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'X' H HI 

Monal Stanilaril EncydopeiiiiL 


Literature, the sciences and the arts, 






Oomplete in One Yolnmey with 1,000 Illustrations. 


f Prepared umUr the supetvidon of a number of Editors, and verified bf, 
\ comparison v/ith the best Authorities, 


A. Ij. BXJRT. . , , :/. - 

1886. (H ^. < ■ < ■ i 

- \\ . 

i r . ..♦ ■ ' . -. •• • .» 



CoPTKiGiiT 188i, BT A. L. Burt. 
Att ris^t9 reaerved. 


When one glances at fhe shelves of • great Ubmyand rfews Its tarrtcy of enefoiopedias 
in many bolky yolames and admirably complete, it would almost seem that there was 
nothing further to be aooompUahed in the dassifled arrangement of the rarions depart- 
ments of knowledge for conyenience in reference ; and with respect to the needs of 
scholars this is indeed true. Bat something less discorsiTe is re4uired by the ordinary 
reading public, to whom oonduslons are of more ralue tiian the processes by which the 
results are reached. Much that is elaborately discussed in the great en^dopedias is of 
Value only to the special student, and the great standard works, by reason of their rery 
completeness and consequent high cost, are little adapted to the wants of the large 
majority. An encydopedia condensed and conrenient, and at the same time Aill and 
correct, has long been needed ; one that should Aimish an abbreviation of discussion 
but never ottust ; one that should be within the reach of every one*s purse, and tn a 
form adapted for constant reference. In compiling this volume, Aillness combined with 
brevity has been the essential consideration, and the twenty thousand titlta which it 
contains afford a view of the success achieved. 

The editors fed aasnred that there has been condensed into the following pages every- 
thing that the greater works contain of value to the general public. A comparison of 
the number of its subjects with either the Encyclopedia Britannica, Appleton^s or 
Chamber*s En^dopedias wiU prove the extraordinary amount of matter contained 
between these covers, and its concise and pithy text will be found to be the very essence 
•f those celebrated works. 

The volume offers a cominrdiensive view of Literature, the Sdences and the Arts ; it 
embraces artides on all the divisions and subdivisions of Agriculture, Astronomy, 
Biography, Botany, (Themistry, Geography, (Geology, History, Horticulture, Mechanics, 
Medicine, Mythology, Natural History, Philosophy, etc., etc.; and a thousand iUustra- 
tions have been induded to increase its value as a practical instructor. 

Anything that is an aid to the wide distribution of exact knowledge is to be earnestly 
eommended, and it is by such books as this, books that are thoroughly accurate and 
extremely cheap, that the average of intelligence is raised. The subUmest truths may 
as wdl remain undiscovered as to be hidden in inaccessible places. 

In presenting this volume, after months of careAil preparation, to an audience that 
never fails to recognize and reward merit, the editors know that they are famishing a 
text book to general culture, and that never before in the history of bookmaking has sa 

uch that is valuable been obtainable at so small a cost. 

TuK Editobs. 

Nxw YoBK, October, 1884. 



•U.— Abovt 

▲. v. — Anno Domini (in the Tear of Oar 

Ala.— Alalwin*. 

Ano. Oeoir*— Anelent Geographj. 
Arch. — Architecture. 
Ark. — Arkansaa. 
Astron. — Astronomy. 
B. — Bom. 
Bart. —Baronet 
B. o.— Before Christ 
Bot.— Botany. 
Cap.— CapitiU. 
Ghem. — Chemistry. 
Co. — ConntjT. 

Comp. Anat. — ComparatiTe Anatomy. 
Colin. — Gonneoticat. 
B.— Died. 
D<d. — Delaware. 
£. — East ; eastern 
fiun. — Family. 
Fla.— Florida, 
it— Feet 
Ga.— Georgia, 
fen. — Genns. 
Oeof.— Ctoographj. 
CtooL — Geology. 
Qeom. — Geometry. 
Gk.— Greek. 

Her. Hist— Heroie History. 
Hort — Horticolture. 
111.— ininois. 

Ind. Ter.— Indian Territory. 
Ky. — Kentucky. 
La. — Louisiana, 
lb. (libra) — A pound, 
ffl. — ^Bfilo or miles ; married. 
Hach. — Machinery. 
Mass.— Majgaehnsetts. 

Md. — ^Maryland. 

Me. — Maine. 

Mich. — Michigan. 

Minn. — Minnesota. 

Miss. — Mississippi. 

Mo. — Missouri. 

Mt. — Mount. 

Myth. — Mythology. 

N.— North. 

Nat Hist— Natural History. 

N. C— North Carolina. 

Neb. — Nebraska. 

N. H.— New Hampshire. 

N. J. — New Jersey. 

Nnmis. — Numismiitlcs. 

N. Y.— New York. 

ord. — Order. 

Omifh. — Ornithology. 

Penn. — Pennsylvania. 

pop. — Population . 

K. 0. — Roman Catholic. 

B. I.— Bhode Island. 

Bom. Ant— Soman Antiquities. 

8.— South. 

B. — Succeeded; successor. 

8. 0.— South Carolina. 

Scrip. — Scripture. 

Sculp. — Sculpture. 

sq. m. — Square miles. 

St.— Saint 

Tenn. — Tennessee. 

Tex.— Texas. 

Theol.— Theology. 

U. S. — United States of America. 

Va.— Vh-ginla. 

Vt. — Vermont 

W.— West 

W. I.— West Indies. 

Wis.- Wisconsin. 

W. Va.— West Virginia. 

ZeoL— Zoology. 




iTHE DntltttartB Um KagUsh aJpbi. 
bet BDd nuMtof the punnt tumm^' 
It hw Ibnr fBdepwdmnoiuHl., u. ta 
Mme, taU, no, nUbtr. In emnmu, m 

«aplKHi7, altu«4 ta UL Aa api' 
anfvateut l» ui, or ga, u ul« 
Tlia KonuH nwl X u ■ nymbol 

the flnelu ■' MoDd for 1 nn'<< <i^ 

beneath It Ibt 1,001). Aa 

etuids fbr Anno, la Aime l>(n]ilBl 

Aaron, •h'liD. Tbe eldtr Inthar dI 
Uoaae, the Jewlab lav-river, aadBntblKh 
prieaC Died on lit. Uor, Je. 123. 

AaiOQ'a-bMud. a'roiu-bCrd. A ddbo- 
lar name Fur Uypttleiui 

AaronVrod, i'mu-rad. A 

woe eecpeat twined round It. 
AD, ab. Tbe lllh monlh of th .... 

ciill feu. aad the Bth or the ecdeslaaUasI 




■bi— Abnmt 

A. v.— Auo Domini (In theT«r 

Ann. Oeof .— ABSInt (lHi(npb]t. 

IIL— miDoli. 

Isd. Tar.— iBdlm Territtny, 

Xy.— KsntDikr. 

li LodIiIbb*. 

lb. (libra)— A ponod. 
B.—MUoorinlbnj mBTled. 

1. =:cr:;yAi.v or 


FOR ?CF:n-A= VSE. 

l7 UA 'n'l?- uilifptfblKii * 



Abaoot, 'a-kot A 
kind of peaked or 
pointed cap or hood, 
probably wltti two 
points, anciently 
worn by men of 

Abacot, from Great 
Seal of Henry VIL 

Abaoulufl, -ak'f^Ias. A small tfle of 
• glass, marble, or other substance, used for 
patterns in mosaic itayement. 

Abaddon, A-bad'don. The destroying 

Abaka Khn.T!, aVa-k&' KAn. Emperor 
of Persia firom 1265 till 1282 ; he consoli- 
dated nearly the whole of western Asia ; 
was poisoned. 

Abaiser, a-b&'ser. Ivory black or ani- 
mal charcoal. 

Abajiea, ab-ang'ga. Froit of a species 
of palm in the island of St. Thomas, West 
Indies, haying medicinal properties. 

Abas, a-l>a8\ A Persian coin, worth 
about 20 coits. An Eastern weight for 
pearls equal to 2| grains troy, or one- 
eighth less than a carat. 

Abarim, ab'&-rim. A mountain range 
in India, between rivers Jordan and Am- 
mon. Moses died on Nebo, one of its 
highest x>eaks. 

Abatis, Ab-a-ds. A fence in front of a 
lortification, to impede an attacking party; 
UAually made by felhng trees, branches 

AbaiiJOTir, ab-i-zhoor'. A skylight or 
sloping aperture in a wall. 

Abattoir, a-bat-wor'. A public slaughter- 
house under control of municipal authori- 

Abb, ab. Yam for the warp in weaving. 
The name given in sorting wool, as coarse 
abb and fine abb. 

. Abba, 'ba. A title, equivalent to Father, 
• applied to monks and other ecclesiastics. 
In the Syriac, Coptic and Ethlopic 
Churches, given to bishops, who in turn 
bestow it on the bishop or patriarch of 

Abbacinate, -ba'sin-at. To deprive of 
eight by applying a red-hot copper basin 
close to the eyes; a punishment employed 
in the middle aces. 

Al>bas, Ben-Abdiil-Mottalib. The 

uncle of Mohamet, n. 600, d. 652 ; was at 
first hostile tp the Prophet, but was cap- 
tured at the battle of the well of Bedr, and 
a/terward 2>ocame his zealous partisan. 

^bbajs the Ore&t. A Persian king, b. 
£^* ^' i^^* ^J^rdered his two brothers 
^rrnaeh the throne fbutxvleA -with wisdom. 

Abbassides, ab-bas'i-dez. A race of 
Arabian Caliphs descended from Abbas, 
Mohamet's uncle ; they reigned from 744 
to 1267, the most illustrious beinj? Haroun- 
il-Kaschid. This period the Mahoinineduns 
regard as the golden era of their uutlon. 

Abbe, ab-ba. In France, a title given to 
aU who devoted themselves to divinity, or 
pursued a course of study in a theological 
seminary, in the hope that the king would 
confer on them an abbey, that is, a certain 
part of the revenues of a monastery. The 
name is also applied to persons holding a 
semi-clerical position in other K. C. coun- 

Abbess, ab'bes. The female governor 
of a convent or nunnery, who must be 40 
years of age, and 8 years a nun. 

Abbey, ab'be. A monastery or convent; 
a society secluded from the world, and 
devoted to reUgion and celibacy. The 
males are called monks, and are governed 
by an abbot ; the females nuns, and gov- 
erned by an abbess. 

Abbot, &b'bot. The governor of an ab- 
bey or monastery; originally subject to 
the bishops, they gradually threw off this 
restraint, and assumed both the authority 
and insignia of the episcopal otlice; of lute 
years they have again become subject to 
the direction of the bishops. The Abbot 
of Unreason in Scotland, and the Loni of 
Misrule in England, were historic charac- 
ters, before the Keformation, who super- 
intended Christmas diversions. 

Abd, abd. An Arabian prefix, as Abdul- 
lah, servant of €k>d; Abd-el-Kader, ser- 
vant of the mighty God. 

Abdal, ab'daL A dervish; one of the 
class of Persian religious devotees. 

Abdallab, -d&l'lah. Father of Mo- 
hamet, the founder of Islamism; b.»545, 
D. 570. 

Abderite, -der-!t An inhabitant of Ab- 
dera, Thrace, and equivalent to a Btu])id 
person. The A., Democritus of Abd^ru, 
was called the Laughing I'hilosoplier. 

Abdest, Mest. Purificatl h or ablution 
before prayer ; a Mohammedan rite. 

Abdevenbaxn, ab-dev'n-ham. The 
head of the 12th house in a scheme of the 

Abdoznen, -dO'men. That part of the 
human body which lies between the thorax 
and the pelvis. 

Abdominal, -dom'ln-ol. A group of 
malacopterygian fishes, with the veutral 
fluB posterior to the pectorals, inclvding 
salmon, TQ3Q3i!Le\^ fiL>j\3i^-^^!^> \k»TtSs!k% w\«i 

I carp. 


Abditory, -ii-to-H. . 

gc>o*ls« plala or maliHj. 
Ab'dnl-A'ziz. The 

JId KhuD, wlio pHceded him u ti 

iHiahea the ali/habet, or a learofr u 

Anal^pdAt, in Ilio It^lh century, so caUn 
btcauHbe r^jouli^ fiTtn Uw^eamlAff o 
Uie iLpIubet A. paalnu, hymnB, &c., b 
whkh distinct port^ona luTa tli» ven«i 
begin wltli Bucietstve letters. 
Abel, a'bol. Seoond ton of Adun uu 
Kve: mnrdered. by Iil* envloiift eldfl 

AbelBiO, Plsire, iUi-l»-lir. A dli 
tkn^fnifihal Frencta Acholor and genliu, s 
ima, D. 1142; thB first philoKupblculciltl 
of ttieoluj^, but Wf't known for his Tt 

Abeliail, s 

las tiio flbildren of olhers. Or or pertdJD- 
Ing tu the DiaUiemUlcian AbeL 
AbelmoBcb-na. a-bel-moslius, A feu, 
lit pIsniB, ord. MaIticvs. a. moKlmtua 
is su eFergreeu AlirDb or tropicul Asifc 

odor, And tiifl Arahs luii them with cor 
fte. A. eAcuLentaa la KD IndiHJi onnu 
Jidda BiDucflAftnaiu frull, ns'Hlin 

pun, at Dtoulb of river E 
K. ofKdhibiusb, b11]i ei 

A Celtic wor^ preOiBd td 
Great BrttulD, and Bigi^-- 

a, aa Aberdeen, 


Aberdaviae, 'de-iins. The FriDgflla 
spinas or siskin, a weU^oiewn eonr '''"' 
•a the flnch bill. (FriogiUida:), i 
bling Uie green variety of Che cumr 

Abtb. >t4b. i-- '» 
Jewish eccl^fllasCical 3 
Nlean. It b(«ins at the 

AbleOlue. et-Vai. 

The fir, a kch. af tn 
biMif onl. Con^^TB, 

AbletJtea. r'tei. A gm, of fbsoB 
Abigail, -gii. 

U. A renen 
IB or laSy't-K 

a East Indhm who 

tjpicfj of souJ'parllj. 
Abnet, sb'aet. Tba elnUa of ■ Jewlah 

detj, at its meeltniln Bsslsn In 19B2 ; It 

WMmweediDtoBSr-"-" -"--' 

tSoa of that partj. 
AboUa, ^iiaVt. 

pent (Bos Abo- 

„, ..^ Abolla. 

The (OuHh BtODiach of nunini- 

1 ' Abome7, al-bo-mi'. Cap. of Dahomej, 

I W. AtHls ; pop. S4,000. 
, Aboiisliies. sb'<>-ril"l-h«z- OdginaJ In. 

i haMlantto(»oi>ra«rr,t*-^-'* ' 

Sonol ageognfiUaLw 




Aboti-liaxmes, 'S-hazi'n^ The Arab 
immo for the tme Egyptian ibis. 
Aboukir (Bay of), a-boo-keer'. In 
Egypt, W. ot month of Nile, celebrated 
for Lord Nelson's Tlctoryover the French 
fleet, known as the battle of the Nile, 
Aug. 1, 1T98. 

AbraoEUlabra, 'ra-ka-dal/'ra. A word 
pf Eastern origin nsed in incantations. 
"When written as many times as it con- 
tained letters, the last letter being omitted 
each time nntil only one letter remained, 
A B E A A I> 
A B E A G A 
A B E A C 
A B E A 
A B 
and worn as an amulet, it was beliered to 
be a prerentivo of certain diseases. 
Abraham, a'bra^ham. The progenitor 
•f the }Iebrew nation, descendant of 
Shem, B. 1996 b.o. in Mesapotamia, b. at 
the age of 175 Tears ; was Duried in the 
caye of Machpeiah. Isaao and Ishmael 
were his sons, by Barah and Hagar, the 
latter being a slave. 

Abrahamite, -!t. A sect of Bohemian 
deists, which sprang up in 1782, profess- 
ing to hold the Mth of Abraham, and 
denying the cUvinity of Christ ; they ac- 
cepted nothing of the Bible save the 
Lord's Prayer. A sect of Syrian deists 
of the 9th century. 

Abraxois, ab'f^^is. A gen. of flresh- 

water malacopterygian fishes, fiun. Cyp- 

tinidce, containing the common bream. 

Abranchia, a-brang'ki-a. An order of 

« AnneUda without gills or branchiffi ; the 

earthworm and leech. 

Abraxas, ab-raks'as. A word denoting 
a power which presides over 865 others, 
and used as a mystical term to express 
the Supreme C^od, under whom the Bas- 
iUdians supposed 865 dependent deities ; 
the principle of the Onosno hierarchy. A 
frcm or stone, with the word abraxas en- 
graven on it. A gen. of lepidopterous in- 
sects, containing the magpie-moth. 

Abrocoxna, -rolco-ma. A gen. of small 
i-odonts, natives of S. America. 

Abroma, -ru'ma. A gen. of plants, ord. 
StorouJiacete, 2M5e Bettnerieffi. 

-^imtanoid, a-brot^an-oid. An East 
Jndiaa scJiarodermatona coral. 

AbrotaxLum, a-brot'an-um. An ever- 
green plant, gen. Arteinesia. 

Abrus, ab^rus. A gen. of leguminous 

Absalom, db-sa-Idm. Third and favorite 
son of David, King of Israel. He rebelled, 
and seized the throne, but -was defeated 
and«lain by Joab, Da>id'8 general. 

AbscisS€^ ab-sis'sa. Any part of the 
diameter of a conic section mterceptcd be- 
tween the vertex, or fixed point where 
the abscissae begin, and another line called 
the ordinate, which terminates in the 

Absinthe, ib'sint An extract of worm- 
wood, distilled with water; agreeable to the 
taste, but intoxicating and injurious to 

Absolution, ab-so-lu'shon. The act of 
absolving or state of being absolved ; in 
E. C. and some other churches, a remis- 
sion of sins pronounced by a priest. Prot- 
estants ascribe a declarative, but not an 
efficient power to absolution. 

Absorbtiometer, -sorp'8hi-om"et-er. 
An instrument to determine the amount 
of gas absorbed by a unit volume of 

Abthane, 'than. A lower kind of no- 
bility existing in Scetland at a very early 

Abona, a-bO'na. The head of the Chris- 
tian church in Abyssinia. 

Abu Bekr, a'bu ba'ker. Father-in-law 
and successor of Mohamet, n. 571, i>. 684. 
He was elected GaHph over AH, son-in- 
law of Mohamet, and the contest caused 
a schism in the church which still exists. 

Abntilon, ab-u'ti-Ion. A gen. of plants, 
ord. Maloaceee, the Indian mallows. 

Abyss, a-bis'. A bottomless gulf; any 
deep Inimeasurable space ; anything pro- 
found and un&thomable. 

Abyssinia, ab-is-sln'yah. An E. AfVican 
kingdom, lying between 85® and 43«> E. 
Ion., and 7*' 80^ and 15® 40' N. lat 

Acacia, a-ka'shi-a. A gen. of plants, 
ord. Leguminosaj, sub-ord. Mimosea;, 
usually of striking beauty. Some of the 
species produce catechu, some exude gum 

Acacian, -an. A member of certain 
sects of the 5th century, led by Acacius, 
bishop of Ctesarea, and Acacius, patriarch 
of Constantinople. 

Acacio, -6. A heavy durable wood ol 
the Tcd-mahogany character, but darker 



Aoadexnios, ik-ordSmlks. Anefeiit Gre- 
cian philosophers who taught the doe- 
trtnes of Socrates and Plato as to the 
uncertain^ of knowledge and the inoom- 
prc^ensibuity of truths. 

Academy, &-kM'e-me. Derived from a 
garden orvlIlaofAeademas, near Athens, 
in which Plato held Ma philosophical oon- 
fnrences. Its present meaning is an asso- 
Nation of persons for purposes of study, 
or schools ot medium rank. 

Acadian, ark&'di-an. A native of Acadia 
or Nova Bootia. 

Aci^oa, akVjd. A gum from the ma- 

Acaleph, -ISf. A member of the ord. 
Acalephffi, <»* sea-nettles. 

Acalephse, a-ka-lg'fS. A name applied 
to marine animals ot the sub-kinigdom 
Cflelenterata, and represented by the Me- 
dusidas and their luUes, known as sea- 
nettles, sea-blubbers, Jelly-fish, &e. The 
MedusidsB are gelatinous, consisting of an 
mnbreUa-shaped disk containing canals 
which radiate from tiie center ; all have 
thread urticatb^ organs which dischaige 
minute barbed fractures that Irritate like 
the sting of a nettle. 

Acanaceous, ak-a-na'shus. Armed with 
prickles : rigid prickj^ plants, such as the 

Aoanthocephala, a-kan'thd-sef'a-Ia. 
An ord. of mouthless Entozoa, having 
curved hooks on a retractile proboscis to 
attach themselves to the tissues of ani- 

Acantho-derma, -der^ma. A gen. of 
fossil fishes, with strong fln-spines, allied 
to Balistes. 

Acanihodidse. ak-an-thd'di-de. Aflun. 
of fossil fishes, including the gen. Acan- 

Acanthophis, arkan'th5-fls. A gen. of 
small venemous oolubrine snakes, Uietall 
. of which is ftimished with a homy spur at 
the end 

Acanthopteri, ak-an-thop'ter-l. A 
group of spine-finned osseous fishes. 

Aoanthoteuthis, a-kan'tho-tu''thIs. A 
gen. of fossil cuttle-fishes occurring in the 

Acanth um s, ak-an-thu'rus. A gen. of 
acanthopterygious fishes. 

Acanthylis, 'thi-Ils. A gen. of birds of 
the swallow family. 

Acarida, a-klu-'i-da. A division of Arach- 
nida, including mites, ticks and water- 
mit€«, the cheese-mite and the itch-mtte 
2f0ti^ exawpJes. 

Acanthns, a-kan'thoa. BearVbrooeh 
or brankursfne, a gen. ot prickly plants, 
ord. Acanth*- 
cee. An orna- 
ment resem- 

bling the foliage _iaWJ7vr^ h^4/ # 
of the acanthus, 
said to have 
been invented 
who took the 
idea of the Cor- Acanthus, 

inthian capital trom observing an A. sur- 
rounding a basket placed over a tomb. 

Aoapuloo, i-ki-pooinco. The principal 
Mexican port on the Pacific ; i>op. 5,000. 

Aca m a r , -kar'nfir. A bright star of the 
first magnitude in the constellation Erid*. 

Acatal e ctic, OEatra-lek'^tlk. A vera* 
which has the complete nimiber of avl- 

AcathifltoB, ak-a-tfafe'taa. In the eariy 
Greek Ch. a thanksgiving hymn to the 
Virgin, sung at Oonstaotinoplo on the 
Saturday c 'the 5th week of Ijeat. 

Acaulee, a-kal'fig. Plants which have 
cither a verv indistinot or no stalk, as 
lichens, fhngi, algis, ^be. 

Accentor, ak-senf er. One that sings the 
leading oart A gen. of insessorial birds, 
ftm. Sylviids, sab-fiun. Aooentorine. 

Acciaooatara, af chSk-k&-t5''r&. A 
grace-note one semttone bek>w the note to 
which It Is prefixed. 

Accidence. ak'8l-den& That pari of 
grammar which treats of the aoda^ts or 
Inflection of words. A small book contsth- 
ing the rudiments of grammar. 

Accident, ak'si-d^L Chance, or wha| 
happens by chance ; an event which pr(h 
ceeds from an unknown cause, or is an 
unusual effect of a known cause, apd 
therefore not expected; anything which 
takes place or begins to exist without an 
efficient intelligent cause and without de- 

Accidental, 'al. 

Happening b y 
chtuQce or acci- 
dent, or unex- 
is that point in 

which a right line ux<>«tu uvui wto ^^o 
parallel to another glvei) right line cuts 
the picture or plane.' ThuQ, suppose 
▲ B to be the line giyen in p€n*8pecave, 
o F E the perspective^ plutel i> the eye, o n 
the line parallel t6 ▲ B;'then is o the aod' 
dental p^t. 

Accidental Point 
drawn from .the eye 


AoolpltieB, -si]>'l-t 

nrannurd. tho I 

le luu]<I on the loilght'i 

■Aooomplice, -knm'pUs. An usodite In 

&aacmtra, -M'lsr. Todreu; Mmsj' In 
A iblttlAiy ^bflBS, or oqnJp for mlbLarr ht- 

■ts. Mmisry lines 

A nntt ; HpwitlaaELj. a Biu^le IiLjf 
or die, or Uio curd or fr ' - 


» fleld » 

whlchJudii-i took for betfnytDE his tna*- 
ter, BincrttliBMrl^MiiocKl. U<«l flgiir- 
htlvuly of any place etr^edbj ^ngliter. 
Aoephala, i-sero-lo. A dtvlilaD of 

Acephall, -II. An Ei^pttui sent of tbt 

■ with the ftfrlnroliofAltiandrta. Clcrsy 
iii>t Uvlni; imder eplfcopul JnrledluUDn^ 
Bnd binbonH Dxomnt from pHbriHTchal in- 
rlmtlnHnn. A eoRncllEiunniDiiiid witboiit 
thehuthorlty DftbepdpB, AdIub tn tbs 
rd^ of Hfliuy I. who would p^kaowjod^e 

parti^Q by aactcat writfra to bayono hrada- 
AiHplialooyst, 'sl-B-slst. A dydatid, or 

Ace-polut. li^p-iiDt. 

l4)rai«d loolLnKoua mlm nl n , at^n to tba 
Aply^lffi, roEupcehoDdlnf iim gen. BuUa. 
&COTaoeie. &-Acr-k'Bfr& An ord. of 
plontd, uoDiprebendln^ tbs mapEefl, ui4 

dlrotyledoncpnti plBnt»; th{T« are uboBt 

troejt or sbrubfi, imd liirldaiwfct. muoU- 

id jieldi 

vaHow Boii raldUb Ayen. ^ 
Aogrlna. m-cr-Vna. A fffn. 
thoptetygloufl Bfibes, Cmi. F 
perchea; the mffe or i^^pe (A. i 

AoeronH. 's^ns. GhaOy; i 
Lo hut of i 

Acetabnlma, -hmt. ; 

Acetsl, a-M'lal. A mlorlen. moMa 
UqoJd, i>rodmwd br Ibe Imperniat oxida- 
tion of k]uobnl, tindi.Ttli(TlDfliTeiiaoof pla- 

Acetamlde. -jpt'D-mld. A white citsioI- 

nliun aneuto, or by hantliiB ethyl OMlato 
Aoetarlons, inHT'-U'rl-iis. A term np- 

Aoatia, a-s«t'lk. HstIiie lb? propeHlea 
of vlnpgBj- ; flour. Oominon aoolia elber la 
a aolorrehp, volatile fluid, a flaTotin^ iwn- 
latuantln wines. It iHmBdobyfllHUIIng 

aootaio of potaab. 

Aoetlfler. 1-n-er, An apiinnilnii for 
hnfltonUff the aoldlfloitloii of ferukentod 


Gompoeltffi, 4«. 
AcherontJa, sk-n^n'alit 

BpMngldK; ^e datli'>-ba 
ActtBTBAt, ik'er-s«t. An jii 

Acliillea. a-kS 

•a food In ChlU sod Pern. 
Aijhirlta, nk'l-rlt. I^mld mBlacliiu. 
Actalms, »-trnis. A gen. of (lJih«, 

Bun. PleuroDecllda (lUt-flili«), ImoUog 

AoUtk. 't'V-M. A mnvk^la mnp of 
wer pluuiuppDud lab<iii)Diit<r ti>rni4 
of tang\ : Ibey ktdw purwIHisUy on imt 
flk9. Oaii, Trogi, or deayln; jibnU. 

Achnmutina. nk-ram's-tlim. Tha 

liiff dJffVent diipciujT« power. 
Aflior, I'kor. Snld-hfad. t dLieus nf 

Aohras, ik'ru. A era. ef tnplnJ inM, 
and >i«ldlng ■ milky fluid. 

Aohronutlc. -ru-nul'ik. DsRItuU ot 
poAing U Into 1(4 prlaury fioli^ 

HbBTp polntA, bluchttl to a cord w1 
«nsbW tha Boldlo- to dnv It back a 
having laanchul It n^n^t on ecomy. 
Aclinic, a-kUD'Ik. Havlne- no Incll 
ne^borhood of tb« t«rr««1r1>] vqoa 


VHofckern. In Aatn 
flompuyuf Btv. 




Aqonoasma, ah-t^on-kah'gwoh. The 
highest peak of the Andes Mountains ; 
2S,910 feet. 

Aconitom, -on-I'tam. A gen. otpcAaon- 
ous herbaoeoos plants, ord. Konuncula- 

Aoontiadee. A-ko(n-t['-ard& A torn, of 
sauriaiK reptiles, of which the gen. Aoon- 
tias is the type. 

Acontias, 'ti-as. A gen. of timid lacer- 
tian rontilee, groap Sdnooidei, with rudi- 
ments T^nly ofthe nind limbs, allied to the 
nlow-worm of Britain. 

Aporaceao, kor-a's^C. Sweet-flags ; a 
n»t. ord. of hcrbaoeous plants, of whidi 
the gen. Acorus is the type. 

AcorxL, a'kom. The seed or nut of the 

oak tree. 
Acos'miszn, -koz'mlzm. The denial of 

the existence of an eternal world. 

Aoosmillill, 'mi-nm. A group of Bra- 
zlHan plants, ord. Legnminosn. 

Aootyledon, -kot-il-«''don. A plant 
whose spores are not ftimished vrith coty- 
ledons or seed-lobes. 

Aoouohy, -kosh-i. The oHvecayy or Su- 
rinam rat, a small species of agouti. 

Aooometer, -koum'et-er. An Instru- 
ment for measuring the acuteness of the 
sense of hetuing. 

ACOUS^, -kous'tik. Pertaining to the 
senseor organs of hearing. A name given 
to such of wie disciples of Pythagoras as 

' had not completed tneir five years* proba- 
'Acxe, a'ker. Originally, an op«i, 
ploughed, or sowed fietd. A quantify of 
bund, containing 160 square rods or 

■perches, or 4,840 square yards. The 
Hootch aero is larger than the English, 48 
Scotch acres being equal to 61 English 
acres. The- Irish acre Is also larger than 
the English, 100 Irish acres being neariy 
equivalent to 162 English acres. 

Aoxe-tellt, -fit A duel formerly 
fought by sin^e combatants, English and 
Scotch, on the debatable land between the 

AorididflB, A-krid'i-d& A fiun. of or- 
thopterous insects containing the grass- 

Aorobat, 'r6-bat. A rope-dancer; one 
who practices high vaulting. 

Aorocarpi, ak-r6-karp1. A division of 
mosses containing the species in which 
the capsule terminates tho growth of a 
primary axis. 

-Acivo^phalio, 'rd-sd-fhl'Mk. A term 
,»ppJed to the bigh-akviH^ tr^^be^ of men. 

Aorobates, a> 
krob'at-C'Z. A 
sub-gen. of Pet- 
aurus, a gen. of 
marsupial ani- 
mals, ram. Phal- 

an^stidfe, indig- Opoesum Monaau 
enous to Aus- 
tralia, containing the opossuia mousei, 
one ofthe smallest of tho Morsuiiialia. 

AcrociniUB, -sl'nns. A c-cn. of longl> 
com coleopterous lnM>ots, liun. Coram by- 
cidfo, ha^ing tho spinu on each side of the 
thorax movable ; tho harlequin beetle of 
S. America is tho type. 

Aorocomia, -ko'mi-a. A gen. of Amer- 
ican plants, ord. Palmacea>, allied to the 
oocoa-palra ; includes some of the most 
mii^estic palms. 

AcrodlUB, -dus. A gen. of plaooid fossil 
fishes, with large enameled striated 
teeth, common in the chalk and oolite. 

Acroflren, -jen. An acrogeneous plant, 
a division of the Cryptogamia, oistin- 
guished by the mode of impregrnation 
from the Thallogens. Tho age of A. In 
QeoL, the carboniferous era, when thoy 
were the characteristic vegetablo forms. 

Acrognathns, a-krog'na-thus. A gon* 
of fossil fishes of the salmon fkmtly, oo- 
cmring in the lower chalk. 

Acroerrapliy, 'rarfl. The art of pro- 
ducing desigBS in relief on metal or stone 
by etching. 

Acro-narootdos, ak'ro-niir-kot'lks. A 
division of poiscHis of vegetable origin, 
whidh produce stupor, coma, paralysis and 

Acronyc, a-kron^. Culminating at mid- 
night : said of a star which rises as tho sun 
i»ets, and sets as the sun rises ; opposed to 

Acrolein, -krOle-In. A colorless limpid 
liquid obtained by distilling glycerine 
with acid potassium sulphate. A. Is the 
aldehyde of the allyl series. 

Acropolis, -krop'o-Bs. The citadel of a 
Grecian city; that of Athens contained 
some of tho finest buildings of tho city. 

Acrosaxinis, ak'rO-sa-rus. An extraor- 
dinary fossil reptile, with thirty or forty 
teeth, occurring in the trias sandstones of 
8. Africa. 

Acroteriuin, ak-rO-te'ri-um. An orna- 
ment, the apex or angles of a pediment ; 
the pinnacles or other ornaments on the 
horizontal copings or parapets of build- 
ings. In Anat. an extremity of the human 
body, as a hand, a foot. 




AoroBpize, -eplr. The flnt leaf which 
rlaes above fhe groand when com germin- 
ates ; also the mdimentary stem or jDrst 
leaf which appears in malted grain ; the de- 
yeloped plumule of the seed. 

Acrostio, a-kros^tik. A oompoeition in 
verse, in which the first, or the first and 
last, or certain other letters of the lines, 
taken in order, form a name, motto. Ac. 
A Hebrew poem of which the initial let- 
ters of the lines, or stanzas, were made to 
run over the letters of the alphabet in 
their order. Twel-v^ of the psalms are of 
this character. 

Acta, 'ta. A. Sanctomm, the Acts of the 
Saints : applied to all collections ot ancient 
saints and martp^ ; the name of a work 
begun by the Bollandists, a society of 
Jesuits, in 1648, and not yet completed. 

Actaaa, -td'a. A gen. of plants, ord. £an- 
nncuiaoee, called rattle-snake herbs. 

Actian, 'shi-an. Relating to Aotinm, a 
town of Epfrns, as A. games, instituted by 
Augustus to celebrate his naval victory 
over Antony and Cleopatra, near that 
town, Sept. 8, b. o. 81 ; they were cele- 
l»tited every five years. Hence A. years, 
reckoned from that era. 

Actinia^ -tin^i-a. A gen. of zoophvtes, 
Badiata, type class Acttnosoa, sub-King- 
dom Goelenterata, the mouth, when spread, 
resembling the petals of a flower. 

AotixiladaB, -VardS. A fiim. of Ccelente- 
rata, ord. Helianthoida, of which the gen. 
Actbda is the type. 

Actinimi, -izm. The radiation of heat 
or light, or that branch of natural philoso- 
phy which treats of snch radiation. The 
proper^ of the chemical part of the Bun*s 
rays which prodnoes chemical combina- 
tions and decompositions. 

Aotinooarpus, -O-kfir^'pus. A gen. of 
I^ants, ord. AUsmacefB ; star-flrult. 

AotinogTaph, -graf. An instrument for 
measuring and registering the variations 
of actinio or chemical influence in the solar 

Actixiolite, -nt. A mineral, nearly al- 
lied to hornblende, consisting of silica, 
calcium, ma^esinm and iron. A. schist, 
a metamorphio rock consisting of actino- 
lite,>mioa, quartz or feldspar. 

Actdnosoma, '6-sd''ma. A term em- 
ployed to designate the entire body of any 

Actinote, -dt. A radiated mineral, con- 
sisting of silicate of calcium and magne- 

Acuminate, a-ka'min-ut Pointed ; 
acute ; applied to leaves. 

Afltinoaoa, ^6-a5^^a. A dMa of radiated,, 
soft marine zoophytes, the Bea-anem«nes, 
corals, sea-pens, Ac. They present that 
strangCMgenerative phenomenon known as 
metagenesis or alternation of generation. 

Acton, 'ton. A tunio made of taffeta or 
leather worn under the coat of mail, and 
sometimes alone like a bullboat 

Acts of the Apostles. One of the 
books of the New Testament, the author- 
ship of which is ascribed to St Luke. It 
begins with the sscension, details the mis- 
sionary work of 88. Peter and Paul, end- 
ing -mth Paulas arrival at £ome as a 
pnaoner^ 68 a.d. 

Actuary. ak't&-a-ri. A registrar or clerk. 
An oflldal In a joint-stock company whose 
duty it is to make eompntations required 
in the business. 

Aoaptmotare, ak-Q-pnngk'tOr. A aor- 
gical operation resorted to in headaches 
snd lethargies, consisting in the insertion 
of a needle beneath the tissues : In high 
repute In China, Jspan and India; It Is 
now employed- dilefly to relieve neoralglo 
snd rtieumatio pains. A mode of Inlhntl- 
dde in some oountrles, a needle behw 
forced into the brain through the spiniH 

Aoatenaoalnm, 'ft-t£-nak"Q-lnm. A 
needle with a handle, used In stitching a 

Adam, ad'am. The name of the flrst 
man ; the progenitor of the human raoe. 
A sergeant or bailifl^ explained as reforinff 
to the fkct that the buirwom by the baiUff 
resembled the native buff or our flrst 

Adamite, sd'am-It. A sect of virion- 
aries of the 8d century, who pretended 
to establish a state of innocence, a-^d Uke 
Adam, went naked. They abhorred mar- 
riage, Wding it to be the effect of sin. 

Adar, &'dir. The 18th sacred and 6th 
civil Hebrew month, answering to the 
latter part of February and the beginning 
of March. 

Adams, John. The 8d President ot 
U. 8.; B. 1785, d. July 4, 1826 ; native of 
Massachusetts : elected Yioe-Preeldent in 
1787, re-electea In 1792, and succeeded 
George Washington In 1797; held the 
Presidency but one term, being defeated 
by Thos. JeflSerson. 

Adams, John Qninoy. Son of above; 
6th President of U. S. ; B. 1767, d. 1818 ; 
succeeded James Madison as President in 
1825 ; defeated by Gen. Jackson in 1828 ; 
elected to H>>use of Bepresentatlves In. 
1830, and held the seat nntU his death. 


itllM, id-MDnatnn. 
briltla. A.-atfi 1> a 

B-danilk. Fertaliiliig V> Adun. 

a meAJifl red ovth. 

c*bb«h-tn«, or bwibab-lnte of Bane^. 
Adai>la. 'l-l;lji. An eiUnct mnmnuil of 

the tertluy fbiTQAtJon, reHoibriDr b 

fatid^eboff, but About tiaen Umea Its alze. 
Adaioe. ■^Ir'iL A ■; 

lued to oleuH tlte >kii 

Ailarooii. too. In Jewitb uitlq. > eold 

cofn werth (boat SOg. itarllng. 
Adawlet. s-da' 

let. U Ae "— 


u Up- 

DT |!llH> b«df 
, bSTa » kind of mpenuitDni 

cnrijig the bite of uddera. 
Addiwui. Joaoph. The oelsbnlBl 

Englisb eiuj^Bt J b. IBTZ. n, 171$.. 
AdditloilT Ad-dUh'uD. Joining sercral 

tblngH togeliief. In Arllh-, flrrt of the 

. Aden. i'dsD. An Anblu aeaport, b«- 
lADCliig to Great Britain ; coalinK iladon 
Rir Klndlui atesmen ; pop. M,«)0. 
AdelantadiUo, Bd-i-l>n-ti-du1'v«. A 
Bpudlll rod wine nwde of the eulIeeCrlpe 

w jvedlcCod fartuD«Bbj 

Adelphla, > 

Blnsly, oombic 

Stonlno jttlds red uMidol-wood. The 
f^ht ftcvFet tieeds, /h>m their fqnolltv 
In weight, ireaeed by goldsmiths la the 
Kut as wolf hte, 

AdeB, or Hadea. The god of Hi-I[ 
unonnt the Greeks, often lued ae the 

Adlantum. •d-l-sn'tDm. A gen. of 

[ictj bodiei'wIUi nltile icid. 
Adlpooere, id'l-pS-si^r. A sol 

a s 

ugUliioeoaa Iron-oro of Merthjr; adlpo- 

AdlpvUL. vdip'id-a. The lolil obeenoe 

AdliQudock Uonutaiiui, Id-e-rSn- 
dit. A apur of tho Ai)piilaiilm«, In N. 
E. New Vort. S. <,f ILka rhumiiWi.; 
Mt. Mmcj. thu highest peak, la 6,J(lr fuot 

Adjutant, SeottonofUinerslUlne. 

Tfflcer, next In rnnk to tlio coi.itnander- 
ln.chlet. Hb euiiertnti^nda the detail, of 
■11 th« dlapoBltloiia ordered hj tbe com- 


LdUAto. a^Vnat. OivwId; iitlvihfd ; lit 
Uchf^d by rAiUbi^ ; having tbA i^Jmictar' 
of on pptpliyalfl. In IkiL appUud Lo a part 
araa urffimum Btlochcd tofmotberhyitt 
whula (eogti. Tbu8 ilipBlM A. ctow lo 
tlio poClolg, m In tlio nigv. A. snthiTi m 
nailed to their Bluntnli ju In tho mniio- 

■P[>Jled io thidr BUin. 
Adoba.iHU'be. Astm-dricrlbriakj bnOt 

prdwfng: llpp]|pil»ln)oat«icliialTDlrtii tk" 

Uoptlan, -dop'ebt-on. Of or portslnlnf 
to ibe doctrioB of Hdaptlon. A ooi.^ni' 
nrvf origlnntod In Bpaln fn tho Sth om- 
tiiry ^th tlie Arfihtplahap of Toledo, nbo 
nialntaineil Uul altbougli Cbrlst. inrtupnt 
efhladlTtr^o niktoro, wim by ^entiwlon tbo 
Bon of God, yet thut^UTApvdA blshiunui 
rmlurf, ha wu only a dedued And Adopt- 

&dolode. lul'iV-lfid. An nppuUui Sir 

Uania. -as-n~ 
tba Hin of dni 

Adania. -as-n1i. In Ornik mytli. tb* 

' ritii DrATibn)d!ta(V«i<i'). «<■ to ■■ 

■on of CLnyi««, klnc vfCypnu. Qa 

vfd B norkl uo^nd from > wUd bov. 

'blob bcoTBhla 

of Cyprus. 

Aon. « wild b^_. 

cbonnMl bbn Into the pint 
„-ii his name. In list, ii gen. of 

'rd Jobovi 


oloneliic' lo tbo word^ Adonal ind 
Bppllco lo the IneBhblo lumo Ja- 

prononnos tha word AdoDAl 

Ailoraed.-dont'. laHiiF.Bt 

two uilmBls. blrdfl. DBhcfl. or 

in^, ptuud bEUilc to bub. 
Adnata Tnnioa, ^d-nu'ti! 

alii, koovm ss the »!il1o of th< 
Adoxa, B-dolu'n. A gon. of 

djirttaancea ; lbs aowcrs U 

prfiflt'. BruicbH 

Hadrian, fuliilna 

- '" l'eIierg..lLi, 

. pnhlln sptritDd ir 

™"'a. it? (ifloliolu BrakospMrQl, nn 

Bjbllo cftlnhUshod In Ktmin liy Arnold of 
crtcit, Biiil compelled FntApilrti Bsr- 

ftLfmip while h*. mounted hla hareo; 
dais or blnh undown; cloclad poptj 

Adrlanople, ■d-ri-ao-S'r^. The ieoond 
jArgmt city of EurdpfiAti Turkey, 107 m. 
N. W, of Oon.Omt&Dplo; nuanibetarta 
Bllka uit dye Btutr> ; pop. IDO.WO. 

Adrlanople-tad, -Fd. Tnrtey-rod : 

H BriWn Md bnluSo wjif 

jMrognUoa. -ro-gil'gban, 
■doptlon In snvlent Itom 

^'""A 'K'ui °'tt '"""ta 
Adaoriptiia g-lebn, -il 
B«loa^iiK u the loO, u n r 

Ad Talorem,iid vl-UVruIn. AceuriUng 

Advent, 'rent. A oomlng ; smudmIi ; 

- A period' tncladlDR tOur HonilavB belori 
OhrlBtmikB, bcfrlunlDe on Bt, Andre^r'e 
day, or on tho Buadny ran™t lo 11 ellhir 
Woro or fiflpr It. ftODDlnted bv the Bvnod 
of I«iila, M 


ce to the coming c 

^g**a,= one u-bo Crka to keep up s certil 
^ •iUcrvtiiubla or erimlmj expaiileata. 

Adveraifollate, -v.>r>'i-lB"U->t. Hit. 
ing opposite Inves; applied to planU 
whwn ttiu leavua nro opposllo eoob olher. 

Advoyer, n-vol'cr. A e 
Adynamon, -dln's-mon 

AdytanL, a 

Uollee wu > 
Adze, odi. 

side outwards it 
. _ Jiole At ioAtflt tt 

S. The rraihol Dii?d to deiiDte the third 
elaas of irnnden and oompoalts iblpg In 
Lloyd's r--" ■ — 

lu ebd, Bhd hlvihg b 

'lj;hy Polka ■WesringUw 




JBsesiidflB, Mer-Vi-dS, A fiun. of Lepi- 
doptera, seo. Heterocera. 

JBgioemmj -^'er-as. A gen. of small 

trees, orcUMyninacen, natives of India 

, and Australia. Their seed germinate 

-while still on the trees, and send down 

Srpendlcalar roots in to 'the mad, and 
oa form impenetrable thickets. 

JBtfilops, dj'i-15ps. An abscess in the 
canthus, or comer of the eye. A gen. of 
-|dAnt8, ord. Oraminaoee. 

.Sffle, 'glc. A gen. of plants, ord. An- 
rantiace», -with Sbparate stamens. 

^Rmllfnui, Paulus, mO'Tos. A Bo- 
man general who oonquored Macedonia 
and made it a Boman province ; d. 160 
B. c. 

A prlnoe of Troy, son of An- 
diises and the goddess Yenns. With the 
ftil of Troy he settled in Latinm ; tradi- 
tion ascribes to him the oonmiencement 
of the Soman £mpb«. 

JSBneid. -nd'id. An epio poem written 
by Virgil, of which uEneas is the hero. It 
describes the taking of Troy, the wander- 
liigs of ^neas, andthe final settlement of 
himself and oompanions In Italy. 

2BoIixia, -d-n'na. A modification of the 
aooordeon. . 

iBpyomia, -pi-or^nis. A gen. of gigantic 
birds found fossil in Mada^scar. 

.iZEra or Era. S'rah. A division of time. 
Christians reckon from the date of Christ^s 
birth, which is fixed in the 4th year of the 
Olympial, and the 753d year of the found- 
ing of Rome. There are eleven principal 
eras in history. 

JBrarian. •r&M-an. A Boman citizen of 
tiie lowest doss of free-men, who paid 
only a poll-tax, and had not the suffiiige. 

Aerate, &'er-it. To combine with car- 
bonic add or other gas, or with air ; to 
change the circulating fluids of animals by 
the agency of the air. A. waters, addu- 
lons and alkaUno beverages, impregnated 
with carbonic add ; It is the most common 
carbonic acid water, colled soda-water. 

Aexian, -c'ri-an. One of a branch of 
Arians, so called firom Aerius, who main- 
tained that there is no difference between 
bishops and priests. 

Aeridea, -er'l-dSz. A gen. of epiphytal 
plants, era. Orchidaoe». 

AerodynaTnlog, ^er-o-dl-nam^aks. The 
science of the motion of the air and other 

Aeroli3rdrodynainio, -ht'drS-di-nam''- 
ik. Acting by the power of air and water. 
A, whei^ AD MpparatuB Ibr transmitting 

power to a great diatanoe. 

Aerolite, -lit. A stone fidUyg from the 
air or atmospheric regions; a meteoric 
stone; some suppose theih to be pro- 
jected by lunar volcanoes, by others they 
are thought to be formed in the air by the 
union of simpler forms of matter volatil- 
ized from the earth's surface; but they 
are doubtiess oosmioal bodies of the same 
nature as shooting-stars, revolving round 
the earth, and IkUing when they come 
within its attraction. Analyzed uiey ore 
found to consiflt of twenty-two of the ele- 
ments found in terrestrial minerals, the 
most prominent being malleable metaUio 
iron and nickel 

AerolOffy, -ol'o-ji. That branch of phys- 
ics which treats of the air. 

Aeromanoy, -^man^'si. Divination by 
means of the air and winds or atmos- 
pheric substances. 

Aerometer, -er-om'et-er. An inntm- 
ment for a:)certaining the density of air 
and gases. 

Aeronaut, K'w-6-n^ An aerial navi- 
gator or balloonist. 

Aerophobia, -fd'^bl-a. A dread of air 
common in hydrophobia. 

Aerophyte, -fit A plant which Uvea 
exclusively tn air. 

Aerosite, -alt Dark red silver ore ; 

Aerostat, -stat A machine or vessel 
sustaining weights in the air; air bal- 

JBschylus, ds-ki'lus. The first of the 
three eminent tragic Grecian poets, and 
inventor of the trilogy ; author of Prome- 
theus Bound. Also oistinguished as a 
warrior, b. 025 b. c. Was killed by a tor- 
toise dropped by an eagle, b. c. 456. 

.SschynanthiUB, C*s-kln-an'thus. A gen. 
of epiphytal plants, ord. Ot^sneracese. 

2Ei8Ciilaoe8B, -ka-lA's^-^. A group of 

giants, HippocastanesB, induded in the 
apindaceffi. The horse-chestnut bdongs 
to this group. 

JEsculapius, 'pe-fis. The God of 
Medicine, son of Apollo and Coronis ^or 
Larissa) ; Hygeia, one of his daughters oy 
Epione, was the most celebrated of his 
six children, all famous in the medidtil art. 

.SiSCuItis, dsOcu-lfiB. A gen. of trees 
and shrubs, ord. S|ipindaoetB ; the horse- 
chestnut and allied spedes. 

.2i8ir, S^ser. The general name for the 
heathen gods of Scandinavia. 

— .^^, 'sop. A femons Greek ftibulist, 
B. in Fhryg^ Vol the 6th century b. o.; 
sold iato Mft^ory \uft o\AaIaifiA.\iaitcwto 

Delphi lutinme, bv tbeklnt'.hoolTcni 
the clUuDS by his foblea. uid \iia isu 
ulcd. Hie %bici were not reduced 

.Satho-phTBlolcvy, 'tlii>-fli'l-(il"u-jl. 

ThBph)'^lDgyOf»ellMaon; whlchtreaU 
arthaoriFmnBoraoDae&nd thepiirta olthe 
1 flTferoIaa Bubaldbiry fuacUooji. 

term anplled lu such plaaU ee propi^Me 

tetoa, lycopodlums. and their aUlae. ' 

•SthrioBcope, eili'ri-a->kop. An la- 

Aetlus, a-A'shus. A Romui nnonl 
whadefeatedtbttBoTgnndlansaad FrankA 
en Bevcrtil ocoulons, and fonwd Blllla 
acrons (ho Khtne : becomliiK an object or 
Jealousy to ValeQtinlaDllI.,tha Emperor, 
the letlur blew Mm with bU own baad. 

AJBusnt, nTfla-eDt. A trlbDtai7 stream 

Afflatus, -flji'tus. iDsplration : com- 
munleilloii of dlWno knoHledgo or the 
power of propbec; ; the iuspiraHon of tbe 

AiK>reat, (br'est. To eonvert tilLible 


terior, MuorA m Che N., and Copla 
'pt. Ita piiqclnd elUe? are Oeirot 
idria. Alg^ and Tripoli In the N., 
Lp« Town to the a. The popubitioa 

at preseDt belnff rapldlj explored by pi 
tle« under Btanler and othere. 
AftioRU, tTrlk-u. FertilDlng toAfrk 
■ ■-unp.theaberobbilnodftem tbe leal 

(0 tWint : 

arihK othcrwlBO oall 
posed to odorsed. Fi 

, inff the apeotalor.aa 

I of Pnntland. 

Afgrlian. 'iraii. A naUTaarAliibaDlstaa ; 
akinil of currloge robe. 
Afghanistan. -gin-Ia-tin'. An inland 
At^atlocountry, lyln)f betwlAit T6°Ciy And 
BS» 80' N. 1st., and m" and 12' 80- E. Ion., 
containing £25,000 bo. m.; the Cabul and 

.... . .__ the principal rivera. The 

iroud and WBrHk e race, and 


Id. The I 



ly I.thmiiB of Suei, Ked Sound Inilnn 
)oe»o ; 8, by Southern Ocean ; W. by tho 

84- 6U' 8., about'fl.iwe m., and froni 
on. 67° M- E. to W 3? W.. n»rlr Uie 
ame dUuince, lu area belni 12,O00M>» 
q. m. It baa 14 principal Islxod croupa; 
te principal mountain ranges are the Atlas 
jidMouDUins of the Moon; ica brgot 
lve« the Bile, Klger or Quorra, eeneral, 
}Qmbio,Zaire,OrflaEe,ZiinihtsiandJ uha; 
ta known Istps, Tohaddn. I'cmbrai, Loo- 

rho Inhabltonta Include Uetlfolots nnd 



la eeOmated at ISO.OOO^M 

AftOBatle, affkai-l. An elerotlon OD 

the after-part of shipa of war. 
After-body, aft'er-bo-di. That part of 

aBbln'ahnll abaft the mldBhips. 

--kab-ln, Tbe best or 

After-damp, all'cr 
After-ffrtnrth. aft 

lie^ office! 

the higher oillcere of the eultAD'a aeragUo; 
A^allodium, a-gnl'lok-nm, A name 
given to two binds of ft-BRrantwood used 
By the Orlentala for parflime. The aml- 
locbnm of Cochln-Chlna Is obtained lh>iD 
Aloeiylon Agallochum ; vhtie the Indian 
Tariew la the Aqullaria AgnUoobH. Botb 

83bl reals and an eaaenda] oil wUch <a 
e highly esteemed perfume used aa fn- 

Asaimatcdlte. a-«al- 
day-a!-" -*-— * — ■* 

tcAmd, tu OUu, tc 

led to npmdw 
. of IndMdoal 

jD-iflt. On« who nfiaea 

Aarapoathiis. ng-a-puithnii. A anuill 
gm. of pflTflnnlAt plutA banging to tin 

A^^pe, 'g'^pi. Among tb* ralmlliTe 
Ohrtittins ft loTft^t^agtorfHstof obirilr, 
wh«i wDtribDtlDnB were mod* fDr tbe 
poor, &»ieh fossts wpre held At Brmt vlffl- 
ont ncuidftl, but aftenrard bfllne' Bbuaad, 
Ikwv-en condeinned >l liis CoanoU of 
Oarthsge. a. d. Bm. 

Agnmnumnn ag-(-ID«n'non. Th* 

oonunandlni! Qreek eeoeral at the al^e 
of TroriOiiiTdflredbjlLla wife Cl;t«mDe«' 

ret^ ftom ^^"noMon of%roy. 
AMpemone, ag-awm'o-ne. The abode 

__ „_, i'gar-i'gar. NaUTO nai 

of Ce]r1oii moas w Bengal lalnglasa. 

Alalia, i-gar'ik. One of the riingl tb 
tDrm the gen. Agirteua. A. mlnenl. 


erZooloej- and Geology nt Harrard On 
Ownell OoUwe, Jthaca, N. V, Hawi 

Natural History, FIshef, mil (klmpuaU^ 
Physlolob-}' ; d. bee U, 1373. 
A«ate, Bft-it. A siUoeaiu. eamt-MllDcl 
compoimd iDloenil, ooDnuiuitf oT bom 

gether, tho ba*u ^i:ji<:nilly b^ug cT ^ 
ony, and mUed i.lth Ja»w- — 

Bomo agiiiri receubte or u 
□re Imbedded. Agota la cluenj louaa m 
trap-rooka and fierpeDtlDe, ofLtn In the 
Rmn of nodulej, cdled geodes; thej rre • 

id In Tut 

brtoka may be made 
• <" "iter. A hvi'-' 
mixed wttb 

^ate of 

A^ariobt, a^gi-rlah^^ The 
madrepore, n gan. of eoral ma 

Ag&rlclill, »%llr'l->l"nl. A group 
ningl baring the frolt-bBanng anrfaco 
ranged Id ndlidng gilts, aa moshroo] 
ana Uad'Stools. 

Afarlcna, a-gar'Ik-DB. A brge gen. 

fnngl, ahanotnisMd by having ■ fleshy 

■'-la, indradlallDg plates or gUls 

< aoTDTdtnglo'ihe 
. edibll 

■ioh are' - 
a thoo 

color of their spores. Miny ai 
ace deleterious and even polaono 
ASBsaix. LonlA, ng'game. An 
Bwlas natartlist, b. ISOT, Immi 

.Iti Jaauer, amelliy*!. 

gold-wire drawer* 

^, fnrmed of a hard el 

AsatliodiBmon, ag'atb-A-di 

n, ag'att 

AsaUiotes, a-gath's-tft. A gen, 
plants fojnd In India, ord. Oen1iana« 

unpilit frnitiDenta 

AbIo, Vfi-o. Tbc iDITurrpn- In vilno ba- 
lw,-.ii japor inon«y and insulUn twin. 

AKiosymandron, a'Jf-fl-(l-inin"draii. 
All ln«niidpBl «r»iiod or meOil nwrt by 
Chrt.'iiaiii In plKe ot b'^lli', In nniDtilas 
irahJMt to tbo Turki, wbo forbid tbolr 

AkIoIb, ag-lil'i-L One of Uis tbne 
t»«n tils orbiU of Mm and Juplhr. 

A^-Iet, uglet, A lax 
orjiloaoorof IhepoTn 

' the mint 


ofUnred nnlntiorbniidhuiKlnirn-onnlie 
■houldnr In HUDB millluy UDlfonnil. A 

A^nBitlozi. off-nri'Ebitn. JEoiatlan b^ (ha 

A«iuotn, uB-mVW. A smt of Iho Ub 
oontHry, folloBers of ThMphroniuji the 
O.,,p«lod«., who Bu«stl«n.d t!,« om- 

bsnnor of the 
eroM. A pmj'- Ajfoiu Del thst Wanjad 
nr In the offl™ lo Cariomiwro. — From 
orjhe mass bs- Ati-ln-Chspeila Csthe- 

DoiF quality, ninsuin- 
it by whldb bo wu 

Acncwtto, ■ 

who dlHlsIm 





speoluB of Vltu. or 
diuw, and havlDi; 

d. Vrrbon 



Soythicu9, aTnan 



f Ihofcirn 



oovwed with tUks B 





N»t rbni 

Bl». A. 

Hum, iwn 

Hi.™ nd 


point, to 

Iho trqo 

north, 01 

BDoh of hig dlBclplea ai ha 

Afftrati, -si' 
end tpedti 
CaTldM, gen. 

I the alle of a nbblt. It bDitows, 
n V(«atali1oa, la voradoaS ai a pto, 
ikea a Blmllir (rrnotliiK nolip, U 

Aecfota, -eu'iM. Ad ii 
nai, &ID. TmlpldB, and 

to nalUTBtlita Uiat It lisi reeeLvtd Lhs 

twth and clonpWd nose DftlieBbiiiw. It 

A^T&pMb, 'ra-fiA. A ^Du. of pLuitfi bo- 
lonrfng lo [ho UllacHP, ud nnnriy nllLBd 
b> iho mullls and hy'iolnb'. 

A^mnoziia, -ri-mo'iii-a. A gen. of per- 

md the l»lter jicllis 1 jollow d"e. 
,&^lopeB, -gri'd-p^E. A eeo. of tuao- 
t^mtrrygioai Gahea^ fluu. Odta(ihracd, 

having atdy nine niya in Uie pootural llDd. 
Agrippinian, -grip-pin 'i-»B. A foEow- 
M of ^ipriiiplBiiB, btsbop of Canboeo In 

Agnaidionte, «'girir-dG-cnt"4. Aioo- 
ond-c-loH broady nude from tbe red wfnH 
df SpAlD and Portu^. or refoio <]f tbft 
prapoji left In the nibD-prFU, Iho bcrtplTigB 

A Meidoui drink dIatiDed ftom thn agave, 
Asna-tOBiI, a'gwu-tM. A gigutic spe- 
dMDf toed fband In IndrlropTaa Auiericn 
nnd tbs 'W«t Indlea; It otter) alond 
maring ktnd of bellow. 
Ague, fi'ga. The mid fit or rigor whloh 
T>fecodeB a fBrar or a pflroiyjnn orftver In 
(nteFmlttenls. A pF-Hodiaid ferer, quotid- 
ian, Icrtbu, or qnirtan. 

F°«\^i ^fotfon. 

AgyatmB. a'jln-iu. Applied Is 
AlULb, d'bab. ^n Idolalnmi I 

nHdia-IIka puIntB or tnpn Df granite and 
nUwr oryalolllno nwkA and niounlaln 

Alffuillette, u'rwII-uL A point or lar 
point hjm^nifdovn from tbc ahoulil<^; 
tu olumldur hi mlUUry unllbnns. 

Alffuisa. a-EHvI-a. In Iler. applied lo a 
cruM with tta Iijar tnds ahaf|i«Dod, but 

Allette, il-kt'. OoeofIli!^Bitinll uniKra 
thlrldjofarmewoni uiKin IbD .bouldrTS 

protoljpu of tie modern epanlet 
AUama, ^-G'Ttifl. Agen.oframlTnroai 
quadruped". Bun. Cc^dip. A- refolgBni, 
the only known apeidefl, la tbo panda. 
Air. St. The fluid Hhlchwutvreathc.At- 

or ii ojivgeo aad SO er IB nitrogen ; by 
wctEht, oAs oiygen to 77 nltroiien. The 
body of A, flDrroondlng tho earth locallod 

AirB, ir'a. Hot-grtw. m gen. belonglnff 
to the ord. Gramlnoe. 

ijli-lng. An alr-llgbt 

AliABS, BT. S 

AlbEOls, St., aul'Mni. A boruujU a! 
lEdrirbnl Oj., flnglofid, DuhibnLtud for thij 
irlctorv of liiohart. Dako of Torlt. over 
Henry VI., Mny M, 14S6, uid tho dofoit 


o icpiiitDd ft 
of Borne In the Ittb ecmary, i 
mthleuly poT»oau;uil ; bt> tahvd 
ytgeoit, ■ >uuU bsrraoTy nillDd Albl, a 
town of Xjui^edoq in iTrouco. 

i&lbla, 'Un. A lainani of an o^Hquu 
wldto color, a vaflnty of BahmnJui auo- 

Albino, -fcl'nS, A noTBon of nalc, milk; 
(wiBplaiion. with ll);[n liiUr anif pink oy.'i, 

applied to anIitiidA, 
Albion, ■I'bl.on. An nDclent luune of 

Itrltaln, gradually i-ojLri<:ccd to Sootlmid. 
Alblte, altlt Tt 

par; coda ftlspar. 
Altjorak, sI-Ki'dlI 

on ^hlch Idohaiiii 

Albusinea. al-bri-jln'i-a. ■] 

tough filn^ua coating' of thut««i 
Album. al'huDi. In Boiu 
whito tablot, onwiiluh the niudu 

may bo Insottsd autoarapha or 
poetry or proM, A Soot fbr i 
jhologmptloTlewa, oBrtBa de ■ 

^buinaa, al-Iia''in^ t i 

pHadpIc, eatertBg Into tie 
•>r tka aalnal and vcyotobli 

fluldl BUI 

impoaed of carbon, hydrogBD, 
and oijwn, with a Uttlo aal- 

KolldB, compo(.._ .. , 

nlirogoa and (ungea, with 

blood, the humors of the eye, tLe fluid of 
dropsy, thetxjafiulab]olyiDBh,ln nutj-lU?o 

Album Qnocom, al'bum groOcuin. 

vblch, ftom eipOBoro to the air, becomes 
whlla lite chalk. It iru Ibnnerly osad 

ta aoflen leather. 



&lbaera. ^'bna-rah. A 
town, prov, of Katremadnra, tl 
the Ranguinary battle bt^Lwoeo I 
undif Bareb^SouIt and the 1 
SpADloh mtder Lord Beroafurd, 

Aloald, al-ked'. In Bpain, PDrtaciU, 
&c.,acoiDmandcrofaronr«>; tbe^f 
dvll ma^trate of a city ; also, a Jailer. 

Aloala de HeTL&reA, Al-kah'lah da 
alQ.alr'ez. The birthplace of Cervantce, 
proT. of New Caetele, Spain j aleo D<tf«d 

^^^ In .ppain ar 

AlcBzBf , ^-ka-zar. A fortreu : aj 
plied alae to the royal palaoes la fipaln. 

Aloedinidffi, al-aa-dlnl-de. A &m. i 
A&^rofltral ioHiaBorlal blrda, the kin; 
flabera, Qrploal gen. Alcedo. 

Alcra, al'sSi. A geo, of the Corvldn> i 

m., the elk. It li 

the si 

Alcbsmy, allLe-ni 
the students of wh 
tbeorettod tIowb. 

es tmd praotJce 
inch arts. Fo 

Lr- "' 

I dabbled 




ATftiM^iiftg dl-ise-bi^ardiz. A celebrated 
Athfljirtan -wairlofnd statesman, the&v- 
oiite pupil of Socrates ; b. 450, i>. 404 b. o. 

AlcdziBB, al-fii'nS. The auks, a sub-fiun. 
of natatOTial sea-birds, ilun. Alddse. It 
comprehends the eenera AIca or auks 
proper, and fratercoia or paiHns. 

A1#*Tw«t.Tiin.-n alk-ma'ni-an. Pertaining 
to Alcman, a Greek lyric poet of the 7th 
centcuy b. c, celebrated for his amorous 

Alco. al'ko. A yariety of dog with a 
small head and large x>endQlous ears, 
found in Mexico and Peru. 

JLLcohol, al'kd-hol. A liquid forming the 
intoxicatbig principle of all yinous and 
/pirituous Bquors, formed by the fenpoji- 
tstlon of aqueous sugar solutions, ana 6y 
the destnidiye distillation of organic 
bodies, as cmd. Absolute or pure A. is 
a transparent fluid, of a pleasant or 
spjrituons smell and burning taste; it 
has neyer been firozen, but becomes yls- 
dd at yecy low temperatures. It is yery 
infiumnaole, solyent of all bodies rich in 
hydrogen, and is a powerftilstlmnlant and 
antiseptic By yolume 66 parts of A. and 
45 of water, or 49.2 parts by weight of A. 
and 60.8 of water, form proof spirit. Un- 
der-proof and oyer-prooi are the designa- 
tions of weaker or stronger solutions. A. 
mixed with yarious proportions of water, 
essential oils, sugar and extracts, forms 
the different kindi of intoxicating drinks. 

Alcolioloineter, al'k&'hol-om'et-er. An 
instrument for determin^g the quantity 
of pure f^lcohol in any liquid. 

Alcove, al'koy. A recess in a room, 
usually separated from it by a screen of 
columns, by a.balustrade, or by draperies, 
and intended for the reception of a oed of 
state or seats. A lateral recess in a library 
for the reception of books. An arched or 
Goyered seat in a garden. 

Alcyonaria, al'si-o-nfi'M-a. An ord. of 
actinozoan corals, distinguished by six or 
eight broad leaf-like tentacles, arranged 
round the mouth like the rays of a star- 
fish. Some resemble sponges; others 
fans, feathers, &o, 

Alcyone, al-sI'onS. The brightest of the 

Alcyonidse, ai-si-on'i-do. A fam. of 
asteroid polypes, resembling sponges. 

Alcyoziite,al'si-on-!t. A fossil olcyoniuni ; 
one of the spongifcrous fossils common in 
the chalk formation. 

Aldan Mountains. A range in N. E. 
Asia, extending from the Altai Chain to 
Behnngs Strait. 

Aldflharan, al-deb'ur-an. . A star of tlie 
first magnitude in the oonstcilutiou Tau- 
rus. Vulgarly called the Bull's Eye. It 
is the bnf ht star in the group of Aw 
caSled the Hyads. 

Aldehyde, al-du-hld. A transparent 
colorless liquid produced by the oxKlation 
of pure alcohol. It is alcohol minus two 
atoms of hydrogen. It has a suffocating 
odor, and u so yolatile that it boils by the 
warmth of the hand. When eximsod to 
air or oxygen it becomes entirely con- 
yerted into acetic add or vinegar, by the 
addition of one atom of oxygc'h. 

Alder, al'der. The popular name of 

Slants of the gen. Alnus, ord. B<'tulacca>. 
L. glutinosa is the common alder, usually 
growing in moist land. 
AJderxnan, al'der-man. Among Anglo- 
Baxons a prince or nobleman. It was 
originally used as a name of dignity un- 
connected with office, but in later times 
was applied to the members of the no- 
bility next in rank to the king. In pres- 
ent usage, an officer of a town cori>orato, 
next in rank below the mayor, possessing 
munidpal administratiye powers. 

Aldine, al'dln. A term appUed to those 
editions, chiefly of the classics, which pro- 
ceeded from the press of Aldus Manutius, 
of Venice, and his liunily, from 1490 to 
1597. The term has been also appli^ to 
certain editions of modem works. 

Ale, aL A liquor made from an ini\i8ion 
of malt by fermentation. 

Ale-COnner, fil'kon-er. Originally an 
English officer appointed to assay ale and 
beer. Their duty now is to inspect the 
measures used in public-houses. 

Alector, a-lek'ter. A gen. of gallinaoeous 
birds, fern, Graddae. They resemble tur- 

Alectoxia, a-lek-toM-a. A gen. of lichens. 
A. jubata, or rock hair, afi'ords food for 
the reindeer during deep snow. 

Alectryoxnancy, 'tri-o-man-sl. An 
andent practice of foretelling events by 
means of a cock. 

Alemannic, al-v-man'ik. Belonging to 
the Alemanni, a military confederacy of 
several German tribes of the 8d centurj% 

Alembdaj:, a-lem'dar. A Turkish offi- 
cer who bears the green standard of Mo- 
hammed when the Sultan appears in 

Alembert, Jean le Bond, d', dah- 
long'balr. A celebrated Trench geome- 
trician and philosopher ; u. 1717, d. 1763. 
A deserted bobe and charity* child, ho be- 
came the most distinguished wi'itcr and 


tba courU of Pniasla 

B day, r«ftidii£ olTura ] 
tfinale Mend of VolMre, b« v.;ii ili 
ChriBaanfty appears in bi» vrorkji. 
Alembio, a-ledl'blk. A TCBt.i>] f,trn 
used Id dIfttlLladon, usually m^ilti oT j 
or CDfrpfT, DOW aujivrsDdod bytLun 

Alembroth, u-lfm'broth. -Tbo eu. 

of Froncb laoo made of baod-snua llj 
thrfod. tba most oxpmAivo oF tub Froj 

Alepfdote, a- 

rv«rod with scsted 

Alewlfo, ai'wif. A fresh-wntur 
BHubllDf tba eliad^ 

Alexander m.. h Ore 
8S8 B. o. Hu i™ c "Eod 

Ua wondsful mlbUri careo 
DdHus, King- of V-a and 
nwirlyttiewlioloofA H 

the iminedlato oiuse beUi 

otgpncrislt/ and bru 
nanlmttr toward ea 
rbUowadbyilolcucsto ar 

(Bajidlar!Ul),e. Adrian iy.,llSU;D.llSl. 
i. IV., e. iDDOocnt iV,. IWH; d. 13«L 
A. v., B. Grcgoty XII., 1409 ; p. 1410. A. 
VI. (lioderigo Bor^i, B. Innocent UL. 
1402, Biwuiiag Us elecdon by the mart 
BcandslouB bribery, and llTliiff a dissolute 
lir«, dylD^t, itlabeUei'eil&oui iiolson, IfiOi. 
llanos Uioflillior. by liosa Vaaozia, of 

Ouisar. A. VII. (Fsblo dilgi), a. laoo- 

— ■ " L (At 


Aloxautder. A pouuiarnamorDrKtaig* 
tdHknperOTS. ThailretofnatelnhlstoiT 
' ■ (aunmnBdBalos|.K.of6rrKirti» 
■ ' -- ■ the son otAntloc^iu 
signed from IB* ■ ' ~ 

plBhanii, and rolgned . 

o.; oufBated. by tbo lawrnl heir, j/vuuuiub 
Ni<ator,lie fled to ArablA-wberoho-wM 
killed. A. 11. (Bnriuuned Z^ibia, tlM 
^vo), also a asurpa- or the thn^ ti 
Byria, reigned fivm 12fi to 1^ B, c, 
Bnd died a flolcDt deatlL A., EtnporoE 

Imtler Leo, Uio rtlloBopber, 91l','D,'Ba. 
A. I., K.orBootland, e.UsbntbwI^UH', 
1109. n. 1124. A, II., B. ]1>8, e. bE* 
Uon, 1S14, B. ia«. 

his brotber Jobn Albert. ISUl: d, 1B0«. 
A.. Newsky, ton of Jaroalar II. of Kiisita; 

najno by Feter the Great. A.l.,li^perDr 

180l', D. ISSB. A.' IL (NlcolaeTltch), b! 
1318, s. bis &tber, Bloholaa 1,, ISUI ; died 

Al zaJidil&. Tbe moet important 
In ligy t, fbqnded by Alaxander tba 

Alexandilaji, al-egi-ui'dri-iin. Pertain^ 

landria L to one »bo laiight In 

CO -wIlli AleEandrla, In KffypL 

ez an important manuocHpC of the 

cri urea. In the BriUsh Museum; ita 

ha data Iba Otb or Olh untury. 

til ao"^ wm^. "founded™/ FUlemy" 

Alexandcme. al^gtan'difn. 

ens CO slethig of * 

Is msBy, ortnji^ 
tldrteea UL »ll«Tiialja CQ 




tnde. Also the very bright star Capella 
(Alpha Aarig»), In the constellation Auri- 
ga, or charioteer. 

Alisma, a^Uz'ma. A gen. of aquatic 
plants, ord. Alismaceeo ; water-plantain. 

Alison, Sir Arc}iibald, Bart. An 
- English historian, b. 1792, d. 186T; his 
principal work is "A History of Europe 
itotn the Commencement or the French 
Itevolation to the Accession of Louis Na- 
poleon, in 1852." 

Alizarine, aFi-zarrin. A peculiar red 
coloring matter obtained from madder, 
and prepared artificially from coal-tar resi- 
dues, wnich contain anthracene. 

Alk, alk. A resin obtained from Pis- 
tacia tercbinthus. 

Alkahest, allurhest. The pretended 
universal solvent or menstruum of the 

Alkaid, AlHcud. The star Eta of the 
constellation Ursa Major. 

Alkali, al'ka-li. A term applied to 
bodies having the following properties: 
Solubility In water ; the power of neutral- 
izing aclas, and forming salts with them ; 
of corroding animal and vegetable sub- 
fltanoes; of altering the tint of coloring 
matters. They are hydrates, or water in 
which Iialf the hydrogen is replaced by a 
metal or compound roaicoL 
Alkalimeter, al-ka-lira'et-er. An in- 
stiuinont fur ascertaining the strength of 

Alkalimide, al-kari-mld. Ammonia in 
which two or more atoms of hydrogen 
are replaced by acid and base radicals. 

Alkaloid, alHca-loid. A class of nitro- 
genized compounds found in living plants, 
and containing their active principles, 

' usually in combination with organic acids, 
as morphine, quinine, aconitine, caffeine, 

. ^ &c. Their alkaline character depends on 
the nitrogen they contain. 

Alkanet, arka-net. A boraglnaceous 
plant, Alkonna tinctorla, someames em- 
ployed in the adulteration of port- wine. 

Alkanna, al-kon'na. A gen. of plants, 
ord. BoraginaoesB. 

Alkarsine, al-kfir'sln. An esrtremely 
poisonous liquid containing kakodyle, for- 
merly known as Cadet's flmiing liquor, 
which it has been proposed to employ ns 
a deadly agent In war, A shell filled with 
it would. In bursting, involve a ship in 
fire and destroy the crew by Its vapor. 
•^eJcengi, al'ks-ken% The winter- 
^IS^' * ^^^«°««>iw plant The fruit is 


Alkes, &Vke&. The star Alpha of |be 
Constellation Crab. 

Alkoran, al'kd-ran. The book which 
contains the religious and moral code of 
the Mohammedans, the Koran. It waa 
written by Mohammed, and is considered 
to present the purest specimen of the das- 
sical Arabic. 

Alkoran, A high tower on Persian 

Alkoranist, al-ko-ran'ist One who 
adheres strictly to the letter of the Koran, 
rejecting all comments. 

Alla^te, al'hirjlt. A mineral, brown or 
green, massive, with a flat conchoidal 
fracture, and nearly opaque. 

Allah, alia. Arabic name of the Supreme 
Being used by all Moluunmedans. 

Allanite, al'lan-it. An ore of the metala 
cerium and lanthanium. 

Allantois. al-lan'tois. A pyriform sac 
developed ^om the posterior end of the 

Abdominal cavity In yetebrate embiyoA. 
In mammals, as man, it elongates and be- 
comes the stalk of the placenta, or tiie 
umbilical cord along wmch yessels pass 
connecting the droujation of mother and 

All a prima, filla pr6'ma. A method of 
painting in which we pigments are ap- 
plied all at once to the canvas. 

Allecret, alle-kret. 
A light armor used 
In the 16th century, 
consisting of a breast- 
plate and back-plate, 
with tassets reaching 
nearly to the knee. 

Allegheny, il-le-gfi'- 
ne. A river In w. 
Pennsylvania, which 
unites with the Monon- 
gahela at Pittsburgh, 
forming the Ohio. The 
name of counties in 
New York, Pennsylva- 
nia, Maryland and Vir- . „ . , 
ginia ; also of a city op- ''*^®cret Armor, 
posite, but connected by a bridge, with 
Pittsburgh. The Appalachian Mountain 
range is also called the Allcghenies. 

Allegro, fil-Ia'gro. In music, a spiightly 
part or strain ; the quickest excopt presto. 

Alleluia, al-15-lQ'ya. Praise Jehovah ; a 
word used to denote pious exultation 
chiefly in hymns and antnems. 

Allemande, al-Ie-m&nd^ A slow ait* in 
double time; grave, solemn music; a 
moderately qxA&k^ttsiQe^ ^wtWXaw Vxk.\rmk- 
foiuth. tbcae *, a f^gvuce Vn. (itta^ij^. 

Allerion, fll-le'ri-un. In Her. in ttgla 

Alley, dIIL A inHice ; u 
part at a chardj lea op«i 
aoothtr put. Aa ludooM 

All-fOolB'-da7, gl'mb^i. The nnl 

All-fours, Bl-fi^rz'. A frame et <ard-«, 
nuii^ froin tbti tunc QhuiiH4 Icr rd«b of 
whlcb ■ paint 1> icured— lilgli, low. Jack 

All-hallcrvr, itWla. 

vUcta ttuloii^i 

(eelh of the nni — .^ _ 

]«9 T«bbefl, Thcfa' hsblU im, ii^iu ,<^r- 
fiwllT lounHc. The Inrgont giowa ta the 
lonsth oflT or IB fpeu The ffmoJe lap 
ber emit Id tliD esjiA, to be hatched br thu 
heel of the sun. They mre f.,uil<l only In 
Iroplml Ameri™. Among the foMll* or 

AlliKator-appEs, alTI-ifd-ter-iiii-l. The 

Allodlxun, fli-m'dl-mn. 
lite; real extile held I 
irilhootbelneiuWeel to 

AllochR>its. ellii-klOlt. A muilre, 
fln&i(nlfieil vlHetf of tnn |!«rnet, whli:ll 
chHOKV* oulor bvforo the blowplp-^ 

AUocotion. >l>lu-U'ahaii. An tMirtu, 
eapeoUlr ■ romul iddnH, h thu of e 

AUopatlir, •I-lop'i-thf. Thu method 
-' trmUag dlwHH by-whlo'^ - 

Poljneibui, Old £lnueu, Buijue. 

