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BANCROFT 
LIBRARY 

o 

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 



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CRATER LAKE 

Nattionad Pa^rk 




-XV 



$ 



I UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION 



N AT IONAL PARK. 




Reflections stand out distinctly in water that gleams as though glazed by the sun 




Looking "Over the Top' 



Page two 




- , < 

An Appreciation o i 

("rater Lake National Park 

By WINSTON CHURCHILL, Author of The Crisis," "Richard Carvel," "The Crossing," etc. 

Written Especially for the United States Railroad Administration 

T IS not so man> years ago that I left San Francisco with a case of 
rods, bound foi Crater Lake in Oregon. What I had heard about 
the place had filled me with awe and expectation, tempered by a 
little skepticism. 1 was personally conducted by patriotic and hos- 
pitable Oregonians who met me in sight of the fountains of Klamath, 
put me in a motor car and sped me northward through great forests and across 
wide prairies which once, not long since, had been an almost inaccessible 
wilderness. The immensity of the extinct volcano whither we were bound, 
that in prehistoric times had strewn the entire countryside with powdered 
stone, was hard to grasp. 

It was July. We climbed the wooded slopes to the snows, forged through 
the melting drifts to the very lip of the crater and suddenly looked down upon 
a scene celebrated in Indian myth, and unique in all America. Some 
thousand feet below us lay a bottomless crystal lake, six miles across 
dotted with black volcanic islands. My delight in the grandeur of this view, 
it must be confessed, was heightened by the knowledge that the lake was in- 
habited by large rainbow trout which would rise to the fly. After leaving our 
bags in one of the comfortable tents which the government provides, and eat- 
ing a hurried lunch in the big dining room, we took our rods and started down 
the trail. It is quite safe, but new in the experience of a sportsman from the 
East; and I took the snow slopes gingerly, put to shame by a twelve-year-old 
daughter of Oregon who romped down ahead of me, careless of the precipice 
below. And when at last we were afloat, one recalled the Indian legend that 
he who attempts to swim in this water is never heard of again. The boat was 
gliding over nothing. The water was as clear as air. Leaning dizzily over 
the side of the boat, we saw the walls of the crater going down and down into 
the bowels of the earth, and rainbow trout gliding below us, apparently, in a 
medium like air. Above us the walls seemed to reach to the sky itself. But 
presently, when we had begun to fish, the clouds gathered and shut out the sky, 
in the midst of the summer afternoon darkness set in, thunder rolled and lightning 
played. It was a scene comparable only to something imagined by Dante in 
his Inferno. 

The rain pelted down, the lake grew white but the fish rose. Trout after 
trout took the flies, and when the sky cleared our arms were tired from play- 
ing them. The sun was setting. I made one last cast, near a bleak island, 
with a brown hackle. It was followed by that indescribable sensation of 
pure joy when a great fish gurgles on the surface, when the fisherman feels 
the first frantic tug and hears the singing of the reel. My rod weighed four 
ounces, and the trout at least eight pounds. He leaped, and leaped again. 
Twilight came on. For half an hour I played him, reeling him up to the 
boat only to see him rush away again: it became a question of staying down all 
night in the crater or leaving him, since at night we could not have traced 
the trail. Reluctantly I left him. For when I tried to drown him by towing 
he snapped the leader and was free. 

We had all the fish we cared to carry up the steep slope. But many times 
since I have thought of that trout, and I have never abandoned my intention 
to go back to Crater Lake some day and get him. 




Page f/iree 



iiiniiiiiiimiim 



To the American People: 

Uncle Sam asks you to be his guest. He has prepared for you the 
choice places of this continent places of grandeur, beauty and of 
wonder. He has built roads through the deep-cut canyons and beside 
happy streams, which will carry you into these places in comfort, and 
has provided lodgings and food in the most distant and inaccessible 
places that you might enjoy yourself and realize as little as possible 
the rigors of the pioneer traveler's life. These are for you. They are 
the playgrounds of the people. To see them is to make more hearty 
your affection and admiration for America. 




Secretary of the Interior 



Crater Lake National Park 




IRATER LAKE National 

Park is in southwestern 
Oregon, on the crest of the 
Cascade Range, sixty miles 
north of the California line, 
midway between San Francisco and 
Portland. It contains 249 square miles. 
The elevation varies from 5,000 to 
9,000 feet above sea level. The Park 
is a broad and timbered plateau sur- 
mounted by numerous volcanic peaks, 
among them Scott Peak, Timber 
Crater, Desert Cone, Red Cone, Crater 
Peak and Union Peak. Crater Lake, 
weird and mysterious, lies in their 
midst near the center of the Park, and 
is, as its name implies, a lake in the ex- 
tinct crater of a volcano. It was not 
discovered by white men until 1853, 
and today is recognized as one of the 
greatest of scenic and most striking of 
geologic spectacles. 

All of our great national play- 
grounds have their distinctive beauties; 
each is different in great measure in 
the sublimity and attractiveness of its 
natural grandeur, but Crater Lake 
stands alone in this: that all likeness to 
any familiar landscape here ceases. 

Other lands have their crater lakes 
Italy, India and Hawaii and there 
are some craters in this country that 
contain miniature lakes; but there is 
only one really great caldera of this 



kind in the world only one immense 
basin apparently formed through the 
complete melting by intense heat of the 
entire core of a great volcano, and the 
falling in and utter disappearance 
through subterranean caverns of its 
massive bulk. 

That perpetual desolation the 
nightmare of a Dante should follow 
such a cataclysm would be expected; 
that aeons of time and the mystical 
workings of Nature have transformed 
the devastation to a dream-picture, will 
be a continual boon to the sightseer. 

The titanic convulsion that formed 
this remarkable beauty-spot no human 
eye witnessed. Geologists have con- 
cluded that ages ago, in the great chain 
of volcanic mountain peaks which to- 
day extends from Washington to Cali- 
fornia among them Mt. Rainier, Mt. 
Hood, Mt. Adams, Mt. Jefferson, 
Three Sisters, Mt. McLoughlin, Mt. 
Shasta and Lassen Peak there tow- 
ered one, which has been called Mount 
Mazama, that may have topped the 
tallest of its fellows. Judging from the 
pitch of the remnants of its outer slopes, 
scientists conclude with reasonable cer- 
tainty that, if reconstructed, its snow- 
clad peak would rise from seven to 
eight thousand feet above its broken 
rim. Mazama stands today an un- 
crowned king, shorn of its diadem of 



Page four 




The Phantom Ship, which disappears illusively with shif tings of light and shadow 



burning gold and glittering silver, yet 
holding within its heart a treasure the 
rarest in the world a beautiful lake, 
the deepest of all lakes, with waters 
the bluest of all blue waters. And this 
is Crater Lake! 




Mount Mazama if reconstructed 

Crater Lake is almost circular, vary- 
ing from five to six miles in diameter. 
Its known depth is 2,000 feet and it is 
believed to be the deepest body of 
fresh water in the world. Its surface is 
6,177 feet above the sea. It has no 
inlet or outlet, being fed by springs and 
winter snows; its water escapes by un- 
derground channels, reappearing as 
springs in the Klamath region, a few 
miles away. It is completely girdled 
by precipitous cliffs and steep talus 
slopes that fall sharply downward from 
its rim 2,000 to 600 feet to the water's 
edge. Closely encircling it rise many 
high peaks, notably Llao Rock, The 
Watchman, and Cloud Cap; also Gla- 
cier, Garfield and Vidae Peaks. 



The Discovery of Crater Lake 

Surrounded by canyons, ravines and 
pinnacled rocks, and belted by a wil- 
derness of boulder-strewn forests, the 
region for years was inaccessible, and 
unexpored except by the more venture- 
some who were attracted by stories of 
the Indians of this mystery lake in its 
fantastic setting. Yet its discovery was 
accidental; it occurred in 1853 while 
an exploring party was searching in the 
Cascade Mountains for the famous Lost 
Cabin Mine. The mine they did not 
find, nor has it ever been found, but 
instead they came upon this beautiful 
lake in the crater. 

"Suddenly we came in sight of 
water," writes J. W. Hillman, the 
leader of the party. "We were much 
surprised, as we did not expect to see 
any lakes, and did not know but that 
we had come in sight of and close to 
Klamath Lake. Not till my mule 
stopped within a few feet of the rim 
of the lake did I look down, and if I 
had been riding a blind mule I firmly 
believe I would have ridden over the 
edge to death." 

A dispute arose over the choice of a 
name, the party dividing between 
Mysterious Lake and Deep Blue Lake. 



Page five 




Motorboating and fishing in the heart of an extinct volcano is novel sport 



The advocates of Deep Blue Lake won 
the vote, but in 1 869 a visiting party 
renamed it Crater Lake, and this by 
natural right became its title. 

First View of Crater Lake and Its 
Brilliant Coloring 

The first sight of Crater Lake is well- 
nigh bewildering. Unless looked into 
from the rim it is invisible. Wonder- 
ment at the height and steepness of its 
encircling cliffs succeeds the first as- 
tonishment; admiration of the loveli- 
ness of its coloring next enthralls the 
beholder in the sequence of impres- 
sions. Its unique beauty lies in no 
small measure in its coloring, the bril- 
liance of which if reproduced in paint- 
ing or print would seem exaggerated 
and impossible to those who have not 
seen the reality. Nowhere else is 
there such an azure. One feels that 
a glass of its water would show blue 
as if stained with cobalt, but it is clear 
as crystal and as pure. The deeper 
parts are a brilliant ultramarine, shad- 
ing to turquoise in the shallower 
reaches, and to light jade green in the 
few indented coves around the shore. 
A hundred feet down the glaze of a 
plate is plainly discernible. The sur- 



roundings help the brilliance of the 
blue; the rocks are of metallic hues; the 
peaks of the rim are often snow cov- 
ered; the lava gray of the steep 
scarred walls is mottled and splotched 
with bright yellows and reds, markings 
left by volcanic action long ago, and 
always there is the dark green of the 
pines and firs and shrubs that grow 
on these declivities wherever they find 
root-hold. The waters are usually 
placid, gleaming as though glazed by 
the sun, and in this mirror of Nature 
the reflections stand out with astound- 
ing distinctness. 

Of this feature of Crater Lake, Joa- 
quin Miller wrote: "Fancy a sea of 
sapphire set about by a compact circle 
of the grizzly rock of Yosemite. It is 
great, great; but it takes you days to 
see how great. It lies 2,000 feet under 
you, and as it reflects its walls so per- 
fectly that you cannot tell the wall 
from the reflection, in the intensely 
blue water, you have a continuous un- 
broken circular wall of twenty-four 
miles to contemplate at a glance, all of 
which lies 2,000 feet, and seems to lie 
4.000 feet, below. Yet so bright, so 
intensely blue is the lake that it seems 
at times, from some points of view, to 
lift right in your face." 



Page 8 i X 




Wizard Island A crater within a crater 



The Legend of the Indians 

According to the legend of the Kla- 
maths and Modocs the mystic land of 
Gaywas was the domain of the power- 
ful demon Llao, whose throne was on 
Llao Rock. His warriors were gigan- 
tic crawfish which swarmed the lake, 
and with their great claws seized all 
who dared to appear on the cliffs 
above. The spirit chieftain Skell, of the 
neighboring Klamath Marshes, waged 
bitter war against Llao, but Skell 
eventually was captured, and his heart, 
torn from his body, was given by Llao 
to his minions who used it as a ball, 
hurling it from cliff to cliff with their 
claws. 

One of Skell's watchful eagles sud- 
denly swooped down and caught the 
heart in mid-air, passing it to a fleet- 
footed antelope, which carried it to 
safety. Then miraculously the body 
of Skell grew about his heart, and he 
again waged war against his enemy. 
He captured Llao and upon the highest 
cliff cut his body into quarters, which 
he cast into ths lake where they were 
eaten by Llao's monsters under the be- 
lief that it was Skell's body. But when 
Llao's head was thrown in they recog- 
nized it and would not eat it. So Llao's 
head still lies in the lake and white men 



call it Wizard Island, one of the small 
islands that rise from its depths today. 
The Indians, even today, look upon the 
face of Crater Lake with uneasiness and 



awe. 



Wizard Island 



The geological history of Wizard Island is 
fully as remarkable as that ascribed to it by 
the Indian legend. It was built up from the 
floor of Mount Mazama's crater by expiring 
volcanic forces, and is today a perfectly pre- 
served cinder zone rising 800 feet above the 
surface of the lake. It lies close to the cliffs 
on the western shore of the lake, and its ap- 
pearance, when looked down upon from the 
rim, is one of the curious sights that fill the 
beholder with wonder. Soundings show that 
several other peaks of like nature rise from 
great depths in the lake but do not come 
within some hundred feet of the surface, 
forming a submerged range of miniature 
crater mountains. A trail has been built to 
the edge of Wizard Island's crater, which is 
500 feet across the top and 100 feet deep; 
a trail also leads to the bottom. The western 
half of Wizard Island is a rough lava bed, 
and in one of its hollows is a dark pool 
known as the Witch's Cauldron. Thus Wiz- 
ard Island is doubly remarkable, being in 
fact a crater within a crater and containing 
a pool within a lake. Skell Channel sep- 
arates Wizard Island from the mainland. The 
lake's superb reflections are seen to fine ad- 
vantage from the island. 

The Phantom Ship 

The picturesque Phantom Ship lies near 

the southern shore of the lake a few rods 

from the base of Dutton Cliff. It is a high 



Page seven 




a of 



craggy up-thrust of curiously sculptured lava; 
a mass of bronze and yellow spires and tur- 
rets showing almost a goblin fantasy of con- 
struction. At a distance its outline resembles 
a sailing ship hence its name. The illusion 
at dusk or in the moonlight is striking. Ap- 
proaching it in certain slants of light the 
Phantom Ship, when seen against the cor- 
rugated background of Dutton Cliff, sud- 
denly disappears and is exceedingly difficult 
to again "pick up" a phantom ship indeed, 
in which the Ancient Mariner might well 
delight. 

Trail from Crater Lake Lodge to Eagle Cove 

A new trail of very easy grade has been 
constructed, leading from the rim at Crater 
Lake Lodge to the water at Eagle Cove, a 
descent of about 1,000 feet and a little over 
a mile in distance. Horses and burros can 
be used if desired, but the low grading of 
the trail makes the walk delightful, the acces- 
sibility of the lake adding greatly to the 
enjoyment of visitors. This charming walk, 
zigzagging in easy stretches down the heavily 
timbered slope, contrasts strangely with the 
belief expressed by the party of explorers 
who discovered the lake, that "its shore-line 
would never be touched by the foot of man." 
But when you consider that an eighteen-foot 
launch crossing the lake is harder to "spot" 
than an aeroplane flying 3,000 feet over- 
head, and that a rowboat is undiscernible. 
some idea may be had of the beliefs and 
disbeliefs that Crater Lake readily suggests. 
Unusual Fishing; Motorboats and Rowboat* 
The cold and crystal-clear water of Crater 
Lake originally contained no fish of any kind 
except a species of small crawfish. 

In 1888, Mr. William G. Steel, now U. S. 
Commissioner for the Park, was the first to 



stock the waters with trout, but no fish were 
seen in the lake for twelve years; then a few 
were taken, one measuring 30 inches. Since 
then trout of the gamiest have been caught in 
ever-increasing numbers; preferably by fly- 
casting from vantage points along the shore, 
and also by trolling with spoon from row- 
boats. Fish weighing five and ten pounds 
are frequently caught. 

In Crater Lake, five fish per person a day, 
and in all other waters in the park twenty 
fish per person, is the limit. There is good 
fishing in Anna Creek below Dewie Falls, as 
well as in neighboring streams. The fishing 
season is from July 1st to September 30th, 
unless otherwise ordered by the Superintend- 
ent of the Park. No license is required. 

Launch Trips A Cruise Around the Lake 
At Eagle Cove, motorboats and rowloats are 
provided for boating or fishing parties; guides 
are also available for those who desire them. 

Trips to Wizard Island are made by launch 
on regular schedules daily, and special trips 
can be arranged for, by the hour, skirting 
the Phantom Ship and nearby cliffs. 

The striking features of the crater's rim 
can best be seen by making a circuit of the 
lake along its edge. It reveals in a thousand 
changes the twisted and contorted lava for- 
mations, and is a moving picture of twenty- 
five miles of nature's wierdest film. This 
close-up view of the aftermath of Mazama 
will never be forgotten. 

From Eagle Cove the launch heads east, 
rounding Eagle Point, with Garfield Peak 
towering high overhead; then crosses Chaski 
Bay, where Vidae Cliff rises 2,000 feet above, 
lust beyond, Dutton Cliff looks from its dizzv 
height on the Phantom Ship, the launch 



P a 69 eight 




IPLi 



ircling shores 

skirting its sculptured sides \vith its maze of 
lava rigging. Kerr Notch, just beyond Dut- 
ton Cliff, on Danger Bay, is the lowest point 
on the crater rim, 600 feet above the water. 
Sentinel Rock is the next peak outstanding 
on the wall above, and then follows Cloud 
Cap, 2,070 feet above the shore. Skell Head, 
suggesting Indian legends, appears on the 
southern point of Grotto Cove, where is seen 
The Wineglass, high on its northern cliff, a 
strange rock-slide shaped like a huge goblet 
and tinted as with winestain. Round Top, the 
Palisades and Rugged Crest are passed along 
the northeast shore, and below Rugged Crest 
is Cleetwood Cove, where the last great lava 
flow occurred. 

But what strange sights have been un- 
folded in this half-circuit of the lake! Where 
can their like be seen? Contorted, twisted 

shapes the deformity of nature in its every 

phase. Dark caverns piercing flame- 
scorched walls that over-hang in jagged 
masses streaked with charred reds and sul- 
phur-yellows; gorges packed with winter 
snows that gleam like diamonds in jet set- 
tings snows unmelted since their fall, with 

solid ice foundations, for sunshine has never 
reached their rock-bound depths. And all 
around them is the bright green glaze of 
needled pine boughs, drooping and waving 
in the breeze from trunks that slant at every 

angle the growth of centuries. Surely 

Nature, to sooth Mazama's wrath, has beauti- 
fied its scars with dressings most sublime. 

Rounding Pumice Point the launch glides 
into Steel Bay and then skirts Llao Rock, one 
of the most striking summits on the rim. Just 
north of Llao Rock is a mile of desolation, 
The Devil's Backbone, carved and ridged and 
lacerated as though by the whips of demons. 




Eagles soar and pelicans flap from rock to 
rock, and over all shines the brilliant sum- 
mer sunshine from an azure sky that is re- 
flected and thrown back from Crater Lake's 
profound depths in an ultra-blue that chal- 
lenges the heavens. Approaching Skell 
Channel, Glacier Peak looms high above the 
rim and The Watchman rears over Wizard 
Island's cinder cone surrounded by its arm- 
shaped lava flows and rising like an octopus 
from the waters. The high-pitched roofs and 
gray walls of Crater Lake Lodge appear as a 
dot above, as the launch heads for Eagle 
Cove, and one of the most singular and spec- 
tacular of boat trips is ended. 

The Rim Road A Skyline Boulevard 
The Rim Road entirely encircles Crater 
Lake a distance of 35 miles, winding around 
the base of the chain of peaks and crags that 
hedge its outer slopes; it is unique among 
skyline drives. From Cloud Cap on the east- 
ern shore to The Watchman on the western 
side of the lake, a distance of 2 I miles, it is 
in good condition. The remaining 1 4 miles 
connecting Cloud Cap with The Watchman, 
around the northern end of the lake, is being 
improved and surfaced. This work is pro- 
gressing rapidly and the expectation is that 
the road will be open, except possibly for 
short periods, the present year. In this cir- 
cular tour the vistas of the lake are every- 
where superb and the surrounding mountain 
views are seen to excellent advantage. 

The Pinnacles Sand Creek Canyon 
The Pinnacles are reached by following 
the Rim Road from Crater Lake Lodge for 
about ten miles, thence three miles down 
Sand Creek Canycn. Here stand a jumble of 
giant monoliths crowding the canyon sides, carved 
by the winds and the rains of centuries into fan- 



P a g e nine 




Crater Lake Lodge stands near the rim and overlooking the Lake. 



tastic forms. There are hundreds of these sharp 
pointed figures, some of them over 100 feet in 
height, rising like the wraiths of a forest turned to 
stone. By moonlight their gray ghost-like 
appearance borders on the uncanny. 

Dewie Canyon and Garden of the Gods 
From Anna Spring Camp, five miles south 
of Crater Lake Lodge, the road leads east- 
ward a few miles along the northern wall of 
Dewie Canyon, a timbered gorge cut out of 
the solid rock, its sides a silent testimony of 
its violent formation. At the head of the 
canyon are Dewie Falls, foaming cataracts 
which give the canyon its name, Dewie being 
an Indian word signifying falling waters. 
And here lies another Garden of the Gods, 
with its picturesque crags and towering 
pines, and meadows set about with paint 
brush, lupines and anemones. 

Anna Creek Canyon 

From twelve to fifteen miles south of The 
Lodge, on the Fort Klamath Road, the drive 
for eight miles overlooks Anna Creek Can- 
yon, with many fine views three or four hun- 
dred feet into its depths. The canyon dis- 
plays the curious columns and other gro- 
tesque forms characteristic of this entire 
volcanic region, though each of these picture- 
gorges is distinctive in some new shuffling of 
Ma/ama's magic deck. 

Easy Mountaineering 

Crater Lake National Park offers the 
mountain climber a novel field and many 
heights, some of which can be reached with- 
out great exertion; good horse trails and 
roads available for autos lead to several 
prominent summits. Union Peak and Scott 
Peak are perhaps the most remarkable. 



Union Peak, 7,698 feet above sea level, is 
about ten miles southwest of Crater Lake 
Lodge, and can be reached by saddle animals 
to within a quarter of a mile of its conical 
top. The last 700 feet is very steep, but the 
footing is secure. Unlike most of the 
mountains in this region, Union Peak is not 
a cinder cone, but the solid core of an ancient 
volcano. The view embraces the entire park. 
The trail to Bald Top extends beyond Union 
Peak three miles, but it is very rough and 
steep. Scott Peak, 8,938 feet, is to the east, 
twenty-two miles from Crater Lake Lodge, 
and rises 700 feet above any other point in 
the vicinity of Crater Lake It is reached by 
auto to Cloud Cap, thence two miles by foot 
trail. There is an excellent trail to the top 
of Garfield Peak, 8,060 feet, one and a 
quarter miles east of The Lodge. It can be 
made by foot or saddle animal. From its 
summit, which overlooks the lake, can be 
seen the Klamath Lake region to the south 
and the green valley of the Wood River. The 
lofty snow-capped peaks of Mt. McLoughlin 
and Mt. Shasta loom beyond. Mount Thiel- 
son, 9, I 78 feet, and Diamond Lake are seen 
to the north of Crater Lake, a region which 
it is proposed to include in a Greater Crater 
Lake National Park. 

The Watchman, five miles north of The 
Lodge, and Glacier Peak, 8,156 feet, six miles 
north and the highest peak on the rim, are 
on the east side of the lake, and each is 
reached by auto and easy foot trails. Vidae 
Cliff, on the rim, rises three miles east of 
The Lodge, and has a good horse trail to the 
top, distance seven miles. 

A complete list of the principal points of 
interest, with heights and distances, is shown 
on another page. 



Page ten 




Horse trails lead to mountain heights and to many vantage points upon the rim. 



Wild Animals and Game 

The Park abounds in black and brown 
bear, blacktail deer, pine marten, porcupine; 
also grouse, pheasants and numerous varie- 
ties of birds. Deer and bear are more plenti- 
ful each year and are becoming quite tame. 
Firearms in the Park afe not permitted. 
Cougar, lynx, timber wolves and coyotes are 
seen occasionally and are being exterminated 
by the ranger force. 

Scenic Approaches to Crater Lake by Medford 
and by Klamath Falls 

The approaches to Crater Lake National 
Park are from the railroad stations of Med- 
ford, Ore., and Klamath Falls, Ore. The dis- 
tance from Medford by auto is 81 miles; 
from Klamath Falls 62 miles, and these ap- 
proaches constitute no little charm of the 
Crater Lake trip, for each drive traverses a 
country of much diversity in scenic attrac- 
tiveness. 

Crater Lake affords a most interesting side 
trip for tourists to or from California. 

THE MEDFORD APPROACH: From 

Medford, the chief city of the Rogue River 
Valley, the auto road leads northeastward 
through miles of orchard country. Gradu- 
ally the highway climbs out of the valley into 
the wooded foothills and as it leads up the 
gorge of the Rogue River the scenery takes 
on a wilder aspect. Among anglers the fast- 
flowing Rogue is noted for its hard-fighting 
steelhead and rainbow trout. The river 
here runs like a thief and twists like a rogue, 
but its waters are white with rapids, the name 
being derived from its ruddy bed and given 
it by those French Canadian voyageurs the 
Riviere Rouge, or red river. 

Higher up the canyon, in the deepest wil- 
derness, thunder the great Falls of the Rogue 



a'nd farther up its course the river is spanned 
by a natural bridge of lava, a hundred feet 
across. At Rogue-Elk, thirty-six miles from 
Medford, lunch is served, and the drive is 
resumed, passing through the greatest forest 
of yellow pine in the world, with many firs, 
yews, larches and cedars. Climbing into the 
Cascades the view covers far-reaching vistas 
of densely wooded heights. As the road 
leaves the Rogue River it turns eastward up 
the canyon of Castle Creek and crosses the 
western boundary of the Park. Ahead is a 
cluster of sloping peaks, rising 1,000 feet 
above the general level of the range, and as 
the road winds upward to the crest below 
like a glittering jewel in a sunken setting 
lies Crater Lake. 

THE KLAMATH FALLS APPROACH: 

Klamath Falls is the center of the "Klamath 
Country" and is situated on the banks of the 
Link River, about a mile from Upper Klam- 
ath Lake. It is in a region full of the charm 
of mountain and forest, much of it still a 

wilderness a fitting gateway for Crater 

Lake National Park. Its marshes are breed- 
ing-grounds for wild fowl; its clear streams 
are full of fighting trout; in its forests roam 
deer, bear and cougars. Crystal River, 
Cherry Creek, Wood River, Odessa Creek, 
Williamson River, Spring Creek and Sprague 
River are a few of the trout streams, well 
known to anglers, that enter the upper lake. 
Pelican Bay is a favorite trolling ground. 

The auto road leads for eigtheen miles 
along the shores of Upper Klamath Lake, 
the home of the white pelican. The lake is 
twenty-five miles in length and ten miles at 
its greatest width. The snow-capped peak 
of Mount McLoughlin rises 6,000 feet above 
its western shore, which shows tier upon tier 



Page eleven 




Mount McLaughlin rears to the west on the Medford road,, and rises above the shore of 

Upper Klamath Lake on the Klamath Falls road. 
The Falls of the Rogue River on the Medford road. Mount Shasta looms to the south on the Klamath Falls road. 



of heavily timbered ridges that hem the hori- 
zon. Passing through the Klamath Indian 
Agency at the head of the lake, the road five 
miles further runs through Fort Klamath, 
both lying in a broad valley, surrounded by 
wooded foothills. As the grade ascends, the 
view looking back is a revelation in land- 
scape loveliness. Winding upward through 
heavier timber it follows Anna Creek Canyon 
to Anna Springs Camp at the Park head- 
quarters, thence five miles to Crater Lake 
Lodge on the rim. 

Accommodations Within the Park 

CRATER LAKE LODGE: This attractive 
hotel constructed mainly of gray stone stands 
in the pines directly on the southeastern rim 
overlooking the lake, 1,000 feet above the 
water. It contains sixty-four rooms and af- 
fords comfortable accommodations and good 
service. It has ample bathing facilities and 
fire protection. Around the large open fire- 
place in its lobby visitors each evening re- 
count their day's experiences, and anglers 
unreel their tales of the fish they caught, and 
of the fish that got away. 

Tents are provided, on request, for those 
who prefer them, meals being taken at The 
Lodge. There are many inviting spots on 
flower dotted meadows around the lodge, where 
beneath the pines on shaded slopes are snow- 
banks, with bright snow-flowers peeping 
through their melting edges. 

ANNA SPRING CAMP: At the park head- 
quarters, at Anna Spring, five miles south of 
Crater Lake Lodge, a good camp is main- 
tained. The spring gushes from the moun- 
tainside at the head of Anna Creek. There 
is a general store here (with branch at The 
Lodge) where necessary supplies are obtainable. 



Season 

The 1919 season of Crater Lake National Pai 
extends from July 1st to September 30th. 

Park Administration 

Crater Lake National Park is under the juris- 
diction of the Director, Na'ional Park Service, 
Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 
The Park Superintendent is located at Cra 
Lake, Ore. 

How to Reach Crater Lake National Park 

Crater Lake National Park is connected 
automobile stages of the Crater Lake Company 
with the railroad stations at Medford, Ore., a 
Klamath Falls, Ore. 

During the Park season, round-trip excursi 
tickets at reduced fares are sold at many stations 
in California and Oregon to Crater Lake National 
Park as a destination. Passengers wishing to 
visit the Park as a side-trip in connection with 
journeys to other destinations will find stop-over 
privileges available on through round-trip and 
one-way tickets, and may, if they choose, enter 
the Park via Medford and leave via Klama 
Falls, or the reverse. 

Storage charges on baggage will be waived at 
railroad statiors at Medford, Klamath Falls or 
Weed, or at Portland, or at Sacramento, Oak- 
land Pier, San Francisco or Los Angeles, for 
actual length of time consumed by passengers 
in making the Crater Lake trip. 

Automobile-Stage Rates 

The Crater Lake Co. will operate regular daily auto- 
mobile service from Medford, and Klamath Falls. Oregon, 
to and from Crater Lake National Park at the following 
rates: One Round 

Way Trip 

Medford to Crater Lake $ 8.50 $15.00 

Klamath Falls to Crater Lake 8.00 12.50 

Medford to Klamath Falls, via Crater Lake. 15.00 

Klamath Falls to Medford. via Crater Lake. 15.00 . 



W 

my 
ion 



Page twelve 



Rates at Crater Lake Lodge 

Board and lodging (lodging in tents), one person: 

Per day ................................... $ 3.50 

Per week ................................... 20.00 

Board and lodging, two or more persons in one tent 
Per day ............................... each 

Per week .............................. each 



3.00 
17.50 
1.00 
.75 



Lodging in tents: One person, per night. 

Two or more persons in one tent, per night, each 

Board and lodging (lodging in hotel), one person: 

Per day 4.00 

Per week 22.50 

Board and lodging, two or more persons in one room: 

Per day each 3.50 

Per week each 20.00 

Lodging in hotel: One person, per night 1.50 

Two or more persons in one room, per night, each 1 .25 

In hotel rooms, with hot and cold water: 

Board and lodging, one person: Per day 4.50 

Per week 25.00 

Board and lodging, two or more persons in room: 

Per day each 4.00 

Per week each 22.50 

Lodging: One person, per night 2.00 

Two or more persons in one room, per 

night each 1.75 

Baths (extra) to house guests. 25 cents; others. .50 

Fires in rooms (extra) 25 

Single meals 1 .00 

Rates at Anna Spring Tent Camp 

Board and lodging, each person: Per day $ 2.50 

Per week 15.00 

Meals: Breakfast, lunch or dinner 75 

Lodging: One person, per night 1 .00 

Children under 10 years, half rates at lodge or camp. 

Automobile Rates 

Fare between Anna Spring Camp and Crater Lake 

Lodge: One way $ .50 

Round Trip 1 .00 

Special trips will be made when parties of four or 
more are made up, as follows: 

Transportation, per mile, within the park 10 

To Anna Creek Canyon, including Dewie Canyon 
and Garden of the Gods. 24-mile trip, for each 
person 2.00 

Trip around the Lake on rim road, side-trip to the 

Pinnacles, and picnic lunch, for each person. . . 5.00 

The Sunset Drive, from Crater Lake Lodge to sum- 
mit of road at Watchman, at sunset. 10-mile 

trip, for each person 1 .00 

Rates for Horses, Burros and Pack Animals 

Saddle horses, pack animals and burros (when fur- 
nished): Per hour $ .50 

Per day 3.00 

Service of guide, with horse: Per hour 1 .00 

Per day 6.00 

Launches and Rowboats 
Launch Trips: 

Wizard Island and return, on regular schedule, 
launches leaving lake shore at 9 a. m.. I 1 a. m.. 

2 p. m., and 5 p. m., per person $ .50 

Wizard Island and return, special trip, per person 1 .00 
Around Wizard Island and Phantom Ship and 

return (about 15 miles), per person 2.00 

Around the Lake, per person 2.50 

Rowboats: Per hour 50 

Per day 2.50 

With boat puller, per hour 50 

With detachable motor, per hour 50 

Per day 5.00 

U. S. Government Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington, D. C. at 
prices given. Remittances should be made by 
money order or in cash: 
Geological History of Crater Lake, by J. S. Diller, 32 

pages. 28 illustrations. 10 cents. 
Forests of Crater Lake National Park, by J. F. Pernot. 

40 pages. 26 illustrations. 20 cents. 
Panoramic view of Crater Lake National Park; I6H by 

18 inches. 25 cents. 
National Parks Portfolio, by Robert Sterling Yard. 260 

pages. 270 illustrations, descriptive of nine National 

Parks. Pamphlet edition. 35 cents; book edition, 55 cents. 

The following may be obtained from the 
Director of the United States Geological Survey, 
Washington, D. C. at price given. 
Map of Crater Lake National Park; 1 9 by 22 ins.. 10 cents. 

The following publications may be obtained 
free on written application to the Director of the 



National Park Service. Washington, D. C.. or by 
personal application to the office of the superin 
tendent of the park. 

Circular of General Information Regarding Crater Lake 

National Park. 
Map showing location of National Parks and National 

Monuments and railroad routes them.. 

U. S. R. R. Administration Publications 
The following publications may be obtained 

free on application to any consolidated ticket 

office ; or apply to the Bureau of Service. National 

Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau West- 
ern Lines 646 Transportation Bldg , Chicago. 111. : 

Arizona and New Mexico Rockies 

California for the Tourist 

Colorado and Utah Rockies 

Crater Lake National Park. Oregon 

Glacier National Park. Montana 

Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona 

Hawaii National Park. Hawaiian Islands 

Hot Springs National Park. Arkansas 

Mesa Verde National Park. Colorado 

Mount Rainier National Park. Washington 

Northern Lakes Wisconsin. Minnesota. Upper Michigan. 
Iowa and Illinois 

Pacific Northwest and Alaska 

Petrified Forest National Monument. Arizona 

Rocky Mountain National Park. Colorado 

Sequoia and General Grant National Par' s, California 

Yellowstone National Park. Wyoming. Montana. Idaho 

Yosemite National Park. California 

Zion National Monument, Utah 

Distances from Crater Lake Lodge by road or trail to 
principal points of Interest 



Distance 
and 
Name General 
Direction 


Above 
Sra 
Le>el 


Bet Mean, 
of Reaching 


Remark. 


Miles 


Feet 






LlaoRock. 8 north.... 


8.046 


Auto, horse- 


Point from which the 






back, and 


legendary Llao't 






foot 


body wa. thrown 








into lake. All-day 


Diamond 






trip. 


Lake 18 north.. 




Horseback.. 


Good fishing. Near 








view of Mt. Theil- 


Devil'. 






.on. 


Backbone 6.5 north 




Auto 


Fine view of forma- 








tion and coloring of 


Glacier 






Glacier Peak. 


Peak 6 north... 
TheWatch- 


8.156 


Auto and foot 


Highest point on rim 
of lake: fine view. 


man 5 north. .. 


8,025 


.do 


Easy climb. 


Garfield 




Foot or hor.e- 




Peak 1.25 ea.t... 


8.060 


back 


Ea.y climb. 


Vidae Cliff. 3 ea.t 


8,135 


do 


Fine view. E*y trip 








by horse: 7 mile.. 


Sun Notch. 7eat 


7.115 


Auto and foot 


Fine view of Phan- 








tom Ship. W.Ik 








1 mile. Ea.y trail. 


Dutton 








Cliff 9.5ea.t... 


8.150 


...do 


Fine view; 7.5 miles 








by auto. 2 on foot. 


Sentinel 








Rock.... I8ea.t... 





Auto 


Most comprehensive 








view from rim. 


Cloud Cap. 20 ea.t 





...do 


Fine drive and view. 


Scott'. 








Peak 22ea.t 


8.839 


Auto and fool 


2 mile, by trail from 








Cloud Cap. High- 


Pinnacle.. 15.5 south- 






est point in park. 


east 




A.ito 


Grotesque forrha- 


Garden of 






tion*. 


the God. 








Dewey 








Fall. 5 wuth 

Ann* 




do 


Waterfalkmeadows. 


Anna 
Creek 






pretty canyon.. 


Canyon. 10 to 13.5 








south.... 




.do 


Beautiful canyon. 








MX) to 400 feet 


Union Peak 10.5 wuth- 






deep. 


wet 


7.698 


Auto and fool 


Fine view of entire 


Wizard 
I.land.... 3.5 north 


6.940 


Boat and foot 


park. 
Extinct volcano. 








crater in summit. 








Trail to top and 


Phantom 






into crater. 


Ship 3eat... 




do 


Grotesque lava- pin- 
nacled island. 



Page thirteen 



Springs 



Desert \\ 



j *:< 



Crescent ** Bald Crater 
R.dge 6" 74 it. 



Desert Cone 
eesi it. 



O / /- 
- / 0: 



Timber Crater 

7360 It. 



O Oasis Butte 

6685 II. 



s! 



^"Grouse Hill 
7401 It. 



vation 6177 feet in 1908 
Depth over 2000 feet 
.er 1000 feet high 



The Watchm 
8025 It. 



j ^ CRATER LAKE LODGE 
r"^" * -. 



O 

Ctttlt Pomt 

OJOO It. 



^S\ R. R. STA 




I I k I \KI. 

INATIONAI 

PARK 

I 1 , kirk 




Shasta 



CRATER LAKE 
NATIONAL PARK 

OREGON 

Scale 



__.__ Boundary 
_^_ Automobile Roads 
.. Trails 



Page fourteen 







The National Parks at a Glance 



u 



ted 



States Railroad Administration 

Director General of Railroads 

For particulars as to fares, train schedules, etc., apply to any Railroad Ticket Agent, or to any 
of the following Consolidated Ticket Offices: 

West 



Austin, Tex 521 Congress Ave. 

Beaumont. Tex., Orleans and Pearl Sts. 

Bremerton, Wash 224 Front St. 

Butte, Mont 2 N. Main St. 

Chicago, 111 179 W. Jackson St. 

Colorado Springs, Colo., 

119 E. Pike's Peak Ave. 

Dallas. Tex I 12-1 14 Field St. 

Denver. Colo 601 17th St. 

Des Moines. Iowa 403 Walnut St. 

Duluth. Minn 334 W. Superior St. 

El Paso. Tex. . .Mills and Oregon Sts. 

Ft. Worth. Tex 702 Houston St. 

Fresno, Cal J and Fresno Sts. 

Galveston. Tex. 2 1st and Market Sts. 

Helena. Mont 58 S. Main St. 

Houston. Tex 904 Texas Ave. 

Kansas City, Mo., 

Ry. Ex. Bldg.. 7th and Walnut Sts. 



Lincoln. Neb. . . . 
Little Rock. Ark 
Long Beach, Ca' . . 
Los Angeles, Ca.. 
Milwaukee. Wis . . 



...104 N. 13th St. 

202 W. 2d St. 

L.A. & S.L. Station 

.221 S. Broadway 
. .99 Wisconsin St. 

202 Sixth St.South 



Annapolis. Md 



54 Maryland Ave. 



Atlantic City, N. J.. 1301 Pacific Ave. 
Baltimore. Md. . . B. & O. R. R. Bldg. 

Boston. Mass 67 Franklin St. 

Brooklyn. N. Y 336 Fulton St. 

Buffalo. N. Y.. Main and Division Sts. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. .6th and Main Sts. 
Cleveland. Ohio. .1004 Prospect Ave. 

Columbus, Ohio 70 East Gay St. 

Dayton. Ohio 19 S. Ludlow St 



Minneapolis, Minn.. **,*. ^. A> ... ^..._u u ,... 
Oakland. Cal. . . 13th St. and Broadway 
Ocean Park. Cal. .Pacific Elec. Depot 
Oklahoma City. Okla., 

131 W. Grand Ave 

Omaha. Neb 1416 Dodge St. 

Peoria. HI. .Jefferson and Liberty Sts. 
Phoenix, Ariz.. 

Adams St. and Central Ave. 
Portland, Ore., 3d and Washington Sts. 

Pueblo. Colo 401-3 N. Union Ave. 

St. Joseph. Mo 505 Francis St. 

St. Louis, Mo., 

318-328 N. Broadway 

East 

Detroit, Mich. . 13 W. LaFayette Ave. 
Evansville. Ind . L. Sc N. R. R. Bldg. 
Grand Rapids. Mich . . . . 125 Pearl St. 
Indianapolis. Ind.. 112-14 English Block 

Montreal. Que 238 St. James St. 

Newark. N. J.. Clinton and Beaver Sts. 
New York. N. Y . . . . 64 Broadway 
New York. N. Y . .57 Chambers St. 

New York, N. Y 31 W. 32d St. 

New York. N. Y I 14 W. 42d St. 

South 



St. Paul. Minn. .4th and Jackson Sts. 
Sacramento, Cal .. ...80 IK Si. 

Salt Lake City. Utah. 

Main and S. Temple Sta. 
San Antonio, Tex.. 

315-17 N. St. Mary's St. 

San Diego. Cal 300 Broadway 

San Franciso, Cal 50 Post St. 

San Jose. Cal. .1st andSan FernandoSla. 

Seattle. Wash 714-16 2d Ave. 

Shreveport. La.,Milam and Market Sts. 

Sioux City. Iowa 510 4th St. 

Spokane. Wash.. 

Davenport Hotel. 815 Sprague Ave. 
Tacoma. Wash .. I I I 7-19 Pacific Ave. 

Waco. Tex 6th and Franklin Sts. 

Whittier. Cal .. . .L. A. fit S. L. Station 
Winnipeg. Man 226 Portage Ave. 



Philadelphia. Pa.. 
Pittsburgh. Pa . . . . 

Reading. Pa 

Rochester. N. Y . 
Syracuse. N. Y 

Toledo, Ohio 

Washington. D. C 
Williamsport. Pa . . 
Wilmington. Del. . 



.1539 Chestnut St. 
. . .Arcade Building 
. ...16 N. Fifth St. 
20 State St. 

.335S. Warren St. 
.320 Madison Ave. 

. 1229 F St. N. W. 

.4th and Pine Sts. 
...905 Market St. 



Asheville. N. C 14 S. Polk Square Lexington. Ky Union Station 
Atlanta. Ga 74 Peachtree St. Louisville. Ky. . .4th and Market Sta. 
Augusta Ga 81 1 Broad St. Lynchburg. Va 722 Main St. 
tiirmineham Ala J 1st Ave KM i_- T* t-n HI \* c*. 


Paducah. Ky 430 Broadway 
Pensacola Fla San Carlos Hotel 


Raleigh. N. C 305 LaFayette St. 
Richmond. Va 830 E. Main St 
Savannah. Ga 37 Bull St. 
Sheffield. Ala Sheffield Hotel 
Tampa. Fla Hillsboro Hotel 
Vicksburg. Miss. 13 19 Washington St. 
Winslon-Salem. N. C.. 236 N. Main St. 

nents address Bureau of Service, 
,ines, 646 Transportation Bldg , 


c r- ' V^iL i tj i Memphis, lenn 60 N. Main bt. 
(Charleston, b. (-....Charleston Hotel ** ,-| *i <; i Q a I Q 
Charlotte. N. C 22 S. Tryon St. JJobile. Ala ' ', R y tl St ; 
Chattanooga. Tenn. .817 Market St. Montgomery. Ala. . .. Exchange Hotel 
Columbia. S. C Arcade Building Nashville Tenn.. Independent Life Bldg. 
Jacksonville. Fla 38 W. Bay St. New Orleans. La Si. Charles Hotel 
Knoxville. Tenn 600 Gay St Norfolk Va Monticello Hotel 


For detailed information regarding National Parks and Monu 
National Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau Western L 
Chicago. 



P a e fifteen 



SEASON 1919 




The ?ho*t-lik^ pinnacles in Sand Creek Canyon. 
A forest of these giant monolith* crowd the canyon walls. 






ill 



GLACIER 

Nationa.1 Park 




O N A L 



E Rl E S 




DAWSON PASS 
An intimate view from the summit of the Pass is obtained of the massive walls surrounding th= Two Medicine Valley 



An Appreciation of 

Glacier National Park 

By Mary Roberts Rinehart 

Author of "Tenting To-nigbt," "Through Glacier Park, " K", and Other Stories. 

Written expressly for the United States Railroad Administration 




F you are normal and philosophical, if you love your country, if you are 
willing to learn how little you count in the eternal scheme of things, go 
ride in the Rocky Mountains and save your soul. 

There are no "Keep off the Grass" signs in Glacier National Park. 
It is the wildest part of America. If the Government had not preserved it, it would 
have preserved itself but you and I would not have seen it. It is perhaps the most 
unique of all our parks, as it is undoubtedly the most magnificent. Seen from an 
automobile or a horse, Glacier National Park is a good place to visit. 

Here the Rocky Mountains run northwest and southeast, and in their glacier- 
carved basins are great spaces; cool shadowy depths in which lie blue lakes; moun- 
tain-sides threaded with white, where, from some hidden lake or glacier far above, 
the overflow falls a thousand feet or more, and over all the great silence of the Rockies 
Here nerves that have been tightened for years slowly relax. 

Here is the last home of a vanishing race the Blackfeet Indians. Here is the 
last stand of the Rocky Mountain sheep and the Rocky Mountain goat; here are 
elk, deer, black and grizzly bears, and mountain lions. Here are trails that follow 
the old game trails along the mountain side; here are meadows of June roses, forget- 
me-not, larkspur, and Indian paintbrush growing beside glaciers, snowfields and 
trails of a beauty to make you gasp. 

Here and there a trail leads through a snowfield; the hot sun seems to make no 
impression on these glacier-like patches. Flowers grow at their very borders, striped 
squirrels and whistling marmots run about, quite fearless, or sit up and watch the 
passing of horses and riders so close they can almost be touched. 

The call of the mountains is a real call. Throw off the impedimenta of civiliza- 
tion. Go out to the West and ride the mountain trails. Throw out your chest and 
breathe look across green valleys to wild peaks where mountain sheep stand im- 
passive on the edge of space. Then the mountains will get you. You will go back. 
The call is a real call. 

I have tr veled a great deal of Europe. The Alps have never held this lure for me. 
Perhaps it is because these mountains are my own in my own country. Cities 
call I have heard them. But there is no voice in all the world so insistent to me 
as the wordless call of these mountains. I shall go back. Those who go once always 
hope to go back. The lure of the great free spaces is in their blood. 




Page t bree 



To the American People: 

Uncle Sam asks you to be his guest. He has prepared for you the 
choice places of this continent places of grandeur, beauty and of 
wonder. He has built roads through the deep-cut canyons and beside 
happy streams, which will carry you into these places in comfort, and 
has provided lodgings and food in the most distant and inaccessible 
places that you might enjoy yourself and realize as little as possible 
the rigors of the pioneer traveler's life. These are for you. They are 
the playgrounds of the people. To see them is to make more hearty 
your affection and admiration for America. 



Secretary of the Interior 







Glacier National Park 




]EYOND the golden grain fields 
of the Dakotas, past the big 
ranches of the cattle country 
and adjoining the Blackfeet 
Indian Reservation in north- 
western Montana, is a segment of the 
Rocky Mountains abutting the inter- 
national boundary for thirty-five miles 
and extending fifty miles south to the 
railroad. The bold, grey perpendicular 
peak with the oblong summit is Chief 
Mountain sacred to the Indians, because 
according to the legend of the old Medi- 
cine Men, this was "where the Great 
Spirit lived when he made the world." 

Within this area of fifteen hundred 
square miles are more rugged mountain 
peaks, more glaciers, more picturesque 
lakes, more streams and waterfalls than 
exist anywhere else in America in so con- 
densed an area. 

This is Glacier National Park. 

Longer than the Red Man's legends or 
memory serve, this tract of eroded, snow- 
capped peaks, icy ravines, blue lakes, 
trout-inhabited streams and alpine mead- 
ows was the playground of the Blackfeet 
and Piegan Indians. Here they found 
elk, moose, deer, antelope, buffalo, bear, 
big-horn sheep and the long-haired moun- 
tain goat. The lakes and streams sup- 




plied all the fish they required, while the 
sarvisberries and huckleberries were 
abundant on the sunny mountain slopes. 

Today this is your playground. The 
United States Government purchased it 
from the Indians so that you might enjoy 
its attractions. It became a National 
Park May II, 1910. 

National Parks have been created by 
Congress for various reasons: To reserve 
for the people the wonders of natural 
phenomena; to provide free access to 
the waters of medicinal springs; to pre- 
serve the interesting architecture of a 
prehistoric race, or to furnish vacation 
playgrounds located where Nature has 
been unusually generous in assembling 
her scenic gems. 

Glacier National Park is in the last 
category. Above everything else it is a 
summer playground for the people, ap- 
pealing to that human emotion so aptly 
expressed by Jack London in the title of 
his interesting book, "The Call of the 
Wild." 

Of course the glaciers are the head- 
liners for Glacier National Park. They 
are a great attraction for the average 
tourist, who knows that glaciers are un- 
common things and reminiscent of the 
earlier mighty earth processes. Here one 









Page J our 




F.H.Kiter ICEBERG LAKE 

Huge chunk* of ice break off the glacier, and in July and August Iceberg Lake is a miniature Polar Sea 




K. E. Marble 



Walking and hoi 



TOURISTS "HIT THE TRAIL" 
ie trails radiate in every direction from Many Glacier 



not only sees them in action, but also 
sees what they have done in ages past. 

Contains Three-Score Glaciers 

In Glacier Park may be seen, in all 
the majesty of their rock- bound settings, 
the remnants of the massive ice sheets 
that played a big part in shaping the 
surface of the earth millions of years ago. 

Not one or two, but dozens of them are 
clinging to the sides of the scarred and 
serrated ridges of the Continental Divide, 
where they spread out like a string of 
pearls glistening in the sun. 

On summer days these glaciers are fur- 
rowed with thousands of threads of 
water innumerable little rills which 
run and sparkle over their surfaces like 
fine threads of quicksilver. Finally they 
join the larger streams which go plunging 
over the moisture-laden, flower-strewn, 
grassy slopes into the milky-blue waters 
of the lakes hundreds of feet below. 

A glacier has three characteristics: It 
is ice, the ice must be moving, and it 
must have moved sufficiently to have 
formed a moraine, consisting of rocks, 
earth and debris which the glacier has 
pushed ahead of it or thrown to each 
side in its forward movement. The im- 
mobility of a glacier is only apparent. It 
is living. It moves and advances with- 



Page six 



^y 

5 

ted 



out ceasing. Winter is the season of re- 
pose for the glaciers. In the spring, all 
their life and activity return. The warm- 
er the weather, the more activity they 
develop. 

Interest in the glaciers soon leads 
enthusiasm over the scenic effects create 
as a result of the prehistoric glacial ac- 
tion, and nowhere in America is this so 
strikingly displayed. In fact, it is the 
result of this glacial action of the past 
combined with one other unusual geologi- 
cal formation, known as the Lewis Over- 
thrust Fault, that makes Glacier National 
Park the beauty spot it is today. 

The Great Uplift of the Lewis 
Overthrust 

Geologists teach that an overthrust 
fault is a displacement of earth strata 
whereby one layer of rock overlaps an- 
other. It is the result of pressures far 
below the surface of the earth. 

As the earth's crust contracted during 
the long ages of the past, pressures from 
within caused a bulging in places, very 
much as the sides of an orange will bulge 
when squeezed. This terrific pressure 
gradually pushed up the rocks and earth 
and formed the mountain ranges. In a 
few places the pressure was sufficient to 
break through the crust. This is what 







TWO MEDICINE LAKES 
The exquisite grouping of mountains around the lakes give this basin a marked individuality 



happened in what is now Glacier Na- 
tional Park. When the earth's crust 
could stand the pressure no longer, one 
edge was thrust upward and tumbled for- 
ward over the other edge; when it settled, 
the western edge of this break overlapped 
the eastern edge ten to fifteen miles, and 
was thousands of feet high, extending 
along a front of forty miles. 

As a result of this upheaval, there are 
several places in the Park, notably at 
Chief Mountain, where the oldest stratum 
of rock is found on top of the mountain 
and the newest stratum at the bottom. 
This has been named the Lewis Over- 
thrust. 1 1 is one of the largest in the world 
and is of great interest to scientists. 

It is interesting to trace the course of 
the Lewis Overthrust. It practically 
forms the eastern edge of the Park, and is 
plainly outlined on the topographic maps 
issued by the United States Geological 
Survey. Starting at a point on the rail- 
road just south of Fielding, it extends in 
a northerly direction almost to the in- 
ternational boundary, and in a general 
way follows a line parallel to the Con- 
tinental Divide. 

The Carving of the Rocks 

Later came the glacial period, and the 
moving out of the great ice sheets which 



covered this part of the earth for untold 
ages. As the vast ice masses moved down 
the slopes of this precipitous wall, they 
gouged deep furrows that formed valleys, 
and cut and chiseled the highly-colored 
rocks, tearing away the softer parts, and 
swerving from their courses when they 
encountered resistance of the harder rock 
masses. 

The Lewis Overthrust Fault gave the 
glaciers a wonderful opportunity. The 
grinding and carving by the huge ice 
masses, followed by erosion during thou- 
sands of years of exposure to the ele- 
ments, have created fantastic effects. 
Much of the exposed rock is very highly 
colored, red and green mixed with blue- 
grey. In due course of the slow centu- 
ries came the change of climate, which 
brought with it grass, trees, flowers and 
other vegetation, so that today this re- 
gion is a veritable symphony of water, 
rock and foliage. It is in the marvelous 
grouping and massing of these colorful 
effects that Glacier Park makes such a 
strong appeal. 

It will be seen, therefore, that this ti- 
tanic Overthrust fault, which occurred 
millions of years ago, is the primary rea- 
son for Glacier National Park today. It 
is the distinguishing feature that differen- 
tiates this part of the Rockies from all 



Page seven 




F.H.Kis f r TRAIL OVER SWIFTCURRENT PASS 

From Swiftcurrent Pass marvelous views are obtained of stupendous granite walls and turquoise blue lake 



Page eight 



other mountain regions in North America. 
The result is that the visitor entering 
Glacier Park finds a land of enormous 
hollowed basins or cirques, separated from 
each other by saw-tooth edged walls. In 
many cases these walls are nearly per- 
pendicular and rise two to four thousand 
feet above the floor of the basin. Espe- 
cially fine examples are to be seen at 
Cracker Lake, Iceberg Lake, and Ava- 
lanche Basin. 

These glacial cirques are a striking 
feature of Glacier National Park. They 
are huge pockets or U-shaped basins that 
are actually carved out of the rock by the 
constant grinding of the moving glaciers. 

A Mass of Majestic Mountain 
Peaks 

The main range of the Rockies extends 
north and south through the Park, the 
Continental Divide being almost in its 
center, and forming a natural wall which 
divides the Park into halves. 

It is the east side that presents the 
most stupendous scenic effects. Some 
idea of the magnitude of this mountain 
realm is indicated by the number of peaks 
within its narrow confines. There are 83 
named mountains having an altitude of 
from 7,000 to 10,000 feet, and four ex- 
ceeding 10,000 feet the highest being 
Mt. Cleveland, 10,438 feet. They are 
huddled together as though they tried to 
crowd each other out of the way in their 
effort to reach the clouds. From the 
summit of Swiftcurrent Mountain over 
forty of these peaks can be counted from 
one viewpoint. 

Irregular in outline, fantastic in shape, 
and always spectacular, they have one 
characteristic in common the abruptness 
with which they rise from the shore of 
lake or floor of valley. No need here to 
walk over rolling foothills several miles 
to reach a mountain. There are no foot- 
hills; one is close to the mountains all 
the time. There is opportunity here to 
get acquainted with these mountains 
intimately acquainted from the com- 
fortable cushions of an automobile or the 
sunny decks of a smooth-running launch. 
Their lure is as elusive as it is fascinating. 
Never does one see them twice the same. 
Under constantly changing atmospheric 
conditions they vary their tones from 
light blue to deep purple, from brilliant 



red to faint rose, softened by the rich 
green foliage on the (ower levels. 

The upper slopes are above timber line; 
the lower slopes, and the valleys not oc- 
cupied by lakes and streams, are crowded 
with forests, green and inviting. From 
the front porches of the hotels and chalets 
magnificent pictures are presented of 
mountain peaks, snowfields, glaciers, 
lakes, canyons and forests, grouped and 
massed in delicate yet bewildering com- 
binations. 

An Amazing Array of Mountain 
Lakes 

The lakes perhaps are the one feature 
that appeals to more persons than any 
other phase of Glacier Park's varied at- 
tractions. Lakes everywhere -long and 
narrow lakes round and irregular lakes 
little blue ponds in mountain pockets, 
and long silvery ribbons in narrow valleys. 

Lake St. Mary, with its stately, cres- 
cent-shaped mountain frame, almost a 
mile above the surface, is fed by melting 
ice and snow from Blackfeet Glacier. 1 1 
is the largest lake on the east side, while 
Lake McDonald is the gem of the west 
side of the Park. Both lakes are long, 
narrow and very deep, with mountains 
rising from their shores. It is on these 
lakes that one can cruise in comfortable 
launches, or from a rowboat try his luck 
with a fly casting rod in the shadows of 
the pines. 

Two Medicine Lake is somewhat 
smaller, and has both symmetry and dig- 
nity. The surrounding peaks bathe their 
red granite summits in the azure sky and 
their green bases in the soft blue waters. 

Grinnell, Josephine, McDermott, 
Gunsight, Ellen Wilson and Cracker 
Lakes each has its individual charm, but 
Iceberg Lake is the most interesting. The 
warmer the weather the more ice there is 
in the lake. Iceberg Glacier projects its 
face into the lake, and day after day dur- 
ing the summer this ice field crumbles 
along the front, great chunks breaking 
off and sliding into the water to float 
around on the bosom of the lake hun- 
dreds of them, oftentimes. Flowers and 
foliage growing along the shores add to 
the charm of this unique place, where 
summer and winter meet. 

There are many other lakes. The United 
States Geological Survey has mapped two 



P c g t nine 




This cone shaped peak stands like 



GRINNELL MOUNTAIN 
sentinel at the entrance to the S\ 



'iftcurrent and Cataract Valleys 



hundred and fifty. From trail and road 
they peer at one from all sides. They are 
low in the canyons and high on the moun- 
tains. They reflect the peaks, trees and 
rocks in their blue waters during the day, 
and at evening time absorb the glow of 
the setting sun, as though trying to dis- 
pel the night chill from the waters. 



\ Million- 



(arden 



For profusion and variety : the wild 
flowers of Glacier Park must share honors 
with the lakes. In the valleys, along the 
shores of lakes and streams, on the moun- 
tain passes, oftentimes on the very edge 
of snowfields and glaciers, wild flowers 
add their variegated hues to the green 
foliage and the harsher colors in the rocks. 
More than one hundred varieties of wild 
flowers are native to the Park. Canyon 
Creek, Cracker Lake, Piegan Pines, Grin- 
nell Lake, Logan Pass and Granite Park 
are a few of the places especially noted 
for plant life. 

Below are some of the prominent varie- 
ties of wild flowers, berries, and grasses 
seen along the roads and trails: 

Indian paint brush, mountain lilies, 
asters, walking cane, yellow dog-tooth 
violet, wild hollyhock, clematis, syringa, 
queen's cup, bluebell, twin flower, star of 
the morning, lupin, yellow columbine, 



blue larkspur and false forget-me-not; 
huckleberry, pigeonberry and thimble- 
berry; beargrass, sweetgrass and bearweed. 

The Oldest Inhabitants 

Creatures of the wild are in evidence 
at every turn of the road or trail. Black 
and brown bears are often seen, generally 
near the chalets and hotels, and occasion- 
ally will pose for the photographer. There 
are also "silvertips" or grizzly bears. 

The Rocky Mountain goat is perhaps 
the most interesting of the large wild 
animals. This sure-footed climber pre- 
fers the higher altitudes on the mountain 
slopes, and seldom descends low enough 
to give the tourist a "close-up." They 
can be seen moving along the narrow 
rock ledges and are easily distinguished 
by their coats of long white hair, which 
sharply contrast with the rocks. 

The big-horn, or Rocky Mountain 
sheep, is more friendly, also more inquisi- 
tive. He will occasionally pause in his 
feeding to gaze at a passing party of tour- 
ists, apparently quite unafraid, and 
exhibiting a curious interest in his dis- 
turbers. 

Elk and deer may be seen trotting 
along the trail, or on the shore of some 
lake or stream where they come down 
to drink. 



Pane ten 




i.ser UPPER ST. MARY LAKE 

From the porches of the chalet, a marvelous view is obtained of Going-to-the-Sun Mountain and the 
embattled peaks at the head of the valley 



The small animals, such as porcupines, 
whistling marmots and mountain or pack 
rats, are interesting and harmless. The 
whistling marmot is invariably encoun- 
tered above timber line, especially on the 
passes. Large families live in tunnels and 
caves in rocks. They always have a sen- 
tinel on watch, and when disturbed by 
passing tourists, they warn each other by 
their whistle, which is a splendid imita- 
tion of a small boy signaling his chum to 
come out to play. 

Where the Fighting Trout Leap 
High 

Several species of mountain trout in- 
habit most of the lakes and streams. The 
principal varieties are the cut-throat 
(otherwise known as the native or black- 
spotted trout), rainbow, Dolly Varden, 
eastern brook and Mackinaw trout. The 
cut-throat and eastern brook are the favor- 
ites of trout fishermen. They are both 
very game, very shy, and at times require 
considerable coaxing, but they strike 
quickly and are hard fighters. These fish 
sometimes attain a weight of six pounds. 

Mackinaw trout are found only in St. 
Mary Lake. They have been taken weigh- 
ing thirty-five pounds; ten to fifteen pound 
Mackinaw trout are quite common. They 
are not as good fighters as the smaller vari- 



eties, but for excitement make up in weight 
what they lack in fighting qualities. 

The Dolly Varden and rainbow trout 
are confined to a few lakes and the larger 
streams, and are not caught as frequently 
as the other varieties. 

Practically all fishing is done by cast- 
ing with a fly rod, using artificial flies or 
sometimes salmon eggs for bait. 

Home of Blackfeet Indians 

The Blackfeet and Piegan Indians have 
left a lasting impress of their occupation 
of this region, as the names of many of the 
mountains, lakes and waterfalls still bear 
the original Indian names, such as Rising 
Wolf, Going-to-the-Sun and Almost-a- 
Dog mountains, Morning Eagle Falls, 
and Two Medicine Lakes. They also con- 
tributed to the mysticism and romance of 
the country by the tales of their early day 
ceremonies in the walled-in valleys, their 
hunting exploits on the prairies, and the 
religious significance they attach to sev- 
eral of the high peaks. 

From the days when the Indians 
roamed the vast prairies to the east, and 
their hunting ground extended from the 
Missouri River on the south to the Sask- 
atchewan River in Canada this region was 
known to them as the "Land of Shining 
Mountains." 



Page eleven 




MANY GLACIER HOTEL 
At the end of the auto road is Many Glacier Hotel, the focal point for trips over miles of mountain trails 



The Lure of Glacier Park 



Glacier National Park has no frivolous 
sideshows for garrulous trippers, no 
Coney Island attractions. There are 
other canyons as deep and other moun- 
tains as high; but those who have roamed 
the world with eyes open sincerely say 
that in no other place they have seen has 
Nature so condensed her wonders and 
run riot with such utter abandon; in no 
other place has she carved and hewn with 
such unrestrained fancy, and scattered 
her jewels with so reckless a hand. 

Here the Rocky Mountains tumble and 
froth like a wind-whipped tide, as they 
careen off to the northwest. This is the 
fountain head of the Continent, with its 
triple watershed the beginning of little 
and big things. Huddled close together 
are tiny streams, the span of a hand in 
width, that miles and miles away to the 
north, south and west, flow as mighty 
rivers into Hudson Bay, the Gulf of 
Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. 

Two hundred and fifty lakes in valley, 
glacial cirque and mountain pocket flash 
back to the sky the blue and green hues 



they borrowed from it. Hundreds of 
waterfalls cascade from their sources on 
glacial field or everlasting snow in mighty 
torrents or milky -white traceries; rain- 
bows flicker and vanish in the ever- 
changing play of the waters, while the 
bright Montana sun does tricks of light 
and shade on tree and rock. 

High up on some gale-swept crag the 
mountain goat pauses for a moment and 
plunges from view. Lower down the big- 
horn sheep treads his sure-footed way; 
the clownish bear shuffles to his huckle- 
berry patch; and in the blue of the heav- 
ens, between mountain peak and sun, the 
bald eagle sails his rounded course, peer- 
ing down for the timid creature beneath 
the leaves or in the shadow of the rocks. 
And all is as it was thousands of years 
ago, except for some man-tracks here and 
there, where the road winds around the 
base of mountain and over ridge; where 
the mark of a trail leaves its faint trace 
on the surface, or the blue smoke curling 
up from the stone chimney of chalet or 
hotel indicates that man has appropri- 
ated it to his uses. 



Page t ii> e It t 



1 



GLACIER PARK HOTEL 
The hotel at the Eastern gateway is of unique architecture The Indians call if the "Big Trees Lodge" 



Entering at Glacier Park Station 

Eastern Gateway 




LACIER PARK station, Montana, 
is the eastern and principal en- 
trance to the Park. Adjacent to 
the railroad station is Glacier Park 
Hotel, the gateway hostelry and 
starting point for trips farther 
north. It is a short walk along wide poppy- 
bordered paths, through the gateway arch to the 
hotel office. The architecture of this mammoth 
structure is what might be called the "forestry" 
type the striking feature being the immense 
logs of Douglas fir and cedar used as supporting 
pillars, inside and out. Many of these logs are 
forty-two feet high and several measure five 
feet in diameter; they extend from basement 
to roof. 

The building, containing nearly two hundred 
rooms, is in two large units connected by a long, 
roofed-over observation room, with large plate 
glass windows facing the mountains. On one 
side is Midvale Creek, a pretty little trout stream, 
and on the other side, within a few hundred 
yards, is Two Medicine River. From the 
porches of the hotel can be seen a dozen moun- 
tains guarding the entrance to the Two Medicine 
Valley Mt. Henry, Papoose, Bearhead, Squaw 
and Basin Mountains being the principal ones. 
To the east are the broad open plains of the 
Blackfeet Indian Reservation. 

From Glacier Park Hotel four attractive auto 
trips may be made, as the automobile highway 
starts here. The one-day trip to Going-to-the-Sun 
Chalets on St. Mary Lake is always popular. 
This ten-hour ride presents over 100 miles of the 
main range of the Rockies, a panorama from 



Divide Mountain south to Heart Butte. There 
is an afternoon trip to Two Medicine Lakes and 
Chalets, and the Cut Bank Canyon trip to Cut 
Bank Chalets. The five-hour auto tour to Many 
Glacier brings within the tourist's vision a com- 
bination of more mountain peaks, lakes, glaciers, 
and snow-capped summits than can be seen 
in the same length of time anywhere in this 
country. 

A good trail to Two Medicine Lake goes over 
Mt. Henry. From the top of this mountain a 
dozen peaks can be seen and a splendid view ob- 
tained of the entire Two Medicine Valley, half a 
mile below. 

The Two Medicine Valley 

"The-river-where-the-two-medicine-lodges- 
were-built" is the way the Indians designated the 
stream that drains the three lakes of the Two 
Medicine Valley. There are several versions of 
this legend of the Two Medicine Lodges, but all 
agree that many years ago there was factional 
strife in the Blackfeet Tribe and the two con- 
tending parties each built a medicine lodge on 
the banks of this river. 

Nothing in the Park excels the Two Medicine 
Valley in beauty of mountain grouping. Three 
fair-sized lakes in a chain, all at different alti- 
tudes, form the central stage, while grouped 
around them are a dozen splendid mountains of 
which Rising Wolf, with its red granite top 95 1 
feet in the air, easily is monarch. 

The middle lake is reached by the automobile 
road, ending at the Two Medicine Chalets, artis- 
tically grouped on the lake shore in the shadow 



Page thirteen 



of Rising Wolf. At the head of the lake is Mt. 
Rockwell (9505 feet), flanked on one side by Mt. 
Helen and Pumpelly's Pillar, and on the other 
by Mt. Grizzly. 

Two Medicine Lake affords fine trout fishing. 
the favorite spot being at the outlet just below 
the chalets. Cut-throat and eastern brook trout 
are abundant in this lake and in Two Medicine 
River below Trick Falls. 

Trick Falls is located two miles from the 
chalets and the automobiles stop long enough to 
give passengers an opportunity to walk up the 
trail a few hundred feet, where a good view is 
obtainable. Dawson Pass, the summit of Mt. 
Henry, upper Two Medicine Lake, and the Dry 
Fork Trail over Mt. Morgan and Cut Bank Pass 
to the Cut Bank Chalets, are the principal trail 
trips from Two Medicine Chalets. 

In the Cut Bank Canyon 

Whichever way one enters the Cut Bank Can- 
yon. whether down the valley from the summit 
of Cut Bank Pass, or following the winding auto 
road up the river, one is impressed by the quiet 
restfulness of the place. The Cut Bank River 
has its source in a small glacier near the summit 
of the Pass. A series of three wide plateaux has 
enabled the trail-builders to make the descent to 
the floor of the valley by easy stages. On the 
upper plateau two tiny blue lakes are seen the 
first well-defined headwaters of the river. 

It is only a few miles from the summit down 
to the Chalets, the trail passing through many 
open parks, and crossing the stream several times. 
There are numerous pools in the bends of the 
river and the beavers have built dams here and 
there, making fine hiding places for the wary cut- 
throat trout, that is a native of this stream. 

Cut Bank Chalets are an over-night stop for 
trail parties moving between Two Medicine and 
St. Mary. 1 1 is also reached by automobile from 
Glacier Park 1 lotel. 

Above the Chalets a trail forks to the right, and 
following this will bring one to the Triple Divide, 
the most interesting peak in the Park. 

The Triple Divide 

} lere is perhaps the most interesting geological 
formation in America a three-sided mount, itti 
from whose summit the waters flow north to 
Hudson Bay. south to the Gulf of Mexico and 
west to the Pacific Ocean. It is not imaginary. 
A walk of about a mile from the place where the 
trail crosses the pass will bring one to the top of 
the Triple Divide, and from here the courses of 
the three tiny streams can be traced from their 
source for miles and miles down the valley, on 
their way to three different oceans. 

It is literally true that if a person standing on 
the summit of this three-sided mountain spills a 
cup of water it wr \ild find its way to three corners 
of the continent. 



Th* St. M.ir> 1 aki's ami the 

I merging from the dense timber along the 
automobile road, one gets the first comprehensive 
idea of Glacier National Park as the mountains 
massed at the head of St. Mary Valley suddenly 
are exposed to view 



Here are two narrow, ribbon-like bodies of 
water the St. Mary Lakes. The upper lake is 
ten miles long, with the mountains rising ab- 
ruptly from the shores; at the lower end of this 
lake are the St. Mary Chalets the fourth group 
in the chain of places operated by the Hotel 
Company. 

On the south shore of the lake. Red Eagle and 
Little Chief Mountains project their ship-like 
prows into the water. On the north shore Single- 
shot. Goat and Whitefish Mountains expose their 
red. green and purple hues to the mirror-like 
surface of the lake. Far up the valley the tilted 
cone of Fusilade Mountain disputes the right of 
way to Gunsight Pass, and Reynolds Peak, with 
its green slopes, is strongly contrasted against 
the frosted summit of the Continental Divide. 

A day's journey from St. Mary Chalets is Red 
Eagle Lake, celebrated among fishermen for its 
large cut-throat trout. 

At St. Mary Chalets a sturdy launch, capable 
of carrying one hundred passengers, is waiting. 
and transfer from the automobiles is made by 
passengers taking the side trip to Going-to-the- 
Sun Chalets at the head of the lake. Here, per- 
haps, the loveliest, single picture in the park in 
fact, many who are competent to judge, say. in 
the world is to be seen from the chalet porches. 

The Region of Going-to-the-Sun 
Mountain 

If there is one mountain above all others in 
Glacier National Park whose overpowering per- 
sonality impresses itself on the memory of the 
sightseer, it is Going-to-the-Sun. This is partly 
due to the fact that an excellent view of its classic 
outlines may be had from all sides. 

If one were standing on its summit. 9584 feet 
above sea level, he would look almost straight 
down nearly one mile into St. Mary Lake. The 
unusual name has no connection with the height 
of the mountain or its imposing cathedral-type 
architecture. It is an inaccurate translation of 
an Indian name. 

Many years ago. according to the Indian 
legend, the Sun Father sent his representative. 
Sour Spirit, to the Piegans and Blackfeet to 
teach them all the useful arts how to make a 
tepee, tan the hides of the wolf and elk. from 
which to manufacture moccasins and clothing, 
and other useful things. He showed them how 
to make bows and arrows that would kill the elk. 
deer and buffalo, and assure them plenty to eat. 

Sour Spirit lived with them a long time, but 
was finally called back to the lodge of his father 
in the sun. In order that his good work and 
teachings would not be forgotten, he caused the 
likeness of his face to be placed on the side of 
this mountain. It may be seen there today in 
the form of a great snow field, the outline of 
which strongly resembles an Indian face with the 
head dressed in a war bonnet. Ever since that 
time the Indians have called it "Mah-tah-pee-o- 
stook-sis-meh-stuk." which means "The moun- 
tain -with- the-face-of -Sour-Spirit-who-has-gone- 
back-to-the-sun." 

A stop of a few days must be made if one takes 
the trail trips described below. 

Sexton Glacier, hanging high on the mountain 
side, is in plain view from the deck of the launch. 
It is a popular side trip from Going-to-the Sun 




F.H.Kiser GOING-TO-THE-SUN MOUNTAIN 

The classic outlines of this mountain are revealed from every side. The summit is nearly one mile above the water 



P age fifteen 



t:? " 



V 













R.E. Marble 



IN THE MAI 
Grinnell Glacier. The Garden Wall. Gould Mountain and Josephine Lake 



Page s i x t e e 




REGION 
water, rock and foliage it has taken Nature millions of years to compose 




K ,ser t'boto Co. TR I CK FALLS 

The water discharges from a subterranean passage, but during the flood stage it also comes over the top 



Pant rifhtren 



Chalets to Sexton Glacier. A very pretty trail 
follows Baring Creek, and horses may be ridden 
to the very edge of the ice. West of the chalets 
is Gunsight Lake. From the foot of this lake it 
is a short climb to Blackfeet Glacier, the largest, 
and in many respects the most interesting, of all 
the glaciers in the Park to explore. 

Over Gunsight Pass to Sperry 
Glacier 

At Gunsight Lake the trail starts up the steep 
slopes of Mt. Jackson toward Gunsight Pass, 
from the summit of which an expansive view both 
east and west is unfolded; two thousand feet 
below is Gunsight Lake, on the east side, and 
Lake Ellen Wilson, on the west side. Swinging 
along the shale-rock slopes above Lake Ellen 
Wilson, and over the Lincoln Divide, the trail 
descends suddenly into a circular basin to the 
Sperry Glacier Chalets. Continuing, it again 
drops down the side of Mt. Edwards to Lake 
McDonald. It is practically a day's journey 
from Going-to-the-Sun Chalets to Sperry Glacier 
Chalets, either on foot or with horses, and about 
a three-hour trip from Sperry to Lake McDonald. 

If a trip up to the glacier is planned, it will be 
necessary to stop at the chalets over night. 

