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Full text of "National Society For The Study Of Education The Forty Fifth Yearbook Part II Changing Conceptions In Educational Administration"

370.6 



pt.2 
1946 



Nat'l. Soc.for the 
Study or Education' 





370.6 2?7y 



pt.2 



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THE 

FORTY-FIFTH YEARBOOK 

OF THE 

NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE STUDY 
OF EDUCATION 

PART II 

CHANGING CONCEPTIONS 
IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 



ALONZO G. GRACE (Chairman), HEBOLD C. HUNT, GRAYSON N. KEFAUVER, 
GORDON N. MACKENZIE, AND GEORGE D. STODDARD 



Edited by 
NELSON B. HENRY 



Distributed by 

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS 

CHICAGO 37, ILLINOIS 

1946 



Published by 

THE NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR TEE STUDY OF EDUCATION 
" ; : ; :\ 5835 KIMBARE AVENUE, CHICAGO 37, ILLINOIS 



COPYRIGHT, 1946, BY 

NELSON B. HENRY 

Secretary of the Society 



No part of this Yearbook may be reproduced in any form without 
written permission from the Secretary of the Society 



The responsibilities of the Board of Directors of the National 
Society for the Study of Education in the case of yearbooks 
prepared by the Society's committees are (1) to select the sub- 
jects to be investigatedj (2) to appoint committees calculated in 
their personnel to ensure consideration of all significant points 
of view, (#) to provide appropriate subsidies for necessary 
expenses, (4) to publish and distribute the committees' reports, 
and (5) to arrange for their discussion at the annual meetings. 

The responsibility of the Yearbook Editor is to prepare the 
submitted manuscripts for publication in accordance with the 
principles and regulations approved by the Board of Directors 
in the "Guide for Contributors." 

Neither the Board of DirectorSj nor the Yearbook Editor, 
nor the Society is responsible for the conclusions reached or the 
opinions expressed by the Society's yearbook committees. 



Published 1946 
First Printing, 4,000 Copies 



Printed in the United States of America 
ii 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 
1945-1946 



Board of Directors 
(Term of office expires March 1 of the year indicated) 

WILLIAM A. BROWNELL (1948) 
Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 

W. W. CHAPTERS (1948) 
Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri 

FRANK N. FREEMAN (1946) 
University of California, Berkeley, California 

ERNEST HORN (1949)* 
State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

T. R, MCCONNELL (1949)** 
University of Minnesota,. Minneapolis, Minnesota 

ERNEST 0. MELBY (1947) 
New York University, New York, New York 

GEORGE D. STODDARD (1947) 
State Education Department, Albany, New York 

NELSON B. HENRY (Ex-offido) 
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

Secretary-Treasurer 

NELSON B. HENRY (1948) 

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

* Re-elected for three years beginning March 1, 1946. 
** Elected for three years beginning March 1, 1946. 



THE SOCIETY'S COMMITTEE ON CHANGING 

CONCEPTIONS IN EDUCATIONAL 

ADMINISTRATION 

ALONZO G. GRACE (Chairman), Commissioner of Education, State De- 
partment of Education, Hartford, Connecticut 

HBROLD C. HUNT, Superintendent of Schools, Kansas City, Missouri 

fGRAYSON N. KEFAUVER, Dean, School of Education, Stanford Uni- 
versity, California 

GORDON N. MACKENZIE, Professor of Education, Teachers College, 
Columbia University, New York, New York 

GEORGE D, STODDARD, Commissioner of Education, State Education 
Department, Albany, New York 

ASSOCIATED CONTRIBUTORS 

CHARLES BTJRSCH, Chief, Division of Schoolhouse Planning, State De- 
partment of Education, Sacramento, California 

J. PAUL LEONARD, President, San Francisco State College, San Fran- 
cisco, California 

ALFRED DEXTER SIMPSON, Associate Professor of Education, Graduate 
School of Education, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

WILLARD B, SPALDING, Superintendent of Schools, Portland, Oregon 

t Deceased. 



EDITOR'S PREFACE 

Several proposals relating to educational administration were pre- 
sented to the Board of Directors within the decade preceding the launch- 
ing of the present volume in February, 1942. In the majority of these 
proposals the emphasis was placed on current theory and practice; in 
others, some specific objective such as making administration more 
democratic or clarifying the issues with respect to the control of educa- 
tion was the central theme of the suggested plan for a yearbook. At the 
request of the chairman of the Board, Mr. Brueckner reviewed the 
various proposals prior to the February meeting in 1940 and prepared 
a new outline embodying the significant features of the plans on which 
those proposals were based. This outline was then referred to Messrs. 
Brueckner and Kefauver for further consideration in consultation 
with the authors of the earlier proposals. The ensuing conferences re- 
sulted in the proposal presented by Mr. Kefauver at the San Francisco 
meeting in February, 1942. The proposed plan was approved by the 
Board and the yearbook committee was selected. Mr. Kefauver was 
appointed chairman of the committee and served in this capacity until 
he was sent to London as the representative of the State Department at 
the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education, at which time he 
asked to be relieved of the responsibilities of the chairmanship. At the 
request of the Board of Directors, Commissioner Grace, who was a mem- 
ber of the committee, accepted appointment as chairman. 

Originally planned for publication in 1945, this yearbook was post- 
poned for one year in recognition of the need for more immediate con- 
sideration of the tasks involved in adapting the curriculum and the 
structural organization of school systems to emerging conceptions of the 
role of education in postwar years. In a series of conferences in 1943, 
appropriate revisions of the original plan of the present yearbook were 
developed by the committee and the Board of Directors in light of the 
projected plan for the Forty-fourth Yearbook, American Education in 
the Postwar Period, Parts I and II of which were presented under the re- 
spective subtitles, Curriculum Reconstruction and Structural Reorganiza- 
tion. In harmony with the motive of the two volumes of the preceding 
yearbook, Changing Conceptions in Educational Administration is de- 
voted to the particular aspects of administration which are most inti- 
mately involved in the types of improvement and extension of school 



vi EDITOR'S PREFACE 

services visualized in the most authoritative planning for postwar edu- 
cational reconstruction. In a very real sense, therefore, the present year- 
book is to be regarded as supplementary to the two volumes of the year- 
book for 1945. It is confidently expected that the three volumes will 
prove to be a serviceable guide to desirable innovations in school prac- 
tice in keeping with current conceptions of the purposes of education in 
American society. 

NELSON B. HENRY 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY FOB 1945-1946 iii 

THE SOCIETY'S COMMITTEE oisr CHANGING CONCEPTIONS IN EDU- 
CATIONAL ADMINISTRATION iv 

ASSOCIATED CONTRIBUTORS iv 

EDITOR'S PREFACE v 

CHAPTER 

I. REORIENTATION OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION ... 1 
GRAYSON N. KEPATJVER 

Introduction 1 

Educational Administration as Social Statesmanship . . 2 

Leadership in Educational Administration ..... 3 

Educational Planning 4 

Democracy in Educational Administration 5 

Sununary 6 

II. THE STATE AND THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 7 

ALONZO G. GRACE 

The Purpose of the State Department of Education . . 7 

Principles of State School Administration 10 

Local Initiative versus Centralization 17 

III. DEVELOPING ANI> ADMINISTERING THE CURRICULUM AND 

PUPIL SERVICES 20 

GOBDQN N. MACKENZIE 

Basic Administrative Policies 20 

Administration of the Curriculum . 30 

Administration of In-service Education and Curriculum De- 
velopment 41 

Administration of Pupil Services 48 

vii 



viii TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 



PAGE 

IV. ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL OF A DEMOCRATIC SCHOOL 

SYSTEM 53 

WILLAED B. SPALDING 

Basic Improvements 58 

The Participatory Process 77 

The Improvement of Morale 79 

Summary of Basic Principles 82 

Toward Better Schools 84 

V. PARTICIPATION IN COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION AND PLAN- 
NING 86 

HEROLD C. HUNT AND J. PAUL LEONARD 

School Services and Community Needs 86 

Responsibility of School Administrators in Over-all Pro- 
vision for Youth 88 

Making a Community Survey 93 

Organization of the Community for Youth 96 

Development of Co-ordination 97 

Administrative Problems Involved in Operating the Plan . 98 

The Teachers and Community Participation .... 109 

School Administrators and Staff Officers 110 

Conclusion 112 

VI. THE FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 113 

AUFEED DEXTEB SIMPSON 

Introduction 113 

Federal-State-Local Fiscal Relations 118 

Financing School Personnel 148 

VII. PROVIDING APPROPRIATE HOUSING FOR SCHOOLS ... 161 

CHARLES BTTRSCH 

The School-Plant Lag 161 

Considerations Basic to Sound Plant Expansion ... 163 

Financing Capital Outlays 168 

Educational Specifications for a School Plant .... 169 

Co-operation with the Architect's Office 171 

Building and Construction 173 

Occupying arid Using the Building 174 

Program of Action 174 

Conclusion 175 



TABLE OF CONTENTS ix 

CHAPTEB PAGE 

VIII. THE PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION OP SCHOOL PERSONNEL . 176 

ALONZO G. GRACE 

Responsibilities of Training Institutions 176 

Some Reasons for Failure in the Administrative Field . . 179 
Some Recommendations on the Training of School Admin- 
istrators 181 

INDEX 183 



CONSTITUTION i 

SYNOPSIS OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS . ix 

TREASURER'S REPORT xiii 

LIST OF MEMBERS xv 

INFORMATION CONCERNING THE SOCIETY xliii 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY xlv 



CHAPTER I 
REORIENTATION OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 



GRATSON N. KEFATTVER* 

Stanford University 
Stanford University, California 



INTRODUCTION 

The changes in educational administration in recent years have been 
extensive and fundamental. It is probable that further changes will be 
made in the future along the general lines of these recent developments. 
Hence, it is appropriate to refer to these changes as a reorientation of 
educational administration. The conception of educational administration 
which has been gradually shaping up in theory and in practice will re- 
ceive fuller consideration in the chapters of this yearbook. A brief charac- 
terization of some of the more important elements in this reorientation 
will be presented in this introductory chapter. 

When schools and school systems became large and complex, and re- 
quired persons to organize and to administer them, the practice devel- 
oped to place an experienced teacher in the administrative post to ad- 
minister the educational program. Early in the history of educational 
administration, operations were largely on a personal and practical basis. 
Men were selected-, not because of their special technical training, but 
rather because of their success in dealing with the public, teachers, and 
students. The conception of administration of that period tended to re- 
flect the existing practices in business and industry whereby the manager, 
with the approval of the board of directors, determined policy and direct- 
ed the operations of the company and the work of its employees. The 
inadequacies of this conception for education were gradually recognized. 
It was especially criticized as being too autocratic and allowing too little 
responsibility and participation by teachers, parents, and students. 

The development of precise techniques of procedure and a body of 
professional literature on educational administration and a growing 
recognition of the requirement that educational administrators have 
special training for their work furnished the basis for the introduction of 



* As this yearbook was in process of manufacture, announcement was made of the 
death of Dr. Kefauver at Los Angeles on January 4, 1946. 

1 



2 REORIENTATION OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 

technical and "scientific" administration. The subjective judgment was 
reduced in emphasis and great importance was attached to objective or 
"scientific" evidence. In time, "scientific administration" was sharply 
criticized as placing excessive importance on readily securable data and 
as lacking in broad educational and social direction. The limitations of 
methods and data, which were frequently accepted uncritically when 
first utilized, gradually became recognized. "Scientific administration" is 
not objectionable when it represents an effort to secure meaningful and 
valid data bearing on administrative problems if the data are not given 
exaggerated importance and if other important factors, for which data 
cannot be obtained, are not ignored. The careful investigation of educa- 
tional problems is highly desirable to give a fuller understanding of the 
problems and to aid in the development of a program for their solution. 

In the discussion of new emphases or new orientation of educational 
administration new terms must be used. While general labels give only a 
slight clue to their meaning, merely listing the headings of the remaining 
sections of this chapter gives some suggestion of the conception which is 
here referred to as a new orientation in educational administration. 
They include educational administration and social statesmanship, lead- 
ership in educational administration, educational planning, and democ- 
racy in educational administration. 

EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AS SOCIAL STATESIHANSHIP 
To refer to educational administration as social statesmanship is to 
place it in proper perspective. It is too limited a view to think of educa- 
tional administration in strictly operational terms. The management of 
educational institutions is only a part, although an important part, of 
educational administration. Educational programs have, at times, suf- 
fered because the executives have lacked broad social perspective and 
the program lacked purpose and direction. 

Educational administration approaches statesmanship when there are 
clearly formulated long-term policies and objectives, and when day-by- 
day activities and problems are dealt with under the guidance of the 
perspective given by such long-term policies. Particular problems can be 
appraised and dealt with more wisely if they are related to such a general 
directing policy. Lacking a long-term policy, there will be a tendency to 
deal with the immediate operations and difficulties with a very limited 
regard to where the program is leac&ng. Also, the administration and the 
faculty will be handicapped in the development of the program if they 
lack the general orientation which such a long-term policy would provide. 
The term, social statesmanship, is made appropriate, too, by the bear- 
Ing which educational policy and social policy have on each other. The 



KEFAUVER 3 

achievement of important social ends is dependent on the understand- 
ings, attitudes, and skills possessed by the people. In a democracy this 
dependence is especially critical. Likewise, educational policy has its 
origin in the society which it serves. The school is devoted to and en- 
gaged in the service of the basic democratic principles and goals, recogniz- 
ing, at the same time, its service to the individual and to the progressive 
improvement of society. 

An important fact to be recognized, sometimes to the discomfiture of 
the educational administrator, is that educational policy is not a concern 
of the educator only. It is an appropriate and legitimate concern of 
people in all walks of life. This is true not only because of their interest in 
the education of their own children but also because of their concern for 
general social welfare and policy, with which educational policy is so 
closely and significantly related. 

LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 

Educational administration is concerned not only with the plan of 
organization and the procedures being utilized. It is concerned, also, 
with the process by which these practices are adopted, support for them 
is maintained, and new practices are considered and instituted. The ad- 
ministrator is responsible for expediting a process which brings all the 
persons with legitimate interests in a program into effective collaboration 
in planning for it. By bringing persons of different training and experi- 
ence into active participation, the full experience of all groups can be 
drawn upon. 

Actual leadership, as judged by the contribution made to the solution 
arrived at, may come from a classroom teacher, a parent, or the ad- 
ministrator. The role of the administrator may or may not involve the 
introduction of the idea finally accepted. In many situations, the ad- 
ministrator's leadership role will be that of encouraging and assisting 
others to participate effectively. 

Such a program not only increases the likelihood of developing wise 
procedure but, in addition, it gives a basis for adaptation to the judgments 
and reactions of those who must give the program their support if it is to 
succeed. The process itself is educative, bringing to many persons under- 
standing of the program which is finally adopted Of great importance 
for the faculty, it encourages initiative and inventiveness and it con- 
tributes to the general development of the individual teacher. 

The problem and process of leadership is well illustrated by noting 
what is involved in effecting an important change in the educational 
program. Not only must the desirable new procedure be determined but 
the teachers, the governing board, the parents, and, in some instances, 



4 REORIENTATION OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 

the students must understand and accept the new practice. In addition, 
those who are directly responsible for the operation must have the skill 
to make the program succeed. 

Change in educational and social practice involves a shift of loyalties 
from the earlier values and practices to the new. The challenging of all 
practices and the presentation of new ideas is a process which goes on 
continuously in an active democratic social group. Among the faculty 
and the parents there will usually be a minority who press for the adop- 
tion of a new practice long before it is feasible to take the recommended 
step. Another minority group may resist the innovation which is pro- 
posed. It will not be wise to delay action until all are favorable for the 
new practice, but it is very important that the amount of support be 
sufficient to insure its success. The democratic leader will encourage free 
presentation of ideas for the improvement of the educational program. 

The conception of administration here presented would attach a great 
deal of importance to the progressiye development of the program as a 
natural outgrowth of vital intellectual activity in all interested groups. 
Violation of this principle may cause a new program to experience em- 
barrassment after it has been introduced. Especially is this the case if 
the change in practice is made without there having been a corresponding 
change in the values and the thinking of those most affected by the 
shift, 

EDUCATIONAL PLANNING 

Certain aspects of educational planning have been noted in earlier 
sections of this chapter, but the importance of this phase of educational 
administration is such as to make desirable a formal reference to it. City 
and state curriculum-development programs are illustrations of im- 
portant planning efforts. The problem of developing an educational 
system adequate for the complex interdependent world in which we are 
living is one of very great difficulty. There is a tendency in education as 
in other social institutions to perpetuate existing practices. The social lag 
is already great and the rapidly changing national and world picture 
presents urgent demands for recognition in current planning for the 
education of children, youth, and adults. 

One illustration will suffice. Several new international organizations 
are being set up to facilitate greatly extended co-operation among the 
governments and peoples of the world. Education for tomorrow is truly 
an education for a world community as well as for the local, state, or 
national community. To achieve an adequate recognition of this critically 
important problem is a large assignment. But it is only one of the many 
items in the postwar world which merits recognition in an adequate pro- 
gram of education. 



KEFAUVER 5 

Educational planning appropriately goes forward on many levels. In 
the United States, with the independent educational systems in the 
different states, the state becomes the largest direct planning unit. How- 
ever, planning activities of national agencies have great influence on 
educational practice. The United States Office of Education provides for 
the joint consideration of common problems by state superintendents of 
public instruction. The various commissions of the national associations 
present reports and recommendations which are studied by local and 
state groups and influence practice in the different states. When the 
United Nations educational and cultural organization is established, 
there will doubtless be reports of international commissions with recom- 
mendations for the development of an education adequate for the world 
community. 

Within the states there will be state planning, city or district planning, 
individual school planning, and planning by the individual teacher, with 
such co-operation with other teachers as may seem desirable. Finally, 
each student with the help of teachers and guidance specialists should 
develop a plan for his own education. It is clear that educational planning 
should allow for flexibility so that each planning unit will be able to make 
adjustments to the needs of the group and the individual. For the larger 
units of administration, the major functions can be defined and perhaps 
the broad outlines of a program can be formulated. Endeavoring to 
develop a scope and sequence for an educational program is a promising 
approach in harmony with this conception. 

The efforts at educational planning have very appropriately empha- 
sized the desirability of bringing together persons responsible for the 
different sections of the program so that the whole program can be seen 
as a unit, perhaps even fused into a composite program more closely re- 
lated to the interests and needs of the student and more nearly like the 
real situations faced by the student outside the classroom. Also, it is im- 
portant that educational planning be recognized as a continuing process. 

DEMOCBACY IN EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 
The concept of democracy in educational administration is now 
generally accepted. There are still differences of judgment as to the de- 
sirability of particular procedures, and it must be admitted that practice 
has not advanced as far as theory. The rise in the standard of preparation 
of teachers makes possible a more responsible role for the teacher. The 
movement is encouraged by the greater attention being paid to education 
for democratic citizenship and the belief that the practice of democracy 
is a more effective teacher than mere talk about it. 

A detailed consideration of administrative oi^anization and procedure 



6 REORIENTATION OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION 

would show that the question of democratic procedure touches upon 
many aspects of the life of the school. It affects the role of the adminis- 
trator and the methods by which he carries on his work. It gives to the 
staff and to the individual teacher a larger role. It gives to the students a 
more active part in the life of the school. It calls for a modification of the 
procedure in the classroom. It provides for a greater degree of co-opera- 
tion of persons with a spirit of equality, with each contributing according 
to his special experience. It is concerned with the equality of opportunity 
for all students and with the flexibility required to make adaptation to 
the special needs of the individual. It provides for leadership by the ad- 
ministrator and by the teacher and by students. It increases the extent 
to which agreement is sought and reached among all interested parties 
in dealing with educational problems. It provides for the study of dif- 
ferent alternatives when dealing with controversial questions so that 
students can acquire the basis for making their own decisions. 

SUMMAKY 

The foregoing brief statement indicates only some of the items which 
might well be referred to in an introductory statement concerning modern 
theory and practice in educational administration. If space allowed, it 
would have been desirable to refer also to the concern of educational ad- 
ministration for teacher development, especially by providing opportuni- 
ty for teachers to live in a manner favorable for continued growth and 
development, and to note the relationship of the school to society, with a 
trend in the direction of closer interweaving of in-school and out-of- 
school experiences. But, the remaining chapters will deal with these and 
other questions which will further illustrate the general reorientation 
which has been made and is being made in educational administration. 



CHAPTER II 
THE STATE AND THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 



ALONZO G. GRACE 

Commissioner of Education. 

State Department of Education 

Hartford, Connecticut 



For nearly three hundred years America has regarded the state as the 
responsible agent for the development and maintenance of a system of 
public education, available to all the children of all the people, irrespec- 
tive of race, creed, political affiliation, or economic status. Legally and 
historically, then, education is a state function. The actual operation of 
a school system, however, has been delegated to the people of a com- 
munity and the operational control is exercised through their local board 
of education. Thus, the local board of education, though an agency of the 
state, is the policy-determining body for education in the town or the 
school district. The state board of education, on the other hand, is 
charged with the responsibility not only of determining policies for the 
institutions that come under its immediate jurisdiction but also of pro- 
viding the leadership, the service, and the research essential to the 
establishment of sound educational policies throughout the state. In the 
interest of democracy, it is imperative that the responsibility for ad- 
ministering public education continue to be vested in the state and the 
local community. 

THE PURPOSE OF THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 
Each of the forty-eight states has a department of education of one 
form or andther. In some states complete control of the schools is vested 
in this central authority. In several states, however, the department of 
education exists solely to carry out the policies of a state board of 
education. In other states an elected superintendent of public instruction 
is the representative of education. 

If public education is to be conceived of as the cornerstone of the 
democratic order, it is essential that the school system itself be organized 
on a democratic basis. It is important, too, that local initiative and 
responsibility be recognized as elements prerequisite to democratic ac- 
tion. While it probably is true that progress may be made more rapidly 

7 



8 THE STATE AND THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 

through procedures centralized in a state or federal agency, such prog- 
ress frequently may not be clearly understood by the people. Efficiency 
in government involves more than effective management. While it is 
important that there be an efficient organization, it is infinitely more 
important that the continued interest of the people be assured. Without 
the sustained interest of the governed and the intelligent participation of 
the people in the conduct of the government, efficiency is, at best, but 
partial. One of the major problems today is that of insuring an intelligent 
attitude toward the democratic organization. There is no better place to 
start than in the educational system. The primary purposes of a state 
department of education may, therefore, be described as follows: 

Guidance and Leadership. Desirable leadership in a democratic order 
makes full use of the wisdom of the individual members of the associated 
group. A leadership of merit, in so far as a state department of education 
is concerned, must be based on sound scholarship and the general ac- 
ceptance of recognized basic principles. For example, the ideal of 
quality in educational thinking must supplant past emphasis on quanti- 
tative considerations. An implicit belief in local government as the basic 
safety valve of democracy must be developed. There must be a willing- 
ness to keep the schools close to the people and the people close to the 
schools. Every effort should be exerted to provide the state with the best 
possible educational system. One of the major problems is to get full 
value for every dollar expended. This means constant appraisal and 
adjustment of the school program. The leadership of a state department 
of education is important in preventing lag in the educational system 
and also in making the best possible use of available resources. There is 
no substitute for common sense, however. A step-by-step program, well 
conceived and widely discussed, will be infinitely more fruitful than 
early and easy acceptance of untried theories. 

The improvement of curriculums, the development of courses of 
study, and new adimnistrative practices or improvement in administra- 
tive procedures must grow from the bottom up rather than be super- 
imposed by agencies of the state. The quality of leadership must be such 
that local school systems will have confidence, not only in the advice and 
suggestions which are developed on the state-department level, but also 
in the scholarship and ability of the individual members of the state 
department It is important that the contribution of the state be accepted 
on the basis of its own worth. Statutory responsibilities should be carried 
on in a statesmanlike manner. 

Service, A second function of a state department of education is to 
reader those services that cannot be provided by individual school 



GRACE 9 

systems or which may be supplied more effectively by the state. The 
service function of the state department of education should be such as 
to expedite the work of local school systems. It should neither impede 
progress nor handicap the effective administrative operation of a school 
system or the instructional process therein. This applies equally well to 
the various institutions operated directly by the state board of education. 
A service so effective and so valuable and so close to realism that it makes 
itself indispensable to local school systems should be the goal of the 
department of education. 

Supervision is a service of the state department of education. Too 
frequently in this country supervision, instead of becoming an aid to the 
improvement of instruction, becomes merely an inspectorial or routine 
procedure of little value in the ultimate progress of a school system. 
Supervision should be regarded as scholarly, useful, worth-while assist- 
ance in the development of an educational program and in the improve- 
ment of teaching practices and procedures. The effectiveness of super- 
vision is, therefore, contingent upon the personnel of a department. 
Unless the individual is accepted because of his ability to contribute to 
the improvement of a program and to the child's educational opportuni- 
ty, his service frequently becomes of negligible value. 

The state department of education renders outright service in many 
directions. Supervision or the improvement of instructional procedures 
has been briefly described. Likewise, in health, vocational education, job 
analysis, guidance, and in many other areas, direct service may be 
rendered profitably and effectively by the staff of a state department. It 
is important, however, that the matter of expediting the work of the 
local school system be emphasized. Too frequently the hampering 
restrictions of "red tape/' misunderstanding, unnecessary services and 
programs, and a host of other problems arise because of those who have 
not visualized the true significance of service. 

Research and Planning. Millions of dollars are spent for research in 
industry and business. TTiere would be little progress were it not for the 
confidence of our leaders in the value of research in these fields. Research 
improves processes and products. In agriculture tremendous sums are 
invested in the study of plants, animals, soil, poultry, fruit, and literally 
hundreds of other objects of research. Obviously aot all research produces 
fruitful results; nevertheless, the sums expended represent a large invest- 
ment, and the returns to business, industry, and agriculture have been 
well worth the cost. 

Comparatively small amounts are spent for research by the state 
departments of education and local boards of education. Yet the policies 



10 THE STATE AND THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 

of both the state board and the local boards of education should be 
determined generally on the basis of objective data. It is the function of 
the state department of education to provide research and planning. 

The personnel or the division responsible for research and planning 
should be completely free from gathering and compiling statistical 
data about school systems. This is what might be termed a central 
service function. Because a research division may be used in this ca- 
pacity, scientific approach to the study of public education degenerates 
frequently into a routine matter of accumulating statistical data. 

While the division of research and planning in a state department of 
education is concerned very largely with the <f here and now" problems, 
that is, with immediate problems, there are fundamental problems in 
education that require basic, long-time research. Occasionally the de- 
partment of education may properly engage in this basic research. On the 
other hand, this service is more expeditious and more in the interest of 
the better use of existing facilities if channels to the sources of scholarly 
research be developed. A state department of education should, there- 
fore, lay these channels to the universities! and the colleges that have 
demonstrated their ability to do basic research. The leadership for re- 
search and for the co-ordination of research activities are, however, 
functions of a state department of education. 

PRINCIPLES OF STATE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION 
A principle in the prudential discipline such as administration may be 
defined as a generalized rule of action which has achieved success in pro* 
ducing desired results in repeated similar situations. In a modern public 
organization the desired result is satisfaction of the public will with 
ttrnxfrmmi service at minrmnm cost. Through many years of effort on the 
part of administrators and scholars certain rules have been formulated 
which seem to have more or less pragmatic validity in situations charac- 
teristic of the various branches of public administration. The following 
are principles of administration underlying the organization of the state 
department of education. 

The effective management of an enterprise requires the delegation of 
aitihority and responsibility. ^Responsibility and authority run parallel 
throughout a system. In other words, as authority is delegated to a 
member of a staff, responsibility also must be delegated to and ac- 
cepted by the individual. The two extremes of this principle should be 
avoided; that is, the delegation of too much or too little responsibility 
and authority. The delegation of authority should not, however, be con- 
sidered a transfer of authority. It is a correlation of authority and a joint 
responsibility. 



GRACE 11 

There must be a functional definition of each job if the morale and 
efficiency of the organization is to be maintained. Failure to provide such 
definition results in a petty jealousy arising over the functions of a person 
or a bureau. The business of an organization is to get a job done, not to 
build up vested interests. 

There is no substitute for common sense, no substitute for sound 
judgment. When a supervisor to whom authority and responsibility have 
been properly delegated is confronted with a problem that requires 
immediate action, that action should be taken and a decision rendered 
irrespective of the lines of authority or the sentiment of those in direct 
charge of divisions, bureaus, or sections. Much of the "red tape," the 
delay, and the inefficiency in a structure might be avoided if adminis- 
trative officers were willing to delegate authority and responsibility to 
those immediately responsible for results. Those who make decisions, 
however, must be willing to accept responsibility for decisions and to 
face an accounting for action. 

It is human to err, but the same error committed twice should result in 
personnel adjustments. The individual must be held responsible for his 
every act. The administrator, on the other hand, must adopt a code of 
control based upon accepted standards and reliable information. In all 
dealings with the staff an impersonal attitude must be assumed. Unless 
this is done, rules of action become mere conveniences, and efficiency and 
harmony suffer. 

The purpose of the state should be to strengthen local control and local 
initiative and not to supplant the local governmental structure. The trend in 
the country over the past generation has been toward the strengthening 
of state and federal government at the expense of the local unit. While 
it is obvious that many units of government, conceived during the pioneer 
era in the evolution of American democracy, no longer are able independ- 
ently and separately to provide all the services now demanded by the 
people, the solution does not lie in a superstate or a federal government 
which will absorb the functions and the services of the smaller units. With- 
out the sustainedinterest of the governed, the policy-determining function 
which belongs to the people may be absorbed by those who make a 
profession of government. Sometimes those too close to a job fail to realize 
that the security of the democratic order is vested very largely in the 
continuance of local units of government sufficiently large to provide a 
reasonable service and to encourage the continuance of the interest of all 
people in government. 

It is the business of those employed by the state to think in terms of 
the original purpose of the organization. A department of education 
always should be concerned with the interests of the child, the youth, the 



12 THE STATE AND THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 

adult, and the state. Local autonomy and home rule will not disappear 
because of the state's effort to guarantee equality of educational oppor- 
tunity to all children. 

It is the state's obligation, however, to guide the destiny of local school 
systems at all times. The educational interests of the children as well as 
those of the state must be protected against petty localism. This requires 
that the state department of education not only guide the local school 
systems through leadership, service, and research, as previously indicated, 
but also that the state department, through wise administration, prevent 
local controversies, jealousies, and selfish interests from jeopardizing the 
educational interests of the children, the community, and the state. 
Government exists for a people, not the people for government. The ma- 
chinery of administration must expedite and not impede instruction. 

The organization should attempt to secure the greatest return from every 
dollar expended. Intelligent economy is the first principle of good ad- 
ministration, whether it be in government, in education as a part of a 
governmental structure, in social agencies, public or private, or in other 
community associations. This is a principle that should prevail during 
prosperous years as well as during periods of depression. It takes no 
great administrative genius to spend money. This is especially true when 
there appears to be no limit to the funds available. But it takes moral 
courage and the ability to set aside personal convenience and political 
expediency to administer an institution wisely and effectively. A govern- 
mental agency is merely the custodian of the tax moneys supplied by 
citizens for the services demanded by them and in the interests of 
their own advancement and security. Capacity to pay or the purchasing 
power of the many should be a criterion to observe in administering and 
expending funds or increasing services and functions rendered to and for 
the people. The benefits derived from these services and functions should 
be the criterion for their continuance. The adequate financing of public 
education and the effective management of school revenue is, however, a 
matter of the deepest concern to each member of the department of 
education and to the public. The ability to pay for education cannot be 
disassociated from the ability to pay for the complete governmental 
program. Governmental services and functions have expanded in many 
directions during the past generation. This trend is, unquestionably, the 
result of fundamental changes in the socioeconomic system and in exist- 
ing social institutions. Many of these changes, on the other hand, have 
originated because of the pressure of aggressive minorities. The matter of 
origin is not so important as the fact the state is committed to a program 
of state and local governmental services which involves a considerable 



GRACE 13 

outlay. The cost of public education, however, is reflected not only in 
the financial outlay for the maintenance of the school's program but also 
in the social consequences of the educational process. 

Among the principles relating to the financing of public education the 
following are presented here for our guidance: 

1. The more intricate and complex the structure of an organization, the greater 
the possibility of overlapping of functions, duplication of effort, lack of co- 
ordination. The organization should be flexible and simple. 

2. New services, functions, practices, or procedures should not be provided 
without consideration of the ultimate cost involved, that is, cost in terms of 
financial outlay and social consequences. Old practices and procedures should 
be abolished when their usefulness has subsided. 

3. Public expenditures should be balanced among functions in accordance with 
the principle of marginal utility. There is a limit to the amount that can 
be raised through public taxation for governmental functions. Ultimately the 
people will have to make choices. What are those elements in the governmental 
structure that are essential to the welfare of men and of the democracy of 
which they are a part? 

4. Capital expenditures should be made in accordance with a long-time plan. 
Capital financing should be in terms of total cost over the entire period in 
which the plant will be in operation. 

5. The interrelationship and interdependency of governmental units make 
necessary the transfer of services and functions to the unit most capable of 
rendering effective service and efficient management, 

6. Funds entrusted to a department should be expended in the same manner as 
if they were personal funds. Sometimes it is the little things that count 
the cost of travel, attendance at various meetings, the use of a telephone, the 
use of postage, carelessness in the use of lights, wastefulness in the utilization 
of the time of stenographic service. Each one should regard himself as responsi- 
ble for the cost of the whole enterprise. 

In preparation of the annual budget based on long-time plans and 
work programs there should be integration by the chief administrator 
and approval by the policy-determining body. The effective management 
of funds entrusted to a department or agency is a primary function of 
organization. 

The successful operation and maintenance of an organization depends 
largely upon the factor of good witt. This principle is of fundamental 
importance to the administrator and to the organization. There must be 
good will between the administrator and the personnel, between the 
organization and the pubEc, and between the education department and 
other governmental departments and agencies. In public relations the 
individual must use tact and judgment. This means respect and sincerity 



14 THE STATE AND THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 

and not flattery. It does not mean the forfeiture of the right of independ- 
ent thinking. It means sound judgment on the part of the individual 

There is no need for one to go out of his way to antagonize those with 
whom he comes in contact. The individual should not, of course, forfeit 
his right of independent thinking. Snap judgment on matters should be 
avoided in those cases involving policy. For example, it is not the busi- 
ness of a state department to superimpose ideals or philosophies on 
communities. A department of education should aid communities to 
grow and to progress. It should be remembered, too, that mere change 
does not indicate progress. Good will is of infinite importance to the 
development of this type of organization. 

An effective organization must have a program democratically deter- 
mined. The strength of an organization depends upon the competency of 
the individual members and their ability to work as part of the organiza- 
tion. Each individual who is a member of the organization is an integral 
part of that structure. It is essential, therefore, that the individual mem- 
ber appreciate not only his relationship to the whole program but also his 
responsibility for an integral part of the program. Whether one be a 
stenographer or a specialist, he has a major job to perform. The staff 
must, therefore, be kept informed on all matters pertaining to the 
organization. Each individual member of the organization must know 
the goals, the objectives, and the direction the organization is taking. It is 
important, too, that each member of the organization have a voice in 
those decisions which affect him and affect his ideas concerning the 
administration of the organization. 

Harmony must prevail in any organization if there is to be progress. 
The place to discuss departmental matters is within the department. If 
there be disagreement with a decision of the administrator, for example, 
or his action or proposed action, there should be no reluctance in express- 
ing an honest objection and constructive criticism. If there be disagree- 
ment concerning a policy, this should be discussed with the administrator 
and within the department. Differences of opinion within a department 
should not be matters of public discussion or complaint outside. 

The ideas of the individual should be respected. An individual with- 
out ideas should not be in a place of responsibility. It is important, 
however, that the individual be given full credit for his ideas; and that 
in the production of departmental documents, those individuals who 
have made the contributions be given due recognition. It is not the func- 
tion of a division or bureau head to blue-pencil either the ideas 
or the contributions of the individual staff member because these do not 
agree with his particular philosophy. These matters should not, however, 



GRACE 



15 



affect the relationship between one individual and another. They should 
be cleared through administrative or supervisory councils, or through 
whatever agency has been set up for a clearance of ideas and procedures. 

While there must be organization for effective administration, the 
organization should not be of the type that prevents any member from 
discussing problems or procedures with others who may be able to 
render assistance. It is important to understand that the organization 
does not exist for the individual or to perpetuate a particular bureau or 
division. It exists to provide leadership, to render service, and to 
provide research as a basis for determining policies when and where they 
are needed. 

A dear separation between policy determination and administrative 
functions is essentialin an effective organization. The establishment of edu- 
cational policy is a major function of the state board of education. The 
determination of policy involves the formation of underlying principles 
rather than the development of details. The board will leave the details 
for others. This is administration. Generally speaking, administrative 
detail will be more effectively accomplished by the trained specialist. The 
determination of policy is fundamental and the most important function 
of the educational organization. On the basis of the objective evidence 
derived through the program of research and planning, through ex- 
perimentation, or through other channels, the board will be furnished 
the basic evidence on which it may deliberate and form its policies. 
Policies, as previously stated, are the principles upon which we operate 
as a system of education. 

What is meant by a policy? What is meant by administration? 
Relationships between policies and administration are indicated in the 
accompanying outline. 



EDUCATIONAL POLICT 



ADMINISTRATION 



1. Leaves of absence for trade-school in- 
structors to return to industry for 
periods of three weeks, to keep pace 
with changes in industry. 

2. Adoption of rules and regulations 
governing the certification of teachers. 

3. Extension of a state grant system to 
provide financial assistance for voca- 
tional education. 

4. Provision of supervision for rural 
schools. 



1. Designation of individuals to attend 
schools conducted by industry; selec- 
tion of industries to which individu- 
als shall return,* determination of the 
number compatible with budgetary 
provisions. 

2. Interpretation of rules and regula- 
tions; issuance of certificates; evalua- 
tion of credentials. 

3. Allocation of funds to local communi- 
ties; accounting; reporting, 

4. Recommendation of supervisory areas; 
determination of functions; allocation 
of individuals to areas. 



16 THE STATE AND THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 

This analysis should be available in any organization. There should be 
a clear understanding of the established or needed policies and a clear 
understanding concerning administration. 

Too frequently full information is not given to a board of education. 
For example, in the matter of appointment, it is the function of the 
chief executive officer to select and to nominate individuals for appoint- 
ment but it is the fundamental prerogative of a board to elect. This 
should be a mutual responsibility. That is to say, the board should have 
complete information on the individual before it passes judgment. Free 
and full discussion by members of a board not only should be encouraged 
but should be a requirement for a final decision. It is only by putting all 
the facts on the table that a satisfactory decision can be reached. The 
establishment of sound policies and courageous administration are 
equally essential in the conduct of a school system. 

The organization should utilize to the maximum the special capacity of 
the personnel and the material equipment. Each member of the staff so far 
as possible should be assigned to the special work for which he is best 
fitted. It is the primary purpose of the organization to place the person 
best fitted for a given job in that job. 

It should be the function of the organization to secure the maximum 
use from the facilities available. In planning a program or in the addition 
of new equipment, we should make certain, through proper scheduling of 
classes or proper use of buildings and equipment; that the facilities are 
used to the maximum in every respect. Poor scheduling of classes or 
inability to use a building to its fullest capacity, for example, may mean 
the addition of plant facilities or equipment which would not be required 
if full consideration had been given to the matter of utilization. 

There should be integration among the governmental units concerned with 
the same problems or areas. The department of education should co- 
operate with all other departments in the state government. There may 
be other departments performing functions that normally belong in the 
department of education. On the other hand, there may be areas in 
which many departments must co-operate toward the attainment of a 
particular goaL It should not be the desire of any department or the 
objective of a particular agency to build up a bureau or to add services 
merely for the sake of building a large department. We should utilize to 
the greatest advantage the services that already are available in the state 
or in the community, and in the long-time program every effort should be 
made to place services in those areas in which the most effective results 
naay be attained. There must be a clear division of functions between the 
various levels and fields of government. It should be clearly borne in 



GRACE 17 

mind, too, that the policy for public education will be determined by the 
state and local boards of education. This is essential because of the nature 
of the educational process. 

LOCAL INITIATIVE VERSUS CENTRALIZATION 

It is a long but magnificent road from the discovery of fire to the era of 
the electric telegraph, the steam engine, and representative democracy. 
When men learned the use of fire, living conditions changed and articu- 
late language developed. Invention and discovery and the growth of 
institutions led to the growth and expansion of the human mind. No 
doubt the first inventions of social organization were the most difficult to 
achieve. 

It is not possible in this discussion to trace the organized machinery 
devised by men for their protection as individuals and as members of the 
group. From the simple unorganized state of Paleolithic man to the 
heterogeneous state of contemporary civilization, men have expressed a 
variety of philosophies with respect to how the organized efforts of the 
group might work best toward the perfection of the state of the individ- 
ual. Shall the individual have a part in determining the policies that 
affect his own destiny and that of his fellows? 

The trend in our own nation over the generations has been toward the 
strengthening of the central authority state and federal at the expense 
of the parts from which authority emanates. It is obvious that many 
units of government conceived during the pioneer era in the evolution of 
American democracy no longer are able independentiy and separately to 
provide all the services now required for the security of a people or 
devised for their security by those who seek the perfect state. The solu- 
tion does not, however, lie in the creation of a superstate. 

Toulmin Smith in 1851 defined local self-government and centraliza- 
tion as follows: 

Local self-government is that system of government under which the greatest 
number of minds and those knowing the most and having opportunity of know- 
ing it, about the special matters at hand, and having the greatest interest in its 
well working, have the management of it or control over it. 

Centralization is that system of government under which the smallest number 
of minds and those knowing the least and having the fewest opportunities of 
knowing it, about the special matter in hand, and having the smallest interest 
in its well working, have the management of it or the control over it. This may 
be an oversimplification of a complex concept. 1 



1 See John Fiske, Civil Government in the United Stales, p. 274. New York: Hough- 
ton Miffin Co., 1891. 



18 THE STATE AND THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 

These definitions, obviously, would not be accepted by scholars, by 
practical administrators, or even by those who determine policy today, 
A new concept of the functions of government has been developing for 
many years and perhaps a major need today is for a clear-cut definition 
of functions before agencies are organized on any level. Perhaps, how- 
ever, as John Fiske states in his comment on Smith's treatise, "An 
immense amount of wretched misgovernment would be avoided ^if all 
legislators and all voters would engrave these wholesome definitions 
upon their minds." 2 

How much government is essential to protect the sovereign people 
from their own inadequacies? Are we able to distinguish administration 
from policy determination? What is the capacity or the ability of people 
to pay for an adequate system of social control? The solution to Amer- 
ica's problem of self-government does not lie solely in effective organiza- 
tion or effective management. Without the sustained interest of the gov- 
erned, the policy-determining function which belongs to the people may be 
absorbed by those not so seriously interested in democracy, by specialists who 
may be more interested in the area of specialization than in the welfare of the 
people, or by a great bureaucracy of vested interests. 

The success or failure of government and the quality of service it 
renders rest, in the last analysis, upon the capacity and the character of 
the men and women who constitute it. There must be in government 
men and women who have capacity and character and who believe 
implicitly in rendering a service rather than in building up a vested 
interest. 

America will preserve local initiative and responsibility only if there be 
a willingness on the part of all elements locally to improve the governmental 
structure in the interests of the whole people instead of permitting ag- 
gressive minorities and political expediency to dominate the needs o/ the 
group. Unless local communities are willing to assume the responsibility 
for a more effective organization, for the placement of men and women 
of character and capacity in positions of government, and for continuous 
citizen participation in the determination of policy, the trend will be 
toward units of government far removed from the people. 

There is no guarantee that centralization, on the other hand, means 
more effective management or more efficient operation. Unless there is 
confidence in the ability of the local unit to assume responsibility and 
unless effective education stimulates its citizenship to assume such 
responsibility, man's efforts to govern himself may succumb through 

ibid. 



GRACE 19 

passive subservience to the centralized interest. Democracy, on the 
other hand, will not function effectively until all the people of the com- 
munity recognize that all of the people are part of the community. 
Government has a responsibility and an obligation to see to it that 
authority does not become the substitute for leadership and responsi- 
bility. One of the most fundamental jobs confronting America is to create 
an awareness of the problems that confront the community and, in the 
larger measure, the nation. A vigorous self-propelled effort to aid in the 
solutions of the problems next door should develop. 

Recently we organized America for war thousands of committees 
and councils throughout our country. Is it not possible that we may 
approach the problems of education and government in times of peace 
with as much enthusiasm and planning? 



CHAPTER III 

DEVELOPING AND ADMINISTERING THE 
CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 



GORDON N. MACKENZIE 

Teachers College, Columbia University 

New York, New York 



As suggested in earlier chapters, administrative functions and policies 
should be re-examined periodically to check their adequacy. Inasmuch as 
administration is a service enterprise, or a means for helping to ac- 
complish goals, it should contribute consistently to the development and 
maintenance of an effective educational program. Recent and emerging 
concepts of the curriculum and of guidance and other services provided 
by the school in behalf of pupils imply the need for a reorientation of ad- 
ministration. This chapter will indicate suitable administrative policies 
pertaining to the educational program, point out major trends in the 
curriculum and related pupil services, and suggest desirable modifica- 
tions of administrative practice. 

Administration of the schools operates in several areas: states, 
counties, cities, and individual schools. The general policies and points of 
view to be enunciated here apply to all levels or types of organization. 
Administration at any point state, county, city, or local school may 
handicap or facilitate the development of a sound educational program. 
However, the individual school should be regarded as the most important 
unit in administering the curriculum. Most of the discussion will, there- 
fore, be directed toward the administrative process at this level. 

BASIC ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES 

Any aspect of the educational program as complex as the curriculum 
or the various pupil services which are related to instruction presents 
many important problems of administration. Schools operate under a 
great variety of conditions, involve large numbers of pupils with varying 
backgrounds, seek to contribute to many phases of pupil development, 
provide numerous special services, and utilize a great variety of instruc- 
tional materials. Effective administration of such instructional programs 
demands a high level of competence. 

20 



MACKENZIE 21 

Superintendents and principals have long been regarded as the spe- 
cialized administrative officers of the school. More recently, supervisors 
and teachers have come to be recognized as important influences in 
administration. In the era of the one-room school the teacher was 
typically the administrator. With the advent of the graded school and 
departmentalized instruction, problems of organization and administra- 
tion became increasingly complex, and failure to solve them sometimes 
prevented the attainment of sound educational programs. Accordingly, 
special administrative services were introduced and rapidly extended. In 
harmony with present-day conceptions of the functional relation of 
education to democracy as a way of life, teachers are again being 
identified with important administrative functions. Thus, through 
timely adjustments, policies and procedures have been adapted to the 
needs of improved plans of instruction. 

Recognizing the complexity of the administrative task, the varying 
conditions under which schools operate, and the many functionaries con- 
cerned, three general guides are presented. 

1. Administration should be regarded as a means for attaining an 
effective curriculum. In theory, at least, acceptance is generally accorded 
the idea that the main purpose of educational administration is to con- 
tribute to the education of children, youth, and adults. Thus, administra- 
tion is essentially a service which facilitates the attainment of educa- 
tional objectives. In practice, however, there are many illustrations of a 
disavowal of this position. Administrative efficiency and smoothness ap- 
pear to be the goal, the influence on the educational outcomes being 
relegated to second place. For example, school supplies are often ordered, 
inventoried, and distributed in such a way that their potential value is 
not realized. Again, to save an exceedingly small percentage of the total 
cost, or to follow some long-established but now unsuitable routine, 
money is frequently wasted and educational goals are obstructed. Thus, 
teachers may find it impossible to secure the supplies and materials best 
suited to their needs at a time when they can be of maximum value. In a 
similar manner, the plan for tho operation and use of the school plant 
may prevent the introduction of some of the most valuable types of 
educational experiences. Shutting off the heat, locking off certain parts of 
the building, requiring the evacuation of a definite block of rooms so that 
they may be cleaned, and numerous other prohibitions and regulations, 
when their purpose or necessity is not understood, may discourage 
teacher initiative and prevent the attainment of desired goals. Certainly 
it is imperative to have regard for the expense involved in any activity, 
and some organization and system are essential in tlie operation of any 
school. Yet, regulations should not be arbitrarily arrived at when it is 



22 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

relatively simple to get full-staff determination of most desirable goals 
and to establish conditions which will aid in attaining them. 

In similar manner the system of records and reports may contribute to 
or make difficult the provision of a sound program. The kind of lesson 
plan required by an administrator may encourage planning in terms of 
the needs of boys and girls or it may operate to fasten on the schools a 
deadly type of lesson learning. Similarly, marking systems may direct 
attention toward or away from desirable outcomes. Extensive demands 
on teachers for clerical work may prevent full attention to pupils. 

These simple examples should not lead to the conclusion that ad- 
ministration must do nothing more than keep from inhibiting or blocking 
sound programs. Instead, administration has an important leadership 
role and can serve as a powerful constructive influence if it is focused on 
ways and means of attaining the purposes of the educational program. 
This requires much more than management or keeping the machinery 
operating smoothly. It demands a continuous study of goals to see how 
they can be most surely attained, and a constant consideration and 
analysis of the physical facilities, tools, equipment, materials, and 
personnel to determine how all resources can be utilized most completely. 
Further, administrative leadership of the finest type will be creative and 
imaginative. It will search unceasingly for new and better ways, the 
sights to be set constantly on the attainment of a better curriculum and 
improved pupil services. 

2. Administrative plans and procedures should be developed co-operatively 
by the educational staff, the parents, and the pupils. If administration is 
truly a service for furthering progress toward educational goals, all those 
who are concerned with and affected by administrative procedures should 
participate in appropriate aspects of the program. There is no other way 
that administration can be fully informed as to goals and needs. It is well 
recognized that administration is a professional service requiring special 
training and experience. However, administration can be more effective 
if those involved in the enterprise share in defining goals and outlining 
policies- 
There are several reasons why shared planning is important. As will be 
elaborated later, breadth, balance, and continuity in the experience of 
children and youth can be achieved only as all who contribute to educa- 
tion supplement one another. Thus, each teacher must not only see how 
he functions in relation to other teachers, parents, and pupils, but he 
must also be aware of the relevance of appropriate administrative con- 
trols. Similarly, parents need to be conscious of the purposes sought, to 
be informed as to means for supporting school efforts, and to recognize 
their potential contribution. This need for mutual assistance is not re- 



MACKENZIE 23 

stricted to those who come into direct contact with the learners. It is 
equally important for administration to see its contribution to a well- 
rounded program, in view of its responsibility for facilitating co-ordina- 
tion between such major aspects of the program as grades, subjects, units 
of school organization, special and general teachers, and relations with 
the community. 

Another reason for co-operative planning is that only in this way can a 
framework be established within which individuals agree to function and 
supplement one another. Charts are often prepared to indicate the re- 
sponsibility of each member of the administrative staff. However, unless 
plans are co-operatively arrived at and thoroughly accepted by all 
parties involved, there is little likelihood that the organization will 
function as anticipated. This is naturally to be expected, for plans which 
are accepted only on the basis of tradition or administrative decision are 
seldom well understood by any substantial portion of the participants. 
In so far as understanding is incomplete, continuous improvement 
through suggestion and individual effort is unlikely. Often, in education, 
there is great loss in efficiency because teachers, parents, and pupils 
those who are intimately involved in the details of any program have no 
well-established means through which they can suggest and effect desir- 
able modifications. Continuous co-operative planning prevents such 



On the state level there are several examples of lay participation in the 
formulation of policy concerning public education. For some years the 
superintendent of public instruction in Michigan has had a lay advisory 
commission on education. 1 On a great variety of policy questions coming 
before the superintendent, it has been common practice to turn to lay 
groups for assistance in formulating plans of action. In Georgia there has 
recently been very widespread discussion of the state's educational pro- 
gram for the purpose of securing understanding, suggestions, and 
support. 2 

In a rural school district near Salt Lake (Sty, Utah, where there are 
seventeen elementary schools and 175 teachers, a council of twelve 
teachers, four principals, two supervisors, and the superintendent was 
organized as an advisory group. This group met every two weeks during 
the school year and discussed many problems of general importance. 
Attention centered on "(a) an evaluation of the existing program, (6) 



tin No. 305A. Lansing, Michigan: State Department of Public Instruction, 1937. 

* "Georgia Plans Postwar Educational Programs/' Education Jor Victory, III 
(August 21, 1944), 9. 



24 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

discussion and formulation of a basic philosophy for use in planning pro- 
grams in the district, (c) a survey of textbooks and supplies in use, 
(d) the evaluation and selection of new textbooks, (e) a survey of promo- 
tion practices in the district, (/) problems of the elementary school and 
the war emergency." Probably the most significant contribution was on 
the problems of grouping children, a study of existing practices and 
conditions resulting in a statement of policy for the guidance of schools. 3 

In Springfield, Missouri, there has been wide participation in formu- 
lating policy on a variety of problems. Teachers have aided in establish- 
ing salary schedules and selecting new teachers as well as in planning in- 
service programs and developing postwar plans for the schools. 4 

An example of pupil sharing in administration is found in the student 
organizations at New Trier Township High School. 5 Here a student 
council, a boys 7 club, a girls' club, and a girls' athletic association have 
wide powers and carry extensive responsibility for important phases of 
the school's program. In co-operation with the student council, various 
organizations sell activity tickets and plan a budget for financing the 
various extra-curriculum activities. In a large school such as New Trier 
this becomes an important venture. The council, over a period of years, 
has also taken leadership in other matters, such as setting up self- 
governing study halls. These are now firmly established and operate 
successfully. Over one thousand students are now in such groups. In addi- 
tion to the council work, the boys' and girls' clubs handle a wide range of 
social and service problems in an effective manner. 

One of the obstacles to shared consideration of plans and procedures 
resides in the failure to analyze carefully the areas in which this method 
of working can be most profitably employed. Any group at work on its 
problems needs to give time and careful consideration to defining ap- 
propriate areas for consideration. Surely, group attention to administra- 
tive details is to be avoided unless administrative arrangements are 
failing to give maximum service in furthering the program. In most 
situations the following will probably be the major areas for co-operative 
planning. 

First, the continuous clarification and redefinition of the purposes of 
the curriculum and related pupil service is a most important and funda- 
mental concern of parents, pupils, teachers, and administrators. Partici- 
patioa of all is necessary to secure clarity of understanding and careful 
direction of action. Administration not only can contribute but also needs 

* Gr&up Planning in Edueati0n t pp. 103-5. Yearbook of the Department of Super- 
vision and Curriculum Development of the National Education Association, 1945. 
Washington: National Education Association, 1945. 

* Ibid., pp. 121-28. Ibld n pp. 64-70. 



MACKENZIE 25 

this interaction with other groups as a constant guide to its own efforts. 
Only in this way can it obtain an adequate basis for making administra- 
tive policy and action a positive force in attaining major goals. 

Second, the preparation of program plans and policies is a suitable area 
for co-operative planning. Where purposes have been jointly determined, 
the formulation of broad plans is a logical next step. While parents are 
concerned with only the general aspects of planning, teachers can con- 
tribute to the over-all arrangements as well as to the preparation for day- 
to-day activities. Pupils will naturally and easily participate at the 
points where they are directly involved. 

Third, following the definition of purposes and the preparation of pro- 
gram plans, all parties to the educational process are naturally concerned 
with and can contribute to an evaluation of the effectiveness of the cur- 
riculum and related pupil activities. Parents, teachers, pupils, and 
administrators have contributions to make. Further, through carefully 
conducted evaluations, in which all share, administration can learn much 
as to the value of its specialized activities. 

Finally, there is a fourth area in which group action is profitable. No 
program for the shared consideration and whole-staff development of 
administrative plans and procedures is likely to succeed unless an or- 
ganization or method is established to make co-operative action possible. 
Definite arrangements need to be made so that participation of all con- 
cerned will be facilitated. 

A plan of organization has been suggested by Koopman, Miel, and 
Misner for a single school which is based on four assumptions: 

1. That teachers as a professional group, charged with important social re- 
sponsibilities, should continuously study their own professional problems if 
the school is to function as a dynamic social agency. The need for such study 
suggests the formation of a committee which is called here the "Teacher- 
Affairs Committee." The essential functions of the Teacher-Affairs Com- 
mittee are: 

o. Keeping faculty members informed concerning the activities of professional 
organizations to the end that the rights and responsibilities of all profes^ 
sional agents may be recognized and discharged effectively. 
5. Facilitating the personal and professional growth of all agents by making 
available the services of specialists and results of the significant studies, 
reports, and writings which will help each person to become an increasingly 
alert, informed, and useful member of the profession and of society. 

c. Promoting optimum security for teachers, 

d. Providing opportunities whereby professional agents may participate in 
recreational and social activities which will further normal human rela- 
tionships. 

e. Representing the faculty in the translation of accepted policies into action. 



26 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

2. That a public school needs the application of intensive group thinking to the 
end that its activities may have unity of purpose. Opportunity for such group 
thinking is provided by a committee which is called here the "Curriculum- 
Activities Committee." The essential functions of this committee are: 

a. Adapting general curriculum policies for use in a given building. 

b. Organizing the learning experiences of students, including student partici- 
pation in the administration of the school, and planning the use of special- 
ists. 

c. Developing techniques of evaluating the curriculum experiences of stu- 
dents. 

d. Keeping curriculum records. 

e. Planning the instructional budget. 
/. Planning utilization of school plant. 

g. Planning replacements and additions to school plant. 

3. That real experiences must be the basis of the educative process and, therefore, 
that the total environment in which persons live must be recognized as the 
source of the most important learning experiences. This suggests the need for 
a committee that is called here the "Community-Relations Committee." The 
essential functions of the Community-Relations Committee are: 

a. Facilitating the participation of all members of the community in plan- 
ning, executing, and appraising educational policies and activities. 

6. Planning interpretative programs and exhibits. 

c. Making available objective data concerning community educational needs 
through the technique of the continuous community survey. 

d. Co-operating with community groups in the continuous development of 
effective agencies and activities of adult education. 

4. That the activities of these basic committees must be co-ordinated if they are 
to be effective in promoting socialization. This requires the organization of a 
co-ordinating committee which is called here the "Socialization Committee." 
The essential functions of the Socialization Committee are: 

c. Surveying and evaluating social life in order better to criticize the func- 
tions of the school in society. 

b. Interpreting results of evaluation activities in terms of the unitary objec- 
tive of education democratic socialization. 

c. Determining steps, emphases, and sequences the strategy of school ad- 
ministration. 

d. Reviewing, co-ordinating, and integrating activities of students, teachers, 
specialists, and community groups. 

e. Maintaining balance among the activities of students, teachers, and com- 
munity groups. 6 

This plan thus provides for an over-all co-ordinating group, the 
Socialization Committee, and three other committees which clear 



* G. Robert Koopman, Alice Miel, and Paul J. Misner, Democracy in Sckod Ad- 
ministration, pp. 78-80. New York: D, Appleton-Century Co., 1943. 



MACKENZIE 27 

through this central agency. These three committees are the community- 
relations committee, the teacher-affairs committee, and the curriculum- 
activities committee. Glencoe, Illinois, has worked successfully for sever- 
al years with a modification of this plan. 

Larger school systems will of necessity have to provide for the co- 
ordination of building units. The organization proposed for a single 
building can be adopted with appropriate modifications for city and 
county school systems and thus provide needed unity and continuity. 7 

Denver, Colorado, has developed a city-wide organization which 
places major responsibility on local units. Individual school faculties 
work with their principals through (1) teacher planning groups, (2) 
problem committees, and (3) the building committees on instruction. 
The city-wide organization for guidance and instruction consists of three 
committees on instruction: one for elementary schools, one for junior 
high schools, and one for senior high schools. Each of these is a repre- 
sentative group of teachers, administrators, and supervisors. An execu- 
tive board, consisting of representatives from the various types of educa- 
tional workers, co-ordinates the activities of the three city committees 
on instruction. Not only do individual buildings have great freedom of 
action but the city committees on instruction have great authority and 
provide leadership and initiative in developing programs and in guiding 
local activities. 

It is particularly appropriate to have staff co-operation in the ad- 
ministration of schools in a democracy. Educational organizations which 
are to teach democracy must, of necessity, provide extensive opportunity 
for practicing democratic ways of behaving and working. Only thus can 
appropriate skills and attitudes be secured. Unless democracy is exempli- 
fied by the administration, it is unlikely that much success in this direc- 
tion can be achieved through the educational program. Unfortunately, 
this need is not adequately recognized in the schools of the country. Ad- 
ministration all too often is a dominant force, making decisions on major 
matters of policy without consultations with those concerned. Some- 
times this appears to be a simpler and quicker way. Over a long period of 
time, however, it is not the most effective process. Undemocratic ad- 
ministration fails to capitalize on the talents and ideas of the group and 
is a denial of the democratic way as a desirable goal for our schools. 

3. The educ^ionaL program should be conceivedj planned, and adminis- 
tered as a whole. The welfare of children and youth, and thus effective 
administration, necessitates planning and operating the curriculum and 
related pupil services as a unit. This is important in order to secure both 



>. 84-92. 



28 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

vertical and horizontal unity. Vertical unity is needed to facilitate the 
normal and sequential growth of the individual. Consistency of guidance, 
in terms of the needs of individuals, from level to level, is to be desired. 
There is no apparent justification for gaps between grades or units of the 
system or for marked differences in the curriculum organization from one 
grade to the next. Planning on any level should be in harmony with the 
over-all organization of the curriculum and related pupil services. 
Faculty members at one level should be closely associated with those 
working with younger or older pupils. The present school organization 
frequently makes this difficult because the individual segments operate 
as entirely separate entities. Administration faces an important re- 
sponsibility in bringing about continuity in the program. 

Horizontal unity is equally necessary. Education is increasingly effec- 
tive as the individual develops in ability to integrate and relate his 
various experiences. The plan and operation of the school program can do 
much to facilitate this integration. If the educational offering is planned 
in relation to a basic analysis of the total life of the child, it is more likely 
that balance and relationship can be achieved. However, special atten- 
tion and continued effort must be directed to this problem if real unity is 
to be secured. The tendency is to break the program into subjects and 
compartments and to establish special and independent services. Not 
only should the regular classwork be organized to help the individual 
unify his experiences but also the recreational and extra-class activities as 
well as the special services, such as guidance, health, and the school 
cafeteria, should be operated so as to support, extend, and otherwise 
make effective the total program. This calls for more than management 
on the part of the administrative staff. Leadership is needed in discover- 
ing new and better arrangements than are found in most schools today. 

Planning and administering the educational program are important at 
the state level as well as in county, city, or individual schools. However, 
the effect of administrative policy is particularly crucial at the point 
where it touches the individual child. Thus, while over-all co-ordination 
Is necessary for each unit, whether it be the fiscal, attendance, or ad- 
ministrative unit, the individual school should be responsible for plan- 
ning and administering the educational program. Only in this way can 
appropriate adaptations be made to the needs of individual children and 
youth and to local community conditions. Full participation by teachers, 
parents, and children is needed at the local level in developing adminis- 
trative plans and procedures suitable to goals. This is possible and prac- 
tical only where the responsible unit is small enough for the participants 
to be directly affected by decisions. 

Unfortunately, in many cities and counties throughout the nation, the 



MACKENZIE 29 

individual school is not the really effective unit for planning and ad- 
ministering the educational program. Administration of the individual 
school is not only directed but also frequently dominated by controls from 
a city or county office. Courses of study are outlined in detail and ad- 
ministrative procedures are prescribed. In such situations authority 
flows down to the school from the next higher administrative unit, rather 
than up from the parents, teachers, and pupils in a particular school. 
Some of our larger cities reveal the formalizing and routinizing effects of 
such an arrangement. A few cities and counties are pointing the way out 
of these difficulties by releasing individual schools and making it possible 
for them to plan and administer their own programs in terms of the needs 
to be met. A desirable measure of co-ordination is, of course, maintained, 
and services to individual schools are provided by the central office. 

The Denver organization described in the preceding section makes the 
individual school the unit in developing the educational program. This 
plan permits a maximum of adaptation to a particular community and its 
children. In enables a school to be organized and to function as a unit in 
relation to its unique conditional factors and it places responsibility upon 
the staff of the individual school for developing an effective program. 
There is, however, a considerable measure of co-ordination and service 
provided through the central organizations. 

Several types of administrative units have been successful in establish- 
ing an organization which facilitates the participation of the various 
groups interested in curriculum improvement. In Wisconsin the State 
Department of Public Instruction and the Wisconsin Education Associa- 
tion co-operatively initiated a program in September, 1944, which is 
referred to as the Wisconsin Co-operative Educational Planning Pro- 
gram. Although the state superintendent of public instruction has legal 
responsibility for preparing a course of study, this is not interpreted to 
mean that a fixed course of study should be prepared. Instead, the state 
agency gives leadership and unity to a program which stimulates local 
initiative in the cities and counties. Emphasis is placed 013. the exchange 
of information and experiences among schools, assistance in the clarifica- 
tion of the task of the school, help to local agencies in carrying out the 
responsibilities of public education, and work with lay organizations in 
studying educational needs. 

While the total Wisconsin program provides for a broad attack on a 
wide range of educational problems, the work in the curriculum area 
illustrates the means used for encouraging the individual school or school 
system to become the major determiner of detailed plans of operation. 

There is a central planning group called the curriculum-guiding com- 
mittee which includes representatives from various types of educational 



30 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

workers throughout the state that is responsible for the direction of the 
program. Much of the actual work is carried on with and through (1) 
local liaison committees, (2) the curriculum staff, and (3) state-wide com- 
mittees. The local liaison committees are selected by the various cities 
and counties participating in the program. They serve to co-ordinate 
state and local activities and to stimulate local effort. The curriculum 
staff is a large group, mostly staff members from teacher-training insti- 
tutions who volunteer to serve as consultants for local curriculum study 
groups. The state-wide committees have responsibility for preparing 
curriculum guides which may deal with subject areas, with a prob- 
lem approach to teaching and learning, with intergroup relations, and 
with various other problems. The emphasis is on developing materials 
of a resource type which can be used as a basis for planning by an indi- 
vidual teacher. The curriculum guiding committee, as the over-all state 
committee, has prepared various types of bulletins intended to stim- 
ulate local groups to study their own responsibility, to plan with lay 
citizens, to use available consultant help, or in other ways to take initia- 
tive in developing a satisfactory program geared to meet local needs. 
This, of course, places great demands on the leadership of city and 
county superintendents and principals in the individual schools. 8 

To regard the individual school as the unit for planning and adminis- 
tering the educational program makes necessary many changes in ad- 
ministrative structure and operation. For example, system-wide super- 
visory and curriculum services need to be modified to place emphasis on 
aiding each school to develop its own program. The principal and staff of 
the individual school must accept greater responsibility for over-all pro- 
gram planning and development in each school. Also, questions of 
budgeting, expenditures, and selection of new staff members are typical 
of other areas in which greater participation by the individual school is 
needed if the curriculum and related pupil services are to be conceived, 
planned, and administered as a whole. 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE CUKRICULTJM 

The curriculum is defined as the experiences which boys and girls have 
under the direction of the school. Thus, it encompasses the whole educa- 
tional program. This section will deal with the total body of pupil ex- 
periences, and subsequent sections will single out various pupil services 
for special consideration. This procedure avoids certain difficulties in- 
volved in relating many pupil services to the schools' total program. 



* Ida A. Ooley, "Growth through In-Service Action," Educational Leadership, HI 
{December, 1945), 126-28, 135; Gordon N. Mackenzie, "Organization for Cruriculum 
Planning/' Wisconsin Journal of Education, LXXVII (December, 1944), 173-76. 



MACKENZIE 31 

As already indicated, administrative functions are planned to serve 
or to further the educational program. These functions which relate 
specifically to the curriculum can, therefore, be best described in relation 
to the type of curriculum contemplated. A series of statements, descrip- 
tive of a desirable curriculum, and the means for its development, are 
herewith presented. A few examples of implications for administration 
are indicated. 

1. Administration should assist in providng a balanced program of 
living for boys and girls. Because of changes in the home and other social 
institutions, an increasingly heavy responsibility has been placed upon 
the school to co-ordinate the various forces impinging on boys and girls 
and to help them achieve a balance of such factors as work, rest, relaxa- 
tion, stimulation, and nutrition. This task is infinitely more complex 
than the provision of a program for teaching certain prescribed subjects. 
Classwork, extra-class activities, and out-of-school pursuits need to be 
properly related in planning pupil experiences of educational value. This 
calls for administrative co-ordination and leadership. Administration can 
do much to help teachers focus attention on the need for providing a 
balanced program of living. Administrative rules and regulations may 
force a narrow and unbalanced program on a school or may aid in secur- 
ing proper consideration for all aspects of pupil growth and learning. Ad- 
ministrative vision is essential for bringing various educational influences 
into harmonious and reinforcing relationships. 

The problem of providing a balanced program for boys and girls has 
long been the concern of many faculty groups. The school day in some 
schools has been organized with proper regard for physical and mental 
health of pupils. Appropriate variety of activity has sometimes been 
planned with the total welfare in mind, In some situations faculty mem- 
bers devote much time to co-operative planning in order that the whole 
program may be on a sound basis and that individual pupil cases can be 
considered to be sure that each is receiving appropriate stimulation as 
well as adequate rest and relaxation. 

Few schools, however, have given full attention to the educative re- 
sources of the community and the bringing of school programs into prop- 
er relation to them. Some communities have made considerable progress 
in organizing co-ordinating councils of the various agencies concerned 
with education and welfare. Frequently, these agencies consciously sup- 
plement one another, by exchanging information on pupils and planning 
co-operatively to provide the best possible service to individuals and the 
total group. 