AllOtropy. (l-lafro-pl, Tlw apubUltr 
eiUblWd by Mine elementi of eHMUiK In 
"-- one form, with different chw- 

il-lotn'iin. Oneofthenrwlneti 
■uhituee obMln«d vhcn >l- 

Ueet nicUli may be ^aro<1 toiirviher In 
fmryiDg ptoporUens. ftnea mercury \% 
one of the eoiupenent piirte, the lUloy It 
CADed in nmjilfr^- 
All-aalnU'HlaT. il'iints^a, Alt Uel- 
hiMiiu or llillowniae. s )^llv>] of the K 
C. Chorcli, Inelllutwl by Pone Crejroiy 
IV., tn S3S. snd dtdleeted lo ell the fnliiis 
tn fenerel ; eelebrtted on tlio let Kornn- 

the' four trreaC beitben feitJvils of the 

Dorthem neUoni. 
AIl-«onl»'-day, Bl'§«k-di, The Bd N'o- 

yeuiiKt. s fi'sUvel tn the It. C. Churoh. 

when iiru^fn am uiibUdy offered up for 

the reliuue of Bouls from jiuipitor)-. 
Allaton. Waablnffton. An Ameriesn 

painter, B. In Churleatoo, B. C, 1TT»; d. 

^;he le oftuk atjted tba"Aa»rUsa 





Allapioe, al'RpTs. The fruit of Eufirenia 
Pimcnta: a B[>lce of s mildly pungent 
taste, and a^rreeably aromatic. 

Allumee, ttl-lum-C'. In Her. applied to 
the eyea of a bear or other beufit, when 
they are dra\>T» red and sparkling. 

Alluvion, al-l&'\i-on. The washing up 
of sand or earth so as to form new soU. 

Alluviuxn, al-lQ'\i-um. A deposit col- 
lected by means of the action of water. 

Allyl, al'lil. A radical which cannot ex- 
ist in a free state. At the moment of its 
liberation two molecules combine to- 
gether to form dlaUyL 

Allylamine, al-lil'a-min. A mobile liq- 
uid having a sharp burning taste, pro- 
duced by the action of potash on aUyl- 

Alxnaden, al-mah'den. A town in New 
Castile, Spain, celebrated for the oldest 
and most produotLve quicksilver mines in 
the world. 

Almadie, aI'ma-dL A boat used in 
India, shaped like a shuttle ; also, a small 
African canoe. 

Almafirest, al'ma-jest. A book of prob- 
lems in astronomy and geometry, drawn 

, by Ptolemy. A title given to other works 
of a like kind. 

AlxnagTSL al-mu'gra. A red ooher, used 
in India for staining the person. Also 
used as a paint, and for polishing silver 
and glass, under the name of Indian red. 

Alma Mater, al'ma ma'ter. An epi- 
thet first given to the earth as the mother 
of all ; now. applied bv students to the 
university where they have been trained. 

Al-MaTniiTn, al-mah'mum. Bon and s. 
of IIaroun-al-£aschid, caliph of Bagdad, 
B. 786, D. 888 ; his reign was celebrated as 
the commencement of Saracenic literary 

Alxnanao, al'ma-nak. A table or publi- 
cation comprising a calendar: of days, 
weeks and months, with the times of the 
rising of the sun and moon, changes of 
the moon, eclipses, hours of fUlf tide, 
stated festivals, &o. 

Almandine, al'man-dln. Precious gar- 
net, a beautiftil red mineral ot various 
shades, commonly translucent, some- 
times transparent. It occurs crystallized 
in the rhombic dodecahedron. 
Alznan'zor, Abu Mohanuned. Be- 
gent of Cordova, Spain, b. 989, d. 998. A. 
was a famous general, being defeated in 
but one battle out of fifty, diuing 28 years 
of irar tfitb tho Christian princes of Spain; 

j^/s was the decisive batt/e of CaJAtanozor, 

fiPif, Just before bia death. 

Almayne-rivet, al-mftn'riv'et. Oae 
of a series of rivets sliding in slot-holes in 
plates of armor, so that they would yield 
to tho motion of the body ; afterward ap- 
plied to suits of armor cons^ucted in this 

Alxne, al'me. The name given in some 
parts of the East, and espedally in Egypt, 
to girls whose occupation is to amuse 
company with singing and dancing, or to 
sing dirges at fimerals. 

Almena, al-me'na. A weight of 2 lbs., 
used in iiarts of Asia. 

Almond, a'mund. The seed of Amyp* 
dalus communis, or almond-tree. There 
are two varieties, sweet and bitter ; both 

Sroduced from A. communis, though from 
ifferent varieties. In lapidaiy work, a 
piece of rock crvstai used in adorning 
branch candle- sticKs. 

Almond-furnace, fi'mnnd-fer-nis. A 
fUrnace in which the slags of litharge, ktft 
in refining silver, are reduced to lead. 

Almond-oil, a'mund-oil. A bland, 
fixed oil obtained from almonds. 

Almond-paste, a'mond-paste. A cos- 
metic to soften the skin, composed of 
bitter almonds, white of ^gj rose-water, 
and rectified spirit. 

Almond-tree, u'mnnd-trd. A spedes of 
Amygdalus which produces the almond. 

Almond-willow, &'mund-wil-lo. The 
Salix amvgdalina, the leaves of which re- 
semble those of the almond-tree. 

Almoner, al'mon-er. A dispenser of 
alms or charity in connection with relig- 
ious communities, hospitals, or alms- 
houses. In England there Is a lord-A., or 
lord high- A., an ecclesiastical officer, gen- 
erally a bishop, who distributes twice a 
year the sovereign's bounty. There is 
also a sub-A., and a hereditary grand A. 

Alms-erate, iimz'gat. The gate of relig- 
ious or great houses, at which alms were 
distributed to the poor. 

Alms-house, fimz'hous. A house ap- 
propriated for the use of the poor who 
are 8upi>orted by the public , a poor-house. 

Almuce, al'mus, a'mQs. A furred hood 
having long ends fianging down in front 
of the dress, something like the stole; 
worn by the clergy from tlie 18th to the 
15th centuries when ofilciating during 
inclement weather. » 

Almude, al-mud^ A variable measure 
in Spain and Portugal, ranging for liquids 
flromSi to 5^ English gallons; for grain 
fh)m 8| to 11 pints. 

Alnua, aVnus. The alder, gen of plants, 
ord. BetuVaoen. A.. gViVlaoiMk \% k >«i5^« 

TtAoiu ooloni. 
Aloe, il'S. The 
gEH. Alo. ortL UK 

13 ■ symlmUc plant 
ioroo from a pflgTim- 

ngstoMecoihansilloi . . 
ufilok«a that b« baa pertbrmed the joDr- 
Bpj-. Eever^ Apfideajield aJoea, thflweH- 
bnewn bltl«rpiveattToiii«dlclji&- Adru^. 
tha Jiitce ef nerenl cpficfea or aioe, li a 
EUmclBtlnff stflinachlo pur^Uve. Tbe 
cbemloHj prlnelple Id called juoIil 
Aloezylon, -eks'l-leu. A gta. of pluta, 

onlf apcdei, is ■ tree CD reel Ugh. 
AlOBlaii, a-lu'jl-eii. OneofsHetntin- 

(teot facRtlo, who denied J«as Christ ta 

he the Laeot, and conaeqnantly re>iiled 

the Geaprl of St. John. 
Aloln, lU'a-iB. A crritalUDe bitter prlnd- 

pLe |oc from aloea lo palefelk>w priamat^ 

JUopecoToa, a-lS-pe-kli'nu. Foitall- 
lirasa, a g«D. ofgnaaea, Boma belB^ tnnblfr 
»me need!, others good fodder plasla. 

Alopeof, al'u-pe-aL A diaeaae sailed 
fbi-flpll or acorf, accompanied by a JUUnc 

Alosa, a-M'a*. A em. of Oahea, Im. 
ChtpeUit, ineliidLiig Uia ahad. 

Aloymia, a-loi'ai-a. A gen. oT plants, ord. 
TeriMBWeae. lo which bi^aDga a Bhrab, 
A. Ottftodna, popukrij- •- "~ 

Uporoa, al-pak'a. A n- 
■oEuot mammal, of llu 
(SDel tribe, imd mi. ADdt 


ibMt tliu a dlatinu. 

rlo. Itlgvaloedehleflj Aift*. 
its wooL Its ttrtb la nltHaitl and 

Tholeaoma. A Ubrie raaDonctcired from 
the hair or wool of the alpaca. 
AliMilHttaCk. al'pen-atol:. A elrong 
Btick, Iron polntfd, used In cHmblug the 

Alpha. >!'&. The flnt klbr fn the 
Greek alphabet, flnsverlnff td A, and used 
to denote tint or boglmiln^ 

Alphaliet. al'b-bct Thelettmofslui. 

A acriea of daahce, dots, Jtc, oaed In tele^c. 

i>|ihT ; tint elements ; alnipleat mdl. 

AlpOIL-liOnit Bl'peu'boni- A Terr loDf , 
nearly Btnilght hwn, curvlnj; sUghuy and 
wldeillng toward tia ailroiiltr, ueed db 

AlphltODUUlor. al-Qt'».inwi-<l. IMvln- 
atlon by means of bu-ley-meaL 

' ■ n'sln. A BDriflcal In- 


1. Of or pertaining 

^°e«'publEh.-d In 

ronace of Alphanso X-t ting of CutU* 

Alplioa, al'fos. That ipedes of loprosr. 
caUcd ileo vlllllgu, In irhlcb the skin "Is 
loogb, wllh while patchca And rose^col- 

Alpist, al'pIsL Tha seed of the innaiy- 

AJopecnrus, or lbxtall.gTasa. 
Alqnler, altir. A moisnie In Portn- 

■Eol, conlalplng half an jdmudo, or about 3 

DO for VhllefHnrs, 8 dintHct In 
which, ponsesslng certain prlTl- 

Alaatlan, al- 

tha Batlabador), o. llMj d. IIU. A. 
U.,o.UE8;d.UK. a. III., bus and a. 

lyjjn luu, and ar CjuUIu 1UT8: d. 
A. II. (A. Vll. qfLean),».liaa;"» 
thatidu of Einperor 11S5; i>. lis; 
111, (A. VllL), >. 110§, when but 3 
old; D. laU; A., wllh hU allies. 
kiOES of Arsgon md Sevurre, woo a 
Tlelory otot Uib AlmDnnde Saltan M. 
mud iu-Najilr. A. IX., s. lili, whc 
1 year old : In 1340 galnad n grait V 

i. 1 jSi : D. ISSt ; ba loTsntBd tbe iilot 
blB Aliiboofllnii Datronomlon] tablca. A- 

lither Fanmndo I. u kins or'Ai^gon. 
14ia, and adnntHl ai tho lu^lr of Uuuon 
J(HiuruiorNupli>i>,li4ai n. 14B3. A. II., 

dlcBtod I4'ja;cTUul 
1., Uonrlqusi. Cat 
Fortugal, B. hi* h 
enody, 1311 ; nhtail 

ionry of Hi 

LDd prooliUmod 
klDBby tho iinnr;ln IIM toe'- "—— 
Ima Uis Moon, aod mado II tb 
-■-- * " lOBOfSanohoI. 

and Urn CarniaA. The S 

ralCTS of tho PlMB. and tho Carnie nmH- 
ilf to tho rlvu- Mar, vrhldi HcpauUes tbem 
roin tliD BalconR range^ ML Blanc. 15,- 
n (t., la tba hlghoit peek In Knrope. 
iiR Hwirin. U.10II n.,ia the hUiheatw- 
of SL Oothard tb* ■ ■ 


1 olovur lntonn»llat« 

; aros. 8,Ua »q. 

AlBilat, al»vra 

AlBophlla, al-eo' 
»] uyatbevmuB t< 

height of ai fr). 

tirul n 

lotvrui'n Siberia nnii China; iFiigthneai 
i.DUa ui.: mean avoraga heMt S.dlH) 
,000 ft.; ML Ulslokha, nasr the eonrrias 

Altaic, al 

Is 111,801 

ling to the Altai 

fbmlly of laneoagoa dJ- 

_ . branohos, tlie iWo-lIun- 

Altoir iI'MhIt. Ths Anblo namo fbr 
Alpha Ar^LiI Is, thnmo^t Important fltar la 
tboiuuiflttillaUoii AqnlKonooflhoxtarabi 
whluh tho lunar dislancei ara ^a1(^n1Btlld. 

ALtalte, al-t;i-^ A ml ml lead a d tel 

Altombour ton bV A arsa Span 

Altar, I 


1 In iba hi^ pbEe. 

(ndHctLw of the Oothk vt ih9 sbanl 

Altar-bread, ■I'Ur-bml. Br«d pre- 
DKed ftn Ihs mnturlit. la Dm E. C. 
<aiiiro1i 11 la DokaieBcd iDil lumped with 
■n I ]I S or ■ eragiai. 

Altar-clDtll, il'ier-likith. Tba doth 
tiuteoren Uie Hur, the porUoq luii^liif 
Aiwn In front bfinr f»U«i tli« vit«pena- 
UUD. and Uut wUch narta Hia up ttas 
Alf»-rtr"- il'Cer-u^l. A oble. «i 

AIUBlmUth, •Itu'l-niDtlL A Ml» 
Mops » imnnd u lobe lorned horlun- 
aiOj to toy polDt of Uw oompuL 

Altrad^4 U'lan-dDrt A Binrlu 
TlBifa, B««r Bambaig. whiralha Ans- 

UUU WBTfl BinvUj' d^e*L4d bv Uw 

rmdi Qenenl Klafiw, Aug. », 17H. 
Altem, ifloa. KiUMUdk db tha Dp- 

Etnd lower part Cbore whlcb dtofiaMl*. 
wUoh, when tha two p«ru ve torn- 
pand, OHTflapcfnd with noh other. A. 
bme. ■ tmn ued Id diatliHllan fivm the 

irf. Cipltll of Cuiton of 
i^wlUartKid, Noted tor tin proiiiilllr 
BMMvdfp, Iha ropntAd blrthpleee of 

Alto-TlUsTO. a-to-n-M-k- 

.-mbBwr, W 

liver. exCneted from an'oHte. 
Diplojed in tba prppareJoil of 

lOoopDer. buriw thAn broi 
oeptlble of > Una pollah. 

Aliiiii>«ohlat, I 

bedded Bsalle rock, oblaUr eompnted o 
dUA And eloralnjt, froA which iA obulnat 
tb«laC*itpBtofita* ataBa/eoaOMM 

o'liui. Apdpll;ng»d- 
AlTmoKOn.arnn-o-lpn. Nidtiuulphate 


Alveolito. -I'vi 

AlyBBUiD. i-Hs'ennL Aieo. ofpl 
orn. CnK.'irpni?, mach omplayed for i 

hoAy biitpf 801 
AmodeuB. & 

Amadia da a^iUl, 

DolfJii^iIifl nhU' 
r Amsitl, uid oUiiTPalU- 
: Bpuilih b.v Vuoo Sobdn, 

AmaleUtes, t-miil'c-lii 

leiilky ponia: 

A trtbe of 
woro^miSlMwl by Iho Ho- 
ur qmcurtlim iri?" 
ly aJLoy of whloh met 

Ajaalphltaa. ^Disl'fi-Uo. ]>entdDlD| 
tu AdioIH. i Loirn or Italy. A. osde, Ih 

uompltul during IbQ nrat cniHwlo. 

bl« irllb vUlc aI>Dt>. iuTlas 


imprclivnde the daSodU, (ta 
luid btlLBdomui UUbo. Oie BniDt- 
d bluod-tlDWiin of the Cipe ol 
ipe. Th<! gea. AourylUi rItm 

AuuuTthrln. im-a-rlih'rln. TheUaar 
prtDidple of erythriD add. 

OreffluBB, liily, In Iba lIlS 

__, am-B-rO-sl.. 4 pvtilll HI 

wuipletu law of i^nt ftopi lov of pow« 

vlsEUe defUcl In thu eye Qx»pt Hb immov- ^ 
■bio pu pill BomBtlmos U la pDiiodluL 
&1ZU.XQ11. inx't-^im. The luveat Htv 
In Ibu world, nmntu; E. ud W. UrnaA 
S. Ameriu neuly 4.INI0 ni.. ind lAla. 

from an early Rpanlub lot^eDd whJoh BK 

Amboiie. iun1»-rt. Id IndU. u Dblanf 
tor the- acKounnodotloD oreltplumt lida«> 
Ite bl^beat rajik, omployod ty 

ffhim tbey n-'aldo pt^rmaii.yitly tX 
tonrt, or liitm^rdliury Hdidl 

of 1«SB dt|:ii1ty 
Efb a publ^ ID 




coctliict ptne-trees. It is s hard tnuiBla- 
emt sabstaiioe, Mttle, withoat tMto or 
amdl, except -wlieii heated it omits a Ara- 
grantodor. It beoomes negatively elec- 
trie bj IHction. It yields by distillation 
an empyremnatia oil consisting of a mix- 
tore of hydrocarbons and sncdnio add. 
It la Qsed oMeOy for pipe month pieces 
and beads, and in the arts for amber-var- 

AmtoergriB, amlieivgrfis. A solid. 
opaque, inflammable sobstanoe, Tariegated 
Ifte nuuMe, remarkably light, mgged on 
its anrAMBe, and havinf, when heated, a 
fragrant odor. It melta into a kind of 
jtmw resin, and is highly scdnble in 
s^t of wine. It is a morbid secretion 
<n the intestines of the spermaceti whale. 

Axaber-aeed, am'ber-sM. The seed of 
AbehBOB(dias mosehatns, resembling mil- 
let, has a bitterish taste, a undl like 
mask, and is used for perftiming. 

Amber-tTBe, am'ber-trS. The En^h 
name ibr Anthospennnm, a gen. of 
shrubs which, when braised, enut a fra- 
grant odor. 

Ambideztor, am-bi-deks'ter. A jper- 
soa who nses both hands with eqnal ftoil- 
i^. A doable-dealer. 

AmWft, ami)!. A peeaBar pace of a 
horse or mole in which both logs on one 
ride are moved at the aamo time. 

AmblyBOSl, am'bli-gon. An obtnse- 
aagled triangle ; a triangle with one angle 
of more than 90 d^^rees. 

..uu«.M,e v«v«>. am-blig'on-It. A mine- 
ral oonsisting^ of phosphates and flnorides 
of alominlnm and nthinm. It occors 
maaaiTe or crystallized in obUquo four- 
sided prirais, in granite, with topaz and 

Amblyopcds, am-bli-op'sis. A gen. of 
flshM, including the Mtnd-fish. 

Amblyptenis, am-blip'ter-us. A gen. 
of ganoid fishes, with heterocercal tail, 
found only in a fossil state. 

Amblyrhyziohiu. am-bli-ringk'us. A 
gen, or lizards reeemDhng the iguana. A. 
eristatus, in length varying teom 8 to 4 
feet, is tba onfy known coasting marine 

Ambo, amlx). In early Christian 
churches a raised desk or pulpit, from 
which were read or chanted certain parts 
of the service. 

Amboyni^wood, am-boi'na-wnd. A 
beantifril mottJed and curled wood, em- 
Moyed in cabinet work. 

AmbxeadiL am-bre-ft'da. A fictitious 
amber, sold hy^nropeana to the A&ioana. 

AmbreJn, am'bre-in. A fiitiy substance 
obtained from ambergris by digesting it 
in hot aloobol. It is crystallized and has an 
agreeable odor. 

Ambrose (St.), &m'brOz. A Catholio 
Archbishop of Milan, b. 840, d. 897; 
noted for hU piety and Iwldncss in rebuk- 
ing the secular rulers ; he was in conflict 
with Yalentinian, Maximun an<l Thco- 
dosius, compelling the latter, after the 
numner of Thessalonica, to perform a 
humiliating penance before receiving tho 
sacrament A. waa author of the " T^ 
Deum Laudamus.** 

Axobrosia, am-br6'zhi-a. According to 
the belief of the ancient Greeks, tilie food 
of the gods, which oonfeired immortality 
on those who partook of it ; henoti. any- 
thing pleasing to the taste or smelL A. 
gen. of plants belonging to the ord. Com- 
positae, consisting of annual weeds resem- 
bling wormwood. 

Ambrosin, amluro-sin. A coin struck 
by the dukes of Milan in the middle ages, 
on which tit. Ambrose was represented on 
horse- back. 

Ambrotype, am'brd-tlp. A picture ta- 
ken on a plate of prepared glass, in which 
the lights are represented in silver and tha 
shadows by a dark back-ground showing 
through the transparent plate. 

Ambry, am'brl. A place where alms are 
deposited for distribution to the poor ; a 
place in ancient abbeys and priories 
where the almoner lived. A niche or re- 
cess in the wall of ancient churches in 
which tho sacred utensils were dopositod. 
A place in which are deposited the uten- 
sils for housekeeping. 

Ambs-ace, fimz'fts. A donble ace, as 
when two dico turn up the ace. 

Ambulance, am'bQ-Ians. A miHtary 
hospital establishment of a temporary 
nature. A cart, wagon, or litter employed 
to convey injured or sick to the hospital. 

Ameer, &-mur'. An Arabian nobleman/ 
a chief. 

Ameiva, a-ml'va. A gen. of small sau- 
rian reptiles, frun. Teide. 

Amen, &'men'. A term used in prayer, 
and meaning So be it. At the end of a 
creed it is equivalent to a solenm asser- 
tion of belief. 

Ambulator, am^bCi-Uit-er. One who 
walks about An instrument for measur- 
ing distances. A name sometimes given 
to the original form of the velocipede. 

Ambory, am'bu-rL A tumor, wart, or 
swelling on a horse, frill of blood and soft 
to flie touch. Cloib-Tool, ft wntot «»srair 


i>r plviti wboi^'e flovura ar« vruiged'lii jui 
-mer'e-kih. The ueoiid In 

(lobe, extenrUng- from laL Tl° M' 

-- tlie etnlUof tfandkn, 1st W OB' 

popaUaDni' liifl1u_ 

„ _^ „ i> oRen aUeil tha 
ftviplti TvaAiiacoYeryhr T 
t> iboiit (qiullr diTldad lino 

ud trlbsl or 

R, A. piDparly baglni at tlia uppsr rids i 
ttaa OiOroV Maitoa, or 80> N. biTud a: 
'--■'• to tba Anda Oooui, lt~ " " 

nod roaditHdi, bat 1b broken by tli 
Eumiior B. Otikaiit. ina (he a;. 

lUfM, ana pinikt to the E. cout, bnti 
oonridaBbla d]itui» iulaod. caUod the 
Apialaddu; Ilia other alDOC tha V. ooeit, 
toown HI tha BInn Nenda, tha IMtv 
Mne nnuh tha h1|^e>. Th«a giimd 
mural ara euh dtiidad Into three diaanot 
obidiia, thoH do tha B. hOng IhaAlla- 
(fainlH, tha Qrean and WbHeiooaDtilna ; 
iBttulr. tbaBIomu.KkimH'liiiier^Ldii, 
of whkhMt. Bt. XBu, II.BCO ft. abara 
aealneLlathaBhlarMk.and the great 
Bo«ky MoODlatii ■fBtem. Betvean aaaa 
moimtaLa laona Ue tha biiTnejiBa inalrlafl, 
the Tilleja oTtha Uiululppt, OUo and 

woDeotad hkei, Bupcrlor, 
nimiD, Erie and OnEarfa, «>v< 
thanm.OKI tq. 


lbs Pidflo ; still N. o?l 
are me prent plaina sliPlchtog to the 
-ArcUn Ooeui. and luiTDiuidlSE Uiemal 
Inland tta known u HpdHin'i Bay. 
Tha chief rlvera an tha CoaDntienl. 
Bodson, Jaoiei. OUa. TnuieSBoo, Mla- 
«mY, MIsaLiMpnl, Red, lllo Orandc. Col- 
aobia juid Uwkenzia, whli^hcmptioalnlo 
*qe Jnafe Oeoan. CHntrsJAmerliamaybi' 
«rtJ to (ndntfe Ua taWo-Luid of Medco 

the Uthznoi raofo hilh th 
f N. A.; theEluTMKonoli 
t Imporliuit river. Bonth A. L 

Brazil In the N.E.;! 
Taatplaina. at varioa 
clpd^dlTi>i|iBiii_Df wlikh ar; 

of thanatlTatrl 

and BDnthem nortiou, , . .., 

(Hew and nilisd noea alonr the ■■ 
eoHt Bad thmngliaDt tfaaN. Tba d<Ti» 
loBB. nlydlTlBL^ia and papoLatlaiu of thl 
CanElnaBt Bra w tblUnn : V. A.— Uextn, 
United Blutee. DooHnlan of Cuuda, Ktr- 
ftmndland. Prince Edwarda talind^Brfttlt 
CaltunblB, OreeoUod. Bermada, St. Elena 
—J ......_..-. ... -. -M gjs, O.A.— 

Uondnraa, Ban 
I Brlttih Doa- 

JtHUnli W. 'inijica,' Detoh ^och ^ 
Danish poaeeulons. Baytl nod Ban Do- 
mlago ; pop. 4,en9.(»^. a. a.— PUacoidi 
BndTerra-dpl-Fnagu, Uruguay, FBrafn^, 
Gron-ChaCD and PHmnBa ArcentlwL Ar< 

Smldno BepubUo, dull, Bolivia. Itoiii, 
EUapa^rDfl rnnlnhablted). EDDodDr, Kev 
Qranadu, Toneiaela, JtrlUBh, Uulah bA 
French (Inlina, Braill and Valklanil It- 
lands i pop. lS,Sie,>U. Tba dboaraiT tt 
A. bj- rairiatapher ColuabnB In 14M-H 
dpBbfld It (o Enropcan explDratlon and 
Battlement, sltbongta Oiaanlatid « 
qnesttonaUT vUted br Bcaodl 

n>Ton Id tba —- — ■ ' ■ 

Ileved iHhnd 

Id In the 101 

B, Cnrlni, Da Soto, 

nse, to tha InhabltnotB of Oa 
AmeriKO Voapneol, mjB-poot'ijjw. 

flDBlly nnpolnled pilot lo th<> >:ir.^f i!} 
in, hlBpHn^lpDlduiylielne' l<ii<ri ^k^iru 

^ogh life. 

pdrpla quart!, oryauiuied la I 
prifl^A or pyrwnldB; aIao In r 

d« of jewelry. OrtaiUli », 

k pnrple color ; th« 

^ ppr« m ji ^aatiui 

ie-lM»tTn. Andnllj' 

AppUfld U> A j^aniH^Dt of Ituoolor of oJne- 
IbjsL Composed or uutAJijBt, u ■ eup. 

*■"*■"—*. Jeffsr7. IiOTd. A hI 
bntod BctOib renenl. ■. ITU. d. im 
Ib ntO, wttta Ohu. Wolfti uiil Fride*u: 
ka took tba whola of CVutdn fruja U 
rmwh; wu murinlnl MDnnimiltT-li 
ddffofthe BrlUth troojH In America, u) 
ma DudB goTHDor of Vlrgluii Is 1IB3. 

uith, u 


■OHdofdrtleUa fllimioiu. T«7 fl^itbie, 
■ndMrnswhatelHOo, Dltonloni; and n- 
MmbOnr OattAt of lOk. It li Incombiu- 
tlbla, ud li mvoght Into clath uil paper 
br Uio aid of tlai, wUch li aTtiTininl re- 

worn by priests and ullsrtmB. An oblnnp 

Hko a cope, worn nndw tha alb by priota 
oflhoB. O. Cburth when eneneod In the 
■ervlo'i of Die maaa. Tie bamli worn by 
aomo Proteitaal dornwax ■■* ■ ttUB of 

Amide. Amliia, iin'id. ani'ln. A ■«• 
rira ofaalti produced bylho •uhaI11ull«a 
of rfwn^^nte or ndlcala !br the bfdrogea 

if liquid A., aqueous A.. oritril^U at 
uoni. ItlaprocurHinviniiiilreK.'nia'ii- 

dJadllaUon of pll-coal and n'rn<>u animal 

burn, huuf.' Ad. Tha air cunuJiii a ml- 

BoimnnLi. orpoAseuln^fts propertlH, A. 
guB, BmmoDUiloftBpnreatrorm. A. ffnm. 
a fum-rDHin comnoand < 
Hon fhim an OTabtOL... 
Doremi uamoaliimD. U \t\ 

jih kliKLB, «■ pDvdDT, baUa^ bambK, 

mills, birds (uid rcptllH. 

protoplasm, WlibiD the body anu- 


re UBuaily pefcelTt 
n tboir QxhlbltiJig rbytb- 

lata nroporUoOM, aoll 

lOfirMab b«o 

9 or tbe ava CbbuH Mpnta 
open to fbrAign oomiaeroe ; pop. ££10,000. 

Ainpao, un'pik. A. tree vUdi ylddiii 
taishlv odorl/eroiu realn, tbs Iwth of 
vElch tan need to msdloite btttia, « >p*- 

AmpeUa. Bin'p«t4s. A feo. of penblng 
birds, formlD^ the tjpe of the 1km. Amp*. 


oobI jmd U 

Ampelomla. un-pel^p'sls. A g 
planta. ord- Vltaces. A. faoderBOee 
VlridDiaD ereeper, & Jkat growlaf oil 



let cod Id 
iMhtolite, Ik 

-ab'i-cHiit. A ft 



Axnpliibioas, am-fibl-na. AnlmalB 
which hft ve the power of Uvinf^ In air ana 
water ; any long-breathing aidmal which 
can exist under water, as the erooodile, 
whale, Bcnl, bcAver, Slc. 

Amphibolite, am-flb'o-Ht. A rock with 
abaseofampliiboleor hornblende; trap, 
or greenstone. 

Amphibolold, am-fib'ol-oid. A rock 
composed of amphibole and felspar; a 
Ttariety of greenstone. 

Amphinentrnm, am-fl-sen'tram. A 

Sen. of fossil ganoid fishes wanting ab- 
ominal fins, confined to carboniferous 

Axaphiotyona, am-fik'ti-onz. An as- 
sembly or council of deputies from the 
difTerent states of Greece. Ten or twelre 
states were represented in this assembly. 

Amphicyon, am-fis'i-on. A large fossil 
eamiyoroua quadruped, whose teeth com- 
bine the characteristics of those of dogs 
and bears. 

Amphidiso, am'fi-disk. One of the spi- 
coles which surround the reproductive 
gmnmules of SpongiHa, resenibUng two 
toothed wheels united by an axle. 

AmiihidTOZiiioal, am-fi-drom'ik-al. 
Pertaining to the andent Greek festival 
amphidromia, celebrated when a child re- 
ceived its name. 

Amphidura, am-fl-dfi'ra. In the Greek 
Ch. the veil or curtain separating the 
chancel from the rest of the church, cor- 
responding to the canoeUus of B. G. 

Ami^hiflrean, am-fi-je'an. Extending 
over aU the zones of the globe. 

Atnphigren, am'fl-jen. A plant which 
has no distinct axis, as the lichens. 

Amphiliexaliedxal, am-fl-heks'a-he^'- 
dral. Said of a crystal in which the fhcee, 
counted in two mfferent directions, give 
two hexahedral outlines, or are founof to 
be six in number. 

Amphlon, am'fe-on. In Myth, a son of 
JopTter and Antlope, who rebuilt the 
waUs of Thebes by playing on his lyre, 
the stones moving to the music and as- 
suming their proper places in the wall. 

Amphlpoda, am-flp'od-a. An ord. of 
the sessile-eyed maJacostracan crusta- 
ceans. The sand-hopper and shore- 
jumper are examples. 

Amphipxostyle, am-flp'ro-dtn. A 
structure having tiie form of an andent 
Greek or Roman oblong rectangolar tem- 
pte, with AproBty)^ or portico on eaoh ot 

ftB UroatB, bat mo oolamn§ on its aidea. 

Amphi«an», am'fl-siir-ka. A com- 
poond, many-eelled, indehisoent, soperimr 
frnlt, with a woody or indnnted shdl in- 
dosing an internal pulp, as seen in tiie 

Amphiflbflsna, am-fls-bC''na. A gen. 
of seriKjntiform, limbk'8s reptiles, flun. 
Amphi8b«>nidte, ord. Laccrtilla. 

AmphisbaBnia, am-fis-be'ni-a. An 
ord. of lacertion reptiles, of which the 
gen. Amphisba>na is the type. 

Amphisoii, am-fish'M. The Inhabitants 
of the inter-tropical regions, who^e shad- 
ows at noon In one part of the year are 
castto the north ana in the other to the 
sooth, acoordinjr as the sun la in the 
northern or soutnem signs. 

Amphisile, am-fis'i-le. A cren. of acan- 
thoptOTVglous fishes. It belongs to the 
&m. Fistularidffl or sea-snipes, and is 
closely allied to the gen. Centriscus. 

Ampltheater, am-fi-the'a-ter. An an- 
dent Home edifice of an oval form, with 
rows of seats rising higher as they re- 
ceded tcom the center. The anden t thea- 
ter was nearly semi-drcular in shape, with 
its rows of seats fronting the sti^c ; the 
A. was always elliptical in form, 'nie Col- 
osseum at Rome is the largest of all the 
andent amphitheaters. 

AxaphitheriTun, am-fi-thd'rl-um. A 
fossU insectivorous manunal of the oolite. 
A. Prevostii is the only spedes yet dis- 

Axnphitrite, am-fi-trl'tS. The name of 
a sea-nymph in Greek mythology, sister of 
Thetis and wife of Neptune. A small 

Slanet or asteroid between the orbits of 
[ars and Jupiter. A gen. of marine an- 
neUds, ord. TubicolsB, and class Annulata. 

Amphitype, am'fi-tfp. A photographic 
process by wfaJoh light produces either a 
positiye or a nM;ative. The paper is pre- 
pared by a solution of ferro-tartrate or 
iSerro-dtrate of protoxide or peroxide of 
mercury, followed by a solution of am- 
monio- tartrate or ammonio-dtrate. 

AmphinznidSB, am-fi-Q'mi-d€. A flun. 
of tailed amphibians distinguished by a 
small branchial aperture on each side, 
within which are the branchial arches with 
small lominse. The gen. Amphiuma is 
the type. 

Amplitude, am'pli-tud. In Astron. an 
arc of the horizon intercepted between the 
east or west point and the center of the 
sun or star at its rising or setting. At the 
rising of the star the amplitude is eastern 
or ortive ; at the «ettin^ it is western, 
oooldaoiu, or oqouVv«, K. <A ^<^ 

1) Ehc pith of a iKjdr Ihromi, or 
IS wUch mtctarra tbs illiUuice II 

tUinSi uul tbfi cut cr west 

taeori. .. ,, 
oftbo hoj-iion. 
Anwhom. un'fo-n. 

And BODUM, a tDSn.'), 

belov forbdnf; In 


the vintage bflLpf nil 

OrWk being equl to d rAloiu, T.865 |ilnti 
tUidi oTtMi. 
AmmUlK. N-pullL In Rom. nntlii. 
Jj^obuliir bank ani for iwTyIng oil to 

id auwkliMc nil tbU 
Amillet, un'u-let SomctMngwomun 

oieiitUmM,BiiaiiruBailwwn in jiS/Hf 
the world. Thu rarly CbHslian 1. were 

luhthyA, ddh, OF wlUi Iho shiinn of a nsh. 

tn laturctr ^od alliBr pla 


^cle. mied wl tb^BuSlne' midSM^ 

tntr. quarU, uslr. looUU, ^loiite. Ao. 
Whr'ii the ImWilcd Diinnals ira do- 

AjaygialoM, a-mlir'dji-lut. A gen. of 

il by treatinff nmjl ej 

, . . -6d. a h^drocarbno ob- 

Amyraldlam, tml-nld-lun. Tbsdoo- 
trlnu of uuivprul gmw. as DKplainfd br 
Amj-rtildiia in " -"■■■ 

juKht th 
all men. ■ 

Amyrld&cece. B-m1r1-ili"9fi-e, An 
orrt, of polyiK'talouB planU. MjTrt, 
nnokEliRi^nxc, and gTiiD.demI are Bjnoaf 

&na, on'a. A Qiwk prtposlilon ranplor- 

, , -bop'tiif. One wbo 

baptltini, and the neceaiityor rebaptlsai 
uiD adult Q(ie. WItb thitlKDViiRallyae- 
eodntnl lliB doclJino of baptl&m liy Un- 

AjlabHaiB, nn-ab'a-sia, AnpUM <o Uie 
work of Xenopboa d«Bcr1ptlve of this cx> 

r Xenophon. Any okpBditiun from 

AnablepB, an'a-blepe. A goi. of mlk- 
eoptaryElin Cabu, naiBVJAte Kn their 




eyeB, wfaiah project and haye two papUs, 
each eje i^pearing m If double; but 

Amiblqw tetnopbthafaniu. 

there is only one oystalHne humor, one 
viircous humor, and ono retina. 

Anacampseros, an-a-kamp'ae-roA. A 
plant to -which the ancients attributed the 
quality of restoring or inducing the re- 
turn of the passion of love. A gen. of 
pbrnts, ord. Fortulacea;. 

ATift/xr-nth<Ttl^ an'a-kan-thi''nl. An ord. 
of osseous fishes, including the cod, 
plaice, Ac. 

AnacardiacesB, an-a-kar^di-a^'s^-d. An 
ord. of polypetalous plants, the sumach, 
the pistadas, the mango, the cashew, the 
marking-nut, the yamish tree of Marta- 
b*n and the Japan-laoquor. Mastio is the 
TOoduce of Pistacia Leintlsous. 

AnaflArdinin, an-a-kar'di-nm. A gen. 
of plants, <Hrd. Anacardiaoee. The fruit 
of A. ooddentale ia roasted, and the 
kernels having their acidity thus de- 
■troved are the cashew-nuts. This tree 
▼ielos a gum resembling gum-arabic. 

Anaaharlfl, an-ak'ar^. A gen. of 
plants, ord. Hydrocharidaoete ; water- 
uiyme <Mr water-weed. 

Anaohronlmi, an-ak'ron-izm. An er- 
ror in computing time. 

Anaclastio, an-a-klas'tik. Pertaining to 
or produced by the refraction of light. 
A. glass or phial, a glass so thin that when 
air M sucked from it, the bottom springs 
Into a concave form with a sharp snap, 
and when air is blown in, springs into its 
iiormer convex form. 

Anaconda, an-a-kon'da. The popular 
nameof two of the largest species or the 
serpent tribe, attaining the length of 40 
feet. Both are destitute of poison fhngs, 
and kill their victims by constriction. 

Anacreontic, a-nak'rd-oB''tik. Pertain- 
ing to Anacreon, a Greek poet whose odes 
and epigrams were oelenrated for their 
graceral air and truth to nature. 

ATiartflin, an'a-dem. A band, fillet, or 
wreath worn on the head by women and 
young men. 

Anadronunui, a-nad'rom-ns. A word 
api^tted to such fish as pass from the sea 
Into freeh water at stated seasons, as the 

an-ei-tket'ik. Hatlhg the 
powwr Qt depi*Tiay of feeMiy or aenatioa. 

Anagallli, an-a-gal'hs. A gen. of plaata, 
ord. Primnlaoett; the pimpernel. 

Anag'lyph, an'a-gUf. An omanent in 
relief chased or embossed in preeloaa 
metal or stone, as a cameo. 

Anaflrlyptograph, an-«-glip'to-graf. 
An instrument for making a medallion en- 
graving of an object in relief, as a medal 
or cameo. 

Ana^Tam, an'a-gram. The letters of 
words read backwards, and then ibmiinc 
a new word ; thus, evil is an anagram of 

an'a-gros. A measure of 
grain in Bnain, containing som^hing les« 
than two bushels. 

Analclm, a-nal'sfan. A leoHtio mineral 
found in cubic crystals, but also amoq>l^ 
ous, and in renirorm, mammillary, lami- 
nated, or radiated masses. 

Analemma, an-a-lem'ma. A form of 
sun-dial, now disused. A projection of 
the sphere on the plane of tne merfdlaa, 
orthographieanv made by strai^t Bnea, 
drcles, and empses, the eye being fop- 
posed' at an inimite distance, andm tio 
east or west points of the horinm. A taba- 
lar mark, usually in the form of the figure 
8, depicted across the torrid sone to notify 
the sun's declination. 

Analoflrion, an-a-loj'i-on. A reading- 
desk or lectern ; a movable polpH. 

Anamesite, a-nam'e-sit. A varietr of 
basalt intermediate betwera the rery flue- 
grained compact form (baaaH), toA the 
coarse-grained oonspicaoasly eryatidlfaie' 
form (dolerlte). 

Anainizta, a-na-mer'ta. A 
plants, ord. Menispermaeen. 

Anamorphoaia, an- 
-a-mor'fo-sis. A draw- 
ing executed in such a 
manner as to present a 
distorted image of the 
object represented, bat 
which, when viewed 
firom a certain point, or 
reflected through a pol- 
yhedron, shows the ob- 
ject in Its true propor- 
tions. An anomalous 
or monstrous develop- 
ment of any part of a 
plant, as when the 
calyx of a rose assumes 
the form of a leaf. The 
gradual change of form, 
traced in animals or 
plants, the members 
of which s n eoeed 


Anknohytea. unig-kl 


DeatltaM oT 

•t. u'k-peaL A poetlod foot 
'Usblw, iLe flnt two nnumnUi 

Anaiihora. (D-sCo-m. 

An&plaatr, in's-plu-t 
to repair BUpflrfldU le 

■oaDthoptttTgun IIbIw, 

AmnthropoAa, u- 

!«*,.« ringed uliDala. Inoludlag the 
Apoon-vorma, laecbo, mtih-womu, tut>e> 

AnmrtJlTO'iiB, -ir'tlinu. H 

wlnea nor l«^i u wormi, L« 
AiiM,i'BU. AeaB.orbirdi,tiii 
- the ord. Palmlpadea (or wub-foot 

UHt dlTided tnlo . • - 


»-Dat'l-d6. A fcm. of welf-too*- 
or DUatorlal birds, of wUoli 
lat la the typo. 

lu-B U'od. Axtr-lkm. ot tha 
nDpreheudlng tba Oue diudu. 

the like and the eo 

. The »t af dtf 

A., thit bruich of wtmDj 
(4 the chuRfl In alruuUm 
I Uuua pfOdiued hy dIaMi, 

n-MUt'ik. Furntaliwl wlUi I f^: ] 

i brancb whlob deou 

Inf or engTbTtfiff, imodoof obtaL 
(bulla Impreaalaiii at prlnUDg or 
Idk by tMhsferrlng )t" — '-*' 
wSlobonl ■ 

Cruel fm. ... 
hloroohDntlca Bouof Jirioho. 

ta the Koaa of 

Jir/aia, or nmnvctjoo plant, rsnurkabl* 
»!■ tha pmrmr tba Oiltd DlMt DOUSiMi o( 

Aatnla lacbrymiUlB. 

Anchitharitun, im|r.u.1he'rl-Din, A 
fbfiflll can. of pachydcrmAtoua inunioaiff, 
from tbeunperoocenoBnd]owpruilooen«T 
fim. Equlds. The ooly nxoinlzed ipedea 

^Bely BUied lo th/raleotbwufm. 
Anchored, une'herd. Held at rrat br 
anuichor. In Her. the t«TD >ppH«d to ■ 
orDU wbodo extremities aro tnmed bw± 
Uke the fiakei of an aoohor. 




desOTt or solitaiy place, and devotes hfm - 
selftoreUgiouB duties. 
Anchor, angler. An Iron Implement 
for holding & ahl^ or other yessel at rest 
in the water, 
ibrmed wifh 
a strong 
extremity of 
which is the 

oat two arms, terminating in broad palms 
or flukes, the sharp extrcmily of whidi is 
the pei^ or bill ; at the other end of the 
BhanK is the ttock, behind which is a ring, 
to which a cable can be attached. 

Anohoivflrate, ang'ker^t A heavy 
gate in canals. 

Anohor-watoh, angHcer-woch. A sub- 
division of the watch kept constantly on 
deck daring the time the ship ttes at dmgle 

Anohovy, an-chG'vL An abdominal 
malaoopteryglous fish of the gen. Engrau- 
Hs, film. ClupeidjB, of diminutive size. A 
sauce is made by pounding the fish in 
water, and adding cayenne pepper. 

Anchovy-pear, an-chd'vi-pftr. The 
fruit of the gen. Grias. It is i^okled and 
eaten like mango. 

Anehn sa, ang-k&'sa. A gen. of plants, 
ord. BoraginaceiB. 

ATichnHJn, ang-ku'sin. The red color- 
ing matter obtuned from Anchusa tinc- 

Anclle, an-fllle. Among the ancient 
Bomans, the sacred shieldf of Mars, said 
to have fidlen trom. heaven, or a sldeld 
made in imitation of it. 

Anoon, an'kon. The <^ecranon; the 
upper end of the ulna or elbow. A carved 
drinking-oup or horn. In Arch, a console, 
or other stone projection contrived for 
supporting cornices. 

Ancon, anOcon. A celebrated breed of 
sheep with short crooked legs and l<»ig 
back, unable to le^> fences. 

Anoony, an'kd-ni. A piece of cast-iron 
melted off and hammered ataibrge into 
a mass called a bloom ; then canrl^ to a 
flnery, and worked into an A. 

Ancylotome, an-sU'6-tdm. A orook«d 
knife or bistoury ; also a knife for divid- 
ing the Ihenum lingua in tongue-tied 
persons, or other adhMions and contrac- 

Anda, an'ds. A gen. of plants, ord. Eu- 

JhMirfaoen, the only knowa species of 
u inttillensis. 

Andaluaite, an-da-m'sit A pelludd 
mineral of the garnet ftun. found crystal- 
lized in imperfect four-sided prisms, near- 
hr or quite rhombic ; consisting of anhy- 
drous BiUcate of almnlns wtui iron per* 

Andante, an-d2n'tfi. In music, moving 
with a moderate, graceftil progression. 

Andantino , an-dan-te'no. In music,, 
applied to a movement quicker than an« 

Andaqnies-waz, -darke'fis-waks. Tb« 
wax of a bee used in making candles, ibe. 

Andesin, an'dCz-in. A mineral resem- 
bling felspar, but containing silica, alumina, 
soda, lime, potash and magnesia. 

Andeaite, an'd^It A trachytic rock con- 
taining andesin, glassy felspar (orthoclase), 
and hornblende. 

Andira, an-dl'ra. A gen. of trees, ord. 
Leguminose, with fleshy plum-like flruits. 
The A. inernds, or cabM^ tree, is used 
in medicine. 

Andiron, andl-em. A horizontal iron 
bar raised on short legfs, vrith an upright 
standard at one end, used to support 
pieces of wood when burning on an open 
hearth, one being placed on each side of 
the hearth. 

Andra, an'dra. A North African gasellA 
AndresBaoeaa, an-drfi'd-&''se-$. A dis- 
tinct tribe of mosses distinguished mainly 
by the longitudinal splittii^ of the valves 
at maturity 

Andrenidse. an-dren'f-ds. A fiunily of 
solitary bees in which the tongue is short 
and the chin elongated. 

AndreoUto, an'dre-o-Bt A mineral, 
harmotome or cross-stone. 

AndrogynaL so-droj'ln-al. Having 
two sexes ; being male and female ; ha- 

Andromeda, an-drom'e-da. The daugh- 
ter of Gepheusking of Ethiopia, and wife 
of Perseus. A northern constellation, be- 
hind Pegasus, Cassiopeia, ^nd Perseus, 
supposed to represent th. flgure of a 
woman chained : the stars number eighly- 
four. A gen. of plants, ord. Ericacese. 

Andron, an'drdn. In Greek antiq. the 
apartme t in a dwelling-house appro- 
priated to males, in the lower part of the 

Androphore, an'dro-f5r. A stalk sup- 
porting the stamens, often formed by a 
union of the filaments. The mednsIftHin 
zodid in which the male «»lements are de- 

Androspore, s&'dx6-«\AT. k «^t4 of 


ployud by God in jmmAn AimirB. a 
woman of AdDTttbla qqHUtiM. A ^Id 
nt^ Ihniertr Munoit la JGnglUJil, bii>r- 


"rt, fid'M-et, An old En?U.h gold 

AnKel-fleli, In'jFl-fldi. A pluglasio- 
motu Qfih, ^QnulBa angina, ncvty cdllod 

idtli tlutariiioBluirkt. 
ADKelica. ui-Jct'lkn. A ren. nrnmM; 
llfimui plsnU. TM guilcii nuns for 

lie vl ng rheunudfiD 

AnKelophBny. k 

«, lUl-i»l'l1l-l-M. T)h 


onln, ar the valuo of hnir im wigd, atruck 

AnseloB, iin'Jf*l-ua. la tbe B. C. Oh. ■ 

tlms u'hQn tho A. Is to bx rwdud. 
Angina, ui-JI'tiL Any InSamiEatniy *f- 

m-fl'M. Any! 

asponiUDg arm, 
Hwd'vnncla am Incioaed 

AntClopteiifl, in-JI-ap'Ur-ia, 
Angioecope. lui'ji-a-t^np. 

. A plul 


A corner. A pulu >*— ■ 

ncUUntqil A. ta Iho / \ 

Dthnr.buIVa not In \ _\ 

llu Bune mlglit V-— — -^ 
Bbc; ■ neUtinaiA. KtcnUtliiK Angle. 
!■ tba dfvTH of openlnir or dltfo^oiuw of 
two nndgbt HnM wtalcta ment ami >n- 
othB'. A clear ld« of thu niton of ui 
■Dgia la Dbtalnrd by irnditDHj opening a 
avpmlfT'* mlo or ■ pair of DompABsw, u 
tbe ungUi Dudu will beciHTio gnAtor u tlu 
opening wldeDa. 
Alu^bBT, anit'l^-btr. A Terllail bu 
■t ue Adffli^Df tbaGieeBofa poljicoiial or 
bow wlnoow- A rgllod bmr of iron 'tOr 
ftHmlD? the edi^ee of viJbs, of to bo rivet- 

— . . — ng of ■ reotimiiuli 

imo like the wiiflDtfr^ebracfl^t 
ronger, and earrylnffa lumllo! i 

girdert, boUera, Ajc 

Any liutnuneDt »r mnaur- 


Driag the ^p of I 

l~j™'gta- i 

Low Gtrman tribe 

,.__ . - -. .iBtiliUn iJoDgwIth 

bundi ofeuou, JotM and FriaUns, and 
eolonlaed ft ereal part of what ftom them 
baa raoalTed the Dime of England. 

Anglealte, wig'fl-itt. A ao]ptiat« of 
lead ooctDdDg In prlMnule erTHtals. 

Anslloao. Biii-' A member of 

Anglo, anfl^BW. A prefli alBnlfiine 
Ell^llsh, or OODOMtnl with Eii|[limd, 

Anglo-Saxoii.aDg'KWHiak'Mn. Onoof 

itie nation ftimied bj Iho union of the 

nglea, Soxoni and othM-eatIr Tanwnic 

iMiM In Britain, or one uf ItatHr deaoen- 

B InbatdUnt of the Uslled 


_ , — Tbeeartleat 

lurm of tbe EngUib languapf. 
Aacol*. wi-«fi'lL A DHUonable riolh, 

made from tbe wool of the Anrora-goat. 
AngtAa^itmt, an-m/la-kat. One of Ifaa 

flneat varirtioa of Iha domeaUo oat. 
Ancora-soat, an-^'n-Rai. A Tirle^ 

org<iat. railed by tho Armht ehaoial guat. 


__. _. _ nilaoeooi pbul, flallpaa 

Cnaparla, fbrmirly |irtifd aa a frbrthig*, 
and BOW Deed Ah a kind of blllen. 
AnanBOam. an-gn.i'kaa 
bio gen. of IrepinI or---' 
pedale, haa the la^- 

Ajicullla,!]'k. A gen, i. ... 

inalBco;>t«TTi^om Afhea, bm. UoreiHriddl, 

n-hi'drld. One of a daaa 
replaced by negaClTii ndl- 

Ani^rdrlte. an-hl'drit Anl 
phdte Dfealdam, preeendng g 

nricty nanl In 

ihydmna laU 

"^ B Tnlplnlt* 

"thns." A 

Mil/ flow- 

[itUilllj£unt nMUty uf nourUhlb^ llaeir, 
by tiie prpdQ mlnmp o of nllJD^p Jn lEo 
oompwimolit uui by lU Inopodty lo 
orlguuto ivotplii or DLCn^gmoui cam- 

riodt. An Inlbrior ottmUowl bdng, 
conCrwtUtLnotSon to Tniio. A. bsal, 
boat or t^mpcntDre noBHfl»ilby uluulfl, 
neoeHaary flir the pAtbmunfMi of v]UiL oo- 
aan. Tha meu h«t orUw hnmso body 1> 
■boat W*F., nd Itncnr lUlamuDli be- 
low Ihlg la health. A. kingdom, one nf 
tha ibne prliuilpa] MvMaailaUi which all 
iwtunl bodlM am divided, the othen bit- 
ing' the TegBtable acd mlDtral Un^amB, 
_ the Atudy ofwbluh In termed aootngy. 

Of dlaeDuit, and In oil aDlmol and YpffoU^ 

Aulme. an'l-nio. A reilD rj 
- Ihnn H tr«f, pen. HymBiiiF, col^ 
tre«. Itlsor atnuiapareot unl>4>r 
vlth a lleht ifrcimUle amcU, and 11 
.. no taeto. iDdlBD eojul produci 

Jinlinettot. an-i-met'tfl. Tliu cloth 

Tha hypothealB 

-„..u wid Plats ol a Ibne luuna^ 
it iDaeparahIa bma aod ftlTliwto 
■ nuuKT Itfl fttrm and movemanta. The 
. ijitem of madimna, b which It na In- 
- lomd that the wnrM of dlaeaae mnat he 
IiwhedforloUieeoul. Tba geoeral ' 

krtol but ioae 

r eplrltnal belagn. 

oi^^en, cbiorlDB and an odd. 

AliillO, B-DlS'lIC, or or pLTtDilll 

acbe, A. aold Is nbUlonl hnin i 

p^elii, orH. UmbeUMni, Howai smaU 

B«d Is larfirely emi^yed tl 
tiue uf llqaon. 
Anloodaotyla, an-raO-di 

phant, tApIr, &x. 

the fbuDdfr tnr the b 

Plantaffenet. The title waa alao b 
Hvaralnnu of Pranch kings. alHj 
gniDdnn of LooIb XIV,. who Spain. 
- ■'la. 
upon two 

lo BlDRhal 

Anker, aiK'kor. A Datcb liquid meuB- 

ure (^onbdulnff tO wLna gallouB. 
Ankarlta, 'kor-lt. A crystiUliKl rartolj 

of dolomite eonAlatlikg of rfirbouotea of 

limiv Inin, laagueBia and manriajieac. 
AmUat. anklet. An ommnent, aa a 

rin^ of mdal. fbr the ankle. A lVam» 

Ing; hldewaya in flkadnf. An artlolo of 
dreaa. extending above tnelopoftheaboe. 

spiritual Urine ; tbeHnt fruits orlfctBa^ly 
htsbop, abbot op parish clerk. 
Ann a Second dnuuh tor of James II. oT 
Wmiainlll.iB, IBIM. o. iiia. ' 

tbdr malleabUlty ; to boat. In order to 

Annelida, an-nnl'l-ila. An rilenilve 
dlTlnlnn of AnonlDsa oramenlateanlmals, 
vbnae bodiea are Ibrmrd o( a ^freat ouiu- 



AnnodAted. iD'nU-Sl-cd. In Ba. 
ana applied lo iiaytMllg s 

Wi period, B oontlDstJDt A., nr a Ufe A. 
-wbait tha Eterfod !■ dotfrmlned by the 
donilan ofonnvrmoreUvH. Adchn^ 


arnd; omrth bor- 

da. A. wU, a Bbroos 

<lrnl prlEim 

Dg orlifbt 


If Uie rtoric 

__„ „ U of aruls, 

fc iu a ily npntod b mAric of nohlUfy ocd 
lurbdMiaii ; iln t1i« dlSsFimco nr marn 
of diMlninlaD which tlia 5th brothw of a 
fiimlly Dn^t to bar od hla «oat of antiB. 
Aniraliri'lft, u-nD-loi'dA. In somezon- 

tremlEy ullb dioODDda. A 

1A nubia around th« mooQ- 
dfavnt-ODthui Durin? onclnc, 
«Hi«ntrfo oyttDderfl^ A. gi 

. vhtch eDdiclfl (be Jowerpiirt o. 
' oqittol abon the truhdlum ; 

liHlndfn^ tbo BoUttn, Benlmlils (Upo- 
' ■romiB.tho.KaodUieEchlnodennsts. 
AiuiiUiu, lo'nQ-ltu. The riOff-U^ 

wiweDIita rirck*. I . .._ 

ring which BumniHli tiM ■pan UK. !■ 
luoHoi, tin l>rir eralliV wU<di Ito 
Uil srpojttlw IroDi tbo thacL Id AugL 

tli« irionibfwiDt BuiTOUDdlitf the item gc 
Bomu iitiit\a ikftfr lbs mp hia eipwdnL 
A, cLbAculum, tborlDKiuHlpaBUiHMafft ■ 
tb^deUvery DfwbkU by a pnjico wu tha 
uiclvnt modo of gnuiIiflt-iavMtlturei 1» 

tu iDfnrn the peanle of tho KBtlvAla tff 
3 ceLcbnUd. A bflll-tvliEmph coiulidns 
ill'puLli oflhe dlffOnDt rcniDft of a bvteL 
ooa. u'S^ An udniil cioady alUid 

OHHit^ papocdally a king, firieBt 
tUpa, bSoaging to 

Anomallpad. a-namVll-ped. A bird 

or by IhrHphalongefl, ami to t^lDlfijdflr 
by oae only. 
Anomaly^ o-nom'A'll. DevLulDn frocn 

Inj nmiart-nl Ir 


, thaUf Iho Fat! 
mbald, a-nou: 



An irregular rbomlMrfdal maaa, asaoryBtal 
of this form. 

Anomnra, aim>-mft'rft. A section of the 
erustaoeans, ord. Deoi^iods, indnding the 
hermit-^rsbs and others. 

Anona, a-n5'na. A gen. of plants, the 
type of the ord. Anonacee. A. squamosa 
(sweet-sop) yields an ediUe Iniit. A. 
murlcata (sour-sop), produce a pear- 
shaped fruit. 

Anophyta, an-d-fl'ta. A section of 
errptoffamlG plants, comprising the Hep- 
atlc» (Urerworts) and musei (mosses), 
which nave male and female organs, and 
free spores in cases, but no spinu yessels. 

Anoplotheroidea, an'op-lo-the-roid"6- 
a. An extinct group of omnivorous mam- 
mals, from the lower tertlaiy rocks, form- 
ing a connecting link between the swine 
and the true ruminants. 

Anoplnra, an-6-pia'ra. An order of 
minute apterous insects, having a mouth 
formed for suction, and either two simple 
eyes or none. They are parasitic, and 
commonly known as lice. They undergo 
no metamorphosis like other insects, the 
young differing from the adult la dze 

AnorUilte, a-nor'thit A mineral of Hie 
felspar fomilv, allied to labradorlte ; a sili- 
cate of alumma and lime. 

Anorthosoope, an-or'tho-skdp. An 
instrument lor producing a peculiar kind 
of optical illucdon by means of two disks 
rotating rapidly opposite each other. 

Anoua, an'o-us. A gen. of sea-birds, 
fun. LtuldsB, or gulls. 

Anoxoluin, an-oks-ol'&-in. One of the 
two elements of fibrin, muscular fiber, al- 
bumen, casein, dec., oxoliUn being the 

Axi88B, kx'bS. The parts of Saturn *s 
ring seen on each side ofthe planet through 
a telescope. 

Ansellia, an-sel^-a. A gen. of orchids, 
with great panicles of greenish flowers 
) spotted with purple. 
Juiser, an^ser, A gen. 
of birds, fam. AnseridiB. 
A small star in the Milky 
wav, between the Swan 
and Eagle. 

' Anaerated, an'ser-ftt- 
ed. In Her. a term ap- 
plied to a cross, the ex- * --.--^^ 
feemities of which are '^■«««»- 
formed into the shape of the heads of 
beasts or birds. 

.Ansaridm, ao-ser'i-dd. A flun. of web- 

Ant, ant. An emmet; a piaiaiM^ a hy- 
menoftterous insect, flan. FMmJkia9r8en> 
Formica, whioh live in commDBittes, eon- 
sisting of males with foor wings; of fo- 
males much larger than the naka, and 
posees.sing wings only during tbe pairing 
season; and of barren females, called neu- 
ters, workers or nurses, destitate of wings. 
There are many speGies,called '»<w<yg ants, 
carpenters, masons, Ac, The name ant 
is also given to Insects of tiio nenropter- 
ous gen. Termes. 

Anta, an'ta. The BradUan name of the 
Gonunon or Am^can tapir. In Arch, a 
pilaster, on each side of a do<Mr or standing 
opposite a pillar used in Ghreek and BoDum 

AntaeuB, &n-te'us. In Kjrth. a ftmons 
^ant, son of Neptune and Terra, UUedby 

Antal, ant'aL A wine measure of about 
116 gallons, used in Tokay, Hungary. 

ATitalkali, ant-oI'ka-lL A subatanoe 
which neutralizes an alkaU, used medicin- 

Antazotio, ant-irk'tik. Belating to the 
southern pole, and espedal]^ to a drele 
parallel to the equator and distant from 
the pole 28* 28^ the line between light and 
darlcness when the sun is on the Tropic 
of Capricorn. The opposite of arotio or 

Antarotio Ocean. The sea extending 
from the A. Circle, 66* 80' S. kt, to the 
S. Pole. 

Anthony, St., &n'to-ne. The founder 
of monastic orders ; b. in Upper £gypt in 
251 ; lived to 105, dying In m 

AntareiL ant-ar'ez. The Arabic name 
of AlphaScorpii, a star of the first mag- 
nitude, in the constellation Scorpio. 

Ant-bear, ant^ar. A name given to the 
large species of ant-eaters, but generally- 
restricted to M^tmecophaga Jubata. It u 
from 4 to 6 feet in length. 

Ante, an'td. A Latin preposition signi^ 
lying before in place or time. A. . meridi- 
em, before mid-day, contracted a. m. 

Ant-eater, ant'et-er. A name given to 
mammals that 
prey chiefly 
on ants, but 
usually confin- 
ed to the eden- 
tate gen. Myr- 
The most re- 
nuvkable spe- 
cies is the Myr- 
naoopbag* Jubata^ 

ge ant-bear. Two 


AimiOBlASf ^ 

oUmt qtedes, M. TamftodQA and M. 
didMfetjitk an unaller. Tke name is alao 
giren to the r*"C**"'" '"^ ^ ^^^ ^kAf^ 

an-tfl-ee'deiiB. The aet 
or state of going before in time ; preee- 
denoe. In Astron. an appirent motfoii of a 
pbnet toward the west, or oontraiy to the 
order of the signs. 

Ante-diainber, an't£-diim-ber. A 
chamber or apartment in idilch persons 
wait for audience. 

Axitedihivian, an'td-di-ia"Tl-an. Be 
Ave the flood or deluge in JSToah^s time. 

AnteAzBB, an-tv-flks'S. Uprig'ht orna- 
ments, of marble or terra ootta, at the 
eares of n tiled roof to conceal the Joining 
of the tiles. Ornaments placed below the 
earea throng which tlie water escapes. 

Ant-^gg, ant'eg. Little white bodies 
fimnd in the hillocks of anta, usaallr sup- 
posed to be their eggs, but realff the 
jToong in a state of lanrn or pnptt. 

Antcdope, an'te-16p. A name appUed to 
many species of ruminant mammals elose- 
If resembing the deer, but included wiUi 
aneep and oxen in the section Cavloomia 
«r hoBow-homed ruminanta. Among the 
JL are the chamois, the.aaiga, the gaieOe, 
ttie addax, the eland, the koodoo, the gnu, 
ttie sasin or Indian antelope, and the 

Antftlnfiaw, an-te-ia'kan. Betng beibre 
Bgfat; preceding the dnwn. Applied to 
aasembUes of Christians, in sndent times 
keld before Hi^t in the morning, either to 
«acn>e persecution, or to commemorate 
the nour of the resurrection. 

Antemeridian, an'td-mfi-rld"i-4n. Be- 
ing before nocm. 

A«t»¥wii«H^nA, an-t£Hnun'd2n. Being 
befbre the creation of the world. 

Antemnral. an-tC-m&'raL A barbacan 
or outwork in a castle, consisting of a 
strong hii^h wall, with turrets in front of 
the gate for defending the entrance. 

Antenatal, an-t£-na'taL Eadsting, or 
happening, previous to birth. 

Antenna, an-ten'ui. A bomUkc, joint- 
ed, Terr flexible and sensitive filament, 
proceeding by a ball-and-socket joint from 
tho head in insects, Crustacea and myria- 
pods, considered as the organs of touch 
and hearing. 

Antennaxia. an-ten-ni'ri-a. A gen. of 
pL:ot.% ord. Composite, neniy allied to 
tho OnaphaJlnm ; the everiastings. 

Antennnla, an-ten'nQ-la. One of the 
ifuuddnry fceltus or palps attached to 
the Jews of xoModibuhte inaeoU ; S|ppar- 

enthr tactile organs adapted to distingaish 

Antependiom, aq-tc-pen'di-nm. The 
hanging with which the front ot an altar 
Is covered ; the fh>ntaL 

Antepenult, an'te-p<vnult. The last 
syllable of a word except two, as syl in 

Antezidea, an-t£r^-d£z. Buttresses for 

strengthening a waU. 

Anteroom, an'te-rom. A room before or 
in iWmt of another ; an ante-chamber. . 

Ante-aolariom, an't»-so^"ri-um. A 
balcony ihdng the sun. 

Ante-stomach, an'te-stom-uk. A cav- 
ity which li«ds into the stomach, as the 
crop in birds. 

Ante-temple, an't«-tem-pl. In ancient 
churches the part now called the nave. 

Anthem, an'them. A hymn sung in 
alternate parts ; in modem usage, a sa- 
cred piece of music set to words taken 
Ihmi the Psalms or other parts of the 
Scriptures ; a developed mot^ 

Anthemion, an-tlkKmi-on. That om*- 
mental series in <>reek and Roman deco- 
ration derived from the honeysuckle. 

Anthemia, an'th£-mis. A gen. of 
pbmts, ord. Composite, sub-ord. Corym- 
Ufene. A. Cotula is the mav-weed ; A. 
nobilis the common chamomile. 

Anther, an-th£r. In Bot. the essentisl 
part of the stamen. It is a capsule, db- 
charglng a powder, which fertilizes the 
ovules by fluJing or being deposited on 
the stigma. 

Anthericom, an-ther'i-kum. A large 
gen. of plants, ord. Liliaeee, with 
racemes or panicles of white flowers. 

Antheridlom, an-th^r-i<11-um. The 
organ in cr}-pt4igamie nlontfi which an- 
swers to the anther in pluinerogiims. 

Antherogrenona, an-tbiT-ojVn-u!). A 
A term applied to double flowers, in 
which the anthers are converted into 
horn-like petals, as in the double colum- 

Antherosoid, an'ther-6-zo-id. The 
minute body produced in thoantheridium 
of arrptogams by which the female organs 
are fertilized. 

Antheaia, an-thc'sis. The period when 
flowers expand. 

Ant-hill, anfhU. A little tumulus 
formed by ants for their haMtation ; the 
nests of some species of tlie white ant are 
12 feet high. • 

Awthohian. an-th61>i-an. A 
that livM on tawi 




Anthooarpotui, •n-tho-Ur'pas. A 
term i^pUed to fhilt formed by masaes of 
Inflorescences adhering to each other, as 
the fir-cone, pine-apple, &c 

Anthoohsera, an'tho-ke>ra. A gen. of 
AustraUan inscsfM>rial birds, fiun. Meli* 
phagidffi, or honey-suckers. 

An^odiuxn, an-tho'di-um. The head 
of flowers of composite plants, as of a 
thistle or daisy. 

Antholite, an'tho-Ut. The general 
name for the impress of the inflorescence 
of plants on rocks. 

Antholysis. an-thoFl-sis. The retro- 
grade change of the parts of a floral 
whorl, as the stamens change into petals, 
or the petals into sepals. 

Anthoxnyia, an-tho-ml'i-a. A gen. of 
flies, including the cabbage, potato, tur- 
nip, beet, and lettuce flies. 

AnthoxnyzicUe, an-tho-miz'i-dd. A di- 
Tision of the MuscidsB (flies). 

Jkuthophyllite, an-thof il-It. A variety 
of hornblende, occurring in radiating col- 
umnar aggre^tes; tremoUte. 

Anthosiderlte, an-tho-sid'er-It. A na- 
tive silicate of iron, having a flbrous radi- 
ated structure. 

Anthoxantliuxni, an-tho-zan'thum. A 
gen. of grasses the flowers of which have 
only two stamens. 

Anthracite, an'thra-sit. Glance or blind 
coal, a non-bituminous coal which burns 
without smoke, but with intense heat. It 
consists of about 90 per cent, carbon, 8 
hydrogen, and 5 ashes. 

Anthracoxneter, an'thrak-om''et-er. 
An instrument for measuring carbonic 
acid gas. 

Anthraconite, an-thrak'on-It A vari- 
ety of marble of a coal-black luster. It 
gives oft' a fetid sulphureo-bituminous 
odor when heated. 

Anthraoosaiuras, an-thrak'd-sa^'ms. A 
labvrinthodont animal, flrst found in the 
durboniferous strata. 

Anthracotheriuxu, an'thra-ko-th€''ri- 
um. An extinct pachydermatous mammal 
resembling a hog, alhed to the paeeotheria, 
first found in the miocene lignite. 

Antlirax, an'thraks. A carbuncle; a 
malignant ulcer. An ancient name for 
carbuncle, ruby, or garnet, lithanthrax or 
stone coal. 
' Anthrenus, an-thrS'nus. A gen. of col- 
^pterous Insects, fom. Dermestldffi. 

^ithrJBClX^ an-thris'kus. A gen. of 
pJkatB, ord. VmbtJJlferm. 

Anthxoplo, •B-tlirop'ik. 1tok»gtog to 
man; sprung firom maa. 

Anthxoxiite, «n41irqi'l-d& HnzIey'B 
name for the highest group of mammals, 
of which man is the oi^y genos hmI sg^ 
des; the lUmamu 

Anthxopoflrlot, an-throp'6-gIoL An 
animal which has a tongue >e8CTnT>Hng 
that of man, as the parrot. 

Anthropoid, an'thrO-pold. BesembUng 
man ; applied to such apes as most oloaety 
approach the human race. 

Anthropoidea, an-thr6-p<>i'dfti. A gen. ' 
of grallatorial birds, flan. unddBB, ine[u4« 
ing the demoiselle, the Btanugr and 
crowned cranes. 

Anthropolatry, an-thrl^wFa-trL The 
worship of man — a charge broo^t by the 
early Onristians against the ancient heap 
thens, and retorted by the latter on the 
Christians on account of their worship of 
Christ. Used bv the ApoIUnarians agiunat 
the orthodox Christians of the 4th and 6th 

Anthropolite, an-thrO'pd-lit A petri^ 
taction of the human body, by theincmat- 
ing action of calcareous waters. 

Anthropology, an-thr6-pol'o-jL The 
science of man .and mankind, indnding 
the study of man's place in nature. It 
puts under confaributton archnology, 
comparative anatomy, physiology, psy- 
chology, climatology, Ac. 

Anthropomorphite, an-thr5'pl(* 
morf 'it. One who believes that the 8u- 

Ereme Being exists in human form with 
Oman attributes and passions. One of a 
sect of ancient heretics. 

Ahthropophasri, an-thr5-pora-Ji. Can- 
nibals ; men that cat human flesh. 

Anthnrlum, an-thQ'ri-um. A gen. of 
plants, ord. AraceiB, growing epiphytically 
on forest trees. 

Anthiis, an'thus. A gen. ot inseesorial 
birds, allied to the Alauda (the larks) ; the 
pipits or tit-larks. 

Anthyllis, an-thil'lis. A gen. of legu- 
minous plants, to which the kidney-vetch 
or lady's-flngers belongs. 

Antiar, on'ti-ar. The milky Juice of the 
upas-tree, one of the most acrid and viru- 
lent vegetable poisons, paralyzing the 
heart, and infiillibly causing death when 
introduced into a wound. 

Antibasilioan, on'ti-ba-zil'M-kan. Op- 
posed to royal state and magnificence. 

Antibnrfirher, an'ti-berg^'er. A member 
of one of the two sections into which the 
Seotoh Seoesaion Gharch was splltin 1747. 




saa, AnttcHnal Line, 
b b, Byndtnal line. 

They ocMleaoed In 1820 Into the United 
ABBociate Synod. 

Anticazdinm, an-ti-kilr'di-am. The 
hoUow at the bottom of the breast or epl- 
jrastrinm. The pit of the atomadi. 
ATiliohlor, an'ti-Udr. A bleaoher*s 
term for the reagents employed to neu- 
tralize the effects ot the firee oUorine left 
in articles bleached by means of alkaline 

Antiohrlflt, an'ti-krlst A person or 

power antagonistic to Christ 
Antiohthon, an-tik'thdn. An inhabit- 

"ftnt of an opposite hemispho'e. 

Antirllnal, an-ti-kH'naL Inclining in 
opposite di- 
A Une, or 
axis, the 
ridge o f a- 
corre, the 
strata dip- 
ping fttnn 
It on either side ; opposed to syndtnaL 

Antioneinion, an-tfk-n^'mi-cm. The 
shln-bohe, as opposed to the caU 

Antioor, an'ti-kor. An inflamed swell- 
ing on a horse's breast ; a sort of quinsy. 

AwWawtw an-tl'kom. In anc. Arch, a 
pordi to a firont door, as distinguished 
from posticum, a porch to a rear door. 
The space between the front columns of 
the poirtioo of a temple and wall of the 

Antideama, an-ti-des'ma. A gen. of 
plants, ord. Euphorblaoee. The leaves 
are employed in native medicine. 

Antiennealiedral, an'ti-en'nd-a-hd'' 
dral. In crystid havtog nine Iboes on two 
• opposite parts. 

ATilrffttam, an-te't&m. The scene of the 
great battle In 8. Maryland. Sept 17, 1862, 
between the Union and €k>nfederate 
, armies, the first commanded by Gen. 
Geo. B. McCleUan, the latter by Gen. 
Eobt £. Lee. The name is taken flrom a 
creek which rises In B. Pennsylvania, and 
running through Maryland empties into 
the Potomac Biver. 

Antiflrropelos, an-ti-grop'el-os. 8pat- 
^ ter-dashes ; long riding or walking boots 
for wet weather. 

AntiflTOne, an-tig'o-ne. Daughter of 
(EdipuA, king of Thebes, heroine of one 
of giophoeles* tragedies ; she was buried 
alive by Crcon. 

Anti-Iiibaixua. an-tl-Ub-ba-nus. A 
mountain rapge in PiAestlne. 

AntUecomena, an'ti-le-gom''c-na. 
Things spoken against; spedflcaUy, ap- 
plied to Dooks of the New Testament 
whose insfriration was not universally ac- 
knowledged; the 8d Epistle of Peter, 
James, Jude, Hebrews, the 2d and 8d 
Epistles of Bt. John, and the Bevelatlon. 

Antllleg, ohn-tcer. A triple cluster of 
W. Indian islands, called tbe Great, 4 in 
number, Cuba, llaytl, Jamaica and Porto 
Bioo, the WIndwara and Leeward g^roupa 
There are some 860 in all. 

an'ti-ma-kas''2r. A 
covering for chairs, Ac., of op<>n cotton or 
worsted work. 

Antixnason, an-ti-mft'sn. One hostlla 
to Masonry or Freemasonry. 

Antlmwnrinni, an-ti-men'sl-um. A 


Antimenslum or Portable Altar. 

portable altar or consecrated table used In 
the Eastern Latin Church. 

Antixnetor, antim'et-er. An optioalln- 
strument for measuring angles under 10®. 

Antixniiisioxi, an-tl-min'Ri-on. A cor- 
poral or cloth blessed by a bishop and 
used In the Greek Church where there 
was no consecrated altar. 

Antixnony, an'ti-mo-nl. A brittle metal 
of scaly texture, occurring in two forms, 
crystalline and amori>hou8, sometimea 
found native or alloyed with other metals, 
used In the construction of alloys, as Bri- 
tannia metal, type metal, and pewter. In 
bells it renders the sound more clear, and 
gives to printing types more firmness and 
smoothness. The salts of A. are very 
poisonous. The protoxide is a most valu- 
able remedy in many diseases. 

Anttnoznian, an-ti-no'ml-an. One of a 
sect who maintidn that, under the gospel 
dispensation, the moral law is of no une or 
obligation, which originated with John 
Agricola about the year 158S. 

Anttnoofi, 2n-tin'o-us. The bcautiflil 
flivorite of the Emperor Adrian ; a native 
of Bithjmia. A. was drowned in the Nile 
In the year 182. Exquisite works of art 
consecrated to his memory by Adrian are 
still extant. 

Antiochian, an-ti-ok'i-an. Pertaining 
to Antiochus, a contemporary of Cicero, 




md the founder of a sect of philosophen. 
He attempted to reconcile tne doctrines 
of the different schools, and was the last 
preceptor of the Platonic school. 

Antiochian, an-ti-ok'i-an. Of or per- 
taining to the city of Antioch. A. epoch, 
a method of coi iputing time, flrom the 
proclamation of liberty f^'anted to the dty 
of Antioch about the time of the battle of 
Pharsolla, b. r. 48. 

Antiochus, An-ti'o-kas. A fiivorite royal 
name J n ancient Syria, no less than eleven 
of her kings bearing it. The most noted 
"iras A. III., the Great, contemporary with 
Hannibal, n.r. 228, and A. lY., his son. 

Antiparallel, an-tl-pa'ral-el. One of 
tno or more lines which make equal an- 
gles with two other lines, but in a contrary 

Antiperifltasis, an'ti-pe-ris'^ta-sls. The 
opposition or antagonism of naturally op- 
posed forces, as light and darkness, heat 
and cold. Thus, sensible heat is excited 
in quicklime by mixture with water, and 
cold applied to the human body may in- 
crease its heat. 

Antiphloffistic, an'ti-flo-jis''tik. 
Counteracting inflammation, or an excited 
state of the system. A theory, a system 
of chemistry showing that in combustion, 
instead of phlogiston escaping, oxygen is 
absorbed, and that wherever phlogiston 
was supposed to be added, oxygen was 

Antiplioxi, an'ti-fon. The chant or alter- 
nate singing in choirs or cathedrals ; an- 

^tiphonary, an-tif o-na-rl. In the R. 
C. Ch. a service-book, compiled by Greg- 
ory the Great, containing whatever is said 
or sung in the choir, except the lessons. 

