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Front Cover: Hardanger fiddle by Ron Poast 
Photo by: Jim Wildeman 

Back Cover: Beadwork by Agnes "Oshanee" Kenmille 





September 2, 2003 

I send greetings to those gathered to recognize the 2003 National 
Heritage Fellows. 

Folk arts reflect the creativity and freedom of our Nation. Through 
the National Heritage Fellowship award, our country honors American 
artists for their contributions to our Nation and for helping us better 
understand our history, culture, and values. 

I commend the National Endowment for the Arts for recognizing 
artistic achievement and encouraging the creative spirit of talented 
individuals across our country. I also applaud this year's award 
recipients for your dedication to excellence in folk and traditional arts. 
Your work inspires young artists and brings joy to people of all ages. 

Laura joins me in sending our best wishes. 

Talabwog Men Stick Dancers 





JESUS ARRIADA San Francisco, California 
JOHNNY CURUTCHET South San Francisco, California 
MARTIN GOICOECHEA Rock Springs, Wyoming 

Mundillo (Puerto Rican bobbin lace) 
New York, New York 

Salish beadworker and regalia maker 
Ronan, Montana 

Weaver, singer, storyteller 
Marshfield, Vermont 

Hispanic musicians 
Albuquerque, New Mexico 


African American dancer, choreographer 

Las Vegas, Nevada 

Hardanger fiddle maker 
Black Earth, Wisconsin 


Carolinian stick dance leaders 

Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands 


Persian santur player 
Sherman Oaks, California 


Diving helmet designer/builder 
Tarpon Springs, Florida 

Mexican American singer, composer, teacher 
Fresno, California 

FELLOWS 1982-2002 

It is my pleasure to award the 
National Endowment for the Arts National 
Heritage Fellowships to 16 individuals who 
have devoted themselves to sharing and 
preserving the story of America through the 
folk and traditional arts. These fellowships 
constitute the highest form of federal 
recognition for artists in these fields. 

From the making of old-time fiddles 
to Scottish handweaving to the choreography 

of African- American swing dances, these Heritage Fellows embody the 
international diversity within our arts that brighten and bind tight the 
mosaic of our nation. 

This year marks my first opportunity as the new Chairman 
of the National Endowment for the Arts to host this weeklong 
celebration. Please join me in congratulating and honoring these 
singularly talented American artists. 


2a^ v-^ai*. 

Dana Gioia 

National Endowment for the Arts 


Since 1982 the National Endowment for the Arts 
has awarded 283 National Heritage Fellowships, the 
highest form of federal recognition for folk and 
traditional artists. In this most democratic of processes, 
any member of the public may send in a nomination 
for a National Heritage Fellowship. Each year nomina- 
tions are submitted from across the country and in 
January a panel meets with the daunting task of 
recommending a handful of recipients. In 2003 nearly 
290 nominations were considered over a four-day 
review session and the panel's recommendations were forwarded to the 
National Council on the Arts and then to the Chairman for final approval. 

When I carry out the happy task of calling the recipients to inform them of 
this honor, the response that I get most commonly is: "Why me?" The official 
reason is that after nomination, an honor in itself, fellows are selected based 
on three criteria: artistic excellence, a demonstrated connection with cultural 
heritage, and the significance of the nominee's contribution to a particular 
artistic tradition. My simple reply to that question, however, is often: 
"Because you've earned it." 

Each of these recipients has spent a lifetime participating in a living legacy 
that can be identified as both individual and collective. These exemplars of our 
cultural common wealth both define us as a nation and inspire us as individuals. 
Please join me in celebrating this well-deserved moment in the spotlight for our 
2003 National Endowment for the Arts National Heritage Fellows. 

\j*^ O^VT) 

Barry Bergey 

Director, Folk & Traditional Arts 

National Endowment for the Arts 


Sam Donaldson, a 36-year 
ABC News veteran, served two 
appointments as chief White 
House correspondent for ABC 
News from January 1998 to 
August 1999 and from 1977-1989. 
Mr. Donaldson more recentiy 
co-anchored the ABC News Sunday morning broadcast, 
'This Week with Sam Donaldson & Cokie Roberts" from 
December 1996 to September 2002. He currently hosts 
"The Sam Donaldson Show - Live in America," a daily 
news/talk radio program 

Mr. Donaldson was co-anchor with Diane Sawyer of 
"PrimeTime Live" from the program's premiere in 
August 1989 until it merged with "20/20" in 1999. He 
was also anchor of "World News Sunday" from 1979 to 
1989 and a regular interviewer on "This Week with 
David Brinkley" from that program's inception in 1981 
until Mr. Brinkley retired in 1996. 

In 1998, Mr. Donaldson received the Broadcaster of 
the Year award from the National Press Foundation. 
The Washington Journalism Review named him the Best 
Television White House Correspondent in the Business 
in 1985 and the Best Television Correspondent in the 
Business in 1986, 1987, 1988 and 1989. He has won 
many other awards among them four Emmy Awards 
and a George Foster Peabody Award. 

The Bess Lomax Hawes National 
Heritage Fellowship, this year 
awarded to Carmencristina Moreno, 
honors "keepers of tradition" who 
through their efforts as organizers, 
educators, producers, cultural advo- 
cates or caretakers of skills and 
repertoires have had a major beneficial effect on the 
traditional arts of the United States. A member of 
the Lomax family of pioneering American folklorists, 
Bess Lomax Hawes has committed her life 
to the documentation and presentation of American 
folk artists. She has served as an educator both 
inside the classroom and beyond and she nurtured 
the field of public folklore through her service at the 
National Endowment for the Arts. During her tenure 
as Director of the NEA Folk Arts Program (1977- 
1993) an infrastructure of state folklorists was put in 
place, statewide folk arts apprenticeship programs 
were initiated, and the National Heritage Fellowships 
were created. In 1993 she received the National 
Medal of Arts for her many contributions in assisting 
folk artists nationwide and in bringing folk artistry to 
the attention of the public. 

Nick Spitzer is the host of 
American Routes, the radio pro- 
gram from New Orleans devoted 
to the sources and symbols of 
blues and jazz, country and gospel, 
roots rock and soul, as well as 
related ethnic, regional, popular 
and classical styles of the music and musicians that 
define the American cultural landscape. American 
Routes is distributed by Public Radio International and 
heard locally on Washington's WAMU-FM. Recognized 
for an informed and witty style in presenting traditional 
artists and communities, Nick is also known for his cul- 
tural features on All Things Considered, documentary 
CD recordings, and PBS films. Spitzer served as the 
first Louisiana State Folklorist and then spent a decade 
at the Smithsonian — initially as senior folklife specialist 
and research associate and later as artistic director for 
the Folk Masters concert series produced in collabora- 
tion with Carnegie Hall and Wolf Trap. 





Director: Dennis Blackledge 

Production Manager: Benita Hofstetter Koman 

Technical Director: Eric Annis, Lisner Auditorium 

Lighting Designer: Dan Covey 

Sound Design/Production: Pete Reiniger 

Stage Manager: Valerie Bijur Carlson 

Assistant Stage Manager: Kirsten Aymer 

Production Assistants: Adrian Spencer; 

Adam J. Natale 
Setting: Paul Falcon 
Video Projection/Production: Kirby Whyte, 

Creative Video of Washington 
Sign Language Interpreter: Hank Young 
Radio Production: Mark Yacovone, Alex van Oss, 

WDUQ Pittsburgh 
Recording: Aaron Lasko, Coupe Studios, Boulder 

Ricardo Schulz, Pittsburgh Digital, Pittsburgh 
Program Notes: Lillie Gordon, Mark Puryear, 

Andy Wallace, Madeleine Remez 

The National Endowment for the Arts would like to 
express its appreciation to the National Council for 
the Traditional Arts (NCTA) for its assistance in 
planning the 2003 National Heritage Fellowships 
events, which were coordinated for NCTA by 
Madeleine Remez. The NCTA is a private non-profit 
corporation founded in 1933 and dedicated to the 
presentation and documentation of folk and tradi- 
tional arts in the United States. The National 
Heritage Fellowship nominations process is adminis- 
tered by Mark Puryear. 

