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Full text of "National heritage fellowships"

THE 2002 NATIONAL 

HERITAGE 

FELLOWSHIPS 



NATIONAL 
ENDOWMENT 
FOR THE ARTS 



RALPH BLIZARD 

Old-time fiddler 
Blountville, TN 

LOREN BOMMELYN 

Tolowa tradition bearer 
Crescent City, CA 

KEVIN BURKE 

Irish fiddler 
Portland, OR 

ROSE AND FRANCIS CREE 

Ojibwe basketmakers/storytellers 
Dunseith, ND 

LUDERIN DARBONE AND EDWIN DUHON 
Cajun fiddler and accordionist 
Sulphur, LAAVestlake, LA 

NADIM DLAIKAN 
Lebanese nye (reed flute) player 
Southgate, MI 

DAVID "HONEYBOY" EDWARDS 

Blues guitarist/singer 
Chicago, IL 

FLORY JAGODA 

Sephardic musician/composer 
Falls Church, VA 

CLARA NEPTUNE KEEZER 
Passamaquoddy basket maker 
Perry, ME 

BOB MCQUILLEN 

Contra dance musician/composer 
Peterborough, NH 

JEAN RITCHIE 

Appalachian musician/songwriter 

Port Washington, NY & Viper, KY 

DOMINGO "MINGO" SALDIVAR 
Conjunto accordionist 
San Antonio, TX 

LOSANG SAMTEN 
Tibetan sand mandala painter 
Philadelphia, PA 

CREDITS AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

THE NATIONAL HERITAGE 
FELLOWS 1982-2001 



Over the past two decades, the National Endowment « 
for the Arts has had the privilege of honoring master i 1^9 

practitioners of America's rich and diverse cultural 1 W ^ 

heritage with the National Heritage Fellowship ■ ■ 

Award. Tonight, we proudly add fifteen new names of m ■ * ' M 
Americans who inspire us to pause and value our past AjSit*- m 
as we look ahead to the future 1 . ^1 

America draws its energy and vitality from virtually ^|K 

every nation on earth, and it is important that we pre- I Bk 

serve the traditions of the past, nurture them here in the present, and pass 
these precious and irreplaceable gifts on to future generations. The master 
artists we honor tonight have spent a lifetime practicing and teaching their 
unique art forms. This year's Heritage Fellows vividly illustrate the depth and 
breadth of America's diverse cultural heritage. Among the 2002 Fellows, we 
recognize for the very first time a number of cultural traditions — Tibetan sand 
mandala painting, Sephardic Jewish song, Lebanese music, Tolowa ceremonial 
practice, and New England contra dance. 

As the curtain rises tonight, we are privileged to witness the richness and 
diversity of America's heritage. Music and song, design and dance will carry 
us across the cultural terrain of centuries and continents and together, we 
will celebrate a few of the varied traditions that make up America's vast cul- 
tural landscape. 

Congratulations to our recipients. Your artistry inspires us to see beauty and 
grace in everyday life, and tonight we salute your talents and your contribu- 
tions to America's cultural legacy. 



Eileen B. Mason 
Senior Deputy Chairman 
National Endowment for the Arts 



MESSAGE FROM THE 

SENI DEPUTY CHAIRMAN 




One year ago on this occasion, the nation was in a very different 
frame of mind. The National Heritage Fellowship ceremonies 
were scheduled for the week after September 11th. Our agency 
contemplated postponing or canceling the event, however, in my 
conversations with the artists in the days following the tragic 
events, I sensed their resolve to carry on. So, the National 
Heritage Fellows events took place as planned. 

A rag rug weaver from the small town of East Amana, 
Iowa, who would celebrate her 89th birthday the day after the 
ceremonies, packed for a trip to Washington, DC. A basket weaver from rural Arizona 
boarded an airplane for the first time in her life to join the other artists at the Heritage 
events. Family members and capoeira masters, determined to share in the celebration 
for New York resident Joao Grande, took the first post-September 11th flight from Rio 
de Janeiro to the United States, the only passengers on the airplane. 

On the night of the concert, after a moment of silence, taiko master Seiichi 
Tanaka performed a cleansing ceremony using flute and bell, and following a proces- 
sion and ritual drumming, the National Heritage Fellows assembled on stage as the 
audience welcomed them with a thunderous ovation. 

While the circumstances on that evening were unique, each year the National 
Heritage Fellowship concert offers us the opportunity to both rejoice in and reflect on 
our country's artistic heritage. Individual artists are honored for the excellence of their 
work and for their lifelong contributions to a particular tradition. At the same time, 
this public event reaffirms that as a nation we can express our respect for the familiar 
and enthusiastically welcome the new. We can listen attentively to many voices but we 
are able to speak with conviction of a shared vision. 

Perhaps Lem Ward, a decoy carver and recipient of a National Heritage 
Fellowship in the second year of the awards, put it best in his message to fellow 
recipients in 1983, "I have learned that man has the power both to destroy and to cre- 
ate beauty, and since there can never be too much beauty in the world, man's correct 
choice is eternal." 

Please join me in applauding the 2002 National Heritage Fellows. 




Barry Bergey 

Director, Folk & Traditional Arts 



DIRECTOR'S 

HERITAGE MESSAGE 




Nick Spitzer is the host of 
American Routes, the radio 
program from New Orleans 
devoted to the sources and 
symbols of blues and jazz, 
country and gospel, roots rock 
and soul, as well as related l\! 

ethnic, regional, popular and classical styles of the 
music and musicians that define the American 
cultural landscape. American Routes is distrib- 
uted by Public Radio International and heard 
locally on Washington's WAMU-FM. Recognized 
for an informed and witty style in presenting tra- 
ditional artists and communities, Nick is also 
known for his cultural features on All Things 
Considered, documentary CD recordings, and 
PBS films. Spitzer served as the first Louisiana 
State Folklorist and then spent a decade at the 
Smithsonian — initially as senior folklife specialist 
and research associate and later as artistic direc- 
tor for the Folk Masters concert series produced 
in collaboration with Carnegie Hall and Wolf Trap. 
Co-editor of the Smithsonian Press book Public 
Folklore, Nick was named a fellow at Santa Fe's 
School of American Research working with Creole 
cultures. He returned to Louisiana in 1997, and is 
currently professor of folklore & cultural conser- 
vation at the University of New Orleans. 




The Bess Lomax Hawes National 
Heritage Fellowship, this year 
awarded to Jean Ritchie, honors 
"keepers of tradition" who 
through their efforts as organiz- 
ers, educators, producers, cul- 
tural advocates or caretakers of 
skills and repertoires have had a major beneficial 
effect on the traditional arts of the United States. A 
member of the Lomax family of pioneering 
American folklorists, Bess Lomax Hawes has com- 
mitted her life to the documentation and presenta- 
tion of American folk artists. She has served as an 
educator both inside the classroom and beyond 
and she nurtured the field of public folklore 
through her service at the National Endowment for 
the Arts. During her tenure as Director of the NEA 
Folk Arts Program (1977-1993) an infrastructure of 
state folklorists was put in place, statewide folk 
arts apprenticeship programs were initiated, and 
the National Heritage Fellowships were created. In 
1993 she received the National Medal of Arts for 
her many contributions in assisting folk artists 
nationwide and in bringing folk artistry to the 
attention of the public. 



MASTER OF 

CEREMONIES 



THE BESS LOMAX HAWES 

NATIONAL HERITAGE 
FELLOWSHIP 



The National Endowment for the Arts would like 
to express it's appreciation to the National Council 
for the Traditional Arts (NCTA) for its assistance 
in planning the 2002 National Heritage 
Fellowships concert, the Congressional Reception, 
and other related events. NCTA is a private non- 
profit corporation founded in 1933 and dedicated 
to the presentation and documentation of folk and 
traditional arts in the United States. The National 
Endowment for the Arts would also like 
to acknowledge the invaluable assistance of the 
following individuals: 

The Honorable John Holum, 

Chairman of the Board, NCTA 
The Honorable James P. Moran, 

United States House of Representatives 
Key Bridge Marriott Hotel 
Four Seasons Van and Travel 
The House of Musical Traditions 
The staff at Lisner Auditorium 
Sally Haueter 
Daryl Cummings 
Troyd Geist 
Amy Skillman 
Lynn Martin Graton 
Sheri Brenner for the use of her film, "Sand 

Painting, Sacred Art of Tibetan Buddhism" 
Trish Callahan 
Tom Pich 

Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, Inc. is the 
corporate sponsor for this year's National Heritage 
Fellowship events 




Old Country Store 



WAMU is the official Media Sponsor 



WAMU88.5fm 



NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR 

THE ARTS STAFF 

Barry Bergey 

Rose Morgan 

Pat Makell 

Terry Liu 

The 2002 National Heritage Fellowships cere- 
monies were produced for the National 
Endowment for the Arts by the National Council 
for the Traditional Arts. The ceremonies were 
planned and coordinated for NCTA by Madeleine 
Remez. National Heritage Fellowship nominations, 
as well as files and support materials, are adminis- 
tered by Mark Puryear. 

NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE 

TRADITIONAL ARTS STAFF 

Dennis Blackledge, Dudley Connell, Janice Deputy, 

Amy Grossmann, Lillie Gordon, Rhonda Jenkins, 

Josh Kohn, Julia Olin, Mark Puryear, Madeleine 

Remez, Chris Williams 

Joseph T. Wilson, Executive Director 

HERITAGE FELLOWSHIPS CONCERT 

Director: Dennis Blackledge 

Production Manager: Benita Hofstetter Koman 

Technical Director: Eric Annis, Lisner Auditorium 

Lighting Designer: Dan Covey 

Sound Design/Production: Pete Reiniger 

Monitor Engineer: Charlie Pilzer 

Stage Manager: Valerie Bijur Carlson 

Assistant Stage Manager: Karen Storms 

Production Assistants: Kirsten Aymer, Adrian Spencer 

Setting: Paul Falcon 

Video Projection/Production: Kirby White, Creative 

Video of Washington 

Sign Language Interpreter: Hank Young 

Radio Production: Mark Yacovone, Alex van Oss, 

WDUQ Pittsburgh 
Recording: Aaron Lasko, Coupe Studios, Boulder 

Ricardo Schulz, Pittsburgh Digital, Pittsburgh 
Program Notes: Chris Williams, Barry Bergey 
Program Book Design: Scott Severson 



CREDITS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



The area along the border of northeastern 
Tennessee and southwestern Virginia has his- 
torically produced many fine string band 
musicians, earning it a reputation as the 
"birthplace of country music." East Tennessee- 
style long-bow fiddler Ralph Blizard was born 
in 1918 in Kingsport, Tennessee, near the 
heart of this region. 

During the 1920s, the Blizard family home 
in Kingsport played host to numerous musical 
visitors. Fiddlers Charlie Bowman, John 
Dykes and Dudley Vance were regulars who 
influenced Ralph's choice of material, tech- 
nique and passion for the music. In addition, 
Ralph's father played the fiddle and banjo and 
taught singing school, while other relatives 
played the guitar, harmonica and mandolin. 
Ralph remembers his father playing tunes like 
"Fisher's Hornpipe," "Chinquapin" and 
"Unclouded Day" at family gatherings and 
square dances. Recalling these early days in a 
conversation with journalist Mark Greenberg, 
Ralph remembers his father's music noting 
that "mother played, too, and Charlie Bowman 
visited in our home quite often. I was just a 
kid learning, but I still played with Charlie 
Bowman, John Dykes and so forth." 

Other early influences included musicians who 
performed on AM radio broadcasts. Ralph heard 
performers like Uncle Dave Macon, DeFord 
Bailey and "Fiddling" Arthur Smith on the 
Saturday night Grand Ole Opry programs broad- 
cast on WSM from Nashville. The flashy, long- 
bow fiddling of Smith, in particular, played an 
important role in Blizard's musical upbringing. 

Blizard's first musical instruments were toy 
horns, courtesy of a Cracker Jack box. Later, 
he moved on to a homemade instrument cre- 
ated with a comb and cigarette paper, then on 
to the harmonica. By age ten, Ralph had 
learned the guitar and the mandolin. Learning 
the fiddle, Ralph explains, was a little more 
difficult. "My dad never let me play his fiddle. 
He was afraid I'd tear it up, which was a good 



possibility at a young age. So I slipped [off] 
and played his fiddle. After I learned the man- 
dolin, the noting was all the same, practically, 
except for the bow movement. I wanted to 
learn to play the fiddle and I slipped [in] and 
learned to play the fiddle before he ever knew I 
was using his fiddle." 

By the time he was 14, Ralph was playing 
fiddle with his group, The Southern Ramblers, 
on an early morning radio show on WOPI, 
known as the "Voice of Appalachia." From 
there, Ralph and the Southern Ramblers 
moved on to shows like "Barrel of Fun" on 
WJHL and "Saturday Night Hayride" on 
WKPT. For the next 23 years, except for an 
interlude during World War II for military 
service, Blizard played on radio shows, variety 
shows, and at schoolhouse concerts. Marrying 
in 1952 and moving to Blountville, TN, Ralph 
gave up music to raise a family and pursue a 
career with Eastman Kodak. For the next 
twenty-eight years, Blizard devoted himself to 
family and job, leaving music behind. 

After retiring from Kodak in 1980, Blizard 
took up the fiddle again, practicing as much 
as six or eight hours each day. He began per- 
forming around the country with his New 
Southern Ramblers for diverse audiences 
including Tlingit Indians at the Alaska Folk 
Festival, elderly nuns and retirees at a New 
York rest home, classical music aficionados at 
a concert with the Kingsport Symphony 
Orchestra, and a national audience of millions 
on Good Morning America. 

In addition, Ralph has spent time teaching 
younger people his unique East Tennessee- 
style of long-bow fiddling, often associated with 
the legendary Arthur Smith. "My style, some 
people say, is close to Arthur Smith's style. And 
it is, I guess. But the more I play fiddle music, 
the more I go to long-bow. It's sort of expand- 
ing outward from what he did. . . My fiddling is 
changing all the time. Still is." 







RALPH 



IZARD 



OLD-TIME FIDDLER 
BLOUNTVILLE, TN 






«r 







LOREN 



BOMMEL 



TOLOWA TRADITION BEARER 
CRESCENT CITY, CA 



When it is difficult to single out any one artis- 
tic skill of a multi-talented individual for 
recognition, that person is often simply 
referred to as a "tradition bearer." Forty-six 
year old Loren Bommelyn truly lives up to 
this title for the Tolowa people. 

The Tolowa are northern California Native 
Americans who numbered around 2,400 prior 
to European contact but had dwindled to only 
121 people in the Smith River and Crescent 
Bay region by 1910. While the number of 
Tolowa people has increased over the last 
century, the erosion of language and tradition- 
al knowledge has continued. Today there are 
fewer than a dozen speakers of the Tolowa 
language and few who practice its 
customs or even know its beliefs. 

Bommelyn has preserved, practiced and pro- 
moted Tolowa cultural traditions including its 
language, native regalia, ceremonial dances 
and songs, and basket making, since his 
youth. He has played a significant role in the 
Tolowa community, according to Brian Bibby, 
editor of The Fine Art of California Indian 
Basketry. "As a performer, Loren is a singer 
of traditional Tolowa songs whose voice pos- 
sesses a power and quality that is held in the 
highest regard," he says. "As a ceremonialist, 
Loren has taken on the responsibility of a 
dance maker, raising the level of participation 
in traditional ceremonies dramatically. He is 
by far the largest single maker and contribu- 
tor of men's and women's dance regalia in the 
Tolowa community." 

Loren Bommelyn has a reputation through- 
out the northwestern part of California as the 
supreme baby cradle maker. "It's like I'm in 



love with every basket I make," Loren explained 
to Pam Mendelsohn of the California 
Basketweavers Association. "After it is made, 
I have to just sit there and look at it for a really 
long time." 

Bommelyn believes Tolowa culture and bas- 
ket making are an extension of one another. 
"You're thinking about that basket and a song 
may come to you. If you're not thinking or liv- 
ing right, you shouldn't be making a basket. 
I want my baskets to be used. The old Indians 
say that things like to be used, and when they 
aren't they get lonesome." 

And as a speaker and teacher of the Tolowa 
language, Bommelyn is today the single most 
knowledgeable individual of the indigenous 
language. In 1995, after several years of gath- 
ering materials and contributing his own 
financial resources, he finished a Tolowa cere- 
monial house on his family property to host 
dances and tribal meetings. Under the guid- 
ance of Bommelyn, the Tolowa used this facil- 
ity to hold their first complete Naydosh 
(genesis) ceremony since 1925. 

Proud of his efforts to preserve and reinvig- 
orate Tolowa tradition, Bommelyn is nonethe- 
less aware of his place in the long tribal history. 
"I'd love to have someone tell me how to do it 
a different way, give me a new level to strive 
for," Bommelyn says. "I wish I had old-timers 
around to critique me." 



Like most professional musicians, Irish fiddler 
Kevin Burke has spent a good portion of his 
life on the road, and his travels have taken 
him on a long and interesting musical journey. 
Burke was born in 1950 in the southeast 
London borough of Hackney, to parents who 
came from County Sligo in Ireland, an area 
known for its unique style of fiddle music. 
Today, he is recognized as one of the foremost 
fiddlers in the Irish tradition. 