Antipodes, an-tlp'o-duz. Those who 
U ve on the opposite side of the globe. Any- 
thing diametrically opposite to another. 

flintipope, an'ti-pop. One who usurps 
the papal power. 

Ajitiquary, an'ti-kwa-ri. One devoted 
to the study of ancient times through 
their relics with the view of arriving at a 
knowledge of the general condition of the 
people who created or employed them. 

Antirrliinuxxi, an-ti-rl'num. Snap> 
dragon, a gen. of plants, ord. Scrophm- 
ariacesB, producing showy flowers. 

AntUabbatarian, an-tl-sab'ba-t&''ri- 
an. One of a sect who oppose the observ- 
ance of the Christian Sabbath, maintain- 
ing that the Jewith Sabbath was abolished 


AntlMdan, aa-ttahM-ML Aa inhaMtoik 
of one side of the equator, whose shadow, 
at noon is east in • oontrarj dire<^«ii ts 
that of an inhabitant of the other. 

Antiseptio, an-ti-«ep'tlk. Any sub- 
stance wUch resists or corrects patrefho- 

Antifhenar, an-tith'e>nir. A mnsole 
whldi extends the thumb, or opposes it to 
the hand ; also, the addootor mnsole of 
the great toe. 

Antitrinitarian, an-ti-trinl-ti'M-ML 
One who denies the doctrine of the Trin- 
ity, or the existenoe of three persons is 
tiie Godhead. 

Antler, antler. The Inranoh of fhe bom 
of a deer ; one of the horns of the oervtnsi 
animal^ as the stag or moose. In his 
sixth year, and after, the male deer is 
called a hart, or stag of ten. The stem of 
the horn is oalled the beam. Tfa* 
branches are caDed also tynes. 

Antler-moth, antlSr-moth. A moth 
the larve of which sometimes destroy the 
herbage of whole mtadows. 

A-n4:Hi>. , antOi-e. The sphral tongue or 
proboscis of lepidopterous insects by 
which they pump up the Juices of plants. 

A. pneumatica, in Astron. the Air-pump; 
a constellation in the southern hemis- 
phere, situated between Hydr* and Axf» 

Ant-lion, anf - 1 
li-un. Thelarrs 
of a neuropter- 
ous insect, fam. 
Myrmeleonidffi . 
It digs a ftinnel- 
shaped hole in 
the sand, and 
when the pit is ,^ 
deeo enougXttie p^^^ j„g^ ^^ j^ 

with only its formidable mandibles ]Ht»- 
Jecting, and aa soon as a victim foils in it 
seizes it with its mandiUes and sucks its 

Antonelli, GKaoomo, An-to-nelle. The 
distinguished Italian Cardinal, chief ad- 
viser of Pope Pius IX.; b. 1806, d. 1876. 

Antoni'nus Pins, Titas. Adopted 
son and s. of Hadrian, Emperor of Borne ; 

B. 86, D. 161 ; his reign of 28 years was 
powerful and prosperous. 

Antoniiis, Marcus, an-to'ne-us. The 
celebrated Roman general who was Joined 
with Octavlus and Lepidus as the trium- 
virate after the assassinatjon of Julius • 
C»sar. . He Ml a prey to the charms of 



Gleopatn, tlM diasohite Qneen of fcTpt, 
wu betrmyed by ber mad defeated dV 
OctoTins (Angnfftiu) in tlie datbI battle 
off Artinm ; lock Us HIb in Egypt, m. c. 

AntnmJAinAriA'n aii-tMl-«n''dri-«ii. One 
of a sect of rigid liitbenuu who deny that | 
man is made just, bat affirm that he is 
only pnmoiiiioed so. 

Ant-Uimaih, aat'tfarosh. Birds of th^ 
gen. Fftta, bekoginf to the dentiroeoal 
sectkm of the onL Insessofca, and alUed 
to the Tordidje or thrash. 

AntwarpL ant'wairp. The principal 
port of Bd|f am, in the Ifith eentnry the 
ridiest and greatest eommerdal eenttr in 
Earope ; pop. 160,000. 

AxM&bls. an-u'bis. Am Egrptlan deft^, 
the ooodoctor of departed spirits from tms 
world to the next, represented by a haman 
figare with the head of a jackaL He pre- 
yed over tombs, and in the lower world 
wel^ied the actions of the deeeased pre- 
Tfcms to their adrntarioB to the p r e s en c e of 

Axmr&, a-nft'ra. An ord. of batraddaas 
wliidi ioee the tail when they reach ma- 
tort^, as the frog. 

Anvfl, sn'TfL An iron block with a 
smooth steel ftee, on wUch metals are 
hammered and shaped. 

A/wilft-n »-o'ni-an. Pertaining to Aonia, 
in BoBoda, or to tiie Moses, who were 
supposed to dwell there; poeticaL A. 
Ii»ant, the foantsin Aganippe, at tlie foot •■ 
of Moant Helleon, saoed to the Moses. | 

Aorta^ i-or'ta. The great artery or trunk I 
of the arterial system, proeeeSimg ttom. * 
the left re 

▲oodad, i'&'dad. Tlie bearded argall, 
a borine qnadroped, alHed to the sheep, 
most doaely to the Bsoaflon. 

Apochw, ap-pah'cha. A soothwestera 
tribe of American Indians, very warlike. 
Their BWBber is estfanated at »,000, with 

lijamgyncfaM, a^Mjln-os. A term ap- 
^ed to a plant that Ihiettfies bat 

perlsUns thereafter; 
tmmisTf. or boA |taits as the 


n/aHBSw A q»eefes of armadillo 
havinf the power ot rolling itself into a 

▲ pAxte ante, ▲ parte post, a-par'ta- 
an'te, a-psr'te-pSet. Two expreasions cf 
■diolastie pUloaopliy, referrug to eter- 
Mty, consisting ot two parts, the one, a 
parte ante, witbontBmtt in tta part^sad 

the other, a parte post, without limit la 

Apartment, a-pftrfment. A room in • 

boUding ; a dlvvkm in a house s cpaia ted 

ih>m others 1^ partitions. 
Apaatron. a-pas'trtm. That part la the 

orbit of a dooble star where it is fvthest 

from its primary. 

Apatite, ap'a-tit. Xatire phosphate id 
lime, generally crystallized in knr, fist, 
hexshedrsl prisms, which occur in meCa* 
morphie and granite rocks. 

Apatura, ap^tu'ra. A gen. ot dinmal 
Lepidoptera. eontaining many beaatiflil 
exotic species of butterlliefl. 

Ape, ap. One of a frm. (Simiade) of 
qasdramanoos an- 
hnals now Hiwit^ 
to such as bar* 
teeth of the sanae 
namber and form 
as man. and pos- 
sess neither tails 
nor dieek-poufdi' 
es; itinclades the Ape. 

ddmpanzee, goril- 
la, orang-oatanr, A«.. and is dirlded 
three gcaera, Troglodytes, Simla and Hy- 

Apennine, ap'en-nin. A chain of moun- 
tains which extend horn Pledmonty 
roond the Gulf of Genoa to the center of 
Italy, and thence southeast to the es- 

Ap er tor, a-pert'or. A musde that 
raises the upper eyelid. 

Aperture, sp'er-tur. An opening; a 
m»p or diasm. In Geom. the qiaea 
between two right Hues, formingan angia. 
In optics, the diameter of the exposed 
part of tlie olijeet-glass of an opUeal instra- 

Apex. i'pekBu Thetip, point, or summit 
of aaytUDg. In Bot. the end ftrthest 
firom the pcibit &t attaduBM&t, or base of 
sn organ. In Geom. the angnlar point of 
a cone or ofatrian^ opposite the base. | 

Aphaneatte, a-fon'e-sft. A mineral, an 
srseniate of o^per . 

Aplianiptera, af^an-ip'ter^ An aid. 
of ^>teKNis, htnstrilste insects, eoextan- 
sire with the fom. Pntteite, the dUBavnt 

Apbanite, sTan-fL Compact aml>lii' 


bole, a mineral eondsting 
qnsrtx, and folspar. t 

Aphelion. arCm-oa. That ^oint In the 
orbit of a planet or comet wUehlsmoat 
distant from the son ; op p osed toperiha; 


64 AP0DO8IS 

Aphellan, a-fd'Ian. Tho name of a 
blight star in tho constellation Oemini. 

Aphis, &'fi8. A plant-louse ; a puceron 
or vlne-fretter ; one of tho insecta of the 
gen. Aphis, fain. Aphides. The species 
aro very numerona and destructive. The 
A. illustrate pwthonogenesis ; hormaphi-o- 
dite fornix produced fl*om eggs produce 
viviparous wingless forms, whicn again 
proauoe others like themselves, and thus 
multiply during summer, ono indivi<lual 
giving rise to millions. 

AphlOfiristlO, af-lo-jis'tik. f'lameless; 
as, an A. hxmp, in which tho wick is kept 
hot by the slow combustion of aicohol. 

Aplmology, af noFo-ii. The science of 
" — Apl^te, afrit. A sub-variety of car- 
bonate of lime or calc-spar, {mpularly 
known as Ibam or foam-spar. 

Aphrlzite, afilz-It. A variety of tour- 

Aphrodite, af-ro-dl'td. The Greek name 
of the Goddess of Love, called by the Ro- 
mans Venus. 8h6 is supposed to have 
originated flrom the foam of the sea. A 
variety of meerschaum. A h^'drous sili- 
cate of magnesia. A bcautiflil gen. of 
annelidans, with silky hair and bristles. 

Aphyllose, afil-os. Destitute of leaves : 
appHed tothegroupof cryptogamic plants 
called thallogciis, which are >^ithout true 
leaves ; also to flowering plants destitute 
of leaves, like some euphorbias. 

Apiarian, a-pi-&M-an. A bee-keeper; 
an apiarist. 

. Apiin, a'pi-in. A gelatinous substance 
fl^m common parsley by boiling with 

Apiocrixiites, a'pi-i^kri-nl'^tez. A sub- 
gen, of fossil encrinites, peculiar to the 
chalk and oolite formations; pear-encrinite. 

ApioS, a'pi-os. A gen. of leguminous 
plants, containing three specie^, producing 
edible tubers on underground snoots. 

Apia, fi'pis. A bull to which divine 
honors were paid by the ancient Egyptians, 
OS a symbol of Osiris. At Memphis he 
had a splendid residence. He was not 
suffered to live beyond 25 years, being 
secretly killed by the priests and thrown 
into a sacred well. His birth was annually 

. c«lebrated, and his death was a season of 
. public mooming. A gen. of insects, ord. 
Hymenoptera; the bees. A. musca, a 
southern constellation of 4 stars. 

Apiuxn, A-pi-um. A gen. of umbelliferous 
plajatA, among which is the celery. 

'^placental, op-lA-aeD^ud. Applied to 

mamAals the yoang of which are desti- 
tute of a placenta, oomprising the Monotre- 
mata and Marsopialia, the lowest orders, 
including the duck^nole, the porcupine, 
ant-eater, kangaroo, &c. 

Aplome, a-plom'. A nre varie^ of gar- 
net, found in dodecahedrons, with rhom- 
bic faces. 

Apluster, a-plus'ter. An ornament car- 
ried on the stem of ancient Greek and 
Roman ships, shaped like a plume of 
feathers ; it rose immediately Mhlnd the 

Aplysia, a-pliz'i-a. The sea-hare, a g«n. 
of gasteropodous mollusks, ord. Tecti- 

Apocalypse, a-pok'a-Hps. Berelatlon: 
discovery, disclosure ; spedfioally appUed 
to the last book of the ^ew Testament, 
containing the revelation delivered to Bt. 
John in Patmos. 

Apocrisiary, ap-6-krisM-a-rl. Anciently, 
a resident in Constantinople, representa- 
tive of a foreign church or bishop. 

Apocrypha, a-pok'ri-13&. Hidden or se- 
cret things ; things set apart ; specifically, a 
name in the earliest churches for variouB 
writings whose authors were unknown, 
those veith a hidden meaning^uch as 
were considered objectionable. The name 
now used to designate those books of the 
Old Testament not having a place amfmg 
the twenty-two of the Jewish canon, but 
appearing with them in theSeptuaglnt. The 
Council of Trent declared uiem inspired 
and canonical. The Greek Church prohibits 
their use. The Lutheran and £n|^sh 
Churches deny their inspiration, but con- 
sider them to contain wholesome inetruc- 
tion. Most evangelical Protestants prohibit 
their use in worship. 

ApocynacesB, a-pos^i-na''s6-4. A nat 
oird. of dicotyledonous plants, having tor 
its type the gen. Apocynum or dog's-bane, 
nearly allied to tne ord. Asdepiadaoea ; 
several yield caoutchouc, and a few edible 

Apocynuxn, a-pos'in-um. I>og*8-bane, 
a gen. of perennial herbs. The flowers 
of A. androsoemifolium are famished with 
five irritable scales, which secrete a sweet 
liquid that tempts insects to settle on 
them, and which then close on and Idll 

Apodosis, a-pod'o-sis. The latter part 
of a conditional sentence, which remiJts 
flrom. or is dependent on, the protasis or 
condition. Thus in the sentence, If it 
ndn, I shall not eo, the former clause is 
I thAprotaaift) the latter the apodosis. 

flsbn, fHm belss 

pjiTfut nmbflf of a 
BFrpen t-Uh A nKd, 

if oinlptdi, desttCale of Inon 

Apodytrainm. >p'0''dl-b]"rl-iiiii. Ai 
apATtjnaDtlDGmk Add Konuui batba 01 
In UiapiUsfltn, vhoro ^o bathers or gym 

Apogee, (n'o-jc. The pnltit tu the orU 

c&t dlatnnco from the e&rth ; proper]/ thil 
pArdoulu- point of thomoon'fl orUEt. 
ApoUlnarian, ■-poI'U-nft"r[-iiiL Per 
:ir af ApoQa, after tho batUi 


foundera of JtlBii. La tnvenled Ujo iato, 
and wu the bther at jEsculitptiu. i. 
BelHdere, B gelfbn.lcd statue or ApoUo 
In tiu Belridero K»ll«y of the VaUoui 

iDg their DBUU from ApoUhmrlx, bllbop of 


Laodlwai in the 4Ui oepturj-, ivLo deulai 

ApoBteto, a-po>'tat. One who h» (In- 

the propfrliiuniinllr of ChrtBl. 

ApoUlnaiis Water, ik-pol'U-nii"ri> 

wa't« Aji,ine«lw.t*b6lon*Soeutb.. 

who, WlUlOllt B Iwtl diipcDHUoil, fpt- 
Ktea.reliBlomorJer. ' 

Apollfuariabrujiniia, uprtng In Khfiil^h 

Aportle, B-poB'l. A pereon iiepnled to 

Apollo, a-pnl'lo. In Greek uiiEamui 

DroBch the miDeJ. Twi-Jvu Denuos wen 

theifOipe]. Tw 

^™ of iil " 

posed to Rb bpuiioiifl. 'Hiey njipeflred ui 
thuilh eentuiT. A. ftlhara, die Oirta- 
tLui wiim-i vita during ooy juut of their 
lives ■wore oonlflmporBrv wiUi the ■pda- 
ties. Thus m Ato— ClemsDt, BuDibu, 
tiermu, lnutliu, Polrcup. A. king, ■ 

J« (TUted by Uw [Bpe la tbs kin, 

FcaDjH> Uio impea jtrotCM to be tbi 
torrupl«d Auoceuion of bIdliopB, 

The bsidla in > UDlTBih*, vbo auric* 
AppendicnlarlK, ip-Mi-dlk'ft-U"ri-*. 

ratuKiBllHdowh taIboi>ri»eiit day. A. 

lurah, tho churuki la tno timn of tbe 
consUtutod oocordUig to their do- 
vhurchen of Roma. ALexoudriK, 

ulmlutoUie pncllce 
priest who obtained 

Apatutita, ap-o-Uk'Ut. One of > 

Apotbeoarr. i-potJi'd-ltk^. One wbo 

pneUoee phirmiey i ■ BkiUad pfnon who 
imwiM dngi tir msdidul iikb, ind 
LeqM ttieiD la aaie. Apotbwvln' Com- 
puv, B LoBdoD eorap«nj 1iu)i>rpor«ted In 
IW, •mpowdred to snut n qntUflc" — 
lo imcUcemedldne. ApotliecAriee' 
thetMUoTth* enpoiMliHi oT tlie — 
MrlM of LoldoB vhen genuinf 
d>e« m prepared and Bold UDdor tbslr 
ttraeUia. Apotfaeeeriu' wglEbt. the 
might aapli>7»d la diapeoiliig dtuji. 

ArmbtiAvaa, ■p-o-the'al-am. The re- 
«>>M or ud, ud or the pvaphyKS or 
bUTUi thrtadi. 

ApotllMsU, ap'a-ai&<1"BlB. I>aI9aitlon; 
DOBHerstkMi; the ict or plidng ■ prince 
or Dlhar dUdngulAbed pereon voong the 

prtiultlva chui«hofl, tor booka. TeBUoeatB, 

AppalaoMan, ip-p^m'kl-in. A cluln 

irnlted HUtes, nailed also tbs AUegbsny 

ror tlio learei of pluti UHd u a lubaUtute 


AppLam, ip'pl-ur PvlaJsliir to An- 

Cia. A, Vay, > caMntad pand nad 
m Borne loath throiuh O^iM' to 
Brunduaium eonuuflitoed [^ tho «>ar 
Appios Cluidlai a. o.SlS. It tiabOTs 
890 mllea In length, (bmiedof bud, Im- 

Appaiel, ■p-par'eL 

gold, enriched with p 
to the lib ud othe 

Apparitor, ap-pir'lt-or. I 
MDy offlcw wbo Attended jb 
JoAgta la eteeaU Chetr oi 
—ivrwhoHrrt* OKpuHt 


Apple. a| 

balum ap 
the eye, tt 

L The frnlt or poma oT tb* 
A name popnlarlr clTen to 
tie >Mte hiving HtQs or do'Ji- 
mon with the apple; u, tbo 
le, the plne-apnle. Ac. A. of 
I pupil, Adun'g A., the Uma; 

■Uu^n tothoetoryio Oroek mytfaoiogy 

bly of the goda (ly the Codrtem of Dis- 
cord. beirlQg the Inicrlption "Fur the 
(Ureat." A^rodlteCVenua;, llani<JDiio). 

n>rlt,and!tsBdJndl»tlon to the Ant bf 

Appla-moth. np'l-moth. Tbo Tortrii 

of "bleb lakuup tSeirabodBlnapplee. 
Apploton. S&nial. Fonnder of tba 

&l»ple-trae. >p1-ti4. A tree of Ihs 
g<n. Pyrui. ord. Roaaeoe. The cnli-tf- 
pie la uo orlgioal ttoa wUeb all others 

Appllaoa I'M. sp-pUk' lii. lAoa 
whooo pattern baa Iwen cut out and 




; ip-po-mat'tdkB. A rlyer 
ooun^ Ib VunnlA. A. Conrt-hooBe 
m» the scene ot m c^tnlatlon of the 
Ckmfederftte armv under Gen. Lee to Oen. 
Grant, April 9,1866, an act wfaloh Tirtn- 
aUj ended the BebeUlon. 

Apprentioe, ap-iHren'tla. One who Is 
bound by indenture to Beire for a spedfled 
time, to leam B<Hne art, trade or profee- 
fiioB, in which his master becomes Doand 
to instruct liim ; one not well yersed in a 
sabjeoL In old law, an English barrister 
nnder slxteca years* standing. 

Ajfipai, tip-pwC^. A snpport or prop. In 
thQ maneKOy • redprocu action between 
the moau of the iiorse and the hand of 
the rider, thus, a horse with a sensitiYe 
month mnr be said to hare a good appni, 
and also of the rider if his hand bo good. 
Folnt d*A., a podtfon suited to support or 
shdter troope, as a morass, a wood, a 
rising ground. 

Appmlao, ap'puls. InAstron. the 
proach of any i^anei to 
the sun or a star. 

a conjunction wii 


Aprioot, ft'prl-oot A pubescent fhiit of 
dettdoua flavor, the produce of a tree of 
the pliim^dnd, Prunus Armeniaca, ord. 

April, ft'prfL Fourth month of the year. 

A priori, ft prI-d'rL The opposite of a 
posteriori, a mode of reasoning by which 
we proceed tntm the cause to the eflTect ; 
to demonstrate anything on grounds cr 
reastms preceding actwd knowledge or 
independent of it, as mathematical prooft. 

Apxon, ft'prun. A piece of doth or 
leather worn on the finrepart of the body 
to protect the dothes. Part of the dress 
of an En^^h bishop. A piece of leather 
or other mat^ial spread oefore a person 
riding in a vehide to defend him from 
rain, mud or dust. The abdomen of the 
short-tailed decapod crustaceans, as the 
crab. A dat piece of lead that covers the 
yent of a cannon. A strengthening tim- 
ber in a ship. A platform of plank at the 
entrance ofa dock. The sill of a window. 
The piece that holds the cutting tool of a 

Shiner. A strip of metal which leads the 
rip <tf a wall into a gutter. 
Apse, aps. A portion of any building 
forming a termination or projeotlon seml- 
drcuiar or polygonal in plan, and having 
a dome or Taultod roof. An arched roof, 
as ef an oven. 

Ajwifl, ap'sls. One of the two points of 
the orbit of a heavenly body situated at 
the extremities of the mmoraxisofthe 
•DIpse Ibrmed bgr the orhli^ on§ being 

that at which the body is at its greatest 
and the other at its least distance from its 
primary. In regard to the earth and the 
other planets, these points correspond to 
the apneUoB and the perihelion ; in regard 
to the moon, to the apogee and perigee. 
A reliquary or case in which the ri-llcA of 
saints were kept A. gradata, the bishop's 
throne in cathedral churches, su calitnl 
flt>m being ratsed above the stalls uf the 
other dergy. 

Aptenodytes, sp-t£'no-dr'u~z. The 

Eenguins, a gen. of wcb-footod divlng- 

Aptenodytids, ap-t«3'no-dit'i-d<!. A 
flun of natatorial birds, induding the 
gen. Aptonodytes. 

Aptera, ap'ter-a. The 7th order of in- 
sects in Linnapus' system. Later soolo- 
gists have restricted this term to the 8uo- 
torla, Epizoa and Thysanura, which have 
no iitingti. 

Aptexyx, ap'ter-iks. A neariy extinct 

Sn. of cursorial birds constituting the 
XL. Apterygida). There are three spe- 

Aptomifl, ap-tor'nis. A fossil bird 
found along with the remains of the moa. 
Both belong to the same ihmily (Btruthi- 
onidte) of cursorial birds. 

ApoIeiTUi, TjaduM, ah-pu-lu^yus. Au- 
thor of the celebrated Plutonic satire : 
** Metamorphoses, or the Golden Ass,** of 
which the delightAil story of Psyche is a 
part A. lived in Africa in the 2a century. 

AptUi, &'pus. A gen. of phyDopod erus- 
taceous animals of the sub-dass Entomoa- 

Apyroiu, a-prms. Incombustible, or 
capable of sastoining a strong heat with- 
out alteration of form or properties, as 
asbestos, mica, talc. 

Aqua, ak'wa. Water: a word much 
used in pharmacy and old chemistry. A. 
fortis, weak and impure nitric add. A . 
r^ia, a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric 
adds, having the power of dissolving gold 
and other metals. A. Tofitna, a poittonous 
fluid made in the 17th century by an Ital- 
ian woman of the name of Tofana, who is 
said to have procured the death of no 
fewer than 600 indi\idiials bv means of it. 
A. \1taft, native distilled sphrits : the whis- 
ky of Booiland, the usquebaugh of Ire- 
land, the ean do vie of France. 

Aquamarine, ak'wa-ma-rOn'. A name 
for the finest beryl, fi^m its sea-green 

A q ;T t ft r*f*-'Pt a-kwft'ri-an. One of a sect 
of early Christians who consecorated watar 
in the Eucharist instead of wine. 

pond for QiuUvfttJQff ftqqMIc pluitB, 

Aquatic, s-kwat'lli. Psrtalning t 
which alffffi <tr aumalculQ ve placed ft 

Aqnatliita. ik-m-tliitii. A mstfaod i 
abjhiDK OD copper by which a beautlfi 
effect It prodUMS, rewmbllng I "— ■■— 

Aqulla, ik'wl-K 

fLqniiwiB, Oph 

Aqullated, nk'wH&t-ed. 

iMlarned wlu eAgloa' heada; 

AviUeffla. ak-wl-Li'Jl-«. 

aOrid plonta, ord, Ranuaculwn 
Mallins, ak'wH.Tn. Oforl 

AnuinUB.StThomM.a-ltwl'ntta. Oao 
-of the moet oelebiswd of ChrUtlaa phlloa- 
opherfl Add preooherB, known as the 
"AagBl aftbehebooli;-^ B. 122T, n. 1!T4. 

IkoEi. IJfl vu vAJioulved by Tops Jaba 
XXIL.ln ISW.and declared a dootoral 
- " ■ hy "M V. ta 1S6T. 

Artbia, . _ 

ah. A pga ln mla Id Anbcoone. 

tha ths B. W. of 

Alia, l.EOOm. lulaiKtli IT. and S., and xv: 

M.OOO. Tbs lihaUtanlj Indi 

;z Si 

nue1,who hHy« maliitBiDed tl . ._„ 
and warllka oharaoter for oenlurtee ; a dU- 
tlnot audquiet nc« HtUedalong tha aeaaM, 
and Ui« Wahiibsea,iKwupylngth«lnt«rhir. 
The relUrlonlBlriahaDiaiedtiii. which had 
lU ori^n la A. la the kttxr part ol the 
6tb century- The Tnl«r AraUe, ■• dla- 
tinfnilHliaf from (hM of the Konn. Ig 
amoog the mint nldely ipoken kDeDBS«. 
and the literary AraMo Is need In tbs 
lltarEyor all Uohsmmedana. Itnaafor 
ceqturlea the language of the Bdenoea, 
arts and dTllliBtlaD. 
Al«biu. •r'ab-lk. BelonKlnr to Anlila 

? England at 
AlsDia, u>e-b 

a juinclpii] oon- 


Mm, ■rVUs. A acii. of pluntt ( 
•vodAnnu «4. 1 wiU or rock creu. 

_p bflst-knowii BpedM li a 

Ita pod (popdUrly "* 
rtb, or peft nnt)f whea nimLura^ 

ra Aseda tho BBO of AhtZfil-DDt, 

let u ilmozidB, uid yielding, 
d, an oil not InfbrtOT to that or 

ArasD. Frauoolfl Jeam Xknulnlaue, 

ftll-r«h'p1. A dlatlngulBhed FreDch u- 

thep1uieCA.of roUry magnetlAEri^ pDlarlu- 
. tlon i>r oolDrt, And other SDloDtiflo trnths ; 
B. nA. B. 1«S. 

Axasonlta. •r'^^pm-IL Ths oame 
given to cwbonmto of calctam vhen It 
oecnn In trimetrle ByaUlt. ItlnesiDii- 
tUI; of the Mine ehemtoal Donalttutlon u 
ealc-ipnr. hut lie 017BUDIDO foim ti ft 
dlmorpboiu miner*]. 

AroKTiato, H-rli-ena'to. The Myoetes 

Ihm. or Bcanagrlal binls. Eun. Pilcuddie. 
Aiak, ■r'nk. An slooholle drink nude 

In Tiiorj from nure'i loltfc. 
*"-^'. -f. An Egrptiu) InloiluUng 

dzlnk pnipared IhHD utoe. 

AnL I'ral. 




e I'mMlir 

■noiner ppceiw, a. papTrirvnL 
An t m al o , nr-o-mu'Ik. Of or urrUlnlBC 
to Anm, > uo of Bhem, or 10 the Cbal- 
deoni and ByrlAniT hli deMendants^ a 
UnnuppfUiUTeoftbonDrtlieni AuDll^ef 
the SemlUo duiof luwDngw. Cflm|ir1a1ng 
the tongnea luokrn In Bjj1» uil Awyrlii, 
the HrlleX tpwiineD* Ulng the Chtildea 
' 'leOldTatunentudAno- 

ryphA, eitpvchdly In Ekdru u 


Aranelformla, -rar"m1-a. Ai 
ajflder-LIke crusteceL 
Axapaimo, u--i-|>i'au. A cvn 

water HiHlikcopterTrliui abdeinln 
The lar(Hl ^uown fruh-Hate 


I.T of 

.rd. of 

Ararat Kt..ilr'>h- 
5"" (^rnc"'"^'w' If'^ofBdl-tlrf. ■ 
AsK "pon nhli-h Nih)]'I ark Ii uid to 
have reated shcn the flood h'lwde.l ; It la 

Aranomnlii, ah-raw-ku'ne-ih. A S. 
AniL-rlcan i>roTlnce, nominally cUlmcrl hy 
Chill, bntoccnplHl by doacendanle of Ihe 
aboriginal InhabltanU -ntio hive aueoeai- 
fully maintained thdr InilfpondGnFF. 

An-qoarla, ar 

of Co- 

:b Kslo baTlnir a ilngla la^ ed 


iintuha, a-ri'B-k Tim ■ulfvoniniofor 
■ glMDlio >pfdof of (tis gen. Mjmlo, 
fonnl on Iho Alvolhoi Islnnas, Bmdt 

Arbor, Or'bor. Avchh]; kpeniDnlBl|>lBnt 
hitvlji^ ft dUtlDot bolD or tnmk from whJch 
the milo braqchM gT«w, The prlDolpal 
iptndle or liaota muhlne. MDunuiil- 
otlBK motlan to the other iQo>lng p«rts. 
A.DIuB,ortTMar>Uia-. ■buuClAilBr- 
tnreieeBt pcwdpltftte. produoed by bUfct 
. • irt in the opm ■fr. riiri- 

Ijplcaigen. of thu Ihmfly. 

C-refl on pLpra or pllkira. 

Iwlldlna-u^thn brand,! 

the IntridDIUHUDO, u Hsmoitd, 
iiUr, cyelotdiLdUpAB], pMdMlii^ 
'boUeu, or «Al<Huiun ; or friiai tka 
iinbluio« of tha wbols ooolonr of tb* 
nta iome bmiltar ot^JeM, m kMil 
honuhog irdi; or from tha luthad 
4 In dflaoiibtng tha mm, u BqnDatttvl, 
»emtnd, ft>iir«BD«d. agf, ud tha 
. aMnmpbii) A., origlB^ ■ rin[^ 
I, QiidBr which ■ Ttntdrioiu ffovd 

parlod It vu * rlihlr Moliitand, mudra 

and perauaant itniBtara. Tha naoio la 
nowglTm to an ariA. eaurtOr ot irood 
<1nof«t«d with flowon, onoted on <w- 
.__,._ .. "ircjoloing, *o. 

AlchCDOl<V7,-k(S-ol'v-jL Thoaslai 
antlQiiltlefi, HpedaJly pFahbtorlo, f 
iDvi'Bll^tes tha hiiiaTy of iiathmi 

itrpreta ^tbDut tbo pld of written ri 

Aich-band. Irch'tuuid. That poriion 

ArchblBhoii. -blth'np, A chief bl>hnp ; 

AioholuunbeTlaln, -cham'ber-Hn. 




Empire wbo presided oyer the teeretarles 

Axehocyimt, -konnt'. A chief ooant ; a 
title fimnerlj giyen to the Coant of Flan- 

ArchdapiflBr, -dap^-fer. An offloer In 
the old Oemum Eiiwlre whoae office waa, 
at the ooronaikHi of the emperor, to eany 
the first dish of meat to table on horse- 

AxohdMUXm, -dBlax, Jn Bngkad, an 
eeelesiaatical iOgiatirj, neoct in rank be- 
low a bishop. 

Aiehrtmid, dmld. A eUef or ponttfi 
of the andent dziilda. 

Avchdnohaas, dneh'ea. The wife of 
an archduke ; a prlneess of tlie reigning 
flunffiea at Bnssia and Austria. 

Azehdiika, •dfik\ A jwince belonging to 
the reigning ihmiUea of Austria or Russia. 

Amhffjgoinimn, -ke-gyni-um. The pis 
tJlttdinmiythfiftnialeCTym of ciTtogamlc 
idants, having the same function as the 
pistil in the flowering plants. 

AichegomaxauM, -sa'^ms. A fossil rep- 
tile of the oartxndliBrous eru, having a near 
alUaooe to the proteus, le[^do€dran and 
other perennibnmchiato reptiles. 

ATcheBoephala, -ken-sefarla. The 
highest of the prtmarr sub-classes into 
which Owen has snb-dirided the mam 
mals in aoocvdance with the structure of 
tiie Lrain. It inotudee the soUtaiy order, 
IhrnHy, genus and species, Man. 

Aroher-fiflLli, firah'er-flsh. A name gtroi 
to the Toxotes jaeulaUMr, a sotly-flnned, 
acanthopterygian flsh. 

AmhfX Oonxt. The ddef and most 
ancient ctmristory court, belongtog to the 
arohUshoprie of Ganterbuzy, for the de 
bating of spiritual causes, and held in 
Westminster Hall ; its Jurisdiction extends 
over the province of Canterbury. The 
chief Judge is called the Dean of Arches 
AlchelTpe, <r^6-tfp. A model or first 
form. In coining, the standard weight. 
In Com. Anat. that ftmdamental pattern 
on which a natural group of animals or 
system of organs is assumed to have been 
constructed; as the vertebral A. 

Archiater, -klVter. Chief physician ; 
a term applied to the body physician of 
princes, and to the first physician of some 

Archiezey, 'e-ri. A collective term for 
the hi^er order of ecclesiastics in the 
Greek Church. 

Avfdlil, 'UL A rich violet or pniT^eooIor- 
h^jastter-obtaiaed/hua oerwn lUihenB. / 

I^ers rarely nso A. by itsi'lf. on acr<-iiiit 
of its deamees and the peri8hahIon4«rt of 
its beauty, but empk>y it to give a bloom 
to other cnlmrs. 

Arohimagos, U-mft'gns. The high- 
priest of the Persian Magi, or worshipers 
of fire. 

Archimandrite, -mao'drit In the 
Greek Ch. an abbot, or abbot-general, 
who has superintendence of many abbots. 
In SicQy the abbots are eaUed A. because 
their convents were originally of Greek 

-me-de^'an. Pertaining 
to Archimides, or to the screw invented 
by him. A. ]m>pener, a continuous 
spiral vane on a nollow core running 
Ibi^thwise of the vessel, an amplification 
and extension of the screw. A. screw, 
an instrument to raise water lorme<I by 
winding a flexible tube round a cylinder 
in the fonn of a screw. A. principle, Hie 
principle that a lever loaded with two 
weights, on opposite sides of the ftilcmm, 
is in equilibrium when the weights are 
inversely proportional to the length ef 
the arms at whose ends they hang, and 
that the pressure on the fUlcrum of tho 
lever is exactly equal to the sum of the 

AmhlTnldflil, 'ddez. A Sj-racnsan. and 
the most celelHrated of ancient mathe- 
maticians : B. 286, D. 212 B. c, being slain 
at the capture of his native city by tho 
Bomans under Maroellus. 

ArchipelafiTO, -pel'a^. Originallv the 
Egean 8ea ; any body of water uter- 
epersed with islauids ; a group of Islands. 

iLJchiteotnre, -tek-t&r. The art or 
science of building or constructing houses, 
bridges, &c. ; that branch of the fine arts 
which has for its object the production 
of edifices pleasing to a cultivated taste. 
The leading styles are characterized as 
Egyptian, Indi^, Greek, Gothic, Byzan- 
tine, Bomanesque, Norman, Benaissonce, 

Architrave, -truv. The lower division 
of an entablatnrc, or that part which rests 
immodiat(>Iy on the column. The oma< 
mental molding running round the ex- 
terior curve of an arch, on the foccs ofth« 
Jambs and lintel of a door or window. A. 
cornice, an entablature consisting of an 
architrave and cornice only, the fHeze be^ 
ing omitted. 

Axohivolt, -vdlt. The architrave on the 
tBMO of an arch following the contour of 
the intrados. A. of a bridge, the curve 
fonned by the upper sides of the archr 
stonaa in the &m oithA^wY* 




Axohlute, firch'lQt. A tor^e late, n 

-fheorbo, the bass strin^js of "which are 
doubled with an octaye and tho higher 
strings with a unison. 

Archznaxslial, -mar'shal. The grand 
marshal of tho old Grurman Empire. 

Archon, ilr'kon. One of tho chief mag- 
istrates of Athena, chosen to superintend 
civil and religious concerns. 

Axxihontic, 'tik. One of a branch of the 
Yalentinlans, who held that the world 
was not created by God, but by angels 
called archontes. 

Archonts, 'konts. One of the groups 
Into which some naturalists have classified 
mammals, Including man alone. 

Arch-prixnate, (irch-prrmut A chief 
primate ; an archbishop over other arch- 

Arch-treasurer, -tre'zhur-er. The 
great treasurer of the German Empire. 

Archway, 'wa. An entrance or passage 
under an arch. 

Arc-indicator, ilrk'ln-di-kat-er. An 
apparatus for measuring the space inter- 
vening between two nodes, or parts of 
the stem fi*om which leaves arise. 

Arcogrraph, 'O-graf. An instrument 
for drawing a circular arc without the use 
of a central point ; a cyclograph. 

Arctic, 'tlk. Pertaining to the northern 
constellations called tho Great and Uttle 
Bears ; northern, as the A. pole, circle, 
region, or sea. A. fox, a small species, 
iam. CanidsB. 

Arctic Ocean. That section of the ocean 
north of «6« 80' N. lat 

Arctictis, 'tis. A gen. of ursine carniv- 
ores, of which the best known species is 
A. blnturong. 

Arctiidss, -G'i-dd. Afam. oflopidopter- 
- ous insects, section Heterocera ; the tiger- 

ArctinnL, 'shl-um. A gen. of plants, 
ord. GompositsB. In Japan the burdock 
is used as a vegetable. 

Arototis, -t5-tis. A gen. of composite 
plants, having heads of snowy orange- 
colored flowers. 

, Arctums, -ta'rus. A fixed star of the 
first magnitude in the constellation Bootes, 
thought to be the nearest to our system of 
any fixed star. It has a proper motion. 

Arcus senilis, ark'us sen-I'lis. The 
bow of old age ; an opacity roimdthe'lnar- 
ginofthe cornea occurring in advanoed 

-Ardsb, Mr^deb. An Egyptian weight and 

mcr^sure equivalent to 226 lbs., or Bbont ' 
40| gallons. ^ . 

AxtieidsB, -d^-i-dC. A fiun. of gnllato- 
rial or wading birds, including, the nerons, 
cranes, storks, ibis, &c. 

Ardisia, dis'l-a. A gen. of tropical ever* 

green plants, ord. Myrsinaceee. 
Ardrigrh, -r3'. In the early history of 

Ireland and Scotkind a chief monarch or 


Are, ar or or. The unit of French saper- 
ficial or square measure, containing 100 
square meters, a little less than 1,^8.44 
English square feet 

Areca, a-rCka. A gen. of lofty pajms. 
A. catechu is the piang or betel-nut tree, 
and yields catechu. A. oleraeea 1b the 
cabbage-tree or cabbage-palm. 

Arena, 'na. Tho Inclosed spaoe ib the 
central imrt of the Roman ampfaitbeatcm, 
in which took place the combats of gladi- 
ators or M'ild beasts. The soene of «zer- ^ 
tion or contest of any kind. In Med. Band 
or gravel in the kidneys. In Arch, tho 
middle of a temple or other indosed plaoa. 

Arendalite, a-ren'dal-lt A Hme and 
iron epidote, consisting of slllcMt, alomina, 
iron-peroxide and lime. 

Arenicolite, ar-en-ik'd-nt. The geolog- 
ical name for droular holes on Baaditones, 
the burrows of some annelid reBemfoUng 
the lug-worm. 

Areometer, •S-om/et-er. An inBtm- 
ment for measuring the spedfio grsvi^ 
of liquids; a hydrometer. 

Areopagus, -op'a-gus. A Bovereign 
tribunal, at Athens, fiimous for the iustfoe 
of its decisions. By a law of Solon no 
person could be a member unti^ he Imd- 
been archon or chief magistrate. 

Ares, a'rez. In Greek mythology the 
god of war, identified by the ]5U>manB 
with Mars. 

Arethnsa, ar-e-thti'sa. A gen. of orchids, 
consisting of a single species, A. bulbosa. 

Aretology, -tol'o-ji. That part of moral 
philosophy which treats of virtue, and the 
meantf of attaining to it. 

Arfwedsonite, arf-wed'son-It A fer- 
ruginous variety of hornblende, com- 
posed of silicates of iron, soda, alumina 
and lime. 

Argral, fir'gal. Unrefined or crude tar- 
tar ; a hard crust formed on the sides of 
vessels in which wine has been kept ; an 
impure l^tartrate of potassium. 

Al^Srali, '^11. A species of wild sheep 
found in Siberia, Central Asia and Kam- 
tcbatka. ThebmnB of a fiill grown A. 


inDoiTlr4fcE[|D]enfUiiiiiiHurtid ilone 
the curve, ud >t UiElr taws tn nboDt It 
tnchia In iilniiimfennai. Ttie nuna tt 
titQ uppUed ID the Book^ Mountiln Hhesp 

Du1^d43 andlDBldi^cqja^toriilr. A-bnm- 
«r, a^afi-bumrr iD-^lid fOnnof Ahallow 
milji3er, edinltUiig a camait of at 
thmugli Ihe inials'. 

AlSsl. 'jwl. A pint, Iha Solonoitanmu 
J Ar^l, 9rd. Aftcli^pladAMtt. 
Asgemaao, -Jf-mil'iiii. A stnoEl gen^ of 

Hcdsof A. meilaiutlia Meiliwu obUlo 
A p^nlem* oil. 
ArKeat, ir'Jeat, WlUt«D»i. Iflce that 

MAlA of VLQB, reprefloatlng kUvv, or 
purity, InnooeDCf, Waiy, efmUeiuHL 
Aiseatau, 'Jca-t^. An iJluy of nickel 

AxtivntUercma, -tlTer-ui. Prodoobig 

AjTS^utiiie, -I 

longing HI 

liebr o^c■l«pa^, 

Aieentliie Bepabllo. A conf 

Hon of M 8. Atoerli*!! pnnlBCM 
vnfld br ■ iireBUent Nid kglalvtarc 
noHdottwobaiiHS. Pop.(lBSO),S 
DOO s mttt, n*,ITl at), in. Bourln 
fl^nal, And tne otiier paindpal 
Bubdoi Atth, CaiHWp(daniiid r 
Pilnclpitl lircn, Uie Ptitga»}, i. 

If awe 

AisiUacnooB, -Jll-lU'aling. I 

thfl bnais, A ilate or BohiEt. a i 
nhlL- rouk cluinicterietlo of Uw 

Also. 'gO, tn Grr^k Mjth. Uie i 
tho Bblp wblch mrried Juod and 

Sa goUta Obbx. 

'ffi-nit. One a 

let Bt MeHitod 

Arfrna-shell, -thd. A epi^o of poros- 
lain-ehell, rcwunWing n liencout'B tiJl. 

Ajrhlzoos, B-tl'iuH. DmiJtntf of root ; 
npplleil to porialllDiiL [ilintg wbloh sdhera 

i'nthiirlnDstDreiuiddlgnlt]', (boniFh tli< 
lobjHt ottil cmted b^in ; and Oial tin 
la]j Spfait waa oniMed by li* 8<" 






Arias, a priest of Alexandria, promoJratcd 
his doctrines in the 4th oentary. They 
were condemned by the Council of Nios 
in 825. 

Aries, ftM-Cz. The 
Kam, a northern con- 
stellation of iTj^iritarH, 
of "which M are %1bI- 
blo : the tirfit of the 
twelve si^nfl in the 
lodiae, which the sun 
enters at the vernal 
squinox, about the 
21st of March. Owing' to the preces- 
sion of the equinoxes the si>rn Aries no 
lonjs^cr corresiMnds with the constellation 
Aries, which it did 2,000 years ago: the 
present si^ is in the constellation Pisces. 
The battering ram of the ancients. 

A^^t ar'il. In some plants, as the nnt- 
ineg, an extra covering outside of tha troe 

Ariooto I<udovl0O, ah-re-«s't«. A cel- 
ebrated Italian poet, author of " Orlando 
Furiosa,'' B. U74, d. 1588. 

Arista, a-ris'ta. Awn; the long beard 
which issues from the glome of some 

Aristides, ar-is-ti'dfiz. A soldier and 
statesman of Athens, who lived in the 4tii 
csntory B.a He served in all the highest 
offices of the State, and was so pure in 
character that he was called ** The Just.'' 

Azistoorat, ■r'ls-to-krat. A member of 
the aristocracy ar men of rank in a com- 
monly. OnewhoikYmrs an aristocracy. 

Aristo-damocraoy, a-ris'to-ds-molc''- 
ra-d. A fbrm of gorernment composed 
of nobles and the commonalty. 

Aristolochia, -Id^U-a. A gen. of gyn- 
androns plants, ord. Arlstolochiacen, re- 
quiring the aid of insects to produce fer- 

Aristophanio, -flin'Mlc. Pertaining to 
the writings or style of Aristophanes, the 
comic poet of Athens ; shrewd ; witty. 

Aristotelia, -td'^U-a. A gen. of plants, 
ord. Tiliaceffi. 

Aristotelian, 'li-an. Pertaining to 
AristoUe. the celebrated Greek philoso- 
pher, a aisciplo of Plato, and founder of 
the sect of the Peripatetics, who was bom 
at Stagira in Macedon about 884 years be- 
fore Christ. 

Arithmetic, a-rith'met-ik. The science 
of numbers or the art of computation by 
figures or numerals. Decimal or common 
A. employs ten svmbols or digits firom 
to 9 inmuve, which are usually called the 

Armbie DumenlBf hut originated among 

the Hindus. Instrumental A., % mode of 
computing nnmbers by means of sobbo- 
instrument, as the abaona, Kqpler^a 
bones, Ac 

Arithmometer, -mom'et-er. An in- 
strument for assisting in making arittir 
metical computations. 

Arizona, ar-i-zo'nah. A territory of 
the United Htates, N. and formerly part 
of New Mexico. 

Ark, ark. A small close vessel ; coffer. 
In 8crip. the repository of the Jewish oot- 
enant or tables of the law, made of tUtAtr 
tim-wood, overlaid within and withoat 
with gold, over which Were placed the 
golden covering or mercy-seat and the 
two cherubim. The same name is given 
to a repositorv in modem synagogues. 
The large floating vessel in whldi Ifoah 
and his ikmily were iH*eserved during the 
deluge. In Zool. a common name to 
the molhisca of the fam. Arcadn. 

I., _,i ^, Ar-kAn'saw. One of tbo 

Southern United States, W. of the Mis- 
sissippi: capital, littie Bodk. Prindpal 
rivers, Arkansas, Bed and White. Ai^a, 
52,198 sq. m.; pop., 802,525, ef whom 
210,866 are negroes. 

Arkose. fir'kds. A fialspathlo sandstone 
formed Irom the disintegration of graniteu 

Arm, firm. A branch of the military ser- 
vice, as cavalnr or artillery. Armorial 
bearings ; the aevioes armorial of a com- 
munity, office or fiunily. First employed 
by the Crusaders, and oeeame hereditaxy 
in fSunilies at the dose of ttie 12th cen- 
tury. In Law, anything which a oaum 
takes in his hand in anger to strike or M- 
sault another. In Bot. anything titat 
serves as a defense to a plant, as pnckles, 
thorns, or spines. In Falconry, the legs 
of a hawk from the thigh to the foot A. 
of predEdon, fire-arms rifled, fiimished 
with scicntincaliv graduated sights, and 
appliances calculated to enable them to 
act with great precision, rapidity and at 
great distances. Small A., arms that can 
be carried by thoso who use them. — A 
stand of A., a complete set of arms for 
one soldier. 

-ma-dil'lo. A n 
edentate mam- 
mal, gen. Dasy- 
puB, ram. Dasy- 
podidffi, consist- 
mfg of various 
spedes, snd with the allied genera 
Chlamvphorus and Orycteropus, forming 
a flunifv intermediate between the slotbf 
and ant-eaten. 




Armada, ir-mi'dA. A iUet of armed 
ships, nsosUr mp^iieA to the Speaiah 
fleet, called the Invincible A. /inteaded to 
act against England in the rel^ of Queen 
EHzabeth, a. d. 1588. 

Arxnatme, 'ma-tiir. Annor ; somethiaflr 
worn to defend the body. Iron framing 
employed to strengthen a building. A 
piece of iron connecting the two poles of a 
magnet to maintain the magnetic power. 

ArmeniAn, -me'ni-an. Pertaining to 
Armenia, a conntry in Asia, now called 
Torcomania. A. bole, a species of clay. 
A. stone, a soft blue evfoonate of copper; 
also a commercial name for lapis-lazuU. 

Arxneria, 'ri-a. A gen. of plants, ord. 
Plombagiiiaoen, distinguished from 6ta- 
tiee by the haiiy stales and capitate 
flowers; thrift or sea-ptak. 

Arznet, 'met. An aactent helmet ; when 
worn with the beaTer it was called A. 
grand ; when wtthoat, and sopptted wftti 
a tripM-barred AMe-gnard, it was called 
A. petit. 

Aimiflrer, 'mi-jer. In times of chivaky, 
aa arm(v-bearer to a kni^t ; the second 
in rank of the aspirants to knighthood. 
In later times, one with a right to armo- 
rial bearings ; an esquire. 

ArmilBH OT ,-la'aa. An ancient gannent; 
a kind of ahort doak with a hood. 

Armilla, mflla. Anarmlet; a eireular 
or spiral oniament worn roond the upper 
arm ; atao, a bracelet for the wrist. Aji 
iron ling in which ti»e godgeonsof a whed 
more. A cironlar Hginneiit of the wiist 
binding ti»e tendons of the whole hand. 

Armlniaii, ^ninl-aa. One of a sect of 
Christiana, so called ftom James Armin- 
ius or Harmensen, a Pkotestant divine of 
Leyden, Htrfland, who died !n 1009. They 
s^Mrated from the Oalvinhrts, objecting 
to their views of predestinattMi. 

Aimlet, flrmlet A Httle arm ; aa an A 
of the. sea. Apiece of protective arm<Mr 
for the arm. Part of^the sleeve of a 

ar'mis-tls. A cessation of 
arms for a short time by convention ; a 

Armor, 'mer. Defensive arms ; any cov- 
ering worn to protect the body in battle. 
Metal was used from the 10th to the 18th 
century, until tho introduction of dre-arms 
rendered it useless. The steel or iron 
covering of a ship of war. Coat A., the 
escutchaon of a person or fiimily, witii its 
mantling, creat, supporters, motto, Jke. 
Bubmazmo A a water-tight covering worn 
by a direr. 

. -mor'ik. Pertaining to tlM 

northwest of Prance, formerly Armorlca, 
now Brittany, inhabited by a Cymric race 
who fled lh>m Britain in the dth and Cth 

Armatrongr gxin, arm'strrmg gun. A 
cannon of wrought-irun, roni*triiot*'<l of 
spirally coiled l>arA, and ticcaAionaliy h.iv- 
ing an inner tube or cor« of sttN']. Viliiyl. 
ThucommonoHt form in hro««h-l<»ai(lirig ; 
but those of the highest calibru ore muz- 
zle-loaders. The gun is uanuid froui its 
inventor. Sir WilUiun Armstning. 

Armnre, ir'mur. A twilled fabric hav- 
ing a cotton warp and a woolen woof. 

Arm,y, 'mi. A body of men armed for 
war, and organized in companies, battd- 
ions, regiments or similar divisions, con- 
sisting of inlkntnr, cavalry and artUlery. 
Standing A., a boay of men hired and kept 
permanently under anna. 

Army-oorpa, -kdr. The largest divisfaa 
of an army In the fleld. 

Amae, 'n£. One of the Indian varieties 
of the BuflUo (Babalus ami), the largest 
animal of the ox kind. 

Amioa, 'ni-ka. A gen. of plants,' ord. 
CompoaitA. There are twelve spedea, 
one of which, A. montana (the monntidn 
tobacco), produces an acrid re^ and a 
volatile cu, the flowers an acrid bitter 
principle called amidn, and the root 

Arnold, Benedict. A brigadier gen- 
eral in the American Revolution, who de- 
serted to the British ; b. in Connecticnt 
in 1740 ; d. in London, 17SML Umjot An- 
dr6, a British officer, who negotiated the 
treasonable bargain with J&nokl, was 
captured and hanged as a spy. 

Anioldist, 'nold-ist. A disciple of Ar- 
nold of Brescia, who in the 12tn century 
preached against the Bomish Church. 

Arnotto, -not'td. Bixa OreUana, a small 
tree, ord. FlacourtiaoesB. The dye or col- 
oring matter obtained from the seeds of 
this plant is used for silks ; also as a color* 
ing ingredient for butta*, cheese and 

Aroma, a-r5'ma. An odor from plants 
or other substances, more especially an 
agreeable odor; an odorous or spiqr 

Aromatite, 'mat-it A bituminous stone, 
in smell and color resembling myrrlu A 
foctitious wine, containing various aro- 

Aroph, &'rof. A name by which saflh>n 
is sometimes called. A chemical prepara- 
tion of Psyaoelsus, as a etrfvent for the 

AKpad. ir'pduL A Mif-nr lAdeT m<1 | Arils. 
fonndur of Uh kingdom of UmHTvy' - ■ -' — '-*' 

MS, o.wn. 

Azpent, ii-pu. A FrsDoh mnuorD 
land, oiutl Ifl l.oes uiu» rardB, or f 
muu or u EDgllsb H». It yiriK 
dUTtTCnt partj of Vmwa. IE La Dsvd I 
Lmllsd — '-' ■- ' • 

Arirailaax, -ka-ti, A Isk) an, 
-'—i^groea THTiiLfthlo pottoj. 
"-l, -»ii'ch». i.gtn. 

ADte. iQDlTldLDIE A Kf 

Dteonind from fermeDtod rl«, tho Jnlc^ 
of ttaa i»ei»4Dt ud ochar pAlmg. 
AtTU, 'u. Tftttrr ; itagfagr, canilht 
log DrwoTsn gtnfft omuneiiud vlth 9 l^ 

Aj^a^Te, I-natiA. Amictiliiolbriwni 
mlnatlnit ore. 
AjrCMWlM, w'u-Tli. Id Her. vhi-i 
ADytblDf of ft iquuolbmi la plaoedwlt: 
one (ornor IB front, ihowing ito loiiani 
tvro of Ui« >ld«. 

AiTot. t-rJL Ths dKlslon of > oonn 
AppUed partloul&rlj U 
of trfboiuU In nsnet. 
~i]r 1«fit ■athorit)'. 

<6e analaal UngM if I>iu« ud Otnuny 

Hllent Angle* of ft gtikdft. I 

, — fen, Trt^oohln, ocd. 

AiTOW-liHul, ft'n-twd. A gta. of 
■qnnUo plftnli^ to cftDed Onm tlift ftbftpo of 

AiTOW-liawlad, -bod-ed. B^Md Vkt 

Tm, formed br ft oombliutlOD of trlnn- 
lar or 'ncdmllka flgnna; oftHcd daa 
cQDi^fijna flhftrftotera, ffmnd lucdbed Da 
noltny, and monoiiHata M FlnepaHi, 
BftbTlon.ftnd other plfteaaorthoEftfttftBd 
buTo b«n dadplw«d by Snttnod, 

lund or Diva] senice ; • pubBo aauNlab- 
iathI and mlUtuy aqoi^ 
lOlbctDrod or atftffld. 
len-it. A salt formed liy 

ie A. nftbi 
d death 17 




like many other vimlent poteons it is a 
aafe and aseftil medidne, when Jodi- 
doosfy employed. 

Araeniuxeted, -een'b-ret-ed. Com- 
hined with anenie bo aa to form an anen- 
ivet. A. hydro^n, a gas generated by 
ftislng arsenic with its own weight of 
granuated zinc, and deoompoeing the 
alloy with strong hydrochloric add. 
A-ruyti-n Sr'shin. A Bossian measure of 
2 feet 4.242 inches. 

Art, irt. The artlfkdal dispodtlon or 
modlflcation of things to answer some 
Bpedal pnrpose. A system of rokss serv- 
ing to ftdnurta the performance of certain 
actions ; knowledge of such roles or skill 
in applying' them In a trade, handicraft, or 
other special aabject. The oaeftil or me- 
diantcalartsindade those In which the 
hands and body are more concerned than 
the mind, as in making clothes : the fine 
arts and the liberal arts indnde all the 
branches of academical learning, as well as 
fine art. Fcnmerly the dnue of the 
sdenees was eonflned to the seyen liberal 
arts — grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, 
mnsio, geometry and astronomy. In this 
sense the term is stUI employed when we 
speak of the arts classes in the nniyersf- 
des, a master of arts te. Art diflSers from 
sdence in being practical, while the latter 
is theoretical or speculatiye. The rales of 
** art partake less or more of the natnre of 
directions. They are, howeyer, nltimatdy 
based on prindples; thns, tbeartof baila- 
ing is based on the prindplcA or laws of 

Ai-t^iwlain. Ar-td-mia'i-o. A gen. of 
plants, ord. Compodts, o(mi]Hrising mng- 
wort, southern-wood and worm-wood. 

Artery, 'ter-L One €tt a sjrstan of cyUn- 
drical yesaels or tnbea, membranons, elas- 
tto and polsatile, which conyey the blood 
jfrom the heart to all parts of the body. 
There are two prindpal arteries, the 
aorta and the pnlmonary. 

Artesian, ir-te'zi-an. Of or bdonging 
to Artois, in France. A partiealar kind 
of well, first used in Artois. 

Arthritis, thrT'tis. Any painAil dis- 
ease or inflammation of the joints, partic- 
nlarly the gout 

Arthroffastra. -thrd-gas'tra. A name 

eyen to those Archnida which agree in 
lying the abdomen segmented, and not 
separated troxn the ceplmlothoraK, indud- 
ing the trno scorpions, book-seori^ons,&«. 

Arthropoda, -throp'o-da. One of the 
two primary diylsions (Anarthropoda be- 
ing tiie other) into whidi naturalists 
haye diyided the snb-kiqgdom AnnnJosa. 

Arthur, ir'th&r. The hero «of tht» 
**KnightA of the Bound Table,** a semi- 
mythical king of Britain, in the 6th cen- 
tury, who herotcally opiKMed the Saxon 

Artichoke, Ar'tl-chuk. The <;.vnara 
Scolymus, an edible plant, onl. (^>niiioi»- 
itr, somewhat resemMinir a thlHtlo, with 
large divided nrickly learpA. ThuJeruM- 
lem A., or Helianth'uA tuberonuA, U a 8p4'- 
des of sunHower, whose rooti are usAi 
like potatiies. 

Artioulata, -tik'Q-lii''ta. The thinl 
great section of the anbnal kiagdom, di- 
yided by Cnyier into five classes, Crusta- 
cea, Araohntda, Insecta, Myriapoda and 
AnneUda. The first four classes are now 
conunonly placed together under the 
name of Arthropoda. Also applied to one 
of two sections Into which the Brachio- 
poda or lamp-shells are diyided. 

Artlonlate, -lit Jointed ; formed with 
Mnts ; as, an articulate animal. Formed 
by the distinct and intelligent moyement, 
of the organs of speech. 

Artiftoer, -tins-er. A maker; a skill- 
ftU or artistic mechanic. One who con- 
triyes or deyises ; an inventor. A soklier- 
mechanio attached to the artillery seryico. 

ArtiUeinr. -tlinor-1. Gannon ; ordnance 
and Its necessary equipment both in men 
and material. The science of the use and 
management of great guns. A. level, an 
instrument having a pendulous pointer by 
which it indicates the angle between the 
axis of tiie piece and the plane of the 

Artimorantioo, -tA-m5'ran-t£''kA. An 
alloy of tin, sulphur, bismuth and cop- 
per, made in imitation of ancient jewehy. 

Artiodaotyla, 'shi-d-dak^'tl-hi. A sec of 
the Ungulata or hoofed mammals, com- 

Sridng all those in which the number of 
le toes is even, including the ruminants, 
and also a number of non-ruminating 
animals, as the hippopotamus and the pig. 
The sec. indudes ail tne ungulate an<mals 
used for human food. 

Artocarpacen, 'td-kir-p&'^sd-ii. An 
ord. of pUnts, the bread-fruit a sub-ord. 
of the urticacesB or nettles. The virulent 
antiar poison of Java is obtained from the 
upas-tree. ■ 

Artotyrite, -tl'rlt. One of a sect of 
heretics In the primitiye church, who cele- 
brated the eucharist with bread and 
cheese, alleging that the first obligations 
of men were not only the fhiitof the 
earUi, but the produce of thdr flocks. 
They admitted fteiales to the priesthood 
and epifoopaoy. 


AXT-vmon t 

Ait-XJaloa, Irt-a'nt-an. An uudil 

tendthj cbfl kbowlcdgft of mlA Idva ftv 
the Bt>. TberorlftnUedls Fnncn dnrlag 
th« Ume or KbpoLeon I. 
Anun, A'nun. A g4D. of pUmti, on). 
whMi Id kriovu u FortlBfla h^d or Amm- 

>, >-nin'dB. A reed; i gM. of 


Tu'ilB. On« of 1 eUM of 
ntt Komo, or StTDriu ort- 

Arrlocd^ ir-Tlk't-lik A nai. of ndeat 
talnalt, ntMini. UnrUa or Wol t. 
npWMila Um usterTalo, or witirat, 
ad A. Knitli I* the field-Tola, or idiort- 

Arriin, 'Ho. An Ivdo-Emopcu ; ■mem- 
kw or tkit dlTMon of Uis hunu noa 
vUeb ludndoi tha HIndni nid Ftrtkan 
M Its tuUrn 'bnndi, Md ths OelU, tlH 
Sreak* ud ItaUuH, tho Sdin ud tlw 

TmloiUMlMnwWni, "" ""^ ' " 

■ lofEnroiwiri 

BMDd. myth, ons of tbo godii, ths tobiib- 
Itaitiof Algird. It AppflOrfilii UieoA of 
ndt auDHM Oxar, Osbn^, Oswald. 
Aaaitotids, ••-fs'tJd-L a (Mtd inph- 

ulsd BU, decDti<:rels]nk» of tlW iflir- 
tbai irnfiittilii. % lugs ambellUbroiu plant 
lOasiI In WmlBTti Tlilbal. 
Asasita*, a-u-gri'L a gen. of nluta, 
ard.Heluitbiioe»OTColc1iloomB, tooludlDg 
bnt A single ipMtM (A. offldnsUa). 

,— _t]o]chDeaizioD l!lfl«. which prey upon 
ud kuflp In cheek tho qihJdot. 
*"°rT'"T. -ftu. A gan. of trOoUtaa, 
■AmMjmbmona, -n->iak"kL 


bfonght into Ui« ayataillno ttata. 
JD. A fen. of nlintA, Ad. 
I, Thelrnitliidx-nHed 
inntod hj Ike penlaUBt 

A» b— t o*. ■ bea'to*. AflbmiNTarlr^af 
"^1 boTDUeDdo Ikzn.. u auglta, aotb^ 
to ud tHmoltta, aoDipaaea of amanu 
■maatLwllk ■ lOkyiater. It Is (■ 
mbuatlble, ud la WTOogkt lato % BAft, 
DM* dotli, *1m> toM^mUbl* pipar 

Actniry, Franola. The D 

■ '-iiM.B. Chnwh; a. 

io Virginia. ISll 

~ aa^ar^-ds, A &m. oT Ea- 

oH-Uks. nibqgfr 
om aoot oTwud. 
lie flrttt hiahop of 

ToDleata or ■ea-nntrta, mdllnaDOtuud-. 
mala of ■ k>w gnda. A hvge proportloli 

of oaUnloae, a itarab]' snbatuoeefaancttr- 
latla of phnta. Usloandtfematoreprodiuy- 
tlre organa «Tlat tn each asddlui. ud 
tbey paaa through pectdiar phaaeo of da- 

is oraporiffla 

-Uke anpHidflge found In 

, .ofteodoHdl^aUd, aalo th 


of MuoLonlsui nha pppearcd lb t 
Mntary. Thcj Inlroifdcea ham! 

Asomal, ii-»k«'i-iiL Hal wnnd 

[vrfeat ormns; perlVirmpd vldumt Ihe 

jLtgar^ nx'gdid. In Snud. Ujrlli. Uw 
tuns or the eod), rWiw UkatkaOnt* 
OLrmniu tpanx mldgint, tbe middle vorid, 
tkeevtii. UwMWeUiMOdfiKBdtlw 
net of the godi, flw twdTvAeelr, dwelt 
-«dB IntbameuioBamadOledriielm, 
n3dewe In TInnIC VellHlle, ta wMdi 
bmwA AlAin In battle dvelt, wuilea *"" 
Below tha bonplu of tlio u 
TnKiImill tlie gods exenibled erei 

Aab, uh. Tha oaminaB nuse • 

Pfrtilnlni to or like the uh. Whet 
ABliery, 'cr-L A pUce for dBpoiCtiiv 

of pot < 
imbuttlblc iwidD 

re^teblfi BobatAniwA^ Itom which 
tnel«t theilkaUiieiuilUr] mlloil 
peeri-uta, tulp. bulUi, An. The i 
or the hnuuuL body, flodhnoatj 

of water, »fter herin^ iHien t 
fleaoroA or arttterH iD'^ ' 

ABll-fDmM«, 'Cer-nia. A linuee ; 
which muerliili Ibt ' 

A^ilar, 1«r. A aamnuin ben-ato 
tffooeht, rough end chipped, tmi 
qiUTTT- A tuiHK made of dqaAre ■ 
«nthe front of bi3ldhi):s. 

Agh-Wodnaaday, -weu'dL The Ant 
dfl^ of Lent ; ao cfilled from a cojti 
■prii^tliig eahes on llio beede f>( pool 
Ibaaedinitted to peouioe: Intlltat 

UlD nngmmlhaAlula, the KleXm^ 
HtnmlBym mid Ceufuaa ; prludpAl rlvrrH, 
■be DtJ, Unl, Leni, Anioot. novii! be, 
OuEe*. Ipdut, Tlgrli tod EunhnHet; 
pHndpe] taket, the t^plAa, Aral (rulled 

&>p,>ap. A iperleSDrTlperlVlpi!! 
roeembfii*- the eobnuU- 
opello or spectacle ht- 
paat, celabnited for uea ^ 
oa acwiuit of the aoiull ^ 

. the Tt. 0. 



ft«IHi«llt. i*-pl'ilii-Bh. The buullflil 
mlatrflu of Pendeit r«iDvn«il 1m hflr wit 
ml ■ccorapUllUDuU. hn honH bdni 
tba nurt of the moet tDtcllMtsil Atbcnl- 
UB. After thedesthorP»<deii, the 1k- 
£nia thomlatRU or Lyeldca. 4S9 B.C. 

Aspaala, M-pii'tU-i. A ite°' oCelegut 
Fpiphytdl pIfuilA. ord. OrobldAooe, with 
the »|Kict of KpidcDdrnm. 

Anwn, un'mi. A inedsi efpoplB. the 
1«T« orivbloh nirenlth theiHgbtist 
Impulse of tho eLr. 

A«per. u'[>#r. A Tutlah eolii, ofwUcb 

three-flftbt ofe Britjthpeo 
AspertWiu, -per-jQIu. _ . 
Oh. the bnub Died for aprtak- 
llnn holjr wetor on the peopl- 
A MD. cf hrphauiyoBUui rbi 
d. A. g(uioii9 la the bit 
meld vhldk fiwmi on dieek 

AapuVM, 'J«. In the B. C. 
Ck. ■ abort een\oe Intodno-; 
lorylotheioiae, durliifwhloli~^ 
tlie oongregeUon it iprinkled Aiperfll- 

Aa^eraorinm, -aa' 

ftjr heldlDf holj wata. _ _ — 

flied pernuiiently doAe tothemtrmiH 
- SemattmeB, however the A. la partible. 

AsphodeL'm-AcI ~ 

tiTetod forttivbeqiilv r>f ihib-J 
Bowere., .They iupludu the 
■tv »fBetUi!lIuo], Bsd iilr»B. 
AJQllO, 'pik. A ipedF) of 
liTendv, lihn eilluil Unli? 
liTODder, %fh-a Nirdi, nnd 
FsendiMeTdiia. Tin- t>ll Is 
lued by patrjtera, fkrrlers. 
md oQier trUfloen. Id Brsuchsd 
caokery.icleer, UKOiYDiEst Aiphodel. 
'ytMy, FODt^niiis' fowl, gamn 

Ajiplialt, -fliH'. The common nrloty oF 

pollahed ft«tare, melts easHy, and when 

U (bnad In a UqDid sUle on Ihe sarAcii of 
' BoL Bko In the earth In muiy 
LBla, Eorope and America, and 
fldillT Id mBUDgeoal-na. 
L, a Bmestone oontalDliiB 

OooHag, and ai a cement, the chief In- 

DniMionoTlTilsfsinlied with bltomen, 

und, or other Uigredlenti. 
Atpidlum. -ptd'l-nm. Bhleld-ftm, a 

^n. of ftrna mcladlng all which have 

round sort prolBcIed with a rai:ndl9h 

eoverlnK or Indoslum. 
Aapldophonu, -pl-dofor-afl. A £«!. 

of aeanukoptorDoa flahes, Inctedln^ the 

■rmod bull-bead or po^re. 
Aaiddoaperma. 'pl-da-Bper"mL A 

gen. Df plinte, ord. ApocyDuea. One 

Apedea, paddle-wood, hu a deeply 1ta.UA 

Btau eoraposed of solid projeoDu^ ndli, 

irfaloh the InrUaag aepanu and DM M 

natonl phrnks. 

A^p't"'"™, -ple'Dl-UD. Bpleenwort, a 

fen. of fbma charaoteriied by thdr frwe 

UquAly on the s^^ment of ^ftond. 
Aim, Be. A (olld-uniulate quadraped ol 
thehmlly Ki|aldB;t£e Eqniu aalnui;a 
nau™ of Central Asia, w" ■ 

A0,000, but were <?ventnally crashed by 
thaBultanBlborlB. One who kills orst- 
tempts to klUhyBurprlaeoTBiwrGtuisuult. 
AjMay*!'. BU'er. One who eismloea me- 
taUto Mva or alloya fOr the porpesa of da- . 
tarmlnlna the amount of any parllDulv 
metal In Ihe tame. ADoOMrofthelUnt, 


Aaaaylnr, H^alne. TIi« Kt or irt of 
tanlDg mtait, OTM. or Blloyi. Thms «r8 
two snodeB of MBsyliiff : lbs faoiDld cr wvt 
pRMHB, br whltih ■ MlutliMi orthametAlB 
t effeoted by ■ of .d.H, ud the dij 
profl'w, perfornied bj- tl' - a^nbi^yatHn- 

Asse, sH. Th« Vnlplg (. unn, Xbe anuDatt 
uiPtiibir of the tfa.loi. 

AsBembly, -; 

mrpou, whctjipr EvUg- 
actal, BpaiflfllllJ, ifas 
- ono of Uis OMiSoai at 

niiiits, Fflppdflllr for pnrpoflflA 
A. Id tbe Seauk naUarAatt, 

Ilow^ siittaUitas, tho nnhPT 

Iho PUmrlBw). nnd'Emeiies. 
AsalKnat. 'elf-ut. A pnbUD note or 
Nil <n :''Tiiiicfl daring Uifl llrat nmilatinn. 
In :Fr«ic)i Inir, tbeiHlgnmeDtof an u- 

.__.__ -, orlginallj. an ossimibl/ of 
jther BabrtMluamM, wilhm 

or In ft fiolnniD a bIh^o (^Uodriail 
Ibirnlng ■ complata aefmant of tiio 


^ , Jent RUw opWftH; 

Applied to * nmn or bout whon 

IsTUA, loAVOB fimt brut doVn, "but rIalDg 


Assyrift, li-ilr'r&ih. Tbs moat undent 
emi^ of ■KTsd UMorr, ftmnded by 
BebL an. IMS; It oonpriHl wbU fi 
Bowiaowu u Knriittu, In Aril. At 

Iba death oF BurduuHlnt, wlio WH bmn- 
•d fa big pilue In Babrloo by hla Bubteia. 

too B. D., tbe ampira n* dlTldedtnta 
tbivfl TdonnrebloB, UsdiB, Auyria and 
Habylonla. It Miare-unitiid loBibylonli. 
in 828 B. c, but vat conquarcd by CjTue 
Dfia biKiamu & i>itrt of P<?nta, s. c. &»S. 
Assytheiaent. sB-elth'meDt. In 8col. 
murdored from tbo perHD guUty 

(iiatt^yed), SHI 

r other "n 


the curioD. apHlcs "llhoutCTM 
Ibf MBUimnlllCmrtof KrntnAj. 
, lir'lS. Aiililorrlh, Ihff win. 
itle diTlnlly of lb> rhonlf^anii. 

mnllnoko. e«. Kiphanlilii. 
AaUtdo. i-Mni'lk. With, 
needl'', a magiit^o nenllf 

IcDily oi .Kolfier n<«ll( 
Aatal. u'U. In mlnlnc. i 

Aster, 'm. A brgo ei^" 

AMeracftDtlmn. .ii-kui"ihuf. A emi. 
uf pluvld fossil Sibcs, ooDUrrlng In tlw 

Aaterla, -le'ri-a. A Tiriciy of mpphlre, 

Aateridn. 'l-d«. Ths > 

ttEUmoB In whlcb It ]Im. or irhloh is not 
• pan of any particular tonit>-JktlMl. 
Three aatertoks platwd Cin» •-• to direct 

of astrology baaed on the Bjted alani. 

AataniiC .old- Oneofthaimiill pluati, 
■hout eUOln number. brlKcpii li.e orbit* 
orMnriind Jupiter, called plani'Ioldi. 

ABterolepIs. 4l'^|d>, A k^. at r<cu- 

heen reatrlcted lo tbc dermal platea of tk* 

■ nn. of rbflBll pbmtt, whlob aboDD 
the oKl-idHiuro, ud IT* lMU»«i t 
llif [altags or tht Ctlmmllei. 
AatOQunu, 'tu-mna. ~" ' 
BpeclllcBlly jippUed to 

Astnea, trv'a. A du 
flvvD Ut the bI^ Virgo. 

li froni llie Bun. 

The apper iHDS Qfthd foot at 

Qom.tiuiiciuith is obuiped Ih 
mifor toA othur aplnj apedea. 
Aatral. 'irml. Belongbig li 
A. flplritfl, believed, Id the mliiuje iikud, wj 
peo^e the hcAvenlj bodied or tbe Atrial 
ngfoa. By the demonolotiatB of the IBth 
oenlnry they were regBrdod u oooapylng 
the fint rank imong the demanlKal 
epMtA. A. IvDp, El Uinp whoBe Ufht la 

'Se-colored leiMlha Inro] 

all, SI one of the detached artleaLitliHiB 

of foMll enoriidteB ; itw-atoiie. 
A^trooaJTOiIi.. •Mt-kfi'rl-niii. A,gaa. 

of AiD«ri«n palina. 
AstrOKIUMr, 4n!|r^«-BL Snowledge of 

the Bt*ri in reapeol to their iiune< aag- 

AsCroKT^ph?, 'm-B. The art of ds- 
HTibliig or dellnHdn^ the bIatb. 

JUtTcAA, 'Iroid. In He 
fhim a Diimet, oomlitint 
■AxtroloBy,^. Tba id 

AatispliotasTapbT, 'tr«-fD-tiw"i»^fl. 
A term eiproaliig the appHaaro of 
pbotognph]' to thfl deHneattoD of volar 

pboto^phf f 
AatnMKope, -akOp. An aalmiiDDiliial 

AahiT, 'ter. A gren. of hnvtki, Includln^r 

Astylar, e-au'lar. In Anh. havlnc no 

Astyllen, a-stU'en. A bidaU etoppaKe In 

of refo^ wb<ffe crimlnnlB 

wm Bhettovd from JaaUoe. Templea 

■wen udAoUy laThmti, uvcn ChrlitUa 


Ik«tc<l for li«T BttOen^ BbD tmtd bo 
DIRT tha mu wbo eooM onlnuilwr. un- 
<Ur tha ondltlan' ttet Ut Hh ' 

AtoiVU. la Hrtli-tbAOoddeuofHb- 
cbleJ^ wba iraicMt Aown ftwn b«T«Q, 

Aielaa, ■t'e-Ki. A pD. of plityrliliw 
Amertan raoDkitya. 

Atelier, -[£-1. A workibop : spplint U 
lbs worluvaiD of Molpbin ud pulaten. 

AtenchnB, s-tu'feaa. A-gi 

, i-d£'i1-4d. Pertolo- 

_^ .th*iuBiuA, biBbop «f AlexuidriA, 

1i tha 4th fiento^. A. ened, it pbocI or 
npoiltloi of lUtb, iiippdud ftHmerlrto 
hara b»n diawo np bj' ^Uudjihiu, 
OfhlrA tir^ trjylnlan is tiow gc ii^nlty rc- 

h* Kitiipaattkii 

IF bj Hudriui tW tb« pro- 
Hi, mn Inritlmtton for IbJa 


; pop. 48,329. 
Atharioaim, >th-ff4li'ir«. A 
HfUnm liuwt*, lai ■- * ■■ 


bHl Babe*, hiTli 

uitj r«»Bi-e^boJl*'a which 
re slk-d dliltaermiuioDa. 

□f apctrnJixia p^la, liavblf 

thfl tuftid-UiUcd porcnplDa. 
Athlete, 'li'L Ona «ho a 

Atlanta, (t^lii 

duui nwUuak. 