Dana Gioia, Chairman 
Eileen B. Mason, Senior Deputy Chairman 
Ann Guthrie Hingston, Director, Office of 

Government Affairs 
Mike Burke-Kirby, Office of Government Affairs 
Felicia Knight, Director, Office of Communications 
Victoria Hutter, Office of Communications 
Barry Bergey, Director, Folk & Traditional Arts 
Rose Morgan, Folk & Traditional Arts 



Dennis Blackledge, Dudley Connell, Lillie Gordon, 

Amy Grossmann, Rhonda Jenkins, Josh Kohn, Julia 

Olin, Mark Puryear, Madeleine Remez 

Joseph T Wilson, Executive Director 

The National Endowment for the Arts and the NCTA 
would also like to acknowledge the invaluable assis- 
tance of the following individuals and institutions: 

The Honorable John Holum, 

Chairman of the Board, NCTA 
The Honorable James P. Moran, 

United States House of Representatives 
Lettie Holeman 
Keybridge Marriott Hotel 
Four Seasons Van and Travel 
The House of Musical Traditions 
The staff at Lisner Auditorium 
Darrell Cummings 
Anne Mercer 
Trish Callahan 
Alice Burns 

Old Country Store 

Cracker Barrel Old Country Store, Inc. 
is the corporate sponsor for this year's 
National Heritage Fellowship events. 


WAMU is the official Media Sponsor. 

Language and the oral tradition have 
long served as central markers of 
Basque identity. Basques refer to 
themselves in their own language as 
Euskaldunak. or "speakers of Basque." 
Not surprisingly, Basques who come to 
the western United States hold on to 
this appreciation of their language and 
place great import on its continued 
presence among younger generations of 
Basques. The performance of the 
Basque improvisational poetry tradition, 
known as bertsolaritza, represents one 
of the most artistic and entertaining 
ways of keeping this language alive and 
in the community's consciousness. 

The first major wave of Basques who 
immigrated to the United States came 
during the California Gold Rush and in 
the years following. Most came to 
pursue their traditional occupation of 
shepherding and also brought with 
them their bertsolaritza. Just as they 
had in the old country, the bertsolari 
(poets) entertained at nearly all com- 
munity festivals and gatherings. 

In a typical performance of bertsolar- 
itza, two or more performers competi- 
tively alternate singing improvised 
rhyming stanzas (called bertsoak) 
using a number of traditional forms. 
The content of the poems is based on 
assigned topics often related to the life 
of the Basque sheepherder. such as lost 
love, lost wages, or lost sheep. These 
topics remain common to this day, 
though very few Basques in the United 
States still herd sheep. Each bertsolari 
is judged on his quickness, use of 
imagery and wit in performance. 
Through their constant and often bois- 
terous verbal feedback and encourage- 
ment, audiences make clear the relative 
success of each participant. 

Jesus Arriada, Johnny Curutchet, 
Martin Goicoechea, and Jesus Goni 
delight audiences across the West with 
their fast-paced and witty vocal improv- 
isations. All four of these individuals are 
so universally present at Basque cultur- 
al events that nominators refused to 
single out any one of them. As 
Meg Glaser, Artistic Director of the 
Western Folklife Center, describes their 
skills: "They are respected widely for 
then strength of voice, skill in improvi- 
sation, gift of language, and knowledge 
of Basque culture." 

Though bertsolaritza has experi- 
enced a renaissance in the Basque 
region of Spain in recent years, Arriada. 
Curuchet, Goicoechea and Goni are 
some of the few bertsolari active in the 
United States today, a testament to the 
magnitude of their cultural importance 
above and beyond their artistic skill. 
Lest we think their achievements are 
isolated or on the decline, we need to 
be reminded that Basque is one of the 
few languages in the world with a grow- 
ing number of speakers. The 60,000 
Basques in the United States celebrate 
their heritage with a variety of festivals 
and picnics across the West, including 
the annual Bertsolari Championship 
held since 1988 in Gardnerville, 

The place of these Basque poets in 
their community is unmatched. In the 
words of John Ysursa of the North 
American Basque Organizations, Inc, 
"Succinctly, they [Arriada, Curuchet, 
Goicechea and Goni] sustain our 
Basque community's cultural lifeline." 


Martin Goicoechea 

Paul Barthe 

Johnny Curutchet 

Photo: Je an Paul Barthe 

Jesus Goni 




jesus AR 












Mundillo, the art of weaving 
delicate lace using wooden bobbins 
wrapped with thread, originated in 16th 
century Italy and then spread across 
Europe. It flourished in Spain and later 
came to Puerto Rico, where it was 
refined in towns such as Moca and 

Rosa Elena Egipciaco has been prac- 
ticing the art of mundillo for more than 
60 years. Born in Moca into a family 
steeped in lace-making, she recalls 
learning this tradition at the age of 
three or four, from her mother and 
grandmother, both noted makers of 
lace. As a young girl, she remembers 
making lace with friends, a practice 
that permeated the rest of her life in 
many ways. She recalls how some of 
her companions would even hide love 
letters from secret admirers in the back 
of their looms. 

After receiving her bachelor's degree 
from the University of Rio Piedras, 
Egipciaco continued to practice mundillo. 
She co-founded the Cultural Center of 
Moca, and soon became its first female 
president. She was also recognized as a 
certified artist through the prestigious 
Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueha. 

In 1986, Egipciaco moved to New 
York and dedicated herself to teaching 
lace-making through a variety of pro- 
grams ranging from workshops for the 
International Ladies Garment Workers 
Union and La Casa de la Herencia 
Cultural Puertorriqueha to serving as a 
master in the New York State Council 
on the Arts Folk Arts Apprenticeship 

While there are a few mundilleras 
in New York City, Egipciaco's work 
stands out as highly complex. She 
creates collars, bonnets, purses, table- 
cloths, doilies, baby booties, stoles, 

handkerchiefs, blouses, appliques, 
bridal veils, napkins, and pillowcases, 
and uses both traditional patterns and 
her own new designs. 

Egipciaco currently teaches at 
Boricua College in Brooklyn and 
demonstrates the art of lace-making at 
institutions such as the American 
Museum of Natural History, El Museo 
del Barrio, the Office of the 
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, 
Columbia University and New York 
University. She also displays and pres- 
ents her work at numerous festivals 
around the New York area, including 
the Rockland County Folklife Festival 
and the Latin American Caribbean 
Cultural Arts Festival in Amsterdam, 
NY. For many younger Puerto Ricans in 
the region, Egipciaco and her mundillo 
are their first exposure to this tradition. 

Egipciaco is saddened by the idea 
that the number of practitioners of 
mundillo is dwindling, both in the 
United States and Puerto Rico. As a 
result, she works feverishly and con- 
stantly to create as many examples of 
this art and to teach as many young 
people as possible. She dreams some- 
day of being able to build a museum in 
her Puerto Rican hometown dedicated 
to the preservation, celebration and 
perpetuation of the art of mundillo. 

Agnes "Oshanee" Kenmille remem- 
bers doing her first beadwork 76 years 
ago when she was 1 1 years old. She 
beaded a four-leaf clover on a small 
purse that she intended to take to a 
Fourth of July celebration. Kenmille's 
mother was so pleased with her daugh- 
ter's work that she gave Agnes some 
extra beads to fill in the background, 
and that initiated her lifetime of artistic 

Although Kenmille has spent most of 
her life on the Flathead Reservation in 
northwestern Montana, she is known 
worldwide for her skills in beadwork, 
hide tanning, and leatherwork, tradi- 
tions that are each in their own right 
extremely difficult to master. She 
receives orders from all over the world 
for her creations and is locally known 
as the best tanner and maker of tradi- 
tional clothing on the reservation. At 
local powwows and celebrations, 
Kenmille's creations - moccasins, vests, 
dresses and more - can be seen sprin- 
kled throughout the crowd. 