Over Piegan Pass to Many Glacier 

Another well traveled route from Going-to-the- 
Sun Chalets is over Piegan Pass trail, which starts 
directly west, following the lake shore to the 
north fork of the St. Mary River. Here it swings 
to the right, and by means of many turns around 
the forest-covered benches, ascends the west 
side of Going-to-the-Sun Mountain, finally reach- 
ing the depression in the connecting wall between 
Cataract and Siyeh mountains, known as Piegan 
Pass. Here is one of those matchless, incom- 
parable scenes which words fail to portray. 
Blackfeet Glacier to the south, its five square 
miles of snow and ice in line of vision, displays 
a glistening array of blue, green and pinkish 
hues, as the sun penetrates crevasse and fissure. 
This is the trail route to the Many Glacier 
region. 

Lunch boxes are unpacked at Piegan Pines, at 
the edge of the timber line, below the summit of 
the pass. In this tiny mountain park of a few 
acres can at certain seasons be found more than 
two dozen varieties of flowers. 

Descending the north side of the mountain, 
the trail winds down and around Morning Eagle 
Falls to Cataract Creek. From here on it is very 
picturesque, circling along the base of Gould 
Mountain to Grinnell Lake, and thence along the 
shore of Josephine Lake and Lake McDermott 
to Many Glacier Hotel. 

The New Logan Pass Trail 

During the summer of 1918 a new trail was 
completed across the Continental Divide, known 
as Logan Pass Trail. It is intensely scenic, and 
easy to travel either afoot or on horseback. 

Leaving Going-to-the-Sun Chalets, this trail 
branches to the left four miles out on the Piegan 
Pass trail and strikes up Reynolds Creek, past 
the shelf glacier which sprinkles its waters on a 
narrow fertile bench called the Hanging Gardens, 
on the east side of Mt. Reynolds, to a little 
plateau between Pollock and Oberlin Mountains. 
The summit of the pass and the approaches to 



it are literally covered with wild flowers. From 
the western slope the trail continues along the 
Garden Wall a high, thin, saw-tooth ridge to 
Granite Park Chalets. 

The Many Glacier Region 

Returning now to the automobile highway at 
St. Mary Chalets, the journey continues along 
the shores of lower St. Mary Lake and up the 
Swiftcurrent valley to Many Glacier Hotel. 

From the automobile the tourist gets a com- 
prehensive view of Chief Mountain, Yellow. 
Appekunny and Altyn Mountains on the right 
of the road as the Swiftcurrent Valley is entered, 
while at the left Boulder Ridge, Point Mountain, 
and Mt. Al'en keep changing their outlines as 
the auto progresses along the winding road. 

The mountains become more spectacular, and 
their height is magnified, as the valley gradually 
contracts. The road apparently is approaching 
a solid stone wall thousands of feet high, and it 
would appear that no other exit from this narrow 
valley could possibly be made except by the same 
route that one enters. 

It is, however, due to the number and variety 
of side trips from this scenic center that the 
Many Glacier Region has become the principal 
focal point for trail trips. 

Ahead of the tourist are the massive, impen- 
etrable-looking walls of the Continental Divide. 
The mountain commanding the center of the 
picture is Grinnell; to the left of that is Gould 
Mountain, easily recognized by the wide band of 
colored rock near the top, and its roof-like for- 
mation. 

High up on the Garden Wall, the thin ridge 
connecting the two, is Grinnell Glacier. It is a 
shapely glacier not forbidding and repellant 
but inviting and friendly. The music of its 
cataracts calls to the tourists to come and play 
in its front yard among the flowers, rocks and 
moss on the terminal moraine. 

To the right of Grinnell Mountain is Swift- 
current Mountain, and in a depression or saddle 
between these two is Swiftcurrent Pass. 

The little Swiss-type log buildings on the right 
of the road are the Many Glacier Chalets, and 
crossing the rustic bridge below McDermott 
Falls, the road swings around a shoulder of rock 
an offshoot of Mt. Allen ending on the shores 
of Lake McDermott at Many Glacier Hotel. 

From the front porches of this hotel, an in- 
spiring mountain panorama is spread before the 
tourist, and those who find the walking and 
horseback tours too strenuous take a deep de- 
light in the ever-changing picture to be seen from 
the hotel itself. 

From here trails radiate in several directions 
and the question for the tourist to decide is 
which trip to make first. A comparatively short 
and easy side jaunt is that to Iceberg Lake, a 
two-hour journey from the hotel. 

A Miniature Polar Sea 

Iceberg Lake is a miniature Polar sea. This 
unique body of water makes a vivid impression. 
The little turquoise lake, covering perhaps 100 
acres, is backed up with a head wall 3,000 feet 
above the surface of the water. It is never free 
from ice. During the warm days of July and 
August, huge chunks of ice break off the face of 



Page nineteen 



the glacier at the head of the lake and these 
icebergs float around for days before they melt 
or become sufficiently small to find their way over 
the falls at the outlet. This is a good place to 
get a view of mountain goats and big-horn sheep. 
They are frequently seen working their way along 
the ledges, feeding on the grass and moss. 

Up Canyon Creek to Cracker Lake 

In the opposite direction from the hotel is 
another favorite trip. The Cracker Lake trail 
follows Canyon Creek to its source in Cracker 
Lake at the head of the canyon formed by the 
high walls of Mt. Allen and Siyeh Mountain. 
The trail is a fascinating one, crossing and re- 
crossing the turbulent twistings of Canyon 
Creek. It is well for the tourist to take a fish 
rod along and try matching his skill against the 
mountain trout in the stream and lake. The 
canyon ends abruptly, further progress being 
blocked by the highly colored perpendicular wall 
of Siyeh Mountain. 

Grinnell Lake and Glacier 

Grinnell. Josephine and McDermott form a 
chain of glacier-fed lakes, the water source being 
the melted snow and ice of Grinnell Glacier. 
The trail skirts the edges of the lakes and it is a 
trip of but a few hours to the upper, or Grinnell 
Lake. Discharging from the face of Grinnell 
Glacier, three large cataracts tumble their waters 
down the steep slope into the lake. The milky 
appearance of the water indicates it is of glacial 
origin. The color is due to the fine silt and 
pulverized rock, the result of movement of the 
glacier. 

Piegan Pass and Morning Eagle Falls 

Piegan Pass trail is built along the west side of 
Mt. Allen, following the contour of the valley, to 
Grinnell Lake, and crossing a small wooded 
ridge, continues along Cataract Creek to Morn- 
ing Eagle Falls. The trip from Many Glacier 
Hotel to Morning Eagle Falls and return is rec- 
ommended to those who do not care for the 
higher altitudes. The trail, by means of switch- 
backs, makes its way above the falls to the sum- 
mit of the Pass. From here it follows the shale- 
rock slopes down to the timber line on Going-to- 
the-Sun mountain and continues on to St. Mary 
Lake and Going-to-the-Sun Chalets. This is a 
trip of many marvelous miles of stupendous 
mountain scenery. From the summit of the 
Pass. Blackfeet Glacier is seen sparkling in the 
sunlight backed by the irregular peaks of Jack- 
son. Almost-a-dog. Citadel and Blackfeet moun- 
tains. 

Over Swiftcurrent Pass 

John Muir says: "Few places in the world are 
more dangerous than home. Fear not, therefore, 
to try the mountain passes. They kill care, save 
you from deadly apathy, set you free and call 
forth every faculty into vigorous, enthusiastic 
action." 

No one should fail to go over Swif tcurrent Pass. 
A splendid trail from Many Glacier Hotel wan- 
ders along the Swiftcurrent River, between Grin- 
nell and Wilbur Mountains to the foot of Swift- 




current Mountain. Here it zig-zags up to Rocky 
Point, a sharp, projecting shoulder ot the moun- 
tain. From the summit of thia point, about two- 
thirds of the distance to the pass, an impressive 
view is obtained. Looking east down the Swift- 
current valley, nine lakes can be counted, the last 
one Duck Lake being twenty miles to the east 
on the Blackfeet Indian Reservation. Another 
mile brings one to the summit of the pass, and 
after crossing several large snow patches that re- 
fuse to submit to the rays of Old Sol, a signboard 
indicates that an altitude of 7 1 56 feet above 
level has been attained the top of the pass. 

Several shelf glaciers have been seen onthewa 
clinging to the east side of the mountain. De- 
scending the west side, a few minutes' ride, an 
two small stone chalets come into view, 
are the Granite Park chalets. 

Granite Park and Vicinity 

The trip to Granite Park chalets and back 
be made in one day, but to appreciate the beauty 
of the region no less than two days should be de- 
voted to it, as there are some short walking trips 
radiating from the Granite Park chalets. 

Another longer trip is the three-day triangle 
trip leaving Many Glacier Hotel the first day 
and going over Swiftcurrent Pass to Granite 
Park; on the second day going over Logan Pass 
to Going-to-the-Sun Chalets; and on the third 
day returning via Piegan Pass to Many Glac 
Hotel. 

Granite Park is a wide plateau bulging from 
the west side of the Continental wall, 6500 feet 
above sea level, at the edge of the timber line. 
Ahead of it is the wide, heavily-timbered Mc- 
Donald Valley. Directly across the deep green 
valley is Heaven's Peak, whose stately outlines 
are enhanced by the snow clinging to its sides like 
fine lint. A trail to the south takes one over Lo- 
gan Pass to Going-to-the-Sun Chalets; a foot 
trail leads to the Garden Wall, where one can see 
over the top of the wall, and look far down the 
Swiftcurrent and Cataract valleys, and onto 
Grinnell Glacier below. 



A Tumbled Mass of Peaks 



rea 

ay, 



ana 



utte. 



Another foot trail, requiring a walk of about an 
hour to the top of Swiftcurrent Mountain, will 
spread before the tourist one of the broadest, and 
most inspiring views in any land. To the sout 
beyond the goat-haunted ledges of the Ga 
Wall, the embattled summits of Haystack But 
Mt. Pollock, Mt. Brown, Oberlin and Cannon 
Mountains appear as a jumbled collection of 
discarded fortresses. To the north there is the 
same extravagant piling-up of resplendent, lofty 
ridges, the same unequal line of spires and peaks, 
of points and crags their deep sun-protected 
recesses, vast receptacles for the inevitable masses 
of eternal snow. 

Another fifteen-minute walk takes one to 
Rosenwald Ridge, just north of the chalets. Here 
an excellent view of Mt. Cleveland is obtained, as 
well as Trapper Peak. Vulture Peak, and other 
mountains to the north and west. Trails also 
lead from here to Lake McDonald on the South, 
and north to Waterton Lake. 



Page twenty 








1 







R. E. Marble HEAD OF LAKE McDONALD 

The mountain framing of the upper end of the lake is of distinctively Alpine character 



Page t w en ty -one 




LEWIS' (GLACIER) HOTEL 
Located on beautifully wooded slopes at the upper end of Lake McDonald are modern resort facilities 

Entering the Park at Belton 

Western Gateway 



Belton, Montana, is the railroad station at the 
western entrance to the Park. The Belton Cha- 
lets near the station provide accommodations for 
tourists waiting for trains or stage connections. 
An auto stage makes regular trips to the foot of 
Lake McDonald, connecting with launch service 
for resorts at the head of the lake. A wide ma- 
cadam road, built through a forest of heavy cedar 
and spruce, leads to the foot of Lake McDonald, 
three miles north of Belton. 

At the lower end of the lake the road swings to 
the left and continues up the valley of the North 
Fork of the Flathead River, to Bowman and 
Kintla Lakes. This road is not suitable for 
automobile travel, except for a few miles beyond 
Lake McDonald. 

On and Around Lake McDonald 

Lake McDonald is a mountain-framed body of 
water occupying the lower end of the McDonald 
Valley. It has an irregular shore line, heavily 
timbered, with a splendid grouping of mountains 
at the upper end. the principal ones being Mt. 
Vaught. 8.840 feet; Mt. Brown. 8.541 feet; and 
Cannon Mountain. 8.000 feet. The highest peak 
in this region is Edwards Mountain. 9,055 feet. 

McDonald Creek, heading on the Continental 
Divide near Trappers Peak, twenty-five miles 
north, comes rollicking down the valley between 
the mountains as though it was happy in its end- 
less task of keeping the lake well supplied with its 
matchless blue water. 

There is very good fishing in Lake McDonald 
as well as in the tributary streams. Two miles 
above the outlet of McDonald creek is Paradise 



Canyon, a rocky gorge very narrow and deep, 
with some attractive waterfalls in it. 

Avalanche Basin and Lake are a day's trip to 
the north. Avalanche Basin is one of the finest 
examples of a glacial cirque in the Park. The 
walls at the back of the basin are over three thou- 
sand feet high. At the top of this wall is Sperry 
Glacier and the melting ice of the glacier spills 
over the precipice in a half-dozen torrential 
streams. Most of the water reaches the lake, but 
a great quantity is blown away in mist as it 
dashes against the rocks in its downward plunge. 

From Lewis' Hotel a good trail is built around 
the south side of Edwards Mountain and up 
Sprague Creek to Sperry Glacier. This glacier 
covers about a square mile in area, and the sum- 
mit is comparatively flat. It is a four -hour 
trip from Lake McDonald, and the last mile of 
the journey must be made on foot up the almost 
perpendicular wall of the mountain. Those in- 
terested in studying glaciers will find Sperry 
easily accessible; the chalet close at hand will en- 
able one to spend several days, if he chooses, in 
examining it. One may look down into Ava- 
lanche Basin from its terminal moraine. 

Trout Lake, about eight miles west of Lake 
McDonald, is a favorite fishing place, and Snyder 
Lake four miles east is another angler's delight. 

Sperry Glacier Chalets are passed on the way 
to Sperry Glacier. Continuing east from the cha- 
lets, the trail finds its way out of the basin over 
Lincoln Divide and Gunsight Pass to Going-to- 
the-Sun chalets. 

Lake McDonald is also the starting point for 
camping trips up the North Fork of the Flathead 



Page t w e n t \ 



River, taking in Bowman and Kintla Lakes, 
crossing the Divide at Brown's Pass to Water- 
ton Lake, and either returning down McDonald 
Valley or crossing Swiftcurrent Pass and contin- 
uing the trip on the east side of the Park. 

Camping Trips in the North Country 

North of the Many Glacier region, there is a big 
area which but few people have seen. There be- 
ing no hotel accommodations, a camp outfit is re- 
quired in order to explore it. 

The first valley north of the Swiftcurrent is 
Kennedy. Continuing across Kennedy Valley 
and over the hump of Chief Mountain, the trail 
brings one into the Belly River Valley. Near the 
boundary of the Park, this river forks; one branch 
leads to Elizabeth and 1 I el en Lakes, fed by Ahern 
Glacier, the other leads to Glenns Lake whose 
source is Chancy Glacier on the Continental Di- 
vide. From the Belly River one can go by trail 
to Waterton Lake. The return trip is made 
down the Kootenai Valley to Granite Park and 
continued over Swiftcurrent Pass to Many Gla- 
cier Hotel, or on to Lake McDonald. 

Camping trips of short or long duration can be 
arranged for by giving the Park Saddle-Horse 
Company reasonable notice. A trip of a week or 
ten days is a pleasant diversion from the hotel 
and chalet life for those who like to do a little ex- 
ploring and wander off the beaten paths. The 
equipment used on these trips is designed to con- 
tribute to one's comfort as much as possible, con- 
sidering the limitations of pack-horse transporta- 
tion. Individual tents are used which accommo- 
date either one or two persons. Mattress pads are 
provided, cotton sheets may be had if desired. 

The charge for this service is based on the 
number of people in the party and includes horses, 
guides, tents, provisions, bedding, etc. Many 
interesting points in the park can be reached 
only by this means. A thirty-day camping trip 
will enable one to cover practically every trail in 
the park by moving camp every day. This is a 
delightful and, though somewhat strenuous, is a 
healthful and interesting form of outing. 

Personally-Conducted Saddle and 
Pack Trips Off the Beaten Paths 

A most enjoyable way of seeing Glacier 
National Park is to join an all-expense horseback 
camping party conducted by experienced guides 
authorized by the Government to personally es- 
cort such excursions. 

For the names and addresses of the licensees and 
other information concerning these "Roughing- 
it-in-comfort" trips, apply to National Park Ser- 
vice, Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C. ; or Manager of the Bureau of Service, Na- 
tional Parks and Monuments; or Travel Bureau, 
Western Lines, 646 Transportation Building, 
Chicago, 111. 

Ideal for Walking Tours 

Walking as a recreation has become a popular 
pastime. Glacier National Park is unusually 
adapted to this kind of an outing. Its varied 
scenery and convenient facilities contribute to 
the comfort and pleasure of the hiker For those 
who follow the trails afoot, the hotels and chalets, 
located at reasonable intervals, provide shelter 



and food, so that a night need not be spent in the 
open, nor need heavy packs be carried. 

For those who would combine walking and rid- 
ing, excellent automobile and launch service is 
available, thus enabling one to proceed easily and 
quickly to the various centers of scenic interest, 
and from these points to penetrate the interior of 
the Park afoot. As an interesting diversion, one 
can make some of the longer trips over the trails 
on horseback. 

The mountain paths are so charming; they 
wander about so capriciously; they run so mer- 
rily over the moss in the woods and beside the 
babbling brooks; they climb so cheerfully up the 
s opes and hillsides, and lead you through so 
much freshness and perfume and varied scenery, 
that the pleasures of sight soon make one obliv- 
ious of bodily fatigue. 

Park Administration 

Glacier National Park is under the jurisdiction 
of the Director, National Park Service, Washing- 
ton, D. C., Department of the Interior. The 
headquarters of the superintendent are located at 
Belton, Montana. 

Open Season 

The tourist season is from June 1 5 to Septem- 
ber 15. Hotel and transportation facilities are 
available during this period. 

How to Reach the Park 

Glacier Park station, Mont., the principal and 
eastern entrance, is 1 ,081 miles west of St. Paul, a 
ride of thirty-four hours. Belton, Mont., the 
western entrance, is 637 miles east of Seattle, a 
ride of twenty-two hours. Good train service is 
available from Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis, 
St. Louis, Kansas City, Omaha, Denver, Port- 
land, Tacoma, Seattle and Spokane, connecting 
with trains from all other sections. 

Excursion Fares 

During the summer season, round-trip excursion 
tickets at reduced fares are sold at practically all 
stations in the United States and Canada to Gla- 
cier Park as a destination. Tickets reading to 
Glacier Park station will be honored to or from 
Belton, and tickets reading to Belton will be hon- 
ored to or from Glacier Park station, at option of 
passengers and without additional charge. From 
same sections excursion tickets are also sold to 
Glacier Park which permit opportunity to visit 
Yellowstone National Park, enabling passengers 
to make circuit tours of these two parks and, if 
journeying through Colorado, side-trips to Rocky 
Mountain and Mesa Verde National Parks if 
desired. 

Passengers wishing to visit Glacier National 
Park en route to other destinations, may stop 
over at Glacier Park station or at Belton on 
round-trip or one-way tickets. 

Baggage 

Passengers should be careful to make sure their 
baggage is checked to the point they intend to 
enter the Park either Glacier Park station or 
Belton. 

Storage charges on baggage at Glacier Park 
station and at Belton will be waived for actual 
length of time consumed by passengers in making 
Park tours. 



Page twenty -three 



UMITtD STATCS-DOHINlON Of CANADA COUNDARr UHl 

-- ! _"^" T"| ...... *.^f 

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cr-r?^ \^P v/g6/. d' 




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fetf^ar-cw^ 







cat Lndmg5 



NOTE 

Di:Unct btlwt to Glacltr Park SI*. 
BHor Sli b, railroad SB 



GLACIER 
NATIONAL PARK 



MONTANA 

Scale 



Railroads 



Automobile Roads 
*ya/n Trails 
Other Trails 




Park Transportation Facilities 

Automobile stages on the roads, launches on the 
lakes, and saddle horses over the trails, are the 
means of transportation. Glacier Park Hotel. 
Two Medicine Chalets. Cut Bank and St. Mary 
Chalets and Many Glacier 1 lotel are all on the 
automobile highway. Going-to-the-Sun Chalets 
are reached by launch from St. Mary chalets. 
Lake McDonald is reached by auto stages from 
Belton connecting with launches for resorts up the 
lake. There are so many trips available that few 



people can stay long enough to enjoy them all. 
For this reason several combination tours are 
shown in this book. 

Five hundred saddle horses are required to 
meet the demand for trail trips. These sure- 
footed ponies are trained for mountain trails and 
will carry one up the steepest places and over the 
summits. It is this diversity of transportation 
facilities and variety of tours that have been 
prominent factors in the popularity of Glacier 
National Park. 



Page twenty-four 



Hotel and Chalet Rates and Accommodations 



Glacier Park Hotel: 

Located at Glacier Park Station, eastern entrance to the 
Park. 200 rooms, accommodations for over 400 people 
electric lighted, steam heat, room telephones, running 
water, laundry, rooms with private bath, cuisine and 
service of high order, plunge pool, shower baths, sun par- 
lor, open camp fire in lobby, lounging and music room, a 
la carte grill room. 

New Many Glacier Motel: 

Located 55 miles north of Glacier Park Hotel, on scenic 
automobile highway. Automobile stage service to and 
from Glacier Park Hotel daily. This new hotel contains 
accommodations for 500 guests electric lighted, steam 
heated, room telephones, laundry, rooms with private 
bath- plunge pool open camp fires in lobby In- 
dian room cafe. Starting point for trail trips. 
Rates at Glacier Park Hotel and Many Glacier Hotel 
$4.50 and $5.00 without bath, dependent on location. 
$5.50. $6.00. $7.00 and $8.00 per day with bath, depend- 
ent on location. Ametican plan, operated by the Glacier 
Park Hotel Company. Glacier Park. Mont, or 1 030 Rail- 
road Building. St. Paul. Minn. 

Glacier Park Hotel Company's Chalet Groups: 

Throughout Glacier National Park, distant from ten to 
sixteen miles from each other, the Glacier Park Hotel 
Company maintains and operates the following perma- 
nent chalets, or small hotels. Rates at all chalets $4.00 
per day. American plan, viz.: $1.00 for meals and $1.00 
for lodging. 

Two Medicine Chalets: 

Command a view of the mountains and lakes of the Two 
Medicine Country, reached by automobile, horseback, or 
afoot. 12 miles from Glacier Park Hotel. Electric 
lighted, detached shower or tub baths. 5G cents. Capac- 
ity 100 guests. 

Cut Bank Chalets: 

Located in the Cut Bank Valley. 22 miles from Glacier 
Park Hotel, a popular rendezvous for fishermen. From 
this camp it is a day's side trip to Triple Divide Mountain, 
where the water flows three ways. Capacity 45 guests. 

St. Mary Chalets: 

Located on lower end of upper St. Mary Lake. 32 miles 
from Glacier Park Hotel. The going-in point for tourists 
visiting the Going-to-the-Sun Chalet. Side trip is made 
from here to Red Eagle Lake, a popular fishing trip. 
Electric lighted, detached shower or tub baths. 50 cents. 
Capacity 125 guests. 

Going-to-the-Sun Chalets: 

Located on the northwest shore of St. Mary Lake, nine 
miles up lake from St. Mary Chalets, commanding a view 
of the Continental Divide. Reached by boat from St. 
Mary Chalets, or afoot or horseback from interior points. 
Detached shower or tub baths. 50 cents, electric lighted. 
Capacity 150 guests. 

Many Glacier Chalets: 

Located one-eighth of a mile from the new Many Glacier 
Hotel. Side trips from this point same as from Many 
Glacier Hotel. Detached shower or tub baths at hotel, 
50 cents. Capacity 100 guests. Electric lighted. Cha- 
let guests take meals in main dining room of Many Gla- 
cier Hotel. 

V 

Granite Park Chalets: 

Located on the west side of the Continental Divide in 
Granite Park. Reached by horseback or afoot from 
Many Glacier Hotel via Swiftcurrent Pass. Capacity 
60 guests. 

Sperry Glacier Chalets: 

Located on the west side of the Continental Divide, near 
Sperry Glacier. Reached by horseback or afoot from 
Going-to-the-Sun Chalets or Lake McDonald. Capac- 
ity 75 guests. 

Belton Chalets: 

Located on the railroad at Belton station, the western 
entrance to the Park, three miles from Lake McDonald, 
fifty-eight miles west of Glacier Park station. Detached 
hower or tub baths. 50 cents. Capacity 125 guests. 



Furnished Chalets For Rent: 

At Many Glacier there are three chalets which are fur- 
nished and equipped for housekeeping, and which are for 
rent by the month or season. Each of these contains bed- 
rooms, kitchenette and shower bath, and has accommoda- 
tions for 6 to 1 2 people. Linen and firewood are included 
in the furnishings; supplies may be purchased at the 
Many Glacier Store. Rates for rental of these chalets 
may be obtained upon application. 

Medical Service: 

A physician is located at the Glacier Park Hotel. A 
trained nurse is stationed at Glacier Park Hotel, another 
at Many Glacier Hotel. Their services are available at 
all times at standard professional rates. A line of medical 
and surgical supplies is carried in the dispensary at each 
hotel. 

Rates for Children: 

The following rates are authorized for children at the 
above hotels and chalets when accompanied by parents 
or guardians: 

Children five years of age and over, full rate. 
Children under five years of age, one-half rate. 

Lake McDonald Resorts: 

There is one large hotel and two cottage resorts on Lake 
McDonald on west side of park, reached from Belton via 
auto road and launch. 

Lewis' (Glacier) Hotel: 

At upper end of Lake; accommodations for 225 guests; 
electric lighted; steam heat; laundry; rooms with private 
bath. Starting point for trail trips. Rates: $4.00 and 
$5.00 per day; with bath $6.00 per day. American plan. 
J E. Lewis, Proprietor, Lake McDonald. Mont. 

Park Cabin Resort: 

At head of Lake McDonald. Several log cottages and 
central dining room. Rates $2.50 to $3.00 per day. 
James Conlon (trustee). Proprietor. Belton. Mont. 

National Park Cabin Resort: 

At foot of Lake McDonald. Log cabins for rent. No 
dining room. Rates on application. H. D. Apgar. 
Proprietor. Belton. Mont. 

Open Season: 

The season is June 15th to September 15th, and the 
hotels are open at that time. Some years on account of 
heavy snowfall, Sperry Chalets and Granite Park Chalets 
are not opened until a week or two later. Lewis' Hotel 
opens June 1st. 

Telegraph and Telephone Service: 

Glacier Park Station and Belton are Western Union Tele- 
graph offices and service is available from all hotels and 
chalets in connection with the Park Telephone System. 

Mail: 

Guests stopping at hotels and chalets on the east side 
should have mail addressed care of Glacier Park Hotel, 
Glacier Park, Mont. this is the post office for Glacier 
Park and Many Glacier Hotels, and the Chalets. Mail 
for Lake McDonald resorts should be addressed to Lake 
McDonald P. O.. Mont., or to Belton. 

Clothing Suggestions: 

Light-weight woolen underwear or heavy cotton under- 
wear is recommended; wool is preferable as the weather 
may be quite warm on the lower levels but cool on the 
summits of the passes. If one contemplates buying 
special outing clothing, the brown khaki is most econom- 
ical and serviceable. It is light in weight, and as it is 
tightly woven, keeps out the wind and to a limited ex- 
tent, will shed water. For either horseback riding or 
walking, the khaki riding breeches are recommended for 
both men and women. 

Stout shoes or outing boots, canvas leggings or leather 
puttees, a pair of gloves and a comfortable old soft hat. 
complete the outfit. A heavy outer wrap should be pro- 
vided, such as a sweater or mackinaw. A very complete 
line of suitable clothing is for sale at the stores in the 
hotels at reasonable prices. 



Page twenty-jive 




A BLACKFEET INDIAN CAMP 
I he Blackfeet Indians have left a lasting impress of their occupation on this region, many mountains and lakes bearing 



their original Indian na 



Page twenty-six 




ST. MARY LAKE 
At St. Mary Chalets Transfer is made from autos to a sturdy launch for the trip up the lake 



Automobile and Launch Service 



The Glacier Park Transportation Company is 
licensed by the United States Government to 
operate automobile stages within the Park. 
Comfortable ten-passenger auto stages are used. 
These stages run on regular schedules as follows: 

Between Glacier Park Hotel, St. Mary, and 
Many Glacier Hotel. 

Northbound Daily 

Leave Glacier Park ... 8:00 a. m. 

Arrive St. Mary Chalets 10:45 a. m. 

Leave St. Mary Chalets 1 1 :00 a. m. 

Arrive Many Glacier Hotel 12:45 p. m. 

Southbound Daily 

Leave Many Glacier Hotel 1 :30 p. m. 

Arrive St. Mary Chalets 3:15 p. m. 

Leave St. Mary Chalets 3:30 p. m. 

Arrive Glacier Park Hotel 6:15 p. m. 

As soon as traffic warrants additional service 
is provided, leaving Glacier Park Hotel at 1 :30 
5 . M., arriving at Many Glacier Hotel at 6:15 
P. M., and leaving Many Glacier Hotel at 
8:00 A. M., arriving at Glacier Park Hotel at 
12:45 P. M. 

Between Glacier Park Hotel and Two Medi- 
cine Chalets: 

Leave Glacier Park Hotel 2:00 p. m. 

Arrive Two Medicine Chalets 3:00 p. m. 

Leave Two Medicine Chalets 4:00 p. m. 

Arrive Glacier Park Hotel 5.00 p. m. 

Passenger Fares 

One Round 

Glacier Park Hotel and St. Mary Chalets . $3.50 $7.00 
Glacier Park Hotel and Many Glacier Hotel . 6.50 1 3.00 
St. Mary Chalets and Many Glacier Hotel . . 3.00 6.00 
Glacier Park Hotel and Two Medicine Cha- 
lets 1 50 3.00 

*Glacier Park Hotel and Cut Bank Chalets ' 5.00 

Bel ton and Lake McDonald 50 1.00 

*Rate applies only for minimum of 4 fare*. 



Baggage Transportation : 

The following rates apply for the transportation of bag- 
gage between points in Glacier National Park, via auto 
express service. Auto stages are not equipped to handle 
heavy baggage and same must go on first auto truck fol- 
lowing. 

Passengers touring Park will be permitted to carry with 
them free on automobiles, stages or launches, one piece of 
hand baggage weighing not to exceed 20 pounds. 

BETWEEN Baggage Rate 

I runk Grip 

Glacier Park Hotel and Two Medicine Cha- 
lets . ..$1.00 $ .50 

Glacier Park Hotel and St. Mary Chalets . 2.00 .50 

Glacier Park Hotel and Many-Glacier Cha- 4 00 I 00 

lets 4.00 1.00 

Glacier Park Hotel and Going-to-the-Sun 

Chalets 2 50 I 00 

St. Mary Chalets and Going-to-the-Sun Cha- 
lets 50 .25 

St. Mary Chalets and Many Glacier Chalets 2 00 .50 

Belton Chalets and Lewis' Hotel . .1.00 .50 

Belton Chalets and Foot of Lake McDonald .50 .25 
Foot of Lake McDonald and Head of Lake 

McDonald 50 .25 

Freight Rates on Automobiles Between Glacier 
Park Station and Belton: 

An automobile highway has been perfected through from 
Duluth. St. Paul, Minneapolis and Grand Forks. N. D.. to 
Glacier Park Station. From here to Belton there is no 
road. From Belton, Mont., the automobile highway 
continues west to Spokane and the Pacific Coast For 
the convenience of automobilists making the overland 
trip in their cars the Railroad will have in effect during 
the Park season a rate of $12.50 for transporting auto- 
mobiles between Glacier Park Station and Belton in 
either direction. 



Launch Service: 

Between St. Mary Chalets and Going-to-the-Sun Chalets 
on St. Mary Lake, and between the foot of Lake Mc- 
Donald and head of lake, launches are operated, connect- 
ing with auto stages. 
Launch fare each way $ .75 



P a %e twenty-seven 



Saddle Horse, Pack Horse and Guide Rates 



The Park Saddle Horse Company furnishes 
saddle horses, pack horses and guides under con- 
cession from the United States Government. 



Scheduled Trips 



Minimum 
Rate number 
per required 
n party 



From Glacier Park Hotel: 

*To Mt. Henry and return 1 -day trip . .$4.00 
*To Two Medicine and return 2-day trip 

via Mt. Henry in one direction 8.00 3 

Inside Trail Trip via Two Medicine. 
Mt. Morgan. Cut Bank Chalet*. Triple 
Divide. Red Eagle Lake. St. Mary Cha- 
lets. Going-to-the-Sun Chalets. Piegan 
Pass to Many Glacier Hotel A 5-day 

scenic trip 18.00 5 

Same trip as far as St. Mary Chalets only 

3-day trip 13.25 5 

From Many Glacier Hotel: 

*Iceberg Lake and return I -day trip. . . . 3.50 
Granite Park and return 2-day trip. . . . 8.00 
Granite Park and return 1-day trip 5.00 

*Cracker Lake and return 1-day trip . . . 3.50 I 
Morning Eagle Falls, Piegan Pass and re- 
turn I -day trip 4.00 I 

Going-to-the-Sun Chalets via Piegan Pass 

one way I -day trip 4.00 I 

tLogan Pass Triangle Trip via Granite 
Park. Logan Pass. Going-to-the-Sun and 
Piegan Pass and vice versa 3-day trip. 12. 50 

*Ptarmigan Lake and return 1-day trip 4 00 

*Grinnell Lake and return ^i-d&y trip . 3.50 
Grinnell Glacier and return 1-day trip . 4.00 3 



From Going-to-the-Sun Chalets: 

Many Glacier Hotel via Piegan Pass .... 4.00 
tTriangle Trip: via Logan Pass, Granite 
Park. Swiftcurrent Pass. Many Glacier 
and Piegan Pass or vice versa 3-day 

trip 12.50 

*Sexton Glacier and return %-<l*y trip . . 3.50 



*Gunsight Lake and return 1 -day trip . .$4.00 

*Roea Basin and return I -day trip 4.00 3 

Lake McDonald via Sperry Chalets and 
Gunsight Pass 2-day trip, stopping over 
night at Sperry Chalets 8.00 5 

From St. Mary Chalets: 

*Red Eagle Lake and return 1 -day trip $ 4.00 3 

Glacier Park Hotel via Red Eagle. Triple Di- 
vide, Cut Bank Chalets, and Two Medicine 
Chalets (Inside Trail Trip) 3-day trip 13.25 5 

From Lake McDonald (Lewis' Hotel) : 

*Sperry Glacier and return 1-day trip 4.00 3 

Lincoln Peak and return 1 -day trip 4.00 3 

*Avalanche Basin and return I -day trip 4.00 3 

Snyder Lake and return 1-day trip 4.00 3 

Going-to-the-Sun Chalets via Sperry Chalets 

and Gunsight Pass 2-day trip 8.00 5 

For Special or Non-Scheduled Trips: 

Saddle and Pack Horses, per day $ 3. 

Guides, including Guides' Horse and board per 

day 8.00 

NOTE Trips marked (*) made daily during season; 

other trips available July 1st to Sept. 1st. 

CM Parties once started on "Triangle Trip" will not 

be allowed refund in case of withdrawal before trip is 

completed. 

All Expense Camping Trips 

Licensed outfitters in Glacier Park are pre- 
pared to furnish complete camp outfits at the 
following prices for trips of ten or more days. 

Cost per 

day per 

Person 

For party of 1 $25.00 

For party of 2 15.75 

For party of 3 12.65 

For party of 4 12.40 

For party of 5 1 1 .30 

For party of 6 10.60 

For party of 7 or more 1 0.00 



amples of Combination Tours via Auto, Launch 
and Saddle Horse 



The rates quoted cover transportation only and 
do not include meals and lodging at hotels and 
chalets. 

Round 

FROM GLACIER PARK HOTEL Trip 

Per 

One-Day Tour: Person 

A delightful ride by auto to Two Medicine Lake 
and Return: Twelve miles to Two Medicine Cha- 
lets afternoon trip. . . $ 3.00 

One-Day Tour: 

By saddle horse to summit of Mt. Henry and re- 
turn wonderful view of Two Medicine Valley 
from Summit. Party of three or more 4.00 

One-Day Tour: 

To St. Mary Chalets and Going-to-the-Sun Cha- 
lets by auto and launch, leaving Glacier Park 
Hotel at 8 a. m. and returning at 6: 1 5 p. m. Round 
trip 85 miles of wonderful scenery . . 8.50 

Two-Day Tour: 

Glacier Park Hotel to Many Glacier Hotel first 
day. returning second day and making side trip 
to Going-to-the-Sun Chalets, thence via St. Mary 
to Glacier Park Hotel. Automobile and launch 14.50 

Three-Day Tour: 

First day to Many Glacier Hotel via auto; second 
day to Iceberg Lake by saddle horse; third day to 
Going-to-the-Sun Chalets via auto and launch, 
thence via St. Mary and auto to Glacier Park 
Hotel 18.00 



Four-Day Tour: 

First day via auto to Many Glacier Hotel; second 
day saddle horse to Iceberg Lake; third day saddle 
horse to Cracker Lake; fourth day to Going-to-the- 
Sun Chalets via auto and launch, returning same 
day to Glacier Park Hotel $21 50 

Five-Day Tour: 

First day auto to Many Glacier Hotel; second day 
saddle horse to Iceberg Lake; third day saddle 
horse to Granite Park; fourth day return to Many- 
Glacier Hotel; fifth day return to Glacier Park 
Hotel via St Mary and Going-to-the-Sun Chalets. 26.00 

Six-Day Tour: 

First day auto to Many Glacier Hotel; second day 
saddle horse to Iceberg Lake; third day saddle 
horse to Cracker Lake; fourth day saddle horse to 
Granite Park; fifth day return to Many Glacier 
Hotel; sixth day to Going-to-the-Sun Chalets via 
auto and launch, thence to Glacier Park Hotel 29.50 

Seven-Day Tour: 

l-'irst day auto to Many Glacier Hotel; second day 
saddle horse to Iceberg Lake; third day saddle 
horse to Cracker Lake; fourth day saddle horse to 
Granite Park; fifth day Granite Park via Logan 
Pass to Going-to-the-Sun: sixth day saddle horse 
over Piegan Pass to Many Glacier Hotel; seventh 
day Many Glacier Hotel via auto and launch to 
Going-to-the-Sun and St. Mary, thence to Glacier 
Park Hotel . . . 34.00 



Page twenty-eight 




F. H. Rise 



WILD FLOWERS EVERYWHERE 
n Glacier Park the wild flowers often contrast their colors with a background of pure white snow 



Distances Between Points of Interest in Glacier Park 



From Glacier Park Hotel: Mile* 

Two Medicine Chalet* 12 

Summit of Mt. Henry 8 

Two Medicine Falls I 

Cut Bank Chalets 22 

St. Mary Chalets 32 

Going-to-the-Sun Chalets 41 

Many Glacier Hotel 55 

Sperry Chalets 58 

Granite Park 64 

From Two Medicine Chalets: 

Trick Falls 2 

Mt. Henry 4 

Dawson Pass 8 

Appistoki Falls 2 

Cut Bank Pass 10 

Cut Bank Chalets 18 

From Cut Bank Chalets: 

Cut Bank Pass 8 

Triple Divide 8 

Red Eagle Lake 15 

St. Mary Chalets 23 

From Going-to-the-Sun Chalets: 

Sexton Glacier. . . . 
Gunsight Lake. . . . 
Blackfeet Glacier. 
Gunsight Pass ... 
Sperry Chalets. . . . 

Piegan Pass 

Many Glacier Hotel (by trail) . . 



6 

9 

12 

13 

17 

9 

18 

Many Glacier Hotel (by road) 32 

Logan Pass 8 

Granite Park . . ,.16 



Miles 
.. 32 
.. 23 

. 9 
.. 26 

. 33 



From St. Mary Chalets: 

Glacier Park Hotel 

Many Glacier Hotel 

Going-to-the-Sun Chalets 

Sperry Chalets 

Lake McDonald . . 

Red Eagle Lake 

Triple Divide 15 

Cut Bank Chalets 22 

From Many Glacier Hotel: 

Iceberg Lake 6 

Cracker Lake 7 

Grinnell Lake 5 

Josephine Lake 2 

Ptarmigan Lake 7 

Swiftcurrent Pass 8 

Granite Park Chalets 9 

Piegan Pass 9 

Morning Eagle Falls 8 

Going-to-the-Sun Chalets (by trail) 18 

Going-to-the-Sun Chalets (by road) 32 

Grinnell Glacier 7 

Appekunny Falls 2 

From Granite Park Chalets: 



Rosenwald Ridge 


14 


Summit of Swiftcurrent Mt . . 


" i 


The Garden Wall 


1 


Logan Pass 


8 


Going-to-the-Sun Chalets 


16 


Lake McDonald 
Waterton Lake. . . 


20 
. 18 



From Head of Lake McDonald: 

Belton Station 

Sperry Chalets 



Avalanche Basin . 
Granite Park .... 
Trout Lake. . . 



United States Government Publications 



The following publications may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office. Washington. D. C., at 
prices given. Remittances should be made by 
money order or in cash: 

Origin of the Scenic Features of Glacier National Park, 
by M. R. Campbell. 42 pages. 25 illustrations, 15 cents. 
Glaciers of Glacier National Park, by W. C. Alden. 48 
pages, 30 illustrations. I 5 cents. 

Some Lakes of Glacier National Park, by M. J. Elrod. 32 
pages. 19 illustrations. 10 cents. 

Glacier National Park a Popular Guide to its Geology 
and Scenery, by M. R. Campbell, 54 pages, 13 plates, in- 
cluding map. 30 cents. 

Panoramic View of Glacier National Park, !8Hx2l inches* 
25 cents. 
National Parks Portfolio, by Robert Sterling Yard. 260 

Kges. 270 illustrations descriptive of nine National Parks, 
imphlet edition. 35 cents; book edition. 55 cents. 



The following may be obtained from Director 
of the United States Geological Survey, Wash- 
ington, D. C., at price given. 

Map of Glacier National Park. 31x35 inches. 25 cents. 



The following publications may be obtained 
free on written application to the Director of the 
National Park Service, Washington, D. C., or by 
personal application at the registration offices of 
the Park. 

Circular of general information regarding Glacier National 
Park. 

Glimpses of our National Parks, 48 pages, illustrated. 

Map showing location of National Parks and National 
Monuments, and railroad routes thereto. 



United States Railroad Administration Publications 



The following publications may be 
Office, or Bureau of Service, National 
646 Transportation Building. Chicago, 

Arizona and New Mexico Rockies. 
California for the Tourist. 
Colorado and Utah Rockies. 
Crater Lake National Park. Oregon. 
Glacier National Park. Montana. 
Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. 
Hawaii National Park. Hawaiian Islands. 
Hot Springs National Paik. Arkansas. 
Mea Verde National Park. Colorado. 



obtained free on application to any Consolidated Ticket 
Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau Western Lines. 
Illinois: 

Mount Rainier National Park. Washington. 

Northern Lakes Wisconsin. Minnesota. Iowa. Illinois and 

Upper Michigan. 

Pacific Northwest and Alaska. 

Petrified Forest National Monument. Arizona. 

Rocky Mountain National Park. Colorado. 

Sequoia and General Grant National Parks. California. 

Yellowstone National Park. Wyoming. Montana. Idaho. 

Yosemite National Park. California. 

Zion National Monument. Utah. 



Page thirty 



"" Nw * '- ^"-"y 

V7^fe^._ /C 0,,,/p^ 

*SI *- ^^z^z i 
msf*y.- *-?"*>/ 




1 HE NATIONAL PARKS AT A GLANCE 



For particulars as to fares, train schedules, etc., apply to any Railroad Ticket Agent, or to any 
of the following United States Railroad Administration Consolidated Ticket Offices. 



Beaumont, Tex. .Orleans and Pearl Sts. 

Bremerton, Wash 224 Front St. 

Butte, Mont 2 N. Main St. 

Chicago. Ill \75 W. Jackson Blvd. 

Colorado Springs. Colo. 

119 E. Pike's Peak Ave. 
Dallas. Tex 112-114 Field St. 

601 \7th St. 

a 403 Walnut St. 

..334 W. Superior St. 

. Mills and Oregon Sts. 

702 Houston St. 

. . . . J and Fresno Sts. 

.21st and Market Sts. 

58 S. Main St. 

. . .904 Texas Ave. 



Denver. Colo . . 
Des Moines, lo 
Duluth, Minn. . . 
El Paso. Tex .... 
Ft. Worth. Tex . . 

Fresno, Cal 

Galveston, Tex . . 
Helena, Mont. . . 
Houston, Tex . . . 
Kansas City, Mo. 

Ry. Ex. Bldg. 7th and Walnut Sts. 



Annapolis, Md 54 Maryland Ave. 

Atlantic City. N. J. . . 1301 Pacific Ave. 
Baltimore. Md . . .B. & O. R. R. Bldg. 

Boston, Mass 67 Franklin St. 

Brooklyn. N. Y 336 Fulton St. 

Buffalo. N. Y., Main and Division Sts. 
Cincinnati. Ohio.. .6th and Main Sts. 
Cleveland, Ohio . . . 1004 Prospect Ave. 

Columbus, Ohio 70 East Gay St 

Dayton, Ohio 19 S. Ludlow St. 



WEST 

Lincoln, Neb 104 N. 13th St. 

Little Rock. Ark 202 W. 2d St. 

Long Beach, Cal. .L. A. & S. L. Station 
Los Angeles, Cal.. ..215 S. Broadway 

Milwaukee, Wis 99 Wisconsin St 

Minneapolis, Minn. 202 Sixth St. South 
Oakland, Cal. .13th St. and Broadway 

Ocean Park, Cal 160 Pier Ave. 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

1 3 I W. Grand Ave. 

Omaha. Neb 1416 Dodge St 

Peoria. 111. . .Jefferson and Liberty Sts. 
Phoenix, Ariz. 

Adams St. and Central Ave. 
Portland. Ore.. 3d and Washington Sts. 
Pueblo. Colo.. ..401-3 N. Union Ave. 

St. Joseph. Mo 505 Francis St. 

St. Louis. Mo.. 3 18-3 28 North Broadway 

EAST 

Detroit. Mich ... I 3 W. LaFayette Ave. 
Evansville. Ind. . L. & N. R. R. Bldg. 

Grand Rapids. Mich 1 25 Pearl St. 

Indianapolis. Ind.. 112-14 English Block 
Newark, N. J.. Clinton and Beaver Sts. 

New York. N. Y 64 Broadway 

New York. N. Y 57 Chambers St. 

New York. N. Y 31 W. 32d St. 

New York. N. Y I 1 4 W. 42d St. 



SOUTH 



Asheville. N. C 
Atlanta, Ga 
Augusta. Ga 
Birmingham. Ala 



14 S. Polk Square] Knoxville. Tenn 



74 Peachtree St. 
811 Broad St. 
2010 1st Ave. 



....... . 

Charleston, S. C ...... Charleston Hotel 

Charlotte. N. C ........ 22 S. Tryon St. 

Chattanooga. Tenn...8l7 Market St. 
Columbia. S. C ....... Arcade Building 

Jacksonville. Fla ....... 38 W. Bay St. 



Lexington, Ky . 
Louisville. Ky . . 
Lynchburg. Va . 
Memphis. Tenn 
Mobile. Ala .... 
Montgomery, Ala 



600 Gay St. 

Union Station 

4th and Market Sts. 

722 Main St. 

60 N. Main St. 

5 1 S. Royal St. 

Exchange Hotel 



Nashville.Tenn., Independent Life Bldg. 
New Orleans. La . . . .St. Charles Hotel 



St. Paul. Minn . .4th and Jackson Sta. 
Sacramento. Cal.. . . 801 K St. 

Salt Lake. Utah 

Main and S. Temple Sts. 
San Antonio. Texas 

315-17 N. St. Mary's St. 

San Diego. Cal 300 Broadway 

San Francisco. Cal. 

Lick Bldg., Post St. and Lick Place 
San Jose, Cal., I stand San Fernando Sts. 

Seattle, Wash 714-16 2d Ave. 

Shreveport, La..Milam and Market Sts. 

Sioux City, Iowa 510 4th St. 

Spokane. Wash. 

Davenport Hotel, 815 Sprague Ave. 
Tacoma. Wash ... I I 17-19 Pacific Ave. 
Waco. Texas . . . .6th and Franklin Sts. 
Whittier. Cal . . . .L. A. & S. L. Station 
Winnipeg, Man 226 Portage Ave. 



Philadelphia. Pa.. 
Pittsburgh. Pa ... 

Reading. Pa 

Rochester. N. Y. . . 
Syracuse. N. Y. . . , 

Toledo, Ohio 

Washington. D. C. 
Williamsport. Pa . . 
Wilmington. Del . . 



.1539 Chestnut St. 

. .Arcade Building 
.. ..16 N. Fifth St. 
20 State St. 

..University Block 

.320 Madison Ave 
..1229 FSt. N. W. 

4th and Pine Sts. 
. ..905 Market St. 



Paducah. Ky 430 Broadway 

Pensacola. Fla San Carlos Hotel 

Raleigh. N. C 305 LaFayette St. 

Richmond. Va 830 E. Main St. 

Savannah. Ga .. ..37 Bull St. 

Sheffield. Ala Sheffield Hotel 

Tampa. Fla . ..Hillsboro Hotel 

Vicksburg. Miss. 1319 Washington St. 
Winston-Salem. N. C.. 236 N. Main St. 



For detailed information regarding National Parks and Monuments address Bureau of Service, 
National Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau Western lines, 646 Transportation Bldg.. Chicago, 
or any Railroad Ticket Agent. 



McGill-Warner Co., Printers 
St. Paul, Minn. 



Page thirty-one 





if. 



^A 



ii i 






CANYON AND FALLS IN SWIFTCURRENT VALLEY 



GRAND CANYON 



National 









UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION 



NAL PAR.K. SF 




The Titan of Chasm* inexpressible you must see it to understai 



P a & e two 




A Cosmic Intaglio 

An Appreciation of 

Grand Canyon National Park 

By Charles F. Lummis 

Author of "The Land of Poco Tiempo," "Some Strange 
Corners of Our Country," "Pueblo Indian Folk Stoiies," etc. 



]N the very cradle of recorded Time, the Grand Canyon was 
waiting, under the Slow Smile of God, for Man to come to it 
and know His chiefest Wonder-vision on earth ; this vast 
chameleon, unearthly, attainable, Mirage in Immortal Rock. 
Through milleniums it has been worshipful and awe-full to the bronzed 
First Americans, whose swallow-nesting homes still crumble along that 
amethystine "Rim/' Caucasians were late of coming though to us 
parvenus it seems long ago, in years and world-change. When Coro- 
nado's lieutenant, Garcia Lopez de Cardenas, first of Europeans, stood upon 
this Brink (September 14, 1540), Luther was walking the floor with his 
fretful Reformation, just cutting its teeth. Henry VIII. was still adding new 
reels to his kinema of wives. His seven-year-old daughter Bess was 
learning never to lose her head (as Mamma had done), and to have no 
heart to lose. She staid unmarried as many times as Papa didn't. It was 
forty years before Raleigh spread his cape for her. It was a generation 
before Shakespeare, and two before Milton; seventy years before English 
was spoken in any home in all the New World. There was not a printed 
Bible, except in Latin; and the King James version was nigh seventy 
years to the future. It was three centuries before the first friction match; 
over two hundred years before Ben Franklin invented the first cook-stove; 
twenty-five years before the first forks and steel needles. It was a world 
without kerosene, wire cigars, potatoes, corn, whisky, side-saddles, public 
schools and libraries, quinine, rifles, tin cans, turkeys, newspapers, novels, 
vaccination without even the sacred symbol, $. 

As to the Franciscan missionaries it was a week before our Declaration 
of Independence that Fray Francisco Garces (first of Europeans) saw the 
Canyon from the West. In the same month that General Howe defeated 
Washington's forces at White Plains, Fray Sylvestre Velez de Escalante 

P a & e three 



was first white man to cross (October 7, 1776) the chasm and its head- 
long river. 

Major Powell's heroic threadings of that fearsome Labyrinth (1869-70) 
marked the first serious attention of "Americans" to the most wondrous 
thing in America; but his notable volumes precipitated no pilgrimage. 
Thirty-five years ago, when I began my 'prenticeship to the Canyon, not 
a hundred people a year saw it and ten Englishmen to one American. 
Today (most thanks to the builders of the steel highway), it is famous 
and luxuriously accessible yet 95 per cent of the travelers passing within 
sixty miles never visit it! 

As it was I who first raised (a third of a century ago) the slogan, "See 
America First!" it now falls my privilege to extend this official invitation 
to the opening of the Grand Canyon, at last a National Park, guarded by 
Government; a heritage unto our children's children forever. I doubt not 
it has the very humility of its transcendent greatness, and patiently enjoys 
our little "Recognition" and "Honor." 

The Grand Canyon Bids You! Come, all ye Peoples of the Earth, to 
witness God's boldest and most flaming Signature across Earth's face! 
Come and penitent ye of the United States, to marvel upon this 
chiefest Miracle of our own land! 

Ten thousand pens have "described at" this Indescribable, in vain, 
is alone in the world. The only Mountain Range in Captivity a hundred 
miles of unearthly peaks, taller from their gnawing river than Mt. Wash- 
ington above the distant sea; all countersunk in a prodigious serpentine 
gulf of living rock; a Cosmic Intaglio carved in the bosom of the great 
Arizona Plateau. Nowhere else can you look up hundreds of 7,000-foot 
cliffs whose tops are but three miles from a plummet to your feet. And 
from their Rim, look down upon such leagues of inverted and captive 
sk : es of rainbows in solution, and snow and thunder tempests far below 
you; -and brimming fogs that flow with the moon, and with dawn ebb 
and ebb till one by one the white, voiceless tide reveals the glorified 
"islands" of its countless archipelago of glowing peaks. 

It is a matchless cross-section of Earth's anatomy, to the geologist. 
To all, it is a Poem ; History ; an imperishable Inspiration. Words cannot 
over-tell it nor half tell. See it, and you will know why ! 

It has waited long to give you welcome and benediction and a deathless 
Memory. Come ! 




P a c f o u 



To the American People: 



Uncle Sam asks you to be his guest. He has prepared for you the 
choice places of this continent places of grandeur, beauty and of 
wonder. He has built roads through the deep-cut canyons and beside 
happy streams, which will carry you into these places in comfort, and 
has provided lodgings and food in the most distant and inaccessible 
places that you might enjoy yourself and realize as little as possible 
the rigors of the pioneer traveler's life. These are for you. They are 
the playgrounds of the people. To see them is to make more hearty 
your affection and admiration for America. 



Secretary of the Interior 




Grand Canyon National Park 



Grand Canyon National Park, in north- 
ern Arizona, is the newest of bur national 
playgrounds, having been brought into 
the National Park family by Act of Con- 
gress, February 26, 1919. One comes 
upon it suddenly, only a short distance 
from the railroad terminus a titanic gash 
in the earth's crust, an unexpected step- 
off in the wooded mesa country. 

Imagine a stupendous chasm, in places 
ten to thirteen miles wide from rim to 
rim, more than two hundred miles long 
in the total of its meanderings, and more 
than a mile deep. A mighty river, the 
Colorado, has chiseled out the inner 
granite gorge, which is flanked on each 
side by tier upon tier of huge architect- 
ural forms veritable mountains carved 
by erosion from the solid rock strata 
which lie exposed in great layers to the 
desert sun. And all painted in colors 
of the rainbow. 

That's the Grand Canyon. 

Other scenic wonders are viewed either 
on the level or looking up. The Grand 
Canyon, from the rim, is looked down 
upon. The sensation is novel abso- 
lutely unique, in fact. Not every visitor 
can at once adjust untrained eyes to 
this sudden shift from the usual outlook. 
Gradually one must become accustomed 
to the change from the ordinary range of 
vision. It is like seeing a landscape from 
a low-flying aeroplane. 



Descend by trail, and, one after 
another, the Canyon forms seem to creep 
upward, until soon they take their place 
in familiar fashion along the horizon. 
Not until then do they assume a natural 
aspect. 

As first glimpsed from the very edge of 
the abyss, the Canyon is a geologic 
marvel and a spiritual emotion. Below 
is a primeval void, hemmed in every- 
where, except skyward, by the solid 
framework of our earth rocks, and 
rocks, and yet more rocks, millions of 
years old. 

At high noon the enclosing walls seem 
to flatten out and are strangely unim- 
pressive. They lack life and luster and 
form. They are wholly material and 
make scant appeal to the emotions. 
One is aware of bigness and deepness 
and stillness, but not of any mystery. 

Come back to the edge of the abyss in 
the late afternoon, or early in the morn- 
ing. How marvelous the transformation! 
Immense forms have pushed out from 
the sheer walls. They float in a purple 
sea of mysterious shadows. It is a 
symphony of mass and color, of body 
and soul. Almost a new heaven is born 
and, with it, a new inferno, swathed in 
soft celestial fires; a whole chaotic 
underworld, just emptied of primeval 
floods and waiting for a new creative 
word; eluding all sense of perspective or 



Pa & e five 




Pa 



El Tovar Hotel on the brink of the Canyon. 

The Lookout it a quaint rough atone observatory and ret houce on the rim near head of Bright Angel Trail. 
e six 



dimension, outstretching the faculty of 
measurement, overlapping the confines of 
definite apprehension; a boding, terrible 
thing, unflinchingly real, yet spectral as a 
dream. Never was picture more har- 
monious, never flower more exquisitely 
beautiful. It flashes instant communi- 
cation of all that architecture and paint- 
ing and music for a thousand years have 
gropingly striven to express. 

Thus speaks the Grand Canyon to 
almost every person who comes within 
the magic circle of its perpetual allure- 
ment. Joaquin Miller affirms that at the 
Canyon color is king. William Winter 
calls it "this surpassing wonder," and 
Hamlin Garland is most impressed by its 
thousand differing moods. John Muir 
sums it up in a striking phrase "wildness 
so Godful, cosmic, primeval." Possibly a 
little girl expressed the inexpressible 
most simply when she remarked that it 
is so beautiful she would like to live here 
always. 

A Canyon Within a System of 
Canyons 

A canyon, truly, but not after the 
accepted type. An intricate system of 
canyons, rather, each subordinate to the 
river channel in the center, which in its 
turn is subordinate to the whole effect. 
That river channel, the profoundest 
depth, and actually more than six 
thousand feet below the point of view, 
is in seeming a rather insignificant trench, 
attracting the eye more by reason of its 
somber tone and mysterious suggestion 
than by any appreciable characteristic of 
a chasm. It is perhaps five miles distant 
in a straight line, and its uppermost rims 
are nearly four thousand feet beneath the 
observer. One cannot believe the dis- 
tance to be more than a mile as the crow 
flies, before descending the wall. 

Yet the immediate chasm itself is only 
the first step of a long terrace that leads 
down to the innermost gorge and the 
river. Roll a heavy stone to the rim and 
let it go. It falls the height of the Eiffel 
tower, and explodes like a bomb on a 
projecting ledge. If any considerable 
fragments remain they bound onward, 
snapping trees like straws; bursting, 
crashing down the declivities until they 
make a last plunge over the brink of a 
void; and then there comes languidly up 
the cliff-sides a faint, distant roar, and 



your boulder lies scattered as wide as 
Wycliffe's ashes, although the final frag- 
ment has lodged only a little way, so to 
speak, below the rim. 

The spectacle is so symmetrical, and so 
completely excludes the outside world and 
its accustomed standards, it is with 
difficulty one can acquire any notion of 
its immensity. Were it half as deep, 
half as broad, it would be no less be- 
wildering, so utterly does it baffle human 
grasp. 

The terrific deeps that part the walls 
of hundreds of castles and turrets of 
mountainous bulk may be approximately 
located in barely discernible penstrokes 
of detail. The comparative insignificance 
of what are termed grand sights in other 
parts of the world is now clearly revealed. 

Overmastering Charm of the 
Panorama 

Still, such particulars cannot long hold 
the attention, for the panorama is the 
real overmastering charm. It is never 
twice the same. The scene incessantly 
changes, flushing and fading, advancing 
into crystalline clearness, retiring into 
slumberous haze. 

Should it chance to have rained 
heavily in the night, next morning the 
Canyon may be completely filled with 
fog. As the sun mounts, the curtain of 
mist suddenly breaks into cloud fleeces, 
and while you gaze these fleeces rise and 
dissipate, leaving the Canyon bare. At 
once around the bases of the lowest cliffs 
white puffs begin to appear and their 
number multiplies until once more they 
rise and overflow the rim, and it is as if 
you stood on some land's end looking 
down upon a formless void. Then 
quickly comes the complete dissipation, 
and again the marshaling in the depths, 
the upward advance, the total suffusion 
and the speedy vanishing, repeated over 
and over until the warm walls have ex- 
pelled their saturation. 

It is, indeed, a place created by some 
magician's wand. 

Long may the visitor loiter upon the 
verge, powerless to shake loose from the 
charm, until the sun is low in the West. 
Then the Canyon sinks into mysterious 
purple shadow, the far Shinumo Altar is 
tipped with a golden ray, and against a 
leaden horizon the long line of the Echo 
Cliffs reflects a soft brilliance of inde- 



P a A f- seven 




Opposite Ell Tovar Hotel is a replica of a Hopi Indian house. 



scribable beauty, a light that, elsewhere, 
surely never was on sea or land. Then 
darkness falls, and should there be a 
moon, the scene in part revives in silver 
light, a thousand spectral forms pro- 
jected from inscrutable gloom; dreams 
of mountains, as in their sleep they 
brood on things eternal. 

The River as Viewed From Foot of 
the Trails 

The traveler stands upon a sandy rift, 
confronted by nearly vertical walls many 
hundred feet high, at whose base a tawny 
torrent pitches in a giddying, onward 
slide, that gives him momentarily the 
sensation of slipping into an abyss. 

Dwarfed by such prodigious mountain 
shores, which rise immediately from the 
water at an angle that would deny footing 
to a mountain sheep, it is not easy to 
estimate confidently the width and vol- 
ume of the river. Choked by the stub- 
born granite, its width is probably 
between 250 and 300 feet, its velocity 
fifteen miles an hour, and its volume and 
turmoil equal to the Whirlpool Rapids 
of Niagara. Its rise in time of heavy rain 
is rapid and appalling, for the walls shed 
almost instantly all the water that falls 
upon them. Drift is lodged in the 
crevices thirty feet overhead. 



For only a few hundred yards is the 
tortuous stream visible, but its effect 
upon the senses is perhaps the greater 
for that reason. Issuing as from a 
mountain side, it slides with oily smooth- 
ness for a space and suddenly breaks into 
violent waves that comb back against 
the current and shoot unexpectedly here 
and there, while the volume sways, tide- 
like, from side to side, and long curling 
breakers form and hold their outline 
lengthwise of the shore, despite the seem- 
ingly irresistible velocity of the water. 
The river is laden with drift (huge tree 
trunks), which it tosses like chips in its 
terrible play. 

As it is Written in the Archives 

The Colorado is one of the great rivers 
of North America. Formed in Southern 
Utah by the confluence of the Green and 
the Grand, it intersects the northwestern 
corner of Arizona, and flows southward 
until it reaches tidewater in the Gulf of 
California. It drains a territory of 
300,000 square miles. At three points, 
Needles, Parker and Yuma on the Cali- 
fornia boundary, it is crossed by a rail- 
road. Elsewhere its course lies far from 
the routes of common travel. 

The early Spanish explorers at first 
reported it in 1 540. Again in 1 776, a 
Spanish priest found a crossing at a 



Fade e i & h t 




The Grand Canyon is the most instructive example of one of the chief factors of earth-building erosion. 

Pa A e nine 



place that still bears the name "Vado de 
los Padres." 

For more than eighty years thereafter 
the Big Canyon remained unvisited 
except by the Indian, the Mormon 
herdsman, and the trapper, although the 
Sitgreaves expedition of 1851, journeying 
westward, struck the river about one 
hundred and fifty miles above Yuma, and 
Lieutenant Whipple in 1854 made a 
survey for a practicable railroad route 
along the thirty-fifth parallel, where a 
railroad afterwards was constructed. 

In 1857 the War Department dis- 
patched an expedition in charge of 
Lieutenant Ives to explore the Colorado 
upstream to the head of navigation. Ives 
ascended to the head of Black Canyon; 
then returning to the Needles, he set 
off northeast across country. He reached 
the Canyon at Diamond and Cataract 
Creeks in the spring of 1858, and made a 
wide southward detour around the San 
Francisco Peaks, thence to the Hopi 
Pueblos, to Fort Defiance, and back to 
civilization. 

It remained for a geologist and a 
school-teacher, a one-armed veteran of 
the Civil War, John Wesley Powell, 
afterward director of the United States 
Geological Survey, to dare and to ac- 
complish the exploration of the mighty 
river. 

In 1869 Major Powell started with nine 



men and four boats from Green River 
City, in Utah. Powell launched his 
flotilla on May 24th, and on August 
30th landed at the mouth of the Virgin 
River, more than one thousand miles 
by river channel from starting place, 
minus two boats and four men. There 
proved to be no impassable whirlpools 
in the Grand Canyon, no underground 
passages and no cataracts. But the trip 
was hazardous in the extreme. The 
adventurers faced the unknown at every 
bend, daily, often several times daily, 
embarking upon swift rapids without 
guessing upon what rocks or in what 
great falls they might terminate. Con- 
tinually they upset. 

Again, in 1871, he started down river 
with three boats and went as far as the 
Crossing of the Fathers. In the summer 
of 1872 he returned to the row boats at 
Lee's Ferry, and descended as far as the 
mouth of Kanab Wash, where the river 
journey was abandoned. 

Powell's journal of the initial trip is a 
most fascinating tale, written in a com- 
pact and modest style, which, in spite of 
its reticence, tells an epic story of purest 
heroism. It definitely established the 
scene of his exploration as the most 
wonderful geological and spectacular 
phenomenon known to mankind, and 
justified the name which had been 
bestowed upon it the Grand Canyon. 





F Jrrrnit Rim F 



ilevard on the very brink of the Grand Canyon. 



P a % e te 




El Tovar Hotel and Bright Angel Cottages from Maricopa Point. 



Since that day several expeditions have 
traversed the same route, each experienc- 
ing thrills enough for a lifetime. Powell 
easily ranks at the top of the list. Not 
only was he a pioneer, but his daring was 
for the sake of scientific knowledge. 

Canyon Geology 

The average man measures long per- 
iods of time by centuries. The geologist 
reckons otherwise. To him a hundred 



years are but the tick of a clock, the 
passing of a summer cloud. He deals 
in aeons as others do in minutes, and thus 
is able to measure, after a fashion, 
almost inconceivable time. 

Searching for a convenient yardstick, 
the building of our earth is first thought of 
as divided into four eras. Periods are 
lesser divisions of the eras. In the pro- 
terozoic era there are two periods 
archaean and algonkian. The "paleozoic 



P a 



eleven 



era has six periods the cambrian, ordo- 
vician, silurian, devonian, carboniferous 
and permian. The mesozoic era divides 
into the triassic, Jurassic and cretaceous 
periods. The cenozoic era has five periods 
eocene, oligocene, miocene, pliocene 
and pleistocene. 

These four periods particularly must be 
borne in mind, because they are the primer 
of Canyon geology, viz., the archaean, 
algonkian, cambrian and carboniferous 
rocks, which are among the very oldest 
of earth's strata. The later rocks un- 
doubtedly were here once nearly 12,000 
feet of them on top of what today is 
top, but in some remote age they were 
shaved off. 

Yet the Canyon itself is accounted 
geologically modern. It happened, so 
scientists say, only yesterday. 

Stand almost anywhere on the south 
rim and look at the north wall, which is 
the southern limit of the Kaibab plateau. 
That north rim is three times as far from 
the Colorado River as is the south rim, 
and is 1,000 to 1,500 feet higher, viz., 
5,500 to 6,000 feet above the river, 
compared with 4,500 feet. It is like a 
section of layer cake, each layer of 
different material and color or like 
gigantic beds of titanic masonry. 

Begin at the top and go down. For 
the first 3,000 feet or more, the wall 
descends by cliffs, steep slopes and 



narrow ledges. Next comes a wide 
terrace, the Tonto platform. Lastly 
appears the inner granite gorge, V-shaped 
and 1,000 to 1,200 feet deep, with the 
river flowing at the bottom in a trench 
250 to 300 feet wide. 

The light buff formation at the top is 
the Kaibab limestone. 

Beneath this is another light-colored 
formation, the crossbedded Coconino 
gray sandstone, presenting a sheer face. 

The next is of bright red color, due to 
oxide of iron; it consists of alternating 
beds of hard sandstone cliff and soft shale 
slopes, about 1,100 feet thick, and known 
as the Supai formation. 

Farther down is the Red wall or "blue" 
limestone, 550 feet thick and very hard, 
so finely grained it seems to be a single 
bed; its precipitous cliffs are stained red 
by wash from the strata above; in this 
formation occurs Jacob's Ladder, on 
Bright Angel Trail, and Cathedral Stairs, 
on Hermit Trail. 

These were laid down during the car- 
boniferous period. 

The horizontal formations below the red 
wall form the Tonto group, of the Cambrian 
period. In order, from top to bottom, 
they are Muav limestone, thin-banded 
and grayish green; Bright Angel shale, 
325 feet; and the basic rocks Tapeats 
sandstone, hard and brown, forming the 
floor of the Tonto platform. 







Where Hermit Road ends and Hermit Trail begin* is a unique rest house called Hermit's Rest. 

P a A e twelve 







The '.'Devil's Corkscrew" it a spiral pathway down an almost perpendicular wall on the Bright Angel Trail. 

P a & e thirteen 



You may notice that these strata are 
not at the same height everywhere. This 
is due to fractures or "faults," along 
which the rocks on one side are much 
lower than on the other. 

All these nearly horizontal strata rest 
on a level surface of archaean and 
algonkian rocks, through which the river 
has cut a lower inner gorge. 

That, in brief, is what you see today. 

Geologists agree that the rocks of each 
period represent an uplift and subsidence 
of the upper crust, extending over in- 
calculable time, each subsidence being 
followed by sedimentary deposits on the 
sea bottom, ultimately forming a new 
series of rocks. 

Imagine this huge mass, say three and 
a half miles thick, gradually lifted up, 
and forming a plateau with an area of 
13,000 to 15,000 square miles. The top 
two-thirds, except an isolated butte here 
and there, was next eliminated by erosion, 
and then the Colorado River began to 
cut the Grand Canyon through the lower 
third. 

Nobody knows to what extent, if any, 
earthquake disturbances originally may 
have helped to make the Grand Canyon, 
but the masterful influence of erosion 
is plainly to be seen. The Canyon has 
not stopped changing. Every decade it 
gets a fraction deeper and wider, by 
erosion only. 

Roadside erosion is familiar to us all. 
A hundred times we have idly noted the 
fantastic water-carved walls and minar- 
etted slopes of ordinary ditches. But 
seldom, perhaps, have we realized that 
the muddy roadside ditch and the world- 
famous Grand Canyon of the Colorado 
River are, from Nature's standpoint, 
identical; that they differ only in soil 
and size. 

An All-The-Year Resort 

The Grand Canyon is more than some- 
thing stupendous to look at. It is a 
place for rest and recreation. It may be 
visited any day in the year. When most 
other mountain resorts are frozen up, 
the titan of chasms is easily accessible. 
During the winter snow falls in the pine 
forest along the rim, and the upper sec- 
tions of the trails to the river are covered 
with a white blanket. Nevertheless one 
may venture muleback down any of the 
principal trails, confident that spring soon 



will begin to peek out timidly and early 
summer appear just around the turn. 
For, going down, the climate changes 
perceptibly every few hundred feet, so 
that when on the rim a nipping frost is in 
the air there are fragile desert flowers 
blooming along the river gulches. 

The weather in July or August is not 
torrid, except at the very bottom of the 
giant cleft. Up above, the rim is almost a 
mile and a half above sea-level. That 
means cool mornings, evenings and nights 
Only at noon in the summer months does 
the thermometer register a high figure 
yet because of absence of moisture, in 
midsummer one moves about in perfect 
comfort during the day and sleeps under 
a blanket at night. 

Go down in summer and the tempera 
ture comes up; come up in winter and the 
temperature goes down. The difference 
of nearly a mile in altitude between the 
Colorado River and Canyon rim is like 
traveling hundreds of miles north 01 
south on the level. 

Also high altitude means cool summers 
while southerly latitude means warm 
winters, as a rule which explains wh> 
the Grand Canyon is an ideal resort the 
year 'round. 

As a rule, too, this part of Arizona is a 
land of sunshine; the air is dry and th 
wind velocity is under the average. Eas> 
drives, in the stimulating atmosphere oi 
Arizona, a mile and a half up in the sky 
soothe tired brain and nerves. Mon 
vigorous is the horseback exercise, taker 
through the parklike glades and reaches 
of Tusayan Forest. 

While spring and fall perhaps are more 
attractive than midsummer or midwinter 
each season has its special lure. Camp- 
ing, during the December - to - March 
period, is restricted to the inner canyon 
region. The boulevard rim drives, and 
the south wall trails are open from 
January to January. So are the hotels. 

Most persons make the mistake of 
trying to see the Canyon in too short a 
time. They rush in, rush around, and 
rush out. That's the wrong way. The 
right way is to take it leisurely. 

A Pullman brings one to the very rim. 
While it is possible to get a hasty glimpse 
in a day, this hurried day must be spent 
either on the rim or in a rush down the 
trail to the river's edge; it is not possible 
to do both between sunrise and sunset, 






P a J>, e fourteen 



T- ' ?$& 




A noted feature of Bright Angel Trail is Jacob's Ladder. 
The Tonto Trail follows the inner gorge, thousands of feet below fhe rim. 



Pa A e fifteen 



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iv-z j.f 



KAIBAB 





THE 

GRAND CANYON 
NATIONAL PARK 

ARIZONA 

Scale 
QS1 a ? 4 ? ? ^ 8 , M ' LI 

- ^ Boundary of Park 
=^= Wagon Road 

r Automobile Road 
_ _ _ ^ A/a/n Trails 

Other Trails 

Railroad 



Pal 



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TUSAYAN NATIONAL FOREST 



MAfS 



TO FLAGSTAFF CoDTrkbt bT Rtnd Mc.NallT i Co. 



Pa & e 



and both rim and river are well worth a 
day for each. 

It is much better to plan to stay at 
least two full days, allowing one of them 
for the trail to the river and the other for 
rim drives. Or, combine both in the 
Hermit Rim drive and Hermit Trail trip, 
with a night in the Canyon. 

Four or five days will enable you to 
really see this sublime spectacle. Viewed 
from above, it is an emotional experience. 
Descend mule-back over trails which 
zigzag steeply but safely down the cliffs, 
and the experience is altogether different. 

Accommodations for Travelers 

On arrival at the Canyon the traveler finds 
ample hotel accommodations, suitable enter- 
tainment for leisure hours, and complete facili- 
ties for outing trips. The saddle horses, mules 
and coach animals are specially trained for 
Western roads and trails. The vehicles are 
comparable to those found at Eastern resorts. 
Drivers and guides are experienced. The ex- 
cellent hotels cater to all classes of visitors. 

El Tovar One of the most unique resort 
hotels in the Southwest is located at the rail- 
road terminus, near head of Bright Angel Trail, 
at an elevation of 6,866 feet above sea-level. 
It is named El Tovar, and is under management 
of Fred Harvey. 

It is a long, low structure, built of native 
boulders and pine logs. There are ninety-three 



sleeping-rooms, accommodating 1 75 guests. 
Forty-six of these rooms are connected with 
private bath. 

There is a music-room, and rendezvous. In 
the main dining-room 165 persons can be seated 
at one time. 

Hot and cold water, steam heat and electric 
light are supplied. El Tovar also has a steam 
laundry. 

El Tovar Hotel is conducted on the American 
plan, i. e., room and meals both included. 
Rooms without bath, $5 a day for one person 
and $9 a day for two persons occupying same 
room; rooms with bath, $7 to $8 and upward 
for one person, and $12 to $15 a day and up- 
ward for two persons occupying same room. 
Meals only: breakfast and luncheon, $1 each; 
dinner, $1.50. 

Bright Angel Cottages Cozy lodgings in 
cottages or tents at Bright Angel Cottages, 
adjacent to El Tovar, cost $1.00 to $1.50 a 
day, each person; meals are furnished a la carte 
at the cafe. The accommodations are clean 
and comfortable. There are four cottages, open 
the year round and several large tents for sum- 
mer only. All of the cottages have steam heat 
and electric light; one cottage also has baths. 
About 1 50 persons can be accommodated here. 
Kitchen facilities are ample for quick, a la carte 
service. 

