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The National Heritage Fellowship 
Awards celebrate the eclectic, exciting 
and ever-changing character of America's 
living cultural heritage and give us the 
opportunity to reflect on the many 
magnificent and diverse cultures that are 

Tonight, we have the rare and won- 
derful opportunity to share the sights and 
sounds of many distant lands speaking to us through the 
master artists we honor. As diverse as our American nation 
is, and as different as the talents presented tonight are, we 
can nonetheless perceive a common thread of creative 
expression and experimentation. We appreciate the emotion 
of the music, the grace of movement, the precision of 
design, and the magical transformation of wood and metal. 

For centuries, our folk arts and cultural traditions have 
extended hands across cultures and led us on a shared jour- 
ney about who we are, where we came from, and what 
dreams we hold for the future. Through their talents, these 
artists, craftsmen and musicians have translated their inspira- 
tions and cultural traditions into tangible pieces of American 
history for future generations to share and treasure. 

As a folklorist, I especially value those arts and tradi- 
tions that are closest to the authentic roots of our culture, 
and I congratulate our winners. You breathe life and hope 
into America's creative legacy. 

Bill Ivey 

Chairman, National Endowment for the Arts 

Sophie George, a Yakama/Colville Indian 
beadworker and one of this year's 
National Heritage Fellows, once pointed 
out a deceptively simple, fundamental 
truth about the future of our cultural 
heritage. She said, "The only way that 
things will always be is if you keep them 
the way you were taught." Her words 
mark the common ground of this year's fifteen honorees, 
who live in different regions of the country, represent a vari- 
ety of cultural backgrounds, and practice strikingly distinc- 
tive art forms. They all have experienced the beauty of 
some part of their heritage, have come to be among the best 
practitioners of their art form, and have labored to make it 
part of the cultural future. 

But to get to their cultural future, they have traveled 
different paths. Some have modified the trappings of their 
tradition to accommodate changes in the society in which 
the tradition exists. Others have thought it more important 
to adhere to the letter as well as to the spirit of their tradi- 
tion, acting as "living libraries" of past achievement. All 
have acted to ensure the well-being of their tradition in an 
uncertain future. 

Tonight these different paths cross, if only for a brief 
moment in time, as these extraordinary keepers of their cul- 
tural treasures come to Washington, DC to be recognized by 
the National Endowment for the Arts for having kept their 
part of the American living cultural heritage with us for all 
to enjoy. As they pass by us on this cultural crossroads, 
let's take a moment to reflect on the lessons they can teach 
us about the quality and beauty of life and to celebrate 
their successes. Please join me in a round of applause for 
the 1998 National Heritage Fellows! 

Qaa. ^tmjlK^ 

Dan Sheehy 

Director, Folk & Traditional Arts 



NICK SPITZER is a scholar, documen- 
tary producer, and radio host known 
for his informed and witty style in 
presenting traditional arts and artists, 
cultures and communities to audiences 
from Carnegie Hall to the National 
Mall, from National Public Radio to 
PBS. After a decade at the Smithsonian 
— first as a senior folklife specialist, later an artistic director 
of the Folk Masters series and co-editor of the book Public 
Folklore — he returned to Louisiana where he had previously 
served as the State Folklorist. Now Professor of Folklore 
and Cultural Conservation at the University of New Orleans' 
College of Urban and Public Affairs, Nick is known to pub- 
lic radio audiences nationwide for his popular new series 
American Routes — a weekly two-hour exploration of the 
roots of popular music and popular roots music — distributed 
by Public Radio International and heard in Washington on 
Sundays on WAMU-FM. Having spent many years working 
with zydeco musicians and African-French communities, 
Spitzer is currently writing a book about Creole music, festi- 
val and cultural survival. 


Cambodian traditional dancers and musicians 


Polish -American musician/bandleader 


Sac and Fox/Pawnee German silver artist 


Anglo-American boat builder 


Tejano conjunto accordionist 


Jewish klezmer musicians 


Yakama-Colville beadworker 


Danish-American Hardanger needleworker 





Greek Byzantine chanter 


African- American Gospel/Blues musician 




African- American jazz/swing fiddler 


FELLOWS 1982-1997 





The 1998 National Heritage Fellowships ceremonies were pro- 
duced for the National Endowment for the Arts by the National 
Council for the Traditional Arts. The ceremonies were planned 
and coordinated for the NCTA by Madeleine Remez. 

NEA Staff 

Dan Sheehy 
Barry Bergey 
Pat Sanders 
Rose Morgan 
Pat Makell 

National Council for the Traditional Arts Staff 

Rhona Campbell, intern 

Rhonda Jenkins 

Julia Olin 

Segrid Pearson 

Mark Puryear 

Madeleine Remez 

Chris Williams 

Joseph T Wilson, Executive Director 

Heritage Fellowships Concert 

Master of Ceremonies, Nick Spitzer 

Director, Murray Horwitz 

Assistant Director, Jon Palmer Claridge 

Production Manager, Tim Toothman 

Production Assistant, K E Williams 

Scene Design, Russell Metheny, K E Williams 

Lighting Designer, Stefan Johnson 

Sound Design/Production, Pete Reiniger 

Monitor Engineer, E.L. Copeland 

Slide Projection, Permere Presentation 

Sign Language Interpreter, Hank Young 

Video Production, Jim Garcia, Sam Negron 

and Jimmy G. Productions 
Radio Production, Mark Yacovone, WDUQ Pittsburgh 
Program Book Design, Scott Severson/Signal 

Communications, Inc. 

The National Endowment for the Arts would like to express 
it's appreciation to the National Council for the Traditional 
Arts (NCTA) for its assistance in planning the 1998 National 
Heritage Fellowships concert, the reception at the White House, 
and other related events. NCTA is a private non-profit cor- 
poration founded in 1933 and dedicated to the presentation 
and documentation of folk and traditional arts in the United 
States. The National Endowment for the Arts would also 
like to acknowledge the invaluable assistance of the follow- 
ing individuals, organizations and businesses: 

The Honorable John Holum, Chairman of the Board, NCTA 

WAMU-FM Radio 

National Public Radio 

Connecticut Commission on the Arts 

Key Bridge Marriott 

Aspen Hill Travel 

Bob Banning Rentals 

House of Musical Traditions 

The staff at Lisner Auditorium 

Mary Chipps 

Daphne Shuttlesworth 

Matthew McMillan 

Harris Wray 

Dr. William Lloyd Glover, Jr. 

TARGET Stores is the corporate sponsor for this year's 
National Heritage Fellowship events. 


In several Southeast Asian countries and Indonesia, no artistic medium 
is more intensely practiced or central to national identity than the 
dance drama derived from the ancient Ramayana. Ornately-dressed 
and rigorously-trained dancers perform highly controlled, stylized 
movements expressing a narrative thread. The dance drama is accom- 
panied by a small orchestra comprised mainly of sets of tuned gongs 
and other instruments such as drums, xylophones, and oboes. In 
Cambodia, the terror of the Khmer Rouge holocaust of the mid 1970s 
devastated the primary institutions that supported dance drama, the 
royal court and the University of Fine Arts. The tradition was uprooted 
as dancers and musicians who survived the genocide fled to the United 
States along with large numbers of their compatriots. Three of these 
surviving artists were determined to keep their heritage a living part of 
Cambodian life in the United States and formed the Apsara Dancers. 

As a young girl, Moly Sam was captivated by the Apsaras, beauti- 
ful female celestial figures which adorn the Angkor Vatt Temple and 
appear in the ancient court repertory. Entering the Royal University of 
Fine Arts at the age of 13, she studied under the highly revered dance 
master Chheng Phon. Under his guidance, Moly gained the mastery of 
the male role (neay rong). She was sent by Master Chheng Phon to study 
and master the female role (neang) under the tutelage of the revered 
grand dance master Chea Samy at the royal palace. "He was of the 
conservative tradition of grand masters," says Moly. "He never gave 
compliments to students. This is because perfection to us is an illusion, 
a constant struggle to reach the higher realm." 