London in the 1950s and 1960s was the epi- 
center of Irish traditional music. Poor econom- 
ic conditions in Ireland and entry level job 
opportunities in England encouraged Irish 
immigration to the London area. Neither of 
Kevin's parents were musicians, but the Burke 
household became a frequent stopping-off 
point for traveling musicians. "When I was 
growing up in London," Burke explained to 
journalist Earle Hitchener, "I tried to soak up 
as much as I could from them." Frequent 
guests at the Burke's included fiddlers Bobby 
Casey, Sean Maguire, Michael Gorman and 
Brendan McGlinchey. "I remember getting up 
one morning and the whole Liverpool Ceili 
Band were asleep in the front room." 

One guest whom Burke recalled with spe- 
cial fondness was Brendan McGlinchey. "I 
remember one Sunday my mother and father 
brought the two [McGlinchey and fellow fid- 
dler John O'Shea] home for lunch . . . and 
they played from about 3 o'clock to 8 o'clock. 
I just sat there watching them play and drink- 
ing in all this fantastic music. I was about thir- 
teen years old. Maybe I played a tune or two 
with them, but mainly I was just listening. I 
used to watch Brendan in utter amazement. 
He was a great influence on me." 

For a time, Burke pursued a job on the 
London Stock Exchange but eventually came 
back to music. "Music kept interfering with 
every angle of life," Burke said. "Then I real- 
ized it wasn't music that was getting in the 



way, it was everything else." In Ireland he ran 
into Arlo Guthrie, who heard him perform and 
invited him to Los Angeles to play on 
Guthrie's Last of the Brooklyn Cowboys 
album in 1972. After performing with Irish 
musician Christy Moore, Burke joined the 
seminal group, The Bothy Band, with whom 
he recorded three albums. 

In 1979, Burke left Ireland to re-settle in 
Portland, Oregon, and for the past 23 years 
has been a fixture in the northwestern United 
States. Initially, Burke teamed up with former 
Bothy Band member Michael O'Domhnaill, 
producing noted albums Promenade (1979) 
and Portland (1982). Burke then went on to 
form two influential bands: the traditional 
Celtic supergroup, Patrick Street, and the 
more eclectic ensemble, Open House. Burke 
has also toured and recorded with the Celtic 
Fiddle Festival, alongside Scottish fiddler 
Johnny Cunningham and Breton fiddler 
Christian LeMaitre. He has produced seven 
solo albums and appeared on nearly 35 others. 

Burke's body of recorded work is immense, 
his on-stage accomplishments are legion and 
his technical facility is unsurpassed. But as a 
teacher and mentor, his influence has reached 
into countless homes, passing traditions he 
learned from his family in London and Sligo on 
to new generations. Oregon-based folklorist 
Nancy Nusz believes that while, "his ability to 
flow from one traditional tune to another with- 
out a pause for hours on end gives evidence of 
his incredible repertoire," it is Burke's laid- 
back style and conversational performance 
approach that makes him unique. Whenever 
he performs, Burke "makes one feel as though 
you are sitting in his living room rather than in 
a concert setting." 



10 





I^HH^H 



KEVIN 



IRISH FIDDLER 
PORTLAND, OR 



11 







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Photo: Troyd Geist 






ROSE & FRANCIS 

CREE 



OJIBWE BASKETMAKERS/STORYTELLERS 

DUNSEITH, ND 



12 



Husband and wife, Francis and Rose Cree are 
highly respected Ojibwe elders on the Turtle 
Mountain Indian Reservation in north central 
North Dakota. As is the case with many eld- 
ers, their lives reflect the intersection of artis- 
tic skill, tribal knowledge, and cultural author- 
ity. Both are also storytellers and keepers of 
Ojibwe cultural knowledge. 

Francis is a singer, a spiritual leader, a carv- 
er of pipes, and a keeper of the ceremonial 
drum for the Dunseith community. Born in 
1920 and raised by his Ojibwe-Cree- 
Assiniboine father in the traditional Indian 
way, Francis has been intimately involved 
with Ojibwe heritage his whole life. Calling the 
Indian pipe a "gift from God," Cree explained 
to the authors of Prairie Patterns its signifi- 
cance: "It wasn't invented by mankind, it was 
a spiritual gift from God — a mediator between 
God and the person for a spiritual use, to 
interpret prayers. And that's why, when we 
have a pipe ceremony, we point the pipe above 
[to God], [to] the four directions, and [to] 
Mother Earth, respecting these creations." 

Basket making has long been a part of Rose 
Cree's family. At about age fifteen, Rose 
learned to make baskets from her mother, 
Pearl Machipinas, who in turn had learned 
from her mother, Little Shell. Over the ensu- 
ing 60-plus years, Rose Cree has come to be 
recognized as one of the true masters of her 
art form. She has taught traditional Ojibwe 
basket making to her daughters and grand- 
daughters, nieces and neighbors as well as to 



others who have expressed interest in learn- 
ing these traditional skills. Students from as 
far away as Wisconsin have traveled to Rose's 
home in Dunseith to learn from her. 

The Crees collaborate in making willow 
baskets, both collecting the raw materials dur- 
ing the months between September and May. 
They collect and freeze enough willow and 
ash (for the frame) to keep their productions 
in process through the summer months. 
Francis splits the ash wood and makes the 
frames. Rose weaves the willows, creating dis- 
tinctive patterns out of tan willow, red willow 
and willow stripped bare with a pocket knife. 
Referring to a particular combination of red 
and stripped willow, Rose notes "this used to 
be my mother's design, so I took this as 
my trademark." 

The Crees set an important example, accord- 
ing to North Dakota folklorist Troyd Geist. 
"Rose and Francis Cree are great examples of 
traditional artists whose outstanding traditions 
represent a true cohesiveness in terms of living 
a traditional life. Rose and Francis Cree are out- 
standing willow basket makers, storytellers, tra- 
ditional herbalists, environmentalists, singers 
and pipe carvers. Yet it is the integrated nature 
of these traditions in the lives of France and 
Rose that make them truly remarkable." 



13 



Fiddler Luderin Darbone and accordionist 
Edwin Duhon co-founded the legendary Cajun 
band The Hackberry Ramblers in 1933 and 
have been leading the band ever since. This 
long-lived ensemble has combined its native 
Louisiana French repertoire with rural string 
band, Western Swing, and popular ingredients 
to produce a unique and continually appealing 
musical mix. The group became widely popu- 
lar in southwestern Louisiana and East Texas 
by the end of the 1930s, appearing on live 
radio broadcasts and recording for RCA's 
Bluebird label, cutting over 100 titles by the 
end of the 1940s. 

A number of musical firsts have been 
attributed to the Hackberry Ramblers. They 
were among the first Cajun groups to de- 
emphasize the accordion and feature the fid- 
dle. They've been quick to incorporate 
Western Swing, elements of blues music, 
Hawaiian novelty tunes, rockabilly, rhythm 
and blues, and swamp pop into their reper- 
toire. In 1935, they were the first to record 
and tag the name "Jolie Blonde" to an older 
variation of "Ma Blonde est Partie", helping to 
popularize the tune often referred to as the 
"Cajun National Anthem." Luderin Darbone 
and Edwin Duhon were also the first musi- 
cians to bring electronic amplification to area 
dancehalls, running a sound system off the 
idling engine of Darbone's Model-A Ford. 

"Luderin Darbone came to Cajun music 
with a relatively refined touch," folklorist 
Barry Jean Ancelet says. "Born in Evangeline 
(in 1913), near the first oil field in South 
Louisiana, he and his family moved to East 
Texas. There young Luderin acquired a taste 
for country and western music." 



Edwin Duhon, born in 1910 near 
Hackberry, Louisiana, was first introduced to 
Cajun music during childhood. During the 
early 1930s, while working at his uncle's meat 
market in Broussard, he began playing for 
dances and parties. Meeting first in 1930 at 
Duhon's uncle's meat market, the two soon 
formed a band. 

The remarkable careers of Darbone and 
Duhon have seen several revivals in populari- 
ty and many different bandmates through the 
years. In 1993, they released their first album 
in 30 years, called Cajun Boogie. Their 1997 
recording Deep Water earned The Hackberry 
Ramblers a Grammy nomination and an 
appearance on MTV. 

Folklorist and radio show host Nick Spitzer 
writes that Darbone and Duhon "have played 
for oilfield workers, farmers, housewives, cow- 
boys, swampers, factory hands and many oth- 
ers. Their blend in styles and in overall reper- 
toire reflects the cultural mixing in a way that 
has given expressive contour to life as lived in 
these Louisiana and Texas communities." 

