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1845 47 1853 




LIBRARY 

ESTABLISHED 1872 

. LAWRENCE, MASS. 



THE 



NATIONAL MAGAZINE 



AN 



Hmertcan 




Volume XXXII: April, 1910- -September, 1910 



BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 

CHAPPLE PUBLISHING COMPANY, LTD. 

944 DORCHESTER AVENUE 



7 

^er 



INDEX 

TO 

THE NATIONAL MAGAZINE 



Volume XXXII: April, 1910-September, 1910 



FRONTISPIECES 
APRIL "Uncle Joe" Cannon Photo 

MAY 1. Map of Isthmus and Canal, in three colors, from special drawings. 2. The Giant 
Locks of the Canal at Gatun, in three colors. 3, Theodore Roosevelt on his return from 
the African jungle. 4. Colonel George W. Goethals, Chairman of the Isthmian Canal 
Commission. 

JUNE-JULY How the Panama Canal Changes the World's Sea Routes, Map of the world, 
showing all the principal routes of transportation by water and sea, A revela- 
tion as to the change of sea routes occasioned by the completion of the Panama 
Canal; an axis around which the world's commerce will revolve in the future. 
A picture of the Giant Gatun Locks, and progress of the work up to date. 
Panoramic view showing work as completed up to May 16. 

AUGUST 1. Bird's-eye View of "Boston of Today," in colors, showing the historical "Hub" 
of 1910. 2. Curtiss in an aeroplane, soaring through New York City. 3. "Look 
Out for the Moon", illustrating "Just Back from Mars,' r by Arthur Hutchins. 
4. Map of Boston, in colors, showing the winding thoroughfares. 

SEPTEMBER 1. Arkansas Views. 2. Governor Donaghey of Arkansas. 3. "Even 
Halley's Comet seemed to stand still when I tried to persuade it into a race," 
Illustrating "Just Back From Mars," by Arthur Hutchins. 

DEPARTMENTS 

Affairs at Washington Joe Mitchell Chappie, 1-153-285-431 

571 

APRIL Let's Talk it Over Bennett Chappie. 

The Home: 

Since Peary Found the Pole Isabelle Dark DeVine. 

Little Helps for Home-makers Contributed. 

MAY Let's Talk it Over Bennett Chappie. 

The Home 

JUNE-JULY Let's Talk it Over Publisher's Department. 

The Home: 

Rattlesnakes and a Mad Dog .... Mrs. C. Smith. 

Little Helps for Home-makers .... Contributed. 

AUGUST Let's Talk it Over Publisher 's Department. 

The Home. 

., L .PTEMBER Let's Talk it Over Publishei 's Department. 

The Home. 



INDEX 

ESSAYS AND ILLUSTRATED ARTICLES 

A Great Industrial Epic Prof. L. H. Bailey 315 

American Red Cross, The. Illustrated Mabel T. Boardman 39 

Arkansas A Reverie Opie Read 666 

Atlantic City's Promenade. Illustrated 424 

Arkansas' New Word, "Advertise," by the author of 

"An Arkansas Farm" William R. Lighten 638 

Automobiles a Factor in Commerce. Illustrated . . W. C. Jenkins . 127 

Awakeni ig of Arkansas, The. A Great State as it is 

today Joe Mitchell Chappie and 

Profusely illustrated Frank P. Fogg 593 

Battleground to Playground. Illustrated W. C. Jenkins 277 

Beautiful Vineland. Illustrated Flynn Wayne 579 

Before and After a Tariff on Zinc Ore W. S. Jensen 355 

Boston's Latin Quarter. Illustrated by W. H. 

Upham Mitchell Mannering 489 

Brain vs. Buncombe in Traction Companies W. C. Jenkins 409 

Business that Makes Men Millionaires Michael P. Kehoe 537 

Business Men as Senators. Illustrated 37 

California Oil as an Investment 585 

Chicago John McGovern 98 

Citizens of Destiny Morgan Roberts 649 

Curtiss' Flight for the World Prize. Profusely 

illustrated '. Sanford E. Stanton 479 

Easy Roads, do not Lead to Ease Herbert Kaufman 184 

Early Days of the Wells, Fargo Company W. C. Jenkins 414 

Empire Building in Texas. Illustrated The Publisher 33 

Field Day of the Ancients. Illustrated Charles Gordon 486 

First Washington, The. Illustrated J. Simonson Maguire 706 

Flashlights of Public Men Clarence Edward Clark 567 

Flashlights of Public Men. Illustrated J. E. Jones 641 

Fortune from Nature's Minute Creatures. Illus George E. Heyl 430 

Following the Waybills. Illustrated W. C. Jenkins 519 

Grand Opera in its Boston Home. Illustrated Joe Mitchell Chappie 65 

Great American Engineering Projects. Illustrated . Mitchell Mannering 42 

Great Colonization Project, A. Illustrated John S. Dennis 115 

Helping the Farmer Boys. Illustrated E. Vansant 231 

Hidden Wealth of Florida, The. Illustrated Mitchell Mannering 136 

In the Cosy Corner. Illustrated 46, 272 

Liquor Situation in Maine, The Charles Edson Owen 120 

Merging the Wireless Companies. Illustrated 425 

Music for the Summertime Frederick Hulzmann 577 

Musical Records for the Month Frederick Hulzmann 115-275-407-694 

My Lord Hamlet at Mountjoy's John McGovern and 

Jesse Edson Hall 311 

New Arkansaw Traveler, The Nathan B. Williams 182 

New England Farming of Today. Illustrated Maitland LeRoy Osborne 73 

Nobility of the Trades, The. Traditions of Barbers 

and Hairdressers. Illustrated Charles Winslow Hall 469 

Nobility of the Trades, The. School Teaching as a 

Trade Charles Winslow Hall 662 

On the New England Farms Dr. G. M. Twitchell 269 

The Panama Canal as it is. Illustrated Joe Mitchell Chappie 185 

The Conquest of the Panama Jungle. Illustrated 191 

The Giant Locks of the Canal. Illustrated 197 

The Man-Made Canyon of Culebra. Illustrated 207 

The Isthmus in the Days of Balboa. Illustrated . . . Clarence J. Dorgan 217 

Crossing the Isthmus in '49. Illustrated Captain Elisha Ryder 219 

When the Panama Railroad was Built. Illustrated Laurence Banning 223 

In the Days of De Lesseps. Illustrated John Morgan Gallup 227 

Panorama of the Panama Canal 239 

Changing the World Map. Illustrated 321 

The Canal Zone a Proving Ground. Illustrated 323 

Social Life on the Isthmus. Illustrated 329 

In Costa Rica: Homeward Bound. Illustrated 365 

Panama Canal as it is Joe Mitchell Chappie 31'> 

Political Health of the Nation Senator Robert L. Owen 18ft 

Records of a Polar Expedition (Continued) Edwin Coffin 105 

Illustrated Captain Steamer "America" 



INDEX 

Reorganization Navy Plan. Illustrated Charles Grasty Gordon 131 

Roosevelt in Moving Pictures. Illustrated . Mitchell Mannering 3.7 

Roosevelt's Return from the Jungle John Callan O'Laughlin . . 553 

Illustrated bv special photographs taken en route 

"'Seeing Boston"" 493 

A record made by visitors from the West that 

gives timely and pertinent hints. Illustrated 493 

Shattered Dream, A. The story of Bonaparte's 

American* Sweetheart Morgan Roberts 463 

Stcry of Attorneys-At-Law, The Charles Winslow Hall 54-^84 

Story of "Black Beauty," The. The history of a re- 
markable book. Illustrated Guy Richardson 595 

Stump-Pulling B. F. McMillan 124 

Summer Boarder Industry, The Thomas F. Anderson 405 

To the Pessirris'; Herbert Kaufman 532 

Turbulent Rcmance of Oil, The. Illustrated W. C. Jenkins 533-896 

Where is the Pension Foundation Headed? A. E. Winship 549 

Editor Journal Education 
William Hodge, The American Man from Home. 

Illustrated : 347 

FICTION 

A Belated Requiem Mary L. Cummins 61 

Blue Eyes and the Murder Mystery, A Striking 

Newspaper Story. Illustrated Wallace Irwin 679 

Deception of Mary Wahl, The. Illustrated Charles Henry Olin 349 

Drama at Cactus Gulch, The. Illustrated Maitland LeRoy Osborne 49 

Grass Valley Hold-Up, The. A Story of Hume, the 

"Celebrated Detective. Illustrated George Willoughby 687 

Gustave's Gardenia, Story. Illustrated Isabel Anderson 500 

Hand of Providence, The. Illustrated Miriam Sheffey 249 

Her Maiden Name, Story. Illustrated Seth Brown 359 

How Agnes Threw Herself Away, Story. Illustrated E. Swanton-Carrig 527 

How it Happened, Story. Illustrated Fannie C. Griffing 28 

"Hum," Serial Story (Continued). Illustrated . . . Frank Hatfield. . 81-25,5-381-508-669 

653 
"'Just Back From Mars." Illustrated by Arthur 

Hutchins Dr. Russell Kelso Carter . . . 561-653 

Old Narrow Gauge, Story. Illustrated Arthur Hawkes 504 

Sergeant Black's Last Memorial Day, Story Maitland LeRoy Osborne 177 

VERSE 

A Longing Henry Dumont 478 

Antaeus Edward Wilbur Mason 686 

Arkansas, My Arkansas, Verse . Lura Brown Smith 598 

Arkansas, Verse Samuel Claborn Parish 598 

Child Labor, Verse Joseph Bondy 468 

Deed is the Man, The James C. McNally 364 

Easter Lilies, The Edward Wilbur Mason 268 

Greater Work, The Edward Wilbur Mason 526 

"Half- Way House," The. Verse Henry Young Ostrander 314 

Happy Land, The, Verse . George Godoy 503 

Harvest Moon, The Edward Wilbur Mason 238 

He Found It From the Book "Heart Throbs" . . 584 

'"He Loves Me, He Loves Me Not" Effie McDowell Davies 507 

Hymn to Peace . . , . Henry Dumont . 665 

I Wait Owen Clark 126 

If You've Anything Good to Say"" From the Book "Heart Throbs" . 380 

If You Only Knew . ; Wm. Hodge 36 

Light Bearers, The Edward Wilbur Mason 492 

Mother Earth A. Vagrant 348 

Opportunity ... The late Senator John J. Ingalls . 53 

Pluck Wins From "Heart Throbs" .-. 181 

Red Oaks vs. Twisters (A Baseball Poem). Illustrated Bennett Chappie 573 

""Taps," From "Pipe Dreams" A. Vagrant 179 

Tree of Knowledge, The Edward Wilbur Mason 104 

War ..... Henry Dumont 32 

Work Thou for Pleasure From the Book "Heart Thrclbs" . 406 

Search Ever for Good Alice Baker 693 




The Coming Country Life Epoch 




By PROF. L. H. BAILEY 

President of American Farm Commission and 

Dean of Agriculture Department, Cornell University 

ONE hundred years ago human society was essentially 
rural. Since then the great collective interests have 
developed, and the thought of the world has become 
largely urban. The present interest in country life is the rising 
of a tide. It is an unconscious expression of the sentiment lying 
back in the human mind that society must be neither predomi- 
nantly rural or predominantly urban. We are now beginning 
to see that the most fertile civilization must be the result of the 
attrition of the two great means by which human beings express 
themselves as individuals and as collective or aggregate units. 
Country life typifies the individual self-acting unsyndicated 
means; city life typifies the associated consolidated and corporate 
means. Society best expresses itself when both these means 
are developed; for they are not antithetic or antipodal, but 
complementary. 

It is often said that the developing of good agriculture, and 
consequently of a good country life, will be an economic move- 
ment. It is true that hunger will drive us to the land. Con- 
sumption is overtaking production in the United States. At 
the present rate we shall soon cease to export certain great staples. 
But the return to the country began as a distinct movement 
before people generally recognized the economic necessity of it. 
It was a soul movement in its inception. But whether economic 
or otherwise, the final results will be the producing of a new 

rural society. 

WWW 

It is essential that a new rural society be developed. The 
basis of this society must be a better agriculture. I do not want 
you to feel that American agriculture is decadent, for it de- 
cidedly is not; but it is capable of great expansion and develop- 
ment. With the teaching of a better agriculture must come 
the teaching of a better citizenship; and this must not be merely 
an exhortation in generalities and in ideals. The coming farmer 
must be instructed just how he may serve his neighbor and his 
community. The old agricultural practice has tended to make 
the man selfish, "close, and devoid of public spirit. It is of 
small consequence to raise more products, if with the raising of 
them there is not developed the social sense. 




This social life and cohesion must develop out of the country 
itself, not be transplanted bodily from the city. It is neither 
the mission nor the function of the city to socialize the open 
country. The city may aid in the process, as the country may 
aid the city, and more co-operation between city and country 
is much needed; but the open country has its own problems 
and it must be encouraged and enabled to work them out. 

The country-life epoch that is now approaching will call 
for the best leadership. It will need the statesman type of man. 
We 'are accustomed to think that Washington, Jefferson, and 
the older statesmen represented rural affairs; this is true only 
in the fact that they represented the society of their time, and 
this society was essentially rural. We are now to develop rural 
society as one co-ordinate part of all society. This will need its 
distinctive leadership. This leadership is nowhere developed 
as yet. Perhaps the time is not quite ripe for it. But within 
the next generation we shall have governors of states representing 
this phase of society, and setting it forward by concrete recom- 
mendations; and I hope that within that time we may have at 
least one President of the United States who shall represent rural 
civilization. 

THE YOUNG FARMER 

Of course there can be no country life unless it is possible 
for the young man and woman to make a satisfying living on 
the land. We are just beginning to organize our new knowledge 
into profitable plans of farming, and the general condition of 
trade is now making it possible for a farmer to secure something 
like an adequate return on his industry. Thousands of farmers 
are making a thoroughly satisfying living on the farm. They are 
men who live on the land and who are "on the job"; for farming 
cannot be done by proxy any more than can journalism or bank- 
ing. The number of these farmers will increase, but I am inter- 
ested, not so much that some men may make more money, but 
that more men may make some money. This is to be accom- 
plished not alone by rearing better farmers, but by making it 
possible for the farmer to receive his fair and proper share of 
what the consumer is willing to pay for his produce. 

I am convinced that the opportunities to live a satisfying 
life by means of agriculture were never so good as now. By 
the nature of the case, these opportunities will increase. I hope 
that the young farmer may realize his obligation to society as 
he has never realized it before; that, being free of the personal 
control of a superior officer, he may think his own way through 
the problems of the day, and be trained to think them straight; 
that he may work simply and in vibration with nature; and that 
the light of the future may be in his eyes as it is in the eye of the 
engineer or the poet. On the opposite page is given my picture 
of the young farmer. 



H 



E shall go out to the far green hills 

And he shall go out on the mains, 
He shall go north 'long the rock-bound hills 
And he shall go south on the plains. 

He shall go forth to the desert reach 
Where the dead winds gather the sands, 

He shall go down where the waters breach 
Far out on their weltering lands. 

He shall go forth in the winter's rage 

And away in the tropic fire, 
And there he shall stand; nor fame nor wage 

Shall defeat him of his desire. 

For he shall build on the good stout earth 
That he takes from the hand of God, 

And grip his place with a free man's girth 
And shall strike his fires from the clod. 

Xo nature-doubts shall drive him to fear 
Storm and calm shall he walk with her. 

Together joined in their labors clear 
Where elemental pulses stir. 

Temples shall rise on the land he smites 
Visions turn with his good plow-beam, 

For steadfastly on through days and th' nights 
There shall rest on his face the Dream. 

L. H. Bailey. 




"UNCLE JOE" CANNON, HALE AND HEARTY, WHO HELD THE CENTER OF THE STAtiE 
AGAINST ALL COMERS IN THE CONGRESSIONAL DRAMA OF 1910 



NATIONAL MAGAZINE 



VOLUME XXXII 



APRIL, 1910 



NUMBER ONE 





'PRIXG has advanced her skirmish 
line to the Potomac, and with the 
scent of new turned earth, and 
of burning grass and leaves in 
their nostrils, the thoughts of the residents of 
Washington are turning farmwards. Even 
in the stuffy air of such committee rooms as 
are the arena of investigations and a con- 
tinuous and incessant probe for facts, 
official routine work jogs along at both ends 
of the Capitol. One predominating phase 
of vexatious problems 
is their invariable re- 
lation to farm life. A 
large percentage of 
the members of the 
Senate and House of 
Representatives were 
born on farms, or 
have lived on them, 
and there are few 
among them who do 
not dream of some 
day returning to those 
quiet and peaceful 
scenes. The nation 
was founded by 
farmers, and the pros- 
perity of the farm 
has always been coin- 
cident with the pros- 
perity of the nation. 
The trend of thought 
at Washington is a 
reflection of popular 
sentiment all over the 
country, whether one 




About the first thing a visitor in Washington decides la 
do is to buy a supply of post cards" 

(3) 



awaits the lucubrations of the High Cost of 
Living Commission, which is intimately asso- 
ciated with the supply of and demand for 
farm products; the Post Office investigation 
into the cost and desirability of Rural Free 
Delivery, which means so much to dwellers 
on the farms; or the forestry embroglio, which 
may or may not result in opening up more 
lands for agricultural purposes. 

More intensive methods of agricultural 
production are recognized as the great 
economic need of the 
times. The phenome- 
nal industrial develop- 
ment of the nation has 
outrun the ability of 
the tillers of the land 
to produce in like 
measure. This is not 
surprising, but may 
become alarming if 
the tendency of the 
last few years contin- 
ues. It is thus far a 
recurrence in this 
.country of a world-old 
problem, which has 
confronted all the 
older nations at some 
time in their history. 
The United States will 
meet the situation by 
de\ eloping her allu- 
vial and swamp lands, 
and by the reclama- 
tion and irrigation of 
lands long considered 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



barren, but now productive Yes, and by 
pulling the stumps and felling the trees as 
our forefathers did. 

The controlling factor of the federal and 
state elections in this country is the farm 
vote, which may account for the revival of 




Copyright, 1910, by Clinedinsl 

MRS. EDWARD McLEAN AND HER FIVE 

WEEKS OLD SON 
The richest baby in the world 

interest in matters of farming among con- 
gressmen and senators at this time, for a 
new Congress will be chosen between the 
months devoted to ploughing and harvest, 
and one-third of the Senate returned jor re- 
jected. In the meantime Uncle Sam holds 
firm to both plough handles and sings out 
"Gid ap!" as the fuft-ows turn. 



IT seems but yesterday that I sat at the 
table of the National Liberal Club in 
London, one dark November evening. There 
had been a street procession of the wives of 
the unemployed on the Thames embankment. 
These were indeed dark days at Downing 
Street for the Balfour cabinet, and the great 
lines of women, making their way into the 
very presence of the ministry, did not lighten 



their gloom. The reception of the pathetic 
delegation was not satisfactory and resulted, 
a few weeks later, almost before anyone 
realized it, in the overthrow of the Conserva- 
tive cabinet. 

That night, as some of us stood at the 
entrance of the Liberal Club and looked 
upon the pictured face of John Bright, we 
recalled that benign influence and won- 
dered what might have been accomplished 
had he lived a few years more to face this 
great crisis. 

Later, around the tables of the Club, the 
affairs of the world were discussed by young 
men, many of them but recently returned 
from Australia, South Africa, India or some 
other British possessions, and imbued with 
cosmopolitan views of life and action only 




Copyright, 1910, by Cliiiedinst 



GOLD CRIB PRESENTED TO BABY McLEAN 
BY THE LATE KING LEOPOLD OF BELGIUM 

to be gained by leaving the little Insular 
Kingdom. A toast was proposed to the 
memory of John Bright. That popular 
young member of parliament, Sir Edward 
Gray, now minister of foreign affairs, and 
many other Liberals now prominent in the 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



government service were there that night, 
but few dreamed that in such a short time 
the Liberals would supplant the ministry 
at Downing Street. 

During recent months the budget of 
Lloyd George, with its radical, general and 
social changes, precipitated one of the most 
notable elections held in England. It was 
more remarkable for this than for his finan- 
cial problems or the manner of their solution. 
Among his suggestions was a provision for 



that a labor exchange, as suggested by Lloyd 
George, would help to equalize the distri- 
bution of the unemployed and lessen their 
number. While American sympathies may 
have been with Lloyd George, on the other 
side of the water there was a sharp differ- 
ence of opinions as to reforms proposed. 
To many Englishmen it seemed almost 
anarchy to suggest and even insist that 
John Smith, the laborer, ought to be taken 
into account by the government, aside from 




Photo by Cl: 



TROPHIES OF THE ROOSEVELT HUNT 
Displayed at the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D. C. 



government labor exchanges, which had been 
persistently opposed in the House of Lords; 
yet those advocating the measures felt that 
the upper house would not dare to throw 
down the gauntlet as they did. Most 
foreigners have an idea that English senti- 
ment is unanimous in truth, it is far from 
that. It seemed strange that there could 
be conflicting opinions on so important a 
matter as the labor exchange feature, when 
it is remembered that a million workers are 
out of employment in England alone every 
winter, to say nothing of Scotland, Wales 
and Ireland. Many politicians believed 



merely chronicling his birth, requesting his 
taxes, naming him in the census and record- 
ing his death. The purpose to create a 
system of labor unions did not strike them 
as likely to be of service in providing em- 
ployment or solving the problem of feeding 
a half-starved million every winter. It did 
not occur to the House of Lords that the 
best cure might be prevention. The cam- 
paign had many picturesque and remarkable 
features. The dashing daughter of the 
premier, Miss Violet Asquith, made a speech 
in connection with the opening of a charity 
bazaar, which demonstrates that American 



6 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



women will have to look well to their laurels 
if this lady appears often on the rostrum. 
For the opposition also the influence of women 
was equally effective. 

It was a touching scene that was enacted 
the day Lloyd George, the sturdy Welsh- 
man, risen from obscurity to prominence in 
the great empire, was called upon to give up 
his beloved daughter, who had been his able 




Photo by Clinedinst 



SENATOR DUNCAN FLETCHER 
FROM FLORIDA 

helper for years, and who would have rejoiced 
with him at the' end of the struggle in the 
triumph of his ideas the great problems 
on which his mind had been concentrated 
many years. 

* * * 

TISTEN attentively to a debate in Con- 
1 / gress, or even an argument in a court 
room, take notes of what is heard and look 
at them ten or twelve years afterwards. 
The two sides that seemed then so keenly 



opposed now appear to converge toward 
the same point. One wonders what the 
contention was about, after all, for it seems 
that both sides had the same purpose in 
view, though insisting on different ways of 
going about it. 

There are a few persons who can see both 
sides, without awaiting the lapse of a decade, 
and it is difficult for such dispassionate 
observers, associated with the contestant, to 
have much sympathy with the unreasoning, 
discordant, and often unjustifiable attacks 
made upon public men, simply because they 
are in a high position, and in the "fierce 
light that beats" upon any public official. 
The average writer may take a violent dis- 
like to some public man, and although he may 
never have met him and has never had an 
opportunity to know anything of him per- 
sonally or see the other side of the picture, 
he proceeds to score him roundly with the 
aid of his little editorial hammer. 

The writer of that mental gymnastic, But- 
ler's Analogy, objects to praise and blame 
alike, as prejudicing the mind of the listener, 
and because he believes it impossible for the 
finite mind to grasp motives or to justly mete 
out either praise or blame. The most that 
anyone can see is that a man is fair or unfair, 
careful or careless, in the performance of 
his public duties. And when you read how 
men firm in their niche of fame in the nation's 
history were abused in their day, you begin 
to realize that abuse is a part of the process. 

While walking along, my thoughts ab- 
sorbed in these ponderous problems, I 
almost ran into a philosophic friend whom I 
had often met with at the Capitol. Our 
talk ran on the scurrilous and unjust abuse 
that public men have to endure. 

"If I should accept a high position (I 
would not accept one for the world), I should 
certainly expect extravagant blame for the 
slightest error; I should expect to be ma- 
ligned and misjudged, and if I found myself 
unable to bear abuse manfully, I would resign 
in favor of a man who could. Abuse is a 
perquisite of office-holding and public life." 

When I inquired if he considered that 
such a theory would grow a crop of fortitude 
in the soul of man, that would enable him 
to withstand the rapier thrusts of the human 
tongue and pen, he laughed, and said: 

"I would suggest the armor of Warren 
Hastings. \Vhen friends inquired how he 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



preserved a calm demeanor all through his 
long trial before Parliament, he replied: 'I 
have a motto This too will pass.' He 
went on to tell how he had known an Indian 
rajah who was subject to violent passions 
of despair or delight, and who insisted on 
his wise men finding him a soothing remedy. 
They failed, but on the last day set for the 
search his daughter asked permission to 
visit him. She brought with her a ring, 
on which was engraved, 'This too will pass.' 
The great statesman said that the rajah was 



but a plan has been adopted by the Assistant 
Secretary of the Treasury, with a view to 
unifying the portraits on the notes of each 
class in the same denomination. These 
new notes, when put in circulation, will be 
welcomed by the public on account of their 
simplicity, and the ease with which the 
different denominations may be fixed in the 
mind by means of a portrait. 

Under the new arrangement there will be 
little possibility of confusion between the 
denominations, and at the same time the 




THE ROSEBUD GIRLS" IN HENRY \V. SAVAGE'S PRODUCTION OF "THE LOVE CURE" 



never again seen with any but a calm and 
cheerful demeanor." 



A SUBSCRIBER, facetiously criticising the 
/x portraits on the different denominations 
of bank notes, inquires whose picture appears 
an the five hundred and one thousand dollar 
bank notes: 

"I know," he says, "that I shall never 
find out by experience; hence the question." 
He admits to a fair amount of familiarity 
with denominations of from one to ten dollars 
It appears that the portrait of Alexander 
Hamilton graces a thousand -dollar note; 



artistic quality of the work will be improved. 
All notes of same amounts will be enlarged, 
and the portrait used will be recognizable 
by any person who handles money. The 
dollar notes will bear the picture of Washing- 
ton; the two-dollar notes, Jefferson; five- 
dollar notes, Lincoln; ten-dollar gold and 
silver certificates, Cleveland; twenty, Jackson; 
fifty, Grant; one hundred, Franklin; five 
hundred, Salmon P. Chase; one thousand, 
Hamilton. Portraits but little known to the 
public, and familiar only to readers of his- 
toric literature, will, with the eagle, the 
Indian head and other figures easily counter- 
feited, be consigned to oblivion. It is pre- 



8 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



dieted that the back of the new issue of gov- 
ernment baak notes may in future be pre- 
served as exact portraitures with just as much 
assurance as though painted by an "old 
master" or famous portrait painter. 



THE wag has very aptly remarked that 
"Life is just one d n thing after 

another." No sooner is one vexation van- 




Copyright, 1910, fry CUnedimt 

BARON YASUYA UCHIDA 
The new Japanese Ambassador " 

quished than some other incipient thing, 
seemingly unimportant at first, takes root 
and comes to a fruition of troublesome tares. 
A generation ago the Colorado potato bug, 
always a rare insect in Colorado, , because of 
unfavorable environments, strayed down 
from its arid forage grounds and found its 
Utopia among the potato fields in Kansas 
and Nebraska. Like a spark falling into 
dried grasses the devastation rolled eastward. 
Every farmer knows the voracious pests and 
has to fight them from the time the tender 
potato plants break ground until well-nigh 
harvest time. 

We all recall how the hunt was begun in 
early days, going between the rows and 



knocking the clumsy bugs into a tin pan by 
striking the vines with a paddle. Once in a 
while, too, it was necessary to give the side of 
the pan a knock to keep the bugs from 
climbing out again. But with spraying ma- 
chines the potato bug trouble was finally re- 
duced to simple expedients. 

Now there is a new potato enemy reported 
from the far East. This time it is the 
"wart disease." It affects the tubers in the 
ground, forming large, unsightly warts, in 
severe attacks completely destroying the crop. 
It is a fungus growth, and once the soil is 
polluted with it several years must pass be- 
fore it is safe to crop the same land to potatoes 
again. 

The disease appeared first in Hungary in 
1896. It has spread to other parts of Europe, 
including England. There is danger it may 
spread to Ireland. It has been carried to 
Newfoundland from which there is danger it 
may be brought to Canada and the United 
States. 

The fungus is spread by using affected 
potatoes for planting, so it is extremely im- 
portant that questionable seed should be 
scientifically treated before planting. 

The United States Department of Agri- 
culture has recently issued a circular (for 
free distribution) giving a brief account of 
the potato wart disease. 



""THERE was a lively debate in the House 
* by Congressman Carlin of Virginia 
over the Telepost franchise in the District 
of Columbia. He said that he had received 
letters from a large number of farmer con- 
stituents asking him to support the measure 
which would connect Washington with the 
rest of the Telepost system. His experience 
was the common experience of congressmen 
from all over the United States. 

The spreading of the Telepost system 
means as much to the farmer as it does to 
the merchant. It puts the farmer into im- 
mediate touch with the rest of the world at a 
cost and in a way that the farmer will be 
satisfied with. By means of the rural free 
delivery the farmer in Maine can drop a 
Telecard message of ten words into his mail 
box and have it delivered in California with- 
in a few hours for a total cost of ten cents, 
or in the same way he can give a message to 
his rural carrier to take to the village, and 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



9 



for twenty-five cents can have fifty words sent 
by wire to California and answered in time 
to catch the return trip of the rural carrier. 

Nothing has operated so much to place the 
farmer at a disadvantage in taking action on 
favorable conditions in the markets as the 
lack of some means to keep him in quick 
touch with the centers of population. Now 
for ten cents he can give orders or make 
inquiries, and instead of one small market 
the whole world is his market. 

It practically as well as theoretically puts 
him in touch with a business and a social 
world from which he has been too often iso- 
lated. This effectual linking of town and 
country, meaning higher prices for the 
farmer's products and wider opportunities, 
must also mean more contentment in the 
home, and a checking of the cityward drift 
of the young people. 



JUST now political prophets have been 
studying the omens for the next cam- 
paign, and have announced that Ohio, 
Indiana and New York will be the centre of 
political conflict in 1912 For many years 
it has been the fashion to predict that the 
next census would move the political pivot 
westward from Xew York, but on the con- 
trary the Empire State seems to become each 
y:ar a stronger factor in national politics. 
Indiana went Republican a year ago, and 
so did Ohio, but their reversal to Democracy 
later, on state tickets, has rather compli- 
cated the'calculations. A Democratic Sena- 
tor was captured in the Hoosier State, and 
now the Republican managers are wondering 
how to make sure of these two states on 
state issues. Indiana was always normally 
a Democratic state before the McKinley 
landslide. Ohio has never been quite cer- 
tain and New York one can never tell what 
will happen in New York. That is why the 
political telescope continues focused on the 
great state which has decided so many close 
presidential contests. 



OOMEONE having remarked rather vig- 
O orously at the Capitol that he "would 
take the hide off" his opponent, a clerk from 
the Treasury Department, who chanced 
to be loaded with information, dared to 
make a joke on recent statistical reports. 



"I wonder," he said, "if you gentlemen 
know how much that word 'hides' means to 
our government. If hides had not been 
'taken off' there would not have been such 
a falling off in Uncle Sam's revenue. Do 
you realize that a hundred million hides are 
brought annually into this country, and 
that they are the second largest import in 
value coming to the United States? The 
importation has increased from three million 
in 1890 to a hundred million in 1909. One- 
third of the entire value is in goat skins, 
which represent a larger proportion of 
trade than can be assigned to any other one 
import. The United States has invested 




Copyright, 1910, by Clinedinst 



BAROXESS UCHIDA 

\\ ife of the Japanese Ambassador, noted for her wonderful 
jewels. She is giving very elaborate enter- 
tainments at the Embassy 

over one and a quarter billion dollars in 
goat skins within the past ten years, and 
they are a product never 'grown at home.'" 

Further conversation divulged that more 
than one-half of the hides come from Mexico 
and South America, and a large proportion 
of the goat skins from British India. 

After the genial clerk had delivered this 
information he joined the party from home 
entering the Capitol, and the irate Congress- 



10 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



man admitted that he would have had a big 
proposition to contend with if he went into 
the business of "taking off hides" in the 
United States of America. 



FROM Paris comes a decree direct from 
the court of fashion that ladies must on er 
their ears for some time to come. Passing 
.strange as the edict's issue it is simply the 
revival of old styles. Just why women 
should be made to arrange their hair to cover 
those little pink seashell ears, written of by 




SVI.VF.STER C. nr\H.\M 
President, Travelers' Insurance Company, Hartford, Connecticut 



the poet and novelist, is not clear to the 
masculine mind. One lady has hinted that 
this mode of hair dressing is being revived 
for the benefit of a certain leader of fashion 
whose ears are too large, and are not shaped 
to fulfill the ideals of beauty. She looks 



bett IT when her ears are hidden, dresses her 
hair to do it, and all the other fashionable 
women meekly follow. Since the advent of 
the New Year style, an inventive genius has 
jiatented a harness which is especially de- 
signed to improve the shape of a lady's ears; 
this is regarded as a revival of the old fashion 
of wearing night caps, which were con- 
sidered an imjH>rtant item of the chamber 
costumes in our grandmothers' day. It is 
hinted that the inventor referred to is on the 
lookout for the time when ears are again 
permitted to show in public after they have 
been trained into good shape 
by midnight harness and night 
caps. The wisest philosophers 
have decided that it is useless 
to endeavor to trace the causes 
of the vagaries of fashion in 
women's attire, but there still 
remain a few wiseacres who 
keep on trying. 



IX the large "red room," just 
* off Peacock Alley in the 
New Willard Hotel, the Asso- 
ciation of Life Insurance 
Presidents of the United States 
held one of the most interest- 
ing assemblages that has met 
in Washington for some time. 
It was their third annual meet- 
ing, and the discussion and 
addresses were couched with 
plain, straightforward, Anglo- 
Saxon words characteristic of 
business men. 

President Sylvester C. Dun- 
ham, of the Travelers' Insur- 
ance Company, was speaking 
when I entered, and the close 
attention given to his remarks 
indicated that no other busi- 
ness transactions are of such 
vital interest to the people. A 
brief survey of the assemblage 
representing the executives of 
these great institutions con- 
vinced any one that their duties called for the 
highest and broadest ability known in the 
business world. The address delivered by 
President Taft advocated measures to ensure 
uniformity in insurance legislation through- 
out the country. He called attention to the 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



fact that, owing to constitutional limitations, 
the best thing to be done was to pass a model 
law for the District of Columbia to demon- 
strate what Congress, aided by a scientific 
commission, could do, and thus influence 
the enaction of similar legislation in all the 
states. He promised to give his 
support to the passage of such 
a model law. In his audience 
were the governors of many 
states, besides several hundred 
men who are pretty prominent 
in the life insurance business. 

The President briefly reviewed 
life insurance conditions and 
strongly expressed his belief that 
harmony between the various 
companies would secure the 
greatest benefits to the policy- 
holders and the companies alike. 
President George E. Ide, of the 
Home Life Insurance Company, 
made one of the most original 
and interesting addresses of the 
occasion, on the subject of pro- 
longing human life. President 
Paul Morton, of the Equitable 
Company, always right at home 
in Washington, where he served 
as a member of ex-President 
Roosevelt's cabinet, was genial 
and witty as usual. President 
Charles A. Peabody, of the Mu- 
tual Life; President Jesse R 
Clark, of the Union Central, 
Cincinnati, and ex-Senator John 
F. Dryden, of the Prudential 
Company, formed a character- 
istic group representative of the 
men of conspicuous constructive 
ability who have been prominent 
factors in the development of the 
country. Governor Hughes, in sharp contrast 
to his remarks made at City Hall, New York, 
during the great insurance investigation now 
a matter of history, and which have resulted in 
inspiring a greater and more unreserved con- 
fidence in insurance companies in the minds 
of the people, than ever said that general 
prosperity is marked by increased expenditures 
for life insurance, and that the new provision 
making death losses payable in the form of 
a fixed income for life for the beneficiaries, 
has made life insurance seem more than ever 
a necessity as well as a prudent investment. 



A3OUT the first thing that a visitor in 
Washington decides to do is to get a 
full supply of postal cards to send home. 
Many have inquired who first set the fashion. 
At the post office the other day it was re- 
vealed that the first post cards ever issued 




GEORGE E. IDE 
President, Home Life Insurance Company, Xew York 



in the world were sent out from Austria in 
1869, following a suggestion made in 1865. 
Professor Hermau of Vienna is the saint 
on whom the post office clerks visit their 
benisons when they find difficulty in handling 
the sheaves of post cards coming in all the 
year around. 

The use of these cards soon became popular 
and now extends to twenty-two governments, 
Germany alone using fifteen million post 
cards annually The picture cards, strange 
as it may seem, are almost as old as the 
ordinary post card, but have come into 



12 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



popular use only within the last decade. 
This is an invention which is said to have 
originated during the Franco -Prussian War, 
when the picture of a gunner was placed 
on sale at Oldenburg, and became very 
popular. Today there is no community so 
small but its historic spots and beautiful 
scenery are depicted on the cards which 




PAUL MORTON 
President, Equitable Insurance Company, New 

spin daily around on the swivel stands. 
Just now it is a fad among Congressmen to 
see that all the noted places in their home 
towns or districts are reproduced on picture 
post cards, not overlooking the home and 
birthplace of the aforesaid Congressmen. 
By means of photography picturesque post 
card views are often obtained of even a very 
prosaic place. 

Picture post cards are doing much to 



familiarize the people with sights and scenes 
about Washington, as well as with the noted 
paintings and statuary to be found at the 
capital. In contrast to the educative feature, 
a strata of vulgarity and obscenity crops out 
now and then, which requires the watchful- 
ness of Anthony Comstock and government 
inspectors. Uncle Sam insists that the post 
cards passing through his mails 
by millions must exercise a 
wholesome influence. 



SITTING in a gallery of the 
Senate, listening to a de- 
bate, the rumor was brought 
us that something exciting was 
browing at the other end of 
the Capitol. On a question of 
constitutional privilege, Repre- 
sentative Norris of Nebraska, 
in a dramatic manner, intro- 
duced the resolution that pre- 
cipitated the insurgents' w a r 
on the Speaker. The scene- 
shifters had no time to draw 
back in the wings, and the 
background had an element 
of incongruity. The roll-call 
bells began to ring throughout 
the building. The files of the 
Congressional Record for a 
century past show no more 
picturesque dramatic episodes 
than those of Jthe afternoon of 
Thursday, March 17, and 
"continuing three days there- 
after," as the lawyers would 
say. To eliminate the Speaker 
from the Committee of Rules, 
and increase the number of 
that committee from five to 
fifteen, was the issue around 
which the battle raged between 
the insurgents and their 
Democratic allies and the regulars. The 
issue was to have the committee chosen by 
the House. Uncle Joe, sturdy old warrior, 
was in the chair and saw the blood in the 
eyes of his enemies. Representative Norris 
sounded the opening bugle of the fray when 
he shouted: 

"I have a resolution of privilege." 
The resolution, amply interlined with 
corrections, was handed to the clerk, who 



York 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



13 



smiled as he passed it to the Speaker, who 
handed it back with his jaws set. The first 
outburst came from the Democratic side. 

"Read it, read it!" 

The clerk read the resolution -challenge, 
and the fight was on. 

"The day of your salvation is at hand," 
declared Champ Clark to the insurgents and 
his Democratic colleagues, with a wave of 
his hands. 

The confused buzzing rose in a crescendo, 
and interest grew tense as members passed 
from chair to chair and Democratic and in- 
surgent leaders conferred, while the regulars 
hastened for a council of war to Representa- 
tive Dalzell, who made a point of order against 
the resolution. Verbal chastisements be- 
tween regulars and insurgents came thick 
and fast and the battle raged anew. Repre- 
sentative Hamilton Fish, an insurgent, awak- 
ened hearty applause from the Democratic 
phalanx, who were gathering solidly together 
for the attack. Representative Fassett, of 
New York, made a rousing retort to the 
"mercerized Republicans and assistant Demo- 
crats," which was answered by an insurgent 
galling fire. The regulars began to keep tele- 
phone and telegraph wires buzzing to corral 
absent members, knowing that the fight 
would continue. All over the building the 
jangling of the bells was heard, announcing the 
succession of roll calls. The time had come 
to "dethrone the Czar," and the talk grew 
more and more bitter The personal on- 
slaughts of Representative Cooper brought 
Speaker Cannon to the floor, and Repre 
sentative Gardner was called to witness 
that he had not been trampled upon in 
committee appointments by the Speaker. 
* * * 

Railroad trains were bringing the absent 
members from all parts with the cry, "Onto 
Washington." Representative Dwight, the 
Republican whip, was as busy as the umpire 
of a ball game. Again and again roll calls 
were taken on the question of a recess, but the 
insurgents joined the Democrats in voting 
"no," compelling the Old Guard to face the 
issue. In the lull proceedings dragged. 
Representative Keifer, former speaker of 
the House, attired in the old time Websterian 
swallow-tailed coat, looked his part of veteran 
he and the older members bore the brunt 
of a deadlock session with the fervor of old 
skirmishers. The ex-Speaker tried to awaken 




UNCLE JOE WITH A FIRM HOLD ON THE 
GAVEL IN THE SPEAKER'S CHAIR 



14 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



interest among the younger and more sleepy 
members in a game of cards in the cloak 
room. The floor was strewn with bits 
of torn paper. Now and then someone on 
the insurgent or Democratic side roused up 
enough to sing, "There'll be a hot time in 
the old town tonight." The situation grew 
more exciting, and at times the combatants 
seemed ready to tear each other limb from limb, 
but suddenly, amid the livid or ashen faces a 
flash of humor changed anger to laughter, 
and instead of a political duel there was the 
gaiety of baseball fans. The saving grace 
of humor was like a life-giving elixir in that 
strenuous session, which otherwise might 
have suggested one of the days that preceded 
the dread carnage of the Paris Commune. 
* * * 

Despite the solidity of the roll call it was 
evident that some Democrats avowed no per- 
sonal animosity for Uncle Joe, for several 
stopped to joke or chat with him in passing. 
All night long the sturdy warrior kept up the 
fight, passing up and down from the Speaker's 
chair to the floor, like a captain on the bridge 
facing a monscon. At 2 A. M., for the third 
time, the motion for a recess was defeated by 
a small majority. The sergeant at arms was 
sent out to look up members. At 4 A. M. 
Representative Hollingsworth, of Ohio, was 
brought from the Willard into the House; 
his necktie was awry and the face above it 
did not offer a study in good humor; the 
members instantly began to bait him on his 
cheerful and enthusiastic frame of mind. 
Representative Nick Longworth arrived from 
a party, clad in evening suit, with cheery 
interest in the situation. In ttye crowded 
galleries the people were eagerly watching the 
busy scene below, as the clock opposite the 
Speaker ticked off the momentous hours. 
Almost constantly on his feet, whether in the 
chamber or pacing the rear corridors, Uncle 
Joe was always ready for action. 

No stage scene could be more spectacular 
than was the House of Representatives, as 
the rising 'sun gleamed through the skylight, 
mingling with the glare of the electric light, 
and producing a curious and somewhat 
ghastly tint on the weary faces of the men 
below. There are neither windows nor 
electric lights in the chamber, but all light 
niters through the glass roof. Dignity had 
been dissipated like the scraps of paper that 
'ittered the aisles, and men lounged in all sorts 



of attitudes. Representative Moore was in 
the chair and Uncle Joe appeared at the right 
of the rostrum, standing erect and cool under 
the fire. A fresh carnation in his buttonhole, 
and his strongly-marked upper lip freshly 
shaven and his beard trimmed, the Speaker 
came forward scenting the battle. Repre- 
sentative Norris, coached by Representative 
Gardner, had scarcely left the floor, and his 
bloodshot eyes showed the strain while an un- 
shaven chin was set with grim determination. 

When the long night's vigil was over, soon 
after 7 A.M., the Speaker strolled into the 
chamber and stood beside the clerk's desk. 

Representative Shackleford, of Missouri, 
rushed up the aisle shaking his fist at the 
Speaker, as he entered, and standing before 
the clerk's desk made a dramatic charge of 
anarchy, to which Representative Payne 
made a retort. 

The early morning conference held across 
the corridor in the rooms of the Ways and 
Means Committee followed as the next act 
in the play. It was evident that Uncle Jo< 
could not remain on the Committee of Rules. 
At the preliminary roll calls it was clear 
that two of the regulars had deserted, amid 
the groans of their colleagues. The final 
issue was reached on the Norris resolution. 
Representative Nye of Minnesota, brother 
of the famous Bill Nye, delivered a stirring 
appeal to his colleagues to stand by the 
regular party and the regular rules, under 
the banner that had floated over them when 
they enlisted. 

"For forty years has Joseph G. Cannon 
done his duty beside us, and do you seek to 
sacrifice him now to make a Roman holiday?" 
he shouted with oratorical effect. 

Champ Clark, leader of the Democratic 
forces, defined his party's position and that 
of the insurgents. 

"This is not a fight against Joseph G. Cannon personally; 
it is a fight against a system; I think it is a bad system. It 
makes no difference to me that it is sanctioned by time. 
The present rules of the House give more power to the 
speaker than any one man ought to have over the destinies 
of this republic. 

"We made up our minds, months ago, to work the 
revolution that we are now making. There is no use 
mincing words it is a revolution. I will give no support 
to a resolution which does not remove the speaker from 
the committee on rules, and in this I speak for the Demo- 
crats and for the insurgents. You can't restore to the 
members of this House the power each member is entitled 
to without taking it away from the speaker, for he has had 
it all. 

"If this experiment does not work it can be changed, for 
it has now been demonstrated that this House can do what 
it wants to when it makes up its mind to do it." 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



15 



A cessation of hostilities occurred when a 
vote for recess until 4 P. M. was passed; the 
decision was brought about by the physical 
exhaustion of the members, and the neces- 
sity for having the air of the chamber changed 
and the floor cleaned. The janitors tried 
to accomplish this during the continuous 
session of twenty-nine hours, but without 

success. 

* * * 

When the roll call on Friday afternoon 
revealed how the allied forces stood, Uncle 
Joe prepared his ruling, which was over- 
ruled by the vote of the House, and followed 
by the adoption of the Norris resolution 
which had been amended by reducing the 



"From time to time heretofore the majority has become 
the minority, as in the present case, and from time to time 
hereafter the majority will become the minority. The 
country believes that the Republican party has a majority 
of forty-four in the House of Representatives at this time, 
yet such is not the case. 

"The present Speaker of the House has, to the best of 
his ability and judgment, co-operated with the Republican 
party, and so far in the history of this Congress the Re- 
publican party in the House has been abolished b> a small 
majority, when the test came, to legislate in conformity 
with the policies and the platform of the Republican party. 
Such action, of course begot criticism which the Speaker 
does not deprecate on the parr of the minority party. 

"The Speaker cannot be unmindful of the fact, as evi- 
denced by three previous elections to the Speakership. that 
in the past he has enjoyed the confidence of the Republican 
party of the country and of the Republican members of the 
House; but the assault upon the Speaker of the House bv 
the minority, supplemented by the efforts of the so-called 
insurgents, shows that the Democratic minority, aided by 
a number of the so-called insurgents, construing fifteen 
per cent of the majority party in the House, is now in the 




ITALIAN EARTHQUAKE RELIEF BY AMERICAN RED CROSS (Sec page 30) 



number of the committe on rules to ten 
instead of fifteen. Announcing that it was a 
"constitutional privilege of the House at any 
time to declare the Speaker's chair vacant," 
Uncle Joe carefully adjusted his steel-bowed 
spectacles, began his address, the climax of 
the thrilling congressional drama. 

"Gentlemen of the House of Representatives: 

"Actions, not words, determine the conduct and the 
sincerity of men in the affairs of life. This is a government 
by the people, acting through the representatives of a 
majority of the people. 

" Results cannot be had except by a majority, and in the 
House of Representatives m majority, being responsible, 
should have full power and should exercise that power; 
otherwise the majority is inefficient and not performing 
its functions. 

"The office of the minority is to put the majority on its 
good behavior, advocating if goal faith the policies which 
it professes, ever ready to take advantage of the mistakes 
of the majority party, and appeal to the country for its 
vindication. 



majority, and that the Speaker of the House is not in har- 
mony with the actual majority of the House as evidenced by 
the vote just *aken. 

"There are two courses open for the Speaker to pursue: 

"One is to resign and permit the new combination cf 
Democrats and insurgents to choose a speaker in harmony 
with its aims and purposes. The other is for that com- 
bination to declare a vacincy in the office of speaker and pro- 
ceed to the election of a new speaker. 

"After (onsideraticn, at this stage of the session of the 
House, with much of important legislation pending in- 
volving the pledges of the Republican platform and their 
crystallization into law. believing that his resignation might 
consume weeks of time in the reorganization of the House, 
the Speaker, being in harmony with Republican policies 
and desirous of carrying them out. declines by his own 
motion to precipitate a contest upon the House in the 
election of a new speaker, a contest that might greatly en- 
danger the final passage of all legislation necessary to re- 
deem Republican pledges and fulfill Republican promises. 

" This is one reason why the Speaker does not resign at 
once, and another reason is this: 

" In the judgment of the present Speaker a resignation is 
in and of itself a confession of weakness or mistake or an 
apology for past actions. The Speaker is not conscious of 
having done any political wrong. The same rules are in 



16 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



force in this House that have been in force for two decades. 

"The Speaker has construed the rules as he found them 
and as they have been construed by previous speakers from 
Thomas B. Reed's incumbency down to the present time. 

"Heretofore, the speaker has been a member of the 
Committee on Rules covering a period of sixty years, and 
the present Speaker has neither sought new power, nor has 
he unjustly used that already conferred upon him. 

"There has been much talk on the part of the minority 
and the insurgents of the 'czarism' of the Speaker, cul- 
minating in the action taken today. The real truth is that 
there is no coherent Republican majority in the House of 
Representatives. Therefore, the real majority ought to 
have the courage of its convictions and logically meet the 
situation that confronts it. 

"The Speaker does now believe and always has believed 
that this is a government through parlies, and that parlies 
can only rule through majorities. The Speaker has always 
believed in and bowed to the will of the majority in con- 
vention, in caucus, and in the legislative hall, and today 
profoundly believes that to act otherwise is to disorganize 
parties, is to prevent coherent action in any legislative body, 
is to make impossible the reflection of the wishes of the 
people in statutes and in laws. 

"The Speaker has always said that, under the Consti 
tution it is a question of the highest privilege for an actual 
majority of the House at any time to choose a new Speaker 
and again notifies the House that the Speaker will at this 
moment, or at any other time while he remains Speaker, 
entertain, in conformity with the highest ccnstituticnal 
privilege a motion by any member to vacate the office of the 
Speakership and choose a new Speaker, and, under existing 
conditions, would welcome such action upon the part of 
the actual majority of the House, so that power and re- 
sponsibility may rest with the Democratic and insurgent 
members, who, by the last vote, evidently constitute a ma- 
jority of this House. 

"The Chair is now ready to entertain such motion." 

When he had finished reading the regulars 
jumped to their feet, almost as one man, an 
indication that the demarkation of political 
lines remains, and that those who thought 
them gone "did but dream." Amid Repub- 
lican howls the insurgents, who held the 
balance of power, sat grimly in their seats. 

Uncle Joe threw down the gauntlet boldly, 
with a wave of his left hand in which he held 
the sheaf of fluttering pages from which he 
had just read. Representative Burleson 
then made a quick dash down the aisle, 
bent on accepting the challenge and ousting 
the Speaker from the chair at once. Some 
of his colleagues tried to persuade him to 
desist from his hasty acceptance of the pro- 
posal. Representative Sherley with white 
lips followed him to the clerk's desk, trying 
to save him from making what he thought 
a tactical party blunder. The familiar 
roll call echoed down the chamber, and as the 
voice of the clerk uttered the names it was 
evident from a study of the faces that this 
time party lines were forming. A larger 
majority than he had received when he first 
sat in the Speaker's chair of the Sixty-first 
Congress proved that the House differ- 
entiated between the man Joe Cannon and 



"Cannonism." Clearly the war was aga 
an established system that had aroused 
surgent ire. 

The most acute situation on roll calls 
when the motion was made declaring 
Speaker's chair vacant. As the roll 
proceeded, the names of insurgents w 
checked off. Even Representative No 
declined to go the lengths desired by 
Democratic allies. Jeers and cheers \\ 
the order of the hour, depending on how 
.insurgent's vote was cast. A smile lit 
face of the clerk as the Speaker pro I 
looked up to announce that the ."ayes 
155 and the noes 191," on the motion 
oust Uncle Joe from the chair. Then 
Old Guard was on its feet, tossing hats in 
air and shouting. It was a revival of the c 
time political enthusiasm and the cheers < 
slaps on the back among the members soun< 
like a fire of gatling guns. The tumult 
creased when two members unfurled a 
American flag and marched up the cer 
aisle. "Dear Uncle Joe" was sung to 
tune of a popular air. 

* * * 

President Taft was out of the city <. 
all official Washington had fixed its g 
upon the House during those days. Th 
were no congressional calls to pay at 
White House at that time, and the dep; 
ment work and the doings of the inve 
gation tribunals and committees languisl 
for lack of attendance. Mrs. Taft was 
interested spectator in the executive gall 
on Friday, and each day brought its c 
quota of distinguished visitors. After the i 
sion was over the members remained to c 
over the strenuous conflict. A Canadian ed 
sitting near me remarked : 

"You seem to have no real governm< 
How remarkable that you Americans so qui 
ly come together laughing and talking o 
matters after such revolutionary and bi 
disputes. Does a majority mean a vote 
confidence in this country? It's all so j< 
mixed, you know, like your insidious co 
tail, I daresay." 

In that final curtain scene was no trace 
bloodthirsty animosity, cnly the excitem 
that succeeds a family quarrel, which ev 
member knew might come, but felt s 
would be adjusted without disruption of 
kindly ties which bound them within " 
blessed wreath of household charities." 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



17 



ONE of the most important services under 
the Post Office Department is the rural 
free delivery, in which Fourth Assistant Post- 
master General P. V. De Graw has made an 
enviable record. He states concisely: 

"Rural delivery, which has become an 
indispensable adjunct to the most numerous 
class of American life and largest share of 
industrial activity, has not only during the 
]:ast official year made notable advance in 
usefulness and efficiency, but taken a long 
stride toward a thoroughly practical and 
economical working basis. . . . The num- 
ber of petitions for rural delivery service filed 
during the past fiscal year aggregated 3,376, 
a decrease of 688 from the previous year. On 
June 30, 1909, the service was in operation on 
40,628 routes, with 40,499 carriers. During 
the year 1,415 'new routes were established." 

In the work of the past year the rural 
carriers delivered approximately 1,321,380 
packages or letters registered, and 464,154,- 
856 letters of the ordinary- kind, being an 
increase of over 221,000,000 over the year 
1905. The rage for circulars continues, 
the excess of one-cent mail over letters and 
newspapers being a snug billion and over. 

The figures show that rural free delivery 
has increased not only the amount of mail 
handled, but the revenues of the Postal Ser- 
vice. Although forty-five per cent of mail 
on rural routes is second-c'ass matter, the 
increase applies also and especially to letters 
and postal cards, including souvenir or 
picture post cards. On thirty-five routes 
the value of the stamps on mail collected 
for the quarter ending May 31, 1909, ex- 
ceeded two hundred dollars, and on twenty- 
four routes this item exceeded the carrier's 
salary. The average cost of the service 
per route per month at this time is S72.17. 

The equipment of a rural carrier suitable 
to convey the mail as required by law re- 
mains, as in previous years, a wagon or buggy 
which will accommodate from one hundred 
and fifty to two hundred pounds of mail. 
The average weight of rural mail per trip 
is estimated at twenty-five pounds, except 
in a few instances, where the average daily 
weight is fifty pounds. 

Mr. De Graw dilates on the advantages 
of the extension of rural telephone lines, and 
deplores the fact that the population in 
country places cannot have the advantage 
of ordering merchandise over the wires. As 



the only way of ordering goods and the de- 
livery of light parcels at present is by the 
rural carriers who daily pass their homes, 
and the present rates of postage make this 
way prohibitive for most of those living 
along the rural routes, the Fourth Assistant 
Postmaster renews his recommendation that 
the Postmaster-General "be authorized to 
arrange, experimentally, for a limited period, 




" The mail comes now to his own front gate " 

for the delivery of packages on rural routes 
at such rates as may seem expedient, the 
result of the experiment. to be reported to 
Congress as speedily as possible after the 
expiration of the experimental period." 

A feature of great importance in connection 
with this work is the remarkable improve- 
ment of the roads traversed by rural car- 
riers, "much of which has been accomplished 
through the active interest of the depart- 
ment, which has been stimulated by post- 
masters and rural carriers." 



18 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



It is gratifying to learn that the efforts 
of the department have effected a large 
decrease in the matter consigned to the divis- 
ion of dead letters, though it received in 
unclaimed letters cash to the amount of 
$59,078, while the drafts, checks and money 
orders showed a total of over two million 
dollars. Eight millions of post cards were 
destroyed without record, and dead-letter 
sales of merchandise, loose cash in the mails 




Statue of General Lew Wallace in Statuary Hall 

and currency received for postage amounted 
to $29,234. Special instruction in properly 
addressing postal matter, etc., is now being 
given in schools all over the country, with 
a view to eliminating this tremendous loss 
in the future. 

* * * 

IT was significant that the three special 
cars bearing 2,000 Japanese cherry trees 
arrived in Washington just in time for 
Washington's Birthday. They were ac- 
companied by a special agent sent from 
Japan, and every tree had been carefully 
selected as though intended for the imperial 
gardens of the Emperor of Japan. It is 



expected that they will bloom in Washington 
this spring and present a glory of color never 
before witnessed at the national Capital 
They are placed along the river bank drive 
and in Potomac Park in lines of two for a 
distance of three miles. To those who have 
visited the Flowery Kingdom it will suggest 
the Imperial Gardens in Japan, where these 
beautiful trees bloom every spring and mark 
one of the most famous beauty spots of the 
kingdom. 

Mrs. Tafi is credited with being responsible 
for this generous gift from the Emperor of 
Japan During her visit to that country 
she expressed her delight in the trees and 
her desire to purchase some of them to trans- 
plant to United States soil. Miss Skidman 
of Washington has been very active in in- 
troducing Japanese trees into' this country 
When the Potomac bank glows with the bright 
red and pure white of millions of cherry 
blossoms, it will doubtless serve as a con- 
tinuous reminder, three miles long, of the 
cherry tree which figured so largely in the 
boyhood history of the Father of his Country. 



IN Statuary Hall at the Capitol a late ad 
dition awakens popular interest. It repre- 
sents General Lew Wallace, the celebrated 
patriot, statesman, diplomat and author, and 
all who knew him or of him are delighted 
to see his statue in the national hall of fame at 
Washington, garbed in the full uniform of a 
general with the coat blown about as if by 
the terrific winds that swept across some 
hard-fought battlefield. The statue is the 
work of Andrew O'Connor of Paris At 
the dedicatory ceremonies Lew Wallace, 
a grandson of the celebrated general, was 
present. 

Those who had the pleasure of meeting 
General Wallace only in his later years can- 
not conceive of him as chiefly famous for 
his military achievements. Never can I for- 
get an evening in his apartments at Indian- 
apolis, when among his books he looked far 
more the author than the soldier. In the 
library at his home in Crawfordsville were 
many of those great works of reference which 
indicated careful and accurate study in the 
preparation of his famous novels, "Ben 
Hur" and "Prince of India." The former 
book was first given to the public through 
the intuition of a woman, the wife of James 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



19 



Harper, who persisted in saying that "Ben 
Hur" which had been submitted in manu 
script form was bound to become popular. 
"If you never print another book," she said, 
"print 'Ben Hur.'" 

At the start it did not prove one of the best 
.sellers, but soon edition after edition was re- 
quired to meet the growing demand. The 
dramatization of this story was one of the 
most popular book plays ever put upon the 
stage. 

A large part of the manuscript was pre- 
pared by General Wallace in the old govern- 
ment quarters at Santa Fe Surrounded 
by the great yellow wastes of our semi- 
tropical deserts, he could well imagine him- 
self amid the scenes of Palestine. The 
home of General Wallace at Crawfordsville, 
set amid groups of stately trees, was for 
many years the Mecca of literary Hoosier- 
dom. The library, in a separate building, 
thoroughly fireproof, was fitted with every 
convenience for getting at works of reference. 
The building also contained a rare collection 
of curios which their owner had acquired 
during his residence abroad as ambassador at 
Constantinople. A social and benevolent 
order known as "The Tribe of Ben Hur" 
has its headquarters near the late home of 
the distinguished author, than whom few have 
done more to perpetuate the glory of Indiana. 



MAXY fathers and mothers take their 
children to visit Washington to see for 
themselves the great buildings and insti- 
tutions, and at least get the "atmosphere" of 
m.n in charge of the important affairs of 
the nation. This recalls an old custom 
in Rome. When a boy had reached his 
seventeenth year, he was christened with a 
given name, and on that day he exchanged 
his boy's garment for the toga virilis. It 
was a day of great importance to the family, 
and the blessing of the gods was invoked 
as the young Roman was accompanied to 
the forum, where the praetor waited to re- 
ceive him. Here he was given the vestment 
of a man, with admonishments appropriate 
to his change from childish things to a man's 
responsibilities. Here he listened to a recital 
of the virtues and deeds of his ancestors, and 
participated in impressive ceremonies. 

Thereafter he was no longer merely a 
member of the family, but was besides a citi- 



zen of Rome where "to be a Roman was to 
be a King." 

In the same spirit our American young 
people are taken to Washington and other 
points of historic interest, that they may be 
impressed with the virtues and patriotism 
that form the ideality and lofty citizenship 
upon which the Republic has been founded. 
It is often then that the boyish garb, the toga 
praelexla, is exchanged for the dress of an 
American gentleman, the logo virilis. Though 
no additional name be now given, and the 
boy will not receive any impressive title in 
addition to the one breathed by his mother's 
prayers, he will probably have the dignity 
of his first "man's suit" to match his sister's 




" Many fathers take their children to visit \Vashington" 

first "tailor-made costume." It is a proud 
moment for him when he struts out in his 
first "long trousers," and feels that at last 
he is attired like the men of affairs in 
fact wearing clothes very similar to those 
that adorn the President and the prominent 
men of the nation's forum. 



HE was pounding the table with his fists 
and trying to tell a young man how to 
get on in the world, while the latter looked 
furtively down at his boots, and thinking 
that he was not getting much information, 
he hinted as much to his adviser. 

"Well," said the old gentleman, "here 
it is in a nutshell you look me right be- 
tween the eyes don't stare at my right 
nor yet at my left, but give me the 'central 
gaze' look at the little bridge that runs 
between my eyes, and I shall feel that you 



20 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



are reading my very soul. That's right 
now go out and see how it works. 

"Success, my boy, success awaits you," 
and he pounded the desk again. "You 
want to pound at the world just as I am 
pounding on this desk. Darned good fur- 
niture Uncle Sam supplies, or it would not 
stand my thumps," added the Senator. 

So the young man went out and tried 
the central gaze on one of the Capitol guides, 
but secured no very remarkable results. 
Then he tried it on the policeman standing 
by, just as an experiment before going out 
to seek a position. The guardian of the 
peace cast on him a suspicious eye, and 
quietly followed him a little distance along 




"The policeman touched his forehead significantly as he me 
eye of the politician " 

the street, where the novice tried the "gaze" 
on a passing official, who shrank back a 
little. The- policeman touched his forehead 
significantly as he met the eye of the poli- 
tician, and that gentleman nodded, and 
the young gazer was promptly arrested 
until it could be decided whether he was an 
escaped lunatic or a burglar hunting a job. 

Some days after he reported his ex- 
perience with the "central gaze" to the 
Senator. 

"It didn't work, Senator, it didn't work 
well at all. I looked them all square be- 
tween the eyes, right on the bridge where 
your glasses roost, and everyone of them 
had a worse opinion of me than the one I 
had gazed at before. The guide thought 
I was a fool, the policeman thought me a 
lunatic and the government official believed 
me to be a burglar. That central gaze," 



he said sadly, "has a back action movement, 
and I am going to stare straight into every 
one's right eye in future." 



A CONGRESSIONAL leader gave me a 
/v list of the prominent subjects for legis- 
lation during the present session of Congress. 
It included conservation of national resources 
and the restriction of the monopoly of water 
power by powerful combinations; the reform 
of mineral land laws, so that government 
may retain ownership of mineral wealth 
under a system of royalties, and a campaign 
to investigate delays in federal courts and 
provide a system of procedure which will 
expediate the legislation. There will 
also be some measures taken against 
the boycott and for the regulation 
of issuing injunctions in disputes be- 
tween employers and employes. A 
plan for development of a system of 
internal waterways is looked for, 
from which will arise an adjustment 
of the needs of traffic in a way not 
open to congressional influence. The 
development of the American mer- 
chant marine and the extension of a 
direct service to South American coun- 
tries are also booked. The anti-trust 
legislation crystalizes in strengthening 
the old Sherman law, and the author- 
ity of interstate commerce commis- 
sions to regulate the issue of railroad 
securities and bonds is anticipated. 
The income tax and sections of the tariff 
law are to be considered, while the reorgani- 
zation of the bureau system of the navy is 
by no means the least important item. Next 
comes the investigation of the sugar trust 
frauds and other corporations dealing di- 
rectly with the government through tariff 
measures. The importation of laborers un- 
der the contract system is another vexed 
question. 

The present House of Representatives has 
only five contested seats to pass upon so that 
the main work of the present session of 
Congress will be transacted along the lines as 
summarized by the veteran congressman, 
with pencil and pad on the desk before him, 
for now each congressman and senator has 
notations every day on his desk of the im- 
portant things upon which he must concen- 
trate attention, and these notes if gathered 



t the 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



21 



together would practically cover all import- 
ant questions likely to be acted upon at the 
present session. 



A POPULAR consumers' league has been 
formed to make the food trusts ineffec- 
tive; it is called the National Anti-Trust 
League, and a congress was held in Wash- 
ington for the purpose of organizing to fight 
high prices in the necessities of life. A similar 
organization was launched in Germany some 
years ago, because of the high price of coffee. 
An immense membership abstained from 
buying any coffee for one day all over the 
empire, which at once brought a visible de- 
crease in the price. 

In plain words this is another form of the 
boycott movement, which may be used for 
good or evil purposes, and is now being 
utilized to regulate the law of supply and de- 
mand in real earnest. This national propa- 
ganda has been organized charging a nominal 
fee for membership, with the understanding 
that the primary procedure is to force the 
trusts to reduce exorbitant prices by force 
of regulating "demand." Members will be 
notified that on a certain day they are to 
discontinue buying a given high-priced 
article and in this way they believe that the 
most stubborn and grasping trusts can be 
brought to reason. Students of the propo- 
sition wonder how it will be considered in 
view of the recent decisions against Gompers, 
Mitchell and Morrison in the famous labor 
cases. To the New England mind the new 
association has' a flavor of the agreements 
that culminated in the famous Boston Tea 
Party, and shows a like determination to 
beat the trusts with their own weapons. 



A PROFOUND observer of all that prom- 
/v ises to better the -condition of the people 
at large has reached the conclusion that, 
with all due respect to the American woman, 
her extravagance is causing more difficulties 
than she realizes in her unconscious pursuit 
of pleasure and admiration. The fact has 
been established that the average American 
woman spends almost twice as much on 
her clothing as is laid out by the average 
man. There is a possibility of a man's 
wearing out his clothes, but apparently only 
the very poor woman is permitted to do this. 



The value of good materials is lost, because, 
on account of the constant change of styles, 
the garment must be laid aside before it 
is half worn out. Hence comes the question: 
"Does the average wife stop to think of the 
harassment and the almost desperation of 
the man who finds himself unable to provide 
for the wishes of his home folks?" 

It may not often be expressed in so many 
words, but more money worries arise from 
extravagance in clothing than from any 
other article brought into the home. The 
whims of women drive many a man almost 
to despair, and to them may be credited 
many suicides, many failures in business, 




"The whims of women drive many a man to despair 



and many a hopeless failure of what might 
have been a brilliant career. The frugality 
common among the women of other nations 
is seldom discoverable among American 
young girls, especially those dwelling in 
cities. True, they earn good pay, but quite 
as commonly every penny goes into clothing. 
There are cases, in strong contrast to these, 
where the daughters of the family are actually 
supporting brothers and fathers and even 
husbands by going out daily to work! It 
will be admitted that it is not surprising if 
the modern young man hesitates to found 
a home on the whims and extravagant tastes 
of the attractive, dressy young woman who 
represents "the girl.'' Fashion is the tyrant 
to whom most womankind bows suffrage 
or no suffrage. 



22 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



THE flight of the feather duster is one 
of the pathetic tales which is absorbing 
the attention of scientists. Come to think of 
it, the sudden banishment of those germ- 
laden, dust-soaked bunches of feathers has 
been very sweeping, so to speak. Something 
which absorbs dust is now used, because 
the graceful flicking of dust from spot to 
spot by a masculine hand, armed with a 
trusty feather duster, is considered un- 
hygienic. It has been whispered that the 
"flight of the feather duster" and the en- 
trance of women into business offices were 
simultaneous; it seems that woman is 
the natural enemy of the gentle feather 
duster; she insists, strange to say, on having 




"The flight of the feather duster" 

a cloth that will hold the dust. What 
ordinary man would think of a duster to 
hold dust ? One that later might be washed 
clean and dried? Oh, the finality of neat- 
ness that women can give to a business 
office! 

In some offices the same artistic relation- 
ships and effects appear that housewifery puts 
on things at home, while in others the women 
clerks and stenographers, while arrayed 
like the Queen of Sheba for glory and beauty, 
neglect the humble dust rag, not even deign- 
ing an acquaintance. Women clerks who 
are fashionably gowned seldom give the same 
attention to "office-keeping" that is paid to 
their parlor at home. Business men, like 
others of their sex, may "love with the eye 
rather than the ear," but they are beginning 
to shy at employing the fashion-plate stenog- 
rapher, when a vision of dusty desks and 



bedraggled typewriters lurks behind her 
picture hat and ostrich plumes. 

In the meantime the office poet is en- 
gaged in fingering out lines that would make 
a fitting ode on the "Flight of the Feather 
Duster," while he dreams of sometime 
writing a ^reat epic on the "blue-black eagle 
feather that fell from heights above." 



'"THE year 1910 promises to witness a 
1 veritable constellation of congresses 
within a congress at Washington the con- 
gress of mothers, congress of nurses, congress 
of governors, of national editors, of sugar, 
of leather, of steel interests the country is 
going to be pretty well congressed, it would 
seem. By having a convention in Washing- 
ton, the various organizations believe that 
they will be more nearly in touch with the 
real Congress, which still has secure rights 
under the Constitution. 

A man who had not been in Washington 
for many years on arriving to attend one 
of these congresses made a careful investi- 
gation to discover old scenes and former 
friends. 

"I'll be doggoned, but it seems to me that 
everything is changed. All my old friends 
are in back seats, and the front rank of 
officialdom is filled with strange faces." 

Senators and congressmen change in the 
regular routine, while the various adminis 
trations mean a new lot of recruits for "the 
back seats." The same old gentleman ob- 
served, after he had studied the situation: 

"If the men keep going' u[ and Gown 
there is less likelihood of there being any- 
thing approaching nepotism in Washington. 
After all it is a good thing the political stars 
are not fixed luminaries but move to and fro 
with the biennial and quadrennial election." 



QIMPLIFIED spelling received a shock 
O at the hands of one of its known friends 
quite recently in Washington. Senator Page 
had been receiving extraordinary letters, 
typewritten, from a friend of his boyhood 
whom he knew to be an excellent speller be- 
cause he had often spelled down the entire 
class at "spelling school" and remained 
alone on the floor, the hero of the hour. The 
gentleman was of a literary turn of mind and 
had betaken himself to an isolated mountain 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



23 



resort, to finish an important piece of work 
on which he was engaged. One morning 
the senator received a letter which he de- 
scribed as "the limit." It began: 

"I din'j wish ji wirry yiu, but kan'j yiu 
nij prikure fir me ine if thise ild Lajin biiks?" 

The spelling in the rest of the letter was 
equally peculiar, and abounded in j's and k's. 
The Senator sat down and wrote: 

''What on earth is the matter with you, 
Tom ? Send me a letter even in your own 
handwriting and perhaps I shall know what 
you want, and be able to get it for you." 

By the next mail came the answer to this 
request, explaining in handwriting that there 
was but one typewriter to be found in that 
part of the backwoods, and that the writer 
had used it so much the letters o and t and c 
had dropped off and could not be found. He 
thought by using k and j constantly he would 
devise a system which would be intelligible 
until he could get the old machine repaired. 



WHENEVER I enter the rather dismal 
quarters of the Census Bureau, I am 
reminded of the many splendid buildings 
that were temporarily erected for the various 
expositions, which have epitomized and 
illustrated the resources and progress of the 
Republic, for in this building have been fo- 
cussed the most important and vigorous opera- 
tions conducted by Uncle Sam for the current 
year. The Director of the Census, Mr. Ed- 
ward Dana Durand, is a native of Michigan 
and was formerly legislative librarian of the 
New York Library and an instructor at the 
Hartford and Leland Stanford universities. 
He has also had considerable practical exper- 
ience in electric and street railroad construc- 
tion, so that when he gathered up the threads 
of the department of Commerce and Labor, 
he had unconsciously fitted himself for the 
varied duties and considerations incident to 
the directorship of the Census. 

A great battery of tabulating machines, 
constructed under government supervision, 
will be brought into active service during the 
present year. Surveying this unpretentious 
low, one-story brick building, it is difficult 
to realize that within it will be enumerated 
every man, woman and child of the ninety 
millions of people who populate the United 
States; or that this mass of collated informa- 
tion will furnish a practical basis and system 



for the calculations as to future revenues for 
the government. 

Of course, the basis of all government 
statistics is population, for of what avail 
would all these statistics be unless reduced to 
the magical per capita equation? 



DURING the winter session, stories of 
the summer vacation time come to 
light. One of these was recently told of a 
young writer who applied for board at a 
farm close to a hotel where his friend, who 
was a congressman, was staying. He hailed 
the farmer across a five-barred gate: 

"I am a writer and am anxious to get some 
local color for a piece of work I am doing, 




" Dialect will be two dollars extra " 

I don't care to stay at the hotel. How much 
will you charge for board?" 

"Well, if you just want board and room it 
will be ten dollars a week, but if you must 
have us talk dialect to you, it will be two 
dollars extra." 

The congressman said his friend de- 
cided that two dollars worth of dialect would 
be of no especial advantage to his new novel. 



/ < " > OING over even a few of the old reports 
V-J of the Department of Commerce and 
Labor, some slight idea is obtained of the 
flood of varied and valuable information 
which they disseminate. An irate caller 
complained that he had been swindled along 
a certain line, and at once he received a tract 
written from Dunfermline, Scotland, exposing 
frauds perpetrated on American tourists, 
who browse through Europe paying high 
prices for articles which they believed to be 



24 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



genuine and priceless antiques, and valuable 
relics of an older time. Snuff and patch 
boxes collected extensively by Americans 
are often the work of industrious copyists. 
There are headquarters in Dresden and other 
cities for the manufacture of such imitation 
articles as are chiefly attractive to unwary 
American tourists. Bronzes and other an- 
tiques are cleverly imitated, and it is often 
difficult to tell the spurious from the true. 
Those' who have opportunity to know re- 
garding such matters state that there are 
very few genuine old bronze and brass an- 
tiques found upon the markets, because those 
who have such heirlooms know them to be 




"American tourists and collectors ofteffpurchase 
spurious antiques" 



genuine, and will not part with them; if 
forced by poverty to do so, there are always 
collectors who eagerly watch for genuine 
articles and are ready to pay the price. Such 
curios are not often to be found by the ordin- 
ary tourist, despite the mysteriously marked 
articles offered, purporting to be antique 
Chinese, ancient Flemish, early English, etc. 
In many instances the trademarks and manu- 
facturers' stamps prove absolute forgeries. 
A system of written guarantees has been 
evolved by the English courts, by which the 
sale of spurious antiques has been traced, 
and the seller is held responsible. Evidence 
obtained in this and other channels show 
that Cromwellian coins are sold from ten to 
fifteen times their face value. Skilfully 
counterfeited old English silver and other 
coins have been found by an expert in the 



valued collections of ambitious Americans. 
Pewter, admiration for which did not assert 
itself until long after the household pewter 
had found its way to the melting pot, is 
frequently spurious. The manufacture of 
antique Chippendale is another trade which 
goes industriously on today; old chests and 
cabinets, Queen Anne furniture, carefully 
given a time-worn aspect, have been a source 
of revenue to many a modern manufacturer 
of "antiques" for the American tourist trade. 
Even portraits of ancestors, with paint 
cracked and dimmed apparently with age, are 
in many cases found to be mere copies and 
not genuine relics. Grandfather's clocks often 
possess the incongruity of a modern dial 
plate and the maker's name at the top, set 
in a case which is patched and apparently 
very old. There are "grandfather's chairs" 
equally apocryphal and many violins bearing 
the magic name of Stradivarius, which that 
good man would have split into kindling 
wood if made in his shop. Armor may 
be bought bearing all the earmarks of age 
in rust and dints, which are described as 
having been made in certain battles. 

Many an American consul in Europe re 
ports that he has had more trouble over such 
sales of spurious antiques than through any 
of the intricate international problems which 
are popularly supposed to occupy the time 
and attention of our American representatives. 



EVERY year witnesses a large increase 
in cement construction all over the 
country. Reliable statistics in regard to 
this are being gathered at Washington. 
Thousands of fire traps exist today in large 
cities, which will sometime inevitably result 
in the loss of millions of dollars' worth of 
property, and a terrible holocaust of human 
life. "Most of the villages are merely a 
collection of fire traps," is the assertion of 
Richard L. Humphrey, President of the 
National Association of Cement Users. He 
regards it as a crime to have a public meeting 
in a building not fireproof, and believes there 
should be a law to that effect. Usually at- 
tention is not called to the dangerous con- 
dition of a building until some great catastro- 
phe occurs. It is generally agreed that 
American cities have, on the whole, the best 
fire departments in the world, but it is 
equally well known that loss by fire is far 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



25 



greater in this country than elsewhere, owing 
to the careless way in which buildings are 
erected and filled with inflammable ma- 
terials. It is strange that the American 
people, who are usually quick to invent 
something which meets a public need, have 
been so slow about understanding the neces- 
sity of prevention rather than cure where 
fire protection is concerned. 

Under direction of the government, an 
experiment has been made to find out the 
best materials for public buildings, which 
represents a government building invest- 
ment of over forty millions. Uncle Sam 
does not insure his buildings, and plans to 
adopt the most profitable insurance that can 
be provided, namely, proper construction. 
The possibility of fire will now be considered 
before foundations are laid, rather than 
over the smouldering ashes of what was once 
a handsome public building. The cement 
enthusiasts are making great progress, and 
hardly a town or village exists in the United 
States today which does not number them 
among its citizens. 



SEATED high in the Speaker's chair, the 
glaring searchlight of publicity focussed 
upon him, "Uncle Joe" Cannon has been bom- 
barded with more abuse than any other 
public man during the year. Yet ask what 
'Cannonism" means, and the listener is 
puzzled to give a clear definition. In many 
instances, personal pique seems to have been 
the cause of the onslaught on "Uncle Joe." 
In the speaker's room, across the corridor 
of the House of Representatives, the veteran 
may be seen in the recesses and after ad- 
journments of the House, the very embodi- 
ment of that energy and aggressiveness which 
have characterized his public career. Many 
times have I watched him thus or in the 
thick of a fight; I can think of no man in 
public office today who so completely enjoys 
the loyal and loving enthusiasm of those 
who really know him and his work. He is 
blunt and brusque, and will persist in stepping 
on toes that get in the way; but for forty 
years he has mounted guard over public 
funds with an unswerving honesty and unim- 
peachable integrity that have commanded the 
respect of even his bitterest enemies. When 
chairman of the House Committee, he re- 
pulsed many an insidious onslaught on those 



immense annual appropriations that offered 
rich opportunities for graft. "Uncle Joe" 
possesses a legislative record of which any 
statesman might well be proud, and a long 
roll of enemies of which he need not be 
ashamed. 

There he sits, a plain, genial, whole-souled 
man, taking breath between incessant inter- 
views, with the air of one entirely at peace 
with his conscience. Instead of that stern 
malicious face seen in his caricatures, one 
sees a pair of twinkling blue eyes, an un- 
wrinkled face, whose smooth-shaven, broad 
upper lip, both humorous and Lincolnesque, 




"There he sits, a plain, genial, whole-souled man' 



suggests the courage of the great President 
in those trying days when he was the target 
for undeserved abuse. 

"What do you think of 'Uncle Joe' Can- 
non?" I asked a friend living remote from 
Washington. 

"A big blusterer, going around with a 
cigar in his mouth, an arbitrary and irre- 
sponsible old dictator who throws all the 
work over on other people." 

"Big" he certainly is, and outspoken even 
to brusqueness. Long after the present 
agitation has passed, "Uncle Joe" Cannon 
will be chronicled in history as one of the 
greatest speakers who ever wielded the 
gavel. An old-time American statesman, he 



26 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



is the product of a sterner period, whose 
literature was the Bible, Pilgrim's Progress 
and Shakespeare; of a day in which the 
sensational editorial," the alleged humor of 
the comic paper, the frothy magazine story 
and the social problem novel were not. 

When Speaker Cannon was a young man 
it was essential that he should think for 
himself and form his own opinions. It was not 
then possible to go to a "thought counter," 




" The American nation is all right " 



so to speak, and purchase his views and con- 
victions "ready made" at "bargain prices," 
something to fit every type of intellect. Those 
who have been educated wholly on "ready- 
cooked," "tinned "and "pre-digested" mental 
diet, may possibly find it difficult to understand 
the powerful digestion of a mind like that of 
Speaker Cannon, who has seen many "isms" 
come and go, and "sits calm on tumult's 
wheel," content that his reputation shall be 
tried out in the crucible of the future. Speak 
ing of the present storm of criticism, a smile 
begins at the corners of "Uncle Joe's" mouth, 



irradiates his face and lingers long in his eyes, 
as he remarks: 

"What are you going to do about it? Here 
are the recorded facts, that speak for them- 
selves. While we are bound to the wheel of 
life we must, like Sisyphus, keep it rolling to 
the best of our ability, even though at times 
it runs over a few sensitive corns on the toes 
of our neighbors." 

Putting on his spectacles, he continues 
his work with an occasional pertinent com- 
ment. Leaning back in his chair for a 
moment he observes that the high cost of liv- 
ing is, to some extent, a psychological con- 
dition, peculiar to the mental attitude of an 
individual at a given time. 

"When I am in a hurry for breakfast, I go 
to a little lunch counter on the corner, get an 
egg sandwich and a cup of coffee for ten 
cents and effect an immense saving of time. 
At the hotel, when I choose, I can spend a 
dollar for breakfast, twenty-five cents for a 
tip, and consume an entire hour in break- 
Casting. 

"All outlay is a matter of individual 
preference I have several suits of clothes; 
the cloth for each one probably cost about 
$7.50, though the suits were $40 each now 
I am well pleased to let the balance of my 
outlay go to benefit American labor, for I 
believe that no greater blessing can be given 
to any country than to keep everyone busy at 
useful work. That's what makes good 
times; mischief-makers, I notice, are never 
in sympathy with the propaganda of more 
work." 

When insurgency was spoken of, "Uncle 
Joe" arose and swiftly crossed the room. 
Leaning over the back of a chair, with his 
cheery smile, he made a picture which it 
would be well for his enemies to see. 

"Why, I have no quarrel with the in- 
surgents. The boys mean all right, but they 
don't want to play the game according to 
the rules, which contemplate that the ma- 
jority must govern; we must abide by some 
decree of organization. The speaker of 
every state legislature has his powers de- 
fined as precisely as are those of the speaker 
of the House. 

"Prosperity is here; there are more people 
continually employed at good wages and 
wholesome work than ever before. Compare 
the aggregate of salaries and wages paid under 
the protective tariff with the totals of the 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



27 



increased cost of living and note the fact that 
it contrasts admirably with even 'the good 
old times' when prices and wages were alike 
low and work was comparatively scarce. 
I can remember further back than most of 
you; and I would suggest that in contem- 
plating public welfare the aggregate be con- 
sidered, rather than isolated cases. Any 
abnormal rise, earning prices beyond the 
legitimate margin of supply and demand, 
cannot stand and will not be tolerated for 
long. 

"Some people will always complain. 
Gnats and lice are not all dead yet the 
gnats indicate that a nearby swamp needs 
draining, and the lice show that the horse 
must be carefully curried and have plenty 
of fresh air." 

An unbiased observer, meeting Speaker 
Cannon, instantly recognizes in him a man 
of clear and conscientious convictions, doing 
his duty to the best of his ability and possess- 
ing a record that enables him to look his 
enemies straight in the face. With his big 
cigar tilted aloft, it is true that he makes 
good copy for the cartoonist. Regardless 
of the fact that he is the broad target for 
the shafts aimed by a host of opponents, with 
his great brown left hand he continues to sign 
papers, and makes comments that indicate 
his wonderful grasp on the history of congress- 
ional procedure. With his keen sense of 
humor ever on the alert, he is fully aware 
that some of the barbed arrows have come 
from ambitious young statesmen, who feel 
that the surest way to attract attention to 
themselves is to "kick hard',' about some- 
thing. If a good "kick"' will bring them 
into the limelight, they will not sit in the 
shadows cast by prominent men; if an at- 
tack on some public character serves the pur- 
pose, and if that man happens to be Speaker 
Cannon so be it. As "Uncle Joe" serenely 
observes: 

"It is really more interesting to have the 
water ruffled by these little squalls, than to 
sail on too placid a sea. 

"The American nation is all right, it will 
never long tolerate an unjust tyranny, whether 
it emanates from the lips of George the 
Third or from agitators who seek to enlist 
noble passions in an ignoble cause. Yes, 
siree, this country is all right, whether it 
wants Joe Cannon or anyone else for Speaker. 
I have an unshaken and abiding faith in 



our people, and I know that they will event- 
ually do full justice to every man who renders 
them conscientious service." 

If the nation could realize what these long 
years of public service rendered by the veteran 
from Danville have meant to the United 
States, every honest American would regret 
that he has permitted his tongue or pen to 
make thoughtless, unworthy and unprovoked 
assaults upon a man occupying a position 
whose power and authority are second only 
to those held by the President of the United 
States and whose mistakes, if any, have been 
due to party loyalty and sincerity of con- 
viction and purpose. 



T^RIENDS on entering public or business 
1 life together often develop into the bit- 
terest foes. When one reads the history of 
the great political feuds of the past, it is often 
difficult to distinguish between the news of 
the two opposing parties, or to see just why the 
difference arose, unless the personal feud 
phase is followed. 

Among the curious facts brought to light 
along this line is the record made by the late 
E. H. Harriman, who, on being asked to 
give a written answer to the question, "Who 
is your most intimate friend?" wrote with 
a firm hand, "Stuyvesant Fish," the very 
man whom he afterward ousted from control 
in the Illinois Central Railroad, and who 
became, perhaps, his bitterest foe during the 
later years of his life. 



IN the upheaval precipitated by one of the 
chiefs of the Library of Congress, in a 
report as to whether "Dixie" or "Yankee 
Doodle" is the more popular, it has appeared 
that both songs have their partisans. These 
songs were sent in by nearly the same number 
of people when the collection of music for 
"Heart Songs" was being made. Abraham 
Lincoln remarked, after one of the Union 
victories when "Dixie" was being played by 
the band, that he loved to hear the song, 
because it was one means of capturing the 
Confederates and winning their hearts for the 
Union. 

" Yankee Doodle" will always be associated 
with old colonial days, but "Dixie" in the soft 
moonlight of a Southern night has about it 
a witchery which is irresistible. 




OR. REYNOLDS had lived among 
us for nearly a year before his wife 
came to take possession of the 
pretty little cottage which awaited 
her. The unmarried among the gentler sex 
had learned with regret that the doctor was 
mated, for he was not only handsome and 
distinguished looking, but a fine physician, 
and soon became exceedingly popular. When, 
therefore, it was announced that Mrs. Rey- 
nolds had at last arrived, naturally we were 
all on the qui mve to see her. 

The first time she appeared at church, after 
her arrival, the eyes of every person present 
were turned toward her, and rested there, in 
wonder and amazement. 

Young, she could not have been more than 
twenty-five, and unusually beautiful she cer- 
tainly was, but what riveted every eye upon 
her was the rippling mass of snowy hair 
which crowned her youthful brow. With eyes 
of darkest, most brilliant blue, and complex- 
ion soft and fair as a child's, with the love- 
liest bloom on lips and cheek, the contrast 
between them and the snowy tresses was ab- 
solutely dazzling. 

Wonder and speculation was rife among all 
who saw her, and it is safe to say that the 
doctor's strangely beautiful wife formed the 
subject of discussion in every household that 
day, and for many succeeding ones. 

Was it natural, or caused by illness or 
some sudden shock, this wonderfully youthful 
white hair? But the days passed, and brought 
no solution of the mystery. Questions re- 
mained unanswered and curiosity ungrati- 
fied, for the doctor never alluded to the sub- 
ject, and she, although charmingly unaffected 
in manner and evidently social by nature, had 
yet a quiet dignity and delicate reserve that 
forbade familiar and curious questioning. 



The doctor's little cottage was but a short 
distance from my old-fashioned home, and I 
was soon on the most friendly terms with its 
charming mistress. 

From the first I had been strongly drawn 
toward her, our ages being about the same, 
although she was matron, and I a maid. 

But although we in time became quite in- 
timate, and I had the strongest desire to know 
the cause of her snowy locks, I could never 
bring myself to question her. Instinctively 
I knew that she must be aware of my feeling 
on the subject and that, if she wished me to 
know, she would tell me in time. And in this 
I was not mistaken, as time proved. 

On a beautiful afternoon, bright with sun- 
shine and musical with the song of birds, I 
was seized with a desire for my new friend's 
companionship, and yielding to the impulse, I 
ran across to the doctor's pretty cottage. 

The little parlor, bright with flowers and 
deliciously cool, was empty, and I unceremon- 
iously seated myself to await the entrance of 
its charming mistress. 

When she appeared, a few moments later, 
I could not repress an exclamation of de- 
light and admiration. In pure white, even to 
her dainty slippers, and with a single half 
blown . rose of palest pink nestling in the 
snowy masses of hair, rolled high above her 
brow a la Pompadour, she resembled some 
dainty powdered dame of Colonial days more 
than a being of this prosaic age. 

"O Helen!" I exclaimed impulsively. 
"How lovely you look! You might be mas- 
querading as 'the snow queen' or some 
beauty of Marie Antoinette's court!" 

"Don't flatter!" she smiled. "My hair is 
really white, not powdered. Yes, white, but not 
with years, for it grew white in a single night, 
as men's have grown from sudden fears!" 



(28) 



HOW IT HAPPENED 



29 



"I didn't mean ' I stammered, over- 
whelmed with the realization that I had 
unwittingly drawn attention to the tabooed 
subject 

"I know you didn't allude to my bleached 
locks, dear," still smiling, she replied. "And 
for that very reason, because you have never 
by word or deed betrayed your very natural 
curiosity as to the cause of a woman of my age 
having such a head of hair, I elect to tell you 
how I happen to have snowy tresses at twenty- 
five, my present age!" 

"I have wondered of course and knew you'd 
tell me if you wished me to know " I began. 

"It is a painful subject, of which I never 
speak and seldom think," and with a graceful 
movement she sank beside me on the sofa. 

"The mood is on me now, however," she 
continued, "so I'll recount for your benefit, 
little one, the most terrible experience of my 
otherwise happy life, which changed my 
raven locks to snowy whiteness!" 

"If it pains you " I began, but she shook 
her head. 

"Of course we know that it excites curiosity 
and comment," she continued. "But we never 
speak of it, my husband and I, in hopes that I 
will forget it, but that is impossible. 

"When we were married, a few years ago, 
my husband proposed that we include in our 
wedding trip a visit to his brother's Western 
ranch. I was delighted with the idea, and so, 
after visiting various other places, we turned 
our faces westward, little dreaming how mo- 
mentous the journey was destined to prove. 
Dusk was falling over the darkening prairies, 
when the train rolled into the little town from 
which we were to proceed to the ranch by 
buckboard. It had been a long journey, and 
I was greatly fatigued, and overjoyed to leave 
the train. The dreary little station was 
crowded with strange, rough-looking men, 
who were talking and gesticulating excitedly. 
As quickly as possible, my husband hurried me 
through the throng and to the nearest hotel. 

"It was a large, rambling building, and after 
securing a room we went at once to the din- 
ing hall. As we sat at our supper at one end 
of the long table, the proprietor, a big, burly, 
red-faced man, sauntered down the room and 
paused by my husband to exchange a few 
words. 

'"There's a good deal of excitement just 
now,' he remarked genially, as he leaned on 
the back of a vacant chair, chewing a tooth- 



pick. 'The town's stirred up considerable. 
Sheriff just got in with a posse this evenin'. 
They're after Black Pete, an' chased him ten 
miles acrost the prairie, but lost sight of him 
when they got here. They think he's layin' 
low somewhere herebouts, tryin' to sneak 
aboard a train.' 

" 'Who is " Black Pete " ?' my husband asked 
interestedly. 'And what has he done?' 

"'Ain't much he hain't done!' laughed the 
host. 'Pete's what you folks call a regular 
desperado! Been the terror o' these parts for 
years an' killed more men than you can count. 
He murdered an' robbed old Mexican Jose 
last week, an' shot the deputy that was fool 
enough to try to arrest him. Sheriff's been 
after him three days an' swears he will have 
him dead or alive. There's a big reward out 
for him now.' 

'"Do you think they'll get him?' the doctor 
asked, glancing at me amusedly. 

'"Well, I dunno/and the host scratched his 
head. 'He's the devil for cunnin' an' luck, 
Pete is. When they think they have got him, 
he ain't there. They're searchin' the town an' 
railroad for him now, but the devil takes care 
of his own, you know." 

" I glanced in alarm at my husband, but he 
seemed only amused. 

"Men, I have noted, are always ready to 
laugh at a woman's fears, and what they con- 
sider bravery is really the fact that they are 
devoid of the subtile and prophetic instinct 
most women possess. Instinctively I felt a 
thrill of vague alarm at the thought of our 
long drive on the morrow, and secretly I re- 
solved to postpone the trip until the terrible 
desperado was either killed or captured. 

" Noting my alarmed expression, the good- 
natured host exclaimed, with a jolly laugh: 

'"Now don't you be gittin' skeered, on ac- 
count of Pete, ma'am. Tain't likely as he'll 
put up at this here hotel. You needn't be 
skeered a bit, ma'am." 

"I smilingly assured him that I wasnot^at 
all 'skeered/ and soon after we retired to our 
room. 

" We chatted a few moments over the events 
of the day, and my husband was in the act of 
removing his coat when there came a sound 
of hasty, heavy footsteps in the hall, and a 
loud knock at our door. With my heart in my 
throat, I saw my husband throw it open, to be 
confronted by our burly host, and close be- 
hind him a picturesque-looking cowboy. On 




; With my heart in my throat I saw my husband throw the door open." 



HOW IT HAPPEXED 



seeing me, the latter instantly removed his 
sombrero and bowed profoundly, while our 
host hurriedly explained their mission. 

" It seemed that a party of cowboys assisting 
in the search for Pete had gotten into a row at 
a saloon nearby, and one had been stabbed so 
badly that he was in danger of bleeding to 
death. A doctor was needed immediately, and 
our host had fortunately remembered hearing 
me address my husband as 'Doctor,' and 
thought perhaps he'd come. There was no 
time to hunt up another physician would he 
come? 

'" Why, certainly! Of course!' was his in- 
stant reply, and as he resumed his coat, my 
husband glanced anxiously at me. 

"'You won't be afraid to stay alone a few 
minutes, will you, Helen?' he asked. 'I won't 
be away long.' 

" I did mind it very much, however, and was 
about to say as much, when I was interrupted 
by the cowboy, who was plainly in an agony 
of suspense. 

"'Please hurry and come, doctor!' he 
gasped, fumbling nervously with his hat. 
'Bob is just bleedin' to death.' 

'"Of course you must go,' I found myself 
saying. 'But please hurry back!' and I man- 
aged to smile. 

"There's nothing to be afraid of, but still 
I'll make all haste back!' my husband 
said, and as he lifted his medicine case from 
the bed, he thrust a small revolver under 
the pillow. 

"Til leave this with you,' he said, and put 
on his hat. ' Xow go right to bed, and don't 
think of sitting up for me, ' he added. ' You 
are perfectly safe, and need a good night's 
rest.' 

" He was gone, closing the door behind him, 
and after locking it, I began to prepare for the 
night. 

" Removing my travelling dress, I donned a 
wrapper, and after brushing and braiding my 
hair, I placed my watch and purse under the 
pillow, and took from my satchel a book I had 
bought on the train. Placing the lamp on a 
small table I climbed into bed, and prepared 
to read until my husband returned. The bed 
was a large, old-fashioned, four-posted affair, 
fully three feet from the floor, and with a sigh 
of content I sank into its soft depths and 
opened my book. 

"I was soon absorbed in its fascinating pages, 
and oblivious of my surroundings, forgetful 



even of my husband's absence, I had read for 
some time and, pausing to turn a page, my 
hand was arrested by what seemed to be a 
slight movement of some kind beneath me. 

''Feeling sure, however, that the movement 
had been my own, I turned the page, but 
again, and this time unmistakably there was a 
movement of something beneath the bed! 'A 
dog, perhaps!' I told my beating heart, every 
sense now on the alert. But alas, only too 
well I knew and felt that this slow, cautious 
movement could only be made by a human 
being. 

"What did it mean ? Here I was alone in a 
strange, wild place, locked in a room, with I 
knew not what ! Perhaps we were in a den of 
thieves, and my husband had been inveigled 
away purposely, that I might be robbed and 
murdered in his absence! What could I do? 

" Xo use to scream in a locked room, and to 
spring from the bed was out of the question. 
I could never reach the door in time, and be- 
sides a hand might seize my ankle, should I 
attempt it! 

"With rigid limbs, I lay as if turned to stone, 
frozen with terror that increased every in- 
stant. 

" Ages seemed to pass, while that slow drag- 
ging movement continued, then came a slight 
jar, and, oh, horror! a sudden movement of the 
bed clothing on the side nearest . the door! 
With staring eyes, I gazed as if fascinated at 
the spot, unable to move or cry out, and when 
a round black object began to emerge, the 
blood seemed to curdle in my veins, and I 
hardly breathed! I felt as if my body was 
turning to ice, and there was an odd, pricking 
sensation at the roots of every separate hair on 
my head! 

"From beneath the hanging counterpane, a 
black bullet-shaped head emerged, followed 
by a bulky body, covered with a dingy flannel 
shirt, and a pair of long legs. 

''Another instant and their owner stood erect, 
placed a black slouch-hat upon his head, and 
'Black Pete' stood glaring down at me with 
a pair of snaky, glittering eyes! Yes, 'Black 
Pete'! That swarthy villainous face, the 
broad leather belt supporting two huge revol- 
vers could belong to no one but the famous 
hunted outlaw! 

"And in my room! In heaven's name how 
came he there ? 

"As he met my terror-stricken eyes, a fierce 
oath escaped him. 



32 



HOW IT HAPPENED 



"'Keep still,' he hissed, 'or I'll strangle 
you! Give me that money under your pillow, 
quick!' 

"The sound of his grating voice broke the 
spell that held me rigid; something seemed to 
snap within my brain, and I felt the blood 
rush through my veins. 

" Quickly rising to a sitting position, I thrust 
my hand beneath the pillow as if in obedience 
to his command, and my fingers came into 
contact with the handle of my husband's re- 
volver. 

" What prompted me, what gave me strength, 
I know not, but instantly cocking the weapon, 
I drew it forth, took quick aim, and pulled 
the trigger! There was a blinding flash, a 
sharp report, a frightful yell, then a heavy 
fall! 

"'Black Pete' had staggered back, thrown 
up his arms, and the next moment lay ex- 
tended upon the floor! Instantly there was a 
sound of running feet, blows were rained upon 
the door, with cries of ' Open ! Open ! ' How 
I managed to retain my senses, spring from 
the bed and turn the key, I never knew, but 
the next moment I was in my husband's arms, 
and the room filled with men, among them 
the tall figure of the sheriff. 

" Well, if it ain't Pete,' I heard him say as 
he bent over the body. 

"'And in this room!' my husband exclaimed. 
'In heaven's name, how did he get in, Helen ? 
The door was locked.' 

"'He was under the bed,' I explained hys- 
terically. 

He must have thought me asleep, and was 
after my money.' 

'"Just like Pete!' the sheriff exclaimed. 
'He must have sneaked in here while all the 
folks were at supper; he knew nobody would 
dream of looking for him here!' 



" Dazedly I saw him and two other men drag 
the prostrate body from the room, leaving 
upon the floor a crimson pool, where it had 
Iain. 

"'She sure was a brave little woman!' a 
cowboy exclaimed. 'She got Pete!' 

'"Did he harm you, Hglen?' my husband 
asked tenderly, as for the first time he gazed 
down at me, as I clung to him. Then he 
uttered a sharp exclamation of surprise, and 
held me away from him a little, looking 
strangely at me. 

"'What is it?' I gasped in terror. 

" For reply, he lifted the long braid of hair 
from my shoulder, and held it before my eyes. 
Instead of raven blackness it was now white 
as snow. 

"'My poor little girl,' he said, tenderly, 
'how frightened you were!' Then, woman- 
like, I fainted. . . 

"Did I kill him? No, thank heaven, but 
it was a dangerous wound. 

"While in prison awaiting his trial the des- 
perado afterwards explained, how, as the 
sheriff had surmised, he had stolen into the 
hotel unobserved and concealed himself in 
the room, hoping it would remain vacant. 

" When my husband left the room, Pete over- 
heard his words to me, ' I will leave this with 
you,' and supposing the revolver he placed 
under the pillow to be money, he decided to 
secure it, if possible, while I was asleep, and 
escape from the room before the doctor re- 
turned. 

"'Black Pete' ended his career of crime on 
the gallows, and I have never been able to 
think without a shudder of the most terrible 
experience of my life. 

" So it isn't at all strange that my husband 
and myself should be averse to telling the 
story." 



WAR 

A clash of arms, and death; a hush 
On horrors of which death is least. 

Soon dying ears shall hear the rush 
Of vultures crowding to the feast ' 

Henry Diimont. 



EMPIRE BUILDING IN TEXAS 



By THE PUBLISHER 




can be more interesting than 

to note ^ e causes tnat nave con ~ 
tributed to the greatness of nations? 

Empire-building is the subiimest 
task to which man has ever applied himself. 
Greatness in nations has always in the past 
been the product of centuries: Rome, as 
we are so constantly reminded, was not built 
in a day. Hence, until recently, man's 
knowledge of empire-building has been chiefly 
the result of reading and reflection; that 
part of the process which has fallen under 
his own observation being too meager for his 
consideration. 

A change came with the development of 
the United States. With us a hundred 
years have been as twenty centuries. From 
four million souls we have increased to ninety 
million; from a few millions the national 
wealth has grown to far in excess of one 
hundred billions. Poetry has nothing that 
so powerfully appeals to the imagination as 
this. And yet back of it all lies the most 
prosaic of all facts the interest rate. 

The interest rate is the real gauge of civili- 
zation, the real test of the greatness of nations. 
For wealth has always gone hand in hand 
with civilization. What is civilization ? It 
is the softening of man's life by the wider 
and mere effective use of the material resources 
of nature. The development of these re- 
sources is contingent on the interest rate 
on the ease or difficulty in providing the 
means to convert nature's bounty to man's 
use. So obviously vast have been the natural 
resources of this country that capital has 
never been wanting for their development. 
The interest rate has furnished capital all 
the incentive needed. 

The part which the interest rate plays in 
national development can be illustrated in 
many ways. Xo illustration is more interest- 
ing, however, than that furnished by the 
State of Texas. Consider what has occurred 
in our own day. Sixty years ago there were 
212,000 persons in Texas scattered over 
265,896 square miles. Today there are 
4,700,000. In 1880 Texas farm lands and 



their improvements were valued at $170,- 
468,886, but twenty years later, in 1900, the 
value was 8691,773,613. lii the same period 
the value of the farm implements rose from 
$9,051,491 to 830.125,705, that of the live 
stock from $76,563,987 to $240,576,955. 
In short, there was an increase in Texas farm 
property of about $706,500,000 in the twenty 
years, and these are the figures of ten years 
ago, the latest obtainable from the United 
States Census. At that time the total wealth 
of the state was reckoned at $2,322,151,631. 

Bearing in mind that it was only sixty- 
five years ago that Texas was admitted to 
the Union, this is an astonishing record in 
empire building. For Texas is certainly an 
empire. None of the monarchies of Europe, 
with the exception of Russia, can show a 
larger area than hers she possesses 57,000 
square miles more of territory than the 
Kaiser's realm. From this it will be seen 
that, great as have been her achievements 
of the last few decades, they are after all in- 
considerable in comparison with what the 
future has in store for her. Here great di- 
versity of soil, the multifarious character of 
her natural resources, her geographical posi- 
tion, and the high type of immigration which 
has swelled her population, all point to the 
day when in numbers and wealth and every 
adjunct of empire, save those of making 
treaties and levying war, she will be on a 
par with the old world empires. 

Can we seriously credit all this to the 
interest rate ? We can indeed. For man will 
not work, he certainly will not transfer his 
household gods to strange climes, without 
the prospect of interest on his capital. 

Many kinds of capital have been employed 
in the development of Texas, and every kind 
with the hope of gain. The Texas empire 
builder has used his own capital, he has 
borrowed his neighbor's capital, and he has 
had placed at his disposal a great amount of 
foreign capital. Each of these three kinds 
he has employed in most effective fashion. 
With his own capital he has paid, or part 
paid, for his homestead; with his own capital 



(33; 



34 



EMPIRE BUILDING IN TEXAS 




IN THE TEXAS ORCHARDS WHERE FRUIT ABOUNDS 



and his neighbor's he has, so far as it would 
go, built" his towns and cities, and provided 
them with all the appurtenances of a highly 
refined municipal life; with foreign capital 
he has supplemented his own and his neigh- 
bor's capital in farm development, in muni- 
cipal improvements, in building up industries 
of all kinds, and particularly in providing 
the community with highly perfected public 
utilities. He himself, his neighbor and the 
foreign lender all had to have their interest; 
without the promise of it, Texas would today 
be where she was in days of Sam Houston. 
Nothing more strikingly attests the great- 
ness of Texas than the amount of foreign 
capital she has employed. All the world is 
one in the matter of capital. Capital is as 
fluid as water. As water always seeks its 
level, so capital always seeks those localities 
where it is sure of the best interest return. 
It knows no such thing as geographical limi- 
tations. It is interesting to speculate on 
what this country would be today if foreign 
capital had played no part here, if European 
investors had not put their money heavily into 
our national, state and municipal bonds, 
and into our railroad and industrial securities, 
and if thousands of Europeans had not put 



their wealth into American farms. Foreign 
capital gave this republic its great industrial 
impetus a century ago, and foreign capital 
has continued to be one of the chief factors 
in our national development right down to 
the present day. When, for whatever reason, 
any considerable portion of this capital is 
called home, the effect upon our financial 
and industrial situation is very marked, as 
was the case in 1903, when such a movement 
caused a fair-sized panic and a year of hard 
times. 

Texas is great, and is destined to be vastly 
greater, because she ministers to the most 
essential needs of mankind. She clothes and 
feeds the world to an unprecedented extent. 
Nearly one-fifth of the cotton of the world 
is raised within her limits, and sixty-nine of 
every seventy bales are used elsewhere. To 
pick the crop requires $15,000,000, and 
$14,000,000 more is needed to gin and com- 
press it. Three-fourths of the annual yield 
is shipped to Great Britain. The bill for 
transporting the staple to Great Britain is 
$32,000,000, and the cost to the British mills 
of converting the Texas cotton into goods is 
$100,000,000. Could anything more graph- 
ically disclose what the interest rate is doing 



EMPIRE BUILDING IX TEXAS 



35 



for Texas? Cotton is still king in this 
country. America has no monopoly of wheat 
or beef, but the. world has yet to find a genuine 
competitor of America in cotton-raising. 
And Texas is first of all our cotton states. 
In 1908 the total value of her yield was 
$192,000,000. 

But the strength of Texas' agricultural 
situation lies in "the fact that she is not a one- 
crop state. Her agriculture, in fact, is char- 
acterized by a splendid diversification. 
Against her 8192,000,000 of cotton in 1908 
may be placed the 8148,000,000 which she 
derived from her corn, wheat, oats, rice, 
barley and rye. Striking as these figures 
are, their real value is to be gained only by 
contrasting them with previous records. In 
1908 the acreage planted to cotton, from 
which the 8192,000,000 was derived, was 
9,316,000. These figures have an astounding 
meaning when we recall that in 1900 the 
cotton acreage was 6,960,000, and the value 
of the product 884,332,000. Corn is another 
revelation. In 1900 the state produced 
109,970,000 bushels, valued at $34,424,000; 
in 1908 the yield was 201,848,000 bushels, 
valued at 8119,090,000. 

Time would fail adequately to portray the 
agricultural growth of this remarkable com- 
munity. It is sufficient to call attention to 
the fact that in 1908 cotton, corn, oats, wheat, 
barley, rye, rice, potatoes, hay and tobacco 
returned the people of Texas 8353,578,915, 
to which vegetables and fruits added $3,- 
K), dairy products, poultry and eggs, 
wool, mohair, forest products and certain 
other commodities 838,192,146, and sugar 
and molasses 83,500,000, a grand total of 
$399,153,661 for the farm products of the 
state, not including live stock. The value 
of the live stock in Texas in 1908, though not 
i.f course the product of that one year, was 
$314,175,097. 

The ranches of Texas have long excited 
the amazement of the world. For years past, 
Texas has annually furnished the North- 
western range states Nebraska, Colorado, 
Wyoming, Montana and the Dakotas about 
400,000 cattle, mostly steers, worth approxi- 
mately 810,000,000. In addition she derives 
a goodly number of millions from her ship- 
ments to Kansas and Oklahoma of steers 
and cows for fattening purposes. And ac- 
count must also be taken of the tens of thou- 
sands of young, immature calves and steers 



that are annually shipped as stockers and 
feeders. Though complete statistics are not 
easily obtained, it is easy to see that cattle 
have contributed enormously to the wealth 
of the state. The record of the cattle busi- 
ness of Fort Worth alone in any one year 
will afford a fair insight into the nature of 
the total cattle industry of Texas. For the 
year 1908 there were sold and slaughtered 
by the packers of Fort Worth 652,853 cattle 
and calves, of the reasonable market value 
of $9,437,721. There were sold to order 
buyers and others 206,465 cattle and calves, 
of the reasonable market value of $3,175,047. 
There were sold and forwarded to other 
markets by speculators 216,296 cattle and 
calves, of the reasonable market value of 
82,939,267. There were sold and taken out 
for feeding 15,028 cattle, of the reasonable 
market value of $225,420. There were for- 
warded on through billing to other markets, 
and not sold at Fort Worth, 120,775 cattle 
and calves, of the reasonable market value 
of $2,092,814. The grand total for the 
year was 1,211,817 cattle and calves, valued 
at $17,926,269, for the Fort Worth market 
alone. 