The parents, teachers, and pupils in Glencoe, Illinois, have made a 
very unique contribution to the development of a balanced program of 



32 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

living for their boys and girls. In a little booklet, Together We Learn, they 
have attempted to show "the whys of school for ways at home." Proceed- 
ing on the assumption that education should be a partnership between 
home and school, they have prepared a curriculum guide for parents and 
used many illustrations from children's drawings. The guide is intended 
as an aid to the home and the school in providing "learning experiences 
that are continuous, unified, and rich in meaning and purpose." After an 
introductory section which makes explicit the way in which the home and 
school can work together, the various aspects of the school programs are 
discussed and interpreted, and numerous suggestions made as to po- 
tentially valuable relations between in-school and out-of-school activi- 
ties. The booklet is written so that parents will want to read and re-read 
it. Undoubtedly a project such as this helps to introduce balance and con- 
sistency into the lives of many boys and girls. 9 

2. Administration should assist in securing a curriculum which will aid 
children and youth with their needs, interests, and concerns and help them re- 
late these to broader social problems. Needs are here defined as any basic 
physiological or mental requirements which should be satisfied, or any 
social demands which must be met, if the individual is to attain max- 
imum self-realization. Interests are viewed as motivating forces in the 
life of the pupil. Concerns are those matters about which the individual is 
bothered or worried. The broader social problems include a wide range of 
issues which must be resolved if our citizens are to live a full and rich life. 
In theory, at least, educational programs have accepted a responsibility 
to both the individual and to society. Actually, schools have had only 
partial success in relating their programs to the immediate needs and 
interests of pupils and to the development of a sensitivity for and an 
ability to deal effectively with the great social problems of our day. Ad- 
ministration has a significant service to perform in furthering progress 
toward these goals. 

A curriculum centering on the needs and interests of pupils requires 
f reedom for teachers to work and plan for individuals, as well as leader- 
ship from administration in finding ever better ways of serving children 
and youth. Administration should continuously stimulate teachers to 
study the children in their classes, to gain added proficiency in recogniz- 
ing needs associated with each stage of growth and development, and to 
utilise learning experiences which are of the greatest potential effective- 
ness for the outcomes sought. It is important that teachers be able to 
recognize the wide differences among children and that standards as to 
learning time, content of the program, and results anticipated be indi- 



We Learn. Cfeaeoe, DHacaa: Board of Education, September, 1942. 



MACKENZIE 33 

vidualized. This argues for flexible marking and promotion systems. Too 
often an attempt has been made to meet individual differences solely on 
the basis of administrative adjustments such as ability grouping. The 
attempt to solve problems of individual differences through administra- 
tive arrangements has always proved inadequate. It is now generally 
recognized that the grouping is a relatively minor matter, which can often 
be cared for within single classes. The more important and more difficult 
problem is that of adjusting the curriculum, or selecting learning ex- 
periences, in accordance with individual needs. 

The present high schools have good examples of administrative ap- 
proaches to the problem of differences. Multiple programs have been set 
up, such as college preparatory, commercial, industrial, and general 
offerings. For each, a series of courses is listed. The supposition is then 
often made that, by distributing pupils to these programs, their individ- 
ual differences will be met. In recognition of the inadequacies of such a 
plan, a constant-with-variables program has frequently been advocated. 
Under this arrangement certain courses are required or made constant 
for all pupils, with a range of eleetives or variables offered in addition. In 
connection with these programs, guidance has sometimes been regarded 
as an administrative arrangement for distributing pupils to the ap- 
propriate courses. These programs give a semblance of orderliness to 
planning and operation but are entirely unsatisfactory if used alone. Un- 
less they are supplemented by a modification of the course content, that 
is, by proper consideration for the experiences that individual pupils 
have, they fail to meet individual needs. If the problem of individual 
needs and differences is to be realistically attacked, attention must be 
centered on what happens in the individual classroom. It would seem, 
then, that administration might well focus effort on providing leadership 
to secure appropriate modifications of the curriculum rather than to rely 
on mere administrative rearrangements. 

In connection with the state curriculum program in Wisconsin great 
emphasis has been placed on studying children as they grow and develop 
in their school and community. A study guide has been prepared and has 
received extensive use throughout the state. This state program recog- 
nizes the importance of trying to have each of the 20,000 teachers in the 
state more consciously determine the curriculum in his classroom, and so 
seeks to aid teachers in studying their own pupils and in developing ap- 
propriate programs, 10 



18 The Task of the School: A Stitdy Gwde for Use by Professional and Lay Groups. 
Curriculum Guiding Committee, Bulletin No. 1. Madison, Wisconsin: Wisconsin Co- 
operative Educational Planning Program. 



34 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

The Commission on Teacher Education of the American Council on 
Education has recognized the importance of each teacher understanding 
his pupils and has provided help for both preservice and in-service 
groups, 11 Dr. Daniel A. Prescott, who headed this program, has since 
been providing leadership to study groups in many sections of the 
country. In the state of Maryland, for example, numerous groups of 
teachers are organized to study the children under their direction as a 
basis for guiding their development. 

The problem of meeting individual interests and capacities takes a 
somewhat different form in elementary as contrasted with secondary 
schools. Under present arrangements, with one teacher to a class, there is 
difficulty in offering as wide a range of opportunities as would seem de- 
sirable. While the plan of one teacher to a class is essentially sound, it 
seems important to make possible the use of numerous laboratory situa- 
tions in the fine, industrial, and home arts so that the variety of learning 
experiences may be suited to the broadened purposes of the modern 
school. On the secondary level the elective system is the chief administra- 
tive arrangement for meeting individual variations in capacity, interest, 
and concern. However, the extra-class activities help to serve youth 
more satisfactorily. Unfortunately, both the elective system and extra- 
class activities are usually rather formal and mechanical adjustments. 
They make possible the reaching of a large number of individuals, but by 
no means assure it. Teachers in the classroom must find ways and means 
of keeping experiences in harmony with the level of development of 
individuals. Staff members who really know boys and girls must guide 
them toward suitable experiences, wherever they may be had. On both 
the elementary and secondary levels there is an urgent need of more 
effective means for the discovery of worth-while interests. To help teach- 
ers progress in this whole area might well be an important goal of ad- 
ministration* 

Administrative arrangements for class groupings frequently make it 
difficult for teachers to really get to know their pupils. In those ele- 
mentary schools where class size is reasonable, teachers can become 
familiar with the backgrounds and ambitions of their pupils, as well as 
with the out-of-school influences which condition their development. By 
introducing a wide variety of free and flexible activities into the program 
of instruction they can come to know their pupils and guide them in- 
telligently. Conditions in the secondary school are usually less favorable. 
Teachers having five classes with 150 to 200 pupils per day find it im- 
possible to become sufficiently well acquainted to work out plans with 

11 Sfeaff of tne Division on Child Development and Teacher Personnel, Helping 
Teachers Und&&bmd Ck&drm* Washington: American Council on Education, 1945. 



MACKENZIE 35 

any considerable number of them in terms of their interests, needs, and 
concerns. Adding a brief home-room period to a heavy schedule of pupil 
contacts is not an adequate remedy. Some major reorganization is needed 
in order that each pupil may be well known by at least one staff member 
and have an opportunity to work with him for a considerable period of 
tune. The introduction of core courses has been a useful approach to this 
problem. As another attack, some schools have organized what is re- 
ferred to as a school within a school so that a team of three to five teach- 
ers might carry major responsibility for a specific group of 90 to 150 
pupils. Problems in this area are difficult to solve and continuous ad- 
ministrative leadership is needed to secure the proper basic working ar- 
rangements and to focus attention on the real problems. 

Over a period of years the secondary schools of Denver, Colorado, 
have experimented with a general education program based on a core or 
guidance sequence. In the junior high schools a class is under the direc- 
tion of one teacher for a substantial block of time. In the senior high 
schools there is a similar arrangement but with considerable variation 
from school to school. Whatever the plan for instruction, a pupil usually 
has continuing contact for guidance purposes with one staff member 
throughout each three-year period. This makes it possible for each pupil 
to have at least one staff member who knows him well and with whom he 
is thoroughly acquainted. In addition, there is a co-ordinator in each 
school with time to aid staff members in co-operatively planning for 
their groups. 

Staff members hi East High School in Denver are organized in half- 
grade committees, such as 10A, 10B, 11A, and 11B. These committees 
include the general education teachers for the particular grade and other 
teachers representative of the various subject departments. These com- 
mittees carry full responsibility for the total school activity of their 
group and seek to co-ordinate regular instruction, extra-class activities, 
and special services, such as guidance. Teaching programs are arranged 
so that members of these half-grade committtees can meet on school time 
during the regular school day. These half-grade committees start with a 
class one semester before it enters the school and stay with that group 
until graduation. 

Another administrative arrangement, known as the school-within-a- 
school, makes possible a great variety of adjustments. One of the most 
fully developed examples of this plan is to be found in the Evanston 
Township High School. 12 Although this is a somewhat atypical situation, 
in that a staff group working within the larger school has, for almost ten 



12 Charles M. MacConnell, E. O. Melby, and C. O. Arndt, New Schools for a New 
Culture. New York: Harper & Bros., 1943. 



36 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

years, guided specially selected groups of pupils, the idea could well be 
applied to any situation with groups of three to five teachers carrying 
responsibility for one to two hundred pupils. 

Records and reports which are sometimes viewed only as administra- 
tive techniques or necessary evils, can, with proper use, serve to help 
teachers understand their pupils. With stimulation and direction, 
interest can be created in gathering significant information and studying 
individual children. The techniques employed in making records, and in 
providing for their use, may have profound influence on their contribu- 
tion to an understanding of boys and girls. 

The task of aiding children and youth to relate their needs, interests, 
and concerns to the broader social problems has seldom been well handled 
by the schools. It is a complicated and difficult matter, demanding 
breadth of understanding, skilful teaching, and careful guidance of 
pupils. By helping to maintain a climate favorable for the attainment of 
desired goals, administration can markedly affect the results secured. If 
it be accepted that the school should be directed by the society in which 
it operates, a first and most basic aspect of the problem involves the 
guidance of pupils toward broad social-value patterns which are in 
harmony with the democratic way. Only as values are defined and 
analyzed will pupils develop bases for making decisions involving per- 
sonal and social affairs. Certainly administration needs to assist teachers 
in their study of ways of operating more effectively through the in- 
structional program to aid pupils in the clarification of values. This is a 
difficult responsibility to discharge, but, aside from this, administration 
can do much to secure relationships within and without the school which 
will contribute to democratic living. Through the method of operating 
the school, as well as through the encouragement of full faculty and 
community participation, an environment can be established which is 
favorable to growth of democratic behavior and action. For example, 
extra-class activities can be operated so as to provide opportunity for all. 
Regulations set up to guide the activity program can be arranged so as 
not to penalize pupils who could profit from participation. Individual 
organizations, which are often exceedingly undemocratic in their mem- 
bership policy and method of operation, can be led to modify their prac- 
tices. These and similar matters are appropriate objects of administrative 
concern. 

If the curriculum emphasizes broad social questions which are of 
immediate concern to pupils, certain administrative problems are 
eimted. The purpose of giving direct attention to real, live topics and 
questions is to provide an education which really makes a difference. 
Schooling is too often limited to relaying knowledge which pupils might 



MACKENZIE 37 

be expected to use in solving problems of living more adequately. In 
contrast, the position taken here is that children and youth will profit 
from extensive and continuous experience in analyzing and solving real 
problems. This necessitates the use of a great variety of instructional 
materials and learning experiences. Community contacts become es- 
sential and so administrative leadership is needed to interpret the basic 
reason for the program and to aid the whole Community in contributing 
to the education of boys and girls. If real problems are to be considered, 
some of them will inevitably be controversial. The need for community 
understanding and support is, then, particularly important. 

During the 1944-45 school year pupils at Merrill, Wisconsin, organized 
a club which sent panels to lead discussions at service clubs and other 
community meetings. As an outgrowth of their classwork pupils pre- 
pared themselves to present subjects such as full employment and re- 
forms needed in education. Citizens participated freely and developed 
a respect for the pupils' thoroughness and competence. Numerous mem- 
bers of the community obtained new insight into the program of the 
schools and were in a position to speak directly on the degree of under- 
standing the boys and girls had acquired of the various aspects of the 
problems presented. 

A curriculum which aids children and youth with their needs, interests, 
and concerns and helps them relate these to social problems probably re- 
quires a pattern of organization and administration different from that 
commonly found in elementary and secondary schools. A strict subject 
organization appears to be inefficient, if not actually detrimental to 
focusing on needs and problems. As has already been suggested, it is im- 
portant to have experiences involving a variety of activities and drawing 
upon various subject areas. It is necessary to have time to work on indi- 
vidual needs, interests, and concerns or on wider social problems without 
being limited to any subject field or being restricted by the pressure of 
other ground to be covered. The experience of schools has revealed the 
value in relatively long periods of work as two to three hours. This fa- 
cilitates the introduction of a variety of activities centering around some 
topic or problem, encourages the use of many kinds of laboratory situa- 
tions, and even enables class groups or individuals to leave the school 
building as the conditions indicate this to be wise. Under such a program 
the basic skills of language, number work, and thinking are very im- 
portant, and direct instruction is given as needed. Separate subjects, as 
such, have significance for special interests and skills and continue to 
receive major attention in any program. In schools totally organized on a 
subject basis, the development of the broad experiential phase of the 
instructional program to include a block of uninterrupted time presents 



38 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

problems in relation to the assignment of staff, the scheduling of classes, 
the rethinking of the guidance program, and the participation of parents. 
The experience of schools with such programs has been such as to reveal 
the practicality of making the administrative arrangements needed. 

3, Administration should foster a curriculum which builds competence in 
the basic tools and methods of work. School programs have long included 
the three R's, but more and more attention is being given other funda- 
mentals such as methods of study, problem-solving, getting on with 
others, and habits of work. The greatest need for improvement in the 
teaching of the three B/s is that of providing meaningful experience for 
boys and girls. Too large a portion of pupil time is devoted to barren and 
somewhat fruitless instruction in reading and arithmetic. Administration 
can lead the way to more significant effort with economy of time and 
better outcomes. The teaching of skills in a purposeful setting and the 
use of improved materials promise more adequate results. In most situa- 
tions direct and carefully guided teaching will have to supply a wealth of 
supplementary experiences. 

The scope of the so-called fundamentals needs to be broadened. The 
three R's alone are no longer adequate. The ability to solve problems, to 
get along with others, and to work effectively are suggestive of new and 
important objectives of good educational programs. Opportunity for 
pupils to grapple with day-to-day problem situations under the guidance 
of teachers who are able to help them improve their skill and techniques 
will be a necessity. Direct study of human relations, opportunity to work 
and play with others of various ages, and frequent attention to the skills 
involved are necessary emphases, Work experience centering in the home, 
school community, business, industry, or farm can well be an important 
feature of every program. Progress in these areas will necessitate in- 
service education of teachers and constant guidance by administration to 
introduce provision for these learnings. The administrative problems in- 
volved in such ventures are numerous, but here administration can pro- 
vide valuable leadership by revealing how these vital and necessary 
activities can be conducted as a part of a modern program of education. 

4. Administration should encourage pupil planning and self-direction. 
The best schools today are free from rigid disciplinary control and have 
fewer and fewer teachers who dominate and drive children and youth. 
The emphasis is upon leading, upon working co-operatively with pupils 
in planning what they will do or how they will do it, and upon evaluating 
tbeir progress toward selected goals. Planning is an important part of the 
educative process and pupils require extensive and continuous oppor- 
tunities to engage in purposeful planning under guidance, if they are to 
gain control of the methods of social participation and to learn to plan 



MACKENZIE 39 

habitually with care. In so far as programs are in harmony with the 
needs, interests, and concerns of the learners, it is only logical and ap- 
propriate that the individual pupil should assume considerable re- 
sponsibility for working out his own plan of action. Where real pupil 
purposes exist, pupil planning naturally follows. 

Pupil participation in planning has other justifications. First, such ex- 
periences are fundamental in democratic living. Shared responsibility 
necessitates a willingness to contribute to group thinking and action, and 
an understanding of the procedures for co-operative planning increases 
the individual's personal satisfaction and effectiveness. Second, the use of 
teacher-pupil planning is an important aspect of a program which seeks 
to provide for individual differences and needs. Certainly the value of 
specific experiences varies from individual to individual. Through 
teacher-pupil planning it is possible to guide individual programs in ac- 
cord with needs. 

In Montgomery County, Maryland, continuous attention has been 
given to problems of co-operative pknning. Within individual classrooms 
there has been extensive participation by pupils in planning a great vari- 
ety of special activities as well as what should be studied within certain 
areas and how individuals and groups should proceed in attacking prob- 
lems. One middle-grade group has very successfully planned and carried 
through a project which involved checking erosion and beautifying the 
school grounds. Planning in another elementary school has become a 
school-wide activity. Through individual classrooms and the school 
assembly, children have shown enthusiasm and growing proficiency in 
planning for the improvement of their school and accepting responsi- 
bilities defined by group action. 

Teachers require help in developing their ability to share planning 
responsibilities with pupils, and conditions which are favorable to this 
aim should be maintained. Administration can facilitate in-service 
growth in this area. Among other things, it is necessary to have ad- 
ministrative recognition of the importance of planning procedures, as 
well as specific assistance in the development of techniques and freedom 
for teachers to follow through on the basis of plans developed. The rigid 
prescription of subject matter to be taught seriously handicaps the 
teacher in planning. However, the clear definition of outcomes ix> be 
sought and agreement upon a broad outline of areas within which teacbr 
ers and pupils may plan for specific experiences are desirable kinds of 
guides. Effective teacher-pupil planning requires that each classroom be 
a laboratory situation. Books and other materials, appropriate to the 
level of maturity and the areas of interest in the class, should be readily 
available. Further, there should be ea$y access to supplies and materials 



40 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

not usually kept in the classroom. Furniture arrangements so flexible as 
to permit much small-group and individual activity are conducive to 
good planning. There should be a minimum of limitations covering pupil 
affairs such as groups leaving the classroom or building or individuals 
going to teachers other than their own or using other resources in the 
school or community. These suggestions do not imply that a lack of 
system or order is an aid to pupil planning; nor do they disregard the 
need for consideration of the maturity level of the learners. Many of the 
problems of such a program and their implications for administration are 
quite clear. Difficulties are particularly great where a transition is neces- 
sary from a rigid, fully prescribed program dominated by teacher or 
administrator. 

5. Administration should aid in using the community as a laboratory. 
The effectiveness of the educational program in elementary and second- 
ary schools will be very largely influenced by the relation existing be- 
tween school and community. Meaning and understanding result from 
using the community and its resources, from seeing problem situations 
and conditions as they actually exist. In so far as schools become in- 
timately related to the life and environment in which they operate, it 
becomes possible for them to contribute to the improvement of commu- 
nity living. Through surveying, studying, and analyzing various aspects 
of community needs and resources, the educational experiences of pupils 
may be enriched; and through rendering services to a great variety of 
community enterprises, the schools can become a constructive force in 
the betterment of community life. 

Before any educational program can become closely related to the life 
of the community it is necessary that citizens understand something of 
the needs of children and of the ways in which schools and communities 
can advantageously serve one another. To make progress in this direc- 
tion, administrative leadership in the systematic and continuous study of 
community interests and agencies is essential. Interpretations of the 
possible areas for co-operative school-community activity must be made 
repeatedly. Participation of adult citizens in planning for school- 
(X>mmunity co-operation is a basic necessity, A single teacher, or even 
two or three teachers working alone, can do very little. It is necessary for 
a faculty to work together under {sympathetic and forceful leadership if 
worth-while results are to be secured. 

6. Admnistratwn shoidd be adjusted to the type of (xwriculum planned. 
Desirable features of a modern curriculum as outlined above are suffi- 
ciently in contrast with much current practice to necessitate considerable 
adjustment in administrative viewpoint and procedure. Emerging cur- 
riculums present problems and difficulties for administration because 



MACKENZIE 41 

adequate techniques and controls have not been established through ex- 
perience with such curriculums. There' is need for much pioneering in this 
area. 

The foregoing statements, indicating the phases of curriculum de- 
velopment which administration should foster, emphasize the importance 
of the three basic administrative policies outlined in the first part of the 
chapter: (1) Administration is an important means for the attainment of 
effective curriculums. (2) Administrative plans and procedures should be 
developed co-operatively by the educational staff, the parents, and the 
pupils. (3) The educational program should be conceived, planned, and 
administered as a whole. 

The importance of these policies is particularly great when the cur- 
riculum is of the type herein suggested. As the emphasis shifts from 
teaching subject matter to guiding boys and girls toward the develop- 
ment of desirable kinds of behavior, the need for co-operative effort in 
planning and executing a unified educational program is increased. All 
must be willing to modify personal interests and pleasures and work to- 
gether in serving each child or youth. 

The discussion thus far indicates that administration is regarded as 
having a broader function than that involved in the organization and 
management of a school. These are essential, but leadership is also im- 
portant. Especially within the individual school, where the curriculum is 
finally determined, administration has a vitally necessary directing or 
guiding function. This can be exercised best through curriculum study, 
supervision, or in-service education. The following section will indicate 
the kind of in-service program through which it is believed administra- 
tion can function best. 

ADMINISTRATION OF IN-SERVICE EDUCATION AND 
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 

In characterizing the modern curriculum, continuous reference has 
been made to the need for teachers to study their pupils as well as the 
problems of teaching and learning with which they are confronted. The 
role of the administrator as a stimulator and guide, rather than as a mere 
manager or trouble-shooter, was stressed. Whether the function of ad- 
ministration is referred to as being one of in-service education or of 
curriculum development does not seem important. The essential con- 
sideration is that problems in this area should be attacked through 
methods which are in harmony with the kind of curriculum desired and 
with sound principles of learning. In this case, teachers, administrators, 
and other specialized workers are the learners, and only in so far as they 
modify their behavior can the appropriate changes be made in the edu- 



42 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

eational program. Curriculum development, as is the case with in- 
service education, is fundamentally a problem of changing the people 
concerned. It is not, basically, a matter of writing courses of study. Ap- 
proaching the subject on the basis of these assumptions, several guides 
for administration seem to be pertinent. 

1. In-service education should focus directly on the improvement of pupil 
learning experiences. Time is often wasted by centering the effort and 
attention of in-service education programs on some aspect of teaching 
without any assurance of favorable influence on the learning of pupils. 
All too often energy is expended to secure a general improvement of 
teachers through inspection, appraisal, and counsel by the administrator 
or supervisor. In this process the relationship between specific teaching 
acts and particular learning outcomes remains somewhat uncertain, and 
teacher enthusiasm for self-improvement is only slightly motivated by 
the thought that someday it may be of value. If, however, attention is 
centered on pupil learning experiences and ways of improving them, it is 
possible to secure an eagerness on the part of teachers which is certain to 
result in professional growth and a desirable modification of behavior. It 
is important that teachers have a purpose which they wish to achieve. 
Improvement will then come from getting a better conception of the kind 
of pupil learning experiences needed and from the effort to find better 
means of providing them. 

In Santa Barbara County, California, supervisors in co-operation with 
teachers have organized field trips to study, first-hand, important aspects 
of the natural environment or of local industries. Such excursions have 
been voluntary and were usually under the direction of expert leadership. 
In many cases guides and suggestions were prepared by teachers or the 
county office after the visit, for anyone wishing to take pupil groups 
through the same experience. These trips and the resulting guides en- 
abled teachers to conduct similar tours with their own students on a 
much higher level of effectiveness than if they had not previously made 
their own carefully planned investigation. 

In Denver, Colorado, teachers have been studying the health interests 
and concerns of their pupils and otherwise seeking to improve their in- 
structional program. As they have worked during the 1945-46 school 
year they have come to see the need for more information and under- 
standing in the health area. They have requested assistance, and semi- 
nars have been established to enable them to better handle the teaching 
problems they are encountering. This type of direct attention to improv- 
ing the learning opportunities of boys and girls, given at a time when it is 
recognized as being needed, has promise of materially improving the 
effectiveness of instruction. 



MACKENZIE 43 

2. Programs of in-service education should be products of co-operative 
staff activity. Many efforts at in-service education have failed because 
they were planned by administrators or supervisors to achieve some im- 
proved educational program or procedure which they alone could visu- 
alize. Lack of success in such instances has not always been a result of 
presenting proposals that were unsound. Some efforts have resulted in 
failure because teachers did not recognize the need implied in the recom- 
mendation and hence did not accept wholeheartedly the suggested plan 
of action. The conclusion should not be drawn that administrative stimu- 
lation is undesirable. In most schools there is urgent need for leadership 
from a supervisor, administrator, or faculty group in bringing problems 
to the attention of the entire staff and in initiating activity. However, the 
actual work undertaken by individuals or by the group should be that 
which seems significant to them. The process by which an in-service 
program can be built is similar to that of teacher-pupil planning in which, 
after an initial and carefully developed interpretation of problems or 
issues by individuals or a committee, members of the group list interests 
that may become the center of attention for one or more participants. 
This is followed by the co-operative planning of a program for working 
on the various issues enumerated by the group. It is important that all 
staff members, regardless of position, work together as friends with a 
mutual regard for one another. Those with administrative or other lead- 
ership responsibilities should provide conditions under which a staff can 
define its problems co-operatively, develop plans, and work out a program 
of action. Real education in service can be expected to result from such 
efforts. 

3. Programs of in-service education should be flexible and should include 
many varied activities. In-service education, such as is sometimes synony- 
mous with faculty meetings, is frequently in bad repute. Reorganization 
is necessary to make possible a sufficient variety of activities to meet 
individual needs and to contribute to the attainment of many different 
purposes. Trips, excursions, workshops, individual projects in arts or 
science laboratories, and research hi preparing resource units are but a 
few of the possible and desirable learning opportunities. There are many 
purposes which may be served by in-service programs. Some members of 
the staff may wish to re-examine the definition of their job or may desire 
help in clarifying the purposes of the educational program. Others may 
want assistance in studying the community or in meeting and working 
with citizens. Some may seek help in evaluating outcomes of instruction. 
A few may find it profitable to prepare resource units. It is exceedingly 
important that there be opportunity to work on the specifics. Too many 
programs have been limited to the discussion of theoretical questions. 



44 TEE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

The illustrations cited above which relate to the use of field trips in 
Santa Barbara County and the provision of health seminars in Denver 
suggest means for giving direct help to teachers. 

In many situations in-service education has been regarded narrowly 
as a total group effort in which all staff members contribute to the same 
general project. If recognition is to be given to individual interests and 
needs, and if each person is to work at tasks which are significant to him, 
and on which he can make a contribution, considerable variation must be 
provided within any one program. Undoubtedly, desirable intra-group 
stimulation results from co-operative work on a common enterprise, and 
provision should be made for such opportunities. In small schools it may 
be necessary to relate most individual projects to some over-all program 
in order to get sufficient interaction and co-operation. In larger faculties, 
however, many small groups may be established. Also, there can well be 
many individual projects where sufficient motivation and self-direction 
are present. 

At Tuskegee Institute in Alabama there are four laboratory schools 
participating in the teacher-education program; one is located on the 
campus, three are rural schools. Because all schools are small, staff mem- 
bers seem particularly anxious to work as a total group. In spite of travel 
difficulties, staff members assemble at a central location approximately 
once a month for an afternoon and evening work session. A workshop in 
the early summer has been an additional means which has been used to 
further work on their common problems. During the 1945-46 school year 
a careful analysis of major problems was made and three areas or group- 
ings of problems were selected for intensive work. These were designated 
as (1) guidance and instruction > (2) health and recreation, and (3) econom- 
ic conditions in the community served by the school. Each staff mem- 
ber is working in one of these areas and it so happens that teachers from 
a single school are well distributed with respect to the three groups. The 
development of this organization through discussion, the provision for 
flexibility in terms of group interests, and the pooling of efforts among 
staff members in small schools result in a commendable plan of organiza- 
tion for the problems being attacked in this type of situation. 

In-service education sometimes has been centered entirely on a study 
of the philosophy of education; at other times it has dealt with the me- 
chanics of schpol operation as though it were appropriate to consider 
operation apart from the purposes of the school or from the life of the 
community. Balance is needed. Staff groups not only should contact the 
professional materials in the basic areas of child development, learning, 
educational sociology, and philosophy but also should become familiar 
with the current social ideas and the traditional values which have 



MACKENZIE 45 

operated in the evolution of our culture. An acquaintance with such 
sources will help immeasurably in securing a vision of the possibilities of 
education in the years ahead. 

It is quite uncommon for in-service education to involve participation 
on the part of children, youth, and the adults of the community. It is re- 
garded more often as a bookish activity involving only the professional 
staff. Proposals already made indicate the need for going outside the 
school and encompassing a wide variety of projects. Many problems 
relating to the purposes and methods of schooling cannot be adequately 
handled unless lay citizens and pupils are brought into the deliberations 
and planning. The maintenance of channels for the continuous inter- 
change of opinions and points of view among the professional staff, 
children and youth, and the adults of the community will do much to 
keep in-service programs focused on significant aims and problems. 

The group working on "economic conditions in the community," in 
the Tuskegee program, is concerned with discovering ways and means 
of improving living conditions in the school community. Immediate 
problems of housing and nutrition, as well as the long-term economic 
conditions, are being studied to determine the ways in which the school 
can contribute most effectively. Effort is being concentrated in one rural 
district for the present. Representatives from various departments at 
Tuskegee Institute, as well as parents and children, are analyzing current 
conditions and possible solutions. Immediate attention is being given to 
the building of a new school through the co-operation of the Institute 
staff, the parents, and the children. Materials and methods will be used 
which it is hoped will lead to a reconstruction of homes in the com- 
munity. 

This kind of in-service program deals in a realistic way with the 
problems teachers encounter in developing a school program which 
serves major community needs. The close co-operation of parents and 
children almost assures that attention will center on real and urgent 
questions. 

In-service education should result in improved practice. Frequently it 
has been limited to study and deliberation. Administration has an im- 
portant responsibility to encourage the trial of carefully developed plans 
and to give support through the uncertain periods likely to accompany 
experimentation with new approaches. Without this encouragement, 
little significant change is likely to be made in school programs. Unless a 
staff has opportunity to carry deliberative study through to action, 
enthusiasm will not long be maintained. As has been suggested earlier, 
many changes are needed in school programs, and modification of prac- 



46 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

tice should be regarded as a significant means of in-service education as 
well as a logical outcome. 

In-service programs should have a quality of flexibility. In-service 
plans are sometimes outlined a year or more in advance and followed in 
detail, almost regardless of intervening events. If programs are to be 
established on a co-operative basis, in terms of individual interests and 
needs, it should be possible to make changes speedily in any manner that 
individual or group judgment may deem to be desirable. It should be 
possible to establish new groups easily and to abandon nonproductive 
activities promptly. 

The focus of the above illustrations on professional problems is not an 
indication that the personal development of the staff member should be 
disregarded. The general education of the teacher is highly important. 
The person who is to provide leadership in a modern school should have 
many interests. Thus, general reading, participation hi civic and cultural 
activities, as well as travel and other broadening experiences, can well be 
regarded as significant elements of in-service education and should be 
encouraged and fostered by the administration. 

4. Programs of in-service education should be included within the 
regular school program. Usually in-service activities have been conducted 
on after-school time when staff members have already devoted a full day 
to tiring activities. Any measure as important for the improvement of 
education as is the in-service education program deserves time definitely 
scheduled as part of the regular day and year. Potential values in im- 
proved teachers and more effective educational programs justify the 
expenditure of sufficient funds to make this possible. In many com- 
munities the public may need to be educated to the importance of in- 
service education, but administration should not find this particularly 
difficult in view of the overwhelming evidence which can be presented. 
Teachers may well carry many in-service activities on their own time, 
but scheduled provision should be made for the major program of in- 
service activity as a regular part of the school day. 

Several plans for doing this are becoming increasingly common: 
(1) scheduling staff meetings for a period of several days before the open- 
ing or at the close of the school year; (2) using workshops conducted by a 
teacher-training institution or by the school system itself; (3) scheduling 
staff meetings during the regular day, either by assembling teachers who 
are not working with children at a particular time or by dismissing chil- 
dren from school; (4) employing substitute teachers to free staff members 
for work on special projects involving occasional meetings or continuous 
work over a period of weeks; (5) employing teachers on a twelve-months' 
basis with a portion of the year given to in-service education. These pro- 



MACKENZIE 47 

posals are merely suggestive. Other means have been found by different 
schools to give appropriate time to this important phase of the education- 
al enterprise. Administration has, of course, a major responsibility for 
making arrangements for such procedures as have been suggested. 

5. In-service education should be recognized as an integral part of the 
total school program. Sometimes the assumption is made that in-service 
education can take place in isolation from the Various conditions within 
the school. This is, of course, impossible. It is difficult to imagine the 
existence of an eagerly accepted in-service program where morale is low 
or where there is general faculty dissatisfaction. Conversely, the poten- 
tial beneficial influences of in-service activity on morale should not be 
overlooked. If properly handled, it may be a constructive force. If the 
program is the creation of an enthusiastic staff, it will most certainly 
build morale. 

There are other attendant circumstances which are of significant im- 
port in producing effective in-service education. Probably the most vital 
single factor is administrative support and leadership. This is a major 
concern not only in launching and sustaining a program but also in mak- 
ing sure that results of staff action find an outlet in school practices. 
Often the success of faculty efforts is dependent on physical facilities, 
instructional supplies and materials, administrative arrangements for 
handling pupils, or the co-ordination of the activities of all functionaries. 
Administration can help the staff to proceed with full knowledge of 
possible obstacles and can aid individual teachers by giving them every 
possible opportunity to observe progress and success. 

6. The responsibility of administration for in-service education and cur- 
riculum development should be clearly defined. While the organization and 
management responsibilities of administration are well recognized, its 
leadership role in maintaining and improving the educational program is 
not as clearly recognized. Yet, the extent to which the schools achieve 
their purpose is almost entirely a matter of the kind of curriculum they 
provide. Administration at all levels, but particularly in the individual 
school, will need to assume greater responsibility in curriculum develop- 
ment if substantial improvements are to be made. 

It is common to find administrators critical of teachers and teachers 
critical of administrators when educators seek to explain many of the in- 
adequacies and failures of present educational procedures. Too often 
curriculum modification is regarded as merely a matter of writing or re- 
vising a course of study. Certainly this is not adequate. There is urgent 
need for a program of in-service education and curriculum development 
which enlists the full participation and co-operation of the entire pro- 
fessional staff and which leads to modifications in the behavior of school 



48 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

personnel. The fostering of such programs as will be truly effective is one 
of the most challenging tasks facing educational administration in the 
next decade. 

ADMINISTRATION OF PUPIL SEKVICES 

- In an earlier section the curriculum was defined as the experiences 
which boys and girls have under the direction of the school. Thus, the 
curriculum was conceived of as being the total educational program. In 
describing the responsibility of administration in relation to the cur- 
riculum, attention was given to the full range of experiences which pupils 
have through the classroom, the extra-class activities, and other pupil 
services. Because of the complexity of the organization of many schools 
and the distinctive educational contribution of various special pupil 
services, some of these will be singled out for separate treatment in this 
section in order that examples of administrative problems can be noted. 

1. Extra-class activities should be planned as a part of the total educa- 
tional program. This suggestion was made earlier in characterizing the 
modern curriculum but deserves special attention because of its frequent 
negation. There is no rigid line of demarcation between regular-class and 
extra-class activities, the manner of classification for the same activities 
varying from school to school. Yet, there is a series of activities, such as 
student councils, class organizations, homerooms, honor societies, and 
special interest clubs, which usually operate outside of the required class- 
work for which credit is given. The "extra" character of these activities 
frequently means that they are not given careful attention when staff 
assignments are made and that the planning for them is most haphazard. 

Experience with these activities, on both the elementary and the 
secondary levels, has revealed their great potential educational signifi- 
cance. They may improve and enrich the educational program or de- 
tract from its effectiveness. Where extra-class activities are not well 
supervised and planned they may contribute to behavior which is out of 
harmony with the aims of the school. Frequently, on the secondary level, 
they foster a form of undemocratic social behavior which is contrary to 
the teaching objectives of regular classes. It is important, therefore, for 
administration to work continuously with teachers and pupils to so con- 
duct extra-class activities that they further, in a positive and direct 
manner, the purposes of the school. These activities are particularly 
valuable in broadening the curriculum, thus helping to meet special needs 
and interests and to develop special abilities. In addition they can pro- 
vide much opportunity for practice in citizenship. When properly or- 
ganised, they go far in affording relatively unsupervised situations in 
wtielx the p*ipil can test his accomplishments. Continuous guidance of 



MACKENZIE 49 

4 

the extra-class program is essential to insure primary consideration for 
pupil interest and welfare and to place greater responsibility on boys and 
girls without removing desirable adult supervision. Effectiveness in work- 
ing with extra-class programs should be one important indication of the 
success of the teaching personnel. Careful and continuous guidance and 
co-operative leadership from both the teaching staff and the administra- 
tion are essential to the success of these activities. 

2. Evaluation of pupil development should be based on the progress of the 
individual toward goals which are suitable to him. In an earlier section con- 
sideration was given to some of the administrative means, such as group- 
ing of pupils and course-of-study provisions, which have been used to ad- 
just the school organization to pupil needs. A general dissatisfaction was 
expressed with most efforts to provide for normal individuals through 
administrative arrangements alone. The possible contribution of admin- 
istrative leadership in relation to curriculum development was stressed. 
Administration definitely influences the adaptation of the school to 
individual needs and interests at many other points. One of the most im- 
portant areas of administrative responsibility is the evaluation of pupil 
development. Policies with respect to promotion, for example, are usually 
school-wide and thus control the actions of individual teachers. Semi- 
annual promotions, which were instituted under a subject-matter-to-be- 
learned concept of the curriculum, are still maintained in many schools. 
One hundred per cent promotions have become the policy in some schools 
without careful consideration of the needs of individuals and without 
appropriate modifications in the curriculum and in the instructional pro- 
cedures. Fixed promotion standards have generally been abolished, but 
standards based on an adequate assessment of the progress of the indi- 
vidual toward goals which are appropriate for him have not been widely 
established. Marking systems are seldom well related to the stated pur- 
poses of the educational program. Tests and other evaluation devices are 
often used on a school-wide basis in such a way as to encourage adherence 
to a single standard encompassing a narrow range of skills as the goal for 
all pupils. The seriousness and complexity of these problems should en- 
courage faculty groups to give them their continuous and serious atten- 
tion. The kind of curriculum or educational program provided may be 
fundamentally conditioned by the over-all administrative pofieies and 
practices regarding the evaluation of pupil development. 

Solutions in this area are not easy to find. While much can be ac- 
complished by a clarification of rules and regulations, continuous partici- 
pation of faculty groups in the study of this problem and in the perfecting 
of techniques for meeting the situation will always be needed. Pupils 
change and faculty groups shift from time to time. The establishment of 



50 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

goals suitable to each individual is a difficult process. Yet, true education 
for the general and all-round progress of boys and girls, education which 
will help each attain his maximum self-realization, will of necessity be 
realized in terms of individual rather than of fixed or standard goals. 
Evaluation of progress, if cast in any other framework, may upset the 
whole program. 

3. Guidance should be regarded as an integral part of the instructional 
program. In an earlier section outlining the desirable curriculum, guid- 
ance was viewed as an inseparable aspect of the total educational process. 
Because this frequently is not the case in practice and because the possi- 
bility of achieving this goal is so dependent on administrative arrange- 
ments, there is justification for special consideration of the problem. 

Guidance is a term used to describe that phase of the educational pro- 
gram which places emphasis on helping individuals to determine their 
needs, to discover their capabilities, to develop purposes, and to work out 
plans of action. Obviously, this is a central goal in the kind of education 
described in this chapter. It cannot be achieved by a single counselor or 
other specialized guidance worker who is responsible for a large number, 
possibly 200 to 500 pupils. The task is sufficiently complex to necessitate 
continuous contact over a relatively long period between a teacher and a 
pupil who know one another well. Viewing guidance as a separate sup- 
plementary service is a logical result of a rigid, prescribed course of study 
which does not give adequate recognition to individual differences among 
children and youth. For example, the establishment of the homeroom as 
a means of guidance, apart from the regular instructional program, can 
be viewed largely as a reaction against a nonfunctional curriculum. Too 
often the homeroom is organized by the administration, and the teachers 
responsible for it have little understanding of its relation to the purposes 
or techniques of guidance. 

If guidance is to be effective, it must be part of the instructional pro- 
gram. To this end, teachers must be secured who are sympathetic to the 
idea and who have the necessary skills. In view of existing programs of 
preservice and in-service education, it is reasonable to assume that satis- 
factory teachers can be obtained. It is imperative also to have a plan of 
organization and administrative arrangements such that teachers can 
really come to know and understand their pupils. Competent administra- 
tive leadership is required to develop arrangements which will permit at 
least one teacher to really know each student and be associated with him 
in a considerable range of activities. In the elementary school, if classes 
are kept to a moderate size, this does not present a particularly difficult 
problem. In the secondary school, however, with the teacher meeting 150 
> to 200 different pupils per day, some definite adjustment is needed. As 



MACKENZIE 51 

previously noted, the organization of core programs, which center around 
problems significant to boys and girls and which enable one teacher to 
work with a group for two or three hours a day, gives considerable prom- 
ise of being an improvement over the usual pupil-teacher relationships. 
To help teachers cany their guidance responsibility effectively and to 
provide adequately for all pupils, specialists, such as counselors, psy- 
chologists, psychiatrists, and vocational experts, are needed. Their role 
and responsibility will be indicated in the following section. 

4. Special services should be provided to meet the unique needs of pupils 
and to supplement the competencies of teachers. One important task of ad- 
ministration is that of co-ordinating the services of various functionaries 
and making certain that pupil needs are adequately met. There are many 
areas in which teachers do not have sufficient competence to provide a 
satisfactory program. In such situations specialized assistance is required. 
Some of these problems arise because certain pupils cannot be success- 
fully handled in regular classes, thus making special provision necessary. 

Specialized guidance services are required to deal adequately with the 
full range of pupil needs and to supplement the kinds of assistance which 
teachers can give through the regular instructional program. The analy- 
sis of potential pupil capabilities frequently demands more expert testing 
and psychological service than the classroom teacher is able to give. A 
single area, such as vocational orientation and placement, calls for spe- 
cial training and continuous concentration of attention to collect essen- 
tial data and guidance materials. 

In like manner doctors are needed for health examinations and con- 
sultation on special problems. Even if the individual pupil be viewed from 
the limited standpoint of progress in school work, there are frequently 
cases where medical advice is important for an adequate diagnosis of 
pupil difficulties and the provision of appropriate remedial procedures. 
When schools seek to provide a balanced program of living for all pupils, 
the value of specialized medical assistance is even greater. There are 
other areas where the necessity for special help is very clear. Corrective 
physical exercises, speech correction, and certain severe reading difficul- 
ties can be handled effectively only by those with specialized training 
and competence. 

Special classes should be organized for certain types of exceptional 
cliildren. For the marked deviates, special education in residential 
schools under state or county auspices may be necessary and some home 
teachers may be required. For many others, partially or completely 
segregated classes under local educational authorities may be satisfac- 
tory. There are several categories of exceptional children, such as the 
blind and partially seeing, the deaf and hard of hearing, the mentally 



52 THE CURRICULUM AND PUPIL SERVICES 

deficient, the socially maladjusted, and the crippled. In many school 
situations there are inadequate provisions for these groups with the re- 
sult that their abilities are not fully developed and they do not become 
competent to exercise maximum self care. There is considerable accep- 
tance of the belief that these deviates should not be segregated to any 
greater degree than necessary. However, their welfare, as well as that of 
normal children associated with them, must be safeguarded at all times. 
Major problems for administration center in determining the extent and 
type of segregation which is desirable, defining the kind of education 
which is appropriate and feasible for various groups, selecting pupils who 
will profit from instruction in special classes, selecting specially trained 
teachers, providing transportation and exceptional facilities where need- 
ed, co-ordinating the services of public and private welfare agencies, and 
administering and supervising the special programs. Unfortunately, 
specialized services of the kind here suggested have not been well 
developed, with the result that many handicapped children and youth do 
not have adequate educational opportunities. The problem of providing 
well-rounded education for all the children of all the people will demand 
creative administrative leadership. 

REFERENCES 

BIMSON, OLIVER BL "Participation of School Personnel in Administration." 
Doctor's Dissertation, University of Nebraska. Lincoln, Nebraska: Univer- 
sity of Nebraska, 1939. 

Democracy and the Gwricdum. Third Yearbook of the John Dewey Society. 
New York: D. Appleton-Century Co., 1939. See especially chap. xvii. 

EDUCATIONAL POLICIES COMMISSION. Learning ike Ways of Democracy. Washing- 
ton: Educational Policies Commission of the National Education Association, 
1940, See especially chap, TO. 

Gr&up Planning in Education. Yearbook of the Department of Supervision and 
Curriculum Development of the National Education Association, 1945. Wash- 
ington: National Education Association, 1945. 

KooPMAtf , G. ROBERT; MTEL, ALICE; and MISNKB, PAUL J. Democracy in School 
Administration. New York: D. Appleton-Century Co., 1943. 

Leadership at Work. Fifteenth Yearbook of the Department of Supervisors and 
Directors of Instruction of the National Education Association, 1943. Wash- 
ington: National Education Association, 1943. 

MUIL, AUCE. Changing the Cwriculvm: A Social Process, New York: D. Apple- 
ton-Centiziy Co,, 1943. 

PRALL, CHABLES, and CUSHMAN, C. LESLIE. Teacher Education in Service. 
Washington: American Councfl on Education, 1944. 



CHAPTER IV 

ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL OF A 
DEMOCRATIC SCHOOL SYSTEM 



WILLARD B. SPALDING 

Superintendent of Schools 

Portland, Oregon 



The purposes of education are as many and conflicting as are the pur- 
poses of the various ideologies and social systems which man has invent- 
ed. They may center around the development of unquestioning followers, 
around raising the level of competence of individuals, around allegiance 
to a religious organization, or around any of countless other ideas or 
ideals. The school, as an institution, is set up by any given society in 
order that the education which conforms with its mores will take place. 

The school, as an institution, has but one purpose that of facilitating 
learning. Whatever may be the ends toward which the supporting society 
directs the activity of an individual school or a system of schools, the at- 
tempt to reach these recognized goals is designed to insure that the 
young people who attend school learn to do what is expected of them. 
The schools of Nazi Germany facilitated the learning of devotion to the 
fuehrer, of hatred of Jews, and of faith in the destiny of the master race. 
The schools of Japan inculcated the learning of emperor-worship, of the 
sublimation of the state, of the inferiority of women, and of the greatness 
of the Japanese. The schools of the United States have as their funda- 
mental social aim the learning of belief in the importance of the individ- 
ual, of faith in democracy, and of the principles of justice for all. The 
ends of these programs of education differ as the philosophies supporting 
the societies which direct them differ. An educational system does not 
proclaim or support an ideology alien to its community. It bends its 
efforts toward the learning of those understandings, skills, and attitudes 
which are approved by the culture of which it is a part. Its energies and 
sciences are directed toward improving the qualities of that learning. 
That is its constant and only purpose as an institution. Its success is 
measured by the degree to which that learning is acquired. 

The purposes of the program of education which the United States 
as a democratic society sponsors and encourages are many and complex, 

53 



54 ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 

and, because democracy itself is a somewhat amorphous concept, rather 
vaguely defined. Special interests, minorities, organized groups, and the 
like, put forth their particular purposes and claim universality for them, 
producing a welter of conflicting objectives which is characteristic of 
democratic living. It is doubtful, therefore, that any statement of the 
purposes of education can be made to which large numbers of persons 
would not find some objection, unless the concept was couched in such 
broad generalities as to be practically useless for specific guidance. It is 
axiomatic that the larger the population considered, the lower the level 
of the ideas which all persons accept. 

Therefore, in considering the purposes of education, it might be wiser 
to refrain from such generalizations and confine ourselves to particular- 
izations on which we can find agreement. Instead of defining democracy 
itself, we can set up the aims of education in terms of those behaviors of 
persons which are believed to be best in a democratic society. Such a list 
has been prepared by a group of teachers after careful study and re- 
search. 1 This list reads as follows: 

1. They respect the individual personality. 

2. They consider the rights of others. 

3. They co-operate with others. 

4. They use their talents for both individual and social profit. 

5. They discover and accept their own inadequacies and improve upon them if 
possible. 

6. They lead or follow according to their abilities for the benefit of the group. 

7. They assume responsibilities inherent in the freedom of a democracy. 

8. They solve their problems by thinking them through rather than by resorting 
to force and emotions. 

9. They govern themselves for the common good. 

10. They accept the rule of the majority while respecting the rights of the mi- 
nority. 

11. They are tolerant. 

12. They think, speak, and act freely, with due regard for the rights of others. 

13. They adapt themselves to changing conditions in a democracy, for individ- 
ual and common good. 

14. They are constantly seeking to achieve the most effective democratic way of 
living. 

1$. They seek by their own example to lead other persons to live democratically. 

If each new generation is to acquire these modes of behavior in a 
democracy, they must be learned. They are not an American birthright 
which comes to fruition merely by breathing American air. They must be 
acquired by the individual precisely as arithmetic is acquired, or as the 

1 WiUard B. Spalding and William C. Kvaraceus, "What Do We Mean by Democ- 
racy?" Amenctm S&od Board Jwrnal, CVHI (February, 1944), 50, 



SPALDING 55 

ability to play football is acquired. The facilitation of such learning is the 
purpose of the school. "Learning" in this discussion is used to mean both 
a product and the process by which the product is secured. One speaks of 
the "learnings" or bodies of knowledges and skills which the person will 
get from his schooling. One uses the same term to express the activity by 
which people acquire them, as learning arithmetic, language, and the 
like. Whatever the subject or skill or activity may be, learning, as prod- 
uct, simmers down to new ways of behaving or modifications of old ways 
of behaving. Every usable fact or generalization or skill is a function of 
behavior. Learning, as process, is made up of the observable behavior of 
the individual while doing the things which produce these new ways of 
behaving or modifications of old ways of behaving. 

What is this "observable behavior" which we call learning and how 
does it operate? The process of learning may be broken down into a series 
of basic components. These include (1) an individual who is (2) motivated 
(i.e., feels the need for achieving satisfaction). He is prevented by (3) a 
problem-situation from reaching (4) the goal. He carries on (5) excess 
and varied behavior (unsatisfactory efforts at finding a solution) until 
finally (6) a response is successful in reaching the goal and in (7) reduc- 
ing the motivation (easing the original tension). As he is confronted by 
similar problem-situations the successful response occurs after a dimin- 
ishing number of unsatisfactory responses, until it finally occurs without 
any. This response may then be said to have been learned. The individual 
can now behave in a more competent manner. The accompanying dia- 
grams indicate this process. 2 

This is the basic method by which learning, any learning, takes place. 
It is the process by which American citizens learn to live in a democracy 
just as it is the method by which the American citizen learns to repair an 
automobile or solve a problem in algebra. In our society, learning to be 
democratic is more important than any other kind of learning, and the 
process in the one should be just as much in accord with the findings of 
psychology as the process in other learning situations. 

Any proposal for the improvement of schools in the United States of 
America, and this involves the personnel working in them, should meet 
both sets of criteria. It should result in the development of persons, both 
teachers and students, who will behave in accordance with the purposes 
of education in a democracy. It should facilitate learning by being in ac- 
cord with the process by which man learns. It if does not, the best in- 
tentions in the world will be of no avail. These sets of criteria will be used 



* Of. "Learning," Encyclopedia of Educa^mal Research, p. 668. Edited by Walter 
Momoe. New York: Macmillan Co., 1941. 



56 



ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 



as guides to proposals discussed here for the organization of the personnel 
of school systems toward greater efficiency. 

School people are expected by the community which employs them to 
be diligent seekers after ways of improvement, and rightly so, because 
that is a universal phenomenon in the American milieu. The dynamics of 
social interaction in this country results in the continuous upward push- 
ing of many persons, making citizens of the United States more mobile 
socially than are those in other nations. It also makes them more eager 
to discover new and better ways of becoming successful in industry and 
business, so they may reach a higher status. The constant movement of 
individuals from one social class to another produces pressures by these 




Learned 




(7) 



individuals upon the social agencies which they have created so that 
they, too, develop the urge to become mobile and to improve. This is as 
true of the public schools as of other social agencies. The difficulty lies in 
the fact that lay ideas of what constitutes real improvement in education 
are vague and often unreal. Public desire to have schools in the home 
community better, at least in reputation, than those in neighboring 
communities is definite and real. How they may become better in fact, as 
well as in name, is not so clear in the lay mind. Often it is no clearer in the 
professional mind. Most persons who are employed in public schools are 
sincerely devoted to children and strive earnestly to help them, but their 
ideas are often as vague and unreal as are those of the public, when they 
seek to invent or to discover definite ways of improving the result. They 
have high ideate, worthy intentions, and great purposes, but they have 
made slight progress toward attaining the goals which both they and 
their patrons have set up for American education. 



SPALDING 57 

Farnsworth 3 has shown that the lag between the existence of a need 
and the time when the first school does anything about meeting it is 
about fifty years. Much of this lag is due to the complicated nature of the 
school, of society, and of the human organisms with which the school 
deals. Much of it, however, is due to reluctance on the part of the person- 
nel in the schools to seek actively for new ways of doing things and to 
adopt them when such are discovered. 

Improvement of the schools, desired by laymen and educators alike, 
and reduction of the time lag between need and adaptation do not depend 
entirely on methods of organization; or even on the administrative activi- 
ty of leadership. Where these are effective, the beneficial results which 
they produce depend on the way in which those who work in the schools 
are encouraged to learn. Much has been written and more has been said 
on the importance of leadership. Whenever a new superintendent is em- 
ployed, the underlying implication is that the change in administrative 
heads will result in new directives to the staff (a much abused word, 
"directive"!) which will transform the system from a moribund institu- 
tion to one of vitality and growth. Very often reorganizations do take 
place. Supervisors are changed around; new departments are created; and 
old ones refilled; new curriculums are projected; new policies enunciated. 
For a time the scene is one of intense activity, but when the smoke 
clears away we find merely another illustration of the French aphorism, 
"Plus le change, plus la meme chose." The improvement has only been 
a superficial one because the activity of the leader has been concentrated 
on the administrative plane. It has not considered the ways by which 
individuals learn better modes of behavior. 

It is only as the personnel in a school system acquire new ways of doing 
things, or modify old ways of doing things, that the system itself changes* 
That means everybody in the employ of the system and not just its 
administrators. No plan to improve the schools will be successful if it 
omits provisions for facilitating learning by the persons who work with 
children. No plan for getting the best out of the personnel in a school 
system will be successful if it fails to include plans and programs which 
will encourage them to learn to do their work in better ways. This con- 
cern with the process of learning, operative within the whole system, is 
the first important criterion of efficient organization. Implementing it 
with democratic procedures will make the learning of better ways desira- 
ble, easy of attainment, and productive of success. 



Philo Taylor Farnsworth, Adaptation Processes in Public 8dw& Systems. Teach- 
ers College Contributions to Education, No. 801. New York: Teachers CoEege, Col- 
umbia University, 1940. 



58 ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 

If schools are to develop persons who will behave democratically, they 
should be staffed with teachers who are learning to behave in these ways. 
It has been pointed out that democratic behavior, like any other, must be 
learned. The individuals who are employed in our schools should acquire 
these learnings and keep applying them as they work, since only those 
responses are learned which are practiced successfully. The conditions 
under which the personnel work and the rewards which may be achieved 
should be such as will insure that democratic behavior will become satis- 
fying behavior. 

BASIC IMPROVEMENTS 

City school systems face at least three major problems which need 
consideration if they seek permanent improvement in operation and re- 
sult. These problems are: (1) improvement in the methods used by edu- 
cational and noneducational personnel in their daily work, (2) improve- 
ment in the curriculums used by the schools to provide the optimum 
educational environment for learning, and (3) improvement in the rela- 
tions between the individuals in various branches of the system and the 
administrative staff. Each of these problems will be considered in terms 
of the major criteria relationship to the laws of learning and the further- 
ance of democratic living. The same approach should be applied to all 
other situations which affect the general aim to improve the efficiency of 
the corps by administrative plan. 

The program behind any particular organization of the personnel 
should always be such as will be most effective in reaching specific ob- 
jectives. The nature and type of the procedure which is chosen are func- 
tions of the purpose toward which the activities of the organized group 
are directed. Each procedure must conform to the two general criteria 
which have been mentioned, but each also is likely to be unique in certain 
respects because of the unique purposes which it is intended to achieve. 
Each of the three problems to be discussed here in detail is different from 
its fellows. It is different in the relationship between the persons involved, 
in the qualities and backgrounds of these persons, and in the nature and 
component elements of the problem itself. No single plan can meet the 
varied situations which confront a school system. 

Problem 1. Organizing the personnel toward the end of improving the meth- 
ods used by employees in their work. 

If school employees are to use new or modified methods of working, 
they must acquire the capacity to make these changes through a learning 
experience. It will not come to them by administrative fiat, or even by a 
program of exposition and study. The process which they must be led to 
follow by some plan of organization must be in accord with the way in 



SPALDING 59 

which man learns anything. This process, as has been explained above, 
includes the elements of (1) individuals who (2) through some form of 
motivation (3) meet a problem-situation, which (4) presents a desired 
goal, and (5) by excess and varied activity, achieve (6) successful re- 
sponse. These elements are basic aspects of the operation of any plan de- 
vised by any administration to improve methods of work in the schools 
and they are equally valid whether the prospective learner is a teacher, a 
janitor, or a child in the kindergarten. Let us examine these elements 
separately. 

a) The persons. The persons who should be included in any program 
directed toward this end are obviously those whose methods are inade- 
quate, obsolete, inefficient, or otherwise unsatisfactory. The people 
already using the proper techniques may have other qualities which 
could stand improvement, but, in any plan for modernization of method, 
attention should be directed to those who need it. 

How are these people to be identified? There are several ways. The 
administrative staff of the school system can examine records of the 
efficiency of the employees. It can confer with principals of individual 
schools. It can study the reports of supervisors and confer with them. 
After securing all of the available information, it selects those persons 
whose methods of work need improvement. These are the individuals 
who are to be organized into learning groups or induced to go to some 
learning center. 

Sometimes members of the corps are themselves aware of their need 
for performing more effectively. This makes the task of selection merely 
one of guidance. The administrative staff may acquaint them, or groups 
of them, with its willingness to assist them in acquiring the learning 
experiences which they need. This it does in a variety of ways work- 
shops, in-service training courses, experiments within their own class- 
rooms, building projects, etc. 

The established policy of the school system, as expressed in rules and 
regulations, in salary schedule, or in credit increments, may be conducive 
to continual improvement in the methods of work. The policy acts as a 
source of motivation and the administrative staff presents specific pro- 
grams each year which are available to those who respond. Those who 
select a particular program become the individuals organized for im- 
provement. 

The personnel may be members of professional or craft groups which 
seek, among other things, to improve the drill of the membership "on the 
job." When this is the case the assistance of the administrative staff is 
often requested, and the result is the organization of some portion of the 
corps for an improvement program. 



60 ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 

6) Motivation. Whatever method is used, that method results even- 
tually in the selection of a group of persons who, for one reason or an- 
other, seek to learn how to improve their professional techniques. If 
these persons are to put maximum effort into this learning, they must 
become motivated. Most employed individuals are already motivated to 
a large extent. They feel a critical need of continuous employment with 
its resultant income. They wish to be successful on the job* They desire 
to receive the praise and to avoid the reprimand of those to whom they 
are responsible. They may have some other inner drive, either of their 
own initiation or because the group with which they are affiliated has 
certain goals which an improvement plan will bring nearer. Whatever the 
sources of motivation may be in the case of any individual, the important 
consideration for the administrator is that the motivation be strong 
enough to elicit the effort to attain the objective. If it is, the problem of 
organizing these seekers-after-the-better-way becomes relatively simple. 

Even if the selection of persons has been carried on wholly or almost 
wholly by the administrative staff, many of these motivating factors will 
still operate. It is true that the affective results of selection by the adminis- 
trative staff are not always the most desirable ones. Teachers are expect- 
ed to spend considerable time in meetings when they would prefer to be 
elsewhere. They are aware of the fact that the administrative staff, by 
the very act of choosing them, has labelled them as relatively less efficient 
than their co-workers. The activities which they are expected to carry on 
in order to become more efficient are in excess of the amount of work 
which their fellows perform. These and other elements in the situation 
are such as to produce undesirable attitudes toward the problem and 
toward the staff. 

The problem of motivating these persons should include provisions for 
allowing them to act aggressively in order to reduce the amount of 
frustration resulting from the process of selection. Anonymous question- 
naires with opportunities for free responses are usable devices toward 
this end. The Army calls it "griping," and recognizes its value as a safety 
valve. The selection by the staff of a leader for the group who can sym- 
pathize with them in their attitudes, rather than a person against whom 
these attitudes are directed, is another usable device. If adequate pro- 
vision is made for aggressive behavior, the undesirable attitude may dis- 
appear and other, more favorable, factors prevail. 

e) The prMem-situation. The problem-situation for any group in the 
area under consideration is some particular improvement in methods of 
work. This problem-situation should be refined and defined by the group 
itself. It needs to be stated specifically, often in the form of many sub- 



SPALDING 61 

sidiary specie statements contributed by the persons who are involved. 
Examples of such specific statements of problem-situations are as follows: 

1. On the nonteaching level: 

How can the floors of gymnasiums be kept in good shape? 

What should be used to wash them? 

How often should they be washed? 

What machines should be used for this purpose? 

How are these machines operated? 

What finish should be used? 

How is it best applied? 

2. On the teaching level: 

How should percentage be taught? 

What is the desirable level of maturity at which pupils should begin the study 

of percentage? 

How is the topic introduced best? 

What kinds of drill are desirable? 

What relations with fractions should be pointed out? 

What relations with decimals should be pointed out? 

3. On the administrative level: 

What procedure should be used in requisitioning materials for use in the 

system? 

Are different forms necessary for books, supplies, and equipment? 

Should maintenance and repair items be requisitioned? 

How should emergencies be handled? 

Who should sign requisitions? 

How should requisitions be routed? 

The leader of the group should endeavor to secure as many suggestions 
for the specific elements in the problem from the group as he can. He 
should suggest other specific elements as they occur to him. Out of the 
interaction of all participants will come the best possible definition of the 
problem-situation. 

d) Goal. Goals are closely allied to motivation and motivation to goals. 
If the goals are sufficiently desirable, and in the case of most employed 
persons, continuous employment, higher income, greater success on the 
job, or the praise of the boss are in that category, then the prospect of 
attaining them produces the motivation which, in turn, leads to better 
types of behavior or the effort to acquire them. 

Sometimes a particular group may be so professionally enthusiastic 
that they will find adequate motivation in the mere hope of improving 
their methods of working. The achievement of efficiency is their goal 
just as with the artist the creation of abstract beauty may be enough to 
drive him to almost unending labor. The explanation of the substitution 
of a problem-situation for a goal involves a psychological discussion 



62 ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 

which is too lengthy for the present purpose. When this happens, how- 
ever, a series of subsidiary problem-situations arises. The selection by the 
group of some original problem-situation as the goal of their co-operative 
action is desirable and should be encouraged whenever possible. If the 
leader is skilled and astute, he can produce this result. 

e) Excess and varied behavior. After the problem-situation has been 
defined specifically and in detail by the group, including the leader, the 
next step to be taken involves a discussion of various avenues leading to 
a possible solution. The group should be led to suggest the necessary 
knowledge which must be secured before attempts to solve it can be made 
and, further, to find out ways in which this knowledge could be secured. 
In each instance the suggestions made by each one should be listed in de- 
tail for the benefit and criticism of all members of the group. 

At this point in the proceedings, when lists of what the group needs to 
know and what the group needs to do are to be prepared, the leader 
should suggest selection of a secretary, if no member of the group has 
already done so. Frequently, the suggestion will have arisen earlier. 
Whenever the occasion arises, this selection, like all others of the same 
type, should be made in a completely democratic manner. 

The leader should keep in mind the two general criteria which were 
set up at the beginning, namely, that desirable changes in behavior are 
the consequence of the laws of learning and that a change is desirable 
only if it advances the cause of democracy. The process of organization 
which he is using is, on the whole, patterned after the process of learning. 
His own activity should be subordinated to the activities of the other in- 
dividuals in his group. He should endeavor to enter into the picture less 
and less, encourage the growth of competent leadership within the group, 
and endeavor to allow the democratic process to flourish and become 
strong. If the group wishes to select a chairman as well as a secretary, he 
should welcome this action, allow the chairman to accept full responsi- 
bility, withdraw into the background as an advisor, and, eventually, find 
good reasons for being absent from some of the meetings. 

When the group has completed its lists of things to know and tilings to 
do f it will usually find that it has more suggestions than it can handle as 
a group. This problem should be solved by the group. The usual and 
probably the best solution is that of assigning topics, research, interviews, 
and the like, to persons or to small committees. These may be chosen by 
the group or may be volunteers. This again is democratic interaction. 
The participants are solving an important problem-situation and are 
practicing democratic processes as they do so. 

The group should be encouraged to set up time schedules for its own 



SPALDING f,3 

actions and for those of its committees. These dead lines should be met. 
If they are not, the group should take steps to correct the matter. 

The facts as reported by the subcommittees and by individuals are 
studied by the group. Tentative solutions are suggested. These are 
studied, tried out if they show promise, and evaluated. Finally a solution 
is proposed. 

/) The successful response. If this final solution does result in better 
care of the floors of gymnasiums, or in the better teaching of percentage, 
or in the improvement of procedures in handling requisitions, it is success- 
ful in solving the problem-situation. It must also be successful in terms of 
reaching the goal. It should result in praise from the boss, in favorable 
recommendation for continuous employment and the resultant income, 
and (this is especially important) in the feeling of success on the job. The 
administrative staff should make sure that these evidences of success are 
attached to the desired responses. 

School systems have looked down upon cash rewards as beneath the 
high standards of the profession of teaching. Such attitudes are entirely 
unrealistic, for teachers are in no way different from other human beings. 
Business knows the way in which cash "on the line" acts as a very real 
evidence of success. It uses cash as a reward for many of the activities 
and improvements which it wishes its employees to learn. School systems 
could profit from this example. This will be discussed a little later. 

These suggestions for organizing the personnel in order to improve the 
methods used at work on the job have been presented in some detail in 
order to show how they parallel the way in which persons learn. During 
all of the steps by which the completed organizations with their selected 
officers are established, the democratic behaviors which have been listed 
on page 54 are being practiced. The employees are co-operating with 
each other and the leader. They are using their talents for individual and 
group profit. They are discovering and accepting their own inadequa- 
cies while endeavoring to improve them. In short, they are carrying on 
these activities as important types of excess and varied behavior in at- 
tempts to solve the problem-situation. 

If these democratic ways of action are successful, they will become 
learned and thereafter practiced. The administrative staff should make 
sure that success does attach to them, unmistakably so. If it does, the re- 
sult will be a constantly improving person as an employee of the school 
system. The process may be slow, but unfortunately the human being 
learns in no other way. It may seem easier and quicker to seek such im- 
provement by just giving an order or by cracking the whip. The cry 
sometimes comes out of school boards and lay groups for an administra- 
tor to get tough. Such people confuse obedience with inner growth. Ad- 



64 ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 

ministrative fiat may seem successful, but only on the surface. It takes 
the educational process to build below the surface. 

Problem 2. Organizing the personnel toward the end of improving the cur- 

riculums in the school. 

Improvement of curriculums is part of the continuous on-going ac- 
tivity of a city school system. Departments to direct this activity exist in 
all of the larger systems, with an expert professional staff whose duties 
lie wholly in this area. These departments face particular problems in 
developing individual curriculums. 

It used to be the practice for administrations to issue courses of study 
written by some member of the staff or by a small group and to impose 
them on the corps. Such an approach to the problems of curriculum re- 
vision is neither democratic nor efficient. It fails to recognize both the 
nature and the purpose of a modern curriculum. It does not appreciate 
what must happen inside the teacher, if the new curriculum is to function. 
It pays no attention to the fact that the teacher must herself learn how to 
use it, and that means adherence to the learning pattern outlined under 
problem 1. 

The necessity for deciding which among several curriculums should be 
improved first, which next, and so on, recurs at such frequent intervals 
that some plan of organization of personnel to be used regularly becomes 
imperative. Such organizations are labeled curriculum councils, advisory 
committee to the director of the curriculum, or some similar name. The 
problem of nomenclature is insignificant. Any name is a good name if the 
ones who bear it like it. 

The persons who serve on this permanent group should be selected by 
procedures which are in full accord with the democratic purposes of edu- 
cation in our society. The methods for selecting persons given under 
problem 1, on page 59 ff., are examples of methods which can be used 
whenever the administrative staff is carrying on this particular activity. 

One important addition to all of these methods should be noted in the 
case of preparing curriculums. The selection is not made from or by the 
school personnel alone. It is made /ram and by the community, of which 
this personnel is but a part. 

A curriculum is part of the program of education. Among other things 
it sets up objectives which the school and its inhabitants will seek to 
reach by experiences, content material, and suggested activities which 
constitute the body of its text. These objectives state or imply changes in 
the behavior of pupils which will be evident after they have lived and 
worked with the new curriculum. Boys and girls will acquire new ways of 
behaving or modify old ways of behaving:, if what is planned results in 



SPALDING 65 

action. The ultimate decisions about what is to be learned have never 
been made by the school alone, even when it has attempted to make 
them through curriculum councils and the like. These decisions are always 
made by the society which supports the school. In some particulars the 
school may educate the community to accept its ideas of what consti- 
tutes progress, but it can seldom get too far ahead of it. It is important, 
therefore, that society should be represented adequately on any council 
or committee which is making these decisions. Otherwise the school as a 
public agency may find itself without public support and its leaders may 
be compelled to seek private support. 

The administrative staff should seek to include a representative cross- 
section of the community in any permanent group which is considering 
the problem of what curriculums should be changed. Methods for select- 
ing these will be found in the various discussions of lay participation in 
professional literature. The topic has intrigued all progressive thinkers in 
the field of education and we may be on the threshold of a new and much 
stronger tie-up between community and school. The current work-study 
development in many cities (part employment and part schooling) is 
essentially a modification of a curriculum. It is also wise to encourage 
selected students in the schools to be represented in such groups. 

The duties of this central committee vary as conditions in various 
communities may require. In general these duties include: 

Decisions as to the order in which eurriculums are to be revised. 

Selection or assisting in the selection of groups which will work on the im- 
provement of some individual curriculum. 

Receiving and evaluating tentative proposals for new curriculums. 

Giving final approval to completed curriculums. 

Guiding committees in the techniques which should be used in building a new 
curriculum. 

Conferring with teachers and supervisors about desired changes. 