Grand View Hotel This hotel, located at 
Grand View, thirteen miles east of the railroad 
station, is under management of Mr. P. D. 




From the plateau there are many fine views of the inner canyon formi 



P a & e eighteen 




Camping in the Tusayan Forest on the rim. 



Berry. It is a large frame edifice, with log 
cabin annex, and can accommodate about fifty 
guests in season. Not open for regular traffic 
in winter. 

The Lookout The Lookout is a quaint 
observatory and resthouse, built on the edge of 
the rim near head of Bright Angel Trail. 

It is equipped with a large binocular telescope 
in the tower, for observing the most distant 
reaches of the Canyon by day and for viewing 
the heavens by night. There is a small library 
for the layman and scientist. Canyon maps 
and photos are displayed. The reception-room 
has spacious windows, a fireplace, Navajo rugs 
and easy chairs; it is electric lighted and steam 
heated. 

Hopi House Opposite El Tovar is a repro- 
duction of the dwellings of the Hopi Indians and 
several Navajo hogans. 

In the Hopi House are installed collections of 
Indian handiwork. Here also live a small band 
of Hopis. These are the most primitive In- 
dians in our country. Their ceremonies are 
hundreds of years old, the most famous being 
that of the snake dance. The men weave 
blankets and the women make pottery. The 
Navajos weave fine blankets which find a ready 
market and the silversmiths fashion their arti- 
cles, mostly bracelets and rings, from Mexican 
coin silver. Supai Indians from Cataract Can- 
yon frequently visit El Tovar. 

Hermit's Rest Where Hermit Rim Road 
ends and Hermit Trail begins is a unique rest- 



house, built into the hill, with a roofed-in porch 
and parapet wall. As the name implies, it is 
intended to provide rest and shelter for parties 
who take the Rim Road drive, or the Hermit 
Trail trip. Guests may sit at the tables outside 
or sheltered by the glass front inside, according 
to weather, and enjoy a light lunch in unusual 
surroundings. Admission is by ticket. 

The Trails Down to the River There are 
but four points from which a descent may be 
made of the south wall of the Grand Canyon 
in the vicinity of the granite gorge: 

1. At Grand View, down Grand View Trail. 

2. At El Tovar, down Bright Angel Trail. 

3. At Hermit Basin, down Hermit Trail. 

4. West of Havasupai Point, down Bass 
Trail. 

Hermit and Bright Angel trails are regularly 
used and are kept in excellent condition. Grand 
View and Bass Trails are used infrequently. 

The Canyon is accessible over trails at other 
places outside of the district named, such as 
Lee's Ferry Trail, by wagon from Winslow, and 
Hopi Indian Trail, by way of Little Colorado 
Canyon; but tourists take the El Tovar and 
Hermit routes because of the superior facilities 
there offered. 

It is near Grand View that Marble Canyon 
ends and the Grand Canyon proper begins. 
Northward, eighteen miles away, is the mouth 
of the Little Colorado Canyon. From Grand 
View the beginning of the granite gorge is seen. 



P a g e nineteen 




P a A e twenty 



Overlooking the Colorado River from Plateau Point. 
Th Coloardo River at foot of Bright Angel Trail. 



El Tovar is approximately in the center, 
Hermit a little west of center, and Bass Trail 
at the western end of the granite gorge. By 
auto road it is about thirteen miles from El 
Tovar east to Grand View, eight miles west to 
Hermit, and twenty-four miles west to Bass 
Trail. 

Hermit Rim Road 

A scenic roadway, Hermit Rim Road, has been 
built from El Tovar westward to the head of Her- 
mit Basin, seven and a half miles. It is like a city 
boulevard in the wilderness. 1 1 closely follows the 
rim, by way of Hopi and Mohave Points, to 
Pima Point, and thence along the east side of 
Hermit Basin to top of Hermit Trail. In many 
places there is a sheer drop of 2,000 feet within 
a rod of the rim. 

Along the entire route the gigantic panorama 
of the Grand Canyon unfolds itself for miles 
and miles, with views of Tusayan Forest, the 
Cataract country, and, far to the west, the 
purple peaks of the Uinkarets. 

Powell Monument, on Sentinel Point, was 
erected by the U. S. Government as a memorial to 
Major John W. Powell, the first Canyon explorer. 
This massive monument is constructed of native 
rock and represents an Aztec sacrificial altar. 

Regular Trip Drives by Coach There 
are several interesting "regular trip" drives by 
coach. They are popular with everybody, the 
expense being moderate. A list follows: 

Hopi Point El Tovar to Hopi Point, two 
miles west, and back; first trip starts at 10 a. m. ; 
rate, $1.00. Second trip leaves at 2 p. m.; 
rate, $1.00. Third trip leaves at an hour timed 
to reach the point before sunset; rate, $1.50. 

Mohave Point Three miles west; leaves 
9 a. m. and 2 p. m.; rate, $2. 

Hermit Rim Road Fifteen miles round 
trip once in the forenoon and once in the 
afternoon. The first starts at 9 a. m. and 
reaches El Tovar, returning, at 1 p. m.; rate, $3. 
The second starts at 2 p. m., and reaches El 
Tovar, returning, about 5:30 p. m. ; rate, $3. 
Stops are made en route at Hopi, Mohave and 
Pima points. Rates named also include use 
of facilities and light refreshments at Hermit's 
Rest. 

Yavapai and Grandeur Points This 
drive extends two miles east of El Tovar; start 
10:15 a. m.; rate, $1. 

Private Conveyance Rates Where private 
carriages or coaches are desired, an extra charge 
of $2 is made for entire party, besides the 
individual rate for regular service. 



As an example the rate for regular trip to 
end of rim road is $3 each person. If one person 
desires to make this trip in a special convey- 
ance, that person would pay $5; if two persons 
go, the entire expense would be $8; for three 
persons, $11; and so on up to six. The $2 
extra is collected for the party as a whole, and 
not individually. 

Rates for special autos vary with service 
performed. 

Note If the demand for regular trip driven is no heavy 
as to require use of all conveyances available, private 
carriages or coaches will be discontinued temporarily. 

Regular Trip Drives by Auto With th<- 

rapid development of good roads in Northern 
Arizona, the use of the auto for seeing this sec- 
tion enables visitors to get around quickly and 
with comfort. One easily can make the detour 
to the Canyon from either Flagstaff or Williams 
over good natural roads, which for two-thirds of 
the way, run over a rolling plain. To care for 
increasing auto travel, a large stone garage has 
been built at the Canyon, with ample facilities 
for parking, repairing and supplying cars. 

Some of the "regular" auto trips are mentioned 
below. Autos are not permitted on Hermit 
Rim Road, nor on the road to Yavapai Point, 
nor on road from Rowe Well to Hopi Point. 
This is a regulation of the United States Govern- 
ment to safeguard travel by coach along the rim. 
There are no such restrictions elsewhere in this 
vicinity. 

Special rates are made for special auto service. 

Grand View The round trip to Grand 
View Point, thirteen miles each way, is made by 
automobile in about three and a half hours, 
allowing sufficient time to visit the nearby 
outlooks. Leave El Tovar 9:30 a. m. and 2 
p. m. daily; rate, $3. The ride is through the 
tallest pines of the Tusayan Forest, via Long 
Jim Canyon and Thor's Hammer. 

From Grand View may be seen that section of 
the Canyon from Bright Angel Creek to Marble 
Canyon, including the great bend of the Col- 
orado. On the eastern wall are Moran, Zuni, 
Papago, Pinal, Navaho (Desert View) and 
Comanche points; and the mouth of the Little 
Colorado River. Still further beyond is the 
Painted Desert and Navaho Mountain the 
latter plainly seen, though one hundred and 
twenty miles away. The rim trail to Moran 
Point is interesting. Grand View Trail enters 
the Canyon near Grand View Point. 

Desert View At this point there is a far 
outlook not only into the Canyon above the 
granite gorge, where the river valley widens, 
but also across the Painted Desert, toward Hopi- 



P a f>, e twenty-one 




Motoring through pine forest on way to Grand View. 
Grand View Hotel. 



Detroit Publishing Co. 



land, and along the Desert Palisades to the 
mouth of the Little Colorado. At sunset and 
sunrise it is a glorious sight. For that reason 
one preferably should arrange to stay over- 
night a camping trip, elsewhere referred to. 
Where time is an object the run may be made 
by auto there and back in a day, as soon as 
the necessary road improvements have been 
finished. 

The distance is thirty-two miles each way, via 
Grand View, Hull Tank, Trash Dam, Tanner 
Tank, old Aztec ruin, and head of Tanner Trail. 
Two round trips a day, leaving El Tovar 9 a. m. 
and return by I :30 p. m. Rate for one person, 
$20; for two persons, $10 each; for three or more 
persons up to capacity of car, $8 each. Special 
auto for parties of six persons or less, $48; lunch 
extra, except for El Tovar room guests. 

Flagstaff It is about eighty-five miles, El 
Tovar to Flagstaff, via Grand View, Lockett's 
Lake. Skinner's Wash, Moki Wash and San 
Francisco Peaks, over a main traveled road, on 
which a good run is possible most of the year. 
The round trip requires about two days. 

This is a very enjoyable drive through pine 
forests and across green mesas along the old- 
time stage route to the Canyon. The town of 
Flagstaff is located in the heart of the San 
Francisco uplift. In this vicinity are pre- 
historic cliff dwellings, extinct craters, volcanic 
cones, lava beds and ice caves. The summit of 



Humphrey's Peak, one of the peaks forming the 
San Francisco Mountains, is 12,750 feet high. 

Hermit Trail A pathway down the south 
wall of the Grand Canyon, named Hermit Trail, 
has been built from end of Hermit Rim Road 
to the Colorado River. One can take carriage 
from El Tovar to head of Hermit Trail, and go 
as far down as the plateau, muleback a two- 
days' round trip, spending the night at Hermit 
Camp. Hermit-Tonto-Bright Angel Loop camp- 
ing trip, requiring two to three days, includes 
the rim road and three trails, Hermit, Tonto and 
Bright Angel. 

Hermit Trail is four feet wide. The descent 
is accomplished by a series of easy grades. A 
southern exposure for the first thousand feet at 
top, renders it comparatively free in winter. 
The lower section opens into the main Canyon 
along Hermit Creek. 

On the plateau, at the foot of a lofty peak, 
Hermit Camp has been built a central dining- 
hall and eleven tents with accommodations for 
thirty persons. Excellent camp meals are pro- 
vided. The tents have pine floors and sides, 
beds, rugs, and other conveniences. 

The upper part of Hermit Trail leads down 
into Hermit Basin, on the western slope, to 
where the red wall begins. From Red Top to 
the head of Cathedral Stairs the way leads along 
the steep east wall of Hermit Gorge, almost on 
a level. 



P a A e twenty-two 



At Cathedral Stairs there is an abrupt descent 
through the blue limestone by a succession of 
short zigzags. From camp to Colorado River 
there is a new trail. The river view at Hermit 
Rapids is one of the finest along the Colorado. 
These rapids are narrow, long, and very rough. 

Hermit Trail is distinguished from all the 
others by its wide views of the big Canyon 
nearly every rod of the way. 

Hermit Camp Overnight This trip takes 
two days and one night. Hermit Rim Road to 
head Hermit Trail; down Hermit Trail; stay 
overnight at Hermit Camp; go to River foot of 
Hermit Creek; return up Hermit Trail to rim; 
thence Rim Road. 

Start from El Tovar or Bright Angel Cottages 
at 9 a. m., and return next afternoon. Round- 
trip charge is $16 for each person; private guide, 
$5 a day extra, rate quoted includes regular 
guide, overnight accommodations and meals en 
route. 

Hermit-Tonto-Bright Angel Loop This 
trip takes two days and one night. Hermit 
Rim Road to head Hermit Trail; down Hermit 
Trail; stay over night at Hermit Camp; go to 
River foot of Hermit Creek; return along Ton to 
Trail to Indian Garden ; thence up Bright 
Angel Trail. 

Start from El Tovar or Bright Angel Cottages 
at 9 a. m., and return next afternoon. Round- 
trip charge is $23 for each person; private guide 
$5 a day extra; rate quoted includes regular 



guide, over-night accommodations and meals en 
route. 

Note This trip can be lengthened to three days and 
two nights by spending an extra night in the Canyon, also 
going to River at foot of Bright Angel Trail a 34-mile 
journey. Rate. $14 a day. one person: $8 a day extra each 
additional person; provisions extra; includes guide. 

Bright Angel Trail The trail here ia gen- 
erally open the year 'round. In midwinter it is 
liable to be closed for a day or two at the top 
by snow, but such blockade is not frequent. 
The trail reaches from the hotel seven miles to 
Colorado River, with a branch terminating at 
the top of the granite wall immediately over- 
looking the river. At this latter point the 
stream is 1 ,272 feet below, while El Tovar hotel 
on the rim is 3,158 feet above. The trip is made 
on muleback, accompanied by a guide. 

Those wishing to reach the river leave the 
main trail at Indian Garden and follow the 
downward course of Indian Garden and Pipe 
creeks. A feature of this section is a spiral 
pathway up an almost perpendicular wall. 

Another noted feature is Jacob's Ladder, cut 
across the face of hard blue limestone rock. 

For the first two miles it is indeed a sort of 
Jacob's ladder, zigzagging at an unrelenting 
pitch. At the end of two miles the blue lime- 
stone level is reached some 2,500 feet below the 
rim, that is to say for such figures have to be 
impressed objectively upon the mind five 
times the height of St. Peter's, the Pyramid of 
Cheops, or the Strasburg Cathedral; eight times 
the height of the Bartholdi Statue of Liberty; 




At Desert View there is a far outlook into the Canyon and across the Painted Desert toward Hopiland. 

P a & e twenty-three 



and eleven times the height of Bunker Hill 
Monument. Looking back from this level the 
huge towers that border the rim shrink to pig- 
mies and seem to crown a perpendicular wall, 
unattainably far in the sky. Yet less than one- 
half of the descent has been made. 

Leave at 8:30 a. m. for the river trip, seven 
miles; return to rim 5:30 p. m.; rate, $5 each 
person. Leave 10:30 a. m. for trip to plateau 
five miles; rate, $4 each. To plateau and river 
same day, rate $6 for each person; start at 
8 a. m. Rates quoted above are for each person 
in parties of three or more. For special trips 
with less than three persons there is a party 
charge of $5 extra for guide. Lunch extra, 
except for El Tovar room guests. 

It is necessary that visitors who walk down 
Bright Angel Trail and desire that guide and 
mules be sent to meet them, be charged full 
price and special guide fee of $5. This is un- 
avoidable, as the mules and guides are not 
available for any other trip, and in addition a 
toll fee of $1 must be paid by the management 
for each animal, whether the entire trail trip is 
made or not. 

Camping Trips Camping trips with pack 
and saddle animals, or with wagon and saddle 
animals, are organized, completely equipped, 
and placed in charge of experienced guides. 

For climatic reasons it is well to arrange so 
that camping trips during the season from 
October to April are mainly confined to the 
inner Canyon. For the remainder of the year, 
i. e., April to October, they may be planned to 
include both the Canyon itself and the rim 
country. 

The rates vary from $10 to $15 a day for one 
person; $6 to $8 a day each additional person. 
Such rates specially include services of guide 
and camp equipment; provisions extra; figures 
quoted are approximate only, varying with 
different outings. 

Dripping Spring This trip is made on 
horseback all the way, or carriage to rim and 
saddle horses down trail; ten miles west, start 
at 8:30 a. m. ; rate, $4 each for three or more 
persons; for less than three persons, $5 extra for 
guide. Private parties of three or more persons, 
$5 extra for guide. 

Cataract Canyon and Havasupai Village 

- The best time to visit this place is from 
May to October. A journey of about fifty 
miles, first by wagon or auto, thirty-five miles, 
across a timbered plateau, then on horseback 
down Topocobya Trail, along Topocobya and 
Cataract canyons, to the home of the Havasupai 
Indians. 



The home of this little band ofJ/200 Indians 
is in Cataract Canyon, a tributary of the Grand 
Canyon, deep down in the earth two-fifths of a 
mile. The situation is romantic, and the sur- 
roundings are beautified by falls of water over 
precipices several hundred feet high, backed by 
grottoes of stalactites and stalagmites. This 
water all comes from springs that gush forth in 
surprising volume near the Havasupai village. 

The baskets made by the Havasupai women 
consist of the burden basket, a shallow tray and 
a water bottle of willow. Those made by the 
older weavers are of fine mesh, with attractive 
designs and bring good prices. No other 
Indians know so well how to cook meat, seeds 
and mush in coiled willow trays lined with clay. 

This tribe is allied to the Wallapai, their near 
neighbors on the west, and both speak the same 
language, with slight variation of dialect. 
Havasupai means people of the blue water. 
Padre Garces was the first white man to visit 
their canyon home. In early days the Havasu- 
pais undoubtedly were cliff dwellers. They 
built nearly all the Grand Canyon trails, or 
rather their rude pathways were the advance 
guard of the present trails. Their summer 
homes resemble those of the Apaches. The 
winter homes afford more protection against the 
weather. 

The round trip from El Tovar is made in 
three days, at an expense of $15 a day for one 
person, $20 a day for two persons, and $25 a 
day for three persons. Each additional member 
of party, $5 a day. Provisions extra. These 
rates include service for party of one or two 
persons, also cost of horse feed, but do not in- 
clude board and lodging at Supai Village for 
members of party and guide while stopping with 
Indian agent, who charges $2 a day for each 
person. 

For parties of three to six persons an extra 
guide is required, whose services are charged for 
at $5 a day, besides his board and lodging at the 
village. 

Note At the western end of the granite gorge is a 
trail down to the Colorado River and up the other side to 
Point Sublime and Powell's Plateau, the river being 
crossed by ferry. Reached by team from El Tovar. a 
distance of twenty-four miles, or it can be seen as a detour 
on the Cataract Canyon trip; rates on application. 

Desert View Elsewhere reference is made 
to Desert View auto trip. When taken by 
wagon, it occupies three days, leaving El Tovar 
morning of first day and returning afternoon of 
third day, with all-night camp at destination. 
Rate, $10 for one person, and $5 each additional 
person; provisions extra; rate named includes 
one guide; an extra guide costs $5 a day. 

Little Colorado River The trip to the 
mouth of the Little Colorado is a most interest- 



P a 



twenty- fou 




At Cathedral Stairs, on Hermit Trail, there is an abrupt descent through the blue limestone 
by a succession of short zigzags. 

P a & e twenty-five 



ing one. Leaving Ell Tovar in the morning by 
wagon, camp is made the first day at Deer 
Tank. The next day the Cliff Dwellings are 
visited, and the plateau overlooking the Canyon 
of the Little Colorado is reached by midday. 
From the edge of the plateau to the bottom of 
the Canyon is a straight drop of 2,500 feet. 

Painted Desert and Hopiland The trip 
is made with saddle and pack animals. The 
first night the camp is at Saddle Horse Tanks. 
Hopi Crossing of the Little Colorado is reached 
the next afternoon and Tuba City the third day. 
The Hopi village of Moenkopie is seen en route. 

The Painted Desert country affords a most 
interesting study of a phase of Indian entertain- 
ment, little known to white people. 

Horseback Trips The Far West ranges 
are the home of the horse. Here the pinto, 
cayuse and broncho truly belong. Here they 
grow strong of limb and swift of foot. 

Recently many new bridle paths along the 
rim and through the pines of Tusayan have 
been opened up, so that horseback riding now 
is possible for all. The animals are well trained and 
dependable. Saddle-horses cost $4 a day, or $2.50 
a half day. English, McLellan, Whitman or 
Western stock saddles furnished as requested. 
Side saddles not provided. The rate for special 
guides is $5 a day, or $2.50 a half day. Horse- 
back trips over any of the trails into the Canyon 
are only permitted when accompanied by guide. 
This is necessary to avoid risk in meeting trail 
parties and pack trains. 

Time Required While one ought to re- 
main a week or two, a stopover of three or four 
days from the transcontinental trip will be quite 
satisfactory. The Hermit overnight camping 
trip requires one day and night. One day 
should be devoted to a carriage ride along the 
Hermit Rim Road, and by auto to Grand View. 
Another day go down Bright Angel Trail and 
back. A fourth day spent in short walks to 
nearby points, or on horseback, will enable 



CROSS SCCT10N SHOWING ROCK 
STRATA IN GRAND CANYON 




visitors to get more intimate views. Hermit 
Loop three-day camping trip, down one trail 
and up another, is well worth while. 

The National Park Service of the Department 
of the Interior recommends to the traveling pul 
lie that stop-overs of as long duration as practi- 
cable be planned at points within the Parks, 
that Grand Canyon National Park be regard* 
not alone as a region which may be glimpsed on 
a hurried trip, but also as a vacation playgroui 
for rest and recreation. 

One-Day Outings In one day any one < 
the following combinations of regular round 
trips may be taken at the Canyon, from El 
Tovar or Bright Angel Cottages: 

1. (a) Hermit Rim Road, coach to head of 

Hermit Trail, $3. 
(b) Auto to Grand View, $3. 

2. (a) Hermit Rim Road, coach to head of 

Hermit Trail, $3. 

(b) Hermit Trail to Santa Maria Spring, 
$4; guide extra. 

3. Bright Angel Trail to Plateau ($4) or river 

($5). 

4. (a) Coach to Yavapai Point, $1. 

(b) Coach to Hopi Point, $1 and $1.50. 

5. Bright Angel Trail to river and plateau, $6; 

guide extra. 

Two-Day Outings In two days any one 
of these regular trip combinations may be taken: 

1. (a) Hermit Rim Road to head Hermit 

Trail; Hermit Trail to Plateau Camp 

and river; return same route; $16. 

Note. For return via Tonto and Bright 

Angel Trails, instead of Hermit Trail, add $7, 

each person. 

2. (a) Bright Angel Trail to Plateau; round 

trip, $4. 

(b) Hermit Rim Road to head Hermit 

Trail, round trip, $3. 

(c) Grand View auto, round trip, $3. 

What to Wear If much tramping is done, 
stout, thick shoes should be provided. Ladies 
will find that short walking skirts are a con- 
venience; divided skirts are preferable, but not 
essential, for the horseback journey down the 
zigzag trail. Traveling caps and (in summer) 
broad-brimmed straw hats are useful adjuncts. 
Otherwise ordinary clothing will suffice. Divided 
skirts and straw hats may be rented at El Tovar 
Hotel. 

Flora and Fauna Grand Canyon National 
Park is bordered on the north by the Kaibab 
National Forest and on the south by the Tusayan 
National Forest. In fact, a part of each of 
these forests is now within the boundaries of 
the Park. 

In this high forested region, the climatic 
diversity on the rim and in the depths is indicated 
all year, by the wild flowers, shrubs and trees. 
On the rim are the pines, cedars, junipers, pinyon 
and mesquite, also the cactus, "rose of the 
desert," the cholla and ocatillo, the yucca or 
Spanish bayonet, and many brilliantly colored 
wild flowers. The farther down one goes, the 
greater the change becomes. The pines drop 



P a 



t e n t y - s 




On the plateau at base of Hermit Point U Hermit Camp. 

Hermit Trail it four feet wide, with a low protecting wall on the outeide. The Colorado River at foot of Hermit Trail. 

P a & e twenty-seven 



out, then the cedar, juniper and pinyons. Many 
new wild flowers appear. 

There is a wide range of bird life, such as the 
golden eagle, wild turkey, sage-hen, mocking- 
bird, and the noisy magpie. Humming-birds 
and Canyon wrens are seen everywhere. 

The North Rim About two hundred miles 
to the southeast of Lund, Utah, by auto highway, 
is Bright Angel Point, on the north rim of the 
Grand Canyon. The journey will make an 
appeal to those who aim to get away from the 
usual and into the primitive. No regular 
schedules are avilable for the entire distance; and 
tourists must be satisfied with the homelike ac- 
commodations of remote villages en route and 
comfortable camps at the Canyon rim. 

The route from Lund is thirty-five miles to 
Cedar City, forty-four miles from Cedar City 
to Hurricane, sixty-nine miles from Hurricane to 
Fredonia and sixty-three miles from Fredonia 
to Grand Canyon National Park. 

The tour embraces several zones of altitude. 
At Cedar City the climate is comparable with 
that of Salt Lake City; southward the road 
drops downward two thousand feet through the 
Hurricane Fault into Utah's "Dixie," a gar- 
den spot of semi-tropical vegetation and quaint 
Mormon settlements. South of Hurricane the 
route is across a land of Zane Grey's "Purple 
Sage," and upward for sixty miles along the 
magnificent stretches of the Kaibab Plateau, 
whose southern escarpment, at an altitude of 
8,000 feet, is the northern wall of the Grand 
Canyon of the Colorado. These last sixty miles 
are through the Kaibab forest, a national reserve 
which exhibits on a grand scale one of the 
largest forests of giant pines in the United States. 
The high, dry, bracing pine-laden air, the forest 
aisles, and occasional glimpses of wild deer, make 
this ride a fitting prelude to the silent symphony 
of the Grand Canyon itself. 



How to Reach the Park 

Grand Canyon National Park is directly 
reached by a branch line of railroad extending 
sixty-four miles northward from Williams, Ariz. 
In certain trains through standard sleeping cars 
are operated to and from Grand Canyon station. 
Passengers using other trains and stopping over 
at Williams will find adequate accommodations 
at the Fray Marcos, station hotel. 

Excursion Tickets 

Stop-overs at Williams are permitted on 
round-trip and one-way tickets, all classes, read- 
ing to points beyond also on Pullman tickets. 
Side-trip fare from Williams to Grand Canyon 
and return is $7.60. Round-trip excursion 
tickets at reduced fares are on sale daily at prac- 
tically all stations in the United States and Can- 
ada to Grand Canyon, as a destination. 

Baggage 

Baggage may be checked through to Grand 
Canyon station, if required. Passengers making 
brief side-trips to Grand Canyon may check bag- 
gage to Williams only or through to destination. 
Certain regulations for free storage of baggage for 
Grand Canyon passengers are in effect. 

The route to the North Rim is elsewhere 
described. 



% Park Administration 

Grand Canyon National Park is under the 
jurisdiction of the Director, National Park Ser- 
vice, Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C. The Park Superintendent is located at 
Grand Canyon, Ariz. 




An exceptional snow fall on the rim of the Grand Canyon. 



P a 



twenty-ei}h 




Navajo woman spinning wool. 



Hopi Indian women weaving. 



A Supai maiden from Cataract Canyon. 
P a & e twenty-nine 




Grand Canyon railroad station. 
Trail party in front of Bright Angel Cottages. 



Horseback party in Tusayan Forest. 
Monument to Maj. J. W. Powell, first explorer of Grand Canyon. 



U. S. Government Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
free on written application to the Director of 
the National Park Service, Washington, D. C., 

Glimpses of our National Parks. 48 pages, 
illustrated. 

Map of National Parks and National Monu- 
ments. Shows location of all of the national 
parks and monuments, and railroad routes to 
these reservations. 

The following publication may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C., at 
price given. Remittances should be by money 
order or in cash. 

The National Parks Portfolio. By Robert 
Sterling Yard. 260 pages, 270 illustrations. 
Pamphlet edition, 35 cents; book edition, 55 
cents. Contains nine sections, each descriptive 
of national park. 



U. S. R. R. Administration 
Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
free on application to any consolidated ticket 
office; or apply to the Bureau of Service, National 
Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau 
Western Lines, 646 Transportation Building, 
Chicago, 111. 

Arizona and New Mexico Rockies 

California for the Tourist 

Colorado and Utah Rockies 

Crater Lake National Park. Oregon 

Glacier National Park. Montana 

Grand Canyon National Park. Arizona 

Hawaii National Park. Hawaiian Islands 

Hot Springs National Park. Arkansas 

Mesa Verde National Park. Colorado 

Mount Rainier National Park, Washington 

Northern Lakes Wisconsin. Minnesota. Upper Michigan. 

Iowa, and Illinois. 
Pacific Northwest and Alaska 
Petrified Forest National Monument. Arizona 
Rocky Mountain National Park. Colorado 
Sequoia and General Grant National Parks. California 
Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Montana. Idaho 
Yosemite National Park. California 
Zion National Monument. Utah 



P a 



thirty 




The National Parks at a glance 

United States Railroad Administration 

Director General of Railroads 

For particulars as to fares, train schedules, etc., apply to~any Railroad Ticket Agent, or to any 
of the following United States Railroad Administration Consolidated Ticket Offices: 

West 

Lincoln, Neb 104 N. 13th St. 

Little Rock. Ark. . .202 W. 2d St. 



Beaumont. Tex., Orleans and Pearl Sts. 

Bremerton. Wash 224 Front St. 

Butte. Mont 2 N. Main St. 

Chicago. Ill 175 W. Jackson Blvd. 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 

119 E. Pike's Peak Ave. 

Dallas. Tex I 12-1 14 Field St. 

Denver. Colo 601 17th St. 

Des Moines, Iowa 403 Walnut St. 

Duluth. Minn 334 W. Superior St. 

El Paso, Tex .... Mills and Oregon Sts. 

702 Houston St. 

. . . . J and Fresno Sts. 

21st and Market Sts. 

58 S. Main St. 

904 Texas Ave. 



Ft. Worth. T. 
Fresno, Cal . . . . 
Galveston, Tex. 
Helena, Mont. . 
Houston, Tex . . 
Kansas City, M 
Ry. Ex. Bid 



Long Beach, Cal . . L. A. & S. L Station 
Los Angeles. Cal . . . .215 S. Broadway 

Milwaukee. Wis 99 Wisconsin St. 

Minneapolis. Minn.. 202 Sixth St. South 
Oakland. Cal. . . 13th St. and Broadway 

Ocean Park, Cal 160 Pier Ave. 

Oklahoma City. Okla. 

131 W. Grand Ave. 

Omaha, Neb 1416 Dodge St 

Peoria, III. . .Jefferson and Liberty Sts. 



g.. 7th and Walnut Sts. 



Annapolis. Md 54 Maryland Ave. 

Atlantic City. N. J.. 1301 Pacific Ave. 
Baltimore, Md. . . .B. & O. R. R. Bldg. 

Boston. Mass 67 Franklin St. 

Brooklyn. N. Y 336 Fulton St. 

Buffalo. N. Y. .Main and Division Sts. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. . .6th and Main Sts. 

Cleveland. Ohio 1004 Prospect Ave. 

Columbus, Ohio 70 East Gay St. 

Dayton. Ohio 19 S. Ludlow St. 



Asheville, N. C 14 S. Polk Square 

Atlanta, Ga 74 Peachtree St. 

Augusta. Ga 811 Broad St. 



St. Paul. Minn . .4th and Jackson Sts. 
Sacramento. Cal 801 K St. 



Salt Lake City. Utah 

Main and S. Temple Sts. 
San Antonio, Tex. 

315-17 N. St. Mary's St. 

San Diego. Cal 300 Broadway 

San Francisco, Cal 

Lick Bldg.. Post St. and Lick Place 
San Jose, Cal., 1 st and San Fernando Sts. 

Seattle. Wash 714-16 2d Ave. 

Shreveport, La., Milarn and Market Sts. 
510 4th St. 



Sioux City, Iowa 

Spokane. Wash. 

Davenport Hotel. 815 Sprague Ave. 

Tacoma. Wash. ..1117-19 Pacific Ave. 
6th and Franklin Sts. 
L. A. & S. L. Station 
.... 226 Portage Ave. 



Waco. Tex.... 
Whittier. Cal.. 
Winnipeg, Man 



Phoenix, Ariz. 

Adams St. and Central Ave. 
Portland, Ore. .3d and Washington Sts. 

Pueblo. Colo 401-3 N. Union Ave. 

St. Joseph, Mo 505 Francis St. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

318-328 North Broadway 

East 

Detroit, Mich ... 1 3 W. LaFayette Ave. 
Evansville. Ind. . . L. & N. R. R. Bldg 

Grand Rapids. Mich 125 Pearl St. 

Indianapolis. Ind.. I 12-14 English Block 
Newark, N. J., Clinton and Beaver Sts. 

New York, N. Y 64 Broadway 

New York, N. Y 57 Chambers St. 

New York. N. Y 31 W. 32d St. 

New York. N. Y I 14 W. 42d St 

South 

Knoxville. Tenn 600 Gay St. 

Lexington. Ky Union Station 

Louisville, Ky . . . .4th and Market Sts. 

Lynchburg, Va 722 Main St. 

Memphis, Tenn 60 N. Main St. 

Mobile, Ala 51 S. Royal St. 

Montgomery, Ala Exchange Hotel 

Nashville, Tenn. Independent Life Bldg. 
New Orleans, La St. Charles Hotel 

For detailed information regarding National Parks and Monuments address Bureau of Service, 
National Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau Western Lines, 646 Transportation Building. 
Chicago. 



Birmingham, Ala. 
Charleston, S. C. . 
Charlotte. N. C. . . . 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Columbia, S. C. . . . 
Jacksonville. Fla. . 



2010 1st Ave. 

. Charleston Hotel 

. .22 S. Tryon St. 

..81 7 Market St. 

.Arcade Building 

. . .38 W. Bay St. 



Philadelphia. Pa.. 

Pittsburgh. Pa 

Reading. Pa 

Rochester. N. Y. . 
Syracuse, N. Y. . . 

Toledo, Ohio 

Washington, D. C. 
Williamsport. Pa. . 
Wilmington. Del. . 

Paducah, Ky 

.. Fla.. 



1539 Chestnut St. 

. .Arcade Building 

..I6N. Fifth St. 

20 State St. 

. University Block 
320 Madison Ave. 
. 1229 F St. N. W. 
.4th and Pine Sts. 
. . .905 Market St. 



Pensacola 
Raleigh. N. C 
Richmond. Va 
Savannah, Ga 

Sheffield. Ala Sheffield Hotel 

Tampa. Fla Hillsboro Hotel 

Vicksburg. Miss. .1319 Washington St. 
Winston-Salem. N. C.. 236 N. Main St. 



. . .430 Broadway 
.San Carlos Hotel 
305 LaFayette St. 

. .830E. Main St. 
37 Bull St. 



P a 



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r t y - o n e 



PRESS OF THE HENRY O. SHEPARO CO., CHICAGO 






This series of tremendous chasms reaches its culmination in a chaotic gorge 217 miles long. 
9 to 13 miles wide, and more than 6000 feet deep. 






r/miimrnmiiiiiiimiiiiimiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiimiimm mm 



HA WAI 

National Park 



HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 







! UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION 



N AT IONAL PARK. SE 



lilMIIMItmilimi 




Pa g e two 



An Appreciation of the 

Hawaii National Park 

By E. M. NEWMAN, Traveler and Lecturer 

Written Especially for the United States Railroad Administration 




FIRES of a visible inferno burning in the 
midst of an earthly paradise is a striking con- 
trast, afforced only in the Hawaii National 
Park. It is a combination of all that is terrify- 
ing and all that is beautiful, a blending of the awful with 
the magnificent. Lava-flows of centuries are piled high 
about a living volcano, which is set like a ruby in an emer- 
ald bower of tropical grandeur. Picture a perfect May 
day, when glorious sunshine and smiling nature combine 
to make the heart glad; then multiply that day by three 
hundred and sixty-five and the result is the climate of 
Hawaii. Add to this the sweet odors, the luscious fruits, 
the luxuriant verdure, the flowers and colorful beauty of 
the tropics, and the Hawaii National Park becomes a 
dreamland that lingers in one's memory as long as memory 
survives. 




Page three 



To the American People: 

Uncle Sam asks you to be his guest. He has prepared for you the 
choice places of this continent places of grandeur, beauty and of 
wonder. He has built roads through the deep-cut canyons and beside 
happy streams, which will carry you into these places in comfort, and 
has provided lodgings and food in the most distant and inaccessible 
places that you might enjoy yourself and realize as little as possible 
the rigors of the pioneer traveler's life. These are for you. They are 
the playgrounds of the people. To see them is to make more hearty 
your affection and admiration for America, 



Secretary of the Interior 




Hawaii National Park 




HE Hawaiian Islands, in 
the mid-Pacific, comprise a 
land of exquisite charm, in 
a novel setting. 

It is the land of the 
cocoanut and the royal palm; the poin- 
ciana regia and the monkeypod. Here 
the pleasure-seeking traveler also dis- 
covers the banyan and the hau, the 
golden shower and the hibiscus, the 
pineapple and the papaya, the kukui 
and algeroba , the lantana and pan- 
danus. And, from the coral plains 
thus carpeted, spring the world's most 
spectacular volcanoes, thousands of 
feet above the vast surrounding blue 
of the Pacific's dazzling waters. 

The Hawaii National Park, created 
by the United States Government in 
1916, and administered by the National 
Park Service of the Department of the 
Interior, includes three celebrated Ha- 
waiian volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna 
Loa on the island of Hawaii, and 
Haleakala, on the island of Maui. 
These islands are connected by fre- 
quent steamer service with the port of 
Honolulu, island of Oahu. 

"The Hawaiian volcanoes," writes 
T. A. Jaggar, Jr. , director of the Hawaiian 
Volcano Observatory, "are truly a na- 
tional asset, wholly unique of their 
kind, the most famous in the world of 
science and the most continuously, va- 



riously, and harmlessly active volcanoes 
on earth. Kilauea crater has been nearly 
continuously active, with a lake or lakes 
of molten lava, for a century. Mauna 
Loa is the largest active volcano in the 
world, with eruptions about once a dec- 
ade, and has poured out more lava dur- 
ing the last century than any other 
volcano on the globe. Haleakala is 
a mountain mass ten thousand feet 
high, with a tremendous crater rift in 
its summit eight miles in diameter and 
three thousand feet deep, containing 
many high lava cones. Haleakala is 
probably the largest of all known 
craters among volcanoes that are tech- 
nically known as active. It erupted less 
than two hundred years ago. The 
crater at sunrise is the grandest vol- 
canic spectacle on earth." 

The lava lake at Kilauea is the most 
spectacular feature of Hawaii 
National Park. It draws visitors from 
all over the world. It is a lake of 
molten, fiery lava a thousand feet long, 
splashing on its banks with a noise like 
waves of the sea, while great fountains 
boil through it fifty feet high. This ex- 
hibition of one of the most amazing 
revelations of nature the terrific and 
irresistible forces of the earth's internal 
fires is accessible by automobiles al- 
most to the very brink, and may be 
safely viewed. The National Park 
areas also include gorgeous tropical 



Pag e four 






The Pali, at head of Nuuanu Valley, near Honolulu 



jungles and fine forests. Sandalwood, 
elsewhere extinct, grows luxuriantly, 
and there are mahogany groves. 
The Paradise of the Pacific 

Hawaii is a Territory of the United 
States, annexed in 1898. The inhabit- 
ed islands comprise a chain of eight, 
stretching over a distance of more than 
four hundred miles, with a total area 
of 6,500 square miles and a population 
of 256,180. From northeast to south- 
west the islands are Niihau. Kauai, 
Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai, Kahoo- 
lawe and Hawaii, the latter giving its 
name to the group. Honolulu, island 
of Oahu, is the capital, the chief com- 
mercial city and a tourist resort. 

The ocean voyage of more than two 
thousand miles from the mainland is 
full of interest, occupying several days 
in splendidly equipped and luxurious 
steamers. The waters soon become 
more placid, more deeply blue; the sky 
is softer, the air more balmy, and all 
around prevails the sweet influence of 
summer seas, restful and inviting. Sun- 
rise and sunset become more brilliant, 
and the nights of the full moon are 
flooded with a golden light that sug- 
gests fairy scenes of enchantment on 
the Isles beyond. Rounding Diamond 
Head, the landmark of Honolulu har- 
bor, the deep blue of the ocean shades 



off with all the lighter blues, then runs 
the gamut through every shade of 
green, until the waves are seen break- 
ing in a long line of dazzling, foaming 
surf on the far-famed beach of Wai- 
kiki. 

The city of Honolulu has a popula- 
tion of 75,000 and differs but little 
from American cities in social customs, 
manner of living, business life, and 
modern improvements. Next to ideal 
climate the visitor expects to find first- 
class hotels. In this respect he can be 
accommodated either in the palatial 
city hotels or in those at the beach. 
For those who prefer the residence and 
bungalow types of hotels, there are 
many conveniently situated. 

The Executive Building, formerly 
the lolani Palace, contains numerous 
interesting features reminiscent of the 
past when the islands were under na- 
tive control. In the Throne Room, 
which is now the Territorial House of 
Representatives, are hung portraits of 
former kings and their consorts. The 
royal Hawaiian coat-of-arms, now the 
Territorial, together with gilded spears 
and other marks of olden days, may 
still be seen in the ornamentation of the 
interior. 

Beautiful parks, with their royal 
palms, gorgeous tropical flowers, 



' Page five 




() BY NEWMAN TRAVEL TALKS AND BROWN DAWSON N Y 

Haleakala largest quiescent volcano in the world 



Page six 



Waves of Lava, as seen by night 



The Devil's Kitchen. Volcano of Kilauea 







View of Golf Course and Country Club, Honolulu 



strange trees and shrubs, suggest a 
fairy-land to the visitor unaccustomed 
to such scenes. In the automobile tours 
of Honolulu and its suburbs, over the 
admirable boulevards and highways, 
frequently one sees the scalloped 
branches of the night blooming cereus, 
drooping over hedges and walls. The 
glory and fragrance of the rare blos- 
soms may be enjoyed only after night- 
fall, when the great white petals unfold 
to greet the brilliant stars. 

Waikiki Beach, the sea-side resort of Hono- 
lulu, fronts directly on the blue Pacific and is 
protected by a great coral reef half a mile or 
more off shore. Against this barrier the 
mighty rollers dash and rush headlong in 
foam-crested torrents across the lagoon. A 
daring and distinctively Hawaiian aquatic 
sport is surf-riding. It is most fascinating 
to watch the men and boys standing erect 
on their surfboards dashing shoreward and 
topping the crests of the highest breakers. 
Surf-riding in the outrigger canoes is an en- 
joyable sport and under the guidance of skill- 
ful Hawaiian paddlers is safe but decidedly 
speedy and thrilling. The sea bathing is per- 
fect; the temperature of the water is about 78 
degrees the year 'round. 

Delightful railroad and motor trips of mod- 
erate length may be enjoyed from Honolulu. 
The automobile tour around the island is par- 
ticularly interesting. A panorama of ever- 
changing beauty is unfolded precipitous 
mountains, foaming surf, dense tropical vege- 
tation, fields of sugar cane, pineapple planta- 
tions and rice fields affording a continuous 
variety of scene. The Pali, famed in story, 



is at the head of Nuuanu Valley, six milea 
from Honolulu. "Pali" is an Hawaiian word 
meaning "cliff," and Nuuanu Pali towers 
1,200 feet, a precipice flanked on both sides 
by mountain walls 3,500 feet in height. It 
was in I 795, in the Nuuanu Valley, that the 
army of Oahu took its final stand against the 

invaders under Kamehameha the Great the 

Napoleon of the South Seas. Forced by 
their enemies up the valley toward the great 
cliff, all that remained of Oahu's army, about 
3,000, were finally driven over the cliff to de- 
struction on the rocks below. 

Hauula, on the windward side of the island, 
and Haleiwa, on the Waialua Bay, offer many 
attractions, coupled with excellent hotel ac- 
commodations. 

The attractions of Oahu are far from ex- 
hausted, but perhaps the visitor is ready to 
view wonders of very different character 
the volcanoes, the ever-living crater of 
Kilauea, and the inspiring Mauna Loa and 
Haleakala. 

Kilauea and Mauna Loa 

The world-famed active volcano of Kilauea, 
the marvelous country surrounding it, and 
the towering crater of Mauna Loa, scarcely 
less remarkable, are situated on the island of 
Hawaii. An overnight steamer ride of 192 
miles from Honolulu brings one to Hilo, pop- 
ulation 10,000, the largest town on Hawaii 
and the second in size and importance in the 
islands. Hilo is very attractive, has good 
hotels, and is the starting point for the trip in- 
land to Kilauea volcano. There is a splendid 
harbor at Hilo, protected by a breakwater, and 
one of the prettiest spots is Cocoanut Island, 
from which a panoramic view of the moun- 
tains lies outstretched. In front is the placid 
bay of Hilo, and on the shore beyond is the 



Pag e seven 





LANAI 



Wahapuu 



O 
Ka.-naiki Ft* 



C. Kaea 



KAHOOU 

KealaiUahiki PjJS 
1 



HAWAII 
NATIONAL PARK 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 

Scale 



National Park Boundaries 

\Railroads 
Roads 



INTER-ISLAND S. S. ROUTES 

The Short Scenic Route 

Kona Coast 



Page eight 




Page nine 




Piihonua Falls, near Hilo. Island of Hawaii 



Pa g e ten 



BY NEWMAN TRAVEL TALKS AND BROWN ft DAWSON. N. Y 

Fiery Crater of Kilauea. at night 



city, almost hidden by luxuriant tropical foli- 
age, while in the background are seen the 

two loftiest mountains in this ocean at the 

right, Mauna Kea, snow-hooded at the left, 

majestic Mauna Loa. 

The trip from Hilo to Kilauea volcano is by 
automobile, a distance of thirty miles. From 
Hilo the road gradually ascends through sugar 
cane and pineapple plantations, to a high 
elevation and then plunges into a great forest 
of tree ferns, whose fronds are thirty feet 
overhead and provide a delightful canopy for 
many miles. At 4,000 feet elevation the tour 
ends at Crater Hotel, or a mile beyond at 
Volcano House on the rim of the crater. 
Here are unobstructed views of towering 
snow-capped mountains and the great crater, 
Kilauea, an enormous pit nearly eight miles 
in circumference and six hundred feet deep, 
enclosing an area of 2,650 acres. Filling the 
floor of this vast bowl is a sea of solidified 
lava, twisted and contorted into every imag- 
inable shape, with jets of steam, vapor and 
sulphurous fumes rising from innumerable 
crevices and cracks. Almost at the center is 
the active throat of the volcano itself, called 
by the natives, Halemaumau, The House of 
Everlasting Fire. This was, in Hawaiian 
mythology, the home of Pele, the goddess of 
fire. 

This throat or inner pit is a mile in cir- 
cumference and contains at all times a raging 
sea of molten lava, its white-hot waves lash- 
ing and gnawing at the imprisoning walls, 
and its vast fountains of incandescent rock 
eternally flinging their fiery spray in air; 
seething and roaring in awful grandeur. The 
molten sea rises and falls periodically, at 
times even overflowing the rim of the pit and 
spreading out over the floor of the main 
crater, while red-hot crags and massive 



islands rise from its depths to either collapse 
in tumultuous avalanches or subside gently 
beneath the surface of the lava. The pit is 
fascinating by daylight, but at night, when 
the imprisoned fires are at their grandest, the 
scene is enthralling. It may be witnessed in 
perfect safety. No accident has ever taken 
place in connection with its activities. The 
Devil's Kitchen, the Picture Frame, and Pele's 
Bathroom are among the interesting volcanic 
freak formations on the main crater bed. 
The U. S. Weather Bureau maintains a vol- 
canic observatory upon the brink of the 
crater, and visitors are welcome to inspect 
the apparatus installed. 

Kilauea is the center of a district unex- 
celled in volcanic marvels, and at least a week 
could be devoted to its exploration. There 
are many great craters withing easy walking 
distance; interesting lava tubes or tunnels, 
wonderful forests of ancient Koa trees and 
tree ferns, banks of live sulphur, and bot- 
tomless fissures and earthquake cracks. 

The trails are well marked by signboards 
and horses are obtainable for longer expedi- 
tions, or for the two-day trip to the summit 
of Mauna Loa, intermittently active and the 
world's largest volcano. Near the top of this 
great mountain, towering to a height of 
13,675 feet above the sea, is the crater of 
Mokuaweoweo, with an area of 2,370 acres, 
a circumference of 9.47 miles, a length of 3.7 
miles, and a width of 1.74 miles. This trip 
is made by horseback, and convenient rest 
houses are located on the slope of the moun- 
tain. 

Another route to Kilauea is by steamer 
from Honolulu to Kailua, 1 73 miles, touching 
at Mahukona and Kawaihae and by automo- 
bile, 1 1 miles, from Kailua to the volcano. 
The stops en route afford opportunities to 



Page eleven 




Towering Mauna Loa from Hilo 

Page twelve 



Night View of the Volcano of Kilauea 



Tree Ferns on road to Kilauea Volcano 




Cooled Lava formation, on the floor of a giant crater 



visit scenic and historical parts of the island 
of Hawaii in the Kona district, abounding in 
coffee, sugar-cane, tobacco, sisal and tropical 

fruits such as Kealakekua Bay, the Captain 

Cook Monument, Napoopoo and Honaunau, 
the site of the famous Hale O Keawe, the best 
known of Hawaiian places of refuge and 
temples. 

Of the many side-trips from Hilo, a ride 
on the railway to Paauilo is most spectacular. 
Costing more than $100,000 per mile, the 
road crosses over two hundred streams, fol- 
lows the coast line north of Hilo and reveals 
a bewildering array of gulches or canyons, 
between ancient lava flows, with wonderful 
foliage and waterfalls. The adjoining Puna 
District shows the best examples of native 
life and the largest cocoanut grove on the 
islands. 

Haleakala 

Another area of the Hawaii National Park 
comprises the volcano of Haleakala, situated 
on the island of Maui. After a few hours' 
voyage of seventy-five miles from Honolulu, 
or while en route between Honolulu and 
Hilo, the traveler lands at Lahaina and rides 
twenty-three miles by automobile to Wailuku, 
a town of 3,000 inhabitants, the third in size 
in the islands. From Lahaina to Wailuku is 
over a road often compared with the Amain 
drive in Italy. On the left rises precipitously 
high mountains, while, just as steep, on the 
right, the road is built 200 feet and more over 
the ocean. In full view is the lofty crest of 
Haleakala. 

lao Valley, sometimes called "The Yosem- 
ite of Hawaii," penetrates the mountain mass 
just back of Wailuku, and is perhaps the most 
beautiful valley in the islands. It is five miles 
long, two miles wide, and near its head is 
4,000 feet deep. It is filled with dense 



tropical growths of every kind. Through it 
flows the Wailuku River, which received its 
name (water of blood) in 1 790 when Kame- 
hameha fought and conquered the King of 
Maui in a desperate battle. There are many 
curious and interesting formations in the 
rock-ribbed mountains. 

Haleakala, the House of the Sun, is the 
largest quiescent volcano in the world. The 
elevation of its summit is 10,032 feet. Its 
crater is nineteen square miles, or 12,160 
acres; the circumference of the rim, twenty 
miles; extreme length, 7.48 miles; extreme 
width, 2.37 miles. The almost vertical walls 
drop half a mile or more. It is impossible to 
realize the great area of the crater. The whole 
of New York City, below Central Park, could 
be buried within its depths, and the highest 
of that city's church spires would be but toys 
by the side of its cinder cones; cones which 
rise like young mountains from the bottom of 
the crater, and which are relatively but fair- 
sized ant-hills when viewed from the sum- 
mit. The silver sword, an indigenous plant 
born of the ash and scoria of the volcano, 
grows within the crater and in but one other 
place in the world. It consists of a great 
mass of silvery-white, bristling sword shaped 
leaves resting upon the ground, from which 
rises a stalk, strung with flowers, to the 
height of five or six feet. 

On the crater's edge stands a substantial 
rest house which makes the night comfortable 
to the visitor. This vantage point is above 
the usual cloud elevation. The level rays of 
the setting sun illuminate every nook and 
corner of the stupendous crater and bring to 
view the outlines and delicate tints of the 
majestic pictures which have been hung in 
this mammoth gallery, to thrill and awe all 
who look upon them. 



Page thirteen 



Mark Twain wrote: "It is the sublimest 
spectacle I ever witnessed. I felt like the 
Last Man, neglected of the judgment, and left 
pinnacled in mid-heaven, a forgotten relic of 
a vanished world." Said Jack London: "For 
natural beauty and wonder the nature-lover 
may see dissimilar things as great as Halea- 
kala, but no greater, while he will never see 
elsewhere anything more beautiful or won- 
derful." 

The established trip to Haleakala includes 
automobile service from Wailuku to lao Val- 
ley and to Olinda, twenty-one miles, and 
saddle horses and guide from Olinda, eight 
miles to the summit. The round-trip re- 
quires two days and one night from Wailuku. 
The visitor to Haleakala who has the time and 
is physically equal to spending three or four 
days in the saddle may make the return trip 
from the summit over the floor of the crater, 
out through the Kaupo Gap and around the 
windward side of the island by what is known 
as the "Ditch Trail," passing through Alea, 
Hana, Nahiku and Kaenae. The "Ditch" 
country is a huge conservatory. 

Kauai, the Garden Isle 

Kauai, area 546.9 square miles, is the 
smallest of the four principal islands of the 
group. It is ninety-eight miles from Hono- 
lulu to Nawiliwili, the harbor for Lihue, two 
miles distant. The island retains to a great 
degree its primitive beauty. It holds many at- 
tractions for tourists, among which are the 
brilliantly colored Waimea and Olokele can- 
yons and the bay and valley at Hanalei. 
Among other natural wonders are the Bark- 
ing Sands at Nohili and the Spouting Horn at 
Koloa. 

Park Area 

Kilauea section 17,290 acres, Mauna Loa 
section 37.200 acres, and Haleakala section 
20. 1 75 acres 

Climate 

The coastal regions of the Hawaiian 
Islands have a temperature which varies not 
more than 1 degrees through the day, and 
which has an utmost range during the year 
between the degrees of 85 and 55. The 
humidity is low. There are no cyclones, nor 
hurricanes, no foggy days and no malaria. 
The cool invigorating northeast trade winds 
blow almost continuously. In the high alti- 
tudes the temperature falls and on the heights 
of Haleakala, Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea 
the freezing point is often reached. 

Sports and Amusements 

Among the all year 'round diversions are 
swimming, surf-riding, game fishing, yacht- 
ing, golf, polo, baseball, cricket, football, ten- 
nis, motoring, hunting, horse-racing, horse- 
back riding and mountain climbing. There 
are splendid golf courses at the Country Club 
of Honolulu, at Moanalua, at Schofield Bar- 
racks and at Haleiwa. 

The Mid-Pacific Carnival, many features of 
which are staged at Waikiki Beach, is held 
annually in February. 

Celebrating Kamehameha Day the Terri- 
torial Fair is held annually in June, featuring 



pageants depicting ancient Hawaiian customs, 
while during the September Regatta some of 
the world's champion swimmers can be seen 
in action. 

Sight-Seeing Tours 

Sight-seeing tours are operated from Hono- 
lulu to points of interest throughout the 
islands. From Honolulu to Kilauea Volcano 
and return, "all-expense" tours of three days 
are priced at $34.00 and $37.00, six days at 
$54.00, and nine days at $67.50. From 
Honolulu to Haleakala Volcano and return, 
all expenses of a two-day trip are about 
$50.00. Combination tours to both Halea- 
kala and Kilauea Volcanoes, with side-trip 
to Mauna Loa Volcano, are available. 

The Hawaii Tourist Bureau 

A fully equipped Information Bureau is 
maintained by the Hawaii Tourist Bureau, 
Alexander Young Building, Bishop Street, 
Honolulu, T. H. Visitors to the islands are 
invited to make use of this Bureau. 

Administration 

Hawaii National Park is under the juris- 
diction of the Director, National Park Service, 
Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 

U. S. Government Publications 

The following publication may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 
at price given. Remittances should be by 
money order or in cash. 

National Parks Portfolio, by Robert Sterling Yard. 260 
pages. 270 illustrations, descriptive of nine National 
Pamphlet edition. 35 cents; book edition. 



55 cents 

The following publications may be obtained 
free on written application to the Director of 
the National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 

Glimpses of our National Parks. 48 pages, illustrated. 
Map showing location of National Parks and National 
Monuments, and railroad routes thereto. 

U. S. R. R. Administration Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
free on application to any consolidated ticket 
office; or apply to the Bureau of Service, Na- 
tional Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau 
Western Lines, 646 Transportation Building. 
Chicago, 111. 

Arizona and New Mexico Rockies 
California for the Tourist 
Colorado and Utah Rockies 
' Crater Lake National Park. Oregon 

Glacier National Park. Montana 
Grand Canyon National Park. Arizona 

, Hawaii National Park. Hawaiian Islands 

Hot Springs National Park. Arkansas 
1 Mesa Verde National Park. Colorado 

Mount Rainier National Park. Washington 

Northern Lakes Wisconsin. Minnesota. Upper Michigan. 

Iowa, and Illinois. 
Pacific Northwest and Alaska 
' Petrified Forest National Monument. Arizona 

Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado 

Sequoia and General Grant National Parks, California 
Yellowstone National Park. Wyoming. Montana. Idaho 
Yosemite National Park. California 
Zion National Monument. Utah 



Page fourteen 




The National Parks at a Glance 
United States Railroad Administration 



For particulars as to fares, 
to any of 



Austin Tex 215 Congress Ave. 

Beaumont. Tex.. Orleans and Pearl Sts. 

Bremerton. Wash 224 Front St. 

Butte. Mont 2 N. Main St. 

"Chicago. Ill I 79 W. Jackson St. 

Colorado Springs. Colo. 

119 E. Pike's Peak Ave. 

Dallas. Tex 1 12-1 14 Field St. 

Denver. Colo 601 17th St. 

Des Moines. Iowa 403 Walnut St. 

Duluth. Minn 334 W. Superior St. 

El Paso. Tex. . . .Mills and Oregon Sts. 

Ft. Worth. Tex 702 Houston St. 

Fresno. Cal J and Fresno Sts. 

Galveston. Tex. .21st and Market Sts. 

Helena. Mont 58 S. Main St. 

Houston. Tex 904 Texas Ave. 

Kansas City. Mo. 

. | Ry. Ex. Bldg.. 7th and Walnut Sts. 



Annapolis, Md 54 Maryland Ave. 

Atlantic City. N. J. . . 1301 Pacific Ave. 
Baltimore. Md. . . . B. & O. R. R. Bldg. 

Boston. Mass 67 Franklin St. 

Brooklyn. N. Y 336 Fulton St. 

Buffalo. N. Y.. Main and Division Sts. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. . . .6th and Main Sts. 
Cleveland. Ohio .... 1 004 Prospect Ave. 

Columbus. Ohio 70 East Gay St. 

Dayton. Ohio 19 S. Ludlow St. 



Director General of Railroads 

train schedules, etc., apply to any Railroad Ticket Agent, or 
the following Consolidated Ticket Offices. 

West 



Asheville. N. C 

Atlanta. Ga 

Augusta, Ga 

Birmingham. Ala. . . 

Charleston. S. C 

Charlotte. N. C 

Chattanooga. Tenn . 

Columbia. S.C 

Jacksonville. Fla . . . 
Knoxville.Tenn . . . . 



Lincoln. Neb I04N. 13th St. 

Little Rock. Ark 202 W. 2d St. 

Long Beach. Cal. .L. A. & S. L. Station 

Los Angeles. Cal 221 S. Broadway 

Milwaukee. Wis 99 Wisconsin St. 

Minneapolis. Minn.,202 Sixth St. South 
Oakland. Cal. . . 13th St. and Broadway 
Ocean Park. Cal.. Pacific Elec. Station 
Oklahoma City. Okla. 

131 W. Grand Ave. 

Omaha. Neb 1416 Dodge St. 

Peoria. 111. . .Jefferson and Liberty Sts. 
Phoenix. Ariz. 

Adams St. and Central Ave. 
Portland, Ore.. 3d and Washington Sts. 

Pueblo. Colo 401-3 N. Union Ave. 

St. Joseph. Mo 505 Francis St. 

St. Louis, Mo.. 3 1 8-328 North Broadway 
St. Paul. Minn. . .4th and Jackson Sts. 

East 

Detroit. Mich ... 13 W. LaFayette Ave. 
Evansville. Ind. . . L. & N. R. R. Bldg. 

Grand Rapids. Mich 125 Pearl St. 

Indianapolis. Ind.. 1 12-14 English Block 

Montreal. Que 238 St. James St. 

Newark, N. J.. Clinton and Beaver Sts. 

New York. N. Y 64 Broadway 

New York. N. Y 57 Chambers St. 

New York. N. Y 31 W. 32 St. 

New York. N. Y I 14 W. 42d St. 

South 



Sacramento. Cal 801 K St. 

Salt Lake City. Utah 

Main and S. Temple Sts. 
San Antonio, Texas 

315-17 N. St. Mary'. St. 

San Diego. Cal 300 Broadway 

San Francisco. Cal 50 Post St. 

San Jose. Cal.. 1st and San Fernando Sts. 

Seattle. Wash 714-16 2d Ave. 

Shreveport. La..Milam and Market Sts. 

Sioux City. Iowa 510 4th St. 

Spokane. Wash. 

Davenport Hotel. 815 Sprague Ave. 
Tacoma. Wash. ... I I 17-19 Pacific Ave. 
Waco, Texas. . . ,6th and Franklin Sts. 

Whittier. Cal L. A. & S. L. Station 

Winnipeg. Man 226 Portage Ave. 



Philadelphia. Pa.. . . 1539 Chestnut St. 

Pittsburgh. Pa Arcade Building 

Reading. Pa !6xR Fifth St. 

Rochester. N. Y 20 State St. 

355 So. Warren St. 

.320 Madison Ave. 
.1229FSt. N. W. 



Syracuse. N. Y. . 



oyracus* 
Toledo. Ohio. 
Washington. D. C. 
Williamsport. Pa. 
Wilmington. Del . . 



.4th and Pine Sts. 
. . .905 Market St. 



14 S. Polk Square Lexington Ky Union Station ' Paducah. Kv . . . . 

- '" y Pensacola. Fla San Carlos Hotel 



. 74 Peachtree St. 
....811 Broad St. 

2010 1st Ave. 

. Charleston Hotel 

. . 22 S. Tryon St. 

..817 Market St. 

. Arcade Building 
. ..38 W. Bay St. 
.600 Gay St. 



.430 Broadway 
Louisville, Ky .... 4th and Market Sts. 

Lynchburg. Va 722 Main St. 

Memphis. Tenn 60 N. Main St. 

Mobile. Ala 51 S. Royal St. 

Montgomery Ala Exchange Hotel 

Nashvile.Ten.. Independent Life Bldg. 

NewOrleans.La St. Charles Hotel 

Norfolk Va Monticello Hotel 

For detailed information regarding National Parks and Monuments address Bureau of 
-Service, National Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau Western Lines, 646 Transportation 
Bldg.. Chicago. 

SEASON 1919 RATHBUN-CRANT-HELLER CO.. CHICAGO Page fifteen 



Raleigh. N. C 305 LaFayette St. 

Richmond. Va 830 E. Main St . 

Savannah. Ga 37 Bull St. 

Sheffield. Ala Sheffield Hotel 

Tampa. Fla Hillsboro Hotel 

Vicksburg. Miss. . 1319 Washington St. 
Winston-Salem. N. C. .236N. Main St. 




LKS AND BROWN ft DAWSOI 



By moonlight in an outrigger off Hawaiian shores 



1 



IHMHtKIIW tlUtlllltill 



mt,,,,r,,,,,. 



ilililiiiiiiliiiiiliiyjjj iiiiull' ' I I ' il! It '"I II If 1 ! I ill 'I M Ml! I! ill 

=^=ggJJgg^i!Jl!ggJ^^ >.... ...M............ 



HOT SPRINGS 

National Park 




UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION 

SERIES 



' 







Page two 




An Appreciation of 

Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas 

By OPIE READ, Author of "A Kentucky Colonel," "The Jucklins," etc. 

Written Especially for the United States Railroad Administration 

RT is the mistress of many tricks. Her highest function is 
to cajole nature, to help nature to deceive herself; and 
while art may not offer to nature a new canvas, yet she can 
assist our common mother in the accent of color, in 
grouping, in assembling in a comparatively small area all the varied 
and startling features of a mighty landscape. Architecture was the 
great material art of the Greeks; landscape gardening, park-making 
a fine art in modern Europe and new America. Park-making is a 
painting broadly spread, the canvas depressed here into a valley, while 
over there it arises to the height of a graceful hill. With pardonable 
pride America may call the attention of the world to a number of 
national park paintings. Tourists have written of them, and have 
snapped the camera upon every feature of their varied countenances. 
We all of us have our favorites. Some of us cling with a sort of awed 
fondness to the great unrolling vistas of the West, contemplating the 
poetry that lies in mysterious distance. Of these mighty regions 
called parks I stand in awe, as one must while looking upon a moun- 
tain, a cacti-bristling desert; but to me the gem of all the parks is the 
government reservation at Hot Springs, Arkansas. This may be 
sentiment, the reverie that steals upon us when in a picture gallery we 
view a scene endeared with recollection; but strangers have told me 
that this admiration comes not only from the treasured memories of 
the long ago, but that national Hot Springs is possessed of a charm 
all its own. And I know that this is true. Nowhere are mountains 
more graceful. Nowhere is there a mist so silvery, flashing in the rise 

Page three 



of the sun. You have the feeling that you stand in the presence of a 
deep mystery, that theories have been advanced but that after all no one 
knows the source and the cause of the heat that boils this mighty 
cauldron. 

Long before Cortez frightened the Aztecs, not with his bellowing 
cannon but with his neighing horses; long before Columbus ruddered 
his way to America ; yea, while the Crusaders were marching toward the 
holy Tomb, ah, before the mud wall of the village of Rome was dry, 
the North American Indians traveled hundreds of miles to Hot Springs, 
the fountain of youth, to sit in wise council and to regain their health. 
In this broad domain there are other hot waters, just as there are varied 
waters that are cold; but the Hot Springs, Arkansas, seem to be the 
original, smiling upon all others the blithe ban of imitation. The 
difference is a mystery, and in this there lies an added charm. 

The city of Hot Springs, bordered and overlooked by the mountain 
park, is near the center of population. It is within a few hours of the 
great cities of the interior. And though the distance be short, it is 
like going into another world. There is no rawness, but all has been 
mellowed by time. With the Indians it is ancient; with us it is old. 
Sixty miles away, in Little Rock, the capital of the state, they are 
preparing to celebrate the one-hundredth anniversary of the leading 
morning newspaper of the state. 

For more than a century people of the South have gone to Hot Springs 
for pleasure and for recuperation, but it is only within short memory 
that the North has recognized it as a feature of national attraction. 
This has been brought about by the artistic landscape painting done 
by the Government. Artists of world-wide fame have given to the park 
the creative touch of art. But as much as art has done, nature has 
done more. Nature threw herself into voluptuous attitudes and 
stillness caught her. 



Page four 



^~C A> 




P & &9 five 



To the American People: 

Uncle Sam asks you to be his guest. He has prepared for you the 
choice places of this continent places of grandeur, beauty and of 
wonder. He has built roads through the deep-cut canyons and beside 
happy streams, which will carry you into these places in comfort, and 
has provided lodgings and food in the most distant and inaccessible 
places that you might enjoy yourself and realize as little as possible 
the rigors of the pioneer traveler's life. These are for you. They are 
the playgrounds of the people. To see them is to make more hearty 
your affection and admiration for America. 



Secretary of the Interior 




Hot Springs National Park 




OT SPRINGS, Arkansas 
The great American Spa a 
jumble of happy memories 
for the man who has been 
there a medley of pleasant 
anticipations for the man who is planning 
to go! For Hot Springs is a potpourri 
of waters, waters, outdoor sports, social 
gayeties, invigorating air, wooded moun- 
tains, green valleys and more waters. 

Poets of all ages have celebrated the 
purity of springs. There was an ancient 
spring on- Mount Parnassus sacred to the 
Muses and to Apollo, to drink from 
which was to become imbued with the 
spirit of poesy. In later times there have 
been, in many lands, wells or springs 
sacred to certain saints. And through 
all time has run a legend of a fountain of 
youth, the waters of which had potency 
to stave off both age and death. There 
have always been waters to which men 
and women repaired to recuperate from 
the strain of living, and these places 
have invariably become the resorts of 
fashion. 

Page six 



All Rome that was rich or famous went 
in the season to Baiae on the Bay of 
Naples, where were warm mineral springs 
celebrated for their effectiveness in over- 
coming the consequences of the strenuous 
life in the Eternal City. The history of 
springs of this kind is well known. Every 
country has them. And all down the 
ages comes testimony that the waters 
gushing from the bosom of Mother Earth 
are efficacious in relieving the ills to 
which the flesh is heir. 

But of all the world's beneficent waters 
there are none to compare with the Hot 
Springs of Arkansas. "Their fame has 
filled the seven climes." They are abso- 
lutely unparalleled in hygienic qualities. 
The testimony to their curative and re- 
storative powers is overwhelming both 
in extent and character. 

And, best of all, these American springs 
differ from the Roman springs in that 
they are the mecca not only of the rich 
and famous, but of the countless thous- 
ands of everyday citizens of this and 
foreign countries. 



Government possession has made them 
a universal institution. 

Our First National Park 

In 1832 Congress, appreciating the 
unusual value of these waters, set apart 
a reservation comprising four sections of 
land surrounding the springs and dedicat- 
ed it as a national sanitarium for all time. 
It was our first National Park. 

Before that time the healing quality of 
the hot water is thought to have been an 
open secret among the hardy pioneers 
who had ventured beyond the narrow 
confines of eastern civilization. In their 
intercourse with the Indians many mar- 
velous tales were doubtless borne to their 
ears. The hot wells of the Ozarks figured 
prominently in the traditional history of 
many of the mid-continent tribes, and it 
is probable that not a few of the early 
explorers to whom these stories of won- 
derful cures were passed, visited the valley 
to confirm them. But there are no positive 
historical data fixing the date and giving 
the name of the first white discoverer. 
Legends have it that it was the fame of 
these hot pools which first prompted 



w: 



Ponce de Leon to embark upon his 
romantic search for the fountain of eternal 
youth. Other and more plausible legends 
indicate a visit to the spot by De Soto in 
1 541 , and it is not unlikely that, later on, 
many other white men were led to the 
valley by their red brothers and provided 
with abundant evidence of the Super- 
natural Presence to which were ascribed 
the curative properties of these waters. 

But our only authentic evidence of 
white visitors at the springs dates back 
no farther than the year 1800. Two of 
Lewis and Clark's explorers, branching 
out from the main trail of that expedition, 
visited the place in 1804 and found a log 
cabin and a few huts which had been 
the work of white men's hands. Two or 
three years later a few scattered settlers 
followed the trail thus blazed. And from 
that time the reputation of the springs 
began to spread, each year adding to 
their fame. 

None of these early beneficiaries of the 
waters undertsood the chemical processes 
by which their health-giving miracles 
were performed. All that the Indians 




There are forty-six thermal springs like this welling up from mysterious depths, with an aggregate flow of 826.308 gallons 

every day. 

Page seven 




A Hot Springs Bathhouse. One of the many in which Uncle Sam acts as host and provides every facility for the comfort 

of his guests. 



knew, all that the explorers and pioneers 
knew, was that the baths accomplished 
their rejuvenation, and that they quieted 
their aches and pains. The higher 
civilization which followed them gained 
a little in knowledge of the water and its 
application, but our Congress of 1832 
knew nothing of radio-activity and even 
our super-minds of today have not fully 
fathomed the mystery. 

The City and Its Visitors 

Hot Springs National Park adminis- 
tered by the National Park Service of the 
Department of the Interior is situated 
in the Southwestern part of the state of 
Arkansas, in the wild and picturesque 
Ozark Mountain region, 34 miles from 
Benton and 60 miles from Little Rock, 
the capital of the state. 

The waters that give the place its 
name, gush from the bases of the wooded 
mountains that comprise the Park, and 
in the valley is a beautiful city, which 
nestles against gigantic hills and then 
spreads out upon a pleasant, broad plain. 
The cool mountain breezes blow through 

Page eight 



this valley in the summer time, and in 
the winter it is protected by the peaks 
that rim its basin. Nature is here in an 
entrancing mood. The Ozarks stand 
guard over the valley and the busy town, 
in the splendor of their changing foliages. 

As a result Hot Springs is not only a 
world wide health resort, but an inter- 
national pleasure resort, one of the most 
popular in the world. It is the great 
American Spa in the larger sense of the 
term, and, as such, it is more a pleasure 
resort than a health resort. Here are 
neat resort hotels and magnificent bath 
houses; wooded driveways and winding 
bridle paths; golf courses, speedways and 
all the other attractions of a center of 
sport and fashion. Indeed, if the great 
Alchemist of the Ozarks were to close 
His favorite laboratory; if He were to 
upturn His mysterious crucible and 
destroy the radium, the silicon and all 
those elements used in compounding His 
health-restoring waters; if these waters 
were blotted entirely from the face of the 
earth, the city of Hot Springs, because of 
the tonic in the air, the mild winter 



climate and the dry summer climate, the 
glorious green hills and the pleasant 
meandering valleys, would continue to be 
a favored spot for rest and recreation. 

At the hotels in the season from Jan- 
uary until May though, indeed, lately 
the season tends to be an all-year matter 
one may find the smartest company 
imaginable. The guests come from every- 
where. They are people of mark 
leaders of fashion and of sport; political 
leaders and statesmen; overworked bus- 
iness men, actors, authors, clergymen 
all well known in their spheres. The scene 
is one of animation. The lobbies are a 
buzz and swirl. There is an intoxicating 
blend of chatter and laughter. There is 
music and dancing. And out of the 
hotels these people swarm into Central 
Avenue, recalling a parade on Fifth 
Avenue, New York, or Michigan Avenue 
in Chicago. In the dining rooms and 
lounges there is the evening atmosphere 
of the metropolitan hotels. Time passes 
gaily. Fashion flourishes. This life 
overshadows the life of the many who 



come to conserve or to regain their health. 
It is intensely cosmopolitan, and the 
people who make it up are all to be found 
in the social register. 

More and more is Hot Springs becom- 
ing a place of recuperation for tired 
business men and women. Thousands 
break away from the rush and grind for 
a week or ten days of rest and a few of 
these amazingly restorative baths, in 
order to go back to new achievements 
with new force and vigor. 

The Mountains and Springs 

The Park comprises more than 900 
acres including Hot Springs mountain, 
North Mountain, West Mountain and 
Whittington Lake Park. It contains 
forty-six thermal springs, which have an 
average aggregate flow of 826,308 gallons 
daily, and range in temperature from 1 02 
to 147 degrees. 

The mountains of the Park rise about 
800 feet above the city. Millions of 
dollars have been expended by the 
Government in hewing out roadways, 




A wooded retreat on the mountain. Many quiet spots like this are to be found within little more than a stone's throw 

from the business center of the city. 

Page nine 




Part of the shopping district a single row of buildings, back of which West Mountain raises a forest-bristling head. 



trails and walks, that wind around the 
mountains. At every curve is some new 
natural picture. The vistas are mag- 
nificent. The play of light and shade 
presents ever new combinations of colors. 
In the forests are open places beautified 
by means of landscape gardening and 
pavilions for rest and shelter. 

Fifteen miles of Government-built 
drives and walks make these mountains 
easy to climb. From the great tower on 
the forested heights one looks down upon 
the city and into the distance where 
stretch -farms, dappled with sun and 
shade. 

For other wild beauty there is nothing 
that surpasses the drive through the 
gorge between North and South Moun- 
tains. It is a diverting experience to go 
through this gigantic cleft and observe 
the evidences everywhere of the tre- 
mendous past when first great cataclysms 
tore the huge hills asunder. 

In the wilderness you come upon 
patches of smooth velvety green contrast- 
ing with the jagged cliff sides and the 

Page ten 



titanic debris of shattered strata, dozens 
of feet thick, which mark the road for 
quite a distance. 

Bathing Not Only Healthful But 
Delightful 

Bathing in the water of Hot Springs is 
an experience not to be forgotten. It 
has an effect as of marvelous resiliency, 
as if it were more solid than water, yet 
delightfully yielding. The testimony of 
those who have used this water is that in 
contact with the body it gives a decided 
impression of what seems to be best 
described as magnetism. 

Within recent years radium has become 
known as a powerful healing agent. 
Many cases formerly considered hopeless- 
ly incurable have yielded readily to its 
activity, but because of its unlimited 
energy its use has been confined alto- 
gether to local applications. No method 
has ever been devised by man whereby 
radium may be applied to all parts of a 
disordered body at the same time. 
Scarcity and appalling cost have made 
experiments along that line impossible. 



But Nature, though carefully guarding 
her secret, has solved the problem at 
Hot Springs. The waters are radio- 
active, and by means of the bath every 
rheumatic joint, every sealed-up pore of 
the skin may be not only reached and 
cleansed of impurities, but renewed under 
the influence of that brain-baffling cur- 
ative which we call radio-activity. 