"I guess everybody enjoys their life," 
Darbone reflected at the time of their MTV 
appearance. "But being able to play music has 
added to mine. My life as an ordinary citizen 
has been good. But if you add the music, it 
doubles it." In 1999, they fulfilled a lifelong 
dream by playing at the Grand Ole Opry and 
in 2002 they made their European debut. 



14 




LUDERIN 



DARBONE 



EDWIN 



DUHON 

CAJUN FIDDLER AND ACCORDIONIST 
SULPHUR, LA/WESTLAKE, LA 



15 




I 



^^■■B 



HHH 




NADIM 



DLAIKAN 

LEBANESE NYE (REED FLUTE) PLAYER 

SOUTHGATE, MI 



16 



Nadim Dlaikan was born in Alai, Lebanon in 
1941, and as a child began playing the nye, a 
reed flute. Although his family discouraged 
him from playing this instrument due to its 
association with lowly shepherds, he persisted 
and even found ways to make his own flutes 
out of locally grown reeds. 

Dlaikan began studying after school with 
Nairn Bitar, the country's premiere traditional 
flutist/nye player at the Lebanese 
Conservatory. After nine years of conservato- 
ry studies, Dlaikan received his diploma and 
moved to Beirut. He traveled frequently 
throughout the Middle East as part of 
Lebanon's best-known folk troupe. In 1969, an 
appearance at a Fourth of July party at the 
United States Embassy in Beirut led to an 
invitation to perform in the U.S. 

Dlaikan first came to this country as a back- 
up musician for Lebanese pop singer Samira 
Tawfik. Eventually he settled in Detroit, home 
to the largest and most diverse Arab commu- 
nity in our nation. Sally Howell of the 
University of Michigan says musical groups in 
the Detroit/Dearborn area are an eclectic 
assembly: "An ensemble of such musicians 
may contain a self-taught Palestinian 
American, a recently arrived Lebanese who 
was trained by an uncle in a very traditional 
setting, an Iraqi Christian who picked up his 
love of music in an Iraqi garage band, and a 
Turk who is still struggling to learn enough 
Arabic to keep up with what is being said." 
Within this cultural mix, Dlaikan is recognized 
as a teacher of tradition and the artistic glue 
that holds both musical groups and the com- 
munity together. 



In addition to his role as a teacher and leader 
of the Lebanese and Arab musical communities 
in Michigan, Dlaikan is recognized nationwide 
as a premiere maker of nye and mijwiz (small 
double-piped) flutes as well as the mizmar, an 
Egyptian double-reed folk oboe. 

Dlaikan grows bamboo-like reeds in his 
back yard, harvesting the strongest and 
straightest for his flutes. The very tops of 
these same plants are used by Dlaikan to cre- 
ate the double reed required for the mizmar. 
He lets the bamboo dry for two or three years 
until it yellows. He then crafts the thicker 
pieces into nyes and the thinner ones into 
mijwiz flutes. Using files, he hollows out the 
reeds by hand, preferring not to use power 
tools. Then, relying on carefully measured 
templates, he measures and then burns the 
finger holes into the reed. The flute is then 
polished and the rough spots smoothed using 
fine grained files. Dlaikan then signs the 
flutes, again using his wood burner, and shel- 
lacs them. 

In the case of Nadim Dlaikan, the signature 
on the flute is a mark of the personal care 
taken by a master maker of instruments, as 
well as the sign of someone who knows how 
to use those instruments exceedingly well. 



Blues guitarist and singer David "Honeyboy" 
Edwards was born in Shaw, Mississippi in 
1915. He first learned music from his father, 
Henry Edwards, a guitar player and violinist 
who frequently played at country dances and 
juke joints. 

At age fourteen, he started touring with Big 
Joe Williams, and over the course of the next 
few years he crossed paths with the patri- 
archs of the Delta blues, including Robert 
Johnson, Tommy McClennan, Charley Patton, 
and Tommy Johnson. 

In 1942, Alan Lomax caught up with 
Edwards in Clarksdale, Mississippi. There, 
Lomax recorded 15 of Edwards' stories and 
songs for the Archive of Folk Song at the 
Library of Congress. As the 1940s progressed, 
Edwards moved frequently — first to Helena, 
Arkansas, then to Memphis and then on to St. 
Louis. He traveled to Chicago regularly during 
the 1940s, performing on Maxwell Street in the 
summers, returning south before the winter set 
in. By 1951, Edwards was in Houston, where 
he recorded minor hits "Mr. Honey" and "Build 
Myself a Cave." 

By 1953, Edwards had returned to Chicago, 
where he quickly became part of the fertile 
urban blues scene, recording a minor classic 
"Drop Down Mama" for the Chess label. 
Edwards adjusted to the new "band" sound 
and adapted to the electric guitar, all the 
while holding on to his rural sound. Since the 
1960s, Edwards has toured widely, working 
with such artists as Walter Horton, Sonny Boy 
Williamson, Sunnyland Slim, Howlin' Wolf, and 
even recorded cuts on two early Fleetwood 
Mac albums. 



In a review of a 1976 concert, New York 
Times critic Robert Palmer wrote that Edwards' 
performance was mesmerizing. "He sang in a 
strong, keening voice, and accompanied him- 
self with dazzling guitar runs and a buoyant 
steady rhythm. . . the music had the audience 
of devotees in a state bordering on ecstasy." 

The blues can be understood as a cumula- 
tive art form in which the artists build their 
styles and repertoires based on their experi- 
ences and on what they have learned from 
other musicians. Edwards' life of travel and 
varied influences makes him the epitome of 
this bluesman image. Blues scholar Dr. Barry 
Lee Pearson says that Edwards is "the most 
quoted source and visible presence in any 
book, film, video or recording documenting 
the blues. No other artist has contributed as 
much as a musician, participant, witness and 
historical source in the overall process of 
teaching about his tradition and keeping it 
alive ... He remains a vital link between early 
Delta blues, the golden age of Chicago blues 
and the current blues revival." Honeyboy 
Edwards is a monumental figure in that rich, 
cultural history and a living link to the birth 
of the blues. 



18 











DAVID "HONEYBOY" 

EDWARDS 

BLUES GUITARIST/SINGER 
CHICAGO, IL 



L9 




FLORY 



JAGODA 

SEPHARDIC MUSICIAN/COMPOSER 
FALLS CHURCH, VA 



20 



Flory Jagoda was born in Sarajevo, Bosnia, a 
member of that city's once thriving Sephardic 
Jewish community. A singer and composer, 
Ms. Jagoda is best known for her untiring 
efforts on behalf of her native Ladino lan- 
guage and culture, her Hanukkah composition 
"Ocho Kandelika", and her work reintroducing 
Sephardic songs and culture into Bosnia, 
Croatia and Serbia. 

When the Sephardic Jews were forced into 
exile from Spain and Portugal in the 15th cen- 
tury, many settled in other Mediterranean 
countries, including those in the Balkans. 
There, they preserved their Ladino language 
and created new lives for themselves among 
the native-born Jewish communities. Always a 
minority community within a minority com- 
munity, the Sephardim clung to their language 
and Iberian/Jewish customs. 

A member of the Altarasa family, noted over 
several generations for its musical creations, 
Jagoda learned to play the accordion and sing as 
a youngster. Through her grandmother, Jagoda 
learned songs that had been passed down in her 
family for generations. "During the long winter 
evenings," Jagoda remembers, "we would sit 
around with our Nona (grandmother) as she 
sang to us of queens and princesses, of life and 
love, of longing and of pain. These songs had 
been learned from her mother, and her mother 
before her, and so on for generations." 



One of only a handful of Bosnia's holocaust 
survivors, Jagoda escaped the destruction of 
Sarajevo's Jewish community. While living in a 
U.S. -run relocation camp in Italy following 
World War II, Jagoda met the Army Air Corps 
officer who was to become her husband in 
1946. They married and she immigrated to 
the United States soon thereafter. 

She has been recognized as an important 
carrier of a unique musical heritage and also 
as a composer and arranger of new Sephardic 
songs. In addition to passing that tradition on 
to her children, she has taught many students 
who now perform Ladino music. 

Today, she tours widely and her music is cir- 
culated through recordings and in The Flory 
Jagoda Songbook. She is well known in the 
Washington, D.C. area for her willingness to 
perform at religious ceremonies, family cele- 
brations and cultural events. Ms. Jagoda's per- 
formances are certainly marked by musical 
beauty, but there's an underlying spirit and 
determination to them. Each time she shares 
the music of her Separdic heritage with an 
audience, she seizes the opportunity and uses 
the performance to grapple with larger issues. 
Her performances are part memoir, part histo- 
ry lesson, part homage and wholly her own. 