The mineral wealth of Texas is large and 
of a varied character. One mineral product 
in particular has added greatly to the wealth 
of the state petroleum. In 1896 only 




TEXAS PRODUCTS ALWAYS EXCEL 



36 



EMPIRE BUILDING IN TEXAS 



1,450 barrels of heavy and light oil were pro- 
duced; in 1905 the production was 28,136,189 
barrels. 

Where nature has been so affluent man 
has been at his best. Nowhere has human 
effort told for more in the last fifty years than 
in Texas. Manufactures and commerce 
have followed hard upon agriculture. The 
United States Census tells us that in 1860 
Texas possessed 983 manufactories, capital- 
ized at $3,372,450, with 3,449 employees, 
and with an annual product of $6,577,202. 
In 1905 (the last census year) the number 
was 18,556, capitalized at $164,318,363, 
with 61,202 employees, and an annual pro- 
duct of $193,452,270. Since 1905 the in- 
dustrial growth has exceeded that of any 
previous period of similar length, and today 
it is safe to estimate the number of manu- 
factories at 30,803, capitalized at $298,566,- 
465, with 77,788 employees, and an annual 
product of $313,392,677. 

All this is reflected in a marvelous rail- 
road development. In 1861 there were 
about 300 miles of railroad in Texas; on 
June 30, 1909, there were 13,110 miles. 
And nothing is more characteristic of this 
community than its magnificent lines of street 
and interurban railways. Railroads have 
multiplied and flourished in Texas for two 
reasons; first, the vast territorial extent of 
the state and its multifarious industries called 
for them; second, nature has designed 
Galveston as one of the greatest shipping 
points on this globe. New York alone ex- 
ceeds Galveston in the amount of its com- 
merce, the shipments from the last mentioned 
port for the twelve months ended June 30, 
1909, amounting to $189,464,335. 

Such is the empire building in one section 
of the United States that has fallen under 



the observation of hosts of men and women 
now alive. How do we account for this? 
We account for it by the fact that Texas has 
been able to command the use of tremendous 
amounts of outside capital. Great as has 
been the thrift and large as have been the 
means of her citizens, they could, unaided, 
have accomplished only a tithe of what has 
actually been effected. To the thrift and 
capital of Texas have been added the thrift 
and capital of the United States and Europe. 
To this union of forces is due the enormous 
extent of the agriculture, the manufactures, 
the railroads and commerce of the state, and 
to it are due the large and fine cities and the 
comfortable towns of this empire of the 
Southwest. Texas, though one of the young- 
est communities industrially, is the peer of 
the oldest and most highly developed, for 
the reason that the oldest and most highly 
developed have found her one of the safest 
and most profitable fields for investment. 
The excess wealth they could not use at home 
they have poured into her ample lap. 

To the investors who in the past loaned 
their money to Texas farmers, to those who 
bought Texas railroad bonds, to those who 
financed the Texas oil fields, to those who 
bought the commercial paper of Texas 
mercantile houses, to those who absorbed 
the bonds of Texas municipalities, to such 
persons as Stone & Webster, who have con- 
tributed so powerfully to the building up of 
the magnificent system of Texas street and 
interurban railways, to these and to countless 
others whom time would fail to mention is 
in large measure due the present standing of 
Texas among the industrial communities of 
the earth. Mother Nature furnished the 
opportunity, and internal thrift and external 
capital the means. 



IF YOU ONLY KNEW 

If you only knew, sweetheart, 
The hours I spend with you. 
To all the world I seem alone, 
Though my heart to you will roam, 
O'er the hills of snowy white, 
Through the dark and lonesome night. 
To your breast it softly creeps, 
Sighs with love and sleeps and sleeps. 

Wm. Hodge. 



BUSINESS MEN AS SENATORS 



SKETCH OF THE ENERGETIC SENATOR FROM COLORADO, 
WHO KNOWS HOW TO GET THINGS FOR HIS CONSTITUENTS 



FROM the viewpoint of the practical West, 
and sometimes even of the less practical 
East, the legislator who best serves his con- 
stituents in the great legislative forum at 
Washington, is the one who obtains for these 
constituents the most appropriations, gets 
them the largest number of government jobs, 
looks the closest after their business matters, 
in the various Departments, and who makes 
himself in truth, as well as in theory, the 
sen-ant of those who sent him to represent 
them at the National capital. 

This is particularly true in its application 
to legislators from the West, and is mainly 
due to the fact that the West needs much as- 
sistance from the National Government. The 
West is in a state of transition, and to grow 
and develop must have national aid for the 
development of its industries aid no longer 
needed by the older-settled parts of the coun- 
try, the East and Middle West. 

The West must have appropriations to re- 
c'aim its barren wastes; its cities and towns 
must have federal buildings; there is a con- 
stant demand for changes in legislation affect- 
ing the disposition of western public lands; 
n?\v laws are required to adjust the disposal 
of Indian lands, and countless questions are 
constantly arising in Congress and the de- 
partments in regard to western conditions, 
long since settled for other sections. 

The legislator, Senator or Representative, 
who accomplishes these things is the one whom 
his constituency usually re-elects. He may 
be of that class of eloquent statesmen who get 
in.o the Record and the public prints but, 
unless, in addition to his oratory, he can ob- 
tain appropriations for public buildings, se- 
cure funds for irrigation enterprises, military 
posts, and resurveys of public lands, his 
ry will count for little when election day 
comes around. And to accomplish these 
things it is essential that he be constantly on 
the job. He must typify industry and per- 
sistence, for without either or both he will fail. 

Among the Senators in Congress who have 
notable reputations as hard workers is the 
senior Senator from Colorado, Simon Guggen- 



heim. One of his constituents recently wrote 
of him: "He is the hardest worker and the 
most successful senator the State has had for 
some time," and Senator Guggenheim lives 
up to this reputation. 

Colorado has an area which is greater than 
the combined areas of the States of New 
York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Of 
course, a people of a State when the National 
Administration is Republican, naturally look 
to their Republican representatives in Con- 
gress to assist them, and, as Senator Guggen- 
heim is the sole member of the Republican 
party in Congress from Colorado, practically 
all of the needs and demands of that State 
fall to his lot. Thus in area he has the work 
to look after for Colorado that the six Repub- 
lican Senators and sixty Republican Repre- 
sentatives have for the three States of New 
York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. If 
federal patronage were of any benefit to a 
Senator, the Colorado Senator would be in 
great luck, for he is the sole dispenser of such 
patronage for his State, including federal 
court officials, land office and'treasury officials, 
and upwards of a thousand postmasters. 

Senator Guggenheim is an unceasing 
worker. He is at his committee room in the 
capitol early in the morning, getting his cor- 
respondence with constituents answered so 
that he can later be in attendance upon the 
proceedings in the senate chamber, and he 
attends personally to the many hundreds of 
requests of constituents requiring attention 
in the various departments. 

In choosing committee places, Senator Gug- 
genheim picked out the ones likely to enable 
him to be of assistance to his own state and 
the West. He has assignments on Agricul- 
ture and Forestry, Conservation of National 
Resources, Mines and Mining, Post Offices 
and Post Roads, Census, Pacific Railroads, 
and Philippines, and is chairman on the Com- 
mittee on the University of the United States. 

Senator Guggenheim comes of a family 
which has made industry and honesty its 
watchwords. He was born in Philadelphia 
in 1867, and has been a citizen of Colorado 

(37) 



BUSINESS MEN AS SENATORS 




SENATOR SIMON GUGGENHEIM OF COLORADO 



for over twenty years, going there in 1888 to 
engage in the smelting and refining business. 

Of the seven sons of Meyer Guggenheim, 
the founder of the family, Senator Guggen- 
heim is the only one who has shown any pref- 
erence for public life. In 1894 he was nomi- 
nated for Lieutenant-Governor of Colorado, 
but withdrew from the ticket because he was 
under the age of thirty required by the state 
constitution as the minimum age for the 
occupant of that office. Two years later he 
was nominated for the position of Governor, 
but declined the nomination. In 1907, after 
Colorado had been in Democratic senatorial 
hands for six years, he was elected without 
opposition to the Senate to succeed Thomas 
M. Patterson. 

Mr. Guggenheim's career in the Senate has 
been marked by characteristic unobtrusive- 
ness and by faithful attention to the very 
many duties devolving upon a member of 
that body. In the comparatively short time 
he has been in the Senate, he has obtained the 
close personal friendship of most of its mem- 
bers and enjoys the confidence and esteem of 
the Senate leaders, Republican and Demo- 
cratic. Recognizing the tradition of the 
Senate that newcomers be chary of speech, he 



has not sought to attract attention as an ora- 
tor, but during the progress of the tariff bill 
discussion, his opinions were called for on 
many business propositions, especially those 
relating to mining, and he discussed these 
questions on the floor of the Senate with ease 
and effect. He was enabled to accomplish 
much in the framing of the tariff bill of ad- 
vantage to the mining and other business 
interests of his state and of the entire West. 
He is a protectionist and was instrumental 
in retaining the Dingley rates on wool and 
obtained increased tariff rates f>n tungsten, zinc, 
lead and other mineral products of the West. 
When Mr. Guggenheim was elected to the 
Senate he resigned all of the positions he held 
in the companies with which he was con- 
nected, with the expressed intention of devot- 
ing his entire time to the duties of his office 
as United States Senator, an intention he has 
faithfully carried into effect. While some may 
complain that he does not fill the pages of the 
Congressional Record with bursts of oratory, 
none can say that he does not get results in 
obtaining desirable legislation for the benefit 
of his state, or that he does not faithfully at- 
tend to the reasonable wants of his con- 
stituents. 



THE AMERICAN RED CROSS 



By MABEL T. BOARDMAN 



FIRST originating in the United States in 
1882, the American Red Cx>ss, at the 
time of its reorganization in 1905, and after 
twenty-three years of existence, had about 
three hundred members. Since its reorgani- 
zation it has increased its membership to 
nearly twenty thousand, but is still far short 
of the membership of the societies of Europe 
and Japan; the latter country, with a popula- 
tion of not more than half that of the United 
States, has a Red Cross membership of over 
one million four hundred thousand. If, how- 
ever, the American Red Cross is so far behind 
in its membership it has much to its credit in 
the relief work it has accomplished since its 
reorganization. 

On the walls of its small office in the State, 
War and Navy Building at Washington hang 
two maps, one of the United States and the 
other of the world. On these are dotted many 
small red crosses, each bearing the year in 
which the relief work was rendered in the 
country that it marks. On the far-away 
Philippines, on Japan and China, twice on 
Italy, on Portugal, Russia, Canada, Mexico, 
Jamaica, Nicaragua and Chili, rests this 
wonderful sign of universal humanity. With- 
in our own states it is found on Massachu- 
setts, West Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, 
Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, Illi- 
nois, Michigan, Minnesota and California. 

In all save two of these countries and 
states the terrible devastation wrought by 
some great force of nature has brought thou- 
sands down to distress and destitution through 
no fault of their own. At such times the Red 
Cross comes to the unfortunate victims, who 
are discouraged, despairing, and sometimes 
suffering from bodily injury, and brings to 
them the same bright hope, help and brotherly 
sympathy that it has carried to many a 
wounded soldier upon the battlefield. Dur- 
ing the last four years it has expended about 
five million dollars in relief work, without 
including hundreds of thousands more in the 
value of supplies of food, clothing, etc., and 
not counting the three or four hundred thou- 



sand dollars raised by the little Red Cross 
Christmas Stamp to help in the great fight 
against the terrible pestilence of tuberculosis. 
Shocked as we are when some great calam- 
ity destroys hundreds of our fellow-men, we 
have failed to realize the great mortality and 
injury due daily to accidents throughout our 
country. Statistics show that in our mines 
alone over seven men are killed each day and 
nearly twenty injured, and railroad statistics 
would doubtless show a still greater number. 
Mindful of its duty "to continue and carry on 
a system of relief in time of peace and apply 
the same in mitigating the sufferings caused 
by disaster, and also to devise and carry on 
measures for preventing the same," the Ameri- 
can Red Cross is taking up this work along 
the lines of instruction in precaution and first 
aid. On the principle that an ounce of pre- 
vention is worth a pound of cure, over sixty 
thousand posters on which are printed pre- 
cautions against accidents have been given on 
their request to the railroads of the country, 
and posted in their stations. Another smaller 
poster of a like nature, for use in trolley cars, 
has just been prepared and will soon be ready 
for distribution. Thus precaution is the first 
step, but as in spite of precaution many 
serious accidents must occur, the Red Cross 
is taking the second step in the development 
of First Aid Instructions. The Surgeon 
General of the War Department has detailed 
Major Charles Lynch of the Army Medical 
Service to take charge of this important work 
of the Red Cross, for men having received 
such instructions would be invaluable in 
time of war as hospital orderlies. Major 
Lynch is chairman of a Committee on First 
Aid composed of members of the War and 
National Relief Boards and men interested 
in mines, railroads, shipping and great indus- 
trial concerns. Arrangements have been 
made with the Y. M. C. A. to issue a joint 
certificate of that Association and the Ameri- 
can Red Cross to such members as have 
successfully passed the first aid examination. 
The Red Cross has just secured the services 



(39) 



40 



THE AMERICAN RED CROSS 



of Dr. M. J. Shields, v.ho has accomplished 
a remarkably fine work in the organizing and 
instruction of first aid teams among the 
anthracite miners of Pennsylvania; and will 
send Dr. Shields, at its own expense, to the 
different mining districts of the country to 
organize this work in these communities. 
Already a number of mining companies have 
asked for his assistance. Dr. Shields teaches 
to the miners not only first aid, but necessary 
precautions against accidents. 

It is the plan of the Red Cross to extend 
this work among the railroad men, the sailors 
of the merchant marine, industrial employees, 
and the firemen and police of our cities as 



; 



carry on relief after national disasters; and the 
International Relief Board, with Mr. Hunt- 
ington Wilson, First Assistant Secretary of 
State, as chairman, to take charge of the re- 
lief rendered after serious disasters in other 
countries. 

The War Board has had prepared a com- 
plete list of all coastwise vessels suitable for 
hospital ships, the changes necessary to fit 
them for such a purpose, together with a de- 
tailed report on all necessary equipment and 
the cost thereof. The questions of hospital 
trains, field hospitals, civil hospital accom- 
modations, transformation of automobiles into 
ambulances, of enrollment of doctors and 




RED CROSS DAY CAMP FOR CONSUMPTIVES ON ROOF OF VANDERBILT CLINIC 



fast as its finances permit. It also hopes to be 
able to secure the services of an able, trained 
nurse who, under instructions of the Commit- 
tee on Red Cross Nurses, will take up the 
work of organizing the nursing corps, and 
arranging simple courses for home nursing 
of the sick for women who cannot afford to 
employ trained nurses in case of illness in 
their families and must care for the sick 
themselves. 

Mention has been made of certain national 
boards. These are three in number, the War 
Relief Board, with the Surgeon General of 
the Army as chairman; to study, plan and 
organize for war relief work; the National 
Relief Board, with Miss Mabel T. Boardman 
of the Central Committee as chairman, to 



nurses, and of First Aid instructions for the 
purpose of providing the necessary personnel 
are receiving its study and consideration. 

The National Board has made a careful 
study of how to secure the necessary personnel 
for active relief work after disasters. Seven 
or eight of the best Charity Organizations of 
the country have been accepted as institu- 
tional members of the Red Cross, to take 
charge of active relief work after disasters. 
The National Director, Mr. Ernest P. Bick- 
nell, has lately been utilizing members of the 
Chicago Bureau of Charities in the Cherry 
Mine disaster relief, securing in this way per- 
sons who, speaking Italian and Polish, were 
able to talk in their own language with the 
unfortunate widows of many of the foreign 



THE AMERICAN RED CROSS 



41 



miners. Under Mr. Bicknell's plan, which 
has been approved by the National Relief 
Board, an arrangement is being worked out to 
combine relief funds so that they may be used 
to pension the widows and children until the 
latter have reached a self-supporting age. 
Mr. Joseph C. Logan of the Atlanta Charity 
Organization was sent by the National 
Relief Board to Key West, and planned with 
the mayor, the officer at the United States 
Army Post and the local committee, a system 
of relief, so that while the Red Cross was pro- 
viding daily rations, given out from the Army 
Post, the funds received could be utilized to 
aid the sponge and other fishermen to rebuild 



New York Sub-Committee consists of Mr. H. 
P. Davison of J. Pierpont Morgan Company, 
chairman; Mr. Felix Warburg, of Kuhn,Loeb 
& Company; Hon. Robert Bacon, Hon. 
Charles Hallam Keep and Hon. Lloyd C. 
Griscom, all of whom have consented to serve. 
Sub-committees in other states will soon be 
appointed. So far Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan 
has generously promised one hundred thou- 
sand dollars as soon as four hundred thousand 
has been raised, Mrs. Russell Sage has in- 
creased her original contribution, making a 
total of fifty thousand dollars, and another 
generous woman has promised a like amount. 
Mr. Jacob Schiff contributes twenty -five thou- 




MINERS' FIRST AID COMPETITION UNDER RED CROSS AUSPICES 



their boats and thus to enable them to again 
support themselves. The work of the Na- 
tional Relief Board is not only to mitigate the 
immediate suffering after disaster, but to lessen 
its duration and place the victims again in a 
self-supporting position. 

While developing and carrying on the work 
already stated, the Red Cross is also bending 
its energies toward the raising of such an En- 
dowment Fund as will place it upon a firm 
financial base, that it may always be ready to 
render immediate relief without being forced 
to wait until contributions are received. Presi- 
dent Taft, as president of the American Red 
Cross, has appointed the Hon. Franklin 
MacVeagh, Secretary of the Treasury, chair- 
man of the Endowment Committee, and Mr. 
Charles D. Norton, vice-chairman. The 



sand dollars, the Messrs. Guggenheim twenty 
thousand dollars and Mr. Warburg ten 
thousand dollars. 

President Taft ends his letter to this com- 
mittee as follows: 

"The standing of this remarkable organiza- 
tion throughout the world, its importance to 
our own country, and its beneficent influence 
for peace and good will in international relief 
work commend it to the public -spirited men 
and women of the United States. I believe, 
gentlemen, you cannot appeal to them in vain 
to aid in providing the American Red Cross 
with an endowment fund of two million dol- 
lars, less than the funds of the Societies of the 
other first powers, so that our National Society 
may take its proper place in this great inter- 
national institution." 




WACHUSETT DAM AT CLINTON, MASSACHUSETTS 



GREAT AMERICAN 
ENGINEERING PROJECTS 



By MITCHELL MANNERING 



V *-T 'N the great engineering projects of 
the past century, America has fur- 
nished the world with some strik- 
^""""^ ^"^ ing examples of how difficulties 
that seemed impossible may be surmounted. 
Time was when the engineer and builder 
occupied a mediocre position in the scale of 
society at large, but today the most gigantic 
problems of the twentieth century have been 
put into their hands to solve. America has 
offered illimitable possibilities in many dif- 
ferent lines of endeavor, but that of building 
has been uppermost. The history of con- 
struction in this country began with road- 
making and bridge-building, especially the 
latter, and some of these old-fashioned wooden 
covered bridges remain today as ancient 



landmarks testifying the skill of these pioneer 
builders. 

An elaborate system of canals planned to 
connect the various inland settlements with 
tide water furnished a tremendous field for 
construction work during the first half of the 
past century. So conspicuous did the move- 
ment become that it is not unlikely that had 
the coming of railroads been deferred another 
twenty years, the country would have had a 
great network of waterways. Many of the 
European canals were rebuilt according to 
American ideas; the canal-building impulse 
spread throughout our entire country; and 
previous to the advent of the railroads there 
had been constructed nearly six thousand 
miles of waterway. The building of railroads 



(42) 



GREAT AMERICAN' ENGINEERING PROJECTS 



-13 




WORK IN P 



'HE FAMOl 



IPLETED IX 1907. BETWEEN" LAKE 



SUPERIOR AND THE LOWER LAKES, WHICH CARRIES MORE COMMERCE 
THAN ANY OTHER BODY OF WATER 



has since been the greatest single constructive 
enterprise in the country. 

Before the locomotive, the moving of heavy 
loads on iron tracks was adopted by an in- 
genious use of gravity. The tracks were 
constructed in a succession of inclines; the 
loaded cars hauled to the top of each suc- 
ceeding hill and allowed to coast to the next 
incline, to be again dragged to the top in a 
similar way by the use of cables. The com- 
ing of the locomotive marked the end of the 
gravity road, as well as the decline of canal 
construction. 

What a romance is unfolded in the history 
of railroad construction! Beginning in 1830 
with but forty miles of track, the path of the 
"great iron horse" was rapidly extended 
until today hundreds of thousands of miles 
have been constructed at an expense of mil- 
lions upon millions of dollars in blazing the 
path for civilization and progress. Above 
and below, spanning the air and tunnelling 
the earth, the work continues with increasing 
magnitude. No sooner has one great feat been 
accomplished than conditions arise which de- 
mand new and greater accommodations. The 
builder's "task is never done"; like a tide 



on the restless ocean which ebbs and flows, 
it sweeps back and forth across the land. 

\Yithin the last fifteen years, the age of 
reconstructing and rebuilding in America 
has developed a noteworthy prominence. 
Railroads which had been congested on a 
single track have been double-tracked, and 
in many cases four rows of steel have been 
laid to connect one commercial point with 
another The building of subways and 
elevated railways in the larger cities was 
an inevitable relief to the throngs of humanity 
who must have rapid means of communica 
tion to and from their daily labor. Immense 
bridges and tunnels have replaced the slow- 
moving, cumbersome ferries, and trolley 
lines reach here, there and everywhere. The 
world soon becomes educated, as it were, 
to these tremendous accomplishments, and 
accepts them as a matter of course. The 
work on the Panama Canal, representing the 
climax of constructive effort of today, will, 
within a few years, be succeeded by other 
gigantic projects which, if presented a century 
ago, would have been considered as impos- 
sible as harnessing the earth to Jupiter. 

The number of men who have lost their 



44 



GREAT AMERICAN ENGINEERING PROJECTS 




WORK IN PROCESS ON THE CHICAGO DRAINAGE CANAL WHICH CONNECTS THE WATERS 

OF LAKE MICHIGAN WITH THE GULF OF MEXICO. BUILT BOTH FOR 

THE PURPOSE OF DRAINAGE AND SHIPPING 



lives in America's great construction work 
during the past century will never be known. 
Many incidents might be cited that would tell 
a sad but strange story of devotion to great 
accomplishments. One of the great-grand- 
sires of the present MacArthur Brothers was 
an engineer and contractor and lost his life 
while completing a span across the Alleghany 
River near Pittsburgh. With inherited genius, 
however, great engineering projects have been 
carried on in succeeding generations by the 
family, and their records show the successful 
completion of some of the greatest works 
undertaken. 

In the building of the Erie Canal, its 
tributaries, feeders and reservoirs, they 
played an important part; and what this 
enterprise meant to the opening up and de- 
velopment of the West a century ago, it is 
hard now to realize in these days of railroads 
and rapid transit. Fast on the heels of the 
canals came the railways, and turning from 
canals to railways, this family of builders 
(the fathers and uncles of the present Mac- 
Arthurs), after building extensively in the 
East, took a leading part during the last 
century in building up the great railway 



systems of the West. At the same time, they 
continued hydraulic works and the building 
of locks, dams, canals and reservoirs for the 
United States and the state governments. 

Their works in recent years have been not 
less extensive. Not long ago they built the 
"Soo Canal," connecting Lake Superior with 
the lower Lakes, which carries more com- 
merce than any similar body of water in the 
world. In 1902, out of a low, swampy dis- 
trict south of Chicago, they constructed for 
the Chicago W'orld's Fair the interesting 
site which it finally occupied, with its arti- 
ficial lakes, islands and expansive plazas; 
and then constructed many of the large build- 
ings of the Exhibition. In 1893-98, after 
bidding upon the whole, they were awarded 
and constructed large portions of the Chicago 
Drainage Canal, that opened up the waters 
from Lake Michigan to the Gulf of Mexico. 
In 1900 they undertook for the Metropolitan 
District of Boston the building of the Wachu- 
sett dam situated at Clinton, Massachusetts, 
then the largest of its kind, creating a reser- 
voir which required the removal of a town of 
several thousand inhabitants that lay in the 
center of the district. In the last five years, 



GREAT AMERICAN ENGINEERING PROJECTS 



45 






F! 






LONE TREE CREEK. FILL BY CABLEWAY OX THE UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD 



they have built a similar dam the Cross 
River dam for the city of New York. 
During these same years they have carried 
on extensive building of railways in various 
parts of the country, notably the Tidewater 
Railway, in which the late H. H. Rogers 
was so deeply interested; the Western Mary- 
land Railroad, the Carolina, Clinchfield & 
Ohio Railway and others. Three years ago, 
upon the public invitation of the government, 
they made a definite bid for the building and 
completing of the Panama Canal, but the 
government eventually decided to continue 
the work itself under its own Army officers. 

In addition to railways, dams and other 
works now being built by] them in various 
parts of the country, this firm is likewise 
engaged in the construction of the new 
Ashokan Reservoir to store 500,000,000,000 
gallons of water for the additional water 
supply of New York City. This reservoir 
will submerge a country of villages and farms 
covering a distance of twelve and one-half 
miles, and here, as was the case in building 
the \Vachusett dam, every tree, fence and 
farmhouse must be removed. 

This work will consume seven years, and 
amounts to over twelve million dollars. 

Such is something of the record of one of 



America's building families, which, starting 
near the outset of the nation's history, has 
kept pace with the times and its opportuni- 
ties. Other records of other builders, though 
perhaps not so long or so extensive, might 
be cited to show the genius of Americans 
for great things. 

* * * 

The American contractor is alive to his 
possibilities. He does not wait for plans 
and specifications to be placed before him, 
but devotes his time to careful study and 
problems far in advance of their actual ac- 
complishment. Drawing on his vast ex- 
perience and observation, he is prepared to 
estimate and earn," to successful completion 
any project, no matter how formidable it 
may be. He has played an important part 
in the world's advancement, and he will 
continue to occupy a conspicuous role in the 
years to come. 

The great contracting firms of the country 
these wonderful combinations of men, horses 
and machinery with their thousands upon 
thousands of "day laborers" dotting each 
new work like a human ant-hill, are typical 
and indispensable to the rapid change and 
growth of the present age. They are truly 
and literally "the builders of a nation." 




IN THE 



COSY CORNER 




'RITTEN contributions for this 
Department must not exceed five 
hundred words in length. Any- 
thing unusual or of especial in- 
terest will be welcome, especially if it has 
come under the personal notice of contrib- 
utors or their friends. Snapshots of curious 
relics, historical places concerning which 
little is known, or any other pictures of 
especial interest will also be gladly received. 
Awards are from $5 to $1 according to the 
merits of the story or photograph published. 



"LOST ON THE LAKE" 

BY E. W. NAEGELE 

Were you ever bewildered, not knowing 
what your fate might be? Were you ever 
near to" death, realizing your perilous posi- 
tion? Such was my experience one night, 
while I was lost on the lake, groping in the 
lark, hoping to find the shore. 

Up here in Minnesota we have some 
beautiful sheets of water, which generally 
freeze over on a cold night, when the wind 
has gone to rest and all is still; on such a 
night the ice forms perfectly and the next 
day one beholds a beautiful large mirror, 
smooth as glass, which affords the finest kind 
of skating. 

During the first years of our married life, 
our home was situated on the shore of Lake 
Calhoun, a beautiful lake about four miles 
around the shore line. My business was 
in the city, and often my duties compelled 



me to work late into the night. As the lake 
is but a short distance from the house, I 
would often go on my skates, taking a 
straight cut over the glassy ice, and return 
in the evening in the same way, thus saving 
at least an hour on every trip. It was 
during a very busy fall season, and late 
hours were the rule in the bank. Finally 
this additional night work taxed the strength 
of body and mind. One particular evening 
found me on the shore of the lake home- 
ward bound almost too tired to put on 
my skates. There hung a heavy fog or 
mist over the lake, which was not unusual, 
but it was so dense that one could not see 
ten feet ahead. After clamping on my skates, 
then picking up an old "chimney" stick 
for a guide, I glided out on the ice, and into 
the mist some two hundred feet. Then, 
concluding it would be safer to reach home 
by hugging the shore line until I reached 
the other side, I reeled around and skated 
back, and back, and back I was tired and 
confused and "lost on the lake." 

Apparently returning there, but actually 
going down the ice in an opposite direction 
from my course, with nothing to guide me 
but my old "chimney" I kept on and on, 
weary and tired. Even human instinct 
failed to respond to this emergency. Then 
while steadily skipping over the ice I played 
my stick from one side to the other, directly 
in front of me, fearing any moment to drop 
into an air hole. It seemed to me I was 
riding on an airship and sailing off into the 
distance with nothing to obstruct my path 

46) 



IX THE COSY CORNER 



47 



or hinder the progress I was making, until 
finally I hefcrd a noise which proved to be 
a train passing about a mile away. This 
gave me my bearings, and I soon landed 
back at the identical spot from which I had 
started about an hour before. 

Xo wind blowing, no beacon light, no 
guide, no skaters to see or hear, nothing 
but the sleek ice and misty darkness caught 
me alone on the ice that night never will 
I forget it, no, never. 



THE LARGEST LOCOMOTIVE 

BY M. A. P. 

This is a photo of one of the largest en- 
gines handled in the Xewton, Kansas, 
yards, and one of the largest in the world. 
The largest in the world passed through 
the yards a few days ago. It was the big 
double Mallet passenger engine en route to 
the mountains. This monster is one hundred 
and four feet long, twice the ordinary length 
of a passenger engine. In the front of the 
locomotive is a flight of steps resembling 
the front steps of a residence, which is lined 
with iron banisters. The number of this 
engine is 1301. It is an articulated com- 
pound, double superheated locomotive. The 
steam from the boiler passes into the first 
superheater and then into the high-pressure 
cylinders, from which it passes back to the 
second superheater, is reheated and then 
passes into the lower pressure cylinders on 
the front end. The capacity of the tender 
is four thousand gallons of oil and twelve 
thousand gallons of water. There are six- 
teen wheels on the engine, of which ten are 
drivers. The tender has twelve wheels. 
The engine is from the Baldwin shops, and 
a Baldwin man travels with it on its west- 
ward trip to the mountains. 



THE COMIXG REVIEW 

BY LIEUT. -COL. J. A. WATROUS 

Some of the most beautiful as well as some 
of the most emphatic things I ever heard 
spoken were uttered by men whose appear- 
ance and first words gave promise of some- 
thing tedious. 

At the national encampment of the Grand 
Army, in Denver, when nominations for chap- 



lain-in-chief were called for, a tall, raw-boned, 
stoop-shouldered Irishman arose, addressed 
the commander-in-chief, and then, for a few 
seconds, gazed at the ceiling. 

" Here is a bore," said General Walker. But 
the man found himself, gave the audience of 
one thousand delegates from as many battle- 
fields a hurried glance and proceeded to make 
a thrilling and beautiful nominating speech. 

His name is Patrick H. Doherty, and he 
hails from Kansas. He said: 

"I beg the indulgence of the encampment 
to present as a candidate for cha plain-in -chief 
a comrade who, as a boy, in the Fifteenth Xew 
York Infantry, served four years in the army, 
returned after a glorious record as a soldier, 
and entered the army of the Lord, and has 
served him faithfully Rev. Father J. F. 




THE LARGEST LOCOMOTIVE 

Lear}', upon whose altar is pinned the Grand 
Army badge, and -on whose chalice is spread 
the American Flag. He has been department 
chaplain of Kansas; over his church floats our 
national emblem. He is not only a hero, but 
a patriot." 

Then came the vote, the election of Father 
Lean-, and an outburst of applause in which 
there was no sham. Doherty 's speech had 
done the work. The new chaplain was called 
out, and he said: "Comrades, this is the glad- 
dest hour of my life. I thank you from my 
heart I thank you, and may God bless you 
forever." 

A few weeks ago the old chaplain was 
mustered out and given a soldier's burial, a 
troop of cavalry and a batten- of artillery 
from Fort Riley constituting part of the funer- 
al escort. 

That sorry old tramp whose ready scythe is 
his closest companion has been mowing down 
the veterans wivhout a show of mercv this 



48 



IN THE COSY CORNER 



year. Last year he cut down and harvested 
thirty-five thousand of them, or more than 
enough for an old-day army corps, and this 
year he will make it forty thousand or as many 
as the Army of the Tennessee, first commanded 
by General Grant, had at the time General 
J. B. McPherson, its commander, was killed 
in front of Atlanta, July 22, 1864. 

Forty thousand a year! And confederates, 
twenty-five thousand a year! 

At that rate it will not be so very long be- 
fore Grant and Lee can have a joint review of 
their respective armies, in the shade, on the 
other side of the river. 



BEN BUTLER'S SPOONS SPIKED 

BY A. SHAW 

When General Benjamin F. Butler was 
the presidential candidate of the Greenback 
party during the 80's, he made a speech in 
Terre Haute, Indiana, which city was at 
that time one of the strongholds of his party. 
Major Orlande J. Smith, who recently died, 
at his home, Tarrytown-on-the-Hudson, was 
at that time a resident of Terre Haute, editor 
of The Terre Haute Express, and an ardent 
advocate of the Greenback movement. 

Through active advertising and the fame 
of General Butler, thousands of people came 
to the city to see and hear the speaker. I 
was at that time manager of the Terre 
Haute House, and the committee in charge 
of the meeting had engaged rooms for the 
entertainment of the speaker. The house 
was crowded to its capacity and everybody, 
from the manager to the bell boys, was on 
the jump. The head cook (they are chefs 
now), was an Alsatian, Jacques Lewis, by 
name, and only a recent arrival in this 
country. He talked our language very 
indifferently, and had exceedingly hazy 
ideas about many things of common interest 
to Americans at that time. During the fore- 
noon I was called upon by the head cook, 
who in his broken dialect requested my per- 
mission that he might make a special orna- 



mental dish of salad for the General's table. 
I granted permission, and the incident passed 
from my mind for the time being. During 
the rush of the dinner hour, happening to 
pass through the pantry near a refrigerator, 
I met Jacques in the act of taking his special 
salad out of cold storage, preparatory to 
sending it to the general's table, who had 
just entered the dining room. Jacques 
was much elated, and said: 

"Mr. Shaw, vill you coom, look upon ze 
salad." 

It certainly was an artistic triumph from 
an architectural viewpoint an oval mound 
of mystery on a large turkey platter, the top 
being ornamented with a Mosaic tile figure 
done in colors of white, yellow, red and 
green; the white and yellow were made from 
hard-boiled eggs, the whites and yolks being 
used separately and chopped very fine; the 
red from pickled beets and the green from 
pickles. Small sprigs of parsley were scat- 
tered over it; but the astounding feature 
was one dozen small spoons made of pastry, 
and laid in a circle around the base of the 
salad. 

The cook's smile of appreciation was 
changed to a look of dismay, when I took 
hold of his shoulder and said: 

"Great Scott, man, what did you put those 
spoons there for?" 

"De spoons? Why, for compleement the 
general, Mr. Butler. Iss he not called 
Spoons Butler? Iss it not heem?" 

"Send in your salad, but remove the 
spoons." 

Very reluctantly he gathered up the spoons, 
and I left him. The salad was placed upon 
the general's table with the compliments of 
the cook, and that it met with the General's 
approval was evidenced by the fact that he 
accompanied his thanks with a silver dollar, 
which the cook cherished as his most valued 
possession so long as he remained in my 
employ. What would have happened had 
the salad with its decoration of spoons been 
placed before General Butler, I leave to the 
imagination of the reader. 



TheD 

Cactus 



ramaat 



.By 




LeRoy 




it is sure elevating and amus- 
ing this here drama," said 'Fr^co 
musingly, as he poked a dry branch 
o f cottonwood into the fire. 
The stars twinkled lazily overhead and at 
a little distance our ponies, after forty miles 
of hard riding across the plain since sunrise, 
cropped the rank grass of the river bank in 
calm content. 

Away tc the right a coyote yelped lone- 
somely, and then silence unutterable ensued. 
'Frisco bent forward and stirred the fire, 
sending a straight column of sparks upward 
toward the sky. It was the time and place 
for a story, and I watched the glow of my 

pipe and waited. 

* * * 

"1 was riding herd on the Bar-O that 
spring," he began. " Forty a month and good 
grub. The grub rustler was a Chink, and 
he could cook sow?. I'd give a dollar for a 
cup of his coffee right now. 

"One day Bob McKenzie of the Broken 
Circle rode our way, looking for strays. 'Big 
doings over to the Gulch tomorrow night,' 
he tells the boys. 'There's a travelling show 
company, heading for Cheyenne, stranded 
there, and they've hired Billy Park's dance 
hall for a theatre. Even-body's going from 
our place the old man and all. They say 
there's about twenty of the prettiest girls in 
the company that ever came over the Divide.' 

"When Bob promulgates that proposition 
he sure has us some excited and anxious, any 
of the boys being willing to ride fifty miles to 
see a pretty girl go by on the stage. Except 
Jake, who's so bashful and retiring he'd ride 
a hundred miles in the other direction and 
then hide in the sage brush if he thought a 
girl was headed his way. 

"Even the Chink takes notice and hangs 
around, listening to Bob's prognostication 



with a grin on his yellow facial extremity that 
you could chuck a plate into. 'Me savvy 
th'leatre,' he squeaks. 'Allee samee pletty 
girl singee, dancee like hell.' 

"'You savvy washee them dinner dishes, 
mucho pronto,' says the old man, sharp and 
decided. 'Else I'll hang you with your own 
pig tail.' 

'"Alice Jightee,' agrees the Chink, and 
dives into the cook house promiscuous. 

"Then Bob borrows a chew from me and 
drifts away in a cloud of dust, joyful and 
contented. 

"Xext day, right after noon, the whole 
Bar-O outfit trails off for the Gulch. It's 
only about twenty miles, but everybody's 
figuring on getting a front seat, so we start 
early, and the last five miles gets to be a race 
to see who'll get there first. 

"The old man, having the best horse, leads 
the procession; and the Chink, on a pack 
mule, is just a blue and yellow speck on the 
horizon. Jake, having overcome his timidity 
and backwardness enough to join in the 
festivities, is loping along in the middle of 
the bunch, looking scared and mournful; and 
me I'm hitting only the high places, and 
you can't see me for the dust. 

"Maybe you've seen a bunch of cow- 
punchers come into town? We sure make a 
grand, unparallelled, hippodramatic entrance 
into the Gulch that afternoon, and sweep 
down the main street like an invading host, 
every man standing in his stirrups with a 
six-shooter in each hand, plugging the signs 
on both cides of the street as we go by, and 
yelling like Comanches. We're going so fast 
that we're clear through the town and out 
the other side before we can stop, and coming 
back we meet the Chink doing the circus act 
in the middle of the street. He has a rusty 
old six-shooter, and every time he fires it off 



(49) 



50 



THE DRAMA AT CACTUS GULCH 




" Coming back, we meet the Chink doing the circus act in the middle of the street." 



he holds it pointing at the sky with both 
hands and shuts his eyes and yells when he 
pulls the trigger. And every time he fires, 
the mule near bucks the daylight out of 
him. 

'"Whoopee! ' he yells, 'me muchee dam bad 
man, allee samee likee cowboy. Whoopee!' 
He was a good sport, that Chink, if he was 
yellow, and he could play poker to beat the 
cars. 



"When the old man has extinguished th 
Chink's patriotic ardor by making a diamom 
hitch around his neck with his pig tail am 
choking him till he is black in the face, th 
whole gang lines up at the hitching rail i: 
front of the Yellow Dog saloon, and the in 
habitants of the Gulch begin to crawl ou 
from under the beds and tables and othe 
places of retirement, and business resumes il 
sway. 



THE DRAMA AT CACTUS GULCH 



51 



"Somebody sees a gent in a green vest 
sauntering out of Billy Park's dance hall to 
view the festivities, and the whole crowd 
swoops down on him like he's a long lost 
brother. It's the manager of the show, and 
we stands him up injine in front of the Yel- 
low Dog bar and treats him to a sample of 
even-thing in the house till he's fuller than 
seven kinds of a goat, and exuding cigars at 
every pore. 

"Then we lopes over to the box office and 
buys our tickets, which is two dollars each 
for reserved seats and a dollar admission, 
and fifty cents to stand up. The old man 
buys three seats in the middle of the front 
row, and the Chink digs down into the inner 
recesses of his being and hauls out a roll of 
dollar bills as big as an elephant's hind leg, 
and buys a front seat too. The rest of the 
bunch plays for prominent positions, except 
Jake, who chips in fifty cents and allows he'll 
stand up near the door. 

"After which we saunters into the Palace 
Hotel and has a big feed ham and eggs and 
coffee, and a few drinks apiece to pass the 
time till the show begins. 

"When the orchestra, which is one piano 
and a cornet, strikes up, we're all in our seats, 
anxious to be pleased. The whole popula- 
tion of the Gulch is there, too, and the cow- 
punchers from every ranch within thirty miles, 
and them that can't get inside is standing on 
barrels outside the windows at twenty-five 
cents apiece. I reckon it's the most unani- 
mously appreciative audience that show 
company ever had, and they sure improves 
the occasion. 

"First, there's a little blue-eyed, yellow- 
haired angel comes out in a short skirt and 
sings 'Home, Sweet Home.' Leastwise, she 
looks like an angel to about two hundred cow- 
punchers who ain't seen a human woman for 
ten months. 

'"That's mine,' says Pedro, some excited, 
when she comes out on the stage, and he 
starts to climb over the footlights. But a 
bunch of us gets him by the legs and trips 
him up and hauls him back to his seat. 

"'You, Pedro,' says the old man, 'be 
quiet else you'll go back to the ranch, mucho 
pronto.' 

'"I'll be good,' says Pedro, disguising his 
impatience nobly, 'but if that little girl wants 
my rope and saddle, it's her'n any time she 
says so,' 



"The little girl don't seem none displeased 
at that, and she ambles right down to the 
footlights and smiles straight at Pedro while 
she finishes her song, and before she gets 
through Pedro is blubbering like an infant, 
and don't care two cents who sees him either. 
But most of the other boys is, too, so he ain't 
especial noticeable and conspicuous. 

"Funny thing about that what a soft- 
hearted slob a cow-puncher usually is, inside. 
He's mostly a tough proposition to look at 
works hard, drinks hard, fights and gambles, 
but just turn loose some little, weak, soft- 
handed, soft-eyed woman in his proximity, 
and he'll set up and beg for a kind look like 
a hungry dog begging for a meal. 

"Well, after the little girl has gathered up 
the hats and six-shooters and spurs and things 
the boys has flung on the stage, the pianist 
begins to pound the keyboard like mad, and 
the chap with the cornet gets red in the face 
with his exertions, and one of them ballays 
files into sight. There's about twenty girls, 
all young and pretty, ever}' one of them smil- 
ing like June sunshine, and the entire au- 
dience rises as one man and yells itself hoarse 
when they come on the stage, and empties 
their six-shooters spontaneous into the floor 
and ceiling. I heard the Chink yelling rap- 
turously. 'Hoopla! Muchee pletty girl, allee 
samee dam good looking whoopee!' 

"'Shut up, you heathen,' growls Pedro, 
savage and supercilious. ' What do you know 
about pretty girls you squint-eyed offspring 
of a mandarin?' 

"When the shouting and the tumult has 
subsided and the smoke cleared away enough 
so we can see the stage, the girls begin to 
dance and march and sing till the whole au- 
dience is dizzy with delight. 

"After they've been called back six times 
to do it all over again, the manager comes out 
behind the footlights and thanks the audience 
for its kind appreciation, and promulgates the 
sentiment that the memory of the present 
auspicious occasion will linger always in his 
recollection, or words to that effect. He's 
digested some of the thirty-seven kinds of 
ringed, streaked and spotted beverages that 
the Bar-O outfit had pressed upon him earlier 
in the afternoon, but he's some lit up still, 
and one end of his collar tickling his left ear 
and his pink and maroon necktie draping it- 
self gracefully outside his green vest sort of 
detracts from the dignity of his appearance. 



52 



THE DRAMA AT CACTUS GULCH 




" One of them ballays files into sight." 



But he means well, and the boys applaud his 
brief remarks with unanimous certitude. 

"After the managerial presence has re- 
moved itself gracefully from the scene by 
crawling off the stage on all fours, the real 
business of the evening begins. I disremember 
what the play is all about, but there's one 
scene where the lights are turned low and the 
heroine wrings her hands and weeps with des- 
pair, and the villain steals onto the stage in a 
slouch hat and a long cloak and gloats upon 
his victim. 

'"At last!' he hisses, and grabs the girl 
by the shoulders. 

"'Unhand me, wretch!' she shrieks. 
'Never!' says the villain, or words like that, 
'now you are in my power! No earthly aid 
can save you!' 

"'The hell it can't!.' yells somebody back 
in the audience, and Jake comes prancing 
down the aisle with a six-shooter in each 
hand, stepping high and looking dangerous. 
' You drop that girl, mucho pronto, you blamed 
greaser, or I'll shoot the top of your head off,' 
he says, waving his gun careless and menacing. 



The girl shrieks, and the villain makes two 
jumps across the stage, and we hear the glass 
breaking in a side window and a dull and 
sickening thud on the ground outside where 
he lands, and then some sounds like a man 
trying to catch a train that left five minutes 
ago. 

'"O brave sir,' says the girl, grinning and 
leaning over the footlights and holding out 
her arms to Jake, 'how can I ever thank you?' 

"Then the audience awakes to the humor 
of the situation and slaps each other on the 
back and laughs till it cries. 

"'Good old Jake!' somebody yells, 'three 
cheers for Jake!' and everybody yells himself 
hoarse. 

"But Jake stands there like an image, with 
his face white and set, not seeming to hear the 
noise, and looking at the girl like he saw a 
ghost, till all of a sudden a silence falls on 
that rough crowd of ungodly cow-punchers 
why, no one just knows. For a minute no 
one stirs, with the girl standing there with the 
smile slowly fading on her face, and a look 
of wonder growing in her eyes. Then a light 



THE DRAMA AT CACTUS GULCH 



53 



flares up and she gets a good look at Jake, 
and we know it's not play-acting now. 

"'Jim! O Jim!' she cries, with the voice 
of a lost child wandering in the dark, when 
she sees her pappy coming to find her with a 
lantern. And then she throws out her arms 
toward him and falls across the footlights 
in a faint. Not so quick, though, but what 
Jake catches her in his arms and without a 
glance to right or left, but with a look on his 
face like a man who's just woke up out of a 
dream of Purgatory to find himself in Para- 
dise, he walks down the aisle and out the door 
with his arms around her and her head against 
his shoulder. 

"The show stops then and there. We've 
just seen better acting than anything that can 
be played upon a stage, and we rise like clock 
work and make a break for the open air. 

"Outside I gets separated from the bunch 
and drifts into Monte Ike's emporium of 
chance. I has a system a Chicago drummer 
teaches me for breaking the bank at faro, in 
consequence of which I finds myself about 
noon the next day borrowing the price of a 
meal and a drink from Pedro. 

"The stage is waiting to start when I 
saunter past the Palace Hotel, and the show 
manager is just climbing aboard, looking 
mighty solemn and discontented. 

"I looks inside the vehicle for the unparal- 



lelled aggregation of female beauty compris- 
ing the company, and all I sees is a discour- 
aged appearing female about fifty years old, 
more or less, whose nose looks like she's been 
crying. 

"'Where's the company, stranger?' I asks, 
some curious. 

"'Inside, what's left of it,' he says gloomily, 
jerking his thumb at the disconsolate lone 
female person. 'The rest is married. Them 
infernal cow-punchers stampeded the whole 
outfit after the show, rounded up a justice 
of the peace and married 'em, all except the 
aged and infirm exhibit inside there. Like- 
wise there was a Chink blew in with the bunch 
and wanted to marry her, but I shooed him 
off the premises with a chair. Which I'm 
some sorry for now. Maybe you'd marry 
her?' he asks, hopefully. 

"'Not me,' I declines hurriedly, backing 
off. 

"'Well, so long,' he says, dejected and re- 
signed. 

"'So long,' I answers, and the stage starts." 
* * * 

My pipe was out, and the fire burned low. 
'Frisco threw on another branch, and we 
rolled ourselves in our blankets. 

"All the same," he murmured musingly, 
"I'd a liked that blue-eyed girl with the yel- 
low hair." 



OPPORTUNITY 



By the late SENATOR JOHN J. INGALLS 

MASTER of human destinies am I; 
Fame, love and fortune on my footsteps wait. 
Cities and fields I walk; I penetrate 

Desert and seas remote, and passing by 
Hovel and mart and palace, soon or late, 

I knock unbidden once at every gate, 
If sleeping, wake; if feasting, rise before 

I turn away. It is the hour of fate, 
And they who follow me reach every state 

Mortals desire, and conquer every foe 
Save death; but those who doubt or hesitate, 

Condemned to failure, penury and woe, 
Seek me in vain, and uselessly implore, 

I answer not and I return no more. 



THE STORY OF ATTORNEYS-AT-LAW 



By CHARLES WINSLOW HALL 



UNDER this and many other less familiar 
but not less honorable appellations, the 
lawyers of the English-speaking world-races 
practice their arduous and comprehensive 
calling. 

Advocate, agent, attorney, attorney-at-law, 
barrister, counsellor-at-law, sergeant-at-law, 
solicitor all these in the homeland, the 
England of a not remote past, had exclusive 
and separate meanings, and in some cases, 
great and exclusive privileges. 

The advocate is rather a French than an 
English term, and means, of course, a pleader 
at the bar. The agent is not necessarily an 
attorney, but there are many attorneys who 
are employed as agents because of their 
knowledge of law, and their skill in managing 
large estates. These seldom appear in courts, 
except as witnesses, or as representatives of 
the estates in whose behalf they employ 
counsel. Usually their agency as an attorney- 
at-law is increased by special appointments 
or a general and extraordinary "power of 
attorney." 

Attorneys - at - law in England who were 
not agents formerly secured practice, com- 
menced suits, looked up evidence, and took 
instructions from their clients. Then they 
employed a barrister, sergeant-at-law or 
solicitor to defend or prosecute the cause in 
court; but of late years the right to carry on 
all the varied duties of a lawyer has been 
conferred on all attorneys-at-law, and the 
exclusive rights of barristers, sergeants and 
solicitors have been considerably abridged. 

The barrister, as his name implies, means 
one whose active work is chiefly in the courts, 
and he is not infrequently not especially 
brilliant in any other position, being, so to 
speak, a heavy gun which must be loaded and 
pointed by skilled artillerists but in action 
makes havoc and secures victory for its side. 

The counsellor-at-law is definitely the 
adviser of deep study, ripe experience, and 
wide knowledge of court decisions, the pe- 
culiarities of judges and referees, and all 
other matters that may aid or injure his 



client. He it is who often "loads up" a 
partner or junior, carefully instilling such 
peculiar knowledge of the law and the evidence 
needed to insure victory in the cause in hand, 
knowing that after the lesson is learned the 
eloquence, fervor and tact of his colleague 
will be ten times more effective than anything 
that he could himself compass. 

Sergeants in Ireland and England are 
especially trial lawyers whose championship 
in the lists of law is as noted as that of any 
ancient "star of tournament " in the days of 
chivalry. They were originally appointed 
by the crown to advise the king and his 
judges; they were long considered officers 
of the court and until recently had special 
privileges in Great Britain. 

Solicitors in England, until recently, had 
the sole right to plead in the court of claims 
and other high courts, and this privilege was 
highly esteemed and jealously guarded. Of 
late years the ancient distinctions between 
gentlemen of the legal profession have been 
greatly diminished and in most material 
privileges completely abrogated. But in 
the United States the term "attorney-at-law" 
or "lawyer" generally signifies a man who 
is accustomed to perform any and all of the 
services above specified. It is true that in 
many law firms some of the foregoing dis- 
tinctions are practically recognized, by divid- 
ing and turning over the varied business of 
the firm to such members or assistants as 
are most skillful in the several departments of 
action. 

In 1900 there were over 113,000 lawyers 
or attorneys-at-law in the United States 
and the number has undoubtedly been 
largely increased in the last ten years just 
expired; and this notwithstanding the fact 
that in many large cities the trust companies, 
collection agencies, and other corporations 
have largely invaded the field of operations 
once almost exclusively given up to the 
legal profession. 

On the other hand the increasing com- 
plications of business life, under an intensified 



(54) 



THE STORY OF ATTORXEVS-AT-LAW 



55 



competition and civilization, make it desirable 
to employ one or more lawyers in almost 
even- great business or municipal department. 
An employe with a material knowledge of 
the law is absolutely necessary to many 
business houses, who, under conditions exist- 
ing a generation ago, would never have 
deemed it necessary to consult a lawyer 
except under very unusual and exceptional 
circumstances. A very large number of 
qualified lawyers are engaged in business, 
journalistic and political life who have never 
been engaged in active practice, and an 
equally large number have left active pro- 
fessional careers to take political, military 
and business avocations. 

Indeed no other calling so necessitates 
the clear comprehension of human life, 
business, emotions, customs, and action : n 
all their protean forms and transformations, 
as the legal profession. A good lawyer 
must for the time being, and so far as the 
limits of the case in hand demand, be c 
carpenter, mechanic, inventor, physician, 
theologian, preceptor, or whatever special 
calling must be illuminated and clearly 
interpreted to the judge or jury trying the 
case. It is wonderful how often a lawyer 
whose personal interest began and ends with 
a not very important case, will successfully 
study and master the minutiae of subjects 
which must be left to the evidence of noted 
and often conflicting experts. It goes without 
saying that the profession of the law, con- 
scientiously and honorably followed, has 
few equals and humanly speaking no superior. 

"An order as ancient as the magistracy, as 
noble as virtue, and as necessary as justice" 
was the glowing tribute paid by D'Aguesseau, 
the great French Chancellor, to the advocates 
of his day some generations ago, whose 
dudes and responsibilities were also thus 
summed up by Meyer, another European 
writer: 

''He who has devoted himself to that 
profession which is as difficult as it is honor- 
able; who receives in his chamber the most 
confidential communications; who directs 
by his counsel those who come to him 
for advice and listen to him as though he 
were an oracle; who has the conduct of causes 
the most important; who constitutes himself 
the organ of those who claim the most sacred 
rights, or the defender of those who find them- 
selves attacked in their persons, their honor 



or their fortune; who brings forward and 
gives efficacy to their demand, or repels the 
charges brought against them; he, I say, who 
does all this, must necessarily require the 
support of the public. By his knowledge, 
his talents, his morality, he ought to endeavor 
to win the confidence and good will of his 
fellow-citizens.'' 

To understand the evolution of law as it 
exists today we must recognize the fact that 
only in civil disputes was a contest for as 
well as against the individual recognized. 
Only in matters affecting the rights of prop- 
erty could the king or the community re- 
linquish the right of inquisition into justice 
between man and man. 

In the more primitive times the man was 
the head of all family relations; his wife, his 
children, his sen-ants, were his to do with as 
he would. If a babe was deformed, sickly, 
or a girl where he wanted a man-child, he 
had only to say the word and it was slain or 
exposed to the elements and wild beasts. 

Later kings arose, and when such an one 
ruled a tribe or nation "whom he would 
he slew, and whom he would he kept alive." 
Suspicion in the king's mind meant death, 
swift when merciful and lingering through 
untold torments when kingly hatred or 
policy so decreed. In due time the priest 
became at times superior to patriarchal prince 
and kingly tyrant, and claimed his human 
sacrifices to appease the outraged gods. 

Not only the criminal and the captive 
enemy perished. "In Ur of the Chaldees," 
when Abram left the city with his childless 
wife Sar-ai, both doubtless rejoiced in their 
hearts that no man-child of theirs had gasped 
out its budding life on the altar of Hurki, 
the relentless Moon-god. Under systems 
so crude and cruel, man lived subjected to 
strong thieves, and slaying mercilessly brute 
and man who lessened by fraud or force his 
limited substance. From a general paucity 
of necessities and luxuries and the ease of 
escape beyond the reach of post or pursuit, 
arose the Draconian laws, which put to death 
millions of human beings for crimes that 
today are petty offences indeed. 

Naturally this ''King's Justice" was an 
inquisition and not a trial, decided not on ab- 
stract rules and carefully weighed evidence, 
but by whatever rude justice, mercy, policy, 
or favor- might rule the royal mind or judge's 
reason for the time. Execution followed 



56 



THE STORY OF ATTORNEYS-AT-LAW 



fast upon sentence, and when the Assyrian's 
face was covered and he was led forth, he 
knew that bitter torture or sudden death was 
close at hand. 

Whoever questioned the justice of the king, 
or the decision of judge or priest might be 
a brave man, but seldom survived the resent- 
ment of his judges. Therefore the lawyer is 
a modern innovation. 

ORATORY THE GLORY OF GRECIAN ADVOCATES 

ATHENS, the only state in Greece in which 
f\ forensic oratory was cultivated, does not 
appear to have possessed a distinct order of 
advocates answering to those of Rome or 
more modern nations. The rule seems to 
have been that only the parties to a cause 
could be heard therein, although one whose 
interests were affected by the suit or prosecu- 
tion was allowed to speak. Thus, in several 
instances where Demosthenes defended others, 
it is evident that his interest in the result was 
sufficient to set aside the general rule. 

Later the rule was modified by allowing 
relatives or friends to speak for litigants 
who, owing to sickness or other disability, 
could not conduct their own prosecution or 
defence. It is recorded that Isaeus, who 
spoke for two of the claimants and for the 
inheritance of Nicostratus, commenced by 
saying: "Gentlemen of the jury, Agnon and 
Agnotheus, who are the plaintiffs in the suit, 
are friends and connections of mine, as was 
their father before them. It seems therefore 
to me to be reasonable that I should advocate 
their cause to the best of my ability." 

There were, however, a class of men who 
acted as counsellors and prepared defences 
and speeches for the use of those who needed 
and would pay for such assistance. There 
were also exceptions in favor of aliens, 
females and minor children. The beginning 
of a suit was before a magistrate who re- 
duced the evidence to writing and eventually 
laid it before the dicasts or jurymen who 
were never less than five hundred in number 
and sometimes greatly exceeded this number. 
The verdict was given by ballot, placed in 
one or the other of two urns; beans, pebbles, 
mussel shells or brass balls (according to 
the kind of trial) being used instead of paper 
votes. 

Six thousand citizens of Athens were 
liable to this duty, and the courts of Athens 
probably excelled all others for injustice and 



robbery under the guise of law. Hearsay 
evidence, if of common report, was admitted 
even in criminal causes, and advocates ap- 
pealed to the personal knowledge of the 
jurors themselves, while torture as a means 
of eliciting evidence was highly favored. 
Another peculiar Grecian feature was that 
not unfrequently the writers of pleas made 
them for both sides, and it is said sometimes 
showed the first plea to the opposing party 
to enable him to answer it effectively. The 
Grecian advocates did not disdain to bring 
the arts of the stage to the aid of their elo- 
quence. The famous trio of Athenian hetairai 
or courtesans, were Lais, Aspasia and Phryne, 
the latter of whom was prosecuted on a capi- 
tal charge. Hyperides, her advocate, know- 
ing that she was exquisitely beautiful in form 
as well as feature and that she had posed to 
Praxiteles for his wonderful statue of Venus, 
instructed her to so arrange her dress that at 
the crisis of his appeal she, as if overcome by 
her emotions, should start up and allow her 
robes to fall away from her shoulders and so 
stand as if carried away by his appeals for 
mercy. Phryne was acquitted by the dicasta 
or popular jury, and Euthias, the prosecutor, 
swore he would never prosecute another 
woman, but the court thereafter made a rule 
that no accused person should be in court 
at the time of making their decision. 

LAWYERS IN THE DAYS OF PYRAMID-BUILDING 

'"THE lawyer as he exists today seems to 
1 have been utterly unknown in ancient 
Egypt, where Thebes, Heliopolis and Memphis 
each furnished ten of their most eminent citi- 
zens to form a court. These chose by vote one 
of their number to act as presiding judge, 
after which the city from which he was 
chosen sent an eleventh citizen to make the 
thirty complete. 

A small image of Truth formed of jewels 
hung by a golden chain around the neck 
of the presiding judge who assumed it only 
when a trial was about to begin. There were 
eight books containing the laws of Egypt 
supplied to the judges and the whole pro- 
ceedings were in writing. The plaintiff 
described the nature of his claim and the 
damages demanded. The defendant denied 
the claim or confessed it, but urged some 
defence or made a counter-claim. To this 
the plaintiff replied and lastly the defendant 
rejoined. Ample time was allowed to each 



THE STORY OF ATTORXEYS-AT-LAW 



57 



party to consider and prepare these written 
statements and to produce evidence, but 
finally these writings were taken and con- 
sidered by the thirty. Their verdict or de- 
cision was indicated by the presiding judge, 
who, taking the image of Truth from his neck, 
laid it silently on the papers of the successful 
litigant. 

Conveyances in Egypt were even more 
minute in description than their modern 
successors. Thus, in describing the parties 
to a deed, in the reign of Cleopatra, B. C. 107, 
it was recorded : 

"There was sold by Pamouthes aged 
about forty-five, of middle size, dark com- 
plexion and handsome figure, bald, round- 
faced and straight-nosed, and by Semmuthes, 
aged about twenty-three, of middle-size, 
sallow complexion, round-faced, flat-nosed, 

and of quiet demeanor, children of A , 

the following described land, [describing it]: 
It was bought by Xochutes, the Less, the 
son of Asos, aged about forty, of middle size, 
sallow complexion, cheerful countenance, 
long face, straight nose, with a scar upon the 
middle of his forehead, for 601 pieces of 
brass, etc.'' 

THE FORENSIC DAYS AT THE FORUM 

IT is said that civil lawyers were first 
allowed in the Roman courts about tl^ree 
centuries before the coming of Christ. Ori- 
ginally the interpretation of the Roman law 
was decided by certain learned pontiffs of 
the College of Priests, and these decisions 
formed a body of unwritten law, which, to 
distinguish it from the written laws, was called 
the Jus Civile or "Civil Law," and in time 
became to Rome what the Common Law 
has been to England and the great peoples 
descended from her. 

There were other laws passed in the popular 
assemblage held in the Campus Martius by 
the whole body of Roman citizens. The 
edicts of praetors, consuls and tribunes, 
answering to similar proclamations, etc., made 
by modern rulers and officials and the laws 
of custom and business, were also a part of 
the Roman jurisprudence until the republic 
fell and the edicts of an irresponsible Emperor 
became the unsettled and oppressive laws of 
decadent Rome. It is true that the syco- 
phantic jurists of the imperial period claimed 
that the Roman people had by their own 
acts vested this sole power of legislation in 



the tyrants, who by turns flattered and 
terrorized them while assuming to act in a 
consular capacity, and to invoke and respect 
the opinion and free choice of a facile Senate. 

The Forum at Rome, the site of the law 
courts and great open-air convocations of 
ancient Rome, was the widest part of a rapidly 
narrowing plain extending from the foot of 
the Capitoline to that of the Palatine hill. 
Bordered on either side by branches of the 
Sacred Way, it was at once the market- 
place and general resort of the "plain" 
common people of Rome. Its narrower and 
somewhat higher extremity, the Comitium, 
was in a way divided from the Forum by a 
rostrum on which the advocates stood with 
their backs to the market-place in addressing 
the senators, who were accustomed to listen 
while standing in front of the Senate house. 
At a later day, the great orators had adopted 
the custom of facing the Forum and address- 
ing the great mass of the people. Besides 
the enclosing shops, dwellings and law 
courts that bordered the Forum, the speakers 
saw on the left hand the almost ruinous 
"Court of Xuma," last remaining relic of 
the rude sovereignty of Rome's earlier Kings, 
and beyond it that temple to Castor and 
Pollux, erected by the Dictator Postumius 
to the Great Twin Brethren, who at Lake 
Regillus led on snow-white horses his last 
victorious charge on the Tarquins and the 
hapless Legions of the Thirty Cities. Further 
to the east was the Temple of Vesta and in 
mid-forum an ancient altar marked the spot 
where the great gulf had yawned until 
Manlius Curtius, in the full strength and 
beauty of manhood, clad in complete armor 
and horsed as became a Roman knight, 
leaped into its fathomless depths as the 
most precious gift which Rome could offer 
to appease the offended deities, and near it 
the sacred vine, olive and fig tree carefully 
preserved or renewed from generation to 
generation. On the western border the 
equestrian statues of Maenius and Camillus, 
the conquerors of the Latins, recalled ancestral 
valor and devotion. 

Here then in the open air took place most 
of those great trials whose comedies, tragedies, 
eloquence and wisdom have come down to 
our own day as unsurpassed classics of 
forensic literature. Xot all of these, however, 
have come down to us as they were spoken. 
When Cicero defended Titus Aunius Milo, 



58 



THE STORY OF ATTORNEYS-AT-LAW 



charged with the murder of Clodius, notorious 
for his profligacy and violence, he appears 
to have taken up the cause of a man whose 
own murder had been attempted in the 
affray in which Clodius himself was slain 
by Milo's bodyguard. But a certain senator, 
named Tedius, brought the dead Clodius 
back to Rome, and as Antony exposed the 
gaping wounds of Caesar, exhibited the 
mutilated Clodius to the Roman populace, 
who demanded vengeance on the slayer of 
their leader. 

In the Senate, Pompey suggested a trial 
before a commission, and when Cicero 
appeared in the Forum, unbroken ranks of 
veteran legionaries lined the dual branches 
of the Sacred Way, and held the avenues 
and alleys leading therefrom. But beyond 
these guards every available spot, overlooking 
or within hearing of the Forum, was thronged 
by the turbulent populace and the armed and 
vengeful relatives and clients of Clodius. 
In spite of his living wall of legionaries, and 
his own assertion that the great majority 
of the citizens of Rome admitted the justice 
of his defence, Cicero lost courage and was 
unable to deliver his carefully prepared and 
really splendid defence. Milo was convicted 
and banished, and when later he read the 
speech which should have been delivered, 
said: 

"If Cicero had spoken thus, I should not 
now have been eating figs at Marseilles." 

Yet here were uttered the masterpieces 
of the world's oratory the eloquent appeals 
of Scipio, the dignified utterances of Cato, 
the fiery periods of the Gracchi and the splen- 
did and successful orations of Cicero. 

Under the early Kings and to a considerable 
extent under the consul and praetors, minor 
causes were succinctly disposed of wherever 
the judge and the parties were met, some- 
times in the streets, at the house of the praetor, 
or in the general market-place, the Forum. 
In these cases, the parties and the judge 
"talked over matters" with little or no regard 
to ceremony, the rules of evidence or the 
intervention of advocates. Such simple 
methods of "justifying" have obtained in 
almost every country in the earlier periods 
of its history. So Absalom "sat in the gate" 
of Jerusalem and other cities and meted out 
justice to the Jews, gaining their hearts 
thereby. So St. Louis, the good French King 
in the thirteenth century, used after hearing 



mass to lie reclined at the foot of a great oak 
in the wood of Vincennes surrounded by 
his courtiers, and ask if there were any who 
had suits to be heard. If parties appeared, 
two of his bailiffs were chosen to hear and 
determine the cases in his presence. But 
the Roman praetor held more impressive 
sessions at his tribunal, choosing a number 
of assessors called Judices, who sat on either 
side and a little behind him. These appear 
to have been chosen out of the Centumviri 
or hundred men representing the thirty-five 
tribes, three to each tribe. Just how many 
sat and to what extent they made up the final 
judgment of the praetor is a matter of some 
doubt, but as this court dealt chiefly with 
questions of titles, pedigrees, easements, 
boundaries, ancient lights, guardian and 
ward, debtor and creditor, the validity of 
wills, etc., they probably acted to some 
extent as Amid Curiae or advisers of the 
court and perhaps as modern jurors. But 
the criminal courts of Rome differed greatly 
from our own in that they were constituted 
to try different forms and degrees of crime. 
Thus the lowest courts having jurisdiction 
of municipal and sanitary statutes, dis- 
turbance of graves, monuments, etc., and 
lesser misdemeanors were tried by judges 
appointed by the praetor, and these Actiones 
populares were usually punished by a fine. 
Any person could appear as the prosecutor 
in these courts. 

Courts trying "extraordinary actions" 
appear to have been special tribunals ap- 
pointed for the occasion to investigate and 
if need be punish some offence not provided for 
by established law, or provided against by 
statutes that failed to prescribe a punish- 
ment therefor. Offenders under modern 
laws often escape deserved punishment 
because of such failure to legislate properly, 
but the Romans if necessary passed ex post 
facto laws to reach offenders who deserved 
punishment. Sometimes the whole Senate, 
sometimes the consuls or a number of judges 
were chosen to preside. 

The Judicia Publica answered to our 
own courts dealing with offenders against 
established laws. In these courts the praetor 
presided, but the cases were tried by a certain 
number of Judices selected from a panel 
of chosen citizens whose numbers varied 
from some 350 (B. C. 123) to 4,000 in the 
days of the Emperor Augustus. Originally 



THE STORY OF ATTORXEYS-AT-LAW 



59 



chosen from the senate, the knights and the 
body of people were finally drawn upon to 
supply these juries, but the number sitting 
on any one case is still in question. 

Such in general and briefly speaking were 
the tribunals and methods of procedure in 
Rome, matters necessary to understand be- 
cause the laws and language of Rome were 
largely the basis of our own jurisprudence 
if not of practice. "All roads lead to Rome" 
was an ancient saying of wide significance, 
and over those Roman roads, over which 
Roman legions went forth to conquer the 
world, followed Roman influence in com- 
merce, art, religion, law and literature, 
whose royal pre-eminence has scarcely yet 
lost its claim to universal acceptation. The 
lawyers of Ancient Rome were called Oratores 
(orators), a term not confined to those pre- 
eminently eloquent, but meaning one who 
addressed the public or a court of law, a 
sense in which it is still used in modern 
pleading. Cicero always speaks of another 
advocate as an orator expressing his opinion 
of their shortcomings by remarking that 
one is a "mediocre," "intolerable" or even 
bad orator. 

In Rome, in the days of the republic, there 
was no line of demarcation between the 
politician and the advocate and indeed for 
a long time no recognized clan of lawyers 
who for hire appeared in the courts and 
confined their life labors to legal business. 
Those who appeared most frequently in 
the Roman courts were termed "patrons 
of causes" or briefly "patrons," and they 
appeared only as a rule for their "clients." 

The relationship of patron and client in 
ancient Rome was somewhat like that be- 
tween the lord and his vassal in feudal 
times, and in return for his protection and 
succor in distress the client was bound to 
consider first in all matters the interests 
and claims of his patron. Therefore when 
a client was sued or prosecuted in the courts 
of Rome, his patron either in person or by 
another defended him, or if necessary de- 
manded the debt or property due him. 

In process of time some orators became 
so famous that others than their relatives 
and friends sought their assistance in the 
courts, and other noble Romans became so 
learned in the law that they were known as 
Juris consule s, answering to our "counsellors- 
at-law." But for generations it was considered 



unworthy to use these gifts for gain, and 
under the republic there were sufficient 
reasons why fees were not required by the 
orators of Rome. In the first place, the 
men who appeared in the courts were of 
great and wealthy houses whose clients 
paid in many ways for the protection af- 
forded them, and successful advocacy of 
their rights and safety was the surest road 
to greater power and higher office. 

Eventually advocates began to follow 
their calling for hire or rather, to use the 
English term, were retained by an "hon- 
orarium" or fee in advance, but this was 
deemed an abuse and was by the Cincian 
law finally forbidden. 

It may be said that the tribunate of Rome 
which dealt with important criminal and 
political causes combined the judicial and 
the pardoning power, and the successful 
orator often secured a verdict of acquittal 
when the guilt of the accused should have 
ensured a conviction, even if executive 
clemency might have pardoned or mitigated 
the punishment. But the great number of 
men who sat to decide the guilt or innocence 
of the accused also awarded the punishment; 
from their decision there was no appeal, 
and execution followed close upon the heels 
of their sentence. Every art of the orator 
and device of the skilful advocate was used 
to influence the assessors or senators to show 
mercy instead of to do justice, and a bar 
seeking only to amass wealth would have 
been doubly dangerous under Roman methods. 
Still the Cincian law was not always effective, 
and orte of the few witticisms recorded of 
Cicero was his retort to Hortensius, who 
was defending Verres, on trial for his mis- 
government of Sicily, and had received a 
costly statue of the Sphinx, one of the spoils 
of his administration. While Cicero ques- 
tioned a witness Hortensius cried: "You 
speak riddles, I can't understand you." 
''That is strange," retorted Cicero, "for 
you have a Sphinx at home to solve them." 

After the downfall of the republic the 
motives which had led advocates to plead 
for their clients ceased to exist, for the Caesar 
became the sole distributor of offices and 
emoluments. The advocate now worked 
for gifts or fees and although against the 
law, custom and necessity increased the 
practice. The emperor Augustus revived 
the Cincian law and fined offenders four- 



60 



THE STORY OF ATTORNEYS-AT-LAW 



fold the fees taken, but the law became a 
dead letter; and under Commodus a decree 
limited the amount of fees to about $375 
in each case, rendering the advocate liable 
to a criminal action for extortion if he ex- 
ceeded it. Nero, Claudius, Trajan and 
Severus, all issued edicts to restrain and 
correct abuses arising out of the venality 
and greed of the Roman advocate under 
the Empire. At no time, however, was the 
fee a debt recoverable at law, a theory sus- 
tained in England to this day. 

Of the high rank of the Roman advocate 
prior to the decline of the Empire no one 
can doubt. Julius Caesar, Mark Antony, 
Cato, Brutus, Pliny, Mutius Scaevola, Pom- 
pey, Scipio, the conqueror of Carthage, 
Caius Gracchus, the author of the Agrarian 
law, Hortensius, already mentioned, and 
Hortensia, his daughter, who, when Octavius 
Lepidus and Antony imposed a tax upon 
the Roman mothers and no advocate had 
the courage to oppose it, came forward as 
the advocate of her sex and spoke so ef- 
fectively that the greater part of the tax was 
remitted. 

Forensic oratory reached the zenith of 
its glory in the Roman Republic, and died 
with the growth of absolute monarchy 
under the Caesars; a warning to all those 
who believe that a strong centralized govern- 
ment can gather power except through the 
decline of republican spirit and popular 
liberty. 

Yet under the Emperors considerable ef- 
fort was made to dignify and favor "the 
noble profession of the law." The Pandects 
of Justinian and the Edicts of Constantine, 
inspired by Christian faith and practice, did 



something to cure the abuses which attended 
the swift decline of the later empire. Like 
the Grecians, the Roman advocates appealed 
to the eyes as well as the minds of the members 
of the tribunal. Mark Antony, in defending 
Aquilius, who had crushed a slave insurrec- 
tion in Sicily, but was charged with corrup- 
tion and embezzlement, after an eloquent 
' appeal for gratitude to the brave soldier 
who stood beside him, suddenly threw off 
the folds of his client's toga and disclosed 
the broad and livid scars received in leading 
the Roman eagles to victory, and Aquilius 
was acquitted. 

By a similar device in his famous oration 
over the dead Caesar, he uncovered the 
corpse and disclosed to the crowded Forum 
the gaping and bloody wounds made by 
the daggers of the conspirators. So Cicero, 
when he defended Fonteius against charges 
of corrupt government while praetor in 
Gaul, pointed to the mother and sister of 
Fonteius clinging to him in passionate grief, 
and reminded them that the sister was a 
vestal virgin whose only earthly ties were 
filial and sisterly love. 

"Let it not be hereafter recounted," he 
cried, pointing to the group, "that the eternal 
fire which was hitherto preserved by the 
midnight care and vigils of Fonteia, was 
extinguished by the tears of your priestess. 
A vestal virgin raises to you in suppliant 
entreaty those hands which she has hitherto 
been wont to lift up to the immortal gods in 
your behalf. Beware of the danger and the 
sin you may incur by rejecting the entreaty 
of one without whose prayers or if the 
gods were to despise them, Rome itself would 
lie in ruins." 



7*HE first of a series of articles descriptive of American professions, trades and avocations is 
here published, giving a comprehensive revelation of the dignity of the life and work of 
the " American people." The initial article on " Attorney s-at-law" will be followed by articles 
on Bakers, Blacksmiths, Druggists, Merchants, Grocers, Engineers and Dentists, and other 
trades and professions. These articles are the results of many years of research, and a wide 
range of reading and thorough investigation by the author, Mr. Charles Witislow Hall. There 
is a sentiment associated with all trades, professions and avocations, and if any of our readers 
have a suggestion to make in reference to the forthcoming articles, the editor will be glad to re- 
ceive it from them, addressed to him personally. The next article' will deal with the history of 
the English and American bar and jurists. Editor. 




ABEMIED 



REQUIEM 

By Mary L Cummins 




*S THE motor car rounded one 
corner of a rural cemetery, Grant 
Davis leaned forward, motioning 
with his head toward a shaded 
road to the right. 

"May Dan run the car up there?" he 
asked Hamilton Scott, who sat in front next 
his chauffeur. Then, with a glance at the 
other two men, "It will be a cool place to 
rehearse, and we have half an hour before 
the service commences." 

Scott nodded, turning sideways and lean- 
ing one arm on the back of the seat. Davis 
drew four male quartette books from a flat 
music case and felt in his vest pocket for 
his tuning-fork. Striking the latter gently 
on the edge of the car he gave a key-note. 
The four men bent forward until their 
heads almost touched, and it was as though 
an unseen hand had softly brushed the keys 
of some deep-mouthed organ. Then, on 
the primal stillness of the air, the first bars 
of "Lead, Kindly Light," floated out in ex- 
quisite harmony. 

It was wondrously beautiful there in the 
quiet of the country, under a cathedral 
vault of tall, interlacing elms. To an un- 
trained ear it would have seemed almost 
incredible that such subtle modulations 
which seemed more the result of some 
mutual, psychological impulse than of prac- . 
tice such perfection of phrasing and 
enunciation could have been produced by 
four different personalities. Even Dan ad- 
mitted to himself that "those fellers could 



sing, all right." For the real test of perfec- 
tion in art is its ability to reach and strike 
the human note. 

When the hymn was ended, Davis, second 
tenor and nominal head of the "Schumann" 
male quartette, looked around with a pleased 
nod. 

"Voices 'gum-up* all right, don't they?" 
he said in a relieved tone. 

"Sure," Scott's "blond" first tenor as- 
sented cheerfully. 

"Ought to. We've got a bass today, and 
no mistake!" Quimby, the baritone, offered 
the remark with a slightly diffident smile. 

The man at his left, a man well past fifty, 
with iron-gray hair and vivid dark eyes, 
nodded quietly in acknowledgment of the 
compliment, as he idly turned over several 
leaves of the male quartette book. Davis' 
satisfaction that the music was going well 
found vent in a whistled bar of the "Prize 
Song" while he fumbled in the case at his 
side. For one new voice, even the voice of 
such a man as Myron Stillman, implied risk, 
and the "Schumanns" were deservedly 
jealous of their well-earned reputation. 
Besides, this was a Masonic funeral the 
Masons being their best patrons and out 
of town, which meant double money. 

Davis had been almost in despair, when, 
by chance, he met the once-famous oratorio 
singer, the day before. Grundler, their 
regular bass, was ill, and the man who 
usually took his place had gone off on a 
concert tour. On such an occasion he could 



(61) 



62 



A BELATED REQUIEM 



not well work in raw material. All this 
Grant Davis poured forth to his friend and 
former teacher, together with the fact that 
Scott would take them down to Woodhaven, 
where the service was to be held, in his car, 
Scott being one of the favored few with 
whom music was a hobby and not a means 
of livelihood. 

"If I can help you out, Grant " Myron 
Stillman's voice, so full even in speech of 
the singing quality, so deep and resonant 
that it seemed as if his whole large body 
was one vast sounding-board broke in on 
Davis' tale of woe. 

"You? Would you come with us, Mr. 
Stillman? Why, that's great! The boys 
will feel all up in the air!" And Davis 
sighed the relief of the climbing musician 
who once more succeeds in saving his artistic 
reputation. 

"What's the next number?" Stillman 
asked now, as he laid down the male quar- 
tette book. 

"I've something here " Davis hesita- 
tingly drew out four manuscript sheets 
"It it's never been published, but we've 
sung it a good deal, and the Masons always 
like it." This he seemed to offer rather 
apologetically to the older man. 

Stillman took the roughly jotted sheet, 
held out to him. 

'"Requiem,"' he read slowly. Then, 
with an almost imperceptible lifting of the 
strongly marked brows as his eyes went 
to the composer's name, "MacDonald?" 

"Yes!" the word was one quick intake 
of breath from Davis. 

As though it had been a question, Myron 
Stillman nodded. The young director struck 
his tuning-fork and gave the key. 

Twice they went through the "Requiem" 
before anyone spoke. Stillman turned the 
paper over between his hands, looked with 
a slightly perplexed frown at the marvel- 
lously wrought-out ending and again at 
the name of the composer. 

"That is a very beautiful thing," he said 
slowly. 

A sudden spot of color showed in Grant 
Davis' cheeks. A light, half-triumphant, 
half-bitter, leaped to his eyes. His sensitive 
mouth was momentarily twisted by a spasm 
of pain. 

"I always thought so. It is the best thing 
he ever did. Perhaps the only thing 



really worth while." The admission came 
with reluctance. 

"It was the last, too, wasn't it?" Quimby 
asked. 

"Yes it was the last." 

Myron Stillman moved slightly. He felt 
the vague disquiet of a man who suddenly 
finds his own mature and conservative 
judgment refuting itself. He had never 
thought much of MacDonald's groping 
compositions, which always seemed to him 
like exercises in harmony, unfinished and 
unconvincing, and yet here was a gem. 

If Stillman was not, as a rule, enthusiastic 
about his own work and that of others, it 
was because it all fell so far short of the 
standard his mind enthroned. Twenty years 
before he had written a song and sold the 
copyright for a hundred dollars. It was 
now a classic of its style. Out of its sales 
the publishers still reaped their thousands. 
Best of all it had given great promise of 
good things to come. And yet, he had never 
since done anything which could compare 
with it. He realized now that he never 
would; had long ago accepted the fact 
that he was not born to rank among the 
immortals. But he knew good music when 
he saw it, and this "Requiem" of Mac- 
Donald's was a masterpiece of exquisite 
and unusual modulations. The man who 
wrote it might well be ready to sing his 
Nunc Dimittus! Had there been in that 
frail boy, after all, the divine spark clouded 
and smudged by immaturity and too close 
application to his work, but still there? 

While the four men strolled slowly up 
the gravelled cemetery path Davis edged a 
little apart. He was conscientiously trying 
to swallow the lump in his throat so that he 
could sing. MacDonald had been his studio- 
mate and friend. Together for five years 
they struggled, economized often living on 
"the clippings of tin," as MacDonald ex- 
pressed it, in order to attend one Symphony 
concert taught many unmusical young 
people to sing and play correctly. Mac- 
Donald did not love piano teaching as did 
Davis his vocal work. The one exception 
was his Saturday class in harmony. He 
was like a boy playing a game when he 
scribbled off a figured bass and set his pupils 
to writing in the other three parts. Har- 
mony, and its offspring, composition, were 
the things in which his soul, the creative 



A BELATED REQUIEM 



63 



part of him, cut loose, untrammeled and 
rejoicing. 

Dans could almost see the slight figure 
coming toward him now, the inevitable 
sheet of manuscript paper in one hand, a 
light, half-humorous, half-inspired, in the 
gray Scotch eyes, with their hint of Celtic 
mysticism, as he said, "I've got it this time, 
Grant, old boy! 'Twill either make or 
mar me you just listen!" and sitting down 
to the piano would p'ay, with exquisite taste, 
a rather commonplace melody. 

Partly because of his love for his friend, 
partly because of a certain strain inherited 
from an Irish grandmother, Davis usually 
praised extravagantly. His approbation was 
the food upon which MacDonald lived and 
kept on. For his was one of those hyper- 
sensitive natures, ready at a touch to fall 
from the mountain-peak of profound belief 
in the merit of his own work to the shadowed 
valley of conviction that it was utterly worth- 
less. He was like an instrument upon 
which everyone played their own tune. 
Stillman, with his quiet conservatism, amount- 
ing almost to pessimism, his acceptance of 
the fact that he, and certainly not Mac- 
Donald, that very few, in fact, would add 
much worth while to the world's music, 
always acted on the younger man like a 
chilling wind. The stronger, more material 
personality swept his like a breath from the 
north, carrying with it every leaf of self- 
confidence, every green shoot of budding 
aspiration, leaving the bare, naked branches 
of mediocre attainment. 

All this Davis knew. Knew that one 
word of commendation from the man now 
walking ahead of him would have sent the 
youtliful composer back to his manuscript 
paper with head and heart aflame, would 
have called forth that exhilaration under 
which some men do their best work. Now, 
at last, it had come, and 

He resolutely put the thought aside or 
he could not have sung. With an effort he 
fixed his mind on the beautiful ritual which 
the Master Mason began to repeat. When 
the dead man's apron had been folded and 
dropped into the grave and each brother, 
stepping forward, let fall his little sprig of 
evergreen upon it, the quartette sang Mac- 
Donald's "Requiem." Even Myron Still- 
man admitted to himself that it was a ma- 
jestic ending to a majestic service. 



As the people moved away Grant Dan's 
slipped quietly off. He alone remembered 
that Woodhaven was MacDonald's birth- 
place and that in a corner of this little God's 
acre he was buried. Stillman, Quimby and 
Scott strolled slowly along the well-kept 
paths, stopping here and there to read some 
quaint epitaph. 

Presently they found themselves close to 
Davis as he stood, hat in hand, beside a 
plain granite headstone. It bore Mac- 
Donald's name and age and, underneath, 
the last three bars of the Requiem. That 
had been Grant Dans' idea. He did not 
seem aware now that the other members of 
the quartette had come up behind him. 

"Poor Mac!" Quimby said, in that sub- 
dued voice in which we speak of a comrade 
who has given up the fight. "I had for- 
gotten that he was buried here." 

Scott nodded. 

"There was no music at his funeral he, 
whose life it was no music " Davis was 
speaking in dry jerks, as if to himself. 

"That's so." Quimby still seemed to be 
recalling forgotten facts. "He died of 
diphtheria." 

"But it was bound to be something," 
Scott said sadly. "He was completely run 
down, that was about the truth of it. When 
I got back from my vacation last August 
I met him on the street, lean and white and 
all nerved up. He dragged me into his 
studio to hear part of that cantata, 'The 
Pillar of Fire,' that he'd been working on." 

"Yes, I know," Quimby put in. "I told 
him time and time again that he ought to 
get away and rest, but he'd only say that he 
was having the greatest summer he ever 
put in, working on that cantata. He used 
to play the melody of 'Miriam's Song,' over 
and over for me. I suppose because there 
were none of you fellows, whom he knew 
better, around to hear it and it was pretty, 
but not not " 

"Mac had been too close to his own work 
for too long," Scott said with conviction. 
"He had lost all perspective with regard to 
it. That cantata the whole of it was just 
an expression of his physical condition 
strained. Not the kind of thing of which 
he was really capable." 

"But he wrote the 'Requiem' after that?" 
Quimby suggested. 

"Yes," it was Davis who spoke now. 



64 



A BELATED REQUIEM 



"When I got back from Gloucester I locked 
the cantata away. And for a week he lay 
on a couch in the studio, doing little or 
nothing. Then one night he got hold of a 
sheet of manuscript paper and wrote the 
'Requiem.' It was his 'Swan Song' two 
days later he was taken to the isolation 
hospital. A year ago, today, he was buried." 

Myron Stillman looked up quickly. 

"A year, today?" 

Scott and Quimby started. The musical 
rumble of Stillman's voice when he spoke in 
that low key seemed to come almost from 
under their feet. 

"Yes," Davis answered. 

Quietly the older man stretched out one 
hand and drew a copy of the "Requiem" 
from a book under Quimby's arm. The 
latter gave him a quick look of interrogation 
and he nodded. Scott touched Davis gently, 
on the shoulder. Silently they fell into their 
places, Quimby and Davis in the centre, 
Scott and Stillman at each end. There. was 
nc need for any explanation. 

Scarcely more than a whisper stirred the 
stillness of the air, for they did not want to 
attract the attention of people entering and 
leaving the little cemetery, but each man's 



voice vibrated with a depth of feeling which 
shook himself and his fellows. When the 
strain fell into a minor and there were a few 
notes of baritone solo, Quimby's beautiful 
voice had the wail of a muted 'cello. The 
"Amen" was as though a mighty hand had 
been laid upon life, drawing its gropings 
and uncertainties into one great security, 
harmony and peace. It was more than a 
resolution. It was a solution. 

While the other three men turned away, 
Davis sank on one knee and touched the 
gold lettering of the "Requiem's" last bars, 
where a shaft of September sunshine fell 
athwart it. 

"May be you know old fellow," he whis- 
pered. "And Myron Stillman sang and he 
thinks you did a great job I'm going to 
give your 'Requiem' to the world." 

On the gravelled path, as he walked to- 
ward the cemetery gates, he stooped and 
picked up a sprig of evergreen, Masonic 
emblem of immortality. And as he turned 
the fragrant spray over between his hands 
a wave of conviction swept over Davis, that, 
somehow, MacDonald knew what had taken 
place that day, and that, somewhere, he 
would do better work for the knowing. 




d^pera in tte Positon 



the soul, music combines in itself the power of steam, the agility of electricity and 
the fidelity of the printing press. It is civilization in a conch-shell. Love is a vast 
lily whose petals gleam faintly just under the wave of life, and sometimes sway 
and float out above it. Up from this lily there arises an odor. It ts music. 'The orator,' 
said Quintilian, 'should know everything.' How much more should the musician 
understand all things ! For the true musician is as much higher than the orator as love 
is higher than law. The Greeks did well therefore when they made their word ' mousike ' 
signify a symmetrical and harmonious education of all the powers of man." 

From Lanier's poem, " THE SYMPHONY." 



OR years Boston has enjoyed the 
distinction of being the musical 
centre of the country, and now 
that a Grand Opera House has 
been built worthy of a city 
wherein real, operatic art is being 
nurtured the ''Hub" may well 
lay claim to being one of the great musical 
centres of the world. At one time it was con- 
sidered essential that students of grand opera 
should spend several years in Europe, study- 
ing under European masters and making 
their debut in European musical centres. 
The unrivalled success of the Xew England 
Conservatory of Music, which has built up 
the largest institution of its kind in the United 
States, suggested to Mr. Eben D Jordan, 
President of the Conservatory, that it would 
be well to establish a school of grand opera 
in connection with the Conservatory, and 
thus provide a home for permanent grand 
opera in Bostoa, such as has been provided 
for music of another kind in the famous 
Symphony Hall, with its celebrated orchestra. 
The same purpose which impelled Richard 
Wagner to erect the notable structure on the 
hill at Beyreuth has erected in Boston an 
American mecca for musical students, such as 
Wagner gave to the music lovers of .Germany. 
To make it a success as a business enter- 
prise, as well as the centre of the highest and 
best in grand opera, was the aim of Mr. 
Jordan in erecting a grand opera house on 
Huntington Avenue, in the outskirts of the 
Boston Fenway. The new building was 
planned exclusively for the production of 
classical and standard operas, and already 
promises to be to Boston what La Scala is 




Photo by Chickenng 



ALICE NIELSEN 

AS " MAD All A BUTTERFLY ' 



(65) 



66 



GRAND OPERA IN ITS BOSTON HOME 




Photo by Chickering 

CELESTINA BONINSEGNA 

DRAMATIC SOPRANO 

to Italy. When the "bravas" and ap- 
plause ring through the building, no one has 
any doubt as to the success of grand opera 
in Boston. The hearty support, not only 
in generous subscriptions for boxes, but in 
the purchase of all the other seats, indicates 
that Americans as well as Europeans are 



capable of appreciating grand opera as an 
institution. The season will outlast any- 
thing ever attempted in any other American 
city, and henceforth grand opera will be 
an integral part of life for Bostonians. 
* * * 

After making a tour of Europe, visiting 
every important opera house, Mr. Jordan 
finally decided upon a model for the new 
opera house in Boston, which has, since its 
completion, been pronounced without a peer 
in America. The depth of the stage is not 
equalled by any theatre in the United States. 
Not only both tiers of boxes, but every seat 
in the house, affords an excellent view of the 
stage. Not a single pillar obstructs the 
view, 01 mars the fine sweep of contour. 
With the exception of a large paint shop at 
Swampscott, the business and mechanical 
departments are all concentrated in this one 
structure. The temperature of the opera 




Photo by Chickering 



LYDIA LIPKOWSKA 
SOPRANO IN "LUCIA" 



GRAND OPERA IN ITS BOSTON HOME 



67 




Photo by Dupe 



MR. EBEN D JORDAN 

PRESIDENT, NEW ENGLAND CONSERVATORY OF MCSIC AND BOSTON OPER . COMPANY 



house is maintained at an even sixty-eight 
degrees, no matter what the weather outside 
may be. Automatically regulated, it never 
rises or falls. On the floor under each chair 
is a cast-iron ventilator so arranged that as 
the air passes through it presses against the 
floor, and, without creating the slightest 
draught, reaches the person occupying the 
chair. The vitiated air is drawn off by fans, 
located in the roof, and each opera box has 
its own supply of air. The decorations of 
the house are in delicate tints of crimson, 



and indicate at a glance the avoidance of 
meretricious display of any kind. In the 
great corridors and foyer there is a fashion- 
able promenade between the acts that social 
feature without which it would seem grand 
opera cannot be rendered. 

In Mr. Henry Russell, son of the distin- 
guished English song-writer, Boston possesses 
a director of grand opera who is unequalled 
in his ability for bringing the highest form 
of art into operatic productions. He brings 
the new and the classic into touch with 



68 



GRAND OPERA IN ITS BOSTON HOME 



popular movements, and secures artists to 
carry on the work in a way that can only be 
done by an enthusiast in art. Delfino 
Menotti, the regisseur general, and Arnold 
Conti, the musical director, are men well 
known to all lovers of grand opera, and have 
been connected with its production the world 



The opening of the new opera house in 
Boston was an event quite as significant 
if not more so in the history of the city 
as the opening of Symphony Hall. For a 
year previous the scene-painters and members 
of the orchestra and chorus were hard at 
work perfecting the ensemble of the operas 
to be given, always endeavoring to render 
in completest phrase the thought and intent 
'of the composer, rather than to make the 
performance merely a medium for the work 
of the stellar operatic world. 

The permanent subscription boxes insure 
at least fifteen weeks 
of grand opera, which 
means maintaining a 
keen interest in mat- 
ters musical, as well 
as in opera. This 
permanent rendition 
will create a very 
different feeling than 
that engendered by 
the spasmodic en- 
thusiasm of a week or 
two of grand opera, 
preceding or follow- 
ing Lent, with a 
hurly-burly not con- 
sistent with the pro- 
duction of magnifi- 
cent music. Another 
feature of the new 
building is that it af- 
fords an opportunity 
to persons not pos- 
sessing p 1 u t o n i c 
pocketbooks to par- 
ticipate in the pleas- 
ure and inspiration 
of grand opera. This 
fact alone creates the 
belief that grand 
opera is to be a per- 
manent factor in the Photo by Chickermg 

life of the city in the EUGENIA 



future. On the opening night, November 8, 
1909, the addresses made by Mr. Eben D. 
Jordan and Governor Draper were fitting 
preludes to a work which promises so much 
for Boston. Indeed, the entire Common- 
wealth was represented on this auspicious 
occasion. 

Debutantes' night is scheduled for Satur- 
day, and on one of these Saturdays the famous 
opera "Lakme" was given. The work of 
the French composer Delibes is full of weird 
musical phrases, suggestive of the occult 
mystery of India, with its strange Hindoo 
rites, its dark jungles and its curious cus- 
toms. Viola Davenport, a Boston girl, made 
her debut, and secured enthusiastic applause 
from the students of the Conservatory and 
the large audience of music-lovers. Their 
attitude spoke volumes for the Boston deter- 
mination to develop native musical talent to 
the highest state of perfection. The primary 
purpose of the opera house in these Saturday 
evening performances 
is to provide for young 
students of grand 
opera an opportunity 
to make their debut, 
as at La Scala in 
Milan. 

In sharp contrast 
to debut night was 
Monday night, sub- 
scription night, when 
boxes, orchestra and 
balconies were filled 
with beautiful women 
and well-dressed men, 
showing that Boston 
society was out in 
full force to hear the 
rendition of "Aida." 
The scenic effects, 
the score and the 
music were full of the 
magic and mystery of 
the Egypt of centuries 
past. "Aida" was 
written by Verdi for 
the express purpose 
of preserving, in mu- 
sical form, some of 
the old romantic inci- 
dents of Egyptian his- 
tory. Marvelously has 
BRONSKAJA ' he succeeded. Egypt, 




GRAND OPERA IN ITS BOSTON HOME 



69 




Copyright, I 309, by Dadmun Co. 



HEXRY RUSSELL 

MANAGING DIRECTOR, BOSTON OPERA COMPANY 



land of romance, lives and moves before 
the audience. The story, handed down 
through many centuries, was once enacted 
in the cities of Thebes and Memphis; the 
first act in the latter, in the" palace of the 
Pharaohs. The audience was entranced by 
the force of that splendid music; every 
outside interest was forgotten at that mo- 
ment there was not even attention to spare 
to the perfect conditions which made it 
possible to give undivided attention to the 
performance. A flaw in the scenic features, 
a hint of defective training in the chorus, 
might have detracted from the charm of that 
great volume of tunefulness and harmony 
which arose and swelled through the build- 
ing, or sank to the softest pianissimo. 

Between the acts, the audience commented 
on the perfection of every detail the fact 
that the atmosphere was neither too hot nor 
too cold, and that there was a delightful 



absence of the "stuffiness" so common to 
public buildings. The fact that the opera 
house was perfectly ventilated and appointed 
was reflected in the pleased satisfaction ex- 
pressed on every face. In older opera houses 
the beauty of the music lifts one now and then 
above the discomfort of surroundings, but here 
nothing marred the perfect enjoyment. 
* * * 

The initial presentation of the old time 
favorite opera, "Trovatore," was another 
triumph for the Boston Opera House, 
and further emphasized the wide scope of 
the achievements of a single season. From 
the massive choruses of "Aida," and the 
mysterious and thrilling "Lakme," to the 
performance of such an opera as "Trova- 
tore," indicates the range of the permanent 
artistic talent employed. 

In the brilliant glow of electric lights 
automobiles, carriages and people thronged 



70 



GRAND OPERA IN ITS BOSTON HOME 



Huntington Avenue, inevitably suggesting 
something of the excitement incident to the 
opening of the baseball season, which occurs 
yearly in the park nearby. The white- 
gloved crowds on the street cars and side- 
walks imparted a festive air to the fashion- 
able avenue of Boston. What a tribute to 
the genius of Verdi it was to see his arias 
and melodies as high in favor as they had 
ever been, despite the lapse of years. 

In the new building the old, favorite opera 
was mounted in a way that far surpassed the 
great productions in Italy. In the camp 
scene the soldiers pranced back and forth on 
real horses, across the spacious stage. Each 
of the well-known arias was applauded to 




Photo by Chickering 



JOSE MARDONES 

BASSI 

the echo, and the old-fashioned heart- interest 
in "Trovatore" quite surpassed itself in this 
modern performance. Even the blase and 
severe -scowling musical critics forgot their 
dignity and sat open-mouthed while they 
listened to the strains of Manrico's song 



from his prison tower, and the plaintive 
duo "Home to our Mountains," which is 
known the world over. It was the old, old 
story, "many waters cannot quench love." 
In the collection, "Heart Songs," contrib 
uted by twenty-five thousand people, dwelling 




Photo by Chickering 

GIUSTO NIVETTE 

BASSI 

in all parts of the country, the arias from 
"Trovatore" were by far better represented 
than those from any other opera, for long 
ago the people decided that Verdi belonged 
to them. It is an opera partaking of the 
nature of a concert programme, for like 
pearls on a string, the songs follow each 
other in quick succession, and each is beauti- 
ful in itself. The scenic setting at the 
Opera House gave just that touch of reality 
which makes opera so attractive and per- 
manent. 

Perhaps the greatest charm of music is 
its democracy the fact that it comes with 




Copyright by Mishkin Studio, New York 

COXSTAXTIXO AS MARIO CAVARADOSSI IN " TOSCA" 



72 



GRAND OPERA IN ITS BOSTON HOME 




THE NEW BOSTON OPERA HOUSE 



the same appeal to workingman and mil- 
lionaire, prince and peasant. In every 
human soul lies hidden the harp, whose 
"wild sweetness" may be awakened only by 
the touch of the skilled musician or the thrill- 
ing tones of the singer. It is the universal 
language of the emotions. The masterly 
utterances of Verdi, in his melodies, need no 
interpreter. 

Perhaps no audiences offer a greater 
variety of studies in individuality than those 
gathered night after night at the new 
Opera House in Boston. One gazes with 
delight at the young man in a tall silk hat, 
who promenades with the young lady with 
rosy cheeks, who does not seem to be so 
much impressed as she should be with her 
escort's very, very dignified manner. There 
is the lady apparently clad in "Lesbia's" 
"robe of gold," and the lady who is 
gowned in a material of silvery sheen. Every- 



one is clad in the Grecian style, "long and 
narrow," like the hapless Barbara Allen's 
lament. Then there are the elderly ladies, 
whose simple elegance is restful to look upon, 
and the chat in the foyer is full of intellectual 
appreciation of. the opera. Boston society 
is there at its best to listen to the glorious 
golden tones that come from the lips of 
Constantino. The grand march of "Aida," 
the magnificent Egyptian costumes, the Nile 
and the peculiar eastern scenery; the mys- 
teries of India, in "Lakme," and the familiar 
and beautiful music of "Trovatore" all seem 
to gain an added grace from the exquisite 
color tones of the new Boston Opera House. 
The soft greens and blues are like the setting 
of an exquisite dream, rather than a modern 
reality, and no matter what opera one listens 
to, exquisite color pictures and memories of 
rich, sweet music are carried away in the 
mind and will linger while life lasts. 




" T OXLY lay claim to an invincible willingness to be made wiser today than I was yester- 
1 day, and a lively faith in the possibility nay, the feasibility, the urgent necessity, the 
imminence of very great improvements in our ordinary dealings with the soil. I know 
that a majority of those who would live by its tillage feed it too sparingly and stir it too 
slightly and grudgingly. I know that we do too little for it, and expect it, thereupon, to do 
too much for us. / know that, in other pursuits, it is only work thoroughly well done that 
is liberally compensated; and I can see no reason why farming should prove an exception 
to this stern but salutarv law. I may be, indeed, deficient in knowledge of what constitutes 
good farming, but not in faith that the very best farming is that which is morally sure of 
the largest and most certain reward." 



HUS spoke Horace Greeley, forty 
years ago, prefacing a series of 
essays on Practical Agriculture- 
described by him as "an Art 
based upon Science." And while 
that quaint philosopher hesitated 
not to discourse learnedly and 
at length upon any subject of human knowl- 
edge, in this instance at least the mantle 
of prophecy seemingly had fallen upon 
his shoulders. For upon the products of 
the soil has been builded the material pros- 
perity of the nation; and today, perhaps 




more than at any other period of its existence, 
farming -the intelligent, up-to-date, business- 
like, systematic tilling of the soil points 
the way to a lucrative and dignified profes- 
sion. And, speaking broadly, by farming 
we mean all the allied branches of husbandry 
orcharding, dairying and poultry-raising, 
as well as the tillage of field crops. 

Today, with agricultural colleges es- 
tablished in ever}' state and territory in 
the Union, and a great and wisely con- 
ducted National Department of Agriculture 
eager to aid the farmer in even* way, that 



(73) 



74 



NEW ENGLAND FARMING OF TODAY 




A TYPICAL NEW ENGLAXD HILLSIDE PASTURE 



most ancient and honorable of all employ- 
ments of humankind stands well up at the 
head of industrial occupations. 
* * * 

Now let us consider for a moment the 
position that New England, as compared 
with other sections of the country, occupies 
in farming. Others have written glowing 
words with the golden waving wheat fields 
of Saskatchewan for their theme, or the 
bursting grain bins of Minnesota and the 
stately green aisles of the fertile corn belt 
of Kansas. The black-cheeked apples 
of Oregon, the seedless orange of California, 
the grapefruit of Florida, and the marvelous 
wealth of the market gardens of the South 
Atlantic states have had their meed of praise 
but who has written the paean of the New 
England farm? 

Two points I wish particularly to em- 
phasize: what New England has done and 
is doing today in farming and what she 
might do. In 1900, out of a total value 
of $4,739,118,752 for all the farm products 



of the United States, Massachusetts alone 
produced crops worth $42,298,274, and 
while the absolute acreage in use in Massa- 
chusetts during the decade ending with 
1900 had decreased twenty-two per cent., 
the value of her farm products had increased 
in the same period fifty-one per cent., a 
striking instance of the benefits to be derived 
from a more intensive system of cultivation. 
But simple figures, while interesting to 
a statistician, are at best but dry reading 
to the average mind. Therefore let us 
resort to the sugar coated expedient of 
comparison. "Intensive cultivation," so 
called, has reached its highest state of per- 
fection in the market gardens lying about 
Paris, where land rent runs to $250 per 
acre or more per year, and four crops are 
taken from the soil between February and 
November; and on the island of Guernsey 
in the English Channel, where farming 
land is valued at twelve hundred dollars 
per acre two instances that move all 
writers upon agricultural topics to wonder- 



NEW ENGLAND FARMING OF TODAY 



75 




SHEEP ON A BERKSHIRE COL'NTV FARM 



ing awe; and yet, in the near vicinity of 
Boston, gardeners growing lettuce, radishes 
and cucumbers under glass are clearing 
three to four thousand dollars per acre 
per year without attracting more than pass 
ing notice 

Again, Massachusetts alone produces ag- 
ricultural products annually three times 
greater than California, which has- nine 
times her area, and four and one-half times 
greater than the storied state of Kansas, 
with thirteen times the area of the old Bay 
State. And during a period of forty years, 
covering the greatest productive period of 
the West, Massachusetts averaged a larger 
yield of corn per acre planted to that crop 
than Illinois, Kansas, or Indiana. And this 
too in what is essentially a manufacturing 
state the most densely populated save one 
in the Union. 

Nor are the other New England States 
behind in this particular, New Hampshire 
and Vermont leading the entire list, with 
Maine and Connecticut following closely 
after Massachusetts. A Connecticut farmer 



won three first prizes at the great Omaha 
Corn Show. 

In the yield of wheat the New England 
states, exclusive of Massachusetts, in the past 
forty years have shown not only a steady 
increase in the quantity produced per acre, 
but a larger average annual yield per acre 
than any of the grain-belt states of the Middle 
West, or even the great wheat - producing 
states of California and Oregon. 

"Away up back, on the 
rock -bound farms," 

sings Holman Day, the poet laureate of Maine, 
and yet Aroostook County is perhaps the rich- 
est agricultural county in the United States. 
They raise potatoes in Maine good ones, 
and lots of them. From the crop of 1906 
upwards of eleven millions of bushels were 
shipped, besides the immense quantities of 
small or inferior tubers that found their way 
to the starch mills. 

And the secret of successful potato-raising 
in Aroostook County has been in the method 
of cultivation as much as in soil conditions. 



76 



NEW ENGLAND FARMING OF TODAY 







l^r 

-J*i .""* --" t.< l ' 







CORNSTALKS THAT REAR THEIR TASSELLED HEADS ALOFT IN RANK LUXURIANCE 



Now farmers in other counties of Maine are 
adopting the approved methods of cultivation 
and are amazed at the profitable yields they 
are taking from lands that have borne but 
niggardly for generations. 

And peaches! Down in Glastonbury, 
Connecticut, there is a man who has given 
quite a lot of time and study to peach culture. 
You may have heard of him his name is 
Hale, and wherever throughout the length 
and breadth of this broad land people eat 
peaches his name is known. His is the last 
word on peach culture absolutely the last 
word, and while he raises peaches in Georgia 
as well as in Connecticut, the foundation 
of his success was laid in the Nutmeg state. 

Up and down the whole length of the sun- 
kissed Connecticut valley, as you ride by 
on the train you can see fine apple and peach 
orchards and dairy farms. Time was, 
now twenty years ago, when every farmer 
in the valley raised tobacco when Connecti- 
cut seed leaf was esteemed as one of the 
finest grades of the fragrant weed. But 
now we '"an import our tobacco cheaper than 



we can raise it, and its cultivation in the 
Connecticut Valley has gradually dwindled 

away. 

* * * 

'Generalizations on any theme are danger- 
ous. It has become too much the fashion 
in recent years to speak slightingly of New 
England farms as run down,' worn out, 
abandoned. Abandoned they may be too 
often are, but more often by reason of the 
deflux of the farmers' sons to the ever- 
beckoning city than by reason of a lessen- 
ing productivity of the paternal acres. 

Run down, too, are many New England 
farms, by reason of improper tillage and 
lack of care but worn out, never! Were 
it possible to "wear out" the soil, then 
France, England, Belgium and Italy, and 
other parts of Europe where agriculture has 
flourished continually for centuries upon 
centuries, would be as barren as the desert 
of Sahara. 

A proper method of tillage and the plant- 
ing of leguminous crops, which not only 
supply humus and nitrogen to the soil, 



NEW ENGLAND FARMING OF TODAY 



77 

1 



- 




WHERE THE GRAIN FALLS BEFORE THE STEADY SWING OF THE SCYTHES 



but return to the top soil the potash and 
phosphoric acid obtained by their tap roots 
down deep in the sub soil, is often all that 
is needed to transform apparently sterile 
land into fertile and productive acres. 

By such simple methods, scientifically 
applied, Robert S. Seeds of Birmingham, 
Pennsylvania, has seemingly solved the 
secret of unlocking the hidden fertility of 
the soil, obtaining such astounding results 
in the way of enormous crops that he actually 
sells his soil by the bushel, like commercial 
fertilizer, to inoculate other farming land. 

Up among the Berkshire hills, in north- 
western Massachusetts, the broad acres 
of many of the old mountain farms are 
being turned into extensive sheep ranches, 
where great flocks of high-grade Southdowns, 
Dorsets and Shropshires graze at will, as 
evidence of an approaching revival of sheep- 
raising in New England. And all along the 
historic South Shore the birth-place of 
the Nation southward from Boston to the 
Cape, are scattered poultry and duck farms 
from whence are shipped daily, in ever- 
increasing numbers, live and dressed poultry, 



ducks and eggs. The raising and marketing 
of South Shore broilers is an important 
industry in itself, peculiar to this one locality; 
and the thousand of white Pekin ducks 
waddling with portentous solemnity and 
vociferous garrulity about the pens of the 
South Shore duck farms are an interesting 
and curious sight. 

And cranberries! \Vhat Thanksgiving or 
Christmas dinner would be quite complete 
without a liberal allowance of cranberry 
jelly? Scattered all over the Cape section 
of Massachusetts are great cranberry bogs, 
hundreds of acres in extent, that return to 
their owners small fortunes every year. 
So great an industry has the cultivation 
of cranberries become in Massachusetts, 
that each year sailing vessels make the long 
voyage from the Azore Islands, bringing 
hundreds of Portuguese cranberry pickers 
to gather the crop for market. At the season's 
end they sail for their island homes again, 
while the hundreds of barrels of bright 
red berries that they picked find their way 
to the markets of the West, the New England 
states and Europe. 