A gtm. aftKit«n>po- 
lypLcaJ gcB. at ue 

On. nf the tliTfe 

tluMaof&yrujuid Anblo. and coru 
Kvpq jfroupA. A bm. of tfutijri>| 
moUiiiiiLi. ord. NuDleotnnrblBU. 
Atlantldee 'tl-dci. A ouna El' 
tbD PIotulMor Bcren aUri.wUol 
ftilf^ed taba tha dau^hler&Df Atlu 

Atlu. Id Mylh. odd <il the ' 


-frulIDwa. . 
Jom. ■I'om. A p«Tiid« of inin»r » 
nlDntsuloadiiittiifnadl'lifai]; unltl- 
utB tnillitelblc pvticje of mUter. Sa 
ilUuisM iwlIclaDr DuttCT, wltiwatrwad 
Ji to ubittaall t> dlTiribla arlsdMriUs; 
iina1»ala. AtaralaphOonphj'iai^aUB 
if ptall(i«nli7"wUdi tMMdwa Uut Uodu « 
xiddM wth gt^fr ud molloD, ud tlitt 
>r than Kloma lU Ibln^ *B* fimwd 
HlhDUt thd Did of H flDprcrae JntelUgieiit 

Atriplsx, 'rl-p!eki. A kod. of pluti, 
'Ord. rbi>iinpod!iK«iF -, DTmcho. Ta»j n 
' — ^- rnrwsly ahruba, with unitJ unlKU- 
len^ growing on fthoreH uid wu(« 

I, iaufiudln Fnmco ILA a fifLnoah. 
Atrium, tt'lri-um. TbiirnTniD'K-hHil.iiid 
usually tbomoeteplondld apAran 131 tiOfft 
Kiiinan hDDH. onuubenlM witli BtotneL 
ether i^etnna, ua 

at tliD Icvol of tbo >«i, Is found to bo nboul 

Ifeht.nrodudnglliojilii'noiDuiuiof relVse 
tlon. dUhiutloD. nfloatton ud iDteiAr 

^toU a-toi: A. aBTB\ Inland, nonnl'ting 
Bfa tlrlp or ling ot eon\ aniroundlng \ . 
tmtrml ijgooB, tad covarai Kilh * Vigor- 

It vn llt'hled b; no openlri In tlis fodI 

Into D dstors In the Uoor oallcd tholm- 

poipui oiLd eof ly Cluintian. 
Ltrova. 'ro-pa. A ecn. of polt duid'ly ul^htHliailo. hiiii a ' 
)Hh tauti-, but la jKilaauoUB, 
Atropln, 'r<l-nln. A cri'ttnlllne aJ 
_i...i-.,, *. — .1,. fleadly nlRhtBhiidi 

nbUilni^d frooi 


itlful ciiJIlDiLcoona 
rrrbaptDH Vallail, 
u! nnii ]«rlrld|«, 

Attalna. -U-IG'k. A b^h. of lulmn, < 
dn^iAbed by Its nut contilnliitf tt 
cell*, each UidMing » etiif 1a hcfA. ' 
flberE of Ltae l«it«tiilkB or i.. ninUIn 


The A. dUeot, mcd IrSie uialeni juae- 
Biaiu, hiB tha moM Gnldvita^flDinhtid aiut 

A. bus, B peoaur bue UHd ia Iha loaio 
ooliiinQ, inatn' Palladia udothen In Ibe 
Dorlo. A. ordsr, applied to tba mull |ill- 
lira dHOTBdnf aDamn. 

Al^tio. A loir ator? nreotod dtbt a prin- 
dpal. Ad aparUneot la the uppmnoit 

AttUa, U'tJ-taii. CaHtid tho "ScKmrKo 
or God," UliB of the Hnna Ib tba Mb oen- 
tiinr. Ha DTBiwi the Oieelia £inplrs 
anil TTorUKrn Italy t ■'^ *■> ^e aoluiowl- 
adnd Bornliii of all tba taDrn between 
QuIaadtbeObliiseebDFder: d.US. 

provy, Ppodflcally, one appointed or ad- 

An A. msT bo either priiatD or public! 
The tint I9 ana antborlieil to maEe con- 
tracts nnd do otbtTiBls fbrhls prinelpsi, 
DOt ofeaort, A public A. or A, at hw Is 

SlaoUdonH. "Letter. warTBiil, or powerof 
., nn Instruoient br whiph one peraon 

Attoniey^vaeral, -Jeii'Br-tl. 'ITiallrsl 

law oHIoer of the irovemmMil. The 
proaecQtftf on behalf nr the grtvprnn 

Ankum. a'btm. Redillab brows 
sally applfed 10 hair. 

Aaohaiita, -iLc'iil-a. Afm. ofru 
Ine anioula, hm. Cunclldc, th« 
Worid n-preaentadrca or the cami'ti 
only dlattnet apcdra era the tliina 1 
poanbla proffenttor, Iho (pjanaeo orj 
"id the Tkq^a or Tlcuni, 

Audit-honse. 'dlt-honi 

Andltoriam. -i 

linn of BlfnngTS, 
Audubon, John Junes, n'doo-bong. 

TiYen^ deBcent aod a most dlatlncultliBd 
nanumllit; a. ITSO, n. IR51. hIb |»1d- 
dMlworkeaw "Blrdiof Ammca/'ard 
"The Qoadnipeda or America." lbs 
fbrma-work oooupybif Iho author 14 

Aufrean, -Jf'ao. Of or pertafulBe to 
' ug^AS, 000 of the AivDDauta, afterwarda 
ICKorEUs. A. ■table.biOredaDinyth- 
DEy, the slablfl of thia k ng. In whloh 

rf Imptacdablc, Hopcnle* nndcrtook it 
ind aceompUthed Itlna Bln^e^y. 
LOBBr, ^ger. An inetrunicnt larger than 
I gimlet Bir borine holes. '- ' 




JLosTur, 'gr. Among the andent Bo- 
inaoA a functionary whose doty was to 
foretell future events from the raoyements 
of birds and animals, and unusual occur- 
rences. There was a college or commu- 
nity of nine augurs, four patricians and 
five plebeians. One who pretends to tell 
future events by omens. 

Au^nut, 'gust The eighth month of the 
year, named for the Itoman Emperor 

AuflTUStan, 'an. Pertaining to the Em- 
peror Augustus ; as, the A. age, the most 
brilliant period in Koman literature. Per- 
taining to the town of Augsburg ; as, the 
A. Confession, drawn up by Luther and 
Melanchthon, embodying their reasons 
for separating from the Koqiish Churdi. 

Augnistin, 'in. A member of one of sev- 
enl monastic fraternities who follow rules 
framed by St. Augustine. Also an order 
of nuns who wait on the sick. The Uo- 
tel Dleu of Paris is served by them. 

AiifiTUstiniaxi, -gus-tin'i-an. One of 
those divines who, from St. Augustine, 

, maintain that grace is absolutely effectual 

' fit>m its nature. One of a sect of the 16th 
century, who maintain that heaven will 
not be open till the general resurrection. 

AuflTUsUne. St., -gus'tin. The most 
celebrated of the Latin Fathers, bishop of 
Hippo ; B. 854 in N. Africa, d. 480. He 
was noted as a successftil controyerdalist, 
and his teachings are the accepted doc- 
trines of the Church. His principal 
works are the "Confesdons" and &• 
"City of God." 

Au^Tuvtiui, Oaius Ootavitu CsMar. 

Son of Caius Octavius and Atia, daugh- 
ter of Julia, sister of Caius JuUus 
Ciesar, the dictator, by whom he was 
adopted. After tne assassination of 
his great-uncle he was elected Con- 
sul, and became one of the trium- 
virate, his associates being Antony 
and Lepidus. After the defeat of Brutus 
and Cassius, Lejddns was first deprived 
of his power, and five years later Oc- 
tavius defeated Antony and Cleopatra, 
becoming sole ruler of the Romans. He 
was the first who bore the title of empe- 
ror, and the Senate bestowed upon him 
the name **Angnstus," signliying "Ma- 
1estic,"aname which all ms suooessors 
assumed ; b. 68 b. c, d. a. d. 14. 

Auk, ak. English name of birds of the 
tarn. iHcidre, ord. Natatcres, including the 
great and litlle auk, or black and^ white 
Giver, the puffin, /be.; members of the 

gvn, AJat, coataining two spedes, fhe 
groae Muk (AJea impeDni»\ now, it it 

believed, ezttnct, and the raaor-biU (Aka 

Aulio, 'Bk. Pertaiiifng to a voyal oourt 
In the old Geniuui Eqmire the A. Oonndl 
was a court of jotifldiracn which decided 
without an appeal. It eeased to exist 
in 1806. The title Is now applied in 6er> 
many to Uio chief council ox any dq^art- 

Aulio, lik. In some European universi- 
ties a ceremony observed in oonHerring 
the decree of Doctw of Divinity. 

Aulostoma, -los'to-ma. A gen. of 
fishes, fam. Aulostomid» or Flstukoide, 
closely allied to Fistolaria. 

AuloiitoinidflB, -tom'i-d£. A flan, of 
acanthopterous fishes, of which the g«n. 
Aulostoma is the type. 

AunoeLan'seL Akind of balance known 
as the Danish steelyard, having a mov- 
able ftilcrum and a fixed weight, the fore- 
finger often acting as the former. It was 
very inaccurate, and was prohibited by 

Aune, an. A French cloth-measure, now 
superscN^ed by the mdtre. The A. noo- 
velle, 47i English inches, is still uaad in 
selling cloth. 

Aurantiacen, a-ran'ti-ft"86-6. The MS 
ange tribe of plants, ord. Bataoe«, oom- 
prtoing the orange, lemon, lime, citron, 
bergamot, and shaddock or f<Nrbidden 

Auxelia, ^'li-a. A gen. of Acalej^uB or 
meduslform Hydrozoa, whieh passes 
through several changes of form in its de- 

Auxelian, -an. An amateur oolleetor 
and breeder of insects, particularly of the 

Aurelianus, liucius Bomitius. 
The son of a Boman peasant, who be- 
came emperor, s. Claudius II. He cleared 
Italy of the northern barbarians, defeated 
and captured the celebrated Zenobia, 
Queen of Palmyra, and carried on other 
successftil cuDiMdgns. He was killed by 
his troops while on the march to Persia ; 
B. 212 ; crowned 270 ; n. 275. 

Aureole, -dl. In painting, an illumina- 
tion surrounding a nolv person, as Christ, 
a saint or martyr, and intended to repre- 
sent a luminous cloud or haze supposed 
to emanate tfom. him. When it symbol- 
izes Christ a cross is Inclosed in the aure- 

Auric, Mk. Pertaining to gold. A. ox- 
ide, a saturated combination of gold and 

Auxioiha&olte, -H-kal'alt. A mVuecal oo- 


1 yield t foii- 

. The' 

wt which Is proniliif 

mencheid M thac«r lobHiBtitj hfortfljc. 
Aoiieala, -lik'a-lL A nrdon Sower d«- 
riTPd from Ihft fellow JMuiqIh AortOdla. 
BOEnedTii« caU«d bev^s-air. A fren- ^r 
phjWplu^rDiu or pluit-eatiDp guti^ropo- 

Atirtea -ri'its. In Attron. tbr WngoarT, 

ilaiilne CnptHs, of thTBrtl Dimgnltndt 

Aurlacalp. 'ri-atalp. An Inetnuneiit to 

IB, B'rokn. A ep«lu of wild b 
la, th« boniHni of Artitotlo, oi 
~ *■•— - of Plinr; the Burtipe 

Annira, 'n. The ridnit U^t of tlie 
morning; tip a«wn of d»)r. ThogoaSsM 
of the loorDini,'. or dawn delB«d. The 

onm in s ohwiot, Iior rosy flngan dron- 

Kirentle dew. The A. boralli or Ifie 
utnHi (polR lirbto), > EnnilDana me- 
teorid phenomeDon sppovlDff it nigfat ; it 

above Ibe bi 



id ttntcbius Urxiri 
u to form HI urn, 

n borealia emulr 
of onUdll cloo- 

AnroieUnrite. -lenn-rlt. An ore of 
lellnrlnDI conlaininff gold And nlltfer. 


d, obd prtx:iplut«d bjimmoDbk; 
faJmioAUnf fold. A. nuHaiaani, moBalo 
Ipld, a fivla-bke alloy, oonUtnliig ooppw 

AnsterlltB. 'tor-Uti. A MonTlsn town 

pole, tbe p^e of t 
posed lo tbe bona! 

.'rimia, tha rti 
V Uuw BOUlil of 

etUmalfd at 
&.aatralia. aaa-trile-ali. Tbo lannvi 
laland on the xlobe. harlnir an area of 
a^UOO.OOtf »], mllM, hetnF iMltn. from 
E. to W.. and l,snu Ihm N. lu S. It Hea 
b(lweailoI.ia>andllu>8.. and Idb. IIS<> 
■ndUU-E. lUeblefmouiUlaraivaain 

liverpool lanire ; the idiiwl vl livflra ar* 
[be Adetaldo. Vlslorla, Miurar and BwaL 
Sheep and cattle Ckrminj; jr«carEledoB 
exIBillreljr. and it la rich in minM of 
gold and wl and quarrloi of alate, asid' 
BlDDe and llRHBtose. A. IB a Britiibda- 
pflDdaDoy, and waa np to the middtoof 
the prvBent centary prindpelly notod aa a 
place of EiUe for criminals ; the dlKOTerT 
of eoU Id I9M. Loir—- ' —■- 

of European ImmUnDta, and 
II u uu- lino of thoinost Ihrlringaod 
Important of T "" " " '"'" ""' ~""" 
ttpUn), Sydnej 

AluArla, 'tri-ah. An empire of Centnl 
EotomTb. ofOeriDJuiy anJ^W. ofBoHi^ 
ODveriDg an area of 23T.2S4 eq. m-, and 
harlnK a tola] pop. of 39,400.000. lie 

Elnc^al dlvialonB are I'ppe^ and T.owcr 
utrb, Hungary. Cimtlii, <nd Rkvanla, 
Tranflylvanla, Boanla and Ilencp^vlna, 

<ierjnan Empire, bnt Frauds t, (VirmoUy 
r«iti^4Kl tho title of Emi>iTor of fiflnium" 
In 1§04. The prlndpai inountalD9 of d 

Praf^e and Trinls. ^ha Kn^Brnmentia 
a bereditary Diooarcby, the rdtrnlnf; bonaa 
efllawbiiix gobiR baek in an nnlnlo^ 
rupled line loltadalpb I., 12TS. 

AutoMoBiBpher, 'to-!*ijB"™-ftr. Ona 
whowriteaan aonDontofhlaownElb. 

AiitiKMixpcnu, -Ur'pni. i nonis slyen 
lo Ihiit* OODIlMibig «t the perloarp, with- 




out any organ, such as the calyx, ont- 
>vardly adhering. 

Autochzonoffraph, -kronVgraf. An 
lustrum tint for tho Instantaneous sdf- 
recordlujf of time. 

Autochthon, tok'thon. One of the 
priinitivu inhabitants of a country. That 
which is original to a particular country. 

Autocrat, 'tO-krat. An absolute prince 
Of Huvcroign ; a title assumed by the em- 
]>orors of RnsRia. One who is invested 
with unliraitod authority. 

Auto de fe, ou'td da t&". ^ judgment 
of the Spanish Inquisition. A public so- 
lemnity held by the courts of the Inquisi- 
tion at the execution of heretics. The 
last auto de fe took place in the middle of 
the 18th century. 

AntOffenoos, s-toj'en-us. Self-produced; 
self-generated. "A. soldering, the process 
of uniting pieces of metal by the fUsion 
of part of their own substance. 

Autogrraph, 'to-graf. A person's own 
handwriting. A machine which writes of 
itself; an antographic press. 

Aatomaton, -tom'a-ton. That which 
has the power of spontaneous movement. 
A self-acting machine; docks, watches 
and many machines may be denominated 
automatons ; but the ^rm more specific- 
ally denotes an apparatus In whudi the 

- concealed power is made to imitate the 
motions of living beings. A balance, a 
machine for weighing planchets and coin, 
and sorting the pieces aooording to weight. 

Autophoxi, 'to-fon. A barrel-organ, 
the tunes of which ure prodnoed by per- 
forated sheets of mill-board. 

Antositarli, -si-tfi'M-L An ord. of 
double monsters, joined as by the umbiU- 
ens. The Siamese twins are a well-known 

Autotsn^e, -tfp. A photc^Taphio pro- 
cess resembling heUotype. 

Autotypography, -tI-pog"ra-fi. A 
process resembling nature-printing, by 
which drawings are impressed on a metal 
plato, from which copies may be taken. 

Autumn, 'turn . The third season of the 
ye.u>. Astronomlcallv it begins at the 
autumnal equinox, wncn the snn enters 
Libra, 2U<I beptember, and ends at the 
winter solstice, 21st December, when the 
sun enters Capricorn ; bat it popn- 
lariy comprises September, October and 
November. . 

Anzometer, §ks-om'et-er. An instru- 
ment to mMsurB the magnifying powers 
MTaa optica! appamtuB, 

Avalanche, av'a-lansh. A vast body 
of snow and ice ali^big down a momtaia 
or precipice. 

Avant-coorier, a-yfin-kr>-r6r. A per- 
son dispatched before another or a oom> 
pany to give notice of their approach. 

Avant-fiOBse, -fos. In Fort the ditoh 
of the counterscarp next to ihe country, 
at the foot of the glacis. 

Avanturine, -van't&-rln. A brlOlant 
variety of glass or artificial gem made by 
heating pounded glass, oxide of copper 
and oxide of iron. A variety of quartz rocdc 
containing spangles of mica or quartz. A. 
glaze, a glaze for p<Mrcelain. It is brown- 
ish, with crystalline lamina) of a goldeo 

Avatar, av-a-tar^ A descent from 
heaven ; particularly applied to' the incar- 
nation or the Hindu deities, or their ap- 
pearance in some manifest shape upon 
earth. An incarnate form. 

Ave, &'t& Haai ihrewelll Ood bless 
yon I 

Aveler, aVel-er. A machine for remov- 
ing the avels or avms of barley fix>m the 
grain ; a hummeller. 

Avellane, a-vcVan. In Her. a term im- 
plied to a cross whose quarters resemUe 
a filbert nut; when placed on the mondea 
of kings or emperors, ensigns of sovereign- 

Ave-SCary, Ave-Marie, aVe-m&-ri, 
a've-ma-re'a. An invocation totiieYir- 
gin Mary ; a formula of devotion in tiie B. 
G. Churcn, chaplets and rosaries being 
divided into a certain nomber of ave- 
maries and paternosters. A particnlar 
time of the day, when the bells ring and 
the people repeat the A. 

Avena, a-v6'na. A gen. of plants, ord. 

Gramineffi. The most important sp^es 

is A. sativa, the cultivated oat. 
Averdant, a-ver'dant. In Her. covered 

with green herbage ; chiefly applied to a 

mountain base. 

Avemian, 'ni-an. Pertaining to Aver- 
nus, a lake of Campania, Italy, represent- 
ed by classical poets as the entrance to 

Averrhoa, av-er-ro'a. A pen. of plants, 
ord. Oxalidaceae, or wood sorrels, consist- 
ing of two species. 

Averrhoidt, a-ver'6-Ist. One of the sect 
of Peripatetic philosophers, so denomi- 
nated from Averrhoes, a celebratca Ara- 
bian author, bom at Cordova, in Spain, in 
1149. They held the soul to be mortal, 
though pretending to submit to the Chris- 
tian theology. 



nrdcn ImpUmeni 

... pruning lra« 

&Teinaiit. t-van'taL Ii r y 

Her. Cbs r^bt baud turned I lu I 

of Tntflbmtos, ■tijtiiala ^^^^^^ 

Iv.who aiijdc* 


lilhatnf Hq" 
QA Ulrdfl into three or- 

kvuyar. m-nn-er- i na rniei nufruETUB 
irtmpoU dtiM of th« oM flfnnio Km- 

Awt, %1. A polbted ifiHrnmcDt r-tr plvre- 

Awlwort, '"(Tl. Th« populni OMr» n( 

Awnlns, 'Injc, A corerlng: er cuma 

TJjAt pnrlDrtliopoo;! d^ forward of ue 
bplkhaui ota. twmI's caMn. . 

wboae eg^ ara iu«d aa * 

Aviary, -n-rl. A baUdlng fu. 

{□^aad koepln^of tdjtia. 
ATlcenna. ar-t-Hii'iiah. 

ArabioD phynidaa and phila 

anthnrtly (br contnriaa. 

nracbifera... _. 

maUata Inoladfl the puna 

ABien^ of 



Avif anna. av'l-Bi-iia. A o 
fur the biKli oft dlatriot. 

ATlsnoii'beTTy, a-THn-icai-be 
-_.-., „.. '--•Ul.laaa tb 

f KhiranuJi aaBlI,1sBitbanB] 

Avocado, av-8-1 
HAr, the f^t of 

AToirdnpoIa, -n^da 

onlj- 19. It Is ae«d f 
Ibepredona metalaan 
AvOMt. '8-»t A 1 
KeouTtrMtn, nm. 

i'llG. The alUgslor- 


In which tho iugn«dQ fbroe 

,e armplC Tg Hat tba apaoa 
ned on the npiKr aide b»- 

A edf-evirlent trntfa a 
propoaltiaa wtaou tnlhl 
It algbt that bo proeeaa o 

labllahiu] prindpla Id aomi 
u the uiomt of poUUa 

3tiB. 'la. TTiB Jtadsht Ul 
Alnory, ppnalng tbrfiu^h a. I 

I elrolpbt Una with reipiTd 
llfleruat [Hirta of a muKTJl 

perpdEiillrulu'totheplaneof vlbntlon, A. 
ofrafrHlkm, thsatraiglitUBs dnwn pn- 
pendlDalar to Qu huwh of tho rafractlof 

Aaltnnth, l-muUi. 


AzoOTythrlna, -o-ritli"rfii. A DalariBi 
prfndplo aLulnad from Ih« HchlL 

Azoic. i-iil'Di. Dsetttnte at maj Tvtif* 

Aaolltmiiie, u-S-af tnln. A rad Mtop- 

(roup oTfl In tlisN. AtlBDtkt. Thsf n 
> dspandency of Partonl, «Mt>> attf, 
Angra, In Tanydru ; toM pop. «I3.1H. 
Aateo, 'tek. Of or perliilBing to Hi" '*• 
tecs. tb« ruHnc tribe Id Uerleii il 

InvHion nndir (>irtai 
19, TbeTTereiclrl1tBdptDple,trt 

Amre, I'thnr. The fln« blae eolar af 
Ihaili;. AnnnieeoinmoBtoBennlWlM 
pigments. thiC niiida of bpii-Iuiili, oeJM 
Dllnniiiine, mid that mtda br flukic 
gliH irlth oxide of eobeft rediieea to pov- 

Asmite, 'zhHi-Ti. A blue inlBenl, tb« 
lazunto. aflei iJk blue melKhlte, ■ trl- 

Asymite. az'tm-Tt One of a aect of 
CbrlnClaiifi vbn sdmHiliter tbe aochirirt 

13 the tMond letter nnd tbe Int eo 
nut In tb* English ud meet a 
MhI*. ItiiamDteudlii(ilia,J 
hnn p br being pmdc 
« of TOlM u dlitlni 

Itii Kitted taHit so 
9 to a* f urd upjnta £ 


b ragolartr lUndg vben (bere li en f to 
I«tln worde, n pb in Onek, bh in 8u- 
sfalC. while (D OeniuB vonls It II either 


lutlpuMft, Aft ft nmBanl B ma nud bf 
tks Hebran ud OrKkiUBow by tb« 
AnUskL ftir fl ; br tiie Kcmuu tor JIML 
•BdwlthKllBaoTarUllIrR.OW. BlBoied 
** n ibbrertatlon hi B. A., Bftohdoror 
Arts: B. D., Bulidor ofDhrfcttri «nd B. 
Baal, tu'iL OrigbullT this nvrd rigsl- 
tifd lotd, ud wu ippHel to dUTaeiit 

ths drthacliiliuiii, u 


It «tBa Into tlisinmindllan or idiid; 
unmorpsnoni indplMe: Una, Jna- 
hul, naa&nb^nHlpar Bui). HuiRnl. 
jlnca of Bwil), Bul-Hunniaii, Bul- 

Babblti-metal, hsb'lt-melT An illay 
of ooppor, duo utA tin, aud for obvlAt- 
iDE IrlctlDli Id tlie bwin^ of JoDnulfl, 
ulee, Ac;, pvTxed fi>r Its Ipventor. 

Bablller, 'bUt. An Idlo talker ; ■ teller 
ofseBsti. On*of> nvnpaftliniib^lka 

B>b*l. .UfM. ne n>m« of (ba dtr 

BaUnstODlft, b*biii«4a-iit-s. A KHHip 
ot nnTiiHiecnis pknti, ■ hcUdii of the 
e«ii. BiecMs. 

BaUngtonlta, 'toD-it. A Tl^oonsinlD- 
atl tn tbo borDblaada ikra.« conslstinff 
eblcB]' of lUla, bon protoitdo ud 

BabUil. Is. ThepodDrasTssl ipedeH 
of iKwHa, SDDtslnliig pillk! Hid, tuflin 
r.n'l and doLotIiuf nutter. 

Baboo, to-bV. A Htadn title of re- 
■peet equlTiOaiit b> muter, dr. 

Babocm. ba-bSn. The dog-beed ape, i 
team tppHad to Qtudmrnaiis of tbegfln- 
OB Ojaaoapialiu sad Paplo. They hsTs 
almgated abrupt mmalea like s do£, 
atnni^ tnska or «aiitne tocllj. nhort b^n, 
anaU deep area vlth hu^ ey«brons, ind 
nkad ttSe^tlat ta tin blpt. Tbertre 

•Iffr, mOi^ HOTXi Itattrioa and gre- 

niloas. Thef eoustitato tha Ubk nnitlw* 
Uia monkeys with Ihe lover animlli, uid 
iDdude tbe cbscnu, drtIL common baboon 

Baby-f&naor, bi'bl-flrm-ar. A ironuui 

brinelnfr them up ; one who l^ea by ba- 

I'e-lon. The indent capltu 
of Bmbjlonta or AM)-ri*, IheuldMtdty of 

dty^of the world. It nns foun.Kl by 




* Baochantej -kan't*!. A priestoss of 

- Bacchus, o» one who joined in the cele- 
bration of ^e feaata of Bacchas ; one in a 
state of bacchio frenzy. 

Bachelor, bach'el-er. Anciently, a per- 
son in the probationary stage of knight- 
hood. A person who has 'taken the first 
degree (baooalauroate) in the liberal arts 
and sciences, at a college or unlyerslty. 
A nuin of any age who has not been mar- 
ried. Knight B., the title given to one 
who has been raised to the dignity of a 
knight without being made a member of 
any of tiie orders of chivalry, such as the 
(barter or the Thistle. 

Bachelor's Buttons, -erz but-nz. The 
popular name of the double-flowered vari- 
ety of Lychnis diuma (red campion), Cen- 
taurea nigra ( knap weea),but chiefly of the 
double-flowered Kanunoulus aconitifolins 
(white batchelor's buttons), and Banun- 
culus acris (yellow bachelor's buttons). 

BacUlaria, ba-sil-la'ri-a. A gen. of mi- 
erosoopic Algw, class Diatomaoeffi. 

Bacilli, 'U, In Bot the single valves 
of the frnstules of diatoms. 

, bak. A flat-bottomed ferry-boat 

adapted tor carrying vehicles, and worked 
by a chain or rope. A tub or vessel. A 
wooden trough Ibr carrying Aiel ; a coal- 

Baok-baad. iMuid. That part of the 
hamosB which goes over the back of a 
horso and beurs up the shafts of the car- 

Back-bar, 'bSr. A bar in the chimney 
to hang a vessel on. 

Back-bone, 'bdn. The bone of the back; 
the spine ; the vertebral column. Some- 
thing resembling a backbone in appear- 
ance, position or office : as the Apennines 
are tiie backbone of Italy. 

Backgammon, -gam'mon. A game 
.,' played by two persons upon a board made 
for the purpose, with pieces, dice-boxes 
and dice. Tne movements are made in 
accordance with the numbers turned up 
by the dice. , 

Backing-HP, 'ing-up. A term used in 
cricketand other games for stopping the 
ball and driving it back. 

Back-lash, 'lash. The reaction upon 
each other of a pair of wheels. 

Baok-linixig', lln-ing. In windows, the 
piece of sash fhmie pwrallel to the pulley 
ahd next the Jamb. 

Sack-linlLf liDgk. In engines, one of 
^f^IfoJts In a pamUel motion which con- 
Jitvt tbo air-pump rod to tho hoam. 

Back-painting, 'pfint-Ing. A method 

of staining mezzotinto prints with vanish 

. colors after they have been affixed to glass. 

Back-stay, 'stll. In printing, a strap 
used to check the carriage of a printing- 
press. A long rope or stay extencUd from 
the top-mast, topgallant-mast or roval- 
mast head backwuxls to tho side of a ship. 

Bacon, Francis, bftlui. Tho celebrated 
English philosopher, Lord Yenilflm and 
Viscount St Albans; b. 1561, d. 1626. 
His greatest works are his ''Essays,'* 
** Novum Organum " and ** De Augmen- 
tls Scientarlum." 

Bacon, Boger. An English scientist 
and publicist of tho 18th century, the most 
learned of his day. He is reputed to have 
advocated tho chango since made in the 
calendar, to have invcnte<l gunpowder, 
and is known to have manufiictured mag- 
nifying glasses. His great work, "Opus 
Majus," urges philosophical reform, and 
is a marvel of learning and prophecy. 

Bacon. Hog's flesh salted or pickled and 
dried, usually in smoke. 

Bacon-beetle, b^tl. A species of Der- 
mestes, tarn. Demiestidie, ord. Coleoptera, 
whose larva is very destructive to stufiled 

Baconian, -ko'ni-an. Pertaining to Lord 
Bacon, or his system of philosophy, found- 
ed upon induction, and Known as the in- 
duct! ve philosophy. 

Bacterium, bak-tS'ri-um. A gen. of 
Algse comprising the simplest forms be- 
longing to the Nostoc group. A simple 
plant is not more than the twenty-thou- 
sandth part of an inch in diameter. A gen. 
of orthopterous insects, fiun. Phasmidc, 
tho stick-insects. 

Bactrian, 'tri-an. Pertaining to Bactria, 
an ancient province of Persia. B. camel, 
the common or two-humped camel. 

Bactris, 'tris. A gen. of tropical Ameri- 
can palms. The fruit is small and soft, 
with a subacid, rather fibrous pulp. 

Bacolites, -u-U'tHz. A gen. of polvthal.v 
mo as or many-chambered cephalopoils, 

" fam. Ammontidie, only known in a foftsil 
state, having become extinct at the close 
of tho cretaceous period. 

Badger, bs^'er. 
A plantigrade car- 
nivorous m a m- 
mal, gen. Meles, 
fam. Melidffi, ac- 
cording to somej 
natunuists XJrsidsB 
or bears, or, accord- 
ing to others, Mus- 
t^dtt or woaao\a. T\v« oomuion badger, 

Indian Badger. 

BadderloCka, 'er-lnkii. 
namo fi>r Ihe AbiriB ciKu^rnu 
flri. r^mliuriueiv. 

bi On Holy Load. It mn^nnl lh> >ut- 

BamaSMhwik. -iy-rbik. A ua or 
libi-r 1o 1h' mu.'Iih1 id ui nrtlcJu t>7W 
™i Iwlnnt-tnir til n lailBiy ]>uicii;«U 

inning the l«id)-. 

Bagnio. bAu' 
bAifaln/r^ nixl i 

BasnoUon. buff-niVII-oD. Onoofn K«t. 

rvjivlHl Ibn whnle of tlio Old uiil put of 

1 PolBiid, Itnl.v, ths 

ThoiiEh rriwilH an n i 

the toft uirl melixlloiis Irlah luiiniliic. tba 
nuiro marlial HU^hluid bkgl^po> tha 
Itolimi bugpipe, d:c 

Basnet, bt-fn't'. A littlo nniiid moldlus 
Uko On utru^l, caUeA wben iiUn i 

jula. Part of tb« W. 
Inaies. cumuriBlE); newly MK), tho HnsllHt 
bdiur calka keys ; they belong to tirat 
Britain. Kaaua, or New Prorldciice, l> 
tlieoj^tiil. Totnl ]Wp., 41.84». 

BalUW.-hir'. An K. Indian niHounmiJDt 
of «rt((ht. TurylDB from fcl3 W 025 lbs. 

Balkoltte, bi'kal-lt. A mlnenl otaa- 
rlnif In adcular prtaioB. » vorluty of Augltf. 

Bail, )ul. An Bdiutccd poit oatsidntho 

Bailiff, 'Hf. A tuboiJIniU BriHth 
officer or (ttncttonaiy, Tho sberlif l« 
monnrch'n hiiWtt, hiA W» coavAs 



llnick. But Urn 

d«>tgDiit«dbylh1a lumau 

banimomflrtl™ sppotated by'lhe'iorts 
tn UiFlr r0sp«llvoJiulsdlcU<>D> to perform 



tinn tie ihsln-midl i^th wt! 
BainbrldKe, William. A 

fflte JflViL of pTMlly Bupcrinr 

The pfifdnols 

loal fbrtn 


flailbla, en 
KilKhlDK m 

M of the & 

BaIoo^o, bi-^nk 
the Ptmal Butoi, [ 
BrtUsh hrtMngs. 

BAJnry, biO'll-rl. 
Indies ror honei & 

Bafc»mi>li, lak'i 

1, tallim. A oelebnted Amblui 
■eer menliotied in theBiali>ture>iheUved 
In the ISth oenturjF b.o. 
BsU-lMda, bili-brdi. A>orletafbed« 
eon^dii; of about S!^ feet of lichl^lbeel]' 

fl.OOO fcct In thlcknoH 

listen ud Hh-bedB tl,i 

Small tth 

dried; 1 
ips, bs-le'nl 

Balanidn, -Ai. The tnothlem vhilai, s 
Iknir of marlike mammals, oomprlalnf the 
largeit ei^Bliflg- anLmals. in ivhldl the 
-'--" -' ''-"- '- -ippUeii by platea of 
.__^ jB divided into two 
imoeth and Aitrowed whaloa. 

whalebone. The;^ 

equal weights o 

balance coDfltructod Ihr 

but of equal wel^te. 

hSrt arm a lee. weight 
7 scale will canse (he 

ent equlUbrtnin. 'The 

at in; banker's. An eoualltrofwelghtor 
power; Mulpolse or Jnst projmTlon, m^ 

Ubra, » ,_ 

Doi In aeplomber. B. of power. In [wll- 
tlcs, a certain equality of power amons a 
oomln of different ataioe. B. of tnoe, 
a phrase need to denote the dlJFVrence be- 

modldes exported *nd lmpoct*ll. 
Balance. To bring lo an eqnfpoio ; aa to 
balance the weights In the scnlea of baT- 

lahaU fill up the I 
very email point. aaatlght-ro[ 

mmts tov oonntenwlslng Ih 

■reof. -r*f. A r 

la^ A^a^aiZQ^ . nw 


!l!r.?™12i?*~™ »pedMg™ii[«d Balder, uva^. in BmBrt. Mvth. <hf 

tnto tni g«ln». son of Odin, Uw j;ounft nnrl bi»ullftiLpKl 

Sf^'*"v25i;^\.''*y5"^'" '*™" Bold-eme. bsM'ern. Thf * hn-IM 

Butrisd^hell «d In being dwUlutoof h„„.i Lw^iJn^™ ihn .^di^d „f tt^ 

BaJ«a 'h. a \ai1M;r of tpinrl rab)-;lu 
M of two four-Hided i>yr>]pldB, apiiilHl 

Bwoi^, diner or horr 




Baleen, ba-lSn'. The whalebone of com- 

Baliki, lR&-ld'kS, In Russia, the name 
for the back pieces of the sturgeon, which 
are salted and smoked. 

Baliol, John De, b&l'e-61. The fomous 
competitor of Robevt Bruce for the Scot- 
tish crown,on the death of Queen Marsaret, 
1290. He was an En^ttsh baron, and sup- 
ported by Edward I., who was made arbi- 
ter, was crowned. Baliol soon joined the 
French against Edward, and he was de- 
feated and imprisoned ; reliered through 
the intcroessicm of the Pope, he died in 
France in 1814. Edward, his son, attempt- 
ed to seize the crown in 1832, but alter a 
year*s flghtlnff, renounced all claims in 
ravor of Davla JSruce ; d. 1868. 

BcdlnflT-press, bSl'ing-pres. A power- 

6ress eqEiployed for compressing soft goods 
ito boles. 

BftllnaiiT, bal'i-sa-5r. The Mydaus or 
Arotonyx colhuris, an omnivorous quad- 
ruped, Ihm. MusteUna. 

Balistes, ba-Us't^:. An extensive gen* 
of pleotognathous fishes, fern. Balistldffi, 
known as trl^o^r-fish. 

BalistidsB, ba-Us'ti-de. The flle-flshes, 
ft Amily of brilliantly colored tropical 
fishes, ord. PlectognatnL 

Balistraria, bal-is-tr&'ri-a. In old Fort 
an ^>erture through which crossbowmen 
discharged their arrows. A turret in 
which an archer was stationed, projecting 
'firom the parapet or ttojxi the race of the 
building, common in border counties of 
ikigland and Bcotiand. 

BwlTran, bdl'kdn. The mountain range 
of European Turkey; greatest height, 
5,825 feet 

Balker, bak'er. A flsherman*s name for 
one who stands on eminences to espy the 

* shoals of herring, and to give notice which 

• way they* pass. 

Ballad, bal'lad. A short narrative poem, 
especially such as is adapted for dnging ; 
a poem partaking of the nature both of 
the epic and the lyric. 

Ballahou, 'a-ho. A fast-sailing two- 
masted vessel, used in the "W. Indies. 

Ballam, 1am. A canoe hollowed out of 
timber, used by Ceylonese pearl-fishers. 

Ballan-wraase, lan-ras. An acanthop- 
terygian fish, Labrus bergylta or macu- 
latus, fern. Labridffi. 

Ball-oaUbxe,bal'kal-i-ber. A ring-gauge 
■fbr determining £be diameter of gun-shot 
oa board aldp. 

^^^^-oartrid^re, ^kir-trlj. A cartridge 



containing a ball, in contradistinction to 

Ball-cock, 'kok. A stop-cock which 
opens and shuts automatical^. 

Ballet, bal-lu. A dance la which several 
persons take part. A theatrical represein- 
tation, in which a story is told by gesture, 
music, dancing, scenery, &c. In Her. a 
bearii4> ^ coats of arms, denominated ac- 
cording to the color, bezants, plates, 
hurts, &c. 

Ball-flower, bal'flou-er. In Arch, an 
ornament resembling a ball placed in a cfa-- 
cular flower, the three petals of which 
f<Nrm a cup around it, characteristic of the 
style of the 14tibi century. 

Ballln£r-siin, 'ing-gun. An instrument 
for admlnlBtering medicine rolled Into balls 
to horses. 

Ballista, bal-lis'ta. One of the military 
engines used by the andents, often oon- 
fbunded with catapult, used for throwing 
darts, while the ballista threw stones. 

Balloon, -Idn'. A glass receiver. 
In Arch, a ball or globe on the 
top of a pillar. In pyrotechnics, 
a ball stcmed with combustibles, 
which, bursting like a bomb, ex- ^ .^ 
Wbits sparks of fire like stars. A **"»««» 
bag filled with gaseous fluid lighter than 
common air, causing it to rise and float in 
the atmosphere. The greatest height yet 
attained in a balloon was T miles. 

Balloon-fish, 'fish. A curious tropical, 
malaoopterygian or soft-spined fish, ord. 
Flectognathi, the Tetraoaon hnestus or 
striped sptoe-belly . 

Ballot, lot A ball useu in voting. A 
ticket by which one votes. The system 
of voting in such a way that the voters can- 
not be identifled. 

Ballota, -Id'ta. A gen. of woolly plants, 
ord. LabiatsB. 

Ball-8Crew, b&l' skro. A screw fiwtened 
to the end of the ramrod of a gun, usedtn 
extracting bullets fi^>m the barrel. 

Ball-train, 'tr&n. A set of rolls for roll- 
ing puddlers' balls Into bars. 

Ball-trolly, 'trol-li. An iron truck used 
in conveying balls of puddled iron froln 
the puddJing-fiimace to the squeezer. 

Ball-vein. 'van. A variety of iron-ore 
containing iron pyrites. 

Balnx, b&n. Odoriferous or aromatic ex- 
udations firom trees or shrubs. Any fira- 
grant or valuable ointment The name of 
several plants, partioulariy of the gen. Me- 
lissa, ora. Lablatie. Balm of Oilead, the 
exudatloixft of a tree, Balsamodendron 

ailaiUt llr, wUdi pcDdnw Oma 
•BD, l» tba AUea l«lnmtAn. : 
telDi Is ■ plut oftha gta. UdltUi 
Bolnunml, tHl-mo'nL Allm th 
nflSdenca on 1>«efi1dfl« AberdecoBb 
tenn hppUed Id vhIdoa BrUalH, u 
nLboDti, peMooU. 

llrniiaTMdg mriTh « IuIhII i B. ono- 
bMwmiiM, UiB bdm of Meooa : B. iilM' 
dou^ Mm or QUwd; B. AlHcwum. 
jUHmb bdeinom ; B. Unkul o( Bdade, 
a min called gowul. IhUstoI to b« the 
Udlnm of UwBtUe. 

BaltmUL WU-iu. In Bom. ■oUi. the 
baltbrwUiik ths nrord or qulTet wu 
n^odad. In iztb. ■ bud In tlu fluk 
of an loids pnMuMd oqdbiL 

BmIUc^ twiritlfc. Th* M« luoloHd br 
D«uiiaik[FTawla, KdmI*, Bwedsn umI 
HorwAV. 900 m. long, 180 ra. wide. It In 
eonnsoUd vllh tbe BorUi Su Iij' the Cu- 

B, bvrl'te-mOr. A connb' end 
chief conuneRla] dtjr of MenUnd, on 
CheHp«ke B*;. lODBded In lTg>, sod 
named mfter Lord B-, the t>)QDdet of tho 
edon; ; pop. In 1S80, S<l,4(ia. 

- "■* a-mili-bwd. Thf 

I. loCeridn, Ti«u1y 


. -. Ul'ai-tfr. ADDdleoliunnor 
plluUer, edoniHl irilh moldlnn, uied 
fnrbdiutndes. Tho literal oMitot tba 
rolnte of the lonle upltal. 

r*d'. A row of 1*1- 
n.jDicea sysralL serTlRKuafenoe 
loloeure for Altm, beloonleK, ^., and 

I. Thonpireofoar 

Bambino, Um-M'nc; 
Sevdour ropreeeoted H 

>er by angdi. The ButlBBlma 



BoJWkok. biDg'Uk. Capltnl or SIub, 
A^i. Pop. 85T,[iOO. 

Bangor bin'goT. The >«»nd ein ta 
Elie lUd comnierdll [mporume of tli» 
BUloof tha reuobsoot BlT«t. 

biuig-)r.Vrt-azi. Relating U 

1jv a ftennoQ preocbed befoi« Oforge I. lb 
illT, by Dr. Uoodlr, Bl^op of Bangor. 
^ " ui. Aq Indian tradar or 
-a pArdaulorly one of llio 

work! m "Hlitmy oftbe Colonluthni m 
ttaa LTnUed Statu,'' and "Hlalory or tbi 

BandaU, ban-dili. 

Unaa teitiUa otUa. 

!e, B. driyi,lii 

Banjo, banMo. Tbi 

Id played with lbs 
ink, baagk. A a 
»ie tbe lamHUidliie plain. 

Bamdloaot,Iwi'dl.Mt. TbaMoaglenn- 
t«u3, ths ImmM kiunni ipedw of nt, a 
DoUva orisSi. Itliartml^oMiUei!. 

T^ *^iti Tlg-p1 ftUff, baal'tng-t^An. A 
1^0 uaad for cutting oat croorea eliii] 
lalayln; atrlnga aod buda. 

to ibciD tlM brim. 
Bandoline, 'de-lSn. A mnenagliiDiiq 

Cnuoed adbatande^ prepAnd from ice- 
i ar Irlili mint, qmnce aeeda and mm 
ttn^acoatb, uaed Id the toUal. 
Band aaw, tond'tf A law mudmrii,' 
ofsateel belt with aaenated adga, niulr. 
Ing ofl wheelfi. 
Bane-beriy, bin'be-rf. The oomniDii 

Bana^wort, 'wert A name oomman 
two plantar AiropaBeDidotuu, callid n 
DaaiDy Hl^itabade, aod Bananaii 

JBitng-lc, laag'le. An onwmenta] ri 

•B opoa tb 

PT nhlcli ibe 

Bankrupt-lawB, 'nipt-ljii. . 
of atatutorjr redi-'-" — —.i— 
propartT and vttrv^ ui *■! uiwj>«iil m 
eqidtab^ dlatrUmtsd among bli <;HdltDn. 
'"■"fc^l^j 'al-a. A geo. of trcea tsi 
ahmli*, «M. protaaoen, a alngls head of- 


Bannookbom. bln'iiAk-bani, 

BAnQcirm! et 

hnd. Pop. S,4WJ. 

BuuinattB. 'kFL Id yorC a nlwd ftwt- 
lukbuMaaun^wt, on whlab muikel- 
Wn BUDdtonrflDpou Ihif enemy la the 
moat. Tb* ftotmjr of a bridgu ; luiuii- 

Saaatae^'Ae. Aftmaln MrrbcUeTcd 
la liriwf Ml MBS parti or HeoUud W 
attMli I tMlft a a parlleuliir Louu. aod lo 

it tiaiKli, l> the OH 

i orp^ledw 
bAt of Japan. 

'tens. A apeolaa of ox. Bob 
lutensor B. Bosdiilciu,a localmwln 
1^ Uunyan AnhlpeJa^. 
Xwto, 'M. A nams appUnl to th« Af- 
rican kniUy of tonEuM- Ono peculUdtf , 

wecIaUy of Iha KiiiBc ' "■ '- •"■ 

orduoha Qr cUcka 


BkptiataiT. 'il*-tiT-L A huJlcllnr or 
lao1[ lu wtafih li wliiiiiil.'tiT.iJ th^ rlui of 
lApllMn. Inllirt'arlyi.'liriniiinlliiin^U 

taptlatcrtvs HIU nruala In ui 
of St. Jutin iJLtcniii, JI'ioLL-. 
Bar, Ui, A ptnce of wUil nmiirr. Irnur 
lu 1ira|<art<un lu lU tlil<'kni'S<. H-rvlni- ai 
a r«er an axli, a r-mnwrltii; |rt.'.'.-. but 
npcolii])}' Hit an obilrucllon : uaisinlan 

^iDDuUiorurtvirnrharlKT, Thrrall- 
oreupy In courU. TTia Ijai^e wlim.- pril- 
™7ln^' Tho Inrlodfl |Tih"' uTt> (arm 

Bpain, rcioaikalilo t 

_ Banbabtrea. 

iDlyftoo W to TO fHt bigh. Tbo only 
itkcr ■pedeaor Ola can. known lath* 
^gamlUB aonr-foura or oreannrf-tartar 


Bapboiaflt, 'A-mel. Tbs InuglnwyMol 

_ _ ilel^dlnf tho 

itteorfcrtlfludtown. An 

Id the wall ihrouuli H-hli-U pins 

iloea, bar-bii'doi. Tho pitndpiil 
if Ibe Windward group, tho must 
nuiH-iy of tho W. Indlet. They belong 
to Great llrilaln, and Bridgetown on B. 
la the caplLil jinii reildenco of tbe oolonlal 

Bar bsidoea Olierry Tbe (Hdt of tha 
MnlplghU nrena, ocd. UalplgblaoM). 

Barba-HlapanlOft, 'ha-hli-niii'1-ka. 
Spaolah moM ; the horM-tuUi Ilka flbtn 


DfUieTUluH)Eiiinani?flliles| im epI^h/U. 
used In Amerlrai flir imflliii^iniahraDs, Ac. 
BaAaiT. Mr'holi-re. Tbo nnnia rIjcd 

from £gn'"'>'tae Atlantic, uDcl Ibim Ibe 
M^lternoeaii 10 thflOrBBti'rATIiui Moun- 
tains. It Includca tbo ststLfi nr Trlpnll, 
Timls, AtearlB and Uonx»o; lbs rralon 
e. ofOia Lessor Alljia is onllfil Belfd-nl- 
Jcrid. ** Cmujhy 

eoverelgntf uf i 

Borberrr, 1j,.-ri. a plant, gaa. Bit- 
bwla (B, mlgmia); rililieridBO bush. 

Barhnlo, 'bfii. A emnll hcnrfl ; n h.'ard- 
ii*8 uei to thnjwrlstonio nf Bome moMw 

"- A sen, orjJaha, flim. 

CfprlnldiB, nblob Mak tlicte fbod b]r roi 
iDKln Uiowlllw-'- 

pnobtlujf . 

enckooB uid tngoDS, dlilded Into »<«•■ 
BBDcni. M ro«onli«, Buooo, w Buo b«r- 
bets, and Tamada, of puff-birds. 
Baroarolle, 'ks-rol. A elmplo laiilodr 

BuDeleai&, bir-se-Io'aah. A MlebnCad 
Bpuilsb sotport on Ihe MedltfrruiQiB, 
»wmt«l7 -well fordfled. Fonnded br 
Romllcn Barm, of OtrthKo, ftther of 
Bumlbul, B. 0. «M. Pop7^,ll>. 

Baroon.'kon. AlMditressel oHd tn 
Oh UsStoiuen. 

Sai^^ntter, 'knt-sr. A. aluvlng nu- 


I. ganenUlj I 

HcnieromeQLB, gtmwmij 
panlmtut of the harp. 
Bardoawlat, birdea'n-lgt 0ns of 
tbo fbtknven vf BardnaDes, of Me«opo- 
tamla, In Oh td oenMnr. wlia tsnrht that 
(bfi AcUoDS of tD«n depend on nte. tn 
-rhlehGodhtmaeiriaButiJMt.'-' '—•- 
IS incanMtiin ot Cbilat 

BMn^-boaKI, i>ard. 

SancT ex- 
tends OTV the 
vaOi pKjaM- 

Bbt-Itoh. l>Br'[-fiii. Ima wrqnfrht Into 
BuUuble bin by pnddMag ud ruDlog. 

Barltk, ba-ri'U. A gen. of irogririij 
Riiiiruacril lilrd6, oUurwIaa caS^ PSl 

Ui8 cry uf a ooK- 
BKrklii«-lzoii. -l-ura, Aj 

1 f An«olath 
H JlMUihu 

1 Ihs (bird inrt or ui 
IDCb, iTohn nrKlrJohn B., A Ducnoroufl 
nAreoaldfritLofl orth«i|i|-|t ofniAlLU^iitor, 


pis, I'omta Ueruiiiil*. 
Bam. bOrn. A cnver«l bnlWillK Hir •»- 

QuriDiT brm prtKluoa ; iUao fijr sUbllDg 

bonwi or <ME[e. 
BwnalMS. 81, Ur'iuli-bb. Oneorst 

Piul'i mETFTU and UiumrUIsUi ttaa 

JoBea.buC the snmuna B,, or "fanol 

Banu«, Albert. A Proabytcrlan dl- 
»ini>, B. In Nfw York SIbid in 1TM6 ; n. 
137U, A nruUHc wrilfr, auA aathor of 
"NoUwoiilhs New TcsUunenl,"! wort 

Bamsy, 7oBeiih. bir'nt. A «nnn»- 

BaroKTaph. bur'S-gnf. 




was introdacod under the Norman prln ces. 
Barons of the exchequer, the Judges that 
try cases relating to the revenue. Barons 
of the Cinque Ports, members of the Com- 
mons formerly elected by the Cinque 
Ports, Dover, Sandwich, Romney, Hast- 
ings, Hythe, Winchelsea and Rye. 

Baronet, -et. A hereditary rank or de- 
gree of honor next beloAv a baron, not a 
member of the peerage, but having prece- 
dence before all knights except those of 
the Garter. The order was founded by 
James I. in 1611. The number originally 
created was 200. Baronets of Scotland 
and Nova Scotia were an order founded by 
Charles I., with the professed object of 
colonizing Nova Scotia. 

Barony, -i. The title or honor of a 
baron ; also the territory or lordship of a 
baron. In Ireland, a territorial division 
^62 in all), corresponding nearly to the 
English hundred ; originally the district 
of a native chief. 

Baroama, ba-ros'ma. A gen. of plants, 
ord. Butacese. The leaves of B. crenata 
constitute the article of materia medica 
called buchu. 
- Barouche, ba^5sh. A four-wheeled 
two-horse carriage with a fklling top. 

Barouohet, bfi-r5-sh&'. A small bar 

Barrack, bar'ak. A hut or house for 
soldiers in garrison ; the permanent build- 
ings in which soldiers are lodged. 

Biurracoon, -a-k5n\ A negro barrack ; 
a slave depotf Barracoons used to exist 
at various points of the west coast of Af- 
rica, also in Cuba, Brazil, Ae. 

Barracuda, -kO'da. A spedes of per- 
coid fish, Sphyrana Barrocuda. 

Barrad, 'rad. A conical cap of very an- 
cient origin, w<M*n by the Irish as late as 
the 17th century. 

Barras, bS'ras. The resin obtained 
firom Pinus maritima ; galipot. 

Barrel, bar'ol. A wooden vessel, round 

and bulging in the middle, made of staves 

and bound with hoops; a cask. The 

quantity which a barrel contains. Any- 

tning hollow and long, as the barrel of a 

gun. The cylindrical case in a watch, 

within which the mainspring is coiled. 

' The cylinder studded with pins which in 

the barrel organ opens the key-vidves, 

aod in the music Dox sets in vibration 

the teeth by which the sound is produced. 

B. of the ear, a cavity situated witiiln 

£b0 membrane of the tvmpannm, by 

frb/cA itia separated ifonrtno meatus. 

-Barricade, ba-^-kSd'. A /ortiflcation 

made of anything that will obstruct the 
progress of an enemy. A wooden fence 
erected around any space to be kept 

Barrigudo, bar-«-g5M5. The Brazilian 
name for the gen. Lagothiix, the laigest 
8. American monkeys. 

Barringtonia, bar-ing-ton'i-a. 'fhe 

type gen. of the Barringtoniaoen. B. 

speciosa yields lamp-oil from its seeds; 

B. racemosa fields drugs. 
Barrifl, 'is. A name given in Quineft to 

the chimpanzee and mandrill. 

Barrister, -ter. A counsellor or advo- 
cate admitted to plead in proteotion ef 
clients. In the IT. S., a counsellor at law. 

Barrow's Straits. The strait connect- 
ing Baffin's Bay and the Polar Sea ; 200 
m. long and 60 m. wide. 

Banry, Sir Charles. A distinguished 
English architect, who planned Impoeing 
Pariiament buildings ; b. 1795, d. 1860. 

Barry, John. A distinguished Ameri- 
can commodore, a native of Ireland, and 
one of the first holding a commission of 
the RepubHo ; b. 1745, d. 1808. 

Bar-shear, bar'sh&r. A machine for 
cutting metal bars. 

Bar-shot, 'shot Double-headed shot, 
consisting of a bar, with a round head at 
each end. 

Bartlett, Joshia. An American states- 
man, a member of the Continental Con- 
gress, one of the signers of the Dedara- 
tion of Independence, and first Govern<» 
of New Hampshire; a native of Maa> 
sachusetts; b. 1729, i>. 

Bartixan, 'ti-zan. A] 
small over-hanging tnivj 
ret, pierced with apcT"! 
tures for an archer, pro-' 
jectingfrom the angles on 
a tower, or firom the parar i 

Bartsia. burt'si-a. A" 
gen, of plants, ord. Scroph- 
ulariaccfe, containing 
about thirty species, para- 
sitic on the roots of other 

Bartholomew, St. One of the twelve 
apostles, whose mission field was the 
southern part of Arabia. The Massacre 
of St. B. in France occurred on August 
24, 1572, St. Bartholomew's Day. It was 
ordered by Charles IX. and Catherine de 
Medicis, and it was intended that all the 
prtnelpal Protestants should be included 

. in the tlaugh,te!r. A.c«q«jiA& ^'VrVi ^Sftw 


M In theBrnDln of TtctlDU, um* pi 
this M low ma i.OOO. whOe oUun 

B^nuh, bu'naAk. Th« IHaDd hi 

ntey Df the FnpbM JtHmloh, ud 
nOMT of thaBotAof B., mxHtilisdu 
wmiloil t^ Iha E. a Ck., bat u 
UMtuTpIiil bF FntMUol*. R«libs- 
Vmi (oUn bean Uis bnthwor ■>-- 
Pi«b(t Boaldi, ud to han died 
Egjpt. •»»"' «■ o- MO. 

atnntliif aiilpbat«of1)bytauidUiue. 
BantB. tiMl'tL Oidde orbuliira, aUed 

lltg jiii^b^Mi wiSt tbau < 

•klsoaeiipy thtrMtDfthofloId. Thatiall 
vlth whkS Iha emt la pLayo). 

bv-aMA'au-Vr A nit- dM, 
imjdaons dlcnrjlcdonooa 

BMdl, bai'U. A U>lala plant. ncTinmi 

EjnpAror of CoDAtaDtlrTO]>)a» 
T of the bod; of lifii iiaU«il the 
rhtch, eDkr^ed and amendnl by 

plre : B. Bia, (nwDad MO, i>. BS«. BaaO 
II., B. »58, crowned •"!, 1>. low., hivlBg 
ral^vd 60 yeora, and almost ountLnuoUy 

BaalUaS, 'i mi. BelonslDK Id [hs urdtr 
oFstTB^ aa order of monLs fooodad 
lnthe4tlie(aiUiryinC*|>pad<icla: 14 pope* 
are aaid to bayebeloBgad to Uio order. 

^*""'— bHQ'tk-a. OtIglDaUy, the 
Dama applied bf Bonuna to tbelr pnbUo 
balla afhiBtlee, aiohaiiea, or other bnal- 
n«s. Tba gronikd-plaii of Iheio build- 
iagi waa rtrnoally iolloved In the Mr^ 
Chrlsdan ^lUTtae^ and It Is still applied 

lyxoQtlnQeaiirire, adapted frum the laws 

Baallloon, 'lli-on. An olotmcnt wn- 
eliUtiK oryellav wu, black pilch, ruahi 

Baallldlan, hai-l-lld'l-an. OneofihRlbl- 
lowors nf BasUlflea, an Aleiandrian Onga- 

Christ'n boAy waa Immattoial, and that 
Simon orCyrene died In hie stood. 
Boslllak, 'il-lsk. A Obnloua criuCure, 
Tarlously regarded aa a serpent, lizard, or 
dngon, and sametlMes IdentlSrd with 
the eockntrlce. It tDbablted tho deeirtBOf 
Afrba and eT«i Its look waamtal. A gen. 
of BMriaa wptUea (Bailllaoua), Ikm. Ignao- 

the opentiaR af bowiotf . 

Baakinc-aluik, 'Ing-Hifrk, Seluche 
tmulml^ lui caUiid trBm tU bablt nf Ijiag 

Ba«lB,bi.lo. A omtonnnacltf nf Swil- 
mrluiit, Ihs dty bang one of (he moat 

uJfnaj. Pon. t>r ouitaD. M,1m ; of Ihe 
dty, 41,sno^ The ImporUnt 4Ecaindi1u>] 
CduudU an431-IM1 wu h<^14itt B. 
Bawine, hlsk. A phdHv lon^e ipokcn 

d<T hctwei^ii France and Spain, ennpnsed 
to be tlut of the Iberiuift, the priniltlTe 

- .- anyotiior lulfuaiife hu u 

tM bem mid* dill. A ibort-nUrisd jack- 
et worn br lullei. 

BBa-rellef, BaBBO-rllievo, bA-ra-lc-f, 
bai'ia-ra-lu-t'Tu. Lov reUsf. * mode of 
■eqlpoirtng on a B"t BUrfb*, thu flgnrea 

ifT rolAed, but itt 
EngUsii n 

rha Anifr& 

ntb^uJ n»ainblli>g 

rnonyof amOilcn] compoflJIlDii^ wbethiT 

Bosaoiio, Euffo Banurd H&ret, 
Soke of. Ninaleos'B lutlnutD trivad 
srelATV befbm he bcninu mnptror ; 
irds Seeretary of Sou and MbilBter 
-■-a AflilH, remaining tilthftal lo 

iridiB. aUled lo Ui 

ord. Bipotaecio, ^oldlas oleaginoui or 
-J daablB-baiia retSuoad la size and power. 


bat noMnoompaHp; hu IViur sTjHri^ o 

!d or- f 

^yed like Iba { 

It H< 

:a (hr IhG I 


'«, MmetloH «i an 
vtled fiogo'-baird. 
Baat baiL Thaliuerbark. Ubav* F 
bartflbari. " 

BcKoCtOT li 
«... .Airu »u.. V. .ilwOll Iliatrl- 

moay; lUix'tiinare. tlpQriouBJ ' 

B. lyp^t hjivlDjf a Fb^ larger or aoon. 

niulli-r than tbal usual lo a body 

ofitlTeii >lie. 

Orirltinlts B lanpomrj 
---Uiwatfar.'. Tba B., 

t'wwn 1S^ 

(If mollBllTl by thi 

iMjed pooplo, 1J3U. 

_, tt. To beat -wllh • 

id^l; tobeatDUttauaoleiaftha 


^ed nfsci 

Butnrd Bar, Batoa Slnlp 

Batavia. bih-M'Tp-ab. Capital o(Jan 
and of tholmtoh PniiBeiialonB. B In Ui« 
nrlDclpal oommordal tifntor of thd AetaUo 
Areblpi'Ugo ; (bnodcd UlS ; pop. 1S3,euO. 

BaUi, hat Tlie alkaUoe aolullon In 
which hld« nre Btwpcd ani!r taring limod, 
ti) remayr or nrntnUie the lime, 

Bftte&u, bi-U. A Ught boat, long bi 

to Its breadth. A pootpon ot 


BKt,1tft. One of * gnrapof wtPf' hmilii i T , 
flj^ng maTTimf^, «^ CAdEDplerei, ttoln 

Baton Bouse, IjiU'nnp-rt 
ihe Qair, u<l lAm jibovu N 

Atwk iBui- AHabrew Hijnld me__-. 
tfflithp«trf«]ionier. Knlffhts of Iha 
B., ft firtUdi order iuppoeed to h«e bsOT 

■ baing pot Into bIiM 

laB,uiaUimt thwwt 

g^ BOW aft. The pteeml order 

rfth«>rthw«»l«rtltolsd & **XoJ: 


Ijnu.llnPerrfe, la)!^'- A pir"i:i »1. 
Lawnd bytho DrltlBli Kuvi-nininit tu vrnj 
dompaoyofft rofflmoit no Ibrt'lim Pvnrm 
to tue chorire or tbo oootlniT ulcJuUe, &0. 

- -~i. Airen. nf MnUrtrt, 

lire tMoll tbcUi, elUed to 

Bat-piinUiiS, bi 
of jH-bitlnur on ^lu 
B&traahla. ba-tr 

/prlpt-big. Thflmodr 

S3- . 

uUq. >a enrlne need to bat down 
inUa of beelcsed plueei. Ab«Tybli 


~ " I*. -rSI. A pliunbJlDa 

' - -"le rsqulrad ongia 1 

wUchliflied * 

. _ >■ m ^ 

■ Hoe IB dlepAiuea wlttu 
Bat-bcffae.bM'lursorbi'faorB. AborK 

mUomd to ■ tHDnu fn the BrtUali •rmr. 
Bath-stoua, bl&'ilfiii. A epodi 

e, oiled nIuBftth- 
Bae^rUiu. ba-thlb^- 
InK tha »• bottom it great deptli^ eon 
HittDB of »ti*iKtoiM, rtKld, Batny eub- 
atuDoe, correepondlDg to protoplum. 

"■^l^Sti i^to^SidSo ot°t 
Afrtea bdong* ! aiUed slso the Coant-rut 

Battdas, btdd'e-s. Tha bbh» inariii. 

hm, » KieailBnt ibnib groirlng in the W . 

bidlei, lued In plaklea. 
Batlato,bl'tiM. A fine Hnm clott miia.' 

U Fhiiders and Ploudr : oambrtc E 

Indl* looda otiimUu- qiuUtf . 
Babnaa, bef DiSB. An OrlentUirelgbt. 

InfioUwB, Wllbg.; In Tnrker tba grfst 

latt^ta abont ICTl IbB., the lener only 

' platee of oDpper ud 
HioeA euaceptib^e ofg 
Battery-Kiin. -girn. 

Abodyofunnon Ibr lleM 
th «Hnple>n.Bl of wwtoM, 
Ao. In Fort B puruMt 
eover tba gunnoi trant the 
G«ly»nlo bMtery. Bwrtea 

or mltmllieuM. '^j^ f ^Jrf 

bttle, 1. A dght or <"!-■■ \3>K 

3attlo-axe, -Bk>. An i I 

Bxa anntent^ used u b ■ I 

Sattledoxe, -dtr. An | | 



t-lt_ . 
bcMrd oTpElm, 

eeri'ei of ridng 
parti oBltod oopa 

^ f^ f^ 

"y ■■?..■< 


In buIW!n„_ _. 
Battalion, -tal' 

u'Ton. A body of InnuiUy, 

I. A .hoit«tlcV iriih n 
iLmOy Mrrli-l by Uk fools 
freat bouapo. A \iWhkg 

A lYoDcli dni^^t llibxicttt- 

Bauhlnla, bg-blo'l-s. A gc 

Banlita, l)il'!i. A tranxpar 
founil In (ho mUtet eiietei I 
Icelnml ; a nirfely ofgliMyl 

BaTEuia, koh-TaM-ata. A k 

Sbonlih B., or tha P^Hsal' 


BOd ftlll_HllBiOUI 

or iirusUtDUoD. and DODdDEti CTlinlDal 

Baxter. Blohard. The DmlOFtit au- 
thor and pri-achGT ; B. In Shropshire, 
Eni^lnnd, IGia ; d. 1601. tlu wu a non- 

tion. Hlmhtut works arf^tte Hulnfd 
Eivrlastlni! Hal," " DriDit Tbouifhu," 
■Bd "CWl to tlio UnconrerlBd." 
BB7> bi. A mwBS 1q Ihe tnore or a ui 
or lake ; the eipania of wtUv between 
two capm Dr bendhuidii; affulf. Apriu- 
dpol compartment or dmslon In the 

Ba7a,ViL '___ , 

iag E, Indian puaerlnD bird, wboiw nes 
reieiubli-H a bottle, BndlqjtuBpendedfnm 

fWnD boncath, to that neither apoa, ier 
penu nor Bi|ulrreli oan roach ft. Iti 
wllj lamed, and win fbtoh and eairy a 

kolniC, to whom the ad Bjre la 
"T&i foMlBr w*lhont tar, f 
tHit nptoteh," B.147t, j> 

Baybeny. "be 

, Tbs DliutMjrlot certf- 

_.. . _JB plMitMjrlo. 

. ^jTtle), B. tallow, ■■utwtaDoe 

obtain cd ttma bajbarj or fru^njrtle. 
Bayonet, 'ou-et. A triao^nliir Bword or 
docffur, vith u froD haodlfl and rijig 

Bayou, bl-O'. The outlet of h Uku ; a 

Bay-mm, bi'mm. A ipfait obtained br 
dlitllllngllie leans of (he bar tree, 
Bay-aalt, 'salt Coaree gnbiod ult, ob- 

Bay-window, 'n1n-dA. A window 

Lnrreudofid M 
■nana hi ISTO, fbr whhib be wu IHed tn 
1&T8, fbiuid guilty and ttnprisoned, eBcap- 
Ihgln tHT4. Bowu I bllbni) adHerent 
ofSajwIcon III. 

Baaaar, ba-iir'. In the Eut, a pluie 
where ptods are eiposeil fur Bale, usually 

narrow street, Iteqnontly shadod by a 
light material, and HiinetllneB arebed olir. 
A aaleof nilsoelUneounartlafealn turiinr- 
anoe Ufa charitable imrpoiw ; a Ihnay fUr. 
Bdellium. de]'II-am. An aromatlii 

BdelloBtoma, del-loa'to-ma. A sen, of 
Rlntinana haK- 

a lake; the etnnd; sometJiDus used for 
tha shore of lar^ rivers. 
Bead, bfil. A purtbrat«I ball of amber, 
ffUse, ortbollte, etron^ OD a thread, and 

I ■ osrtalQ muDbT oT pr 



»r eooBted off <m the beadfl of a «hip- 
tmry ; a roll of pzmyers or hymns. 

L-I^oof , b€d'prMl Spfrftaonsllqaon 
lioBB snrihoe a erowB of bobbles will 
1 Dmt some time; spirits which come 
> a oertaia standard of strength. 
Sle, NS'kL An EngMsh bound, Ibr- 
y kept to hunt hares; smaller than the 
ler, aad little larger than the lap4og. 
mU name for several spedee of snarks. 
hdzon, b6k1-em. An anvil with a 
beak or horn, used by workers In 

n-engtuBt bvra'en-Jin. A steam- 
ae in which the motion of the piston 
■snsmitted to the crsnk by means of 
rerhead-beam and conneotuig-rod. 

mingumaohlne, ing-ma-shta. A 
Une by which chains or webs are put 
lie heun ; a kind of roIler^nilL 
Bi^-tzee, 'trC. I*yms Aria, alsocsOed 

OL, b£n. A name given to several 
a of legominoos seedfs and the pUnts 
jieing them : Faba, garden and field 
: Fnaseolos, IVenohor kidnejr-bean ; 
Ddlchos, tropical bean. The com- 
bean (F. vulgaris) is extensively cul- 
»d as food. 

d-iflyt 'flL A beautiflil fly, Ibnnd on 
, flowers, prodoeed ih>m a maggot 

ap^roofle, bSn'gSs. A species of wiM- 
e, the Anser segetom. 

ilHdloi, 'shot Copper grains form- 
yj pouring melted metal through a 
Mated ladle into warm water. If cold 
IT is used, flakes are Ibnned, caOed 

P-trefoU. 'trO-ML A smaU legn- 
His tree, the Aaagyria ftetids^ 
r, bir. Apbntlgrade 
tvorons mammal, 
Unas, iiam. Urside. 
teeth are 42 in num- 
aa in the dog, but 
9 is no camassial or 
»rlal tooth. The brown 
lack bear is anatfve-of the north- 
parts of Europe and Asia. The 
rlcan black bear is rar^y above 5 feet 
Bgth. The griszly bear, an tohabitant 
le Bodcy Mountains, is a forodous 
ji, sometimes exceeding 9 feet In 
11 The Siberian bear is perhaps a 
ty of the brown bear. The polar or 
B Dear Is possessed of ^eat strength 
tereeness, and is 7 to 8 feot in len^h. 
native iMar of N. S. Wales is the 
I, ofthe marsupial gen. miasoolarctos. 


The name of two constellations la tbm 
northern heinisphtre, called tli« Greater 
and Lesser Bear. In the tail of tha 
Lesser Bear is the pole-star. 

Beard-mofls, b&d'mos. A lichen, Ua- 

Beaxdy. 'L The whliothroat A Scotch 
name of the loach, a small fk^esh-watcr 
malacopterygian fish, Ihm. Cyprinldn. 

Beaxing^xeilL, bar'Ing-riin. Tho rein 
by which the head of a horse is held up 
in driving. 

Beaz^it, 'nit A pit for tho keeping ot 
bears in zoological gardens. 

Beast, best Any four-footed animal, as 
distinguished ih>m fowls, insects, flsnea 
and num. A brutal man. 

Beanhamais, Busvne de, bo-hAr'naL 
Son of Josephine, wife of Naiwleon I., ■ 
adopted by the hitter; a. 1781, d. 189i. 
lie served with distinction in the NapoW- 
onic wars, and was appointed Viceroy of 
Italy. After Napoleon wi Ikll he retired to 
Milnlch, and married tho daughter of the 
King of Bavaria. 

Beaahamaifl, Hortenae Bngenla 
da. Daughter of Josephine ; b. 178S, d. 
1887. She was married against her will to 
Louis, youngest brother of Xapoleoa 
Bonaparte, ttom whom she sepsrated i» 
1810p after he was driven flrom the throna 
of Holland. Her son by him was the lata 
Nap<deon III. 

Beanmarohaia, Pierzo Anguatin 
Oazon de, bO-mar'shay. An eminent 
Frenchman, b. 1782, d. ITiW. He warm]|y 
espoused the cause of the Americans in tiM 
Bevolution, and sent more than 60 officers 
to sssist them at his OMrn expense, among 
these bdng Baron Steuben and Pulaskt 

Beau IConde, b5 mond. The ihshlon- 
able worid ; people of fkshion and gayety. 

Beanregaxd. Peiter QuMtavum 
Toutant. A Confederate general ; b. In 
N. Orleans, 1816. A graduate of West 
Point he resigned from the Federal army 
when South CHiroIina seceded, and com- 
manded at Charleston when Fort Sumter 
was ci4>tured; also at the first battle of 
Bull Bun. Surrendered to Gen. Sherman 
with Oen. Jos^h £. Johnston. Has hdd 
Federal apiK>intments since the -war. 

Beaver. The 
movable fiuse- 
guard of a hel* 

met ^ <^Q~ 
structod that 
the wearer 
could raise Kfr 
lower it to est 
and drink ; a viior, 



Baav«r, Wnt. A lOdinC qutdraiwd. 

npplleil lo thoEsn. Hyaromja ; sd 

BMLTer-tree, -tiv. A deddocn 
gea. Mf^olla (M, gbma), or 

rhd ullTa prlnd- 
ebwru, wJopjaB 

if nrltlati Oi 

nnbJIng ■ nlghUDgsIs, 

BE£-nAWE , 

Bwle,tlMTan«r«.U«. bed. En^Hid>i 

-aril«t hbbniu, ■ mank, B. 073, ». T8S. 
Qi " EocleriuUa] History of linicluKt." 
»n>d Jn LaUii In TO4, ud tnnBlsted br 
Ung AltVed the Gi«iit,lIsliUu cstMDuA 

Bedeg&r, bod'e-gar. A Bpongy sicrea- 
oeaoB or gall, Also t«nued sws«t-brlw 

eecta ss rM«ptsol« fOr Uielr eggA, hs ths 

Sedlam. Ism. A mad-hDOK; i i>1>o« 

Bedlamer, -er. The asms flven by Md 

Bedouin, bod'Mn. Oneof slrlbaotno- 

it p«tty-<^pB uid ffvdeu 

mh ■■ ires, D. 1798 
bnted " TreatlHj on 


a, nh-bik'tt. 

oekbrated K. C. dIvlDe, s. In Loado 

CMUrbiiry CsUiodnl. of irhli^ be n 

kl»g, nanij 1I„ ll?i7™ioalMd, IITS. 

Beoolba-niit, bi-km^'bi-nut, A n_. 
prodaoAd from s Bnxlllsn tree, ttom irhlch 
s baleam Is drswn, used la rtienautdsDi. 

Beoana. be-kifos. A hnxrlDus tisl 
Ikm. SphyrenldB, memblbig tli« pike. 

Beaj«ai b«(l'ii-gnt. The ntnns (rtron \ 
the licnd books oftbaBnddhiiti In Bn 

B«d-lnv, b^'bng. The Cliaoi l«tdl 

QflDt Intended for ilsftp and repoBe- Lords 
' sftbeBed-sbanber.c^cenoftheBrlttBb 
rormi hooMebt^ uoaer tbe vroom ' 
tol'. Ib tin (HUB of ■ qneen r 

Boo-bird.'brad. J 

Beech, bfch. 

ifl £sst Indies, s Isdy, 

I spotted Ay-ostoher. 
"be poUeu of flovm 
pQd foF tbalr young. 
«, g;en. Fsgua, ozd. 

llie WLXid IB msauftutDTod Into s gnst 

Beechsr. Henry Ward, Bev. Son 

ori.ymui Beeohn-, su amlnant Nsw Eng- 
Isnd CunKrentionBl prowbar ud Ihaela- 
glm ; B. ISIS; enteiwl thsOmgregstloBil 
ministry In 18M, snd In 184T beam* pss- 
Cur of Plymouth Church, Dnnklrii, * ra- 
;stlDn H'hicb >tlU ointdnues. Ur. B. Is 

Culeoptero, film. CurcnUflnldffl or veevUs. 

Beecli-oll, 'oil. A blscd. Bied oil u- 
pn^sMMl from the nots of the beeoh-tr«e, 
used In partj of Franoe loateod of bntto-. 

Beef -eater, K-rst-er. An AMoin Inies- 
Borlal bird, gOD. BnphBgs. One of Uw 
Yeom*fi of the British royil guard. 

BBef-waod, 'wHd. The timber of Ans- 

Iwe. l~'S|^*- ""• nnMnnu* nu 

10 ailed from pKylng on hymi 

icnii. Th< pnpalH- 
mlail bnLlolnjfs In 
Irdud, KmHa uiuatea, tha uppir kjm 
■Iwqn oToitprlui the ons lennlh II. 
Ho MnwQt ia DKdT The; ooonr bUieIo or 
diut«nd, ttiabiUa KHnaUmn mdrclDil 
bf a ttonc will Ibr delMH. 
Badsebab, -el'ifrbab. A goil of tlio 

BaalmBbnl, -iml X nuno gimi bf cl 
Jffw^to tliflpfijioo of ilemoiu, twlng ■ 
opprotirlaiu cbu^ oa th« tana boelx 

D^urtionnfr. In Tunit, tli» ivlnrn 
BflffluLTd, btpfiiinl. Ononf nlkjityiifr.'llii- 
lD tho IHlh wntur}'. Thry nltlHil lo 

bauBiI tbniiM'jTi.fl 10 a llii> or uncilty 
without qtilldiiK thirlr Rnuhir ToaUiinn, 
Thi'V wrrv nuhiMtril tv mmtT. Mnruii- 
Uori. Ml ETuduilly ill>l»irwil. 
BaffleiboB. iHiir'I'i'lHir. Thn irovenior 
ufu iinMuni fn tLv Turklxh Kiniiliti, u-it 
In iliffnlty to the t^naul \\2i1r. 

. lodlt hu 

Beet-fly. bSt-flL A two-wlneed IneHtt 

(Anlboinyta beta) Infesting erupt of boot 
BaettaoTen, Iiadwls vtai, ba-to'ven. 

fioDD, Germany, iflO', p, 1837, 
Bestle, bC'tl, A hea'vy wooden irudtet 
A irvbchine fbrprodudng flgoHd Aibrkfl 
by prcMore ftmii eorrugsted ro" - 
BmtU. AnylnmilbfilaiiKlnK' 
Celeoplem, but BumeUinom reaTricted to 
80f*D«^die. a Irlbfl'of IblH ordfr embrac- 
ro than 8,on0 spedc - " ' 

BestlB-BtOne. -sMn, A nndnli 

UUo Ironstone. 
B«&lia. bu-lSl'ii&. In Ttaly, s 

Wry who It Is prrtandod brfnm 

iiFille manyresTinl it aLmply aa a ( jpe ol 
Behria^ Stndta. Tlie eh.mnel oon. 

BeldBlaar, bwli^l'sAr. A pl»nt uaol in 

ofBerpenlH ; amipoaed tobv Ihc Aactepl- 
u procpn. The IWpiiani used Ihe 
down orita saeda u tinder. 
BajMla, bfrll'rl-t A een. of B. Anwl- 
Isan alpine punU, oid. E d iaaeiB. 

Belchar, belsfa'ar. A nsckercbli 

Apatutho »DtaT of»di;DKm4 
sn KngHili pnglUM. 
' Beldune, bel'dim. in old vgi 

In, bel-om-nltl-dC. As u- 
UDDt mn. of oeptulDpodaaa mdtlusbA^ 
UL Deenod*. Denlf lUled In Uw oi- 

, tilJnsSepb, ibqlidalit In tlw ebslk ud 
Jnruiko UiDHtoDB. Tbere in Riur 
known CHiBrtt — Balomnltn. BfHanaoUia- 
Ois, BdanaXUsOm ud XIphotcathla. 

