfu, at the mouth of the 
Adriatic (see map, page 449). 

Nature has thus ordained that Malta, 
by reason of its position, should form a 
center from which naval activity in this 
sea can be controlled. 

"Some are born great . . . and 
some have greatness thrust upon them." 
It is to the latter class that Malta be- 
longs. 

Since the outbreak of the World War, 
Malta has resembled the Tower of Babel 
after the confusion of tongues. In its 
harbors transport after transport has 
anchored, each crowded with troops of 
varied race English, Scot, Irish, Welsh, 
Australian, New Zealander, French, Ital- 
ian, Portuguese, Russian, Japanese ma- 
rine, Serbian, Montenegrin, Greek, Cre- 
tan, Hindu, Bengali, Gurkha, Pathan, 
men from Ceylon and the Straits, Maori, 
Chinese, Annamite, Tonquinese, Egyp- 
tian, Moor, Arab, Tunisian, Congolese, 
Senegalese, Zouave and Chasseur d'Af ric, 
gay Bersaglieri in seemingly unending 
procession. 

Here also came, as prisoners, Aus- 
trians, Bulgars, Turks, and Germans, 
some from the famous Emdcn. 

Malta was indeed a Haven of -Refuge, 
and all too soon they passed onward, 
some to .find a watery grave, many more 
to die by murderous poison gas, by fiery 



burning oil, or by more merciful shot and 
shell. 

Soon Malta became the Island of Hos- 
pitals, where the sick and maimed, the 
fever-stricken and blind, found such rest 
and comfort as this world can give. Ere 
long this privilege was denied, as the 
enemy submarine spared neither hospital 
nor passenger ship, woman nor child. 

"A PLACE OF CURSED STEPS" 

Malta has thus been the halting place 
of many nations, and one wonders what 
thought or message it has given to them. 
"A place of cursed steps," was Byron's 
unpoetic tribute. "Bells, yells, and 
smells" is the terse but graphic descrip- 
tion of the British bluejacket, while to 
the majority of visitors it is merely a 
treeless waste of arid stone, almost in- 
candescent in the blinding glare of the 
summer sun. 

In each of these descriptive phrases 
there is much truth ; yet to those who 
peer below the surface Malta is one of 
the treasure-houses of the world, where 
the history of mankind can be read in 
lasting tables of stone. 

Untold ages ago coral insects laid the 
early foundations of Malta, their work 
being afterward submerged to a great 
depth. Memorials of the latter period 
are found in the beautifully enameled 
teeth, about six inches long, of sharks 
now extinct, identical with those dredged 
up in the deepest part of the Pacific Ocean 
by the Challenger deep-sea expedition. 

Slowly the land rose again, receiving 
the soil and debris from the fresh-water 
river of some continent now unknown. 
Thus were formed the marl beds to which 
Malta owes her means of maintaining 
life, as without this layer of clay the rain 
would sink and be lost. Next came a 
layer of sand, and again the coral insect 
brought the land to the surface of the 



445 




446 



448 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Helene Philippe 
THE FORTIFICATIONS OF VALLETTA ARE PARTLY HEWN IN THE ROCK 

Enthroned above its harbors, the chief seaport of the Maltese group of islands is one of the 
most picturesque cities of the Mediterranean. 



sea. Many changes occurred, until Malta 
emerged as part of a mighty continent. 

Dimly is seen Africa joined to Spain, 
Tunis, Sicily, Malta, and Italy, their 
shores washed by fresh-water lakes in 
which disported elephant, hippopotamus, 
crocodile, and land tortoise, until the 
floods descended and the earth was 
moved, turning the lakes into salt seas 
and forming the island of Malta. 

PREHISTORIC MEN OF MALTA LEFT THEIR 
MARK IN CART RUTS 

In the caves of Malta, notably that of 
Ghar Dalam, are to be found the rolled 
fossil teeth and bones of the great and 
pigmy elephant, two species of hippo, 



petrified remains of stag, bear, and wolf, 
all wielded into a solid mass. 

As the vertical section of these de- 
posits is examined, there appears toward, 
the top the first signs of man-worked 
flints, sling-stones, neolithic pottery, and 
human bones. Thus is found the first 
trace of man in Malta. 

Whether "Drift Man" was ever an in- 
habitant of Malta is a moot point for 
academic discussion. In a hilltop exca- 
vation, the underground galleries of Hal 
Saflieni, the ceilings of some of the rooms 
are covered with red clay paintings of 
spiral design suggesting a connection 
with the period of the painted caves of 
the Pyrenees (see also page 471). It is 



MALTA: THE HALTINT, PLACE OF NATIONS 



449 




A SKETCH MAP OF MALTA, A TINY ISLAND WHICH HAS PLAYED A GREAT ROLE IN 
WORLD HISTORY (SEE PAGES 450-454) 



established beyond doubt, however, that 
Malta was inhabited by man before it 
assumed its present shape. 

In many parts of the island where the 
bare rock is exposed there can be seen 
deep parallel lines cart ruts winding 
their way quite irrespective of the pres- 
ent centers of abode. Some of the cart 
ruts lead direct to the cliffs, while others 
can be traced under an arm of the sea, 
coming up again on the opposite shore. 
In other cases the tracks are broken by 
a geological fault, the ruts continuing on 
a different level. Many ruts are now 
covered by several feet of earth, fields 
having been formed on their sites (see 
page 455). 

In later Stone Age times Malta pos- 
sessed a considerable population, judging 
from the wonderful buildings erected in 
those days. Some have been investigated, 
but the majority are still untouched. 

Beside the magnificent temple of Gi- 
gantia in Gozo, Malta possesses the un- 
rivaled erections of Hagar Kim (page 
457) , Mnaidra ( page 459) , Corradino, Hal 
Saflieni Hypogeum (page 459), and Hal 
Tarxien (page 469), as well as numerous 
rough stone monuments and altars techni- 
cally known as menhirs and dolmens. 

The extent of some of the prehistoric 
buildings and the wonderful skill dis- 
played in their erection show that man 
had reached a high state of knowledge 
even in the far-off days of B. C. 5000. 



From an examination of the skeletons 
of the polished-stone age, it appears that 
the early inhabitants of Malta were a 
race of long-skulled people of lower 
medium height, akin to the early people 
of Egypt, who spread westward along 
the north coast of Africa, whence some 
went to Malta and Sicily and others to 
Sardinia and Spain. 

There appears little doubt but that the 
early Maltese belonged to the same stock 
as the Iberians of Spain, the Basques of 
the Pyrenees, the Gauls of France, and 
the small, dark men of Cornwall, South 
Wales, and Ireland.'" 

THE ARRIVAL OF THE PHOENICIANS 

The Bronze Age dwellers in Malta left 
behind many interesting relics, a burial 
place having been found on the site of 
the Stone Age temple of Hal Tarxien, 
whose ruined walls doubtless provided 
good shelter for their funeral fires. Nu- 
merous urns containing human ashes 
were found, together with many personal 
ornaments, the whole providing a very 
good insight into their belief that the 
departed were not dead, but merely re- 
moved into another sphere, where they 
required the same food and other neces- 
saries as in this life. 

History proper starts in Malta with 

* See "The Races of Europe," by Edwin A. 
Grosvenor, in the NATIOXAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGA- 
2 INK for December, 1918. 



450 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by S. I*. Cassar 

MANY OF THE THOROUGHFARES OF VALLETTA, MALTA'S 

PRINCIPAL CITY, CONSIST OF FLIGHTS OF STAIRS. 

THIS IS THE STRADA SANTA LUCIA 

Perched high upon a peninsula a mile and a half long and a half 
mile wide, Valletta looks down on the Grand Harbor on the east 
and on the Marsamuscetto Harbor to the west. 



the visits of the Phoenician traders, about 
B. C. 1500. On the Gigantia at Gozo is 
an inscription in Phoenician lettering, the 
usual script in the Mediterranean until 
the advent of Greek or Latin characters. 
The ships of Tarshish found Malta a 
valuable port of call, and in this fact lay 
Malta's fate. In common with all islands, 
its whole prosperity has depended on the 
good-will of the ruling sea power, from 
the days of Tyre to the very present 
hour. Greeks, Carthaginians, Romans, 
Vandals, Arabs, Normans, Spaniards, 



Turks all in succes- 
sion held power in 
Malta by reason of 
their fleets. 

It is doubtful if the 
Punic domination af- 
fected the character- 
istics of the Maltese 
race, as this was 
probably only a rul- 
ing and trading caste, 
few in number. It is 
likely that during this 
time or in early Ro- 
man days the custom 
of burial in hillside 
caves was adopted. 
Thousands of these 
tomb caves exist. In 
them is generally 
found an urn full of 
broken human bones, 
with a flat plate placed 
over the mouth and a 
clay lamp on the plate. 
Bottles of food and 
water were also 
placed in the tomb. 
Beautiful glass ves- 
sels of iridescent blue, 
purple, and green are 
also frequently found 
in these graves. 

The capital of Malta 
was situated far from 
the coast about six 
miles on the highest 
land, the present No- 
tabile. Here, outside 
the city walls, were 
excavated the cata- 
combs which extend 
to a considerable dis- 
tance. The fact that the sign of the 
seven-branch candlestick is carved over 
some of the entrances would suggest a 
Jewish ownership, but this is open to 
doubt, as the Jews have rarely thrived 
in Malta. 

WHERE ST. PAUL WAS SHIPWRECKED 

At Notabile was the seat of the Roman 
governor. His residence has been re- 
cently excavated and many interesting 
relics found. In A. D. 60 St. Paul was 
shipwrecked in the bay now known by 



MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OF NATIONS 



451 






his name, and in the 
Acts of the Apostles 
is this account of his 
stay in the island: 

"And when they 
were escaped, then 
they knew that the 
island was called Me- 
lita. 

"And the barbar- 
ous people shewed us 
no little kindness : 
for they kindled a 
fire, and received us 
every one, because of 
the present rain, and 
because of the cold. 

"And when Paul 
had gathered a bun- 
dle of sticks, and laid 
them on the fire, there 
came a viper out of 
the heat, and fastened 
on his hand. 

"And when the bar- 
barians saw the ven- 
omous beast hang 1 on 
his hand, they said 
among themselves. No 
doubt this man is a 
murderer, whom, 
though he hath es- 
caped the sea, yet ven- 
geance suffereth not 
to live. 

"And he shook off 
the beast into the fire, 
and felt no harm. 

"H o w b e i t they 
looked when he 
should have swollen, 
or fallen down dead 
suddenly: but after they had looked a 
great while, and saw no harm come to 
him, they changed their minds, and said 
that he was a god. 

"In the same quarters were possessions 
of the chief man of the island, whose 
name was Publius : who received us, and 
lodged us three days courteously. 

"And it came to pass, that the father 
of Publius lay sick of a fever and of a 
bloody flux : to whom Paul entered in, 
and prayed, and laid his hands on him, 
and healed him. 

"So when this was done, others also, 







Photograph by A. W. Cutler 

A FAMILIAR NAME IN A FOREIGN PORT 

''The First and Last Lodging House" may be seen at Valletta. 
Malta, the name suggesting those inns and road-houses on the out- 
skirts of American cities which formerly intimated by the name 
"First and Last Chance" that liquid refreshment might be had inside. 



which had diseases in the island, came, 
and were healed : 

"Who also honoured us with many 
honours ; and when we departed, they 
laded us with such things as were neces- 
sary. 

"And after three months we departed 
in a ship of Alexandria." . . . 

St. Paulo and St. Publio are very 
prominent names in the ecclesiastical his- 
tory of the island, and to this day the 
activities of St. Paul in Malta are recited 
in great detail. 

After the fall of Rome Malta became 



4.V2 



THE XAT1OXAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




FISHING IN THE HARP.OR: VALLETTA, MALTA 

Malta is only 60 miles from Sicily, 140 miles from the mainland of Italy, and 180 miles 
from Africa. The cool evening breeze which comes from snow-capped Mount Etna is one 
of the delightful climatic features of the island. 




Photographs by S. L. Cassar 

A FISHERMEN'S LANDING PLACE AT VALLETTA 

The Maltese are famous throughout the Mediterranean as fishermen, merchants, and 
mariners. According to a recent census, the fishing industry employed about 3,000 persons 
operating 900 boats. 



MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OF XATIOXS 



453 



subject to various powers, until finally 
the Arabs, who also ruled Sicily, took 
possession. While excavating the Roman 
governor's villa at Xotabile several Arab 
graves were found, all pointing east- 
ward. Their Semitic inscriptions seemed 
strangely out of place in a Roman ruin. 
The Arabs built the fortress of St. An- 
gelo. which guards the entrance to the 
Grand Harbor, on a site formerly occu- 
pied by a Roman temple dedicated to 
Juno. 

In A. D. 1090 Count Roger of Nor- 
mandy, having conquered Sicily, landed 
at Malta and exacted tribute from the 
Arabs. An inscribed stone over the en- 
trance to Fort St. Angelo records the 
Norman victory, and several beautiful 
Norman buildings are still to be seen at 
Notabile. 

The Arabs finally left Malta about A. 
D. 1250, having exercised rule over the 
island for nearly 400 years, doubtless fa- 
cilitated by their language, which is 
closely akin to Maltese. 

During the next three centuries Malta 
did not figure largely in history. It 
lacked agricultural resources and was 
periodically ravaged by the commanders 
of Turkish fleets, who dragged the un- 
fortunate inhabitants into slavery, while 
famine and plague often followed in 
their wake. 

In 1530 the population of the island 
did not exceed 25,000 and was probably 
considerably less. 

THE BIRTH OF THE ORDER OF ST. JOHN 

In that year a great change occurred. 
Charles V of Spain granted the islands 
of Malta and Gozo, together with the 
town of Tripoli, in Africa, to the Order 
of St. John of Jerusalem, afterward 
known as the Knights of Malta. 

In the early nth century a pilgrimage 
to the holy places at Jerusalem was a 
very arduous and dangerous undertaking 
and many pilgrims died from exhaustion. 
A hospital was founded about 1085 at 
Jerusalem for the use of pilgrims and 
was dedicated to St. John. To meet 
various requirements, the hospital was 
reorganized and an Order instituted, con- 
sisting of ecclesiastics, to administer to 
the spiritual wants of the pilgrims, lay 



brothers for secular duty, and knights 
for defense and protection. 

After the capture of Jerusalem by the 
Saracens, Crusaders from all kingdoms 
of Christendom hastened eastward and 
the Knights of St. John, then installed 
at Acre, added members of many nation- 
alities to their number. In 1252 the 
Pope granted the title of Grand Master 
to the head of the Knights. 

For general convenience, the Order 
was divided into subdivisions according 
to the principal languages spoken by its 
members. The sections of the Order 
were the "Langues" of Provence, Au- 
vergne, France, Italy, Aragon, Catalonia, 
Navarre, England, Germany, Castile, 
Leon, and Portugal. The Langue d'An- 
gleterre was dissolved in 1540, at the 
Reformation. An Anglo-Bavarian Lan- 
gue was reinstituted in the i8th century. 

Each Langue had its own headquarters, 
or "Auberge," and those built at Malta 
are monuments of architectural beauty. 
They are now used chiefly as government 
offices and during the World War were 
scenes of intense activity. 

THE TURKS DEFEATED BY LA VALLETTE 

The Order removed from Acre to 
Cyprus and thence to Rhodes, where its 
headquarters remained until the island's 
fall, in 1522.* The old bond between 
Rhodes and Malta was commeiporated 
by the Pope, who gave the Bishop of 
Malta the title of Archbishop of Rhodes. 

In 1565 the Turkish fleets made a 
powerful attack on Malta, but were 
finally defeated by Grand Master La Val- 
lette, who built the city of Valletta in 
memory of the victory. The Cathedral 
of St. John, in Valletta, was also built as 
a burial place for the Grand Masters, the 
remains of those previously interred in 
the Chapel of Fort St. Angelo being 
transferred. 

In the latter part of the i8th century 
the Langue de France was the richest 
and most powerful section of the Order. 
Lack of military enterprise and luxurious 
living, however, sapped the power and 
prestige of the Knights, who were cordi- 
ally hated by the Maltese. The French 
Revolution at one blow deprived this 

* See "Historic Islands and Shores of the 
JEgean Sea." by Ernest Lloyd Harris, in the 
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, Sept., 1915. 



454 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by W. A. Griffiths 

TOMB OF GRAND MASTER CARAFA IX ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, 
VALLETTA : MALTA 

Tliis cathedral. was built in 1573-77. The interior was elaborately 
decorated as the Temple of Fame for the Order of the Knights of 
St. John. The chapels were dedicated to the nine nations of the 
order (see page 453). 



poleon, profiting by 
the temporary absence 
of the British fleet 
from the Mediterra- 
nean, seized the island 
on his way to Egypt. 
He expelled all mem- 
bers of the Order, 
confiscating f'h e i r 
property and also that 
of the Church. 

It is related that 
the solid silver gates 
of the Sacramental 
Chapel of the Cathe- 
dral of St. John were 
hastily painted over, 
in the hope of escap- 
ing notice, but in vain. 
They were, however, 
redeemed at a great 
price, together with 
the twelve silver stat- 
ues of the Apostles. 