Introducing new curriculums to the schools. 

Evaluating eurriculums while they are in use. 

In some school systems these central committees also deal with estab- 
lishing standards for the books, materials, and supplies which are used in 
the schools. They may also initiate, guide, and recommend changes in the 
educational aids themselves. 

The committee should decide what officers it needs and should select 
them. Representatives of the administrative staff or of the curriculum 
department should hold office only when elected by the group. No person 
should be chairman of such a committee by virtue of his position within 
the school system. Domination by a superintendent or his representative 
is all too easy and the result is likely to be fatal to the central principle 



G6 ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 

of training the personnel to be more competent people. The democratic 
process must be used at all times in all situations if the American way is 
to be learned by those who serve on such a central committee. 

When the permanent central committee has decided that an individ- 
ual curriculum should be improved, a group should be organized to this 
end. This group should include personnel of the schools, students in the 
schools, and persons from the community. 

Every one of these groups should be chosen, guided, and set to work in 
terms of the two criteria which are fundamental to the thesis of this 
chapter, namely, the laws of learning and the practice of democratic be- 
havior. They should be motivated, should confront a problem situation, 
should be encouraged to carry on excess and varied behavior, should find 
responses which reach the goal, and should be made aware of their suc- 
cess through appropriate recognition and reward. The democratic ways 
of behaving will be learned as they achieve success in the practice of dem- 
ocratic action. 

As has been mentioned previously, central committees of this type 
may have other duties besides the improvement of curriculums. Such 
duties fall into the following major categories: 

The selection of textbooks and reference books for adoption. 

The selection of equipment for use in schools. 

The development of educational specifications for school plants. 

The development of standard lists of consumable supplies. 

If the school system is not too large, these additional duties can be 
carried on by such a central committee. There is a sufficiently close re- 
lationship between curriculums and the educational aids which imple- 
ment them to warrant this procedure. Even in the largest systems it is 
probably best to channel all of these duties through a central committee 
and to have allied with it a subordinate group concerned solely with the 
construction or revision of curriculums. 

In any school system permanent committees or councils should be 
recognized as part of the official paraphernalia of administrative tech- 
niques. Their duties should be defined broadly and generally, rather than 
narrowly and specifically. They should be established by the action of the 
board on recommendation of the administrative staff. Such a procedure 
would give the committee official status and increase the satisfactions 
which are an important factor in the learning process. Some plan for 
continuing the committee while changing its membership constantly 
should be included in the act of the board of education which establishes 
it. 

The establishing of subsidiary committees for particular purposes 
should be possible at all times without action by the board. The right to 



SPALDING 67 

do this should be set forth clearly in the vote which sets up the original 
committee and in the rules and regulations which govern its action. 

In turn the proposals of the committee should be submitted to the 
board by the superintendent. Opinion as to whether he should possess the 
authority to veto these proposals is divided. There is general agreement, 
however, that the authority, if it exists, should be used only upon rare 
and infrequent occasions. 

Problem 3. Organizing the personnel toward better relationship with the 

administrative staff. 

a) The principle of collective bargaining. School systems throughout the 
country have not kept abreast of the progress which has been made in 
methods of collective bargaining in business and industry. A revolution 
of major proportions is taking place in this field, the implications of 
which are of great importance in any area where employee-management 
relationships exist. 

The relationships between employees and management are best when 
each group understands its duties, its rights, and its responsibilities and 
is conscientiously endeavoring to act in accordance with them. In many 
areas there appear to be conflicting interests between workers and those 
who oversee their work. In industry these conflicts are usually resolved 
by continuous effort to seek agreement. This can happen because the 
employees are organized strongly and can bargain collectively. When 
joint efforts to reach agreement fail, some provision is made to settle the 
dispute by arbitration. 

In school systems the personnel which correspond to the worker group 
in industry are not as a rule well organized. They do not usually bargain 
collectively because they do not feel themselves strong enough to demand 
that right. The administrative staffs of some school systems oppose 
the establishment of any stronger, more universal type of organization; 
or, if they do encourage it, develop plans of organization which resemble 
closely the company union in the industrial field. Such organizations do 
not help their members to learn how to accept responsibility democrati- 
cally. The administration deals continually with individuals rather than 
with organizations, which tends to prevent the organizations from be- 
coming strong. When areas of conflict are generated, we find that teach- 
ers have no sense of unity; and, when agreements are made, it frequently 
appears that they have not learned to accept the responsibility of utiliz- 
ing them to the fullest extent. 

Much of the weakness found in organizations of employees, and 
particularly in those which are made up of teachers, centers around the 
curiously unrelated ideas which are called "professional." Because teach- 



68 ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 

ing is so labeled, teachers are expected to accept extra duties without 
extra pay, such as coaching, serving on curriculum committees, attending 
faculty meetings, acting as sponsors of extra-curriculum activities, and 
the many tasks which are over and above the duties of the classroom. 
Because teachers are members of a profession, they are supposed to seek 
better pay and better working conditions only by making polite repre- 
sentations to the administrative staff and through them to the board, 
rather than by simple and direct request to the employing group for 
these betterments because they have a basic and demonstrable right to 
them. Because schools are operated to help boys and girls for the public 
good, the teachers who work in these schools are continually reminded of 
the fact that children come first and that it is unprofessional to do any- 
thing which might be interpreted as meaning anything else. These ideas 
are hokum of the rankest kind. Teachers are skilled employees working 
in the public interest. So are the electricians and engineers on the public 
payroll. Wliat is true of one is just as true of the other. 

The persistence of this moralizing has been one of the greatest factors 
in the continuance of low-level standards of pay and tenure imposed upon 
teachers by the employing public. The issue needs to be clarified. Even 
from the standpoint of the moralizers, the argument of subordinating the 
teacher's welfare to the asserted interests of the child is none too valid. 
Overworked and underpaid persons cannot render the type of service 
which the youth of this country need. The public interest is not served 
best by teachers or other school workers who are discouraged whenever 
they make feeble attempts to better their lot by organized effort. The 
extra duties which fall continually on teachers are not carried out 
efficiently when they result in no other reward to the teachers than in- 
creased fatigue and frustration. Schools will become better, boys and 
girls will be served better, when the label of "unprofessional" is removed 
from organized or individual attempts to improve the teacher's living 
and working conditions. 

Many of the arguments which are presented to defend the many 
inequities and injustices which exist are similar to those which industri- 
alists used in the last century in order to justify low pay, long hours, and 
bad working conditions. Their contention that any change would be 
harmful to the public interest has been refuted by the results of better 
pay, better working conditions, and shorter hours. Production has been 
increased and the prosperity of the country has grown until now the same 
industrialists boast of America as a country with the highest standards of 
living in the world. These gains have resulted from decades of effort by 
organized employees. The same gains could be made in education by the 
same forces. 



SPALDING 69 

It is true that in many ways education is a profession and, as such, has 
its professional problems. These can be solved only as all members of the 
profession work together to solve them. Organizations whose activities 
are directed toward these ends should be open to all persons who work in 
school systems or in schools. But not all problems confronting the teacher 
are on the plane of educational science. Some of them affect the teacher 
as a worker and an employee. Organizations which are created by teach- 
ers as working employees seeking to better the pay, the hours, and the 
working conditions of their members should be open only to teachers. 
Management, the administrative staff of the schools, has no place in such 
groups. 

The existence of strongly organized, vigorously active organizations of 
teachers, of custodians, of clerical employees, and the like, is a fundamental 
prerequisite of any sound program for the improvement of morale, for the 
redress of grievances, or for the bettering of any other aspect of employee- 
management relations. For that reason the administrative staff should 
encourage their growth not only for the sake of the individuals but also 
as an essential part of the improvement of the school system. 

In setting up the modus operandi of collective bargaining, the teachers, 
custodians, secretaries, and other similar groups should each be expected 
to select one organization, if they belong to several, to represent them in 
collective bargaining. The selection of a single organization is necessary 
because the administrative staff cannot expect all the employees of any 
one type to be bound by several agencies. If there is any question as to 
the proper bargaining agent for any group, all the workers in a given 
category may petition for an election to determine the agency they wish 
to represent them. If none receives a majority of the votes, then a run-off 
election between the two receiving the largest number of votes should be 
held. The organization finally receiving the majority of votes is the rec- 
ognized agent in bargaining until the next election is held. This is done 
only after a specified period of time when another petition is received. If 
no request is made for a new agent, the original choice continues in- 
definitely. 

After the bargaining agent has been selected, its first duty is to 
negotiate an agreement with the employing board. Both parties should 
seek to reach a common understanding. In the event the attempt fails, a 
procedure for arbitration should be agreed upon. This should occur only 
on rare occasions. The board should then appoint a representative from 
the administrative staff as its arbiter. The employees' organization 
should appoint a similar representative from its membership. The two 
persons should then select a third arbiter. These three make the final de- 
cisions and all parties must agree beforehand to abide by their decisions. 



70 ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 

In those cases where a larger arbitration board seems advisable, and 
these are few, two or three arbiters may be chosen from each of the three 
sources. This is usually unwise as the group becomes too large for effi- 
cient work. 

6) The nature of the basic agreement. The basic agreement between 
school employees and employer should cover at least the following main 
items as they apply to particular groups: 

Activity of the employees' organisation during working hours 

Arbitration of disputes 

Assignments 

Discharge 

Duration and renewal of agreement 

Enforcement of agreement 

Examinations of other types 

Hours of work 

Improvement of efficiency in the school 

Insurance and benefit pkns 

Lay-offs and re-employment 

Leaves of absence of all kinds 

Meetings called by employer 

Modification during life of agreement 

Pay for extra duties 

Pay for overtime 

Pensions and retirement 

Physical examinations 

Procedures for handling grievances 

Promotion 

Rates of base pay 

Rest periods 

Resignations or quits 

Seniority 

Substitutes 

Sunday and holiday work 

Temporary employees 

Transfers 

Travel pay 

Uniforms and equipment 

Use of bulletin boards 

Vacations 

When items such as these are mutually agreed upon, the basis of much 
misunderstanding and consequent friction disappears. Both the ad- 
ministrative staff and the employees have had a part in arriving at the 
final agreement. Each understands the problems of the other. Each has a 
carefully prepared document to which he can refer for the definition of 



SPALDING 71 

his rights, his duties, and his responsibilities when he is in doubt. In the 
absence of such an agreement, staff and employees' relations are char- 
acterized by uncertainty, lack of uniformity, arbitrary action, and much 
unnecessary ill-will. 

A strong organization of employees will make it necessary for the ad- 
ministrative staff to face the difficult problem of negotiating the many 
items which enter into an agreement. This is an activity which few 
persons who are on the administrative staffs of city school systems have 
faced. Many may be reluctant to face it. When it is done, finally accepted 
by both sides, and carried out in good faith, it offers respite from the 
petty troubles and complaints which otherwise arise continually. In the 
end it will mean less total work and effort than if separate and protracted 
conferences and struggles were necessary over each new controversy. An 
agreement is in operation over a period of time, and during that time the 
road is clear for other constructive tasks. 

c) The redress of grievances. Those grievances which arise wherever 
large numbers of persons are employed can be dealt with best under the 
provisions of an agreement arrived at through collective bargaining. If 
this does not exist, and it usually does not, then some plan of organiza- 
tion should be set up for the redress of just grievances. This is absolutely 
necessary if relationships are to improve and harmony is to be restored. 
A study of the nature and type of the special grievances which affect 
school personnel is necessary before any plan is evolved. "A grievance 
may arise from any number of causes adversely affecting the mental at- 
titude of the worker toward his job. The cause may be real or imaginary. 
But even an imaginary cause may point to some real source of dissatis- 
faction. For example, complicated rules and regulations which are not 
sufficiently explained may lead a worker to think he is being treated un- 
fairly. Getting at the underlying conditions which give rise to the 
grievances is essential to good grievance procedure." 4 

Typical Examples of the Grievances of Employees in 

City School Systems 
Type of Grievance Usual Cause 

A. The activities of principals and The employee feels that: 
supervisors 

1. Complaints about enforce- Principal or supervisor does not like him 
ments of rules and picks on him. 

Principal or supervisor did not explain 
clearly what was expected. 



* "Settling Plant Grievances," CoUedive Bargaining. United States Department of 
Labor, Division of Labor Standards, Bulletin No. 60. Washington: Government 
Printing Office, 1943. 



72 



ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 



Type of Grievance 



2. Objection to a particular 
principal or supervisor 



3. Objections to methods of su- 
pervisors or of rating em- 
ployees 



B. Salaries and salary schedules 
1. Demand for change in rate 
of pay for an individual em- 
ployee 



2. Complaints about the sched- 
ule 



C. General working conditions 
1. Faculty meetings 



2. Sanitary conditions 



3. Duties outside of the class- 
room 



4. Pressure to join organiza- 
tions 



Usual Cause 

Principal or supervisor will not listen to 
any point of view but his own. 
The principal or supervisor favors some 
person above others. 

The principal or supervisor is rude and 
arbitrary and discourteous. 
The principal or supervisor ignores com- 
plaints. 

The principal or supervisor has filed a rat- 
ing sheet on the basis of no or few observa- 
tions of the employee at work. 
The principal attempts to judge the work 
from the comments of pupils and parents. 
He never gets but one side of the story. 
The principal or supervisor is always find- 
ing fault and never says a word of praise. 

Other people with the same experience and 
training are getting more money. 

The method which is used in placing him 

on scale is improper. 

New employees get better salaries than he 

did when he began. 

Too much emphasis is placed on degrees 

and too little on good work. 

A teacher is so busy getting more training 

that he does not have time to teach well 

and to relax. 

The principal talks too much. 
The material which is presented could be 
mimeographed and read. There is no need 
for the meeting. 
The meetings are too long. 
Teachers are compelled to pay for food at 
these meetings. 

There are insufficient toilets for the em- 
ployees. 

There is not time enough for attention to 
personal needs. 
Extra duties are distributed unfairly. 

Coaches are paid extra sums while persons 
who carry on as difficult tasks are not. 
There are too many meetings. 
The principal insists on 100 per cent mem- 
bership in the N.E.A. 
Everyone is made to join the local building 
association and to pay dues. 



SPALDING 



73 



Grievances are not confined to complaints against the decisions or 
practices of the employer. The administrative staff and the principals 
may also have grievances about the practices and competences of the 
employees. A good procedure for handling grievances works in both 
directions. Whenever there are conditions which tend to create conflicts 
between those who administer schools and subordinate members of the 
staff, there is need for a definite plan of organization by which these can 
be remedied. 

Typical Examples of the Grievances of 
the Administrative Staff 



Type of Grievance 



A. Dissatisfaction with an indi- 
vidual employee 



B. Dissatisfaction with organiza- 
tion of employees 



Common Cause 
The administrator thinks that: 

The employee is continually breaking 
rules. 

The employee will not do as he is told. 
The employee is absent from work too fre- 
quently. 

The employee arrives late and leaves early. 
The employee does not seek to improve 
continuously. 

The employee resists changes in methods of 
work. 

The employee will not carry on extra 
duties. 

The employee is a troublemaker in the 
group. 

The employee is harsh and unreasonable 
with pupils. 
The employee is discourteous to parents. 

The organization never seeks to improve 
the schools. 

The organization has poor leadership. 
The organization is always bringing faults 
to the attention of the staff . It never makes 
constructive proposals. 
The organization misrepresents the atti- 
tude of the staff toward its members. 
The organization does not stack to an 
agreement and does not attempt to keep 
its members in line. 

The organization encourages complaints 
by presenting them without prior investi- 
gation. 

Irresponsible statements are made in pub- 
lications of the organization. 



74 ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 

If consistent decisions about grievances such as have been presented 
in the two lists above are to be made, then there must be a continuing 
group to make them. Such a group should work systematically and with 
business efficiency. To this end, written records of previous decisions are 
essential. A formal and standard procedure is desirable because: 

1. It insures the use of established precedents and so reduces the number of con- 
flicting decisions. 

2. It makes certain that decisions are made by those who have the authority to 
make them, 

3. It reduces the number of petty and unnecessary complaints. 

4. It insures the use of the same facts by both parties involved in any grievance. 

5. It is impartial and impersonal. 

6. It is readily understood by all parties. 

A good formal grievance procedure will meet all of these objectives. It 
will, in the long run, produce a high level of morale and better relations 
between employees and administrators. It would be wise to have such a 
procedure evolve out of co-operative planning by the interested parties. 
In the absence of a strong organization of employees, the administrative 
staff will need to find some way in which to select or to guide the selection 
of the persons who are to do this planning. Care must be taken that those 
chosen, whatever method is used, are actually representative of the em- 
ployees. This is not easy where employees are knit together loosely. 
School systems, when there is no collective bargaining, will encourage the 
setting up of councils, conferences, assemblies, and the like, which are 
recognized as the official voice of the employees. Some of these groups are 
made up of representatives of existing agencies or organizations. Some 
are made up of persons who are selected by secret ballot of all employees 
for the purpose of representation. Some are constituted of persons select- 
ed by the administrative staff. Once organized, the group usually selects 
its own leadership or, if relations are cordial enough, the superintendent 
acts as chairman. The closer the leadership and the membership of this 
representative council are to the employees, the better. 

The council should not by itself settle grievances. It should merely 
develop a plan for handling them which both sides will accept. Such a 
plan should be orderly in form. It should be operated smoothly. It should 
be administered wisely. Here is an example of such a plan which appears 
to be both practical and just. 

Grievances arise on every job. If it is a school job, the responsibility 
for handling "gripes" as they arise naturally falls on the shoulders of the 
immediate supervisor of the employee, usually the principal of the school. 
The efficient principal will encourage his subordinates to take their 
grievances directly to him, and as quickly as possible. Most of them can 



SPALDING 75 

be handled very easily, if they are not allowed to grow and fester. It may 
also be desirable that the employee have the support and assistance of a 
fellow worker. Many people are too introverted to reveal their complaint 
and argue it through. The central council should request each group of 
employees at a school to select someone to act with the aggrieved person. 
If there are but few employees of a single type at the school, such as cus- 
todians or secretaries, the system-wide organization of such employees 
should designate some one person to act with the aggrieved employee. The 
use of this other person is at the discretion of the one who is making the 
complaint. If he does not wish assistance, he acts alone. 

The first step in the handling of a grievance, then, is that of presenting 
it to the principal. This presentation should be an oral one. The principal 
should be expected to handle most of these complaints fairly and to give 
redress when such is needed. 

No one in the school system is more important to good relations be- 
tween the administration and the corps than the principal. He inter- 
prets the policies of the system to his co-workers in his building. He is, in 
effect, the school system in his relations with those who work in his 
school. He must have authority to settle grievances, if the first step 
toward that result is to carry weight. His decisions, of course, should be 
subject to appeal and the machinery of appeal should be uncomplicated 
and rapid in action, but, on the spot, he should be able to act as an 
executive. 

The representative of the employees within the school or in the entire 
organization of employees should have authority from them similar to 
that which the principal has from the board. He should make sure that 
all of the facts are presented in each case. He should, in the case of an 
existing agreement, live up to it in all of his acts. When he confers with 
the principal, he is firm, courteous, and businesslike. He is not merely an 
advocate; he is also a co-operator. He strives to make sure that each 
grievance is settled on its merits. He follows grievances through the ap- 
peal machinery if they have arisen within his jurisdiction. He keeps him- 
self informed about principles and established precedents so that he may 
guide those he represents whenever grievances arise in the future. 

All grievances and complaints which are not settled by mutual agree- 
ment between principal and employee should be placed in writing. For 
this, a suitable printed form should be used which both sides have helped 
to construct. The written grievance should be filed with the administra- 
tive staff within a specified period of time, dating from the occurrence 
which caused the employee to be aggrieved. A copy of this should also go 
to the central grievance coDcxmittee or a sub-committee of the central 
council of employees if collective bargaining has not taken place. If there 



76 ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 

is an organization of employees which has been selected for collective 
bargaining, a copy goes to their grievance committee, which takes the 
place of any sub-committee of a council. 

The grievance committee and the administrative staff investigate the 
grievance and seek additional facts independently of each other. The 
committee gets its facts from the report, the school representative, and 
the aggrieved employee. The staff gets its facts from the principal. If the 
grievance committee, after its investigation of the matter, is convinced 
that the original decision of the principal was correct, it should so state, 
notifying both the staff and the employee that it will not seek to further 
the appeal. If the administrative staff is convinced that the principal was 
in error and that the employee was right, then it should so state and give 
relief without further delay. If neither of these conditions prevails, then 
the staff and the grievance committee should confer and attempt to ad- 
just the matter. Each should seek to dispose of the matter at this con- 
ference if it is at all possible to do so. 

Where this is not possible, the appeal should go to a final board of 
arbitration. This board should be made up of the head of the organiza- 
tion of employees, the superintendent, and a third party chosen by them. 
The decision of this board should be final. When the appeal is sent to this 
board it should be accompanied by all records of previous discussions and 
action. The aggrieved employee should have the right to present his case 
if he wishes to do so, either to the conference of the grievance committee 
and the staff or to the final board of arbitration. 

Settling grievances is a normal part of the activity of any school sys- 
tem. The costs of doing so are a legitimate charge against any budget. 
Employees and representatives of employees should be able to carry out 
their responsibilities in this respect on time for which they are paid. They 
should not be expected to present or consider appeals at odd and in- 
convenient hours. 

The administrative staff also has grievances. When it has a grievance 
against the employees as a whole, the procedure begins at step two, the 
conference between the grievance committee and the staff. The appeal 
procedure goes on from there. 

When the grievance is against an individual employee, two procedures 
can be followed. The principal or some member of the staff may repri- 
mand the subordinate, correct his error, and seek to guide him into 
better ways. If the employee feels that this action is unjust, he proceeds 
as he would with any other grievance. A second procedure is that of a 
conference between the staff, or a member of the staff, and the grievance 
committee. The reasons for the grievance are presented, the committee 
then investigates them, confers with the employee, and, if it is convinced 



SPALDING 77 

that the complaint against him is sound, reprimands, corrects, and helps 
him to avoid similar errors in the future. If it is convinced that the com- 
plaint is unwarranted, it so reports to the administrative staff. If the latter 
disapproves of the verdict, it may appeal to the board of arbitration. 

Outline of a Grievance Procedure 

Step 1: Aggrieved employee and representative attempt to settle with the princi- 
pal. If this fails, the grievance is written and submitted to 

Step 2: Grievance committee, which attempts to settle with the administrative 
staff. If this fails, the grievance and accompanying records are sent to 

Step 3: Arbitration committee (head of employees, superintendent of schools, 
and third arbiter) for final settlement. 

Such a procedure in handling grievances is democratic. It places re- 
sponsibility for adjustment on employees as well as on the administrative 
staff. It is simple in structure and speedy in operation. It will work well 
where a central council sponsors and develops it. It will work better when 
it is incorporated into an agreement between an organization and the 
employing board which covers grievances, working conditions, and col- 
lective bargaining. 

THE PARTICIPATORY PROCESS 

In the three problems which have been used as examples of ways in 
which the personnel of a school system should be organized in accordance 
with the criteria of democracy and the laws of learning, there have been 
certain common procedures. Persons have been given responsibilities 
along with opportunities to act freely. Employees have been encouraged 
to work together to improve their lot and to work with other persons to 
improve the schools. They have been given a voice in setting up the pro- 
cedure by which their grievances are redressed and in the adjustments 
which are made to redress them. They have, in short, participated in the 
many activities which affect them. 

This participation is made possible through specific planning based not 
only on the dictates of humanitarianism, justice, and more harmonious 
relationship, but also according to the principles by which all learning 
takes place. It is this latter consideration which is neglected by those who 
solve all their problems by formulas of expediency rather than of basic 
science. If the members of a school system are ever to learn how to be- 
have as responsible members of a group, how to avoid difficulties, or how 
to settle them amicably once they have grown into grievances, then such 
learning is possible only by following the methods which psychology has 
found to be effective. The plans outlined here are in accordance with 
these methods. Employees are motivated toward goals which are reached 
by successful responses to a problem-situation after excess and varied 



78 ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 

responses have been made. Among these successful responses are the 
solutions which result in new curriculums, or better working conditions, 
or the just settlement of grievances. These activities which are earned on 
in the process of learning and which are democratic in nature make up 
the participatory process. 

The participatory process can be defined as the aggregate of those 
activities which are carried on by persons who seek to solve problems by 
co-operative methods, according to principles which are in accord with 
the way in which man learns and which include the specific behaviors of 
democratic people. Organization of the personnel is most effective when 
it results in the use of this process. It is least effective when it is carried 
on without participation. 

The benefits of the participatory process come into play only when 
several persons are genuinely bothered by a problem and are concerned 
about securing a solution to it. This is another way of saying that those 
who are to participate must be motivated if they are to be expected to 
act. Motivation is a condition of the individual. That fact is frequently 
overlooked in discussions on this subject. Motivation is constantly being 
referred to as something apart from the persons. Occasionally it is even 
used as an aspect of a plan. Sometimes we find references to motives 
which appear to imply that these are environmental factors toward which 
the individual acts. Such definitions of motivation and of motive are 
unsound and tend to confuse people. The administrator does not moti- 
vate persoms. He can only introduce incentives into the immediate en- 
vironment of the employees. As these incentives appear to be desirable, 
the lack or need of them produces those imbalances, tensions, differences 
in potential, and changes in the chemistry of the body which are charac- 
teristic of true motivation and which result in subsequent action. Once 
the employees are motivated, the administrator can select individuals to 
organize in such ways that they will use the participatory process. Evi- 
dence that they are already motivated will form the basis for choosing 
the individuals who will work on the problem. When he does this, the re- 
sults are better in every way; the choice of highly motivated people will 
produce more democratic behavior. Committees will seek the common 
good rather than personal advantage. This encourages social rather than 
antisocial behavior. 

The participatory process, as its use is encouraged by the wise ad- 
ministrator, develops more resourceful persons than do other procedures. 
Each person who participates with others ia the solution of problems 
which bother the group as a whole, acquires skill in the use of methods of 
solution which can be employed on other occasions with profit to him and 
to the schools. He also develops a sensitivity to the existence of problems 



SP AIDING 79 

which were previously beyond the scope of his experience and will seek to 
solve them through co-operative interaction with others who are similarly 
aware of them. As present problems are cleared up, as new problems are 
discovered and solved, and as the practice which employees have in 
solving problems continues to increase their competence in this work, the 
school system improves rapidly and becomes dynamic. 

THE IMPROVEMENT OF MORALE 

Morale is one of those intangibles of the spirit which is essential if any 
group is to put forth its best co-operative effort. It is often sought by the 
administrator through effprts to improve rates of pay, working condi- 
tions, hours of work, and other factors which affect employees adversely. 
Sometimes it is sought through the media of group meetings, bulletins, 
radio addresses, and other procedures which are directed toward "pep- 
ping up" the employees. These activities and others like them arise out of 
the belief that, because morale is a quality of a total group, it arises solely 
out of what the administrator does with a total group. This belief is not 
tenable. 

Morale is made up of the attitudes, emotions, and consequent be- 
haviors of individuals. Because of what has happened or is happening to 
an employee, he feels in various ways. If what happens to him tends to 
restore the integration of his personality, then his attitude toward the 
school system which causes these happenings is favorable and his morale 
is said to be good. If what happens tends to retard the integration of his 
personality, then the reverse is true. It is doubtful that much happens in 
the way of increasing morale within any individual, which does not stem 
out of his personal satisfactions. 

Allport 5 defines personality as follows: "Personality is the dynamic 
organization within the individual of those psycho-physical systems that 
determine his unique adjustment to his environment." Each individual 
seeks to create a suitable environment in which he lives. While he is on the 
job, his efforts may be fruitless or profitable as they are helped or hin- 
dered by what the administrator does. If his actions are in conflict with 
the demands of his environment, the results will be harmful, and his 
morale will drop. Occasionally the conflict, in which the teacher is in- 
volved is due to his own limitations. Sometimes it arises out of some 
phase of the school system in which the employee works. Whatever the 
sources of the conflicts between the personality of the individual and the 
entire environment which impinges on it, they may cause feelings of in- 



1 Gordon Willard Allport, Personality: A Psychological Interpretation. New York: 
Henry Holt & Co., 1937. 



80 ORGANIZING TEE PERSONNEL 

feriority to arise which will lead to compensatory behavior. If this be- 
havior is directed toward the solution of the problems which caused the 
imbalance, the results may be beneficial, fitting into the needs of the 
school system and of the other employees. When this happens in many 
individual instances, morale is said to be high or good. On the other hand, 
the compensatory behavior may be aggressive or antisocial, in that it 
tends to be opposed to the school system or to other aspects of the 
environment. When this happens in many individual instances, morale is 
said to be low or poor. The compensatory behavior may take the form of 
withdrawing, becoming absorbed in one's self, slow to act, extremely 
cautious, or some other manifestation of introversion. Should this be the 
case in enough individual instances, the school system might appear 
peaceful on the surface, but the results would be equally poor and the 
morale just as low. 

Morale is not a general condition of a group independent of the spe- 
cific individuals involved. Treating it as such will usually result in the 
failure of any plan to raise or improve it. In general it is as inaccurate to 
speak of the morale of school personnel as it is to speak of their intelli- 
gence, health, stamina, and the like. One could not answer the questions, 
"What is the intelligence of the teachers in a school system?" or "What 
is their health?" or "What is their stamina?" except in terms of the de- 
gree to which individuals are wise or well or strong. Any attempt to do 
otherwise would result in meaningless generalizations or in valueless 
abstractions. Modern education has centered around the individual 
student for years, and modern administration of the personnel of a school 
system should also center around the individual employee. The wise ad- 
ministrator endeavors to encourage those activities which will help 
individuals to become more nearly integrated. Improvement of group 
morale will inevitably follow. 

Redress of grievances, using the principles which have been presented 
in this chapter, is one of the organizational activities which helps to 
improve morale. One must be careful, however, to make sure that the 
grievance which is being corrected is the true one. Complaints about 
rates of pay, for example, may be corrected by a better salary schedule, 
but the real difficulty of the employee may not be the poor pay itself. 
Instead, it may be that he is involved with a loan shark who is taking a 
great share of his wages. Mere increase in pay will not help him unless it 
will also relieve him of his debt. The "morale "of this employee would 
still remain low. 

Whenever man is disturbed he tends to place the cause of his dis- 
turbance outside of himself. He says, "The pupils are undisciplined," 
when the real cause of his unhappiness is that he has not been trained 



SPALDING 81 

thoroughly in carrying on an activity program and, therefore, is doing it 
poorly. The situation will not be corrected by punishing pupils or by 
transferring the teacher. Only by giving him more training so that he can 
do well what he is expected to do will he become capable of overcoming 
his difficulty with his pupils. He may say, "The principal is arbitrary and 
autocratic/' when the real cause of the difficulty arises out of the fact 
that the teacher has recently learned to do some new things of which he is 
proud but finds no opportunity to demonstrate these talents in the 
school. Correcting this situation will change his opinion of the principal. 
The administrator, in dealing with employees, should always seek to 
discover the real and not the merely asserted causes of disturbances and 
help to remove them. 

Remedial activities are necessary and desirable whenever grievances 
occur, but positive, constructive action is also needed and will produce 
far better results than corrective action. The participatory process out- 
lined above is an ever-present aid in both directions. 

Each individual person wishes to be important and to feel that his 
importance is recognized. Each wishes to be accepted by the group with 
which he works as one who meets the standards of conduct which it 
approves. Each wishes to be recognized as "belonging." Each, in short, 
seeks to associate himself with the many influences which impinge upon 
him, in such a way that his personality becomes more nearly integrated. 
Only then can he find the personal satisfactions which produce "morale." 

The administrator wishes to secure loyalty to the school system, co- 
operation within the entire corps, continuous improvement in methods of 
work, and, in general, more efficient schools. Many of his activities to 
secure these ends may tend to affect individuals adversely and so impair 
"morale." This will not result if he uses the participatory process. With 
it he accomplishes many desirable aims. First, he takes advantage of the 
knowledge which many persons have acquired in their study and ex- 
perience, and he uses this to improve the schools. Second, he provides 
opportunities for individual employees to identify themselves with an 
important human activity and to feel important because of this identifi- 
cation. Third, he provides opportunities for them to gain recognition 
from the group with which they work and from those for whom they 
work. Fourth, he gives the entire system a broader understanding of and 
sympathy with the problems which are faced by the administrative staff. 
Fifth, he is enabled to get better performance from them because they 
are carrying on activities which have resulted in a large measure from 
their own planning and which they wish to demonstrate to be wise. 
Sixth, he helps to facilitate the integration of each individual with many 
factors which impinge upon him and so helps him in his efforts toward 



82 ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 

integration of his personality. Seventh, he makes the work of the individ- 
ual more interesting and purposeful as he becomes aware of its relation to 
the work of others. 

"Morale" improves as each employee improves in attitudes, skill, 
ability, and understanding. The participatory process provides many 
opportunities for this improvement. As it operates it reduces the amount 
of conflict between employee and employer, the number of instances of 
aggressive and antisocial behavior, and the frequency of the occurrence 
of withdrawing or introversion. As these are reduced, more individuals 
become well adjusted, and "morale" becomes high. More individuals 
show loyalty to the school system, seek to co-operate with others, and 
desire to improve the quality of their work and their technical skills. By 
the use of this process both employees and administrators will reach the 
goals which are most important to them with the greatest economy of 
time and effort. 

SUMMARY OF BASIC PRINCIPLES 

In the material which has been presented, some principles of organiz- 
ing the personnel of a democratic city school system for greater efficiency 
have been stated. Other principles have been used and not stated. Both 
are summarized below: 

1. Procedures used in organizing the personnel should be in accord with the way 
in which man learns. 

2. The behaviors which make up democratic living should be used in the inter- 
action between the various elements of the entire school population, includ- 
ing all branches of the service. 

3. The nature and type of organization to be used is a function of the ends to- 
ward which it is directed, 

4. Professional organizations which are directed primarily toward the improve- 
ment of schools through research, study, and discussion of the problems of 
education can draw their membership from administrators and employees 
alike. 

5. Organizations which are directed primarily toward the improvement of 
schools, through bettering salaries, hours of work, and conditions, should 
draw their membership solely from a single type of employee. 

6. The effectiveness of any organization is measured by the extent to which it 
changes the behavior of the personnel. 

7. The persons who are included in any group organization change as the ends 
toward which their organized activities are directed change. 

8. The organization of personnel to any end should produce more persons who 
are competent in democratic living by providing continuing opportunities to 
practice it. 

9. Most persons who work are motivated by considerations of personal advan- 
tage, among the foremost of which is pay. 



SPALDING S3 

10. Tangible rewards are helpful whenever an organized group of employees 
achieves success in improving the schools. 

11. The leaders of an organized group should be chosen by the group. 

12. The final plan or organisation for action should evolve from the group itself. 

13. Lay participation in an organization is desirable whenever the interests of 
the public are directly involved. 

14. The administrative staff should give technical and procedural help to any 
organized group which is trying to solve a problem. It should not influence 
the nature of the proposed solutions. 

15. The principal is the key person in any plan of organizing personnel on a sys- 
tem-wide basis designed to improve the schools. 

16. The administrative staff should encourage collective bargaining by strong 
organizations of employees which have been chosen to act in this capacity by 
a majority of workers in a particular field. 

17. The distinction between the duties and responsibilities of the administration 
of the schools and of the employees in the schools should be clearly defined* 

18. Arbitration should be used to settle disputes between the administrative 
staff and the employees only when sincere efforts to reach agreement have 
failed. 

19. A formally-agreed-upon procedure for handling grievances is desirable. It 
should include provisions for appeal and for final adjudication. 

20. There should be a basic contractual agreement between employees and em- 
ployers which has been arrived at by collective bargaining. 

2L Grievances of the administrative staff about the acts of employees should be 
handled through regular channels for other grievances. 

22. "Morale" is made up of the attitudes, emotions, and consequent behaviors of 
individuals. 

23. Those activities which tend to retard the integration of the personalities of 
individual employees tend to lower morale. 

24. Those activities which tend to facilitate the integration of the personalities 
of individual employees tend to raise morale, 

25. The participatory process includes many activities which tend to facilitate 
the integration of the personalities of individual employees and few which 
tend to retard it. 

26. The board of education establishes the policies under which democratic 
administration is carried out. Policies in respect to grievances, type of cur- 
riculum, and other matters which involve personnel should be established 
clearly by it. 

27. The board of education should be informed continually about the developing 
program for organizing the personnel and should participate at its level in 
the processes which are part of organization. 

28. Access to the board of education by individual employees should be through 
the administrative offices of the school. This channel of communication 
should be speedy and unhampered. 



84 ORGANIZING THE PERSONNEL 

29. The board of education should accept and carry out contractual items which 
are arrived at through collective bargaining and should insist that employees 
carry out contractual obligations which have been similarly determined. 

TOWARD BETTER SCHOOLS 

The human resources of the schools and of the communities which 
support them are rich and varied. Unfortunately the yield thus far in 
terms of vigorously growing school systems is slight when compared to 
the potential returns. Unlike the mines of the earth, these human re- 
sources refuse to surrender their values when attempts are made to secure 
them through force. They willingly give them up when they feel that the 
act is of their own initiation or when they are convinced that the cause is 
worthy. Note how people who hate taxation poured out their money in 
the war against fascism. They might be persuaded to do the same in the 
war against ignorance. Creative co-operative imagination, vigorous 
democratic interaction, and intelligent scientific solutions to problems, 
coupled with public support, are the inevitable results of any process 
which is based upon the full and free participation of those intimately 
concerned, once the imagination is fired and the road to act made clear. 
Organization is a tool by which these persons may co-operate to ac- 
complish what they deem to be important. If it is to be an effective tool, 
it must be forged and shaped by them and not for them. The adminis- 
trative staff should be the master teachers who encourage people to learn 
the techniques of organizing and of organized action, but it should not be 
the major source of that action. Rather, it should bend its efforts to 
develop persons who become increasingly effective in what they them- 
selves do and increasingly competent in the use of the best methods of 
doing. 

Good schools can never be built by the few executives who administer 
schools. The inertia inherent in the mass of persons in a city school 
system is too great for the tiny forces of the administrative staff to over- 
come. Motion forward, if it is to come, must germinate from within the 
mass itself and come into full power out of its own resources. When this 
happens, the kinetic energy is tremendous. Great changes occur with 
amazing ease and thoroughness. The astute administrator is the one who 
seeks to promote progress in this manner. 

The schools which can be developed in this country are far better than 
any one person can imagine. They will be created by the inventions and 
adaptations of hundreds of individuals who seek to work together toward 
the improvement of the goals and the processes of education. These 
persons must have the courage and the strength to do this a courage 
and a strength renewed and increased by the collective actions of fellow- 



SPALDING So 

workers. The citadels of intolerance, ignorance, poverty, and greed can- 
not be stormed by the efforts, no matter how heroic, of single individ- 
uals. They will fall only to the concerted action of inspired groups. And it 
is not too much to hope that this will come to pass. Deep within each 
human personality lies the desire and the will to face the battle for a 
better world which the schools are designed to wage. This will can be- 
come action if it is re-enforced by a similar determination in others. It 
can stay hidden in wishful thinking, if it remains by itself. 

Strong organizations of employees lend strength and courage and the 
will to action to each person. Many of these initial attempts at improve- 
ment will be of low intensity or perhaps even in the wrong direction. 
This is to be expected since the intricate processes of group action toward 
ever more desirable ends are not learned readily or executed perfectly. 
They will never be learned, however, unless there are frequent oppor- 
tunities to use and practice them. As persons become more skilled in 
co-operation and in the scientific approach, the quality of their efforts 
will improve and the number of errors become fewer. This way, and this 
way alone, leads to the best schools for the children of the United States 
of America. 



CHAPTER V 

PARTICIPATION IN COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION 
AND PLANNING 



HEROLD C. HUNT 

Superintendent of Schools 

Kansas City, Missouri 

and 

J. PAUL LEONARD 

President, San Francisco State College 
San Francisco, California 



SCHOOL SEBVICES AND COMMUNITY NEEDS 

The war years added a long list of exceptional services to the already 
heavy responsibilities of school administrators. The acceptable per- 
formance of these services demonstrated the ability of the school 
through its administration to accomplish effectively such extra tasks as 
the needs of the community may require. In line with modern educa- 
tional philosophy, which recognizes that "the school is the one institu- 
tion touching all parts of the social fabric that is capable of serving as 
this focal point of unification/ 71 these new functions were logically and 
readily added to or incorporated into the existing school programs. 

" Earliest of these so-called educational extensions, inaugurated when 
the first peacetime conscription in history was still being debated in 
Washington, during the period when aggression on three continents had 
not yet merged into World War II, was the War Production Training 
Program. Originally called the National Defense Training Program, this 
program, designed to prepare workers for war-plant assignments to build 
material largely consigned to lend-lease, was but an adaptation of vo- 
cational education to the specialized needs of industries producing the 
implements of war. The War Production Training Program served youth 
and young adults, successfully bridging the gap between high school, with 
its generalized occupational preparation, and the specialized needs of 
intricate operations in war plants. In this program the pupils came to the 
school for training or, where more convenient or more feasible, the school 



1 George R. Koopman, Alice Miel, and Paul J. Misner, Democracy in School Admin- 
istration, p. 279. New York: D. Appleton- Century Co., Inc., 1943. 

86 



HUNT AND LEONARD 87 

set up the training program in the industrial plant itself. In either case, 
educational organizations demonstrated their ability to serve specific 
needs of out-of-school youth. With military service on the part of the 
majority of the youth group, this same program served to train or re- 
train older, more mature workers and successfully fitted them for vital 
jobs. 

On the other end of the educational ladder, school administrators were 
also called upon to develop programs for large numbers of so-called pre- 
school children. Opening nursery schools to accommodate children as 
young as two years of age, the schools freed young adults from the day- 
time responsibility for their young children and enabled them to engage 
in essential war work. Extended day care for elementary-school children 
to bridge the gap between school-dismissal time and the end of the work- 
ing day was likewise helpful to the war production program. 

Further extension of school services, developed because of the needs of 
the emergency, included the summer programs for children of preschool 
and elementary-school age to complete the necessary year-round care 
and supervision that would coincide with their parents' year-round war 
work. Likewise, the need for a rapid expansion of food service became 
evident when it was found that parents were not available at noon to 
prepare lunch for their children. 

These are but instances of the increased responsibilities that have been 
assumed during the past few years by school administrators throughout 
the nation. That they have been carried on effectively there can be no 
question, and that the effectiveness has demonstrated the soundness of 
the school's assumption of o ver-aE responsibility for in-school and out-of- 
school children and young people is also now a matter of record. The role 
of the school in peacetime is certain to parallel this wartime record of 
over-all responsibility for youth. 

While the activities just mentioned have been nation-wide in scope, 
some communities have found it necessary to make the school the center 
for both youth and adults for all types of major community .improvement 
activities health, recreation, economic improvement and experimenta- 
tion, community planning, and even marketing and production co- 
operatives. In other communities the school superintendent has found 
himself the leader in forming over-all community planning groups or 
commissions for studying and planning improvement of community life. 
In smaller communities the school has tended to become more of a center 
of community life than it has in the cities. However, the problem of try- 
ing to divide the larger metropolitan communities into smaller centers of 
neighborhood living gives expression to the idea of a community school 
even in the heart of the more populous cities. In any community, how- 



88 COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION 

ever, the possibility of the school's assuming a greater responsibility for 
social and community leadership is present, and the need for the ad- 
ministrators to become more adequately trained to assume broader 
administrative obligations is obvious. 

RESPONSIBILITY OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS IN 
OVER-ALL PROVISION FOR YOUTH 

Discharge of these added responsibilities is but further evidence of the 
logic of the placement of the responsibility for initiation of over-all 
planning and provision for the youth of any community in the hands of 
the educational administration. On the rolls of the school are registered 
the entire body of youth of the area, and from this preliminary acquaint- 
ance the school becomes increasingly familiar with the characteristics of 
its pupil membership and more aware of the needs of each one of the 
group as the acquaintance extends over a period of years. 

Modern conceptions of education would, therefore, place in the hands 
of educational administrators the initial responsibility for the over-all 
community planning for its youth in the areas of schooling, health, 
recreation, and, in appropriate situations, the prevention or correction of 
juvenile delinquency . Today's conception of schooling is a far cry from the 
erstwhile three It's, the specifications of an adequate education including 
not only general education but also guidance to assure the best possible 
adjustment of the individual during school years and for his out-of- 
school career, and vocational education to yield a substantial measure of 
occupational competence in the field into which aptitudes, interest, and 
personal preference may lead him. Modern educational philosophy like- 
wise recognizes the school's responsibility for the initial occupational 
placement of youth. This is a development of the practical vocational 
education which includes part-time work experience as an essential por- 
tion of the educational program. Responsibility for determining work 
experience opportunities and for co-ordinating and supervising the re- 
sulting activity makes the initial placement function a logical responsi- 
bility of the school administration. Such a service has been found to pro- 
mote the further development of the educational program as well as the 
interests of the individual pupils. Follow-up is a natural corollary of 
placement and, in carrying on this activity, the school strengthens its 
own guidance and placement services. Where the initial placement does 
not yield the desired result and retraining becomes necessary, this re- 
sponsibility, too, must be assumed by the school as the original training 
agency. In the entire field of service to youth the school administration 
serves as co-ordinaton 

The areas of health and recreation are developed concurrently with 



HUNT AND LEONARD 89 

the educational program, and here again the school's responsibility is a 
major one. Health has long been recognized as a part of general educa- 
tion; and recreation, both in the aspect of extra-curriculum activities and 
in the larger life-field of worthy use of leisure, is now likewise included in 
the functional area of school training. The school's chief responsibility is 
to build well-rounded citizens; and in the administration of its training 
program attention must be given to all phases of individual growth and 
development. 

Correction, if necessary, has been listed as still another area of the 
school's responsibility to youth. The preventive phase of this service has 
long been a responsibility of school administrators and attention has 
been consistently directed toward it. The service of visiting teachers in 
the school system has avoided many referrals to the juvenile court. Close 
co-operation with the court, however, assists in administering the cor- 
rective phase when such becomes necessary. Here again the educational 
administrator acts as co-ordinator. 

The idea of the school assuming responsibility in these different areas 
is not merely theoretical; it is a reality in many communities in America. 
Several notable situations are described in recent reports. Among them 
is the work done at the Roger Clark Ballard Memorial School in Jefferson 
County, Kentucky, and at the Arthurdale School at Arthurdale, West 
Virginia. Both of these schools took shape in communities where health, 
recreation, and education were at "low tide." By skilful planning and 
the enlistment of the co-operation of adults, these schools became im- 
portant factors in promoting the health and welfare of the community. 2 

Similar gains were made in communities scattered throughout the 
drainage areas administered by the Tennessee Valley Authority. This is 
one of the noblest examples of the enlistment of all the agencies of the 
community in co-operative endeavor for improved community living. 
Schools throughout the valley areas endeavored to strengthen communi- 
ty understanding of the resources available for improved living. Such 
schools as those at Wilson Dam and Gilbertsville are illustrative of the 
indigenous character of educational programs in the area and of how they 
improved health, recreation, and community understanding of the place 
and importance of education in community progress. 5 These schools, as 



* Elsie R. dappi Community Schools in Action. New York: Viking Press, 1939. 

* Maurice F. Seay and William J. McGlothlin (editors), Elementary Education in 
Two Communities in the Tennessee VaUey* Bulletin of the Bureau of School Service, 
Vol. XTV, No. 3, University of Kentucky, 1942. For a challenging and fascinating de- 
scription of the Tennessee Valley Project, see David E. Lilienthal, TV A: Democracy 
on the March. New York: Harper & Bros., 1944. Published also in the Pocket Book 
Edition, 1945. 



90 COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION 

well as the Arthurdale School, were founded on the principle that the 
curriculum should not be hampered by traditional and formal courses of 
study but should be planned to suit the special needs of the community, 
that community activities should constitute the laboratory through 
which the pupils will get their educative experiences. This means that the 
community and the school are linked together. It means, furthermore, 
that when pupils leave these schools they will have an understanding of 
the place of education in the promotion of the general welfare. The prin- 
ciple on which such schools are founded merits more widespread accept- 
ance in America, for, if the school is to justify its large measure of public 
support, it must teach men how to live better. It must teach them how to 
use the tools at their command to turn the resources of their community 
into human happiness and prosperity. 

School leaders in many localities have been the creative force back of 
co-ordinated community activity, and the schools in such areas have 
frequently become the social as well as the intellectual center of com- 
munity life. Many illustrations are available. Some of the less well- 
known ones are excellent illustrations of the principles here advocated. 4 

In recent publications of the Educational Policies Commission and of 
the National Association of Secondary-School Principals, an educational 
program for a rural community was proposed, one which indicated the 
nature of community co-operation and the extent of community influ- 
ence which could be exerted by the school. 5 This illustrative community, 
called Farmville, centered its cultural life in the school and in a com- 
munity-planning group of local leaders representing business, farming, 
the school, government, and home life. In the school were located the 
library, the health clinic, a community recreation center with indoor and 
outdoor facilities, an agricultural laboratory for the study of farming 
problems, an agricultural machine shop, and a group of community co- 
operatives owned by adults in the community but operated for them by 
boys and girls in the high school. 

Some may think that these facilities were but the products of the 
imaginative minds of the authors, but they were actually suggested by 
the successful experiences of well-known communities. Carroll County, 
Georgia, is a community of 37,000 people, some living on home-owned 
farms, some on tenant farms, and others in a small center with four tex- 



* See "New Dominion Series" and Extension Division publications of the University 
of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia. 

8 Educational Policies Commission, Education for AU American Youth. Washing- 
ton 6: Educational Policies Commission of the National Education Association, 1944. 
See also Planning for American Youth. Washington 6: National Association of Second- 
ary School Principals of the National Education Association, 1944. 



HUNT AND LEONARD 91 

tile mills. Little theorizing is going on here, but many actual changes are 
taking place. There are movements to grow cover crops and pastures for 
livestock; dairy and poultry enterprises are replacing complete reliance 
on cotton; more garden produce is being cultivated for home use and for 
the Atlanta market. People are beginning to look to the school for leader- 
ship in democratic living and are coming to believe that such assistance is 
as important as the teaching of skills. For an illustration of what is hap- 
pening, the Sand Hill community may be observed. 

Sand Hill has centered its development in the vicinity of the consoli- 
dated school, which also houses a co-operative cannery and a kitchen for 
the preparation of school lunches. Another building houses the corn and 
feed mills, an auto repair shop, a blacksmith shop, a woodworking shop 
for building furniture, and a barber shop. The aim of the Sand Hill Co- 
operative Association, the directing body, is to have a complete com- 
munity-service center. The Association comprises six smaller communi- 
ties which are included in the school district. Regular meetings of the 
community for sociability and for the discussion of community problems 
are held at the school in each of these centers. At Tallapoosa the school is 
the center, but the community carries the responsibility. A woman's 
clubhouse stands next door to the school, a cannery is close by, a feed 
mill has been built with a sign over the door indicating that the people of 
this community have paid for many feed mills but this one they really 
own. Consideration is being given to setting up a repair shop, a dehydra- 
tor, and a potato-curing house. The Smyrna School turned first to beauti- 
fication of the schoolgrounds and to school sanitation and water supply. 
Some wanted a potato-curing shed, but community interest was low. 
Pupils in the school visited a near-by shed and reported on what was being 
done for that community. Adults became interested and the shed was 
built. 

The school shops of Farquier County, Virginia, were opened to the 
community. Immediately, fifty pieces of expensive farm machinery were 
brought in for repairs. Junk was turned into workable equipment. New 
parts costing $20 made new mowers worth $115. But the school shop 
could not repair all the machinery; accordingly, the fanners were taught 
how to set up a minimum repair shop in their own barns. 

In Southside, Virginia, where the word "crop" means "tobacco," the 
vocational-agriculture teacher became interested in promoting greater 
crop diversification. Through the oi^anization of a group of farmers and 
the boys in the agricultural classes, production of grain, soy beans, and 
lespedeza was increased. Poultry and cattle production increased, and a 
feed mill became necessary . One was built, and this in turn increased the 
yield further to where a combine was needed. No one in the community 



92 COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION 

could afford to buy one, so one was purchased co-operatively, the plan 
being worked out in the night-school class in agriculture for adults. 

The people of Habersham County, Georgia, have found a way to insure 
a varied and nutritious diet the year around by establishing a communi- 
ty-owned food preservation center at the Clarksville high school. It 
includes a quick-freezing and locker plant, a cannery, a dehydrator, a 
flour mill, and a sweet-potato curing house. This center serves about one 
thousand families within a radius of fifteen miles. The parents are taught 
how to do their own processing and the teachers and pupils serve as 
general managers of the project. Recently a community hatchery has 
been added and there is community ownership of a combine, a tractor, 
and a power mower. Those who have no ready cash can use the facilities 
by "toll payment" of goods. The school lunchroom has become a benefi- 
ciary of the toll system. 

Fluvanna County, Virginia, needed a cannery, but the community was 
not sufficiently interested to persuade the Board of Supervisors to grant 
money to construct one. The principal of the school wrote a factual letter 
and the pupils delivered copies to about 1,200 families. The result was 
community pressure on the Board of Supervisors, the money being prompt- 
ly appropriated. Purchase of a truck for hauling crops to the cannery 
followed later, labor was swapped, and now other plans are under way. 
Kents Store, Virginia, consolidated its schools and thereby abandoned 
one of the buildings. Instead of tearing it down, the citizens made a com- 
munity center of it, adapting it to many types of activities. It serves the 
recreational needs of seven hundred children, and adult needs in health, 
recreation, and sociability. It gives motion-picture entertainment and 
serves as a U.S.O. center for Negro servicemen. It is open from 7 :45 A.M. 
to midnight daily, and the cumulative attendance is approximately 
twenty thousand each month. The summer program includes a workshop 
for teachers, a community recreation center, a health clinic on two days 
each week, canning and laundry demonstrations, and projects in food 
production and conservation. The center has sponsored a health and 
sanitation program for Negro homes, a home beautification program, 
and home-garden and poultry-production programs, all based on a care- 
ful survey of the needs of the Negroes in the area. 

Another interesting community project was carried out in the Jordan 
area of Greenville County, South Carolina. In a period of seven years, an 
active community council developed a co-operative exchange, a credit 
union, a dramatics club, a health center and a library, a co-operative 
sharing program for exchange of cuttings, bulbs, and shrubs, a com- 
munity cannery, wood and metal shops, and a potato-curing house. The 
school curriculum has been entirely made over to fit the needs of the com- 



HUNT AND LEONARD 93 

munity and to serve adults as well as young poeple. One of the interesting 
innovations was the development of a "pig chain," which has for its pur- 
pose the improvement in quantity and quality of hogs raised in the 
community. A boy is given a pig to care for, and when it produces a litter 
he is to return two pigs which are given to two other boys who repeat the 
process. A registered sow and boar started the chain. 

These illustrations are actual living examples of the principles of 
community co-operation centering around the school. After observation 
of these and other projects, leaders in Virginia communities summarized 
their conclusions regarding such activities as follows: 

1. The total community must be kept in mind and the concept of community 
relationships must be continuously growing. 

2. Any project that meets a real need is a good starting-place. 

3. Drawing in all existing agencies as early as possible is desirable. 

4. Public sentiment must be enlisted. This is best done by keeping all people in- 
formed at all times. 

5. Agencies and individuals should be as quick to relinquish leadership as to as- 
sume it at the right moment. 

6. Projects undertaken should have reasonable chance of success, 

7. Emphasis should be upon better living for the entire community. 

8. One criterion for judging the soundness of a program is the extent to which 
participating laymen can interpret it. 

9. We found evidence that democracy can function at a high degree of efficiency. 
10. In addition, we found evidence that one of the greatest values in community 

programs is the spiritual and civic growth of the people. 6 

Another illustration is the work done in the rural sections of Delaware 
where the organization of communities for improved living began with 
the studies of folk music and art in the area. Community groups came 
together and out of this activity grew handicrafts, music festivals, and 
greater community consciousness and co-operation. 7 

MAKING A COMMUNITY SURVEY 

If the educational administration is to discharge effectively its over-all 
responsibility to youth, it must first take inventory of all that the com- 
munity offers in behalf of its young people. When all opportunities are 
known, a complete and well-balanced program can be developed. The 
school should assume responsibility for setting up a central inventory 
record in which the youth to be served are registered and the services 



8 Plans without People. New Dominion Series, No. 65, March 1, 1945. Gfaarlottes- 
ville, Virginia: University of Virginia, 1945. 

* Enriched Community Living. Wilmington, Delaware: Division of Adult Educa- 
tion, State Department of Public Instruction, 1936. 



94 COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION 

afforded are indicated. From such record the administration can determine 
if there are those to whom the services are not available and if there are 
some who are involved at times in too many activities. In every com- 
munity today there are many agencies offering opportunities and facilities 
for the advancement of youth. The school is in a position to determine 
the nature of all these services. It is able likewise to discover whether 
the offerings cover the entire area adequately, whether they recognize 
and meet every need, and whether there is evidence of duplication of 
service. 

A community survey is essential for the purpose of listing all available 
services. The organizations, their programs, and their offerings must be 
determined. This can be accomplished in an informal manner in a small 
community; in urban centers, an extensive formal survey may be desir- 
able. In most instances, however, co-operative practice within the com- 
munity readily permits a building principal and his staff, with the aid of 
the pupils, to compile a fairly complete and accurate listing for the par- 
ticular neighborhood. The several neighborhood lists can then be com- 
bined into one community roster. Such a survey will bring to light many 
little-known efforts, some of which may be strengthened and extended 
through co-operative procedures. Conferences with representatives of 
these agencies will afford additional information and furnish leads for the 
complete rounding-out of the listing. 

Likewise necessary, to serve both the youth and the educational pro- 
gram of the community, is an occupational study of the area. Such a 
study serves to reveal job opportunities within the community and the 
requirements for those jobs. This type of study enables the school to pre- 
pare its pupils more adequately for the employment they will enter and 
to render more effective placement service for the pupils in the co-opera- 
tive phase of their education as well as for full-time employment after 
graduation. The occupational study, moreover, should be a more or less 
continuing survey so that, as conditions change, immediate adjustments 
can be made to new opportunities and new requirements. 

In listing opportunities for youth, the school administrators should 
include all the educational as well as the leisure-time and recreational 
offering that are provided outside of the school itself. The educational 
programs of the various agencies are exceedingly helpful to young people, 
most of whom are generally eager to take advantage of any offerings that 
satisfy their needs or interests. 

Since the school has a complete register of the youth of the district, it 
is logical that it should likewise maintain a record of those being served 
by one or more youth agencies and of those needing such assistance or 
service. In this manner the educational administration can help to direct 



HUNT AND LEONARD 05 

the services of community agencies so as to reach those who need them 
most. 

Many excellent illustrations of activities in the area of community 
surveys could be cited. One example of a carefully conducted vocational 
survey is to be found in Kansas City, Missouri, where business, industry, 
labor, and the schools co-operatively studied the job opportunities and 
the characteristics of these jobs in the greater Kansas City area. The 
survey not only afforded the school much information which was needed 
in planning an adequate program of vocational education but also joined 
together the leaders in business, labor, industry, and education in a 
common effort to solve the problems of the employment of youth. 8 

In Des Moines, Iowa, a co-operating group of school and community 
leaders compiled a useful report on the number and variety of community 
resources available for educating youth. It served to make the teachers 
aware of the value of these resources for teaching, and to make the 
community cognizant of the fact that community institutions were the 
extended classroom of the school. All community agencies were studied, 
those dealing with business, consumer education, education, government, 
health, home, industry, intercultural relations, occupational opportunity, 
fine arts, public welfare, recreation, religion, and safety. The study was 
based on the five channels by which the school reaches the community 
excursions, guest speakers, pupil participation in community activities, 
demonstrations, and visual materials. 9 As another example, the San 
Francisco, California, teachers prepared a volume for the use of teachers 
and other community workers which set forth the combined facilities of 
the city for the recreation, education, and welfare of youth. This volume 
was useful in acquainting all workers with the total facilities of the com- 
munity and was of service to workers in guiding youth into those activi- 
ties of most benefit to them. 10 Again, the teachers of Santa Barbara 
County, California, surveyed their community resources in the county. 
The report dealt with the history of the county, the topography and 
natural resources, the population, health and safety, home and family 
life, recreation, government, organized group life, and transportation and 
communication facilities. The rest of the volume showed teachers how 



8 Kansas City Public Schools, Occupational Study: Greater Kansas C&y Area. Kan- 
sas City, Missouri: Board of Education, 1943. 

* Des Moines Public Schools, Community Resources, Des Moines, Iowa: Board of 
Education, 1940. 

19 San Francisco Public Schools, Community Planning for the Leisure Tims of San 
Francisco Youth. San Francisco: Board of Education, 1944. 



96 COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION 

these resources should be used as materials of instruction in the elemen- 
tary and secondary schools. 11 

One of the most extensive surveys of natural and social resources was 
made in the State of Georgia. The movement started in 1937 with a group 
of people seeking light on the paradox of their state its natural wealth 
and its human poverty. Seventeen state-wide organizations later met and 
started the Citizen's Fact-Finding Movement. These organizations rep- 
resented about 5,000 local units and some 250,000 citizens. The purpose 
of the movement was to collect and disseminate facts about Georgia in a 
dozen areas of interest historical background, natural resources, indus- 
try and commerce, health, political system, taxation, education, public 
welfare, penal system, agriculture, and federal activities in the state. 
Material was to be gathered for reports. Data for the report on agriculture, 
for example, were secured by asking one thousand people in the state to 
list what they thought to be the ten major agricultural problems in 
Georgia. Three series of reports were published in the period from 1937 
to 1941. One was a factual inventory of Georgia in each of the fields list- 
ed; the second compared Georgia with other states; the third presented a 
series of constructive suggestions for action. The group was not organized 
as an action body, but as a fact-finding committee. Its reports have been 
used by adult groups, by the extension services of colleges and universi- 
ties, and by the public schools. Virginius Dabney, in his book, Below the 
Potomac, has described the movement as "an indigenous movement 
organized pursuant to the novel notion that the state ought to know the 
facts concerning its affairs." 

The examples here cited are indicative of the reorientation of school 
administration in forward-looking communities. It is not, however, the 
common characteristic of American schools that the center of education 
lies in the problems of the community in which the school is located. The 
idea has been current for years, but it has had to wage battle with the idea 
that education is not related to time or place, a notion that has had 
acceptance in high places and which in turn has formalized education and 
kept it out of harmony with the life of youth in every lowly community 
in America. Education will truly come into its own and improve the life of 
mankind when its curriculum provides the needed correctives for condi- 
tions which prevent men from living co-operatively and securely. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE COMMTJOTTY FOR YOUTH 

The pubEc school is the one agency in every community which devotes 
full time to the advancement of an unselected group of youth of all ages. 



u Santa Barbara County, Teachers Guide for the Use of Community Resources, Vol. 
III. Santa Barbara, California; Schatter Printing Studios, 1941. 



HUNT AND LEONARD 97 

Since the responsibility of the educational administrator is to plan and 
carry on a program for the maximum benefit and satisfying adjustment 
of each pupil, it is logical that this same administrator should take the 
initiative in helping the entire community to organize its over-all 
program in behalf of youth. 

Following the community survey an outline may be made of the serv- 
ices that are available. It can likewise be determined as to whether or not 
gaps exist and in which areas the offerings are weak or insufficient. Evalu- 
ation of existing offerings should likewise be made so that the most ef- 
fective program may be developed. By strengthening and enlarging ac- 
tivities in areas where such need is indicated and by initiation of new 
projects designed to complete the coverage in purposeful manner, the 
maximum welfare of each individual will be assured, and complete and 
satisfying adjustment both for the individual and the community will be 
realized. 

In its impartial operation the educational administration can assist 
the community in setting up such a program. From its familiarity with 
the entire body of youth in question and from its initial store of records 
and information concerning its pupil membership, the school is in a posi- 
tion to direct the collection of necessary data, to evaluate the operating 
programs and to interpret the need for expansion and new development. 
Because of its contact with the entire community and the various agencies 
operating in behalf of youth, the school can likewise aid materially in the 
formation of steering and executive committees to plan and carry out the 
necessary projects. 

DEVELOPMENT OF CO-ORDINATION 

In all areas where more than one service is operating, a co-ordinator 
should be provided to supervise the work and to see that each of the 
areas is functioning at maximum effectiveness and that none is encroach- 
ing upon the responsibility or field of another. In the area of planning in 
behalf of youth, for the complete rounding-out of the life of each girl and 
boy, many agencies must participate. Their services, although differing 
in major interest, may overlap to a marked degree unless there is a 
co-ordinating agency operating through a central clearinghouse. 

The school may well serve as the clearinghouse, and the educational 
administration should assume the responsibility of co-ordinator for the 
establishment of a steering committee or advisory group to chart the 
course for harmonious agency co-operation in. an effective and non- 
overlapping program. With all programs evaluated in terms of other 
existing offerings and plans developed for complete coverage of needed 
areas, maximum effectiveness in meeting the needs of each individual 
may be expected. 



98 COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION 

ADMINISTRATIVE PKOBLEMS INVOLVED IN 
OPERATING THE PLAN 

Guidance and Evaluation 

Setting up an all-inclusive nonoverlapping program in behalf of youth 
is but a part of the job of administering the community's youth-serving 
agencies. There remains the even larger task of interpreting the offerings 
to the girls and boys and of developing adequate guidance plans for direct- 
ing all the youth into the programs best suited to their needs. Likewise, 
there must be developed means of evaluating the services offered in terms 
of their effectiveness in the realization of goals for those for whom they 
are intended. Full determination of the evaluative process will require an 
extended period of time, but careful checking along the way will indicate 
the trend and reveal likely success or failure in time to institute appropri- 
ate adjustments or major changes in the program. 

Participation of youth in the program offered affords an adequate 
measure of its effectiveness. Its continuing appeal is evidence of its ability 
to meet the constantly changing needs of those whom it serves. Since the 
entire program in behalf of youth is designed to provide for the well- 
rounded development of personality, competence, and leadership, the 
extent to which the offering encourages participation in the planning and 
carrying on of activities will determine largely its ultimate success and its 
favorable regard by the community and by the particular group it is 
serving. Interpretation of the program is gained through such participa- 
tion y and guidance of the individual into the activities is accomplished 
readily when there has been adequate interpretation. Furthermore, eval- 
uation is accomplished as a natural corollary of the democratizing and 
interpretative process which is thus established. 

A System of Referrals 

For the carrying-out of the plan the school must develop a system of 
referrals through which youth may become acquainted with and be 
served by the agency best suited to the particular needs of the individual, 
the one best able to render the most practical and immediate assistance. 

The system of referrals, if maintained in the school, may be kept as an 
exceedingly simple procedure. A brief personal-interest questionnaire to 
the entire student membership will serve to indicate preferences and the 
manner in which these are being met. These questionnaires are supple- 
mented by information contained in the usual guidance records of the 
school. Combined, these records furnish the complete picture educa- 
tional, vocational, and avocational of every girl and boy. It then be- 
comes an. easy task to determine which offerings will most adequately 



HUNT AND LEONARD 99 

round out the individual's development and, from such determination, 
to initiate a referral to the proper agency. Where no program seems to 
meet adequately a particular need, the community council should seek to 
develop such an activity either as an extension of a program already in 
operation, as a new venture of an existing agency, or by setting up an 
agency to accomplish this purpose. In any event, the system of referrals 
should lead to the most adequate meeting of the needs of each individual, 
seeking his maximum adjustment in all areas. In educational programs, 
guidance is providing the assurance of the best type of education to meet 
individual needs for greater competence. It assures not only maximum 
academic preparation but also direction into the most suitable vocational 
field as detennined by aptitudes and interests. The same process can 
likewise serve in the area of avocational interests and needs for the fullest 
rounding-out of the individual. 

There are many illustrations of community councils, the co-ordinating 
council idea having been tried for years in American cities. California and 
Ohio early assumed leadership in promoting community councils of 
various types. Some of these have been large agencies with full-time paid 
workers and executives. Others have been loosely organized affairs, with 
success depending upon the co-operative interest and spirit of the mem- 
bers. It is believed that this kind of council is preferable to the one with 
paid officers, except in those metropolitan centers where the job becomes 
too exacting for such volunteer leadership. In the majority of communi- 
ties in America, however, the councils for community co-ordination and 
co-operation can remain closer to the people they serve and enlist more 
effective co-operation if they represent the community leaders at work on 
the basic community problems without thought of prestige or economic 
gains from their activities. 

Two illustrations of types of councils may show the thinking in this 
area. The first is drawn from Santa Barbara, California, where there is a 
strong centralized guidance program in the school system. The other is in 
the community of Palo Alto, California, where the youth-serving program 
is decentralized but focused in the activities of a community youth 
council. 

In Santa Barbara, a city of about 40,000 people, there is a highly 
trained and efficient director of child guidance in the school system and a 
co-ordinator of recreation who serves both the schools and the city recre- 
ation department. These people co-operate with every agency affecting 
child welfare in the community and plan for the activities of youth borth 
in and out of school. Whenever a boy or girl gets into difficulty or needs 
special health or welfare service, the worker who comes into contact with 
the case will find in the central school office a complete account of the 



100 COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION 

activities of the youth in and out of school. If a matter of delinquency is 
involved, the guidance director will work with the police, the court, or the 
juvenile worker in studying the situation and in helping to recommend 
appropriate action for restoration of normal .living habits on the part of 
the delinquent youth. No agency acts on cases alone without consultation 
with the others which may be concerned. The activities of the workers in 
the city and county are discussed in the meetings of the County Council 
of Social Agencies, a body of workers in all these fields acting voluntarily 
and without paid assistants to conduct the affairs of the council. 

In Palo Alto, California, there are four regular youth agencies with 
full-time executives Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, YMCA, and YWCA. 
Municipal agencies also deal with youth and their problems, chief among 
them being the Community Center Commission which operates the 
recreational program of the city for both children and adults. Besides a 
central group of buildings and playgrounds there are branch centers. The 
central group contains large playgrounds, swimming pools, a junior 
museum, scout headquarters, children's library, children's playhouse, 
adult theater, a kitchen, and dance floors, as well as meeting rooms for 
community groups. Many civic, religious, and other private interests are 
working with youth also. 