B«l Eapiit. '«-pce. A. Ons geilae or 

XelAst. TlMceiiiiiientMlnpltidofnnrth- 

nBaof tha ptacs to be e 
on wludlB ubd oovemi 

to pmtMt tboM uidar 

toiMr ItaiaUiBd with ■ bell to Klie tbe 
■IBB to Am nniMin, indAlio to nnmmoii 
ttanwk ofkftwhf lord. Ab^toww. 
■" " In^ bd^un. A EnropHWi klng- 
tanuided br tbB Borth Bin, FnniM, 
ralltaknd^ Hollud ind Gennwir, 
juTing-ui wftof ll.SlSeq.Qi,, iui~ 

tbu ^vtiTDmaiit Ifl hereditary, o 
tioUA] And representatlvflmDiiucli 
preeent kJnmium wiw esUbllBhed Id 
^hB prBv.lBnB rnligionli " " " 
tolenaoe prflvalls. 
BaIwlo,/JUt. _Pertalj 
try betvAon lb ^' ' 

' Eelgravian^ -gri'Tl-aii. Belonglnjr to 
IlDltmnK un aiHstoomtlo portfon ofLciD- 
don around llmllm; arlslDcraUu. 
BelL A metiilin nw^l whli^h ^to 
. (brth > rlDjdne Hnnd. mud 
•Itloii csUod W-meUl. ' 
■ In tba worfd ta tbfi emt Ih _ __ __ 
cut Id ims, opmpnlod to weigh IBS torn 
Tb* phrua amplayed on aUpboird, ■ 
" o'lAuk " Ii on Bbora, to denote the dl 
fMmm of SiHy Uma To onrw by ball, 
*uu 4flr/ ctoarfla B sofdnuT mode of exeem- 
»-ofl(o«Uiui OHdio theS, O. Church, the 

I V l5^ 

9 M;th. 

BsUDTOpbon. bSl-lft. ,_ „,_. 

tUo BOD of Glunoiu. who Isimmd tba ha- 
bfdorAntao, wife of BeUami, Un^ of 
At^b. by rariifl[pe to Bawntl her amoroiu 
BdvBnflw. und killed BeQaiiB In defbndlrv 
Ui SHU IU9. lie engaged la TVkms af 

BUii/ed lliu Ohimora by Iha »lil of I'fgai- 
eoi, the HtDg^ horse, lie flnully mar- 

Belleraplum, 'o-bn. A gen. of foMa 
DJLuElJoM ah«lLs, allied to the lJetifmpi»dB. 
Bellea-lettrea, -lel-it. PoUta or cloguit 




' BcUowi. 

**n rirsta,'* ** LaSomuunlHila,'* "Komu" 
■nd ''I ParitanL** 

Bellia, bdlis. The daisj-, » Bnudl gen. of 
loniuil or pcroDBlnl herbt. 

Bell-mietal, 'met«L An alloy of 80 
pnts of eoppet and tO of tin, used fnr 
makinur bells. Small shrill bells genenOj 
eontidn line. 

IMltOkak, -lO'na. In Boni. myth, the 
Coddeeaofwar. In Astron. an aatoroid.. 

BeUot Straits, bt'l'lo. The channel 
Qonnectlnff Prinee Kegent Inlet and 
VhttkHn Channel. 

BeUoWB, belOds. An in- 

stnuBflOt tor producing a 

enrrent of air, i»inoipdIy 

■led tor blowing fire in 

iMgea. Bellowt of great 

power are eaOed bkrwlBg maehlnea and 

are c^ierated by steam. 
BallowKiafmnra, -kam-er^u In Fho- 

Utg. a form of expanding earners In 

wueh the bodlaa are oonneeted bjranex- 

panslbla portkn. 

ftsli, An 
fish, fltm* 
gen. Oen- 
Wsens, call- 
ed also the 
fish or Sea-anlpe. 

B«llow*-inimp, -pomp. An atmoe- 

pheric pump. 
Bell-pepper, 'pep-per. Guinea-pepper, 

the ihiit of G^>acum grossum. 

BeU-telesraph, 'tel-£-graf. A tele- 
graphic apparatus in which two diffcrent- 
fy toned dmIs give the signals. 

Belmont. A Tillage in Missouri, on the 
Mississippi Siver, the scene of the first 
victory won by Gen. Grant ovvr the Con- 
federates under Gens. Folk and Pillow, 
Nov. 7, 1861, 

Belooche, bcl-n'ohe. A native or Inhab- 
itant of Beloochiston. 

Beloochistan, bol-oo-chls'tan. A conn- 
try of Asia, 8. of Afirhanistan, with a eea- 
coost on the Indian Ocean of 600 m.; area, 
800,000 sq. m.;pop. 706,000. The inhab- 
itents are called Celoochos and Brohooecs, 
of mixed Tartar and Persian blood, and 
the country is governed by several chieft 
who pay nomtual allegiance to the Khan 

b0l-sb4<diMr, KingofJUby- i 

Ion, and the last of the ChaMc&n drnartx. 
He was ■. about MO, crowned about n64, 
and D. 639 n. r. The nimantic hlntory 
of his rdpi is flunillar to all readers of the 

Belt. Two straits (Great and Littk) con- 
necting the Baltic Sea and the Catu-i.'at. 

Belt, belt A girdle in which a Fwnnl or 
other weapon is hung. In A«tn>D. ono of 
certain rings which surround thu pIan<'C 
Jupiter. In Her. a badge iriven to a per- 
son when he was raised to knifi-hthoixl. 
In Mach. a band poMing around two 
wheels, communicating motion flrom one 
to the other. 

Beltane, bel'titn. The name of an 
aoeientflre festival still kept up in ro 
mote parte of Ireland and ScoUanil, no 
doubt derived from tbo womhlp of the 
sun or fire, formerly practlci'd among the 
Celts and other houthfu nations. 

Belt-laeinff. beR'las-ing. I^eathcr 
thongs fur laoing together ends of a N'lt. 

Belt-ehifter, 'shift-cr. A contrtvouce 
for shifting a belt from one pulley to an- 

Belt-epeeder, '8pcd-er. A cuntHvance 

for transmitting various rates of motion. 
Beluflra, K'-lu'fn^. A gun. of Cetacca, 

fiun. Delphtnidie or dolphins. The B. 

arctica, loucas or albicans, ctUled white 


Belvedere, bel've-dfr. In Italian Arch, 
the unper stor}' of a building, open to the 
air. In France, an elevated summer- 

Belvidere, M-dfr. \ plant, Kochia 
scoiuuia ^broom-cypress), much esteemed 
in China as a salad. 

BelvlsiacesB, -vis'i-&"8c-s. An ord. of 
plants closely allied to the M^-rtocoae, in- 
cluding only Xyvo genera, Napoloona and 

Bern, Joseph, Oen. A gallant Polish 
officer, n. 171)5, i>. ISTh). lie fought un- 
der Napoloon I. a^^ainst linssia, in the 
Polish revolution in LsHO, in the Hun- 
garian revolt agninttt Austria in li<4.S, de- 
feating the Austrian.s in govurnl lNittU*s, 
and on the failure of the revolution es- 
caped to Turkey, Iiecainc u Mohammc- 
edan, and avus uf:]>ointed u pasha. 

Bema, br-'ma. In (rrcek .intiq. a stage 
or jHilplt on wliicli siR'akerrt sttKwl when 
addressing an assembly. In the early 
('hristian churcli, a part raised abovr the 
rest reserved for the liighcr clergy. 

BembecldsB, bem-besM-de. A fam. of 
solitary aculeate or sting-bearing liymen- 
opteroQB uiiQcU, T«waii\kYla:( hi%k^ ^ 


b«», mi «IUi II 

Btmbrldse Beda, tirll-bcdi. 

LU Met cltl« ; the Ougea iBd Bnhml- 
I pootnills^nclpkl riven, ThelnlubltAiiU 
lacLdds HIndui. Blkhi, Ri4|>oi)U. Mo- 
ffuUn Mktimttu, and a larva DDmberof 
brittth. B, Buy It ■ imn at tbe Indian . 
Ooeui twtwHD ladla proper and Fartlier 

BensoL A thin etuffmadt ot a) 
^3air fbr women' B mppBrtl. / 

BeoraJ-liS'Iit, nit 

hymn uaed In the An^Uoio Gtanrflh *t 
aUMtbaijinaotOtt'Dma ChOdnnlB 

an, «p«i^lllj one who haa 
own long a uohfllor. Alio appHed to a 

Beiudlck. Ludwls. 0«Ea,. Uo'n-dlk. 

ISM.^e won Jlsttnedon In the win 
tilth Italy, 1348 and iSSa, and In Orn 

aitnusly defUUd by the Pnuilaniat 
Biliowa. July 8, IBM. 
Benedict, -dike Ths name uauiaed by 

who e. Jo^'nl.^Ttll^ud eaded with B. 
XIV., whoe. Clemanl XII., ITMjandp. 
n08. B. VI. WM munynid ; B, IT, vai 
depo»ed ftir hli vloea ; B. X. waa iiwrn- 
Urlr elocted aid campelled to nalga bit 
dignin to Nloholu II.; B. XII. wh 
Frenct, and the third pope whe relgnad 
at AvlgiHin : B. XIY.. Cardinal Lanbcr- 

aged eduHtlon In all dlFscUDnt. 
Benadtot. St. Foondar or the Bensdle- 
tlno order of Monki. B. In lulv In 480, a. 

Ufa, hia eloquence and hie reputed power 
orperfonnlD^ miracles. ThoflraE Bone- 

aeverinfSeo,304iQ. m.; pop. ( 
{UmUm, Dtlbl, ign md B« 

oTthfl Bflaunnm orfed- 1 
Mle and B. lndl«a,fl 
UKd Ilka oUveHtU. 
Bennatt, Jamaa 

leu knlnuUit, founder or the S. T. 

Herald, ; >. In Bootland, ISOO. d. laiS. HI) 
■en, Jamaa Qordan, Jr., a. his tltber and 
ttJll condocla tiu paper, in many roapeoti 
tho greateotjoomallo ^o wtff-ld. 
Ben-nut, 'nuL The seed of the ban or 
borae-radiah tree of India, irhkh Tielda 
an oil called beo-oll, remarkabln foc not 
beoominK r«iold for many jtm. It 
lansedasthebariior temta and l> nn- 
ployad by watnhmakari fbr luhrloatinif 
dellcXe worts, 

Elentluun, Jintna-y, Mnt'ham. A dla- 
UDgulshed English writer on nojIHoal 
ewnomyand Jurlsprudenoe ; s. 174S, d. 

Benthomla, ben-thiml-a. A gen. ot 
planra, ord. CnmacAB. B. fruzlftva 
yields an edible fruit. 

Aooc, propel 

il imAitoia uA Inc deaidii([ 




rlores, removing g i tii n ipoti, Jbe. 
Called also benzina. 

Benton, Thonuui H., Wn'tui. An 
eoiinont American stftteenuui, b. In N. 
Carolina in 1792, n. 18S6, after holding 
a seat in Congress from Mlwouri for 80 
vearA. He was a consistent Jackson 
Democrat in i»olltlc8. His "Tliirty 
Tears' View '* embraces a history of tlM 
government from 1820 to 1860, and is 
recognized as a standard authority. 

BeraxifireT, Pierre Jean de, bii-ron- 
zbah\ The French printer who became 
the Ibremost lyric poet of his conntiy ; b. 
1780, i>. 1867. His poems contriSnted 
brgielT' to the rerolntion of 1880. 

Berbeor, bern>er. A person belonging to 
a group of tribes, estimated at 8,000,000, 
inhaUang parts of Barbary and portions 

Berberla.ber'ber-is. A gen. of plants, ord. 
BerbefMacett, known as barberry orber- 
bernr. The baries are acid and astringent, 
and Ibnn with sugar an agreeable preserve. 
The atam and bark are ezoeesively as- 
tringMit, and are employed as a mordant. 
The root jrielda a yellow dye. 

Berean, be-rt'an. One oTa sect ot dis- 
■antera from the Church of Bootland, who 
profesa to fbDow the andent Bereans men- 
tioned in the Acta. 

Berensarian. ber-en-gft'ri-an. One of 
a sect which rollowed Beraiger in the 
11th century. 

Beireal2ia. A Bussian river which emp- 
ties Into the DniepOT, made Ikmous hy 
its disastrous passage by Nwoleon's army 
on its winter retreat ftvm Moscow. 

Beoramo, ber'ga-md. A coarse tapestry. 

Bervamot, -mot A variety of pear. 
Hie lime, the essential oil from the rind 
of which is in high esteem as a perftime. 

Ber^ander, 'gan-der. The Sheldrake <nr 

Bergrniannite, borg'man-rt. A mineral 
classed with analdme, in the flun. of zeo- 

'mSL Mountain-meal or fos- 
sil farina, a geological deposit, consisting 
of the siUdous frustules or cell-walls of 
diatoms. It is eaten in Lapland mixed 
with corn and bark. 

Berlin, bairHIn. The andont cap. of 
Prussia^ and now of the German Empire ; 
founded in the 12th centurv, on the river 
Bpree, in Bradenburg ; it is surrounded 
by a wall 7 m. in length. Pop. about 

Biriia-irauvt ^Ua-wir, A kind ofpatUry 

which resists the action of almost all 
chemical reagents. 

Berm, berm. In Fort a space of ground 
between the rampart and ftMse. The side 
of a canal oppodte the towing-path. 

Bernmda Talanrte. A group of the 
W. Indies, SOU in uumbiT, iH'longing to 
Great Britain. St. George Im the princijial, 
its chief dty, Hamilton. Wing the capital. 

Bemardine, ber'nurd-in. The name 
given in France to the Clitterdim order of 

Bemadotte. Jean Bapticte Jules. A 

marshal of Kranre. under N'npoleon I., b. 
17M ; elected king of SwinIch and Nor- 
way on the death of Charles XIII., 
assumed the throne under the title of 
Charles John XIV., and in 1813 com- 
manded the united amilen of Germany 
against Napoleon. I>. 1844, after a wise 
and prosperous reign. 

Bernard, St.. (Great), bair'nar. A noted 
Alpine Mountain passbetwei'n the Valoia 
and Piedmont at the summit of which 
is the Hospice, founded by Ht. Bernard in 
862, for the care and succor of travelers, 
and ever since maintained. The pass baa 
been utUiaed for the passage of invading 
armies, the most notable instance bdng 
that of Napoleon with 80,000 men in May, 

Bernard, St. Abbot of Ckirvauz; b. 
at Dijon, 1091, n. 1168, canonized 1174. 
The most eloouent and fearless preacher 
of the age. He was equally renowned for 
quick, unerring Judgment and his advieo 
was sought by popes and princes. Hia 
vnitings were voluminous, and he is ac- 
corded the distinguished title of " Last of 
the Fathers.** Christians of all denomi- 
nations pay cheerftal tribute to his piety 
and abilities. 

Berne, bem. A canton and dty (the lat- 
ter the cap.) of Switzerland ; pop. 606,141. 

Bemhard, b&m'htird. Duke of Saxe 
Weimar; b. 1600, d. 1689. lie was 
among the bravest and most succossftil 
generals of his day. 

Beroe, 'd-S. A gen. of small phosphoric 
marine animals, class Ccelonterata, ord, 

Berry, be'ri. A succulent or pulpy fhilt, 
the flesh of which contains several seeds, 
as the gooseberry, strawberry and cur- 
rant The name is sometimes extended 
to superior fruits, like the grape. 

Berserker, ber'sei^ker. A kind of wild 
warrior or champion of heathen times in 

B«rthi«r, A1oz8aAx%, YiAbm <A 


Fnnofl attocJifd hLmaclf 

■oqiiinDCd Irt 

imltwd suidUa In b jnomoBt of 

BerChailetia. -Ihol-k-'n-ii. A ntn. oC 
Mvmucffi, orwUchonljono »pMt« (B. 
eiiMlMl U tnn.*n, Tbc ftiitt Is the Bra- 

Bartrand. Henri Oratlen, Comte. 

and hlB CDmrmnion on KlbAADd SC HpJeju; 
Beryl- iKr'll. A titMt "f emenld, sl- 

ItA erysials jire Bbr-oldad uul lorp-r tlua 

U-uupureDt TorlfilLetara uajl^ mqua-iuu- 
BerBaliiia. Johan Jakob. B&ron. 

palK u mifdun raeUiodi; b, 1716. d. 
BsaauBur'a ProcMii. bMVmin pnt'- 

Beta, bu'u, A gen. oF ipetilniu planla, 
onl. CbsDopodlHrw; UiobwU. 

Betal, be'tl. A speslai of pepper, ChiTla 
Betel. onL Plporioiw. TSo lam art 
employedU Inoloie i plma or (he bctfl- 
□Dt lad n Hnls lime Into > pdHet, whlcb la 
enonitiEl/ chewed In tUo Emt- 

BetelKenJn, 'lel-JOi. A star or the 
ant tuignltudi.' In the eonsCollaClan Ortoo. 

Batel-nut. nut. The kernel nrthe IHilt 

Bethany, Wtb'jib-no. Tbo Jud™. \-U- 

XDD the EasuirD slope oi Ut Olivet, 
ro lived Ijiairiia nncl his Btatert, Mary 
and Martha, the eii>e«lal friend" of Chriat, 
often vimted by him, nnit the 8i;i.iio nf Ihc 
n^aolslD whlohJ^uirua, after bcloedend 
thiwOaya.wu restored 10 lifi. Iiunuw 
■ nllec^on of huti. called Ailrlyeb, a 
uUDa darlved team Laurus, 
StBtblabem, Iwth'Ie-hem. A tons or 
TlOuv la JuilHt, abuut H niflos Mtutheast 
ofJeran^ani, noted an being- the plane 
ofOaltfi aaUrl^. A Ikmoiu hOBplM 


BettonK, '<ong, 

f JiJ order fUanded 

dlcotyledonotis plants, of wb 
BetnlBle tbetyplcaliten., and coni^nl 
beeldee thla onV the gen, Ainus. 

Betnlln. 'U-lln. A lubetance dlscavei 
Intho bark of the while birch, cryei 
ilifd, ftislble, vobflle and InHammnblo. 

Beadautlte, bfl'dan-tlL, A inlneral 
lurrlng In small oloicly Jggr^aliil or 

m paid. 

Beae, Tlieodore de, bal'il. The cml- 
neot French l-mteeUnt, >. of Cnlvin ; h. 

BeOettB,, h4-l«'U, (^iitbo Unen ragi or 
asckllis Mek^ to ^\EiiiMn* -, fti* H^BtmM 

luelL Bed beictu is tokirfd wiUi (DehJ- 
□rini^, anJuHd'lo wkir tbs riod DtDulcli 

]D April unci Miy, and nspod ta Au^uat 
hdA September. 

BhaDB'. hsnu. An Indiiu inrlstr of 
hemp, tharv^n obtained IWHn which it 

prepvfld from tho r«lD — » hffrhJy ironiiliir 
■tlmnUDt. «Uiid llubUi, Alu Empbyed 

Bl&noo oeocx), bfi-Enr^t »k1to. A 

Bib. Irib. tjorrhiu lux 

Bible, -bl'M. Tha book, bj 

, JSorinWj 

. parts. The OM 

EiMcltth nraton cf th* Bible tu eom- 
menerd iD the relni ot Junes I. [n the 

CI<M. Hid pobUBhWI lDl«11. belig 
d on WTCrtl preTlonslT erlHJiie tnins- 
HHoiis. TtieNewTentonouDiQiBghed 
In 1S81. 

BlbUogTaphar, blb-Utw'n-rer. One 
yeraod In bibliography, wno cotnposes er 

BibUolStry.-ol'i-trl. Wonhlp or hom- 
age paid t4 boolu i HpetJOcAllj applied b; 
S. C dldnea to the eulUtlon or the ea- 
tborl^ e( Bcrlplora ow thai ol the Pope 
er.the ehnzofa. 

BlbM, Ulna. A nm. or anb-CAn. of 

' ffl^ h tfffl t mMnTiialr , fcm. BoTldn, IbClDd- 

tattbatr^eeatargiuii, aad bulaiiff. 

pcUed by the Bhnrehi. 


wheel, which may be tnni.>.l at plaiaii™. 
Biddlna-pnyei, Md'lnir-nril-er. Inth 
B. C. Ch. Uie nnver (or the i>«iil> of bent 
Ihttura aild beforo thu "eminn. In th 
AflKHcan t3h. a Ibrra of oihortatlon. «hi 
chidlDF with Ihe Loid'a Prayer, uud b< 

y Ihreadt In the warp 

tvo spcdee of dUTerent genaa ; a mule. 

Bigvln, blg'ln. A imaU wooden veuel ; 
aean. A contiivjmce tot boldlnif eoffee 
grounds ; a bag or vueel perfinsted at the 
bottom, tbrongb which water it poured. 

Biggttaot, 'gon-et. A hood with eaia. 

fanning a hay ; aa. the Ulgnioi Benin, 
doable part ofa pope when foMed. in 
Ineliiu ftom the end; a ]dod. Th* 
I of a bana's ^aaktel at tin- 




Blgnonia, bi^-nd'ni-a. A ^en. of plants, 
ord. BlgnoniAceflB, seyeral species of 
which arc used in medicines and the 

Bijou, be'zhd. A jewel ; something 
small and veiy pretty. 

Bijouterie, -trd. Jewohy ; trinkets. 

Bikh, bik. A virulent poison derived 

flrom the root of a variefy of Aconitum 

Napellus, The plant itself. 

Bilberry, birbe-ri. A shrub and its 
fruit, Vacclnium Myrtillus. 
Biil^oes, 'bdz. Long bars of iron with 

% V5 VS 


sliding shackles and a lock at the end, 
used to confine the feet of prisoners oi 

Bildstein, bild'stln. Agalmatolite fig- 
ure-stone, or pagodite, cut into grotesque 
ornaments by the Chinese. 

Bile, bn. A vellow bitter liouor, separat- 
ed from the blood by the pranary cells of 
the livor. The use of bile la to separate 
the chyle teom the chyme. 

Bilimbi, U-Iim'bl. Malayan name of 
the fruit Averrhoa Klimbi, much es- 
teemed when made into syrup, candied 
or pickled. 

Biliphadin, bil-i-f8'in. The pigment 
' contained in bile and the intestines, and 
the BubsUmce coloring the fieces and the 
skin in jaundice. 

BHiverdiue, -i-ver'din. An ingredient 
in the bUe of the ox, fishes, amphibia 
and birds, prized by painters. 

Bill, bil. The beak of a fowl. An in- 
strument with a concave cutting edge, 
used by plumbers, gardeners, &c. An 
ancient weapon, hook-shaped, having a 
pike at the back and another at the sum- 
mit, attached to a long handle. 
Bill, bil. A declaration in writing ex- 
uresslng some wrong or fault committed 
by some person against the law. In Com. 
acknowledgment of debt in writing. A 
form or drut of a law presented to a legis- 
lature. A paper giving public notice of 
something; a placard. An account of 
goods sold, services rendered, or work 
done.* Any written paper containing a 
statement of particulars. B. of credit, 
authority given in writing from one per- 
son to another, to receive money from a 
third party. In the U. S., a paper issued 
on the credit of the state, designed to otr- 
^^toM monmy.. B. of exohtatgey an or- 
aerformoner ^r»wn on a person in a dit- 


tant place. B. of health, a eertificato as 
to the health of a ship's company. B. of 
lading, a memorandum of goods shipped 
on board a vcssi'l. B. of safe, a formal in- 
strument for the tnuQsfer of personal chat- 

Billet, 'let A small paper or note in 
writing; a short letter. A ticket directing 
soldiers at what house to lodge. A small 
stick of wood. In Her. a bearing of 
an oblong form. In Arch, an ornament 
consisting of an imitation of wooden bil- 
lets placed in a hollow molding. 

Billet-doux, -le-d5. A love-note or 
short love-letter. • 

Bill-hook, 'hok. A small 
hatchet curved inwards at the 
point for pruning. 

Billiard-ball, Verd-bal. A 

ball used in billiaras. 
Billiard-oloth, -kloth. Green 

woolen cloth, manufactured to 

cover billiard-tables. 

Billiard-cue, -ku. The stick _ 
with which billiard-balls are Bill-book, 
struck'when playing. 

BilliardB, 'yerdz. A game played on a 
rectangular table with balls, wnteh the 
players, by means of cues or maces, 
caused to strike against each other, and 
also to roll into pockets. 

Billiard-table, -tft-bl. A table on 
which the game of billiards is played. 

Billion, li-on. A million of millions ; ac- 
cording to French computation a thou 
sand millions. 

Bixnensal, bl-men'sal. 
in two months. 

Bimestrial, -mes'tri-al. Continuing two 

Bimetallic, -me-tal'ik. Of or pertain- 
ing to two metals ; a double metallic 
standard in currency. 

Bin, bin. A box or inclosed place used as 
a repository. One of the sub-divisions oi 
a collar. 

Binomial, -n5'mi-al. An expression or 
quantity consisting of two terms connect- 
ed by the signs plus or minus ; as a -|- b, 
8a— 2c. 

Binary, bl'na-ri. Twofold; dual. B. 
arithmetic, the invention of Leibnitz, in 
which two figures only, and 1, ore used 
in lieu of ten. B. engine, having the 
piston of one c)rlinder impelled by steam, 
which communicates its unutilized heat to 
some Uquid, the vapor of which, by its 
expansion, yields additional force. B. 
logaiithma, & sy«tom fofc taicAU&tLnc mini' 

Occurring once 


BI0I097, -ol'o-^ Thebruiih ofkiun 
edpe tf hlch treaLa df Drjonizal bi^la^ 
Knlinals and plantB. Iflduillllg th^ mi 
I'liulogy, phyalolaay, origlii - ■• — •- 

Blgptaaill.'n'plnzm. Theulbi 
tbfi fj?m«ntjirvpjirt DrccTHn planta m 
It flllTari from proloiilBam chl«fly in bell 

Blotite. -tit. 

Biped, 'pad. An unlnulhiTliigtirarDcl, 

Biponnia, -pga'Dls. An u witb two 
blidea, oneon etch »(do of tho haiirilo. 

Biquadrate, bi-kTCod'rtt. In Milh. 
ttin fonrdi T>E>w^, Arisliiff from the niultf- 

qpvtrate of tbat nombra, 
Blroh. bwch. The caminon nimie tor 
BacuU (lb* snrl other plonla of the mdie 
cen. In Lijibnd, Norwsr nail 3w«d«n 

A egFeiing for bouaes, and tbo Inner Zuirk 


nwk»bl/ bmutifiil. Thafcilb™ 

lilnmM. They aro ctmaDed to 0,o mjo, 
Biretta, V ■■■ 

Blrd'B-sye, herdiT. The ponnlnr Min* ' 
of J. eon. of nljuils, lallci also PhaMMit's. 
fvo.inownVtbe gtnertoterm Adond. 
Ons of ■ kind of wtifioliE bIus «;«. 
Bltd't-syo Tlew, > mwls of perspeeil™ 
TepreAanutlon. BIrd's-eya llmeAtnni^ ■ . 
lOKflr fittoriut nek ivVi^ f^«^S^h nvm^ 


ton, reeardod mt Ih 

Blld's-DMt. 'DMt. The bW In nhhdi 
» bird lBy4 djf^ And hatches bn' roiuig. 

bla birds' DHlAorthaMalAyvi AnldpoU- 
ffo. A Duna popoUrlr ^VflD t4> fieversJ 
pluiW, u NhiuU nidin-«TlB, Moiatnui 
llypopltyB, iDdAtplenliimNldiu. 

iBTffQ Irirdy 

ud Spdn, 
BiKtnlt. blilLet. A hird dry bn»d, sfl 

ft FunaUcAkfl vsriouiuy uiade. Id Potbryr 

fliudng. In Saulp- n apodos of dd^ Inzed 
pDroelAlD of wbfOD flA^rei ftra (bmi^ is 
Imluaon ormubla. 

I, -Hki'llL Lav jrtt : tirrj 
Ml ror, iQwUehadftyuidtladta tbe 
ith of rabciiBT oo unoont of iLo M- 
of ( bam irUdL Ika glvll ynrniD- 
HS dir*. Tbii 

div. flatejvptan, Jhm. CotLsIb. 
BIA, bilk. Bonp Duda bT boUtag seiTsl 
.-sieU* tontlHr. Odda at tennli-pls}' ; 

mHfSoatlr, B atralu lUlowvd tfaa wEnlier 

Otto, Frlsoe von. Chanoollnr of the 

nf'tiiB Emwror'wiLbdBi 1° <lii« IMS; 
B. IBIS, fa hit ulfDU and enargf In 

BUmillah. Ws-mUli, Ad a^drtUon or 

JfUmmatb. bbtaaOi. A metal hardar 

oaadrujrfHla. i 

aurooba, Bleoa 
iattorlH npDally hutlmproporly called tha 

SiBque, bl^. A vsrloty of nn^Uud 
wUltd porwlaln. mnch rm|dD;«l fur BUt- 

BlBOl^kte, M-aol'fiit A lult of EOl- 

thurlD add, one-halfflf Iha hydro^n ba- 
Lg replaced by a meuL 
Bisulphite, -ax. A »1t of imlpUnraiu 
ftclil. oDB-half of the hydrogan \te\at ra- 

Blaulphnrat, 'fn-rft. A mmpound of 

Bit, bll. A mull picn of aBythlni, OF- 

iDcllao oolD. and'appll«l Ib iho Soulhsm 
ewtoi of N, Amerfon hi tho Spailih ahill- 
iDK. orailT siun TelirflHI&dllJF 0Dfr4lghtll 
of a dollar. 1110 IDOtal part Df a brUla 
whlr.hlt liiHTtfdInlboiDonlhnlahona, 
The Mine common to borlne loola applied 
bymum of tbanarpcnUr'atiraH. Tin 
drlli-bo», nilchel, litaca, Ulba or drtlHng- 
miHihise, ue termod diiilt or drm-biu. 
Bltcb, tdch. Tho fomale of oaniae ani- 

Bittar^Jnumd, blt'tnr-i-mos 
blLter Tartety of AmygdaltiBconu 
Bltter-eartb, -rrth. Talc eartli; 

jta) called btltertne- 

Black, bilk. Tbo rti 

«>lor ; tba opposite of 

fl, dcriTodlhjm Lba m 

Black-blid. 'brrd. T)io EngUth Duna of 
■ HpeideB of throflh <(>■■ 
Turd 01 Memli) nimii.„- 
tliroughoiit Enrapfl, Id 
AmeHn tUs nirai I- -■- 

tba Orlolui pbcpolgeui, 
nd-wtnged blackbird. 

Bladt-book, Hjuk. 
ohe^iiurfD EiuCtnd, c 

Onvtta of Tllboiy. J. ^ , 

ord«aftbsYlil(DnDriDDiiuIalM nndir 
HearyVni. A b«.k kept it hhiio Dnt- 

Aa incleDt book of ndmlrally compUed la 
tkatDlsnafEdnirdllL A book treU- 
Inj; of Uio black-art. 

Blaly lixlure ; ■ vaHflto of aiElUtoHU 
slaio. A prepantion ca ivtwf blbA and 

Uutog (TiuUJga amw^ 

Bootlind by the wife ofMakolm Cumura, 
oonalMlngofiplMooflhelrue miM, ««( 

In >ii i-hnnj. flguro of Iho SBYtODr. Uinc 

EnKluid by Edward I., uiil iD 

tile, ftm. Colnbriae. the Ootnber CDS' 
■tddoi'. It bu no poisoned laiira. Tht 
blKk-aimlieof Jamuica Is Ifae NUrli stn. 
WlUltUB, biU'stun. 
The emlneDtlenl BntbDrilv. b. bi LindoD, 
1728; n. ITSO, He was JudKeof theCouH 
of CoiuiDOD PI«ik And lus "Comineii' 
'be Lawa of Enebud" la ■ 
ook imd authomy . 
Black-tea, tr. A genarlo name lot 
Bubea, CubgDu, Pekoe, *nd Bouchong. 
Black-vamlsh Tree. 'iSr-nlsb It& 

prououamiDt plUBge : [evled la tbs du- Is Known as the ngnum-vltje. 
^i.'^wE.k"" i."»'''*El;^" '^* aiaok.voiilit,'™ni-lt.AdhBhsrBe(roin 

mlddlSofthelSthoentlllT. EltOrU™ In tlini.lmniu.h nf anhatinne. nf . kE,t .11. 

«Tm<^..fb.iln,idaltcn, ^iL?^„ to yXT^™'^."^'"'' 

fUe* M fob m tnd« iinton; ■ tool- ^^ „,^ i, , jrylnf ingredlsit In 
Bladk-walniit, 'wal-nat. Tbe Jngluii 
fa! nuUiiul Tor cablDCt-work. 
_ pblMk'uMd'tnai^^ili^' Bladder, blad'er. A thin membrMom 
i,(hctiirtj«fprinleim'lnt i™. tn .nt™.!. ^M^i. ..^^..11..,^ 

Blaok-plae, 'phi, Pinu uiialuk, dob- 
UlDlDK more ruin thu uij other £a- . 
p^pwn tree- -^ 

' ~' ' ' ' ' ~ ' ' " ■'"' otn at m loaf. A thing resombane Iha 
InetiameDt. Thebniad 

Bl»c]c-iilsineiit, blak'plg-: 

baiE In antmaL, , — ».. ^^,.^^—, . 
le aecnCed Hiild ; th< 


the lirge pbta of tbe ciinp«a of Ui 

Blad»«IIlittl, 'Emith. A iword ontla 
BlunchtmotOT. blon-iihliD'eC-iir. A. 
luetnuiiflit Utt meuiiilD^ th4 blnwhlit 
pawer at ojryjburlate or Lima uid ^KiUitli. 
Blano-nuuise, bli-muih. fnpus- 

M — J .1. d.. o( tolly, ennifnud 

t, Boor, in., wl;ii 

■IghC' OblHOT COD- { 

■iBtttiK of ■ twnw Bt 
ofoooluiilimBcifon, furni 

dur uid Ume, tbs 
hmMBngMiiaiii. Themoltoj 
drawn olf Bt stated periods, th 
beJDK ktut ailod. Tbearslakti 

Blaae. blOz. FlBms ; tlie Btr«ii 
md best from >ay beidy Kheo 
Bi^Ulant lunHKht; filTulgT'iioG. 
tpoi on ibe forehA&d of a borat 


renioving- the birliwllli a talthcl. 
Blaalng-rtar. 'Ine-Btiir. A. Fnmet. & 

BliiBirtnrr. 'u-rL Tli« 4rt of Llncrlbbiff 

freeing Mitlle lllKTb 


Bleachlng-powdeT. bJicb'iag-poa-dH'. 
Clilucidu oT Uinu muLs bv cxpoala^ 

Bleek-boc, blAktiak. Thu t(<»iu>|>bnnu 
Curthl^ tbd Irido-buck of SoutL AfrlfO^ 
aneoCttia ADiitupldv. 

Blend, l:knd. A mlitnrel tpecinuUjr, 

Blende, bliuid. An orn of due: oiled 
il» Uook-leiid, y»l»Giilun>iuidBl*Dk- 
Jack. Al&oE^mplnyedln uompouiid tvnnit 
■ u tnADguia^n>lendB, z]nc-bli?nd4 "*" " 

Blenheim, bkn'em. A breud o: 

tonisblro, KngUnd, elnoo the baglnnlng 

Btewfta, blu'its. Agaricua iietsunUni. 

BUnd-beetle. blind'M-tl. The cock' 
chafer, Eo cilled from fljiiig aa If blind ; i 

BUnd-fisli, 'Bsb. Tbs AmblyonBli 
apiilD'UB, £uD. HelaropTgldHi, lobnbltlni 
the Mummoth Ciis orSanCucky. 

Bliudman'a-bnS, 'muu-buf. A iilay 
In vhlch one perHm tB bUnd-fuVled aoa 

Blind-ahell. 'ehsL A bmnb-ebell whloh 

Bllnd-tooUnK. 'tfll-liifi. In bonk-bind- 
iog. ihBlmpTBaaloBiiiifheBicd tools upon 

Bllster-ated, biis'icT-Bi^iL fital bars 
coTBTodsritb blliters.frumUiecTpsmtoii 
Df bubbles of >lr, OBOU Ibr veldiug lo Iruo 

whkb erlmlnala lay Uwir iiecks- 

f maUoD. Blocks are sloelc, 
ble or foiir-foM. A eanneewd 


irhlcli BoiD4tl]liif; li Ahupfld. A pleaa of 

BlockBile -M'. The thntttaK np nf ■ 

Blocluda-nuxner, 'rug-er. A Ti^ual 
fngiieed tn running a Uocksdo. A i«r- 
vja CDKAfEHd ill biookEido-ruTuiliif . 

Blook'honse, blok'boui. An odlfioe 
buppUflil wllhk>oi»-haWflfuriiinakMr7aii<l 

Block-System, 'i 

U A perpvndlcuL 

whirh the UUD li divided Into an 
wltU n ilgnil null toloeraphli; conni 

dUdwed to onter npoD ujj odd euctloD Lul 

Blomaxy, bl'im'B-ri. The flrat fc«^ 
throufb wblcb Iraq dumb after H *" 

Blonde, blond. A penKm of Ur m 
pluxtou. «-IUi %ht bdr uul bine eju. 

Blond-lace, lit. Lues uads arl^naUy 
or unbleacbcd silk, now of oUte. bluk or 
oolured allk. AUo a kind nt threul li 

Blond-matal, 'inet-aL A Tsriaty 
day Iroiutafla of tko AoaJ-mt&Buroq. 

Blood, bind. Tbe fluid vhkh nlnialiiWe 
tbraupb tiio iirtoH^ and velnA or Ibe ' 
man Wr aod ulmalo, ceseuiul to 
predervntlDn of lEGiBJid nntrlUun of 
Bsanca. The Bpcdflo gravit]' of huj 

Tpu0c]»B or globus, rci 

] aji Ihe IVDiph oi clijle corpusclas, Tbo 

\ oulDTortberedcnrpiisi^es Is doa to ^o- 

bulln ud homaUji. Tlia word Mood Is 

used to d«lgiiato rcdiUauiblp by desceot 

Tim blooSI'^B tojS femWy"^^ea«e! 
AIki applied to lionea and otiier bhIdiiiIb 
of known and dlctlngulihed strains. 

ai^ed by tbe prlmlHTo ClirlBiIanB to tbo 
marCjrrdom of tboafl who liad not h^&L 
bapt&ied, regarded H a ftiO labigtltDta for 
llturnl biptJUD, 
■Stoodt&ait 'iiJL A dsgnia or lisit 


niglUris bIhvu. 
Blood-rain, 'rin. Bed ebuivi-rij Ibmia^ 
ly ftuppofitd lo comn ftom llii* uloihla, bat 

nlgfl. Protjitjiociia nivulja or red nnow. 
Also a ffinucntBtlan fun^n (»>De]iitlnir ol 
minute Dial cells, roluivlk prodinlou. 
Blood-apBiVlii. 'H|i>r-i^,. A dllatnUon 

Bloodatone, 'at*n. A atone, hnoirinod 
to boa prevoDtlToorbleedingat the jiobb^ 
Ked hematllo. A spedea of lieUotroH 
dotted with spots of Isspw. 

Blood-veaaeL '>«s-bdL Any vesael In 

BloonijblDin. A blossom ; sa mpsnded 
bud. The tat or Etoto of bloaBomlug. 

lUis, wlioB newly slnlcl:. The 
t^Q Bur&ce of leBtber. 
A Ininp of pnddled iron, which 
^flirnacolD arou^betate. 

and prlndfJes adoplod by Mrs. 

BloHdnK-paper. blot'lug-pil-par. Pa. 
per without Blu, aerving lo Imblbo Bupa> 

Bloiue, bloui. A loosa upper eannont 


mm b7 nuo. A. (taidkr int wucb br I Blna-book. t^, 
Blowcn, UfiB. A ibnrr, ]IuBitii( (s- 

pucn. printad 0/ order or PirtUmaiL 
a-luiied by daputmsnta of tlia Britleh 
r)T<nm«Dt. In th« D. 8., > bcnk eoB- 

plDTsd in a _.- ^ _ 

tin. AbhW nkto 

•be enmirt cf v In ■ <Umii» b; baing , r«d-it 
plaoed In ft«at af»fc«. IB muting, ■ >et tnl. 1 

£jBiuv In a oonMnlnfl- A 
pndiidug * bbBt A nam 
Dvm Iti luHitlnf up iv«tn, 
Blow-luMa, 'UL Th« noa 
cam. AboU In UwIkU' 

Blue-bTMist, 1 


Blov-ptpo, 'pip. 
tbron^h Al 

ku«Dl(tt). m dentlFOA- 

BlTI»mat, 'ksL A Blbailui at, nhigd 

Blna OoppnM>n, 'kop-er-Sr, Finely 

itanr phn«e 

B1im.<Ut11s, 'd«T 
Ibr hfpocbondrU, or 
Also ftppbed to ileliH 


lootlasd. 1 

prodDcad itviag inch u to c< 
dtanoDd nod to dlsslpfttd u 

'Ub. A bolkiwlron rod, 
hB glua-blowa' Eitlun ap 
u ujvmI from tbe pot. 
BT, blab'BT. A bnblile. Tba (M 
A KSlulnDiu inbaUdoe; henee 


Bltic)i«r,I«bTaobtTon,bkio'Ui. A 

duhlDE Pnuuun fsBml, vhoiia itritHn- 
tn dw^rlni Hn&il Qmuohj ud fOroed 
Tuna ««CiitNf— — '-■-—-■ — — 
9ad«cid«l ttial 

the ofAor oTuiftflloarikjor dupHA. 
dye or pigment ot tUa bus. Tbs aki 
the BtmoBphBre, from Its blue ttn^. 
term eppHed tee pedeDtio,UleTerv feme) 
The nMue of tlM Brltlib Borel Hot. 
Ouards, or Oilbid Uoea, ndsed li IMl, 
Bhi»>Mjd, 'tmi. A anudl dot 
lueeeorlel Urd, the Erytluoa, 

Wire.gTMa, ■ jwr- 

Blne-Jeokat, '> . 
Blue-Uslit, lit. A «.[ 

mb-phoaplule of krou. 

Blus-patar, 'pe-ter. 
neyil slgneL """. •"^ 

Slns-iibboa. 'rib^in. Tbe ribbM 
broldered witb gold worn br inetDbi 
tbe Older or tbe Gerter, A memb 
TUe badge of e bod; or 
, _jlled tbe Blue Kl"-— - 
by Fmnili Mur^y 

the Deck ef e ^oieli 


'BtAn, Solpbete or copper. 
lYK covering goJd'beerlng 
later terdiry pcrtode In 

BlgndBrtP— I bhm'der-bne. 



BoatMlU, Abu Ab 
- "lH KoHam 

, M'ib-dil. (K. , 

) Tbe lut Moor- Boi C 

Boaiieix«a, bft^-aer'lez, SonaofTti 
der, a nsma given by JesoB Chrljt to 
twodlsotplwJmnfunilJohn. Son--"- 

' Applied ta a loud, powerful preaoht 

tnuj.'- Wild boar (Sub seroh). as 
Uite or hoofed maoimaL, fom. Bull 
orll^lDAl of the hog klDd. In Hi 

Bo&TdinB-IlUu. bbid'lng-plk. A weap- 
OD need by ullori in boardlui; an enemy^e 

BooTd-Tnlo. bfrd'rSL A twle tar Ind- 
IDK tlie DDmberof Bqnmfeetln > board 
wflhoDt eAleulatloTL 

Boat. bJt. A amall opm vater cisft, 
usually moTsd by oan. The boat! W 
longlngto a «blp-of-ww nnmber eight; 

I. virytng viQi Its tOEUiage. Any 
. Boat-bill, 

Boatswain, 'a-riD or bii'ui. An c 

of a flhip who haa ebvge of the equip- 
uient BtioIBoeti ulso to inmnutn tde 

■Boaf-tailM, 'Uli, A aDb-lkm. of Anterl- 

Bobollnk. '6 

DTTri.oruLB e< 
ftun, loleriSB ; t 
Bob-wMte. 'vhlt : 

BcKuacclo, OiovKimt, 1 
The celebrated ItaUaD Dovelos ■» 
the "BecamerDn f ^ ■' In Paria, 1 
181S. HeoaBlbeMeDdof retnrGti,iuid 
vaathednttobrlDe nj^ei of tbe liUd 
and Odyssey from GTrMoe toHaplea. 

Bodice. bod'Is. A mliCoaM quUtsd 

Bodkin, 'km. Ad tDsCnuauiC with a 
aharp point for mfthitiff holes by plordiif^ 

iDg thread, tape or ribbon throogb a loop, 
Acq. a pr^nter^s tool for picking \vtt&t 

Bodle. bo'dl. A copper colii fbimerly 

IS-ao. Of or port^nlng to 
Sir Tbamaa Bodler. vho restored th* 
pubBo library of OrfOrd UniTtosllj tB 

bS'dl-poli-tlk. Ths ool- 
One who 

(Or the purpbseof dii 

regeublo matter ; a 
BoK tom-ore, l-er 

rs the bodies ot tt 

of peat tbr 1 


temptnous' appdMoB gli 




_ bd'gns. Countofeit; original^ 
applied to ooonterreitbiils, notes, &o., but 
now to any spurious object. 

Bohea, -hd'. An inferior Und of black 
tea. SometlmeA applied to black teaa in 

Bohemia, bd-he'ml-ah. A division of 
Aastrio, formerly an independent l^nf[- 
dom ; area 20,000 sq. m.: pop. 5,947,000. 
C-ap. Prague. One of the ntles of the 
Emperor of Anstrla is King of Bohemia. 

Bohexuiaii, b&-h€'mi-an. A natlye of 
Bohemia. The native tongae of Bo- 
hemia, a member of the Scbyonic fam- 
ily of Aryan tongues. An artist or liter- 
ary man who leads a free, often dissipat- 
ca live, despising conventionalities gener- 

Boiar, Boyar, boi'ar. A member of 
a peculiar order of the old Russian aris- 
tocnunr next in rank to the ruling princes, 
abolisned by Peter the Great, who gave its 
members a place in the Bussian nobility. 

Boil, boiL An inflamed and painful sup- 
purating tumor ; afUruncle. 

Boiler, 'er. A person who boils. A ves- 
sel in which anything is boiled. A strong 
metalUo vessel, usnally of wrought-iron 
plates riveted together, in which steam is 
generated for driving engines or other pur- 

Bokhara, bdk-hah'r&h. One of the di- 
visions of Independent Turkistan, Asia ; 
area 185,000 sq. m.; pop. abt 2,400,000. 
Cap. Bokhara, a rich commercial center, 
noted as a seat of Mohaomiedan culture. 

Bola, b5'la. A stone or iron ball attached 
to the end of a line or cord, used as a 
weapon by tribes of 5. America. 

Bole, bdl. In Oeol. any friable clayey 
shale or earth used as a pigment. In Min- 
eraL an amorphous earthy hydrous blsili- 
cate of alumina, with iron peroxides in va- 
rious proportions, and with a little magne- 
sia when soapy or greasy ; probably an al- 
tered felspatnio or fuummous mineral. 

Boleyn^Azme, biiiasn. Second wife of 
Henry vIII., of England, and mother of 
the celebrated Queen EUzabetV. She 
married the king after his divorce from 
Catherine of Arsuron, against the vigorous 
j.rotest of the Pope, and this marriage 
was the cause of the separation of the 
English Church from that of Romo. She 
enjoyed royal honors only four years, 
when the kmg charged her with infidelity, 
and she was convicted and beheaded; 
II. 1507, crowned 1582, d. 1537. 

Bolide, bOlid. A meteoric Btone or 
aerolite which explodes on coming in con- 

tact with our atmosphere ; -a fire-tSall ; a 

Bolivar, Simon, bdl'e-vir. The *« Lib- 
erator *' of 8. America from Spanish rule: 
B. in Caracas 1788, n. 1880. He waged 
war against the Spaniards in 1810, and 
completed the emancipation of Central 
and S. America in 1828. He was Presi- 
dent of Colombia twice, and Dictator of 
Peru, voluntarily relinquishing power. 

Bolivia, bo-liv'e-ah. A republic of S. 
America, N. and W. of Brazil ; area, 842,- 
780 sq. m.; pop. about 8,400,000 ; cap. Chu- 
quisaca. Aboutthree-fourthsofthe inhab- 
itants are Indians. Itwasnamcd in honor 
of Simon BoUyar, who drew its origiittl 
constitution in 1£^. Also called Upper 

BoUandists, bolland-isU. Jesuit writ- 
ers who published, under the title of Acta 
Sanctorum, the well-known coUectirm of 
the traditions of the saints of the R. 0. 

Boloffna-phial, b5-15'nya-n-al. A 
small phial of unannealed glass, which 
flies in pieces when its surface is scratched 
by a hard body, whereas a load bullet may 
be dropped into it without causing ii^ury. 

Boloffna, bd-ld'nya. One of the prind- 

Ktl interior Italian cities, prov. of .^mlUik 
mous for centuries as a seat of art and 
educatlAn ; pop. 102,470. 

Bolor-Ta«rh, bd-ljkr-t&h. The great 
mountain range of G. Asia, defining ^e 
W. boundaries of China. Some peaks are 
20,000 feet above sea leveL 

Boltant, Boltinsr. bait'ant, bSlt'ing In 
Her. terms applicable to the general posi- 
tion of hares and rabbits on coat armor, 
and imply springing forward. 

Boxnb, bom. A destructive 

f>roJectile, consisting of a hoi- 
ow shell of cast-iron. fliUed^ 
with explosivematerials, flredf 
from a mortar, and explodedl 
by a ftise, which is ignited^ 
by the discharge. Bombs are 
now commonly termed shells, 
though the latter has a wider 
meaning. In €^eoI. a block of seoriA 
ejected from the crater of a volcano. 

Boxnbardiez^beetle, bom-bSr-der'be- ~ ^ 
tl. A coleopterous insect. &m. Carabidae, 
genera Brachinus and Aptinus. They 
possess a remarkable power of expelling 
a pungent, acrid fluid, acoompanied by a 
smart report. 

Bonxbyx, 'biks. A gen. of Lepidopter- 
ous insects, type of a fiun. (Bombycida') 
Including many geneni of motha. Tbi|j| 



Bombarilaii. 'do 

nnllko thi ophklol 
BombHam, Bi 
baalne. -li-i£o' 

Boiabay, bom-bn 
iirislon of India, _., „ ^ , 
am ooeupled in tho Bojdb.rdon, 
BriMsb ; sren. I^.IHD tq. m.; jH)p. abt. 
1,400,000- Cap. Bombay, od thft Arablui 
G<s.{> tho prindpalcommerclaliiDipinl- 
nm at IhB % iDdlH, w<tb an fnwilenC 
barber, but luB few anporlDr buUdlA^ ; 

, p.»4i,4S 
Bonaparte, bS'Dah-pbi. Tha OunllT 
Dame otNapDlsnn I. aod III., toipMOfs of 
Frincu, founded bv Carlo Bonaparic, a 
lawyer oftho island of Ooreica, n, n4fl, 

Tbry bad S >ona and R dadiihU'ni. theold- 

Iho second Napo/eon J.. Emperor of 
Franne, and conqueror of newly Ao whole 
Bone, \aa. An Inlwrtl pordon 

BontaeoT, Bosk, boo-h 
gnitbod femila paUiter, 


anrped Iho papacy on ' 

Jobn XlV.^d'^i 

, dylnj imldealy Bhortly 

B. Vfll. B. CelesUno V., ..».. 

ikcd PhUIp thB Fair, ElnE ol 

liilm!lct,1ho' -— ■--^-' 

ok tba none itriaoner 

^ oSr^fU 

m la Thynnna paUmya, 


head worn h, 

for the head' 

only' a pawpe 

rk iilth two tiuaa, iavlBg 
»1th 1*0 ro... <if piff- 

oatlni; nlth the eoFerod 

ofawU. a™ 

-Iron plato to ooyer tho 

voivs chamber. 

of a pump- A IHme of 

erllochiinnei of a loeo-_ 

inotlvo ensino. 

the had of a n 

liner. A wlnd-op fur a 


-pfia. A kbM cobi of 

Jamee V. of Re 

Uaod, the klog'tbesdon 

ifl a dlat1n£ul.hlDi7 nara by I 
)f Iho flral Fxtinnh reToluHon. 
BoiUTilel, 'ap«l, A maleb between two 
parties, as two iwH.Iidb, at arcbaiy, colt 
oarlbijr Ob the ice, Ac; generally appUed 

B^BriSc^y, ttA VStla. I 

dcpl. of Clronda ; pop. MT.i 


CbutiM t'enJInipd. 

Ihe N. >Hnil. TUB I 
Boreoole, bur'k<il. , 

Borsia, lior>h, A natorlDai 

clcd Vom ia 

Bornlte, bw'i 


.ionsiatlDg of 1 
Irun and Is ml 
Boron. ba'roQ. 

TstnidymlU. ■ tbtIsV 
>ut 60 parta (wpper, ii 

I'roo. lo Chpm. lie i 
mt contalDod In bo 

Cryaltaiiei Imron Is 

Borongh, Imr'ni. fnrmrrlj-. iftirHllod 
limd, jl carpontfl town or towQfihfp. If 

is a parlTiiaeatJuy boroq; h, itoot^ « jtm- 
nlclpil boranch. iD tome of the Stata, 
a bkwu or Tillotre iDcwrporatAd with cor- 
tain pdvUcgaa. 
BorrelLit, bgr-rel-iai. Onsof..«tof 

Bjlliff op«ratloiiH, and iiati 
mHi& aDdlB iniUiiE ffl"' 
Bordaaxix, bur-SB'. : 


too small (Or IohcItt. 
Is, BotllBTDreillCMlla 
or giindliiK and poUah- 




I, bos. The ox gen.; niminont quad- 
mpeds, 6ub-fiun. Bovidffi. The Bpecies 
are the eommon ox ; aurochs, or bison of 
Europe ; buffalo of N. America ; proper 
buffalo of the Eastern continent; Cape 
bufiUo ; yak of Thibet, &c. 
Sosa, bo'za. A popular Oriental drink, 
made by boiling millet-seed in water, and 
fermenting the infusion, adding astrin- 
gents. An inebriating mess made of darnel 
meal, hemp-seed ana water. A prepara- 
tion of honey and tamarinds. 

Bosoh-vaxk, bosh'vfirk. The bush-hog 
of S. Africa (Choiropotamus africanus), 
one of the most formidable of the swine 
family. Eaflirs fear it, but esteem its 

Bosnia, bos'ne-ah. A semi-independent 
Turkish pashalic, comprising Bosnia 
proper, Turkish Croatia and Herzegovina; 
Ctap. Bosna^serai; pop. 1,870,000. B. 
was put under Austnan protection in 
1878. The InhabitanU are Solars, but 

Bosplioraa, bos'-f5-rus. A strait or 
channel between two seas. The strait be- 
tween the Sea of Marmora and the Black 
Sea ; also the strait of Caffa, connecting 
the Sea of Azof with the Black Sea. 

Boss, bos. A protuberant part ; a pro- 
tuberant ornament of silver, Ivonr, or 
other material, on harness, &o. InStmlp. 
a projecting mass 
to be afterwards 
cut or carved. In 
Arch, an ornament 

? laced at the in- 
erseotion ot 
groins In vaulted 
or flat roofs, fre- 
quently richly 
sculptured. Any 
projecting ball or 
knot of foliage, &c. 
In Mech. the enlarged part of a shaft on 
' which a wheel Is to be keyed. A die used 
for shaping metals. 

• Bossuet, Jacques Benigrne, b6s'pwa. 

'A celebrated French priest, bishop of 

Meaux ; b. 1627, d. 1704. He is said to 

have preached Ms first sermon at the age 

of 18. 

Bostansri) bos-tan Md. A class of men in 
Turkey, originally the sultanas gardeners, 
but now employed about his person, num- 
bering about 600. 

Boston. The caji. of Massachusetts, 
cAJef (H>mtnercial dty of New England, 
snd fourth In size in the United. Stages : 
pop. 682,451, 




Botany, bot'a-nl. The sdenoo which 
treats of the vegetable kingdom, dealbig 
with the forms of plants, thefar staracture, 
the vital phenomena connected with them, 
their arrangement into groups, aooording 
to affinities, and the classification of these 
groups so as to exhibit their mutual rela- 
tions and their positions in the vegetable 
kingdom as a whole. 

Botargro, bo-tar'gd. A food relish made 
of the roes of the mullet or tunny strong- 
ly salted after they have become putrla, 
used en the Mediterranean coast as an in- 
centive to drink. 

Bothnia, b6th'ni-a. Formerly a Swed- 
ish province^ut now divided between 
Sweden and Kussia ; situated N. and W. 
of the Gulf of Bothnia, the N. arm of tiie 
Baltic Bea. 

Botryogren, bo-trrd-Jen. A mineral, 
consisting of the hydrous sulphates of 
protoxide of iron, omde of iron, magnesia 
and Hme, said to have been found on 


Botryolite, bot'rl-o-Ut. A variety of 
datolite or borate of Ume, occurring In 
raammlllary or botryoldal concretions, in 
beds of magnetic iron in raeiss, usually 
as a deposit on calc-spar. it dlflfers from 
datolite In containing two atoms of water 
Instead of one. 

Bott, bot. The larvffi or maggots of sev- 
eral species of gadfly when found In ttie 
Intestines of hors^, under the hides of 
oxen. In the nostrils of sheep, A«. The 
botts with which horses are troubled are 
the larvae of the (Est^us equl. 

Bottle, 'I. A hollow vessel ot glaaa, 
wood, leather, or other material, with a 

Ancient Egyptian Botties of Glass, 
narrow mouth, for holding and oarrybii^ 

Boitle-flsh, -fish. An eel-like fish, fua. 

Bottle-flsh Inflated. 
MursenidsB, gen. Saccopharynx, theS. am- 
pullaceus. The body is capable cfbeibg 
uflated like a sack or bottle, henoc the 

BonldaT, MI'dv. Aw»l«-woni itone, 
tea IsriQ to bd n«rt)«d u h pebblf , In 
OaoL mppiled to ke-word ud smoothed 
MookBlyHwon Ihstnrfcoaof thfl»ll or 
■ ■ded 6 thB elart ud gravali of Uio 
if thB plelflloceae period. 
I-Tir. OrlgllimU;. 

^tSb ii»ii 


eeAble Kronudc odor, Aucb 
>B drawing tbe cork of any 

trud, bnthw ot tlie Bmpemr diu-lei 
Nlrtcl, ud In 1BS>, In ths |><T»n of Hen- 
IT IV. of R«™rT«, mocaoded to Uie 
throne of Fnnaa. Thef ffte flnallr «- 
pdladin 1B4S. Tbo flMnloh BourboD" 
ondeioiDduttof PUlIp V., gnuidton of 
Ldourv. of Fnncs.DudeklnxDf Bpiiii 
Id ITOO ; tb« ItiUin Bnurbnns fKm tha 

Phnip, who «u mSa Ung orNnplei In 

Bonrlviuniiat. bui-ia'jon-IiL Oieofi 
Hct founded bv AntolnvtU Boorlgson, 
who In 1«!SS auumsd tbe AdkoiIIdo Bnblt. 
■Bd tnTAledeiUnalvelf. Bb«m4lnta]iied 
that ChrlsDultrdoa notcanalillnhllh 
ind pnotJfw, but *>i Inwoid fevUng and 
jApMutural luxpolao, 

^n JistlDR twenty lioun it 

ninbow. Ths pari of 1 yoke which 

Bhelter made with bonjrhfl or twLulbg 
planla; an arbor; aahady tecMa- 
Bower-blrd, -berd. A namo of ctTtalO 
Auetralliui conlToelnl bInlB. bin. Oiiol- 
lila;.generaPUlonorh}-achiisiiid Chalamj. 

called runs, and adorning Uiem vrlOi 
briKhl-culored objacta : r - ■ ---' * 

.Dehor carrtod at th« 

Hb-bcru, I 
Wond t. 
again tho fir- 
ing J lb. boom. 
A BlwidlngB. Bowaprtt. 

for general bualneaa. 
Bover-ooaX. hCvl-ksl. a lirtlary llg 
plp«.fllaj. In dovonahlre, EntrliiDd. It 1 

. .._la, or holtaw-bo^ledqDad^^|>edn.cDa- 
U JoflndSae ame«, Wboh, ljXl"ot] 
musk-oi. nnia. tx. 

Bow, A mlaaile wMpon mada of daailc 
nuUarUI.irtth ■ atrlog itretebrd from end 

•BdwlM. Tbabov la hant iy dnwlag 

Drogheda. In whldi the EugllBn onder 
William HI, dliaatroualj deftated ths 
Irteh onder Jamea II. 
B071UW, bom'na. A lai^ lerpant of 



Brachiopoda. bril-hi-ap'i 

> perp«iHUinihr Burfkce. i tri 
iroa4«D sapport forAih^forthi 
tn onunuAtA] b|fc« eqpporUn^ 
er-beuQ. In Uiuh. m pleoe at- 
ihiftliig. InOan. thacEieckofti 

wd to Inolofte ft reftreuce^ explan ■ 
.; thai, [ ]. A gM-plpo projMaae 

i. A term appllad 

Tlth ^Id, the; Ira lo bs found 

Brad. bnd. A headleii nail UEsd In -work 
whi^re U !b dealr«d lo ilrlvo nulls ontirely 

Brasaiua, br»li-gin'tbii. The uBme of 
tha reUfnlng fuulllee of Porlaml snd 
Brazil, aeufndrd from John Vllf., Dnks 
of B tha l.tlfT renrBMDling IhB niaJe 
lln«, the fOrrnertha female. 

Bracir, Braxton, den. An Amerlrum 
offloer. who served with gallADtry m cap- 
In tha confadorata lervlca dnrfaff tha 
olvtl war ; B. In N. Carolina, ISIS. □, 1ST6. 

Broho, Tycho. brih. The most dla- 
tlnfrulahed aatronotoer of the 16th ^Mmturr; 

le sacred or aaoerdata] 
spnceedt ~ 
id to be a 

Gnltonla of Ugh anOqulty. Tliednt- 
Uj ttaa Bntuoaiia venenUd eqnally tba 
tbree goda oftfae Hlndn trltnurtl or trln- 

gulEhod by thalln^^Ain, or emblem af the 
— 'loigan of generation. Called also Btnh- 

Biaiuna. bri'mL in ladlim mjth. ana 

tatal acnlhllatlDD) that hia servlees wUlba 
BTahman&B, -ma'n 

ir thopprltorm 


. _._«6'mfl!. Thanion- 

otheiatlc rehaloii of India, aboUalilnz 
caste and aadent superstlttoiifi, fonnded 
by Eammohnn Eoy. Callod also Bnunu- 

Brahmapootra. bm-mah-poot'nh. A 

trlnglrlo'theBay'ofBeneii. In canioni^ 
tian with the maTn branch DflLe Gan^ea. 

Scals-ooml, lio-ral. A variet 

>aoDrrlng Ip hemlapherleal h 
BTBin, ^xtai. That maaa or Ti 



ons orill Uvlng ulnuli. Altbaiich res- 

ignLicd u D Tertebntcd udnul It hu no 

'en^bm. buC oTjEy a pwriatoflCnotocboi^t 

d, no true hMrLnoBj-M, 

en, UiB mnMliia being Bt- > 

ovtUBfe, ud DO projwr 

Brand.eiibiuB', bric'di ' 

tilled ftom I 

tad pluined &t. Btatu parti 

jBdnoad Eiplual pochHi. U 

totlwFipaleoiin. britHo 1> m 

Biaaioh, bruBb. A portton of ■ trat, •ddlng irgcri, br 

dmb, or oUiec ]dut apriaglng (hom tlw ™l|'*]'ji ^ 

Mte.' SoBwt^ig nHmbltnc ■ bnnab: BnuidywlnS Oraek. AatreuBWbMi 

MSalmuiliot* aadJuUck. of no «r- >*»«> m Pennsyl'mta Md «mptl« InW 

tM7, of ■ itic'i barn ; ■ tivR nuuilnt CbrilOuw Cnwk, oeai IFilinliigtaii, r 
■■to B Inctr one. Any manber or purt «•-—-- .-...-. ■..■>._^. 

of ■ bodr er mtxn : ■ I* ' " ' 

« KngHrii or 

work.' Tba^l^iiwareaiBraiulDnglTen 
to n Sii|4)A plloL BtBHhe* of o^tm, 
tba rib* otgnUaA nalti tnTenIng tram 

CbrilOuw Creek, uow n iiuiuwluu, j><ii_ 
notedfortba batUetouKbt Bept. ir,1711, 
between the Ameriani, under Waahlng- 
ton, 13,000 Blmng, ud the Brltlah under 
Gen. Ilove, 18,000. The (brmwu derat- 
ed, Inilair PblUdalpbto to " 


roif«i«;~Ti6'B.W9dlT(ded irreeniant 

__• IndlTldnil, glUt eipaeed), u aea- 
■Infi, A^; Heteropode (free-avlmmin^ 
futonpods), H Cnrinirts. 
BrBOohlpoda. -M-op'o-de. Anord. or 

Med on the feet, dMded Into tba Ikmlllea 
{^oeerlLi Fh^QopodA, Oetracodm and 

Lmphloxni* b:- 


of flihee, klae eaUed A 

Sr!!iiii. the 

turnip, sola, eiirled. 
kiae,1u>lenbl, w tnr- 

|lp..t«inmfd ab^ 

Braxe. brui. To solder, especUllj with 

BlttKil. bnh-ill'. Tbe Inieit guie of 

n, Hid CiB JjAdeiro. PoAna, 

Braall, BrMdl-wood. bre-iU', bn-iil'- 
v^d. A very 1i«HTy wood of « r»d oolor, 
gnving In Bniir md oiber tnploi] 
mimCrieii, iu«d for dftiDg lad, the pn>- 
dnco of Cosilplili BObluaiud C. Bnidl- 

Brazll-iiTit. 'nut. Tbe Meda of Ibe fFnlt 
of BertholletU eioelu. ■ tree. ord. Lm;- 
Ihldaoeie. B»ld« bdiE nwd u id irtlcU 
of duuirt, > blud olT nued by «BUh 
makers imd othen. !■ expKuod teiaa the 


•oaten bulk Berviag to brtak 

Utile bolow the loT*] :i 
Breaatwork, '' 

Breckliirld8«, Jolm O., brik'n-^. 

Braecblns, ' 



iaCMm, _ . 

' jiakiid, or^ni 
... id Bt UTery early 

pariod In tm liln unUnt wrftlDi!i Ldoitd 

hnhi^rol eryiula. Calli-d sIm llrum- 

Brerat. bre-ret', A sammlHion tn ui . 
•rmyolSccF which BOtltlH hlmtoanok 
nbora Uwt irhtch h« nccnally hulili. wIUi- 

mlsBlon ; a royil Act conh^rrlng wme jiriv- 

BreTlarr. bre'Tl-a-rl. An BbrldKinMit : 
HI epIUiioB. In the R. C. Ch, > book ton- 
ulnlug the dally affliisa. Tbe En^ih 

BtVrlttT, brfl-r^. A prlntloe typo, In 
hIxo between bour^uti on' —'-'-- 
BrarlpMl. 'Tl-ped. A b 

Hog t] 

Brewing, 'lug. The i 
phTln^ HqllurA tntm tai 

Brian Boru. BoroImlLe, bri'iu-bo- 
nw'. A colebtaiMl Iriab obfof. King of 
UuDiiter, udhfterword Bov^fulim of »ll 
Inliind ; a. VSl, i,. 1014. Ue d^eited tbe 
Danes In 40 balllos, his last victory beliw 
at Clontorr.xhi-ro bo HBs killed. Hewu 
oquaUy difltloguliibod for hla pbtrona^ of 

BriareuB. In Myth, the soared name 
»nimoLS Biiint. son of Ccelns *nd Tin 

1 Ksrtb). He I 

:srth). He Is rMroseoSk 

iiuiua •iiiui.i; inorlnls w»9 ^eOB. 

Briak. brik. A kind of artlfldal etons 
uiadoofclay formed In a mold, burnod 
In a kiln, or dried In the emi. 

Brlok-kUn, 'kll. A kiln or tvoasa In 
whldi brieki are bakrd or bnrned ; or it 
roMlve Ihfl foal. ' *' "° "■"™ 

Brink-tea, 'ti. Tbe Iire:e leiTUof the 

Into & brlch-sbaped inwH, eitenalT^ 
aentoierland to Roula. In Aula, kRIcIh 
are Tiiued by brickft of tea. 

Brloole. bn>-ki>l. llamiHi 
fur dni«gtii(( guiu wUci - " 

Brfdow«lt. br1d'wi.l. 

boDElDEln^a tortxiot uitoTerted vch 
from DD« pdlDt or bupj>{>rt ID uiuthtq'. A 
fljiDg brtdga li Hilda of inntoiuiB, llghl 
bouts hollow baoDJi, empty aa\t. or the 
* Uke, fbr Iho pjuu^ oT armloa. A tubular 
biiil^ula Ibniinl Df a rcataatruldr tubo, 

nnd-the wi^ht t<»bii ^uatftlDcrd greut. A 

rtfterlii over tUo bosea of the two od- 
}olnldK. TliBupporpartortbe note. In 
Hn^ravlng, abdonl on whioh tbe to^fTATiir 
TOBtA hla hand, lu tnnmct^, a rordnaJ 
partidou fbr duio]rirltlii« thu Cama Aod 
hoitoil vapor to Mcend. Iii Odd. two pieces 
of ttmberbfltwHai tba tiwiAomaof affon- 
otrrlttie. InMataLtbeplatfonnby wliith 


wUch ha )■ diTMtiKl an 

Brief, bivf. Ad epildins ; > ahortaroia- 
oinc eutcment. In law, an ibrld^ad re- 
action- A iHpal OF apDiitoll(Al biief, let 
tera which thu I'opo addreiuiafl to IdAvM- 
uolB orrrUi^oUACouitiiitnltlM niton tnat- 
I«n ordlsolpllne. dlBtinguliih«l (ram ahull 

Butled wltll rnil wai and Imprpssi-J Willi 
idU, written a: 

I> vanoo.1) ap- 
plied hythomark., „- , 

Brtende, hrl-gid'. A division of troops, 

or ballnHani. A body at Indl'iiduals or 

Saiiti and autlnr uador autlioiily : as * 
B Meade, 
Bri«adier-«eneral, brig-a-d£r"-Jen'er. 
al, TbeoWoorwhocDninandsabri^idei 

Brlgsjid, 'and. A robber ; a frwbootw; 

Btwo-masted TCBstl partly squnrv-r^ited. 
Biis-ht, Jotm, brIL A dlsHogulahcd 
English raaouAiclurar. orator aod statei- 
luan; 1. 1811. and still In acllvelile(I8M). 

EnjrUab waterin^-phii!*!. In Saawit, 47 m. 
Brlshf • DiwBBe. briu' diz-ai. Adls- 

ttammatlaa Dftbe miilpl)rhlan l«Ktles. 
OUled alio Gnnulju' Uctfennratlun of the 




inf , a type a siie leis than diamond. In 
the manege, a-hlgli-splrlted hone. 

Brimstone, Inrim^ttdn. Bnlphnr. 

BrindXe, rin^dl. A miiEtare of oolors of 
vUeh gray 1b the base, with bands of 
darlur gray or black. 

Brine, brin. Water stroaglr fmpregnat- 
ed with aalt, Uke the artlfldal brine nsed 
Ibr the preaerration of fleah of animals, 
ilsh, yegetablee, Ac 

Brine-idiriinp, 'shrimp. A branehi- 
opodous emstacean, the Artemia saUna, 
which Urea natmally in a briny solatlon of 
Bofflclent strength to pickle beef. 

Brii^az«e, brin'Jare. A Tsrlety of 
ereyhonnd, said to be the best hontlng- 
dog in India. 

BBdnvflliers, ICarq^iee de, bran- 
Teefe-aL A notorious French woman, 
eiMiTleted d poisoning her Ikther, iMrother 
sad two Bisters, also several hospital pa- 
HflBto, Bhe was guillotined and her body 
bomed, 1676. 

BrleUe, brisl. One of the stUf, ooarse, 
glossy hairs from the back of the hog 
snd wHd boar, used by brushmakers, 
shoemakers, saddlers, Jec. A similar ap- 
dendage on ]dants. 

Bristol, brls'tol. One of the oldest dties 
of England, a seaport at the Junction of 
the riyers Ayon and Frome, and third in 
commercial importanee; pop. 196,400. 

Bristol-stone, -stte. Sock-crystsL or 
Bristol-diamond, small, round crystals of 

teitain- OJ L' O w n , Mfan-kronn. An 
English gold coin of therein of James I., 
a fourth part of a unity, of the yalne of 
6s., afterward raised to 6s. 6d. 

Britannia-metal, bri-tan'i-a-met'sL 

.An alloy nsed chiefly for teapots, snoons, 
Ac The general proportions are 85^ tin, 
10^ antimony, 8 dnc, and 1 copper. 

Britinian, -tin'i-an. A monk of the or- 
der of St. Augustine, distinguished for 
their austerity. In 1256 they were 
merged in the general union of all the 
fraternities of the Augustine order. 

Britaska, brlts'ka. A Russian carriage 
with a calash top, and Bi>ace for reclining. 

Broad-arrow, brad'i-ro. The British 
royal raark for goyeriiment stores of eveiy 
description, to obliterate or deface whidli 
Is felony. 

Bioad^aze, 'aks. Formerhr, a military 
weapon ; battle-ax. A broad-edged ax. 

Broad-cloth, Idoth. A spedes of wool- 
en doth, so called from its breadth. 

Broadrpisoe, 'pfia. A denomination of 

some old En^tah golil-pi««efl, bnjad«*r 
than a guinea, especially Caroluscs and 

's£L The national neal of a 

B roadside, 'sId. A disrhargo of all the 
guns on one side of a ship at the Mime 
time. The side of a ship alM»vo tbu wat<T 
from the bow to the quarter. A houne- 
front. In printinfT. a shet't of paper, ono 
side of which is covered by a single page. 

Broadsword, 'sonl. A swonl with a 
broad bbuie and cutting edtres, formerly 
the national weapon of the llifrhlandurs. 

Gigantic, Uke an inhabitant of the fobled 
region of Brobdingnag in Swift's '* Gulli- 
yer'a Travels." 

I, br&-kid'. Bilk or other stuff 
yarlegated with gold or silver, or having 
raised flowers, foliage or other ornaments. 

Brooatel, ^a-tel. Bienna marble, a cal- 
careous stone or spedes of brecdate<l 
marble composed of fragments of various 
colors. A thin woolen cloth of silky sur- 
ikoe, used for linings, dec.; liusey -woolly. 

Brochantite, brok'an-tlt. A mineral 
consisting of hydrous sulpliato of oopi>er. 

Brocliure, brd-shdr'. A i>amphlet, es- 
pecially one on a matter of transltoiy in- 

Brocket, brok'et. A red-deer two years 
old ; a pricket. 

Broella, bro-ella. A coarse kind of cloth 
used for tho ordinary dresses of country- 
men and tho monastic clergy in the mid- 
dle ages. 

Brofirlie, Aohllle I«eonoe Victor 
Charles, Due de. A distinguished 
French statesman ; b. 1785, j>. 1870. He 
married Mme. de BtaeVs only daughter. 

Brogue, brog. A coarse shoo made of 
raw or half-tanned leather ; a stout, coarse 
shoo. A dialectical manner of pronuncia- 
tion ; especially applied to the mode oi 
pronunciation peculiar to the Irish. 

Broker, bro'ker. An agent or negotiator 
who Is employed bv merchants to make 
and conclude bargams for them for a fee 
or rate per cent, or who transacts other 
business for his employers. 

Broma, 'ma. Aliment. A chocolate 
preparation from cocoa seeds or beans. 

Bromal, 'maL A compound obtained 
by the action of bromine on alcohol. It has 
a penetrating odor which attacks the eyes. 

Bromine, 'min. A simple non-metallic 
element resembling chlorine and iodine, 
existing in minute qtiactltles in sea- water, 



A Ugnid pro- 
Lye bromldo nl 

Hit Iprlligs. It (uw hi 
obJoruifl, and la Tery p. 

Bromoforra, 'mo-for 

■oUd^ on wi>od-Bpbita 

M. 'ml-rit. 
ilBdng QfBI 

Bronchotomr. bronm-kot'o-nit. An in- 
(dBloa Into the wlad-pipa or larynx^ to »f- 

tiielongs, iMlti tnthaotomj vhon th« 
opeatig l> mida tnlo ths tnohcgi, ud 
larjiiflDtomr when mads mio the IU7111. 
Bnmta, Chai^Otte, lir«n't«. A oele- 
bmed EngUah DOTsUit, ■'CoirerBeU." 

B. 181*. D. isee. 

BRmteam. bron-tS'iun. In ucIdiiI 
flreak thesters, t bmen yeese! oaed tor 
ImiuHiig thuDder by rolling BUnet Id It, 

to the ulm&l produelnf certaiD blrd-llko 

new nd uridstone of UaasbehUHettB uid 

Blouse, hronz. A compound of IKiin 2 
to SO puti of eopper to I ot tin, to uhioh 
other meUUIn Bubstaiicee ire nomellmei 
added, eftpeciaUy zinc. It1« bHttke, hard 

uid aei^rttod fr 
IsfgeBl dty In 

k'lln. Cop. or EInn 
tuated OD Long Iflland, 
raMinhittm Teland b. 
pop. ««&.aOO : ttaa third 
he United Btatei. Ills 
iewTorkhythe Brook- 
I bridges DD the gtobs, 

BrooniHsoni. brCkm'kon. Borghnm Tni- 
nro orOiilncft.wm. The bruiohed un- 

Broraribsda, br^'ra-bedt. A Mrlea oT 
atrau Bt the lover ooUle, remarkable tor 
oantslnbir the thtekeet bed ot trna ooal 
•— "- ■"- - "arf Blnta of Britain. 

•rpaDes, one spedes of wbloh Is the eaw- 
tree of SoDth America. B. Allcsitmo 
produoes nuts, which, when routed, are 

Broushoio. bre'ain. A one-horBe oIoM 
carriage, aHher two or fonr wheeled. 

BroiwtLam. and Tanz, HeiUT, 
Lord, broom. One of Loglsnd's most 

BTouBKiiletla. brOe-on-A'aU-a. A gen.- 
of trees, ord. Horaoeie, B, papTTltora, or 
lolberry, alBirds tho chief papw- 
materlal In China and Japan : 

Spiled to slIovB of I 
ay ofabont Si pari 
Itin, Isasedforautnes. 
BroTtze-Uiiaor. Ilk-er 

r Mannheim ^Id, terms 


ODBod and hardened Tc 

the army In 1B21 : a. In Pennei^vula, 
1176, D. ISie. 

Brown, Tohn. A dlitingiilahed antt- 
alavery agHator, n. In Conn., ISOO ; sie- 
onted for IreBBon BgaloBt Vlrglola at Char- 
leston. Dec. i. \m. 

Browilie, brouo'l. In Scotland, an ami- 
able Imaginary spirit that haimta £inn 

Browiiins, EUsabeth Banvtt. On* 
of Kn|[land'« moat prolific and dellghtflil 
poeteasea. wUb of Kobert Browning, alao 

• ' BiowniBt, 'lat. A tolluwer of Bobert 

Iron, and having the eryalala str^fdit. 
eiderltd and breunnerito we alao ^sd 
Btodb, Kobait. The hsrolo Ktng ot 


Beoflnid, «bo toUU]' daftated tha En^tah 

ymAim - £4invd II -' ■* — ' ^"^ ■ - 

Braebu, Mta'ln. 
IMj««[IlHrlc», ud ■fUrwurd h •aoom- 

Bmcito, ^t. A n«Hia hjdimta of msg- 
n«1>, & mlnerBl fbiuid In thla Ibllit^ 
plites. Ansthsr Dime fitr Chaadredlta. 

Bmin. Iire'la. A niunaElTeii tothsb«r. 