Moly's husband Sam-Ang Sam began studying traditional 
Cambodian music in the 1960s, learning the techniques of many tradi- 
tional instruments and the repertoires of both dance drama and village 
folk music. He married Moly in 1973 and took her with him to study in 
the Philippines, before the Khmer Rouge takeover. They came to the 
United States in 1977 as refugees, where they soon became involved in 
efforts to preserve Cambodian identity and culture. Sam-Ang eventually 
received a doctorate in ethnomusicology from Wesleyan University and 
has taught, performed, and organized throughout the United States. 

Sam-Oeun Tes was raised on the Cambodian Royal Palace 
grounds, and at the age of 14 was invited to study dance with her aunt, 
a palace dancer. She started learning the male role: "I was dancing every 
day from ten until two, then I'd go home to rest, and then go to her 
house from four thirty until seven thirty to train more." The princess 
later insisted she change to the female role and apprentice with Neak 
Krou Bunnak, one of the court's most prestigious teachers. She came to 
the United States in 1971, and when the Khmer Rouge began their reign 
of terror she was motivated to train young dancers in the Washington, 
D.C. area. 

Moly and Sam-Ang teamed up with Sam-Oeun Tes's group, the 
Cambodian-American Heritage Troupe, formed in 1980. They performed 
at the Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival in Massachusetts in 1981, and 
have become much in demand for Cambodian and other public events 
throughout the country. In 1986, Sam-Ang and Moly founded the 
Apsara Ensemble, widely considered to be the top Cambodian perform- 
ing arts ensemble outside Cambodia. When Moly and Sam-Ang reset- 
tled in the Washington, D.C. area they intensified their collaboration 
with Sam-Oeun Tes, performing and teaching regularly. In 1 994, Sam-Ang 
Sam received a Mac Arthur Foundation fellowship that allowed him to con- 
tinue his cultural preservation work both in the United States and in 
renascent Cambodia. 


Cambodian traditional dancers and musicians 

Sam-Oeun Tes 



Alo/y .Vj/;/ 


Polish-American musician/bandleader 

In the decades around the turn of the century, millions of Polish, 
Slovenian, Croatian, Austrian, German, and Bohemian immigrants 
resettled in the United States. They brought with them a wide variety of 
distinctive languages, customs, and local music and social dance forms. 
In the mid-nineteenth century, the polka had become widely popular 
throughout Central Europe. In the new American social milieu, it 
served as an important touchstone of shared heritage among people of 
different Central European heritages. While distinctive, ethnic-specific 
polka styles emerged in this country, they usually mixed the sounds of 
American popular and country music into their style, reflecting the 
changing cultural tastes of new generations. The "Chicago-style" polka 
(often called "hop style") in which the dancers step double time, is one 
of these forms. So great is its popularity that for millions of Americans 
the Polish American "Chicago-style" is synonymous with "polka." It was 
forged largely by one man — Eddie Blazonczyk. 

Eddie Blazonczyk was born in Chicago in 1941, the son of immi- 
grants from the rural Tatras Mountains region of southern Poland. 
His parents owned a banquet hall, where Eddie heard some of the most 
influential polka players of the day such as Steve Adamczyk and Eddie 
Zima. When his father bought a new tavern in the Wisconsin northwoods 
village of Hiles, Eddie was exposed to the musics of other Slavs, 
Scandinavians, and "Kaintucks" — Kentuckians who came to work in 
the timber-producing region. As a teenager, Blazonczyk began playing the 
new popular rockabilly music with his group, Eddie Bell and the Hill 
Boppers. When he moved back to Chicago in 1963, he rededicated 
himself to the Polish music of his heritage. 

Blazonczyk formed his own polka band, the Versatones, and creat- 
ed the Bel-Aire record label. He worked to forge a new polka sound that 
incorporated the more raucous approach of the much-admired Lil' 
Wally Jagiello with the polished style of influential vocalist Marion Lush. 
According to polka music expert Richard March of the Wisconsin Arts 
Board, Blazonczyk's creative contributions and the magnitude of his 
impact on American polka tradition are comparable to those of B.B. 
King on blues and Bill Monroe on bluegrass: "He created a stylistic ren- 
dering of the old folk music in a format that has been widely accepted, 
has what is considered the ideal singing voice for the old Polish songs, 
but also keeps his repertoire replenished with new original songs in both 
English and Polish. He has a following which includes not only the tens 
of thousands of polka dancers in every Polish-American community 
nationwide, but younger musicians as well. There are literally dozens of 
Polish polka bands whose fundamental base is Blazonczyk's line-up — a 
concertina trading leads with a pair of parallel or unison trumpets, an 
accordion doing 'bellows-shaking' to provide rhythm, and electric bass 
guitar and drums." While he plays most of the polka instruments, Eddie 
prefers the bass, which allows him to sing in his clear-toned, natural style. 

Blazonczyk has been a powerful organizing force in the polka com- 
munity and has received numerous honors for his work. He was one of 
five co-founders of the International Polka Association, which work to 
promote all styles of polka music. Year round, he promotes numerous 
dances and festivals, including the five-day Polka Fireworks in Champion, 
Pennsylvania and Bel-Aire Polka Days in Chicago. His record label has 
recorded and distributed a wide range of polka musics. His singing, his 
more than 50 recordings, and his band have been honored repeatedly 
by organizations such as the United States Polka Association, the 
International Polka Association, and the United Polka Association. In 
1986, his recording "Polka Celebration" received a Grammy from the 
National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Eddie Blazonczyk 
and the Versatones estimate they have appeared more than 4,800 times 
since they began in 1963. 

Prior to the arrival of Europeans in North America, metalwork was 
not widely practiced among Native Americans. Contact with 
Spanish traders and craftsmen to the south, and later trade with 
Europeans and Americans changed this dramatically over time. 
Southern Plains groups exploited their strategic, central trading 
location to obtain a wide variety of manufactured goods. Metal 
goods were especially prized for their superior functional and deco- 
rative properties. German silver, a non-ferrous alloy of nickel, cop- 
per, and zinc, was invented in the early 1820s. Its combination of 
hardness and ability to take a shine soon made it a preferred metal 
for many Native American artisans, particularly in the Southern 
Plains region. German silver is usually sold in sheets of various 
thickness, and is cut, filed, stamped, engraved, and polished by the 
artist into many kinds of jewelry and ceremonial objects such as 
rings, brooches, breastplates, tiaras, roach (dance headdress) spread- 
er, earrings, bracelets, combs, concho belts, neckerchief slides, and 
decorative pins. This relatively new Native American crafts tradition 
was well established by the last decades of the 19th century. 

Pawnee/Sac and Fox metalsmith Bruce Caesar of Anadarko, 
Oklahoma represents the third generation of metalsmiths in his 
family. He was born in Iowa City, Iowa in 1952. His Pawnee father, 
Julius, who was widely recognized as one of the most accomplished 
and creative Native craftsmen working in German silver, won 
numerous awards for his work. Bruce remembers starting to work 
metal when he was seven years old. By the age of nine, he was 
demonstrating jewelry-making in craft shows with his father. His 
apprenticeship with his father was long and intense, and Bruce con- 
tinues to build on his father's legacy of incorporating lapidary work 
into his designs and signing his more elaborate commissioned 
pieces. The inter-tribal Native American Church has been the inspi- 
ration of "peyote jewelry," a style that incorporates important 
sacred and ritual symbols such as the tipi, fan, rattle, and, most 
importantly, the aquatic spirit bird that carries prayers. 