The waters have been carefully ana- 
lyzed and the consensus of opinion is that 
they contain much free carbonic acid gas, 
a combination of hydrogen and silicon 
and several other constitutents of less 
importance. 

Their natural warmth, which would 
make any other water in the world un- 
palatable, does not affect the water here, 
its composites entirely overcoming such 
a tendency. People drink it and, when 
its temperature has been reduced to suit 
the requirements of each individual case, 
people bathe in it and go away rejoicing. 
Its efficacy is best judged by statistics, 
for according to figures painstakingly 
compiled, more than ninety per cent of 



those who have taken a full course of 
baths have been either cured or benefited 
by them. 

In addition to the hot springs there are 
many cold springs in and about the city. 
It is seldom that Nature blows hot and 
cold at the same time; but here, in this 
favored spot, one doesn't have to go far 
to see this curious phenomenon, some of 
the cold springs being found in close 
proximity to the hot. Many of these 
have mineral properties solutions of 
magnesia, iron, potash and sulphur 
which physicians often prescribe for sys- 
temic disorders; others are known solely 
for their pure, fresh water whose purity 
is superlative. The waters of these are 
bottled and, in some instances, shipped 
to distant cities. 

It is over the bath-houses that the 
National Park Service exercises the most 
rigid control. The condition and appoint- 
ments of each bath-house are inspected 
regularly by Government officials. Every- 
thing must appear as represented and 
everything must be clean and sanitary. 




Progress of Hot Springs has been marked by the growth and character of the bath house. First the oak-shaded temple of 

the Indian; then the cabin of the pioneer, and finally, through various stages of development. 

the stone and granite structure of modern civilization. 

Page eleven 



BUILDINGS 
. COMFORT STATIONS 
PAVILIONS 
= ROADS 
TRAILS 

ELECTRIC STREET CAB LINES 

RAILROAD 

SCALE OF FEET 




Page twelve 




LEGEND 

The numbers in this list refer to the number* 
on the map: 

1. Superintendent's office. 

2. Lamar bathhouse. 

3. Buckstaff baths. 

4. Ozark bathhouse. 

5. Magnesia bathhouse. 

6. Government free bathhouse. 

7. Fordyce bathhouse. 

8. Main entrance to reservation. 

9. Maurice bathhouse. 

10. Hale bathhouse. 

11. Superior bathhouse. 

12. Arlington Hotel and baths. 

13. Superintendent's residonrr (old). 

14. Rockafellow Hotel and baths. 

15. Majestic Hotel and baths. 

16. St. Joseph's Infirmary and baths. 

17. Whittington Lake Park. 

18. Keeper's residence. 

19. First Presbyterian Church. 

20. Catholic Church. 

21. Rector bathhouse and Waukcsha Hotel. 

22. Milwaukee Hotel. 

23. Pullman Hotel. 

24. Arkansas National Bank. 

25. Masonic Temple. 

26. First Baptist Church. 

27. Leo N. Levi Memorial Hospital and 

bathhouse. 

28. Goddard Hotel. 

29. Alhambra bathhouse. 

30. Moody Hotel and baths. 

31. Court House. 

32. Como Hotel. 

33. Central Methodist Church. 

34. High School Building. 

35. Ozark Sanitorium bathhouse. 

36. Railroad Station. 

37. Railroad Station. 

38. City Hall and Auditorium Theatre. 

39. Business Men's League. 

40. Post Office. 

41. Great Northern Hotel. 

42. Citizens' National Bank. 

43. Marquette Hotel. 

44. Arkansas Trust Company. 

45. Security Bank. 

46. Eastman Hotel and baths. 

47. Elks' Club. 

48. Episcopal Church. 

49. Superintendent's residence (new). 

50. Imperial bathhouse. 

51. Pump house (pumps water to drinking 

fountains at summit of Hot Springs 
Mountain). 

52. Tower. 

53. Iron Spring (cold). 

54. Dugan-Stuart Building. 

55. Thompson Building. 

North, West, and Hot Springs Mountains 
and Whittington Lake Park form the per- 
manent Hot Springs Reservation, administered 
by the National Park Service of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior. 



Page thirteen 



When Uncle Sam acts as host, there must 
be nothing to mar the pleasure of his 
guests. On another page of this booklet 
will be found a list of bath-houses giving 
the rates of each. These rates are regu- 
lated by the Government and vary ac- 
cording to the equipment and accommo- 
dations furnished. On Bath House Row, 
the noted Midway of the place, there are 
ten bath-houses covering a space of about 
three blocks. Besides these, there are 
other bath-houses in various parts of the 
city, some of which are operated in con- 
nection with the hotels. All use the 
same water and are under the same official 
supervision. There is also a Government 
free bath-house for those who are unable 
to pay for the service, and in connection 
with the Army and Navy Hospital a 
bath-house is maintained for the benefit 
of our disabled soldier and sailor boys. 

Although the cures effected are some- 
times almost miraculous, there is nothing 
extraordinary in the method of adminis- 
tering the bath. Equipment and appli- 
ances are better than are to be found in 
the average home. The tubs are large, 



the attendants attentive. There are 
needle baths and vapor baths for those 
who desire them, but the main object is 
a thorough immersion in the hot radio- 
active water in the tub. 

When the bath has been taken, the 
patron proceeds from the high tempera- 
ture of the first cooling room to the almost 
normal temperature of the last, tarryin} 
in each of the intermediate cooling rooi 
long enough to avoid sudden chani 
Finally comes the after-glow of the bal 
as he lies luxuriously upon one of tl 
cooling room couches, conversing lazib 
with his fellow-patrons or simply resting. 
Truly, to bathe in the waters of Hot 
Springs is to feel the hand of Nature ii 
one of her most helpful moods gentl< 
caressing, touching the body lighth 
and without inflicting the slightest paii 

The Many Hotels 

One hotel in Hot Springs the East- 
man can care for a thousand guests. 
Two others the Majestic and the Arling- 
ton have a capacity of 500 each. The 
Como and the Goddard have accom- 
modations for 250 to 300, and a score of 
others can entertain from 25 to 125 each. 
In addition there are 500 boarding and 
rooming houses, furnished cottages and 




Hot Springs not only provides facilities for play, but creates a desire to play. The prospect of a crystal-water bath at the 

end of the game lends an added zest to golf. 

Page fourteen 



i" 1 !. ll'." 

EMU?' 

"V - 




The "Sport of Kings" is a favorite pastime at Hot Springs, and here many interesting chapters of racing 

history have been written. 



apartments. The Business Men's League 
of Hot Springs, Arkansas, is an enter- 
prising and reliable civic organization 
available for the purpose of assisting 
visitors in locating quarters to suit their 
purses. This service is free. 

How the Visitor "Comes Back" 

The spirit of Hot Springs creeps into the 
veins of the newcomer unawares. The average 
visitor enters the valley fagged out mentally 
and physically. He is the victim of too much 
applied energy in one direction, and a sense 
of relief, of freedom from care, steals over him 
as he establishes himself in his commodious 
quarters and prepares for a good rest. When 
he enters upon his course of baths, his business 
or domestic problems, though pigeonholed 
somewhere in the back of his head, have not 
been entirely forgotten. For the first few days 
he lies upon his cooling- room couch, his body 
relaxed, his eyes closed, his ears deaf to the 
voices of those about him. 

Then, suddenly, he awakes. A new and un- 
usual feeling of animation possesses him. His 
blood is beginning to tingle. His old-time energy 
is coming back to him and his thoughts are turn- 
ing to golf, to tennis, to horse-back riding and to 
all those amusements which interested him before 
the days that had brought more serious affairs 
to claim all his time and to hold his nose too 
steadily to the hard surface of the business grind- 
stone. 

Then it is that he begins to appreciate what 
is happening to him, to understand that the baths 
have driven all sluggishness from his blood, have 
given him the energy not only to work but to play 



and have created in him the desire to play. And 
he plunges joyfully into the whirlpool of Hot 
Springs activity. 

Recreation and Amusements 

There is enjoyment for all in the amusements, 
sports and social activities at Hot Springs. The 
out-of-doors life, made possible by the mild 
southern climate, is always alluring. 

The driveways are enlivened by coaching 
parties and elaborate liveried "turnouts", for 
the spirited horse still holds his own against the 
automobile at Hot Springs. On both the drive- 
ways and bridle paths the number of equestrians 
is unusual, horseback riding being a favorite 
exercise. The horse at Hot Springs is still given 
the honor that is due him. It is claimed that no 
city of equal size in the world can boast a 
greater number of superb saddle animals. Ken- 
tucky bred and full of mettle, but trained to the 
use of the inexperienced. There is also the 
famous Oaklawn race track, where many chapters 
of racing history have been written. 

Under the regulations automobiles are per- 
mitted on certain of the mountain roads of the 
Reservation, and the adjoining country furnishes 
ample opportunity for more extended motor 
trips. Good roads are numerous, and among 
them is one leading to Little Rock, the capital of 
the state. 

Happy Days on the Golf Links 

In these modern times no resort is complete 
without its golf links so there is a course at Hot 
Springs. The Hot Springs Country Club is 
located beyond the city limits, but within easy 
reach. It comprises 250 acres of rolling green 
with an 18-hole course, the holes varying in 
length from 1 00 to 500 yards. Naturally there is 
the adjunct of a spacious and attractive club 

Page fifteen 



house. From the veranda of the latter, 1 6 of the 
18 putting greens are visible, as well as 6,500 
yards of the fairway. The course is well cared 
for and meets every demand of the most exacting 
professional. The tees and putting greens are of 
packed sand, while the fairway is of Bermuda 
grass. The greens as a whole are of rare land- 
scape beauty and the hazards, or many of them, 
have been supplied by nature. Matches and 
tournaments are scheduled in season; and the 
payment of a small fee admits all visitors to the 
privileges of the club house and golf course. 

Base Ball and Tennis 

During the training season major league base 
ball clubs are at Hot Springs for the baths and 
preliminary work, in consequence of which the 
visitor is at that time treated to some of the 
finest exhibition games. 

Tennis courts have been laid out in various 
localities and in their settings are ample for the 
use of the professional or the amateur. 

Whittington Lake Amusement Park 

Whittington Lake Park largely partakes of the 
nature of an amusement park. Athletic sports, 
band concerts, the summer theatre, animals, 
electric fountains, swings, tennis courts, base ball 
fields and a variety of other features make it a 
place where care-free crowds congregate in large 
numbers. Nearby are the alligator and ostrich 
farms. 

The Ostrich Farm 

Of the ostrich it has been said that those great 
gawky birds are of all things animate the "most 
innocently powerful", and the "most powerfully 
innocent". They are a study these birds a kick 
from whose legs has power to kill and whose 
wonderful eyes create speculations as to whether 
their little twinkle means mischief or a joke. 
Of course the display of feathers, of which they 



are proud , are of special interest to the women. 
One learns much as to the characteristics and 
the habits of this bird at the farm. As an 
amusement feature, birds trained for the purpose 
are ridden astride, or harnessed and driven to 
little sulkies. 

Alligator Farm 

At the Alligator Farm hundreds of 'gators ai 
exhibited, ranging in length from a few inches 
twenty feet, and in age from a few days old to 
hundred or two hundred years. The alligatc 
is not pleasing to look at. He has a vicious 
and a more vicious tail. As you look over tl 
exhibit you are pleased to know that such un- 
beautiful things make up into such very nit 
handbags. 

The Social Life 

If not interested in the waters, the visitor 
forget that the place is a Spa. Behind the bat! 
houses on Bath House Row rise the gloric 
Ozark Hills with all their pleasures. The great* 
hotels are resort hotels. There is the music 
the dancing, the entertainments of many kinds 
and the invigorating outdoor life saturated wit 
the romantic spirit of the South. There is tl 
riding, the golfing, the motoring, the mountaii 
climbing and all the rest. One may spend a wl 
season in these pleasures alone and 
America, for Hot Springs draws its patrons fror 
every nook and corner of the country. 

Or one may live this invigorating life 
have the stimulus of morning baths besides; tl 
greater hotels have their own unobtrusive batl 
houses, and the baths are for the well and weai 
as well as for the sick. 

Or, if he wants the Spa life, he may have tl 
to the full. A few steps cityward, and there ai 
the bath houses, some of them finer and 
completely equipped with scientific bathing 
systems and appliances than those of the most 




The entrance to the Reservation. 



Page sixteen 



At the foot of these steps, the busy whirl of the city; at the top. absolute rest and quiet 
in the woods of Hot Springs Mountain. 




Off for a morning cantei 



To those who have inherited that love of the hors 
automobile. Hot Springs offers an ideal 



which 



famous Spas abroad. He may live this life to its 
full, sitting in the parks, taking the Oertel walks, 
drinking the waters as well as bathing in them. 

Or he may combine the two kinds of life in any 
proportion he pleases. 

For convalescents the so-called Oertel System 
of Graduated walking courses is very beneficial. 
These courses are indicated by painted stone 
monuments with a distance number cut on two 



faces. By these monuments, patients can easily 
see the distance they have walked. The first 
or yellow course, is comparatively level; the 
second, or green course, slightly inclined; the 
third, or blue course, fairly steep; and the fourth, 
or red course, very steep. The length and 
character of the walks taken under this system 
are determined by physicians, according to the 
condition and progress of patients. 



Expenses at Hot Springs 

Following is the published scale of ratea for baths at different bath houses receiving water from the Hot Springs 
Reservation, as published by the National Park Service of the Department of the Interior; also a Hat of hotels and board- 
ing houses together with their rates. 

For further details of specific interest concerning Hot Springs not covered herein, apply to th 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 
National Park Service, 
Washington. D. C. 

BUREAU OF SERVICE. NATIONAL PARKS AND MONUMENTS. TRAVEL BUREAU WESTERN LINES. 

646 Transportation Building. 
Chicago. Illinois 

BUSINESS MEN'S LEAGUE. 
Hot Springs. Arkansas 

SCALE OF RATES FOR BATHS 

AT DIFFERENT BATHHOUSES RECEIVING WATER FROM THE HOT SPRINGS RESERVATION 







Single 
bath 


Course 


Course of 
21 baths 






Single 
bath 


Course 


Course of 
21 baths 


Bathhouse 


Single 
baths 


plus at- 
tendant's 


of 21 
baths 


plus at- 
tendant's 


Bathhouse 


Single 
baths 


plus at- 
tendant's 


of 21 
baths 


plus at- 
tendant's 






fee 




fees 






fee 




fees 


Arlington 


$0.65 


$0.85 


$12.00 


$16.00 


Superior 


$0.50 


$0.70 


$0.90 


$13.00 


Fordyce 


.65 


.85 


12.00 


16.00 




.45 


.65 


800 


12 00 


Buckstaff 


.60 


.80 


11.00 


15.00 


Rector 


.45 


.65 


8.00 


12.00 


Maurice 


.60 


.80 


11.00 


15.00 


Rockafellow 


.45 


.65 


8.00 


12.00 


Imperial 


55 


75 


10 00 


14 00 












Eastman. . . . 


.55 


.75 


10 00 


14 00 




45 


65 


8 00 


12 00 


Majestic 


55 


75 


10 00 


14 00 




40 


60 


7 00 


1 1 00 


Hale 


50 


70 


9 00 


13 00 


Oza*k 


40 


60 


7 00 


1 1 00 


Moody . . . 


.50 


.70 


9.00 


13.00 


Alhambra 


.40 


.60 


7.00 


11.00 


St. Joseph'. In- 










Pythian Sanato- 










nrmary . . . 


50 


70 


9 00 


13 oo 




30 


50 


5 00 


9 00 























Page seventeen 




Page eighteen 



LIST OF HOTELS AND BOARDING HOUSES 

AT HOT SPRINGS, ARKANSAS, COMPILED BY THE BUSINESS MEN'S LEAGUE 



NAME OF PLACE 


Capacity 


RA 
Per Day 


TES 
Per Week 


Plan 


Proprietor or Manager 


Alamo 


30 persons 


$1.00 up 


$7 00 up 




Mrs B B Spivey 






1 00 


2 50 up 




F M Ezell 




500 persons 


4 to $8 


28 00 up 




tW Corrington 


Bcldin House 




1 00 


6 00 up 




D Beldin 








3 00 up 










1 00 up 


8 to $10 




Mrs Robt Barnes 


Burhops B 11 






8 to $10 




Mrs J H Burhop 


Campbell House 


40 persons 


1 00 up 


6 00 up 




I p' Perry 








5 to $7 






Colonial Hotel 


75 persons 


1 . 00 up 


7 00 up 






Central Hotel 




00 up 


Special 




W W Little 


Chestnut Hotel 


25 persons 


1.50 


7 00 up 




H P Thornaa 


Crittendon Hotel (colored) 




1 00 up 


7 00 up 




G E Crittendon 




30 persons 


1 .50 


10 00 up 










1.00 up 


Special 




Al A Reynolds 






1 00 


6 00 up 








50 persons 


2.00 


9 to $12 






Darch Hotel (Jewish) 




75 


2 00 up 






Dayton Hotel 


40 persons 


.50 up 


2 50 up 




Fred L Kerr 


Delrnar Hotel 




2 00 


10 00 




C C Harvey 


Dclmar Hotel 




1 .00 


7 00 




C. C. Harvey 




1000 persons 


1 00 up 


Special 




W E Chester 


Eddy Hotel 






5 to $15 




Mrs B F Pace 






1 .00 up 


7 to $10 






Fulton Hotel 


20 persons 


1.50 up 
.75 


8.00 up 
1 50 up 


American 


Scherrick & Co. 
Mrs R Bennie 


Goddard Hotel 




1 50 up 


5 to$!5 50 




Mrs J A Barton 


Gray's Boarding House 
Gt Northern Hotel 


25 persons 


1.50 
75 up 


10.00 up 
3 00 up 


American 


Mrs. L. Gray 
Mrs C Hutsell 


Garrison Hotel 


50 persons 


.50 up 


3 00 up 




Mrs. J. M. Smith 


Glenwood Hotel 




1 00 


6 to $8 




N E Bryant 


Home Hotel 


50 persons 


1.50 up 


8 to $10 




Mrs.A.A.McColIough 






50 up 


2 00 up 






Hill Crest 


20 persons 


1.50 up 


8 00 up 




C. H. Dibble 


Hinkle House 






8 00 up 




Mrs F Hinkle 






50 


2 to $3 




Mrs M Hoxie 




60 persons 


1.50 


7 to $ 1 2 




T H Cathcart 


Jerwick Hotel (Jewish) 




2 00 up 


12 00 up 




Mrs H Jerwick 


Kempner Hotel 


1 5 persons 


1.00 


7 00 up 




P K. Crawford 






2 00 


12 50 up 




Mrs W E Lauher 


Kyle Rooms 


25 persons 




1 50 to $3 




Mrs. E. E. Kyle 






1 00 up 


7 to $12 




Mrs M Watts 


Lester House 


25 persons 




2 50 up 




T. M. Baughm 


Leon Hotel 




75 


3 00 up 




p J Murphy 


Majestic Hotel 


500 persons 


2.50 up 






Harry A. Jones 


Marion Hotel . 




1 25 up 


8 50to$IO 




Asbury & Wallon 


Marquette Hotel 


1 50 persons 


1 .00 up 




European 


Chas. G. Orr 


Maurice Hotel 




1 00 up 


6 00 up 




Mrs M. D. Brady 


Maurice Hotel 






13 50 


American 


Mrs. M. D. Brady 


McCrary Hotel 
Melba Rooms 


75 persons 
1 5 persons 


2.00 


8.00 up 
3.50 to $7 


American 
European 


Mrs. M. P. McCrary 
J. M. Frisby 


Metropolitan Rooms 
Milwaukee Hotel 


20 persons 
1 00 persons 


2.50 up 


2.50 up 
15 00 up 


European 
American 


Miss Thompson 
J. P. Hickey 


. Moody Hotel 


250 persons 


2. 50 up 


17.50 up 
5 00 up 


American 


N. M. Moody 
W A Smith 


Morris Cottage 






2 00 up 




W. A. Smith 


Murray Rooms 






2 50 to $3 




Mrs B Murray 


Napoleon Hotel 


25 person 


1 .00 up 


2 50 to $5 




Mrs. F. Rawles 


Nettles House 






8 to $12 




Mrs E. C. Nettles 


New Dayton Hotel 
New Haven Hotel 


40 person 


.50 up 
00 up 


2. 50 up 
7 to $10 


European 


Fred L. Kerr 
Mrs. Ida L. Parrott 


New Capitol Hotel 


50 person 


.00 up 


2 00 up 


European 


Mrs. N. J. Planks 


New Hot Springs 


50 persons 




3 50 up 




Shannon Gower 


New Lindell Hotel 




00 up 


Special 




Mrs A. H. Houaley 


! New National Hotel 
New Orleans 


40 persons 


.00 up 
00 


8 to $12 
2 00 up 


American 


Mrs. DeVall 
Mrs. E. T. Deickreide 


Ohio House 


25 persons 


.00 


5 00 up 




Callahan Bros. 


1 Pacific House 






3 50 to $4 




S J. Smith 


Plateau Hotel 


1 5 person 




3 00 up 


European 


C. F. Cook 


' Penedleton Hotel 




50 


2 50 up 




F. A. Coutlee 


1 Palm Hotel 


30 person 




2 50 up 


European 


S. Clement 


Parker's Boarding House 




2.00 


II 00 up 




Mrs. J. L. Parker 


Pullman Hotel 




1 00 up 


5 to $15 




Jas. A. Longinotti 


Putnam Hotel 


65 persons 


1 . 00 up 


5 to $7 




D. B. Davis 


Putnam Hotel 






9 to $12 




D. B. Davis 


Palace Hotel 


80 persons 


1 .00 


3 50 up 


European 


Woodcock & Womack 


: Richmond Hotel 






9 to $ 1 5 




Mrs. E. B. Elliston 


Rockafellow Hotel . . 
Rockafellow Hotel 


75 persons 


2.00 
1.00 


14.50 up 
3 50 to $7 


American 


E. S. Putnam 
E. S. Putnam 


Saratoga Hotel 


50 persons 


.50 


3 to $5 


European 


R. H. Baird 


i Savoy Hotel 


60 persons 


.50 


3 to $5 


European 


Mrs. Allie Street 


Southern Hotel 


60 persons 




8 to $12 


American 


Mrs. Mary Bradley 


Spaulding 




1 00 


4 00 up 




H A. Spaulding 


St. Charles.... 




1.50 


10 50 to 17 50 




H. Doherty 


St. Charles. 






3 00 up 




H. Doherty 


St. John's Place .'. 
Shelton House 


20 persons 


1.50 


7.00 up 
2 50 to $3 


American 


Benedictine Sisters 
Tom Shelton 


Taylor House 


40 persons 


1.50 up 


10 50 up 


American 


Miss Una Taylor 















(Continued on page 21) 



Page nineteen 




Page twenty 




A view from Hot Springs Mountain. 



List of Hotels and Boarding Houses at Hot Springs, Arkansas, Compiled by the Business Men's League 

Continued 



NAME OF PLACE 


Capacity 


RA' 
Per Day 


FES 
Per Week 


Plan 


Proprietor or Manager 


iTarkington House 




1 25 up 


8 00 up 










1 00 


5 00 up 




I A T J 


iTownsend 


pe . 


2 50 


12 50 








1 5 




3 00 up 






'Union Hotel 






8 00 up 






IWaukesha Hotel 




2 50 


17 50 




A.i f 


Williamson's Boarding House 






10 00 up 






Wilson's Cozy Inn 






1.50 up 


European 


Mr lr\^ Wilann 















Railroad Tickets 

Throughout the year, round-trip excursion 
tickets at reduced fares are sold at practically 
all stations in the United States to Hot Springs, 
Ark., as a destination. Passengers en route to 
iother destinations will find stop-over privileges 
available on both one-way and round-trip 
tickets, for the purpose of making side- trips to 
Hot Springs. 

Park Administration 

Hot Springs National Park is under the juris- 
diction of the Director, National Park Service, 
Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 
The Park Superintendent is located at Hot 
Springs, Ark. 

U. S. Government Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C., at 
prices given. Remittances should be made by 
Money Order or in cash. 



by J 



Analysis of the Waters of the Hot Springs of Arkansas. 
K. Haywood. and Geological Sketch of Hot Springs. 



f\rk.. by waiter Harvey Webb. 5o pages. IU cents. 

The National Parks Portfolio, by Robert Sterling Yard. 
260 pages. 270 illustrations, descriptive of nine National 
Parks. Pamphlet edition 3 5 cent*. Book edition 55 cents. 



The following publications may be obtained 
free on written application to the Director of 



the National Park Service, Department of the 
Interior, Washington, D. C. t or by personal 
application to the office of the Superintendent of 
the Park. 

Circular of General Information Regarding Hot Springs 
of Arkansas. 

Glimpses of our National Parks. 48 pages, illustrated. 

Map showing location of National Parka and Monu- 
ments, and railroad routes thereto. 

U. S. R. R. Administration Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
free on application to any consolidated ticket 
office, or apply to the Bureau of Service, National 
Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau 
Western Lines; 646 Transportation Building, 
Chicago, 111.: 

Arizona and New Mexico Rockies. 

California for the Tourist. 

Colorado and Utah Rockies. 

Crater Lake National Park. Oregon. 

Glacier National Park. Montana. 

Grand Canyon National Park. Arizona. 

Hawaii National Park. Hawaiian Islands. 

Hot Springs National Park. Arkansas. 

Mesa Verde National Park. Colorado. 

Mount Rainier National Park. Washington. 

Northern Lakes Wisconsin, Minnesota. Upper Michigan, 

Iowa and Illinois. 
Pacific Northwest and Alaska. 
Petrified Forest National Monument. Arizona. 
Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. 
Sequoia and General Grant National Parks, California 
Yellowstone National Park. Wyoming. 
Yosemite National Park. California. 
Zion National Monument. Utah. 

Page twenty-one 



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.PACIFIC' OCCAM 
THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 



GULF 



The National Parks at a Glance. 

United States Railroad Administration 

Director General of Railroads 

For particulars as to fares, train schedules, etc., apply to any Railroad Ticket Agent, or to anj 
of the following Consolidated Ticket Offices: 

West 



Austin, Tex 521 Congress Ave. 

Beaumont. Tex., Orleans and Pearl Sts. 

Bremerton. Wash 224 Front St. 

Butte. Mont 2 N. Main St. 

Chicago. Ill . 1 79 W. Jackson St. 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 

I19E. Pike's Peak Ave. 

Dallas. Tex 1 12-1 14 Field St. 

Denver. Colo 601 17th St. 

Des Moines, Iowa 403 Walnut St. 

Duluth. Minn 334 W. Superior St. 

El Paso. Tex. . . .Mills and Oregon Sts. 

Ft. Worth. Tex 702 Houston St. 

Fresno. Cal J and Fresno Sts. 

Galveston. Tex. .21st and Market Sts. 

Helena. Mont 58 S. Main St. 

Houston. Tex 904 Texas Ave. 

Kansas City. Mo. 

Ry. Ex. Bldg.. 7th and Walnut Sts. 



Annapolis, Md 54 Maryland Ave. 

Atlantic City. N. J.. 1301 Pacific Ave. 

Baltimore. Md B. & O. R. R. Bldg. 

Boston. Mass 67 Franklin St. 

Brooklyn. N. Y 336 Fulton St. 

Buffalo. N. Y. .Main and Division Sts. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. . .6th and Main Sts. 

Cleveland. Ohio 1004 Prospect Ave. 

Columbus. Ohio 70 East Gay St. 

Dayton. Ohio 19 S. Ludlow St. 



Asheville. N. C 14 S. Polk Square 

Atlanta. Ga... . .74 Peachtree St. 



Lincoln, Neb 104 N. I 3th St. 

Little Rock. Ark 202 W. 2d St. 

Long Beach. Cal . .L. A. & S. L. Station 

Los Angeles. Cal 221 S. Broadway 

Milwaukee. Wis 99 Wisconsin St. 

Minneapolis. Minn.. 202 Sixth St. South 
Oakland. Cal. . . 13th St. and Broadway 
Ocean Park. Cal. . .Pacific Elec. Depot 
Oklahoma City. Okla. 

131 W. Grand Ave. 

Omaha. Neb 1416 Dodge St. 

Peoria. 111. . .Jefferson and Liberty Sts. 
Phoenix, Ariz. 

Adams St. and Central Ave. 
Portland, Ore. .3d and Washington Sts. 

Pueblo. Colo 401-3 N. Union Ave. Tacoma. W 

St. Joseph. Mo 505 Francis St. Waco. Tex 

St. Louis. Mo. Whittier. Cal . . . 

318-328 North Broadway J Winnipeg. Man. 

East 

Detroit, Mich ... 13 W. LaFayette Ave. 
Evansville. Ind. . .L. & N. R. R. Bldg. 



St. Paul. Minn. . .4th and Jackson Sts. 

Sacramento. Cal 801 K St. 

Salt Lake City. Utah 

Main and S. Temple Sts. 
San Antonio. Tex. 

315-17 N. St. Mary's St. 

San Diego. Cal 300 Broadway 

San Francisco. Cal 50 Post St. 

San Jose. Cal.. I st and San Fernando Sts. 

Seattle. Wash 714-16 2d Ave. 

Shreveport. La.. Milam and Market Sts. 

Sioux City. Iowa 510 4th St. 

Spokane. Wash. 

Davenport Hotel. 815 Sprague Ave. 
.1117-19 Pacific Ave. 
6th and Franklin Sts. 
.L. A. & S. L. Station 
226 Portage Ave. 



Augusta. Ga , 

Birmingham, Ala. . 
Charleston. S. C. . . 

Charlotte. N. C 

Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Columbia. S. C 

Jacksonville. Fla. . . 



...811 Broad St. 

2010 1st Ave. 

. Charleston Hotel 

..22S. TryonSt. 

..81 7 Market St. 

.Arcade Building 
...38 W. Bay St. 



Grand Rapids. Mich 125 Pearl St. 

Indianapolis. Ind.. 1 12-14 English Block 

Montreal, Que 238 St. James St. 

Newark. N. J.. Clinton and Beaver Sts. 

New York. N. Y 64 Broadway 

New York. N. Y 57 Chambers St. 

New York. N. Y 31 W. 32d St. 

New York. N. Y 1 14 W. 42d St. 

South 

Knoxville. Tenn 600 Gay St. 

Lexington. Ky Union Station 

Louisville. Ky. . . .4th and Market Sts. 

Lynchburg. Va 722 Main St. 

Memphis. Tenn 60 N. Main St. 

Mobile. Ala 51 S. Royal St. 

Montgomery. Ala Exchange Hotel 

Nashville. Tenn. Independent Life Bldg. 

New Orleans. La St. Charles Hotel 

Norfolk. Va. . . . Monticello Hotel 



Philadelphia. Pa. ... 1539 Chestnut St. 

Pittsburgh. Pa Arcade Building 

Reading. Pa 16 N. Fifth St. 

Rochester. N. Y 20 State St. 

Syracuse. N. Y 355 S. Warren St. 

Toledo. Ohio 320 Madison Ave. 

Washington. D. C. . . 1229 F St. N. W. 

Williamsport. Pa 4th and Pine Sts. 

Wilmington. Del 905 Market St. 



Paducah. Ky 430 Broadway 

Pensacola. Fla San Carlos Hotel 

Raleigh. N. C 305 LaFayette St. 

Richmond. Va 830 E. Main St. 

Savannah. Ga 37 Bull St. 

Sheffield. Ala Sheffield Hotel 

Tampa. Fla Hillsboro Hotel 

Vicksburg. Miss. .1319 Washington St. 
Winston-Salem. N. C.. 236 N. Main St 



For detailed information regarding National Parks and Monuments address Bureau of Service, 
National Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau Western Lines, 646 Transportation Bldg., 
Chicago. Page twenty-three 



SEASON. 1919 





Bath H ouse Row One of the most popular thoroughfares in America. 




in 




I 



National Pa.rk 



L O 



A. D 






An Appreciation of 

Mesa Verde National Park 

By DR. J. WALTER FEWKES, Chief, Bureau of America n Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution 
Written Especially for the United States Railroad Administration 

OME with me to the Mesa Verde, and with me lift the veil that conceals 
the past and reveals the culture of an unlettered people whose history 
has been forgotten. What fascination to wander through the streets 
of a ruined city, to enter the long deserted sanctuaries, examine the 
paintings and figures on the walls, and live in imagination the life of an 
ancient people! Time was when American travelers sought distant lands to commune 
in this way with the past, but now we can turn to our own country. Our great rail- 
roads will carry the tourist near the towns once populous but now deserted and in 
ruins. 

The Mesa Verde National Park, containing many of these ancient monuments, has 
been protected by our Government for this special purpose. It invites all with little 
discomfort to withdraw from the world of the present with its bustle and noise to 
live mentally for a time in the past of our own country. Every one who has accepted 
an invitation to visit this Park has declared his intention to return. Why this lure 
of the Mesa Verde? Why does mention of its forgotten people cause the weary face 
of the careworn to relax and his eye to brighten with the light of joy? Because the 
mystery kindles the imagination and revivifies their life and struggles. Who were 
these ancient people? When did they live and what became of them? These 
questions are perennial in their interest. The Mesa Verde beckons the visitor to its 
canyons, where once lived the dusky maid who ground the corn in a primitive mill 
as she sang her song in unison with her mates; here one can see the crude fire- 
places where the food was cooked, and the rooms where the priest worshipped his 
gods; and you can wander through the streets now deserted but once filled with the 
busy life of the little brown people. There can be seen also the foot-holes cut in the 
rock where the women climbed from the spring to their eerie dwellings carrying their 
jars of water. No book can take the place of experience or impress the mind in the 
same way. One must see for himself these homes in their proper settings in the 
canyon walls, with the hazy mountains on the distant horizon; the lofty rocky pinnacle 
that like a phantom ship sails the valley on the south; the Sleeping Ute, far behind 
which was the house of the cliff dwellers' sun god; and Lookout Mountain, like a sentinel 
guarding the approaches. Let us then turn our steps from the rush of the modern 
commercial world to the silence of the Mesa Verde, where the high mesa, cedar clad, 
and furrowed by deep canyons, refreshes the spirit of man, and where imagination 
parent of poetry speaks to us of a people unlike ourselves that once nourished and 
disappeared. 




Page three 



To the American People: 

Uncle Sam asks you to be his guest. He has prepared for you the 
choice places of this continent places of grandeur, beauty and of 
wonder. He has built roads through the deep-cut canyons and beside 
happy streams, which will carry you into these places in comfort, and 
has provided lodgings and food in the most distant and inaccessible 
places that you might enjoy yourself and realize as little as possible 
the rigors of the pioneer traveler's life. These are for you. They are 
the playgrounds of the people. To see them is to make more hearty 
your affection and admiration for America. 



_. 



Secretary of the Interior 




Mesa Verde National Park 




HERE is always a fascination 
about the unexplainable 
and the attraction becomes 
greater if we are enabled to 
come in contact with the 
mysterious object and endeavor to con- 
jure up an explanation. In Mesa Verde 
National Park opportunities for such 
speculation are offered lavishly. 

The southwestern portion of the United 
States contains many ruins of dwellings 
and other structures left by prehistoric 
peoples who had reached a high degree 
of civilization long before the discovery 
of America. These people are supposed 
to have been the ancestors of the Pueblo 
Indians, although differing from them in 
many particulars, one of the more obvious 
being the fact that most of the modern 
Pueblos build their houses of sun-baked 
bricks (adobe), whereas the ancients 
used cut stone. 

Of all the groups of these ruins, those 
on the Mesa Verde, in Montezuma 
County, southwestern Colorado, are con- 
ceded to be the largest, best preserved 
and most picturesquely situated, and it 
was for these reasons that Congress in 
1 906 set aside 48,966 acres of this section 
and designated it Mesa Verde National 
Park. 

Probably the most striking feature of 
this mesa (or tableland) is the succession 
of great gashes in its contour, leading 
southward and entering the larger canyon 

P a ^ e four 



of the Mancos River. These side canyons 
are usually devoid of streams, but in ages 
past erosion worked enormous cavities in 
their sides toward the top, and it was in 
these places, under the overhanging 
cliffs, which offered such promise of pro- 
tection from the elements and from their 
enemies, that the prehistoric pioneers 
built their homes. And one cannot fail 
to admire the ability displayed in their 
choice. From the Cliff Dwellers' stand- 
point the sites selected were ideal. 

Most of us are not ethnologists, but it 
is our privilege to make conjectures in 
our own humble way. While eminent 
archaeologists have solved many of the 
leading mysteries in connection with 
these long-vanished people, the ordinary 
visitor may still wander among the ruins 
of their remarkable habitations and 
reach his own conclusions in regard to 
the many interesting problems that are 
always presenting themselves. 

There are so many ruins in the Park, 
and reached with the minimum of time 
and exertion, that the contemplative man 
can be much by himself and, unhampered 
by the presence of other visitors, can 
find an absorbing occupation in seeking 
to discover the motives that governed 
the .selection of certain building sites 
or the adoption of certain features in 
construction the placing of a door at 
this point, the use of a peculiar wind 
there, the insertion of a port-hole in 








A TYPICAL LANDSCAPE IN MESA VERDE NATIONAL PARK 



wall with an angle quite oblique to the 
latter, or the strange and most interesting 
arrangement of the kivas, which a face- 
tious visitor has termed "prehistoric club- 
rooms." 

In the less carefully finished portions of 
the walls the imaginative man will 
doubtless place his fingers on the mortar 
in the marks left by prehistoric hands 
and ponder. While these primitive 
artisans were humbly and laboriously 
fashioning the abodes in which this 
civilization was being developed inde- 
pendent of Europe, what was happening 
on that continent? Were the Crusaders 
then faring forth to the Holy Land? 
Or did the Cliff Dwellers ante-date that 
time? Had Pompeii been destroyed? 
Had Caesar landed in Britain? Various 
have been the conjectures as to the period 
of occupancy of these dwellings, and one 
may make guesses ad libitum. 

There is an especial fascination in the 
ancient trails, where these primitive 
people's sandaled feet wore smooth the 
steps which they had laboriously cut in 
the solid rock. And it is not at all 
difficult to imagine the use of these steps 
in that far-off time the huntsmen setting 
forth in the early morning with their well 
made bows and flint-pointed arrows, 
the girls and women proceeding with their 
household duties, gracefully carrying on 
their heads the large water jars, of which 



so many are found, the children playing 
around their homes and upon the adjacent 
cliffs in fact, one can almost hear their 
childish cries and laughter. And some- 
where about the homes we can imagine 
the weavers at work making the cotton 
cloth and the feather cloth, specimens 
of which are still found in the ruins. At 
another place the women are grinding 
corn with stones. Out in the open, a man 
is sharpening tools and weapons on a 
great rock, which is still in place. Some 
of the inhabitants are at work in the fields, 
probably on the mesa above the dwelling, 
cultivating the corn, pumpkins and 
squashes, the evidences of which are so 
plentiful in the debris. At another place 
the potters are carefully fashioning the 
vessels which they made in such per- 
fection, and not far away are the dec- 
orators, painstakingly mixing colors and 
placing designs upon the ware. There 
was surely the hum of busy life on the 
Mesa Verde in the old days! For the Cliff 
Dwellers were an industrious people. 
If nothing else, the construction of their 
houses bears conclusive evidence of this; 
and their environment, tending to a 
vigorous life, was not calculated to pro- 
duce an anaemic race. In the primitive 
arts they had made remarkable advances, 
and it is to be regretted that they had not 
evolved some system of writing more 
elaborate than the simple signs which 

Page five 



MESA VERDE 
NATIONAL PARK 

COLORADO 

Scale 



- ... Boundary 

Automobile Roads 
Trails 




Page six 



are occasionally found on their walls. 
The Mesa Verde is Uncle Sam's only 
National Park created for the preserva- 
tion of antiquities, although there are 
several National Monuments that have 
been established with that end in view. 
The beautiful scenery, the invigorating 
air, and the camp life, with its maximum 
of freedom and minimum of discomfort, 
rival the prehistoric remains themselves 
in tending to make a vacation spent here 
of great value to the individual and one 
long to be remembered. 

The Land of the Cliff Dwellers 

It was in 1874 that W. H. Jackson, then 
Government photographer with Hayden's 
Geological Survey, found numerous small 
prehistoric ruins in the cliffs on the sides 
of the Mancos River in southwestern 
Colorado and wrote an excellent account 
of them for the Annual Report. In the 
following year Prof. W. H. Holmes, of 
the Smithsonian Institution, made an 
exploration in the same locality. 

It was not until 1888, however, that 
Richard Wetherill and Charley Mason, 
cattle men living near Mancos, accident- 
ally discovered the great Cliff Palace, 
farther northward, in one of the side 
canyons leading from the Mesa Verde 
into the Mancos River. The point from 
which they got their first glimpse of the 
majestic ruin tucked away in a great 



cavern near the top of the canyon is still 
pointed out on the opposite side near the 
recently excavated Sun Temple, and the 
visitor who first sees Cliff Palace from this 
standpoint can well imagine the cries of 
amazement and admiration that must 
have escaped the young men's lips as they 
gazed upon this evidence of a long-for- 
gotten people. Spruce Tree House was 
discovered the same day, and others later. 

In 1891, Baron Gustav Nordenskib'ld, 
a young Swedish scientist, left Stockholm 
for a trip around the world, but he got no 
farther than America. In Colorado he 
visited the Mesa Verde, and his sub- 
sequent explorations in that region took 
up the entire summer. His investigations 
were published at length in a monumental 
work (printed in 1893 at Stockholm, but 
in the English language) entitled "The 
Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde". 
Among book collectors this folio, with its 
fine typography and superb illustrations 
has become one of the rarities. It can be 
seen in most of the large libraries and is 
well worth examination. Nordenskiold 
was an expert photographer, and his ex- 
cellent work is reproduced throughout 
the volume. 

Nordenskiold's death in 1895, (two 
years after his book was published) at 
the early age of twenty-seven, must have 
been a distinct loss to archaeological re- 
search in America. Since his day much 




BALCONY HOUSE 
This spectacular ruin is in a cavern high up on the side of a canyon. The balcony may be seen at the farther end. 

Pa g e seven 




Page eight 



CLIFF PALACE 

A view from the opposite side of Cliff Canyon, near the point from which 
some stray cattle. This is the largest 




CMATIONAL PARK 

rtjghted in 1888 by Richard Wetherill and Charley Mason, who were seeking 

*l-eing 300 feet long; it contained 200 rooms. 



\P a g e nine 



more extensive explorations have been 
made on the Mesa by Dr. Edgar L. 
Hewett and other ethnologists, but prin- 
cipally by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, Chief 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 



Smithsonian Institution. The larger and 
more accessible ruins have been cleared 
of debris, weak walls strengthened, etc., 
and it is now an easy matter for the 
tourist to visit and examine them. 




CENTRAL PORTION OF CLIFF PALACE 

At the right is the Round Tower; at the left the Speaker Chief's House. Near the center is a rock too large for the 
primitive builders to remove, the structure having been erected around it. 



The Mesa and the Ruins 



The prospective visitor to the Mesa Verde 
should disabuse his mind of the impression, which 
seems to prevail generally, that this portion 
of Colorado is exceptionally dry. On the con- 
trary, it is one of the best watered sections of 
the State, and as a consequence the Montezuma 
Valley, in which the Mesa Verde is situated, is a 
favored agricultural district. Trees abound, 
and it seems somewhat strange that the Spanish 
name "Mesa Verde" ("green tableland") should 
have been given to the particular portion where 
the largest prehistoric habitations are found, in 
view of the fact that other portions of the Monte- 
zuma Valley are equally green. 

The railroad gateway to Mesa Verde National 
Park is Mancos, Colorado. Leaving this point 
by automobile, the road leads us through the 
open farming country which forms the pictur- 
esque little Valley of the Mancos River. This is 
the county road leading to Cortez, the county- 
seat, twenty miles from the railroad. We leave it, 
however, a few miles out and, turning to the left 
on the new Government road, soon commence 
the ascent of the Mesa Verde near its northern 
extremity, Point Lookout. From the top we 
obtain a magnificent view of the great valley to 
the east and north. While in an air line the 
main group of Cliff Dwellings is but ten miles 
southwest of Mancos. the journey over the Mesa 
to that point is thirty-two miles because of the 



numerous small canyons which intervene, neces- 
sitating alternate turns to the south and to the 
north. Presently on one of the turns south- 
ward we obtain a view of the actual Cliff Dwell- 
ing section. Miles to the south we see what 
appear to be white streaks among the green. 
These are really the tops of the canyons in which 
the prehistoric structures are found, although 
at this distance there is practically no re- 
semblance to the gorges as seen close at hand, 
and the uninitiated invariably have to be told. 
But, beyond, there are beautiful sights in the 
hazy blues and purples that need no explanation, 
except as to names and locations. We may now 
enjoy the novelty of standing in one State, 
Colorado, and looking into three others Utah, 
Arizona and New Mexico. This is the only 
place in the country where four States join each 
other at right-angles. 

Far to the south rises a great rock, its top said 
to be 1 ,800 feet above the surrounding plain, 
which has the appearance of a vessel under full 
sail. This is Shiprock, over the border in New 
Mexico. Still beyond are the Chuckluck and 
Carizo Mountains of Arizona. Close to us on 
the west is Ute Mountain also called "The 
Sleeping Ute", its resemblance to a human figure 
lying prone upon its back, with folded arms, 
flowing hair to the north and toes to the south, 
being most remarkable. Beyond the Ute are the 



Blue Mountains of Utah, which in days gone by 
were the refuge of evil-doers seeking to evade 
justice. Northwestward, and so distant that the 
air must be fairly clear to render them visible, 
are the La Sal Mountains in the same State. 
To the north is Lone Cone Peak, in Colorado, 
and to the right of it the Needle Mountains, 
while nearer at hand and to the east are the La 
Plata Mountains in the vicinity of Durango. 
In whatever direction you look, the view is 
sublime. The ride over the beautiful Mesa in 
the bracing air is an experience in itself. An 
Easterner recently made the remark, while 
passing over the road, that, even if there were 
nothing unusual to be seen at the end of his trip, 
this drive alone was worth the journey from 
his home. 

Just before arriving at the more densely wood- 
ed portion of the Mesa to the south, we cross an 
open tract in which numerous low mounds are 
visible, and the sharp eye will detect stones 
that have an angular shape. Each of these 
mounds was once a structure in which the pre- 
historic inhabitants took pride. For what 
mortal could spend days upon days so carefully 
shaping and smoothing with primitive tools 
the rocks for his home and then as carefully 
placing them stone upon stone with his especially 
prepared mortar, without feeling on completion 
even more satisfaction than we experience in our 
far superior abodes? 

It has been said that, if all these mounds could 
be excavated, our present road would be leading 
us through a district strewn with prehistoric 
remains. One of the largest of the mounds was 
opened in 1916 by Dr. Fewkes and found to 
contain a unique and very remarkable structure. 

We are soon threading our way through the 
cedars and pinyons. The former are hoary old 
veterans, with shaggy coats, twisted trunks 
and limbs in fact, some of their limbs are dead, 
while others still tenaciously cling to the life 
which they seem loth to leave. These old cedars, 
or junipers, are the trees that might tell us a tale, 
if only they could speak. The pinyons are 
younger and probably have nothing to say. 

Having left Mancos at 2:00 o'clock in the 
afternoon, by 5:00 the automobile is at Spruce 
Tree Camp, where good accommodations will be 
found. Tents with raised floors and numerous 
conveniences are provided, and meals are served 
in a large frame building close at hand. A roomy 
protection is provided for automobiles. There 
are electric lights and also telephone connection 
with the outside world. Near the brink of the 
canyon is the museum, of appropriate log con- 
struction. On the spacious veranda of the 
museum one can sit at ease and look down and 
across the canyon upon the imposing ruin of 
Spruce Tree House in its picturesque setting of 
green. 

Spruce Tree House 

Spruce Tree House, one of the largest of the 
ruins, is situated a few hundred yards down the 
canyon from Spruce Tree Camp. It is very 
easily reached by a most attractive, shaded trail. 
At the head of the canyon under a great over- 
hanging ledge, is a fine spring of cold water. 
One feature of the Mesa Verde is its abundant 
supply of good drinking water, every one of the 
principal Cliff Dwellings having a spring either in 
the cave itself or close at hand. 



Spruce Tree House is 2 16 feet long and 89 feet 
wide at its greatest width. There have been 
counted 114 rooms and eight kivas. In places 
the structure was three stories high, and it is 
estimated to have housed 350 people. Probably 
the first features to attract our attention are the 
circular openings, averaging perhaps fifteen feet 
in diameter. These are the kivas mentioned 
above. They were underground and are sup- 
posed to have been used as gathering places by 
the men of the different clans, also for secret 
ceremonials. 

The doors and windows of all the dwellings 
will be found very interesting. They are usually 
small and well made. A modern architect has 
pointed out that these primitive people had 
discovered the use of the sill and lintel in making 
these openings, but not of the jamb. Some of 
them are rectangular, while others are in the 
unique Cliff Dwelling style of a T. with the 
upper portion shortened. A large cross of this 
character is found painted in red on the wall of 
one of the rooms in Spruce Tree House. 

Another curious feature in their construction 
work is the fact that in laying their courses of 
stone they did not systematically break the joints 
such breaking as was done appears to have 
been accidental. Yet the walls held together 
remarkably well. 

In some of the rooms small port-holes will be 
found, sometimes placed at an angle oblique to 
the wall. It would appear beyond question 
that these were for defensive purposes. 

Cliff Palace 

Cliff Palace, the largest of the Mesa Verde 
Cliff Dwellings, is at the head of Cliff Canyon, 
and, as usual, in a great cave on the side of the 
cliff, and near the top. It is preferable for one 
to get his first view of this ruin from across the 
canyon, near Sun Temple, that being the point 
from which the discoverers first caught sight of 
it in 1888. From that vantage ground, showing 
the castle-like walls and towers in the great cavity 
on the side of the canyon, with the green pinyons 
and cedars above and below, it is easy to under- 
stand why its discoverers named it "Cliff 
Palace". 

The structure is approximately 300 feet long 
and is estimated to have contained 200 rooms, 
including 23 kivas. Its cave is an enormous 
one, arching from 50 to 1 00 feet above it. Across 
the canyon is Sun Temple. At a fine viewpoint 
just before descending to Cliff Palace will be 
observed the plate of the U. S. Geological Survey 
showing the elevation as 6,789 feet a com- 
bination quite easy to remember. 

Three of the outstanding features of Cliff 
Palace are the Square Tower, the Round Tower 
and the "Speaker Chief's House", occupying 
different positions throughout the structure. 
The first contains some painted signs that are of 
interest. 

Another feature is the large number of kivas. 
It is said that there was a numerical relationship 
between the population and the number of kivas 
in a cliff dwelling. I n Cliff Palace no space which 
could be used for the construction of such a 
chamber seems to have been overlooked. 

Usually the kivas and forward rooms are 
smoothly plastered, but it is interesting to 
examine the rear walls and see the hand work 
where the builders were less careful. The prints 

Page eleven 




SUN TEMPLE 

A ruin, evidently intended for religious purposes, excavated in 1915. The walls, of carefully cut red stone, are double. 

four feet thick, and in places nearly twelve feet high. At the left may be seen the stump of 

a cedar found growing from the wall; it contains 360 annual rings. 



of the fingers may be plainly seen, and in some 
places the actual grain of the skin is still in 
evidence. 

Balcony House 

In Soda Canyon, at a point two and one-half 
miles from Spruce Tree Camp, is Balcony House. 
This ruin, while not so large as Cliff Palace and 
Spruce Tree House, occupies a most spectacular 
site high up on the side of the canyon and 
possesses features which are distinctly its own. 
One of these is the "balcony", at an elevation of 
about six feet above the floor in one end of the 
structure, from which point a beautiful view 
is presented out over the canyon. 

Balcony House is easily entered by ladders. 
But the ancient inhabitants used a strange 
entrance at the southern end. This was through 
a crevice between the canyon wall and an 
enormous rock, thirty feet or more in height, 
which had broken away from the side and had 
found lodgment sufficient to prevent its falling 
to the bottom of the canyon far below. Both 
exterior and interior ends of this crevice were 
walled up by the Cliff Dwellers, with the ex- 
ception of a very small rectangular opening at the 
base, through which it is necessary to crawl 
prostrate. High above the outside of the 
entrance is a porthole, and behind this is a 
platform, from which a prehistoric sharpshooter 
could do deadly work in protecting the village 
behind him. Some distance from the outer end 
of the entrance the ancient trail to the top of the 
canyon is plainly visible. 

Sun Temple 

In 1915 Dr. Fewkes opened a large mound on 
a promontory across the canyon from Cliff 
Palace. This mound, which was covered with 




trees and other growth, had been known to 
tain a ruin of some sort, but not even 
Fewkes was prepared for the development t 
followed. The structure disclosed is in the f 
of the letter "D", with the flat side toward t 
south. The walls are of red stone, carefully c 
They are double, four feet thick, and from five 
nearly twelve feet high. The front is 1 3 1 feet 1 
This building, of a type found nowhere else on 
Mesa Verde, had evidently been erected accord- 
ing to a pre-arranged plan. Several theories 
have been advanced as to its use, but it is now 
generally accepted that it was built for religious 
purposes, and this is strengthened by the finding 
of a stone on which is a fossil palm-leaf, adjoining 
the southwestern corner of the structure. This 
fossil had been enclosed with stones on three 
sides, giving it somewhat the appearance of an 
altar. It is considered that the prehistoric 
shippers regarded the shape of the fossi 
representative of the sun. 

During the excavation a red cedar tree 
found growing out of the wall near its hig 
point. This was cut down and found to cont 
360 annual rings. Of course the building 
been abandoned before the tree sprouted, 
how long a time had elapsed between 
abandonment and the sprouting no one can 
tell. 

Oak Tree (Willow) House and Painted 
House 

These are two very interesting, though smaller, 
ruins in Fewkes Canyon not far from Sun 
Temple. The former is sometimes called 
"Willow House" because of the willow withes 
in the mortar of one of the walls in which no 
stones were used, being virtually an instance of 
prehistoric "reinforcement." Painted House is 



>f an 

but 
the 



Page twelve 



a short distance farther up the canyon, near its 
head, and is distinguished for its painted walls, 
some most interesting figures of animals being 
visible in one of the rooms. 

Square Tower (Peabody) House 

This ruin, also with characteristics of its own, 
is in Navajo Canyon, three miles from Spruce 
Tree Camp. One of its principal features is the 
square tower, several stories high. Square Tower 
House has never been cleared of debris, and con- 
tains one kiva on which the roof is partly in 
place, distinctly showing the ingenious method 
of construction. 

Far View House 

With the exception of Sun Temple and Far 
View House, the ruins now visible in Mesa Verde 
National Park are all in caverns on the sides of 
the canyons. A few years ago Far View House 
was one of a number of mounds, called the 
"Mummy Lake Group" (the "lake" having been 
a prehistoric reservoir), four and one-half miles 
north of Spruce Tree Camp. In 1916 Dr. Fewkes 
excavated this mound and discovered a rect- 
angular pueblo 1 1 3 feet long by 1 00 feet wide. 
The building was terraced and at one end was 
three stories high. The fire places and stones for 
grinding corn may still be seen in the highest 
room. Less than a hundred feet from one corner 
lies the cemetery, from which were taken a 
number of skeletons with their customary offer- 
ings of food bowls and other objects. Fifteen 
other mounds have been counted in Mummy 
Lake village, and other towns of the same 
character may be seen from this point. 

A Prehistoric Watch Tower 

This is a most interesting structure, largely 
on account of its individuality. It is round and 



occupies the top of a conical-shaped rock on the 
side of Navajo Canyon. There are no dwellings 
in the immediate vicinity, 1 1 is a question in the 
minds of some ethnologists whether it was used 
for watching purposes, as structures of this shape 
are considered to have some relation to the re- 
ligion of the early inhabitants. The Tower is 
about three miles from Spruce Tree Camp and ia 
reached by a good trail. 

Spring House 

This is a very fine, large ruin in Long Canyon, 
approximately five miles from Spruce Tree Camp. 
It has never been cleared of debris; when this is 
done, it will undoubtedly present a striking 
appearance. A good spring of cold water at the 
back of the cavern accounts for the name. 
There is a good trail to Spring House, and it 
makes a most interesting one-day trip. The 
Natural Bridge is directly below. 

The Natural Bridge 

This is an interesting feature of the Mesa 
Verde which was located only a few years ago. 
It is in Long Canyon directly below Spring 
House. The distance from end to end under the 
arch is ninety feet, and the height is twenty-five. 
The Bridge is reached by trail only. 

Other Ruins 

There are very many other ruins, of varying 
sizes, in the Park and adjacent thereto, many 
of which, because of their being almost inacces- 
sible, have scarcely been visited in modern times, 
and some no doubt have not been entered at all 
since their abandonment centuries ago. A num- 
ber of these can be seen from the larger ruins 
described above. 




A large ruin not yet cleared of debris. When cleared, some interesting discoveries undoubtedly will be 
is a cold spring between the rear of the structure and the wall of the cavern. 



There 



Page thirteen 



Transportation and Accommodations 

Auto stages of the Mesa Verde Transportation Com- 
pany operate daily between the railroad station at Mancos. 
Colo., and Spruce Tree Camp in Mesa Verde National 
Park; distance 32 miles; time required three hours. Con- 
nections are made with trains in each direction. Auto 
stages leave the railroad station at 2:00 P. M. and the 
Camp at 8:00 A. M. The round-trip fare from Mancos 
to Spruce Tree Camp is $10.00, which includes auto 
service from the Camp to Cliff Palace. Balcony House. 
Sun Temple and Square Tower House. 

Spruce Tree Camp (adjacent to Spruce Tree House 
ruin), is operated by Oddie L. Jeep (postoffice address, 
Mancos. Colo); rate $4.00 per day. American plan. 

During the summer season, round-trip excursion 
tickets at reduced fares are sold to Mancos or through to 
Mesa Verde National Park as destination. Passengers 
visiting the Park as a side-trip, in connection with journeys 
to other destinations, will find stop-over privileges available 
on round-trip or one-way tickets. 

From many sections trips may be planned to include 
visits to two or more of the following National Parks in 
the Rocky Mountain region: Mesa Verde. Glacier. Yellow- 
atone and Rocky Mountain. 

Time Required to See the Ruins 
Leaving Mancos at 2:00 P. M. and arriving Spruce 
Tree Camp at 5:00 P. M. permits of visiting Spruce Tree 
House, near at hand, the same evening. Next day Balcony 
House. Square Tower House. Sun Temple and Cliff Palace 
may be visited by auto, being distant from two to three 
miles. Leaving for Mancos at 8:00 A. M. the following day. 
Far View House may be visited en route. Not less than 
thirty-six hours should be spent in the Park, and longer 
time is desirable. 

Season 

The season in Mesa Verde National Park extends 
from May I to October 31. 

Park Administration 

Mesa Verde National Park is under the jurisdiction of 
the Director, National Park Service, Department of the 
Interior. Washington, D. C. The Park Superintendent is 
located at Mancos, Colo. 

U. S. Government Publications 

The following publications may be obtained from the 
Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing 
Office. Washington. D. C.. at the prices given. Remit- 
tances should be made by money order or in cash: 
Antiquities of the Mesa Verde National Park: Spruce Tree 
House, by J. W. Fewkes. 58 pages, illustrated. 
40 cents. 



Park- Cliff 
illustrated 



Antiquities of the Mesa Verde National 

Palace, by J. W. Fewkes. 82 pages 

45 cents. 
Excavation and Repair of Sun Temple. Mesa Verde 

National Park, by J. W. Fewkes. 32 pages, illustrated. 

15 cents. 
National Parks Portfolio, by Robert Sterling Yard. 260 

pages, 270 illustrations; descriptive of nine National 

Parks. Pamphlet edition. 35 cents; book edition 

55 cents. 
Panoramic view of Mesa Verde National Park; 22 '/ 2 by 19 

inches; 25 cents. 

The following may be obtained from the Director of 
the United States Geological Survey. Washington. D. C.. 
at price given: 
Map of Mesa Verde National Park; 31 by 46 inches; scale. 

one-half mile to the inch. 20 cents. 



The following publications may be obtained free on 
written application to the Director of the National Park 
Service. Washington. D. C.. or by personal application to 
the superintendent of the park: 

Circular of General Information regarding Mesa Verde 

National Park. 

Glimpses of our National Parks. 48 pages, illustrated. 
Map showing location of National Parks and Monuments 

and railroad routes thereto. 

U. S. R. R. Administration Publications 

The following publications may be obtained free on 
application to any Consolidated Ticket Office; or apply to 
the Bureau of Service. National Parks and Monuments, or 
Travel Bureau Western Lines. 646 Transportation Build- 
ing. Chicago. 111.: 

Arizona and New Mexico Rockies. 
California for the Tourist. 
Colorado and Utah Rockies. 
Crater Lake National Park, Oregon. 
Glacier National Park, Montana. 
Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. 
Hawaii National Park, Hawaiian Islands. 
Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas. 
Mesa Verde National Park. Colorado. 
Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. 
Northern Lakes Wisconsin. Minnesota. Upper Michi 

Iowa and Illinois. 
Pacific Northwest and Alaska. 
Petrified Forest National Monument. Arizona. 
Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. 
Sequoia and General Grant National Parks. California. 
Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Montana, 



Yosemite National Park, California. 
Zion National Monument, Utah. 




A GROUP OF RELICS TAKEN FROM THE RUINS 
The twelve large jars were found recently in a ruin which had never been entered in modern times. They were discovered 

arranged in order in one room, as though stored for future use. 
Page fourteen 




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KAHOOLAVWE 

PACIFIC CIA " AW ' 
THE HAWAftAN ISLANDS 




The National Parks at a Glance 



United States Railroad Administration 

Director General of Railroads 

For particulars as to fares, train schedules, etc., apply to any Railroad Ticket Agent, or to any 
of the following Consolidated Ticket Offices: 

West 

Lincoln. Neb. .. .. 104 N. 13th St. 

Little Rock. Ark 202 W. 2d St. 

Long Beach. Cal . .L. A. & S. L. Station 
Los Angeles. Cal. . . .215 S. Broadway 

Milwaukee. Wis 99 Wisconsin St. 

Minneapolis. Minn.. 202 Sixth St. South 



Beaumont. Tex.. Orleans and Pearl Sts. 

Bremerton. Wash 224 Front St. 

Butte. Mont 2 N. Main St. 

Chicago. Ill 175 W. Jackson Blvd. 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 

119 E. Pike's Peak Ave. 

Dallas. Tex 112-114 Field St. 

Denver. Colo 601 17th St. 

Des Moines. Iowa 403 Walnut St. 

Duluth. Minn 334 W. Superior St. 

El Paso. Tex Mills and Oregon Sts. 

Ft. Worth. Tex 702 Houston St. 

Fresno. Cal J and Fresno Sts. 

Galveston. Tex. .21st and Market Sts. 

Helena. Mont 58 S. Main St. 

Houston. Tex 904 Texas Ave. 

Kansas City. Mo. 

Ry. Ex. Bldg.. 7th and Walnut Sts. j 



Annapolis, Md 54 Maryland Ave. 

Atlantic City. N. J.. 1301 Pacific Ave. 

Baltimore. Md B. & O. R. R. Bldg. 

Boston. Mass 67 Franklin St. 

Brooklyn. N. Y 336 Fulton St. 

Buffalo. N. Y. .Main and Division Sts. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. . .6th and Main Sts. 



St. Paul. Minn. . .4th and Jackson Sta. 

Sacramento. Cal 801 K St. 

Salt Lake City. Utah 

Main and S. Temple Sts. 
San Antonio. Tex. 

315-17 N. St. Mary's St. 



Oakland. Cal. . . 13th St. and Broadway San Diego. Cal 300 Broadway 

Ocean Park. Cal 160 Pier Ave. San Francisco. Cal. 

Oklahoma City. Okla. 

131 W. Grand Ave 
Omaha. Neb 1416 Dodge St. 



Lick Bldg.. Post St. and Lick Place 
San Jose. Cal.. I stand San Fernando Sts. 

Seattle. Wash 714-16 2d Ave. 

Peoria. 111. .. Jefferson and Liberty Sts. Shrevepprt. La.. Milam and Market Sts. 



Phoenix, Ariz. 



Cleveland. Ohic . . 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Dayton, Ohio 



1 004 Prospect Ave. 
... 70 East Gay St. 
..I9S. LudlowSt. 



.nz. aioux ^ity, low 

Adams St. and Central Ave. Spokane. Wash. 

Portland. Ore. .3d and Washington Sts. 

Pueblo. Colo 401-3 N. Union Ave. 

St. Joseph. Mo 505 Francis St. 

St. Louis. Mo. 

318-328 North Broadway 

East 

Detroit. Mich ... 13 W. LaFayette Ave. 
Evansville. Ind. . . L. & N. R. R. Bldg. 

Grand Rapids. Mich 125 Pearl St. 

Indianapolis, Ind.. I 12-14 English Block 
Newark. N. J.. Clinton and Beaver Sts. 

New York. N. Y 64 Broadway 

New York. N. Y 57 Chambers St. 

New York. N. Y 31 W. 32d St. 

New York. N. Y 1 14 W. 42d St. 



Sioux City. Iowa 510 4th St. 



Davenport Hotel, 815 Sprague Ave. 
Tacoma. Wash. .. I 117- 1 9 Pacific Ave. 

Waco. Tex 6th and Franklin Sts. 

Whittier. Cal. . . . L. A. & S. L. Station 
Winnipeg. Man 226 Portage Ave. 



Philadelphia. Pa.. 

Pittsburgh. Pa 

Reading. Pa 

Rochester. N. Y.. 
Syracuse. N. Y. . . 

Toledo. Ohio 

Washington. D. C. 
Williamsport. P 



.1539 Chestnut St. 

. .Arcade Building 
....I6N. Fifth St. 

20 State St. 

. .University Block 
.320 Madison Ave. 

. 1229 FSt. N. W. 

.4th and Pine Sts. 



Asheville. N. C 14 S. Polk Square 

Atlanta. Ga 74 Peachtree St. 

Augusta. Ga 811 Broad St. 

Birmingham, Ala 2010 1st Ave. 

Charleston. S. C Charleston Hotel 

Charlotte. N. C 22 S. Tryon St. 

Chattanooga. Tenn 817 Market St. 

Columbia. S. C Arcade Building 

Jacksonville. Fla 38 W. Bay St. 



South 

Knoxville. Tenn 600 Gay St. 

Lexington. Ky Union Station 

Louisville, Ky. . . .4th and Market Sts. 

Lynchburg. Va 722 Main St. 

Memphis. Tenn 60 N. Main St. 

Mobile. Ala 51 S. Royal St. 

Montgomery. Ala Exchange Hotel 

Nashville. Tenn. Independent Life Bldg. 
New Orleans. La St. Charles Hotel 



Wilmington. Del 905 Market St. 



Paducah. Ky 430 Broadway 

Pensacola. Fla San Carlos Hotel 

Raleigh. N. C 305 LaFayette St. 

Richmond. Va 830 E. Main St. 

Savannah. Ga 37 Bull St. 

Sheffield. Ala Sheffield Hotel 

Tampa. Fla Hillsboro Hotel 

Vicksburg. Miss. .1319 Washington St. 
Winston-Salem. N. C.. 236 N. Main St. 



For detailed information regarding National Parks and Monuments address Bureau of Service, 
National Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau Western Lines, 646 Transportation Bldg., 
Chlca g- Page fifteen 



PRESS OF W. J. HARTMAN CO.. CHICAGO 







A GLIMPSE OF SPRUCE TREE HOUSE 

This ruin is a short distance down the canyon from Spruce Tree Camp and is reached by 
an easy trail through the trees. 



1 _ 



MI RAINIER 

National Park 



SHIMOTONT 




UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION 

NATIONAL PAR.KL SERIES 




Page two 




An Appreciation of 

Mount Rainier National Park 

By GILBERT H. GROSVENOR, Editor, National Geographic Magazine 

Written Especially for the United States Railroad Administration 

AHOMA the Mountain That Was God! Thus the 
aboriginal Indians christened the sublimely majestic peak 
which broods over one of earth's most beautiful play- 
grounds Mount Rainier National Park. 

All of America's great parks extend to our people an almost irresist- 
ible invitation, truly irresistible if the individual has in his soul the 
llove of wide spaces, beautiful vistas, forests, mountains, rocks, streams 
and flowers; but no other offers to the wayfarer, the traveler and the 
:seeker of recreation so easily accessible a variety of charms, of creature 
comforts and of scenic grandeur as this wonderful preserve, with its 
snow-capped mountain towering nearly three miles above the sea; with 
its more than a score of glaciers tracing with fingers of ice the wrinkles 
of centuries upon the granite face of the heights; with its Paradise 
Valley carpeted with myriad wild flowers of every hue; with its un- 
limited diversions of camp life, mountain climbing, ice cave explora- 
tions, skiing and snowshoeing in midsummer, and automobiling mile 
jpon mile over perfect roads, through giant forests, skirting the brow 
}f overhanging ledges, and to the trickling waters of the melting glaciers 
themselves. 

The glories of mountain-and-valley scenery in the Swiss Alps excel 
:he beauties of Mount Rainier National Park in only one particular 
:he fact that they enjoy the advantage of a thousand years of advan- 
tageous advertising. Some day our people are going to waken to the 
ealization that in our own America, our Land of the Best, Nature has 
jiven us scenic charms and natural wonders which surpass those of 
;very other land. Mount Rainier National Park is a matchless proof of 
his statement. I wish no lover of the great outdoors would accept my 
vord for this; he should verify these superlatives about Mount Rainier 
National Park by personal observation this summer. 



I 



To the American People: 

Uncle Sam asks you to be his guest. He has prepared for you the 
choice places of this continent places of grandeur, beauty and of 
wonder. He has built roads through the deep-cut canyons and beside 
happy streams, which will carry you into these places in comfort, and 
has provided lodgings and food in the most distant and inaccessible 
places that you might enjoy yourself and realize as little as possible 
the rigors of the pioneer traveler's life. These are for you. They are 
the playgrounds of the people. To see them is to make more hearty 
your affection and admiration for America. 



Secretary of me Interior 





E who seeks a renewal of 
spirit in the vast world of 
out-of-doors, who reads the 
messages written on Nature's 
tables of stone, who hears 
music in the waterfall, who studies 
perfection as expressed in the dew- 
sprinkled flower, and who sees, in the 
pearly whiteness of mountain summits, 
a symbol of all things pure, may attain 
his ideals in the mountains of Wash- 
ington. 

Up through forests of fir and cedar the 
foothills rise, wave on wave, like a great 
green sea. Above this sea towers the 
giant snow-crowned summit of Rainier. 

Mo.unt Rainier the Pacific North 
Coast crowning landmark is the most 
titanic, extinct volcano in America out- 
side of Alaska. Rising, snow-mantled, 
nearly three miles into the air from an 
evergreen forest base, which slopes to 
Puget Sound, its beauty and grandeur 
are supremely impressive. 

With a mystery and majesty pecul- 
iarly its own, Rainier holds sway over all 
its kindred. It became king of the north- 
ern mountains geologic ages ago, when 
a mighty upheaval rent the earth 
asunder. Born of a fiery conflict, the 
heat of those fires has cooled, and the 
glistening, snow-crowned summit of 
today bears little resemblance to the 
molten mass of ages ago. 



Pa He four 



National Park 






unt 



Nowhere on the globe can such 
variety of Nature's masterpieces be en- 
joyed, and of all pleasurable places along 
the Pacific, none is more inspiring than 
Mount Rainier National Park. 

It is a delightful region, composed of 
parks, mountains, woods, summer-lands, 
lakes, waterfalls, tumbling rivers, and 
living glaciers, made easily accessible by 
roads, trails and by-paths. 

The lover of mountain scenery will 
find never-to-be-forgotten pictures 
this National Park. Seen from Pu 
Sound, the impressiveness of Mou 
Rainier is due to its being situated a 
dozen miles west of the crest of the 
Cascade Range, on the forested plain 
sloping to tidewater. From viewpoi 
distant fifty to a hundred miles, 
appears to rise directly from sea level, so 
insignificant seem the ridges about its 
base. The white uplift is unspeakably 
awe-compelling. 1 1 towers alone, distinct 
and commanding far surpassing in 
height all peaks within sweep of the eye. 
Only a few of the world's great moun- 
tains stand thus detached, and none has 
a more inspiring setting. 

Little wonder that the child-like mind 
of the Indian, unable to understand t 
mountain, unable to explain its volca 
origin and its unusual phenomen 
should deify it! Surely the park-like 
spaces that hang like a mammoth fl 









Columbia Crest, the highest point of Mount Rainier, is 14.408 feet above sea level, and is the source of six primary 
glaciers which descend to the base of the mountain 



wreath between timber and snow were 
the fitting tabernacle of a God. And did 
not a beneficent God direct the streams 
pouring out from under the glaciers, 
from which the aborigine obtained most 
of his food and which afforded him 
highways through the forests? When 
storms came and the land was darkened, 
he saw the great clouds gather around 
the summit, and the mountain hid its 
face. After the storm was ended and his 
beautiful land, with its hundreds of miles 
of inland seas, was flooded with sunshine, 
the mountain came out of the clouds, 
its splendor renewed. Always it was 
there, watching over him, ever changing, 
yet always the same. 

And who is there today to deny that 
this is holy ground? Surely that which is 
one of the most perfect of Nature's pro- 
ductions and which leads the mind to 
higher, nobler thoughts, is entitled to our 
reverence. Yet we need not worship 
from afar, as the Indian did. Beautiful 
as this mountain is from the distance, 
those beauties are increased by a closer 
acquaintance. 

In the upper forests the wonder 
flowers appear, becoming dense with the 
higher altitude, until everywhere, as far 
as the eye can sweep, there is a sea of 
blooms of all colors. They reach in 
billows clear to the snow line. Some 



follow the snow so closely that they may 
be found blooming along its edge or even 
in the smaller snow fields, while others 
climb the mountain sides far above the 
snow line and bloom in sheltered niches 
amid masses of rock and ice. 

A visit to the summit of this extinct 
volcano cannot fail to be impressive. 
There are two craters, the larger 1 ,600 
feet in diameter. From the rim between 
the two, rises an immense mound of 
snow known as Columbia Crest; this is 
the mountain's summit. 

Nature, the supreme landscape archi- 
tect, has given this glacier-clad landmark 
an evergreen-forest setting, adorned with 
vast masses of flowers which form scenic 
combinations impossible to portray by 
word or picture. No vocabulary, no 
camera, no pencil, no brush can do more 
than suggest what one can see in this 
Wonderland. Hence you should see 
it for yourself and, if possible, climb to 
the top. 

The sensation of having accomplished 
the ascent of the mountain has been best 
described by Maj. E. S. Ingraham, who 
was one of the first to climb Mount 
Rainier, and has since made the ascent 
many times. 

"After long hours of incessant 
climbing I stand on the crest. A cold 
wind pierces my tired body to the mar- 



-Page fiv 



row, yet my soul forgets the discomforts 
of its inhabitation and surges and ex- 
pands. Around me slumber the snows 
of a century, yielding not to winter's 
blast nor summer's heat. One law alone 
they obey, that causes the apple to fall 
and the planets to keep their appointed 
places. Inch by inch they are dragged 
down the mountain's rock-ribbed side 
until they form the slow-moving glacier. 
The stunted trees upon the glacier's 
bank have grown old, beckoning it on- 
ward. The flowers of a hundred summers 
have smiled upon it and bid it welcome. 
Yet it pauses not nor yet hastens. When 
the snows upon which I now stand 
shall have reached the silver stream 
far below, our children's children may 
listen to its murmuring." 




Two-Day Trip to the Park 



is 



Mount Rainier National Park 
connected by automobile stages of the 
Rainier National Park Company with 
Ashford, Wash., a railroad station about 
three hours' ride from Tacoma and four 
hours from Seattle, Wash., and six miles 
from the Park entrance. 