HOW THE HISTORIC 
CROZIER WAS SAVED 

The historic crozier 
that had been brought 
from Rhodes escaped 
the enemy by being 
thrown into a cistern 
by the verger. The 
priests afterward ac- 
cused the verger of 
having stolen it, re- 
fusing to believe his 
statement ; but even 
on his deathbed he 



Langue of most of its revenue, and a 
similar fate soon befell the other sec- 
tions. 

In the course of the next few years 
the Order sank and for a time dwindled 
into oblivion. The Order still exists in 
England and works in conjunction with 
the St. John's Ambulance Society and 
British Red Cross Society, all of which 
rendered magnificent service during the 
World War. 

In 1798 the wheel of Fate again 
brought Malta into prominence. Na- 



persisted in his story, 
and so the cistern 
was drained and the 
crozier found. 
After Napoleon's departure a governor 
was appointed to rule on behalf of the 
French Republic. Soon afterward the 
British fleet returned and won the Battle 
of the Nile over the French. Then 
the Maltese arose against the French gar- 
sison, which was blockaded by the Brit- 
ish. After a gallant defense, lasting two 
years, the garrison finally was forced by 
famine to surrender. 

After peace came Britain proposed to 
restore the island to the Order of St. 
John, but the piteous appeals of the Mai- 



MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OF NATIONS 



455 



tese at last prevailed 
and Malta became in- 
corporated into the 
British Empire a 
very happy decision 
for its inhabitants. 

Year in, year out, 
fresh trade has flowed 
through Malta, at last 
secure from every 
foe. The ships of the 
world soon thronged 
its harbors. 

In 1825 the famous 
American frigate 
Constitution anchored 
at Malta, while after 
the battle of Nava- 
rino, in 1827, the Brit- 
ish. French, and Rus- 
sian fleets returned 
there also. 

The change from 
sail to steam necessi- 
tated the provision of 
greater 'dockyard fa- 
cilities for the British 
fleet in the Mediter- 
ranean, and millions 
of dollars have since 
been spent in Malta 
for this purpose, 
bringing employment 
and trade to the Mal- 
tese such as they had 
never known before. 

The opening of the 
Suez Canal brought 
still further prosper- 
ity, while the in- 
creased size of war- 
ships necessitated further new docks and 
workshops, providing still more employ- 
ment for the skillful and industrious in- 
habitants of the island. 

BAFFLING EVIDENCE OF A REMOTE 
CIVILIZATION 

Reference has been made in the pre- 
ceding pages to the wonderful prehistoric 
remains in Malta. These are extremely 
abundant and afford much tangible evi- 
dence of the civilization of a past so re- 
mote as to be prior to the age of hiero- 
glyphics and inscriptions and even of oral 
tradition. Their study, therefore, af- 




Photograph by A. W. Cutler 

THIS MALTA MORTUARY HAS FOR ITS MURAL DECORATIONS 
MORE THAN 2,OOO HUMAN SKULLS 

These grim relics belonged to the defenders of the island who were 
killed by the Turks in the l6th century. 

fords wide scope for theory, but the lack 
of absolute knowledge renders it a most 
tantalizing, though fascinating, pursuit. 

Possibly the oldest existing evidences 
of civilization in Malta are the cart ruts 
previously mentioned. These exist in 
nearly every part of the island, cutting 
and intersecting each other to such an 
extent as to make the student almost 
despair of ever unraveling their mystery. 
If all the old tracks were traced and in- 
serted on a map, the sites of the centers 
of habitation in prehistoric times would 
doubtless be revealed (see page 449). 

In an arm of the Bay of Marsa Sci- 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by S. I*. Cassar 
THE CHAPEL OF BONES IX VALLETTA: MALTA 

Malta not only has ruins in which prehistoric man buried his thousands, as at Hal Saflieni, 
where the remains of 33,000 persons were found, but also such chapels as this, where the 
bones of the knights of the Middle Ages are preserved. 



rocco. at the southeast end of the island, 
there are about sixty round, bottle-necked 
pits or wells cut out of the foreshore rock. 
A number of these are now under the sea. 
Directly over the mouths of some of them 
run two deep ruts, which lead into the sea 
and reappear on the opposite shore about 
a quarter of a mile away. 

STORAGE WELLS EOR OIL OR WATER 

The original purpose of these wells is 
not known, but it has been suggested 
they were intended for storing fresh 
water, grain or oil and were built at the 
edge of the water for convenience of 
shipment, thus suggesting evidence of 
foreign trade. 

Black tufa stone rubbers were im- 
ported from Sicily and obsidian from 
the Greek islands has also been found. 
Similar pits, however, are found at the 
top of the high cliffs near a prehistoric 
village called Bahria. 

Near this site is a megalithic ruin 



called Borg en Nadur, which recalls in 
shape those curious Sardinian towers, the 
nuraghi,* and the cart tracks appear to 
lead from that place to another neolithic 
erection on the opposite shore. 

Possibly the Phoenicians utilized the 
Stone Age erections for their own sacri- 
ficial purposes, as a votive pillar was 
found in this neighborhood having an 
inscription in two languages, recording 
in Phoenician a vow to Melkarte, Lord 
of Tyre, and one to Hercules Archigetas 
in Greek. 

The prehistoric remains consist chiefly 
of temples, villages, dolmens, menhirs, 
storage places, and tombs. 

The best-known temples are Gigantia. 
in Gozo, the small island four miles 
northwest of Malta, and Hagar Kim, 
Mnaidra, Corradino, and Tarxien, in 
Malta (see also page 473). The last 

*See "Little-known Sardinia," by Helen 
Dunstan Wright in the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 
MAGAZINE for August. 1916. 



MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OF NATIONS 



457 




Photograph by W. A. Griffiths 



THE SOLID SILVER GATES OF ST. JOHN'S CHURCH: MALTA 

When Napoleon stopped at the island on his way to Egypt he expelled the Knights of 
Malta, confiscating their property and that of the Church. These silver gates were hastily 
painted, in the hope that they would escape notice, but in vain. They were subsequently 
redeemed at a great price. 



named was discovered very recently and 
is only partly excavated. The unique 
underground temple of Hal Saflieni be- 
longs in a class to itself. 

THE GENERAL DESIGN OF MALTA'S PRE- 
HISTORIC TEMPLES 

The general design of the temples con- 
sists of two oval or elliptical apses con- 
nected along the lesser axes by passages, 
at the far end of which is generally 
found the principal altar or object of 
worship. 

The passageways appear to have been 
covered over with flat slabs and the oval 
chambers on each side domed, the corbel- 
ing of the walls being very strongly 
marked. 

The compass direction of the passages 
leading to the principal altar varies in 
each temple, which was built to suit local 
topography. There does not appear to 
be any evidence of orientation or sugges- 
tion that the altars faced any special 



heavenly body. The majority face south 
or southeast. 

The ruins of Hagar Kim ("Standing 
Stones") crown a barren, rocky hill on 
the south side of Malta, about a mile 
from the shore. The little islet of Filfla 
alone breaks the wide expanse of deep 
Mediterranean blue. 

Large numbers of massive stones, some 
weighing several tons, were placed on 
end, side by side, each being joined to 
the next with great skill. On top of 
these were placed horizontal layers of 
flat stones, mortised together with great 
accuracy. 

One pillar rises conspicuously above 
the ruined walls. Near it, on the out- 
side, is an altar erected before a sacred 
stone, while a small hole pierces the wall 
to communicate with an inner sanctuary 
and through which the priest or priestess 
possibly consulted the oracle. 

The top of the tall pillar is hollow and 
shaped like a grave, and theorists sug- 
gest that possibly here infants were sac- 



458 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A CHURCH IN MALTA READY FOR ITS FEAST DAY ILLUMINATION 
Note the hundreds of electric-light bulbs in elaborate design on the fagade. 




Photographs by S. L. Cassar 



A RELIGIOUS PROCESSION IN MALTA 



The Maltese are deeply attached to the Church of Rome, and it is said that in no other 
community of equal size are the religious edifices so numerous and so beautifully decorated. 
The first Christian bishop, of the island, legend tells us, was Publius, whom Paul converted. 



MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OF NATIONS 



459 



rificed or the dead exposed to birds of 
prey, as is done in the Indian Towers of 
Silence.* 

STONE FIGURES WITH PLAITED SKIRTS 

When Hagar Kim was explored vari- 
ous interesting relics were found. One 
was a four-sided pillar with a flat, round 
top, possibly a sacramental altar. Each 
side is decorated with pittings at the 
edges, while the centers contain carvings 
of a many-leafed plant growing out of a 
vase. This decoration may represent the 
Tree of Life. 

The most remarkable find consisted of 
seven stone carved figures of steatopy- 
gous females, some draped with plaited 
skirts and others apparently nude. Pos- 
sibly they were originally painted en- 
tirely red, as red ocher paint is stilt 
largely visible. 

One figure has a sort of pigtail behind. 
which might also have served as a handle 
to permit the image to be carried in a 
procession. None of them had heads, 
although sockets were found into which 
detachable heads could be fixed. 

These figures suggest that they were 
worshiped as the Mother Giver of Life. 
They are sometimes described as the 
Seven Cabiri of the Phoenicians, to which 
nation all Maltese antiquities and even the 
race itself were until recently ascribed. 
Subsequent discoveries have proved be- 
yond doubt, however, that these images 
were of neolithic age. 

THE MAI/TESE LANGUAGE HAS NO WORD 
"FATHER" 



In connection with the worship of 
Matriarchy, it is curious to note that the 
Maltese language contains no word for 
"father" which conveys the idea of a 
head of a family. Their word "missier" 
literally means "instrument of genera- 
tion" and suggests the time when descent 
was reckoned maternally rather than pa- 
ternally. 

About half-way between Hagar Kim 
and the shore is the neolithic ruin of 
Mnaidra. This resembles in general plan 
Hagar Kim, but is rather more ornate 

* See "The Parsees and the Towers of 
Silence at Bombay," by William Thomas Fee, 
in the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE, De- 
cember, 1005. 



and better preserved. Many of the door- 
ways and altar stones are decorated with 
pittings or are finely polished. This 
doubtless accounts for its local name of 
the "King's Palace," Hagar Kim being 
called the "High Priest's Palace." 

A special feature of Mnaidra is the 
double-table altars. These are flat rubbed 
stones a yard or two square, supported 
under the center by a stone pillar. The 
largest is called the "King's Bed," cer- 
tainly a couch stony enough to insure an 
uneasy royal head. 

Both at Hagar Kim and Mnaidra it is 
evident that dolmens were regarded as 
objects of special veneration. They may 
have represented the gates from this 
world to the next, through which all must 
pass, or they may have typified the abodes 
of the departed spirits. 

A dolmen grave at Borg en Nadur has 
the lintel or upper cross-stone pierced in 
the center by a round hole, used perhaps 
in a sacrificial ceremony, so that the blood 
of the victim might fall on the occupant 
of the grave. Dolmen graves with a hole 
in the side wall-stone are much more 
common. 

Near Mnaidra is a cave in which the 
remains of a peculiar kind of elephant 
were found, to which the name Elephans 
Mnaidrensis was given. 

WELL-DIGGERS FIND A TEMPLE 

The Corradino neolithic station stands 
on a broad plateau overlooking the Grand 
Harbor. The ruins are very extensive, 
consisting of several temples and a vil- 
lage. The ruins of the latter are dis- 
tinguishable by being square instead of 
oval in shape, like the temples. 

On the southern boundary of Corra- 
dino is the village of Casal Paula, which 
overlooks the broad, flat plain of the 
Marsa. In 1902 a well was being bored 
for some newly erected houses, when 
suddenly the foundations gave way and 
the whole disappeared into a dark pit. 
Investigation resulted in the discovery of 
an underground habitation which is with- 
out equal in the world. 

This hypogeum, or subterranean struc- 
ture, now known as Hal Saflieni. consists 
of three series of chambers excavated 
out of the solid rock, on three levels. It 
stood in the midst of a neolithic village. 



460 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




MALTA CLAIMS A MILCH-GOAT POPULATION OF IO,OOO 

Since Mediterranean, or Malta, fever has been traced to a micro-organism to be found 
in the milk of these perambulating "dairies," the goat boy is not as popular with visitors as 
he was in olden days. 




HOXEY MERCHANTS OF MALTA 



Photograph b 



The island was famous for its honey in ancient times, the name itself coming from the 
Greek word "Melita," meaning honey. In the Biblical account of Paul's shipwreck the name 
of the island is given as Melita (see text, page 451). 



MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OK NATIONS 



461 







THE COUNTRY ROAD LEADING TO CITTA VECCHIA, THE FIRST CITY REBUILT BY THE 

KNIGHTS OF MALTA 

Malta and the neighboring islands of Gozo, Comino, and Cominotto have a combined 
area of 118 miles, with a teeming population of 225,000. The fields of the islands are small 
and consist largely of terraces, the soil being walled up along the slopes of hills. 




Photographs by S. L. Cassar 
THE WATER-WAGONS OF MALTA HAVE TAIL-LIKE APPENDAGES 

The operator walks in the rear of the cart and waves the sprinkler back and forth, thus 
covering the space between the curbs. 



462 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




THE SOLE RELIC OF THE OLD NATIVE COSTUME IS THE PECULIAR BLACK HEAD- 
DRESS OF THE WOMEN, CALLED THE "FALDETTA M 

The Maltese are a thrifty, industrious people. The women are noted for their black eyes, 

fine hair, and graceful carriage. 




Photographs by S. L. Cassar 
A REAR VIEW OF THE MALTESE EASTER BONNET 

While farming is the principal industry in Malta, more than 5,000 women and children are 
engaged in producing the famous Maltese lace. 



MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OF NATIONS 



463 



Two large upright stones mark the en- 
trance below ground and near by was 
found a large quantity of heavy sling- 
stones, conveniently ready for use in case 
of emergency. 

Drilled in the threshold floor are two 
holes the bottoms of which connect. 
Through the loop thus formed was passed 
a rope to tether the animal chosen for 
sacrifice. A large cave near at hand ap- 
parently was used as a pen for animals, 
the top being so low that a man could 
not stand erect in it. 

Proceeding down the entrance passage, 
which is of course absolutely dark unless 
lit artificially, we notice on the left a 
round, well-like excavation. At first it 
appears to be an ordinary pit, but on 
closer examination a second inner well is 
seen, the top of the latter being closed 
by a tightly fitting lid. This was evi- 
dently used for special security. In it 
were found two stone figures of steatopy- 
gous figures similar to those found at 
Hagar Kim. The figures also had de- 
tachable heads, both of which, fortu- 
nately, were found. 

Continuing, we pass a side cave now 
packed with human bones. At the en- 
trance is a circular stone basin with a 
hole bored in its center and covering an- 
other pit which would form an ideal 
dungeon. 

The passage finally narrows to a large 
dolmen-shaped doorway, and through 
this we pass to a lower floor, with a sud- 
den drop of several feet. The absence 
of steps to the different compartments is 
puzzling, as it is open to doubt whether 
perishable wooden ones were provided 
when stone was available. 

THE MYSTERIOUS MAIN HALL OF THE 
TEMPLE 

We have now reached a long, silent 
cave which must have looked very weird 
when lit by a few hanging pottery lamps. 
In the center is a large upright stone. 

Proceeding to the left, we climb a stone 
wall a yard high, also without steps, and 
pass through a doorway into a large cir- 
cular cave which appears to be the main 
hall of the temple. At once the attention 
of the eye is called to a doorway carved 
out of the end of the cave at a height of 
several vards from the floor. 



The doorway leads to a small oval cave 
at the back. On both sides are niches 
each of which probably contained a sacred 
pillar or other object of worship. Here 
the carving is beautifully worked and 
polished. Four other doorways lead to 
caves on the level of the floor. The gen- 
eral appearance of the niches suggests 
that the lower ones were excavated later 
and less carefully than the upper ones. 

The ceiling of the room is decorated 
with ocher paint, partly in plain red and 
partly in squares alternately black and 
white. 

THE HOLY OF HOLIES 

Passing out of this room through a 
doorway erected on a step a yard above 
the floor, we come to what is called the 
"Holy of Holies," the upper portion of 
the room being carved and polished very 
ornately (see page 468). 

A small room to the rear contains a 
stone table, over the middle of which is 
carved a stone hook from which some 
sacred object or sacrifice or possibly a 
lamp was suspended. The doorway of 
this little room has grooves for fitting a 
closing slab, but this would also shut out 
the air and the occupant would soon die 
of suffocation. It is remarkable that the 
"Holy of Holies" is the only room not 
decorated with paint. 

In the illustration (see page 468) may 
be noticed a hole in the right-hand curved 
support, while another is near" its foot. 
The left-hand upright of the entrance is 
also bored with a tie-hole. From these 
three places it is supposed a curtain or 
screen was hung to hide the holy place 
from the sight of persons using the steps 
leading down to the lowermost rooms. 

In the floor, in front of the left niche, 
are two holes closed with plugs flush with 
the ground. In the right hole two pairs 
of ram's horns were discovered, doubt- 
less having some religious significance. 

Retracing our way from the Holy of 
Holies through the main hall to the room 
containing the large upright stone, or 
menhir, and turning to the left, we pro- 
ceed toward another set of caves. It will 
be noticed that in this passage the rock, 
instead of sounding solid to the tread, 
suddenly sounds very hollow, as if there 
were a well or room not yet opened. 