Bmm&lxe, liia-mir. The 3d monih In 
thsnleodw idapud br Ihe Ont French 
repnbUn, beglDnlng on Uie 23d OeUitta 
ud ending iliC Hovemher. 

Bnmel, iBwubafd, Sir. The Ea- 
gUsk sngtaeerirhobnlltOiB'r- -— 

biiT^ Eliwdoin, dselgiied the 
em, the largeat ■tCuuhip er 
1804. D, ISM. 

L pcraoD vita a 
. A theory ot 

„ re dJrtded 5nto 

tboH dna to an einieaa or eidtament 
Bmnswiok, Ihulty, of , brflni'wlk. A 
snuill 8tala of H'. GmuDy ; area, iJM 
aq.m.;Kip.BN,4TI. ThenlgnkgAunltTls 
dneeodeditainthaQautpba. B., thacap., 
la an ndeBt dty on the Ooker, eoDtaln- 
tog manr fliH medlaml txtlldlnga ; pop. 

off his dltfalae, roiued tbe peoph?, ex- 
pelled the Tarqulnt. and eiUbllsbrd a te- 
pnbltc, or nblcb CaUiUnua and falmeelt 
wen KlecUd nniuli. Ho Hntpno.-.! bl* 

Bnitaa, Muma Jouliia. Nepbew of 

desertfdfur Our, butUlerJi><n«lln tba 
congj.lracy e«T»«9ttheletti;r, and uuoh 
o(those»hoM!u»rtnat«dhlin. Aft.Tfl)-- 

9°n8 <ii'°«imnundor"hoBriny,aDdiiner 
tb« dc-roat it PhLUppl killed blm self t^ 

Bry&nt. -Wllliiim Callen. An 
AiuarlranJonFullgtandpuel; aicMau., 
1784, D. ISTS. He >u br minv yean 
BhW editor and proprietor of tde New 
York ETcnlng- Post, llliflnt poemiwera 

BttoIost, bri«l'o-Jl. The sdenre of 

Bu&nMnA^ ba-an4G'a. The nAUva 
same of the Cdoti (ChryKem) prlmnvui, 
or wild do; of Kortham India, euppoaad 
tobetbaoriglnal^peoftlie doguibe. 

Babalna, bania-Ms. Tba gon. towbloh 
tha boAlo belonga. 

Bubo, bik'bo. A gen. of owls. Including 

at fivm dothee, laying ^noolerj 
e. The small Ijeea and nhrul 

brna'eli. Cap. of Belglon 

- KroMOla-Iao*, bnu'e1i-Ua. A tags 

Bmte, brCt. A b«ut ; any aalmal dea- 
bred, nnteelillgman. 

Brattui, looina Jnttliia. bm'tfia. In 
"— — - — of Tarqnloia, eiiter of 
DDd. Hla fttber and 
'idbrtboking, and 
J setnl-lillDey. Af- 

mtUby Seitoi, BOBofTiiqaln.hethrew 

ippUed to ollco printing. 

eepeulnlly the adventurers, English and 
rrench. who combined to make deprsda- 
tloDB on tho Spaniards In Amertva In the 

BucentBiUr, ba-B«n'tsr. A mythological 

barge of Venice, In which the doge and 
senate went to wed the AdrleOD. 

BuohMian, Junea. The IGth Preel- 
denCofthatr. B iB. iDPenn.lToi ; elected 
PreildentiSSd: d. ISSg. The SBnesahni 

blfwil, dandy. Tie luu-k Dfi cockold. 
Suck-boaxd. 'biinl. A flnir-Hb«lTd ve 
hide, GoafilHdn^ dFh b(»rd iteElii^ dtroct 


If IiDgiUKl : u. 

Buaklms'ham. Oeoive VUllen. 
Ihiktt of, huk'lne-hdm. A naiorioni 
tfUlK- - - - 

gunlmtlon ISSB.' 
Buckle, 'I. An Innnnent soolUtliig of 
■ rlDi^Dr rim with a rlupD uid (oDipe, 
used for fkfllcidp^ bameu^ Ac., toyetDDT. 

un or wood fltted together 

Oho of two 

tbip uklii)( In WBtei 

whlta meo by Ibe nKI 
BoDknuD, 'mn. A 
Dtlffobed villi Vina, ai 
keep thorn In tho Tor 

, 'ikln. TbB ikbi o( » bnol 

A loftldilluriiudetijtnaflnf deer-tldji 

ftvm ueepflJdiii. 

Smikwhamt. 'irhM. Tba orimo aon 
manly glTen to tha Fjvopymm uouler 

PolmansonL', aod aba to lte»ad>. 

I of II 

rnteUieftlwaorthOEiitiihfiitiiro iu Ionic 

and Oorintldiiii irchlUiliicri. 
Bnda, btk'dih. A HunEoriiui eilr, idth 

Fcatb, on Uia oppoilte bank oF (he Danube, 

the me. ortb* Mau ; pop. M.Mi. 
BndUiH, blld'da. 

anad : tha aamd i . . 

BaddblAm. who apnean to 

eaoflrUdilalkat nb- 

uld to oomprUie about a third o 
BnddMot, 'lit. Relating li 

bl Ujrbt IH prodncud- 
iDdKe-bBirel. bninui^el, 
flwllb only one hnil.Qiied 


Bneua Tista, bwa'nah Tb'tah. A 
HeikSD vUliffe, M m. 8. W. of Hontfr 
rer. noted u tba sane of the dedalTa 

Am^kone under Oen. zicb- TjLylor »nd 
thoMeilcnn>QDdDFSaota Anni, the lat- 

Biiftnoa Ayna^ b^nAa I'rTi. A proT. 
and city of the Ar^ndno ConlbderacleD, 

88,00* aq. m.: pop. 848,000, The dW, 
as>\: of Ibe Con/EdenUon l> eltnated. 

Baft, bnf. A Inthor prepore'T ftom 
tba Bkin or (be bnffalo. dreuod irlth alt, 
like Fbunmy. Ttaobamiikln. 

Buftalo, bfif l^ta-low. A e!^ of N. T. 
StaU'. atthejnncllon of tho Erie Canal 
wIlhLnkaKrlK.andHintrola tbe >reMorn ' 

Buffalo. A large mmlnanC maoimaL 
dun. BovldB, IbeViit Vvowa si)odet ol 
wbleb l8 tha RntialnEi BnflelnB or Hoi ' 

wild nuen 1q poncrnl, pad parUciuuty to ^, 

BaftEOo-robe. -rib. The skin or the U- 

aon pregjared with tbu hair nn, 
Boftooat, 'kSt. A cloinmlHtary ootar 

oeotnij aa a delhna*. 




, 'fer. sAny apparatas for deaden- 
I oonoastion oetween a moving 
id the ode on which it strikes. A 
£^ew: a term expressive of ex- 

, 'fet A cupboard, sideboard or 
to hold china ana like articles. 
laoe set apsrt for refreshments in 
places. That part of an organ that 
s the pipes. 

I, G^orgres Iionis Leolero, 
fe de, buTfbng. The most emi- 
f French naturalists ; b. 1707, d. 

it, 'ibnt. A projecting covering of 

>r nnen for a lady's breast. 

in, -f5n'. A man who makes a 

e of amustDg others by low tricks 

Igar pleasantries. 

ite, bu'fon-it. Toadstone; the 

id^eeth of the Sphsrodus, Pyono- 

id other mesoxoic ganoid fishes. 

ng. The name formerly applied 
to insects, and still of wide ap- 
»ii. In tiie United States the name 
HBj used where beetle would be 
1 Enghmd. The Gimex lectularlus, 
<u«e^ug or bed-bug, or any mem- 
tiiifl gen. or of the Uun. Cimicidae. 
r, 'L A name given to several 
. of carriages or gigs. 

, b&'gL A hunting horn. A brass 
nstmment A glass bead. The 
r name for AJuga reptans, a labiate 

r, bfig^er. One who plays a bugle; 
3uty, a soldier who conveys the 

bfiL Unbumlshed gold, brass or 
r-of-pearl worked into patterns, for 
<g ; idso ornamental ftirniture, &c, 
anted with buhlwork. 

1, bnl'bnl. The Persian name of 
lies of nightingale. 

ada, bul-g&'re-ah. One of the Bal- 
ivinccs, formerly under exclusive 
.h control, but since 1877 having a 
Ian administration subject to Tur- 
urea 81,164 sq. m.; pop. 8,246,459. 

irian, bul-ga'ri-an. A member of 
ilgarian race. The language of the 
ians, two dialects— Old and New 
:ian. The former is extinct as a 
tongue, but is used as the sacred 
ige 4^ the Greek Church. 

jfio, -gar'lk. One of the four 
tM of the Finnish languages, the 
three J>eing the Permic, U^ric and 

Bull, bol- Originally the seal appended 
to the edicts and briefs of the pope. A 
letter, edict, or rescript of the pope, pnb- ■ 
lished or transmitted to the churches over 
which he is head, containing some decree, 
order or decision, used chiefly in matters 
of justice or of grace. If the former, the 
lead or seal is hung by a hempen cord ; 
if the latter, by a silken thread. 

Bull. The male of any bovine quadru- 
ped. Taurus, one of the twelve signs of the 
zodiac. In stock exchange slang, one who 
operates in order to effect a nse in the 
price of stock ; the opposite of a beu*. 

Bulla, 'la. Aji omamrat worn round 
the nedc by noble Bomaa diiMren tiU 

Leaden Bulla of Pope Alexander lY . 

ther were 17 years old ; in later times, a 
leaden seal attached to a docnttenC 

Bull-baitinsr, 'bat-ing. The pnetloe of 
baiting bulls with dogs. 

Bull-dogr* 'dog. A species of dogs Terr 
strong and muscular, and of remaAaJtm 
courage and ferocity. The great gun 
in the officers^ ward-room cabin; alM a 
general term for main-deck guns. A do- 
composed protoellicate of iron, used as a 
lining for the boshes of ftimacos. 

Bullen-nail, 'en-nfil. A short round- 
headed nail, tinned and lacquered. 

Bullet, aet A small bail. A projectile 
intended to be discharged from fire-anns - 
or other missile weapons. 

Bulletin, le-tln. An authenticated o^ 
fielal report concerning some puUlc«vent. 
Any notice or public aanonneement Pe- 
riodical records of learned societies. 

Bull-flfirlit, 'fit A combat between men 

and a bull or bulls ; an amusement amooi^ 

the Spaniards 

and Portu- 

' f i n 8 h. An 


bird, Pyr^ 

hula mbiciUa, 

fam. Frlngilli- 

dse or fincnes. 


Ball-£roir» 'frog. The Baaa plpisBS^ * 


tnrffo BpadH of fnjp, t 
tita ffMteropod mnllnaki 

Bollock, 'ak. A yonni 
ni or Kiatniled ball 
Sall'B-eya. ^niXT, . 

Qiall cloud, BappoKd \a pu 
I Sar or the firrt mugDltadii ' 


, ThB firal 

"whoro thu tabu by which Hwos ti, 

Bnll Run. An iDsl^Ifloant cm 
VirirJnlB, mAde fbjQ«nm tf "^ 

hMtlra In thR Intn Hvtl wi!, .„„ , 

m tha Fold- 

ConflidKratH, nnda Qcne. Beuir»Hrd i 
J- B. JalmBloflilllofbrDlcrbelDir def^T 
Tho second, Ang. SO, 1S«8, wm betw.._ 
the Federals nndor Sbii. Pepe, and llin 

■od JmAboil The Federals were — '- 

■ Bull-toiTler, bnl'tai-l-or. 
Bull-trout, 'tmnt. A sp 

lar^ nmh-Mfce plants croifl] 
not Tory ^eflnltely applied, 
' nstrletflil toSdrpqA fn(i — '" 

8, bola. In the £ul 1 

'aiabla^bee, baoi'hl-M. A large bus, 
■•anamea oaflsd Jmrnhle-bes. 

L-». E. Indian name 

fiah. vrhfcb when ilried. biu^ u ■ rsli 
Ibe Baums ophloden, twa. Seopelldni. 

Bnng^nu, bang'ira-rDi 

works oominiiDcllnB Boston. ThDRrtCtBli 

AmorlRuiBhiirln'eflreiKmt. The ivnn 
oumKCd nnmberod aboni e.NH) on each 

tilled, SM wonnd.'d ; that of the Kfltlsh. 

raa kilicd in the 

IttlD and 

he spot where Oun. W«n 

B^qfZacssoriaiblrds, Oun° 

EmberiildiB^ileHy hioluded In the gen. 

woolen alnir, of which flogH and' nlj-nala 
are mode ; a ^^saers Hags collectively. 
Bunyan. John, bfiu'vin. Author of 
■'■• -1-1— ■--• allecnries. Pllerim'a Pra- 
Wttr;u. InFjigland, 1623, 

ihoml roformod and joti™ 


rand employed 

flomt 1 cable ZTny tJl^bnoy. 

. A floating ati)BM ated to Chmw 

%oard tot I penon wh 

fihs inter, cadad a Ufe-bt 

lUWa, b6'&^». A »-eD 

afrds. (km. atornlda (•tutinga), ealtal 

leatldas. -pm -U-dS. A taa. atarl- 
vrons iiLM^u, d^aTlniriildfaiyl b; Un: 

ber. A rooE-fc pricklj covorinj-of He 
■ ornett^ii pluiu. u or lbs cUeeuiul 
burdock. In Eukt, a blight fidff« of 

: rrtolni enrerSiKiiiBinlt fn printliiE,' 


(I>t,'bol. AflihdftliBbm.OxUdK, 
LolA<L. FidgnrlH)- 
lmi.l)D-ro'. AdiKkorwriane-Uble, 
drawen ror napwi; an wirilolre. 

Ate, •»['. A gisdiiaU-d itiiut tnbe 
iDtbfl laboratory and a&lay office, 
ba purpose at diyMlas liquid lulo 
I qoBDtltleg. 

rberg. BulMliigiioriireatsiitlqiilty. 
d In the north of ficotlaud. Orknuy 

Uoni, and pmbaily data almoht from 

Moet, bw'm-nft. A hilmot. with 
■U cleor. )t> lowur rini lo ilti.^ in tb,^ 

nee, 'jfi. A flag or pennant . 
Id two polntH. A kind of att 
btg [n thtf ftiroBcca of ODglnei. 

iirtnllfa town; > oiHion or 
ofabnroueh. A roOTotentaUir 
(^InfulUmeiiL The tann ; 

bcTnn tlie ReYalBUon to Uie repruHBta- 
dt(4 Id th" popular braii4?li of the leftnlk' 

oiigit, inaDTOifln iitui oim^pimmne lo 
UieEngllab borouu-h.appIhHl to dintreot 
kind* aroorpHTattmi, ud lo lowna and 

jDjoya tha iirlrllciiw oi 
Boa If h Prflftbyturluni, 

BurBoiiiBat«T, bn'glMnu-tn'. Ths 

Itolluid, Ftanders nd UennuiT, corre- 
HiKiu'llqg toma^DT. An aqiiatiD Mni. tho 
inavoDi^ull, common Lnarcde r<^iuiL 
BwtgoyoB, J'ohn. Gon.. bOr-iroln'. 
'-VneUihofflo'tin Uie AmariMB ftevo- 

inoT to Ocn. Unlet at SanloEa In 
; a. 1TI4, B. n»a. 
BnrKHndr. bOr'iiAB-dl. As undent 
-- itlnie of N. France, wbleh waa ao- 
Irod by nermany In lAW, afterwKd be- 
ne a free (I late uud<7 Uio Unkeiof B., 

B. to H. T., ISM; flwaed to Coneroai 
from Maes., IBM, 'M, 'SS; npi.olDUd 
ulnlgUrlo China, 1S61. and innt aaChl- 
ncea dmbaiBadar tu (lie IT. S. and tba 
prindnal gavernnieata of Eniope, lSd7: 
n. In at Prlerebniy, ISIO- 
BDmiBh, bfir'nidh. One of tbo largoat 
cmpltta of B. Alia, AVattA B. a( lb* 




OftDres ; areiv, 2,000,000 sq. m.; pop. 
9,400,000. The^ chief towns are Mande- 
Ujt the cap., Ava, and Bhamo : chief 
rlTen, Jmwm&y, Si-tang and San-Lnen ; 
principal mountains, the Phungan, a 
range of the Himalayas. The goyem- 
mentis a hereditaiy and absolute despot- 
ism ; the reUgion Buddhism. The kmg- 
, dom dates back to 548 b. o. 

Burmese, bur'mdz. An inhabitant or in- 
habitants of Burmah. The language of 
tiie Burmese; one of the monosyUablc 

Burnett's Idquid, ben'net*Blik-wld. 
A solution of chloride of zinc, employed to 
preserve dead bodies. 

Bumixifir Bush, bemMng-bnsh. The 
•mblem adopted by the Ch. of Scotland. 
The name applied to an ornamental shrub, 

' Euonymus atropurpureus. 

Bunxins^laM, -glas. A double con- 
vex lens which, when exposed to the di- 
rect rays of the sun, collects them into a 
focus, produdng an intense heat. 

Bnmixiflr-niiTTor, -mir'er. A concave 
mirror whidi, being exposed to the direct 

.nvs of the sun, reflects them to a focus, 
where thdr heat is concentrated. 

Bumislier, ber'nish-er. The person 
who burnishes or makes glossy. An in- 
strument used in burnishing by rubbing 
with pressure. 

Bumoose, 'n5s. A white woolen man- 
tle, with hood woven in one piece, w(»ii 
by the Arabs. A kind of mantle worn by 

Bums, Bobert. The celebrated Scotch 
poet ; B. 1769, d. 1796. He was of hum- 
ble birth, and his songs appeal especially 
to the popular heart. 

Bumside, Ambrose Everett, Gen. 
llie successor of Gen. McGlellan as Com- 
mander of the Army of the Potomac in 
the Rebellion ; b. in Indiana, 1824 ; grad- 
uated itom West Point 1867 ; entered the 
war as colonel, commanded a brigade at 
Bull Bun, and was soon after made m^or 
\ general; given command of the army 
, Kov. 7, 18^, he was defeated by Gen. Lee 
at Fredericksburg, Dec. 18, losing over 1(K 
000 men. Believed from the chief com- 
^ mand soon after, he performed gallant 
service both in the West and the East En- 
tering political life at the close of the war, 
he was elected Governor of Bhode Island 
for several successive terms. 

Bumt-eax, bemt'3r. A disease in com, 
Jn which the^octiflcation of the plant is 

destroyed; minategwrna of a parasitical 

masbroata, the Ureao CArbo or IT. sege- 

Bumt-Gfterinff, 'of-fer-ing. Something 
offered and burnt on an altar as an atone- 
ment for sin. 

Burnt-sienna, 'si en -na. Sienna earth 
submitted to the action of fire, by which 
it is converted Into a fine orange-red pig- 

Burnt-stone, 'st6n. A term applied to 
antique camelians found in ruins, which 
apparency have been acted upon by fire. 

Burr, Aaron. A brilliant and not<nious 
American politician, b. in New Jersey in 
1766, served ftom 1775 to 1779 in the 
army, attaining the rank of lieutenant col- 
onel ; in 1789 elected to the U. S. Senate, 
and in 1800 elected Vice-President on 
the ticket with Thomas Jefferson ; en- 
gaged in a treasonable scheme to detach 
some of the S. States from the Union, and 
erect an independent government with 
them and a part or the whole of Mexico ; 
tried at Bichmond, Ya., 1807, and acquit- 
ted, but never regained the confidence of 
his fellow-citizens; d. 1886. Uo killed 
Alexander Hamilton in a duel. 

Burras-pipe, bnr'as-plp. A tube to 


contain lunar caustic or other corrosive. 

Burrel-shot, 'el-shot. Small shot, nails* 
stones, pieces of old iron, &c., put into 
cases, to be discharged at short range ; an 
emergency shot. 

Burr, ber. A name given to cer- 
tain siliceous or 8iIiceo-«alcareou8 stones, 
whose dressed surfboes present a burr or 
keen-cutting texture, used for millstones. 

Bursar, bers'er. A treasurer or cash- 
keeper, as the burp^ of a college. A stu- 
dent to whom a }-' "Hsay is paid. 

Burse, bers. A purse: now used only 
as the designation of one of the official in- 
signia of the lord high chancellor of Eng- 
land. A receptacle for the corjiorrd and 
ch^ce cover, placed over thechalicn veil 
when the sacred vessels are carried to the 

Burstins^-charflpe, bersVing-chArj. A 
small charge of fine powder, placed in 
contact wi& coarse powder to insure the 
ignition of the latter. The charge re- 
quired for bursting a shell or case-shot. 

Busby, buzH)!. A military head-dress 
worn by hussars, artillerymen and en- 

Buscone, bus'kSn. One who prospects 
for ores ; also, a mbier who pays part of 
the proceeds of his work to the owner of 
the mine. 

Bush, bnsh. A lining of harder material 
let into an oii&Qe \a viuxd against wear- 


BlUll'buck. 'buk. Tlis nams giiFD to 
jnTora! Apevia of the gm. Tn^lAphu, 
ttpedolly lu T. tJirtUa, ta uiUlapa at 
CuOVorla >nd Capo ColosT. 

Bushel, linsb'Dl. A dry meunn ood- 
Lilnlni; 8 eilJoDD. 

brcAkln^ hUQUltt ; nhAmmarfcrdrflullv 

]vfrtet Kure- **■* Bi 

pOD bird, often wplghlnf SO p( 
But. buL Tim Ddtrr apartmpnl 

Batohei^blrd, b 

Boatt^hrlkft, 'ihifk. 0ns 
fnumDaphlUDc) of tb> " 

ButlflT, Benjamin Franklin. An 

carto uooJter^tooBdlothe 

•vunpa of tha Amaion, 

wboM 1«T« org ofUD «0 

r«tl0Egby itoOfertlB 

. -hnMaih. 


Bn**, bull. Tho dgurs or 

■ penan In niltt. shawtng 


bre.8t.Thfl chest orti.or«i 

the tnmk of the hnmui 


BtlrtU..a. Ajudwornbrl 

.die. tor 1 


■11°*" "fj 

e Batt«, but An Americen term Bpplted 
s to » detiwhi-d ridge rieing ebrgptlj. too 
9 high to be caUeA ^Hl, •^&aaK belD( UeIi 
eooogh tQ \m cilM ihiiHraiiMti'- 



epondfne to the fen. PapIUoJn thelifuJJy 
d«velc>ped BtMtfl. A (WTBon vho» aCtAQ- 
tion Is ^Ten up ta a Tarl«ty of trlQH, 
Buttarfiy-ahall, -ahel. Tha pgptUir 

Bntterfly-TBl'V*, -nlT. In pmana. ■ 
■pMlu 111 doubl* Dl»tvi]T«, employed 
In the ll(t-bllcket> of IHVS witer-pumpi, 
■nd Air ths ilr-puinp boouU of nndeni- 
Ing ilMm-uiiliies. 

BattorinB, -In. An nrtiatiilbnttaniiade 
from ulmsi fkt. cboroed with mUk, aome 
•met butter uil tba felki oT eggs, tb< 

' fVom ibe b<u-lreB^ 

fioEmald, bni'erd. A gen. (BuUv 

la^t^ nptorUl blrds^ fUeoD fom^ 
', 'ByaxA, bl'urd. A plooe of leatbo- c 

ln^ tbfl breut, used by meo wbo 

I Bys. Ii. cricket,. r™n.«leon.l»I 

-fl'ter. A mlnnr or woo 

.^ . „ ifiiitloedan to Uis Ugh .11 

Lnclenlly. a table for huldlng Uie T< 
jientd, the Aured veaeeU. ^Ee. 
Sy-law, 'I.. A looitl or prlraie Uw ^ i 

in wood for paring 


Battai-mlUt, -ml 

t. The milk 

Battop-nut, -nut 

The fruit of 

dneroa, »uni«lin« 

ailed oU-D 

Dt and 




Sntter-trae, M. 

A eiwoleiof 

fDaDdli]AlHu,»hlch j^eldias 


called ihes bntter. 

Battery, -l. An 

jrtne., liquor, and 

apBtmenl bi which 
pniYlslona are kept 

■re kept for sale to tbe alndentii. 

Button-tooL 'n-tSI. Anlnstrm 

suttlng out tbo d 



organ and pi 

Buttrau, 'rea. A 

port tB 


But^, 'tT A mln 

rirho raleei 

ore by ooBlract, em 


work. B. B'nn, a 

> par- 

tlonof thevDik 1 


:^tyrio. bt-Ur'tk. 



ngdatlan of Its own ulUn. 

u or private uw: a 
rporatod body forlu 

rtna Amo batt^. B. Mid, obUtali from 

ngDlatlan of Its own ulCiln. 
Byron, OaoTseChiraaiiHael,JiM4. 
An Enrilah poet, b. 17SB, d. ISM st MU- 
■olongbl, bi Orvwo, vhare he hadgm* 
10 offer bis HrrlssB In tbe war oflnde- 
pendencs. HIa domutio life waa Inf^el- 
tona, he and his witb living togetbarbata 
single year, iriien he lefth^ and England, 
never returning. Unch of bis poetry U 

ByrrhidEe, blr'ri-di. A bm. of p«- 
ly known BI pUfbeetleL 
I Byrrhiia, 'ns. The mdal g«i. of the 
above Ihmlly, contalninc B. pUnla, th* 
aoDimon pUT-beetle, whloh,whenalaRned, 
■Imuhilea death. 

BywK>lU«, bla-o-Ht. An amreblne tnn- 
aparent nrineral. In long, flne oapiUa^ 
cryetala, A name given to the £iier fl- 
ea alntanIhu^ tiemollte, scUnoUte, Ac. 

Byanw, 'ua. Amodg the andenta. a 
Dloth of exceedingly flne teiture. Ooe of 
I the bjBBl. filamentous oryptogamlo plante. 
A long, sllliy bunch of fllanienls. by mams 
ofwhtch theMyt]lua,Plnnaand other bi- 
valve moUueke are attached lo filed ab- 

Byttneriaceee, blt-n«-rl-a'Bi.6. Anat 
iH-d, of plants, sometimes IncIndcdaiDonK 
the StorcullaceiB. The typlml gen., fi 
Byttnerla, but the most Important Is 
Theobroma, to which the tree yieldlngttaa 
cocoa-bean belonga. 

BygantliWi bli-anlin. PerlalDliv to 
ByianUnm, an ancient dty of Ttuioe, 
thalxA on tlie Boaplurna. In tk* jtn 

BotJt tlu Normu & 

1 tha Lomburdto 

th6 Bj'iuitlne, imd all vfl comprlKf 
der th« tmn BoioMMque. Tfia Ml 

CIS tiia third Isttsr In the Bngtlili alpli*- 1 OaballeiO, Tl'rA. A. gnn ud bUMt 
bstuid thsHsond ortheoonBotiuiti. I Hpsalah dsnoe. 
U rqa-Ment* twii perfeotlj dHUnot Cabaret, krii'tK*. Atanmj * honH 
•oonils, nMorfy^thfl jruttureL part»lnlag ] where Uquois >» nUtlad. 
to k, ud the hird or tble noimd ori. (he nahh_« i..>^i-> Tk. i.. »._ 

OsTrawhilgnphQh. Im the LiKa ■!■ | J^tS^ ^la^.^^W 

_M soond wblflh beloved U 
Aiiglo-fla'oo. Aa e niunefaJ^ C BtADdB for 

OmAk, kk-l'ha. An abking atone bolld- 
InicvtthlD ths nut moinue at llecsca, 
soatiliiliig the fiimoiu black stone or Keb- 
lah preseDted by tfas fULgel Gmbrlel to 
AbnhunoD tbeowuloaatbnUdlDg the 

Oaainv-irhale. kglng-vhll. The 
roand-faekded porpolae (OJoblMpbnlDi de> 

'dastor. DetpUiiii melig. or D. eloUoepg), 
bm, Delphlnldie. 

OatL kib. A Hebr«« drr mexnire. oon- 
tdnlfiffAboiitf plntt. A Dod of haokney 
euriigB, with twa or IMnr wheeli, dimn 
bj one horse, llieeoTered pert oieloeo- 

0>a<lm, '»!■. A mrttertont eelenee 
■■Aar Jewlflh rsbWns, pretended to luTe 

Cabbaea-riMe, -rOi, Boh eentJIbKi, 
^ving- Bumy Tuietla, nnlnent]; filled 

bom ItB fmgnnov ; ProTenoa roM, 

itofUieliwIiiDpposM to eon- 
tain * Dyaterr, ud the CataHata pretend 
even to foretell fntnre e»ant» bjlha •ludj 

Oabalist, 'Ml-lst. A Jewlah doctor who 
profbaaea the etndr of tbe eebela,^ or the 

Okbaliatlo, 'Ik. Pertaining to the cab- 
ala or mratcrlona adenoe of Jewlah Cradl- 
tkHia- Cont4di]lnf ma occnlt meKnlng. 

CmttllarU, -li'rl-fc AfSadil 

land*, the teni 


[Anca Dlenon). The unopened bnd of 

KBg laavea la Biiinb prbed u ■ -rrgMt- 
bat the reoioTal of It deatrora tho 


reoelTed from India, i 

n the w 

A pole; a 

Cabar, kl'bsr. i 

land nmee of atJ 

tree tor Loaaln^ or 
Cabin, kab'ta. A imall n»n>; a hut or 

imall hooae. An apartment In a ship. 
Cabljut, -eL A doaet ; a retired apart- 

nrtn CO or MoeoUTO government ; the ool- 

nlEure, with dnwerB aid doors. Any part 

afworks of an. InUqnlUea. Ac. L. 

larKe-aized photograph, highly di 
Oablrl, ta-bT'rI. Andmt Greet dlrlnl- 

tle>. VeryUtttelaknawnregudlnethem. 
Cable, kiHil. A atTDngropeorohilnDaed 

lo retain arev^atanofaor.aadeofbeiflpi 

)ate or Iron. BnbDwIno er eleotrto tele- 


tooted by Iron wires be 
fbrm or n fi|>lrn!. O 

OableKTam. -gnun . I 
Cablet, ku'blet. &BJ a 

titfiinf pho^phorl 
barjta, proCoifdc 

ibUnp re.1 ,(, 

called A^lley. 

OaAot, -bo. In tlin lalD of Jer 
(ble dry iDEninrs. The imUIi 

Oabot, S«baatlaii. 


ish n»vi™io 

■ TV^ty ofoptili often 

Oacholonff, kub'o-Iotig. 

tha qusrUl dunllv, ■ Tr-'-'- 

ullod Pcori-opul, 
Oaohon. tB-shfl. A iwoetmest mud' 

tbeeitnctorUquorhH.cuhevt-DDt, g 

&d. , used to eweeUn an oSeDslFs bre 
Oachuca, -cblt'lu. A Spuilsb duco 

' ' liy B mm Md wodhb. 

I. lu-e«k'. Native ehleHi of 

Oltde, kSd. A bBrrel or 


oat. AeideorherriiigB 


Is 60(l;«f sprats, 1,000, 


Oade^il, 'oil, aa oil 


^f mwTo'oTth!! n't 


of Iho Jnolpe. 

ms Cycodrq.. 

0»d8t, ka-aef. Tboyoi 

who MTrtea ernii Inlrej 
veto, with a view to siaju 



la tutaliig Sot an offlcH 

ubij", or In » mUltarj' Boli 


Ctadl,*^'!. Ajndgoam 



Oulileakac. -l-lM't«r. Theoliiaf judgs 

In Uie 'IHtrkieh emplK. 

Sorghum i-ulgiue, ealtly«fd InAMoiM 

<ftidi», ka'rti.. Cp. of pror. of C. In 

t eer»L 

Jnd.luili; sIluKsiloii HbAUuiHo, hikI 

OaiBlB. An nmeUJ Penlui ut^ 

Sp.111 ; pop. !0,l»0. 

Oadmean. m*'M. R^tattng W CWnum, 

OB«e, kiy. A hai (tor eonflDlni Mrda or 
bnmts. Fonnerly, n plus of oonfloe- 

."hJirSi Wbli^tat^Wl'lntoG™ 

which ^thereSira oUl C. iBtler-.'' A C. 

"•UFHork'^Dt^uiy kind. 'Acnpunuin' 

Tictgry, n proi'iirbtol phrwo for » TiPloty 

In which th« vhltoni eifer u n,Mh a> Ihe 

or A .leutcDsnl-urneral Id the Tortdih 

aBdmimn. 'ml-nm. A maul foimd In 


Oainite, k^n'^t. A ise>i>ber of > >e(:t of 

BsuiirlnE mgla. In culUnf gemi, «nd 
keeping diem »t s proper SDgle. 

Caiuoaolc, hu-na->6'lk, A lenn spplled 

u the lUeit of the Ehroe dlvltloni Into 

Manmrr's rod ; n wmuI mtwltted by two 

referen™ to the ige of the (omlSrilhey In- 

*r qnnTlty uid olBee. 

Cywn mny be tnted M the lype. 
Omuw, 'w. a Utie, Driglnillytha tar- A hopof stones: einHtdlr 
one of thoie «.mm<^ In Uretl BrftUn. it 

lumaor tbe JdIIui Jbolly nt Home, wbiob. 

•Iter belne dl>nifled In the ponan of the 
dIeUtor C- .Joiiat Ow. w» wJoptal by 

(kulum. "zi-iun. AnreolkidlnBDilner- 

C^a^in. kis' wn An .mmontUon wegon 

orehen lnAreh...nntei. penfl . 1.. 

mraTn the mhierai'le^ldDllte'^d l>^ 

cun«. ln01vllKn^,.vo«elo«d».. 

envlrone tha vhols GOTlh, 

which rsMelr. mny bo ™l»«l »Bd floitod. 
A wst«r-llEht culflg D>ed In bulldtne 

C, chuntuit, t coa-ec-hoiiH In Franee 
«hera the guesu nre lr«.led with mpelo. 

Otvlemit, knj'l-pnt. An oil rMembllng 
Ibrxt of Mntmone, obtnlned from the 

ObI, kal. A mlninir Is™ for butiFd 
metal Riund In tin ore ; wol&am. 

Calabar Bea^. -<i-ttSrlii;n. TheeeedoT 

tn coBee-benius Me-leavoe, io, Ooffea 
acmtnlDi tram .9 to 8.6. tmd ton from i to 
4 per lent. Culled bIu Thelne. 

AtHcan plant, nearly .IHed to the kldnej- 
h«n. 1 poworftil narootle p.>lBon. 

QtooSm. m brown oIL 

OaflBi-bread, kefot-bred. Th«plthQf 

tU. beuBuee of theli eoord-llke rnilU, the 

•belli of which ue mHl» low ieo.e.H; 

;ilu2iii-Iii4 naml J>r I^f l^e/nw as fbod. 

aUBtUt. A.n«mi..l»»^t«iW><la"»>itt*- 


OalabrU, kib-IA'bre- 

OsJada. k^lU'. 

Calais, k*'l(. A sfipori nf N. Frw 
ths uaaett bl EcgluiA. LxilDg but 26 
from Dover; pop. ISJlfl. 

o. Kam-uiMg-ko, A i™ 
la glfUA uid oheckwiH In 

duigmu Ibon of „ 

•1k> Squid, BeB->l»ve. Prake, or PsnBj 
Oalamlue. -mln. The nuUve gllic« 

oxLdA af ilDfl, from which Iha mfltEl 

gr>t by miHUstloa. 
Oalamite, -mri. i mlnn-al, prounWj 

botb kindi ii 

lioii when thuy partook ot 

la-lan'dn. A spedMoflvk. 
AlaqUK cDUadra. A^pd. or «ilMT»t<hrona 
1d8«cUi, pffctlDii Ehjni^opbt 

aalapltto. knl'i-plc. A stDii;aincret 
WHUuoniillT present In tb« pocoa-ri 
- (i.Uail»HoVeKet»bleB«o«r, worn V 
MiUya ne in uniilot. 

Oalaah, kn-lubh'. A light ourlage with 

tlmoa Att^ to Biich a CHrrie^. A 
for tba beid uuil by Frsnsb ladles. 
Oalatrava, koJ-nb-tri'Ts. An on 


wklch the ruUnc King c 

, nited OKok eooUi- - 

Troj nnd pi 

OaloImaTlte, -nl-in 

n upplled to ti 

Iho most widojj dlffmed of 1 

OalooKraph7. -kee'n-a. The 
dratvlnE "ilh oolored cbi^ki. 
Oalc-alstar. kalk'aln-tu. A el 

formLn^ sUlncUt^ and etola^mitc 
OBlo-Spar, 'Bjiir. ColrHooua I 

Oalculua. kal'kB-lu>. Jo Pethol 

body. InMiilh.iinolhQdofuomputMli 
Oalcutta. UI-kQt'U. Can, of BrlU 
India, on Iho Hoogly, B brsnifli of I 
0iinK>4<. lot m, from Bay of BeoKOl ; 

Oalderarl. -dil-ri're. A poUUeo-rel 
loai iPDtln Italy during the reign of U 

OaledonitOH 'l-do-niL A EnlDorol, « i 
prfous iulphato-cvbonotaaf leod- 
Onlefaotor. -l-ltak'Ur. A nmnl] swve 
Oalefaatory, 'lo-ri. A wnrnilng-roi 

Calembcrro, -cm-bor'. A rare spedej of 

Oolendor, 'en^dor. A register of the 
vrar, In which Iha months, wec&s uid 
'dnvs iTD hM danti in ordor, nith lbs 
ffiBts obscnod by the chnroh, &c. ; u ■]- 

vblch Btiind 1^ Irinl. O. month, ■ lelir 

cUdo eonilsting of oylinilers nTolTliv 1M> 
nearly In oontoct that doth pnadnjc bfr 
twMD tbi'Di is imoolbsd and gloied Vr 
tbeir prestori'. An eitsbliBEmul ( m 


fld, BUrched^ Jtc. A uervm who Diuagwi 
Caleitder. Oneof umrducifderTlglwB 

Qalenda, 'endi. Ammu the 

Uie tint amy ot euh wCFBtti. 
Oalendnline, ki-lso'du-Un. 

Dbulaed fkvoi Iho invi^d, Uie C 

Oalf. kif. Proper]}- tbs jmuii 

boYioo gen. of qu»dnipedfl, bqi 

CEilhoiui. John Oaldwell As Amer- 

Uds nm, D, taM). Hu wu elecMd to 
Congress In ISIO; spfxrioted SemuiyoT 
Wit ISIT ; In ISM d«l«t VtiH-ProsliI«BI, 
ud re-elected in IBSS; nslsfledlhe Vlce- 
Ptatdtacty la 1E82, and wu Bricmnl 


dyp-wood I 

Oitliber. t 

of > bodv 

wm. FlK.,conipuBOrDii>iic- 
Ily of niind. C, Bnnp»we«, 
ar cBllperi, ' • ■ • 

?5i JL» 

craM-hwU, one of wMeh tn ailJuiUd 
idtehUr by innl, ths other moviible. 
Calioo, -ka. A teim for a.B<r whiH ootton 
cloth. fleBco WM fiTBt mamnfeCTiirfd in 
IndU. Printed cotton olotb owser (ban 

CaUett-printlniti -printing. The irtof 
loipn-sslDg ^Icoea with vvlo^ted flg- 

OaUd-nls. ClaJuM Onur. kth-Ug'a-lih. 

rwtrml'nt, o 

eof hlsmiatdliiruBlinapei- 



decree ■ppolcllng his 

Oalifomla. On 

of the P«lfle Slllt«. 

the A 


ler "iB 

prlnclp-J d 

Dicnlo. the 


chief rlTsrs 

gnlDi mo 


the Monl. Dilblo 


the P. 



Hhi Prueleeo !• ona 



dtj- of the 

h«id, Is th 


Oalln. kii 

which tha ChlnesB 

niEka Wa-culstan Lid 

OallpoBh, tal'l-puh. That part oi ■ 

OolipQQ, -pe. Tbmt nart ofm turtle '■<hlok 
'lonesM the lower sWid. 

title (tiTM W tb* 

Caliph. hi'Hr. 

dl^altj Mid power. Th 

sultans Dr'J^lu,r 

•ssiime this u one oft 

<4t titles. 

Oallpvic, ks-Hp'lli. f 

f er^perlrintae to 

l^allpjioi, 1 Greelc njtr 

ORlUwyaBBTk, ui- 

fur the febrifugal Inoer 


Oalixtina. ka-llkK'tIn 

One of a sec i of 

ho published their 


ivblch was I demand to 

partake oftheenp 


lnpper. A follower o 

Oeorre CbIIiIdb, 

wbod]edlnl«M. He 

™iih.^t CaOio-' 

n the basis of Iha 

Apostles' Creed. 

Collztn^ St., Pop*. 


Iriniis 219 ; martyred «a. C. H.. son of 

i['.'!'nT»."p' uT"c5 

s. 1-ope GolasluB 
11. {Alfonso Bor- 

Ela>. B. NlcboI«! V.,14«B. P. 1468; wa. 



f Iron with rt-rp 

of the .hoe to pre- 


Tho ctremtW 

Callao, kiMa',\ 
ijfl'mi, flm. (ron 

QKtL-twU. kalt*]. 

Copying ■ piotD 

ftm. brrminlij-rfdai: I'haDlink- 

OHlUohthy», -Ik'thli. A gt 
Abdominal mAlacuptwygliuid. 

Oa31ia:ia,sib.Y. -iig' 

OftlophyUnm, -fll'ion. A ffen. of pimta, 
(.rd. Qutaftno. C. InophyllQiii y<M» * 
lasa/saj i-hiJd. fAoinuhK. Tho b»i1> 

Caloric, tn-liir'lk. A suppMed mibUt 
lDipflti<lrnih)e (laid to vbUOi the Hora- 

MtribDUd. C. englnB,s nims Kl"°> br 
CJi[itidJi ErJouDD td bla improved air- 

OaiorlB, -lo-rS, Tho nanodty of h«t 
neouory to Tsln the WpKnture af ■ 
kllumiinins of w«lor ono flcgrao CbdU- 

OalDrimetsI', ki1-a-Tim'e-trr. An np- 

Oalorimotor, kii-lar'i-iaD"ier, A gol- 

Oaloeamai kil-o-^'nui, A cm. of csoln- 

A pljiln BkQlL'<iu) or 

Oalotts, t 

d by»«; 

Loiiit ilV-.wid fmriMlar 
by Ihfl prl»l>), whicli w 

Cnlotypa, kil'o-tlp. 1 
dDcLugphotogrnpiia by ' 

lytlilnff liy- 
! UK cap of 

K cup wgrn 
the aymbol of 

uUuB orl^ 


>-EipaaleH of wboDitfl 
rl, rslled niM Ac^Uo- 

imipnnd flnreymndstonuilnil 

Oaltroi), ksi'tron. Anin- 
HriimoDt wlUi fenr Iron 

™™lry. InBot.tiinconi- 

thLAtio ; the M-fttPT oaltnp 

Oalumst, '[t-ini^t. Atobe 

ofpeDDoleamokid toratii; 
in rejoctfon mcnni «nr. 

I ofsl»K 






cradfied. In R. G. ooontries, aohapel, 
in memoiy of th« place where our Savioar 

Oalvinisxa, 'rin-lzm. The theological 
tenets or doctrines of John Calvin, who 
was born in Pioardv in France, /ind in 1686 
chosen professor of divinity and minister 
of a ehnrch in Geneva, Switzerland. 

OalyptrsaidsB, ka-lip-tre^-dd. A flun. 
of gast«x>podons mollusks, known as bon- 
net or chambered limpets. 

Oalyx, ka'llks. In Bot the ex- 
terior covering of a flower vdtb- 
in the bracts and external to the 
o<nx>ia, which it incloses and 
snpp<Mi8. In Anat. small cup- 
like membranous canals which 
Invest the roints of thepapilln 
of the kidney. 

Gam, kam. In Kach. a simple 
eontrivanoefor oonvertinf a uni- 
form rotatory motion into a 
varied rectiuni 

Oambaye, -b2^ A O 

cotton cloth made. 

In India. 
Oaxnber, 'ber. 

oonvexity upon an 

uppw surfiioe, as a 

deck amidships, a bridge. The part in a 

dockyard where timber Is stored, and 

where cambering is performed. 
Ckkmbez^beam, 'ber-b€m. In Arch, a 

beam laid upon the straintDg beam of a 

truncated roof, supporting - the covering 

of the summit. 

Oamberwell Beauty, -wel b&'ti. A 
rare British butterfly, Vanessa Antiopa. 

Ckkinbistzy, 'bis-tri. The science of ex- 
change, weights, measures, A«. 

Chunbrasine.'bra-sen. A fine linen cloth 
fikbrioated in Egypt, resembling cambric. 

Oambrian, 'bri-an. Belating or per- 
taining to wales or Cambria. C. group, an 
extensive series of gritstones, sandstones, 
or slates, often metamorphosed into chlo- 
rite and mica schists, ana gneiM^ lying un- 
der the lower Silurian beds. 

Oambrio, kara'brik. A fine linen fiibric, 
named from Cambray in Flanders, where 
it was first manu&otured. An imitation 
is also made of fine cotton. 

Oaxnbro-Britoxi, kam'brO-bri-ton. A 

Oamail, ka-mftL The chain-mail or ar- 
mor appertaining to the casque or bas- 
dnet, fiUUng down over the shoulders. 

Oamaldolite, -mMl^do-lIt Aneartyex- 

Had fraternity of monks founded in 1018^ 
by St. Itomuald { they wear white robes. 

OanLarlUa, kam-a-ril'a. A company <rf 

secret counsellors or advisers-; a cabal; 

a clique. 
Oaniayeu, ka-mft'O. A stone or onyx 

engraved in relief ; a cameo. In fin 3 arta, 

monochrome painting. 

Gramel, kam'eL A large quadruped, gen. 
Gamelus, flunily Camelidae, ord. Rniiii> 
nantia. There are two varieties, one strong 
and slow, for burdens, the other slighter 
and fleeter, fat travding. The gen. An- 
chenia (llamas) have no nump. A water- 
tight structure placed beneath a vessel to 
raise it in the water. 

Oaxnelid8B, ka-meVi-dd. A fiun. ef 
quadrupeds, including the true camels 9t 
tne eastern hemisphere, and the llamas of 
the western. They are the onhr mml- 
nants with canine and incisor teeth in this 
upper jaw. 

Cazoelopardalis, karn'ol-o-pAr^'da Ha. 
A gen. of ruminant quadrupeds of whidi 
the camelopard is the sole spedes. A 
northern constellation, situated between 
Gepheus, Perseus, Ursa Mi^rand Minor, 
ana Draco, containing 82 stars. 

OaxnelopardL^ ka-mel'o-pfir-del. An 
imaginary beast of heralalo ereatloo, 
formed by the addition of two horns on 
the head of the camelopard. 

Oameo, kam'6-6. A general name for all 
stones cut in rdief, in contradistinc^on to 
those hollowed out, or intagUes. 0. in- 
crustation, the art of produdng bas-relief 
casts within a coating of flint-glass. 

Cameotype, -tTp. A small vignetts 
daguerreotype for mounting in a Jeweled 

Camera , 
'er-a. In Anc. 
arch, an arch- 
ed roof, ceil- 
ing, or cover- 
ing; a vault. 
The variety of 
camera obeou- 
ra used by 
ers. G.laoida, 
an invention 
for Ihdlitating 

Camera Obsoun. 

the delineation of distant objects, and also 
copying or redudng drawiags, by pro- 
ducing a reflected picture of them upon 
papor. G. obscura, an apparatus in which 
the imagea of external objects, received 
through a double convex lens, are exhib- 
ited ^stbictly, and in their natural colony 
on a wMto Bumm i^ImoI •>! the (Qcn& ^|g 

OielenB. The 0. obionrs . 

nployed by Oamplior, 

■linBO. ia-incrlen'ftr.. The high- belongs lo the vesftabU ollt, 
it«r Id tha pBjal household ; iba Oamphor-oll, -olL A frs^^ruit, Um^d, 
oolorleflA Dkl Dbutbcd from the Drjobilft- 

. kun-er-rt'iil-im. One of rops Cunpbon hj dtetiUln^ the wood 

r Klehuil Cameron Id Boot- with water. 

U> tbe Pnebvtaidan ok 


formed Preshyleri-.. . 

tmeot of BrltlBh inOinlij. uStTifr lueeUiiBheli 

, '1-zIlrd. One of Uie Frsn<A uUDdanu smsmplT 

IWSUUlWKk OBJnpo, kHo'p*. The PortnrnMe nam. 

°'™*?*^i5?- ..* 'il^Jrt' **T1T' oftbewldegnMplBlniofBrKlt.oneeUio 

worn by ladles when drawed In aegHg*e. alio of foreata, A kind of Bohe* lea. 

A aWgbt-Jaofcet put upon lunatlDS. A Oampong. 'pong. A native vllWe !■ 

Kl^',^aeir°iBT1<?;JS^ tholS^lf'ofrh/F«teri>SrS,S]^ 

in JisnceaiureondeQiDation tatbe^u- «„,„„ „*.««i i. „ - .^i x \. ^ * 

Ijane. Ofcmit-Btool. fcamp'slfll. ABentorBtoel 

OanUrt, let A slnir originally made of "'tb'iMsloffa.somadBaa tofoldnp, 

mmel'aiialr. now of wooC silk, or hair, Oamp-viUBKOT, -vta'a-gar. A mlitdr* 

esnedallythatofp«U. >«ltti ttoolorallt. of vloegar, Cajcano popper, soy, walnnt- 

TEb pure oriental eamlel la made from the o"t<n P. anchoTlee and garlic. 

'--'rofUinAngTirtgoat. Oampylito, kam'pl "■ ' — '■ 

' " " lecret aodety mlmtata or araeiiBl 

■a membere, pboupborio Imyeljr rc| 

alawleas 1b- Oam-wlieel, 'whal . 

OMnp> kamp. The place whfre an ormj ofprocatlnff rectLllneal and Inla 
or dUht body of men Is enoainpHl ; the jnotton Id maneoling 



• "jphlanltida.oi .. 

laklDe kiilfo. 
a T«7 brief period. C. of Oan. it 
oampibnned fbrlbereoep- veaspla 

priidiioo of Baphlanltida, onl. I,»uml 

_„. . jamp la sumranded nosie. It Is aaed alao lOr oiatlnB imfc 

))■ eiHiworkB, *e. Aijingca--' 

b^^X^o:, e/orat, eopalbii, OampaoUe. . 


Teasel B made c 


■DoUI, for eonlalnl 
oases provided wllh 



thelaDiof Can™, 

the Israelttea frDm 


kan'a-da M'l 


talced from WistOT 

e In' the bark 

of the 


seer's baleami 

. Zlzantaaqo, 



'" Ir^ l^nooeon 



The loweil 

Iho people ; the rabble, the Tnlgar. 

Owiii -Eri'. Al, : 

utlflelal water. 




Uxd. -bord. 

An ISMBsorba 

■hieliiK bin!, s tlnii uf finch 

doelia caiiurln, .ir FrlnglUH 

lun. FringiUbtip. Thsjwejoj 

L Lstdoe work : rjHvintr- 
^hnreb, V oo^atractdd u not to Intcnwpr 

.. who k propOHd (or] 

br cleotloii or ^^obltraeiit. 
fTuwillail, 'did. PrwArrad with logv, 

ortucnutad-wtthlt. VboNr or pwlfiUr 

oanToitoil Into Biic*r. 

Oandlot, 'dl-ot. An latubitint ort^sdli. 
Oajtdle, 'dL A taper ; a cyllndrioal bodj* 

of loUow, wm, spernuMwtl, or other fclQ' 

portablB'llgSt. A caiidJe power. Eicom- 

wUeh ths otftndcr la nllowed'Hinfl to re- 
pebtohL; whUescandlsburnsouI. Knah 
c«odlo, DiidBof thoplthofcErtalo rushoi, 
peeled oioept on one side, Md dippoil In 

die (Lo jeu Da vaut pis la ohsndelle), a 
phnao of I^eoch ori^, lDdl<stlnE tbat 
ui aUeoC la not worth the patna reqnlalte 

CaWUe-baiTy, -be^ ThofrnltofUio 
eandlo-beiry trek the kemelaofwhiahm 
naed br the Fahriiealaiis u cuidlai. 
CtOBi aba Oaodlfr-nnt. 
Otuidle-berry Tree, tr«. Tba Alen- 
-■--- irtlobs. Also the Mjrica oatem, 
u myrtle, ord. MjiKaeee, th* 
s or berries of which are oorerad 
L mx of which ouidlec are nude. 
Oandlfr-bamb, -bom. A amiU itew 


OaiuUemas. niu. An kcIwIuUkI «t or all the aifd tun. Guilcalw dnt, 
fcaUval, held on the M day of februiuy, of doK-dsys, » certain niimbw of din be- 
in honor of the purtflcitton of the Virgin fore and after the faeJlacal riatajt of CWit- 
Mary, On this day the Catholics eonao- nla, Canlcnlar year, the EgvpUin dM- 
cntri all candles and tapert to tieuiied in utal jrear, compaled Itnoi onelwbHalrii- 
Ihcchumliea during the year. (ngof Csnlcula to theneit. 

OajidlB-powar, -pou-er. The illDmi 

»ItIUBtlnV°hs'lBmlnosltyof anyagb^., o „, — . , 

HgaaDf^Bcaadle-pova'. Tho utanrlanl OonlB Majof. ka'nll mi'Jor. The 

!■ 4 BPf rmacetl vfldle bumlny^ at the me Great Do^, a conafellattan of the Hoathem 

«ri2ugtilu per hoar. bemlnphepe, below Orients feet; It coo- 

faring notton ^ths for prlotini;. Oanla Minor, mi'nor. The IJttlo I>og. 

Oand7. 'dl. Anolld preiM^tlon of anifar aconaleliathin of the northern hemlwilierB, 

irlfb other ■DbBt■Ilce^ to flavor, eolor or bright ■tar called Fioeyon. 

' (ive It the dealred oonslsteney. An Eaat- Oanlater. kan'la-ter A amall tiaeket 

erniaeasareofHolglit, Taiylng (torn MO mideofreeda, tnlga, ortheHks, A amall 

In sail Ibi. In Malabar, a meaaore box or caas lor tea, coffee, As. IntheB. 

•qnlvdeDt lo 3S) Inehu. C. Ch. Uie TCHel need to sonCilD tksira- 

Okdo, kUi, A term applied to the sterna fers before oonaecraHon, 

of the bamboa,rsttin andangir^cane. A OaaKer-Ar, king'kerm. A fly that 

ooonlrfesof Eorope; alKaples, I feet 8+ ^uiker-iroTTii, -weno. A worm or 

tnchen ; In Toulouae, B ti»t 81 Inches ; In [ir>-» dBstraotlve lo trees or plant! The 

ProTenc*, Ac., fl feel Bf Inches. larva ofQeomeCrabrumata or winter moth. 

Oane-gTin. 'gnn. A weapon comprlitag Caana, kan'na. A gen. of planta, ord. 

■ gun-barrel with Its diaoharglng derlees Marantacem, Theta- leaves are large and 

arranged vdthln a wattlng-aUi. luugh, aad are employed at envelopes for 

■ ■■ - imeroe. He»rly all the 

meaanre of length equal 

Oaanon, 'nim. __ . 
fhr throwing balla 


fOO-tAB pun rftmilnw 840 [b*. of povdcr, 
nd dlH^sgn sMICorthe ndchC of S,OW 
poundii. GuDoni ire cluaiaed u gunii. 
towltieni. cwmDidn and mortan ; ilto 
•t n<M, mounUiii. ouit, Kt. and alege 
jnDB. In Hach. a hoDoir crUndi-lal 
jAtoe throoffh vhlch i rerglrlng titmft 
psBAd* and on which It ib carried, and 
may nnd*a 1ndftp«nd«Dtlj. In bUUardfl, 
thaa>]torhlUiHaball.Ki that th« Uller 

Pnijoctllea an now moally 
lut the term ball h applied 

■OU-ball tne. a nanis eomeHmea «tVen to 
the Lci^'tJila OUarla. 

OanDOii-pliilou. -Mn-yon. In watth- 
Uh arbor et the center-wheel, to bold 

e^yA a prebend aOlied by tb 

■kHip with wUdi It la IhruBt iDUi a tumor; 
the perfcradon made, the iDatnimeDt la 
wtthdrawn aod the tabe left, that the 
flold mi^ i>au tbTongh It. 

Ouioa, ka-nS'. A lV>t Iioat. narrow, and 
propelled bj poddlfO, orl^Ually Ibrmed of 
Ihetraiikarbaaeofatree. BlmiluboaU 
■re now made of calvaniied Iron, oaant- 
ehooe, and paper. 

OajuM-biioh, 'bereb. Betnla papyr- 
aeea, or paper-birch tree, the bark of 
wblcih Is need fur making eaooH. 

OanoTi. kan'on. A law or rate Id general. 
Ecoln., a Uw or rale of doctrine or dl»!lp- 
Une, enacted by a oDancll and conDrmed 
by tboBorei^gn. ThebooliBafthe Holy 
Satotnrea nnlTenally roMlvad m m-nuinB 
hr (Aitltiaiia. The miee of 

In wbleb aueh mles are wri 
eatalfwue ^memben of the chapter ofa 
eatheual or ooUcclate ohnrch. A dlg- 
nltan Viw poaafaaea a revenue allotted. 
IbrlOS poftamanM ofdlitne servloein a 
eathedral or ooUe0ate church. A eata- 
lagneofMtnCslnihoK. C. Chunh. The 

t. ThB people 

whloh tbe dif- 
r. In Phar, 

» of body 


{•nnt parts r«(^t t1 

a rule tat eomponndliig' m 

Printing, MW ofU» largest Hi 

Oanon, k*-nyan'. 


by Eeypdan prleate to 

CODOPUa. -Dli'pDl. 

Canopy, i 

L ofa woAdea ciw-wheaK 
, AbbrcviaHuD of Can- 

Cantab, kan-U 

Cantabrloji, -U' 

CuUbrla, on Iba B 
Oantabrlslan. -t 

from 11 to CMTv moldinga, eavts, bn!- 
coDlea, Ac. C. Nidge, a form ot Iron 

oen*^ Indented. 
Caotalonpe, -Iflp. A vaHe^ of mnat- 

L A measure of w^bt 

^ .onntrlea; In Turkey Itis 

about ISSlba.; In Egypt, 8S; In Ualla, 
lTa,*e. 'theep«nto¥wlBamoaanroom- 




Oantatrice, -ta-tr«'eIiA. A femalo singer. 

Canteen, -ten'. A sutler's shop in bar- 
racks, camps, «kc. A vessel used by sol- 
diers •for carrying water or liquor. A 
so uare box, with compartments, in which 
omccrs pack a variety of articles. 

Canter, 'ter. To move in a moderate 
gallop, raising the two fore-feet nearly at 
the some time. Also called Canterbury 

Canterbuxy, -be-rL A receptacle for 
music, portfolios, loose papers, &c.; a 
stand with divisions. 

CantliarelluB, -tha-rellas. A gen. of 
fUngi nearly allied to Agaricus. G. ciba- 
rius is one of the best mushrooms. 

Oantharidin, -thar'i-din. That peculiar 
substance which causes vesication, exist- 
iBg in the Spanish fly. 

Cantharis, 'tha-ris. A gen. of ooleop 
terous insects, type of the fiun. Ganthari- 
cUe. The best-kn«wn species is the Span- 
ish or blistering fly. 

Oa nth arus, -ros. A gen. of aoanthop- 
terygious fishes, tun. Sparoidei. C. gri- 
seus is the black bream. 

Oanthook, kant'hok. A wooden lever 
with an iron hook at the end for turning 
over logs. 

Canticle, kan'ti-kl. The Song of Songs 
or Song of Solomon. An unmetri^ 
hymn taken from Scripture, arranged for 

Canton, 'ton. A small portion of land 
or division of territory ; also a district con- 
stituting a distinct State or government, 
as in Switzerland. In Her. a portion of 
the shield comprising a third part of the 
chief. A distinct division, as the cantons 
of a painting or flag. 

Cantonment, -ton'ment. A division of 
a town assigned to a particular regiment ; 
the dwelling-places occupied by an army 
during a suspension of operations, fre- 
quently used to designate the winter quar- 
ters of an army. 

Cantoon, kan-t5n. A kind of ftistion 
with a fine cord visible on one side. 

Canvas, kan'vas. A coarse cloth made 
of hemp or flax, used for tents, sails of 
ships, paintings, Ac. A cloth woven reg- 
ularly in squares, used for working tapes- 
try. Naut., sails in general. 

Canvas-back, -bak. A species of wild 
duck, the Fnlignla valisnena, highly es- 
teemed for its delicacy. 

Caoutdiine, kd'chin. An inflammable 
rolaWe oil produoed by difltlUation of 

Caoutchouc, 'chok. An elMtlo gummy 
substance, the insplasated loloe ox several 
tropical plants ; {ndift-rabber ; gam -das- 
tic. Obtained fhnn SiphonJa elastica, a 
euphorbiaoeons plant, and Ficns elastica, 
oru. Moi*ace»; also from several apocjrnace' 
ous plants, as tlie IJroeohi elastica. Oastil- 
loaelastiGa and other aitocarpad8,A«. It is 
impervious to water, and is composed of 
87.5 per cent, carbon, and 12.5 per cent 

Cap, kap. A part of dress made to cover 
the head, of softer material and less defi- 
nite form than a hat The badge or en- 
sign of some dignity; specifically, of a 
cardinalate. The top or chief; the acme. 
A size of paper. Anything resembling a 
cap in appearance or use. C. of dignity, 
a head nre formerly worn by dukes and 
commanders, now an ornament of state 
carried before the sovereigns of Engiand 
at their coronation, and also befere the 
mayors of some cities. 

Calvin, John, Bev. A disttnguiahed 
religions reformer, b. in Franoe, 1609. d. 
in Switzerland, 1564. He was a pronfie 
writer and eloquent orator. He relin- 
quished Catholicism at the age of 25. 

Calypso. In Myth, one of the Ocean- 
ides, or, according'to some writers, one of 
the daughters of Atlas. Ulysses was ship- 
wrecked on her coasts, and she detained 
him seven years, oflfering him Inmiortality 
if he would marry her, an oflSor he reftisea. 

Canibridgre, kam'brij. Gap of G. of 
same name in England, and seat of the 
fiunous universily founded 1287 ; pop. 80,- 
000. Cambridge, a dly of Massaohnsetts, 
separated fh)m Boston by Charles Biver ; 
the seat of Harvard Colivge, founded 1688; 
pop. 62,669. 

Camillus, Marcus, Fuilus, kah-mll'- 
lus. A Koman patriot, elected director 
five times. He was banished for <Uviding 
the spoils of Yeli. During his exile Rome 
was captured by the Gauls under Bren- 
nus. C. was recalled, and drove the en*- 
emy out of the country ; b. abt 478 b. c; 
n. 865 B. c. 

Campafima di Boma, kAm-pfin'yab 
de ro'mah. The plain near the center of 
which is the city of Rome. It Is mias- 
matic and sparsely populated. 

Cana, ka'nah. The Gallilean village 
where Christ performed his first mirade, 
turning water into wine; now in dilapidar 
tion, and called KAna-el-Jelil. 

Canaan, ka'n&n. Scriptural rame for 
the portion of Palestine W. of Jordan. 

Cajiada, The Dominion of , kin'ah- 
dtti. T\ift t&QL«ni ^Qx&sa oit the Brttlak 


ind goverood W an nppulBlM iif ilic Dtiae foi 

Cnwoi, HiUad n OoTcmor OooLTaL. nn.l II , the RiUI: 

pmUmrent; ana, 8,3M.1« «!■ m : i-p (mduUn 

A.BU,<1S. ThB proHneM »ro l>nl;irl.p, nfllmuc 

Qtubn. New Bnimwtolt, Nnva (•■■"[I'. Caper-* 

Prinos'lMwiKl'B Island, RrillJillC-pliiiijlM i w«" Mpi 

ud UuiltDbL Tbe nrlndpal Hlk-i iit-i Caper-ti 

Quebee. Montreal, HalllSoc, BL John, i 'i a luiott>- 

tawa,ToninU)aiidKlnmton; ehlefr'- - - 
UlO St LmrrBBM, OlUwa, Sugueni 

Canavr IoIihuIb, a n. AiuotiE 

(SMoldi) of 7 Uiree and wrtnl 
lalmda, IKtm. N.W. uFL'^pe Hojadi 
AIH<»: ar«i,l(,»»sq,in.; ijoD. K 
TeimUPo la llio pHndrnl Isia 
talu tfap cap., Sunu Cmi di 

Capet Hnwnea, M'pi. Foundu' of 

monardU; s. iM. BBS, d. abt. Wt Us 
' I'aril. and u.7urprd the 

Tbc CupoUi 

Sve na BOV?n4^fl to J-^arone, 8lr ktn^ 
PranH. and ■ BmsHernumber tn fljoln, 
Porlojtal, N— ' •■■"-'■- " J 

in the dnt 

Dojile. and dnki^s (o Brittany, Barifiuidrt 

Oaplaa. 'nl-u. In law. a writ of two 
wrl&; onebeforc Judj^ent, caIIchI ad re- 
■pondendDm ; the other, after Jndfmeot, 
ad satlsRHHcndum. 

OaplllKlre, ka-pll-lir'. OnrlaallT a 
flirup prepand with maiden hair rara, 
bat DOW applied to any almple Btmp- 
■■ ■ kapl-tal. 

S'4C "™.ai" ;EgTptUnC^dt.L 
metropolK A tj-iio: a capital lellrr. 
Money or wealth omptoyed fn an; bud- 

CnpitaliSt, -Itt A man who haa a capi- 
tal or Blnck In Inde. 

Oapitan-paohk, -l-un'pa-sha'. Tba 
chief admiral of the Tnrklah fleet, 

Capitol, 'I Ml. InancfcntRoma, thehin 

was siven to the T^dpBl templeaoftba 
KoDianalnthettcolaniee. In llie United 
Statee, tho cdinces occupied by Concrete 
and tho Suto Leglilaturei. 
Oapttolinfl, -In, Pertatntng to the' 
Canital In Kome. or to Jupiter. O. Kunei, 
"luual ninoe. Iiutltuted by Cainillua tn 

thepreiervation oflheCai^lDl mm the 
lale, and rBlnBUI,ilWAVl'0<™^^A>o<*^« 

Oaplln, iln. Sal 
Qapnomor, 'dd- 

Oapon, kii'iKiii. 

OajtpwUns, ^p'na- 
Ihg uppn- part of tbo ok 
lUk hu bam voiind off. 

Oanxwlt Brown, 'p: 
guuK-bniwn ; ■ Utninli 
6d br oxldfl of munDeB 
jUian ptgmeDtfl of noh b 

0*p-pnper. 'pi'per. i 
paper, uiiullf oAUfld Rio] 

OappeUtM, 'pal-In. J 
of iron worn by anhen 1i 

ircthnu or MiUotiu 

i-dlD. Sim Book mm 

kam. OneofttiolS jS ^jit 

rigna of tho zodiac, ..^^Ht 

tha winter aolatloe: tf^^^^^^^B 
npnaantad b; <>">dM|^Bt^r 

a flgnra haTlng ths f ^^^P^ 
bra part like a mat, ' * 

tha winter _ aolatloe : 

flpireor ■ mtx 
a fflgnre hariDg — 
Ibra part Ilka a goat, 
md tbo hind part 
Ukeaflab. C.beeCle, 

Oap*ld«», -di. 1 
ttaloo of the Ca' 
antelopcfl, A 

of moBopatolonadleotfledaDB, allied tn the 

BnUacnis, Inoladlni tbs honoj^uckla. 

alder, Tibtiniaia and Anowberry. 
Okprimnlcldn, -rlmurjl-da. Tha gruit- 

aaokera, aftm, of IniuBeohsl, flulroetral 

blrda, aJUod U tho 8«allo>r tribe, lacludloe 

tba vhlp-poor-wlU and the Dlght-hawk. 
Okprln, 'rin. A subatanca wblch, vrlUi 

busline aod aaprone^ ^vae butrer Ite 
' uptabla tuta and odor. It li a caprato 

Qaprglo, ka-pri)'l)i. oror pertslBlne to 

• ir«t. O.add.tbeflth '- "■- — ' * 

IkU^r naldi, produood fi 


. _ . -. A gen. of anona] anb- 

ahrubby p^t«. ord- Solanacae. Tba 
frnlt la DaadforplDklet. taDaea. Jcc, and 

of the invund poda of C. Irutaoana and 

OapBtan, 'stan. An ap- 
paratus wurKlDK on £a 
principle ofl^--'---' --' 

Sl^d" adjS; 
n^t Kda, chiefly need on Capstan, 
ahlpa (br weighing anchor, 
hoistbig lallt, Ax. It differs 

HT oaam in tna 

hlaoes by rvgular valveo. 

Tossal for avaporatioha, aoh 
like. In An£ a mambrani . 

iDcloalllE * part like a bw. Affnmiliy< 
Tclopeflimaaseouainedldnoa, Thamei 

"■ —- aloalBg a bottle. 

- a who It at tha head 
»ar otheri ; a loader. 
- -uha commanda a 
•r In the British nary 

Capuchin, -[ 

flef. ^« C. ( 

head of the body of players 

the badse of t 
irofbotod, and 


id hood. A fhia. of cowled 

Capybara, ka-Bl-bS'n. The largeat 
1 __!-,.. BytoidtBraa or— ■- — 




tuned, and its flesh is esteemed. Called 
^so Water-hog. 

Car, kar. A two-wheeled vehicle ; a csrt. 
Any vehicle of dignity ; a chariot of war, 
and the like. A carriage for running on 
rails ; hotve and steam railway Garriajgpee. 
Phcebas* car, the sun. The Northern 
Gar, the constellation also called Charles* 
Wain or the Plow. 

Oarabidce, ka-rab'i-dC. A fun. of eole- 
opteroos insects, section Pentamera, oom- 
prtefng more than 6,000 species. The bom- 
Mudlw beetle belongs to this ftunily. 

CteuraUna, kar^a-b!n. A Spanish flre- 
ann; dmter in the barrel than the masket 
er ri^ usnaUy spelled oarUne. They are 
osed by cavauy, and by Irish oonstaba- 
\sary. • 

Carabns, kar'a-bos. A gen. of coleop- 
terous caniiyoroas insects, flan. CWabldss; 

Caracal, kar'a-kaL A species of African 

Srnx. It possesses great strength and 
erceness, and when tamed is sometimes 
used for hunting. 

Caracalla, Marcos AtirelliiB An- 
tonius, kir-a-kAl'lah. The most Infii- 
meus of Roman emperors ; b. abt. 180 a. 
D., crowned 211, assassinated 217. 

Caracara, ka-ra-k£'ra. Birds of the 
sub-flmi. PolyboriniB. flan. Falconide. 

Oaraoci, kah-ratch'e. The name of three 
lMX>ther8, distinguished painters, natives 
of Italy. Annibale, b. 1065, d. 1609; 
Agostino, B. 1553, d. 1602 ; Ludovico, b. 
1560, D. 1619. 

Caracole, kar'a-kol. In the manege, a 
semi-round or half-turn which a horse- 
man makes. In Arch, a spiral staircase. 

Caracoly, -kol-i. An alloy of gold, silver 
and copper, for inferior jewelry. 

Oaradoc Sandstone, -dok sand'stdn. 
The upper division of uie lower Silurian 
rocks, <x>n slating of micaceous and some- 
times quartzose grits, and limestones con- 
taining corals, moUusca and trilobites. 

Carafe, ka-raf; A glass water-bottle. 

Carambola, -raml>d-la. Indian fruit 
used in making sh«*bets, tarts and pre- 
B^ves ; the fl*utt of Averrhoa Carambola. 

Caramel, kar'a-mel. Anhydrous or 
burnt sugar, used for giving a brown color 
to spirits and sirups. The name given to 
a popular confection. 

Caranx, ka'rangks. A gen. of acanthop- 
terygian fishes, fiun. ScomberidsB ; one 
species is cidled horse-mackerel. 

Oarapaoe, kar'a-pfis. The shell which 
proteota the cbelonlaa reptileB, aa the tor- 

toiae or turtle ; the covering of the crus- 

Carat, 'at The weight of 4 grains, used 
in weighing predoas stones and pearls. 
A term used to express the proi>orUonate 
fineness of gold. 

Oarauna, ka-ra'na. A resin produced 
by the tree Bursera acuminata. 

Caravan, kar^a-van. A company of 
travelers, pilgrims or merchants, who as- 
sociate together that they mav travel with 
greater security. A huge close carriage ^ 
for oonveving traveling exhibitions from 
place to place. An anknal exhibition. 

Caravansary, 'sa-rL In the East, a 
place for receiving and lodging caravans ; 
a kind of inn where travelers rest at night, 
but which ftimishes no other acoommoda- 

Caravel, -veL A Portuguese vessel of 
100 to 150 tons burden: also a fishing 
vessel of 10 to 15 tons. A large Turkish 
ship of war. 

Carbasotio Add, kar-ba-zot'ik as'id. A 
substance obtained by the action of nitrio 
acid on indigo and som other substances, 
of great importance in dyeing. 

Carbide, l>ld. A compound of carbon 
with a metal. Formerly called Carburet. 

Carbohydrate, 'bd-hi-drat. A com- 
pound of carbon and the elements of 
water, such as starch and cellulose. 

Carl>olic Acid, -bol'ik as'id. An add 
found in that i>art of the oil of coal which 
boils between 800* and 400", much em- 
ployed as a therapeutic and disinfectant. 

Carbon, 'bon. Pure oharcoal : a simple 
body, black, brittle, light and inodorous. 
When crystallized it forms the diamond. 
Wood carbon or charcoal is employed to 
convert iron into steel bv cementation. It 
enters into the composition of gunpowder, 
forms the basis of black paints, Indian 
and printers' ink. C. occurs as diamond, 
wood Charcot^, animal charcoal, graphite, 
lamp-black, and anthracite; its compounds 
are more numerous than those of all the 
other elements taken together. C. points, 
in electric lighting, two pieces between 
which the drcuit is broken, so that the re- 
sistance offered to its passage produces a 
light of extraordinary brilliancy. C. print- 
ing, in Photog. a process by which per- 
manent pictures, &c., are printed worn. 
photographic negatives. 

Carbonaro, -bd-nA'ro. A name giveA 
to the members of a secret political society, 
formed by the Neapolitan republicans dur- 
ing Murat's government, for the expul- 
sion of the stranger and the establishment 
of a democraUo goverimx^ivt. 



Carbonate, 'bon-it. In Chem. a cnm- 
nclrt with a hMe, •» osrbonnte of linie. 
Oarbonlo. 'It pertaliilnB to carbon, in- 
otitilnwl fromlt. C. »dil, mora p^o]^^^l)■ 
C. Antiyitride, or C. Dloild«, If i guconB 
compoiipd of ISparU arbon and 83 <iiy- 


idjiir Id th« Btmoaphf 


, )( only4orB _.. 

>enga««l from renueuUlig: llqnois ui 

w the tbolii 

polion when preHntln thealj 

- -' -' "'^"" ' 


djunpof inlD«, It ion ap] ... 

lonfl, puiL^nt t3at«. And aersted bflvemg^efl 
of all kinds — beer, ahampa^e and car- 

jjiff qualltlea te Ita iireaence, fDrthoiiiFh 

agreeable when tnken Into ttn stomach. 

boDloacId overrsd-hotfrapnenttof cliar. 

oolorlessgM, Tory pol^o^ou^ and tsprcf- 
duced when a eeal fire biimn with a Bmi>1[,<. 

CarbonlfBrmia, -bo-nlTer-na. Ckintdln- 
Ingor yielding carbon or eoal. C. hvn- 

botween the old and thenewred Biiml- 
stonee. Including the coal mcainrea, rmll- 

. 1-non. A Ecm, lA 

tertiary ebirka, often otgnM ■Ih> 
Oarolixiia, 'bI'Ddb. A gen, of desapad 

paateboard. A piK« of caiflboard on 
which are painted Azures or points ; * 
ptaylnff card. A piece of rardboord with 
one s name. Ac, wrlllen or printed on H, 
and Indicating the name or name and 

Corbimole. 'hnni 


paper on whldi 

are marked. A pie 

to an entertalDmenl 
wmblng. opentn;: 
flax, freeing It from 

Oardtuoom. kir' 

emplayed In DiedlolDB 

Dudboard, kird'b(._. , 

tor making cardft. &e. ; pasteboard. 

Cardiadn. kSr-di'a-d^, A (Un. of Um^ 
llbranchliM moUaaha. ioolDdlDg Ui* 

Chief, principal^ pro- 

It Til* 

itedan iBTiWtkm 

D InslnuneDt ftir 

td breaking wool or 


r paper 

Ooidinal, 'di-Bi 

KtlaDi o^the horl- 
and tho prljue yflr- 
the rising and set- 

Cardinal, Ani 

Si*'t"e B. <?. Cl 

Cardinal's ISA. 

acbBTEoor bearlnB, generally coi 
of eight radii, fonr of which make 
mon cross, and the other fonr i sal 

Carcajou. 'ka-JS. A specleB uf 1 
tha Meloa Isbnujnrlca. 

CaroaTolhoa. -vil'yas. A sweoi 
frown In L'ortu£^, 

Oaxvbaiiam, -ka'r1-ai. a gen. < 

_e Pope'a oonncll. OrlglnaUy subordi- 
nate In rank to bishops, they Dow hns tha 
precedi^nce. The dreas of« cardinal la a. 
.J — ^_,_. _ — 1..^ J short pvrpls 
red hat. with eordadepending tram. dtlMr 

sMe, each bavlng Bftor- ■ ■- -» " 

ttemltt. A cloak, or.„ 

' It doOi w\tti a too4 W. VI, ■« 


ofllia IBlhcentuiy. it . taWr pariod Uia 

OarlM. kOr'lot- Aalng 

e<at Ala wlUi ■ 


Oardinal-bird, -bnd. CWdlndls Tlr- 

Oarlimt, 'Ust. A follow 

T of lion Carina 

glBlauiui, fern. FrtngilUd*. lu iBOtf fo- 


or Henry V. of 

onu common nrunca, Virginian Nlthti"- 

Carlock, 'Irk. A Riiaalan iilnrlaai. uiada 

gLS'--^—- •"™""" 

d usod In dartiy- 

Carlovlogian, -lo-rtn 

Jl-an. I-rrtaln- 

A mochLno fur combing, bnaking anil 

a^.tl.nC, race of kings. 

Omdinm.klr'rtt-um. Tin c«*l8, » ecu. 

Cartabad, kfirb'hid. A ponnlar »pa In 
Bohemia, AusWn; the Hpmdel aprfri! !• 

ObMoI. 'dol. An oHj liquid fromthn 

Iho hottest In Europe, 

IK.- F.h. ; pop- 



p,ld(&ch.mJrisltiii. ^ 


Oarduiui, -us, A ^i. of rr^t lierb., 

Oarantaue, tiiir'»n-lim. A popiJ Indul- 

cean', uialQplvUie tbo rsmlseli^n of pcn- 

yOl. A npubU. 

uto by fcHles. 

can Kng and danoe In 

Oaray, EeiUT Charlai. An eminent 

olnUanary BongB- The 

American noUtloU economlil ; B. iJi riill»- 
aclpbia, life. t>. 1513. 

'^nHo" ^'-n^ 

Jaooblui during the r. 