The ride, by auto-stage, from Ashford 
to Longmire Springs, near the foot of the 
mountain, at any hour of the day or by 
moonlight, is a treasured memory. Take 
it as often as you may, it is always a new 



delight. The route is across the upper 
Nisqually Valley, with its miniature 
fertile farms formerly covered by firs 
and pines, thence through the primeval 
forest. At the Park Entrance a stop is 
made for registration. This formality 
is soon over, the Park Ranger Quarters 
are admired, and the auto-stage continues 
along the dancing Nisqually, crossing a 
recrossing, affording ever-changing vi 
of the mountain, until the arrival 
Longmire Springs in time for lunch 
At Longmire Springs are located Natio 
Park Inn and Longmire Hotel (2,700 feet 
altitude and thirteen miles from Ash- 
ford). Here is the picturesque, miniature 
valley where, in 1883, James Longmire 
located a ranch noted for mineral springs 
of health-restoring worth, which give 
their name to the place. After a good 
meal, there is time for viewing the famous 
Longmire Springs thirty-five bubbling 
mineral fountains, destined to rival the 
most renowned spas of the world. From 
the inn porch there is an incomparable, 
near view of the mountain, its shining 
crest eight miles distant in an air line. 
From the evergreen-forest frame, it rises 
11,700 feet above the level of the e; 
There are days when it appears no nea 
than when viewed from tide-water poin 
and again it seems even farther removed, 
according to atmospheric conditions. 



s 




Entrance to Mount Rainier National Park 



Visitors generally board the morning 
train from Seattle or Tacoma, arriving 
at Longmire Springs for luncheon. Im- 
mediately thereafter, the auto-stage is 
taken for Nisqually Glacier, five miles 
distant by a road which winds in loops 
and curves along the heavily wooded 
mountain flank, above the tumbling river 
which appears and disappears between 
the trees. Through the forest openings, 
the ever-changing views compose a mar- 
velous panorama and at every bend com- 
ments are made again and again on the 
fine boulevard and the skill and artistry 
of its builders. 

Nisqually Glacier, altitude 4,000 feet, 
is 1 ,300 feet above Longmire Springs, and 
the road has an average 4.8 per cent 
grade, or a rise of 260 feet to the mile, 
yet so smooth is the going, the climb is 
not realized. Here is the first view of a 
glacier, for some 300 yards above the 
bridge is the moraine-covered nose of 
Nisqually Glacier, which blocks the 
valley to a height of 400 feet. From a 
yawning cave in its front issues the Nis- 
qually River a torrent at its start. In 
the long ago the glacier completely filled 
the valley above and below the bridge, 
and people still live who recall the time 
when it came down to the present river 
crossing. It is the one ice river in the 
world at the terminus of an auto-boule- 
vard, reached in five hours from metro- 
politan centers. 

There are more than a score of such 
torrents in the Park, having a similar 
glacial origin, among which Nisqually 
River takes foremost rank. A path easy 
to climb follows up the side of the glacier 
and crosses the lower portion to the op- 
posite side. The traveler thus visualizes 
the great bulk of this ice-flow that starts 
at Columbia Crest, more than 1 0,000 feet 
higher and distant six miles in an air line. 
From this trail are matchless views of 
Nisqually Valley and the mountains that 
form the background to the south and 
west. 

En route to Paradise, good-bye is 
said to the Nisqually River, which was 
first met at Lagrande and which has 
afforded thirty-five miles of scenic thrills. 
Above Paradise Valley it will be seen 
again, where it is a huge ice stream, for 
it is well to remember that the Nisqually 
is one of the six primary glaciers which 



head at the crest where the neve" cas- 
cades have broken down the crater rim. 
From here the climb starts in earnest. 
Rounding the bold promontory over- 
looking the forested valley to the south, 
with the whole Tatoosh Range flanked 
by Eagle Peak in the background an 
inspiring view the road winds abruptly 
into the Paradise River watershed. This 
sharp vantage angle altitude 4,225 
feet where a step over the retaining 
wall would mean a sheer drop of a 
thousand feet into the turbulent Nis- 
qually, is Ricksecker Point, named for 
the engineer who laid out the road from 
Park Entrance to Paradise Valley. 

Thus, winding along toward the 
canyon, Narada Falls suddenly fills the 
view directly below the road, framed in 
by overhanging trees. Narada is a 
Hindoo word, meaning peace. Then 
comes Inspiration Point the circular 
bridge around Horseshoe Bend affording 
a view of the Tatoosh Range. Next 
the road climbs, in zigzag switchbacks, 
crossing precipitous glacial boulders 
overlooking Washington Torrents, a 
series of short falls in Paradise River, 
extending about a mile. Other pleasing 
vistas are passed, and Paradise Valley is 
reached (5,557 feet altitude) the end of 
the government boulevard from Ash- 
ford, where the flowered meadowland 
meets the glaciers. This ride is two 
hours of unalloyed rapture. There are 
no other roads in the Park, except the 
Storbo Road from the northeastern part 
of the Park, to Glacier Basin. All other 
places are reached by trails. One trail 
entirely encircles the mountain. 

Among the recent improvements is 
Paradise Inn, at Paradise Valley, which 
affords an unobstructed view of the 
mountain, its white-mantled crown 
towering 8,700 feet above the wide 
veranda, distant but five miles as the 
crew flies. Strange as it may seem, the 
royal crest looks no nearer than from 
Longmire Springs. 

Paradise Valley offers many absorbing 
attractions, such as the fields of Alpine 
flowers, three hundred varieties massed 
in all colors as far as the eye can reach, 
Paradise Glacier, a safe, snow play-place 
where winter sports are a summer joy, 
and the full sweep of Nisqually Glacier. 
Paradise Glacier is easily accessible. 



Page seven 



The trip outlined in the previous par- 
agraphs covers two days in the Park, 
spending one night in Paradise Valley. 
1 1 is made in comfort and free from haste, 
and includes the primary features of a 
visit to Mount Rainier National Park 
the sunset and sunrise and leisure. 

Ever since the early days, good trails 
have led to Indian Henry's Hunting 
Ground, Van Trump Park, and Eagle 
Peak. Visitors who tarry over a day 
are most certain to go to Indian Henry's 
and Van Trump Park. Eagle Peak is 
the usual first tryout hike for those who 
plan to climb the mountain, and no better 
beginning in real mountaineering could 
be desired. Its altitude is 5,955 feet, or 
about 3,200 feet higher than Longmire. 

On the downward way the same 
places are met with in reverse order, 
forming new views, as if on another road. 
The distant mountain panorama is im- 
pressive. Go up and down this miracle 
boulevard as often as you may, it is never 
the same. Always the last passing is the 
best. 

The Climb up the Mountain 

The earlier ascents were over the 
Gibraltar Trail from Paradise Valley, 
the route commonly taken. The trip 
is made many times each season, and 
with the regular guides no difficulties 
should be encountered. Climbers leave 
Paradise in the afternoon, and spend the 
night at Camp Muir, under Gibraltar, 
which point must needs be reached be- 
fore the morning sun starts to melt the 
snow for the climb can be made only 
while the snow slopes are still frozen. 

A welcome place is the shelter hut at 
Camp Muir. It affords desired safety 
and comfort, enabling climbers to remain 
over night or out-stay an unlocked for 
storm before continuing the upward hike. 
More people go as far as this vantage 
station than formerly, owing to the Muir 
Cabin, which is a stimulus to outdoor 
enthusiasts to place their names on the 
honor roll of those who have attained 
the summit. 

Now that the west side trail is 
connected with the north side trail, 
alert mountaineers, who prefer real 
camping, ascend from Glacier Basin 
(elevation 5,900 feet), on The Wedge. 
From here the trail swings around the 



the 





end of the Interglacier, before crossing 
almost its full length to Camp Curtis. 
This was the August, 1915, route of The 
Mountaineers, when fifty-seven persons, 
of whom twenty-one were women, 
signed the roster of the record cylinder 
on the summit, which was deposited in 
the crater rim under Columbia Crest. 
The climb is along the border of Emmons 
Glacier, near where it separates from 
Winthrop Glacier. The Mountaineei 
made the ascent from Camp Curtis 
Columbia Crest in nine hours and foi 
minutes, each climber arriving in 
condition. 

Once on the summit, the point 
reached where one looks down on the 
land in all directions the country 
the vast silence, where there are 
echoes, and where the winds 
suddenly and fiercely. 

Have you ever journeyed thus to 
these great Temples of Silence? Have 
you ever reached the top of the very 
last spire of a mountain summit ai 
gazed at the panorama of the 
below, where the rivers look like sib 
threads on soft blue velvet? 

If you have, you can remember 
feeling of awe with which you gazed 
the vastness below you. Then cai 
the overwhelming desire to shout, 
break the surrounding silence; and y< 
did yell lustily, only to find that in tl 
altitude the voice reached no fartl 
than the lips. There was nothing 
fling back the echo. 

The sun slides down the western si 
and the far mountain peaks grow pink, 
then flame, then glow like jewels in the 
flashing colors of an opal's heart. The 
blue shadows begin to steal upwarc 
pushing away the warm reds and pinl 
and covering the world with a bh 
black velvet mantle that grows blacl 
and more black, until only the hi 
flung peaks show white and cold 
it, and the waters of the Sound gleam 
across the blackness, reflecting still the 
faint pink of the sky. 

The descent is begun among the gath- 
ering shadows that mantle the rocks, and 
Paradise Inn is reached in due time. 

The downward journey is not without 
interest. While accomplished more 
easily than the ascent, there is plenty to 
see and to do. 



P a &e> eight 




i! 



-o ' 



Jlf 



Page nine 




Interior of Clubroom. National Park Inn 



The Origin of This Mountain Playground 

Puget Sound history begins in May, 1 792, 
with Captain George Vancouver, of the Royal 
British Navy, surveying these waters. His 
journal tells of "a very remarkable, high, round 
mountain apparently at the southern extremity 
of the distant range of snowy mountains, which, 
after my friend Rear Admiral Rainier, I dis- 
tinguished by the name of Mount Rainier." 

Probably the first suggestion that the mountain 
and its surrounding forests be set apart as a 
National Park was made in 1883, by James 
Bryce, afterward British Ambassador to Wash- 
ington. He, with Baron Von Bunsen and others, 
on their visit to this region for the celebration of 
the first north Pacific railroad, wrote a memorial 
to Henry Villard, recommending and urging a 
congressional enactment to that end. The agi- 
tation continued, and in 1899 Congress was in- 
duced to withdraw a tract eighteen miles square 
(207,360 acres) from the Pacific Coast Forest 
Reserve as a public park for the benefit of the 
people. 

So far as known, the first to enter within the 
boundaries of Mount Rainier National Park was 
Dr. William Fraser Tolmie. the botanist of the 
Hudson Bay Company, who, in August, 1833, 
climbed Tolmie Peak in quest of "beautiful 
flowers and superb views." Speaking of the 
mountain, he notes in his journal, "a few small 
glaciers were seen on the conical portion," which 
is believed to be the earliest mention of glaciers 
in the United States. Naturally, those ice 
streams appeared small from a distance of ten 
miles. 

The next approach was by Lieutenant (after- 
ward General) A. V. Kautz, in 1857, who had a 




passion for mountaineering, and how high he 
climbed never will be known. "We are not 
likely," he wrote, "to have any competitors in 
this attempt to explore the summit of Mount 
Rainier. When the locomotive is heard in this 
region some day, when American enterprise has 
established an ice cream saloon at the foot of 
the glaciers, and sherry cobblers can be had at 
twenty-five cents half up the mountain, at- 
tempts to climb that magnificent snow peak 
will be quite frequent. But many a long 
will pass before the roads are sufficiently g 
to induce anyone to do what we did in the su 
mer of 1857." This was no vain boasting. 

The third conquest of the mountain was 
August, 1870, when General Hazard Stev 
and Philander Beecher Van Trump named Peak 
Success and were the first to spend a night 
under the shelter of the crater. 

James Longmire blazed a trail to his ranch 
1884, which later was extended to Paradii 
The first women in these elysian meadows 
credited with this apt christening. In amaze 
the wealth of flowers they exclaimed. "What 
Paradise!" 

The medicinal properties of the springs 
won renown, and the trail was widened to a 
roadway, the first in the Park. This ranch and 
some mining claims were located before the 
National Forest and Park were created. The 
Longmire road, rough as it was, remained the 
best approach until 1906, when work was begun 
on the Government boulevard. This boulevard 
was constructed under direction of the War De- 
partment and was opened for travel to Paradise 
Valley in 1910. but automobiles were not allowed 
above Nisqually Glacier prior to 1915. 



ten 



Most of the trails follow the road surveys. 
Not till the 1915 season were the different trails 
connected so that the entire circuit could be 
made. This betterment was hastened at the 
solicitation of The Mountaineers an incor- 
porated organization of hikers who hold the 
distinction of being the first to encircle the moun- 
tain by the Government trails. This outing was 
participated in by one hundred and five men 
and women, who enjoyed a three weeks' knap- 
sack trip, traveling well above timber line, 
crossing glaciers and descending into the parks 
to camp at night. The summit ascent was 
achieved by fifty-seven, of whom twenty-one 
were women. In the story of the Park this record 
marks an important mile post. 

Towering Peaks and Massive Glaciers 

Columbia Crest, 14,408 feet elevation, is near 
the center of the old crater rim. This summit 
dome measures from one to more than two miles 
across. Liberty Cap, 14,112 feet, on the north, 
Peak Success, 14,150 feet, on the southwest, 
Gibraltar Rock, 12,679 feet, on the southeast, 
with a few nameless, rugged remnants, are all 
that remain of this barrier. Because of the low 
temperatures prevailing at this high altitude, the 
drifting snows around the crown never melt, and 
no ice is formed about the summit. 

About four thousand feet below the summit, the 
snows collect in great hollows called cirques, from 
which emerge the glaciers. In these cirques the 
snow is hundreds, sometimes thousands of feet 
deep. Weight freezes it first into coarse granules; 
then it is known as neve: after it begins to move, 
pressure turns the neve into solid blue ice. Six 
primary glaciers head near the summit. These 
are the Nisqually, the Ingraham branch of the 
Cowlitz, the Emmons, the Winthrop, the Ta- 



homa and the Kautz." The Nisqually and the 
Cowlitz glaciers and rivers recall two of the 
prominent Indian tribes. The Ingraham, named 
for Major E. S. Ingraham, and the Emmons, 
named after Samuel F. Emmons. geologist and 
mountaineer, are the largest, each measuring six 
miles in length. The Emmons covers eight square 
miles of ground and makes a continuous descent 
from the summit to the base, the crater rim 
having almost completely broken down under 
its heavy snow cascades. Winthrop Glacier, 
named for Theodore Winthrop, the travel writer, 
is distinguished by its ice cascades and domes. 

The Carbon, a great ice river on the north 
side, over five miles long and one and a half 
miles wide, is the third glacier in point of size, 
heading in a walled-in amphitheater, set low in 
the mountain's flank. This amphitheater is 
technically known as a glacial cirque a horse- 
shoe-shaped basin hollowed out by the ice from 
a deep gash in the volcano's side. 1 1 is the largest 
of all these ice-sculptured cirques. An ice cave 
usually forms at the point of exit of the Carbon 
River. Other cirque glaciers are North Mowich 
and South Mowich named by the Indians for 
the Mowich, or "deer," carved high on the rock 
where all may see also Puyallup and South 
Tahoma. 

Next come the interglaciers, which spread over 
the backs of wedges or lava platforms and 
generally are of considerable size. Occupying the 
irregular platform of The Wedge behind Little 
Tahoma the highest outstanding eminence on 
the flanks of the mountain, 11,117 feet and 
separating Ingraham from Emmons Glacier, is 
Fryingpan Glacier, the largest in this class, 
covering fully three square miles. Below, on the 
north, lies Summerland, a region of flower-dotted 
meadows drained by streams that feed Fryingpan 




Broken ice fields of Nisqually Glacier, which is the source of the rushing Nisqually River and one of the six primary 

glaciers which start at Columbia Crest 



Page eleven 







On the summit of Mount Rainier are three peaks Columbia Crest. Liberty Cap and Peak Success. Thi* * 
Page twelve 








S c e , 8 f rom Ricksecker Point. A thousand feet below this point flows the turbulent Nisqually River 

Page thirteen 



Creek. Whitman, Paradise, Russell, Edmunds, 
Pyramid, Van Trump, Stevens, Williwakas, and 
Ohanapecosh are other notable interglaciers. 

Not to be overlooked is the original Interglacier, 
so called by Major Ingraham and distinguished 
by supplying the generic name for such ice fields, 
lying on the back of The Wedge behind Steam- 
boat Prow, which parts Emmons from Winthrop 
Glacier. Van Trump and Stevens glaciers per- 
petuate the names of P. B. Van Trump and 
Hazard Stevens, who made the first successful 
ascent in 1870. After waving the Stars and 
Stripes from the top of the south peak they 
christened that toweringsummit"Peak Success." 

Finally, there are minor detached ice bodies, 
each covering a square mile or more of ground, 
mostly unnamed, and smaller ones which, in other 
localities, would be considered of consequence. 

All told, this ice-snow region, in the form of a 
truncated cone, has a total glacial area of nearly 
fifty square miles, from fifty to five hundred feet 
in depth. It is the largest accessible single-peak 
glacier system. 

Paradise Glacier 
A Field for Alpine Sports 

As Paradise Glacier is the ice field easiest 
reached, this shortened account of some of its 
features, taken from "Mount Rainier and Its 
Glaciers," by F. E. Matthews, of the United 
States Geological Survey, cannot fail to interest. 

"The generally smooth and united surface of 
the Paradise Glacier contributes not a little to 
its attractiveness as a field for Alpine sports. 
The long slopes are particularly inviting for 
the delightful 'glissades' which they afford. 
Sitting down on the hard snow at the head of 
such a slope one may indulge in an exhilarating 
glide of amazing swiftness, landing at last safely 
on the level snows beneath. 

"One may roam at will without encountering a 
single dangerous fissure. This general absence of 
crevices is accounted for largely by the evenness 
of the glacier's bed and by its hollow shape, owing 
to which the snows on all sides press inward and 
compact the mass in the center. In the early part 
of summer, it has the appearance of a vast un- 
broken snow field, blazing immaculate in the 
sun. But later, as the fresh snows melt away from 
its surface, grayish patches of old crystalline ice 
develop in places. Day by day these patches 
expand until, by the end of August, most of the 
lower ice field has been stripped of its brilliant 
mantle. Its countenance, once bright and serene, 
now assumes a grim expression and becomes 
criss-crossed by a thousand seams, like the visage 
of an aged man. 

"Over this roughened surface trickle countless 
tiny rills which, uniting, form swift rivulets and 
torrents, indeed veritable river systems on a 
miniature scale, that testify with eloquence to 
the rapidity with which the sun consumes the 
snow. 

"Strangely capricious in course are these 
streamlets, for while in the main gravitating 
with the glacier's slope, they are ever likely to be 
caught and deflected by the numerous seams in 
the ice. But, as the lowering sun withdraws its 
heat, the melting gradually comes to a halt, and 
the little streams cease to flow. The soft babbling 



and gurgling and the often exquisitely melodious 
tinkle of dripping water in hidden glacial wells 
are hushed, and the silent frost proceeds to choke 
up passage and channels, so that next day's 
waters have to seek new avenues." 

Nature's Luxuriant Flower Garden 

Any account of Mount Rainier National Pa 
would miss its loveliest feature without more th 
a passing word of the wild flowers massed 
benches and slopes, often reaching high up al 
the edges of the glaciers, springing to life as t 
ice melts, wherever there is any soil. 

Paradise Valley, Van Trump Park, Indi 
Henry's Hunting Ground, St. Andrews Par 
Summerland, and Spray Park in midsummer 
carpeted in marvelous blooms. 

Let John Muir, the celebrated naturalist, 
describe them: "Above the forests there is a 
zone of the loveliest flowers, fifty miles in circ 
and nearly two miles wide, so closely plan 
and so luxurious that it seems as if Nature, gla 
to make an open space between woods so dense 
and ice so deep, was economizing the precious 
ground and trying to see how many of her dar- 
lings she can get together in one mountai 
wreath daisies, anemones, columbine, eryth 
niums, larkspurs, and others, among which 
wade waist-deep the bright corollas in myriads 
touching petal to petal. Altogether this is the 
richest sub-Alpine garden I have ever found, 
perfect flower elysium." 



s a 
:uit 

i:3 



= 



Building Mount Rainier 

The life history of the mountain has been 
varied one. Like all volcanoes it has built up it 
cone with the materials ejected by its o\ 
eruptions cinders, bombs and flows of liqi 
lava that have solidified into layers of 
basaltic rock. At Nisqually Glacier these volcai 
rocks are seen to overlie the granite foundatk 
Once a symmetrical cone and still quite youi 
as mountain history goes, it bears on its flai 
deep scars of never-ending conflict between 
forces of Nature. For centuries the grindii 
glaciers have been working to level the immense 
mass of lava and ash piled up in recent geological 
time. They have accomplished only a small 
of their task. 

Professor Edwin J. Saunders, of the Chair 
Geology, University of Washington, tells 
"The building of the mountain probably 
tended over many thousands of years. Numer 
eruptions gradually built up around the crater 
immense cone composed of many cubic miles 
lava. Explosive eruptions gave rise to huj 
volumes of ash, lapilli, bombs, pumice, and the 
porous lavas one sees scattered for miles around 
the crater. Quiet flows of lava radiating from the 
crater served to bind together the loose materials 
by bands and layers of solid lava rock. One can 
almost imagine the rock just cooled from the 
molten state, the slaggy. scoriaceous surface 
representing the foaming surface of the lava 
streams. Different types, as if from different 
sources, are found about the slopes, and various 
colors, due to difference in Nature and weathering, 
break the otherwise monotonous appearance of 
the lava surface. The exact limits of these flows 
have not been carefully worked out, but the 



Page fourteen 



I .a 




Page fifteen 



PEAK Succe 



/$J5OO FEET ORIG/HAL. HE:/ GMT or CONE. 

CREST ELEVATION I4408FEET 




EL.CVA TipN8OOOFt 
INDIAN 



Cross section to natural scale from Indian Henry's Hunting Ground through Success Cleaver, 
Columbia Crest and the cleaver between Winthrop Glacier and Carbon Glacier to Moraine 
Park. The dotted line indicates the original height before the explosion or eruptions ending in 
the decapitation which shaped Mount Rainier as it appears to day. 



diameter of the cone at its base is about twenty 
miles. The inter-bedded lavas and loose ash 
materials are well shown in the eroded walls of 
The Wedge, Cathedral Rocks, Willis Wall, 
Gibraltar, or any of the various remnants about 
the surface of the glaciers. 

"The angle at which these strata appear in the 
different exposures, indicates a cone at one time 
several thousand feet higher that the present 
summit, and much more symmetrical. This is 
shown very nicely in a cross section of the 
mountain through the Success Cleaver, and the 
cleaver below Willis Wall. 

"After the cone was built and the crater 
probably plugged up by cool, solid lava, it looks 
as if a violent eruption had blown 2,000 to 3,000 
feet off the top, and left an immense crater, or 
platform, about three miles in diameter. Rem- 
nants of the old crater and slopes are seen in 
Peak Success, Liberty Cap, and Gibraltar. 

"Later eruptions then built on this platform 
two small craters, the first about 1,000 feet in 
diameter, the rim of which has been partially 
broken down, the most recent about 1 ,500 feet 
in diameter, and still perfect. The rim of the 
latter shows the snow which now almost fills it. 
Steam and gas are issuing from crevices in the 
floor and about the walls of this recent crater. 
The heat is sufficient to melt large caverns in the 



snow cap, thus furnishing a welcome protectu 
from the strong cold winds for belated moui 
taineers who stay overnight at the summit. 

Miles of Mountain Trails, Through 
Natural Parks and Upland Meadows 

In recent years the trails have been extei 
and new trails opened each season. The trai 
system within the Park has now a length ex- 
ceeding 1 50 miles. The mountain is encircled by 
main trail, with side trails branching off to plac 
of chief moment. The Park Superintendent 
reports: "By making camp each night at certaii 
designated points in the natural parks and uj 
land meadows, one can travel on foot by tl 
shortest route between camps, keeping abo> 
timber line, and obtain magnificent views of th< 
mountain and surrounding country from al 
angles, affording one of the most interestir 
scenic trips in all the world. The swing aroui 
the grand circle can be made in seven days 
averaging twenty miles a day. A month coul( 
well be set apart for this never-to-be-forgott< 
happiness." 

Camping is in high favor among outdoor er 
thusiasts and each year more of them plan 
vacations with this end in view. Each seas 
by the building of new trails and lengthenii 
the old, more marvels are made accessible. 




On the Indian Henry Trail one of the favorite trails which forms the 150 miles of the Park trail system 
Pago sixteen 






KM? 



'A V., 



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**'" <* 



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1 s * 



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Page leventeen 



ill 



Dining Room, Paradise Inn 



Paradise Inn 



Of rustic construction appropriate to the envi- 
ronment, equipped with every modern conven- 
ience, heated and lighted by electricity from its 
own plant, this Paradise Inn admirably fills all 
wants. For the many who prefer to sleep in the 
open, there are tents of approved and convenient 
type, electrically lighted and heated and adequate- 
ly furnished. A cordial welcome permeates the 
homelike lounging room and the spacious dining 
room, where good meals, well served, attract 
the hungry whose appetites have been sharpened 
by the mountain air. 



Paradise Camp 

Near the Inn, to the west, is the new Paradise 
Camp, for the accommodation of those who like a 
closer approach to actual camping conditions 
than is. found in the luxurious hotel rooms and 
bungalow tents. Commodious canvas wall tents 
serve as sleeping quarters, and meals may be had 
at the lunch pavilion. Those who think their 
camping experience is not complete unless they 
do their own cooking, may purchase groceries 
at the pavilion and practice the culinary art over 
large, open-air fires. All needed accessories may 
be rented at moderate charges. 



Accommodations in the Park 

Most of the transportation, hotel, camp and 
other concessions are under the control of the 
Rainier National Park Company. Transportation 
and hotel rates, and all prices for those under 
such control, are regulated by the Department 
of the Interior, which has charge of all the 
national parks, and are not higher than prevail 



Page eighteen 






3t or in 
xeeded. 
here is 
il side- 



at summer resorts generally. All hotels 
operated on the American plan, which includes 
room and meals by the day. The rates are $4.25 
to $5.00 a day for tent rooms, and $5.00 to $8.00 
for hotel rooms, the higher prices being for rooms 
with bath. 

Guides, horses, and outfits are furnished by 
the Rainier National Park Company to those 
desiring to take short or long trail outings. 
From Longmire Springs and Paradise Valley are 
numerous enticing day outings, and some that 
require but a few hours, made either on foot or in 
saddle. In many instances no guide is ne 
for the trails and by-paths are safe and thei 
no danger of going astray. Favorite trail 
trips out from Longmire Springs and Paradise 
Valley are tabulated on pages 19 and 20, with 
distances and points of interest. Saddle horses 
may be had at Longmire Springs or Paradise 
Valley at $3 . 50 a day. A competent guide and 
horse is furnished without charge for parties of 
five or more. 

There are free public camping grounds at Van 
Trump Park, Longmire Springs and Paradise 
Valley which are growing in favor more each year. 

To describe what is seen along the way on the 
scheduled little journeys within Mount Rainier 
National Park, would easily fill pages. Even 
then the story would not be half told. 

Nowhere on the globe is there such a variety 
of views and such masses of wild flowers. All are 
of one mind with Edward Frank Allen, who 
exclaimed: "Read as much about it as you will, 
see it pictured a thousand times, and believe all 
the tales you hear of it, and on going there you 
will find that it has been underrated." 






Season 


Points of Interest Reached 


The 1919 season of Mount Rainier National 


from Paradise Valley 


Park extends from June 15th to September 15th 




at Longmire Springs, and from July 1st to Sep- 
tember 15th at Paradise Valley. 


Nisqually Glacier.. 


\Y4. W 


^argest glacier on south side 
Mount Rainier. 




Van Trump Glacier 


2HNW 


Small glacier west of Nisqually 


How to Reach the Park 






Glacier. 




Kautz Glacier 


3 W 


Adjacent to and 1.000 feet 


Mount Rainier National Park is connected 






below Van Trump Park. 


by automobile stages of the Rainier National 


KautzPeak 


5HN 


Good view. 


Park Company with Ashford, Wash., a railroad 


Kautz Box Canyon 


3HNW 


Upper end of canyon near 


station fifty-five miles from Tacoma, ninety- 






Kautz Glacier. 


three miles from Seattle and six miles from the 


Bench Lake 


I^SE 


On lower bench overlooking 








Stevens Canyon. 


Pzirlc entrance. 










Pinnacle Peak. . . . 


25* SE 


SharpPeakonTatoosh Range. 


During summer season, round-trip excursion 
tickets at reduced fares are sold at practically 
all stations in the United States to Tacoma and 


Stevens Peak 
Unicorn Peak 


3HSE 
4JiSE 


AteastendofTatoosh Range. 

hlighest peak on Tatoosh 
Range. 


Seattle as destinations. Passengers holding 


Ice Caves 


IH NE 


At lower end Paradise Glacier; 


through excursion tickets to other destinations 






largest ice caves in Park. 


will find stop-over privileges available. From 


Paradise Glacier. . . 


IH NE 


Source of Paradise River. 


many stations in the Northwest, excursion 


Stevens Glacier. . . 


\*A NE 


East lobe of Paradise Glacier. 


tickets are sold through via Ashford to points 








within Mount Rainier National Park. 


Stevens Ice 
Cascades 


2NE 


/Crevassed slope on Stevens 
\ Glacier. 


Fares from Tacoma and Seattle to points 


Stevens Water 






within the Park and return, via railroad to 


Cascades 


2 1 A NE 


At foot of Stevens Glacier. 


Ashford, thence via automobile stages of the 


Stevens Canyon.. . 


2M NE 


Below Stevens Glacier. One 


Rainier National Park Company, are as follows: 






mile long. 1.200 feet deep. 




Fairy Falls 


2% NE 


At head of Stevens Canyon; 


Round-Trip from 






300 feet high. 


Tacoma Seattle 


Cowlitz Glacier. . . 


3NE 


Largest glacier on southeast 


To Longmire Springs $5.55 $ 7.35 






side of mountain. 


To Nisqually Glacier 6.55 8.35 


Cowlitz Peak 


3H NE 


View of surrounding glaciers. 


To Paradise Valley 8.55 10.35 


Cathedral Rocks. . 


3H NE 


Lofty spires on divide north 








of Cowlitz Glacier 




On the Van Trump Trail, from which many excellent views are obtained, and which leads to Van Trump Park, a Hower- 

covered camping spot 



Page- nineteen 



Points of Interest Reached from Longmire Springs 



Ramparts 


\Yl W 


Ridge north of NisquallyRiver. 


Paradise Valley.... 


MHN 


Park at base of Mount Rain 












ier; excellent campin 


Tahoma Glacier . . . 


71^ 


Clear ice glacier from which 






ground; elevation 5.00C 






flows Tahoma Fork of 






reached by auto. 






Nisqually River. 














Carter Falls 


31^ NE 


On Paradise River. 


Christine Falls .... 


4}^ N 


On auto road to Paradise Park. 








Comet Falls 
Marie Falls 


6N 

5 N 


On Van Trump trail. 
On road to Paradise Park. 


Narada Falls 


(Trail 
|4|f NE 
Road 
Olx: Nip 


Principal falls on Paradis 
River, with sheer drop c 
150 feet; elevation 4.572 


Glacier 


5 N 


Near bridge crossing Nisqually 
River on Government road. 




(7/2 INC. 

[Road 
I3NE 


High fall of Paradise Rive 




Ricksecker Point. 


6* N 


Lofty point of road to Para- 




Trail 

(dii NE 


| at head of Paradise Vallej 

I 






dise Park; elevation 4.221. 








Paradise River and 
Canyon 


9N 


600 feet below auto road. 


Pyramid Peak 


8 N 


Highest peak in India 
Henry's Hunting Grounc 




Road 








easy to ascend; elevatio 
6.940. 


Ruby Falls 


9% NE 










Washington 
Torrents 


Trail 
5 NE 

(Road 
10 NE 
Trail 


Upper cascades of Paradise 
River a short distance 
below Paradise Valley. 


Mirror Lake 
Eagle Peak 


TYz N 
3H E 


Reflects Mount Rainier. 

At west end of Tatoosh Range 
good trail leads to ope 
parks short distance below 


Second Crossing 


5MNE 








elevation 5.961. 


Paradise River. 






Kautz River 


2% N 


Fast flowing river from Kaut 


Washington 










r^i i# 


Torrents 


10 N 


View of Paradise River; 








Third Crossing 
Paradise River. 
Ruby Falls 




Washington Torrents in 
foreground. 

View of river and Ruby Falls. 


Mount Ararat 


6% N 


High hill in Indian Henry 
Hunting Ground; petrifie 
wood found here. 


Inspiration Point. . 
Horseshoe Bend. . . 


10* N 

9M N 


First view of Paradise Valley. 

High trestle overlooking Nar- 
ada Falls. 


Iron Mountain. . . . 
Crystal Mountain 


6M N 


Twin mountains in India 
Henry's Hunting Grounc 
crystal ledges on CrysU 
Mountain. 


Paradise Inn 


14 N 


Hotel and camp located on 
Theosophy Ridge. Paradise 
Valley; Elevation 5.558. 

_ ' 


Reflection Lakes.. . 


I^SW 


On bench north of Pinnae] 
Peak. Tatoosh Range. 

==^ = =^= 



U. S. Government Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents. Govern- 
ment Printing office, Washington, D. C., at prices 
given. Remittances should be by money order 
or in cash. 
Mount Rainier and Its Glaciers, by F. E. Matthes. 48 

pages. 25 illustrations. 15 cents. 
Features of the Flora of Mount Rainier National Park, by 

J. B. Flett. 48 pages. 40 illustrations. 25 cents. 
Forests of Mount Rainier National Park, by G. F. Allen. 

32 pages. 27 illustrations. 20 cents. 
Panoramic View of Mount Rainier National Park. 19 x 20 

inches. 25 cents. 
National Parks Portfolio, by Robert Sterling Yard. 260 

pages. 270 illustrations, descriptive of nine National 

Parks. Pamphlet edition. 35 cents; book edition. 55 

cents. 

The following may be obtained from the 
director of the United States Geological Survey, 
Washington. D. C.. at price given: 
Map of Mount Rainier National Park. 22 x 23 inches. 10 

cents. 

The following publications may be obtained 
free on written application to the director of the 
National Park Service, Washington, D. C., or by 
personal application to the office of the superin- 
tendent at the entrance to the Park: 



Circular of general information regarding Mount Rair 

National Park. 

Glimpses of our National Parks. 48 pages, illustrated. 
Map showing location of National Parks and Natioi 

Monuments and railroad routes thereto. 

U. S. R. R. Administration Publications 

The following publications may be obtain< 
free on application to any Consolidated Tick* 
Office; or apply to the Bureau of Service Nations 
Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau 
Western Lines, 646 Transportation Buildii 
Chicago, 111.: 

Arizona and New Mexico Rockies. 

California for the Tourist. 

Colorado and Utah Rockies. 

Crater Lake National Park. Oregon. 

Glacier National Park. Montana. 

Grand Canyon National Park. Arizona. 

Hawaii National Park, Hawaiian Islands. 

Hot Springs National Park. Arkansas. 

Mount Rainier National Park. Washington. 

Northern Lakes Wisconsin. Minnesota. Upper Micf 

Iowa and Illinois. 
Mesa Verde National Park. Colorado. 
Pacific Northwest and Alaska. 

Petrified Forest National Monument. Arizona. 
Rocky Mountain National Park. Colorado. 
Sequoia and General Grant National Parks. California. 
Yellowstone National Park. Wyoming. Montana. Idaho. 
Yosemite National Park. California. 
/.ion National Monument. Utah. 



Page twenty 




P a & e twenty-one 



TO\ENUMCLA W 
R\R. STA. 



TO FAIRFAX 
/?. K. STA. 



, 



ARADi 

ARADISE CAMP 

RADISE VALLEY 



Ohanapecos 
Hot Spring 



SEATTLE ftR.STAS. 



MOUNT RAINIER 
NATIONAL PARK 

WASHINGTON 

Scale 



NATION 
Asbford PARK 




Page twenty-two 






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B* 



THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 



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Tort WortH 



*-ta o 



The National Parks at a glance 

United States Rai Iroad Administration 

Director General of Railroads 

For particulars as to fares, train schedules, etc., apply to any Railroad Ticket Agent, or to any 
of the following Consolidated Ticket Offices: 

West 



Austin. Tex 215 Congress Ave. 
Beaumont. Tex. .Orleans and Pearl Sts. 
Bremerton. Wash 224 Front St. 
Butte. Mont 2 N. Main St. 
Chicago. Ill 179 W. Jackson St. 
Colorado Springs, Colo. 
119 E. Pike's Peak Ave. 
Dallas. Tex 112-114 Field St 
Denver. Colo 60 1 1 7th St 


Lincoln. Neb 104 N. 13th St. 
Little Rock. Ark 202 W 2d St. 
Long Beach, Cal.. . .L. A. &S. L. Station 
Los Angeles, Cal. ... 221 S. Broadway 
Milwaukee. Wis 99 Wisconsin St. 
Minneapolis, Minn. .202 Sixth St. South 
Oakland. Cal. ..13th St. and Broadway 
Ocean Park. Cal ... Pacific Elec. Depot 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 
131 W. Grand Ave. 
Omaha, Neb 1416 Dodge St. 
Peoria. Ill . . .Jefferson and Liberty Sts. 
Phoenix, Ariz. 
Adams St. and Central Ave. 
Portland, Ore. .3d and Washington Sts. 
Pueblo. Colo 401-3 N. Union Ave. 
St. Joseph. Mo 505 Francis St. 
St. Louis. Mo. . . 318-328 N. Broadway 

East 

Detroit. Mich ... 13 W. LaFayette Ave. 
Evansville, Ind. . . L. & N. R. R. Bldg 
Grand Rapids. Mich 125 Pearl St. 
Indianapolis, Ind..l 12-14 English Block 
Montreal, Que 238 St. James St. 
Newark. N. J .Clinton and Beaver Sts 
New York. N. Y 64 Broadway 
New York. N. Y 57 Chambers St. 
New York. N. Y 31 W. 32d St. 

South 

Knoxville, Tenn 600 Gay St. 


St. Paul, Minn. . .4th and Jackson Sts 
Sacramento. Cal 801 K St' 


Salt Lake City. Utah 
Main and S. Temple Sts. 
San Antonio, Texas 
315-17 N. St. Mary's St. 
San Diego. Cal 300 Broadway 
San Francisco. Cal 50 Post St. 
San Jose. Cal., 1st and San Fernando Sts. 
Seattle. Wash 714-16 2d Ave. 
Shreveport. La. .Milam and Market Sts. 
Sioux City Iowa 5 10 4th St 


Des Moines. Iowa 403 Walnut St. 
Duluth, Minn 334 W. Superior St. 
El Paso. Tex .... Mills and Oregon Sts. 
Ft. Worth. Tex 702 Houston St. 
Fresno. Cal J and Fresno Sts. 
Galveston. Tex. .21st and Market Sts. 
Helena. Mont 58 S. Main St. 
Houston. Tex 904 Texas Ave. 
Kansas City. Mo. 
Ry. Ex. Bldg.. 7th and Walnut Sts. 

Annapolis, Md 54 Maryland Ave. 
Atlantic City. N. J. ..1301 Pacific Ave. 
Baltimore. Md . . . B. & O. R. R. Bldg 
Boston, Mass 67 Franklin St. 
Brooklyn. N. Y 336 Fulton St. 
Buffalo. N. Y .Main and Division Sts. 
Cincinnati. Ohio. . .6th and Main Sts. 
Cleveland. Ohio. . ..1004 Prospect Ave. 
Columbus, Ohio 70 East Gay St. 
Dayton, Ohio 19 S Ludlow St. 


Spokane. Wash. 
Davenport Hotel. 815 Sprague Ave. 
Tacoma. Wash .... 1 1 1 7- 1 9 Pacific Ave. 
Waco. Texas. . . .6th and Franklin Sts. 
Whittier. Cal. . . .L. A. & S. L. Station 
Winnipeg. Man 226 Portage Ave. 

New York. N. Y II4W. 42d St. 
Philadelphia. Pa. . ..1539 Chestnut St. 
Pittsburgh, Pa Arcade Building 
Reading, Pa 16 N. Fifth St. 


Rochester, N. Y 20 State St. 
Syracuse, N. Y 355 S. Warren St. 
Toledo, Ohio 320 Madison Ave. 
Washington. D. C. . . 1229 F St. N. W. 
Williamsport. Pa. ... 4th and Pine Sts. 
Wilmington Del 905 Market St 


Asheville, N. C 14 S. Polk Square 
Atlanta. Ga 74 Peachtree St. 
Augusta. Ga 81 1 Broad St. 
Birmingham, Ala 2010 1st Ave. 
Charleston. S. C Charleston Hotel 
Charlotte, N. C 22 S. Tryon St. 
Chattanooga. Tenn 817 Market St. 
Columbia. S. C Arcade Building 
Jacksonville. Fla 38 W. Bay St. 


Paducah Ky 430 Broadway 


Pensacola. Fla San Carlos Hotel 
Raleigh. N C 305 LaFayette St. 
Richmond. Va 830 E. Main St. 
Savannah. Ga 37 Bull St. 


Louisville, Ky. . . .4th and Market Sts. 
Lynchburg, Va 722 Main St. 
Memphis. Tenn 60 N. Main St. 
Mobile. Ala 51 S. Royal St. 
Montgomery, Ala Exchange Hotel 
Nashville, Tenn . . I ndependen t Life Bldg . 
New Orleans, La. . . .St. Charles Hotel 
Norfolk. Va Monticello Hotel 


Sheffield Ala Sheffield Hotel 


Tamoa. Fla Hillaboro Hotel 
Vicksburg. Miss. .1319 Washington St. 
Winston-Salem. N. C. .236 N. Main St. 



For detailed information regarding National Parks and Monuments address Bureau of Service, 
National Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau Western Lines, 646 Transportation Bldg., Chicago 



POOLE BROS.. CHICAGO 



Season 1919 



Page twenty-three 










Narad* Fall*, in the Paradise River Canyon beautiful fall* framed by overhanging ti 






PETRIFIED FOREST 

National Monument 



I X. O 



\ 






\ 




UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION Mil 



m 

nwS 



N AT I O N A 



K. 'SERIES 




Page two 



Thousands of acres and millions of tons 



An Appreciation of 

The Petrified Forest of Arizona 

By CHAS. F. LUMMIS 

Author of "Some Strange Corners of Our Country," "The Land of Poco Tiempo," 
"Pueblo Indian Folk Stories," etc. 



Written hspccially for the United States Railroad Administration 




"Full fathom five thy father lies; 
Of his bones are coral made; 
Those are pearls that were his eyes; 

Nothing of him that doth fade, 
But doth suffer a sea-change 
Into something rich and strange." 

The Tempest. 

SEQUOIA in California is the oldest creature alive. It 
had measured a millennium when Christ walked the earth. 
But "that's no time at all." Ten thousand ages before 
the cedars bloomed on Lebanon, away out here in the 
Wonderland of our own Southwest, the 
"Wind, that grand old harper, smote 
His thunder-harp of pines" 

identical pines that are with us to this day. Not, indeed, as they 
were in that incalculable Past for they have Put on Immortality, 
and are this side of Resurrection. They lived their green millenniums, 
and were laid to bed under the coverlet of a continent, to sleep ten 
times as long as Parasite Man has crawled upon this globe. And 
since, for as many aeons, the tireless moths of Erosion have been gnaw- 
ing away their league-thick blankets, till at last they are bared again 
to the Arizona sun the most imperishable of earthly things, and of 
fadeless beauty; a "Forest" in Glorified Stone, its very bark and 
"rings" immortalized in agate. 

Not as that classic Munchausen of the Grand Canyon, Cap'n John 
Hance, loved to tell. "A forest of petrified trees, with petrified birds 
flying through petrified air, singing petrified songs"- but prostrate and 
unmurmuring trunks upon a stark desert bed. 

How great was once this grove of giant conifers and willow-kind, 
no man will ever know nor how much is still buried, where ancient 
lava flows have pinned its sedimentary blankets down. Some 400,000 
acres of it are uncovered in extent and beauty the noblest petrified 
forest in the world. Only the diamond is harder than its "wood;" 
only the opal so rainbowed. Some cosmic cataclysm mowed it down, 
orderly and at a scythe-swing. Not cyclone nor freshet Noah's flood 
turned against it could not have felled it so fair. It is no tangle of 
windfall or flotsam. Swath by swath it fell, its lofty tops generally 
to the south. Perhaps a far vaster earthquake than later split the 
Mogollon plateau to the beginnings of the Grand Canyon was the agent. 

Page three 



Anyhow, before it could decay, the prostrate forest was submerged 
beneath some gentle sea, whose boiling mineral springs and slow- 
building sediments "pickled" it forever, under the inconceivable 
pressure of two vertical miles of strata even as we pygmies today 
creosote piles and railroad ties under the inverse thrust of a vacuum. 
As agate to pine for hardness, as aeons to weeks for duration, as gems 
to mud for beauty so was God's "pickling" to ours. 

As unhurried of the Ages, this submerged half-continent was then 
exalted from three miles below its miracle-working sea to three miles 
above it so evenly that its stratum blankets were hardly rumpled; 
and the patient Weather began its task. Grain by slow grain, the 
sandstones resolved to sand again, and found their way to be laid 
down under later seas to form some future continent. Upon these 
one-time tropics had crept the Age of Ice; and crept back toward the 
Pole: and had been forgotten. As dwindling snow lets down a twig 
imperceptibly, so when their stone coverlet "9000 ft. thick on the 
average" (Drake), had melted to Erosion, the great fossil logs sank 
with their sinking shales and clays. They are still a mile above the 
sea. In their subsidence they have broken their backbones squarely, 
almost into vertebrae ; few sections are 20 feet long though some trees 
were once 240 feet tall (and still so measure upon the ground) and nine 
feet diameter. A 150-foot log, the "petrified bridge," spans a ravine 
between rock piers. The glittering "chips," like fossil butterflies, pave 
hundreds of square miles, and were "the first money in America." 
Ages before Columbus, these chips of agate and chalcedony were 
prized by the First Americans to make the best arrowheads and 
"knives" that primitive man ever fashioned. Prehistoric Indian 
pueblos, whose ruins we explore today on surviving cliffs 500 feet 
above, controlled this aboriginal "hardware shop," and bartered its 
bright spalls a thousand miles either way, for the guacamayo plumes 
of Yucatan to the bison hides of the Plains, and the shells of the 
California Gulf. 

> In our own day we have sometimes sawed these logs (with the only 
harder substance, diamond-dust) into 36-inch table-tops, at $2500 
each ; but it is too costly to polish commercially. One company tried 
grinding it for emery. Hundreds of these "gem" logs have been 
dynamited to get the crystals in hollow cores. I have a piece not 
three inches across; with a quartz heart, and on one side half-inch 
crystals of amethyst, and on the other their mates in smoky topaz. 
But in 1906 the Petrified Forest was made a National Monument and 
saved from the "civilized savage." The railroad traversed it in 1882; 
and it is now easy of access. North is the Black Forest, some of 
whose great stumps still stand erect, their futile roots bedded in the 
wasting clays. The Southwest Museum in Los Angeles has the unique 
terminal bud of one of those giant Sagillarias. South are the Rainbow, 
the Crystal, the Blue and other "forests" of the Forest second only 
to the Grand Canyon as a chief 
wonder of the Southwestern 
Wonderland. 

Page four 




To the American People: 

Uncle Sam asks you to be his guest. He has prepared for you the 
choice places of this continent places of grandeur, beauty and of 
wonder. He has built roads through the deep-cut canyons and beside 
happy streams, which will carry you into these places in comfort, and 
has provided lodgings and food in the most distant and inaccessible 
places that you might enjoy yourself and realize as little as possible 
the rigors of the pioneer traveler's life. These are for you. They are 
the playgrounds of the people. To see them is to make more hearty 
your affection and admiration for America. 



Secretary of the Interior 




Petrified Forest National Monument 




|O subject is of deeper in- 
terest, to educator and casual 
tourist alike, than the history 
of the earth on which we live, 
and the wonders thereof. 
Particularly that portion which we call 
America. 

The earth itself our own land how 
did it first awake? In the descriptions 
that follow you will find a brief account of 
the earth-making process as revealed to 
us by a study of the Petrified Forest of 
Arizona in the light of modern scientific 
research. 

In this wonderful region you will find 
beneath turquoise skies pillars and bridges 
of agate and chalcedony and every road- 
way strewn with gems that might adorn 
the palaces of Golconda or the temples of 
Ormus. 

Long ere the pithecanthropus ex- 
changed his arboreal dwelling for a cave, 
or Noah and his family fled from a bank- 
rupt world even ere Adam was forests 
were growing in Arizona. In the course 
of ages some cosmic catastrophe struck 
them down and over them swept an in- 
land sea, whose sediments subsequently 



buried them a mile or more deep. Dur- 
ing these long geologic periods, the subtle 
alchemy of Nature perfected its trans- 
mutation. Riven and fractured, the 
ancient logs were again brought upward, 
and after years of erosion they were once 
more "living" under the brilliant Arizona 
skies not as they once lived, but in a 
glowing permanent form. They are there 
today, the most brilliant aggregation of 
jewels on the globe. There are agates, 
chalcedony, jasper, onyx and opals not 
by the handful, but by the ton. 

And these beautiful mosaics lie in the 
open air, scattered over thousands of 
acres, on the great Southwestern Plateau, 
with its colorful deserts, its lofty extinct 
volcanoes whose iridescent hues are re- 
born and die each day under the magic of 
the sunlight, with its vast lava fields, its 
fascinating ruins of a prehistoric people 
and its equally interesting pueblos of 
their descendants. 

The building of the railroad first 
brought into prominence this wonderful 
natural phenomena. Many scientists 
visited the region and made reports to 
the authorities in Washington, from time 

Page five 




A natural bridge of agatized wood 



to time. Even as late as 1906, a new 
forest, the North Sigillaria, was dis- 
covered by John Muir, the noted Cali- 
fornia naturalist. 

The following letter was written in 
1899 by the acting Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institute, in response to an 
inquiry: 

"The region in Apache County, Ari- 
zona, known as the 'Petrified Forest,' 
'Chalcedony Park,' and 'Lithodendron 
(stone trees) Valley,' is of great interest 
because of the abundance of its beautiful 
petrified coniferous trees, as well as for 
its scenic features. The trees lie scattered 
about in great profusion, but none stand 
erect in their original place of growth, as 
do many in the Yellowstone National 
Park. The National Museum possesses 
three splendid trunks, collected there at 
the request of General Sherman." 

A good account of this locality by Mr. 
Geo. F. Kunz, is in part as follows: 

"Among the great American wonders 
is the silicified forest known as Chal- 
cedony Park, (now Petrified Forest Na- 
tional Monument), in Apache County, 

Page six 



Arizona. There is every evidence that 
the trees grew beside some inland sea. 
After falling they became water-logged, 
and during decomposition the cell struc- 
ture of the wood was entirely replaced 
by silica from sandstone in the walls 
surrounding this great sea." 

"Over the entire area, trees lie scattered 
in all conceivable positions and in frag- 
ments of all sizes, the broken sections 
sometimes resembling a pile of cart 
wheels. A phenomenon perhaps un- 
paralleled, and the most remarkable fea- 
ture of the park, is a natural bridge, 
formed by a tree of agatized wood 
spanning a canyon 60 feet in width. In 
addition to this span, fully fifty feet of 
the tree rests on one side making a 
visible length of over 100 feet." 

Dr. Walter Hough, of the Smithsonian 
Institute, writes as follows: 

"In the celebrated Petrified Forest, 
Arizona, there are ruins of several 
Indian Villages. These villages are 
small, in some cases have merely a few 
houses, but what gives them peculiar 
interest is that they are built of logs of 



beautiful fossil wood. The prehistoric 
dwellers of the land selected cylinders of 
uniform size, which were seemingly de- 
termined by the carrying strength of a 
man (or several men). It is probable 
that prehistoric builders never chose 
more beautiful stones for their habita- 
tions, than the trunks of these trees 
which flourished ages before man ap- 
peared on earth." 

"This wood agate also furnished ma- 
terial for stone hammers, arrowheads and 
knives, which are often found in ruins 
hundreds of miles from the forest. The 
'wood agate,' or 'wood opal' is now cut 
and polished into floor tiling, mantels, 
clock cases, table tops, etc. The silver 
testimonial to the French sculptor Bar- 
tholdi, made by Tiffany & Co., had for 
its base a section of this wood agate." 

As a result of the scientific investiga- 
tions and reports, the growing interest of 
the public, and to end the depredations 
of vandals, activity in Congress led at 
length to the passage of the Act of June 
8, 1906, entitled "An Act for the Preser- 
vation of American Antiquities," and to 



President Roosevelt's proclamation of 
December 8, 1906, which, under the name 
of The Petrified Forest National Monu- 
ment, placed the forest under the pro- 
tection of the Government for the 
perpetual enjoyment of the people. 
Area, 25,625 acres. 

But let us turn to the detailed descrip- 
tion of one who has made a careful, 
scientific study of the region. 

The following is from the report of 
Prof. Lester F. Ward, Paleontologist, 
U. S. Geological Survey: 

"These Petrified Forests may be prop- 
erly classed among the natural wonders 
of America, and every reasonable effort 
should be made not only to preserve them 
from destructive influences but also to 
make their existence and true character 
known to the people." 

"Some of the most important consider- 
ations that may be urged in favor of the 
importance of this region compared with 
other petrified forests rest upon its 
geological relations. It is much more 
ancient than those of the Yellowstone 
National Park, of certain parts of Wyo- 




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'.J**X** '"' ^^* - f Jf r* -*qgr ^ . 

The plain is cut into innumerable ridges, buttes and mesas 






Page seven 



I 





eijht 



ming, and of the Calistoga deposits in 
California. The difference in their an- 
tiquity is many millions of years. There 
is no other petrified forest in which the 
wood assumes so many varied colors, and 
it is these that present the chief attrac- 
tion for the general public. The state of 
mineralization in which much of this wood 
exists almost places them among the 
gems of precious stones. Not only are 
chalcedony, opals, and agates found 
among them, but many approach the 
condition of jasper and onyx. The 
degree of hardness attained by them is 
such that they are said to make an 
excellent quality of emery." 

"This region consists of the ruins of a 
former plain having an altitude above 
sea level of 5,700 feet. This plain has 
undergone extensive erosion to a maxi- 
mum depth of nearly 700 feet, and is cut 
into innumerable ridges, buttes, and 
small mesas, with valleys, gorges, and 
gulches between. The strata consist of 
alternating beds of clays, sandstone 
shales, and massive sandstones. The 
clays are purple, white and blue, the 



purple predominating, the white and 
blue forming bands of different thickness 
between the others, giving to the cliffs a 
lively and pleasing effect. The sand- 
stones are chiefly of a reddish brown color. 
The mesas are formed by the resistance 
of the massive sandstone layers of 
which there are several at different 
horizons to erosive agencies, and vary 
in size from mere capstones of small 
buttes to tables several miles in extent, 
stretching to the east and to the north- 
west." 

"The petrified logs are countless at all 
horizons and lie in the greatest profusion 
on the knolls, buttes, and spurs, and in 
the ravines and gulches, while the ground 
seems to be everywhere studded with 
gems, consisting of broken fragments of 
all shapes and sizes and exhibiting all 
the colors of the rainbow. When we 
remember that this special area is several 
square miles in extent some idea can be 
formed of the enormous quantity of this 
material that it contains." 

"The petrified logs do not occur in the 
same abundance throughout. They are 




A tree in the Second Forest 



Page nine 



massed or collected together in groups 
or heaps at certain points, and may be 
altogether absent at others. From their 
great abundance in the above described 
section, it must be inferred that the 
stratum which holds them was especially 
rich, and the trunks must have lain in 
heaps upon one another." 

"Perhaps the most prominent of all 
the scenic features of the region is the 
well known Natural Bridge, consisting 
of a great petrified trunk of jasper and 
agate, lying across a canyon 60 feet wide 
and 20 feet deep, and forming a foot- 
bridge over which anyone may easily 
pass. The Natural Bridge, therefore, 
possesses the added interest of being in 
place, which can be said of very few of 
the other petrified logs of this region." 

A Description of the Forests' 
Divisions 

The First Forest, noted for its bright colors, 
is distant about six miles from Adamana (alti- 
tude 5,277 feet). It is easily reached in an hour 
and a half. The journey may be made in a 
leisurely fashion, starting late in the morning 
and returning at dusk, with an hour enroute for 
inspection of the Hieroglyphic Rocks and Aztec 



Ruins, and plenty of time to see the Second 
Forest, too. The chief object of interest is the 
Natural Log Bridge, which is mentioned else- 
where. The Eagle's Nest, Snow Lady and 
Dewey's Cannon are in this locality. 

The Second Forest is two and one-half miles 
due south of the first one, the trip requiring 
thirty minutes each way. It contains about 
two thousand acres. The trees are mostly intact, 
large and many of them highly colored. The 
Twin Sisters are an interesting sight here. 

The Third Forest covers a greater area than 
the others. It lies thirteen miles southwest of 
Adamana and eighteen miles southeast of Hoi- 
brook. There are several hundred whole trees, 
some of them more than two hundred feet long. 
The colors are very striking, comprising every 
tint of the rainbow and therefore the local 
name of Rainbow Forest is very appropriate. 

The Blue Forest (smallest of the five), located 
seven miles east of Adamana, is one of the two 
districts discovered by John Muir. It is noted 
for the blue tints of its trees. 

The North Sigillaria Forest, a new "find", is 
nine miles north from Adamana, and contains 
many finely preserved specimens of the carbon- 
iferous period some of the stumps still standing 
where they grew. It is located on the bottom 
and sides of a shallow canyon, with buttes and 
mesas of different colored clays and rocks. One 
fallen monarch is 147 feet long. A wide view of 
the Painted Desert may be had here and on the 




Petrified tree in a stratum of sandstone 



P a 6 e ten 



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Page eleven 




Scene in Third Forest 
Page twelve 



Huge tree in North Forest 



Overlooking North Forest and 
The Painted Desert 



PETRIFIED FOREST 
NATIONAL MONUMENT 

ARIZONA 

Scale 






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Page thirteen 



way out an Indian ruin is passed. The round 
trip to either of the two last named Forests 
requires about four hours time, though if one is 
in a hurry, all the Forests except the Third may 
be visited by auto in a day's time. 

Only the First, Second and Third Forests are 
included in the Petrified Forest National Monu- 
ment. 

Cost of Trips and Hotel 
Accommodations 

Except the small hotel, railway station and 
store, there are few buildings at Adamana. 
Mr. Wm. Nelson has charge of the hotel and 
livery accommodations. The hotel has sanitary 
plumbing, with hot and cold water. Board and 
lodging may be had at $3.00 per day American 
plan; thirty-five guests can be accommodated; 
in summer, tents also are provided for guests. 

The round- trip fare to the First and Second 
Forests and Natural Bridge is $5.00 for one 
person, $3.00 per capita for two persons, and 
$2.50 per capita for three or more. 

To the Third, Blue or North Sigillaria Forests 
and Painted Desert the fare is same as to the 
First and Second Forests. 

One of the most interesting trips from Adam- 
ana is northeast to Wide Ruins (Kin-Tiel), a 
Navajo trading post, built among the ruins of an 
Aztec village. On the way you pass Pinta, 
Inscription Rock, a bit of the Painted Desert 
and Tanner Springs, a big cattle and sheep 
ranch on the Navajo reservation. It is about 
three hours and a half by auto; $30.00 round 
trip for four persons or less. If desired, this 
trip may be continued farther north through 
the Navajo country. Notice in advance to 
Mr. Wm. Nelson at Adamana, Arizona, owner of 
livery, will insure proper handling of parties. 

Mr. Nelson also equips camping parties for 
the Hopi and Navajo Indian Reservations, and 
for a few days' trip into the Painted Desert. 

Holbrook, the county seat town, has satis- 
factory hotel accommodations, with prices about 
the same as at Adamana. 

The Petrified Forest may be visited any day 
in the year, except when high waters make the 
streams temporarily impassable. 

Stop-Over Arrangements 

Stop-overs are allowed at Adamana, not to 
exceed ten days, on all one-way tickets, also on 
round-trip tickets within their limits. 

Stop-overs are also allowed on Pullman 
tickets. 

To obtain stop-overs on one-way tickets, 
notify train conductor and deposit tickets with 
agent immediately after arrival; on round-trip 
tickets notify train conductor. 



Park Administration 

Petrified Forest National Monument is under 
the jurisdiction of the Director, National Park 
Service, Department of the Interior, Washing- 
ton, D. C. The Monument Custodian is located 
at Adamana, Arizona. 

U. S. Government Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
free on written application to the Director of 
the National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 

Glimpses of our National Parks. 48 pages, 
illustrated. 

Map of National Parks and National Monu- 
ments. Shows location of all the national 
parks and monuments, and railroad routes 
these reservations. 



ned 



The following publication may be obtai 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C., at 
price given. Remittances should be by money 
order or in cash. 



By Robert 
itions. 



The National Parks Portfolio. 

Sterling Yard. 260 pages, 270 illustratic 
Pamphlet edition, 35 cents; book edition, 55 
cents. Contains nine sections, each descriptive 
of national park. 

U. S. R. R. Administration 
Publications 

The following publications may be obtai 
free on application to any consolidated tic! 
office; or apply to the Bureau of Service, Nati< 
Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureai 
Western Lines, 646 Transportation Build) 
Chicago, 111. 

Arizona and New Mexico Rockies 
California for the Tourist 
Colorado and Utah Rockies 
Crater Lake National Park, Oregon 
Glacier National Park, Montana 
Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona 
Hawaii National Park, Hawaiian Islands 
Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas 
Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado 
Mount Rainier National Park, Washington 
Northern Lakes Wisconsin, Minnesota, Upj 

Michigan, Iowa and Illinois. 
Pacific Northwest and Alaska 
Petrified Forest National Monument, Arizona 
Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado 
Sequoia and General Grant National Pai 

California 
Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 

tana. Idaho 

Yosemite National Park, California 
Zion National Monument, Utah 



Page fourteen 



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The National Parks at a Glan 



United States Railroad Administration 

Director General of Railroads 

For particulars as to fares, train schedules, etc., apply to any Railroad Ticket Agent, or to any 
of the following Consolidated Ticket Offices: 

West 

Lincoln. Neb 104 N. 13th St. 

Little Rock. Ark 202 W. 2d St. 

Long Beach. Cal . . L. A. c S. L. Station 
Los Angeles. Cal. . . .215 S. Broadway 

Milwaukee. Wis 99 Wisconsin St. 

Minneapolis. Minn.. 202 Sixth St. South 



Beaumont, Tex.. Orleans and Pearl Sts. 

Bremerton. Wash 224 Front St. 

Butte. Mont 2N. Main St. 

Chicago. Ill 175 W. Jackson Blvd. 

Colorado Springs. Colo. 

1 19 E. Pike's Peak Ave. 

Dallas. Tex 112-114 Field St. 

Denver. Colo 601 17th St. 

Des Moines. Iowa 403 Walnut St. 

Duluth. Minn 334 W. Superior St. 

El Paso. Ten: Mills and Oregon Sts. 

Ft. Worth. Tex 702 Houston St. 

Fresno. Cal J and Fresno Sts. 

Galveston. Tex. .21st and Market Sts. 

Helena. Mont 58 S. Main St. 

Houston. Tex 904 Texas Ave. 

Kansas City. Mo. 

Ry. Ex. Bldg.. 7th and Walnut Sts. 



Annapolis. Md 54 Maryland Ave. 

Atlantic City. N. J.. 1301 Pacific Ave. 

Baltimore. Md B. & O. R. R. Bldg. 

Boston. Mass 67 Franklin St. 

Brooklyn. N. Y 336 Fulton St. 

Buffalo. N. Y. .Main and Division Sts. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. . .6th and Main Sts. 

Cleveland. Ohio 1004 Prospect Ave. 

Columbus. Ohio 70 East Gay St. 

Dayton. Ohio 19 S. Ludlow St. 



Asheville. N. C 14 S. Polk Square 

Atlanta. Ga 74 Peachtree St. 

Augusta. Ga 811 Broad St. 

Birmingham. Ala 2010 1st Ave. 

Charleston. S. C Charleston Hotel 

Charlotte. N. C 22 S. Tryon St. 

Chattanooga. Tenn 817 Market St. 

Columbia. S. C Arcade Building 

Jacksonville. Fla 38 W. Bay St. 

No, 



Oakland. Cal. . . 13th St. and Broadway 

Ocean Park. Cal 160 Pier Ave. 

Oklahoma City. Okla. 

131 W. Grand Ave. 

Omaha. Neb 1416 Dodge St. 

Peoria. III. . .Jefferson and Liberty Sts. 
Phoenix, Ariz. 

Adams St. and Central Ave. 
Portland. Ore. .3d and Washington Sts. 

Pueblo. Colo 401-3 N. Union Ave. 

St. Joseph. Mo 505 Francis St. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

318-328 North Broadway 

East 

Detroit. Mich ... 13 W. LaFayette Ave. 
Evansville. Ind ... L. & N. R. R. Bldg. 

Grand Rapids. Mich 125 Pearl St. 

Indianapolis. Ind.. I 12-14 English Block 
Newark, N. J., Clinton and Beaver Sts. 

New York. N. Y 64 Broadway 

New York. N. Y 57 Chambers St. 

New York. N. Y 31 W. 32dSt. 

New York. N. Y 1 14 W. 42d St. 

South 

Knoxville. Tenn 600 Gay St. 

Lexington, Ky Union Station 

Louisville. Ky. . . .4th and Market Sts. 

Lynchburg. Va 722 Main St. 

Memphis. Tenn 60 N. Main St. 

Mobile, Ala 51 S. Royal St. 

Montgomery, Ala Exchange Hotel 

Nashville, Tenn. Independent Life Bldg. 
.St. Charles Hotel 



St. Paul. Minn. . .4th and Jackson Sts. 
Sacramento. Cal ........... 801 K St. 

Salt Lake City. Utah 

Main and S. Temple Sts. 
San Antonio. Tex. 

3 1 5-1 7 N. St. Mary's St. 



San Diego, Cal 



300 Broadway 



San Francisco, Cal. 

Lick Bldg.. Post St. and Lick Place 
San Jose, Cal.. I at and San Fernando Sts. 
Seattle. Wash . . ...... .714-16 2d Ave. 

Shreveport, La., Milam and Market Sts. 
Sioux City, Iowa ......... 510 4th St. 

Spokane, Wash. 

Davenport Hotel, 815 Sprague Ave. 
Tacoma, Wash. ..1117-19 Pacific Ave. 
Waco. Tex ...... 6th and Franklin Sts. 

Whittier. Cal. . . .L. A. & S. L. Station 

Winnipeg, Man ...... 226 Portage Ave. 



Philadelphia. Pa. ... 1539 Chestnut St. 

Pittsburgh, Pa Arcade Building 

Reading. Pa 16 N. Fifth St. 

Rochester. N. Y 20 State St. 

Syracuse. N. Y 355 So. Warren St. 

Toledo, Ohio 320 Madison Ave. 

Washington. D. C. . . 1229 F St. N. W. 

Williamsport. Pa 4th and Pine Sts. 

Wilmington. Del 905 Market St. 



Paducah. Ky 430 Broadway 

Pensacola, Fla San Carlos Hotel 

Raleigh. N. C 305 LaFayette St. 

Richmond. Va 830 E. Main St. 

Savannah. Ga 37 Bull St. 

Sheffield. Ala Sheffield Hotel 

Tampa, Fla Hillsboro Hotel 

Vicksburg. Miss. .1319 Washington St. 
Winston-Salem. N. C.. 236 N. Main St. 



New Orleans. La 

folk. Va Monticello Hotel 

For detailed information regarding National Parks and Monuments address Bureau of Service, National Parks and 
Monuments, or Travel Bureau Western Lines, 646 Transportation Building, Chicago. 

SEASON. 1919 PRESS OF W. J. HARTMAN CO.. CHICAGO Page fifteen 




'And in the fullness of the ages the immortal Forest came back to the sunlight, where once its 
myriad leaves danced and breathed a mortal air." 



dniininiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiHiiniiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiHiiiiiiHiiHimiiiiHmiiiHiiiumiimi, 




ROCKY MOUNTAIN 

National Park 



D O 






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UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION IBM 



N AT I O N A L 




Copyright by Wiawatt 

The Village of Estes Park nettles in a quiet little valley, surrounded by mountain* 
Pa A two 




An Appreciation of 

Rocky Mountain National Park 

By ENDS A. MILLS. 
Author of "Wild Life on the Rockies." "The Rocky Mountain Wonderland." etc. 

Written Especially for the United States Railroad Administration 

Rocky Mountain National Park is a marvelous grouping of gentle- 
ness and grandeur; an eloquent, wordless hymn, sung in silent, poetic 
pictures; a wilderness mountain world of groves and grass plots, crags 
and canyons, rounded lakes with shadow-matted shores that rest in 
peace within the purple forest. There are wild flowers of every color, and many 
a silken meadow edged with ferns. Brokenness and beauty, terrace upon terrace, 
a magnificent hanging wild garden. 

Over these terraces waters rush and pour. From ice-sculptured, snow-piled 
peaks, young and eager streams leap in white cascades between crowding cliffs 
and pines. 

Through this wildness winds the trail, with its secrets of the centuries, where 
adventures come and go and where the magic camp fire blossoms in the night. 

In these primeval scenes the grizzly bear gives to the wilderness its master spell; 
the mountain ram poses on the cliff; the laughing, varied voice of the coyote echoes 
when the afterglow falls; the home-loving beaver builds his willow-fringed hut; the 
birds sing; the cheerful chipmunk frolics and never grows up; and here the world 
stays young. 

The Rocky Mountain National Park holds adventure for every visitor. In it 
the world is new and wild, and on the imagination it produces the explorer's stirring 
joys. Its mile-high, unfenced scenes give freedom splendid landscapes of the 
ideal world. 

Here for everyone are health and hope, efficiency and joy. 

Not a wild animal in this or any national park is ferocious. 

Strong is the friendliness of nature. With it everyone has a place in the sun. 
Her privileges are for each and all. Nature is universal, and here the stranger makes 
intimate acquaintances. Prejudice ceases. Each is at his best. In this greatest 
wilderness meeting place the East and the West understand and become friends. 
Travel unites people. 

Into this Park through the years will pour a continuous procession of peoples 
to mingle and form an international conference of friends. Here flags of nations 
and national boundary lines are forgotten. Kinship is the spirit of Nature. 




Page t h f 9 9 



To the American People: 

Uncle Sam asks you to be his guest. He has prepared for you the 
choice places of this continent places of grandeur, beauty and of 
wonder. He has built roads through the deep-cut canyons and beside 
happy streams, which will carry you into these places in comfort, and 
has provided lodgings and food in the most distant and inaccessible 
places that you might enjoy yourself and realize as little as possible 
the rigors of the pioneer traveler's life. These are for you. They are 
the playgrounds of the people. To see them is to make more hearty 
your affection and admiration for America. 



Secretary of the Interior 




Rocky Mountain National Park 




MAGINE a giant hand with 
the base of the palm as 
Estes Park Village and the 

^^ fingers extending westward 

toward the Divide, the 
fingers roughly representing the moun- 
tain spurs, moraines and peaks given off 
from the main range, and the spaces be- 
tween, the intermediate canyons, with 
their many streams, which converge at 
the village to form the Big Thompson 
River; imagine another but smaller hand 
to the south reaching into the park from 
the east towards Long's Peak and the 
peaks to the south, the streams from this 
watershed forming the St. Vrain River; 
then imagine the finger tips merging into 
the Continental Divide, each as a living 
glacier and there you will have the 
Park's topography. 

Then clothe the canyons in garments 
of evergreen forest and the glades with 
the quaking aspen, floor the rocky 
gorges with sky-blue lakes and hang 
their walls with tumbling waterfalls, 
carpet all the open spaces from above 
timber line down to the broad spreading 
meadows where the rivers merrily sing 
their way with a huge army *f brilliant 

P *t four 



LA Oil 





hued wild flowers; then people t 
Arcadia plentifully with the wild li 
whose natural home it is the finne 
furred and feathered the wily trou 
the beaver and the mountain sheep (t 
mention only a few) ; and lastly spread 
over all a turquoise blue sky with a dry, 
crystal atmosphere, shot through with 
brilliant sunshine, and you will have an 
idea of what Rocky Mountain National 
Park really is. 

The attendance figures are increasi 
each year far beyond the most enthusi 
tic prophesies. Even though it is on 
of our newest national parks, it annually 
entertains more visitors than any of the 
other national parks. 

When it is considered that the vaca- 
tionist is whisked from Chicago or St. 
Louis to Denver, then set at the foot of 
one of the mightiest mountains of the 
Rockies' main range in about a day and 
a half of actual travel, it is realized how 
much of a public benefit was conferred 
when Congress in 1915 set aside this, 
the easternmost of our western national 
playgrounds. 

Not only is this national park the 
composite of all that is fairest, m 



- 




Auto highway through the Big Thompson Canyon. The approaches to the Park axe of untiring interest to the 
visitor, and the roads a constant delight to the motorist 

P a 6 f iv 9 



awe-inspiring and climatically ideal in 
the Rocky Mountain region, but it is 
not far from the geographical center of 
the country, and is the most easily 
reached by a large number of people of 
all our national parks. 

This region of endless wonder and 
fascination is only seventy miles from 
Denver by auto all the way, or by 
rail to several different gateways, thence 
auto for about twenty-five or forty 
miles not a long, tiring, monotonous 
ride through an uninteresting country, 
but instead it is a motor trip that ranks 
among the finest in Colorado. Follow- 
ing the rushing waters of the Big Thomp- 
son or the St. Vrain, over hard-surfaced 
roads, through deep canyons, wonderful 
in their coloring, the big, roomy, power- 
ful automobiles take the grade with such 
ease that one hardly realizes that he is 
climbing rapidly. Enraptured by the 
intensely interesting scenes, the traveler 
is all too suddenly aware of his journey's 
end, when the magnificent panorama of 
Estes Park Village and Rocky Mountain 
National Park unexpectedly bursts into 
view. Soon he is eating dinner at one 
of the large hotels, or at a small ranch 
hotel, or in a modestly appointed cot- 
tage, as choice may dictate. A feature 
of the Park is its adaptability; one may 
rest and recreate amid most entrancing 
surroundings, with a range of accommo- 
dations from the elaborate furnishings 
and service of the large city hostelry to 
the simplicity of the secluded log cabin 
or the outpost tent cottage. In short, 
life may be lived here in a manner to suit 
the taste and the purse of the individual. 
He may rough it or enjoy the con- 
veniences and luxuries of the city. The 
tired business man who just wants to 
"loaf" amid incomparable grandeur; 
the active, outdoor young American; 
the geologist, who is studying moraines 
and glaciers, and the botanist, all will 
find life enjoyable here. 

Another noteworthy feature is that 
special outfitting is unnecessary; no 
unusual preparation need precede the 
journey to the Park. The Park itself 
provides the entertainment. Any sup- 
plies considered essential can be secured 
at Estes Park Village, or at any one 
of the several Park gateway cities. 

Rocky Mountain National Park ex- 
tends approximately twenty-five miles 



north and south, and fifteen miles east 
and west, embracing about 400 square 
miles of territory. 

From the northwest corner to the 
middle of its southern boundary the 
snow-capped giants forming the Conti- 
nental Divide rear their grim, rocky 
crests in an irregular line which forms 
the backbone of this Park and is its 
commanding feature, ever present, ever 
changing, and ever awe-inspiring. Here 
are fifty-one peaks with summits more 
than 10,000 feet high, also unnumbered 
canyons, about 200 lakes, many un- 
named, waterfalls, glaciers, native forests 
and wild flowers. Exceptionally rugged 
and out-of-the-way places appeal espe- 
cially to the explorer. 

There is probably no mountain range 
more majestic than the main range of 
the Rockies as seen from almost any 
part of the Park, and one of the most 
striking features is the accessibility of 
these mountain tops. One may mount 
a horse after early breakfast in the val- 
ley, ride up Flattop to enjoy one of the 
great views of the world, and be back for 
late luncheon; or cross the Continental 
Divide from the hotels of one side to t 
hotels of the other side of the Park, 
tween early breakfast and late dinner. 