A Community Youth Council was organized four years ago and has 
developed a vigorous program without any paid executive. Its three 
officers are chosen from the council membership. The council is com- 
posed of the f our paid executives of the youth agencies ; a representative 
of each municipal agency dealing with youth, such as schools, recreation, 
health, welfare, police; a representative from any community group 
actively concerned with a program for youth, such as the Rotary Club, 
the Parent-Teacher Association, the women's clubs; and four youths, two 
each from the junior and senior high schools. The council surveys the 
total activities of the community, experiments with new activities and 
programs until it can turn them to the proper agencies to administer, 
stimulates groups to new and improved programs, and keeps the com- 
munity infonned of the success of the existing programs and the need for 
others. 

Whether the councils are sponsored by schools or by all groups in the 
community working together is not of great importance. The vital thing 
is for leaders to work together and to utilize all their resources so as to 
afford youth the opportunity for orderly development and to insure the 
community an efficient program of social service. 

Other types of planning groups have achieved success in given com- 
munities and have grown into co-operative enterprises. In Lexington, 
Virginia, the Children's Clinic came into being as a result of startling 



HUNT AND LEONARD 101 

reports by the Health Department. Initiated by a group of women in the 
community, the program now brings together the local hospital which 
cares for youth, civic groups which provide funds, the schools which 
supply hot lunches, the Girl Scouts who run a nursery, and the welfare 
department which provides for increased distribution of milk- Similar 
plans have evolved in the Pine Grove Community of Page County, 
Virginia, where the work on community health was stimulated by the 
Episcopal Church. The extensive program of recreation in Fairfax Coun- 
ty, Virginia, had its beginning in 1942 when the children were noted 
returning to school with many bad habits they had picked up during the 
summer vacation. Some had even been in court. An interested group of 
citizens organized a committee consisting of representatives from such 
groups as the Parent-Teacher Association, the welfare department, 
public and private schools, and the courts. Out of the disturbing situa- 
tion grew the Fairfax County Recreation Association, and many agencies 
are co-operating in the program. 

Other planning groups have developed around other needs. Near 
Fredericksburg, Virginia, is the Old Dominion Home Industries Co- 
operative which was an established business before the war, but which is 
temporarily closed. It grew out of the need for farm folk with skills and 
resources on their own lands to produce handicrafts which could be sold 
to give them some ready cash. The co-operative is a marketing agency 
which collects materials from over the state and sells them to tourists. It 
evaluates each article, keeping only the good objects for sale, and thus 
stimulates increased quality of production, giving accent to learning as 
well as providing a higher standard of living and a recreational and 
evening hobby for many farm families. Similar marketing co-operatives 
have been established for poultry, milk, aud other products where people 
have come together and formed local planning groups, often under the 
leadership of the school. 

Another interesting rural county council is operating in Estill County, 
Kentucky, where a survey to determine the needs of the county was 
undertaken under the leadership of the county superintendent of schools. 
From the survey, twenty needs were listed as follows: improvement of 
health habits; improvement of diet practices, production of more and 
varied types of food; better facilities for storing food; improvement of 
sanitary conditions; better use of the health department; increased 
planting of fruit and nut trees; improvement of educational programs; 
improvement of recreational programs; provision for greater cultural 
advantages; encouragement of home industries, such as weaving and 
quilting; establishment of co-operative marketing; improvement of farm 
practices; increased use of the services of the County Agent; prevention 



102 COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION 

of soil erosion; conservation of natural resources; provision of better 
housing facilities; development of industries; preservation of community 
churches; and better use of government agencies. 

It would be hard to find a better and more realistic list of the needs of 
most small communities in America. It is obvious also that most of these 
needs are primarily educational in nature. An advisory council was 
formed from which grew the Planning Council of Estill County, which 
includes representatives of the schools and other community agencies. 
This group set up four objectives: (1) to promote a total educational 
program in which adults as well as pupils can have a part; (2) to locate 
needs in Estill County and to find ways of meeting these needs; (3) to 
secure the participation of all groups in the planning of an educational 
program for Estill County; and (4) to provide a co-ordinated educational 
program through co-operation of all county agencies. 

Two types of planning councils have been described. The one at- 
tempts to bring together the workers in all areas of youth activities to 
discuss and co-ordinate the activities of the various groups; the other 
centralizes the educational, recreational, and other community programs 
for youth in the schools with all groups planning together. It might also be 
pointed out that two ways of using community resources have been 
illustrated: One of these is the type found in Santa Barbara County and 
Des Moines, where the community is considered an extension of the 
classroom a school laboratory, so to speak; the other is the community- 
centered school, where the resources of the school and the community are 
pooled and the problems of the community become the curriculum of the 
school. In this instance the schools are actually geared to the com- 
munity. 

Follow-up 

Perfection of programs depends in large measure upon the adequacy 
of evaluation in the form of careful follow-up to indicate progress and to 
determine if readjustment is necessary. Oftentimes, and because of vary- 
ing factors and conditions, the original guidance of an individual into 
vocational and avocational areas does not lead to a satisfying adjust- 
ment. In such instances redirection is essential and, to effect the necessary 
development, training must again be instituted. Periodic check-ups on 
the individual are, therefore, essential, and a regular program for such 
activity must be devised. A semiannual schedule is not too frequent for a 
regular all-inclusive review and, in addition, there must be immediate 
investigation and action on such individual cases as may come to the fore 
because of either irregularity or unusual significance. 

The system of follow-up, moreover, must be characterized by follow- 
through as well. Where need for readjustment is indicated, it should be 



HUNT AND LEONARD 103 

attempted without delay; where need for retraining because of unsatis- 
factory accomplishment, lack of competence, or loss of interest or where 
inability to adjust becomes evident, such retraining must be provided at 
once. Every day saved in initiating the steps that will lead to satisfactory 
readjustment heightens the effectiveness of the follow-up procedure. 

Co-operation for Co-ordination 

For complete co-ordination of activity, full co-operation among all 
agencies must be developed. The adjustment of programs is developed 
through the activity of the co-ordinating council, but only through wide- 
spread interpretation of what is being done is the fullest co-operation 
assured. The co-ordinating council itself is an interpretative medium 
because of its pooling and evaluating of ideas and its suggestion of plans 
and activities. Council representation, covering the entire area, should 
serve as an incentive to full and complete co-operation for the further- 
ance of the democratic aims implied by the council organization. 

The operation of the council serves to strengthen the identity of each 
of the participating groups. Through the deliberations of the council the 
function of each agency is defined; it is in following council objectives 
that this function remains unique and individual. Carried on together, the 
functions of the different agencies contribute to the development of the 
whole program and serve in the complete rounding-out of the offering to 
the community. Operating in its individual sphere each agency will 
endeavor to make its program as far-reaching as possible. The inter- 
change of ideas afforded through council participation assists the agen- 
cies materially in the development of their own plans, and the interaction 
of the various participatory activities results in a dynamic community 
program. 

Co-ordination of Local, State, and Federal Agencies 

Establishing the co-ordinating council for a local area is but a begin- 
ning in this field. In addition to its activities in co-ordinating existing 
local activities and planning for additional service as needs become ap- 
parent, the local council must likewise co-ordinate its program with the 
activities and offerings of state and national councils, committees, com- 
missions, and institutions. The alert community council will study and 
evaluate the implications of the programs of these area organizations in 
order that the opportunities and advantages offered by them may be 
made to serve the local effort. Since state and national councils and com- 
missions are usually set up to afford an equalization of opportunity 
throughout the state or nation, participation of these agencies should be 
accepted to the full extent of local need not otherwise served. 

By virtue of its organization and over-all responsibility, the eo- 



104 COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION 

ordinating council is in a position to determine the extent to which state 
and federal participation should be sought or accepted. At the same 
time, operating relationships should be set up through the local council 
for the co-ordination of offerings on all regional levels. Where local offices 
of state and national agencies are established, these should be given rep- 
resentation on the community council to assure co-ordination as well 
as maximum participation. In this way inclusion of state and national 
services is accomplished as simply as would be the addition of another 
local agency which the council had proposed for the handling of a speci- 
fied program. Participation stimulates co-operation at any level. 

Where local representation of state and federal agencies is not afforded, 
however, the co-ordinating council must, through contact with field 
workers and the area offices, secure the information necessary to integrate 
the offering into council activities and see that the maximum benefit of 
the program accrues to the youth of the community. Likewise there must 
be assurance that the state or federal program does not merely duplicate 
a local effort. Where such becomes evident, the council should attempt 
to redirect the governmental program as it affects the local situation or, 
if this is not possible, the local duplication should be abandoned or the 
effort guided toward another need. 

The function of the co-ordinating council in developing harmonious and 
effective operating relationships among local, state, and federal agencies 
is a most important and significant one. In assuring the successful co- 
ordination of all efforts and the participation of all known agencies, the 
council fulfils its purpose and responsibility. 

Interpretation of Programs and Policies 

The co-ordinating council by its very nature is an interpretative me- 
dium. Participation of representatives of all youth-serving groups 
governmental, public, and private effects an interchange of thought and 
an interaction of programs which serve to keep the council membership 
informed of the plans of the co-operating agencies. For the general 
public, however, systematic interpretation is necessary so that all may be 
aware of what is being done by the council and by the individual agencies 
and of how youth needs are being met. 

The council in determining policies must see that interpretation is 
provided as a means of acquainting the community with large-scale 
objectives and broad aims. The school administrator, in his relations with 
both the council and individual community groups, is in a position to 
interpret the a-ima and objectives to a large part of the community. The 
participating pupils can likewise interpret the various offerings to their 
families. 



HUNT AND LEONARD 105 

Interpretation of objectives and aims permits, at the same time, at- 
tention to unmet needs and ways of satisfying them. Following interpre- 
tation, the council or any of its participants, individually or through 
their agencies, can advocate programs of action for the community at 
large or for any of the agencies. If the community is properly informed, 
response is usually ready and the desired procedures may be promptly 
initiated. 

In interpreting the program to the community, however, every effort 
must be made to focus attention on large-scale objectives lest interest be 
absorbed in the numerous specialized and individual efforts. Through 
community understanding of the broad aims of the program, the green 
light will always be turned on to permit movement of the procession 
toward the realization of the large over-all purpose. 

Descriptions have been given of co-operating councils dealing with the 
problems of children and youth, and illustrations have been supplied 
showing how small rural communities and counties have banded together 
to improve the total life of the community. Point has also been made of 
the need for the representation of all community agencies on such 
councils. 

Another phase of this problem might be mentioned. In many com- 
munities there are established large over-all community planning com- 
missions which deal with the economic and political Hf e and plan for the 
physical improvement and the industrial and business development of 
the community. Many of these councils are under the mayor, the city 
council, the chamber of commerce, the city engineer, or the executive 
officer of the city planning council. Sometimes the chief school officer in 
the community is included in the membership of such organizations, 
while in other instances the school is not much concerned with the over- 
all planning of the city life. 

One of the best illustrations of a major job of over-all city planning can 
be found in San Diego County, California, which gave attention to the 
problem of what San Diego would be like after the war and what needs 
it would then have. Under the direction of a committee appointed by the 
chamber of commerce, a group of business and civic leaders, including 
the superintendent of schools, spent three years in planning for the 
postwar city of San Diego. The planning started with a survey of what 
the 75,000 workers in the war plants and the workers in the Navy yards 
would do after the war. From a survey of these conditions there grew.up 
a program of recreation, business and industry, city building and zoning, 
parks, roads, school building and curriculum planning for children and 
adults, and the study of other phases of community life. The schools were 
constantly kept before the community as the central agency for stimu- 



106 COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION 

lating public participation in community improvement, for educating the 
workers for new jobs, for increasing familiarity among the workers who 
had been drawn from other states with the ways of living in California, 
and for cultural pursuits. Attention was also given to the needs for school 
construction along with other community building programs. The school 
became an active participant in the planning for improved living in San 
Diego after the war. 

One of the most helpful manuals for over-all community planning 
came from the Department of Regional Studies of the Tennessee Valley 
Authority, which has constantly given attention to community planning 
in the area of the Authority and to keeping the people working together 
on their own problems. While the manual is prepared to "stimulate an 
understanding of the possibilities for southern community development 
in the schools and among the citizens of the Tennessee Valley and the 
Southeast/' it has equal value for the people of other communities and for 
schools everywhere. 12 

An example of community participation in educational planning on a 
state-wide basis is provided by a recent co-operative movement in New 
York. In the spring of 1944, the State Education Department published a 
manual entitled Problems Confronting Boards of Education with subtitle, 
A Manual for Community Participation in Educational Planning. This 
project was launched with the active support of the New York State 
Council of School Superintendents, the New York State School Boards 
Association, and the New York State Association of District Superin- 
tendents of Schools. 

The publication was designed to encourage local school authorities to 
enlist the co-operation of leading citizens and local groups in planning for 
education after the war. 

In designing the manual the Committee attempted to outline pro- 
cedures that could be used by local school authorities in any community, 
regardless of size, rural or urban. The plan of procedure consists of four 
main steps, as follows: 

1. What will the community (city, village, or school district) be like by 1950? 

2. For this kind of community, what kind of education is needed and for whom? 

3. In terms of the kind of education we want, what are the outstanding deficien- 
cies in the present program? 

4. How can the community move from where it is to where it wants to be? 

The procedure called for the appointment by the Board of three sub- 
committees. Committee One studied and reported on community factors 



12 F. Stuart Chapin, Jr., Communities for Living. Athens, Georgia: University of 
Georgia Press, 1941. 



HUNT AND LEONARD 107 

that would affect educational need; Committee Two concerned itself 
with the kinds of education which would be needed in the community; 
and Committee Three reported on the changes needed to achieve the 
goals set by the second committee. With the reports of the three com- 
mittees the board of education rendered the report on Question 4. 

Boards of education report enthusiastic and willing response of citizens 
invited to take part in these studies. In some communities, committees 
have worked for a full year, not infrequently reporting ten, twenty, or 
thirty sessions ranging from one to three hours each. Many of the com- 
mittees have invited varied groups of people to participate in their dis- 
cussions. The net result in the communities that have participated in the 
study appears to be a general educational awakening, a better under- 
standing of the problems that will confront the schools in the years ahead, 
and the building-up of a public opinion that will support the board of 
education in developing an educational program suited to the needs of 
the community. 

Operating Relationships 

Operating relationships among the various agencies must be set up in 
such a way as to permit co-operation through independent, nonrestric- 
tive activity. Through participation in the council and from awareness of 
programs and activities gained through such participation, the frame- 
work is laid for the development of these desired operating relationships. 
The central index of functions and services clears the way for unrestricted 
activity in a designated area, avoiding interference in programs of other 
agencies or duplication of effort. 

In the development of these desirable operating relationships among 
the agencies the central council can exert an important influence. In its 
advisory capacity it is in a position to chart programs designed to reach 
every area and serve every known need. In following up the findings of 
the community survey it is able to indicate areas ,needing ^attention and 
to suggest suitable programs. 

Likewise, contemplated development of a new program or extension of 
an existing activity on the part of any agency should be cleared through 
the council before the enterprise actually gets under way. This clearance of 
activity, through participation in the central organization, will result in 
effective and desirable operating relationships. 

Frequent meetings on a regular schedule of the advisory group will 
afford opportunities for presentation of projected plans, as well as for re- 
ports on functioning activity. Free discussion of these plans and activi- 
ties not only provides the necessary clearance, but at the same time 
yields helpful suggestions for carrying out the proposed program. At all 



108 COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION 

times, however, participation, co-operation, and interpretation are 
essential to desirable operating relationships. 

Training of Staff 

In all service activity, successful functioning is dependent on the scope 
and purpose of the program and on the effectiveness of the staff carrying 
out the objectives. Training of the staff is, therefore, essential in order 
that the over-all program may be developed in accordance with the major 
objectives. Individual agencies must assume responsibility for the selec- 
tion and direction of capable workers. For increased accomplishment and 
greater efficiency, however, the central organization can be of much 
assistance. 

Assistance to staff members is, of course, rendered through the in- 
terpretative activity of the council itself. Tangible and effective help may 
be provided, however, through the scheduling of conferences, meetings, 
workshops, and institutes at which specific guidance is given through 
lectures by recognized authorities, or by means of discussions and pro- 
grams directed by these leaders, but in which opportunity for wide 
participation is afforded. Institutes and meetings of this kind furnish 
information on how other communities are meeting similar problems, 
thus providing both inspiration and concrete assistance in terras of suc- 
cessful practice. In-service training of staffs is an important responsi- 
bility of the central organization, the effective administration of which 
contributes measurably to the successful operation of the program. 

Standards for Determination of Effectiveness 

It is likewise the responsibility of the central organization to establish 
appropriate standards by which the effectiveness of any program may 
be evaluated. Standards such as the number of referrals, the effectiveness 
of the adjustments resulting from the operation of the program, and the 
competence of the individuals reached by the program may be estab- 
lished on the basis of actual and possible activity in the individual com- 
munity. Minimum standards should be determined, however, and so 
interpreted that they will serve as evaluation media. Satisfaction of 
minimum standards may then be recognized as the qualifying require- 
ment for enlargement or extension of agency activities. These standards 
can be determined on the basis of the area to be served and the potential 
youth group involved. 

Supervisory Service 

For the successful operation of any co-operative or co-ordinated pro- 
gram there must be a system of supervisory service for the evaluation of 



HUNT AND LEONARD 109 

offerings and for the continued relating of activities to the over-all ob- 
jectives. Operating as a part of the central organization, supervisory 
workers will promote these essential objectives. 

The central organization itself is primarily an advisory and policy- 
forming body. For the determination of the extent of realization of ob- 
jectives and the effective functioning of theindividual agencies there must 
be some system of supervision. The success of the supervisory system 
may well be the means of evaluation of the central organization itself. 

A supervisory system so established will not only serve the evaluative 
purpose already indicated, but will also be helpful in the area of in- 
service training for the agency workers. Thesupervisor notonly assists the 
worker in carrying on his program but also is helpful in pointing out, for 
all-time recognition on the part of the worker, the over-all community 
objectives and the ways of accomplishing them through co-operative en- 
deavor. 

The organization of the administration for a community youth- 
service program does not differ from recognized organizational standards 
for other educational programs. Such a program is but an extension of 
service and an integration of all activity in behalf of youth. Leadership 
of the school administration in this activity establishes the school organi- 
zation in its rightful place as the heart of the community. Participation 
in community planning serves to enlarge the scope of influence of the 
school administration by adding to its already functioning organization 
the extensions which afford maximum opportunity for growth and ad- 
justment of every individual. The supervisory organization of the school 
may well determine the pattern for the promotion of effectiveness of all 
other services. 

In planning for new school construction the larger sphere of influence 
must be taken into account and the building should be designed with the 
view of providing facilities for community activity. In so doing the school 
administration participates whole-heartedly in the planning and in the 
life of the community. 

THE TEACHERS AND COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION 
Teachers have not been trained to engage effectively in community 
planning or even in many extensions of the services of the school into the 
community. They know too little about the operation of community 
affairs and frequently know too little about the community and its re- 
sources to utilize them as tools of instruction. Too much emphasis has 
been placed on the use of resources in the community only after the 
regular materials of instruction have been taught, thus leaving the 



110 COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION 

teacher little time for the very important but more difficult task of draw- 
ing upon community resources for the enrichment of the learning ex- 
periences of the pupils. A new orientation is needed in teacher-training 
institutions and in the preparation of instructional materials. More time 
must be spent on such problems as understanding community life and 
using the resources of daily living to develop the abilities of boys and 
girls. 

In general, teachers have not been accustomed to taking part in many 
community affairs. Many communities still do not expect such activity on 
the part of their teachers, nor do they even desire it. A recent study of 
the community of Red Wing, Minnesota, bears out this fact. When rep- 
resentative adults were asked in what community affairs they thought 
their teachers should engage, the parents replied with two suggestions, 
church and youth activities; others in sizable numbers suggested civic 
affairs of clubs; only a few (16 per cent) thought local or federal politics 
was suitable; and a still smaller proportion (13 per cent) mentioned state 
politics. 13 In other words, teachers are not generally expected to identify 
themselves with the forces which control local, state, and national life. 
They are not to participate actively in seeing that the proper people are 
elected. They are to serve the community in which they teach lead 
youth organizations, teach Sunday school classes, and speak to civic 
clubs and serve on their committees, but they are not to be concerned 
with the really stirring issuesof democracy. Little wonder that our schools 
are sterile of the issues and the vitalizing forces of modern life! Until 
communities come to realize that such attitudes are unintelligent, they 
can expect neither vital teachers nor vital social learning. 

The first and foremost responsibility of schools in a democracy is that 
of developing social competence to act speedily and intelligently to 
improve living in a democratic society. Community participation on the 
part of both teachers and pupils is essential. The materials of instruction 
are the problems of living; the process is the scientific method of analysis 
and the co-operative method of arriving at group decisions. The 
school is a vital factor in both of these, and when the school really comes 
into its own it will be found to be a community laboratory with its 
teachers a compelling force in community growth. 

SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS AND STAFF OFFICERS 
Community problems are becoming so complicated that more extensive 
training and experience in planning and carrying out major projects is 

13 Nelson L. Bossing and Leo J. Brueckner, The Impact of the War on the Schools of 
Red Wing. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1945. 



HUNT AND LEONARD 111 

necessary for school administrators. According to the concept developed 
here, the chief school officer in the community is a master co-ordinator of 
community activities affecting the education, recreation, and welfare of 
children and youth. In addition, he must be able to take his proper place 
with other community leaders to plan for the physical, the economic, and 
the political improvement of the community. This means more training 
than school administrators generally have secured and it means a dif- 
ferent kind of training. The administrator must know more about com- 
munity agencies and their work; he must acquire knowledge beyond the 
areas of school buildings, school finance, personnel, and curriculum. He 
need not be a specialist in all of the fields he administers, but he must 
have a vision beyond any one field and he must possess the ability to 
blend into a total pattern each area of activity which relates to the edu- 
cation of the pupil. Each agency or activity worker with whom he 
associates needs to have a feeling of security and understanding and to 
recognize in the administrator a champion of all major interests. The 
training of such administrators opens a new field of leadership training 
for the universities. 

The administrator needs also to surround himself with a competent 
staff of specialists to assist him. All specialists need to possess a common 
understanding of the totaJ needs of the community and of the existing 
relations among the co-operating agencies and workers. They need to 
have a point of view which goes far beyond their immediate specialty, 
for without this they may become tyrants and break down entirely the 
co-operative nature of all projects attempted. These specialists should 
also be chosen for their ability to get their satisfactions from the success 
of the total projects in the community; they should be well balanced 
personally and be able to work without having to be constantly drawing 
credit to themselves; and they should, of course, be highly competent in 
their several special fields. 

The size of the staff varies with the size of the community. In small 
communities, it is better to secure one or two really competent people, 
and then depend upon volunteer workers, than to secure a larger staff 
of poorly trained or incapable people. Usually inferior capability and in- 
security go together, and those are frequently followed by personnel con- 
flicts over prestige. In communities of 50,000 or more population there 
should be several competent workers. The following chart iUustrates a 
sample pattern which can be enlarged along the same lines as the volume 
of the work increases owing to the size of the community. 



112 



COMMUNITY CO-ORDINATION 



Superintendent of Community Affairs 
(Education, Recreation, Welfare, Correction) 



Director of 
Child Guidance 
Staff made up of: 
a) physician 
ft) psychologist 

c) counselors 

d) juvenile workers 

e) psychiatric social 
worker 

/) nurse 



Director of 

Recreation 

Recreational and 
health leaders 
in department 
and commu- 
nity 



Director of 
School Curriculum 
Supervisors 
Principals 
Teachers 



Director of 

Welfare 

Staff made up 
of visiting 
teachers and 
social work- 
ers in com- 
munity 



The four directors listed should work with all special agency repre- 
sentatives in the community. For instance, the director of child guidance 
would work with the schools, the police department, the courts, and the 
parents; the director of recreation would work with schools, city recre- 
ation commission, and agencies operating recreational programs. The 
same would be true of the other directors, each one endeavoring to se- 
cure co-ordination of programs. 

The directors should also work closely together on the interrelation- 
ships of their problems. Many problems of behavior arise from a poorly 
planned curriculum, or from poor home conditions or poor health. 

CONCLUSION 

In this chapter an attempt has been made to show the need for com- 
munity co-ordination, the areas in which co-operation can best proceed, 
the responsibilities and organization for co-operative planning. Illustra- 
tions have been given of various kinds of community planning. If school 
administrators can see the need for improved community service, with 
the initiative taken by the school in many instances, the school can be- 
come a far more significant institution in improving daily living. As it 
does this it will be more vital and indispensable to those whom it serves. 



CHAPTER VI 
THE FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 1 



ALFRED DEXTER SIMPSON 
Associate Professor of Education 

Harvard University 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 



INTRODUCTION 

Expanding educational needs, the stubborn facts of cost, and the 
myriad difficulties involved in adequate support are fundamental to the 
complex problem of financing education. Educational need derives from 
the population and from the conditions of the society which it comprises. 
Every element of need every element of educational policy carries 
with it a presumption of cost, or, in other words, casts its cost shadow, 
But cost, just as surely, presupposes support. The financing of education 
thus becomes a very complex thing and constitutes a serious problem area 
in education the more serious, indeed, as the whole fabric of social, eco- 
nomic, and political conditions looms larger and itself becomes more 
complex. 

This very complexity of the financing of educational need forces us 
into a certain selectivity in the development of a single chapter dealing 
with this special field of educational administration. There is very little 
room afforded for going into historical and philosophical aspects of 
finance. We can hardly afford to review even the landmarks of the rich 
contributions of research and practice in this area since the turn of the 
century. We cannot take time to establish the real place of educational 
finance in the field of the social sciences, nor even to trace its descendance 



1 This chapter is the result of a co-operative undertaking on the part of a group of 
advanced graduate students of administration at the Harvard Graduate School of 
Education. While the one indicated as author has been the leader of the participatory 
group, a major part of whatever value the chapter possesses is due to the contribu- 
tions of the group of participants, consisting of; Mr. Car! M. Bair, Jr., Principal of 
Littleton (Massachusetts) Hi$i School; Mr. James R. Foulger, High-School Teacher, 
Ogden, Utah; Mr. John K. Moulton, Research Assistant in Educational Administra- 
tion, Harvard Graduate School of Education; and Mr. Cyril G. Sargent, Teacher, 
Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts. 

113 



114 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

from education and political economy. The exigencies of time and space 
forbid the full coverage of the subject matter of the specific field itself. 
Selectivity of treatment must be our primary consideration. This is the 
way of yearbooks; and it is not bad withal, because it makes us adhere 
to timeliness and to relative values. 

What, then, shall be the scheme of this chapter? For better or for 
worse let it be this: 

First, to define the currently fundamental problems in the financing of 
education as those of central aids and intergovernmental relations; and 
within that frame to consider some of the problem aspects of federal- 
state-local fiscal relations, with special emphasis on the great need of 
federal support for education. 

Second, to consider the financing of that great area of educational ex- 
pansion which is now with us in the form of extended educational oppor- 
tunity for older youth and adults. 

Third, to consider the financing of the most strategic and expensive 
functional segment of the educational system, namely, the personnel of 
the public schools. 

A few words may be important at the outset concerning the basis of 
our selection of these clusters in the problem of educational finance. 2 

Federal-State-Local Fiscal Relations. If the cumulative experience of 
the past quarter-century or more has any one thing to teach us about the 
financing of education, the lesson lies most clearly in the area of the in- 
adequacy, inequity, and yet the necessity of the local tax base. Over a 
hundred years ago we began to learn to avoid complete reliance on the 
local property tax, but even now we lag as states in putting into practice 
what experience and research have to teach us about the why or the how 
of turning to the broader fiscal auspices of the state or nation. This hesi- 
tance is likely due to our general devotion as a people to the democratic 
way, and to our general fear of centralization and controls. With respect 
to the latter, It is probable that our fears axe due to our lag in developing 
understanding of them and effective means of handling both centraliza- 
tion and controls. The whole difficulty is compounded by the expanding 
concept of the service role of government, the need of education, and the 
complexity of the educative process. Hence, when the traditional local 
support is seen to be inadequate, we turn to the larger units, but at the 
same time we feel certain that there is a true role for each of the govern- 



* If we were to add a fourth cluster it would undoubtedly be on. plant financing. 
Aside from the capital outlay features of this topic, and they are most clearly matters 
of school business administration, plant financing is bound increasingly to depend up- 
on federal and state aid, which will be dealt with as a general area herein. 



SIMPSON 115 

mental levels. In short, we are in the very midst of our problem of federal- 
state-local relations. 

It is only necessary to call attention to the fact that the research in 
educational finance of the past quarter-century has been predominantly 
in the fields of state and federal aid, to bring home the essential depend- 
ency of our financing problem upon the broader problem of federal-state- 
local relations and its counterpart, the relations of education and general 
government. If it were not for the complexities of our relationship prob- 
lem, founded as it is upon our sure belief in a true educational role for 
each governmental level, the aid problem, as such, would be erased, leav- 
ing us to be concerned exclusively with the budgetary aspects of finance. 
This is not to say that we should make the erasure here predicted, but its 
noting may assist in clarifying the relationship view of educational 
finance. 

The Financing of Extended Education to Older Youth and Adults. The 
reason for the selection of this problem cluster for special consideration 
must be rather clearly apparent. The whole force of external conditions 
impacting upon education after World War I, during the depression, 
and in future view during and after World War II has been to open up 
the necessity of extending the scope of educational opportunity both 
downward and upward. The extension downward is into the earlier years 
of childhood, an area much neglected. But we are here particularly con- 
cerned with the extension upward for increasingly large groups into the 
years beyond the present high school, and then of broadening out this 
opportunity for the adult population. The movement is clearly here. It 
raises serious problems, not the least of which lie in the special field of 
finance. In financing this extended education we are challenged both by 
the very fact of our already inadequate support of the lower existing 
schools and by the at least partial inapplicability of our present aid 
techniques to the particular financial problems here considered. 

The Financing of the Editcationd Personnel Here is no new problem 
cluster in the field of finance. It has been an age-long concern and struggle 
both to know how best to arrange salary policy and to secure the neces- 
sary financial support. But the very fact that personal service is by far 
the most significant cost element in financing education makes the inclu- 
sion of this area a "must" in this chapter. The combination of salary level 
and pupil-teacher ratio is the real determinant of the cost of schools at 
any level. Hence policies in this area require constant research and de- 
velopment. In our research at this point we seem to be on very much of a 
pkteau. Our problem is alao compounded by a host of external condi- 
tions which raise issues that need to be resolved. 



116 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

The Significance of "External Conditions" 

To a considerable extent education has kept its concern within its walls 
and its thinking based upon the conditions within the function. Its con- 
cern has been real and serious and the approach to its problems has been 
commendable, but it may be fair to say that we have been too inatten- 
tive to those great clusters of external conditions of a social, economic, 
and political nature, and to their detailed elements which have their con- 
tinuous impact upon our function. The factors conditioning the work of 
schools are both internal and external. It is not to criticize ourselves 
unduly that we call attention to the need of looking out upon these ex- 
ternal conditions inventorying and analyzing them as we approach 
problem areas in education but it is that we may take the broader and 
perhaps the more realistic view of educational need and of ways of meet- 
ing it. It may even be ventured that education's greatest neglect as a 
professional field has been the failure to recognize and to study and 
analyze its external conditions. We shall not go into these extensively, 
but in each of the following sections some of these external conditions will 
be enumerated as they bear upon the problem of financing education. 

The Nature of Educational Finance 

But what, let us first ask, is the field of educational finance and what 
are its various relations? The more one works in the field and studies it in 
its practical setting, the more distracted he becomes in the ramifications 
of his experiences and the reflections they stimulate. But one thing is 
certain. The field is as broad as all education; for, what element of the 
educational program does not, as has been said, cast its financial shadow? 
This is to say that the financing of education cannot be separated from 
the whole of education, "Public finance 7 ' may be regarded as a special 
field; and against too much of this view one in educational finance has to 
be on guard. The pressure from without is upon him also to regard him- 
self as the "watchdog of the treasmy." But this is not his role. Educa- 
tional finance is education; this is not to be lost sight of, but, being re- 
membered, must be held also to involve the principles, the content, and 
the method that public finance in its true sense and range involves. Above 
all, finance is means, not end. Its function is facilitating. 

Furthermore, educational finance is not inclusive of school business 
administration, however much the two fields may be related or together 
treated, or, in fact, confused. The financing of education is concerned 
with the support of education and the basis of support, as distinct from 
the processes of business management. However questionable the term 
"funding the educational program" may be, it describes well the major 



SIMPSON 117 

concern in educational finance, because it indicates that first there is the 
program whose financing is the task. Educational finance, therefore, is 
concerned with revenue, with the state and future of the economy, with 
the fiscal auspices, with taxation, with cost, with the relationships 
among supporting levels, with fiscal aids from central government, and 
the like. Budgeting in its long-term planning aspect lies in finance, not in 
business management. Thus regarded, a case may be made for the budget- 
ary process as being broad enough, when properly conceived, to embrace 
or to be coterminous with the whole administrative process. 3 

In essence, with whatever the general educational administrator is 
concerned, with each such element there is the financial aspect. One may 
properly divide educational administration into some ten to twelve sub- 
divisions of the field, broadly classified. But immediately he has to cau- 
tion that these classes are not mutually exclusive," they overlap and are 
interrelated. "The financing of education" is one of them; "intergovern- 
mental relations" is another; hence, it is certainly as proper to choose to 
approach the former as the latter. 

Educational finance has its roots in several branches of the social sci- 
ences, although its lineal descent is most directly from education. Its 
basic disciplines are economics, political science, public law, and public 
finance, including taxation. Included among its ancillary disciplines would 
certainly be statistics. 

The financing of education also has its principles. No one should think 
that they have reached the stage of "laws." They are more in the nature 
of guides or "requisites," grown thus far out of experience. Among these 
are the following: (1) Adequacy which holds that any element of the 
educational program requires an ascertainably adequate or appropriate 
financial support attached thereto, lest it be destined to failure or, at 
best, limited success; 4 (2) equity, within which is embraced the equaliza- 
tion of educational opportunity, classically defined a quarter-century 
ago by Strayer and Haig; 5 (3) adaptability, which is to "liberty" as equity 
is to "equality," and requires of financing, within any administrative 
unit, the leeway which gives the fiscal margin essential for adaptation 



3 See Alfred D. Simpson, "The Budgetary Process as an Instrument for the Reali- 
zation of Home Rule," Harvard Educational Review, XI (May, 1941), 33^-46. 

4 See Schools in SmaU Communities* Twelfth Yearbook of the American Association 
of School Administrators. Washington: American Association of School Administra- 
tors, National Education Association, 1939. 

5 George D. Strayer ai*d Robert Murray Haig, The Financing of Education in the 
State ofNeu> York, p. 174. Educational Finance Inquiry, Vol. I. New York: Maemillan 
Co., 1923. 



118 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

to changed conditions; 6 and (4) prudence, which is prone to be mistaken 
by many for parsimony, but which means "good stewardship 7 ' and "ad- 
rninistrability," and is thus the connecting link, in principle, between 
finance and business administration. 7 

Thus, it will be seen that the financing of education is no dry-as-dust 
field; it has dynamics; it has a soul. It is complex and it is a broad field, 
changing in emphasis and need as the times and their conditions change, 
but anchored in its line of progression to education and to educational 
need. So orientated, let us proceed with our problem clusters in the field 
of finance which we left for the purpose of this thumbnail sketch. 

FEDERAL-STATE-LOCAL FISCAL RELATIONS 
(With Special View toward the Federal Level) 

Any discussion of the financing of education takes on a complexity, 
but at the same time an intriguing interest, as the problems and issues are 
indicated. At the same time, the seriousness of these can be easily seen 
if one but considers the inequalities which exist among the various states. 
These inequalities may be expressed in terms of educational opportuni- 
ties, educational leadership and personnel, the extent and range of state 
and local fiscal capacity, taxing programs, state financial aid to local sub- 
divisions, and the like. While the estimated annual cost of education in 
the postwar era has been set at such figures as $4,592,700,000 and 
$6,100,000,000 (twice or thrice the amount of current expenses for pub- 
lic schools in 193&-40) 8 these figures do not represent an undue increase, if 
the national income stabilizes at something like twice the prewar high. 
These estimates, at any rate, are not too large for a nation that has con- 
fidence in democracy and that has the hope and desire to continue in 
leadership among the nations. Nor need they become serious burdens for 
a nation that puts real faith in educational growth as basic to national 
vigor, even though the national income does not stabilize at hoped-for 
high levels. They do become serious if national policy draws into an 
ultraconservative shell. And they do veiy obviously become serious 
unless we somehow succeed in coping with such disproportionate ratios 
as those of 1 to 60 in educational expenditures of the different states, 



* See Paul R. Mort and Francis G. Cornell, Adaptability of Public School Systems. 
New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1938. 

7 For a discussion of this and other principles, see Paul R. Mort and Walter C. 
Reusser, Puttie School Finance, pp. 95-113. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1941 ; 
and Schools in Small Communities, op. ctt., pp. 348-52. 

* Proposals for PiMic Education in Postwar America. Research Bulletin of the Na- 
tional Education Association, Vol. XXII, No. 2. Washington: Research Division of 
the National Education Association, 1944. 



SIMPSON 119 

which have been forcefully and recently called to our attention by Norton 
and Lawler. 9 

While a range of from 100 a classroom unit to one of more than $6,000 
(1939-40) has been endurable in the past laughed off, as it were in the 
name of freedom or rough-and-ready statehood, it cannot for long be 
justified in a land of "equal opportunity." Although it is often argued 
that some of those pupils in the low-expenditure schools may be getting 
an educational experience equal to or superior to those in the higher 
brackets, the Educational Conference Board of New York State has 
found "more unusually good educational practices in schools where the 
most money is spent per pupil per year." 10 

To point up our problem more forcefully, one might take the following 
statement: 

For millions of children the opportunity for anything more than a modicum of 
meager, formal education is conditioned largely by place of birth. In communities 
where fertility is too low for family replacement, where the burden of child care 
and education is light, where economic resources are more abundant, and where 
the cultural-intellectual status of parents is high, we support education liberally. 
In communities where the birth rate is high and the economically productive 
age group is carrying a disproportionately heavy child population, where the 
plane of living is low, where the cultural heritage is the poorest, and where the 
home has the least to contribute to cultural and intellectual growth, we support 
education niggardly. These conditions constitute a challenge to American demo- 
cratic ideals. If, for a long period of years, we draw each succeeding generation in 
disproportionately large numbers from those areas in which economic conditions 
are poorest and the cultural-intellectual level the lowest, if the population re- 
serves of the nation are to be recruited from a definitely underprivileged class, 
and if we fail to make good the deficit by conscious educative endeavor, the effect 
on our culture and on our representative political institutions may be appalling. 

Education can be made a force to equalize the condition of men; it is no less 
true that it can be made a force to create class, race, and sectional distinctions. 
If formal educational attainments condition entrance to some economic and social 
spheres, and if great opportunities for educational advance are open to some 
groups while the educational facilities for others remain meager, it is obvious that 
education becomes an instrument of social stratification and of regional and racial 
inequality. If in some settings education becomes a vital, stimulating, intellectual 
process, while in other situations it remains formal and disassociated from daily 
life, the schools may function as a mechanism of social differentiation. The evi- 



9 John K. Norton and Eugene S. Lawler, "An Inventory of Public School Expendi- 
tures in the United States." Washington: American Council on Education, 1944 
(mimeographed). 

10 Education A Mighty Force! Washington 6: National Education Association. See 
also What Education Our Money Buys. Albany, New York: Educational Conference 
Board of New York State (152 Washington Avenue), 1943. 



120 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

dence indicates clearly that continuance of present practices creates grave danger 
that our schools, which we have heretofore regarded the bulwark of democracy, 
may in fact become an instrument for creating those very inequalities they were 
designed to prevent. 11 

Many attempts have been made to develop formulas which would 
adequately answer the problems. State after state has made attempts. 
Yet, with each attempt, certain limitations have been accepted for prac- 
tical purposes so that even the best of programs are compromises. 

Some years ago the Research Division of the National Education As- 
sociation published a valuable bulletin in an endeavor to determine the 
efforts of the states to support education, with particular emphasis on 
"adequacy" and "ability." 12 The conclusions are significant; they should 
"give us pause" that the picture is unchanged for the better in ten years 
in America: 

1. In general, rich states provide more adequate support for their schools and 
with less effort, 

2. There is considerable range in the relative efforts of the states to support edu- 
cation. 

3. There is a wide range among the states in the relative adequacy of the financial 
support accorded education. 

4. There is no significant relationship between the two factors, "effort" and 
"adequacy." 

5. There is a significant, but low, negative relationship between the two factors, 
"effort" and "ability," except in 1930 when, on the basis of Newcomer's data, 
there was a fairly high negative correlation of .77 

6. There is a rather high positive relationship between the two factors, "ability" 
and "adequacy." 

7. Many states could not provide a national defensible nrnnmntm program of 
financial support, even with great effort. 

These facts alone would indicate that even a state-supported financial 
program, commensurate with abilities, as important as improvement in 
this direction is, would not provide a solution in all of our states. 

Grouping the ten highest states and the ten lowest in financial support 
of education led Norton and Lawler to these significant conclusions: 

Some states are rich in wealth, poor in children, generous in expenditures, low 
in financial effort to provide these generous expenditures, and fortunate in their 
educational results. 



11 Newton Edwards, Equal Educational Opportunity for Youth, pp. 150-52. A Re- 
port to the American Youth Commteiion, Washington: American Council on Educa- 
tion, 1939. 

M TAs Effort* of States To Support Education. Research Biilletin of the National 
Education Association, Vol. XIV, No. 3. Washington: Research Division of the Na- 
,tional Education Association, 1936. 



SIMPSON 121 

Other states which are rich in numbers of children, but poor in ability to pay 
for their education, provide only a meager expenditure for their schools and get 
inferior educational results, on tax rates which are high as compared with the 
country as a whole. 13 

The Need and Outlook for State Support 

Obviously, the extension of state aid in the financing of education may 
be expected, even though the history of the movement indicates that this 
will come slowly and haltingly. The expansion of present efforts and the 
correction of the present deficiencies seem certain to involve the develop- 
ment of higher minimum standards and requirements. The process will 
involve, first and foremost, the assurance of equitably distributed educa- 
tional opportunity through the establishment of adequate state founda- 
tion programs. It will require a more effective governmental structure of 
education, including school-district reorganization, at the state and local 
levels; longer school years; higher teacher standards; better salary laws, 
schedules, and levels; better plant facilities; and, above all, great ad- 
ministrative stature and developed skill in democratic leadership. These 
and other things will have to be provided if state and local initiative are 
not to degenerate into the mere right to lag behind need. 

According to a chart in a recent issue of the Journal of the National 
Education Association, 1 * state financial support of education varies within 
the United States all the way from 1.4 per cent of the total school revenue 
in one state to 92 per cent of the total in another. Eleven state govern- 
ments provide more than half, and twenty-one states less than a fourth, 
of their total school funds. 

The state support situation and the outlook for it, based on the facts, is 
very discouraging. States have the clear responsibility for educational 
support under our constitutional structure. They just haven't lived up to 
it. These low-level, state-aid states the 2 per cent to 10 per cent states 
take a seeming pride in their almost complete dependence upon the local 
autonomy, unmindful of the meagerness of the educational program 
which this necessitates for many boys and girls. Other state, which have 
moved to higher levels, often fail miserably in the methods of distribu- 
tion, unmindful of, or failing to heed, the fundamental principle of equal- 
ization of educational opportunity. After more than a quarter-century of 
research and experience with modern state-aid patterns and techniques, 
far too many of these federal states of ours lag either in level or in equi- 
table distribution. They fiddle, while Rome burns. 

There are valiant movements in the form of state studies. Practically 



13 John K. Norton and E. S. Lawter, op. dt., p. 316. 

" Journal of the National Education Association, XXXII (March, 1943), 



122 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

every state in the Union has been competently surveyed and practical 
programs have been developed, too often only to fail of enactment. Paul 
Mort has done this job in state after state, and others, including the 
writer, have done their part in several commonwealths. Forward-look- 
ing, realistic, local educational leaders have led valiantly; their lagging 
brothers have complacently looked on, some of them from the fiscally 
favored local units wherein chance concentration of property values 
makes possible the relatively stronger and more adaptable school systems. 

And the people they do not seem to be disturbed they do not seem 
to know. They and their legislative representatives some, but of course 
not all seem unaware of what is happening to the local economy, es- 
pecially in our large cities. Take Boston, for example: (a) Property-tax 
reliance very high nearly 80 per cent of total municipal requirements in 
1943, and rising higher for schools alone; (b) property-tax base inflated 
from 4 per cent on up, depending upon sources; (c) property-tax rate very 
high many say a capital levy $41 per thousand in 1943 and higher 
now; (d) receding population. 15 What does one make of the local economy? 
In the midst of all this precarious and fading local economy the Com- 
monwealth's aid for schools amounts by most generous computation to 
only 9 per cent of the total current cost of education. But the legislature 
failed in 1945 to pass a survey bill proposed by the Finance Commission 
of the City of Boston (a state agency, sponsoring the survey) which called 
for a commission study of state-local fiscal relationships in Massa- 
chusetts, with an appropriation of $25,000; and, instead, created a four- 
point omnibus study commission with an appropriation of $1,000. 

This situation is not held to be typical; but throughout the country 
there are many spots state and local which represent much the same 
pattern. Somehow, people have not been reached, and many of them find 
solace in the untutored unconcern of those in the profession. We have 
far to go in the art of developing and motivating realistic public policy 
in education. We need to be on the road. 

But there are bright spots. Perhaps outstanding are the developments 
in California and New York. Somehow in these states there is vigor. Both 
of these states materially strengthened their state-aid systems during the 
past year. Both have had a succession of researches over a period of 
years. New York has been in the vanguard in its application of the 
principles of adequacy, equalization, and adaptability the three basi- 
cally essential principles governing developments in this area. California's 



15 See Report of a Survey of ike Puttie Schools of Boston, Massachusetts, pp. 1087-93. 
George D. Strayer, Director. Boston: City of Boston Printing Department, 1944. For 
a complete study of educational finance in Boston, see Vol. VIII, prepared by Alfred 
D. Simpson. 



SIMPSON 123 

state aid has long been larger, but not until the present year did it get a 
real start with equalization, and this was against tremendous odds. 16 
What, then, is the explanation of this recent success in California? The 
answer lies primarily in two forces which have much significance for the 
future, if states are to rise educationally to possible levels: First, out- 
standing and brilliant professional leadership, largely local, within the 
state; and, second, the fact that the current state studies referred to em- 
braced the participatory process the broadened base in the develop- 
ment of public policy. These states represent and are examples of state 
vigor; refusal to be by-passed. Theirs is the only way in the long run to 
prevent by-passing. 

All evidence at hand indicates, however, that to provide the approxi- 
mately five to six billions of dollars which various groups have estimated 
to be needed to finance education properly, local and state sources of 
revenue, combined, will be insufficient. The great problem is to harmonize 
the various sources of school funds at all levels through the medium of 
good interlevel relationships and good education general government 
relationships so that too much of the good things in our traditional 
structure may not be lost, so that the dangerous lag may be overcome, 
and so that real educational need may be met. 

It being clearly predicated that American education must turn to the 
economic resources of the whole nation, and also that the entire nation 
(since we are one people) must look to its total educational foundations, 
it will be well at this point to re-examine the problem of financing educa- 
tion at the federal level. 

External Conditions Which Impact on Education 
at the Federal Level 

Of primary importance among (he conditions which impinge upon educa- 
tion at the federal level is the trend, accekrated by the depression and briefly 
interrupted by the war, toward raising the age level of the employment of 
youth. The proportion of young people gainfully employed has been de- 
clining since 1910, and each year there are 600,000 more youth entering 
the labor market than the number of openings due to deaths and retire- 



16 See The Administration, Organization, and Financial Support of the Public School 
System, State of California (printed) and "The Financial Support of Education in Cali- 
fornia" (mimeographed). Sacramento: State Reconstruction and Re-employment 
CJommission, Alexander R. Heron, Director, 1&45. Dr. George D. Strayer was the 
Commission's Special Consultant for the complete project, reported in the first refer- 
ence, while the latter was a study of state aid, with special reference to equalization, 
made by Alfred D. Simpson, also Special Consultant, and Hubert C. Armstrong, Col- 
laborator. 



124 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

ments. 17 The growth of the secondary school f TOIH 15 per cent of the 
youth of high-school age in 1910 to 51 per cent in. 1930 and to 73 per cent 
in 1940 is based on the bedrock reality that youth have, except in recent 
war times, been forced out of the employment game. 18 The American 
Youth Commission estimated, as of 1935, tlafc no less than 3,000,000 
youth between the ages of 16 and 24 were botho~ut of school and without 
any employment whatever. 19 The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, 
setting as it does a minimum work age of sixteen In nonagricultural inter- 
state employment points up this trend toward tie extension of the non- 
working life of young people. 20 The Federal Government has, therefore, 
an obligation to assist in making available to the youth, so deterred, edu- 
cational facilities and economic benefits to inspire their continued de- 
velopment until the time when the economic system is ready to accept 
them as full-fledged employables. 

Another area of concern for education is the ni^unbers within the popula- 
tion who are being demobilized from the armed services, industrially dis- 
placed, or otherwise occupationdlly upset, and, wio ore knocking at the door 
of education for one or another type of instructional service. The number who 
would seek further educational training, if available at public expense, 
has been estimated at 1,627,000. 21 In addition, the same source estimates 
that the number of civilian personnel needing further training is 1,187,- 
000, for an average training period of about seven months. It is further 
anticipated that after the war we will have thirty-two to forty million 
whose vocational experience will be in manijfactuTing and mechanical 
industries, which amounts to three to five times the prewar proportion. 

An external force acting on education and its expenditures will be the 
growth of the national debt, due both to increased governmental activity gen- 
erally and especially to the huge war expenditures* The Treasury Depart- 



17 Schools and Manpower, p. 277. Twenty-second Yearbook of the American Asso- 
ciation of School Administrators. Washington: American Association of School Ad- 
ministrators of the National Education Association, 1944:. 

* 8 Computed from Statistical Summary of Education, IStfjffi, Vol. II, Chap. II, p. 
9, Table 9. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1944, 

19 Howard M. Bell, Youth Tell Their Story, p. 106. "Washington: American Council 
on Education, 1938. 

80 See J. Laurence Phalan, "The Impact of the Federal IFair Labor Standards Act of 
1938 and Allied Labor Legislation upon the Employments and Education "of Youth," 
for an extended consideration of the problems and issues arising out of certain labor 
impacts. Bound manuscript, Doctoral Dissertation, Harvard Graduate School of Edu- 
cation, 1944. 

11 Proposals for Public Education in Postwar America. Research Bulletin of the Na- 
tional Education Association, Vol. XXII, No. 2. Washington: Research Division of 
the National Education Association, 



SIMPSON 125 

meat reports that the total (federal-state-local) per capita debt in the 
United States has risen from $131 in 1930 to $1,456 in 1944. 22 There will 
be the usual urge to retrenchment, curtailing of government services, 
and a reduction of tax rates. 

The mil-recognised phenomenon of population mobility aho conditions 
our approach to educational responsibilities at the federal level. The farm 
and rural areas provide the steady excess of population to enable the 
cities to maintain themselves. In every census since 1850 more than 20 
per cent of the persons born in the United States resided at the time of 
the census in states other than those in which they were born. From 1920 
to 1930, 60 per cent of the net farm-to-city migration, or 3,437,000, came 
from the southeastern and southwestern regions. The economic signifi- 
cance of this migration from farm to city has been shown by an estimation 
that th.e cost of rearing children, who will later migrate, until they are 
fifteen years old, amounts approximately to an annual contribution of 
$14,000,000,000 by the farming communities to the cities. 23 

Closely allied with population mobility is the age distribution of the popu- 
lation. It Is a well-known fact that our population is growing older. As 
pointed out by T. L. Norton, drawing upon studies of the National Re- 
sources Committee and the Social Security Board, the increase in per- 
sons over 65 years of age may be from the 7,500,000 in 1935 to as much as 
22,00,OOQ in 1980. 24 This represents a rise in the proportion of the total 
population from 6 per cent in 1935 to an estimated 15 per cent in 1980. 
With a, rise in the educational level and a tendency to earlier retirements 
or lay-offs, it is clear that increasing proportions of the population must be 
dependent oa others or on the government for support. There have been 
various estimates of the governmental costs of old-age benefits and to 
these must be added other social welfare costs. 25 These essential services 
by an enlightened people may be characterized simply as growing un- 
compromisingly. They have a decided meaning for education, especially 
in financing it. They mean that unless the tax burden is increased some 



28 Eeport for 1944, United States Treasury, p. 627, Table 23. Washington; Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1945. 

25 0. E. Baker, "Rural and Urban Distribution of the Population in the United 
States/* Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, CLXXX- 
VIII (November, 1936), 272. 

24 1. L, Norton, PiMic Education and Economic Trends, pp. 37-38. Cambridge, 
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1939. 

As long ago as 1938 the Social Security Board estimated the 1980 annual cost of 
benefit payments under the contributory old-age-benefits system to be as high as five 
and one-talf billion dollars, or about as much as the highest estimates of postwar an- 
nual education costs. 



126 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

other governmental service will suffer. This, coupled with the growth of 
governmental services in general, will have serious impact on the com- 
petition for public funds, in which competition education is of necessity 
a participant. 

Still another factor for education to respond to is the war-heightened aware- 
ness of } and resulting urge to eliminate, illiteracy and curable physical de- 
fects and weaknesses. As of August 1, 1944, 4,217,000 men had been re- 
jected for the armed services. Of this number, 250,000 were illiterate with 
no other defects, while 681,000 were rejected for illiteracy but had other 
defects which would have disqualified them in addition to illiteracy. 26 

The concentration of wealth of our modern industrial society has a strong 
bearing on the problem of financing education, particularly at the federal 
level This concentration of wealth has been shown by Norton and All- 
tucker in their study of Wealth, Children, and Education?** wherein they 
developed a composite index of economic ability based on the yield of a 
modern tax system, three selected taxes, and ten weighted economic 
items. According to this measure the three states of New York, New 
Jersey, and Pennsylvania have 27 per cent of the economic resources of 
the country, at the same time possessing but 19 per cent of the educa- 
tional load, while the South Atlantic states of Delaware, Florida, Georgia, 
Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia 
have 8 per cent of the economic resources and 13 per cent of the educa- 
tional load. The range of individual states is even greater. In terms of 
income per child of school age the range is from $1,838 hi Mississippi to 
$8,300 in California. The national average is $4,769. Thus, California is 
4,5 times as able to support schools as Mississippi, according to this 
measure. Fifteen states had an income of more than $5,000 per school- 
age child in 1943, while eight had less than one-half that amount. 28 

Arid finally we have the problem of the maintenance of a high-level national 
income. Many economists, and the majority of political leaders, though 
with fluctuating beat, are agreed that the maintenance of this high-level 
income is not only possible but necessary. Looking into the postwar 
years, no one can be very sure about the national income, except that 
there will be one, and that it will always be a truly climactic external 
condition of education. As we may say of the "belongingship" of the 



26 Committee on Education and Labor, "Wartime Health and Education." Hear- 
ings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. Senate, 
78th Congress, second session, p. 2034. 

27 John K. Norton and Margaret Alltucker, Wealth, Children, and Education, p. 45, 
Table 13. New York: Bureau of Publications, Columbia University, 1938. 

28 Education: Why the Federal Government Must Help. Washington: Research Divi- 
sion of the National Education Association, March, 1945. 



SIMPSON 127 

schools to the people, so with the national income: "We hope it will deal 
well with the education of children, youth, and adults; but deal it will.' J 
And, furthermore, the maintenance of a high-level economy and national 
income will demand certain contributions. Not only will the training and 
retraining of workers be involved as an essential part of the task but a 
raising of the economic literacy in general is necessary if we are to achieve 
this goal. 

General Status of Support and Xeed 

Since 1933 the funds for education at the federal level have been in 
general increasing. Table I gives the amount of federal funds for educa- 

TABLE I. FEDERAL FUNDS FOR EDUCATION, 1933-1942* 
(In thousands of dollars) 



Year 


Regular 
Appropriation 


Emergency 

Funds 


1933-34 


$16,942 


$ 24 711 


1934-35 


28 140 


41*009 


1935-36 


27,285 


266*' 641** 


1936-37 


38 913 


287 726*** 


1937-38 


52 122 


168 683 


1938-39 


53 588 


121 592 


1939-40 


55 117 


98 454 


1940-41 


55,363 


168 321 


1941-42 


55 711 


230 689 









* Source: "Federal Funds for Education," U.S. Office of Education, Leaflets No. 
30, 45, 54, 61, 70, Circular No. 162. Does not include appropriations for Office of 
Indian Affairs, Schools of District of Columbia, West Point, Annapolis, Marine 
Schools, and Funds from the use of oil and timber lands, part of which may be used 
for education. 

** Includes allotments for NIRA and ERA for 1935, and WPA cumulative 
through June, 1936. 

*** Includes PWA allotments from beginning of program through June, 1937. 

tion for the years 1933 to 1942. These amounts are separated as to the 
type of appropriation. Column 1 indicates the regular fund totals, and 
column 2 the emergency appropriations. It is clearly evident from this 
table that the Federal Government has been increasing its support, 
though chiefly on an emergency basis, but that the approach has been one 
of a series of temporary measures resulting in a short-term program of 
great instability. 

Reference has already been made to the American Council on Educa- 
tion study, published in 1944, by Norton and Lawler, on public school 
expenditures as of the year 1939-40, Current expenditures per classroom 
for the country as a whole were found to range from ten classroom units 
at less than $100, to 790 units at $6,000 to $6,099. The median unit was 
found to be at the $1,600 to $1,699 level. Nine million children were in 



128 



FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 



classrooms below this level, while 4,800,000 were in classrooms spending 
below $900 per unit. 29 The median level of support by states ranged from 
a low of $400-8499 in Mississippi to a high of $3,500-83,599 in Cali- 
fornia, and $4,100-54,199 in New York. Thus, the highest state-median 
level of support per classroom unit is more than ten times that of the 
median of the lowest state. All but one of the states with the lowest ex- 
penditures are in the South. These nine lowest states have a median class- 
room expenditure below $1,000. This extreme range in the financial sup- 
port of schools represents a denial of our ideal of equality of educational 
opportunity. To bring the level of support among the poorer states up to 
the national level would have required $315,832,100 in 1940. 30 

TABLE II. CURRENT EXPENDITURES FOR EDUCATION IN THE 
UNITED STATES IN 1940 AND ESTIMATED JUSTIFIABLE MIN- 
IMUM ANNUAL EXPENDITURES IN THE POSTWAR PERIOD 
(Millions of dollars, 1940 purchasing power)* 





Expenditures 
1940 


Postwar 
Period 


Preschool, elementary and high school . . 
Junior college 


82,158 
26 


$3,900 
400 


College, university, and professional 
schools 


460 


1,000 


Adult education 


57 


300 


Student aid 


66 


300 


Public library . . 


50 


200 








Total 


$2,817 


$6,100 



* National Resources Planning Board, National Resource* Development Report 
for 194S, p. 73, Table 1. 

The cost of providing education in terms of expanding programs and 
groups to be served indicates a sharp increase in the financial support 
necessary to carry on the proposed program. The National Education 
Association, in its study of postwar education, has estimated that the 
annual current expenditure of the "goal" program would be $4,592,- 
000,000. 31 The National Resources Planning Board has estimated that 
adequate education for the postwar period will cost approximately 
$6,100,000,000 in terms of 1940 purchasing power. Table II shows the 
1940 current expenditures together with the Board's postwar "justifiable 
minimum' 7 annual expenses. 

The Board has also estimated the annual capital outlay for the post- 



** J. K. Norton and E. S. Lawler, An Inventory of Piiblic School Expenditures in the 
United States, pp. 7, 8. Washington: American Council on Education, 1944. 
* fl /&w*.,p. 122. 
n Proposals for Public Education in Postwar AmericcL, op. eft., p. 68, 



SIMPSON 



129 



war period to range from $775,000,000 on a twenty-year program basis to 
$2,300,000,000 on a five-year program basis. This compares with the 1940 
outlay of $382,000,000. 32 Thus we see that either from the viewpoint of 
equalizing the level of the present program or from that of the postwar 
educational need the situation demands large increases in the annual 
amounts devoted to educational services. 

Problems That Result from the Status Demands 
The immediate problem that confronts us in either equalization en- 
deavor or the process of broadening and enriching the educational pro- 
gram and the extension of the group to be served is that of securing ade- 
quate funds for this purpose. The period of the depression has in it a clear 
example of the need to seek support beyond the local and state level. 

TABLE III. GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES IN MILLIONS 
OF DOLLARS, 1928-1942 



Year 


Federal 


State 


Local 


Total 


Educational 
Expenditures 


1928 .... 


$ 2 894 


$1 774 


$6 409 


$11 077 


*0 *MQ 


1930 


3 237 


2 170 


6*630 


12 073 


24fifi 


1932 


4,712 


2 257 


6*448 


13 417 


21RT 


1934 


6,784 


2*044 


5 621 


14 449 


1 068 


1936 


8,547 


2,433 


6*038 


17*018 


1 711 


1938 


6 977 


3 391 


5 223 


15 601 


212513 


1940 


8 824 


3 612 


5*628 


18 064 


2 344 


1942 


33,980 


3 644 


5 213 


42 837 


2 322 















Sources: National Industrial Conference Board, "Economic J?ecordl," March, 1943, and "Cos* of 
Government in the United States, 1935-87." For last column, the U.S. Office of Education, various issues 
of Biennial Survey of Education. 

The rise of the general fiscal ability at the federal level and the relative 
decrease of that at the local level, as measured by general governmental 
expenditure, is shown in Table III. Here it can be seen that governmen- 
tal expenditures on the federal level have increased from $2,894,000,000 
in 1928 to $8,824,000,000 in 1940, the last of the prewaryears. During the 
same period the total local expenditures have dropped from $6,409,- 
000,000 to $5,628,000,000. 

Table IV gives the percentage change, in terms of the base year 1928, 
of expenditures at each governmental level. In 1940 the Federal Govern- 
ment was spending 205 per cent more than in 1928, the state 103 per cent 
more, while the local level had decreased expenditures by 12 per cent. 
Educational expenditures were continuously below the 1928 level from 
1932 to 1938, but were restored to the level of the base year by 1940. 



I6id,TableII,p.74, 



130 



FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 



Another approach to the same situation is shown in Table V which 
contrasts the relative change in importance of the federal, state, and local 
units in terms of the total expenditures of all units for the years 1928-42. 
Again the picture is that of the rising importance of the Federal Govern- 
ment to a position of predominance in the expenditure field. In 1928 
the Federal Government spent 26 per cent of the total, while in 1940 it 

TABLE IV. PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN GOVERNMENTAL EXPENDITURES, 
1928 TO 1942, EVEN YEARS 



Year 


Federal 


State 


Local 


State and 
Local 


Total 


Education 


1928 


o 


o 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 





1930 


12 


22 


3 4 


6.2 


8.6 


5 3 


1932 . . 


63 


27 


0,6 


5.1 


21.2 


- 7 8 


1934 


135 


15 


-12.3 


- 7.4 


21.4 


-16.0 


1936 . . 


195 


39 


- 5 8 


- 2.3 


53.5 


-27 


1938 


141 


91 


-18.5 


4.1 


40.9 


- 4 7 


1940 


205 


103 


-12 2 


11 6 


63 


4 


1942. 


1 074 


105 


-18.7 


6.9 


287.0 


- 8 

















Source: Computations from Table in. 

TABLE V. PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF LOCAL-STATE-FEDERAL 
EXPENDITURES 1928 TO 1942, EVEN YEARS 



Year 


Federal 


State 


Local 


Total 


Percentage 
Education is 
of State 
and Local 


1928 


26 


16 


58 


100 


28 4 


1930 


27 


18 


54 


100 


28 


1932 


35 


17 


48 


100 


24 8 


19M 


47 


14 


39 


100 


25 6 


1936 


50 


14 


35 


100 


20 1 


1938 


45 


22 


33 


100 


25 9 


1940 


47 


19 


31 


100 


25 3 


1942 


79 


9 


12 


100 


26 3 















Source: Computations from Table iv. 

spent 47 per cent. The local level spent 58 per cent of the total in 1928 
and only 31 per cent in 1940. 

The situation is well summed up by the National Resources Planning 
Board in its report for 1943 when it states: 

During the years immediately following the war it does not appear probable 
that the total revenue available for education from state and local sources com- 
bined can be greatly increased, although many states can and should increase the 
school revenue of their state govermnents and decrease the school revenue of the 
local governments in order to reduce the heavy tax burden now resting on prop- 
erty and the local government. It also appears improbable that any great in- 



SIMPSON 131 

crease will occur in nongovernmental funds for education. It is, therefore, evident 
that most of the increase in expenditures for education in the postwar period must 
be financed almost if not entirely by federal funds. 33 

There is, then, a dear picture of unmet educational need. The problem 
of satisfying this need forces us to the federal level for support. Our solu- 
tion to the problem lies in meeting the issues which must be resolved. 
When we have found the means of harmonizing these, and, of course, 
other on-coming differences, we shall be able to see our program of educa- 
tion for America broadened in scope, enriched in substance, facilitated 
by harmonious organization patterns, and attained by realistic method. 
Thus, our level of life as a nation will be raised significantly, both eco- 
nomically and spiritually. 

Issues That Arise in the Support of Education 
at the Federal Level 

The first issue that confronts us is that of control. Will federal aid re- 
sult in a national education system? Does this mean increased rigidity, 
leveling conformity to national standards, and the loss of the distinctly 
traditional and established pattern of a group of state school systems? 
The arguments for and against centralization have been many. Most peo- 
ple, including the public school personnel, have favored decentralized 
control. Most frequently, however, the discussion has been in terms of 
the best of decentralization versus the worst aspects of centralization. 
National committees have differed in their approach to the problem. The 
report of the National Advisory Committee of 1931 stated: 

Any federal financial support for education in the states shall be given only for 

education in general and not for special phases of education This general 

policy should apply to all financial aid given to the states. The distribution of 
lands or moneys in aid of education is a long-established policy of the National 
Government. The change of policy which appeared soon after the middle of the 
last century, when federal grants were first made for specific phases of education, 
has not been altogether fortunate in its political, social, and financial conse- 
quences, regardless of the immediate educational gains in rapid stimulation, 
quick spread, and high standardization of the special activities favored by federal 
action. 34 

This report represented the extreme noncontrol point of view, stating 
in another section concerning the auditing of federal funds: 



** National Resources Planning Board, National Resources Development Report^ 

S t p. 73. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1944. 

s * Federal Relations to Education, Part I, pp. 83-84. Report of the National Ad- 
visory Committee on Education. Washington: National Advisory Committee on Edu- 
cation (744 Jackson Place), 1931. 



132 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

Restrict the audits of the federal government to those made by the Treasury 
Department, merely to determine whether or not the moneys granted have been 
spent for the general or special educational purposes as defined in the several 
federal acts of appropriation without making audit an indirect method for con- 
trolling or determining educational standards or processes. 35 

The committee appointed by President Roosevelt, known as the Ad- 
visory CoTn.Tnitt.ee on Education, issued a report in 1938 calling for federal 
aid. They took the position that: 

Federal grants for special educational purposes may properly be used to bring 
about attention to educational matters of special national concern and thus to 
improve the educational programs conducted under state and local auspices, but 
such grants should be considered with very great care to see that improvement 
does in fact result. 36 

They further state : 

The organization of education within the states must be given consideration 
in determining whether to grant all education aid in a single fund The Com- 
mittee is thus forced to conclude that a realistic and comprehensive study of edu- 
cational needs can only result in the recommendation of several different federal 
aid funds, continuing the present practice in that respect. 57 

Or again: 

The Committee is of the opinion that the distribution of the federal funds 
within a state is not a matter that should be left entirely to state officials in view 
of the source of the funds, and the purposes for which the grants are recom- 
mended The Committee therefore recommends that the proposed grants be 

conditioned upon the designation by each state of its department of education, 
or a board of education controlling that department, to represent the State in the 
determination of the distribution of the federal grants within the states, through 
plans jointly agreed upon by the state education authority and the United States 
Office of Education. 38 

In line with the recommendations of the proposals of President Roose- 
velt's Committee the report on federal, state, and local governmental 
fiscal relationships by a Treasury Department Committee states: 

The control features of an aid program can be a very salutory influence and 
ought to receive more rather than less emphasis in the future. In addition to the 
traditional control devices such as auditing and inspection and approval of 



, p. 38. 

** Advisory Committee on Education, Report of the Committee, p. 42. Washington: 
Government Printing Office, 1938. 



SIMPSON 133 

state plans educational aids should give attention to internal equalization, re- 
districting, and division of funds between whites and Negroes. 39 

Or again: 

For seventeen states and the District of Columbia average expenditure per 
pupil in average daily attendance (1935-36) was $20 for Negroes, and 150 for 
whites Their continued existence raises serious questions as to the effective- 
ness of federal financial aid alone in equalizing educational opportunity. Latitude 
for federal-state consultation and advice on this subject should be provided. 40 

The report contends further: 

Much weight needs to be given to the view held by many people that education 
is a part of their way of life and that national participation means regimentation 
and the loss of important minority rights and interests. Concessions can and 
should be made to this feeling, but considering also the overwhelming national 
interests in the maintenance of minimum standards of educational opportunity 
the concessions should not extend to a veto of federal aid with equalisation fea- 
tures. Nor should it block a control program necessary to secure the federal ob- 
jectives. 41 

In general the application of administrative controls leaves plenty of room for 
improvement, but the trend has been toward more effective control and there can 
be no doubt that the aids have exerted a salutary effect on the quality of state and 
local administration (oddly enough the history of conditional grants in Canada 
indicates little effective Dominion control, and the trend has been generally in 
the direction of less effectiveness}. 42 

And the Committee concludes finally: 

Whether we like it or not the trend toward centralization is likely to go on irre- 
sistibly. The great fiscal resources of the federal government with its large taxing 
and monetary powers, its superior strategic position in managing the economic 
system as a whole, the growing urge for minimnm. standards, and "the interest in 
uniformity with developing interdependence all point toward centralization. The 
problem is to seek a balance, some independent resources for the smaller units of 
government, and a genuine interest in the vigor of local government. 43 

The issue of control is brought into clear focus and perspective by two 
bills concerning federal aid presented to the Seventy-ninth Congress. The 
two bills merit examination as to their implications. The Thomas-Hill 
Bill (S-181) to be cited as the "Educational Finance Act of 1945," is es- 
sentially a noncontrol bill. It calls for the distribution of $300,000,000, of 



19 Federal, State, and Local Government Fiscal Relations. Committee on Intergovern- 
mental Fiscal Relations, U.S. Treasury Department. 78th Congress, 1st session,, Sen- 
ate Document No. 69, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1943. 