Traditional deer hide tanning is a 
skill that takes strength, perseverance, 
timing, precision and an understanding 
of the subtle changes in texture that 
characterize a hide as it is transformed 
by the process. Her beadwork is of the 
utmost quality and she is known for 
several of her own original designs 
and styles. 

Kenmille is committed to passing on 
her honored skills to younger genera- 
tions and has been doing so in her own 
home for many years. She has taught 
hide tanning and beadwork for more 
than a decade at Salish Kootenai 
College and it is only because of her 
that the traditional tanning method has 
survived. Along with promoting a 
respect for these traditional crafts, 

Kenmille adamantly believes in the 
modern relevance and importance of 
other tribal values and traditions, a 
philosophy she shares with all of 
her students. 

Even in light of these accomplish- 
ments, Kenmille's role as a tradition 
bearer goes beyond her ability as a 
tanner and the beautiful regalia she 
creates. Born to Salish parents, and 
married into Kootenai families, 
Kenmille is one of the few remaining 
elders who speak Salish and Kootenai 
fluently. She offers instruction in the 
Salish language at the tribal high 
school, Two Eagle River School. She 
also often acts as the reservation's head 
woman dancer at celebrations. 

Kenmille has for years been recog- 
nized by her community as an elder and 
teacher and in 2001, she received the 
Montana Governor's Award for the Arts. 
Known for her ability to present tradi- 
tion with just the right balance of 
seriousness and humor, she proudly 
continues to spread cultural traditions 
through both her teaching and her 
wonderful creations themselves. As D. 
Fred Matt, Chairman of the Tribal 
Council of The Confederated Salish and 
Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, 
describes it, "We have long recognized 
her role as one of our master artists and 
venerated cultural leaders. Her role in 
language, history, and cultural rejuvena- 
tion and maintenance for this nation 
cannot be overstated." 













Norman Kennedy, from Aberdeen, 
Scotland is a keeper of the old ways, a 
master practitioner and teacher of the 
textile arts, and a performer of the sto- 
ries and songs that he learned while 
growing up in his native land. Kennedy 
was born and raised in a two room flat 
in Aberdeen's inner city where his fami- 
ly had been shipbuilders and merchant 
seamen for at least three generations, 
with roots in the area stretching back to 
the thirteenth century. Traditional 
songs were an integral part of his 
upbringing; his mother, father, and 
other family members all sang, and the 
noted ballad singer Jeannie Robertson 
lived across the street. When he was 
twelve he went to work on the farm of 
country relatives and learned to work 
with the older generations at the har- 
vest, and in food production, using the 
old tools and methods, which included 
singing to accompany the work. 

He left school at sixteen and worked 
for a while as a tax collector, spending 
his off hours at a local tweed-weaving 
establishment, quietly absorbing the 
trade. It was around this time that 
Kennedy began to appear with country 
dancers and fiddlers at villages, estates 
and castles of the local gentry, singing 
and learning songs from other tradition- 
al singers. In 1952 he began to travel to 
the isle of Barra in the Outer Hebrides 
and for the next twelve years, made an 
annual pilgrimage to learn the local 
Gaelic dialect, along with songs, stories, 
customs, and weaving techniques of the 

In 1965, Kennedy was invited to 
perform at the Newport Folk Festival by 
Ralph Rinzler as part of the program 
"Origins of the American Ballad 
Tradition." The next year Rinzler, 
who left Newport to co-found the 
Smithsonian's Festival of American 
Folklife, invited Kennedy back to the 
states to work with him in collecting 
textiles and other folk crafts for the 

Country Roads Shop in Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. Kennedy's skills and 
knowledge of traditional textile 
practices soon brought him to Colonial 
Williamsburg, where he served as 
master weaver from 1967-1972. 
A couple of years later he moved to 
Marshfield, Vermont, where he founded 
the Marshfield School of Weaving, located 
in a 200 year old barn, and began to 
teach the processes and practices 
involved in traditional textile manufac- 
ture, from growing flax and raising 
sheep to harvesting, shearing, carding 
spinning and weaving the cloth, using 
traditional tools and equipment. 

Over the past four decades Kennedy 
has appeared at hundreds of festival 
and concerts throughout North America 
and the British Isles, from the National 
and Smithsonian folk festivals to St 
Andrew's Society meetings and Robert 
Burns Nights. He frequently returns to 
Scotland and has performed many times 
at the Edinburgh Folk Festival. He is 
also in constant demand to teach tradi- 
tional weaving workshops and has 
served as a consultant to numerous 
museums for traditional textile collec- 
tions and exhibits. 

A few years ago, Kennedy was teach- 
ing a workshop in the rarely practiced 
community method of waulking the 
wool to shrink it, where a group of 
people sit around a large table and pass 
along a long piece of sodden cloth, 
beating it on the table while singing 
rhythmically. Asked why he didn't use 
some new labor and cost-saving devices 
to accomplish the task, Kennedy replied 
with his own question: "How much is a 
pound of pride and maybe a half a 
pound of satisfaction?" 


Roberto Martinez was born and 
raised in the farming village of Chacon 
in the mountains of northern New- 
Mexico, a region that is a stronghold of 
New Mexican Hispanic (sometimes 
called "Spanish Colonial") culture. 
Roberto's musical odyssey began at the 
age of six when his uncle fashioned him 
a guitar from a gallon gasoline container, 
with wire for strings. In 1951 Roberto 
married his wife, Ramona, herself from a 
family of musicians, and shortly there- 
after, moved to Denver, where he began 
playing New Mexico-style music with his 
wife's uncle Jesus Ulibarri. 

In 1960, Roberto and his wife moved 
to the Albuquerque area and took a job 
as the first Hispanic Employment 
Program Manager at Kirkland Air Force 
Base. A year later he founded Los 
Reyes de Albuquerque, playing a wide 
range of Mexican music and became a 
mainstay of Albuquerque's Hispanic 
musical life. During this time Roberto 
and Ramona raised five children, all of 
whom took up music. In particular, his 
son Lorenzo showed an interest in the 
old melodies of northern New Mexico 
and southern Colorado. 

Lorenzo, born in 1954, studied violin 
and guitar as a youth, and decided to 
become a professional musician. When 
he was fifteen he recorded an album of 
New Mexican dance music, entitled El 
Redondo Largo, and a few years later 
recorded Ambos, an album of New 
Mexican wedding music, based on his 
family's songs and research in the tradi- 
tion. A third album, Musica Antigua, 
continued in this vein. These albums 
were pioneering efforts in documenting 
and disseminating the regional Hispanic 
musical tradition of New Mexico. In 
1978-79 Lorenzo went to Mexico City to 
immerse himself in the Mariachi scene. 
After touring around Mexico and the 
southwestern United States, he 
returned to Albuquerque and rejoined 
his father in Los Reyes de Albuquerque, 

as well as playing in Mariachi Tenampa, 
one of New Mexico's premier ensembles. 

Meanwhile, Roberto, who retired in 
1982, was rededicating himself to per- 
forming and promoting socially con- 
scious Hispanic music. During the 1960s 
he began composing corridos on con- 
temporary topics, including a regional 
hit memorializing Daniel Fernandez, a 
local hero and casualty of the Vietnam 
war, and "El Corrido de los Astronautas" 
about the NASA Challenger tragedy. He 
also founded two record labels dedicat- 
ed to the dissemination of New Mexican 
Hispanic music. 

In 1982 Roberto and Lorenzo were 
chosen to perform on the landmark 
"Raices Musicales" tour of five Mexican 
and Mexican American musical roots 
traditions produced by the National 
Council for the Traditional Arts, and 
they participated in two subsequent 
tours in 1988 and 1990. 

In his retirement Roberto continues 
to perform at senior citizen centers 
and social service agencies throughout 
northern New Mexico. In 1999 he 
received the Governor's Award for 
Excellence in the Arts. Lorenzo now 
works as a police officer on a pueblo 
near Albuquerque, but continues to 
perform and compose songs and 

Daniel Sheehy, director of 
Smithsonian Folkways recordings, sums 
up the Martinezes' importance to their 
community: "Roberto and Lorenzo 
Martinez are firmly rooted in New 
Mexican Hispanic culture and are 
among a handful of activists who have 
worked to keep their heritage alive. 
Roberto's uncompromising cultural 
activism combined with Lorenzo's musi- 
cal talent and creativity makes for a 
whole that is much greater than the 
sum of the parts." 