From early dawn, with its delicate 
tints of rose and amethyst, to later 
afternoon, with its golden sunshine and 
lengthening purple shadows, the range 
presents an ever-changing panoram 
On a peak, perhaps, settles momentaril 
a gray snow-cloud; in yonder canyo 
breaks a brief-lived shower, sunshot wit 
silvery rain as it quickly clears awa 
while over all, the fleece flecked sa 
phire sky and dazzling sunlight hoi 
sway. At midday, all Nature rests a 
in its brighter light the range seems 
cower and grow small, only to reasse 
itself in full power and majesty as da 
ends with a sunset of such splendor 
only the Rockies may boast. 

It is in its nearer and more intima 
aspects, however, that the exquisit 
beauties of the Park reveal themselves. 
In the lower levels are widespread undu- 
lating meadows, dotted with evergreens 
and interspersed with the hills anc 
ridges which thrust themselves forwa 
in all directions from the main range 
the west, and from the lesser range 
the east, which completes its encircli 



P ft 4 SIT 




Chasm Gorge is one of the Park's wonder spots Long's Peak in the distance 



protection. Thus diversified, the land- 
scape becomes a scenic kaleidoscope, no 
matter how short a distance one may 
wander. This constitutes not the least 
of the Park's many charms. 

Unless the visitor deliberately chooses 
to do otherwise, he will find his foot- 
steps leading unconsciously to the 
heights, and as he climbs and gets his 
first wonderful views of the surrounding 
country his desire to scale the more 
lofty crests grows in proportion as 
he ascends, until finally he becomes 
obsessed with a desire to climb that 
noble mountain of the rampart range, 
Long's Peak, from whose summit the 
whole world seems to lie at one's feet. 
But he who is mountain- wise will 
not make such an attainment an 
end in itself, or he will have missed 
entirely the many pleasures which lie by 
the way on every hand. Here a bab- 
bling stream with a bed of wild flowers 
hidden among the trees upon its bank; 
or along its smoother stretches an in- 
dustrious beaver colony. There a grove 
of quivering aspen. On one hand a 
splashing waterfall, seeming to burst 
from the cool shadows of the mountain 
side to drop forty or fifty feet to the pool 
below; on the other hand, an open forest 
of ancient cedars, or perhaps one of 
those exquisitely blue, forest-circled 



mountain lakes, carrying upon its bosom, 
even in midsummer, the ice which here 
has its permanent home. 

And below, the silvery, trout-filled 
streams wind their tortuous course, 
while rising from the rocky fastnesses 
above, may now and then be glimpsed 
the snowy peaks. 

And these are not imaginary pictures, 
but real scenes which may be found in 
the uplands almost anywhere through- 
out the Park. 

An Invigorating Climate 

The climate of Rocky Mountain 
National Park needs no extensive de- 
scription. Due to the altitude, which 
varies from 7,500 to 14,255 feet, the air 
is light, very dry, and has a wonderfully 
stimulating effect, especially upon those 
accustomed to the lower levels. The 
sunshine is genial, warm, bright and 
almost constant during the summer 
months. Very rarely is there a rainy 
"spell, "or, in fact, a single day during 
which the sun does not show itself for 
awhile, the occasional afternoon showers 
being of short duration. The sunshine 
may be hot at midday, but always there 
is a cool spot in the shade. And 
though one may freely perspire when 
indulging in vigorous play or work in 
the sun, yet it is without discomfort, 



P - g e seven 












P a tf eight 



Picnicking on the thoro* of Lk Nanita 



because of the instant evaporation of 
moisture, due to the dryness of the 
atmosphere. The nights are cool, often 
even cold; blankets always are welcome 
and sound sleep is the rule. 

The deep breathing, which one culti- 
vates naturally in this rarefied atmos- 
phere, sends the blood coursing through 
the body with new life and energy, 
bringing rosy cheeks and bright eyes and 
a new interest in life. One may have 
come intent on idleness, but, with that 
splendid feeling of well being and pure 
joy in living which the first few days 
bring, comes a longing for action, and 
soon one is in the full swing of some out- 
door recreation. It is indeed quite true 
that the Park climate is so beneficial, 
both physically and mentally, that this 
alone offers sufficient inducement for 
spending a vacation in this region. 

Recreation Amid Inspiring and 
Healthful Surroundings 

What to do may be briefly summed up: 
Motoring, horseback riding, walking, 
mountain climbing, fishing and camera 
shooting for the actively inclined; and 
for all, the enjoyment of the many 
wonderful scenes with their changing 
lights and shadows and the health- 
giving mountain air. Tennis, golf, cro- 
quet, etc., are attractions at some of the 
resorts. Horseback riding, hiking and 
mountain climbing, however, are the 
favorite pastimes because of the splendid 
roads and trails which lead in every 
direction over the rolling meadows, 
through the canyons, along the sunlit 
streams even to the apparently inac- 
cessible heights. 

Automobile roads gridiron the lower 
levels and reach the hotel resorts. This 
is not remarkable, as the natural sur- 
faces are smooth; suitable road material 
is everywhere, and good roads are easily 
made. Traveling leisurely, so as to 
fully enjoy the rare pleasures by the way, 
the sightseer still may traverse all the 
motor roads of the Park in a few days, 
although a favorite plan is to make one- 
day picnic trips, going as far as possible 
in a given direction by motor and spend- 
ing the remainder of the day in climbing 
and exploring the upper wilds which are 
reached only by trail. Even though a 
different trip is planned for every day, 
weeks may be profitably spent in this 



way. Automobiles may be rented at 
reasonable rates in the village. 

Horseback riding is pre-eminently the 
most popular sport m the Park, due to 
the number and variety of rides that are 
possible. For, with good trails leading 
in every direction, and the almost count- 
less attractions, the visitor may ride 
day after day and week after week and 
yet never take the same ride or visit the 
same destinations twice. 

Almost everybody rides the young, 
the old, the middle-aged; and all derive 
lasting benefits. Good saddle horses 
may be obtained at the various liveries 
and at all the outlying resorts. They 
are well broken and reliable, and 
accustomed even to the most difficult 
mountain trails. 

Most of the streams in the Park and 
many of the lakes are well supplied with 
native and rainbow trout, and the fisher- 
man will here find ample reward for his 
skill and patience, especially in the Big 
Thompson River and its tributaries. A 
local fish hatchery annually supplies the 
streams of the Park with millions of trout, 
thus insuring the upkeep of the supply. 

There are golf courses. Worthy of 
particular mention is the 18-hole course 
of the Estes Park Country Club, adja- 
cent to the village. Club house and 
course are available to the public. The 
Stanley hotel has a course laid out in 
the meadowlands skirting the Big 
Thompson River. 

The winters in the Park are not severe; 
generally the snowfall is not heavy on the 
lower levels. Back in the mountains 
where the snowfall is heavy, but within 
easy reach of Estes Village, conditions 
are ideal for winter sports. Two ski 
courses and two toboggan slides have 
been completed, and several of the 
resorts arrange accommodations for a 
limited number of winter parties. 

The Park in Detail 

Although having only a small per- 
manent population, Estes Park Village 
is well supplied with stores, schools, 
churches, garages, liveries, etc., and is 
always prepared to meet the needs of 
the summer visitor. The village is 
picturesquely situated among a cluster 
of hills rising about 1 ,200 feet on all 
sides, at the confluence of the Big 
Thompson and Fall Rivers. 



Patfe nine 



Lake Mills is one of the beautiful lakes in the wild Loch Vale section of the Park 




In Estes Park Village are the Hupp, 
Josephine and Estes Park hotels, the 
Brown Tea Pot Inn and Prospect Inn, 
while the Lewiston overlooks the village 
from a rocky eminence just to the north. 
Outside, to the east, and adjacent to its 
golf course and the Big Thompson 
meadow, is the largest hotel, the Stanley, 
while a short distance to the west on the 
Fall River is Elkhorn Lodge. To the 
south, near the Big Thompson River 
and within plain view of the village, is 
the Crags. A short distance below and 
to the west, on the banks of the river, 
is the Big Thompson hotel. 

Five miles northeast from the village 
of Estes is the fascinating region sur- 
rounding Lester hotel. One of the 
best of the longer horseback trips from 
this point is to Hallett Glacier. Another is 
that to Lost and Husted Lakes at the foot 
of the Mummy Range, a spur extending 
northeast of the Continental Divide with 
numerous peaks rising over 13,000 feet. 

The remainder of Rocky Mountain 
National Park falls into a series of topo- 
graphical divisions or districts, begin- 
ning at the north with the picturesque 
diversity of Horseshoe Park, and ending 
with that wild confusion of precipices 
and lakes known as the Wild Basin, 
south of Long's Peak and east of the 
Continental Divide. 



Horseshoe Park (seven miles up tl 
Fall River road) and its immedial 
surroundings form a rare combinatic 
of flower-carpeted meadows, forest-cl 
mountains, streams and waterfalls, 
are Horseshoe Inn and Fall River Lodge 
Horseshoe Park is the point of departui 
for two of the most interesting trips- 
to Lawn and Crystal Lakes and Hallet 
Glacier in the Mummy Range; also the 
main trail across the Continental Divide 
to the Grand River. On the shore of 
Lawn Lake is the Lawn Lake Lodge. 

Long's Peak Inn, the Columbines and 
Hewes-Kirkwood Inn, nine miles south 
of Estes Park Village, are starting points 
for the trail to the summit of Long's 
Peak. Horses may be used as far as 
Timberline Cabin at the edge of Boulder 
Field, from where the most difficult part 
of the ascent, extending about two 
miles, is made on foot. After crossing 
the huge boulders of Boulder Field, 
comes the climb through the Keyhole, a 
curious opening which separates the 
east and west slopes, and through which 
a glorious view of Glacier Gorge and the 
country beyond is obtained. Long's 
Peak summit is reached at an elevation 
of 1 4,255 feet. This is the giant peak of 
the entire Rocky Mountain National 
Park, and from it is spread out in all 
directions a jumbled confusion of peaks, 



Page ten 



gorges, moraines, lakes, distant valleys 
and snow-capped ranges, forming a 
series of views of unsurpassed sublimity. 

Long's Peak Inn is the home of Enos 
A. Mills, the well known author, natur- 
alist, and interpreter of the outdoors, 
with special reference to its flowers, 
forests, rocks, bird and animal life. 
Mr. Mills first established himself at 
the base of Long's Peak in 1884. 

On the road from Long's Peak resorts 
to the village is Lily Lake hotel, at- 
tractively situated on Lily Lake. One- 
half mile from Lily Lake, on the main 
road to the village, is Baldpate Inn. 
Nearer the village is Rockdale hotel, 
near Mary Lake. 

To the south of Long's Peak is the 
Wild Basin country, noted for its many 
lakes and waterfalls, wild gorges and 
rocky peaks, most of the latter more than 
13,000 feet high. This district may be 
best reached from the Long's Peak 
resorts or from Copeland Lodge on 
Copeland Lake or from National Park 
Hotel in Allen's Park Village. 

Moraine Park, from five to six miles 
southwest of Estes Park Village, is the 
open valley of the Big Thompson, with 
an extensive glacial moraine to the 
south. Here are located Stead's, Mo- 
raine Lodge and the Brinwood. 

Fern Lodge, on Fern Lake, and Forest 
Inn at the Pool may well be made the 



headquarters for such trips as lead into 
the more remote parts of this heart of 
the wilderness. 

^ By many, the Loch Vale and Glacier 
Gorge sections, just northwest of Long's 
Peak and known as the Wild Gardens, 
are considered the surpassing scenic 
section of Rocky Mountain National 
Park. Sprague's hotel in Bartholf Park 
is the nearest resort to this region. A 
day's trip from here is west to Loch Vale 
Lake and across to Andrew's Glacier 
and up to the Continental Divide. 

Bierstadt, Bear and Dream Lakes are 
all charming spots, most easily reached 
from Sprague's or Moraine Park. On the 
shore of Bear Lake is Bear Lake Lodge. 

Y. M. C. A. Camp and School 

An important feature of the Park is 
the Annual Conference and Summer 
School of the Young Men's Christian 
Association. Established almost ten 
years ago, it has grown to be a very 
important institution, with an invest- 
ment of over $100,000 in grounds, per- 
manent buildings and equipment, in- 
cluding gymnasium, assembly hall, din- 
ing room, class rooms, tennis courts, 
baseball diamond and athletic field. 
The conference and school bring a large 
number of visitors to the park and many 
speakers of national reputation. 




Hallett's Glacier an amphitheatre of snow and ice 



Page eleven 




ROCKY MOUNTAIN 

affords an opportunity 
of outdoor recreation 
motoring, boating, h: 
golf and tennis vie w 



twelve 




UC, COLORADO 

of a wide diversity 
roundings. Fishing, 
mountain climbing, 
or popularity. 



P & e thirteen 



f^afesAp^ 

'>./^VC i r- 



"^?r^ 




Main Roads 
Trails 
. Other Trails 



Page f o u r t 




Classic pines and waters. Grand Lake western entrance to the Park 



Beautiful Grand Lake Region 

Grand Lake is the western gateway to 
the Rocky Mountain National Park. 
It is reached by rail from Denver to 
Granby, thence by stage. Grand Lake is 
situated in the valley of the North Fork 
of Grand River, and is the largest lakein 
the vicinity of the Park, and here each 
year is held a regatta for a Lipton cup. 
It is the center of a growing cottage 
and hotel population, and is destined to 
become a place of much importance upon 
the completion of the Fall River motor 
road, which will connect the east and 
west sides of the Park. 

An excellent road encircles the lake, 
and from it trails penetrate the wilder- 
ness to various points and over the 
Continental Divide. 
^ The two trails from the summit of 
Flattop Mountain to Grand Lake and 
that from Fall River Canyon to the 
North Fork of the Grand River at Camp 
Wheeler ("Squeaky" Bob's Resort) offer 
trips of unusual interest. 

Living Glaciers 

Among the most widely known glaciers 
that still remain in the Park are Hallett, 
Tyndall, Andrews and Sprague's. 

One of the remarkable features of 
Rocky Mountain National Park is the 



legibility of the record left by the glaciers 
during the ages when America was in 
the making. The evidences of glacial 
action in all its variety are apparent 
to even the most casual eye. In fact, 
there is scarcely any part of the eastern 
side of the park where some great 
moraine is not in evidence. One enor- 
mous moraine, built up by ancient 
parallel glaciers and rising with sloping 
sides nearly a thousand feet above the 
surrounding valley, is so prominent that 
a region of the Park is named for it. 

The Park itself is a primer of glacial 
geology, whose lessons are so simple, so 
plain to the eye, that they immediately 
disclose the key to one of Nature's chief 
scenic secrets. 

Animals, Birds and Wild Flowers 

Rocky Mountain National Park is a 
natural home for bear, deer, Rocky 
Mountain sheep, beaver and other wild 
animals, as well as numerous species of 
birds. Under government regulations 
the wild animal life in the Park is fully 
protected. 

The bighorn or Rocky Mountain 
sheep, with their curious circling horns, 
are seen in increasing numbers every 
year, and frequently they may be ap- 
proached sufficiently near to photo- 



P a g e fifteen 




Camping at Bear Lake 



graph. To see them jumping from 
crag to crag, graceful and agile, or 
dropping off a sheer precipice, is a sight 
long to be remembered. They congre- 
gate during the summer months on 
Specimen Mountain, where they often 
may be seen from the trail. 

The beaver are increasing rapidly, and 
their industrious colonies may be found 
along the quieter reaches of the streams, 
bordered by groves of white trunked 
quaking aspen, whose tender bark con- 
stitutes the beavers' principal food. 
The beaver themselves are seldom seen, 
except as reward for the greatest 
patience, but well engineered dams and 
snug dome-shaped homes are the sure 
evidence of their presence. 

There are more than 1 50 elk in the 
Park, and they are frequently seen. 
Deer are increasing and are occasion- 
ally seen. Bear and mountain lions 
rarely are visible. There are many 
woodchucks and squirrels; it is easy to 
make friends of the chipmunks. 

There are more than a hundred species 
of birds to be seen in the Park. Among 
them are the robin, bluebird, wren, 
hermit thrush, humming bird, white- 
crowned sparrow and that marvelous 
singer, the solitaire. The ouzel, Rocky 
Mountain jays, chickadee, the wood- 




pecker and the magpie are all-year 
dwellers. The ptarmigan and the rosy 
finch are prominent residents in the 
heights above timber line. 

Among the wild flowers of the Park 
are more than a thousand species, 
including the fringed blue and several 
other gentians; the numerous colum- 
bines, blooming at the lower leve 
in June and on the heights in Septe 
ber; mertensia, phlox, primroses, M 
posa lilies, daisies and larkspurs; Indi 
paint brush, ranging from dark crim 
through all the shades to a white; aste 
marigolds and many others. Many 
flowers grow above timber line in fact, 
almost everywhere and the Alpi 
buttercup pushes its blooms up throu 
the melting snowdrifts. 

The tree growths consist principal 
of Douglas spruce, lodge pole and yell 
pine and aspen, while up near tim 
line are found the Englemann spru 
limber pine, cedar, Arctic willow a 
black birch. 

Timber Line, with Its Dwarfed ai 
Twisted Trees 

Timber line occurs at about 1 1 
feet altitude. Here the low win! 
temperatures and the fierce icy win< 
make it impossible for trees to grow t'< 



and occasionally a great spruce lies flat 
on the ground like a vine; presently trees 
give place to low birches, which in their 
turn are succeeded by small piney 
growths, and finally come the straggling 
grasses, hardy mosses and tiny Alpine 
flowers. Grass grows in sheltered spots, 
even on the highest peaks, which is 
fortunate for the mountain sheep seeking 
these high, open places to escape their 
special enemies, the mountain lions. 

The sights above timber line never 
lose their charm, however often seen. 

Ice Cold Lakes and Flowered Gorges 

A distinctive feature of the Park is its 
great number of precipice-walled can- 
yons, lying between the very feet of the 
loftiest mountains. Their beauty is 
romantic. Like all the other spectacles 
of this favored region, they are readily 
accessible from the valley by trail, 
either afoot or on horseback. 

Almost invariably lakes are found in 
these gorges, rock embedded, and ice 
cold streams wander from lake to lake, 
watering wild flower gardens. 

By Auto or Trail to Cloudland and Back 
Automobile roads radiate in almost every 
direction from the village of Estes Park. The 
most popular trips are the Fall River Drive, the 
High Line Drive and Long's Peak Inn Drive. 

Trails to less accessible points are for use of 
the foot traveler and the horseback rider. 



Among the popular trails are those to Flattop 
Mountain, Fall River, Trail Ridge. Iceberg Lake, 
Poudre Lakes and Milner Pass, Lawn Lake. Wild 
Gardens, Fern and Odessa Lakes, Bear Lake, 
romantic Loch Vale, Glacier Gorge, to Long's 
Peak and to Wild Basin and across the range to 
Grand Lake. 

Camps and Camping Grounds 

Several permanent hotel camps are located 
within the borders of the Park, and camping 
grounds have been provided for those who 
choose to travel with their own camping outfit. 

Personally Conducted Saddle and Pack 
Trips off the Beaten Paths 

A most enjoyable way of seeing the Park is 
to join an all-expense horseback camping party, 
conducted by experienced guides, authorized by 
the Government to personally escort such 
excursions. 

For the names and addresses of the licensees 
and other information concerning these "Rough- 
ing-it-in-Comfort" trips, apply to National Park 
Service, Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C., or Bureau of Service, National Parks and 
Monuments; or Travel Bureau Western Lines, 
646 Transportation Building, Chicago, 111. 

Information within the Park 

Information concerning trail trips, camping 
grounds, etc., may be obtained from the Super- 
intendent of Rocky Mountain National Park, 
whose office is conveniently situated in the 
village of Estes Park. 

When to Visit the Park 

The season is May 1 to November 1 , but the 
Park is accessible throughout the year, each 
season having its particular attractions. Sum- 




Horseback riding in the mountains is always an exhilarating sport 



P a 6 e eevonteen 




The Fall River Road Drive, part of the automobile highway across the Continental Divide (now under construe- 

tion) one of the most popular auto road* in the Park 
Page eighteen 



mer is of course recommended to the vacationist, 
but he who waits until autumn has tinted the 
foliage and perhaps added a light covering of 
fresh snow enjoys views of beauty reserved 
especially for the late comer. The many winter 
sports equally appeal to those interested. 

How to Reach the Park 

The Rocky Mountain Parks Transportation 
Company maintains an excellent motor service 
via three routes into EstesPark Village: The Big 
Thompson Canyon route, the St. Vrain River 
route and the Allen's Park route. 

From Loveland and Ft. Collins the traveler 
approaches via the Big Thompson Canyon 
route. The road winds quietly across the 
plains, through the foothills and enters suddenly 
into the rocky canyon which towers hundreds of 
feet above either side of the Big Thompson 
River. For miles it climbs through the gor- 
geous canyon, twisting and turning as it crosses 
and recrosses and follows the rock-hewn banks 
of this turbulent stream, until, rounding the last 
turn, it leaves the canyon as suddenly as it 
entered, and the smiling expanse of Estes Park 
bursts upon the view, with the panorama of the 
snow crowned Continental Divide as an en- 
circling background. Two miles across the 
wide-spreading flower dotted meadow, and the 
village of Estes Park is reached. 

From Longmont and Lyons the route 
follows the St. Vrain River. After leaving its 
course along the shaded St. Vrain River the 
road leads toward the foothills through a rugged 
country. Backward and forth across sparkling 
stream and sunlit canyon, tortuously winding 
and twisting, the way is ever upward, mile after 
mile until finally the car pauses at the crest of 
Park Hill (elevation 8,500 feet), from which a 
spectacular scene of peaks and valley greets the 
eye. A short ride downward over a level 
stretch, than comes the welcome hospitality 
of Estes Park Village. 

The Allen's Pa-k Auto Road parallels the 
Continental Divide for twenty-eight miles. 
This is a "cross-country" route on top of the 
mountains, with a wide expanse of views of the 
range from Long's Peak on the north to James' 
Peak on the south. 

Each of the several approaches to the Park 
has its own peculiar scenic charms, and the 
traveler is wise who enters via one gateway and 
departs by another. 

Denver, Ft. Collins, Longmont, Loveland, 
Lyons and Ward are the eastern railroad gate- 
ways to the Park. 

Travelers have the choice of using auto all the 
way from Denver or rail to any of the other gate- 
ways named, thence auto to Estes Park Village. 

Arrangements may be made to go in one way 
and out another. 

The west side of the Park may be reached from 
Denver by rail to Granby; from Granby stages 
run to Grand Lake. 

Summer Excursion Fares 

During the summer season round-trip excur- 
sion tickets at reduced fares are sold to Rocky 
Mountain National Park as a destination. Pas- 
sengers visiting the Park as a side-trip in con- 
nection with a journey to other destinations will 



find stopover privileges available on round-trip 
and one-way tickets. 

The fare from Denver via automobile all the 
way in both directions, or from Denver via rail- 
road to Lyons, Fort Collins, Longmont, Love- 
land or Ward, thence automobile to Estes Park, 
is $10.00, round trip. The round trip fare via 
automobile from Lyons, Fort Collins, Long- 
mont, Loveland or Ward to Estes Park is $8.00. 

From many sections trips may be planned to 
include visits to two or more of the following 
national parks in the Rocky Mountain region: 
Rocky Mountain, Mesa Verde, Yellowstone, 
Glacier. 

Auto Trips within the Park 

The Rocky Mountain Parks Transportation 
Company conducts the following sight-seeing 
trips from Estes Park Village into the National 
Park. The charges for the principal trips are: 
Fall River Road drive, approximately 

26 miles $3.50 

Fall River Road and High drive, approxi- 
mately 30 miles 4.00 

Long's Peak Inn or High drive, 20 miles. . . 2.50 
Special arrangements may be made with the 
transportation company for touring cars to any 
point in the Park. There are 125 miles of 
secnic auto highways within the Park. 

Miscellaneous 

CLOTHING. One should bring along warm 
clothing, sweaters, light overcoats or wraps. 
stout low-heeled shoes for climbing, and "slick- 
ers" as a protection from sudden showers. 

HORSES may be engaged at the liveries in the 
village, and at almost all the resorts; prices 
range from $3.00 per day to $12.50 or $15.00 
per week. Pack horses, $2.50 per day. 

MAIL. Postoffices are located at Estes Park, 
Long's Peak, Moraine Park, Drake, Allen's 
Park and Grand Lake. 

TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH. Long distance 
telephone service at all resorts; telegraph service 
at Estes Park Village. 

AUTOMOBILES. May be rented at the princi- 
pal garages in the village, and cars are also 
obtainable at some of the resorts. 

GUIDES. One should not attempt the ascent 
of any of the higher peaks, a visit to the glaciers 
or a long trip over unfamiliar trails without a 
guide. Competent guides may be obtained at 
from $5.00 to $10.00 a day. 

OUTFITS. Fishing tackle, golf clubs, tennis 
rackets, cameras and khaki riding outfits may 
be purchased in Estes Park Village. 

BAGGAGE. The Rocky Mountain Parks 
Transportation Company carries hand baggage, 
not to exceed 20 pounds per passenger, free; 
other baggage, $1.25 per hundred pounds. 
Hand baggage carried at owner's risk only. 
Baggage may be checked direct to Estes Park, 
Colo., but charge of $1.25 per hundred pounds 
will be collected at Estes Park for auto trans- 
portation of baggage from the railroad terminals. 
Passengers using autos from Denver will be 
charged $1 .75 per hundred pounds. 

The following books pertaining to Rocky 
Mountain National Park attractions will be 
found very interesting: 

"The National Parks." 1919 Yard $2.50 

"The Grizzly" Mills fOO 

"The Story of Estes Park" Mill. 1.00 



Page 



n e t e e n 




A view of Taylor Glacier at upper end of Loch Vale 



Page twenty 



'Beaver World" Mill. $1.75 

'Spell of the Rockies" Mills 1.75 

'Rocky Mountain Wonderland" Mills 1.75 

'Handbook of Birds of the Western U. S." 

Bailey 3.00 

'Rocky Mountain Flowers" Clements 3.00 

'Our National Parks" Muir 1 .75 

'Saddle and Camp in the Rockies" Wallace . ... 1.75 

'Old Indian Trails" Schaffer 2.00 

'Highways and Byways of the Rocky Mountains" 

Johnson 1.50 

'Guide to the National Parks of America" 

Allen 1.00 

'History of the Birds of Colorado" Schlater 5.00 

'The Mammals of Colorado" Warren 2.00 

'Your National Parks" Mills 2.50 

'Out Where the West Begins" Chapman 1.25 



U. S. Government Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C., at 
prices given. Remittances should be by money 
order or in cash. 

"The Geologic Story of Rocky Mountain National Park," 
by Willis T. Lee; 89 pages. 45 plates. 30 cents. 

"Mountaineering in the Rocky Mountain National Park." 
by Roger W. Toll; 48 illustrations. 2 maps. 

"Panoramic View of Reeky Mountain National Park"; 
14 by 17^2 inches. 25 cents. 

"National Parks Portfolio." by Robert Sterling Yard; 
260 pages. 270 illustrations, descriptive of nine 
national parks. Pamphlet edition, 35 cents; book 
edition, 55 cents. 



The following may be obtained from the Direc- 
tor of the United States Geological Survey, 
Washington, D. C., at price given. 

Map of Long's Peak Quadrangle, which includes the 
greater portions of the Rocky Mountain National 
Park; \3 l / 2 by 17^ inches. 10 cents. 



The following publications may be obtained 
free on written application to the Director of 
the National Park Service. Washington, D. C.. 
or by personal application at the office of the 
Superintendent of the Park. 

Circular of General Information regarding Rocky 

Mountain National Park. 

Glimpses of Our National Parks; 48 pages, illustrated. 
Map showing location of National Parks and National 

Monuments and railroad routes thereto. 



U. S. R. R. Administration Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
free on application to any consolidated ticket 
office; or apply to the Bureau of Service, National 
Parks and Monuments; or Travel Bureau - 
Western Lines, 646 Transportation Building. 
Chicago, Illinois: 

Arizona and New Mexico Rockies. 

California for the Tourist. 

Colorado and Utah Rockies. 

Crater Lake National Park. Oregon. 

Glacier National Park, Montana. 

Grand Canyon National Park. Arizona. 

Hawaii National Park, Hawaiian Islands. ' 

Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas. 

Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado. 

Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. 

Northern Lakes Wisconsin, Minnesota, Upper Michi- 
gan, Iowa and Illinois. 

Pacific Northwest and Alaska. 

Petrified Forest National Monument, Arizona. 

Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. 

Sequoia and General Grant National Parks, California. 

Yellowstone National Park. Wyoming. Montana. Idaho. 

Yosemite National Park, California. 

Zion National Monument, Utah. 




It is not unusual to find flowers and snow fields in close proximity 

P t'w en t y - o n 




Rocky Mountain sheep are often seen by Park visitors 

The Following are the Principal Hotels, with Capacity, Manager 
and Rates for Room and Board. 



NOTE The rates given are published for the information of the public, but th United States Railr 
Administration assumes no responsibility for their correctness. 



NAME 


MANAGER 


Postoffice Address 
(Colorado) 


Capacity 


Rates Per Week 


Baldpate Inn 


Address Manager 
A. E Brown 


Estes Park 
Estes Park 


20 
40 


$28.00 
20 00 






Estes Park 


250 


$28 00 to 35 00 


The Brinwood 


C. L. Reed & Sons 


Moraine Park... . 
Estes Park 


75 
60 


17.50 to 30.00 
3 50 to 6 00 (Day) 


Camp Wheeler. . . 






20 


3 00 (Day) 








64 


16 00 to 33 00 


Copeland Lodge 




Allen's Park 


60 


18.00 to 20.00 




Joe Mills 


Estes Park 


150 


21 00 to 45 00 






Estes Park 


250 


2 1 00 to 40 00 


Estes Park Hotel . . . 
Fall River Lodge 


A. D. Lewis 
D J March 


Estes Park 
Estes Park 


50 
50 


15.00 to 25.00 
16 00 to 35 00 




F. W. Byerly . 




50 


20.00 




F D Tecker 




50 


20 00 


Hewes-Kirkwood 


C. E. Hewes 




80 


18.00 to 25.00 


Horseihoe Inn 
Hupp Hotel 
Josephine Hotel 


Bradley & Patrick 
Address Manager 
A. D. Lewis 


Estes Park 
Estes Park 
Estes Park 


100 
75 
40 
40 


16.00 to 30.00 
16.00 to 20.00 
15.00 to 25.00 
2 50 (Day) 






Grand Lake 


30 


2 00 (Day) 


Lawn Lake Lodge 


Bradley Sc Patrick 


Estes Park 
Grand Lake 


15 
25 


3.25 (Day) 
2 00 (Day) . . . 


Lesters Hotel 


Address Manager 


Estes Park 


100 


16.00 to 22.00 




A D Lewis 


Estes Park 


/O 


22 50 to 40.00 




Enos A Mills 




150 


2 1 00 to 49 00 




Mrs W. D McPherson 




75 


1600 to 30.00 


Narwata Hotel 




Grand Lake 


20 


2 50 (Day) 


National Park Hotel 




Allen's Park 


45 


15.00 to 18.00 


Prospect Inn 
Rapids Lodge. . . 


Address Manager 
Address Manager 


Estes Park 
Grand Lake . 


30 
50 


2.00 to 2.50 (Day) 
2.50 (Day) 


Rockdale ... 




Estes Park 


50 


15.00 to 22.00 


Sprague's Lodge 
Stanley Hotel 
Steads Ranch and Hotel 
Timberline Cabin . . 


A. E. Sprague 
Address Manager 
Address Manager 
Enos A. Mills 


Estes Park 
Estes Park 
Moraine Park. . . 
Lonar's Ptak 


50 
300 
200 


18.00 to 21.00 
28.00 to 84.00 
16.00 to 21.00 
4.25 (Day) 



Furnished cottages may be rented from C. H, Bond. Estes Park. Colo., and Hayden Bros.. Estes Park. Colo., 
at from $15.00 per week to $1.000.00 for the season. Mrs. C. R. Berger. Estes Park. Colo., has a number of cottage* 
and tent houses at McCrecry's Ranch, furnished for light housekeeping, for rent at $75.00 to $135.00 for the 



Page twenty-two 



seasoo 




The National Parks at a glance 

United States Railroad Administration 

Director General of Railroads 

For particulars as to fares, train schedules, etc., apply to any Railroad Ticket Agent, or to any 
of the following Consolidated Ticket Offices: 

West 



Beaumont, Tex. .Orleans and Pearl Sts. 

Bremerton, Wash 224 Front St. 

Butte, Mont 2 N. Main St. 

Chicago, 111 1 75 W. Jackson Blvd. 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 

119 E. Pike's Peak Ave. 

Dallas, Tex 1 12-1 14 Field St. 

Denver. Colo 601 I 7th St. 

Des Moines. Iowa 403 Walnut St. 

Duluth. Minn 334 W. Superior St. 

El Paso. Tex Mills and Oregon Sts. 

702 Houston St. 

. . . .J and Fresno Sts. 

.21st and Market Sts. 
. .585. Main St. 



Ft. Worth. Tex 
Fresno, Cal . . . 
Galveston, Tex 
Helena, Mont. . . . 
Houston. Tex .... 
Kansas City, Mo. 

Ry. Ex. Bldg.. 7th and Walnut Sts. 



. 904 Texas Ave. 



Lincoln, Nab 104 N. 13th St. 

Little Rock. Ark 202 W. 2d St. 

Long Beach. Cal.. . .L.A.& S.L. Station 

Los Angeles. Cal 215 S. Broadway 

Milwaukee. Wis 99 Wisconsin St. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 202 Sixth St. .South 
Oakland. Cal. . 13th St. and Broadway 

Ocean Park, Cal 160 Pier Ave. 

Oklahoma City. Okla. 1 3 1 W. Grand Ave. 

Omaha. N^b 1416 Dodge St. 

Peoria. 111.. .Jefferson and Liberty Sts. 
Phoenix, Ariz. 

Adams St. and Central Ave. 
Portland. Ore. . 3d and Washington Sts. 



St. Paul, Minn.. .4th and Jackson Sts. 

Sacramento, Cal 801 K St. 

Salt Lake City. Utah. 

Main and S. Temple St3. 
San Antonio. Texas. 

3 1 5- 1 7 N. St. Mary's St. 

San Diego. Cal 300 Broadway 

San Francisco. Cal. 

Lick Bldg.. Post St. and Lick Place 
San Jose. Cal. I st and San Fernando Sts. 

Seattle. Wash 714-16 2d Ave. 

Shreveport, La.Milam and Market Sts. 

Sioux City. Iowa 510 4th St. 

Spokane. Wash. 

Davenport Hotel, 815 Sprague Ave. 
Tacoma. Wash. . . I I I /-1 9 Pacific Ave. 
Waco, Texas. . . .6th and Franklin Sts. 
Whittier. Cal.. . . L. A. & S. L. Station 
Winnipeg, Man 226 Portage Ave. 



Annapolis. Md 54 Maryland Ave. 

Atlantic City. N. J. . . 1301 Pacific Ave. 
Baltimore, Md . . . B. & O. R. R. Bldg. 

Boston. Mass 67 Franklin St. 

Brooklyn. N. Y 336 Fulton St. 

Buffalo. N. Y..Main and Division Sts. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. . .6th and Main Sts. 
Cleveland, Ohio. . . . 1004 Prospect Ave. 

Columbus. Ohio 70 East Gay St. 

Dayton, Ohio 19 S. Ludlow St. 



Philadelphia. Pa. ...1539 Chestnut St. 
Pittsburgh, Pa Arcade Building 



Pueblo, Colo 401-3 N. Union Ave 

St Joseph, Mo 505 Francis St. 

St. Louis. Mo.. . .318-328 N. Broadway 

East 

Detroit. Mich. . . I 3 W. LaFayette Ave. 
Evansville. Ind.. .L. c N. R. R. Bldg. 

Grand Rapids. Mich 125 Pearl St. Reading. Pa 16 N. Fifth St. 

Indianapolis. Ind.l 12-14 English Block Rochester. N. Y 20 State St. 

Newark, N. J.Clinton and Beaver Sts. Syracuse, N. Y University Block 

New York N. Y 64 Broadway Toledo. Ohio 320 Madison Ave. 

New York' N. Y 57 Chambers St. Washington. D. C. . . . 1 229 F St.. N. W. 

New York' NY 31 W. 32d St. Williamsport. Pa 4th and Pine Sts. 

New York! N! Y I 1 4 W. 42d St. Wilmington. Del 905 Market St. 

South 

Asheville, N. C 14 S. Polk Square Knoxville. Ten n 600 Gay St. Paducah, Ky 430 Broadway 

Atlanta. Ga 74 Peachtree St. Lexington. Ky Union Station Pensacola. Fla San Carlos Hotel 

Augusta. Ga 811 Broad St. Louisville, Ky. . . . .4th and Market Sts. 

Birmingham, Ala 2010 1st Ave. Lynchburg, Va. . 722 Main St. 

Charleston. S. C Charleston Hotel Memphis. Tenn 60 N Main St. 

Charlotte. N. C 22 S. Tryon St. Mobile. Ala 51 S. Royal St. 

Chattanooga. Tenn ... .81 7 Market St. Montgomery. Ala Exchange Hotel 

Columbia. S. C Arcade Building Nashville, Tenn. Independent Life Bldg. 

Jacksonville. Fla 38 W. Bay St. New Orleans. La St. Charles Hotel 

For detailed information regarding National Parks and Monuments address Bureau of Service, 
National Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau Western Lines, 646 Transportation Bldg., 
Chicago. 

Page twenty-throe 



Raleigh. N. C 305 LaFayette St. 

Richmond. Va 830 E. Main St. 

Savannah. Ga 37 Bull St. 

Sheffield. Ala Sheffield Hotel 

Tampa. Fla Hillsboro Hotel 

Vicksburg. Miss .1319 Washington St. 
Winston-Salem. N. C. 236 N. Main St. 



SEASON 1919 



PRESS OF FAULKNER-RYAN CO.. CHICAGO 




" What if Man. that Thou Art Mindful of Him?" 
The original site of a mammoth glacier which ate into the granite heart of Long's Peak 










i lit! 



S E Q U d 

GENERAL G 

National Parks * Californi 




UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION 




PHOTO BY HERBERT W. GLEASON 

Page two 



Grand Sentinel, King's River Canyon 




An Appreciation of 

Sequoia and General Grant National Parks 

By ROBERT STERLING YARD, Chief, Educational Division, National Park Service 

Written Mspci uilly for the United States Railroad Administration 

IF all my mountain nights the one photographed most sharply upon 
memory was spent in a Sequoia grove of the Giant Forest. We had 
come in late from the Yosemite, two weeks on the trail, with mule 
and pack-train, the length of the proposed Roosevelt National Park. 
In early afternoon we had crossed the northern boundary into the Sequoia. 
At sundown we had camped upon a ridge crowned with red-stemmed giants. 
The packs were stripped from the mules and heaped around the forest kitchen. 
Tie Sing set up his sheet-iron stove and hustled dinner. Camp fires were has- 
tily lighted, and we availed of the last twilight to choose levels for our sleeping 
bags, for in the Sierra, where it does not rain in summer, trail travelers carry 
no tents. 

Three of us shared a bedroom nobler far than ever housed a king. It was 
pentagonal in shape with every angle a purplish red sequoia trunk fifteen feet 
in diameter. The fire of cones, blazing in the center of the brown, sweet- 
smelling floor, threw these glowing pillars into powerful relief and drew between 
them black enclosing curtains of night. The ceiling, a hundred and twenty 
feet above, heavily carved in hanging plumes of yellowish green which the 
flickering fire outlined, swayed softly in the evening breeze. 

Lying in comfort and complete seclusion, my senses soothed with per- 
fumes as rare as my surroundings, imagination held me an excited captive. A 
moment later sunshine and a thousand bird songs filled the room. 

If you want rest with inspiration, go to the Sequoia National Park. In the 
Giant Forest grow a million sequoia trees, some of them tiny babies of a year 
springing sharply from the warm, moist soil; some of them youngsters of a 
thousand years just peering over the tops of the towering sugar pines; some 
of them youths of two thousand years with fine rounded crowns and huge bent 
arms hugging their plumed togas; some of them majestic seniors, three hundred 
feet in height, who began life while the dramas of the Book of Exodus were 
still enacting. 

But these are not all. In this amazing forest the greatest pines and firs of 
the whole Sierra, festooned with trailing moss, attain their greatest height and 
thickness, the picturesque, deciduous trees of the region reach their fullest 
development, and flowering shrubs of a hundred species crowd the shaded aisles. 
It is the Forest of Enchantment. 

From the Sequoia National Park and its little neighbor, the General Grant 
National Park, you may accent your summer's rest by trail trips into the famous 
canyons and up to the High Sierra of the wonderful Roosevelt National Park 
to come. 

Go to Sequoia. You will find there what earth nowhere else possesses; 
and you will find it good. 




Page three 



To the American People: 

Uncle Sam asks you to be his guest. He has prepared for you the 
choice places of this continent places of grandeur, beauty and of 
wonder. He has built roads through the deep-cut canyons and beside 
happy streams, which will carry you into these places in comfort, and 
has provided lodgings and food in the most distant and inaccessible 
places that you might enjoy yourself and realize as little as possible 
the rigors of the pioneer traveler's life. These are for you. They are 
the playgrounds of the people. To see them is to make more hearty 
your affection and admiration for America. 



Secretary of the Interior 




Sequoia and General Grant National Parks 




N the western slopes of the 
Sierra Nevada in Califor- 
nia, south of the Kings 
River Canyon and west of 
the Canyon of the Kern, 
are the Sequoia and General Grant 
National Parks. They embrace a fairy- 
land of forest where wood-nymphs 
might revel to their hearts' content. 
Nowhere on earth would they feel so 
much at home; nowhere could they 
find such mazy labyrinths of dusky 
aisles, in such dense growths of mam- 
moth trees, in which to hold their 
frolics. 

The soothing influence of the wood- 
land appeals to all of us. Tired human- 
ity likes to stretch in the cool, beneath 
spreading branches. Let it be any kind 
of tree, or let it be only a rest for an 
hour or so, one rises refreshed. The 
charm has worked the ineffable 
charm of the out-of-doors and the for- 
est. And here, amidst mountain scen- 
ery unsurpassed in beauty and splendor, 
and beneath trees whose magnitude is 
unmatched, lies one of Nature's great- 
est rest-rooms and pleasure-grounds, 
open to all who seek healthful enjoy- 
ment, or who would behold some of 
the marvels of creation. 

The superb forests which cover this 
region contain the Sequoia Washing- 



toniana, or the Big Tree of California, 
some exceeding 300 feet in height and 
over 36 feet in diameter. It is the 
patriarch among trees, by some strange 
exemption saved to us from the pre- 
glacial age. It grows nowhere else 
than in the High Sierra of California, 
the finest specimens being embraced in 
the Sequoia, the Yosemite and the 
General Grant National Parks. But 
these trees are not to be thought of as 
the survivors of a dying species. There 
are many thousands of them here in 
their vigorous prime, hundreds of 
thousands of them in all the grace and 
strength of youth, their red shafts form- 
ing splendid collonades and cathedral- 
like archways. And when a mighty 
sequoia by chance is uprooted, its firm- 
grained wood lies undecaying for cen- 
turies. 

Who has best described these giants 
of the forest? See what John Muir 
said of them he who lived among 
them: 

"No description can give any ade- 
quate idea of their singular majesty, 
much less of their beauty. Excepting 
the sugar pine, most of their neighbors 
with pointed tops seem to be forever 
shouting 'Excelsior,' while the big tree, 
though soaring above them all, seems 
satisfied, its rounded head poised lightly 



Page four 



There are many ideal camping spots in this region 



as a cloud, giving no impression of try- 
ing to go higher. Only in youth does 
it show like other conifers a heaven- 
ward yearning, keenly aspiring with a 
long, quick-growing top. Indeed the 
whole tree for the first century or two, 
or until 1 00 to 150 feet high, is arrow- 
head in form, and, compared with the 
solemn rigidity of age, is as sensitive to 
the wind as a squirrel tail. The lower 
branches are gradually dropped as it 
grows older and the upper ones thinned 
out till comparatively few are left. 
These, however, are developed to great 
size, divide again and again, and ter- 
minate in bossy rounded masses of 
leafy branchlets, while the head be- 
comes dome-shaped." 

"Then poised in fullness of strength 
and beauty, stern and solemn in mien, 
it glows with eager, enthusiastic life, 
quivering to the tip of every leaf and 
branch and far-reaching root, calm as 
a granite dome, the first to feel the 
touch of the rosy beams of the morning, 
the last to bid the sun good-night." 

And what birdhouses they make! 
Of this feature John Muir wrote: 

The dense tufted sprays make snug 
nesting places for birds, and in some 
of the loftiest, leafiest towers of ver- 
dure thousands of generations have 
been reared, the great solemn tree 



shedding off flocks of merry singers 
every year from nests, like the flocks 
of winged seed from the cones." 
Of their age, he had this to say: 
"The big tree can not be said to at- 
tain anything like prime size and beauty 
before its fifteen-hundredth year, or 
under favorable circumstances become 
old before its three-thousandth." 

"Many no doubt are much older than 
this. On one of the giants, 35 feet 8 
inches in diameter exclusive of bark, I 
counted upward of four thousand an- 
nual wood rings, in which there was no 
trace of decay after all these centuries 
of mountain weather." 

More Than a Million Sequoia Trees 

The Sequoia National Park has an 
area of 161,597 acres, and ranges in 
altitude from 1,100 to 11,900 feet. 
In the Park there are over a million of 
sequoia trees, 12,000 of them exceed- 
ing ten feet in diameter, in addition to 
phenomenal monsters of great age. 
The Big Trees here are not in isolated 
groves, but within the park boundaries 
of twenty miles north to south, form a 
chain of twelve groves in an almost un- 
broken forest of sequoias and pine that 
extends southward across the whole 
Kaweah watershed and along the flanks 
of the range, for nearly seventy miles. 



Page five 




Golden Trout Creek 



The Giant Forest, so named by John 
Muir, is the largest of these groves, 
containing in its 3,200 acres over half 
a million sequoia trees, of which 5,000 
exceed ten feet in diameter. And 
here stands the General Sherman tree, 
most celebrated of all and the largest 
tree in the world, 279.9 feet high and 
36.5 feet in diameter. Such immensity 
in a tree is hard to realize; its massive 
trunk and branches contain about one 
million feet of lumber. Compared 
with the trees with which we are all fa- 
miliar the ordinary forest that we 
know these trees are like a troop of 
elephants amongst a flock of sheep. If 
placed closely side by side thirty-six 
of them would occupy an acre of land, 
whereas, were pine trees with trunks 
at the base four feet in diameter, simi- 
larly placed, over 2700 would be re- 
quired to fill the same space. Stand- 
ing amidst these forest giants one feels 
as though transported to another planet 
for trees like these we had not con- 
ceived of as being on Earth. 

The General Sherman tree has about 
reached its four -thousandth birthday, 
and was a seedling in the year B. C. 
2,080. The grove also contains many 
peers of the Sherman tree approach- 
ing it in size and age. Other noted 
trees in the Park are the Abraham Lin- 



coln, 270 feet high and 31 feet in 
diameter; and the William McKinley, 
which is 290 feet high with a diameter 
of 28 feet. There is a small hotel in 
the Giant Forest, where good accom- 
modations are provided; also an ad- 
joining camp of modern tent-houses. 

The General Grant National Park, 
lying to the northwest, across mountain, 
valley and forest, has an area of 2,536 
acres and ranges in altitude from 5,250 
to 7,631 feet. It is one of the smallest of 
our national parks and was established 
for the protection of the General Grant 
tree, widely known for its size and 
beauty. In the surrounding grove, 
which is as luxuriant in all growing 
things as the Giant Forest, there are 
10,000 sequoias, 190 of which exceed 
ten feet in diameter. The General 
Grant tree, which is second only to 
the General Sherman in size, and al- 
most the same age, is 264 feet high, 
and over 35 feet in diameter. A dis- 
tinguished neighbor is the George 
Washington tree, only nine feet less 
in height and six feet less in diameter. 
In a cathedral-like grove there is a 
camp of comfortable tent-houses. 

The southern boundary of the Gen- 
eral Grant National Park and the 
northern boundary of the Sequoia Na- 
tional Park are only six miles apart, 



Page s 



^ 




Mountain lake near base of Mt. Whitne^ 



but the horse trail between the Giant 
Forest in the Sequoia Park and the cen- 
ter of the Grant Park is thirty-two 
miles in length. An auto road between 
the Parks is under construction. 

Rugged Canyons, Peaks and Mountain 
Streams 

In addition to its big tree groves, the Sequoia 
National Park has many natural attractions 
that will delight the sightseer. There are 
wooded canyons thousands of feet deep, and 
mountain heights commanding sublime views. 
Many places of interest are within pleasant 
walking distance, and horse trails lead to the 
numerous more distant vantage points. Each 
trip unfolds a landscape that will remain long 
in the memory. The scene disclosed from the 
summit of Moro Rock across the great Can- 
yon of the Kaweah River, looking toward 
Castle Rock rising 5,000 feet from the valley 
floor, is notable. Moro Rock is two miles 
from Giant Forest by auto road. A 346-step 
stairway, with hand rail, leads to its top. 
Mount Silliman, 11,188 feet, is nine and a 
half miles to the northeast, its summit being 
reached by horse and foot trail, while to the 
south are Alta Peak and Alta Meadow, the 
latter an inviting stopping place, each com- 
manding vistas to the west and northwest 
wondrous in their mountain splendor. 

The Marble, Middle, East and South Forks 
of the Kaweah River wind deep in their 
rugged canyons northeast to southwest 
through the Park, and numerous tributary 
creeks and streams in wooded gorges and 
forest-rimmed meadows join them from all 
directions, so the angler finds many dark 
pools below foaming rapids, and likely 



stretches of riffling waters, in which to cast 
his flies. The Kaweah River drains the west- 
ern flank of the Great Western Divide and 
the southern flank of Silliman Crest. Its 
upper tributaries have a wild course through 
an exceedingly rugged part of the range, 
some streams descending 6,500 feet in a hori- 
zontal distance of less than five miles. These 
cascading torrents flow through wonderful 
glacial canyons whose walls still gleam with 
the polish left by the ice in ages past. The 
smooth and burnished walls of Buck Canyon, 
the main gorge of the Middle Fork of the 
Kaweah, shine in the early morning light with 
an almost unearthly refulgence. By stopping 
a night at Alta Meadow a full appreciation 
of the magnificent scenery of the Kaweah 
headwaters can be obtained. Alta Meadow 
lies high on the wall of Buck Canyon. Be- 
yond the canyon's deep rift rises the serrated 
skyline of the Great Western Divine, gor- 
geous in the flush of sunset. Peak after peak, 
rosy in the alpenglow, rises against a sky of 
pearly gray with flame-touched bands of 
clouds above, while canyons and forests lie 
veiled in shadowy blues and purples. 

From Vanderver's peak, 11,900 feet and 
the highest elevation in the Park, a glorious 
view embraces the Canyon of the Kern, with 
Mount Whitney's summit and the ridge of 
towering peaks that form the Highest Sierra, 
silhouetted on the eastern horizon. 

Crystal Cave 

Adding to the allurements of the Park, a 
wonderful cave was discovered in April, 
1918, in an unfrequented and rugged canyon, 
by anglers in quest of trout. It surpasses in 
attractiveness the famous Clough and Para- 
dise caves, also within the boundaries. It 
has been named Crystal Cave. It opens into 



Page seven 



m 






the southern side of a large limestone moun- 
tain, at the water's edge of Cactus Creek 
and near the western boundary. It has been 
explored a distance of 4,000 feet, and when 
certain openings have been enlarged, may 
disclose a mountain drilled with caverns. 
Throughout the cave, stalactites rich and 
wonderfully varied, sparkle in the gloom. 
There are chambers with ceilings a glittering 
mass of these needle-pointed spears, others 
with festoons of dazzling draperies suspended, 
while in some there stand bright fluted col- 
umns and stalagmites of surpassing symmetry 
and beauty. 
Wild Flowers; Bird and Wild Animal Life 

Wild flowers in abundance make garden 
spots throughout this woodland realm, dot- 
ting smooth meadows, peeping from mossy 
slopes and decorating rock crevises with their 
brilliant bloom. Flowering shrubs also lend 
their coloring to the park-like glades seen 
through openings in the forest; and in cool 
shady nooks ferns of many kinds, from the 
stately Warwardina to the dainty Maiden- 
hair, grow in rank luxuriance. 



John Muir said: "The Big Tree (Sequoia gigantea) i 

There have been recorded by the govern- 
ment supervisor forty-one species of birds, 
residents or seasonal visitors in the Sequoia 
Park. Of these, over one hundred named 

varieties many of them rare song birds and 

birds of bright plumage are seen and heard 

during the summer season, adding to one's 
pleasure and enjoyment. Many people visit 
the Park for the sole purpose of studying 
and ascertaining the habits of certain species 
of birds. A great number of the same varie- 
ties are found in the Grant Park. Frequently 
seen are the golden and bald eagle, owls, road- 
runners, woodpeckers and humming-birds, while 
warblers, finches and robins are everywhere. 
Both mountain and valley quail and Sierra 
grouse are also plentiful. 

Of wild animals, elk are occasionally seen 
in the Sequoia Park, while deer and bear, 
black and brown, are abundant in both the 
Sequoia and Grant Parks, as are also frol- 
icking squirrels, pine martens, hares and rab- 
bits. Mountain lions, lynx, timber wolves, 
foxes and coyotes are killed, or being driven 
from the Parks by the rangers whenever 



Nat. 



Page eight 









I 









iece. and, so far as I know, the greatest of living things." 

seen. Fire arms are not permitted within the 
National Parks. 

Proposed Roosevelt National Park 

The proposed Roosevelt National Park is 
designed to include not only the Sequoia 
National Park, but also the entire right-angle 
to the northeast formed by the Kings River 
Canyon, the Canyon of the Kern, and the 

High Sierra which lie to the eastward the 

giant peaks of the summit-crest culminating 
in Mount Whitney, 14,501 feet above sea 
level, and the highest mountain in the United 
States, excepting Mount McKinley in Alaska. 
The new territory embraces an area of 886,- 
000 acres. There are towering snow-capped 
peaks; sawtooth ridges; over-hanging cliffs that 
sink into deep slashed canyons; forested slopes 
and grass-covered glades, with thundering rivers, 
foaming cataracts, and clear smooth-running 
streams twining through forested vales. Amidst 
the higher wilderness of granite crags are count- 
less glacial lakes, that flash erecting to the sun 
from snow-bound basins, while a hundred rivu- 
lets born in snowy heights sing their way down 



from this alpine zone toward flowering meadows 
and fragrant groves of pine. 

It is a land of the winding zig-zag trail, 
of the saddle horse and pack animal, for the 
camper and the tent-dweller. For the angler 
it is the fishing ground of his most cherished 
fancies, for here are waters still new to the 
cast of the fly. It is a real man's country; 
a country of the most glorious out-of-doors; 
and with its salubrious climate, a summer 
vacation-land beyond compare. Here the 
business man on his well-earned outing can 
laugh at office cares and nerve-rack, and re- 
turn to the city re-made, with vigor renewed; 
and many of his women folk, long-booted and 
mountain-togged, will enjoy it all as much 
as he. 

The Kings River Canyon 

About thirty-five miles north of the General 
Grant and the Sequoia National Parks, tl~e 
Kings River Canyon cuts east and west into 
the heart of the Sierra. 

From both the Grant Park and the Giant 
Forest in the Sequoia Park, over trai's by way 
of Horse Corral Meadow and Lookout Point, 



Page nine 



SEQUOIA 

AND 

GENERAL GRANT 
NATIONAL PARKS 

CALIFORNIA 



. _ Boundary 

, ^_ Boundary Proposed 

Roosevelt National Park 
utomobile Roads 
'ain Trails 
.Other Trails 



*J&Y < &?js&fe 

Gardiner V /X^^eSO 11" i ^S 

2903 ft. C \ (t^H-X 




Page ten 



saddle-horses and pack animals wind through 
primeval forests and alcng shoulders of great 
mountain ridges where lofty snow-clad peaks 
and deep gorges flash into view at every turn. 

The first view of the canyon from Lookout 
Point cannot be surpassed. Kings River Can- 
yon curves but little and its long perspective is 
seen for miles bisecting the Sierra ricges. At 
the base of precipices shimmer moist green 
meadows; dark forest-patches spot slopes and 
canyon floor, and through it all is traced 
the silvery line of the South Fork of the 
Kings River, its flow broken by long rapids, 
deep pools and tumultuous cascades. 

From Lookout Point the descent in three 
miles is 3,300 feet, and the floor of the 
canyon is reached at Cedar Grove, where the 
river is crossed and the trail makes upstream. 
The air is fragrant with pine and incense- 
cedar, ahead gleam open sunlit meadows 
bright with flowers, or set with trees in park- 
like precision but the roar of the river al- 
ways is in our ears. The comfortable tent- 
houses of the Kings River Camp stand beneath 
the brows of the the greatest cliffs of the canyon. 
Above rises the huge North Dome, and across 
the river (which is here joined by the rushing 
Copper Creek), looms the great Sentinal, its 
grani e face glowing with colors, its crest 3,500 
feet above the waters edge. The Sphinx rears its 
head nearby. Much of the finest scenery lies 
close at hand Paradise Valley; the wild Bubb's 
Creek ravine; Mist Falls and Roaring River 
Falls. Glacier Rock rises at the head of the 
canyon, where the Kings River turns in from 
the north and is joined by Bubb's Creek cas- 
cading down from the east. 

The trail continues along the headwaters 
of the Kings, which make their way through 
its narrow gorge, breaking white against 
granite rocks. Five miles to the north the 
defile widens into a level-floored meadow held 
within vertical cliffs. This is Paradise Val- 
ley, a beautiful vale of the Sierra type, of the 
same character as Yosemite. Here camping 
is truly ideal and the angler will be tempted 
to follow the Kings to its lofty snowbank 
sources. A well-marked trail leads up the 
western side of the canyon to Woods Creek, 
and up that stream to Rae Lake, Lake Char- 
lotte, East Lake, Lake Reflection and Bry- 

anthus Lake gems of the clearest crystal 

and alive with trout. They are reached also 
by the Bubb's Creek trail. 

Another wonderful gorge reached from 
Kings River Camp, is Tehipite Canyon, on 
the Middle Fork of the Kings River. Tehi- 
pite Pinnacles are a series of jagged spires. 
At their base are wild waterfalls, and on 
Cartridge Creek, a tributary, are splendid 
cascades. Simpson Meadow is an excellent 
camping place. 

The Bubb's Creek trail leads from the 
Kings River Canyon up a steep ravine where 
the turbulent stream is terraced with count- 
less cascades. The canyon is like a great 
stairway into the heights above. At the top 
is the mighty rock-ridge of which the lowest 
point is Kearsarge Pass. Here one stands 
upon the bare back-bone of the Sierra. 



Mount Gould, Mount Gardner, the East Vi- 
dette, West Vidette, Deerhorn Mountain, 
Mount Bradley and Mount Rixford are ar- 
rayed against the skyline in a chain of ice- 
clad peaks. From this viewpoint you look 
far down the eastern wall of the Sierra to 
Owens Valley gleaming in the sun. 

The Mighty Gorge of the Kern River 

The Kern River Canyon is the only one 
of the mighty gorges of the Sierra Nevada 
which has a north and south trend, and is 
even more extensive than the canyon of the 
Kings; its walls rise as high, its encompassing 
peaks are higher. From the Kings Canyon 
you may cross the lofty Kings-Kern Divide 
over the John Muir trail east of Junction 
Peak, entering the Canyon of the Kern at 
its upper end. 

From Giant Forest a popular trail leads 
past Alta Meadow to Mineral King Valley, 
thence through Franklin Pass and down the 
canyon of Rattlesnake Creek to Kern River 
Canyon at the Lower Funston Meadow; 
while another trail is from Mineral King 
through Farewell Gap to Coyote Pass, de- 
scending into the great gorge at its lower 
end, opposite Volcano Creek, the home of 
the far-famed golden trout. The Kern River 
itself, a clear, cold mountain torrent, is a de- 
servedly noted trout stream. Rainbow trout, 
weighing over eight pounds, have been taken 
in these waters. 

The Kern Canyon reaches into the very 
heart of the highest Sierra. To the west rise 
the Kaweah Peaks, the loftiest 14,140 feet 
above sea level. From Miner's Peak one may 
look down upon the great Chagoopa Forest 
and into the immense dark cleft in the earth 
known as the Big Arroyo. Far to the north- 
east, at the head of the Kern Canyon, looms 
Mount Tyndall, 14,101 feet. 

A trail follows the Kern Canyon north to 
south, thirty miles, the cliffs on either side 
often rising three thousand feet. At one 
point in the lower canyon the course of the 
river, blocked by a landslide, has formed Kern 
Lake, a placid expanse of water which mir- 
rors its surroundings with miraculous clear- 
ness. 

Many Peaks for Mountain Climbing 

The mountaineer should strive to make 
the Mount Whitney trip. Its ascent is not 
especially difficult, and can be accomplished 
by continuous climbing for six or seven hours. 
From this supreme summit, 14,501 feet, more 
than sixteen thousand square miles lie out- 
spread beneath the eye a territory larger 

than Switzerland and within the range of 
vision are no less than sixty peaks exceed- 
ing twelve thousand feet in altitude. And 
from the summit of Mount Whitney one looks 
from the highest to the lowest point in Amer- 
ica, Death Valley, 351 feet below sea level, 
being visible far to the southeast. Mount 
Williamson, 14,384 feet, is much more dif- 
ficult. Tyndall, 14,025 feet, Langley, 14,043 
feet, and the South Kaweah, 13.816 feet, 
are all interesting climbs for those who are 
happiest when ascending the peaks of the sky. 



Page eleven 




Twin Sisters. General Grant National Park 




In the High Sierra is a chain of lakes that reflect the glories of great snow peaks 



Accommodations and Transportation 
in the Parks 

Sequoia National Park. At the Giant Forest there is 
a hotel-camp, a general store, telephone station, photo- 
graph galleries, and post office of Giant Forest, Calif. 

Rates of Giant Forest Hotel-Camp 
Board and lodging: 

One person, per day $ 3.50 

One person, per week 19.50 

One person, four weeks 72.00 

Two persons, per day, each 3.00 

Two persons, per week, each 17.50 

Two persons, four weeks, each 65.00 

Meals without lodging: 

Breakfast and lunch, each 75 

Dinner 1.00 

Lodging without meals 1 .00 

One-naif of the regular rate will be charged for children 
under 8 years of age. 

Baths $0.35 

Guests desiring extra tent room will be charged as 
follows: 

Tent capacity of four people occupied by two, 50 cents 
each per day extra. 

Tent capacity of two people occupied by one, 50 cents 
per day extra. 



The Sequoia National Park Transportation Co. operates 
an auto stage service from Giant Forest to points of interest 
in the park at the following rates: 

Rates of Sequoia National Park Transportation Co. 
Parker Group, Moro Rock, and return one person 

Two or more, each 

Admiration Point and return One person 

Two or more, each 

General Sherman Tree and return One person. 

Two or more, each 

General Sherman Tree and Wolverton and icturn 

One person 

Two or more, each ... 



$1.00 

.75 

3.00 

2.50 

1.00 

.75 



2.00 
1.50 



Chester Wright. Giant Forest. Calif., has a license to 
conduct a saddle and pack animal transportation service 
in the Sequoia National Park. 

Parties can hire saddle horses and pack mules at $1.50 
Per < j y eac ^' kut in all cases guide must accompany same. 
at $3.00 per day, the guide taking charge of packing and 
relieving tourists of responsibility for animals. All animals 
will be equipped with riding or pack saddles. 



Rates for Guides and Horses 

To Sherman Tree and return $2.00 

To Sherman Tree, Wolverton, and return by Circle 

Meadow 3.00 

To Moro Rock and return 2.00 

To Moro Rock and return by Crescent. Log. and 

Huckleberry Meadows 2.50 

To Alta and return 3.50 

To Twin Lakes and return 3.50 

To Moro Rock, Crescent, Log, Huckleberry Mea- 
dows, and Wolverton, and Sherman Tree 3.50 

Parties wishing to make long trips will be furnished with 
special rates. 

General Grant National Park. In General Grant 
National Park there is a camp, a general store, telephone 
station, photograph gallery, and post office of General 
Grant National Park, Calif. 

Rates of General Grant National Park Camp 

Board and lodging: 

Per day, each person $ 3.25 

Per week, each person .... 

Per month, each person 68.00 

Meals or lodging, part of a day: 

Breakfast 75 

Lunch. 

Dinner 1.00 

Lodging 1 .00 

One-half of the regular rate will be charged for children 
under 8 years of age. 

Baths $0.35 

Guests desiring extra tent room will be charged as 
follows: 

Tent capacity of four people occupied by two. 50 cent* 
each per day extra. 

Tent capacity of two people occupied by one. 50 cent* 
per day extra. 

During the season of 1919 a few specially appointed 
cottages, with private reception room, hot and cold 
showers, etc., will be maintained at rate of $4.00 per day 
for one person, $3.50 per day for two persons, each, includ- 
ing board and lodging. 

Rates for Saddle Horse and Guide Service 
A tri-weekly saddle and pack train service is operated 

from General Grant Park to Kings River Canyon. The 

rates at the Kings River Canyon Camp are the same aa 

at the National Park, and the camp is under the same 

management. 

General Grant National Park is the logical gateway to 

Kings River Canyon points, such as Kearsarge Pass. Mt. 

Brewer. Rae Lake. Middle Fork Canyon, Simpson Meadow. 

and other points in the area of the proposed Roosevelt 

National Park. 



Page thirteen 



Saddle horses, per day $2.50 

Pack mules, per day 

Packers and guides, per day 

Donkeys, per day ' -50 

Donkeys, per week 7.00 

Fare to Kings River Canyon and return 

How to Reach the Parks 

Sequoia National Park 

From the railroad stations of Exeter and Visalia. Calif., 
the Visalia Electric Railroad operates frequent daily service 
to Lemon Cove, Calif. Lemon Cove is connected with 
Sequoia National Park by automobile stages of the Sequoia 
National Park Transportation Company. 

Automobile stages leave Lemon Cove Mondays, Wednes- 
days and Fridays at 12:30 p. m.; arrive Giant Forest, 
Sequoia National Park (40 miles) 5:30 p. m. Stages leave 
Giant Forest Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, 7:00 
a. m.; arrive Lemon Cove 12:00 noon. Special trips will 
be made on alternate days under the same schedule when 
two or more passengers are available. 

Fares via Visalia Electric Railroad 

Between Visalia and Lemon Cove (21 miles), one-way 65c., 

round-trip $1.10. 
Between Exeter and Lemon Cove (1 1 miles), one way 35c., 

round-trip 60c. 

Stage Fares to Sequoia National Park 

Between Lemon Cove and Giant Forest, one-way $6.50, 

round-trip $12.00. 

Children under 12 years of age, one-half fare. 
Baggage allowance, 40 pounds; excess baggage, 2c per 
pound. 

General Grant National Park 

General Grant National Park is connected by automobile 
stages of the Kings River Stage & Transportation Com- 
pany with the railroad station of Sanger, Calif. 

Touring cars, operated by the Kings River Stage & 
Transportation Co., leave Sanger each morning (except 
Sunday) at 9:00 a. m. and arrive at General Grant National 
Park (46 miles) at 2:30 p. m.; leave General Grant Na- 
tional Park at 9:00 a. m. and arrive Sanger at 2:00 p. m. 
Stops for lunch are made in each direction. 

Stage Fares to General Grant National Park 

From Sanger to General Grant National Park, $5.50. 
From General Grant National Park to Sanger, $4.00. 
Round-trip. $8.00. 

Baggage allowance, 50 pounds; excess baggage, $1.25 per 
100 pounds. 

Season 

The 1919 season for both Parks extends from May 24th 
to October !0th. 

Park Administration 

Sequoia and General Grant National Parks are under the 
jui isdict ion of the Director, National Park Service, Depart- 
ment of the Interior, Washington, D. C. The Park Super- 
intendent is located at Three Rivers, Calif. 

Railroad Tickets and Stopovers 

During summer season round-trip excursion tickets at 
reduced fares are sold at certain stations in California to 
Sequoia National Park and to General Grant National 
Park as destinations. ^ 

Through tickets to other destinations (reading between 
Los Angeles and San Francisco, for example), will be hon- 
ored via Exeter and Sanger instead of via Goshen Junction. 



or via Visalia instead of via Laton, as the case might be. 
Both round-trip and one-way tickets are good for stop- 
overs at Exeter or Visalia for side-trip to Sequoia National 
Park, and at Sanger for side-trip to General Grant National 
Park. 



U. S. Government Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 
at prices given. Remittances should be made 
by money order or in cash: 

"The Secret of the Big Trees," by Ellsworth Huntington. 

24 pages, 14 illustrations, 5 cents. 
" Forests of Yosemite, Sequoia, and General Grant National 

Parks," by C. L. Hill. 40 pages, 23 illustrations, 20 

cents. 
"The National Parks Portfolio," by Robert Sterling Yard. 

260 pages. 270 illustrations, descriptive of nine national 

parks. Pamphlet edition, 35 cents; book edition, 55 

cents. 



The following may be obtained from the 
Director of the United States Geological Sur- 
vey, Washington, D. C., at prices given. 

Topographic map of Sequoia National Park, 10 cents. 

Topographic map of General Grant National Park, 10 
cents. 



The following publications may be ob- 
tained free by written request addressed to the 
Director, National Park Service, Washington, 
D. C., or by personal application to the 
office of the superintendent of the park : 

Circular of General Information Regarding Sequoia and 

General Grant National Parks. 

Glimpses of Our National Parks. 48 pages, illustrated. 
Map showing location of National Parks and Monuments 

and railroad routes thereto. 



U. S. R. R. Administration Publications 

The following publications may be ob- 
tained free on application to any consolidated 
ticket office; or apply to the Bureau of Service, 
National Parks and Monuments, or Travel 
Bureau Western Lines, 646 Transportation 
Building, Chicago, 111. : 

Arizona and New Mexico Rockies 

California for the Tourist 

Colorado and Utah Rockies 

Crater Lake National Park, Oregon 

Glacier National Park, Montana 

Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona 

Hawaii National Park, Hawaiian Islands 

Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas 

Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado 

Mount Ranier National Park, Washington 

Northern Lakes Wisconsin, Minnesota, Upper Michigan. 

Iowa and Illinois 
Pacific Northwest and Alaska 
Petrified Forest National Monument, Arizona 
Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado 
Sequoia and General Grant Nat onal Parks. California 
Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho 
Yosemite National Park. California 
Zion National Monument. Utah 




Deer Horn Mountains from Bryanthus Lake. Sequoia National Park 



Page fourteen 



FSF^ 




The National Parks at a Glance 



United States Railroad Administration 

Director General of Railroads 
For particulars as to fares, train schedules, etc., apply to any Railroad Ticket Agent, or to any 



of the following Consolidated Ticket Offices: 



Beaumont. Tex., Orleans and Pearl Sts. 

Bremerton. Wash 224 Front St. 

Butte. Mont 2 N. Main St. 

Chicago. 111. ... 175 W. Jackson Blvd. 
Colorado Springs. Colo.. 

II9E. Pike's Peak Ave. 

Dallas. Tex 1 12-1 14 Field St. 

Denver. Colo 601 17th St. 

-Des Moines. Iowa 403 Walnut St. 

Duluth, Minn. . . .334 W. Superior St. 
El Paso. Tex. . .Mills and Oregon Sts. 

Ft. Worth. Tex 702 Houston St. 

Fresno. Calif J and Fresno Sts. 

Galveston. Tex. 2 1st and Market Sts. 

Helena. Mont 58 S. Main St. 

-Houston. Tex 904 Texas Ave. 

Kansas City. Mo., 

Ry. Ex. Bldg.. 7th and Walnut Sts. 



Lincoln. Neb 104 N. 13th St. 

Little Rock. Ark 202 W. 2d St. 

Long Beach. Calif.. L.A. & S.L. Station 
Los Angeles. Calif ... 2 1 5 S. Broadway 

Milwaukee. Wis 99 Wisconsin St. 

Minneapolis. Minn.. 202 Sixth St.South 
Oakland. Calif. 13th St. and Broadway 

Ocean Park. Calif 160 Pier Ave. 

Oklahoma City. Okla.. 

131 W. Grand Ave. 

Omaha. Neb 1416 Dodge St. 

Peoria. 111. .Jefferson and Liberty Sta. 
Phoenix. Ariz., 

Adams St. and Central Ave. 
Portland, Ore., 3d and Washington Sts. 

Pueblo, Colo 401-3 N. Union Ave. 

St. Joseph. Mo 505 Francis St. 

St. Louis. Mo., 

I 318-328 N. Broadway 

East 



St. Paul. Minn. .4th and Jackson Sta. 

Sacramento. Calif 801 K St. 

Salt Lake City. Utah. 

Main and S. Temple Sta. 
San Antonio, Tex., 

315-17 N. St. Mary 'a St. 

San Diego, Calif 300 Broadway 

San Francisco. Calif. 

Lick Bldg.. Post St. and Lick Place 
San Jose, Calif.. IstandSanFernandoSta. 

Seattle. Wash 714-16 2d Ave. 

Shreveport, La..Milam and Market Sta. 

Sioux City. Iowa .510 4th St. 

Spokane. Wash.. 

Davenport Hotel, 815 Sprague Ave. 
Tacoma, Wash .. 1 I 1 7-19 Pacific Ave. 

Waco, Tex 6th and Franklin Sta. 

Whittier. Calif . L. A. & S. L. Station 



Winnipeg. Man 



226 Portage Ave. 



- ***iMJVVM10 t IVIU . . . 

Atlantic City, N. J.. 1301 Pacific Ave. 
Baltimore. Md. . . B. & O. R. R. Bldg. 

Boston. Mass 67 Franklin St. 

Brooklyn. N. Y 336 Fulton St. 

Buffalo. N. Y.. Main and Division Sts. 
-Cincinnati. Ohio. .6th and Main Sts. 
.1004 Prospect Ave. 



. 

Cleveland. Ohio. 
Columbus. Ohio 
Dayton. Ohio . . . 



1539 Chestnut St. 

. .Arcade Building 

Reading. Pa 16 N. Fifth St. 

Rochester. N. Y 20 State St. 

Syracuse. N. Y.. 
Toledo. Ohio . . . 



. 70 East Gay St. 
19S. Ludlow St. 



Washington. D. C 
Williamsport. Pa 



. University Block 
320 Madison Ave. 
.1229 F St. N. W. 
.4th and Pine Sta. 



.Annapolis Md 54 Maryland Ave. Detroit. Mich. . 13 W. LaFayette Ave. I Philadelphia. Pa 

Evansville. Ind. .L. & N. R. R. Bldg. Pittsburgh. Pa. . 

Grand Rapids. Mich 125 Pearl St. 

Indianapolis. Ind.. I 12-14 English Block 
Newark. N. J.. Clinton and Beaver Sts. 

New York, N. Y 64 Broadway 

New York. N. Y. . . .57 Chambers St. 

New York. N. Y 31 W. 32d St. 

New York. N. Y 1 14 W. 42d St. | Wilmington. Del 905 Market St. 

South 

Knoxville, Tenn 600 Gay St. 

Lexington. Ky Union Station 

Louisville. Ky. . .4th and Market Sta. 

Lynchburg. Va 722 Main St. 

Memphis. Tenn 60 N. Main St. 

Mobile. Ala 51 S. Royal St. 

Montgomery. Ala .... Exchange Hotel 
Nashville Tenn.. Independent Life Bldg. 
New Orleans. La .... St. Charlea Hotel 

For detailed information regarding National Parks and Monuments address Bureau of Service, 
National Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau Western Lines. 646 Transportation Bldg.. 
Chicago. 

Page fifteen 



Asheville. N. C. . . . 14 S. Polk Square 

Atlanta. Ga 74 Peachtree St. 

Augusta, Ga 8 11 Broad St. 

Birmingham, Ala 2010 1st Ave. 

'Charleston. S. C Charleston Hotel 

Charlotte. N. C 22 S. Tryon St. 