21 



Basket maker Clara Neptune Keezer was born 
on the Passamaquoddy tribal land of Pleasant 
Point (Sipayik) in Perry, Maine, the eldest of 
nine children born to Jerome and Elizabeth 
(Lewey) Neptune. For generations before her 
birth, the Neptune family had been known for 
basketmaking and woodworking. Clara's par- 
ents, grandparents and great grandparents all 
made baskets and she credits her mother and 
grandmother, Alice (Tellis) Neptune, as her 
primary influences. 

Always surrounded by basket makers and 
their tools, Clara received little formal training 
in the art form. Instead, she learned each of the 
steps — from collecting and splitting the brown 
ash to washing and weaving sweetgrass, blend- 
ing the vibrant dyes and creating the delicate 
curls and flourishes — by watching and emulat- 
ing older members of her family. 

Clara Keezer has vivid memories of weaving 
her first basket at only eight years of age: 

"We were visiting 'Grammy's' relatives in 
Old Town (ME) and colorful basket stuff 
was all around and I picked up a mustard 
jar and wove a vase basket. No one told 
me to do this, I just wanted to do it 
myself. I liked it right off and my grand- 
mother was very patient with me. I wove 
this vase plain and I didn't learn to do 
fancy work until later." 



terns, broadening the definition of "traditional 
basketry" to include highly stylized strawber- 
ry, pumpkin, apple and blueberry baskets, 
ornamental ears of corn and even little bum- 
blebees crafted from split ash. 

Her baskets appeared in many touring exhi- 
bitions, including the influential Lost and 
Found Traditions: Native American Art 
1965-85. Ralph T. Coe, curator of that exhibit, 
says that "for protecting the importance of 
artistic survival among her own people, Clara 
is outstanding, but of primary importance is 
the quality and inventiveness of her personal 
approach to splint basketry . . . Clara Keezer 
is the finest splint craftswoman I met in the 
Northeast." 

Today, Clara Neptune Keezer continues 
basket weaving and teaching young people 
her skills. Her son Rocky is following in Clara's 
footsteps, apprenticing with her and master- 
ing the intricacies of the fancy basket. In addi- 
tion, she passes her skills and knowledge to 
younger generations through workshop pre- 
sentations and participation in the Maine 
Traditional Arts Apprenticeship program. 



Not content to replicate old forms exclu- 
sively, she began building on the tradition of 
the strawberry basket in the 1950s. Since 
then, she has created her own forms and pat- 



22 







/ 




CLARA NEPTUNE 

KEEZER 

PASSAMAQUODDY BASKETMAKER 
PERRY, ME 



23 




* 






/ 








BOB 



MCQUILLEN 

CONTRA DANCE MUSICIAN/COMPOSER 
PETERBOROUGH, NH 



24 



Contra dance, a form of social dance done in 
straight lines, was brought to New England by 
its earliest Anglo settlers. During the past 200 
years, it has become part of life in the region's 
town halls and community centers. Bob "Mac" 
McQuillen, pianist and accordion player, has 
held a central position in that scene for more 
than 50 years. 

McQuillen was born near Boston, but his 
family moved to southwestern New Hampshire 
when he was a child. Although his grandfather 
played accordion and his father played the 
piano, McQuillen did not turn seriously to 
music until he returned from service as a 
Marine during World War II. 

In 1946, some friends took him to a local 
dance, and he became interested in playing the 
accordion. He continued his day job teaching 
industrial arts at the local high school in 
Peterborough, New Hampshire, but also began 
playing accordion and piano for dances 
throughout the region, working with the leg- 
endary contra dance caller and historian, 
Ralph Page. 

"I got to going to the dances," Bob remem- 
bered in a 1996 Fiddler Magazine interview, 
"and the whole scene was a happy one. I had 
a little accordion . . . and I'd come home from 
the dances and I'd try laying the tunes I 
heard. . . Finally I said to Ralph Page one 
night at a dance in Peterborough, I said 'Hey, 
if I brought an accordion over some night, 
could I sit in with you?' He said 'Bring it next 
week.' That was the start of my musical 
career, 1947. That's how it happened." 

In 1973, McQuillen wrote his first tune, 
"Scotty O'Neil," named for a student who died 
tragically. Since then, he has written more 



than 1,100 dance tunes, many of them nation- 
al and international classics throughout the 
expanding contra dance universe. Among his 
most played and loved tunes are "Amelia," 
"Larry's Waltz," "Mary Elder's Jig" and "Hull's 
Relief (a parody of the Contra dance stan- 
dard "Hull's Victory"). "The thing [tune writ- 
ing] keeps growing and growing. I spend 
almost all of my waking moments around 
these tunes," McQuillen admits. 

The New Hampshire Arts Council recog- 
nized Bob McQuillen's pivotal role in the con- 
tra dance tradition and in 1997 awarded him 
the Governor's Arts Award in Folk Heritage. 
He has participated as a master teacher in the 
New Hampshire Artists in the Traditional Arts 
Apprenticeship Program for many years, 
teaching younger musicians to carry on the 
tradition. In recent years, McQuillen has per- 
formed with his group Old New England at 
the Kennedy Center, represented New 
Hampshire at the Smithsonian Folklife 
Festival and continued to write tunes and play 
for dances throughout the United States. 

Still, it appears that his greatest joy comes 
from what he sometimes modestly calls "boom 
chucking," providing the propulsive rhythms 
for a contra dance band that set feet and bod- 
ies moving on the dance floor. "When I'm fly- 
ing on piano, it's no work," Bob says. "It's like 
I'm being paid to eat ice cream." 



25 



Jean Ritchie, the recipient of the Bess Lomax 
Hawes National Heritage Fellowship, is one 
of America's most significant musicians and 
songwriters, as well as a cultural activist and 
chronicler of her home region. Throughout 
her life and professional career, she has nur- 
tured young talents; celebrated the people 
and traditions of her Appalachian Kentucky 
home; studied, documented and catalogued 
traditional song from around the globe; and 
struggled on behalf of minorities and the poor. 

Born into a singing family in the tiny hamlet 
of Viper, in eastern Kentucky's Cumberland 
Mountains, Jean Ritchie was the youngest of 
14 children. The Ritchie family sang as it 
worked, played and prayed together. Living 
poor in an isolated, rural community, and 
without access to much commercial entertain- 
ment, Jean and her siblings learned their bal- 
lads, play-party songs, games and instrumen- 
tal tunes from older family members. Her 
musical style was also influenced by atten- 
dance at the Old Regular Baptist Church and, 
later, her repertoire expanded through hear- 
ing the singing of local miners and railroad 
men, as well as music broadcast on the radio. 

Ritchie studied at Viper High School and 
Cumberland College, before going on to the 
University of Kentucky where she graduated 
Phi Beta Kappa with a degree in social work. 
Her first job out of college was with the Henry 
Street Settlement on New York's Lower East 
Side, where she taught Kentucky songs, bal- 
lads, and singing games to children. During 
this time, Alan Lomax met Ritchie, encour- 
aged her to enter the performance arena, 
recorded her songs and lap dulcimer playing 
for the Library of Congress, and arranged her 
first formal concert at Columbia University. By 



1952, she was traveling on a Fulbright 
Fellowship to trace and document the roots of 
her heritage in the British Isles. 

In 1955, her first book, Singing Family of 
the Cumberlands, was hailed as an American 
classic. It was, in the words of Appalachian 
scholar Loyal Jones, a "celebration of roots. . . 
the story of a unique family and yet. . . to a 
degree the story of any family that every 
worked, sang and played together, and cared 
about one another." 

Ritchie's many recordings and appearances 
at major folk festivals, including the early 
Newport Folk Festivals, cultivated a revival of 
interest in Appalachian music and culture. 
Her vast repertoire of play-party songs, court- 
ing songs and instrumental tunes as well as of 
the "big" ballads, such as "Fair Ellender" and 
"The Two Sisters", made her an instantly rec- 
ognizable presence during the folk revival era. 

Since then, she has became known as an 
insightful songwriter as well, penning such 
classic commentaries on life in the Eastern 
Kentucky coalfields as "Blue Diamond Mines", 
"Black Waters" and "The L & N Don't Stop 
Here Anymore." 

By sharing her music as well as her commit- 
ment and strong ties to her Appalachian home 
with audiences around the nation and around 
the world, Jean Ritchie has come to define 
and embody the dual concepts of ambassador 
and steward of Kentucky's Anglo folk song 
tradition. Hers is a unique musical and cultur- 
al legacy — educator, activist, documentarian, 
performer, wife, mother and passionate voice 
of the people. 



