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Full text of "National Parks Portfolio"

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 



NATIONAL PARKS PORTFOLIO 




INTRODUCTION 

|0 build a railroad, reclaim lands, give new impulse to enterprise, 
and offer new doors to ambitious capital — these are phases of 
the ever-widening life and activity of this Nation. The United 
States, however, does more; it furnishes playgrounds to the peo- 
ple which are, we may modestly state, without any rivals in the world. Just 
as the cities are seeing the wisdom and necessity of open spaces for the chil- 
dren, so with a very large view the Nation has been saving from its domain 
the rarest places of grandeur and beauty for the enjoyment of the world. 

And this fact has been discovered by many only this year. Having an 
incentive in the expositions on the Pacific coast, and Europe being closed, 
thousands have for the first time crossed the continent and seen one or more 
of the national parks. That such mountains and glaciers, lakes and canyons, 
forests and waterfalls were to be found in this country was a revelation to 
many who had heard but had not believed. It would appear from the ex- 
perience of the past year that the real awakening as to the value of these parks 
has at last been realized, and that those who have hitherto found themselves 
enticed by the beauty of the Alps and the Rhine and the soft loveliness of the 
valleys of France may find equal if not more stimulating satisfaction in the 
mountains, rivers, and valleys which this Government has set apart for them 
and for all others. 

It may reconcile those who think that money expended upon such luxuries 
is wasted — if any such there are— to be told that the sober-minded traffic men 
of the railroads estimate that last year more than a hundred million dollars 
usually spent in European travel was divided among the railroads, hotels, and 
their supporting enterprises in this country. 

There is no reason why this nation should not make its public health and 
scenic domain as available to all its citizens as Switzerland and Italy make 



theirs. The aim is to open them thoroughly by road and trail and give access 
and accommodation to every degree of income. In this belief an effort is 
making this year as never before to outfit the parks with new hotels which 
should make the visitor desire to linger rather than hasten on his journey. 
One hotel was built last year on Lake McDermott, in Glacier Park, one is now 
building on the shoulder of Mount Rainier, in Paradise Valley, another in the 
Valley of the Yosemite with an annex high overhead on Glacier Point, while 
more modest lodges are to be dotted about in the obscurer spots to make 
accessible the rarer beauties of the inner Yosemite. For, with the new Tioga 
Road, which, through the generosity of Mr. Stephen T. Mather and a few 
others, the Government has acquired, there is to be revealed a new Yosemite 
which only John Muir and others of similar bent have seen. This is a 
Yosemite far different from the quiet, incomparable valley. It is a land of 
forests, snow, and glaciers. From Mount Lyell one looks, as from an island, 
upon a tumbled sea of snowy peaks. Its lakes, many of which have never 
been fished, are alive with trout. And through it foams the Tuolumne 
River, a water spectacle destined to world celebrity. Meeting obstructions 
in its slanting rush, the water now and again rises perpendicularly, forming 
upright foaming arcs sometimes fifty feet in height. These "water-wheels," i 
a dozen or more in number, soon will be made accessible by trail. 

While as the years have passed we have been modestly developing the 
superb scenic possibilities of the Yellowstone, nature has made of it the largest 
and most populous game preserve in the Western Hemisphere. Its great size, 
its altitude, its vast wildernesses, its plentiful waters, its favorable conforma- 
tion of rugged mountain and sheltered valley, and the nearly perfect protec- 
tion afforded by the policy and the scientific care of the Government have 
made this park, since its inauguration in 1872, the natural and inevitable cen- 
ter of game conservation for this nation. There is something of significance 
in this. It is the destiny of the national parks, if wisely controlled, to 
become the public laboratories of nature study for the Nation. And from 
them specimens may be distributed to the city and State preserves, as is 
now being done with the elk of the Yellowstone, which are too abundant, and 
may be done later with the antelope. 

If Congress will but make the funds available for the construction of roads 
over which automobiles may travel with safety (for all the parks are now open 
to motors) and for trails to hunt out the hidden places of beauty and dignity, 
we may expect that year by year these parks will become a more precious 
possession of the people, holding them to the further discovery of America 
and making them still prouder of its resources, esthetic as well as material. 

Franklin K. Lane, 

Secretary of the Interior. 




PRESENTATION 

HIS Nation is richer in natural scenery of the first order than any 

other nation; but it does not know it. It possesses an empire 

of grandeur and beauty which it scarcely has heard of. It owns 

the most inspiring playgrounds and the best equipped nature 

schools in the world and is serenely ignorant of the fact. In its national 

\ parks it has neglected, because it has quite overlooked, an economic asset of 

incalculable value. 

The Nation must awake, and it now becomes our happy duty to waken it 
to so pleasing and profitable a reality. This portfolio is the morning call to 
the day of realization. 

Individual features of several of our national parks are known the world 
over; but few to whom the Yosemite Valley is a household word know that 
its seven wonderful miles are a part of a scenic wonderland of eleven hundred 
square miles called the Yosemite National Park. So with the Yellowstone; 
all have heard of its geysers, but few indeed of its thirty-three hundred square 
miles of wilderness beauty. Some of the finest of our national parks here 
pictured you probably have never even heard of. The Sequoia National 
Park, a hundred miles south of the Yosemite, one of the noblest scenic areas 
in the world, is the home of more than a million sequoias, the celebrated Big 
Trees of California; but even its name is known to few. The Crater Lake 
National Park incloses the deepest and bluest lake in the world surrounded 
by walls of pearly fretted lavas of indescribable beauty — a very wonder spot; 
but it is probably least known of all. 

The main object of this portfolio, therefore, is to present to the people of 
this country a panorama of our principal national parks set side by side for 
their study and comparison. Each park will be found highly individual. The 
whole will be a revelation. 

This is the first really representative presentation of American scenery 
of grandeur ever published, perhaps ever made. The selection, which, with 
the text and form, is by Robert Sterling Yard, is from photographs col- 
lected during a period of many months from all available sources, and rep- 
resents the most striking work of many photographers. 

The portfolio is dedicated to the American people. It is my great hope 
that it will serve to turn the busy eyes of this Nation upon its national parks 
long enough to bring some realization of what these pleasure gardens ought to 
;Vmean, of what so easily they may be made to mean, to this people. 

Stephen T. Mather, 

S^ Assistant to the Secretary of the Interior in Charge of National Parks. 



CONTENTS 



Yellowstone National Park 31 Views 

The Land of Wonders— Threefold Personality — Geysers Spout and Steaming 
Vapors Rise — Many Colored Canyon — Greatest Animal Refuge — Animals 
Really at Home— The Paradise of Anglers — Living in the Yellowstone. 

Yosemite National Park 28 Views 

Land of Enchantment — The Valley Incomparable — Charm of the Scenic Wild 
— Living in the Wilderness — Tioga Road — North of the Valley's Rim — Mad 
Waters of Tuolumne — The Everlasting Snows. 

Sequoia National Park 27 Views 

Land of Giant Trees — The Biggest Thing Alive — The Oldest Thing Alive — 
Other People's Sequoias — Kings and Kern Canyons — Sierra's Crest and Our 
Loftiest Mountain. 

Mount Rainier National Park 24 Views 

The Frozen Octopus — The Giant Rivers of Ice — In an Arctic Wonderland — 
Glacier and Wild Flower — Easiest Glaciers to See. 

^ T _ _ _ (2 Diagrams 

Crater Lake National Park < 

( 23 Views 

The Lake of Mystery — "The Sea of Silence" — Story of Mount Mazama — 
The Legend of Llao — Viewed from the Rim — The Mine of Beauty — Unusual 
Fishing — Hotels and Camps. 

Mesa Verde National Park 27 Views 

Cities of the Past — The Story of the Mesas — In the Cliff Dwellings — Dis- 
covery of Sun Temple — The Mesa's Little People — The Principal Dwellings 
— Summer upon Mesa Verde. 

Glacier National Park 25 Views 

An Alpine Paradise — Making a National Park — Its Lakes and Valleys — Com- 
fort Among Glaciers — Purchased from Indians — Creatures of the Wild. 

Rocky Mountain National Park . 29 Views 

"Top of the World" — Precipice-Walled Gorges — The King and His Kingdom 
— Metropolis of Beaverland — Records of the Glaciers — Easy to Reach and See. 

Grand Canyon National Monument 24 Views 

Colossus of Canyons — By Sunset and Moonrise — Painted in Magic Colors — 
Romantic Indian Legend — Masterpiece of Erosion — Powell's Great Adven- 
ture — Easy to Reach and to See. 





OftMflftfriii Sig 



Photograph by J. E. Haynes, St. Paul 



OLD FAITHFUL 



TUP 

YELLOWSTONE 

NATIONAL PARK 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Franklin K. Lane, Secretary 






£ ^m 



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Photograph by J. E. Haynes, St. Paul 

The Great Falls of the Yellowstone, Nearly Twice as High as Niagara 
Below these falls the river enters the gorgeously colored Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone 




Copyright, 1906, by W. S. Berry 



Antelope 



THE LAND OF WONDERS 




{SjjHE Yellowstone National Park is the largest and most widely cele- 
brated of our national parks. It is a wooded wilderness of thirty- 
three hundred square miles. It contains more geysers than are 
found in the rest of the world together. It has innumerable boil- 
ing springs whose steam mingles with the clouds. 

It has many rushing rivers and large lakes. It has waterfalls of great 
height and large volume. It has fishing waters unexcelled. 

It has canyons of sublimity, one of which presents a spectacle of broken 
color unequaled. It has areas of petrified forests with trunks standing. It 
has innumerable wild animals which have ceased unduly to fear man; in fact, 
it is unique as a bird and animal sanctuary. 

It has great hotels and many public camps. It has two hundred miles of 
excellent roads. 

In short, it is not only the wonderland that common report describes; it is 
also the fitting playground and pleasure resort of a great people; it is also the 
ideal summer school of nature study. 





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Photograph by George R. King 

The Upper Falls of the Yellowstone, a Few Miles Below Yellowstone Lake 
Above these falls the rushing river lies nearly level with surrounding country; below it begin the canyons 




Photograph by George R. King 



Crest of the Upper Falls 




THREEFOLD PERSONALITY 

|§HE Yellowstone is associated in the public mind with geysers only. 
Thousands even of those who, watches in hand, have hustled 
from sight to sight over the usual stage schedules, bring home 
Vivid impressions of little else. 
There never was a greater mistake. Were there no geysers, the Yellow- 
stone watershed alone, with its glowing canyon, would be worth the national 
park. Were there also no canyon, the scenic wilderness and its incomparable 
wealth of wild-animal life would be worth the national park. 

The personality of the Yellowstone is threefold. The hot-water manifes- 
tations are worth minute examination, the canyon a contemplative visit, the 
park a summer. Dunraven Pass, Mount Washburn, the canyon at Tower 
Falls, Shoshone Lake, Sylvan Pass — these are known to very few indeed. 
See all or you have not seen the Yellowstone. 




Photograph by J. E. Haynes, St. Paul 

Castle Well, One of the Innumerable Hot Springs 
These springs, whose marvellously clear water is a deep green, have an astonishing depth 




Photograph by Edward S. Curtis 

The Carved and Fretted Terraces at Mammoth Hot Springs 
These great white hills, deposited and built up by the hot waters, sometimes envelope forest trees 




Photograph by J. E. Haynes, St. Paul 

The Giant Geyser, in Many Respects the Greatest of All 
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Photograph by J. E. Haynes, St. Paul 

Electric Peak, a Superb Landmark of the North Side 



MANY-COLORED CANYON 






ROM Inspiration Point, looking a thousand feet almost vertically 
down upon the foaming Yellowstone River, and southward three 
miles to the Great Falls, the hushed observer sees spread before 
him the most glorious kaleidoscope of color he will ever see in 
nature. The steep slopes are inconceivably carved by the frost and the ero- 
sion of the ages. Sometimes they lie in straight lines at easy angles, from 
which jut high rocky prominences. Sometimes they seem carved from the 
side walls. Here and there jagged rocky needles rise perpendicularly like 
groups of gothic spires. 

And the whole is colored as brokenly and vividly as the field of a kaleido- 
scope. The whole is streaked and spotted and stratified in every shade from 
the deepest orange to the faintest lemon, from deep crimson through all the 
brick shades to the softest pink, from black through all the grays and pearls 
to glistening white. The greens are furnished by the dark pines above, the 
lighter shades of growth caught here and there in soft masses on the gentler 
slopes and the foaming green of the plunging river so far below. The blues, 
ever changing, are found in the dome of the sky overhead. 









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Copyright by Gifford 

View from Mount Washburn Showing Yellowstone Lake in Distance 

The northern east side is a country of striking and romantic scenery made accessible by excellent roads 




Copyright by Gifford 

l Trouting in the Yellowstone River 
One of the great trout rivers of the world. The fish run large. They are taken with spoon and fly 




Copyright by J. E. Haynes, St. Paul 

Standing upon Artist's Point, Which Pushes Out Almost Over the Foaming Rivi 

You into the Most Glorious Kaleid) 




sand Feet Below, the Incomparable Canyon of the Yellowstone Widens Before 
Color You Will Ever See in Nature 




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Copyright by S. N. Leek 

Thirty Thousand Elk Roam This Sanctuary Wilderness 




Photograph by Schlechten 

It Is the Natural Home of the Celebrated Bighorn, the Rocky-Mountain Sheep 




Photograph by G. Sivanson 

Deer Make Unexpected Silhouettes at Frequent Intervals 

GREATEST ANIMAL REFUGE 

jgHE Yellowstone National Park is by far the largest and most suc- 
cessful wild-animal preserve in the world. Since it was estab- 
lished in 1872 hunting has been strictly prohibited, and elk, bear, 
deer of several kinds, antelope, bison, moose, and bighorn mountain 
sheep roam the plains and mountains in large numbers. Thirty thousand elk, 
for instance, live in the park. Antelope, nearly extinct elsewhere, here abound. 
These animals have long since ceased to fear man as wild animals do every- 
where except in our national parks. While few tourists see them who follow 
the beaten roads in the everlasting sequence of stages, those who linger in the 
glorious wilderness see them in an abundance that fairly astonishes. 





Photograph by S. N. Leek 

In Winter When the Snows Are Deep Park Rangers Leave Hay in 

Convenient Spots 



ANIMALS REALLY AT HOME 




Photograph by Edward S. Curtis 

Unlike the Grizzly, the Brown Bear Climbs Trees Quickly and Easily 




ERY different, indeed, from the beasts of the after-dinner story 
and the literature of adventure are the wild animals of the Yel- 
lowstone. Never shot at, never pursued, they are comparatively 
as fearless as song-birds nestling in the homestead trees. 
Wilderness bears cross the road without haste a few yards ahead of the 
solitary passer-by, and his accustomed horses jog on undisturbed. Deer by 
scores lift their antlered heads above near thickets to watch his passing. Elk 
scarcely slow their cropping of forest grasses. Even the occasional moose, 
straying far from his southern wilderness, scarcely quickens his long lope. 
Herds of antelope on near-by hills watch but hold their own. 

Only the grizzly and the mountain sheep, besides the predatory beasts, still 
hide in the fastnesses. But the mountain sheep loses fear and joins the others 
in winters of heavy snow when park rangers scatter hay by the roadside. 




Photograph by S. N. Leek. 



THE PARADISE OF ANGLERS 




HE Yellowstone is a land of splendid rivers. Three watersheds 
find their beginnings within its borders. From Yellowstone Lake 
flows north the rushing Yellowstone River with its many tribu- 
taries; from Shoshone, Lewis, and Heart Lakes flows south the 
Snake River; and in the western slopes rise the Madison and its many tribu- 
taries. All are trout waters of high degree. 

The native trout of this region is the famous cutthroat. The grayling is 
native in the Madison River and its tributaries. Others have been planted. 

Besides the stream fishing, which is unsurpassed, the lakes, particularly cer- 
tain small ones, afford admirable sport. 




Photograph by J. E. Haynes, St. Paul 

A Big Trout from Shoshone Lake 
The game cutthroat is the commonest trout in the Yellowstone, but there are six other varieties 




Photograph by J. E. Haynes 

Cutthroats from One to Three or Four Pounds Are Taken in Large Numbers 
at the Yellowstone Lake Outlet 




Copyright by Gifford 

Young Pelicans on Pelican Island in Yellowstone Lake 
The Yellowstone pelicans are very large and pure white, a picturesque feature of the park 




Photograph by J. E. Haynes, St. Paul 



Old Faithful Inn 




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Copyright by J. E. Haynes, St. Paul 





The Mammoth Hotel 




Photograph by J. E. Haynes, St. Paul 



The Lake Hotel 



Three of the Five Large Hotels in the Yellowstone National Park 




Photograph by Shiplers, Salt Lake City 

There Are Also More Than a Dozen Large Public Camps 

LIVING in the YELLOWSTONE 




HE park has entrances on all four sides. Three have railroad con- 
nections; the southern entrance, by way of Jackson's Hole and 
past the jagged snowy Tetons, is available for vehicles. The roads 
from all entrances enter a central belt road which makes a large 
circuit connecting places of special interest. 

Five large hotels are located at points convenient for seeing the sights, and 
are supplemented by a dozen or more public camps at modest prices. 

Transportation companies make the circuit on schedules which carry the 
hurried visitor around the park in five days. 

But the day of the unhurried visitor has dawned. If you want to enjoy 
your Yellowstone, if, indeed, you want even to see it, you should make your 
minimum twice five days; two weeks is better; a month is ideal. 

Spend the additional time at the canyon and on the trails. See the lake 
and the pelicans. Visit Shoshone Lake. Climb Mount Washburn. Spend a 
day at Tower Falls. See Fort Yellowstone at Mammoth Hot Springs. Hunt 
wild animals with a camera. Stay with the wilderness and it will repay you a 
thousandfold. Fish a little, study nature in her myriad wealth — and live. 

The Yellowstone National Park is ideal for camping out. When people rea- 
lize this it should quickly become the most lived in, as it already is one of the 
most livable, of all our national parks. Remember that the Yellowstone is yours. 