Bruce Caesar has embraced the tradition of Southern Plains 
metalsmithing, but at the same time has found his own unique 
interpretations of traditional motifs. The thoughtful, refined designs 
of his jewelry can be, in his words, "as simple as a sentence that 
conveys a thought or as deep as an essay that conveys a whole 
belief." The extraordinary quality of his designs and technique have 
won him many awards, and he has been featured in major exhibits 
such as Contemporary Southern Plains Indian Metalwork, orga- 
nized by the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, and featured in articles 
in Oklahoma Today and Native Peoples Magazine. As time permits, 
he offers demonstrations for schools, museums, and galleries. He 
enjoys teaching young people, and his son Adam has been his prin- 
cipal disciple. His work continues to balance tradition with an 
adventurous outlook toward design possibilities. As he puts it, "I've 
never had a helmet or hubcap ordered yet, but I'm sure in time one 
will come along." 


Sac and Vox/Pawnee German silver artist 


Anglo-American boat builder 



Boatbuilding, like architecture, marries form and function. 
Throughout the world, some boat-types can be identified as indige- 
nous to particular bodies of water and functional to specific aquatic 
trades. The Reelfoot Lake "stumpjumper" is such a boat, and Dale 
Calhoun is the master builder of this special freshwater craft. 

Dale Calhoun was born in 1935 and spent most of his boyhood 
around his father's boat shop near Reelfoot Lake in northwestern 
Tennessee. The Calhoun family has made boats on Reelfoot Lake for 
four generations. Joseph Marion Calhoun, Dale's great-grandfather, 
was a farmer, bricklayer and blacksmith who moved to the area in the 
early 1900s and built several boats. Dale's grandfather Boone Calhoun, 
also a blacksmith, began boatbuilding in a serious way and refined the 
design of the Calhoun family boats. Dale's father, William Calhoun, 
was a full-time boatbuilder and built 100 to 150 boats per year on 
Reelfoot Lake for 35 years. As inheritor of the Calhoun family 
boatbuilding tradition, Dale got his start around the age of 14 when, as a 
surprise, he quickly built a boat in his father's shop over a weekend while 
his father was away on vacation. He has been making boats ever since. 

Made from oak ribbing and cypress planks and coming to a point 
on both ends, the stumpjumper got its name from its ability to slide 
over and around the cypress knees, stumps and logs that are common 
to Reelfoot Lake. This shallow, swampy floodplain lake near the 
Mississippi River was formed by the famous 1811-12 New Madrid 
earthquake. Innovations in boat design incorporated by the Calhoun 
family include bow-facing oars, covering bottoms with fiberglass rather 
than tin, the use of small gasoline-powered motors, and the addition of 
a unique triangular propeller guard. 

Although the popularity of aluminum johnboats has threatened to 
replace handmade wooden boats in many locales, the stumpjumper is 
still preferred around Reelfoot where local watermen value the quiet 
efficiency of a wooden boat and the special symmetry and precision 
craftsmanship of Calhoun boats. Dale does not ignore the aesthetic 
dimensions of boatbuilding. He says, "Each one of these darn boats has 
its own personality. People will say, 'What's two boards?' But each board 
has its own personality. Each one is a little more flexible, more pliable, 
not as stiff. That's the thing with building a boat. It's just like a house: If 
a house is not straight and true or it's twisted, you're in a mess." 

Now acclaimed as the last builder of the Reelfoot Lake stumpjumper, 
Dale Calhoun has demonstrated his craft at the 1982 World's Fair in 
Knoxville, the Smithsonian Festival of American Folklife in Washington, 
DC, the National Folk Festival in Chattanooga, and the Kentucky 
Folklife Festival. Tennessee state folk arts coordinator Robert Cogswell 
notes in his nomination letter: "The traditionality, distinctiveness, excel- 
lence and dedication that Dale upholds in his work as a practicing 
artisan exemplify all of the highest ideals which the National Heritage 
Fellowships celebrate." 

The Texas-Mexican conjunto, literally "ensemble," was born in the 
late nineteenth century through the introduction of the Central 
European button accordion into Mexican working class communities 
in southern Texas. Mexican music of this region had been shaped by 
the nineteenth-century European-derived dances: polka, schottische, 
mazurka and waltz. This music was performed mainly on stringed 
instruments. German, Czech, and Polish immigrants came to southern 
Texas and Northern Mexico in the late 1 800s bringing the button 
accordion. By the 1930s, pioneer conjunto performers such as Narciso 
Martinez and Santiago Jimenez had made the accordion sound a stan- 
dard part of Mexican-American life in Texas and beyond via the 
emerging record and radio industries. The nueva generacion (new gen- 
eration) movement that came after World War II created a conjunto 
sound suited to larger dance halls and amplification, while remaining 
loyal to the tastes of the tradition's working-class base. No conjunto 
musician of this era was more prolific and influential than Antonio 
"Tony" de la Rosa. 

Born in 1931 in Sarita, Texas, a worker's hamlet on the King 
Ranch, he was one of twelve children in a family of field laborers. 
"All of us, my brothers and I, went out with my father. Tell me about 
cucumbers, hoeing, tomatoes, onions-we did it all," he remembers. At 
the age of six, his mother taught him to play harmonica. "Then I 
heard the accordion on the radio. We were living on a hacienda where 
my parents worked and I heard the accordion come from a radio in 
the kitchen. I got hold of one and learned to pick out the chords." He 
imitated the recordings of accordion pioneer Narciso Martinez, and at 
the age of sixteen, he went to nearby Kingsville and played in the small 
taverns there: "I spent a lot of time with my accordion on one side of 
me and the shoeshine box on the other." In 1949, he made his first 
recorded disc featuring two polkas entitled "Sarita" and "Tres Rios". 
The next year he joined the Ideal label, where, according to conjunto 
scholar Dr. Manuel Pena, "He began to turn out all the polkas that 
were to make his name a household word among the tejano [Texas- 
Mexican] working class. Beyond any doubt, by the mid-1950s de la 
Rosa's conjunto was the most popular accordion group in Texas." 
Also by this time, de la Rosa had codified the instrumentation of the 
conjunto tejano that endures to this day: button accordion, amplified 
bajo sexto [a Mexican 12-string guitar], electric bass, and drums. In 
adding drums and replacing the upright acoustic bass with the electric 
bass, he changed the musical style. The polka tempo slowed, ushering 
in the new tacbuachito dance style with the slow, gliding movements of 
the possum (tacuache). The accordion and bajo sexto were set free to 
develop more individualistic stylistic nuances and a more deliberate, 
staccato character marked his accordion melodies. His much-imitated 
1956 instrumental rendition of the song "Atotonilco" hastened the 
acceptance of his changes. 

In addition to constantly touring throughout the United States to 
wherever large numbers of farm workers are to be found, Tony de la 
Rosa and his Conjunto de la Rosa (that has included two of his broth- 
ers) has made over 75 long-play recordings and many single discs. He 
was inducted into the Conjunto Music Hall of Fame in San Antonio in 
1982. Pena sums up de la Rosa's place in music history: "To this day 
Tony de la Rosa stands out as a larger-than-life icon of a style whose 
cultural power few regional musicians in the Americas can match." 