26 




JEAN 

RITCHIE 

APPALACHIAN MUSICIAN/SONGWRITER 
PORT WASHINGTON, NY & VIPER, KY 



27 




DOMINGO "MINGO" 

SALDIVAR 

CONJUNTO ACCORDIONIST 
SAN ANTONIO, TX 



28 



Domingo "Mingo" Saldivar, conjunto music's 
"Dancing Cowboy", was born in Marion, 
Texas, near San Antonio, in 1936. Because his 
parents liked to sing around the house and 
the family was in need of back-up instrumen- 
talists, he took up the guitar at age twelve. He 
then learned the tololoche (stand-up bass), 
adding another voice to the family's music 
making. A year later, he started playing the 
accordion, learning conjunto (group) music, 
also known as la musica nortena; the regional 
music of South Texas. 

Conjunto music, with its blend of American, 
Mexican and European influences, highlights 
the accordion and features dance rhythms 
such as the ranchera, fiuapango, polka, and 
waltz, in addition to storytelling songs called 
corridos. Its first generation of performers 
(Don Santiago Jimenez, National Heritage 
Fellow Narciso Martinez and others) were at 
their peak during Saldivar's teenage years, 
influencing the younger generation of conjun- 
to musicians greatly. 

Saldivar started his professional career with 
the legendary group, Los Guadalupanos. After 
time in the military and in Alaska, where his 
relatives ran a restaurant, he returned to San 
Antonio in 1970. By 1975, he had formed his 
own group, Los Tremendos Cuatro Espadas, 
and was performing throughout the Southwest. 



His blend of tejano (Texas-Mexican) 
sounds and popular country tunes, such as 
Johnny Cash's "Ring of Fire" ("Rueda de 
Fuego") and "Folsom Prison Blues" ("La 
Ultima Milla"), gained him a large audience, 
while his animated stage performances earned 
him the title "the Dancing Cowboy." Speaking 
of his interest in Country music, Saldivar 
explains. "It relates to real-life things that 
happen to people. The woman you love, the 
one that left you. Beer joints, beer-drinking. I 
started listening to country songs [and] they 
were telling some of the same stories we were." 

His artistic reputation has spread outside 
the Southwest through performances at 
Carnegie Hall, the Folk Masters series at Wolf 
Trap Farm Park in Virginia, The National Folk 
Festival, the Fourth of July celebration on the 
National Mall in Washington, D.C., and on a 
tour of Africa and the Middle East for the U.S. 
Information Agency. 

From 1994 to 1997, he performed exten- 
sively in Monterrey, Mexico where his fans 
developed a novelty dance in his honor, called 
Mingo Mania. In addition, he was recently fea- 
tured on the widely acclaimed PBS television 
series American Roots Music. 



29 



Born in Tibet in 1953, Losang Samten escaped 
in 1959 and settled in Dharamsala, India, among 
the large Tibetan exile population there. 
Samten first attended the Tibetan Institute of 
Performing Arts then later entered the 
Namgyal Monastery, the personal monastery- 
in-exile of the Dalai Lama. In 1975, while 
studying in the Namgyal Monastery, he was 
chosen to enter a three-and-a-half year inten- 
sive training program in sand mandala paint- 
ing, the ritual art form that originated in India 
2,500 years ago and that has been practiced in 
Tibet since 600 A.D. Today Mr. Losang lives in 
Philadelphia, where he is Spiritual Director of 
that city's Tibetan Buddhist Center and a lec- 
turer on Tibetan Language, Culture and 
Buddhism at the University of Pennsylvania. 
The sand mandalas are elaborate designs 
based on instructions in ancient texts, and are 
usually done collaboratively as part of a reli- 
gious ceremony or initiation. Accompanied by 
recitation of prayers, chanting, and occasion- 
ally ritual dance, brightly colored designs are 
created. Each mandala is "designed to help 
the student visualize specific deities, qualities 
and concepts, thereby preparing the mind to 
receive the training of the initiation. In addi- 
tion, the Kalachakra mandala, the most sacred 
of all Mandalas, and the one most often pre- 
sented outside of the monastery, is a symbol 
of peace. By creating the artwork in a specific 
place, the artist hopes to bring peace to that 
location," explains folklorist Dana Lobell. 
Working as a group, each mandala can take 
four or five days to complete. Working alone, 
as Mr. Losang often does, creating a mandala 
can take several weeks. However, in keeping 



with the Buddhist principle of impermanence, 
the finished sand mandala is dismantled and 
poured into a body of water. 

Training to become a mandala painter is inten- 
sive. The monks and artists selected for this 
training must be able to memorize 500 pages of 
sacred text, discuss the meanings of the designs, 
and develop the fine motor skills required to 
manipulate the two chakpus (funnels) through 
which the sand is applied. Mr. Losang was able to 
master 20 of the most complicated sand mandala 
designs during his three years of study. Only four 
of the 28 monks in Mr. Losang's class finished the 
course during that period. 

"When Tibetan Buddhism was fully and 
freely practiced inside Tibet," writes Amy 
Skillman of the Institute for Cultural 
Partnerships, "there were hundreds of monas- 
teries teaching [mandala painting] and other 
sacred arts. Today, with most of the monaster- 
ies inside Tibet destroyed it is estimated that 
there are less than 100 monks who continue 
this tradition." 

For centuries, sand mandala painting had 
not been seen outside of monasteries, but in 
1988, the Dalai Lama selected Losang to cre- 
ate a mandala in a museum setting in the 
West. In 1989, he moved to Philadelphia. 
Today, he continues to teach and to practice 
mandala painting as one of an estimated 30 
people in the world who are qualified to teach 
and demonstrate this spiritual art form. 