*<M?Mft 



Photograph by S. N. Leek 








? &fflw-****»^ 




Copyright by S. N. Ltek 

The South Entrance Is Near the Lordly Teton Range, Just Over the Boundary 



THE NATIONAL PARKS AT A GLANCE 

Arranged chronologically in the order of their creation 
[Number, 14; Total Area, 7,290 Square Miles] 







AREA 




NATIONAL PARK 
and Date 


LOCATION 


in 
square 
miles 


DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS 


Hot Springs Reser- 


Middle 


iy* 


46 hot springs possessing curative properties — Many hotels 


vation 


Arkansas 




and boarding-houses in adjacent city of Hot Springs — 


1832 






bath-houses under public control. 


Yellowstone 


North- 


3,348 


More geysers than in all rest of world together — Boiling 


1872 


western 




springs — Mud volcanoes — Petrified forests — Grand Canyon 




Wyoming 




of the Yellowstone, remarkable for gorgeous coloring — 
Large lakes — Many large streams and waterfalls- -Vast 
wilderness inhabited by deer, elk, bison, moose, antelope, 
bear, mountain sheep, beaver, etc., constituting greatest 
wild bird and animal preserve in world — Altitude 6,000 to 
11,000 feet — Exceptional trout fishing. 


Yosemite 


Middle 


1,125 


Valley of world-famed beauty — Lofty cliffs — Romantic vistas 


1890 


eastern 




— Many waterfalls of extraordinary height — 3 groves of 




California 




big trees — High Sierra — Large areas of snowy peaks — 
Waterwheel falls — Good trout fishing. 


Sequoia 


Middle 


237 


The Big Tree National Park — 12,000 sequoia trees over 10 feet 


1890 


eastern 




in diameter, some 25 to 36 feet in diameter — Towering 




California 




mountain ranges — Startling precipices — Fine trout fishing. 


General Grant 


Middle 


4 


Created to preserve the celebrated General Grant Tree, 35 


1890 


eastern 




feet in diameter — six miles from Sequoia National Park and 




California 




under same management. 


Mount Rainier 


West 


324 


Largest accessible single-peak glacier system — 28 glaciers, 


1899 


central 




some of large size — Forty-eight square miles of glacier, 




Washington 




fifty to five hundred feet thick — Remarkable sub-alpine 
wild-flower fields. 


Crater Lake 


South- 


249 


Lake of extraordinary blue in crater of extinct volcano, no 


1902 


western 




inlet, no outlet — Sides 1,000 feet high — Interesting lava for- 




Oregon 




mations — Fine trout fishing. 


Mesa Verde 


South- 


77 


Most notable and best-preserved prehistoric cliff dwellings in 


1906 


western 
Colorado 




United States, if not in the world. 


Platt 


Southern 


iH 


Sulphur and other springs possessing curative properties — 


1906 


Oklahoma 




Under Government regulations. 


Glacier 


North- 


1,534 


Rugged mountain region of unsurpassed Alpine character — 


1910 


western 




250 glacier-fed lakes of romantic beauty — 60 small glaciers 




Montana 




— Peaks of unusual shape — Precipices thousands of feet 
deep — Almost sensational scenery of marked individuality 
— Fine trout fishing. 


Rocky Mountain 


North 


358 


Heart of the Rockies — Snowy range, peaks 11,000 to 14,250 


1915 


middle 
Colorado 




feet altitude — Remarkable records of glacial period. 



National Parks of less popular interest are: 

Sully's Hill, 1904, North Dakota Wooded hilly tract on Devil's Lake. 

Wind Cave, 1903, South Dakota Large natural cavern. 

Casa Grande Ruin, 1892, Arizona Prehistoric Indian ruin. 



HOW TO REACH THE NATIONAL PARKS 









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PRINCIPAL RAILROAD CONNECTIONS 



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The map shows the location of all of our National Parks and their principal railroad connections. 
The traveler may work out his routes to suit himself. Low round-trip excursion fares to the] 
American Rocky Mountain region and Pacific Coast may be availed of in visiting the National, 
Parks during their respective seasons, thus materially reducing the cost of the trip. Trans-I 
continental through trains and branch lines make the Parks easy of access from all parts of the) 
United States. For schedules and excursion fares to and between the National Parks write to the 
Passenger Departments of the railroads which appear on the above map, as follows: 

Arizona Eastern Railroad ---------------- Tucson, Ariz. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway ------ - 1 119 Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago & North Western Railway ------- 226 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. - - - 547 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway ------- Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Colorado and Southern Railway ------- Railway Exchange Building, Denver, Colo. 

Denver & Rio Grande Railroad Co. ------- Equitable Building, Denver, Colo. 

Great Northern Railway ----- Railroad Building, Fourth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway _____------ Galveston, Texas. 

Illinois Central Railroad ----------- Central Station, Chicago, 111. 

Missouri Pacific Railway -------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Northern Pacific Railway - - _ - Railroad Building, Fifth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 
San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad - - - Pacific Electric Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Southern Pacific Company ----_-___ Flood Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

Union Pacific System ------ Garland Building, 58 East Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

Wabash Railway ----------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Western Pacific Railway ---------- Mills Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

For information about sojourning and traveling within the National Parks write to the Depart- 
ment of the Interior for the Information circular of the Park or Parks in which you are interested] 



REMEMBER THAT 



YELLOWSTONE BELONGS TO YOL 

IT IS ONE OF THE GREAT NATIONAL PLAYGROUNDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE 
FOR WHOM IT IS ADMINISTERED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIO] 

PKBSS OF CHARLIS SCRIBNHR'S SONS, NBW TOKK 




Y 
O 
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DEPARTMENT 

OF THE 

INTERIOR 

Franklin K. Lane 

Secretary 




Photograph by A. C. Pillsbury 

The Highest Waterfall in the World — the Yosemite Falls 

The Upper Fall measures 1,430 feet, as high as nine Niagaras. The Lower Fall measures 320 feet. 

The total drop from crest to river, including intermediate cascades, is half a mile 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

The Yosemite Valley from Inspiration Point, Showing Bridalveil Falls 




LAND of ENCHANTMENT 

HO does not know of the Yosemite Valley ? And yet, how few 
have heard of the Yosemite National Park ! How few know that 
this world-famous, incomparable Valley is merely a crack seven 
miles long in a scenic masterpiece of eleven hundred square miles ! 
John Muir loved the Valley and crystallized its fame in phrase. 
But still more he loved the National Park, which he describes as including 
"innumerable lakes and waterfalls and smooth silky lawns; the noblest forests, 
the loftiest granite domes, the deepest ice-sculptured canyons, the brightest 
crystalline pavements, and snowy mountains soaring into the sky twelve and 
thirteen thousand feet, arrayed in open ranks and spiry-pinnacled groups par- 
tially separated by tremendous canyons and ampitheaters; gardens on their 
sunny brows, avalanches thundering down their long white slopes, cataracts 
roaring gray and foaming in the crooked rugged gorges, and glaciers in their 
shadowy recesses working in silence, slowly completing their sculptures; new- 
born lakes at their feet, blue and green, free or encumbered with drifting ice- 
bergs like miniature Arctic Oceans, shining, sparkling, calm as stars." 




The Yosemite Valley from Glacier Point 

The Upper and Lower Yosemite Falls are here shown in partial profile 




Photograph by J. T. Boysen 



Half Dome from Near Washington Column 
Its summit is 4,892 feet above the floor of the Valley 




Early Morning Beside Mirror Lake 
This lake is famous for its reflections of the cliffs. Mount Watkins in the background 




Copyrighted, 1910, by J. T. Boy sen 

El Capitan at Sunset 
This gigantic rock, whose hard granite resisted the glacier, rises 3,604 feet from the Valley floor 



THE VALLEY INCOMPARABLE 





Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

Beautiful Vernal Falls 



2SS3ISJHE first view of most 
spots of unusual 
celebrity often falls 
short of expecta- 
tion, but this is seldom, if ever, 
true of the Yosemite Valley. 
The sheer immensity of the 
precipices on either side of the 
peaceful floor; the loftiness and 
the romantic suggestion of the 
numerous waterfalls; the maj- 
esty of the granite walls; and 
the unreal, almost fairy quality 
of the ever-varying whole can- 
not be successfully foretold. 

This valley was once a tor- 
tuous river canyon. So rapidly 
was it cut by the Merced that 
the tributary valleys soon re- 
mained hanging high on eithei 
side. Then the canyon became 
the bed of a great glacier, 
was widened as well as deepened, 
and the hanging character of the 
side valleys was accentuated. 

This explains the enormous 
height of the waterfalls. 

The Yosemite Falls, for in- 
stance, drops 1,430 feet in one 
sheer fall, a height equal tc 
nine Niagara Falls piled one or 
top of the other. The Lowe) 
Yosemite Fall, immediately be- 
low, has a drop of 320 feet 
or two Niagaras more. Verna 
Falls has the same height. Th< 
Nevada Falls drops 594 fee 
sheer, and the celebrated Bridal 
veil Falls 620 feet. Nowher* 
else in the world may be had i 
water spectacle such as this. 




Photograph by H. C. Tibbitts 

Its Name Is Self-Evident — the Bridalveil Falls 




Photograph by C. H. Hamilton 



Mirror Lake 




A Nearer View of Nevada Falls, Liberty Cap on Left 




Photograph by A. C. Pillsbury 

Vernal and Nevada Falls and Half Dome from the Glacier Point Trail 




Photograph by J. T. Boysen 



A Bend in the Big Oak Flat Road 




Photograph by A. C. PUlsbury 

The Sheer Immen-sity of the Precipices on Either Side the Valley's Peaceful i 

Quality of the Ever-Vary 





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Romantic Majesty of the Granite Walls, and the Unreal, Almost Fajrylike 
, Attest It Incomparable 



CHARM OF THE SCENIC WIED 





Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

The Grizzly Giant, the Biggest 
Yosemite Sequoia 



UMMER in the Yosemite is 
unreal. The Valley, with its 
foaming falls dissolving into 
mists, its calm forests hiding 
the singing river, its enormous granites 
peaked and domed against the sky, its 
inspiring silence haunted by distant wa- 
ter, suggests a dream. One has a sense 
of fairyland and the awe of infinity. 

Imagine Cathedral Rocks rising 
twenty-six hundred feet above the wild 
flowers, El Capitan thirty-six hundred 
feet, Sentinel Dome four thousand feet, 
Half Dome five thousand feet, and 
Cloud's Rest six thousand feet ! And 
among them the waterfalls ! 

Even the weather appears impossible; 
the summers are warm, but not too 
warm; dry, but not too dry; the nights 
cold and marvellously starry. 

A few miles away are the Big Trees, 
not the greatest groves nor the greatest 
trees, for those are in the Sequoia Na- 
tional Park, a hundred miles south, but 
three groves containing monsters which, 
next to Sequoia's, are the hugest and the 
oldest living things. Of these the Grizzly 
Giant is king — whose diameter is nearly 
thirty feet, whose girth is over ninety- 
nine, and whose height is more than two 
hundred. Their presence commands the 
silence due to worship. 

Winter is becoming a feature in the 
life of the Valley. Hotels are open to 
accommodate an increasing flow of visit- 
ors. The falls are still and frozen, the 
trees laden with snowy burdens. The 
greens have vanished; the winter sun 
shines upon a glory of gray and white. 

Winter sports are rapidly becoming 
popular on the floor of the Valley. 




Photograph by II. C. Tibbitts 



Winter in the Yosemite Valley 




Photograph by H. C. Tibbitts 

Skiing in the Yosemite Valley 
Winter sports are rapidly becoming popular on the floor of the Valley 



LIVING IN THE WILDERNESS 




Copyrighted, 1 910, by J. T. Boy sen 

Who's Coming? 





Copyrighted, 1910, by J. T. Boysen 

Woof! 



IVING is comfortable in the 
Yosemite. Four roomy public 
camps, two excellent hotels, 
and several new lodges offer 
the visitor a choice of kind and price. 
New hotels are building to replace the old. 
Other lodges are planned for regions far 
from the Valley. 

These improved conditions begin the 
larger development of the Yosemite Na- 
tional Park which the Department of the 
Interior has planned so long and so care- 
fully. It has there inaugurated a model 
policy for all the national parks. The 
Yosemite is reached from Merced. 

The Yosemite is an excellent place to 
camp out. One may have choice of many 
kinds of mountain country. Nearly every- 
where the trout fishing is exceptionally 
fine. Camping outfits may be rented and 
supplies purchased in the Valley. Garages 
for motorists and rest-houses for trampers 
will be found at convenient intervals. 

TIOGA ROAD 

BOVE the north rim of the 
valley the old Tioga Road, 
which the Department of the 
Interior acquired in 191 5 and 
put into good condition, crosses the park 
from east to west, affording a new route 
across the Sierra and opening to the pub- 
lic for the first time the magnificent scenic 
region in the north. 

The Tioga Road was built in 1881 to a 
mine soon after abandoned. For years it 
has been impassable. It is now the gate- 
way to a wilderness heretofore accessible 
only to campers. 





NORTH OF THE VALLEY'S RIM 

EFORE the restored Tioga Road pointed the way to the mag- 
nificent mountain and valley area constituting the northern half 
of the Yosemite National Park, this pleasure paradise was known 
to none except a few enthusiasts who penetrated its wilderness 
year after year with camping oufits. 

This is the region of rivers and lakes and granite domes and brilliantly 
polished glacial pavements. The mark of the glacier is seen on every hand. 
It is the region of small glaciers, remnants of a gigantic past, of which there 
are several in the park. It is the region of rock-bordered glacier lakes of 
which there are more than two hundred and fifty. It is the region, above all, 
of small, rushing rivers and of the roaring, foaming, twisting Tuolumne. 

From the base of the Sierra crest, born of its snows, the Tuolumne River 
rushes westward roughly paralleling the Tioga Road. Midway it slants 
sharply down into the Tuolumne Canyon forming in its mad course a water 
spectacle destined some day to world fame. 




Photograph by H. C. Tibbitts 



Tioga Road Scenery 



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Photograph by W. L. Huber 

The High Sierra: View of Mount Ritter from Kuna Crest 




Photograph by Herbert W. Gleason 

Beautiful Rogers Lake and Regulation Peak in the Northern Part of the Park 




Photograph by IV. L. Huber 



The Waterwheel Below California Falls 



MAD WATERS of TUOLUMNE 

ONE but the hardiest climbers have clambered down the Grand 
Canyon of the Tuolumne and seen its leaping waters. 

Here the river, slanting sharply, becomes, in John 'Muir's 
phrase, "one wild, exulting, onrushing mass of snowy purple bloom 
spreading over glacial waves of granite without any definite channel, gliding in 
magnificent silver plumes, dashing and foaming through huge boulder dams, leap- 
ing high in the air in wheel-like whirls, displaying glorious enthusiasm, tossing 
from side to side, doubling, glinting, singing in exuberance of mountain energy." 





Photograph by A. C. Pilhbury 



A Pair of Tuolumne Waterwheels 



THE EVERLASTING SNOWS 





Photograph by W. L. Huber 

Ascending Mount Lyell 



UMMITS of perpetual 
snow are, for most Amer- 
icans, a new association 
with Yosemite. But the 
region's very origin was that Sierra 
whose crest peaks on the park's eastern 
boundary still shelter in shrunken old 
age the once all-powerful glaciers. 

Excelsior, Conness, Dana, Kuna, 
Blacktop, Lyell, Long — from the com- 
panionship of these great peaks de- 
scended the ice-pack of old and de- 
scend to-day the sparkling waters of I 
the Tuolumne and the Merced. 

From their great summits the 
climber beholds a sublime wilderness of; 
crowded, towering mountains, a con-,! 
trast to the silent, uplifting Valley as I 
striking as mind can conceive. Ever- 
lasting snows fill the hollows between 
the peaks and spatter their jagged gran-; 
ite sides. The glaciers feed innumer-j 
able small lakes. 




Photoiraph by W. L. Huber 

Crossing Snow Hummocks in the Ascent of Mount Lyell 



THE NATIONAL PARKS AT A GLANCE 

Arranged chronologically in the order of their creation 
[Number, 14; Total Area, 7,290 Square Miles] 







AREA 




NATIONAL PARK 
and Date 


LOCATION 


in 
square 
miles 


DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS 


Hot Springs Reser- 


Middle 


I# 


46 hot springs possessing curative properties — Many hotels 


vation 


Arkansas 




and boarding-houses in adjacent city of Hot Springs — 


1832 






bath-houses under public control. 


Yellowstone 


North- 


3,348 


More geysers than in all rest of world together — Boiling 


1872 


western 




springs — Mud volcanoes — Petrified forests — Grand Canyon 




Wyoming 




of the Yellowstone, remarkable for gorgeous coloring — 
Large lakes — Many large streams and waterfalls — Vast 
wilderness inhabited by deer, elk, bison, moose, antelope, 
bear, mountain sheep, beaver, etc., constituting greatest 
wild bird and animal preserve in world — Altitude 6,000 to 
11,000 feet — Exceptional trout fishing. 


Yosemite 


Middle 


1,125 


Valley of world-famed beauty — Lofty cliffs — Romantic vistas 


1890 


eastern 




— Many waterfalls of extraordinary height — 3 groves of 




California 




big trees — High Sierra — Large areas of snowy peaks — 
Waterwheel falls — Good trout fishing. 


Sequoia 


Middle 


237 


The Big Tree National Park — 12,000 sequoia trees over 10 feet 


1890 


eastern 




in diameter, some 25 to 36 feet in diameter — Towering 




California 




■ mountain ranges — Startling precipices — Fine trout fishing. 


General Grant 


Middle 


4 


Created to preserve the celebrated General Grant Tree, 35 


1890 


eastern 




feet in diameter — six miles from Sequoia National Park and 




California 




under same management. 


Mount Rainier 


West 


324 


Largest accessible single-peak glacier system — 28 glaciers, 


1899 


central 




some of large size — Forty-eight square miles of glacier, 




Washington 




fifty to five hundred feet thick — Remarkable sub-alpine 
wild-flower fields. 


Crater Lake 


South- 


249 


Lake of extraordinary blue in crater of extinct volcano, no 


1902 


western 




inlet, no outlet — Sides 1,000 feet high — Interesting lava for- 




Oregon 




mations — Fine trout fishing. 