/&&., p. 31. **Tbid.,p. 168. 

* Ibid., p. 32. Ibid., p. 180. 



134 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

which $200,000,000 is to be apportioned for payment of salaries of public 
school teachers, and $100,000,000 for "more nearly equalizing public 
elementary- and secondary-school opportunities among and within 
states." The formula for distribution is given in the bill, the $200,000,000 
to be distributed in terms of average daily attendance figures, and the 
$100,000,000 according to an index of financial need determined objec- 
tively in terms of total estimated income payments of each state. The 
bill states: "No department, agency, officer, or employee of the United 
States shall exercise any direction, supervision, or control over, or pre- 
scribe any requirements with respect to, any school, or any state educa- 
tional institution or agency with respect to which any funds have been 

or may be made available " The only aspects of control concern 

the stipulations that the funds are for public schools, and that minority 
races shall have an equitable apportionment of the funds. In general, then, 
the picture here is one of minimum control. 

The Mead-Aiken BUI (S-717), also to be cited as the "Educational 
Finance Act of 1945," is sponsored by the American Federation of La- 
bor 44 and presents a new approach to the question of federal aid. The bill 
sets up a National Board of Apportionment composed of five representa- 
tive citizens to be appointed by the President, the members to hold five- 
year terms of office, and the United States Commissioner of Education to 
serve as secretary to the Board. The method of distribution of funds is 
not given in the bill but is left to be developed by the National Board: 
"It shall be the duty of the National Board to formulate policies for the 
allocation of funds among the states .... and to review the operation 
of the program." (This is true, however, only of the $300,000,000 part of 
the fund intended to raise substandard educational conditions.) The most 
novel, and at the same time the most controversial, feature of the bill is 
the stipulation that no state may receive the funds provided by this bill 
without distributing them with no discrimination to all public and pri- 
vate nonprofit-making schools, and that, furthermore, where a state is 
prohibited by law or constitution from doing this, the National Board 
shall set up a trusteeship for the distribution to the nonpublic schools 
within such state. 

While the full implication of this bill for the American public school 
system has yet to be realized, it is clear that it proposes controls differing 
not only in degree but also in kind from previous approaches. The bill 
would not attempt "to bring a state in line" by control, but would 



44 According to a letter to the writer from Joseph P. McMurray, Economic Consult- 
ant to the Senate Committee on Education and Labor, July 30, 1945, Mr. Mathew 
Woll, Vice-President of the A.F.L. and officers of the A.F.T. testified before the Com- 
mittee that S-717 was sponsored by the A.F.L. 



SIMPSON 135 

actually circumvent the state in most cases, for forty states have either 
constitutional provisions or laws forbidding the use of public funds for 
nonpublic schools. 45 Thus the states would be placed in the position of 
being forced, if they accepted federal aid for public schools, to allow 
funds to be distributed to nonpublic schools over which the state itself 
actually exercises but the barest minimum of control. The issues involved 
in this bill clearly bear upon the relations of church and state, the by- 
passing of the state educational system through direct federal aid to local 
school support, and the future of the American public school system. 

This issue of control still seems to be a major obstacle to the successful 
participation by the Federal Government in education and to the 
establishment of good federal-state relations. Moreover, these bills have 
been sponsored largely by organized groups. As Moehlman points out, 
"The public agencies that should be most interested in this program, the 
several state educational authorities and the state legislatures, are not 
represented at all In fact the majority report of the Senate Com- 
mittee on Education and Labor in the Seventy-eighth Congress stated, 
'No state has come before us affirming its inability to deal with the 
educational program.' " 46 He proposes that the Council of Chief State 
School Officers be made the official agency for maintaining federal-state 
relationships and providing for rational, well-balanced appropriations as 
well as for their intelligent administration. 

It seems fairly certain that not in recent times have the issues over 
control, which are so surely embedded in the problem of federal-state- 
local fiscal relations in education, been so clearly focused as they have 
been by the two federal-aid bills of this year. Both bills say "no control," 
but, while this is more nearly true of the Thomas-Hill Bill, the Mead- 
Aiken Bill is a long way from the elimination of the control issue. Cer- 
tainly, if there is no control in the latter, it is because the issue is side- 
stepped by the device of taking the problem at issue in the support of 
nonpublic schools out of the realm of federal-state-local relations. But 
even with this done, we are left with the provision to determine much of 
the precise amount of federal aid through the sure-control technique of 
discretionary action by a federal board. All in all, however, the presenta- 
tion of the Mead-Aiken Bill seems to be a hopeful sign, if for no other 
reason than that it will help us as a people to come to grips with the 
issues. 



F. N. Pitt, federal Aid for Catholic Schools," Cathotic Bduca&mal Review* XL 
(February, 1945), 65-S2. 

"A. B. Moehlman, "Pattern of Federal Aid," Nation's Schools, XXXV (May, 
1945), 19. 



136 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

Questions To Be Answered in Resolving Issues 
In all probability, before we deal adequately with the question at 
issue, we shall have to ask ourselves more serious questions than we have 
yet fairly met: 

1. Are we one nation, or forty-eight, so far as the education of our children, 
youth, and adults is concerned? Do we need and want to be a nation undi- 
vided educationally? 

2. Can we safely proceed longer along the lines of national action on education 
by the method of legislation through the indirect medium of finance, or should 
we frankly face the issue of giving to the Congress of the people the properly 
restricted right to legislate directly on general educational policies? 

3. Do we need to settle through direct national legislation the question of policy 
with respect to the relationship procedure in education, as between the na- 
tional government and the states? 

4. Can we find a formula for settling the problem of religious education and pro- 
vision for it in such a way as to eliminate the trend toward disunity in educa- 
tional policy and achieve a unified public policy in education? 

5. Can we not achieve at the national level a more effective organizational struc- 
ture for education; and will such achievement not help us to achieve an answer 
to the previous questions? 

There are, of course, many other questions of which the discussion and 
broad public consideration seem to be necessary before we can resolve 
the issues which are current and destined to remain with us until re- 
solved. These, however, are vital ones. They require the attention of 
the philosopher as well as the scientist. The answer lies with the people; 
hence it would be well if administration brought them into real participa- 
tion in this greatest of all processes, the development of public policy. 

Another issue involved in the problem of the use of federal government funds 
for education is thai of the role of the national government in our economy, 
involving, as it does, such questions as the wise general governmental 
expenditure level, debt growth and service, the increase in the demand for 
social services) and many other questions, depending on one's basis of 
classification oH of which depend for their answers upon our whole philoso- 
phy toward government, as well as upon facts. 

During and since the depression there has been emerging a new con- 
cept of the role of the government in the area of economic activity. When 
under the older theories of economics we were unable to explain ade- 
quately or to find remedies for the financial collapse of 1929 there began 
to be a searching of theories which would better explain the instability of 
the economic system, with its periodic slumps and its chronic unemploy- 
ment this latter even in times of prosperity. While there is still not 
agreement as to the emergent theory, there is increasing understanding 



SIMPSON 137 

of the role and function of government spending, debt, and taxation in 
providing a high level of economic activity and national income. Fiscal 
policy has advanced from its position of a more or less negative check and 
control of certain activities regarded as undesirable, and from the theory 
that taxes are "unproductive" expenditures representing an unfortunate 
waste, to the revolutionary function of insuring the full employment of 
the factors of production. With this change in concept has come the 
development of a distinction between public financing and private 
financing, particularly in relation to debt. The National Resources 
Farming Board has this to say about the public debt: 

The public debt is something very different from the private debt of an indi- 
vidual. An individual will always improve his asset position if he is able to pay 
off part of his debt. But a nation may make itself poor by reducing public debt. 
This is because such reduction tends to cause deflation, depression, and unem- 
ployment. It is a good thing to retire a part of the public debt if you want to 
check an excessive boom. It would be ruinous to retire the public debt in a post- 
war period when unemployment was spreading. A public debt internally held 
has none of the characteristics of the private debt of an individual. A public debt 
is an instrument of public policy. It is a means to control the magnitude of the 
national income and in conjunction with the tax structure to affect income dis- 
tribution. 47 

This same planning board presents a clear statement concerning the 
question of whether or not we can afford all the increase in govern- 
mental expenses seemingly demanded by our increased sensitivity to 
social needs. 

There is not there cannot be any financing problem which is not manage- 
able under a full employment income. From a 125 billion income we can raise large 
tax revenues large enough to service any level of debt likely to be reached and 
to cover all other governmental outlays-7-and still retain for private expenditures 
far more than we had left in former years under a 70 billion income with lower 
taxes. Taxes are merely one way of paying for social services and public improve- 
ment projects which we need Stated broadly we should keep in mind that 

balanced against the taxes required to cover interest charges are the interest re- 
ceipts of institutions and individuals who own the bonds. Thus the fact is that 
our public debt, owned as it is mainly by institutions performing useful and nec- 
essary service, is no such burden on the community as is commonly supposed. 
The tax funds collected to meet interest charges are not lost. They are paid right 
back again, largely to institutions that benefit the community as a whole. At the 
worst the taxes are collected from one group of citizens and paid out to another 
group the bond holders.* 8 



47 National Resources Planning Board, After the Far, FuK Employment, p. &. 
Washington: Government Printing Office, 1943, 
p. 6-8. 



138 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

It remains to be seen whether this newer philosophy of public spending 
and debt expansion, or the older traditional one of close budget-balancing 
and keeping all governmental expenditures down, will emerge as our 
public policy in the immediate future. As this is written, it may be 
suggested that the trend toward large governmental expenditures for 
needed social services, including education, will continue and that more 
and more people are being made conscious that a huge debt can be 
serviced with a high-level income and progressive taxation; and that, 
further, the forces involved in our economic life will tend irresistibly to 
continue the expanded role of government, and education, in our time. 

Pertinent Speculations on the Outlook 

How often those of us who deal with problems in the social sciences, 
with problems of public policy in education, have to recognize that, re- 
gardless of -our particular branch, ours is not an exact science. The 
answer to our problems, after all, lies mostly in what people say the 
answer is. We hope, to be sure, for more and more factual enlightenment 
and skill, and for better and better reasoning; but our greatest strength 
lies in the broad participatory process, in broadening the base, as it were, 
in lay as well as professional participation in the development of public 
policy in education. This is the greatest administrative challenge of the 
future. 

We, here, make no pretense of knowing the right answers to the 
problems of federal-state fiscal relations, though we venture some sug- 
gestions toward the answers. It seems that in looking at external condi- 
tions, as has been done in a previous section of this chapter, enough of 
sample fact has been reviewed to make it clear that just more of the old 
way and emphasis in financing education cannot suffice. The path, 
however, will have to be left to reasoned or to unreasoned action. 
Administrators may well be at the work of broad field study and of 
stimulating broad lay and professional participation in order that action 
may have more of reason and less of unreason. 

Two years ago the writer developed upon request of the National 
Council of Education fourteen propositions for financing education 
during wartime and, at the same time, a more extended treatment of the 
problem as a paper for the annual meeting of the American Association 
of School Administrators. 49 There it was made clear that, in the author's 

49 Alfred D. Simpson, "A Financial Program for Education during Wartime." Pre- 
pared for the National Council of Education of the National Education Association. 
Washington: National Education Association, 1943; and "Educational Finance in 
Wartime: The View on the Higher Level," Official Report of the Convention Never 
Held, American Association of School Administrators, 1943. Washington: American 
Association of School Administrators of the National Education Association, 1943. 



SIMPSON 139 

view, the problems of war and peace have continuity, are coexistent, and 
that the problems of education and its support "can no more be neatly 
divided between those of peace and war than can the totality of the 
problems of America herself." The author still holds his views, in 
general, as expressed in the references given, 

In the long run it is futile to expect to solve the problem of the support of 
American education apart from its basic determinants. Financial support is al- 
ways to be considered a facilitating agency. Beyond immediate, even if tentative, 
financing America should at once set in motion the processes which will result in 
the definition of policy with respect to the following basic determinants of na- 
tional financing: (a) The national purposes to be served by education in the life- 
stream of the Nation, (6) the national responsibility to be declared for achieving 
these purposes, and (c) the determination and establishment, nationally, of the 
structural counterparts of purpose and responsibility. 

This is the gist of the matter. It means that of course we are one 
nation, and that we must be undivided. And this in turn means that we 
require a national system of education that is, if we really believe that 
education is basic to the life of the nation, and makes it, in reality. What 
do we propose? To have a nation, but with the education of our citizens 
left to the caprice of separate geographic segments? Can we completely 
cleave the education of our citizens into states without cleaving the 
nation except as the urge of wartime drives people together? 

What we need to do is to be about national purposing as to the role of 
education in the life-stream of the nation. See that everyone has an 
equitable chance at education regardless of the factor of state of resi- 
dence, economic circumstance, or racial status. This means personnel, 
and it means plant and equipment. It means scope and substance of 
educational program. And it means finance. Let there be a national 
foundation program of education; let it be not low, but defensible. All 
this can be done within reason, and still leave room for adaptation and 
for variation at the upper reaches. It is not uniformity that is sought, but 
equity and adequacy. There is still room for both liberty and equality. 
Furthermore, there is going to be equality of educational opportunity in 
this nation. Without it we do not come to youth with clean hands; nor do 
we practice democracy. If states will lag, the nation won't. 

There is unquestionably a growing and considerable, perhaps even a 
majority, recognition of the need of much greater national participation 
in the financing of education. But there is much less feeling for a national 
educational policy beyond or basic to finance. Tinder our constitution, 
with education left to the states, we are very limited as to national action 
on educational policy. Our chief method is by indirection and through the 
medium of proffered financial aid. We can adopt financial-aid programs, 



140 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

and we can, if we choose, attach financial conditions to the receipt of the 
aid by the states or local units. The history of federal aid is that we very 
often do just this. To be sure, we do not need to do so, and many would 
say "no" to proposals for attaching conditions. At any rate the legal 
situation confronting the problem of national financing has two signifi- 
cant angles. 

There is the question of whether or not a policy of exclusive financial 
grants, devoid of real attachment to the fundamental educational pur- 
poses to be served, is wise public policy. There is grave concern over thus 
separating the educational program from its financing, over the wisdom 
of thus producing a dichotomy between fundamental policy and its 
funding. Attention needs to be called to the fact that to do so is to 
separate finance from educational policy. A case may well be made that 
to refrain from the gross separation and to combine reasonably the basic 
educational policy with its financing is better in the long run for educa- 
tion, as well as for the national good. 

Then there is the question of whether or not it is wise for us to continue 
in this situation wherein Congress can legislate national policy only in- 
directly and only through the backdoor of financial aid, the same to be 
effective or not, depending upon state action in acceptance or rejection. 
As a matter of fact, almost never do the states refuse to accept the aid 
and whatever conditions are imposed. It might even be argued that this 
system is somewhat responsible for the development into well-nigh 
habit of the discretionary administrative type of central control ac- 
companied or not, as the case may be, by the stipulation that state plans 
must be submitted which are to be approved by the central authority. 

But there is a deeper issue still which is involved. Does not this system 
of restricting legislation to conditional aid (which may be taken or not by 
the state, depending upon whether they like the conditions) make the 
basic educational policy secondary to finance, when in truth it ought to 
be primary? Finance, it should be remembered, is only means; it is a 
facilitating agent. Would it not be preferable to open the way for direct, 
rather than secondary, action on educational policy in those areas where- 
in the substance of the policy is vital to the national good and, therefore, 
of primary national concern? Thus it seems that the control problem 
would be more safely and responsibly dealt with at the national level* 
This by no means limits national aid to that which is accompanied by 
control attachments, but it makes possible responsible policy, at the 
national level on the basis of what is considered good policy rather than 
whether or not a state chooses to accept aid. The real question begged is 
whether national action on education should not be on the main educa- 
tional issues, with financing attached, rather than in the reverse order. 



SIMPSON 141 

These problems raise in due course the question of constitutionality. 
There is at least a serious question, as we enter the phase of national 
financing of education on any broad scale, as to whether we shall not be 
wise to grant limited legislative powers to Congress in this functional 
field. There has been very little thinking, study, and discussion on this 
question since the early days, but such application seems bound to come. 
It seems unquestionably to be a most important future question. 

One of the most serious of our educational problems, quite generally 
admitted by all, is the improvement of federal-state relations in educa- 
tion. There is no question about the importance of state functioning in 
education, any more than there is about local. There is, however, a real 
question about interlevel relationships in all matters wherein any higher 
level has a part to play which is the concern of a lower level. 50 Quite 
possibly, in view of our experiences of the past fifteen years, one of the 
strong arguments for constitutional revision with respect to education 
lies in our ability through it to determine and safeguard proper federal- 
state relationship channels in any matter of national activity in education 
which affects the states or their subdivisions. 

In considering this problem we should remind ourselves of the condi- 
tion we would be in with respect to state-local relations if states were 
restricted to financial-aid conditions as the sole means of making state 
policy effective in local units. As time goes on, and the cumulative ex- 
perience points up the vital importance of federal-state relations, it seems 
at least worth our close consideration to explore the possibilities of na- 
tional legislative determination of method and procedure in this area. It 
is well established that school districts, including towns and cities, are 
state agencies of local jurisdiction in education. Yet along with "agency" 
these districts are by no means denied broad spheres amounting to 
"principalship." Similar application to the federal-state situation would, 
it is true, involve a fundamental departure from the stcdm quo, but it is 
not unlikely that some such thoroughly fundamental steps will have to be 
taken in the future as we move into new conditions and face more square- 
ly the need of united national action in education. 

These considerations are but some of those which are basic to effective- 
ly designed federal policy. They may seem far removed from problems of 
financing education. Yet such is not the case. Finance is a broad, not a 
narrow, area of educational concern. Problems of educational finance are 
too often considered in their narrow gauge, when in reality they require 



w "Federal-State-Local Relations," Paths to Better Schools, pp. 182-207, Twenty- 
third Yearbook of the American Association of School Administrators. Washington: 
American Association of School Administrators of the National Education Associa- 
tion, 1945. 



142 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

the comprehensive view. They overlap with every problem area. It is just 
the failure to recognize their breadth that tempts too many actions on 
financial policies as "ends" instead of "means." 

We are in the very midst of the period of important national policy 
development in the financing of education. Of this there can be little 
question. The danger is that we shall adopt financial policies only, with- 
out sufficient regard for their meanings, underlying problems, and inter- 
relations. One or another, or some combination, of the aid bills now before 
Congress may, or may not, be passed. Certainly the aid is needed. In 
amount it is only the first rays of that which will be forthcoming from the 
national government in future years. 

The Thomas-Hill Bill is innocuous so far as the fundamental issues of 
future national policy in education are concerned. It is almost entirely a 
status quo measure. The negative control clause against a state's distri- 
bution of any of the aid to nonpublic schools is rather widely opposed. It 
would be well within the present status of governmental structure in 
education to eliminate this restriction, since educationally the state is 
principal. This bill is deserving of support, though its sledding seems 
destined to be tough. Its chief merit lies in its start, inadequate though it 
be, at national equalization. Probably its real weakness lies in its limited 
fiscal extent and in its failure to recognize that the best way to help 
states improve salary status on the national front, as in states, lies also 
in the equalization approach. 

The Mead-Aiken Bill is more clearly controversial because it really 
ventures into provisions beyond the status quo and into those which 
involve serious issues. It raises important problems of structure and of 
administrative relationships. It provides for questionable central agency 
discretion in the determination of aid. It raises pointedly the whole 
question of aid to nonpublic schools by providing for it, even by going so 
far as to circumvent established state policy in this area. In reality the 
measure gets into a very basic problem of federal-state relations, and 
solves it altogether too quickly, it would seem, by by-passing the state 
without facing head-on the issues of national versus state responsibility. 
Here in one bill we find issues of federal policy in education heightened as 
never before. It is broadly illustrative of the very need which we have 
been indicating, that is, of making a more fundamental examination into 
the role of education in the life-stream of the nation. 

We may be thankful for the Mead-Aiken Bill because of its clarifica- 
tion of issues. This bill should prove a landmark of influence upon studies 
of federal educational policy. The embedded issues are so important, 
however, for the future of public education that before any bills resolving 



SIMPSON 143 

them are passed they ought to have the benefit of extended and organized 
study and deliberation. 

Probably the greatest and certainly the most controversial of the 
issues involved in the Mead-Aiken Bill is the one bearing directly, but 
also with ramifications, on the question of public aid to nonpublic schools. 
The search for a formula with which to deal with this question on a high 
plane of public policy has thus far been virtually fruitless. We either have 
to stay by the general status quo policy or we have to find a new policy. 
We are obviously not ready now. Even those who are swayed by the 
greatest possible earnestness, broadmindedness, and good will are not 
ready. 

We shall be ready only when we find a solution that satisfies one 
criterion. That criterion is the all-important one of what is best for the 
future of the unique institution of public education in America. An 
America without a great public school system cannot be our America. 
The function and vigor of public education must have a guaranty 
quite possibly at the national level. This is equally important for those of 
all creeds. This is the great criterion that must always be satisfied in our 
future search for national educational policy and its financial counter- 
part. 

Extended Educational Opportunity for Older Youth and Adults 
The American people have long been committed to the view that since 
education and self-government are inextricably linked, opportunities for 
elementary and secondary education eleven or twelve years of school- 
ing should be made available to all the youth of the nation. Although 
that goal has never been reached, nevertheless, since the acceptance of 
the principle of free education, rapid progress has been made in the 
direction of its attainment. 

More recently, however, changes wrought by recent social, econom- 
ic, and political factors have been emphasizing the need for opportunity 
for universal education beyond the high school for both social and 
vocational purposes. 51 Increased training necessary to do the world's 
work is simply a part of our culture and unless our cultural level keeps 
pace with the strides in material development, the continuing progress 
for which we aspire cannot be realized. Conditions growing out of the war 
compel us to a realization of the extension of educational opportunity on 
the secondary level; and the problems that arise from our continuing 
progress in industrial development will be solved very much in pro- 



51 Educational Policies Commission, Education for AU American Youth, chap. v. 
Washington: Educational Policies Commission of the American Association of School 
Administrators and the National Educational Association, 1944. 



144 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

portion to our willingness to organize our educational institutions and 
extend their programs to include education geared to the interests, needs, 
and abilities not only of adolescents but also of older youth and adults. 

The institution that can most easily be developed to provide these 
necessary educational facilities is the public junior college, or its equiva- 
lent by another name. Situated in the center of Community activities, it 
can serve in the most natural setting for the continuous learning demand- 
ed by our increasingly complex society. In addition to its two-year under- 
graduate programs, it can offer an adult program which will challenge 
the curiosity and cultivate the interests of those possessing more ad- 
vanced training in a special field; it can provide for specialized training 
for those who are seeking the development of special skills; and it can 
broaden the horizons of those whose previous schooling and experience 
lacks perspective. 

In recent years the junior college has made such rapid strides in this 
older-youth and adult area that for the academic year, 1943-44, almost 
65 per cent of the junior-college enrolment consisted of adults. 52 Signifi- 
cant in this respect, and perhaps indicative of the future trend in the 
extension of secondary education, is the composition of the enrolment in 
one California junior college. Here it was reported that over 5,300 
different people were enrolled in adult classes, which is more than one- 
third of the town's estimated adult population. 63 

Although the junior college has shown a phenomenal growth in recent 
years, 54 if the educational needs of all the people in the postwar era are 
going to be met, continued rapid growth and development must take 
place, especially in those states where the junior college's adequate de- 
velopment is overdue. Indications are that most educational leaders are 
awake to the junior college's possibilities. The National Resources 
Planning Board has recommended a six-fold increase in junior-college 
facilities immediately following the war, and bills are now before the 
legislatures In several states authorizing establishment or expansion of 
and increased support for junior colleges within their borders. 56 



W. C. Eelk, "The Community College," Adult Education Journal, IV (January, 
1945), 13-17. 

w W. M. Pugh, "One-Third of Modesto's Adults Go to College," Junior College 
Journal, XIV (January, 1944), 197-99. 

84 At the time of World War I there were only about one hundred small junior 
ooEeges, their total enrolment being less than five thousand students. During World 
War II the number of junior colleges was over six hundred, their enrolment in excess 
of three hundred thousand. 

* W. C. EeBs, "Junior College Legislation Proposed in 1945," Junior CoUege Jour- 
nal, XV (March, 1946), 314r-17. 



SIMPSON 145 

Problem of Support. The need for an institution similar in purpose and 
design to the junior college is well established. Whether this need can be 
met by an adequate finance program, without a complete reorganization 
of the public support of education, is questionable. Due to great con- 
centrations in economic ability, 56 some states can support- a system of 
junior colleges accessible to all the people in the state. In fact, there are 
instances where the local unit alone is able to support adequately a 
junior college, but for every one of these there are hundreds of other 
local units which are unable to maintain, even with present state help, 
a defensible minimum foundation program comprising the traditional 
twelve-grade organization only. 

These great inequalities of wealth make the problem of financing the 
public junior college, in many areas, one that will not admit of easy 
solution. This fact is emphasized in a cogent study reported by Stillwellj 
in which he attempts to ascertain the ability of the southern states to 
support state-wide systems of junior colleges. 67 Assuming an annual cost 
of $150 per student to be a conservative estimate 58 as to the amount of 
money needed to educate one full-time junior-college student, Stillwell 
then calculated the total amount of money each southern state would 
need if it should attempt to educate its high-school graduates who would 
likely attend junior colleges. His estimates were based upon the expecta- 
tion of one-sixth of the high-school enrolment being graduated, and one- 
half of these graduates going on to attend the junior colleges. As a 
further basis for his .computations, he calculated the amount of money 
each state should be expected to raise if it should appropriate as much 
per student in junior colleges as it would have revenue available for 
education per child in its public schools, when it makes average effort as 
compared with all other states. On this basis, it was found that at peak 
load within the next ten to twenty years, the state in the Southern 
Association 59 would have a combined total of 249,000 junior-college 
students, and would need 804 junior colleges of average size (300 stu- 
dents). On a minimum basis of $150 per student annually, these colleges 



* "Education: Why the Federal Government Must Help." Washington 6: Re- 
search Division of the National Education Association, March, 1945. 

H. W. Stillwell, "The Public Junior College in the South, 1 ' Jumor College Journal 
X (September, 1939), 21-24. 

w In a recent study on junior college costs, Henry G. Badger, ILS. Office of Edu- 
cation statistician reports (Jwwjr Co&ege Journal, October, 1944) an average public 
junior college cost per student for 1937-^38 to be $175. This figure, incidentally, is only 
68 per cent of the $257 cost reported for a public senior college. 

B Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. 



146 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

would cost the states $37,350,000, and the states would have available 
from their own resources as calculated on their ability with average 
effort to support their public schools, only $5,929,210, or only a little 
more than one-sixth of the needed amount. 

The obvious conclusion to be drawn from this study, and from other 
evidence, is that the future of adequate post-secondary education de- 
pends upon the evolvement of a new finance structure in which the 
federal government must play an increasingly important role. Not only 
is this especially true for the states comprised within the Southern 
Association, but many other states as well have an insufficient fiscal 
capacity 60 to extend post-secondary offerings to meet even the minimum 
demands for such training. 

Issues. Two issues of paramount importance involved in the prospec- 
tive expansion of the post-secondary unit 61 deal with the following 
questions: 

1, Should publicly controlled junior colleges be supported entirely from public 
funds with no charge to students as in public high schools today? If not, 
what proportion of the cost should be met by the student? 

2. What type of junior college should be fosteredas indicated by the auspices of 
control and direction? Specifically, should the policy be one of establishing 
junior colleges that are units in local systems, reorganized as necessary, or 
state junior colleges set up to serve regions or areas within the commonwealth? 

Tuitim Free. Since the junior college is coining to be recognized, along 
with its occupational preparation function, as the period of completion of 
a general education, and as a medium for adult education, there are 
many who argue that its offerings should be tuition free, as is the 
practice in such public junior-college states as California, Arizona, 
Kansas, and Mississippi. 62 Others feel that since many of the terminal 
courses are designed to serve occupational-training purposes the student 
should, therefore, pay a part of the cost of such education. In response to 
a questionnaire to a miscellaneous group of educators and laymen, Eells 
found the greatest support for free tuition coming from labor-union 



w J. K, Norton and E. S. Lawler, "An Inventory of Public School Expenditures in 
the United States," pp. 190-97. Washington: American Council on Education, 1944 
(mimeographed). 

w Most of these units are designated by the name "junior college"; however, in 
some states the name differs, even though the type of education offered may be at 
the junior-college level. 

W. C. Eells, Why Junior College Terminal Education? p. 52. Washington: Ameri- 
can Association of Colleges, 1941. 



SIMPSON 147 

leaders and editors of educational periodicals; greatest opposition from 
private junior-college presidents and presidents of private colleges and 
universities. 63 

Due to many factors, such as the public importance of education at the 
post-secondary and adult levels, the far-reaching effect on the democ- 
ratization of publicly supported education, and the demands of such a 
society as ours for the elimination of individual economic barriers to 
education, it seems a foregone conclusion that tuition charges will be 
eliminated. 64 It seems clear that the scope of free public education will be 
extended quite universally through the fourteenth year and into adult 
life. In addition, a highly desirable, and in a sense necessary, social policy 
would involve the granting of a substantial public subsidy for work 
scholarships (similar in nature and scope to the former Student Work 
Program of the National Youth Administration), to give assistance to 
students coming from the lower economic brackets. 

Control. There is much controversy at the present time as to the 
desirable junior-college policy with regard to control. Shall the junior 
college be of local nature as is the case in California and Kansas; or, 
shall it be conceived as a state unit, set up to serve areas or regions, as 
exemplified in the states of Georgia and Utah, and as proposed in the 
Regents 7 Plan for the state of New York? Involved in this question of 
administrative jurisdiction is also the problem of local, state, and federal 
support, and the method by which junior college costs may be appor- 
tioned among these three sources in the interest of equalization of 
facilities. State practices in this regard show wide variance. 

In some states, such as Nebraska and Kansas, no state funds may be 
appropriated to the junior colleges, while in Utah and Georgia, they are 
supported wholly by the state with no assistance from the local unit. In 
other states, such as California and Washington, junior-college education 
is supported through local taxation with substantial state aid, Such 
states as these, whose policy involves support from local-state sources, 
have shown greatest growth and development in the junior-college area. 

Another concomitant issue which evolves with this question over 
control is that of internal organization (shall the junior college be a two- 
or a four-year institution). State control implies a separate two-year 
institution, while local control either indicates or facilitates a four-year 
type of organization. Much attention has been given in the literature to 



"Ibid., pp. 82-84. 

** See Leonard V. Koos, "How To Democratize the Junior College Level/' School 
Review, LII (May, 1944), 271-84. 



148 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

the possible resolution of this issue, 65 but as matters stand, it is still 
far from being settled. 66 

Problems and Policies. These conflicting theories and practices are 
natural in the light of the newness of the movement and the many per- 
plexing problems to be confronted. We do not know just how the pro- 
gram, the structural and control organization, and the financing of this 
oncoming extension of educational opportunity will or should take shape. 
It is apparent that the answers are not clear even in states that have gone 
far either in planning these programs or in putting them into effect. The 
need of much research is apparent. Just now there is no more fertile field 
for research in educational policy areas than in this one. Two funda- 
mental problem areas require thorough examination before we can move 
forward in this field with anything but the greatest reliance on trial and 
error: 

1, Are the values which have in the past been held to reside in local autonomy 
still important enough to make it essential to find a regional, or district, struc- 
ture below the state level for extended educational programs for older youth 
and adults? If so, what shall this be? 

2. Is the general pattern of state aid which has been developed through research 
sufficiently good to warrant its application to the treatment of aid in the ex- 
tended educational area? If so, what are the unit measures and what are the 
unit-cost levels of a satisfactory foundation program of state and federal aid 
in this extended educational area? 

FINANCING SCHOOL PERSONNEL 
The Status of the Financing of School Personnel 

The adequacy or excellence of any educational program depends to a 
very large extent on the personnel conducting that program. The popular 
conception of education, as Mark Hopkins and a student seated on 
opposite ends of a log, demonstrates the general realization of the 
importance of the role of personnel. The number and quality of teachers, 
administrators, and others engaged in the instruction of children and 
youth, and the degree to which these persons are suited to their tasks, 
both in preparation and in personal adjustment, are matters of funda- 
mental importance. It can be accepted without further discussion that 
personnel is a primary concern of educational finance. The task here is to 
examine the adequacy with which finance is meeting the personnel re- 
quirements for education. 



* T. H. Wilson, "The Four-Year Junior College." Unpublished Doctoral Disserta- 
tion, Harvard University, 1935. 

M Leonard V. Koos, "Opinions of Administrators on Organizing the Junior College/ 1 
School Review, LII {April, 1944), 215-27. 



SIMPSON 



149 



Almost one million persons are engaged in public school instruction, as 
shown in Table VI. This table, prepared by the Research Division of the 
National Education Association, reports the salary levels for an estimat- 
ed 900,000 persons engaged primarily in the teaching-learning process in 
public schools in the United States. The estimated average salary, exclud- 
ing superintendents, reported by the Research Division from the data of 
Table VI is $1,550. Not only does this average salary seem distressingly 
inadequate to make possible a professional standard of living, but it 
represents a decrease in the "real wage" measured in terms of the 
purchasing power of the dollar from the 1938 level. In that year, the 
average salary of public-school teachers, principals, and supervisors was 
$1,374, which represented a purchasing power of $1,363. 67 In 1943, while 

TABLE VI. DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC-SCHOOL TEACHERS, SU- 
PERVISORS, PRINCIPALS, AND SUPERINTENDENTS ACCORD- 
ING TO ANNUAL SALARY IN 1942-43* 



Annual Salary 


Estimated Num- 
ber Receiving 
Salary 


Per Cent 


$5 000 and over 


3 500 


4 


4,000-4,999 


12.000 


1 3 


3,000-3,999 


57,000 


6.3 


2 000-2,999 


147 000 


16 3 


1,000-1,999 


405,000 


45.1 


Below 1 000 


275,000 


30.6 








Total 


900 000 


100 









* Teachers' Salaries and the Public Welfare, p. 114. Research Bulletin of the 
National Education Association. Vol. XXI, No. 4. Washington: Research Division 
of the National Education Association, 1943. 

the average salary not of teachers alone but including supervisors and 
principals had risen to $1,550, the purchasing power of that salary 
decreased to $1,259. 

It may be argued that teaching is a "white-collar" occupation, and 
that types of occupations thus classified always suffer in times of eco- 
nomic upward trends. However, there is some evidence that, as a group, 
teachers have benefited from salary increases even less than have most 
"white-collar" groups. The United States Department of Labor, review- 
ing the situation in a recent bulletin 68 finds that, while retail-trade em- 



87 Teacher^ Salaries and the Public Welfare, p. 1 14. Eesearch Bulletin of the Nation- 
al Education Association, Vol. XXI, No. 4. The purchasing power is computed by di- 
viding the average salary by the eost-of-Iiving index for cities furnished by the U.S. 
Department of Labor, which uses the 1935-39 period as 100. 

M Trend of Earnings among WMa-Cdlar Workers Serving the War. U.S. Department 
of Labor Bulletin No. 783. Reprinted from Montidy Labor Review. 



150 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

ployees received wage increases of 25 per cent as compared with prewar 
levels, and white-collar workers in general received increases of 15 per 
cent or more, the average salary of school teachers was only 8 to 10 per 
cent higher. Thus, it can be said that the average salary levels for teach- 
ers are very, very low; and, although salary levels have risen in recent 
years, the rise has not been commensurate with increases in cost of living 
and does not compare favorably with increases in other occupations. 

And, above all, let us not fail to observe this fact from the preceding 
table: In 1943, even during the high wages of wartime, less than 1 per 
cent of those going into public education as a career could look forward 
to receiving a salary, should they perchance reach the highest ad- 
ministrative posts, which crossed the $5,000 line. 

External Conditions Bearing upon Salaries 

Conditions outside the schools themselves, those which are beyond 
and external to the structural confines of school systems, have a bearing 
upon the salary problem both in its practical everyday aspects, and in 
more fundamental considerations. To ignore these external conditions in 
the study of the salary problem is to ignore the very factors that in the 
long run condition salary policy. A list of these external conditions, with- 
out elaboration, includes at least the following: 

1. Fluctuations in the cost of living. The continually changing economic cycle 
has a direct impact on school-salary policy. 

2. The general trend toward equal pay for men and women. In its broader as- 
pects, this might be thought of as personnel policies in government, business, 
and industry. Both private and governmental enterprises are beginning to 
come to grips with this problem, as the status of women in the United States 
advances. The trend is definitely toward paying men -and women equally for 
equivalent services, often with some provision for family-load adjustment. 
This trend is definitely affecting personnel policies in education. 

3. The shifting of the tax base, 69 and, with it, the diminishing role of the local 
government as a tax unit. Real estate, once America's principal tax base, is 
unable to be the main support of governmental functions. This means, also, 
that revenue is tending to flow, in increasing proportions, to the state and fed- 
eral governments. Thus education, while operating locally, is faced with the 
impact of state and federal support upon personnel policy. 

4. The growth of the lay concept of, and demands upon, education. The war is no 
small factor in this. Europe and Asia must have their education redeveloped 
and redirected. At home, millions of returning servicemen need the services 
and guidance of education. 

5. Population movements and composition. These are especially to be noted in 
the concentration or the spreading of population in metropolitan areas. The 



* Teadwrs* Salaries and the Public Welfare, op. ctt., Table 7, p. 118. 



SIMPSON 



151 



wartime movements of population have had a 'decided effect upon personnel 
policy in all its aspects. 

6. Technological and social advances in society. Education must use and prepare 
youth for increasingly complex and amazing devices such as radar and tele- 
vision. The impact of these and other advances upon the personnel problem, 
greatly weighted by war, is still in its early stages. 

Trends in Salary Scheduling. The majority of school districts in the 
United States have definite schedules regulating the salaries of their 
employees. The National Education Association reports that about two- 
thirds of the cities and towns with a population of 2,500 or more have 
salary schedules. 70 As might be expected, most large cities have schedules 
(97.5 per cent of cities over 100,000 and 90.5 per cent of cities 30,000 to 

TABLE VII. NUMBER OF CITIES AND TOWNS REPORTING VARIOUS 
TYPE SCHEDULES, 1940-41 AND 1944-45 



TYPE OP SCSBDUIJJ 


1940-41 


1944-45 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Position type 


402 
501 
412 


30.6 
38.1 
31.3 


287 
425 
541 


22.9 
33.9 
43.2 


Position-preparation type .... 


Preparation type 


Total 


1,315 


100.0 


1,253 


100.0 





* Table derived from two Research Bulletins of the National Education Association: Solaris of 
City School Employees, 1940-41, VoL XIX, No. 2, Table 22, p, 92; and Salaries of Ciiy School Em- 
ployees, 1944-45, VoL XXIII, No. 1, Table 19, p. 22. Both report data for cities and towns with popula- 
tion 2,500 or more by the 1940 census, but the number of replies differs. 

100,000), while the proportion decreases in smaller communities. Fifty- 
four per cent of the school systems in towns of 2,500 to 5,000 population, 
for example, do not have schedules. 

In general, salary schedules for teachers may be said to fall into one of 
two types: the "positional" type, and the "preparational" type. The rela- 
tive frequency of these types, as of the years 1940-41 and 1911 15, is 
shown in Table VII. From these data it is clear that the trend is away 
from position-type schedules. This trend is strongest in the case of the 
cities of 100,000 or more population, as shown by detailed data, not re- 
ported in Table VII but presented in the same source. In this group, 
33.3 per cent had preparational schedules in 1940-41 while 57.7 per cent 
reported preparational schedules in 1944-45. 



79 Salaries of C% Schools EmjAoyees, 1&44-4&. Research Bulletin of the National 
Education Association, VoL XXIII, No. 1. Washington: Besearch Division of the Na- 
tional Education Association, 1945. Table 18, p. 22, reports the situation for 1,879 
school systems located in cities and towns of 2,500 or more population. 



152 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

Minimum Salary Laws. So far, attempts to improve the financing of 
higher salary levels, other than in purely local situations, fall into three 
general categories : federal aid, state aid, and state minimum salary laws. 
Federal and state aid, important to school salary policy, are treated 
elsewhere in this chapter. The situation concerning minimum-salary 
legislation has significance for school-salary policy. State minimum- 
salary laws are designed to raise the lower level of school salaries on a 
state-wide basis, while leaving maximum salaries to the discretion and 
ability of the individual communities within the state. At present, 
twenty-six states have minimum-salary legislation. 71 Twenty of these 
states had minimum-salary legislation prior to 1937, four adopted such 
legislation between 1937 and 1940, and two, Maine and Utah, have 
enacted minimum-salary legislation since 1940. In addition, of course, 
there have been many recent upward changes in the levels. Minimum- 
salary legislation, by and large, is of one of two kinds: The minimum 
salary may be fixed by statute (as in Massachusetts, for example), or the 
power to regulate minimum salaries may be delegated to the state board 
of education, as is the case in Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, North 
Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington. Fifteen of the twenty-six states 
"classify salaries according to preparation, and of that number nine 
recognize experience through guaranteed increments, thus setting 
minimum salaries for teachers with different amounts of preparation and 
experience." 72 SLx states fix the minimum salary at $1,200 or more, while 
twenty fix the minimum salary below $1,200. The median minimum 
salary established is $876. 

Problem Areas in the Financing of School Personnel 
The present status of school-salary scheduling, as briefly summarized 
in the proceeding section, indicates that many problems of financing 
educational personnel have not been solved. Education, like the society 
it serves, is constantly in a state of flux; both its internal and its external 
conditions change. Trends, while indicating solution of certain problems, 
or at least a repeated preference for one of several alternatives, lead to a 
new set of conditions and thus in turn to a different set of problems. Any 
discussion of status, then, leads inevitably to unsolved problems. Some of 
the more important problems confronting the financing of school 
personnel follow. 



Mimmum-Salan/ Standards f&r Teachers, 1944. Report of the Committee 
on Tenure and Academic Freedom, National Education Association, November, 
1944. Washington: National Education Association, 1944. 

n ttnd., p. 11. 



SIMPSON 153 

The Stimulation of Professional Growth. The preparation-type salary 
schedule, increasingly used, seeks to encourage the teacher to continue 
his professional growth. The exact nature of professional growth, and the 
method of measuring such growth in units which can be recognized in a 
salary schedule, are still matters that are not entirely clear. It is fairly 
clear that merit ratings are passing out as measures of professional 
growth for salary purposes. The whole problem of salary in terms of 
individual merit needs much further study; but there is not much hope 
for it on the basis of present practice and conditions. Further considera- 
tion concerning the factors which can be used to measure professional 
growth is necessary. Through what stipulations can salary money be 
applied better than at present to raise the level of professional qualifica- 
tions and keep growth coining? How are salary and professional growth 
related? In what respects are they unrelated? 

The Attracting of Desirabk Personnel into the Teaching Profession. 
Salary is not, of course, the only factor which attracts young men and 
women to the teaching profession. Many other considerations enter into 
the choice. Yet salary definitely is one factor, and, as such, its effect on 
the recruitment of desirable personnel should be a matter of concern. To 
what extent does change in personnel quality lag behind salary? To what 
extent do other conditions affecting personnel neutralize salary changes? 

The Ratio of Minimum and Maximum Salary Levels. There is no one 
definitive ratio of minimum to maximum salary. Certainly minimum- 
salary levels ought to be high enough to attract desirable personnel. At 
the same time, however, the salary schedule should exert some holding 
power through the granting of increases in salary. The span between 
minimum and maximum, then, needs careful consideration and may vary 
locally, as personnel policies do. 

Adjusting Salaries to Changes in Cost of Living. The story of the de- 
pression "cuts" and recent war-boom '^bonuses" is well known. Such 
salary changes, often on a percentage or flat-rate basis, represent crude 
attempts to adjust school salaries to external conditions of education, 
such as declining revenue and changes in the level of the cost of living. 
Most communities have found it necessary to make salary adjustments 
to compensate, partially at least, for the recent rise in the cost of living. 
The National Education Association reports 73 that, of 1 ? 253 communities 
of 2,500 and over in population, 67 per cent have granted "wartime salary 
adjustments/ 7 and 27 per cent have revised their salary schedules, 
generally upward. 

This aspect of school salary policy, perhaps more than any other, has 



w Salaries of City-School Employees, 1944-45, op. cit.> Table 20, p. 22. 



154 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

been influenced by and tied to practices in municipal government. 
"Bonuses 11 liave often been granted on a city-wide basis, including 
school employees, thus leaving the school officials little leeway in devel- 
oping their own policies. Usually, these adjustments take the form of a 
flat-rate increase or a percentage increase, such percentage computed on 
the employee's basic wage. Public Administration Service of Chicago, in 
making a municipal-wage study for the city of Hartford, Connecticut, 
reported that, of a selected group of fifteen cities, twelve had adjusted 
pay rates to meet increases in cost of living and three had not. 74 Seven 
of the twelve adjustments were in the form of flat-rate increases, three 
were increases in percentage of employee's salary, one was an upward 
revision of the basic wage scale, while one city adjusted its salaries 
annually according to the cost of living index of the U.S. Department of 
Labor. 

Relative Pay Levek for Men and Women, and Recognition of Depend- 
ency. Men have been, and still are, receiving higher salaries in education 
than women. T& Whether or not this is as it should be is a matter that is 
still vigorously discussed. Proponents of equal pay for equal work assert 
that justice demands equal pay when the quality and quantity of the 
work is the same. Those favoring higher salaries for men cite the law of 
supply and demand, and argue that, to retain men's services in educa- 
tion, their salaries should be higher. 

The question of family-load adjustment is directly related to, although 
not identical with, the question of equal pay for men and women. By and 
large, men have a larger dependency load than women, although women 
teachers are not without responsibilities of this nature. A recent study 
based on 800 teachers in New York State, reports the following average 
dependency loads for teachers: married men, 2.4; single men, 0.4; 
married women, 0.9; single women, O.6. 76 Family responsibilities may be 
recognized in a salary schedule, usually in one of two ways. The less 
precise way is to provide higher salary levels for married men teachers 
than for all other teachers, on the theory that married men, as a group, 
have greater family loads. The other way consists of paying differentials, 



74 Memorandum from Public Administration Service to the Director of Finance 
and Budget of Hartford, dated December 21, 1944, p. viii. 

a Progress and Problems in Equal Pay for EquaL Work. Report of the Committee on 
Equal Opportunity of the National Education Association, June, 1939. Washington: 
National Education Association, 1939. 

M Theresa P. Pyle, The Teacher's Dependency Load, Table IV, p. 22. New York: 
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1939. 



SIMPSON 155 

over and above the salary schedule, on the basis of recognized family 
loads wife, husband, children, and the like. These differentials may 
apply to men and women alike, or they may be granted only to men. 

These questions equal pay for men and women and family-load 
adjustments are not easily resolved and cut rather deeply into educa- 
tional personnel policy. They call for much research application. Cer- 
tainly no thinking educator wants to decrease the proportion of men 
teachers, but would prefer quite the reverse. Men, or women, with 
family responsibilities represent the normal and desirable situation. 
Perhaps at no place do "external conditions" bear more closely than here 
upon educational policy. In effect, they seem to lead to the fundamental 
principle of equal pay for men and women and to the necessity of de- 
veloping effective devices for family-load differentials. 

Cost Analyses of Salary Policy. It is well known that salaries consume a 
major share of the school budget. Burke reports 77 that in 1930 salaries 
and wages required 64.4 per cent of the total public school expenditures 
in the United States, including the construction of buildings and interest 
and fixed charges. Since the salary dollar looms large in the total ex- 
penditures, it might be expected that considerable attention ought to be 
devoted to analyzing the effectiveness of its expenditure. It might be 
expected, also, that much would be done in the way of forecasting costs 
of salary policies. Once adopted, a salary schedule commits a city to a 
definite rate of expenditure. Prudent planning would indicate that 
salary-cost estimates under a particular annual salary schedule should be 
projected five or ten years into the future. Too little is done, however, 
either in analyzing the effectiveness of salary expenditures or in projec- 
ting salary costs. 

Understanding, on the Part of the Public, of the Problem Areas in School 
Salaries. The need for the understanding on the part of the layman of the 
problems involved is not confined to school salaries, nor even to school 
finance. Public participation makes for more effective development of 
public policy, as few in America will deny; but too few administrators 
apply themselves to attaining skill in the process. Yet the layman has 
more opportunity to see some of our problems in the area of salaries than, 
let us say, in curriculum methods. Then, too, personnel policies in 
education are being continually influenced by personnel policies in 
government and business areas, familiar to the layman. Hence, education 
will do well to include the thinking, study, and experience of the public as 
school salary policy develops. 



77 Arvid J, Burke, Defensible Spending for PvMic Schools, Table 8, p. 43. New York : 
Columbia University Press, 1943. 



156 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

The Major Problem-Cores in the Salary Field 
From the preceding discussion, two major problem-cores may be seen 
to confront American education in the field of school salary policy: 

1. Financing the personnel adequately to staff the schools for a modern educa- 
tional program. 

2. How the moneys allocated to financing the personnel shall be expended. 

Though stated separately, these problem-cores are by no means 
mutually exclusive. The methods, or criteria, governing any expenditure 
are affected by the amount available in relation to the total need. Even 
so, it would be well to think of our problems as clustered in two major 
groups; the one involving adequacy of salary levels in general, the other 
involving alternative choices in methods of expenditure. 

The importance of adequately financing the personnel hardly needs 
emphasis. Modern education no simple, cut-and-dried process re- 
quires professional competence of the highest order. 

The development of a true, continuous-program system is a long, slow process. 
Philosophies, curriculums, methods of teaching, administration must be slowly 

reorganized The modern school makes every effort to discover the real, 

often deeply hidden, cause of failure, to adjust the pupil sympathetically, so that 
he is able to profit from the learning experiences provided and which are well ad- 
justed to his level and maturity Directional progress goals replace arbitrary 

grade standards. Remedial work is prominent. Under ideal conditions, failure 
could theoretically be eliminated. 78 

Such a program calls for highly skilled, carefully chosen personnel. It 
cannot, just in the nature of things, be conducted by persons whose 
average annual salary is $1,550, which Table VII indicates to be the 
average of instructional and supervisory salaries in 1942-43. Further- 
more, the need for adequate financing involves all school personnel, not 
just those located in highly favored urban areas. The issue is not resolved 
by citing the fact that a teacher in Hartford, Connecticut, for example, 
may receive an annual salaiy of $4,000, provided certain experience and 
preparatkmal requirements have been met. Table VII shows that three- 
fourths of the teachers in the United States, about 675,000 persons, 
received less than $2,000 in 1942-43. If education is to advance, if its 
personnel and thus its program are to be increasingly good and de- 
sirable, then the general level of finance must be raised. There is no 
alternative. 

Whether the financing of the personnel is adequate or inadequate, 



i* William H. Burton, The Guidance of Learning Activities, pp. 451-52. New York: 
D. Appleton-Century Co., 



SIMPSON 157 

however, the methods governing the expenditure of these moneys require 
consideration. Commonly accepted purposes govern salary schedules; 
securing more able and better-prepared persons, attracting more men 
into the profession, relieving teachers of hardship due to marked changes 
in the cost of living, and the like. Certainly a salary schedule can be de- 
signed so as either to encourage or ignore professional preparation, re- 
gardless of the salary levels* True, the encouragement is more effective, 
given adequate financing as contrasted with parsimony. Yet, the problem 
of stimulating professional growth through salaries is in the cluster-core 
that comprises the issue of method. If the financing of the personnel were 
at a high level, equal pay would be possible while at the same time meet- 
ing salaries which attract men into other professions. Where the financ- 
ing of personnel is not adequate, however, it may be necessary to recog- 
nize the greater dependency load carried by men. Forward-looking 
policy, while using family-load adjustments expediently, can anticipate 
the day when levels will be adequate and the inherent justice of equal 
pay for equal work can be recognized. 

The Outlook for the Solution of the Problems and 
the Resolution of the Issues 

The answer to some of the problems as previously stated are fairly 
well indicated by present practices and trends. In other cases, the best 
future course is not so clear. The preparation-type salary schedule, for 
example, gives promise of steadily raising the level of professional 
preparation of school personnel. But it is not clear just in what manner, 
or to what extent, salary policies affect the recruitment of school person- 
nel. Many administrators are convinced that equal pay for men and 
women is fair and in keeping with good business practice, yet confess 
reluctance to institute equal pay in their own systems, arguing that it 
conflicts with "the law of supply and demand." It should be noted in 
passing that equal pay for different educational levels is no longer a 
moot issue; teaching on the elementary level is commonly recognized as 
just as valuable, and requiring just as much in the way of professional 
competence, as does teaching on the secondary level. 

It seems safe to sa/ that the preparation-type schedule is steadily 
replacing the position-type and will continue to do so. But this does not 
mean that everything is known about stimulating professional growth by 
means of the salary schedule. Not only are there various salary devices 
for stimulating such growth, but there is also the larger question of just 
what is meant by professional growth. Then there remains also the ques- 
tion of minimum- and maadmum-salary levels. It is rather generally 
accepted that a system of regular increments is desirable, and that such 



158 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

increments should be fairly automatic. Certainly the practice of award- 
ing increments on the basis of merit-ratings is not common and is de- 
clining. Rather, units of professional preparation are coming to be ac- 
cepted as the most nearly objective and thus the most fair means of 
gauging merit. But any increment system must operate within limits, 
within minimum and maximum levels. In the past there have been at- 
tempts to fix the optimum ratio between minimum and maximum 
salaries. One such attempt fixed the ratio at three to one. 79 Observation 
of current practice reveals considerable variation in this ratio, depend- 
ing on the community's fiscal ability and long-range personnel goal. In 
some places it may be wiser to attract top-flight young teachers and not 
try to hold them many years, a situation which would call for relatively 
high minimum salaries, but at the same time a small number of incre- 
ments. Other places, with a larger operating budget, can establish maxi- 
mum salaries attainable only after considerable service, in which case the 
ratio of maximum to minimum would be considerably larger than in the 
first instance. 

Another problem in financing the personnel for which an effective 
answer seems indicated is that of adjusting salaries to changes in cost of 
living. As has been previously noted, the most common form of such 
adjustment in the past fifteen years has been a lopping off or an adding on 
of a stipulated sum, either on a flat-rate basis or a percentage of the em- 
ployee's salary. A few places, such as St. Paul, Minnesota; San Diego, 
Inglewood, and Santa Monica, California; Fordson and Grosse Point, 
Michigan; Brookline, Massachusetts; and Barrington, Rhode Island, 
have adopted more refined methods, which use a basic salary schedule 
with a cost-of-living differential. The differential changes as the cost of 
living, measured by the index of the U.S. Department of Labor, 
changes. 80 There still remains unanswered the question of how most 
accurately to measure living costs of teachers as a group. However, the 
practice of relating a cost-of-living differential to some effective measure 
of living costs holds considerable promise as an instrument of school- 
salary policy. 

Most of the problems in financing the personnel cluster about the 
adequacy of school support. Until this issue has been met and resolved, 
the problems will remain, unsolved or partially unsolved. And this issue 



7 * Arthur B. MoehJman, Public School Finance, p. 151. New York: Kand-MeNally 
& Co., 1927. 

* For a more refined treatment, see Ralph C. McLeary, "Barrington Cost-of-Liv- 
ing Salaries AdjustaenV American School Board Journal, CVII (November, 1943), 
26-28; (December, 1943}, 21-23. 



SIMPSON 159 

will be resolved only when the public those supporting education 
become convinced of the need of greater investment in the education of 
their children and youth. To some extent the vicious circle is present, 
since one of the most effective ways to win public support is by doing a 
first-class job, which, in turn, depends on more adequate financing. But 
this is not to say that the situation is without hope. More attention to 
the public's concept of education, and more consideration of the building 
up of that concept so that educator and layman see eye to eye, will prove 
effective. 

What seems to be the outlook as to adequacy and salary-schedule 
method? 

Adequacy. If ever adequacy in personnel financing were to be reached, 
it would seem that the past few years would have been the time. Yet the 
farthest we have gone is to some slight advance over the admittedly 
inadequate levels reported hi Table VII. The conclusions seem to be few 
and simple. In the first place, as just pointed oui, the public concept of 
personnel and salary needs in school systems is low and must be raised. The 
most effective way to meet this situation is to bring laymen increasingly 
into the study of schools and school systems. Lay participation in the 
development of salary policy leads to heightened realization of the 
strategic importance of the school systems* personnel. In the second place, 
it is simply impossible to finance the requirements of adequacy in school 
salaries within the present dependency on local tax support. The failures to 
develop extensive state-aid systems and to utilize federal aid are un- 
questionably responsible for inadequate salaries and for the tremendous 
range in salaries throughout the country. Of course, economically favored 
local units here and there can rise to reasonable salaries within a heavy 
reliance on the local economy. This but blinds the eyes of people and 
leads them to the common error of appraising a whole region's progress 
in terms of a few sectional bright spots. The outlook for adequacy, with 
salaries correlating so highly with total school costs, lies beyond question in 
the development of increased state and federal aid. If you do not believe this, 
cast your eye over such states as New York and California. 81 

Salary-Schedule Method. The characterizing technique of scheduling in 
recent times is represented by the preparation-type of basic schedule. This has 
become the method of the single-salary principle* It has been of great 
value in raising elementary salaries and equalizing them with high-school 



81 See Alfred D. SSmpson and Hubert C. Armstrong, 'The Financial Support of 
Education in California." Sacramento, California: State Reconstruction and Re-em- 
ployment Commission, 1945 (mimeographed); and "What Education Our Money 
Buys." Albany, New York: State Educational Conference Board, 1943. 



160 FINANCIAL SUPPORT OF EDUCATION 

salaries. It has also been a practical way by which school systems could 
use new salary money to purchase better professional preparation, and 
thus use it to produce better schools. In reality, however, it has been a 
technique adapted to a period of recognized inadequate salary levels and 
teacher preparation. It has been a practical technique of upgrading. At 
its best it can hardly be thought of as a satisfactory solution to the 
problem of personnel classification in a situation wherein an adequate 
preservice preparation level has been reached. 

The preparation-type of personnel classification has great virtue and 
has served us well in the developing years of a developing profession. It 
is still good. There is need, however, for study and experimentation with 
other forms of classification at the basic-schedule level. Is the type of classifi- 
cation used at the college and university level preferable? What can we 
learn from the developments in the field of personnel classification in 
other areas of public administration? What public reaction is there to a 
classified teaching service, and what may we expect as reclassification 
develops? What classification is of most worth, assuming reasonably 
adequate levels? School systems which have gone farthest on the road to 
adequate levels are the places which most need to consider this problem. 

Research Problems in Financing School Personnel 

There are a host of research problems begging for attack in the salary 
field. Many of these have been referred to in preceding sections. In the 
main, they relate to such questions as the following: The type of person- 
nel needed; what constitutes personnel growth; the relation of salaries to 
recruitment, growth, and morale; the nature and significance of salary 
adequacy; teacher-load and conditions of work; the implications of an 
extended policy participation by teachers for load adjustment and 
salary cost; central government aid in relation to salary adequacy; 
questions of salary law and its refinements; the relation of basic salaries 
to differentials; the future development of cost-of-living indexes for the 
teacher group; personnel classification for all service groups; the family- 
load, or dependency, differential; the applicability of the single-salary 
principle to nonteaching posts and to extended higher education; and the 
like. 

We have, as it were, reached a certain plateau in personnel and salary 
research. While, to be sure, there is still great lag in practice behind our 
conceptual design, probably in no field do we need new design, de- 
pendent as it is on careful and expensive research, more than we do in 
area. 



CHAPTER VII 
PROVIDING APPROPRIATE HOUSING FOR SCHOOLS 



CHAELES BURSCH 

Chief, Division of Schoolhouse Planning 

State Department of Education 

Sacramento, California 



THE SCHOOL-PLANT LAG 

There is considerable evidence that the gap between what is known to 
be desirable and necessary and what is actually provided is wider in the 
field of school-plant provisions than in most other major aspects of 
educational services. The preparation of this chapter is an attempt to 
consider the steps necessary to narrow that gap. 

It may be of value to state briefly some of the reasons for the existence 
of the excessive gap in this area of educational planning. 

1. School buildings traditionally have belonged to the communities 
where they are located, while school fl.rJmmistrat.nrR and teachers have 
been brought in and sent out at frequent intervals, thus making it 
difficult, if not impossible, to have their ideas and needs incorporated in 
school plants. The good school employee has been the one who un- 
complainingly finds a way to get along with the facilities provided. 

2. The long life and heavy construction of school buildings, especially 
those designed partially as monuments, contribute to the gap. Such 
buildings make modernization and retooling for a changing educational 
program difficult, expensive, and often well-nigh impossible unless they 
were especially engineered for flexibility. 

3. The domination of school planning and construction by small 
school-board building committees and often by a single board member 
almost inevitably leads to the provision of good structures but poor 
implements of a modern educational program. Any narrowly-based 
domination of school-plant planning and construction, whether it be by 
school superintendent, business manager, architect, or contractor, fails 
to take into account the complexity of today's school plant and its 
implementing relationship to the educational process. 

4. The application to local situations of school-building standards that 
have been developed around past or, at best, current educational prac- 

161 



162 PROVIDING APPROPRIATE HOUSING 

tice tends to make some buildings somewhat obsolete the day they are 
occupied. An alternative is to design facilities to stimulate and accelerate 
sound educational trends. 

5. The presence on the staff of influential school business officials and 
maintenance superintendents whose primary objective is to reduce 
expenditures for school facilities tends to detract from the importance of 
the school plant as an educational instrument. Likewise, the failure to 
provide competent staff with responsibility in the area of schoolhousing 
will result in neglect and deterioration of the plant. Fortunately, recent 
strides in the professionalization of school busness officials are minimizing 
this problem. 

6. Many institutions which train school administrators and teachers 
have given but scant attention to preparing their students for responsi- 
bilities in planning, maintaining, and using the school plant. As a mini- 
mum, trainees should be made aware of the potential educational contri- 
butions of the school plant, available resources in planning school 
buildings, and procedures in using these resources effectively; and they 
should be practiced in the skills of manipulating properly the Important 
devices found in school buildings, such as lighting, heating and ventilat- 
ing controls, and the adjustment of seating equipment. 

7. The general failure of curriculum makers and revisers to follow 
through with the school-plant implications of the proposals makes an 
almost inevitable lag between their proposals and the adoption of them in 
practice. Unadjusted school plants may make the proposals difficult if 
not impossible to adopt. 

8. The lack of appreciation on the part of school officials of the key 
importance of the architect in planning school buildings often results in 
the selection of less competent and less specialized architects than are 
available. This practice accounts for many nonfunctional school buildings. 

9. Because of inappropriate and archaic school-districting and financ- 
ing laws, some school districts are unable to finance a desirable type of 
school plant. In other situations there exists the belief that spending less 
for the school plant makes it possible to spend more on the staff. This 
belief appears to be based upon the theory that having poor facilities 
with a good teacher is better than providing good facilities with a less 
able teacher, or on the assumption that both good facilities and good 
teachers cannot be provided. It has been interesting to note that good 
teachers in situations having poor facilities are inclined to leave as soon 
as possible* It has also been revealing to note that good teachers have 
preferred spacious, well-lighted, inexpensive, emergency-type rooms to 
the more expensive but less suitable rooms in traditional permanent 
buildings. Also to be considered are the school districts which have ade- 



BURSCH 163 

quate financial ability to construct appropriate facilities but are unable 
to secure the necessary popular support for needed funds because of 
inept public relations, poor presentation of facts, or other reasons. 

10. The presence of noneducational federal agencies in the field of 
school-building finance and construction has tended to improve the 
construction standards for schools, but has, through national application 
of some rules and regulations, retarded functional planning, especially in 
cities and states somewhat advanced in that respect. 

11. Competent educational consultants on over-all school-plant 
planning are not available in sufficient number to give desired assistance 
to local school-district officials. The planning of major school plants oc- 
curs in most school districts infrequently. The presence in the situation, 
on an advisory basis, of someone familiar with the planning of school 
buildings is essential if functional adequacy is to be secured. State de- 
partments of education and schools of education in universities are 
logical sources for such personnel. 

12. Presence on school boards of individuals who are not willing to 
regard policy-making alone as their part in school administration, and 
who feel that school-plant planning is the one major area in which they 
can participate directly, sometimes constitutes a barrier to vital partici- 
pation in functional planning of school buildings by the superintendent 
and his staff. Such direct board-member participation tends to stress the 
architectural and construction elements in a building as opposed to their 
potential educational services. 

CONSIDERATIONS BASIC TO SOUND PLANT EXPANSION 

When a superintendent asks his governing board for authority to pro- 
ceed with a plant-expansion program, the board will want to know what 
makes additional housing necessary before granting the request. It will 
also want to know how much and what types are needed, where the 
plant should be located, how much it may cost, how the money is to be 
secured, and what staff adjustments or additions will be required to 
facilitate the program. The board will also request information on what 
occupancy of the proposed new facilities may do to the budget for school 
operation. That, however, is outside the scope of this discussion. 

The School Survey 

The school survey is the common method of supplying answers to 
most of these basic questions. Whether the survey should be made by out- 
side experts or by the local administrative staff is often open to debate. If 
the local staff is inadequate, or if the board, either with or without the 
concurrence of the superintendent, believes a check-up from the outside 



164 PROVIDING APPROPRIATE HOUSING 

is desirable, the answer is to bring in a competent school-survey staff to 
do the job. In most situations, assuming the presence of well-trained 
administrators and educational research workers, the formal survey 
should not be necessary. The regular administrative staff will have avail- 
able in well-organized form the data necessary to answer the questions 
raised, However, the school district would secure an extra measure of 
protection if it had the local interpretation of data and plant recom- 
mendations reviewed by a competent educational plant consultant. 

School-building surveys often propose curriculum changes, changes 
in instructional procedures, school-grade groupings, school-district 
boundary changes, and major redistricting of the area. When such 
proposals come from outside the district, timed to precede a building 
program, a great deal of confusion results just when unified purpose and 
action are essential if the new school plant is to facilitate an approved 
educational program. This is not intended as an argument against com- 
plete surveys, but rather to urge the necessity of completing district 
changes and substantial changes in educational organization and instruc- 
tion procedures before entering seriously upon the planning of new 
buildings. In most instances where pressures for new schoolhousing are 
felt and financing has been arranged, the planning and construction will 
proceed whether or not policy decisions have been reached on proposed 
educational reorganization. When this is permitted, it probably reflects a 
belief on the part of the board and the superintendent that the school 
plant does not have much influence on the administration of an educa- 
tional program that a good teacher can conduct a good program in al- 
most any type and arrangement of shelter. If that is true, there is no 
justification for the point of view presented in this chapter. 

The collection, organization, and interpretation of data in a school 
survey should result in the framework for a long-term plan for the school 
plant and a plan for financing the capital outlays involved. In broad 
outlines, it should answer the questions of "what," "where/' and 
"when," The "what" states the total current plant needs and estimates 
additional needs for a given period of years. The "where" should be 
sufficiently specific to permit the purchase of new sites and the enlarge- 
ment, when needed, of existing school sites well in advance of construc- 
tion. The "when" permits the programming of school construction in a 
sequence that meets school needs in priority order and permits adoption 
of an extended financing program for capital outlays. A master plan for 
each campus now occupied is of vital assistance in the preparation of a 
long-term plan of plant development for a school district. The campus 
plan should show present buildings, other fixtures, and all play areas, 
and ahould indicate at least one scheme for the future development of the 



BURSCH 165 

campus to its optimum capacity. Plans for future development should 
show locations for additional buildings and services needed to round out 
and enrich the educational program, as well as the need for additional 
classrooms and play areas. The preparation of a master-plan sketch 
pertaining to a parcel of ground proposed for a new school site is an 
ideal way to determine its inadequacy or to help answer the question of 
how much area is needed. 

Staffing for the Provision of Educational Plants 
A good beginning point for providing appropriate school facilities is to 
set up an adequate local staff with responsibilities for school-plant 
planning and use. Such a staff, however well-selected and organized, 
cannot overcome limitations imposed by inadequate financing or by a 
mediocre or incompetent school architect. Conversely, adequate financ- 
ing and a competent specialized architect will not produce as good a 
school plant without appropriate staff assistance as when such assistance 
is available throughout the planning process. 

The magnitude and complexity of the local school-plant problem and 
also the quality and completeness of architectural sen-ice available 
should be prime determinants. A long list of variations in local situa- 
tions could be presented here, but it will serve better to give attention to 
the desirable tasks of this type of staff as the basis for determining its 
composition and organization. 

Such a staff, under the immediate control of the superintendent, 
should: 

1. Be the clearinghouse for all contacts between the school district and its 
architect and all other planning and engineering consultants. 

2. Be responsible for the preparation of a complete and comprehensive statement 
of educational need in the area of school plant. This statement would conform 
to board policy and incorporate in organized form the contributions of super- 
visors, teachers, and custodians. 

3. Assemble, for the purposes of stimulation, guidance and comparison, appropri- 
ate standards and illustrations of school buildings, furniture, and equipment 
and make these available to the general staff. A school-plant workshop or lab- 
oratory is fully justified. 

4. Hold conferences with members of the teaching staff and provide drafting 
service to enable teachers to reduce their recommendations to specific 
proposals that can be understood by the board, the superintendent, and the 
architect. Permanent-type committees of teachers are more effective than 
hastily called conferences when plans are under production in the architect's 
office. 