-• > 

m 9 





"Would I?!" emphaticaUy replied 12- 
year-old Norma Miller, just having been 
asked to enter the famous Savoy 
Ballroom for the first time to perform. 
This was her first dance in a location 
other than the sidewalk and since that 
time, her role as a dance creator and 
choreographer, her skill and style, and 
her commitment to making certain that 
swing dances live on have deservedly 
earned her the title the Queen of Swing. 

Norma Miller is considered one of 
the creators of the acrobatic style of 
the swing dancing known as Lindy Hop, 
characterized by its fast-paced, 
emphatic movements and aerial leaps 
and throws. Miller first saw swing danc- 
ing from the fire escape of her mother's 
apartment, which directly faced the 
back of the Savoy Ballroom in Harlem, 
New York City. She remembers watch- 
ing the shadows of the dancers as they 
moved across the floor to the music of 
Chick Webb's famous orchestra and 
begging her mother to let her stay 
awake late enough to hear the ends of 
songs. In 1934, a few months after her 
first entrance in the famous club, 
Herbert "Whitey" White of "Whitey's 
Lindy Hoppers" saw her dancing and 
asked her to join his group, soon to 
take an extended European tour. Miller 
became one of the first dancers to per- 
form the Lindy Hop outside of the 
United States. 

Upon her return, Miller toured with 
Ethel Waters from 1937 to 1940, during 
which time she appeared as a dancer in 
the Marx Brothers movie A Day at the 
Races and rubbed shoulders with such 
famous artists as Duke Ellington, 
Sammy Davis, Jr. and Count Basie. In 
1940, she founded her own dance com- 
pany, called the "Norma Miller Dancers" 
and soon after appeared in the leg- 
endary Lindy Hop sequence featured in 
the movie Hellzapoppin' (1941). 
Pursuing a career in both dance and 

comedy, she began working with 
comedian Redd Foxx in 1963 and later 
joined him on the 1970s television 
series Sanford and Son. 

Norma Miller not only helped pro- 
duce the swing craze the first time it 
came around, but she's stuck around, 
with as much enthusiasm, for the 
revival. In the 1980s, she, along with 
fellow Whitey's Lindy Hopper and 
National Heritage Fellow Frankie 
Manning, began teaching swing at con- 
ferences and classes all over the coun- 
try. Today, now in her mid-eighties, she 
judges competitions and teaches master 
classes at Stanford University and the 
University of Hawaii. 

In 1996, Miller released her memoirs 
in a book entitled Swingin' at the 
Savoy (Temple University Press) . Due 
to its lively and youthful descriptions of 
anecdotes and historical events from 
the heyday of swing, this work has a 
pivotal place in the swing era literature. 
She is also quite an accomplished cho- 
reographer, with Alvin Alley's Opus 
McShann, the dance scenes from Spike 
Lee's Malcolm X, and Debbie Allen's 
made-for-television movie Stompin' at 
the Savoy to her credit. 

Norma Miller's breathtaking talent, 
immovable spirit, willingness to share, 
and irrepressible humor make her one 
the most important figures in swing, 
"America's Only Dance Art Form." As 
Frankie Manning says, "This lady has 
done it all!" 


Ron Poast of Black Earth, Wisconsin, 
is a master builder of the hardanger fid- 
dle, the national instrument of Norway, 
brought to the Upper Midwest by early 
Norwegian settlers. Hardanger fiddle 
construction requires not only the skills 
of violin making, but also the artistic tal- 
ent to carve the hardanger's distinctive 
dragonhead scroll and execute the pearl 
inlay and india ink flowers adorning the 
instrument's fingerboard and scroll. In 
addition to the strings that run on top of 
the fingerboard, the hardanger fiddle has 
a set of strings that run under the finger- 
board and vibrate sympathetically when 
the primary strings are played. 

Born in rural southwestern Wisconsin, 
Poast grew up immersed in the ethnic 
musical traditions of the region. His 
father was a fiddler and he learned to 
play at an early age, taking an active part 
in the old time music scene in his com- 
munity. He was also a skilled machinist, 
and was drawn to the luthier's trade, 
combining his musical and mechanical 
skills to construct fine stringed instru- 
ments. Initially he learned to make ban- 
jos and other instruments working in the 
shop of C.C. Richelieu in Oregon, 
Wisconsin. After a few years, he opened 
his own shop, Poastmark, in Black Earth, 
where he has perfected his skills in mak- 
ing the elaborate and intricate hardanger 
fiddle over the last thirty years, achieving 
a national reputation in the process. 

Ron Poast's fiddles have appeared in 
important exhibits throughout the 
region, and he has traveled extensively 
demonstrating his craft, including an 
appearance at the Smithsonian Folklife 
Festival in Washington, D.C., in 1998, 

when Wisconsin was the featured state. 
But he is more than just a maker. He is 
also a highly-regarded instructor in the 
art of fiddle-making, and has presented 
workshops for the Hardanger Fiddle 
Association of America for many years. 
He frequently travels to Scandinavian 
cultural gatherings, sharing his expertise 
and exchanging ideas with other 
fiddle makers and newcomers to the art. 
In this way, Ron Poast is responsible for 
introducing thousands of people to the 
Hardanger fiddle through his commit- 
ment to his craft and culture. 

Ron Poast's role in the revival of the 
hardanger fiddle in Norwegian- American 
culture is summed up by Darrell 
Henning, chief curator of the Vesterheim 
Norwegian- American Museum: "Until 
Ron began to produce his quality instru- 
ments, the most recently made examples 
of which I was aware were made in the 
1930s and 1950s as 'memory' pieces of 
Old World romanticism. Although there 
were always a few artists who played the 
hardanger fiddle, their numbers were 
dwindling. Ron reintroduced the instru- 
ment in America and made high quality 
instruments which were meant to be 
played. In doing so, he has encouraged 
and promoted interest in the Norwegian 
traditional folk music of this very special 










Felipe I. and Joseph K. Ruak are the 
artistic directors of the Talabwog Men 
Stick Dancers, a traditional Carolinian 
dance group based in Saipan, an island 
in the Commonwealth of the Northern 
Mariana Islands (CNMI). The Carolinian 
people migrated to Saipan more than 
100 years ago, many sailing in small 
canoes from their typhoon-devastated 
island homes. The Carolinians brought 
with them their unique traditions, 
including the stick dances taught within 
village clans. 

These intricate dances, accompanied 
by chants, involve the rhythmic striking 
of long poles against those of fellow 
dancers in a highly stylized pattern of 
thrusts and turns. For many years, 
before the emigration from the 
Carolinian Islands, these dances were 
used to teach young men the war 
tactics necessary to defend their clans 
against others on the islands. According 
to the oral record, the dances came in a 
dream to one of the ancestors: "Deep 
in the dark, gray woods, the old man 
gathered the warriors of the clan. 'Pay 
attention,' he said, 'for this may be our 
only hope of survival. Light the fire 
within you and without you, light the 
bonfire that we may see what we do in 
the dark of night. Learn to fly, learn to 
sweep, leap, and chant.' " 

Felipe Ruak survived the brutal 
Japanese occupation and United States 
takeover that World War II brought to 
his island. With the changes that came 
following the war, he noticed a drastic 
decline in the performance of the stick 
dance. More than 20 years ago, Felipe 
became worried that the knowledge of 
the dances was fading, when in actuality, 
the situation was much worse. The 
dance was nearly nonexistent. He 
decided to form a dance group with his 

sons and other village members. This 
group performed at the first Flame Tree 
Festival on Saipan and participated in 
the 1985 Festival of Pacific Arts in Tahiti. 
Since then, they have traveled to both 
Guam and Japan to perform. Joseph, 
after returning from college in Colorado, 
inherited the mantle of teacher from his 
father and began teaching dances and 
chants to the young people of his vil- 
lage on Saipan and now very often 
leads the Talabwog Dancers. 