OBriaoou. 'I*tr.. Tlw Virginia d«r 

Oulb, UT'Ib. AboTlgtD«of Ui«BnulIiir 

Gannel, Mt. A Byri 

an Monnlaln or 

V. India laludi wbcn dlKonred hy the 



Biln)p«ai ; tWo™ unpfrior to m.ul 

oflliBDUiwtrlbMofnsUves. Thiiy wu™ 

BpmUBrdi. snd OiB romnnnt topt rcfngo 

by the prophet EUJih. 

' pricati of Baal 

OarlbbeBii Sea, That part of Uie 

Oarmellto, 'mol-lL 

Alluitiu Ij-inE between B. and B. Am«- 

A mandloant War of 

le». C, America mid the W. iidtoa ; area, 

Oiriboo. -bB. Tarindnn nuiBllir. a 

luel. Bstabllshod 

sr?i',i'.-j:!;«"' ""•""■•■■' 

SfwYi;?? j 


Oarioa, -ka. A (ten. of planla, ord. 

branebes, one boing > 

fUTDlahed i-ltb bellJ, nroperly tuned, play- 
ed nith flngor-keya like the nlanD-lbrW. 

walking ^Wcfooted. 


Oarmlns, 'mln. ^ 

Oarliiaria, -l-niM-n. A pen. ofeatter- 

ofmcblneal, if^g. 


efellaare known ai Vaaoa ellppcra uiiil 

^hlneaL ° """ 


fhii nautilus. 

aanuot. 'mat. The na. 

Bultto- T£eC- Include all^Ll.dnK birds 



emept tile Ouraorej, or Bon-aylag. 

Oamallite, 'na-lTt. A 

mineral cuoalat- 

Ooriole. 1-01. Aamall o»neiiTla«e; a 

waUir, mbtiUatn, i^ffiAuiiiu^\ffQii^i^ 


ion. Jl«h color I tbe 
'hlob Bro naked or wlth- 

tlios CaryophvUin, a perendtal gltueus 
plant burlnir boaudfnl. frBeruLl: flowerA. 
Oamelfan. -n^'ll-in. A. illkeoua ilane, 
avflrl^^ty of chatcodony, tolerably hard, 
rapjiblo Df a good pofiah, and uaed for 

'nl-fcka. A pubUt eieou- 

Oaintv*!, -val. Tha feut or aeeaon of 
rrjolclnic toftire Leat. DbsrrTodlnCathu- 
llc TOUDtriva u'lthgrutraveb^. I'outing 

CamlTOro, -nlv'ii-ni. A torm (ccnenilly 
applied 1o crwtures that fOed on flesh, but 

quadrupeds vhlch prey upon other ajif- 
mils. TtaeyaredltidedtnloPlaDtlfiradea, 
compiinlng tho bearfl, bad^na, raeeooTiB, 
gluttons ud eoatiDiondls ; ths DUfiU- 

' dofffl, and the Amphibloan, oomprl^; the 

OarolKn, ITaflonch O'. One of the 

last and moat fUnoos of Ireland's bar^ 

and harpists ; b. ISTD, c. Tm. 
OaroUn, kar'A-Ela. A gold odn fitrmet- 

It current fa parts of Gennsnv, iTOrtb 

OaioIuB, -iDa. An English gold ndo of 

therelgD of Charles 1. and orlgi Dally aOa. 

In Talue. afterward !Se, The name waa 

Oknmd.ka-nit'ld. An artery of the DKk. 

Oaroufta, -rout'. A drinking match; a 

Out, klrp. A teleoataan flab, bm, 
Oypiinide, The type li the common 
earp. The gold-flah laC. uuatus; ud 
tbe OermiD srp. C. eiraaatoa, 

Oarpathlan. kir-pi'tbl-an. The nmge 
ofmonntsins botweeo Poland, Hungary, 
and TraDsylvaala. C. balsam, a r»ln dis- 
tilled from the DOnea of Plnus Cembrt. 

Carpel. 'poL In Bot the slngrla cell of 

" ao OTBry or seed-veaael, togetbfr with 
That bfllonge to tbat cell, as a separate 
a^ls sod illgina of the pistil ; regarded ae 

Oftrpet. 'pet. A tbkk IWbHo used for 

•oft smooth oorering, ai of torf. 0. 
knight a person knights on aomo other 
groDnd than that of mihtary service or 
Ouvrnt-bas: -Dae- A tnTeUnit big 
latdh oftba jama nuttrial u arpeta. 


Oazpet-ba^rer, 'er. a needy poUtk 
adyenturer uho goes about the eaiutt 
pandering to the preJQdloflB of tb^ IgV 

Caipet-beddljiv, -bed-lni. A ayatd 
nf hndrftng In which flwarf (Ottage plan 

jf the M century, 

so called ftom Carpocrates. 
Oorpollte. 'po-ht. A fossil ftnlt. 
Oamtfeen, kar'ra-gSn. Obondms eris- 

us edlhr making soups, Jeltles, slie. As. 
Oairora. kir-rd'ilh. A city of central 

Italy. ptoT. Uaasa-Carrara, noted for Its 

quarries of flna marbla naad by flcniptors ; 

'rO-Bprlng. An alaa- 

C&rrler, 'tl-w. One v 
of goods or persons, j 

Corrion-OTOW, - 

Cut, Urt. A mo-wb 
vsutay wltboDt eprtngi. 
Carte. A bUl of tire. A 

(M, or for soma mulnal uTiiinlaitt 0. 
iJilp, eai[il<i)'ed In Iba Eachurn of pnian- 
Bi, or In arrjiog proportaum lo an bb- 

1-10. Fntslnlng lo ih< 
t DesarUi, or t» Hi 
_. C, devil, aphlloMpUisltoy. 
(HfULBKe, Urth'sL TheiodcnCrlTBlol 
, )mi4 with which war preymllod almasl 
evndniuniBlF tor oenrly ^SyalrR ; Fitnatnl 
M Om M. OMtt or Anica, near moAtm 
Tuii. ud miatreai of Bpnin, BMIr and 

taken mad cnHr^ destrojM h ■ - 

prarljue, a email, wUta disk 9i 
Cartoon, -tan', A doal^^^r 


iniidiifly In fte«oo. A t>i< 

'labomtaly Ibrtlflcd placvaln 
Rumpa ; pop. M,8H1. 
CBaoadsB&use. Aniauii 
uln cbidn In W. Oree^n ui ' 
Alnaka, ftr- '"* •- ""'' - 

Alaska, the hlgheal 

OaaGO Bay, In MoJos, bat Capfi EIIm- 
botb and Small Pnlnc; over IHIU small 

Caae-hardenln?, A mrtht"! of ean- 

CBoelno, krise-lb. The iirlnclnnl wni- 
sUtlluoU of Qheci", reaainbllug llbum-^D. 

Casemate, kua'ni 




Oase-sliot (canister). Musket balls, 
scraps of iron, &o., put into an iron case 
and discharged from a large cannon. 

Case-rack, 'rak. A frame of -vrood to 
receive printers' cases when not in use. 

Oase-shot, 'shot. Small projectiles, such 
as musket balls or grape-shot, jiut in cases 
to bo discharged from cannon ; canister- 
shot. A shrapnel-shcU ; that is, a spherical 
iron case inclosing a number of bullets and 
exploded by a fuse. 

Gasll, kash. Money; money in chest or 
on hand, in bank or at command. A Uiln 
coin of a very base alloy of copper, used 
by the Chinese as small change, 22 being 
equal to one penny sterling. 

Oashidaws, 'i-klaz. An old Scotch in- 
strument of torture, consisting of an iron 
case for the leg, to which fire was applied. 

Cashmere, 'mdr. A shawl formed of 
fine downy wool found about the roots of 
the hair of the Cashmere goat and the 
wild goat of Thibet, now successfriUy im- 

Oasixnir, k^'e-mer. The name of several 
kings of Poland. C. III. (the Great), who 
reigned from .1888 to 1370, conquered a 
large part of contiguous Russia, and de- 
feated the Bohemians. 

Gtetsino, ka-se'nd. A small country 
house ; a lodge ; formerly a house capable 
of aflbrding defense against attack. A 
dub-house or public room used for social 
meetings, gaming, music, &c.; a public 
dancing sakran. 

Oask, kask. A close vessel for containing 
liquors, formed hv staves, heading and 
hoops, Gomprehending the pipe, hogshead, 
butt, barrel, &c. 

Oasket, kas'ket. A small chest or box 
for Jewels or other small articles. Some- 
times applied to a book consisting of 
selected literary or musical pieces. 

OaspiaxL Sea, kis'pe-an. A salt sea in 
W. Asia ; area abt 120,000 sq. m. 

Casque, kask. A term applied to hel- 
mets of every description. In a more 
precise use, the term designates a head- 
piece worn more for parade than serious 

kas'ket-el. A 
small steel cap 
or open helmet, 
^rithout beaver 

. or visor. 


Son i>f AntipoteTf King of Macedonia, b. 
fS^, J>. 291 B. o. ABSisted hy Ptolemy, 
BeJeuoua and LysimaoimB, he defeated 

CasqueteL Side and Ba9k 

Antigorus at Ipsns, the latter being killed. 
Alexander's empire was then divkled be- 
tween the conquerors, the four kingdoms 
being Macedon, Egypt, Syria and Tlxraee. 

Cassandra, kas-san'drah. In Myth, 
daughter of Priam, King of Troy, and 
Hecuba ; she received the gift ofprophe- 
cy from Apollo. On the fifll of Troy she 
was allotted to Agamemnon, and was 
killed by Clytemnestra, A.'s Jealous wife. 

Cassava, -sa'va. A species of manihot 
(M, utillissima), ord. £uphorbiaeefe. The 
nutritious starch obtained from the root 
of the plant forms a valuable article of 
food, upon which many of the inhabitants 
of S. America live almost entirely. From 
cassava the tapioca of conmierce is -pre- 

Casserole, -51. An edging, border of 
paper, or encasement of rice, paste, or 
mashed potatoes, in which meats are 
served at table. 

Cassia, kashi-a. The leaflets of several 

species constituting the well-known drug 

called senna. 
Cassia-bud, -bud. The flower-bud of 

Cinnamomum Cassia and otiier species of 

the same gen. 

Cassia-l^rnea, -lig-ne-a. The bark of 
the trees that yield cassia-buds. Its flavor 
resembles that of cinnamon. 

Cassia-oil, -oil. The oil of cinnamon, 
procured from cassia bark and buds. 

Cassioan, kas'si-kan. An insessorial 
bird, gen. Cassicus. Sometimes improp- 
erly applied to the barita. 

Cassicus, -kus. A gen. of insessorial 
birds, Am. Icteridse, allied to the stiu<- 
lings, remarkable for the ingenuity with 
wmoh tiiey weave their nests. 

Cassimere, -mer. A thin twilled wool- 
en cloth woven in imitation of Cashmere 

Cassiopeia, -o-pCa. A constellation in 
the northern hemisphere, situated near 
Cepheus, containing 55 stars. 

Cassis, 'sis. A gen. of gasteropodous 
mollusks, fam. Buccinidfe, including the 

Cassiterite, 'si-ter-It. The common ore 
of tin. It is a peroxide, consisting of ttn 
79, and oxygen 21. 

Oassius, -US. A purple pigment, used 
in porcelain and glass painting. 

Cassius, Longrinus Caius. A noble 
Roman philosopher and general, who 
Joined Brutus in the assassinatioi) of Juliua 
CsBsar, and commanded one wing of the 
armv defeated at Philippi. when the 
batde -waa \ott Ya Yia!L«^ Mmeelf by fklUng 


ra<A thA iwotd irtcJt wtaleta hfl had atnuk I 
Omi. He m* gtrked b; UrnDu, who ! 
«u U> b»tliiir4D^w. "tbo tut o[ 111 


. •oTtli^hl- 
■"16 gwro bj' 


oTtbaodor. Tbe uwtor 
nUd for the emlidoD oT I 

Id'. Bmw Higir; iocbt 

•I Urd, gen. Ounuioi, hm^DnChloDJ- 
de. ItrnpiwIUignUnpidltr. onUtrlp- 
ftatl tba iwlftMt bona. 



or Bp^, divided by tbs moanUln range 
InWOlil Hill Nb»C.; «««. 1i.44I m. m. 
Old C. laoi^iiea 8 proTlnaea, Nrwl'. 4. 
The dUact li tbo >uudird luieuiice at 
BpilD, udtbaCuIUianaiMdltUll^lsbod 
for Kibriel)', linnor and |ili;ly. 
aaatll»-«o«i>, 'iii^Ti. A white nr Dint- 
Ued tollat »*p, niBdit vlth uUva all ud ■ 

Owtle.'l. Abulldlnif.arHrietDfaailnact- 
ed balldJiun rnrIlB<<d for defrnee >Kaliiit 

the pvtB of a piaj 

Oaatalift, ka*-tl'U.iL Tbe 

— "■--! ftinntaJn of 1d- 


Imejit to tba guitar. 

OBste, kaat. One ol ^ 

HiaHlDdiutm divided aooording to Brah^ 

OasteUaii. kaa'tel-lan. A gi 
(onstable of a atHa. 

, -Ut4d. rnml 
I Mtttementa Hka s i 

A Fwncb CaallB 
out^growlh of fondaHsm and were flrsl 
brought to a lilif h plloh of strengtli anl 

roolt. C. in tbe air. a vifllonflry project, 

denote the paUdcal bflaence ol the f ourt ; 
DubtliiCaattebuing the offldol roaldence 
of the lord Ikutanant. 
Oaatl»«narcl, .g*rd. Tlie gnard whiffh 


culle, Hieclnmlt i 

It; ortxoiidclotb, 
OutoT EUid FoUuz 

tkuy were educUed, n 

uDd n cBHla taxed i 

mildered IhB patron of boiing 

IT and. Pollux. In 

l^anluln thelBUmd o/E^ba. 
Oaatorlna. -l< 

thealUror a Q 
are kepi. 
UghC, dlBttognlai 

itHe refleeUon of isjb of 
ed from the diaauuQc, 

A-klizm. A deluffa or OTer- 
w 1 ipeel9csU]>, tba flood la 

JD GeoJ. a Cerm ippdod to 
otent e«iiw of Tarlona pbe- 
he depoMUoB of differeat 

dlln^nm or drift, ratlwr 

, Cataoomb, -kom. 

QatatalQue. -MJu A tempomrj Btra*- 
'— - repTflBentkog a oeDotuph, pLoeed orer 
offlD of & dlaUntfulahed peraon at tba 

n, an iDdltcrtmlnnta 
3'ne-ah. The S. E. 

V divided tDlo 4 pTDT- 

OaiitMttD, -tri'ta. A male perwn emu 
•ulalad fiir the porpou of ImproTlng: hli 
Toloe I ID irtiadid or male soprana. 

Owt-ihadow, hiat'ibod-S. Inpalctiaf 
a shadow oait bf an Db|«t within the pic 

behind it. 
Oaat-Bteel. 'tl«l. Bt«l mode by futlni 
the maruiaU and runclnff the prodao 

Oat, hat. A ivuQa applied to certain our 
jUvereuaqnadnipeds^^n. rellA. It la no 
cerlaln whother any anltnol now oilstbii 

domoaUo cat; nrobat^y It Ia debcendci 
fhHn a cat onrinaUy demeatia " 
Egypt. Thewltl catlamuchlara 

madaL Aitmiig Ucktetobootiaimm 

A larger thi 

Oatalonla, kat^n 


iashed togBthcr, the middle p' 

Thl» nQino WS9 alio applied to the llat- 

fbr the Inyaalon of England^ and la alio 
applied to a modem American yaoht. A 
quarrelsome woman ; a vliea. 
Catamount, -mount. The wlld-qat. 

CatapbrtLct, -<Vakt A ploco ordpfenslTe 
the rider, in ZdoI- the onnor protecting 

OataplUTRlan. -o-fHl'l-an, One of a 
oeat of beretica at the !d century who tbl- 
, UswsdtlwwrmaotMoatanM. 


lu imrj itanes uid olbv balkr nil>- 
dfai, bnt afln-wvdB confoanded wuh the 
bidUHU. A una]] IViriied ttick oaed b^ 
bnyi for threwliig luiiJJ inlHllcfl, 

jiecJptM, u tlul of KlMsra. Any tnri- 
ana ru.b or downnoor of «t.ltT. A dlt- 
BMeDtUieejE. 4fonnnfK.ter-poviTn- 
or IfiT regaiiting Uio Btrcko ot HJii^fl-aat' 

Oatarrhina, -a-ri'ii«. A kc. or qiud- 

n. A pUulD; 
las of .u™. 

M» AbdamiixftJ 

•ven, pirdcnlirlr In tba prloolpU-i Dfri 
HglDn. Ad clenuaitu; book oontidiilng 

Oat-blook. ' 

bL«k D«d i< 

Catach'Pineii, -S-kn'mm. One who 1< 
under inatnifltlan In lbs flnt rndimeiiti 
of ChriaUBDllj ; s BBophytB, GMiwrnlly, 
oai who Ifl be^DiilnK tu imqaln uiy kJnd 
of doDtnnra DT priuolpLeB. 

OateKOTy. 'C-eor-l. In s popular ncnio, 

Ib« highest olnMH to whkb objwU of 
tbaafthtian b« nfRred. Aristotle nmdi 

>n ud niodnlK}'.' Mill mitee nv 


utnun, a »rlefi of pufiK^s fr 
Oatenipora. kut-f-nip'rj-n. Ch 


I. A IIlKbluod or Iriah 
A freBtH>Dt«r or ftover. 
' A provider or pnr- 

daterplllar. kai'ir-pl 

bir- [*roperly the lat> 

MW-By. Thanamsof pliiita,Keii. Htur- 
OBterpllUx-aater, -ft'er. The Ims 

hiidy of «a{Fr^l1arjt, uflt^v tbcir way out. 
A blrdorthoibrlketOm. and vrhkh IWea 

on CAl^I^illArB. 

Oat-fall. 'M. The mpa thu fann'a tba 

Oatha kath'o. i 

of pilots, ord. 
"SS!'2od'' ^ 

OBtbarins, -ar-ln. The Dime of three of 

divwoed in IfiSS to mirry Aone BoLei-o ; 


Ih1kI]i. Une uid qnDru uf Epoln ; b. 
14Sg. D. IKID. (!. Uowud, tbird wife of 
Henty V[ll..niu<»DvlitUi<l of lofldelltjr 
find b?bGsdisd ; n. IMO. b. i&a. U. Put. 

_ e de Mcdlcl, wlfc of 

1I„ <Tlurlei IV. nod Henri ML, succea- 
atvelykliiiranrPiMce; n- IBM, i>- 1M>9. 

EhB waa pniOlffBle, erael mid f 

dDuirbti^r Dr& XJvonlnn paiiaantr whoae flmt 
hasbaiid wis ■ awedljli irmy ofliwr ; 

but Poter Uic Gnat hiviag bllnobilove 
with and Duuriad bar aba beuuifl a luyd 
uid niDdt dcvotad wife, frnoiifldnff hm 

, from the Turkn. Aftar tla death of Peler, 
0. loled wliielv and vlBoroagly ; h, 1683. 
D. 1I«I, C. n., of auaili. a Qmnan, 
wift of Prter III.; b, ITM, n. lT9fl. Hot 
life wu one rniuid of Inlbmr. H«r chlsf 
avDrllp. Alexis OrlolT, haylBir mnnlBred 
lier huebiuid, BbomltKl \v1th ^Mit yiptr. 

OathuiM, -tilt. OnD who pretsnds to 

terra used V tba FauUolaiis li> the' Tth 
»nl^7:tbeAnU-CAtballo tents Id Fnnce 
rndFledmonC of the lath cantnry; the 
MDiiliinlitB. tha Navatbuu, Jic 

OoTtiuirteB, ka-chlr'blz. A eeo. of Il]s 
vulture (BlnlK-, oonMlDing Iho torkoy- 
■ buBinlnnrl other apeolei. 

Oarthutlc, 'tik. • — "-■" •'— 

'Od. Tho Doenliro pole of ai 
elaotrlo aiuTGHt, or that by whloh Uie ou 

Catholic. VII k. A mrmbeF nf the ddI 

bead of tlio AitiiodIsd Chimdi. 

CatlinK, kat'llnE, A kitten. Catmit; 
lh« Blrlnir or aTuto, rloBn, ftc. A dl^ 
mfimberln^ knife used by auricfhinfl- 

Catlinite. 'U-Blt. Aredol*,itonc, sUlod 

Onto. k»'ia. TbB name of two dtsdn- 
^Ished Roman foneralt and pblluAu- 
pbera, Kr^ndftthor aod ffrandaan- The 
flrat, Poroln» Prliicui, known aa 
Cato M^or, B. !S*, a. 149 D, a. He ™n- 
<[Uered i^u± ofSpaln.and fought at Tbor- 
raopyla*- His lltarftiy remains lududa 
"lfr(«lnea"nnd-r>oReKn»[|oe." Mar- 

Btorfi?'B."lon, snlclWlfiB. c. Hoao- 
qnlred mlUtdry flime, and waa Dotal for 

HIa reading of Phtto'i (raiMeo on the Im- 
moFtnllty of tbe aool It aald lo havo 

Otttoblepaa, ks-tet>1e-pu. A s«b. of 

the ooDiDr, or Oato Utieoi 
Oat^'Kliie-tallB, kal-n- 

Oatopter. ka-tnp'ler. A reHMtine opa- 
<al elms or instrument ; a mirror. 

Oat-rope, kat'rOp. A rcipe used In ban! 
oft-o II. tho mt-heod. 

Oat-BBlt, 'salt. A eolt heontlflilly grana- 

. Oallod 



Cattle, 'L A tenn applied eoDeecfrdjto 
the lu^er domestle qiudrapeds, or sodi 
as serve tor tillage or otlier koor, and 
for food to man. 

Cattle-giiard, -gtrd. A ditch eroning 
beneath a raflway, toprerent the atraylng 
of catUe onto the line. 

Cattle-plagTze, -lAig. A yimlentlr oon- 
tagioos disease affecting cattle; rinder- 

CattLe-mn, -rvai. An American and 
colonial t^rm for an open grazing ground. 

CatUe-idiow, -ah5. An exhibition of 
domestic animals for prizes. 

CSaucaaian, ks-k&'zi-an. The highest 
type of the hnman fiunily, including near- 
ly all the Europeans, the Circassians, Ar- 
menians, Persians, Jews, Ac. 

CSancasofl, kan'ka-siis. The mountain 
range between the Black and Caspian seas, 
forming port of the boundary between 
Europe and Asia ; the highest peak is 
18,500 ft. ahov« sea lereL 

Oanocui, 'kns. A private meeting of dtl- 
zena to agree upon candidates to be pro- 
posed for etoemm to ofBoes, or to concert 
measiires hr supporting a party. 

Oandle, k('dL A warm drink made of 
wtne or ale, mixed with bread, sugar and 

OaxidIe-tfiU>t k('dl-kup. A vessel for 
holding eaadle. A caudle-cup and apostles' 
rooona fon mer jy oonstitntea the sponsor's 
girt to the child at a christening. 

Qauf, kaf. A chest with holes for keep- 
ing fish alive in water. In mining, a vessel 
of eheet^t>n emploved to raise coal flrom 
the bottom <^ the shaft. 

Oanfle, 'L A drove of black slaves ; a 

Caul, kal. A kind of head-covering worn 
by females ; a net inclostug the hair : the 
Imider part of a cap. A portion of the 
amnion or membrane enveloping the fetus, 
sometimes encompassing tne head of a 
child when bom. 

Caulopteris, ka-lop'ter-is. A gen. of 
fossil tree-ferns, found in the ooal-meaa- 

Causeway, kaz'wa. A road or path 
raised above &e natural level of the 
ground, serving as a dry passage over wet 
or marshy ground, or as a mole to confine 
water, or restrain it from overflowing. 

Caufltio, k§s'tik. Any substance which 
bums, corrtKles, or disintegrates the tex- 
tures of aidmal structures ; an escharotic. 
Lunar caustic, nitrate of rilver when cast 
Into sticks for ^e use of surgeons, Ac. In 
Hath, the curve to which rajs of Ught, 

reflected or refracted by another curve, ar« 

Cauterisation, ka'ter-lz-A''«hon. The 
act of cauterizing or searing by the appH* 
cation of a hot iron, caustics, Ac. The 
effect of the application of a cautery or 

Cauzi, 'zu. An Indian Mohammedan 
Judge, who also officiates as a public no- 

Cavaignac, Louis Eugene, kah- 
van'yak. A French officer, b. !<¥>>, n. 
1857. He was appointed govemor-peneral 
of Algola by the pro\ifllonal government 
of the republic, 1848, and the same year 
he was recalled and made dictator of 
France ; he resigned after supprcssin^r the 
Parisian insurrection of Juno '28-26, but 
was recalled to the military command ; in 
November of the same year he woa muni- 
cipal rival of Louis Napoleon for the pres- 
idency, and permanently retired from 
power Dec. 20, 1848, dying in retirement. 

Cavalcade, kav'al-kftd. A procession 
of persons on horseback. 

Cavalier, -a-l£r. A horsenum, especially 
an armed horseouui ; a knight. The ap- 
pellation given to the partisans of Charles 
I., as opposed' to a Boundhead, an adhe- 
rent to tne Parliament. A gentleman at- 
tending on or eseorting a lady ; a beau. 
In Fort, a raised work commandtng all ad- 
jacent works. 

Cavalry, 'al-ri. A body of troops that 
aerve on horseback, classifled into light 
and heavy. 

Cave, k&v. A hollow place in the earth ; 
a subterranean cavern 4 a den. The Mam- 
moth cave of Kentucky incloses an extent 
ofabout 40 miles of subterraneous wind- 

Cavea, ka'v5-a. Among the ancient 
Komans, a subterranean cell wherein wild 
beftsts were confined in readiness for the 
fights of the arena ; by synecdoche, the 
amphitheater itself. 

Caveach, ka-v3ch^ Pickled mackerel ; 
a West Indian name. 

Cavear, -vSr. Amon^of Mocha, worth 
about one cent. A nommal division of the 
Spanish dollar, forty cavears making one 

Cave-dweller, k&v'dwel-er. A name 
given to such of the races of prehistoric 
man as dwelt in natural caves, subsisting 
on shell-fish and wild animals. A name 

gven to a religious sect known as the 
ohemian Brethren, in the 15th century. 
Cavendish, Henry, kin'dish. An 
English chemist and philosopher; b. 1781, 
J>, 1810. He was the originator of the ex- 


ran^Ur cakfa. C. «]cpei1mtnt. an Im- 
porUnt DiDcbarLfcol eiperlinflnl for the 
purnOBOof MoorUinlnn tho mesa denrity 

OaTe-awallow, klT'ewol-ls. A epecles 
nuU (o tbe roofli oravn. 

Cla-rla, kSM-s. A gen, of rodent anl- 
inalfi, type of the taa. CsTtdF, tlie most 
thmtllMT tixomple being the guinea-pig. 

Oavlar, kST-l-Sr'. The n>es of flsh pre- 
pared end ulfed. llje beat le m&de from 
tho sterlet, stnrgeoD, sevrnga uid being*, 

Oavicomla. -kor'nU. A bm. of nim- 
Ijuuita, obaruolCTlaed by pornlfllant home, 
laaladlnR the uitelopefl. goatji ud oxen. 
The prong-liam lutekipe, wbloh renewa 
the homr ahsdh pCTtodlesUf . Ii the onty 
eiMptlaiMl merabsr of the gnop. 

Okvoor, OMnlllo, Ooiwt dl, k*h- 

T«ir'. A aiUigidihad ItallMi atUeamu; 

IBtl. He oontillnited luvely 

oTltiJj', md u prtme 

to the 

;h, religiouB tolenUoD sod IhtB 

Oawanaw, ka'kTi. The i 

bbck-ktta-. " The Bec\.i'eU or the Hle- 
torrefl of Traye," prtnted bj CutDU At 
Cofanie Iq 14T1, l« oonaWertd the MrUeet 
■peolineD of niwgnphy In the EnijUth 
IsBEUBite. " The Osme and Ptsfe ol the 

in 14T4, T> reniraed u the flnt vaA 
printed la Engknd. 

often termed e Key. 

OaTBTUie Pepper, W-on' pep'er. A 
pau'der formed of the dried end gronnd 

siaum, nnd eipoolillr 

of C- FttiteMe 


OnMlQiie. kn-iSk'. The nnoie of Mtiv* 
when discovered by the Spanluda. Wrll- 

OebicUB. B<''bl-dC. A Dun. of plstyrhlM 
monkeys, Including the spider iDoa]u7«i 
sapnjous, equlrn'l monkeys, Ao. 

Oeo^lill. e«k-k«D'. A <»l> of Italy and 

Oeierea. 'or-es. In Bom. "'<'<t» ^T 

Itom the wealthier dtlune. 
Oalestlal, sS-lea'tl-al Ao InhiUtaDt ot 

-"-len. ADntlTeofChliu,theM-oaDad 

D tdhneDt of Ftli- 

Oalibate, 'i-MC On« whi i>r 

Ofllebite, -ML A mank UHn 
cnmnwD ind rr^Lir dlKlpUno 
Oelidography, -1-iIok'ti-H. 


irrs^den«. u n mi>D or hmnltJwe. 
' ^ the |rart of a (4>mn1e wher« urn 
.f »K>Kl;lood:»hollow[i 

fo of ■«"<! ftlood ; A holloa* place be- 

bJiloT M of a fionev-tonib. In BLoL m 
aombtaDOQi b»g nitli fluid conUqlji, uhI 

bt celii ; Jk Aamf-aoUd mus or tnaticr with 
Do daHatta bmmdvT-wiUI. In Kleot. n 

ttLAtr oppndtaa or to «ach atber. 
CUl«r,1v. AroooiinahonM oTolhcr 

bnlUtu, wboUy cr parUy midw groand, 

■dapladfbr atonga purpoies. 
(MlBIwbOOk, -bnk. A book guBtalBliie 

diMla npD^as win™ sad Uqiiora ni- 

vfao hu sbarge < 
the pTDTMor ' 

OellariDO, cb^-l»«'na. 
CelleiiorB, »l-1ep'o-fi. Agon, ofnorali. 

CellnUrea, -la-lu'rct Oooof [lis grand 
' tflof Ibtf vrtfetable kin^'t^itm, fonn- 
} fiTHflU'r though bum blar j>orllon 
fOtyJ^ODOua or cryptogunk 

17 r ■; 

Oellalicola, -I! 
OellaloM. -Ion. 

CelsuB. Aiu«llasOoriieli'ua. 


"I)a Madiclna," 

Crtt, »^t. On nf th« rarllMt AiTM IB- 
habllanU of ths uulh ami umI of Rnniw, 
ThD hmlly liai twii l.nDrhr>, Ibr liad- 

Ivid,' Uu fritb. and Mux': iu'd7li" (ViB- 
rid, ODinprUIng I)h WWth Had lirviniiii. 
Celt. An laiplumi'nt ornnni' iTiurtal, 
fbund In anf^jil tumuli atil huT«>n]liir 
thfl Cthirt pnlod. Koiur- ni»pjjiiM* it lo ]#f 

Oeltibarion. -l-bu'rl-un. ■''-rulnlnif la 

a by Iba (MU, Induiliii^ Wdidi, 
F Bnton. Iriata, Gat-Jk. and 

Any idnUnoui or 
oi^unlUiiE bodha 
bydraiiTIo llinea Hhlob oontaln alllu akJ 
tberofbro iwt quickly. Ilvdnullo nqmuU 

<t of airiUrin. vhloh Inr 
i'^L«-ii. A [plactf aet 

Cend. B«atri«, cbJu'ohu. 
or (.^unt KnutclKO C«n<il. a 
lulbm ILha-tJDs; n. IfilS, n. I 


of ttas IkmOy, wa> charged witb > 

L G ■■ 

knmc. Ik l^itiir to 
Cenoblte, ean'o-blt. On« of a nllgloDa 

una and Iheb- pFupaFty, In moiieni 
dmH. an DRIcial enumsraUoD Of th* In- 


■la'«-mS. In Ittlj-, tbf hnn- 

iindr«iLU] part of . 

etar; Uh 

with pn, u iia p« 
proporUoD or ten to 

dndth put of ^t 

OmtaUaen'UL A mdght of IW lU. 

ftm. TalpldiF, nurlfjuSed' U 
bogs; OiiibaiTBca. 
OmtiaiQ, 'ti-ir, A eqnue i 
bumlrttlth pHrt of tho ^renoh 
tol.19 squire yordi. 

OeaUKiade, -grU, CoMiitiDsof«him- 

dr«d degrvD5i grkdo^tf) Into a taundrpd 
dlvl&lDtii of cquAl pBrta. O. thomoiDS- 

tervtU b?tvrteB tho freezlof *Dd lioll^ 

fUu-echult'BUiaeiinio Intcml tidiiridod 

Centime, -tiim'. Tlio haodredth part of 

BWly eqaiil tolWIbs! 
OantuuLriaa, - 

CenteiuuT, 'te-on-rL Tte 
handled jam. 
Oentoniiial, -tan'ni-iil. Ths oommeino- 
~~1oD of any ATUt wbkch oociin«d ■ bun- 
id ye«r« beftira. 

ibg. Thft fruDiknir of 
othAT ■tmetnro ia Bupported daring ItA 

Oontor-pln, -pin. 
CentrifoKBl. -trlfa-gul. Tending 

I »t«p of procravioD 

ifl^ihon. Aniillt«7 
.Oay; or Uu Uke, 

oenCrlfun] fo. 
■ oentrinigul I 

nd to fly ol from tho uIh of theb 
Ln a tangent to tho periphery tit 
IB. AotJng by or depending on 
_i # — „ _- _ — ilrifiig^ ?Q™P> 



OemtripetaL -trIp'e-taL Tendlnf toward 
the center. C. ft»roe is thftt ferae whieh 
draws a body towards a center, and there- 
by acts as a eountapoise to the centrif- 
ugal force in drcular motion. Oraiity' is 
a centripetal torec. 

Centriflciui, tris^kus. A gen. of teleos- 
tean fishes, sec Acanthoptetygii, tun. 
nstnlartdiB, Including the bello ws-lish and 

Oentrosnfl, 'trS-pns. A gen. of seansorlal 
Urds, caeikoo Ikm., the pnessant cackoo. 

Qentamvir, -tom'vir. One of a hundred 
and five judges in anoknt Boaae ^point- 
ed to dedde eomnum causes. 

Oentaxion, -t&'ri-on. ABoman officer 
who commanded a eoitnry or company 
of a hundred men, answering to the cap- 
tain in modem armies. 

Oentnxy, 'ri. In Bom. Antiq. a division 
of the people for the purpose of electing 
magistrates and oiacting laws, the people 
TodiDg by centnrles ; also a company con- 
dstingof a hundred men. Apwlod of a 
hundred years. Centuries of Magdeburg, 
an ecdeafastical history, arranged in thir- 
teen centuries. C. plant, the American 
aloe, formerly supposed to flower only 
once in a century. 

Ogphalalgic, sef-a-lal'Jik. A medldne 
for the headadie. 

Oex^lialaspifl, -hia'pis. A gen. of fossil 
ganoid finbes, oocunring in the old red 

Oephalafca. -li'ta. A div. of moUnsks 
having a distinct head, with eyes, as the 
gasteropods, pteropods, cuttle-fishes. 

O^pha^t^lliui, 86-fftl'o-ftis. An Aflicsn 
gem. of antelopes, including tiie dnyker- 
bok or impoon, the rhoode-bok, red- 
buck or Natal bush-buck and the blue- 

Oeplialopoda, sof-a-Iop'o-da. A class 
of mollosca, the highest in organization, 
divided into two sections, Tetrabranchi- 
ata and Dibranchiata. The nautilus, 
and the fossil genera Orthoceras, Ammon- 
ites, Goniatites, Ac., belong to the 
Tetrabranchiata. The dibranchiate in- 
cludes the argonaut, the octopus or eight- 
armed cuttle-fishes, and the ten-armed 
forms, as the calamaries, the Ibssil belem- 
nites, Jkc. 

CephaloptericUB, 'a4op-ter''i-d6. A 
sob-fam. of the ray fish, of which the gen. 
Cephsloptera is the type; fin-headed 
rays or homed rays. 

Oephalote, -UM. A Ihtty substance, in- 
soluble in aloohoL but soluble in ether, 
obtained JOroat the bnUa ; s mixture of the 

cerebrates of potsssium and so«lium, Hiih 
traces of oUen and oleo-phosphnrio add. 

Oephalotoma, -lo-tr>m. An instmrnvnt 
for cutting into the fetal head to assiM 
contraction and faciUtato detivm-. 

Gephalotrlbe, -trib. An obstetrical in- 
strument fur crushing the head of the in- 
ftmt in the womb. 

C^lkheua, sc'fe-us. A constellation in 
tho northern hemisphere, surrounded 
bv CasMopeia, Ursa Major, Draco snd 
CJygnus, containing 85 stars. One of the 
moss mites, ikm. Oribatids. 

Cepola, sep'6-la. A gen. of fishes, ncc. 
Acanthoptwygli. A species is known ss 
the red band-fish and i^ snake-fish. 

Oepolidaa, sC-pol'i-d^. Bibbon-flshes ; 
l»nd-fishcs. A fam. ot acanthopteryglan 
fishes. Also caDod Tmiodee. 

Oeraeo, -rft'go. Bee-bread; a substance 
condsting chiefly of the pollen of flowers, 
used by bees for aliment. 

OerambycidsB, -nun-blsM-d£. A Aim. 
of coleopterous insects, sec. Longicomes. 
The musk-beetle belongs to this nin. 

Oeramlo, se-ramMk. Of or bdonging to 
the fictile arts or pottery, as ceramic art. 

Ceraphron, ser'a-ftxin. A gen. of minute 
parasitic insects, hm. IVoctotrupidte, 
some of which prey on iuBocts destruc- 
tive to plants. 

Cerapus, -pus. The caddis-shrimp, a 

gen. of amphipodons crustaceans, wUch 
ve in a tube. 
Oerasin, -sin. A gum which exudes 
finom cherry and plum trees. 
Cerasite, -sit. Acherry-Ukepetrifiiotion. 
The native muriate of lead. 

Cerastes, se-ras'tSz. A gen. of Afl^can 
vipers, r«narkable for their iktal venom ; 
horned vipers. 

Oerate, so'rat A thick ointment, com- 
posed of wax, lard, or oil, with other in- 

Geratites, ser-a-tf'tez. A g«n. of fossil 
Ammonitidffi, allied to the ammonites. 

Oeratodus, se-rat'o-dus. A fish, allied 
to the Icpidosiren. Tho native salmon or 
Barramunda of Australia. 

Ceratospongriffi, ser'a-td-spon''ji-<:. An 
order of sponges of which the bath si»onjfo 
is the type. 

Ceraunite, se-ra'nlt. A thunder-stone ; a 
belemnite. ** , 

Oeraunofloope, 'nd-skdp. An instru- 
ment used tn the mvsteries of andenta to 
imitate thuidfir viaY^\i\sS!!^. 


, mmkeri, _._, _. .. ._. .. ., 

, dof-tuM iDCmkej, tli» nungftbyi jumI 

Uw gnoi monkflyi. 
, OsmoUbea, -kot'>-l>«i. A aen. of Bn- 


jnbenilla tidli. 
Oano^dn, -kop'l-de. a inb-bm. ol 

bomopteniu InueU, Shu. Cbodelllni, In- 

dodbig' tbe onstoo-^U uid Itog-boppm. 
OvnoplthMnj*, '>i«-pl-th4"k<ia. Ages. 

of loiiE-liUad mookefs, Tity teOje, ud 

*» (Asa pnldljF nrisg*<^ Ahaobc 

th«m Is ths Udu. 
Oeodooyon, -doat-on. A gm. of Oh 

dof tril)a,lnliniiadUte bMwHO the true 

Aif« Mill the dues, hiving . ' 

«Did9 t. 

A ilngubr pro- 
ite brilUutob- 

Oerebriii. •or'tbriq. A aaat gtven lo 
Hraial s'ibaumeea obtained obHukolly 

Oeromont. 'rnent. Chjth dipped In melt- 
ed MIX, wlih wbiiA dead boolM ire en- 
fblded^hen embalmed. GreT&<Jothea In 
general. The iindor-Dovarofaiiiller-sUb. 

OoremonlHl, -e-mo'nl-^. A Bjstem of 
iltes or cereiijoiilei In i^lgfona vorablp, 
khjIbI Intarcaorafl, cpr la eoorta; f^mn^- 
ItlH to be cbserred on UT nnimtna. 

TliB order KtriiUa tod tbrmi in the B. O. 

*» *« oAmttkI on aolrma 

lUbtlng tlw ti 

Cerinthiau, -cin'thl-in. One oramt 
" rlj heretlia, so called from Cerfnlhni, 
lAhe flnt hereelucht In tbe cliurct. 
Oerlph. ler'ir. One of the flue linee ofa 
' tter, eepeeUlly one of the flue srou Udh 

Oarit«. ■«'rft. A rare mtnenl, ahrdnted 
■tUoate of wriuip. Tery hard. It lithe 
ehlef HHUVe of sari nm. and eoatilna il» 
''""""inTn andAdTmlniD, 

OarlthUda, aer-i-thl'l-dS. Club-ihellj, 
atfhm. of iilant-eatliiggaatafopodoiKiuel' 
Inske, oonul- 

elei b^ng etaaisctertido i 

The tf plal gaa. li CeretUam, 
OefOgnpliy. ■B-ng'n-n. Tli 
wrltdng or engraving on nm. T 
painting In wai eokiri ; enouBI 

a oomposllion of oil and wax. 
Oeroplaatjo, -plu'db. Tbe artofi 

Qvrro Gordo. A deflle between 
"maud tbedtTDrMeilcc, noted fo 
imal Tlat<4T achieved by the Anie 
mrnnderaen. Bcottovsr the Meil 
ider Bmita Anna, April IS, IMT. 

0«lthla>&ak,uiUL'Urdi. The cnw| 




a fiuD. of tenoirostnl perehing Mrdt, «on- 
siBtingr of the tre«-creepen, nat-hAtches, 

Certiorari, Ber'ahi-6-ni''ri. In Law, a 
writ of a superior oonrt, to Mil up the 
records of an infericM: court or remove a 
cause there depending. 

Cerateniiij se-rnld-um. A blue pig- 
ment, coMBiBting of stannate of protozidfe 
of cobalt, stannic add and siuphate of 

(Sejnuneii, se-rn'men. The wax secreted 
by certain glands lying in the external 
canal of the ear. 

Gemxa, sd-ro'ra. A gen. of moths, ten. 
Bomby«ld», of which the beat known is 
the pussrinoth. 

Geniae, 'nia. White-lead, a compound 
of hydrate and carbonate of lead, produced 
by expodng the metal in thin {dates to 
the vapor of vin^^. Lead is sometimes 
found native in the form of ceruse, but in 
this case it is an anhydrous metacarbonate. 
C. of antimony is a white oxide which 
sq[wrate8from the water tn whidi dia- 
phoretic antimony has been washed. 

Osmsite, 'rn-sit A native carbonate of 
lead, a common lead ore, found often in 
eoninnction with galena or sulphide of 
lead, and supposed to be derived m>m the 
deoompoflttion of galena. 

Oexvi^at, ser've-lat. An ancient musical 
iBStmment, prodndng tones resembling 
a bassoon. 

OervidaB, 'vl-dd. The deer tribe. The 
princii»l genera are represented by 
the stag or red-deer, wapiti, roebuck, &c., 
the elk or moose-deer, the reindeer or 
cariboo, the ftUow-deer and the muntjjac. 
Th^ are first found fossil in miooene 

Gestoidea, ses-toi'dfi-a. An order of in- 
testinal worms, class Scolecida; tape- 

OestracionticUe, -tra'si-on''ti-d6. A 
fun. of cartilaginous fishes, consisting only 
of a single Il'dng genus and species, the 
Cestradon, although fossil forms are 

Oestnun, ses'tmm. A gen. of plants, 
ord. 8<daniRcee ; the bastard jasmines. 

Oefltmn, 'tnm. A gen. of Ctenophora or 
idgher Actiaoaoa, represented by the 
TeDOs's girdle, which exhibit phosphor- 
eaoepee at night 

OeitllS, 'tns. In Bom. Myth, tbb girdle 
of Venna, on which was jreproseiited evoy- 
Hiiag^liuUeoaldBwakgalov. Amarriage> 

girdle given bj a newly mar- 
ried ^mb to her husband. 
Among the andents,a leather 
boxing-glove or gauntlet 
loaded with lead or m>n. 
Oetaoea, s^ti'shd-a. An ord. Ceetu.-^. 
of marine mammiliarons an- 
imals, surpassing in size aU others in ex- 
istence. The Balcnide, or whalebone 
wlL'los; the Physeteiids, or sperm 
whales ; the Delphinids, or dolphins ; the 
Bhynchoeetl. or beaked whales ; and the 
Zeuglodontide. All are fossil. The 
Sirenia form a distinct ord. 

Cetioaaunui, 'ti-d-sa''rus. A gea. of 
fossil sauriatis, the most gigantic of the 
ord. Deinosauria. The& remains are 
Ibimd in the oolite and wealden forma- 

OetoniadsB, -td-nl'a-de. A flun. of 
coleopterous insects, one of the most ex- 
tensive groups of the beetie tribe. The 
type gen. is Cetonia. 

Oetrarin, 'tra-rin. A vegetable prlndpla 
extracted by alcohol from several lichens, 
as Iceland moss. 

OetUB, 'tus. In Astron. the Whale, a 
constellation of the southern hemisphere 
containing 97 stars. 

Ceutorliyncliuji, 8a-t<3-ring'kus. A 

Sen. of coleopterous insects, flun. Guron- 
onidse, including the turnip-seed char- 
lock, and the turnip-gall weevil. 

Oeylon, sS-15n'. An isbmd ft. of Hin- 
dostan, belonging to Ot. Britain ; area, 
27,400 sq. m.; pop. 2,828,000. The in- 
habitants are Buddhists, and the sacred 
tooth of Buddha is preserved in one of the 

Oeylon-mosfl, ^moss. Plooaria oandlda, 
an alga, lately introduced as a substitute 
for nmnaceouB foods, having the same 
properties as carrageen or Irish moss. 

Cha, cha. A kind of Chinese tea, rolled 
up like tobacco. 

Chabasie, kab'a-sS. A variety of seolite 
which occurs in crystals whose primitive 
form is nearly a cube. 

Chablis, shab-Ie. A celebrated white 
French wine, having an exquisite per- 

Chabouk, oha-bnk^ A long whip ; the- 
whip used in India for inflicting corporal 

Chaoma, diak'ma. A 8. African bab- 

Obaoo, chfl^kfi. Th^ native name for an 
unctaoiM tirth Vn ft. Am«tea^ whldi is 
eatan vrith thowAa^ 




Chad am, chad'am. A money of Account 
In some pArts of AsIa, eqoal to one pajsa, 
25 cowries or a half-farthing. 

OhOBronea, kS-ro-nC'ah. A <Aty of Bceotia, 
the birthplace of Plntarch, celebrated as 
the aeene of the victory of Philip of Mace- 
don over the Confederate Athenians and 
Thobans, b. o. 888. 

OheBtonotus, kS-to-n6'tas. A remark- 
able gen. of rotifers or wheel animalc^leB. 

OhsBtoplioraoeaB, 'to-fi>-r&"8S-«. A 
&m. of confervoid a1g», growing in sea 
or fresh water, and invested with gelatin- 
ous matter. 

Chafant, chi'fimt. In Her. a term ap- 
plied to a boar when represented as en- 

Ohaito, oh&f er. A beetle ; generally used 
with a<Mne jn^flx; as, cock-chafer, rose- 
ehafer, &c. 

Ohafery, -L A linrge in an hx>n-mlll, at 
which the iron is wrought into bars ; also, 
a kind of blackamith*s forge. 

Ohai&noh. chaf finsh. A British bird, 
gen. Frlngilla, whose song is heard from 
early spring to the middle of summer. 

Ohaflnff-diah, chafing-dish. A vessel 
to hold coals for heating anything; a 
portable grate. 

Ohamu, Paul B. Du, da shA-ya. An 
American of Trench descent, celelN*ated 
for his travels in Central Africa ; b. 1820. 
Ho was the first to positively verify the 
existence of the gorilla. 

Ohain, chAn. A series of Unks or rings 
fitted into one another. In weaving, the 
warp threads of a web. Links or plates of 
iron bolted to the ship's side, used to 
contain t^e dead-eyes. In Surv. a meas- 
uring instrument, generally consisting of 
100 links, each 7.92 inches in length. 

O h al n • 
'pump. A 
pump con- 
sisting, in Ita 
form, of an 
endless chain 
equi p ped 
with a num- 
ber of valves 
or bucket! 
moving on 
two wheels, 
one above, 
tbeotb&r be- 

^Bi^rnoM, 'gKtg. • AmmUrotom- 
nets ehmiaed tog^SSt^ 


Ohaln-snard. 'gfird. A mechaniam in 
watches, provided with a ftisco. to pre- 
vent the watch being over-wouna. 

Ohain-sliot, 'shot 
Two balls connected b} | 
a chain. - „ 

CJhain-rtitcli, 'stich. ^^^-^^^ 
In sewing, threads or oorda linked to- 
gether in the form of a chain, as line.-;l 
chaining or tambour work, reticulation or 
net- work, he. A sewing-machine stitch. 

Ohaln-^heel, 'whel. An inversion of 
the chain-pump, by which it is converted 
into a recipient of water-power. 

Oliair, char. A movable seat, with a 
back. A seat of office or authority ; as, 
the chafr of a Judge ; the office itself, es- 
pecially the office of a professor, as, to 
hold the chair of logic or divinity. A)so 
used for the chairman of a meeting or as- 
sembly. One of the iron blocks which 
support and secure the rails in a railway. 

Ohaiae, shiz. A two-wheeled carrisge 
generally ftimished with a movable hood 
or top. A gold coin curr^it in France 
from 1846 to 1480, varying in value at 
different periods. Chaises wero also edSn- 
ed in England in the reign of Edward III. 

Chalcedony, kal-sed'o-ni. Asub-spedes 
of quartz, a mineral; white agate. There 
are several varieties, as common dhaloed- 
pny, chrysoprase, sard and smdonyx. 

Ohalcedonirx, -niks. A variety of agate, 
in which white and gray layws altetnato. 

Clialcoflrrapliy, -kog'ra-fi. The art of 
engraving on copper or brass. 

Ohaldea, kil-de^ih. The country lying 
between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. 
The name of Chaldean was sndently ap- 
plied to the learned Babylonians. 

Chaldron, chfil'dron. An EngUsh meas- 
ure of coals consisting of 86 bushds, or 
V^ cwt.; the Newcastie chaldron is 52^ or 
68 cwt. In America the weight Is gen- 
erally 26J cwt. 

Chalet, shfi-lft. One of the huts in which 
cattie and herdsmen are housed for the 
night on the Swiss 
mountains, and where 
the cheese is manu- 
factured ; any dwell- 
ing of the Swiss peas- 
antry having local char- 

Chalice, chal'is. A> 
communion cup used 
to administer the wine 
In the celebration of the . ChaUoe,. 

Ohali60thsiiQxii, \sivvv.v\!D»>i^:qB£u 

IBd In llnM nf u* nlMBiii. 
ibgk. An eHthj- tfaooMic, af 

ine vtdtft ooUtt, loft, uid adiiilt- 

C'lh. It la u (rapnn BirbomU 
nA wUsh IBmt the bliher 

dt Sir ths dlipining at mittmi not 
itjj Importnnt to ba iinpird In 
itv-obunber : Oh luemlilr Itwlf ; 
hnmber groom JnfToe. 
larlaliii -Un. A iieraan rliu^ed 
& muiotfeinuit af a chnmbflr. An 
Ehirgea wllh the dlrecrtlon of thu 

Tba Lord (jbsaiberlnln of Oreit 

pDdi^hlia *Tlai>-chiunbcrlaln. A 

bibla tor B [irlT«lB rot 
^rwlbaxg. Ctp, of J 

M, 1M«; pop. «,F>7T. 
CluunlmrtiD. iban bn-ti 

CtuuDtiray. "hn. A kin.l nf irinshui 
OIiamtMwl. kuin'hrel. Tbt-lniot vf 11 

Ohampao, cham'pak, A buiiiiLnil In- 
diui lr«. drd, Ma^ollsoen, hi^UI In hl^ 
eMeam by BmliiniiiliU aai BuddhliU. 

pmliraeW tlia)api>ci»i FtuM. 


pln'joD, . Tb* FreDoh I Oluuulcxi, rtun-dS'. Asutrutsf 
ma la gmmL \ aani by tin ChlneH for imoklBg. 

OIuuiv-<nu>o-!F(K>, ■ 

lerdBl city o( Chins, 
B»o. i.uo«um 111 ii. n. HI, S. W, of AmojT.ltilL-.., _ _ 
idlnii Into Onarto, nnd OhaiUfo-irliBal. chinJ'whei. On; 

port ; pop. SM.OOO; 
lei. One of a 
>f cflp-whoeJB, awd to Tarxlh* adrv- 
iHT velocity or the ftjda or trbor of a mo- 
chine ta »ay reqnlivd degree, 
Chonk, cbuKk. The common cnnch- 
flhell flnhed np bj dlveri, Lar^^ fimflll 
b**lfl 0/ chMnhH bkva been R>iiDd, TbeAO 

Chuuplon, 'pl-on. The tltla ilTen to > 
pmon who hu <l«refit4d all rivui at on«n 

jwdeBtrlan, ]>ujdll>^t, iai. 

New SoS.ff 

(uniwct«d vit 

Chamber €aiuil ; Icofth 110 m, ; 

irldth 14 m, 

;'n tha Jur and thi 

duuicellor. ■«■. Originally, a chltt no- 

tatar times an EngUah olHoer inc«l«d 
with Jndlda] powera, and narttoularly wUh 
tliB ai^flt1nleBd«ice of alloffldal writinn 
of the srowK that tcqnire to be aolemnly 

BUHd u the Chordi,! 
tlabop hu hl> ohueetlc 
Oerman Ktnpln lh« chi 
dent of the Federal Cou: 
%., achuoellor li ' 
chanoarj or equity, 

ahftBOsUonTlUe, A vniags of Spott- 
rr1i"l« C^., Va,, TO m. M. Tf, of filoh- 
mond.thaBCfneofonaoft' ' 
noBt deeHrat«4T Ibagrbt ] 

dytl war. The reie™li _ 

Hooker wwe flnt UtKked In flank b/ ibroudg uid kMiofl 
a*n.-<StoiMwaU"Jacktan.AprUS(l,lS(», them clear of theV 
Md be repaatedthlioQUa/l.bedlyde- ganwale. 


Tedarala being flniU]' Ibretd 
atnu th(Biv>pahannock River 
The fidtnl loag.lDcludlnE fi, MO prison en, 
mi n,l«; Conl-"'—- ■— ""~" -' 
whom S.OOO were] 
w^ " Jaeki 

hlB own treopi ounng a ntg 
•anceon (heM, dfliiR M*y 10. 
OluuicerT, 'ie-r1. In Esgbuid, (brmerlj 
lie highest oourt of loatliie neit to Par- 
Uament. but ginee IBTS ■ dltUon of tlie 
Rteh Oonrt of Jnstloe. In Scotland, an 

„ 1 Mirlater-honje _. 

Bdinbnrnh. Dianiced by ue director of 
clinicerj and hia depntlae. In the TInlted 
Statea, a oonrt of eqntt]'. 

One who 

a ebvitn. In ba^liHB. the to^ 
flnffflt-holes for pEarfng the melody, 
Otajuitloleer, ohan'tl-kler, A eoA. 


. KlXlU'i llrgMt 

Dhapomtl, chup-w-nl'. A. xmio «t 
Igw orercTDen Dake. A clamp nf thtckcl 
rarmeil by tbamj ihnibd, muiglod vrlth 

CSlape. chip. The uliillng-biap nn ■ belt 
to which « bttyonift-BUKbbud la Ktuohed ; 
the hiwh-pl«oe by whlc!! k buckla Ia flied 

OhApel, chap'el. A ■ub'^lnate ploco o 
vrrnbip usujUly «t(aoh64 to ■ church o\ 
cMhednO. ilnuleil lo BjiMtol nerviest, i 

ponUoii. A pUco of worship nsml by 
Sjuenlm tWimUie Church «F T.Dg\iini, 
Anntoa of tba workmen In l pribOpg- 

-hk wd M doftofi. ind Ka 
Igfo. A IkkhI or cap 
XnlaAta ol tho Garter whr: 
A null ihleld DODIalnlnK 

ChAplet, li^t. A Eorlind or wrealh to 

■ uarUnd ot loayes' nlth fUar eowen 

strlne- of hesda aisa by Cltholld In 
counliDg thplr piyera, hntiog only a 

Chapter, 'ler. A dlrtBlon of b Ijoot or 
tiatlgs. The mandl of a blnhop, cdd- 
BliHog of tha canons, ana olhtr cIbtkj'- 
meh attHbed to a cathedra] churcli, pra- 

bnncb of Boms h 
decretat epiitle. 
Chapter-bouM, -b 

V broths'bDod. A 
u Thf tmlldlng 

iilly forUllsd. i n 

tmopt nn'dcr GcB. BODtt, 
Sept. 18, IWT. 

nr Dtbpr ban) maw- 
a or elpi. Muiical 

tf«, when they nnderf o au 

One olio (nnueu dlplonulli 

to b«Di>ToUmt 1r 

> IbondsMan (Ur roUar I 
■mu, vaiHiitlcni, or othcrvlx); an Jiwit 
U. BMBiDfC.,nnD*whi) mlDEsUr I 
lh« |Mfjr Uld uniw th4 dak ; k ooD^reE: 
tlon fonnded liy Tlnoenl dt Pinl. 
C&lBTltl^^alUKd, -akSL A Eobsot mill 
tBinrd 1>7 vo^UDtuy oantHbnUoDB or b 
Clli«rlvarl. tbi-rf-vn-r", A mnck te 
' enule of dLsoordant iniinfa^ kettlep, rli 
lionii, Ac, iHirrun 
the hoiucK of oh* - 
ud pnctloed. In 
aoDtnnul uma^ftacu. 
' CQuulAtAn, ftblT^tan. One 

Vsr1f\ ; KIde cf Fnnnj ; a. T43, D. eu. 

mlj. 4ad All of Oermany to the BobfiaiM 
borders, belnv crownM Kmp«Tor of thfi 
Wesl tf the Pope In 800. He">»a» 
mnit cnllgbtened u mil u the moat eo- 
er^dc Kutoi^eui satBrBl^ofth««eiitiU7. 
Oharlea. The nima of niuiMrVDe Ka- 
mpenc Fmperon. Ungs BDd IsiHr potn- 
U1«n. GrTmonjr luvlnirliad ftnirklngaud 
tbrM emperon beiriagtble iwaie; Bkv 
dflo fin«fla kln^ tbe fffeaant ruler befaif 
tbc lin»Dih : Spiin taar, faaei ten, N^ 

BaMlnla twn ud HnBgHT tvo kliqm 
Thu name bu iilta boras by l>iikH ol 

Oharlea KBjtol. The ll!<«<i!a»to aon 

: or Fnnoe, und wu the tei 

UliutrloDfl CuiorlbglBa He 
nvoe being tskeo fnra C, 1 

Oharleaton. The c 

ttom Ihe Atlutle. noled u 
1.1c C.MI Wur, the two (nrta, 
der M^or And«r»oo, bolne 

OboTleatown. A dtj- of U 

Mmi. a.iihartlofBoE'ton; 1 
ins. a Bring t 

EirUIIL . 

hBttIs of 

Oharlea'B Wain, chtrlili-H'bi. The 
Hevun brightest kUra in the eonBteBafloa 
Urg. baJoF, or tbe Or»t Bev. 

OhartMl.hoaae, oUi'Del-hani. Aplu* 
where bunun bonen am dspoifted ; en- 

in vblcb the 

tB eiblblled In ■ cnethmltin 
lAUd form, as An hlstortcaJ or ge 
uhHt. A drmngbtorportgrUiBe 
nioe, with the eoun, tflanHi. nv 
of oompuA, depth of 


of Iho iJccpiiiBl o.BrthrBlji,mrl.rrof 

cdipoe prerfmiB tQ borbL 
Charpoy, r1iiir'po[. Id tlir E. IniltM. > 

Hnail, poruljlo. Blretiilntr b*rt. 
Charqui, char'tj. Jiu-trf bcof; Utf 

ilrlo.l by Bipoauro 10 Ibe sun. 

ublblled InicnethDiltoO-. 

ipuiui wBLEu su., ture^- 

JofBWpi, TliBtfmidiart 

li apphfid. lo K mortDe niAp ; inupid appl1«] 

^enognphTo cbvts rfpr«qi?nt lint ppoU 
mud flppunnciiB of Ibo tnooo. Tom- 
fn^phio obartfl are dnvnghu of partloulHr 

Qhartar, cbnr'Mr. A written InnIniiniDt, 
^ven u BTldaucB of b gnat, contnicl, or 

mad Bolamnlty bealowlug riffbU and priF- 
llenH. In Com. Iho letting or hlrlD^ar 
h&tdp by upcrdnl nub-act; tho Ifmlu or 
tamtofaacb ■ contract: Ibo wi1tt<*n in- 
fltrmnent ombodyhig ttas urm» of the 
conlmot. In ihJiUm, & docDmont em- 
boilj-ing tho prlnoiples oi tho <.'b«rtlst!i. 
ObaitexJlouae. hom, a chirlubls 

HKt in PirlUmeDt. lUDtial partlami 
niui ropnaenUtlon, piymeni of n 
Cbartogxaphor, kilr toe'raf-c r. 


djatHUUB BjfiDUllD plants ^rawin^on 
A1i>fl, vhicb derivBt IL4 noma Artm 

lL»r't6-l»-rl. A officer In 

LsUn Ctaonh. who hid the an 
ten and 0th«- pDbllD papen, A 

■hirlpool on 
if jptmnd 

OlwTTbdlB. lu-rib'dla. 

BUitod wtth wild bffutB or guno- , 

oped by prlnlorm to coo One typeHln ool- 
uninn nr \aaes. Tbu put of a gan la 

Cbue, Salmon Portland. An 

u"' m?. V. mS. Hs B w'"wnt''to tha 

S. S^enal* from Ohio, and ■« elwjtod 

tary of tho Traaanry by Prooldenl Lincoln, 
Bt&ieoDtfanikDfthiiClvll War.huoon- 

■ooccm; wpolnted Chief Justice of tns 

nttlidealh. ' ° " 

ehwft. A »t»l tool aned ftir mtltiit 
IhreadBof atrewt; tha outtlng InMnimeiit 

Obassepot. ahaa^po. The briH!ch4«ad- 
Ing ride used In tha FrcDch anny. 
ChaMeuT. -mt. One of a body of tal- 

mmiarj Btylo. 

tdovablo rallwaj, 

bwdcward «Eid forwi 

^rain^ Itam*^ 


It 1, I.BW mM.U ahlonr, li^ag\De do-TI bfr 


hernlafceafn tb« war of 

(Ora an.l hnJilnd, Inyliiff Uio iinni ft™. 

1914-14 with a 


Cll.t. dial. The iwpular nuno of blrdi 

CbKOa, Xa'TU. 

A (KD. oriyues. Indnd- 

ur Ihe got. SuiiDoli, Dun. SylrUdo or 


Cham, and the CwfrMtt. 


Chana, choui 

OhttMao, sia-in. A autli^; « toonBy- 

Interpreter, or 


Biiate, Tiioount. An omlncnt French 
]>hltii»>ph», poet and histurinn; d. ITIH, 

Orionlal nrlgln 

riDOrlf worn by nearly all 

lil of ChrijClMiilj-,"butlllll travel., noT 
cla uifl poeiua ve of tcmel)' leu repute. 

.L.dy'SHal!.t,ftomeiichof»hlfh l» ens- 
pendml eom J srtklo of household use. 


^°ent. 1890 fL 
aho's Lake En 


GhauVlu, ahc 

Tan. Oneof lh<«.Teter. 
Praneh Empire who ppo- 

iSspd. nncr th 

IkU or Napoleon, a nrt of 

foe Amerlcm 

Id the early pan 
ilonlata. C, WHIInj 

ClIKtl. Bhi-te. A epeelea of leopard, 
■very denlruellTe lo nnnll ciuadrapeds and 
blniA, butflo nbtLe, when domejitlmled, 
aa to be oaliodXfloparduB tdltlA, or genUe 

Ohatoyant, nha-toi 

i>llabeil aehatoyiiit 
India, an smbrella. 

Ohattaiioog» A otty uf S. Tenoiiieep, 
on tbo Tenneesea Rivar, doted for the Bad- 
KDlaarr battle. Nsv. !h, ISSn, In wbleh 
Ilia Fodnrali under Gen, Grant defeated 
thaConlMtratH nndcr Gen. Brngg, lb? 
latlerloilng 10,000 killed, woond^ and 
itriaDnerfi, nnd40^Da; tbo former loAln^ 

maniifcMnrlne IndnttiT ; pop, B, 000. 
Chattel. 'tel, AnltemorarUelBof »;oode, 

have the nature of ftwbotd. (Aatlelg are 

. Cham 


.! EnglUh 

IVeDoh inrgeDn ; i>. IS^, . 
priiicl|(olworkwa«» teit-book Ihronffh- 
- out "anapetot MO yeBr^ and Is tbe tinili 

Qhebec, chc-hek. A laree boat am- 
pIciyM in tho NewtbuQdland ftHherlea. 
Oheck-book, 'bnk- A book ooDttinloi 

SlleakeT, 'er. One of the aqnares of a 
checkered pattern ; the pattern Itself. In 
Areb. ebinni In tbe thdapi of walk 

Kaenling the •ppeamnco of ohook-irork. 
a gamo of diaoghta. A pleoe of thb 
pine. A gommon name In olden tbna 
for InnB baring checkered algn-boarda, 

ulayed within. It U a curlnog Act that 
bou.teii marked with siAna of thla Und 

of pe 





a Jelly 

f toft 


A cak 








L A dlptawu I] 
tha PtotMH owd, 

O heoB p«J», 'p*L 

(>r ptfTDlnr olMeta, . . . 

Ohet.sber. Hnuloc 

hold. ■ I 

C3lsUosil«.th&. ki-lot'iA-Ui*- As aid. 

of myrtepodB, iBpr m ioted b; tlta b^iry 

■ami ormUUpedi. 
OhellopOdA. -lap'o-d*. One at Uia two 

srden of HyiftpoCU, raprManled by tm 

ord. of riun«l-riuped (lulBsdRHilMe) Dui- 
rloa FdIjzu. 

Chalracantlma. -n-ku'llitu. A lb«lJ 
guBotd ftgb or tbe Dsroniu or old red 

<BLelTolei>l>, -mt's-pta. A gta. at (HsQ 
gtavUi flBb««, wfUi vay mlnoti Malas. 
leloDgiii«ta Uk hm. AouUhhIh. 

OheiminTa. 'rt-mlt. A eao. of lamiulDe 

Sirnpflda, ooDfllitiiic of a ilnfle ip*- 

OhalTOiiectea, ^lek'Ui. A gen. of 
■MDthopterygtoiis BthM. hivlig; ihc pec 
loni fluB supported, Uke iIkitI ten, npon 
MdanelM ; u>o aneil ftw-fisb uid hud- 
lih. 'HwT TU Hva ant of nter for tiro 
or tliree dnya. The imine given tbo 
Tipvck DpasMm, > nunuplil quwlrupid. 
RHud Id b. AmerloB, 

Ch«lK>pteia. -rop'ter-s. An ord. of 

'ISt A eon. of Uurdi 
D. Chelrolfde. oontalnlnK 

CliairotlLeiiam, -rs-the'ri-nm. . 

fermed tlM Urge fixttetepa on the 
tlM Mtr nd umdalonB, nUcb n 
tlia hntMn bmd; supposed to be 1< 
with (Iw Bawt-Uk* ubyrlniliodon. 
Ohekinttk, ohA'msk. A Turkls 

In ■ danble nhrlt. Indudlnc the TarioU 
ftp#«]esoriorto1sfiBcd turtla, divided lota 
fTie bDiltJFIi— the rhrUdldB or rroH tcv 
(olem; Tantudlnlilv. or lard torUiliea; 

snft lArtnlMs; Chelnnid*', urees turtles 
OlMllUltto, -lb'>1-d<-, Tbe wnod-bnr1i« 
~'"iDlp^ a fua. of msrUia sbrlmptde- 

ilS-lyphio. kem-l-firlirik Any- 
engraved by Che ageacy of Bhe fil- 

OhemlM. i,Y ' ■ • ' 


nslM. A w 

tlDgntshlng >»bire of cherr 

different propartlaB tfom 
bodlea. In stadylDi; the < 

T oH^inl 

csn ba brokan up Inio simpler 

iBziDftatorea, and of lilrh impo^ 

In madldna. 

A proeeu for olr 
uuuim; uiELB m teller from engrailngs, 
particularly ulapldd for prododDg Iaapt> 

Ohenille, Bhe-i«l' 

Ghaao', U'ap*. Ai 

EWpdan ktng, s. o 

R^DipnlDttne, Qw nup 

posed builder of the frrU. 

Pyramid, between B. o. SSSt 
OhubOWC, ibalr'boorE. Asei^ortiad 




principal naval arsonal of France, improg'- 
nably fortified ; sitaated on Marche Bay, 
185 m. N. W. of Paris ; pop. 48,300. 
Oherokee, chiSr'o-kg'. One of the Ap- 
palachian tribes of N. American Indians, 
formerly occupying the country E. and 8. 
of the Alleghany Mountains, but now 
occupying a reservation W. of the Missis- 
sippi, adjoining Arkansas ; they number 
Jibt 20,000, and are largely Christianized. 

Cheroot, 8h6-rot\ A cigar of cylindrical 
or tapering ahape, with both ends cut 
square off. 

Oherry, cheM. The fruit of species of 
Oerasas, which is commonly regarded as 
a sub-gen. of prunus ; a tree producing 
this fruit, whicli is a pulpy drupe inclos- 
ing a on^seeded smooth stone. A oor- 

.dtol composed of cherry juice and spirit, 
B^fOetened and diluted. 

Gheraonaae, kor^so-n^z. A peninsula; 
a tract of land nearly surrounded by 
water, but united to a larger tract by a 
n^k of land or isthmus, as the Cimbric 
€., or Jutland ; the Taurio C, or Crimea. 

Ohert, ehert. A variety of quartz, com- 
monly called also Homstone, Petrosilex, 
or Rook, flint. It is less hard than com- 
mon quartz, and occurs often in veins, 
owociaUy metallic, in primitive moun- 
tams. The name is also applied to other 

Obenib, cher'ub. One of an order of 
angels variously represented, but gener- 
ally as winged spirits Mith a human ooun- 
t«MDee, and distinguished by their 
knowledge from the seraphs, whose dis- 
tinctive quality is love. In the celestial 
hionrchy dierubs are represented as spirits 
iaexX in order to seraphs. A beautlAil 

uherubixn, 'tl-bim. The Hebrew plural 

of cherub. 
Cherubini, Maria Luisri Carlo 

Zenobi Ssblvatore, ka-roo-be'ne. An 

eminent Italian composer: b. 1760, n. 

1842. His operas and sacred pieces are of 

equal merit. 

Ohenuci, ke-Hls^si. A tribe of German 
Ck>th8 who totally destroyed the Roman 
arm^ undor Yaras in the Teutobnrg for- 
est, 9 A. D. They do not appear in his- 
tory ttf>m abt. the dose of the 4th cen- 

OSiesapeako Bay. The largest bay on 
til* . Atlaotlo eoaat of the U. 8., 800 m. 
long', 4)y a breadth of from 4 to 40 m. ; the 
Potomac, James, Susquehanna and '^ovk 

jirav empty' into it. 

eheg. . A game plBy«d by two per- 

sons, with different pieces, on a board di- 
vided into sixty-four squares. Each has 
eight dignified pieces— a king, queen, two 
bishops, two knights, and two rooks or 
castles ; also eight pawns. The object is 
to checkmate the enemy's king. 

Chess-board, n)ard. The board used in 
the game of chess. 

Chess-man, 'man. A piece used in 
playing the game of chess. 

Chest, chest. A box of considerable size, 
made of wood or other material. In Com. 
a casein which tea, indigo, &c., are packed 
for transit ; the quantity- such a chest con- 
tains. The trunk of the body fh)m the 
neck to the belly ; the thorax. 

Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stan- 
hope, Earl of. A notorious English 
infidel and roue, celebrated for his wit, 
and quoted as an authority in manners : 
B. 1^, D. 1778. He was iu>pointea 
Viceroy of Ireland In 1746. His " Letters " 
to his illegitimate son are a mixture of 
worldly wisdom, wit and Immorality. 

Chest-founder, 'found-er. A disease 
in horses: a rheumatic afiection of the 
muscles of the chest and forelegs. 

Chestnut, ches'nut. The seed of the 
chestnut-tree. The tree or its timber. 
The color of the husk of a chestnut ; a red- 
dish-brown color. 

Cheston, 'ton. A species of plum. 

Chetah, che'ta. The FeUs jubata, or 
hunting leopard of India. 

Chettik, chet'tik. A tree of Java, the 
Strychnos Tieute, vieldlng a very viru- 
lent poison, known by the name of Upas 
Tieute. It owes its properties to strych- 
nine. It Is more powerfhl than the poison 
obtained from the upas-tree. 

Chetvert, 'vert A Russian grain meas- 
ure^ equal to 0.7218 of an Imperial quarter, 
or 5.77 bushels. 

Cheval, she-val'. A horse ; cavalry. In 
Comp. a support or frame, as a cheval- 
glass. A cheval, on each side so as to 
command any Intermediate space. 

Cheval-erlass, 'glas. A swing looking- 
glass mounted on a frame, and laige 
enough to reflect the whole figure. 

she-vo'de-fl^z. Pieces 
of timber traversed 
with wooden spikes, 
pointed with Iron, 

used to defend a pass- r^u^^^^ ^^ tm-^ 
age form an obstacle ChevauxdeFrise. 

to the advance of cavalry, &c. 

Chevmlier, nhey-tASr*. A horseman ; a 
knight ; a cavalier. In Her. a horseman 

nntm of ksfyblbooi. u tba Chf vill 

C. d'indiiBIrl?, odswling-'l'i' ° Dving by 

Chevet. -v*. In Arrh. a Tarloty ol 
apse iHi^lv »n!lDfd to French & 

andopfneliitdiii uiils. -wliloh tiniii riwiivi 

CheriOtB, chul'yAU. A ru^ or Ion 
moontnlos on UiatioBinJaiy IwtwHjn Eng- 

Cheviot, ch>'vl-aL A biorile vul 

CheTTotain, 'rO-Un. Tha Ttb^I- 
pyjrniiEiiB. t!un, Tnealldc. s gpecl» of 

Chewing-ball, cta!fliiir-lal- Amedldiial 

Cheyenatu, Bkl'^ni. A norllle ta-ll 

.iK^liTrilorybolwoonW. K»nma »i 
the Kocty Mmintaln.. 
Chlan. kl'ui. Tigiiilnliigtn CMas, anli 

OmaaUilite. -u' 

Bty of ondBlai 
vTuwft QiTfltaJfl 


■Ll-bflk. A TorkUti pipe. 
Ohica, duyka. A red ddIdt aitnctod 
IHim tlisle>v« of Blgnmiiii Oilca. oude 



OhlcaKO. Ihe-tl'lto. The annmrrcU 

Iarcf4t gnin entrepot of ibe world, and 
mlnD hivLne a IJir^ trulB In cattio, bo^sad 

ter. C. WM nlmoHt lolally deAtmyed l^ 

Kon.DOil.OOO.' Wlcbtn tvo y«r> the Fill 
(lubi^tADtlnl fltylij than nii^DJI;. In IBT* 

nimu riven to the bUok-oi 
nlliod £iM«. 

n. Ccwy's dWaiooof 
Oen. Lee; l]>a tw 

CimfedcTitea qjider Guu. Lee, iTutHiL 
uid Lou street. 
Ohlck&maoga., chlk-lh-tiiiiB-gilk. i. 

Oen, Tbomu bytheContbd- ' 

T Gen. Brim. Bopt- !»-M, 

lo wBB BtQbborn If oen tested, 

Chiakaaaws, uhlk'ih-unE 

crippled ma to ba 

Chief, di 

oririnoUy Of 
uuu-y ueiTecn the OhI 

..lil hugely clTlUi™!. 

. Tbe prindp^ pflreou oi 




horlzontaUv bv a Btrai^ht line, and eon- 
Uining a thira part of the dizneDBtoas of 
the eflcutchoon. 

Chief-baron, 'bar-on. President of the 

British court of exchequer. 
Chief-Justice, 'jas-tis. The presiding 

judge oi' a court. 
Chieftain, 'tfin. A leader or coinmand- 

er ; a chief; the head of a troop or elan. 
Chiff-chaif, chifchaf. The vhite- 

throat, an English song-bird. 

Chilfonnier, -shif o-nur. A small side- 
board ; a kind of cabinet. A rag-plclcer. 

Chi^rnon, ah^-nyon. The term applied 
to ladies' back hair yrhetk raised and 
folded up. 

Chiffoe, chig^d. AW. Indian insect re- 
sembling the flea, but more minute, which 
burrows beneath the skin of the foot, and 
soon acquires the size of a pea, becoming 
distended with eggs. If the eggs hatch 
great irritation and even troublesome 
sores are sure to result. 

Chihuahua, she-w&h Vih. A pror. of 

S. K. Mexieo on the Sio Grande, having 

rioh.sllyer mines; area, 107,500 sq. m.; 

^ pop. 217,460. C, the cap., has a pop. of 


Chikaxa, chi-k&^. The Hindu name 
for a species of goat-like antelope of which 
the male is Aimished with four horns. 

Child, child. A son or daughter, of any 
age ; a male or firanale descendant in the 
vst degree. 

Childe. A noble youth; especially one 
of high birdh. before advanced to the 
honor of knighthood; a squire. 

ChildemuM-day, ohil'der-ma»-da. An 
anniversary of the Church of England, 
held DeoembMT 28, in commemoration of 
the children of Bethlehem slain by Herod ; 
oilled also Innocents^-day. 

dhildrenite, 'dre-nlt. A mineral sub- 
stance, a phosphate of alumina and iron. 

Chili, chil'e. A republic of W. 8. Amer- 
ica, between the Andes and the Pacific, 
1,150 ra. In length by 110 to 120 in 
■f breadth ; area 182,624 sq. m.; pop. 2,864,- 
109. . Santiago is the cap., and Yal- 
pnraiso, Valderia, Conoepdon and Taka 
the ehief cities. G. became independent 
of Spain in 1817, and progressed rapidhr 
in commercial Importance until 1882, 
when she engaged in war with Peru, and 
' tn two years 'Pctti'b armies and navy 
-were completely defeated and almcst de- 
stroyed and the coon try overrun by the 
lietdn. Peace was formally declared in 
JtauMrj, 1884. P, MubmlttiDg to the most 


Chiliad, kil'i-ad. ' A thousand ; a cole^ 
tion or sum containing a thcmsand ^ndt 
viduals or particulars. The period of a ^ou' 
sand years. 

Chila^on, -a-gon. A plane flgnra of a 
thousand angles and sides. 