78 



NEW ENGLAND FARMING OF TODAY 




PRESIDENT TAFT IN A LONG ISLAND HAYFIELD 



And now that we have seen something 
of what New England is doing today in 
agriculture, let us consider somewhat briefly 
the possibilities of her future. 

A committee appointed by the Boston 
Chamber of Commerce, after an exhaustive 
study of the situation, said that: 

" The importance to New England of 
reawakening interest in agriculture cannot 
be overestimated. The resources of the 
section are practically undeveloped; the 
market is almost unlimited; the climate, 
transportation and other factors favorable. 
Why New England should not compete 
with the West is hard to understand, but 
the reason, when analyzed, is seen to be 
little more than a state of mind. The feel- 
ing that we cannot compete is a fallacy." 

Was it Henry Ward Beecher who said, 
"Doubtless God might have made a better 
fruit than the strawberry, but doubtless God 
never did"? Whoever it was, his assertion 
has the cordial support of a large majority 
of the American public. A well-known 
authority on horticulture has assured us 
that, so far as climate, soil and locality are 
:onsidered, this luscious fruit might be suc- 
cessfully grown in every town in Massa- 
chusetts, and statistics would probably show 
\hat the consumption of strawberries per 



capita is larger in this state than in any other 
in the Union yet many carloads per year 
are shipped to the Boston markets from the 
berry section of New. York State during the 
very season when the domestic berry is 
being harvested. The reason for this anomaly 
is not exactly evident it is evident, however, 
that if berries raised in New York State 
can be profitably marketed in Boston, then 
Massachusetts farmers are overlooking a 
ready source of revenue. 

One other profitable branch of agriculture 
that has been largely relegated to innocuous 
desuetude throughout New England is 
bee-keeping. Not many years ago nearly 
every farmer kept a few hives of bees. Now 
they are almost a rarity upon the average 
farm, and the production of honey, outside 
of certain suburban districts, is in the hands 
of a comparatively limited number of special- 
ists. And yet, owing to the peculiar market 
conditions existing in Massachusetts, there 
is in this state an almost unworked mine 
for the bee-keeper. In no other state can 
there be found the same combination of 
possible harvest and waiting market. Ver- 
mont and New York are famous honey 
producing states, exporting the larger part 
of their annual product, while Massachusetts, 
combining the favoring apicultural conditions 
of both these states with an almost unlimited 



NEW ENGLAND FARMING OF TODAY 



79 



demand, produces but an insignificant local 
crop. If only because of the useful and 
necessary work they perform in the pollina- 
tion of the blossoms of fruit trees and certain 
field crops, every farmer should maintain 
a few colonies of bees to insure against 
crop failure due to insufficient fertilization 
of blossoms when the weather conditions 
are unfavorable for the flight of other insects 
that ordinarily perform this work. 

But bee-keeping is now a science where 
our forefathers made it just a makeshift. It 
is no secret in sections where large apiaries 
are kept that "swarming" of bees is unde- 
sirable; that honey need not be dark colored 
or stained by the pollen tracked in by work- 
ing bees; that the wax can be largely made 
by machine for the bee, etc. All these facts 
have been worked out by up-to-date bee- 
keepers. 

Currants, raspberries, gooseberries, black- 
berries, cherries all of these can be profit- 
ably raised almost anywhere in Xew England. 
There is scarcely anything today in small 
fruit culture that promises so much profit 
as the blackberry, and there are not one- 
tenth enough currants raised in Xew England 
to supply the demand. The buying public 
is also hungry for cherries, and will pay good 
prices for them, but nobody in New England 
thinks it worth while to raise them. 
* * * 

Massachusetts is the birthplace of the 
Concord grape, and yet tons of grapes are 



being shipped each fall to the Boston markets 
from Ohio and New York, because Massa- 
chusetts farmers will not make an effort 
to supply the large and constantly increasing 
demand of their own home market. Then 
too, except among the Berkshires, as fine 
peaches can be raised in Massachusetts 
as are grown in Connecticut or Georgia 
or Texas, and perhaps as profitably, yet 
peach culture is almost entirely neglected 
in this state. 

Eastern Massachusetts is peculiarly 
adapted by climatic and soil conditions to 
the raising of pears no finer ones can be 
grown anywhere in America,, and there is 
a tremendous demand for the Bartlett, the 
Seckle and the Bosc; yet Massachusetts 
farmers seem content to let the fruit-growers 
of the Pacific coast raise all the pears con- 
sumed in New England, ship them across 
the continent and pocket a handsome profit. 

But in orcharding, perhaps, lies New 
England's greatest potential future profit. 
Probably no other opportunity open to the 
owner of farm land in New England offers 
as great possibilities as apple growing. 
Exhaustive experimentation has shown con- 
clusively that New England soil and climate 
are peculiarly adapted to the growing of 
the best standard varieties of apples. It 
is a demonstrated fact, upon which expert 
orchardists agree, that New England grown 
apples are of unequaled flavor. The avail- 
able market is practically unlimited. The 





HOMEWARD BOUN'D AT MILKING TIME 



80 



NEW ENGLAND FARMING OF TODAY 




Courtesy of E. A. Strout Company 

PASTORAL SCENE IN SLEEPY HOLLOW, KENT'S HILL, MAINE 



American people are today eating more 
apples than ever before in the country's 
history, and Europe's steadily increasing 
demand for American grown fruit has reached 
already such proportions that millions of 
barrels are being exported annually. 

Why New England farmers have allowed 
this vast market to be monopolized by the 
apple-growers of Oregon and Washington 
is a mystery past fathoming. It costs the 
Western grower about four hundred dollars 
per carload to ship his apples to the Boston 
or New York markets and he stands that 
great drain on his profits and grows rich 
besides, while the New England farmer, 
with the market at his very door, the best 
soil and the best climate in the world for 
growing fine apples, and an agricultural 
experiment station in his own state ready 
and eager to show him how to select and 
plant and care, for his trees and market 
his fruit, whines about "the -hard times" 
and the lack of opportunity for New England 
farming. 

The truth is that, if New England farmers 
could be stirred to action, there has never 
been a time in the history of the nation when 
the opportunities for making money on New 
England farms were anything like as great 



as they are now, and one of the greatest 
of these opportunities lies in apple-growing. 
But "the old order changeth" and to take 
advantage of this opportunity the New Eng- 
land apple-grower must break away from 
the old time fashion of orcharding, and 
take a leaf from the book of his Oregon 
or Washington competitor. In those states 
the raising and marketing of apples has been 
reduced to an exact business proposition. 
The Western orchards are cultivated as 
systematically and fertilized as thoroughly 
as any field crop. The trees are trained 
and pruned and cared for carefully, sprayed 
for prevention of insect pests, protected from 
frost by "smudge" fires in iron pots designed 
' for this special purpose indeed, watched 
and tended with unending care. And the 
results justify the expenditure of time and 
care in the quality of the product, its ap- 
pearance, and the price that it commands. 

It is unbelievable that New England 
farmers will long continue to content them- 
selves with gleaning where the Westerner 
has reaped. The New England market 
belongs by priority of right to the New Eng- 
land farmer he has but to exert his latent 
force, intelligently directed, to come again into 
his own. 




A SERIAL 



By FRANK HATFIELD 



Copyright, Reid Publishing Company 



CHAPTER XV 




grasped the Hungarian's 
hands. "A hearty welcome for 
you," he exclaimed. "We are 
thrice blest today. Oron is here." 

"Ah, he could fill the earth with ; 
returned Hum. "He my benefactor!" he 
exclaimed, as Oron came from the library. 

"Nay, nay, Audofa. I have been but the 
instrument of good. Wohares.'" 

"Now for the repast!" exclaimed Termal 
joyously. "After that, this house shall be 
filled with music and merrymaking." 

"But, Padu," asked Zenia, "who prepared 
the table?" 

"No questions, my daughter! All goes 
well on this auspicious day." 

"Oh, but who arranged the flowers?" 
exclaimed Fulma. 

TermaPs eyes twinkled, but he did not 
reply. A striking effect in ebony and ivory 
stood opposite. 

"I know," I said, nodding. 

"Why, Mo too!" exclaimed the girls. 

The African cabinet disclosed additional 
treasures, while a cheer}' group surrounded 
the bountiful board. 

"Now, my boy, the ones with the red caps," 
ordered our host. 

Oron glanced at the flasks. "That was a 
goodly vintage, Termal." 



"A rare one, Oron, but I would have it 
even better, for this occasion." 

"Why, I have seen bottles something like 
those, at a wedding in my country," an- 
nounced Tom. "I should like to go to a 
Zoeian wedding. It would be jolly." 

"A simple pleasure and one easy to give," 
said Termal. "My niece, Elida, is to be 
married soon. We will attend her nuptials." 
My comrade was getting in fair work, I 
thought, with numerous savory viands. He 
pavsed. 

"Elida!" he exclaimed. "Why, does she 
er live on a plantation near Huan?" 

"Certainly, Tooma." 

"Do you know her?" asked Zenia, with 
surprise. 

"Well, this is how it was," said Tom. 
"We were out one day examining the car- 
way. No, I'm a little mixed; that wasn't 
the way we were way off on the road from 
Hokenda, and Hum I mean Audofa 
was talking about th the temperature, I 
guess, and it was all so dry it made me 
thirsty, you see, and we went to the planta- 
tion, you know, for " 

"Yes, I see," said Zenia. "It was another 
orange-seed game, I presume. It is my 
opinion, Tooma, you are one who believes 
in having plenty of material on hand to use " 



(81) 



82 



"HUM" 



"To choose from," asserted Fulma saga- 
ciously. 

The slight applause I initiated, at Zenia's 
implication, was checked by her sister's 
acuteness. 

"Thanks, Fulma," returned Tom. "You 
are just delightful! Zenia doesn't mind 
taking the peel off." 

"One has to," persisted the defendant, 
"if she would know what is inside." 

This time I let go. Oron and Audofa 
looked up inquiringly, from an animated 
conversation with Termal. 

"Some explanation is due," I said, "but, 
with your permission, I will defer it until 
after the repast." 

"That is wise," persevered Zenia. "Oron 
might lose his appetite." 

Well matched, I thought. 

"Not with all these good things to choose 
from," Hum remarked, with startling acumen. 

"Oron, that reminds me," I said. "Do 
the women here choose their husbands? 
It is not generally the way elsewhere." 

"It is in this manner," he explained. 
"Our daughters are wooed here as among 
other people, I presume; but our maidens 
choose from their suitors one whom they 
believe to be worthy of the love and fidelity 
they are prepared to give." 

I looked at Fulma. I thought the rich 
rose in her cheeks had deepened. I wished 
I knew what fancies lay beneath that golden 
crown. 

"Among other nations those high senti- 
ments do not always have the greatest weight," 
I said. 

"Then the holy state of matrimony cannot 
be blessed, Feanka." 

"It is not in every case," observed Tom. 
"Occasionally, there is considerable of a 
mix-up." 

Oron's brow knit slightly, and, as if to 
divert my comrade from the subject, said: 
"I have a message for you, Tooma, from 
Soratiya. He wishes you to teach your art 
in the schools at Huan whenever you are 
ready. This, you perceive, is in response 
to your laudable desire for work." 

"I am ready now!" exclaimed Tom. 

"Why, Tooma," said Zenia, "there are 
many things you haven't seen yet." 

"And some you have not," he returned. 

"Well, I should like to know where they 
are." 



"Look inside the orange, my sister." 

Oron, having the wire again, went on: 
"Peroma has arranged for the addresses 
here. Our people at Hokenda and Huan 
want you to return. Your coming is, as you 
must know, my brothers, an important event 
in our history. And Feanka, the College 
wishes you and Audofa to compile, as far 
as possible from memory, the history of the 
Manifestation to your race. Before the next 
recession we may devise methods by which 
to obtain your sacred books. We want 
them exceedingly. Remember, my sons, 
you are our guests; and are freely welcome 
to all we can give. Before commencing 
active work, you must visit all parts of our 
country. For the present," he laughed, "I 
think your time will be fully occupied." 

"Audofa," said Tom, glancing at the 
many features of our happy environment, 
"think of the night in the death-shaft!" 

"That suggests the skeleton at the Egyptian 
banquet, Tooma." 

"With this difference," said Tom, "that 
was to remind the guests of their mortality; 
while my words have to do with immortality. 
We rose from death into transcendent life." 

"That was well expressed," said Termal. 

"Wasn't it beautiful!" exclaimed Zenia, 
her eyes fixed on the handsome speaker. 
"Please say it again." 

"Want me to repeat it? Well, here goes, 
for your benefit. We rose to a life full of 
sunlight and flowers and angels." 

"Angels, Tooma? Why, where have you 
seen angels?" 

"I saw one in the garden, today." 

"And what was the angel doing?" 

"Talking to a tall man. Someone had 
given her a rose. I think there was another 
somewhere around." 

"Little Sunshine," said Termal, addressing 
Fulma, "you seem pensive." 

"Do I appear so, Padu? I was thinking. 
Dear Oron," she asked presently, "ought one 
to act without forethought?" 

"Ordinarily not, my child. There are, 
however, times when the inner voice speaks 
so clear, it is to be obeyed without hesitation." 

"I thank you, my father. Motoo Au- 
dofa's glass!" 

"Not much like the Baruti here," remarked 
Hum, as the boy poured the wine. 

"No, sir, Mr. Audofa! Baruti aren't in 
it." 



"HUM' 



83 



"Ah, my boy, you have absorbed much 
from your former teacher." 

"How is that, old shipmate?" exclaimed 
Tom. "Oh, I am reforming fast! I go to 
school to a zealous missionary. Not the 
ordinary kind of missionary; but a real 
sharp, wide-awake, sometimes not over 
winning one. By the way, Audofa," he 
hurried on, evidently to forestall adverse 
comment, "think of the contrast between 
these good things and our spreads round the 
old camp-fire. Scott, they were tough!" 

"They were, Tooma. It was by a rough 
way we entered the kingdom." 

"The land flowing with milk and honey," 
I added. "This cream is delicious," I said, 
pouring some over the luscious peaches. 
"I am told it is made from the cocoanut." 

"It is," said Termal. "It will interest you 
to see how our milk preparations are made." 

"Milk is not as nice as music, Tooma," 
asserted Zenia. 

"But more nutritious," declared Fulma. 

"You are opening a field for debate, my 
daughter," said Oron. "I would advise a 
due portion of each under existing con- 
ditions," he added, with humor. 

"Zenia," said Tom, "you have what we 
call, in English, 'musicitis.' It is one of 
those things that raises one's temperature 
and quickens the heart. Don't worry over 
it. I have had two bad attacks since I came 
to Bacca. Just now " 

I had opened the circuit. "Oron, did your 
people never keep cows nor have beasts of 
burden?" I asked. 

"Many centuries ago, Feanka, we had kine 
and used bullocks as draught animals, but 
when our science men discovered that a 
creature's milk is best limited to the rearing 
of its offspring, and our motor powers were 
evolved, they were no longer essential to us. 
We then pensioned them for faithful service, 
as was their due. In time they became ex- 
tinct." 

"Mercy on us, Fean!" exclaimed Tom. 
"What would Oron think of Chicago?" 

"Is it not the practice there, Tooma?" 

"Well, hardly. The truth is, Oron, that 
in my city and every other place I know of 
except this Elysium, the only reward that 
awaits an animal's life service, is either to 
become, by ways I forbear to describe, part 
of a human being, or to be converted into 
products that will put money into his pockets." 



"Yes, I have learned that other nations 
eat the flesh of animals. It is a practice we 
cannot comprehend. To us it seems ab- 
horrent and unhealthy." 

"I should tell you, Oron, that there are a 
few men and women who abstain from flesh 
food from a sense of right. They believe 
that life, as manifested, is sacred. They 
are looked upon as weak-minded persons by 
many of our scientists and doctors." 

"Their line of thought differs widely from 
ours," said Oron. 

"Tooma," asked Zenia, "did you ever " 

"Ah, now, Zenia," interposed Tom, "I 
have entered upon a new life." 

"Well spoken, my son," approved Oron. 
"Old things have passed away; all have 
become new." 

"Good!" exclaimed Termal. "Well, now 
for soul refreshment." He nodded to Fulma. 
We followed our graceful hostess to the 
music room. 

I say we two of our group lingered and 
I overheard the following colloquy; "Zenia, 
when you are' smoother, I have something to 
say to you." "When your Zoeian is smoother, 
I will tell you something." "And I, you." 
"W 7 hat is it, Tooma?" "Oh, I am not 
smooth enough." "Oh, yes, you are, tell 
me!" "Not for a ""What?" "Don't 
ask me; I shall not tell you." 

I turned just in time to see, by the signals, 
that the threatened cyclone had passed. 
Further, that my comrade had evidently 
discovered the other angel. 

"Now for music!" exclaimed Termal. 
"I will get my vilo. I know about the 
others. Audofa, how about you?" 

"Oh, someone must listen," said Hum. 
"I have a reserved seat." 

"Not so," I cried. "You once promised 
to teach Motoo the czardas. Why not teach 
us?" 

"Oh, do," implored Fulma and Zenia. 
"What fun, Tooma!" cried Zenia. 

"Jolly enough," assented Tom, "but I 
have never seen the dance." 

"Oh, what's the difference? We can 
do it." 

"Of course we can you and I. What a 
lark!" 

"Dear friends," appealed Audofa, "I 
haven't trod that measure in thirty years. 
The last time I danced it was on the green 
in my native town. I don't believe " 



84 



"HUM" 



"Well, I do," I said, "and if Fulma will 
make a beautiful living picture for us, you 
cannot refuse." 

"Nor do I really wish to refuse. But tell 
me, Feanka, why change the tense?" 

"My old shipmate," I said, "your compli- 
ment is subtly exquisite." 

"And then, we haven't the music," he 
continued. 

"Never mind that," said Termal. "Give 
me the measure. Now for the irilo." 

I took Fulma to the hall for instruction. 

"What do you wish me to do, Feanka?" 
she asked. 

"Dress the same as on the day I first saw 
you; put some flowers into the antique vase; 
hold it in your right hand, and stand so that 
when I open the door you will be like a 
picture in a frame." 

"Why, how strange!" 

"Yes, I know it all sounds odd to you; I 
will explain another time. W.'ll you do it, 
Fulma?" 

"Certainly, if you so desire." 

The Subagino stone flashed. I raised the 
hand that bore it, to my lips then retained it. 

She looked at me earnestly, trustingly. 

"Now go, dear," I said. "I will call you." 

Meantime, Termal had returned, tuning as 
he came. 

"Now, Audofa, how is that measure?" 
he asked, raising a note. 

"Like this," said Hum, taking the instru- 
ment. 

"Hold!" cried Termal, springing up. I 
will get my other vilo. Why, man, you have 
skill! Your tone is fine! This vilo will suit 
you. Now I will play the accompaniment." 

I rose as the wild czardas rang out. I 
might have known that the old Hungarian 
was a musician, but I was not prepared for 
what came. As the two vilos sang on, I went 
to the door and glanced out. 

"Just right, little queen. Always right," 
I said. "Wait a moment." 

When the number was ending, I threw the 
door wide open. The old musician's brow 
furrowed, as with intense concentration. 

"Fulma! Josephine!" he exclaimed. 
"Stand as you are!" 

As he freed his wrist, he spoke to Termal. 
Then arose a theme wild and enchanting. 
An interweaving of masterful conceptions 
in harmonious tones. The while Termal 
played a wondrous accompaniment. 



In the opposite door Moto stood as though 
transfixed. 

With tears in her eyes, Fulma presented 
the vase to Audofa. 

"My dear child," he said with emotion, 
"The flowers are typical of yourself; and 
lovely as the beautiful image that, for years, 
has existed in my heart, unrevealed." 

"It was superb!" said Oron. "You have 
a noble gift, my brother." 

"Ah, my fingers have handled too many 
ropes." 

"Henceforth, the vilo only, Audofa," said 

Termal. "Now for songs, and then the 

dance. It's a fair night after a glorious day." 

"Do not change your dress," I said to 

Fulma. "I want you just as you are." 

Her dark -blue eyes lighted the smile that 
played round her lips: "Just as I am?" 
she asked. 

"Yes, dear, just as you are." 

Then the songs! Oron's grand bass 
enriched our music as his joyous spirituality 
ennobled our lives. The musicians contrib- 
uted delightful obligatos. Our dear old 
comrade had forgotten the reserved seat. 
He was within the rail of the orchestra now; 
his face aglow. 

"Now for the czardas/" cried Zenia, in 
wild glee. 

We were apt pupils. The motif had quite 
enough of earth to be enthralling to hearts 
in which love was building her altars. We 
yielded to the witchery, stopping only when 
the ices and fruit were served. 

"Well, that takes the edge off every other 
dance," exclaimed Tom. "Have another 
ice, Zenia." 

"Thank you, Tooma, I am not specially 
fond of ices. They are so chilling." 

"H-m, yes, they do rather lower one's 
temperature. Better not eat another." 

"0 Tooma, have you had any more attacks 
of of " 

"'Musicitis?' Yes, I had an awful one 
tonight, but with your help I shall pull 
through." 

"And how did Blue Eyes like the dance?" 
asked Termal. 

"O Padu, it was rapturous! Do you not 
think so, Feanka?" 

"Assuredly; but most any dance would 
have been under the circumstances." 

"How so?" 

"That is a deep question, my daughter," 



"HUM" 



85 



said Oron, laughing. "You must not expect 
a hasty answer. Yes, it was a rhythmic 
movement Wr must have it at my house 
and at our festivals. Now, dear ones, I 
shall have to leave you," he said, rising. 
"Tomorrow will be our annual opening day 
at the Public Library. Feanka, you and 
Tooma bring the girls. Afterwards, partake 
with us. It will give us happiness." 

"And us as well," I returned. 

" Yolo, yolo, to you all. Subaketa yune." 

"All aboard for the restafa!'' I exclaimed. 
"Audofa, we are to have you tonight." 

"Oh, no," objected Termal, "I can't 
spare him. \Ve want to talk for hours. I 
have much to hear and to say. Ah, this has 
been a happy day; I wish it would never 
end." 

"Many another for you, my good Termal," 
I assured. "Come on, Tom! Happy antici- 
pations for the morrow. Yolo, yolo, all!" 

"Fean's in a tearing hurry," I overheard 
my comrade say while making his adieus. 

On the way home, I said to him: "Tell 
me, were you ever really engaged to that 
girl in Elgrane?" 

"Engaged? Xot much! I never knew 
which she liked best, Dick Watson or me. 
Both of us hovered round her considerably. 
Why do you ask?" 

"Because, one can, without undue effort, 
see how the land lies between you and Zenia.' 
She is dear, my chum. To be sure, she is an 
only daughter, but I don't anticipate much 
difficult}' in that direction." 

"Think not? Well, I own the coin. But 
speaking of seeing one needs but a fraction 
of an eye, to see something else." 

"Yes, I understand. I confess." 

''And you have decided?" 

"I think so, Tom. I don't quite know." 

"Don't quite know? Why, she belongs to 
you. Zenia thinks so." 

"Zenia? How do you know that?" 

"I am not offering testimony, my dear 
Hatfield." 

'Well I shall talk it over with Oron to- 
morrow." 

"Correct thing to do, Fean. I believe that 
what that man says, goes." 

"Of course it does. Why not?" 



The Library at Hokenda was a collection 
of books pertaining to their own history. 



scientific works, ethical poems, romance 
even, and other miscellaneous writings. 

When I recalled the fact that these people 
isolated for unknown ages had never 
had any contributing thought extraneous to 
themselves; never experienced those vivid 
contrasts between good and evil that make 
up the world's history; never seen the 
reverse side of the fair page on which peace, 
plenty and happiness were inscribed; never, 
as a people, known want, remorse nor shame 
I marveled that they could portray, in their 
works of fiction, the multitudinous emotions 
incident to environments in which they had 
had no experience. 

Their history was a record of all develop- 
mental, political and social events in their 
race from a remote antiquity. Their books 
on science were inestimable treasures. They 
represented the profound, untrammeled, con- 
centrated thought of the College for centuries. 
Unfettered by the corroding cares of life 
which divide men's minds, these seers had 
illuminated the obscure labyrinths of hy- 
pothesis with the light of reality; had crossed 
the boundary of that realm called by others 
"the unknown." Their concentered thought 
had produced wonders surpassing those of 
the accumulators. 

The books were printed on paper re- 
sembling parchment; and bound in a way 
to elicit praise from a member of the "Grolier 
Club." 

As we strolled through the superbly 
decorated rooms exchanging salutations with 
stately men and women, and I felt the presence 
of the treasured woman by my side, it seemed 
as though I was floating through a blithesome 
dream; one from which I would suddenly 
awaken in my old home. We came to an 
embrasured window where one could rest 
and enjoy a fine view of the park. 

"Dear little woman," I asked, "why were 
you surprised at Oron's rose? The perfect 
crimson rose, which, ere this, has fallen to 
pieces?" 

The hand that bore the emblematic ring 
rested on my arm, and soft eyes, wonderfully 
deep and soulful, looked into mine; then 
sought the fringe of the scarf with which she 
was toying. 

"Perhaps I ought not to tell you," she 
hesitated. "Did Oron tell you anything 
say anything about the rose, Feanka?" 

"Nothing, Fulma." 



86 



"HUM" 



She still hesitated. 

"Then let it be enough for now," she 
smiled, "that I tell you the rose you gave me 
lies between the leaves of my sacred book, 
my Master's words." 

"A precious book," I said. "Did you 
ever thus place a flower before?" 

For a moment her eyes rested on the 
park's soft verdure, then met my inquiring 
look. "Never, Feanka," she said, giving 
me her hand. Then, the sunny smile of 
pleased recognition on her face, she exclaimed : 
"Oh, there are Oron and Loredo!" 

"Welcome, welcome!" said Oron, ad- 
vancing. "Oronena and our children are 
here. We will gather soon and return home. 
But where are Zenia and Tooma ? Did they 
not come?" 

"Why, ye yes, they came," I said, "but 

"We have not seen them lately," admitted 
Fulma. 

Oron laughed. "I think I understand," 
he said. "I presume they are among the 
romances." 

"Why, I am almost sure they are there," 
said Fulma. 

Loredo 's thoughtful eyes seemed suddenly 
swept by a dash of raillery. 

"Does the manifestation seem less obscure 
than when you were by the lake?" he asked 
me. "Do not let the vision fade, my brother," 
he said, as we parted. 

I suspected Oron. 

On the third floor was an inviting balcony 
from whence came familiar voices. 

"Oh, there they are!" exclaimed Fulma. 

"Hello!" I cried. "We have been looking 
for you." 

"Ah, indeed! How long?" 

Tom's question was inconvenient to answer. 
I waived it. 

"Well, have you seen everything?" I 
asked. 

"Oh, no, not yet," said Tom. "Time 
enough." 

"Time enough? Why, Oron and his 
family are waiting for us. What have you 
been doing?" 

"Been doing? Why, you see, Fean, 
Zenia and I have been been looking at- 
that er that beautiful green grass." 

"Green and red are complementary colors, 
dear boy," I ventured. 

"Nonsense! You might better look at the 
pictures, Fean." 



"Nothing finer to be found than what is 
before me, my chum. The grass, I think, 
is of the sweet scented variety. However, 
we must go at once." 

* * * 

This was one of numerous holidays. So 
it happened that two young Zoeians, who 
emphasized their attentions to Oron's fair 
daughters just enough to suggest possibilities, 
joined the merry group that gathered in the 
music room at Oron's hospitable home; 
the room so full of sweet melodies and 
sweeter memories, among which, after all, 
nothing was more endearing than the Oron- 
ena's loving welcome. 

"Ah, Feanka," said Oron, pointing to 
Fulma, "our little daughter's heart is glow- 
ing with a new joy. They are going to sing. 
Let us walk awhile in the park." 

"And go to the Rose Pavilion," I added, 
"the abode of peace; the birthplace of a 
higher and nobler life for me." 

He rested his hand on my shoulder as we 
walked. His attitude invited confidence. 

"Oron, I told you that I loved Fulma," 
I said. 

"Yes, my son. She will be the worthy 
recipient of all a true man can give. She 
has awaited your coming. It is, as Loredo 
says, 'a wonderful example of an immutable 
law.' Fulma is our foster-child; she has 
been a treasure and a joy to us for many 
years; a borrowed jewel. Now, in the name 
of our nation, I give her back to her own race 
through its worthy representative. Had 
it been Zenia, Termal must needs have been 
consulted." 

"She too, is loved," I said. 

"That is quite evident, Feanka, but not 
strange. She is a winsome girl, who, though 
often wooed, has not been won. Another 
instance of the irrefragable law." 

"Will Termal oppose?" 

"No, -I have already spoken with him." 

"Say this to Tooma," I pleaded. "He 
will not declare his love until assured of 
Termal's and your approval." 

"That is true nobility," he exclaimed. 
"I will remove all barriers, before he leaves." 

"Another matter, Oron. At the next 
recession " 

"I know what you would say," he inter- 
posed. "It is yet a long way off. When it 
comes, your and Tooma's filial duties, 
Fulma's rights, and Zenia's inherited dis- 



'HUM 1 



87 



position, will determine your course. Leave 
all to the Father's guidance. If you go, we 
will aid your departure and most heartily 
welcome your return." 

"Our return!" I exclaimed. 

"Yes, Feanka, what man has done once 
he may do again. I shall lay the matter 
before our engineers." 

Then he further unfolded to me his plans 
for the acquisition of our sacred books; his 
plans for my comrade's and my advance- 
ment; his solicitude for our bodily and 
spiritual welfare. "Why, Feanka," he said, 
"I love you and Tooma as my own children; 
yet not my children we are all brothers and 
sisters in the great family of our Father. 
It is meet that we love one another. Kesua 
so taught us. Now, my son, in regard to 
our trip, I hav? arranged to leave the second 
morning hence. Tesia will accompany us. 
It will be a pleasant party and we shall have 
a good time. Oronena desires our presence. 
(A man in gray was approaching.) We 
must return." 

"One word, Oron. No earthly parent 
could be dearer to his children than you are 
to me." 

His strong arm made response, as he 
drew me to him, with warmth. 
* * * 

The wealth of wisdom uttered by Loredo 
as we sat at Oronena's charming repast 
thrilled me. Words not common to this 
earth, but so humanly spoken, they found a 
ready acceptance by earth's children. 

"Your thoughts illuminate the feast," I 
said to him. 

"If so, Feanka, they are but reflections 
from a great luminary, Paerdo. Come and 
spend a day at the College whenever you will. 
We will sit by Paerdo while he opens to our 
inner vision the portals of eternal life. We 
are coming to Bacca," he went on in lighter 
tone, "to hear your address and see more 
of Tooma's fine pictures." 

"Is it not trying to your arm, Tooma?" 
asked Zenia. 

"Well, a bit, perhaps. There are less fa- 
tiguing exercises for the arm." 

"There are, indeed," laughed Oron, in 
appreciation. 

As we left the dining room our host invited 
Tom into the library. When I next saw him, 
his face told me what he had heard. 

The memorable day was drawing to a 



close when we left for Bacca. Termal's 
lavish hospitality awaited our coming at 
Bestofall. I never more fully realized how 
apposite the name was. An hour later, 
Tom was stretched on the lounge in our 
snug quarters at the restafa. 

"This is a jolly good place," he said 
yawning. "I am tired. Glad we are not 
to start on our island trip tomorrow. Hey, 
but we shall have a royal time, or I am mis- 
taken. By the way, Hat, that was a rare 
thing Oron showed me in the library." 

"Showed you, or told you, Mr. Thomas 
Selby?" 

"How the dickens did you know it?" 
he shouted, sitting up. 

"I am not on the witness stand, my dear 
boy." 

"Good! A 'Roland for an Oliver.' We 
are quits. There's my hand." 

"Think of your possible descendants, my 
boy," I said, grasping the proffered member. 

"Why, Fean they would be people of 
mark." 

"So they would, from both. ancestors, my 
schoolmate." 

CHAPTER XVI 

Tissan was our first stop. Here were the 
optical and jewelry works; and it was here 
that the great lenses of the telescopes were 
made. Unfortunately, none were then in 
process of manufacture, but we were com- 
pensated by other wonders in the optical 
house. 

"The better way," said the director, 
"will be to show you results, rather than 
the complicated methods by which we obtain 
them. Arrange a group and engage in 
conversation." 

Then issued a lively discussion concern- 
ing the grouping which ended abruptly when, 
to our surprise, the director exclaimed: 
"Now, look and listen." We saw ourselves 
life size, in action, and heard our words 
repeated. 

At the jewelry works Oron said: "We 
must have some mementoes of our visit. 
Select as you like." Tom appealed to me. 

"Well, why not one of those jeweled 
hearts," I said, "it would be very sug- 
gestive." 

"Oh, Zenia needs no more suggestions; 
and as for hearts, she has two now. No, 
that is not I have it!" he exclaimed. "This 



88 



"HUM" 



little blazing star will be just the thing in 
my girl's hair. Besides, it has five points; 
they represent my five senses. She appeals 
to each of them." 

"I doubt if Zenia recognizes the associa- 
tion," I said. "However, your selection is 
a good one." 

I found just what I required; a delicate 
neck chain. Fulma noticed my selection. 
"That is not strong enough for a man," 
she said. 

"Think not? Well, it might help to 
secure a small woman; and thereby may 
hang a tale." 

"Your words are not clear, Feanka." 

"No, dear, I know they are not. The 
day after we reach home, we will go to the 
bower on the hillside. Then I will make 
them clearer." 

A ride of five miles, and we came to an 
orange grove where all work was done by 
machinery; even the pruning of the trees 
and gathering of the fruit. One of the men 
came forward to see Tom and me. "I want 
to stand by the men who passed through 
that canyon," he said. "I once went into 
that place as far as the rock from whence 
you saw the star, but did not venture further 
on account of the hot vapor. And you en- 
tered the rift thousands of feet below. I 
don't know how you escaped." 

"They had Divine protection," said Oron. 
"You should know that, Badron. Now for 
the reservoir," he went on, "then return 
to the park, listen to the music and meet our 
people." 

Before we left, delicious fruit with cakes 
and wine were served. Tom said: "If one 
were to embark for his last voyage, these 
generous Zoeians would insist upon refresh- 
ments before he weighed anchor." 

The reservoir was a fine piece of masonry 
embracing several acres. An attendant took 
us out in a boat, about thirty feet in length, 
without rowlocks or oars. No works were 
visible, nor any sound like machinery in 
motion. In reply to my inquiry, Oron ex- 
plained that the boat was propelled by 
atmospheric impulse delivered beneath the 
surface from two air chambers that acted 
synchronously or alternately, as required. 

"This boat," remarked Tom, "is like 
some people I know, who have no 'visible 
means but are kept going by the wind." 
It is difficult to say in what way Oron 



would have treated my comrade's statement, 
had not Tesia alluded to the hour. We 
turned ashore and went to the park. Here 
a crowd of the Tissan folk were assembled 
for music and social intercourse. It was 
their daily custom. Our arrival caused a 
flutter of excitement. While a number had 
met us before, the majority knew us only by 
hearsay. Wherever we moved groups gath- 
ered about us. I was conscious we were 
looked upon as beings from another planet, 
and, although nothing was said to foster 
such a thought, I knew that they wondered 
how men of our stature could have endured 
such hardships. They were, however, de- 
lightfully courteous. 

The music was fine. At these afternoon 
concerts, we should call them, boys and 
girls, clad in light blue robes and gowns with 
golden girdles, sang the Zoeian folk-songs, 
accompanied by the orchestra. During an 
interval Tom and I, with the girls, went 
about while Oron and Tesia talked with 
numerous friends. 

"Fulma," I said, "yonder is a place where 
we can sit, apart from the crowd, and listen 
to the music." 

"Yes, it is charming here," she said. 

"Charming everywhere in Zoeia," I added. 

"And yet," she said, as she gazed intently 
at the Subagino ring, "you would go away 
and leave it all." 

"Why do you say that?" I asked. 

"Because it is true. I think of it often. 
You will try to reach your native land, when 
the time comes, to see those dear to you." 

"Well, is it not natural, little queen? My 
father and mother are there." 

"Yes, I suppose it is natural," she said. 
"I have never known a mother's love. Even 
with these dear people, I have had sad 
moments, unaccountable to me, until you 
told me my history. Now I understand. 
At times I long to rest my head against a 
mother's heart and feel her warm, loving 
embrace." 

I looked into the blue depths; they were 
filling with tears. 

"Fulma," I hazarded, "would you care 
if I left tnis island ?" 

No answer did she make. Only the flash 
of the jewel, as her hand, again and again, 
swept away hot tears. "Let us find Zenia," 
she said. 

"One question, dear Fulma. Could you 



"HUM" 



89 



love any one well enough to leave this beau- 
tiful home and face perils and hardships in 
the lower world ?" 

"Feanka, do you recall what I told you 
on the hillside? I think not; otherwise 
you would not ask that question. You do 
not understand a woman's heart. You 
should know that with the one I choose, I 
would go to the confines of the universe, 
and count every obstacle an opportunity to 
prove my love for him." 

I sought her hand, but it was not granted. 
I felt that I was deemed unworthy. 
* * * 

Dinner at the restafa was excellent Under 
its pleaseant influence Fulma's smile re- 
turned. Tom was sparkling; Zenia viva- 
cious; Tesia, as usual, dignified and gracious; 
Oron, a mine of wisdom interveined with 
mirth. He always had some thought gem 
he could instantly so set as to engross the 
attention of his hearers. In reply to Tom', 
allusion to the condensed quality of the 
Zoeian food, he at once took up the subject: 

"We have found," he said, "that the 
nearest perfect food is that in which the 
maximum amount of nutriment is obtained 
with the least expenditure of energy by the 
consumer. The more we can break down 
the material cells and release the spiritual 
essence, the higher becomes the food value 
of the product. For our nourishment must 
come from the vitality within the grain, 
which is but the vehicle for its manifestation. 
The nutritive element is invisible. In our 
system, we thin the veil between the spiritual 
and the material as far as may be. Our 
science men are now working on a problem. 
Should they solve it and I think they will 
we shall discard the material entirely." 

"And live like the air plants?" asked Zenia. 

"Yes, in a way, my daughter." 

"That wouldn't suit the people in the 
lower world," exclaimed Tom. "They want 
a good square meal." 

"A square meal, Tooma? That is not 
clear to me." 

"I might say, an all 'round meal, Oron." 

"It is difficult for me to associate form 
and dimension with food values. If your 
remark has to do with palatal indulgence, 
Tooma, then I must say that the people you 
refer to have a hard taskmaster." 

"Yes, hard on their pocket and their di- 
gestive apparatus," asserted Tom. * 



"And a restraint upon their spiritual 
unfolding," concluded Oron. 

""Padu, let us have songs and games 
tonight," said Tesia. 

'Assuredly, daughter. I am to spend 
the evening with the governor, but I will 
join you on my return." 

"Oh, I am going to call Padu," cried 
Zenia, reaching for the kanjoot, "and find 
out what he and Motoo are doing." 

"And I shall go into the next room and 
talk with dear Madu Rea," said Fulma. 

Termal informed us, among other things, 
that Audofa was to spend two days with him. 

"Oh, Padu will have a good time," laughed 
Zenia. 

"Of course he will," said Tom. "If he 
has Audofa, he won't miss any of us." 

"Tooma," exclaimed Zenia with feeling, 
"do you think if er I were oh, if I were 
away from home and somebody came from 
er from Hokenda, you wouldn't I mean 
Tesia and Feanka wouldn't miss Padu?" 

"Why, where do we come into that equa- 
tion?" Tesia asked. 

"It's a scorcher," exploded Tom. "I 
can't answer it; for I shouldn't know at 
which end to commence." 

"Oh, dear Oron!" implored Zenia, blush- 
ing furiously. 

"Zenia," said Oron, with a comical ex- 
pression, "your question is somewhat am- 
biguous. What you mean, I think, is that 
you would expect Tooma to miss you, though 
I came to see him while you were absent. 
That is," he added, "if you were fond of 
each other." 

"Why, Oron!" 

"Thanks, Oron!" exclaimed Tom. "You 
always say just the right thing. Whv f I 
should be wretched. Hello, Fulma! you 
have missed lots. We have had a show; a 
regular " 

"Tooma, please be silent," pleaded Zenia. 

Our merriest hours were passed with 
Oron. Head of the Zoeian nation and the 
National College though he was, his mind 
and heart active for the commonwealth, he 
had "a spirit of comradery" that endeared 
him to all. And so, on his return, he added 
new zest to our pastimes until he, pleading 
morning engagements before leaving for 
Detna, bade us good-night. 

"The light has gone out," exclaimed Tom. 
"We might as well close up." 



90 



"HUM" 



"Some one else can say the right thing," 
said Tesia. 

All but one laughed approval. 

* * * 

Detna was where the exquisite furniture 
and wood carvings we had seen were made. 
It was here also their tapestries were woven. 
The latter process specially interested us, 
but nothing excited our wonder so much as 
a device for special irrigation. "Watch the 
operation," said Oron, as we halted by a 
large garden. A man had brought out an 
elliptical shaped, perforated case. Upon 
release of some motor force within, it rose 
about sixty feet and gave off a dark cloud 
from which a gentle shower fell for fifteen 
minutes. Then the case descended and was 
ready to be recharged. 

My comrade's commercialism was at once 
dominant. 

" Rain -while-you -wait," he said to me. 
"Think of an agency for that machine in 
the southwestern states. Big thing for a 
dry bank account." 

Here as elsewhere Tom and I yielded to 
the urgent requests of this gentle people for_ 
"stories and pictures." Even Oron never 
grew tired of them; never wearied by their 
repetition. He always had some word of 
praise ready for us. 

After Tom's address here, Fulma re- 
marked: "The oftener I hear Tooma's 
stories, the better I like them." 

"How about the speaker?" asked Zenia. 

"I will answer for her," said Tesia. "Our 
admiration for the speaker equals our in- 
terest in his subject." 

"It was my question," frowned Zenia. 

"We will stop at Suswan," announced 
Oron, with tact. "I wish you to see our 
steel works; also, a remarkable sundial. 
We have had the old dial since our earliest 
history, but for the past two hundred years 
have used only this perfect instrument." 

* * * 

At the Suswan steel works the carbonizing 
process was of primary interest. They could 
render the surface metal so hard as to resist 
any ordinary steel tool. It was here that 
the car-way rails and rolling-stock were 
made. When the hardness of the rails was 
demonstrated to us, Tom casually remarked: 
"That's why they were so hard to un<W- 
stand the first time we examined them." 

At the granite pedestal, Oron pointed to 



the sundial; the most complicated instru- 
ment, of the kind, I ever saw. "It com- 
pensates for the equation of time," he asserted. 

"That is," said Tom, "the dial and a 
perfect timepiece agree at all times." 

"Precisely, Tooma, you state it clearly." 

"Let us prove it," I said, consulting my 
watch. "It should now be half past the 
fifteenth hour." 

"And so it is," cried Zenia, clapping her 
hands, as she watched the sharp shadow cast 
by a thin gold wire. 

"Oh, don't be so happy, Zenia," objected 
Tom, "we have a timepiece in our country 
there's been more said about than will ever 
be told of that one." 

"Which one is that?" I inquired. 

"Well, you ought to know, Fean. 'The 
Old Clock on the Stairs.'" 

"What is a 'clock,' Tooma?" asked Tesia. 

"Why, a thing to tell the time. The one 
I refer to was made by a countryman of 
mine a Longfellow." 

"A careless fellow," declared Tesia. "Why 
did he put it on the stairs?" 

"To mark the ups and downs of the family, 
sister." 

"You are not as clear as the line on the 
dial," said Tesia. 

"But as truly associated with sunlight," 
added Fulma. 

"Good!" exclaimed Oron. "Well, we 
will now go on to Mantel." 
* * * 

Mantel, near the eastern boundary, being 
not far from the mines, we visited one. We 
descended a shaft where each man had to 
devote his entire attention to his particular 
charge. Before we again reached the sur- 
face, I learned, as never before, how a pure- 
hearted, loving woman trusts a man. I 
made another discovery auricularly. Tom 
and Zenia were coming out of a gallery. 
They paused at the mouth. "Tooma, were 
you very much pleased at what Tesia said 
to you at Tissan?" "Scott! She said lots 
of nice things." "I mean after Oron bade 
us good-night." "Oh! of course I was. I 
think she's jolly. Why?" "I shall not 
tell you." 

My comrade's whistle, though low, was 
suggestive. 

Our trip gave me opportunity to see the 
working of the Zoeian system; especially 
here, where we passed several days, goinf 



91 



among the vineyards, frequenting the wine- 
presses, and mingling with the home circles. 
I freely confess I sought to find some trace 
of discontent; some indication of envy; 
some evidence of self-seeking but in vain. 
The dominant chord love, loyalty and con- 
tentment vibrated everywhere. 

The last evening of our sojourn, as it 
proved to be, my chum and I ^ 
were having a heart to heart 
talk; "taking account of stock," 
he called it. "Fean," he ex- 
claimed, "these people, posi- 
tively, are more refreshing than 
ocean breezes on a hot day. It 
is curious. I don't know as it is, 
either; for you and I have seen 
and experienced enough to make 
me believe that they are well, 
something more than human." 

"That has been my opinion 
for some time," I said. "Then 
there is the old tradition; and 
more remarkable still, Hum. 
Why, we should not recognize 
him elsewhere. His face, figure 
and manner of speaking have 
changed in a way we do not un- 
derstand. There is some strange 
power, beside the solar energy, 
at work here. Do you suppose 
the girls know anything about 
it?" 

"I think not, Hat. I am sure 
Zene does not." 

"Ever ask her?'' 

"Never a word! Oh, she is 
human enough." 

"Too much?" 

"Not! By the way, we must 
go to Bacca tomorrow for those 
addresses." 

"\Ve shall be away for two 
whole days, Tom." 

"Goodness! Has it got as far as that, 
Fean?" 

''About that distance, my chum. How is 
it with you ?" 

"Oh, I don't know. There's a bit of a fog." 

"Why, how is it possible.?" 

"Zene has a little foolish kink about Tesia. 
She thinks " 

Oron entered. "I have changed our 
plan," he said. "I must return to Hokenda. 
We will leave the rest of our trip for another 



occasion. We will stop at Pandro, where 
our mechanisms for lightening labor are 
best seen in the handling of large stones, 
and the sawing and polishing of marble. 
Thence, we will go with you to Bacca; then 
Tesia and I will return home. Do you ap- 
prove, my daughters?" he asked of the thr.e 
who had just come in. 




The last evening of our sojourn my chum and I were 
having a heart to heart talk 



"I hardly know," said Tesia. "We are 
having a splendid time. I have enjoyed 
every moment, but I wouldn't miss the ad- 
dresses on any account; especially Tooma's 
pictures." 

"Thanks, Tesia!" returned Tom. "I will 
make a special one for you." 

"You are very nice and obliging, Tooma." 

"Dear Oron," asked Fulma, "will you 
and Tesia not remain with us until after the 
addresses?" 



92 



"HUM" 



"No, daughter. I long to see Oronena; 
but we shall return. Oh, yes, we shall 
return," he reiterated. "It is always a joy 
to listen to our brothers. We have not 
heard from you, my Zenia." 

"I shall be glad to reach home," she said. 
"I am not sure about going to the hall." 

Oron gave her a questioning glance, but 
said nothing. 

CHAPTER XVII 

Fairer day than the one on which I drew 
Fulma's arm within mine and we wended 
our way to the bower on the hillside, there 
cannot be. Even here, it was conspicuous. 

"Voices of gladness from earth and air 
mingle in joyous welcome," I said. 

"Yes, the Father's blessings are lavishly 
bestowed, Feanka. They are enriching." 

"You are very rich now, little girl, in all 
that makes for beauty, purity and love. Rich, 
.too, in another way. In England, a large 
fortune awaits you." 

"What is a fortune?" 

"Why, houses and lands, stocks, bonds 
and other things." 

"Of what use are they?" 

"Of no use here, dear; but there, potent 
to purchase pleasure or relieve misery." 
"I do not understand," she sighed. "I 
know not whereof you speak." 

We had reached the hillside. There was 
the bower in which her heart had thrilled; 
here the emerald turf where the tide of her 
life had turned; beyond and far away, the 
blue horizon; above, the fleecy sprites co- 
quetting with the sun-god; near by, the 
voice of a golden robin. 

"Come, sit on the turf," I said, "and 
drink in this radiant beauty." 

She came and toyed with the heather 
a while, lost in thought. Then she turned 
to me her tender voice had an undertone 
of regret. 

"Feanka, I fear you think me a stupid 
woman. There are so many things you 
tell me, of which I know nothing. I could 
not know. Why, I was only an infant when 
I came where all such things are unknown; 
came to this realm of love." 

A shadow crossed the field of blue and gold. 

"Yes, I understand, dear. You were a 
fresh blossom transplanted into Paradise 
without passing through the gates of death. 
Why should you know." 



Her dimples played hide and seek beneath 
the love light in her eyes, and her sweet lips 
parted just enough to say, plaintively: 

"Try not to think me dull or unappre- 
ciative." 

I drew her to me. "Beautiful flower of 
love and hope, you are the brightest, sweetest, 
dearest woman I ever met. I love you as 
only a true man can love a noble woman. I 
love the very air you breathe, the turf on 
which your feet rest. I love you, body and 
soul. Oh, my darling, if you would but 
choose me." 

She nestled even closer, laid her fair hand 
on my shoulder and looked at me through 
her smiles. "Feanka, my dear one," she 
said, "I have chosen you." 

"Sweetheart," I said, "when did you 
choose me?" 

"When I pressed the rose, dearest. It 
was your declaration." 

"My declaration?" 

"Yes, beloved. Such is the custom here." 

There is a love rite as sweet as it is old ; 
one which like the grain of musk, never 
loses its fragrance. The irresistible lips 
were sealed. ... As the waves of her 
golden hair fell over my arm and her eyes 
grew liquid, I asked: 

"How much do you love me, my precious 
darling?" 

"Oh, Feanka;" she exclaimed passionately, 
her arms about my neck, "I love you next 

"Little sweetheart, why did you not finish 
the sentence?" 

"Why how could I?" she laughed. 

Some experiences come but once in one's 
life. 

"See, here is the little chain you thought 
so fragile," I said. "It will hold the precious 
locket, and bind you and me for life, my 
Fulma my Josephine." .... 

Distant voices caused me to rise and look 
down the slope. "Come here, dear," I 
called. "Look it is the oft repeated tale." 

"Yes, the old sweet story why, Feanka 
do you believe?" 

"Yes, I do appearances justify the belief. 
Hello!" 

"Hello, yourself!" 

"Come up and join us! Now, little 
treasure, be very sober." 

Presently Tom and Zenia came in view. 
The cheeks of the Zoeian beauty had an 
excess of rose. 



"HUM" 



93 



"Why, I say, Fean. how long were you 
standing on that bank? Why didn't you 
call out?" 

"There are times, Mr. Selby, when silence 
has its reward." 

"Reward your" grandmother! But say, 
what are you doing here?" 

"Oh, we have been 'looking at that beau- 
tiful green grass.'" 

; H-m; yes, Isee! Good deal of a summer- 
house superb view no use, my school- 
mate; own up!" 

Zenia rushed forward with outstretched 
arms. "Oh, Fulma!" she cried. 

"Come to the bower, my chum. How is 
the fog?" 

"Vamoosed, Fean!" 

Some chronicle may record four happier 
persons than those who descended the hill- 
side with songs and merry jests; paused by 
the streamlet in the ravine where ferns and 
lilies abounded; toyed with the rippling 
water; stood by the quiet pool to watch the 
reflection of gladsome faces; or romped in 
overflowing joy. I doubt it. 

Again in the garden, we rested where 
Tom's pent emotions had found voice in the 
English song. 

''Zenia," I asked, "do you know yet the 
meaning of the four words that aroused your 
curiosity?'' 

" Yes, they are the dearest words I ever 
heard." 

"Did you learn any new ones?" 

"Ask Tooma he can tell better than I." 

Termal met us. "Well, children, had a 
good time ? Where have you been, and what 
have you been 'doing?" 

"We have been to school," replied Tom 
meekly, "and have learned to conjugate 
one word " 

"Work enough for one day, Tooma. 
Motoo, are you there?" 

What was the matter with the boy, that 
he opened the ivory cabinet and did a 
"meriba"? Never mind the wine and 
fruit were deliciously refreshing. 

"Beoteen wants us tonight," said Termal. 

"In that case," I said, "we will go to the 
restafa, and return later." 

"Nothing of the sort," he protested. 
"This is a restafa, and" he winked "I 
have some attractions not to be found there. 
Now, take an old man's advice, and wake 
up things in the music room." 



Beoteen led us at once to the chamber of 
mangels where the gigantic telescope awaited 
the master's touch. To describe that mon- 
strous searcher through space is beyond 
my pen. A sixty-inch "refractor" implies 
a massiveness and complexity that must be 
imagined. Yet, under Beoteen's finger, it 
became a thing of life, a revelator. 

"We will visit our nearest neighbor to- 
night," said the director. "When we ex- 
plore remoter regions, we require the mantle 
of darkness. The satellite so dear to lovers 
must be veiled." 

Beoteen was poetical was he psychic, as 
well? 

"Another time," he said, "I will show you 
the planets and the twin stars." 

"Beoteen is just lovely," whispered Zenia. 

"Director," inquired Tom, "how do you 
move the leviathan?" 

"It is quite simple, Tooma. Come up to the 
observation platform, and I will show you." 

He selected and adjusted their wonderful 
binocular eyepieces. "Now observe what 
happens when I touch the silver knobs," he 
said, pointing to a keyboard. 

His fingers passed lightly over the keys; 
the great dome opened and revolved to posi- 
tion ; silently the mighty instrument assumed 
the requisite angle. All was ready. 

"Feanka, you first," said Termal. "We 
have been here before." 

"Why there are real mountains and 
valleys and bodies of water," I exclaimed, 
"and what appear to be clouds." 

"Certainly, Feanka. Do not your instru- 
ments resolve these things?" 

"Well yes, in a way but it requires 
the eye of an astronomer or a layman's 
imagination to see them. Our scientists 
believe the moon to be a desolate, unin- 
habitable region, having no atmosphere nor 
other elements essential to life." 

"Our glasses tell a different story, my 
brother. We think it may be the abode of 
beings as intelligent as ourselves; possibly 
of higher attainments. I cannot explain this 
as clearly as Paerdo or the Madu Rea, but 
we believe our satellite may be the temporary 
abiding place for manifestations which have 
passed from earth life and await new and 
higher incarnations." 

. "My people have much to learn," I said. 
"Why, one can imagine he sees houses and 
temples." 



94 



'HUM" 



"Under favorable atmospheric conditions, 
appearances suggest their existence," he said. 
"I should expect to find them there." 

"How near to earth does this glass bring 
the moon?" I asked. 

"Within sixty miles." 
"Sixty miles!" shouted Tom. "Why- 
one could walk there." 

"Oh, Tooma," exclaimed Zenia; "you 
wouldn't" 

"Go there?" he assisted. "No, not with- 
out good company." 

After gentle parley, Tom took my place. 

"What!" he exclaimed, looking alter- 
nately into the tube and along its outer 
surfaces as novices with the microscope are 
wont to do "why, I see a boat!" 

"Oh, where?" cried Zenia. "Let me 
see! No, no, don't leave the seat, just move 
a little. There, that is better. Ah! but 
I can't see very well, Tooma." 
. "No? Well how is that?" (His right 
arm had changed position.) 

"Just right oh, don't move, or you will 
spoil it all. Now for the boat. Why I 
can't see it. I don't believe there was one." 

"Possibly not," admitted Tom. "It may 
have been an illusion." 

"Which undoubtedly has been dispelled," 
laughed Beoteen. 

"Now, Fulma, your turn," said Termal. 

I stood behind her. The others had 
turned away to see something suggested by 
the director. "What do you see, sweetness?" 
I asked. 

"All that you saw, my beloved but there 
is something missing." 

"What is it, dear?" 

Her loving eyes met mine as I bent over 
her, and her fragrant, sunny curls clustered 
on my arm. . . . 

"Beoteen, we have had a charming even- 
ing," I said at parting. "Thank you." 

"Come again, soon," he responded gra- 
ciously. 

"I have a proposition to lay before you," 
said Termal on our way homeward. "It 
is that we celebrate, some day, by going to 
the birthplace the Zoeian birthplace of 
our Little Treasure." 

"Hurrah!" shouted Tom. "You are 
level-headed, Termal." 

* * * 

The canyon through which Termal once 
carried a "burden" had a ragged, yawning 



mouth at the base of a precipitous ledge, the 
lower boundary of a narrow, rocky basin a 
thousand feet in length, inclosed by low, 
irregular banks covered with luxuriant 
foliage. It was an attractive spot 

A cloudless sky canopied a gay party. 
Tom, who, with Moto, carried well-filled 
baskets, said that "we ought to be jolly with 
such a commissariat." 

"We can't camp amiss, but there is one 
particular place I prefer," said Termal as 
we went down the basin to the mouth of the 
rift. "Fulma, my child, do you see that 
flat rock under the overhanging shelf just 
beyond you?" he asked. 

"The one by the curious shaped stone, 
Padu?" 

"Yes, dear. There is where you once lay 
asleep wrapped in an old tattered garment, 
while .a man, footsore, bleeding and ex- 
hausted sat by alternately watching and 
dozing until your faint moans roused him 
to renewed action. It was frightful! Even 
now, it chills me to think of it." 

"Now, Padu, dear," pleaded Fulma, 
"there are to be no clouds today; no re- 
criminations, no vain regrets. They are 
all gone. Why, Padu, if I had not lain 
there, I should not be standing here." 

"Yes that is true, my child." 

"Correct," said Tom, home from a 
reverie. "Why, Zene, sweetheart, where 
should we have been?" 

"Been? Why, where we are. We could 
not be elsewhere." 

"That smacks of what we call fatalism, 
Zoesy." 

"I know not the word, Tooma, but I am 
sure our lives are regulated by an unchange- 
able law." 

I looked at her. These words, from her 
lips, surprised me. 

'"All's well that ends well,'" I said. 

"True enough, Fean. Awls and ends 
have united soles before now. Now, for a 
group, down at the Blue Bird's old nest." 

"Admirable idea," I assented. "Come, 
darling, you must be the central figure." 

"Fulma, rest on your elbow," directed 
Tom. "Now, Hat, you sit here, and brush 
the bees away if they come, and they will, 
for they are intelligent. Zene, dear, you 
sit at Fulma's feet. Good enough!" 

"Where are you to be, Tooma?" asked 
Zenia. 



"HUM" 



95 



"Oh, just here, Zene, but I shall not 
obscure you. That would be impossible." 

"But you are going to let Fulma come 
between us." 

"For once, my angel; though I am not 
sure she may not have to come again." 

"Why, Tooma?" 

"Oh, I can't tell you in Zoeian. You 
wouldn't understand. Now, Termal, your 
old place by the boulder. Hooray! Oh, 
for a camera!" 

"I have an instrument here," said Termal. 
"Motoo, unpack the basket. It is at the 
bottom." 

"Who is to fire the shot?" asked Tom. 

"I, of course," said Termal. 

"Well, I guess not," declared Tom; 
"without you, the picture would be worth- 
less. Can you do it, Motoo?" 

"Oh, yes, Mr. Tooma, I know how to 
make it go." 

"Very well, boy, place the instrument," 
said Termal. "Now, what do you see?" 

"I see you all, plain and good." 

"Are Mr. Feanka's feet in the picture?" 
asked Tom. 

"Xo, Mr. Tooma, but your hands are." 

"H-m, sharp boy! Well now all look 
pleasant. Let her go, Motoo." 

And thus was produced a picture, a copy 
of which now hangs in a certain house in 
Maine. A picture that has attracted much 
attention and been faithfully described in a 
Boston daily journal. 

Later on, as Tom and the girls were ar- 
ranging the repast and cooling the wine, I 
asked Termal how he dared to descend the 
rift with no knowledge of its terminus. 

"That is a question I ha^'e many times 
asked myself," he said. "I was impelled 
by some inner force. It was a wild under- 
taking." 

The afternoon wore away while songs and 
merry-makings filled the flying hours. Tom 
scintillated with wit and jest. Moto's cabi- 
net had remained open all the day. The 
girls wove garlands of wild flowers. They 
crowned Termal with one of special bril- 
liancy. I can see him now, standing at 
the mouth of the rift gazing within, lost in 
thought. 

"Well, we must bottle our happiness and 
take it home," said our host, glancing up- 
wards. "We have no rein on syuna (the 
sun)." 



"Oh, just a little longer," implored Zenia. 
"I want to go to the top of the ledge." 

"I would not try it, my daughter." 

"Oh, but I must, Padu. I am a true 
daughter of a daring father. Come on, 
Tooma! If you catch me I will reward you." 

"All right, Zene. The bait is worth the 
rise." 

The ledge fell vertically about thirty feet 
to a broad shelf, and thence, as much further, 
to the base. The summit was gained by a 
rough circuitous path between and over the 
rocks. 

Moto was gathering the fragments of the 
feast. He suddenly paused and watched 
the pair, rushing up the rocks, until they 
reached the long level on top the cliff. Then 
he dropped his work, scaled the rocks to 
the shelf, glanced upward, and appeared, to 
brace himself. 

We had watched the race heedless of 
danger. At the moment, we saw Zenia 
flying from her pursuer, repeatedly glancing 
back at him. Then her ringing laugh 
changed to one wild scream as she bounded 
over the cliff. Moto caught her in his arms. 
Her weight bore him backward, and be- 
neath her, against the rocky floor. When 
Tom reached the brink, his face was blood- 
less. Termal and I gained the shelf to find 
Zenia and Moto insensible, her white arms 
clasping his dark neck. 

I shouted to Fulma to bring wine and 
water; and in answer to Tom's mute appeal, 
I cried: "I don't know what has happened. 
Hurry down and help Fulma." 

We mixed wine and water and poured it 
into Zenia's mouth. 

"Thank God!" I exclaimed, "she can 
swallow." Releasing her clasp from round 
the boy, we drew them apart. Fulma bathed 
her face and hands. Moto was torn and 
bleeding; his face was gray rather than 
black. Termal knelt and called him by 
name. A quiver of his eyelids was the only 
response. 

"They are badly hurt," said Termal. 
"We must get them down. Feanka, you 
and Tooma take Motoo; I will carry Zenia." 
He took her in his strong arms as he had 
once carried a little child. My mind went 
back two decades, and I looked at the beau- 
tiful woman who had promised to be my 
wife. At the bottom, we laid them by the 
rivulet. 



96 



"HUM" 



"Give me napkins, handkerchiefs, any- 
thing of the kind you have," cried Termal, 
"the boy is bleeding badly. Keep cold 
water on Zenia's head. Give her a swallow 
of wine occasionally, open her gown, rub 
her hands. I will come presently." Then 
he bound up Moto's wounds, all the while 
uttering words unknown to me. Under 
Fulma's ministrations, Zenia finally regained 
consciousness. Aside from severe bruises, 
she had escaped injury. "Little wonder," 
she said, half rising, "let me go to him." 

Termal had brought faint speech to Moto. 
"What is that, my boy?" he asked eagqrly, 
bending low. 

"Did I save her?" the gray lips whis- 
pered. 

Termal nodded. 

"What did he say?" asked Tom. 

"He wants to know if he saved Zenia." 

Tom ran to him and pillowed the bruised 
head on his arm. Moto opened his eyes. 

"Mr. Mr. Selby," he murmured. 

" Yes, it is I, my boy. What Mr. Hatfield 
said about you in the rift do you hear me, 
Moto?" The lad nodded. "What Mr. 
Hatfield said was only half the truth. You 
have won your shoulder-straps today." 

"Fortunately, we have no broken bones 
to deal with," said Termal, when he returned 
from Zenia's side. "We must get them home 
at once." 

On reaching Bestofall, Zenia grew authori- 
tative. "Take Motoo to my room," she 
ordered. "All this house can give is not 
enough for him. But for him oh, Tooma!" 
Tom laid her on the bamboo couch. 



Notwithstanding all she had passed through 
Zenia came to the evening meal as radiant 
as ever. Her Zoeian physique conquered 
her physical ills. "Yes, I am bruised," she 
admitted, "but I shall banish all by morning. 
Pardon me," she said a few moments later, 
rising, "I must hasten back to Motoo. The 
poor boy needs constant attention, I will 
nurse him you and I, Tooma." 

"That we will," exclaimed Tom. "I 
once played that role after I well, after I 
rescued a raggid little urchin from drowning. 
But you can't know what that means, Zoesy." 

"Nor I," said Fulma. "I wish you 
would explain. Whatever you did, I know 
was a noble act." 



"Not as heroic as Motoo's," my comrade 
blushed, "for I was sure of my life." 

"Others may think differently," asserted 
Termal, coming in; "however, the boy 
astonished me. His prescience, his quick 
estimate of the probable arc through which 
Zenia would fall, his strength, were wonderful. 
A braver soul never incarnated. What did 
you mean by the shoulder-straps, Tooma?" 

Tom explained. 

"Ah, yes. Well, he has won something 
even better. He has gained the esteem and 
love of 'our nation." 

"How is he now?" we asked. 

"I have stopped the hemorrhage, and made 
him comfortable, but his flesh is growing 
hotter. I do not like that. I may send to 
the College, but I think I can manage the 
case. I have had some experience. The 
Father will heal him." 

"You believe that, Termal?" asked Tom. 

"Certainly, if the conditions are right. 
Don't you, Feanka?" 

"I hardly know what to think," I mur- 
mured. 

"Well, He will!" he asserted with convic- 
tion. "Now, the girls must go to rest. You 
and Tooma go to the restafa; I want the boy 
all to myself. Put this calamity out of your 
thoughts; be cheerful, and rest assured we 
shall all be able to attend Elida's nuptials 
next weelc." 

* * * 

It was a typical Zoeian wedding. A blend 
of colors, music, flowers, good fellowship 
and festivities. Manifestly, each one de- 
sired less his own happiness than that of 
others. A wedding, wherever celebrated, is, 
or should be, a joyous occasion. One never 
allied to what might justify my comrade's 
one-time remark: "Things are all right 
when the train pulls out, but look out for 
broken axles, weak rails, misplaced and other 
variety of switches afterward." 

It was the custom of these people to be 
married at meridian. They believed mar- 
riage to be a reunion of principles primarily 
a unity. With them, the union of man and 
woman typified the fruit-bearing plant that 
owes its fertility to the vivifying influence of 
the sun. Hence, they chose the hour of its 
greatest effulgence. With them, marriage was 
a spiritual sacrament, not a civil contract. 

Music was an important feature on these 
occasions. As I have not spoken of the 



"HUM" 



97 



orchestra in detail, I will here. say that the 
stringed instruments were of various sizes 
and designs. The strings were of gold and 
silver alloy, so made as to give them all the 
qualities of cat gut with increased resonance 
and pureness of tone. The wood wind instru- 
ments were complicated in structure, with 
wide range. The strange shaped, but mellow 
horns were made from silver, copper or brass. 
In addition, cymbals and silver bells were 
used. The music was delightfully exhilar- 
ating. 

The ceremony was extremely simple. The 
future bride and groom, attired in white, 
knelt before a member of the College and 
joined opposite hands. Then the woman 
said, "I would be one with him whom I have 
chosen"; and the man followed, "I would 
be one with her who has chosen me." Then 
in unison, "Until we are called away." 

The one officiating (in this instance, 
Loredo) swept his hand round the living 
circle and declared, "In the name of Kesua, 
our Master, I bind you with the bond of 
love." This was all. It was a vivid con- 
trast to our ceremony. No vows uttered to 
be broken ; no hollow mocken- of love where 
passion or ambition alone reigned; no shield 
for wrong-doing; no convenient adjustment 
of conflicting circumstances, with the hope 
of release through a lax judiciary or the 
potency of wealth; no sacrifice of youth and 
beauty to debauched decrepitude; no hypo- 
critical felicitations nor sentimental grief. 

Love, trust, hope and joy mingled in a 
rich wedding anthem, and the wedding bells 
were the peals of mirth from the lovely 
Zoeian belles, as they wove garlands for 
festivities. 

As Elida and Retrain rose, Tom whis- 
pered to me: "As easy to enter as a 'catch- 
'em alive' mouse trap, and as hard to escape 
from Simple, but ironclad." 

Loredp came to us with greetings, con- 



gratulations for Zenia, and earnest inquiry 
about Moto. 

"A daring act," he said. "One inspired 
by deep and lasting devotion to you, Zenia. 
You have not seen Audofa ? It is not strange. 
So many seek to welcome him as a brother 
Zoeian. I think," he said, laughing, "we 
shall meet at another wedding ere loni:." 

"Who is to be married, Loredo?" asked 
Zenia. 

"Truly, daughter, who? Do you think we 
old fellows at the College do not know how 
the wind blows? Well, it will be a great 
event. We will make it a national affair." 

"And we shall make it an international 
affair," exclaimed Tom. "Hey, won't we, 
Zene?" 

"Ah! Oh: Tooma: Why, there are others 
here." 

"Only Loredo, and he will never tell. 
Come on, sweetheart, we must find Audofa 
God bless him. I say, Loredo," he called 
back, "can't you make the solar power move 
the days along faster?" 

"I must apologize for my comrade's lapse 
into English," I said, "he is overflowing 
with happiness today." 

"It is not necessary, Feanka, I like the 
language and I like the man. Well mated," 
he said, watching the gleeful pair; "as well 
mated as two others I might name." 

Wedding festivities usually ended at sunset, 
but when we saw Termal preparing to lead 
the Huan orchestra and Audofa standing by, 
we knew that we were to have the czardas. 

The fairy isles were gathering; Loredo had 
said adieu; Audofa had come to us and 
gone. The merry-makers were departing 
Termal, with Tom and Zenia, still lingered 
by Elida. 

I gazed into Fulma's sparkling eyes 

"Well, dearest, what is it?" 

"Oh, my love," she asked, quivering with 
delight, "will ours be like this?" 



(To be continued ) 




THE NATIONAL MAGAZINE has been faith- 
ful to its name. Perhaps, therefore, a 
national and optimistic view of one of the 
Great Republic's most remarkable cities 
and that view taken by a resident for more 
than forty years may have a proper place 
in these pages. 

When I came here, in 1868, Chicago 
claimed 250,000 inhabitants; now it claims 
two millions. I heard an ardent and old- 
time Chicagoan, the other day, declare for 
three millions. Up to only twenty years 
or so ago, an adult Chicagoan who had been 
born here, like the late beloved "Biff" Hall, 
known to all the actors I believe he first 
saw daylight on the site of the Brevoort 
Hotel was a rare personage; now, most 
of the city officials were born here. 

The large county of Cook in the state 
of Illinois lies along the southwestern shore 
of Lake Michigan for about forty miles. 
We may consider a strip of territory about 
twelve miles wide on the eastern side of this 
county of Cook as practically Chicago. For 
a good part of the way the Desplaines River 
is the western boundary. (It is locally al- 
ways called "Dess Plains.") The corpora- 
tion of Chicago taxes some 190 square miles 
of this territory (at the Court House). There 
are nearly 350 suburbs. The "business 
centre" of the city lies centrally on its east- 
ern side. This bad arrangement, caused 
by the desire of the first comers to get near 
the great lake, favors the suburbanite. In 
bad weather he hies him to his nearby depot, 
and joyfully leaves a scene (which he has 
helped to create) nearly as forbidding as 
are the precincts of a slightly active volcano. 
Yet it is not bad weather all the time, and 
bad weather in the suburbs has terrors of 
its own for the true cityite. 

After entering Chicago, it takes about 
an hour, on the train, to reach a terminal 
at the "centre." This is the celebrated 
"half -hour" of the suburbanite. You can- 
not ride on a train, or send freight through 
Chicago you must change cars or break 



cargoes or trains, while the city levies a 
tariff of bus-fares, hotel -bills and transfer- 
charges. This evil reacts on the town, in- 
creasing its already sufficient ills and mul- 
tiplying the number of its industrious de- 
tractors. And when your cargoes have been 
broken, or your goods landed from the Great 
Lakes, you may send your teamster after 
them to twenty-seven different freight-depots. 
It is the greatest entrepot the world ever 
saw, but it is by no means free. 

The growth of corporations and cor- 
porations of corporations (as we read of 
Kings of Kings) and the age of science 
brought migrations of humanity unparalleled 
since the fall of the Roman Empire. The 
goal, the object at least of second interest 
to the discontented, the swiftly moving, and 
swiftly multiplying race, was Chicago. Here 
on a low, gray plain it lies, now the fourth 
population in the world, yet only three- 
quarters of a century old. Its finance is 
great as three to New York's twenty. Do not 
despise the comparison, nor deem it ridicu- 
lous, for Chicago's three represents a weekly 
sum of ready money as large as that of the 
ancient and great cities of Boston and Phila- 
delphia together, and as large as St. Louis, 
Pittsburg, Kansas City, San Francisco t 
Baltimore, Cincinnati, Minneapolis and New 
Orleans all combined. And in New York's 
twenty Chicago believes there is much "skat- 
ing," "ringing," and over-certification. The 
present banking houses of Chicago form one of 
the most impressive architectural sights of 
the world. 

What is Chicago? I will try to guess 
and to tell. It is a population in number 
like Canton, in China. It is impressively 
great, because, for instance, it daily uses 
300,000 telephones and over sixty hospitals, 
some of them very large ones indeed, for 
here surgery, off the battle-field, has found 
its busiest haunts. The dead are buried in 
forty-six cemeteries. Ten of them are Jewish, 
and there are Polish and Bohemian bury- 
ing-grounds. The Union printers are filling 



(98) 



CHICAGO 



99 



their third large lot. There are about three 
hundred great schoolhouses, many of them 
groups of buildings. When President Taft 
visited the city in 1909, he was greeted by 
150,000 little children, massed on the Lake 
Front Park, and about 450,000 more were 
playing at home. 

When the poet Byron went to Venice 
(in "Beppo") he saw "Greeks, Romans, 
Yankee Doodles and Hindoos." If his 
lines had been longer his enumeration 
would have been stronger, but he could not 
have seen or imagine,' such a cosmopolis 
as we have here. And the new-comers have 
their native costumes laid away in their 
new homes. One day, at the World's Fair, 
about 10,000 Poles came c'own from Hum- 
boldt Park, dressed in red boots and white 
pantalets; you would have thought you were . 
in Warsaw. Professor Lutislowski, now of 
San Francisco, who first became interested 
in Chicago when he was at Kazan, on the 
Volga River, has written a loyal and eloquent 
appreciation of the Polish race, and I guess 
he is about right. We owe much of practical 
good to the Poles of Chicago. They offer 
examples to many other peoples of nur- 
turing industry for the sake of art and real 
happiness. 

One of our wide-awake educators at the 
University found that Chicago daily speaks 
forty-seven different languages. Many of 
the "colonies" have their own newspapers. 
Sit here in little Vernon Park awhile, where 
Mr. Finnegan still keeps all so neat, and 
where the Irish once held full sway; a Rus- 
sian pope goes by in his robe and black 
casque and he is good-looking, too. A 
French basilica rises yonder. But generally 
the Jews expelled by Russia live roundabout. 
The territory already occupied by Hebrews 
is a mile wide and three miles long, on the 
West Side alone, and no such crowding was 
seen before their day. They are law-abid- 
ing, orthodox, and perhaps the most indus- 
trious of all the immigrants. Their syna- 
gogues are rising in surprising number, and 
the fear and hatred of the elderly Hebrew 
for the Christian is slow to pass away. Not- 
withstanding, the young people make rapid 
advances into American ways. 

There always has been a "spirit of the 
hive" at Chicago, in the very face of its 
destiny as Cosmopolis. Volney invented but 
Chicago produced that sublimest triumph of 



peace the World's Parliament of Religions 
of 1S93. The Chicagoan who did it was 
named Bonney (there is a sound of good in 
the name) and probably the great event 
taught Theodore Roosevelt a lesson, for he 
was here and built the log-cabin for the 
Rough-Riders on the Wooded Island. 

Here the songs of the Civil War were first 
sung, and I heard Professor Elisha Gray first 
make use of the word ''telephone" at the 
Tribune office in 1876- And many believe 
the telephone was invented here the 
telautograph certainly was. Here were 
invented the refrigerating and the Pullman 
cars; the fortress-factor}-; the reaper and 
mower; the department store. Here were 
invented and here evolved the derricks 
and dredges that now swing and. grunt over 
the entire planet. The golden mu.j of the 
arctic circle goes through machines made 
on the West Si :c that cost S50,000 apiece. 
But, above all, here was invented the water 
elevator and the "Chicago construction," 
now a chief feature of the twentieth century 
and the age of steel; the water elevator mace 
the sky-scraper feasible. 

Our architects and builders went all 
through the business while the East held 
its breath. First, the basement was entirely 
filled with limestone pyramids, and the 
outer walls were of cyclopean thickness; 
thus the Calumet Building was erected, 
eight stories high, still standing, and the 
Montauk, ten stories high, that was demol- 
ished to make way for part of the vast First 
National. I did not relish walking in 
Monroe Street across from this Montauk 
tower of Babel but I got used to it! 

Next came the basement full of limestone 
pyramids, but the cyclopean wall was built 
like a cross, in the centre, with terra cotta 
facings on the street exposures. Of this 
type was the Tacoma, at the northeast 
corner of Madison and La Salle streets. 
Marshall Field began the Woman's Temple 
on this plan, and then undid 8100,000 worth 
of substructural work, and erected the steel 
frame of today. The Rand-McNally was 
the first real steel or cage-like building, and 
was constructed with then unusual attention 
to fireproofing. 

Since those days the architectural evo- 
lution at Chicago has been toward caisson- 
foundations and subterranean floor-space. 
The Masonic Temple arose, long before the 



100 



CHICAGO 



Chicago Fair, to thoroughly astonish the 
world, and to slowly awaken the emulation 
of New York City. 

Twenty -one stories make a building high 
enough for Chicago, the inventor; and 
lower structures are better still, but New 
York has more serious ground restrictions. 
Its towers are perhaps practicable. Yet 
its streets would be deemed too narrow for 
Chicago sky-scrapers, and the inventors 
are prone to feel that in Gotham there may 
yet be need of a Baron Haussmann, to tear 
down and let air in below. 

In Chicago the La Salle Hotel, the Black- 
stone Hotel, the University Club, the Gas 
Office, give examples of Chicago's maturest 
cyclopean conservatism, after contemplating 
the effects of -heat and cold, driving snow, 
hurricane and electrical storm. The La 
Salle Hotel can furnish 1,170 guests with 
separate rooms seven hundred with bath 
and, at the highest, the sojourner is only nine- 
teen stories above the ground. The Park 
Row Building at New York looks about 
six stories too high in the practiced eye of 
the Chicagoan after he has accurately 
counted its twenty-six real stories. It is 
prodigious, and so, of course, on to the 
City Investing. Water rocks out of the wash- 
bowls on the days of big wind and narrow 
Broadway is windier than Chicago. Ye 
plumbers, invent for New York a chrono- 
meter-balance washbowl! 

Chicago, reckoned by the world's stan- 
dard, is truly a provincial city, but mind 
you it has only a provincial indebtedness 
I believe about ten dollars per capita to New 
York's $170. Reckoned in what the laborer 
personally receives, Chicago is the cheapest 
place to live in in the world. This con- 
dition has endured for forty years. 

The general odor of Chicago is good, ex- 
cept in the extensive stockyard district. 
Foliage almost everywhere mitigates the 
rigors of summer. Willow trees send their 
tap-roots down to water, and the real dif- 
ference in necessary shade between the 
suburban retreats and many hundreds of 
the city's avenues is not discovered to be 
important. 

Now let us come bravely to the subject 
of the nation's transportation, and grapple 
with the part that Chicago plays. 

Besides its wide streets, its sky-scrapers, 
its palaces, its shade-trees, Chicago is a 



car-yard and a factory the largest the world 
has ever seen. Hither, sometime, and some- 
times often, come the two million freight-cars 
of the United States, to be bunted into 
line by our noisy switch -engines. And all 
these freight-cars, with tens of thousands 
of passengers, mail and express cars, roll 
toward the Loop (the inner Chicago). Pos- 
sibly even the far-off reader occasionally 
hears of this Loop. It is in itself merely 
an elevated double-track, third -rail electric 
road, any particular span of it much like 
the elevated railway on Sixth Avenue in 
New York; but at Chicago, for many hours 
in the day, the tracks are crowded with five- 
car trains, going in opposite directions. 
The Loop is seven city blocks long and five 
blocks wide. If we stand, say, at Madison 
Street and Wabash Avenue, with these trains 
thundering overhead, with long street-cars 
rolling their trolley-wheels against the re- 
sounding iron structure above, with whole- 
sale trucks rattling their iron axles over the 
rough granite pavements, and automobile 
horns and policemen's whistles punctuating 
the din, we shall find ourselves in one of the 
noisiest places on earth, only London, the 
traditional boiler-factory, and a Chinese 
theatre or wake outclassing it. 

This Loop, however, noisy and hideous 
as it is, relieves the sidewalks of the presence 
of hundreds of thousands of people, and, 
beside, is one of the most convenient adjuncts 
ever applied to passenger transportation. 
The stores of some of the great merchants 
and the fine Lake Shore depot, have doors 
leading from Loop platforms; thus you may 
step to New York, or to a local ribbon- 
counter, on the same level. The five other 
great depots are all near this Loop, two of 
them just across bridges, all of them less than 
one-third of a mile away. 

At these six depots the principal car- 
yards of North America begin. One of the 
railroad systems, the Northwestern, is erect- 
ing a new depot that covers three city blocks 
northward from Madison Street. The 
Pennsylvania will have quarters beside it 
anon, and this will put a new face on the 
West Side of Chicago. The car-yards of 
the C. B. & Q. combination extend from 
the Chicago River down-town westward 
to the Desplaines River, twelve miles. 
The corner of Clark Street and Wabash 
Avenue is in the air. Twelfth Street from 



CHICAGO 



101 



Wabash Avenue westward across the entire 
Sout-i Side to Canal Street on the West Side, 
is a viaduct a bridge and you may ima- 
gine the miles and miles of the region west 
of State Street and south of Polk that are 
given over to car-yards. Twenty-five rail- 
road systems end near the Loop, at some 
one of the six depots. Some of them, like 
the Illinois Central, the C. B. & Q. and 
the Northwestern, earn* a heavy suburban 
traffic. There is no place in the Loop that 
is not thus surrounded on all si'es north, 
east, south or west, and not far off by car- 
yards, with locomotives ringing their heavy 
bells and emitting thick clouds of soft coal 
smoke. I am sorry to admit that there are 
miles of car-van's on the once-beautiful 
lake front. The western si 'e of the city is 
shut in by a wholly unnecessary car 
one of the noisiest in the city. Though it 
has been elevat.- at much expense (increas- 
ing the resonance of its bells, wheels an 
engines) there are patriotic and hopeful 
Chicagoans in multitudes who hope to see 
both the lake shore and the western nuisance 
driven to proper and more economical quar- 
ters southward. 

What causes the chief pollution of the 
damp air of Chicago? Decidedly, it is the 
smoke, cinders and gas from thousands upon 
thousands of locomotives. Is there hope of 
general electrification ? Not, I think, among 
practical men, unless science shall suddenly 
make one of its most startling advances 
something as unexpected and "impossible" 
as the X-ray seemed in November, 1895. 
On the contrary, as the populous Eastern 
passenger terminals shall improve, there 
may be additional coal locomotives to be 
utilized in the West, and Chicago is the 
West. In bad weather, or in still weather, 
the soot from the car-yards rains down on 
the city, a plutonian shower. It is not so bad 
as it used to be, to my knowledge, and on 
clear and breezy days a Chicagoan does not 
consider it any more noticeable than the 
dust and dirt of other cities even New 
York. And there is a considerable compen- 
sation that should never be left out of the 
reckoning. Chicago is the coolest of the 
huge cities; it is always relatively hot at all 
its summer resorts and in its own suburbs. 
July and August, in 1909, were much cooler 
in Chicago than in Duluth. The thousands 
of locomotives throw their exhaust steam 



into the air, as well as their cinders. While 
other smothering cities are sprinkling their 
streets, Chicago is sprinkling the air. 

Finally, it is highly important to consider 
that the human race has been nurtured in 
smoke. When chimneys were first built, 
it was believed that the people must perish, 
and men "caught cold." Smoke is antiseptic, 
and is the foe of annoying insects. It is a 
natural act for men to congregate where 
there is much smoke. 

Murky cities, like London and Chicago, 
are also favorable to asthmatics and many 
other pulmonary sufferers. The annual 
death-rate here is not large, even if we take 
into account the youth of the city and its 
large proportion of men of less than middle 
age. 

What shall a loyal and hopeful Chicagoan 
say of Chicago's oozy foundation, seventy 
feet deep ? How can it be remedied ? Will 
it be remedies ? The latest type of sky- 
scraper stands on the sedimentary stone 
below. Can the streets ever be built on the 
rock-bottom principle? Until they shall be 
so founded, the ooze will seep up from be- 
neath. And there would be a necessity of 
having barriers mud -custom -houses 
around the rock -bottom district, to clean 
wheels, hoofs and even feet of the adhesive 
earth for which the Chicago plain or prairie 
is famous. With no mud from below, the 
soot from above could be taken care of, 
though Chicago is wholly provincial in its 
sturdy belief that the wind should be depended 
on to clean the streets. As to the snow, 
Heaven sends it; Heaven will take it away. 
The Illinois Supreme Court, long ago, held 
that a citizen was not to be compelled to 
clean his own sidewalk, and every Chicago 
snowstorm since has ruined a great fortune 
in women's clothing. The service-corpora- 
tions may discover a way not to tear up the 
streets. Science may come upon a new and 
cheaper concrete. The streets may be ap- 
portioned to various uses automobiles, 
trucks, cars, carriages. The nation may 
address itself to the footways and driveways 
of its great entrepot, and at least take care 
of that part which concerns the six depots 
and their interrelations. 

It is a problem beyond solution at present. 
The increasing growth of the nation in the 
West, and the increasing mobility or "fluidity" 
of property, doubles the pressure on Chicago 



102 



CHICAGO 



every few decades. Twenty years ago we 
looked confidently and without jealousy 
for the rise of at least half-a-dozen other 
Chicagos along the great rivers, and the 
real-estate booms of those days proved 
the belief was general that the Lake Michigan 
port could not alone carry its imperial 
burden; but more and more still comes 
hither and goes hence, and the whole Middle 
West continues to rea 1 our daily press and 
maintain its interest in our purely and even 
petty local affairs. 

Chicago, so we believe, had the leading 
merchant of the world in the late Marshall 
Field, for New York City itself has nothing 
to compare with the wholesale and retail 
university of distribution that he founded. 
Mandel's and Carson-Pirie's, at Chicago, 
are as good as any in New York or Phila- 
delphia, but, of course, the first and middle- 
class retail stores of New York are far more 
numerous, though not so conveniently en 
masse as at Chicago. At Christmas the 
crush is worse in New York, owing to its 
narrow streets, and Chicago has no danger- 
spot, like the entrances to Brooklyn Bridge, 
and suffers from few sleet-storms. 

To approach this magnificent shopping 
district, Chicago, beside its suburban trains 
and its four (nine) elevated railroads leading 
to the Loop, operates one hundred and 
twenty-six different lines of street railway. 
The cars are new. and thirty feet long. 
The roadbed is new, and by far the best 
ever laid on a scale so great. Much of the 
dirt and chaos of recent years passes away 
with the new regime. Most of the cars 
you see on the streets run from seven to nine 
miles, and by transfers you can ride some 
twenty-five miles for five cents. The line 
to Aurora, which has a fine station on Fifth 
Avenue (at the Loop), was long the best 
and swiftest electric road in the world. 

One can give, at least to a New Yorker, 
an idea of the spread or extent of Chicago 
by means of these car-lines. Suppose you 
are at Madison Street, which now divides 
the city by house-numbers into north and 
south a street twelve miles long, running 
east and west, that is, away from the lake, 
and there has not been a church on the whole 
street since the Fire of 1871. Now let us 
suppose Madison Street were at Fifth 
Avenue, New York, and that Forty-second 
Street, New York, were our Ashland Avenue, 



two miles and a half west of our Lake Michi- 
gan. You could take a car at Fifth Avenue 
and Forty-second Street and ride westward 
(in New York) sixty-three city blocks; then 
you could transfer on the sixty-third street 
and ride southward fifty blocks further. 
All the way you would pass through a per- 
manently settled city, usually with stores 
and three-story cut-stone flats; or you could 
ride northward about one hundred and 
fifty blocks on the sixty-third street; or, 
on the other hand, you could go eastward 
on Forty -second Street (in New York) for 
similar alternative journeys. Hardly anyone 
conceives how vast the new and Europeanized 
Chicago really is. Would that its inhabitants 
were as homogeneous as its buildings and 
its main civic attractions. 

Now of Louis Blanc's irresistible organiza- 
tion of labor: The late Mr. Pullman conceived 
and established the first (then illegal) middle- 
age fortress-factory; now there are hundreds 
of places organized rather less benevolently. 
Mr. Pullman employed or dominated the 
preachers, lecturers, librarians, hotel-keepers, 
landscape gardeners he himself was the 
city of Pullman, corporate and spiritual. 
Now we have the great Gary, that even J. 
Pierpont Morgan journeys to see, where 
fifty millions dollars are going in; we have 
the Standard Oil inferno at Whiting; the 
new Glucose at Argo; the Western Electric 
at Hawthorne; the Illinois Steel at South 
Chicago (to be greatly enlarged); Sears- 
Roebuck; the International Harvester and 
so on. We shall have the Colorado Fuel 
and Iron. We used to think some of these 
(like the Glucose and the Western Electric) 
were huge affairs when they were right in 
town. Our reapers are drawn by camels 
in Bessarabia, by yaks in Turkestan, by 
the sacred oxen in India and by the white 
elephant in Siam. 

I used to heartily vdeplore this medieval, 
fortress-idea, but when you have forty-seven 
populations, few of them understanding one 
another, many of them hereditarily hating 
one another, what are you going to do if 
you do anything and do it now ? Evolution 
came all Mr. Pullman's way, and he was 
possibly by far the most humane of the 
captains until he grew old and hot-tem- 
pered . 

Art and literature have not flourished in 
Chicago. In those things Chicago has been 



CHICAGO 



103 



as provincial as the humblest hamlet. But 
science, since its industrial value was espied, 
has accomplished many of its chief marvels 
here. We saw the chemist in his little room 
with his tubes and his retorts; then we saw 
the first big glucose works on Taylor Street 
(now at Argo); then we saw fortified Argo; 
turning 200,000 bushels of corn each day 
into left-handed twentieth-century sugar and 
real starch. One of our boys, George Hale 
(of the water-elevator family), built a teles- 
cope house in his back yard, took photo- 
graphs of tbe sun's red prominences in 
broad daylight, and gave the world the 
benefit of total eclipses ever}- bright day. 
One of our court clerks, Burnham (the 
picture of kindly Joe Jefferson) had the sharp- 
est eyes developed by Western peoples, 
and espied two, four, six stars where other 
astronomers, even William Herschel, had 
seen but one. So Yerkes, the grip-car 
promoter, thereupon generously ordered Al- 
vin Clarke to grind him the largest glass 
lens that ever was; it was exhibited at the 
Chicago Fair and installed at Lake Geneva, 
Wisconsin; now the big planets have twice 
as many moons as were formerly imputed 
to them. Astrophysics has had its central 
office in Chicago, and Mr. Rockefeller has 
backed the finest of spectroscopical mag- 
azines. At Gary, we hear that the coal 
will be brought from Pennsylvania; the 
scientists will coke it and turn the smoke 
into gas, and the gas will make fuel with 
which to allure electro-motive force. Had 
science in general seemed beautiful rather 
than ugly; had science been fragrant where 
it was malodorous, paradise would have 
evolved at Chicago. This juggernaut of 
science has crunched at least 25,000 com- 
fortable and often palatial homes under 
its wheels. An edifice, in once most ad- 
mirable umbrageous surroundings, that alone 
cost Peter Schuttler, war wagon-maker, 
8350,000 to erect, is now a laundry and 
coal-office In Chicago, let Peace and Beauty 
"look out for the engine," as the sign read 
when the sacredness of life was considered 
along with the need of progress. 

Chicago's park system, once liberal, is 
now inadequate, and let us hope her boule 
vards (and all other boulevards) will soon 
be deodorized. The nation should see 
that the Desplaines River is parked and 
cured. Some extraordinary street-cutting 



will be done it has long been talked about. 
I believe I contributed the first article on 
the "production" of Ogden Avenue north- 
eastward to Lincoln Park. It was published 
about twenty-two years ago in Henry Lord 
Gay's Building Budget, and Isham G. 
Randolph has been faithful to the idea 
ever since, as he was immediately interested 
then. Too bad Chicago did not have 
circular or elliptical walls, to tear down, 
like Paris and the old time cities! 

Chicago's drink ing-reservoir is Lake Michi- 
gan. No other big population has such a 
supply. If all pumps failed, or burned, as 
in 1871, we could go to the breakwater and 
drink, as we did then. One of the five 
water-tunnels purports to pump 200,000,000 
gallons daily, another 160,000,000; the 
"little one" supplies 90,000,000. The old 
Chicagoan prefers "unsafe Lake Michigan 
water" to any "aqua pura" that he buys 
or that he drinks freely elsewhere. The 
pollution of Lake Michigan has been a stu- 
pendous folly and crime, but those who 
did it shared the results that was fair. 
The thirty million dollar drainage canal 
helped some, and sweetened the city, but 
the average townsman blesses it chiefly because 
it makes navigation in the river difficult for large 
vessels and impracticable for the cheap little 
craft that formerly swarmed at the "port 
of Chicago." It does not seem credible 
that swinging bridges shall endure between 
the South and West sides. The water- 
system and the drainage canal are public 
works by which the grandeur and democracy 
of Chicago may be clearly discerned. They 
should awaken the admiration of the world. 
Chicago will always be a Garden City; 
trees will multiply. I have a grateful feeling 
toward the memory of Ossian Guthrie, who 
died but a little while ago. He was our 
local geologist and prophet of drainage. 
He gave his life to the subject, and received 
but few of the loaves and fishes when the 
time came to feed the multitude. He held 
that his grandfather discovered chloroform, 
but the mossbacks could not chloroform him 
on the subject of turning our "river" 
backward, and all his dream came true 
before he died. It is a noble example for 
altruistic hopers. 

This cosmopolitan Chicago has produced 
but one truly representative citizen, the 
late Carter H. Harrison. He could eloquently 



104 



THE TREE OF KNOWLEDGE 



promise the people reform (that he knew 
they knew they did not want) in seven or 
eight different languages, and thereafter, 
if necessary, could veto reform in forty- 
seven but do not think it ever came to 
that! He was gratefully beloved, he was 
foully murdered by an insane man, and he 
received a pompous, magnificent and fitting 
funeral. Jane Addams' renown fills the 
world, and rouses millions of hearts to 
nobler action. I could wish that Opie Read, 
the great story-teller, had been born and 
reared here. It would have delighted his 
loyal soul to do even more than a filial and 
pious duty in glorifying this difficult city. 
We have on our streets as I write, Fernando 
Jones, one of the original villagers. He 
early became a maker of abstracts of deeds, 
and he as a witness touching the condition 
of property before the great conflagration, 
occupies a place in local affairs that prob- 
ably has had no parallel elsewhere. What 
wonderful folk-lore ought to grow out of 
the life of Fernando Jones, the ideal "oldest 
inhabitant"! We all hope he will live to 



be more than a hundred, and never grow 
old, as grandfathers used to do. 

So I think this is a fair glimpse of Chicago. 
Consider it an Austria-Hungary compressed 
into an Illinois county, but note that it is 
drawn on a world's scale, not a merely im- 
perial plan. Chicago does not wear gloves 
does not carry a cane; it has no time for these 
"polite" things. We boast that it does more, 
with better machinery, than any other 
community on earth. It has a kind heart 
under its working clothes, and has always 
counted everybody in as one more Chicagoan. 
Its morals raise the present average of 
North America, or its population would 
not increase so rapidly. In appearance, 
it is often gray and melancholy, like old 
ocean; but in spirit, as in history, it is young 
and ever-hopeful. It is the most prolific 
inventor that time has produced. It still 
welcomes everybody who can labor, and 
its generous salutation thrills forty -seven 
kinds of lowly people with a growing desire 
to cast their lots here. And that, also, only 
increases America's chief domestic problem. 



THE TREE OF KNOWLEDGE 



By EDWARD WILBUR MASON 

I HAVE tasted the shadow and the shine; 
I have tasted the wand'ring fire divine; 

I know the delights of the bird and bee, 
And the apple plucked from the wayside tree; 

I have drank deep draughts from the skies afar 
Where beauty makes steppingstone of the star; 

I have eaten loaves and fishes, and fed 
Even as vulture on carrion dead; 

I have plucked from the thorn in diamond dew 
Both the wilding rose and the rose of blue; 

And I say to youth and I say to maid: 
Slav thou at home and be not afraid. 



A crust that is eaten by heart that sings 

Is better than feasts that are spread for kings! 




(CONTINUED.! 



By EDWIN COFFIN 

Captain Steamer "America" 



EDITOR'S NOTE: These "Records of a Polar Expedition" began in the February 
number of the National, and make an absorbing story of experiences in the Arctic 
regions. They are published through the courtesy of Captain Edwin Coffin of the steamer 
''America,'" from his personal diary kept during the List Zeigler Polar Expedition. The 
reader finds himself taken from Norway, where the expedition goes on board the "America,'" 
farther and farther into the frozen North. Working slowly along day by day in the midst 
of floes of tee the expedition reaches Northbrooke Island in A ugust, where they cache 
supplies, and then continue on their way. The members of the crew hunt polar bears, 
and cut ice from a glacier to melt for drinking water. In October they begin constructing 
the sledges with which to make the final dash for the Pole. 



OCTOBER 14. Wind south southeast, 
and fresh in gusts; later calm and clear. 
Sledging ice to the ship from the glacier. 
Mr. Riliette is having one sledge finished off 
for Mr. Fiala, who is to use it on a trip to 
the northeast end of this island, Cape Fiidgley, 
and will start soon as the sledge is finished. 
Dr. Vaughn accompanies him. Mr. Peters 
wishes to install a tide gauge on the ice, 
alongside the ship. I have given him very 
little encouragement, as I didn't feel that 
the position of the ship at this place was 
permanent He concluded to get the frame 
made and get ready. 'Twould be of no use 
to put the tide gauge in for less than one 
month. The berg which had been in sight 



disappeared last night. Ice is opening out 
in big leads off shore to southwest. Mr. 
Haven wrestling with the sewing machine, 
trying to sew a canvas bottom on the tent. 
Steward off with a large baking pan for the 
chief to make smaller. Mr. Peters having 
a heavy weight made for his tide gauge. 
Long for a box to keep his long barometer; 
Truden after condensed coffee keeps the 
boys busy. Four dogs fell into a crevasse 
on the glacier and were not missed until 
the next day. Fiala, Vaughn and Antone 
Vedoe located them and hauled them out 
with ropes, Dr. Vaughn being lowered 
down to make them fast. They were down 
on a ledge about thirty-five feet. The crack 



(105) 



106 



RECORDS OF A POLAR EXPEDITION 



extended to the water about one hundred 
feet near as they could judge by dropping 
chunks of ice and hearing them splash in 
the water. At 11 P. M. wind south, and 
snowing. Barometer 30-05; thermometer 
10 above. Bears do not seem to be very 
plenty. If we depended on them for fresh 
meat would get left. 

OCTOBER 15. Wind light and variable, 
southerly. At 8 A. M. thermometer 7 
above. Mr. Fiala came with a pony and 
took the sledge to camp. He will start for 
Flidgley. Truden off making the tide gauge 
frame. Morning watch reports a bear seen 
out by the cache. We walked around the 
cache this morning, but could see no tracks. 
Case of white dog again or shadow. Today 
is the day we lose the sun. February, next, 
will be the next time to see it just partially 
visible on the horizon. Yesterday I had a 
seven hundred pound anchor planted in 
the solid ice with two parts of steel wire 
hawsers made fast to it, also two large 
manila hawsers, as extra fasts, so when this 
outside fee goes off to be sure and hold the 
ship. 11.30 calm, bright night. Not a 
cloud in the sky. Moon rising over the 
glacier brings out all the snow-white ridges 
of the high glacier, making a lovely scene 
which is only seen in Arctic regions. Ther- 
mometer 4 below. 

OCTOBER 16. Calm until 8 A. M. After, 
east southeast wind with thick fog most of 
the day. Three of the crew went over to 
Cape Auk on the ice, hunting bears. Saw 
none. Report many fox tracks around 
where the bears were previously cached. 
On the way back saw two foxes, not near 
enough to shoot. Considerable water off 
to the ttest as shown by the clouds of black 
fog rising there. The new ice does not gain 
in thickness much. Also keeps very soft, and 
wet on top. The dogs don't care to go on 
it. Prefer the old rough high ice. 

OCTOBER 17 Blowing a moderate gale 
southeast. For a wonder the snow is only 
drifting very little. The ship lists a little 
with every strong breeze, the ice is so soft 
and the water from the overboard condenser 
pipe keeps the ice open for eight feet under- 
neath it. Ice remains the same, plenty of 
water off shore. Thermometer 3 above. 
Gale broke at 3 P. M. At 7 P. M. wind breezed 
fresh east. Lieutenant Truden was the only 
one off from camp. 



OCTOBER 18. Variable light local airs. 
Thermometer 12 below. Four men went 
over to Cape Auk hunting. Saw no signs 
of bears. Ice remains in same condition. 
All hands taking a Sunday's rest. The 
ship is all prepared for the long winter, 
everything in good order. The sailors have 
a large comfortable forecastle below the 
majn deck, with a stove which gives them 
all the warmth they need. 

OCTOBER 19. Blowing a moderate gale 
from northeast. Thermometer 18 below 
at 9 A. M. Had a little reminder of the 
ship's situation this forenoon when the crack 
inside of us widened out and left the ship 
all clear. It moved about 2 feet and stopped. 

I went out on the ice and followed this 
crack both ways one mile. Found it held 
by a small point of ice west of us At 6 P. M. 
wind is blowing hard northwest, which closed 
up all the holes outside and jammed the 
crack together in places only. Snow drift- 
ing badly. At 3 P. M. sent my mess boy, 
Jimmie, to camp for news of the sledge 
party.. Found they had not returned. 
Rather a rough night to camp out on the 
glacier. Up to date we have seen six bears, 
including cubs. 10 P. M. calm. 12 mid- 
night blowing north. 

OCTOBER 20. Blowing strong from the 
north through the night. At 3.20 p. M., 
moderate fine weather. Thermometer 13 
above. No change in the ice. Long nights 
now; just a little light the middle of the 
day. Run the dynamo from 6.45 A. M. to 

II p. M. Mr. Haven finished tent No. 1; 
'tis all right and weighs eight and one-half 
pounds only, built for two men; three can 
use it very well. Mr. Haven said he hoped 
they will pitch it north of 86 34'. The 
highest north of Captain Cagni of the Duke 
De Abruzzi expedition. Too warm in my 
cabin for comfort tonight had to open 
the outside door, with the heat from the 
engine room only. Housed so snug is the 
cause. Had to fit two large traps over the 
engine skylights to let the heat out of the 
room. 

OCTOBER 21. Calm all through the night. 
Thermometer 12 below and clear. I saw 
the Cape Flidgley party coming into camp 
over the glacier at noon, one and one 
quarter miles distant from the ship. Four 
inches of ice in the propeller hole this morning. 
The ice cracks off every day now on shore. 



RECORDS OF A POLAR EXPEDITION 



107 




About 8 a. m. the worst pressure of all came, and the longest in duration. It came from 
ahead and shoved the ship bodily up and astern fully seventy-five feet. 



Mr. Fiala reports the ice solid on Flidgley 
to the north, with pressure on the land. 
The dogs and sleds worked fine. Mr. Fiala 
had frosted his heels, and Dr. Vaughn his 
fingers. 

OCTOBER 22. Blowing after 9 A. M. 
Thermometer 4 above, increasing after 
5 P. M., from east southeast. At 8 P. M. in 
a very heavy squall of wind the whole out- 
side icepack cracked and moved off, leaving 
the ship in clear water; the ship strained 
away from the ice enough to break the 
wires connected with the camp at the same 
time. Dark as pitch. I cannot even see 
the water alongside. The air is thick with 
fine snow. As soon as possible we got 
steam up. Another gust came along, tear- 
ing up the water and sending it flying over 
the rails, when the head fasts parted, and the 
ship swung, and held by the stern fasts. 
Rung up half speed astern to keep the 
stern fasts from parting until I could get the 
big anchor down All at once the engine 
commenced to turn slow and stopped, and 
away went all the stern lines. Let go the 
anchor as soon as possible in the darkness, 



paid out eighty fathoms of chain, which 
held the ship, and she swung to ker anchor 
all right. Then I investigated and found 
the propeller all wound up with one of our 
stern lines, which must have parted at the 
same time as the bow fasts. It was a hard- 
looking job. Luckily this ship has a pro- 
peller well on deck, directly over her wheel; 
so we could work on the cross beam, which 
was out of water two feet, one man work- 
ing at a time, and relieving each other. By 
using an electric bulb we could see to work 
and also just how badly 'twas wound up. 
Hard job with no tools to work with. At 
12 midnight still at it. 

OCTOBER 23. Blowing the same as yester- 
day. Still cutting away on the propeller. 
Ship holding to her anchors. At 12.30 got 
the wheel clear and turned it over by jacking. 
Had six men on the bars in the engine 
room, then started turning with steam 
to cut out what remained between the 
propeller and the stern bearings. At 1 
p. M. there came a fierce gust which carried 
off the ship as though the anchor had been 
a straw, listing her over rather more than 



108 



RECORDS OF A POLAR EXPEDITION 



was comfortable. Started steaming nearly 
head on to the wind, going on opposite tacks 
of two hours (near as I could on account 
of ice). This method would help me keep my 
reckoning. The anchor hanging with the 
long scope made an excellent sea drag to 
hold her nose to the wind in the heavy 
squalls. To get broadside to the wind 
would force the ship rail down to the water 
if not a worse mishap. At 2.30 P. M. the 
storm lulled a little until 4 o'clock when 
the gale came on worse than ever, blowing 
seventy miles an hour, I should judge. The 
engines could hardly keep the ship's head 
to the wind. On the eastern tack at 7.30 
came up to ice, and worked through it into 
thick mush ice. The wind having all let 
go, I kept the steamer heading east for 
where I judged Cape Saulen ought to be. 
At 9 P. M. the anchor struck bottom solid. 
I stopped the engines, and found the ice 
drifting about, southwest. Up to this hour 
we had not seen five hundred feet clear of 
the ship. The compasses nearly all day 
were running all around. Other times they 
would not move. This I tried by turning 
the ship in the mush ice. The ship would 
make eight or more points before the com- 
pass would move. There was some great 
local - attraction I had observed this in 
Northern Alaska off Point Barrow, but 
not to so great an extent. At 10 P. M. tried 
to heave up the anchor by hand; got to the 
forty-fifth fathom shackle, but no more 
could we get with all hands on the windlass, 
so had to give it up. I wished to steam 
near the land or shore ice. V. ill wait until 
tomorrow for a little light. At 10.30 a 
thick fog and breezing from the north. 
The ship commenced to drag. Paid out 
seventy-five fathoms of chain and rang up 
slow speed ahead. Plenty of ice (flat) 
looks as if it broke off the edge of some bay 
ice. Blowing northeast at 11.45, and thicker 
than ever. If it would clear up I ought to 
be able to see the land Crown Prince 
Rudolf Island if my reckoning is right. 
At midnight it seems inclined to clear up 
toward the land. Have had very little 
sleep. The crew are standing regular watches 
since the ice broke off. Two of the crew 
are on shore (night watchmen) which makes 
us a little short handed on the ship. 

OCTOBER 24. Strong easterly wind in 
gusts. At 7 A. M. the big pack ice drifted 



down on us. It cleared so I could see 
three miles, and I found my position in the 
pack. We were in a bight about one mile 
inside with solid ice all around. Stopped 
steaming and when the solid ice came against 
the ship it dragged the anchor off the bottom. 
Backed out and steamed south around the 
point of the pack, and hauled in through the 
mush ice At 9.30 Cape Saulen came in 
sight bearing southeast, one-half south, four 
and one-half miles distant. Steamed until 
the anchor brought upon bottom solid; then 
stopped and tried to heave it up. Had to 
give it up as there was so little light to make 
fast to our old quarters. Much against my 
will, I gave orders to cut the chain. Which 
was done with a hack saw. We soon rounded 
the Cape, and sighted the camp with the 
good ship "America" looking like a floating 
berg. Tied up to the ice head on, with 
temporary fasts for the night. Got dinner 
for all hands at 4 P. M. Everyone thankful 
to get back, for it truly has been a time of 
much danger. The "America" has once 
more proved her worth in navigating Arctic 
seas of ice with all the elements against her. 
Tonight as I lay in my berth I seem to hear 
the shrieks of the gale in the rigging and 
grinding of ice on the sides. It looks like 
mild weather tomorrow. Now I will go 
to sleep and let her go. 

OCTOBER 25. All hands busy making 
ship fast. The water is all frozen over. 
Steamed alongside our old berth through 
the young ice. Planted two anchors in 
the ice and shackled the port chain (1^-inch 
wire) to one anchor ahead. Ran wire 
hawsers through the other on the quarter, 
using manila lines for springs. Now, unless 
we unreave running rigging, we have no 
more fasts to put out. No, the cold weather 
cannot come along too quickly to suit me, 
for 'tis our only salvation to freeze in before 
the ice pack comes in with a westerly blow. 
I think now even the field party recognize 
the serious position of the ship. Even after 
the ship freezes in it will be a constant care 
for the ship's company for weeks to come, 
or until some new conditions take place. 
With my twenty-five years' experience among 
ice in Arctic Seas (ten as master on one 
ship), I find there is much to learn about 
the treacherous ice of which I have always 
kept a close record, but as no two Arctic 
seasons are alike, or the movements of ice 



RECORDS OF A POLAR EXPEDITION 



109 



packs the same it keeps one guessing. In 
our Arctic business we find that men in their 
first year's experience think they know it 
all; the second year they think there are a 
few things they don't know, and the third 
year they say, "Why, there is much more 
about icing than I thought," and so it goes 
along until they get quite sure there is much 
to learn. By the light of lanterns the ship 
was made fast as securely as possible, at 
4.30 P. M. I wish to say here, that all through- 
out the perilous trip we have had the past 
three days, all the crew worked well; 
showed no signs of fear; every order given 
by the officers was carried out cheerfully and 
quickly. Loss of sleep and extra work 
done proved that our Yankee seamen were 
all right. The engine room department 
was the same. The officers on the bridge 
were ever alert and always at their post of 
duty. Unlike other Arctic ships on the 
Atlantic side, the "America" has a fine pilot 
house, which I had built in Trondhjem, so 
the men were comfortable while steering the 
ship. Mr. Fiala and Mr. Peters came off 
with lighted lanterns at 2.30 P. M., for a short 
visit, and reported everybody well, and the 
animals all in good condition. Thermometer 
8 above at midnight; calm and thick fog. 