Mesa Verde 


South- 


77 


Most notable and best-preserved prehistoric cliff dwellings in 


1906 


western 
Colorado 




United States, if not in the world. 


Platt 


Southern 


iV* 


Sulphur and other springs possessing curative properties — 


1906 


Oklahoma 




Under Government regulations. 


Glacier 


North- 


i,S34 


Rugged mountain region of unsurpassed Alpine character — 


1910 


western 




250 glacier-fed lakes of romantic beauty — 60 small glaciers 




Montana 




— Peaks of unusual shape — Precipices thousands of feet 
deep — Almost sensational scenery of marked individuality 
— Fine trout fishing. 


Rocky Mountain 


North 


358 


Heart of the Rockies — Snowy range, peaks 11,000 to 14,250 


1915 


middle 
Colorado 




feet altitude — Remarkable records of glacial period. 



National Parks of less popular interest are: 

Sully's Hill, 1904, North Dakota Wooded hilly tract on Devil's Lake. 

Wind Cave, 1903, South Dakota Large natural cavern. 

Casa Grande Ruin, 1892, Arizona Prehistoric Indian ruin. 



HOW TO REACH THE NATIONAL PARKS 



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NATIONAL PARKS ^j— -^texas 



PRINCIPAL RAILROAD CONNECTIONS 



San Antonio 



^Galveston 



The map shows the location of all of our National Parks and their principal railroad connections. 
The traveler may work out his routes to suit himself. Low round-trip excursion fares to the 
American Rocky Mountain region and Pacific Coast may be availed of in visiting the National 
Parks during their respective seasons, thus materially reducing the cost of the trip. Trans- 
continental through trains and branch lines make the Parks easy of access from all parts of the 
United States. For schedules and excursion fares to and between the National Parks write to the 
Passenger Departments of the railroads which appear on the above map, as follows: 

Arizona Eastern Railroad --------------- Tucson, Ariz. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway - - - - - , - - 1 119 Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago & North Western Railway ------- 226 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. - - - - 547 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway ------- Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Colorado and Southern Railway ------- Railway Exchange Building, Denver, Colo. 

Denver & Rio Grande Railroad Co. ------- Equitable Building, Denver, Colo. 

Great Northern Railway ----- Railroad Building, Fourth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway ___-___---- Galveston, Texas. 

Illinois Central Railroad ----------- Central Station, Chicago, 111. 

Missouri Pacific Railway -------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Northern Pacific Railway - Railroad Building, Fifth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad - Pacific Electric Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Southern Pacific Company - Flood Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

Union Pacific System Garland Building, 58 East Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

Wabash Railway Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Western Pacific Railway Mills Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

For information about sojourning and traveling within the National Parks write to the Depart 
ment of the Interior for the Information circular of the Park or Parks in which you are interested 



REMEMBER THAT 



YOSEMITE BELONGS TO YOt 

IT IS ONE OF THE GREAT NATIONAL PLAYGROUNDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLI 
FOR WHOM IT IS ADMINISTERED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOl 

PRESS OF CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, NEW YORK 



THE BIG TREE NATIONAL PARK 
T FT F 

SEQUOIA 

NATIONAL PARK 




Photograph by A. C. Pillsbury 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Franklin K. Lane, Secretary 




Photograph by Rodney L. Glisan 

View of the Big Arroyo from Sawtooth Peak 







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Photograph by U. S. Geological Survey 



It Is the Ideal Park for Camping 



LAND OF GIANT TREES 




ATURE'S forest masterpiece is John Muir's designation of the 
giant tree after which is named the Sequoia National Park in 
middle eastern California. Here, within an area of two hundred 
and thirty-seven square miles, are found several large groves of 
the celebrated Sequoia gigantea, popularly known as the Big Tree of California. 
More than a million of these trees grow within the park's narrow confines, 
many of them mere babes of a few hundred years, many sturdy youths of a 
thousand years, many in the young vigor of two or three thousand years, and 
a few in full maturity. The principal entrance is Visalia, California. 

Half a dozen miles away is the General Grant National Park, whose four 
square miles were set apart because they contained the General Grant Tree, 
second only in size and age to the patriarch of all, the General Sherman Tree. 

On Sequoia's favored slopes grow other monsters, also. It is the park of 
big trees of many kinds; and it is the park of birds. 

The Sequoia National Park is the gateway to one of the grandest scenic 
areas in this or any other land. Over its borders to the north and east lies a 
land of sublime nobility whose wild rivers and tortuous canyons, whose glacier- 
carved precipices and vast snowy summits culminating in the supreme alti- 
tude of Whitney, will make it some day surpassed in celebrity by none. 



THE BIGGEST THING ALIVE 





Photograph by Ltndley Eddy 

The General Sherman Tree 
The largest and oldest living thing in all the world 



F the 1,156,600 se- 
quoias, young and 
old, which form 
these groves, twelve 
thousand exceed ten feet in di- 
ameter. Muir states that a 
diameter of twenty feet and a 
height of two hundred and 
seventy-five is perhaps the 
average for mature and favor- 
ably situated trees, while trees 
twenty-five feet in diameter and 
approaching three hundred in 
height are not rare. 

But the greatest trees have 
astonishing dimensions: 

General Sherman: diameter, 
36.5 feet; height, 279.9 ^ eet - 

General Grant: diameter, 35 
feet; height, 264 feet. 

Abraham Lincoln: diameter, 
31 feet; height, 270 feet. 

California: diameter, 30 feet; 
height, 260 feet. 

George Washington: diam- 
eter, 29 feet; height, 255 feet. 

A little effort will help you 
realize these dimensions. Meas- 
ure and stake in front of a 
church the diameter of the Gen- 
eral Sherman Tree. Then stand 
back a distance equal to the 
tree's height. Raise your eyes 
slowly and imagine this huge 
trunk rising in front of the 
church. When you reach a point 
in the sky forty-five degrees up 
from the spot on which you 
stand you will have the tree's 
height were it growing in front 
of your church. 



THE OLDEST THING ALIVE 




|HE General Sherman 
Tree is the oldest 
living thing. At the 
birth of Moses it 
was probably a sapling. Its 
exact age cannot be determined 
without counting the rings, but 
it is probably in excess of thirty- 
five hundred years. This looks 
back long before the beginning 
of human history. When Christ 
was born it was a lusty youth 
of fifteen hundred summers. 

There are many thousands 
of trees in the Sequoia National 
Park which were growing thrift- 
ily when Christ was born; hun- 
dreds which were flourishing 
while Babylon was in its prime; 
several which antedated the pyr- 
amids on the Egyptian desert. 

John Muir counted four 
thousand rings on one prostrate 
giant. This tree probably 
sprouted while the Tower of 
Babel was still standing. 

The sequoia is regular and 
symmetrical in general form. 
Its powerful, stately trunk is 
purplish to cinnamon brown 
and rises without a branch a 
hundred or a hundred and fifty 
feet — which is as high or higher 
than the tops of most forest 
trees. Its bulky limbs shoot 
boldly out on every side. Its 
foliage, the most feathery and 
delicate of all the conifers, is 
densely massed. 

The wood is almost inde- 
structible except by fire. 




Photograph by W. L. Huber 

The General Grant Tree 
Second in size and age only to the General Sherman Tree 




Photograph by George F. Belden 



Deep in the Woody Wilderness" 




OTHER PEOPLE'S SEQUOIAS 

T was to preserve these trees from destruction that Congress cre- 
ated the national park in 1890; and yet, with the one exception 
of the General Sherman Tree, the greatest trees and all the finest 
groups of greater trees in the Giant Forest, the grove of largest 
trees, are not the property of the nation but of individuals. The park was 
created out of public lands without provision for acquiring the private hold- 
ings that happened to lie within its boundaries. 

What the park's creation, therefore, has done for most of the oldest and 
largest sequoias is merely to make it unprofitable to cut and market them. 

But owners cannot be expected to forego profit when, with the park's in- 
evitably increasing popularity, these holdings acquire earning ability. Once 
visitors begin to throng the park, no law can prevent the fencing of these Big 
Tree clumps for the charging of admissions; nor can the public welfare control 
the kind and appearance of the hostelries which some day surely will be built be- 
neath some of our greatest sequoias, nor even stop the raising of spiral stairways 
round their great trunks to lookouts and lunch platforms among their branches. 
The time has come for public-spirited citizens to combine subscriptions to 
save them, under the provision of the Sundry Civil Act of March 3, 1915 (38 
U. S. Stat. 863), which authorizes the Secretary of the Interior "to accept 
patented land or other right of way whether over patented or other land in 
the Sequoia National Park that may be donated for park purposes." 







Photograph by Lindley Eddy 

Vistas of the Giant Forest 
Many of these trees were growing thriftily when Christ was born 



Photograph by Lindley Eddy 



Alta Peak from Moro Rock 













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Photograph by H. C. Tibbitts 



Alta Meadows Near the Giant Forest 




Photograph by Lindley Eddy 



Sunset from the Rim of Marble Fork Canyon 




Photograph by C. H. Hamilton 



The Sierra Club in Camp 




Photograph by H. C. Tibbitts 



The Celebrated Kings River Canyon 




[Photograph by H. C. Tibbitts 



Kaweah Peaks Near the Canyon of the Kern 




Photograph by H. C. Tibbitts 



Middle Fork of the Kings River 




Photograph by H. C. Tibbitts 



University Peak from Kearsarge Pass 



"Bi 



Photograph by Lindley Eddy 



THE 

This trunk measures 288 feet. Sequoia wood is almost in< 







* GIANT 

sy fire. This tree may have been prostrate for many centuries 




Photograph by C. H. Hamilton 

An Aged Juniper 
Sequoia is the park of big trees of many kinds; and it is the park of birds 




"THE GREATER SEQUOIA" 

NE cannot think or speak of the Sequoia National Park without 
including the extraordinary scenic country lying beyond its bound- 
aries to the north and east. Not that there is much in common 
between the two, for the park marks the supremacy of forest lux- 
uriance and the outlying country the supremacy of rock-sculptured canyon 
and snowy summit. 

And yet there is the common note of supremacy, each of its own kind. 
And there is the common note of continuity, for, from the lowest valley 
of the wooded park to the peak of our loftiest height, Mount Whitney, na- 
ture's painting runs the gamut. The parts are indivisible; to separate them 
is to cut in two the canvas of the Master. 

And so it is that those who know this land of exuberant climax have come 
to call it "The Greater Sequoia" in order to express not the part limited by 
the park's official title but the whole as God made it. 

There is a bill now before Congress to enlarge the park boundaries so that 
they shall inclose it all. 




Photograph by H. C. Tibbitts 

The Golden Trout Creek 

The trout caught in this stream are brilliantly golden. They are found nowhere else in the world except 

where transplanted from this stream 




Photograph by H. C. Tibbitts 

Scene on Rock Creek, One of the Finest Trout Streams in America 




Photograph by J. N. LeConte 

Tehipite Dome, 3000 Feet Sheer Above the Kings River 



KINGS AND KERN CANYONS 






ELL outside the park's boundaries and overlooking it from the 
east, the amazing, craggy Sierra gives birth in glacial chambers 
to two noble rivers. A hundred thousand rivulets trickle from 
the everlasting snows; ten thousand resultant brooks roar down 
the rocky slopes; hundreds of resultant streams swell their turbulent, trout- 
haunted currents. 

One of these rivers, the Kings, flows west, paralleling the northern boundary 
of the park. The other, the Kern, flows south, paralleling its eastern boundary. 
The Kings River Canyon and the Canyon of the Kern are practically 
matchless for the wild quality of their beauty and the majesty of their setting. 
The traveler goes home to plan his return, for this is a country whose peculiar 
charm lays an enduring clutch upon desire. The Greater Sequoia" has few 
visitors yet — but they are worshippers. 

Unlike many areas of extreme rocky character, this is not specially difficult 
to travel; it curiously adapts itself to trails. It is an ideal land for the camper. 
But one must go well equipped. There must be good guides, good horses, 
and plenty of warm clothing. The difference here between a good and an in- 
different equipment is the difference between satisfaction and misery. 




Photograph by C. H. Hamilton 

Army Pass in July; on the Crest of the Sierra About Ten Miles South of 

Mount Whitney 




Phrtogrfh by H. C. Tibbitts 

Here the Sierra Has Massed Her Mountains; Tumbled Them Wilfully, 
Recklessly, Into One Titanic, Sprawling Heap 




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The Summit of Mount Whitney, Nearly Three Miles High 




Photograph by Emerson Hough 

Summit of Mount Whitney. 



The Stone Shelter on Mount Whitney's Summit 



THE NATIONAL PARKS AT A GLANCE 

Arranged chronologically in the order of their creation 
[Number, 14; Total Area, 7,290 Square Miles] 







AREA 




NATIONAL PARK 
and Date 


LOCATION 


in 
square 
miles 


DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS 


Hot Springs Reser- 


Middle 


I# 


46 hot springs possessing curative properties — Many hotels 


vation 


Arkansas 




and ' boarding-houses in adjacent city of Hot Springs — 


1832 






bath-houses under public control. 


Yellowstone 


North- 


3,348 


More geysers than in all rest of world together — Boiling 


1872 


western 




springs — Mud volcanoes — Petrified forests — Grand Canyon 




Wyoming 




of the Yellowstone, remarkable for gorgeous coloring — 
Large lakes — Many large streams and waterfalls — Vast 
wilderness inhabited by deer, elk, bison, moose, antelope, 
bear, mountain sheep, beaver, etc., constituting greatest 
wild bird and animal preserve in world — Altitude 6,000 to 
11,000 feet — Exceptional trout fishing. 


Yosemite 


Middle 


1,125 


Valley of world-famed beauty — Lofty cliffs — Romantic vistas 


1890 


eastern 




— Many waterfalls of extraordinary height — 3 groves of 




California 




big trees — High Sierra — Large areas of snowy peaks — 
Waterwheel falls — Good trout fishing. 


Sequoia 


Middle 


237 


The Big Tree National Park — 12,000 sequoia trees over 10 feet 


1890 


eastern 




in diameter, some 25 to 36 feet in diameter — Towering 




California 




mountain ranges — Startling precipices — Fine trout fishing. 


General Grant 


Middle 


4 


Created to preserve the celebrated General Grant Tree, 35 


1890 


eastern 




feet in diameter — six miles from Sequoia National Park and 




California 




under same management. 


Mount Rainier 


West 


324 


Largest accessible single-peak glacier system — 28 glaciers, 


1899 


central 




some of large size — Forty-eight square miles of glacier, 




Washington 




fifty to five hundred feet thick — Remarkable sub-alpine 
wild-flower fields. 


Crater Lake 


South- 


249 


Lake of extraordinary blue in crater of extinct volcano, no 


1902 


western 




inlet, no outlet — Sides 1,000 feet high — Interesting lava for- 




Oregon 




mations — Fine trout fishing. 


Mesa Verde 


South- 


77 


Most notable and best-preserved prehistoric cliff dwellings in 


1906 


western 
Colorado 




United States, if not in the world. 


Platt 


Southern 


iH 


Sulphur and other springs possessing curative properties — 


1906 


Oklahoma 




Under Government regulations. 


Glacier 


North- 


1,534 


Rugged mountain region of unsurpassed Alpine character — 


1910 


western 




250 glacier-fed lakes of romantic beauty — 60 small glaciers 




Montana 




— Peaks of unusual shape — Precipices thousands of feet 
deep — Almost sensational scenery of marked individuality 
— Fine trout fishing. 


Rocky Mountain 


North 


358 


Heart of the Rockies — Snowy range, peaks 11,000 to 14,250 


1915 


middle 
Colorado 




feet altitude — Remarkable records of glacial period. 



National Parks of less popular interest are: 

Sully's Hill, 1904, North Dakota Wooded hilly tract on Dev' 

Wind Cave, 1903, South Dakota Large natural caver 

Casa Grande Ruin, 1892, Arizona Prehistoric T ' 4l * 

- "* Indian ruin. 



Lake. 



HOW TO REACH THE NATIONAL PARKS 



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NATIONAL PARKS 

AND 
PRINCIPAL RAILROAD CONNECTIONS 



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TEXAS 



I vf |4>>i Jackson 

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^Galveston 



The map shows the location of all of our National Parks and their principal railroad connections! 
The traveler may work out his routes to suit himself. Low round-trip excursion fares to th<j 
American Rocky Mountain region and Pacific Coast may be availed of in visiting the Nationa 
Parks during their respective seasons, thus materially reducing the cost of the trip. Trans! 
continental through trains and branch lines make the Parks easy of access from all parts of th| 
United States. For schedules and excursion fares to and between the National Parks write to thl 
Passenger Departments of the railroads which appear on the above map, as follows: 

Arizona Eastern Railroad --------------- Tucson, Ariz. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway ------ - 1 119 Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago & North Western Railway ------- 226 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. - 547 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway ------- Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Colorado and Southern Railway ------- Railway Exchange Building, Denver, Colo. 

Denver & Rio Grande Railroad Co. ------- Equitable Building, Denver, Colo. 

Great Northern Railway ----- Railroad Building, Fourth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway -___--___-- Galveston, Texas. 
Illinois Central Railroad ----__-_--_ Central Station, Chicago, 111. 

Missouri Pacific Railway -------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Northern Pacific Railway - Railroad Building, Fifth and -Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad - - - Pacific Electric Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Southern Pacific Company --------- Flood Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

Union Pacific System ------ Garland Building, 58 East Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

Wabash Railway ----------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Western Pacific Railway ---------- Mills Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

For information about sojourning and traveling within the National Parks write to the Deparl 
ment of the Interior for the Information circular of the Park or Parks in which you are interestec 



REMEMBER THAT 



STE134JOIA BELONGS TO YOl 

IT IS ONE OF TliE GREAT NATIONAL PLAYGROUNDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLI 
FOR WHOM IT IS ADMINISTERED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOl 

PRHSS OF CHARLES SCRIBNBRS SONS, NBW YORK 




MOUNT 



RAINIER 

NATIONAL PARK 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Franklin K. Lane, Secretary) 




Photograph by Curtis 13' Miller 

A Rippling River of Ice 1,000 Feet Thick Flowing from the Shining Summit 
Looking from a wild-flower slope down upon the celebrated Nisqually Glacier and up at Columbia Crest 




raph b 



Entrance to Mount Rainier. National Park 



THE FROZEN OCTOPUS 




ROM the Cascade Mountains in Washington rises a series of vol- 
canoes which once blazed across the sea like giant beacons. To- 
day, their fires quenched, they suggest a stalwart band of Knights 
of the Ages, helmeted in snow, armored in ice, standing at parade 
upon a carpet patterned gorgeously in wild flowers. 