IBS::.-' 




464 



MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OF NATIONS 



465 



What wonderful store of archaeological 
wealth is perhaps here awaiting that 
opening ! 

The walls along the right of this pas- 
sage are full of drill-holes an inch or less 
in diameter. This shows the method of 
excavation employed. Holes were drilled 
with flint points and the intermediate 
portions chipped away with stone ham- 
mers or chisels, several fine specimens of 
which were found. ' 

Continuing along this passage, we come 
to another room, into which we enter 
with a sudden drop of a yard. Looking 
through the entrance doorway, the wall 
on the left appears quite straight at first, 
curving round at the end, while the right 
wall is very much sloped. 

Descending some modern stone steps, 
a round recess on the left is seen. In 
this place a person could stand without 
being observed by any one approaching 
along the passage, while a spy-hole is 
provided for the use of the occupant of 
the recess. Two holes are also bored in 
the walls of the recess to spy into the 
adjoining cave. 

AN ORACLE CAVE) AND A SOUND-MAGNIFY- 
ING CHAMBER 

Passing the recess, we come to a square 
entrance into a small round cave a yard 
or two in diameter. Possibly the oracle 
was kept here. A little farther in the 
cave, at about the level of a man's mouth, 
is a hemispherical hole in the side wall 
about two feet in diameter. Here it was 
noticed only a few months ago that any 
word spoken into this place was magni- 
fied a hundred-fold and audible through- 
out the entire underground structure. 

A curved projection is specially carved 
out of the back of the cave near this hole 
and acts as a sounding-board, showing 
that the designers had a good practical 
knowledge of sound-wave motion. The 
impression upon the credulous can be 
imagined when the oracle spoke and the 
words came thundering forth through 
the dark and mysterious places with 
terrifying impressiveness. 

Before leaving the oracle room, special 
notice must be taken of the wonderful 
ceiling paintings, which are the finest in 
the temple. Possibly the design of the 
spirals and disks may have some mystic 



meaning in connection with the passing 
of the human soul through various cycles. 

THE PIT OF SERPENTS? 

Proceeding to the next room, a dis- 
tant view of the Holy of Holies is ob- 
tained. This anteroom has several curi- 
ous features. The roof is supported 
quite unnecessarily for structural re- 
quirements by two menhirs differing in 
design. The one to the right is similar to 
the sacred pillars at Hagar Kim (see page 
457) and to the high altar of Tarxien 
(see page 477 ) ; 

On the left is a mysterious pit. The 
low stone wall on the left is grooved to 
receive an upper stone, thus increasing 
its height. The pit is shaped like a fun- 
nel, with a curious slip- way worn out just 
below the hole in the opposite wall which 
communicates with the main hall. 

After sloping downward and inward, 
the pit widens considerably and is suffi- 
ciently deep to prevent even a tall man 
from climbing out. It has been thought 
that sacred serpents were kept in this pit, 
the curving sides of which would pre- 
vent t their escape. Possibly after the 
serpent had been lifted up, as was done 
by Moses in the wilderness, and due wor- 
ship made, it would be returned to its 
lair through the hole in the wall. The 
larger entrance on the opposite side 
would permit of a man or woman being 
cast among the serpents to be stung to 
death.* 

Passing to the right of the pillar and 
then sharply turning to the left, we de- 
scend a very finely worked series of seven 
steps into the lowest and innermost 
rooms. These steps are erected on the 
lintel of a huge dolmen. Opposite the 
lowest step and isolated by a deep moat- 
like trench is a small inner cave wherein 
a priest or vestal might have sat and 
communed. 

There are no steps to this small room 
and it is difficult to reach. On its right 
hand is a small spy-hole, through which 
all persons at work in the moat can be 
seen. Adjoining the moat and divided 
only by another doorway are several 

* See also an account of the serpent pits in 
the temples of the Incas, in "The Wonderland 
of Peru," by Hiram Bingham, NATIONAL GEO- 
GRAPHIC MAGAZINE, April, 1913. 



466 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A STONE AGE TEMPLE SHOWING SACRIFICIAL TABLES IN THE FOREGROUND: MALTA 

Massive stones, some weighing several tons, are placed on end side by side, each being 
joined to the next with great skill. On top of some of these are horizontal layers of flat 
stones accurately mortised together (siee text, page 457). 



similar compartments, the last being situ- 
ated almost directly under the serpent 
pit. The innermost room of all has four 
openings about a foot square leading to 
four tiny caves, which might have been 
used as places for the deposit of treasure. 
This completes the itinerary of the 
temple, which is so complex that one can 
only speculate as to the use or signifi- 
cance of its many extraordinary features'! 

A MAUSOLEUM FOR 33,OOO PERSONS 

In 1906 the work of exploration was 
begun. Most of the rooms were found 
to be half-filled with earth, human bones, 
and broken pottery. It has been esti- 
mated that the ruins contained the bones 
of 33,000 persons, mostly adults. Prac- 
tically all were found in the greatest dis- 
order, and there had evidently been no 
regular burial of a complete body. 

With regard to the original use of the 
hypogeum, opinions vary. It may be that 
it was a temple carved underground for 
the use of spirits who had left this world, 
providing them with' the same type of 



temple as that in which they had been 
accustomed to worship above ground ; or 
it may have been a sacred college, wherein 
the priesthood were initiated into the 
mysterious beliefs of those days. 

CURIOUS FINDS AMONG THE BONES 

Whatever may have been the original 
.use, there is no doubt that it was used in 
part as a burial place for the bones of 
the dead after a previous burial above 
ground. 

A large number of personal ornaments 
and votive offerings were found mixed 
with the bones, and these afford much 
insight into prehistoric beliefs and cus- 
toms. Besides the large stone female 
figures already mentioned, several tiny 
alabaster replicas were found. 

A small carving was also found of a 
woman with a small head and large lower 
figure, lying on her side asleep on a four- 
legged couch. Her head is placed on a 
shaped neck-rest. The figure is clad in 
quite fashionable flounces and plaitings 
and was evidently painted red. 



MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OF NATIONS 



467 




THE MAIN HALL OF THE TEMPLE OF HAL SAFLIENI : MALTA 
Four doorways lead from this chamber to caves on the level of the floor (see text, page 463). 



Another carving shows a woman, simi- 
larly clad and proportioned, lying face 
downward on her couch, her hands 
stretched forward on either side. It is 
suggested that the former represents a 
priestess dreaming near the sacred places 
in the hope of obtaining inspiration to 
declare the words of the holy oracle, 
while the second figure represents her in 
the act of worship. 

A large number of axe-shaped pendants 
of jade or polished stone were found, 
suggesting some connection with the sym- 
bolic axe worshipers of Crete. Two ob- 



jects representing fish were found, one 
being placed on a plate. Doubtless the 
fish was venerated as an emblem of the 
Giver of Life, and possibly the adoption 
of a fish as the sign of a fellow-Chris- 
tian in the Catacomb days of Rome was 
the survival of an old belief. Today in 
Malta fish is usually eaten on the first 
night spent in a new house, to bring good 
luck. 

Symbolic stones carved into the shape 
of sea shells, votive lamps, real sea shells, 
vertebrae of fish, artificial seeds, cones, 
tiny pillars, large spheres, and holed 



468 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




THE; FAMOUS HOLY OF HOLIES IN THE SUBTERRANEAN STRUCTURE KNOWN AS THE. 
HYPOGEUM OF UAL, SAFUENI : MALTA 

One of the remarkable features of this great chamber is the entire absence of any mural 
designs. This is the only room not decorated with paint. A curtain or screen is supposed 
to have hung before this holy place to conceal it from persons using the. steps leading to 
lower chambers (see text, page 463). 



stones were found in abundance, doubt- 
less all having some special significance. 

BEAUTIFUL POTTERY, IN EVERY INSTANCE 
SHATTERED 

Much beautiful pottery was found, 
practically all broken. This may have 
been intentional, as typifying the snap- 
ping of the thread of life. The pottery 
varied in kind from rough clay vessels to 



finely polished and glazed ware, orna- 
mented with spirals worked with flints. 
Some bore bright lines of red ocher of 
artistic design. 

Perhaps the most interesting piece of 
pottery found was a black polished plate, 
on which was drawn with flint the figures 
of several large horned bulls of mottled 
color, all instinct with life. The species 
of animal was identical with that carved 



MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OF NATIONS 



469 



in high relief in the "bull sanctuary" of 
the latest and most wonderful discovery 
of all, the Stone Age Temple of Tarxien. 

A CEMETERY FOR CRIMINALS LEADS TO AN 
ASTOUNDING DISCOVERY 

Tarxien is a continuation of the village 
of Casal Paula, where the hypogeum of 
Hal Saflieni is situated. It owes its dis- 
covery to the following circumstances : 

A few years ago it was necessary to 
find a new burial place for criminals, and 
a site was selected on the plateau over- 
looking the dockyard from the southeast. 
"While digging the foundations for the 
cemetery chapel the earth was found to 
have been artificially deposited, as it con- 
tained blocks of hand-wrought masonry. 
The workmen, talking among themselves, 
elicited the fact that in the adjoining field 
large blocks of stones had also been 
struck a few feet below the level of the 
soil. 

As the work of excavating the hypo- 
geum in the village was still fresh in their 
minds, the laborers thought possibly a 
similar structure might exist here. 

The facts were reported in 1913 to 
Prof. T. Zammit, C. M. G., who had 
supervised the final excavation of the 
hypogeum. In July, 1915. he caused the 
blocks to be cleared of soil. They were 
found to be the tops of the walls of a 
prehistoric temple of the same shape as 
those of Gigantia, in Gozo, and Hagar 
Kim and Mnaidra, in Malta. 

WAR PAILS TO STOP RESEARCH 

The work of excavation was carried 
out during the hottest months of 1915 
and 1916, when the soil was driest, so 
that it could be carefully sifted to pre- 
vent the loss of the smallest objects 
which might be of interest. 

Here, despite the tropical sun, a small 
band of students, among whom was the 
writer of this article, labored under the 
able and genial guidance of Professor 
Zammit. 

The drain of war expense on the funds 
of the Malta civil government permitted 
only a very small expenditure of money 
on this work during 1917 and 1918, but 
it was sufficient to show that the temple 
and its precincts extended beyond its 
present known limits and where secrets 



unknown as yet to the world may still lie 
hidden. 

The examination of the upper layers of 
earth over the site of the temple brought 
to light quantities of Roman and Punic 
pottery, practically all in fragments. 

A lower layer revealed a new type of 
pottery, among which were found small 
heaps of burnt human bones. Beads, 
necklaces, clay objects representing birds, 
fishes, &c., small figures, bone ornaments, 
and a bronze dagger were found in this 
same layer. The dagger gave the clue to 
the mystery a Bronze Age depository 
of funeral urns had been found. 

This was very valuable, from the light 
it shed on the life and customs of the 
Mediterranean Bronze Age people, who 
probably flourished about 2000 or 3000 
B. C. 

Inside the cinerary urns were also 
found foods wheat, beans, etc. for the 
journey in the next world, as well as 
small objects and ornaments which had 
been very dear to the departed in their 
lifetime. 

Doubtless the Bronze Age dwellers in 
Malta had heard the tradition that the 
tall stones standing, abandoned, deserted, 
and overgrown with weeds, had once 
been a sacred place, while in any case 
such high walls as were still standing 
formed a good shelter for thei^ funeral 
fires. Hence the Bronze Age cemetery 
on this spot. 

The Bronze Age layer was strongly 
marked with charcoal and ashes. Below 
this came several feet of fine sand, con- 
taining no stones or broken fragments of 
rock and no traces of any Bronze Age 
pottery or metal, clearly showing that 
this layer had been deposited by centu- 
ries of wind and rain, untouched by the 
hand of man. 

All these layers were removed by the 
excavators with careful and reverent 
hands, as was due those far-off and for- 
gotten worshipers of the Unknown God. 
Finally the floor of the temple was 
reached and cleared as perfectly as pos- 
sible. 

A TOUR OF THE TEMPLE 

The length of the buildings from end 
to end is about 50 yards, while the level 
of the temple floor is about 7 feet below 
that of the field. 




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470 




4/1 



472 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




LOWEST DUNGEONS OF THE HAL SAFLIENI RUINS 

This innermost room of the subterranean galleries has four openings leading to small caves, 
where the temple's treasures may have been secreted (see text, page 466). 



MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OF NATIONS 



473 



Let us make a tour through 
the temple, following the rough 
plan reproduced on this page. 

\Ye stand first on a semicir- 
cular stone, A in the plan, in 
which are drilled two holes con- 
nected at the lower ends. This 
is the ordinary tie-hole of Stone 
Age times and may have been 
used to tether sacrificial animals 
outside the temple. On each side 
can be traced large horizontal 
blocks of stone extending in a 
semicircular direction, doubtless 
the fore-court, or public place in 
which the people assembled be- 
fore divine service. 

These large blocks apparently 
served as foot-stones to support 
large upright masses of masonry 
forming the outer wall of the 
temple. One of the blocks has 
a conical hole in it, besides sev- 
eral small circles engraved on it 
(A 1 ), all doubtless having some 
religious significance or used in 
the public worship or sacrifice. 
A few yards farther on is a stone 
(A 2 ), about two yards square, in 
which are five holes, some of 
oval shape and some round. 

For what purpose this stone 
was used is not known. Possi- 
bly it was employed in the cere- 
mony of ablution, as a somewhat 
similar contrivance was found in 
the Stone Age temple a mile 
away, at Corradino, shown on 
page 476. It has been suggested 
that this was the altar of sacri- 
fice, and that the holes were to 
catch the blood of the victim. 
This is possible, but the sacrificial victim 
must have been killed first, as no tie-holes 
exist in these stones. 

After the temple had fallen out of use 
prehistoric boys may have found that 
this formed an excellent bagatelle board, 
and by using rounded stones and possibly 
numbering the holes quite a good game 
could be played. A quantity of round 
stone balls was found on this site. 

Returning to position i on the plan, we 
enter the passage A C and arrive in the 
building marked B E. Facing to the 
right, there is a beautiful carved dado 




A SKETCH SHOWING THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE 
CHAMBERS OF THE STONE AGE 

TEMPLE OF TARXIEN 

These ruins have been unearthed by a band of students 
working under the direction of Prof. T. Zammit, C. M. 
G. The work proceeded throughout the stressful period 
of the World War, despite limited government appro- 
priations. 



round the room. In the center is the 
broken lower portion of a huge female 
figure, of which only the feet, fat calves, 
and fluted skirt now remain. When 
complete the figure was probably seven 
feet high. It stands on a slab of stone 
ornamented with egg-shaped symbols and 
would lead to the inference that it was 
the image of the Goddess of Life and 
Fertility. Carefully placed near her feet 
was found a sacred cone, possibly repre- 
senting the male element. 

Standing in position C of the plan, 
which is a spot worn away by innumer- 



474 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A MYSTIC STONE PILLAR MARKING THE) BEGINNING OF THE 
INNER SANCTUARY OF THE TEMPLE AT TARXIEN 

On top of the pillar is a second stone on which is carved a circle 
surrounded by pit-marks. Some students surmise that the circle 
represents the sun and the pit-marks the stars (see text below). 



able fires, and turning our back on the 
goddess, we see beautifully carved altar 
tables and an altar, in front of which is a 
small font decorated with pit-markings, 
an ornamentation noticed in other pre- 
historic temples. 

Apparently this font had been painted 
red with ocher, from which it might be 
inferred that the ceremony of sprinkling 
blood for cleansing from evil was carried 
out even in those far-off days. 

Behind these pillars is a small side 
chapel very beautifully decorated. One 
slab contains a frieze of eleven goats, 



while another has 
four goats, a fat pig, 
and a horned ram or 
buck. 

Looking again from 
position C to G in the 
plan, we see a large 
carved stone table or 
chest in front of an 
altar or oracle place 
of the dolmen type so 
noticeable in all neo- 
lithic temples. The 
large altar stone is 
hollow, with a detach- 
able semicircular fit- 
ting. ^ 

Inside was found a 
very fine curved flint 
knife, as well as frag- 
ments of beautifully 
polished Stone Age 
pottery. It might be 
observed here that 
possibly all votive ves- 
sels were broken af- 
ter the sacrifice, to 
denote the completion 
of the ceremony, as 
practically none were 
found complete. 

Proceeding through 
position C to I, we 
reach the principal 
altar of the temple. 
The curved facade of 
the floor of the "chan- 
cel" cannot but arouse 
admiration for the 
wonderful skill o f 
those ancient workers, 
whose only tool was a 
flint. On the left corner of the carved 
stone can be seen a round tie-hole. The 
stone a little to its right and standing 
back two yards from it marks the begin- 
ning of the inner sanctuary, which con- 
sists of a semicircular building with five 
stone seats on each side of the altar. 
These possibly were either for images or 
for the officiating priests. 

On top of the stone at the left entrance 
to the inner sanctuary is another lying 
horizontally with a square end on which 
is carved a circle surrounded by pit- 
marks (see illustration on this page). 



MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OF NATIONS 



Without doubt this 
had some reference 
to their religious be- 
liefs, but the stone on 
the opposite side is 
missing. 