OCTOBER 26 At 2 A. M all the new ice 
broke off from the bay ice and drifted off 
to the west, and at 10 A. M. there is no big 
ice in sight from topmast head. Found a 
coil of four-inch line today which was put 
out for extra fasts. Engine connected, all 
ready to steam at any mniute, as we have 
always fifty pounds of steam up to run the 
dynamo. Commenced to fill coal bunkers. 
Dr. Shockley, Mr. Peters and Mr. Porter 
were off this forenoon. Dr. Shockley came 
alongside this afternoon for a few minutes 
and returned. The weather conditions make 
the boys get back to camp quickly. At 
6 P. M. the wind east southeast, strong and 
increasing. The ship is straining hard on 
all the fasts, but unless it comes to a howling 
gale the fasts will hold. The first to part 
will be the stern or quarter lines. Then 
the ship will swing head on holding by the 
one and one half inch chain, which can only 
break in seaway. All easterly winds to 
north blow off the ice, consequently there 
can be no sea only a back wash, which is 
small. All clear water outside of us; blow- 
ing fresh enough so it does not freeze. 



OCTOBER 27. At 3 A. M. the wind moder- 
ated slowly, and at 9 A. M. came a lull. 
Hauled in slack of the lines, which had 
stretched out, to get the ship alongside the 
ice and get a gangway out. At 1.30 p. M. 
it is calm with a low barometer. Looks like 
southwest wind, which I don't care to have 
at this stage of the game. Today Mr. 
Fiala said he would send his baggage on 
board. It was so much brighter on the ship, 
no noise, no confusion, and he could do his 
writing and figuring without being disturbed. 
I was very glad he made up his mind to 
stay with us, only to make the trip on shore 
every day will be a task at times. Running 
the dynamo from 745 to 10.30 P. M. at 
present. Mr. Haven started in again making 
tents. 

OCTOBER 28 Variable light winds; ther- 
mometer 14 above, and snowing. I find 
the ship is leaking a little more on account of 
having so much ice on her sides, from our 
late experience, which we have not had 
time to chop off. At the water line the ice 
is forty-six inches thick, bringing the ship 
down to the old leak. I don't think we 
started any more seams this last trip. Ocean 
all frozen over and no big ice in sight. At 
5 P. M. the wind breezed east and carried 
all the young ice out. The boy, Jimmie, 
was the only one to go to camp. 

OCTOBER 29. Light variable winds all 
around. Clear. Thermometer 2 above. Ice 
conditions remain the same. Finished coal- 
ing the bunkers at dinner time. The steward 
came off after pans. Mr. Fiala is on shore 
for the day. The crew are working on 
sledges. 

OCTOBER 30. Same weather. Thermom- 
eter 1 above. At 11 A. M. a little twilight, 
just enough to see one mile. Don't see any 
ice off shore, as the young ice telescoped in 
all direction^ last night. I presume the 
pack is moving in at a distance and crowd- 
ing it. Got stores from our cache on the 
ice. All busy, excepting the watchman, 
working for the field party on sledges. At 
9.30 P. M. young ice squeezing up pressed 
the ship on two ice spurs, which protrude 
from under the floe ice. 

OCTOBER 31. The young ice to the south- 
west of us is about ten inches thick, and is 
covered with snow. It looks like old, heavy 
ice. The pack moving in with the south- 
west wind has piled it up in all shapes eome 



110 



RECORDS OF A POLAR EXPEDITION 



quite high ridges. It makes a noise like surf 
thundering in on the beach at a distance. 
The near ice breaking up sounds like tons 
of glassware falling. I can't say at this 
time, "the stillness of an Arctic night." 
The pressure reached the ship at 12 noon, 
and brought up on the floe, piling up over 
it. The ship was out of the direct line of 
pressure, so did not get any heavy squeeze. 
At 5 P. M. wind veered to the north; the ice 
slacked up and moved off south thirty feet 
and stopped. 

NOVEMBER 1. Wind north, northwest, 
light and clear; thermometer 22 below. 
No water in sight; where the ice moved off 
last night it is frozen over this morning. 
Mr. Fiala held religious services on the ship 
at 2 P. M., also on shore in the evening. 

NOVEMBER 2. No movement of ice today, 
five finished sledges sent to camp. At 3 P. M. 
it is quite dark, although it is clear. Com- 
menced stopping dynamo at 10 P. M. to 
economize on coal. 

NOVEMBER 3. Wind north and west; 
light. At 9 A. M. thermometer 26 below; 
fairly clear. The ice freezes in the propeller 
hole four and five inches during the twenty- 
four hours, but much slowej on the outside 
ice, which now is eleven inches in thickness. 
Mr. Nichols and Mr. Vedoe are making dog 
harnesses. All the others are working on 
the sledges. At the camp and the ship 
everything works smoothly now. All look- 
ing forward to the dash north. Any mem- 
ber of the crew will be offered a chance to 
volunteer to participate. And I am confi- 
dent most of them will go. The ship's posi- 
tion is better with a bulwark of new ice, 
probably three to six miles, to take the pres- 
sure from the pack coming in from the south- 
west. But as the ice will break off with the 
next blow from the north to east, it will 
depend how near the ship it breaks off. We 
can only stand and take it as it comes. There 
is no way of evading it now. 

NOVEMBER 4. Two bears came to the 
ship today. The dogs sighted them and took 
their trail. The bears separated and the dogs 
ran one into a little crack, when the men 
came up and shot him. Went to camp for 
a pony and hauled the bear to the ship. All 
the bears run. Not one so far has showed 
any fight. Thermometer 26 below. By 
the moonlight I can see there w r as a heavy 
pressure from the northwest, as the ice is 



' piled up high on Cape Saulen, and also 
nearer the ship. No pressure felt here. 
Could hear the noise of ice breaking all 
night. Thermometer 29 below. 

NOVEMBER 5. Calm and very clear all 
night. Mr. Haven cut a new propeller hole; 
found the ice thirty inches thick against the 
side of the ship. Ice is stationary. Seventy 
feet utside the ship the ice has cracked 
through; the first time the ice goes outfit 
will go at that crack, leaving just seventy 
feet of protection. At 11.30 A. M. can just 
distinguish a dark spot which I call the 
camp. Have to use a lantern outside 
during any time of day. Crew all busy on 
equipments. 

NOVEMBER 6. Wind in same old quarter, 
north and west; light and clear; thermometer 
16 below. Frost fog with the moon show- 
ing faintly through is all the light we get 
today at noon. The electric lights on poles 
on the trail to the' camp are a great help in 
bad weather. Six men off from camp this 
evening. Fog overhead, otherwise a fine night 

NOVEMBER 7. Variable north and east 
winds, and calm; same old fog. The ice 
moved out from the seventy feet crack about 
twenty feet and stopped. Sent seven new 
sledges on shore. Working regular hours 
from 9 to 1 and 2 to 6 P. M. Two engineers 
went to camp to fix the arc light in the house. 
At 9.30 P. M. thermometer 28 below. Bright 
moonlight. I can see many leads of water 
off northwest. Mr. Peters took supper 
with us, and he and. Mr. Fiala took a long 
walk, the evening was so fine. Have had 
a long spell of good weather; expect we will 
pay for it when the easterly winds come again. 

NOVEMBER 8. Very clear most of the 
time. Lowest thermometer 38 below. 
Today, Sunday, is our day of rest. Mr. 
Fiala held religious services in the carpenter's 
shop between decks. The moon looks cold 
almost a silver color. The dogs don't mind 
the cold; they are either lying curled up on 
the snow or hunting for something to eat. 
The cook took a short walk; thought his 
nose was frozen when he came back. Nose 
was all right. Had to face the wind coming 
over the glacier. The ice around ship is 
unchanged. At Cape Saulen it broke off 
in a line to the southeast, which shows 
tonight in the bright moonlight. 

NOVEMBER 9. Light and variable winds 
from all points, and calm; thermometer 39 




Mr. Haven came to my door and said, "The M-ind has changed, blowing southwest, and 

the ice is coming back." (ill) 



112 



RECORDS OF A POLAR EXPEDITION 



below; clear. Five men off from camp. 
Mr. Fiala informed me this morning that he 
would put the members of the field party 
on night watch at the camp. A very good 
move. Gives two more men to work on 
board. I presume the boys will like the 
change. There is no change -in the ice to 
be seen from the ship. 

NOVEMBER 10. Light variable north winds 
and calms. At 8 A. M. the thermometer was 
42 below. The air is full of frost fog. At 
12 noon the thermometer at camp was 
45 50' below, at the ship 44 5' below. 
Shut clown the dynamos at 9 saving more 
coal. The steward wanted to exchange the 
coal from the camp for ship's coal, as their 
coal was mixed with ice. Was making pork 
and bean biscuits for the trail. Ice the 
same, six inches made in the propeller hole. 
Mr. Peters and Dr. Shockley were off this 
afternoon. Mr. Fiala went to camp and 
-took supper with the boys. I took a walk 
on the ice seaward and landward; gone 
about twenty minutes. With a deer skin 
coat I did not feel the cold at all, as it was 
dead calm. Could not realize that it was 
nearly 50 below. With a fresh breeze it 
would have been another thing. Then 'tis 
only safe for two to go out together, so at 
the first sign of freezing, known by the ex- 
posed part (the face) turning white, im- 
mediately take the hand from the mitten 
and press it over the spot turning white (do 
not rub), and it will draw the frost out. 
Each man is supposed to be watching the 
other. I have often tried this method 
when wintering at Herschel Island, north 
of Mackenzie River. I learned it from 
the Eskimos at that place in 1894. At 11 P. M. 
I can hear the ice crushing up off to the 
south and west, as though it was moving 
quickly, at the ship 'tis just perceptible. 
In the darkness it is impossible to tell which 
way it is moving. I should judge from the 
westward. With no wind behind it there 
will be but little pressure here. First in- 
crease for the Ziegler Polar Expedition; 
five puppies were born this morning. 

NOVEMBER 11. Calm and light variable 
northeast winds. Lowest thermometer 46 be- 
low; 9 A. M., 42 below; 10 P. M., 32 below; in 
my room this morning 56 above; 11 P. M., 
62 above. In the upper cabin they said 
it was rather cold this morning, but they 
did not mind it Ice now still brought up 



on the land. Several cracks opened out on 
the new ice near us. Seven inches in pro- 
peller hole this morning. Took one man 
two hours to cut it out. Mr. Fiala went on 
shore this afternoon. No one off from 
the camp until evening Mr. Peters, who 
came off with Mr. Fiala and returned at 9.30. 
The weather is fine and was clear all day. 
At 10 P. M. everybody turned in. The cook 
told me today that he couldn't sleep, because 
he used all his time thinking what he would 
have for breakfast. Work is going on on 
expedition equipments. One of the fire- 
men is sewing fish-skin soles on hair seal- 
skin uppers for the trail. Takes all kinds 
of mechanics to cope with the needs of a 
polar expedition, as there is much alteration 
and always something new to be made, 
which calls out all our inventive genius. 
There is nothing like work to keep men out 
of mischief in these latitudes. 

NOVEMBER 12. Wind moderate south- 
west. Thermometer 23 below. The ice 
has been grinding and crushing all the night, 
off in the distance. Gradually it sounded 
nearer. At 1 A. M. we commenced to feel 
a pressure at the ship, and later on the ice 
commenced to break and shove under the 
ship and by her to the floe. It was three 
'feet thick on the inside and about two out- 
side. The pressures would make the ship 
crack and fairly groan; then it would let 
go for a while, and then come with a rush, 
piling up the ice on the floe twenty feet high. 
Looked rather dubious. Had Mr. Haven 
call all hands and be all ready to leave the ship 
at a minute's notice. Another bad pressure 
came and gave orders to throw all necessary 
clothing and expedition equipments out 
on the ice, which was done amid the horrid 
din. There was no excitement, and every- 
thing was done in good order. The pres- 
.sures all let go before all the equipments 
were taken out, so we left off taking out the 
rest. Upon investigating, I found the ship 
was squeezed out one foot, fore and aft 
about the same; the ice had destroyed all 
signs of a hole over the propeller. Many 
thicknesses of ice were shoved under and 
over each other, and I could not tell if any 
damage was done to the propeller, or to the 
rudder, which is shoved hard over to star- 
board. I dug down to the upper blade 
and found it unbroken; the two lower ones 
cannot be got at. Some of the heavy iron 



RECORDS OF A POLAR EXPEDITION 



113 



plates on the after side are started off. The 
rudder is splintered on the inside. The 
propeller cannot be moved from the engine 
room. As soon as possible I will clear away 
and investigate. Now the cache of provis- 
ions on the floe ice had to be moved as the 
pressures cracked the ice inside of it. Had 
the ponies and plenty of help and finished 
moving the cache at 1.50 P. M. The outside 
has all the marks of a heavy pressure. There 
are high ridges and ice sticking up in all 
shapes everywhere. The last squeeze the 
ship had was the worst, when it smashed 
the three-foot ice, and that was the last of 
it. Afterward I found a partial crack one 
hundred yards inside of where the cache 
was moved; it did not run out of the floe 
as the other crack did. Now there 
is the liability of the bay ice breaking off, 
carrying off the ship and all hands in the 
darkness before we know it. In all fresh 
easterly to north winds I will have a con- 
tinual watch kept at the places liable to go, 
and that is, under the circumstances pending 
here, all that I can do. All material needed 
for the day's work will be brought on board 
only. Of the stores for the ship, I will 
keep about one week's consumption on 
board. At the best 'tis only a fighting 
chance for the ship to live until spring. I 
can see that the crew are now fully aware 
of what might happen. All hands were 
tired and turned in early. 

NOVEMBER 13. Wind breezed up fresh 
after 12 midnight, south southeast. At 
5 P. M. it is blowing, and the air is thick with 
drifting snow. The feeling of insecurity 
among the men was evinced rather forcibly 
early this morning, when somewhere be- 
tween 4 and 6 A. M. eight of the men left 
the ship and went to camp, thinking the 
ship would be carried out with the ice. 
It was very dark, and as the wind was in 
the right direction to move the ice, they stam- 
peded and were missed only when some of the 
officers turned out. The boys came back 
again toward night, not feeling any better 
for their little vacation. Dr. Vaughn and 
Sergeants Moulton and Truden were off and 
stayed most of the day in the upper cabin, 
the guests of Mr. Fiala. Rough traveling 
today to and from the camp. Thermometer 
15 below. During a lull at 12.45 P. M. I 
could see the ice had broken off to the west 
and south, from Cape Saulen in a line north 



and south. No movement of ice near the 
ship today. 

NOVEMBER 14. Wind southwest and clear. 
The thermometer took a sudden rise, and is 
now 24 above. I took a good look at the 
ice this morning from Saulen. It broke off 
inside there, and now runs southeast as far 
as can be seen by the color of the horizon, 
about six miles. The nearest water now is 
one-half mile due west from the ship. I 
noticed that the steamer's first mooring 
place seemed to have had the most pressure 
of any place along the floe. Lucky the ship 
was not there. There was some big ice at 
that spot which would quickly have made 
an end of the "America." Made another 
examination of the rudder, and think it is 
unbroken. The stern part is cracked, 
twisted and a little out of line. I am quite 
sure it is no worse than it looks. Put all the 
men that could work clearing away the ice 
that is piled up under the stern to get at the 
propeller. No leak and every other part 
of the ship is O. K. Will have all hands 
send clothing to camp tomorrow, leaving 
necessary clothing for present use. The 
wind breezed up west northwest this after- 
noon and the ice off shore closed up to the 
west. Called the men together and had a 
little talk with them. Mr. Fiala also talked 
with them on expedition affairs at quite a 
length. I am sure the boys will not be the 
first to leave again. Hoisted one boat to 
the davits from the ice today, although a 
boat would be of no great service in this 
temperature, except, perhaps, to cross a 
narrow lead just broken off. In the event 
of the ship being carried off with the ice 
the boat would be no use. They are built 
of oak and weigh eighteen hundred pounds 
too heavy to haul over any rough ice. 

SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 15. The wind is east 
at 7 A. M., in puffs quite strong. The ther- 
mometer has taken a drop to 25 below. 
Just examined the ice in shore and off shore, 
and find no change in it. Last night the ice 
was crowding in, making its usual hideous 
noises. I should judge it was one-half mile 
off. At 3 A. M. stopped working. No pres- 
sure at the ship. I went to bed at 2.50 A. M. 
Very low barometer 28 80' and the 
thermometer rising 19 below looking like 
a southwest blow. The wind was variable 
and light, west to north at midnight, and 
snowing fast. Had no religious services 



114 



RECORDS OF A POLAR EXPEDITION 



today as the stove was being repaired in the 
carpenter's shop. Mr. Peters was off to 
supper. 

NOVEMBER 16. Wind light and clear 
north and west. Barometer low, 28 90'. 
Thermometer 30 below at 9.30 A. M. Must 
have been quite a breeze off shore as the ice 
has squeezed up hard and brought a light 
pressure on the ship. Cape Saulen keeps 
off the direct pressure coming from the north- 
west. At 4.30 P. M. the pony teams came 
off and took all the spare clothes for all 
hands to camp. Mr. Nichols is making 
nose bags for the ponies. The ice is moving 
off shore again this afternoon. I am pump- 
ing the ship every two days; takes thirty 
minutes with steam. 

NOVEMBER 17. Wind light with some 
snow. Frost fog later. Thermometer at 
9 A. M. 13 below; barometer 29 20'. At 
2 A. M. the ice could be heard crowding up 
on Cape Saulen, but there was no pressure 
at the ship. The arc light from the camp 
was brought off to be repaired. All hands 
busy at the same kind of work. I don't see 
the firemen working on boats any more. I 
believe the long nights are telling on some 
of the nervous temperaments. At 10.30 
p. M. I went out on the ice with my electric 
lamp to examine the ice. Found a new 
crack about one hundred yards out, running 
into the old floe crack about forty-four miles 
ahead of the ship. Calm at 11.30 P. M. 

NOVEMBER 18. Thermometer 36 below. 
No movement of the ice last night. I ex- 
amined the ice around the ship and found it 
unchanged. The chief reports the engine 
on bottom center and wants to move it bad. 
Looks now as if we never would be able to 
cut away enough ice to find out how much 
propeller we have left. Five men are at 
work steadily, and I hope to get through 
directly over the propeller sometime tomorrow. 
The worst trouble is there, as layer on layer 
of ice is crowded under, and the water 
now comes in and freezes as fast as it can 
be scooped out. The men are constantly 
getting their feet wet; then have to come on 



board and change. Mr. Haven is doing this 
work. 

NOVEMBER 19. Light variable winds and 
clear. At 9 A. M. thermometer 27 below. 
The aurora is showing, but not bright enough 
to give assistance in seeing the trail to camp. 
The men always use a lantern or electric 
lamp wherever they go. It is impossible 
to see the trail without, excepting in the 
moonlight. I have found so much ice under- 
neath the stern around the propeller that I 
am quite uncertain if it is possible to clear 
it enough to turn it. First Officer Haven 
has to leave his tent-making for this outside 
work, as the second officer has equipment 
work -to finish. Water showing up off Cape 
Saulen, where the ice seems to be moving 
continually of late. I went out to the main 
crack in the ice, one hundred yards outside 
ship, and found it opened last night about 
eighteen inches and working. At 3 P. M. 
frost fog makes it feel colder. Sent sr 
more completed sledges to the camp. A 
10.30 P. M. the ice was moving in from the 
west, but soon stopped. 

NOVEMBER 20. Thermometer 19 below. 
Working, cutting over the propeller with 
small results. At 12 noon cut through just 
enough to feel one blade. Could feel ice 
against the stern post seven feet further 
down. At 2 P. M. had to give up, beaten on 
this job. Now we can cut another hole 
for water in case of fire. Two pony teams 
off this morning. The outside ice moved 
out about two feet and shoved up in ridges. 
At 7.45 the wind is blowing thirty-six miles 
an hour. Gave orders for a watch to be 
kept on the floe in shore near the crack of 
November 12, to give notice of the first 
movement. All hands are ready to leave 
the ship tonight, should the ice in shore 
break off, before it breaks off outside the 
ship. If it does break off first outside the 
inside ice will not move, as the crack has 
not widened since opening and now must 
be frozen together. At 11.30 P. M. the 
first officer and I examined and found the 
ice firm at all points. 



( To be contimied ) 




A PROSPEROUS RANCHER'S HOME IN ALBERTA 



A GREAT COLONIZATION PROJECT 



By JOHN S. DENNIS 



IX 1894, the Dominion Government with- 
drew from homestead entry and sale, in 
the Province of Alberta, a block of land con- 
taining three million acres, along the main 
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway just 
east of the city of Calgary. This reservation 
was made to enable a settlement to be effected 
with the Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
of the balance due them on their land grant 
subsidy and to enable that company to under- 
take the construction of a vast irrigation 
system to cover the fertile Bow River Valley 
included in this block, it being realized that 
such a project could only be successfully 
accomplished by so administering the lands 
therein that the promoters would not be 
hampered by vested interests created by 
the alienation from the government of any of 
these lands. This project, the greatest 
irrigation undertaking of its kind on the 
American Continent, is now being pushed 
to completion. 

It has an average length east and west 
of about 150 miles and an average width of 
forty miles north and south, and it is expected 



that this block of irrigated and non-irrigated 
land will ultimately be divided into some 
fifteen thousand farms, sustaining six indi- 
viduals each, including hired help, making 
a rural population of ninety thousand. The 
ratio of rural to urban population according 
to the last census was as three to two. This 
would make a town and village settlement of 
sixty thousand, or a total population in the 
block of one hundred and fifty thousand 
people. The colonization of this vast area 
and "the creation of the most closely settled 
and prosperous mixed farming, dairying, 
and stock-raising community in Western 
Canada" is the ambitious program the rail- 
way company is now carrying out in a most 
aggressive manner. 

COLONIZATION FROM THE RAILWAY 
STANDPOINT 

The land business of this great transcon- 
tinental railway is, naturally, a side issue. 
Its business is transportation. Its interest 
in the mere sale of an area of land tributary 
to its system fades into absolute insignificance 



(115) 



116 



A GREAT COLONIZATION PROJECT 




A GARDEN IN ALBERTA 



compared with its vastly greater interest in 
the creation of new traffic. The land is sold 
only once, whereas the occupant is a customer 
of the company for all time to come. The 
making of homes for the creation of this 
traffic is its all-important aim to obtain these 
results. 

So it is that the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company, in addition to spending the vast 
sums necessary to construct the irrigation 
canals in this great block, is undertaking 
the greater work of colonizing this whole 
enormous area. Success beyond anticipa- 
tion has so far been encountered in this 
colonization work, but the titanic proportions 
of the enterprise can hardly be grasped. It 
is so vast that the task of a generation must 
be reduced to a decade. The traffic depart- 
ment ' wants business. 

THE GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY AT HAND 

Those who know predict that the present 
era will be the greatest in the history of 
southern Alberta's development. The mag- 
nificent crop just harvested, which will be 
found to break the record for any part of the 
American continent for many years, has 
created an increased confidence on the part 
of capital, both north and south of the line, 



and a widespread sentiment in favor of 
settlement and investment. One of the 
golden opportunities which occur at long 
intervals is at hand, and the railway company 
proposes to utilize it. 

CO-OPERATIVE HOME-MAKING 

The Canadian Pacific Railway has been 
offering its land for sale in this irrigation 
block at reasonable prices and on long terms 
for payment, but now they are going a step 
further and inaugurating a system which is 
nothing less than a general invitation to the 
farmers in over-crowded districts of the 
world to come to southern Alberta and go 
into partnership with the Canadian Pacific 
Railway. This is no mere catch phrase. 
It means what it says. The company will 
offer new settlers a land contract under which 
the land pays for itself. No crop, no pay- 
ment. 

The most striking feature of this novel 
departure from the past policy of railway 
companies in selling their land grants is the 
apparent confidence the company has in the 
ability of the land to pay for itself. To the 
well-informed, however, this is a safe propo- 
sition in that a large number of farmers in 
southern Alberta have been getting sufficient 



A GREAT COLONIZATION PROJECT 



117 







\\URK. IX PROCESS ON AN IRRIGATION DITCH 



out of the land to pay for it in full almost every 
year. Be that as it may, the proposition is 
undoubtedly one that will appeal to the aver- 
age farmer, and it is confidently expected 
that where one farmer is being put on the 
land under the present system, ten will be 
located on the "crop payment" plan. 

ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT POLICY 

In its efforts to encourage actual settle- 
ment at the earliest possible moment, the 
company goes a step further. A great many 
purchasers of land are unable to move on 
to their farms at once, and would, therefore, 
be greatly assisted if they could have the 
preliminary development work done for them 
so as to enable them to get a crop growing 
and a cash revenue coming in as soon as pos- 
sible after going into occupation. The 
company, therefore, agrees to initiate farming 
operations for absentee land-owners on a 
contract basis. No charge is made for the 
time of the employees devoted to supervising 
and inspecting this work and only a small 
percentage is charged to cover the actual 
outlay in supervising the expenditure of 
amounts deposited for development. The 
work is entrusted to responsible parties only, 



and it goes without saying that the company 
by reason of being in a position to contract 
for thousands of acres of breaking, harrow- 
ing, discing, seeding, etc., annually, is in a 
position to demand the very best class of 
work at the lowest prices going. 

AN EDUCATIONAL PROPAGANDA 

The company, realizing that the bulk of 
the settlers coming into occupation of the 
irrigated lands will be more or less uninformed 
as to the proper methods of handling and 
applying water, has placed at their disposal 
expert advice and assistance. It operates 
at central points farms devoted to demon- 
strating the agricultural possibilities of the 
district. The staff of the company's demon- 
stration farms is always ready to assist new 
colonists, and on some of the farms are main- 
tained pure-bred bulls and boars for the free 
use of the settlers. The maintenance of 
these demonstration farms is in line with the 
general policy of endeavoring to create a 
prosperous agricultural community. 



Land-selling as an occupation "out West" 
has earned the contempt of the farmer to such 



PHE THRESHING OUTFIT TRAVELS FROM FARM TO FARM 




VEGETABLES ON THE IRRIGATION FARM AT CALGARY 




TEN OF THESE TEAMS WILL CUT FOUR HUNDRED ACRES OF GRAIN A DAY 




HEAD-GATES OF THE "BIG DITCH" NEAR CALGARY 



A GREAT COLONIZATION PROJECT 



119 



an extent that he shuns the real estate man. 
The operations of the unscrupulous "land 
shark," who saddled his clients with worthless 
land and caused him to dissipate perhaps his 
life savings in a vain attempt to make a living 
and pay for his land, are chiefly responsible 
for this. Another reason is the insatiable 
hankering of some farmers for speculative 
investment and their failure to discriminate 
between sound investment and "wildcatting." 
While the average farmer should buy with a 
view to home-making, he need not eliminate 
entirely the speculative feature from his pro- 
posed investment. As much clear profit has 
been made out of farms in western Canada 
from enhanced land values as from the pro- 
ducts of the soil itself. 

The fact should not be lost sight of, how- 
ever, that the only elements that give value 
to land are population and transportation. 
Without these the best land would be almost 
worthless. In the irrigation block, transporta- 
tion facilities of the very best already exist, 
and with a proper system of branch lines this 
area will be as well served as any in western 
Canada. Actual settlement within the irri- 
gation block is what the railway company 
desires, and is securing; consequently sub- 
stantial development and increased land 



values will be assured within a compara- 
tively short period. The capitalist speculator 
is not wanted. The farmer speculator is 
welcomed with open arms. 

CALGARY'S DESTIXY 

When the railway has succeeded in settling 
immediately east of Calgary a population 
nearly as great as the present total popula- 
tion of the whole of the province of Alberta, 
that city's position as one of the leading 
wholesale and manufacturing centers of 
Canada will be assured. Furthermore, there 
is no district in Canada or the United States 
where there exists so vast an agricultural 
area, devoid of waste lands, as that east 
of and tributary to Calgary, which can be 
developed under irrigation. This is a civic 
asset of no mean proportions. A city with 
the commanding geographical situation of 
Calgary, and surrounded by a vast body of 
rich agricultural lands, the future home of 
a dense consuming population, with available 
water power, enormous coal resources and 
nearly every other natural advantage that 
enters into the creation of a great commercial 
centre, cannot avoid its destiny. Calgary 
stands today on the site of the future great 
western industrial metropolis. 




BUILDING A TOWN IN THE IRRIGATION BLOCK 



THE LIQUOR SITUATION IN MAINE 



By CHARLES EDSON OWEN 



DURING a recent interview at the state 
capitol Governor B. M. Fernald handed 
a dozen letters to the writer. "These letters," 
said Governor Fernald, "are letters of 
inquiry selected from a large number upon 
the same subject. They are from men of 
prominence in public life, one from a college 
president, one from a governor of a great 
state, two from lawyers, three from legislators 
and several from clergymen. These men," 
continued the governor, "are evidently 
confused and disturbed by numerous state- 
ments about conditions in our state as re- 
lated to the prohibitory law. I would like 
to have you write for me an answer long 
and broad enough to give these men and 
others like them the information they need." 
The task was undertaken. To frame 
a composite answer to a dozen letters, each 
seeking from different standpoints definite 
information upon various phases of one 
subject, and that a vexed and complicated 
one, was not the work of a single day or a 
week. Governor Fernald's approval of the 
work is attested by the presence of the letter 
herewith: 

WATERVILLE, MAINE, Feb. 25, 1910. 

Dear Sir : Your courteous letter of recent 
date calls attention to numerous statements 
and comparisons in circulation relating to 
criminal conditions in our state. Statistics 
indicating that drunkenness and crime are 
on the increase and comparisons discreditable 
to our prohibitory law are cited. 

In your estimation the value of the law 
is in the balance. Unless these allegations 
can be denied or explained all confidence 
in prohibition must be abandoned. 

This is the way our correspondents usually 
put the matter up to us. But a new crop of 
statistics appears with every moon, and new 
comparisons are constantly coming in Deal- 
ing with statistics and comparisons, there- 
fore, is an endless task; and besides disprov- 
ing the alleged facts does not vindicate the 
law, nor admitting them, condemn the law. 



A knowledge of other important facts and 
conditions is necessary before any sound 
conclusion can be reached as to the real 
causes of the conditions inquired about. 

A newspaper in Oregon published the 
criminal record of a certain city in Maine, 
showing that the arrests for drunkenness 
had increased fifty per cent, in three years. 
Comparing this with that of a license city 
of about the same size, prohibition was made 
to appear a very dangerous proposition. 
Radical prohibitionists were sorely grieved 
and license advocates were gloriously elated. 
In this piece of false logic, the important 
facts absolutely necessary in order to reach 
any safe conclusion were wanting. 

Oar correspondents will be best served 
by putting before them such important facts 
and experiences as will enable them to in- 
telligently interpret the significance of many 
succeeding bulletins of "startling statements 
and comparisons" as they appear. 

But first let me give you the barest outline 
of the history of the law and the provisions 
for its enforcement. 

The statutes of Maine have made it unlaw- 
ful to manufacture or sell intoxicating liquors, 
for beverages purposes, since 1851, except 
for two years, 1856 and 1857, when the state 
again licensed the traffic. In 1884 prohibi- 
tion was placed in the constitution by a 
vote of 70,630 in favor and 23,658 against it. 

The responsibility for the enforcement 
of the law rests first upon the local officials 
in each of the twenty cities and five hundred 
and one towns; next, upon the sheriffs, 
county attorneys and courts of the sixteen 
counties of the state. In case the enforce- 
ment of the prohibitory law is neglected 
by both the municipal and county officers 
the governor, as chief executive, is authorized 
to appoint an enforcement commission to 
administer the law in any negligent sections, 
the expense of such enforcement by the state 
being borne by the county in which the 
service is rendered. Thus the ultimate 
responsibility is lodged with the state. 



(120) 



THE LIQUOR SITUATION IX MAINE 



121 



The effectiveness of the law during its 
early history is not in question. That it 
was satisfactory to the people of Maine as 
late as 1884 is abundantly attested by a 
popular vote of three to one placing it in the 
constitution. 

About five years after the adoption of the 
constitutional amendment wood pulp was 
adopted for paper-making, and Maine ex- 
perienced a great industrial awakening. 
Two-thirds of her 31,500 square miles area 
was forest. Immense pulp and paper plants 
in great numbers, some of the largest in the 
world, were erected. 

This new industry created at once a demand 
for railroad facilities, and within the last 
twenty years more than eleven hundred 
miles, equal to nearly four times the entire 
length of the state, have been built, and over 
four hundred miles of electric railway have 
been constructed. 

Now this industrial revival, this building 
of pulp and paper mills, railroads, power 
plants for the electric systems, and cutting 
and driving such immense quantities of 
lumber meant the introduction into Maine 
of thousands of laborers. They were mostly 
men of the Saxon race, strong, vigorous, 
with red blood in their veins. These homeless 
men of strong passions in such numbers 
were a new source of temptation to the towns 
or cities near which their work called them. 

Bangor has been quoted everywhere as 
the most conspicuous example of the failure 
of prohibition to prohibit. Bangor is the 
natural headquarters of great lumbering 
interests and the number of men who an- 
nually go through Bangor, on their way to 
and from the woods, railroads, and pulp 
mills, far exceeds its population. In Bangor, 
their base of supplies, they plan to spend 
from three to six weeks of "vacation time," 
and they seek such "entertainment" as their 
early education and their ''tastes" require. 

Responding to this demand law-defying 
men made a business of trading upon the 
appetites and passions of these transient 
visitors. This came to be the regular occu- 
pation of a small but desperately persistent 
gang, in Bangor and vicinity. The extent 
and character of their business can better 
be imagined than described. Drunkenness 
and disorder increased inevitably. 

This condition of things, not 'vigorously 
handled at the start by the constituted au- 



thorities, put some substantial citizens, 
business men and even some ministers, 
in a critical attitude toward the law. Many 
frankly said: "While prohibition may be 
satisfactory in the towns and smaller cities 
under ordinary conditions, it does not work 
satisfactorily in Bangor." Certainly prohi- 
bition did not work in Bangor. No one 
worked it. Local officials, city and county, 
and even some judges of the court supposed 
that local sentiment was strongly against 
prohibition. They therefore conceived "a 
plan" by which "dealers" in Bangor were 
"regulated" and tacitly allowed to sell liquors, 
fines being imposed at stated intervals. 

In this famous "Bangor plan" there was 
absolutely no attempt at prohibition. It 
was "regulation" pure and simple; and yet 
its results have been exploited throughout 
the country- by the advocates of the license 
system as a fair sample of what prohibition 
will do. Would it not be a man-el if under 
such conditions arrests for drunkenness 
and other crimes did not rapidly increase 
and especially among non-resident laborers? 
.Bangor's police reports faithfully record 
this increase, and show that, for the year 
ending March 31, 1909, seventy per cent, 
of the arrests were non-resident. Bangor's 
experience has been repeated in modified 
form in other sections of the state. 

But these laborers are not the only invading 
army which has entered Maine. At the time 
prohibition was adopted Maine was com- 
paratively isolated, was and still is essen- 
tially rural. More than two-thirds of its 
permanent population live in towns of 
less than five thousand inhabitants. The 
largest of its twenty cities is Portland with 
about sixty thousand inhabitants. Two gene- 
rations ago Maine's vast stretch of sea coast, 
measuring three thousand miles and punctu- 
ated with hundreds of beautiful islands, was 
very thinly peopled by farmers, fishermen 
and quarrymen. Now this picturesque and 
rock-bound coast has been transformed 
into a veritable summer paradise peopled 
by scores of thousands of visitors from other 
states Magic cities spring into being each 
summertime upon our islands and along our 
coast. Within the past year the bureau of 
industrial and labor statistics has investigated 
' the value of property owned and occupied 
for vacation purposes by people outside the 
state and has recently reported that summer 



122 



THE LIQUOR SITUATION IN MAINE 



homes and hotels representing, with their 
furnishings, over thirty millions of dollars are 
the property of non-residents within our state. 
In Bar Harbor alone, the homes of summer 
residents are assessed at $3,400,000. 

Moreover, it must be remembered that 
at least two hundred thousand people an- 
nually visit the inland lakes and country 
hillsides where they have established summer 
residences. Would it be strange if the an- 
nual coming of these visitors, four hundred 
thousand strong, the major part of them 
doubtless from license communities would 
it be strange if their mingling with the people 
of Maine should break down prohibition 
sentiment, and weaken the enforcement of 
law? In the beginning of this summer 
invasion it was feared that the temperance 
interests of the state would suffer demorali- 
zation. Some mischief was done and gaily 
reported, but that period is passed. It is 
confidently asserted, that, as a rule, these 
summer guests are best suited where the 
saloon is entirely excluded. We are assured 
that the summer residents of Bar Harbor 
are in entire accord with the local officers' 
in the strict enforcement of the prohibitory 
law. The largest and best summer hotels, 
catering to the best class of people from 
all sections, have little temptation to violate 
the provisions of the prohibitory law. These 
people come to Maine for rest, comfort and 
recuperation, and find these in their perfection 
where the saloon influence is absent. 

But Maine experienced a political back- 
sliding as well as an industrial revival. After 
the adoption of constitutional prohibition in 
1884 political inertness seized the busiest, 
brainiest and best citizens in the state. With 
prohibition enshrined in the fundamental 
law it was vainly expected that the end of 
all effort to overthrow the law had been 
reached. It was taken for granted that all 
officials would observe their sacred oath to' 
enforce it. The importance of the careful 
selection of candidates for officers to ad 
minister law was overlooked by the intelligent 
and well-meaning citizens and as promptly 
recognized by those whose business the law 
interfered with. As a result in some sections 
of the state, the police power quietly slipped 
into the hands of the enemies of prohibition, 
its friends in many instances innocently 
contributing their votes. The political in- 
ertness of the best citizens, uniting with 



the political alertness of the worst, greatly 
reduced the effectiveness of the law. 

This result was considerably augmented 
by a serious defect in the enforcement ma- 
chinery itself. State authority to make 
laws is necessarily accompanied by state 
responsibility for the enforcement of these 
laws. For many years, however, after the 
appointment and control of the sheriffs 
were taken from the governor the con- 
nection of state authority with the enforce- 
ment of law in the several counties was 
broken. The governor as chief executive 
of the state was, to use a mechanic's phrase, 
"shipped to a loose pulley," being absolutely 
without power to interfere with the inde- 
pendent control of enforcement by each 
county, city or town. The state's policy 
was distinctly declared in its constitution 
and statutes, but by this singular defect the 
enforcement of the state policy was left 
optional with each county. 

This defect has been remedied: First by 
the Sturgis law of 1905, giving the governor 
as chief executive of the state the authority 
to appoint, when necessary, an Enforcement 
Commission to enforce the law of the state 
in any county where local officials refused 
or neglected to do so; and second, by the 
statute of 1909 giving the governor power 
to remove delinquent county attorneys and 
to appoint others in their places. "Illegal 
county option" which the citizens of the state 
as a whole had no idea of endorsing has thus 
become a thing of the past. Each and every 
county must now enforce the state law, or pay 
the costs of having it done by state officials. 
We wish to warn our correspondents, how- 
ever, that "alarming statistics" are still 
in circulation, based, not upon facts drawn 
from the vast sections of the state where 
the law has been normally effective, but 
upon statements drawn from those places 
where through defective enforcement ma- 
chinery and bad citizenship the law was 
temporarily outraged. 

Federal interference is now our most 
serious handicap. If the state had exclusive 
police control of the liquor traffic within 
its borders it would be manifestly fair to 
credit the Maine law with all the beneficial 
effects, and to charge to its account all failures 
and shortcomings. But the state of Maine 
is very far from having full police contr^' 
of the traffic within her borders. 



THE LIQUOR SITUATION IN MAINE 



123 



The United States mail is freely used by 
the liquor dealers of other states in soliciting 
orders from practically every voter and 
from many boys. The federal interstate 
commerce law protects the delivery of every 
order against seizure by any officials within 
the state. The liquor dealers of Boston 
boast of having built up an enormous mail 
order and express business in Maine, and 
a number of wholesalers have combined and, 
invoking federal laws, have instituted legal 
proceedings against our sheriffs to restrain 
them from doing what the law of the state 
authorizes and requires them to do in the 
suppression of the liquor traffic. The re- 
sults of the mail order and express business 
cannot be justly charged to the prohibitory 
law. It will not be regarded as an unreason- 
able estimate that at least seventy-five per 
cent, of all the arrests and commitments 
for drunkenness and crime and of all other 
evils arising from the use of intoxicating 
liquors in Maine for the past year are justly 
chargeable to the licensed liquor trade of 
other states projected into Maine by the 
mail order and express business under the 
protection of the federal government. 

Let it be distinctly understood, however, 
that there is no disposition on the part of 
the intelligent and law-abiding citizens 
of Maine to surrender the prohibitory policy 
or relax its enforcement on this account. 
The state is defending, by her Attorney 
General, the sheriffs of Maine in the suit 
brought by the wholesale liquor dealers 
under the federal statute. Prohibition is 
the settled policy of the intelligent citizen- 
ship of Maine. After a half century of 
experience the people believe in Prohibition 
as sane in method and right in principle 
and therefore capable of securing valuable 
results for the general well-being and better- 
ment of the whole people. Business and 
professional men of all political faiths as well 
as men and women organized for distinctly 
moral and religious progress are more uni- 
versally in accord with the prohibitory policy 
than ever before in the history of the state. 

The nature of the commodity, and its 
well-known evil effects, forbids that the 
state, as a protector of the home and society, 
should take any other than a prohibitive 
attitude toward the liquor traffic. The 
sense of the absolute righteousness of the 
policy laying hold of the consciences of the 
fathers and mothers has sustained the law 



through its hard experiences A native 
faith in the ultimate triumph of a right 
policy, because it is right, accounts for the 
persistence of prohibition in Maine. And 
this faith is one of the grandest moral assets 
of the state or nation. It was this faith to 
which Lincoln appealed in the nation's crisis 
when on February 27, 1860, in Cooper Union, 
he closed his immortal address with these 
words, "Let us have faith that right makes 
might and in that faith let us to the end 
dare to do our duty as we understand it." 

You have heard that our law makes 
hypocrites. No law makes hypocrites. It 
simply reveals the ready-made article. The 
quality of Maine manhood and womanhood 
is not questioned by an intelligent public. 
"Maine's best crop is men," is a proverb 
accepted from ocean to ocean. 

The traffic is helpless as compared with 
its dominating strength under the protective 
system. We have no wealthy, liquor-enriched 
aristocracy. Three years ago it was officially 
stated of Missouri that three and one half 
times as much money was invested in her 
liquor interests as in the railroads of the 
state. In Maine the liquor industry as such 
represents no capital worth mentioning. 
The entire plant and paraphernalia of the 
whole illicit trade of Maine would not equal 
in value one thousandth part of the money 
invested in her railraods. 

If it were possible, the outlawed traffic 
would be an important factor in the political 
affairs of the state. No element is more 
alert and watchful of opportunities. To hold 
the balance of power and to get control of 
the administration of the law has always 
been its chief aim. To openly and defiantly 
dictate policies and control the administra- 
tion of government, name candidates and 
carry elections is scarcely within the range 
of possibility under the prohibitory policy 
as we know it in Maine. 

It has no social standing. The man of 
high degree socially is brought low when 
caught in illicit liquor trade. The proprietor 
of a fashionable hotel or drug store serves his 
sentence in jail for violating the liquor law 
just as any other criminal would do. 

From the economic standpoint Maine 
certainly has not suffered on account of her 
policy. One-half of the people of the state 
live in their own homes, pay their taxes, 
educate their ch;.^.:: and have comfortable 
bank accounts. 



STUMP-PULLING 



By B. F. MCMILLAN 



THE report of Secretary Wilson, of the 
United States Agricultural Department, 
for the year 1908, shows the values of the 
farms to be twenty billion dollars, with a 
revenue of about eight billion dollars. Com- 
pared with this, the largest industry in the 
country, that of the United States Steel 
Company, looks very insignificant. It is 
also an established fact that nearly seventy- 
five per cent, of all the manufacturing in- 
dustries of the country depend on the farms 
for their raw material. 

If the same conditions prevailed in farm- 
ing which govern other business, the marvel- 
ous prosperity of the farmers in recent 
years would make the demand for farms 
so great that it could not be met without 
exhausting the available supply of un- 
occupied land in the country. It is a notice- 
able fact that men with money rush into 
one business after another, frequently created 
by the passing fad, and lose their capital. 
Likewise is it true that they will rush into 
this business or that regardless of the fact 
that the business is already beyond the de- 
mands of the market. Men with capital 
seem to overlook the fact that there is al- 
ways a demand for the products of the farm, 
even in panic times. People can get along 
without automobiles, but they must eat. 
The present profitable prices are to continue 
for a long time, is the opinion of the Secretary 
of Agriculture, for the population has grown 
much faster than the farms; therefore the 
business of farming ought to hold the atten- 
tion of those seeking success. Farming is 
essentially an industrial enterprise. It par- 
takes of many of the characteristics of the 
various manufacturing lines. It enjoys 
the distinction of being the best paying and 
at the same time the poorest managed busi- 
ness in the world. Somehow or some way 
the farmer, regardless of misfortune, mis- 
management, hard luck, and lack of means 
moves along, gets his three meals a day, and 
ultimately turns up with a nice bank roll 
and furnishes the cs*::til vith which men 



in other lines of business operate. He is the 
backbone of the country, and without him 
the rest of the world would shut up shop. 
Whenever an additional youngster is added 
to the family roll call, he does not run up a 
distress signal and cry out because there is 
one more mouth to feed, but on the contrary 
takes a day off to receive the congratula- 
tions of his less fortunate neighbors. Race 
suicide is not a disturbing element in the 
family circle, and the boys and girls who 
grow up surrounded by the healthy environ- 
ments of farm life are the men and women 
who later control the country's destiny. 

The development of the Central West 
has been an interesting study to me for over 
a quarter of a century, and it appeals just 
as strongly today as it did thirty years ago. 
Marshfield, Wisconsin, now a thriving city 
of seven thousand population, with financial 
institutions that show one and one-half 
millions of deposits, at that time had no 
existence. The country around and about 
it was practically a virgin forest with little 
or no development. Here and there some 
homesteader had come in from the country 
farther south, built for himself a log cabin, 
and started clearing in the hopes of securing 
a home for himself and family that he might 
call his own. New settlers appeared from 
time to time, and as the homestead land was 
taken up they bought from the mill men 
the cut-over lands in the settlement, at 
nominal prices, without any cash payment, 
and made such headway as they could under 
the most difficult and trying conditions. 

These new settlers or pioneers had the 
advantage, however, of being able to ob- 
tain employment from the mill men which 
gave them sufficient money to maintain 
themselves and their family until they were 
self-supporting from their own land. 

The history of the development of this 
particular locality is no different from the 
history of the development of the greater 
part of Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan. 
The pioneers were all poor men, and as it 



(124) 



STUM-P-PULLIXG 



125 



took a great deal of courage to meet the 
obstacles in the path of the home-builder 
the development was slow. The mill man, 
on the contrary, was continually adding 
to his facilities for handling the timber and 
manufacturing it into lumber. As a con- 
sequence thousands of acres of land were 
cut over and abandoned as seemingly worth- 
less, for the reason that the settlement would 
not keep apace with the lumbering. Ofttimes 
these lands were sold for taxes, and some 
fifteen or twenty years ago these lands and 
other large cut-over tracts passed into the 
hands of speculators at a nominal figure. 

Aided and abetted by the railroad com- 
panies, they were placed upon the market 
for sale. Glowing pictures of profits were 
painted, and through constant and per- 
sistent advertising the lands were sold over 
and over again by real estate agents, and the 
price of the land continually advanced 
without any actual increase in value. Fully 
eighty per cent, of all the purchasers of these 
cut-over lands failed to go onto them and 
develop, notwithstanding their original in- 
tention, while the remaining twenty per 
cent, naturally made very little progress, 
most of these being men of limited means. 
Owing to such conditions the work of coloniza- 
tion has been exceedingly slow, as both the 
increased price of land and lack of employ- 
ment operated against rapid development. 

The same methods adopted here have 
been pursued all over the United States 
by land agents and the railroads, but today, 
no matter which way a man turns who seeks 
a farm home, whether it be to the arid West 
or the booming South, he is confronted 
with the same conditions. The poor man, 
and by that I mean the man whose only 
asset is a large family, is practically elimin- 
ated, as it requires from five hundred to 
one thousand dollars to get a start. This 
may be all right in itself, but where there is 
one man who has the necessary five hundred 
dollars, and is satisfied to go on the land, 
there are a thousand whose only capital is 
a willingness to work, and enough ready 
money to build a cabin and move the family 
on the land. 

The poor we always have with us, and it 
is the poor man that we must rely on for 
actual settlement. There is no disputing 
these facts. Analyzing these conditions, 
it is plainly to be seen why so few of the 



hundreds of people who barely eke out an 
existence in our larger cities and not infre 
quently in our smaller ones do not turn to 
the land for relief. There is no question 
whatever that if the proper opportunities 
were presented, thousands of people would 
turn to the land for the betterment of their 
conditions. 

The Federal government has been brought 
to a realization of this fact, and is now seek- 
ing some method whereby the cut-over 
lands of Wisconsin, Michigan and Minnesota 
can be cleared up and opened for settlement. 
A bulletin will soon be issued by the Agri- 
cultural Department giving such informa- 
tion as it was possible to gather concerning 
the method and cost of putting logged -over 
lands in Western Washington into a state 
of cultivation. This year it is proposed to 
make similar investigations here in the 
Central West. 

The work of the Department along this 
line should bring excellent results, as it will 
open the eyes of the country to the necessity 
of employing more modern means in develop- 
ing the timber localities. 

There has been little or no advance in 
the machinery employed in this class of work 
so far as I have been able to learn, except 
a new machine that has been introduced 
by the Consolidated Farm Company, of 
Marshfield, Wisconsin. This company is 
composed of local business men who have 
.been engaged for several years past in trying 
to solve the problem of settling cut-over 
lands. This company was organized in 
response to the demand for some newer 
and better method of helping the poor man 
in establishing himself, and it was not long 
in discovering that the only settler that 
could be secured to go on new land was the 
man who had little or nothing to start with. 
It also discovered that unless the new settler 
could secure some employment during the 
first few years of his residence on new land 
he was practically helpless in obtaining 
results. 

In nearly every instance he became dis- 
couraged and abandoned the project of 
carving out a home in the woods. Those 
who could obtain work at the nearby mills, 
and those who had several hundred dollars 
with which to start, invariably succeeded, 
and in a few years had good farms and ex- 
perienced very little, if any, hardships. 



126 



STUMP-PULLING 



Knowing these conditions, the business men 
of Marshfield determined to organize their 
company and locate such settlers as would 
come to them on tracts of from five to forty 
acres, either improved or unimproved, as 
they desired and their means would warrant. 
They also decided on giving the new settler 
an opportunity to work at good wages while 
he was building for himself, and to do this 
determined to clear lands adjacent to the 
settlers, there being ready sale for improved 
land. 

To facilitate their work they introduced 
a new steam stump machine which has re- 
markable power, and through a system of 
cables and derrick is capable of clearing 
from two to four acres of stump lands per 
day. During the past season the company 
has cleared over three hundred acres and has 
given employment to a large number of new 
settlers which it has induced to locate here. 
These settlers are all happy and contented, 
and all show marked progress. 



We give space to the foregoing statement 
because it presents an original idea in that, 
instead of holding the land, waiting the slow 
methods of the settler for development, 
the land is cleared in advance of the settler; 
instead of pursuing the necessarily crude 
methods of the poor men, the best machinery 
that capital can buy is possible; instead of 
letting the little fellow fight out the battle 
alone he has the benefit of the hearty co- 
operation of the business interests which 
recognize the fact that every new settler in 
a community, if successful, is worth from 
three hundred to five hundred dollars an- 
nually to the business interests, while the 
speculator contributes nothing to the com- 
munity, and is usually a menace to its prog- 
ress. 

The great absorbing question of the day 
is how to relieve the congested conditions in 
the city and make fruitful the unproduc- 
tive lands in the country. The old methods 
have failed ; the new ones must be tried. 



I WAIT 

By OWEN CLARK 



Today, I wait: 

No more with gay and steady tread 
I keep my way and forge ahead; 
Nor even, burdened with a load 
Of anxious haste, toil up the road: 

I wait: 

Nor haste nor anger dare essay, 
Fo r cloud and chasm bar the way: 

So I must wait. 

Ye have been brave and patient, heart and will: 
Be yet more brave; be patient still! 
The clouds will break! The fog will lift! 
And through each hazy rolling rift 
I shall more clearly see my proper way 
Discern where lurking danger lay. 
Be calm and steadfast, O my soul, 
For thou shalt surely reach thy goal 
And what is there for thee will wait: 
Thou canst not be too late! 



AUTOMOBILES A FACTOR IN 
COMMERCE 

By W. C. JENKINS 



A CCORDIXG to a report just issued by 
/l the United States Bureau of Statistics 
of the Department of Commerce and Labor, 
the automobile must henceforth be recog- 
nized as an important and rapidly increas- 
ing factor in international commerce. The 
value, in round numbers, of motor cars ex- 
ported from all countries in the year 1909 
is in excess of $50,000,000, to which the 
United States contributed $8,667,397, which 
represents a gain of 
450 per cent, in auto- 
mobiles exported 
from this country 
since 1899. The total 
value of American 
automobiles and ac- 
cessories manufac- 
tured in the year 1909 
approximates over 
$150,000,000. This 
places the motor car 
now among the six 
leading articles of 
American manufac- 
ture, a fact that testi- 
fies eloquently to the 
progress, enterprise 
and prosperity of this 
country. 

The total number 
of gasoline cars built 
in this country in the 
year 1909 was close 
to 73,000, while the 
total value of all motor vehicles built, and their 
accessories, approximates over $200,000,000. 

In 1896 the present type of automobile 
made its appearance, and one of the first 
companies organized was the Olds Motor 
Vehicle Company, with a capital of $50,000. 
Later the Olds Motor Works was organized 
with a paid-up capital of $350,000, R. E. 
Olds being president and general manager. 




R. E. OLDS 
President Reo Motor Car Company 



In the spring of 1901 the Detroit plant was 
destroyed by fire. The plant was then 
moved to Lansing, Michigan, and by the end 
of the year 1903 the company had grown to 
a $2,000,000 corporation. 

In January, 1904, Mr. Olds retired from 
the active management of the company, and 
later sold his interests. In August of the 
same year his friends induced him to return 
to the active manufacture of automobiles, 
and within three hours 
after his consent was 
obtained enough stock 
was subscribed for a 
million-dollar c o m- 
pany, which resulted 
in the organization of 
the Reo Motor Car 
Company, with R. E. 
Olds as president and 
general manager. 

On October 15, 1904, 
the first Reo car was 
placed on trial, and by 
November 20th Mr. 
Olds had personally 
driven this car over 
2,000 miles, besides 
superintending the 
construction of the 
new manufacturing 
plant. When the new 
plant was ready for 
business on January 1, 
1905, 120 men were 

put to work and by March 21st the first car- 
load of Reos was shipped. Over 3,000 cars 
were sold, and that year the Reo sales 
amounted to $1,378,000. In 1906 shipments 
of Reo cars amounted to one hundred car- 
loads a month. For 1907 the output was 
4,000 cars; in 1908 the product amounted to 
$4,800,000, and for 1909, 6,600 cars were 
manufactured, valued at $6,273,000. 



(127) 



128 



AUTOMOBILES A FACTOR IN COMMERCE 



In addition to his automobile interests at 
Lansing, Mr. Olds is president of the Capital 
National Bank, the Michigan Screw Com- 
pany, the Atlas Drop Forge Company, and 
a number of other large concerns, as well as 
a large real estate owner. Mr. Olds is one 
of the few business men who controls such a 
large business without borrowing any money. 
He claims that there are times when it is 
necessary to borrow money, but personally 
he prefers to avoid such an expediency. 

With the beginning of the 1910 automobile 
season the manufacturers have in many in- 




E. R. THOMAS 

stances been compelled to greatly increase 
their capacity for the production of cars, 
owing to the unprecedented demand for 
autos which the increasing prosperity of the 
country has made almost a necessity. 

In a recent interview, Mr. E. R. Thomas, 
of the E. R. Thomas Motor Company of 
Buffalo, one of the early pioneers in the 
automobile line, gave some interesting facts 
regarding the immense growth of his business, 
and in view of the fact that he is sole owner 
and proprietor of the immense plant which 
bears his name, his story of the early struggles 
of auto builders against prejudice, panic and 



hard times is a remarkable one. He said: 
"It would take too long to burden you with 
a narrative of the business, present and 
future. In my opinion the surfaces of the 
automobile business have never been scratched. 
I believe that to be thoroughly true. Because 
of the changing demands of the business, it 
costs a lot of money to keep up with the times, 
and necessitates many changes. We have 
been accused of changing a little too much 
when we saw anything good, but if you do 
not progress, the first thing you know you 
will be a 'back number'; and I think that 
some of our competitors who have not pro- 
gressed will reach that same conclusion. 

"We admit that we have made our mistakes 
a great many of them and we have prob- 
ably spent more money to build a good car 
than any other manufacturer in the business 
and in building up an organization such as 
would benefit not only ourselves, but those 
who handle and purchase our product. I 
really feel as though we have such an organi- 
zation. 

"You asked me to tell you what I have 
had to go through to reach the position at- 
tained. I do not want to make you weep, 
and I think you would have tears for us, for 
no man knows what the automobile manu- 
facturers went through in the experimental 
days. And I tell you they have just cause, 
now, to be proud, when you consider what 
they have gone through during the past 
years. I do not like to dwell on the value 
of the name Thomas today, but I believe 
that we have far more success in store for the 
future than we have had in the past. 

"You can easily realize our own growth 
when you compare our present plant with 
the one we had in 1900. Every year we 
have expanded. The original little plant, 
80x100 feet, on the corner of Elm and Broad- 
way, has been supplanted by this immense 
factory. We have grown year by year, and 
are still growing. As the factory increased in 
dimensions and facilities it also matured in 
spirit. The organization was perfected and 
became more effective, centralizing its efforts 
on the one real purpose the production of 
the finest car possible a spirit of unanimity 
pervading the immense plant that is remark- 
able." 

The Thomas cars this year are not the 
creation of this year alone. Their inception 
dates back to the little shop on the corner 



AUTOMOBILES A FACTOR IN COMMERCE 



129 



of Elm and Broadway, when the entire 
working force of the little shop consisted of 
about sixty men. Through all these years 
Mr. Thomas has steadily held in view his 
ultimate ambition of being the builder of one 
of the greatest, if not the greatest, cars in the 
world. That his ambition has been realized 
is a matter of history. The winning of the 
great New York-Paris Race capped the 
climax. This was the great prize for which 
E. R. Thomas has striven. In spite of the 
fact that the sale of foreign cars in America 



past few years and their immense plant 
proving conclusively their claim. 

What was formerly the York Motor Car 
Company, Incorporated, of York, Pennsyl- 
vania, is now the Pullman Motor Car Com- 
pany, since it was believed by the company 
officials that it would be advantageous to 
have the name of the concern and the product 
alike. Furthermore the company plan to 
build a new branch factory at Eransville, 
Indiana, and the name York Motor Car 
Company would be inappropriate for a 




A THOMAS FLYER IN DEEP SNOW 



has always been insignificant, he resented 
the widely published claims of superiority 
over the American cars, and was determined 
that if mechanical talent and a complete dis- 
regard of cost, supplemented by years of ex- 
perience, was consequential, this boasted 
supremacy would be soon- ten linated. 

The reason for Thomas success in the 
automobile business seems to have been that 
they have always made reliability and excess 
of power the main features in the construction 
of their machines; endurance tests of the 



factory that was situated outside of York. 
The new contemplated plant at Evansville, 
Indiana, will have about 200,000 square feet 
of floor space, mostly on the ground floor. 
The company will have there about fifty 
acres, on which their contemplated one-mile 
testing track will be a feature. The drop 
forge and pressed steel plants, foundries, etc., 
will compose a plant in which even* part of 
the car from the raw material can be made. 
In the York plant they are now manufactur- 
ing their own engines, transmissions, steering 



130 



AUTOMOBILES A FACTOR IN COMMERCE 



gears, bodies, tops, etc. Lately the com- 
pany added about 110,000 square feet of 
floor space to the York plant, and besides 
have leased two additional buildings and a 
plot of ground 50x250 feet, on which it is 
intended to erect an additional machine shop 
and a building for testing purposes. The 
output this year will be about 2,000 cars. 

The manufacture of commercial cars, 
while not an innovation, has attracted more 
attention at the present time than at any 
former period. It is generally recognized 
that the first gasoline propelled commercial 
car built in America was manufactured by 
Max H. Grabowsky, in Detroit, about ten 




GRABOWSKY POWER WAGON 
Used in collecting supplies for the sufferers from forest lires in Michigan 



years ago. At that time Mr. Grabowsky 
was the owner of a small, but well-equipped 
machine shop, and he had given the subject 
of gasoline engines and motor cars consider- 
able thought. In the early days of the auto- 
mobile, several of the models of the pleasure 
vehicle were so arranged that their passenger 
bodies could be demounted and the delivery 
box placed on the frame, but the failure of 
this style of machine to hold up against the 
wear and tear of business service rendered 
it commercially valueless. The first car 
built by Mr. Grabowsky was bought before 
it was finished and gave good service for many 
years; in fact it is still running in Detroit. 
More orders came in quickly as the result 
of the first trial of this car, and Mr. Grabowsky 
formed the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company 
for the manufacture of cars of his design. The 
business grew like magic, and was later 



moved to Pontiac, Michigan, where a factory 
was built to accommodate the growth of the 
business. After a few years, Mr. Grabowsky 
made some very great improvements in the 
commercial car, which he felt would prove 
of immense value to users of motor trucks. 
To build these new trucks he returned to 
Detroit and in 1908 formed the Grabowsky 
Power Wagon Company. A moderate sized 
factory was obtained in the summer of 1908, 
and the first of the new Grabowsky power 
wagons was completed. This new truck 
shows a number of mechanical features that 
were positively revolutionary in their nature. 
The movable power plant, located in the 
front of the car, under the hood, 
can be drawn out in front of 
the car for instant inspection 
and adjustment just as the 
business man pulls out the 
drawer of his desk. The power 
unit, comprising the motor, 
transmission and control, is 
mounted on a sub-frame and 
can be pulled out clear with 
the car where it is supported 
by a folding tray. 

The importance of insuring 
accessibility and frequent in- 
spection of the engine can be 
readily understood by anyone 
who has had experience with 
a motor truck. 

Another feature which Mr. 
Grabowsky has originated, and 
which is shown for the first time in the 
Grabowsky power wagon, is the use of 
hardened steel bushings in all wearing 
parts. These steel bushings take all the 
wear, and, when necessary, can be replaced 
at small cost, while, on other cars, it must be 
replaced at considerable expense. 

Mr. Grabowsky's entire experience in 
motor cars has been developed on the com- 
mercial side, and he has consequently gained 
a great deal of experience in necessary de- 
tails not apparent to the eye of a layman. 
Strength is necessary in a commercial 
car; speed is seldom essential, but proper 
distribution of weight is most important. 
All these various points have been Mr. 
Grabowsky's constant study for years. 

A new factory is being built in Detroit, 
which will be ready for occupancy about 
July, 1910. 




' 




REORGANIZATION NAVY PLAN 



By CHARLES GRASTY GORDON 



NATIONAL and international interest 
has been concentrated on the plan of 
Secretary George von L. Meyer for the 
reorganization of the Navy Department. It 
is a simple, practical, sensible proposition 
that follows the natural evolution of present- 
day business methods. It is the logical 
result of naval experience and of the careful 
study of past failures and successes, resulting 
from departmental action and governance 
of the branches of the service. Secretary 
Meyer will establish such a record in this 
department as he has left behind him in all 
other posts of the Federal Government 
which he has so ably filled. His observa- 
tions in Germany, Russia and Italy con- 
firmed him in the conviction that the one 
great purpose of the Navy Department 
must be, first and always, the efficiency of 
the fleet, subordinating all bureaucratic and 
departmental routine and tradition to the 
welfare and perfection of the great arma- 
ment which Uncle Sam maintains upon the 
seven seas. Nothing short of the highest 
military efficiency will answer and brings 



into action the suggestive word, "prepared- 
ness," which means so much at a critical 
time. The outbreak of the Russo-Japanese 
War illustrated what it might mean to have 
a navy unprepared and inefficient, as in 
the case of Russia. On the cohesive or- 
ganization of the Russian navy much de- 
pended, and at the critical moment they 
found themselves unable to compete with 
the efficient naval forces of Japan. 

The organization of the Navy Depart- 
ment in 1798 provided for a secretary of 
the navy, chief and other clerks and for all 
matters pertaining to the construction and 
equipment of vessels all being placed under 
the control of the secretary. Since that 
time various commissions, bureaus and 
boards have been organized, but of late 
years, with six secretaries in seven years 
and a clerical force comparatively the worst 
paid and holding the least attractive posi- 
tions of any government department, it has 
become apparent that new methods must be 
brought into operation. 

With his practical turn of mind, Secretary 

131) 



132 



REORGANIZATION NAVY PLAN 



Meyer proceeded to materialize his execu- 
tive plans, keeping strictly within the present 
statutes, by appointing aides from among 
the experienced and effective officers of the 
navy, who are now directly responsible to 
him for the proper performance of any 
matter under their charge. Instead of 
eight bureau chiefs, each working along in 
his own lines, and in a way independent of 
all others, Secretary Meyer determined to 
have four aides looking after different branches 
of duties, and keeping in personal and 
almost visual touch with the bureaus and 
with the immense and varied work of the 
navy in fact to be his eyes and ears. 

Rear Admiral Wainwright was appointed 
aide to look after the movements of vessels 
and all matters pertaining to operations of 
the fleet. When I entered the Admiral's 
office, adjoining that of the Secretary, I 
found him deeply intent upon tracing the 
location and work of each warship engaged 
in watching the Nicaraguan trouble on the 
Central American coast. A tall man, with 
heavy moustache and iron-gray hair, he 
looked just the person to keep the Secretary 
of the Navy directly in touch with details 
regarding the fleet, although one could well 
believe that he would better enjoy leading a 
line of battleships into action. He keeps 
the secretary directly informed as to the 
movements and manoeuvres of the fleet in 
times of peace or war, and in close touch 
with the results of target practice, tests of 
steaming efficiency, strategic and tactical 
manoeuvres. 

Admiral W. P. Potter, who has oversight 
of the personnel of the Navy, keeps in touch 
with the action of all boards, the details of 
offices and drafting of men for gun ships, 
and the details and regulations for the train- 
ing, education and discipline of officers 
and men. 

The Bureau of Navigation, under Admiral 
R. F. Nicholson, has somewhat the same 
functions, but deals more particularly with 
recruiting and re-enlisting men for the 
Navy, and with the actual detailing of officers 
to duty. Records of enlistment during the 
past year have been most satisfactory, show- 
ing less than five hundred men lacking to 
complete the full force authorized by Con- 
gress. The records of desertions indicate a 
marked decrease, while re-enlistments are 
increasing, and the personnel of the Navy 



has been remarkably improved in fact, so 
much so that large corporations throughout 
the country will often accept a certificate of 
naval training as a sufficient guarantee of 
fitness to fill important business positions. 

The aide detailed for the duties of the 
division of material, that is, the manufac- 
turing or supply bureaus, is Rear Admiral 
William Swift, who has a varied and important 
task in keeping track of the equipment and 
maintenance of ships on the ocean or at the 
docks and navy yards. Though economic 
and good business management has not 
always existed at the navy yards, it is one 
of the most important features of naval 
affairs. Here effective economy can only 
be established by maintaining a practical 
and universal system of accounting, and 
for this part of the work Admiral Swift is 
expressly fitted by a wide experience on 
service in all parts of the world, and a per- 
sonal knowledge of what is indispensable 
and what is superfluous in red tape regula- 
tions. There is a natural separation of 
navy yard work into "hull" and "machinery" 
repairs and constructions. The comman- 
dants of the navy yards are to be selected for 
their practical knowledge and experience 
and are to be kept in one place long enough 
to enable them to obtain such a clear idea 
of effective administrative policy as might 
not be secured if they were frequently changed. 
The new plan recognizes the close relation 
of the navy yards to the fleet, and regards 
them as mainly repair plants, rather than 
as separate manufacturing or commercial 
propositions. The line officers are also 
given the experience in the navy yards 
necessary to maintain vessels in the best 
possible condition while afloat, without 
recourse to the navy yards. 

Captain A. Ward, who will soon be ap- 
pointed rear admiral, now has supervision 
of all inspections and tests ordered by the 
Secretary of the Navy, and will cover not 
only the officers of the fleet, but the various 
shore stations. Heretofore inspections have 
been made principally by those interested, 
but now they will be carried on by officers 
without administrative interests who will 
report direct to the Secretary. 

The results of the new system are already 
apparent, and an unusual feature of its 
installation is that it has been brought about 
without any appeal to Congress, or applica- 



REORGANIZATION NAVY PLAN 



133 



tion for more appropriation. In fact, the 
new plan has already effected a reduction in 
the expenses of the Department. The 
London Times, of the December 17 issue, 
contained a very significant editorial leader 
concerning the reorganization of the navy, 
under the plan outlined by Secretary Meyer, 
and suggested that the English Admiralty 
would do well to look into the practical inno- 
vations involved in the earning out of these 
new suggestions in the United States Navy. 
* * * 

When Secretary Meyer first took office 
he had a report made, with a view to gather- 
ing information to see how the various con- 
flicting orders and regulations could be 
welded together to economize effort, time 
and expense. The proper status of all the 
bureaus was thoroughly analyzed, and in a 
few months the plans were put into effect 
without waiting for the long delays of con- 
gressional action. This reorganization has 
already gi v en a more military definiteness 
and efficiency to the naval arm of the govern- 
ment. 

Heretofore, the Secretary of the Navy has 
not always possessed definite and exact in- 
formation as to the actual condition of all 
the branches of his department, and it was 
felt that the boards of inquiry and investi- 
gation did not furnish adequate information 
for present needs. The new practical plan 
simplifies the organization and secures com- 
plete and definite accountability, while de- 
veloping the esprit de corps of the active de- 
partment. The changes made under Secre- 
tary Meyer, though few in number, are of 
vital importance and follow the line of 
natural evolution rather than effecting a 
radical change. It is simply giving the 
Secretary four responsible advisers, who are 
fitted to gather information and advise him 
regarding the various matters assigned to 
them. The new arrangement will enable 
him to keep in touch with every detail of 
importance regarding the ships, and the 
crews, as well as to become conversant with 
the latest and best in modem equipment. 
The aim is to clearly define the duties of the 
various bureaus and departments, and focus 
the efforts of all upon the general purpose 
of making the navy a great, formidable and 
always efficacious machine. 

A business man, experienced in the super- 
vision of large New York corporations, talk- 



ing in the corridor of the new movement in 
the Navy Department, said that it has long 
been recognized that three or four efficient 
aides are much more effective than six or 
eight general assistants. The few direct 
reports to the chief give him a clearer, sharper 
insight than the desultory information on all 
kinds of matters which inevitably made it 
difficult to clearly understand a situation, 
and often resulted in a conflict of authority 
and loss of efficiency. 

In the corridor of the Navy Department 
is kept a registry of returning naval officers, 




GEORGE vox L. MEYER 
Secretary of the Navy 

from the middy to the commander and 
admiral. The names mingle in a very 
democratic roster. The details arranging 
for the transfer of officers from one ship or 
post to another, or from sea to land and 
vice versa, look as intricate as a problem in 
mathematics, and are all figured first from 
the roster where even- name appears, giving 
preference to the men according to time of 
sen-ice and good records. Circumstances 
sometimes necessitate departure from these 
rules, when a man with certain ability or 
experience is needed for a given position 
without delay Commander Wilson, who 



134 



did such good work for the Bureau of Navi- 
gation, in the Recruiting Department, now 
has charge of this detail work. As he stood 
at his desk penning little dispatches, it was 
easy to imagine the thrill that some of those 
missives would bring to naval officers, who 
were being detailed from one post to per- 
haps some distant part of the world. Those 
official dispatches are sometimes the "ill- 
omened page that spreadeth gloom across 
life's happy way" for the sisters, the wives 
and the mothers, who do not always welcome 
promotion if it takes the loved one far from 
home. Such a thing as disobeying orders 
is never even imagined by the officers of the 
navy or their relatives. 

All the orders for shore leave must be 
signed personally by the Secretary of the 
Navy, but other orders are signed by the 
chief of the Bureau of Navigation, and the 
little printed slips circulated every day by 
Admiral Nicholson, chief of this Bureau, are 
bulletins of "detail" and of vital import. 
Sometimes the fatal word, "dismissal" 
occurs, a single word often .embodying a 
tragic story for a young fellow or his friends. 



In the corridors of the Navy building are 
models of various warships, and a large 
number of visitors may almost always be 
seen grouped about these glass cases. Usu- 
ally there are several boys eagerly studying 
the models of the nation's great armament, 
and no department appeals more strongly 
to patriotic pride. Visitors here realize 
that they are face to face with the aggressive 
and forceful personalities of the nation. 
There is an air of business and a sharply 
denned military spirit that is invigorating. 
The personnel of the United States Navy 
has long been the admiration of the world. 
The "men at the desks" as well as the 
"men behind the guns" have an initiative 
that counts. The efficiency of the fleet, 
combined with this unquenchable, irre- 
pressible American go-ahead, makes a fas- 
cinating study that fits well with the plans 
for the reorganization of the Navy Depart- 
ment. Youth, experience and sharp train- 
ing are things which the Secretary feels are 
needful to enhance the completeness of his 
men, and he prefers a commander who has 
had training enough to understand how 
to handle his ship afloat, and keep it in 



repair despite all emergencies, which could 
never be done by a man who had had no 
specific education along this line. Com- 
manders now are expected to actually know 
their ships, as well as their men. 

In the new system of accounting, a daily 
balance must be struck at all the navy 
yards, so that any errors can be easily de- 
tected on the day they are made. The 
total amount of cash must be equal to the 
payroll, and the payroll must be equal to 
the amount of labor estimated in the various 
orders that have been filled. Labor and 
expense charges are itemized so that the 
shop foremen know just where it would be 
possible to retrench and improve with a 
view to obtaining better results as in any 
other industry. It is hoped that naval 
appropriations in the future will be so made 
that they can be used and accounted for on 
a more modern business system and princi- 
ple than has hitherto been the case. 

The assistant secretary of the navy has 
charge of current matters connected with 
the bureaus of yards and docks, the manoeu- 
vres, the naval militias and the war records, 
also the Marine Corps. He prepares the 
civilian and navy yard pay rolls, and esti- 
mates for the appropriations of Congress. 



There has always been more or less diffi- 
culty in securing concerted action among 
the various bureaus and their chiefs, who 
are necessarily engrossed in the details of 
their own duties, and on whom has hitherto 
come the responsibility of evoking order 
from the complexities and conflicting interests 
placed before them in the creation and 
maintenance of a modern fleet. The De- 
partment has long since grown beyond the 
possibility of a secretary's personal super- 
vision, except through such information as 
he might secure from the various chiefs, 
more often by verbal information, rather 
than by businesslike reports, as in the new 
plan. Year after year, for nearly a third 
of a century, the reports of secretaries of 
the navy have emphasized this lack of busi- 
ness efficiency in the administration of the 
department. It is felt that this will be 
largely remedied by the new plan, which will 
extend even to the matter of coal and trans- 
portation appropriation. This now reaches 
upward of six million dollars per annum, 



REORGANIZATION* NAVY PLAN 



135 



and a close watch is to be kept on it that 
the secretary may know exactly how and 
where the coal is used, and if it is applied 
for the maintenance of the efficiency of the 
fleet in the most economical manner. 

The old-fashioned endless chain of en- 
dorsements, signatures and red tape, char- 
acteristic of governmental work all over the 
world, is to be largely eliminated by Secre- 
tary Meyer, and a considerable amount of 
paper work will be discarded. He has 
advised the abolishment of the Bureau of 
Equipment, in order to distribute its duties 
among the other bureaus. He has called 
attention to the inadequacy of the Naval 
Reserve. About six thousand men are 
organized in naval and militia organiza- 
tions in the states bordering on the sea and 
Great Lakes, and he deplores the fact that, 
while these small groups of men are enthu- 
siastic and generally efficient, they are not 
under central control. Special legislation 
has been requested to provide for a national 
naval militia, which will bring together into 
cohesive organization the naval reserve. 
Some of the militia organizations served 
on the Atlantic Battle Fleet this summer. 



Secretary Meyer is a business man of 
large experience and practical knowledge, 
and is director of many of the largest and 
most successful manufacturing companies 
of New England. Aside from his five years 
experience as a member of the House of 
Representatives, in Massachusetts, three 
years of which he was speaker, and his 
business experience, he gained a great deaj 
of useful information while ambassador to 
Italy and Russia. He was involved in ex- 
tensive business and diplomatic negotia- 
tions during the Russo-Japanese War, and 
made a remarkable showing during his two 
years as Postmaster General, when he helped 
in the reorganization of that department 
and pushed forward the parcels post and 
postal savings bank movements. As Secre- 
tary of the Navy, he performs duties very 
similar to those of the president of a great 
corporation, in receiving reports and making 



quick decisions, made possible because, 
under the new plan, he feels he can rely 
upon the information and advice obtained 
through his advisers. He will no longer 
be obliged to depend upon haphazard in- 
formation. Noting the constant coming 
and going of admirals and bureau chiefs 
through the swinging doors of the secretary's 
office, each official carrying a bundle of 
carefully prepared papers or reports, it 
seemed that the important business of the 
navy had already felt the impetus of the 
new system. 

In view of recent developments in the 
navy department, the annual report showing 
the sea strength of the world is especially 
interesting. It reveals a wonderful growth 
of German sea-power within the past few 
years, and shows that the United States 
stands only third in rank of the great naval 
powers. The three navies, English, Ger- 
man and American, run about the same in 
some points. France has made a specialty 
of torpedo boats, having 259 to thirty owned 
by the United States, and sixty-nine by 
England. Three times more war tonnage 
is accredited to England than to either the 
"United States or Germany. Twenty-seven 
rear admirals are recorded on the American 
naval list, with forty-three thousand enlisted 
men and about nine thousand marines; the 
total strength of the navy is estimated at 
about fifty-five thousand men, being practi- 
cally the same as France and Germany, 
whereas England has one hundred and 
twenty-eight thousand men enrolled, and 
Japan's strength is a little less than that of 
the United States. 

It will be noted that despite the continual 
recommendations, it seems that in the past 
the Navy Department has at times over- 
looked the vital point, "sea power," and 
that there is an abundance of work to be 
performed by the department in the future, 
which promises to be well done by Secretary 
Meyer and his four able advisers, who are 
busily collecting all manner of detailed in- 
formation und^r the businesslike new plan 
of reorganization of the United States Navy 
Department. 




LIBRARY AND HOSPITAL AT LO.VG KEY 



THE HIDDEN WEALTH OF FLORIDA 



By MITCHELL MANNERING 



OFF for a sea voyage by rail, with 
never a thought of steamer rugs 
or trunks! The blue prints that 
only a few years ago hung on the 
walls of Mr. Flagler's office were the prophe- 
cies of wonderful causeways and bridges, over 
which today one rides at ease on a magical 
"sea-going railway," speeding over the rest- 
less surges of the Gulf dryshod, as the army 
of Israel crossed the Red Sea between the im- 
pending billows, held back by the decree of 
Jehovah. By the magical creations of modern 
engineering the traveler now rides in a luxuri- 
ous Pullman, and from its windows now views 
a beautiful tropical seascape, and at other 
times panoramas of the Floridian keys, long 
expanses of shallow seas and inland lagoons, 
and the fairy islets of the Gulf. 



'Twas blustering March in Washington, 
and amid the periodical storms incidental to 



the Inauguration date the mere mention of 
Florida brought warmth to the heart of a 
chilled and disconsolate mortal, shivering with 
coat collar turned up and hands thrust deeply 
jn his pockets. What a change it was, in less 
than twenty-four hours after leaving the Cap- 
ital, to sweep along the coast line via Charles- 
ton and Savannah to rose-embowered Jack- 
sonville, Florida. The heavy overcoat, the 
clinging rubbers and faithful fur cap were 
unendurable; not to be thought of in a land 
where orange trees were blooming and old 
Sol was dispensing light and heat with all the 
fervency of June. I felt positively silly as I 
struggled over the heated pavement, breath- 
less, almost gasping beneath my load of winter 
clothing, which I hastened to consign to cold 
storage. Donning summer attire more -fitting 
for that "Land of Flowers" wherein Ponce 
de Leon dreamed of finding "The Perpetual 
Soda Fountain," I could afford to smile pity- 
ingly at other poor Northern travelers who 



(136) 



THE HIDDEN WEALTH OF FLORIDA 



137 



were still struggling with suffocating over- 
coats, rubbers and furs. 

The gateway of Florida, when approached 
by water, is Jacksonville, and the city has 
grown like Jonah's gourd within the past five 
years. It has long been known as the entrance 
to the magical road into that enchanted South- 
land, where the sea-beaten "Keys" form veri- 
table steppingstones across the shallow seas 
that girdle the low, coral coast line. 

On to St. Augustine we sped, and soon 
stood in the shadow of her castellated walls, 
erected four hundred years ago. The old 
Indian town was called Seloy, but when 
Ponce de Leon led his Spanish cavaliers, 
arquebusiers, lancers and crossbowmen 
through everglade and across sandy shallows, 
he left the little Indian village unmolested, to 
remain untrodden by the feet of white men 
until the advent of the French Huguenots 
under Ribaut in 1564. 

What a ride that was along the titanic 
roadbed of the Florida East Coast Railway, 
the "outward and visible sign" of the con- 
structive genius of Henry M. Flagler, who, 
in little more than a quarter century, has made 
an unequalled record in the history of de- 
veloping a state. 

St. Augustine is no longer "far to the South," 
for scarcely were its railroad connections com- 
pleted when Mr. Flagler pushed on down 
the coast line, along which the most famous 
winter resorts of the New World have sprung 
up, rivalling in climate and attraction even 
the Riviera. 

When the train backed into Ormond, across 
the shallows, it seemed like entering a moated 
castle across its ancient drawbridge. All 
along the coast fleets of swift motor boats 
cruise up and down, from the St. John to the 
Halifax River. At the several stations deli- 
cious pineapples, oranges and tangerines, 
picked from the trees that day at sunrise, were 
brought on board the train. Xo one who has 
not eaten these fruits the day they were gath- 
ered has tasted them in perfection. 

Hour after hour we had swept along amid 
orchards whose resplendent fruitage, set amid 
emerald leaves, awakened the delight of our 
Floridian enthusiasts, many of whom were 
retired business men enjoying the autumn of 
life in the sunny Southland. Celery growers 
told of successes achieved; other enthusiasts 
spoke of big profits on small outlay in tomato 
production; and information on fruit and 



vegetable culture was distributed broadcast. 
Growers told how the roots of the pines search 
for and find fertilizer placed here and there 
in the ground; how celery is best bleached by 
old newspapers, and how by the magic of the 
refrigerator system over two thousand cars 
of produce were shipped North from Florida 
last year. 

On all sides were amazing evidences of the 
way in which a state may be opened up by 
the "iron horse" and his magical rails. The 
fruit industry alone has grown to undreamed- 
of proportions, and the possibility of securing 
fresh fruit and vegetables at all times of the 
year at reasonable prices has revolutionized 
the breakfast table of the American people, 
and doubtless added years to the average span 
of their lives. The Florida farmers, growing 
the luxuries of the table, naturally secure 
better proportionate profits than those ac- 
cruing from crops of the Northern agricul- 
turist, though the latter may raise staple 
foods in larger proportions. 



Daytona is another pretty New England set- 
tlement, on an arm of the Halifax River, 
where the beach is of hard sand well suited 
for the famous automobile races. The ma- 
chines bowl along the beach like yachts under 
sail a sight to charm shoreman and sailor 
alike. 

About midway of the east coast of Florida 
is the quaint little place known as New 
Smyrna. The archives of old Madrid in 
Spain have the record of this curious colony, 
planted four hundred years ago. A Greek 
and Minorcan colony was established in 1765, 
and the descendants of these colonists are to- 
day scattered through the city of St. Augus- 
tine and along the east coast. They were 
brought here as peons, but fought for and re- 
gained their independence. In the old Minor- 
can houses, with their coaquina walls, quaint 
chimneys and curiously hewn stones, there 
may still be seen traces of those early days. 
The renowned Rock House is one of the oldest 
churches in the United States. 

The modern town was established by 
Dr. Turnbull in the Eighteenth Century, 
and was named in honor of Smyrna, 
Asia Minor, the birthplace of the Doctor's 
wife. That old town by. the sea is unique 
in its rare atmosphere of antiquity and 
restfulness. 



138 



Not hers your vast imperial mart, 
Where myriad hopes on fears are hurled, 
Where furious rivals meet and part 
To woo a world. 

.... remote from smoke and noise, 
Old Leisure sits knee-deep in grass; 
Where simple days bring simple joys, 
And lovers pass. 

I see an envied haunt of peace, 
Calm and untouched remote from roar, 
Where wearied men may from their burdens'cease 
On a still shore. 



Through December, and into the early 
spring, the roses bloom all over this favored 
land. It is hard for the Northern traveler to 
realize that it is the climate and not the calen- 
dar that is reversed when he visits Florida. 
It is not surprising to find scattered through 
these many thriving towns along the Florida 
coast thousands of well-to-do retired mer- 
chants and business men, who are spending 
the sunset hours of life in a land of unequalled 
climate. There were some few travelers who 
insisted that this "always afternoon" and 
"lotus land" suggestion did not suit them; 
they enjoyed their few weeks sandwiched into 
a busy Northern winter, but persisted in say- 
ing that they preferred the snowbanks and 
activities of the Northland. However, when 
asked: "Why do you not stay in the North 
if you prefer it?" they seemed nonplussed 
for an answer. 



At Fort Pierce, on the platform of the yel- 
low-painted station, pineapple vendors per- 
mitted the purchasers to sample their fruit, 
and to hand in a card ordering a crate sent to 
their home or hotel address. Here one learns 
what pineapples and oranges mean in a land 
where they are indigenous and where they 
combine the most refreshing food and summer 
beverages given to mankind. 

Fort Pierce has the distinction of being the 
first place where a tarpon was taken by rod 
and line in Florida, and the excitement of 
catching these immense fish has attracted 
thousands of tourists. When the Northern 
fisherman catches a tarpon in these Southern 
waters he can talk of nothing else for many a 
week; the "catch" is duly mounted and taken 
North, where the proud fisherman for the 
remainder of his life points with pride to the 
"big fish" which adorns the dining-room of 
the town mansion. It is natural that "big- 
ness" should appeal to Americans, and doubt- 



less this member of the finny tribes has saved 
many a fisherman from humiliation, for 
its length and weight furnish material for 
a "fish story" that ought to satisfy even the 
most exacting. Its flesh is not edible, nor is 
there any known use for the fish, except as 
"substance of things hoped for" and evidence 
of things not always seen in the fish world. 



In the evening, when the lights twinkled 
like fallen stars through the tropical palms, 
the train dashed across Lake Worth. Here 
the Hotel Royal Poinciana and The Breakers 
are the center of the great winter social season. 
Here real live dukes, belted earls and genuine 
counts adore rich American girls and their 
millions, and the aristocracy of birth mingles 
gracefully with the wealth, all ready to aid in 
the "burning of money." 

The train arrives direct at the hotel, and 
the passengers walk down a long hall into the 
rotunda of the Royal Poinciana. What a 
change dress may make in one's appearance. 
After my traveling companions had blossomed 
and effloresced into evening gowns and dress 
suits I failed to recognize them, until they 
politely accosted me, when with a shock of 
surprise I recognized them by their voices and 
eyes, which happily no dress can change. 

After dinner it was a delight to rove through 
the hotel grounds, which are a veritable tropic- 
al fairyland. The foliage hangs over the 
winding walks in a profusion unknown in the 
North; and lovers pass slowly to and fro be- 
neath the witching light of the Southern moon, 
or stand to listen to the boom of the breakers 
or, perchance, to the melody discoursed by 
the orchestra in the ballroom not far away. 

"Full of soft dreams and sleep and quiet 
breathings," one longs to sit forever in this 
charmed spot. Farther on a quaint touch is 
given to the scene by the old street car line 
along the beautiful Avenue of Palms, on 
which the cars are drawn between the two 
hotels by a solitary mule. 

Next morning on the sands it became ap- 
parent that all the guests did not come here to 
dream. Some of the men visitors had shot a 
shark, which was the centre of attraction. 
Any little incident here occasions a delightful 
ripple of interest, as in the free life on ship- 
board. Nerves and worries are forgotten, and 
the visitors laugh and chat happily as children 
out for a holiday. 



THE HIDDEN WEALTH OF FLORIDA 



139 




HF.XRY M. FLAGLER 



While Nature has done much for Palm 
Beach, the generous expenditure of money in 
improvements has converted it into a paradise 
of hoteldom. Situated between the lake and 
the ocean, the art of the landscape gardener 
has had ample scope, and the results are a joy 
to the eye. Nothing could exceed the charm 
of those smooth stretches of greensward, inter- 
spersed with groups of live oaks in gowns of 
sombre gray Spanish moss. Side by side with 
these gray-clad "lady abbesses" of Nature 
are the waving palm trees of the cocoanut 
grove, in full fruit, while the gay parterre of 
flowers along the lake front is like a beautiful 



giant band of ribbon that binds them all to- 
gether. In this paradise no horse or beast of 
burden has ever trodden, save the favored, 
steady-going old animal that draws the sum- 
mer car. Visitors remaining here for any 
length of time learn the art of walking, for 
there is no other means of locomotion except 
the wheel chairs, with bicycle attachment, 
which are called "negromobiles." Hundreds 
of these little vehicles are seen about the walks 
at night, and their occupants and drivers make 
a striking feature of the picturesque grounds. 
* * * * 

Not far away is White Hall, the home of 



140 



THE HIDDEN WEALTH OF FLORIDA 



Mr. Henry M. Flagler, which is without 
doubt one of the handsomest residences in the 
United States. White Hall brings up visions 
of the beauty of the dwellings of the time of 
Louis XIV of France. Beholding it, one seems 
suddenly to step out of the realities of this 
workaday world and into the realm of ro- 
mance. . 

Flagler and Florida are almost synonymous, 
for in the opening of this wonderful fairyland 
the life purpose of this one man has been 
realized a boon rarely given to mortals. A 
volume of history might be filled with what 
has actually been accomplished in the time of 
this one master mind, who has found his 
greatest delight in aiding the home-building 
and settlement of his adopted state. 



February 1, 1910, witnessed the consumma- 
tion of the greatest constructive work achieved 
by any one man in the history of the nation, 
and evidenced in a most striking way the 
triumph of Yankee genius in solving the great 
problem of exploiting American trade, carry- 
ing cargoes all over the earth sailing vessels 
and running trains in apparently impossible 
places. The development of a country follows 
in the wake of its railroads; civilization strides 
side by side with the gangs that lay the ties. 
This splendid route, bridging the Florida 
Keys each hundred miles of railway being 
accounted equal to a thousand miles by ship 
is the greatest time-saver in transit that has 
yet been evolved. 

The new railroad will do more than merely 
save time; it will solve what has been declared 
by Senator Root to be the twentieth-century 
problem of the American nation the acquisi- 
tion of South American trade. The represen- 
tatives of the South American Republics made 
a trip to Cuba over this Florida East Coast 
Railway, and as they wheeled in comfort over 
the waters of the Gulf, they realized that each 
one of the twenty-one republics of the South- 
land had suddenly been brought thousands 
of miles nearer to the United States. With a 
single blow this railroad had eliminated a 
large part of the distance, as an experienced 
woodsman strikes off a withered branch from 
a valuable tree. One can now leave New 
York and reach Havana in forty-eight hours, 
which seems to bring Havana much closer 
than it ever was before. The fact that a 
sleeping-car can start from New York and, 



in less than forty-eight hours, traverse the 
waters of the Gulf to Key West whence in 
a few hours a steamship will land the passen- 
gers in Havana presages tremendous trade 
development in the near future. The most 
successful trade-producers in the world are 
tourists, who, like the blood that revivifies the 
body, traverse the bands of steel that knit 
more closely together the Western hemisphere 
and bring life, activity and progress to all sec- 
tions of the New World. 

Few people realize that Key West, the ter- 
minal point of the new road, is four hundred 
miles nearer to Panama than New Orleans 
or Galveston. The great rail traffic of the 
Mississippi River is certain to converge in 
Florida, which hangs out like a Christmas 
stocking from the map of the United States. 
The toe of that stocking is Key West, the ter- 
minal which brings the whole Western Coast 
of South America, the Orient and Australia 
into closer proximity to the markets of the 
United States. Bearing these facts in mind, 
Mr. Flagler has courageously pushed his oper- 
ations through the jungle of Florida, opening 
a thoroughfare from one continent to the 
other in the process, and it might seem now 
almost as a side issue of this tremendous plan, 
promoting the development of the fairy state 
that he loves. 

People are awaking to the fact that this 
road means much to Cuba, in bringing the 
new republic almost within a whistle's toot 
of our border. 

Yes, the sun was hot; we were all loath to 
leave the gaieties of Palm Beach where 
Dame Fashion reigns supreme, while real 
princes and counts dance with heiresses to the 
Rainbow and Merry Widow airs but noth- 
ing less than a trip on a "sea-going" railroad 
could now sate our lust for adventure. 



In the sleeper, standing on the siding at 
West Palm Beach, I experienced something 
of the suffering that may have confronted the 
early pioneers when they were attacked 
in front and in rear by the enemy the mos- 
quitoes. To my relief came George the porter. 

"If you remove all your clothes, sir, and 
let me take them away out of the car, you 
won't have any more bother with mosquitoes." 

Being the lone occupant of the car at that 
time I hastened to take good advice. George 
spirited away the garments I had worn I 





SCENES ALONG THE RIGHT-OF-WAY BEFORE THE LAYING OF THE RAILS. A GROUP OF 
THE WORKERS AND AT THE LOWER LEFT T HAND CORNER THE EMBANKMENT THROIGH 

THE EVERGLADES 



142 



THE HIDDEN WEALTH OF FLORIDA 




Courtesy o] t 



e Company 



LOOKING SEAWARD FROM LONG KEY. A VISTA OF THE CONNECTING 
STRETCHING AWAY TOWARD THE DISTANT HORIZON 



RAILS 



smoked a cigar and sank gently into a night 
of unbroken sleep, triumphing in the knowl- 
edge that for once I had eluded the ubiquitous 
mosquito; but the next morning I remained 
late in bed George had mislaid the clothes. 

Never shall I forget that Sunday morning 
when I awakened at Jew-Fish Creek and 
learned from the porter that we were leaving 
the mainland; on one side of the car I saw the 
fresh water and the foliage of the everglades, 
on the other rippled the salt waves of the Gulf. 
We were entering the keys of Florida and 
swinging around Cape Cable, that gleams in 
memory from the page of the well-thumbed 
geographies of our youth. There is no fresh 
water on these five hundred and sixty keys, 
and all the fresh water used has to be hauled 
on tank cars from the great tank at Manatee. 

On one key, which is nearly forty miles long, 
orchards and grapefruit trees are thriving, 
having been planted by drilling holes in the 
coral rock. Once firmly set in this manner 
the trees grow as rapidly as hothouse plants. 
Upon the keys grow chiefly mangrove trees, 
and the foliage is a trifle tame in appearance. 
The tangled roots of the trees form islets in 
the water, and sweeping along in the train I 
could not but marvel at the genius of engineers 
who could blaze out a path in this wilderness 



I had a sympathetic remembrance of my 
slight experience of mosquitoes, carefully pro- 
tected as I was. One of the keys is named 
after Senator Root, and all have been chris- 
tened and stand out with individual charac- 
teristics in the minds of the engineers. 

Lake Surprise, a large body of water almost 
ten miles wide, discovered by the surveyors 
of the railroad, was duly given a place on the 
map to atone for the neglect of earlier ex- 
plorers and government map-makers. 

In constructing this unique railroad it was 
necessary to dig a basin first and build the 
dredges there. About two hundred such 
basins were excavated to a considerable depth 
below the surface of the water. Then the 
dredges worked themselves out up to shallow 
water, thus building up an embankment, after 
which they worked side by side, filling in the 
trestles and transforming the huge coral sand- 
bars into embankments between the keys. 
Over this roadbed the train now rushes at 
express speed, for there is nothing shaky or 
ephemeral about this construction; it will 
constantly strengthen as the years pass, be- 
cause the industrious little coral insects are 
forever at work. 

Seen from the train, the general effect 
of the views caught of the Everglades 



THE HIDDEN WEALTH OF FLORIDA 



143 




Courttsy oj the Ltilit-Judge Company 

THE FAMOUS CONCRETE VIADUCT. EXTENDING FROM LONG KEY TO GRASSY KEY 
A DISTANCE OF TWO AND THREE-QUARTER MILES 



.s not unlike the prairies and fields of 
Illinois and Iowa. Here and there the land- 
scape is enlivened by clumps of trees which 
were originally little islands in the Everglades, 
and the eye seeks unconsciously for the smoke 
of the farmhouse which it seems to the travel- 
er must be hidden there amid the waving 
foliage. 

* * * * 

Entirely out of sight of land, we swept over 
the waters of the Gulf; on either side of the 
train extended the beautiful sea green, gold- 
en, turquoise, such vari-colored water I never 
expect to see elsewhere, though I have looked 
upon the Mediterranean, the Blue Grotto of 
Naples and the lakes of Switzerland. Like a 
ball of fire, the sun leaped up abruptly above 
the dazzling horizon. 

Later a key swept into view, bedecked with 
tall cocoanut trees, bent at a curious angle, 
telling how the hurricane had swayed them 
in the past. They were planted years ago 
by English people, who dreamed of reaping 
fortune from a cocoanut appetite a dream 
that never came true. 

Farther on, the scene was like the stage- 
setting of a comic opera, calling up visions 
of Captain Kidd and his hidden treasure, and 
cf the hundreds of people who have searched in 



vain for it all these years. Since it was not 
found by the railroad-makers, it seems un- 
likely that it will ever be disclosed to the gaze 
of mortal man, for those engineers certainly 
did go over the land with the utmost thorough- 
ness." 

For miles the water is so shallow that there 
is no surf, no other sign of motion than a 
little line of white foam along the verge. 
There is very little tidal rise and fall, and the 
danger of the embankment ever suffering 
from heavy seas is minimized, as all the waves 
break far out and their force is spent before 
they reach the railroad. 

An unrivalled triumph of railway construc- 
tion is the viaduct at Long Key. Here was 
located one of the largest construction camps, 
which nestled in a tilted cocoanut grove, mak- 
ing a pretty picture when seen against the low 
water line with its shimmering green and 
opalescent tints burnishing the far horizon. 
Here elderly couples come to enjoy an evening 
honeymoon. "Ma and pa having a good 
time together" is the inscription on the postals 
sent home to the grown-up children. 

By those crossing from Havana, Long Key 
is regarded as an oasis where the travelers who 
have suffered from seasickness may stop to 
convalesce, lulled by the swish of cocoanut 



144 



THE HIDDEN WEALTH OF FLORIDA 



boughs, which movement resembles the sound 
of falling water. Long Key is reached just 
before coming to the great viaduct. The 
cabins cluster around the hotel, each one 
being named after a fish. The hotel itself is 
on a genuine "coral strand," and its pillars 
are of cabbage palms. 

The guests minutely inspected the sign- 
boards on each little cottage to be sure they 
were entering the right one; sometimes the 
name had a curious applicability to the oc- 
cupant a cadaverous money-lender emerged 
from a little house labelled "The Shark." A 
blooming orator, of ample proportions and 
rounded outlines, found a home at "The Por- 
poise," where he was permitted to sport to 
his heart's content. A lady owning a liberal 
supply of remarkably large and remarkably 
false-looking "store" teeth, was lodged in 
"The Barracoota," named after the only fish 
known to have teeth, a savage creature that 
has been known to snap off the legs of a child 
while bathing. Other names of fish displayed 
there are the kingfish, sawfish in fact, every 
sort of seafish that I could think of except 
a sucker. Though they disport themselves 
in water so iridescent and inviting, some of the 
fish are dangerous, and bathers use only the 
regular, protected pools. 

Here, as all along the keys, the fishermen 
use motor boats. The tarpon is found here, 
and it is a beautiful sight when one leaps from 
the water, looking like a streak of silver. 
Many fine specimens of young manhood were 
here, bronzed and muscular, fishing in motor 
boats, or sitting on the verandas relating the 
experiences of the day. Now and then a 
cocoanut falls in the grove, sometimes with 
dire effect. As I was coming out of a cabin a 
nut just grazed my head and it takes a thick 
skull to withstand the impact of a falling 
cocoanut. In the morning the falling nuts 
often serve as alarm clocks. 

Long Key is but one example of the way in 
which Mr. Flagler utilizes material that other 
constructors would allow to lie idle. He not 
only overcomes hindrances, but having con- 
quered them turns the very labor camps which 
were assaulted by false charges of peonage 
as "pestilential" into a popular winter 
hotel resort. 

Hitherto our great systems of railroad con- 
struction have been on parallel lines from 
East to West. Now the tendency is to pass 



from North to South. Having come across 
Jew-Fish Creek, along Key Largo, to Planta- 
tion and on to Matecumbe, where we viewed 
the grape-fruit groves and passed forward to 
Crescent Key, we crossed the famous concrete 
viaduct, 2.68 miles in length, and came to 
Grassy Key, which has been opened for' 
farming. 

From Long Key, across the viaduct, the 
journey seemed to be continued over a trunk 
line of finest proportions. What symmetry 
there is in those immense ranges of piers and 
arches that recall the masonry of ancient 
Rome, made to withstand the action of the 
ages. Here one gets a view of the road where 
the curious, stern-wheel dredges, looking like 
river boats, have been working. Here and 
there is a drawbridge, which permits the tide 
to rush through into the viaduct. 

Passing through Viacca to Marathon we 
reached a former terminus, where the en- 
gineering corps has their headquarters. At 
Knight's Key is the dock from which the boat 
ran last year to Havana, a distance of one 
hundred and seventeen miles, covered in nine 
hours. 

All along the line are noted the peculiar 
loyalty and enthusiasm of the Florida East 
Coast Company's workers, who seem to de- 
light in carrying out the plans of the great 
leader, who gave the final orders for this great 
work when past seventy, and witnessed its 
completion in the glory of a long life of four- 
score years. 

Off in the distance Key West was pointed 
out to me as the only city in the United States 
that had never known the touch of frost. 

Curiously enough, after this introduction 
to the city, at the Long Key Camp I met Mr. 
Allen, Mr. Porter and Mr. Korn from Key 
West, who have done much to develop this 
southernmost metropolis of the keys. As I 
had been told on the lighter, eighty famous 
cigar factories are located here, and the cigars 
are made entirely from real Havana tobacco. 

The average smoker probably does not 
realize that a Key West cigar is in every way 
equivalent to an imported Havana, made by 
Havanians of tobacco grown on the island 
and in a Havana climate. All these conditions 
are fulfilled in Key West, where the cigars are 
made almost entirely by Cuban workers. The 
fact that they are made in Key West is promi- 
nently set forth on a label pasted on all cigar 
boxes, and this insignia is very important for 



THE HIDDEN WEALTH OF FLORIDA 



145 



' 




Courtesy o] the Leslie-Judge Company 

ONE OF THE FISHTXG COTTAGES ON THE BEACH AT LOXG KEY 



the protection of the consumer, assuring him 
that the cigars have come from the factories 
on the Gulf, and have been made in Key West. 
^*hen the shriek of the locomotive was heard 
in that quaint town, it heralded the sure de- 
velopment of manufacturing interests along 
the keys. 

* * * 

The magic welding of the keys was con- 
summated, bidding defiance to old Father Xep- 
tune. Riding about the country, noting the 
many hundred acres planted with tropical 
fruit farms, vegetables egg plants and other 
tropical growths suggests the great oppor- 
tunities which one man has opened up for his 
fellows, making a hive of industry not to be 
equalled in any other southern climate in the 
world. 

The mystery of the Everglades attracts 
many and will doubtless eventually be solved. 
This strange tract of country looks like 
swamps, covered with scum water, but it has 
been discovered that beneath that scum the 
water is clear, cool, and the finest in the state. 
Among the Everglades is Lake Okeechobee, 
a large body of fine, fresh water. This has 



long been regarded as a useless tract of coun- 
try, a blot on the map of the United States, 
but now that J. E. Ingraham, land commis- 
sioner of the Florida East Coast Railroad, has 
led the way across the Everglades, it seems 
likely that in a few years there may develop 
in this apparently waste land seedless orchards 
and other novelties and attractions that will 
make the Everglades one of the richest sections 
of the country. 

In returning from a side trip to Knight's 
Key, over the Florida East Coast Extension, 
we had a view of Mr. Flagler's experimental 
grape-fruit grove at Kendall, where over 
seven thousand grape-fruit trees are thriving. 
At Homestead also and at other places along 
the line, cultivators were busy raising toma- 
toes and other early vegetables. The farm- 
ing is done in the winter time and many farm- 
ers go Xorth for their summer vacation. 

Without other evidence, a peep at Dade 
County, of which Miami is the county seat, 
would prove that the story of Florida's de- 
velopment is no exaggeration. Here, less than 
fifteen years ago, there were about six hun- 
dred inhabitants; today there are more than 



146 



THE HIDDEN WEALTH OF FLORIDA 



ten thousand. A few hundred dollars, in the 
hands of a farmer who understands his busi- 
ness, will go farther here than in the chill 
North. Growth is rapid, returns are quick, 
and while the man is working he is surrounded 
by beautiful flowers every month of the twelve, 
rich land and fertile fields and all the luxuries 
of life. Certainly farming in the South is not 
as strenuous as in the North, where the agri- 
culturist contends not only with the soil but 
with the climate. More and more American 
people are beginning to philosophize and en- 
deavor to get the most out of life, and farmers 
especially are coming to see that life need not 
be for them the incessant hand-to-hand strug- 
gle that it has been in past generations. 

The magical growth of Miami is another 
object lesson in achievement. Here the county 
fair, recently held, was a remarkable revela- 
tion of the development of thousands of acres 
of virgin soil. Thirteen years ago the place 
consisted of two houses, between which the 
railroad ran when it reached what is now 
Miami. A site was quickly selected and 
ground was broken for the Royal Palm Hotel, 
and a fairyland grew up there as if by the wave 
of a magic wand. Today the Miami River, 
for miles beyond its mouth, is thronged with 
motor boats owned by guests from the North. 
The Biscayne Bay is a beautiful sheet of water, 
known to all who love sea views, and is an- 
other of the attractions which draw visitors to 
this thriving city, with its splendid residences 
and fine business houses and well-paved 
streets. Here I met a farmer who told me 
that he had sold eight thousand dollars' 
worth of tomatoes last year which suggested 
other sources of revenue than that provided 
by the many guests. 

The best way to see the country surround- 
ing Miami, and realize the amazing develop- 
ment, is by driving or automobiling over the 
coral roads, which vie in excellence with any 
New England thoroughfare. 

Riverside, the farm of General Lawrence, 
of Medford, Massachusetts, is an evidence 
of what is being done; over seven thousand 
five hundred boxes of grape fruit were har- 
vested here in 1909, besides oranges shipped 
north, and there is no reason to suppose the 
next year's crops will diminish. The General 
has developed his territory with true New 
England enthusiasm, co-operating with and 
assisting the Agricultural Department: on 



every side the trees were laden with fruit and 
in some cases had been propped up to enable 
them to carry their heavy load. 

In many places fertilizer has to be used, 
but in Florida everything needed seems to lie 
close at hand and there are great phosphate 
beds right in the state, which are formed by 
the bones of mastodons and other prehistoric 
creatures known to us by name only. Florida 
might be called the land of "hidden treasures," 
for here tracts that look like bare coral 
reef can be developed into profitable soil. 
Apparently every inch of Florida can be made 
profitable if the worker "knows how." Even 
the turpentine forests are not a small feature 
in the profitable industries. 



When I first heard of "hammock land," I 
had visions of leisure and luxury, swinging 
under the trees, but when "hammock land" 
was disclosed as a jungle of hard wood there 
was in it no especial suggestion of "a soft 
snap." Like all else in Florida this land can 
be made very fertile, as evidenced at Mr. 
McCrory's place, where we stopped to see the 
cleared lands, which reminded me of the cul- 
tivated prairies. In a few years such land is 
bound to yield enormous profit. 

At Cocoanut Grove are many beautiful 
homes, situated on transformed jungle and 
marsh. Little steamers come into a canal, 
going to and from the houses which are built 
in Spanish style, the interior finish being 
cypress. The little inlets with light bridges 
thrown across them, the great turtles cap- 
tured nearby and now lying in the pools, and 
the melodious song of the mocking birds 
make up a* scene not to be surpassed for 
beauty and restfulness. Everywhere school- 
houses are in evidence, for Floridians think 
of other interests than building beautiful 
houses and harvesting rich crops. 



Regretfully I hied me back to Jacksonville, 
donned my heavy suit, took my overcoat in 
one hand and my rubbers in the other, and 
set forth for the land of bleak winds and 
March weather. With every few miles I 
added a trifle to my clothing until I at last 
landed in Boston robed as I had set out, but 
the richer by a fine coat of tan and a store of 
happy memories. 





ITH the balmy days 

of spring comes the 

desire to get out of 

doors. The porch, which has been 
deserted during the winter season, again in- 
vites the household to partake of its attractive 
ness, and this year, as in years past, the en 
tertainment of porch parties will chiefly con- 
sist of the playing of popular airs on the 
talking machines. At a large banquet re- 
cently held in one of the big hotels in New 
York, slips were distributed among the 
diners containing the words of the chorus 
of several popular songs of the day, and be- 
tween the courses, the assembled guests 
joined heartily with the orchestra in singing 
these familiar selections. 

Unquestionably one of the greatest dis- 
tributors of popular music is the talking 
machine, and each month it features one or 
two of the reigning popular selections. Per- 
haps the most conspicuous song of the month, 
which is offered by each of the companies, 
and is sure to be wafted on the April air from 
the veranda, is Berlin's new hit, "That 
Mesmerizing Mendelssohn Tune," given in 
excellent style by Collins and Harlan. 



Mr. Berlin, who has rapidly gained popular 
favor since his "My Wife's Gone to the 
Country,'' contributes also to the Columbia 
list for the month on a double disc record, 
"Oh, How that German Could Love," 
which has the added advantage of being sung 
by the author himself in a duet with Snyder. 
The opposite side of the record gives Billy 
Murray's clear tenor in "My Little Dutch 
Colleen." 

The Columbia Company make announce- 
ment this month of their exclusive contract 



with the English artist, Georee 
Lashwood, of Music Hall fame 
Mr Lashwood has already mace 
a name fir himself in American vaudeville, 
and his selections on the Columbia list, "Sea. 
Sea, Sea," and "In the Twi-Twi -Twilight," 
introduce him effectively to Columbia owners 
Those who attended the charming comic 
opera, "Belle of Brittany," will welcome 
the opera waltz by Prince's Orchestra, and 
"Two Giddy Goats," a baritone and so 
prano duet in which Miss Stevenson imperson 
ates "Tolnette" of the play, and Mr. Stanley, 
"Baptiste." Other selections from the opera 
are given by Prince's Orchestra on the record 
with Gus Edwards' sentimental ballad, 
"By the Light of the Silvery Moon." 