Tejano conjunto accordionist 


Jewish klezmer musicians 

Max, Julius, and William Epstein 

Both a cause and an effect in the recent resurgence of American Jewish 
culture is the rediscovery and reinterpretation of the Yiddish instrumen- 
tal music known as klezmer. Violinist Itzhak Perlman's 1996 television 
documentary, CD recording, and concert tour In the Fiddler's House is 
a tribute to klezmer's growing popularity. But this music was not 
always so cherished. "Klezmer was a derogatory expression," says 86- 
year-old clarinetist Max Epstein, referring to the music's early twenti- 
eth-century association with low-class immigrants: "Jewish people 
called musicians from Eastern Europe 'klezmer' in Yiddish. Anything a 
klezmer played is called klezmer music." This music thrived in the 
United States and enlivened Jewish celebrations and social occasions. 
But, in a familiar pattern, the first generation born in the new country- 
turns away from ethnic heritage while the next attempts to retain and 
renew it. "Klezmer music dropped dead after the Holocaust," says 71- 
year-old drummer brother Julius. "The American-born people wanted 
rock, swing, jazz. But now they want that music. There's been a tremen- 
dous renaissance." Today's zeydes "grandfathers" of this renaissance 
are the brothers: Max, William (Willie), and Julius (Julie) Epstein. 

They were born and raised in Manhattan's Lower East Side and in 
Brooklyn. Their father was a garment worker, and their music-loving 
mother was a seamstress and housewife. Max Epstein, the oldest, 
began playing violin in silent movies at the age of 12. At age 16, he 
learned the saxophone, then the clarinet. He was soon playing in 
Rumanian and Russian Jewish cabarets. In this milieu, he learned from 
senior immigrant musicians. In the opinion of klezmer scholar and 
musician Joel Rubin, " he provides the most important link to the pre- 
vious generations of Jewish klezmorim (professional instrumentalists) 
from Eastern Europe. . . he was involved in some of the earliest Yiddish 
radio broadcasts, and was a frequent guest in the orchestras of the 
Yiddish Theater and in recording studios." William (Willie) Epstein, 
born in 1919, became the leading Yiddish trumpeter of his generation, 
working with leading Jewish dance and theater orchestras. Julius 
Epstein, born in 1926, began accompanying his brother Max at the age 
of 17, and earned a reputation as the leading drummer in Jewish music. 

Following World War II, they and a fourth brother, Isidore (who 
died in 1986) formed the Epstein Brothers Orchestra. In the 1950s and 
1960s, they became known as "the kings of klezmer." The arrival of 
many Hasidic Jews after the war spurred the demand for live music at 
their celebrations, weddings, and bar mitzvahs, and the Epsteins 
learned the distinctive Hasidic song repertory. They also learned tunes 
required at other Jewish, Greek, and Italian weddings. They made 
numerous recordings on the Tikva and Menora labels, including the 
recently re-issued album from the late 1950s, Dukes of Frailachland. 
After "retiring" to Broward County, Florida in the late 1960s, they 
continued a regular performing schedule for senior centers, synagogues, 
Jewish community centers, and Holocaust survivor groups. In a recent 
"rediscovery", they have been featured in the award-winning 1996 film 
A Tickle in the Heart, have produced new CD's such as The Epstein 
Brothers Orchestra: Kings of Freylekh Land and The Epstein Brothers 
Klezmer II. They have twice toured Europe. In 1997, they received a 
Florida Folk Heritage Award from the Florida Department of State. 


When ceramic beads were introduced to North America in the 1 9th 
century, many Native Americans saw new potential for heightened 
color and greater precision in a wide range of decorative expression. 
The late 19th and early 20th century heyday of Native American bead- 
working brought many regional and tribal styles of beadwork embroi- 
dery, all reflecting deeply rooted motifs from previous generations. One 
of these regional traditions is the Plateau style typified by the Yakama 
beadwork of central Oregon and Washington. While the general mid- 
century decline in the region's Native American cultural identity includ- 
ed the slackening of interest in traditional crafts, there is now a resur- 
gence of interest and fine artistry. One of the models of this revival is 
Sophia "Sophie" George, a resident of Gresham, Oregon, and member 
of the Yakama Indian Nation. 

Born near The Dalles, Oregon at the ancient fishing grounds of 
Celilo Falls, Sophie George descends from the Wasco, Cowlitz, and 
Wenatchee bands of the Yakama and Colville tribes. She traveled 
throughout the region and saw diverse traditional artwork made by 
tribal ancestors. The art form fascinated her. Inspired and guided by her 
mother, Elsie White, and maternal grandmother Ida Scowlole White, 
she learned in the traditional manner, through observation and practice. 
At five, she started stringing beads for her mother, grandmother, and 
aunts. At 16, she began making her own pieces. Her grandmother 
asked her to make a bag and to give it to her, a traditional practice 
explained by Sophie George: "We always give away the very first thing 
we make. When you give away your first making to your teacher, that 
enables you to walk on that path." Walking the path takes time and 
care. "They only show you once. You can't go back and keep asking," 
she explains. Sophie worked many years restoring old Indian artifacts, 
learning old techniques in the process. Fascinated by the intricacy of the 
designs, she started doing contour work in her beading: "I tried to put 
my feet in my ancestors' shoes. I wanted to see through their eyes." 

Oregon Historical Society's Folk Arts Coordinator Nancy Nusz 
says, "Inspired by traditional patterns and techniques, her work 
embodies the traditional values of her ancestors." Ms. George applies 
her colorfully striking, exacting beadwork designs with nearly invisible 
stitchwork to traditional handbags, dance regalia, wedding veils, moc- 
casins, dresses, hair ornaments, and other pieces. Her evocative artistry 
is coupled with a deep knowledge of the stories and meaning associated 
with the motifs she portrays, such as hummingbirds, deer, bald eagles, 
frogs, plants, and other aspects of nature. 

"Sophie George is a model to our young people in pursuing tradi- 
tional artistic practices," wrote Yakama Tribal Council Chairman Jerry 
Meninick: "[She] is greatly appreciated by the Yakama Nation commu- 
nity and her beadwork is an invaluable cultural resource." Her work is 
also appreciated beyond her tribe, having been featured in numerous 
museum collections and exhibits in the region, such as Masters of 
Ceremony: Traditional Artists and Life's Passages of the Oregon 
Historical Society and Of Hearts and Hands at the North Central 
Washington Museum. She has worked hard to document her tribal her- 
itage and to keep it a part of her people's cultural future. Ms. George 
has demonstrated and taught her work to many others, and her daugh- 
ter and five nieces have devoted themselves to beadwork. "The only- 
way that things will always be is if you keep them the way you were 
taught," she says. "My grandmother always stressed that." 


Yakama-Colvillc beadworker 

ll Mi XWLL 

1 1 


Danish- American Hardanger needleworker 

Embroidery is one of the most widely practiced forms of artistic expres- 
sion among American women. Sales of embroidery materials and 
instruction books and local classes in embroidery abound. A search of 
the World Wide Web will turn up thousands of embroidery sites. Main 
of these ethnically-rooted styles are practiced widely by embroider} 
enthusiasts, regardless of their specific ethnic heritage, while being cher- 
ished by others as a vehicle to maintain and express cultural heritage. 
One of the best-known embroidery styles is Hardanger cutwork, origi- 
nating in the Hardanger region of Norway and brought to this country 
by Scandinavians of various nationalities. In Elk Horn, Iowa, the 
American city with the largest concentration of Danish Americans, 
Nadjeschda Overgaard is recognized as the twentieth-century fountain- 
head of artistry in Hardanger embroidery tradition. 

Nadjeschda Lynge was born in Siberia in 1905. Her Danish parents 
were living in Siberia at the time, where her father worked to establish 
creameries that would use Danish equipment. In 1915, they immigrated 
to Elk Horn, Iowa, where Nadjeschda attended school and eventually 
taught in rural elementary schools. In 1933, she married Niels 
Overgaard, and they raised seven children. She always treasured her 
Danish heritage, and took every opportunity to teach others the artistic 
skills and cultural knowledge passed to her by her mother. "We certain- 
ly were American, but I treasure my Danish heritage. . . I was brought 
up Danish and I'm not satisfied with a substitute," she says. 