5. Together with the architect, prepare and keep up to date a complete control 
budget for each construction project undertaken. Such a budget should 



166 PROVIDING APPROPRIATE HOUSING 

include actual or estimated costs of such items as appear in the following list 
prepared by Don L. Essex. ** 

Cost Estimates 1 
Item 
L General construction $ 

2. Heating and ventilating 

3. Plumbing 

4. Electric 

5. Sewage system, if by separate contract 

6. Other contracts (a) 

(b) 



7. Subtotal (building only) $.. 

8. Architect's and engineer's commissions . . . 

9. Clerk of the works (salary) 

10. Legal services 

11. General administration and incidental costs 

12. Insurance during construction 

13. Site; purchase price 

14. Site: development, including roads and walks . 

15. Furniture and equipment 

16. Grand total (estimated project cost) . . . . 



7, Interest during construction $~ 



Complete project budgeting is not only necessary to determine the actual 
cost of the school plant but provides at least a chance that practically all 
available capital outlay funds will not, as is often done, be used for construc- 
tion alone, 

6. Be informed on the best current practices and trends in school lighting, sani- 
tation, heating, ventilation, acoustics, audio-visual aids, intercommunica- 
tion devices, and other general school-plant services. 

7. Supervise the initial occupancy of a new building and give assistance where 
needed to insure proper use of facilities provided. 

8. Supervise maintenance and repair operations. 

Operational Procedures of School-Plant Staff 

The nature of the tasks to be performed indicates the necessity of 
heading up the school-plant staff with an educator rather than a business 
manager or an architect, unless, of course, the business manager or 



* Don L. Essex, "The Architect's Preliminary Studies," American School Board 
Journal, GX (March, 1945), 31-32. 



BURSCH 167 

architect is also an educator. In small districts the superintendent fre- 
quently adds these tasks to his other duties. This practice is not good for 
the building program or for the smooth operation of other school 
services. Even in small districts a reassignment of duties to free someone, 
at least on a part-time basis, to give guidance to plant planning is 
essential. The superintendent is most often the one best qualified. 

Even in relatively small projects a designer or draftsman should be 
available to assist staff and committee members in presenting their 
recommendation in definite form understandable to the architect. In 
some cases he would be loaned from the architect's office. In large 
districts full-time employment is justified at least during the period 
when preliminary plans were being prepared. 

The school-plant staff under discussion here does not contemplate the 
inclusion of architectural service for the development of plans and 
specifications for school buildings. It contemplates rather an organized 
approach to the task of securing the maximum potential contributions of 
all available resources to the functional planning of school buildings and 
of organizing these contributions for use by the architect. It contem- 
plates also the continued availability to the architect of a well- 
informed and responsible representative of the school district to assist in 
the interpretation of school needs in relation to an organized building 
plan. Whatever personnel, in addition to a director and draftsman, are 
needed to accomplish these purposes should be provided. 

It is inevitable and proper that the school-plant staff should spend 
much time with building principals in the preparation of a statement of 
educational need. That being the case, the principal for a proposed new 
school should be selected prior to the time the intensive and detailed 
planning of the building is undertaken. This need is most noticeable 
when a major building program includes the housing of a revised or 
expanded school grade-grouping organization; for example, the intro- 
duction of junior high schools, junior college, neighborhood primary 
schools, or nursery schools. 

The objective of the school administrator in constituting a school- 
plant staff may well be to create the opportunity and establish the 
procedures most likely to secure from every school employee, from 
specialized technicians, and from other persons and sources the best they 
have to offer on plant planning; and to have incorporated in the plans 
and specifications the meritorious offerings that caa be financed. 

Flexibility in Construction 

The need is now well recognised for school buildings to be amenable 
to inexpensive alterations as a means of keeping them adjusted to the 



168 PROVIDING APPROPRIATE HOUSING 

changing scope and procedures of education. Recognized also, in areas 
where school enrolments are not stabilized, is the need during planning to 
anticipate building additions from time to time. These needs should give 
a high priority to flexibility as a basic consideration in planning school 
buildings. Some of the items that must be considered, if flexibility is to 
be achieved, are: 

1. Ample area for school sites. 

2. Location of building on site where the building can be expanded. 

3. Continuous fenestration rather than architectural groupings of windows. 

4. A structural design which requires few load-bearing cross walls. 

5. Oversized boiler-room, and radiators placed at short intervals; or individual 
room heaters. 

6. Lighter types of construction than concrete and masonry. 

7. Single-loaded corridor, single-story type of plan. 

Desirable flexibility in school construction usually is not as easily 
achieved in large cities as in small cities and rural areas. In new sub- 
divisions, however, and in situations where new primary neighborhood 
schools are to be provided, large cities will have an opportunity to achieve 
some flexibility. 

FINANCING CAPITAL OUTI^AYS 

Planning for financing capital outlays gives rise to much contro- 
versial discussion. Are the funds to be provided by the sale of bonds, by 
accumulated reserves, or by substantially increased tax levies for short 
periods of time? Should local funds be supplemented by tapping the 
much broader tax bases of state and federal governments? 

Theoretical considerations show but slight differences in merit be- 
tween bond financing and accumulated reserves. Attitudes of electors, 
however, may make a controlling difference in a given community. When 
bonding is adopted as the method of financing, there is strong temptation 
both to let plant needs accumulate and to construct beyond current 
needs so as to widen the time-span between bond-election campaigns. 
Such a procedure gives the financing plan a priority over pupils' needs 
for facilities and also introduces the danger of overbuilding. Under the 
aecumulated-reserves plan, facilities may be provided more nearly when 
needed but they might be constructed in units so small that costs are 
higjher. Because of maximum tax rates and other legal restrictions, some 
districts are denied the use of the accumulated-reserves method. The 
potential evils of either method would be mitigated with state and federal 
equalization funds. 

The gross and indefensible inequalities found in plant provisions 
among school districts and the stress and strain accompanying major 
bond campaigns will continue as long as plant financing is considered 



BURSCH 169 

exclusively the responsibility of local districts. Many states have ac- 
cepted responsibility for sharing with local districts the current costs of 
education. Only when a similar responsibility for capital-outlay costs is 
recognized, is there any hope of equalizing educational opportunity in so 
far as plant provisions are concerned. 

The current war period with its ready money, high federal taxes, and 
sharp building restrictions has seen a substantial growth of ac- 
cumulated reserves for needed construction. Very low interest rates on 
school bonds and a less critical attitude on the part of the public in 
financial matters have resulted in many bond issues being authorized to 
finance needed construction at an uncertain future date. These current 
practices emphasize the desirability of raising needed capital outlay funds 
when it is most readily possible and by the method most acceptable to 
the voters, rather than with consideration exclusively for the most con- 
struction for the building dollar. Equal and properly enriched educational 
opportunities can be provided for all children only on a basis of providing 
plant facilities when and where they are needed. 

EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATIONS FOE A SCHOOL PLANT 

A sound basis for a good working relationship among school-district 
officials, the architect, and all specialized consultants during a building 
program is a comprehensive written statement of the educational re- 
quirements for the new school plant or additions to the existing plant. 
The preparation of such a statement is a difficult and time-consuming 
task. Its completeness and validity, however, serves as one important 
measure of how well the superintendent of schools is discharging his 
responsibility in providing appropriate housing for the educational pro- 
gram in his district. A one-man document may be complete, but, gen- 
erally speaking, its validity depends upon an intelligent use of staff and 
consultant contributions. 

A brief definite statement of the educational philosophy under which 
the school system operates will serve a good purpose throughout the 
planning process. The same is true for instructional procedures and 
teacher-pupil relationships. Such statements to be effective need to go 
further than merejabels, such as conventional, progressive, or middle of 
the road. 

The total number of children to be served on the campus will need to 
be grouped as to age, grade, and sex, the average and maximum class 
size being indicated. The operating time schedule for the school should be 
given. Each kind of service which cannot be performed in a regular type 
classroom must be described and the number of student stations and 
special facilities required for such service must be noted. 



170 PROVIDING APPROPRIATE HOUSING 

Desirable groupings and interrelationships of rooms and services 
in the interests of convenience and good school operation should be 
indicated. The acquisition of adequate space for teaching, including 
storage of wraps, supplies, and equipment, is the best reason that can be 
given for undertaking a school-building program. This can be assured 
only when the architect knows the specific type of furniture, equip- 
ment, and wall boards that will be used in the room, as well as the num- 
ber of students. He must also know in detail the instructional materials 
used and to some extent how they are to be used and stored. He must 
know what interest and group-work centers are needed over and above 
seating, aisle, and storage areas. If extra floor space is desirable to permit 
regrouping within the room from time to time, this fact should be stated. 

After each instructional space has been planned carefully and the 
units grouped for good operation, there are a number of general con- 
siderations of real importance that should be covered in the educational 
specifications. The normal movements of students about the campus 
during the school day to meet scheduled requirements result in certain 
points of crowding and congestion. A clear statement of this problem 
permits the architect to plan for good student-traffic circulation in the 
new plant. Areas in the building and on the playgrounds most in need of 
easy supervision should be identified so the plan may be arranged ac- 
cordingly. Rooms and corridors needing noise control should be specified 
in order that appropriate acoustical treatment may be planned. Places 
where audio-visual equipment is to be used in the building need to be 
known by the architect so that essential services and space conditioning 
may be provided. 

The requirements for lighting deserve careful consideration in any 
statement of need. If maximum use is to be made of daylight, the 
orientation and shading of main classroom windows should be deter- 
mined. In any event, light reflection factors of interior finishes should be 
specified. The artificial light source incandescent or flourescent should 
be determined, as well as the desired foot-candle levels and ratios of 
brightness to be maintained. 

While the general provisions for heating and ventilation may best be 
left to the architect and his technical advisors, the educational state- 
ment should call attention to the rooms where special solutions are re- 
quired; for example, the need of primary rooms for a floor warm enough 
to be used as instructional space even in cold weather. The maintenance 
experience of staff and custodian should be called upon to designate 
areas and services in need of special attention by the architect. 

A carefully drawn set of educational specifications not only makes 
possible a building that will facilitate the educational process but also 



BURSCH 171 

makes an important contribution in school district-architect relationship 
throughout the planning period. 

A statement by the school staff regarding sanitary facilities should 
result in improvement of the toilet and drinking fountain facilities tra- 
ditionally provided. For example, the location of ample handwashing 
facilities in reasonable proximity to a cafeteria should permit school 
practices which comply with the instructions for handwashing before 
a meal. Similarly, foot or automatic flush valves for toilets and wash 
basins in schools would bring them more in conformity to what is 
found in hospitals and modernized offices and in line with precautionary 
measures taught in the schools against the spreading of germs through 
using manually operated faucets and valves, 

CO-OPERATION WITH THE ARCHITECT'S OFFICE 
Another critical area of the superintendent's responsibility in a build- 
ing program is the establishment of a good procedure for continuous and 
authoritative exchange of information and decisions between the school 
officials and the architect. No matter how complete a set of educational 
specifications is prepared, adjustments are necessary throughout the 
planning process. Furthermore, there is the obvious necessity for fre- 
quent interpretation to the architect by an educator of the significance 
and application in the building of the educational specifications. If these 
adjustments and interpretations are not available to the architect at the 
proper time during the process of his work, delays in construction and 
friction with the architect are inevitable. 

Another important protection to the district may be realized by hav- 
ing specialized consultants available to the architect when needed. For 
example, an architect frequently considers his office competent in the 
field of illumination and acoustical treatment, while the school district 
may desire to check the architect's recommendations with an outstand- 
ing expert in those matters. In one situation the school board left to its 
architect the matter of securing acoustical engineering advice on plans 
being prepared for an auditorium. The architect failed to secure the 
acoustical engineer's services until after the plans were completed, re- 
sulting in the necessity of abandoning the entire set of plans and devel- 
oping new ones for an auditorium of the shape recommended by the 
acoustical adviser. 

The time may come when architectural firms, specializing in school 
business, will have a staff so complete that the need for calling in special- 
ists will disappear. Because many firms are not now so completely staffed, 
supplemental technical advisers are warranted* This problem should be 
faced frankly when the agreement between the school district and the 
architect is drawn. 



!72 PROVIDING APPROPRIATE HOUSING 

Of assistance in the smooth working relationship between the school 
district and the architect is a somewhat detailed description of what con- 
stitutes a complete set of preliminary plans. Common practice followed 
by architectural offices is to secure written approval of preliminary 
plans from the school board before they proceed with the expensive 
phase of preparing detailed plans and specifications. Should the architect 
secure this preliminary approval on an incomplete set of plans, the 
school district often is placed on the defensive in securing important 
planning adjustments during the preparation of final drawings. An^ at- 
tempt should be made to have the school district's desires in all possible 
matters pertinent to the educational adequacy of the building incorporat- 
ed in the preliminary plans and specifications. Furthermore, when a 
district has at hand a complete set of preliminary drawings it is then in a 
position to use available school-planning consultants more intelligently. 

The following list of items to be included in preliminary plans has 
proved helpful in the relationship of school architects to a state planning 
division. It should be equally helpful to school districts in situations 
where no state approval of school plans is required. 

1. Plot plan (to scale) 

a) Size and shape of entire site with over-all dimensions 

b) Point of compass and data on prevailing and storm winds where significant 

c) Topographical conditions (engineer's survey is required except on level 
site) 

d) Location of proposed building on site, its future additions, and existing 
structures 

e) Student-traffic connection between all buildings 
/) Service roads and parking areas 

g) Buildings on adjacent properties within forty feet of property lines (indi- 
cate only) 

h) Existing growth (trees) and natural barriers (rocks, cliffs, streams, etc.) 
i) Adjacent streets, highways, sidewalks, railroads, etc. (Designate major 
highways, county roads, or residential streets.) 

2. Floor plans (to scale, not less than -rV in. to 1 ft.) 

a) Location, sizes, and purposes of all rooms 

b) Ixxsation of all doors, windows, etc. 

c) Location of plumbing fixtures, chalk boards, bulletin boards, built-in 
equipment, and casework 

d) General method of heating, ventilating, and lighting 

e) Over-all dimensions 

/) Possible future additions to the building 

g) Tentative furniture and equipment layouts, including student stations 

3. Elevations (same scale as plans, of at least two sides) 
a) Finished floor and ceiling levels 

6) Finished outside grades 



BURSCH 173 

c) Windows, doors, steps, areas, retaining walls, etc. 

d) Materials, especially as related to acoustics and maintenance 

4. Sections (same scale, to explain condition not made clear in other drawings) 

5. Miscellaneous 

a) Dates of drawings and revisions 

6) For auditorium-assembly units seating over 200, evidence that acoustical 
adequacy has been considered in relation to shape and form of unit 

In its relationship to the architect, a school district should provide an 
additional major protection by requiring that working drawings for a 
school project shall not be undertaken by the architect until he has the 
written authorization from the district. 

BUILDING AXD CONSTRUCTION 

If the plans and specifications for a school building have been co- 
operatively, completely, and competently prepared, the process of 
advertising for bids, awarding contracts, and proceeding with the con- 
struction is one requiring a minimum of attention or interference on the 
part of school officials. The one notable exception would be if a number of 
alternates appear in the plans and specifications. Too often the adjust- 
ment of bids to available funds by means of hastily prepared alternates 
nullifies much of the careful work of the staff in its educational planning, 
A safe procedure to follow is to process proposed changes to an adopted 
plan through the same channels and in the same manner as the original 
plans were developed. One of the frequent and serious errors in adjusting 
plans to meet available funds is to reduce the area in each classroom. The 
possible adverse effect of such procedure on the educational program is 
obvious. It is better to do with one or two fewer classrooms than will be 
needed for a year or two than to endure cramped quarters in all rooms for 
perhaps a half century. 

Incredible as it seems, there are numerous instances in which the 
actual construction is found to differ substantially from the approved 
plans and specifications. Sometimes these differences are traceable to an 
on-the-project verbal agreement between a representative of the school 
district and the contractor. Protection to the district requires that 
deviations from the plans be made only on the basis of formal action of 
the board and the recommendation by the architect. It is the primary 
concern of the school district's inspector of the work to see that the plans 
and specifications are followed, not to attempt to improve upon them. 
The superintendent of schools or individual board members should have 
no power to authorize the builder to deviate from the approved plans 
and specifications. 



174 PROVIDING APPROPRIATE HOUSING 

OCCUPYING AND USING THE BUILDING 

A modern school building is complex and has in it unfamiliar equip- 
ment and mechanical devices. To secure the maximum value from the 
building, custodian, teachers, and pupils should be instructed in its use 
and care when it is first occupied. 

The school administration and maintenance staff and the architect 
may well co-operate in giving such instruction. Heating and electrical 
equipment, window and window-shade adjustment, floor and wall care, 
and cleaning procedure are some of the items concerning which the 
architect may be of assistance. The administration should explain the 
educational thinking back of the building spaces and the provisions that 
differ from those traditionally found. Where multi-use rooms are pro- 
vided, their special use and storage problems deserve explanation. 

A similar process of education in the use of a modern plant should be 
given to new staff members and to transfers from traditional buildings. 

PROGRAM or ACTION 

Thus far in the chapter certain criticisms have been made and implied 
regarding past and current administrative practices in connection with 
school-plant planning, construction, and financing, and regarding the 
facilities resulting from these practices. A program of action designed to 
diminish or eliminate the currently observed weaknesses would involve: 

1. Development of appropriate courses in universities and colleges to 
fit educational trainees for responsibilities relating to the planning and 
use of the school plant. 

2. Provision for continuous educational staff participation in studying 
the significance of the school plant and equipment in the educational 
program and in attempting to improve their functional relationship. 

3. Provision of a sub-committee of each committee working on cur- 
riculum construction or revision whose responsibility would be to 
determine the plant implications of curriculum proposals. 

4. Redirection of emphasis from economical maintenance and opera- 
tion of buildings to maximum implementation of educational services, 
and from minimizing plant depreciation to combating educational 
obsolescence of buildings. 

5. Support of equalization of capital-outlay financing by means of 
state and federal funds, but retaining local control. 

6. Provision for an adequate school-plant consultation staff in all 
state departments of education and in the United States Office of 
Education. 



BURSCH 175 

7. Improvement in the method of selecting architects and special 
engineers for school buildings and of using their services during the 
planning period. 

8. Improvement and expansion of training programs for custodians 
and all other school-building operation and maintenance personnel. 

9. Revision of policies and procedures of selection, purchase, and 
distribution of furniture, equipment, and instructional supplies, giving 
greater emphasis to educational implementation. 

10. Development of effective liaison with the designers and manu- 
facturers of school furniture and equipment in the hope that educational 
and hygienic requirements may dictate what is produced, rather than 
reliance on manufacturers to decide what is to be made available for 
school purchase. 

CONCLUSION 

In no other area of responsibility does the school administrator have a 
greater opportunity to influence the growth and development of a 
forward-looking program of education than in the planning for school- 
plant facilities. Improvement in the fulfilment of that responsibility is 
more promising in the realm of staff organization and duty assignment, 
and in planning procedures and controls, than in an attempt by the 
school administrator to aspire to competence in each of the many and 
highly technical phases of schoolhouse planning and construction. 



CHAPTER VIII 

THE PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION 
OF SCHOOL PERSONNEL 



ALONZO G. GBACE 

Commissioner of Education 

State Department of Education 

Hartford, Connecticut 



Rules and regulations governing the licensing of teachers, adminis- 
trators, and other school personnel represent minimum requirements for 
admission to the profession. Ultimately, it is probable that admission 
will be on a basis similar to that presently prevailing in the legal and 
medical professions. 

Xo matter how rigid or how loose the certification rules and regula- 
tions of a state may be, the initial responsibility for the professional 
preparation of school personnel is vested in the training institution. If 
there are incompetent individuals in the professional staff of the educa- 
tional system, it is because certain institutions accepted them for training 
and subsequently sponsored them for admission to the profession. The 
training institution has many responsibilities in relation to the profes- 
sional personnel of the schools, among which the following may be 
mentioned: (1) initial selection of trainees, (2) continued guidance and 
follow-up, (3) adequate professional preparation, (4) effective specializa- 
tion, (5) personality development, (6) scholarship, (7) final recommenda- 
tion of the candidate. It is the purpose of this chapter to indicate the 
importance of these particular functions. 

RESPONSIBILITIES OF TRAINING INSTITUTIONS 

Initial Selection. The first step in admission to the teaching profession 
is the selection of competent candidates by the training institution. It is 
exceedingly doubtful that the training institution can select wisely in all 
cases from the high-school graduating classes or, in the case of pros- 
pective administrators, from those who already have had experience in 
the classroom. In some cases the Freshman hi college will have made up 
his mind to eater the profession and, in many cases, this decision even- 
tually proves wise. It is probable that the training institution may im- 
prove the opportunity for effective selection by requiring the candidate 

176 



GRACE 177 

to demonstrate his aptitude for professional service in education during 
his first two years in the training institution. In the case of the school 
administrator, we shall most likely come to an internship in administra- 
tion. 

Continued Guidance and Follow-up. There must be wise counseling on 
the part of those who guide the destiny of the prospective teacher. 
Whatever goes on in the teacher-training classroom should be based on 
sound theory and should be an example of what we expect the prospective 
educator to do in his assignment. There must be close relationship be- 
tween the instructor and the individual student and every effort should 
be made to discover the strengths and weaknesses of the individual in 
order to capitalize on the strengths and to eliminate the weaknesses. Re- 
sults of experience in the adequate guidance of students in training will 
have a strong bearing on selective procedures as well as on the adaptation 
of instruction to individual needs. Guidance throughout the training 
course is a most important phase of professional training and the insti- 
tution should provide a follow-up service for its graduates during the 
first two or three years of employment. 

Adequate Professional Preparation. Some hold the opinion that since 
Aristotle and Plato had no professional education courses no method- 
ology, courses in administration, or internship educational personnel of 
the present age need no such program. Some validity might be attached to 
such views if all who sought admission to the profession were Platos 
or Aristotles. It has become increasingly evident that there must be 
adequate preparation for admission to employment in the schools if 
those in teaching, administrative, or supervising positions are to be re- 
garded as belonging to a profession. 

Each state department of education should review its rules and regu- 
lations governing certification and eliminate any specific course require- 
ment which might hold the university or college training institution to an 
unwarranted pattern. However, in the professional preparation of an 
educator, the following areas should be mastered by the individual: 

1. A thorough knowledge of human behavior and child development. 

2. The ability to regard method as a means to an end. Too many acquire tech- 
nique with little knowledge of the individual to whom the technique is to be 
applied. Educators must learn that no one technique is sufficient, that in 
teaching reading, for example, one method may apply to one individual or 
several individuals, and other methods may apply better in other cases. 

3. A thorough understanding of and sympathy for democracy and the ways of 
democratic living. 

4. Understanding the value of opportunities to learn, or to administer, or to 
teach by doing. 



178 THE PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION OF SCHOOL PERSONNEL 

5. A thorough knowledge of the administration, organization, and purpose of 

the American school system. 
6* The ability always to keep the objectives of education in the foreground. 

Techniques and methods should not be permitted to interfere with the 

attainment of the objectives. 

7. The ability to evaluate and appraise the results of instruction. 

8. Understanding and skill in relationships with others. 

9. Ability to organize material for instruction. 

Other areas might be mentioned. These represent the fundamentals. 

Effective Specialization. The question frequently arises concerning the 
extent of the specialization required in a particular field. While there 
should be mastery of the subject matter of a selected area, it has become 
increasingly evident that success in the educational profession may be 
impaired as a result of too narrow specialization. A broad cultural back- 
ground or liberal education should be the foundation upon which special- 
ization rests. The effective administrator must be an educated man. It is 
expected that all educational personnel will become masters of English; 
therefore, no individual should be accepted as a candidate for the ad- 
ministrative course or be admitted to the teaching profession who is not 
able to read, write, and speak English correctly and effectively. 

Personality Factors. Personality is difficult to define. It certainly has 
nothing to do with the race, religion, political affiliation, or the financial 
status of the individual. Candidates for educational positions should not 
be admitted on the basis of these or other irrelevant factors. So far as the 
teaching profession is concerned, personality should include the following 
traits: 

1. Ability to organize thinking logically and to present facts in an interesting, 
convincing, and dispassionate manner. This means the ability to think ra- 
tionally. 

2. Ability to read, write, and speak English fluently. 

3. Disposition, to acquire the dress that fits the personality rather than to fol- 
low the fashion at the moment. 

4. Willingness to withhold tactless, embarrassing, injurious, or sarcastic com- 
ments about others. Ability to suppress cynical remarks about personalities 
or events. 

5. Emotional stability and regard for the laws of physical and mental health. 

6. Ability to be a good listener, one with patient, tolerant consideration of the 
views and problems of others. 

7* Recognition of the attainments of others, 

8. The habit of doing one's work thorougjhly, neatly, and accurately, whatever 
the assignment. 

9, Ability to co-operate and work with others. 

10. Possession of such qualities as unassuming reliance, esthetic appreciation, 
creativeness, self-direction. 



GRACE 179 

Scholarship. An element which is needed for success in the educational 
profession is scholarship. This need not mean the meticulous production 
of a book or monograph. It need not mean the search for the unknown. It 
is reflected somewhat in the following characteristics: 

1. Ability to organize thinking logically. To express one's self by the precise 
choice of words. To avoid vulgarisms and the use of unusual or inappropriate 
vocabulary. 

2. Ability to impart knowledge simply and to continue the process of self-edu- 
cation, which should be a major objective of all education. 

3. Thoroughness, neatness, and accuracy in the art of teaching or in adminis- 
tration and supervision. 

4. Presentation of concepts on the basis of facts and not on the basis of emotion- 
alism. 

5. The capacity to humanize knowledge and to maintain standards compatible 
with student potentialities. 

6. Mastery of essential knowledge. 

7. Ability to evaluate techniques of acquiring and testing knowledge. 

8. Intellectual integrity. 

SOME REASONS FOR FAILURE IK THE ADMINISTRATIVE FIELD 

One of the major weaknesses in the training of school administrators 
has been the failure to follow up the product of the institution and to 
ascertain from time to time the areas in which the graduate has shown 
strength, or, in case of weakness, to assist the individual to overcome the 
particular difficulty he has encountered. A board of education frequently 
may be charged with responsibility for the failure of the individual, 
whereas, in many instances other factors are indicated as the cause of 
dissatisfaction. From observation, the following appear to represent 
some major causes for lack of success in the administrative field. 

1. Failure to keep the policy-determimng board informed. One fundamental 
responsibility of the executive is to keep the policy-determining body in- 
formed at all times on all matters within the jurisdiction of such a board. 

2. Lack of a sense of timing. Some administrators do not seem to possess the 
faculty of 'taking the proper action at the right time, There is a sense of 
timing in administration. This means the capacity to sense the need for cou- 
rageous action at the right time and in the rigjit cause. 

3. Inability to make decisions. No policy-determining board should tolerate 
indecision. It is better to make a decision and be wrong than to fail to make a 
decision and thus to keep the board dangling in mid-air, unable to establish 
a policy or to take action. 

4. Inability to keep pace with social change. This implies that educational lead- 
ership should emanate from the administrator's office and that he must be 
an educator as well as a business agent of the school system. Frequently 
school systems lag because of unenlightened leadership at the top or because 



180 THE PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION OF SCHOOL PERSONNEL 

of a feeling that any movement away from the traditionalism of the past 
might be misinterpreted in the community. A step at a time is better than 
no forward step at all. Awareness of the needs of society must be ever present. 
o. Dealing with part of a board. There is nothing that contributes more cer- 
tainly to administrative failure than sharing confidences about policy with 
individual members of a board. Educational business should be equally 
available to all members of a poHcy^etermining board. 

6. Unwillingness or inability to democratize procedures. Delegation of authority 
and responsibilities must be accompanied by a willingness to permit the 
individual to exercise the authority delegated to him. Occasionally there is a 
fear that the sharing of planning will lead to difficulties on the staff. A school 
system must be organized to make full use of its available talent. 

7. Revolution versus growth. Occasionally an administrator will come into a 
community without taking the time to become acquainted with community 
tradition, organization, institutions, ideals, or composition. A complete 
revolution of educational philosophy, procedure, and method takes place. 
The inevitable result is difficulty in the community and, in many cases, a 
search for a new administrator. An administrator must be certain that the 
people are aware of the condition of affairs before a plan of operation is de- 
veloped. Evolution is always better than revolution, and will result in sound- 
er progress. 

8. Critical judgment about a predecessor. One of the weaknesses in adminis- 
tration is the tendency, as shown by an occasional individual, to criticize 
the predecessor who may have been discharged or eliminated for one reason 
or another. One of the first lessons that an administrator should learn is that 
whatever has preceded in the past may make good history for the record, 
but that making this record a subject of common discussion is neither ethical 
nor in the interests of the educational system. 

9. Inability to present a point of view clearly and forcefully. Every school 
administrator in his training course should be taught how to organize 
material logically, to present it effectively, and to defend a point of view. 
The capacity to write and to speak with good effect is important. The school 
superintendent should have a course in public speaking during his training 
period. 

10, Fear of citizen organizations. Citizens should be brought into partnership 
in the planning of the community program. Administrators sometimes fear 
the influence of citizen groups, and in occasional instances the thought seems 
to prevail that the less people know about the school system the more effec- 
tively it can be operated. The board of education itself should encourage an 
advisory organization of citizens. The schools belong to the people, not to the 
representatives who constitute the board of education or to the administrator 
who is the employed executive of the board. One of the most effective means 
of securing progress in educational systems is the use of citizen organizations 
in the development of a suitable adult-education program. 

1 1 . Inability to be a good listener. Another type of administrator is the one who 



GRACE 181 

never listens or permits the other person to do any talking. More has been 
learned by being a good listener than by being ever willing to express an 
opinion on practically anything. The capacity to listen intelligently and 
sympathetically is something that should be acquired in the training course. 
12. Failure to develop a program. Operating a school system is something more 
than buying nails for shingling the roof and wax for the gymnasium floor. 
School administration involves leadership. It requires the capacity to pre- 
sent a program for the consideration of the board and the interpretation of 
that program in terms that can be understood by every citizen in the com- 
munity. 

Perhaps others will add to this list. Certainly these are not generali- 
zations that apply universally. They do, however, represent some of the 
major areas which apparently are not discussed or considered in courses 
in school administration. Some may come under the general category of 
human relations, others may be variously classified. The point is, institu- 
tions engaged in the training of administrators should deal realistically 
with problems such as these. 

SOME RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE TKAINING OF 
SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS 

Any analysis of the courses in education, particularly in the field of 
administration and supervision, indicates a tremendous overlapping in 
subject matter and content and the failure to distinguish between the 
various levels and types of administration. Too much attention is paid to 
individual course requirements and too little to the personal equipment, 
the scholarship, and the personal fitness of the individual for an adminis- 
trative position. The following recommendations are submitted merely 
as a basis for discussion of desirable changes in training procedures. 

1. Each institution should carefully survey the course content required for the 
training of school administrators to discover the gaps, the duplication, and the 
irrelevant material. 

2. An internship of not less than one year should be developed either on a 
scholarship basis or in co-operation with the educational system of the state 
in order that young talent may obtain experience in the administrative field. 

3. Greater utilization of the resources of a university should be made. For ex- 
ample, few schools of education use the department of architecture or engi- 
neering in the development of courses having to do with the engineering prob- 
lems of school systems. There is a limited use of schools of public affairs and 
citizenship by departments of education and yet the school superintendent 
should be well informed about state and local government. Equally valuable 
is the training that is made available to potential city managers and directors 
in municipal government. 



182 THE PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION OF SCHOOL PERSONNEL 

4, Certification rules in the several states should be redirected in the sense that 
specific course requirements should be eliminated from the certification rules 
and regulations. If the state is not able or willing to adopt an examination 
procedure on a merit-system basis for the development of an eligible list of 
school superintendents, then the certification procedure should be liberalized 
and the general requirement hereinbefore indicated should prevail. 



INDEX 



Administration: centralization of control 
in, 17-19; co-operative procedures in, 
14-15; delegation of authority and re- 
sponsibility in, 10-11; democracy in, 
5-6, 58-85; leadership in, 3-4; new 
emphases in, 2-6; principles of, 10-17; 
in relation to community planning, 
88-112; in relation to curriculum pro- 
cedures, 20-24, 40-41; in relation to 
in-service education, 41-48; in relation 
to policy-determining functions, 15- 
16; in relation to pupil services, 48-52; 
in relation to school personnel, 58-85; 
reorientation of, 1-6; as social states- 
manship, 2-3; teacher participation in, 
21, 58-82; various conceptions of, 1-6 

Advisory Committee on Education, re- 
port of, 132-33 

American Council on Education, 34 

Architect, services of, in school plant con- 
struction, 171-73 

Arthurdale (West Virginia) program of 
school and community co-operation, 89 

Authority: delegation of y in democratic 
administration, 10; as substitute for 
leadership and responsibility, 18-19 

Balanced program of living for boys and 
girls, as the responsibility of adminis- 
tration, 31-32 

Bond financing of school plant, 168-69 

Capital outlay financing, 114, 168 

Centralization of administrative con- 
trols, 17-19 

Certification of school personnel, 176, 
182 

Characteristics of democratic behavior, 
54 

Citizen organizations, use of, in planning 
community program, 89-93, 180 

Citizenship, practice in, through extra- 
class activities, 48 

Collective bargaining: nature of basic 
agreement in, 70-77; procedures in, 
78-79; recognizing the principle of, 
67-69; selecting agent for, 69 

Commission on Teacher Education, 341 

Committee representation of school per- 
sonnel in democratic administration, 
64-67 

Community affairs, organizing for co- 
ordination of, 1 12 



Community councils, examples of, 99- 
102 

Community participation in state pro- 
gram of educational planning in New 
York, 106-7 

Community resources, as related to in- 
structional program, 40 

Community-school programs, examples 
of, 89-93 

Community services for youth: co- 
ordination of, 97-98; co-operation of 
state and federal agencies in, 103-4; 
interpretation of programs and policies 
for, 104r-7; organization of, 96-97; 
school administrators' responsibility 
for, 88-^96, 110-12; standards of evalu- 
ation of, 108; system of referrals for, 
98-102; teacher participation in, 109- 
10 

Community survey, as means of de- 
veloping program of services for youth, 
93-96 

Consultation staff for school plant con- 
struction, local provision for, 165-67; 
state provision for, 174 

Co-operative procedures in adminis- 
tration, 14r-15, 22-27, 3^40, 43 

Co-ordinating community services for 
youth, 96-98, 110-12 

Core courses in relation to guidance pro- 
gram, 34-35 

Curriculum: adaptation of, to meet indi- 
vidual needs, 32-38; administrative 
policies relating to, 20-41; co-opera- 
tive procedures in development of, 
22-27; improvement of, through in- 
service education, 42; organizing 
school personnel for improvement of, 
64r-67; as related to extra-class activi- 
ties, 48-49; as related to guidance pro- 
gram, 50-51; as related to pupil serv- 
ices, 27-30; responsibility for develop- 
ment of, 47; use of community re- 
sources in improvement of, 40 

Custodian of school building, training 
program for, 175 

Democracy in administration, 5-6, 58^-85 
Denver (Colorado) curriculum planning 

procedures, 27, 29, 42 
Dependency load of teachers, 154 



183 



184 



INDEX 



Educational finance: external conditions 
related to, 116, 123-27; inequalities 
in, 118-21; nature of, 116-18; prin- 
ciples of, 13, 117-18 

Educational Finance Act of 1945: as 

proposed in Mead-Aiken Bill, 134r-35; 

as proposed in Thomas-Hill Bill, 133- 

34 
Educational planning: as a function of 

state department of education, 9-10; 

as a phase of administration, 4-5 

Educational Policies Commission, school 
program for rural community proposed 

Educational policy as related to adminis- 
tration, 15-16 

Educational program, unitary concep- 
tion of, 27-30 

Educational specifications for school 
plant, 169-71 

Elective system as means of curriculum 
adjustment, 34 

Employee organizations, purposes and 
procedures of, 58-82 

Estill County (Kentucky) Planning 
Council, 101-2 

Exceptional children, special classes for, 
51-52 

Expansion of school plant, considera- 
tions relating to, 163-68 

Expenditures for education, as com- 
pared with total expenditures of feder- 
al, state, and local governments, 129- 
30 

Extension of educational services for 
older youth and adults, 115, 143-48 

Extra-class activities, as means of cur- 
riculum adjustment, 34, 48-49 

Federal aid for education: amount of, 
127; external factors related to, 123- 
27; issues pertaining to, 136-37; pro- 
posals for, 133-35 

Federal control of education: as exempli- 
fied in Mead-Aiken and Thomas-Hill 
Bills* 133-35; as related to financial 
support, 131-36 

Federal-state-local fiscal relations in edu- 
cation, 114^15, 118-43 

Financing education for older youth and 
adults, 115, 143-48; issues related to, 

JL^xu ~to 

Financing educational personnel, 115, 
148-60; external conditions related to, 
150-52; present status of, 148-50; re- 
search problems in, 160 



Flexibility in school-building construc- 
tion, 61, 167-68 

Functional planning of school buildings, 
163, 169-71, 174 

Glencoe (Illinois) plan for developing 
balanced program of living for stu- 
dents, 31-32 

Governmental units, integration of, 16- 
17 

Guidance as an integral part of instruc- 
tional program, 50-52 

Health, co-ordination of school and com- 
munity services in, 88-102 

Improving methods of work of school em- 
ployees, 58-63 

Individual differences, administering 
educational program to provide for, 
32-38 

Individual school as unit for administer- 
ing educational program, 27-31 

In-service education program: co-opera- 
tive planning of, 43; in relation to 
regular school program, 46-47; re- 
sponsibility of administration for, 41- 
48; variety of activities in, 43-46 

Internship for school administrators, 177, 
181 

Issues relating to federal aid for educa- 
tion, 136-37 

Junior college: availability of, for ex- 
tended educational services, 144; con- 
trol of, 147; financial support of, 
145-47; free tuition in, 146-47; 
growth of, 144 

Leadership in administration, 3-4; as 
function of state department of educa- 
tion, 8; as related to curriculum de- 
velopment, 22 

Timing experiences of pupils, improve- 
ment of, 42 

Learning the procedures of a democratic 
society, 54-57 

Local initiative in educational adminis- 
tration, 17-19 

Mead-Aiken Bill for federal aid, 134-35, 
142-43 

Merrill (Wisconsin) plan of student par- 
ticipation in community meetings, 37 

Methods of work of school personnel, 
motivating improvement in, 60 

Montgomery County (Maryland) pro- 
jects in teacher-pupil planning, 39 



INDEX 



185 



Morale of school staff, improvement of. 
79-82 

National Advisory Committee on Edu- 
cation, report of, 131-32 

National Association of Secondary 
School Principals, plan of school and 
community co-operation suggested 
by, 89 

National Education Association esti- 
mate of postwar expenditures for 
education, 128 

National Resources Planning Board, 
estimate of postwar expenditures for 
education, 128-29 

New emphases in school administra- 
tion, 2-6 

New Trier Township High School: cur- 
riculum adjustment plan at, 35-36; 
student organizations in, 24 

New York program of community par- 
ticipation in educational planning, 
106-7 

Organisation of school personnel for 
improvement of status and services, 
58-82 

Parents' participation in curriculum 
planning, 24-27 

Participation in administrative proc- 
esses as basis of improvement of 
school personnel, 58-82 

Personal development of staff member, 
fostered by administration, 46 

Personnel administration: for building 
and maintaining morale, 79-82; for 
improvement of curriculum, 64-67; 
for improvement in methods of work, 
58-63; for improvement of relations 
among members of staff, 67-79 

Personnel organizations, purposes and 
procedures of, 58-82 

Planning pupil experiences of educational 
value, 31-32, 42 

Policy determining functions in relation 
to administration, 15-16 

Position-type salary schedule, 151 

Preliminary plans for school building, 172 

Preparation-type salary schedule, 151 

Principles of democratic administration, 
82-84 

Principles of educational finance, 13, 
117-18 

Principles of state school administration, 
10-17 

Pupa development, evaluation of, 49-50 



Pupil participation in administration, 24 
Pupil self-direction, responsibility for 

encouragement of, 39-40 
Pupil services: as adapted to pupil needs, 

51-52; administration of, 48-52; in 

relation to the curriculum, 27-30 
Purposes of education in a democracy, 

53-54 

Recommendations regarding training of 
school administrators, 181-82 

Recreation, co-ordination of school and 
community services in, 88-102 

Relating pupil needs and interests to so- 
cial problems, 32-38 

Relations of school employees to adminis- 
trative staff, 67-79 

Research: in financing educational per- 
sonnel, 160; as function .of state de- 
partment of education, 9-10 

Reserve funds, use of, in capital-outlay 
financing, 168 

Salary schedules: construction of, 159- 
60; problems pertaining to, 153-60; 
trends in, 151-52; types of , 153, 159-60 

Santa Barbara County (California): pro- 
gram for improvement of pupil learn- 
ing experiences, 42; survey of com- 
munity resources in, 95 

School administrators: adequate training 
for, 177-78; initial selection of, by 
training institutions, 176-^77; intern- 
ship for, 177, 181; personality traits of, 
178; reasons for failures among, 179- 
81; recommendations regarding train- 
ing of, 181-82 

School-board committees, influence of, 
on school-plant construction, 161 

School-building cost estimates, 166 

School-building standards, application 
of, to local situations, 161-62 

School-building survey, 163-65 

School districts, inadequacy of, in school 
plant construction, 162-63 

School plant: architectural services for, 
171-73; considerations underlying ex- 
pansion of, 163-68; educational speci- 
fications for, 169-71; financing con- 
struction of, 168; preparation for 
occupancy of, 174; program of action 
in relation to, 174r-75; reasons for lag 
in desirable provisions for, 161-63 

School records and reports, use of: in 
co-ordination of community services 
for youth, 98-102; in guidance pro- 
cedures, 34 



186 



INDEX 



School services and community needs, 
86-88 

Single-salary schedule, 151, 159-60 

Social problems as related to pupil needs 
and interests, 32-38 

Specifications for school plant construc- 
tion, 169-71 

State control of educational administra- 
tion, 17-19 

State department of education: advisory 
commission for, 23; authority of, in 
different states, 7; centralization of 
authority in, 17-19; leadership func- 
tion of, 8; purpose of, 7-10; relation of, 
to local school districts, 11-12; re- 
search and planning services of, 8-9; 
supervisory functions of, 9 

State support of education: need and 
outlook for, 121-23; strengthening of, 
in California and New York, 122-23; 
variability in, 121 

Supervision, as function of state depart- 
ment of education, 9 

System of referrals, co-ordination of com- 
munity services for youth as facilitated 
by, 98-102 

Teacher participation: in administra- 
tion, 21, 58-85; in community plan- 
ning, 22-27 

Teacher-pupil planning, 38-40 



Teacher-training institutions, responsi- 
bility of, for professional preparation 
of school personnel, 176-79 

Teachers' salaries: adequacy of, 159; ad- 
justments in, for cost of living, 153; 
differentials in, 154-55; national aver- 
age of, 149; schedules for, 151-52 

Tennessee Valley Authority, educational 
programs in area of, 89, 106 

Thomas-Hill Bill for federal aid, 133-34, 
142 

Training of school administrators, 176- 
82; effects of narrow specialization in, 
178; need for, in relation to planning 
and use of school plant, 162 

Tuition in junior colleges, 146-47 

Tuskegee Institute teacher-education 
program, 44 

U.S. Office of Education, 5 
Use of school plant, training personnel 
for, 174 

War Production Training Program, 

school participation in, 86-87 
Welfare, co-ordination of school and 

community services in, 88-102 
Wisconsin Co-operative Educational 

Planning Program, 29-30 
Work experience as phase of educational 

program, 38 



CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 
OF 

THE NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE 

STUDY OF EDUCATION 
(As adopted May, 1944, and amended June, 1945) 

ARTICLE I 

NAME 

The name of this corporation shall be "The National Society for the Study 
of Education," an Illinois corporation not for profit. 

ARTICLE II 

PURPOSES 

Its purposes are to carry on the investigation of educational problems, to 
publish the results of same, and to promote their discussion. 

The corporation also has such powers as are now, or may hereafter be, granted 
by the General Not For Profit Corporation Act of the State of Illinois. 

AETICLE HE 

OFFICES 

The corporation shall have and continuously maintain in this state a regis- 
tered office and a registered agent whose office is identical with such registered 
office, and may have other offices within or without the State of Illinois as the 
Board of Directors may from time to time determine. 

AETICLE IV 



Section 1. Classes. There shall be two classes of members active and honor- 
ary. The qualifications and rights of the members of such classes shall be as 
follows: 

(a) Any person who is desirous of promoting the purposes of this corporation 
is eligible to active membership and shall become such on payment of dues as 
prescribed. 

(b) Active members shall be entitled to vote, to participate in discussion and, 
subject to the conditions set forth in Article V, to hold office. 

(c) Honorary members shall be entitled to all the privileges of active mem- 
bers, with the exception of voting and holding office, and shall be exempt from the 



li CONSTITUTION 

payment of dues. A person may be elected to honorary membership by vote of 
the active members of the corporation on nomination by the Board of Directors. 

(d) Any active member of the Society may, at any time after reaching the 
age of sixty, become a life member on payment of the aggregate amount of the 
regular annual dues for the period of life expectancy, as determined by standard 
actuarial tables, such membership to entitle the member to receive all yearbooks 
and to enjoy all other privileges of active membership in the Society for the 
lifetime of the member. 

Section 2. Termination, of Membership. 

(a) The Board of Directors by affirmative vote of two-thirds of the members 
of the board may suspend or etpel a member for cause after appropriate hearing. 

(&) Termination of membership for nonpayment of dues shall become effec- 
tive as provided in Article XIV. 

Section 3. Reinstatement. The Board of Directors may by the affirmative vote 
of two-thirds of the members of the Board reinstate a former member whose 
membership was previously terminated for cause other than nonpayment of dues. 

Section 4. Transfer of Membership, Membership in this corporation is not 
transferable or assignable. 

ARTICLE V 

BOAED OF DIBECTOES 

Section 1. General Powers. The business and affairs of the corporation shall 
be managed by its Board of Directors. It shall appoint the Chairman and Vice- 
Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Secretary-Treasurer, and Members of 
the Council. It may appoint a member to fill any vacancy on the Board until 
such vacancy shall have been filled by election as provided in Section 3 of 
this Article* 

Section 2. Number, Tenure, and Qwlifaations. The Board of Directors shall 
consist of seven members, namely, six to be elected by the members of the cor- 
poration, and the Secretary-Treasurer to be the seventh member. Only active 
members who have contributed to the Yearbooks shall be eligible for election to 
serve as directors. No member who has been elected for two full terms as direc- 
tor in immediate succession shall be elected a director for a term next succeeding. 
This provision shall not apply to the Secretary-Treasurer who is appointed by 
the Board of Directors. Each director shall hold office for the term for which he 
is elected or appointed and until his successor shall have been selected and 
qualified. Directors need not be residents of Illinois. 

Section 3. Election. 

(a) The directors named in the Articles of Incorporation shall hold office 
until their successors shall have been duly selected and shall have qualified. 
Thereafter, two directors shall be elected annually to serve three years, be- 
ginning March first after their election. If, at the time of any annual election, 
a vacancy exists in the Board of Directors, a director shall be elected at such 
election to fill such vacancy. 

(6) Elections of directors shall be held by ballots sent by United States mail 
as follows: A nominating ballot together with a list of members eligible to be 



CONSTITUTION iii 

directors shall be mailed by the Secretary-Treasurer to all active members of 
the corporation in October. Erom such list, the active members shall nominate 
on such ballot one eligible member for each of the two regular terms and for 
any vacancy to be filled and return such ballots to the office of the Secretary- 
Treasurer within twenty-one days after said date of mailing by the Secretary- 
Treasurer, The Secretary-Treasurer shall prepare an election ballot and place 
thereon in alphabetical order the names of persons equal to three times the 
number of offices to be filled, these persons to be those who received the highest 
number of votes on the nominating ballot, provided, however, that not more than 
one person connected with a given institution or agency shall be named on such 
final ballot, the person so named to be the one receiving the highest vote on the 
nominating ballot. Such election ballot shall be mailed by the Secretary-Treasurer 
to all active members in November next succeeding. The active members shall 
vote thereon for one member for each such office. Election ballots must be in the 
office of the Secretary-Treasurer within twenty-one days after said date of 
mailing by the Secretary-Treasurer. The ballots shall be counted by the Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, or by an election committee, if any, appointed 'by the board. 
The two members receiving the highest number of votes shall be declared elected 
for the regular term and the member or members receiving the next highest num- 
ber of votes shall be declared elected for any vacancy or vacancies to be filled. 

Section 4. Regular Meetings, A regular annual meeting of the Board of Direc- 
tors shall be held, without other notice than this by-law, at the same place and 
as nearly as possible on the same date as the annual meeting of the corporation. 
The Board of Directors may provide the time and place, either within or with- 
out the State of Illinois, for the holding of additional regular meetings of the 
board. 

Section 5. Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may 
be called by or at the request of the Chairman or a majority of the directors. 
Such special meetings shall be held at the office of the corporation unless a 
majority of the directors agree upon a different place for such meetings. 

Section 6. Notice. Notice of any special meeting of the Board of Directors 
shall be given at least fifteen days previously thereto by written notice delivered 
personally or mailed to each director at his business address, or by telegram. If 
mailed, such notice shall be deemed to be delivered when deposited in the 
United States mail in a sealed envelope so addressed, with postage thereon pre- 
paid. If notice be given by telegram, such notice shall be deemed to be de- 
livered when the telegram is delivered to the telegraph company. Any director 
may waive notice of any meeting. The attendance of a director at any meeting 
shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where a director at- 
tends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the transaction of any 
business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the 
business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting 
of the board need be specified in the notice or waiver of notice of such meeting. 

Section 7. Quorum. A majority of the Board of Directors shall constitute a 
quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting of the board, provided, 
that if less than a majority of the directors are present at said meeting, a majority 



Iv CONSTITUTION 

of the directors present may adjourn the meeting from time to time without 
further notice. 

Section 8. Manner of Acting. The act of the majority of the directors present 
at a meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board of 
Directors, except where otherwise provided by law or by these by-laws. 

AETICLE VI 

THE COUNCIL 

Section 1. Appointment. The Council shall consist of the Board of Directors, 
the Chairmen of the corporation's Yearbook and Research Committees, and 
such other active members of the corporation as the Board of Directors may 
appoint. 

Section 2. Duties. The duties of the Council shall be to further the objects 
of the corporation by assisting the Board of Directors in planning and carrying 
forward the educational undertakings of the corporation. 

ABTICLE VII 

OFFECEBS 

Section 1. Officers. The officers of the corporation shall be a Chairman of the 
Board of Directors, a Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors, and a Secretary- 
Treasurer. The Board of Directors, by resolution, may create additional offices. 
Any two or more offices may be held by the same person, except the offices of 
Chairman and Secretary-Treasurer. 

Section 2. Election and Term of Office. The officers of the corporation shall be 
elected annually by the Board of Directors at the annual regular meeting of the 
Board of Directors, provided, however, that the Secretary-Treasurer may be 
elected for a term longer than one year. If the election of officers shall not be 
held at such meeting, such election shall be held as soon thereafter as con- 
veniently may be. Vacancies may be filled or new offices created and filled at 
any meeting of the Board of Directors. Each officer shall hold office until his 
successor shall have been duly elected and shall have qualified or until his death 
or until he shall resign or shall have been removed in the manner hereinafter 
provided. 

Section 3. Removal. Any officer or agent elected or appointed by the Board 
of Directors may be removed by the Board of Directors whenever in its judg- 
ment the best interests of the corporation would be served thereby, but such 
removal shall be without prejudice to the contract rights, if any, of the person 
so removed. 

Section 4. Chairman of Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board of 
Directors shall be the principal officer of the corporation. He shall preside at 
all meetings of the members and of the Board of Directors, shall perform all 
duties incident to the office of Chairman of the Board of Directors and such 
other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors from time to time. 

Section 5. Vice^havrman of the Board of Directors. In the absence of the 



CONSTITUTION v 

Chairman of the Board of Directors or in the event of his inability or refusal to 
act, the Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors shall perform the duties of the 
Chairman of the Board of Directors, and when so acting, shall have all the powers 
of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Chairman of the Board of 
Directors. Any Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors shall perform such 
other duties as from time to time may be assigned to hi by the Board of 
Directors. 

Section 6. Secretary-Treasurer. The Secretary-Treasurer shall be the managing 
executive officer of the corporation. He shall: (a) keep the minutes of the 
meetings of the members and of the Board of Directors in one or more books 
provided for that purpose; (6) see that all notices are duly given in accordance 
with the provisions of these by-laws or as required by law; (c) be custodian of 
the corporate records and of the seal of the corporation and see that the seal 
of the corporation is affixed to all documents, the execution of which on behalf 
of the corporation under its seal is duly authorized in accordance with the 
provisions of these by-laws; (d) keep a register of the postoffice address of each 
member as furnished to the secretary-treasurer by such member; (e) in general 
perform all duties incident to the office of secretary and such other duties as 
from time to time may be assigned to him by the Chairman of the Board of 
Directors or by the Board of Directors. He shall also: (1) have charge and 
custody of and be responsible for all funds and securities of the corporation; 
receive and give receipts for moneys due and payable to the corporation from 
any source whatsoever, and deposit all such moneys in the name of the cor- 
poration in such banks, trust companies or other depositaries as shall be selected 
in accordance with the provisions of Article XI of these by-laws; (2) in general 
perform all the duties incident to the office of Treasurer and such other duties 
as from time to time may be assigned to him by the Chairman of the Board of 
Directors or by the Board of Directors. The secretary-treasurer shall give a bond 
for the faithful discharge of his duties in such sum and with such surety or 
sureties as the Board of Directors shall determine, said bond to be placed in the 
^custody of the Chairman of the Board of Directors. 

ARTICLE VIII 

COMMITTEES 

The Board of Directors, by appropriate resolution duly passed, may create 
and appoint such committees for such purposes and periods of time as it may 
deem advisable. 

ABTICLE IX 

PUBLICATIONS 

Section 1. The corporation shall publish The Yearbook of the National Society 
for &w Study of Education^ such supplements thereto, and such other materials 
as the Board of Directors may provide for. 

Section 2. Names of Members. The names of the active and honorary members 
shall be printed in the Yearbook. 



vi CONSTITUTION 

ARTICLE X 

ANNUAL MEETINGS 

The corporation shall hold its annual meetings at the time and place of the 
Annual Meeting of the American Association of School Administrators of the 
National Education Association. Other meetings may be held when authorized 
by the corporation or by the Board of Directors. 

ARTICLE XI 

CONTRACTS, CHECKS, DEPOSITS, AND GIFTS 

Section 1. Contracts. The Board of Directors may authorize any officer or 
officers, agent or agents of the corporation, in addition to the officers so authorized 
by these by-laws to enter into any contract or execute and deliver any instru- 
ment in the name of and on behalf of the corporation and such authority may be 
general or confined to specific instances. 

Section 2. Checks, drafts, etc. All checks, drafts, or other orders for the pay- 
ment of money, notes, or other evidences of indebtedness issued in the name of 
the corporation, shall be signed by such officer or officers, agent or agents of the 
corporation and in such manner as shall from time to time be determined by 
resolution of the Board of Directors. In the absence of such determination by 
the Board of Directors, such instruments shall be signed by the Secretary- 
Treasurer. 

Section 3. Deposits. All funds of the corporation shall be deposited from time 
to time to the credit of the corporation in such banks, trust companies, or other 
depositaries as the Board of Directors may select. 

Section 4. Gifts. The Board of Directors may accept on behalf of the cor- 
poration any contribution, gift, bequest, or device for the general purposes or 
for any special purpose of the corporation. 

ARTICLE X.TT 

BOOKS AND RECORDS 

The corporation shall keep correct and complete books and records of account 
and shall also keep minutes of the proceedings of its members, Board of Directors, 
and committees having any of the authority of the Board of Directors, and shall 
keep at the registered or principal office a record giving the names and addresses 
of the members entitled to vote. All books and records of the corporation may 
be Inspected by any member or his agent or attorney for any proper purpose at 
any reasonable time. 

ARTICLE XIII 

FISCAL TEAR 

The fiscal year of the corporation shall begin on the first day of July in each 
year and end on the last day of June of the following year. 

ARTICLE XIV 

DUES 

Section 1. Annual Dues. The dues for active members shall be $2.50 for each 
calendar year. 



CONSTITUTION vii 

Section 2. Election Fee. An election fee of $1,00 shall be paid in advance by 
each applicant for active membership. 

Section 3. Payment of Dues. Dues for each calendar year shall be payable in 
advance on or before the first day of January of that year. Notice of dues for 
the ensuing year shall be mailed to members at the time set for mailing the 
primary ballots. 

Section 4. Default and Termination of Membership. Annual membership shall 
terminate automatically for those members whose dues remain unpaid after the 
first day of January of each year. Members so in default will be reinstated on 
payment of the annual dues plus a reinstatement fee of fifty cents. 

ARTICLE XV 

SEAL 

The Board of Directors shall provide a corporate seal which shall be in the 
form of a circle and shall have inscribed thereon the name of the corporation and 
the words "Corporate Seal, Illinois." 

ARTICLE XVI 

WAIVER OF NOTICE 

Whenever any notice whatever is required to be given under the provisions of 
the General Not For Profit Corporation Act of Illinois or under the provisions 
of the Articles of Incorporation or the by-laws of the corporation, a waiver 
thereof in writing signed by the person or persons entitled to such notice, whether 
before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent to the giving 
of such notice. 

ARTICLE XVH 

AME3SDMENTS 

Section L Amendments by Directors. The constitution and by-laws may be 
altered or amended at any meeting of the Board of Directors duly called and 
held, provided that an affirmative vote of at least five directors shall be required 
for such action. 

Section 2. Amendments ty Members. By petition of twenty-five or more active 
members duly filed with the Secretary-Treasurer, a proposal to amend the con- 
stitution and by-laws shall be submitted to all active members by United 
States mail together with ballots on which the members shall vote for or against 
the proposal. Such ballots shall be returned by United States mail to the office 
of the Secretary-Treasurer within twenty-one days after date of mailing of the 
proposal and ballots by the Secretary-Treasurer. The Secretary-Treasurer or a 
committee appointed by the Board of Directors for that purpose shall count the 
ballots and advise the members of the result. A vote in favor of such proposal 
by two-thirds of the members voting thereon shall be required for adoption of 
such amendment. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF 
DIRECTORS OF THE SOCIETY DURING 1945 

I. MEETING OF FEBBUABT 24 AT CHICAGO 

The Board of Directors met at the Shoreland Hotel, the following members 
being present: Brownell (Chairman), Charters, Horn, and Henry (Secretary). 

1. The Secretary reported that the annual election of 1944 resulted in the re- 
election of Messrs. Brownell and Charters, each for a second term beginning 
March 1, 1945. 

2. Mr. Horn was elected Chairman of the Board for the ensuing year. Mr. 
Henry was re-elected Secretary-Treasurer for a term of three years. 

3. The Board approved a proposal for transferring the agency for the sale 
of yearbooks to the University of Chicago Press, arrangements having been made 
at the University for removal to the Press of the publications office of the Depart- 
ment of Education, through which the yearbooks have been distributed since 
1943. 

4. Mr. Brownell reported that satisfactory progress was being made on the 
yearbook, The Measurement of Understanding, and that most of the manuscripts 
would be availab e for examination by the committee at the meeting to be held 
in April. 

5. The Secretary presented the report of the committee on educational ad- 
ministration. The Board approved the request of Chairman Grace that Mr. 
Stoddard be appointed a member of this committee. 

6. Mr. Horn explained the projected plan of the National Council for the 
Social Studies and the National Council of Geography Teachers for the publica- 
tion of a yearbook on geography. The Board requested Mr. Horn to confer with 
the chairman of the joint committee appointed by these organizations with the 
view of detennining whether or not it would be desirable for the Society to co- 
operate with that committee in the preparation of the proposed yearbook. 

7. The Secretary was instructed to request Professor William S. Gray to 
prepare an outline of a possible yearbook on reading in accordance with the 
tentative proposal he presented for consideration at the last Board meeting. 

8. Mr. Charters was requested to conduct inquiries concerning the possible 
need for a yearbook dealing with the problem of juvenile delinquency. 

H. MEETING OF JUNE 10 AT CHICAGO 

The Board of Directors met at the Shoreland Hotel, the following members 
being present: Brownell, Charters, Ereeman, Horn (Chairman), and Henry 
(Secretary). 

1. After reviewing a statement of the present status of the securities and 
savings accounts of the Society, the Board instructed the Secretary to reduce 
the savings deposits, which amounted to approximately $4,800, to a maximum of 

is 



x PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

$ 2,500, the sums withdrawn from the cash reserves in savings banks to be in- 
vested in appropriate securities, 

2. The Board adopted an amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws to 
provide an additional class of membership in the Society to be designated life 
membership. [The text of this amendment appears in paragraph (d) under 
Section 1, Article IV, of the Constitution and By-Laws as printed in this year- 
book.] 

3. The Board adopted an amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws in 
furtherance of the established policy of the Society in maintaining an appropriate 
representation on the Board of Directors of the various institutions and agencies 
with which members of the Society are identified. [The text of this amendment 
appears as the final clause of the third sentence of paragraph (b) of Section 3, 
Article V, of the Constitution and By-Laws as printed in this yearbook.] 

4. The Secretary reported the proceedings of the meeting of the committee 
on educational administration, held in Albany on June 1. The Board approved 
recommendations of the committee relative to certain modifications of the earlier 
outline of the yearbook. 

5. The Board reviewed the proposal for a yearbook on early childhood educa- 
tion submitted by Mr. N. S. Light, Director of the Bureau of Supervision, 
State Department of Education, Hartford, Connecticut. The Secretary was in- 
structed to summarize the suggestions offered by the Board for modification 
of the outline and to request Mr. Light to confer with Mr. Stoddard and Miss 
Goodykoontz relative to the final revision of the outline and the selection of 
members of the committee for the preparation of the yearbook. 

6. Mr. Horn reported the status of his negotiations with representatives of the 
National Council for the Social Studies and the National Council of Geography 
Teachers regarding their plans for a yearbook on geography. The Secretary was 
instructed to prepare a statement relative to the financial requirements of this 
project for consideration at the next meeting of the Board. 

7. The Board considered the plan suggested by Professor Gray for a year- 
book on reading and requested that the proposal be revised for reconsideration 
at the next meeting, 

8. Mr. Freeman reported on his conference with Dr. Eurich relative to a sug- 
gested yearbook dealing with the college curriculum. The Board requested Mr. 
Freeman to continue his inquiries regarding a yearbook in this area and to 
report at a later meeting. 

9. Mr, Charters presented a written report of the results of his exploration 
of the problem of juvenile delinquency, including comments of a number of per- 
sons who responded to his inquiry. The Board requested Mr. Charters to con- 
tinue this inquiry and to seek advice relative to appropriate selections of per- 
sonnel for the yearbook committee. 

III. MEETING OF OCTOBEB 21 AT CHICAGO 

The Board of Directors met at the Shoreland Hotel, the following members 
being present: Brownell, Freeman, Horn (Chairman), Melby, and Henry (Secre- 
tary). 



PROCEEDINGS OP THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS XL 

1. The Secretary reported that the membership of the Society had increased 
to 1583 during the present year, the number enrolled for the year 1944 being 
1355. 

2. Mr. Charters being absent on account of illness, the report of his inquiry 
concerning the problem of juvenile delinquency was presented by one of his 
associates. The selection of members of the committee for this yearbook was 
deferred to a later date. 

3. In view of transportation difficulties, the Board decided that it would not 
be advisable to plan for meetings for discussion of the yearbooks in connection 
with the Regional Conferences of the American Association of School Administra- 
tors. 

4. Mr. Horn reported that further conferences would be required before 
suitable arrangements might be made for co-operation with the geography com- 
mittee of the National Council for the Social Studies and the National Council 
of Geography Teachers. 

5. The Board approved Mr. light's recommendations of members of the 
committee on early childhood education and appropriated SI ,000 for expenses 
of the committee. 

6. Mr. Brownell presented the proposal of Professor Victor Noll for a year- 
book on science. This proposal was approved and an appropriation made for 
expenses of the committee. Professor Noll was appointed chairman of the com- 
mittee. 

7. The Secretary presented a communication from Professor Edgar Dale to the 
effect that it would not be possible for him to serve as chairman of a committee 
for the preparation of a yearbook dealing with the use of concrete materials in 
classroom instruction. Mr. Brownell and the Secretary were requested to confer 
with Professor Stephen M. Corey regarding a yearbook in this field. 

8. Mr. Horn was appointed as representative of the Board in further negotia- 
tions with Professor Gray regarding the proposed yearbook on reading. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER OF THE SOCIETY 
19441945 

Receipts and Disbursements 
Receipts: 

Membership dues S 4,513.21 

Fees for quotations 3 . 00 

Sales of yearbooks 10,068.67 

Payments on principal of notes 2,877.01 

Interest on notes 312.71 

Interest and dividends on securities 279 . 26 

Interest on savings accounts 106.46 

Miscellaneous , 38.55 



Total receipts 18,198.87 

Disbursements: 
Yearbooks: 

Manufacturing and distributing S 7,635.78 

Reprinting 2,632.34 

Preparation 1,816.85 

Meetings 1,047.75 

Secretary's office: 

Editorial, secretarial, and clerical services 3,081.50 

Supplies 274.90 

Telephone and telegraph 60.32 

Auditing 200.00 

Miscellaneous 287.85 

Purchase of securities 3,000.00 



Total disbursements $20,037.29 

Excess of disbursements over receipts - $1,838.42 

Cash in banks at beginning of year 5; 619. 38 

Cash in banks at end of year $3,780.96 



xiii 



xiv TREASURER'S REPORT 

STATEMENT OF CASH, SECURITIES, AND 

NOTES RECEIVABLE 

As of June 30, 1945 

Cash: 

University National Bank, Chicago, Illinois, Checking account $ 1,280.96 
Danvers Savings Bank, Danvers, Massachusetts, Savings ac- 
count 1,500.00 

Salem Five Cents Savings Bank, Salem, Massachusetts, Savings 

account 1,000.00 



S 3,780.96 

Securities: 
Bonds: 

Cost 

$1,000 Pennsylvania R.R. Co. General Mortgage, 4f% due 

6/1/65 $ 960.00 

200 Canada Atlantic Ry. Co. Cons. 1st Mortgage, 4% due 

1/1/55 937.98 

200 Canada Atlantic Ry. Co, Cons. 1st Mortgage, 4% due 

1/1/55 928.26 

$8,200 U.S. of America Savings Bonds, Series "G," 2J%, due 

12 years from issue date 8,200.00 

$1,000 dated 9/1/43 

SI, 500 dated 2/1/44 

$2,700 dated 5/1/44 

$2,000 dated 2/1/45 

$1,000 dated 4/1/45 
Stock: 

25 Shares First National Bank of Boston, Capital stock . . 1 ,031 . 25 



Total securities $12,057.49 



Notes receivable, Public School Publishing Company: 

4% Secured note dated 1/2/43 due on or before 1/2/49 . . . $ 5 , 367 . 00 
4% Unsecured note dated 1/2/43, due on or before 1/2/49 . . 1,242.24 



Total notes receivable $6,609.24 



Total assets $32,447.69 

NELSON B. HENRY, Treasurer 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR 
THE STUDY OF EDUCATION 

(This list includes all persons enrolled December 31, 1945, whether for 
1945 or 1946. Asterisk indicates Life Members of the Society.) 

HONOEARY MEMBERS 

Dewey, Emeritus Professor John, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 
Holmes, Manfred J., Illinois State Normal University, Normal, III. 

ACTIVE MEMBERS 

Abelson, Dr. Harold H., College of the City of New York, New York, N.Y. 

Abernethy, Professor Ethel M., Queens College, Charlotte, N.C. 

Abernethy, Dr. R. R., Superintendent of Schools, Brookline, Upper Darby, Pa. 

Abraham, H. G., Superintendent of Schools, Woodstock, 111. 

Acuff, Davis H., Superintendent of Schools, Troy, Mo. 

Adams, H. W., Superintendent of Schools, Eureka, Calif, 

Adams, Ruby M., Director, Elementary Education, Cumberland, Md. 

Addicott, Dr. Irwin 0., Asst. Supt,, Fresno City Schools, Fresno, Calif. 

Adell, James C., Chief, Bureau of Educ. Research, Cleveland, Ohio 

Aiken, E. S., Supervisor, Rapides Parish Schools, Alexandria, La. 

Albright, Frank S., Asst. Principal, Froebel School, Gary, Ind. 

Alexis, Brother, S.C., Dean, St. Joseph's House of Studies, Metuchen, N.J. 

Allen, Clara B., 145 East Maple Avenue, Ottumwa, Iowa 

Allen, D. W., Director of Education, Ohio State Reformatory, Mansfield, Ohio 

Allen, Edward E., Supervising Principal of Schools, Akron, N. Y. 

Allen, Ross L., Professor of Health Educ,, State Teachers College, Cortland, N.Y. 

Allman, H. B., Superintendent of Schools, Muncie, Ind, 

Amberson, Professor Jean D., Home Economics Bldg., State College, Pa. 

Ambrose, Professor Luther M., Box 514, College Station, Berea, Ky. 

Ambruster, John R., Principal, The Greendale School, Greendale, Wis. 

Anderson, Esther L., Superintendent of Public Instruction, Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Anderson, G. Lester, Director, University High School, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Anderson, Harold Albert, Dept. of Education, University of Chicago, Chicago, HI. 

Anderson, Harry D., Supt., Ottawa Township High School, Ottawa, HI. 

Anderson, Howard R., School of Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Anderson, J. L., Superintendent of Schools, Trenton, Mich, 

Anderson, John E., Dir., Inst. of Child Welfare, Univ. of Minn., Minneapolis, Minn, 

Anderson, Marion, Ginn and Company, Boston, Mass. 

Andrews, Annie, Supervisor, Amite County Elem. Schools, Liberty, Miss. 

Andrus, Ruth, State Department of Education, Albany, N.Y. 

Angell, John H., 5555 Woodlawn Ave., Cidcago, HI. 

Anketell, Richard N., Superintendent of Schools, North Adams, Mass. 

Antell, Henry, 120 Kenilworth PL, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Archer, C. P., Lt. Col., AUS, 1381 N. Qeveland Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Armstrong, Sara M., State Normal School, Framingham Center, Mass. 

Arrants, John H., Superintendent of City Schools, Bristol, Tenn. 