Easily chief of this knightly band is Mount Rainier, a giant towering 
14,408 feet above tide-water in Puget Sound. Home-bound sailors far at sea 
mend their courses from his silver summit. 

This mountain has a glacier system far exceeding in size and impressive 
beauty that of any other in the United States. From its snow-covered summit 
twenty-eight rivers of ice pour slowly down its sides. Seen upon the map, 
as if from an aeroplane, one thinks of it as an enormous frozen octopus stretch- 
ing icy tentacles down upon every side among the rich gardens of wild flowers 
and splendid forests of firs and cedars below. 




Photograph by Cuitis t$ Miller 

Above Every Curve of the Paradise Road Looms the Great White Mountain 




Photograph by Curtis & Miller 

From Under the Shadowy Firs of Van Trump Park It Glistens Startlij 




rt •£ 



Photograph by Curtis & Miller 

Looking into a Great Crevasse in the Stevens Glacier 
Crevasses are caused by the swifter motion of the middle than the sides. This ice is 1,000 feet deep 



THE GIANT RIVERS OF ICE 




I VERY winter the moisture-laden winds from the Pacific, suddenly 
cooled against its summit, deposit upon Rainier's top and sides 
enormous snows. These, settling in the mile-wide crater which 
was left after a great explosion in some prehistoric age carried 
away perhaps two thousand feet of the volcano's former height, press with 
overwhelming weight down the mountain's sloping sides. 

Thus are born the glaciers, for the snow under its own pressure quickly 
hardens into ice. Through twenty-eight valleys self-carved in the solid rock 
flow these rivers of ice, now turning, as rivers of water turn, to avoid the 
harder rock strata, now roaring over precipices like congealed water falls, 
now rippling, like water currents, over rough bottoms, pushing, pouring re- 
lentlessly on until they reach those parts of their courses where warmer air 
turns them into rivers of water. 

There are forty-eight square miles of these glaciers. 




Photograph by Curtis fc? Miller 

Snout of Nisqually Glacier Where the Nisqually River Begins 

The melting begins miles up under the jce, Most glaciers, like the Nisqually, ends in an ice cave 



tL 



Photograph by Curtis y Miller 



Close to the Summit of Mount Rainier 




Photograph by Curtis iff Miller 

Leaving Camp of the Clouds for the Summit 

Nearly every day parties start for the long hard tramp up the glaciers to Columbia Crest. The climbers 
must dress warmly, paint their faces and hands to protect the skin from sunburn, and eat sparingly. 
Dark glasses must be worn. None but the hardy mountain climbers attempt this arduous tramp 



IN AN ARCTIC WONDERLAND 



« 




1 







OUNT RAINIER 
is nearly three miles 
high measured from 
sea-level. It rises 
nearly two miles from its im- 
mediate base. Once it was a 
finished cone like the famous 
Fujiyama, the sacred mountain 
of Japan. Then it was probably 
16,000 feet high. Indian leg- 
ends tell of the great eruption 
which blew its top off. 

In addition to the twenty- 
eight named glaciers there are 
others yet unnamed and little 
known. Few visitors have 
seen the wonderful north side, 
a photograph of which will be 
found on a later page. It pos- 
sesses endless possibilities for 
development and easy grades to 
Columbia Crest, the wonderful 
snow-covered summit which, un- 
til Mount Whitney was meas- 
ured, was considered the highest. 
Many interesting things 
might be told of the glaciers 
were there space. For example, 
several species of minute insects 
live in the ice, hopping about 
like tiny fleas. They are harder 
to see than the so-called sand- 
fleas at the seashore because 
much smaller. Slender, dark- 
brown worms live in countless 
millions in the surface ice. 
Microscopic rose-colored plants 
also thrive in such great num- 
bers that they tint the surface 
here and there, making what is 
commonly called "red snow." 




Photograph by Curtis iff Miller 

Coasting at Paradise Valley 



— ^ . 




Photograph by Curtis & Miller 

One of the Great Spectacles of America Is Mount Rainier, from Indian He« 




nting Ground, Glistening Against the Sky and Pictured Again in Mirror Lake 




GLACIER AND WILD FLOWER 



ROBABLY no glacier of large size in the world is so quickly, easily, 
(| and comfortably reached as the most striking and celebrated, 
though by no means the largest, of Mount Rainier's, the Nisqually 
j^j Glacier. It descends directly south from the snowy summit in a 
long curve, its lower finger reaching into park-like glades of luxuriant wild 
flowers. From Paradise Park one may step directly upon its fissured surface. 

The Nisqually Glacier is five miles long and, at Paradise Park, is half 
a mile wide. Glistening white and fairly smooth at its shining source on the 
mountain's summit, its surface here is soiled with dust and broken stone and 
squeezed and rent by terrible pressure into fantastic shapes. Innumerable 
crevasses, or cracks many feet deep, break across it caused by the more rapid 
movement of the glacier's middle than its edges; for glaciers, like rivers of 
water, develop swifter currents nearer midstream. 

Professor Le Conte tells us that the movement of Nisqually Glacier in sum- 
mer averages, at midstream, about sixteen inches a day. It is far less at the 
margins, its speed being retarded by the friction of the sides. 

Like all glaciers, the Nisqually gathers on its surface masses of rock with 
which it strews its sides just as rivers of water strew their banks with logs and 
floating debris. These are called lateral moraines, or side moraines. Some- 
times glaciers build lateral moraines miles long and over a thousand feet high. 
The Nisqually ice is more than a thousand feet thick in places. 

The rocks which are carried in midstream to the end of the glacier and 
dropped when the ice melts are called the terminal moraine. 

The end, or snout, of the glacier thus always lies among a great mass of 
rocks and stones. The Nisqually River flows from a cave in the end of the 
Nisqually Glacier's snout, for the melting begins several miles up-stream under 
the glacier. The river is dark brown when it first appears because it carries 
sediment and powdered rock which, however, it soon deposits, becoming clear. 

But this brief picture of the Mount Rainier National Park would miss its 
loveliest touch without some notice of the wild-flower parks lying at the base, 
and often reaching far up between the icy fingers, of Mount Rainier. 

"Above the forests," writes John Muir, the celebrated naturalist, "there 
is a zone of the loveliest flowers, fifty miles in circuit and nearly two miles 
wide, so closely planted and luxurious that it seems as if nature, glad to make 
an open space between woods so dense and ice so deep, were economizing the 
precious ground and trying to see how many of her darlings she can get to- 
gether in one mountain wreath— -daisies, anemones, columbine, erythroniums, 
larkspurs, etc., among which we wade knee-deep and waist-deep, the bright 
corollas in myriads touching petal to petal. Altogether this is the richest 
subalpine garden I have ever found, a perfect flower elysium." 




Photograph by Curtis & Miller 



Mount Adams from Mount Rainier National Park— Forty Miles Southward 




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Beautiful Paradise Valley Showing the Tatoosh Ridge 




Photograph by Curtis iff Miller 

Timber-Line and Flower Fields in Beautiful Paradise Valley 




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Photograph by Curtis 13 Miller 

The Roads Lead to the Glaciers through Forests of Fir and Cedar 




Crater Lake (Unfortunately Named) a North-Side Gem of Beauty 




Photograph by Curtis i$ Miller 



The Roads Are Admirable 



EASIEST GLACIERS TO SEE 



fiEffiffiftfiflHE Mount Rainier National Park is so accessible that one may 
get a brief close-by glimpse in one day. The new railroad slogan, 
"Four hours from Tacoma to the Glaciers," tells the story. 
But no one unless under dire necessity should think of being so 
near one of the greatest spectacles in nature without sparing several days for 
a real look; several weeks is none too long. Thousands of Americans in nor- 
mal years go to Switzerland to see glaciers much harder to reach and far less 
satisfactory to study. 

An excellent road will carry the visitor by auto-stage from the railway 
terminus to the several comfortable hotels and camps, most of which are so 
located that the principal scenic points on the south side may be easily reached. 

Pedestrians and horseback riders also follow trails through the gorgeous 
wild-flower parks, Paradise Valley, Indian Henry's Hunting Ground, Van 
Trump Park, Cowlitz Park, Ohanapecosh River and its hot springs, Summer- 
land, Grand Park, Moraine Park, Elysian Fields, Spray Park, Natural Bridge, 
Cataract Basin, St. Andrews Park, Glacier Basin, and others; developing new 
points of view of wonderful glory. 































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Photograph by Curtis y Miller 



National Park Inn 



THE NATIONAL PARKS AT A GLANCE 

Arranged chronologically in the order of their creation 
[Number, 14; Total Area, 7,290 Square Miles] 



NATIONAL PARK 
and Date 


LOCATION 


AREA 
in 

square 
miles 


DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS 


Hot Springs Reser- 
vation 
1832 


Middle 
Arkansas 


Itf 


46 hot springs possessing curative properties — Many hotels 
and boarding-houses in adjacent city of Hot Springs — 
bath-houses under public control. 


Yellowstone 
1872 


North- 
western 
Wyoming 


3,348 


More geysers than in all rest of world together — Boiling 
springs — Mud volcanoes — Petrified forests — Grand Canyon 
of the Yellowstone, remarkable for gorgeous coloring — 
Large lakes — Many large streams and waterfalls — Vast 
wilderness inhabited by deer, elk, bison, moose, antelope, 
bear, mountain sheep, beaver, etc., constituting greatest 
wild bird and animal preserve in world — Altitude 6,000 to 
11,000 feet — Exceptional trout fishing. 


Yosemite 
1890 


Middle 
eastern 
California 


1,125 


Valley of world-famed beauty — Lofty cliffs — Romantic vistas 
— Many waterfalls of extraordinary height — 3 groves of 
big trees — High Sierra — Large areas of snowy peaks — 
Waterwheel falls — Good trout fishing. 


Sequoia 
1890 


Middle 
eastern 
California 


237 


The Big Tree National Park — 12,000 sequoia trees over 10 feet 
in diameter, some 25 to 36 feet in diameter — Towering 
mountain ranges — Startling precipices — Fine trout fishing. 


General Grant 
1890 


Middle 
eastern 
California 


4 


Created to preserve the celebrated General Grant Tree, 35 
feet in diameter — six miles from Sequoia National Park and 
under same management. 


Mount Rainier 
1899 


West 

central 

Washington 


324 


Largest accessible single-peak glacier system — 28 glaciers, 
some of large size — Forty-eight square miles of glacier, 
fifty to five hundred feet thick — Remarkable sub-alpine 
wild-flower fields. 


Crater Lake 
1902 


South- 
western 
Oregon 


249 


Lake of extraordinary blue in crater of extinct volcano, no 
inlet, no outlet — Sides 1,000 feet high — Interesting lava for- 
mations — Fine trout fishing. 


Mesa Verde 
1906 


South- 
western 
Colorado 


77 


Most notable and best-preserved prehistoric cliff dwellings in 
United States, if not in the world. 


Platt 

1906 


Southern 
Oklahoma 


& 


Sulphur and other springs possessing curative properties — 
Under Government regulations. 


Glacier 
1910 


North- 
western 
Montana 


i,S34 


Rugged mountain region of unsurpassed Alpine character — 
250 glacier-fed lakes of romantic beauty — 60 small glaciers 
— Peaks of unusual shape — Precipices thousands of feet 
deep — Almost sensational scenery of marked individuality 
— Fine trout fishing. 


Rocky Mountain 
1915 


North 
middle 
Colorado 


358 


Heart of the Rockies — Snowy range, peaks 11,000 to 14,250 
feet altitude — Remarkable records of glacial period. 



National Parks of less popular interest are: 

Sully's Hill, 1904, North Dakota Wooded hilly tract on Devil's Lake. 

Wind Cave, 1903, South Dakota Large natural cavern. 

Casa Grande Ruin, 1892, Arizona Prehistoric Indian ruin. 



HOW TO REACH THE NATIONAL PARKS 






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NATIONAL PARKS 



PRINCIPAL RAILROAD CONNECTIONS 



TEXAS 






San Antonio 



J? \Jl* 



*Galveston 



MASS « 



>lew Orleans 



The map shows the location of all of our National Parks and their principal railroad connections. 
The traveler may work out his routes to suit himself. Low round-trip excursion fares to the 
American Rocky Mountain region and Pacific Coast may be availed of in visiting the National 
Parks during their respective seasons, thus materially reducing the cost of the trip. Trans- 
continental through trains and branch lines make the Parks easy of access from all parts of the 
United States. For schedules and excursion fares to and between the National Parks write to the j 
Passenger Departments of the railroads which appear on the above map, as follows: 

Arizona Eastern Railroad --------------- Tucson, Ariz. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway ------- 1 119 Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago & North Western Railway ------- 226 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. - - - - 547 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway ------- Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Colorado and Southern Railway ------- Railway Exchange Building, Denver, Colo. 

Denver & Rio Grande Railroad Co. ------- Equitable Building, Denver, Colo. 

Great Northern Railway ----- Railroad Building, Fourth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway ----------- Galveston, Texas. 

Illinois Central Railroad ----------- Central Station, Chicago, 111. 

Missouri Pacific Railway -------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Northern Pacific Railway - Railroad Building, Fifth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad - - - Pacific Electric Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Southern Pacific Company --------- Flood Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

Union Pacific System ------ Garland Building, 58 East Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

Wabash Railway ----------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Western Pacific Railway ---------- Mills Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

For information about sojourning and traveling within the National Parks write to the Depart- I 
ment of the Interior for the Information circular of the Park or Parks in which you are interested. I 



REMEMBER THAT 

MOUNT RAINIER BELONGS TO YOU 

IT IS ONE OF THE GREAT NATIONAL PLAYGROUNDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE 
FOR WHOM IT IS ADMINISTERED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

PRESS OF CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, NEW YORK 





CRATER 
LAKE 

NATIONAL PARK 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Franklin K. Lane, Secretary 




Photograph by Fred H. Kiser, Portland, Oregon 

Looking into Its Vast Depths Is Like Looking into the Limitless Sky 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

The Phantom Ship — Stranded On a Magic Shore 



THE LAKE OF MYSTERY 




RATER LAKE is the deepest and the bluest lake in the world. 
It measures two thousand feet of solid water, and the intensity 
of its color is unbelievable even while you look at it. Its clifFs 
from sky-line to surface are a thousand feet high. It has no in- 
let and no visible outlet, for it occupies the hole left when, in the dim ages 
before man, a volcano collapsed and disappeared within itself. 

It is a gem of wonderful color in a setting of pearly lavas relieved by patches 
of pine green and snow white — a gem which changes hue with every atmospheric 
change and every shift of light. 

There are crater lakes in other lands; in Italy, for instance, in Germany, 
India, and Hawaii. The one lake of its "Miirckin the United States is by far 
the finest of its kind in the world. It is one of the most distinguished spots 
in a land notable for the nobility and distinction of its scenery. 

Crater Lake lies in southern Oregon. The volcano whose site it has 
usurped was one of a "noble band of fire mountains which, like beacons, once 
blazed along the Pacific Coast." Because of its unique character and quite 
extraordinary beauty it was made a national park in 1902. 



Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

The Sun Plays Wonderful Tricks with Lights and Shadows 



ft 



THE SEA OF SILENCE" 




EARLY every visitor to Crater Lake, even the most prosaic, 
describes it as mysterious. To those who have not seen it, the 
adjective is difficult to analyze, but the fact remains. 

The explanation may lie in Crater Lake's remarkable color 
scheme. The infinite range of grays, silvers, and pearls in the carved and 
fretted lava walls, the gleaming white of occasional snow patches, the olives 
and pine greens of woods and mosses, the vivid, cloud-flecked azure of the 
sky, and the lake's thousand shades of blue, from the brilliant turquoise of its 
edges to the black blue of its depths of deepest shadow, strike into silence 
the least impressionable observers. "The Sea of Silence," Joaquin Miller 
calls Crater Lake. 

With changing conditions of sun and air, this amazing spectacle changes 
key with the passing hours; and it is hard to say which is its most rapturous 
condition of beauty, that of cloudless sunshine, or that of twilight shadow; 
or of what intermediate degree, or of storm or of shower or of moonlight or 
of starlight. At times, the scene changes magically while you watch. 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

Playing a Three-Pound Trout from the Rocky Shore 




Photograph by Fred H. Riser, Portland, Oregon 

A Poem in Grays and Greens and Unbelievable Blues 




Photograph by Fred H. Riser, Portland, Oregon 



Cliffs of a Thousand Pearly Hues Fantastically Carved 



s* 



Mt Mazama. 




STORY OF MOUNT MAZAMA 




EW of the astonishing pictures which geology has restored for us 
of this world in its making are so startling as that of Mount 
Mazama, which once reared a smoking peak many thousands of 
feet above the present peaceful level of Crater Lake. There 
were many noble volcanoes in the range: Mount Baker, Mount Rainier, 
Mount Adams, Mount St. Helens, Mount Lassen, Mount Mazama, Mount 
Hood, Mount Shasta. Once their vomitings built the great Cascade Moun- 
:ains. To-day, cold and silent, they stand wrapped in shining armor of ice. 

But not all. One is missing. Where Mount Mazama reared his noble 
lead, there is nothing — until you climb the slopes once his foothills, and gaze 
spellbound over the broken lava cliffs into the lake which lies magically where 
mce he stood. The story of the undoing of Mount Mazama, of the birth of 
:his wonder lake, is one of the great stories of the earth. 

Mount Mazama fell into itself. It is as if some vast cavern formed in 
:he earth's seething interior into which the entire volcano suddenly slipped. 
Die imagination of Dore might have reproduced some hint of the titanic 
spectacle of the disappearance of a mountain fifteen thousand feet in height. 

When Mount Mazama collapsed into this vast hole, leaving clean cut the 
idges which to-day are Crater Lake's surrounding cliffs, there was instantly 
1 surging back. The crumbling lavas were forced again up the huge chimney. 