Hardanger embroidery is a three-dimensional, open, "counted 
thread" needlework. Traditionally, white cotton thread is applied to an 
even-weave white linen, often 22 threads per inch. The fabric is cut in 
squared, geometric patterns determined precisely through the counting 
of threads in each cut. Then, a traditional repertoire of stitches, such as 
the basic satin stitch, consisting of five stitches covering four threads of 
fabric, are applied around the edges of the cutwork. This creates a 
range of delicate, precise, and minutely detailed patterns. The loose ends 
of the cut fabric are then interwoven into the embroidery, adding addi- 
tional texture. Mrs. Overgaard's knowledge of both the technique of 
Hardanger embroidery and its place in Danish heritage, as well as her 
lifelong efforts to keep many other Danish traditions, have earned her a 
special place among Danish-Americans. Cultural specialists such as Steven 
Ohrn of the State Historical Society of Iowa and Rachelle Saltzman of the 
Iowa Arts Council have called Mrs. Overgaard "a state and national trea- 
sure who deserves to be recognized for her artistic skill and her preserva- 
tion of her family's and community's Danish heritage." 

Nadjeschda Overgaard has been a major force in keeping her her- 
itage a part of modern life. This has been accomplished through many 
years of and through her volunteer efforts to pass on knowledge of 
embroidery, Danish language, culinary arts, Danish choral music, folk 
dance, papirklip "papercutting," and Danish folk plays. "Anyone who 
admires the work and wants to start, I help them," she says. Her six 
daughters have followed in her footsteps, practicing, demonstrating, 
and teaching Danish traditions to others. Her work was exhibited in the 
milestone exhibition on Iowa folk crafts, Passing Time and Traditions 
and is included in the collection of the State Historical Society of Iowa. 


The traditional Byzantine chant of the Greek Orthodox church is 
rooted in the music of medieval Byzantium, and the even earlier 
musics of ancient Greece. Unlike modern-day Western church music 
cast in a polyphonic, harmonic, choral style, Greek Orthodox chant is 
marked by a single melody line juxtaposed with a more constant 
drone voice (ison). The melody is governed by a complex system of 
eight ihoi "modes," each with its own scale, melodic characteristic, 
and affect or "mood." In the early stages of Byzantine music, the nota- 
tional system was similar to "stenographic" notation. As the centuries 
progressed, the system evolved. Today, Byzantine music possesses its 
own complete notation system. The psaltis "chanter" improvises an 
interpretation of the melodic skeleton applying melodic ornaments 
and other nuances of performance that express ifo — a "mood" that 
reflects the meaning of the sacred poetic text, the liturgical moment, 
and the immediate context. In the words of seventh-generation psaltis 
Harilaos Papapostolou, in expressing ifos, the chanter directs his cre- 
ativity to the purpose of devotion, creating "the sound that facilitates 
prayer, that becomes the bridge between man and God, not a showcase 
for the performer." Papapostolou is the driving force behind a growing 
movement to keep this deeply rooted tradition a part of Greek- 
American cultural and religious life. 

Harilaos Papapostolou was born and raised in the city of Agrinion 
Greece, a long-time center of Byzantine chant. He was the son of an 
Orthodox priest in a family boasting many generations of priests. He 
apprenticed with a traditional psalti at the age of five, eventually spend- 
ing long hours each day mastering the enormous liturgical repertoire 
that was part of the day-to-day liturgical cycle. After graduating from 
high school, he continued to study both Byzantine music and Western 
music at the Athens Conservatory. In addition to receiving degrees in 
both Byzantine and Western music, he simultaneously received his degree 
in Theology from the University of Athens. This knowledge is a crucial 
factor that gives one the needed insight into understanding and inter- 
preting the ecclesiastical hymns of the Orthodox church. In 1967, he 
accepted the position of protopsalti "lead chanter" at St. Sophia's 
Cathedral in Washington, D.C., where he remains. In the United States, 
he found that the Western-based four-part harmony choral style with 
organ accompaniment had nearly eclipsed the more traditional chant. 
Ironically, the complex, "Oriental" sounding modes and melodies were 
thought too "primitive" by many Greek-Americans who had little prior 
exposure to the tradition. 

Today, Byzantine chant is enjoying the beginnings of a revival 
among Orthodox church members and increased attention from the 
public at large. This is largely due to Papapostolou's superb artistry, his 
teaching, his personal example embodying the values of humility and 
devotional purpose, and his creative adaptations of traditional chants 
to modern American circumstances. He has taken on dozens of appren- 
tices and offered public demonstrations. In addition to his breadth of 
repertoire, technical skill, and devotion to his tradition, it is his extraor- 
dinary expressive abilities for which he is most praised by connoisseurs. 
In the words of Bishop Metropolitan Silas of New Jersey, "Harilaos 
Papapostolou's interpretation is inspiring; his rendition of the musical 
modes precise, his knowledge of the nuances ... is rare among 
chanters ... He is, in short, the possessor of skills and knowledge that 
have all but disappeared in this country and are imperiled even in the 
rest of the Orthodox world." 


(•reck Byzantine chan 


African-American Gospel/Blues musician 

The gospel and blues music of African-American artists that developed 
in the late nineteenth century and early in this century are precursors of 
much of America's popular music. The blues artists drew inspiration 
from everyday life in composing their songs incorporating their person- 
al experiences, interpersonal relationships, and the glaring contradic- 
tions of life under the harsh system of racial segregation. Early gospel 
artists also made use of contemporary events and often drew on these 
same sources to elucidate the timeless wisdom and morals of the Bible. 
While both traditions have shared some common themes, musical 
forms, and techniques, there are differences that have made it difficult 
for an artist to play both styles of music and be recognized in both circles. 
Blind Willie Johnson, Sister Rosetta Tharpe, and Reverend Gary Davis 
are among the few who have succeeded. 

Born in Winona, Mississippi in 1914, Roebuck "Pops" Staples 
drew from both traditions to forge a sound that transcends their stylis- 
tic divide. Winona is located in the Mississippi Delta, a region where 
many influential blues musicians began their composing and perform- 
ing. It is home to a distinct style of blues. From his early years Pops 
recalls listening to a capella singers in churches and singing gospel 
songs at home with family and neighbors. As a teenager he took up the 
guitar, inspired by legendary blues artists such as Charlie Patton, 
Barbecue Bob, and Big Bill Broonzy. In later years, Muddy Waters and 
Howlin' Wolf would influence his style. Although he admired these 
artists, Pops developed his guitar style to accompany religious music. He 
retained an attraction to religious music and sang with a local gospel 
group, the Golden Trumpets. 

Like many others who sought a better life than sharecropping 
offered, Pops and his wife Oceola, moved their family to Chicago in 
1936. Pops took jobs in meat packing, steel mills and in construction. In 
1948, he formed the Staple Singers with daughters Cleotha, Mavis, and 
son Pervis. They began singing at home and then in local churches. Pops 
says of the early years, "We just wanted to have music in the house, 
that's all." Their first jobs on the road took them to New Orleans and 
then to Jackson, Mississippi. The group first recorded in 1 953 and had 
their first success with the 1957 release "Uncloudy Day." During this 
period Pops continued his day job and maintained a settled home life for 
his family. After his youngest daughter Mavis finished high school, Pops 
began to pursue work for the group on a full-time basis. As the group 
perfected a distinct sound based on vocal harmonies and on Pops' gui- 
tar, they became known as "the First Family of Gospel." 

Pops took his duties as a community leader seriously and sought to 
develop music for a broad audience, while holding to the tradition. As 
the Civil Rights movement gained momentum, The Staples repertoire 
reflected these social changes. They sang songs inspired by the struggle 
with positive and progressive messages and became good friends with 
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. After the assassination of Dr. King, the 
Staple Singers released a memorable song "A Long Walk to D.C.," in 
memory of their friend. Daughter Yvonne replaced Pervis when he 
entered the military in 1971. The Staples had their biggest commercial 
success in the 1970s with "Respect Yourself" (1971), "I'll Take You 
There" (1974), and "Let's Do It Again" (1976). 