An exceptional instrumental number is the 
double disc "Farther, Farther in the World" 
and "One Little Girl in the World for Me." 
rendered by A. Selzer on a Hungarian "tarv 
gatto" or liberty-horn. The expressive con 
tralto of Mrs. A. Stewart Holt seems particu- 
larly well adapted to songs of a deeper senti- 
mental nature; this month she sings im- 
pressively the old-time favorite, "Rock Me 
to Sleep, Mother," and De Koven's "A 
Winter Lullaby." 

"Ring Out, Wild Bells," Gounod's musical 
composition on Tennyson's universally known 
poem, has long been a favorite, we are told, 
with David Bispham. This, with "The 
Palms" by the same singer, composes a very 
striking record. 

Several band and orchestra selections 
among the April numbers are quite worthy 
of mention notably, "Boston. Commandery 
March," "Boy Trumpeter," an intermezzo, 
and Sousa's "Liberty Bell March" by the 
band; "Belle of Yokohama " by the orchestra, 
and Sousa's "Semper Fidelis March," coupled 



(147) 



MUSICAL RECORDS FOR THE MONTH 



with "The Famous Twenty-second Regi- 
ment March" by Lacalle's Band. 

* * * 

An interesting number on the Edison list 
is "Sheridan's Ride." The poem has stirred 
the hearts of loyal Americans since Mr. 
Read first immortalized the daring of "Phil" 
Sheridan, and the masterful elocutionary 
work of Edgar L. Davenport, assisted by 
orchestra introduction, cheering and finale, 
"Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean," has 
produced a novel record that every Edison 
owner, especially he whose young son is now 
poring over Rebellion history, should possess. 

Another achievement by the Edison people 
is represented by "A Day at West Point," 
by the New York Military Band. The 
number is proclaimed by the Edison Company 
as "one of the greatest military medleys ever 
compiled," and no one who has heard the 
strikingly realistic reveille, drum assembly, 
sunrise gun, adjutants' call on through the 
entire day's military program will attempt 
a disputation. The New York Military 
Band's second number for the month is 
"Miss Liberty March," a valuable addition 
to the several brilliant march compositions 
of the youthful composer, Joseph M. Daly. 

"Cloud Chief," of the Indian variety, 
forcefully rendered by the American Sym- 
phony Orchestra, will be appreciated by 
the lover of Indian music; while the admirer 
of negro dialect will delight in "A Coon 
Wedding in Southern Georgia," by the 
Peerless Quartette, in which Arthur Collins 
and Frank Stanley take leading parts; or 
in Marie Dressler's coon absurdity, "Rastus 
Takes Me Back." 

The Edison circle continues to follow with 
smiling interest the wanderings of "Uncle 
Josh." This month the incorrigible old 
fellow gets into complications with a Chinese 
laundryman. Cal Stewart's impersonation is 
as usual clever and laughable. 

Five very exquisite selections make up the 
Grand Opera list: "Grande Air d'Agathe," 
from Weber's " Freischutz," in French by 
Marguerita Sylva; "Romance de la Fleur," 
from Bizet's "Carmen," in French by Flor- 
encio Constantino; "Valse," from Gounod's 
"Romeo et Juliette," in French, by Blanche 
Arral; "Brindisi," from Thomas's "Hamlet," 
in Italian, by Ernesto Caronna; "Blich ich 
Umher," from Wagner's "Tannhauser," in 
Geri-ian^ by Walter Soomer. 



The music of the several light opera com- 
panies which have so appealed to Xew 
York theatre-goers has furnished the Victor 
Company with some very entertaining ma- 
terial this month. "My Hero," the vocal 
waltz from "A Chocolate Soldier," is rendered 
in the clear soprano of Lucy Isabelle Marsh; 
on a double-faced record are given other 
waltzes from the same opera, by Pryor's 
Band, and the "Dollar Princess Waltz," by 
the Victor Orchestra. An excellent medley 
from "The Arcadians" is given by the Victor 
Light Opera Company. 

The Victor list is replete with music of a 
sentimental variety: the Vienna Quartette has 
contributed the delightful "Bridal Song," 
from the Rustic Wedding Symphony, and in 
vocal selections "If I Had the World to Give 
You," sung by Percy Hemas ana "Life's 
Lullaby," by Hamilton Hill, are ballads of 
especial merit. The beautiful theme in "The 
Garden of Roses" never fails to make a deep 
impression on the listener, and all Victor 
owners will welcome this record. 

The revival of old songs to the limelight 
has for some time been recognized, and 
among the old-time favorites perhaps nothing 
can outshine Foster's "Old Folks at Home," 
so often called "Swanee River," and "Loch 
Lomond," both included in the Victor April 
list on a double-faced record. 

Arthur Pryor's Band offers the "Invincible 
Spirit March," a military number with novel 
variations; and among the comic selections 
are two Lauder hits, "Hey! Donal" and 
"The Bounding Bounder" 

John McCormack, who is fast becoming 
a favorite on account of his charming rendi- 
tion of Irish songs in forceful tenor, sings 
"Killarney" and "Come Back to Erin," 
with an added number, "The Minstrel Boy." 

Two Italian numbers by Donizetti, "Fare- 
well to Earth," from "Lucia," and "Down 
Her Cheek a Furtive Tear," from "Elisir 
d'amore," constitute excellent music for the 
lover of graceful Italian work. Among the 
Grand Opera selections of unusual note are a 
complete act of "Faust" (Scenes I and II) 
in French, by Geraldine Farrar and Marcel 
Journet; the first act finale of "Faust," in 
French, by Caruso and Journet; the Mignon 
duet, "Song of the Swallows," in French, 
by Farrar and Journet, and two numbers 
from "Otello" in Italian, "Ave Maria" and 
"Sake, Salce," by Frances Alda. 







Copyright by Underwood \ Underwood 

EX-PRESIDENT THEODORE ROOSEVELT ARRIVING AT LUXOR 

He was met by Chief Mursey (who wears a fez) of the Upper Egypt Railway. Though he has been a year 
in the African jungle the former president did not forget to ask " How's Goethals getting on at Panama? " 




COLONEL GEORGE W. GOETHALS 

Chairman and Engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission, Culebra. The man who has worked wonders 
on the Isthmus and who is loved and honored as a brave soldier doing his duty on the field 



NATIONAL MAGAZINE 



VOLUME XXXII 



MAY. 1910 



NUMBER TWO 




/fairs at Wasfi/ngfor> 



QICTURE Uncle Sam watching 
the digging of the "big ditch" 
with a smile on his face, and 
you realize the attitude of the 
United States toward the Panama Canal. 
In unpretentious quarters, in the Mills 
Building Annex. Captain Boggs repre- 
sents the Isthmian Canal Commission 
in Washington, handling correspondence 
and details which are constantly coming 
up in the expenditure of the vast sums 
allotted by Congress for the work. The 
total cost of the construction of the Canal, 
including the $50,000,000 paid to the 
French Company and the Republic of 
Panama, is now estimated at $375, 201,000. 
This also includes the $20,053,000 nec- 
essary to carry out all the sanitation 
plans, while $7,382,000 will cover the cost 
of civil administration. The Panama 
appropriation was the only one which 
escaped the pruning knife in the policy 
of retrenchment pursued by the present 
Congress. 

Quietly and without strife, in con- 
trast to Napoleonic methods, the world 
map is being changed by the beneficent 
conquest of great natural barrens and 
their utilization for commerce and peaceable 
intercourse. The man-made canyon at 
Culebra is a magnificent example of such 
conquest. Other phases of the under- 
taking, while less spectacular, have re- 
quired equal forethought and arduous 
work to carry them to completion, for 
the digging of the canal has necessitated 
the eradication of the jungle and the 



dangers of the tropical climate, resulting 
in the creation of a resort for tourists that 
may well be called "El Paraiso." On 
the Isthmus the "white man's burden" 
has a bright side, for out of toil and 
frequent disappointment has come victory 
over obstacles deemed insurmountable. 
Benefits have been conferred on the 
human race that will grow in value through- 
out the centuries. In the excavation of 
great ditches, the building of giant locks, 
and of railroads under tremendous diffi- 
culties, thousands of men have received a 
training impossible to secure in foray, 
siege, battle or institution of learning. 

Every visitor to the Isthmus, whether 
he be a high official or a humble civilian, 
is convinced, as he looks at the work 
completed and in progress, that this is 
an investment worthy of the federal 
government. On returning home each 
traveler is impressed with the eagerness 
of the people to hear "how the digging 
is going on." He is as a man returned 
"from the front," but how different the 
news he has to tell! Contrast with the 
pride and pleasure felt in Isthmian achieve- 
ment the thrill of fear with which the 
daily paper is opened, or the bulletin read 
in war time, when a list of "killed, wounded 
and missing" may include the name of 
some loved one. 

The conduct of the enterprise is military 
and suggestive of conquests, but they 
are the conquests of peace and emphasize 
the fact that close-knit organization is 
valuable to the nation at all times. The 



(153) 



154 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



whole world is watching the spectacle of 
thousands of men and millions of money 
employed in building a mighty waterway 
that shall change the paths of the sea, 
and create new ideals and standards for 
the republics of the future, whether in 
the torrid, frigid or temperate zone. The 
benefits to be derived from the comple- 
tion of such an enterprise have been 
pronounced by many an Utopian dream, 




their good money shall not be spent in 
looking at inferior plays. If any given 
show does not come up to the standard 
or is in any sense demoralizing in its effect, 
the word is passed along and that box 
office is not visited by any of those women. 
This is another peculiar phase of the 
"boycott movement," which appears just 
now to be pervading the country, and if 
the women of a city make up their minds 
to place a ban on any play in 
a pronounced and emphatic 
manner, the managers soon 
discover that the bill must be 
withdrawn. The purpose of the 
movement is economical as 
well as ethical, for it has been 
decreed that no more good 
money is to be wasted ; inspec- 
tion of records has shown that 
far more money goes in this 
way than is realized by most 
people, and that the results 
are positively bad. This out- 
break of the rampant spirit of 
organization of our time will 
be watched with much interest, 
as a sort of guide post indi- 
cating the trend of thought of 
our own day and generation. 



W 1 



Copyright by 

Clinedinst MRS. POLITTE ELVINS 

Wife of United States Representative Elvins of Missouri ; a charming 
Congressional hostess 



but those who have been there know that 
the nation thatjhas remembered the old 
motto, "Tojgivejis to gain," will never 
regret that^she undertook the digging of 
the Panama Canal. 



AMERICAN women have a way of 
r\ initiating new ideas that is refresh- 
ing. In Chicago a woman's club has 
started a new feature in a theatrical 
censorship. They are determined that 



HEN the Democrats and 
insurgents overruled the 
chair and evicted the old rules 
committee consisting of Speak- 
er Cannon, John Dalzell of 
Pennsylvania, Walter I. Smith 
of Iowa, Champ Clark of Mis- 
souri and J. J. Fitzgerald of 
New York, it only enabled the 
House to show that there was 
one man who could unify all 
the discordant elements of the House, and 
that man was Walter I. Smith of Iowa. 

He has been classed as a regular but has 
always shown a large degree of independ- 
ence and has by his uniform consideration 
for all members and his fair and broad way 
of dealing with all questions endeared 
himself to the Democrats as well as all 
elements of his own party. Scarcely was 
the old rules committee ousted before 
Mr. Hayes of California, chairman of the 
insurgent caucus, announced that the 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



155 



insurgents were all for Walter I. Smith 
for membership on the new rules com- 
mittee and when the ballot was taken Mr. 
Smith led all the rest receiving twenty -two 
more votes than any man in the United 
States, and forty-two more than the third 
highest. Mr. Dalzell has been on the 
committee since Speaker Reed's time and 
was the choice of all the regulars but still 
Smith led him twenty-two votes. 
I'. Many think this clearly foreshadows 
who will succeed Mr. Cannon as Speaker 
and that the Speakership is about to be 
returned to Iowa. We have spoken in the 
past of Mr. Smith as a fitting Senator 
from Iowa, but it now looks highly prob- 
able that he will soon hold a higher ofTce 
than that of Senator. 

His rise has been rapid but continuous. 
He graduated at the Council Bluffs High 
School at fifteen years of age; attended for 
a short time Park College in Missouri; 
studied law and was admitted to the bar 
at twenty; at twenty-eight was Judge of 
the District Court in a district which 
has nine counties and ten county-seats; 
at thirty-eight he was chosen a member 
of Congress to fill a vacancy, and took 
his seat at the short session of the 
Fifty-sixth Congress; he was appointed at 
his first session on the committee to 
investigate hazing at West Point; the 
next session he was appointed on 
banking and currency and elections; 
two years later he was appointed to the 
committee on appropriations; a year ago, 
when the Republicans first chose their 
members of the rules committee in caucus, 
he was selected as the successor of Vice- 
President Sherman. He is now member 
of the committee on rules, member of the 
committee on appropriations, chairman 
of the fortifications committee, ranking 
member of the committee on the sundry- 
civil bill, chairman of one conference 
committee with the Senate and ranking 
member of another, member of the House 
building commission and member of the 
joint commission of the two houses charged 
with the solution of all questions relating 
to the bonding of Government officers. 

Few members have risen so rapidly 
without exciting jealousy in the House, 
but the recent vote showed him apparently 



the most popular man in that body. He 
is now between forty-seven and forty- 
eight years of age. 



WHEN Congressman James Kennedy 
of Ohio gets ready to make a speech 
he always has something to say that is 
worth hearing. In addressing the Business 
Men's Association of Alliance, Ohio, he ably 
discussed the high cost of living. Going 
to the tap root of the matter, he insisted 




P!:oU>ly Flarri.' fr 1 Euing 

CONGRESSMAN W. I. SMITH OF IOWA 

that the new tariff bill had started a 
discussion and study of prices all over 
the country. In his opinion prices are 
advancing all over the world and food 
stuffs will never again be sold at as low 
a figure as they have been in the past. He 
pointed out the fact that the increased 
gold supply has had much to do with the 
rise of prices. 

The largest gold producing country is 
the Transvaal, where the output increased 
from eight million dollars in 1889 to one 
hundred and thirty-three millions in 1907. 



156 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



The increase in the production of the 
Transvaal mines made during the year 
1907 almost equalled the entire produc- 
tion of the gold fields in Alaska. In 
round figures, the world's production of 
gold from the discovery of America in 
1492 to 1880 was about six billion, three 
hundred million dollars. The entire 
world's supply of gold could not have been 




L. WHITE BUSBEV. SECRETARY TO SPEAKER CANNON 



in excess of six and one-half billion dollars. 
The last thirty years has doubled this 
supply, and if the present production is 
maintained for another generation, it will 
double again. As gold has long been the 
world-wide standard of value, these sta- 
tistics certainly suggest that the increase 
in the production of this precious metal 
may indeed vitally affect prices. Our 
dollar can never have greater purchasing 
power than the exchangeable value of 



the gold that is in it. The statement 
that we see everywhere in the papers that 
all prices are going up is a truth that 
could as well be expressed in these words, 
"the exchangeable value of gold bullion is 
shrinking." 

Mr. Kennedy seems very sure that we 
shall never again buy eggs so cheaply as 
those he brought to market years ago and 
sold for fifteen and twenty 
cents per dozen. 

The marvellous increase in 
the visible supply of the' 
world's gold does not mean 
that the purchasing power of 
gold has decreased in the same 
ratio that its volume has been 
augmented. As gold becomes 
more plentiful its exchangeable 
value decreases. At the same 
time its uses in the fine arts and 
manufactures are multiplied, 
and this has a tendency to 
somewhat retard the shrink- 
age in gold values. 

When relatively viewed, and 
when the increase in the earn- 
ing power of the people is con- 
sidered, prices may really not 
have undergone so great an 
advance as is supposed. When 
the change in the relative 
value of money is considered, 
the farmer who sold his wheat 
in 1880 at fifty cents probably 
received as much in exchange- 
able value as the farmer who 
sells his product today for one 
dollar. In fact, a scholar who 
has looked up old letters and 
papers of thirty years ago re- 
ports that the lament on the 
increased price of living con- 
tained in those documents 
might be printed as the present day utter- 
ances of farmers and city dwellers. 

The situation is somewhat reversed to 
that of 1893 when the farmer could show 
that the "city fellers" were getting the 

best of it. 

* * * 

AT the annual convention of the Rivers 
** and Harbors Congress, which took 
place in Washington, there was a blaze 
of enthusiasm, and the faces of the dele- 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



157 



gates were bright with pleased antici- 
pation as they gathered in the hotel 
lobbies. That great body of business 
men and the national character of the 
gathering were in sharp contrast to the 
delegation which assembled in Baltimore 
eight years ago, when the first national 
Rivers and Harbors Congress was con- 
vened. The programme of the recent 
meeting reveals that it is only a question 
of time when proper attention will be given 



public career he has sought to stop the 
onslaught on Uncle Sam's treasury vaults. 
Senator Chamberlain of Oregon had a 
rap at Congress and handled the bond 
issue problem with sleeves rolled up. 
He insisted that both President Roose- 
velt and President Taft had essentially 
endorsed the bond issue. He also said 
that it was quite as proper for bonds to 
be issued for the development of inland 
waterways as for the building of the 




AN EXCITING DAY IN CONGRESS 

This picture was taken at the most vital moment in the House of Representatives on Saturday, March 19. The 
Speaker, after a two days delay in ruling on the Norris resolution, is finally brought to do so, although he knows 
that it will mean his downfall. As the picture is taken he is reading precedents for the action he is about to take. 
The scene is one of the greatest intensity. It is at very rare intervals that pictures of the House or Senate in 
session are taken. But one such picture of the House has been taken in the last decade, and it portrays merely 
a routine scene. Never before has a picture at a great crisis been taken. Here was the regime of forty years 
being broken down. Here was the greatest gladiator that Congress has produced in a generation facing his enemies. 

History is here being made 



by the government to the development of 
the nation's inland waterways. 

A great wet blanket descended and 
enveloped the convention when Presi- 
dent Taft did not unreservedly endorse 
the bond proposition. The President de- 
sired to have specific plans for improve- 
ment made through Congress. "Perfect 
your plans, then get the money and avoid 
extravagance," was his advice. 

In spite of this chilling of anticipations 
the Congress continued its deliberations, 
with a few snowballs from Speaker Cannon, 
whose chief crime is that all through his 



Panama Canal. He derided the policy 
of Congress in putting off things to the 
next session, and stated that it did not 
accord with the will of the people, who 
had, he believed, been emphatic and clear 
in the expression of their desire for the 
issue of government bonds for the de- 
velopment of the waterways of the country. 



AMONG the ambassadors appointed by 
President Taft, the career of Richard 
C. Kerns, now located at the Austrian 
post, stands out conspicuous. His family 



158 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



originally lived in Iowa, but later moved 
to Missouri. The first employment that 
the present ambassador to Austria secured 
in Fort Leavenworth was as a teamster 
or, as they were called in those days, "a 
mule whacker." Young Richard became 
an expert teamster, and was soon promoted 
to the position of assistant wagon master. 
Now, as he appears at the Austrian court, 
among the historic Hapsburgers, one of 
the oldest and most aristocratic families 
of Christendom, the erstwhile "mule 
whacker" of Missouri represents the great 




Copyright by Clinedinsl 

DR. THOMAS JONNESCO 
Discoverer of the value of "Stovaine" as an anesthetic 



republic of the West, and affords a curious 
contrast to the gentlemen of the proud 
court with whom he will be associated. 
He will move amid scenes which may sug- 
gest to him the Viennese play, "The Merry 
Widow," rather than recall the busy days 
of his early youth on the plains of Kansas. 



NEW and important discoveries are 
coming in thick and fast nowadays. 
Professor Jonnesco, of Bucharest, who has 
experimented widely in that city, London 
and elsewhere, announces great results 
with stovaine and strychnine combined. 



Stovaine, discovered in 1902 by Eduard 
Fourneau, a French chemist, consists of 
small, crystalline white scales soluble in 
water or alcohol. The first experiments 
with this new anesthetic, reported by 
Dr. F. Billon in the French medical press 
in 1904, and later experiments by phy- 
sicians in that country, Germany, Scotland 
and England, demonstrated that in some 
instances the use of stovaine was followed 
by paralysis of the lower limbs, sometimes 
lasting a full week, and in other cases the 
patients were troubled with headache and 
continual vomiting for several days after 
an operation. It is claimed by Professor 
Jonnesco that the combination of strych- 
nine with stovaine does away with all these 
disagreeable after effects, while its use 
permits the patient to retain every sense 
except that of feeling. 

Stovaine is injected into the spinal canal 
by means of a hypodermic needle. At 
first it was not considered wise to use any 
form of stovaine for operations in the 
upper part of the body, but when the 
system is supported by the addition of 
strychnine, it is believed that any danger 
of a paralysis of the heart is done away 
with. The Professor's claims have been 
confirmed by a series of several hundred 
operations, some having been performed 
at the Bucharest Hospital and at the Sea- 
man's Hospital at Greenwich, England. 
The discovery is regarded as of great im- 
portance by the medical profession all over 
the world, and the experiments made in 
this country are being eagerly watched by 
the medical profession, for the use of this 
new anesthetic promises a revolution in 
modern surgery. 



AT THE National Press Club, Cy 
Warman, the author, gave startling 
information in reference to American immi- 
gration into Canada, stating that 50,000 
citizens of the United States, possessing 
an average wealth of $1,000 each, have 
migrated to the sister country. This 
is immigration that counts. While Great 
Britain has begun to fear for the future 
of her Western colonies, because of this 
great influx of Americans, it is not likely 
that the Canadians will regard their alarm 
as other than added proof that "the 




MISS RUTH BLISS 



160 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



house of peers has become the house of 
fears." 

England seems to be in the throes of 
a succession of scares, ranging all the way 




I'hoto by Harris & Ewing 

WARREN JEFFERSON DAVIS 

Vice-President National Democratic League of College 

Clubs and Chairman Intercollegiate Democratic 

Association of the District of Columbia 

from airships to immigration. The in- 
sular Briton finds it difficult to realize 
that the line of demarkation between 
the two great new nations of America is 
largely imaginary, and that what bene- 
fits one country is sure to be good also for 
the other. The great province of Sas- 
katchewan produces nearly as much 
wheat as Minnesota, but on this side we 
do not regard this fact as alarming. 
Though recognizing the value of Canadian 
nickel mines and asbestos quarries and 
other great natural resources, the United 
States realizes that new resources in our 
country must be developed to keep pace 
with the unconquerable exploitation spirit 
of the hemisphere. 



YES, the monster gasolene must still 
prevail in the tests of the Geological 
Survey at Washington, the denatured 
alcohol not having proved to be efficient 
as fuel. It was found that it took from 
one to one and a half more alcohol than 
gasolene to produce a given amount of 
work. This has been the result of a 
series of tests, made on special engines 
suited for experiment, where the fuels 
were tested gallon for gallon, with a view 
of obtaining definite information as to 
the productive power of each. All these 
tests are interesting when one remembers 
the virtues accredited to denatured 
alcohol by its champions, and what might 
be accomplished if it could have a fair 
chance. 




ROGER SHERMAN HOAR 

President National Democratic League of College 
Clubs 



Potato parings and other refuse of the 
farm as a means of converting waste into 
denatured alcohol, which would save 
the cost of keeping horses or hiring other 
forms of power for work on the farm, has. 
not yet materialized. Scientists will have 
to make further discoveries before de- 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



161 



natured alcohol can compete with the 
familiar gasolene with its pungent and 
penetrating odor that lingers in the wake 
of the buzz-wagon and worries the life 
out of citizens of the United States who 
are still walking or following a horse. 



THERE is something refreshing in a 
chat with Seth Bullock of South 
Dakota, even when mingling with the 
nabobs of Washington, for he always re- 
mains the same picturesque character 
who made Deadwood famous and put 
respect for the law even in the hearts 
of the frontier "bad men." 

He now insists that a homestead out 
in Dakota is as rare as a buffalo. ' "Busi- 
ness is good, everybody is happy, tax 
and other laws are obeyed, and I see little 
sign of insurgency in the Dakotas," he 
says, with a genial twinkle in the keen 
blue eyes peering out from beneath his 



place where one can hear or see much 
of this kind of life now is in the canned 
cowbow plays on Broadway, or in the 
modern novel. Each community has its 




Copyright by Clinedinst, Washington 

CHANG YIN TANG 

The new Chinese minister who was accompanied on his 

arrival in Washington by his wife and daughter, 

fifty attaches, secretaries and students 

heavy eyebrows and slouch hat. Sheriff 
Bullock is always ready with a story about 
the early days when the men with notches 
on their guns were the rulers of the wild 
and woolly West. He says that the only 




Copyright by Clinedinst 

MRS. HENRY CHANG 

Who was married to the new Chinese Minister's son 

at the new; Chinese Legation, according to 

the Chinese custom 

library, church and school, and many 
a farmer has his automobile, piazzaed 
house and grand piano, and rooms filled 
with trophies of travels in Europe and 
elsewhere. "The time may come," Mr. 
Bullock says, "when we may have to 
change some of the real, good old names in 
the Dakotas, even those encircling Dead- 
wood." 

One of these changes may eventually 
rechristen the classic defiles of Go-to-Hell 
Gulch, which in its section is mentioned in 
the same naively unconscious way that a 
New York lady would speak of Broadway. 



162 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 




Copyright, 1910, by Clinedinst 

DAY MOODY HARLAN HOLMES FULLER M*KENNA * BREWER LURTON WHITE 

THE JUSTICES OF THE SUPREME COURT 



Like all local names in the West, it seems 
there was good reason for this cognomen, 
since, when the great strike set in at 
Deadwood, off on one of the hills there 
was a gulch that seemed to have been over- 
looked. Prospectors returning from their 
work were often questioned regarding 
the outlook for ore at this location, and 
generally responded only by a grunt. At 
last, however, their patience gave way 
and when asked further regarding the 
place where the strike was made, they 

Deceased. 



changed the grunt to three words not 
current in polite society, which name the 
gulch still bears. 

THE spirit of comradeship among the 
Justices of the Supreme Court brought 
to light an incident that was somewhat of 
a diversion from the consideration of briefs 
and hearing the drawing of legal argu- 
ments. Almost every eminent man is 
more or less familiar with the Scriptures, 
and one night when Justice Brewer was 



164 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



present the degree of his familiarity with 
the Bible was discussed. He insisted that 
he knew as much of the Holy word as most 
men. Then the question was asked: "What 
is the happiest animal in the Bible?" 

The justice tried "Balaam's ass," "the 
dove that flew back to the ark with an 
olive leaf," "the oxen that drew the sacred 
ark," but he did not guess the right answer, 
and the usual "give it up" was passed. 



joke in that. You have not brought it 
home straight, Samuel." This last was 
said very severely. 

"Yes, yes, I have," replied the legislator. 
"I didn't see the point at first, until they 
all laughed. You wait a minute and it 
will come to you -when it does it is very 
funny, 'the wicked fleeth when no man pur- 
sueth.' It's fleas, you know, Sally just 
ordinary fleas." 




IN THE PANAMA JUNGLE THE SIGNAL HOUSES LOOK LIKE BIRD CAGES 



Then the questioner at last gave the reply, 
"The wicked flee when no man pursueth." 
There was a ripple of laughter, and one 
of the company who believed that he saw 
the- point of the joke, laughed with the 
rest and made up his mind to take this 
amusing question home to his wife. The 
good lady hazarded several guesses, but 
her husband shook his head. "Will you 
give it up?" he inquired. 

"Yes," said she, "tell me the answer." 
"The wicked fleeth when no man pur- 
sueth." 
She looked mystified. "I don't see any 



"Samuel, you've got your Biblical quota- 
tions on crooked. Use a hat pin." 



HTHE story of Auguste Rodin, the 
* eminent French sculptor, has a never- 
failing interest for Americans visiting 
Europe. Ever since his withdrawal of 
the famous Balzac statue, which he had 
been commissioned to create and with- 
drew because of unfavorable criticism 
from the Society of Men of Letters, he 
has attracted increasing public attention. 
The Society refused to accept the model. 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



165 



and though he might legally have held 
them to the terms of their contract, he 
at once took back his statue and made 
no effort to compel the Society to fulfill its 
obligations. The sculptor retained the 
statue in his studio and refused all offers 
for it, and it remains there today, a triumph 
of his genius, which many persons visit 
the studio to study. 

At the present time Rodin is considered 



fears have been entertained 
recently as to the fine mooly cow 
that is allowed the liberty of the White 
House garden. The grass that grows in 
front of the State Department is used for 
the executive cow almost all winter, and 
she seems to enjoy it. Photographers 
have been kept busy taking pictures of 
Mooly, and directly under the window of 
Secretary Knox the pastoral scene is 




A YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION BUILDING ON THE CANAL ZONE 



to be as great a master in French sculpture 
as Wagner is in music, because he has 
brought to his art, genius, power and in- 
spiration. Perhaps no single work of 
his more aptly shows the trend of his 
thought than the rejected Balzac statue, 
which shocked conventional ideas at the 
time it was modelled. He has chiseled 
the great writer attired in a clumsy and 
ill-fitting dressing-gown instead of flowing 
mantles, accentuating the head and features 
of the great master of literature. The lapse 
of time will reveal this statue as a new 
and permanent phase of a deathless art. 



visible. The latest thing is the suggestion 
that a fence be run around Mooly to keep 
the people from clipping her tail, and carry- 
ing it off piecemeal as souvenirs, for the 
cow of the President has a distinction all 
her own, whether she knows it or not. 



TO a group of Bostonians Count A. 
de Sonis, of Paris and Algeria, an- 
nounced that Boston was the most inter- 
esting city in this country. With an 
expression of "Boston only" they listened 
to him, while he related his impressions of 



166 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 




COLONEL GOETHALS' PRIVATE YELLOW "BRAIN CAR" USED ONLY 
ON THE MAIN LINE 



"Bostone." The Hotel Touraine sug- 
gested to him the famous chateau in France 
of that name where is emblazoned the 
fleur-de-lis, the coat of arms of the kings 
of France. 

"Bostone is more beautiful than Wash- 
ingtone," said the Count, who is the owner 
of 30,000 acres of cork forest in Algeria, 
and sells much of his product in this 
country. 

He insists that the Germans have made 
all the trouble in Algeria, and that but 
for them there would have been a peaceable 
solution of all differences. 
* * * 

WITH the same persistence with 
which he has followed up his con- 
victions in public matters, Senator Gore, 
the blind statesman from Oklahoma, has 
insisted that some day he will see. His 
cheerful optimism is infectious. He has 
been undergoing treatment with the hope 
that he will at least be able to distinguish 
the outlines of objects, that he may be 
able to go about without an attendant. 



One of his ambitions is to become a Mason, 
and he desires to become one "at sight," 
the same as President Taft. It has been 
agreed by the Grand Master that when he 
can distinguish the outlines of any object, 
the special dispensation will be granted. 
An indefatigable worker, the Senator 
keeps in close touch with his constituency 
in the new state, and takes particular pains 
to render every service that might be 
expected from a man in full possession of 
his eyesight. While feeling keenly his 
affliction, no word of unmanly complaint 
has ever been heard to pass his lips. 
* * * 

VISIONS of '93 came to mind when I 
met General Jacob S. Coxey in Wash- 
ington. Yes, it was the very same Coxey 
who led the "Army of the Unemployed" 
to the White House in that momentous 
year of soup houses and corn honey. His 
army was long ago disbanded, and he is 
now a plutocrat of the first water, owning 
silver mines which he secured at that time, 
and even a gold mine, now, 'tis said. When 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



167 




THE DRY DOCK AT BALBOA, PACIFIC END OF THE CANAL 



tariff matters were under consideration 
the general duly arrived at the Capitol, 
to see about the duty on arsenic, for he 
also has a mine producing that commodity. 
He did not hesitate to make complete con- 
fession that he is no longer a free trader. 
Europe produces arsenic chemically, but 
Coxey assured the folks in Washington 
that his mine produces the pure stuff. A 
duty of one and a half cents on arsenic was 
required to keep the mines going, and the 
general was doing his part to secure what 

he wanted. 

* * * 

YOU Americans always think of doing 
big things, and have always been 
able to boast of the gigantic achievements 
of your country," remarked an English- 
man. 

"But think of the Cape Town to Cairo 
Railway," said Mr. Gilldemeester, "that 
covers a stretch of sixty-four hundred 
miles from one terminal to the other." 

There are now twenty-five hundred 
miles to be completed, and it will be 



finished in three years, being then the 
longest railroad in the world, covering 
sixty-four hundred miles with one straight 
track think of it. When completed the 
traveler can reach from Cape Town to 
Paris in ten or eleven days. The track 
traverses and opens up a country rich in 
every mineral, including gold, silver, and 
even diamonds. What it will accomplish 
for the continent of Africa the world can 
only partially comprehend. 

"Many American engineers," said Mr. 
Gilldemeester, "are employed on the 
work, which is largely being done by 
Kaffir laborers, and when we have this 
railroad spanning the continent from tip 
to tip, we shall have something that will 
set you Americans thinking of building 
your railway to Alaska, and on through 
Mexico to South America." 

However good the sea routes may be, 
it cannot be denied that railways are 
necessary to fully develop a country from 
coast to interior and from interior to 
coast. 




THE " BUGGY CAR" AMONG A BLOCKADE OF DIRT TRAINS IN CULEBRA CUT 




EXCAVATING BLASTED ROCKS FOR A LOCK SITE 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



169 



THE absorption of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company by the American 
Bell Telephone Company brings to mind 
memories of Samuel F. B. Morse, the in- 
ventor of the telegraph. Of all the in- 
ventions of the past century, none have 
more greatly promoted civilization than 
the completion of that 'magical method 
of transmitting messages. The first that 
went to Washington from Baltimore was 
"What hath God wrought?" which tersely 
embodied the reverent recognition by 
Mr. Morse of the Creator who had per- 
mitted him to make this wonderful dis- 
covery, at a time when it could no longer 
be used to tyrannize over the whole earth. 
The telegraph has been responsible for 
the development not only of this country 
but of the whole world. It is to the credit 
of the United States government that at 
least this ; .i-.ention was favorably ex- 
ploited ana aided by a government ap- 
propriation. 

The story of Samuel Finlay Breese 
Morse, born fifteen years after the battle 
of Bunker Hill, is one of the thrilling 
romances of American biography. On 
Main Street, Chariest own, at the very 
foot of Breed's Hill, I found the birthplace 
of the great discoverer who fulfilled the 
almost prophetic utterance of Shakes- 
peare when he spoke of Puck as "girdling 
the earth in forty minutes." He fought 
battles and won victories that were just 
as important as those of any general or 
admiral on land or sea ; he has practically 
conquered time and distance. He began 
his career, strange to say, as an artist, and 
amid his struggles and hardships learned 
that courage and energy would do more 
than anything else in this world, whether 
in art or in the pursuit of some abstruse 
problem in science. Enemies could not 
dismay him, and inch by inch he fought 
his way until he won the victory that was 
flashed out to the world across telegraph 
wires. 

Mr. Morse's father was a Congregational 
minister, renowned for the force and con- 
vincing reasoning of his sermons. Daniel 
Webster spoke of the elder Morse as a man 
"always thinking; always writing; always 
talking and always acting." His mother 
was the granddaughter of Dr. Finlay, 
the president of the Presbyterian Univer- 



sity at Princeton, and possessed clear 
judgment, tactfulness and moderation 
combined with the forcefulness that often 
characterizes the Scotch race. She man- 
ag^d the parson's sparse income in a way 
that would astonish the modern house- 
wife. The boy, who later became famous, 
was known as "Finlay Morse," and was 
the oldest of eleven children, only three 
of whom reached manhood. The first 
artistic talent shown by young Morse was 
evidenced in etching a pen-and-ink like- 
ness of his teacher on a chest of drawers; 
an artistic venture for which he was soundly 
punished by the schoolmaster. When at 
Yale the young man manifested a great 
interest in chemistry, and especially in 




1 What hath God wrought ? " 



the then mysterious subject of electricity, 
which was involved in the proposition of 
Enfield that should the circuit be inter- 
rupted the fluid would become visible, 
and when it passed would leave an im- 
pression on any intervening body. This 
theory was the basis on which the young 
student began investigations that crowned 
his name with undying laurels. 

"The fact that electricity could be made 
visible was the crude seed which took root 
in my mind, and ripened into the inven- 
tion of the telegraph," said Mr. Morse, 
fifty years after his student days. His 
letters home at the time he first began to 
study electricity were filled with informa- 
tion and theories regarding that mysterious 
subject, although with his liking for the 
pencil and brush and his artistic talent, 



170 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



none of his friends ever supposed then that 
this poetic, idealistic young painter and 
dreamer would become the most renowned 
inventor of his time. 



1~\ESPITE all labor-saving inventions, 
\-J there never has been a time when 
good home-making abilities meant so 
much as they do now. Lessening the 
drudgery and hard work in keeping a 
home neat does not lessen, but rather 
increases the love of home. It gives the 
mother cime to care not only for the 




"She can meet him at the door and dissipate 
his frown " 

physical comfort of the members of her 
household, but to undertake many little, 
yet important, matters that only a woman 
can fully appreciate and understand. How 
quickly a lovely woman can transform an 
unattractive room into a nest of cheer, 
comfort and restful charm, and how 
quickly she can also transform a hungry, 
scowling husband into a happy, cheerful 
companion, content and worthy to dwell 
in a home that is so full of comfort and 
beauty. She can meet him at the door 
and dissipate the frown in a few minutes. 
The pleasant word, the cheery smile, are 
as effective in altering the appearance of 
a man as a bit of stucco or a little white- 
wash or a picture are in altering the look 



of a home. When the White House was 
built, the only form of ornamentation 
known was stucco, but then as now there 
were, the little details mere trifles that 
make up the ensemble which impresses the 
visitor with the conviction that here 
indeed is a home that might serve as a 
model to the nation. 



WHILE England has just emerged 
from the throes of a great agitation 
over "the budget" on appropriations and 
revenues, involving important issues such 
as have seldom engaged the attention of 
British statesmen at any time since the 
days of Magna Charta, the work of 
pruning Uncle Sam's budget goes steadily 
on, unaffected by the worry which such 
changes excite in other c. .-ntries. The 
figures of last year were cut W i23,000,000 
under a deft pruning knife, and whatever 
anesthetic was used to make the opera- 
tion painless seems to have been effective 
in allaying any outspoken disaffection. 
The Panama Canal funds alone escaped 
the knife. Nothing was asked for new 
ships of war, which indicates that the 
German "bogey man" has not as yet found 
his way across the Atlantic, and although 
English papers are filled with startling 
information concerning the Kaiser's vast 
armament, papers on this side speak more 
alarmingly of the phenomenal industrial 
power and development of the German 
nation. 

Though the United States is remarkable 
for initiative and enterprise unparalleled 
in any other country, it is pointed out that 
there is a lack of thoroughness, concen- 
tration and focused effort. The training 
which has resulted in Germany's com- 
mercial prosperity and prestige and enables 
that nation to reach to all parts of the world 
is begun in the public schools. Each 
phase of industrial development is studied 
with as close attention as any form of 
scientific research, and industrial ques- 
tions are carefully considered by German 
teachers as well as students. The work 
of Kant, Goethe and a host of other 
famous German students is now finding 
fruition in the great object of modern life 
success in business. A German pro- 
fessor who had been for some time in this 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



171 



country, studying conditions, having been 
sent out by his government, confidentially 
remarked to me, asking that his name be 
not used: 

"I came to the States impressed with 
Germany's all-sufficiency in equipment 
both for commerce and conquest. I find 
that, while the thorough knowledge and 
firm grip of Germans on what they do 
know is most valuable, it is no match for 
that subtle enthusiasm and go-ahead 
spirit that prevails in the United States. 
It will be a blend of these two forces that 
will conquer the world's trade." 

He added that he had recommended that 
young men entering the trades in Germany, 
should, if possible, be given a few years 
in the United States to learn initiativ 
"But." he added, "the danger is tha 
we send them here they will not 
return," for the opportunities of- 
fered are too much even for the 
phlegmatic Teuton. 

His just criticism of the lack 
of thoroughness in our country is 
exemplified in the graduates of our 
high schools, who. after a diversi- 
fied course of study, acquire a 
smattering of many subjects but 
a firm grip on none. In most 
business colleges, students are sent 
out as proficient after a course of 
three or four months, and are 
thrown but half equipped upon 
the mercy of the commercial 
world. A course requiring two 
years in the older countries is 
rushed through in the United States in 
three months. The result is that thou- 
sands and thousands of mistakes in every 
line are made, incurring a fearful waste 
of time and patience among American 
business men, to say nothing of actual 
monetary losses to employers, through 
errors often arising from a lack in common 
school English studies. 

Speaking 01 Germany, the fact is brought 
out by the Bureau of Statistics that that 
Empire is the chief source of all imported 
paper and paper goods coming to the 
United States. More than seven out- of 
the twelve millions of dollars' worth of 
paper goods used in the United States 
come from Germany. The lithographic 
labels and prints comprise nearly half the 



total imports along this line, and are valued 
at about five million dollars per year. 
On the other hand American manufac- 
turers have sold paper in foreign markets 
to the amount of eighty million dollars 
during the ten years past, but in the same 
period the United States has purchased 
seventy million dollars' worth of paper and 
paper goods from manufacturers abroad. 
Over fifty different countries have made 
separate enumerations of paper in their 
official statements of exports and imports, 
which shows that one of the potential 
products of today is that used in connec- 
tion with printing, which is used in all 




Germany is the chief source of all the imported paper 
coming to this country " 

nations and in all climes. The increased 
production and lower cost of paper for 
which the wood pulp is used have spread 
knowledge and aided in the development 
of the world as has no other single product 
of commerce. Without an abundant 
supply of paper, even the potent printing 
press would be like a great gun with no 
ammunition. 



AS I was leaving Washington one 
evening, on the eight o'clock train, 
a company of laughing, gaily dressed 
young people followed into the car a gentle- 
man and lady; in the folds of their gar- 
ments I observed rice enough to feed a 
Jap family for a day and drew my own 



172 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



conclusions. It had not occurred to me, 
in my recent study of rice culture in the 
United States, to think of the festive use 
at weddings of the white grains which we 
associate with the Mongolian dietary. 

One of the veterans of the Department 
of Agriculture, Dr. S. A. Knapp, has been 
identified with the development of the 
rice industry in the southwest, and he is 
a perfect mine of information on this sub- 
ject. Many farmers from the northwest- 
ern states have settled on prospective rice 
farms and dug ditches and erected canals, 
going at the work in a systematic manner, 
until production has increased beyond 
their wildest dreams. Probably very few 
people know about the new rice fields in 
eastern Arkansas. In several counties 
the industry has shown remarkable pos- 
sibilities within the past few years. Some 




" In the folds of their garments was rice enough 
to feed a Jap family for a day " 

of the prairie lands about Lonoke and 
Stuttgart have been dyked and flooded 
by pumping up some of the great under- 
flow of pure water which is found near the 
surface. 

The Department has an experimental 
rice farm in South Carolina, where valu- 
able experience is being collected. As there 
is some drawback in all forms of agri- 
culture, so "neck rot" has proved the bane 



of rice-growers. A new variety of seed, 
which appears to be immune from this 
plague, has now been obtained from 
Madagascar, and experiments are being 
made with it. 

The first rice grown in this country was 
brought to South Carolina by a sea captain 
and was planted in Virginia. Southern 
rice lands are now handled on a plan which 
is very similar to that pursued on the 




"Isn't the coast of Ireland red with those fish?" 

large northwestern wheat farms. In ap- 
pearance a rice crop somewhat resembles 
wheat, though the mode of cultivation 
differs. The seed is sown by machinery, 
and when the plant is six inches high 
the fields are flooded, the roots of the 
crop remaining covered with water for 
weeks. 

Over thirteen thousand gallons are 
absorbed by every acre during the day. 
Before harvest the water is turned off and 
the land is allowed to dry. Great care 
is taken, when the rice is in the shock, to 
prevent fermentation. When the grain 
is taken to the mill the outer chaff is re- 
moved by machinery, and to us it seems 
hard to believe that before this process 
the rice is yellow or straw color. Rice- 
eating countries do not allow the polish- 
ing process required for the American trade ; 
thus the people get the full nourishment 
from the grain, as we are now endeavoring 
to do by urging the use of whole wheat. 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



173 



In Europe and the United States, how- 
ever, where the highest degree of intelli- 
gence is generally established, rice is 
erroneously considered unfit for food unless 
pearly white, and it would be hard to sell 
in these markets rice in any other form. 



THE Washington Congressman was 
just entertaining a friend who had 
formerly arrived from the "Old Sod," but 
had attained fame as the man who had 
carried "the fourteenth precinct in the 
twenty-second ward." With such a visitor 
to entertain the Congressman thought the 
best thing was to take him to Harvey's 
Lobster Palace. The gathering there 
somewhat impressed Pat, but when the 
waiter placed before him a great, rich, 
red lobster, set down with an airy and 
nonchalant wave of his hand, Pat's eyes 
opened a trifle wider than usual with 
astonishment. 

"You did not get anything like that in 
your native town." remarked the enter- 
tainer. "These red lobsters are considered 
a delicacy suited to the palace of a king, 
and I understand were in high favor ever 
since the time when Xero insisted on having 
them for every meal have you ever seen 
one before?" 

"Ah, go on wid ye," was the reply. 
"Seen one? Isn't the coast of Ireland red 
with those fish although a few of them 
have escaped lately and come across and 
got into Congress in Washington." 



APATHETIC story was recently re- 
lated concerning Wendell Phillips, 
who during the last days of his life lived 
a 1 one in his old Essex Street home. The 
floor of his room was carpetless and no 
curtains shaded the windows, which looked 
out upon the many skyscrapers that had 
closed in upon the old house, seeming 
about to smother it, as they had threatened 
to do with the Webster mansion on Summer 
Street and Church Green. The best days 
and love-life of the great orator's stormy 
career were associated with those familiar 
rooms and he pleaded eloquently before 
the indomitable "condemnation committee" 
that his old home might be spared to him 
during his lifetime, offering to leave it 



by will as a free gift, provided he might 
end his days in peace in the room he knew 
so well. The juggernaut of building de- 
velopment was not to be turned aside, 
even by the touching plea of his palsied 
hands and quavering voice, and the wave 
of "improvement" swept away the home 
in which Wendell Phillips had hoped to 
dwell in his old age. He, whose ringing 
voice and eloquent gestures had stirred 




The old house on Essex Street, Boston, where Wendell 
Phillips lived during the last days of his life 

the souls of many myriads, was powerless 
to influence the memberc of the committee, 
or persuade them to stay the wave of 
street and city renovation which surged 
upon him in the sere and yellow winter of 
his life. 



A MEXICAN editor was greatly dis- 
turbed in his mind because of the 
simple attire and appearance of President 
Taft. as compared with that of President 
Diaz, during the meeting at the border. 
His remarks upon this point recalled the 
excursion made by the White Squadron, 
costing millions of dollars, which was re- 
garded by many as a frightful waste of 
money for mere display, despite the results 
which have followed from that showing of 
strength. Possibly persons holding these 



174 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



opinions might have been as much morti- 
fied as was the editor aforesaid in regard 
to the wilted collar and suit, "which did 
not seem his own" of President Taft, in 
strong contrast to the appearance of Presi- 
dent Diaz, clad in the grand uniform of a 
general, and looking the very personifi- 
cation of dignity and official splendor. 

Again the Mexican editor was greatly 
shocked that the President of the United 
States should have -ridden in a coach 
"which might have been a public con- 
veyance," while the president of the other 
republic sat in state in a magnificent landau, 
drawn by handsome, well-groomed horses. 
In equally strange contrast were the 
khaki uniforms of the United States 
soldiers compared with the gorgeous mili- 
tary trappings of the Mexican soldiers. 
What shall be said in reply to a challenge 
in regard to this American negligence? 
Perhaps the homes of the two republics 
might not furnish a contrast less unfavor- 
able to the United States, for the American 




The great battleship " Mississippi " on her way up the river 
of the same name 



nation must always be a nation of homes. 
These two presidents, if they represented 
republics, represented as well homes and 
the plain people first, with empirical dis- 
play as only an incident. 



THERE was something of the enthu- 
siasm of the former days among the 
descendants of the old river steamboat 
men when the great battleship "Miss- 
issippi" found her way up that historic 
stream. The feeling was universal that 
if a big battleship could navigate the 
Mississippi there was no reason why ocean 
steamships should not do the same. Res- 
idents in that region hope to see a day 



when merchantmen will plough up and down 
the great waterway, going from the great 
fields of the West swiftly and directly to 
Liverpool. When this river and its 
tributaries are properly utilized, there 
will be a much more remarkable equaliza- 
tion of transportation rates than could be 
effected by any government edict or 
ambitious rate laws. The use of the water- 
ways will also be a powerful factor in the 
development of the South and Southwest. 



HAVE you not had some of those won- 
derful early morning dreams, those 
startling "manifestations of the sub-con- 
scious"? You know just how it is the 
brilliant dream is there all right, but tired 
and sleepy nature does not favor arising 
to put it all down in writing. Betwixt 
waking and sleeping I had what I supposed 
were some great ideas, and thought it 
my duty to preserve them for posterity by 
following the example of the great essayist, 
Ralph Waldo Emerson, who al- 
ways wrote down a thought when 
it came to him, on a tablet near 
the bed. In the dim light I 
groped around, knocking chairs 
about, and at last discovered 
paper and pencil ; when I believed 
that I had those great ideas 
hermetically sealed, encased, 
and crystalized into language, I 
returned for one more nap. 

Nothing would induce me to 
divulge what I found written on 
that paper pad, but when I read 
those great thoughts in the light of the 
morning, there came to my mind the story 
of the good man who had read and heard 
much of the philosopher's stone. . One 
night he awoke from a sound slumber, 
grasped his wife by the arm and cried, "I 
have found it; I have found it." 

"What," said the lady drowsily, "the 
baby's teething pad?" 

"No, no," he shouted. "I have found 
the philosopher's stone. It is a secret, and 
it has been revealed to me in a dream. If 
I tell it to you will you be sure to remember 
it in the morning?" 

"Better get up and write it down," 
drawled the good lady. 

Stumbling over the cradle, stubbing his 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



175 



toe against the leg of the bureau, throw- 
ing down a chair with a loud crash, and 
pushing his watch off the bureau, at last 
he reached his study, lit a candle for all 
this happened long ago and wrote down 
the magical secret. Sighing "it is safe 
now," he returned to bed and slept the 
sleep of achievement. 

In the blaze of the morning sunlight, 
even before he made his toilet, he sought 
the precious piece of paper which he had 
imprisoned beneath a great dictionary and 
complete set of the works of Shakespeare. 
Holding the magic secret which should 
bring him unaccountable wealth his hand 
trembled. He almost feared that it might 
be in ancient Chaldean, which would take 
months to decipher. No, it was plain 
English and read, 

" Walker with one leg, 

Walker with two. 
I have a new 'boot. 
Which won't fit you." 

From that time forth the head of 
the house disliked the word "Walker" 
so much that no one would dare to 
introduce him to a man of that name, 
or mention it in his presence, while the 
subject of dreams was forever tabooed 
in his home. 



IN a recent issue of the Yorkshire Weekly 
Post, "price one penny," one of those 
staid, conservative publications from which 
Englishmen take their cue appears a 
long and critical statement regarding the 
doings of Theodore Roosevelt, and the 
fact that he is making use of the prairies 
of Africa as "a playground." The Post 
makes no mention of the thousands of 
"idle honorables" who visit the prairies 
and cities of the United States, and carry 
off not only wild animals, but rich Ameri- 
can girls, but it protests: 

"We have not built railways through 
the jungle, and across the stupendous 
dip in the land which is happily named 
the Rift Valley, merely to provide a rare 
show of wild animals for tourists, or 
suitable taking-off places fc-. discrimi- 
nating and indiscriminating hunters. No- 
where else in the world can immense num- 
bers of zebra, hartebeeste, and wildbeeste 
be seen in their natural state from the 



windows of a railway train. Part of our 
mission in East Africa is to preserve its 
wild game so long as the interests of the 
natives and settlers are not injured." 
(Not a word about income derived from 
the shooting licenses.) 

The writer goes on to tell how the rail- 
road was planned in the belief that it 
would be a more economical way of stop- 
ping the horrors of the slave trade than the 
original plan of keeping five war cruisers 
along the coast. Each year the British 
exchequer provides over a million and 
a half dollarsto pay off the loaa on the 
railroad, and this payment must go on 
until 1925. Meantime the railroad re- 
ceipts each year are not one-third of this 




" Railway through East Africa providing a show of 
wild animals for tourists " 

sum. Under these circumstances, any 
American road would welcome passengers, 
especially profitable ones like the Roosevelt 
party. The insular view of the matter is 
certainly comical because the railroad 
does not pay they are indignant that 
foreigners should have the benefit for 
something that has cost them so dear. 
The Post seems to forget that foreign 
money has pretty good value when British 
gold fails. 

Judging by the present tone of the 
British newspapers, the English govern- 
ment has at least learned that the residents 
of a country are the best aids to its de- 
velopment, and everything possible is 
being done to insure happiness and pros- 
perity to African natives; the black races 
are now providing by far the larger pro- 
portion of the revenue raised by taxation 



176 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



in the African Protectorate. As the Post 
says, "Their well-being is essential to the 
prosperity of the country." 



'""THE status of the scholar in America 
1 has been the subject of earnest dis- 
cussion among literary men for years past, 
often forming a theme for discussion at 
Washington. It has been pointed out by 
Mr. Andrew Lang that as there are no 
baronetcies to give to learned Americans, 





Professor Wind-Diet lunching 
at the Willard " 



there appears to be no especial distinction 
to which the scholar of this country may 
look forward; he has nothing to expect 
except emoluments in political service or 
business. He also remarks that in Ger- 
many and the United States most of the 
scholars are exclusively university pro- 
fessors, while in France and England many 
of the great scholars are entirely outside 
the institutions of learning. 

It cannot be expected that the public 
will pore over mathematics and obscure 
metaphysical propositions. Even the 
Greeks, enthusiastic over learning as they 
were, did not feel any excitement over the 
teaching of Socrates, and Theocritus re- 
lates the pathetic fact that his own poetry 
proved a drug on the market. However, 
the time may come when United States 
scholars will find a wide and appreciative 
circle to admire their attainments, though 
no high-sounding titles may be bestowed 
to distinguish them from less learned 
citizens of the Republic. 



A CITATION of the high cost of living 
\ has been the latest thing to stir up 
the senatorial mind and secure an investi- 
gation. Every time that it is desirable 
to quiet surging excitement in popular 
feeling "a probe" is announced. A lec- 
turer has recently arrived at Washington 
to tell how the latest "probe" may be 
withdrawn and the difficulty met by 
living oil fifteen cents per day. It was 
suggested that it would be an excellent 
thing to have him work with the "probers" 
and lecture in the city and help in this way 
to stem the tide of emotion relative to 
the high cost of living. An inquiry was 
made as to whether his lectures had been 
popular with the Washington people. 

"Is Professor Wind-Diet doing 
well with his lectures on hovr to 
live on fifteen cents a day?" 

"Fine, fine," was the reply. "I 
met him in the Willard after one 
of his lectures, the other evening, 
making heavy inroads upon a 
five-dollar dinner." 

"What about his fifteen cent theory?" 

"Why, I guess, when it applies to the 

professor himself, the fifteen cents refers 

to the tip he leaves behind, to the disgust 

of the garcon." 



'"THE faces of the members of President 
1 Taft's cabinet are now becoming 
familiar to Washington people, and the 
point of comparative elegance and style 
in dress is being discussed. It has been 
decided that the palm lies between Post- 
master-General Hitchcock with his long, 
flowing coat, without a crease, dainty 
lavender tie and carefully combed hair, 
Attorney-General Wickersham and Hon. 
George von L. Meyer, Secretary of the 
Navy. To those impressed by quiet ele- 
gance the prize would be given to General 
Wickersham, who wears rich -looking gar- 
ments, though it has been said that the 
fact that he always arrives in a carriage, 
provided by his department, may have 
something to do with his spick-and-span 
appearance. Secretary Meyer's clothing 
always has an English cut, whereas Mr. 
Hitchcock's garb may be called distinct- 
ively the latest fashion plate from New 
York. 



Sergeant 



'* last iWemorial 



WILLIAM BLACK Orderly Sergeant 
Black on the rolls of his old com- 
pany; Bill Black to an unappreciative 
and forgetful public was the village 
ne'er-do-well of Fairfield. He had served 
his grateful country at the Battle of Bull 
Run, at Fair Oaks, Vicksburg and Chicka- 
mauga, had followed Sherman "to the 
sea." parted with his left arm in her de- 
fense at the Battle of Five Forks, and had 
gone back to the ways of peace with shat- 
tered body and weakened will to enjoy 
the pension of sixteen dollars per month 
bestowed upon him by the grateful coun- 
try aforesaid. 

That the greater part of Sergeant 
Black's pension regularly found its way 
into the till of the village tavern quite 
properly caused those conversant with 
his failings to forget his record of "dis- 
tinguished bravery," and inspired them 
to sneer at the ridiculous practice of 
paying pensions for old sots like him to 
get drunk upon. 

But Sergeant Black did not mind the 
sneers. Once he would have minded 
but that time was past. He had marched 
away to war as strong and straight and 
proud as any man in his company, with 
his young wife's kiss fresh upon his lips 
and the memory of- her bonny brown 
eyes glowing warm in his heart, and had 
crawled back again after four years of 
weary marching and fighting and starving, 
worn and spent, with the taint of Rebel 
prisons upon him, to lay a little bunch 
of the flowers she had loved upon a fresh- 
heaped mound. Then he had brushed 
his one remaining hand across his eye 
and stumbled away along the path of 
loneliness. 

Amy had left behind her a baby boy, 
to be promptly adopted by her maiden 
sister and trained up according to the 
dictates of her stern New England con- 
science. She argued that William Black 
could not for a moment be considered a 



fit guardian for an infant child, and 
meekly he assented to the decree that 
robbed him even of the rights of parent- 
hood. As the years went by, increas- 
ingly conscious of his own shortcomings, 
he more and more effaced himself, till 
in time he came to be almost a stranger 
to his son. 

The only treasure left to him was 
memory the only boon he craved was 
to forget. The blood he had freely shed 
on fierce-fought fields crystalized into a 
handful of paltry dollars every quarter, 
with which he could purchase welcomed 
oblivion. So his habitat became the vil- 
lage tavern, and his manner of life to 
be abhorred by the virtuous ones who had 
remained by their own firesides and offered 
up petitions for peace while they fattened 
on government contracts. 

Yet Sergeant Black was not universally 
despised. A comrade whose life he had 
saved at Cedar Mountain at the risk of 
his own did not forsake him, and the 
children of the village loved him loved 
his absent-minded, gentle manner and his 
kindly ways; and his little tumbled -down 
shanty across the river from the village 
sheltered always a few outcast cats and 
dogs, broken and useless like himself. 

At only one season did Sergeant Black 
appear in the habiliments of respecta- 
bility. On each recurring Memorial Day, 
clad in his old uniform, shiny and worn, 
but carefully brushed, with the left sleeve 
pinned neatly across his breast, he would 
take his place among the men in blue, 
gray-haired for the most part like him- 
self, bent, and toil-worn, who stood with 
uncovered heads while the white-haired 
minister the "fighting parson" of his 
old company invoked with quavering 
voice the blessing of the Great Commander 
upon the memory of the fallgn whom they 
had assembled to honor. 

In time the boy grown to be a man 
married, and one day the news reached 



(177) 



178 



SERGEANT BLACK'S LAST MEMORIAL DAY 



William Black that he had a grandchild. 
They named it Amy, and they let him 
hold the tiny brown-eyed image of the 
Amy he had known long years before for 
a moment upon his arm, till the little 
tears of recollection flowed down his 
cheeks and sudden sorrow for his wasted 
life shook his form with sobs. 

Only the pitying angel of forgiveness 
knew the battle that he fought for weary 
weeks thereafter, but William Black had 
taken his last drink. Never again after 
Amy's eyes looked up into his own out of 
the face of his grandchild did he enter the 
door of the village tavern. And never did 
a toddling, lisping child have a more de- 
voted slave and nurse than the little Amy. 
With infinite solicitude he guided her 
first tottering footsteps across the floor, 
watched sleeplessly by her side through 
measles and croup, soothed all her childish 
sorrows, and painstakingly taught her -to 
form her first scrawling letters. 

Then, too, he could tell her fairy stories 
by the hour, and sing her to sleep with 
the martial strains of "When Johnny 
Comes Marching Home" and "Tenting 
on the Old Camp Ground." But best 
of all Amy loved to sit on his knee in the 
hour preceding bedtime, cuddled snugly 
against his sheltering arm, while he told 
her endless stories of the heroes that he 
blindly worshipped Grant and Sheridan 
and the rest of that brave and gallant 
band, and of the great and good Lincoln 
himself, and the meaning of each star 
and stripe of the glorious flag he loved. 
* * * 

Memorial Day of 1905 dawned bright 
and fair, and the sun, looking in through 
the window of his cabin, discovered 
Sergeant Black making ready for the 
one day of all the year that he looked for- 
ward to the day when he was counted 
worthy to stand shoulder to shoulder 
with his old comrades as they marched 
slowly down the dusty village street to 
the quiet God's acre where others of their 
comrades lay. 

With but one hand to do the work of 
two, Sergeant Black was a long time in 
completing his preparations, but at last 
he had brushed and donned his old uni- 
form, kept carefully folded away out 
of the dust for the balance of the year, 



shaken out the folds of the little silken 
flag he treasured the flag that Amy's 
loving fingers had fashioned and at 
eight o'clock was making his way along 
the railroad track toward the village. 

Already it was oppressively warm down 
there in the rock-cut where the breeze 
did not reach, but some of the "boys" 
would be coming down from the next 
village on the morning train, and he 
wanted to be at the depot in time to wel- 
come them, so he tramped along almost 
buoyantly, if not as briskly as he would 
have done thirty years before. 

A quarter of a mile beyond him the track 
swept in a wide curve round the hill, 
then straight across the river to the vil- 
lage, nestling in the valley beyond. When 
he came to the bridge he stepped care- 
fully from tie to tie. until he had reached 
the middle, where he paused for a moment 
to let the refreshing breeze cool his brow. 
Beneath him the swift-rushing stream 
gurgled against the framework of the 
bridge. From this spot he had often 
fished in the intervals between the in- 
frequent trains for the greedy bass that 
lay in the shadow of the bridge. Now, 
as his gaze wandered up the river, he be- 
came aware of a moving dark spot on the 
water just within range of his vision. 
He watched it for a time, wondering what 
it might be, until he was able to dis- 
tinguish an enormous log, adrift from the 
boom of the sawmill further up the river. 

Down it came on the breast of the swift 
current, heading straight toward where 
he stood. As he watched its silent ap- 
proach, he speculated idly as to whether 
it would pass through the arch or lodge 
against the bridge. Before any thought 
of possible danger had occurred to him 
the huge mass of wood was hurled with 
the force of a gigantic battering-ram 
against the timbers that upheld the center 
of the bridge. The shock nearly threw 
him from his feet, and looking down 
to see what damage had been done, to 
his horror he discovered that the wooden 
framework, weakened with age, had 
crumbled like paper at the impact, leav- 
ing the track suspended in the air, sup- 
ported only at either end. 

He recognized the danger at a glance. 
To the engineer of an approaching train 



" TAPS " 



179 



the bridge would present its wonted 
appearance, but any train crossing it 
in its weakened state must inevitably be 
precipitated into the river below. 

With the idea in mind that he must 
hurry to the village and give the alarm, 
he started as fast as he could run along the 
track. "But hardly had he gone a hun- 
dred yards when he heard far behind 
him the whistle of the morning train. 
Long before he could reach the depot 
the train would be on the bridge. He 
must stop it himself but how? 

Hurriedly he retraced his steps, panting 
and stumbling in his haste. In crossing the 
bridge he missed his footing several times 
and came near falling into the stream. But 
in a few moments he was across and run- 
ning around the curve in the sweltering 
heat at the top of his speed. 

As the approaching train neared the 
curve, the engineer was startled by the 
apparition of a white-faced, bare-headed, 
blue-clad figure stumbling toward him 
in the middle of the track, wildly waving 
a small flag as a danger signal. 



A long, shrill blast of the whistle echoed 
among the hills, and the startled passengers 
craned their heads from the car windows 
as the train slackened its speed. It was 
almost upon the blue-clad figure, still 
desperately waving the flag in warning. 

Too late he took thought for his own 
danger and attempted to step from the 
track. Exhausted by his exertion and 
bewildered by the warning blasts of the 
whistle, he stumbled. The engine struck 
and hurled him with cruel force against 
the rocks beside the track. 

Hardly had the train come to a stand- 
still when a dozen men in army blue were 
gathered about the pitiful figure lying 
in a huddled heap upon the rocks. As one 
of them tenderly lifted his head from 
its hard resting place, Sergeant Black's 
fast -glazing eyes opened and he gasped, 
"The bridge don't cross the timbers 
are bro 

His welling life blood choked his utter- 
ance and stained with vivid crimson the 
blue field of the little flag tight clasped 
against his breast. 



"TAPS" 

By A. VAGRANT 



They are marching with a halting step,- 

A halting step and slow; 
And many in those blue-clad ranks 

Have hair as white as snow: 
Their youth lies on the battlefields 

Of forty years ago. 

The faded, tattered flags they bear, 

All torn by shot and shell, 
Are sacred emblems of the dead 

Who loved their country well: 
How great their love and sacrifice 

No human tongue may tell. 

Those serried ranks are thinning fast 
That once with martial tread 

The knapsack and the musket bore 
Where Grant and Sherman led: 

Their sleep is sound and peaceful 
In the bivouac of the dead. 



No more the reveille at dawn 

Shall rouse them from their sleep; 

No more shall wives and sisters mourn; 
No more shall mothers weep; 

Their names upon the roll of Fame 
Time's hand has graven deep. 

And some lie on those hard-fought fields 
Where now the Blue and Gray 

Clasp hands across the battle lines 
Their blood has washed away: 

Where once the tide of battle flowed, 
Their children's children play. 

The passing years speed swiftly. 

And silence round them wraps; 
And to their listening ears there comes 

No sweeter song, perhaps, 
Than when the battered bugle sounds 

Again the old call "Taps!" 

From "Pipe Dreams* 



POLITICAL HEALTH OF THE NATION 



By ROBERT L. OWEN 



U. S. Senator from Oklahoma 



THE inability of the American people 
to get relief from high prices, from a 
high tariff, from corrupt campaign con- 
tributions, from corrupt municipal govern- 
ment, from corrupt state government, is 
due to one vital fault in the American polit- 
ical system. In a vital spot the nation 
is politically sick, and every evil conse- 
quence of bad government flows from this 
source. 

That fault is a system by which commer- 
cial interest may make alliance with men 
interested in politics as a business, and 
who are influenced in following politics 
merely for profit. 

Since the war, the convention as a system 
of party mechanism has grown to be grossly 
abused and has become an agency through 
which sinister commercial forces operate 
in the control, first of party government and 
second of government itself. Under ma- 
chine politics of both political parties, 
where these influences operate, you will find 
a precinct boss, who manages the precinct 
primary. He calls the primary meeting 
on short notice, obscure advertisement and 
in an inconvenient or unpleasant room. He 
fills the room with his own strikers; he 
names the precinct delegate. The members 
and voters of his party in that precinct 
do not name the precinct delegate. They 
are not present for various reasons. 

The first reason may be that they did 
not know of the meeting. 

Second, if they did know of it, they 
knew it would be upstairs in a back room 
over Tim Sullivan's saloon, and they did 
not like the place. 

In the third place they knew that Sul- 
livan, the precinct boss, would have the 
room full of his strikers, and that one or 
two independent citizens had no show in 
that primary. 

A fourth reason was possibly that politics 
had been made disgusting to the ordinary 
citizen by the notorious rascalities which 
had taken place before, and had made the 



duty of a citizen to attend the primary 
offensive. 

Whenever the precinct delegate was named 
by Tim Sullivan, the precinct machine 
boss, then and there departed the control 
of the members of the Republican party of 
that precinct and of the county and state 
and congressional district. Thereafter 
the precinct delegates had all nominations 
and all platforms within their sacred keep- 
ing. The same thing, of course, is true 
of proceedings under like Democratic ma- 
chine processes where they exist. 

Thereafter the precinct delegates met 
in county convention, or municipal con- 
vention and selected delegates to state 
conventions, or to the congressional 
district conventions. 

Thereafter the state conventions of 
machine delegates nominated the dele- 
gates to national conventions where 
national platforms are written and presi- 
dents nominated. 

Thereafter state conventions made up 
of machine men, just as far as this system 
happens to prevail, will write state plat- 
forms and nominate candidates for state 
officers from governor down. 

Under such a system of party govern- 
ment, men desiring high political position 
or great political power find it necessary 
to control the machine or to be controlled 
by the machine. The building up of a 
machine is a natural outgrowth of human 
nature and of human ambition and human 
intelligence which puts together the factors 
necessary to success. 

In many of the states, in part or in 
whole, one party or the other party, or 
perhaps both parties, are absolutely dom- 
inated by the machine. 

Commercial interests find a potent ally 
with the men who control the state or 
city machine of either party or of both 
parties. 

These commercial interests furnish 
money when necessary, and only when 



(180) 



POLITICAL HEALTH OF THE NATION 



181 



necessary, on a large scale or a small scale 
as their interest seems to justify, and in 
this way are able to influence nominations 
and influence state, county and municipal 
platforms and political issues, and are able 
to influence the action of legislatures, 
national, state and municipal; are able 
to influence the action of executive officers, 
national, state and municipal. 

What do the machine politicians care 
for the unorganized clamor of the people? 
Their only fear is on the day of the election, 
and if commercial interests can nominate 
candidates of both parties, such commer- 
cial interests need not fear the result, even 
on the day of election. I care not who 
elects if I can name the candidates of both 
parties. Selection is more important than 
election. 

It is easy to perceive how this evil con- 
dition can be remedied. The members 
of the Republican party in every precinct, 
in every state where machine politics are 
entrenched should organize a liberty league 
or a Republican league, with a president 
and secretary, and with a postal vote, 
and through the postal vote, without leav- 
ing their homes, should nominate the pre- 
cinct delegate and every other candidate, 
if they like. 

Will you suggest that the political ma- 
chine would pay no attention to the nom- 



ination of the majority of the members of 
the party in the precinct of the precinct 
delegate? I answer that a federation of 
such precinct liberty leagues could sweep 
the machine out of existence and defeat 
every candidate named by the machine; 
that such an organization of precinct 
leagues throughout the state could be 
easily accomplished, and in that contin- 
gency could by postal vote name its own 
delegates to a state convention, who would 
represent the rank and file of the party 
and could oust from position any political 
party theretofore existing. 

The same policy pursued by the members 
of the Democratic party would break down 
the evil consequences of machine politics 
and restore the political health of the 
nation in both great parties. The nation 
has been sick with political corruption, 
with political selfishness, with political 
self-seeking and with a corrupt alliance 
between machine politicians and commer- 
cial interests engaged in the exploitation 
of the American people by artificial high 
prices, by national statute, by state and 
municipal contracts. (Witness Pittsburg.) 

Let Republican Leagues and Demo- 
cratic Leagues be organized to oust the 
machine politician of both parties, and 
we will have the national political health 
restored. 



PLUCK WINS 



FROM THE BOOK "HEART THROBS' 



Pluck wins! It always wins! though days be slow 

And nights be dark 'twixt days that come and go. 

Still pluck will win; its average is sure; 

He gains the prize who will the most endure; 

Who faces issues; he who never shirks; 

Who waits and watches, and who always works. 



By NATHAN B. WILLIAMS 



THE traveler has ever been an object 
of interest. His stories of places and 
peoples, his recitals of change and material 
development in the countries he has visited 
are ever received with live attention. 

Three wise men journeyed to Jerusalem. 
The instinct of travel has carried our ex- 
plorers far into the frozen North. They have 
covered and chartered the whole globe. 

The old Arkansaw Traveler, he of the song 
and story, early found the delights of exis- 
tence in his adopted state. The genius of 
an Arkansas citizen, Col. Sandy Faulkner, 
caught the most picturesque of his species 
and fixed his place in literature. The story 
is a familiar one. It has in the past been 
used as a symbol of the supposed unpro- 
gressiveness of the people of Arkansas. 
Many columns of newspaper type have been 
used in an attempt to deplore its publication. 
It has been declared to be a base slander 
upon the people of the state, but there was a 
day when the idyllic existence therein pictured 
was no wild stretch of the imagination. 

The frontier fiddler was a type. Many of 
the crude witticisms told in the story were 
early heard in New England, Virginia, New 
York and Indiana. The only real Arkansaw 
travelers, who yet exist, are those who have 
not yet learned by exploring the "big road" 
that the original type no more lingers within 
the borders of Arkansas, than in any other 
community of this great country. 

Perhaps you have at some time smiled, 
indulgently, at the naivete of the replies of 
the frontier fiddler. A fiddler who was never 
able to get past the "turn of the tune." 
You must know that the piece of music 
-which bears the name of "Arkansaw Trav- 
eler" has a turn in the tune. This fiddler 
as pictured in the story, was never able to 
get past the "turn in the tune," but the new 
Arkansas citizen has reached and passed 
the turn in the tune and is well down the 
highway of progress. 

The original Arkansaw pioneer when 
asked as to why he did not repair the roof of 



his cabin, is quoted as saying; "that when it 
was dry it did not need repair and when it 
was raining he could not fix it." When he 
was asked by Col. Faulkner where the big 
road went to, replied: "He did not know; 
that it had not gone anywhere since he had 
been there." 

Thus we have the supposed original 
Arkansas farmer, fiddling away but never 
getting past the turn of the tune; his cabin 
out of repair, the roof falling in, his corn 
"yaller" because he had planted the "yaller" 
kind; a splendid and magnificent picture of 
indifference to surroundings and of the future; 
fiddling away but never getting past the turn 
of the tune. 

But he has now reached and passed the 
turn of the tune. Instead of a coon-skin 
cap, he now wears a silk tile or a five-dollar 
Stetson. Instead of a cabin, his home is 
modern and well equipped. He has embraced 
and put to practical use the accumulated 
knowedge of the State University and the 
original type is quite extinct. But there is 
a more modern type of Arkansaw Squatter 
who is found everywhere; not alone in 
Arkansas, but in every community; in the 
halls of legislation, in the pulpit and the pro- 
fessions, in every walk of life. 

Wherever men see disease, poverty and 
degradation about them and make no real, 
earnest endeavor to make such conditions 
impossible, their failure to act is for the 
reason that they are unprogressives. 

A town or city which has not plenty of 
parks and playgrounds is full of Arkansaw 
fiddlers. 

Disease -breeding tenements are kept and 
permitted by the same type. 

None of these have yet reached the turn 
of the tune. 

But we are reaching the turn of the tune. 
The old order changeth. New ideals of 
civic duty and responsibility are everywhere 
being realized. We have reached the turn 
of the tune in municipal corruption. No 
longer is bribery a "conventional crime." 



(182) 



THE NEW ARKANSAW TRAVELER 



183 



Public officials are coming to know that they 
are the "hired men" of the whole people. 
The people have reached and are getting 
past the turn of the tune. The Arkansaw 
Traveler, symbolic of the growth and de- 
velopment of this nation, you are coming 
into your own! 

In Arkansas, the turn of the tune has been 
reached. The broad highway which passed 
the fiddler's door now leads to great cities. 
It winds along the banks of the beautiful 
White River. It leads through rice fields 
and among cotton plantations where grows 
the wonderful long staple, sought by the 
buyers of the old world at twenty-five cents 
per pound; through great forests of virgin 
elm, oak, cotton-wood, cypress, pine, walnut 
and hickory. 

At every turn of this road is a school- 
house or college and new ones are building 
every day. Our road takes us to the only 
diamond field in America, Pike Count)', 
Arkansas. 

Slate of every color and shade to tempt 
the artistic architect is found in abundance. 
Beautiful black marble, zinc, lead, antimony, 
cement, phosphate and pottery clays but 
await the turn of the tune in their develop- 
ment. 

Our traveler now follows the road to the 
vineyards and orchards of Arkansas, to where 
the ever pleasant rays of the sun kiss the 
purple and amber into the grape, for be it 
known that the native grapes of Arkansas 
have presented to the world some of its most 
splendid varieties. He visits some of the 
largest strawberry fields in the world and 
notes the abundance of other small fruits. 
The fig and the orange are to be found in the 
southern part of the state, while among the 
beautiful Ozark Mountains of the north- 
western part of the state grow the most beau- 
tiful and finest flavored apples of the world. 
Evidently the Ozark pla eau is the original 
home of the apple. More new varieties of 
the apple have been produced and developed 
in this section than in any other part of the 
world. The counties of Benton and Wash- 
ington in northern Arkansas have each more 
apple trees in them than there are in any 
other counties in the world. 

Geologists tell us that the Ozark plateau 
is the oldest land upon the western hemi- 
sphere. What were once rugged mountains, 
as they rose from the waters of the earth, 



are now gentle hills and pleasant valleys. 
Their beauty never tires. Here the indus- 
trious husbandman in ever increasing num- 
bers is finding the turn in the tune in his 
efforts for a prosperous and happy existence. 

It being true that this is the oldest land in 
America, then of a certainty here was the 
Garden of Eden and the apple used by Eve 
to tempt Adam was a Shannon Pippin, a 
native of Washington County, Arkansas. 
No wonder Adam succumbed. If you have 
not yet inhaled the aroma of this most de- 
lightful apple or experienced its delicate 
flavor, there is a glimpse of paradise yet in 
store for you. Here the great artist paints 
the downy skin of the peach till it takes on a 
blush never equaled by a Chase or a Sargent. 

Politically, Arkansas has reached the turn 
in the tune. Instead of a professional poli- 
tician, a contractor and business man is 
Governor. Sen-ice is the watch-word of its 
officials. Fitness is the test applied by the 
voter to candidates for office. Numerous 
instances of breaking away from party lines 
occurred in the election of 1908. We record 
facts not personal opinions. 

The South has reached the turn in the 
time. A generation of strong young men, 
who have come to maturity since the turmoil 
of Civil War, men who are intelligent and 
educated, are coming into the thought and 
destinies of the South; that most thoroughly 
American section of the United States. The 
men were born and have developed among 
pleasant surroundings. The greed of money- 
making has not touched them. This cor- 
ruption of ideals has been prevented by the 
ease with which a competency may be se- 
cured in this favored clime. They have in- 
herited the traditions and facts of personal 
honor and civic integrity which distinguished 
their forefathers and in the settlement of 
national questions and in determining na- 
tional ideals will be heard to good effect. 
Patiently have they labored to overcome the 
poverty and destitution left by the war. 
Lovingly and tenderly have they cared for 
the widow and orphan. With kindly solici- 
tation they have kept their fathers and grand 
fathers in the places of public honor and 
trust, but these grand old men, who loved 
honor better than life, are rapidly passing, 
leaving a rich heritage to those, their children ; 
a heritage whose influence will be long felt, 
remembered and cherished. 



184 THE NEW ARKANSAW TRAVELER 

These men, having re-built and re-estab- development of a great people whom riches 

lished their country, now see the turn of the will not corrupt nor serious problems dismay. 

tune. They invite honest men and women Behold the turn in the tune! Its rising 

from everywhere to share in the future glory cadences shall fill the world. Its sentiment 

and development of the sunny Southland, will touch the heart, its beauty thrill the soul. 

Many new travelers are coming in increasing The present generation will catch its spirit 

numbers. They behold the turn of the tune has caught it. Dying happy, its notes will 

The nation has awakened to new conceptions attend them and they will desire no finer 

of duty and responsibility. This section is epitaph than that they were Arkansans and 

but now catching the spirit of a great awaken- contributed their part in the upbuilding of 

ing in material development; its boundless their beloved state and the greatness of the 

resources conserved and reserved for the American Union. 



IRoaos Bo Wot %eab to Ease 

By Herbert Kaufman 

IF you try to make life too easy, you'll soon find it too hard. Ambition is a dream without an 
awakening, unless it makes your will as eager as your wish. Effort is exercise; endeavor 
produces endurance. 

It's no trouble to cut through butter but it won't develop strength. The hewer of stone 
wears the strong arm and bears the long labor. 

Persistence is the key to existence. Success invariably rewards the good fight. Knowing 
what to do or how to do it won't bring results. Action must drive ability. The nail is useless 
without the hammer. Courage is the complement of knowledge. 

Easy roads do not lead to ease. Worn paths run to spots and things which others have 
already found. 

Opportunity is trampled underfoot in the crowded thoroughfares. The greater chances 
always lie ahead. 

But the price matches the prize. If you want more than the average you must pay more 
to secure it. You can't buy with counterfeit attempts. The true coin of accomplishment bears 
the mint marks of grit and honest labor. 

You can't have our best unless we have your best in return. You can't arrive unless you 
survive. Half journeys are wasted. Only the stride which lands you at the finish counts. 

You can't take pleasure and indulgence with you in the climb. You must forego tempta- 
tion and cut out the short cuts. The wrong road is never a long road therein lies its danger. 

If you meet with brambles and boulders, reflect that there are fewer toward the end. The 
more rugged you find the way, the less likelihood that you've been preceded. 

You need no capital but a. fixed idea and the resolve to carry it out. Want a thing harder 
than the world wants to keep you from it, and you'll wear through every opposition and get it. ' 

Mere knowledge isn't competition. The man who secretes must give way before the man 
who creates. A bulging forehead can't conquer a squared jaw. 

When old Henry Harper died he willed his millions to charity and his will to his sons. This 
is the letter which they found in his strongbox: 

"I gained my money from men weaker than myself, and I return it to them. If you are 
strong enough and bright enough to retain my estate, you have the necessary tools with which 
to build one of your own. 

"If you cannot succeed without my wealth, you couldn't have succeeded in holding to it. 

"Others will think that I have pauperized you, but / understand how great a legacy I 
have willed you: the incentive to prove yourself the supreme right to test your powers without 
the handicap of assured maintenance. 

"Only the builder truly rises above his fellow. Go out into the world to earn and thereby 
learn. Rub against men and get an edge. Enjoy the most supreme of all recreations the thrill 
of creation." 

(Copyright, 1909, by Herbert Kaujman.) 



(SneJ 

" 




o 



OWN to the wharf we dashed in 
taxis doesn't that sound swell 
for editors? and boarded the 
United Fruit Company's steamer 
"Turrialba," a staunch and beautiful new 
ship, named after a Costa Rican volcano. 
Loth to leave New Orleans, we had lingered 
until the latest possible moment. 

As the great ship swung from her moor- 
ings into the Crescent Bend of the river, 
with her nose pointed southward, a party 
of Chinese among the ship's crew dis- 
charged a monstrous battery of fire- 
crackers, to the value of over three hun- 
dred dollars; it sounded like the feu d'enfer 
of a section of Maxims. Far above the 
masthead the crackers hissed and exploded. 
If evil spirits in truth fear firecrackers and 
noise, as the Celestials believe, our Chinese 
crew must without fail have scared off any 
spooks that might have been disposed to 
abide with us. With wildly swinging 
pigtails, the Chinamen danced about the 
decks, determined that every cracker 
should detonate to the very last of the 
immense red strings. A fitting salute for 
our embarkment for Panama! 

We steamed slowly down the river lest 
the waves in the wake of the boat, rippling 
on the shore on which the Acadians once 
dwelt, should overflow the levee. There 
was dancing on the deck from cake-walk 
to sedate waltz and hopping two-step. All 
the young people made merry, but the 
old wiseacres in the shadows on the deck 
murmured: "Tomorrow; wait for the 
morrow and then " 



In the morning we had passed the great 
jetties and were out on the turquoise 
waters of the Gulf, which, alas, were some- 
what hash-like and choppy. The effer- 
vescent spirits of the young people were 
at their lowest ebb, and many seemed to 
have lost all appetite. Excuses were rife 
they had "danced too much last night." 
Some passengers sat at the table and pecked 
at the food, ordering about everything on 
the menu "to find something that would 
taste good"; and at last hastily retired 
for more sea room. Personally I thought 
I knew now how Lady Gwendoline, the 
heroine of the dime novel, felt when she 
"toyed with her fork." 

On board were Henry W. Savage, the 
well-known theatrical manager, and his 
party, bound for Swan Island, bent on 
having a real Robinson Crusoe outing. 
One of the young ladies insisted on giving 
us da capo of the "Merry Widow" waltz, 
"before and after each meal," as the medi- 
cine label hath it. There was also Captain 
A. Adams, "King of Swan Island," who 
for nearly thirty years has lived on this 
tiny islet in the Gulf of Mexico, about a 
hundred miles from Honduras. Many 
were the exciting narratives which the 
weather-beaten sea captain related about 
his cruises all over the world, before he 
settled down in peace and comfort on this 
beautiful island in the Caribbean. 

We first made Cape Antonio, the most 
western point of land in Cuba. As the 
lighthouse loomed up in the distance, 
glasses were levelled, but the sea continued 



(185) 




A VISTA OF THE CULEBRA CUT WHICH SUGGESTS A VIEW ON THE HUDSON 




THE MAN WITH THE UMBRELLA" AT THE BOTTOM OF THE 
CULEBRA EXCAVATIONS 




NEW BRIDGE ACROSS THE RIVER CHAGRES AT GAMBOA 




CEMENT WALLS BEING CONSTRUCTED AT THE PEDRO MIGUEL LOCKS 



188 



THE PANAMA CANAL AS IT IS 



"choppy," and some passengers always 
some, you know sobered down to life in 
steamer chairs, and even the Pearl of the 
Antilles was passed with an indifferent 
glance, for land, without landing, is not 
interesting to the sea-ill ones. When 
Swan Island was sighted, with its great 
cocoanut groves gracefully waving a 
welcome on the horizon, in their feathery 
shade we could discern the capital city of 
the realm which Captain Adams had left 
some months before to visit old friends 
"way down east." A few weeks before 
our arrival the wireless telegraph operator 
had inadvertently electrocuted himself 
with his apparatus, and as the party for 




A PANAMANIAN VILLAGE, IN THE INTERIOR, 
DURING THE RAINY SEASON 



the island prepared to disembark in a small 
boat, the coffin brought for the dead man 
was lowered into it a rather gruesome 
accompaniment to a holiday party. Mr. 
Savage in leaving glanced back, remarking 
"pleasant prospect this," as he looked 
down at the great casket already in the 
tossing boat. The last we saw of them 
the Jamaican oarsmen were pulling hard 
for the shore, the boat tossing up and down, 
the casket the most prominent feature 
of the party. The island has a mule rail- 
road, and a fort at the northern end, built 
by the old buccaneers. There is a fine 
deposit of fuller's earth on the island and 
it is also rich in tropical fruit. The tem- 
perature is pronounced the most equable 
of any part on the Gulf, there are no rep- 
tiles, and the great, sandy beaches are 



ideal for bathing. The island was long 
claimed by Spain, but for many years was 
deserted, until an American placed it under 
the protectorate of Uncle Sam in 1852. 

As the "Turrialba" proceeded, everyone 
was reading something about Panama. 
"Phancy my pheelinks," as Orpheus C. 
Kerr used to say, when I asked in New 
Orleans for "the latest book on Panama," 
to have a copy of the National published 
three years ago placed in my hand as 
the most recent and comprehensive de- 
scription of the Canal. Books and maga- 
zines have a different flavor on board ship, 
and were in much demand. Mark Twain's 
"Innocents Abroad" was, as usual, a 
favorite source of consolation 
to the afflicted, the chapter on 
sea sickness being read proba- 
bly as a prophylactic for the 
benefit of the white-lipped pa- 
tients lying in the deck chairs. 
Captain Clarke, who hails 
from Dublin town, is a typi- 
cal sailor and was a favorite 
with all the passengers; he 
cheered up the patients with 
his jolly ways, played deck 
golf with those who were well, 
and skipped up and down 
the deck as blithely as the 
captain of the "Pinafore." 
He had sailed the seas for 
years, had been many times 
"around the Horn," and 
there was no official stiffness 
or shallow pretension in the make-up of 
the sturdy little Irishman. One day we 
found him writing up the ship's log, and 
he spoke of the new-fangled notion of 
doing away with the ordinary terms of 
"boxing the compass" and calling the 
east 90, the south 180 and the west 270 
degrees; there would then be no "nor'- 
west" or "sou'east." As we listened it 
seemed to us that the very basic principles 
of navigation were being undermined. 
No wonder the Hydrostatic Office at 
Washington took notice when a contri- 
bution under the pseudonym "Neptune" 
appeared in the Marine Journal, and told 
the scientific fellows a thing or two about 
practical navigation. 

In the bright glare of the tropical noon- 
day we came into Colon. At times the 





--: 

- - - 



*T"'^ 

i - ~ 
' ~ = 







; -. = 



j i 



190 



THE PANAMA CANAL AS IT IS 



Colon docks do not afford safe anchorage, 
and when there is a "norther" coming 
the vessels lying there pull out to sea. 
It was almost like reaching home to see the 
familiar wireless pole and the shore-line 
rimmed with white surf of the Caribbean 
breakers. Dr. Pierce, the quarantine officer, 
felt our pulses and looked into our eyes to 
see that we did not smuggle infectious dis- 
eases into the Isthmus. We landed in full 




C. R. ERWIN OF THE ZONE POLICE 

uniform white suits and Panama hats. 
After passing Cuba the cooler garb was 
brought forth, for in tropical sunlight 
dark colors seem to oppress the eye, with 
their psychic suggestion of heat. Look- 
ing at the ship's thermometers, we felt 
that no extraneous hints of warmth were 
needed. 

The Custom House guard of little 
Panamanian officers in full uniform had 
a pleasant smile of greeting all ready for 
us. No sooner had we touched shore than 
off the Americans started, carrying their 
own suit cases, at a Seattle pace. No 
porters or lackies could handle those valises 



fast enough. We soon recovered from this 
attack of speed and fell into the leisurely 
ways of the tropics. Then I began to 
wonder if I had really been here before. 
Could this be Colon? Could this be the 
pestiferous sink hole of old days? It 
looks now like a popular winter resort 
in Florida. In a cab we dashed, on a ten- 
cent fare, up Roosevelt Avenue, lined with 
cocoanut trees, and swung around the old 
De Lesseps mansion on the Point. Here 
I had to endeavor to make good as one 
of the party who had "been here before." 

Crossing one of the well-paved streets 
the traveler passes from Colon, Panama, 
into Christobal, which is in the Canal 
Zone. The handsome new railway station, 
with its imposing dome, indicates the 
permanence and thoroughness with which 
the plans for the future are being carried 
out. I gave a glance of greeting to the 
statue of Columbus, who is depicted 
gazing in the direction of that land which 
has made the nuptials of two great oceans 
possible. 

The operation of the Panama Railroad 
is one of the marvels of modern trans- 
portation. Over nine hundred trains are 
handled every day on that little stretch 
of track, a little over fifty miles in length. 
In a short time we were aboard the train 
looking upon Monkey Hill, now called 
Mount Hope Cemetery, where twenty 
thousand victims of yellow fever are buried. 

The Canal Zone, contains 448 square 
miles and includes the little group of 
islands in the Panama Bay, Puerin, 
Calabra and Flamenco, with a half interest 
in Naos. The United States owns outright 
322 square miles of territory, but under the 
treaty with Panama may purchase, by 
right of eminent domain, any buildings or 
watercourses, etc., needed for the con- 
struction, sanitation, operation or main- 
tenance of the Canal, or any part of the 
124 square miles within the Zone, pre- 
viously owned by private parties. By 
the French purchase over 2,150 buildings 
of various kinds were secured; these differ 
from the American structures, and repre- 
sent over two million dollars to the govern- 
ment. The conquest of the Isthmus is 
revealed in its towns and ^institutions and 
in the life of the people on the Zone. 





arvma 




AFTER the second United Fruit Com- 
pany's steamer, "Cartago," arrived, the 
editorial party took the train direct for 
Ancon, or Panama, fifty miles away on 
the Pacific side. Then the volley of edi- 
torial questions began Colonel George W. 
Goethals, Chairman of the Isthmian Canal 
Commission, Secretary Bishop and Colonel 
Hodges, and the other members of the 
Commission, were kept busy answering 
queries plied over and over, and all their 
replies were made with good nature and 
patience. 

There were glimpses of tropical scenery 
from the train windows. Here and there 
in the swamps near Colon the Egyptian 
papyrus was growing, reminding one that 
this plant once furnished the Egyptian 
Pharaohs and priests of forgotten dynasties 
with the only form of paper then known, 
except the skin of animals. "Ohs" and 
"Ahs" were heard on every side as the 
train passed through tropical verdure, 
giving glimpses here and there of aban- 
doned machinery left by the French in 
the jungle, though much of this has been 
sold as scrap iron at a flat rate of $17.30 
per ton. Over the Black Swamp in 
parts of which it is said no bottom can be 
found we passed, and saw the historic 
Stephens tree associated with days of '55. 
It is an immense ceiba, and was christened 
in honor of the celebrated archaeologist 
and traveler, on account of his expressed 
admiration for this beautiful mass of 
foliage. The tree is over fifteen feet in 
diameter, including the great buttress 
roots, and over one hundred feet high 



from the base to the branches, which 
originally spread a mass of foliage one 
hundred and fifty feet in diameter. John 
L. Stephens was the first president of the 
Panama railroad, and a true lover of the 
rare and beautiful in nature. He insisted 
on sparing the tree and its splendid growth 
of lianas; but for him it would have fallen 
under the axe or machete. Worn out by 
tropical wanderings, Mr. Stephens died 
in New York, October 10, 1852. 

Here were also great flowering trees re- 
sembling the "bell-topped" elm, with not 
a leaf upon them, but gorgeous with great 
yellow blossoms; on other trees the blos- 
soms were red; others again were purple. 
The drooping blooms reminded me of 
the lilacs clustering about the old home. 
How tales of the tropical jungle passed 
from lip to lip, and traveled the length of 
the car! Side by side with the productive 
cocoanut trees were graceful wild banana 
trees, which, however, bear no fruit. 
* * * 

The building of the Canal has already 
witnessed four notable epochs of pro- 
gression, each one of deep significance, 
reflecting in itself a great achievement 
of the present century. 

First: The sanitary organization, which 
included the discovery of the stenopheles 
or yellow fever mosquito, that led to the 
conquest of yellow fever for all time. 

Second: The organization, by Theo- 
dore P. Shonts, of a cohesive and central- 
ized industrial force, on plans which have 
proved effectual in the marvelous de- 
velopment of the United States. 



(191) 




CONCRETE; FLOOR AND WATERWAYS IN GATUN LOCK 




DRILLS EXCAVATING FOR BLASTING 




SHOVELS DEVOURING THEIR WAY THROUGH THE CANYON AT BAS OBISPO 




LOOKING SOUTH FROM PEDRO MIGUEL LOCK SITE, SHOWING CONSTRUCTION 
OF LOWER MIDDLE APPROACH WALL, JANUARY. 1910 



194 



THE CONQUEST OF THE PANAMA JUNGLE 



Third: The steam shovel and rail 
transportation of dirt, being a direct out- 
growth of railroad efficiency. This sur- 
mounting of the great trackage difficulties, 
that has made possible the digging of 
the vast man-made canyon, is credited 
to the genius of John L. Stephens. 

Fourth: The solution of the lock prob- 
lems by such experts as Colonel Goethals 
and Colonel Sibert, who have continued 
the great work by means of a corps of 
workers, organized under army methods. 

The men who are personally acquainted 
with conditions on the Isthmus, and really 
understand the immense difficulties that 
must be coped with, do not hesitate to 
bestow unstinted praise on their prede- 
cessors for what has already been accom- 
plished; from first to last the Canal has 
absorbed the attention of men of marked 
ability; their power to overcome such 
difficulties as have never been met with 
in any similar enterprise has made the 
building of the Canal possible. 

Colonel Goethals' tribute to the French 
and their work was poetic in its eloquence. 
Baffled by yellow fever, he considered that 
they deserved much credit for what they 
had accomplished. 

"The real heroes of the Canal work," 
he continued, "are Drs. Lazear and Reid, 
who fearlessly faced death in order to 
prove their theory concerning yellow fever. 
It is not hard to face death in the open, 
with one's comrades, and in the excite- 
ment of battle; but it requires a very 
brave man to lie quietly and willingly in 
a close room and watch the approach of 
the 'Grim Reaper.' These doctors and 
some of the Cuban nurses offered their 
lives to prove that yellow fever germs are 
carried by mosquitoes. They were willing 
to sleep in a close room, heated to ninety 
degrees and over, lying down among 
infected clothing brought from the fever 
hospital, and take their chances of re- 
covery. More than one life was sacrificed 
in these experiments, but the proof was 
conclusive, and the Panama Canal became 
a fact primarily because of the conquest 
of yellow fever." 

When sanitation on the Zone is under 
discussion the name of Colonel Gorgas 
comes to mind. An example of patriotic 
devotion, he has done much to bring about 



healthful conditions on the Isthmus. 
The Colonel pushes his work forward 
under the red-tiled roof of the Administra- 
tion Building. At the moment we entered 
he was moving his desk that a new floor 
might be laid to replace the one which 
the ants had just devoured, for nothing 
has yet been found to exterminate these 
tropical pests. 

Here we obtained information regarding 
the recently discovered "larvaecide," which 
is almost certain death to the mosquito; 
it is composed of carbolic acid, caustic 
soda and resin, and is more effective than 
kerosene, because it makes an emulsion, or 
mixes with water. It was compounded by 
the chemist at the laboratory, who worked 
on it for many years with as much con- 
centration and enthusiasm as though a 
great fortune depended on the discovery. 
A few drops of this larvaecide works 
wonders in the relentless extermination of 
the fever - breeding insects. Precautions 
are observed as strictly as ever, and there 
is continual inspection of cans, tanks and 
all water receptacles throughout the en- 
tire Zone, and at Empire and Colon. 
Previous to the institution of this rigid 
inspection water jars everywhere, even 
in hospitals, were breeding grounds for 
mosquitoes and consequently multipliers 
of yellow fever cases. The sanitary re- 
ports now indicate that malarial fever is 
the most prevalent ailment on the Isthmus. 
Most of the patients are Jamaicans ar- 
riving from the West Indies, already 
badly infected with malaria. One fatal 
case of yellow fever came on the "Carta- 
gena" from Venezuela; the infected man 
had entered that port and gone ashore, 
though he denied having done so when 
questioned by the health officers; his 
report was in a measure endorsed by the 
ship's papers. This case at once resulted 
in stricter regulations regarding quaran- 
tine. The chief fear among natives now 
is a visitation of the bubonic plague. 

The large South American bound pack- 
ages marked "disinfectants" brought a 
creepy feeling as we looked at them. It 
is said that in some South American 
cities the merchants appear to have no 
fear of yellow fever, and show no anxiety 
to exterminate the disease because in 
their opinion it prevents foreigners, who 



196 



THE CONQUEST OF THE PANAMA JUNGLE 



might prove progressive rivals in trade, 
from locating in their cities. When the 
bubonic plague is mentioned, it is quite 
another thing. Residents in South Ameri- 
can countries turn pale with fear at the 
thought of that dreaded malady. 
* * * 

The present plan, whereby the aid of 
military workers is secured, stirs patriot- 
ism and evokes enthusiasm, without any 
firing of guns or shedding of blood upon 
a hostile battlefield. The fact that mili- 
tary discipline has been applied to the 




COLONEL GEORGE; w. GOETHALS 

"All aboard ! We cannot stop dirt trains, 
even for United States editors." 

digging is the chief reason for the rapid ad- 
vancement of the work. Men who have 
passed the crucial Canal test and have 
made good are being eagerly sought. An 
army officer is, as a rule, not easily tempted 
by a handsome civil salary, which might 
be offered him by a large corporation be- 
cause of the comprehensive experience and 
discipline which has made a canal worker 
one who understands how to do things 
under orders without excuses or parley. 

The critical eyes of over a hundred 
editors closely inspected the work on the 
Isthmus. It presented at once curious, 



fascinating, kaleidoscopic views of past, 
present and future. The charm of the 
Zone grew upon us every hour; those who 
had written the most severe criticisms 
before visiting the work now caught the 
Canal fever, and were loud in their praises. 
We had caught the tune of the great 
anthem, "the Canal is being built," and 
we each wanted a hand in the building. 
Those who have visited the Zone return 
home convinced of the thoroughness of 
the work and its importance. Each one 
feels that the honor of the United States 
is involved in bringing the Canal to com- 
pletion, and would be willing to contribute 
his own private funds rather than have 
any delay in the Panama Canal programme. 
One poetical "we" asserted that "Panama 
is the brightest jewel that sparkles on 
Uncle Sam's watch chain." His dutiful 
nephews and nieces feel that, inasmuch as 
the old gentleman has never before craved 
adornment, he should now have the very 
best. The magnitude of the undertaking 
makes it an appropriate achievement for 
a great nation that hopes to inaugurate 
the peace of the world. The success of 
the work on the Isthmus will be the solu- 
tion of many vexed problems in the Latin 
Republics, and will aid them in organizing 
stable and successful governments. One 
of the object lessons which they seem to 
be taking advantage of is the sight of the 
marines on the war vessels at Nicaragua; 
cooped up on board for a length of time, 
the men become very restless and look 
with longing eyes over the rail, and the 
Southern nations hardly understand the 
perfect discipline which restrains the 
American soldiers and sailors, despite 
their natural desire to be "let loose." 

We very soon learned to keep out of the 
sun at noonday, to use an umbrella, and 
take advantage of the cabs to be had at 
such reasonable rates. The battalion did 
not forget, however, the old habit of draw- 
ing forth fountain pens and note books at 
every spare moment, to record canal 
information. Writing of what has been 
seen, the mind again lives in those vivid 
pictures, which memory portrays even 
more faithfully than the ubiquitous camera, 
which cannot secure the spirit and feeling 
of "the time" "the place" and other 
things. 



ocks 



anal 




A? Gatun Station, completed last year, 
we met Erwin, the police officer who re- 
membered the magazine pilgrims of three 
years ago. He took the party in tow and 
from the hill near the station we looked for 
the first time, with almost speechless 
wonder, in the glow of the evening sun- 
light, at the work of the Gatun locks. 
Out of an extreme length of forty and a 
half miles from the Atlantic shore to the 
Pacific coast line, the first six and one- 
tenth miles of sea level canal leads to the 
first of the three great Gatun locks, each 
1,000 feet long and 110 feet wide, inside 
measurement. By the successive use of 
these docks west -bound vessels will be 
lifted eighty-five feet to the surface level 
of Gatun Lake, and east-bound ships will 
be lowered eighty-five feet to the sea- 
level canal. The three Gatun locks in- 
clude six-tenths of a mile in length, which 
are the most stupendous examples of 
concrete construction ever attempted by 
man. 

One of the great monoliths was finished, 
having been built step by step to a height 
of over one hundred feet. Founded in the 
solid rock, massively constructed, it ap- 
pears to be as enduring as the pyramids of 
Egypt. A twenty foot solid bed of cement, 
with "tooth picks" of French rail-scraps 
to "reinforce" the cement and tie it more 
firmly together, ought to be as nearly 
adamantine as anything sublunary can 
be. These locks are certainly a triumph 
of American engineering. 

Down into the bed of the immense 
rtio of twin locks we went, ^crossed the 



great masonry floor and surveyed the 
immense holes, that look like sewer man- 
holes, through which the water will spout 
to raise the vessels to a higher altitude, or 
be let out to lower them to sea level. 
There are six locks in three pairs, and when 
one 'considers that a lift of eighty-five feet 
is divided among these, one admires the 
boldness of the engineers' design, even 
while the mystery of the process capable 
of lifting a great ship is made clear. 
Across the locks run the wire cables on 
which the buckets of cement are conveyed, 
swinging like great pillows in the air, 
Thousands of tons of cement have been 
consumed in the titanic undertaking, and 
much more will be needed to complete it. 
On the other side revolve the cement 
mixers, out of which swiftly running third- 
rail electric cars are rilled and sent to 
deposit their plastic lading where it will 
lie and harden into eternal rock. 

On the banks of the old French canal 
stands the great cement warehouse, where 
nearly five million barrels of Atlas cement, 
brought from Northampton, Pennsyl- 
vania, are handled for the mixers. Clos3 
at hand are great piles of crushed rock 
from Puerto Bello, and of sand brought 
from Nombre-de-Dios; the first captured 
by Admiral Vernon in 1741, and the latter 
famous for an ill-fated raid by Sir Francis 
Drake in Queen Elizabeth's time (about 
1686). A constant succession of electric 
cars, running automatically, pass along 
at regular intervals; one part of each era 
contains cement, another rock and another 
sand. Loaded from above through a 



(197) 




AFTER THE STORM, THE LOCOMOTIVES PUSH THROUGH THE FLOODS 




CEMENT PLANT AND ELECTRIC TRAIN AT GATUN LOCKS 




A CONCRETE FLOOR THAT WILL OUTLAST THE CENTURIES 




SUSPENSION BRIDGE ACROSS THE CULEBRA CUT AT EMPIRE 



200 



THE GIANT LOCKS OF THE CANAL 



chute from the big "stock piles" the ingred- 
ients pass to the cars and on to the mixer, 
apparently as if by magic, for all cars are 
operated by the third rail, which the 
Jamaican negroes have at last learned by 
practical experiment is fatal to human 
life if carelessly stepped upon a needless 
danger, for the cars practically run with- 
out human intervention en route. Watch- 
ing these ingenious time and labor saving 




EXCAVATION WALL, OF THE GATUN 

contrivances, one begins to think that 
perhaps the stories of the wonderful crea- 
tions that came from the forge of Vulcan 
may not be merely myths, but memories 
of a time when men were wiser than they 
are now. The blasting began in the lock 
excavation work about five o'clock, after 
the workmen had retired. It sounded 
like a Fourth of July celebration on a large 
scale, and was a fitting sunset salute. A 
flag with red and white squares indicates 
that the blasts are being prepared; elec- 
tricity is used to explode the charges. 



Peering down, as we passed, into the 
caverns of those great locks, we could see 
in fancy the leviathans of a later age, 
larger than the "Mauritania" and "Lusi- 
tania," being raised, as though by magic, 
through these locks to the bosom of the 
Gatun Lake, and passing along the canal 
which leads from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific. 

The great dam, looking like a long, low 
mountain, extends between two hills. 
Measuring 9,040 feet (one and eight-tenths 
miles) along the crest, including the spill- 
way, and 1,900 feet wide at its greatest 
thickness at the base, its crest is 115 feet 
above sea level, 100 feet in breadth and 
thirty feet above the normal lake level, 
where the dam is 375 feet thick. Immense 
"toes" or layers of rock will protect both 
the inner and outer slopes of the dam, and 
the upper slope on the lake side will be 
farther strengthened by ten feet of rock- 
work. In the heart of this artificial moun- 
tain is a filling of sediment, the drainage 
of the dredging waters pumped in night 
and day; it becomes a solid substance for 
the core of the dam; the whole structure 
has been made sixteen times stronger than 
was at first required by the engineers, the 
purpose being to allay all apprehension 
by making absolutely sure of the impreg- 
nability of the canal work. The spillway 
has a channel 300 feet wide, over which 
140,000 cubic of water will flow every 
second, and through which the waters of 
the Chagres will flow. 



The great lake will cover a space 165 
square miles in area it is a "lake" rather 
than a "lock" canal. Timber was being 
cleared from the immense anchorage basin 
in Gatun Lake, just above the dam, and 
many a vessel in 1915 will anchor above 
the very site of a beautiful tropical jungle; 
and keels will float eighty -five feet above 
the old village of Gatun. It is a busy 
scene thousands Of men hurry hither 
and thither, filling in behind the breast- 
works concrete masses to become reefs 
of eternal adamant. Locomotive whistles 
shriek, bells clang, trains rumble along, 
long lines of workmen come up out of the 
lake basin making a picture of industrial 
activity never to be forgotten. 



202 



THE GIANT LOCKS OF THE CANAL 



In the early afternoon the train was 
ready, with Colonel Goethals aboard, to 
take the party to Culebra, where our first 
visit was to his official quarters. His 
office is on a very high hill, and the editors 
were "puffing" in another way than was 
their wont as they passed the threshold. 
After the climb the party listened to a full 
explanation, in terse, clear language, of 
the Canal work and plans. In the chair- 
man's office was a model of the locks and 
the Canal, showing the safety device 
the great chains, electric towing engines 
and false dam. The manner in which the 
water comes into the locks from the bottom 
was illustrated. The provision for using 
only a small portion of the one thousand 
foot lock was explained; this is most de- 
sirable and economical as ninety-five per 
cent of the steamers likely to use the canal 
are less than six hundred foot craft. The 
time of locking is estimated at ten to twelve 
hours, from one ocean to the other. 
Travel here will be more rapid than on the 
Suez sea-level canal, partly owing to the 
fact that here there is no sandy formation, 
compelling vessels to go at a rate of about 
three miles an hour, to avoid washing down 
the banks of the canal. In the Panama 
Canal, the average speed will probably be 
over five miles an hour including all 
lockage, and it will be possible to lock 
through forty -eight vessels a day. A model 
of even the largest "dreadnought" looked 
small in the canal model in comparison 
with the length of the great locks, which 
will give the largest craft an aerial flight or 
perpendicular lift of eighty-five feet. 

The map on the wall of the office was 
studied to gain a comprehensive idea 
also a relief map. Pointer in hand, 
Colonel Goethals took up every detail of 
the construction of the Canal, and soon 
had an intensely interested audience. As 
Professor Bailey of Cornell University 
remarked, "It was a class-room lecture 
seldom excelled." The simplicity and 
directness of the explanation made every 
minute of that too brief hour full of 
interest. Looking out of the window of 
the office, one saw the work in process on 
the Culebra Cut, while turning to the 
bas-relief model on the table, and the 
map on the wall, the whole great scheme 
lay unfolded before us. 



Ships enter the Canal at Limon Bay, on 
the sea level, going seven miles to Gatun 
locks; here they are raised eighty-five 
feet by means of a series of three pairs of 
locks, each being twenty-eight and one- 
third feet, which brings them to the level 
of the Gatun Lake. This great body of 
fresh water is even larger than Lake 
George in New York and provides an 
anchorage basin sufficient to accommo- 
date our entire navy without crowding. 
Sweeping down the lake, steamers reach 
Pedro Miguel locks, having traveled the 
thirty -two miles at full speed. Here the 
ships are lowered thirty feet, by means of a 
single lock. Now they cross Miraflores 
Basin about a mile in width and are 
again lowered by means of two locks of 
twenty-seven and one-half feet each, 
this being a total drop of eighty -five feet 
to the sea level canal of the Pacific 
which is five miles from the island-protected 
harbor. Fifteen of the fifty miles across 
the Isthmus is passed by means of the 
sea-level canal, the rest of the distance 
being in the Gatun Lake, Miraflores Basin 
and in the locks. 

The Atlantic entrance of the canal is 
at sea level, has an average depth of forty- 
one feet and the average tide is not over 
twelve inches, or one foot. On the Pacific 
side the tides range as high as twenty-two 
feet, and the channel is dredged to forty- 
five feet. At full tide the Pacific is ten 
feet above the Atlantic, and at low tide 
it is ten feet below the Atlantic. The 
Chagres River has been practically buried 
in the Gatun Lake. The rainfall last 
season was the heaviest recorded for many 
years, and raised the river over thirty -nine 
feet in a single night, but this would make 
only a rise of four inches in the lake. 
Observations show that the annual rainfall 
of the watershed of twelve hundred square 
miles is much more than sufficient to keep 
the lake well supplied with water. The 
average rainfall is one hundred and forty 
inches on the Atlantic side, and eighty 
inches on the Pacific, while the rainy 
season extends from April to December. 
This gives an ample supply of water to 
draw upon during the dry season. The 
evaporation from Gatun Lake is estimated 
at fifty inches per annum. 