It has been sug- 
gested that the circle 
represented the sun 
and the pit-marks the 
stars, while others 
suggest a phallic solu- 
tion. A stone was 
found carved with 
two phallic pillars 
standing on a base 
decorated with pit- 
marks. When the two 
designs are consid- 
ered together, possi- 
bly a key to their cere- 
monies and beliefs 
may be found. 

The corbeling, very 
noticeable in the right 
wall of the inner 
sanctuary, would 
show that this build- 
ing was domed over. 

Entering room H, 
which is very badly 
damaged, we see a 
tiny dolmen - shaped 
altar marked H 1 in 
the plan. The top of 
the altar table has a 
hole in it, fitted with 
a plug. Through this 
a memento, such as a 
small bone for each 
sacrifice, was possibly placed for tempo- 
rary custody. 

Returning to position I, we enter a 
new and earlier temple, in which the 
decoration is less ornate. We first notice 
a small side chapel, K 1 in the plan. En- 
trance is gained through the doorway, 
which is so low that one is required to 
bow in passing. 

Immediately opposite is a sacred stone 
of worship, broader at the top than at 
the bottom. Its significance is not known, 
but stones of this design appear in the 
"Holy of Holies" at other temples. On 
the left of this stone is a corner seat for 
the priest, while on the right is the altar 



475 



-P-M 




AN ALTAR IN THE TARXIEN TEMPLE, BENEATH WHICH APPEAR 

THE FAMILIAR PHALLIC SYMBOLS OF THE CONE 

AND THE BALL (SEE TEXT BELOW ). 



(see illustration above), with its familiar 
phallic symbols of the cone and the ball. 

In the passage leading from position 
K to O, the investigator sees holes in 
the masonry on each side, indicating that 
barriers and curtains were hung here. 
A straight view can be obtained down 
the aisle leading to the Holy of Holies, 
where the sacred stone faces the visitor. 
In the center is a much-burnt stone fire- 
place full of ash, M in the plan. 

Looking toward the northern end of 
this oval-shaped building, we see at the 
far end an entrance, afterward closed 
by a huge block of stone. 

Near the Sacred Stone is a round stone 



476 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A CORNER OF THE) TARXIEN STONE AGE TEMPLE, SHOWING THE CARVED ALTARS, TWO 
SACRED CONES, AND A TOMB : MALTA 

The dark patch on the right of the photograph marks the site of funeral pvres. Tarxien 
is a continuation of the village of Casal Paula, where the Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni was 
situated (see page 459). 




A CURIOUS STONE WHICH MAY HAVE BEEN USED BY THE ANCIENT INHABITANTS 
OF MALTA IN THE CEREMONY OF ABLUTION 

A quantity of stone balls was found near this slab, which suggest the possibility that at a 
later period it may have been used for games (see text, page 473). 



MALTA: THE HALTING PLACE OF NATIONS 



477 




THE MAIN ALTAR OF THE TEMPLE AT TARXIEN : MALTA 

The graceful carving awakens admiration for the prehistoric stone-cutters, whose only imple- 
ments were sharpened flints (see page 474). 



plug. Here, it may be imagined, the sac- 
rificial ox was brought in and tethere'd. 
Armed with a heavy stone axe, the priest 
felled the animal, completing the sacri- 
fice with a sharp flint or obsidian knife. 
A huge basin or laver was used in the 
ceremony of purification. 

The sacrifice was cut up on a large 
stone between the laver and the fireplace. 
This stone has a deep, round hole into 
which the blood of the sacrifice drained. 
The portions to become the burnt sacri- 
fice were there cut off and placed on the 
sacred hearth. A large stone table on 
the right contained no drainage hole and 
doubtless was the place where the burnt 
offerings and oblations were dedicated to 
the gods. 

Opposite this table of oblation is a 
passage leading to a small side chapel, 
marked M 1 . This contains a small altar, 
while on the walls are carved in bold re- 
lief three animals a bull, a sow, and a 
second bull facing the first (see illustra- 
tion on page 478). These carvings are 
among the earliest known of this type. 

Two large bull's horns were found 



carefully hidden under the entrance to 
this sanctuary. It appears, therefore, 
that the worship of the sacred bull, so 
widely spread and still existing, was car- 
ried on in Malta just as the -Minotaur 
was worshiped in Crete. 

Two doorways on the ground level, 
about two feet square, lead from two 
small rooms M 2 and M 3 , where possibly 
goats or lambs were kept ready for sac- 
rifice. 

Returning to room L M, we mount a 
long horizontal slab just beyond the 
round hearth. Here we are much struck 
with a beautifully carved barrier about a 
yard high. This evidently marked the 
part of the temple dedicated to the uses 
of the priests. 

Between the' spirals are carved two 
cones. Mounting over this and again 
noting the various curtain and door sling- 
holes in the side walls of the passage, we 
come to another oval building, P Q in 
the plan. This has similar features to the 
previous room, but is smaller and en- 
tirely without carved work except a stone 
screen on each side, finely decorated. 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




A BULL AND A SOW CARVED IN BOLD RELIEF ON THE WALL OF ONE OF THE 
CHAMBERS IN THE TEMPLE OF TARXIEN (SEE PAGE 477) 

These are among the earliest carvings of this type known. Near by, carefully hidden 
under the entrance to the sanctuary, were found two large bull's horns, suggesting that this 
animal was worshiped in Malta as the Minotaur was worshiped in Crete (see "The Sea Kings 
of Crete," by James Baikie, in THE GEOGRAPHIC for January, 1912). 



Between the screens and the entrance 
rose two huge pillars, now broken off at 
ground level. In the center of the room 
is a sacred hearth, while apse P contains 
a well-preserved altar and a font, the 
latter being pit-marked and still bearing 
traces of red ocher. In a tall slab oppo- 
site the carved screen is a black spot on 
the edge near the floor. When excavated 
tHe bottom of this pillar was found to be 
adorned with five pebbles let into the 
stone, three in the top row and two below 
-at the ends. No convincing explanation 
has been suggested for these stones. 

We now come to the last and final 
room, R S T U. Here no stone barrier 
bars the way, but the holes for the screens 
can still be seen; 

The last apse is the smallest of all, and 
the inward inclination of the stones indi- 
cates that the rooms were domed over. 

With feelings of awe we retrace our 
steps down the main aisle, and, having 
arrived at Room L-N, we turn to the left 
and find an exit marked N in the plan. 



On each side is a sort of pulpit on which 
the priest might have stood to address the 
worshipers. 

Possibly an image or round stone ball, 
of which several two feet in diameter 
were found, was placed on this pedestal. 

The exit leads to a much more roughly 
built series of rooms, marked W-X and 
Y-Z. Outside exit N and on the left is 
a flight of steps, V. 



Beyond these apses sufficient soil has 
been removed to show that the prehis- 
toric buildings extended for a consider- 
able distance into the next field, and that 
the walls are those of square, and not 
oval, buildings. Here it seems likely that 
the laity lived, and it is hoped that when 
funds are once more available further 
research may be carried out to delve into 
the secrets of the long-forgotten past. 
Here we may find one more clue in our 
attempt to solve the question whence 
man came, in the hope that we may find 
whither man goeth. 



VOL. XXXVII, No. 6 WASHINGTON 



JUNE, 1920 






IONAL GEOGi; 



A MIND\S-EYE MAP OF AMERICA 



Bv FRANKLIN K. LANE 



FORMERLY SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

AUTHOR OF "A CITY OF REALIZED DREAMS," "FROM THE WARPATH TO THE PLOW," "Tin: MAKERS OF Tin 
FLAG." "Tin: NATION'S PRIDE," ETC., IN THE GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



AMERICANIZATION is a very 
broad and inclusive term. The 
first part of it is that we should 
know what America is. I find in deal- 
ing with this problem of making the 
foreign-born understand what Ameri- 
canization is that the first great difficulty 
is to make the American-born realize 
fully and be conscious of America in all 
its various senses and moods and spirits. 
And one of the things that I should like 
to conduct, if I were free to do so and 
had the means, would be a real geogra- 
phy class. 

We are all fascinated by pictures. Re- 
cently I have induced the motion-picture 
industry of the United States to enlist 
itself in this cause and produce Ameri- 
canization pictures, and give upon its 
screens slogans and suggestions and 
apothegms that will stimulate the Ameri- 
can ideal, because I have the notion that 
there is something in the United States 
that we call Americanism that is distinc- 
tive, that no other country has, and that 
it is expressed in the lives of our people, 
in their work, in their philosophy, in their 
tradition and history. 

One of the pictures that T have sug- 
gested is a map of the United States, 
with which I find many are not familiar. 
Visualize the map of our country, and it 
will become apparent how large in ma- 
terial resource and how large in activity, 
intellectual and spiritual, the United 
States is. 



As I say, we are all fond of pictures. 
We love some because of their color, 
some because of line, some because of 
depth of background, some because of 
their historical significance, some because 
of the story in the picture. To me the 
most fascinating of all pictures is the 
map of the United States. Let us look 
for a moment at some of the remote parts 
of this map. and learn what is and what 
may be. Then we will have renewed 
confidence in our future. 

FROM TROPIC TO ARCTIC IN T HAWAII 

If you go to Hawaii you will find that 
all of the land grants which were made 
originally to the chiefs, the favorites of 
the kings, ran from points upon the shore- 
line up to the top of the mountain. 

You will see here a point of land run- 
ning out into the sea, and there a point 
of land : and because they did not know 
the science of surveying and had to take 
these natural points, they drew the line 
straight up from these two points to the 
crater that was the summit of the moun- 
tain. 

A year and a half ago T took a trip on 
one of those islands, and I started at the 
bottom, on the very edge of the sea, 
where the rice grows, and then went into 
sugar-cane, and then above into orange 
orchard, and then into coffee plantations, 
and then, all the time ascending, into 
fruit lands peaches and other fruits 
and then up into wheat lands, and then 



480 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph from Lloyd W. McDowell 
MUI/TNOMAH FALLS, ON THE COLUMBIA RIVR HIGHWAY 

This recently completed scenic route of the Northwest parallels the picturesque Columbia 
River. Nearly all motor cars stop on this arching bridge, which affords a view of both stages 
of Multnomah Falls, with a total height of 740 feet, making this the second highest cataract 
in the United States. 



A MIND'S-EYE MAP OF AMERICA 



481 




Photograph by L. D. Lindsley 
WHEN TIIK WATERS OF LAKE CHELAN ARE ASLEEP: WASHINGTON 

This mountain gem, more than 50 miles long and from one to two miles wide, is guarded by 
peaks which tower from 4,000 to 5,000 feet above its waters, by turns placid and restless. 



482 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Ansel F. Hall 

THE GATES TO YOSEMITE VALLEY, CALIFORNIA. FROM THE SLOPE OF SENTINEL 

DOME, NEAR GLACIER POINT 

Snowshoes are better than skis on such a slope as this, more than four thousand feet 
above the valley floor. To the 1 right is the flat face of El Capitan. Cathedral Rocks close 
the view to the left. Far below is the road to the railway terminus at El Portal, ten miles 
down the valley of the Merced. The dog in the picture is a famous character in the Yosemite, 
where all other dogs are excluded. He is "Bob Townsley," the National Park Service lion 
tracker, and "as good a ranger as any man in the service." 



into grazing lands, until I came to the 
snow on the top of the mountain. So 
that in that small tract of land, "driving 
in an hour's time from the sea < to:, the 
summit of the mountain, one sees eve;r-y-- 
thing that can be produced, from the 
tropics to the Arctic Circle. 

That segment of that island gives a 
picture of the United States, because we 
have capacity in this country to produce 
all of those things which man requires, 
either in the temperate or the semi-trop- 
ical zones or even in the eternal snows of 
the north. 

ALASKA'S NEW RAILWAY 

In Alaska we are building a railroad ; 
it is almost built ; five hundred miles long, 
running from the sea straight north to 
Fairbanks and into the Arctic Circle. 
That is a government enterprise. The 
road is as well laid as the Pennsylvania. 
It has been built, without graft and with- 



out pull, out of government funds for the 
benefit of that territory, so that it may 
be opened up. 

The very far end of Alaska is Seward 
Peninsula. Worthless? It looks so. Yet 
a woman came in to see me some time 
ago carrying a receipt for forty thousand 
dollars' worth of tin that she had got out 
of a river bed there. 

THE REINDEER AND THE MUSK-OX 

, This side of Seward Peninsula we have 
the great grazing grounds of the reindeer. 
Twenty years ago a man conceived the 
idea that the Alaskan moss would sup- 
port Siberian reindeer. He brought 1,200 
animals over; that herd has multiplied 
until it is now 165,000. They feed on 
moss all the year round. Eskimos guard 
them. 

The other day Stefansson, who made 
that great swing around North America, 
and added one hundred thousand square 



A MIND'S-KYK MAP OF AMERICA 



4S3 




Photograph by Ansel F. Hall 
HALF DOME) AND CLOUDS REST, VOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK: CALIFORNIA. 

The photograph was made December 13. Note the chief ranger's winter costume bare 
head, short sleeves, no coat or gloves. Snowshoeing with fifty pounds of weather instruments 
is more zt'ork than art. 



miles to the world's known area in the 
Canadian Arctic, while living for five and 
a half years on the resources of the 
frozen north, called upon me and said 
that in the northern part of Canada the 
musk-ox flourishes. 

The musk-ox is valuable for its hide, 
its superb wool, and its meat, which is 
very much like beef. It costs nothing to 
support, because it feeds on the grass 
that grows in between the moss through- 
out tens of thousands of square miles of 
northernmost North America. 

MEAT SUPPLY FOR THE FUTURE FROM 
ALASKA'S EMPTY SPACES 

Stefansson urged me to procure a ship, 
load it with musk-oxen, and carry those 
musk-oxen over into Alaska and let them 
feed with the reindeer, because they are 
not competitors but co-operators, feeding 
off different things. He emphasized the 
fact that the musk-ox and the reindeer 
are not enemies, for they learned to live 
together long centuries ago ; and if we 
could fill up the empty spaces of Alaska 



with these two species we would have a 
supply of meat that would provide for 
the whole Pacific coast. 

OTHER ALASKAN TREASURES 

Copper ! The second greatest copper 
mine in the world is in Alaska. 

Mount McKinley National Park! The 
greatest protected area in the world for 
the mountain sheep and the caribou. 

Gold ! Once mined abundantly, but 
gold cannot be mined in Alaska now. 
Although thousands of miles are under- 
laid with gold, the mines are closed for 
a very singular reason. It does not pay 
to mine gold. Labor is so high, material 
is so high, that when you get the gold 
from the ground at the standard price 
fixed by the Treasury, you do not get 
your money back. I suppose this is the 
first time in the history of the world 
when mines of gold have been closed 
down because it does not pay to operate 
them. 

As you come down out of Alaska you 
find the fishing industry, which will be 



484 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Gilbert Grosvenor 
THE OPEN TRAIL IN GLACIER NATIONAL PARK: MONTANA 

A transcontinental railway parallels the southern boundary of Glacier and an automobile 
highway connects the outside world with beautiful McDermott Lake, but the main attractions 
of this great playground are the trails that lead from one group of comfortable chalets to 
another, thus opening to the traveler on foot and on horseback unsurpassed views of moun- 
tain and waterfall, lake and glacier. 



A MIND'S-EYE MAP OF AMERICA 



485 




Photograph by Fred H. Riser 

SUMMIT OF APPISTOKI MOUNTAIN, WITH TWO MEDICINE VALLEY 3,OOO FEET 
BELOW, GLACIER NATIONAL PARK: MONTANA 

Although this national park still has 60 small glaciers at their painstaking task of sculp- 
turing the mountains, Two Medicine Valley represents the completed product. High 
precipices and irregular lakes occupying the deeply carved portions of the valley distinguish 
the impressive landscape. 



486 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




15LACKFKET INDIAN TEPEES ON Till-; SHORE OF ST. MAKY's LAKE, WITH RED EAGLE 

MOUNTAIN LOOMING IN THE BACKGROUND, GLACIER NATIONAL 

PARK: MONTANA (SEE PAGE 501) 

Not many years ago this region was the favorite hunting ground of the Blackfeet tribe. 
Copper was discovered here in 1890, and there was a great rush of prospectors. Six years 
later Congress bought the land from the Indians, but as a copper region it proved disappoint- 
ing. In 1910 it was set aside as a national park. The variety and majesty of its scenery and 
its ready accessibility, owing to its situation adjacent to one of the great transcontinental 
railway lines, have resulted in its ever-increasing popularity with the American people 



A MTXD'S-EYE MAP OF AMERICA 



487 



supplemented in time by another great 
industry, the vegetable-canning industry. 
I should not be surprised to find the peas 
of the future raised in that snowbound 
country and canned there. The finest 
turnips that I have ever eaten and the 
largest and crispest celery came from 
Alaska. And there is a territory of 600.- 
000,000 acres almost untouched that be- 
longs to your Uncle Sam. 

THE WONDERFUL STATE OF WASHINGTON* 

You come on down the coast to the 
State of Washington. There we have at 
one point the largest rainfall of any point 
in the United States 150 inches. And 
on the other side of the State is or was 
the great desert of the Columbia basin. 
Land that I could have bought for $1.25 
an acre is today selling for $1,000 an 
acre. Why? Because we have invested 
a little money in taking the waters that 
Mowed down from Mount Tacoma (or 
Mount Rainier) and. turning them upon 
that land, have planted apples. One of 
the apples planted here comes from the 
Hudson River. The people of New York 
State did not care for and love this fruit 
as those people did out there. They have 
taken the Delicious apple as you know it. 
pruned it. watered it, sorted it, cared for 
it, until now it makes that land worth 
$1,500 to $2,000 an acre. 