In the 1980s, in a time when he was expected to plan retirement, 
Pops began to pursue a solo career. He has released two solo albums — 
"Peace in the Neighborhood" and "Father Father," the latter winning a 
Grammy award in 1994. With a keen sense of observation and gener- 
ous heart he is addressing through music the social ills he sees crippling 
communities across the nation and the world. Through his music he 
continues the positive, righteous and spiritual mission he took up in 
Mississippi many years ago. 


Musicians have been "Goin' to Kansas City" since the early 1920s to 
test their chops and find work with some of the giants of a unique lyri- 
cal style of jazz called swing. In the vicinity of 12th Street and Vine in 
that city today you can still hear musicians jamming after-hours at the 
old Black musicians' hall. If lucky, you might hear someone call out for 
"Fiddler" to take a break. The tag "Fiddler" is reserved for just one 
person — Claude Williams. Williams has been a presence on the Kansas 
City jazz scene since he moved there in 1928 attracted to the clubs, 
cabarets and speakeasies of this Prohibition-era swing capital of the 
southwestern territory. Out of this musical mecca came Count Basie, 
Charlie Parker and Claude "Fiddler" Williams. 

Born in 1908 in Muskogee, Oklahoma, Claude was, by the age of 
ten, playing the guitar, mandolin, banjo and cello in his brother-in-law's 
string band. (Among the oldest of American traditions the African 
American string band can be traced to early colonial times.) Around the 
same time young Claude heard Joe Venuti play jazz violin at a local out- 
door concert. Muskogee was segregated then and no provision had 
been made for black people to attend. But of all the patrons who heard 
Venuti in Muskogee that night, it was the black kid behind the fence 
who heard him best. Claude soon launched what has turned into his 
eighty-year career as a swing fiddler. In the late 1920s Claude traveled 
the black vaudeville circuits of the southwest and midwest, "sleeping in 
the car and under it at times." After moving to Kansas City in 1928, he 
played and toured with a variety of bands including the Clouds of Joy, 
led first by Terrance Holder and then Andy Kirk. He worked with the 
Cole Brothers, featuring the brilliant pianist and fine singer Nat "King" 
Cole. In 1936 Claude joined the Count Basie Band and played guitar on 
Basie's first commercial recordings and toured extensively with him. 
Ironically, although the fiddle was his instrument of choice, Williams 
was named "Best Guitarist of the Year" in a Downbeat national readers' 
poll the year after recording with Basie. 

In 1937 Williams returned to the violin and Kansas City where he 
formed his own group. For forty years he played and toured with a 
variety of jazz bands, ranging from a short stint with a Works Progress 
Administration (WPA) band to a long-time collaboration with Kansas 
City master Jay McShann. While the distinctive sound of swing jazz 
continued to develop and attract fans to both the dance floor and the 
record store, the violin became less and less common as a lead instru- 
ment, thanks largely to the rising dominance of the saxophone. Williams 
remained firmly committed to his fiddle and to the traditional sounds of 
his region. He continued to perform in relative obscurity, a legend 
among fellow musicians and in the Kansas City area, and a generous 
teacher glad to instruct younger musicians on the finepoints of swing fiddle. 

More recently his extraordinary musical abilities and his contribu- 
tions to our musical heritage have been recognized. He has appeared at 
the Monterey Jazz Festival, the Nice Jazz Festival and the Smithsonian 
Festival of American Folklife. In 1989 he performed in the popular 
Broadway show "Black and Blue" and in that same year gained much 
attention in a tour entitled "Masters of the Folk Violin." The showstop- 
ping finale of the program included a duet featuring Williams and an 
aspiring 16-year-old country fiddler and singer named Alison Krauss. 
Joe Wilson, organizer of the tour, described Claude as both "the oldest 
and the newest" of its performers, "the last living link to the old black 
string band tradition and an inventor of a unique jazz violin sound that 
he continues to expand each time he steps on stage." 

This year, a few days after his 90th birthday, Claude performed at 
the White House with friends guitarist Bucky Pizzarelli and bassist 
Keter Betts,providing music for tap master Jimmy Slyde, a great friend 
from "Black and Blue." 


African- American jazz/su <ing fiddler 







Dewey Balfa* 
Cajun Fiddler 
Basile, LA 

Joe Heaney" 
Irish Singer 
Brooklyn, NY 

Tommy Jarrell"" 
Appalachian Fiddler 
Mt. Airy, NC 

Bessie Jones * 

Georgia Sea Island Singer 

Brunswick, GA 

George Lopez * 
Santos Woodcarver 
Cordova, NM 

Brownie McGhee :: ' 
Blues Guitarist 
Oakland, CA 

Hugh McGraw 
Shape Note Singer 
Bremen, GA 

Lydia Mendoza 
Mexican-American Singer 
Houston, TX 

Bill Monroe * 
Bluegrass Musician 

Nashville, TN 

Elijah Pierce"" 
Columbus, OH 

Adam Popovich :: " 
Tamburitza Musician 
Dolton, IL 

Georgeann Robinson ' 
Osage Ribbonworker 
Bartlesville, OK 

Duff Severe 
Saddle Maker 
Pendleton, OR 

Philip Simmons 
Ornamental Ironworker 
Charleston, SC 

Sanders "Sonny" Terry * 
Blues Musician 
Holliswood, NY 


Sister Mildred Barker * 
Shaker Singer 
Poland Springs, ME 

Rafael Cepeda"" 

Bomba Musician/Dancer 

Santurce, PR 

Ray Hicks 

Appalachian Storyteller 
Banner Elk, NC 

Stanley Hicks * 

Appalachian Musician/Storyteller/ 

Instrument Maker 

Vilas, NC 

John Lee Hooker 
Blues Guitarist/Singer 
San Carlos, CA 

Mike Manteo* 
Sicilian Marionettist 
Staten Island, NY 

Narciso Martinez :: ' 

Texas-Mexican Accordionist/Composer 

San Benito, TX 

Lanier Meaders 
Cleveland, GA 

Almeda Riddle"" 
Ballad Singer 
Greers Ferry, AR 

Simon St. Pierre 
French-American Fiddler 
Smyrna Mills, ME 

Joe Shannon 
Irish Piper 
Chicago, IL 

Alex Stewart"' 
Sneedville, TN 

Ada Thomas" 
Chitimacha Basketmaker 
Charenton, LA 

Lucinda Toomer* 

Black Quilter 
Columbus, GA 

Lem Ward" 

Decoy Carver/Painter 

Crisfield, MD 

Dewey Williams"' 
Shape Note Singer 
Ozark, AL 


Clifton Chenier* 
Creole Accordionist 
Lafayette, LA 

Bertha Cook"' 

Knotted Bedspread Maker 

Boone, NC 

Joseph Cormier 
Cape Breton Violinist 
Waltham, MA 

Elizabeth Cotton"' 

Black Songster/Songwriter 

Syracuse, NY 

Burlon Craig 

Vale, NC 

Albert Fahlbusch 

Hammered Dulcimer Maker/Player 

Scottsbluff, NE 

Janie Hunter 

Black Singer/Storyteller 

Johns Island, SC 

Mary Jane Manigault 
Black Seagrass Basket Maker 
Mt. Pleasant, SC 

Genevieve Mougin"' 
Lebanese-American Lace Maker 
Bettendorf, IA 

Martin Mulvihill"' 
Irish-American Fiddler 
Bronx, NY 

Howard "Sandman' 
Black Tap Dancer 
New York, NY 



Ralph Stanley 

Appalachian Banjo Player/Singer 

Coeburn, VA 

Margaret Tafoya 

Santa Clara Pueblo Potter 

Espanola, NM 

Dave Tarras* 
Klezmer Clarinetist 
Brooklyn, NY 

Paul Tiulana :: " 