Arsenian, Professor Seth, Springfield College, Springfield, Mass. 

Artley, A. Sterl, Stephens College, Columbia, Mo. 

Asgis, Dr. Alfred J., 7 East Forty-second St., New York, N.Y, 

Ashbaugh, Dr. Ernest J., Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 

Atkinson, William N., Dean, Jackson Junior College, Jackson, Mich. 

Avery 3 George T., Marvin Avenue, Los Altos, Calif. 

Ayer, Jean, 8 Scholes Lane, Essex, Conn. 

xv 



xvi MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 

Babcock, E. H., Superintendent of Public Schools, Grand Haven, Mich. 

Babeock, George T., 182 Second Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

Backus, Joyce, Librarian, State College, San Jose, Calif. 

Baer, Dr. Joseph A., State Department of Education, Hartford, Conn. 

Bagley, Professor William C., 525 West 120th St., New York, N. Y. 

Bailey, Dwight L., Western Illinois Teachers College, Macomb, 111. 

Bailey, Francis L., President, State Teachers College, Gorham, Me. 

Bailey, Thomas D., Supervisor of Schools, Tampa, Fla. 

Baker, Edith M., Acting Librarian, Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 

Baker, Harold V., Principal, Daniel Webster School, New Rochelle, N.Y. 

Baker, Dr. Harry J., Director, Psychological Clinic, Detroit, Mich. 

Baker, Lt. Col. Harry Leigh, 1901 B St., Lincoln, Neb. 

Baker, Ira Young, Supervising Principal, Manchester, Pa. 

Baker, M. P., Superintendent of Schools, Corpus Christi, Tex. 

Baldwin, Professor Robert D., West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va. 

Ball, George, Principal, Chatham Junior High School, Savannah, Ga. 

Balyeat, Professor F. A., University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

Bamberger, Professor Florence E., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Barber, Fred H., Box 247, Emory, Va. 

Bardy, Joseph, Bellerich Apartments, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Bare, J. M., 2009 Bennett Ave., Chattanooga, Term. 

Barrett, Rt. Rev. Msgr. John I. Deceased, 

Barrie, Margaret J., Principal, Lincoln School, Hawthorne, N.J. 

Barth, Rev. Pius J., St. Peter's Church, 816 S. Clark St., Chicago, 111. 

Barthold, Harold J., Supervising Principal, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Bartlett, Roland 0., Principal, Westmount Senior High School, Westmount, Que. 

Bash, Abraham, 162 East Fifty-second St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Batchelder, Mildred L., American Library Association, Chicago, HI. 

Bateman, Dr. E. Allen, Supt. of Public Instruction, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Baugher, Dr. Jacob L, Dept. of Educ., Manchester College, North Manchester, Ind. 

Beall, Dr. Ross H,, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Okla. 

Bear, Professor Robert M., Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. 

Beardsley, Florence E., State Department of Education, Salem, Ore. 

Bechtel, Blair B,, Moorestown High School, Moorestown, N.J. 

Beck, Professor Hubert Park, 523 West 121st St., New York, N.Y. 

Bedell, Professor Ralph C., University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

Beechel, Professor Edith E., University Elementary School, Athens, Ohio 

Behrens, Minnie, Sam Houston State Teachers College, Huntsville, Tex. 

Bell, Dorothy M., President, Bradford Junior College, Bradford, Mass. 

Bell, Dr. Millard D,, Superintendent of Schools, Wilmette, HL 

Bell, R. W., Principal, Jenkintown High School, Jenkintown, Pa. 

Bemer, C. W., Superintendent of Schools, Muskegon, Mich. 

Bender, John F., School of Education, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

Banner, Thomas E., College of Education, University of Illinois, Urbana, HI. 

Benson, J. R., 6131 Magnolia Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Benz, HL E., College of Education, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

Berg, Locksley D., Principal, Monroe School, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Berg, Selmer H., Superintendent of Schools, Kockford, HI. 

Bergan, EL W., Superintendent of Schools, Browning, Mont. 

Bergesen, B. E., Jr., Educational Test Bureau, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Bergman, Frank V., Superintendent of Schools, Manhattan, TTa.n 

Bergquist, E. B., Superintendent of Schools, Rapid City, S. D. 

Berkson, I. B., 39 Claremont Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Berman, Dr. Samuel, Principal, FitzSimons Junior High School, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Berry, Professor Charles S., School of Educ., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio. 

Best, Howard R., Supervising Principal, Cranford, N.Y. 

Betts, Emmett A., Dir., Reading Clinic, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Beumer, Edward H., 6462 Devonshire St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Bickel, Dr. L. G., Dean, Concordia Teachers College, Seward, Neb. 

Bigelow, Karl W.,American Council on Education, Washington, D.C. 

Billett, Professor Roy 0., Boston University, Boston, Mass. 

Billig, Dr. Florence Grace, College of Educ., Wayne University, Detroit, Mich. 

Binnie, Clara G., 9 Tennis Crescent, Toronto, Ont. 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY xvii 

Bishop, Frank E., Superintendent of Schools, Corona, CaHf . 

Bishop, S. D., Principal, Community High School, West Chicago, 111. 

Bixler, H. H., Dir., Research and Guidance, Bd of Educ., Atlanta, Ga. 

Bixler, Professor Lorin, Muskingum College, New Concord, Ohio 

Black, H. B., Superintendent of Schools, Mattoon, HI. 

Black, Dr. Leo P., Department of Public Instruction, Lincoln, Neb. 

Blackburn, J. Albert, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Blackwell, G. L., Superintendent of Schools, St. Joseph, Mo. 

Blair, Professor Glenn M., College of Educ., Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Blodgett, Darrell R., Superintendent of Schools, Jacksonville, HI. 

Blommers, Paul, 12 Woolf Court, Iowa City, Iowa 

Bloomingdale, Lewis M., Jr., Elm Ridge Farm, Scarsdale, N.Y. 

Boardman, Professor Charles W., College of Educ., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 

Min TV 

Boehm, Charles H., County Superintendent, Doylestown, Pa. 
Boehme, W. F., Superintendent, Wayne Schools, Cable, Ohio 
Boggan, T. K., Superintendent, Carthage Consolidated Schools, Carthage, Miss. 
Boland, Professor Michael P., St. Joseph's College, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Bole, Lyman, W., Superintendent of Schools, Springfield, Vt. 
Bole, Rita L., Principal, State Normal School, Lyndon Center, Vt. 
Bolton, Professor Frederick E., University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 
Bond, G. W., Louisiana Polytechnic Institute, Ruston, La. 
Bond, J. C., Dean, Teachers College, Kansas City, Mo. 
Book, Clare B., Principal, Senior High School, New Castle, Pa. 
Booker, Ivan A., Research Division, N.E.A., Washington, D.C. 
Bookwalter, Professor Karl W., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 
Booth, John M., Superintednent of Schools, Kellogg, Idaho 
Boraas, Julius, St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minn, 
Boros, Arnold L., 396 East 170th St., New York, N.Y. 
Bosshart, John H., Commissioner of Education, Trenton, N.J. 
Bossing, Professor Nelson L., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Mian. 
Boston, W. T., Superintendent, Dorchester County Schools, Cambridge, Md. 
Boswell, Sidney, Principal, Glynn Academy, Brunswick, Ga. 
Bourgeois, William L., Superintendent of Schools, Jewett City, Conn. 
Bowen, H. S., 106J N. Monroe Ave., Columbus, Ohio 

Bowman, Clyde A., Dir., Dept. of Industrial Arts, Stout lust., Menomonie, Wis. 
Bowyer, Veraon, Board of Education, 228 N. LaSaUe St., Chicago, 111. 
Boyce, Arthur Clifton, American Mission, Teheran, Iran 
Boyd, Fred, Spear Lake School, Marked Tree, Ark. 
Boyne, Edwin M., Superintendent of Schools, Mason, Mich. 
Bracken, John L., 7500 Maryland Ave., Clayton, Mo. 
Brandon, Helen D., 348 Mentor Ave., Painesville, Ohio 
Brammell, Roy, Dean, School of Educ., Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn. 
Branigan, John, Superintendent of Schools, Redlands, Calif. 
Branom, Frederick K, Chicago Teachers College, Chicago, HI. 
Branom, Dr. Wayne T., Supervising Principal, Hillside, NX 
Brantley, G. D., Principal, Summer High School, St. Louis, Mo. 
Brechbill, Professor Henry, University of Maryland, College Park, Md. 
Breed, Professor Frederick S., Dune Acres, Chesterton, Ind. 
Bresnehen, Dr. Ella L., Dir., Dept. Ed. Investigation and Meas., Boston, Mass. 
Brewer, Karl M., Superintendent of Schools, DuBois, Pa. 
Brickman, Benjamin, Dept. of Education, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Bridgett, Alice E., Colony Street School, Wallingford, Conn. 
Bright, 0. T., Jr., Superintendent of Schools, Lake Bluff, DL 
Brin, Joseph G., Bfoston University, Boston, Mass. 
Brinkley, Sterling G., Emory University, Emory University, Ga. 
Brinkman, Rev. Gervase J., O.F.M., St. Joseph College, Westmont, HI. 
Brish, William M. t Prince George's County Schools, Upper Marlboro, Md. 
Brislawn, Maurice J., Principal, Kessler Blvd. School, lingview, Wash- 
Bristol, L. M., University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla, 

Bristow, William H., Bureau of Ref ., Research, and Statistics, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Britton, Edward C., 10015 Eighty-seventh Ave., Edmonton, Alta. 
Broening, Angela M., 2 Millbrook Road, Baltimore, Md. 



xviii MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 

Bronfenbrenner, Lt. Urie, Borden General Hospital, Chickasha, Okla, 

Bronson, Moses L., 870 Seventh Ave., New York, N.Y. 

Brooks, Charles D., Vice-Principal, Stanton High School, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Brooks, Professor Mary B., Georgia State College for Women, Milledgeville, Ga. 

Brougher, John F,, 5804 Eleventh St., N., Arlington, Va. * 

Brown, Professor Clara M., University Farm, Univ. of Minn., St. Paul, Minn. 

Brown, Dorph, Dean, Herzl Junior College, Chicago, 111. 

Brown, Edward W., Headmaster, Calvert School, Baltimore, Md. 

Brown, Francis W., Superintendent, Ottawa Hills Schools, Toledo, Ohio 

Brown, George Earl, Superintendent of Schools, Ocean City, N.J. 

Brown, Harold N., School of Education, University of Nevada^ Reno, Nev. 

Brown, Harold S.. President, Chas. E. Merrill Co., Inc., New York, N.Y. 

Brown, Hugh S., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn,. 

Brown, Joseph C., Superintendent of Schools, Pelham, N.Y. 

Brown, Josephine H., State Teachers College, Bowie, Md. 

Brown, Marjorie Bowling, Manual Arts High School, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Brown, Nina H., Simpson College, Indianola, Iowa 

Brown, Ralph Adams, Cornish Flat, N.H. 

Brown, Raymond N., Superintendent of Schools, Meriden, Conn. 

Brown, Stella E., State Teachers College, Towson, Md. 

Brownell, Professor S. M., Grad, School, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

Brownell, Professor W. A., Duke University, Durham, N.C. 

Browning, Roy W., Professor of Education, Ottawa University, Ottawa, Kan. 

Bruce, Homer A., State Teachers College, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Bruce, M.E., Superintendent of Schools, East St. Louis, Dl. 

*Bruck, John P., 218 Potters Corners Road, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Bnieckner, Prof. Leo J,, Col. of Educ., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Brumbaugh, A, J., American Council on Education, Washington, D.C. 

Brunner, Howard B., Supervising Principal of Schools, Scotch Plains, N.J. 

Bryan, Joseph G., Director of Secondary Education, Kansas City, Mo. 

Bryant, Alice G., River Road, Hampton, Va. 

Bryant, Ira B., Principal, Booker T. Washington High School, Houston, Tex. 

Buchanan, James H., Superintendent of Schools, Boulder, Colo. 

Buchanan, William D., Gundlach School, St. Louis, Mo, 

Buckingham, Dr. B. R., Ginn and Company, Boston, Mass. 

Buckingham, Guy E., Chm., Div. of Educ., Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa. 

Buckner, W. N., Phelps Vocational High School, Washington, D. C. 

Bullock, W. J,, Superintendent of Schools, Kannapolis, N.C. 

Burch, Irving B., II, 2802| Dowling St., Houston, Tex. 

Burk, Cassie, State Teachers College, Fredonia, N.Y. 

Burke, Arvid J., New York State Teachers Assn., Albany, N.Y. 

Burkhardt. Allen P., Superintendent of Schools, Norfolk, Neb. 

Burnett, C. E., Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Corpus Christi, Tex* 

Buraham, Archer L., Neb. State Teachers Assn,, Lincoln, Neb. 

Burns, Robert L., Principal, Qiffside Park High School, Cliffside Park, N.J. 

Euros, Francis C., Asst. Superintendent of Schools, White Plains, N.Y. 

Burt, C. Vinton, Superintendent of Schoojs, River Forest, 111. 

Bush, Jarvis EL, Eton Publishing Corp., New York, N.Y. 

Bush, Maybelle G., State Department of Public Instruction, Madison, Wis. 

Bush, Robert N., Dir., Appointment Service, Stanford University, Calif. 

Bushnell, Almon W., Superintendent of Schools, Meredith, N.H. 

Buswell, Professor G. T., Dept. of Educ., University of Chicago, Chicago, Dl. 

Butterweck, Joseph S., Professor of Education, Temple Univ., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Butterworth, Professor Julian E., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Butz, Franklin J., Superintendent of Schools, Waynesboro, Pa, 

Byerly, Carl L., Principal, Wydown School, Clayton, Mo. 

Caleia, Lillian Acton, State Teachers College, Newark ,N.J. 

Calden, Mary Frances, Principal, Bannigan and Taylor Schools, New Bedford, Mass. 

Cameron, Walter C,, Principal, Lincoln Junior High School, Framingham, Mass. 

Camp, Dr. H. L., 44 N- Tenth St., Indiana, Pa. 

Campos, Maria dos Reis, University of the Federal District, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 

Carleton, Linus J. r Superintendent of Schools, Helena, Mont. 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY xix 

Carlson, C. E., Superintendent of Schools, Ramsay, Mich. 

Carpenter, W. W., 304 Jesse Hall, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Carroll, Mrs. James J., 119 Grand St., Jersey City, N.J. 

Carroll, Professor Paul, Georgia State College for Women, Milledgeville, Ga. 

Carruth, Professor J. E., South Georgia Teachers College, Collegeboro, Ga. 

Carter, Gordon L., County Superintendent of Schools, BelHngham, Wash. 

Carter, Professor W. R., University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Cassel, Lloyd S., Superintendent of Schools, Freehold, N.J. 

Cassell, George F., Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Chicago, 111. 

Cassidy, Dr. Rosalind, Mills College, Oakland, Calif. 

Caswell, Hollis L., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Caton, Anne J., Principal, Hale School, Everett, Mass. 

Cavan, Professor Jordan, Rockford College, Rockford, HI. 

Chadderdon, Professor Hester, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa 

Chadwick, Raymond D., Dean, Duluth Junior College, Duluth, Minn. 

Chambers, Maj. M. M., American Council on Education, Washington, D.C. 

Chambers, W. Max, Superintendent of Schools, Okmulgee, Okla. 

Champlin, Professor Carroll D., Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa. 

Chandler, Professor H. E., 2245 Rhode Island St., Lawrence, Kan. 

Chandler, Turner C., 8717 Harper Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Chapelle, Ernest H., Superintendent of Schools, Ypsilanti, Mich. 

*Charters, Professor W. W., Stephens College, Columbia, Mo. 

Chase, Lawrence S., County Superintendent of Schools, Newark, N.J, 

Chase, Professor W. Linwood, Boston University, Boston, Mass. 

Chaucey, Professor Marlin R. T Okla. Agri. and Mech. College, Stillwater, Okla. 

Chidester, Albert J., Head, Education Department, Berea College, Berea, Ky. 

Chisholm, Professor Leslie L,, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

Choate, Ernest A., Principal, Fitler School, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Christensen, Dr. Arnold M., State Teachers College, Moorhead, Minn. 

Christensen, W. W., Superintendent of Schools, Idaho Falls, Idaho 

Christenson, Christine A., County Superintendent of Schools, Marinette, Wis. 

Christman, Paul S., Supv. Principal, Schuylkill Haven School Dist., Schuylkill, Pa. 

Church, Harold H., Superintendent of Schools, Elkhart, Ind. . 

Clark, Eugene A., President, Miner Teachers College, Washington, D.C. 

Clark, M, R., Superintendent of Schools, Sac City, Iowa 

Clarke, Katherine, 6623 Kingsbury St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Clement, William Woodward, Principal, East High School, Kansas City, Mo. 

Clones, Paul, Submaster, Harvard School, Charlestown, Mass. 

Clugston, Dean Herbert A., State Teachers College, St. Cloud, Minn. 

Coats, Capt. Alva J., P.O. Box 144, Mesilla Park, N.M. 

Cobb, B. B., 410 East Weatherford, Fort Worth, Tex. 

Cobb, T. H., Superintendent of Schools, Urbana, El. 

Cochran, Professor T. E., Centre College, Danville, Ky. 

Cochran, Warren B., 112 Schennerhorn St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Cochrane, Roy, Vallejp Unified School System, Vallejo, Calif. 

Coetzee, Dr. J. Christian, 20 Reitz St., Potchefstroom, South Africa 

Coffey, Witford L., Route 2, Lake City, Mich. 

Cohen, Saris, 35 Hampton Place, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Cohler, Milton J., Principal, Cleveland School, Chicago, HI. 

Cole, C. E., Dist. Supt., Muhlenberg Township Public Schools, Berks County,Pa. 

Cole, Professor Mary I., Western Kentucy Teachers College, Bowling Green, Ky. 

Coleman, Floyd Basil Thomas, Board of Education, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Coleman, Mary Elizabeth, Dept. of Educ.. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Conaway, Freda Y., West Liberty State College, West Idberty, W. Va, 

Connor, Dr. Miles W., President, Coppin Teachers College, Baltimore, Md. 

Connor, William L., Superintendent of Schools, Allentown, Pa. 

Cook, Walter W., College of Edue., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Coon, Beulah L, U.S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C. 

Coon, W. Edwin, Principal, East Higjb School, Erie, Pa. 

Cooper, Louis, Arkansas State Teachers College, Conway, Ark. 

Cooper, Dr. Shirley, Stone Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Copeland, S. D., County Superintendent of Schools, Augusta, Ga. 

Corbally, Professor John R, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 



xx MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 

Corey, Professor Stephen M., Dept. of Educ., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, HI. 

Cornehlsen, John H., Jr., Lt. Comdr., USNR, 116 Moncure Drive, Alexandria, Va. 

Cornette, Professor James P., Western Ky. State Teachers CoL, Bowling Green, Ky. 

Cotter, Rev. John P., Headmaster, St. John's Prep. School, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Coultrap, H. M., Geneva, HI. 

Courter, Claude V., Superintendent of Schools, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Courtis, Professor S. A., 9110 D wight Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Cox, Floyd B., Superintendent, Monongalia County Schls., Morgantown, W.Va. 

Coxe, Dr. W. W., State Education Department, Albany, N.Y. 

Crackel, Verne E., Superintendent of Schools, Crete, 111. 

Cragin, S. Albert, 156 South Main St., Reading, Mass. 

Crago, Professor Alfred, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 

Craig, Professor G. S., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Crawford, Professor C. C., Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif . 

Crawford, J. R., School of Education, University of Maine, Orono, Me. 

Crawford, Dean Robert T., Glenville State Teachers College, Glenville, W.Va. 

Creswell, Horace Staley, Principal, Junior High School, Stephenville, Tex. 

Crofoot, Bess L., Elementary School Supervisor, Warren, Mich. 



Cronbach, Lee J., School of Education, State College of Wash., Pullman, Wash. 

Cross, A. C., University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

Cross, C. Willard, Superintendent of Schools, Faribault, Minn. 

Cross, Charles H., Dir., Univ. Training School, Univ. of Ark., Fayetteville, Ark. 

Crull, Howard D., Superintendent of Schools, Port Huron, Mich. 

Crunden, Marjorie Morse, 22 St. Luke's Place, Montclair, N.J. 

Cunliffe, Professor R. B., Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J. 

Cunningham, Rev. Msgr. Daniel, Superintendent of Catholic Schools, Chicago, HI. 

Cunningham, J., Librarian, Cossitt Library, Memphis, Term. 

Currey, Bertha E., State Teachers College, Jersey City, N J. 

Curry, Lawrence H., Superintendent, District 37, Clover, S.C. 

Curtis, Professor Dwight K., Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Cusack, Alice M., Board of Education, Kansas City, Mo. 

Cutright, Prudence, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Cylkowski, Angela M., District Superintendent, Chicago, HI. 

Daly, Margaret M., 4053 West Eighth St., Cincinnati, Ohio 

Daly, Robert J., Senior High School, Watertown, N.Y. 

Darley, John O., Lt. (j.g.), Bureau of Medicine andSurgery, Navy Dept., Wash. D.C. 

Datig, Rev. Edward John, 5735 University Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Davis, Courtland V., 1003 Madison Ave., Plainfield, N.J. 

Davis, Professor Helen C., Colorado State College of Education, Greeley, Colo. 

Davis, Lawrence C., Penn College, Oskaloosa, Iowa 

Davis, Nina Preot, Louise S. McGehee School, New Orleans, La. 

Davis, Sheldon E., President, State Normal College, Dillon, Mont. 

Davis, Warren C., Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, N.Y. 

Dawaid, V. F., Superintendent of Schools, Beloit, Wis. 

Dawe, Professor Helen C., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Dawson, Professor Mildred A., 3 Knox St., Dansville, N.Y. 

Deans, Edwina, Teachers College, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Dearborn, Professor Walter F., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

DeBernardis, Amo, Supv., Audio-Visual Educ., Portland Public Schls., Portland, Ore. 

DeBoer, John J., 211 West Sixty-eighth St., Chicago, HI. 

Decker, Fred J., 106 Salisbury Road, Elsmere, N.Y. 

Deer, Professor George H., University of Louisiana, Baton Rouge, La. 

DeKoch, Henry C., 216 East Ninth St., Cincinnati, Ohio 

DeLappe, E. Maxine, Dir. of Guid., Stanislaus County Schls., Modesto, Calif . 

DeLay, Glenn A., 410 Harrison St., Topeka, Kan. 

Del Manaso, M. C., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

DeMoraavfile, Aaron F., Superintendent of Schools, Johnston, R.I. 

Deneeke, Marie G., Wilson Teachers College, Washington, D.C. 

DengLer, C. F,, High School, Dover, NJ. 

Dent, Ellsworth C., Society for Visual Education, Inc., Chicago, HI. 

*DeVoss, James C., Dean, San Jose State College, San Jose, Calif. 

Dexter, William A., Superintendent of Schools, Easthampton, Mass. 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY xxi 

Dey, Ramond H., Superintendent, Carbondale High School, Carbondale, HL 

DeYoung, Chris A., Dean, Tllirtoia State Normal University, Normal, 111. 

Dickison, Mary Ellen, 847 South Grand Ave., Los Angeles, Calif. 

Dickson, Bryan, Superintendent of Schools, San Angelo, Tex. 

Diederich, Rev. A. F., 10 South Park St., Madison, Wis. 

Diefendorf, Dr. J. W., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M. 

Dimmett, W. S., Superintendent of Schools, Forest Park, El, 

Dixon, Fred B., Superintendent of Schools, Bast Lansing, Mich. 

Dodd, M. R., Asst. Supt. Kanawha County Schools, Charleston, W.Va. 

Doll, Edgar A., Training School, Vineland, N. J. 

Donn, Leo A., Standard Evening High School, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dormer, Arvin N., Dir., School of Educ., Univ. of Houston, Houston, Tex. 

Donohue, Professor Francis J., University of Detroit, Detroit, Mich. 

Donohue, John J., 2219 Lyon Avenue, Bronx, New York, N.Y. 

Dotson, John A., Dir., Curriculum and Research, Public Schools, Louisville, Ky. 

Douglass, H. R., Dir., Col. of Educ., University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

Dow, H. E., Superintendent of Schools, Humeston, Iowa 

Downs, Dr. Martha, 120 Baker Ave., Wharton, NJ. 

Doyle, Florence A., District Superintendent, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Drake, Professor William E., University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Dransfield, J. Edgar, 1340 Sussex Road, West Englewood, NJ. 

Draper, Professor Edgar M., University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 

Duce, Rev. Hugh M., S.J., Regional Director of Education, San Jose, Calif. 

Duell, Henry W., 4247 Alden Drive, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Dunigan, Rev. David R., S.J., Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

Dunkle, John L., Principal, State Teachers College, Frostburg, Md. 

Durrell, Professor Donald D., Boston University, Boston, Mass. 

Dyde, Dean W. F., University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 

Dynes, Dr. John J., Western State College of Colorado, Gunnison, Colo. 

Dysart, Professor Bonnie K, Texas Technological College, Lubbock, Tex. 

Dyson, Dean Luther H., Southeastern Louisiana College, Hammond, La. 

Eastburn, L. A., Phoenix Union High School, Phoenix, Aria. 

Eckert, Ruth E., Col. of Educ., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Eckles, H. R., Principal, Robert E, Lee School, Richmond, Va. 

Eddy, Theo V., Superintendent of Schools, St. Clair, Mich. 

Edgar, J. W., Superintendent of Schools, Orange, Tex. 

Edmonson, Dean J. B., School of Educ., Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich, 

Edwards, Arthur U., Eastern HI. State Teachers College, Charleston, Dl. 

Edwards, Dr. H. E., Emanuel Missionary College, Berrien Springs, Mich. 

Ehrenfeld, A., 50 West Ninety-sixth St., New York, N.Y. 

Eifler, Carl, Principal, Benj. Bosse High School, Evansville, Ind. 

Einolf, W. L., Eisenlohr Annex, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Elder, Professor Ruth E., University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

Ellenoff, Louis, 17 West 182nd St., Bronx, New York, N.Y. 

EUingson, Mark, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, N.Y. 

Ellis, C. C., President Emeritus. Juniata College, Huntingdon, Pa. 

Ellis, Fred E., American Field Service, APO 465, Postmaster, New York, N.Y. 

Ellis, Stanley B., Superintendent, Elementary Schools, Sunnyvale, Calif . 

Emerson, Myrtle, State Teachers College, Horence, Ala. 

Endres, Mary P., McHenry County Schools, Woodstock, Dl. 

EngeL Anna M., 45 Tennyson Ave., Highland Park, Mich. 

Engelhardt, N. L.. Associate Superintendent of Schools, New York, N.Y. 

England, Byron, Assistant Superintendent of Public Schools, El Paso, Tex. 

Engelhart, George D. Superintendent of Schools, Leadwood, Mo. 

English. Ethel T., P,O. Box 32, Roxbury Station, Boston, Mass. 

Tgngliah, Professor H. B., CoL of Educ., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

English, Mildred, Georgia State College for Women, Milledgeville, Ga. 

Epstein, Bertram, College of the City of New York, New York, N.Y. 

Erickson, Arthur E., Superintendent of Schools, Ironwood, Mich. 

Erwin, Clyde A., Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh, N.C. 

Eskridge, Dr. T. J., Jr., Shorter College, Rome, Ga. 

Eurieh, Alvin C., Vice President, Stanford University, Calif. 



xxii MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 

Evans, Evan E. f Superintendent of Schools, Winfield, Kan. 

Evenden, Professor JE. S,, Teachers College, Columbia Univ., New York, N.Y. 

Everts, Ora Lee, State Teachers College, Glassboro, N. J. 

Ewing, P. L., Superintendent of Schools, Alton, HI. 

Eyman, Dean R. L., School of Educ., State College for Women, Tallahassee, Fla. 

Fairchild, W. W., Superintendent of Schools, Rutland, Vt. 

Falk, Philip H., Superintendent of Schools, Madison, Wis. 

Fast, L. W., Superintendent of Schools, Mt. Clemens, Mich. 

Ferriss, Professor Emery N., State Col. of Agri., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. 

Fessenden, Hart, The Fessenden School, West Newton, Mass. 

Fielstra, Clarence, Dir. of Curriculum, County Schools, San Diego, Calif. 

Finch, Professor F. H., University of Illinois, Urbana, HI. 

FinoUey, Warren G., State Education Department, Albany, N.Y. 

Fink, Ollie E., Exec. Secy., Friends of the Land, Columbus, Ohio 

Fink, R. M., University, Miss. 

Fink, Stuart D., Northern 111. State Teachers College, DeKalb, 111. 

Finkel, Morris C., 257A Brooklyn Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Firmer, F. F., Superintendent of Schools, Sheboygan Falls, Wis. 

Fisher, Charles A., 7350 North Twenty-first St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fisher, Mildred L, Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala. 

Fitzgerald, James A., School of Education, Fordham University, New York, N.Y. 

Fitzgerald, Professor N. E., Col. of Agri., Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Fitzpatrick, Julia M. 47 Tower Street, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Flanagan, John C., Col., 3242 Gunston Road, AlexanoMa, Va. 

Flanders, J. K., Director of Training, Oswego, N.Y. 

Fleming, C. L, 6605 Neosho St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Fleming, Dr. Charlotte M., Univ. of London Inst. of Educ., London, England 

Flesher, Professor William E.. Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Flinner, Ira A., Lake Placid Club, New York, N.Y. 

Flint, Lois H., American University, Washington, D.C. 

Flores, Zella K., Elementary Supv., Public Schools, Lewistown, Mont. 

Flynn, Very Rev. Vincent J., Pres., College of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minn. 

Foran, Professor Thomas G., Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, D.C. 

Force, Thelma, Illinois State Normal University, Normal, 111. 

Ford, Willard S., Superintendent of Schools, Glendale, Calif. 

Fordyce, W. G,, Principal, Euclid Central School, Euclid, Ohio 

Forney, E. B., Ginn and Company, St. Paul, Minn. 

Forrester, Gertrude, 71 Overpeck Ave., Ridgefield Park, N. J. 

Foster, Professor I. Owen, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Fowler, Dr, Wade C., Superintendent of Schools, Wichita, Kan. 

Fowlkes, Professor John Guy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Franzen, Professor Carl G. F., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Fraser, Dean Mowat G.> Winthrop College, Rock HiU, S.C. 

Freeman, Dean Frank N., School of Educ., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, Calif. 

Freeman, Professor Frank S., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Freeman, H. S., Superintendent of Schools, Mobridge, S.D. 

French, Harold P., District Superintendent. LoudonvUle, N.Y. 

French, Professor Will, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Fretz, Floyd C. r Superintendent of Schools, Bradford, Pa. 

Friswold, Ingolf O., Department of Education, St. Paul, Minn. 

Frizzell, Bonner, Superintendent of Public Schools, Palestine, Tex. 

Frojen, Boletha, 111 North Calhoun St., Tallahassee, Fla. 

Frost, Professor Norman, George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Terni. 

Frutchey, Fred P., U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 

Fuleomer, Edwin S., Head, Dept. of English, State Teachers Col., Montclair, N.J. 

Fullmer, Rev, David C., Asst. Supt. of Catholic Schools, Chicago, 111. 

Fuqua, Blanche, Director of Instruction, Terre Haute, Lid. 

Futrall, Alma, Department of Education, Lee County, Marianna, Ark. 

Gabbard, Hazel F., U.S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C, 

Gabel, Dr. O. J., State Teachers College, DeKalb, HI. 

Gaffney, M. P., Supt., New Trier Township High School, Winnetka, Bl. 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY xxiii 

Gage, Catharine, J. Deceased. 

Gainsburg, Joseph C., 919 Park Place, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Gaither, F. F., Dir., Teacher Educ., University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

Galloway, Henry E., Superintendent of Schools, Little Falls, N.Y. 

Gambrill, Professor Bessie Lee, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

Garcia, Hector G., George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. 

Gardiner, Ana L., 18 East Caramillo St., Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Garfield, Dr. Sol L., 5433 East View Park, Chicago, HI. 

Garinger, Dr. Elmer H., Principal, Central High School, Charlotte, N.C. 

Garlin, Professor R. E., Texas Technological College, Lubbock, Tex 

Garrett, Professor Homer L., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La. 




Gearon, James T., Vocational Educ. Div., U.S. Office of Educ., Washington, D.C, 
Geiger, Albert J., Principal, High School, St. Petersburg, Fla. 
Geiger, C. H., Dean, Coe College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 
Gentry, Dean Charles Burt, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn. 
Gentry, George H., Supt. of Schools and Dean, Junior College, Temple, Tex. 
Gerber, Ross L., Sugarcreek, Ohio 

Gerberich, Dr. J. R., Dir., Bur. of Educ. Research, Univ. of Conn., Storrs, Conn. 
Gerry, Henry L., Teachers College of the City of Boston, Boston, Mass. 
Getsinger, J. W., P.O. Box 442, La Jolla, Calif. 
Geyer, Denton L., Chicago Teachers College, Chicago, HI. 
Gibson, Joseph E., State Department of Education, Baton Rouge, La. 
Gilbert, Lee R., Principal, Euclid Central School, Euclid, Ohio 
Gilbert, Luther C., Dept. of Educ., Univ. of California, Berkeley, Calif. 
Gilland, Edwin C., Superintendent of Schools, Red Bank, N.J. 
GiJland, Thomas M, Dir. of Training, State Teachers College, California, Pa. 
Gillett, Arthur D., Superintendent of Schools, Eveleth, Minn. 
Gilmore, John V., Director, Y.M.C.A. School, Boston, Mass. 
Gilson, Harry V., State Commissioner of Education, Augusta, Me. 
Gilson, William George, 1705 North Lotus Ave., Chicago, HL 
Glad, Amos W., Superintendent of Schools, Pratt, Kan. 

Glasgow, George W., Principal, Woodrow Wilson High School, Youngstown, Ohio 
Glassbrook, Tulie Hartung, 338 Tennyson Road, Hayward, Calif. 
Goins, J. L,, Superintendent of Schools, Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Goldhammer, Keith, Superintendent of Schools, Gaston, Ore. 
Good, Professor Carter V., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Goodenough, Professor Florence L., Inst. of Child Welfare, Univ. of Minn., Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 

Goodier, Floyd T., Illinois State Normal University, Normal, HI. 
Goodwill, Glen T., Superintendent of Schools, Monterey, Calif. 
Goodykoontz, Bess, U.S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C. 
Gore, Dean George W., Jr., Agricultural and Industrial College, Nashville, Tenn. 
Gore, W. R., Superintendent, Huerfano County High Schooljl^alsenburg, Colo. 
Gorman, Burton W., Principal, Senior High School, Connersville, Ind. 
Gould, Arthur L., Superintendent of Schools, Boston, Mass. 
Gould, George, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Goulding, R, L., Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee, Fla. 
Grady, Rev. Joseph E., St. Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, N,Y. 
Graham, Hugh, John Carroll University, Cleveland Heigjhts, Cleveland, Ohio 
Gralapp, Arnold L., Superintendent of Schools, Klamath Falls, Ore. 
Graves, Professor E. Boyd Mary Washington College, Frederieksburg, Va, 
"Gray, Professor William S., University of Chicago, Chicago, HL 
Greby, Harry F. Deceased. 

Green, Professor G. Leland, Berry College, Mount Berry, Ga. 
Gregg, Russell T., Dept. of Educ., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 
Greene, Dr. Charles K, Superintendent of Schools, Denver, Colo. 
Greene, Harry A., Extension Division- State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 
Greenwell, Sister Berenice, Nazareth College, Louisville, Ky. 
Gregory, Sister M., Dean, Mt. Angel Normal School, Mt. Angel, Ore. 
Grieder, Professor Calvin, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. 



xxiv MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 

Grier, B. M., Superintendent of Schools, Athens, Ga. 

Griffin, Lee EL, Ginn and Company, Chicago, HI. 

Griffin, Margaret, University School, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

*Griffin, Margery M., 5557 Pershing Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Griffith, Professor Coleman R., University of Illinois, Urbana, HI. 

Griggs, O. C., Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Tulsa, Okla. 

Grizzard, Mabel Youree, Principal, Marvin Elementary School, Waxahachie, Tex. 

Grizzell, Professor E. D., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

*Gross, Alfred W., State Teachers CoUege, Duluth, Minn. 

Grover, Elbridge C., Superintendent of Schools, Reading, Mass. 

Gruen, Rev. Ferdinand, St. Joseph's College, Westmont, HI. 

Gruenberg, Benjamin C., 418 Central Park, West, New York, N.Y. 

Guanella, Frances J., 52 Livingston St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Gunn, Dr. Henry M., Superintendent of Schools, Eugene, Ore. 

Gurley, James G., Superintendent of Schools, Dundee, HI. 

Gussner, William S., Superintendent of Schools, Jamestown, N.D. 

Gwynn, Professor J. Minor, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 

Haas, Rev. Joseph, St. Mary's Rectory, Lakota, N.D. 

Haebich, I. E., Superintendent, Riverside-Brookfield High School, Riverside, El. 

Hagen, H, H., District Superintendent, Board of Education, Chicago, 111. 

Haggerty, Helen, Test and Research Division, Navy Department, Washington, D.C. 

Haggerty, William J., State Teachers CoUege, New Paltz, N.Y. 

Hahn, Albert R. r 317 East Seventh-fourth St., New York, N.Y. 

Haines, Andrew S., Principal, Olney High School, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Haisley, Otto W., Superintendent of Schools, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Halberg, Professor Anna D., Wilson Teachers CoEege, Washington, D.C. 

Halkyard, Marcita, Elementary Supervisor, Joliet, El. 

Hall, James A., 1934 South Josephine St., Denver, Colo. 

Hall, John W., University of Nevada, Reno, Nev. 

Hall, Professor William F., Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa. 

Hal) man, E. B., Superintendent of Schools, Spartanburg, S.C. 

Hamilton, Homer H., Washington High School, Dallas, Tex. 

Hamilton, Professor Otto T., Extension Div., Indiana Univ., Oaklandon, Ind. 

*Hamilton, W. J., Superintendent of Schools, Oak Park, HI. 

Hamley, Professor H. R., University of London, London, England 

Hanna, Lavone A., Long Beach Public Schools, Long Beach, Calif. 

Hansen, Lt. Col. Carl W., Russell, Minn. 

Hansen, Einar A,, College of Educ., Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

Hansen, Herbert C., 1045 North Lockwood Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Hanson. E. H., Superintendent of Schools, Rock Island, la. 

Harap, Professor Henry, George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. 

Harbo, L. S., Superintendent of Schools, Red Wing, Minn. 

Hare, H* Frank, Principal, Liberty High School, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Hamey, Julia d> 302 Pavonia Ave., Jersey City, N. J. 

Haroey, Rev, Paul J., S. J., University of San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif. 

Hamey, Thomas E,, Superintendent of Schools, Dunkirk, N,Y. 

Harrington, Dr. F. B., Nebraska State Normal College, Chadron, Neb. 

Harris, Dale B., Lost, of Child Welfare, Univ. of Minn,, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Harris, Professor Raymond P., Michigan State College, East Lansing, Mich. 

Harris, Professor Theodore L, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

Harrison, Mary R., Head, Dept. of Educ., Park CoUege, ParkviUe, Mo. 

Harry, Professor David P., Jr., Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 

Hartman, A. L., Principal, Edgemont and Watchund Schools, Upper Montclair, N.J. 

Haskew, Professor Laurence D., Emory University, Emory University, Ga. 

Hass, Ik. C. Glen, Chief, Training and Assignments Branch, School Div., Hdqts., 

NMh Service Command, Fort Douglas, Utah 
Hauser, Dr. L. J,, Superintendent of Schools, Riverside, HI. 
Havighurst, Professor Robert J., University of Chicago, Chicago, EL 
Hawk, R. A., Superintendent of Schools, Grinnell, Iowa 
Hawkes, F. P,, Superintendent of Schools, West Springfield, Mass. 
Hawkins, Earle T Supervisor of High Schools, Baltimore, Md. 
Hawkins, George L, Principal, Buder-Kennard Schools, St. Louis, Mo. 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 



XXV 



Hawley, Ray C., Superintendent of Schools, Marseilles, HI. 

Haycock, Robert L., Superintendent of Schools, Washington, D.C. 

Hayes, Professor M. C., Northern Illinois State Teachers College, DeKalb, 111. 

Hazen, Oliver M., Superintendent, District No. 403, Renton, Wash. 

Hecht, Dr. Irvin Sulo, 593 Crown Street, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Heckert, J. W., Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 

Hedge, John W., Superintendent of Schools, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Hedrick, E. H., Superintendent of City Schools, Medford, Ore. 

Heffernan, Helen, State Department of Education, Sacramento, Calif. 

Heise, Bryan, Director of Extension Service, Charleston, HI. 

"Helms, W. T., Superintendent of Schools, Richmond, Calif. 

Henderson, Prank A., Superintendent of Schools, Santa Ana, Calif. 

*Henry, Professor Nelson B., Dept. of Educ., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Henry, Dr. T. S., Western Michigan College, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Henry, William E., President, State Teachers College, Bowie, Md. 

Herlinger, H. V., Superintendent of Schools, Mt. Lebanon, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Herr, Ross^ Principal, Trumbull School, Chicago, fil. 

Herr, William A., Principal, H. F. Grebey Memorial Jr. High School, Hazelton, Pa. 

Herrick, John H., Dir., Bur. of School Research, Public Schools, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Herriott, M. E., Principal, Central Junior High School, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Hertzberg, Oscar E., State Teachers College, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Hertzler, Dr. Silas, Goshen College, Goshen, Ind. 

Hess, Walter, 15 Old Chester Road, Bethesda, Md. 

Hewson, John C., 9633 106th St., Edmonton, Alta. 

Hibbs, H. Gregg, Jr., Superintendent of Schools, Bridgeton, N.J. 

Hiekey, Philip J., Superintendent of Instruction, Public Schools, St. Louis, Mo. 

Hickman, Clara, Principal, Rose Lees Hardy School, Washington, D.C. 

Hickok, Jessie L., Elementary Supervisor, Alliance, Ohio 

Hickox, Edward J., 500 Alden St., Springfield, Mass. 

Hicks, Samuel, Superintendent of Schools, Pearl River, N.Y. 

Higgins, Dr. Frank J., 1976 Morris Ave., New York, N.Y. 

HiUbrand, E. K., Municipal University of Wichita, Wichita, Elan. 

Hilliard, George H., Western State Teachers College, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Hinkle, Thomas L., Superintendent of Schools, Hazelton, Pa. 

Hissong, Dean Clyde, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 

Hix, R. M., Superintendent of Schools, Hearne, Tex. 

Hockett, John A., School of Educ,, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Hodgkins, George W., 1821 Kalorama Road, Washington, D.C. 

Hoech, Arthur A., Supt., Ritenour Consolidated School Dist., Overland, Mo, 

Hoekje, John C., Registrar, Western State Teachers College, Kalamazoo,Mich. 

Hoffman, Charles L., Principal, East High. School, Waterloo, Iowa 

Hoffman, Florence D., Asst. Principal, Public School 242, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Hofstetter, George, 821 South Fifth St., West, Missoula, Mont. 

Hogan, Frances M., 1016 Wood St., Houston, Tex. 

Hogan, Sister Mary Muriel, Ottumwa Heights College, Ottumwa, Iowa 

Holberg, Dorothy E., 206 East Roosevelt Blvd., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Holden, E. B., Superintendent of Schools, St. Joseph, Mich. 

Hollingsworth, Henry T., Superintendent of Schools, Bloomfield, N.J. 

Holloway, D. H., Principal, Westport High School, Kansas City, Mo. 

Holloway, H. V., State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Dover, Del. 

Holmes, Jay William, 1415 Lexington Ave., Dayton, Ohio 

Holmstrom, Signe, General College, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Holstein, Louise V., 7130 South Union Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Holt, E. E., Superintendent of Schools, Marion, Ohio 

Holt, Marx, Principal, Fiske School, Chicago, pi. 

Hood, E. A., Principal, Mason School, St. Louis, Mo. 

Hook, T. E., Superintendent of Schools, Troy, Ohio 

Hopkins, Professor L. Thomas, Teachers College, Columbia Univ., New York, N.Y. 

Hoppes, William C., Northern Mich. College of Education, Marquette, Mich. 

Horn, Professor Ernest, School of Educ., State Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Horton, Lena Mary, Dir. of Research, Silver Burdett Co., New York, N.Y. 

Horwich, Dr. Frances R., Div. of Teacher Training, Univ. of N.C., Chapel Hill, N.C. 

Hosier, Dr. Fred, Superintendent of Schools, Allentown, Pa. 



xxvi MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 

Hostetter, Marie M., University of Illinois Library School, Urbana, HI. 

Hotz, H. G., University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark. 

Hougham, Sarah, Librarian, State Teachers College, Moorhead, Minn. 

House, Ralph W., State Teachers College, Boone, N.C. 

Houx, Kate, Curriculum Asst., Los Angeles County Schools, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Howard, J. E., Principal, DeMun Elementary School, Clavton, Mo. 

HoweU, Dr. Margaret Rustin, 815 The Alameda, Berkeley, Calif. 

Hoyman, W. H., Superintendent of Schools, Indianola, Iowa 

Hubbard, L. H., President, Texas State CoUege for Women, Denton, Tex. 

Hudelson, Dean Earl, College of Educ., West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, W.Va. 

Huff, Z. T., Dean, Howard Payne College, Brown wood, Tex. 

Hufford, G. N., Superintendent of Schools, Joliet, 111. 

Hughes, James Monroe, Dean, School of Educ., Northwestern Univ., Evanston, 111. 

Hughes, R. 0., Asst. Dir., Curriculum Study and Research, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Hughson, Arthur, 1412 Caton Ave,, Brooklyn, N.Y, 

Hummel, Edward J., Deputy Superintendent of Schools, Beverly Hills, Calif, 

Humphreys, Pauline A., Central Missouri State Teachers College, Warrensburg, Mo. 

Hunnicutt, C. W., School of Educ., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y. 

Hunt, Harry A., Superintendent of Schools, Portsmouth, Va. 

Huntington", Albert H., Principal, Beaumont High School, St. Louis, Mo. 

Hunton, E. L., Principal, B. It. Bruce School, Washington, D.C. 

Hupp, Dean James L., West Virginia Wesleyan College, Buckhannon, W.Va. 

Hurd, A. W., Dir. Educ. Research Service, Medical Col. of Va., Richmond, Va. 

Hutson, Professor P. W., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Hyde, Eva Louise, Principal, Collegio Bennett, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 

Hydle, Professor Lars L., Ball State Teachers CoUege, Muncie, Ind. 

Hyman, Joseph S., Gompers Vocational High School, Bronx, New York, N.Y. 

Irving, J. Lee, Bluefield State CoUege, Bluefield, W.Va. 

Irwin, Manley E., Supervising Director of Instruction, Detroit, Mich. 

Isanogle, A. M., 10 Ridge Road, Westminster, Md. 

Isle, Walter W., President, Eastern Washington CoUege of Educ., Cheney, Wash. 

Ivy, H. M., Superintendent of Schools, Meridian, Miss. 

Jackson, Woodrow W., Wauzeka, Wis. 

Jacobs, John E., 603 Tennessee St., Lawrence, Kan. 

Jacobs, Professor Ralph L., University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Jacobson, Paul B., Superintendent of Schools, Davenport, Iowa 

James, Professor Preston E., 220 Standish Drive, Syracuse, N.Y. 

Jammer, George F., Superintendent of Schools, Lockport, N.Y. 

Jansen, William, Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Brooklyn, N.Y, 

Jeffers, Fred A., Superintendent of Schools, Painsdale, Mich. 

Jeffords, H. Morton, Superintendent of Schools, Fairfield, Conn. 

Jeidy, Pauline, Director, Elementary Education, Ventura, Calif. 

Jelinek, Frances, Pres., Milwaukee Teachers' Association, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Jemisoa, Margaret, Librarian, Emory University, Emory University, Ga. 

Jensen, C. N. 2601 South Seventeenth St., East, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Jensen, Frank A., Supt., LaSalle-Peru High School and Junior CoUege, LaSalle, 111. 

Jensen, Lt. Louis B., U.S. Navy Pre-Flight School, Chapel Hill, N.C. 

Jenson, Howard A., Superintendent of Schools, Litchfield, Minn. 

Jenson, T. J., Superintendent of Schools, Fond du Lac, Wis. 

Jessen, Carl A., U.S. Office of Education, Washington, D.C. 

JeweU, Dean J. R., School of Educ., UmV. of Oregon, Eugene, Ore. 

Johns, W. A., Dir., Personnel and Pub. ReL, Westminster Col., New Wilmington, Pa, 

Johnson, A. W., Principal, Junior High School, Minot, N.D. 

Johnson, Astrid, 1017 East Thirty-second St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Johnson, B. Tifl.ma.r, Stephens College, Columbia, Mo. 

Johnson, Charles Frank, Principal, Garfield School, Sand Springs, Okla. 

Johnson, Professor George C., Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kan. 

Johnson, Laurence C., Principal, Central School, Orchard Park, N.Y. 

Johnson, Loaa W., Co-ordinator of Sec. Educ., Butte County Schools, OroviUe, Calif . 

Johnson, Palmer 0,, College of Educ., Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Johnson, Robert M., Chicago Latin School, Chicago, HI. 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY xxvii 

Johnson, Stella M., Principal, Park Manor School, Chicago, HI. 

Johnston, Professor Edgar G., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Johnston, Ruth V., Counselor, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Jonas, Professor Richard O., University of Houston, Houston, Tex. 

Jones, Professor Arthur J., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Jones, George Ellis, 73 Harwood St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Jones, Harold E., Dir., Inst. of Child Welfare, Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, Calif. 

Jones, Dr. Howard B., Superintendent of Schools, New Canaan, Conn. 

Jones, Professor Lloyd M., Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa. 

Jones, Mary Alice, Vice-Principal, Metropolitan High School, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Jones, Professor Vernon, Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 

Joyce, Charles W., 223 Deerfield Drive, Rochester, N.Y. 

Justman, Joseph, College of the City of New York, New York, N.Y. 

Kadesch, J. Stevens, Superintendent of Schools, Medford, Mass. 

Kaemmerlen, John T., Superintendent of Schools, Hudson, N.Y. 

Kallen, H. M., 66 West Twelfth St., New York, N.Y. 

Kameny, Samuel Stanley, 8512 Sixty-fifth Drive, Forest Hills, New York, N.Y. 

Kanter, Marion R., R. W. Emerson School, Roxbury, Mass. 

Kardatzke, Carl, Anderson College, Anderson, Ind. 

Kauth, William M., Dir. of Mathematics, Dearborn Public Schools, Dearborn, Mich. 

Kawin, Ethel, 1725 East Fifty-third St., Chicago, HI. 

Kayfetz, Dr. Isidore, Principal, Public School 1, Queens, Long Island City, N.Y, 

Keator, Alfred Decker, Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Keefauver, L. C., Superintendent of Schools, Gettysburg, Pa. 

Keene, J. Hershey, 1910 Seneca Road, Wilmington, Del 

Keener, E. E., 250 Forest Ave., Oak Park, 111. 

Kefauver, Grayson N. Deceased. 

Keislar, Evan R., Nassau Club, Princeton, NJ. 

Keller, Anna P., District Superintendent, Chicago, DL 

Keller, Franklin J., Prin., Metropolitan Voc. High School, New York, N.Y. 

Kellogg, E. G., Superintendent of Public Schools, ClintonviHe, Wis. 

Kelly, Gilbert W., 623 South Wabash Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Kenneally, Professor Finbar, San Luis Rey Seminary, San Luis Rey, Calif. 

Kennedy, Rev. Mark, President, Siena College, Loudonville, N.Y. 

Kerr, A. G., Superintendent, Columbia City High School, Columbia City, Ind. 

Kerr, Everett F., Superintendent of Schools, Homewood, BL 

Kerr, W. H., Claremont Colleges, Claremont, Calif. 

Kerstetter, Newton, Supervisor, Special Education, County Schools, Danville, Pa. 

Kibbe, Delia E., Department of Public Instruction, Madison, Wis. 

Kiely, Margaret, Dean, Queens College, New York, N.Y. 

*Kilpatriek Prof. Emeritus Win. H., Teachers Col, Columbia Univ., New York, N.Y. 

King, Lloyd W., American Textbook Publisher's Inst., New York, N.Y. 

Kirk, H. H., Superintendent of Schools, Fargo, N.D. 

Kirkland, Professor J. Bryant, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Kirkland, Mineola, 1106 B St., N.E., Washington, B.C. 

Knapp, M. L., Superintendent of Schools, Michigan City, Ind. 

Knight, Professor F. B., Purdue University. Lafayette, Ind. 

Knoblauch, Professor A. L., University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn. 

Knoelk, William C., Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Knower, Professor Franklin H., State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Knowlton, P. A., Editor, Macmillan Ctompany, New York, N.Y. 

Knox, J. H., Superintendent of Schools, Salisbury, N.C. 

Knox, Professor William F., Cen. Missouri State Teacherg College, Warrensburg, Mo. 

Knudsen, Charles W,, George Peal>ody ^College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. 

Koch, H. C., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich, 

Koeh, Dr. Helen L,, 1374 East Fifty-seventh St., Chicago, HI. 

Koch. Raymond H.. Superintendent of Schools, Hershey, Pa, 

Kohl, Rev. Walter J., 321 Lake Ave M Rochester, N.Y. 

Kohs, Dr. Samuel C., 25 Taylor St., San Fraiicifico, Calif. 

Koosj Professor Leonard V., University of Chicago, Chicago, HI. 

Kopel, David, 4844J Drexel Blvd., Chicago, HI. 

Koppenhaver, J. H., Dir. of Personnel, Heaston College, Heaston, Kan. 



xxviii MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 

Korb, O. J., Superintendent of Schools, East Cleveland, Ohio 

Koratheuer, G. A., Bethlehem Lutheran School, Chicago, HI. 

Kottnauer, Annette, Principal, Vieau School, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Krane, Daniel G., Principal, Public School 194, Manhattan, N.Y. 

Krantz, L. L., Superintendent of Schools, Mound, Minn. 

Kretzmann, Professor P. E., Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, Mo. 

Krishnayya, Stephen G., Insp. of European Schools, Bombay Presidency, Poona, 

India 

Kropf, Glenn S., Principal, Riley High School, South Bend, Ind. 
Krug, Professor Edward, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 
Kruse, Dr. Samuel Andrew, State Teachers College, Cape Girardeau, Mo. 
Kuefler, Bernard C., Superintendent of Schools, Forest Lake, Minn. 
Kuehner, Dr. Kenneth G., Coker College, Hartsville, S.C, 
Kurzius, Edward, Board of Education, New York, N.Y. 
Kyle, C. J. M., Div. Superintendent of Schools, Stuart, Va. 
Kyte, Professor George C., University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 

Lackey, Professor Guy A., Oklahoma A. & M., College, Still water, Okla. 

Lafferty, H. M., Lt. Comdr., USNR, Bur. Naval Personnel, Washington, D.C. 

Laidlaw, John, Laidlaw Bros., Chicago, HI. 

Lamb, Professor Georges, C.S.V-, Ecple Normale St. Viateur, Rigaud, Que. 

Lamkin, Uel W., Northwest Missouri State Teachers College, Maryville, Mo. 

Lane, John J., Principal, Coolidge Junior High School, Natick, Mass. 

Lang, Andrew J., Superintendent of Schools, Huron, S.D. 

Lang, Charles E., District Superintendent of Elem. Schools, Chicago, HI. 

Lange, Paul W., Supervisor of High Schools, Gary, Ind. 

Lange, Paulus, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa 

Lanier, Raphael O'Hara, Bureau of Services, U.N.R.R.A., Washington, D.C. 

Lantz, Professor Robert E., Willamette University, Salem, Ore. 

Lantz, W. W., Superintendent Allegheny County Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Lanz, Anna D., Principal, Washington School, Chicago, HI. 

Lapham, P. C., Superintendent of Schools, Charles City, Iowa 

Larsen, Professor Arthur Hoff, Illinois State Normal University, Normal, 111. 

Larson, Irene M., Principal, Elementary School, Rockford, HI. 

Larson, J. A., Principal, Senior High School, Little Rock, Ark. 

Lauderbach, J. Calvin, District Superintendent, Chula Vista, Calif. 

Laughlin, Butler, Principal, Harper High School, Chicago, HI. 

Lauing, Walter, 128 Eleventh Ave., Melrose Park, HI. 

Laurier, Rev. Blaise V., C.S.V., 1145 rue St. Viateur, Ouest Outremont, Que. 

Lauwerys, Joseph Albert, Inst. of Education, Univ. of London, London, England 

Law, Dr. Reuben D., Brigham Young University, Proyo, Utah 

Lawing, J. Leslie, Principal, Benton School, Kansas City, Mo. 

Lawler, Marcella R., Department of Public Instruction, Olympia, Wash. 

Lawrence, Clayton G., Dean, Normal Department, Marion College, Marion, Ind. 

Layton, (X M., Superintendent of Schools, Wooster, Ohio 

Layton, Dr, Warren K, Dir., Guid. and Placement, Bd. of Educ., Detroit, Mich. 

Lazar, Dr. May, Research Assistant, Board of Education, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Leahy, Professor Dorothy M., Florida State College for Women, Tallahassee, Fla. 

Leal, Dr. Mary A. r Colchester, Conn. 

Learner, Emery W., State Teachers College, LaCrosse, Wis. 

Leavell, Professor Ullin W., George Peabody Col. for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. 

Lee, Professor John J., Wayne University, Detroit, Mich. 

Leese, Professor Joseph, Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Ala. 

Lefever, D. W., University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Lehman, Harvey C., Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

Leinweber, W. J., Superintendent of Schools, Mooseheart, HI. 

Leister, Leroy L., Superintendent of Schools, Waterford, Conn. 

Lemmer, John A., Superintendent of Schools, Eacanaba, Mich. 

Lenaghajij CLetus A., Connecticut School for Boya, Meriden, Conn. 

Leo, Brother J., St. Mary's CoUege, Terrace Heights, Winona, Minn. 

Leonard, Professor George F., Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Leopold, Brother, St. Joseph's University, New Brunswick, Canada 

Lessenberry, Professor D. D., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa, 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY xxix 

Levinson, Samuel D., Haaren High School, New York, N.Y. 

Levy, Carrie B., Dir. of Special Classes, Board of Education, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Lichtenberger, J. F., Principal, Seward School, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Lidberg, Henry, 22 Gardner Road, Brookline, Mass. 

Liggins, J., Librarian, Teachers' College, University Grounds, Sydney, Australia 

Ligon, Professor M. E., 658 South Lime St., Lexington, Ky. 

Lincoln, Professor Edward A., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Lindberg, C. F., Head, Dept. of Education, Valparaiso Univ., Valparaiso, Ind. 

Lindsay, Dr. J. Armour, Box 325, Mount Berry, Ga. 

Lino, Frank D., Principal, Volta School, Chicago, HI. 

Little, Evelyn Steel, Mills College, Mills College, Calif. 

Livengood, W. W., American Book Company, New York, N.Y. 

Livingood, Professor F. G., Washington College, Chestertown, Md. 

Lockwood, C. M., Superintendent of Schools, Lancaster, S.C. 

Lockwood, Margaret M., Principal, Horace Mann School, Washington, D.C. 

Loew, C. C., Superintendent of Schools, Lawrenceville, HI. 

Lowenstein, Fannie H., Southern Junior High School, Louisville, Ky. 

Logan, Jack M., Superintendent of Schools, Waterloo, Iowa 

Logan, S. R., Superintendent of Schools, Winnetka, 111. 

Loggins, W. F., Superintendent of Schools, Greenville, S.C. 

Logsdon, Comdr. James Desmond, USNR, 6140 Kimbark Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Logue, Sarah M., 16 Common St., Gharlestown, Mass. 

Long, Isabelle, 1433 Main St., Dubuque, Iowa 

Longfellow, J. T. r Superintendent of Schools, Oregon City, Ore. 

Longstreet, R. J., Daytona Beach Public Schools, Daytona Beach, Fla. 

Loomis, Arthur K., Dir., School of Educ., Univ. of Denver, Denver, Colo. 

Loomis, Harold V., Superintendent of Schools, Ossining, N.Y. 

Loop, Dr. Alfred B., 818 East North St., Bellingham, Wash, 

Lorge, Dr. Irving, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Lowe, Wayne L., Supervising Principal, Rye High School, Rye, N.Y. 

Lowry, Charles D., 628 Foster Street, Evanston, HI. 

Luborsky, Lester B., Duke University, Durham, N.C. 

Lucas, Joiin J., 300 East 159th St., New York, N.Y. 

Lucey, Stuart C., 5101 Thirty-ninth Ave., Long Island City, N.Y. 

Luckey, Dr. Bertha M., Psychologist, Board of Education, Cleveland, Ohio 

Ludington, John R., State College of Agriculture and Engineering, Raleigh, N.C. 

Luke, Brother, Dir., Institut Pedagogique St. Georges, Laval-Rapids, Que. 

Lusk, Mrs. Georgia L., Superintendent of Public Instruction, Santa Fe, N.M. 

Luther, E. W.,Superintendent of Schools, Plymouth, Wis. 

Lynch, Mary Elizabeth, 23 Winborough St., Mattapan, Mass. 

Lyon, Gilbert R., Superintendent of Schools, Norwich, N.Y. 

Lyons. John H., Enfield High School, Thompsonville, Conn. 



MacDonald, Nellie V., 534 Pahnerston Blvd., Toronto, Qnt. 

MacFee, Mrs. Winifred C., Educ. Serv. Library, Western Mich. Col., Kalamazoo, 

Mich. 

MacKay, James L., 573 South Clay Ave., Kirkwood, Mp. 

Mackenzie, Gordon N., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 
Mackintosh, Helen K, Senior Spec., Elem. Educ., Office of Educ., Washington, D.C. 
MacLatehy, Josephine H., Bur. of Educ. Research, Ohio State Univ., Columbus, Ohio 
MacLean, Malcolm S., School of Education, Univ. of Calif., Los Angeles, Calif. 
Maddox, Clifford R., 15816 Marshfield Ave., Harvey, HI. 
Magill, Professor Walter H., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Manoney, Professor John J,, Boston University, Boston, Mask-. 
Maier, John V., Principal, Wilson Junior High School, Mtmcie, Ind. 
Mailly, Edward Leslie, Cornelia F. Bradford School, Jersey City, N. J. 
Maliory, Berniee, XJJ3L Office of Education, Washington, D.C. 
Malo. Professor Albert H., DePaul University, Chicago,IIL 
Malone, Mrs. T.inT*m S., Admin. Prin., Stevens School, Washington, D.C. 
Manahan, Professor Ethel H., Box 2275, University Station, Enid, Ofcla. 
Manicoff, Rose, 368, Seventy-eighth St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Manry, James C., Fonnan Christian College, Lahore, India 
Manske, Armin A., 1037 Main St., Stevens Point, Wis, 



XXX 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 



Mantell, Herman P., Haaren High School, New York, N.Y. 

ManueL Herschel T., Univeraity of Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Markowitz, Martha B., Principal, Bolton School, Cleveland, Ohio 

Marks, Sallie B., 3133 Connecticut Ave., Washington, D.U 

Marshall, Helen, University of Utah, Salt Lake (Sty, Utah 

Marshall, Professor Herbert E., Cent. Mich. College of Educ., Mount Pleasant, Mich, 

Marshall, Thomas 0., The American University, Washington, B.C. 

Martin, Rev. John H., S.J., Fordham University, New York, N.Y. 

Mary Adelbert, Sister, S.N.D., Diocesan Supv. of Schools, Toledo, Ohio 

Mary Bartholomew, Sister, St. Clare College, MHwaukee, Wis. 

Mary Benedetta, Mother, Principal, Villa Cabnm School for Girls, Burbank, Calif 

Mary Cephas, Sister, O.S.F., Dean, Marian College, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Mary Coralita, Sister, O.P., St. Mary of the Springs, Columbus, Ohio 

Mary David, Sister, St. Mary's College, Holy Cross, Ind. 

Mary Dorothy, Sister, O.P., Barry College, Miami, Fla. 

Mary Florita, Sister, Nazareth Normal School, Rochester, N.Y. 

Mary Gertrude Ann, Sister, O.S.F., Briar Cliff College, Sioux City, Iowa 

Mary Inez, Mother, Holy Family College, Manitowoc, Wis. 

Mary Irenaeus Dougherty, Sister, Mount Mercy College, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mary Josephine, Sister, Rosary College, River Forrest, 111. m 

Mary Justmia, Sister, Notre Dame Convent, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mary Irmina, Sister, Villa Madonna College, Covington, Ky. 

Mary Maurilia, Sister, Principal, MaryclnT High School, Spokane, Wash. 

Mary Michael, Sister, Immaculate Heart College, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Mary Mildred, Mother, Provincial's Residence, Pendleton, Ore. 

Mary Rose, Sister, St. Rose Convent, LaCrosse, Wis. 

Mary of St. Michael, Sister, College of the Holy Names, Oakland, Calif. 

Mary Teresa Francis McDade, Sister, Clarke College, Dubuque, Iowa 

Mary Urban, Sister, Mount Cannel, Dubuque, Iowa 

Mary Vera, Sister, Marian College, Fond du Lac, Wis. 

Masson, J. S., Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Lorain, Ohio 

Masters, Harry V. T President, Albright College, Reading, Pa. 

Mathews, Professor C. O., Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio 

Mathiasen, Professor O. F., Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio 

Maucker, J William, School of Educ., Univ. of Montana, Missoula, Mont. 

Maurer, Professor Katharine M., College of Agriculture, Lincoln, Neb. 

Maxfield, Professor Francis M., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Mayman, J. E., Supervisor of Guidance, 985 Park PI,, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Maynard, Professor M. M., Monmouth College, Monmouth, BL 

Maynard, Proctor W M 820 Fulton St., S.E., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Mays, Professor Arthur B., University of Illinois^ Urbana,HL 

McAdam. J. E., Dir. of Accred. of Private Sec. Schls., Univ. of Mo., Columbia, Mo. 

McBroom, Professor Maude, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

McC&Hister,J. M,, 8100 So. Blackstone Ave., Chicago, HI. 

MeC3eery, W. B., Principal, Community High School, Crystal Lake, El. 

Mcdintock, James A., Brothers College, Madison, N.Y. 

McCluer, V. C., Superintendent of Schools, 200 Church St., Ferguson, Mo. 

McQtxsky, Howard Yale, School of Education, Univ. of Mich., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

McCombs, N. D., Superintendent of Schools, Des Moines, Iowa 

MeConnell, Ralph Caskey, Texas Avenue School, Atlantic City, NJ. 

McConnell, T, R., Dean, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

McConnick, G. A., Superintendent of Schools, Beaver, Pa. 

McConnick, Rev. Leo J., Supt., Bureau of Catholic Educ., Baltimore, Md. 

McCuen, Theron L., Dist. Supt., Kern County Union H.S. Dist., Bakersfield, Calif. 

McDaniel, Dr, H. B, r State Dept. of Education, Sacramento, Calif. 

McDermott, Dr. John C. 7 St. John's University, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

McDonald, L. R,, Principal, Woodruff High School, Peoria, HI. 

McDonald, Mrs. V. R., 1757 Galloway Ave,, Memphis, Tenn. 

McElroy, Dr. Howard C., Principal, McKeesport High School, McKeesport, Pa. 

McEuen, Fred L., 3959 Chapman PI., Riverside, Calif. 

McEwen, Noble R., Dept. of Education, Salein College, Winston-Salem, N,C. 

McGee, Mary I., Woodstock College, Landour, Mussoorie, U.P., India 

McGinnis, Charles A., Principal, ffigh School, Pimfciac, BL 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY xxxi 

McGlotHin, Mary E., Stockton High School, Stockton, Calif. 

McHale, Dr. Kathryn, Director., Am. Assoc. of Univ. Women, Washington, D.C. 

Mclntosh, Dean D. C., Agricultural and Mechanical College, Stillwater, Okla. 

Mclsaac, Professor John S., Geneva College, Beaver Falls, Pa. 

McKee, Professor Paul, Colorado State College of Education, Greeley, Colo. 

McKee, W. J., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 

McKinney, James, American School, Drexel Ave. and Fifty-eighth St., Chicago, HI. 

McLaughlin, Dr. Katherine L., University of California, tos Angeles, Calif. 

McLaughlin, William J., Prin,, D. A. Harmon Junior High School, Hazelton, Pa. 

McLean, William, Prin., Mt, Hebron Junior High School, Upper Montclair, N.J. 

McMahon, Dr. Clara P., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

McMahon, Stephen E., Little Flower Rectory, 8026 So. Wood St., Chicago, HI. 

McNeal, Professor Wylle B., University Farm, University of Minn., St. Paul, Minn, 

McNellis, Esther L., 177 Harvard St., Dorchester Center, Mass. 

McQueeny, Mother Mary, San Francisco College for Women, Lone Mountain, San 

Francisco, Calif. 