Chattanooga. Tenn. . .817 Market St. 

Columbia. S. C Arcade Building 

Jacksonville. Fla 38 W. Bay St. 



Paducah. Ky . 
la. Fla 



.430 Broadway 

Pensacola. Fla San Carlos Hotel 

Raleigh. N. C 305 LaFayette St. 

Richmond. Va 830 E. Main St 

Savannah. Ga 37 Bull St. 

Sheffield. Ala Sheffield Hotel 

Tampa. Fla Hillsboro Hotel 

Vicksburg. Miss. 13 19 Waahington St. 
Winaton-Salem. N. C.. 236 N. Main St. 



SEASON 1919 



RATHBUN-6RANT-HELLER CO.. CHICAGO 




The General Sherman Tree, largest and oldest living thing in all the world 




YELLOWSTONE 

National Park 



WYOMING - 



NTANA- IDAHO 




UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION 



P A R. K. 



Copyright by Hayni. Si. Paul 

Riverside Geyer Unlike moet Geycrs it cpouU obliquely instead of vertically. |t arching column of water 

thrown into the Firehole River 
P a i* < uo 




An Appreciation of 

Yellowstone National Park 

By EMERSON HOUGH 

Author oj "The Mississippi Rubble" "54-40 or Fight" '"Che Wau to the West." ft, 
Written Especially for the United States Railroad Administration 

FTER every war there comes a day of diligence. Usually 
war is followed by a rush of soldiers back to the soil. 
We have 3,000,000 soldiers, a large per cent of whom 
are seeking farms. This means the early use of every 
reclaimable acre of American soil. It means that the 
wildernesses of America soon will be no more. 

Our great National Parks are sections of the old American wilder- 
ness preserved practically unchanged. They are as valuable, acre 
for acre, as the richest farm lands. They feed the spirit, the soul, the 
character of America. 

Who can measure the value, even to-day, of a great national 
reserve such as the Yellowstone Park? In twenty years it will be 
beyond all price, for in twenty years we shall have no wild America. 
The old days are gone forever. Their memories are ours personally. 
We ought personally to understand, to know, to prize and cherish 
them. 

Of all the National Parks Yellowstone is the wildest and most 
universal in its appeal. There is more to see there more different 
sorts of things, more natural wonders, more strange and curious things, 
more scope, more variety a longer list of astonishing sights than 
any half dozen of the other parks combined could offer. Daily new, 
always strange, ever full of change, it is the circus park, Nature's 
continuous Coney Island. It is the most human and the most popular 
of all the parks. 

But Yellowstone is more, and very much more, than that, espe- 
cially in its new and vastly enlarged form to-day. As it now is con- 
stituted, it is the noblest sweep of unspoiled and yet fully accessible 
mountain country to be found within or without our National Park 
limits. Here, indeed, you may see the ROCKIES, and as you look, 
there will arise in your soul the phrase, "As it was in the Beginning!" 
Happily also follows the remainder of the choral chant, "Is now, and 
ever shall be!" What price can you put on that? 

Yellowstone is at once the easiest, the most feasible, the most 
human of all the parks, and also the wildest and most unchanged. 
No other park, and no other mountain region within our borders, 

Page three 



holds such numbers, or such numbers of species, of native American 
big game. 

The bears of Yellowstone have made it famous, as has its Painted 
Canyon. Its vast elk herds the last hope of that species in America- 
have no like anywhere in our country now. The bighorn sheep, rarest 
and wildest of our big game animals, still lives its old life there. The 
wise and busy beaver builds its dams as it always did. The antelope 
still may be seen, shadowy, fleet. The two species of American deer 
still thrive. Lastly, there still are to be seen some hundreds of the 
noblest of all our wild animals, the bison; a herd larger now than it 
was when, in the winter of 1894, the writer of these lines explored 
Yellowstone Park on ski and made public the danger then existing 
of the extinction of the wild bison at the hands of ruthless winter 
hunters. 

Who can measure the value of these native treasures? Where 
else can you see them? What other country, what other printed page, 
can teach you so much as a week's reading of Nature's page here? 

And you can travel and live in perfect comfort! That is alm< 
the most astonishing thing about Yellowstone. You can photograph 
a wild bear and eat a course dinner within the same hour. You per- 
haps can see the buffalo from your seat in a comfortable touring c< 
You can see the Canyon and geysers and the Grand Tetons and a do; 
bold mountain lakes and streams and yet sleep in as good a bed 
you left at home. Literally, the world has nothing like this. Otl 
parks have one attraction, several; but none has all these. And 
discomfort or danger or weariness will mar your day's delights. 

I know the Yellowstone why should I not, who have seen 
last corners, summer and winter? I have fought for its elk, its buff< 
its trout, its wider-flung boundaries. I know it and love it all that 
is why the United States Railroad Administration asks me to write 
these few words about it. So will you love it when you know 
And you ought to know it. That is part of your education as 
American, as well as one of your American privileges in pleasurii 

Thank God, you Americans, that Yellowstone is now and 
shall be your own! Thank God that there you still can see a part 
of the old West your own West as it was in the Beginning! 



Page four 





Page five 



=! " 



1 



To the American People: 

Uncle Sam asks you to be his guest. He has prepared for you the 
choice places of this continent places of grandeur; beauty and of 
wonder. He has built roads through the deep-cut canyons and beside 
happy streams, which will carry you into these places in comfort, and 
has provided lodgings and food in the most distant and inaccessible 
places that you might enjoy yourself and realize as little as possible 
the rigors of the pioneer traveler's life. These are for you. They are 
the playgrounds of the people. To see them is to make more hearty 
your affection and admiration for America. 



Secretary of the Interior 




Yellowstone National Park 



The Yellowstone is the largest and per- 
haps the best known of our national 
parks. 

John Colter, of the Lewis and Clark 
Expedition, who was in the region in 
1807, was the first white man to see any 
part of what is now the Park. James 
Bridger and Jos. L. Meek, fur trappers, 
were there in the 30's. Warren A. Ferris 
saw the geysers in 1834, and wrote the 
first published account of them. Captain 
DeLacy explored a part of the country 
in 1863. Folsom, Cook, and Peterson 
were there in 1869; the Washburn-Doane 
party in 1870, and Doctor Hayden in 
1871-72. 

Yellowstone was created a national 
park by act of Congress, in 1872. The 
Park proper is about 62 miles long from 
north to south, 54 miles wide, and has 
an area of 3,348 square miles, or 2, 1 42,270 
acres. It is situated principally in north- 
western Wyoming, but laps over a little 
on the north and west into Montana and 
Idaho. The Park is an elevated plateau 
surrounded by mountains and has an 



average elevation above sea level ran} 
ing from 7,000 to 8,000 feet. 

There is nothing in all the world lil 
Yellowstone National Park. You can' 
make it relative, because there is 
standard of comparison; but you m< 
take it for granted that it is the r< 
wonderland, embracing an aggregatic 
of fantastic phenomena as weird as it 
wild and remarkable. It contains g< 
sers, mud volcanoes, mineral spring 
exquisitely colored pools, and simil< 
manifestations of Nature. There 
found here something like 4,000 h( 
springs, large and small; 100 geysers, 
and little. It has many rushing riv< 
and limpid lakes, well filled with troul 
It has waterfalls of great height and Ian 
volume. It has dense forests, mainly of 
pine, spruce, fir, and cedar. It has areas 
of petrified forests with trunks standing. 
A wide variety of wild flowers of brilliai 
hues grow in profusion. It has cany< 
of sublimity, one of which presents 
unequalled spectacle of golden coloi 
Its immense area affords safe refuge 



Page six 




Copyright by Haynes, St. Paul 

An interesting bit of the Grand Canyon below Tower Falls 



Page seven 



Copyright by Haynes, St. Paul 

Wild flowers grow in great profusion and variety almost everywhere in Yellowstone National Park 



the animals of the wild. Nearly 200 
different kinds of birds have been noted 
here. The hotels rank with the best 
resort hotels to be found anywhere. 
The permanent camps offer all the enjoy- 
able features of camp life, without its dis- 
comforts. 

Thus it will be noted that it is a mis- 
take to associate Yellowstone with gey- 
sers alone. While the Yellowstone gey- 
sers have no counterpart in the rest of the 
world, without the geysers the Yellow- 
stone watershed alone, with its glowing 
canyon, would be worthy of a national 
park. Were there also no canyon, the 
scenic wilderness and its incomparable 
wealth of wild animal life would be wor- 
thy of the national park. The person- 
ality of the Yellowstone is threefold. 
The hot-water manifestations are worth 
minute examination, the canyon a con- 
templative visit, the park a summer. 
Dunraven Pass, Mount Washburn, the 
Grand Canyon at Tower Falls, and other 
interesting points are not extensively 
known, but should be seen by every 
visitor to the Park. 

A bill providing for the addition to 



Yellowstone Park of an area of 1,1 
square miles, south of and adjoining tl 
Park, is pending in Congress. This 
tension will include the craggy, serrate 
granite peaks of the Teton Range, Jacl 
son Lake, all of the rugged scenic lam 
north of the Buffalo Fork of the Snal 
River, including the valleys of Pilgrii 
and Pacific creeks to Two Ocean Pas 
also the canyons, lakes, and forests of tl 
Upper Yellowstone and the Thorofai 
Basin. The inclusion of this territor 
will give Yellowstone a stupendous e? 
hibit of mountain scenery, which is coi 
parable to the finest in the world. Tl 
amazing Teton Mountains are, from th< 
nature, a part of the Yellowstone NJ 
tional Park, whose gamut of majesti< 
scenery they complete. Already Yellow- 
stone visitors have claimed it and auto- 
mobile stages operate to Moran on Jack- 
son Lake. 

As a place for one to spend as man] 
weeks as may be possible during th< 
heated months, no spot in this count 
excels Yellowstone. Its elevation 
sea level an average of 7,500 feet il 
location in the heart of the Americai 



/' a i- c eight 



Rockies amid some of the earth's most 
inspiring scenery, combined with the 
extreme purity of the atmosphere, the 
tonic and exhilarating effect of the moun- 
tain climate, the fine character of the 
hotels arid camps, the good roads and 
trails affording the most interesting horse- 
back rides, the excellent trout fishing, 
the mountain climbing, the weird scenery, 
the wild animals all make up the ensem- 
ble of an ideal vacation experience. The 
Park is absolutely unique and original; 
to see it once means a desire to see it 
again. It grows on one, and many 
revisit it year after year. Remember 
Yellowstone National Park is yours. 

An Invigorating Climate 

The elevation, together with the corre- 
sponding equable temperatures, the pure 
waters, and the health-laden breezes from 
the pine forests, is sufficient explanation 
of the Park's nearly perfect climate. 
During the tourist season the mean aver- 
age temperatures range from 54 to 64, 
with a maximum of 88. The air is pure 
and bracing. 



With days that are comfortable and 
sunshiny, but never hot and oppressive, 
inviting opportunity for every kind of 
healthful recreation; with nights that 
are always cool, conducive to sound sleep, 
nothing is wanting to make a week, a 
month, or a season here everything that 
an outing should be. Those who spend 
any considerable time in the Park and 
engage in fishing, hiking or horseback 
riding, motoring or boating, will receive 
big "dividends" in health. 

Where The Geysert Gush 

Nature has lavished her gifts on the 
region of the Yellowstone. Here are wild 
woodland, crystal rivers, gorgeous can- 
yons, and sparkling cascades; but of all 
its wonders none is so unusual, so start- 
ling, so weird, as the geysers. Once 
seen, the memory and mystery of them 
will forever linger. The Yellowstone 
geysers are renowned the world over, be- 
cause of their size, power, number, and 
variety of action. 

The more prominent geysers are con- 
fined to three basins, lying near each 




Copyright by Haynes, St. Paul 
Punch Bowl Spring One of a myriad of hot springs, pools and geysers, which fill the Upper Geyser Basin 



other in the middle west zone. Other 
hot water manifestations occur in all 
parts of the Park. Marvelously col- 
ored hot springs, mud volcanoes, and 
other strange phenomena are frequent. 
The geysers exhibit a large variety 
of character and action. Some, like 
Old Faithful, spout at regular inter- 
vals; some of the other large ones play at 
irregular intervals of days, weeks, or 
months; some small ones play every few 
minutes. Some burst upward with im- 
mense power; others hurl streams at 
angles or bubble and foam. 

Yellowstone has more geysers than all 
the rest of the world. Some are literal 
volcanoes of water. To translate this 
into volume we will use Old Faithful as 
an example. According to observations 
made by the United States Geological 
Survey, this most famous of all geysers 
hurls in the air every sixty-five or seventy 
minutes a million and a half gallons of 
water, or 33,225,000 gallons a day. This 
would supply a city of 300,000 inhabi- 
tants. 

The most important geysers and springs 
are listed below (based upon observations, 
season 1917): 



Upper Basin 



Morris Basin 



NAME 


Height of 
Eruption 
in Feet 


Length of 
Eruption 


Intervals 
Between 
Eruptions 


Artemisia 
Bee Hive 
Castle 
Cub 


50 
200 
50-75 
60 


10 to 15 min' 
6 to 8 min. 
30 min. 
8 min. 


24 to 20 hrs. 
Several hrs. 
24 t. 26 hrs. 
Daily 


Fan 
Giant 
Giantess 
Grand 
Grotto 


25 
200-250 
150-200 
200 
20-30 


10 min. 
1 hour 
12 to 36 hrs. 
40 to 60 min. 
Varies 


Irregular 
6 to 14 'days 
5 to 40 days 
1 to 4 days 
2 to 5 hrs. 


^rel 


5-20 
50-60 


1 min. 
2 to 4 min. 


5 min. 
2 to 7 times 


Lioness 
Mortar 
Oblong 
Old Faithful 
Riverside 


80-100 
30 
20-40 
120-170 
80-100 


10 min. 
4 to 6 min. 
3 min. 
4 min. 
15 min. 


daily 
Irregular 
Irregular 
8 to 1 2 hrs. 
65to70min. 
8 hrs. 


Sawmill .. 
Spasmodic 
Turban 


20-35 
20-40 


1 to 2 hrs. 
2 min. 
20 min. 


Twice a day 
2 to 3 hrs. 
Irregular 



NAME 


Height of 
Eruption 
in Feet 


Length of 
Eruption 


Intervals 
Between 
Eruptions 


Constant 
Congress Pool . . . 

Echinus 


15-35 
Large boiling 
30 
Beautiful ho 
10-15 
8-15 

100-125 
6-25 
60 


5 to 15 sec. 
spring 
3 min. 
springs 


I rregular 
40 to 45 min. 

Continuous 
1 to 3 min. 
at times 
Irregular 
2 to 5 min. 
Irregular 


Emerald Pool . . . 


Minute Man .... 


j 5 to 30 sec. 

6 min. 
1 to 4 min. 
1 5 to 60 min. 


New Crater 
Valentine 



NAME 

Jlack Warrior . 

White Dome 

Clepsydra 

Great Fountain . . 
Mammoth Paint 

Pots 

Prismatic Lake . . 
Turquoise 



Lower Basin 

_ t of 
Eruption 
in Feet 
: ew feet 

10 

10-40 
75-100 



Length of 
Eruption 



1 min. 
Short 
45 to 50 min. 



nterval 

Between 

Eruptic 

Continuous 

40to60min. 

3 min. 

8 to I I hrs. 



Basin of boiling clay 
Remarkable coloring 
100 feet in diameter 



The Lone Star Geyser, just off the r< 
from Upper Basin to Thumb, has one 
the most beautiful cones. It plays sixty 
feet in the air for ten minutes, at intervals 
of forty minutes. 

Grand Canyon and Great Falls oi 
the Yellowstone 

The glories of the Great Falls and th< 
beauty of the Grand Canyon rival the 
geysers in interest. 

The canyon is vast. A cross-section ii 
the largest part measures 2,000 feet at tl 
top and 200 feet at the bottom, wil 
1 ,200 feet of depth. The Upper Fall 
109 feet, the Lower or Great Fall, 
feet in height. The canyon and Low< 
Fall a composite picture are seen 
the best advantage from Artist Foil 
and Inspiration Point. 

The following quotations describe 
well as words can this awe-inspirm{ 
wonder: 

Lieut. G. C. Doane, U. S. A., in charj 
of the military escort of the Washbui 
government expedition of 1870, wrote: 

"There are perhaps other canyoi 
longer and deeper than this one, bv 
surely none combining such grandeur ai 
immensity and peculiarity of formatior 
and profusion of volcanic or chemical 
phenomena. The combinations of me- 
tallic lustres in the coloring of walls are 
truly wonderful, surpassing, doubtless, 
anything of the kind on the face of 
globe." 



Page ten 













Photo by Haynes, St. Paul 

There are Geyaen and Geyaera some smaller, aome larger, but none so popular aa Old Faithful Never failing, 
always on time, it perform* about every seventy minute* 




Copyright by Hoynes, St. Paul 



Old Faithful Inn A most unique hotel in a most unique region near Old Faithful Geyser, overlooking the 

Upper Geyser Basin 



Rudyard Kipling wrote: "All that 
I can say is that without warning or 
preparation I looked into a gulf 1,700 feet 
deep, with eagles and fish-hawks circling 
far below. And the sides of that gulf 
were one wild welter of color crimson, 
emerald, cobalt, ochre, amber, honey 
splashed with port wine, snow-white, 
vermilion, lemon, and silver-grey in wide 
washes. The sides did not fall sheer, but 
were graven by time and water and air 
into monstrous heads of kings, dead chiefs 
men and women of the old time. So 
far below that no sound of strife could 
reach us, the Yellowstone River ran, a 
finger-wide strip of jade green. The sun- 
light took those wondrous walls and gave 
fresh hues to those that Nature had 
already laid there. 

"Evening crept through the pines that 
shadowed us, but the full glory of the 
day flamed in that canyon as we went 
out very cautiously to a jutting piece of 
rock blood-red or pink it was that 
hung the deepest deeps of all." 

The famous artist Moran said: "Itc 



beautiful tints are beyond the reach 
human art." And General Sherm? 
referring to Moran's painting of the 
yon, added: "The painting by Moran 
the Capitol is good, but painting ai 
words are unequal to the subject." 

Folsom, connected with the private 
expedition of '69, and who first wrote 
the canyon, said: " Language is entire 
inadequate to convey a just conceptic 
of the awful grandeur and sublimity 

this most beautiful of Nature's han< 

kt 
. 

The Terraced Mammoth Hot Sprii 

At Mammoth Hot Springs, in the nort 
of the Park, hot waters heavily char$ 
with lime have built up tier upon tier 
white terraces which the algae-lad( 
waters color faint tints of red, yellow, 
blue, and pink. Each terrace carries 
basins, elaborately carved and frett< 
which, when their springs run di 
merge into the great hills of white foi 
tion, while new basins form upon tl 
edges. These terraces engulf trees. Th< 
form an astonishing spectacle. 



Page twelve 



Pulpit, Jupiter, Cleopatra, and Hymen 
terraces, Orange Spring, the White Ele- 
phant, Angel Terrace, and the Devil's 
Kitchen are the most important attrac- 
tions. Liberty Cap, a monument-like 
shaft, was once embodied in a terrace; 
because it was of harder rock-like mate- 
rial, the erosion which washed away its 
surrounding formation has left it stand- 
ing. A similar but smaller shaft near-by 
is known as the Giant's Thumb. 

There are rides, walks, and drives about 
the springs. The mouth of Boiling 
River, and the canyon and Osprey Fall 
of the Middle Gardiner River behind 
Bunsen Peak, are all within walking dis- 
tance; they also can be reached by horse- 
back or by auto. 

The general panorama at Mammoth 
Hot Springs is one of the most strik- 
ing in the Park. The steaming, tinted 
terraces and Fort Yellowstone near-by; 
the long, palisaded escarpment of Mount 
Everts to the east; the dominating pres- 
ence of Bunsen Peak to the south, with 
the Gardiner Canyon and the distant 
elevations of the Mount Washburn 



group; the rugged slopes of Terrace 
Mountain to the west, and the distant 
peaks of the Snowy Range to the north 
all together form a surrounding landscape 
of wonderful beauty and contrast. 

A Wild Animal Refuge 

The Yellowstone National Park is per- 
haps the largest and certainly the most 
successful wild-animal refuge in the 
world. For this reason it offers an excep- 
tional field for nature study. 

The increase in the number of wild 
animals in the Park is very noticeable: 
this because of the careful protection 
afforded them. Hunting is prohibited, 
except with a camera, and this is encour- 
aged. Besides many bears and buffaloes, 
there are antelope, mountain sheep, 
whitetail and mule deer, and more than 
30,000 elk. These animals are harmless 
when no attempt is made to annoy or 
interfere with them. They may not 
always be seen by the visitors in 
the automobiles which travel the main 
highways daily during the season, but 
the quiet watcher on the near-by trails 




The Lounge, a distinctive feature of the beautiful Grand Canyon Motel 



Page thirteen 




A picturesque spot on the auto road at Gibbon Falls 



may often see deer and bear and elk 
and antelope, and he may even see 
mountain sheep, moose, and buffalo by 
journeying on foot or by horseback into 
their retreats. 

The summer season in the Park is the 
vacation period for bears. Morning and 
evening a few of the many bears in the 
Park frequent the vicinity of the hotels 
and camps and wax fat and sleek upon 
food the hotels throw away. Watching 
these bears feed is one of the early even- 
ing diversions. Occasionally a grizzly 
may be seen among them. 

Only twenty-five buffalo had been left 
by hunters when protection laws were 
passed in 1896. These have increased 
now to nearly 400. They are in two 
herds. The larger, miscalled the "tame 
herd," because it is somewhat under con- 
trol by the rangers, lives in the upper 
Lamar Valley, where visitors may easily 
find it. Approach is over a good 
motor road. During the summer tourist 
season, a few of these are driven into 
pasture at Mammoth Hot Springs so as 
to be visible to the tourists. The so- 



called wild herd roams the wilderness 
round about Yellowstone Lake. 

There are many moose around the 
southeast arm of Yellowstone Lake and 
on Hell-roaring Creek, and they are in- 
creasing in number. Occasionally one or 
more may be seen by tourists near the 
main road of the Park, far from their 
favorite haunts. 

The beaver, once so important a part 
of animal life in the West, are also rapidly 
increasing. Almost every stream shows 
signs of their presence. Near Tower 
Falls there are several colonies; the ponds 
are easily seen by tourists who visit the 
locality. There are also some beside 
the Tower Fall road, near Mammoth Hot 
Springs, just south of the crossing of 
Lava Creek. 

Of birds there are between 1 50 and 200 
species geese, ducks, pelicans, gulls, 
eagles, hawks, owls, night hawks, ravens, 
Rocky Mountain jays, tanagers, blue- 
birds, water ouzels, blackbirds, meadow 
larks, robins, and others. 



Pail f our tt t n 



Excursions On Yellowstone Lake 

Yellowstone Lake is a large sheet of 
water, of irregular form, its shores heavily 
wooded and indented. It is of moderate 
depth and twenty miles across. The Ab- 
saroka Range of snow-capped mountains 
rises from its edge to altitudes of 1 0,000 to 
1 1 ,000 feet. On the shore of the lake at 
the West Arm, there are highly colored 
paint pots and many hot pools. From 
the lake the mountain scenery of the 
Park is seen to exceptional advantage. 
There are attractive camping and outing 
spots on the borders of Yellowstone Lake 
and in the neighboring mountains. Nu- 
merous motor boat trips may be made by 
arranging with the boat company at 
Lake Outlet. Among these are trips to 
the southeast arm of the lake, where one 
may see the pelicans on Molly Island; a 
trip to the south arm of the lake, also to 
Flat Mountain Arm, and another one to 
Steamboat Point. An equipment of new, 
small motor boats is available for these 
excursions. Rates for rowboats are 
$2.00 a day; 50 cents an hour. Row- 
boats equipped with motors, $7.50 a 



day; first hour, $3.00; each additional 
hour, $1.25. 

Near the Lake Outlet, the Government 
has constructed a sub-fish hatchery that 
adds interest to the locality. 

Well Stocked Fishing Grounds 

In 1889 the United States Fish Com- 
mission began the distribution of fish in 
the Park waters. In recent years there 
has been an annual distribution aggre- 
gating hundreds of thousands of trout, 
so that most of the lakes and streams in 
which fish can thrive are now stocked 
with one or more varieties. Something 
like 10,000,000 young fish have been 
placed in Park \vaters. These comprise 
grayling and Rocky Mountain whitefish; 
black spotted or native trout; rainbow, 
Loch Leven, lake, eastern brook, and 
Von Behr or brown trout. 

Practically all the waters within easy 
distance of the Park hotels and camps 
are kept well stocked with fish, and many 
of the more remote streams and lakes are 
even better supplied owing to their being 
less visited by anglers. 




Copyright by Haynes, St. Paul 

Handkerchief Pot 



'Nature's Laundry." near Old Faithful Inn 



Page fifteen 




Pagr sixteen 




Page seventeen 




m 

Copyright by Haynes, St. Paul 




Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel and Mount Everts, from the Painted Terrace* 



Visitors who do not take their own 
fishing equipment can supply themselves 
at any of the hotels or camps upon pay- 
ment of a small rental. 

Yellowstone is a paradise for the expert 
angler. Almost any of a hundred streams 
can be successfully whipped by an adept, 
while an amateur can catch lake trout 
near the Lake Outlet. No license is 
required. 

Hundreds of Miles of Trails 

The advent of motors in Yellowstone 
National Park reduces the time formerly 
required to travel between points, and 
permits the tourist to spend more of 
his time in viewing individual points 
of interest. To fill these new needs 
the National Park Service is developing 
the trail system as rapidly as time 
and appropriations permit. Much al- 
ready has been accomplished, and several 
hundred miles of trails are now available 
for the horseback rider and hiker. 
These trails lead into the remote scenic 
sections of the Park, out to streams and 
lakes teeming with fish, far away into the 



foothills of the Absaroka Range where 
the wild buffalo browse, and into othei 
regions of strange geologic formatioi 
If persons wish to travel on the 
without the service of a guide, carefi 
inquiries should be made at the office 
the superintendent of the nearest ranj 
station before starting, and the govern- 
ment topographic map should be prc 
cured and studied. 

Saddle horses for hire are available for 
guests of the hotels and camps at Mam- 
moth Hot Springs, Upper Geyser Basin, 
and Grand Canyon. The rates are $3.00 
a day; $1.00 first hour, 50 cents for eacl 
subsequent hour. Guide with horse, 
$5.00 a day. 

Fossil Forests 

The fossil forests cover an extensive 
area in the northern part of the Park, 
being especially abundant along the west 
side of the Lamar River about twenty 
miles above its junction with the Yellow- 
stone. 

The late General H. M. Chittenden, 
the foremost authority on Yellowstone 



P a gt eighteen 



National Park, thus described these 
petrified trees: "The tourist may see 
upon the slopes of Specimen Ridge, side 
by side, the living and the dead, the 
little conifers of present growth, and the 
gigantic trunks of unknown species which 
flourished there eons ago. Some of the 
petrifactions are perfect. Roots, bark, 
parts showing incipient decay, worm 
holes, leaves all are preserved with abso- 
lute fidelity. The rings of annual growth 
may be counted, and these indicate for 
the large trees an age of not less than 
500 years. Some of the stumps are fully 
ten feet in diameter. Here and there the 
ponderous roots stand imbedded in the 
rock face of the cliff, where erosion has 
not yet undermined them. Some hollow 
trees show interiors beautifully lined with 
holocrystalline quartz. How long it took 
each growth to reach maturity; how long 
it flourished afterward before destruction; 
and how long the several lava flows sus- 
pended vegetable growth, are matters 
largely conjectural." 



A Veritable Flower Garden 

The Yellowstone is the botanist's para- 
dise. The whole Park is a veritable 
flower garden, its coloring changing with 
the advancing season. Specimens of the 
most delicate lowland flowers are found 
in close proximity to fields of snow. 
The visitor notes the profusion of color- 
ing of these natural flower gardens. 

Authorities estimate that forest growth 
covers fully 84 per cent, of the entire area 
of the Park. In these forests are pine, 
fir, balsam, spruce, cedar, poplar, and 
aspen, with occasionally a dwarf maple 
and a thicket of willows. 

Hotels and Permanent Camps 

Visitors have the choice of service at 
hotels or permanent camps. All service 
is under the supervision of the United 
States Government and is maintained at 
a high standard. 

The hotels are first class. They are 
electric lighted, steam heated, and other- 
wise modernly equipped. 

The permanent camps are in effect 




Photo by Newman Traveltalks 

Pulpit Terrace Mammoth Hot Springs one of many peculiar formations found here noted for exquisite beauty 

of coloring and variety of forms 



Page nineteen 




One of the several permanent camps For years camping in comfort has been a feature 

Yellowstone travel 



villages of tent-houses set among the pine 
trees. Each camp consists of central 
service buildings and scores of cozy 
sleeping tents. All hotels and permanent 
camps are situated with special reference 
to their convenience for sight-seeing. 

The hotel and the permanent camp at 
Mammoth Hot Springs are near the 
colored terraces and Liberty Cap, and 
across the plaza from historic Fort Yel- 
lowstone; Old Faithful Inn and Old 
Faithful Camp at the Upper Geyser 
Basin are near Old Faithful Geyser and 
other big geysers. The Grand Canyon 
Hotel is on the west side of the Grand 
Canyon, within easy walking distance 
of the Great Fall and Inspiration Point. 
The Canyon Camp is on the opposite side 
of the Grand Canyon, near Artist Point. 
The Tower Fall Camp faces the mouth 
of Lamar River, several miles farther 
north. 

Old Faithful Inn, at Upper Geyser 
Basin, the first hotel of its kind, has be- 
come one of the most popular hotels in 
the country. It is a striking structure of 



logs and boulders. The rendezvous 
75 feet square, and 92 feet high to the 
of the roof, with balconies around thi 
sides. A massive stone chimney, with 
fireplace at each side and corner, or eight 
fireplaces in all, is a feature of this rooi 
It is steam-heated, electric-lighted, pl< 
antly furnished, and thoroughly hoi 
like. 

Old Faithful Inn and also Old Faith 
Camp are near Old Faithful Geyser; op 
site, and but a trifle farther away, are t 
Giantess, Lion, Bee Hive, Lioness, 
Cubs geysers; down the little valley t 
Castle Geyser is in plain view, and 
eruptions of the Grand Geyser, and 
some extent those of the Giant, Art 
mesia, and Riverside geysers, can be 
A particular feature of the Inn is a large 
searchlight on top of the building, which 
is operated every night, showing the 
geysers in play and the bears feeding at 
the edge of the woods, under electric light. 

At the outlet of Yellowstone Lak 
will be found the fine Lake Coloni 
Hotel, thoroughly modern in every 
respect. It has an imposing front with 



it. 

= 



Page twenty 



large columned porches at each end 
and in the center. 

The Grand Canyon Hotel is one of the 
finest of resort hotels. It is 640 feet long 
by 415 feet wide. A large number of 
rooms have private baths. 1 1 is equipped 
with elevators, cold storage and ice-mak- 
ing plant, and is electric-lighted and 
steam-heated. The main feature of the 
hotel is the lounge. This is 1 75 feet long 
by 84 feet wide; the sides are practically all 
plate glass. An orchestra is maintained. 

"Camping" in Yellowstone is a term 
which is likely to be misleading. These 
large, permanent summer camps are not 
"camps" in the usual sense. They afford 
all of the enjoyable features of camp life 
without any of its characteristic annoy- 
ances. The sleeping tents are wain- 
scoted in wood to a height of four feet, 
with canvas sides and roof. Each tent 
has wooden doors with locks and screened 
windows. The tents are heated by 
wood-burning stoves and furnished with 
full-size comfortable beds. The food, 
wholesome, varied, and well cooked, is 
served in large dining halls. 



All permanent camps have large recrea- 
tion pavilions, with hardwood floors, for 
dancing and other amusements. 

At these camps emphasis is placed on 
out-of-doors entertainment. A feature 
of the early evening is the camp fire a 
pyramid of burning, crackling pine logs 
in the glow of which the guests sing, eat 
pop corn, and participate in impromptu 
entertainments. 

Automobile Transportation 

The Yellowstone Park Transportation 
Company, under contract with the Gov- 
ernment, operates a transportation line 
from the Park entrances to the various 
hotels, camps, and points of interest. 
The standard equipment for these tours 
consists of high-powered, 10-passenger 
automobiles, built to fit the necessities of 
Yellowstone travel; they move on regu- 
lar schedules. Stop-overs, without extra 
charge, may be procured from the trans- 
portation company. 

There are available 7-passenger autos, 
with chauffeurs, for special trips. Ar- 
rangements for these must be made with 




Photo by Haynes, St. Paul 

Cleopatra Terrace Mammoth Hot Springs One of the most striking of all these wonderful formations 



Page twen ty-one 







Fishing in the Yellowstone River The park lakes and streams are stocked annually with trout 



the transportation company. The rate 
is $6.00 an hour. Service charges in the 
Park are fixed by the National Park Ser- 
vice, Department of the Interior. 

The automobile trip through the Park 
is about 150 miles of constant variety. 
Each clay's journey unfolds new enjoy- 
ments. The landscape changes with 
amazing suddenness. Each wonder spot 
seems but the prelude to something more 
inspiring. 

The Government has spent large sums 
of money to perfect the roads; they are 
sprinkled and maintained in good condi- 
tion. Also within recent years it has 
expended more than $2,000,000 in various 
betterments. The roads to points over- 
looking the Grand Canyon and to the 
summit of Mount Washburn are very 
popular. 

Side Trips From Stop-over Places 

Many short and inexpensive trips are 
available from the principal stop-over 
places in the Park. 

One of the most delightful of these is 
across the southern boundary of the Park 



to the historic Jackson Lake country 
celebrated as one of the most thrillm 
high mountain spectacles of Americ 
Motor stages leave Upper Geyser Basi 
early in the day, going via the Thum 
and reaching Jackson Lake early in t 
afternoon. Returning, stages leave Jac 
son Lake about noon and arrive at t 
Thumb in time to connect with the regu 
lar Park Tour automobiles. The cos 
of this excursion, to holders of regula 
Park tickets, is $10 for the round trip 
The hotel rate at Jackson Lake is $4. 
a day, and up. It is necessary to spen 
one night at Jackson Lake. 

From Upper Geyser Basin a trail tri 
to Shoshone Geyser Basin and Lake, f 
one or more days, is a pleasant diversion. 
Shorter trips are walks or rides to Lone 
Star Geyser or drives to Shoshone Point. 

Another pleasant drive from Upper 
Geyser Basin is down to the junction of 
the Gibbon and Firehole rivers, to fis 
for grayling. 

From the Outlet at Yellowstone Lak 
several pleasant excursions may be mad< 
by auto to Sylvan Pass and other 



;i 

; 



Page tvtnty-two 



points, but the lake and boating excur- 
sions are the primary attractions. 

One of the most interesting side trips 
in the Park is made from the Grand 
Canyon. This trip may be made as a 
part of the regular park tour by use of 
the road that passes over the top of 
Mount Washburn, elevation 10,000 feet. 
It can be done by automobile, horseback, 
or afoot. The distance from hotel to 
summit is eleven miles. One can go by 
road and return by a well-worn trail 
through entirely different scenes. 

The view from Mount Washburn is 
marvelous, and one obtains, as in no 
other way, an accurate and connected 
idea of the Park as a whole. 

From Mammoth Hot Springs numer- 
ous trips may be made. Among the 
most popular are the ascents of Electric 
and Bunsen peaks and Mount Everts, 
and around Bunsen Peak (which includes 
a view of Osprey Fall and Middle Gardi- 
ner River Canyon). Trouting excursions 
are many and easily made. 

From Mammoth Hot Springs or the 
Grand Canyon a side trip by auto or 



saddle horse may be made into the north- 
eastern part of the Park, passing the 
Buffalo Farm and terminating at the 
quaint little mining camp of Cooke City. 
The town is surrounded by some of the 
most imposing mountains in this section, 
and radiating from it are numerous paths 
which can be followed on horseback. 
One may go up into the Granite Range 
to Goose Lake, which lies at an altitude 
of 10,000 feet, by wagon road, a distance 
of about twelve miles. 

From the head of Goose Lake a gradual 
climb of about a mile and a half brings 
one to the Grasshopper Glacier, so named 
because of the fact that the remains of 
grasshoppers are imbedded in the ice, 
where they were caught by a snowstorm, 
at some remote time, during a flight 
across the pass. 

From the Tower Fall region, an inter- 
esting side trip by foot or horseback can 
be made to the petrified trees of the Fossil 
Forest. 

Another trail from Cooke City follows 
the wagon road to Clark's Fork and 
thence to the southward over Dead In- 




Copyright by Hoynes, St. Paul 

The fir.t tight of a real wild bear in his native wood* gives the Yellowstone visitor juat a little thrill 



Page twcnly-thrtt 




Copyright by Haynes, St. Paul 

There are about 400 Bison in the park The "Big Herd" on Lamar River is the largest in the world 



dian Hill, through Sunlight Basin, to 
Cody, where the road leads back into the 
Park over Sylvan Pass to Yellowstone 
Lake. 

Gateways to Yellowstone 
National Park 

The tourist may enter the Park at 
Gardiner on the north, Yellowstone sta- 
tion on the west, or Cody on the east. 
From the north, on the way to Gardiner, 
one rides by train through scenic Para- 
dise Valley and between the walls of 
Yankee Jim Canyon, alongside the rush- 
ing torrent of Yellowstone River, and 
past Electric Peak. From the west the 
train traverses a fertile agricultural 
region, then enters the picturesque 
Warm River Canyon and continues on 
through forests, natural parks, and wood- 
ed crests over the Continental Divide to 
Yellowstone station. From the east it 
is an auto trip from Cody by way of 
Shoshone River Canyon and the big 
Government Dam; thence through the 
National Forest Reserve, over Absoraka 
Range, and through Sylvan Pass. 



When to go to the Park 

Season 1919 The first date autoi 
biles will start from either Gardin< 
Yellowstone or Cody, will be June 2( 
and the last date automobiles will stai 
from these gateways to make a complet 
tour of the Park will be September I 
The last date automobiles will reach ai 
of the gateways, after tour of the Parl 
will be September 1 9. 

The Park season is a time of 
year when a sojourn among the moui 
tains is most healthful and pleasurable 
While in the early part of the summe 
there is more snow on the mountaii 
and the streams carry more wat< 
August and September are delightfi 
months during which to make the toui 
There is no time when there is the least 
possibility of the streams running dry 
or of the waterfalls disappearing; tl 
geysers play equally well, in Septeml 
or in June, and the autumnal hues 
trees and foliage lend an apprecial 
beauty to the scene. 



twenty -four 



How to Reach the Park 

Automobiles of the Yellowstone Park Transportation 
Company connect with railroads at Gardiner. Mont., on 
the north. Yellowstone station. Mont., on the west, and 
Cody. Wyo.. on the east. these three being the principal 
gateways to the Park. 

Yellowstone National Park at a Destination: 
During the Park season round-trip excursion tickets at re- 
duced fares are sold at practically all stations in the United 
States and Canada, to Gardiner. Yellowstone station and 
Cody, as destinations. From the Middle West. East, 
and South, round-trip excursion tickets may be purchased 
for transportation on going trip to any of the three 
Yellowstone National Park gateways, (Gardiner. Yellow- 
stone station, Cody), and for transportation on the return 
trip from the same or any other gateway, thus affording 
passengers privilege of entering the Park at one entrance 
and leaving it at the same point or any one of the other 
entrances. 

From many sections trips may be planned to include 
visits to two or more of the following national parks in 
the Rocky Mountain region: Yellowstone. Glacier. Rocky 
Mountain, and Mesa Verde. 

Coupons covering automobile transportation and 
accommodations at the hotels or permanent camps 
for the "five-day" tour of the Park may be included in 
railroad tickets at proper additional charges, which are 
the same as those in effect at the Park. The National 
Park Service of the Department of the Interior, however, 
recommends to the traveling public that stop-overs of as 
long duration as practicable be planned at points within 
the Park; that Yellowstone National Park be regarded 
not alone as a region which may be glimpsed on a hurried 
trip of a few days, but also as a vacation playground of 
boundless opportunities for rest and recreation. 

Yellowstone National Park as a side-trip Pass- 
engers wishing to visit Yellowstone National Park as a 
side-trip in connection with journeys to other destinations 
will find stop-over privileges available and may make 



side-trips to the Park from Livingston, Mont.. Pocatello 
Ida.. Ogden. Utah. Salt Lake City. Utah, or Frannie. 
Wyo.. which are stop-over points on both one-way and 
round-trip tickets, or from Billings, Mont., or Buttc. 
Mont., which are stop-over points on round-trip tickets. 

Cost of the Park "Five-Day" Tour from 
Gardiner, Yellowstone or Cody 

In. In. In, i- M..'.,r 

I in-Ill, lin.- Motor TrniiMiKirltttniii 
TrHii*i><>rliilii>n HIM! < Inly 

M>-il!" lili.l Logman M.-iil- ...n-l 

Atlloti-ln AtCampn Ixxiuiin Kilrn 
For adults, and children 

12 years old and over. . $52 00 $4300 $2500 
For children 8 years old 

and under 12 years.. .. 39.50 21.50 1250 

For children 5 years old 

and under 8 years 2600 21.50 12.50 

The above charges are not subject to war revenue tax. 

Longer time than is provided by the regular five-day tour 
may be spent at the various stop-over points, if desired. 
For such additional time, meals and lodging are charged 
for at the rate of $6.00 a day at the hotels and $4.00 a 
day. or $24.00 a week and up, at the camps. Childrens' 
tickets for hotel or camp accommodations are sold in 
Park only. 

Tickets, including meals and lodging in the Park, entitle 
holders to accommodations to the value of $6.00 a day 
at hotels, American plan. Rates for especially well located 
rooms (including rooms with bath) $7.00 to $10.00 a day, 
American plan. Persons desiring such accommodations 
pay the difference at each hotel. 

General Information 

Detailed information about fares or train service to and 
from Yellowstone National Park as well as all other. 
National Parks may be obtained from any Railroad ticket 
agent, or by writing to Bureau of Service, National Parks 
and Monuments, or Travel Bureau Western Lines. 646 
Transportation Building, Chicago. 111. 




Antelope are much less numerous than the Elk and Deer in the Park, yet about 350 of these beautiful creatures 

have teen seen in one day 

Page twent \ - 







Copyright by Haynes, St. Paul 



A novel bit of roadway at Sylvan Pass 



Women Tourists 

Fully sixty per cent of the park visitors are women and 
a large percentage of them travel unescorted. There are 
competent women attendants at the hotels and camps 
whose special duty is to look after the welfare of women 
and see that they are made comfortable and that their 
trips are enjoyable ones. 

Mail and Telegrams 

Mail and telegrams should be addressed to the gateway 
at which the addressee will leave the park, as follows: 
At Gardiner, Montana, or Yellowstone station, Idaho, in 
care of the Yellowstone Hotel Company or Yellowstone 
Camping Company (whichever patronized); at Cody, 
Wyoming, in care of Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. 

What to Wear 

Warm clothing should be worn, and one should be 
prepared for the sudden changes of temperature common 
at an altitude of 7,500 feet. Men should have medium 
weight overcoats and sweaters, and women should have 
coats, jackets or sweaters. Linen dusters are essential; 
they may be purchased in the Park. Stout shoes should 
be worn, as they are best suited for walking about the 
geysers and terraces, and for mountain use. Tinted glasses 
and serviceable gloves should be a part of the traveler's 
outfit, and a pair of field or opera glasses will be found 
useful. 

Baggage 

The Yellowstone Park Transportation Company will 
carry free not to exceed twenty-five pounds of hand 
baggage for each passenger. Trunks cannot be transported 
in the automobiles. Tourists contemplating a prolonged 
trip through the Park can make arrangements with 
representatives of the Transportation Company at any 
of the gateways for the transportation of trunks. 

Storage charges for baggage will be waived by the 
interested railroads at Livingston. Gardiner. Yellowstone 
station. Pocatello, Idaho Falls. Ogden. Salt Lake City. 
Cody. Frannie or Billings, or at Butte. for actual length 



of time consumed by passengers in making the Park trip 
Baggage may be checked to station via which passeng* 
enter the Park, i. e., Gardiner, Yellowstone or Cc 
Passengers entering the Park via one station and leaving 
another station will find certain regulations for free checl 
of baggage to station via which they leave the Park. 

Bring Your Camera 

Nowhere will you find greater opportunities to 
good use of your camera than in Yellowstone. Huntir 
with gun is prohibited, but visitors are allowed to "si 
as often as they desire with cameras and the field 
unlimited. Photographic supplies can be obtained at 
hotels and camps. 

Bath House 

A bathing pool is maintained at Upper Geyser 
Rates, 50 cents in large pool; $1.00 in private pool. 

Medical Facilities 

A resident physician is stationed at Mammoth 
Springs, and each hotel and camp has a trained nur 
and a dispensary. 

Park Administration 
Yellowstone National Park is under the jurisdiction 
the Director. National Park Service. Department of 
Interior. Washington. D. C. The Park Superintendent 
located at Mammoth Hot Springs. Yellowstone Natic 
Park. Wyo. 

Personally Conducted Saddle and Pack Trips 
the Beaten Paths 

A most enjoyable way of seeing Yellowstone National 
Park is to join an all-expense horseback camping party 
conducted by experienced guides authorized by the Gov- 
ernment to personally escort such excursions. 

The names and addresses of the licensees and 
information concerning these "Roughing-it-in- 
trips. may be obtained from National Park Servic 
Department of the Interior. Washington. D. C.; or a; 
to Manager. Bureau of Service, National Parks and Me 
ments. or Travel Bureau Western Lines. 646 Transport 
tion Building. Chicago. 111. 



P. a ge twenty-six 



Time of Departure and Arrival of the Auto- 
mobiles at Gardiner, Yellowstone and 
Cody railroad stations, for the 
regular "five-day" tour. 

In and Out Via Gardiner 

Leave Gardiner 11.30 a.m., via Mammoth 
Hot Springs, Norris Geyser Basin, Upper Geyser 
Basin, Yellowstone Lake, Grand Canyon, and 
Tower Falls; arriving Gardiner 7.00 p. m., fifth 
day. 



Mammoth Mot Springs 



From Gardiner St<i. 




YI-MO* stout 

1 nki 



From GarJiner Sta. 



Mammoth Mot Springs 



Norris Gi> set 



I ... i Tails 




Upper (U\ si 



In Gardiner, Out Cody 

Leave Gardiner, 11.30 a.m., via Mammoth 
Hot Springs, Norris Geyser Basin, Upper Geyser 
Basin, Yellowstone Lake, and Grand Canyon, 
(side trip to Dunraven Pass) arriving Cody 
6.00 p.m., fifth day. 



Upper Geyser Basin 



In Gardiner, Out Yellowstone 

Leave Gardiner 1 1 .30 a.m., via Mammoth 
Hot Springs, Norris Geyser Basin, Upper Geyser 
Basin. Yellowstone Lake, Grand Canyon, (side 
trip to Dunraven Pass) arriving Yellowstone 
5.30 p.m., fifth day. 



Mammoth Hot Springs 



Norris Geyser 



From Gardiner Stu. 



Dunraven Pans 
Grand Canyon 



Upper Geyser Ba 




To Cody Sta. 




Haynes, St. Paul 

Entering the Park through the canyon of the Shoshone River 



Page tw ent y -s even 



Photo by Newman Traveltalks 

Mt. Moran and Jackson Lake Awe-inspiring in their grandeur and beauty 



In Yellowstone, Out Yellowstone 

Leave Yellowstone, 9.00 a.m., via Upper Geyser 
Basin, Yellowstone Lake, Grand Canyon, Tower 
Falls, Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris Geyser 
Basin, arriving Yellowstone 5.30 p.m., fifth day. 



In Yellowstone, Out Cody 

Leave Yellowstone, 9.00 a.m., via Upper Geyj 
Basin, Yellowstone Lake, Grand Canyon, To\ 
Falls, Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris Geyi 
Basin, and Grand Canyon, arriving Cody 6. 
p.m., fifth day. 



Mammoth Hot Springs 




Mammoth Hot Springs 



Tower Falls 

Dunraven Pass 
rand Canyon 



Yellowstone 
Lake 



Tower Falls 

Dunraven Pass 
Grand Canyon 



Upper Geyser Basin 



In Yellowstone, Out Gardiner 

Leave Yellowstone, 9.00 a.m., via Upper Geyser 
Basin, Yellowstone Lake, Grand Canyon, Tower 
Falls, Mammoth Hot Springs, arriving Gardiner 
7.00 p.m., fifth day. 




To Cody Sta. 



Yellowstone 
Lake 



Upper Geyser .Basin 

In Cody, Out Cody 

Leave Cody, 8.00 a.m., via Grand Cany< 
Tower Falls, Mammoth Hot Springs, Noi 
Geyser Basin, Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstt 
Lake, and Grand Canyon, arriving Cody 6.( 
p.m., fifth day. 



To Gardiner Sta. 



Mammoth Hot Spring 




Mammoth Hot Springs 



Norris Geyser Busln 



Tower Fulls 



From 
'Yellowttone -^^\ 



Upper Geyser Basin 

Page twenty-eight 



Upper Geyuer Basin 





Norris Geyser Basin bubbles and hisses and steams like a great manufacturing district 



In Cody, Out Yellowstone 



In Cody, Out Gardiner 

Leave Cody, 8.00 a.m., via Grand Canyon, 
Norris Geyser Basin, Upper Geyser Basin, 
Yellowstone Lake. Grand Canyon, Tower Falls. Leave Cod y. 8 - a - m - via Grand Canyon. 

and Mammoth Hot Springs, arriving Gardiner Tower Falls, Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris 



7.00 p.m., fifth day. 



Mammoth Hot Springs 



Geyser Basin, and Upper Geyser Basin, arriving 
Yellowstone 5.30 p.m., fifth day. 

.Mammoth Hot Springs , 



Tower Falls 



Tower Palls 




Photo by Haynes, St. Paul 

Jackson Lake and the Teton Range are near the southern entrance to the Park, and are in the 

proposed new addition 



Page twenl y-nine 






Touring the Park on horseback is becoming more and more popular, because of the development of several 

hundred miles of trails 



U. S. Government Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C., at 
prices given. Remittances should be made by 
money order or in cash: 

Geological History of Yellowstone National Park, by Ar- 
nold Hague, 24 pages, 10 illustrations, 10 cents. 

Geysers, by Walter Harvey Weed. 32 pages. 23 illustra- 
tions, 10 cents. 

Fossil Forests of the Yellowstone National Park, by F. H. 
Knowlton. 32 pages. 15 illustrations. 10 cents. 

Fishes of the Yellowstone National Park, by W. C. Kendall 
28 pages, 1 7 illustrations. 5 cents. 

Panoramic view of Yellowstone National Park; 18 by 21 
inches, 25 cents. 

The National Parks Portfolio, by Robert Sterling Yard. 
260 pages, 270 Illustrations descriptive of nine national 
parks. Pamphlet edition, 35 cents; book edition, 
55 cents. 



The following may be obtained from the 
Director of the Geological Survey, Washington, 
D. C., at price given. 

Map of Yellowstone National Park. 32 by 36 inches. 
25 cents. 



The following publications may be obtained 
free on written application to the Director of 
the National Park Service, Washington, D. C., 
or by personal application to the office of the 
superintendent of the Park: 
Circular of general information regarding Yellowstone 

National Park. 



Map showing location of National Parks and Monur 

and railroad routes thereto. 
Glimpses of Our National Parks, 48 pages illustrated. 

U. S. R. R. Administration Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
free on application to any consolidated ticket 
office; or apply to the Bureau of Service, 
National Parks and Monuments, or Travel 
Bureau Western Lines; 646 Transportal 
Building, Chicago, Illinois. 

Arizona and New Mexico Rockies 

California for the Tourist 

Colorado and Utah Rockies 

Crater Lake National Park, Oregon 

Glacier National Park, Montana 

Grand Canyon National Park. Arizona 

Hawaii National Park. Hawaiian Islands 

Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas 

Mesa Verde National Park. Colorado 

Mount Rainier National Park, Washington 

Northern Lakes Wisconsin, Minnesota, Upper Michi 

Iowa and Illinois, 
Pacific Northwest and Alaska 
Petrified Forest National Monument, Arizona 
Rocky Mountain National Park. Colorado 
Sequoia and General Grant National Parks, California. 
Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Montana, 
Yosemite National Park, California 
Zion National Monument. Utah 



Page thirty 




THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 



The National Parks at a Glance 

United States Railroad Administration 

Director General of Railroads 

For particulars as to fares, train schedules, etc., apply to any Railroad Ticket Agent, or to any 
of the following Consolidated Ticket Offices: 

West 

Beaumont, Tex., Orleans and Pearl Sts. j Lincoln. Neb .... 

Bremerton. Wash 224 Front St. Little Rock. Ark . 

Butte. Mont 2 N. Main St. Long Beach. Cal . L. A. & S. L. Station 

Los Angeles, Cal 

Milwaukee, Wis. 



Chicago. Ill 1 75 W. Jackson Blvd. 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 

119E. Pike's Peak Ave. 

Dallas. Tex 112-114 Field St. 

Denver. Colo 601 17th St. 

Des Moines. Iowa 403 Walnut St. 

Duluth. Minn 334 W. Superior St. 

El Paso. Tex .... Mills and Oregon Sts. 

Ft. Worth. Tex 702 Houston St. 

Fresno, Cal J and Fresno Sts. 

Galveston. Tex . .21st and Market Sts. 

Helena. Mont 58 S. Main St. 

Houston. Tex 904 Texas Ave. 

Kansas City. Mo. 



21 5 S. Broadway 
99 Wisconsin St. 



Minneapolis. Minn. 202 Sixth St. South 
Oakland. Cal.. 13th St. and Broadway 
Ocean Park. Cal ........ 160 Pier Ave. 

Oklahoma City. Okla. 

131 W. Grand Ave. 
Omaha. Neb .......... 1416 Dodge St. 

Peoria, 111 . . .Jefferson and Liberty Sts. 
Phoenix, Ariz. 

Adams St. and Central Ave. 
Portland. Ore. .3d and Washington Sts. 
Pueblo. Colo. .. .401-3 N. Union Ave. 

St. Joseph. Mo ........ 505 Francis St. 



104 N. 13th St. I St. Paul, Minn. . .4th and Jackson Sts. 

.202 W. 2d St.. Sacramento, Cal 801 K St. 

Salt Lake City. Utah. 

Main and S. Temple Sts. 
San Antonio, Texas. 

315-17 N. St. Mary's St. 

San Diego. Cal 300 Broadway 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Lick Bldg.. Post St. and Lick Place 
San Jose, Cal. 1 st and San Fernando Sts. 

Seattle. Wash 714-16 2d Ave. 

Shreveport, La. . Milam and Market Sts. 

Sioux City. Iowa 5 10 4th St. 

Spokane. Wash. 

Davenport Hotel. 815 Sprague Ave. 
Tacoma, Wash. ..1117-19 Pacific Ave. 
Waco, Texas. . . .6th and Franklin Sts. 
Whittier. Cal L. A. & S. L. Station 



Ry. Ex. Bldg. 


. 7th and Walnut Sts. 


St. Louis Mo... . 318-328 N. Broadway 


Winnipeg, Man. . 


. . . 226 Portage Ave. 






East 






Annapolis. Md. . 


. . . 54 Maryland Ave. 


Detroit. Mich.. . 13 W. LaFayette Ave. 


Philadelphia. Pa. 


..1539 Chestnut St. 


Atlantic City. N. 


J...1301 Pacific Ave. 


Evansville. Ind. . .L. & N. R. R. Bldg. 


Pittsburgh, Pa . . . 


. . . .Arcade Building 


Baltimore, Md . . 


.B. &0. R. R. Bldg. 


Grand Rapids. Mich 125 Pearl St. 


Reading. Pa 


16 N. Fifth St. 


Boston, Mass . . . 
Brooklyn. N. Y . 
Buffalo. N. Y. M 
Cincinnati, Ohio . 


67 Franklin St. 
336 Fulton St. 
ain and Division Sts. 
. 6th and Main Sts. 


Indianapolis. Ind. 1 1 2- 1 4 English Block 
Newark. N. J. Clinton and Beaver Sts. 
New York. N. Y 64 Broadway 


Rochester. N. Y. . 
Syracuse, N. Y . . . 
Toledo. Ohio 


20 State St. 
. . . University Block 
. . 320 Madison Ave. 


Cleveland. Ohio. 


. . 1004 Prospect Ave. 


New York. N. Y 57 Chambers St. 


Washington. D. C 


. . .1229 FSt. N. W. 


Columbus, Ohio . 


70 East Gay St. 


New York. N. Y 31 W. 32d St. 


Williamsport. Pa. 


. . .4th and Pine Sts. 


Dayton. Ohio . . . 


....19S. LudlowSt. 


New York. N. Y 1 14 W. 42d St. 


Wilmington. Del. 


905 Market St. 






South 






Asheville. N. C. 


14 S Polk Square 


Knoxville, Tenn 600 Gay St. 


Paducah Ky 


430 Broadway 


Atlanta, Ga 


74 Peachtree St. 


Lexington, Ky Union Station 


Pensacola, Fla . . . . 


. . San Carlos Hotel 


Augusta. Ga .... 


.......811 Broad St. 


Louisville, Ky .... 4th and Market Sts. 


Raleigh. N. C. .. 


. .305 LaFayette St. 


Birmingham, Ala 


2010 1st Ave. 


Lynchburg. Va 722 Main St. 


Richmond. Va . . . 


830 E. Main St. 


Charleston. S. C 


Charleston Hotel 


Memphis, Tenn 60 N. N'lain St. 


Savannah, Ga .... 


37 Bull St 


Charlotte. N. C. 


. . 22 S. Tryon St. 


Mobile. Ala 51 S. Royal St. 


Sheffield .Ala 


Sheffield Hotel 


Chattanooga. Tenn. . . .817 Market St. 
Columbia, S. C Arcade Building 
Jacksonville. Fla . . . .38 W. Bay St. 


Montgomery, Ala Exchange Hotel 
Nashville. Tenn. .Independent Life Bldg 
New Orleans. La St. Charles Hotel 


Tampa, Fla 
Vicksburg, Miss. . 
Winston-Salem, N 


... .Hillsboro Hotel 
1319 Washington St. 
. C. 236 N. Main St. 



For detailed information regarding National Parks and Monuments address Bureau of Service. 
National Parks and Monuments: or Travel Bureau Western Lines; 646 Transportation Bldg., 
Chicago. Page thirty-one 



Season 1919 



RAND MCNALLV A. Co. 
CHICAOQ 




Copyright by A . Schlechten 




The lower falls of the Ycllowston-. 
Height 308 feet In its superb setting it m a rnatvel of beauty 




YOSEMITE 



National Par 






MIA. 







UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION 



N AT I O N A L 



IHIIIIIII8llfflliailillBft{>l8^ 




Glacier Point. Yosemite Valley. The Half Dome in background 




An Appreciation of 

Yosemite National Park 

By HARRIET MONROE, Editor of "Poetry, a Magazine of Verse" 

Wriilrn Especially for the United Stales Railroad Admiiiisiniiinii 

WICE and each time through an entire July -I have 
tramped with the California Sierra Club through the 
grandest areas of the Yosemite National Park. I have 
camped in the Valley, in Tuolumne Meadows, and in the 
lost Hetch-Hetchy sleeping to the sound of rushing waters 
with mountains towering around me. I have crossed Vogelsang Pass 
when the mountain hemlocks were just slipping off their wet mantles of 
snow; I have descended the formidable Tuolumne Canyon past the third 
fall ; and under Mount Dana I have looked down over the red rocks of 
Bloody Canyon to Lake Mono, lying incredibly blue among the pink 
and lilac craters of dead volcanoes. 

My memories of this prismatically shattered earth are sharp in details 
of beauty, but all of them rise against white granite and falling waters. 
Never anywhere else can there be mountains so silver-white El Capitan 
shouldering the sky, Cloud's Rest and the two great Domes giving back 
the sun, and Ritter, Lyell and Dana, fierce and jagged, guarding their 
inscrutable heights. And through the crevices of this gleaming granite 
run everywhere crystal streams streams mad with joy that foam as 
they fly, and shout as they take enormous leaps over stark precipices. 
All kinds of falling waters the delicate cascades of Illilouette; the 
wind-blown tulle of Bridal Veil; Nevada, lacy, white-fingered, taking 
her 600-foot leap like a step in a dance; Vernal, broad-shouldered, 
strong-bodied, massive, as he jumps like an athlete; and, most wonder- 
ful of all, Yosemite, that Upper Yosemite Fall whose leap is 1 ,500 feet 
a tall white living figure against the formidable cliff, a figure moving 
and breathing, tossing the spray from his eyes, shining tall and straight 
there like a young Greek god. 

Everywhere waters falling over and under and into white granite, 
falling in ribbons and rivers and cataracts, ringing golden bells, booming 
great guns, spraying the little flowers and the giant sequoias as they 
pass. Everywhere splendor a world gorgeous, exultant, full of color 
and motion, existing for itself, for its own joy, and taking man on suffer- 
ance, as it were, if he will accept its terms and be free of soul. 




Page three 



I 



I 



To the American People: 

Uncle Sam asks you to be his guest. He has prepared for you the 
choice places of this continent places of grandeur, beauty and of 
wonder. He has built roads through the deep-cut canyons and beside 
happy streams, which will carry you into these places in comfort, and 
has provided lodgings and food in the most distant and inaccessible 
places that you might enjoy yourself and realize as little as possible 
the rigors of the pioneer traveler's life. These are for you. They are 
the playgrounds of the people. To see them is to make more hearty 
your affection and admiration for America. 



Secretary of the Interior 




Yosemite National Park 




N the rock-ribbed heights of 
the Sierra Nevada in Cali- 
fornia lies the Yosemite 
National Park, 4,000 
to 9,000 feet above sea level 
and covering an area of 719,622 acres. 
It embraces so much in Nature that is 
majestic and sublime, one feels that in 
the "great order of things" this realm 
of enchantment was created solely for 
the purpose to which it is today de- 
voted the recreation and enjoyment of 
mankind. 

Among our National Parks, Yosemite 
is especially favored in having, close to 
its two entrances, features that are 
singularly attractive. One is the Yos- 
emite Valley, just within the Parks' 
southwestern boundary; the other, the 
Mariposa Big Tree Grove, directly with- 
in the southern boundary of the Park. 
In either case Yosemite greets the visi- 
tor with a lavish display of its natural 
gifts. 

Yosemite Valley is only a mile wide 
by seven miles long, its portal a scant 
half-mile wide, but never was the vesti- 
bule to a palace decked in fashion more 
alluring. The revelation of its beauties 
comes so suddenly, so many unexpected 
sights are disclosed in so limited an en- 
closure, that visitors are amazed and 
well may wonder if anything more en- 
trancing can lie beyond. And so with 
the Mariposa Grove. From forests of 



stately pines one suddenly enters amoni 
trees of an immensity bewildering 
trees that in height, girth and diameter 
exceed anything hitherto dreamed of. 

And should the visitor go no farthe 
than either of these entrances to tl 
Park, he will be repaid a hundred-fol< 
but beyond the narrow cliff-rimme< 
confines of this valley of witchery, am 
through the openings of this magic 
grove, there stretches an immense regioi 
that includes, in John Muir's words: 

"The headwaters of the Tuolumm 
and Merced rivers, two of the m< 
songful streams in the world; innumei 
able lakes and waterfalls and smootl 
silky lawns; the noblest forests, th< 
loftiest granite domes, the deepest ic< 
sculptured canyons, the brightest cry* 
talline pavements, and snowy moui 
tains soaring into the sky twelve an< 
thirteen thousand feet, arrayed in oj 
ranks and spiry pinnacled groups pai 
tially separated by tremendous canyoi 
and amphitheaters; gardens on theii 
sunny brows, avalanches thundering 
down their long white slopes, cataracl 
roaring gray and foaming in the crooked, 
rugged gorges, and glaciers, in theii 
shadowy recesses, working in silence 
slowly completing their sculptures; new- 
born lakes at their feet, blue and greei 
free or encumbered with drifting ice 
bergs like miniature Arctic Oceans 
shining, sparkling, calm as stars." 



Page four 




The Yosemite Valley 

The Yosemite Valley was discovered 
to the world in 1851 by Captain John 
Doling, while pursuing hostile Indians 
with a detachment of mounted volun- 
teers. 

The Indians called it the Heart of 
the Sky Mountain, or Ahwanee, "the 
deep grass valley." Later the name 
Yo Semite was given to the valley, its 
meaning being the "great grizzly bear," 
and subsequently, when the National 
Park was established, this famous name 
was retained. 

In spectacular waterfalls and sheer 
cliffs Yosemite Valley is supreme. No- 
where else have high mountain streams 
found such varied and beautiful courses 
to fling their waters over such lofty 
cliffs and unite in a valley river. In 
spring, from beneath the great snow- 
mantle of the High Sierra, pour the ice 
waters into the cups of the Yosemite; 
and all summer, though in lessening 
volume, these great reservoirs moun- 
tain lakes of crystal continue to feed 
the streams of the Park. 

All of the towering rock-masses of 
Yosemite are remarkable. There are 
peaks grouped strangely and peaks no 
less strangely isolated. There are needle- 
pointed pinnacles and smooth domes 
whose tops are perfect hemispheres. 



Wild Flowers, Shrubs and Ferns 

The floor of the valley is level meadow- 
land, its grass shining like green satin, 
and through it winds the Merced River. 
Over the stream bend alder, willow, 
flowering dogwood, balm-of-Gilead, and 
other water-loving trees, and inter- 
spersed with the emerald verdure of the 
glades are groves of pine and groups of 
stately black oak. Many and bright 
are the wild flowers of Yosemite, and 
with the shrubs will be counted the red- 
branched manzanita, the chinquapin, 
the beautiful California lilac, violets, 
wild roses, the mariposa lily, goldcup 
oak, the brilliant snow plant and their 
kind. In cool recesses of the forest, by 
river banks and in rock-seams, grow 
numerous beautiful species of ferns. 

Thus near the river it is pastoral and 
peaceful; and yet only a few rods away, 
at the foot of a tumultuous cataract, 
you may hear the noise of rushing waters 
hurled from the brink of precipitous 
cliffs. 

The First Sight of Yosemite 
Its Striking Features 

The first view of Yosemite Valley, a 
great gash in the heart of the mountains, 
is a sight to inspire reverence. From 
the deep shadows of the pines, a silence- 
compelling vista bursts upon the eye. 



Page five 




Page six 




The Three Brothers 



Mighty rock sentinels guard the en- 
trance and beyond them towering cliffs 
and verdant valley swim in a glorious 
light 

On the south wall shimmers the Bridal 
Veil Falls. The water slips over the 
great granite wall, white and ethereal. 
It seems to drop its tenuous mist into 
the very tree tops. The highest Euro- 
pean fall is that of the Staubbach in 
Switzerland, but even Bridal Veil not 
half the height of Yosemite Falls is 
higher, leaps out of a smoother channel, 
has greater volume of water and is seen 
in the midst of loftier precipices. The 
stream is full thirty feet wide, and falls 
first a distance of 620 feet, then pauses 
an instant and drops a perpendicular 
distance of 320 feet. But from the chief 
points of view it seems to make only 
one plunge and the effect is that of an 
unbroken descent of over nine hundred 
feet. Often the wind swings the great 
column of water from the face of the 
cliff and waves it like a scarf or veil. 
At sunset, rainbows with an indescrib- 
able radiance bejewel its foam. 

Around the shoulder behind which 
Bridal Veil Creek makes its way to the 
brink, tower the Cathedral Rocks. They 
get their name from a resemblance to 
the Duomo at Florence, and rise 2,591 
feet above the valley floor. Just be- 



yond them are seen the Cathedral Spires, 
one solitary shaft of granite uplifting 
for more than seven hundred feet. 



Across the narrow valley, and nearly 
opposite, is El Capitan a rock more 
than twice as great as Gibraltar. It 
rises 3,604 feet, with an apparently ver- 
tical front. Thrust out like a buttress, 
it presents to the vision an area of more 
than four hundred acres of naked gran- 
ite. Sublime and steadfast it stands, a 
veritable "Rock of Ages." The bulk of 
El Capitan is so stupendous that it 
can be seen from a vantage ground 
sixty miles distant. 

Eagle Peak, in the Three Brothers 
group, lies a little beyond El Capitan. 
Its height is 3,813 feet. Sentinel Rock 
faces the Three Brothers from the south 
wall, a splintered granite spire, very 
slender, and nearly perpendicular for 
about 1,500 feet below its apex, its total 
height being 3,059 feet. Back of this 
natural and majestic monument stands 
Sentinel Dome, its storm-worn top 4,157 
feet above the valley. 

Almost at the base of Sentinel Rock 
is Yosemite Village, the tourist center of 
the Valley, where the Sentinel Hotel, 
the post-office, a few shops and studios 
are grouped, directly opposite Yosemite 
Falls. Across the river to the west is 
Yosemite Camp. Camp Curry is a mile 



Page seven 



In the Mariposa Grove of Giant Sequoia* 



Page eight 




Several good motor roads lead into the Valley 



east of the village, on the road to the 
Happy Isles and at the base of Glacier 
Point. Details of resorts and accom- 
modations in the Park will be found on 
later pages. 

The greatest cataract in all the Sierra 
is Yosemite Falls. This vast volume of 
foaming water plunges 2,350 feet 
nearly half a mile. In reality it is not 
one fall, but three. The first is 1,430 
feet straight down. Then comes a 
series of cascades 600 feet, and a final 
leap of 320 feet. The stream is about 
thirty-five feet wide and when its waters 
are at flood the reverberations can be 
heard all over the valley. This wide- 
flung fall of wind-tossed water is Yose- 
mite's sublimest feature. 

Across the valley the massive shoulder 
of Glacier Point is thrust out from the 
south wall, and, almost opposite, on the 
north, stands Yosemite Point, flanked 
on the east by Indian Canyon, once used 
by the Indians as exit or entrance for 
Yosemite. 

The Royal Arches are near the head 
of the valley, in the vast vertical wall 
whose summit is North Dome. The 
arches are recessed curves in the granite 
front, very impressive because of their 
size, and made by ice-action. Much of 
the rock is formed in layers like the 
structure of an onion, the arches being 
the broken edges of these layers. Wash- 



ington Column is the angle of the cliff at 
this point a tower completing the mas- 
sive wall at the very head of Yosemite. 

Over against it, but looking down the 
valley, stands the highest rock of all the 
region the great South Dome, or Half 
Dome, as it is most often called. It is 
8,852 feet above sea level, or 4,892 feet 
above the floor. Its massive front is 
fractured vertically for about two thou- 
sand feet, and the face turned outward is 
polished by wind and storm a moun- 
tain apparently cleft in the center as by 
some mighty giant's scimitar. The side 
of the Half Dome toward the southwest 
has the curve of a great helmet, so 
smooth and precipitous as almost to 
defy the climber. On its overhanging 
rock, however, the most venturesome 
have stood. From hotels and camps, 
Half Dome is often seen raising its head 
above the clouds. 

To the northeast from here opens 
Tenaya Canyon. Mirror Lake, an ex- 
pansion of Tenaya Creek and lying be- 
tween the North and Half Dome, is at 
the entrance. When the sun creeps 
over the great flank of the Half Dome, 
the whole landscape is wonderfully re- 
produced in this miraculous mirror, the 
reflection of the sunrise being an unusual 
feature. But sunrise over these colossal 
cliffs is much later than the sunrise at 
lower levels. 



Page nine 




Viev from Panorama Point along the Trail to Glacier Point. Showing the Half Dome. Liberty Cap. 

Vernal Falls and Clouds' Rest 



P a e ten 




The Fallen Monarch in the Mariposa Grove of Big Trees 



The Mariposa Big Tree Grove 

Just within the southern boundary of 
the Park, and reached from the Sentinel 
Hotel and camps in the valley by a de- 
lightful thirty-five mile auto drive 
through timbered slopes and canyons, 
and also direct from Merced by auto over 
the Wawona Road, lies the Mariposa 
Big Tree Grove. Here stand over six 
hundred fine specimens of the Sequoia 
Washmgtoniana, the famous Big Trees 
which today grow only in the Sierra of 
California. These are the oldest living 
things. On some matured specimens, 
fallen or partly burned thus exposing 
their annual wood rings John Muir 
counted upward of 4,000 years of 
growth. The Mariposa Grove is the 
greatest grove of these giant trees out- 
side of the Sequoia National Park, and 
contains the third largest tree in the 
world, and also the world's tallest tree. 
This is the Mark Twain, 331 feet in 
height with near-by neighbors not many 
feet lower. Its largest tree is the Griz- 
zly Giant, 93 feet in girth at its base, 
29.6 feet in diameter, and 204 feet in 
height. The first branch, 125 feet from 
the ground, is six feet in diameter -a 
tree itself. Twenty-two people can 
barely encompass its girth, touching 
finger tips. Eighteen horses, head to 
tail, just circle its base. This sequoia 



was considered by John Muir a mature 
tree, probably verging on old age; and 
there it stands today surrounded by its 
fellows of varying ages, many as old as 
itself trees that were in their prime 
before the dawn of Christianity, and are 
still ripening their cones and regularly 
shedding their tiny seeds year after year. 
The Lafayette and Washington trees 
are only three or four inches less in 
diameter than the Grizzly Giant; the 
Columbia tree is 294 feet in height, the 
Nevada is 278, while the Forest Queen- 
the shortest of 27 other notable named 
trees is 219 feet in height, 17 feet in 
diameter, and 53 feet in girth, at base. 
The Wawona, which is 227 feet in height, 
has for years had an archway in its 
trunk, through which the auto road 
passes; its vitality is unimpaired in spite 
of this 26-foot passage cut into its heart. 
The Fallen Giant, which has been lying 
in the grove for centuries, its firm wood 
still sound, forms a roadway upon which 
a six-horse coach, loaded with passengers, 
has many times been driven. These 
facts may give some idea of the immen- 
sity of these trees. Their true appreci- 
ation is difficult; but if the Grizzly Giant 
was sawed into inch boards, the tree 
would box the greatest steamship ever 
built, with enough boards left over to 
box a flock of submarines. The beauty 



Page eleven 




Good trails and pleasant horseback parties add to Yosemite's delight 



and symmetry of these giant conifers is no 
less striking than their size; their bark 
is soft and fibrous, and deeply fluted, 
its bright cinnamon and purple giving 
a rich coloring to their stately columns. 
Just beyond the southwest corner of 
the Park, six miles from the Mariposa 
Grove, is the comfortable Hotel Wawona, 
providing good service. The auto trip 
from the Valley to the Mariposa Grove 
and return takes a full day. Within the 
park boundaries are also two smaller 
sequoia groves, the Merced Grove, six 
miles north, and the Tuolumne Grove, 
fifteen miles north from El Portal, by 
auto road. 

The Trails to Glacier Point and Other 
Vantage Points 

From the Sentinel Hotel the road leads to 
Happy Isles, where the Merced races in joyous 
frolic. From here starts the "long trail" -twelve 
miles to Glacier Point. It winds along the 
bottom of a wild canyon hemmed in by titanic 
walls. Panorama Point, 4,000 feet above the 
river on the south side, is almost perpendicular, 
and the highest continuous wall of Yosemite. 
Its face is traced by miniature streams of trick- 
ling water and painted by purple lichen, and per- 
haps nowhere else do you feel so deeply the 
geological impressiveness of the region. From 
a bridge over the river, half a mile farther, you 
catch a glimpse of Vernal Falls, gloriously re- 
splendent in the dark canyon. The river is 
nearly eighty feet wide and falls 317 feet from 
granite ledge to fern-hung glen. The sparkling 
waters drop like an endless stream of shooting 
stars. The spray is driven outward like smoke. 



and every sprig of plant and grass, moss ar 
fern, is kept vividly green by this incessant baj 
tism. The trail leads to the top of the Fall. 

A little beyond within a mile is Nevada 
Falls, where the same stream plunges over 
precipice 594 feet high, the great snowy torrent 
glancing from sloping rock about midway in 
compound curve, over cliffs of polished granil 
Under the bald dome of lofty Liberty Cap, wil 
Mount Broderick at its back and the Half Doi 
near by, Nevada Falls plunges into its abyss, tl 
whole volume of the crystal Merced shattei 
into a shower of shining jewels, while below- 
where the river gathers its forces banners 
rainbow-tinted spray fly wide upon the wind. 