Eskimo Maskmaker/Dancer/Singer 

Anchorage, AK 

Cleofes Vigil* 

Hispanic Storyteller/Singer 

San Cristobal, NM 

Emily Kau'i Zuttermeister* 
Hula Master 
Kaneohe, HI 


Eppie Archuleta 
Hispanic Weaver 
San Luis Valley, CO 

Periklis Halkias 
Greek Clarinetist 
Astoria, Queens, NY 

Jimmy Jausoro 
Basque Accordionist 
Boise, ID 

Mealii Kalama :: " 
Hawaiian Quilter 
Honolulu, HI 

Lily May Ledford* 
Appalachian Musician/Singer 
Lexington, KY 

Leif Melgaard :: " 
Norwegian Woodcarver 
Minneapolis, MN 

Bua Xou Mua 
Hmong Musician 
Portland, OR 

Julio Negron-Rivera 

Puerto Rican Instrument Maker 

Morovis PR 

Alice New Holy Blue Legs 
Lakota Sioux Quill Artist 
Oglala, SD 

Glenn Ohrlin 

Cowboy Singer/Storyteller/Illustrator 

Mountain View, AR 

Henry Townsend 

Blues Musician/Songwriter 

St. Louis, MO 

Horace "Spoons" Williams* 
Spoons/Bones Player/Poet 
Philadelphia, PA 


Alfonse "Bois Sec" Ardoin 
Black Creole Accordionist 
Eunice, LA 

Earnest Bennett 
Anglo-American Whittler 
Indianapolis, IN 

Helen Cordero* 
Pueblo Potter 
Cochiti, NM 

Sonia Domsch 

Czech-American Bobbin Lace Maker 

Atwood, KS 

Canray Fontenot* 
Black Creole Fiddler 
Welsh, LA 

John Jackson 

Black Songster/Guitarist 

Fairfax Station, VA 

Peou Khatna 

Cambodian Court Dancer/Choreographer 

Silver Spring, MD 

Valerio Longoria 
Mexican-American Accordionist 
San Antonio, TX 

Joyce Doc Tate Nevaquaya :: ' 
Comanche Indian Flutist 
Apache, OK 

Luis Ortega 

Hispanic-American Rawhide Worker 

Paradise, CA 

Ola Belle Reed 

Appalachian Banjo Picker/Singer 
Rising Sun, MD 

Jenny Thlunaut :: " 

Tlingit Chilkat Blanket Weaver 

Haines, AK 

Nimrod Workman* 
Appalachian Ballad Singer 
Mascot, TN/Chattaroy, V 


Juan Alindato 
Carnival Maskmaker 
Ponce, PR 

Louis Bashell 

Slovenian Accordionist/Polka Master 

Greenfield, \\ I 

Genoveva Castellanoz 

Mexican-American Corona Maker 
Nyssa, OR 

Thomas Edison "Brownie" Ford* 
Anglo-Comanche Cowboy 
Hebert, LA 

Kansuma Fujima 
Japanese-American Dancer 
Los Angeles, CA 

Claude Joseph Johnson" 
African-American Religious 
Atlanta, GA 

Raymond Kane 

Hawaiian Slack Key Guitarist/Singer 

Wai'anae, HI 

Wade Mainer 

Appalachian Banjo Picker/Sin 

Flint, MI 

Sylvester Mcintosh 
Crucian Singer/Bandleader 

St. Croix, VI 

Allison "Totie" Montana 

March Gras Chief/Costume Maker 

New Orleans, LA 

Alex Moore, Sr. :: ' 
African-American Blues Pianist 
Dallas, TX 

ilio* and Senaida Romero 
Hispanic-American Craftsworkers in Tin 
and Embroidery 
Santa Fe, NM 

Newton Washburn 
Split Ash Basketmak* 

Littleton, Nl I 


Pedro Ayala* 

Mexican- American Accordionist 

Donna, TX 

Kepka Belton 

Czech-American Egg Painter 
Ellsworth, KS 

Amber Densmore* 

New England Quilter/Needleworker 

Chelsea, VT 

Michael Flatley 
Irish-American Stepdancer 
Palos Park, IL 

Sister Rosalia Haberl 
German-American Bobbin Lacemaker 
Hankinson, ND 

John Dee Holeman 
Durham, NC 

Albert "Sunnyland Slim" Luandrew :: ' 
African-American Blues Pianist/Singer 
Chicago, IL 

Yang Fang Nhu 

Hmong Weaver/Embroiderer 

Detroit, MI 

Kenny Sidle 

Anglo-American Fiddler 
Newark, OH 

Willie Mae Ford Smith' 1 " 
African-American Gospel Singer 
St. Louis, MO 

Clyde "Kindy" Sproat 

Hawaiian Cowboy Singer/Ukulele Player 

Kapa'au, HI 

Arthel "Doc" Watson 
Appalachian Guitar Player/Singer 
Deep Gap, NC 


John Cephas 

Piedmont Blues Guitarist/Singer 

Woodford, VA 

The Fairfield Four 
African-American a capella Gospel 
Nashville, TN 

Jose Gutierrez 

Mexican Jarocho Musician/Singer 

Norwalk, CA 

Richard Avedis Hagopian 
Armenian Oud Player 
Visalia, CA 

Christy Hengel 

German-American Concertina Maker 

New Ulm, MN 

Ilias Kementzides 
Pontic Greek Lyra Player 
Norwalk, CT 

Ethel Kvalheim 
Norwegian Rosemaler 
Stoughton, WI 

Vanessa Paukeigope Morgan 
Kiowa Regalia Maker 
Anadarko, OK 

Mabel E. Murphy 
Anglo-American Quilter 
Fulton, MO 

La Vaughn E. Robinson 
African-American Tapdancer 
Philadelphia, PA 

Earl Scruggs 
Bluegrass Banjo Player 
Madison, TN 

Harry V. Shourds 
Wildfowl Decoy Carver 
Seaville, NJ 

Chesley Goseyun Wilson 
Apache Fiddle Maker 
Tucson, AZ 


Howard Armstrong 

African-American String Band Musician 

Detroit, MI 

Em Bun 

Cambodian Silk Weaver 

Harrisburg, PA 

Natividad Cano 

Mexican Mariachi Musician 

Monterey Park, CA 

Giuseppe and Raffaela DeFranco 
Southern Italian Musicians and Dancers 
Belleville, NJ 

Maude Kegg 

Ojibwe Storyteller/Craftsman/Tradition 


Onamie, MN 

Kevin Locke 
Lakota Flute 

Mobridge, SD 

Marie McDonald 
Hawaiian Lei Maker 
Kamuela, HI 

Wallace McRae 
Cowboy Poet 
Forsyth, MT 

Art Moilanen 
Finnish Accordionist 
Mass City, MI 

Emilio Rosado 
Utuado, PR 

Robert Spicer 
Flatfoot Dancer 
Dickson, TN 

Douglas Wallin 
Appalachian Ballad Singer 
Marshall, NC 


Etta Baker 

African-American guitarist 
Morgantown, NC 

George Blake 

Native American craftsman (Hupa-Yurok) 

Hoopa, CA 

Jack Coen 

Irish-American flautist 
Bronx, NY 

Rose Frank 

Native American cornhusk weaver (Nez 


Lapwai, ID 

Fduardo "Lalo" Guerrero 
Mexican-American singer/guitarist/composer 
Cathedral City, CA 