The dominant feature in the landscape 
in the State of Washington is Mount 
Rainier. I like the name Tacoma be- 
cause it is an Indian name. Rainier was 
the name of an admiral who saw this 
splendid place. Tacoma was the Indian 
name and means "The feeding breast" ; 
and when you see the mountain you will 
realize where the Indians got that name, 
because from every side come down 
rivers which make for the strength, the 
beauty, and the wealth of the country. 

Here is one of our great parks ; and I 
have stood therein with the snow of the 
glacier in one hand, and touched with the 
other the blossoming wild flowers. 

THE STATE'S GREATEST TREASURE 
That State is rich in mines, rich in agri- 
cultural land, rich in power possibilities. 
It has hundreds of thousands of acres of 
land that are practically desert and that 
can be reclaimed and brought into use- 
fulness by use of the water of the Colum- 
bia River. 



And yet the most significant thing in 
that State is the State University. I saw 
Seattle when it was a frontier town, and 
there was little thought then of its pos- 
sessing a great university; but there are 
6,000 students in the University of Wash- 
ington today, and that State is only 30 
years old. This fact indicates better than 
anything else can the trend of American 
life. America has in her mind the pur- 
pose to do things that make for a richer 
country not only materially but also in- 
tellectually. 

You come down from Washington to 
Oregon, with its long line of mountains, 
its majestic river, its vast forests. There 
is one outstanding scenic feature of nov- 
elty. Crater Lake. The top was blown 
off a volcano, and in the center of that 
crater we find the most exquisite bit of 
water a thing without parallel in color 
in this country, perhaps in the world. 

And there is abundant land yet to be 
had "where rolls the Oregon." We have 
recently brought back to the United 
States a strip of land ten miles wide and 
300 miles long which was granted to the 
Oregon and California Railroad, and that 
land has been thrown open to home- 
steaders. 

WHY THERE ARE "CALIFORNIACS" 

Go farther south and you come to 
California. Being a Californian, I must 
speak with some degree of modesty re- 
garding that State, though that is said 
not to be characteristic of the Cali- 
fornian. 

Let me tell you a story: I went over 
to Baltimore to speak to a Methodist con- 
ference some time ago. I met there a 
splendid-looking man, with a long, flow- 
ing, white beard, and I said to him, "Do 
you preach in this section of the coun- 
try?'' He said. "Yes, sir; I eome from 
the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Have 
you ever been on the Eastern Shore?" 

I said. "No ; I am sorry to say that I 
have seen every other beauty spot in this 
country. I believe, but I never have seen 
that." 

"Well." he said to me, "we love that 
country. I have been preaching there for 
66 years. We are a strange people and 
we have some strange legends, and one of 
them is that a long, long time ago, when 
Adam and Eve lived in the Garden of 



488 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph by Albert Schlechten 

"OLD FAITHFUL" GEYSER, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK: WYOMING 

That dependability in Nature is not without its reward is proved by the love of the 
farmer for his fertile fields and by the age-old worship of the never-failing sun. In the 
greatest geyser field in the world, one has won greater honor than the rest. They do not call 
this one ''The Brilliant" or "The Giant," but "Old Faithful." For many years it played with 
great regularity every seventy minutes, but during the summer of 1915 the interval lengthened 
to eighty-five minutes, owing, it is supposed, to the smaller snowfall and consequent lessened 
water supply of the preceding winter. 



A. MIND'S-EYE MAP OF AMERICA 



489 




Photograph from Horace M. Albright 
FEEDING TWO DEER IN YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK: WYOMING 

Last winter many of the wild animals in America's largest national park suffered severely. 
Here one of the rangers is feeding two of the shy, graceful deer which, under the protection 
of the government, have become partly domesticated. 



Eden, they fell sick, and the Lord was 
very much disturbed about them, and he 
called a council of his angels and wanted 
to know where they should be taken for 
a change of air, so that they might im- 
prove. 

"The Angel Gabriel suggested that they 
should be taken to the Eastern Shore of 
Maryland, and the Lord said, 'No, no; 
that would not be sufficient change !' " 

It is somewhat in that same spirit that 
every Galifornian speaks of California, 
and that is the reason why one of us has 
given the name of Californiacs to all 
those who are expatriated like myself. 

THE ROLE OF THE PADRES IN DEVELOPING 
CALIFORNIA 

California was peopled by the Indians 
first and followed by the padres, and it is a 
strange thing that wherever the Catholic 
Church has gone in that State you will 
find a most fertile spot. The rich centers 
of California are all gathered around 
those exquisite missions which those be- 
loved fathers taught the Indians to build. 



The Mission Fathers brought with them 
the art of irrigation, which was a new art 
to this country; and they brought their 
sprigs of vine and of orange and of fig 
and laid the foundation for the wondrous 
productions of that State. So that to- 
day you will find from the very northern- 
most part from Klamath Lake, on the 
edge of Oregon down to the Imperial 
Valley, in the south, the lands of Cali- 
fornia watered and made as fertile as 
the valley of the Nile. 

As you journey down the State you 
see some of those superb things that God 
has made for the delight of his people 
Mount Shasta, the Yosemite Valley yes, 
and the great redwood trees, the oldest 
living things on this or any other conti- 
nent. They were there, those great se- 
quoias, when Christ came upon earth; 
they were there when Moses brought 
down from the mountain the tables of 
stone five thousand, six thousand and 
more years old. And because of com- 
mercial reasons out of the mere desire 
for railroad ties people are cutting 




490 




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494 



A MIXD'S-EYE MAP OF AMERICA 



clown those trees and have been doing so 
for years until now we have organized 
what we call a Save - the - Redwoods 
League, and we hope to raise enough 
money to save a strip of redwood along 
the great highway that leads from San 
Francisco up to the Oregon border, prob- 
ably, when it is developed, the finest sin- 
gle bit of coast scenery in the United 
States, perhaps anywhere, bordered on 
both sides by these magnificent trees. 

The destruction of these forest giants 
is a cruel thing. I cannot speak of it 
without some degree of emotion. Com- 
mercialism has its benefits, but commer- 
cialism can be a curse when it destroys 
things of beauty and things that cannot 
be replaced. We have saved Yosemite 
Valley. We have a park called the 
Sequoia National Park, in which the 
greatest redwood trees are preserved, and 
we want to expand that park and give it 
a new name make it larger and call it 
Roosevelt Park. 

THE MOST PRODUCTIVE LAND IN AMERICA' 

You go down farther to the edge of 
Mexico and you will find the Imperial 
Valley, which was once an inland sea and 
came very near being an inland sea again 
ten years ago, when the waters of the 
Colorado broke through the protecting 
barriers and flowed down into the valley. 
Here are 300,000 acres of desert land 
that now is the most productive single 
piece of land in this country, because the 
waters of the Colorado, rising in Wyo- 
ming and Utah and Colorado, have been 
brought and turned on to that land. 

Across the way, in Arizona, is another 
irrigation project Yuma. Yuma has 
been noted for but one thing, its heat and 
the piercing quality of its sand, which 
drives into your face ; but Yuma is being 
turned now into one great garden. 

The government recently offered for 
sale some of the public lands on what is 
called the Yuma Mesa, and men offered 
$250 and $260 an acre for that land, 
barren as it is, but with the water right 
promised for the future. 

A CAMPAIGNER IN THE WEST 

I knew Vice-President Stevenson some- 
what, and talking one day to a cousin, 
Judge Evving, about the success that Ste- 
venson had made as a campaigner in the 



West, how cleverly he adapted himself 
to every situation, Ewing told me this 
story : 

The Vice-President and Judge Ewing 
had started out from Illinois on a car at- 
tached to the rear end of a train, and 
when they reached Missouri Mr. Steven- 
son came to the back platform, met the 
multitude, and said ; "My friends, since 
coming into Missouri and looking into 
your most intelligent faces and seeing the 
prosperity that you enjoy, I have de- 
termined that if I ever change my place 
of residence I shall adopt yours." 

Ewing continued : "We went over into 
Kansas, and there the Vice-Preside.nt 
said : 'Since coming into Kansas and look- 
ing at your fields of waving grain and 
the happiness that is depicted in your 
faces, I have said to myself, "If I ever 
change my place of residence I will adopt 
yours" ' ; and he came into Colorado, and 
it was the same story there ; and then into 
New Mexico, and at last to Yuma, Ari- 
zona ; and in Yuma there was nothing to 
be seen in the landscape except cactus and 
sand, and there was nobody to meet us 
but a group of Indians, and all they wore 
was a blanket thrown . over their shoul- 
ders, as they huddled in the shade of the 
depot, and it was 130 degrees in the 
shade. I thought that the old man would 
fail there, but he came right to the front, 
looked down at these Indians with their 
blankets, and said : 'My friends, since 
coming to Yuma, and looking upon you, 
I have decided that if I ever change my 
style of dress I will adopt yours.' ' : 

And yet that spot Yuma. the hot, and 
Yuma, the home of the desert Indians 
is a very successful, prosperous business 
center, surrounded by land that grows 
oranges and lemons and, to my taste, the 
best grapefruit grown in the United 
States. 

THE APACHE INDIAN AS A CITIZEN 

Up above there we have the Salt River 
project, known because of the Roosevelt 
Dam ; and that dam was largely built by 
the Apache Indians. The best Indian 
(and there are lots of them in all this 
country of which I am talking) is the 
Indian that fought us the hardest. He 
had gimp, he had stuff, he had the con- 
ception of himself which did not permit 
him to be conquered, even by the white 



496 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



man ; but when he had to yield to the 
inevitable he turned to work, and work 
has become his salvation. 

There is no better illustration in the 
world of the fact that work is our salva- 
tion than the Indian. Where he has 
abundance of money, where he is cared 
for as in an orphan asylum, where he is 
paternalized, where he is treated, as many 
would have him treated, as a baby in 
arms, he does not grow, he does not 
flourish, he does not become a man. But 
where he is made, like the New England 
fathers, to struggle for his own living, 
and finds that he cannot live unless he is 
forced to struggle, he comes through and 
makes a man of himself. 

THE CHANGE THAT HAS COME OVER IDAHO 

Now we start at the northern bound- 
ary again, at Idaho. There is a State 
which a few years ago was thought to be 
an almost worthless piece of land, good 
for forests and with a few minerals. I 
was on a piece of land along the Snake 
River, in Idaho, two years ago which 
raised 575 bushels of potatoes to the acre. 

We have there the highest dam in the 
world, the Arrow Rock Dam, built by 
our own people. The government is now 
projecting an enterprise to water, per- 
haps, several hundred thousand acres of 
Idaho land. The undertaking will in- 
volve the moving of a city, the town of 
American Falls, taking that town up on 
wheels and carrying it a mile or two 
back, so that we can flood the land where 
itnow stands. 

Seven years ago I visited the Minidoka 
project, in that State, and found the peo- 
ple discontented. Today they are, I sup- 
pose, among the happiest farmers and the 
most contented people in our country. 
Here I saw a town where there never 
had been a fire lighted, houses with fire- 
places and with chimneys, and some 
houses without fireplaces and without 
chimneys. No fires were necessary be- 
cause at the dam above the town the 
water had been stored to irrigate the 
land, and at the dam electric power was 
generated for use as heat, light, and for 
cooking. The women churned with elec- 
tricity and the sewing-machines were run 
with electricity. I suppose they had a 
sort of paddling machine for the naughty 



children that they ran by electricity. It 
was an electric city. 

THE ELECTRIC AGE OX THE, FARM 

And that is not an impossibility in any 
section of our country. One of the things 
that women can do (and women do love 
a precise and definite job) is to try to 
make the life of the woman on the farm 
more happy. There is no one group of 
people deserving more sympathy, more 
of support, more positive aid, than the 
woman who lives on the isolated farm; 
and for her electricity, if it can be 
brought to her house, is invaluable. 

For the woman farmer in Maryland, 
Virginia, and Pennsylvania electricity is 
just as necessary and just as possible. 
Why can't we take our coal at the mouth 
of the mine or down in the mine, turn it 
into electricity, and send that power by 
wire over every farm of the country? 
We do it where we have water power, 
and you can generate electricity with nat- 
ural gas and with coal. 

We are a wasteful people, for we do 
not know the possibilities in our re- 
sources ; but some time the engineering 
mind will get to work upon such practical 
problems as this, and then life will be- 
come less complex and the woman on the 
farm will have more time to herself to 
think of the things that she ought to have 
some chance to think of. 

Idaho is a rich State and is growing 
rapidly. It has a bed of phosphates. 
practically inexhaustible, to fertilize that 
whole Western country; and it has for- 
ests, mines, a fine State university, and 
an excellent school system. 



WHAT THE MORMONS HAVE DONE 
UTAH 

Crossing the border you come down 
into Utah. 

Never speak disrespectfully of the 
Mormon Church. It has as law-abiding, 
steady, hard-working, kindly a group of 
people in Utah as will be found any- 
where this round globe over. Brigham 
Young may not have been a prophet of 
Almighty God, but he worked a miracle 
when he crossed from the Missouri River 
over that desert, leading his band of a 
few hundred followers with 'their push- 
carts, going out into that unknown waste, 



A MIXD'S-EYE MAP OF AMERICA 



497 




Photograph by George L. Beam 
COLORADO NATIONAL MONUMENT: WESTERN COLORADO 

"The Court group" is one of many highly colored, fantastic formations in this reserva- 
tion. As a standard for comparison, note the minute figure of the man who is standing half- 
way between the camera and the rock, shown at right of center. 



498 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC AiAGAZTXE 





A ZIGZAG MOUNTAIN ROAD NEAR DENVER, COLORADO 



and turned the land that lies around Salt 
Lake City into a garden. 

I brought from Egypt several years 
ago the greatest irrigation expert in the 
world, perhaps, the man who built the 
Assuan Dam upon the Nile Sir William 
Willcocks, the man who claims to have 
discovered where the Garden of Eden 
was located, at the junction of the Tigris 
and Euphrates rivers and I sent him to 
look over the irrigation enterprises of the 
United States, and he said: "Nowhere 
else have I seen people who understand 
so wisely how to apply water to land as 
around Salt Lake Citv." 



Utah has wonderful beauty in it as well 
as great stretches of desert that are to be 
reclaimed. We have just discovered a 
new beauty spot there, Bryce Canyon. 

A PROSPECT FOR THE FUTURE 

When the King of Belgium was here I 
gave him a picture of a new beauty spot 
in the United States that we had found 
within a canyon. Just think of a land in 
which after 100 years or more of occu- 
pation men can go out and discover a 
great canyon filled with wonderful stalag- 
mites, great pillars of rock which rise up 
hundreds of feet from the bottom of the 



A MIND'S- KVK MAP OF AMERICA 



499 




Photograph by Kolb Brothers 

MOONEY FALLS, A CATARACT WHOSE NAME PERPETUATES THE MEMORY OF A 

DARING MINER, WHO LOST HIS LIFE WHILE I'.EING LOWERED 

TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPICE, l8o FEET 

The Indians have given the name of Havasu to this canyon, and they call themselves the 
Havasupai the People of the Bine Water. The Havasu is one of the most beautiful of the 
lateral canyons of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. 



canyon in colors like those of pastel. I 
hope we shall soon turn this into another 
of 'our national parks. 

Just below this spot is the Colorado 
River, where we already have the Grand 
Canyon National Park. And some day 
some one will put a stick of dynamite 
into the bank of the Colorado River and 
blow it out and throw a dam across and 
store those waters, and then we shall 



have power enough to run the railroads 
of that section and power enough to lift 
the waters of that river up on to the 
mesa lands and turn that desert into 
orchard. 

Those are the thiqgs that fill your mind 
when you are in that Western country: 
A mountain in Utah being cut down at 
the rate of 50,000 tons a day, and every 
ton of it yielding copper ; going out in the 




9-8 



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c be 
5 bo 



500 



A MIND'S-EYE MAP OF AMERICA 



501 



desert in southern Utah and sticking 
down a probe into the earth and striking 
oil flowing at the rate of a thousand bar- 
rels a day ! 

And better things than oil or fruit or 
copper come from those Western lands. 
Take that land over in Oregon, to which 
I have referred. In that valley was raised 
a boy who walked from the Willamette 
Valley do-wn to Stanford University that 
he might have an education as a mining 
engineer Mr. Herbert Hoover. Those 
are the great, great things that we are 
producing. There is hardly a State that 
is not known by some one individual's 
name ; and there are some of them that 
are already know r n by the names of a 
dozen men who have given distinction to 
the States from which they come. 

THE) NOBLEST VIEW IX AMERICA 

Now let us go up north again, into 
Montana. You are at Glacier Park. I 
have not seen all of the grand places of 
the world ; but if I were to be asked w-hat 
one thing in nature had most impressed 
me I would not say the Canyon of the 
Yellowstone, beautiful and rich in color 
as it is, or the Grand Canyon of the Colo- 
rado, overwhelming in majesty and in- 
spiring as it is ; but I would say that when 
you stand at the edge of Saint Mary's 
Lake and look across and up to the two 
mountains one named by the Indians 
"Going to the Sun" and the other "Al- 
most a Dog'' you would find probably 
the one thing on the North American 
Continent that would inspire you most 
and make you feel most properly humble. 