The horse trail leads up the timbered side 
of the gorge to the top of Vernal Falls, wher 
is a natural parapet of granite from which 
watch the river railing in a green and azure 
mantle over the square-cut edge. The trail 
thence mounts to the top of Nevada Falls wh< 
another guarded vantage point, directly on tl 
brink, shows the swiftly gliding stream curvii 
and breaking in foam in its descent. Whei 
else can two such waterfalls be so closely fol- 
lowed from river-bed to rim, with their spraj 
moistening the air around you? A few yar< 
beyond the edge of Nevada Falls, the river is 
crossed by a low bridge, built on granite out- 
croppings. From here the trail turns west along 
the southern side of the canyon, passing over 
the ridge of Panorama Point, and beneath stately 
pines enters the picture-gorge of Illilouette Creek, 
its falls splashing 370 feet in festoons of silver 
spray. Descending to the stream, another 
bridge is crossed and the trail turns sharply 
north, zig-zagging up the heavily timbered 
southern side of Glacier Point to its summit. 
The marvelous view at every turn grows wid< 
in its scope. The new and attractive Glaci< 
Point Hotel stands in a grove of pine that covei 
the mountain top. 



Page twelve 




Liberty Cap and Nevada Falls 



The View from Glacier Point 

Glacier Point is the most accessible and per- 
haps the greatest vantage point in Yosemite. 
Within a hundred yards of the hotel are the 
projecting rocks which mark the Point. It is 
3,234 feet from their tops to the valley floor. A 
pebble dropped will touch nothing until it strikes 
the talus, 3,000 feet below. The largest buildings 
are dwarfed to cottages, camps are white specks, 
lofty pines are mere shrubs, men and horses seem 
dots on the valley floor. The view is sublime. 
Sharp brinks and precipices plunge into the val- 
ley on one side; into the gorge of the Illilouette 
on the other. Looking down the valley to the 
left, Eagle Peak juts above the rim, and Yose- 
mite Falls gleams in full light; opposite are the 
Royal Arches and the North Dome, and beyond 
them the Basket Dome; Mirror Lake is a splash 
of brightness at the entrance to the Tenaya Can- 
yon, which can be traced to the northeast 
through its steep walls. The great face of the 
Half Dome, with the curve of its splendid helmet 
in unbroken view, towers above; beyond, against 
the sky, rises the bare granite of Cloud's Rest. 
To the right is seen majestic Liberty Cap, while 
in the distance rears the white peak of the 
Obelisk, with the snowy range of Mounts Starr 
King, Lyell, Clark and Dana, 13,000 feet above 
the sea, seeming to swim in the azure. Below 
you, Vernal and Nevada Falls sparkle in their 
gorge of green. 

The view beyond the valley to the north 
embraces snow-capped Hoffman Peak, Tuolumne 
Peak and Colby Mountain and reaches beyond 
the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne and the 
Hetch-Hetchy Valley a remarkable region of the 
Park recently opened by roads and trails, and 
later described. 

Sentinel Dome, a mile and a half south, rises 
over Glacier Point a thousand feet, and can be 
climbed without difficulty. From its summit 



the San Joaquin Valley and the Coast Range, 
nearly a hundred miles distant, are distinctly 
seen. The Pohono trail from Glacier Point leads 
to The Fissures, on the rim, clefts in the rock 
that reach down hundreds of feet, one being only 
four feet across. 

From Glacier Point return can be made by 
the short trail, four and a half miles to the valley 
floor. It is a steep and continuous zig-zag. At 
Union Point, 2,350 feet above the valley, stop 
is made for a rest. Just below stands Agassiz 
Column, like a balanced rock, a shaft of granite 
eighty-five feet in height. Its corroded base 
seems too frail to support its great bulk. 

In addition to the two trails described. Glacier 
Point is reached by auto-stages over the Wawona 
Road to Chinquapin, there turning east and run- 
ning fourteen miles to the Glacier Point Hotel. 

There is also a newly constructed foot trail 
leading from the valley at the base of Glacier 
Point, on a natural ledge diagonally across the 
face of the cliff to the top. While this trail is 
steep, it is well built and safe and is less than 
two miles in length. 

Trail Trips to Top of Yosemite Falls, 
Eagle Peak and El Capitan 

Among other horse and foot trails from the 
valley are those to the rim at Yosemite Point, 
above Yosemite Falls. One can climb 500 feet 
below to the very lip of the falls and look down 
into the peaceful valley across the plunging 
waters that shatter the air with their roar. Far- 
ther along, the trail reaches Eagle Peak. 3,81 3 feet 
above the floor, where a splendid view is had; 
and the trip can be continued to the crest of 
El Capitan. 

Artist's Point and Inspiration Point along 
the Wawona auto road to the Mariposa Big 
Tree Grove are among the outlooks affording 
vistas that are never forgotten. 



Page thirteen 






, 



^^ 






Nevada Fall* 



fourteen 




m 









Polly Dome on the Tioga Road Its polished sides glint in the sun 



The Tioga Road and Tenaya Lake Region 

The completion of the Tioga Road crossing 
the Park from east to west, and connecting 
with roads from Yosemite Valley, offers to Park 
visitors a new auto drive through a mountain- 
top paradise. Crossing the South Fork of the 
Tuolumne close to the western border, the 
Tioga Road runs east near the Tuolumne Grove of 
Big Trees, and continues toward Harden Lake, 
whence it turns south and skirts Mount 
Hoffman, 10,921 feet, passing along the shore of 
Tenaya Lake and winding upward amidst moun- 
tain heights of striking formation. At Tenaya 
Lake Lodge there is good accommodation and 
service. Tuolumne Peak rises to the north, 
Cathedral Peak to the south, and beyond, 
through a wilderness of timbered granite slopes, 
the road mounts to the Sierra's rim at Tioga 
Pass, 9,941 feet, with Dana Mountain, 13,050 
feet above sea level, towering 3,000 feet higher 
than the road. The view to the east looks 
down the precipitous wall of the Sierra into 
Owens Valley, lying like an emerald 5,741 feet 
below, while northward gleams Mono Lake in 
turquoise blue. 

Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne 

Directly north of the Tioga Road and fifteen 
miles from the rim of Yosemite Valley, lies the 
Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne, another of 
Yosemite's marvels. This great spectacle, with 
the Hetch-Hetchy Valley joining it on the west, 
and the miles of lake-dotted, stream-woven 
slopes of the gorged Sierra still farther north, 
are now open to the tourist by the improvement 
of horse trails connecting with those leading 
from the valley by way of Tenaya Lake, through 
Soda Springs and other points on the Tioga 
Road. It is a section hitherto little known 
and seldom explored by any but the con- 
firmed mountain-lovers of the Pacific Coast, 



the Sierra Club having camped throughout this 
wide domain during fifteen years of summer out- 
ings. Another trail leaves the Tioga Road at 
the Yosemite Creek bridge and covers eight 
remarkable scenic miles to the Ten Lakes Basin, 
on the south rim of the Tuolumne Canyon. 

This region, and that leading to the crest of 
the range along the eastern boundaries of the 
Park, is the realm of the camper in the forest, 
whose outing may last two weeks or a month 
or more. Saddle horses and pack animals follow 
winding trails by icy streams that have their 
birth in everlasting snows and flow westward 
through a sea of peaks, resting by the way in 
snow-bordered lakes, romping through luxuriant 
glades, rushing over rocky heights and swinging 
in and out of the shadows of mighty mountains. 
It is a summerland of sunshine where it seldom 
rains. 

"It is the heart of High Sierra," writes John 
Muir, "8,500 to 9,000 feet above the level of 
the sea. The gray, picturesque Cathedral Range 
bounds it on the south; a similar range or spur, 
the highest peak of which is Mount Conness. on 
the north; the noble Mount Dana. Gibbs, Mam- 
moth, Lyell, McClure, and others on the axis of 
the range, on the east; a heaving, billowy crowd 
of glacier-polished rocks and Mount Hoffman on 
the west. Down through the open, sunny 
meadow levels of the valley flows the Tuolumne 
River, fresh and cool from its many glacial foun- 
tains, the highest of which are the glaciers that 
lie on the north sides of Mount Lyell and Mount 
McClure." 

Of the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne, Muir 
wrote: "It is the cascades or sloping falls on the 
main river that are the crowning glory of the 
canyon, and these, in volume, extent, and var- 
iety, surpass those of any other canyon in the 
Sierra. The most showy and interesting of them 
are mostly in the upper part of the canyon above 



P a He fifteen 




Yosemite Valley from Inspiration Point. Bridal Veil Falls on right. 



Page sixteen 






the Tioga Road. Mirror Lake, showing reflection of the Half Dome. 



Page seventeen 




/ Price Peak 

/ 10916 ft. ^ 





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1 /Tioga Pass 

* ' 9941 II 



Lake 



fuolumn 

10875 ft..= 

fivlt. Hoffmann 



GROVE 

OF 
BIG TREES 

EL PORTAL 



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r** <" ->* 

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POINT ^^. 
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Dana Mt) 

.1^3050 (t.> 

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*\ Kuna J* 
S\ Peak|C 
* * Vv 12951 It. 



TEN\YA LAKE 
LbDGE 



.Parsons 



\ ^Peak ,V 

/ 12120 ft. \ 



LODGE / , 

^Mt.Lyell 

13090 

n Lake 



n / 

K^ 

jj \Chinquapiry V 

kw^ftl 



'^S^; 



I'Nfe 



Red Peak 
%1 1700 It. 



,Buena Vista Peak J\ 
01 9777 It. y-^-r / 

/ / r Xj 



'Triple Divide Peak 

11613 ft. 



Sing Peak 

10544 It. 



WAWONA HOTEL 

Devil Peak-^1 

7079 It. 



Chiquito Pass 
8039 ft. 



MARIPOSA GROVE 
OF BIG TREES 



3-J 

70 MERCED 



70 FRESNO 




YOSEM1TE 
NATIONAL PARK 

CALIFORNIA 

Scale 



2 1 



Boundary 
Automobile Roads 
Trails 
Railroads 



CVpyrbM '>r TUn.1 McNHy 4 Co. 7?9o 



Page eighteen 




Tioga Lake in Glacier Canyon, on the Tioga Road 



the point of entrance of Cathedral Creek and 
Hoffman Creek. For miles the river is one 
wild, exulting, on-rushing mass of snowy purple 
bloom, spreading over glacial waves of granite 
without any definite channel, gliding in mag- 
nificent silver plumes, dashing and foaming 
through huge bowlder dams, leaping high in the 
air in wheel-like whirls, displaying glorious en- 
thusiasm, tossing from side to side, doubling, 
glinting, singing in exuberance of mountain 
energy." 

The Waterwheel Falls 

Muir's "wheel-like whirls" are the soon-to-be- 
celebrated Waterwheel Falls. Rushing down 
the canyon's slanting granites under great head- 
way, the river encounters shelves of rock pro- 
jecting from its bottom. From these are thrown 
up enormous arcs of solid water high in the air. 
Some of the waterwheels rise fifty feet and span 
eighty feet in the air. 

The sight is extraordinary in character and 
quite unequaled in beauty. Nevertheless, be- 
fore the trail was built, so difficult was the going 
that probably only a few hundred persons all 
told had ever seen the waterwheels. 

The Mountain Climax of Yosemite Park 

The mountain mass, of which Mount Lyell 
is the chief, lies on the southeast boundary of 
the Park. It is reached by trail from Tuolumne 
Meadows on the north, or from Yosemite Valley 
on the south, by the trail passing Vernal and 
Nevada Falls. 

From the Tuolumne Meadows the trail swings 
around Johnson Peak along the Lyell Fork, and 
turns southward up its valley. Rafferty Peak 



and Parsons Peak rear gray heads on the right, 
and huge Kuna Crest borders on the left side of 
the trail for miles. At the head of the valley, 
beyond several immense granite shelves, rears 
the mighty group with Mount Lyell, 13,090 
feet, in the center, supported on the north by 
McClure Mountain and on the south by Rodgers 
Peak. 

The way up is through a vast basin of tumbled 
granite, encircled by a rampart of nine sharp, 
glistening peaks and hundreds of spearlike points, 
the whole cloaked in enormous sweeping shrouds 
of snow. Presently the granite spurs inclose 
you. And beyond these looms a mighty wall 
which apparently forbids further approach to 
the mountain's shrine. But another half hour 
brings your climbing horse face to face with 
Lyell's rugged top and shining glaciers, one of 
the noblest places in America. 

Merced and Washburn Lakes 

The waters from the western slopes of Lyell 
and McClure find their way. through many 
streams and many lakelets of splendid beauty, 
into two lakes which are the headwaters of 
Merced River. The upper of these is Washburn 
Lake, cradled in bare heights and celebrated for 
its fishing. This is the formal source of the 
Merced. Several miles below, the river rests 
again in Merced Lake. 

There is a mountain lodge with good accom- 
modations and service at Merced Lake, and a 
fine trail leads to the Yosemite Valley through 
glacier-polished slopes. 

Fishing in these waters is unusually good. 



P a & e nineteen 




Vernal Falls 



oices is heard for mile* 



Page twenty 




ineling one of the giant Sequoias 



Wild Animals and Fishing 

The Park is a sanctuary for wild game of 
every sort, firearms not being permitted. There 
is an abundance of deer, bear and smaller fur 
animals. The predatory mountain lion or 
cougar, lynx, timber wolf, fox and coyote, are 
being exterminated as rapidly as possible by 
the rangers. Fishing is permitted in all waters 
within the Park during the open season, under 
the State laws regarding size of fish and limit. 
A State fishing license is necessary and can be 
obtained in Yosemite village. On many of the 
lakes there are boats which can be rented. 
The Park Season 

While Yosemite National Park is open all the 
year, and the Sentinel Hotel, in the valley, is 
always open for tourists, the Mariposa Grove 
and the higher elevations are inaccessible except 
during the summer season, extending from May 
1st to November 1st. In the spring months 
the waterfalls are seen at their best, though even 
late in August, when the waters have lowered, 
their mist-like filmy beauty is incomparable. In 
September and October Yosemite is delightful. 
These are the "months of reflection," when the 
exquisite autumnal colorings, and the light and 
air of Indian summer, lend their charm to the 
glories mirrored in mountain lakes. 

Approaches to the Park 

The El Portal Entrance The approach 
from Merced by rail to El Portal, the western 
gateway to Yosemite Park, follows for over 
seventy miles the picturesque canyon of the 
Merced River once famous for its gold-bearing 
gravels, now for its speckled trout. Winding 
through the foothills, the scenery each mile in- 
dicates, by the increasing ruggedness of the rock 
formations, a nearing to the great Sierra Range. 
The pines take on a greater height, their stately 
outlines appearing against a mountain back- 
ground ever becoming loftier. Auto-stages 



daily meet incoming trains at El Portal and from 
there start on the fifteen-mile drive into the 
heart of the valley, the road closely skirting, 
beneath shady forests, the curves and reaches of 
the turbulent, musical stream. Passing under 
a rocky archway, a narrow portal towers ahead, 
pinnacles and precipices crowding on either 
side a fitting introduction to the wild beauties 
beyond. Arriving at Yosemite village, stop is 
made at the Sentinel Hotel, Yosemite Camp and 
Camp Curry. 

The Wawona Entrance At Merced, auto- 
stages meet incoming trains and daily, during 
the summer season, leave for the Park over the 
Wawona Road. From the San Joaquin Valley 
the road climbs upwards into the romantic foot- 
hill country that in Forty-Nine was crowded 
with gold-seekers. The scenic drive continues to 
Miami Lodge, on the margin of the forest over- 
looking the valley of Miami Creek. Here lunch 
is had, the road beyond Miami leading through 
forests that grow denser, and amid scenery in- 
creasing in grandeur. Following a short detour 
to the south, the road turns into the Mariposa 
Grove of Big Trees the southern gateway to the 
Park. After a stop amidst the giant trees, the 
trip is continued to the Wawona Hotel, seventy- 
four miles from Merced. Each morning the auto- 
stage starts from Wawona on the thirty-five-mile 
drive through densely forested canyons to the 
hotel and camps in the Yosemite Valley. The 
first view of the valley is had from Inspiration 
Point. At Chinquapin, fourteen miles from 
Yosemite Village, a road diverges to the east 
and runs the same distance to the Glacier Point 
Hotel, on the summit of Glacier Point. 

How to Reach Yosemite National Park 

Yosemite National Park is reached the year 
'round via Merced and El Portal, Cal. The 
Yosemite Valley Railroad operates daily be- 
tween Merced and El Portal, a distance of 



Page twenty-one 












Cathedral Rocks 



Page twenty-two 




Another of the amazing spectacles of Yosemite is the Waterwheel Falls of the Tuolumne River 



seventy-eight miles, connecting with auto stages 
of the Yosemite National Park Company run- 
ning between El Portal and Yosemite Valley, a 
distance of fourteen miles. During summer 
season the Park is also reached by daily auto- 
mobile service of the Yosemite Stage and Turn- 
pike Co., "The Horseshoe Route," operating 
between Merced and Yosemite Valley, a dis- 
tance of 109 miles, via Mariposa Grove of Big 
Trees and Wawona (over-night stop), with side 
trip of twenty-eight miles from Chinquapin to 
Glacier Point and return. Another summer 
route is via El Portal and Tuolumne Big Trees, 
("Triangle Route"). 

Round-trip excursion tickets at reduced fares 
are sold at certain stations in California to 
Yosemite National Park as a destination. Pas- 
sengers wishing to visit the Park in connection 
with journeys toother destinations (while en route 
between San Francisco and Los Angeles, for 
example) will find stop-over privileges available 
on both round-trip and one-way tickets and may 
make side trip from Merced to the Park and return. 

During summer season the fare from Merced 
to Yosemite village via El Portal is $10 one way, 
$13.50 round trip; via Mariposa Grove and 
Wawona it is $14.25 in each direction, with $5 
additional charge for side trip to Glacier Point. 
Fare from Merced to Yosemite Valley and re- 
turn, for circle tour in one direction via El 
Portal, and in the opposite direction via Wawona 
and Mariposa Grove, is $24.25. Fare from 
Merced to Yosemite Valley and return via El 
Portal, in one direction via Tuolumne Big Trees, 
is $20.00. 

Certain regulations are in effect for free stor- 
age of baggage at Merced and other stations for 
actual length of time consumed by passen- 
gers in making side trip to Yosemite National 
Park. On baggage checked to El Portal usual 
free allowance will be made by railroads. On 
baggage checked through to Yosemite village, 



via El Portal, collection of $1.00 for each trunk 
will be made. Automobile stage lines will carry 
limited amount of hand baggage without charge. 

Hotels, Camps, and Lodges 
Sentinel Hotel, American plan: 

Per day, each, room without bath $5 00 

Per day. each, room with bath $ 6 00- 7 . 00 

Exclusive use of double room by one per- 
son, additional charge, per day I . 50- 3.00 

Tub or shower baths in detached rooms. 

each .50 

Meal and lodging rates 

Breakfast I 00 

Luncheon I . 25 

Dinner I 50 

Lodging I 25- 325 

Meals served in rooms, extra .50 

New Glacier Point Hotel, American plan: 

Per day, each, room without bath 4.00- 4 50 

Per day, each, room with bath 5.00 8.00 

Exclusive use of double room by one per- 
son, additional charge, per day I . 50- 3 00 

Tub or shower baths .50 

Meal and lodging rates: 

Breakfast ... I 00 

Luncheon I 00 

Dinner 1 .00 

Lodging I 00- 5 00 

Meals served in room, extra. . 50 

Camp Curry, American Plan: 

Board and lodging in ordinary tents 

Per day. each 3 . 50 

Per week, each 2300 

Per four weeks, each 90 00 

Children between 5 and 8 years, per day . 225 

Between 3 and 5 years, per day 

Under 3 years, per day 1.25 

Guests desiring extra tent room will be 

charged as follows: 
Tent for four people, occupied by two 

people, per day extra, each I 00 

Tent tor two people, occupied by one 

person, pei day extra I . 00 

Extra tent rates will be applied only be- 
tween June I and August I. 
Meal and lodging rates: 

Breakfast 75 

Lunch 75 

Dinner I 00 

Lodging . . . . I . 00 

Meals sent to tents or served out of meal 

hours, extra . . .25 



Page twenty-three 




Agassiz Column 



Page twenty-four 



Hotels, Camps and Lodges -Cnntiitiml 
Board and lodging in bungalow tents, in- 
cluding bath: 

Per day, each $ S 0!) $ 6 00 

Per week, each . 33.00 400(1 

Per four weeks, each I .' > 00 I 50 00 

Tub or shower baths, each . .... .35 

3 tickets for I 00 

5 tickets for . . I . 50 

Yosemite Camp. American plan: 

Per day. each .. 3.50- 4.00 

Per week, each 23 00- 26. 50 

Per four weeks, each 90.00-104.00 

Exclusive use of bungalow or tent by one 



person, additional charge per day 

Tub or shower baths in detached rooms, 

each 

Meal and lodging rates: 

Breakfast 

Luncheon 

Dinner . . 



Lodging ......................... I . 00- 

Meals served in tents or bungalows. 

extra ................................ 

Merced Lake Lodge. American plan: 

Per day. each ............................ 

Exclusive use of tent by one person, addi- 

tional charge per day .................... 

Tub or shower baths ...................... 

Meal and lodging rates: 

Breakfast .................................. 

Luncheon .................................... 

Dinner ................................... 

Lodging .................................. 

Meals served in tents, extra ................. 

Tenaya Lake Lodge. American plan: 

Per day. each .......................... . ____ 

Exclusive use of tent by one person, additional 

charge per day ............................ 

Tub or shower baths 
Meal and lodging rates: 

Breakfast ................................. 

Luncheon ............. 

Dinner ............. ......... 

Lodging .................................. 

Meals served in tents, extra 



I 00 



.75 
75 

I 00 
I 50 

.25 



4 00 



.00 
50 



$1.00 

.75 

1.00 

I 50 

.50 



4 . 00 

1 . 00 
50 

1.00 
75 

1.00 

1 . 50 

50 



Swimming There are swimming pools at Camp Curry 
and Yosemite Camp. 

Rates for Sight-Seeing Automobile Trips 

Round 
Trip 
Floor of Yosemite Valley to Mirror Lake, upper end 

of valley and Happy Isles (time, about 2 hours) . $1 . 00 
Floor of Yosemite Valley to El Capitan, Pohono 
Bridge, lower end of valley, returning via Bridal 
Veil Falls and Cathedral Rocks (time, about 2 

hours) I . 00 

Yosemite Valley to Artist and Inspiration Points, 
on the rim of the valley, including lower end 
of valley and El Capitan via Pohono Bridge, 
returning via Bridal Veil Falls and Cathedral 
Rocks (time, about 3 hours) . . 3.00 



Rates for Automobile Tours 

One Round 
Way Trip 

Between Yosemite Valley. Artist and In- 
spiration Points, Glacier Point, and 
Mariposa Big Trees: 
Yosemite to Glacier Point $5.00 



Yosemite to Mariposa Big Trees 7 50 

Yosemite to Mariposa Big Trees and re- 
turn to Glacier Point 

Yosemite to Glacier Point, thence to 
Mariposa Big Trees and return to 

Yosemite 

Glacier Point to Mariposa Big Trees. ... 7 50 
Glacier Point to Mariposa Big Trees and 

return to Yosemite 

Between Yosemite Valley and Tuolumne 
Bie Trees 



$7 . 50 
10 00 

10 00 

15 00 

10.00 
5.00 



Saddle Animals for Riding on Floor of Valley 

Full day $4 00 

Half day 2.50 

Full day shall consist of eight hours the first half day 
to terminate not later than 12 o'clock noon; the second 
half day to terminate not later than 6.00 p. m.; each half to 
consist of a period of four hours or less. 



Horseback Tours from 
Yosemite Valley 


One 
Way 


Round 
Trip 


Number 
Required 
in Party 


From Yosemite Valley to: 








Glacier Point, short trail 




$4 00 


1 


Glacier Point via Vernal and 








Nevada Falls, long trail 




4.00 


I 


Glacier Point via Pohono Trail. 








returning via Pohono Trail. 








short trail or long trail 




7 00 


5 


Merced Lake. . 


$4 00 


7 50 




Tenaya Lake 


4 00 


7 50 


1 


Top of Vernal and Nevada Falls 
Clouds Rest by Vernal and 




3 50 


5 


Nevada Falls 




5 00 


5 


Eagle Peak via Yosemite Falls 




4 00 


5 


Yosemite Falls. . 




3.50 


5 


North Dome via Mirror Lake. 








returning via Yosemite Falls 




5 00 


5 


From Glacier Point to: 








Floor of valley, short trail 


2 00 




1 


Floor of valley via Nevada and 








Vernal Falls, long trail 
Floor of valley via Pohono Trail 


3 50 
4 00 


700 


5 
5 


Sentinel Dome 




1 00 




Ostrander Lake (good fishing) 




4 00 


5 


Mariposa Big Trees via Wa- 








wona, Peregoy Meadows, and 
Alder Creek, returning via 








Chilnulalna Falls and Mono 








Meadows (3-day trip 
Merced Lake 


4 00 


15 00 
7 50 


5 
I 


Johnson Lake 




4 00 


5 


Thr Kis-.ii it- \half day. . 
res /f u ll d a y 




2 50 
3.50 


5 
5 


From Merced Lake to: 








Floor of valley, direct 


4 00 




1 


Floor of valley via Clouds Rest 
Washburn Lake (good fishing) . 
Tenaya Lake via Forsyth Pass 


5.00 
4.00 


2.00 


5 
1 
1 


Tenaya Lake via Vogelsang or 
Babcock Pass and Tuolumne 








Meadows 


5.00 




5 


From Merced Lake to: 








Tenaya Lake via Sunrise Trail 
and Tuolumne Meadows. . . . 


5.00 




5 


Glacier Point 


4 00 




I 


From Tenaya Lake to: 








Floor of valley via Snow Creek 








and Tenaya Canyon 


4.00 




1 


Floor of valley via Forsyth Pass 


5.00 




5 


Merced Lake via Forsyth Pass 








or Babcock Pass and Tuol- 








umne Meadows 


5 00 




5 


Merced Lake via Forsyth Pass 


4.00 


7.50 


1 


Merced Lake via Sunrise Trail 








and Tuolumne Meadows .... 


5 00 




5 


McGee Lake 




3 50 


5 


Tuolumne Soda Springs 
Waterwheel Falls 




3.50 
4 00 


1 
5 


May Lake (good fishing) 
Dog Lake (good fishing) 
Mount Conness via Tuolumne 




2 00 
3.50 


1 
1 


Meadows 




5 00 


5 


Bloody Canyon via Tuolumne 








Meadows 




5 00 


5 


Ranger's station down Leevin- 








ing Canyon (2 days) 


. . ... 


10.00 


5 



Rates for Private Party Camping Trips 



Saddle horses, per day, each 

Pack horses, per day, each 

Guides, with horse, per day, each . 
Packers, with horse, per day. each 
Cook, with horse, per day, each. . . 



$2 00 $3 00 

2 00 3 00 

5 00 

5 00 

5 00 



Rates for All-Expense Camping Tours 



1 person, cost per day. per person . . 

2 persons, cost per day, per person . 

3 persons, cost per day, per person 

4 persons, cost per day. per person 

5 persons, cost per day, per person 

6 persons, cost per day, per person 

7 persons, cost per day, per person 

8 persons, cost per day, per person ... 

9 persons, cost per day, per person. . . 

10 persons or more, cost per day, per person.. 

Above rates include the necessary guides, cooks, saddle 
horses, pack horses, provisions, canvas shelters, cooking 
utensils, stoves and bedding. 



$25 00 
15 75 
12.65 
12.40 
11.30 
10 60 
10 00 
9 70 
9 60 
9 50 



Page twenty-five 



Some of the .equoia tree, are the largest and the oldet living thing. 





Sentinel Hotel. Yosemite Valley 
One of the swimming pools in Yosemite Valley 



Glacier Point Hotel 
Hotel Wawona. near Mariposa Grove of Big Trees 



Camping Outfits for Valley Use 

Many tourists prefer to rent their camping outfits in- 
stead of bringing same with them, and for the benefit of 
>uch persons the following schedules have been prepared, 
showing cost of renting camping outfits and equipment 
'urnished. 

It is advisable in every instance that tourists desiring 
to camp in the Park should have reserved the necessary 
equipment before arrival, as during the busy season tents 
ire in great demand. 

No charge is made for camp sites, which are 
assigned to campers by the superintendent of the 
Park. 

Price List for Regular Outfits by the Week and Month 



Persons in Party 


One 
Week 


Two 

Weeks 


Three 
Weeks 


One 

Month 


3ne. . . 
Fwo . . 


$5.00 
7 50 


$6 50 
9 00 


$7.50 
9 50 


$8.00 
10 00 


Three 


9 00 


10 50 


11 50 


12 00 


'-'our. . . 
~ive 


11.00 
13 00 


12 00 
14 00 


13 00 
15 00 


14.00 
16.00 


>ix 


15.00 


16 00 


17 00 


18.00 



Hikers' Tours 

The hotels and camps are within walking distance of 
sach other, for those accustomed to that means of travel- 
ng. Economical and comfortable trips can be made by 
:quipping oneself at the rental department and merchan- 
lise store in the valley with camp outfit and supplies, 
md with pack animal, if desired. Carrying heavy equip- 
nent on a walking trip robs the trip of much of its pleasure, 
k delightful vacation may be had at an approximate cost 
>f $1 to $2 per day per person, including all expense. 

Trail Trips from Yosemite Village 

1. Yosemite to Wawona by horse trail via Glacier Point. 

Distance twenty-five miles. 

2. Yosemite to Glacier Point via short trail, over Pohono 

Trail, and return via Fort Monroe on Wawona Road. 
Distance twenty-four miles. 

3. Yosemite to Buck Camp by horse trail via Glacier 

Point, and return via Merced Lake. Distance 
seventy-eight miles. 

4. Yosemite to Tuolumne Meadows and Soda Springs via 

road to Mirror Lake, thence via horse trail and 
Tenaya Canyon. Distance twenty-four miles. 



5. Yosemite to Hetch-Hetchy Valley by horse trail via 

Tenaya Canyon and McGee Lake. Distance sixty- 
two miles. 

6. Yosemite to Hetch-Hetchy via Yosemite Falls, White 

Wolf, and Harden Lake. Distance thirty-one miles. 

7. Yosemite to Hetch-Hetchy by horse trail via Tenaya 

Canyon, Matterhorn. and Tiltill. Distance 100 miles. 

8. Yosemite to Hetch-Hetchy by horse trail via Tenaya 

Canyon, Smedburg, and Benson Lakes. Distance 
seventy miles. 

9. Yosemite to Soda Springs by horse trail via Vogelsang 

Pass. Distance thirty-seven miles. 

10. Yosemite to Soda Springs. Lyell Fork Meadows, and 
Donohue Pass, via horse trail and Nevada Falls. 
Distance thirty-eight miles. 

I I. Yosemite to Soda Springs by horse trail via Ynsemite 
Falls, Eagle Peak, and Yosemite Point Trail. Dis- 
tance twenty-eight miles. 

12. Yosemite to North Dome by horse trail and return 

via Yosemite Point. Distance nineteen miles. 

13. Yosemite to Lake Tenaya by horse trail and return 

via Forsyth Pass and Clouds Rest. Distance thirty- 
two miles. 

14. Yosemite to Merced Lake and Washburn Lake by 

horse trail. Distance twenty miles. 

15. Yosemite to Johnson Lake and Buck Camp, via Glacier 

Point, Illilouette Creek, Buena Vista Creek, and 
Royal Arch Lakes. Distance twenty-two miles 

16. To Moraine Meadows via Nevada Falls. Starr King. 

Ottoway Creek, and Merced Pass. Distance twenty- 
one miles. 

1 7. Yosemite to Waterwheel Falls via Tenaya Canyon and 
White Cascades. Distance twenty-five miles. 

18. Yosemite to Ten Lakes via Yosemite Falls and Yo- 
semite Creek. Distance seventeen miles. 



U. S. R. R. Administration Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
free on application to any Consolidated Ticket 
Office; or apply to the Bureau of Service National 
Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau 
Western Lines, 646 Transportation Building, 
Chicago, 111.: 

Arizona and New Mexico Rockies. 
California for the Tourist. 
Colorado and Utah Rockies. 
Crater Lake National Park. Oregon. 
Glacier National Park. Montana. 
Grand Canyon National Park. Arizona. 
Hawaii National Park. Hawaiian Islands. 
Hot Springs National Park. Arkansas. 



Page twenty-seven 




The Maiden'* Profile in Nevada Fall* 



Page twenty-ei^ht 




Camp Curry, on the floor of the valley 



Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. 
Northern Lakes Wisconsin. Minnesota, Upper Mich- 
igan, Iowa and Illinois. 

Mesa Verda National Park, Colorado. 

Pacific Northwest and Alaska. 

Petrified Forest National Monument, Arizona. 

Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. 

Sequoia and General Grant National Parks, California. 

Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho. 

Yosemite National Park, California. 

Zion National Monument. Utah. 

U. S. Government Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington, D. C., at 
prices given. Remittances should be by money 
order or in cash. 

Sketch of Yosemite National Park and an account of 
the origin of Yosemite and Hetch-Hetchy Valleys, by F. 
E. Matthes. 48 pages, 24 illustrations. 10 cents. 

The Secret of the Big Trees, by Ellsworth Huntington. 
24 pages, 14 illustrations. 5 cents. 

Forests of Yosemite, Sequoia, and General Grant National 
Parks, by C. L. Hill. 40 pages. 23 illustrations. 20 cents. 

Panoramic view of Yosemite National Park, 18^2 by 18 
inches. 25 cents. 

The National Parks Portfolio. By Robert Sterling Yard. 
260 pages, 270 illustrations. Pamphlet edition, 35 cents; 
book edition, 55 cents. 



Altitude of Summits in Yosemite Valley 



The following may be obtained from the Director of 
the United States Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

Map of Yosemite National Park, 29 by 31 inches, 25 
cents a copy flat; 40 cents a copy folded and bound be- 
tween covers. 

Map of Yosemite Valley, 35 by I5V inches. 10 cents. 

The following publications may be obtained free on 
written application to the Director of the National Park 
Service, Washington, D. C., or by personal application to 
the office of the superintendent of the Park. 

Circular of General Information Regarding Yosemite 
National Park. 

Glimpses of our National Parks. 48 pages, illustrated. 

Map showing location of National Parks and National 
Monuments and railroad routes th-. reto. 

Park Administration 

Yosemite National Park is under the jurisdiction 
of the Director, National Park Service, Depart- 
ment of the Interior, Washington, D. C. The 
Park Superintendent is located at Yosemite, Cal. 



Name 


Altitude 
Above 
Sea Level 


Altitude 
Above 
Pier near 
Sentinel 
Hotel 




Feet 


Feet 


Artist's Point 


4,701 


739 


Basket Dome 


7,602 


3.642 


Cathedral Rocks 


6.551 


2.591 


Cathedral Spires 
Clouds Rest 


6.114 
9.924 


2.154 
5.964 


Columbia Rock 


5.031 


1.071 


Eagle Peak 


7.773 


3.813 


El Capitan 


7.564 


3.604 


Glacier Point 


7.214 


3.254 


Half Dome 


8.852 


4.892 


Leaning Tower 


5.863 


1.903 


Liberty Cap 


7.072 


3.112 


North Dome 


7.531 


3,571 


Old Inspiration Point 


6.603 


2,643 


Panorama Point 


6.224 


2.264 


Profile Cliff 


7.503 


3.543 


Pulpit Rock 


4.195 


765 


Sentinel Dome 


8.117 


4.157 


Stanford Point 


6.659 


2.699 


Washington Column . . 
Yosemite Point 


5.912 
6.935 


1.952 
2.975 



Height of Waterfalls in Yosemite Valley 







Altitude 


of Crest 


Name 


Height 
of Fall 


Above 
Sea 
Level 


Above 
Pier near 
Sentinel 
Hotel 


Yosemite Falls 
Middle Yosemite Falls. . . 
Lower Yosemite Falls 
Nevada Falls 


Feet 

1.430 
600 
320 
594 


Feet 
6.525 

4.420 
5.907 


Feet 
2.565 

460 
1.947 


Vernal Falls 
Illilouette Falls 
Bridal Veil Falls 
Ribbon Falls 
Widows Tears Falls 


317 
370 
620 
1.612 
1.170 


5.044 
5.816 
4.787 
7.008 
6.466 


1.084 
1.856 
827 
3.048 
2.506 



Page twenty - n i n e 




Camp Yosemite, on the floor of the valley 



Size of Big Trees in Mariposa Grove 

[All dimensions are in feet.] 



Distances frorn^ Yosemite Post-Office to Princii 
Points in Yosemite Valley 







Ap- 




Ap- 




Trees 


Girth 
at 


proxi- 
mate 
Diam- 


Girth 
about 
10 Feet 


proxi- 
mate 
Diam- 


Height 




Base 


eter 


Above 


eter 
10 Feet 








at 
Base 


Ground 


Above 








ase 




Ground 




Grizzly Giant 
Faithful Couple. . . 


93 
94 


29.6 
29 9 


64.5 
63 


20.5 
20 


204 
244 


Michigan 


55 5 


17.7 


40 


12.7 


257 


Fresno 


63 


20 


38.5 


12.2 


273 


Columbia 


80. 5 


25 6 


52 


16.5 


294 


Old Guard (South 












Tree) 


45 


14.3 


31 


99 


244 


Lafayette 


92.5 


29.4 


53 


16.9 


273 


Nevada. 


48.5 


15.4 


35 


II. 1 


278 


General Sherman.. 


63 


20 


41 5 


13.2 


267 


General Grant. . . . 


67 


21.3 


42 


13.4 


271 


General Sheridan. 


76 


24 2 


51 


16.2 


263 


Philadelphia 


61.5 


19 6 


50.5 


16.1 


275 


St. Louis 


73 


23.2 


51 


16 2 


269 


Lincoln 


72 


22 9 


54.5 


17.3 


258 


Washington . . 


92 


29 3 


65 


20.7 


235 


William McKinley 


70 


22 3 


46.5 


14 8 


243 


General Logan. . . . 


76 


24 2 


49.5 


15 7 


259 


Galen Clark 


59 5 


18 9 


47 


14.9 


238 


Pittsburgh 


53 5 


17 


41 


13 


242 


Vermont 


47 


14.9 


38 


12.1 


257 


Wawona (26 feet 












through opening) 


52 


J6 5 


60 5 
45.5 


19 2 
14.5 


227 
237 


Forest Queen 


53.5 


17 


38 


12 1 


219 


Boston 


58 


18 4 


47 


14 9 


248 


Chicago 


57 


18 1 


40.5 


12 9 


223 


Whittier 


62 


19 7 


47 


14 9 


268 


Longfellow 


51.5 


16.4 


43 


13 7 


273 


Capt. A. E. Wood . 


52 


16 5 


40 


12 7 


310 


Mark Twain 


53 


16.9 


41 


13 


331 


Mississippi 
Stonewall Jackson . 


54.5 
53 


17 3 
16 9 


37.5 
38.5 


11.9 
12.2 


269 
265 


Georgia 
South Carolina.. . . 


48 

74 


15.3 
23 5 


35 
54.5 


III 
17.3 


270 
264 



Name* 


Distance 
Miles 


Direction 


Basket Dome (top of) 


9 


Northeast 


Camp Curry 
Clouds Rest 


1.0 
1 1 


East 


El Capitan. . 


3.5 


West 


Glacier Point 


4 5 


South 


Glacier Point Hotel 


4 5 




Half Dome (foot of) 


3 


East 




2 5 




Liberty Cap . . . 


5 5 







3 





Mount Watkins (top of ) . . 
Nevada Falls (594 feet) 
North Dome (top of) 
Sentinel Rock 
Tenaya Canyon 


9.0 
6.0 
II. 
1.0 
4.0 
3 


Northeast 
West 
East 
South 


Vernal Falls (317 feet) 
Yosemite Falls (1.750 feet) 


5.0 
.5 


East 
North 



What to Wear 

Reasonably warm clothing should be worn, and persons 
should be prepared for sudden changes of weather and 
altitude. Good everyday clothes, golf or bicycle suits are 
suitable for both men and women for Park travel. Wear- 
ing apparel, dry goods, boots, shoes, etc.. may be procured 
at reasonable rates at the general store on the floor of the 
valley. Serviceable gloves and tinted glasses should form 
a part of one's outfit. 



Page thirty 




The National Parks at a glance 



United States Railroad Administration 

Director General of Railroads 

For particulars as to fares, train schedules, etc., apply to any Railroad Ticket Agent, or to any 
of the following Consolidated Ticket Offices: 

West 



Beaumont, Tex., Orleans and Pearl Sts. 

Bremerton, Wash 224 Front St. 

Butte, Mont 2 N. Main St. 

Chicago, 111 175 W. Jackson Blvd. 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 

119 E. Pike's Peak Ave. 

Dallas, Tex 112-114 Field St. 

Denver. Colo 601 17th St. 

Des Moines, Iowa 403 Walnut St. 

Duluth, Minn 334 W. Superior St. 

El Paso, Tex Mills and Oregon Sts. 

Ft. Worth, Tex 702 Houston St. 

Fresno, Cal J and Fresno Sts. 

Galveston, Tex. . . 2 1st and Market Sts. 

Helena. Mont 58 S. Main St. 

Houston, Tex 904 Texas Ave. 

Kansas City, Mo. 

Ry. Ex. Bldg.. 7th and Walnut Sts. 



Lincoln, Neb . . . . 
Little Rock, Ark. 
Long Beach, Cal. 
Los Angeles, Cal . 
Milwaukee, Wis. 



...104 N. 1 3th St. 
... 202 W. 2d St. 
L.A.&S.L. Station 
.215 S. Broadway 
99 Wisconsin St. 



Minneapolis, Minn. ,202 Sixth St. South 
Oakland, Cal. . . 13th St. and Broadway 

Ocean Park, Cal 160 Pier Ave. 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

131 W. Grand Ave. 

Omaha. Neb 1416 Dodge St. 

Peoria, 111. .Jefferson and Liberty Sts. 
Phoenix, Ariz. 

Adams St. and Central Ave. 
Portland, Ore., 3d and Washington Sts. 

Pueblo, Colo 401-3 N. Union Ave. 

St. Joseph. Mo 505 Francis St. 

St. Louis. Mo. 318-328 N. Broadway 

East 



St. Paul. Minn. . .4th and Jackson Sts. 

Sacramento. Cal 801 K St 

Salt Lake City. Utah 

Main and S. Temple Sts. 
San Antonio, Texas 

315-17 N. St. Mary's St. 

San Diego. Cal 300 Broadway 

San Francisco. Cal. 

Lick Bldg.. Post St. and Lick Place 
San Jose, Cal., 1st and San Fernando Sts. 

Seattle. Wash 714-16 2d Ave. 

Shreveport. La.,Milam and Market Sts. 

Sioux City. Iowa 5 10 4th St. 

Spokane. Wash. 

Davenport Hotel. 815 Sprague Ave. 
Tacoma. Wash.. . 1117-19 Pacific Ave. 
Waco. Texas. . 6th and Franklin Sts. 

Whittier. Cal L. A. & S. L. Station 

Winnipeg. Man 226 Portage Ave. 



Annapolis, Md . . . 


. 54 Maryland Ave. 


Detroit, Mich.. . 13 W. LaFayette Ave. Philadelphia. Pa . . 


. 1539 Chestnut St. 


Atlantic City. N. J 


..1301 Pacific Ave. 


Evansville. Ind.. . L. & N. R. R. Bldg. 


Pittsburgh. Pa . . 


Arcade Building 


Baltimore. Md 


B. & 0. R. R. Bldg. 


Grand Rapids. Mich 125 Pearl St. 


Reading, Pa 


16 N. Fifth St. 


Boston, Mass . 
Brooklyn. N. Y 
Buffalo, N. Y., Ma 


67 Franklin St. 
. . .336 Fulton St. 


Indianapolis, Ind., 112-14 English Block 
Newark, N.J., Clinton and Beaver Sts. 


Rochester. N. Y... 
Syracuse, N. Y . . 


20 State St. 
University Block 


Cincinnati, Ohio. . 


.6th and Main Sts. 


New York, N. Y 64 Broadway 


Toledo. Ohio 


320 Madison Ave. 


Cleveland. Ohio.. 


1004 Prospect Ave. 


New York. N. Y 57 Chambers St. 


Washington. D. C . 


. .1229 FSt. N. W. 


Columbus, Ohio . . 


. .70 East Gay St. 


New York, N. Y 3IW. 32d St. 


Williamsport. Pa. . 


.4th and Pine Sts. 


Dayton, Ohio 


19 S. Ludlow St. 


New York. N. Y 1 14 W. 42d St. 


Wilmington. Del . . 


. ..905 Market St. 



South 



Asheville, N. C. . . 

Atlanta, Ga 

Augusta, Ga 

Birmingham, Ala . . 
Charleston. S. C 
Charlotte. N. C 
Chattanooga, Tenn 
Columbia, S. C. 
Jacksonville, Fla . 

For detailed 
National Parks 
Chicago. 

POOLE BROS CHICAGO 



14 S. Polk Square 

74 Peachtree St. 

811 Broad St. 

2010 1st Ave. 

Charleston Hotel 

22 S. Tryon St. 

817 Market St. 

. Arcade Building 

38 W. Bay St. 



Knoxville, Tenn. 
Lexington. Ky . . 
Louisville, Ky . . . 
Lynchburg, Va. . . 
Memphis, Tenn . 



Paducah, Ky . 
i. Fla. 



600 Gay St. 

Union Station 

4th and Market Sts. 
722 Main St. 

60 N. Main St. 

Mobile. Ala 51 S. Royal St. 

Montgomery, Ala Exchange Hotel 

Nashville, Tenn., Independent Life Bldg. 
New Orleans. La. . . .St. Charles Hotel 

information regarding National Parks and Monuments address Bureau of Service, 
and Monuments, or Travel Bureau Western Lines, 646 Transportation Bldg., 



Pensacola 
Raleigh. N. C 
Richmond, Va 
Savannah. Ga. 
Sheffield. Ala.. 
Tampa. Fla . 
Vicksburg, Mis 



. .430 Broadway 
San Carlos Hotel 
305 LaFayette St. 
830 E. Main St. 
37 Bull St. 
Sheffield Hotel 
Hillsboro Hotel 
1319 Washington St. 



Winston-Salem. N. C. .236 N. Main St. 



Season 79/9 



Page thirty-one 




The Big Tree Wawona. through which the auto road passes, in the Mariposa Grove of Big Trees 







*. * 



UNITED STATES RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION 



N AT I O N A L 




Wylie Way Camp Neatlea Beneath the Eastern Wall here in an enchanting nook, beside one of Zion'a living strea 

P a 6 two 







An Appreciation of 

/ion National Monument 

By JACK LAIT 

Written Especially for the United States Railroad Administration 

ION CANYON is an epic, written by Mother Nature in her 
most ecstatic humor, illustrated by Creation in its most ma- 
jestic manifestations, published by God Almighty as an inspi- 
ration to all mankind. 

Far from the foot-worn ways of conventional journeying, its remote 
and intimate preserves unfold to the traveler whose eye seeks the extraor- 
dinary a masterpiece in magnitudes, incredible colorings, vastnesses of 
those mystic influences which mark the earth's contour, and a haven of 
distant peace beyond the understanding of him who has never entered 
the mouth of Zion Canyon, where the hubbub of the affairs of men has 
not yet penetrated, where nature is so big that one may not think small 
thoughts, where one is embraced in the spirits of mystery and history 
and those fascinating elements untouched by the rude fingers of destroy- 
ing humans. 

I spent ten delicious days and nights between the unsealed walls of Zion; 
I explored it over fords and fallen giant trees down to where, between 
great, sheer altitudes of rock, no man has ever gone farther the stream 
becomes too deep to wade, too rocky to canoe, too narrow to swim. On 
every side was crude but marvelous nature in bird and foliage and fish 
and rock and running water. I stood there and I gasped, though I had 
become almost familiar with the miracles of Zion. I gasped: I gasped a 
prayer, for one may not behold what one beholds there without know- 
ing that there is a God; that His ways are inexplicable to man and to 
be taken in faith alone. 

Zion Canyon is the most beautiful spot on this continent. I think I 
have seen all the famed show-places that the evolution of the earth's 
formation has made. And of them all Zion to me stands first, stands 
alone. In this opinion I may stand alone. But I saw Zion at its best, and 
it captured me. Rich with a phase of American history seldom touched 
upon in popular literature, pregnant like the page of knowledge with the 
spoils of time, it gives to one who stands within its magnificent dimen- 
sions a sounder affection and admiration for the courage of men and a 
more profound impression of the wonder-works of God. 




Pate three 



1 



To the American People: 

Uncle Sam asks you to be his guest. He has prepared for you the 
choice places of this continent places of grandeur, beauty and of 
wonder. He has built roads through the deep-cut canyons and beside 
happy streams, which will carry you into these places in comfort, and 
has provided lodgings and food in the most distant and inaccessible 
places that you might enjoy yourself and realize as little as possible 
the rigors of the pioneer traveler's life. These are for you. They are 
the playgrounds of the people. To see them is to make more hearty 
your affection and admiration for America. 





Secretary of the Interior 



Zion National Monument 




OWN at the very southern 
edge of Utah lies Zion Na- 
tional Monument, the new- 
est among the many scenic 
marvels of our Western 
land. Not new in point of time since 
its making, but new in presentation as 
an attraction for the traveler and lover 
of the marvelous in nature. Guarded 
for centuries by unconquered barriers 
of burning desert and rugged mountain 
crests, this treasure house of splendors 
was an unknown land. 

A Land of Prehistoric Legend 

Legend tells us that, in unrecorded 
ages, a prehistoric people gathered 
within its rock bound amphitheatres 
to offer annual ceremonials in adora- 
tion of gods now long forgotten. With 
the passing of these ancient worship- 
pers the area that forms Zion Monu- 
ment relapsed into the silence of its 
beginning, a silence broken only by the 
howl of the mountain lion, the bark of 
the coyote or the challenge of the stag 
as he hurled defiance to his rival from 
some jutting point upon a canyon's 
rim. Even among the later arriving 
tribes of American Indians, Zion was 
held in reverence, none of these super- 



stitious people ever daring to spend th< 
night within the portals of its man: 
winding canyons. 

Discovered by Mormon Pioneers 

First of all among the Anglo-Saxons, 
came the Mormon pioneers to view this 
scenic spectacle enacted by the spirits 
of the gods, staged in a gigantic setting 
of towering battlements and thrones 
of glistening sandstone. Amaze< 
at the wonders of this nook in th( 
heart of Utah's Rockies, these religioi 
zealots stood in awe before the loft} 
pinnacles and crags of Zion colore< 
by streams of brilliant crimson dashe< 
against the faces of its mighty cliffs 
First among moderns to enter the gat< 
of this wonderland, these searchers int< 
the unknown saw revealed the handi- 
work of the Architect of the Univei 
written on walls that tower heaven- 
ward amidst a riot of color, bold and 
glorious. 

Built by Grind of Centuries 

Long had Zion's pageant been in th< 
making. It required the mantle 
winter's snows, kisses of summei 
brightness and the grip of untold au- 
tumn frosts; building, tinting, smooth- 
ing, breaking, to bring about a perf< 



Page four 




EJ Gobernador Great White Mountain of Zion. which, flanked on either side by towering peaks, stands out as one of 
the most striking gems in this array of scenic grandeur. 

Pa fie /JV9 




a gigantic amphitheater shut in by t 
rise two thousand feet above its floor. 



tion in this maze of splendor destined 
to charm countless mortals with its 
weird sublimity. 

Opening of the Way 

For years following the coming of 
the Mormons, this gem among Ameri- 
ca's wonders was but rarely visited. 
Now, placed among our nation's cher- 
ished and protected playgrounds, Zion 
has finally come into its own. The 
way is open to you. Modern service 
furnished by roads of steel, allied with 
the distance-defying motor car and the 
building of good highways, has ren- 
dered all this possible. Zion's story 
cannot be told it must be seen. Its 
portals thrown open that you may 
enter, bid you come. Towering 
thrones, sculptured by the winds and 
rains, gleam in coral and in gold and 
bid you a welcome to the. shrine. 

A National Monument 

Zion National Monument was cre- 
ated and added to America's list of 
playgrounds on March 18, 1918. 

An area of 76,800 acres was includ- 
ed in the territory set aside to form 
this Monument and within its bound- 
aries are located formations of such 



unique colorings as to vie in attractive- 
ness with those of any other among 
our several National Parks. 

Zion Canyon is located in the south- 
ern part of Utah, its rugged and broken 
acres forming the clefts and crannies 
among the southern spurs of 
Wasatch range of mountains. 

Zion's Wondrous Diversity 

First among Zion's wonders is 
absolute diversity. With every turn 
the visitor is confronted by a picture 
differing totally from those he has al- 
ready viewed. Next come the woi 
drous colorings that have rightful 
caused the naming of this giganl 
gorge, "Yosemite done in oils." 

Within the Monument there 
several canyons, each one different in 
character and color, at the same time 
presenting features seen in no other 
section of America. 

There are cliff dwellings, telling the 
story of a home life among vanished 
races. 

There are spots where legend local 
places of worship dedicated to the ril 
of heathen deities. 



Page six 



There are thousands of unblazed 
trails reaching out into the towering 
cliffs where the daring mountaineer 
may find hazard and the geologist new 
formations to puzzle. 

There are unsolved problems of 
earth's writhing and upheaval when 
time was young. 

Everywhere are vistas that defy the 
talent of the artist to rightfully portray, 
for the whole Monument is one great 
riot of brilliant color and the fantastic 
picturing of nature. 

An Artist's Paradise 

Such artists as Moran, Knight, Del- 
lenbaugh, Culmer and Fairbanks have 
penetrated its gorges and brought 
forth studies from which paintings have 
been developed that have astonished 
the critics. Yet when others followed 
these artists into this practically un- 
known canyon they returned with re- 
ports that the weird and brilliant col- 
oring of these paintings told but half 
the story of Zion's grandeur. 

Other explorers, among them Mr. 
William H. Holmes, at that time head 
curator of the National Museum, and 



Major Powell, visited, described and 
made drawings of Zion's wonders, but 
so far was the canyon removed from 
the regular paths of travel, that it re- 
mained a "terra incognita" until, by 
means of the railroad and auto high- 
ways, its attractions were placed within 
reach of the traveler. Motor cars now 
roll into the very heart of Zion's beau- 
ties and deposit their passengers at the 
doors of a "Wylie" camp, the proto- 
type of those comfortable resorts which 
welcome visitors in the Yellowstone. 

A Highway of Romance 

The opening of Zion has been ac- 
complished through the efficiency of 
Utah's good roads. 

In combination with road construc- 
tion carried on by the National gov- 
ernment, these state roads have pene- 
trated a section of country that will 
rapidly take its place with the Yosemite, 
the Yellowstone and Glacier Park as 
one of America's scenic marvels. 

The story of this highway is romantic 
in itself, for, away back in the days 
when our West was in swaddling 




Looking down into Zion from its eastern wal' from this point of vantage one of the most 
glorious v stas of the Canyon meets the eye. 



P a e seven 



ZION 
NATIONAL MONUMENT __ 

UTAH | 

! 



Location of natural features and 
elevations are approximate. 



Automobile Roads 
Trails 



Spnlncda 



NATIONAL 
I _ V^MONUMENT 




P a e eight 






clothes, Brigham Young first conceived 
the good road plans that were carried 
out so many decades later. President 
Young was among the earlier visitors 
to Zion's wonders and to him fell the 
christening of the great central cleft, 
around which are clustered the other 
gems of the Monument. This canyon 
so impressed him that he gave it the 
name of "Zion." 

First of all to be discovered in this 
great area of attractions was this Zion 
Canyon, which has, for years, caused 
wonder and amazement on the part of 
the few people who have braved the 
hazard of rough travel and meager 
accommodations in order to view the 
splendor of this practically unknown 
land. 

Where the Motor Conquers Distance 

By the automobile route now es- 
tablished, Zion is just an even hundred 
miles from the railroad station of Lund, 
Utah. 

The auto drive is made in less than 
seven hours, with a stop for luncheon 
at Cedar City, a most attractive little 
community nestled under the shadows 
of the southern spur of the Wasatch 
Mountains, which really marks the 
northern boundary of the area of which 
Zion is the leading feature. 

All along the way the traveler faces 
the range which gradually rises in his 
path, its color slowly changing from 
the deep purple of distant effects to the 
solid greys of the country rock splashed 
with vivid tintings of red and yellow 
sandstone, the whole softened by the 
varied green of scattered cedars and 
widespread areas of chaparral and 
mesquite. 

It is a most pleasant introduction to 
a land of mountain wonders where 
every mile shows a vista differing en- 
tirely from the last. 

From Cedar City the route follows 
the historic state highway. 

Rim of an Historic Sea 

About twenty miles to the south 
the road tips over the rim of the great 



intermountain basin, over which the 
waters of prehistoric Lake Bonneville 
spread. 

The road is flanked with towering 
mountains that shut in fertile valleys, 
green with growing crops. 

Here the rim of the basin is known 
as the "Black Ridge" and the rock 
formation gives truth to this title where 
the road winds down through the rocky 
gorge leading into Utah's "Dixie." 

Seventy-five miles from the railroad 
brings the traveler to the valley of the 
Rio Virgin, which here breaks out of 
a grim canyon where it has cut its way 
through the walls of what science 
terms the most marvelous "fault" in all 
the world's geological record. 

There certainly was some tremen- 
dous break, for when the earth's sur- 
face was riven by a gigantic disturb- 
ance, that portion west of what is 
known as the Hurricane Fault, dropped 
a full two thousand feet, leaving the 
eastern area a great suspended mesa 
with an edge ragged as a ripsaw, and 
overlooking a stretch of country ex- 
tending far over into Nevada and Ari- 
zona. 

A Glimpse at Utah's "Dixie" 

In Rio Virgin Valley grow the fa- 
mous "Dixie" peaches, the fig, the pom- 
egranate, almond and the walnut; in 
fact, everything that characterizes semi- 
tropic America save the citrus fruits. 

Blessed with the richest of soil ac- 
companied by an abundance of water 
for irrigation, and just lately brought 
into close touch with markets by means 
of good roads and the perfection of 
auto trucks, this semi-tropic Utah is 
coming back into the prosperity that 
marked its earlier years when its cotton 
fields supplied the intermountain com- 
munities and its vineyards furnished 
grapes and wines. 

With a sharp tuin to the east the 
highway climbs over the rim of the 
great fault, following the south bank 



Page nine 




Towers of the Virgin distant view of one of Zion's scenic gems. 



of the waterway, where the state road 
leads through the little towns of Virgin 
City and Rockville. Here we reach 
the confluence of two creeks that form 
the head waters of the Rio Virgin. 

One of these creeks, called the Par- 
unuweap, flows from the east, while its 
sister stream, known as the Mukuntu- 
weap, comes straight down from the 
north, like a crystal chain, and links 
rocky temples with green bottom lands 
and frowning narrows. 

The Western Temple 

Long before we reach the northward 
turning point, the great divide which 
marks the western boundary of Zion 
Canyon has loomed before us, and we 
are attracted by a massive pile that 
throws its summit four thousand feet 
above the valley's floor. As the lower- 
ing sun strikes this great mountain, its 
western side is illumined in a hundred 
tints and colors ranging from greyish 
white to the deep red of the great sand- 
stone crown that caps its summit. 

From its pictures we recognize the 
peak which the Mormon leader titled 
the "West Temple of the Virgin." 



A turn northward shows that this 
superbly colored mount marks the 
eastern side of Zion's portal and any 
question concerning the reason for its 
christening is dispelled by the grandeur 
of its wondrous formation and the mar- 
vel of its colorings. It is truly a natural 
temple. 

Nowhere in all the world can there be 
found a more striking facade than 
forms the east front of this weird moun- 
tain and, in conjunction with the array 
of peaks and dome-like summits, that 
flank it on the north. 

At Zion's Portal 

Across the canyon and forming its 
eastern portal, rises another mountain 
of like formation carrying a duplicate 
of the great sandstone cap. This is 
known as the "East Temple," and, 
though second to its western sister in 
magnificence, it stands as a fitting in- 
troduction to Zion's glories. 

One of Zion's strange formations is 
in the shape of a natural bridge, that 
stands, like a great bow with either end 
anchored to a rocky base, overlooking 
the chasm created by an erosion that 



Page ten 



left this ribbon of rock hanging high in 
air. 

A backward glance against the west- 
ern sky shows a formation that outlines 
a human face cut cameo-like upon the 
canyon's wall. 

Legendary lore has construed this 
face to be that of a famous chief who, 
after passing on, was transformed into 
the guardian of the canyon's portal. 

Into Zion's Depths 

On into Zion's depths the highway 
leads, passing on the right the Three 
Brothers, and entering the Court of 
the Patriarchs, where another trio of 
gigantic pyramids tower in vari-colored 
grandeur. 

Winding beside the foaming stream 
the road climbs over a slight divide and 
passes out onto a broad meadow, from 
the eastern border of which rises a 
dome, rightly christened the Mountain 
of the Sun, since its great white sum- 
mit is first illumined by the morning 
rays and through a break in the western 
wall receives the final touch of depart- 
ing light. 

At the base of this glittering sun 
mountain, is located the canyon camp 
where are clustered inviting tent houses, 



grouped about a social center with 
amusement and dining halls. 

Among the Trails of Zion 

With another day comes a journey- 
ing by horseback or on foot, to a hun- 
dred places of vantage. 

There is a trip to where the lumber 
is brought from the canyon's rim on a 
cable that carries its load down nearly 
three thousand feet. 

On the way is passed a huge peak, 
cut to a flat table on its summit and 
towering over three thousand feet 
above the canyon floor. Its chalk-like 
strata, in sharp contrast to the reds 
and browns that surround it, brings 
this splendid mountain out in clear re- 
lief. Its name is El Gobernador. 

Across the canyon and in an elbow 
of the creek, rises a mountain, closely 
resembling El Gobernador in every- 
thing but color; this western pile, titled 
The Angel's Landing, is in deep reds 
and deeper browns. 

Farther to the north are fields for 
most interesting exploration covering 
the Zion narrows, where the canyon 
shrinks so that the little creek covers 
its floor from wall to wall. 




On Zion's Western Rim- 



showing the depth of one of the Monument's peculiar canyons. where the brilliant colorings of 
the lower altitudes have given way to rocks of chalky white. 

Page eleven 




The Eastern Temple one of the two mountains which, on either side, flank the southern portal, 
and become at sunset one of Zion's most impressive features. 



Mystic Temple of Sinawava 

Up at the narrows' portal lies a great 
circular amphitheatre, with walls over 
two thousand feet in height. 

Though moderns have attempted to 
give to this rock bound circle a twen- 
tieth century name, it will stand forever 
as the Temple of Sinawava, or the 
place of worship for the greatest of 
Indian gods, whom legend declared 
was here venerated in days before his- 
tory first told a story of our continent. 

Trails lead from the floor to the rim 
of the canyon and the ardent explorer 
may find thousands of unblazed path- 
ways upon which to invest his energy. 
In fact, Zion is the heart of a great 
country filled with curious formations. 

One of the interesting side journeys 
is a climb to the canyon's eastern rim, 
made either on foot or by mule back. 

It is only by taking a climb upward 
to where the ragged sky line joins the 
blue, that the massive grandeur of this 
canyon can be realized. The trail is 
not particularly hard and the reward 
is well worth the effort. 

At the end of the trail, a point is 
reached where the canyon may be 
viewed in two distinct directions, for 
under the point, the great gorge swings 



almost at right angles with its southern 
stretch. 

Glories of Zion's Sunrise 

The best results of this journey to 
the eastern rim are secured by making 
the climb in the afternoon and remain- 
ing "on top" for the glories of the next 
sunrise. 

With the first coming of the dawn, 
the Mountain of the Sun springs out in 
dazzling whiteness. In vivid contrast, 
the great vermilion cap on the Western 
Temple emerges from the gloom and 
stands silhouetted against the sky, 
while, far below, the canyon's depths 
are still sunk in deepest shadow. 

The gradual transformation of the 
western wall from velvet darkness to 
great splashes of vivid colors is a change 
so weird, so impressive, that it lingers 
distinctly, when the other features of 
Zion are but a memory. 

To the west of Zion Canyon lies an- 
other great break among these old piles 
of picture-rocks. This western canyon 
has never been officially named and 
its visitors have been few. 

Differing entirely from Zion Canyon 
in coloring and formation, the western 
gorge can be viewed only from the 
highest vantage points. 



Page twelve 



To Zion's Western Rim 
There are several passes through 
which trails will be eventually cut so 
that ,the western canyon may be 
reached directly from Zion's floor, 
but at present, a journey back to the 
westward and up the great plateau 
that separates Zion from the western 
canyon is necessary, if the traveler 
would know its beauties. This is a 
trip of three or four days. 

It will take years to develop trails 
to all the unique corners of the Zion 
region. Not that they are inaccessible, 
but because they are a comparatively 
recent discovery. 

Not half a score of people have ever 
passed through the length of Zion, and 
there are branches of the several can- 
yons through whose network the foot 
of man has never trod. 

Zion's Prehistoric Dwelling 

A short and most interesting side 
trip, requiring but one day from the 
Wylie Camp, is to the cliff dwellings, 
located in the Parunuweap Canyon, 
seven miles above the confluence of 
the two creeks. High on the north 
wall of the canyon some of these well 
denned dwellings are located, with 
their walls standing. The rocky arch- 
way forming the roof of the community 



dwelling, has strange sign paintings in 
a long lost language, still undecipher- 
able. 

In different locations within the 
monument's limits are several other 
specimens of these prehistoric dwellings, 
and as the traveler to Zion develops 
in curiosity these relics of an unrecorded 
people will be thoroughly examined 
and their long hidden secrets given to 
the world. 

Season 

It is probable that Zion National 
Monument will ultimately become an 
all-year attraction for the tourist, but 
for the present the season is May 15, 
to November 1 . At this season the 
weather is at its best with bright de- 
lightfully clear sunshiny days and 
nights cool enough to make blankets 
necessary. 

Transportation and Accommodations 

Zion National Monument may be reached 
via the railroad stations of Lund, Utah, or 
Mlarysvale, Utah. From Lundy Utah the 
National Park Transportation Company op- 
erates auto stages daily during the season 
to Wylie Camp in Zion Canyon, leaving 
Lund about 10:00 A. M. and arriving at the 
Camp at 5:00 P. M. Returning auto stages 
leave Wylie Camp at 9:00 A. M. and arrive 
Lund 6:00 P. M. Stops are made at Cedar 
City, in each direction, for lunch. 




A nook in Zion's western wall, flanked on its northern side by three mountains of unique formation. To these mountains 
the Mormon pioneers gave the Biblical title of The Three Patriarchs. 



P a & e thirteen 




Section of Zion's Brilliantly Colored Western Wall splashes of vivid red characterize these formations 



Wylie Camp consists of central social and 
dining halls, and substantially constructed 
sleeping tents of wood and canvas, each 
accommodating from two to four persons, 
The tents are sanitary; have sound board 
floors, frames, windows and doors; contain 
regular beds and are heated as may be neces- 
sary. Hot and cold water is provided. 

The cost of ticket including auto stage 
transportation Lund to Wylie Camp and re- 
turn, lunch enroute in each direction, two 
nights' lodging and five meals at Wylie Camp, 
is $26.50. For additional time at Wylie 
Camp the rate is $ 1 .00 for each meal and 
$1.00 for lodging; weekly rate $24.00, 
American plan. 

Special automobile trips from the Camp 
to points within the Canyon, may be made 
at rate of 75c per hour for each passenger, 
with minimum charge of $3.00 per hour. 

Saddle horses are furnished at the rate 
of $3.00 per day and mounted guides at 
$4.00 per day. 

Splendid trout and bass fishing is within 
short distance from the camp. 

Camp wagons and equipment for extended 
side trips may be secured at Wylie Camp. 

The National Park Transportation Com- 
pany and Wylie Camp are operated by W. W. 
Wylie address: Springdale. Utah. 

Administration 

Zion National Monument is under the juris- 
diction of the Director, National Park Service, 
Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 
The Custodian of the Monument is located at 
Springdale, Utah. 



U. S. Government Publications 

The following publication may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 
at price given. Remittances should be by 
money order or in cash. 

National Parks Portfolio, by Robert Sterling Yard, 260 

Kges, 270 illustrations, descriptive of nine National 
irks. Pamphlet edition, 35 cents; book edition, 
55 cents. 

The following publications may be obtained 
free on written application to the Director of 
the National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 

Glimpses of our National Parks. 48 pages, illustrated. 
Map showing location of National Parks and National 
Monuments, and railroad routes thereto. 

U. S. R. R. Administration Publications 

The following publications may be obtained 
free on application to any consolidated ticket 
office; or apply to the Bureau of Service. Na- 
tional Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau 
-Western Lines. 646 Transportation Building, 
Chicago, 111. 

Arizona and New Mexico Rockies 

California for the Tourist 

Colorado and Utah Rockies 

Crater Lake National Park. Oregon 

Glacier National Park, Montana 

Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona 

Hawaii National Park, Hawaiian Islands 

Hot Springs National Park. Arkansas 

Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado 

Mount Rainier National Park. Washington 

Northern Lakes Wisconsin. Minnesota, Upper Michigan, 

Iowa, and Illionois 
Pacific Northwest and Alaska 
Petrified Forest National Monument. Arizona 
Rocky Mountain National Park. Colorado 
Sequoia and General Grant National Parks. California 
Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Montana, Idaho 
Yosemite National Park, California 
Zion National Monument, Utah 



Page fourteen 




PACIFIC OCIAH 
THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 



The National Parks at a Glance 



United States 



For particulars as to fares, 
to any of 



Austin Tex ........ 521 Congress Ave. 

Beaumont, Tex., Orleans and Pearl Sts. 
Bremerton, Wash ....... 224 Front St. 

Butte. Mont ........ ? N. Main St. 

Chicago. 111. . ..... 179 W. Jackson St. 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 

I 1 9 E. Pike's Peak Ave. 
Dallas. Tex ......... 1 12-1 14 Field St. 

Denver. Colo ............ 601 17th St. 

Des Moines. Iowa ..... 403 Walnut St. 



Railroad Administration 
Director General of Railroads 

train schedules, etc., apply to any Railroad Ticket Agent, or 
the following Consolidated Ticket Offices. 

West 

Lincoln. Neb. . . . 
Little Rock. Ark. 



Duluth, Minn. 
El Paso. Tex . . 
Ft. Worth. Tex 
Fresno. Cal. . . . 
Galveston, Tex 
Helena, Mont. . . . 
Houston, Tex .... 
Kansas City, Mo. 

Ry. Ex. Bldg., 7th and Walnut Sts. 



334 W. Superior St. 
Mills and Oregon Sts. 
...... 702 Houston St. 

. . . .J and Fresno Sts. 

.21st and Market Sts. 
....... 58 S. Main St. 

. . .904 Texas Ave. 



Annapolis, Md 54 Maryland Ave. 

Atlantic City. N. J. . 1301 Pacific Ave. 
Baltimore. Md. . B. & O. R. R. Bldg. 

Boston. Mass 67 Franklin St. 

Brooklyn. N. Y 336 Fulton St. 

Buffalo. N. Y.. Main and Division Sts. 
Cincinnati. Ohio. . . .6th and Main Sts. 

Cleveland. Ohio 1004 Prospect Ave. 

Columbus. Ohio 70 East Gay St. 

Dayton, Ohio 19 S. Ludlow St. 



I04N. 13th St. 
..202W.2dSt. 
Long Beach. Cal. . L. A. & S. L. Station 

Los Angeles. Cal 221 S. Broadway 

Milwaukee. Wis 99 Wisconsin St. 

Minneapolis. Minn., 202 Sixth St. South 
Oakland. Cal. . . 13th St. and Broadway 
Ocean Park. Cal.. Pacific Elec. Station 
Oklahoma City. Okla. 

131 W. Grand Ave. 

Omaha, Neb 1416 Dodge St. 

Peoria, 111. . .Jefferson and Liberty Sts. 
Phoenix, Ariz. 

Adams St. and Central Ave. 
Portland, Ore.. 3d and Washington Sts. 

: Pueblo. Colo 401-3 N. Union Ave. 

; St. Joseph. Mo 505 Francis St. 

i St. Louis. Mo.. 3 1 8-328 North Broadway 
| St. Paul. Minn. . .4th and Jackson Sts. 

East 



.801 KSi. 



Sacramento. Cal 
Salt Lake City. Utah 

Main and S. Temple Sts. 
San Antonio. Texas 

315-17 N. St. Mary'. St. 
San Diego. Cal ........ 300 Broadway 

San Francisco. Cal 50 Post St. 

San Jose. Cal.. I stand San Fernando Sts. 
Seattle. Wash ......... 714-16 2d Ave. 

Shreveport. La..MiIam and Market Sts. 
Sioux City. Iowa ......... 510 4th St. 

Spokane. Wash. 

Davenport Hotel. 815 Sprague Ave 



Tacoma. Wash. . 
Waco. Texas. . . 
Whittier. Cal 
Winnipeg. Man 



1117-19 Pacific Ave. 
6th and Franklin Sts. 
L. A. & S. L. Station 
226 Portage Ave. 



Detroit. Mich. . . 13 W. LaFayette Ave. 
Evansville. Ind. . L. & N. R. R. Bldg. 
Grand Rapids. Mich 125 Pearl St. 
Indianapolis. Ind.. 1 12-14 English Block 
Montreal, Que 238 St. James St. 
Newark, N. J., Clinton and Beaver Sts. 
New York. N. Y 64 Broadway 
New York. N. Y 57 Chambers St. 
New York. N. Y 31 W. 32 St. 
New York. N. Y 1 14 W. 42d St. 


Philadelphia. Pa. 1539 Chestnut St. 
Pittsburgh. Pa Arcade Building 
Reading. Pa 16 N. Fifth St. 
Rochester. N. Y 20 State St. 
Syracuse. N. Y 355 So. Warren St. 
Toledo. Ohio 320 Madison Ave. 
Washington. D. C 1229 F St. N. W. 
Williamsport. Pa. . 4th and Pine St. 
Wilmington. Del 905 Market St. 



Asheville. N. C 

Atlanta, Ga 

Augusta. Ga 

Birmingham. Ala. . . 
Charleston. S. C. . . 
Charlotte. N. C.... 
Chattanooga. Tenn . 

Columbia. S. C 

Jacksonville. Fla. 



14 S. Polk Square 
. 74 Peachtree St. 

811 Broad St. 

2010 1st Ave. 

. Charleston Hotel 
.223. TryonSt. 
. . .817 Market St. 
. /Arcade Building 
.38 W. Bay St. 



South 



ih. Ky 430 Broadway 

i. Fla. 



Lexington, Ky Union Station 

Louisville, Ky .... 4th and Market Sts. 

Lynchburg. Va 722 Main St. 

Memphis. Tenn 60 N. Main St. 

Mobile. Ala 5 1 S. Royal St. 

Montgomery Ala Exchange Hotel 

Nashvile. Ten. .Independent Life Bldg. 

NewOrleans.La St. Charles Hotel 

Norfolk Va Monticello Hotel 

For detailed information regarding National Parks and Monuments address Bureau of 
Service, National Parks and Monuments, or Travel Bureau Western Lines, 646 Transportation 
Bldg., Chicago. 

SEASON 1919 RATHBUN-GRANT- HELLER CO.. CHICAGO - Pa&O fifteen 



Knoxville. Tenn 600Gay St. 



Padi 

Pensacola. Fla SanC arlos Hotel 

Raleigh. N. C 305 LaFayette St. 

Richmond. Va 830 E. Main St. 

Savannah. Ga 37 Bull St. 

Sheffield. Ala Sheffield Hotel 

Tampa. Fla HilUboro Hotel 

Vicksburg. Miss. .1319 Washington St. 
Winston-Salem. N. C . . 236 N. Main St. 





Angels Landing the glorious pile of brilliant color is brought into Striking contrast 
by being situated directly across from El Gobernador. 




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