Khamvong Insixiengmai 
Southeast Asian singer (Lao) 
Fresno, CA 

Don King 

Western saddlemaker 

Sheridan, WY 

Riley "B.B." King 

African-American bluesman 

Itta Bena, MI and Las Vegas, NV 

Esther Littlefield 

Alaskan regalia maker (Tlingit) 

Sitka, AK 

Seisho "Harry" Nakasone 
Okinawan-American musician 
Honolulu, HI 

Irvan Perez 

Isleno (Canary Island) singer 

Poydras, LA 

Morgan Sexton * 

Appalachian banjo player/singer 

Linefork, KY 

Nikitas Tsimouris 

Greek-American musician (bagpipe player) 

Tarpon Springs, FL 

Gussie Wells 

African-American quilter 
Oakland, CA 

Arbie Williams 
African-American quilter 
Oakland, CA 

Melvin Wine 
Appalachian fiddler 
Copen, WV 


Francisco Aguabella 
Afro-Cuban drummer 
Manhattan Beach, CA 

Jerry Brown 

Potter (southern stoneware tradition) 

Hamilton, AL 

Walker Calhoun 

Cherokee musician/dancer/teacher 

Cherokee, NC 

Clyde Davenport 
Appalachian fiddler 
Monticello, KY 

Belle Deacon 
Athabascan basketmaker 
Grayling, AK 

Nora Ezell 

African-American quilter 
Eutaw, AL 

Gerald R. Hawpetoss 
Menominee/Potowatomi regalia maker 
Milwaukee, WI 

Fatima Kuinova 
Bukharan Jewish singer 
Rego Park, NY 

John Naka 
Bonsai sculptor 
Los Angeles, CA 

Ng Sheung-Chi 

Chinese Toissan muk 'yu folk singer 

New York, NY 

Marc Savoy 

Cajun accordion maker/musician 

Eunice, LA 

Othar Turner 

African-American fife player 
Senatobia, MS 

T Viswanathan 

South Indian flute master 

Middletown, CT 


Santiago Almeida 
Texas-Mexican conjunto musician 
Sunnyside, Washington 

Kenny Baker 
Bluegrass fiddler 
Cottontown, Tennessee 

Inez Catalon 
French Creole singer 
Kaplan, Louisiana 

Nicholas & Elena Charles 
Yupik woodcarver/maskmaker and skin- 
Bethel, Alaska 

Charles Hankins 
Lavallette, New Jersey 

Nalani Kanaka'ole & Pualani 
Kanaka'ole Kanahele 
Hula Masters 
Hilo, Hawaii 

Everett Kapayou 

Native American singer (Mesquakie tribe) 

Tama, Iowa 

Mcintosh County Shoutt 

African-American spiritual/shout per- 
Townsend, Georgia 

Elmer Miller- 
Bit and spur maker/silversmith 
Nampa, Idaho 

Jack Owens * 

Blues singer/guitarist 

Bentonia, Mississippi 

Mone & Vanxay Saenphimmachak 

Lao weaver/needleworker and loommaker 

St. Louis, Missouri 

Liang-xing Tang 

Chinese-American pipa (lute) player 
Bayside, New York 


Liz Carroll 

Irish-American fiddler 
Chicago, IL 

Clarence Fountain & the Blind Boys 
African American gospel singers 
Atlanta, GA 

Man r Mitchell Gabriel 
Native American basketmaker 
Princeton, ME 

Johnny Gimble 

Anglo fiddler, (Western Swing) 

Dripping Springs, TX 

Frances Varos Graves 

Hispanic American colcha embroidery 

Ranchos de Taos, \M 

Violet Hilbert 

Native American storyteller / conservator 


Seattle, WA 

Sosei Shizuyc Matsumoto 
Japanese tea ceremony master 
Los Angeles, ( 

D.L. Menard 

Franco- American Cajun musician / song\ 

Frath, LA 

Simon Shaheen 

Arab American oud player 

Brooklyn, NY 

Lily Vorperian 

Armenian (Marash-style) embroidery 

Glendale, CA 

Elder Roma Wilson 

African American harmonica player 

Blue Springs, MS 

Buck Ramsey' 

Anglo-American cowboy poet and singer 

Amarillo, IX 


Bao Mo-Li 

Chinese-American jing-erhu player 

Flushing, NY 

Mary Holiday Black 
Navajo basketmaker 
Mexican Hat, UT 

Lyman Enloe :: ' 

Anglo-American old time fiddler 

Lee's Summit, MO 

Donny Golden 
Irish-American step dancer 
Brooklyn, NY 

Wayne Henderson 
Appalachian luthier 
Mouth of Wilson, VA 

Bea Ellis Hensley 
Appalachian blacksmith 
Spruce Pine, NC 

Nathan Jackson 
Tlingit Alaskan 
Ketchikan, AK 

Danongan Kalanduyan 
Filipino-American kulintang musician 
San Francisco, CA 

Robert Jr. Lockwood 

African American Delta blues guitarist 

Cleveland, OH 

Israel "Cachao" Lopez 
Afro-Cuban bassist, composer, band- 
Miami, FL 

Nellie Star Boy Menard 
Lakota Sioux quiltmaker 
Rosebud, SD 


Obo Addy 

African American drummer/leader 

Portland, OR 

Paul Dahlin 

Swedish American fiddler 
Minneapolis, MN 

Juan Gutierrez 

Puerto Rican drummer/leader 

New York, NY 

Solomon & Richard Ho'opi'i 
Hawaiian singers 
Wailuku, HI 

Will Keys 

Anglo American banjo player 

Gray, TN 

Joaquin Lujan 
Guamian Blacksmith 
GMF Guam 

Eva McAdams 
Shoshone crafts/beader 
Fort Washakie, WY 

John Mealing & Cornelius Wright"" 
African American work songs 
Birmingham, AL 

Vernon Owens 

Anglo American potter 

Seagrove, NC 

Betty Pisio Christenson 
Ukrainian-American pysanky 
Suring, WI 

Dolly Spencer 
Inupiat dollmaker 
Homer, AK 


Edward Babb 

"Shout" Band Gospel musician & 

Band Leader 

Jamaica, NY 

Charles Brown 

West Coast Blues Pianist & Composer 

Berkeley, CA 

Gladys LeBlanc Clark 

Acadian (Cajun) Spinner & Weaver 

Duson, LA 

Georgia Harris :: 
Catawba Potter 
Atlanta, GA 

Ali Akbar Khan 

North Indian Sarod Player & Raga 

Compose r 

San Anselmo, CA 

Ramon Jose Lopez 
Santero & Metalsmith 
Santa Fe, NM 

Jim & Jesse McReynolds 
Bluegrass Musicians 
Gallatin, TN 

Phong Nguyen 

Vietnamese Musician & Scholar 

Kent, OH 

Hystercine Rankin 
African-American Quilter 
Lorman, MS 

Hua Wenyi 

Chinese Kunqu Opera Singer 

Arcadia, CA 

Francis Whitaker 

Blacksmith/Ornamental Ironworker 
Carbondale, CO 

* deceased 

Apsara Ensemble: Sam-Ang Sam - Evan 

Sheppard; Moly Sam - Sam-Ang Sam; 

Sam-Oeun Tes - courtesy of Cambodian 

American Heritage 
Eddie Blazonczyk - Wm. A. Crooks 
Bruce Caesar - Settle Studio 
Dale Calhoun - Robert Cogswell 
Tony de la Rosa - Frank Estrada 
Epstein Brothers - Archives Julie Epstein, 

Epstein Brothers 
Sophia "Sophie" George - courtesy of 

Oregon Folklife Program 
Nadjescha Overgaard - Steve Ohrn 
Harilaos Papapostolou - courtesy of 

the Artist 
Roebuck "Pops" Staples - Paul Natkin 
Claude "The Fiddler" Williams - Russ