Glacier Park, with glaciers and lakes, 
alongside of the Blackfeet Indians, and 
down south of them the Sun River irri- 
gation project. 

Six years ago I was petitioned by a 
'great body of people on that project to 
release them from their obligation to 
take water. I went out to see them. We 
held a mass meeting of all the people on 
the project, and all begged that they 
might be allowed to continue their life 
as farmers by the dry- farming method. 
They said there was no danger of drouth 
coming ; that they were doing splendidly, 
and that they did not wish to be obli- 
gated to pay $60 or $70 an acre for water 
rights. 

I protested, I urged, I begged them to 



look further ahead ; I held out to them 
the prospect of sure crops, larger crops; 
but my voice was not listened to. 

The only person on my side was a girl, 
a girl, I suppose, 19 or 20 years of age, 
who had been a school teacher in the 
East. She saw what that country could 
be with irrigation and what it would be 
without irrigation. She made a capital 
speech, but she did not succeed; so I 
said, "We will abandon this project be- 
cause you wish it." 

A few weeks before I relinquished the 
duties of Secretary of the Interior I re- 
ceived a petition, signed by every man 
that was left on that project, asking that 
we again take it up and develop irriga- 
tion upon it, thus testifying that the girl 
was the one true prophet of the w^hole 
group. 

Come down out of Montana, with its 
beauties and its Indians and mines, into 
Wyoming irrigation there, Indians 
there, mines there, oil there and into 
Colorado. In Colorado we have a park 
where you can stand at one spot and see 
twelve mountains, each one 12,000 feet 
high. I want to see that park extended 
along the east side of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, so that it w r ill include everything 
from the Rocky Mountain Park down to 
Pike's Peak. Already one hundred and 
fifty thousand people visit this section 
with their automobiles every year car 
licenses from New York and Maine, 
from Manila and Honolulu. 

HE TREATED HIS TREES LIKE CHILDREN 

In Colorado, too, we have irrigation 
projects. I \vas on one of these projects 
some years ago, and I met a man who 
had gone there to combat tuberculosis. 
He had left Illinois, where he had been 
a railroad man. He had a little money, 
bought about five acres of land, and put 
it into peaches. He told me that the year 
before he had made $2,500 off those five 
acres of peaches. 

I asked him the secret of his success, 
and he said. "Because I love every tree. 
Each morning when I get up I go out 
among the trees and treat them as if they 
were my children. I look at them, I pat 
them ; I look at the soil ; I look up at the 
leaves to see if any leaf has turned yel- 
low, and if there is I discover the cause 
of it. I love each of those trees, and the 



Till-; NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




F. P. Clatworthy 
INTERIOR OF HALLETT GLACIER, ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK : COLORADO 

Not only is Rocky Mountain Park famous for its beautiful glaciers Hallett, Tyndall, 
Andrews, and Spragtie's but more especially for its glacial records of millenniums past. 
Here in truth "the mountains, rock-ribbed and ancient as the sun," reveal to the eye of in- 
quisitive man the story o-f the world in its making. 



A MIXD'S-EYE MAP OF AMERICA 




BALANCED ROCK ON THE TRAIL TO FERX AND ODESSA LAKES: COLORADO 

Everywhere in the great West one encounters the unexpected. Many are the balanced 
rocks weighing hundreds of tons, yet so delicately poised that it would seem a mere gust of 
wind could unbalance them. But neither storm nor stress, through countless centuries, has 
been able to shake them from their apparently insecure foundations. 



o04 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph from National Park Service 
SLAIN DEER ON A STATION PLATFORM NEAR YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK 

A national park is a modern counterpart for the ancient city of refuge, and within its 
boundaries game is safe from the hunter ; but the heavy snows sometimes cause famine, and 
the wild animals leave the park in search of food only to be shot down by those who are 
waiting for them beyond the limits of the preserve. 



result is that they give something back 
to me and I am an independent man." 

There is a secret in that too. It has 
its application pretty much through life. 

AN ANSWER TO STRANGE PHILOSOPHIES 

Colorado, one-third of it forest ; and 
yet when the King of the Belgians was 
here the other month there was a dinner 
given to him in one of our fine houses, 
and he was served upon gold plates that 
were literally dug out of the soil of the 
State by a man who was a miner, the 
husband of the woman in whose house 
this dinner was given. 

If all Europe knew that a man by will 
.and skill and hard work could dig into 
the soil of the United States and bring 
out the gold, bring out that which makes 
men rich, there would not be much feel- 
ing there that any of these strange phi- 
losophies that are being preached would 
make great progress in America. 

I could go on and on and take each 
individual State and show how intimately 
it touches the Department of Interior. 
Take Illinois. You would not suppose 
that there was much in Illinois that 
might interest this Department, which is 



primarily a department of development. 
But outside of Chicago there is an ex- 
quisite place, called "The Dunes," down 
by the lakeside a lovely place made by 
the shifting sands that some day we 
ought to have for a park. 

A PLEA FOR THE COUNTRY SCHOOL 

Just outside of Chicago, also, there is 
a model country school.. Do you know 
that we do not give the children in the 
country districts a fair chance ? I wanted 
several years ago to get Congress to ap- 
propriate $300,000 that I might get a 
representative teacher from each district 
in the United States to spend a month at 
that school in Illinois, where they could 
find out how country children should be 
taught, how each boy and each girl in 
the school could be made to articulate 
with father and mother on the farm. I 
could not get the money. But some day 
we will dignify the country school and 
still more dignify the country school 
teacher. 

Talk about being underpaid and not 
being able to live, not being treated with 
respect and having no dignity given to 
you ! No one has as justifiable a com- 



A MIND'S-EYE MAP OF AMERICA 



505 




A FOREST GHOST ON FLATTOP MOUNTAIN, ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL, 

PARK: COLORADO 

.Wind, snow, and flying particles of rock have reduced this old spruce tree to a skeleton of its 

former self. 



plaint as the school teacher of the United 
States. In that one State two or three 
years ago the ordinary farm laborer was 
paid more than the school teacher. 

WHAT DO WE DO FOR THE TEACHER? 

If your Americanism is founded upon 
intelligence (and it must be if it is going 
to live), you must have somebody who 
can bring out of the young what is in 
them. It is not a question of pouring; 
it is a question of drawing. You cannot 
expect that from a girl who gets $40 a 



month. Moreover, you have got to treat 
people with respect and with dignity if 
you are going to get the best out of them. 
What recognition do we give to the 
teacher? What social status does she 
have? We talk of Americanism, and 
there is the person who is at the very 
heart and center of Americanism. Upon 
her depends our future. She can be 
made the greatest instrumentality for 
building up the right spirit within the boy 
and girl in America the greatest of all 
instrumentalities for Americanization. 




506 



A MIXD'S-EYE MAP OK AAIKKICA 



507 



I had rather have the school teacher 
than to have all the newspapers and mov- 
ing pictures and organizations and con- 
gresses and all else combined, because 
she can sow the seed in ground that is 
fallow. And what status do we give to 
her ? With what dignity do we treat her ? 
What deference do we pay to her? So- 
cially, where is she? 

If you love this country, if you believe 
that you are a good American, see that 
the teacher gets an adequate salary, see 
that she gets proper recognition ! For 
all of life is not money. The intangible 
things are the things for which most 
people fight and that are of most value. 
And there is no better illustration of that 
than the city of Washington, to which 
people are drawn largely because of 
those intangible things, not the least of 
which is our vanity, our love of dis- 
tinction. 

OUR INDIAN" SCHOOLS 

I sometimes think that our Indian 
schools in places are better than some of 
our schools nearer home. We teach the 
Indian boy to raise four kinds of grain 
upon a plot of ground, to shoe a horse, 
to build a shack, and he comes out of 
that school not only knowing a little read- 
ing, writing, and arithmetic, but knowing 
how to make his living. He is not called 
away and told to fight for himself with- 
out any tools, without a sword in his 
hand. 

We have Indian schools in which we 
teach the girls how to care for them- 
selves and others. We have little cot- 
tages. We put two girls in a cottage. 
Those girls each month must produce a 
hat and a dress and do all their own 
cooking ; and they must cultivate a garden 
patch and learn how to care for a sick 
baby and a sick woman. 

In Oklahoma we have a group of In- 
dians who are the richest people in all 
this world, with an income of $20,000 a 
year per family. They are not the very 
best Indians that we have. I don't like 
to say that ; but it is true, because they 
have too much money and they don't 
have to work. 

But down here in North Carolina we 
have a group of Cherokees for whom 
nothing has ever been done, and I hope 
nothing will ever be done for them. 



There has not been an illegitimate birth 
for forty years in that reservation. It 
has fine upstanding, self-respecting, well 
educated farmers and herders. 

Way down in Florida are the Semi- 
noles, who fought us 100 years ago. To- 
day they raise cattle and are contented. 
I was offered a million acres of land by 
the State of Florida if I would drain it, 
and I wanted it badly, because I wanted 
it for the soldier boys. I had the thought 
that when this war was over we could 
make great use of those lands. And we 
could, if we had acted in time and had a 
bit of foresight; if there was not so 
much politics in this world, and it did not 
take so many men so much time to realize 
what ought to be done. 

THE CHALLENGE TO WOMAN 

We are not going to be happy cluttered 
together in houses banked up against 
each other in cities. That is not the nor- 
mal, natural life for us. We are not to 
have cities made of apartments and 
boarding-houses and hotels and produce 
the good, husky Americanism that has 
fought our wars and made this country 
and developed those lands that I have 
been talking about. The thing that is big 
within us is the creative instinct, and the 
challenge that is up to woman is to stimu- 
late and develop that in man. 

Every man feels the desire to get down 
into the soil and wrestle with it and make 
it yield to him. It is a part of the instinct 
that God implanted at the time when He 
ousted man from the luxury of the Gar- 
den of Eden ; and he has been marching 
round the globe making that conquest 
ever since. 

Now, because of the lure of pleasure, 
because of the moving-picture shows, 
and because of the desire to get close to- 
gether, man is deserting the farm. When 
I was born, 70 per cent of our people 
lived in the country ; now not more 
than 50. 

THE PLAN FOR THE BOYS I-ROM THE 
OTHER SIDE 

If that movement goes on, we are not 
going to have the America that we have 
had that has been vibrant, fibrous, 
strong, self-dependent, resourceful. 

So I wanted those boys when they 
came back from the other side to have a 



508 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph from Famous Players-L,asky Corporation 
A SCENE IN THE PROPOSED VICTORY PARK, ADIRONDACK MOUNTAINS: NEW YORK 

Only two of the national parks antedate our Centennial and only three others are thirty 
years old. The national park is the democratic equivalent for the vast estates of the nobility 
of Europe; yet no noble has such playgrounds. The first parks were centered around more 
or less inaccessible natural wonders, but a movement is on foot to provide the thickly popu- 
lated parts of America with playgrounds which, while lacking some of the phenomenal fea- 
tures of Yellowstone or Yosemite, still will meet with the universal demand for lovely scenes 
and places of wholesome outdoor recreation. 



A MIND'S-EYE MAP OF AMERICA 



509 




A CAMPING PARTY IN PALISADES INTERSTATE PARK : NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY 

There is no joy limit to the ride along the Palisades of the Hudson River and the 
speed of a smile a mile is here being largely exceeded. This beautiful playground comprises 
many thousands of acres along the west bank of the Hudson, in the States of New York 
and New Jersey, including what is known as Harriman Park, in Rockland County. 



piece of land allotted to each of them, 
where they could live in communities to 
which they could bring their brides 
land that would have a little cottage on 
it and be fenced and broken, so that the 
boy could go upon it at once and make 
his living; borrow a few hundred dollars 
from the government and put stock on 
the land; having a modern house and a 
community center around which this 
colony would gather. 

I wanted one of those communities in 



every State, so that all might see what an 
ideal farm life should be, for I thought 
that the gospel would spread. 

We could have had this. There is 
abundant vacant land, land that can be 
had for almost nothing. Between the 
National Capital and the Gulf of Mexico 
there are 32,000,000 acres of unused 
lands. We could support the entire 
United States, if need be, on that body 
of land. 

I wanted these boys to be given that 



510 



THK XATIOXAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZTXK 



chance ; but it would have cost some 
money. That is the hard thing to get, 
especially if it involves vision. But we 
must come to it; we must come to it if 
we are going to have the kind of men in 
the future that we have had in the past. 
We must keep the boy in love with the 
soil. He must feel as the French peasant 
felt who was fighting because that soil 
that he loved was his. There is some- 
thing in the old story of Achilles. You 
reach down and touch the soil and you 
get strength from it ; you do not get it 
from asphalt streets. One hundred and 
fifty thousand boys have written asking 
that they might have a chance at such a 
farm, and we cannot give it to them. 

POWER ! POWER ! POWlvR ! 

Power ! Power ! We must have more 
power! I want all our streams that have 
possibilities for power, from the James 
all up to the Saint Lawrence River, con- 
nected, the power developed in them, and 
then a great channel, a stream of power, 
circulated through those States. It can 
be done ; it will be done some day. 

I make the appeal to women that they 
fire the men with the ambition to make 
this country what it can be. We have 
done gloriously, but we must not stand 
still. The way to stand off Bolshevism 
is not to talk about it ; it is to do things 
which show that in this nation there is 
hope : that we have possibilities ; that this 
land is the best of all lands. 

Why? Because it is filled with a peo- 
ple who have imagination and willingness 
to work. We must stimulate those im- 
aginations and keep at work. We can 
stand off ideas of any kind, because we 
can meet them with the one solid argu- 
ment that Lincoln was so fond of ; he 
always spoke of the argument of facts. 

These things that I have enumerated 
are in America. And if a man has his 
best chance here, then that man will be 
proud of the traditions and the institu- 
tions and the character of the people that 
have made this country. That is true 
Americanism. 

TO KNOW AMERICA IS TO LOVE IT 

Then, too, we must show to the people 
around us that the principles that have 
guided our fathers, the love of liberty 
and the love of right and the sense of 



mercy and kindliness, are things that a 
nation may express occasionally, but that 
every one of us must express constantly. 

You cannot take the man from the 
Balkans and the woman from Norway 
and interpret America to them in strict 
terms of abstract law, or in terms of 
mountains of copper, or of miles of rail- 
roads. Yon must interpret America to 
them in terms of American life the 
beauty of American life, its dignity, the 
generosity of our natures, our willingness 
to be fair, our desire to help, our knight- 
like qualities. 

To know America is to love it. For it 
is a thing of life; it is growing, strug- 
gling, climbing, stumbling. It is thinking 
through its problems, groping through 
them, living through them. Out of its 
wealth in tilings of the earth and its 
greater wealth in things of the spirit it is 
making a new society, different from any 
that is or that has been. 

We do not see what is going on. We 
see but a phase, the tiniest segment of a 
great circle. 

Under liberty and order men are stim- 
ulated to their best, challenged to create. 
The inhibitions of long-settled static so- 
cieties are lifted and the possible man is 
having his day. 

MEN DREAMING DREAMS 

So everywhere throughout this land, 
away off in those remoter sections which 
I have mentioned, as well as nearer by, 
men are dreaming dreams. Some write 
those dreams on paper, and some write 
them on the mountain side in orchards, 
or within the mountains in mining shafts, 
or in the tall buildings of the cities, or in 
safe docks for ships. 

Everywhere this new people in this 
new land is doing something that is a 
service. Boys in the sage-brush colleges 
are writing poems, men are planning 
books or novel mechanical devices. Girls 
are preparing themselves for the study 
of the sciences. Painters and sculptors 
and chemists are proving themselves. 

They have the world to draw on; all 
its richness is theirs by inheritance the 
color and warmth of the Mediterranean 
peoples and the sterner, colder, more 
steadfast stuff of the North. 

This is to be a new picture in the world 
gallery. 




F. P. Clatworthy 

THE ROOF OF THE CONTINENT IN ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK 
Astride the Continental Divide, Rocky Mountain National Park not only contains a noble company of 
great peaks rising from flower-clad valleys, but through the variety and legibility of its glacial records, it 
forms the people's Rosetta Stone of glacial geology and reveals to the nature student intelligible evidence 
concerning the remote past. 




THE SQUARE. CROWNED HEAD OF LONG'S PEAK FROM THE 
FROST-CARVED FLANK OF FLATTOP 

Beloved monarch of all he surveys, this king of Colorado summits rises almost in the center of the four 
hundred square miles of mountain grandeur constituting Rocky Mountain National Park. Here glaciers 
whose irresistible power is combined with a laggard advance are building up moraines and illustrating to con- 
temporary man the forces that shaped our continent in the past. 



xl 




Asahel Curtis 

"THE MOUNTAIN THAT WAS GOD": MOUNT RAINIER 

This mountain of Indian mythology constitutes the Kohinoor of Mount Rainier National Park, fifty- 
seven miles from Tacoma. With an unconscious insight into the service rendered by mountain peaks, the 
red men of the Northwest called this great snow-peak the " Fountain-breast of Milk-white Waters." 