But not all the way. The vent became jammed. In three spots only did 
he fires emerge again. Three small volcanoes formed in the hollow. 

But these in turn soon choked and cooled. During succeeding ages 
;prings poured their waters into the vast cavity, and Crater Lake was born, 
ts rising waters covered two of the small volcanic cones. The third still 
emerges. It is called Wizard Island. 



Scott PU. 



4£r 






•:. '■-,->;,■ '•. 






Photograph by Fred H. Kiser, Portland, Oregon 



Sunset 




THE LEGEND OF LLAO 



CCORDING to the legend of the Klamath and Modoc Indians 
the mystic land of Gaywas was the home of the great god Llao. 
His throne in the infinite depths of the blue waters was sur- 
rounded by his warriors, giant crawfish able to lift great claws 
out of the water and seize too venturesome enemies on the cliff tops. 

War broke out with Skell, the god of the neighboring Klamath Marshes. 
Skell was captured and his heart used for a ball by Llao's monsters. But 
an eagle, one of Skell's servants, captured it in flight, and a deer, another of 
Skell's servants, escaped with it; and Skell's body grew again around his Irv- 
ing heart. Once more he was powerful, and once more he waged war against 
the God of the Lake. 

Then Llao was captured; but he was not so fortunate. Upon the highest 
cliff his body was torn into fragments and cast into the lake, and eaten by 
his own monsters under the belief that it was Skeirs body. But when Llao's 
head was thrown in, the monsters recognized it and would not eat it. 

Llao's head still lies in the lake, and white men call it Wizard Island. 
And the cliff where Llao was torn to pieces is named Llao Rock. 







Photograph by Fred H. Kiser, Portland, Oregon 

Often the Trees Are as Gnarled and Knotted as the Cliffs They Grow On 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 



General View Across Crater Lake Near Sentinel Rock, Sho^ 
These cliffs vary from a thousand to twelve hundred feet high, occasionally rising to two thousand I 




[Northern Shore Line, with Red Cove in the Middle Distance 
The first effect of a view across the lake is to fill the observer with awe and a deep sense of mystery 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

Looking Down into the Crater of Wizard Island 

VIEWED FROM THE RIM 




EVERAL days may profitably be spent upon the rim of the lake 
which one may travel afoot or on horseback. The endless vari- 
ety of lava formations and of color variation may be here studied 
to the best advantage. 
The temperature of the water has been the subject of much investigation. 
The average observations of years show that, whatever may be the surface 
variations, the temperature of the water below a depth of three hundred feet 
continues approximately 39 degrees the year around. This disposes of the 
theory that the depths of the lake are affected by volcanic heat. 

"Apart from its attractive scenic features,' ' writes J. S. Diller of the United 
States Geological Survey, "Crater Lake affords one of the most interesting 
and instructive fields for the study of volcanic geology to be found anywhere 
in the world. Considered in all its aspects, it ranks with the Grand Canyon 
of the Colorado, the Yosemite Valley, and the Falls of Niagara, but with an 
individuality that is superlative." 




Photograph by Fred H. Riser, Portland, Oregon 

Sand Creek, Showing Pinnacles Resulting from Erosion 




THE MINE OF BEAUTY 

RATER LAKE is seen in its glory from a launch. One may float 
for days upon its surface without sating one's sense of delighted 
surprise; for all is new again with every change of light. The 
Phantom Ship, for instance, sometimes wholly disappears. Now 
it is there, and a few minutes after, with new slants of light, it is gone — a 
phantom indeed. So it is with many headlands and ghostlike palisades. 

This lake was not discovered until 1853. Eleven Californians had under- 
taken once more the search for the famous, perhaps fabulous, Lost Cabin Mine. 
For many years parties had been searching the Cascades; again they had 
come into the Klamath region. With all their secrecy their object became 
known, and a party of Oregonians was hastily organized to stalk them and 




Photograph by Fred H. Kiser 

The Favorite Way to See the Sculptured Cliffs Is from a Motor-Boat 



share their find. The Californians 
discovered the pursuit and divided 
their party. The Oregonians did 
the same. It became a game of 
hide-and-seek. When provisions 
were nearly exhausted and many 
of both parties had deserted, they 
joined forces. 

"Suddenly we came in sight 
of water," writes J. W. Hillman, 
then the leader of the combined 
party; "we were much surprised, 
as we did not expect to see any 
lakes and did not know but that 
we had come in sight of and close 
to Klamath Lake. Not until my 
mule stopped within a few feet 
of the rim of Crater Lake did I 
look down, and if I had been rid- 
ing a blind mule I firmly believe 
I would have ridden over the edge 
to death. " 

It is interesting that the dis- 
coverers quarrelled on the choice 
of a name, dividing between Mys- 
terious Lake and Deep Blue Lake. 
The advocates of Deep Blue Lake 
won the vote, but in 1869 a visit- 
ing party from Jacksonville re- 
named it Crater Lake, and this, 
by natural right, became its title. 

UNUSUAL FISHING 

This magnificent body of cold 
fresh water originally contained 
no fish of any kind. A small crus- 
tacean was found in its waters in 
large numbers, the suggestion, no 
doubt, upon which was founded 
the Indian legend of the gigantic 
crawfish which formed the body- 
guard of the great god Llao. 




Photograph by Fred H. Kiser 

Trout Run from One to Six Pounds 



In 1888 Will G. Steel brought trout fry from a ranch forty miles away> 
but no fish were seen in the lake for more than a dozen years. Then a few 
were taken, one of which was fully thirty inches long. 

Since then trout have been taken in ever-increasing numbers. They are best 
caught by fly casting from the shore. For this reason the fishing is not always 
the easiest. Often the slopes are not propitious for casting. One has to climb 
upon outlying rocks to reach the waters of best depth. But the results 
usually justify the effort. The trout range from one to ten pounds in weight. 

Anglers of experience in 
western fishing testify 
that, pound for pound, 
the rainbow trout taken 
in the cold deep waters of 
Crater Lake are the hard- 
est-fighting trout of all. 
Many fish are also 
taken from rowboats. 
A trolling spoon will 
often lure large fish. 



HOTELS AND 
CAMPS 

Partly because it is 
off* the main line of trav- 
el, but chiefly because 
its unique attractions 
are not yet well known, 
Crater Lake has been 
seen by comparatively 
few. Under concession 
from the Department of 
the Interior, a comfort- 
able camp is operated 
five miles from the lake, 
and a newly completed 
hotel and camp on the 
lake's rim. The hotel 
is built of the stone of 
the neighborhood and is 
fully equipped with 
baths. Tents may be 
had for those who prefer 
camping. 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

Camping Out Back of the Rim 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

At the Foot of the Trail from Crater Lake Lodge 




Crater Lake Lodge on the Rim, 1,000 Feet Above the Lake 

The lounge occupies the entire ground floor of the center segment of the building, is 40 by 60 feet, without 
a pillar or post, and contains what is said to be the largest fireplace in the State of Oregon 







1 

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Photograph by Fred H. Riser, Portland, Oregon 

Across the Lake from the Rim Road 



THE NATIONAL PARKS AT A GLANCE 

Arranged chronologically in the order of their creation 
[Number, 14; Total Area, 7,290 Square Miles] 







AREA 




NATIONAL PARK 
and Date 


LOCATION 


in 
square 
miles 


DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS 


Hot Springs Reser- 


Middle 


iH 


46 hot springs possessing curative properties — Many hotels 


vation 


Arkansas 




and boarding-houses in adjacent city of Hot Springs — ■ 


1832 






bath-houses under public control. 


Yellowstone 


North- 


3,348 


More geysers than in all rest of world together — Boiling 


1872 


western 




springs — Mud volcanoes — Petrified forests — Grand Canyon 




Wyoming 




of the Yellowstone, remarkable for gorgeous coloring — 
Large lakes — Many large streams and waterfalls — Vast 
wilderness inhabited by deer, elk, bison, moose, antelope, 
bear, mountain sheep, beaver, etc., constituting greatest 
wild bird and animal preserve in world — Altitude 6,000 to 
11,000 feet — Exceptional trout fishing. 


YOSEMITE 


Middle 


1,125 


Valley of world-famed beauty — Lofty cliffs — Romantic vistas 


I89O 


eastern 




— Many waterfalls of extraordinary height — 3 groves of 




California 




big trees — High Sierra — Large areas of snowy peaks — 
Waterwheel falls — Good trout fishing. 


Sequoia 


Middle 


237 


The Big Tree National Park — 12,000 sequoia trees over 10 feet 


1890 


eastern 




in diameter, some 25 to 36 feet in diameter — Towering 




California 




mountain ranges — Startling precipices — Fine trout fishing. 


General Grant 


Middle 


4 


Created to preserve the celebrated General Grant Tree, 35 


1890 


eastern 




feet in diameter — six miles from Sequoia National Park and 




California 




under same management. 


Mount Rainier 


West 


324 


Largest accessible single-peak glacier system — 28 glaciers, 


1899 


central 




some of large size — Forty-eight square miles of glacier, 




Washington 




fifty to five hundred feet thick — Remarkable sub-alpine 
wild-flower fields. 


Crater Lake 


South- 


249 


Lake of extraordinary blue in crater of extinct volcano, no 


1902 


western 




inlet, no outlet — Sides 1,000 feet high — Interesting lava for- 




Oregon 




mations — Fine trout fishing. 


Mesa Verde 


South- 


77 


Most notable and best-preserved prehistoric cliff dwellings in 


1906 


western 
Colorado 




United States, if not in the world. 


Platt 


Southern 


& 


Sulphur and other springs possessing curative properties — 


1906 


Oklahoma 




Under Government regulations. 


Glacier 


North- 


i,S34 


Rugged mountain region of unsurpassed Alpine character — 


1910 


western 




250 glacier-fed lakes of romantic beauty — 60 small glaciers 




Montana 




— Peaks of unusual shape — Precipices thousands of feet 
deep — Almost sensational scenery of marked individuality 
— Fine trout fishing. 


Rocky Mountain 


North 


358 


Heart of the Rockies — Snowy range, peaks 11,000 to 14,250 


1915 


middle 
Colorado 




feet altitude — Remarkable records of glacial period. 



National Parks of less popular interest are: 

Sully's Hill, 1904, North Dakota Wooded hilly tract on Devil's Lake. 

Wind Cave, 1903, South Dakota Large natural cavern. 

Casa Grande Ruin, 1892, Arizona Prehistoric Indian ruin. 



HOW TO REACH THE NATIONAL PARKS 



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NATIONAL PARKS 



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Worth 



TEXAS 



PRINCIPAL RAILROAD CONNECTIONS 




San Antonio 



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•Galveston 



The map shows the location of all of our National Parks and their principal railroad connections. 
The traveler may work out his routes to suit himself. Low round-trip excursion fares to th( 
American Rocky Mountain region and Pacific Coast may be availed of in visiting the National 
Parks during their respective seasons, thus materially reducing the cost of the trip. Trans-! 
continental through trains and branch lines make the Parks easy of access from all parts of the 
United States. For schedules and excursion fares to and between the National Parks write to the] 
Passenger Departments of the railroads which appear on the above map, as follows: 

Arizona Eastern Railroad --------------- Tucson, Ariz. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway ------ - 1 119 Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago & North Western Railway ------- 226 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. - 547 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway ------- Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Colorado and Southern Railway ------- Railway Exchange Building, Denver, Colo. 

Denver & Rio Grande Railroad Co. ------- Equitable Building, Denver, Colo. 

Great Northern Railway ----- Railroad Building, Fourth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway ----------- Galveston, Texas. 

Illinois Central Railroad ----------- Central Station, Chicago, 111. 

Missouri Pacific Railway -------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Northern Pacific Railway - Railroad Building, Fifth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad - - - Pacific Electric Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Southern Pacific Company -__-_--__ Flood Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

Union Pacific System ------ Garland Building, 58 East Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

Wabash Railway ----------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Western Pacific Railway ---------- Mills Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

For information about sojourning and traveling within the National Parks write to the Depart 
ment of the Interior for the Information circular of the Park or Parks in which you are interested 



REMEMBER THAT 

CRATER LAKE BELONGS TO YOL 

IT IS ONE OF THE GREAT NATIONAL PLAYGROUNDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLI 
FOR WHOM IT IS ADMINISTERED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOl 

PRESS OF CHARLES SCRIBNBR'S SONS, NBW YORK 




THE 



MESA VERDE 



NATIONAL PARK 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Franklin K. Lane, Secretary 




Government Road to the Celebrated Prehistoric Ruins 

Showing the woods which justify the title Mesa Verde (Green Mesa) 




Yesterday and To-Day 



CITIES OF THE PAST 




|NE December day in 1888 Richard and Alfred Wetherell, searching 
for lost cattle on the Mesa Verde, near their home at Mancos, 
Colorado, pushed through dense growths on the edge of a deep 
canyon and shouted aloud in astonishment. Across the canyon, 
tucked into a shelf under the overhanging edge of the opposite brink, were the 
walls and towers of what seemed to them a palace. They named it Cliff Palace. 
Forgetting the cattle in their excitement, they searched the edge of the 
mesa in all directions. Near by, under the overhanging edge of another can- 
yon, they found a similar group, no less majestic, which they named Spruce 
Tree House because a large spruce grew out of the ruins. 

Thus was discovered the most elaborate and best-preserved prehistoric ruins 
in America, if not in the world. 

A careful search of the entire Mesa Verde in the years following has resulted 
in many other finds of interest and importance. In 1906 Congress set aside 
the region as a national park. Even yet its treasures of antiquity are not all 
known. A remarkable temple to the sun was unearthed in 1915. 



aP*-.- 




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t ¥ ' 




The Exploration of Newly Discovered Ruins Often Requires Much Hard and 

Even Perilous Climbing 




Photograph by Mrs. C. R. Miller 

Many Gathered Nightly Around the Campfire to Hear Dr. Fewkes Tell the 

Story of the Ancient People 



the story of the mesas 



jj^SSE2p^j|HOSE who have travelled through our Southwestern States have 
seen from the car window innumerable mesas or isolated plateaus 
rising abruptly for hundreds of feet from the bare and often arid 
plains. The word mesa is Spanish for table. 



Once the level of these mesa tops was the level of all of this vast South- 
western country, but the rains and floods of centuries have washed away the 
softer earths down to its present level, leaving standing only the rocky spots 
or those so covered with surface rocks that the rains could not reach the softer 
gravel underneath. 

The Mesa Verde, or green mesa (because it is covered with stunted cedar 
and pinyon trees in a land where trees are few), is perhaps most widely known. 

The Mesa Verde is one of the largest mesas. It is fifteen miles long and 
eight miles wide. At its foot are masses of broken rocks rising from three hun- 
dred to five hundred feet above the bare plains. Above these rise the cliffs. 

The clifF dwellings nestle under its overhanging cliffs near the top. 




IN THE CLIFF DWELLINGS 




IFE must have been difficult in this dry country when the Mesa 
Verde communities flourished in the sides of these sandstone cliffs. 
Game was scarce and hunting arduous. The Mancos River yielded 
a few fish. The earth contributed berries or nuts. Water was 
rare and found only in sequestered places near the heads of the canyons. Nev- 
ertheless, the inhabitants cultivated their farms and raised their corn, which 
they ground on flat stones called metates. They baked their bread on flat 
stone griddles. They boiled their meat in well-made vessels, some of which 
were artistically decorated. 

Their life was difficult, but confidently did they believe that they were 
dependent upon the gods to make the rain fall and the corn grow. They 
were a religious people who worshipped the sun as the father of all and the 
earth as the mother who brought them all their material blessings. They pos- 
sessed no written language and could only record their thoughts by a few sym- 
bols which they painted on their earthenware jars or scratched on the rocks. 

As their sense of beauty was keen, their art, though primitive, was true; 
rarely realistic, generally symbolic. Their decoration of cotton fabrics and 
ceramic work might be called beautiful, even when judged by the highly devel- 
oped taste of to-day. They fashioned axes, spear points, and rude tools of 
stone; they wove sandals and made attractive basketry. 

They were not content with rude buildings and had long outgrown the 
caves that satisfied less civilized Indians farther north and south of them. 

The photographs of ClifF Palace on the following three pages will show not 
only the protection afforded by the overhanging cliffs but the general scheme 
of community living. 

The population was composed of a series of units, possibly clans, each of 
which had its own social organization more or less distinct from the others. 
Each had ceremonial rooms, called kivas. Each also had living-rooms and 
storerooms. There were twenty-three social units or clans in ClifF Palace. 

The kivas were the rooms where the men spent most of the time devoted 
to ceremonies, councils, and other gatherings. The religious fraternities were 
limited to the men of a clan. 




Cliff Palace Is the Most Celebrated of the Mesa Verde Ruins Because It Is the 

Largest and Most Prominent 




Terraces at the Southern End of Cliff Palace 




Photograph by Arthur Chapman 



The Square Tower of Cliff Palace 




Photograph by Arthur Chapman 



The Round Tower of Cliff Palace 




Excavating Sun Temple on Top 

Sun Temple, discovered in the summer of 1915, marks a far advance toward civilization. Its masonry slitl 

Mesa Vera it 






• v 



* 




Mesa Opposite Cliff Palace 

th in constructive principles. Its walls are embellished with carvings. Architecturally it represents 
t type 




Constructive Detail of South Wall, Sun Temple 



DISCOVERY OF SUN TEMPLE 




NTIL the summer of 191 5 no structures had been discovered in 
the Mesa Verde except those of the cliff-dwelling type. Then the 
Department of the Interior explored a mound on the top of the 
mesa opposite Cliff Palace and unearthed Sun Temple. Dr. J. 
Walter Fewkes, who conducted the exploration, believes that this was built 
about 1300 A. D. and marks the final stage in Mesa Verde development. 

Sun Temple was a most important discovery. It marked a long advance 
toward civilization. It occupied a commanding position convenient to many 
large inhabited cliff dwellings. Its masonry showed growth in the art of con- 
struction. Its walls were embellished by geometrical figures carved in rock. 

A fossil palm leaf, which the Cliff Dwellers supposed to be a divinely 
carved image of the sun, is embedded in the temple's walls. 