To this day, Felipe serves as the 
guardian of his clan's stick dances and 
continues to recruit young people for 
this traditional cultural responsibility. 
His teaching focuses on authenticity 
and preservation. In efforts to ensure 
the continuity of this tradition, Felipe 
has trained a number of teachers whose 
efforts he hopes will allow this tradition 
to continue to flourish. Felipe and his 
son have never been paid for any of 
their work, but instead keep teaching 
and dancing out of love for their her- 
itage and a sense of cultural duty. 
Felipe's commitment to this art form 
and the quality that his group has 
achieved were recognized in 1998, 
when the Talabwog Men Stick Dancers 
received the Governors Award for 
Outstanding Traditional Performing 
Group in the Commonwealth. As the 
CNMI Governor Pedro P. Tenorio put 
it, "With determination, and at great 
personal sacrifice, Mr. Ruak, and his 
son, Joseph, have revived the art of 
Carolinian stick dancing in our islands." 


Over the past thirty years, the 
Iranian community in Los Angeles has 
grown from just a few thousand to 
nearly a half million people. Dr. 
Manoochehr Sadeghi. master performer 
of contemporary Persian classical music 
on the santur (Persian hammered dul- 
cimer), is recognized as the central 
artistic figure of this community. 
Through his performances and perhaps 
even more poignantly through his role 
as a teacher, Mr. Sadeghi has helped his 
tradition to flourish in his new commu- 
nity. Born in Tehran. Iran in 1938. Dr. 
Sadeghi was attracted to the santur at a 
very young age. He became the prized 
pupil of legendary Persian classical 
musician. Abol Hassan Saba. By age 15, 
he had begun teaching lessons on Ms 
instrument and in 1958, he was accept- 
ed as a faculty member at the 
Conservatory of Persian National Music. 
Dr. Sadeghi was a member of the 
orchestra that performed at the home 
of the Shah of Iran and held regular 
concerts as a soloist there. He also 
played extensively abroad, including 
command performances in the United 
States, Great Britain. Denmark, India 
and Israel. 

The Persian classical music per- 
formed by Dr. Sadeghi consists of a tra- 
ditional repertoire of approximately 300 
short melodies known as the radif. In 
performance, these melodies become 
the roots of extended improvisations. 
Persian classical musicians are judged 
mainly on their knowledge of the radif 
as well as their ability to improvise 
using this repertoire. In 1964. Dr. 
Sadeghi immigrated to Los Angeles, but 
not before Iranian television could air a 
"farewell special" dedicated solely to 

him. Since that time, he has become a 
cultural fixture in the local Iranian com- 
munity. Over the years, he has taught 
countless local students, sometimes 
regardless of whether or not they could 
pay for lessons. In 2002, he received a 
Durfee Foundation Master Musician 
Award, which supports master musi- 
cians from the Los Angeles area in 
multi-year apprenticeships with 
advanced students. That same year, he 
took his role as a community arts leader 
even further by founding the Nakisa 
Music Institute, a Persian and world 
music school with two locations in 
Sherman Oaks and Newport Beach. 

Dr. Sadeghi has also played an 
important role in the academic commu- 
nity. From 1967 to 1997, he taught 
Persian classical music theory, history 
and performance as a faculty member 
in UCLAs Department of Ethnomusicol- 
ogy, where he also completed a masters 
degree himself on Improvisation in 
Non-Rhythmic Solo Instinmental 
Contemporary Persian Art Music 
(UCLA. 1971). 

Dr. Sadeghi also performs, records 
and composes extensively to this day. 
He has collaborated on performances 
and recordings with jazz artist Stephane 
Grappelli and Indian classical musician 
L. Subramanian. In 2002, he released 
a solo recording entitled Visions, which 
highlights his ability to work within the 
tradition but at the same time infuse it 
with new ideas and experiences. 












Men of Greek descent have been 
diving off the west coast of Florida for 
over a century, venturing into the 
depths to harvest the valuable natural 
sponges found in the warm waters of 
the Gulf of Mexico. Tarpon Springs, 
located just northwest of Tampa, is the 
center of this trade, and the Greek 
American population that dominates it. 
Although most divers today use modern 
scuba gear, a few still wear the tradi- 
tional canvas and rubber suit, topped 
by helmets made of copper, brass, and 
plate glass, exquisite works of art and 
utility built by Nicholas Toth. 

Toth learned to construct diving 
helmets from his grandfather, Antonios 
Lerios, who was born on the 
Dodecanese island of Kalymnos, where 
people have dived for sponges for mil- 
lennia. Lerios learned helmet making 
and other maritime crafts in the ship- 
yards of Istanbul, before coming to 
Tarpon Springs in 1913 to join his father, 
who had emigrated in 1905. Over the 
years he established a reputation as the 
finest and most innovative maritime 
craftsman in the community, creating a 
one-piece diving helmet of spun copper, 
with redesigned windows, air valves, 
and breastplate. This helmet became 
standard gear for Tarpon Springs' 
divers, and is still in use today. 
Antonios Lerios continued to make hel- 
mets almost to his death at one hun- 
dred in 1992, passing the secrets of the 
craft to his grandson, Nicholas. 

Toth grew up in the house where his 
grandparents and parents lived, regu- 
larly visiting his grandfather's machine 
shop to watch him work and try his 
hand at making equipment. Toth earned 

a degree in political science from the 
University of Florida but, rather than 
pursue graduate studies, decided to 
apprentice himself to his grandfather, 
then in his eighties, and master the art 
of helmet making. They began working 
together in 1979, and continued the 
relationship until Lerios' death in 1992, 
at which point Toth assumed the family 

Since that time, Nicholas has contin- 
ued to produce and improve the diving 
helmets, making both technical and 
aesthetic innovations as his grandfather 
did before him. His reputation has 
spread beyond his local community and 
industrial divers who work in the cold- 
er, rougher waters of the San Francisco 
Bay area use his helmets in their work, 
citing the custom design and superb 
workmanship. Each helmet takes over 
120 hours to produce. Toth's helmets 
are on display in several museums in 
Florida, and he receives orders world- 
wide from diving clubs and individuals 
who want to display his helmets as 
occupational art. A touring exhibition 
entitled Florida Folklife: Traditional 
Arts in Contemporary Florida promi- 
nently featured the diving helmets of 
Nicholas Toth and his workshop was 
the subject of a National Geographic 
Explorer program. 

Nicholas Toth's importance to his 
community lies not only in his singular 
craftsmanship, but also in his role in 
preserving and perpetuating the cultural 
heritage of the Greek community of 
Tarpon Springs. 






Carmencristina Moreno, recipient of 
the Bess Lomax Hawes Award, is a gifted 
musician, songwriter, and teacher. She is 
the daughter of pioneering Mexican 
American singers who were based in the 
Los Angeles area during the late 1930s 
and 1940s. Her parents performed as 
Dueto Los Moreno and, in addition, her 
father Luis Moreno formed one of Los 
Angeles' first Mariachi groups, often per- 
forming with visiting Mexican singers. A 
close friend of the family during this peri- 
od was Lalo Guerrero, a 1991 National 
Heritage Fellowship recipient and 
National Medal of the Arts winner. As a 
result, during her early years Moreno 
was exposed to the rich musical environ- 
ment of the emerging Mexican American 
music scene in Southern California. 