Fred H. Kiser 



THE GLORIOUS GRAVE OF A FALLEN MONARCH : CRATER LAKE NATIONAL PARK 

Kings of nature, like their human counterparts, sometimes pass away in a spectacular fashion. Mount 
Katmai blew off its head, but its mighty mass still dominates the view. Mount Mazama, wasted away by 
internal disorders, collapsed into the seething mass above which it once raised its proud head. .There was i 
reaction and the internal forces tried to raise another monarch. But the coup failed and tiny Wizard Island, 
almost drowned in blue spring water of surprising clearness, stands as the impotent heir of a blustering sire. 



- 




Asahel Curtis 

THE NIAGARA OF THE NORTHWEST 

Not far from Seattle, Washington, Snoqualmie Falls, more than half again as high as Niagara, furnish 
the rapidly growing city with immense power. Beauty and modernity co-operate rather than compete along 
the Pacific Coast and the cities have unsurpassed mountain panoramas. 




Ko!b Brothers 



THE CYCLOPEAN CANYON OF THE COLORADO: LOOKING EAST FROM HOPI POINT 

Tinted with the camouflage coloring of the Supreme Artist, "The Battleship" occupies the lower 
Foreground. Beyond rise the heights that have been named the "Vishnu Temple" and "Wotan's Throne." 
High above them, on the precipice to the right, the ceremonial fires flare forth upon the memorial altar erected 
;n honor of Major J. W. Powell, who first traversed the Grand Canyon by water. 



SAVING THE REDWOODS 

BY MADISON GRANT 

Mr. Grant's recital of the inroads which are being made upon some of the 
oldest and most magnificent forests of the nation will be read with keen interest 
by every member of the National Geographic Society, which was largely respon- 
sible for rescuing the finest group of Big Trees (Sequoia gigantea, or Washing- 
toniana) of the Sequoia National Park from the fate which now threatens the Red- 
woods of northern California. The members of the National Geographic Society 
will recall that at a time ^vhen, through a failure of Congress to appropriate a sum 
sufficient to present the Big Trees of the Giant Forest from falling into the hands 
of private lumber interests, the Society supplemented Congress' appropriation by 
a subscription of $20,000 in order that these age-old monarchs might be preserved 
in perpetuity (see "Our Big Trees Saved" in THE GEOGRAPHIC for January, 1017). 



THE eastern tourist visiting Cali- 
fornia feels that he has explored 
the State when he has crossed the 
Sierra and the central valley, with per- 
haps a side trip to Lake Tahoe and to 
the Yosemite Canyon, with its Mariposa 
grove of big trees, and has completed a 
leisurely trip down the southern coast. 

After a journey of this character, 
which is all that is accomplished by nine 
out of ten visitors, he carries away an 
impression of a golden brown, semiarid 
countryside, waterless stream beds, end- 
less fruit orchards, entire absence of turf 
and grass, abundant flowers, a rainless 
sky, and a pitiless sunlight. 

There is, however, another and differ- 
ent California on the coast from San 
Francisco north to the Oregon line. This 
region is heavily wooded, with running 
streams and abundant moisture, fogs tak- 
ing the place of rainfall during the sum- 
mer months. 

Much of the immediate coast is an old 
Pleistocene strand, elevated about 1,000 
feet above the sea and cut through at 
various points by rivers and streams. 
The new boulevard runs along this ele- 
vated beach-line for many miles, and 
when completed will be one of the finest 
motor highways in the world. 

With high mountains to the east, the 
traveler looks out over the ,vast expanse 
of the Pacific toward the setting sun. 

It is along this northwestern coast that 
the great redwoods of California are 
found, and it is here that the photographs 
accompanying this article were taken. 

The impending destruction of these 
forests is the most serious question con- 



fronting California in the effort tor the 
preservation of some portion of her vast 
inheritance. It has been stated officially 
that all of the old stand of forests in the 
United States will be cut off within the 
next sixty years, but this period will be 
materially shortened by the new methods 
of logging. 

Before describing these groves, it may 
be well to say a few words about the 
genus Sequoia, as there is much confu- 
sion regarding the big trees of the Sierra 
and the redwoods of the coast. 

SEQUOIAS WERE FLOURISHING WHEN 
DINOSAURS ROAMED THE EARTH 

The genus Sequoia, to which the two 
surviving species of the great trees of 
California belong, stands widely sepa- 
rated from other living trees. Together 
with closely related groups, it once spread 
over the entire Northern Hemisphere, 
and fossil remains of Sequoia and kin- 
dred genera have been found in Europe, 
Spitzbergen, Siberia, Alaska, Canada, 
and Greenland. 

Changes in climate and other causes 
have led to their gradual extinction, until 
the sole survivors of the genus are con- 
fined to California one to high altitudes 
in the Sierra Mountains and the other to 
the western slope of the Coast Range. 

Fossil leaves and cones of genera 
closely related to Sequoia occur in the 
rocks of the Jurassic and of the Trias, 
and the members of the genus Sequoia 
were common and characteristic trees in 
California throughout the Cretaceous. 

To give some idea of what this bald 
statement means, these trees, virtually 




520 



SAVING THE REDWOODS 



521 



in their present form, flourished in Cali- 
fornia before the mammals developed 
from their humble, insectivorous ances- 
tors in the Mesozoic, and while the dino- 
saurs* were the most advanced form of 
land animals. 

The mountains upon which these trees 
now stand contain fossil records of early 
Sequoia-like trees, proving that this 
group abounded before the rocks that 
constitute the present Sierra and Coast 
Ranges were laid down in shallow seas, 
to be upheaved later and eroded into 
their present shapes. In the base of 
Mount Shasta and under its lava flows, 
the ancient rocks are marked with im- 
prints of their leaves and cones. Such 
antiquity is to be measured not by hun- 
dreds of thousands, but by millions of 
years. 

THE BIG TREES OCCUR IN ISOLATED GROVES 

While the duration of the family, of 
the genus and even the existing species, 
or species so closely allied as to be al- 
most indistinguishable, extends through 
such an immense portion of the earth's 
history, the life of the living trees is cor- 
respondingly great. 

The Sequoia is not only the oldest liv- 
ing thing on earth, but it is the tallest 
tree in the Western Hemisphere, and we 
have no reason, so far as our paleobo- 
tanical studies have gone, to believe that 
there ever existed on earth either indi- 
vidual trees or forests that surpassed in 
size, in girth, in height, or in grandeur 
the Sequoias of California. And these 
are the trees that are being cut for grape 
stakes, for railroad ties, and for shingles. 

While the purpose of this article is to 
deal with the redwoods of the coast 
rather than the big trees of the Sierra, 
both of the genus Sequoia, a description 
of the redwood should be preceded by a 
few words on the big tree. 

The big trees, Sequoia gigantea, are 
found on the western slope of the Sierra 
Xevadas, in California, at an altitude of 
from five to eight thousand feet above 
the sea, with a north and south range of 
about 250 miles. They do not constitute 
a solid stand, but occur in more or less 
isolated groves, and growing with them 

* See "Hunting Big Game of Other Days," 
by Barnum Brown, in the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 
MAGAZINE for May, 1919. 



are other huge trees, chiefly white fir, 
incense cedar, sugar and yellow pine. 

These groves are about thirty-two in 
number and are m.uch scattered and iso- 
lated in the northern part of their range, 
while in the south they are larger and 
closer together. This distribution shows 
that the big tree is on the decline, the 
various groves having long since lost 
touch with each other, while in the north 
the reproduction is very poor. They all 
grow in spots sheltered by surrounding 
forests, and the slopes of the Sierra are 
more or less windless, but now that the 
white man has taken the land they would 
soon be destroyed for their valuable lum- 
ber, unless artificially protected in na- 
tional parks. 

They have suffered throughout the 
ages from ground fires. Their extraor- 
dinarily thick bark, which is from one- 
half to two feet through, is a great pro- 
tection, and although its heart has been 
burned out, a tree lives on so long as 
this bark and its underlying cambium 
layer can reach the earth. 

If protected by human care, the big 
tree has remarkable recuperative power, 
and many specimens in the Giant Forest 
of the Sequoia National Park show an 
accelerated growth, owing to their im- 
munity from fire even for a few decades. 

These trees are from five to twenty- 
five feet in diameter at shoulder height 
above the ground, and in the Giant For- 
est alone there are said to be 5,000 trees 
of more than ten feet in diameter. 

The height varies from 150 to much 
more than 225 feet, and as they are 
without taproots, they stand absolutely 
straight, often without branches from 
the ground to a height of 175 feet. 

WHY THE TREES' CROWNS ARE DEAD 

The crown usually is dead ; not blasted 
by lightning, as has been often asserted, 
but because ancient fires have eaten in 
at the base, so that the flow of sap to the 
top has been checked. 

When connection with the ground and 
the life-giving water supply has been 
strongly re-established, growth takes 
place from the topmost uninjured 
branches and forms a new, but false, 
crown. 

It is estimated that if these trees had 
escaped upsetting by the wind, and had 



522 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph from Charles Willis Ward 

ONE CLUMP OF REDWOODS CONTAINING 250,000 FEET OF LUMBER; THIS GROUP OF 
TREES IS GRAFTED TOGETHER AT THE TOP (SEE ILLUSTRATION, PAGE 523) 

The age of the redwood is about half that of the Sierra Big Tree, and the life of the 
mature specimens ranges from 500 to 1,300 years. Some of the Big Tree specimens when 
felled have been found to be more than 3,250 years old, and the General Sherman Tree 
undoubtedly exceeds these in antiquity. 



SAVING THE REDWOODS 



523 




Photograph from Charles Willis Ward 

A SKYWARD VIEW OF THE CLUMP OF TREES, GRAFTED TOGETHER AT THE TOP, SHOWN 
IN THE ILLUSTRATION ON PRECEDING PAGE 

The redwood has an unusually thick bark, but this serves as only partial protection 
from forest fires. In lumbering operations it sometimes happens that a loss of 30 per cent 
in timber results from the fires started to destroy the debris brush, shattered branches, and 
fallen trunks. 



524 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph from Charles Willis Ward 

NO HEAVIER STANDS OF REDWOOD THAN SHOWN IN THIS ILLUSTRATION CAN BE 

FOUND IN THE REDWOOD BELT 

The tree in the left foreground is 18 feet in diameter and contains 100,000 feet of mer- 
chantable lumber. These trees if preserved will soon produce more profit each year for the 
State than can be obtained temporarily by their destruction, and they will prove a source of 
increasing wealth to the State with each passing generation. 



SAVING THE REDWOODS 



525 



been allowed to grow entirely free from 
fire throughout their age-long existence, 
and had carried their proportionate 
growth (calculated from the tapering of 
the trunk) to their uttermost limits, they 
would be 600 feet high. 

This is mere speculation, as is the theo- 
retical age of some of the more ancient 
trees. The known age of trees which have 
been cut is from 1,100 to 3,250 years, but 
there is little doubt that this long period 
is much exceeded in such cases as the 
General Sherman tree or the Grizzly 
Giant. The life of these giants can be 
computed only by comparison with the 
measured trunks of lumbered trees, the 
actual age of which has been ascertained 
from the rings of growth. 

There is always a factor of uncertainty 
in the size of trees, depending on their 
rate of growth and supply of water. In 
exposed positions, with poor water and 
soil, development may be greatly retarded, 
and a tree may be very ancient although 
relatively small in size. On the other 
hand, a favorable location, such as a 
pocket in the rock or access to underly- 
ing water, might greatly accelerate the 
growth of a tree within the same grove. 

REDWOODS OF THE COAST 

The redwood of the coast, Sequoia 
sempervirens the immortal Sequoia far 
from being a battered remnant, like its 
cousin of the Sierra, whose shattered 
ranks remind one of massive Roman 
ruins, is a beautiful, cheerful, and in- 
domitable tree. Burned and hacked and 
butchered, it sprouts up again with a 
vitality truly amazing. 

It is this marvelous capacity for new 
growth from trunk or from root sap- 
lings which is, perhaps, the most inter- 
esting character of the redwood in con- 
trast with the big tree, which has no 
such means of regeneration and must de- 
pend on its cones for reproduction. 

All the redwood forests have been 
more or less injured by fire, sometimes 
of ancient origin, but more often delib- 
erately started by the lumbermen to 
clear away the slash, and it is a wonder- 
ful sight to see a charred trunk throw out 
a spray of new growth twenty or thirty 
feet above the ground, or a new tree 
standing on top of an ancient bole and 
sending its roots, like tentacles, down into 



the ground around the mother stump. 
Other trees stand athwart the fallen bod- 
ies of their parents and continually re- 
adjust their root systems to the decaying 
trunks beneath it. 

The vitality of the second growth 
throws up a circular ring of new and 
beautiful redwoods around the parent 
stump, and these little trees come up 
again and again if cut. If, however, they 
are buried several times in succession, 
this capacity of shoot reproduction ap- 
pears to be lost, and there are cases, 
notably about fifteen miles north of Ar- 
cata, in Humboldt County, where the 
highway passes through three or four 
miles of very large and thickly set burned 
stumps that show little or no signs of 
reforestation, proving that there are con- 
ditions where human greed and human 
carelessness make it impossible for even 
the redwood to survive. 

REDWOODS ARE YOUNGSTERS FROM 5OO TO 
I,30O YEARS OLD 

The age of the redwood is about half 
that of the Sierra big tree, and the life of 
a mature redwood runs from 500 to 1,300 
years, in many cases probably more. 

The diameter of the larger redwoods 
is sixteen feet and more and the height 
runs from 100 to 340 feet. Thus, while 
its diameter is less, its height is far greater 
than its cousin, the big tree, with the re- 
sult and effect of a graceful beauty rather 
than impressive solidity. It is probable 
that trees will be found which will exceed 
this maximum altitude, and it is quite 
possible that an ultimate height of 350 
feet may be recorded. One would an- 
ticipate the discovery of this tallest tree 
on earth either in Bull Creek Flat or 
along Redwood Creek. 

Of course, in discussing the present 
redwoods, one must always bear in mind 
that many of the finest groves have fallen 
to the axe, judging from the silent rec- 
ords of gigantic stumps along the Eel 
River, especially at Sonoma Flat, only 
recently destroyed. 

It is probable that the existing groves, 
with few exceptions, such as Bull Creek 
Flat, do not represent the finest groves 
of redwoods of fifty years ago. How 
needless all this sacrifice of Humboldt 
redwoods has been may be measured by 



526 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Freeman Art Company 

ONE OF THE MOST CONSPICUOUS FEATURES OF THE REDWOOD GROVES IS THE PRO- 
FUSION OF FERNS CARPETING THE GROUND BENEATH THE FOREST MONARCHS 

Some thirty species of fern have been found in the forests of Del Norte and Humboldt 

counties, California. 



SAVING THE REDWOODS 



527 



the fact that few, if any, of the lumber 
companies have proved profitable invest- 
ments, if their failure to pay dividends is 
a test of their commercial success. 

THE REDWOOD RANGE IS 450 MILES LONG 

The original range of the redwoods 
extended from Monterey north along the 
California coast to a point a few miles 
over the Oregon line, embracing an area 
with a length of about 450 miles and a 
width not exceeding 40 miles. The nar- 
rowness of this range seems to be de- 
termined by the fog which sweeps in 
from the Pacific, and the writer has seen 
the edge of the fog-bank clinging closely 
to the inland limit of the redwood belt. 

Many natives believe that the redwoods 
attract fog, but of course it is the mois- 
ture of the fog deposited on the tops of 
the trees that determines their inland dis- 
tribution. These forests are sometimes 
so wet that the dripping from the high 
crowns is like a thin rain, and at Red- 
wood Creek in summer it is hard often- 
times to tell whether it is raining or not, 
so saturated with moisture are the foli- 
age and the trunks when the fog darkens 
the forest. 

In the southern and larger half of their 
range, the redwoods are somewhat broken 
up in more or less isolated groves, and 
the axe of the lumberman has now 
separated these groves still more widely. 
In the north there is an almost continu- 
ous series of solid stands of redwoods, 
constituting the most magnificent forests 
in the world, not even excepting the great 
Douglas firs and pines that adjoin them 
in Oregon. 

The redwoods in the south seem to 
show a marked variation from those of 
the north, being generally redder in color, 
and their growth in rings or circles is 
much more frequent than in the groves 
of Humboldt and Del Norte counties. 

THE VALUE OF A LIVING TREE FAR EXCEEDS 
THE VALUE OF ITS TIMBER 

South of San Francisco the redwoods 
are now found chiefly in the Big Basin, 
which has been wisely made into a State 
park, and in the famous Santa Cruz grove. 
Intermediate spots along the Coast Range, 
notably at La Honda, are interesting 
chiefly as showing the pathetic solicitude 
with which the owners of surviving 



trees care for the battered remnants amid 
the charred stumps of former giants. 

Here at least the owners have learned 
that the value of a living tree at a public 
resort or along a highway far exceeds 
the value of its lumber. All these south- 
ern groves are mere reminders of the 
forests that are gone, but the surviving 
trees will be carefully protected. 

North of San Francisco the Muir 
Woods, on the slopes of Mount Tamal- 
pais, are easily accessible and show some- 
thing of the forest grandeur formerly 
found in the region of the Golden Gate. 
The preservation of this grove is entirely 
due to the wise munificence of Mr. Wil- 
Jiam Kent, who presented it to the nation. 