Drawing Showing Constructive Detail of Sun Temple 




Stones from Sun Temple Covered with Geometrical and Emblematical Designs 



THE MESA'S LITTLE PEOPLE 




NDIANS of to-day shun the ruins of the Mesa Verde. They be- 
lieve them inhabited by spirits whom they call the Little People. 
It is vain to tell them that the Little People were their own an- 
cestors; they refuse to believe it. 
When the national park telephone line was building in 191 5 the Indians 
were greatly excited. Coming to the Supervisor's office to trade, they shook 
their heads ominously. 

The poles wouldn't stand up, they declared. Why ? Because the Little 
People wouldn't like such an uncanny thing as a telephone. 

But poles were standing, the Supervisor pointed out. All right, the Indians 
replied, but wait. The wires wouldn't talk. Little People wouldn't like it. 

The poles were finally all in and the wires strung. What was more, the 
wires actually did talk and are still talking. 

Never mind, say the Indians, with unshaken faith. Never mind. Wait. 
That's all. It will come. The Little People may stand it — for a while. But 
wait. The Supervisor is still waiting. 




Spruce Tree House Hides Under a Huge Overhanging Cliff 

THE PRINCIPAL DWELLINGS 




LIFF PALACE is the most celebrated of the Mesa Verde ruins 
because it is the largest and most prominent. Others are no less 
interesting and important. Spruce Tree House is next in size; 
Balcony House and Peabody House are equally well preserved. 
There are many others; some which have yet to be thoroughly explored; prob- 
ably some still undiscovered. 

Cliff Palace is three hundred feet long; Spruce Tree House two hundred and 
sixteen. Cliff Palace contained probably two hundred rooms; Spruce Tree 
House a hundred and fourteen. Spruce Tree House originally had three stories. 
Its population was probably three hundred and fifty. 

The Round Tower in Cliff Palace is an object of unusual interest, but the 
ceremonial kivas, or religious rooms, in all the communities are usually round 
and often were entered from below. 

A subterranean entrance to Cliff Palace was recently discovered. 




Entrance to Lower Floors, Spruce Tree House 




Photograph by Arthur Chapman 

Spruce Tree House After Restoration by Dr. Fewkes 



Photograph by Mrs. C. R. Miller 

Photographing One of the Rooms at Balcony House 





Photographs by J. L. Nusbaum 

Typical Skulls of Prehistoric Man Found in the Mesa Verde 

These skulls show an unusual breadth as compared with Indians of to-day, though of the same ethnological 

type. Nordenskiold concludes that the race was fairly robust, with heavy skeletons and strong 

muscular processes. The facial bones are well developed and lower jaw heavy 

SUMMER UPON MESA VERDE 

ESA VERDE NATIONAL PARK is in the extreme southwestern 
corner of Colorado and is reached by two routes from Denver. A 
night is usually spent en route, and the ruins are reached by 
wagon, horseback, or automobile from Mancos. 
Apart from the ruins, the country is one of much beauty and interest. The 
highest spot on the Mesa is Point Lookout, 8,428 feet in altitude. The mesa's 
western edge is a fine blufF two thousand feet above the Montezuma Valley 
whose irrigation lakes and brilliantly green fields are set ofF nobly against the 
distant Rico Mountains. To the west are the La Salle and Blue Mountains 
in Utah, with Ute Mountain in the immediate foreground. 

The views are inspiring, the entire country " different. " In the spring the en- 
tire region blooms. It used to be a country of wild animals and at times deer are 
still plentiful. There is a thoroughly comfortable hotel near Spruce Tree House. 
One of the unusual attractions of last summer was the unearthing of the 
I great mound which covered Sun Temple. Dr. Fewkes maintained a camp near 
the mound and lectured almost nightly to those who gathered around his camp- 
fire. The same informal custom will probably be resumed during this and suc- 
ceeding summers while the exploration of other suggestive mounds is progressing. 




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The Interior of a Sacred Kiva 





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Photograph by Mrs. C. R. Miller 



Stone Chairs Found at the Cliff Palace 



THE NATIONAL PARKS AT A GLANCE 

Arranged chronologically in the order of their creation 
[Number, 14; Total Area, 7,290 Square Miles] 







AREA 




NATIONAL PARK 


LOCATION 


in 


DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS 


and Date 




square 
miles 




Hot Springs Reser- 


Middle 


iH 


46 hot springs possessing curative properties — Many hotels 


vation 


Arkansas 




and boarding-houses in adjacent city of Hot Springs — 


1832 






bath-houses under public control. 


Yellowstone 


North- 


3,348 


More geysers than in all rest of world together — Boiling 


1872 


western 




springs — Mud volcanoes — Petrified forests — Grand Canyon 




Wyoming 




of the Yellowstone, remarkable for gorgeous coloring — 
Large lakes — Many large streams and waterfalls — Vast 
wilderness inhabited by deer, elk, bison, moose, antelope, 
bear, mountain sheep, beaver, etc., constituting greatest 
wild bird and animal preserve in world — Altitude 6,000 to 
11,000 feet — Exceptional trout fishing. 


YOSEMITE 


Middle 


1,125 


Valley of world-famed beauty — Lofty cliffs — Romantic vistas 


189O 


eastern 




— Many waterfalls of extraordinary height — 3 groves of 




California 




big trees — High Sierra — Large areas of snowy peaks — 
Waterwheel falls — Good trout fishing. 


Sequoia 


Middle 


237 


The Big Tree National Park — 12,000 sequoia trees over 10 feet 


1890 


eastern 




in diameter, some 25 to 36 feet in diameter — Towering 




California 




mountain ranges — Startling precipices — Fine trout fishing. 


General Grant 


Middle 


4 


Created to preserve the celebrated General Grant Tree, 35 


1890 


eastern 




feet in diameter — six miles from Sequoia National Park and 




California 




under same management. 


Mount Rainier 


West 


324 


Largest accessible single-peak glacier system — 28 glaciers, 


1899 


central 




some of large size — Forty-eight square miles of glacier, 




Washington 




fifty to five hundred feet thick — Remarkable sub-alpine 
wild-flower fields. 


Crater Lake 


South- 


249 


Lake of extraordinary blue in crater of extinct volcano, no 


1902 


western 




inlet, no outlet — Sides 1,000 feet high — Interesting lava for- 




Oregon 




mations — Fine trout fishing. 


Mesa Verde 


South- 


77 


Most notable and best-preserved prehistoric cliff dwellings in 


1906 


western 
Colorado 




United States, if not in the world. 


Platt 


Southern 


iH 


Sulphur and other springs possessing curative properties — 


1906 


Oklahoma 




Under Government regulations. 


Glacier 


North- 


1,534 


Rugged mountain region of unsurpassed Alpine character — 


1910 


western 




250 glacier-fed lakes of romantic beauty — 60 small glaciers 




Montana 




— Peaks of unusual shape — Precipices thousands of feet 
deep — Almost sensational scenery of marked individuality 
— Fine trout fishing. 


Rocky Mountain 


North 


358 


Heart of the Rockies — Snowy range, peaks 11,000 to 14,250 


1915 


middle 
Colorado 




feet altitude — Remarkable records of glacial period. 



National Parks of less popular interest are: 

Sully's Hill, 1904, North Dakota Wooded hilly tract on Devil's Lake. 

Wind Cave, 1903, South Dakota Large natural cavern. 

Casa Grande Ruin, 1892, Arizona Prehistoric Indian ruin. 



HOW TO REACH THE NATIONAL PARKS 



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NATIONAL PARKS 

AND 
PRINCIPAL RAILROAD CONNECTIONS 



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•Galveston 



The map shows the location of all of our National Parks and their principal railroad connections. 
The traveler may work out his routes to suit himself. Low round-trip excursion fares to the 
American Rocky Mountain region and Pacific Coast may be availed of in visiting the National 
Parks during their respective seasons, thus materially reducing the cost of the trip. Trans- 
continental through trains and branch lines make the Parks easy of access from all parts of the 
United States. For schedules and excursion fares to and between the National Parks write to the 
Passenger Departments of the railroads which appear on the above map, as follows: 

Arizona Eastern Railroad ------------_.- Tucson, Ariz. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway ------- 1 119 Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago & North Western Railway ------- 226 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. - 547 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway ------- Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Colorado and Southern Railway ------- Railway Exchange Building, Denver, Colo. 

Denver & Rio Grande Railroad Co. _______ Equitable Building, Denver, Colo. 

Great Northern Railway ----- Railroad Building, Fourth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway ____-___-- - Galveston, Texas. 

Illinois Central Railroad --___--_.-- Central Station, Chicago, 111. 

Missouri Pacific Railway -------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Northern Pacific Railway - Railroad Building, Fifth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad - Pacific Electric Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Southern Pacific Company --------- Flood Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

Union Pacific System -____. Garland Building, 58 East Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

Wabash Railway ----------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Western Pacific Railway ---------- Mills Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

For information about sojourning and traveling within the National Parks write to the Depart- 
ment of the Interior for the Information circular of the Park or Parks in which you are interested. 



REMEMBER THAT 



MESA VERDE BELONGS TO YOU 

IT IS ONE OF THE GREAT NATIONAL PLAYGROUNDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE 
FOR WHOM IT IS ADMINISTERED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

PRESS OF CHARLES SCRIRNER'S SONS, NEW YORK 




GLACI ER 

NATIONAL 
PARK 


DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Franklin K. Lane, Secretary 




Photograph by Fred H. Riser, Portland, Oregon 

The Supreme Glory of the Glacier National Park Is Its Lakes 

A glimpse of beautiful St. Mary Lake and Going-to-the-Sun Mountain 




Photograph by H. T. Coaling 

St. Mary Chalet, Typical of Glacier Architecture 



AN ALPINE PARADISE 




OTWITHSTANDING the sixty glaciers from which it derives its 
name, the Glacier National Park is chiefly remarkable for its pic- 
turesquely modeled peaks, the unique quality of its mountain 
masses, its gigantic precipices, and the romantic loveliness of its 
two hundred and fifty lakes. 

Though most of our national parks possess similar general features in addi- 
tion to those which sharply differentiate each from every other, the Glacier 
National Park shows them in special abundance and unusually happy combina- 
tion. In fact, it is the quite extraordinary, almost sensational, massing of these 
scenic elements which gives it its marked individuality. 

The broken and diversified character of this scenery, involving rugged 
mountain tops bounded by vertical walls sometimes more than four thousand 
feet high, glaciers perched upon lofty rocky shelves, unexpected waterfalls of 
peculiar charm, rivers of milky glacier water, lakes unexcelled for sheer beauty 
by the most celebrated of sunny Italy and snow-topped Switzerland, and grandly 
timbered slopes sweeping into valley bottoms, offer a continuous yet ever 
changing series of inspiring vistas not to be found in such luxuriance and per- 
fection elsewhere. 

And this rare scenic combination is not alone of one valley of the park, but 
is characteristic of them all; so that it is difficult to single out any part of these 




Photograph by Fred H. Kiser, Portland, Oregon 

You Seem Menaced by Glaciers and Waterfalls upon Every Side 
Avalanche Lake lies in a cirque whose precipices rise thousands of feet 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

At the Very End of the World 
So at least it seems until you find your way out over the new Dawson Pass Trail 



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Photograph by Fred H. Riser, Portland, Oregon 

Climbing the Upper Reaches of the Blackfeet Glacier 

fifteen hundred square miles that is more beautiful, more remarkable, or more 
strikingly diversified than any other. 

The Glacier National Park lies in northwestern Montana, abutting the 
Canadian boundary. It incloses the continental divide of the Rocky Mountains 
at that point; in fact, from one spot known as the Triple Divide, waters flow 
into the Pacific Ocean, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. 

It is interesting that Glacier's peculiarly rugged topography is practically 
limited to the park's boundaries. To the north, in Canada, the mountains 
subside into low, rounded ridges. To the south and west, though still fine, 
they lose the quality of majesty. Easterly lie the plains. 

The transcontinental railway traveler skirts the park without hint of the 
supreme beauty so near at hand. But let him stop at Glacier Park station or 
at Belton and, after swift rides in auto-stages, see something of the beauties of 
Lake St. Mary, Lake McDermott, Bowman Lake, or Lake McDonald, and he 
will instantly understand the attractive force which draws thousands across the 
continent, and will some day draw thousands across the seas, to stand spell- 
bound before these awe-inspiring examples of nature's noblest handiwork. 



MAKING A NATIONAL PARK 




OW nature, just how many millions of years ago no man can esti- 
^ mate, made the Glacier National Park is a stirring story. 

Once this whole region was covered with water, probably the 
sea. The earthy sediments deposited by this water hardened into 
rocky strata. If you were in the park to-day you would see broad horizontal 
streaks of variously colored rock in the mountain masses thousands of feet 
above you. They are discernible in the photographs in this book. They are 
the very strata that the waters deposited in their depths in those far-away ages. 

How they got from the 
seas' bottoms to the moun- 
tains' tops is the story. 

According to one fa- 
mous theory of creation, the 
earth has been contracting 
through unnumbered cycles 
of time. Just as the squeezed 
orange bulges in places, so 
this region may have been 
forced upward. In fact, this 
is what must have happened 
at this particular spot. The 
geologist learns to accept 
such theories without ques- 
tion, for, though he cannot 
realize the vast periods of 
time and awful forces in- 
volved in a movement of 
this kind, the evidence of 
it is so plain that it is in- 
contestable. 

Under this incalculable 
pressure from its sides and 
below, the bottom of the 
sea gradually rose and be- 
came dry land. The pressure 
continued, and the earth's 
crust at this point, like 
the skin of the squeezed 
orange, bulged in long ir- 
regular lines. In time these 
became mountains. 




Photograph by Ellis Prentice Cole 

Iceberg Lake When Floes Drift in August 




Photograph by L. D. Lindsley 

One of the Wildest Spots on Earth Is Ptarmigan Lake 



Then, when the rocky crust could no longer stand the strain, it cracked. 

Gradually the western edge of this great crack was forced upward and over 
the eastern edge. This relieved the internal pressure and the overlapping 
edge settled into its present position. Geologists call this process faulting. The 
edge that was forced over the other edge is called the overthrust. 

The edge thus thrust over was four or five thousand feet thick. It crumbled 
into peaks, precipices, and gorges. It must have afforded a spectacle of sub- 
lime ruggedness, but without the transcendental beauty of to-day. 

Upon these mountains and precipices and into these gorges the snows and 
the rains of uncounted centuries of centuries have since fallen, and the ice and 
the frost and the rushing waters have carved them into the area of distinguished 
beauty which is to-day the American Switzerland. 

To picture to yourselves this region, imagine a chain of very lofty moun- 
tains twisting about like a worm, spotted everywhere with snow fields, and 
bearing glistening glaciers. 

Imagine these mountains crumbled and broken on their east sides into 
precipices sometimes four thousand feet deep and flanked everywhere by lesser 
peaks and tumbled mountain masses of smaller size in whose hollows lie the 
most beautiful lakes you have ever dreamed of. 




Photograph by Fred H. Kiser, Portland, Oregon 

The Peak of Blackfeet Mountain Is Typical of Glacier Scenery 



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Photograph by //. '/'. Cowling 

Two Thousand Feet Sheer from Flowers to Lake 

Unnamed lake on new trail up the Triple Divide 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

Birth of a Cloud on the Side of Mount Rockwell 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

Early Morning Cloud-Effects at Two Medicine Lake 

Romantic Rising-Wolf Mountain is seen in middle distance 




Photograph by Fred H. Riser, Portland, Oregon 

It Is the Romantic, Almost Sensational Massing of Extraordinary Scenk 
Beautiful St. Mary Lake with Going-to-the-Sun Camp in the foreg 




sts Which Gives the Glacier National Park Its Marked Individuality 

itadel Mountain in left center, Fusillade Mountain to their right 



ITS LAKES AND VALLEYS 





Photograph by Fred //. Kuer, Portland, Oregon 



HE supreme glory of the 
Glacier National Park is 
its lakes. The world has 
none to surpass, perhaps 
few to equal them. Some are valley 
gems grown to the water's edge with for- 
ests. Some are cradled among precipices. 
Some float ice-fields in midsummer. 

From the continental divide seven 
principal valleys drop precipitously 
upon the east, twelve sweep down the 
longer western slopes. Each valley 
holds between its feet its greater lake 
to which are tributary many smaller 
lakes of astonishing wildness. 

On the east side St. Mary Lake is 
destined to world-wide celebrity, but so 
also is Lake McDonald on the west side. 
These are the largest in the park. 

But some, perhaps many, of the 
smaller lakes are candidates for beauty's 
highest honors. Of these Lake McDer- 
mott with its minaretted peaks stands 
first — perhaps because best known, for 
here is one of the finest hotels in any 
national park and a luxurious camp. 

Upper Two Medicine Lake is an- 
other east-side candidate widely known 
because of its accessibility, while far to 
the north the Belly River Valley, diffi- 
cult to reach and seldom seen, holds 
lakes, fed by eighteen glaciers, which 
will compare with Switzerland's noblest. 

The west-side valleys north of Mc- 
Donald constitute a little-known wil- 
derness of the earth's choicest scenery, 
destined to future appreciation. 

The continental divide is usually 
crossed by the famous Gunsight Pass 
trail, which skirts giant precipices and 
develops sensational vistas in its ser- 
pentine course. 









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Photograph by L. D. Lindsley 



The End of the Day 



COMFORT AMONG GLACIERS 




SMALL but imposing aggregate of the scenery of the Glacier 
National Park is available to the comfort-loving traveler. There 
are two entrances, each with a railroad station. The visitor 
choosing the east entrance, at Glacier Park, will find auto-stages 
to Two Medicine Lake, St. Mary Lake, and Lake McDermott. 

At the railway station and at Lake McDermott are elaborate modern hotels 
with every convenience. At Two Medicine Lake, at St. Mary and Upper 
St. Mary Lakes, at Cut Bank Creek, at Lake McDermott, at Gunsight Lake, 
at a point below the Sperry Glacier, and at Granite Park are chalets or camps, 
or both, where excellent accommodations may be had at modest charges. 

The visitor choosing the west entrance, at Belton, will find camps and 
chalets there, and an auto-stage to beautiful Lake McDonald, where there is 
a hotel of comfort and individuality in addition to public camps. 