Mead, Arthur R., College of Educ., Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Fla. 
Mearig, J. F., Principal, East High School, Akron, Ohio 
Mease, Clyde D., Superintendent of Schools, Traer, Iowa 

Melby, Dean Ernest 0., School of Educ., New York University, New York, N.Y. 
Melville, S. Donald, Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa. 
Mensenkamp, L. E., Principal, Freeport High School, Freeport, El. 
Mentink, H. G., Dir. of Teacher Educ., Central College, Pella, Iowa 
Merrell, Martha B., Librarian, Racine Public Library, Racine, Wis. 
Merrill, A. W., Acting Superintendent of Schools, Dubuque, Iowa 
Merriman, Pearl, State Normal School, Bellingham, Wash. 
Merry, Leona, Hamilton School, Schnectady, N.Y. 
Merry, Mrs. Frieda Kiefer, Morris Harvey College, Charleston, W.Va. 
Messenger, Carl, 2025 Eightieth St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Metter, Harry L., Eastern HI. State Teachers College, Charleston, HI. 
Meyers, C. E., Department of Psychology, Univ. of Denver, Denver, Colo. 
Meyerson, Lee, 1364 Monterey St., Richmond, Calif. 
Michael, William Burton, 388 So. Oak Ave., Pasadena, Calif. 
Michie, James K., Superintendent of Schools, Coleraine, Minn. 
Middleton, Mrs. Anne, 650 Waring Ave., Bronx, New York, N.Y. 
Miles, Dudley H., 299 Riverside Dr., New York, N.Y. 
Millard, C. V., Dir., Div. of Educ., Mich. State College, East Lansing, Mich. 
MiUer, Charles H., Librarian, Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pa. 
Miller, Professor Charles S., Allegheny College, Meadvjlle, Pa. 
Miller, Fred L., Elem. School Supv., Dept. of Education, Topeka, Kan.. 
Miller, George J., State Teachers College, Mankato, Minn. 
Miller, John L., Superintendent of Schools, Great Neck, N.Y. 
Miller, Lawrence William, University of Denver, Denver, Colo. 
Miller, P. H., Superintendent of Schools, Piano, HI. 
Miller, Paul A., Superintendent of Schools, Minot, N.D. 
Miller, W. S., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Miller, Wade E., Superintendent of Schools, Middletown, Ohio 
Miller, William P., Principal, Senior High School, Ogden, Utah 
Milligan, Professor John P., State Teachers College, Newark, N.J. 
Mills, Professor Henry C., University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. 
Mills, William W., State Training School, Red Wing, Minn. 
Minogue, Mildred M., Principal, Rogers Elementary School, Chicago, HI. 
Misner, Paul J., Superintendent of Schools, Glencoe, BL 
Mitchell, Professor B. F., Louisiana State University, Baton Bouge, La. 
Mitchell, Charles A., Superintendent of Schools, Easthampton, Mass. 
Mitchell, Claude, Superintendent of Schools, West Newton, Pa. 
Mitchell, Eva C., Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va. 
Moehlman, Professor A. B., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mien. 
Moffitt, J. C., Superintendent of Schools, Provo, Utah 
Moll, Rev. Boniface E., St Benedict's College, Atchison, Kan. 
Monahan, Catherine E., Supervisor, Elementary Schools, Providence, K.I. 
*Monroe, Professor Walter S., University of Illinois, Urbana, IE. 
Montgomery, T. T., President, Southeastern State College, Durant, Okla. 



xxxii MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 

Montgomery, William F., Supv. Prin., Warwick Consolidated School, Pottstown, Pa. 

Moody, George F., Training School, Salem, Mass. 

Moon, F. D., Principal, Douglass High School, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Moore, Clyde B., Stone Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Moore, Professor Eoline Wallace, Birmingham-Southern College, Birmingham, Ala. 

Moore, J. P., Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Fort Worth, Tex. 

Moore, John W., Superintendent of Schools, Winston-Salem, N.C. 

Moran, H. A., Principal, Main School, Mishawaka, Ind. 

Morgan, Barton, Dir., Teacher Education, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa 

Morgan, Lewis V., County Superintendent of Schools, Wheaton, ILL. 

Morris, Professor J. V. L., Northwestern State Teachers College, Alva, Okla. 

Morrison, Fanny, 169 Mt. Vernon St., Dover, N.H. 

Morrison, Howard D., Supervising Principal, Trenton, N.J. 

Morrison, J. Cayce, State Education Department, Albany, N.Y, 

Morrow, Professor Paul R., University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 

Morstrom, Mrs. Maurice G., 6940 Cregier Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Mort, Professor Paul, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Morton, Professor R. L., Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

Moseley, C. C., Superintendent of Schools, Anniston, Ala. 

Mounce, James R., Superintendent of Schools, Clinton, Iowa 

Muldoon, Hugh C., Dean, School of Pharmacy, Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Munro, C. Donald, Vice-principal, Queen Alexandra School, Peterborough, Ont. 

Munro, Paul M., Superintendent of Schools, Columbus, Ga. 

Munzenmayer, Professor L. H., Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 

Murphy, Edna L, Supervisor, Public Schools, Grand Rapids, Minn. 

Murphy, Forrest W., Superintendent of Schools, Greenville, Miss. 

Murphy, John A., Public School 53, 360 East 168th St., New York, N.Y. 

Murphy, Mary E., Dir., Elizabeth McCormick Mem. Fund, Chicago, HI. 

Myers, Anna G., 217 Library Building, Kansas City, Mo. 

Nagle, J. Stewart, 213 St. Peter St., Schuvlkill Haven, Pa. 

Narber, Professor Helen, State Teachers College, Mankato, Minn. 

Nash, H. B., Superintendent of Schools, West AlKs, Wis. 

Nassau, Dorothy P., Librarian, Pedagogical Library, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Neal, Elma A., Dir., Elementary Education, Public Schools, San Antonio, Tex. 

Neale, Gladys E., Macmillan Company of Canada, Toronto, Can. 

Neighbours, Owen J., Superintendent of Schools, Wabash, Ind. 

Nelson, Mrs. Grace F., Elementary School Supervisor, Hazlehurst, Miss. 

Nelson, Capt. John D., MAC, Dresser, Wis. 

Nelson, J. J., Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Nelson, Milton G., Dean, New York State College for Teachers, Albany, N.Y. 

Nelson, N. P., Dir., Div. of Sec. Educ., State Teachers College, Oshkosh, Wis. 

Nemzek, Dr. Claude L., Dir., Education Dept., Univ. of Detroit, Detroit, Mich. 

Neuner, Dr. Elsie Flint, Department of Education, New Rochelle, N.Y. 

Newman, Herbert M., Education Department, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Nichols, Augusta M., Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Manchester, N.H. 

Nichols, B. R., Superintendent of Schools, Bristow, Okla. 

Nichols, C. A., Dir., School of Educ., Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, Tex. 

Nickel!, Yernon L., Superintendent of Public Instruction, Springfield, HI. 

Nietz, Professor John A., School of Educ., Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Nifenecker, Eugene A., 800 Riverside Drive, New York, N.Y. 

Nikoloff, Rev. Nicholas, Prin., Metropolitan Bible Institute, North Bergen, N.J. 

Noble, William T., 65 Kingsdale Aye., Willowdale, Ont., Can. 

Noll, Victor, Div. of Education, Michigan State College, East Lansing, Mich. 

Noprada, Monico A., 1759 West Madison St., Chicago, HI. 

Norem, Grant M., State Teachers College, Minot, N.D. 

Norris, F. H., Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Richmond, Va. 

Norris, Dr. K. E., Principal, Sir George Williams College, Montreal, Que. 

Norris, Paul B., Department of Public Instruction, Des Moines, Iowa 

North, Ward T., Superintendent of Schools, Corydon, Iowa 

Norton, Professor John K, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Noteboom. Professor Charlotte M., University of South Dakota, Vennillion, S.D, 

Notz, Hulda M., Box 852, R.F.D. 1, Homestead, Pa, 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY xxxiii 

Novotny, Marcella, Queens Vocational High School, Long Island City, N.Y. 

Nugent, Dr. James A., 2 Harrison Ave., Jersey City, NJ, 

Nurnberger, T. S., Superintendent of Schools, St. Louis, Mich. 

Nutter, Hazen E., Florida Curriculum Laboratory, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville, Fla. 

Oberholtzer, E. E., Superintendent of Schools, Houston, Tex. 

O'Brien, George M., Superintendent of Schools, Two Rivers, Wis. 

O'Brien, Marguerite, Northern Illinois State Teachers College, DeKalb, HI. 

Odell, C. W., Bur. of Educ. Research,JJniversity of Illinois, Urbana, HI. 

O'Donnell, W. F., President, Eastern Ky. State Teachers College, Richmond, Kr. 

Ogle, Rachel, Franklin College, Franklin, Ind. 

O'Hearn, Mary, Roger Wolcott District School, Dorchester, Mass. 

Ojemann, R. H., Child Welfare Research Station, Iowa City, Iowa 

O'Keefe, Timothy, College of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minn. 

Olander, Professor Herbert T., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Olivares, Professor Enrique C. y Lomas de Chapuitepec, Mexico, D.F.. Mex. 

Olmstead, Edwin W., 4508 St. Clair Ave., North Hollywood, Calif. 

Olsen, Edward G., State Department of Public Instruction, Olympia, Wash. 

Olson, Irene Marion, 1319 Penn Ave., North, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Olson, Justus E., Assoc. Minister, First Methodist Church, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Olson, Professor Willard C., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

O'Neil, Joseph A. F., Mary E. Curley School, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

O'Neill, Sister M. Berenice, Fontbonne College, St. Louis, Mo. 

Oppenheimer, Professor J. J., University of Louisville, Louisville, Ky. 

Opstad, Iver A., 121 North Johnson St., Iowa City, Iowa 

Orr, J. Clyde, Superintendent of Schools, Bessemer, Ala. 

Orr, Louise, 925 Crockett St., ArnariHo, Tex. 

Osborn, Professor John K, Central State Teachers College, Mount Pleasant, Mich. 

Osburn, Professor W. J., University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 

Otto, Professor Henry J., University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Outcelt, Kenneth L., County Superintendent, Balsam Lake, Wis. 

Overn, Professor A. V., School of Education, State College, Pa. 

Overstreet, G. T., Principal, Burnett High School, Terrell, Tex. 

Owen, Helen Mildred, F. A. Owen Publishing Co., Dansville, N.Y. 

Owen, Mary E., F. A. Owen Publishing Co., Dansville, N.Y. 

Owens, Professor Henry Grady, Furman University, Greenville, S.C. 

Owens, Dr. M. R., State Department of Education, Little Rock, Ark. 

Paine, Dr. H. W., Teachers College, Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Painter, Fred B., Superintendent of Schools, Goversville, N.Y. 

Palmer, Grace, Librarian, State Teachers College, Springfield, Mo. 

Pando, Rev. Jose C., C.M., St. John's University, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Pannell, H. Clifton, Superintendent of City Schools, Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

Park, Charles B,, Superintendent of Schools, Mt. Pleasant, Mich. 

Park, Dr. M. G., New York State Teachers College, Cortland, N.Y. 

Parker, Clyde, Superintendent of Schools, Moline, til. 

Parker, Jessie M., Superintendent of Public Instruction, Des Moines, Iowa 

Partch, C. E., Dean, School of Educ., Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J, 

Pate, Lawrence T., James Whitcomb Riley High School, South Bend, Ind. 

Patrick, Mary L., 6142 Runbark Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Patt, Hermann G., Supervising Principal, Granville, Mass. 

Pattee, Howard H., Dir. of Admissions, Pomona College, Qaremont, Calif. 

Patten, Ruth H., Gen. Supv., Richmond Public Schools, Richmond, Calif. 

Patterson, Dr. Herbert, Oklahoma AgrL and Meek College, Stillwater, Okla. 

Paulson, Alice T., Principal, Senior High School, Blue Earth, Minn. 

Pauly, Dr. Frank R., Dir. of Research, Board of Education, Tulsa, Okla. 

Payne, W. K, Dean, Georgia State College, Industrial College, Ga. 

Payne, Walter L,, Lyons Township Junior College, LaGrange, HI. 

Peacock, Clayton W., Superintendent of Schools, LaFayette, Ga. 

Peebles, Clarence M., 79 North Cowley Road, Riverside, HI. 

Peel, Professor J. C., Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Fla. 

Peak, W. E., Dean, Col of Educ., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Petrce, Lottie Mildred, Femim Junior CoEege, Ferrum, Va. 



xxxiv MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 

Pemberton, Lee R., Superintendent of Schools, Blue Earth, Minn. 

Penfold, Arthur, 332 Beard Ave., Buffalo, N.Y. 

Pennington, Ha Lee, 1018 West Fourteenth St., Sulphur, Okla. 

Perry, Professor Winona M., University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

Peters, Charles C., Dir. of Educ. Research, State College, Pa. 

Petersen, Anna J., 10 Suydam St., New Brunswick, N.J. 

Petersen, Mrs. Edith Barney, Principal, Keewaydin School, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Petersen, Robert G., Superintendent of Schools, Stoughton, Wis. 

Peterson, Arthur E., Superintendent of Schools, Sandy, Utah 

Peterson, Professor Elmer T,, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

Peterson, Wiley K, Superintendent of Schools, Maricopa, Calif. 

Phillips, Dr. A. J., Michigan Education Association, Lansing, Mich. 

Phillips, Professor Claude Anderson, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Phillips, Ned, Superintendent of Schools, Naches, Wash. 

Pierce, Arthur E., Superintendent of Schools, Wellesley, Mass. 

Pigott, Lee D., Principal, Senior High School, Decatur, Dl. 

Pilkington, H. Gordon, State Teachers College, Danbury, Conn. 

Pitt, Rev. F. N., Superintendent of Catholic Schools, Louisville, Ky. 

Pittinger, Dean B. F., School of Educ., University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Pollard, Luther J. T Head, Dept. of Educ., Plymouth Teachers Col., Plymouth, N.H. 

Poole, Lynn D., Dept. of Education, Walters Art Galley, Baltimore, Md. 

Porter, M. D., Superintendent of Schools, Holbrook, Ariz. 

Porter, R. H. T Dir. of Publications, The Steck Co., Austin, Tex. 

Potter, Floyd A. r County Superintendent of Schools, Mays Landing, N.J. 

Potter, Mrs. Robert K., San Luis School, Inc., Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Potthoff, Professor Edward F., University of Illinois, Urbana, Dl. 

Power, Thomas F., Superintendent of Schools, Worcester, Mass. 

Powers, F. R., Supt., Amherst Exempted Village Schools, Amherst, Ohio 

Powers, Dr. Nellie E., 398 Marlborough St., Boston, Mass. 

Powers, Professor S. Ralph, Teachers College, Columbia Univ., New York, N.Y. 

Powers, Sue M., Superintendent of Schools, Memphis, Tenn. 

Price, Helen, Indiana State Teachers College, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Price, J. St. Clair, Dean, Col. of Liberal Arts, Howard Univ., Washington, D.C. 

Pringle, James Nelson, Commissioner of Education, Concord, N.H. 

Proctor, Professor A. M., Duke University, Durham, N,C. 

Prutzman, Stuart E., County Superintendent of Schools, Mauch Chunk, Pa. 

Pugsley, Professor C. A., State Teachers College, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Purdy, Ralph D., Superintendent of Schools, Conneaut, Ohio 

Pylvainen, Ingrid, Supervisor of Elementary Education, Crystal Falls, Mich. 

Race, Stuart, Supervising Principal of Schools, Newton, N J. 

Radvanvi, Dr. Laszlo, National University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mex. 

Ragan, Professor William B., University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

Ralston, Alene, 709 Church Lane, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ramharter, Mrs. Hazel K,, Co-ordinator of Secondary Education, Eau Claire, Wis. 

Ranta, George R., 319 West Virginia St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Raankba, Paul T n Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Detroit, Mich. 

Rasche, William F., Dir., Milwaukee Vocational School, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Raths, Professor Louis E., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Raymond, Professor Ruth, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Reavis, Professor W. C., University of Chicago, Chicago, UL 

Rebok, D. E., Pres., Seventh-day Adventist Theological Sem., Washington, D.C. 

Reed, Mary D., Indiana State Teachers College, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Reeder, R. R., Superintendent of Schools, Litchfield, Minn. 

Reeves, J. A., Superintendent of Schools, Everett, Wash. 

Regan, Eleanor, President, Barat College of the Sacred Heart, Lake Forest, HI. 

Regier, Dr. A. J., Bethel College, Newton, Kan. 

ReBley, Albert G., Principal, Memorial Junior High School, Framingham, Mass. 

Reinhardt, Emma, Eastern Illinois State Teachers College, Charleston, Dl. 

Reiter, M. R,, Superintendent of Schools, Morrisville, Pa, 

Reitze, Dr. Arnold W., 3 Lienau Place, Jersey City, N.J. 

Remmers, Professor Herman, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

Remy, B. D., 123 Hopkins Place* Longmeadow, Mass. 

Reynolds, E- J., Superintendent of Schools, Moberly, Mo. 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 



XXXV 



Reynolds, Fordyce T., Superintendent of Schools, Gardner, Mass. 

Reynolds, James W-, Atlanta Area Teacher Educ. Service, Emory Univ., Ga. 

Rhodes, L. H., Superintendent of Schools, Tucumeari, N.M. 

Rice, John D., Superintendent of Schools, Kearney, Neb. 

Rice, Dr. Ralph Samuel, Supv. Principal, Ross Twp. Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Richey, Herman G., School of Edue., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, HI. 

Richman, J. Maurice, 1001 East Ninth St., Brooklyn. N.Y. 

Riggs, Ora M., 445 FuUerton Parkway, Chicago, 111. 

Riley, T. M., Principal, Louis Pasteur Junior High School, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Risk, Professor Thomas M., University of South Dakota, Vermillion, S.D. 

Risley, James H., Superintendent of School Dist. No. 1, Pueblo, Colo. 

Ritow, Herman L., Principal, Boone Elementary School, Chicago, 111. 

Ritter, Professor Elmer L., Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls, Iowa 

Robbins, Edward T., Superintendent of Schools, Taylor, Tex. 

Roberts, Agnes C., 1002 Glenwood Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 

Roberts, Edward D., 3533 Burch Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio 

Roberts, Morris F., Principal, Community High School, Wheaton, HI. 

Robertson, Walter J., Superintendent of City Schools, Las Vegas, N.M. 

Robinson, Clifford E., Albany High School, Albany, Ore. 

Robinson, Louis C., County Superintendent of Schools, Chestertown, Md. 

Robinson, Mardele, Director of Guidance, South Pasadena, Calif. 

Robinson, R. F., Principal, Washington High School, East Chicago, Ind. 

Robinson, Ross N., Superintendent of Schools, Kingsport, Tenn. 

Robinson, Thomas L., Alcorn A. and M. College, Alcorn, Miss. 

Robinson, William McK., Western State Teachers College, Kakmazoo, Mich. 

Robison, Alice E., 18302 Roselawn Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Roeber, Edward C., Kansas State Teachers College, Pittsburg, Kan. 

Roeder, Dr. Jesse N., Superintendent of Schools, Palmerton, Pa. 

Rogers, Donald W., Master, Loomis School, Windsor, Conn. 

Rogers, Dean Emeritus Lester B., University of So. Calif., Los Angeles, Calif. 

Rogers, V. M., Superintendent of Schools, Battle Creek, Mich. 

Rogers, Mother V., Dean, Ducjaesne College, Omaha, Neb. 

Rohrbach, Q. A. W., President, State Teachers College, Kutztown, Pa. 

Rooney, Rev. Edward B., S.J., Jesuit Educational Association, New York, N.Y. 

Rose Marie, Sister, Prin., St. Joseph's High School, West New York, N. J. 

Rosenstengel, Professor William E., Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N,C. 

Ross, Professor C. C., College of Educ., Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. 

Ross, Cannon, Superintendent of Schools, Lansdowne, Pa. 

Ross, Dr. Cecil L., University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 

Ross, Lazarus D., Prin., Wm. J. Saynor Junior High School, Brooklyn, N.Y, 

Roverud, Ella M., Assistant Superintendent of Schools, St. Paul, Minn. 

Rowe, Ruth, Asst. Dir. of Educ., Board of Education, St. Louis, Mo. 

Rowland, Sydney V., Superintendent of Schools, Wayne, Pa. 

Rucker, Thomas J., Principal, Emerson School, St. Louis, Mo. 

Rudisill, Mabel, Western Kentucky State Teachers College, Bowling Green, Ky. 

Rufi, Professor John, School of Educ., University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Rugg, Professor Earle U., Colorado State College of Education, Greeley, Colo. 

Ruggles, Allen M., University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla. 

Rumpel, Harry E., Superintendent of Schools, Richfield, Minn. 

Rush, Mrs. Rose Gordon, 1617 Belle Ave., Lakewood, Ohio 

Russell, Professor David H., University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 

Russell, Earle S., Superintendent of Schools, Windsor, Conn, 

Russell, Dr. F. O., University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 

Russell, J. L., Regional Director, Div. of Gen. Extension, Rome, Ga. 

Russell, Professor John Dale, University of Chicago, Chicago, Bl. 

Rutter, Henry B., 123 So. Bryant Ave., BeBevue, Pa. 

Ryan, Very Rev. Msgr. Carl J. f Supt. of Parochial Schools, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Ryan, W. Carson, Head, Dept. of Educ., tJoiv. of North Carolina, Chapel HOI, N.C. 

Ryans, Lieut. David G., USNR, Cooperative Test Service, New York, N.Y. 

Sailer, T. H. P., 219 Walnut St., Eageiwood, N J. 
Salisbury, Rachel, Dir., Educ. Dept,, Milton College, Milton, Wis. 
Salser, Alden, Prin., Horace Mann Intermediate School, Wichita, Kan. 
Sampson, Mabel M,, 260 Fifth Street, Independence, Ore. 



xxxvi MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 

Samuelson, Agnes, National Educ. Assn., 1201 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 

Sand, Harold J., 5720 Dupont Ave., So., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Sanders, Mattie, Campbellsville College, Campbellsville, Ky. 

Sanderson, Jesse 0., Superintendent of Schools, Raleigh, N.C. 

Sands, Elizabeth, Asst. Superintendent of City Schools, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Sangree, Professor John B., Dept. of Science, State Teachers CoL, Glassboro, N.J. 

Saunders, Joseph H., 5906 Huntington Ave., Newport News, Va. 

Saunders, Paul A., 231 Albion St., Wakefield, Mass. 

Saunders, Raymond J., 320i Greenwood Ave., Jenkintown, Pa. 

Sauvain, Professor Walter H., Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pa. 

Savery, Rosalie, Supervisor, Rural Elementary Schools, Tupelo, Miss. 

Savoy, A. Kiger, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Washington, D.C. 

Saylor, Charles F., Superintendent of Schools, Shippensburgj Pa. 

Saylor, Lt. Comdr. Galen, USNR, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

Scarborough, Homer C., Superintendent of Schools, Great Bend, Kan. 

Scarf, Professor Robert C., Ball State Teachers College, Muncie, Ind. 

Scates, Professor Douglas E., Duke University, Durham, N.C. 

Schmidt, Rev. Austin G., S.J., Loyola University, Chicago, HI. 

Schmidt, Dr. Bernardine G,, Indiana State Teachers College, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Schmidt, Landolf George H., Headmaster, Central School, Mulwala, New South 

Wales, Australia 

Schmieding, Alfred, Concordia Teachers College, River Forest, HI. 
Schmitt, Irvin H., 4808 South Thirtieth St., Fairlington, Arlington, Va. 
Schnell, Mrs. Dorothy M., 339 Puente Drive, Hope Ranch Park, Santa Barbara, 

Calif. 

Schoolcraft, Dr. Arthur A., West Virginia Wesleyan College, Buckhannon, W.Va. 
Schrammel, Dr. H. E., Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kan. 
Schreiber, Herman, 80 Clarkson Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Schultz, Frank G., Dean of General Science, State College, Brookings, S.D. 
Schultz, Frederick, Public School 19, 97 West Delavan Ave., Buffalo, N.Y. 
Schutte, Professor T. H., State Teachers College, Silver City, N.M. 
Schwiering, 0. C., Dean, College of Educ., Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo. 
Scorer, Sadie Mae, Box 404, Homestead, Pa. 

Scott, James Armstrong, Director of Elementary Education, St. Louis, Mo. 
Scott, Mildred C., Dir. T Division of Elementary Education, Parma, Cleveland, Ohio 
Scott, Walter E., Superintendent of Schools, Fairbury, Neb. 
Scott, Walter W., Superintendent, Walton Twp. Unit School, Olivet, Mich. 
Seamens, Ray E., County Vocational Supervisor, Greensburg, Pa. 
Sears, Professor J. B., Stanford University, Calif. 
Seegers, Dean J. C., Temple University, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Selby, June, Supervisor, Board of Education, Watertown, N.Y. 
Selke, Professor Erich, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, N.D. 
Selkowe, Mrs. Gertrude, 4810 Beverley Road, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Sells, John A., Principal, Brighton School, Seattle, Wash. 
Senour, Alfred C., 4133 Ivy St., East Chicago, Ind. 
Setzepfandt, A. O. H., Principal, Henry Barnard School, Tulsa, Okla. 
Sewell, Nelson B., Principal, Sahnas Union High School, Salinas, Calif . 
Sexson, John A., Superintendent of Schools, Pasadena, Calif. 
Sexton, Wray E. T 23 Hoffman St., Maplewood, NJ. 

Seyfert, Warren C., Director, Laboratory Schools, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 
Shack, Jacob H., Principal, Public School 130, Manhattan, New York, N.Y. 
Shales, J. M., Ball State Teachers College, Muncie, Ind. 
Shangle, C. Paine, Superintendent, District No. 501, Bellingham, Wash. 
Shankland, Sherwood D., 1201 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 
Sharlip, Lou N., Principal, William S. Stokley, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Shattuck, George E., Principal, Norwich Free Academy, Norwich, Conn. 
Shaw, Roger M., 197 W. Loraine St., Oberlin, Ohio 

Shea, James T., Director of Research, Board of Education, San Antonio, Tex. 
Shelton, Nollie W., Superintendent of Schools, Swan Quarter, N.C. 
Sheperd, Lou A., Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls, Iowa 
Sherer, Lorraine, Dir., Elem, Educ., Los Angeles County Schools, Los Angeles, CaHf, 
Sheridan, Professor Harold J., Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio 
Shimmick, Lillian, Superintendent of County Schools, Oberlin, Kan. 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY xxxvii 

Shine, Joseph B., 9238 South Bishop St., Chicago, HI. 

Shotwell, Fred C., 1 School Plaza, Franklin, N J. 

ShotweU, Harry W., 40 Seventy-fourth St., North Bergen, NJ. 

Shove, Helen B., 3116 Clinton Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Shreve, Professor Francis, Fairmont State College, Fairmont, W.Va. 

Shrode, Carl, Principal, Central High School, Evansville, Ind. 

Shryock, Clara M., Asst. Supt., Cambria County Public Schools, Wilmore, Pa. 

Shuck, Albert C., County Superintendent of Schools, Salem, NJ. 

Sias, Professor A. B., Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

Sickles, F. J., Superintendent of Schools, New Brunswick, NJ. 

Siebrecht, Elmer B., Dean, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, Minn. 

Sieving, Eldor C., St. Paul's Lutheran School, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Siewers, Grace L., Librarian, Salem College, Winston-Salem, N.C. 

Simley, Irvin T., Superintendent of Schools, South St. Paul, Minn. 

Simmons, Dr. I. F., County Board of Education, Birmingham, Ala. 

Simon, H. B., Superintendent of Schools, Geneva, Neb. 

Simpson, Professor Benjamin R., Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 

Sims, Professor Verner M., University of Alabama, University, Ala. 

Singleton, Gordon G., President, Mary Hardin-Baylor College, Belton, Tex. 

Sininger, Harlan, New Mexico Highlands University, Las Vegas, N.M. 

Skinner, Elate E., Ginn and Company, Chicago, DL 

Skogsberg, Alfred, Principal, Bloomfield Junior High School, Bloomfield, N.J. 

Slade, William, Jr., Superintendent of Schools, Shaker Heights, Ohio 

Sletten, Professor R. Signe, State Teachers College, Mankato, Minn. 

Sloan, Professor Paul W., State Teachers College, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Smith, A. Edson, Principal, Robinson Twp. High School, Robinson, DL 

Smith, C. A., 7220 Lindell Ave., St. Louis, Mo, 

Smith, C. Arthur M., Attendance Officer, Board of Education, Detroit, Mich. 

Smith, Professor Dora V., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Smith, Ethel L., Dir., Elementary Education, Trenton, NJ. 

Smith, Dean H. L., School of Educ., Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Smith, Professor Harry P., Teachers College, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y. 

Smith, Professor Henry P., School of Educ., Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y. 

Smith, J. W., Principal, East High School, Youngstown, Ohio 

Smith, Mrs. Josephine C., 1948 Second St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 

*Smith, Dr. Lewis Wilbur, 98 Alamo Ave., Berkeley, Calif. 

Smith, Dr. Mark A,, Superintendent of Schools, Macon, Ga. 

Smith, Dr. Raymond A., Dir., School of Educ., Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth, 

Tex. 

Smith, Russell W., Principal, Campbell School, East Moline, HI. 
Smith, Dr. Stephen E., East Texas Baptist College, Marshall, Tex. 
Smith, Vernon G., Superintendent of Schools, Scarsdale, N.Y. 
Smither, Ethel L., 2906 Floyd Ave., Richmond, Va. 
Snarr, 0. W., President, State Teachers College, Moorhead, Minn. 
Snyder, Philip F., Northeast High School, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Snyder, Walter E., Curriculum Dir., Salem Public Schools, Salem, Ore. 
Soderstrom, LaVern W., Superintendent of Schools, Lindsborg, Kan. 
Sorensen, R. R., Superintendent of Schools, Tracy, Minn. 
Southall, Dr. Maycie, George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. 
Southerlin, W. B., Superintendent of Schools, Winnsboro, S.C. 
Sparling, Edward J., President, Roosevelt College, Chicago, HI. 
Spaulding, Col. Francis T., 3417 Martha Custis Drive, Alexandria, Va, 
Spaulding, William E., Editor-in-chief, Houghton Mifflfn Co., Boston, Mass. 
Spence, Ralph B., State Education Department, Albany, N.Y. 
" icer, E. M., Director, Laboratory Schools, State Teachers CoL, Moorhead, Minn. 
T, Professor Peter L., 535 West Tenth St., Oaremont, Calif. 

^ :r, W. L., Dir., Secondary Educ., State Dept. of Educ., Montgomery, Ala. 

Spitzer, Herbert, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, 

Sprague, Harry A., President, State Teachers College, Upper Montclair, NJ. 

Springer, Florence E., Counselor, Gity Schools, Alhambra, Calif. 

Springman, John H., Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Birmingham, Mich. 

Spry. Edward W., Superintendent of Schools, LeRoy, N.Y. 

Stack, Katherine L, 4733 Cedar Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 



xxxviii MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 

StalHngs, Tharon Eugene, Superintendent of Schools, Sikeston, Mo. 

Stanton, Edgar, 3302 East Mercer St., Seattle, Wash. 

Staples, Leon C., Superintendent of Schools, Stamford, Conn. 

Stauffer, George E., 2nd Lt., A.G.D., Fourth Service Command, A.S.F., Regional 

Hospital, Fort McCleUan, Ala. 
Steel, H. J., State Teachers College, Buffalo, N.Y. 
Stegner, Warren E., Superintendent of Schools, Miles City, Mont. 
Steiner, M. A., Supervising Principal, Ingram Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Stellhorn, A. C., Secretary of Schools, 3558 S. Jefferson Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 
Stephens, June E., 1038 East Huron Ave., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Stern, Bessie C., State Department of Education, Baltimore, Md. 
Stetson, G. A. r Superintendent of Schools, West Chester, Pa. 
Stevens, Mrs. Marion Paine, Hotel Berkeley, New York, N.Y. 
Stewart, Professor A. W., 402 S. Willow St., Kent, Ohio 
Stewart, Grace E., Bartlett School Cottage, Salina, Kan. 
Stewart, Professor Holland M., Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 
Stickney, G. E., Principal, Lanphier High School, Springfield, 111. 
Stock, L. V., Supervising Principal, Public Schools, Biglerville, Pa. 
Stoddard, George D., Commissioner of Education, State Educ. Dept., Albany, N.Y. 
Stoddard, Professor James Alexander, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. 
Stoke, Stuart M., Head, Educ. Dept. Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Mass. 
Stolen, Alvin T., Superintendent of Schools, Duluth, Minn. 
Stone, Professor William H., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 
Storey, Dr. Bernice L., Elementary Principal, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Stout, H, G., Chairman, Dept. of Educ., State Teachers College, Kearney, Neb. 
Strang, Professor Ruth, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 
Stratemeyer, Florence, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 
Stratton, Mason A., Director of Elementary Education, Atlantic City, N.J. 
Strayer, Professor George D., Teachers Col., Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 
Strayer, Lt. George D., Jr., 2020 West Sixty-second St., Seattle, Wash. 
Strickland, Professor Ruth G., School of Educ., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, Ind. 
Stroud, Professor J. B., State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 
Stuart, Alden T., Superintendent of Schools, Perry, N.Y. 
Studebaker, J. W., U.S. Commissioner of Education, Washington, D.C. 
Study, H, P., Superintendent of Schools, Springfield, Mo. 
Sullivan, Edward A., President, State Teachers College, Salem, Mass. 
Sullivan, G. C., State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Boise, Idaho 
Sullivan, Professor Helen Blair, Boston University, Boston, Mass. 
Sutherland, Dr. A. H., 17 Lexington Ave., New York, N.Y. 
Swanbeck, G. W., Registrar, Augustana College, Rock Island, 111. 
Swartz, Dr. David J., 900 Grand Concourse, Bronx, New York, N.Y. 
Sweeney, Ellen C., Asst. Superintendent of Schools, New Bedford, Mass. 
Swenson, Esther J., Box 187, Morris, 111. 

Swertfeger, Professor Floyd F., FarmvOle State Teachers College, Farmville, Va. 
Swift, G. C., Superintendent of Schools, Watertown, Conn. 
Swihart, O. M., Superintendent of Schools, Richmond, Ind. 
SyJla, Ben A., Superintendent of Schools, Chicago Heights, HI. 

Taba, Hilda, Amer. Council on Education, 437 W. Fifty-ninth St., New York, N.Y. 

Tabaka, Victor P., School of Business Adm., Emory University, Ga. 

Tallman, Dr. R. W., 2024 Avalpn Road, Des Moines, Iowa 

Tanruther, Professor E. M., Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 

Tansil, Rebecca, Registrar, State Teachers College, Towson, Md. 

Tapper, Inga B., 348 Forest Drive, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

TarbeH, R. W., 5117 West Washington Blvd., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Taylor, Dean Earl B. 7 University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. 

Taylor, Elizabeth, Assistant Superintendent, Shreveport, La. 

Taylor, Harvey L., Superintendent, Mesa Union High School, Mesa, Ariz. 

Taylor, William S., University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. 

Teach, Charles E., Superintendent of Schools, San Luis Obispo, Calif, 

Templin, Mildred G*, Inst. of Child Welfare, Univ. of Minn., Minneapolis, Minn, 

Terry, Professor Paul W., School of Educ., Univ. of Alabama, University, Ala, 

Tfcayer, H, C., 2259 Fox Ave., Madison, Wis. 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY xxxix 

Thayer, Professor V. T., Educ. Dir., Ethical Culture School, New York. N.Y 

Theisen, W. W., Asst. Superintendent of Schools, Milwaukee. Wis 

Thies, Lillian C., 2500 North Stowell Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Thibadeau, Charles R., Superintendent of Schools, Stamford, Conn. 

Thomas, John Q., Superintendent of Schools, Flagstaff, Ariz. 

Thomas, Professor Lawrence G., Stanford University, Calif. 

Thomas, Dr. Maurice J., Superintendent of Schools, Rochester, Minn. 

Thomas, Oscar D., 6160 Webster St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Thomas, Mrs. Ruth H., Board of Foreign Missions, 156 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 

Thompson, Anton, Long Beach Public Schools, Long Beach, Cah'f. 

Thompson, Dean Charles H., Col. of Liberal Arts, Howard Univ., Washington, D.C. 

Thompson, Clem 0., Dir., Home-Study Dept., Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Thompson, G. E., Superintendent of Schools, St. Charles, El. 

Thorndike, Maj. Robert L., 900 South Twenty-sixth St., Arlington, Va. 

Thorp, Mary T., Henry Barnard Junior High School, Providence, R.I. 

Threlkeld, A. L., Superintendent of Schools, Montclair, N. J. 

Thurston, Professor Flora M., Stone Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Tidwell, Dean R. E., Extension Div., University of Alabama, University Ala. 

Tiedeman, Lt. Herman R., USNR, 534 South Lahoma St., Norman, Okfa. 

Tillman, Frank P., Superintendent of Schools, Kirkwood, Mo. 

Tireman, Dr. L. S., University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M. 

Tongaw, Margaret, 2720 Manhattan Ave., Manhattan Beach, Calif. 

Toops, Professor Herbert A., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 

Townsend, Professor Loran G., University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Trabue, M. R., Dean, School of Education, State College, Pa. 

Traner, Professor F. W., University of Nevada, Reno, Nev. 

Traphagen, Martin H., Prin., Wilson Junior High School, Mount Veroon, N.Y. 

Traxler, Dr. Arthur E., Educational Records Bureau, New York, N.Y. 

Treadaway, Rev. Thomas J., S.M., Dean-Registrar, St. Mary's Univ., San Antonio, 

Tex. 

Trent, Dr. W. W., State Superintendent of Free Schools, Charlestown, W.Va. 
Trescott, B. M., 341 Upland Way, Drexel Hill, Pa. 
Triggs, Dean, Superintendent of Schools, Ventura, Calif. 

Triggs, Frances O., American Nurses Association, 1790 Broadway, New York, N.Y, 
Trout, David M., Dean of Students, Central Mich. College, Mt. Pleasant, Mich. 
Trow, William Clark, 1101 Berkshire Road, Ann Arbor, Mich, 
Troxel, Professor O. L., Colorado State Teachers College, Greeley, Colo. 
Troyer, Professor Maurice E., School of Educ., Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, N.Y. 
Trump, Dr. J. Lloyd, Superintendent, Waukegan Twp. High School, Waukegan, HI. 
Turner, Professor Egbert M., College of the City of New York, New York, N.Y. 
Turney, Professor A. H., University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 
Tyler, Professor Ralph W., University of Chicago, Chicago, HL 
Tyson, Dr. George R., Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pa. 

Umstattd, Professor J. G., University of Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Unger, John C., State Dir. of Sec. Educ. and Curricula, Boulder, Colo. 

Uphill, Jared L. M., District Superintendent of Schools, Batavia, N.Y, 

Vakil, K. S., Principal, Teachers College, Kolhapur, India 

Van Alstyne, Dr. Dorothy, Duke University, College Station, Durham, N.C. 

Van Antwerp, Maude L., Northern Michigan College of Education, Marquette, Mich. 

Vander Beke, George E., Dept. of Educ., Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Vanderlinden, J. S., Superintendent of Schools, Perry, Iowa 

Vandervelden, Katherine, 114 Maple Street, New Haven, Conn. 

Van de Voort, Professor Alice, University of Delaware, Newark, Del 

Van Ness, Carl, D. Appleton-Century Co., New York, N.Y. 

Van Ormer, Professor Edward B., Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa. 

Van Wagenen, Professor M. J. 7 University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Varney, Charles E., Superintendent of Schools, Stoneham, Mass- 

Vaughan, John S., President, Northeastern State College, Tahlequah, Okla. 

Velte, C. BL f Crete, Neb. 

Verseput, Robert F., Dover High School, Dover. N J. 

Vetting, Ida F., Principal, Seward School, Seattle, Wash. 



3d MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY 

Viker, J. H., Superintendent of Schools, Little Falls, Minn. 

Villaronga, Mariano, Dir. of Gen. Studies, Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, P.R. 

Vincent, Harold S., Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Akron, Ohio 

Vineyard, Jerry J., Superintendent of Schools, Nevada, Mo. 

Viste, Kenneth M. f Superintendent of Schools, Williams Bay, Wis. 

Voelker, Paul H., Supervisor of Special Classes, Detroit, Mich. 

*Waddell, Professor C. W., 10630 Lindbrook Drive, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Waggoner, Dr. Sherman G., Teachers College of Connecticut, New Britain, Conn. 

Wahlquist, Dean John T., School of Educ., Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Wakeman, Seth, Dept. of Education, Smith College, Northampton, Mass. 

Waldron, Margaret L., Dept. of Education, St. Mary-of-the-Woods, Ind. 

Walkenhorst, Slartin F., Principal, Lutheran School, Mt. Clemens, Mich. 

Walker, Professor E. T., 1706 South Fifth Ave., Maywood, HI. 

Walker, K. P., Superintendent of Schools, Jackson, Miss. 

Walker, Knox, Supervisor, Fulton County Schools, Atlanta, Ga. 

Walter, Robert B., Chief Deputy Supt,, Los Angeles County, San Gabriel, Calif. 

Walz, Louise D., 2628 North Euclid Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Wanamaker, Pearl A., State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, Wash. 

Ward, John H., Principal, Laura E. Titus School, Norfolk, Va. 

Ward, W. H., Dir,, Extension Div., Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C. 

Warren, W. Frank, Superintendent of City Schools, Durham, N,C. 

Watkin, Earl P., Superintendent of Schools, Hion, N.Y. 

Watkins, Professor Ralph K., University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 

Watson, C. Hoyt, President, Seattle Pacific College, Seattle, Wash. 

Watson, E. E., Dir. of Training, East Tex. Teachers College, Commerce, Tex. 

Watson, N. E., Superintendent of Schools, Northbrook, HI. 

Webb, Ella P., Principal, Alexander Wilson School, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Weber, Clarence A., Superintendent of Schools, Cicero, HI. 

Weglein, David K, 2400 Linden Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

Weida, Mrs. Ethelyn Y., Dir. of Guidance, 1200 E. Olive.St., Compton, Calif. 

Weir, Donald, Superintendent of Schools, Jefferson, Iowa 

Welch, Carolyn M., 1333 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Welcfo, Earl E., Administrative Editor, Silver Burdett Company, New York, N.Y. 

Welch, Eleanor W., Librarian, Illinois State Normal University, Normal, HI. 

Welling, Richard, Chairman, Self -Government Committee, Inc., New York, N.Y. 

Wellman, Professor Beth, Iowa Child Welfare Research Station, Iowa City, Iowa 

Wells, George N., Superintendent of Schools, Bloomington, HI 

Wendt, Paul, Dir., Visual Educ. Service, Univ. of Minn., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Wentz, Roy, Acting Principal, Springfield High School, Springfield, 111. 

Wesley, Charles H. t President, Wilberforce University Wilberforce, Ohio 

Wesley, Professor Edgar B., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Wessels, Harry, Nathan Hale Junior High School, New Britain, Conn. 

West, Frank L., Commissioner of Educ., L.D.S. Dept. of Educ., Salt Lake City, Utah 

West, Professor Guy A., Chico State College, Chico, Calif. 

West, Professor Paul V., New York University, New York, N.Y. 

West, Eoscoe L., President, State Teachers College, Trenton, N. J. 

Westbrook, Dr. C. H., Graduate School of Educ., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. 

Wexler, S. David, 294 Brooklyn Ave., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Wheat, Professor H. G., West Virginia University, Morgantown, W.Va. 

Wheat, Leonard B., 235 South Mell St., Auburn, Ala. 

Wheeler, Dr. Arville, Superintendent of Schools, Ashland, Ky. 

Whelan, Louise M,, 6 Grand Ave., Hackensack, N.J. 

WMpple, Gertrude, 14505 Mettetal Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Whifiler, Professor H. M., Butler University, Indianapolis, Ind. 

White, Frank S., Fairmont State Normal School, Fairmont, W.Va. 

White, Warren T., Assistant Superintendent in Charge of High Schools, Dallas, Tex. 

Whiting, Dean G. W., Dir. of Teacher Educ., Bluefield State Col., Bluefield, W.Va. 

Whitky, Paul N., Principal, Point Grey Junior High School, Vancouver, B.C. 

Whitney, Frank P., 2164 Taylor Road, East Cleveland, Ohio 

Whitspn, Willie, State Teachers College, Kirksville, Mo. 

Whittier, C. Taylor, Asst. Principal, Horace Mann School, Gary, Ind. 

Wiener, Isadore, Universal Dental Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 



MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY xli 

Wight, Edward A., Newark Public Library, Newark, NJ. 

Wilcox, Charles C., 306 East Lovell St., Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Wilcox, George M., Dean, Youngstown College, Youngstown, Ohio 

Wiles, Dr. Marion E. f Educ. Consultant, School Department, Brockton. Mass, 

Wilkerson, H. Clifton, 542 Market St., Platteville, Wis. 

Wilkins, Lt. Comdr. Walter, TAD Cen., Camp Elliott, San Diego, Calif. 

Willett, G. W., 2022 East Edgewood Aye., Shorewood, Wis. 

Williams, Dr. Bryon B., Chas. E. Merrill Company, Columbus, Ohio 

Williams, Claude L., Principal, Wentworth School, Chicago, HI. 

Williams, E. I. F., Professor of Educ., Heidelberg College, Tiffin, Ohio 

Williams, Lewis W., 200 Gregory Hall, Urbana, HI. 

Williams, Professor Mary N., State Teachers College, DeKalb, EL 

Willing, Professor Matthew H., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Willis, Benjamin C., Superintendent of Washington County Schls., Hagerstown, Md. 

Wills, Benjamin G., 1550 Bellamy St., Santa Clara, Calif. 

Willson, Gordon L., Superintendent of Schools, Baraboo, Wis. 

Wilson, Dr. Clara O., University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. 

Wilson, James H., Superintendent of Schools, Rocky Ford, Colo. 

Winter, Olice, Principal, Lake View High School, Chicago, 111. 

Wisseman, Professor C. L., Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Tex. 

Witherington, Professor H. Carl, Bowling Green State Univ., Bowling Green, Ohio 

Witty, Professor Paul A., Northwestern University, Evanston, El. 

Woelfel, Norman, 463 King Ave., Columbus, Ohio 

Wolfe, W. D., Superintendent of Schools, Atchison, Kan. 

Wood, C. B., University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 

Wood, C. R., Dean, State Teachers College, Jacksonville, Ala, 

Wood, Professor Ernest R., New York University, New York, N.Y. 

Wood, Roi S., Superintendent of Schools, Joplin, Mo. 

Wood, Dr. Waldo Emerson, 408 South Jackson St., Frankfort, Ind. 

Woods, Dr. Velma E., Manzanar, Calif. 

Woodside, J. Barnes, Superintendent of Schools, Willoughby, Ohio 

Woody, Professor Clifford, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Woody, Professor Thomas, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Woodyard, Ella, Dir. of Research, Frontier Nursing Service, Wendover, Ky. 

Wooton, Professor Flaud C., University of California, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Works, George A., 242 Gateway Road, Ridgewood, NJ, 

Wright, Anne, Principal, Furness Junior High School, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Woolcock, Dr. Cyril Wnu, Assistant Superintendent of Schools, Royal Oak, Mich. 

Wright, C. O., Exec. Secy., Kansas State Teachers Association, Topeka, Kan. 

Wright, Professor F. L., Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. 

Wright, Owen B., Principal, Senior High School, Rock Island, El. 

Wrightstone, J. Wayne, Board of Education 110 Livingston St., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Wrinkle, William L., Dir., College High School, Greeley, Colo. 

Wynne, John P., Head, Dept. of Educ., State Teachers College, Farmville, Va. 

Yauch, Professor Wilbur A., 42 Sunnyside Drive, Athens, Ohio 

Yeuell, Gladstone H., University of Alabama, University, Ala. 

Ylvisaker, H. L., Principal, Leyden Community High School, Franklin Park, El. 

Yoakam, Professor G. A., University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Young, Gordie, Asst. Superintendent of Public Instruction, Frankfort, Ky. 

Young, Lloyd P., President, Keene Teachers College, Keene, N.H. 

Young, Paul A., 2204 Sherman Ave., Evanston, El. 

Young, William E., State Education Department, Albany, N.Y. 

Yunghans, Ernest E., Principal, Grace Lutheran School, River Forest, EL 

Zahn, D. Willard, 6531 North Park Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Zeigel, Professor William H., Jr., State Teachers College, Charleston, EL 
Zimmerman, Lee F., State Department of Education, St. Paul, Minn. 
Zimmerman, Paul H., North High School, Akron, Ohio 



INFORMATION CONCERNING THE NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR 
THE STUDY OF EDUCATION 

1. PURPOSE. The purpose of the National Society is to promote the investigation 
and discussion of educational questions. To this end it holds an annual meeting and 
publishes a series of yearbooks. 

2. ELIGIBILITY TO MEMBERSHIP, Any person who is interested in receiving its 
- publications may become a member by sending to the Secretary-Treasurer informa- 
tion concerning name, title, and address, and a check for $3.50 (see Item 5). 

Membership is not transferable; it is limited to individuals, and may not be held 
by libraries, schools, or other institutions, either directly or indirectly. 

3. PERIOD OF MEMBERSHIP. Applicants for membership may not date their en- 
trance back of the current calendar year, and all memberships terminate automatically 
on December 31, unless the dues for the ensuing year are paid as indicated in Item 6. 

4. DUTIES AND PRIVILEGES OF MEMBERS. Members pay dues of $2.50 annually, 
receive a cloth-bound copy of each publication, are entitled to vote, to participate 
in discussion, and (under certain conditions) to hold office. The names of members 
are printed in the yearbooks. 

Persons who are sixty years of age or above may become life members on payment 
of fee based on average life-expectancy of their age group. For information, apply to 
Secretary-Treasurer. 

5. ENTRANCE FEE. New members are required the first year to pay, in addition to 
the dues, an entrance fee of one dollar. 

6. PAYMENT OF DUES. Statements of dues are rendered in October or November 
for the following calendar year. Any member so notified whose dues remain unpaid 
on January 1 thereby loses his membership and can be reinstated only by paying a 
reinstatement fee of fifty cents, levied to cover the actual clerical cost involved. 

School warrants and vouchers from institutions must be accompanied by definite 
information concerning the name and address of the person for whom membership 
fee is being paid. Statements of dues are rendered on our own form only. The Secre- 
tary's office cannot undertake to fill out special invoice forms of any sort or to affix 
notary's affidavit to statements or receipts. 

Cancelled checks serve as receipts. Members desiring an additional receipt must 
enclose a stamped and addressed envelope therefor. 

7. DISTRIBUTION OF YEARBOOKS TO MEMBERS. The yearbooks, ready prior to 
each February meeting, will be mailed from the office of the distributors, only to mem- 
bers whose dues for that year have been paid. Members who desire yearbooks prior 
to the current year must purchase them directly from the distributor (see Item 8). 

8. COMMERCIAL SALES. The distribution of all yearbooks prior to the current year, 
and also of those of the current year not* regularly mailed to members in exchange 
for their dues, is in the hands of the distributor, not of the Secretary. For such com- 
mercial sales, communicate directly with the University of Chicago Press, Chicago 37, 
Illinois, which will gladly send a price list covering all the publications of this Society 
and of its predecessor, the National Herbart Society. This list is also printed in the 
yearbook. 

9. YEARBOOKS. The yearbooks are issued about one month before the February 
meeting. They comprise from 600 to 800 pages annually. Unusual effort has been 
made to make them, on the one hand, of immediate practical value, and, on the other 
hand, representative of sound scholarship and scientific investigation. Many of them 
are the fruit of co-operative work by committees of the Society. 

10. MEETINGS. The annual meeting, at which the yearbooks are discussed, is held 
in February at the same time and place as the meeting of the American Association 
of School Administrators. 

Applications for membership wfll be handled promptly at any time on receipt of 
name and address, together with check for $3.50 (or $3,00 for reinstatement) . Gen- 
erally speaking, applications entitle the new members to the yearbook slated for dis- 
cussion during the calendar year the application is made, but those received in De- 
cember are regarded as pertaining to the next calendar year. 

NELSON B. HENRY, Secretary-Treasurer 
5835 Kimbark Ave. 
Chicago 37, Illinois 

xliii 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE NATIONAL HERBART SOCIETY 

(Now the National Society for the Study of Education) POOTPAJD 

PK1CB 

First Yearbook, 1895 80 .79 

First Supplement to First Yearbook 28 

Second Supplement to First Yearbook 27 

Second Yearbook, 1896 85 

Supplement to Second Yearbook 27 

Third Yearbo9k, 1897 85 

Ethical Principles Underlying Education. John Dewey. Reprinted from Third Yearbook 27 

Supplement to Third Yearbook . 27 

Fourth Yearbook, 1898 79 

Supplement to Fourth Yearboo 28 

Fifth Yearbook, 1899 79 

Supplement to Fifth Yearbook 54 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR 
THE STUDY OF EDUCATION 

POSTPAID 
PRIGS 

First Yearbook, 1902, Part I Some Principles in the Teaching of History- Lucy M. Salmon $0 .64 

First Yearbook, 1902, Part II The Progress of Geography in the Schools, W. M. Davis and H. M. 

Wilson 53 

Second Yearbook, 1903, Part I The Course of Study in History in the Common School. Isabel 

Lawrence, C. A. McMunry, Frank McMurry, E. C. Page, and E. J. Rice 53 

Second Yearbook, 1903, Part II The Relation of Theory to Practice in Education. M. J. Holmes, 

J. A. Keith, and Levi Seeley 53 

Third Yearbook, 1904, Part I The Relation of Theory to Practice in the Education of Teachers. 

John Dewey, Sarah C. Brooks, F. M. McMurry, et al. 53 

Third Yearbook, 1904, Part II Nature Study. W. S. Jackman 85 

Fourth Yearbook, 1905, Part I The Education and Training of Secondary Teachers. E. C. Elliott, 

E. G. Dexter, M. J. Holmes, etal 85 

Fourth Yearbook, 1905, Part II The Place of Vocational Subjects in the Sigh-School Curriculum. 

J. S. Brown, G. B. Morrison, and Ellen Richards 53 

Fifth Yearbook, 1906, Part l-^-On the Teaching of English in Elementary and High Schools. G. P. 

Brown and Emerson Davis 53 

Fifth Yearbook, 1906, Part II The Certification of Teachers. E. P. Cubberley 64 

Sixth Yearbook, 1907, Part I Vocational Studies for CoUege Entrance. C. A. Herrick, E. W. 

Holmes, T. deLaguna, V. Prettyman, and W. J. S. Bryan 70 

Sixth Yearbook, 1907, Part II The Kindergarten and Its Relation to Elementary Education. Ada 

Van Stone Harris, E. A. Kirkpatrick, Maria Eraus-Boelte 1 , Patty S. Hill, Harriette M, Mills, 

and Nina Vandewalker 70 

Seventh Yearbook, 1908, Part I The Relation of Superintendents and Principals to the Training 

and Professional Improvement of Their Teachers, Charles D. Lowry . , , 78 

Seventh Yearbook, 1908, Part II The Co-ordination of the Kindergarten and the Elementary 

School. B. J. Gregory, Jennie B. Merrill, Bertha Payne, and Margaret Giddiaga 78 

Eighth Yearbook, 1909, Parts I and II 'Education with Reference to Sex. C. R, Henderson and 

Helen C. Putnam. Both parts 1 .60 

Ninth Yearbook, 1910, Part I Sealth and Education. T. D. Wood 85 

Ninth Yearbook, 1910, Part II The Nurse in Education. T. D. Wood, etal. 78 

Tenth Yearbook, 1911, Part I The City School as a Community Center. H. C. Leipziger, Sarah E. 

Hyre, R. D. Warden, C. Ward Crampton, E. W. Stitt, E. J. Ward, Mrs. E. C. Grice, and C. A. 

Perry 78 

Tenth Yearbook, 1911. Part II The Rural School as a Community Center. B. H. Crocheron, 

Jessie Field, F. W. Howe, E. C. Bishop, A. B. Graham, O. J. Kern, M. T, Scudder, and B. M. 

Davis 79 

Eleventh Yearbook, 1912, Part I Industrial Education' Typical Experiments Described and 

Interpreted. J. F. Barker, M. Bloomfield, B. W. Johnson, P. Johnson, L. M. Leavitt, G. A, 

Mirick, M. W. Murray, C. F. Perry, A. L. Safford, and H. B. Wilson 85 

Eleventh Yearbook, 1912, Part II Agricultural Education in Secondary Schools. A. C. Monahan, 

R. W. Stimson, D. J. Crosby, W. H. French, H. F. Button. F, R. Crane, W. R. Hart, and 

G. F. Warren 85 

Twelfth Yearbook, 1913, Part I The Supervision of City Schools. FranHin Bobbitt, J. W. Hall, 

and J. D. Wolcott 85 

Twelfth Yearbook, 1913, Part II The Supervision of Rural Schools. A. C. Monahan, L. J. Hani- 
fan, J. E. Warren, Wallace Lund, U. J. Hoffman. A. a Cook, E. M. Rapp, Jackson Davis, 

and J. D. Wolcott - 85 

Thirteenth Yearbook, 1914, Part I Some Aspects of Hiffh-School Instruction and Administration. 

H. C. Morrison, E. R. BresEch, W. A. Jessup, and L, D. Coffman 85 

Thirteenth Yearbook, 1914, Part II Plans for Organizing School Surveys, with a Summary of 

Typical School $wneys. Charles H. Judd and Henry L. Smith 79 

Fourteenth Yearbook, 1915, Part I M inimtim Essentials in momentary School Subjects Stand- 
ard* and Current Practices. H. B. Wilson, H. W. Holmes, F. E. Thompson, R. G-Jones, S. A. 

Courtis, W. S. Gray, F. N. Freeman, H. C. Pryor, J. F. Hosic, W. A. Jesaup, and W. C. Bagley 85 
Fourteenth Yearbook, 1915, Part II Method* for Measuring Teachers 1 Efficiency. Arthur C. 

Boyoe * 79 

xlv 



xlvi PUBLICATIONS 



Fifteenth Yearbook, 1916, Part I Standards and Tests for the Measurement of the Efficiency of 
Schools and School Systems. G. D. Strayer, Bird T. Baldwin, B. R. Buckingham, F. W. Ballou, 

D. C. Bliss, H. G. CMlds, S. A. Courtis, B. P. Cubberley, C. H. Judd, George Melcher, E. E. 
Oberholtzer, J. B. Sears, Daniel Starch, M. R. Trabue, and G. M. Wnipple .............. $0 85 

Fifteenth Yearbook, 1916, Part II The Relationship between Persistence in School and Home 

Conditions. Charles E. Holley .................................................... 87 

Fifteenth Yearbook, 1916, Part III The Junior High School. Aubrey A. Douglass ........... !s5 

Sixteenth Yearbook, 1917, Part I Second Report of the Committee on Minimum Essentials in Ele- 
mentary School Subjects. W. C. Bagley, W. W. Charters, F. N. Freeman, W. S. Gray, Ernest 
Horn, J. H. Hoskinson, W. S. Monroe, C. F. Munson, H. C. Pryor, L. W. Rapeer, G. M. Wil- 
son, and H. B. Wilson ............................................................. 1 .00 

Sixteenth Yearbook, 1917, Part II The Efficiency of College Students as Conditioned by Age at 

Entrance and Size of High School. B. F. Pittenger .................................... 85 

Seventeenth Yearbook, 1918, Part I Third Report of the Committee on Economy of Time in Edu- 
cation. W. C. Bagley, B. B. Bassett, M. E. Branom, Alice Camerer, J. E. Dealey, C. A. 
Ellwood, E. B. Greene, A. B, Hart, J. F. Hosic, E. T. Housh, W. H. Mace, L. R. Maraton, 
H. C. McKown, H. E. Mitchell, W. C. Reavis, D. Snedden, and H. B. Wilson ............. 85 

Seventeenth Yearbook, 1918, Part II The Measurement of Educational Products. E. J. Ash- 
baugh, W. A. Averill, L. P. Ayera, F. W. Ballou, Edna Bryner, B. R. Buckingham, S. A. 
Courtis, M. E. Haggerty, C. H. Judd, George Melcher, W. S. Monroe, E. A. Nifenecker, and 

E. L. Thorndike ......................................................... 1 00 

Eighteenth Yearbook, 1919, Part I The Professional Preparation of High-School Teachers. 

G. N. Cade, S. S. Colvin, Charles Fordyce, H. H. Foster, T. W. Gosling, W. S. Gray, L. V. 

Kooa, A. R. Mead, H. L. Miller, F. C. Whitcomb, and Clifford Woody ................. 1 65 

Eighteenth Yearbook, 1919, Part II Fourth Report of Committee on Economy of Time in Educa- 

tion. F. C. Ayer, F. N. Freeman, W. S. Gray, Ernest Horn, W. S. Monroe, and C. E. Seashore 1 . 10 
Nineteenth Yearbook, 1920, Part I New Materials of Instruction. Prepared by the Society's 

Committee on Materials of Instruction ........................ , 1 10 

Nineteenth Yearbook, 1920, Part II Classroom Problems in the Education of Gifted Children. 

T. S. Henry .............................................. . 1 00 

Twentieth Yearbook, 1921, Part I New Materials of Instruction. Second Report by the Society's 

Committee .................... . ................... 1 30 

Twentieth Yearbook, 1921, Part II Report of the Society's Committee on Silent Reading. M.' A. 

Burgess, S. A. Courtis, C. E. Germane, W. S. Gray, H. A. Greene, Regina R. Heller, J. H. 

Hoover, J. A. O'Brien, J. L. Packer, Daniel Starch, W. W. Theisen, G. A. Yoakam, and 

representatives of other school systems ............................................ 1 10 

Twenty-first Yearbook, 1922, Parts I and IIInteUigence Tests and Their Use. Part I The Na- 

ture, History, and General Principles of Intelligence Testing. E. L. Thorndike, S. S. Colvin, 

Harold Rugg, G. M. Wnipple. Part II The Administrative Use of Intelligence Tests. H. W. 

Holmes, W. K. Layton, Helen Davis, Agnes L. Rogers, Rudolf Pintner, M. R. Trabue, W. S. 

Miller, Bessie L. Gambrill, and others. The two parts are bound together ................. 1 .60 

Twenty-second Yearbook, 1923, Part I English Composition: Its Aims, Methods, and Measure- 

ments. Earl Hudelson .............................................................. 1 10 

Twenty-second Yearbook, 1923, Part II The Social Studies in the Elementary and Secondary 

School. A. S. Barr, J. J. Coss, Henry Harap, R. W. Hatch, H. C. Hill, Ernest Horn, C. H. 

Judd, L. C. Marshall, F. M. McMurry, Earle Rugg, H. O. Rugg, Emma Schweppe, Mabel 

Snedaker, and C. W. Washburne ................................................... 1 .50 

Twenty-third Yearbook, 1924, Part I The Education of Gifted Children. Report of the Society's 

Committee. Guy M. Whipple, Chairman ............................................ 1 .75 

Twenty-third Yearbook, 1924, Part II Vocational Guidance and Vocational Education for Indus- 

tries. A. H. Edgerton and others .................................................... 1 .75 

Twenty-fourth Yearbook, 1925, Part IReport of the National Committee on Reading. W. S, 

Gray, Chairman, F. W. BaHou, Rose L. Hardy, Ernest Horn, Frances Jenkins* S. A. Leonard, 

Eutaline Wilson, and Laura Zirbes .................................................. 1 .50 

Twenty-fourth Yearbook, 1925, Part II Adapting the Schools to Individual Differences. Report 

of the Society's Committee. Carleton W. Washburne, Chairman ...................... 1 50 

Twenty-fifth Yearbook, 1926, Parti The Present Status of Safety Education. Report of the 

Society's Committee. Guy M. Whipple, Chairman .................................... 1.75 

Twenty-fifth Yearbook, 1926, Part II Extra-curricular Activities. Report of the Society's 

Committee. Leonard V. Koos, Chairman ........................................... 1.50 



- Yearbook, 1927, Part I Curriculum-making: Past and Present. Report of the 

Society's Committee. Harold O. Rugg, Chairman ...................................... 1 .75 

Tw*afcy-xth Yearbook, 1927, Part II The Foundation* of Curriculum-making. Prepared by 

individual members of the Society s Committee. Harold O. Rugg, Chairman 1 50 

Twenty-seventh Yearbook, 1928, Part I Nature and Nurture; Their Influence upon IntelU- 

oence. Prepared by the Society's Committee. Lewis M. Terman, Chairman ............... . 1 75 

Twenty-seventh Yearbook, 1928, Part II Nature and Nurture: Their Influence upon Achieve- 

ment. Prepared by the Society's Committee. Lewis M. Tennan, Chairman ................ 1 .75 

Twenty-eighth Yearbook, 1929, Parts I and II Preschool and Parental Education. Part I 
Organization and Development. Part II Research and Method. Prepared by the Society's 
Committee. Lois H. Meek, Chairman. Bound in one volume. Cloth ............ 5 00 

Paper .................................. , ....................... " 325 

Twenty-ninth Yearbook, 1930, Parts I and 11 Report of the Society's Committee on Arithmetic. 
Part ISome Aspects of Modern Thought on Arithmetic. Part II Research in Arithmetic. 
Prepared by the Society's Committee. F. B. Knight, Chairman. Bound in one volume. Cloth 5.00 
Paper . ...... . ...... ... ................. 3 05 

Thirtieth Yearbook, 1931, Part I The Status of 'Rural Education /First Report of the Society's 

Committee on Rural Education. Orville G. Brim, Chairman. Cloth .............. 2 50 

Paper ... ..... ...... ................................ i 75 

Thirtieth Yearbook, 1931, Part II The Textbook in American Education. Reportof the Society's 

Committee on the Textbook. J. B. Edmonson, Chairman. Cloth ........................ 2.50 

' 



Thirty-first Yearbook, JL932, Part i-^-A Program for Teaching 'Science 
Committee on the Teaching of Science. S. Ralph Powers, Chairma 



Powers, Chairman. Cloth . . , ............. 2 . 50 

1.75 



PUBLICATIONS xlvii 

Thirty-first Yearbook, 1932, Part II Changes and Experiments in Liberal-Arts Education. 

Prepared by Kathryn McHale, with numerous collaborators. Cloth $2 .50 

Paper 1 75 

Thirty-second Yearbook, 1933 Tfce Teaching of Geography. Prepared by the Society's Com- 
mittee on the Teaching of Geography. A. E. Parkins, Chairman, Cloth 450 

Paper 3 ."QQ 

Thirty-third Yearbook, 1934, Part I The Planning and Construction of School Buildings. Pre- 
pared by the Society's Committee on School Buildings. N. L. Engelhardt, Chairman. Cloth 2 50 
Paper 1 .75 

Thirty-third Yearbook, 1934, Part II The Activity Movement. Prepared by the Society's Com- 
mittee on the Activity Movement. Lois Coffey Mossman, Chairman, doth 2 50 

Paper 1 .75 

Thirty-fourth Yearbook, 1935 Educational Diagnosis. Prepared by the Society's Committee on 

Educational Diagnosis. L. J. Brueckner, Chairman. Cloth 4 .25 

Paper 3.00 

Thirty-fifth Yearbook, 1936, Part I The Grouping of Pupils. Prepared by the Society's Com- 
mittee. W. W, Coxe, Chairman. Cloth 2 .50 

Paper 1 .75 

Thirty-fifth Yearbook, 1936, Part II Music Education. Prepared by the Society's Committee. 

W. L. Uhl, Chairman. Cloth 2 .50 

Paper 1 75 

Thirty-sixth Yearbook, 1937, Part I The Teaching of Reading. Prepared by the Society's Com- 
mittee. W. S. Gray, Chairman. Cloth 2.50 

Thirty-sixth "Yearbook, " 1937," Part II Internationai 'Undemanding ' through the 'Public-School 

Curriculum. Prepared by the Society's Committee. I. L. Kandel, Chairman. Cloth 2 . 50 

Paper 1 .75 

Thirty-seventh Yearbook, 1938, Part I Guidance in Educational Institutions. Prepared by the 

Society's Committee. G. N. Kefauver, Chairman. Cloth 2 .50 

Paper 1 .75 

Thirty-seventh Yearbook, 1938, Part II The Scientific Movement in Education. Prepared by the 

Society's Committee. F. N. Freeman, Chairman. Cloth 4.00 

Paper 3.00 

Thirty-eighth Yearbook, 1939, Part I Child Development and the Curriculum. Prepared by the 

Society's Committee. Carleton Washburne, Chairman. Cloth 3 .25 

Paper ' 2.50 

Thirty-eighth Yearbook, 1939, Part II General Education in the American College. Prepared by 

the Society's Committee. Alvin Eurich, Chairman. Cloth 2.75 

Paper 2,00 

Thirty-ninth Yearbook, 1940, Part I Intelligence: Its Nature and Nurture. Comparative and 

Critical Exposition. Prepared by the Society's Committee. G. D. Stoddard, Chairman, doth 3 . 00 

Paper 2.25 

Thirty-ninth Yearbook, 1940, Part II Intelligence: Its Nature and Nurture. Original Studies 

and Experiments. Prepared by the Society's Committee. G. D. Stoddard, Chairman. Cloth 3.00 

Paper 2.25 

Fortieth Yearbook, 1941 Art in American Life and Education. Prepared by the Society's Com- 
mittee. Thomas Munro, Chairman. Cloth 4 .00 

Paper * 3.00 

Forty-first Yearbook, 1942, Part I Philosophies of Education. Prepared by the Society's Com- 
mittee. John S. Brubacher, Chairman. Cloth 3 .00 

Paper 2.25 

Forty-first Yearbook, 1942, Part II The Psychology of Learning. Prepared by the Society's 

Committee. T. R. McConnell, Chairman. Cloth 3 . 25 

Paper 2.50 

Forty-second Yearbook, 1943, Part I Vocational Education. Prepared by the Society's Com- 
mittee. F. J. Keller, Chairman. Cloth 3.25 

Paper 2.50 

Forty-second Yearbook, 1943. Part II The Library in General Education. Prepared by the 

Society's Committee. L, R. Wilson, Chairman, doth 3.00 

Paper. - ... 2.25 

Forty-third Yearbook, 1944, Part I Adolescence. Prepared by the Society's Committee. Harold 

E Jones, Chairman, doth 3 .00 

Paper 2.25 

Forty-third Yearbook, 1944, Part II Teaching Language in the Elementary School. Prepared by 

the Society's Committee. M. R, Trabue, Chairman, doth . 2.75 

Paper 2 -00 

rty-fourth Yearbook, 1945, Part I- American Education in the Postwar Period: Curriculum Re- 
construction. Prepared by the Society's Committee. Ralph W. Tyler, Chairman, doth 3 . 00 

' 



^g^n^atim^Pre^&rfd by' the Sodety'sl&inmittee. Bess"G<iodykoont*, OmnmiL doth, . 3 .00 

Forty^fifth "Yearbook," "1946," Part 'i~The ' Measurement 'of 'Un&rstandinffl 'Preparodl "by the " 
Society's Committee. William A. BrowneJl, Chairman, doth 3 ,00 

Forty-fifth "Yearbook,* i946," P^il-^Changing Conceptions in 'Educational Administratwn. Pre- 
pared by the Society's Committee. Alonzo G. Grace, Chairman, doth. 2 ,50 

Paper l - 75 

Distributed by 

THE UNIVERSiry OF CHICAGO PRl^S, CHICAGO 37, ILLINOIS 

1946 



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