Every question asked by the editorial 



204 



THE GIANT LOCKS OF THE CANAL 



party was most courteously answered by 
Colonel Goethals, who was ready to 
straighten out every kink with just the 
right information. With his wide practi- 
cal experience of the work, he was an ideal 
instructor and demonstrator, and it was 
plain to see his special genius was in execu- 
tive work and lock construction. In the 
cross-examination by the editors some 
interesting facts concerning the career of 
Colonel Goethals were incidentally brought 
to light. He was born in Brooklyn and was 
appointed to West Point by Congressman 
"Sunset" Cox, who previously had been 
much annoyed by candidates who failed 
to pass the examinations. The lad with 
blue eyes and Dutch blood assured him, 
"I will enter if appointed." He was 
appointed and entered, and will always 
do honor to his alma mater, the great 
military school on the Hudson, by his 
achievements, though they are in the 
paths of peace rather than war. 

His first assignment was on the Tennessee 
River, where a delayed contract was worry- 
ing the citizens of Chattanooga. The 
local Chamber of Commerce had its 
troubles in its efforts to secure a water-com- 
petitive freight rate. They arranged to 
have a boat through the river on a cer- 
tain date, because if not done then it would 
be impossible to secure the benefit of water 
rates from the railroads for Chattanooga. 
Young Goethals was detailed to handle 
the work, under the orders of General 
Casey. He brought the boat up the river 
on the fourteenth, a full day before the 
time limit required. He served his ap- 
prenticeship to General Casey, who became 
famous by completing a contract for the 
Library of Congress and for returning 
five hundred thousand dollars of the 
appropriation to the treasury. He also 
finished the Washington Monument in 
the time allotted for the work, and erected 
the Army and Navy Building at the capital 
within the estimates and in time. These 
were undertakings which trained the man 
now directing the destinies of the Panama 
Canal, and it was an eloquent tribute that 
the Colonel paid to his former chief, 
General Casey, under whom he had learned 
to make reliable estimates and carry out 
work according to military orders, and 
within the_specified time. When Colonel 



Goethals says the Canal will be completed 
by January, 1915, his statement is implicitly 
believed by all who have seen the work or 
who know the man. 

* * * 

Every Sunday morning Colonel Goethals 
hears all -grievances from canal workers, 
and not a man on the Canal force but feels 
free to go to him with a complaint. It is 
not popular down on the Isthmus to 
"kick" these days, just for the fun of 
kicking. The Colonel claims that he 
learns more from these grievances than he 
does from routine inspections. One loco- 
motive engineer insisted that he was haul- 
ing eighteen carloads while others hauled 
fifteen. "This is not right," he complained. 

"Of course it is not right," echoed the 
Colonel. "Hereafter they will all haul 
eighteen cars if you can do it without 
difficulty." 

Referring to the time of the French, 
the Colonel insisted that the development 
of the work as it progressed would have 
soon suggested the feasibility of a lock 
Canal to these earlier workers. They 
would have had to face bitter disappoint- 
ment in finding that much of what they 
had already done was useless. With 
twenty-three rivers pouring into the 
prism, and the land slides coming into it 
from time to time, it is seen even by un- 
skilled observers that a sea level canal was 
out of the question, if the purpose of get- 
ting ships through at all times was to be 
achieved. The sea level advocates in our 
party were converted very quickly when 
they saw the canal and the country 
through which it must run. Had the 
sea-level plans been adopted, it would 
simply mean the removal of mountains 
in order to reach the depth required 
with precisely the same attendant natural 
dangers.. 

As the work progresses, it seems provi- 
dential that the decision was made in 
the beginning for a lock canal, for every 
month proves more emphatically that it 
is a decision approved by Nature herself. 
Over and over again the same questions re- 
garding the work were shot at the Colonel 
and he replied with saintlike patience, 
though some of them must have sounded 
foolish to a man of experience. He was 
especially gallant to the ladies, and was 




THE FORWARD DECKS OF INCOMING SHIPS ARE LOADED WITH JAMAICANS, 
COMING TO WORK FOR SOME OF UNCLE SAM'S SILVER 



206 



THE GIANT LOCKS OF THE CANAL 



careful to see that they had every oppor- 
tunity to understand the work. 

-One of the main considerations kept 
constantly in mind by the Colonel, is his 
cost system. Pay checks are signed and 
countersigned by the seven different men 
who check disbursements for the work; 
The undertaking on the Isthmus may be 
looked upon with the closest scrutiny and 
the conviction arrived at that not one cent 
is being wasted. Nor are there any drones 
in this hive, for the process of elimination 
has been carried to perfection, and those 
who do not "make good" are reminded, in 
the words of the inimitable Mr. Rourke, 
assistant engineer of Culebra, that "the 
boat goes back every five days." 
* * * 

The clanging of the locomotive bells 
sounded like early morning chimes as we 
sat out at dawn again to view the work on 
the gigantic locks at Gatun. What has 
been accomplished in four months tells 
the story of what can be done in the coming 
year; the locks at Gatun will be practically 
completed within a year. The great dam, 
together with the spillway and locks, looks 
like the gorge of Niagara. The Chagres 
River is now flowing through the spillway, 
as placidly as a mountain brook. Here 
the power is to be generated that will run 
the electric tramway to tow the vessels 
through the locks and operate the entire 
railway system. Near the spillway the 
great concrete mixers continue to work 
night and day. Many barrels of Atlas 
cement are here unloaded into the mixers, 
and hundreds of men and machines were 
pressing to completion masses of concrete. 

The last day we spent in a trip to the 
site of the Miraflores locks Miraflores 
means the Lake of Wonderful Flowers 
here the locks lower the ships into that 
beautiful basin by a drop of thirty feet. 
This little lake is fifty-five feet above 
the Pacific sea level, and is a piece of en- 
gineering that farther proves the logical 
status of the Gatun Locks. The whole 
nation knows now that a lock canal is 
not the impossibility that it was repre- 
sented to be a few years ago. The ob- 
jectors who insisted that water could not 
be retained above its natural level now 
understand that these artificial lakes are 
no more remarkable than those set by 



the hand of Mother Nature on mountain 
tops, or the great water reservoirs on the 
Isthmus and elsewhere. For over three 
hundred years there have been no earth- 
quakes that would disturb concrete 
structures on the Isthmus, and there seems, 
therefore, to be no cause for apprehension 
regarding either the lakes, locks or canal. 

The sand for the gigantic concrete work 
on the Gatun Locks is taken from Nombre- 
de-Dios, an historical spot in Panamanian 
territory. Here the big suction dredge is 
kept busy pumping into the barges, which 
are towed down the Atlantic and up the 
old French Canal to the stock piles, near 
the mixers. Nombre-de-Dios means in 
Spanish, the name of God, and, like nearly 
all the old towns and noted places through- 
out the Isthmus, preserves traces of 
Spanish occupation. An academician of 
the party, who was not camera-laden, took 
pencil and paper and figured long and care- 
fully to discover how much more masonry 
would be used in the construction of the 
Panama Canal than had been required for 
the Egyptian pyramids. 

After all the work on the locks and dam 
has been put into position 6,000,000 
rivets will have to be driven, these being 
exclusive of the millions of rivets already 
put in place in the prepared parts that 
have been taken to the Zone. The clatter 
of a million skyscrapers being built all 
over the land would be as nothing as com- 
pared with that mighty chord of ringing 
staccato that will ascend from this little 
strip of land, the Canal Zone, when 6,000,- 
000 rivets go home to the position they 
will occupy for hundreds of years. 

The work at Gatun is in charge of 
Colonel Sibert; clad in army khaki, wear- 
ing square-bowed spectacles and bronzed 
to the roots of his hair, it is evident that 
his whole energy has been concentrated 
on the construction of the great triple 
twain of locks. 

The progress made here and at the Cut 
seems to create more local interest than 
current news from the States. Four or 
five days elapse between the arrival of 
vessels coming from the States, and "news" 
is a little stale before it reaches the Isthmus. 
But every day's work on the gigantic Gatun 
Locks is read as eagerly as November 
election bulletins. 



Made 




THE wide channel across the Gatun Lake 
narrows at San Pablo to eight hundred 
feet, being about five hundred feet wide until 
it reaches Bas Obispo. Thence to Pedro 
Miguel it narrows to about three hundred 
feet, keeping this width for eight miles. 
The depth is from seventy-five to a hundred 
feet. At Bohio the wide channel has been 
cleared of underbrush for fifteen miles 
after leaving Gatun. Most of the exca- 
vation done by the French company 
was between Tabernilla and Bas Obispo, 
but a large part of their work could 
not be utilized in the present plan. To- 
day the Chagres River in its winding 
course crosses the line of the Canal fifteen 
times, and at Bas Obispo turns abruptly 
at a right angle to cross again, but will be 
buried deep under the waters of the lake, 
and it cannot create even an undertow or 
current. When the water is turned on in 
the lake, instead of the tortuous windings 
of a tropical river, there will be a great 
body of fresh water, extending over an 
area of 165 square miles. The Matachin 
dyke has been built to protect the work 
going on in the Canal, the river now being 
above the work of the shovels. When the 
lake is raised to its normal level, the river 
beds and banks will be far below the sur- 
face of the canal-lake level, a level high 
enough to menace any part of the work. 

The great nine-mile Culebra Cut will 
have a minimum width of 300 feet and fol- 
lows the old surveys. This is the most 
spectacular feature of the enterprise; for 
riding through the Culebra Cut a great 
man-made canyon one gains a vivid 
view of the immensity of the task. At 
the "angle" or curve in the cut one is 



reminded of a glimpse of the picturesque 
Hudson and of what has already been 
accomplished. Here is a great canyon, 
333 feet wide, between Gold Hill and 
Contractor's Hill (650 feet high), in 
process of excavation; into it land- 
slides of dirt from the old French dumps 
have descended during the rainy seasons. 
These hinder the progress but cannot 
be prevented by engineering. When these 
slides occur it is simply so much more 
dirt to be carried off. They come so 
gradually that the palm trees growing 
on the moving soil remain upright and 
flourishing, despite the sinking of the 
land. The prize slide occurred at Cu- 
caracha, where the shovels were making a 
star record. Here the great industrial 
battle raged with military precision the 
shovels vigorously contended with the 
steady attack of vast masses of mother 
earth, while numerous drillers, the ad- 
vancing sappers of the battle line, made 
holes for charges of dynamite. Each hole 
is loaded with a charge of seventy to a 
hundred pounds of the explosive, which 
is placed at a depth of sixteen feet. Pipes, 
like a vast water system, distribute com- 
pressed air through the cut to provide 
power for the drills. The holes are drilled 
in parallel lines and are connected, being 
discharged by means of electricity. In 
these blasts over a million pounds of 
dynamite are used each month. 

* * * 

As on all battlefields, tragedies have 
occurred in connection with the work of 
this great construction. The casualty at 
Bas Obispo cost the lives of twenty-four 
laborers, and was caused by a premature 



(207) 




A GREAT SHIP MOORED UNDER THE COLON PAL,MS 




SPREADING DEBRIS FROM THE EXCAVATIONS ON THE BREAKWATER 




A BLAST IN THE DYKE AT MATACHIX 




LOADING CARS IN THE PRISM, OR BOTTOM OF CULEBRA CUT 



210 



THE MAN-MADE CANYON OF CULEBRA 



explosion o. twenty-two tons of dynamite, 
loaded in fifty large holes. It is said that 
the water in the holes being slightly acid 
the nitro-glycerine in the charges was 
liberated by the shock of some distant 
vibration. One man, working on a steam 
shovel, had the presence of mind to 
jump into the bucket; he was carried 
some distance with no worse injury 
than a few bruises, and returned home to 




CHAMBER CRANE AT PEDRO MIGUEL, 

Completed section of lock floor shows the holes 

through which the water will come to flood the 

lock as ships are raised. 

tell the wondrous tale of his aerial flight 
in a shovel. Now the holes are never 
loaded on the same day they are shot, no 
chances being taken. If the rock is not 
so broken that it can be easily munched by 
the shovels, the larger masses are broken 
into small pieces by "dobie" blasts. At 
present the battery of steam shovels on 
the Atlantic side of the cut, at Matachin, 
are two feet below the prism, or final depth 
of the Canal. 



Very little water comes down from the 
sides of the cut, and no pumping is 
needed during the dry season; but gigantic 
drainage ditches slope in each direction, 
to prevent water in the rainy season from 
sweeping away the work. 

The steam shovels stand on terraced 
levels and in fifty minutes load a train of 
eighteen flat cars, which are unloaded in 
fifteen minutes more amid a shower of 
dust. The line of cars are followed by 
"spreaders." All through the cut puffs 
of steam here and there indicate where 
the shovels are burrowing their way and 
pushing the work forward. Watching 
shovel 221, I stood on engine number 298 
when she was at work. Engineer Harri- 
son, his hand on the lever, was pushing 
the cars up in due course as the steam 
shovels filled them, while the conductor, 
raising and lowering a flag, directed a 
"shove-up," so that even while loading it 
is sometimes necessary for an engineer to 
keep his hand on the throttle. One shovel 
accomplishes probably as much work in a 
day as could be done by six hundred men, 
and there is a great deal of rivalry among 
the operators to make the best record. 

The record of 'steam shovel 223, for 
one hot October day, shows how the dirt 
flies on the Isthmus; 313 cars were loaded 
in 470 minutes. In the language of Larry 
O'Grady, this was "going some" almost 
an average of a car a minute, with eleven 
seconds grace, or a rate of a cubic yard of 
earth every seven seconds. A remark 
was made by a sad-eyed man of unknown 
nationality. "It looks as though the dirt 
had wings, doesn't it?" Over 50,933 
cubic yards of rock have been taken out 
in twenty-five working days by one 
shovel, and a completed tunnel through the 
cut is excavated within every month. 
During the day spent with the dirt 
trains I took a meal at Culebra, and a 
better lunch I could not desire at the 
moderate charge of fifty cents. 



Active excavations on the Culebra Cut 
did not begin until 1907, when fifteen mil- 
lion yards were removed, which record was 
more than doubled in 1908 by the removal 
of thirty-seven million, and followed by 
thirty -five million in 1909, making a total 



212 



THE MAN-MADE CANYON OF CULEBRA 



for the two years of seventy-two million 
yards, or an average of nearly three million 
cubic yards per month the past two years. 
National readers may remember that three 
years ago, when I visited the Isthmus, 
the pace was set at one million per month 
now a record of four million cubic yards 
has been made in a single month. The 
amount of the French excavation that can 
be utilized in the present canal is estimated 
at thirty million cubic yards, although in 
all they excavated more than seventy -eight 
million yards. The total amount of 
excavation required, allowing for all 
changes in the plans and counting on the 
earth that must be moved owing to slides, 
is over one hundred and seventy -four mil- 
lion cubic yards; of this over ninety million 
cubic yards have already been taken out, 
which indicates -that even if continued at 
the rate of the past two years the excava- 
tion will be easily finished in three years. 
The prediction that the Canal will be 
completed in 1915 is very conservative, 
and those best acquainted with the progress 
of the work do not hesitate to mention 
1914 as the date of completion. 
* * * 

Part of the indurated blue clay, trap 
rock and blue granite taken from the Cut, 
goes into the construction of the dam, 
and part is used for filling and like pur- 
poses and the breakwater, according to 
its nature. 

A trip through the Cut is especially 
interesting if made under the guidance 
of L. H. Rourke, the efficient assistant 
engineer, the last of the T. T.'s (Tropic 
Tramps). He is one of those inimitable 
persons who have had so much to do with 
the Canal that they seem to be a portion 
of it. A graduate of the Institute of Tech- 
nology '95, he bears the manly stamp of his 
native place near Plymouth Rock, Mass. 
He is a born leader of men and has a happy 
faculty for getting the right men and keep- 
ing them right on the job. Mr. Rourke 
is tall and like most of the workers without 
an ounce of superfluous flesh. He has a 
way of talking that commands attention, 
and the loyalty of his men is remarkable. 
When Mr. Rourke finds that work has 
not been done right, there is no shuffling 
in explanations given him and no mincing 
of words when he expresses his opinion. 



In the bed of the big cut we gathered 
fossilized oyster shells and other souvenirs 
which indicate that the ocean at one time 
swept over this part of the continent 
how many aeons ago no man may say. 
Requests for "specimens" flowed in so 
fast that we received a "Rourke" promise. 
Next day, at the hotel, there arrived a 
capacious box, "Explosives. Dynamite. 
Look Out!" Passersby gave that box a 
wide berth, determined not to stir up any 
dangerous explosives, until it was dis- 
covered that it contained nothing more 
dangerous than specimens for the editorial 
party, which Mr. Rourke had promised 
should be supplied to them if they would 
not get off and stop dirt trains by insisting 
upon gathering shells on the prehistoric 
Culebra "beach." . 

Looking up and down the Cut, when 
crossing the temporary suspension bridge 
across the great chasm at Empire, the 
favorite Sunday stroll for young people, I 
could not believe that my eyes beheld the 
same place that I had seen three years 
ago. Mountains of earth had been re- 
moved and the Canal now shows a clear 
course from Bas Obispo to the ocean, 
being completed to Matachin. Through 
the heart of the cut there is a section 
where the shovels must dig down eighty 
feet more, but it does not seem a great 
task compared with what has already been 
done. Judging from the past records, 
four years at the outside should see all the 
excavation finished. 

Three concrete barges, to carry the 
hydraulic excavating pumps on the Pacific 
Division, are being constructed at a point 
nearly opposite Corozal. They will be 
sixty-four feet long, of twenty-four feet 
beam and five feet eight inches draft. 
The walls of the hulls will be built of one 
thickness of half inch mesh number twelve 
wire cloth, stretched longitudinally, on 
half inch iron rods, twelve inches apart, 
and transverse half -inch iron rods eight 
inches apart. On the frames formed the 
concrete will be applied as plaster is 
put on laths. It will seem marvelous that 
great masses of concrete forming the hulls 
of vessels or dredges are floating on the 
Canal, through the great man-made canyon, 
where material of the very rocks rent 
asunder rides over the waters. 



214 



THE MAN-MADE CANYON OF CULEBRA 



Coming home from the lecture given 
at Culebra the cameras were kept busy, 
now photographing a native boy, now a 
tree lizard, or a part of a Young Men's 
Christian Association building. All man- 
ner of views were taken. The "rubber 
neck car," without springs, furnished 
ample opportunity to see everything 
and the vistas of scenery we passed 
were superb. En route we noticed that 
everything had to get out of the way of 
dirt trains, the despotic monopolists of 
railroad transportation on the Isthmus. 
To see the long line of locomotives 
daily returning after their day's work 
seemed like watching an army of sap- 
pers and miners on a great battlefield. 
The engines and shovels were human in 
their individuality. The rich foliage every- 
where was always interesting; some of 
the shrubs have been imported from India 
by the coolies, whose turbaned heads 
added to the picturesqueness of the various 
views photographed. There is on the 





Photo by F. M. Crane 

THE BALBOA TOWER FROM WHICH THE ATLANTIC 
AND PACIFIC OCEANS MAY BE SEEN 



WHERE THE "RUBBER-NECK" CAR POSED 

Zone a curious mingling of races, remark- 
able in so small an area. One of the 
marked demonstrations of this is the sing- 
ing of the Jamaican negroes who seem to 
regard their work as play. Their chanting 
suggests the voodoo incantations of their 
ancestors and they move much more 
cheerfully and gracefully to the rhythm of 
their weird songs than the old- 
time laborer did, who worked 
on railroad construction gangs 
without musical accompani- 
ment other than Flannagan's 
explosive cuss words. 

A number of the signal men 
are Jamaicans, and it is nota- 
ble that they do their work 
well, although in the early days 
it is said that one of them was 
found lying across the track 
sound asleep. On being hastily 
awakened he was asked: 

"Suppose a train had rushed 
past?" 

"No train passes here unless 
I know it, boss," replied the 
drowsy guard, rubbing his eyes 
and looking up and down the 
track on which he 'had been 
lying. 

The movement of trains is 
regulated by a system of flag 
signals, that suggests the "wig- 
wag" signalling of the navy. A 
yellow flag is used for caution; 
white for clear and red for 
danger on the track. In the 
signal towers are men who con- 
trol the operation of all ^trains, 




A VIEW FROM THE HEIGHTS, CULEBRA CUT. NOTE THE TINY FIGURES 

OF MEN AT WORK 




A VIEW OF CULEBRA, SHOWING A SLIDE WHERE THE OLD FRENCH DUMP-EARTH 

IS BEING EXCAVATED 



216 



THE MAN-MADE^ CANYON OF CULEBRA 



which sometimes follow each other in 
very rapid succession. Occasionally two 
steam shovels are used to load one car ; 
over a hundred shovels are at work, but 
the number will soon be reduced, as it 
is becoming more difficult to handle 
trains in the deepened Culebra Cut 
and pulling up grade out of the great 

"cellar." 

* * * 

Every minute of our time was sched- 
uled for some diversion, and tourists 
would come downstairs in the morning 
rubbing their eyes, at five, and wonder- 
ing if this was a real "vacation." At the 





COLONELS SIBERT AND HODGE 
Members of the Canal Commission who are on the field 



hotel there was a continual comparison of 
things done and seen during the previous 
day, and much information was distri- 
buted in the evening chats in the cool 
of the piazza. Everyone who knew any- 
thing of the former conditions of the 
Isthmus remarked how much more 
healthful it now is. Three years ago, 
when I was there, quinine was on every 
table, but today, both in Ancon and 
Panama, there is no fear either of the 
water or the climate, and both places are 
rapidly becoming ideal tropical resorts. 
At the dispensary, near the hotel, I 
saw Dr. Ornstein mending the fingers 



OUR SHIP SAILED WITH COLORS FLYING 

and toes of Jamaicans, as fast as they came 
in for repairs. They waited patiently and 
seemed to rather enjoy being 
patched up one by one. In 
the room was a sign directing 
visitors to take off their hats, 
as wearing them causes bald 
heads which is indeed a ter- 
rible affliction in the opinion of 
the West Indian natives. 
There was also a request not 
to talk with the dispenser, 
with the addition, "He mixes 
poisons." Quinine and rum 
are made into an attractive 
looking beverage for the Ja- 
maicans, but the medicine is 
not made toothsome, for any 
mixture with rum in it proves 
popular, however nauseous its 
taste. 

The monthly reports of the 
sanitary department , under 
Colonel Gorgas, are documents 
that make interesting reading 
for the health departments of 
many states and cities at 
home. And the man-made 
canyon of Culebra was made because of 
man's understanding of the physical man. 




ON A HIGHWAY IN PANAMA 



TKelsthmus 

* In {Ke Days 

a 11 





By Clarence J. Dorgan 



I ONG and varied is the list of those 
L< fearless adventurers who have sacri- 
ficed human life and accumulated treasure 
in the country which is now the Canal 
Zone. Always replete with human in- 
terest, the history of the Isthmus is now 
of more importance than ever before, 
whether to the young folk studying Ameri- 
can school geographies or to "grown-ups" 
reading descriptive matter concerning that 
historic neck of land. 

A romantic figure, standing prominent 
in the pages of the story of the Isthmus, is 
Balboa, clad 
in Spanish 
armor and 
plumed h e 1- 
met. He ex- 
plored and 
partially con- 
quered Da- 
rien. and has 
always had 
the distinc- 
tion of having 
discovered 
the American 
shore of the 
Pacific, ac- 
quiring rich 
booty of gold 
and pearls for 
his associates 
and the Span- 
ish king 
only, alas, to 
encounter in- 




Front Harper's Magazine 

Balboa, first white man to discover the American shore of the Pacific 

Entering the water he proclaimed the sovereignty of Spain 

(217) 



gratitude and bow his fearless head to the 
executioner's axe. Pizarro, later the con- 
queror of Peru; Devila, De Lussan, the 
indomitable swordsman and adventurer; 
John Oxenham, the Devonshire captain 
who, first of all Englishmen to cross the 
Isthmus, died in the fires of the Lima in- 
quisition; Sir Francis Drake, his avenger 
and the scourge of Spanish commerce, 
who made many successful attacks but 
was repulsed with loss at Nomlre de Dios; 
stout, burly John Hawkins, his crony and 
vice-admiral; Henry Morgan, who cap- 
tured Porto 
Bello and then 
plundered and 
burned old 
Panama; and 
Admiral Yer- 
non, who in 
1741 with but 
six ships took 
the Iron Cas- 
tle and Porto 
Bello, failing 
most disas- 
trously in the 
following year 
before Carta- 
gena, are a 
few of the 
mighty men 
who here 
dared all that 
men may dare 
in peril of sea 
and land. 



218 



THE ISTHMUS IN THE DAYS OF BALBOA 



These ancient heroes suffered all the 
pangs of hunger, thirst and mortal plague, 
the stress of battle and the merciless en- 
mity of cruel and bigoted men, without 
so much as a thought of the Canal of the 
Twentieth Century in their wildest dreams 
of achievement. 

As the books say, Balboa "was born of 
poor but honest parents." He had noble 
blood in his veins, and living a somewhat 
"rapid" life in his youth, some of his rela- 
tives many times wished him "across the 
seas.'' He went to San Domingo, but did 
not make a success of the prosy planta- 
tion life. To escape creditors he was smug- 
gled on board ship in a wine cask to join an 
expedition to Darien. An insurrection oc- 
curred and the young Spanish adventurer 
found himself in supreme command. From 
Indians and natives on the Isthmus he 
learned of an ocean across the jungles. 
Going in quest of this unknown "sea," the 
old Spanish records state that on September 
25, 1513, Balboa obtained the first view of 
the great ocean ; he is depicted standing on 
the highest point of land on the Isthmus. 

Intensely enthusiastic over his wonder- 
ful discovery, he went from place to place, 
and named the first gulf he looked upon 
San Miguel; he selected for the ocean the 



name of Mai de Sur, "South Sea," which 
was later changed to the Pacific, owing 
to the fact that no storms were ever known 
on the coast of this newly discovered ocean 
washing the shore of the Isthmus. 

Balboa was deposed from his command 
by intrigues at the Spanish court, and, al- 
though he continued to live in the land 
which charmed him, on the shores of the 
Pacific, he was betrayed by one of his best 
friends, and fell into the hands of Devila, 
his hated rival, the Spanish governor. 
He was accused of intrigue and beheaded 
within sight of the ocean which he had 
discovered and christened. His name will 
always be indissolubly associated with 
the Isthmus, and the town named for him, 
on the Pacific entrance of the Canal, will 
perpetuate the memory of the intrepid 
Spanish explorer, who first looked upon 
the peaceful waters of the Pacific from 
the American shore. In the shade of the 
mangled stump of the old Balboa tree, the 
young folks brought forth their histories to 
read in the shadow of the waving palms 
the accounts of Balboa's adventures, which 
were sent back to Spain where they still 
remain as the rare archives which have fur- 
nished the basis for the most thrilling and 
romantic pages of medieval history. 




from Harper's Magazine 

On the heights of the Isthmus. Balboa discovering the Pacific 



G 



rossm 

the ' 





By Captain Elisha Ryder 

(A reminiscence of crossing the Isthmus in 1849) 



IN the memorable year "49," when ad- 
venturers of all nations were making 
their way to California, I also caught the 
gold fever, and with the rest decided to 
try my fortunes in the new Eldorado. 
Like many Cape Cod boys, I had followed 
the sea from early youth, and had no 
desire to take the overland route. The 
"Red Jacket," "Flying Cloud," "Dread- 
nought," "Tarn O'Shanter," "Sovereign 
of the Seas," and "Queen of the Seas," 
were unrivalled for beauty, speed, equip- 
ment and management in that era of 
United States supremacy at sea; but the 
passage around Cape Horn, even in the 
splendid full-rigged ship of that day, was 
too long to tempt a man who could afford 
the shorter and easier Panama route 
especially when we thought that every 
day counted in reaching the great gold 
fields of California. 

The Panama Railway Company had 
not begun building the road, and boat, or 
rather canoe, navigation in the shallow 
Chagres River, and a mule caravan over 
the mountains to the Pacific were fairly 
well organized for passengers with light 
baggage. A single trunk carried my own 
modest outfit, and loving hands had packed 
it closely, adding many little necessaries 
that were of great convenience in my 
later travels up and down the Sacramento 
River. 

We sailed from New York in a side- 
wheel steamer, in October, and without 
special incidents rounded Hatteras, and 



entered the Caribbean Sea by the wind- 
ward passage off the eastern point of 
Cuba. Landing at the mouth of the 
River Chagres, we found a small village 
of thatched roof houses, just inside of a 
point, guarded by an old unused fort, 
from whose walls we secured a beautiful 
view of the tranquil haven bathed in the 
afternoon sunlight, on the day of our 
landing. 

We engaged passage in a bongo, or large 
dug-out canoe, furnished with a rude 
awning amidships, and propelled by 
paddles, and made about ten miles that 
night, landing at another little village 
of huts, roofed with thatch. Fortunate- 
ly, Mr. James P. Flint, my companion, 
spoke a little Spanish and was able to 
secure lodgings for us under cover; and 
using our boots for pillows we slept 
soundly for a while, in a native hut in 
far-off Panama, dreaming of the white 
houses and the old homes on the Cape. 
Our bedroom was a loft with a rude floor. 
During the night we were awakened by 
a general chorus of cries and yells from 
the family beneath us. The grunting and 
squealing of disgruntled porkers mingled 
in the air. The family pigs had made a 
raid into the house and were being ejected. 

We spent two days more upon the 
Chagres River, the crew for the most part 
paddling their cumbrous bongos over the 
shallows, although there were deeper 
channels against whose swift current the 
native canoe-men had to paddle lustily. 



(219) 



220 



CROSSING THE ISTHMUS IN '49 



While we reclined amid our baggage 
under the toldo or rude cabin, the boat- 
men worked vigorously under a tropical 
sun which at mid-day drove even the 
loquacious parrots and many a sweet- 
tongued songbird into the shelter of the 
deepest foliage, and to utter silence. 

There was much to see and admire in 
the great wild jungle, for the river swept 
toward the Atlantic in curves, each one 
opening a new picture of tropical verdure, 
scenery and interest. 

Here a range of low hills was closely 
skirted by the stream, and there a broad 
savanna trended from the outskirts of a 




The type of village which the 49-ers found in crossing the 
Isthmus in that eventful year 



native hamlet to the inland heights. Again 
a shallow lagoon covered with broad- 
leaved and curious aquatic foliage was 
dotted with golden-hearted, snow-white 
callas and long slim-petalled water lilies. 
Close up to the margin grew palms of 
more than one species, some slender and 
tall, their fronds lit up with scarlet and 
yellow seed-tassels; others, thickset and 
dwarfish, with great branches of big leaves. 
There were ceiba, cedar and espabo trees, 
with smooth trunks one hundred feet in 
the clear, whose branches shaded acres, 
and were hung with trailing vines, from 
the thickness of a rope-yarn to the bulk 
of a ship's cable. Here and there an aged 
tree was seen that had been fairly choked 
to death by these lianas, which had formed 



a perfect network of parasitic growth 
around the tree. 

Certain palms grew, instead of seed 
vessels, huge clusters of nuts, each the 
size of a lime, whose scarlet showed like 
rubies against the emerald foliage. Im- 
mense clumps of bamboo, climbing masses 
of passion flower, curious orchids, and 
vivid trumpet-shaped tropical flowers 
blended with the walls of forest foliage, 
which in places was so dense that they 
resembled ancient towers and walls over- 
grown with leafage. 

A few monkeys, an occasional alligator, 
a coiled serpent or two, flocks of noisy 
parrots and exquisite humming 
birds and butterflies, and in the 
dusk the wandering lamps of 
the cocuyos or fireflies made 
up the wild life as we saw it 
along the Chagres. 

For drink we had the water 
of the river, clear and sweet 
enough, but not very cool, 
and for food the little stock 
of eatables which we had pro- 
vided for the voyage, which 
was exhausted early on the 
third day. I was sleeping 
soundly when we arrived about 
ten o'clock at night at Gor- 
gona, a native town, beyond 
which river navigation came 
to an end. Each native cot- 
tage, built of bamboo stalks 
or slender trees, and covered 
with a lofty, steep-sided 
roof of thatch, was already filled. 
We could get nothing to eat, nor any 
place to sleep that night, although 
everybody seemed to be awake and about, 
dancing, drinking and talking. Wet, 
hungry, and itching with the bites of 
myriads of gnats and mosquitoes, it was 
nearly morning before I found a shelter 
and storage for my outfit. Here we re- 
mained some days until enough mules 
and horses could be secured for all our 
party. It was not considered safe at 
that time for small parties to follow alone 
and unguarded the ancient trail to Panama. 
The native huts were small, often little 
more than twelve or fourteen feet square, 
but in some of them a dozen California- 
bound argonauts often bought a night's 



CROSSING THE ISTHMUS IN '49 



221 



lodging at two dollars for the use of a 
hammock, or half, or even a third of a 
rawhide covered bedstead. Eggs, before 
the rush ended, sold at twenty-five cents 
apiece, and other eatables in proportion. 

It was nearly a week before the caravan 
was ready to move on from Gorgona. 
Our trunks and bags were firmly hitched 
on the baggage mules. We mounted our 
saddle-horses or mules and started out 
in the early morning. There were some 
laughable incidents at starting, for few 
of us sailors were expert horsemen, and it 
was difficult to know whether the mule was 
going forward or astern. Better accus- 
tomed to walking a pitching, reeling deck, 
than to bestriding a rearing, stumbling 
steed, I was fortunate in my mount, and 
secured a quiet little horse with a fairly 
easy gait, which carried me in good style 
over the rough, narrow road, leading over 
clay ridges and around hills to Matachin, 
where level meadow lands shaded by tall 
palms promised an easier highway. Be- 
yond we found the Rio Obispo in flood, 
and the fords so deep and swift that the 
muleteers would not attempt to cross 
until the waters subsided. 
* * * 

We "off -saddled" and let our animals 
feed, for some hours, when the river falling 
as rapidly as it had risen allowed us to 
cross in safety. After crossing the Obispo, 
we followed the old Spanish trail over the 
mountains, a steep and slippery road in 
which holes from fifteen inches to two 
feet d.ep had been dug and deepened by 
the feet of the mules and horses which 
were trained to step in these holes, changing 
their step from left foot forward to right 
foot forward, or vice versa, as the position 
of the holes demanded. Only in this way 
could these unshod beasts carry their 
loads upon the narrow slippery path which 
like a snake wound and curved along the 
side of the mountain range toward its 
summit. From hence, we saw the now 
famous Culebra, which was then a tiny 
Indian hamlet. The Pacific Ocean was 
visible on clear days. Over the irregular 
ridges of the valley of the Rio Grande lay 
the ancient trail to Panama, only twelve 
miles away. At one point in the road we 
came upon an old anchor, rusted and over- 
grown with jungle, and were told that it 



had been brought to this point by some of 
the crew of a Spanish war- vessel, and left 
as too heavy and cumbrous to be worth 
carrying any further. 

It was eleven o'clock at night when 
tired, cramped and hungry we entered the 
gates of the city of Panama, and the 
beauties and dangers of the last eight 
miles were alike unnoted. All that I 
cared for was to get out of the saddle, 
wash off the accumulated grime and mud 
of the journey, eat and drink my fill and 
go to bed. We found what they called 
a hotel, full of men smoking, drinking 
and going in and out to all kinds of fes- 
tivities, but a bare bench was the only 
substitute for a bed, not previously pre- 
empted. Still I was tired enough to 
enjoy even this, and we got some hours 
of sleep in spite of the noise and constant 
coming and going of "the argonauts." 
* * * 

Next day Mr. Flint proposed to several 
Nantucket men who were with us that 
we should hire a house and canvas stretch- 
ers and board ourselves until our boat 
sailed for San Francisco. 

My Spanish-speaking friend purchased 
all the supplies and one of the Nantucket 
men cooked in good old fisherman 
style. We had whatever we chose to eat 
and good cooking. The beef was sold in 
long strips, but it was fair beef, and we had 
other meats, poultry, eggs, fish, vegetables 
and fruit. It was a long time thereafter 
before any of us lived as well as we did 
that week, "in our own hired house" in 
the old city of Panama. 

The city was, of course, a great curiosity 
to American eyes. After the capture of 
the older city of Panama by Sir Henry 
Morgan and his buccaneers, the present 
site (about four miles farther west) was 
fortified by Spain at a cost of many mil- 
lions of dollars. Built upon a peninsula 
about half a mile long and a quarter of a 
mile wide, it still retained the ramparts 
and watch-towers that once surrounded 
the streets and dwellings, and were pierced 
by three portals, the northern, eastern 
and western gates." The beautiful hills 
of Ancon reared their palm-covered crest 
near at hand, and to seaward, dangerous 
coral reefs stretching far out into the 
Pacific made it impossible for a fleet to 



222 



CROSSING THE ISTHMUS IN '49 



bombard the walls without encountering 
the dangerous harbor. There was the 
historic old cathedral, the spires encased 
with shells of the pearl oyster that shone 
like silver in the sun. There were red- 
tiled houses with rounded arches and 
roughly painted balconies, iron-barred 
windows and doors with enormous hinges; 
locks and handles of hammered iron and 
studded with great nails; and narrow 
streets, twelve or thirteen feet wide. Every- 
thing was going to decay at Panama and 
on the Isthmus when the "gold fever" sent 
in the advance guard of civilization tens 
of thousands of gold seekers who later 
made Panama the busiest port except 
San Francisco on the Pacific Coast. 




Poling a bongo up the Chagres in '49 

The dirt and dust and bad smells, 
naked children and half -naked, unwashed, 
diseased men and women crowded the 
suburbs of the city, and burrowed in the 
ruins of the casemates and stone barracks 
of the city wall, and the decayed mansions, 
once owned by wealthy Spanish families. 
It was a piece of great luck for Panama, 
when California drew through her seaport 
the greater part of the "Forty-niners." 
Many were there, waiting for months to 
secure passage for San Francisco. 

We were among the first of those who 
crossed the Isthmus by the Chagres River. 
We waited for the good ship "Panama," the 
first mail steamer bound for San Francisco, 
having come via Cape Horn. We called at 
Acapulco, the chief city on the west coast 
of Mexico, but our captain knew so little 
about the coast that we steamed past the 



entrance of the harbor and had to retrace 
our course for some miles. Here we found 
much the same conditions as at Panama, 
except that it had never been so strong 
and famous a city and was not quite so ' 
ruinous. Here we got some supplies, 
especially sugar and a number of cattle; 
which latter were hoisted on board by 
fastening rope-loops around the base of 
the horns and hoisting them, kicking and 
sprawling like kittens held by the nape of 
the neck, onto the deck. 

Leaving Acapulco, we crossed the mouth 
of the Gulf of California, holding well to 
westward to clear the extremity of Lower 
California. The officers of the steamer 
directed a course closer to shore than 
most of us, accustomed to Nantucket 
shoals, approved but this time we 
were only passengers. They seemed 
loth to sail out of sight of land, 
and took very little chance of coming 
to grief on the shoals and reefs that 
abound on the coast. 

One night an old Missourian, who 
was sight-seeing from the top-gallant 
forecastle, suddenly called out that 
there were "white things" ahead. The 
officer of the deck at once saw that the 
"Panama" was heading toward a reef, 
stopped her headway, and, changing her 
course, ran out into the deep water 
before bearing away for San Fran- 
cisco; and we all turned in, feeling easier 
as the vessel pushed her way out to sea. 
Still we kept close to the coast until we 
made Monterey, running so near the land 
that we not only saw the city, but several 
wrecks upon the beach. This was our 
first introduction to the state of California. 
We were later told that the inshore passage 
insures almost complete calm during a 
large part of the year, while off shore 
lively breezes are met with; but I think 
our captain was new to the coast, much of 
which was then poorly set down in English 
charts, the only ones then available. 

We finally entered the narrows of the 
Golden Gate, about ten days out from 
Panama. It may interest the people of 
today to know that the canal across the 
Isthmus was then being discussed, but we 
little dreamed that vessels would cross 
over the mountains in twelve hours when 
it had taken us four long days. 



WKenThe 




By Laurence Banning 



AS visitors of today whirl across the 
t\ Isthmus, by rail, seated in a parlor car, 
they find that an historical review of the 
evolution of the Panama railroad is an 
interesting phase of the story of the Canal 
Zone. In the early half of the Nineteenth 
Century, when New Granada was a strug- 
gling republic and unable to attempt so 
great a task, she was willing to give to 
any nation, rich and powerful enough to 
undertake it, the privilege of connecting 
the two oceans by a ship canal. England 
had considered the proposition and was 
appalled at the magnitude of the enter- 
prise. France, more enterprising, actually 
surveyed the route, and entered into a 
contract to build it, but failed to secure 
the capital necessary and finally the con- 
cession was lost by default. The settle- 
ment of the Northwest Boundary, by which 
the United States came into possession 
of an immense tract on the northern 
Pacific coast, and the war with Mexico, 
which secured the great territory of Cali- 
fornia, opened the eyes of Americans to 
the necessity of a more speedy and eco- 
nomical mode of connecting the two shores 
of the Republic, as the distance around 
Cape Horn rendered it almost inacces- 
sible to the class of immigrants who usually 
settled in the United States. Congress 
in 1848 authorized contracts, for the es- 
tablishment of two mail steamship lines, 
one from New York and New Orleans to 
Chagres, and the other connected with 
this by the Isthmus of Panama, from 
Panama to California and Oregon. The 



inducements held out did not attract the 
favorable attention of investors, and the 
contracts wers taken by parties who for 
a long time offered them for sale without 
result. Finally, Mr. William Aspinwall, 
a merchant of New. York, secured the 
Pacific line, and George Law the Atlantic. 
The Atlantic route promised almost im- 
mediate remuneration as it connected 
Savannah and New Orleans, terminating 
at the portals of the Pacific Ocean; but 
the Pacific line was generally looked upon 
as sure to tie up a large amount of capital 
for an indefinite period. 

Shortly after, Mr. Aspinwall with two 
other merchants of New York City, Mr; 
Henry Chauncey and Mr. John L. Stephens, 
entered into a contract with the Govern- 
ment of New Granada for the construc- 
tion of a railroad line, crossing the Isthmus 
of Panama. Mr. Stephens had wide ex- 
perience as a traveler and archaeologist 
in Central America and Yucatan, and a 
large practical knowledge of the route 
through which the road was to pass, and 
much personal contact with the inhabi- 
tants and resources of the country. Mr. 
Stephens, with Mr. J. L. Baldwin as en- 
gineer, explored the route and decided on 
its feasibility, discovering a summit gap, 
not more than three hundred feet above 
the sea level. A formal contract was then 
entered into with New Granada for con- 
structing the railroad across Panama. All 
public lands, lying on the line of the road, 
were to be used gratuitously by the Com- 
pany, and 250,000 acres given it, were -to 



(223) 



224 



WHEN THE PANAMA RAILROAD WAS BUILT 



be selected by the grantees from any 
public lands on the Isthmus. Two ports, 
one on the Atlantic and one on the Pacific, 
were to be the termini of the road and made 
free ports, and the Company was privi- 
leged to establish such tolls as it might 
think proper. This contract was to be 
continued for forty-nine years subject 



r\ 



From Harper's Magazine, i8s8-'sg 




John L. Stephens William H. Aspinwall Henry Chauncey 



to the right of New Granada to take pos- 
session of the road on payment of five 
million dollars at the expiration of twenty 
years after its completion; on payment 
of four million dollars at the expiration 
of thirty years, and on payment of two 
million dollars at the expiration of forty 
years. At this time the calculations of 
the projectors were based upon the ad- 
vantage of shortening the route to China, 



Australia, and the East Indies, and in the 
development of rich but almost inac- 
cessible countries along the Pacific Coast. 
In the latter part of 1848 the discovery of 
gold in California brought a tide of im- 
migration across the Isthmus of Panama; 
swamped the moderate facilities for trans- 
portation by the usual river and mule 
caravan routes, and changed the prospects 
of the projected road. From being an 
enterprise which must look into the dis- 
tant future for its profits, it became one 
insuring immediate returns from 
. the capital and labor invested, 
and one in which the people and 
government of the United States 
were immediately and deeply 
interested. 

Under a New York charter, a 
stock company was formed with 
one million dollars capital, to 
which Messrs. Stephens, Aspin- 
wall and Chauncey transferred 
their contract and of which Mr. 
Stephens became the first presi- 
dent. A party of engineers, under 
the command of Colonel G. W. 
Hughes, in 1849 surveyed and 
located a line of the road from 
ocean to ocean, through a sum- 
mit gap even lower than the one 
previously discovered, and not 
exceeding fifty miles in length, 
with its Pacific terminus on 
Panama Bay and the Atlantic 
terminus at Navy Bay. Natural- 
ly, the country through which this 
line must be carried presented 
many and most formidable diffi- 
culties to the projectors. For 
thirteen miles inland from Navy 
Bay was a deep morass, covered 
with the densest of tropical jun- 
gles, reeking with malaria, and 
abounding with almost every 
species of wild beasts and insects known 
to the tropics. Farther on was a part of 
the country so beautiful to the eye that it 
was called Paraiso (Paradise); but the 
larger part of the line crossed a rugged 
country, climbing steep hillsides over wide 
chasms, and spanning river and moun- 
tain torrents, subject to sudden and most 
formidable floods, and on to the Pacific 
Ocean, less than twelve miles away. 



WHEN THE PANAMA RAILROAD WAS BUILT 



225 



Situated a little more than eight de- 
grees north of the equator, a sultry heat 
prevailed throughout a large portion of 
the year; while in the wet seasons the 
country was deluged with rain, and the 
losses from washouts and land-slides were 
enormous. The native population, a 
mongrel race of half-breeds, (Spaniards, 
Xegroes and Indians) were too indolent 
and unaccustomed to labor to be depended 
upon to any great extent. There were 
no local resources adequate to the support 
of an army of laborers, and men, material 
and provisions had to be transported 
thousands of miles. The contract for 
construction was also taken in 
1849 by Messrs. George M. Tot- 
ten and John C. Trautwine, who 
had but a short time before com- 
pleted a work of some magnitude 
in a neighboring province; the 
Canal Del Dique, connecting the 
port of Cartagena with the Mag- 
dalena River. 

The native town of Gorgona, 
thirty miles up the Chagres, was 
first selected as the central point 
of commencement of the work. It 
was soon ascertained, however, 
that the river was too shallow 
to use for transporting any large 
amount of men, material, etc., to 
this point, and in addition to this, 
the rush of Californian travelers 
up this river so raised the hire 
of native boats that the expense 
of river transportation became 
prohibitive. It was then determined to 
establish a point of beginning at the At- 
lantic terminus of the road, which after 
a careful survey was located on the Island 
of Manzanilla, on the eastern shore of 
Limon or Navy Bay, where the city of 
Aspinwall, later called Colon, now stands. 
This point was already swarming with 
immigrants from all parts of the civilized 
world, on their way to California. 

The conditions under which the contract 
was made being entirely changed, the 
contractors were released from their ob- 
ligations and retained as engineers, the 
company having taken the management 
of the construction into their own hands. 
Declaration of the right-of-way was taken 
in 1850, and in the latter part of July 



large parties of mechanics and laborers 
from Jamaica, Cartagena and the United 
States were added to the small force em- 
ployed. In August, 1850, a station was 
established eight miles out, opposite the 
northern point of Gatun, and by April, 
1851, the larger portion of the road to this 
point was completed. The line had been 
located to Barbacoas sixteen miles farther 
on, and on the first day of October, 1851, 
the working cars, drawn by a locomotive, 
passed over the road as far as Gatun. The 
following month, two large steamships, 
the "Georgia" and "Philadelphia," laden 
with passengers to California via the 




From Harper 1 



The surveyors' transit in the jungle 



Chagres River, were driven from the open 
roadstead by a heavy storm and forced 
to take refuge in Navy Bay. It was then 
proposed to transport the passengers by 
the railroad from Aspinwall as far as pos- 
sible, whence they could proceed up the 
river in native boats as usual. Over one 
thousand immigrants thus disembarked 
were carried on working cars to Gatun. 

Just at this time, the outlook for the 
company in New York was very dis- 
couraging. The first subscription of one 
million dollars capital had been expended, 
the shares were at a very low figure, and 
the directors were keeping up the work 
on their own individual credit; but the 
return of the "Georgia" to New York with 
the news that she had landed her Cali- 



226 



WHEN THE PANAMA RAILROAD WAS BUILT 



fornia passengers at Navy Bay instead of 
at Chagres, and that they had been car- 
ried over a portion of the Panama railroad 
greatly enhanced the value of 
the stock and insured its 
further capitalization. 

On the second of February, 
1852, the terminus was form- 
ally made a city and called 
Aspinwall. By March, the 
road was completed to Bujio 
Soldado, eight miles beyond 
Gatun, and passenger trains 
ran in connection with every 
steamer, and on July 6 the line 
had been pushed on ,to Bar- 
bacoas, where the road was 
cut by the Chagres River, a 
total distance of twenty-three 
miles. 

At about this time, Mr. 
John L. Stephens died at his 
home in New York, and Mr. 
William C. Young was appointed his suc- 
cessor. The work of bridging the Chagres 
River at Barbacoas was beset with many 
difficulties; when the first bridge was 
nearly completed one span was swept away, 
and at the end of a year it was still un- 
finished. President Young was succeeded 
by President Hoadley and the company 
redoubled its exertions. The working 
force was cosmopolitan in every sense of 
the word, consisting very largely of Irish, 



coolies from China and India, and Ger- 
mans, Spaniards and Austrians, who it 
was thought would speedily complete the 





From Harper's 
First rough wood house built on the Isthmus for the railroad workers 



From Harper's 

The first train to cross the Isthmus in 1855; it is said that 
every tie on this railroad cost a human life 



work, but it was soon found that many of 
them were wholly unfitted for tropical 
life. About one thousand Chinamen, 
who were brought to the Isthmus by the 
company, and furnished with every pos- 
sible comfort which could conduce to their 
health and efficiency, showed a singular 
melancholy and suicidal tendency, and 
scores of them ended their lives with their 
own hands. Then pestilence broke out 
among them, and in two weeks scarcely 
two hundred remained alive. 
The Irish and French also 
suffered severely, and it be- 
came necessary to furnish 
them transportation to their 
homes. 

By January, 1854, however, 
the ridge of the mountain line 
was reached, a distance of 
thirty-seven miles from Aspin- 
wall, and eleven miles from 
Panama. On the 27th of 
January, 1855, at midnight, n 
the dense gloom and driving 
rain of a tropical storm, and 
by the light of lanterns and 
headlights the last rail was laid, 
and on the following day, Jan- 
uary 28, a locomotive passed 
from ocean to ocean. 




By John Morgan Gallup 



OF all the famous men whose life 
stories have entered into the history 
of the Isthmus of Panama, one great 
shade absorbs the imagination in an un- 
usual degree, for the life and death of 
Count Ferdinand de Lesseps embody the 
greatest tragedy enacted on this stage of 
numberless tragedies, and illustrate the 
irony of fate. 

The son of Count Matthieu de Lesseps, 
who himself had succeeded and nearly 
eclipsed his own father in the diplomatic 
service of France, Ferdinand de Lesseps, 
born November 19, 1808, was educated 
by the state at the Lycee to follow the 
career of his ancestors in the foreign 
service. 

He was first attached to the Spanish 
legation at Lisbon, and although he 
served afterwards at Paris, Algiers, Egypt 
and other points, his chief and longest 
service and residence was in Spain, to 
which kingdom he was sent as ambassador 
after the expulsion of the Bourbons in 
1840. Before leaving Paris he received, 
at some personal and official risk to him- 
self, the jewels of the Duchess de Mont- 
pensier, herself a Spanish Infanta or 
princess of the royal blood, which had 
been looted at the Tuileries, after the 
flight of the royal family. 

Highly esteemed by Queen Isabella and 
the Spanish court, he was soon after- 
ward begged by Mademoiselle Eugenie 
de Montijo to intercede for the lives of 
thirteen officers of the Spanish Army, 
who had been condemned by a Carlist 
Conspiracy at Valencia, and tried and 



sentenced to death. Eugenie de Montijo, 
later the beautiful Empress of Napoleon 
III, had herself wept and implored mercy 
in vain, until she fell fainting at the feet 
of the implacable queen; the doomed 
officers were all gallant Spanish cavaliers, 
the cadets of noble houses, who honestly 
believed in the divine right of the Carlist 
pretender. De Lesseps had himself tried 
once and failed, but determined to try 
once more, for it was given out that the 
death warrants were to be signed at once. 
Seeking Narvaez, the Spanish Prime 
Minister, he said: 

"I come to take leave of you, for you 
will readily see that as my mission to 
Spain was accepted by the Sovereign As- 
sembly because I might be able to exer- 
cise a salutary influence with your govern- 
ment; if it is learned that Mademoiselle 
de Montijo, belonging to one of the loftiest 
families of Spain, has unsuccessfully sought 
my intervention to secure a pardon, which 
I feel will strengthen rather than weaken 
your cause, there is nothing for me to 
do but to take leave of you and return to 
France." 

Narvaez, realizing his determination, 
grasped his hand and replied: "You 
may be off, Ferdinand, with the heads of 
these men in your pocket." 

De Lesseps gratefully pressed the hand 
of the great Spanish Minister, and re- 
turning to Madrid found that Queen 
Isabella would grant a free pardon to 
the mutineess. 

Finally he retired from the diplomatic 
service, because having been sent to 



(227) 



228 



IN THE DAYS OF DE LESSEPS 



Rome to reconcile Papal, Italian and 
French interests and securing the general 
confidence of all concerned, including 
the famous revolutionist, Mazzini, and 
the Italian land-owners, the French gov- 
ernment refused to ratify his negotia- 
tions and even charged him with leaning 
toward the liberal faction. 

It was in 1841 that the old traditions 
and present practicability of uniting the 
Mediterranean, the Bitter Lakes and the 
Red Sea by a ship canal across the 
Isthmus of Suez had impressed his fancy. 
Thirteen years later, in 1854, he became 
the guest of Said Pasha, the newly-made 
viceroy of Egypt. De Lesseps was a 




Front Harper's 



Preparing to build the Panama railroad 

doer. He talked over the matter with 
Said, saying: 

"I am not a financier or a man of busi- 
ness. What would you advise me to do?" 

The Pasha suggested a preliminary 
subscription, to secure surveys, and de 
Lesseps induced each of one hundred ac- 
quaintances to advance $1,000 toward 
the work. The preliminary survey was 
made, the plans drawn and the work 
of organization initiated. 

Said Pasha issued a proclamation per- 
mitting the digging of the canal, but the 
Crimean War, the Indian Mutiny and 
other events of world-wide interest made 
it impossible to do anything for several 
years. Lord Palmerston was a bitter 
and implacable enemy of the plan and did 
all he could to prevent its exploitation. 



On the other hand Prince Albert, Mr. 
Gladstone and many other eminent Eng- 
lishmen generously encouraged the great 
project. At last in 1856, a working 
capital of 2,000,000 francs was secured, 
a formal concession of right of way, with 
sovereignty for adjacent territory was 
granted by Said Pasha, and the work 
began. In 1859 large expenditures had 
been made, but in 1863 Said Pasha's 
death was seized upon by the Sublime 
Porte as a pretext to rescind all grants 
of contiguous territory. Claim for re- 
imbursement for this escheat of valuable 
land was afterward adjudicated by Na- 
poleon III, who awarded the Canal 
Company four million pounds 
sterling (about $20,000,000). A 
part cf the canal was open to 
small steamers in 1865. Ships 
of light draught could pass in 
March, 1867, and on November 
20, 1869, the Suez Canal was 
formally open to the world's 
commerce. Originally about 
one hundred miles long, two 
hundred feet wide at the bottom 
of the prism, and twenty-nine 
feet deep, it has been widened 
and deepened in recent years. 

Honors and riches poured in 
upon de Lesseps, and the stock- 
holders possessed one of the most 
remunerative properties of the 
world. A general interest in 
canal construction was awak- 
ened, and de Lesseps was soon called upon 
to pierce the Corinthian Peninsula, Greece, 
and to visit Tunis and Algiers to investi- 
gate a project for connecting the lower 
wastes of the Desert of Sahara with the sea; 
which he declared to be practicable. 

Nearly seventy years old, happily 
married to a young and devoted wife, and 
surrounded by loving children and all 
that can make life desirable and con- 
tented, yet the "Call of the Wild" 
seemed ever to ring in his ears, summoning 
him to an even greater undertaking - 
the junction of the two great oceans by 
a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. 
It was a titanic task compared with what 
he had accomplished; a great mountain 
chain was to be cut through, miasmatic 
swamps to be dredged and drained, 



IN THE DAYS OF DE LESSEPS 



229 



mountain torrents and tropical cloud- 
bursts to be tamed and imprisoned, and 
a wilderness invaded by myriads of ex- 
pert and industrious men, armed with the 
most efficient machinery and appliances 
known to modern engineering. 

The work, begun in 1881, was continued 
fitfully until it was realized that the original 
estimates of the cost had been utterly 
unreliable, and that much greater ex- 
penditures must be provided, if the work 
was to be continued to completion. In 
1888 the venerable de Lesseps, then eighty- 
three years old, made an eloquent appeal 
to his fellow-citizens. 

"I appeal to all Frenchmen, to all of 
my associates where fortunes are threat- 
ened. I have devoted my life to two 
great works that were pronounced im- 
possibilities the Suez and Panama canals. 
The Suez Canal is constructed and has 
enriched France; if you wish to complete 
the Panama Canal you must decide at 
once." 

More money was raised, but in ways and 
at a cost which were ruinous to the pro- 
ject and its supporters; and in January, 
1889, the American Senate, in secret 
session, by an almost unanimous vote 
"disapproved of the connection of any 
European government with the construc- 
tion or control of any ship canal across 
the Isthmus of Darien," and requested 
the President to communicate this reso- 
lution to the governments of Europe. 
This resolve crushed de Lesseps' last hope 
that the French government would inter- 
vene and lend its credit and prestige to 
the completion of the work; and on 
February 9, 1889, M. de Lesseps an- 
nounced that the Compagnie Universelle 
du Canal Interoceanique de Panama 
would go into liquidation. 

A commission visited the Isthmus, and 
on its return reported that in addition to 
--" .000.000 already expended, at least 
$150.000.000 more would be necessary to 
complete the Canal, making the whole 
cost 400,000.000. 

Later it was discovered that out of 
nearly $262,000,000 already received and 
swallowed up, less than two-thirds of that 
sum had been used in legitimate pur- 
chases, management, and construction. 
.In 1892, the public prosecutor indicted 



Ferdinand de Lesseps, then eighty-seven 
years old, his son, Charles de Lesseps, 
Baron Cotter, M. le Marquis Fontane and 
M. Eiffel, for "breach of trust and mal- 
versation of the funds of the company." 
Baron Reinach was subsequently added to 
the list of accused, but went so suddenly 
before the "Final Tribunal" that his appear- 
ance before any earthly court was out of 
the question. He appears to have been 
a "grafter" of great capacity and un- 
bounded avarice, and the evil genius of 
de Lesseps and the enterprise. 

The aged defendant broke down under 
his burden of shame and sorrow, and in 
his beautiful country seat, La Chesnaye, 
despondent, broken-hearted, almost im- 
becile, awaited the end of life. Although 
the doctors duly declared him unable to 
appear in court, and he never confronted 
his accusers or heard the evidence against 
him, he was found guilty in 1893 and 
sentenced to three years' imprisonment 
and a fine of $600. His son, Charles de 
Lesseps, received a like sentence, but was 
allowed before going to prison to visit 
his aged father. For a few moments the 
extreme love and anguish of that parting 
awoke something of the fire and passion 
of the great heart of Ferdinand de Lesseps. 
Then the son broke away from his father's 
embrace, and the veteran diplomatist and 
great canal-builder sank again into broken 
dreams of half -conscious melancholy. 

A year later on December 7, 1894, 
Count Ferdinand de Lesseps passed away, 
having little more than prolonged a monot- 
onous physical existence, during the 
eighty-ninth year of a great, although 
ruined life. United States' workers still 
come upon reminders of his last great 
enterprise, in crumbling buildings and 
rotting and rusting machinery, disclosed 
by dredging, or nearly buried in mud and 
tropical vegetation. It saddens any gene- 
rous heart to consider that the great 
American Canal must always be a grave in 
which lie buried, not only the millions of 
hapless investors, and the honor and 
honesty of many Gallic journalists, legis- 
lators and financiers, but what should have 
been the crowning glory of the great 
career of a remarkable genius, genial and 
tactful diplomatist, and really great- 
hearted man, Ferdinand de Lesseps. 



PROFILE VIEW OF GATUN LOCKS AND DAM 




CROSS SECTION OF LOCK CHAMBER AND WAI^I^S, GATUN LOCKS. 



A Culvert in center wall. 

B Connections between center and lateral culvert. 
C lateral culvert. 

D Wells opening from lateral culverts into lock H Passageway for operators. 

chamber. 



E Culvert in side wall. 

F Drainage gallery. 

G Gallery for electric wires. 



Lease Rock Covering, 




Waste 
Material 



FIG. 10. PROPOSED REASONABLE AND SAFE CROSS SECTION OF GATUN DAM ON AN ENLARGED SCALE, 

SHOWING DETAILS. 

PROFILE OF THE PANAMA FROM ATLANTIC TO PACIFIC OCEAN. 

S 




Nouticol Mitel 
B. ProfiK of Lock Ctiul 



IO ' -tON6ITUBlNU 



THE SE*itvEL CANAL , 
(Tbt ibirtrf nai (ID 



e shows the material to be BMMlM) 



\ M , \ 





By EL Vansant 




E Farmer's Co-operative Dem- 
onstration Work was inaugurated 
under authority of Congress in 
January, 1904, primarily because 
of the depredations of the Mexican cotton 
boll weevil in the State of Texas. By the 
rapid spread of this pestiferous insect 
east and north it had then become evident 
that it would in time invade all the cotton- 
producing states. This occasioned a general 
alarm among the cotton planters and in the 
industrial centers of the entire country. For 
a number of years prior to 1904 the Mexican 
boll weevil had been steadily encroaching 
upon the cotton-producing lands of Texas, 
until it had spread from the Rio Grande to 
a short distance beyond the eastern boundary 
of the state, and threatened the entire cotton 
industry of the South. In sections where 
cotton was the sole cash crop the invasion 
of the weevil and the consequent loss of the 
cotton crop brought disaster to every interest 
and so completely demoralized financial con- 
ditions as to produce in some sections a panic. 
The cotton crop had been generally pro- 
duced upon a credit system by securing ad- 
vances from merchants and brokers. Upon 
the advent of the boll weevil, confidence in 
securing a cotton crop was impaired and 
in some districts almost totally destroyed. 
The usual advances were either withheld 
or limited; labor became discontented and 



sought other sections or other states, and 
tenant farmers unable to obtain advances 
removed to non-infested districts, a marked 
decline in property values resulting. 

These circumstances created a demand 
for immediate relief which appealed to the 
entire country, as the loss, of the cotton crop 
would be a national calamity. In response 
to this appeal Congress made an emergency 
appropriation in January, 1904, which has 
been continued each year, thus affording 
opportunity for the growth and enlargement 
of the work. 

The man fixed upon to conduct this cam- 
paign against the ravages of the boll weevil 
was Dr. Seaman A. Knapp. Previous to 
this time he had been operating large farms, 
growing cotton, corn, rice and other Southern 
products, and his knowledge of farming was 
of the most practical nature. Dr. Knapp 
claimed that cotton could still be grown in 
the weevil -infested districts, provided in- 
tensive methods were used. The problem 
was how to induce the farmers to adopt these 
methods. 

For many years the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, the Agricultural Col- 
leges, the Experiment Stations, agricultural 
press, farmers' institutes and the National 
and State bulletins upon agriculture had 
thrown light upon almost every topic re- 
lating to the farm. These had been of 



(231) 



232 



HELPING THE FARMER BOYS 



great assistance to men of college training 
but the masses, especially in the South, had 
scarcely been affected. It became necessary, 
in this boll weevil crisis, to reach the masses, 
and the demonstration method was adopted. 
In talking of the commencement 6f his work, 
Dr. Knapp said: 

"In January, 1904, 1 went to Texas to take 
charge of the campaign against the boll 
weevil. I called a meeting of prominent 
men to discuss the situation; upon explaining 
the plan of the department, every face showed 
astonishment; one, bolder than the rest, ex- 
plained his views thus: 'Do you mean to tell 
us that you have come empty-handed to 
Texas to relieve the distress of our people, 
and restore confidence, and that you know 
of no way of destroying the weevil? And 
further, that you furnish no seed nor fertilizer, 
and do you intend to tell our people your 
remedy is to get out and hustle; if this be 
true we are to receive one of the greatest 
disappointments.' I explained our plan, 
that people were rarely benefitted by gifts, 
that our system of tillage insured a crop, that 
while they were waiting for the government 
to give them a few thousand they could in- 
crease their income twenty-five to thirty 
.millions, add to their manhood and become 
independent. They accepted the explanation 
and heroically followed our in; tructions. They 
won. In the fall of 1904 the farmers of the 
boll weevil districts of Texas found them- 
selves better off than for many years; fewer 
debts, and more money in the bank. 

This demonstration of improved methods 
of agriculture has been extended, with the 
spread of the weevil into Oklahoma, Missis- 
sippi, Alabama, Louisiana, Arkansas, and a 
small beginning has been made the past year 
in Tennessee, and it has been proved that 
by following the instructions of the Bureau 
of Plant Industry a good crop of cotton can be 
raised in the worst weevil-infested districts, 
despite the ravages of this pest. It is possible 
that the future may discover some better 
method of meeting the boll weevil problem, 
but experience has shown that the method 
outlined is the only safe one at present. 
* * * 

In 1904 the work attracted the attention 
of the General Education Board of New 
York, and at a conference between that 
board and Secretary Wilson at Washington, 
it was agreed that the board might supple- 



ment the government appropriation with the 
understanding that their money should be 
expended in the extension of the same farming 
principles to other Southern states beyond 
the range of weevil-infestation. It was com- 
menced in a limited way in Mississippi and 
later was extended to Alabama, Virginia, 
the Carolinas, Georgia and a portion of 
Florida. As the weevil advanced upon 
Mississippi and Alabama these states were 
transferred to the government appropriation. 
The board has shown deep interest, hearty 
co-operation and a very broad philanthropy. 
The Farmers' Co-operative Demonstration 
Work aims at several things beyond the mere 
making of cotton under weevil conditions: 

(1) To reform agriculture and make it an 
occupation of profit and pleasure. 

(2) To improve rural conditions. 

(3) To broaden and enrich rural life. 

(4) To make the farm attractive and 
country residence desirable. 

And as a first step toward these, Dr. 
Knapp's slogan is "a greater net .yield per 
acre," not an increased production in the 
country from a national standpoint, but 
having in mind and at heart the betterment 
of conditions from the viewpoint of the small 
farmers. 

When the rudiments of good farming 
are mastered the farmer secures a greater 
income for his labor. An important part 
of this greater net earning capacity is good 
farm economy and greater thrift, based upon 
the home production of all the food and forage 
crops consumed. This requires that the 
idle lands be used for stock, and the value of 
grasses and legumes be understood; that the 
soil be deepened, strengthened and made 
more active by deep plowing, intensive 
cultivation and turning under of green crops. 
It has been the general custom of Southern 
farmers, whether in cotton, sugar, rice or 
tobacco districts, to depend on one cash 
crop and buy their supplies of food and 
clothing with the proceeds. The agents of 
the Demonstration Work urge upon the people 
the production on the farm of all home sup- 
plies possible, with the result that the money 
which formerly went for current debts now 
goes into home improvements, better clothing, 
better stock, and more schooling. 

Dr. Knapp contends that poor farming 
is the natural result of a lot of bad practices, 
and must be treated as a defect in art rather 



HELPING^ THE FARMER BOYS 



233 



than as a lack of intelligence. As it was 
found necessary at an early stage of history 
to evolve from the mass of ethical teaching a 
few general rules for living, called "The Ten 
Commandments," by which a man could 
be moral without going through a course in 
theology, just so, in order to instruct the aver- 
age farmer how to successfully conduct his 
farm operations so as to secure a 
greater net gain from the farm. 
Dr. Knapp has deducted from the 
mass of agricultural teachings a 
few general rules of procedure. 
These he calls the "Ten Com- 
mandments of Agriculture," and 
by practicing these commandments 
a man may be a good farmer in 
any state without being a graduate 
of an agricultural college: 

(1) Prepare a deep and 
thoroughly pulverized seed 
bed, well drained; break in 
the fall to the depth of eight, 
ten or twelve inches, accord- 
ing to the soil, with implements 
that will not bring too much 
of the subsoil to the surface. 
The foregoing depths should 
be reached gradually. 

(2) Use seed of the best 
variety, intelligently selected 
and carefully stored. 

(3) In cultivated crops give 
the rows and the plants in the 
rows a space suited to the 
plant, the soil, and the climate. 

(4) Use intensive tillage 
during the growing period. 

(5) Secure a high content 
of humus in the soil by the 
use of legumes, barnyard 
manures, farm refuse, and 
commercial fertilizers. 

(6) Carry out a systematic crop rota- 
tion with a winter cover crop. 

(7) Accomplish more work in a day 
by using more horse power and better 
implements. 

(8) Increase the farm stock to the ex- 
tent of utilizing all the waste products 
and idle lands of the farm. 

(9) Produce all the food required for 
the men and animals on the farm. 

(10) Keep an account of each farm 



produce, in order to know from which 
' the gain or loss arises. 

Dr. Knapp's method of teaching these 
principles is as practical as the principles 
themselves. In each state where the work 
is conducted there are, besides the state agents, 
one or more district agents and a number 




DR. SEAMAN* A. KXAPP 

of local agents. The state agent in ever)' 
case is a man of education and experience in 
agricultural science, a man of executive 
ability and tact. He supervises the work in 
the state, having direct charge of the dis- 
trict agents, who in turn supervise the local 
agents. The local agent is required to be a 
practical, progressive farmer, who has "made 
good" on his own farm and enjoys the con- 
fidence and esteem of his neighbors. It is 
this local agent who carries out at first hand 



234 



HELPING THE FARMER BOYS 



the actual demonstration idea, it being his 
duty to secure farmers who will agree to plant 
and cultivate from one to five acres of their 
farms according to the instructions of the de- 
partment. Many times the general view- 
point is one of doubt and suspicion. If, 
however, one man in a neighborhood can be 
induced to plant a trial plat all his neighbors 
will watch it closely, and if he succeeds the 
people will swing from a stubborn doubt to 
an unreasoning faith and become the most 
zealous converts. Then, too, within rural 
communities there is considerable local 
rivalry. If John Smith takes a department 



fies all the neighbors who are interested in 
advance of this visit and they meet him at 
the demonstration plat. At this time what 
is called a field school of instruction is held, 
where the farmers discuss agriculture in 
general and any particular phase of the 
demonstration. In the course of these dis- 
cussions it often develops that the majority 
of those present have never fully complied 
with the best methods of farming. They 
thought they knew all about farming and 
charged their products and failures to the 
seasons or the land. 

One farmer at a public meeting held in an 




DEMONSTRATION FARM OF BEN FLEMING AT WASHINGTON, ADAMS COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI 
Triumph cotton, showing a yield of two-thirds bale to the acre 



demonstration, Sam Jones thinks he can beat 
it and quietly informs his neighbors that he 
intends to do so. Others join in the compe- 
tition and the result is that all produce better 
crops. 

Having secured his demonstrators (as the 
men who agree to follow instructions on a 
small part of their farms are called) the 
agent proceeds to instruct them as to the 
preparation of their land for planting, the 
selection of the seed best adapted to the 
local conditions, and the cultivation, step 
by step, of the crop. The demonstrator does 
all the work and furnishes the land, seed, 
tools and teams. The agent visits him once 
a month to see that instructions are carried 
out and to give assistance. The agent noti- 



Alabama town two years ago expressed his 
views as follows: 

"I was born in a cotton field and have 
worked cotton on my farm for more 
than forty years. I thought no one 
could tell me anything about raising 
cotton. I had usually raised one-half 
a bale on my thin soil and I thought that 
was all the cotton there was in it in one 
season. The demonstration agent came 
along and wanted me to try his plan on 
two acres. Not to be contrary, I agreed, 
but I did not believe what he told me. 
However, I tried my best to do as he said, 
and at the end of the year I had a bale 
and a half to the acre on the two acres 



HELPING THE FARMER BOYS 



235 



worked his way and a little over a 
third of a bale on the land worked my 
way. You could have knocked me 
down with a feather. This year I have 
a bale and a half to the acre on my 
whole farm. If you do not believe it, 
I invite you to go down and see. Yes, 
sir, as a good cotton planter I am 
just one year old." 

The agent in some cases drives a team of 
strong mules or horses attached to a wagon 
filled with improved implements. At the 
field meeting this team and the improved 



In the Southern states nearly one-half the 
farms are tilled under the tenant system. 
In South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Missis- 
sippi and Louisiana more than sixty per cent 
of the farms are worked by tenants. The 
poor equipment of such farms and the low 
earning capacity of the tenant appeal strongly 
for help. 

The tenant is urged by the demonstration 
agent to make a better crop and raise every- 
thing necessary for his support. He is shown 
that as soon as he proves himself to be a pro- 
gressive and thrifty farmer it will add to his 
credit. He can then buy upon better terms 




SEED-CORN DAY AT MONROE, NORTH CAROLINA 



implements are used to show how much 
more and how much better work can be done 
in a day by having good equipment. 

The demonstration is limited, at first, to 
two or three standard crops, including the 
principal cash crop, cotton; general food 
crop, corn, and a well-known renovating 
crop, cowpeas. The farmer knows cotton, 
corn and cowpeas. If he can be shown that 
a change of methods or a change of seed will 
greatly increase the crop the first important 
step has been taken. They are then ready 
to believe in more. 

The demonstration is simple and at first 
small. When the farmer sees the advantage 
of the better methods he will increase the 
area as rapidly as possible. Generally he 
has neither machinery nor tools to inaugurate 
the plan on a large scale at first. 



and will soon own his farm. The landlord is 
seen and urged to look more closely after his 
farm; to improve his farm buildings, because 
this is necessary to the securing and retention 
of the best tenants; to furnish better imple- 
ments or assist his tenant to purchase them; 
and to insist that good seed shall be used 
and that there shall be better tillage of the 
crop. Many proprietors take the deepest 
interest in having their tenants taught better 
methods. 

In an interview with Dr. Knapp one can- 
not fail to be impressed with the fact that, 
though a man of college education, holding 
several degrees, he is first and always a plain 
man, the friend of the common people. His 
instructions to the farmers are simple, in- 
tensely practical, appealing to the farmer's 
judgment. Advice is given only along thor- 



236 



HELPING THE FARMER BOYS 



oughly tested lines, inclining always to the 
safe side. I wish to quote a letter received, 
one of many, by Dr. Knapp, and ask you 
after you have read it if you think this man 
could ever have been reached and benefitted 
by printed bulletins concerning farming: 

Berry, Ala., October 3, 1908. 
DR. S. A. KNAPP. 

Sir: I have thought that I would rite 
you for some time, but for neglect have 
waited to long. I am one of your dem- 
onstrators and as true a one as you have. 
Words can not express my thanks to you 
for your help and what you have learned 
me about farming. This year I had 




A FIELD MEETING WITH BOYS AT BENNETTSVILLE, 
MARLBORO COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA 



1 acre, this coming year I am to put my 
entire crop in as I did that acre. I am 
a singlehanded man, no help and rent- 
ing land. Some say they don't see how 
I make a living, just me to work and feed 
two big mules. I tell them that the mules 
feed themselves and if I make the land- 
owner any money I will make some for 
me. I think by having an early start 
that I can get in 8 acres this time, 3 in 
cotton and 5 in corn. I think I will get 
3000 Ibs. of cotton off my acre if it all 
opens. The seed you furnished me is 
the finest that I ever saw, me and two 
other men picked 100 boles that Triumph 
cotton to my acre that weighed 3$ Ibs. 
That beat anything I ever saw. The 
Triumph cotton has been gined here 
and found to beat 40%. That is far 



ahead of anything we have had here 
before. Anything you will send me will 
be more than appreciated. When I get 
any mail from you I dont stop till I read 
it throe. The farmers are coming more 
together with your work than anything 
that ever came along. I think in a few 
years the farmers will be rite along 
together. Dont forget me, anything you 
can due for me will be glad to get it. The 
knights are giting long and I would like 
to read something from you every knight. 
I will close. Hope you have not 
wearied over this hard wrote letter. I 
am your friend, j A KELLER 

Yet another letter in Dr. 
Knapp's possession, after telling 
what the work has done for the 
writer, closes with "It is the 
best since Christ came. Let her 
come!" Sacrilegious? No! you 
will not think so if you stop 
to think a moment. Picture 
a man owning a small, poor 
farm, owned by his father be- 
fore him; the farm becoming 
more run down every year, the 
farmer and his family dropping 
in the scale of human units, 
the wife a drudge and the chil- 
dren social outcasts because 
of their poverty; the man dull 
and hopeless of the future. 
He inherited unthrift; his 
father was poor; he is poor; 
his children will be poor. Nothing short of 
a miracle can make life worth the living. 
Then one day a demonstration agent knocks 
at the door and tells him of a better way 
methods he knew nothing of. (He was too 
poor to go to college.) He finds that he can 
increase and even quadruple his crop by a 
slight change of methods, by rotation of 
crops and other readjustments. Gradually 
the fences are repaired, the weeds disappear 
from the fence corners, the farm begins to 
pay, his wife and children are better clothed 
he actually sees a future. Is it small wonder 
that he feels much as our devout Methodist 
forefathers felt when they saw visions of 
glory, and instead of a "Halleluja" he 
ejaculates from a full heart: "It is the best 
since Christ came. Let her come!" 

But the Farmers' Co-operative Demon- 



HELPING THE FARMER BOYS 



237 




DR. KNAPP AND GROUP OF AGRICULTURAL STUDENTS 



stration Work does not rest satisfied with its 
work among the adult farmers. They are 
reaching out after the boy on the farm. 

Thinking people have noted with alarm 
the rapid growth of cities as compared with 
the country; the concentration of wealth 
in the cities and the gradual transfer of 
political influence from the country to the 
city. The young man in the country meets 
this problem: Shall he stay on the farm, 
accept the wages offered, and live the com- 
fortless life such wages can provide, or shall 
he go to the city where he can earn three to 
five times as much and have what his am- 
bition aspires to ? If that is the whole of the 
proposition and he is a man of judgment and 
energy he will go to the city. The num- 
ber that make this choice will increase in 
geometrical ratio as long as rural conditions 
remain as they are. 

It has been suggested as a means of keeping 
the young man on the farm that rural con- 
ditions should be improved, that the country 
should have better highways, better schools, 
free rural delivery, country telephones, more 
newspapers, all good and worthy of com- 
mendation, but the flow of young men from 
the country to the city will not be arrested in 
the least so long as the earning capacity of 
the average city laborer or clerk or professional 



man is at least fivefold what the same talent 
can command in the country, What has the 
Farmers' Co-operative Demonstration Work 
done about it? 

It has formed Boys' Corn Clubs in several 
states. Each boy in these clubs agrees to 
plant and cultivate an acre of his father's 
farm according to the directions issued by 
the United States Department of Agriculture. 
He is given all the advice, assistance and 
encouragement possible by the County 
Superintendent of Education, and by the 
rural teachers who co-operate with the 
department and its agents. The merchants 
and other public-spirited citizens help by 
contributing prizes for the largest yields. 
The average American boy is spurred on to 
indomitable energy by the lure of such 
prizes as fifty dollars in gold, a nice buggy, 
a first-class bicycle, a fifteen-dollar suit of 
clothes, etc., and after he has spent a season 
competing for these prizes he has absorbed 
more scientific and practical agriculture than 
he would from books in years. The past 
season Dr. Knapp offered a free trip to 
Washington for one week to the boy in 
Mississippi who would make the largest 
yield of corn on his acre. His example was 
followed by Prof. O. B. Martin, Dr. Knapp's 
assistant in the Boys' Corn Club Work, by a 



238 



HELPING THE FARMER BOYS 



similar offer to the boys of South Carolina. 
The boys of Arkansas were given the same 
chance to come to Washington by the offer 
of the Bankers' Association of the state, and 
the Petersburg Board of Trade of Virginia 
made a similar offer to the boys of that state. 
From the hundreds of boys who competed 
for this prize trip, the winners were: DeWitt 
Lundy, of Lexington, Mississippi; Bascomb 
Usher, of Bennettsville, South Carolina; 
Elmer Halter, of Conway, Arkansas, and 
Ralph Bellwood, of Manchester, Virginia. 

DeWitt Lundy won county and state 
prizes, in addition to the prize trip to Wash- 
ington. His yield was sixty-three bushels, 
he used no fertilizer and the total cost of 
production was $9.15. 

Bascomb Usher won $10 county prize, 
$75 state prize, in addition to his trip to Wash- 
ington. His yield was 152^ bushels, or 
8,540 pounds of shelled corn. It cost 31 
cents a bushel to raise it and he has sold some 
of it for seed at $2 per bushel. 



Elmer Halter won a $20 suit of clothes and 
a rifle in the county contest; $30 in cash and 
a combination plow at the State Fair, in 
addition to his trip to Washington. He made 
a yield of 85J bushels at a cost of $35.20. 
Others made larger yields, but other points 
were considered. 

Ralph Bellwood made a yield of 122 
bushels at a total cost of $17.80, making the 
cost per bushel only a little over 14^ cents. 

It is safe to assert that the average pro- 
duction per acre in those states ranges from 
12 to 15 bushels per acre. 

These four proud, happy boys came to 
Washington at the same time, saw all the sights 
of the Capital, were received by the Secretary 
of Agriculture, presented with diplomas in 
agriculture, something never known to be 
given to boys in the history of that science 

Do you think these boys wolud give up 
the farm and come to the city to accept four, 
five or even ten dollar a week positions ? 
We think not. 



THE HARVEST MOON 



By EDWARD WILBUR MASON 



""THE autumn brings the sunset of the year, 
* And asters swinging by the pasture bars 
Flame in the light like amaranthine stars, 
And mists of beauty gather far and near. 
Lo, in the eastern heavens bright and clear, 

The huge moon through the long autumnal eves 
Sends down forevermore upon the sheaves 
A world-wide smile of glory and of cheer! 
Now is the earth for feast Olympian spread; 
Blown like a scent upon the winds of mirth 

Keen laughter as of gods floats down the night. 
And angel visitants from overhead, 

Passing unseen from heaven unto earth, 
Throng on the Jacob's ladder of the light! 



Panorama of tfje 

Panama Canal 




1 HE Twentieth. Century has been called the camera 
age. There is not an incident, not a place trod 
by the foot of man, or an occurrence that has 
not at some time been focused for the camera 
by either expert or amateur. The little film 
or plate radiates information at a glance, where 
pages of text and books in volumes were hereto- 
fore required to make clear similar occurrences 
or views. No words can equal the eloquence of pictures, showing 
the process and progress of the work on the Canal Zone, and 
photographs taken at this time will be even more impressive in a 
few years than now. Within a half decade this tangled jungle, and 
pathetic relic of an abandoned French enterprise, representing the 
dreams of four centuries, will be transformed into the scenes of 
concrete achievement. From every point of view the vista of 
the Canal presents scenes that must thrill the American heart 
with the pride of achievement, and convince every citizen of the 
United States that he is living in the day of the real things. No 
one can look upon the great work being carried to completion on 
the Isthmus, without having his thoughts deflected from the 
trivial national squabbles, that suggest small family bickerings 
at a breakfast table. The mind of the nation is being more and 
more fixed on the high achievements of engineering, sanitation 
and settlement which are being carried out on the Zone, and are 
already an object lesson to the whole world. The pictorial pages 
of the National for May and June graphically relate a story which 
no pen could adequately describe. The pictures are a veritable 
album of American achievement. 




CONDUIT INSTALLATION, GATUN GENERATING STATION -READY FOR 
POURING OF CONCRETE FLOOR 




BUILT FOR THE CENTURIES GATUN DAM 




COLD STORAGE PLANT AT COLOX, WHERE EVERY EATABLE KNOWN TO MAN 

SEEMS TO BE STORED 




TERRACE OX TERRACE, ROADWAY ON ROADWAY, THE SHOVELS EAT \XTO 

GOLD HILL 




READING ROOM AT THE Y. M. C. A. 




CULEBRA STATION, ON THE PANAMA RAILROAD 




THE " MOTHER COURT " AT EMPIRE, A HOSPITABLE LODGE OF THE 
ISTHMIAN KANGAROOS 




THE SUSPENSION BRIDGE AT EMPIRE WHICH CRO< 

A FAVORITE RENDEZVOUS 



SES THE CULEBRA CUT 




THIRD RAIL ELECTRIC SUBWAY IN CONNECTION WITH GATUN CEMENT MIXERS 




THE GIANT CONCRETE MIXERS. ONE IS TIPPING UP TO LOAD A CAR-BUCKET 




WHERE THE LOCK WALLS BEGIN TO RISE 




A VISTA OF VERY " WET DIGGINGS." WHERE EVERYTHING IS AFLOAT 




WIRE TRANSPORTATION FOR BUCKETS OF CEMENT, CROSSING THE 
GATUN LOCK SITES 




CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION AT GATUN, WHERE WATER WILL COME IN FROM 
BOTTOM TO LIFT THE VESSELS 




THE HEAVY SLIDE AT CUCARACHA, WHICH ARRIVES PUNCTUALLY EVERY YEAR 




BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF CULEBRA CUT, THROUGH WHICH A TUXXEL TS 
EXCAVATED EVERY MONTH 




" Dorinda had her arms around the baby and was clasping him so tightly^ 
that it almost hurt him" 



Miriam 




Illustrated by 
Blanche Chloe Grant 




E Lorimers had been married 
f r fifteen years, and no child 
had come to make' glad their 
hearts and home. 
During the early years of their married 
life they not only longed for children but 
expected them, and openly rebelled against 
their barren condition. As time passed 
on, however, and their hopes still failed 
of realization, they sank into a patient 
and pathetic silence, speaking no more 
even to each other of their little son - 
that tardy little son who was always 
coming yet never came. But, though 
their lips were sealed, the yearning and 
disappointment locked in those lonely 
hearts was known to all the small su- 
burban world. There was a hungry look 
in Nathan's eyes and a tearless wistful- 
ness in Dorinda's which were easy of 
interpretation. Nathan felt no resent- 
ment toward his wife on account of her 
dereliction. On the contrary, his love 
for her seemed to grow and strengthen 
with the passing of the desolated years. 
Their very childlessness drew the twain 
nearer and nearer together so that after 
a decade and a half of mingled shadow 
and sunshine they were still young lovers. 
Nathan's fondness for children was 
proverbial. In his youth he had driven 
his poor mother well-nigh distracted by 
filling the house to overflowing with 
borrowed babies, turning the neatly kept 
lawn into a public playground, and giving 
every ragged urchin in the neighborhood 
a free ticket to the apple orchard. Even ' 
at that tender age he had dreamed dreams 
and seen visions of a future domesticity 
in which sweet Dorinda Deere and a 
blue-eyed baby figured prominently. 
After his marriage Nathan ceased to 



borrow the babies of the community- 
He found them entirely too unsatisfying. 
Their presence in the house had an irri- 
tating effect upon him, causing him to 
realize all the nore fully the cruel in- 
justice of his lot. Without children 
there was no incentive to ambition, noth- 
ing to plan for, nothing to live for, nothing 
to strive for. He did not ask to be a 
patriarch. One son, only one little blue- 
eyed boy this was all he craved or 
needed or demanded. 

On the eve of the fifteenth anniversary 
of their wedding Nathan and Dorinda 
were sitting together before their bed- 
room fire with sad eyes fixed upon the 
flames. They often sat this way on 
rainy evenings when visitors were un- 
likely to intrude upon them. It was 
springtime, but as there was a distinct 
chill in the air the glow of the open fire 
was very comforting. Outside the April 
rain fell softly on the young grass and 
budding lilacs. The room was sweet 
with the odor of April blossoms gathered 
that morning in Dorinda's famous garden. 

Dorinda occupied a low rocker close 
to Nathan's chair. Her hand was clasped 
in his, her soft cheek lay against his knee. 
Her childish face looked wan and pale in 
the flickering light not wan with phy- 
sical sickness but with gnawing heart- 
hunger and secret sorrow. Her eyes, which 
matched the violets upon her bosom, 
were bright with unshed tears. 

In her lap lay a letter she had received 
that day and which she had just read aloud 
to Nathan. It was from Mildred Chal- 
loner, a young cousin of hers who had 
married eighteen months before and was 
writing now to invite them to her baby's 
christening. 



(249) 



250 



THE HAND OF PROVIDENCE 



"Oh, he is such a splendid, splendid boy, 
Dorinda!" Mildred wrote with all a young 
mother's enthusiasm. "The very image 
of his father! We are going to call him 
Robert Nathan, after your husband and 
mine, deaf!" 

Nathan and Dorinda were not talk- 
ing much tonight. They loved each 
other so dearly that continuous conver- 
sation was never a necessity. Besides, 
their hearts were unusually sad just now, 
unusually stormy and resentful. Every 
sentence in Mildred's happy letter was 
like a knife-thrust. It really seemed as 
if she might have written less exuberantly. 

Suddenly Dorinda's eyes brimmed over 
and two big shining drops fell upon the 
letter in her lap. She hid her face on 
Nathan's hand and sobbed wildly, hyster- 
ically, unrestrainedly. It did not occur 
to Nathan to utter reproaches or re- . 
monstrances. There was a suspicious 
glisten in his own eyes, a fierce battle 
raging in his own rebellious breast. He 
smoothed Dorinda's hair with his free 
hand and waited patiently for the passing 
of the storm. Dorinda seldom yielded to 
tears, but when she did the outburst 
was tempestuous and prolonged. 

When she grew quiet finally and Nathan's 
hand had wiped away her tears, they 
proceeded to discuss with energy the most 
cherished desire of their united hearts, 
a subject which for so long had been 
studiously avoided. The clock struck 
ten, eleven, twelve. The cheery fire died 
a reluctant death. The rain ceased and 
a pallid moon peeped through the parted 
curtains. Still Nathan and Dorinda talked 
and argued. At one o'clock Dorinda 
crept into the big chair where Nathan 
sat and laid her head in the dear hollow 
of his shoulder. When the dawn came 
they were still sitting in the great old 
chair talking more eagerly than ever, 
and laughing, too a foolish, happy, 
irrelevant laughter which they scarcely 
understood themselves. 

Down in the city at Nathan's law office 
his junior partner and pretty stenographer 
showed no surprise at the failure of the 
senior to appear that morning. Every 
employee in the establishment knew that 
this was Mr. Lorimer's wedding anni- 
versary. It was as sacred as the Sabbath, 



and no business matter was sufficiently 
important to interfere with its observance. 
Nathan and Dorinda had made it a prac- 
tice to spend this hallowed holiday in 
a neighboring town with Dorinda's white- 
haired, beautiful old mother, but today 
the gentle lady watched for them in vain. 
At dinner time she received a belated 
telegram announcing that her children 
had gone holiday-making in another di- 
rection, and would write an explanation 
later. 

When the Lorimers boarded the early 
train that morning they were like a bride 
and groom 4 starting out upon their wed- 
ding journey. Dorinda was a little thing, 
as fresh and fair today as a newly opened 
flower. Her tailor-made suit of soft 
dove-color and her pale-grey hat, gloves 
and boots, all purchased especially for 
this anniversary, were admirably suited 
to her girlish figure and the pastel tints 
of her hair, eyes and complexion. An un- 
familiar sparkle and brightness in her 
manner and appearance seemed to have 
usurped the place of the old sad wistful- 
ness. As they rode along through the 
spring sunshine, Nathan laid his hand over 
her gloved fingers and looked at her so 
worshippingly that she flushed like a 
schoolgirl. 

Nathan had opposed so bitterly the 
move which they were about to make. 
They had spent the entire night threshing 
out this problem of adoption. How 
fiercely, how determinedly she had fought 
to win the victory! He was afraid he 
had acted unwisely in yielding even con- 
ditionally to her importunities. How- 
ever, this girlish happiness and beauty 
were so alluring that he felt repaid for 
his concessions. 

When they alighted from the train at 
Lancaster, Nathan called a cab, and they 
drove directly to the orphan asylum, 
which was located on the outskirts of 
the town. Evidently the whole insti- 
tution was taking a springtime holiday. 
The old-fashioned yard was filled with 
children who romped and played over the 
soft grass. Some of the more sober- 
minded ones were working in the flower- 
borders or raking off the dead leaves and 
other debris of wintertime. Even the 
young teachers, with sunbonnets covering 



THE HAND OF PROVIDENCE 



251 



their heads and big aprons over their 
dresses, had come out to take a part in 
this general spring-cleaning. There were 
white-capped nurses here, there, every- 
where, leading or carrying their, helpless 
charges, and over yonder half a dozen 
pale-faced little invalids were coming 
from the infirmary to get a breath of 
April sweetness and a flash of sunshine. 

Nathan and Dorinda left their cab at 
the gate and walked up the violet-bordered 
pathway. Dorinda was flushed and trem- 
ulous with excitement and expectancy. 
At the sight of this troop of orphaned 
little ones her mother love rose to fever 
heat. As for Nathan his heart throbbed 
with bitterness, and the old sense of in- 
justice crushed down upon him like a 
weight. Why was the world filled with 
homeless babies when a few miles away 
that sad old house, the seat of his fore- 
fathers, stood cold and empty? Why 

His reflections were interrupted by 
a sudden joyous cry from Dorinda. 

"O Nathan, Nathan! Look at him! 
Look at him! The beautiful boy! He 
shall be our son, Nathan, our little, little 
son! We shall ask no questions, but just 
take him as he is. What do we care who 
his father and mother were? He is our 
baby, now!" 

A sturdy little figure was standing on 
the veranda with his cap pushed back 
from his forehead and his arms akimbo. 
His hair gleamed in the April sunlight. 
His eyes were violet-blue like Dorinda's 
own. He looked half-shy, half-brave, 
wholly sweet and lovable. He was clad 
in his Sunday best, for one of the teachers 
had just brought him back from town 
where she had had his picture taken at 
her own expense. 

Dorinda ran lightly up the flight, and 
sitting upon the topmost step, drew the 
child toward her and kissed him gently. 

"Little son," she said, "you look as 
if you are watching and waiting for the 
coming of some one whom you love. 
Don't you know me, sweetheart? Don't 
you know your little mother?" 

The child put up his hand and patted 
her peach-blossom cheek. Then he threw 
his arms around her neck and kissed her 
rapturously. 

"My muwer!" he cried. "My pretty, 



pretty muwer! Oh, I'm so glad, so glad 
you've turn!" 

Nathan left them out there making love 
to each other in the sunshine while he 
went on into the office to consult the 
superintendent. Nathan's own heart 
yearned paternally over the handsome 
boy, who had just called him "Farver," 
and had held up his lips so very confid- 
ingly. Yet the other side of Nathan's 
nature, the practical side, protested against 
the adoption of this alien blood. The risk 
and responsibility of such a step were 
heavier than he cared to shoulder. Do- 
rinda, foolish Dorinda, was in too great 
a state of exaltation to view the matter 
sensibly. She was so practical in other 
things, but in this one instance she had 
allowed her heart to run quite away with 
her head. After their prolonged argu- 
ment of the preceding night Nathan 
had granted her reluctantly the privilege 
of taking one of the orphans from the 
Asylum on probation. He would not 
allow her to adopt it legally until they 
had tested the experiment and studied 
the problem in its every phase. She had 
laughed so happily when this grudging 
consent was wrung from him. He, too, 
had laughed, though he knew not why. 

Nathan's interview with the superin- 
tendent was altogether satisfactory and 
delightful. The superintendent, vigorous 
divine of seventy -five, had given his 
life to the rescue of orphaned children. 
Though anxious to place his charges in 
suitable homes, he thoroughly respected 
the scruples of level-headed men like 
Nathan Lorimer, and seldom attempted 
to influence them against their better 
judgment. 

"However, I think you need fear noth- 
ing in this case, Mr. Lorimer," he said, 
going to his cabinet and taking down a 
book of records. "There was no irregu- 
larity about little Donald's birth. His 
name " 

"My wife and I prefer to know nothing 
whatever about his origin or his past," 
Nathan hastily interposed. "If we de- 
cide to adopt him we shall give him the 
family name and rear him as our own 
son. We shall wish him to believe always 
as he seems to believe at present that we 
are his natural parents. In all probability 



252 



THE HAND OF PROVIDENCE 



I shall return the boy at the end of his 
probationary period." 

The superintendent replaced the record 
book in the cabinet and smiled inscrutably. 

"Very well, Mr. Lorimer," he said. 
"That lies entirely with you, sir. Little 
Donald will find a warm welcome awaiting 
him whenever you see fit to return him. 
He is the pet of the institution. Ah, 
Mr. Lorimer, it would be very hard for 
us to give him up, sir! In all my years 
of work among these unfortunates I have 
made it a rule to show no partiality, but 
Donald has a way with him, Mr. Lorimer. 
He creeps into the heart so gently, so 
imperceptibly that one scarcely realizes 
it. You will find it very difficult to part 
with him after a month's acquaintance, 
sir!" 

Late in the afternoon, the cabman. re- 
turned according to instructions, and 
the Lorimers, with Donald stepping 
proudly between them, walked once more 
along the violet-bordered pathway. The 
janitor preceded them, carrying a box 
containing the few articles of wearing ap- 
parel belonging to the child. Following 
the Lorimers came a dejected and hetero- 
geneous procession composed of nearly 
all the officials, inmates and employees 
of the institution. More than one pair 
of eyes was wet with tears, and the dark- 
haired teacher who had had the boy's 
picture taken in Lancaster that morning 
sobbed uncontrollably. Little Donald was 
indeed a favorite. 

When Nathan and Dorinda reached 
home in the purple twilight everything was 
in readiness for the reception of the child. 
Old Aunt Bella, the dusky culinary queen, 
who held royal sway over Nathan and 
Dorinda, had been carefully instructed 
in the early morning, and had brought 
down from the dust and cobwebs of the 
garret the little bed, dining-chair and 
rocker which had been Nathan's in his 
babyhood. There were some battered 
toys and dilapidated picture-books lying 
in a corner of Dorinda's bedroom. 

Aunt Bella, with characteristic im- 
pulsiveness, swept the boy to her ample 
breast. 

"Lawd, chillun, ef I ain' glad tuh-see 
dis day!" she cried, rocking him back 
and forth in her motherly arms. 



Oh, the tea-table with covers laid for 
three. At the most important place there 
were a silver cup, knife, fork and spoon, 
a wonderful plate with gorgeous chickens 
painted on it, and a threadbare bib adorned 
with apples outlined in turkey-red. These 
were all relics of Nathan's childhood. 

After the meal, Nathan led the boy 
into the glorified bedroom, and Dorinda 
undressed him before the fire, which 
Uncle Isham, Aunt Bella's better half, 
had lighted on the hearth. Nathan did 
not take an active part in these bedtime 
ceremonies, and yet he experienced no 
feeling of jealousy or aloofness. Dorinda's 
radiant smiles included him as a matter of 
course, and more than once Donny ran 
to him and climbed upon his knee, crying 
ecstatically : 

"Farver! My farver! I love you, I 
love you! I love you!" 

When the child had said his prayers at 
Dorinda's knee, she took him on her lap 
and rocked him to sleep in the good old 
way without regard to modern and scien- 
tific methods. Nathan watched her ador- 
ingly as she swayed there in the glow of 
the fire with the child's head on her breast, 
a soft melody in her throat, and that 
strange mother-radiance on her uplifted 
face. There was a wonderful peace in 
Nathan's heart, a wonderful light in his 
contented eyes. Everything now seemed 
so sweet, so right, so natural! 

Little Donald's presence wrought a 
marvellous transformation in the Lorimer 
home. Dorinda felt no shrinking from 
those humble services against which so 
many mothers rebel. To bathe and 
dress this joyous baby, keep his sun- 
kissed hair in order, plan his meals, make 
his new clothes and mend his old ones, 
tie his shoestrings, darn his stockings, all 
these to her were but labors of love. She 
had been so lonely before he came and life 
had seemed so purposeless. Now, from 
the early morning when a little hand fell 
like a roseleaf upon her eyes and waked 
her, every moment of the day was full 
of interest and joy. The child flitted 
laughingly from room to room, filling 
every corner of the dim old mansion with 
sunshine. He followed Dorinda over the 
lawn and gardens, gathering hyacinths 
and li lies -of -the -valley, romping with 



THE HAND OF PROVIDENCE 



253 



Nathan's collie, and incidentally making 
friends with all the passers-by. He paid 
hourly visits to the cabin in the back yard 
where Aunt Bella and Uncle Isham lived. 
He fed the chickens in the poultry lot 
till the poor things were ready to burst, 
chased the pony around the paddock and 
superintended Uncle Isham every morn- 
ing and evening when he milked the 
Jersey. On rainy days he looked at 
picture-books, or played with the new 
toys Nathan had bought for him, and the 
old ones from the garret. Toward tea 
time, on pleasant afternoons, Dorinda 
dressed him in a fresh white linen suit 
and took him to the station to meet his 
"Farver," that fine new father who was 
growing younger, handsomer and happier 
every day. Nearly all the pedestrians 
they encountered took time to stop and 
welcome the "blue-eyed kiddie" who was 
living with the Lorimer-s, and at the sta- 
tion he was invariably the center of a 
coterie of admirers. Letters of congratu- 
lation poured in from every direction, 
gifts came for Donny by both mail and 
express, and the neighboring suburbanites 
called en masse to pay their respects to 
"Dorinda's baby." People seemed to 
take for granted that Donny was perma- 
nently established. 

Xathan and Dorinda took him to spend 
a Sunday with Dorinda's mother, who 
was enchanted when he kissed her vol- 
untarily and called her "Dran'ma" in the 
most natural manner imaginable. 

"Don't tell the other girls, Dorinda," 
said the old lady proudly, "but I really 
believe he is the handsomest grandchild 
I have:" 

Xathan and Dorinda talked a great 
deal now when Donny lay sleeping in his 
little bed. They talked of all that they 
would do for him if they decided to adopt 
him how he should have this, that and 
the other thing a new cart and a more 
trustworthy pony than the one they 
owned at present, an electric railway, 
a sled for next winter's snows, Christmas 
trees, Easter egg hunts and Valentine 
celebrations how when he grew older, 
they would sacrifice themselves to give 
him the best that life could furnish in 
the way of travel and other advantages 
how he should be trained as Nathan had 



been trained before him, to fix his mind 
only on those things which are pure and 
true and honest and of good report 
how he should be educated either at Yale 
or Harvard, and finally be taken as a 
partner into his father's firm. 

When tea was over one bright May 
evening, Nathan and Dorinda were sitting 
together on their front veranda. Dorinda, 
dressed in purest white, was in her old 
attitude at her husband's feet with her 
cheek against his knee. She looked so 
satisfied, but Nathan seemed sad and 
absent-minded. Dorinda, thinking he was 
perplexed over business matters, pre- 
tended not to notice his dejection. 

Out yonder little Donald, guarded 
benevolently by the collie, was gathering 
blossoms in the narcissus border. Pres- 
ently he came across the lawn with his 
hands full of the fragrant flowers and the 
sunset light on his happy little face. 
The dog walked alongside, wagging his 
tail and barking in an understanding 
manner when the child talked to him. 
Donny came up the steps and laid the 
blossoms on Dorinda's lap. Then, with 
the dog bounding after him, he flashed 
away again to pluck a lily-of-the-valley 
to put in "Farver's" buttonhole. 

"Poor little beggar!" said Nathan. "I 
wish I could see my way clear to keep 
him, but I cannot make up my mind to 
it, somehow. It's too risky. Do you 
think you could pack his box tonight, 
Dorinda?" 

The face Dorinda lifted to him was as 
white as the dress she wore. 

"Nathan! O Nathan!" she cried. 

Nathan's eyes were almost stern,- almost 
forbidding. The sorrow and reproach in 
Dorinda's voice stabbed him like a knife. 

"His time is out tomorrow, dear," 
he said with gentle firmness. "I have 
written Dr. Whalen to expect us in the 
morning." 

Dorinda felt no anger toward her hus- 
band. He was so safe, so sane, and al- 
ways acted for the best. It was rare that 
he made a mistake of any kind. She 
knew full well that it had torn his own 
heart-strings to come to this decision. 
She sat there dumbly, making no effort 
at argument and thinking that this agony 
might kill her. It was useless to argue 



254 



THE HAND OF PROVIDENCE 



with Nathan when he looked and spoke as 
he was doing now. 

By and by they called the little boy 
and went indoors, leaving the dog out- 
side to bark weirdly at the May time moon. 

After a sleepless night, the Lorimers sat 
down to breakfast as usual, but neither 
Nathan nor Dorinda could eat. Only 
Donny seemed to enjoy the viands which 
Aunt Bella had prepared. Even the two 
old darkies dreaded the separation. Uncle 
Isham brushed his hand across his eyes 
more than once as he served the tempting 
dishes, and out in the lonely kitchen 
Aunt Bella was weeping audibly. 

Donny was delighted at the idea of 
going to the Asylum to spend a day with 
his whilom friends. He thought the plan 
was for him to return at night just as 
he had done from "Dran'ma's" after that 
beautiful Sunday in her home. Nathan 
and Dorinda did not have the heart to 
undeceive him. He wondered why Aunt 
Bella and Uncle Isham were crying, 
when he ran out to the kitchen to tell 
them good-bye, but he was too excited to 
wait for an explanation. He kissed 
Dorinda on the lips and cheeks and eyes, 
promising to come back before dark, 
and "keep care" of her all night. Then 
he put his hand in Nathan's and they 
went out together. 

Dorinda did not cry. Her anguish was 
too deep for tears. She gathered up the 
toys and picture-books and put them out 
of sight. By and by she would call Aunt 
Bella and Uncle Isham to take the baby 
chairs and bed back to their old haunts 
in the garret. Before calling them, how- 
ever, she laid her head in the hollow 
where his little head had rested all the 
night before. She hid her face in her 
hands, trying not to think, trying not to 
breathe the perfume of the narcissus 
blooms he had brought to her at sunset 



yesterday. They were in a vase there on 
the center table, and their fragrance filled 
the house. Could she go back to the old 
apathetic life? Could she face it? Ah, 
well! She thanked a gracious God for 
that one short month of Heaven. She 
could keep the memory of it in her heart 
forever. 

She did not know that the collie was 
barking joyously outside, that there were 
quick footsteps on the porch and in the 
entrance hall. She heard nothing, noticed 
nothing until the little well-remembered 
hand drew her tense fingers from her 
face and fell like a roseleaf on her eyelids. 

"Wake up, muwer! Wake up!" Donny 
cried. "We've turn back! De train was 
dawn away!" 

Nathan stood in the doorway, blush- 
ing radiantly, laughing boyishly. 

"The little beggar's right, Dorinda! 
The train was very obliging and pulled 
out just as we reached the station. 'I 
can't get away to Lancaster today! My 
WIFE won't let me!' " he sang at the top 
of a fine tenor voice now glorious with 
joy. 

Dorinda had her arms around the baby 
and was clasping him so tightly that it 
almost hurt him. The roseleaf hand 
busily brushed away her tears, those 
tears of gladness which had risen so swiftly 
to her eyes. 

"O Nathan, dear!" she whispered tremu- 
lously. "Don't you see what it means? 
Don't you see now that we must keep 
him! It was the Hand of Providence!" 

There was a mischievous twinkle in 
Nathan's eyes, a telltale chuckle in his 
throat. 

"Was it Providence, I wonder?" he said 
softly. "It may have been. Providence 
generally has a say so in these matters. 
But my heart failed me when I left you, 
and we walked mighty slowly, dear!" 





A SERIAL 

By FRANK HATFIELD 

Copyright, Reid Publishing Company 

CHAPTER XVIII 




ETROTHALS in Zoeia lasted one 
year. Neither hasty nuptials nor 
protracted courtships were ap- 
proved of by these wise people. 
Hence, the date when my comrade and I 
would be central figures in an unusual scene 
was not far away. . 

Our time was divided between Bacca, 
Hokenda and Huan, with occasional trips 
through the country. Tom worked with 
Soratiya; in company with Audofa I taught 
English to apt pupils at the College. Our 
headquarters were at Bacca. Usually, we 
could be found at Bestofall, teaching our 
language to two ardent, affectionate women 
who loved us with singleness of heart. Tom 
often said: "It is a joy to talk to the girls in 
our native tongue; for one can say so many 
nice things difficult to twist into shape with 
a foreign dialect." I found it so. 

Xot infrequently, the "four-in-hand" as 
Tom named our party visited those attrac- 
tive places, between Bacca and Hokenda, 
before referred to, or crossed the threshold 
of Elida's lovely home. It was mostly moon- 
light, music and flowers. A waking dream 
of romance. 

And brave Moto? He had received 
special mark of esteem from the College, 
and gloried in a diamond ornament designed 
by Zenia. 



Many interesting incidents were woven 
into the warp of our lives. Beoteen again 
invited us to the observatory. On this occa- 
sion the telescope swung into place with 
Mars in the field. I was astonished to see 
Schiaparelli's lines resolved into distinct 
valleys between numerous mountain ranges; 
and when Saturn came into view, I saw 
four rings and easily counted ten moons. 
I mentioned the number to Beoteen. "There 
are twelve," he said, "two of them very 
small." Clearer still were the nine moons 
of Jupiter. 

In answer to Tom's question as to whether 
Saturn's rings were solid, fluidic or gaseous, 
he replied: "Tooma, when one is separated 
from a world by an interval of not less than 
seven hundred millions of miles, it is impos- 
sible to ascertain the exact physical condi- 
tions. We must think of that to which the 
term matter is applied, as being quite dif- 
ferent from what it is commonly supposed 
to be. Our earth ideas do not fit well in so 
remote a region." 

I asked him if he thought the planet was 
inhabited by intelligent beings. "Assuredly," 
he said. "Can we conceive that our Maker 
would create so magnificent an abode and 
leave it desolate? Kesua taught us that all 
worlds were, or would become, the abode of 
the Father's great family in different stages 



(255) 



256 



" HUM " 



of advancement toward the perfect whole." 

Then he showed us nebulae, not mentioned 
in our books, and the beautiful twin stars. 
Gentle, courteous Beoteen he strove in 
every way to make our evening a pleasant 
one. 

"If I were a woman, I should be head 
over heels in love with that man," declared 
Tom after we left. 

"I do not wonder," said Fulma. 

"Ridiculous!" exclaimed Zenia. 
* * * 

Fragrant is the memory of an hour one 
of many spent with the Madu Rea. After 
cake and wine, both enriched by her de- 
lightful courtesy she drew Fulma to her. 