There is boat service on Upper St. Mary Lake and Lake McDonald. 
But if the enterprising traveler desires to know this wilderness wonderland 
in all its moods and phases, he must equip himself for the rough trail and the 
wayside camp. Thus he may devote weeks, months, summers to the bene- 
fiting of his health and the uplifting of his soul. 




Photograph by L. D. Lindsley 

The Mountaineers on Tour — Wash-Day at Nyack Lake 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 



To the Victor Belong the Spoils 
Mary Roberts Rinehart lunching after a morning's trouting on Flathead River 




Photograph by H. T. Cozvling 

The Comfortable Hotel Near the Head of Lake McDonald 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 



A Little Fun in August Snow 
Stopping for a frolic on the White Trail of Piegan P;> c « 




Photograph by II. T. Cowling 



Clearing After the Storm 



PURCHASED FROM INDIANS 



NCE this region was the favorite hunting ground of the Blackfeet 
Indians, whose reservation adjoins it on the east. It was then 
practically unknown to white men. In 1890 copper was found 
and there was a rush of prospectors. To open it for mining pur- 
poses Congress bought the region from the Indians in 1896, but not enough 
copper was found to pay for the mining. After the miners left few persons 
visited it but big-game hunters until 1910, when it was made a national park. 





by II. T. Cowling 

Blackfeet Indian Camp on Two Medicine Lake 

Glacier National Park was once their hunting ground 



CREATURES OF THE WILD 



jCT'^&^K^S^fc?^ 


LACIER, once the 




f&BI 


favorite hunting 






ground of the 




Blackfeetandnow 




for fifteen 


years strictly pre- 


served, has a large and grow- 




ing population of creatures of 




the wild. Its rocks and preci- 




pices fit it especially to be the 




home of the Rocky Mountain 




sheep and the mountain goat. 




Both of these large and 




hardy climbers are found in 




Glacier in great numbers. 




They constitute a familiar 




sight in many of the places 




most frequented by tourists. 


t/p "H ''^"^a 


Trout fishing is particu- 




larly fine. The trout are of 




half a dozen Western vari- 




eties, of which perhaps the 




cutthroat is the most com- 




mon. In the larger lakes the 




Mackinaw is caught up to 




twenty pounds in weight. 


■ 


So widely are they distrib- 




uted that it is difficult to 




name lakes of special fishing 




importance. 




" 


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Photograph by Fred H. Kiser, Portland, Oregon 

Summit of Appistoki Mountain 



THE NATIONAL PARKS AT A GLANCE 

Arranged chronologically in the order of their creation 
[Number, 14; Total Area, 7,290 Square Miles] 







AREA 




NATIONAL PARK 
and Date 


LOCATION 


in 

square 
miles 


DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS 


Hot Springs Reser- 


Middle 


IK 


46 hot springs possessing curative properties — Many hotels 


vation 


Arkansas 




and boarding-houses in adjacent city of Hot Springs — 


1832 






bath-houses under public control. 


Yellowstone 


North- 


3,343 


More geysers than in all rest of world together — Boiling 


1872 


western 




springs — Mud volcanoes — Petrified forests — Grand Canyon 




Wyoming 




of the Yellowstone, remarkable for gorgeous coloring — 
Large lakes — Many large streams and waterfalls — Vast 
wilderness inhabited by deer, elk, bison, moose, antelope, 
bear, mountain sheep, beaver, etc., constituting greatest 
wild bird and animal preserve in world — Altitude 6,000 to 
11,000 feet — Exceptional trout fishing. 


YOSEMITE 


Middle 


1,125 


Valley of world-famed beauty — Lofty cliffs — Romantic vistas 


189O 


eastern 




— Many waterfalls of extraordinary height — 3 groves of 




California 




big trees — High Sierra — Large areas of snowy peaks — 
Waterwheel falls — Good trout fishing. 


Sequoia 


Middle 


237 


The Big Tree National Park — 12,000 sequoia trees over 10 feet 


1890 


eastern 




in diameter, some 25 to 36 feet in diameter — Towering 




California 




mountain ranges — Startling precipices — Fine trout fishing. 


General Grant 


Middle 


4 


Created to preserve the celebrated General Grant Tree, 35 


1890 


eastern 




feet in diameter — six miles from Sequoia National Park and 




California 




under same management. 


Mount Rainier 


West 


324 


Largest accessible single-peak glacier system — 28 glaciers, 


1899 


central 




some of large size — Forty-eight square miles of glacier, 




Washington 




fifty to five hundred feet thick — Remarkable sub-alpine 

wild-flower fields. 


Crater Lake 


South- 


249 


Lake of extraordinary blue in crater of extinct volcano, no 


1902 


western 




inlet, no outlet — Sides 1,000 feet high — Interesting lava for- 




Oregon 




mations — Fine trout fishing. 


Mesa Verde 


South- 


77 


Most notable and best-preserved prehistoric cliff dwellings in 


1906 


western 
Colorado 




United States, if not in the world. 


Platt 


Southern 


iX 


Sulphur and other springs possessing curative properties — 


1906 


Oklahoma 




Under Government regulations. 


Glacier 


North- 


i,S34 


Rugged mountain region of unsurpassed Alpine character — 


1910 


western 




250 glacier-fed lakes of romantic beauty — 60 small glaciers 




Montana 




— Peaks of unusual shape — Precipices thousands of feet 
deep — Almost sensational scenery of marked individuality 
— Fine trout fishing. 


Rocky Mountain 


North 


358 


Heart of the Rockies — Snowy range, peaks 11,000 to 14,250 


1915 


middle 
Colorado 




feet altitude — Remarkable records of glacial period. 



National Parks of less popular interest are: 

Sully's Hill, 1904, North Dakota Wooded hilly tract on Devil's Lake. 

Wind Cave, 1903, South Dakota Large natural cavern. 

Casa Grande Ruin, 1892, Arizona Prehistoric Indian ruin. 



HOW TO REACH THE NATIONAL PARKS 







NATIONAL PARKS 

AND 
PRINCIPAL RAILROAD CONNECTIONS 



^Galveston 



The map shows the location of all of our National Parks and their principal railroad connections. 
The traveler may work out his routes to suit himself. Low round-trip excursion fares to the 
American Rocky Mountain region and Pacific Coast may be availed of in visiting the National 
Parks during their respective seasons, thus materially reducing the cost of the trip. Trans- 
continental through trains and branch lines make the Parks easy of access from all parts of the 
United States. For schedules and excursion fares to and between the National Parks write to the 
Passenger Departments of the railroads which appear on the above map, as follows: 

Arizona Eastern Railroad --------------- Tucson, Ariz. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway ------- 1 119 Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago & North Western Railway ------- 226 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. - - - 547 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway ------- Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Colorado and Southern Railway ------- Railway Exchange Building, Denver, Colo. 

Denver & Rio Grande Railroad Co. ------- Equitable Building, Denver, Colo. 

Great Northern Railway ----- Railroad Building, Fourth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway _________■_. Galveston, Texas. 

Illinois Central Railroad _--_-____-_ Central Station, Chicago, 111. 

Missouri Pacific Railway -------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Northern Pacific Railway - Railroad Building, Fifth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad - Pacific Electric Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Southern Pacific Company --------- Flood Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

Union Pacific System ------ Garland Building, 58 East Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

Wabash Railway ----------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Western Pacific Railway ---------- Mills Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

For information about sojourning and traveling within the National Parks write to the Depart- 
ment of the Interior for the Information circular of the Park or Parks in which you are interested. 



REMEMBER THAT 



GLACIER BELONGS TO YOU 

IT IS ONE OF THE GREAT NATIONAL PLAYGROUNDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE 
FOR WHOM IT IS ADMINISTERED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

PRESS OF CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, NEW YORK 




THE 

ROCKY 
MOUNTAIN 

NATIONAL 
PARK 



Photograph by Wiswall 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Franklin K. Lane, Secretary 







Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

Fall River Entrance to the Rocky Mountain National Park 



"TOP OF THE WORLD" 



OR many years the Mecca of Eastern mountain lovers has been the 
Rockies. For many years the name has summed European ideas 
of American mountain grandeur. Yet it was not until 191 5 that 
a particular section of the enormous area of magnificent and diver- 
sified scenic range thus designated was chosen as the representative of the no- 
blest qualities of the whole. This is the Rocky Mountain National Park. 

And it is splendidly representative. In nobility, in calm dignity, in the 
sheer glory of stalwart beauty, there is no mountain group to excel the company 
of snow-capped veterans of all the ages which stands at everlasting parade 
behind its grim, helmeted captain, Longs Peak. 

There is probably no other scenic neighborhood of the first order which com- 
bines mountain outlines so bold with a quality of beauty so intimate and refined. 
Just to live in the valleys in the eloquent and ever-changing presence of these 
carved and tinted peaks is itself satisfaction. But to climb into their embrace, 
to know them in the intimacy of their bare summits and their flowered, glaciated 
gorges, is to turn a new and unforgettable page in experience. 

The park straddles the continental divide at a point of supreme magnificence. 
Its eastern gateway is beautiful Estes Park, a valley village of many hotels from 
which access up to the most noble heights and into the most picturesque recesses 
of the Rockies is easy and comfortable. Its western entrance is Grand Lake. 




Photograph by H . T. Cowling 

Odessa Lake Is Almost Encircled by Snow-Spattered Summits 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

Spruce-Girdled Fern Lake, Showing Little Matterhorn in Middle Distance 




Photograph by John King Sherman 

The Chiseled Western Wall of Loch Vale 

PRECIPICE-WALLED GORGES 





Photograph by John King Sherman 

Chasm Lake and Longs Peak 



DISTINGUISHED fea- 
ture of the park is its 
profusion of cliff-cradled, 
glacier-watered valleys 
unexcelled for wildness and the glory 
of their flowers. Here grandeur and 
romantic beauty compete. 

These valleys lie in two groups, 
one north, the other south of Longs 
Peak, in the angles of the main range; 
the northern group called the Wild 
Garden, the southern group called 
the Wild Basin. 

There are few spots, for instance, 
so impressively beautiful as Loch 
Vale, with its three shelved lakes 
lying three thousand feet sheer be- 
low Taylor's Peak. Adjoining is 
Glacier Gorge at the foot of the 
precipitous north slope of Longs 
Peak, holding in rocky embrace its 
own group of three lakelets. 

The Wild Basin, with its wealth 
of lake and precipice, still remains 
unexploited and known to few. 




Few Mountain Gorges Are So Impressively Beautiful as Loch Vale 




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Midway of the Range, Longs Peak Rears His Stately, Square-Crow] 

This is the very heart of the Rockies; few 




d; a Veritable King of Mountains Calmly Overlooking All His Realm 
j so fully "express the spirit of the Snowy Range 



THE KING AND HIS KINGDOM 





Photograph by Enos Mills 

Mount Clarence King 



'T8HE Snowy Range lies, roughly- 
speaking, north and south. From 
valleys 8,000 feet high, the peaks 
rise from 12,000 to 14,000 feet. 
Longs Peak measures 14,255 feet. 

The gentler slopes are on the west, a region 
of loveliness, heavily wooded, diversified by 
gloriously modeled mountain masses, and wa- 
tered by many streams and rock-bound lakes. 
The western entrance, Grand Lake,. is a thriv- 
ing center of hotel and cottage life. 

On the east side the descent from the con- 
tinental divide is steep in the extreme. Preci- 
pices two or three thousand feet plunging into 
gorges carpeted with snow patches and wild 
flowers are common. Seen from the east-side 
villages, this range rises in daring relief, craggy 
in outline, snow-spattered, awe-inspiring. 

Midway of the range and standing boldly 
forward from its western side, Longs Peak 
rears his lofty, square-crowned head. A veri- 
table King of Mountains — stalwart, majestic. 

Amazingly diversified is this favored region. 

The valleys are checkered with broad, 
flowery opens and luxuriant groves of white- 
stemmed aspens and dark-leaved pines. Sing- 
ing rivers and shining lakes abound. Frost- 
sculptured granite cliffs assume picturesque 
shapes. Always some group of peaks has 
caught and held the wandering clouds. 

Very different are the mountain vistas. 
From the heights stretches on every hand a 
tumbled sea of peaks. Dark gorges open un- 
derfoot. Massive granite walls torn from their 
fastenings in some unimaginable upheaval in 
ages before man impose their gray faces. Far 
in the distance lie patches of molten silver 
which are lakes, and threads of silver which 
are rivers, and mists which conceal far-off" val- 
leys. On sunny days lies to the east a dim 
sea which is the great plains. 



•> "" •'<' f ) rm>< w i 




Photograph hv George H. Harvey 



Grand Lake from the Continental Divide 




Photograph by II. T. Cowling 

Cache la Poudre Valley at Foot of Specimen Mountain 



METROPOLIS of BEAVERLAND 





Copyright by Wiswall Brothers, Denver 

An Aspen Thicket Trail Is a Path of 
Delight 



!g HE visitor will not forget 
the aspens in the Rocky 
Mountain National 
Park. Their white trunks 
and branches and their luxuriant 
bright green foliage are never out 
of sight. A trail through an aspen 
thicket is a path of delight. 

Because of the unusual aspen 
growths, the region is the favored 
home of beavers, who make the 
tender bark their principal food. 
Beaver dams block countless streams 
and beaver houses emerge from the 
still ponds above. In some retired 
spots the engineering feats of gener- 
ations of beaver families may be 
traced in all their considerable range. 

Nowhere is the picturesqueness 
of timber-line more quickly and more 
easily seen. A horse after early 
breakfast, a steep mountain trail, an 
hour of unique enjoyment, and one 
may be back for late luncheon. 

Eleven thousand feet up, the 
winter struggles between trees and 
icy gales are grotesquely exhibited. 

The first sight of luxuriant En- 
gelman spruces creeping closely upon 
the ground instead of rising a hun- 
dred and fifty feet straight and true 
as masts is not soon forgotten. 
Many stems strong enough to partly 
defy the winters' gales grow bent in 
half circles. Others, starting straight 
in shelter of some large rock, bend 
at right angles where they emerge 
above it. Many succeed in lifting 
their trunks but not in growing 
branches except in their lee, thus sug- 
gesting great evergreen dust brushes. 




Photograph by Enos Mills 



Beaver Dams Block Countless Streams 



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Wind-Twisted Trees at Timber-Line 











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I' holograph by Enos Mills 



RECORDS OF THE GLACIERS 





Phttocraph by H. T. Cow/tK* 

Moonlight on Grand Lake 



FEATURE of this 
region is the read- 
ability of its records 
of glacial action 
during the ages when America 
was making. In few other 
spots do these evidences, in all 
their variety, make themselves 
so prominent to the casual eye. 

There is scarcely any part 
of the eastern side where some 
enormous moraine does not 
force itself upon passing atten- 
tion. One of the valley villages, 
Moraine Park, is so named from 
a moraine built out for miles 
across the valley's floor by an- 
cient parallel glaciers. 

Scarcely less prominent is 
the long curving hill called the 
Mills Moraine, after Enos Mills, 
the naturalist, who is known in 
Colorado as "the father of the 
Rocky Mountain National 
Park." 

In short, this park is itself a 
primer of glacial geology whose 
simple, self-evident lessons im- 
mediately disclose the key to one 
of nature's chiefest scenic secrets. 







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Copyright by Wiswall Brothers, Denver 



Fall River at the Close of Day 




Photograph by Enos Mills 



The End of the Trail" 




Photograph by George C. Barnard, Denver 

An Ideal Country for Winter Sports 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 



The Stanley Hotel 



EASY TO REACH AND TO SEE 




HE accessibility of the Rocky Mountain National Park is apparent 
by a glance at any map. Denver is less than thirty hours from 
Chicago and St. Louis, two days only from New York. A half day 
from Denver will put you in Estes Park. 
Once there, comfortable in one of its many hotels of varying range of tariff, 
and the summits and the gorges of this mountain-top paradise resolve them- 
selves into a choice between foot and horseback. 

There are also a few most comfortable houses and several somewhat primi- 
tive camps within the park's boundaries at the very foot of its noblest scenery. 




Longs Peak Inn; Altitude 9,000 Feet 

Longs Peak (14,255 feet) in the center of the triple mountain group, flanked by Mount Meeker on 

the right and Mount Lady Washington on the left ; across their front is the Mills Moraine 



THE NATIONAL PARKS AT A GLANCE 

Arranged chronologically in the order of their creation 
[Number, 14; Total Area, 7,290 Square Miles] 



NATIONAL PARK 
and Date 


LOCATION 


AREA 
in 

square 
miles 


DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS 


Hot Springs Reser- 
vation 
1832 


Middle 
Arkansas 


iH 


46 hot springs possessing curative properties — Many hotels 
and boarding-houses in adjacent city of Hot Springs — 
bath-houses under public control. 


Yellowstone 
1872 


North- 
western 
Wyoming 


3,348 


More geysers than in all rest of world together — Boiling 
springs — Mud volcanoes — Petrified forests — Grand Canyon 
of the Yellowstone, remarkable for gorgeous coloring — 
Large lakes — Many large streams and waterfalls — Vast 
wilderness inhabited by deer, elk, bison, moose, antelope, 
bear, mountain sheep, beaver, etc., constituting greatest 
wild bird and animal preserve in world — Altitude 6,000 to 
11,000 feet — Exceptional trout fishing. 


Yosemite 
1890 


Middle 
eastern 
California 


1,125 


Valley of world-famed beauty — Lofty cliffs — Romantic vistas 
— Many waterfalls of extraordinary height — 3 groves of 
big trees — High Sierra — Large areas of snowy peaks — 
Waterwheel falls — Good trout fishing. 


Sequoia 
1890 


Middle 
eastern 
California 


237 


The Big Tree National Park — 12,000 sequoia trees over 10 feet 
in diameter, some 25 to 36 feet in diameter — Towering 
mountain ranges — Startling precipices — Fine trout fishing. 


General Grant 
1890 


Middle 
eastern 
California 


4 


Created to preserve the celebrated General Grant Tree, 35 
feet in diameter — six miles from Sequoia National Park and 
under same management. 


Mount Rainier 
1899 


West 

central 

Washington 


324 


Largest accessible single-peak glacier system — 28 glaciers, 
some of large size — Forty-eight square miles of glacier, 
fifty to five hundred feet thick — Remarkable sub-alpine 
wild-flower fields. 