30 



LOSANG 

SAXVIT] N 

TIBETAN SAND MANDALA PAINTER 
PHILADELPHIA, PA 










31 



THE NATIONAL HERITAGE FELLOWSHIP 






1982-2001 




Philip Simmons 
Ornamental Ironworker 
Charleston, SC 

Sanders " Sonny" Terry : 
Blues Musician 
Holliswood, NY 



Sister Mildred Barker* 
Shaker Singer 
Poland Springs, ME 



Simon St. Pierre 
French-American Fiddler 
Smyrna Mills, ME 

Joe Shannon 
Irish Piper 
Chicago, IL 

Alex Stewart* 
Cooper/Woodworker 
Sneedville, TN 

Ada Thomas* 
Chitimacha Basketmaker 
Charenton, LA 

Lucinda Toomer* 
Black Quilter 
Columbus, GA 

Lem Ward* 

Decoy Carver/Painter 

Crisfield, MD 

Dewey Williams* 
Shape Note Singer 
Ozark, AL 



Clifton Chenier* 
Creole Accordionist 
Lafayette, LA 

Bertha Cook* 

Knotted Bedspread Maker 

Boone, NC 



Albert Fahlbusch 
Hammered Dulcimer 
Maker/Player 
Scottsbluff, NE 

Janie Hunter* 

Black Singer/Storyteller 

Johns Island, SC 

Mary Jane Manigault 
Seagrass Basket Maker 
Mt. Pleasant, SC 

Genevieve Mougin* 
Lebanese-American Lace Maker 
Bettendorf, LA 

Martin Mulvihill* 
Irish-American Fiddler 
Bronx, NY 

Howard "Sandman" Sims 
Black Tap Dancer 
New York, NY 



Ralph Stanley 
Appalachian Banjo 
Player/Singer 
Coeburn, VA 

Margaret Tafoya* 

Santa Clara Pueblo Potter 

Espanola, NM 

Dave Tarras* 
Klezmer Clarinetist 
Brooklyn, NY 

Paul Tiulana* 
E skimoMaskmaker/ 
Dancer/Singer 
Anchorage, AK 

Cleofes Vigil* 

Hispanic Storyteller/Singer 

San Cristobal, NM 

Emily Kau'i Zuttermeister* 
Hula Master 
Kaneohe, HI 



Eppie Archuleta 
Hispanic Weaver 
San Luis Valley, CO 



Periklis Halkias 
Greek Clarinetist 
Astoria, Queens, NY 

Jimmy Jausoro 
Basque Accordionist 
Boise, ID 

Mealii Kalama* 
Hawaiian Quilter 
Honolulu, HI 

Lily May Ledford* 
Appalachian Musician/Singer 
Lexington, KY 

Leif Melgaard* 
Norwegian Woodcarver 
Minneapolis, MN 

Bua Xou Mua 
Hmong Musician 
Portland, OR 

Julio Negron-Rivera 

Puerto Rican Instrument Maker 

Morovis, PR 

Alice New Holy Blue Legs 
Lakota Sioux Quill Artist 
Oglala, SD 

Glenn Ohrlin 
Cowboy 

Singer/Storyteller/Illustrator 
Mountain View, AR 



Henry Townsend 

Blues Musician/Songwriter 

St. Louis, MO 

Horace "Spoons" Williams* 
Spoons/Bones Player/Poet 
Philadelphia, PA 



Alphonse "Bois Sec" Ardoin 
Black Creole Accordionist 
Eunice, LA 

Earnest Bennett* 
Anglo-American Whittler 
Indianapolis, IN 

Helen Cordero* 
Pueblo Potter 
Cochiti, NM 

Sonia Domsch 
Czech-American Bobbin 
Lace Maker 
Atwood, KS 

Canray Fontenot* 
Black Creole Fiddler 
Welsh, LA 

John Jackson* 

Black Songster/Guitarist 

Fairfax Station, VA 



32 




Joyce Doc Tate Nevaquaya 
Comanche Indian Flutist 
Apache, OK 

Luis Ortega* 
Hispanic-American 
Rawhide Worker 
Paradise, CA 

Ola Belle Reed* 
Appalachian Banjo 
Picker/Singer 
Rising Sun, MD 

Jenny Thlunaut* 

Tlingit Chilkat Blanket Weaver 

Haines, AK 

Nimrod Workman* 
Appalachian Ballad Singer 
Mascot, TN/Chattaroy, WV 



1987 



Juan Alindato 
Carnival Maskmaker 
Ponce, PR 

Louis Bashell 
Slovenian Accordionist/ 
Polka Master 
Greenfield, WI 

Genoveva Castellanoz 
Mexican-American 
Corona Maker 
Nyssa, OR 

Thomas Edison "Brownie" 

Ford* 

Anglo-Comanche Cowboy 

Singer/Storyteller 

Hebert, LA 

Kansuma Fujima 
Japanese-American Dancer 
Los Angeles, CA 

Claude Joseph Johnson* 
African-American Religious 
Singer/Orator 
Atlanta, GA 

Raymond Kane 
Hawaiian Slack Key 
Guitarist/Singer 
Wai' anae, HI 

Wade Mainer 
Appalachian Banjo 
Picker/Singer 
Flint, MI 



Sylvester Mcintosh 
Crucian Singer/Bandleader 
St. Croix, VI 

Allison " Totie" Montana 
Mardi Gras Chief/ 
Costume Maker 
New Orleans, LA 

Alex Moore, Sr.* 
African-American Blues Pianist 
Dallas, TX 

Emilio* and Senaida Romero* 
Hispanic-American 
Craftsworkers in 
Tin and Embroidery 
Santa Fe, NM 

Newton Washburn 
Split Ash Basketmaker 
Littleton, NH 



Pedro Ayala* 

Texas-Mexican Accordionist 
Donna, TX 

Kepka Belton 

Czech-American Egg Painter 
Ellsworth, KS 

Amber Densmore* 
New England 
Quilter/Needleworker 
Chelsea, VT 

Michael Flatley 
Irish-American Stepdancer 
Palos Park, IL 

Sister Rosalia Haberl * 
German-American Bobbin 
Lacemaker 
Hankinson, ND 

John Dee Holeman 
African- American 
Dancer/Musician/Singer 
Durham, NC 

Albert "Sunnyland Slim" 
Luandrew* 

African-American Blues 
Pianist/Singer 
Chicago, IL 

Yang Fang Nhu 

Hmong Weaver/Embroiderer 

Detroit, MI 

Kenny Sidle 

Anglo-American Fiddler 
Newark, OH 

Willie Mae Ford Smith* 
African-American Gospel Singer 
St. Louis, MO 



Clyde "Kindy" Sproat 
Hawaiian Cowboy 
Singer/Ukulele Player 
Kapa' au, HI 

Arthel "Doc" Watson 
Appalachian Guitar 
Player/Singer 
Deep Gap, NC 



John Cephas 

Piedmont Blues Guitarist/Singer 

Woodford, VA 

The Fairfield Four 
African-American a capella 
Gospel Singers 
Nashville, TN 

Jose Gutierrez 
Mexican Jarocho 
Musician/Singer 
NorwaLk, CA 

Richard Avedis Hagopian 
Armenian Oud Player 
Visalia, CA 

Christy Hengel 

German-American Concertina 

Maker 

New Ulm, MN 

Vanessa Paukeigope Jennnings 
Kiowa Regalia Maker 
Anadarko, OK 

Ilias Kementzides 
Pontic Greek Lyra Player 
Norwallc, CT 

Ethel Kvalheim 
Norwegian Rosemaler 
Stoughton, WI 

Mabel E. Murphy* 
Anglo-American Quilter 
Fulton, MO 

LaVaughn E. Robinson 
African-American Tapdancer 
Philadelphia, PA 



Earl Scruggs 
Bluegrass Banjo Player 

Madison, TN 

Harry V. Shourds 
Wildfowl Decoy Carver 
Seaville, NJ 

Chesley Goseyun Wilson 
Apache Fiddle Maker 
Tucson, AZ 



Howard Armstrong 
\ii ican-American String Band 
Musician 
Detroit, MI 

Em Bun 

Cambodian Silk Weaver 

Harrisburg, PA 

Natividad Cano 

Mexican Mariachi Musician 

Monterey Park, CA 

Giuseppe and Raffaela 

DeFranco 

Southern Italian Musicians 

and Dancers 

Belleville, NJ 

Maude Kegg* 

Ojibwe Storyteller/Craftsman/ 

Tradition Bearer 

Onamie, MN 

Kevin Locke 
Lakota Flute 

Player/Singer/Dancer/St oryteller 
Mobridge, SD 

Marie McDonald 
Hawaiian Lei Maker 
Kamuela, HI 

Wallace McRae 
Cowboy Poet 
Forsyth, MT 

Art Moilanen 
Finnish Accordionist 
Mass City, MI 

Emilio Rosado* 
Woodcarver 

Utuado, PR 

Robert Spicer* 
Flatfoot Dancer 
Dickson, TN 

Douglas Wallin* 
Appalachian Ballad Singer 
Marshall, NC 




Ltta Baker 

African -American guitarist 

Morgan I own. NC 

George Blake 

Native American craftsman 

(Hupa-Yurok) 

Hoopa, CA 

Jack Coen 

Irish-American flautist 
Bronx, NY 



33 



Seisho "Harry" Nakasone 
Okinawan-American musician 
Honolulu, HI 

Irvan Perez 

Islefio (Canary Island) singer 

Poydras, LA 



Fatima Kuinova 
Bukharan Jewish singer 
Rego Park, NY 

John Naka 
Bonsai sculptor 
Los Angeles, CA 

Ng Sheung-Chi 
Chinese Toissan muk' yu 
folk singer 
New York, NY 

Marc Savoy 

Cajun accordion maker/ 

musician 

Eunice, LA 



Morgan Sexton* 

Appalachian banjo player/singer 

Linefork, KY 

Nikitas Tsimouris* 
Greek-American musician 
(bagpipe player) 
Tarpon Springs, FL 

Gussie Wells* 
African-American quilter 
Oakland, CA 

Arbie Williams 
African-American quilter 
Oakland, CA 

Melvin Wine 
Appalachian fiddler 
Copen, WV 



Francisco Aguabella 
Afro-Cuban drummer 
Manhattan Beach, CA 

Jerry Brown 

Potter (southern stoneware 

tradition) 

Hamilton, AL 

Walker Calhoun 
Cherokee musician/ 
dancer/teacher 
Cherokee, NC 



Othar Turner 

African-American fife player 
Senatobia, MS 

T. Viswanathan 

South Indian flute master 

Middletown, CT 



Santiago Almeida* 
Texas-Mexican conjunto 
musician 
Sunnyside, WA 

Kenny Baker 
Bluegrass fiddler 
Cottontown, TN 

Inez Catalon* 
French Creole singer 
Kaplan, LA 

Nicholas* & Elena Charles 
Yupik woodcarver/maskmaker 
and skinsewer 
Bethel, AK 

Charles Hankins 
Boatbuilder 
Lavallette, NJ 

Nalani Kanaka'ole & Pualani 
Kanaka'ole Kanahele 
Hula Masters 
Hilo, HI 



Everett Kapayou 
Native American singer 
(Mesquakie tribe) 
Tama, IA 

Mcintosh County Shouters 
African- American 
spiritual/shout performers 
Townsend, GA 

Elmer Miller* 

Bit and spur maker/silversmith 

Nampa, ID 

Jack Owens* 

Blues singer/guitarist 

Bentonia, MS 

Mone & Vanxay 

Saenphimmachak 

Lao weaver/needleworker 

and loommaker 

St. Louis, MO 

Liang-xing Tang 
Chinese-American pipa 
(lute) player 
Bayside, NY 



Liz Carroll 

Irish- American fiddler 

Chicago, IL 





Clarence Fountain 

& the Blind Boys 

African American gospel singers 

Atlanta, GA 

Mary Mitchell Gabriel 
Native American basketmaker 
(Passamaquoddy) 
Princeton, ME 