During the post-war years, the Moreno 
family moved to California's San Joaquin 
Valley to labor as farm workers and to 
raise their children, never giving up their 
musical performances. In 1976, Moreno 
gained widespread attention through her 
appearance on the milestone recording 
jSi Se Puede! (Yes, It Can Be Done!) for 
which she composed the songs "Corrido 
de Dolores Huerta" and "Sangre Antigua" 
(Ancient Blood). Later she would write 
an ode to Cesar Chavez. An authority on 
Mexican- American music observes that it 
was during this time that she "infused 
her music with a spirit of social con- 
sciousness." While in Fresno in 1982 she 
also performed with Lydia Mendoza, a 
pioneer Mexican American performer 
and one of the first recipients of the 
National Heritage Fellowship. Over the 

period from 1981 through 1999, Moreno 
shared her artistic talents through her 
work and association with Radio 
Bilingue, Inc., the national distributor of 
Spanish language programming on public 
radio, through events such as the net- 
work's Farm Workers Concert Series, as 
a guest on their radio program "Mi Padre 
y Yo" (My Father and I) and on their 
Musica International Program. She also 
served as director of the Ranchera Voice 
workshop for their annual Viva el 
Mariachi! Festival. 

Moreno also participated in the 1993 
Smithsonian Festival of American 
Folklife, conducting workshops and 
performing her songs of labor and life in 
the Central Valley. She continues to 
educate broader audiences about 
Mexican- American musical heritage 
through a teaching program she created, 
Parallel Histories of the United States 
and Mexico through Music, and she has 
conducted classes in schools throughout 
the region. In 2001 she was given the 
Horizon Award by the Fresno Arts 
Council in recognition of her lifetime of 
work as an educator and performer. 




Dewey Balfa* 
Cajun Fiddler 
Basile, LA 

Joe Heaney* 
Irish Singer 
Brooklyn, NY 

Tommy Jarrell* 
Appalachian Fiddler 
Mt. Airy. NC 

Bessie Jones* 

Georgia Sea Island Singer 

Brunswick, GA 

George Lopez* 
Santos Woodcarver 
Cordova. NM 

Brownie McGhee* 
Blues Guitarist 
Oakland. CA 

Hugh McGraw 
Shape Note Singer 
Bremen. GA 

Lydia Mendoza 
Mexican-American Singer 
Houston. TX 

Bill Monroe* 
Bluegrass Musician 
Nashville, TN 

Elijah Pierce* 
Columbus, OH 

Adam Popovich* 
Tamburitza Musician 
Dolton, IL 

Georgeann Robinson* 
Osage Ribbonworker 
Bartlesville, OK 

Duff Severe 
Saddle Maker 
Pendleton, OR 

Philip Simmons 
Ornamental Ironworker 
Charleston, SC 

Sanders " Sonny" Terry* 
Blues Musician 
Holliswood, NY 

Rafael Cepeda* 
Bomba Musician/Dancer 
Santurce, PR 

Ray Hicks* 

Appalachian Storyteller 
Banner Elk, NC 

Stanley Hicks* 
Instrument Maker 
Vilas, NC 

John Lee Hooker* 
Blues Guitarist/Singer 
San Carlos, CA 

Mike Manteo* 

Sicilian Marionettist 
Staten Island, NY 

Narciso Martinez* 
San Benito, TX 

Lanier Meaders* 
Cleveland, GA 

Almeda Riddle* 
Ballad Singer 
Greers Ferry, AR 

Simon St. Pierre 
French- American Fiddler 
Smyrna Mills, ME 

Joe Shannon 
Irish Piper 
Chicago. IL 

Alex Stewart* 
Sneedville, TN 

Ada Thomas* 
Chitimacha Basketmaker 
Charenton, LA 

Lucinda Toomer* 
Black Quilter 
Columbus, GA 

Lem Ward* 

Decoy Carver/Painter 

Crisfield, MD 

Dewey Williams* 
Shape Note Singer 
Ozark, AL 

Joseph Cormier 
Cape Breton Violinist 
Waltham. MA 

Elizabeth Cotten* 

Black Songster/Songwriter 

Syracuse, NY 

Burlon Craig* 
Vale, NC 

Albert Fahlbusch 
Hammered Dulcimer 
Scottsbluff, NE 

Janie Hunter* 

Black Singer/Storyteller 

Johns Island. SC 

Mary Jane Manigault 
Seagrass Basket Maker 
Mt. Pleasant, SC 

Genevieve Mougin* 
Lebanese-American Lace Maker 
Bettendorf, IA 

Martin MuMhill* 
Irish- American Fiddler 
Bronx, NY 

Howard "Sandman" Sims* 
Black Tap Dancer 
New York, NY 

Ralph Stanley 
Appalachian Banjo 
Coeburn, VA 

Margaret Tafoya* 

Santa Clara Pueblo Potter 

Espanola, NM 

Dave Tarras* 
Klezmer Clarinetist 
Brooklyn, NT 

Paul Tiulana* 
Anchorage, AK 

Cleofes Vigil* 

Hispanic Storyteller/Singer 

San Cristobal, NM 

Emily Kau'i Zuttermeister* 
Hula Master 
Kaneohe, HI 

Periklis Halkias 
Greek Clarinetist 
Astoria. Queens, NY 

Jimmy Jausoro 
Basque Accordionist 
Boise. ID 

Mealii Kalama* 
Hawaiian Quilter 
Honolulu, HI 

Lily May Ledford* 
Appalachian Musician/Singer 
Lexington, KY 

Leif Melgaard* 
Norwegian Woodcarver 
Minneapolis, MN 

Bua Xou Mua 
Hmong Musician 
Portland, OR 

Julio Negron-Rivera 

Puerto Rican Instrument Maker 

Morovis, PR 

Alice New Holy Blue Legs 
Lakota Sioux Quill Artist 
Oglala, SD 

Glenn Ohrlin 

Mountain View, AR 

Henry Townsend 

Blues Musician/Songwriter 

St. Louis, MO 

Horace "Spoons" Williams* 
Spoons/Bones Player/Poet 
Philadelphia, PA 

Alphonse "Bois Sec" Ardoin 
Black Creole Accordionist 
Eunice, LA 

Earnest Bennett* 
Anglo-American Whittler 
Indianapolis, IN 

Helen Cordero* 
Pueblo Potter 
Cochiti, NM 

Sonia Domsch 
Czech-American Bobbin 
Lace Maker 
Atwood, KS 

Sister Mildred Barker* 
Shaker Singer 
Poland Springs. ME 

Clifton Chenier* 
Creole Accordionist 
Lafayette, LA 

Bertha Cook* 

Knotted Bedspread Maker 

Boone, NC 

Eppie Archuleta 
Hispanic Weaver 
San Luis Valley, CO 

Canray Fontenot* 
Black Creole Fiddler 
Welsh, LA 

John Jackson* 

Black Songster/Guitarist 

Fairfax Station, VA 


Peou Khatna* 
Cambodian Court 
Silver Spring, MD 

Valerio Longoria* 
Mexican-American Accordionist 
San Antonio, TX 

Joyce Doc Tate Nevaquaya* 
Comanche Indian Flutist 
Apache, OK 

Luis Ortega* 
Rawhide Worker 
Paradise, CA 

Ola Belle Reed* 
Appalachian Banjo 
Rising Sun, MD 

Jenny Thlunaut* 

Tlingit Chilkat Blanket Weaver 

Haines, AK 

Nimrod Workman* 
Appalachian BaDad Singer 
Mascot, TN/Chattaroy, WV 

Juan Alindato 
Carnival Maskmaker 
Ponce, PR 

Louis Bashell 
Slovenian Accordionist/ 
Polka Master 
Greenfield, WI 

Genoveva Castellanoz 
Corona Maker 
Nyssa, OR 

Thomas Edison "Brownie" 


Anglo-Comanche Cowboy 


Hebert, LA 

Kansuma Fujima 
Japanese-American Dancer 
Los Angeles, CA 

Claude Joseph Johnson* 
African- American Religious 
Atlanta, GA 

Raymond Kane 
Hawaiian Slack Key 
Wai' anae, HI 

Wade Mainer 
Appalachian Banjo 
Flint, MI 

Sylvester Mcintosh 
Crucian Singer/Bandleader 
St. Croix, VI 

Allison " Totie" Montana 
Mardi Gras Chief/ 
Costume Maker 
New Orleans, LA 

Alex Moore, Sr.* 
African-American Blues Pianist 
Dallas, TX 

Emilio* and Senaida Romero* 
Hispanic- American 
Craftsworkers in 
Tin and Embroidery 
Santa Fe, NM 