Crater Lake 
1902 


South- 
western 
Oregon 


249 


Lake of extraordinary blue in crater of extinct volcano, no 
inlet, no outlet — Sides 1,000 feet high — Interesting lava for- 
mations — Fine trout fishing. 


Mesa Verde 
1906 


South- 
western 
Colorado 


77 


Most notable and best-preserved prehistoric cliff dwellings in 
United States, if not in the world. 


Platt 
1906 


Southern 
Oklahoma 


i# 


Sulphur and other springs possessing curative properties — 
Under Government regulations. 


Glacier 
1910 


North- 
western 
Montana 


i,S34 


Rugged mountain region of unsurpassed Alpine character — 
250 glacier-fed lakes of romantic beauty — 60 small glaciers 
— Peaks of unusual shape — Precipices thousands of feet 
deep — Almost sensational scenery of marked individuality 
— Fine trout fishing. 


Rocky Mountain 
1915 


North 
middle 
Colorado 


358 


Heart of the Rockies — Snowy range, peaks 11,000 to 14,250 
feet altitude — Remarkable records of glacial period. 



National Parks of less popular interest are: 

Sully's Hill, 1904, North Dakota Wooded hilly tract on Devil's Lake. 

Wind Cave, 1903, South Dakota Large natural cavern. 

Casa Grande Ruin, 1892, Arizona Prehistoric Indian ruin. 



HOW TO REACH THE NATIONAL PARKS 






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NATIONAL PARKS 

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PRINCIPAL RAILROAD CONNECTIONS 



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The map shows the location of all of our National Parks and their principal railroad connections. 
The traveler may work out his routes to suit himself. Low round-trip excursion fares to the 
American Rocky Mountain region and Pacific Coast may be availed of in visiting the National 
Parks during their respective seasons, thus materially reducing the cost of the trip. Trans- 
continental through trains and branch lines make the Parks easy of access from all parts of the 
United States. For schedules and excursion fares to and between the National Parks write to the 
Passenger Departments of the railroads which appear on the above map, as follows: 

Arizona Eastern Railroad ---------__...- Tucson, Ariz. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway ------ _ 1 119 Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago & North Western Railway ------- 226 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. - 547 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway ------- Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Colorado and Southern Railway ------- Railway Exchange Building, Denver, Colo. 

Denver & Rio Grande Railroad Co. ------- Equitable Building, Denver, Colo. 

Great Northern Railway ----- Railroad Building, Fourth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway ___-___---- Galveston, Texas. 

Illinois Central Railroad -._________'_ Central Station, Chicago, 111. 

Missouri Pacific Railway - - -- - - - - Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Northern Pacific Railway - Railroad Building, Fifth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad - - - Pacific Electric Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 
Southern Pacific Company -_---____ Flood Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

Union Pacific System Garland Building, 58 East Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

Wabash Railway Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Western Pacific Railway Mills Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

For information about sojourning and traveling within the National Parks write to the Depart- 
ment of the Interior for the Information circular of the Park or Parks in which you are interested. 



REMEMBER THAT 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN BELONGS TO YOU 

IT IS ONE OF THE GREAT NATIONAL PLAYGROUNDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE 
FOR WHOM IT IS ADMINISTERED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR! 

PRESS OF CHARLES SCRIBNHR'S SONS, NEW YORK 



THE 



GRAND CANYON 

OF THE COLORADO RIVER 
IN ARIZONA 




"By Far the Most Sublime of All Earthly Spectacles." — Charles Dudley Warner 

issued BY 
THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 




Photograph by George R. King 

"It Is Beyond Comparison— Beyond Description; Absolutely Unparalleled 
Throughout the Wide World."— Theodore Roosevelt 







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Photograph by H. T. Cowling 



Leaving El Tovar for the Rim Drive 



COLOSSUS OF CANYONS 




ORE mysterious in its depth than the Himalayas in their height," 
writes Professor John C. Van Dyke, "the Grand Canyon re- 
mains not the eighth but the first wonder of the world. There 
is nothing like it." 

Even the most superficial description of this enormous spectacle may not 
be put in words. The wanderer upon the rim overlooks a thousand square 
miles of pyramids and minarets carved from the painted depths. Many miles 
away and more than a mile below the level of his feet he sees a tiny silver 
thread which he knows is the giant Colorado. 

He is numbed by the spectacle. At first he cannot comprehend it. There 
is no measure, nothing which the eye can grasp, the mind fathom. 

It may be hours before he can even slightly adjust himself to the titanic 
spectacle, before it ceases to be utter chaos; and not until then does he begin 
to exclaim in rapture. 

And he never wholly adjusts himself, for with dawning appreciation comes 
growing wonder. Comprehension lies always just beyond his reach. 

The Colorado River is formed by the confluence of the Grand and the 
Green Rivers. Together they gather the waters of three hundred thousand 
square miles. Their many canyons reach this magnificent climax in northern 
Arizona. The Grand Canyon is a national monument administered by the 
Department of Agriculture. 









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Photograph by Henry Fuermann 

The Rim Road Affords Many Glorious Views 

BY SUNSET AND MOONRISE 

HEN the light falls into it, harsh, direct, and searching," writes 
Hamlin Garland, "it is great, but not beautiful. The lines are 
chaotic, disturbing — but wait ! The clouds and the sunset, the 
moonrise and the storm, will transform it into a splendor no 
mountain range can surpass. Peaks will shift and glow, walls darken, crags 
take fire, and gray-green mesas, dimly seen, take on the gleam of opalescent 
lakes of mountain water." 





Copyright by Fred Harvey 

Hermit's Rest, Near the Head of the Hermit Trail to the River 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

"Is Any Fifty Miles of Mother Earth as Fearful, or Any Part as Fearful, as 
Full of Glory, as Full of God ? " — Joaquin Miller 




Phottgraph by H. T. Cowling 



Still Farther Down the Hermit Trail 




PAINTED IN MAGIC COLORS 

[§j HE blues and the grays and the mauves and the reds are second 
in glory only to the canyon's size and sculpture. The colors 
change with every changing hour. The morning and the evening 
shadows play magicians' tricks. 
"It seems like a gigantic statement for even Nature to make all in one 
mighty stone word," writes John Muir. "Wildness so Godful, cosmic, prime- 
val, bestows a new sense of earth's beauty and size. . . . But the colors, the 
living, rejoicing colors, chanting morning and evening in chorus to heaven ! 
Whose brush or pencil, however lovingly inspired, can give us these? In the 
supreme flaming glory of sunset the whole canyon is transfigured, as if the 
life and light of centuries of sunshine stored up in the rocks was now being 
poured forth as from one glorious fountain, flooding both earth and sky." 



Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

Near the Bottom, Showing Hermit Camp at the Foot of a Lofty Monument 

This photograph was taken several years ago. The camp has since been greatly enlarged, affording most 

comfortable entertainment overnight 




Photograph by F. A. Lathe 



The Profound Abyss 



ROMANTIC INDIAN LEGEND 




gy HE Indians believed the Grand Canyon the road to heaven. 

A great chief mourned the death of his wife. To him came the 
god Ta-vwoats and offered to prove that his wife was in a hap- 
pier land by taking him there to look upon her happiness. Ta- 
vwoats then made a trail through the protecting mountains and led the chief 
to the happy land. Thus was created the canyon gorge of the Colorado. 

On their return, lest the unworthy should find this happy land, Ta-vwoats 
rolled through the trail a wild, surging river. Thus was created the Colorado. 




Photograph by U. S. Forest Service 

The Gorge Near the Mouth of Shinumo Creek 




Copyright by Fred Harvey s 

Sunset from Pima Point. 



" Peaks Will Shift and Glow, Walls Darken, Crags T. 

— Hai 




i y and Gray-Green Mesas, Dimly Seen, Take on the Gleam of Opalescent Lakes." 

RLAND 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

The Lookout at the Head of the Bright. Angel Trail Near El Tovar 




Photograph by H. T. Cowling 

Waiting for the Signal to Start Down Bright Angel Trail 
One may descend to the river's edge and back in one day by this trail 




Copyright by Fred Harvey 

The Celebrated Jacob's Ladder on the Bright Angel Trail 

The photograph shows how broad and safe are the Grand Canyon trails. There is no danger in the descent 




Copyright by Fred Harvey 

When Clouds and Canyon Meet and Merge 



MASTERPIECE OF EROSION 

§jjHE rain falling in the plowed field forms rivulets in the furrows. The 
rivulets unite in a muddy torrent in the roadside gutter. With suc- 
ceeding showers the gutter wears an ever-deepening channel in the 
soft soil. With the passing season the gutter becomes a gully. 
Here and there, in places, its banks undermine and fall in. Here and there the 
rivulets from the field wear tiny tributary gullies. Between the breaks in the 
banks and the tributaries, irregular masses of earth remain standing, sometimes 
resembling mimic cliffs, sometimes washed and worn into mimic peaks and spires. 
Such roadside erosion is familiar to us all. A hundred times we have idly 
noted the fantastic water-carved walls and minaretted slopes of these ditches. 
But seldom, perhaps, have we realized that the muddy roadside ditch and 
the world-famous Grand Canyon of the Colorado are, from nature's stand- 
point, identical; that they differ only in soil and size. 

The arid States of our great Southwest constitute an enormous plateau 
or table-land from four to eight thousand feet above sea-level. 

Rivers gather into a few desert water systems. The largest of these is that 
which, in its lower courses, has, in unnumbered ages, worn the mighty chasm 
of the Colorado. 




Photograph by U. S. Forest Service 



On the Mighty River's Brink 




A Quiet Stretch between Two Rapids 

Within the Canyon the river is crossed by cars suspended on wire cables, and also, in quiet reaches, 

by boats; there are no bridges 




Copyright by Fred Harvey 

Where the River Rests Below the Celebrated Marble Canyon before Taking Its 

Plunge into the Gigantic Canyon Below 

The Colorado rolls through many miles of vast canyons before it reaches Grand Canyon 



POWELES GREAT ADVENTURE 




HE Grand Canyon was the culminating scene of one of the most 
stirring adventures in the history of American exploration. 

For hundreds of miles the Colorado and its tributaries form a 
mighty network of mighty chasms which few had ventured even 
to enter. Of the Grand Canyon, deepest and hugest of all, tales were current 
of whirlpools, of hundreds of miles of underground passage, and of giant falls 
whose roaring music could be heard on distant mountain summits. 

The Indians feared it. Even the hardiest of frontiersmen refused it. 

It remained for a geologist and a school-teacher, a one-armed veteran of 
the Civil War, John Wesley Powell, afterward director of the United States 
Geological Survey, to dare and to accomplish. 

This was in 1869. Nine men accompanied him in four boats. 

There proved to be no impassable whirlpools in the Grand Canyon, no 
underground passages and no cataracts. But the trip was hazardous in the 
extreme. The adventurers faced the unknown at every bend, daily — some- 
times several times daily — embarking upon swift rapids without guessing upon 
what rocks or in what great falls they might terminate. Continually they 
upset. They were unable to build fires sometimes for days at a stretch. 

Four men deserted, hoping to climb the walls, and were never heard from 
again — and this happened the very day before Major Powell and his faithful 
half dozen floated clear of the Grand Canyon into safety. 




Photograph by Geological Survey 

Two of the Boats Used by Major Powell in Exploring the Canyon 




Photograph by El Tovar Studio 

Memorial Just Erected by the Department of the Interior to Major John 

Wesley Powell 

It stands on the rim at Sentinel Point. Upon the altar which crowns it will blaze ceremonial fires 

EASY TO REACH AND TO SEE 




T is possible to get a glimpse of the Grand Canyon by lengthening 
your transcontinental trip one day, but this day must be spent 
either on the rim or in one hasty rush down the Bright Angel Trail 
to the river's edge; one cannot do both the same day. Two ardu- 
ous days, therefore, will give you a rapid glance at the general features. Three 
days will enable you to substitute the newer Hermit Trail, with a night in the 
canyon, for the Bright Angel Trail. Four or five days will enable you to see 
the Grand Canyon; but after you see it you will want to live with it awhile. 
There are two other trails, the Bass Trail and the Grand View. 

The canyon should be seen first from the rim. Hours, days, may be spent 
in emotional contemplation of this vast abyss. Navajo Point, Grand View, 
Shoshone Point, El Tovar, Hopi Point, Sentinel Point, Pima Point, Yuma 
Point, the Hermit Rim — these are a few only of many spots of inspiration. 
An altogether different experience is the descent into the abyss. This is 
done on mule-back over trails which zigzag steeply but safely down the cliffs. 
The hotels, camps, and facilities for getting around are admirable. Your 
sleeper brings you to the very rim of the canyon. 




Copyright by Fred Harvey 

Hopi House at El Tovar, Reproduced from an Ancient Hopi Community Dwelling 



THE NATIONAL PARKS AT A GLANCE 

Arranged chronologically in the order of their creation 
[Number, 14; Total Area, 7,290 Square Miles] 







AREA 




NATIONAL PARK 
and Date 


LOCATION 


in 
square 
miles 


DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS 


Hot Springs Reser- 


Middle 


i)4 


46 hot springs possessing curative properties — Many hotels 


vation 


Arkansas 




and boarding-houses in adjacent city of Hot Springs — 


1832 






bath-houses under public control. 


Yellowstone 


North- 


3,348 


More geysers than in all rest of world together — Boiling 


1872 


western 




springs — Mud volcanoes — Petrified forests — Grand Canyon 




Wyoming 




of the Yellowstone, remarkable for gorgeous coloring — 
Large lakes — Many large streams and waterfalls — Vast 
wilderness inhabited by deer, elk, bison, moose, antelope, 
bear, mountain sheep, beaver, etc., constituting greatest 
wild bird and animal preserve in world — Altitude 6,coo to 
11,000 feet — Exceptional trout fishing. 


YOSEMITE 


Middle 


1,125 


Valley of world-famed beauty — Lofty cliffs — Romantic vistas 


1890 


eastern 




— Many waterfalls of extraordinary height — 3 groves of 




California 




big trees — High Sierra — Large areas of snowy peaks — 
Waterwheel falls — Good trout fishing. 


Sequoia 


Middle 


237 


The Big Tree National Park — 12,000 sequoia trees over 10 feet 


1890 


eastern 




in diameter, some 25 to 36 feet in diameter — Towering 




California 




mountain ranges — Startling precipices — Fine trout fishing. 


General Grant 


Middle 


4 


Created to preserve the celebrated General Grant Tree, 35 


1890 


eastern 




feet in diameter — six miles from Sequoia National Park and 




California 




under same management. 


Mount Rainier 


West 


324 


Largest accessible single-peak glacier system — 28 glaciers, 


1899 


central 




some of large size — Forty-eight square miles of glacier, 




Washington 




fifty to five' hundred feet thick — Remarkable sub-alpine 
wild-flower fields. 


Crater Lake 


South- 


249 


Lake of extraordinary blue in crater of extinct volcano, no 


1902 


western 




inlet, no outlet — Sides 1,000 feet high — Interesting lava for- 




Oregon 




mations — Fine trout fishing. 


Mesa Verde 


South- 


77 


Most notable and best-preserved prehistoric cliff dwellings in 


1906 


western 
Colorado 




United States, if not in the world. 


Platt 


Southern 


i# 


Sulphur and other springs possessing curative properties — 


1906 


Oklahoma 




Under Government regulations. 


Glacier 


North- 


i,534 


Rugged mountain region of unsurpassed Alpine character — 


1910 


western 




250 glacier-fed lakes of romantic beauty — 60 small glaciers 




Montana 




— Peaks of unusual shape — Precipices thousands of feet 
deep — Almost sensational scenery of marked individuality 
— Fine trout fishing. 


Rocky Mountain 


North 


358 


Heart of the Rockies — Snowy range, peaks 11,000 to 14,250 


1915 


middle 
Colorado 




feet altitude — Remarkable records of glacial period. 



National Parks of less popular interest are: 

Sully's Hill, 1904, North Dakota Wooded hilly tract on Devil's Lake. 

Wind Cave, 1903, South Dakota Large natural cavern. 

Casa Grande Ruin, 1892, Arizona Prehistoric Indian ruin. 



HOW TO REACH THE NATIONAL PARKS 





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NATIONAL PARKS 

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PRINCIPAL RAILROAD CONNECTIONS 



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The map shows the location of all of our National Parks and their principal railroad connections. 
The traveler may work out his routes -to suit himself. Low round-trip excursion fares to the 
American Rocky Mountain region and Pacific Coast may be availed of in visiting the National 
Parks during their respective seasons, thus materially reducing the cost of the trip. Trans- 
continental through trains and branch lines make the Parks easy of access from all parts of the 
United States. For schedules and excursion fares to and between the National Parks write to the 
Passenger Departments of the railroads which appear on the above map, as follows: 

Arizona Eastern Railroad ------------- -- Tucson, Ariz. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway ------ . 1 119 Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago & North Western Railway ------- 226 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. - 547 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway ------- Railway Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Colorado and Southern Railway ------- Railway Exchange Building, Denver, Colo. 

Denver & Rio Grande Railroad Co. ------- Equitable Building, Denver, Colo. 

Great Northern Railway ----- Railroad Building, Fourth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway ---------- - Galveston, Texas. 

Illinois Central Railroad ----------- Central Station, Chicago, 111. 

Missouri Pacific Railway -------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Lbuis, Mo. 

Northern Pacific Railway - Railroad Building, Fifth and Jackson Streets, St. Paul, Minn. 

San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad - Pacific Electric Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Southern Pacific Company --------- Flood Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

Union Pacific System ------ Garland Building, 58 East Washington Street, Chicago, 111. 

Wabash Railway ----------- Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Western Pacific Railway Mills Building, San Francisco, Calif. 

For information about sojourning and traveling within the National Parks write to the Depart- 
ment of the Interior for the Information circular of the Park or Parks in which you are interested. 



REMEMBER THAT 

GRAND CANYON BELONGS TO YOU 

IT IS ONE OF THE GREAT NATIONAL PLAYGROUNDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE 

PRBSI OF CHARLES SCRIBNHRS SONS, NHW YORK 



UN|VERSITY OF GEORGIA LIBRARIES 



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