"My daughter, Oron has told me of your 
happiness," she said gently. "You have 
chosen wisely, my child Your union will 
be blessed. The little foreign flower that 
so long gladdened us will bloom yet more 
abundantly. You will go from us and come 
in contact with scenes and people with whom 
you have had no experience. In the lower 
life you will be tossed on a sea of disturbing 
impulses. We stand on a ball of clay in 
limitless space, my daughter. With the 
Father's call there comes a change whereby 
we drop the garment of humanity, wherewith 
we have been bound, and pass to new asso- 
ciations. We are plants in one of the King's 
gardens. If we mature here, the veil which 
has infolded us becomes so tenuous it can 
no longer hold captive the god essence. 
Then we are transplanted into richer vine- 
yards. If we do not mature, we pass to 
conditions more favorable for our develop- 
ment. There are, my child, singular earth 
influences that tend to render the human 
garment a restraint to the unfolding of the 
spiritual flower within. The conditions 
among which you will go are of this kind. 
Guard well your spiritual self, your true self, 
dear one. Your betrothed knows whereof 
I speak." 

"Yes, Madu," I assented, "but hitherto, 
not clearly as I do now." 

"Feanka, my son, you loved our little 
daughter when first you saw her face, far 
from the Zoeian shores. Does she know?" 

"Not yet, Madu," I answered, astonished. 
"Has Audofa told you?" 

"No, my son, there was no need." 

"Ah, Madu dear," cried Fulma, "of what 
do you speak?" 



"Come here, daughter mine, and you, too, 
Feanka. I will tell you something." 

Our eager eyes grew more intense as the 
Madu rehearsed every detail of the scene in 
the saloon of the Mohegan. Fulma was 
overawed. I was about to speak, when the 
Madu went on: "There is more I must tell 
you," she said; "something that has not 
passed my lips for as many years as you are 
old, my sweet child. Not even to dear 
Oron, nor the Paerdo. I have not deemed 
it wise; but now 

"Ah! what is it?" besought Fulma. 

"Little daughter, from the hour of your 
birth, I have known all the events in your 
life." 

I was speechless. In whose presence did 
I stand. 

"What, Madu?" cried Fulma, clinging to 
her neck, "you knew that Padu Termal ?" 

"Yes, daughter, all. To bring you here 
required almost superhuman effort; he con- 
tended with forces seen and unseen; he 
denied himself food that your yearning 
moans might be stayed." 

"Ah, poor Padu," sighed Fulma. 

"Not so, dear," the Madu exclaimed, her 
face shining. "The night is gone; the day 
star, Razdon, is on high; the Chieftain has 
come for his bride. See, see, dear ones " 
(her voice sounded far away) "the smile of 
the Divine infolds you." A strange, lumi- 
nous cloud was where the Madu had been. 
A moment only she again was a living per- 
sonality. I controlled my emotions suffi- 
ciently to speak not of what had happened; 
that was too sacred, but concerning what 
she had previously told us. 

"Madu," I said, "with this wonderful 
attainment, you might know of other coun- 
tries and people." 

"True, my children, one needs only a 
sympathetic mind to see these pictures at 
will. I seldom use the gift. My thoughts 
are mostly engaged with the spiritual ad- 
vancement of my race. Many of our people 
possess this faculty. They all possess it 
potentially." 

"Has Zenia this talent?" Fulma asked. 

"In slight degree as yet, my daughter." 

"And Termal?" 

"Yes, in a way, but dimly. Termal is 
strongly earth-bound; a mSm of wonderful 
vitality and energy; a good man, withal." 

"And Oron?" I asked. 



" HUM " 



257 



"To a high degree, doubtless, my son; 
but dear Oron's mind is ever active with the 
affairs of our nation, and seldom leaves the 
terrestrial plane. Audofa is richly endowed, 
though not a pure Zoeian; otherwise, he 
would not have received the picture in the 
cabin of the ship." 

"But we saw only the picture," I said. 
"We did not see Audofa." 

"It is this way, my son. You lost his 
personality, so to speak, and saw only the 
image present in his mind. Sometime, may 
be, I will illustrate this to you." 

The hour chimed. Fulma rose and kissed 
the Madu fervently. 

As I took her hand I said: "Dear Madu, 
grant me the same privilege." 

"Willingly, Feanka," she said, offering her 
cheek. "It is the expression of love." 
* * * 

At the restafa I found my comrade some- 
what depressed. In reply to my question as 
to what had happened he said: "Oh, it is 
about Zene. There is something queer with 
the girl." 

"Not loving and demonstrative?" 

"Well more so than I supposed any 
woman could be, and I've seen three or 
four." 

"Yes, Don Selby, I have heard of your 
conquests." 

"Ah! have you? Well, there's one thing 
flat; you never heard of any wrecks." 

"Never, old friend to your honor be it 
said. But go on." 

"Well when we are together, and that's 
pretty often, I have to sort of reach up. 
Somehow or other, she seems above my 
level. Of course, it's only an impression, 
but it has come to stay. And then she said 
something today that made my hair rise. 
We were in the Clematis Bower, talking. 
Zene suddenly stopped and looked at me. 
'Tooma,' she said, 'at times, the picture of 
a woman with gray hair, and eyes like yours, 
is close to you. It is there now.' I jumped 
up and kissed her. 'Why, Tooma!' she 
exclaimed, 'I think I have been dreaming.' 
Then we squared accounts. What do you 
think of that?" 

"Well, it is strange," I admitted, "but I 
wouldn't dwell on it, or allow it to trouble 
me. Oron wishes to see us tonight. I pre- 
sume it is about our wedding. Think of 
it, Tom, one more week and then " 



"Comes the Grand International Sweep- 
stakes!" he assisted. "The girls are just 
hustling, Fean. Fulma appears a bit rattled, 
but Zenia is as composed as a young widow 
at her old man's funeral. Well I have no 
objection to offer." 

"Are you ready for the event, old school- 
mate?" 

"Surely all squared up balance sheet 
closed." 

"What is the showing?" 

"Fine! The past year has been a record 
breaker. Surplus account greatly increased." 

"By the way, my chum, Loredo informs 
me that Paerdo will see us tomorrow." 

"Paerdo? Well that means soberness 
for me." 

* * * 

The senior member of the College was a 
man of commanding presence, with large, 
deep, piercing eyes; a high brow where 
parted, in graceful waves, his luxuriant gray 
hair; a full flexible mouth, and a chin that 
indicated firmness. Nothing to suggest a 
self-immolated recluse. Obviously, a man 
who enjoyed the companionship of his 
peers, the researches of his co-workers; but, 
above all, the profound metaphysical science 
that had absorbed his thoughts for more 
than a hundred years. 

As I looked at him, I could not realize his 
age. Youthful fire, manly vigor, and the 
graces that cultivation, select association, 
pure thought and self-mastery bring to the 
middle-aged, were emphasized in his striking 
and intensely attractive personality. 

"It gives me pleasure to welcome you, my 
brothers," he said, offering both hands. 
"Your coming marks an era in our history; 
it will have far-reaching effect among other 
races. We have known of the existence of 
people in the lower world. Our hypothesis 
concerning them has been singularly con- 
firmed by our brother, Audofa. By reason 
of our isolation, we have been restrained 
from giving them of our abundance; but 
our Sovereign Lord has opened our gates, 
sealed by His hand for thousands of years. 
The union of our daughter with a fitting 
representative of the English-speaking race 
is the initial point from which our gifts may 
be disseminated. Our foster-child, though 
not a Zoeian by descent, and thus peculiarly 
endowed, has, by long sojourn with us, be- 
come imbued with our thought and moulded 



258 



" HUM " 



by our customs and teachings. She, too, 
will worthily represent us, and, in association 
with him whom she has chosen, will become 
the progenitor of a noble people." 

I listened to him in wonder. He spoke 
with the enthusiasm of vigorous manhood. 
And he was a contemporary of the Madu 
Real 

"My sons," he said, "Oron has told you 
of our country; whereof shall I speak?" 

"We come to you as children seeking 
light," I said. 

"On what subjects, my son?" 

"We would know of the Father. Our 
records are incomplete and difficult to inter- 
pret. Who, and what, is He? Where does 
He dwell? What is His relation to His 
creatures?" 

"You seek profound wisdom," he said, 
his face aglow; "jtou ask what may not be 
quickly told. However, we will discourse 
for a while, and again, take up the theme. 
Come, sit on either side of me and give me 
your hands." 

As my palm touched his, I felt a slight, 
pleasing thrill then, a sense of tranquility 
a fading of self. 

"The Father," he said, "is the one divine 
principle in the universe. The supreme 
embodiment of power, and wisdom, and love. 
All that we know of through our senses 
are manifestations of this omnipresent energy. 
But I must tell you that these manifestations, 
as they appear to us, have no real existence 
beyond our consciousness. We are now 
looking at something on yonder table which 
we call a glass of water. We all see it, 
because consciousness, in each, is in the 
same state. Let it change, ever so little, 
in either one of us, and the object, to him, 
no longer exists. Something else has taken 
its place. (I recalled our strange experience 
in Huan, and other similar ones.) Hence, 
my sons, when you think of conditions you 
have witnessed and again, ' may witness 
which were at variance with your concept 
of the divine attributes, you must ponder 
upon what I have told you; and endeavor 
to realize that nothing but purity and holiness 
can be associated with the Father; and 
that, He being all powerful, there can be 
no opposing force. We know not why these 
fantastic images have come into the minds 
of other men. Do you understand me, 
my sons?" 



"Sufficiently well, father, to cause me to 
be troubled," said Tom. 

"In what way?" the Paerdo asked. 

"Why I might at any moment cease to 
be conscious of of Zenia." 

"It is true, Tooma," Paerdo smiled, "but 
our waking consciousness rarely changes 
but once, on the earth plane." 

"Thanks, father! Your words are com- 
forting, and very sustaining." 

"It is difficult for me to trace the relation 
between the Divinity and His manifesta- 
tions," I said. 

" Undoubtedly, Feanka conditioned by 
relativity as you are. The relation is a 
paternal one, in that we emanate from Him 
as the ray from the sun, we might say 
being a part of the divine essence; and, 
in fact, are never separate from it; though 
each member of the human family assumes 
a distinst individuality which he asserts, 
until by deep devotion, profound medita- 
tion, and self-renunciation he rises to a 
full recognition of his oneness with the Father. 

"You have told us of the great circulatory 
system of water in the lower world; of an 
immense ocean, of mountains, of rivulets 
and rivers. Think of these rivulets as en- 
tities, which, after many wanderings, return 
to their source. So go forth the manifesta- 
tions of the Father. So return they to His 
bosom freighted with experiences garnered 
from their migrations whence, in obedience 
to an immutable law inherent in himself, 
they again appear. They are ever united 
with their source; though, to you, they seem 
separate. Be patient, my son. In due time, 
the mystery of the manifestations will be 
revealed." 

"It is beyond my depth," Tom declared. 
"I should drown in such fathomless waters." 

The Paerdo's dark eyes rested on my com- 
rade an instant. "I think not," he said, 
"Zenia will help you." 

"In this beautiful land where purity and 
love only exist," I said, "one can easier 
understand such deep teaching, than in the 
lower world where evil and corruption seem 
to be present." 

".With such things we have no experience," 
Paerdo said. "Audofa has told us of fissures 
in the earth's surface; of great inundating 
waves of water; of fire coming from the tops 
of mountains; of irresistible currents of air 
sweeping across the land; and says that 



HUM" 



259 



their science men attribute these conditions 
to efforts on the part of what they call 
'nature' to restore a disturbed equilibrium. 
My brothers and I, thus far, think that the 
moral states of which you speak may be 
local disturbances in the mental sea which 
pervades the universe." 

"You lead us through new and fragrant 
pastures, father,' 1 I said; "but let us have 
no more of the celestial food today, lest we 
fail to assimilate it." 



man and woman. Hence, marriage would 
have disturbed the equilibrium, and changed 
the personality of the manifestation. Think 
about all I have told you, sons. Come to 
me when you will." 



"'Think of all I have told you,'" repeated 
Tom, as we walked homeward. "Such 
wisdom is beyond my thought. How narrow 
is the theology to which we have listened all 











" Strove to keep the boat near the center of the well " 



"That is wise" he said, releasing our 
hands. "Come to me whenever you are 
moved to do so, and seek frequent inter- 
views with Madu Rea, who can expound 
these subjects clearly. The dear Madu," 
he smiled, "she walketh with her hand rest- 
ing in the Fathers." 

"One question more, Paerdo, if I may ask 
it. Why did your Master, Kesua, not 
marry?'' 

He looked at us intently for a moment, 
then replied: "In Kesua were blended, in 
harmonious proportion, every masculine and 
feminine attribute to be found in a perfect 



our life; how inadequate it has been to 
produce such conditions as exist here." 

"True, comrade, but there is something 
beyond even the utterances of Paerdo. Some- 
thing we do not understand. There is a 
great mystery about these people that 
eludes us." 

"Do you think they know it?" 

"Frankly, Tom, aside from Paerdo, the 
Madu, and probably Oron, I don't believe 
they do. They have known no other life, 
as we knew no other until we came here." 

"Fean, what do you suppose Paerdo 
meant when he said that Zenia would help 



260 



" HUM " 



me? She is a 'fullhand,' but how can she 
aid me on such a path ?" 

"Dear boy, you have seen but one side 
of Zenia." 

"True enough, Hat, I shall turn her over 
in my mind. Do you know, once when your 
humble servant was having a comfortable 
chat with Mrs. Durand not by the taffrail 
she said that the girl I would love was far 
above me. That fits Zoe, exactly but how 
did she know it?" 

"As she knew some other things, I think. 
Mrs. Durand was too well-bred to make 
invidious comparisons; but she seems to 
have hit the mark. The madam has not 
engaged my thoughts much of late." 

"Nor anyone else, old man, save the future 

Feankaena." 

* * * 

In dreamland I stood at the railway 
station in my old home and heard the engine 
announce its coming. One short sharp call 
for the brakes and I opened my eyes to 
see Tom, in his bath robe, standing in my 
doorway, whistling and laughing. 

"Gad! I thought that last blast would 
bring you," he shouted. "But how a man 
can sleep like a tortoise, within a few hours 
of his wedding, beats me." 

"The thought is so restful," I explained. 

"Oh! is it? If so, I pity you. Scott! 
I have been up an hour. The fact is, I am 
so crowded with happiness sleep had to 
vacate. Happy as a lord! I will lay a 
sovereign who does that remind you of, 
Fean? Jove! I would give five yellow boys 
to have Sam Mathers with us today. I 
reckon you wouldn't mind chipping in." 

"Assuredly not, dear boy; but you were 
saying 

"Oh, yes I will bet that Audofa will be 
the first to meet us. Why, Hat, but for the 
dear old fellow there wouldn't be any wed- 
ding. God bless him! Well, scatter now; we 
want to get down to Hokenda early. Here 
goes for a cold plunge!" 

My comrade would have won his wager. 

"Ahoy, old shipmates!" shouted Audofa, 
as we stepped from the car. "This is a 
gladsome day. Everyone is full of joy. 
Termal and the girls and Motoo are here. 
Everything is arranged. Your nuptials are 
to open the festival of the manifestation. 
The ceremony will be at the Rose Pavilion; 
later you are to have a reception at the lake. 



Do you recall our first visit to that place, 
Feanka?" 

"Well, indeed, Audofa." 

"After the repast, there are to be merry- 
makings and music. Then, my home will 
be gladdened by you and your island bride, 
Tooma; while Feanka and the little girl 
with the locket, will add joy to the hearts 
of Oron and his family." 

"Hey, shipmate," exclaimed Tom, "it's 
almost as hard to breathe- as it was in the 
rift." 

"Remember the spring and the star, 
Tooma." 

"Indeed I do. Ah! but for you, old 
friend." 

"Not to me the glory, messmate." 

"Audofa," I said, "I think we have found 
ourselves at last." 

"Oh, yes, Feanka, the pictures no longer 
fade. All is bright reality. We have passed 
through the second birth." 

All the latent enthusiasm in the Hungarian 
was manifested on this occasion. Someone 
called him. 

"Fean," whispered Tom, "think of the 
man who came to Elgrane." 

"Comrades," said Audofa, beaming, "Oron 
wishes you, as soon as may be." 
* * * 

Oron's face was that of the schoolboy 
when he grasps the longed-for prize. " Come 
here," he said, "I have something to show 
you." He parted the portieres just enough 
to disclose the room beyond. On the sofa 
opposite, sat the Madu Rea, richly robed, 
and on either side, clad in glistening white, 
sat Fulma and Zenia. "And now, a short 
sojourn in the library," he went on, "and 
then the culmination of our hopes." 

In the room so dear to my memory sat 
Loredo and Soratiya with other of the 
brotherhood. A few moments of social 
interchange, and Oron rose. "My sons," 
he said, "we wish to give you some mark of 
our esteem and affection before you wed our 
daughters. It is the desire of the nation 
that you become our adopted children. I 
therefore, proclaim you Zoeians of the first 
degree." 

All rose. I nodded to Tom. 

"Brothers," he said, "the honor you have 
conferred upon us is beyond my ability 
fittingly to acknowledge. The joy we felt 
when we passed from the shadow of death 



HUM " 



261 



into the light of this blessed land, grows 
dim in the greater joy of knowing that you 
deem us worthy of what you have bestowed. 
It is our highest realization of life to be with 
you. It will be with profound regret that 
we say farewell a regret tempered by the 
hope that we may return." 

"Honored Brethren of the College," I 
followed, "We came from darkness into 
light. We have drawn near to that spiritual 
illumination so eagerly sought, so rarely 
attained. We have learned that the king- 
dom of heaven has a tangible existence on 
earth. We heartily thank you for all you 
have done for us since, weary wanderers, 
we fell at your gates. May we prove worthy 
recipients of your high regard." 

"Well said, well said, my sons," approved 
Oron. "We are all of one accord. Now, 
let us join those who await us, and go to 
fairer scenes." 

It was a picturesque group that walked 
to the pavilion* Oron and others from the 
College, in their robes of office the stately 
Madu Rea, with Fulma and Zenia Oronena 
and her daughters Soratiya, our old precep- 
tor, with Tom and me Geando and Relso. 

Music and the murmur of happy voices 
came to us as we drew near. A throng of 
delighted Zoeians had gathered to bid us 
welcome. 

Nature had donned a special robe that 
bright day. Xo nuptial canopy was ever 
more beautiful than the Rose Pavilion. 
Even the skillful hands of the Oronena could 
add but little to nature's lavish adornment. 
From its wealth of beauty went forth a 
fragrant welcome to the fair women whom 
Oron consigned to our care for life. 

"My dear children," he said, as we rose 
from the ceremony, "on my own behalf, 
and for my people, I wish you every joy of 
earth life, and the greater bliss beyond." 

"Amen!" 

I knew the voice. Turning, I grasped 
Audofa's hand. A clear, glad note rang 
out. It was Moto's. 

Foremost among those who pressed close 
to us were the Oronena and her daughters, 
Elida, Retra and Termal. 

"Dear ones," said Elida, "you have but 
crossed the threshold of happiness." 

"My sisters," said the Oronena, clasping 
the blushing girls, "you and your chosen 
ones have entered into your inheritance." 



"Zenia," asked Tesia, "how about the 
speaker now? That question is mine, 
dearest," she added, laughing. 

" You were apt pupils, my brother Zoeians," 
said the genial Soratiya, "but I did not 
expect such progress. Some soft, sweet 
influence has been at work." 

"Is the manifestation dim today, Feanka ?" 
asked Loredo, archly. "May it shine in 
you, my Zoeian brother, as it glows, clear 
and steady in your beautiful wife." 

"Xo need for the telescope, to see twin 
stars today, my Zenia," said Beoteen. 

"Beoteen, you are just lovely!" 

"Indeed, my daughter? Then I shine 
by reflected light. And will you now visit 
the moon, my Zoeian brother?" he asked 
of Tom. 

"Xo, Director; my thoughts are centered 
on another satellite." 

"A fair one, Tooma. One in which there 
is much to be discovered." 

"Besides, I must locate that boat," added 
Tom. 

"Ah! that boat," laughed Beoteen. "It 
was full of suggestions." 

Termal had been a silent, but appreciative 
listener. 

"I think it is my turn now," he said, 
"but I am going to keep the honey until I 
have you all at home. However, I must 
say just this no handsomer girls ever wed 
braver men." 

* * * 

The well -arranged program was given in 
full. It was a superb interweaving of pre- 
cious words, music, colors, happy voices, 
flowers and moonlight. The last fell softly 
on four loving earth children clustered close 
on the veranda of Oron's home. With 
rare thoughtfulness, we were left to our- 
selves. We had a merry dance up and down 
the broad floor to the music of rustling leaves 
and singing fountains. Tom halted, his 
face aglow. "Now, for the Hotel Hungaria !" 
he cried. "Come part way with us, old 
comrade and Feankaena. Come as far as 
the banyan tree." 

With songs and jests we strolled to the 
old tree. 

"Oh, is there a fairer heaven than this?" 
cried Tom. 

"Do you wish for one, Tooma?" asked 
Zenia. 

"Why, no that is er unless " 



262 



" HUM " 



"It is within your reach," she assisted. 
"Well, we must say good-night." 

"Yes," I assented. "And thus we part." 

"But not without hope," came from Tom, 
waving his hand. 

My little queen and I were alone in the 
moonlight. 

"Sweetest and dearest of all possible 
possessions," I said, clasping her in my 
arms, "how would you have answered 
Tooma's question?" 

"Oh, my heart's treasure," she mur- 
mured, as the golden waves rippled across 
my breast, "I don't know I do not want 
any greater heaven." 

CHAPTER XIX 

Somewhere, in undiscovered realms, there 
may be beings more richly endowed and in 
closer relation to their Lord better types, 
it may be, of that honor, rectitude and 
brotherly love so vividly portrayed, during 
the "Festival of the Manifestation" by these 
Zoeians on their sky island; when all in 
their business councils, their worship and 
their pastimes seemed actuated by one 
thought only: the welfare of the common- 
wealth. To me, it appears impossible! 

The Festival past, Oron said to us: "Take 
a run up the country among the flowers and 
butterflies; then come back and share your 
happiness with us all." And so we did. 
For the next two weeks we roamed in the 
sunlight, fed on ambrosial food, and drank 
of the loving cup. Then we settled down 
to an idyllic home life, Tom and Zenia at 
Huan, Fulma and I at Termal's. Tom's 
statement that "we lived together," was 
near the truth; as rarely a day passed that 
we did not meet at one place or the other. 

In the bosom of this winsome people we 
were lovingly cherished for seven halcyon 
years. It was a continuous scene of enchant- 
ment, a perpetual realization of the poet's 
dream. Often, as I returned from the peer- 
less brotherhood of the college to the lips and 
arms of my precious Fulma, and heard 
Termal's glad welcome, I have stood be- 
wildered, and asked myself, "where, and 
with whom am I?" 

The answer came years after, and on 
foreign shores. 

As we sat at breakfast one morning, about 
two years after the dawn of our charmed life, 
I heard my name called in rapid succession. 



"Oh, dear heart, it is Tooma," said 
Fulma. 

"Well, old boy, what is it?" I asked. 

"Oh, Fean, Fean, Zoesy has the loveliest 
wild flower you ever saw. It is so rare and 
fragrant, she wants you and Fulma and 
Termal and Motoo and er everybody to 
see it. Come at once." 

"All right, dear boy," I laughed, "keep 
it fresh until we come." 

"Why, dearest," said Fulma, "Where can 
they have been so early? What can they 
have found ?" 

"Sweetheart," I said, gazing into her in- 
quiring eyes, "do you not know what he 
means ?" 

"Why, no Oh! my darling, let us go 
right away." 

"Go where? What's the matter?" asked 
Termal, coming in. 

I told him. 

"Oh, is it possible?" he cried, seizing the 
duplex kanjoot. 

"Beoteen!" "Yes, it is I, Termal." 
"No, something better. A new star has 
appeared in our constellation." "Thank 
you for all."^Oh! first magnitude, of 
course." " Buela ?" "Certainly, excellent, 
but I don't know yet." "Oh! yes, going 
immediately." "So do I. The name is all 
right, if it only fits, will let you know. Don't 
expect me today." 

"Let us be off at once," he said, dropping 
the tubes. "Motoo, my boy, take the pack- 
age to the observatory and see to things. We 
are all going to Huan for the day. And 
Motoo wait a moment outside." 

I suspected why a joyous, ringing laugh 
came to us. 

"Goodness, folks!" cried Tom, rushing to 
meet us. "Gypies have been here. No, 
not exactly gypsies, but er something of 
the sort; may be after all it was a bird, any- 
way, a kid was brought here, and there was 
considerable detail to the transaction and " 

"And how is Zenia?" demanded Termal. 

"Oh, just blooming! Termal, do you 
know that girl is everlastingly the sweetest 
why, I haven't asked you in! Well I am 
rattled." 

"And the flower?" I asked. 

"What flower, Fean?. Oh, yes, I remem- 
ber. Wait 'til you see it. It's fresh now, 
but they said it wouldn't do to keep it in 
water any longer. Now, walk right this 



"HUM" 



263 



way. Manager r Why, I own the whole 

thing." 

Thus we entered the sacred chamber, 
and beheld what has claimed the talent of 
the world's greatest artists. 

* * * 

If any added link were needed to bind 
us four together, it came in the tender plant 
from some other fair garden of the Lord's. 

The beautiful Buela attracted many wor- 
shipers, among them the wise men, who came 
to pay homage. 

"She is goodly," Oron would often say. 
"She will bring health to other nations." 

Sometimes Tom would not come to Bacca 
for days. "You see," he explained, "the 
little thing requires careful nursing." 

"Do you have to sit up nights?" I once 
asked. 

"Xot a night, Fean, but the flower needs 
water early in the morning." 

Dear comrade! I might have envied him 
had not my own cup been full. 

And. so the child grew in grace and in 
favor with the people, and for the next three 
years our journey on life's delectable river 
was filled with the fragrance of her presence. 

* * * 

One day, nearly six months before the 
close of the fifth year of our marriage, Oron 
called me. "I want you and Termal to 
come to me tonight," he said. "Audofa, 
Tooma, and others will be here." 

The message, though brief, filled me with 
an indescribable feeling. I divined its im- 
port; and the more I reflected, the sadder, 
more dejected, and unhappy I became. 

When we were in conclave, Oron said, 
with a soberness I had never before seen: 
"My brothers, on the third day of the seventh 
month from now at half past the thirteenth 
hour, the next recession will occur. We 
know, only too well, what will then happen. 
However, it will be in accord with the divine 
will. There are duties incumbent on our 
adopted sons, and there is a mission for our 
College we would fain have them execute. 
We must meet the event cheerfully and with 
forethought. Hence, I have called you that 
we may devise ways and have time to perfect 
them. Termal, it was by Audofa's guidance 
our sons came to us; it must be by yours 
that they go out. The Zoeian protection 
must abide with them. How large is the 
passage at the mouth of the shaft?* What 



is the condition of the canyon; and about 
what is its length?" 

"The canyon is some ten miles in length," 
replied Termal. "There is a small stream 
passing through it that occasionally falls 
over high ledges. If one keeps close to the 
water, the way, though rough, is fairly good 
except where the wall overhangs and at the 
ledges, which are steep. The opening at 
the mouth of the shaft is very narrow. It 
was with great effort I got my boat through." 

"Is the narrowing of the canyon close to 
the opening?" asked Selson, the chief engi- 
neer. 

"Very close, probably not more than six 
feet from the table-rock." 

"What is your opinion, Selson?" asked 
Oron. 

"I see no insuperable obstacles," he said. 
"The path can be rendered less rough and 
the overhanging rock removed. We can 
skirt the ledges or cut steps down their face. 
At the terminal, the opening can be enlarged 
to any required size. An exploration will 
be necessary. No one so fit to lead as you, 
Termal." 

"Perhaps not," he said. "Certainly no 
one more willing." 

"I am moved to be one of the party," 
said Audofa. "It would recall old ex- 
periences." 

"Pleasant ones?" asked Selson. 

"Aye, in their associations, blessed ones." 

"Is there much hot vapor in the pass?" 
asked Roscu, the other engineer. 

"It is not unbearable," said Termal. 
"The bulk of it passes up the longer and 
higher rift our brothers came through." 

"So far, all is well," said Oron, crossing 
the room. "How high is the entrance to 
the mountain on the eastern shore?" 

"I should say about twenty feet," Termal 
replied. 

"In that case a power boat might be used," 
asserted Oron. "One could be built of 
zeteen (a metal lighter than aluminum) 
Four men could'carry it. It could be triple 
charged and supplied with extra power- 
cases so constructed as to retain their force 
indefinitely. How is the country on the 
other shore?" 

"My brothers and I think that the lake 
is mostly surrounded by a morass. On my 
return I followed a stream running through 
this marsh to a waterfall, down which I 



264 



" HUM " 



worked my way to a broad shelf near the 
water's edge. I shall never forget my joy 
at seeing two tree trunks and a tangled mass 
of tough vines wedged fast on this shelf. 
Obviously the lake was still falling. I 
worked, with the energy born of urgent need, 
to build a float and get it to the water. How 
I succeeded; the Father only knows but I 
did; and, on this rude structure, crossed the 
hot sea with my with Fulma." ("Heavens!' 
exclaimed Tom.) "Pardon me, Oron, I 
have not answered your question in full." 

"Little wonder, Termal. You will be 
a safe guide for our children." 

"No, I never told you," he said, shaking 
his head. "It makes me shudder when I 
think about it. I struck the stream at a 
right angle to its course; consequently, I 
do not know its origin. I believe, however, 
it is the one I went out on. In that case, 
the lake must, at the time, have risen above 
the edge of the fall. If so, a power-boat 
could go through. There are places where 
cutting-sledges would be needed. Beyond 
the marsh is a rolling country for a long 
distance." 

"Let us partake while we further discuss 
our plans," urged Oron. "I regret that 
Jando is not here. He is a master of inven- 
tion. However, we will have him construct 
a boat with wheels adapted to land travel. 
What is your opinion, Selson ?" 

"Undoubtedly it can be done," the engi- 
neer replied. "Wheels can be made of the 
same metal as the boat, with a thin flat 
double-hardened steel tire." 

"Exactly," approved Oron. "We will 
leave all in the hands of Selson, Roscu 
and Termal. How does it impress you, 
Feanka ?" 

"By your methods," I answered, "the 
greater obstacles will be overcome. I have 
no doubt of the result." 

"And you, Tooma?" 

"I think," said Tom gravely, "the greater 
obstacle remains." 

"I understand you, my>*lbn," said Oron, 
with sympathy. "That, too, must receive 

our thought." 

* * * 

The preparations for our departure went 
steadily forward. The exploring party 
brought back the remnants of our guns and 
fragments of other articles we had discarded 
nearly seven years before. They were placed 



in the National Museum, a spot Fulma and 
I loved to frequent. 

It was a repository for articles pertaining 
to this nation's history, gathered from a 
remote past. Scarcely an invention of value, 
to be seen, elsewhere, that was not repre- 
sented in this collection. 

It impressed one strangely to look at 
articles used by intelligent human beings 
ages before the builders of the pyramids 
were born or the foundations of Damascus 
were laid. 

At our last visit Fulma called my attention 
to three articles alike, but differing in 
color carefully preserved. On close ex- 
amination, I burst out laughing, greatly to 
her surprise. They were our former beards, 
contributed by a man-in-gray. 

I met Audofa soon after his return. 
"Feanka," he said, "I again stood on that 
table-rock; looked into the black water, 
and at the jagged dome. All is unchanged. 
I shall stand there once more, twice, I hope 
then I never wish to see the place again. 
Its gloom and wildness oppress me." 

"How will the girls stand it?" I asked. 

"Bravely," he said, cheerily. "The sun- 
light of yours and Tooma's love will illumin- 
ate the dark hour and the darker passage." 

"And the old rope?" I further asked. 

"A piece of it was there, just as I tied it 
round the rock; but the old timbers that 
bore us from death to life are gone." 

"Audofa," I said, "it will seem strange 
to go without you." 

"It may be," he said wistfully, "but a 
stronger and wiser man will be with you. 
Besides, you have learned to place your trust 
in that source to which- 1 sometimes pointed 
you." 

I felt the tears spring to my eyes. "Dear 
old friend," I said, "no one can do for me 
what you have done, no one can be to me 
what you have been." 

He shook his head. A shade of sadness 
mantled his face. 

"Audofa," I said, "how seemingly small 
things sometimes produce great results. 
Had you not lost your old worn Bible in 
the morass, this expedition would not have 
been undertaken." 

"You would not have thought of it, 
Feanka?" 

"Yes, but I should not have gone. Why 
should I go?" 



"HUM 



265 



"True, my shipmate why should you? 
As the Oronena said at your wedding, 'you 
have entered into your inheritance.' But 
for Oron's eager desire to possess our sacred 
books, I should not counsel your going. 
For some strange reason, I have never been 
able to fully recall the passage in our Bible 
which seems to confirm the tradition con- 
cerning this folk." 

"Are your views regarding them clearer 
than before?" I asked. 

"Yes, but not enough so, as yet, to put 
into words. Feanka, this much I know: 
The 'green pastures' and 'still waters' are 
here. Nowhere can a greater heaven be 
found, except in our complete realization 
of our oneness with the Father. Many of 
our Zoeian brothers have attained this. The 
others are nearing the celestial goal." 
* * * 

Time flew on. We were within ten days 
of the hour when we were to leave this 
paradise and again face the turbulent con- 
ditions of the lower world. Every prepara- 
tion had been completed, even to the strong 
garments and stout footwear. A band of 
athletic young men had been selected to go 
with us through the pass Oron, Loredo, 
Soratiya and Audofa were also to accom- 
pany us. 

Termal was restless, anxious to be off; 
Zenia calm and confident; Fulma brave 
and trusting; Moto alternating between joy 
and sorrow, but Tom was miserable. All 
his gaiety had fled. The reason why? 
He must choose between leaving his little 
idolized Buela in safety with no sight of 
her dear face, no sound of her sweet, ringing 
voice for seven years or expose her to all 
the dangers of the perilous journey. A day 
or so later he came to me for counsel. 

"Hat, I lack neither physical nor moral 
courage," he said, "but, by Jove! I don't 
know what to do about my pet lamb." 

''Well, dear boy, you must decide quickly. 
Will you take my advice?" 

"Of course, old man. It has never failed 
me." 

"Then leave all to Zenia, and accept her 
decision. Whatever it is, it will be for the 
best." 

"I ought to have known that, Fean, with- 
out coming to you." 

"So you ought, my comrade. Now, go 
ind act accordingly." 



That night he called me. "It's all right, 
my boy, Zene has decided." 

"How?" 

"The lamb is to stay here." 

Termal had decided that we must enter 
the pass at eight o'clock, morning. Our 
last evening was spent with the Madu Rea. 
It was a conference never to be forgotten; 
one that brought consolation to Zenia and 
hope to all. 

* * * 

At the chasm a large number, with Oronena 
and her young people, awaited our coming. 
They parted in lines, and as we passed down 
to join Termal and the vanguard, with the 
boat and lights, at the mouth of the rift, 
they gave us good-bye and, with it, some- 
thing of themselves that was very sustaining. 

Termal gave the word. The syunas 
glowed. As we entered the canyon the rich 
voices of the Zoeians rose in song. The 
sound waves came to us down the pass, 
fainter, lower, whispering, then once more 
clear. Again, departing, dying, slowly pass- 
ing, as though they fain would linger with us. 

* * * 

The excellent work of the engineers made 
our progress comparatively easy, and we 
went on famously until, at the foot of a high 
ledge, Termal ordered a halt. "We are 
doing well," he said, "better than I expected 
The rift is strangely free from vapor today, 
W chares, daughter?" 

"As well as one can in such a dismal 
place," replied Zenia. "I am glad Buela is 
not here. However, it is all for the best. We 
must meet whatever is inevitable with resig- 
nation. We cannot change the conditions." 

"There you go again, Zene," cried Tom; 
"you are always saying such sort of things." 

"And she is right," said Loredo, "but 
you do not understand her, Tooma. All 
incidents in our lives are in accord with the 
immutable law of cause and effect. A far- 
reaching law, my brother, and in its personal 
application, one difficult to comprehend. 
Especially is it so, when we realize that there 
can be but one cause in the universe." 

"That's about as deep as the shaft ahead, 
Loredo," said Tom; "but I wouldn't mind 
being saturated with your thought just now, 
for it certainly is comforting." 

"And how is Blue Eyes?" asked Termal. 

"Oh, I am contented, Padu," declared 
Fulma. 



266 



" HUM " 



"Do you know the meaning of content- 
ment in all its fulness, my daughter?" asked 
Soratiya. 

"I think so, Soratiya." 

"Then thou standest close to the throne, 
my child." 

"Aye, and another, as well," said Audofa, 
"though it may not be realized." 

Oron smiled approval. "Feanka," he 
said, "in the boat are concentrated pro- 
visions and a case of wine. In the forward 
compartment are four kanjoots, four syunas, 
and two of our finest timepieces. Each of 
these is triple-charged, and will last for a 
long period. The dials should record our 
time accurately for six months. I would 
advise you, upon arrival in your country, 
to procure one or more of your best time 
instruments and have them adjusted to our 
standard. In the same compartment are 
two pouches containing diamonds and other 
fine gems. From what I have learned through 
Audofa, they possess a value, in other lands, 
of which we know nothing. They will, I 
think, be ample for all your requirements." 

I started to make reply, but he checked 
me. "You are our children," he said, 
lovingly. 

Another hour and Termal again halted. 
"We are not far from the shaft," he said; 
"here are some places where much caution 
will be necessary as the existing conditions 
could not well be changed. Oron, come 
close behind me, let each follow the other 
as near as may be." 

Half a mile further on Termal stopped 
abruptly. "It is just before us," he said. 
"Wait!" 

He went forward and raised his arm. An 
intense light shot across the Stygian lake 
and danced on the mist waves. 

"Oh! what is it?" exclaimed Zenia. 

"Why, it is the shaft, my daughter, down 
which we must descend." 

I turned. Beneath an overhanging rock 
in the glow of the syuna, the dark walls and 
darker shadows beyond, stood Zenia, a 
slight pallor on her face, serene and beautiful. 

We took the time. A brief period longer, 
and then what? The boat carriers passed 
through the opening to the table-rock, and 
slid the apparently frail craft into the water. 
A hollow, mocking sound reverberated from 
the dome. The mooring line was made fast. 
All was in readiness. 



Audofa turned a syuna. "Oron," he 
said, "here is the entrance to the other rift. 
Here is where we went in. Ah! to what did 
it lead for us all? Why, what is this?" he 
said, stooping. 

"Another relic for the museum; part of 
a revolver, Feanka." 

"Termal," I asked, nervously, "how about 
the others ?" 

"All in the bunkers," he said calmly. 

Ordinarily, Tom would have made some 
characteristic remark. His silence caused 
me anxiety. Oron glanced at the dial 
just as he did in the Rose Pavilion when we 
first sat there. How different the scene 
how unlike the conditions. 

"Come, my children," he said, "and 
receive our parting benediction. We may 
not longer delay." 

Hands rested gently on us as we knelt on 
the rock. Then each of the brotherhood 
kissed us. Tom and I wound our arms 
around our old comrade. 

"A parting word for you, Termal," said 
Oron smiling. "The bar to your pro- 
gression has been removed.'' 

"Oh! Oron, my dear Oron!" 

"Not now, not now, my son, It may be 
when we meet again." 

Vainly trying to conceal his emotion, 
Termal called: 

"Come, Tooma, you first now, Zenia 
Motoo Fulma Feanka." 

Oron grasped my hands as I stepped into 
the boat. "Moto," I said, "be ready to 
get us away from the rock when I haul in the 
line. Someone must cast off." 

Audofa released the rope. "I will stand 
by," he said. 

"What of the hour?" I asked. 

"The twenty-ninth past the thirteenth 
hour," replied Oron. 

Termal waved his hands. "May our 
Sovereign Lord have you and us in his keep- 
ing now and forever!" he cried. "Let go, 
Audofa! We are going." 

"Yolo yolo Subaketa yune" we all 
shouted. 

The beautiful adieu came back from the 
group on the rock as we slowly settled away. 

"Jove!" cried Tom. "We are off on 
schedule time." 

I hailed his words with joy he was him- 
self again. 

Zenia's white scarf waved a last farewell 



" HUM " 



267 



until the vapor wreaths veiled eager faces 
from our view. But the syuna glowed 
through the mist like an overseeing eye, and 
Oron's voice, faint but clear, came to us 
through the deepening gloom, in words of 
cheer. 

Fainter and less definite the voice dimmer 
and more indistinct the syuna. We were 
alone. 

Once I saw Zenia spring up, gaze wildly 
round the shaft, and again, throw herself 
into her husband's arms. 

"Oh, Tooma," she moaned, "whither are 
we going?" 

And my comrade gently comforted her. 

"Oh, Tooma, my darling," she cried, 
"why did we? Why did we " 

I lost her last words, for Tom had closed 
her lips. 

Though Termal had not spoken, I knew 
that the vapor was rapidly growing denser, 
the air becoming more stifling. The girls 
suddenly coughed. 

"What is it, dear heart?" I asked. 

"I don't know, dearest," she said, draw- 
ing away from me, "I have such a strange 
choking sensation. It seems so hot here." 

Zenia had released her clasp from Tom's 
neck and sat staring vaguely at him as she 
gave monosyllabic replies to his eager ques- 
tions. I glanced at Termal and Moto. The 
moisture was dripping from their faces. 

"I expected it," he said. "The lower 
we descend, the less endurable it will become. 
Similar conditions existed when I went down 
before. It is somewhat different going up. 
I have prepared for it in a way. In the 
boat is a case of hanya (oxygen), but we 
must not use it until forced to, and then 
with great care, as the supply will soon be 
exhausted. How goes the time?" 

"The twentieth hour." 

"The twentieth?" he said thoughtfully. 
"We shall be, at least, an hour and a half 
longer in this horrible pit. Watch the girls' 
lips and eyes continually. Better have the 
pipes in readiness." 

"Tom, do you understand?" I asked. 

"Yes," he replied, huskily. "Our old 
experience, Fean. God save us from worse." 

I looked at Moto, and recalled an expres- 
sion I had, once before, seen in his eyes. 
The poor fellow was fighting against the 
existing condition. Fulma became extremely 



restless, and loosened the scarf at her throat. 

"Ah, beloved," she cried, half rising, "I 
can't endure it!" I detected a faint bluish 
line on her lips. I told Termal. 

"Give her hanya at once!" he cried. 
"Open the valve cautiously. You will all 
need it except Zenia. I think she can stand 
it; I know I can, but it will be troublesome." 

After a long inhalation, Fulma smiled 
at me. 

"Do you feel better, sweetheart?" 

She nodded assent. 

The old sensations in the death-trap were 
stealing over me, bravely, as I fought them. 
I called to Termal. 

"Take the gas quick, Feanka!" he ex- 
claimed. 

I used the pipe and passed it to Zenia, 
who was holding Tom's head in her lap. 
He, too, had succumbed. 

"The shaft is widening," said Termal. 
"I think we are nearly down. Ha, Motoo, 
my boy, you are stricken. Breathe the stuff 
and lie on your face. Be sure to shut the 
valve! I can manage the boat now I can 
hold her" 

"Ah, Tooma!" shrieked Zenia. "Speak 
to me! It is Zoesy, dearest! Your own 
little Zoesy." 

There was no response. 

"Give him gas!" shouted Termal. "Some- 
one give it to him! You, Feanka." 

"I can't, my brain reels. I should pitch 
headlong did I move. Besides, Fulma is 
sleeping." 

"Sleeping?" he cried. And with one 
stride he was beside her. 

"Merciful Father!" he exclaimed. "She 
is unconscious. I must make quick work 
with all or " 

I saw him reach for the pipes. I heard 
a frantic, despairing cry and the words 
"there is no more, the valve is open." I 
saw two figures, far away, doing something 
quickly, I saw them coming to me, and I 
tried to call, as I gasped and writhed in the 
throes of suffocation, tried to put out my 
hand, until a black pall enshrouded me. . . . 

Then came a sense of coolness on my face, 
and of a light other than the syuna's. I 
opened my eyes to see Zenia bending over 
Fulma, while Termal ministered to Tom 
and Moto. The light and air were coming 
through the water-gate on the western shore. 



( To be continued ) 



toter Htlie* 



"Dear Lord," the Angels cried, "untouched of sin 

- Around Thy throne we cluster. 

Behold we toil not neither do we spin 

But we have light and luster: 

"Let us perform some service sweet and fair; 

Stewards of joy and beauty 
Give us to breathe our glory on the air, 
Give us some fragrant duty!" 

Then lo, the Master smiled and thus He spake: 

"The earth is dark with terror; 
The hills and valleys with dread tempest shake; 

Death reigns with grief and error; 

"Go forth ye radiant things of scent and bloom 

Who know not toil nor spinning- 
Brighten with life My risen Son's cleft tomb, 
The Easter triumph winning!" 

And so with purity they came to earth 

Within His tomb to cluster 
The lilies of God of heavenly birth 

Giving their light and luster. 

Edward Wilbur Mason 



ON THE NEW ENGLAND FARMS 

ADDRESS BEFORE BOSTON CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 
BY DR. G. M. TWnCHELL, AUBURN, MAINE; 



THE influence New England has exerted 
in every field of activity in the past has 
been due to the great men grown upon her 
rugged hills. Uncle Solon Chase, the sage 
of Maine, 'declared not long ago that "the 
grass would grow in the city street if it were 
not for the tramp of the cowhide boots in 
the barnyard," and Secretary Root recognized 
the same great lesson when he declared that 
"there never was and never could be a great 
nation produced on paving stones." 

A peculiar situation confronts New Eng- 
land agriculturists, whose farms, having en- 
riched with some of their best blood the great 
producing states of the West until a con- 
scious loss was felt, now face a movement 
from West to East resulting from the swelling 
tide of population. Within the memory of 
some present the population of this country 
has jumped from thirty 7 millions, at the close 
of the Civil War, to practically one hundred 
millions today. Under a like ratio of in- 
crease the next century will give us twelve 
hundred million souls to feed. Already 
ranches and prairie farms are being divided 
and sub-divided and the inevitable result is 
following, seen in the reduction of herds and 
flocks, and acres in grain, and the forced in- 
troduction of diversified agriculture. The 
era of low prices for farm products has passed 
never to return, and New England feels the 
thrill of a new life as the better appreciation 
of its possibilities grows upon the rural home 
dweller. We thrive only under pressure and 
it may be fortunate that today we face that 
serious problem, the solution of which is to 
determine the permanence of our peculiar 
form of government, when the present 
standards of agricultural work begin to fail 
to supply the incessant demands of a hungry 
people. 

Adding from two to two and one-half 
millions yearly to our feeding population, 
every business man becomes intensely inter- 
ested in the problem of making food products. 
The security of this nation rests upon its 
ability to produce its own food supply. The 



stability of our institutions will be shaken 
when we pass the limit of home production. 

Mr. J. J. Hill voiced a sound principle 
in his declaration, "never has enhanced cost 
of living, when due to agricultural decline, 
failed to result in national disaster." The 
problem facing this nation today is not that 
of exporting surplus farm products, but of 
increased production of the same upon the 
home farms for consumption by our own in- 
habitants. The quality of rural life, as well as 
volume and quality of farm products, are 
important factors in national prosperity'. 

Two propositions present themselves: 
"What is New England good for agricultur- 
ally, and how can we approach nearer to the 
maximum in production?" Wisely has it 
been ordained that no one section of the 
country should hold a monopoly in adapta- 
bility to the necessities of its population. 
New England, as a whole, is peculiarly fitted, 
through its granite soil, its broken land, its 
abundance of water springs and its naturally 
cooler climate, to the production of more of 
the staple products of the farm than almost 
any other like section. 

Not overlooking the value of specialized 
effort seen in Essex or Worcester and other 
counties, I would mention crops best suited 
to the average farmer remote from market. 
New England is peculiarly adapted to stock 
husbandry, including the dairy, com and 
grain, potatoes and fruit; nowhere in this 
country can a higher per cent, of profit be 
realized by the individual producer along 
these lines than right here in good old New 
England. What is demanded is a constant 
readjustment to a continually changing con- 
dition of life. For want of this we read failure 
in far too many cases, yet it is in the man, 
not in the land. 

No man who attempts pork production 
on forage crops, such as rye, barley and 
clover, growing roots, pumpkins and corn, 
to finish his work, need fear an empty pocket- 
book. The question is not the market price 
of grain, but the market price for a sweet 



(269) 



ON THE NEW ENGLAND FARMS 



juicy and healthy product made under sani- 
tary conditions out of the natural crops of 
the farm. 

For twenty-eight years there has been a 
steady advance in the average yearly price 
realized by the progressive poultry man of 
New England, and if the duties be exacting, 
the returns are ample and encouraging for 
everyone who can put enthusiasm into the 
work and who will observe the conditions. 

When as high an estimate is put upon a 
sheep as the worthless cur, and protection 
is insured to an important industry, we shall 
again see the growth of a branch of stock- 
breeding absolutely necessary for the im- 
provement of our pastures and enriching of 
our orchards. 

As ranches are broken up and prices for 
beef increase, the growing of the beef type 
of animal is sure to claim renewed attention. 
During all the years of low prices those men 
in the several New England states who have 
clung to the goad stick and steers have never 
wanted for substantial returns or increasing 
fertility. We are learning that profit comes 
from specialized effort whether with man or 
animal. Greatest of all in this line of opera- 
tions must be reckoned the dairy cow, and 
associated work is uncovering some profound 
lessons, not to be realized by those who have 
never attempted a thorough and consecutive 
test. "Guess so" has given way to exact 
knowledge, and profits are increasing. The 
cow test associations of Maine are doing more 
to eliminate unprofitable animals and insure 
thorough methods of care and fteding than 
anything ever attempted in the state. They 
are teaching men the importance of giving 
every animal a fair chance in the world. 
One man found by the consecutive test that 
his pet cow made butter at a cost of forty- 
two cents per pound, while the one he was 
most anxious to sell produced at a cost of 
seventeen cents. The yearly record opened 
his eyes. One herd of seven in Oxford 
County gave a year's profit, respectively, of 
$41.66, $53.64, $45.56, $45.70, $34.98, $9.90 
(only three months in the test before being 
sold), and $19.56 (nine months in the test). 
This man found which cows to sell and 
gained thereby. In a Wisconsin herd the 
five poorest cows ate feed worth $140 and 
returned $143 in product, while the five best 
te feed worth $204 and returned $395, or 
forty dollars per head. 



By applying exact business methods, 
farmers are finding that boarders in the 
herd do not pay, that the individual animal 
is to be considered, and that there is sure 
profit in dairying when every cow contributes 
to the balance in the hands of the farmer. 

Maine last year produced thirty million 
bushels of potatoes, and those who grow this 
crop understandingly are not satisfied with 
less than three hundred bushels per acre. 
The older portions of Maine have caught 
the enthusiasm from Aroostook and are find- 
ing the potato fields a sure path to a' bigger, 
busier and better agriculture. New England 
can produce at this rate, and the potatoes are 
but an incident, for the man who reaches this 
level has his farm in prime condition for 
succeeding grain and grass crops, and the 
nature of this crop is such that a short term 
rotation is forced, which adds to the yearly 
income of the grower. If the waking has 
been slow, the infection is spreading and in 
every nook and corner of the State of Maine, 
new life is being infused, and what is being 
done in Maine is applicable to every New 
England State. It requires only the wise, 
fostering care of the organized state depart- 
ment, of each state, to work a revolution in 
the next decade, as surely as spring will follow 
winter. 

The awakening is showing itself in a de- 
cidedly increased attention to the one crop 
most neglected in former years the corn. 
The magnificent work done by Mr. Brewer 
of Connecticut, in capturing highest honors 
at the National Corn Show, for best yield 
per acre last year, has stirred every part of 
New England. I find that this year, despite 
weather conditions, rain, drought, frosts and 
continued cold weather, a fair per cent, 
growing sweet corn for the factory has reached 
a yield of cut corn returning them $100 per 
acre, at two cents per pound. Experimental 
work to establish new varieties, increase 
productiveness and insure maturity is stimu- 
lating an interest which is a guarantee of 
greater acreage and a bigger yield of matured 
corn hereafter. 

The orchards, apple, plum and peach, 
show positive proofs of genuine revival. 
Hitherto, apples have, in the great bulk of 
cases, simply grown themselves. Today the 
question constantly asked is, how can the 
orchard and its product be improved, and 
Oregon apples are forcing us to adopt Oregon 



ON THE NEW ENGLAND FARMS 



271 



methods. The superiority of New England 
fruit is recognized, but business methods in 
sorting, packing and branding, as well as in 
growing, are essential. 

New England soil is not worn out. New 
England farms are not deserted. New 
England agriculture is not declining. These 
facts can be substantiated and must be 
accepted. One of the heaviest burdens put 
upon the industry has been the cry of de- 
serted farms and a decaying industry. 
Another has been the over-zealous attempts 
of wealthy business men to run a farm, or 
establish a herd, and after spending thou- 
sands recklessly without any system or con- 
tinuity of effort, have a grand dispersal sale 
and publish the fact of failure. 

Would-be reformers have attempted much 
while knowing nothing, have cried, "back 
to the farm," not realizing that no man can 
succeed who has not been trained for the 
work, and is not a student of the problems 
and a thinker as well as worker. With no 
knowledge of the soil or of crops, the poor 
from tenement houses cannot be dumped 
on cheap lands and escape starvation. New 
England agriculture offers the tired man in 
office, mill or store the chance to build 
afresh the tissues of brain and body and 
opens the door to a limitless field where 
eyes will become sharpened and ears made 
acute, where health is certain and where one 
has but to listen to hear visible and invisible 
choirs from morning to night. Worn and 
weary with the countless burdens of a stren- 
uous life, the man or woman from the city 
may live a free life in God's country, pur- 
suing the one industry which alone can 
feed an ever-increasing army, provided the 
demands of a progressive agriculture are 
met. 

The underlying facts prove the truth of 
word pictures. 

An old friend in Aroostook Count)' has 
just harvested six thousand barrels of potatoes 
from fifty acres, which sold for a dollar and 
a half per barrel, and were grown at a total 
cost of sixty dollars per acre, because of a 
high state of cultivation and abundance of 
nitrogen in the soil from clover roots. 

A neighbor in Monmouth, in Central 
Maine, has finished harvesting twenty-one 
hundred bushels from seven acres on old 
land. These were grown at a total cost of 



eighty dollars per acre, which is the usual 
allowance in this section. 

A Vermont farmer has just sold his one 
hundred acre orchard for fifty thousand 
dollars, and the crop since harvested is valued 
at seventeen thousand dollars. 

A neighbor in Monmouth refused nineteen 
hundred dollars for a three-acre orchard set 
thirteen years ago. Another would not sell 
a six-acre orchard set in 1891 for seven 
thousand dollars, because it is paying better 
than bank dividends on that amount. An- 
other of four acres could not be bought for 
five thousand dolla/s for the same reason. 
There is an orchard set by an old physician 
on land for which he paid three dollars per 
acre, which was sold a few years ago for 
three thousand dollars and could not be 
bought today for twice that 

A lot of trees, condemned to be cut down 
in 1907, were purchased by me, pruned and 
cleaned up, May, 1908, and fertilized the past 
season with ten pounds per tree of Fisher 
formula fertilizer. The great growth of 
wood, size, strength and vigor of leaves and 
abundance of fruit buds today, tell the story 
of radical regeneration. I could not afford 
to sell these trees for fifty dollars each. 

One dairyman in Maine realized from his 
herd of thirty-six cows last year a net profit 
of over seventy dollars per head, by supply- 
ing cream. 

In every state as marked illustrations can 
be found, for the half has not been told. No 
investment, properly safeguarded, will return 
for years a more substantial income than an 
orchard upon any of our New England hills. 
No business is more reliable than a dairy 
farm where the crops are grown in largest 
measure possible for the stock, and the eye of 
an intelligent master directs the progress of the 
herd. Those who are led by a deep-seated 
love for nature will have no cause for regrets. 

The pendulum is swinging toward the 
fitting of the individual child for a life of 
sen-ice, and the day is not far distant when 
the question will not be, whether agriculture is 
a profitable occupation, but how can the other 
great avenues of industrial life be directed 
toward this centre, that permanence of free 
institutions may be strengthened, and a 
government of the people, by the people, for 
the people be made a certainty to all coming 
generations. 




IN THE 



SY COPNI !R 




'RITTEN contributions for this 
Department must not exceed five 
hundred words in length. Any- 
thing unusual or of especial in- 
terest will be welcome, especially if it has 
come under the personal notice of con- 
tributors or their friends. Snapshots of 
curious relice, historical places concerning 
which little is known, or any other pic- 
tures of universal interest will also be 
gladly received. Awards are from $5 to 
$1, according to the merits of the story or 
photographs published. 



HE HEARS THE WEATHER MAN 
ROASTED 

BY CHARLES S. GERLACH 

"Funny organization this weather bur- 
eau of ours," remarked a member of a 
group of four in a smoking compartment 
of an eastbound train from Chicago 
last fall. "I see it predicts general rains 
for today" and he held the paper side- 
ways to dodge the glare of a brilliant 
Indian summer sun. 

"At my home," interjected the third 
member of the group, "my wife has a 
standing order with the confectioner to 
tend up ice cream whenever he sees the 
cold wave flag flying." 

The mild-looking man with the twink- 
ling brown eyes said nothing. The party 
were all strangers to one another. The 
three who had spoken were on their way 
to New York. 



At Harrisburg the mild man with the 
brown eyes arose, gathered up his baggage 
and, bowing to the group, produced three 
visiting cards. He distributed them and 
smilingly took an abrupt departure. Then 
the others looked at the cards. They 
read: "Willis L. Moore, chief of the 
weather bureau, Washington, D. C." 



THAT GANDER 

BY FRANK MONROE BEVERLY 

Reynard is noted for his cunning, 
crafty qualities, but Gander Jeremiah 
has outdone him, or at least proven him- 
self his equal. 

Gander Jeremiah is a sort of neighbor- 
hood fowl, he and his wife going from 
place to place "boarding among the 
scholars," though the ownership of him 
them is vested in a Mrs. R., and 
when they "feather" they go to her to be 
plucked. 

Last autumn Mr. and Mrs. Gander 
Jeremiah came to our place, since which 
time they show no tendency to removing 
themselves. When the time shall come 
for laying with Mrs. Gander Jeremiah, 
doubtless they will go to deposit her eggs 
with Mrs. R. 

Now to the point. A few days ago, the 
pigs were being fed corn in the ear, when 
Gander Jeremiah seized one ear, not pig 
and started to run away with it, a pig taking 
after him. He ran and ran, but piggy 
was a close second. Gander Jeremiah, 



(272) 



IN THE COSY CORNER 



273 



seeing that he could not outrun his pur- 
suer, made a dash for a nearby pond 
a shallow affair into which he dropped 
the ear of corn. The pig not seeing the 
co n then, forgot all about it, and went 
back to his fellows. Gander Jeremiah, 
however, did not forget it, for he would 
stick his head under the water and nibble 
at the corn till only the cob was left. 
'Rah for Gander Jeremiah and his wife! 



A STRANGE COINCIDENCE 

BY MRS. A. E. SIGSBEE 

About the time of the World's Fair 
in Chicago in 1893, a few friends started 
an effort to bring together a collection 
of curios, coins, stamps and relics, the 
sale of which would create a working 
fund for the National W. C. T. U. 

Mrs. Mary A. Livermore contributed 
a bronze medal struck off for the first 
sanitary fair held in 1863 in Chicago, 
to commemorate the great occasion, 
which has a remarkable coincidence. The 
head of President Lincoln is on one side; 
on the other is represented the goods of 
the sanitary commission for the sick and 
wounded soldiers which are being un- 
laden at the wharf of a city. 

The government permitted the medal 
to be stamped at the Philadelphia mint. 
Somehow the die got cracked in the stamp- 
ing process, and, although a careless 
observer would not notice it, the crack 
showed in every one of the beautiful 
medals. But the most singular thing 
about it is, that that slight crack shows 
the track of the bullet sent into the brain 
of the President by Wilkes Booth, as 
unerringly as if it had been designed for 
that purpose. 



THE NOVICE'S FIRST GARDEN 

BY CHARLES C. MULLIX 

The fever of flower planting was in the 
air and Mr. Butts had caught it. The 
first symptom he displayed was when 
he began to observe closely his neighbors' 
flower plots, and the second, when he 
silently made up his mind to have a garden 
of his own. 

So, on his first Saturday afternoon's free- 



dom from business he staked out, dug and 
prepared as nice a Httle plot for a garden 
in his back yard as any he had seen in the 
neighborhood. This done, he proceeded 
to plant the space. He had accomplished, 
after careful deliberation and precision, 
the planting of five rows of this, when 
his wife appeared from her shopping 
tour. 

"How's this for a novice?" he asked, 
pointing with pride to his achievement. 

"What have you planted and where did 
you get the seeds?" she returned, with 
a remarkable lack of enthusiasm. 

He glanced magnanimously at the three 
empty seed envelopes in his hand. "Ac- 
cording to the names on these envelopes 
I've put in bachelors' buttons, mignon- 
ettes and asters; got the packages off 
the kitchen shelf." 

"Dig your garden right up again. 
You've planted the baby's glass beads, 
which I had unstrung and placed in those 
old seed envelopes for safe keeping!" 



A BEAR AND A RUG 

BY MRS. F. J. R. 

If you should step into my cosy corner 
you would say, "Where did you get such a 
lovely rug?" I will tell you. 

We spent last summer far up among 
the wooded hills, five miles from the near- 
est town. As my husband was away a great 
part of the time I was left alone with my 
five children, the nearest neighbor being 
nearly a mile away. 

One evening seeing a great smoke in 
the distance, I thought a neighbor's 
house might be burning and started to 
run to a ridge a short way from the house 
to get a good view. I suddenly turned a 
bend in the path and ran almost on to two 
of the dearest little brownish-black cubs 
I ever saw. My first thought was what a 
great thing it would be to grab one up 
in my apron and run, but with that 
thought came a great crashing in the 
thick brush to the right of me, and with 
one shriek of horror I fled to the house, 
grabbed the gun, locked the children in 
and fled swiftly back. As I rounded the 
bend in the path that old mother bear 
rose clumsily up on her hind legs a short 



274 



IN THE COSY CORNER 



distance ahead of me offering the most 
splendid target, and bing! with one great 
gasp her soul passed on to the "Happy 
Hunting Grounds." As husband says, 
"What if you had only wounded her?" 
If I had, well, probably I never would 
have told this tale; thanks to being a "good 
shot," I possess one of the finest rugs in 
the country. 



A HANDWRITING EXPERT 

BY ROBERT D. BENEDICT 

The master of a vessel in a port in the 
Gulf of Mexico being in need of money, 
borrowed it and to secure its repayment 
executed what is called a bottomry bond, 
by which it was agreed that if the money 
was not paid within so many days after 
the vessel ^arrived at New York, proceed- 
ings might be taken to have the vessel sold 
.and the money paid out of the proceeds. 
The money was not paid and I was re- 
tained to enforce the bond, and began a 
suit. Someone interested in the vessel 
appeared in the suit and denied that the 
bond had been executed by the master, 
as had been alleged. It became necessary 
to take the testimony on this point of 
a sailor whose name was subscribed 
to the bond as having witnessed its exe- 
cution. In answer to my questions the 
sailor said that the captain called him 
into the vessel's cabin and asked him to 
be a witness to the bond, and he signed his 
name to it as a witness; and he spoke of 
the paper as the bottomry bond. The 
opposing counsel in a sharp cross-examina- 
tion asked him how he knew it was a 
bottomry bond, and the witness answered 



that he read enough of it to know what 
it was. Some other skilful questions 
brought out the fact that when the sailor 
came into the cabin the captain was 
sitting on the other side of a table with 
the paper before him, and the sailor sat 
down at the side of the table facing the 
captain, so that the paper was between 
them; that the paper was not read to him; 
that the captain turned over the first 
leaf of the paper and signed his name at 
the end of it and told the sailor where to 
sign his name, which he did and then left 
the cabin. 

My heart sank, for I saw that it was 
open to the other side to say that the docu- 
ment lay on the table upside down to the 
sailor, and that his statement that he 
read enough of the document to know it 
was a bottomry bond was false, because of 
course, he could not read writing which 
was upside down, and therefore, his 
whole evidence should be disbelieved. 

The lawyer opposed to me saw the point 
also. But instead of leaving the matter 
where it was he concluded to clinch it, 
and taking the document he laid it down 
on the table before the witness upside 
down and said to him, "Let us see you 
read the paper now." And to my great 
surprise and relief, the witness read the 
writing, upside down as it was, with nearly 
as much fluency as if it had been right 
side up. 

That ended the contest over the execu- 
tion of the bond. 

This sailor's ability to read writing 
when it was upside down was a curious 
instance of the many curious things which 
sailors do to occupy their time during idle 
watches on long voyages. 




MQN1 



5f' 





HE approach of 

warm weather 

brings in its train 

the close of the Grand Opera 
season, followed by the closing of many 
theatres during the summer months. If 
one would hear popular and classic music 
in warm weather, he must either rely upon 
the uncertain vaudeville house or get a 
talking machine. If he must have Grand 
Opera music, the latter offers the only 
channel. 

The talking machine companies make 
their contracts with the leading grand 
opera singers of the world so that the best 
operas may be enjoyed when the regular 
performances are not in season. "Faust" 
or "Tosca" floating in the summer air 
from the clear record will thrill the listener's 
soul as surely as though he sat in a box 
seat and saw the performance direct from 
the stage. The sprightly music of the 
comic opera, which so often introduces 
the popular song, is equally delightful. 

The plan of the different talking ma- 
chine companies to feature one or two of 
these reigning selections makes it possible 
for the phonograph owner to keep in close 
touch with the music of the day. ''Has 
Anybody . Here Seen Kelly?" the comic 
song success in "The Jolly Bachelors" 

appears on each of the May lists. 
* * * 

Raymond Hitchcock, pronounced the 
"foremost American singing comedian," is 
the latest acquisition to the Columbia 
ranks. His introductory song, on a 
double-disc record, "Wai, I Swan," is of the 
"rube" variety, in which Hitchcock is at 
his best. Coupled with it is the sensa- 



tional "Vision 
waltz, rendered 
Orchestra. 



of Salome" 
by Prince's 



Few people who have visited the New 
York Hippodrome will forget its orchestra, 
under the direction of Manuel Klein, and 
admirers all over the country for who 
hasn't been to New York and heard the 
Hippodrome orchestra? will appreciate 
the "Flower Waltz" taken from Tschai- 
kowsky's two-act fairy ballet, the "Casse- 
Noisette." 

Several excellent instrumental records 
are offered "Child's Festival Gavotte," 
a graceful light composition played by the 
Bohemian Orchestra; "Hungarian Lust- 
spiel," a splendid overture by Keler-Bela, 
played by Lacalle's Orchestra; selections 
from "The Midnight Sons," Lacalle's 
Band; "Medley of German Polkas," accor- 
dion solo by J. J. Kimmel; and "1863 
Medley," a collection of airs that were 
popular just at the close of the Civil War. 

"Mary of Argyle," that beautiful old 
Scotch ballad, whose popularity never 
wanes, is sung as a tenor solo by Frederick 
Gunsten on an indestructible record. 
Charles K. Harris' "Somewhere" is another 
melody which promises to live for centuries 
to come. 

A grand opera double-disc record of 
exceptional note is David Bispham's ren- 
dition of "The Pauper's Drive" and "Boat 
Song," both with orchestra accompani- 
ment. Among the French, Italian and 
German renditions of Grand Opera many 
people will welcome Mr. Bispham's work 
in these numbers, which seems to evidence 
the adaptation of the English tongue to 
impressive opera. 



(275) 



276 



MUSICAL RECORDS FOR THE MONTH 



The country's ex-President promises to 
furnish the themes of innumerable "popu- 
lar songs" from the pen of the ambitious 
writer of the music of the day. The 
Victor people have selected perhaps the 
best of these outbursts up to date in 
Moran-Helf's "Teddy da Roose," in which 
a late arrival on American shores explains 
his views on the African tour. Billie 
Murray's imitation of the enthusiastic 
Italian maintains the same cleverness that 
characterizes all his work. 

The Victor Company is to be congratu- 
lated upon securing the exclusive contract 
of Nora Bayes and Jack Norworth, an- 
nounced this month. Miss Bayes sings 
"Has Anybody Seen Kelly?" while Mr. 
Norworth offers his new parody "College 
Medley," of his own composition. This 
popular couple, representing as they do 
both sparkling wit and clever nonsense of 
the American stage, will be heartily wel- 
comed by a host of Victor owners. 

An admirable effort is being made by 
the Victor Company to rescue from ob- 
scurity some of Von Suppe's charming 
operettas. The "Tantalusqualen" is per- 
haps one of the best overtures ever written, 
and Arthur Pryor's Band has rendered it 
in a fitting manner. 

People who have the "Hallelujah 
Chorus," issued in the March list, will want 
as a companion chorus Dudley Buck's 
"Festival Te Deum, No. 7," Trinity Choir 
accompanied by Victor Orchestra. Re- 
producing mixed voices, called for in work 
of this kind, is very difficult, and the result 
has been obtained by a new process to 
which the Victor Company has devoted 
much study. The student of Chopin 
mysteries will hasten to secure "Two 
Chopin Studies by Backhaus," in G sharp 
and A minor rendered by the famous 
German pianist, Wilhelm Backhaus. 

Seven red seal records compose the 
complete Garden scene of "Faust." Each 
record is sung in French, with the leading 
Grand Opera stars, Miss Farrar, Mme. 
Gilibert, Caruso and Journet as perform- 
ers. The recording of this entire scene, 
one of the most famous in all opera, is a 
real achievement. Two Martin and two 
Slezak records make a replete Grand 
Opera list. 



Doubtless "The Man Who Fanned 
Casey" on the May Edison list, will reign 
as the evening's entertainment for the 
youthful baseball enthusiast who has spent 
his day "fanning" juvenile "Caseys"; and 
perhaps he will even admit that Digby 
Bell, who contributes the record, is a 
"great feller" even though he never played 
on the "Nash'n'l" or " 'Merican." Billy 
Murray is excellent in "He's a College 
Boy," one of the late successes with 
another of the late songs, ^Td Like to be 
the Fellow that Girl is Waiting For," and 
the standard record, "Come to the Land 
of Bohemia," Joe Maxwell makes the 
acquaintance of the Edison circle. His 
remarkably clear enunciation and impres- 
sive tenor are well adapted to recording. 
"The Suffragette," a new and original 
absurdity sung by Ada Jones and Len 
Spencer, arrives at an opportune moment, 
and should afford no end of amusement 
in homes where "Votes for Women" 
figure in conversation. 

For public taste which still demands 
the "coon" song are "Stop That Rag," 
Collins and Harlan; "Characteristic Negro 
Medley," Peerless Quartette; and "That 
Lovin' Rag," Sophie Tucker; besides the 
really novel "Patrol Comique," which 
reproduces the procession of the famed 
"Darktown Musketeers." 

An exceptional variety of "folk-lore" 
music is included in the May list: 
"Farintosh," a Scottish dance, and "Jenney 
Dang the Weaver," a reel, are combined 
in a violin solo by William Craig; Victor 
Herbert and his orchestra touch upon the 
weird melodies of the Hungarian gypsies 
in "Hungarian Dance D," while "The 
Strauss Memories Waltz," includes some 
of the representative works of that great 
German composer. 

The five Grand Opera records for the 
month are Puccini's "Tosca Vissi d'arte," 
sung in French by Carmen Melis, soprano; 
Bizet's "Carmen Habanera," in French 
by Marguerita Sylva, soprano; Lecocq's 
"Coeur et la Main-Bolero," in French by 
Blanche Arral, soprano; Mascagni's 
"Cavalleria Rusticana Brindisi," in Itali- 
an by Riccardo Martin, tenor; and Thomas' 
"Mignon Berceuse," in French by Gus- 
tave Huberdeau, baritone. 



BATTLEGROUND TO PLAYGROUND 



By W. C. JENKINS 



'"THE opening of the new Pennsylvania 
* Railroad tunnel connecting Manhat- 
tan and Long Island, New York, marks 
another important event in the history of 
one of the most beautiful but for many years 
neglected islands on the American conti- 
nent. Lying along the great Atlantic 
coast, with its heavily wooded hills mark- 
ing the outline of a great denizen of the 
deep is Long Island, whose history runs 
the gamut from battleground to play- 
ground. 

The island, as its name implies, is a 
long, narrow island, separated from Man- 
hattan and the Bronx by the East River; 
from Westchester and Connecticut by 
the Long Island Sound. Its other boun- 
daries are determined by the Atlantic 
Ocean. It is about 124 miles long from 
east to west, and at the widest point, 
from north to south, about twenty miles. 
It is believed that its entire easterly ex- 
tremity, known as Montauk Point, will 
be utilized sooner or later as the harbor 
of New York, the freight to be distributed 
from there throughout the United States 
by the Pennsylvania and Long Island 
railroads by means of its connecting 
railroad. The steamship companies would 
derive an advantage from this arrange- 
ment, because it would shorten the route 
and running time across the Atlantic 
Ocean. 

Roughly speaking, Long Island may 
be divided into three main sections: 
North Shore, the Central Plain and South 
Shore. Between the first two divisions 
lies a high ridge of densely wooded hills 
that still remain in their original state of 
nature. Separating the central regions 
'from the South Shore is the broad extent 
of Great South Bay with its fringe of 
meadows and marsh lands. The soil 
consists mainly of sandy loam and sand 
and gravel, which is of particularly de- 
sirable character on account of its splendid 
drainage qualities. All sorts of beauti- 



ful trees seem to grow everywhere on 
the island; a large section is utilized for 
truck-farming, and some of the products 
are unsurpassed anywhere. 

The history of Long Island may be 
traced back to 1609, when Henry Hudson 
discoverd the west end of the island at 
the time he explored New York Bay and 
the river which has since borne his name. 
Permanent settlements were commenced 
on both ends of the island in 1625 by the 
Dutch and English. These new settlers 
found the island inhabited by thirteen 
different tribes of Indians, and so it ap- 
pears that the locality was at one time 
claimed by three different powers the 
Indians, the English and the Dutch. The 
first half century's history of the island 
is a chronicle of constant agitation and 
contention for superiority. It was an 
ever-shifting scene of strife and uncer- 
tainty, involving changes in rulers, danger 
of hostilities from the Indians and oppressive 
acts of administrative officers. These 
undesirable and perplexing conditions kept 
the island in constant turmoil. 

In 1691 the island came into the pos- 
session of Great Britain, and from that 
date until the disruption of the Colonial 
government, in May, 1775, the English 
throne held undisputed control through 
the governors of New York, of which 
Long Island was a part. The first battle 
after the Declaration of Independence, 
in which General Washington is said 
to have lost three thousand men in killed, 
wounded and prisoners, was fought on 
the island, and is known in history as 
the "Battle of Long Island." 

L'ntil the erection of the Brooklyn 
Bridge in 1884, the only means of getting 
to Long Island was by ferry. With the 
completion of this world-renowned struc- 
ture began a period of intense activity on 
the island. Other means of transporta- 
tion have followed in recent years: the 
Williamsburg Bridge in 1903; the tunnels 



(277) 



278 



BATTLEGROUND TO PLAYGROUND 



under East River from the battery to 
Brooklyn connecting up the subways of 
Manhattan and the Bronx with the Long 
Island Railroad; the Belmont tunnel, 
built two years ago from Forty-Second 
Street, Manhattan, to Long Island City; the 
Queensboro bridge completed in July, 
1909; the Manhattan bridge which was 
formally opened by Mayor McClellan 
for vehicle traffic last year and the Penn- 
sylvania tunnels connecting the whole 
Pennsylvania Railroad system with the 
Long Island Railroad system all these 
connections are incidents of recent history. 
At the present time there are twenty- 
eight tracks across the East River con- 
necting Manhattan and Long Island. 
This is a greater number of tracks than 
run from Manhattan to the Bronx and 
a larger number than connect Manhattan 
with Jersey City. 

The present Greater City of New York, 
with an area of over 209,000 acres and a 
population of nearly five millions, is the 
result of a series of absorptions and an- 
nexations. Under the Greater New York 
charter, which became effective January 
1, 1898, three cities and a number of out- 
lying towns and villages, which previously 
had independent political administration, 
were united into one municipality under 
the corporate title of the City of New 
York. The charter of 1898 was revised 
in 1901. Queens County, which was in- 
cluded in the territory to make up Greater 
New York, had its seat of government 
at Long Island City, which first obtained 
its charter in 1871. After consolidation 
it became the first Ward of the Borough 
of Queens. 

Before consolidation and adequate facili- 
ties for getting across the river had been 
established, Long Island acreage had 
comparatively little value except for 
farming purposes. Land sold on the 
basis of what could be extracted from 
the ground in the way of farm products. 
Of late years there has been a great in- 
flux of the population to Long Island, 
and today Brooklyn has a larger number 
of inhabitants than the City of New 
York had at the time of the opening of 
the Brooklyn Bridge. 

It is apparent to the keen observer 
that properties on Long Island must 



greatly enhance in value in" the near 
future. It is within the memory of 
most inhabitants of New York when all 
that territory north of Fifty-ninth Street 
was almost a barren waste. That dis- 
trict consisted of small villages, such as 
Yorkville, . Greenwich and other towns, 
but the erection of one building after 
another brought the population to that 
section and greatly increased land values. 
Ten years ago the Bronx consisted of 
a number of small townships, and people 
living around Seventieth Street thought 
the Bronx to be a remote and unim- 
portant spot. These little townships, 
however, have now grown into each 
other and land values have tremendously 
increased within a very few years. His- 
tory must repeat itself in the same way 
in all that part of Long Island within a 
radius of twenty miles of Long Island 
City. 

On Long Island within ten minutes to 
one hour of the business district of New 
York City may be found a climate com- 
paring favorably in every essential par- 
ticular with the most famous health re- 
sorts in the world. It has been stated 
that the two healthiest counties in the 
United States were Suffolk County, Long 
Island, and Berkshire County, Massa- 
chusetts. The mortality statistics of Long 
Island establish its claim to climatic 
superiority. Among Long Islanders, tu- 
berculosis is one of the rarest diseases, 
while rheumatism or asthma are unusual. 
Its light soil, its equal climate tempered 
by the ocean, its light relative humidity, 
its large amount of sunshine, its pure water 
supply and the fact that it is a great pier 
extending 124 miles out into the Atlantic 
Ocean all contribute to make Long Island 
an ideal spot for health and recreation. The 
air is both ocean and shore, with great 
mobility due to the constant ocean winds. 
The water from the wells and springs is of 
the purest, freer from salts and vegetable 
matter than that in ordinary soil or moun- 
tain regions. There is no place on the' 
American continent where so much com- 
fort and enjoyment can be found as on 
Long Island. Every one knows of its 
various popular resorts, and thousands 
make their permanent homes while many 
additional thousands spend their summer 



BATTLEGROIT^D TO PLAYGROUND 



279 



days enjoying the bright sunlight and 
the pale moonlight in this delightful 
locality. Not only the New York man 
with his family, but the tired ones from 
all America find a haven of rest and 
recreation in this Land of Pleasure and 
Pastime. The requirements of every form 
of sport are delightfully served the very 
geography of the island contributes no 
unimportant part in creating conditions 
that to the hunter and fisher are admit- 
tedly essential. Not only does Long Island 
appeal to the summer pleasure-seeker, but 
It is an ideal place for a permanent home. 
The excellence of its schools and its 
delightful social life make it particularly 
desirable. 

On the shores of the many bays are 
charming sites for cottage homes, costly 
villas and great estates, and here are the 
best facilities for yachting, rowing and 
fishing. Pleasure and trading vessels are 
continually passing, and the frequent 
sailboat races in sight of the shore add 
to the attractive view. All the principal 
resorts are within easy access of the City 
of New York, and many combine the 
alluring features of water, steep hills, 
dense forests and drives as picturesque 
as can be found anywhere. 

In order that Long Island may be 
fully appreciated, the visitor must travel 
along the woodland roads and from the 
hills and high cliffs view the bays, inlets 
and delightful vistas of blue waters. On 
each of the points which run out into 
Long Island Sound are towns notably 
those of Great Neck, Port Washington, 
Roslyn, Glen Cove, Nassau, Locust Val- 
ley, Oyster Bay and Huntington. Oyster 
Bay enjoys a location which makes it 
a favorite spot for pleasure crafts of all 
kinds. There are the club house and 
anchorage of the Seawanhaka Yacht 
Club, a noted organization of Corinthian 
yachtsmen who make this place a center 
for their sport. 

To those who enjoy the sea its surf 
bathing, sailing and deep water fishing 
the South Shore of Long Island, on the 
ocean, will strongly appeal. The great 
South Bay, the Mecca for lovers of aquatic 
sports, skirts the southern shore of the 
island for nearly eighty miles, and is an 
ideal and safe inland sea for sailing and 



still water bathing. The Rockaways and 
Manhattan Beach, the latter with its world- 
renowned Manhattan Beach and Oriental 
hotels, are well known to the traveler. 

Along the great South Bay is a group 
of little villages which are attractive 
summer resorts, many having good hotels 
and cottages for summer guests. Babylon 
is the first, followed by Bayshore, Islip, 
Great River, Oakdale, Sayville, Bayport 
and Blue Point, the last the home of the 
famous Blue Point oyster. Through this 
section are to be found some of the finest 
estates on the Island, located amid sur- 
roundings magnificent in both area and 
development. Adjoining the Vanderbilt 
estates at Oakdale are the handsome 
quarters of the South Side Sportsmen's 
Club. This is an organization of wealthy 
New York men. 

Jamaica, the railroad center of the 
Island, has become a thriving business 
town and the home of many of New 
York's business men. East of Jamaica 
are the great Hempstead Downs, dotted 
here and there with villages, in which 
markets, gardens and farms abound. 

Garden City, a model town and widely 
known as the See of the Diocese of Long 
Island, was opened by the late A. T. 
Stewart. Travelers from afar go to 
Garden City to see its beautiful Cathe- 
dral. Mr. Stewart planned here a religious 
and educational movement which did not 
terminate with his death, and the town is in 
the center of a refined and cultured circle. 

The queenly beauty of old Hempstead 
with its Revolutionary associations and 
relics, beautiful homes -and spacious, 
quiet streets, good schools and churches 
and delightful social atmosphere, has 
charmed many residents both in winter 
and summer. 

Lake Ronkonkoma is one of nature's 
surprises it is the largest body of fresh 
water on Long Island and is fifty feet 
above sea level. The lake has its periods 
of ebb and flood, but these are in no way 
connected with the tides on either side 
of the island. Many villages in this 
section lie in a vast expanse of pine forests, 
where the air is sweet from the fragrance 
of the healthful pines. 

At the head of the Peconic River, which 
flows into Peconic Bay, is Riverhead, one 



280 



BATTLEGROUND TO PLAYGROUND 



of the largest towns on the island. It 
is the business center of that attractive 
country and popular with many as a 
place of summer residence. The waters 
of the beautiful and picturesque Peconic 
Bay are ideal for bathing and boating. On 
the bay all manner of pleasure crafts, 
bearing happy groups of carefree folk, flit 
by during the summer months. The 
historic spots in this vicinity have won 
the deep interest of the student of history. 
Floating on the landlocked waters be- 
tween Gardiner's Bay and Peconic Bay 
is Shelter Island, one of the most widely 
known watering places on the Atlantic 
coast. The Indians knew it as the "Island 
Sheltered by Islands," but the Quakers 
gave it its name because there they found 
refuge from their persecutors. As a 
resort, Shelter Island offers all the beauties 
of nature, coupled with every modern 
convenience. There are few resorts in 
.America more delightful than Shelter 
Island. A short ferry conveys passengers 
between Greenport and Shelter Island, 
and the train service between Greenport 
and New York is excellent. 

No story of Long Island would be com- 
plete without reference to the railroad 
facilities of the island. Perhaps nowhere 
in the United States is a railroad com- 
pany demonstrating greater confidence 
in the future of its territory than is being 
manifested today by the Long Island 
Railway Company, a corporation con- 
trolled by the Pennsylvania Railway 
Company, and this in face of the fact 
that history would discourage such im- 
mense investments. The Long Island 
Railroad has experienced much trouble: 
many changes of ownership and of man- 
agement, of receivership and of reorganiza- 
tion, and it has encountered the oppo- 
sition of a large class of restless people 
who believe that by making the rich poor, 
the poor become rich. However, in all 
its difficulties the road has been under 
the control and management of ambitious 
men, who looked far into the future and 
realized that ''success comes in cans, 
failure in can'is." This motto hangs in a 
conspicuous place in the office of the gen- 
eral passenger agent of the railroad, and 
has been the beacon light that on many 
occasions guided enthusiasm and energy. 



The Long Island Railroad Company 
was incorporated in 1834. The first 
meeting of its stockholders was in April, 
1835, so that the publication of this article 
is at about the time when the diamond 
jubilee or seventy-fifth anniversary might 
be celebrated. The company is one of 
the few railroad organizations of the 
United States or, in fact, of the world that 
has continued through its entire existence 
to operate under its original charter and 
name. A new epoch in the history of the 
Long Island Railroad began at the period 
of consolidation of the cities. Difficulties 
that had not previously been considered 
confronted the company more capital 
to meet the demands created by the 
greater city was required, operating charges 
increased and dividends ceased. It was 
necessary to remove the tracks from the 
surface of certain avenues, to replace 
steam with electricity, to eliminate grade 
crossings, to install additional facilities 
and improvements of all kinds, and all 
this far beyond the financial means of 
the company. 

In 190tt when the Long Island Railroad 
was obliged to battle with conditions of 
a most portentous nature, a rift in the 
clouds appeared the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road bought a controlling interest in the 
stock of the Long Island company. Wisely 
looking toward the future, the latter 
organization, in connection with its plans 
to enter New York proper through its 
tunnels found that by the Long Island 
Railroad it could provide additional 
traffic to bear the burden of the cost of 
the tunnels and terminals, in addition 
to affording the opportunity and the lo- 
cation for the terminal passenger yard 
in Long Island City, which could not 
be provided in Manhattan. The Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company has aided 
in the financing of all these projects, and 
since it has controlled the road there has 
been expended in the various improve- 
ments, outside of the Pennsylvania tunnels 
and terminal, over $30,000,000, all of 
which has been spent on Long Island. 

The Atlantic Avenue improvement alone 
cost $6,250,000, in addition to $1,250,000 
contributed by the city toward the 
elimination of the grade crossings in 
providing further facilities, both passenger 



BATTLEGROUND TO PLAYGROUND 



and freight, including in it the terminal 
connecting this new line with the inter- 
borough subway. 

Over one hundred miles of the com- 
pany's track have been electrified at a 
cost of $4,360,000. Another $5,000,000 
has been expended on what is known as 
the Bay Ridge improvement; an $8,000,000 
appropriation has been exhausted for 
additional tracks, yards, shops, etc., 
and on locomotives, passenger and freight 
cars, steel motor cars and ferry boats 
there has been expended $5,500,000. 
Besides this, over $2,000,000 has been 
used on its subsidiary companies, con- 




XORTHPORT HARBOR AND VILLAG 

sisting of the various trolley lines operat- 
ing to feed the main lines. 

The stockholders have realized no 
return on their investments, but their 
faith in the future has encouraged them 
to make these immense expenditures. 
Its instrumentality in building up the 
Long Island territory, its efforts to pro- 
vide better transportation facilities for 
Greater New York and the people of 
Long Island should invite the sincere 
commendation of every citizen who is 
interested in the territory in which the 
company operates. 

Railroads must build far in advance 
of the towns and cities; they must create 
in some respect their own business by 
inciting development in outlying dis- 



tricts; they must have confidence in the 
future of these sections and in the people 
who may be elected to administrative 
offices in the various localities. 

The history of the Long Island Rail- 
road shows that it is an institution of the 
people. No attempt has ever been made 
to ignore their rights; the men at the 
helm have always realized that one of 
the company's greatest assets is the con- 
fidence of the people. 

Long Island is to the tired Eastern 
man what Southern California represents 
to the pleasure-seeking population of the 
West. Its future points toward illimitable 
possibilities, and in all 
human likelihood this beau- 
tiful strip of land that first 
welcomes the emigrant to 
our shores will shortly be 
regarded as the most de- 
lightful spot on earth. 

* * * 

The financial institutions 
are perhaps the most im- 
portant indication of gen- 
eral conditions in a com- 
munity, and information in 
relation to them is usually 
sought by prospective resi- 
dents or investors interested 
in any growing community 
or new section of develop- 
ment. The Queens County 
Trust Company of Jamaica 
may be used to illustrate 
this feature of our story. 
as it is truly representative of its locality; 
and while in many respects it is distinctive 
from its less formidable contemporaries, 
yet its strength and stability, even under 
careful and able management, would not 
have been possible except for the fact that 
Jamaica and Long Island represent a re- 
gion remarkable for development and 
growth. 

A significant feature of the banking 
institutions of Long Island is their at- 
tractive and substantial appearance. On 
the Island may be seen designs that are 
true specimens of the finest orders in 
architecture. 

The Queens County Trust Company 
building is pointed to with admiration and 
pride by the people of Jamaica. It is 



BATTLEGROUND TO PLAYGROUND 



283 



undoubtedly one of the finest bank build- 
ings outside of Brooklyn, on the entire 
island. 

But there is the more important basis 
of management that brings to financial 
institutions their strength and command 
of public support, and while massive piles 
of granite, stone and brick may be in- 
dications of solidity, yet destiny depends 
upon the men who direct and guard their 
affairs. In this connection there is a 
fortunate record, satisfying to the analyt- 
ical processes that govern the critical mind, 



ceed two and a half million dollars. 
The company has general banking 
powers, and as its name would indicate 
performs all the various offices of trustee- 
ship. It stands at the very head of all 
institutions on Long Island apart from 
the metropolis of Brooklyn, in the volume 
and extent of its business and responsi- 
bilities as a trust company. It is daily 
sought to act in the capacity of executor, 
administrator of estates, receiver, trustee, 
fiscal agent, registrar, transfer agent and 
trustee for corporations, as well as in 




WINDMILL AT EASTHAMPTON 



enabling them to discriminate between 
the good firm and the unworthy. In 
this instance there is in the last analysis 
the conclusion that Long Island's financial 
houses are not only a credit to archi- 
tecture but to the people and interests they 
serve. The organization of the Queens 
County Trust Company was perfected in 
1904, with a capital of $500,000, which was 
afterward increased to $600,000. The 
deposits now approximate $1,750,000, an 
increase of $400,000 during the past 
year. The item of surplus and undivided 
profits reaches the total of $175,000, and 
the total resources of the company ex- 



various other broad channels where its 
resources and responsibility give to its 
trust an air of assured confidence and 
security too frequently lacking in cases 
where the same offices are delegated to 
individuals. 

There is no argument as to the desira- 
bility of the employment of a responsible 
trust company in affairs like those above 
mentioned, but the value of discretion that 
enables one to obtain the institution 
where the greatest confidence can be 
entrusted is always carefully taken into 
consideration. The record for conserva- 
tism, progressiveness and wide-awake busi- 



284 



BATTLEGROUND TO PLAYGROUND 



ness methods shown in the life of Colonel 
William M. Griffith, who has occupied 
many public positions and has for 
years been the company's president; 
the part performed in the administration 
of the affairs of the company by Robert B. 
Austin, for many years a member of 
the bar in Greater New York; the ad- 
ditional strength evidenced in the direct 
management by John E. Backus, John 
L. Wyckoff and William F. Wyckoff, all 
of whom bear names that stand for the 
best and most progressive things on Long 
Island; the financial interest in the com- 
pany of James S. Sherman, Vice-President 
of the United States these are important 
factors in the story of the Queens County 



ago, as has the Sohmer Company. Like 
all great utility problems, the forward 
step has always been necessary in the de- 
velopment of the piano the creation of 
one hundred years ago would be discarded 
as a worthless antique by the cultivated 
and discriminating music-lover of today. 

Place the very highest pianistic creation 
of even a quarter of a century ago beside 
a Sohmer masterpiece of today, and note 
the difference! 

In this little Long Island city the Sohmer 
Company has manufactured pianos that 
have been sent to every part of the civil- 
ized world; in Astoria have been made 
pianos that have charmed the hearts 
of millions, and it has always seemed 




BELLE TERRE CLUBHOUSE PORT JEFFERSON, LONG ISLAND 



Trust Company. In this strong personnel 
and the record of six years of uninter- 
rupted progress as well as in the sub- 
stantial and very creditable official state- 
ment of its condition is evinced a strong 
exemplary illustration of Long Island 
development a sound, conservative, pro- 
gressive groundwork which people always 
admire as a basis of financial strength and 
responsibility. 

At Astoria, Long Island, is located the 
Sohmer and other well-known piano 
manufacturing plants. Through the 
courtesy of the Sohmer management, 
I was shown through their model factory, 
which is complete in every department 
and equipped with the best labor-saving 
machinery and every facility for economical 
production. 

Few piano manufacturers have kept 
pace with the great piano movement, 
which began in this country many years 



appropriate that the highest perfection in 
music should be associated with the 
Sohmer piano, for this instrument has 
probably held the foremost position in 
the piano world. 

The name itself will bring memories 
of early struggles and early pleasures to 
thousands of hearts; how many persons of 
mature years can recall countless occasions 
when, in their youthful days, they gathered 
about the piano bearing the well-known 
Sohmer insignia. It may have been a 
mother's piano an instrument which 
today is perhaps an antique but withal 
cherished as a precious heirloom. It 
would be difficult to estimate the power of 
this instrument and its influence upon the 
lives not only of the family who owned it, 
but of the entire neighborhood. 

As I walked through the Sohmer factory, 
I could not help but reflect that here was a 
spring that had poured sweet music to 



BATTLEGROUND TO PLAYGROUND 



people of every land here on Long Island 
was the fountainhead of a source of pleas- 
ure that has awed the souls of millions 
here the home of the great Sohmer piano. 

I inquired, "What is the key to the 
success which the Sohmer has acquired 
among music-lovers?" and was told that 
the Sohmer represents the concrete ex- 
pression of their conception of a perfect 
piano. 

Tone is the very soul of a musical in- 
strument, and the appellation "Soulful 
Sohmer," once bestowed upon the instru- 
ment by an ardent admirer, would 



seem to be an admirable characteriz- 
ation. 

Rubenstein was once asked to designate 
the three qualities which he deemed the 
most important in a piano. "The first," 
he replied, "is tone. The second is tone. 
The third is tone." 

In the tone of the Sohmer lies its dis- 
tinct individuality. It is rich in volume, 
pure in its singing quality and sympathetic 
throughout its entire scale. It is even and 
pleasing, never unbalancing and irritating. 

The Sohmer is certainly the highest 
creation of the modern piano. 




VIEWS AT EAST ROCKAWAY 



MOTHER'S BOY 

From the book "Heart Throbs." 

Make rowdy music, little one! 

Make rowdy mirth and song! 
It is for life like this, my own, 

That I have watched you long. 

Romp in your merry ways apart, 
And shout in freedom wild; 

But creep at night time to my heart, 
A tired little child. 

Cora A. Watson 



AT THE AUTO SHOW 



By MORTIMER SINCLAIR 



VERY brilliant was the auto show 
held in Mechanics Building, Boston, 
in March, 1910. This is not an outburst 
of Hub enthusiasm but a fact on which 
all auto makers represented have declared. 
Surrounding the spacious structure built 
by the Mechanics Charitable Association, 
of which Paul Revere was once President, 
was a line of automobiles that represented 
a tremendous investment in themselves. 
As I saw the throngs pouring into the 
entrances, I thought of Longfellow's 
lines on Paul Revere and his midnight 
ride. The gleaming lights of the auto- 
mobiles suggested the flash of the lanterns 
that hung in the old North Church, "one 
ii by land, two if by sea." The road to 
Lexington now knows the whizzing, purr- 
ing motor car instead of the good horse 
on which the alarm was taken to "Concord 

Town" by this hero of history. 
* * * 

Over one-third of the money represented 
in the purchase of automobiles is said 
to come through New England. The 
incomparable roads and tours throughout 
this notable section have been great 
factors in superseding the horse and 
carriage. -'At summer resorts sixty per 
cent of the visitors arrive and depart 
in automobiles, and they are welcomed 
as substantial patrons of the great summer 
resorts throughout New England. Memo- 
ries of the old stage-coach days are re- 
vived by the automobile when it comes 
up puffing and dusty from a ride of one 
hundred miles or so, and the passengers 
alight with the same travel-weary air of 
the old stage-coach days. 

The Boston auto show was one of 
those exhilarating successes that mark 
a standard. Those who thought the auto 
interest was on the wane should have 
been there. One of the great halls was 
a bower of cherry trees. Real bark was 
nailed on the pillars of the hall from which 
extended real limbs of cherry trees covered 
with blossoms. It suggested a rest by 



the road-side in some orchard for lunch 
a fitting scenic setting for a country auto 
tour. All the automobiles, licensed and 
unlicensed under the Selden patent, were 
represented here. It was an open show, 
so to speak, and truly representative of 
all the autos entered. 

The New York show was the overture 
in which new ideas were brought forth in 
the latest models. The auto manu- 
facturers, keen and observant, make ob- 
servations here, and at the Chicago show 
later exhibit a few of the new things sug- 
gested, but at the Boston auto show, 
always held in Mechanics Building in 
March, the last of the season, they play 
their "trump card" and bring out the 
finished product of the year, which is 
to woo and win the trade of the autoist. 

Here was the Thomas car that made 
its record trip to Paris and around the 
world, plastered with labels as thickly 
as a student tourist's dress suit case, or 
a globe-trotter's steamer trunk. Grim, 
sturdy as a warrior of old, clad in his 
begrimed armor, it stood attracting the 
interest of every visitor. A mass of costly 
trophies seemed like an array of the 
silversmith's art. 

Under the cherry trees were the ex- 
hibits of the Ford, and each exhibit was 
marked by an old-time New England guide 
post that suggested the devious turns of 
the highways on which the chauffeur 
keeps his eye as keenly as the engineer 
on the semaphore of the railroad tracks. 

There was the "Overland" suggesting 
the sweep of the Limited express train 
across the continent. Then the Chalmers- 
Detroit well, everybody seemed to know 
Hugh Chalmers and the Chalmers car. 
Near by was the Hudson which comes to 
further perpetuate the name of the man 
who discovered the great waterway in 
New York. The vehicles in the Studebaker 
exhibit were in sharp contrast to the pic- 
tures of the early days when this firm 
manufactured sturdy prairie schooners 



294 



AT THE AUTO SHOW 



for pioneers pushing on to the West. 

Here, also, was an exhibit of the Rapid 
Motor Company. Two years ago the 
prediction was made by men prominent 
in the automobile industry that the com- 
mercial branch would show a greater 
phenomenal growth than the pleasure 
car. With the opening of the season 
of 1910, the Rapid Motor Vehicle 
Company of Pontiac, Michigan, not only 
the pioneers of commercial motor car 
construction, but the largest company 
in this especial line, find themselves 
booked for orders almost to their utmost 
capacity. 

Every variety and grade of autos was 
displayed. Each little point of excellence 
was shown even if it required the electric 
light under a cam or wheel to show it. 
There was motion, life and "go" all through 
the building. 

From the galleries came a resonant 
volley of "honk, honk," mingling with 
fearsome noises of the Claxton horn 
suggestive of the roar of lions in a menagerie 
and contrasting with the musical notes 
of the bugle call. Whether they had auto- 
mobiles or not, the thousands pushing 
through the great building were a jolly 
throng. Some sat in the autos and looked 
as if they owned them, assuming the air 
of true autoists for the time, at least. 

The "Elsie Janis"- car, with tapestry 
and furnishings of dainty white, suggested 
a "motoring" bridal tour. The six- 
cylinder Winton No. 6 occupied a promi- 
nent place on the platform with the Pack- 
ard and the Cadillac. Every sort of 
"auto" device known was exhibited in 
the gallery. Tires of all kinds from the 
massive rims of the heavy truck to the 
lighter shoeing of the racing torpedo; 
dash boards of glass and celluloid with 
shining brass trimmings; speedometers; 
oils; clocks; in fact, all the auto trappings 
and equipments were there, even to a 
display of fur overcoats a composite 
exhibit that made the show a veritable 
auto encyclopedia. Not content to show 
automobiles for the road, there was a 
"swing automobile" showing how auto- 
lovers can have a ride on the porch, with- 
out burning gasolene. Best of all was 
to look into the faces of the people at the 
show, radiant with the pleasure of antici- 



pated automobiling, and as the gazer 
decided to become a purchaser, the ex- 
pression became serious. 

Associated with automobiles are all 
the great personalities in the public eye. 
Here was the electric car sold by the 
E. W. Bailey Company, of Amesbury, to 
Thomas A. Edison, a modest, sedate 
"spider" electric machine. 

The White Steamer indicated the evolu- 
tion from the manufacture of -sewing 
machines. This is the car in which Presi- 
dent Taft, the first "auto" president, 
swung around the circle on his meteoric 
tours. The stately Peerless and the 
Fierce-Arrow with their machinery and 
furnishings rivalled Pullman cars in ele- 
gance, and showed the perfection attained 
by auto craftmanship. 

Yes, there was some display of millinery. 
Plumes, long and flowing, flowers and 
birds that rivalled even the canaries 
chirping and singing in the cages suspended 
under the cherry trees. The show was 
one continuous "joy ride." The lady with 
the poodle and the Boston terrier was 
there, and it took so little to amuse the 
crowd. Was the dog balky? Someone 
then recalled a similar experience when 
his auto had to be towed into town just 
as the dog had now to be dragged along. 
They cheered the dog! 

Going home the crowds seemed not to 
have lost their zest for fun. Somebody 
distributed "kerchoo" in the car there 
was a chorus of sneezes, and more- sneezes. 
One end laughed while the other end 
sneezed, but the boy got off at the front 
end. There is a law in Boston against 
selling "kerchoo," and it is not to be 
sneezed at, but everybody laughed; the 
joke was not enjoyed by one old gentle- 
man in the corner who had to bring forth 
frequently a very old red bandanna. 

The Boston Auto Show indicated a 
popular and intense interest in the auto 
as a quasi -public institution, and furnished 
proof that the auto trade has become more 
than a mere commercial proposition. 
The statistics show that mortality is 
decreasing. The open air is a tonic the 
use of which the auto encourages. Every 
one of the thousands of visitors dreamed 
of a time when he or she might auto spin 
over the country roads of New England. 



NATIONAL MAGAZINE 



VOLUME XXXII 



JUNE-JULY, 1910 



NUMBER THREE 



\ffairs af Wasfi/ngfon 




S the end of the session ap- 
proaches, there recurs that lively 
bustle that suggests universal 
preparations for "going home," 
and recalls memories of the end of the 
summer term at school, and setting out 
upon the long-desired vacation. Every 
face wears an off-to-the-country smile. 
All the acrimony of past discussions or 
differences are dissipated, and everyone 
is at peace with all the world. 

Mingling with the cheerfulness of closing 
up work for the summer vacation, there 
is nevertheless an undercurrent of the 
heat and ardor of campaign preparation. 
Records are being searched for correct 
dates of historical events, especially ap- 
posite quotations from brilliant speeches 
and other material for the fall campaign. 
The great cedar chests are being packed, 
and even around the White House there 
is a pervading atmosphere of future 
political activities and a odor of turpen- 
tine and mothballs for the preservation 
of precious furs and discarded woolens. 
While the ladies of the family are on the 
lookout for moths, the men between 
tugging at trunk straps and turning of 
keys that "won't lock" are scanning lists 
of worthy constituents. They know that 
by and by every envelope addressed, and 
every document sent out now will count. 
One feels that it might throw light on the 
future of the entire human race, if one 
could get an insight into the thoughts of 
each member of the family while setting 
out to fulfil the summer programme. 



IN a city of the Middle West dwell 
* some of the direct descendants of Halley, 
the royal astronomer of Great Britain, 
after whom was named the comet on 
which the attention of the world was 
focused during April, 1910, when it was 
visible to ordinary vision. This comet 
revolves around the sun once every seventy- 
six years. Halley proved that its orbit 
was in the form of an ellipse. In 1066, 
the year that William the Conqueror 
fought the battle of Hastings, it was 
looked upon as an omen of success for 
the Norman invasion. Nearly four cen- 
turies later it developed a tail almost 
sixty degrees in length. The present 
visit of the comet is notable as being the 
first occasion that it has been possible to 
photograph the celestial visitant or to 
ascertain its composition by means of 
the spectroscope. The Hydrographic De- 
partment of Washington has made obser- 
vations and published an ephemeris show- 
ing the position of the comet during the 
time that it is visible from the earth. A 
table is given which indicates that the 
comet was much nearer the earth on May 
18 than at any other date. 

Shipmasters sailing in the Pacific were 
requested by the Department to make 
observations of the comet, as to its bright- 
ness contrasted with that of nearby stars, 
and the length and brilliancy of the tail: 
they were especially urged to study the 
heavens closely on May 16, as it was ex- 
pected that the comet would then be 
visible from the Pacific Ocean. 



( 2S5 ) 



286 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 




EARL GREY, GOVERNOR -GENERAL OP CANADA 



AT Albany the President met Earl 
Grey, Governor-General of Canada, 
and Hon. W. F. Fielding, the Canadian 
tariff commissioner, who had come to 
discuss with him the perplexities of tariff 
conditions and to begin negotiations for a 
permanent basis under the Payne law. 
At the University Club banquet at Hotel 
Ten Eyck there was an exchange of inter- 
national amenities that was refreshing as 
a prelude to a tedious tariff conference, 
scheduled for a quiet Sunday afternoon. 
Good old Albany, of historic manor house 



fame, was gay with bunting, revealing the 
Union Jack and the Stars and Stripes 
intertwined in a most impressively affec- 
tionate manner. The festive spirit of 
good will and amity permeated the banquet 
and there was evidence of cordial relation- 
ship between the two countries, which 
might even count for much on the verge of 
a tariff war. To the common air of the 
two national anthems, "God Save the 
King," and "My Country 'tis of Thee," 
the President lustily sang "Confound their 
politics," and tunefully alluded to "their 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



287 



knavish tricks," and, while the auditors 
sought to repress a smile, Earl Grey 
politely tried to master the "rocks and 
rills" of Uncle Sam's favorite hymn. 

The conference was- to be held at the 
Executive Mansion. The rain 
was coming down as I walked 
along the old, cobble - stoned 
streets, past the Manor 
House and site of old Fort 
Orange, which figured promi- 
nently in the school history of 
my youthful days. The road 
to the Executive Mansion leads 
past the First Congregational 
Church, of which the Rev. Ray 
Palmer was first pastor. Mem- 
bers of the party instinctively 
lifted their hats in reverence 
for the man who had composed 
that exquisite hymn, "My faith 
looks up to Thee," which has 
brought peace and comfort to 
so many souls. 



while on a handsome centre table, pink 
tulips held up their heads, aware that they 
harmonized charmingly with the decora- 
tion scheme of the apartment. The wide 
stairway, leading from the great entrance 



THE New York Executive 

I Mansion is a massive pile, 
with numerous gables and 
towers. Automobiles stood 
buzzing outside the portals, 
while hundreds of Albanians 
stood in the rain to watch for 
the celebrities. When the 
autos left in the early evening, 
the white curtains were drawn 
down, and the lights turned on 
while the tariff question of two 
great countries was being dis- 
cussed. Subsequent events alto 
indicate that it was at this con- 
ference that the acquaintance 
ripened that impelled Presi- 
dent Taft to appoint Governor 
Hughes as a Justice of the 
Supreme Court. 

At the left of the entrance of 
the Executive Mansion is the 
Governor's workshop and library, wherein 
there are books, books and more books. 
The reception parlors are furnished in red, 
and a sociable bull dog was seated on a 
couch to welcome the guests. In the 
great hall and in the reception rooms 
carnations shed their fragrance on the air, 




MISS MARGOT MERRIAM 

A California leading woman, now with the Worcester (Mass.) Stock 
Company, under the management of Harrison Gray Fiske 



hall, suggests the old Dutch mansions on 
the Hudson of the early days. It was 
an ideal setting for a tariff conference of 
so momentous a nature, for there were only 
eleven days left before the ultimatum must 
be delivered. The French -American tariff 
treaty had been signed, and now the 



288 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 




SENATE MILITARY COMMITTEE ROOM WITH ITS AMERICAN BATTLE PICTURES 
Where Senator Warren of Wyoming puts in many hours overtime 



question was how to arrange perplexing 
points to the satisfaction of Canada and 
the United States. The Canadians seemed 
disposed to let the Americans take the in- 
itiative, and Dr. Pepper, the taYiff expert, 
and the President were ready to consider 
the complicated points. 

The tariff policy of Canada is referred 
to as controlled by "a commission in 
council," which is authorized to make rates 
and agreements within certain limits, ir- 
respective of parliamentary action. Some 
of the Canadian representatives seemed 
to feel that the United States government 
is an anomaly of power, and lack of power, 
and confidence in the chief executive. 
Even President Taft, with the discretion 
of exercising the maximum and minimum 
tariff, seemed to them to require certain 
restraints to bring the United States to 
the same footing as Canada in this matter. 
Tariff conditions between the two coun- 
tries now hinge on the question of whether 
the Canadians must discriminate against 



the United States because of a former 
treaty made by the British, under a 
"favored nation" clause, in which thirteen 
other countries were included but not the 
States. 

Another question raised was whether to 
estimate the tariff on the basis of actual 
exports and imports, or the aggregate of 
the entire list, estimated on all duties 
prescribed. 

The effect of the maximum tariff, a 
twenty-five per cent advance, ad valorem, it 
was felt would be almost ruinous to lumber 
and fish imports from Canada, which are 
now extensive. For instance, a mackerel 
duty of a cent a pound amounts on a 
barrel of two hundred pounds to two 
dollars. If the fish are assessed at twenty 
dollars a barrel, the ad valorem duty would 
be five dollars, and with the specific duty 
of two dollars, would amount to seven 
dollars, a ruinous rate which bears a 
resemblance to the Dutchman's noted 
one per cent rate of profit. 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



289 



IT was a veritable home-coming for Presi- 
dent Taft when he visited Millbury, 
Massachusetts, and ate apple pie with his 
Aunt Delia. The Railway 
Brotherhood convention at 
Worcester was addressed 
during this visit, and thou- 
sands united in giving the 
President a splendid ovation, 
but for him personally the 
heart-interest must have cen- 
tered in the Sunday which 
he enjoyed with his aunt. 
Arriving at nine in the 
morning, there were the ham 
and eggs done on one side 
only all ready, just as in 
boyhood's days. Later he 
went to church as peacefully 
and obediently as he had 
been wont to do when visit- 
ing in Millbury long ago, 
when as a boy he had come 
back for part of the summer. 
He noted with pleasure the 
wide stone wall around the 
pasture, just as of old, when 
he had played with Jimmy 
Powers, who soon became 
owner of the village livery 
stable. 

The President was met by 
Governor Draper at Mill- 
bury, and escorted to Wor- 
cester. The hearty ovation 
given to the Governor was 
indicative of the honor in 
which the chief executive of, 
the Commonwealth is held 
by his home people. His 
sturdy courage and busi- 
nesslike administration are 
appreciated by the people 
who know him best, and 
regard him as one of the 
ablest and most efficient gov- 
ernors that the Bay State has 
ever sent to Beacon Hill. 