Newton Washburn 
Split Ash Basketmaker 
Littleton, NH 

Pedro Ayala* 

Texas-Mexican Accordionist 
Donna, TX 

Kepka Belton 

Czech- American Egg Painter 

Ellsworth, KS 

Amber Densmore* 
New England 
Chelsea, VT 

Michael Flatley 
Irish-American Stepdancer 
Palos Park, IL 

Sister Rosalia Haberl * 
German-American Bobbin 
Hankinson, ND 

John Dee Holeman 
Durham, NC 

Albert "Sunnyland Slim" 


African- American Blues 


Chicago, IL 

Yang Fang Nhu 

Hmong Weaver/Embroiderer 

Detroit, MI 

Kenny Sidle 

Anglo-American Fiddler 
Newark, OH 

Willie Mae Ford Smith* 
African- American Gospel Singer 
St. Louis, MO 

Clyde "Kindy" Sproat 
Hawaiian Cowboy 
Singer/Ukulele Player 
Kapa' au, HI 

Arthel "Doc" Watson 
Appalachian Guitar 
Deep Gap, NC 

John Cephas 

Piedmont Blues Guitarist/Singer 

Woodford, VA 

The Fairfield Four 
African- American a capella 
Gospel Singers 
Nashville, TN 

Jose Gutierrez 
Mexican Jarocho 
Norwalk, CA 

Richard Avedis Hagopian 
Armenian Oud Player 
Visalia, CA 

Christy Hengel 

German-American Concertina 


New Ulm, MN 

Vanessa Paukeigope Jennnings 
Kiowa Regalia Maker 
Anadarko, OK 

Ilias Kementzides 
Pontic Greek Lyra Player 
Norwalk, CT 

Ethel Kvalheim 
Norwegian Rosemaler 
Stoughton, WI 

Mabel E. Murphy* 
Anglo-American Quilter 
Fulton, MO 

LaVaughn E. Robinson 
African-American Tapdancer 
Philadelphia, PA 

Earl Scruggs 
Bluegrass Banjo Player 
Madison, TN 

Harry V Shourds 
Wildfowl Decoy Carver 
Seaville, NJ 

Chesley Goseyun WUson 
Apache Fiddle Maker 
Tucson, AZ 

Howard Armstrong 
African-American String Band 
Detroit, MI 

Em Bun 

Cambodian Silk Weaver 

Harrisburg, PA 

Natividad Cano 

Mexican Mariachi Musician 

Monterey Park, CA 

Giuseppe and Raffaela 


Southern Italian Musicians 

and Dancers 

BeDeville, NJ 

Maude Kegg* 

Ojibwe Storyteller/Craftsman/ 

Tradition Bearer 

Onamie, MN 

Kevin Locke 
Lakota Flute 

Mobridge, SD 

Marie McDonald 
Hawaiian Lei Maker 
Kamuela, HI 

Wallace McRae 
Cowboy Poet 
Forsyth, MT 

Art Moilanen 
Finnish Accordionist 

Mass City, MI 

Emilio Rosado* 
Utuado, PR 

Robert Spicer* 
Flatfoot Dancer 
Dickson, TN 

Douglas Wallin* 
Appalachian Ballad Singer 
Marshall, NC 

Etta Baker 

African- American guitarist 

Morgantown, NC 

George Blake 

Native American craftsman 


Hoopa, CA 

Jack Coen 

Irish-American flautist 
Bronx, NY 


Rose Frank* 

Native American cornhusk 
weaver (Nez Perce) 
Lapwai. ID 

Eduardo "Lalo" Guerrero 
Mexican-American singer/ 
Cathedral City. CA 

Khamvong Insixiengmai 
Southeast Asian singer (Lao) 

Fresno. CA 

Don King 

Western saddlemaker 

Sheridan. WY 

Riley "B.B." King 
African- American bluesman 
Itta Bena. MS and Las Vegas. 

Esther Littlefield 

Alaskan regalia maker (Tlingit) 

Sitka. AK 

Seisho "Ham - " Nakasone 
Okinawan- American musician 
Honolulu. HI 

Irvan Perez 

Isleno (Canary Island) singer 

Poydras. LA. 

Morgan Sexton* 

Appalachian banjo player/singer 

Linefork. KY 

Nikitas Tsimouris* 
Greek- American musician 
(bagpipe player) 
Tarpon Springs, FL 

Gussie Wells* 
African-American quilter 
Oakland. CA 

Arbie Williams 
African-American quilter 
Oakland. CA 

Melvin Wine* 
Appalachian fiddler 
Copen. WV 

Francisco Aguabella 
Afro-Cuban drummer 
Manhattan Beach, CA 

Jerry Brown 

Potter (southern stoneware 


Hamilton, AL 

Walker Calhoun 
Cherokee musician/ 
Cherokee. NC 

de Davenport 
Appalachian fiddler 
Monticello. KY 

Belle Deacon* 
Athabascan basketmaker 

ling. AK 

Nora Ezell 

African-American quilter 
Eutaw. .AL 

Gerald R. Hawpetoss 
regalia maker 
Milwaukee. WI 

Fatima Kuinova 
Bukharan Jewish singer 
Rego Park. NT 

John Naka 
Bonsai sculptor 
Los Angeles. CA 

Ng Sheung-Chi 
Chinese Toissan muk' yu 
folk singer 
New York. NY 

Marc Savoy 

Cajun accordion maker/ 


Eunice, LA 

Othar Turner* 
African-American fife player 
Senatobia. MS 

T Mswanathan* 

South Indian flute master 

Middletown. CT 

Santiago Almeida* 
Texas-Mexican conjunto 
Sunnyside, WA 

Kenny Baker 
Bluegrass fiddler 
Cottontown, TN 

Inez Catalon* 
French Creole singer 
Kaplan, LA. 

Nicholas* & Elena Charles 
Yupik woodcarver/maskmaker 
and skinsewer 

Bethel. AK 

Charles Hankins* 
Lavallette. NJ 

Nalani Kanaka'ole & Pualani 
Kanaka'ole Kanahele 
Hula Masters 
Hilo, HI 

Everett Kapayou 
Native American singer 
(Mesquakie tribe) 
Tama. LA 

Mcintosh County Shouters 
spiritual/shout performers 
Townsend, GA 

Elmer Miller* 

Bit and spur maker/silversmith 

Nampa, ID 

Jack Owens* 

Blues singer/guitarist 

Bentonia. MS 

Mone & Yanxay 


Lao weaver/needleworker 

and loommaker 

St. Louis, MO 

Liang-xing Tang 
Chinese- American pipa 
Qute) player 
Bayside, NY 

Liz Carrol] 

Irish-American fiddler 
Chicago, EL 

Clarence Fountain 

& the Blind Boys 

African American gospel singers 

Atlanta. GA 

Mary Mitchell Gabriel 
Native American basketmaker 
Princeton. ME 

Johnny Gimble 

Anglo fiddler, (Western Swing) 

Dripping Springs, TX 

Frances Varos Graves* 
Hispanic American colcha 
Ranchos de Taos. NM 

Violet Hilbert 
Native American 
storyteller/conservator (Skagit) 
Seattle, WA 

Sosei Shizuye Matsumoto 
Japanese tea ceremony master 
Los Angeles, CA 

D.L. Menard 

Franco- American Cajun musi- 
cian / songwriter 
Erath, LA 

Simon Shaheen 

Arab American oud player 

Brooklyn. NT 

Lily Vorperian 

Armenian (Marash-style) 