Johnny Gimble 

Anglo fiddler, (Western Swing) 

Dripping Springs, TX 

Frances Varos Graves* 
Hispanic American colcha 
embroidery 
Ranchos de Taos, NM 

Violet Hubert 
Native American 
storyteller/conservator (Skagit) 
Seattle, WA 

Sosei Shizuye Matsumoto 
Japanese tea ceremony master 
Los Angeles, CA 

D.L. Menard 

Franco-American Cajun musi- 
cian / songwriter 
Erath, LA 

Simon Shaheen 

Arab American oud player 

Brooklyn, NY 



■H 



Lily Vorperian 
Armenian (Marash-style) 
embroidery 
Glendale, CA 

Elder Roma Wilson 
African American 
harmonica player 
Blue Springs, MS 



Bao Mo-Li 
Chinese-American 
jing-erhu player 
Flushing, NY 

Mary Holiday Black 
Navajo basketmaker 
Mexican Hat, UT 

Lyman Enloe* 

Anglo-American old time fiddler 
Lee' s Summit, MO 

Donny Golden 
Irish-American step dancer 
Brooklyn, NY 

Wayne Henderson 
Appalachian luthier 
Mouth of Wilson, VA 

Bea Ellis Hensley 
Appalachian blacksmith 
Spruce Pine, NC 

Nathan Jackson 
Tlingit Alaskan 

woodcarver/metalsmith/dancer 
Ketchikan, AK 

Danongan Kalanduyan 

Filipino- American kulintang 

musician 

San Francisco, CA 

Robert Jr. Lockwood 
African-American Delta 
blues guitarist 
Cleveland, OH 

Israel "Cachao" Lopez 
Afro-Cuban bassist, composer, 
bandleader 
Miami, FL 

Nellie Star Boy Menard* 
Lakota Sioux quiltmaker 
Rosebud, SD 

Buck Ramsey* 

Anglo-American cowboy poet 
and singer 
Amarillo, TX 



34 









1996 



Obo Addy 
African-American 
drummer/leader 
Portland, OR 

Paul Dahlin 

Swedish American fiddler 

Minneapolis, MN 

Juan Gutierrez 

Puerto Rican drummer/leader 

New York, NY 

Solomon & Richard Ho'opi'i 
Hawaiian singers 
Wailuku, HI 

Will Keys 

Anglo American banjo player 

Gray, TN 

Joaquin Lujan 
Guamian Blacksmith 
GMF Guam 

Eva McAdams 
Shoshone crafts/beader 
Fort Washakie, WY 

John Mealing & Cornelius 
Wright* 

African-American work songs 
Birmingham, AL 

Vernon Owens 

Anglo American potter 

Seagrove, NC 

Betty Pisio Christenson 
Ukrainian- American pysanky 
Suring, WI 

Dolly Spencer 
Inupiat dollmaker 
Homer, AK 



Edward Babb 

"Shout" Band Gospel musician 

& Band Leader 

Jamaica, NY 

Charles Brown* 

West Coast Blues Pianist & 

Composer 

Berkeley, CA 

Gladys LeBlanc Clark 
Acadian (Cajun) Spinner & 
Weaver 
Duson, LA 

Georgia Harris* 
Catawba Potter 
Atlanta, GA 



Ali Akbar Khan 

North Indian Sarod Player & 

Raga Composer 

San Anselmo, CA 

Ramon Jose Lopez 
Santero & Metalsmith 
Santa Fe, NM 

Jim & Jesse McReynolds 
Bluegrass Musicians 
Gallatin, TN 

Phong Nguyen 

Vietnamese Musician & Scholar 

Kent, OH 

Hystercine Rankin 
African-American Quilter 
Lorman, MS 

Hua Wenyi 

Chinese Kunqu Opera Singer 

Arcadia, CA 

Francis Whitaker* 
Blacksmith/Ornamental 
Ironworker 
Carbondale, CO 



Apsara Ensemble: 

Ms. Moly Sam, Ms. Sam-Oeun 

Tes, & Mr. Sam-Ang Sam 

Cambodian Traditional Dancers 

and Musician 

Reston, VA & 

Fort Washington, MD 

Eddie Blazonczyk 
Polish- American 
Musican/Bandleader 
Bridgeview, IL 

Bruce Caesar 

Sac and Fox/Pawnee German 

Silver Artist 

Anadarko, OK 

Dale Calhoun 

Anglo-American Boat Builder 
Tiptonville, TN 

Antonio De La Rosa 

Tejano Conjunto Accordionist 

Riviera, TX 

Epstein Brothers: 
Max, William " Willie", 
& Julius "Julie" 
Jewish Klezmer Musicians 
Tamarac, FL 

Sophia George 

Yakama-Coleville Beadworker 
Gresham, OR 



Nadjeschda Overgaard 
Danish-American Hardanger 
Needleworker 
Kimballton, IA 

Harilaos Papapostolou* 
Greek Byzantine Chanter 
Potomac, MD 

Roebuck "Pops" Staples* 
African-American Gospel/Blues 
Musician 
Dolton, IL 

Claude Williams 
African-American Jazz/Swing 
Fiddler 
Kansas City, MO 



Frisner Augustin 
Haitian Drummer 
Brooklyn, New York 

Lila Greengrass Blackdeer 
Hocak Black Ash 
Basketmaker/Needleworker; 
Black River Falls, Wisconsin 

Shirley Caesar 

African-American Gospel Singer 
Durham, North Carolina 

Alfredo Campos 
Horse-Hair Hitcher 
Federal Way, Washington 

Mary Louise Defender Wilson 
Dakotah-Hidatsa 
Traditionalist/Storyteller 
Shields, North Dakota 

Jimmy "Slyde" Godbolt 

Tap Dancer 

Hanson, Massachusetts 

Ulysses "Uly" Goode 
Western Mono Basketmaker; 
North Fork, California 

Bob Holt 
Ozark Fiddler 
Ava, Missouri 

Zakir Hussain 

North Indian Master Tabla 

Drummer 

San Anselmo, California 

Elliott "Ellie" Mannette 

Steel Pan Builder/Tuner/Player 

Morgantown, West Virginia 

Mick Moloney 
Irish Musician 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Eudokia Sorochaniuk 
Ukrainian Weaver/Textile Artist 
Pennsauken, New Jersey 



Ralph W. Stanley 
Master Boatbuilder 
Southwest Harbor, Maine 




Bounxou Chanthraphone 
Laotian weaver 
Brookland Park, MN 

Felipe Garcia Villamil 
Afro-Cuban Drummer/Santero 
Los Angeles, CA 

Jose Gonzalez 
Hammock weaver 
San Sebastian, PR 

Dixie Hummingbirds 
African American Gospel 
Quartet 
Philadelphia, PA 

Nettie Jackson 
Klickitat basketmaker 
White Swan, WA 

Santiago Jimenez, Jr. 
Tejano accordionist/singer 
San Antonio, TX 

Genoa "Auntie Genoa" Keawe 
Native Hawaiian falsetto 
singer/ukelele player 
Honolulu, HI 

Frankie Manning 
Lindy Hop 

Dancer/Choreographer/teacher 
Corona, NY 

Joe Willie "Pinetop" Perkins 
Blues Piano Player 
La Porte, IN 

Konstantinos Pilarinos 
Orthodox Byzantine Icon 
Woodcarver 
Astoria, NY 

Chris Strachwitz 

Record Producer and Label 

Founder 

El Cerrito, CA 

Dorothy Thompson 

Weaver 

Davis, WVA 

Don Walser 

Western Singer/Guitarist 

Austin, TX 



Celestino Aviles 
Santero 
Orocovis, PR 



35 



Mozell Benson 
African-American quilter 
Opelika, AL 

Wilson "Boozoo" Chavis * 
Creole zydeco accordionist 
Lake Charles, LA 

Hazel Dickens, 

Appalachian singer-songwriter 

Washington, DC and Montcalm, WV 

Joao Grande 

Capoeira Angola master 

New York, NY 

Evalena Henry 
Apache basketweaver 
Peridot, AZ 

Peter Kyvelos 
Oud maker 
Bedford, MA 

Eddie Pennington 
Thumbpicking-style guitarist 
Princeton, KY 

Qi Shu Fang 

Beijing Opera performer 

Woodhaven, NY 

Seiichi Tanaka 

Taiko drummer and dojo founder 

San Francisco, CA 

Dorothy Trumpold 
Rug weaver 
East Amana, IA 

Fred Tsoodle 

Kiowa sacred song leader 

Mountain View, OK 

Joseph Wilson 

Folklorist, advocate and presenter 

Silver Spring, MD and Trade, TN 

*deceased 



36