Almost every house on the 
road from Worcester to Mill- 
bury was gaily decorated with bunting and 
portraits of the President, in honor of the 
boy who had played along that road years 
ago. The ministers in the churches here- 
abouts spoke of him as "the boy from 



the Millbury hills." The village streets 
were crowded as on a great holiday, the 
bandstand was aflame with flags, [and 'the 




Courtesy of the Boston A merican 

PRESIDENT TAFT AND AUNT DELIA OUT FOR A WALK 



churches, schools and homes were deco- 
rated profusely to offer a royal welcome 
to the chief executive of the United 
States. Of course a call was made at 
the big house surrounded by stately elms, 



290 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



which was the home of the President's 
maternal grandfather. 

The people gathered in the streets to 
watch him cross the road with that same 
swing as when a barefoot boy he had 
played among them. The secret service 
men, attired in linen dusters, were kept 
busy moving hither and thither, as the 
automobiles swept to and fro for the 
President made the most of every minute. 
At the station, on the banks of the old 
Blackstone, where "Bill" Taft used to 
fish in the merry days of youth, in the 
stillness of the Sabbath morning, after the 



an eloquent tribute to the worth of 
maiden aunts. 

Looking from his car at Millbury upon 
the throngs gathered to see him, he may 
have wondered that it had never occurred 
to him, as a boy, that some such scene 
might be enacted in this familiar spot. 
Perhaps there was a tender thought of 
the sweet-faced mother, to whom he said 
farewell when he left for his tour around 
the world. She died here at the old home 
and did not witness the distinction that 
has come to her illustrious son as Presi- 
dent of the United States. 




Courtesy of the Boston Journal 

PRESIDENT TAFT AND GOVERNOR DRAPER IN AUTOMOBILE AT WORCESTER 



church bells had ceased, the President 
made the great speech of the day. He 
alluded feelingly to the many happy 
memories revived, and the tender friend- 
ships cherished in connection with the 
bygone days ; he said that he felt as though 
he had been born half in Massachusetts 
and half in Ohio. The President pointed 
to the hill nearby, where the old school- 
house stood which he had attended in 
the happy carefree days when he had 
been the especial charge and delight of 
his "Aunt Delia." Her influence seems 
to have stayed with him all through life, 
and it was to her that he referred in his 
speeches in the South, when he paid such 



After the last word had been spoken in 
the old home, the shades were drawn in 
the car and the President relaxed from the 
strain of a long day, fraught with pleas- 
urable emotion, and sank into his seat with 
a happy sigh. He had enjoyed a visit to 
the old home, as well as met thousands of 
railroad men at their great convention. 



THE death of Justice Brewer removed 
from the Supreme Court bench a 
most pronounced character. At the last 
judicial reception at the White House, I 
saw Justice Brewer and Justice Harlan 
go off into a quiet corner, between the 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



29] 




MRS. ROOSEVELT OX CAMEL AT KERRI 



red and blue room to enjoy a cheery 
chat, telling each other jolly good stories 
of bygone days. These two jurists having 
taken part in the absolutely necessary 
formalities pertaining to their position, 
gladly slipped away for a quiet time to- 
gether. They had served in concert on 
the bench during their mature years, 
and been active in the solution of many 
knotty points, but they have remained 
unpretentious, humane and kindly. 

The mother of Justice Brewer was a 
sister of Cyrus W. Field, who laid the 
Atlantic cable and was one of the re- 
markable Field family. The late Justice 
was born in Asia Minor, while his father 
resided in that country as a missionary. 
He was a classmate of Senator Depew, 
at Yale, and studied law in the office of 
his uncle, Dudley Field. His first office 



was that of United States commissioner, 
and his first judicial service was in the 
probate court. In 1865 he entered the 
federal service as judge, with an interim 
of four years as prosecuting attorney, 
when he was appointed justice of the 
Supreme Court of the state of Kansas. 
In 1889 he was appointed by President 
Harrison to the Supreme Court bench. 
Justice Brewer was a member of the 
famous Venezuelan Arbitration Tribunal, 
and also the author of a number of books. 
The first was ''The Pew to the Pulpit," 
and awakened widespread comment. A 
man of strong convictions and deep emo- 
tions, tempered with broad experience, 
his writings have been read with eager 
interest, and for many years Justice 
Brewer has been regarded as one of the 
strongest, brainiest jurists of the country. 



292 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



A STATELY and gallant gentleman of 
i* the old Southern school, the Honorable 
James Gordon has served a brief term in 
the United States Senate, and his departure 
from that body was sincerely regretted. 
A "gentleman from Mississippi" indeed, 
his farewell address was one of the happiest 
efforts recorded in the "Congressional 
Record" for many years. In a simple 
manner, characteristic of the man, he 
delivered a valedictory which is replete 




"\ 



Photo by 

Clinedinsl MISS MAY HOWARD 

A prominent Washington society woman, whose skill as a horse- 
woman has put Uncle Sam's fighting men on their mettle. She 
rode in the army endurance test ordered by ex-President Roosevelt, 
and covered ninety-eight miles in fifteen and one-half hours. Her 
performance was a marvel to many officers who had a hard time 
to meet the requirements. New test rides have been ordered by 
the Navy Department, in which Miss Howard will participate. 



with human interest and full of a broad 
and inspiring patriotism. 

When he arose at his desk and an- 
nounced his retirement, he disclaimed any 
intention of making a set speech, and also 
disclaimed the honor of having written 
the poems ascribed to him. In his preface 
he naively remarked that he was going 
to present the only book of poems that 
he had written to the president of the 
Senate. He stated that he set out to 
become a United States Senator when he 
was but five years of age. His mother then 
helped him to spin an old-fashioned tee- 
totum top, on which was pictured the 



United States Senate in the days of Clay 
and Calhoun. She explained to him what 
the picture stood for, and when he ex- 
pressed an ambition to "be there some 
day," she told him that a clean, indus- 
trious life might bring him to it. 

What a picture that genial Confederate 
soldier made in the Senate, as he told of 
the day when he wore the gray and fought 
and bled, humorously adding, "I didn't 
die I skedaddled." His words further 
confirmed the unity of the nation under 
the tribute "to our country" 
bringing forth hearty applause 
from the galleries and floor. 

"I am tired of sectionalism," 
continued the retiring Senator. 
"God knows I got enough of the 
fighting, and I don't want to 
hear any speech in the Senate 
or elsewhere which stirs up 
strife." He confessed that there 
were "trouble-makers," North 
and South, but he added that 
"the people were all right." 

"A man might as well attempt 
to scale the ramparts of Jehovah, 
and pluck from heaven God's 
proudest star, as to pluck from 
the brow of the conqueror or 
conquered the loyalty which was 
on the brows of the men on 
either side who stood under the 
apple tree in Appomattox. 

"Since then I have kept the 
oath which I took as a good 
citizen of the United States." 
He went on to speak of the 
need for perfect understanding 
before an opinion is passed. "I 
have heard you, the Senate, abused and 
censured, and I find that this is the finest 
working body of men with whom I have 
been associated. I had no idea of the 
work incumbent on a man who occupied 
a seat in the Senate, but I am glad to 
have had the opportunity of obtaining the 
information direct." 

Interspersed in the address was a bit 
of verse on the Old Black Mammy; every 
paragraph in the speech was fraught 
with genial good will and cheery humor. 
Closing with a hearty and cordial assur- 
ance of a welcome awaiting the Senators 
if they came to Mississippi, and a bow of 



, ! -FAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



293 



old-time courtesy, the gentleman from 
Mississippi concluded his speech. 

When he had taken his seat, Senator 
Depew, with one of his courteous and 
gracious bows, arose and paid a charming 
tribute to his colleague, saying that he 
regarded the speech as an unique con- 
tribution to literature of this character, 
and that he believed it would go down 
in the records as an utterance of patriotism, 
good-fellowship, broad-minded charity and 
good humor that would live long after 
other apparently more able addresses had 
long been forgotten. The adieu bidden to 
Senator Gordon was such as would have 
gladdened even the heart of a man who 
had filled a seat in the Senate for years. 



OXE of the first to arouse Boston and 
Eastern business men to the serious- 
ness of the Canadian tariff situation was 
Mr. John F. Masters, New England 
Superintendent of the Dominion Atlantic 
Railway Steamship Line. Realizing that 
relations were sure to be badly strained, 
and that prompt action was necessary, 
he made a hurried trip to Albany, and had 
a conference with the Hon. W. F. Fielding, 
Canadian Minister of Finance. Referring 
to the situation, Mr. Masters stated: 

"The Canadians are, of course, very 
much pleased with the satisfactory out- 
come of tariff negotiations, and regard 
President Taft as a high type of states- 
man, at whose hands, as an official of the 
United States, Canada is likely to receive 
fair treatment. * 

"Had the maximum tariff gone into 
effect, it would have been disastrous to 
the shipping interests between Canada 
and this country, and the port of Boston 
in particular, and New England in general, 
would have been the greatest losers. Of 
course, all commodities of living would 
have materially advanced; the increased 
cost would have fallen entirely on the 
consumer. 

"At the time the negotiations were 
talked over, there was a likelihood that 
the United States would put into effect 
the maximum tariff, which increases the 
present duties twenty -five per cent, ad 
valorem, unless the States should be 
accorded the same preferential tariff given 



to France and twelve other countries, 
under the favored nation clause." 

The Canadians declined to do this 
because the United States was, in their 
opinion, offering no adequate return; they 
considered that the minimum tariff being 
retained represented no concession. The 
Canadian commissioners claimed that the 
average duty against Canada is far higher 
than (about double) that accorded by 
Canada to the States, and pointed out 
that it was unfair to consider only an 
average duty on articles at present shipped 




Photo by Chickcring 

JOHN F. MASTERS 

New England Superintendent, Dominion Atlantic 
Railway Steamship Company 

because there were many commodities 
not being interchanged at this time 
because of a prohibitive tariff, this being 
especially true in regard to agricultural 
products. 

The editor of the Toronto Globe, Mr. J. A. 
Macdonald, went to Ottawa and Washing- 
ton and, after many conferences with the 
President, brought about the meeting at 
Albany, at which an arrangement was 
agreed upon that settles the matter for the 
present. Canada has agreed to extend 
to the United States the same rates on 
about twelve articles silk, linseed oil and 
other products net grown in Canada 



294 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



that are already accorded to more favored 
nations. It makes no material difference 
to the Dominion where these articles are 
purchased. President Taft has intimated 
that further negotiations will be made 
to effect an exchange of pulp-wood and 
fish products in return for concessions on 
United States manufactured goods. Thus 
the tariff situation today remains prac- 




Pholo byClinedinst 

MISS CARRIE CLINE 

Daughter of Congressman Cline of Indiana, who is 
noted for her beauty and talents 

tically unaltered, except that these twelve 
selected articles have been made the basis 
of future negotiations, which it is under- 
stood are now pending. 



IT was interesting to watch two brothers 
* walking arm in arm down the aisle 
of the House of Representatives. They 
belong to opposing political parties. 
Congressman Eugene N. Foss, elected to 
fill the vacancy occasioned by the death 
of Congressman Lovering of Massachu- 
setts, was elected on the Democratic 
ticket, and proceeded to be sworn in. 
His brother, Representative George E. 
Foss, Chairman of the Naval Committee, 



is one of the Republican leaders in Con- 
gress. The two brothers were born in 
Vermont, and the younger went West early 
in life. The older brother remained en- 
gaged in manufacture in Boston. Their 
mother was in the gallery, looking down 
on her two boys as they appeared before 
the Speaker, honored representatives in 
Congress of two political parties. 

The comradeship of those two brothers 
may stand as a type of the fraternal spirit 
of Congress despite the division of party 
lines. The success of her two boys brought 
to the cheek of the mother a flush of 
pleasure, and her eager interest was beauti- 
ful to behold, as she peered over the rail 
with the same kindly glance as when 
hearing her sons recite in school on Friday 
afternoons in the old schoolhouse in 
Vermont. 



THE activities of the Taft administra- 
tion are not confined to any one sec- 
tion. An address is made tonight in 
Chicago, tomorrow night in New York, 
and every state and territory has been 
united. Newspaper men are bearded in 
their lair, and there is a general desire to 
understand matters. In Rochester seven 
hundred business men applauded while 
President Taft frankly outlined plans for 
federal legislation, and at Albany the 
Canadian officials were greeted. 

The Rochester meeting was in the nature 
of a council, and the utterances made 
there deserve careful consideration. The 
remarks of Mr. Wm. C. Brown, President 
of the New York Central Railroad 
nationally recognized as a man of progres- 
sive ideas and optimistic faith were in 
curious contrast to the opinions of the 
equally able, but somewhat older railroad 
man, Mr. James J. Hill, who after a life 
of achievement has become a little appre- 
hensive. His views -have a cautious tinge 
suggestive of the prudence of maturity, 
while Mr. Brown holds fast to the most 
hopeful signs of the future and the present. 
He called attention to the normal and en- 
couraging conditions which now prevail. 
The 400,000 idle cars and the 10,000 loco- 
motives that figured in reports of the 
"panic year" have been put into action, to 
keep abreast of the activities of fields, 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



295 




PRESIDENT TAFT A GUEST AT THE TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL DINNER OF THE 
ROCHESTER CHAMBER OF COMMERCE MR. W. C. BROWN TO THE RIGHT 

OF PICTURE 



mines, forests and factories, which!:are ev- 
erywhere bearing witness to the renaissance 
of a great era of prosperity. Every car 
and engine is double-crewed and working 
to the outside of its capacity. 

This aggressive railroad president be- 
lieves that the first business of the govern- 
ment of any country is to secure the most 
abundant measure of prosperity and com- 
fort possible for the greatest number of 
citizens. "If you are interested in the 
welfare of your country, get in line with 
the Taft administration," was the con- 
clusion that echoed with the ring of un- 
compromising confidence that was infec- 
tious. He deplored the lack of intelligent 
farming, the run-down and impoverished 
farms, and compared our agricultural con- 



dition to the attitude of children, who, 
supplied with too many oranges, merely 
take a small bite from each, suck a little 
of the juice and throw away the best part 
of the fruit. Mr. Brown contends that 
this is the position of many farmers, who 
cultivate what he calls "half -farmed land." 
To prove his point he produced compara- 
tive figures of the production in other 
countries, showing that more and better 
farming would solve many economic 
difficulties. 



A WORK of art that is worthy to stand 
side by side with the classics in chil- 
dren's books Arabian Nights, Water 
Babies, Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare 



296 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



and others is the "Great Sea Horse," 
by Isabel Anderson, published by Little, 
Brown & Company, price two dollars. 
In passing one marvels how such a book 
can be sold at so low a cost. The ex- 




Courtesy of C. M.Clark Publishing Company 

MRS. LARZ ANDERSON 
Author of "The Great Sea Horse" 



quisite pictures are in three colors, and 
each one is a gem in itself, and is daintily 
covered with tissue paper which brings joy 
to the heart of a child. Probably there 
is not one in the world who has not laid 
tissue paper over a colored 
picture for the pleasure of see- 
ing the shades of color gleam- 
ing through in misty fashion. 
It is a beautiful book in every 
way; even the inside covers 
are decorated with suitable 
designs, and there is something 
on every page to catch the 
eye and rivet the attention of 
a child. Mrs. Anderson evi- 
dently knows just what the 
little ones love to look at and 
to hear. 

This is the author's first 
book, and is a notable contri- 
bution to a form of literature 
which the ablest writers con- 
cede to be very difficult to 
write well. Mrs. Anderson 
resides in Boston and is the 
wife of the Hon. Larz Ander- 
son, who has occupied many 
prominent positions in the 
United States diplomatic 
service in Italy and elsewhere. 
Last winter the Anderson resi- 
dence in Washington was fre- 
quented by many diplomat- 
ists, artists and men of letters. 
Mrs. Anderson is one of the 
very few society leaders who 
has succeeded in reviving in 
Washington the inspiration 
and charm of the Parisian 
salon of former days. 

Now for the stories. "The 
Great Sea Horse" is a fine fel- 
low, who will win the hearts 
of his little friends, even 
though he is in the unfortunate 
position of having too many 
admirers among the mer- 
maids. The very word "mer- 
maid" is a delight, to a child, 
and the story of the sea horse 
will be eagerly read over many 
times. If his evil doings up 
the 'river suggest some mis- 
chief, it is atoned for by his 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



297 




Courtesy of C. M. Clark Publishing Company 

A HALL IN MRS. ANDERSON'S WASHINGTON HOUSE 



good deeds in helping to rescue the ship- 
wrecked mariner. Many a child will dream 
of the beautiful horse, with a tail and mane 
of golden brown seaweed, tossing his head 
and galloping, or rolling in the yellow sand. 
The story of King Foxy and gnome 
land with its mists and snow will be 
especially attractive, and grown-up read- 
ers will admire the deft way in which Mrs. 
Anderson conveys information in her 
line or two of description of Muir Glacier, 



"forever slowly moving," and will hastily 
prepare themselves for the flood of ques- 
tions which the reading of every story is 
sure to bring from the little people. The 
doings of King Foxy will be remembered 
long after the little readers have grown 
so busy that they cannot spare time to 
read the beautiful book in which they 
first met the tiny king "before whom even 
polar bears have trembled." Many a 
man and woman of the future will discover 



298 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



that he or she gained a first knowledge of 
geography and transportation from the 
story of the travels of King Foxy. and his 
faithful gnomes, when they went in search 
of the queen gnome something which 
had never before been heard of. 

Then comes a pretty lesson in forestry 
in "The Forest School," a story in which 
Mrs. Oak, the Misses Maple and many 
other lovely maids of the forest appear. 
The "Fairy Sitting on a Pond Lily" is 
one of the most beautiful pictures in the 




"STORMFIELD," THE HOME OF MARK TWAIN 
AT REDDING, CONNECTICUT 



book. The story of the Magic Lock and 
the little "Chink" who had such hard 
times and finally landed in the Yellow 
River near the "Great Wall," gives a 
thrilling glimpse of what a little alien 
may endure in an enlightened land, as 
well as a suggestion of Chinese customs. 
"It wears its beard without a chin, and 
leaves its bed to be tucked in," was the 
riddle propounded by Princess Dawn 
to Prince Sunshine, when she appeared 
to him in the guise of a mermaid. He 
could not guess that it was an oyster, so 
the fair lady had to tell him as she sat and 
"untangled her hair with the Venus 
comb-shell." This story of "The Maiden 
of Rosyland" is one of the many in which 
the mermaids or mermen appear. In 
fact, Mrs. Anderson seems especially 
familiar with fairy lore, for she tells tales 
of fire, flower and woodland fairies, of 
gnomes and of Neptune and of mer-boys 



that are strangely realistic. Everything 
takes on an aspect of the magical for her, 
from the opening of the Jamestown Ex- 
position to the boyish experiences of 
Johnny Cork, who afterward became a great 
explorer. "The child's dreams often become 
the great realities of a man's life," she 
says. All through the book are beautiful 
illustrations, and every story is of deepest 
interest. Mrs. Anderson realizes that the 
craving of a child for "a story" is evidence 
of the desire for information, and in the 
cleverest way possible she 
stimulates the imagination and 
blazes the path to future 
achievement for the little 
readers. She has created a 
new departure in present-day 
literature that must have its 
effect on the history of the 
men and women who are to 
be the future citizens of the 
United States. 



HTHE passing of Samuel L. 
^ Clemens, known univers- 
ally as Mark Twain, calls us 
to bid farewell to one of the 
most popular and well-known 
Americans the world has ever 
seen. Two years ago the Na- 
tional published that bit of 



exquisite verse, inscribed on the stone 
which marks his daughter's resting place, 
at the old home: 

"Warm summer sun, shine kindly here; 
Warm southern wind, blow softly here; 
Green sod above, lie light, lie light; 
Goodnight, dear heart; goodnight, good- 
night." 

Everyone who came under the spell 
of those kindly blue eyes, gleaming genially 
beneath the shaggy brows will always re- 
member the humorist, Mark Twain. 
His sense of humor was so different from 
that of ordinary men, and yet so universal 
that he will stand in the annals of literature 
as a genius in this line. Is there any phase 
of life in the West that has not come under 
the influence of "Huckleberry Finn" 
experiences, and of the steamboat days on 
the Mississippi; are these not as much a 
matter of history as those labelled as such? 
He was always full of that homely wit 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



299 



and deep wisdom that marked him as a 
sage as well as a humorist, throughout his 
long and eventfu life. 

Many times I have met him in Washing- 
ton, in the depth of winter wearing his 
white flannel suit, and in the heat of sum- 
mer attired in a fur-lined overcoat, and 
he was alway the centre of interest. 
His works have been translated into al- 
most every language. 

The maxims of Mark Twain bid fair to 
go down in history along with the sayings 
of Poor Richard. 

"To be good is to be noble; but to show 
others how to be good is nobler and no 
trouble." 

"Training is everything. The peach 
was once a bitter almond; a cauliflower 
is nothing but a cabbage with a college 
education." 

"Habit is habit, and not to be flung out 
of the window by any man, but coaxed 
down stairs a step at a time." 

"Few things are harder to 
put up with than the annoy- 
ance of a good example." 

"April 1st. This is the day 
upon which we are reminded 
of what we are on the other 
364." 

"Consider well the propor- 
tions of things. It is better to 
be a young Junebug than an 
old bird of paradise." 

"The man with a new idea 
is a crank until the idea suc- 
ceeds." 

"All say, 'How hard it is 
that we have to die' a strange 
complaint to come from the 
mouths of people who have 
to live." 

"Truth is stranger than fic- 
tion, but it is because fiction is obliged to 
stick to possibilities; truth isn't." 
* * * 

Many more anecdotes of Mark Twain 
are being told than would have been 
dreamed of before his death. In fact, 
his record threatens to rival Lincoln's in 
the number and variety of incidents con- 
nected with his life and sayings, and letters 
long ago filed with other correspondence are 
now being dug out, because they bear his 
treasured signature. 



Almost the only letter Mark Twain 
ever wrote concerning a political matter, 
was one to Uncle Joe Cannon, which is 
reproduced on page 301. It reveals the 
friendly relations between the two men. 
and recalls an incident well worth reciting. 
The humorist was interested in the new 
copyright law, which was finally passed. 
When he presented the letter to Uncle Joe 
there was a twinkle in his eye, that was 
reflected in the orbs of the Speaker. After 
they had shaken hands, Speaker Cannon 
took up the little black-covered, red-edged 
book, "Rules and Practice of House of 
Rep's" whereby a legislator "standeth 
or falleth." He turned to page 461 and 
read rule 34: "Of admission to the 
floor." The enumeration of all entitled 
to be on the floor debarred Mark Twain 
from receiving an affirmative answer to 
his request for admission to the floor of the 
House during the session. 




MARK TWAIN ENJOYIN'G A PIPE AFTER LUNCH 



And then in a melancholy voice, Uncle 
Joe read: 

"It shall not be in order for the Speaker 
to entertain a request for the suspension 
of this rule or to present from the chair 
the request of any member for unanimous 
consent." 

More cheerfully, he continued: 

"There shall be excluded at all times 
from the Hall of the House of Representa- 
tives and the cloak-rooms all persons not 
entitled to the privilege of the floor during 



300 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



the session, except that until fifteen 
minutes of the hour of the meeting of 
the House persons employed in its service, 
accredited members of the press entitled to 
admission to the ''press gallery, 
and other persons on request 
of members, by card or in 
writing, may be admitted. 

"This rule was adopted in 
1902." . 

However, Mark had the 
privileges of Uncle Joe's office 
while the House was actually 
in session, and many congress- 
men gathered there to wel- 
come the celebrated humorist. 
To them he told the famous 
story of the poet of the 
Wabash, along whose storied 
banks the Speaker of the House 
wandered as a boy. The joke 
relates to the opening of a 
canal through to Toledo. A 
local genius felt that it should 
be immortalized in verse, and evidently 
"pumped himself" to make his lines rhyme 
whether they would or no, as follows: 

"The Canal has been built through 
All the way from Tarry-hut (Terre Haute) 
ToTol-ee-doo." 



During the engagement in New York 
City, Mark Twain called on William 
Hodge, in his dressing-room. He desired to 
pay a personal tribute to "The Man From 




THE HOME OF MARK TWAIN, FR< 



PERGOLA 



Home" who had done so much to win a 
wholesome record, and had secured the 
affection of his audiences. He entered 
just as Mr. Hodge was applying the brick 
red to his cheeks, in "making up," going 
through the process with the regular, 
swift motions of shaving. The 
old gentleman watched for 
some time, and commented 
upon how much the stage re- 
sembled life, "for we all have 
to make up to play our parts, 
and have to await our cues to 
enter upon our act," he said. 

Dr. John Wesley Hill was 
present and saw the opportu- 
nity to secure Mark Twain to 
speak in his church. He made 
the request as diplomatically as 
possible. Mr. Clemens replied: 
" I have not been to church for 
twenty years, but I will prom- 
ise you that the next time I go 
to church I will speak for you." 
The doctor was all excite- 
ment, and thanked the author 
Toledo thus mutilated to make it rhyme profusely for his kindness, and was about 




THE HALL AT " STORMFIELD" 



with "through," struck Mark Twain as 
so ludicrous that he persisted in calling 
Uncle Joe "The Man from Tol-ee-doo" 
every time he had occasion to address him, 



to hurry off to put the name of Mark Twain 
upon his next week's calendar, when Mr. 
Clemens spoke again: 

"Remember I said 'the next time I go 



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A~^v tu^-c^ &^*^L 
/:L.<^_,^>- -M^_ 2J^ 




^_^*. r 

^ Y 

fe^l^Jf_ a_^ t-^-d-j tf- . i..X-- q"Z>--g_ 
J/* g^S^ ^ZZl^e. ^ i ^. *-^?>-_^. 

ruj^^l -v^*_._ A^.?O _'i-<->'^ ^L 





302 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



to church,' but I have not been for twenty 
years and it does not look just now as 
though I should go there for another 
twenty." 

This was a decided wet blanket to the 
hopes of Dr. Hill, but he took comfort 
in the thought that no one has ever been 
able to calculate just what the humorist 
would do or say in a given situation, as 
he usually has to be reckoned with on the 
"inverse calculation" method. 



SITTING in a cafe at Panama, in con- 
versation with Monsieur Facet, the 
Peruvian minister to Panama, I felt in 
close touch with that country which had 
been a sort of fairyland to my youthful 
imagination, and has received a new im- 
petus since work on the Canal was begun. 
Monsieur Facet has been in diplomatic 
service for many years, and is meeting the 




The Crown Prince of Sweden and Mr. Facet 



duties of his important post in a most 
efficient manner. 

In the earjy hours of that warm after- 
noon a story was related of how small 
things may count for much, especially in 
the life of a diplomat. Monsieur Facet 
was to entertain the Crown Prince of 
Sweden, and he thought that the warmest 
welcome would be to address a remark 
to him in his own language. He was in 
some difficulty as to how the remark 
should be secured, but luck was with him 



and he found a box of Swedish matches. 
He searched out the pronunciation of 
the words thereon, and repeated them 
until he could say the entire sentence 
with flowing smoothness. Having been 
duly presented to the Crown Prince, the 
courtly diplomat softly repeated those 
few words. Instantly a bright smile 
illumined the face of the scion of the royal 
house of Sweden, who not only recognized 
the words but the kindly courtesy which 
had led the entertainer to address him in a 
tongue that meant so much more to him 
than French or English could have done. 
He knew that the young Peruvian diplo- 
mat, eager to honor the native land of a 
guest, was in touch with one of the great 
commercial products of the Swedish 
empire. 

The Crown Prince was asked to give the 
correct pronunciation of the words, which 
he did several times, after which he hu- 
morously remarked: 

"My mission is not to 'make a match,' 
though I greatly admire the recognition 
which matches have had today in the 
interchange of international compliments." 



SEVERAL times recently, when the 
name of the American ex-president- 
sportsman has been mentioned, I have 
been asked: "You've heard the dog 
story, of course?" 

I like to hear all the variations on dog 
stories, so I asked "Which dog story?" 

"That one, you know, that 'Buffalo 
Bill' tells about Roosevelt hunting bears 
in Colorado. It seems that he had hired 
a man and a dog, but neither seemed to 
be very successful in getting him the de- 
sired bear. At last he lost patience, and 
inquired: "Isn't there a good dog to be 
had in this country?" 

"Oh, yes Smith down below here has 
the best bear dog in the Mountains." 

"Well, go and get him," urged the 
presidential hunter. "Let's see if we 
can't have some sport with a bear." 

"Smith won't hire his dog." 

"Tell Smith to come along and join the 
party for hire or on any terms he likes." 
The story runs that the guide departed 
and returned with a report of non-success. 
Mr. Roosevelt's impatience took on a tinge 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



303 



of vexation, and he went himself to secure 
the adamantine Smith and his valuable 
dog. 

"This is Mr. Smith? I understand you 
have a fine bear dog, Mr. Smith." 

"Xone better in the Rockies," was the 
assurance. 

"Can't I hire him or buy him?" 

"He ain't for hire and I wouldn't sell 
that dog for no price you could offer." 

"Well, won't you come with the dog 
allow me to hire both you and the dog?" 

"Xo, I ain't hirin' out now. I got to 
go after bacon and flour and some more 
things my folks wants for the house." 

Report has it that President Roosevelt 
felt a trifle nettled at the man's obstinacy. 

"Look here," he said, "do you know 
who I am?" 

"Xo, I don't know what's the odds?" 

"I am Theodore Roosevelt, President of 
the United States." A pause to await the 
desired effect and yielding. 

Smith dexterously deposited some to- 
bacco juice on the ground just beyond the 
President's nearest hunting boot. 

"Well," he said slowly, "I don't care 
if you are Booker T. Washington you 
can't hire my dog." 

And all the little innocent bears went 
to bed happy that-night, glad they had 
escaped Smith's dog. 



A MOST effective speech was made in 
the Senate, during the present session, 
by Senator Borah upon the Income Tax. 
The information was presented in the close- 
knit and coherent form characteristic of 
the young Senator from Idaho. It was 
a reply to the protest of Governor Hughes 
to the Xew York Legislature, containing 
a recommendation against the ratification 
of the proposed amendment to th'e Consti- 
tution providing for an income tax. The 
gist of the discussion lies in the difficulty 
of interpreting the constitutional meaning 
of incomes included in the words "from 
whatever source derived." The Governor 
of New York contends that to confer upon 
the federal authorities the power to impose 
a tax on incomes derived from state and 
municipal bonds would also confer the 
power to levy taxes upon salaries of state 
officials, and consequently tax the very 



instrumentality and means of the state 
government. 

Senator Borah argued that the attributes 
of state sovereignty exempt any and all 
means and instrumentalities of state 
government from all federal taxation. 
From his rear seat on the extreme right in 
the chamber, the Senator's voice was 
clearly heard in all parts of the hall, as he 
called attention to the universal restless- 
ness in regard to these questions of the 




Theodore Roosevelt and the stubborn fanner 



great mass of the people which is rapidly 
developing a class hatred, already too much 
encouraged in this country. He insisted 
that the expense of government is con- 
stantly increasing the burdens of the 
nation, which must be evenly and uni- 
formly distributed, if they are to be peace- 
fully borne. Certain forms of wealth 
which breed luxury, idleness and idiocy 
ought to be taxed. He believed that the 
governors of the states would do their 
duty, and see that the amendment was 
adopted, insisting that it would be indeed 
a national catastrophe for this amendment 
to be defeated, as it was the people's right 
to establish a more equitable distribution 
of taxation. 

The debate involved a proposal that the 
federal government have power to collect 
taxes on incomes "from whatever source 
derived." The last four words are the 
pivot on which this very able argument 
between the Governor of New York and 
the Senator from Idaho has hinged. 



304 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



A DUTIFUL son from the South was 
** writing to his kind father from Wash- 
ington; pater was on his first trip to New 
York, and each letter from the son was 
filled with grave warnings and kindly 
words of advice as to how he should be- 
ware of the pitfalls and snares laid for the 
feet of the unwary in New York. 

"Do not forget to keep in the straight 
path and remember to come home early 
at night," wrote the young man. The rest 
of the letter was almost as graphic as an 
artist's pencil in its description of the 
temptations of the great "white way." 
It was read by the loving father with 
mingled emotions. After a suitable re- 
capitulation of good advice from a son to 




The Congressman meeting old lady who resembles Queen Victoria 



a dutiful father, and a final touch on the 
maelstrom of city life, he added, at the 
very bottom of the last sheet, in tiny 
letters far down in the corner, these words, 
"From memory." 



NO man loves to be ridiculed, but it 
sometimes happens that a congress- 
man will tell a story, even when the 
"joke is on him." A party of legislators 
so a distinguished member told us went 
to inspect a state insane asylum. Some 
ladies and children were in the party, 
notably a bright littie child of eight years. 
In a certain ward of the asylum they were 
shown a tall, fine-looking woman, and 
were told that she constantly had the 
delusion that she was Queen Victoria. 
"She never has a lucid interval. If you 



should ask her now who she is she would 

tell you that her name is Queen Victoria." 

The congressman advanced hat in hand 

and bowed almost to the ground before her. 

"Madam, am I speaking to Queen 

Victoria?" 

The woman looked steadily at him, 
as though she would read his very soul 
with her great, dark eyes. 

"I know who I'm speaking to," she said. 
"You are a fool." 

The astonished congressman stepped 
back, and in the moment's silence that 
followed the shrill treble whisper of the 
girl of eight was heard: 

"She isn't crazy now, mamma, is she? 
She does know something." 

"I then and there decided," said 
the narrator, "never to question 
insane patients as to their iden- 
tity. They know too much," he 
added with a quizzical smile. 



/ ~PHE labyrinthine processes of 
* passing a law are little known 
or understood outside of Washing- 
ton. In the first place every single 
word in a bill has to be minutely 
studied that there may be no mis- 
interpretation or straining of the 
meaning later, or of the relation of 
words, to works and the hinge 
value of prepositions. One can 
readily understand this process 
of tearing a bill to pieces by discussion 
would bring such result as was described 
by late Senator John Sherman: 

"I have been forty years in Congress 
and have never had a bill passed exactly 
as I wanted it. No matter how carefully 
prepared, there are sure to be changes, 
additions or eliminations, made in def- 
erence to the wishes of others." 

Senator Sherman introduced the original 
anti-trust law, which is still on the statute 
books. The contest at that time between 
him and Senator George was very acute, 
and while he had a bill that he thought 
everyone would be able to agree upon, 
before it had passed it was hardly recog- 
nizable by its author. Today, it remains 
a fact that for thirteen out of the twenty 
years since this law was passed, its inter- 
pretation by the courts reveals that two- 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



305 




IMPELLED BY THE THOUGHT POWER OF THE NATION*. THE STATUE OE LIBERTY WADES 
OUT, WHILE THE BAND PLAYS "LO THE CONQUERING HERO COMES." 



thirds of the business of the rountry is 
carried on in literal violation of this anti- 
trust law. It is said that should the 
exact wording of this law be adhered to 
today, the normal growth of the nation 
would be materially interfered with. The 
vital defect in the law is pointed out as 
being in the use of the words, "Every 
contract, combination or agreement." It 
is claimed that the word "every" ought 



not to have been used, and exception is 
also taken to "in restraint of trade or 
commerce." The law was clearly to apply 
only to such contracts and combinations 
as were for the express purpose of exploit- 
ing manufactures to prevent natural and 
legitimate competition, the idea being to 
control prices and unduly enhance profits. 
When President Taft was on the Federal 
Circuit Bench it was pointed out that the 



306 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



indefinite language of the law was a 
positive error. Prior to 1897 there were 
scarcely sixty concerns dominant in their 
respective trades. In 1899 there were 
seventy-nine organized with a capitaliza- 
tion of over four billions. These enormous 
combinations, it is asserted, control one- 
seventh of the manufacturing output of 
the country, and one-twentieth of the total 




" ' That is my hat,' I remonstrated. ' You are 
mistaken,' he replied " 



value of the nation all wealth being almost 
twice as much as the amount of money 
in circulation in the United States. The 
United States Steel Corporation, with a 
capitalization of one billion, four hundred 
million, represents ninety per cent of the 
total capitalization of the railroad com- 
panies of the country. Fifty-seven separate 
systems control the railway systems today. 
Little did John Sherman realize that 
he was enacting a law of such vital conse- 
quence, when he prepared a measure with 
the idea of checking the growth of cor- 
porations and consolidations; contrary to 
his purpose, the law has apparently en- 
couraged the formation of corporations. 
It is somewhat like developing impulses 
in young people by incessantly calling 
attention to the things which they "must 



not" do. The injunction is almost sure 
to create a desire to do that very thing. 
It is another illustration of the thought 
expressed by Tennyson, "The tie that 
binds too tightly snaps." 



NOT long ago an Englishman carried 
a joke over the ocean, and across the 
continent to Chicago. Now a joke sounds 
well in the Windy City, even without an 
Englishman to tell it. The newspaper 
men who heard the story first hand were 
especially delighted. 

"I was walking down State Street, you 
know, when a gust of wind ah well, 
relieved me of my hat in fact, left me , 
quite bareheaded. I gave chase, and you 
may imagine my joy on turning a corner 
to see my hat just before me, and lying 
quietly for the moment. I hastened 
toward it, you know, but at the same 
moment another hatless man dashed up 
and grabbed it, quite rudely, you know, 
just as I was about to stoop to reach it. 
He put it on his head. 

"'But that is my hat,' I remonstrated. 

" 'You are mistaken,' he replied. 

" 'I assure you, sir, it is the hat that I 
have chased for quite half a mile.' 

" 'That is true,' he answered with a 
somewhat impolite grin. 

"You know, I began to feel rather in- 
dignant, and I asked if I had chased it 
for half a mile why was not that my hat 
I had never lost sight of it. 'If this is not 
my hat, where is it?' I demanded. 

" 'Your hat your hat why, it's hang- 
ing down your back with a bit of string 
attached,' he replied with a laugh." 

This joke was told by Senator Lorimer, 
who is a native-born Englishman. He 
likes nothing so well as a good joke on 
an Englishman, told with all the charm of 
the true insular accent. 



TTHE agricultural Department in Wash- 
ington, taking practical cognizance 
of the general interest in the high cost of 
living, has issued a book giving fifty 
recipes of savory dishes and much general 
information as to the best methods of 
preparing meats, and how to utilize cheaper 
cuts to make them toothsome and easily 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



307 



digested. There are also hints as to 
clarifying fats and retaining the flavor in 
meats by skilful cooking. This pamphlet 
contains such simple formulas as can be 
followed by any housekeeper of ordinary 
intelligence, and are not like the recipe 
which puzzled the cook described by 
Wilkie Collins: 

"Look at this recipe for an omelette, 
that you say you want, ma'am it reads 
'a piece of butter the size of your thumb.' 
Now, whose thumb is meant, yours or 
mine?" and she stretched out a massive 
thumb side by side with the diminutive 
one of her employer, who happened to be 
a small woman, while the cook was a six- 
footer. 

Secretary Wilson has the happy faculty 
of knowing when to do things, and keeps 
in touch with the people in the develop- 
ment of the Agricultural Department. 
This new book will be of permanent value, 
is sent free on application, and will need 
no press notices to exploit it. The Agri- 
cultural Department can furnish informa- 
tion on any subject of interest to the 
people, whether it is pip in chickens or 
how to masticate "chuck beef." These 
matters may not be great political issues, 
but care for them indicates a creditable 
interest in public welfare in its broadest 
sense. The most valuable public servants 
we have are those who constantly study 
how to prepare and disseminate vamable 
information to promote the happiness and 
comfort of the greatest number of people. 



O ATURDAY afternoon has come to be 
O recognized as a universal holiday. 
That is the day when the father of the 
family has an opportunity to become 
acquainted with his children, and, inci- 
dentally, to remove them from the path 
of the busy mother that she may "cook 
and clean." On 'the streets and in the 
parks every Saturday afternoon in many 
cities the fond, fathers wheeling baby 
carriages may be seen. Older children 
walk beside him with an air of especial 
pride and importance because they are 
arrayed in their best to "go out with 
father." Father himself is as carefully 
dressed as when he took "mother" to 
matinee or dinner, or a picnic in the old 



days. It is love of his children that 
impels the laboring man to array himself 
in his best for this Saturday afternoon 
walk with the little ones. The little 
groups are very happy, and papa shows it 
too, but it sometimes happens that baby 
discovers papa's weak point and refuses 
the obedience given readily at home to 
"mama." The scene on the street, the 
bawling child, the perplexed man, aware 
that he "looks like a fool," cannot but 
provoke a smile from the onlookers, as 
they hurry past, realizing that all pictures 
have lights and shadows. 



HOW like a family a nation is! The 
little bickerings that arise at the 
table, or in the sitting room, after school 
or work are over, are often the cause of 
something said or done which means the 




" The bawling child the perplexed man aware 
that he looks like a fool " 



estrangement of brothers and sisters for 
years, perhaps for life useless and often- 
times inconsequential disputes, all be- 
cause of some little misunderstanding. 
One accuses another of injustice, when if 
the truth were known there is in each 
member of the family some noble trait, 
something that 'would rise to self-sacrifice 
with but little encouragement. 

So in the nation how many there be 
who like cannibals seem ready to eat and 
tear each other about some trifle, some 
little thing of no vital importance, while 



308 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



the great things are "passing while we lie 
asleep." The flame of temper, prejudice 
or passion supplants reason, and great 
harm is done. In the nation's domestic 
affairs at the present time, there is not, 
we feel, the kindly spirit of criticism that 
makes the family when it is as it should 
be the best possible training school. Pub- 
lic men nowadays are not only criticized 
which they must expect but they are 
abused; their motives are impugned; they 
are suspected of the vilest conduct; until 
it will soon become impossible for a self- 
respecting man to remain long in public 




" He makes a deep impression on the boys whom 
he left behind on the farms " 

life, serving as a target for the abuse of 
those whose vanity he may offend, or 
whose plans he may have hindered. 



FOR years metropolitan dailies and 
newspapers all over the land have 
been pointing out the great attractions 
of the cities. The boy from the country 
is still "a rube," and when he goes to the 
city, remains for a while and then comes 
back home with his new clothes, and 



boasts of his ample weekly salary, he makes 
a deep impression on the boys whom he 
left behind on the farms and in the village. 
In 1893 the political spell-binders were 
telling farmers at grange meetings and 
cross-roads that they were being robbed 
by the bloated bondholders in [the cities 
Such men helped to depopulate the farms 
because they caused thousands of young 
men and women to leave home, thus de- 
pleting the muscle and youthful energy 
which should have illuminated farm life, 
and wasting its energies in crowded cities 
where it was little needed. The career 
of many successful men has been decided 
in this way apparently because they 
have "come to the city to find an outlet 
for their talent." But who has considered 
what they might have done with that same 
talent if applied to important agricultural 
problems? There is no loss without some 
gain, and so the rural parts of the country 
have become prosperous because the cities 
are overcrowded. The few who are left 
at home are usually well off; at least they 
live well and the rural poor-houses are being 
depopulated. This is not for the good 
of the nation at large, because the pro- 
duction is less and the prices" are higher 
in consequence. The way to equalize 
prices for both city and country is to get 
the young blood and the muscle back on 
the land, where economical and increased 
production will soon be devised by the 
busy brains that are occupied in striving 
for a bare existence in the city. 



IN the Census Department there is 
* always some interesting phase of in- 
formation in reference to statistics. A 
Chicago attorney called the other day to 
obtain more detailed knowledge regard- 
ing the divorce industry, and wanted 
especially to find out why Reno, Nevada, 
had supplanted Chicago in the social 
bulletins. His search disclosed to him 
that Switzerland carries the palm among 
all the nations for cheapness and ease in 
procuring a divorce. 

Those desiring to dissolve the marriage 
tie are requested first to appear privately, 
or with their lawyers, before the judge, in 
order to effect a reconciliation if possible. 
Prior to all divorce proceedings, this 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



309 



preliminary notice is sent out. It occasion- 
ally happens that one of the parties fails to 
appear before the kindly judge. Often this 
preliminary visit effects a reconciliation, 
and the case goes no farther. A lawyer 
in Geneva, who made a specialty of this 
line of work, reported that at least thirty 
per cent of such cases are settled by the 
advice of the judge out of court. Swiss 
lawyers will not take up a divorce case 
unless this first proceeding has failed to 
reconcile the parties. When neither party 
appears before the judge, it is understood 



of ability, he has no business to attempt 
to serve his country," was the recent 
utterance of a distinguished English 
visitor, who was viewing the Capitol. 

While the stranger knew little of the 
retirement of Senators Aldrich and Hale, 
he had seen enough to get the idea that 
long and able service is not appreciated 
in the United States. He continued to 
generalize : 

"You Americans seem to prefer youth 
to age. That may be because you are 
a young nation, but it seems to us, on the 




RUINS OF THE CHURCH OF SAX JOSE. PANAMA. SHOWING UNSTABLE OVERHANGING WALL 



that the case is to be contested to the 
bitter end. When Americans realize that 
the usual cost of divorce in America ranges 
as high as two hundred dollars, and that 
in Switzerland it may be obtained as low 
as ten dollars, there promises to be an 
exodus to that country in the future, rather 
than to Reno but the United States law- 
yers have no occasion for worry, as Ameri- 
cans are debarred from taking out divorce 
papers under Swiss laws. 



'"""THE time is coming when the United 

1 States will lay down as an invariable 

rule that if a man has a reasonable amount 



other side of the water, that long service 
is bound to accumulate a certain amount 
of power, prestige and knowledge which 
cannot be attained by younger men, 
however brilliant." 

In view of the retirement of the two 
veterans, the Englishman's oration was 
impressive. When Senator Hale arises 
in the Senate, and in his stately way, 
with dignified gestures, addresses the 
assembly, his words interspersed with an 
occasional wave of his pince nez, he stands 
as a fine type of the statesman of the old 
school. The senators listen and know 
they are hearing nuggets of facts. His 
speeches are in strong contrast to the more 



310 



AFFAIRS AT WASHINGTON 



hasty, less carefully prepared utterances 
of younger men. 

The retiring senators may certainly be 
proud of their record, and of the confidence 
and friendship which they have won. On 
the other hand, thoughtful citizens all 
over the country are beginning to wonder 
whether it might not be well to hearken 
to the advice of experienced legislators. 

A young farmer from Maine remarked : 
"The Romans may have been 'scared blue' 
at sight of the comet, but they were wise 
enough to create and maintain a stately 
body of elderly advisers, adding dignity 
and solidity to their nation in its best 




Mark Twain moving with his wardrobe in a cigar box 



days. It seems that no such memorable 
gathering will ever be seen in the United 
States as that of the white-bearded Roman 
senators, each sitting with quiet dignity 
in his seat, and presenting an aspect that 
awed into silence even an attacking horde 
of barbarians." 

Nowadays, in the heat of political con- 
tests, and the desire to forward personal 
ambitions and aid friends, there is danger 
of forgetting the public welfare and the 
highest good of the nation. The conserva- 
tive and thinking press all over the coun- 
try is expressing regret at the retirement 
of Senators Hale and Aldrich. Many 
papers are pointing out that by this move- 



ment New England will lose the power 
she once had, which will now inevitably 
be transferred to the West. Perhaps, in 
the logic of events, it belongs there. 

The expressions of opinions coming to 
the veteran senators at this time must 
be gratifying. One letter recalls the active 
part taken by Senator Hale in the building 
of vessels at Bath; another speaks of the 
Navy Yards at Portsmouth, Charlestown 
and Kittery, which alone brought millions 
of dollars into the state, to say nothing of 
the granite industry. Senator Hale 
thought not only of his nation but of his 
state in his work. A learned and ex- 
perienced lawyer, and a trained business 
man, he has given to his country forty 
years of good service, and that he now 
cheerfully resigns his post to another is 
in keeping with the dignity which has 
always been one of his notable attributes. 



ON the Senate Military Committee 
Senator Warren devours work as 
though he relished it; he often remains 
in his room at the Capitol until past mid- 
night. 

"Why do you work so hard?" he is 
asked. 

"Have you no pride in your work?" is 
the reply, as the busy man looks up under 
the green shade that he wears to relieve 
his eyes, as he dives into a mass of papers. 

"When you wish to do everything just 
right, it becomes a matter of pride as well 
as of conscience." 

After spending the afternoon at the 
sessions, many of the Senators work late 
into the night in order to finish up work 
on the various committees. 



'"THE assiduous attendance of senators 
* at the meetings of the various com- 
mittees consumes enough time to baffle 
even an industrious man. Long hours of 
plain, hard work are essential and no 
pay for overtime. Senator Bailey paid 
a deserved tribute to his Republican col- 
league when he insisted that the Senate 
ought not to convene until two o'clock, 
to give members time to complete their 
committee work in the morning and en- 
able them to attend the sessions. 



lorfc Camlet at jflountjop'g 



POSSIBLE INFLUENCES OF SHAKESPEARE'S NEWLY DISCOVERED 
FRENCH SURROUNDINGS 



By JOHN McGOVERN d JESSE EDSON HALL 



NEW light has been thrown on the 
drama of "Hamlet" and its author 
by the surprising discoveries of Professor 
Charles W. Wallace, of Nebraska, U. S. A., 
in the Public Record office at London, 
England. These discoveries were an- 
nounced in Harper's Magazine for March, 
1910. Some matters may be added to 
both parts of our work on "My Lord 
Hamlet," published in the NATIONAL 
MAGAZINE, June to December, inclusive, 
1908. 

In the Chronology, there should be 
entered the fact that, on May 11, 1612, 
'iam Shakespeare, of Stratford-on- 
Avon, in the county of Warwick, gentle- 
man, of the age of forty-eight years, or 
thereabouts," appeared as a principal wit- 
ness in a lawsuit, and signed a deposition 
which made answer to five interrogatories. 
This signature he abbreviated into "Witlm. 
Shaks." 

This proves, for a second time, that 
William Shakespeare, the poet, was born 
in Stratford in 1564, the present (copied) 
Stratford church register again appearing 
as a true copy, and this time with especial 
regard to him. (1564 from 1612 leaves 
48.) 

William Shakespeare, the poet and 
gentleman, author of the sonnets and other 
poems, is at last well traced and connected 
as to Stratford and London. This author 
of the sonnets is also, according to the 
laws and art of human speech, the 
author of the finest language in the plays 
attributed to William Shakespeare by his 
partners and publishers, Heming and 
Condell. 

The original records of the lawsuit show 
that Christopher Mountjoy, wealthy wig- 
maker, a Frenchman, dwelt at the north- 
east corner of Silver and Monkwell 



(Muggle) streets, near Cripplegate. Shake- 
speare, it is sworn, lived with Mountjoy. 
He was probably an honored guest and 
tenant, as the incorruptible Robespierre 
lived with the cabinet-maker Duplay and 
his family at Paris in the Grand Terror. 
Shakespeare is mentioned by name in 
twelve of the depositions. 

Sometime after 1604 Shakespeare was 
sent by the Mountjoys to entreat and 
negotiate a marriage between Stephen 
Belott, a former apprentice, and Mary 
Mountjoy, only daughter and heir of the 
wigmaker. This marriage followed, and 
brought on the lawsuit in 1612. While 
Shakespeare, in his testimony, bore out 
the main allegations of the former appren- 
tice, who was plaintiff, he at the same 
time shielded his landlord as much as 
possible by a faulty memory. Shake- 
speare certainly figured in the romantic 
role of matchmaker. 

Twelve witnesses made depositions, and 
Joan Johnson, who had sewed in the house 
of the wigmaker, testified that "one, 
Maister Shakespeare lay in the house." 
The date she gave is 1604. 

Shakespeare testified that he knew 
both the suing son-in-law and his father- 
in-law, the wigmaker, during the appren- 
ticeship (which began in 1598), and had 
known them "some ten years or there- 
abouts." (in 1612). 

"To lie in the house" was to have 
lodgings there, and in another deposition 
it is stated that the wigmaker has "a 
sojourner in the house with him" (in 
1612). The wigmaker did not become 
a "citizen of London" for several years 
after settling in London from France, and 
the style ^ "William Shakespeare, gentle- 
man, of Stratford-on-Avon," etc., argues 
that Shakespeare himself was never a 



(311) 



312 



MY LORD HAMLET AT MOUNTJOY'S 



citizen of London. Professor Wallace 
reckons that Shakespeare's "ten years or 
thereabouts" were nearer thirteen years. 
Carlyle's "hired girl" living afterward at 
Chicago, used to delight in telling to the 
newspaper men of the new world how the 
Sage of Chelsea wrote and fretted; and 
what a different Shakespeariana there 
would be if Joan Johnson had chanced to 
gossip similarly into the ears of oncoming 
humanity. All of the Baconian hypothesis 
and its logarithms would have failed to 
be, and much of three hundred years of 
ana regarding the absolute mystery of the 
man Shakespeare would have shared the 
same fate. 

We have known that Shakespeare played 
a double part in life. To be a poet (and 
that meant often a playwright) was honor- 
able; to be an actor was scandalous 
there were "citizens of London" who con- 
sidered and even made it criminal. Wil- 
liam Shakespeare, as poet, could gain en- 
trance to a rich man's house, but as actor 
or stage-manager he would not be wel- 
comed by a native "citizen of London." 
It would be different at the house of a 
Frenchman, and, above all, a wigmaker, 
who would more than welcome "a member 
of the profession." The drama had come 
from Italy, through the Spanish and 
French ports. France, Mountjoy 's county, 
was much more civilized (citified) than 
England more degenerate, further from 
the primal simplicity of the human race. 
France had a common tongue or speech 
more generally agreed on than the Eng- 
lish, for in London people might spell, or 
even pronounce, as they pleased that is, 
the French were, as a whole, "better 
educated" in cases where neither French- 
man nor Englishman knew Latin, which 
was the vehicle of all scholars. William 
Shakespeare, gentleman (by purchase) 
naturally could live with his wigmaker, 
who also assuredly would have something 
to do with his costumes. 

Reader, the discoveries of Professor 
Wallace concerning this frugal wigmaker 
give us a right to believe that the glory 
of Juliet (her hair), the soft tresses of 
"Cordelia," the sterner knots of "Portia," 
the braids that the fair "Ophelia" plaited 
with flowers, were arranged at the corner 
of Silver and Muggle streets for boys to 



wear at Blackfriars and the Globe. The 
white majesty of "Lear," the fierce beard 
of "Macbeth," the raven locks of "My 
Lord Hamlet" all the similar trappings 
of the most original stage the world has 
produced were handled under the very 
eye of the "monarch of mankind" at 
Monsieur Mountjoy's house. Little won- 
der that Shakespeare should be commis- 
sioned with the hopes of Mary Mountjoy, 
that he might work on the absent wig- 
maker and entice him into both matrimony 
and the renewed service of the Shake- 
spearian theatres. 

The Frenchmen had better stomachs 
for acting than the canting Puritans, 
so soon to be successful rebels. And at 
this merry workshop, Shakespeare would 
hear the French jabbering and parleying 
that could be so easily transferred to his 
comedies. In "Henry V" its author made 
Mountjoy a herald. 

Let us inquire now about "Hamlet." 
It would not seem that the French folk 
necessarily possessed a French translation 
of Bandello's Italian novels, because 
Shakespeare uses a cry, "A rat! a rat!" 
That is not literally in Latin Saxo, Italian 
Bandello, or French Belief oust, but is in 
the English rendition of the Danish tale. 

"Hamlet" is a Scandinavian, not a 
Latin or a Gallic affair. Only its "Ghost" 
is from the Mediterranean. Shakespeare's 
mind was on the rude belongings of the 
north, rather than the luxuries and refine- 
ments of the south. He, however, had 
read his Plutarch and Montaigne, and had 
shared Montaigne's affection for the won- 
derful Greek biographer. It is possible that 
residence in a house so friendly to "the 
profession" as a French wigmaker's must 
be would embolden Shakespeare to cham- 
pion the calling of the "periwig-patie 
fellows" as he did in "Hamlet." In this 
way the most important part of the drama 
would find its mainspring. 

We know that William Shakespeare was 
a famous poet and playwright as early as 
1600 (twelve years before the lawsuit). 
While he lived at Monsieur Mountjoy's, 
and while he was composing the greatest 
of his masterpieces, a "William Shake- 
speare," a minor actor, must have been 
occupying many hours of his time in re- 
hearsals and performances at the Globe 



MY LORD HAMLET AT MOUNT JOY'S 



313 



or the Blackfriars. Did some other actor 
in Burbage's company assume Shake- 
speare's name and place under Shake- 
speare's license? For in our own day we 
have seen even the most popular comed- 
ians and acrobatic dancers represented 
and imitated by substitutes, while the 
regular price of admission was charged at 
the door. 

If William Shakespeare, gentleman, 
wealthy, friend of great noblemen, part- 
proprietor, author, and therefore director 
of the play, also bore the part of a minor 
and ill-paid actor, there is more that we 
do not yet understand about him than we 
would like to believe. 

Rather, we should now be tempted to 
think that Shakespeare was back and 
forth from Stratford a good deal while he 
was a "sojourner" at Monsieur Mount- 
joy's, although all signs still point to an ex- 
tended separation from Mrs. Shakespeare. 

It is at first puzzling that the numerous 
acquaintances of the French family who 
were summoned as witnesses and spoke 
of Shakespeare so often, did not connect 
him with the art and calling in which he 
was so celebrated in St. Paul's churchyard, 
and therefore in play -going London. 
French wigmakers would be playgoers. 
But George Wilkins, one of Shakespeare's 
probable collaborators, was also a wityiess 
in the same lawsuit, and received no extra 
mention, though he was also well-to-do, 
and became the landlord of the former 
apprentice, after he married the wig- 
maker's daughter. 

Professor Wallace has thus connected 
Wilkins with Shakespeare. If Kyd and 
Middleton should likewise be traced into 
the Mountjoy coterie, a great step indeed 
would be made. Professor Wallace states 
that Heming and Condell lived for many 
years almost within a stone's throw of 
the Mount joys. 

As Professor Curie of Paris worked with 
his wife in the discovery and isolation of 
the great radio-active elements of nature, 
so the noble and assiduous Professor 
Wallace credits his wife with an equal 
share of the success that has crowned his 
extraordinary labors among the neglected 
records of the Archive office. 

Americans, from Ben Franklin's time, 
have owed to France an immense debt 



of gratitude. Now, by the aid of Professor 
Wallace and his wife, they may know that 
their Shakespeare, in the greatest years of 
his life and through the kindness and in- 
telligence of Frenchmen lived in an atmos- 
. phere highly favorable to art and letters, 
though menaced on all sides, at Stratford 
and London, with ignorance and preju- 
dice. Such is our second great debt to 
France. 

The reader familiar with Visscher's 
ancient picture of Londo'n may wish to 
locate the Silver and Muggle Street 
corner. It was a block from the north 
wall. Leaving the Tower, and following 
the semi-circular wall, one passed Aldgate, 
Bishopgate, Moorgate, Cripplegate. "The 
theatre," where the Stratford colony 
started its inn and stage, was outside 
Bishopgate, and Shakespeare, if he lived 
near St. Helen's, where he was taxed, 
came in at Rat portal and went down 
Bishopgate Street. "The Theatre" was 
moved, and became the Globe, south of 
the river, in 1598, when Belott began his 
apprenticeship under Mountjoy. As 
Shakespeare knew the complaining party 
during all his apprenticeship, it may be 
that the poet changed lodgings from 
St. Helen's to Silver Street when Burbage 
moved the theatre. If Shakespeare, in 
fine weather, kept to the fields in reaching 
his domicile from the theatre, he would 
pass Moorgate and come in at Cripplegate. 
As he entered from the north, the block 
on his right hand included his abode, but the 
wigmaker lived on its farthest corner, 
diagonally; he might enjer Cripplegate, 
turn to his right, go a short block on Hart 
Street, reach Muggle Street, and then go 
a longer block down Muggle to his own 
corner at Silver Street. There were fine 
gardens nearby, the relics of monastic 
establishment. Mount joy's house was 
east of northeast of St. Paul's, and a little 
farther from the Cathedral than the 
Cathedral's distance from the river. Shake- 
speare would naturally visit St. Paul's 
often, where his pirated works were so 
extensively advertised, and the Mount- 
joy quarters were more convenient than 
the stopping place in St. Helen's on Bishop - 
gate Street. Going to either of his theatres 
after Burbage moved, Shakespeare would 
pass St. Paul's. 



314 THE "HALF-WAY HOUSE" 

At this corner of Silver and Monkwell which the phlegmatic and embarrassed 

Streets, in the train of William Shake- Reverend Arbuthnot has so long presided 

speare, there sprang into creative thought, at Trinity Church, Stratford. We feel 

for the recognition of increasing millions nearer to the doubt of "My Lord Hamlet," 

of humanity, a vast array of English words, to the mad songs of "Ophelia," to the 

the canon, the anchor, of the now most bones of "Yorick," to the soft recorders of 

nearly cosmopolitan speech of the world, the "King" and his roisterous or lethal 

Where writers sleep is probably the place ordnance we feel nearer to the high and 

where most of their primal and formative moonlit "platform" or talus, where the 

labors are done. Rousseau tells us accur- hours flew past on the swift wings of 

ately of the process by which his phrases minutes nearer at Silver Street than at 

were polished into immortality. Thus, any other place whatever, be it "Wooden 

psychically, the new London shrine far O," or monkish theatre, or rural place of 

surpasses in interest the shrine over respectable and orthodox sepulture. 



THE "HALF-WAY HOUSE" 

At sundown splendid and serene he entered in 

On the hills he built him a Lodge-of-Life, 
Far off from the noise of the angry strife 

While the hours wore on toward 'leven; 
'Twas a sort of a shelter to pass the night, 
Where at evening time it would still be light - 

Just half-way home to heaven! 

There, out on the Hills of Joy and Life, 
Unreached by the jangle and jar of strife, 
Where the wild birds nest for the coming night- 
While the star-fire lamps burned seven; 
Far from the clamor and clang and din 
'Twas sundown there when he entered in 
Half-way home on the road to heaven! 



Forsake fear's frenzied fret and care, 

O ye who would enter here; 
Rest's haven of body and soul repair, 
Where hearts agloom for sweet sunshine's air 

Breathe strong with Life's Song and Cheer. 

Let all of the wealth of the world beside 

Fade from thy Vision's view; 
For above earth's sleepless, troubled tide 
Where greed's gaunt, fevered phantoms glide, 

Smiles God's glad dream of blue: 
Above man's petty, contentious pride, 
Deep as His peace of the eventide, 

Slumbers Infinitude! 

Henry Young Ostrander, M.D. 




By PROF. L. H. BAILEY 

Of Cornell University 

HOW does the Panama Canal impress me? 
It impresses me that this is not the digging of a 
ditch, or the building of railroad trackage ten times 
across the Isthmus. It is the implanting of a civilization. Its 
parts are great flights in ^ngineering and sanitation; bold 
experiments in government, organization, education, and in 
social cohesion. It is a conquest, to which are contributed all 
the elements of a good human society. 



A PIECE OF CONSTRUCTIVE POETRY 

The building of the Panama Canal and the conquest of the 
Zone are concrete results of great feats in imagination. We are 
told that the great poets are gone and that the best expression 
of the poetic impulse is passing away. Yet I am convinced 
that oi all epochs this is essentially the most poetic; but we do 
not recognize the poetry of it. Here in -this great enterprise 



are imagination, prophecy, and better than all, fulfillment. It 
may not set itself directly to the music of words, although this 
will come. But even before it comes, the action, the rhythm 
of work, the stupendous leap of the imagination, the grasp of 
the future, the bonding of the peoples of the earth, are the 
elements of a greater poem than yet has been written. 

I like to think of this enterprise, and of all other enterprises 
that realize great prophecies, as constructive poetry. The mere 
putting of it into words is a secondary and really a minor matter. 
Poetry may take other forms than that of words. It is not 
essential that all poetry be written: it may be builded. All good 
work well done is essentially poetic to the sensitive mind; and 
when the work is the rhythm of fifty thousand souls striking in 
unison, the poem is majestic. 

The striking of the rivet, 

The purr of a drill, 

The crash of a steam shovel, 

The plunge of a dredge, 

The breaking of a furrow, 

The scooping of a channel, 

The roll of the mill, 

The silence intent of men at work, 

The talk of men going to their homes 

These are all the notes of a great symphony. 

Nothing is finer than to see the adding of line upon line that 
makes a bridge a poem. 

Here on the Isthmus has been a paradise lost; we are seeing 
the miracle of a paradise regained. It is regained not by angels 
and supermen, not by dark forces that we invoke^ from the 
unseen, but by men and women in the flesh who have the light 
of the future in their eyes. 

Here, at the Isthmus, is to be the crossing of the currents, 
economic, ethnological, political, military. Here is to be a 
proving ground of the brotherhood of man. 





1. Editorial party let loose in the ditch. 4. The lolling building at Panama. 

2. Among the waving palms on Roosevelt avenue. 5. A view from the " Tivoli " hotel. 

3. Hditors on the rubberneck car dashing into Panama. 6. The stately building on An^on hill. 







ANEW slogan, "Get Ready for the Panama Canal," is being 
sounded by Mr. John Barrett, Director of the International 
Bureau of American Republics. He is thoroughly familiar 
with all that pertains to South American trade, and no man in 
the United States is better fitted to pronounce a correct prophecy 
for the future of the Panama Canal. He says: 

"There are twenty-one States of the Union bordering on the 
high seas and having ports from which vessels ought to steam 
through the Panama Canal, and yet hardly one of them realizes 
the opportunities which the Canal offers, with its completion 

only five years distant Every city and commercial 

center having any interest in foreign commerce should acquaint 
itself with actual trade conditions in all parts of the word reached 
by the Canal I would have every chamber of com- 
merce or board of trade, from the Roanoke to the Rio Grande, 
from the Potomac to the Platte, organize committees or sub- 
ordinate clubs to awaken interest in everything pertaining to 

Latin America I wish we could start a Pan-American 

League, with branches in every important city and town of 
the South and West, supported by the best citizens of each 
communitv." 




A^TER a few days spent on the Isthmus 
one wonders how anyone has had 
the hardihood to write false criticisms 
regarding the work. It remains a marvel 
that men who stand up in Congress or 
elsewhere should attack so great an enter- 
prise, until they have at least visited the 
Isthmus and used their eyes and common 
sense to assure themselves that their state- 
ments are correct. The people will not 
tolerate these unfounded political football 
attacks. Considering the bargain which 
was secured by Uncle Sam from the French 
government, and the fact that many mil- 
lions of the dollars paid for labor and sup- 
plies are coming directly back to the States; 
that many millions more are expended 
in buying materials from United States 
firms, it will be seen that the ?375,000,000 
appropriation for the Canal is really a 
good investment, for it comes back to the 
people of the nation digging the Canal. 
* * * 

Among our contingent was Professor 
L. H. Bailey, Dean of Agriculture of Cornell 
University. It was a delight to hear his 
views on the work at Panama. Going 
across the Isthmus on the train, the Pro- 
fessor insisted that the appearance of the 
land, as seen from the car windows, proves 
it capable of producing almost anything. 
He believes that there is a great agricul- 
tural future before the Zone when it is 
known just what products can be profit- 
ably handled. 

Dr. Josiah A. Strong and other eminent 
students of sociology were there with us. 
The experts have agreed that the canal 
work means the establishment of a new 
form of civilization in the tropics. 

Great writers, seeking food for the im- 
agination, will be attracted by the work 
done on this historic strip of land, but 



it is a question whether a poet will arise 
in our time who will be able to handle so 
vast a theme. The siege of Troy was a 
small affair compared with this gigantic 
undertaking, which is attracting world- 
wide attention. On every boat, from every 
part of the globe, visitors are arriving. 
They are collecting data and specimens 
that will become household treasures, 
handed down from generation to genera- 
tion. Reams of literature are being written 
descriptive of the great work, and in a few 
years the present-day disgruntled com- 
plainers will be considered as short-sighted 
as those persons who objected to the 
use of illuminating gas for fear of explo- 
sions, and to the study of mythology as 
"irreligious." 

The total population of the Zone is 
about fifty-five thousand. The census of 
1908 showed a total of fifty thousand 
which it is believed has been considerably 
increased this year. The problem of 
creating a complete government for this 
large and mixed assemblage of people has 
been effectively solved, and now the con- 
duct of the Zone is regarded as an object 
lesson of great value, and is closely scruti- 
nized by the surrounding American re- 
publics. A dog muzzling order, or the ad- 
justment of a case in equity, are accorded 
equal care and there is no friction, much 
to the surprise of the onlooking republics. 
Many of the results obtained and the 
ideas evolved are of deep interest to all 
students of effective administration and 

political economy. 

* * * 

The benefits of the Panama Canal are 
already forecast. No one state will re- 
ceive more positive benefits from this 
great work than Texas. With its immense 
area, and such cities as Galveston, Houston, 



(.321 ) 



322 



CHANGING THE WORLD MAP 




Dallas and Fort Worth, no state is more 
likely to feel the impetus of the diverted 
channels of trade, that will lead to the 
Southwest through the great artery of 
world-commerce on the Isthmus. The 
Canal brings every great Texan commercial 
centre within as easy access of the vast 
undeveloped South American and Central 
American trade as of New York and 
San Francisco. The profitable interchange 
of products is the basis of healthful com- 
merce, and the aggressive and alert 
American enterprise, of the thriving cities 
of the Southwest, will find their influence 
and profit more than doubled when 
steamers connect the ports of the Texan 
coast and speed by regular voyages to 
the harbors of Western South America, 
Australia and the Orient. 

* * * 

Letters from William Jennings Bryan 
concerning the Panama Canal show how 
the conception of this great project is 
changed by a visit to the Isthmus. Like 
all visitors Mr. Bryan seems to have been 
alert in watching for mosquitoes, and 
hastens to announce that he "has not 
seen one." He also says: 

"Our appearance here, (on the Isthmus) 
will prove a calamity rather than a boon if, 
by the establishment of an arbitrary govern- 
ment we set a harmful example to adjacent 
republics. We are engaged in engineering 
enterprises in the United States and do not 
find it necessary to interfere with the govern- 
ments of the states and territories in which 
the works are going on it is just as un- 
necessary here. 

"As one studies the Canal Zone and the 
countries which it brings under the influence 
of the United States, the physical features 
of the Canal dwindle in importance, and one 
finds himself contemplating the waterway 
as a factor in the development of Latin 
America, in the extension of American com- 
merce, and in the spread of American ideas 
and ideals. 

"It has always been urged in behalf of 
a Canal that it would increase the efficiency 
of our. navy; if that be true we can afford 
to appropriate less for the buildiag of battle- 
ships and more for the construction of 
transports. These can be used as merchant 
vessels in time of peace. 

"The Canal should be open to the com- 
merce of the world without other charge 
than that necessary for expense of operation 
and maintenance. This policy is demanded 
in the interests of our own people. . . . The 
cheaper we can make the water rate the 
cheaper will be the railroad rate," 




THE personnel of the American working 
force on the Canal represents such an 
industrial army as has never before been 
mustered. The post office records show 
that many hundreds of thousands of dollars 
are sent back to the states every month. 
One blacksmith, who came from Xew York 
state, has saved $2,900, has lifted the 
mortgage on his home and provided him- 
self with a little farm beside. He said 
that the average cost of living was a trifle 
over thirty dollars per month and he was 
paid seventy-eight cents an hour. The 
steam shovel men get $210 a month. The 
crane men, who sit perched aloft, get $185. 
It is interesting to know that most of the 
money saved on the Isthmus is going 
back to the states to buy farms; even the 
doctors are purchasing Idaho irrigated 
land and Texan land, or old New England 
farms and the old home farms in Iowa. 
In fact, work on the Isthmus seems to 
accentuate the desire to own some acres 
of "God's country," as the boys on the 
Isthmus call the states. Pushing forward 
the work under broiling tropical suns, 
they seem to be always dreaming of the 
time when they can "go back home," and 
sit under orchard trees, possibly own an 
automobile and "farm like gentlemen." 

The Jamaicans and other cheaper labor- 
ers have little inclination to save their 
earnings, although Jamaica and the West 
Indies have never known such an era of 
prosperity as they have entered upon with 
the digging of the Canal. The shops at 
Empire employ over six hundred men for 
repairing of all sorts, and the efficiency of 
the great canal plant is always kept tuned 
right up to "high C." The speed of the 



work is largely due to the thorough 
up-keep of the equipment. 

A large number of the workers come from 
the southern states. Although no one 
could speak in higher terms of President 
Taft than they do, acknowledging him as 
the great projector of vast enterprises, 
yet when a straw vote was taken in 1908 
they went five to one in favor of Bryan. 
The boys said this was due to the habit 
of voting formed in youth the Democratic 
ticket being an inheritance regardless of 
personal opinion. They said that on a 
straw vote they simply could not resist 
voting the Democratic ticket. 
* * * 

The total working force on the Canal 
is at this time 37,432 men, divided on the 
basis of payments into the "gold" force, 
consisting of physicians, skilled artisans, 
teachers and all high class labor on the 
Canal or the railway. There is also the 
"silver" force, which represents the un- 
skilled labor of thirty thousand Europeans, 
chiefly Spaniards, with a sprinkling of 
Italians, Jamaicans and natives of the 
West Indies; these receive from sixteen 
to forty cents an hour. The rate for the 
West Indian labor is ten cents gold, while 
Spaniards are paid twenty cents per hour, 
gold. The white men become very brown 
and their eyes are bloodshot from the terrific 
glare of the tropical sun. Work begins 
at seven and continues until eleven A.M. 
After two hours rest for dinner, work is 
resumed at one o'clock and continues until 
five. 

The shortening of the working day 
to eight hours has increased the cost 
of the work over the original estimate 



( 323 ) 



THE CANAL ZONE A PROVING GROUND 



325 



on the Canal, which were all made on a 
nine-hour basis. 

The berm, or ledge of land along the 
canal on which the railroad runs, is to be 
ten feet above the water, and from the 
north end of Culebra Cut, at Bas Obispo, 
will run parallel with the Canal to Paraiso. 
Xear Miraflores, a tunnel of 736 feet has 
been constructed, and the entire line from 
ocean to ocean shortened a mile without 
crossing the Gatun Lake. The old letter- 
ing, "I. C. C.," has been discarded, and 
government ownership evidences itself 
in the large "U. S." which appears on all 
the locomotives and rolling stock, and, of 
course, means "United States," but one 
wonders why the A for "America" is 
omitted. 

At five o'clock in the afternoon the 
supply and repair trains start out from 
the yards, to spend the night in the cut 
and all along the line making repairs and 
placing supplies, that all may be in readi- 
ness for the morning's early start at seven. 
During the rainy season, it sometimes 
happens that landslides or sudden floods 
tip over steam shovels, and float off the 
track, but even the deluge wouldn't phase 
some of the veterans who have grown web- 
footed in land work "when the dew falls." 

The three years just passed have plainby 
revealed that the Panama "camp" is a 
model of progress, and full of possibilities 
along other Lines than those of "digging 
dirt." It is not a frontier for the gathering 
of roughs and toughs, but even in a walk 
along the streets of the Isthmian towns, or 
a visit to any part of the workings, the 
best and most aggressive citizenship can 
be felt. The Zone police are very effective 
keeping up discipline in settlements, camps 
and cities, and are very similar to the 
northwestern police of Canada. Splendid, 
stalwart fellows, most of them have seen 
sen-ice in the Philippines and Porto Rico. 
Everyone seems bent on making a record. 
After two years of service the workers in 
the canal are given a service medal, and 
ever>- two years thereafter a bar is added as 
a sen-ice distinction. Men who have been 
five years on the Isthmus are now regarded 
almost in the light of Civil War veterans, 
and all are proud of the distinction of 
long sen-ice. 

Two hundred and five women hold 



positions on the Isthmus as nurses, postal 
clerks, stenographers and teachers. The 
first woman employed by the Commission 
was Miss Eugenia Hibbard, superintendent 
of nurses, who took this position in 1904 
when an epidemic of yellow fever was 
prevalent. Women have truly played 
a noble part in building the Canal; first 
the heroic nurses who assisted in the yel- 
low fever days; then expert stenographers, 
store clerks and women teachers, and 
thousands of women who have come here 
to make American homes and render Life 
on the Isthmus pleasant for husbands 
and families. They have aided materially 
in maintaining the esprit de corps of the 
working force. Womens' clubs and social 
evenings have helped to while away the 
loneliness of life on the Zone. Every 
Saturday evening there are social gather- 
ings, dances and balls, in nearly all of the 
twenty-three towns along the canal. 

On the first afternoon I spent a half 
hour in the office of the Panama Railroad 
Company at Colon. It was two o'clock 
and the heat was intense, yet that busy 
hum of typewriters went on unabated, 
much to my wonderment. The young 
ladies tapped the machines just as quickly 
as though working in the North. And 
Mr. Fitch and his force were digging 
into the mass of correspondence with coats 
off at the regular Canal pace. 

Vacations come in regular order to the 
workers on the Zone, and every year those 
in Line for promotion are considered. The 
boys are very careful not to have too heavy 
a hospital record, as promotion seldom 
visits those who have a heavy hospital 
or sick leave record. "Furloughs in the 
states" are looked forward to as the 
distinct epochs in Life on the Zone. 
* * * 

The Isthmian Baseball League indi- 
cates that the popular American game 
holds sway even in the tropics. Seven 
clubs were in the league when organized 
in 1908; and the scores are watched and 
talked over with the same avidity as those 
of the National and American Leagues 
at home. One important feature of Canal 
life is that everyone feels his responsiblity 
whether socially or in his work. 

The Canal Record, a neat little paper, 
of eight pages, is printed in the Zone once 



26 



THE CANAL ZONE A PROVING GROUND 



a week and issued free of charge to all 
employes of the Commission and of the 
Panama Railroad Company. The work 
is done by the secretary of the I. C. C., 
Mr. Joseph Bucklin Bishop, one of the 
ablest newspaper and editorial writers 
of the United States, who has long been 
identified with the Canal enterprise. He 
was for many years on the editorial staff 
of the New York Tribune. His manage- 
ment of the Record makes it a complete 
summary of the work in detail and no 
one is more thoroughly grounded in its 




H. H. ROUSSEAU, U. S. N. 
Acting Head of Department of Civil Administra- 
tion, Ancon, Culebra 

progress and evolution than Mr. Bishop, 
who has devoted his best years to the 
Great Ditch. The Canal Record contains 
not only all official circulars, but standard 
information in reference to the Canal, 
including the current price of food sup- 
plies and other details of public interest. 

My last afternoon, spent in riding 
on a dirt train through the great Cut 
talking to the different men and witness- 
ing the splendid enthusiasm and loyalty 
of the workers, was a fitting prelude to 
the announcement that the Empire "Kan- 
garoos" would give the editorial party 
a real Isthmian reception. The organiza- 



tion is an offshoot of the older one of that 
name in Australia, and our entertainers 
were styled the "Mother Court" of the 
order. They have a judge and two at- 
torneys, and the work somewhat resembles 
that of an Elks Lodge. The order is 
benevolent and fraternal and has helped 
many a man, "down on his luck," to get 
upon his feet again. 

Passing into the hall from the bright 
moonlight of the tropics, our party came 
upon a scene radiant with the stars and 
stripes, every color distinct in the glow 
of the electric lights. The boys from the 
states seem bent on using bunting whenever 
possible in decorations. Every chair 
had a bit of tri-color upon it and on the 
High Seat Judge Mills presided in a perfect 
bower of "Old Glory." We knew at once 
that we were going to have a "good time." 
Judge Gudger, chief justice of the Zone, 
in response to the editorial greeting, 
welcomed the visitors. The Kangaroos 
were attired in tuxedos, evening costume, 
linen or duck suits, regardless of society 
conventions; now and then Kangaroos 
"hopped" in for a bit of fun or a bite to 
eat. Some came from the engines, in their 
jumpers and overalls, but the spirit of 
true democracy prevailed. Coffee and 
refreshments were enjoyed and the speeches 
were the climax, continuing until late into 
the night, and if some of the critics of the 
Canal work could have looked in upon 
that gathering of Kangaroos, they would 
have understood that such men would 
be engaged only in work in which they 
thoroughly believe, feeling assured that 
it must prove beneficial to their nation. 
After two years service they are given a 
service medal, and a bar is added for each 
additional two years' continuous service. 

It was amusing to see the workers on 
the Canal hunt out the editors from 
"home" states. The boys from Texas, 
New York, Massachusetts, and other 
states seemed to know by instinct which 
of the party hailed from the home com- 
monwealth. The Boston boys soon dis- 
covered someone to whom they might 
present the inquiry, "Is Beacon Hill in 
the same place and looking as usual?" 

One notable phase of life on the Isthmus, 
that has attracted the attention of students 
of Sociology, is the success of the Young 



328 



THE CANAL ZONE A PROVING GROUND 



Mens' Christian Association work. In 
1905, a secretary was sent to the Zone 
to make a preliminary organization and 
the proposition was submitted to President 
Roosevelt, who made the following very 
emphatic statement: 

"I think that nothing better could befall 
us on the Isthmus than to have the Y. M. C. A. 
organizations flourish as they have flourished 
on the railroad systems in the United States, 
as well as in the Army and Navy. I hope 
that all the government can do to help this 
work will be done." 

Under the direction of Engineer Stevens, 
four Association buildings were erected, 
and on leaving the Zone he stated in a 
public address that he would prefer to 
leave these buildings as monuments, 
rather than any other erected under his 
administration while in the Canal Zone. 

These buildings were erected and 
equipped by the Isthmian Canal Com- 
mission, and the current expenses are 
provided for by membership dues and a 
supplementary appropriation made by 
the Commission. During the past year 
the membership was 1,222, but more 
than 2,100 men held membership within 
the year, the difference in the numbers 
being accounted for by the frequent 
changes occasioned by men going back 
and forth on vacations and furloughs. 
Nearly fifty per cent, of the white em- 
ployees within reach of the club houses 
have availed themselves of the privileges 
offered, and the visitors are composed of 
both officials and workmen. The attend- 
ance at the buildings aggregates a daily 
average of fully 1,400; more than four 
thousand letters are written each month 
at the correspondence tables; a monthly 
average of 1,310 books is drawn from the 
circulating libraries and each reading room 
is furnished with one hundred standard, 
current publications. 

The Special Commission, of which Mr. 
James B. Reynolds was Chairman, ap- 
pointed by President Roosevelt to in- 
vestigate conditions on the Isthmus, re- 
ported in August, 1908: 

"These comfortable club houses, wisely 
but in no way extravagantly equipped, and 
excellently conducted under the auspices 
of the Young Mens' Christian Association, 
we commend without reservation. They 
fill a necessary place in the somewhat artificial 



life on the Canal Zone, where a body of loyal 
Americans, far removed from the uplifting 
influences of home and friends, are perform- 
ing with genuine enthusiasm a work of great 
importance to their country, in a climate 
demoralizing to the white man." 

This enthusiastic statement was sup- 
plemented by Congressman Denby, who 
wrote President Roosevelt: 

"The value of these Y. M. C. A. in- 
stitutions to the Canal work cannot be 
exaggerated. They offer absolutely the 
only amusement agencies on the Zone." 

Two additional buildings have recently 
been erected and opened one at Gatun 
and the other at Porto Bello. This makes 
a total of six Association buildings em- 
ploying eleven secretaries, and one General 
Secretary, Mr. F. C. Freeman, for super- 
vision. The money for these additional 
buildings was included by Congress in the 
Canal Zone appropriation a year ago. 

During President Taft's visit to the 
Isthmus the question was brought up as 
to whether the appropriation of govern- 
ment funds for this purpose was legal; 
he met the query with the following: 

"The question arises, 'Have we any au- 
thority to spend the money of the govern- 
ment for this purpose?' Well, we are subject 
to impeachment if we are not, for we have 
spent the money. Of course we have the 
right. The President is directed by law to 
build that Canal, and as a plain business 
proposition, if he is to build the Canal, he 
is to have the material and men with which 
to build it, and as a plain business proposi- 
tion, that which keeps his men moral, that 
which keeps their minds on the work which 
they are to do and the duty with which they 
are charged, that is necessarily a proper 
object of government expenditure." 

An Association has recently been opened 
at Camp Elliott, where one thousand 
United States marines are stationed; 
this was done by special permission of 
the Navy Department. A secretary is 
located here and a small building is being 
fitted up, and the expense is being covered 
by the Post Exchange Fund. Every man 
I met on the Isthmus had a good word 
to say for the Y. M. C. A. The Association 
work in the Canal Zone is under the super- 
vision of the International Committee of 
the Y. M. C. A., and Mr. C. J. Hicks, asso- 
ciate General Secretary, has immediate 
charge of the same. 







ON to Gorgona with its great machine 
shops; through Empire, the adminis- 
tration centre, and to Culebra, where the 
railroad passes the rim of the great ditch 
encountering at every station some vivid 
picture of gigantic industry or wonderful 
tropical vegetation we went and reached 
the Hotel Tivoli, on the Panama side, which 
in many ways suggests the luxury and 
comfort of a Palm Beach resort. The little 
Jamaican cabmen were everywhere, ready 
to take one on board for ten cents gold, 
or twenty cents "spickety" money. They 
make change from a mat or carpet under 
their feet which serves as a spacious 
purse or money drawer. Here the tourist 
first comes into contact with "monkey" 
money, which is worth one half the coin 
of the United States. 

At our first meal at the Tivoli we 
had papayodinstead of cantelope, much 
resembling it in look and flavor, except 
that we detected a peculiar lardy taste 
in fact, many of the tropical fruits have 
this curious taste of lard. Alligator 
pears were on the table, but as they sug- 
gest a flavoring of turpentine and resin 
it is a flavor that must be cultivated before 
the fruit can be enjoyed. For those who 
did not choose to experiment with strange 
fruits, there was abundance of accustomed 
foods, brought from the States, and equal 
in quality to anything obtainable at the 
Waldorf. We began, however, to under- 
stand the Jamaican preference for yams 
over sweet potatoes. "0 you yam!" is 
the refrain of a popular Jamaican melody. 

It does not take long for an American 
to adjust himself to novel conditions, and 



the editors from the frigid zone were soon 
adepts in the art of stepping leisurely into 
a cab, and wore white suits without ner- 
vous examination of convenient mirrors 
in search of stains fore and aft. Every- 
one went sight-seeing with a vigor and de- 
termination proportioned to the shortness 
of our stay on the Zone. 

While at the Tivoli we met some of the 
jackies of the United States cruiser 
"Des Moines," just arrived from Nicara- 
gua; they related an incident of the ex- 
isting unpleasantness. A salute of twenty- 
one guns had been fired at Bluefields, and 
the rebel guns acknowledged the courtesy 
with a similar number, but they chanced 
to aim at a Nicaraguan gun boat and blew 
holes in the smokestack. They accounted 
for the damage by saying that they had 
no blank cartridges, but they did not 
explain why their guns were pointed so 
exactly at the boat of an enemy. A 
thousand marines were at Camp Elliott 
awaiting orders for Nicaragua, or else- 
where. 

Mr. Merriweather, the New York World 
correspondent, arrived from Nicaragua 
while we were there ; he had been spending 
some months on the Pacific Coast side, 
in a study of the Central American 
revolution at close range, which furnishes 
interesting plots for a comic opera as well 
as material for history. Certainly some 
of the scenes must have been remarkable, 
notably the one described when the United 
States boats appeared with supplies, and 
patriots and government troops alike 
seemed to forget on which side they were 
fighting in the anxiety to get a satisfying 



(329) 



330 



SOCIAL LIFE ON THE ISTHMUS 



taste of the good things in Uncle Sam's 
Commissary Department. 
* * * 

The renaissance of the city of Panama 
as accomplished within three years is 
almost magical. No neater city exists 
in the United States; improvements are 
constantly being made though the quaint 
character of the city is kept unchanged. 
The grill work in fancy colors, Spanish 
balconies and other suggestive bits of 
architecture are untouched, but the sanita- 
tion is the one great feature. The streets 
have been cleaned and the filth which 
formerly prevailed throughout the city 
has been done away with, making it pos- 
sible for residents to reach the allotted 
span of life, three score years and ten, an 
age formerly seldom attained, even by 
natives. The Panamanians appreciate 
the work done by the United States and 
have taken their place as the progressive 
people among Central American nations. 

In the old city of Panama six miles away, 
an ancient tower, four hundred years old, 
still frowns over the haven. Here and there 
one can trace the work of the men who re- 
built the city after the invasion by Morgan 
and his buccaneers. The old-time wooden 
French suspension bridges have not borne 
the action of time so well. Those which 
spanned many of the interior rivers are 
falling down, and have been supplanted 
by substantial iron and steel American 
structures. The dredges and ships of the 
Pacific Coast rendezvous at Balboa near 
Panama which promises to develop into 
the great port on the Pacific. What a 
sight that was '-a, world fleet of merchant 
vessels from Peru, Chili, San Francisco, 
England, Australia, Africa and other 
countries lying in Panama Harbor! 

The breakwater to Naos Island, four 
miles out, is nearly completed, and 
will provide not only a breakwater 
for the entrance of the Canal, but for 
Panama as well. Half of the island is 
owned by the government and the other 
half by the Pacific Mail S. S. Company. 
When steaming through the finished por- 
tion of the Canal, and around the bay 
on the ship Balboa, it seemed strange that 
we were facing the Pacific to the East. 
The genial Bailey insisted that his com- 
pass was out of order, and closed his 



umbrella again to take observations of 
the sun. 

It is a curious fact that no storms 
ever break on the Pacific Ocean within 
many miles of the coast of Panama; 
farther to the South a stormless area has 
never known a tempest for centuries, 
and this explains why Balboa called it 
the "Pacific" Ocean. 

* * * 

Close to the moss-grown seawall of 
Panama is the President's palace, the 
stucco building which has served for years 
as the home of the governor. The soldiers 
on guard stood outside with fixed bayonets, 
as we passed up the stairs to be graciously 
received by President Obaldia, since de- 
ceased. In 19041906, he was minister 
of Panama at Washington, and was much 
beloved by all who knew him. A stout 
man, with laughing, kindly, black eyes, 
and an iron gray moustache, he greeted 
his guests with perfect courtesy and was 
eager to hear news of the United States. 
Over his desk was a large portrait of 
President Taft. The state reception 
room was adorned with prism glass can- 
delabra pendants. Here private audi- 
ences with diplomats and other officials 
are held. There is in the furnishings of 
the gold-room a hint of imperial splendor 
seldom seen in our own country, but it 
has also the quaintly simple air of many 
South American apartments. The Presi- 
dent's son, Mr. Godfrey Obaldia, served 
as his private secretary. The- minister 
"fomento," or member of the cabinet 
who is in charge of public works, is Jose 
Lefevre, a brother of the popular writer 
whose Wall Street stories have attracted 
much attention in current periodicals. 

Very shortly after our visit, on March 
1st, President Obaldia, aged sixty-four 
years, died suddenly of heart failure. 
His father, at one time president of Colom- 
bia, educated him at the Columbian Col- 
lege at Bogota, after which he entered 
the service of the Panama Railway Com- 
pany, and later spent two years studying 
in the United States. He made a fortune 
in stock farming in Chirique, and rep- 
resented Panama at the Columbian Con- 
gress at Bogota in 1900. Becoming a 
senator in 1903, he was the only member 
who voted in favor of the Hays Herran 







1. Excavation for new Panama railroad, i. Clearing the canal basin behind the Gatun Dam. 3. A 
typical village on the banks of the Chagres. 4. A happy family of Panamanian natives. 5. Photographed 
under the eaves of the old thatched hut. 6. The winding bars and bed of a torrential tropical stream. 
7. Chagres in the tame days of the dry season. 8. A Panamanian village with an elevated railroad. 



332 



SOCIAL LIFE ON THE ISTHMUS 



treaty providing for an inter-oceanic 
canal. After the failure of the treaty he 
resigned, but was appointed Governor 
of Panama and held office during the 
revolution which made Panama inde- 
pendent of Colombia, November, 1903. 
Under the new republic he became second 
vice-president, then minister to the United 
States; in 1906 he became vice-president, 
serving as president during Dr. Amador's 
absence in Europe. He was elected 
president by the liberals in July, 1908. 
How interesting it was that afternoon 
to hear him tell of his boyhood days in 
Chirique, and of his- recollections of the 
time when the French were at work on 
the Canal. 

"They are a great people," he said, 
his kindly dark eyes sparkling, "but 
Americans have laid the true foundation 
in caring for sanitation, as they have in 
Panama, making the city the most desir- 
able tropical resort on the continent." 
* * * 

Outside the cabman waited patiently 
for us, while his gong rang every little 
while like a fire alarm, to notify us that 
another ten cent fare limit had expired. 
The Panama cabs are more merciful than 
the taxi-cabs in -New York, in which the 
wheels go relentlessly around in silence, 
indicating figures which are a shock to 
any man who is not a millionaire. Our 
Panamanian cab-driver-had been a school 
chum of the minister of public works 
and for our entertainment drew on his 
fund of early recollections. 

The color line is not very distinctly 
drawn in the Latin republics. The San 
Bias Indians are found in and around 
Panama; like the Seminoles of Florida 
they never were conquered. A curious 
feature of native life in Panama is the 
cock fighting, which, like baseball in the 
United States, is more attractive to the 
public than any other form of recreation. 
Even the workmen on the streets have 
favorite birds tethered nearby and seize 
every opportunity to test their prowess. 
The click, click of steel spurs as the birds 
strike each other, the spurting of blood 
and the clamor of men indulging in small 
wagers seem to supply the mental excite- 
ment that Spaniards find in bull fights, 
and that English speaking races derive 



from less brutal contests. The backer 
of each game cock stands behind it, and 
if his bird shows signs of exhaustion, he 
takes it up and puts its bill into his mouth, 
while he inflates its exhausted lungs. 
One game cock, in a fight witnessed by the 
editors, appearing almost dead, was thus 
revived, went back into the pit and finally 

killed its opponent. 

* * * 

Every night most of the members of 
the party were busy with note books, and 
it was interesting to observe how many 
different aspects of the work and its sur- 
roundings were recorded, while the vary- 
ing moods of the writers contributed a 
singular study in individuality. No two 
diaries had even a remote resemblance. 
It was difficult to believe that this was a 
"vacation trip," for we seldom found time 
for- more than five hours sleep out of the 
twenty-four. Scarcely had the "wee 
sma' hours" come than we were awakened 
by the crowing of cocks, and the re- 
membrance of "something special to be 
done" impelled us to dress. We always 
awoke refreshed, possibly on account of 
sleeping in the current of fresh air which 
sweeps through the sides of the houses, 
which are all carefully planned to secure 
perfect ventilation. 

One morning there was a general up- 
rising among the editorial party to view 
the Southern Cross, the distinctive con- 
stellation of the tropical heavens. Being 
called a little after two A. M. it did not 
seem worth while to go to bed again, so 
we put in an unusually long day. To the 
North, in the bright, starry, tropical sky 
we could see the Great Dipper and North 
Star distinctly, while equally clear to the 
South was that cross which has been so 
wonderful a guide through all ages. Just 
above the horizon it lay, brilliant as a 
constellation of small suns, and consisting 
of four stars standing somewhat obliquely. 
It is wonderful how anxious the youthful 
ship's officers are to show the Southern 
Cross to the ladies voyaging in tropical 
seas, and apparently the tropical moon 
has to be studied with equal care, always 
from a remote corner of the deck. 

* * * 

An inspiration came while Bailey, the 
agricultural editor from Iowa, was trying 



SHOWING SUBMERGED SHOVELS AFTER A TROPICAL RAINY SEASON 




WHERE THE CHATTER OF THE ROCK DRILLS IS HEARD 



334 



SOCIAL LIFE ON THE ISTHMUS 



his tripod on a corrugated roof, to obtain 
a profile view of a Panamanian cow to 
portray agricultural prospects, on the 
Isthmus to his readers. I decided to visit 
the highest elevation that commanded a 
bird's-eye view while Bailey obligingly 
hailed "the bird" for me with his umbrella. 
Four miles out from Gorgona, we made 
our way through the thick jungle to the 
Tower of Balboa not a pretentious monu- 
ment, for it is but forty feet high and looks 
like a windmill scaffold. From its summit 
we could seethe Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 
Truly this was an Isthmian view to 
be able, at a single glance, to view the 
rim of the measureless expanse of the two 
great oceans. Nearby stands the old 
stump of the "Balboa Tree," on which the 
initials of many tourists have been cut. 
No picture can do justice to this marvelous 
view. What Bunker Hill monument is to 
Boston this tower will be to the Zone, and 
no visitor will consider his trip complete 
without a visit to Balboa Hill. 

The feat of speaking across a continent, 
over the telephone wires, was impressed 
on me a few hours later, when I took the 
receiver to talk with Secretary Bishop, 
and heard his request from Panama: 

"Speak a little louder, please; remember 
that you are talking across the continent" 
I thought of the view from Balboa tower. 

As we were returning, that evening to 
the Tivoli Hotel, amid the beautiful 
tropical splendor of Ancon Hills, there in 
the moonlight lay the red-tiled Adminis- 
tration Building and the cottages, with 
the verandas softly lighted, as is usual on 
the Isthmus, presented a picture of 
fairyland.' The foliage that clothed the 
hillside was silvered in the witching lan- 
guorous moonlight. The soft swish of the 
branches of the cocoanut palms seemed 
fitting music for- such a scene, and just 
beneath their feathery fronds, lifted a 
hundred feet in air, a high bridge spanned 
the great ravine. In the distance the 
Pacific glittered. So bright was the moon- 
light that it revealed the trails of the um- 
brella ants, which in a single night totally 
destroy a tree, and leave a bare path of 
destruction, six inches wide. In many of 
the buildings solid oaken floors may be 
seen eaten by ants. One official related 
how his refrigerator refused to keep things 



cool, no matter how much ice was used. 
On close inspection, he found the back all 
honeycombed by the ants, so that a prod 
of the finger produced a large hole. Sugar 
and many other eatables have to be kept 
constantly on shelves, and in creosoted 
strong boxes. 

These little tropical pests have not 
yet been conquered, and seem even more 
obdurate than the yellow fever, but resi- 
dents on the Zone take comfort in the fact 
that ants are not unhealthy. Rather the 
reverse, for they are nature's scavengers 
and in former years doubtless found an 
abundance of work in that line. We 
traced a string of ants two hundred feet 
long, each one carrying a small sprig of 
green. They have been known to invade 
and carry off an entire barrel of rice 
in a single night. Residents say that the 
industry of the workers on the Canal is 
appropriately symbolized by these active 
little insects. In fact the people on the 
Zone seem to have taken to heart the 
advice of Solomon, "Go to the ant, thou 
sluggard, consider her ways and be wise," 
for everybody gets up early on the Isthmus 
so do the ants you can't get ahead of 

them. 

* * * 

When an alligator hunt was mentioned 
that night Montgomery was alert; there 
was no difficulty in getting the editorial 
"sharpshooters" together at four o'clock 
next morning. After a cup of coffee and a 
fight with the ants for bread, the nimrods 
started for Balboa to embark on the cruise. 
Even in the darkness of the early morning 
there were many natives going to mass 
for I must frankly confess that it was 
Sunday Bailey carried the editorial 
umbrella as usual. 

There is something almost supernatural 
in "the awful rose of dawn" on the Pacific 
Coast in the tropics. Spurs of light crept 
along the eastern rim of the Pacific Ocean, 
extending into a long prism; then purple 
gleams cast a halo over the islands of 
Naos and Toboga; in a moment the full 
burst of sunlight gleamed all along the 
summits of the green hills of Ancon. 
The myriad electric lights that had been 
sparkling a few minutes before on every 
veranda seemed suddenly quenched and 
drowned in the daylight. In the little, 




STONE QUARRIES ON ANCON HILL, WHERE FORTIFICATIONS ARE SUGGESTED 




WHERE THE MEN AND SHOVELS MEET 



336 



SOCIAL LIFE ON THE ISTHMUS 



old dark shops of Panama dim circles of 
candle light might still be seen; everyone 
was getting ready for "market day," the 
chief day of the week. Craft of all kinds 
from all ports of the Isthmus swept up on 
the tide, and every boat was laden with 
oranges and other fruit, vegetables or 
merchandise; drawn up on the beach the 
boats made a picturesque sight, as they 
lay under the old, mottled-green seawall. 
As the tide receded they toppled over 
lazily, seemingly preparing for a tropical 
midday siesta. 

The launch puffed down the Pacific 
portion of the Canal, and there, in the 




LIEUTENANT COLONEL D. D. GAILLARD 
Division Engineer of Central Division, Empire 

shadow of the leper colony, waited for the 
tide to carry her across the bar. She 
headed for the mouth of the tropical 
river, which a white man had not entered 
in eight months. The muddy waters and 
heavy banks suggested scenes in the valley 
of the Nile. On board the launch the 
seven editorial sharpshooters were rubbing 
the sleep out of their eyes and looking 
out for alligators. A short distance up 
the river appeared something that looked 
like a great log, floating down inertly. 
The natives began to scream and chatter 
like parrots it was an alligator. Soon 



after a school of the great creatures came 
circling toward the boat from all directions. 
Everyone was now on the alert, and the 
sharpshooters were looking to their fire- 
arms, but then came the orders of Lieuten- 
ant Barber: 

"Don't shoot don't shoot. You cannot 
kill them in the water. Wait until they 
are on the bank." 

Then the river suddenly was full of those 
squirming pre-Adamite monsters, which 
for nights after were seen in our dreams. 
It was suggested that the editorial gunners 
go ashore in the cuyaias, a boat hollowed 
out of a log. It took "nerve" to enter a 
small boat and pass through the water 
which that wriggling school of alligators 
had so recently ruffled. On the banks 
lay the great saurians twenty feet long 
and more; they looked fifty. On the 
Isthmus dogs and children give river 
banks a wide berth, for alligators have good 
appetites for both. The great river ele- 
phants wriggled awkwardly down the bank, 
and a lesson in natural history was learned. 
The alligator moves only the lower jaw; 
the crocodile moves both jaws like a pair 
of scissors but there was no time for a 
discussion of "jaws." The gunners made 
for the banks of the river, alarming the 
screeching birds overhead. Some con- 
fessed afterwards the fear they felt that 
every dead limb on the trees might be a 
boa constrictor ready for a late Sunday 
breakfast. The tropical forest had a 
wierd appearance which suggested deadly, 
hidden poisons. At the pier the natives 
were quietly getting ready a boat-load of 
faggots to take to Panama. 

Here were orange trees, which had been 
planted by the French from seed brought 
from the Mediterranean, to furnish the 
basis of many an air-castle concerning 
gigantic orange plantations and vast 
fortunes to be amassed from them. The 
fruit on the trees in these abandoned planta- 
tions is abundant and delicious. After 
lunch the party felt a trifle nervous about 
entering the boats again, lest the body- 
guard of alligators should be desirous of 
an American sandwich or two. The fears 
of the "sharpshooters" were allayed by 
the information that alligators do not 
attack boats; they lay lazily on the banks, 
furnishing good material for target practice. 



338 



SOCIAL LIFE ON THE ISTHMUS 



. The natives added life and movement to 
the scene; their entire clothing consisted 
of one long piece of cloth, wound artisti- 
cally about the body. They come very 
near to the "simple life" down there. 
Many shots were fired at the alligators 
on the banks, but only one wee small 
alligator "lost his head" and was captured 
as a trophy of the hunt. His blood- 
stained carcass lay upon the lawn at the 
hotel to tell the story of the alligator hunt. 
It may be the diet, it may be the warm 
qn; O n every trip we noticed that 




COLONEL WILLIAM C. GORGAS 

Head of the Department of Sanitation, Ancon, 

Canal Zone 

few stout persons were met with, either 
among the native or foreign population, 
and this despite the fact that the natives 
live largely on foods containing sugar and 

starch. 

* * * 

Crossing the railroad tracks at Gatun 
is a bridge whereon many of the men 
gather in the evening, to talk over the 
day's events. Above are the winding 
streets of the little town, an undying rich 
foliage clustering about the houses and 
climbing the green slopes. Mr. Stillson, 
who owned some of the land used for the 
Canal, has a house built on a beautiful emi- 



nence overlooking the lake. Behind the 
screened verandas electric lights with 
softening shades shed their light. Every- 
where are children in white, bedecked with 
ribbons, busy at their play. It is a home 
scene even more impressive to me than the 
great work on the locks, for here is another 
striking example of the way in which the 
English-speaking race retains its indi- 
viduality, even when transplanted two 
thousand miles from its native soil. Their 
ideas on architecture and hygiene have 
revolutionized the Isthmus and even 
tropical life. 

The streets of Gatun are laid in curves 
and are very picturesque. Especially 
enjoyable are the evenings; moonlight on 
the tropical foliage, the dark shadows with 
their hint of mystery and romance, and the 
tinkling of guitars and distant cowbells 
made up a scene that was like a bit of 
fairyland. 

We "dropped in" at the Gatun Com- 
missary Store, conducted by Mr. Stephens, 
and witnessed the curious sight of the sale 
of merchandise without money, and yet 
nothing sold on credit. Everything re- 
quired by an American family was there, 
and the sales were rung in on a cash 
register, although no money was handled. 
The Commissary coupons were carefully 
checked and rechecked. Prices ranged 
below those in the States, and some articles 
were even very much cheaper. Dress ma- 
terials of all sorts were supplied, and the 
beauty and low prices of hand-embroidered 
articles won the hearts of the ladies. To 
their grief they discovered that these 
goods could only be sold to holders of 
Commissary coupons. One of our party 
remarked that it was no wonder women 
were content to dwell on the Isthmus, when 
they could purchase real embroidered 
gowns for about the price paid for mak'.ng 
a good gingham at home. There is a 
special entrance to the stores for the "gold 
employes," who are Americans or skilled 
laborers, and another entrance is reserved 
for "silver workers," who are chiefly 
Jamaicans and Spaniards. While the 
Canal Commission feeds and lodges as 
many as thirty thousand workmen on the 
Zone, at the rate of thirty cents a day for 
the silver men and ninety cents for three 
meals for gold men, many workers have 




CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION AT GAfUN, SHOWING OLD FRENCH CANAL 



H^HBH MB 




THE CEMENT RAILROAD STATION AT GATUN 



340 



SOCIAL LIFE ON THE ISTHMUS 



their own homes. The Isthmus is a domi- 
cile as well as a great industrial camp. 

Every passenger train is crowded with 
Jamaicans and natives in the second class 
coaches. Every seat is filled, and a smiling 
black face is at every car window. They 
enjoy travel and spend a large portion of 
their savings in pleasure trips in the 
evenings, on holidays and especially on 
November 3, the day sacred to the dec- 




TIIE DIVERSION OF THE CHAGRES, BY MEANS OF 
CAMACHO TUNNEL 



laration of Panamanian independence. 
The workers on the Zone all seem happy, 
and owing to the rigid observance of the 
sanitary regulations the mortality record 
has been less than anyone had dared to 
hope. The figures are lower than those 
in many average United States cities. 
The school system is excellent; even a 
casual glance at the children playing with 
toy automobiles and little red wagons, 
shows that the faces above the jumper 
suits are healthy and contented. The 
Zone seems to agree with the boys and 
girls just as well as the States, for they 



insist on having real "fun" at play. Yet 
no talk with them was completed without 
some mention of the time "when we go 
back home." Many complexions were a 
dark brown shade, and some were burned 
almost black, for the tropical sun is re- 
lentless with the fair-skinned races. 

* * * 

One fruitful subject for argument on 
the Isthmus has been the distribution of 
the A. B. and C. furniture, 
for furnishing the different 
domiciles. It is distributed 
according to the official rate 
of pay of those who receive 
it, and if a lady who is en- 
titled to class A outfit receives 
class B or C furniture, there is 
trouble all along the line. 
Colonel Goethals manages to 
adjust all these difficulties so 
that everyone is happy. There 
were many enthusiastic ex- 
pressions of confidence in the 
man at the head of the work. 
His fairness and thoroughness, 
united with his administrative 
ability and experience, make 
him an ideal head for this 
great undertaking. 

The fine arts are not neg- 
lected on the Zone. The Pan- 
ama Conservatory of Music, 
with an orchestra of forty 
pieces, was giving a grand 
concert in the "Teater Nat- 
ional" the night that we left. 
Home talent unites with the 
professionals in providing en- 
tertainments of popular in- 
terest. Lombardy 's Opera 
Company had an engagement in Panama 
and did well. 

The "Grand Circo" was exhibiting at 
Colon. The weather was extremely hot 
and sultry. The blue tights, worn by 
one of the lady performers on the tight 
rope, gradually changed color owing to 
the heavy perspiration, while the grease 
paint on the clowns slowly melted and ran 
off in pink rivulets, creating a transforma- 
tion scene not designed for the amusement 
of the public; the performers fairly swel- 
tered while the audience "encored" ap- 
provingly. 




WHERE SWEEPS THE FLOOD, SHOWING GRAVEL BEDS BROUGHT DOWN BY 

THE HELPFUL CHAGRES 




PANORAMIC VIEW OF THE PACIFIC DIVISION, AS IT PUSHES THROUGH 

TO ANCOX HILL 




A PERSPECTIVE OF THE LOCK SITE AT MIRAFL 



342 



SOCIAL LIFE ON THE ISTHMUS 



The gracious housekeepers in our party 
voted the commissary department one 
of the most interesting features of the work 
on the Zone. In company with Mr. John 
Burke and Mr. Ecklund we had an op- 
portunity, in Colon, to inspect the one 
department that declares a dividend for 
Uncle Sam. All manner of supplies nec- 
essary for comfortable living are here. 
Orders received through the Mail Order 
Department are sent out the same day, 
leaving the stores at four o'clock, P. M. 
and on the following morning, at eight 




JOHN BURKE 

General Manager of Commissary at Cristobal, 
Canal Zone. 

A. M., the goods are delivered at the doors 
of homes all over the Zone. The goods 
have two notable features their variety 
and the lowness of price. In the dry goods 
department the finest Irish linen handker- 
chiefs and embroidered dresses are sold 
at "sale" figures, and big bed spreads 
are marked at "real bargain prices," as 
the ladies said. Many other desirable 
commodities are very low in price, but 
only to be purchased by those possessing 
Commissary tickets. The commissary 
department is operated by the Panama 
Railroad Company, making it possible for 
the buyers to supply the stores without 
awaiting the unwinding of red tape and 
government consultation every time any- 



thing is needed. The department is run 
on strictly business principles, under Mr. 
Burke, who has been there for many years. 
He takes a great pride in the development 
of this the only branch of the work that 
at present fully pays its own way. Mr. 
Burke hails from Indiana and has all the 
jovial ways of the Hoosier. 

Such a cold storage plant! Never have 
I visited a cleaner, more wholesome place 
and it smelled as sweet as a Dutch dairy. 
It looked as though even the sawdust 
might be clean enough and good enough 
to eat. Onions, potatoes, turnips, parsnips 
and all sorts of other vegetables from the 
states were there. A large supply of milk 
shipped from New York, sufficient for 
ninety days, is carefully preserved so 
that the babies may have it sweet every 
day. There was also an abundance of 
ice cream, which is sent to all parts of the 
Isthmus every day and it was real ice 
cream too. Here New Zealand butter is 
purchased, delivered at twenty-seven cents 
a pound, which "in the states" would 
cost forty-two. A large part of the butter 
used on the Isthmus is brought from New 
Zealand because it does not become rancid 
as does that which is made from milk 
that is the product of cows fed on United 
States' scented clover. It is quite a com- 
mon occurrence to find in cold storage 
the products of foreign lands, and al- 
ready there are many indications of the 
new channels of trade which the Canal 
will open. In going through the cold 
storage plant we wore the white "asbestos" 
butchers' coats and did not feel any too 
warm even with that increase of clothing. 
We felt like Dr. Cook after his real frost 
experience when the records were ex- 
ploded at Copenhagen. On every side 
were the familiar articles of diet; potatoes 
in round crates; oysters in sealed cases; 
chickens, apples, bananas, d