To the north, Sonoma County has pur- 
chased for public use the Armstrong 
Grove, and Mendocino County probably 
will be impelled to buy the Montgomery 
Grove. These last trees are situated near 
the highway to the north of Ukiah and 
will be the first grove visited by the north- 
bound tourist. If they are purchased by 
the town or county, Ukiah will become 
the entrance to the Redwood Park series, 
and, like Merced, at the entrance to the 
Yosemite Valley, will derive a large rev- 
enue from motor tourists. 

After leaving Mendocino County one 
enters the great groves of Humboldt and 
Del Norte counties. Here are solid stands 
of redwoods, and the observer finds it 
difficult to distinguish between one grove 
and the next. 

Four great forests stand out promi- 
nently: They are (ist) the groves along 
the South Fork of the Eel River and 
the west bank of the main Eel, culminat- 
ing in the Bull Creek Flat and the Dyer- 
ville Flat; (2d) the immense Redwood 
Creek grove; (3d) the Klamath River 
groves, and (4th) the Smith River groves 
at Mills Creek, in Del Norte County. Each 
has its peculiar beauty, and it is difficult 
to choose among them, but it is the trees 
of Humboldt County, along the South 
Fork of the Eel River, that at the pres- 
ent moment are most in peril. 

ITS VIRTUES IMPERIL THE REDWOOD 

The groves along the South Fork of 
the Eel River are traversed by the State 
highway, now in the process of construc- 
tion. The building of this highway made 
the timber accessible, and the immediate 



528 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph from Charles Willis Ward 

A CAMPING SITE; AMONG THE KLAMATH RIVER REDWOODS : CALIFORNIA 

"The inhabitants of Del Norte and Humboldt counties have scarcely awakened to the possi- 
bilities of fabulous wealth in their redwoods as an attraction for visitors." 



SAVING THE REDWOODS 



529 



result was the establishment of small 
lumber camps that are destroying the 
trees along its edge. Not only are the 
trees along the road cut down, but the 
highway itself in many cases has been 
injured. 

These great trees, with their hundreds 
of feet of clear timber, have, among other 
valuable qualities, the unfortunate char- 
acteristic of easy cleavage or splitting, 
and so they are in special demand for rail- 
road ties, for shakes or shingles, and for 
grape stakes. These superb trees are 
sacrificed to supply the stakes to support 
vines because of the practically inde- 
structible character of the wood, which 
will stand in the ground almost indefi- 
nitely without rotting. 

THE CALIFORNIA STATE HIGHWAY RUNS 

THROUGH THE REDWOOD 

DISTRICT 

In going to the redwood country from 
San Francisco, the first important group 
of trees encountered is the Montgomery 
grove, which lies a few miles west of the 
highway north of Ukiah, but about fifty 
miles north of Willits the redwoods be- 
gin to appear along the highway in small 
and scattered groups. 

The beauty of the roadway could be 
greatly enhanced by saving these small 
groves and scattered trees. Their ulti- 
mate preservation, however, will depend 
entirely on the ability of the California 
Highway Commission to secure a right 
of way of sufficient width. This has not 
been done as yet, and farther north, in 
an effort to avoid expense, the Commis- 
sion actually purchased a right of way 
subject to the condition that the owners 
should remove the timber from it. In 
other words, a highway was planned 
through the redwoods to carry visitors 
to see the trees, and then arrangements 
were made to have the timber removed. 
This action was largely taken owing to the 
widespread, but mistaken, belief that it is 
impossible to save a strip of timber if the 
protecting trees on either side are re- 
moved. However, California is awaken- 
ing to the necessity of employing land- 
scape engineers, who will prevent all 
unnecessary vandalism. 

The first important redwood groves 
are at Hicks' Camp and about twelve 
miles south of Garberville, at the Stern's 



Camp grove, the latter comprising some 
ten acres on a fine level bottom about 
300 yards wide. At this point one is 
forced to recognize the fact that any 
State park in connection with the high- 
way must include the entire erosion val- 
ley of the South Fork of the Eel from 
crest to crest. The skyline, with its su- 
perb trees, is as essential as the bottom 
flat and much more important than the 
intermediate area. 

The river valley is narrow in fact, 
little more than a wide gorge with a level 
bottom and the timber on the slopes has 
less commercial value than that upon the 
flat. If the timber along the highway is 
to be preserved, a relatively small amount 
of additional cost would protect the en- 
tire valley. 

At Red Mountain there is a fine grove 
of redwoods, and to the north of that the 
first cutting was made in 1919. From 
this point on it becomes evident that the 
right of way, 100 yards wide, acquired 
by the California Highway Commission, 
is not only insufficient, but has actually 
served to invite logging operations. 
^ The contour of the South Fork of the 
Eel is such that the highway, with a 
strip of timber on each side, can be pre- 
served easily without danger of destruc- 
tion from winds, if due consideration is 
given to the topography of the ground. 

THE WORK OF CENTURIES DESTROYED FOR 
GRAPE STAKES 

It is scarcely necessary to dwell on the 
need to put an end to the destruction of 
the oldest and tallest trees on earth. 
The cutting of a Sequoia for grape stakes 
or railroad ties (and an eighteen-foot 
tree along the new State highway was 
cut a few months ago for that purpose) 
is like breaking up one's grandfather's 
clock for kindling to save the trouble of 
splitting logs at the woodpile, or lighting 
one's pipe with a Greek manuscript to 
save the trouble of reaching for the 
matches. 

After the fall of the Roman Empire 
the priceless works of classic art were 
"needed" for lime, and statues by Phidias 
and Praxiteles were slaked down for 
this purpose ; but the men who did it are 
today rightly regarded as "vandals and 
barbarians." 



530 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph from Charles Willis Ward 

WHEREVER THE REDWOOD IS FOUND AT ITS BEST ONE MAY BE SURE OF A 

DAILY FOG BATH 

This photograph shows the sunbeams breaking through the fog as it begins to lift and 
dissolve. This usually occurs about 9 or 10 o'clock each day during the summer season. 
Sometimes the forests are so wet that the dripping of water from the high crowns is like a 
thin ram. 



SAVING THE REDWOODS 



531 



North of Garberville there was much 
lumbering for railroad ties and grape 
stakes during the summer of 1919. The 
cutting was in every case done along the 
east bank of the South Fork of the Eel 
River and on the very edge of the high- 
way, and while the devastation was ap- 
palling, the damage, if stopped now, can 
ultimately be minimized.. 

Farther north the cutting begins to ap- 
pear at scattered points, but one of the 
finest groves, a tract of 700 acres be- 
longing to the Hammond Lumber Com- 
pany, has been left untouched. 

A little farther north there is a fine 
stand of timber owned by the University 
of Minnesota, and it is to be hoped that 
this educational institution will cooperate 
in preserving these trees. From here on 
there has been much destruction at vari- 
ous points along the road. 

After these scenes of devastation and 
threats of worse, the traveler reaches 
Bull Creek Flat, perhaps the finest forest 
in the world. Bull Creek enters the South 
Fork of the Eel just above Dyerville, 
and here is a magnificent stand of trees, 
some 10,000 acres in extent. 

If all the forested area needed in con- 
nection with the State highway be taken 
from the upper reaches of the South Fork 
down to the mouth of Bull Creek, the res- 
ervation will contain about 10,000 acres. 
Bull Creek Flat, with the grove opposite, 
at Dyerville, will add 10.000 acres, mak- 
ing a total of from 20,000 to 25,000 acres, 
the minimum for a State park, which in 
point of fact should be larger and extend 
northward along the west bank of the 
main Eel River. 

Bull Creek Flat belongs to the Pacific 
Lumber Company, except two sections 
in the upper part, which are the property 
of the Metropolitan Lumber Company. 
The officials of both these companies 
have expressed their sympathy with the 
park project, so far as it relates to Bull 
Creek Flat. This tract is said to contain 
one enormous tree, possibly the largest 
redwood and the tallest tree in the world. 

STATE AND NATION MUST BUY BACK 
THEIR GIFTS 

The fundamental tragedy of the whole 
redwood situation lies in the fact that 
the great trees are nearly all in the hands 
of private owners, who cannot reasonably 



be expected to sacrifice their holdings for 
public benefit. The State and nation, 
having given away these lands in the past, 
must now buy back at least a large por- 
tion of them. 

On the east bank of the Eel River, for 
many miles below the forks, there are 
very few redwoods within sight of the 
highway except at Fortuna, where 2,300 
acres of fine trees have been preserved 
temporarily and are known as the Carson 
Woods. This grove is a mile or so east 
of the highway and should be preserved 
as a local park. 

. ^ } 

SPROUTING SAPLINGS HAVE BEEN 
DESTROYED 

Along the lower stretches of the Eel 
River below Scotia a lumber company is 
said to have checked reforestation by cut- 
ting, during successive years, the sprout- 
ing saplings which bravely tried to lift 
their heads around the old stumps. This 
was done under the impression that the 
land could, be made available for pastur- 
age. It has proved a failure, and the 
only result has been to destroy in many 
places the chance of the forest recovering. 

Below therforks, on the left bank, there 
is a magnificent stand of trees, extending 
from the water's edge to the crest of the 
main slope, nearly all of which belongs 
to the Pacific Lumber Company. This 
area is some 20,000 acres in extent, and 
the highway runs through it. It should 
be preserved, although the cost would be 
great beca'use of the size of the tract and 
the fine quality and thickness of the tim- 
ber. Below this forest the timber on 
both sides of the river has been almost 
entirely destroyed. 

At Orick, on the Big Lagoon, the high- 
way passes through the lower end of the 
Redwood Creek grove, one of the very 
best stands of redwood in Humboldt 
County, approximately 50,000 acres in 
extent. The redwoods are largely mixed 
with spruce and the' ground is carpeted 
with ferns of great abundance and va- 
riety. This stand is as yet untouched 
and should be saved for a national park, 
because the timber, being inaccessible, 
can be acquired at a relatively small cost. 

One of the most conspicuous features 
of these redwood forests, especially in 
Del Norte County and the northern por- 
tions of Humboldt, is the profusion of 



532 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 




Photograph from Charles Willis Ward 
A BEAUTIFUL CAMPING GROUND 

There are hundreds of beautiful camping grounds in the timbered regions of the Cali- 
fornia coast. The owner of this tract has cleared off a number of spots and put them in 
shape for the use of visitors. June, July, August, September, and the greater part of October 
are splendid months for c-amping. The Interstate highway passes along this tract about two 
miles to the westward. 



SAVING THE REDWOODS 



533 



ferns, of which there are said to be some 
thirty species. 

The protection of the California red- 
woods is now the subject of anxious 
solicitude on the part of many citizens, 
but the practical means of achieving this 
result are in the hands of the Redwoods 
League. There are two distinct move- 
ments on foot. First and of instant need 
are the efforts made by Humboldt County 
and by the Redwoods League to stop the 
cutting along the highway on the South 
Fork of the Eel River. 

OPTIONS PURCHASED BY TWO LOVERS OF 
THE REDWOODS 

This has been substantially accom- 
plished, and since August, 1919, all the 
cutting has been stopped by the purchase 
of the land on which lumbering opera- 
tions were here carried on. This was 
made possible through the munificence of 
Mr. Stephen T. Mather and Mr. William 
Kent, each of whom donated $30,000 to 
be used in the purchase of options on the 
threatened areas. 

These options have since been taken 
up by the Supervisors of Humboldt 
County, a body of men having rare fore- 
sight. Humboldt County expects to pro- 
vide a bond issue on a large scale, which 
will secure the preservation of the groves 
most in danger, but the bulk of the money 
needed must be provided by the State of 
California. The necessary bond issue 
will shortly be brought before the people. 
It has been sponsored by the Governor 
and has the active support of the most 
influential men in the State. 

In addition to this, the Redwoods 
League has succeeded in enlisting the 
support of many public-spirited lumber- 
men and owners of timber, who propose 
to donate at least a portion of their hold- 
ings for park purposes, especially along 
the highway. 

The extent of this redwoods park has 
been definitely determined as the entire 
valley of the South Fork of the Eel 
River from the point where the redwoods 
begin down to and including Bull Creek 
Flat and Dyerville Flat. If, in addition, 
funds can be provided to purchase any 
or all of the 20,000 acres of redwoods on 
the left bank of the main Eel farther 
down stream, a superb reserve would be 
established. 



The Eel River redwoods constitute the 
most immediate problem, but there is also 
a very definitely formulated plan to pro- 
vide a National Redwoods Park. A na- 
tional park requires a large area, with 
sufficient isolation and compactness to 
admit of proper administration. There 
are three such areas available: ist, the 
grove along Redwood Creek, of about 
50,000 acres in extent and peculiarly 
adapted for a national park; 2d, the 
groves along the Klamath River, as yet 
untouched and of great beauty; 3d, the 
Smith River groves, in Del Norte County. 
A complete survey, such as is now being 
undertaken by the Redwoods League, 
will be necessary to determine the rela- 
tive suitability of these three groves for 
a national park. 

THE REDWOODS LEAGUE 

The "Save the Redwoods League" was 
formally organized in San Francisco in 
July, 1919. 

The league is under the executive con- 
trol of Dr. John C. Merriam, of the Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, Calif., 
and its purposes are: 

(1) To purchase redwood groves by 
private subscriptions and by county bond 
issues. 

(2) To secure a State bond issue to 
buy the finest redwood groves along 
State highways. 

(3) To establish, through Federal aid, 
a National Redwoods Park. 

(4) To obtain, through State and 
county aid, the protection of timber along 
the scenic highways now in course of 
construction throughout California. 

(5) To encourage the State to pur- 
chase cut-over redwood areas for refor- 
estation by natural means or by replant- 
ing where repeated fires have made 
sprout reproduction impossible. 

Committees have been formed also to 
study the subjects of redwood distribu- 
tion, variation, and the most efficient 
commercial use of redwood products, in 
the belief that nearly all the purposes for 
which this lumber is now used can be 
adequately served by second - growth 
trees. 

REDWOOD GROVES IDEAL MEMORIALS 

One of the first results of the activities 
of the league has been the donation by 



534 



THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE 



Dr. John C. Phillips, of Boston, of a 
large sum of money for the purchase of 
a redwood grove as a memorial to his 
brother-in-law, the late Colonel Boiling, 
who fell under circumstances of great 
heroism in the late war. No more beau- 
tiful or effective memorial can be imag- 
ined than a grove of these trees, the very 
name of which, sempervirens, is redolent 
of the idea of immortality. 

If those who desire to preserve in a 
permanent form the memory of their 
dead would join in a movement to set 
aside memorial groves, the whole prob- 
lem of the preservation of the redwoods 
on a very large scale would be solved. 
If a tithe of the gold now squandered in 
ugly and costly monuments, which dese- 
crate the cemeteries throughout the land, 
were spent on trees, the world would be 
fuller of beauty and possibly more grate- 
ful to those who supplied the money. 

In addition to donations of money and 
trees for such memorial purposes, the 
league expects to find sympathetic and 
cordial support for the park among the 
lumbermen. They know only too well 
the value of the timber. The timber is 
their property, and their business is to 
cut and to realize on it. 

It is not fair for a community to ask 
them to hold this timber, to pay taxes on 
it, and then to sacrifice their financial in- 
terests for the public welfare. It is the 
duty of the county, the State, and the 
nation to purchase their holdings at the 
proper value. 

The question involved is not local; it 
is a State, a national in fact, an inter- 
national concern, as the benefit derived 
from the preservation of the redwoods 
will be for the people of the nation and 
the -world at large. There is no reason 
why the lumbermen should abandon 
their interests without adequate remuner- 
ation, although in many cases individuals 
and companies will donate a certain por- 
tion of their timber or sell at low figures. 

If the State, before building the high- 
ways, which made the timber accessible, 
had approached the lumbermen and made 
it a condition precedent that a strip of 
timber on each side of the road should 
be donated, no doubt in many cases the 
lumbermen would have found it greatly 
to their interest to accept the proposal. 
The fact that this was not done was the 
fault of the State, its .highway commis- 



sion, and its legislature, and not the fault 
of the lumbermen. 

Experience has shown that the only 
effective, persistent, and intelligent con- 
servators of wild game have been sports- 
men who have evolved from game-killers 
into game protectors, and personally the 
writer believes that the lumber owners 
themselves, who are among the finest 
men on the coast, will be found to be 
most generous and helpful in any scheme 
looking to the preservation of the timber. 

It will cost money to preserve the red- 
woods many millions of dollars ; but 
California has no choice. Either the 
amount needed to save the groves must 
be supplied today or else a far greater 
sum will be required ten years hence to 
purchase a butchered and isolated tenth 
part of the forests. 

REDWOODS NEVER CAN BE REPLACED 

If the groves are bought in their pres- 
ent condition and at relatively small cost, 
it will be a great innovation, because 
heretofore Americans have followed the 
wasteful policy of recklessly exploiting 
wild life, forests, and streams, and then, 
as soon as the destruction is complete, the 
policy is changed, game is reintroduced, 
and attempts are made to reforest the 
mountains at vast cost. But redwoods 
never can be replaced. 

Of course, lumbering must go on ; but 
most of the purposes for which redwood 
is now being used can be served from 
second-growth timber, a