Glendale, CA 

Elder Roma Wilson 
African American 
harmonica player 
Blue Springs, MS 

Bao Mo-Li 
jing-erhu player 
Flushing, NY 

Man' Holiday Black 
Navajo basketmaker 
Mexican Hat, UT 

Lyman Enloe* 

Anglo-American old time fiddler 
Lee' s Summit, MO 

Donny Golden 

Irish- American step dancer 

Brooklyn, NY 

Wayne Henderson 
Appalachian luthier 
Mouth of Wilson, VA 

Bea Ellis Hensley 
Appalachian blacksmith 
Spruce Pine, NC 

Nathan Jackson 
Tlingit Alaskan 

Ketchikan, AK 

Danongan Kalanduyan 

Filipino-American kulintang 


San Francisco, CA 

Robert Jr. Lockwood 
African- American Delta 
blues guitarist 
Cleveland, OH 

Israel "Cachao" Lopez 
Afro-Cuban bassist, composer, 
Miami, FL 

Nellie Star Boy Menard* 
Lakota Sioux quiltmaker 
Rosebud, SD 

Buck Ramsey* 

Anglo-American cowboy poet 
and singer 
Amarillo, TX 

Obo Addy 
Portland, OR 


Swedish American fiddler 

Minneapolis, MN 

Juan Gutierrez 

Puerto Rican drummer/leader 

New York, NY 

Solomon & Richard Ho'opi'i 
Hawaiian singers 
Wailuku, HI 

Will Keys 

Anglo American banjo player 

Gray, TN 

Joaquin Lujan 
Guamian Blacksmith 
GMF Guam 

Eva McAdams 
Shoshone crafts/beader 
Fort Washakie, WY 


John Mealing & Cornelius 

African-American work songs 
Birmingham, AL 

Vernon Owens 

Anglo American potter 

Seagrove, NC 

Betty Pisio Christenson 
Ukrainian-American pysanky 
Suring, WI 

Dolly Spencer 
Inupiat dollmaker 
Homer, AK 

Edward Babb 

"Shout" Band Gospel musician 

& Band Leader 

Jamaica, NY 

Charles Brown* 

West Coast Blues Pianist & 


Berkeley, CA 

Gladys LeBlanc Clark 
Acadian (Cajun) Spinner & 
Duson, LA 

Georgia Harris* 
Catawba Potter 
Atlanta, GA 

Ali Akbar Khan 

North Indian Sarod Player & 

Raga Composer 

San Anselmo, CA 

Ramon Jose Lopez 
Santero & Metalsmith 
Santa Fe, NM 

Jim* & Jesse McReynolds 
Bluegrass Musicians 
Gallatin, TN 

Phong Nguyen 

Vietnamese Musician & Scholar 

Kent, OH 

Hystercine Rankin 
African-American Quilter 
Lorman, MS 

Hua Wenyi 

Chinese Kunqu Opera Singer 

Arcadia, CA 

Francis Whitaker* 
Carbondale, CO 

Eddie Blazonczyk 
Bridgeview, IL 

Bruce Caesar 

Sac and Fox/Pawnee German 

Silver Artist 

Anadarko, OK 

Dale Calhoun 

Anglo-American Boat Builder 
Tiptonville, TN 

Antonio De La Rosa 

Tejano Conjunto Accordionist 

Riviera, TX 

Epstein Brothers: 
Max, William " Willie", 
& Julius "Julie" 
Jewish Klezmer Musicians 
Tamarac. FL 

Sophia George 

Yakama-Coleville Beadworker 
Gresham, OR 

Nadjeschda Overgaard 
Danish-American Hardanger 
Kimballton, IA 

Harilaos Papapostolou* 
Greek Byzantine Chanter 
Potomac, MD 

Roebuck "Pops" Staples* 
African-American Gospel/Blues 
Dolton. IL 

Claude Williams 

African- American Jazz/Swing 


Kansas City, MO 

Apsara Ensemble: 

Ms. Moly Sam, Ms. Sam-Oeun 

Tes, & Mr. Sam-Ang Sam 

Cambodian Traditional Dancers 

and Musician 

Reston, VA & 

Fort Washington, MD 

Frisner Augustin 
Haitian Drummer 
Brooklyn, New York 

Lila Greengrass Blackdeer 
Hocak Black Ash 
Black River Falls, Wisconsin 

Shirley Caesar 

African-American Gospel Singer 
Durham, North Carolina 

Alfredo Campos 
Horse-Hair Hitcher 
Federal Way, Washington 

Mary Louise Defender Wilson 
Shields, North Dakota 

Jimmy "Slyde" Godbolt 

Tap Dancer 

Hanson, Massachusetts 

Ulysses "Uly" Goode 
Western Mono Basketmaker; 
North Fork, California 

Bob Holt 
Ozark Fiddler 
Ava, Missouri 

Zakir Hussain 

North Indian Master Tabla 


San Anselmo, California 

Elliott "Ellie" Mannette 

Steel Pan Builder/Tuner/Player 

Morgantown, West Virginia 

Mick Moloney 
Irish Musician 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Eudokia Sorochaniuk 
Ukrainian Weaver/Textile Artist 
Pennsauken, New Jersey 
Ralph W Stanley 
Master Boatbuilder 
Southwest Harbor, Maine 

Bounxou Chanthraphone 
Laotian weaver 
Brookland Park, MN 

Felipe Garcia \illamil 
Afro-Cuban Drummer/Santero 
Los Angeles, CA 

Jose Gonzalez 
Hammock weaver 
San Sebastian, PR 

Dixie Hummingbirds 
African American Gospel 
Philadelphia, PA 

Nettie Jackson 
Klickitat basketmaker 
White Swan, WA 

Santiago Jimenez, Jr. 
Tejano accordionist/singer 
San Antonio, TX 

Genoa "Auntie Genoa" Keawe 
Native Hawaiian falsetto 
singer/ukelele player 
Honolulu. HI 

Frankie Manning 
Lindy Hop 

Corona, NY 

Joe Willie "Pinetop" Perkins 
Blues Piano Player 
La Porte, IN 

Konstantinos Pilarinos 
Orthodox Byzantine Icon 
Astoria, NY 

Chris Strachwitz 

Record Producer and Label 


El Cerrito, CA 

Dorothy Thompson 


Davis, WVA 

Don Walser 

Western Singer/Guitarist 

Austin, TX 

Celestino Aviles 
Orocovis, PR 

Mozell Benson 
African-American quilter 
Opelika, AL 

Wilson "Boozoo" Chavis * 
Creole zydeco accordionist 
Lake Charles, LA 

Hazel Dickens, 

Appalachian singer-songwriter 
Washington, DC and Montcalm, 

Joao Grande 

Capoeira Angola master 

New York, NY 

Evalena Henry 
Apache basketweaver 
Peridot, AZ 

Peter Kyvelos 
Oud maker 
Bedford, MA 

Eddie Pennington 
Thumbpicking-style guitarist 
Princeton, KY 

Qi Shu Fang 

Beijing Opera performer 

Woodhaven, NY 

Seiichi Tanaka 

Taiko drummer and dojo 


San Francisco, CA 

Dorothy Trumpold 
Rug weaver 
East Amana, IA 

Fred Tsoodle 

Kiowa sacred song leader 

Mountain View, OK 

Joseph Wilson 

Folklorist, advocate and presen- 

Silver Spring, MD and Trade, 

Ralph Blizard 
Old-time fiddler 
Blountville, TN 

Loren Bommelyn 
Tolowa tradition bearer 
Crescent City, CA 

Kevin Burke 
Irish fiddler 
Portland, OR 


Rose Cree/Francis Cree 

Ojibwe basketmakers/storytellers 

Dunseith, ND 

Luderin Darbone/Edwin Duhon 
Cajun fiddler and accordionist 
Sulphur, LA.AVestlake, LA 

Nadim Dlaikan 

Lebanese nye (reed flute) player 

Southgate, MI 

David "Honeyboy" Edwards 
Blues guitarist/singer 
Chicago, IL 

Flory Jagoda 

Sephardic musician/composer 

Falls Church, VA 

Clara Neptune Keezer 
Passamaquoddy basketmaker 
Perry, ME 

Bob McQuillen 

Contra dance musician/composer 

Peterborough, NH 

Domingo "Mingo" Saldivar 
Conjunto accordionist 
San Antonio, TX 

Losang Samten 

Tibetan sand mandala painter 

Philadelphia. PA 

Jean Ritchie 

Appalachian musician/songwriter 

Port Washington, NY & Viper, KY