Chlliarch, -ark. The niiUtaiy oomnoand- 
er or chief of a thousand men. 

Chill, chil. A shivering with cold ; sai« 
sation of cold in an animal body. That 
oondition of tiie atmosphere or other ob- 
ect which produces the sensation of cold, 
n Metal, a piece of iron introduced into 
a mold so as tor rapidly oooi the sur&co of 
molten iron. 

Chill-hardening*, Iwrd-n-ing. A mode 
dt tempering steel by exposing the red- 
hot metal to cold air. 

Chiltem Hundreds, 'tem hnn'dredx. 
A district of Buckinghamshire, England, 
which has belonged to the crown from 
time imnxemoriaU To this a nominal of- 
fice is attached, the title being'* Steward 
ofthe Chiltem Hundreds.'' As a mem- 
ber of the Commons cannot resign his 
seat directly, any member who wishes to 
resign may accomplish his obleet bv ac-> 
eepnng the stewardship of the Chiltem 
Hundreds, which vacates the seat. 

Chimsera, ki-me'ra. In Class. Myth, a 
fire-bre ithlbg monster, the fore parts of 
whose body wm« those of a lion, the mi^ 


die of a go&tt and the hindler of a dragon ; 
supposea to represent a volcanic moun- 
tain in Lycia. In ornamental art, a fEtn" 
tastic assemblage of animal forms so com- 
bined as to produce one complete but un- 
natural design, frequently seen on an- 
tique e n- 
and bas-re- 
liefs. A vain 
or idle fan- 
cy. In Ich. 
a gen. of car- Chimsra monstrosa. 

tilaginous fishes. The only known spe- 
cies is the Cbimspra monstrosa, sometimea 
called the king of herrings. 

Chinuerid8B, ki-me'ri-dS. A fkm. of 
cartilaginous fishes, containing the gen- 
era Chimera and Callorhynchus. 

Chimboraso, chim-bo-rih'zo. One of 
the highest peaks^f the Andes, 21,420 ft.» 


Ohiuka. ihlsgkV Tba tln^ '»b)« 

bHd^ of the E. lDdL«a, npon which Im- 

vcr»os A ac&t Id tba f^nn-or ut ox-foh«. 

I Obltloliixe, Un'a-Ua. lA'j^^'^n^«i. 


by Itio hoDi) ; polf 
Chiron, kl'mn. 

fnda pEaccd himj 

BbB»d jAkb of wood Atbiohed to the end 

of theI(i(;-1LrLc; (helo^' 
Ohlp-hat, 'hit. A hat made of chips, 

liklwil. BO u W roBemble n slunT hsL 
Chlpmniilc, 'munitk. Thcpopnhir ninie 

, ftoquently appli< 


Ohlppinfli-blTd. -bcFd. j 
Ohlpplng^plece, -pi's. 

Chiragra, hl-mj'™. Gout In tho bmA. 
Chlrotttt, kl-rpfla. An E. IniUan bitter 
derived from tho dri*yl ■tamBorA^tholes 

Oliirogyiniiaat, 'rfi-JIm-nmL A 
trivanae for excrcittltift and BtroD^h 

^^loltvy, -rol-o-jl. Thowtof niing the 

-man-al. Dtvliiatioii 


'^ed^Bod AklU LninaHlaaj 
lurhlmnDklad the iu« of btuii. 
irtilly wonnded by 1t«tnil» 


un. TIpuUdm. re 

■plmit. An i 

Ohlroplast, 'n 
tho plino-finia. 

Ohiropod, -pod. 
■ — "-. bavlDi^ hiL 


Chi«el. chlivi. 

., A fom of gute-Topodfl. 

Ill' bueit in ths typlul gen. Chiton li 
itnposed of (^g-ht pieinw. 

oipoKlnUy ciFiilry, Court of C, esta 
llihod by Edw&rd IIL, or which tbit Ut 
ntgli ronslablo and tho Karl-Mirahul 
EoKlanrl were Joint Judccs. pow In ■bo.y- 

nrand Its nrek, which lies bJiek In plaits 
when the inhnnl is tranqall. but wblob 
BleiMesltMlfwhenltttlrritatedorMght- . 

irttiUdMo roaanVVw 1 




Ohloropal. -rS'pal. A mineni ef two 

\ sH^Sn^/^ 

tydnicd >lllc*le of Inn. 

1 gjSS mr" 

Ohlorophwito, 'rO-fe-ll, A rare mlnn.1 

1 llSfi?. M 

•nit wiUT. 

light wben heated. 

1 Chloe, kio'e. Tiis Jb'mL 

Ohlopophyll, -fli. The green eolortng 

ln"iubte"ln'' wata'r. "ugM ™« India- 

f romiii«,"aiplintamndClilo,"Md of. 

. of chlorine on .tiroh. The hjrtnte of 
chloral 1« B "hllB orj-itumiiB suhttanM, 

. into chlamRmnindformle add! I^- UU> 

which affedla young feualea. 
OtoanitB. ko'an-It. A pen. of fpongt- 
foim fl™ii Bophyles of l£e chalk, rmlM 

I by pmlrzlDg tho utloD of the h«rt. 
Ohlonuiil. klor'B-BlL A compound pro- 

(d^"'"r'"'The Hindu .>ame for . 

dnred by the uUon of cUnrfgo on sn- 
■Une, phenol. snlldD md allied bodies. 

\ rUes of sodium nnd poUatlojii lire aaod Id 

IsDhiwyer and HUitirBnian; a. In Maaa. 
mo, D. 1»«. llcierredwltlidleclnraiui 
In the Inwer honae of ConKTCiI, and from 

the death of DmM Web»tnr wii ntog- 

OUorinatlon, -rl-n»'ihon. A prooou 

nlied u Iha ablest and most eloquent 

, tS^'SJSASXS..-"" 

Chocolate, ehok'* Ut' A p«to or cak» 

■ p.'a,»ss.r.:."a£-t 

Ohoctawa, 'Uni. A North Amerlcac 
Indian tribe tortdorly oooupvInK uaitB of 
MlBslutppl and Alabsnia. now allied with 

' Ohloriodine, -rl'od In. A omopooml of 

ChloHta. Mt. A mincnl KtDelntlnE of 

largely cl .liked. 

ofiro'n.clotelynllledlomlesiuifujc, lo 

Ohoir, kwlr. A eolleotloB of alnceni, 
ejpeelally In dlvlna servlrB. A pan of 

C.bfm. SHlt ofohloroniMld. 

Ohlorcf-, 'rf. A (em. formed from the 

where the nuns slug the office. 

(Iroek, to Indicate ■ olmr green oulor. 


E'B^'^w^' eomblnod to an orgim of 

or Hme or l>l«iiUna-pa«deF. lu rspor 

Choke, chok. An Indian term for Uw 

priodpiJ street of a town or vlllase 

Choko-rtnw. 'slrap, A altiip ,u»slng 
from tbe lower portion of the ooJLar w 
the belly-band of tlie harnoM, 

( oentfortoBtliiKtbiiblBHhlnti pa»era »f 

eUloridnoffim.; alMifitflMdng olilwldB 

Chokhadar, 'ho-dtr. An Kaat ludlDo 



CliolBBOKue, kot'K-gog. A 
that bu Uia^iiullty ofconTlTigorfbUe. 
ChoLbta. kii'Iut. A »lt formed by Ok 

Choleate, 'l^-ut. A uU formifd bj- th» 

itdldSD ] Obonl, kord. Tha i 

choloro. Soma puhotogiau recof^lza a 
tbird Mrtfitf undtr the nams of cholora 
uiphyxlaT^ which differs fr>un cholera mot- 
buluiamoTfirapldprogTeBfl. more vIolnDt 
. 6|HiiiuiB. In naphyxla ur ctsuUon of pulsn 
and «peody death. 
Cholerine, -fo. The flrat aUEo of epl- 

CtondnwlcHaoB, koa-dru-gkn'ang, i. 
Diuech] ninQla^ from tha carCUaglnoua 
JolninRoflh^body andhomof thehyold 

Chondropta^Kli. 'dmp-le-rt)"l-T. Onp 

vier divides Iha cIm« Plaeos. Ths ftudUiea 


ladudln^ Iriab louea. 

ought to 

oomblnaUini of differeol ^/f^. 
fltrai^bt line Huppoeed to t "m 

other, ThusiomutAB 'V^^v' 

Chore, ehor. A cha» oi 

Chop-houae, 'bona. A house «here 

Cvlsloni ready-dreMod are said ; an eat- 
hoosc. In China, a onsloni-houBe fOr 
the eolleelkin at Uwelt dues. 
Ohopln, 'In. An old liquid meuure Iri 
France. An old Gngllih meaauro eqnii! 
U hair a pint. In Scotland, a meaaurr 
equal 10 half aScolcb pint. 
Chopin. FrsdBrlck, si 

worn" by laJloa i 
Ibem rroin the ground. & 
Chopatlok. 'iHh. Ooa f 
of two amaU atteks of ^ 
•rood, iTonr. Am., uead 
fyr tbo dbleeae and 
Japmeae tOi conveytttg Cboptoes. 
Btodte theBtoath. 

representing dancing by ^gne, as ■ 

Is repreaented by uotea. ^ 

Chorobatfls, -rob'a-l£i. An Instr 

uaadlndotwmlnethe slope of an 

duct, and lavela. 
Oboroffraph, 'rS-gnf. An Instr 

shnllar IrlinglM ou two giyen nl 

ChorogTBipliy, -rog'ra-fl. The i 

pet of loud lone 
OhoM. ehdi. In lav, property ; a right 
lo poaiwealon ; or that which may be de- 
■nandcd and Taoovarad by anlt or autlon 

Ohonoea, fcfla'ro-ti. Two warlika . 
Perelao klngi. G. 1. (the Great), crowned 
GS4 a.. P., jraneht tbe RoaiaDS,-but «• 

I AeteaUi bT 'fiaauAut >iA vs^tij tUw 


' OIuiMlIU^ krifrU'io. . — „.... — 
- -"■■■-■»Tii»Atlolphin,KliiB«f8>'«i™; 

, jKxrned KBl. On UUtiilni lur 

DUijDrit;, 1H4, C. It MUM took KUn pv- 
■oiul clurgaor tbsEnTanuneot. wbk' 

•dmlnlilered onUl IBH wlUi wl*dal. 

Tlgor, nrryliig on * luomaafDI var wllli 
DeDDiwk. DmMIdk to noaaiKe ProWt- 
UnttBin C. iMKuted in hTor of bn conBta 
Call Oiii(*T, ind KUred Co bnwcb, whm 
(he embnoH ttaa Cathollo Mth. Bniior- 
Ing to Pirt9, the Ulltd UouldcKlii, htr 
V J -vpWon ofluT- 

;tit«T of Fnndi I. or^ldly, 

O. Uiite, (tuctita o( Frtneta 
wUa oITk^iuuI YU. of 




mother of ex-Quocn Isabella II. C. be- 
came notorious after her husband's death, 
as recent during her daughter's minority, 
havin;? contracted a private marriage with 
her paramour Muftoz, a private soldier, by 
whom she ha<l several children ; she wtfi 
banished from Bpain In 1864. 

Christmas, 'mas. The festival of the 
Christian church observed annually on the 
26th day of December, in memory of the 
birth of Christ. The festival "includes 
twelve days. Christmas-day. 

Christxnas-loflT, 'mas-log. A large log 
of wood, which formed the basis of the fire 
at Christmas. 

Ghristxnas-rose, 'm as- 
rdz. A plant, Ilellebo- 
ras niger, which blos- 
soms during the winter 



Ohristolyte, 'to-l 1 1 . 
One of the sect of Chris- 
tians of the 6th century 
who held that, when 
Christ descended Into 
hell, ho left both his body and soul there, 
and rose with his divine nature alone. 

Ohzistopher, krls'to-fur. The names of 
8 kings of Denmark. C. I., elected 1252, 
D. 1269. C. II., son of Eric VII., b. 1276, 
8. his brother Eric VIII. 1818, d. 1883. C. 
III. of Bavaria, became successively King 
of Denmark, Sweden and Norway In the 

J ears 144(Ml-42. lie made Copenhagen 
Is capital and reigned wisely. 

OhToniatics, kro-mat'iks. The science 
of colors. 

Ohroniatype, 'ma-tip. A process for ob- 
taining colored photographic pictures by 
the employment of paper sensitized by 
some or the salts of chromium. A picture 
produced by this process. 

Ohxome-aluxn, krom'al-um. A crystal- 
llzcble dqjible salt, formed by the sul- 
phates of chromium and potassiom. 

Ohroxne-grreen,- 'grfin. A green pig- 
ment prepared from the oxide of chro- 

Ghroxn^orange, 'or-ai^j. A yellow 
pigment prepared from ohromate of lead. 

Ghroxne-red, 'red. A red pigment pre- 
I>ared from red-lead. 

Chrome-yellow, 'yel-ld. A name given 
to chromate of lead, a brilliant yellow pig- 

• ment. 

Chromic, 'ik. Pertaining to chrome or 

chrondnm, or obtained from it; as, C. 


Obromidte, krbm'i-d€. A tan. of tele- 

cetean SabeB, Milled to fiheLohrids or true 

Chromium, kru'minm. A metal which 
never occurs native, bat may be obtained 
by reducing the oxide, employed to giT» 
a deep green color to the enamel of porc^ 
lain, glass, dec. 

Chxomocher, kr5m'5-ker. A mineral 
containing the oxides of chrome and of 
iron, elllca and alumina. 

Chromo - Uthography, krd"md-H- 
thofi^ra-fl. A method of producing a col- 
orea lithographic picture, by nsing stones 
having different portions of the picture 
drawn upon them with inks of varioa* 

Chromosphere, 'm6-sf6r. The name 
g^iven to the gaseous envelope supposed 
to exist round the body of the sun, through 
which the light of the photosphere passes. 
Stellar chromosphere, the gaseous enve- 
lope supposed to exist round the body of 
a star. 

Chronicle, kron'i-kl. A historical ac- 
count of facts or events disposed in the 
order of time. The title of two books of 
the Old Testament ascribed to Ezra. 

Chronogrraxii, 'd-gram. An inscriptioB 
in which the date or epoch is expressed 
by numeral letters. 

Chronogrraph, -graf. The name eivei^ 
to various devices for measuring and reg-. 
istering minute portions of time witli pr»- 
dsion. Benson's chronograph registers 
to one-tenth of a second. Btrange'sto 
one-hundredth of a second. Schultze's, 
in which electricity is applied, to the flv»- 
hundred-thousand part of a second. S^ 
it tiie initial velocity of a bullet may be 

Chronolosrist, kro-nol'o-jist. One who 
{investigates the dates of past events. 

Chronology, -Jl. The science of com> 
puting time by regular periods, accordia^^ 
to the revolutions of tiie sun or moofi, 
termed astronomical chronology. The 
science of ascertaining the true periods 
when past events took place, caUed his- 
torical chronology. When the word is 
used without a qualifying term it has this 

Chronometer, -nom'et-er. Any instru- 
ment that measures or divides time into 
equal portions, as a clock, watch or dial. 
Applied to timekeepers used for deteiv 
mining the longitude at sea, or for any 
other purpose whore an accurate measur* 
of time is required. 

Chronoscope, kron'o-skdp. An instru- 
ment for measuring the duration of ex- 
tremely short-lived phenomena ; more es- 
pedally, instruments for meastutag tbs 
Tdod% of vto^^C!^^> 


Qhryaalla. krls^a-Ua. 

proper devptopmmt- 

ChiTaelepbaiitlDa. 'oK-- 

fnaed of^M nnl Itorj' ; «[]^alTj applied 
to tiatgn ovarLiiii «Hh p>[d and iTon 
Tb* BlatDU or Athflno by PbMiaa !• l£ 

OhrTBoberyL 'S-brr-ll. A hIIIckiii 
rem, next ti> the utpphlrB In bardii«fli, Ui 
ipedaiens ffh[ch preflcnt u vpkJeBoei 

EVofllKht IwlnBMpwUlr Klmlred. 1 
ul&luallDAEeDfi^qdIlJ^ with infia t 
tmoL. Inm, *B. 
Ohroisochliirla. -klfrrii. A gen. of li 

no^, Is'Sfo 

Ohrysollta, krU'ii-llt. A ml 
er than ^Ibm, bin Ioh herd thj 

OhTTBomelldn, -a-mel'l-dn 
of aleopCsnnii inteeu. Ma, T 
IjUnOte, ooniUtatliig ■ niim 
bsatifDI Ikmfly of Uu baetle t 

"" ia,'flprfa. A q 

fdony, of ft lurdn 

loajesl HTltm of Uia ewly Cbrlitlui 
lUhm ; B. mt AntSoeh, UT, d. MI. He 
*u ecHUBcnted Bp. oT OanHviUDopls la 
SB, ud lutrodiuied nsh Tlnnni rafonng 
*) to SB4ts eztrsma appaaTtlaii, reealllDe 
In tall bulshment, m. Hli f^tlTBl 1> 
ttUbraied bf (ke K. C. Church. Jut. ST. 
OhIT■o^^'4^ kria'6-ejpr A pbotograpiAo 
proaiMM jrodaeed b^M eolation otgm. A I 

I cnuBCBEsarr 

phoUterapblc iici'nt j>rep4rvd hy Impra 
IMtlDpt p&pFr with k neutnl HolDQeq 

Ohabdar, 'dir. In lodla KHmnCvl 

Ohuok-Wlil'^wldmr. ohnk'wit 
Ikjn. C-iiprlina3frl<UD or gnftt-fluckpn. 

Chtukam. chii'ni 

lupBttr. chn'pot'tJ, An 

Obaqniraoa. choo-kwS'«i 

of Itullila, 8. Amerloi; pap, j 
Churob, chereh. A bouK 

iiB Lord^a house. Alee odierl ahiipeL md 
renal t'bareh. A pirtlouliir body ol 

the lulv 

nt of Cbrtal; «., the J 



A temple 

t plsra ilera 



f (■ 


etl.e body of 


Fredarlok Edwin. 



nCoan., 1»2A. 


of Ood-' 


vm by 




Jhuidi-lnur. liae. 


» *V^«< 

of Iha w 

oDiI-llui tkm.. 


otetiUj iWeo In Ihe chni 




CTmrohTnan, 'man. An eoclseiastio or 
clergyman ; one who ministers in Bacred 
things. In England, a member of the 
Church of England. 

Clmrohwarden, Var-den. A keeper 
or guardian of a ohurc£, and a represent- 
ative of a parish. 

Chiirl, cherl. A rustic ; a peasant ; in 
Efiglish history, one who held land from 
or worked on the estate of his lord. A 
rude, selfish, rough-tempered man. 

Chum, chem. A vessel in which cream 
or milk is agitated for separating the oily 
parts from th« caseous and serous parts, 
to make butter. 

Churrus, chur'nis. The Indian name 
of a resinous extract which exudes from 
the Indian hemp. A powerftil narcotic 
and highly intoxicating. 

Churubusco, choo-roo-boos'ko. A vil- 
lage 6. m. 8. of the city of Mexico, noted 
for the victory of the Americans under 
Oen. Scott over the Mexicans under San- 
ta Anna, Aug. 20, 1847. The fight ex- 
tended to Contreras, 7 m. distant, aid 
was the hardest fought of the war. The 
Mexican less aggregat«d 10,000; the 
American 1,058. 

Chute, shdt. A river-fidl or an opening 
in a dam through which to float tunber ; 
an inclined trough or tube through which 
articles are passed fi*om a higher to a low 
er level. 

Ohutney, chut'nl. An E. Indian con- 
diment compounded of sweets and acids. 
Mangoes, raisins, spices, sour herbs, cay- 
^ine, lemon-juice pounded and boiled to- 
gether and bottled for use. 

Ohyld, ktl. A milky fluid separated fh>m 
aliments by means of digestion, found 
in the intestines after food has been mixed 
with the bile and pancreatic juice. The 

'chemical constituents of chyle are nearly 
the same as those of blood. 

Oliyme, kim. Digested food before the 
chyie Is extracted. 

Ciborium, sl-bo'ri-um. The pvx. A 
pendent tabernacle for the pyx. A recep- 
tacle for relics. A portable altar. A case 
for displaying the calendar of feasts in 
Greek churches. In Arch. , an Insulated 
building composed of an arched vault sup- 
ported on four columns ; a baldachino. 

Oioero, Maxoafl Tnllins, sis'd-rd. Son 
of a Roman knight, and a lineal descendant 
- oMhe andcnt kings of tJie Sabines, illustri- 
oas as a BtaiMmaokf philosopher and ora- 
tor / B. 106 B. a ; aasasBin&ted by order of 
the aeoond Momvintef b. c. 48. He de- 
^^otod Mxtd BuppreaBod th^ Catalina con- 

spiracy, and denoano«d Mark AntMiy ft» 
the murdor of Ciesar. 

Gloerone, 'ne. In Italy, gntdes who 
show travelers the antiquities of tiie 
country ; hence, one who .explains the 
cariosities of a place ; a guide. An rider- 
Iv female companion to a younger in pub- 
lic places. 

GioeroniaJi, 'ni-an. An imltaUnr of 

GichoracMB, sik-o-ra'sG-^. A subdivis- 
ion of the nat. ord. Compositie, tnclnding 
the succory, endive, lettuce, salsafy. trag- 
opogon, dandelion, &c. 

Cicindelid8B, sis-in-deri-dd. A fam. of 
coleopterous insects, sec. Fentamera, tlie 
tiger-beetles and sparklers. The typical 
gen. is Cicindela. 

Cicisbeo, si Ms'bc-o. A dangler about 
females ; in Italy, the professed gallant of 
a married lady. A knot of ribbon attached 
to walking-sticks, hilts of swords, or han- 
dles of fans. 

Cioonia, sT-k5'nl-a. The gen. and Dun. 
of birds to which the stork belongs. 

Cid, Sid. A chief; applied to Buv or 
Roderigo IMaz, Count of Bivar (E> ad 
Campeodor)^ a champion of ChristiMiitx 
and dpanlsh royalty against the Moors' (n 
the lith century ; also the name of an 
epic which celebrates his exploits. 

OidaridSB, si-dar'1-dS. A flua. of Echin«r 
odermata, ord. Echinoidea. Cidaris Ts 
the typical gen. 

Gidarifl, sid'ar-is. A gen. of sea-urdiins, 
fam. Cidiulde. 

Cidarite, sid'ar-It. A fossil specimen oi 
the gen. Cldaris, fiun. Cldaride, found til 
the carboniferous limestone and upwards. 

Cider, sl'der. A name formerly given to 
the juices of ftuits, and various kinds •of 
strong liquor ; but now appropriated to 
the juice of apples. 

Ciergre, serj. A candle carried in relig- 
ious processions. 

Cifirarette, slg-ar-et'. Tobacco rolled up 
in tissue paper so as to form a small cyl- 
inder for smoking. 

Cilia, sil'i-a. The hairs which grow teom. 
the margin of the eyelids ; eyelashes. 
Hairs or bristles situated on the margin of 
a vegetable body, as those of the inner 
peristome of a moss. Small, hair-like ap- 
pendages, found on the surface of the 
tissues of most animals, and in some 
vegetable organisms. 

Cimbex, sim'beks. A gen. of hyme»- 
opterous \nfeWi\A, t«av. Teathredmid# • 
1 ta«\NfgM!tsp««^«»<»t%wi-^\fi*. ^ 

I CWBU 11 

dmbla, 'U-L A lUM nHmd Um ihiift o' 

' % eniamn to ■traufthen It. 

(^mbri> 'br«. A GflmiAB trpH, Inhibit- 

■y whKl in nov known ■■ Dcmnurk. 

T^ey won entirely dflfk«t«d In lu InTMkm 

arthul, 1D2 B. 0., by Mvtiu. 

mioldK. Tbo bed-bug <■ 

tnhiblumla of the Crimea. > no- 

muUcrBi;ef eipeUedby tb& Boythinnfl, ibd 
OilLlag refogo In AsU Minor. Thoj dls- 
mpMred from history «bt. 611. TrrfiUon 
ueerled thM Ihslroonntry wm InTolicd 
to dorknesa, and ft^HD this oHfliuted the 
phnao ^' Ciiflmertui dukocoa/' 
(Umi^ta, '8-Et. A spedM of ctay, or 
hydrous sUlcMo of micDvsli, Dseful lo 
taUng ■pots (Tom dolb. Anolher speelH 
Is tbo vu4tlt« or Boib-ro^ hiA nuin k 
miety fOnnd In the lateor Wight tabKco- 

Otnder, da'dv. A soUd pisca of mste. 
nmilnliig lUtor bavtof bwQ snbjeotod t 
i»vbQSt]on, uiil Id whloh Are Is «TtlQC1 
A iDull oobI ; jiti omboT. A scaJo throw 
^ vbflfl forging IjOQ, ^bc 


Clneimtion. -s-ri'sbon. The ndodng 
of »nylhlng lo •afaei hy combusdon. 

01ii8«leae. idng'n-Hi. A niemher of 
th« ]>rtmltlve rue ibbiibltlng Cerlon. 

CUnsultun. 'gik-lam. The Kirdio vtlh 

-tlom.rt.-. A flunlly 
iplilers rt«ldlng In cnvlces of rook* 

t-bAr. RMsDlphldnormrr- 

n»b«r is pTMiired by soblimlng theamor- 
pbous sulnlitilD; it laiised »• ptinient, 
ud Is aba mlled Tgnntllon. liepstlii dn- 

Jiil« oStMped liom nn E. Indiu tree; 

elDDunon and ciii«U-]l^i««, 
OinnamQn. -mon. The nain* given 
.. . — _._ ™ -jpetWly tr 

the bark of dlffereat trees oT the gen. C. 
OmnajiLoa'UtQnv. -slSn. A variety cS 

gunot. Tised in^welry. 
Clnnamon-wftter, -w;-uf. a medM- 

WnnyrldB, nir'l-di A fern nfinses- 
— ,., V..J. .^- inn birds Thotyplial 


of vbloh la oqoaUr dli 
■9. Aitronomioml In 

KlntsdntvliiofMthltMturt, omitlitlngof ranilo.'tr. A, „,„,,._,. 

a euaiilcUted ilivlilDilB ; cdled iil» Hie- by n atn^le eurvs Itns. cnlM lU 

Clngue, iLnitX. A flvo ; n wgrd n»d to from tlie m 

Ctnque-ports. 'pnrta. Flie porl» on tha peraons MsodiiWd by some tie; a wUrte ; 

HjuUnTU shore of Erglind, IIucIiieb. "»"■ C. of deeHnjidOD .ETMlclrde the 

Kumney, llythe. DoYcr iqcl Smulwlch; piMcofwhichlJnorpcpdleDiBrtolhBoqm- 

to whtdi were ullerwanls added WInchel- •«"- <J- of litltudo. In Ailron.agiealclrrio 

1, K)-6imdS<aford. periwiidlouliir lo the n!«ie of the Ml^pll^^ 

oher. »l'f«-. rn Arith. a chKneter I" 0'WB;''Bmill dnJeof Ihe sphere the 

IK bj- llMit, f .pniBia! Doth- r^« ^ ^ KnirttnCTn aJi^ ^dJi 

tth«- Ainin-ji itnHtrHloirlnllfl nn-lrtnn ^^ leSSer C^rdeB parallel t4 ttio eoUptle, 

neSlnfTio^lDe or eoniJS^uenw: llmtaWitag as they recede from \t. 6. ot 

CHplier. ( 

perpetiul sppiritloii, one of tbs lea 
circles putUelle the eqnitor. The M 

Into Bwlne. Ulysses hlmseK belne proof ,i,.,im,h„f™h™.m 
nmlnst her spells Uireugh theforeftonght "* "*»" orwater oo 

ofMaronry, C. flnally restored hia oom- Clioumr -"•"-*"- 
pasiona to their uatonl wndition, and trbe drcii 
Buffered them to lean the Island. who has Balled round the glob*. 

Olroinna. Bsr'sl-iiut. The Compuseg, s Oiiona, linB, In Bom. Antlq. il 
iafoftttan. tttrnlBlwd wlUi rowi of awUrii 

' <hoT*iooth gr . In modtn Hi 

C»-D3T. A term inptlDd 
(0 in Ofd. of flBliei rcpiwrattd tjr the 
luoeletoriuniihtaiua. Ibe b%r«et HsL 
Ofrma, 'rn>. In Bat. i tendril; a Lnng 
tkiwd-Uks DT|nD by whlobupluit cUmbs. 
IhZoAI. A AluamtArv tppeoda^ la the 
feaCor enrULn lolmdL u bunaclei, ud 
UMjiin of ovUin JibeL A form of 

Vm. a I^Un pnpodtloD /ttrBitflag "on 
tUi tfda,^' ofteo preni«d to tbe ruunflfi Qt 
ilnn. monnlillK, Ac Kanie wu eon- 
iUend tbe iioint of departure In noplt of 

aaalplne BapuUlo. A diTlalan of 
lull mide by Hipalsoa I. in ITU : tn 
IBOS oalled the Itiflsn BejuMtfl, mi In 
18M (onetltQCInff tbe pcindwl put orthe 
Itidlui KlDKdoDi. It Ini^iured portions of 
IbBtiu, UUui, Vilti^Una. VenetU W. and 
B. of tbe AOige, Medsu ud the N. Pod- 

CSmao. Blilio. A fleh or the hnrbig 

OUeltue, aei'lar. The ut of ehulDg. 

dtued metal work. 
OUparfftnn BepnUlo, One of 

(tba Traalpadane K. being "-- — 


Italian fliate*, fbunded br Napolsoi 
[torn terrllm' nwDnqneFed from Aufii 


CUaaold, ali'iold. A onire of the 2d or- 
der, Inwntad bvllloolea with artowto 
thoBolatJob^if tbe Ibmoofi problem of the 
duplication of the cube. 

plantaindnded To the aame ^eniu with 
Oiiit, eltt. A ase; a chest; a baiket; 

upetiod, ■omatimee hewi 


atHua, tem. Ad uUBbIm 
Jbr boMlBf wmUriirBqaor. 

the C. email 

FeoUlaDtfl In PrvK&i 
the nun. of P(- ^^-"i 

oflj Tri|H,i . TUi^y ^*?*t^^r"-- 
vear a whiii.' I'aisivt Olelerdan. 
with blnek foaputar}', hat whenoffletaUiv 
■re clothed wltli a larj^ whits ituwb aM 

Citadel, tit'a-del. A fortreu or coatte 

OltSitloil. ><-tA'aboB. A iiiminoniian 
offldol call or nodce gtven to a pi-non to 

Citiaon, sll'i-ien. T 
or an Inbabltant who 
and prlvUfveHoflhec 

' a eltf « aa oppcwed 
al privllegee. 

long-oira at luiy ; frugtlia flItrlDeUii. 
Sltrina. 'rlc. Lemon ookir ^ 

Sitnm. 'ran. The fruit of W 

the cltmn-tree, a lanie epedee * 

ofli^mon; the tree Itaelf M 

[Jftnu, 'mB. Agvn.ofplantd^ J^M 
ord. Amantta«ffi, lnd5udliiK,^»l 
the oraree, lemon, dtro..*c>^l 
SIttem, 'tern. An old In -I 
slrnmentof the gullar klnd.XV^ 

Oity, 1. In a general 

large and 
iMIng an 

QQtvanM. In Amer- 

Civet, ilv'et. A lubitaDce 
fUnda or ulmaGi of tti4 q 

Civilian, nl-vil-l-i 

I ehlDed In t 

dvll lire, not DilliUTT or 

Clvlta VeooMa. ehe-< 
Ihn Btanort of Bgrno, on ihe Medltr 
n«D, t m. H. W. of thai dty ; 

Claok, klik. A elian, abmiit tound. 
tdnuAlly rematod. The lnaCFCin«nt that 
BMkos Ihu happer of i irrlBt mill, to shake 

Miinlred lo bo put in. A liall-TaiTt 
oectHl nith Che boiler of a looomotli 
Olaok-boi. 'bots. In Mach. Uio I 

Olaok-VBlve, 'viIt. a ve 
wlthaaln^lp flap, hinged at 

Oladocera, kla-dos'er-a. An ord. of sn- 
tomofllraoODa crUAtacM, witJi two pain 
of branched aDteanie, the lower pair of 
which icrvo aa oara, and with only one 
larve oye. Tho vater-flea, a mlcroKopki 

01aire.St..(SantaClM«), An It^tan 
lad; of nobia dMoent. u. 1188, d. 12S8. 
She renounced the woiU and Ihnnded the 

OlAire-ooIe, klSrHiOL 

_... ._... In painting, a 

prcuaradon of slie put od an absorbent 
Burraco to pnteot the sinking Id of oil- 

Ihitene or Wndi ; a nlo™ of wood or met- 
al omening two pfecea to- — 
Sslher. A thick plank on Xa 
le Inner part of a ahlp's^^S T]| , 
aid*. Any plats of Iron?^ , 111 
made to tnm or open and \^^ j_^J 

or boom. In Wnerr, an In- ST , 

anmeBt aieitbr balAlBg ^'l™?- 
pl»e*t ofttmber clo*dy to^llier natU the 

glne btrdene. One of a pair of-tnaviilile 
cheeka ooverlng Che lawa or a vlaa, AJ*^ 
of biiclu laid np for hDmln^ ; a jA& of 

Clairvoyance, klir-Toi'ani. A povar 
attributed to neraons In the mesmerte 
Blalc. The clau-Toyant la allied to ace 
by the eplrlt latlier than by the eye. 

Claiiiper. klamp'er. A l>ame ol Irm 
havhig sharp ptonrn on tho lower part, 
allpped onoirer the aboe to enable a person 

Olan, klan. A race; n hmlly j a Drib* J 
an aasodatlon of persona onderacble/Uii, 
A clique or body of persons united bj 

Olapper, klap'er. A person vho ap- 
plands by clapping. That which clua cff 
Btrfkes, aa the lon^o of a belL u tha 
medlieva! church, a wooden rattle uHdM 
a sommona to prayen un the last tbraa 
dayl or holy week, when the belli wen 

dlaaue. klak. A name appHed roHee- 
tlTely to a aet of jneo, oallecT claqueura, 
who. In theaters, are hired to applantf- 
Claqueuta hare eaeh a reapectlTe role— 
thus, the rtearniuit laugh at the oomio 
parta ; the pleorenr weep at the pathntgj 

CluentiQ, klu'oDs. A close four-wheeled 
carrier, with one seat Inilde. 
Clorenoenx, 'ej 



to wlneg of a Ught red color. 
Claiibal-flnts. t-bel-flat. An orgai 

stop BhuUar to the elirlbella, bnt genetill) 

OlaribeUa, 'la. An organ tiop. of sotl 

■west lone, conalsting of open wood 

pipea, usually of eight ieel pitch, 
ClarlchoTd, 'l-kord. An andent inual- 

cal ilrhiged InstrumeBt. resembling thi 

(na^n^'-net. A wind-In stmment ol 

larger. It lina a flxed rnonthplme, con- 
taining a reed, which (brma the upiiec 

OlaJino, klil-rS'nK. A clarion. An or. 
gan htopconalBtlngofreedidpes.genn*!!^ 

Olariou, klar'l.on. A tnunpet whoie 
tabe Is narrower and tODO more jHHite than 





•f the Doclaration of Independenoe, a nft- 
UfBof N. Jersey ; b. 17M, d. ITM. 

darke. Adam An Snglfsh theolo- 
gkm, c^tMrated for his '* Commentary on 
tboBtble ;** b. 1702, d. 1882. 

C&aq>>kxiifb, klaap'nlf. A knife, the 
l^hde of which folds into the handle ; also 
aWg^kntfe the blade of which folds in, 
ukI may be locked when open. 

daas, klas. In Anc Hint a term ap- 
blied to each of the larfre divisions of the 
koman people. An ordor or rank of per- 
Mas. A number of pupils or students 
of tho same standing. In Nat. Hist a 
croup of plants or animals formed by the 
UBoaation of several orders. 

Cnaialo, Ik. An author of the flrst rank ; 
• writer whose style is pure, correct and 
refined. A literary production of the 
flrst rank ; the classics, spedileally, an- 
dent literature. 

CSaMEUsalist, -al-ist A devoted admirer 
of dassicaUsm. One who scrupulonsly 
idberes to the canons of Greek or Koman 

OlUMJl. 'sis. An ecclesiastical body, 
convention or assembly ; a Judicatory cor- 
responding to a presbytwy. 

fflaiB imnn, 'man. In universities, a 
candidate for graduation whu has passed 
so examination in one of the departments 
in which honors are conferred, and is 
placed according to merit in one of sev- 
eral classes. 

ClandlTlB, klan'de-us. The name of two 
Boman emperors : Tiberius Drusus Nero 
(C, I.) was the 4th emperor, s. his nephew 
GiUgula: b. 10 b. o.; crowned a. d. 41. 
He was twice married, and both his wives 
wero infomous ; Messalina was executed 
bj his order; Agrippina poisoned him 
jofcer inducing him to make her son by 
L. I><Mnitins his successor : d. 54 a. n. ; 
Marcus AureUus Flavins (C. II.) b. 214, 
s. Galllenus, 266 ; d. 270. Under C. I. 
Britain was partially conquered ; under 
C II. the Goths wera defeated In several 

Olavarla, kla-vft'rl-a. A gen. of fUngi, 
division Hymenomyoetes ; club-shaived 
fongus. 8ome species aro edible. 

Olavecin, klav'e-sin. A harpsichord. A 
key with which a player of cwiUons i>er- 
forms on the heUs. 

Cnavellinidse, -el-Un'i-dd. A fkm. of so- 
cial asddians. Each has its own heart, 
respiratory apparatus and digestive or- 
gans ; but each Is fixed on a foot-staDc, 
through which circulation takes place that 
connects .them alL 

Clavlola, M-kl. Tliv iollur-lxinf. foriM- 
ing one of tlio olomeuts of tbt* iiet'turul 
arch in vertebrate aniuial^. 

Clavloomes. -kor'nr-z. a flim. of pon- 
tainomus beellfci, |Mirtly tcrrtiitriul uimI 
north' aquatic. The 'i>uiH'in>,' ami iKuum- 
neetlfS ore examplfs. 

Clavier, kla'\i-('r. The koy-YioanI nf a 
piano- fori <•, oivnii, or other instrunii-nt 
whom* kcyH htv arrangi.'il on thi- >uine 

Clavls, 'vis. Tliat which sctvch to un- 
lock or explain any ditllculty. u.s u tranii- 
lation of a foreign auth<»r ; ur ttiat whtclt 
serves to explain a cipher ; a key. 

dftW-haTniner, 'hain-mer. A huiiiiiier 
having one end divided into two eluwii, 
lor convunienoo of drawing nulls out of 

Claw-WXenoll, 'rennti. A wreiicli )i»v- 
ingttlooiM pivotHl J:iw and u relatively 
flxe<l one so arrange«l %a to bite tot;ether. 

Olay, Henry. A diHtinguishnl Ameri- 
can statesman unil orator; h. In Vu., ITTT; 
D. in Wortliin^'tou, 1nV2. Hu repre-Hentitl 
Kentucky in her I^'gislature, and in iMttli 
branches of (N>ngres.>t ; wu.t u iiieiiilKT of 
the Peru rounnisrtion of 1S14, Secretary 
of State in It^iA, and was tho unsuccesHftil 
Whig candi<late for the preMidenoy in three 

Clay, klil. The name e^niinon to various 
viscous eorthH, compounds of fiilica and 
alumina, souietlines with lime, magiiesia, 
soda or potash, and metallic oxides ; the 
materiall» of brick, tiles, i>ottery, Ac. C 
ironstone, a ferriferous rock, from which 
iron is procured. 

Claymore, 'mAr. The large two-handed 
sword of the 8cotch Highlanders ; now a 
basket-hilted, double-edged broadswonl. 

Clay-slate, 'slut. A rock consisting of 
cby hardened and otherwise changiii, 
often affording good rooting sLitt*. 

Clay-stone, 'ston. An earthy folstone 
or felsj)athlo rock of tho igneous group. 

Clayton, John Middleton. An 

American state.suian ; n. in Delawurn, 
179(5; appointed Chief Justice of Del., 1SJ7; 
elected to tho I'. S. Senate, K^J^-Cj-W 
and In'SI ; made Secretary of State, ls>4i>; 
negotiating, hStW, tlie treaty with Great 
Britain known as the Clayton -Bulwcr 

Cleadingr, kled'ing. In engines, the 
jacket of tho cylinder; also, a timber 
casing inclosing the boiler of a locomotivo 
engine and flro-box; a covering of hair-felt 
on steam-pipes. Any kind of plaak cover* 

], tbD dcirinir or bod. The act of ds- 
ftnillncor vlnahstlngona'aaelf. AiDoni 
bankers, excliHDglii^ dniTU on aura 
oUiar'> houses and ntltllngtbedtlTi-rencei. 

c«edB or thQ through tiimc. A tract of 

Olaajriu^-hcruae, -hoai. The pLice 

whtTe Iho operaoon lermed ciMring Id 

bankj nid rsUwayi ta carrfed on. 
Olaetrliur-nut, -nnt. Thofrnli of the 

BtryehEi^a poutorum, uud ]□ tho £, Id- 

dlea for clearing inoddy water. 
Clear-Btory, 'K6-ri. The npper utarv 

T boUdiag, perforat 

Claddyo, kled'yo. An udeni hronu. 
Icof-Bbaped, Iwo-edged aword. They Br» 

aduwhuro, and Are Buppoaed to have been 

OlofTK, hleg. A name applied 
Inseota, the femnles of-'-'"'- - 
gome from their blosd- 
the RToat horsrfy. 

Glelfltoffaioio^ kOB-to-gani'lk. A 1 

tIoIcL and wood-sorrel, thjm Ibelr b 

otvbi^h are troubke- 

bapllzod hy Bt fetrr and coneu 

rardod Maaalnl'and martyr. The liit 
C. (XIV.lB. C. XUl., nSB, aniltn lUS 
laaued a bull ahollah]n>f the order of *" 

Olamentliui, hlem'ent-Tn. One ol 
rlea of CODIIlllatlonB aecrlbed lo St ' 
(nt, l> contemporary of Bt. Paul, bo 
beUevod Ifl be toooypb^. A d«n 
Popo Clement V^ 

CQaobiilQa. Ue-o-bQ'liiB. 0ns 
Bbodet In the fitli eentnry a. o. 

CEtoombrotiw. King or Bpaita: 

a. 0. ; tmed la tbe bMtSe ot LeoeCra. 811 
*■ □■ Tbi SparUat vera UMrlf annihl- 


e battle, and from thattlmabs- 
■jndory power In Ore«ce. 
Oleomeiiea m. King of gpvfK; b. 
DO B. r. ; a. hltMbef Leonldu; wude- 

Lchmm Le^e, S!3 : Bad lo Egypt and 
ommltlod aidd^. Sit. 

OlMin. A IunerorAtheii8,wbo became , 
noted fbr hla atoqaent oppoalllon to Peil- 
elee, aAdr wtioae deatli v. bv»m<> a popn- 
tar and aueeesifDl general ; b. aS< b. o.. I 
killed loan eipodmoaagilaatThnloe,4ii I 

Olsgpatra, tle-o-pa'ini. Daughter of I 
Plfllcniy Anli>tus, and Qaten of Enpt. 
notorious for her beanlr and UouBoni- j 

b™'l7, a^d^Lt^°hlm aHHi. After U> ' 
death aha peratudod Uare Antony to »- I 
pndlata bla wU» Octarli, and bocs Un 
aerenl ehUdren, Aftir tue deftat of Aa- 
tony at AoUnm, ahe deapibcd of nuktoc 
terma wlib AnputoB, aod pat an end to 
herllf^bypermlttlag in aaploUtelw; 

laoatratoB, 1 
Jth erptury B. 0. 
zodlood fllgna. 

uu i jk lauii In holy Ot^erfl, tvifouiuiy ui 

rcSli i^an of"fetteri:aSlar. ■raS 
laymao who loads In reading reBponaea In 
(he BCTvlcQ of the EpIscopdCbuKb. One 

nioipal and other oorporationa, aaeoda- 

of proceedliifB. An ■ea l at a iit in the ahop 
ot a relaU dealer. 

CD«veIaiuL The prlnolpal lake port ol 
OUd, oil Laka Erie, and ^ dif In aba In 

iklsTia. ABbMit>*i>tt«Uialtorin 
iiip, wHh tba oddi urfbntad to 

• pBi, lued tseonneet ■ dnft-obijn 

, kU-ihL A. ■tareo^'pt) plMe, h- 
' oae d<r]¥«d from ui eugrftHng. 
tw. ■ n^atjva plcCare. C. cuUiiir. 
of obliUlDg * out bvm s wood- 

Ulk. A loT, ■haip unnd. The 
rttnuUves or Souli AfriA A 

tbw, tbecoi 

imong thfi other 
» rnggsd bee 

±j "hxAghtl »Bt«ep n 

Hmrla, ks-nuk-io'lk. A trittal 

eoniataUon. The fed jew li 

t^ 'm&t. In OM 6«g. t tone 

[ to tfaaequlor, there belnfr tbirtf 
B the DqMtor and tha jwla. The 
OBo/ntTHtor nglon in relition 

« kBm'cr^ One who ellmbfl or 
r&e hudi and reet In Bot ■ 

t. In Oniilh. the name applied to 
ig Urdi, ord. gcusorea, u the pw- 
]«kBli»«, voodpeckerfl, ^. 
«taite, UiDi;:'ablii. A Tarletf of 

, yfn'It One confined to the bed 

juas. One vho melTes bapHun 


•tone, Ulngk'atin. A relspathlo 

f tht trtebjOQ group, sometlmea 

I roofing ilate. 

sr-work, 'ei^irert In ihlp-bslld- 

so ^0 low. 
A dlstJ^olahod 

of tb« S. Y. legtalatuB-, alaa 
9. 8eiiato, nelgnlng tlie Ulut 
> accent the mayorjlf of N. Y. 

but vaa re-elfcted Vloe-I'realdviit 
CUo, kn'S. Id Mytb. I 

Clippttr, kfip'er. One who cHps; one 
whooataoSIhenlGeiorcata. A vhhI 
with eharp, forwnrd-nklng bowe and 
nuBta nkliig an, bnlU and ngged with a 
Tlew to bat laiUng. 

OUtafl. A generel nnder Alexandff the 
Great, who UTed the lattar'i H(b In the 
bUIle of flTMicai, and waa bUq bj Atat- 
uder, la a drunken fr^tBTy, 326 b, o. 

Olive. Bobeit. LonL An SngUih 
geoenl who roaa from ensign thrangb 
hli giUantrraiid talanU totbSTlaaroTaltr 
or India ; i. ITIK, P. by anidde, ITli. •* 

disttapiiahed '■ " '- ■ 

vlDtoilH from 

1T5T rooted , 

>rU,O0Oatthe^eiid of an Engkih 

lihed hlmteirinr wintUnr a- 

■.oJVeiwhlnim. a 

I Bor^-ad -Dowlah with a 

Dree of oniy i 
lis life he ben 

e of 

Clock, Uolc An Inttnunent or m 
for maaarlng Ume, Indtaattnf Ow 


nlii<iu> Hid >«Kiad> bj 1D«D> or hiuidi 

idoHDK over nlliil-pl.l«. 

dook-star. -tUr. Prontiifiil oUn nud 

dothaB-moOi, tlotbi'moUi. The bbm 

Ttnca, -whose liirv» nre dMOTiottTB to 

woolen hbricB, fcathorc, rnra. *e. 

Olotho, klfi'tliS. in Greek Myth, that 

OlDK-dauce, kkiit'iloin. A fliuwe mih 

OOP of Iho Ihreu FatM wlloM du^ it WH 

clop", in whlnh tbu ftut IJCi-farm fl Bdlsj 

ID put tba^rool for the thread of llAiniimd 


men. brluD and Ida mo w«o both billed. 
Close, Uas. An laelosnd pUce ; tbo pre- 

k bDlldlng 

OtoMt, kloz'et. A auiill rmm ur Dpni 

ipartment commnnkatlnic n-tui aitotbi 
H B dreu^-roDm with & bod-Foom. 
small reoeea fbr htorlnf; ntenalEB, pro* 

Olotaire, klo't 

18, C. I., aon 


ci'ivf.VeiT, D."™, was only 

llml king for tWE) TOira, the real ruii^r ov- 

\ne Charlaa Martel. 

Olctll. klolji. A Hibrto of wool, lair, ool- 
lun, flni-heuin. or other veueUWa flla- 
mealB, formei by wnavhig or inlertei tur« 

tiftbratdf, mill [»sillbrrarian»]>nrpnao»; 
« mn/Iea doUi, wttOB dolh, bali cloui. 

■Tiht it. iind tktt of Alrojws to Eot Ihg 
Ibnui oirwhunainnnhadUidle. 
Cloth-prorer, Molh'prOT-or. A ni«- 
ntlj-lnit Bliiss employed in conntlnB the 

Gloth-wbeel, 'wbCl. A polishing whed, 
oovr^rml 11 (lb doth cbarepB ititb an abi»d- 

pultv-p ■ ' ■ 

...!. Ooii , 

Cumulus ondHIratiH, Thoo m snb-dl-, 
vided Into Clrro^aumitloa, Clrto^bvtiu, 
Cumnln-Btntua, and Nlnibai, camnlo- 
clmi-etrstDa, or rata-flload. What nMn- 
WMHilouil,uabadyafJ!niokoor flying 
dnat; adnrksroi of color ins lighter ma- 

Olout. kloiit. A pain ; a plooe of doth 

--iMthfr.AcnMdtomend something. 

Atoliery, tlie murk flied lo thccenleror 

koop it from Hearing. A blow with the 

OlOTO, kli^T. A Tery pungent aromatJe 
■wer.MdB of Cftryopbyl- 
loloaglng to the inyrlls 

CloTBT-weevil, kli 

L Ths OHne of Omt kinn 
0.1., HHiuidi. otChUdcrio r, 
» Ft»nk«; m. «!, n. flU ; be 
HlbBDdn artbBFKnchmnD- 
ibg tJw RoDUDfl fhim G«JI|l 

u jirlncdu OuULdu. of Ibc 


nti'iTwij'a open U> Uxxe who 

k. A Hmod nttend br 1 hen. 

■LHiiKiilly Uia Kifflri uid 
TbiH ■» BniTiDoh docks or 
inl, puktii, dentil ud turml. 
Abdlortlrad. TlieUireHl 
ftbalL FnKB Uia mnlioUigl- 
■t TlHHilB wu guided b; a 
■d tliroti^ the Cretin Jnby- 

li noma of. •11™° cluM rf 

Lnatet of trees tn- ohrulv. The 

rderof Benmllcllne 

, klB-pOl-ds. Ttia 
AbdomliuJes. lu- 
pOf^ord, &d. 


lar wki^ anpAirfl I 

iMBOd togetiier. 
OeJl. A prippinf 
r of tlia tBgun; 
■■p. A eoDtrlvanee 
tiDE ibofta wllb 
orwltliwhedi. - ' 
^ tM diaanfnr 


OlTde.klM. The tiriiidpii!riTtrarB«t- 
land. noud fcr lis ihlp bulldlnc ; 11 rliM 
in S, Luarkslili* ud HiipUr>i Intntbs 
FrlthofCiTde.nnrniu^w. The FiUi 
of Of de. sao fL blirh, are nor Luurk. 

Clyde. Oolla Oampbell. A Kriitidi 

!• Ind 

In Il.a 

OlymaniB. kU-mu'sl-a. A mn. of ri- 
flshi'S. tun. KudlldK. 
Olymet, Q«araa, OBaoriheslitiieniiif 

a. Iiaiw)it«ran>Bdaniu, 
. . and Lack, Bod wif^of A»- 
KInc of Areot ; aha beoaiAelii- 
th AgystUi. woiiii gf AfiuiHBi- 
e the tatln wu abaaat u the 
IVojr. u)d on her hnabaod's 
lUrdBHd him Kod CoeoajidrA, 
i hod brouffht with htm. C.ta- 
\o Ltirona, but OreaU^, ion of 
r»n. sl^v tier vtd h^^r puruDonr 
npLe of Apollo. 
Olirpeasterlda, Ulp'S^a-tn' A 
--*- ' — -'-a.urehliiB, ffcm. Echlnoldefc 
A lljiir-wheeled elOH 

[y iitppbyed to ana ■ pir- 
lOa eiUDlnidoa. 
Caaaii'dog. 'iog. A dog sT IMmatlu 
biv^, of hudsome fonu^ and gmenJIj 

who prepuv* uid ffwi*hM trimmiDga fa 

or appointed to peHbmi the dDtl» of an- 
othA. Tlie uflutut of a bishop or other 

Ooalta. ka-I'ta. A Diull spedci of S. 

Ooal.keL A plawaf'woodorothn'aoiii- 

bustlMa anbalaDcw, Ifniled, burning or 
charred ; ebarooil : * dnder. A solid, 
DpAqoa, InOajnABlila anbatance fbnned 

In fbnnir epooba of the carth'a hUtoiTi 
divided Inia three chleridBda-iBHinsiib, 

hltntnlbons and Ugnlte ; nndsr irUoll dl- 
ilalonB are InclDdad mmj "mteftt*. 

Coal-beil. 'iHMl, A 
Ooal-brasa, trsB. 
Oonl-fleld. 'It-Id. t 

Ooal-msBaurea. 'a 

toalfadiin. " 
Ooal-plant. 'plant. 



b-lln. The u|ipei 


IB liquid nhlob conilcDie^ 

ik. liImA, vlsold. 

Ooostlllff, klitt'lne. BsIUn^' Dear tbs 

Ct f>r thB lodj. &«t«i]^ lo II Blroi 

. Tbe Gr« 

ivEly vu Dl90 ctUIrd a > 
Ooiit'«Tinor. 'iir-iaBr. 
Ooat-oord. \i^. J 

m teongfng to tbo 
t ranlUne li' oiipenc- 

Ooat-liuk, kAi-Unek. A pilr of baitnim 
bfld to^retberby finnk, lunlJbr butanlng 

airiKJAcan^, a Dob-lcuir A Sponifeb coiii 
flirmiTly cnrrcnt In [Mlind; il», tba 

!br IWdiDg fowls. J 
11 boise or ponj. i 
lacmlfdonAoMm, I 
!d wbUe sowtng. 

mincnd, yeri-brittto, 



Iblo to pc 


« uld, villi enipbor, 

Cobb, Hcrnrell, Au A 
Ei^nt^'Oi. iDibe I^wiir' 

and o brigmibT-gHiBriJ In 
Cobble, kob'l, A roiuidlfl 
Cobden. Rictuml, A 


life ^ « prlYBto 
nombor ofrarUt 
toonbil onifiD,- 
r of lUo rep«I of 


OobiUH. lifl-bi-aB._ A pen. of fl«hi 
. CyiirliiLdM3. It 1r 

Cobxtk-de-CaiieUo. kob'n^e-kitpd'ld. 

n-orsLed and ootlti'i. ur mmlcd and idfk, 

Ooca^nii, TSb dried lenfofErvthreiy- 
lon Coca, ard. ErythroEflen ; tha plAUC 
tUfllT. It lA a AtlTnqlaLJa^ QvcoUv, In 
effect someirluiC Himtlu to Ol.lum. A 
mall qnuitllv uf It <]nabli» a parsoa to 
bar D|i gainst bKgua, bat lAed te 
flicflfiH ft bnags oD varloaa dlADrdflra, and 
Uiod^BlrafArll:liiorpA<Begw1th iadqJgeQce, 

Imre ubw b«a realised. 

or menlr bun, aflijn. of bBmiuieroaa In- 
.udU bdonilnR to Uie mo. Moaoinen. 

Tfafi uuIm ODly liaVfl WlDgB. 
QaodneUldai. «l-neI1l-d^. llie lady- 

WrdB, ■ Oun. of ouLeopWrout InnwiLa. 
Coclo*, P. HoratdoB. A Itumsn btru, 

wh* wLth twfl comiHinlDDi. [ipiiriui 

army of rorwima at bay at Iho bridge 

er^iin'old (niwU fiiJiei DsiurrltiE' 
ouvered witli a stmsa. 
CoccdIoB, 1ia-1n>. A gnn. of 
tneirfapermaoeoiia planU, Tbe 
Bvt treno^Dr powerful blLl^r fobi 
TbeTrnltorD.!. wmBllin™ empk 

namlptcia. There are upnonlt of 

Cachin-Chlna, kuchlti-ohl-ni. 
flpniled to a larfffl varfetT of the di 
fu«-|. aadro to Coohtn-Obln*. 

Cocblneal, l-nil, Aoinuon or 
dj-u-fltutToDDAlBdjig of Iba dridd ba 



for Uio piirpoAO of TK^rfnltUOK or aTT«tinbr 
tbe flow Of 11 LildB tSrough a pipe, u feef 
ouck, ^u^e-coek, &o- A ponloD of n lonli 
of a QroflLnn; la a peratiftfllaa ]a':k, the 
bammer. Theitjiaar ^omonof ndlaL 

ba bud^QA rbr poUUciU pBrti£>a. 

An ImaflOBTT oooDliT 
■ The land of 

tlltk. [a Her. the oockaulDO la hprae 
ib«d, waiLiM aad tpEirreil Uka tha 
k, and with a a»!rp«il4no loU. 

sthir [bat ilodd opon 1. 

Cockpit, 'pit 

iha loww f^uL-dML of ft *Qlp of war. In m- 

iiJn<tiT (^ Mhfnii Her Hajestj'i prtyj- 
i wunoll hold tbslr sltHngi. 
Cockroach, V ^v - 

iDBectB of Uw f J^ ]K 


Ooomn-'biitter, 'knmbiitter. A mild 
oil g^ IKnn the ai>c<1s of Gvdal* pur- 
purm, a tree of Ihs muis grai. with mail- 
footefld, iisvl in India to itdulterfttfl ffhw 
or BnldTmCtiT. 

Cod. tod. A apoclei ot UleaiuaD n»)i, 
Aun. Qadlds, Uie aodUs mnrtlma or 
MoTTliDft ml^dv, rtviMag tha herring In 
Its Impurtmin] to lUhOkfiid. It liag bo- 
coiDD af ^froat^r vaXat by reason of the 
dUtuTory of tho thuApanilc "nine of ood- 

Codax, 'rickii, A iniiiDseiipt Tohure, u 
ofickualo vDrhuroftbaSniptirrtii. In 
lied. ■ DolluUoa of (pprovad meddsl 

Oodcer. kol'ar. A mean mJHily inia. 
AooTtouoIdNlow; Bsbanstar. 
OodUla, ko-d01*. The aoHuit part of 

Cod-llTor OU, kodllv-w on. AnoHob- 

OodrlUAton. Bdward. Blr. Ad Enn- 

Rnailfl luiil Bnglind in tto bilUe of B«v- 
jvTnn, which ^voOiveoetDdepeudenco. 
Codros. ThD last king of AUiohb i >. 
Bbt. 1(170 B.C. ■Whon fli8 HanicBdB Id 

Omhom, ii'^yora. A RniU 
Uirowtnj rtmadeii, e^AblB of 
ried by * few men. 

OceUcKntU, aa-U-han'Oii. 
fbuil guiold flj^hee. ranging tn 

a Ibr brldeea, plsr 
Coffin. 'On. The cbett nr l»i fn -vrhloh 
a dead hqioaD hti^yii buried arilDporited 
In K vault, Infmioy, Iho hollow r"'"' 

Oobort, 1»rL Id Knm. Aallq.a hodr 

■" — -aHI niHD. FaS nibort 

mnnlplH. Ruih m-ulple 

Duid or bod/ of wur- 
OolSette. kw^-fef . 

iir tiait vUob strrM Ibr 

Coiner, '..r. Oaa who >tamps coin ; > 
inlBtar; iirui'ly ippltod tn a makiT of 

mrikfr, J.!ofwurd8. 

OoInins^prcHS. Ing-prei. A pawM- 
levi'r tcrew-presi, by wtaloh lui'UI 1>hint 
igiUol blanks iM lm[rrBMed vltb a doilfB 
and logfflid, and so ooovwtoii Inlo noio, 

OoiT kuir. Aipedu of jrun nuu;uIliO- 
torod. frtHn Uie hoflk of doeiNj-initB, 

Ooke,klik. Cmldeprivaloritabltamen, 
iulphor. op other BiHaniwiia or voloim 

Co9, ko;. l^atooQioftwlieel, br whtob 
II drtvea another wteol or body. A kind 
nfnotdt, madaius of IntalUne Joists ai 

Oo^nao, kl^nyak. A popolar Frencti 

htt oftiSaUuva nameallr^^haKDniiu 
sfgwd fcmllTwsalmoinutadtaaUpBUii 
houe to iAloh lis AoJoqpKL 

rton," la oi 

Ooke, Bdwnld, Sir. a eclebnted 
KnEUshJoilst and pablldBt; B. IbOi.D. 
-"^ "*- -irlBdpal woA, "CotB npon 
ofUw U^ieal JndLiUl 

(tolander, knl'an-dcT. A veuel wtlh • 
butloin rm-fbtated vKh UtUa holm jor 
straining UflQorfl. 

Oola-nnt kVlB-nnt i 

• ■ BtrfttchMtnut. 


OiBai«t^ttehHitnut.rro.luMd bJ^CW* 
AonmlnaUt ord. t^t«rcall&o«e, vhkui UM 
nati'ea efQaioaa lalns lii|b^ aa ■ gmtt- 

Oolbert. Jean Bap(late.Kar(iiilB de 

B.I lay kni'balr. A FraDi'h riiMiiDt, 

unF Bui.prlntomJcnt of FIriinoo, 

of Uarlner uid nijiixl tbi 
Oolbum, Warran. 

tolltvtiiiil Arlthmetl 
OoloatliBJ, ki 
which ri^ioiliki 

Oolobia. An 


turo Ibnwd tbi<»irh 
Inm j oppiuAd to be 

BU«"flrBt LoBIoiu 

>t Alto, S. of A 
10 hiiu-plutf . 

e bj h»Uilgfoiir juirU 

1. Is S. T., tses. RemoTtDg to laddni, 
10 VBd olooted to the lower boDBfi of Oju- 
rrnn, bcraunn Bpenher in tS«8. and vu 

Oollcnr, OamMid de ObatUlon, 

Bin da, ko-Uii-Te'. A noted Fmiiih 
HncnanM; B.lSIf; mntdaed tnthaEL 
Bartholoii " ' "* 

Prlncs de Condi, IhilMdero/ tie Hu^ne- 

OoUna, 'l-u. A g«ii. ol AIMun molroa- 
tndblrdi, unL Fuiem, Oat-iloMB or 
DoUleF, (llled to tho pluutii tutn. 

OoUor, av. BomcOiliiB -wora raond tks 
D«k, iriiethv tjp OK Drnunoiit or- 1«- 
Mimblt; lbiutliBIIim»lagl>i-ii totkBeolL- 
laos or dhllli Torn b; knlehti of soTenl 
ordan, ind hnfnf tLg hadgs of d»tinlsr 
■ppsuded to It i loaHrtarUiohBniiiuDf 
Hny ■DlDulnudlbr drm^t; and to u 
unda or drtu cr urt of a pvmut tahii' 
round ILcnnk. AlnOlDpnuoiblnv ■ 
eonar. In Aich. > i&g or (dnoum ; (ton 

dolenao, John "WlUlaiu, Bisliop. 
An KogUsb Ep'jOQpil tlmolrwliui uid 
nutbom»tlclan ; b. IGll, d. ISS2. Ap- 
polnlwl Bp. of K>t^, a. AMei, ism, he 
■hookMtbs orthodoi vorlil brpubUib- 
tD(> work In wWoh Ihp tiupinfloa wid 
bletodcal aeoancr of Bevflnd booka uf the 
OM Tutiment t> deided. His B^1Uun(^tll; 
' OcAeoptera. knl-«-Dpt«-i. One of the 
ordsri Into whieh Ini«ot< un dMded. lit 
■pediis bring ronnnonlj known li IwcUpji. 


Oolerld^. Samael Tuylof. Adli- 
tlnpiiahad Ene'l^ ^J^ot u>d phUoKpher ; 

OaWax. SohuylOT. An Amerlcao 
gUtaiiBaii, fn-aodsua otQe-i, Vm. Colfu. 
vooJasMBder of WMAbijiftaa^tJ^u &urda; 

]ft1r« of legfl, and fbur to the 
r ; Te^foiifn^ wKh fOur- 
'- -" "-- loire; Trfmare, 

Junction between theradloleiaid pin 


aiib, for Ihe plflEon-Htd to pua lUranfb. 
AriBsIui hiliopEpwrt f.T holding Bie 
end of the ounaraVnnC Itieehnck. A . 
Heel ring which oonfines n plmchet. In 
toinlnc. N»ut. ki eyt In the blicht of e 
Bhroud or stay. A ropo fur.ned Into > 
wTHith. wttbthebBU-tordeul eyafnlbe 
b^ht In Zool. the colored rioe rounit 
"----■- -"-'-' ThB thlftwil e.-^TCt 

dollai'-da.y. •dll. A ity on 

OoUbxet, -et A snudl coUe 
or the like, worn by wnuioi 
Collect, lekt. A BhorC ( 

Oollece, lej. 
with certain Pi 

lie, ■ i»ll«(o of libyelu 




tat pnrposeR of instmctton and stady In 
the nigber branches. Tbe edifice belong- 
ing to a college. 

GoUet, let. A band or collar : speoiflcal- 
Ijr, a small band worn by the inferior 
clergy of the B. C. Ghnrch. Among jewel- 
ers, the horizontal face or plane at the 
bottom of brilliants. The part of a ring 
eontolning the bezel in which the stone 
is set. In glass-mnking, that port of glass 
Tesfols which sticks to the instroment 
need in taking the sub^^tance firom the 
melting-pot. In Mach. a smaO band of 
melaL as the ring which fiistena the pack- 
ing of a piston. In Bot. the part of a plant 
1\ om which spring the axes. 

Gollibert, -lO-bnr. A member of a de- 
si.i»ed race of people inhabiting Poltoa, 
Mafne and Anjon in France, and resem- 
bling the caguts of the Fyieneee. 

Collie. 'li. A variety of Scotch shepherd 

Collier, 'yer. A digger of coal A coal 
merchaiii. A coasting vessel employed 
In tiie ooal trade. 

OoUlery, 'yer-l. The place where ooal 
is itag ; a eoal-mlDe or pit 

OolHmator, -lim'&-ter. A tetoBoope 
Med Ibr determining the eoUimatlon er- 
ror In aetroBomioal inatnunenu. Tbe ob- 
|eot-gls88 of the tdesoope of a speotro- 
acope to wbioh the slit is attached. 

Oollin. tin. The purest form of gelaUne, 
taken as tbe type of all similar substanoes, 
wlri<di ar e hen ce called colloids. 

OoUinJi, William. An eminent Eng- 
Ihh poet: n. 1780. n. 17d6. C, William, a 
eetemntea Englisn painter ; b. 1797, v. 
184T. 0., WUUam WOkie, son of the lat- 
ter ; b, 1884 ; a popular novelise. 

Oollodlon, -Id'dl-on. A substance pre- 
IMrcd by dissolving pyrozlllne or gim cot- 
ton in ether, or etlicr and alcohol, forming 
a nseftil substitute for adhesive plaster in 
the case of slight wounds. In a slightly 
modified form collodion is employed as tbe 
basis of a photographic process. 

Collodiotype, 'di-d-tip. A picture pro- 
duced by the coDodion process, or tbe 
method by which such pictures are pro- 

OoUold, ^Id. The name given to a 
transparent, viscid, slightly granular mat- 
ter, resembling liquid gelatine. Colloids, 
as starch, gum, albumen and gelatine, 
dlffkise through a given septum, as porch- 
BMnt IM^MT, much more siowly than ci^s- 
taDotcu, and while permeable bv crysUl- 
lolds are Impermeable to eaob other. 

CUDot d'HailMis, Jean JDCazie, kol'- 

lo-dair-bwah. A leader of the Jaoobina; 
B. 1758, D. 1796. In 1798 it la estimated 
he caused the murder of more than 16,000 
souls. He was active in the deposition of 
Robespierre, but was soon after arrested ' 
and buiished to Cayenne, where he died. 
Collyrium, -lir'i-um. Eve-salve or 
wash ; a topical remedy for disorders of 
the eyes. 

Colobixun, ko-loa)i-um. The sleeveWs 
dress of a monk. An episcopal vestment, 
similar in kind to the tunic, only without 
sleeves. A dress worn by a king at hiSi 
coronation, corresponding to the derlcai 

Coloffue, -Idn'. Cap. of the Prussian 
Hhlne provinces, connected with Deutx 
by a massive iron bridge ; it is strongly 
fortified, and noted for its magnificent 
cathedral, only now completed, although 
begun in 1218. C. was founded by ue 
Bomans, pop. 125,629. 

Cologne-earth, 'erth. A hgnt bastard 
ochre, durable in water -color painting ; aa 
earthy variety of Ugnlte or partiaUy foMil* 
ized wood. 

Colombia, XTnited States of. A S. 
American republic, form«rrly known at 
New Granada, situated in theK. W. an^ 
of the Continent; area 475,000 sq. m.; 
pop. 8,186,460. FHndpal dties^Bogota, the 
cap.; Carthagena, Asplnwidl, Panama sad 
Chagres: emef rivers, Canoa and Mar- 
dalena; cnief moontaios, the Andes, divia> 
ed into three rangea. 

Colombo. Cap. of the Britiab laUuid «f 
Ceylon ; pop. 61,800. 

Colon, Ion. In Anat the large«t portloB 

of the intestines, forming tbe midale see- 

tion of the large inte«tine. tn Oram, a 

point or character formed thus [:], used 

to nuurkapause greater than that of a 

semicolon, but less than that of a period. 

Colonel, ker'nel. The commander of a 

regiment of troops, inihntry or caAlry. 

Any grade above this converts him into a 

genera^ officer belonging to the army ool< 

lectively, not to one particular regiment. 

OolonliBt, kol'on-lst. An inhabitant of a 

colony ; a settler in a colony. 

Colorado, -o-rah'dd. One of the W. 

States of the American Union ; admitted, 

1875. Principal cities, Denver, the cap., 

Central City, Black Hawk, Pueblo, Sao 

Louis, and Canyon Oitv; chief rivers, 

Arkansas, Oranu, OostlUa, Yaiiipa and 

Grande del Norte. The Snowy range of 

the Bocky mountains interseota the Stato 

abt the center ; pop. 194,400. 

Oolorado BoetlB, WU. k caVm^nmiwia 


ISHCt, Ikm. Chi7»meUdB, betonffnc Id 

Oelorlniater. -rlm'at-cr. An iDitnmmt 
tor moMurlng IhB dopUi of oolor iB « 
Itquld by compsrlBou wljh a atudArd. 

Oolosseum. -osxj'uui. Tbe FltrUn 

gliuliUoriol nnmbsu, IlKtaUDf wild bruta. 

Oolosnu. A numouti 
Ainilla, Hhkli ipBuned 
th« Jurbor of Bbodes, 

Color ■TKBTt. -dr-Jcnt A non-com- 
Diltiloned otncer ohonnki blitDsr thtu 

UiKwkin. There li OB* to €Mh pejtaienl 

Colporteur, kol-pSr-Ur. In Fnnoa, i 
liAwk«of wua«: ■ hivkerofboi^kA aiul 
paqphletfl^ lb AtDBriu and Enffraod a 
ilui of man >ub>idlud by wdstlei or 
uiodlitlaiii wltta tho Tle» of dLssemlnit- 

Oolt, kCH. A yoang hone, or b yoiui 
ulmd of the >o[k gniu>: cominnnly 
■pplled U> the male, My being the femate. 
Ib tha Bible It la uppUedloayoDiifcaine] 
orayogiigHi. A rope'i end uwd An 

loaii«l and tued aa a weapon. 

Botadlbrhli Improvamantain Ore-anni: 
■. In Oonn. 1811, o. ISM. 

OolnmlML-lDm'ba. Asan.Dtblnli 
Mlutliw Ui« (km. Onliimbldie, li 
ineJlBval charsbi th< Dams glten ti 

teaael In »Md> tiw ._ ...... 

■ unuMandwaa aiu- 
frwD the Toat, bafore 
biRh altxr. C. Koaehl, Noah'a Duie ; 
inilellation to Cbe Bonthcru bemliphere 
« to Gaols Utior, oonfbtJif of 111 


-bi'aS-I, A mlHord. 

OolombliiB, 1 _._. __. ,._,_ 

name of pla^t^ gran. ArjullriU, Tne 

OolmnbiiB. OhilatoplLer. Ths dla- 

14Sft. D. at Berllla, Spain, lOM. Hta im- 
ages woro made nnder the pitronare of 
FerdlDUid and lubella of Sndn ; tha voj- 
i^ In wbloh America vaa dlBoorared wag 
nnderUken to demonstnte tbarotnndl^ 
«r tli« tmiti, ttii that India eonM Im 
raaehed br aaHbu dns west : ha aaOad 
Anm Mna Aug. i, MM, and 




tbiduiMa, generally Berytng m a sapport 
to Boaaething resting on its top; apUlsr. 
Ckdnmns are disUntraiahed by the styles 
of arehitectnre, as lUndii, Egvptian, Gre- 
cian, Boman and Qothio: also, by the 
name of tiielr order, as Doric, lonlo or 
Corinthian ; and again by some peculiar- 
ity, aa attached, twisted, cabled or ra- 
dented and carolytlo. (n Bot the united 
stamena and BtyloB of plants when they 
form a iioiid central body, as in the gen. 
OreUB. MiUt. a Ibrmation of troops, nar- 
row In fttmt, and deep ifrom front to rear. 
ITaut, a body of shtpa f<dlowing each 
otiier. In printing and wilting, a division 

OoHUBll-rald, -r6L In printing, the 
name gtren to pieces of brass of different 
i h ie kT i <woafl , raado type height, used to 
separate matter that requires to b«« dis- 
tinct, aa into oohmins, Jto. 

CSolure, kd-l&r. One of two drclee sap- 
poaed to intersect each other at right an- 
fdeain the poles of the world, one passing 
thraui^ uie sdlstitiai and the other 
tibroogh the equinoctial points of the 
ee^iiOB. via. Cancer and Capricorn, Aries 
ana LObra, dividing the ediptic into four 
equal parts. The points where these lines 
Ittteroept the ecliptic are called eftdlnal 

ColymbicUa, ko-UmOd-dS. A ftm. of 
natatcnrial or swimming birds ; .the divers. 

OomA Bexenioes, kd'ma ber-g-nl'sez. 
Berenioe*s Hair, a constellatiuD. of the 
northern hemisphere, composed of indis- 
tiaot stars between the lJon*s Tail and 

CkmumdlM, ko-min'cheK. A savage 
and warlike tnbe of N. American Indians, 
whoaeiaQge extends overportionB of Tex- 
as, New Meadco, Calilbnua and Mexico ; 
estimated at 20,000 souls, with 8,000 war- 

Ck>m.b, ]R>ra. An instnmient with teeth 
for separating, cleansing and adjusting 
hidr, wool or flax ; also, an instrument of 
tortoiae-eheU, ivory, metal,or other materl- 
al, usedbv women for keeping the hair in 
place. Tlie crest, caruncle, or red, fleshy 
tuft growing on a cook*s head. The top 
or ereet of a wave. Honeycomb. 

Oomb-broadi, a>r6ch. The tooth of a 
comb with which wool is dressed. 

Ooniboloio, kom-bo-lO'yd. A Moham- 
medan rosary consisting of beads. 

OomephonUL ko-meTor-us. A gen. of 
flahea, <nd. Oobioidn. C. baicalenms, the 
sole apedea iscoDected and pressed for 
oa, bat not eaten. 

Oata^k kom'^ OslMtial bodiet which 1 

appear at irregular intervals, moving 
thrbu^ the heavens in paths which seem 
to correspond with paraboUc curves, or in 
a few instances in elUptical orbits of great 
eccentricity. The former, after being 
visible fh>m the earth for a shorter or 
longer lime, diB^>pear into space appar- 
ently never to return ; the latter return 

Cometarixuxi, -ftM-um. An astronomi- 
cal instrument intended to represent Um 
revolution of a comet round the sun. 

Ckmiet-flnder, -find-er. A telescope of 
low power, but with a wide Aeld, used to 
discover comets. 

Ctomfit, kiun'fit. A dry sweetmeat : fhiit 
or root preserved with sugar and dried ; a 
ball of sugar with a seed in the center ; a 

Ck>]llforter, 'fert-er. One who comforts 
or consoles. Tho Holy Spirit, whose 
office it is to comfort and support the 
Christian. A knit woolen fobric,longand 
narrow, for tying round the nuck in cold 

Ctomitia, ko-mi'ahi-a. In Bom. antiq, 
assemblies of the people. These were of 
three kinds : the assemblies of the i>atri- 
dan houses or poDulus in wards or curin ; 
tiie assembUes of tne whole Boman people, 
induding patridana. dients, and plebe- 
ians in centuries ; and the MffflDbltftW <ft the 
plebeian tribes only. 

Coznznander, kom-mand'er. A chief: 
one who has supreme authority; the chief 
ofllcer of an army or any division of it. 
Nant., an officer next in rank above Ueu- 
tenant and under captain, ranking with a 
lieutenant-colonel in the army. Com- 
niauder-ln -chief, the highest staff appoint- 
ment in the British army ; a title borne by 
the President of the Umted Btates. 

Ctommandery, -l. A term used in sev- 
eral senses in connnection with militarr 
and relifi^ious orders. Among sevm^ 
orders ofknlghts, as the Templars, Hos- 
pitallers, &c., a district under the control 
of a member of the order, still used by 
Free Masons. In certain religious orders, 
as those of St. Bernard and St. Anthony, 
the dibCriot under the authori^ of a com- 

CtommandTnent, 'ment. A command ; 
a mandate ; an ii^imctlon given by auth<Mr- 
\ty. A precept of the decalogue at Mount 
Sinai : one of the laws given by €k>d to 
the IturaeUtes. 

Ctom fnenoeTfiftn t, -mens'ment The 
act or flMt of eommendng; beginning; 
rise; origin. In oolleges and higher 
sdiools, tie daf whoa rtndati r—sAw 
their desTMA. 


'hL Ooeoflwo. 

inui or pluu alwBYt Ibimd toatthtr ' 
ulaul HUoh Htm on M' In uioth«, - 
' ' ig Hndtio, H the Plnnotbe 
b. BM within the Mvily of 


Tvliriipd ib GoaAUfUdnnnls lOiV 
AImIs I.. I09M118-, Jotn, lllf>-.™, 
Uunet. 1143-llBn: Aleilsll., llH1-n8n: 
AadraulcuB, llS3-llSG,ilsthr«Kdbyluu 

bMTitarul tike 

AlatAof thnapaHfl; 
thB txo, tba <xA or 

&vid tiu necdla. 
nscdla ti of 
□ugnatlieA bIwI, In 

pAtMd DO ■pototeil pin « tl 
• — itftMlyro---"' 

ij the p«[ 

hperty of tha DMdIe, 

oompm nupanded wllh Iti ttee dawii- 
mrd. AmubenuUisIlDiCrninentlbrae- 
HdUsE einilss, meuuring flgun*. dli- 
tanoM MtwMD two pnlnO. As. Oomraon 
iiDrnpauoB or dlTldcTfl uoDsEit of two poliit' 
pd kjf«, movablo on a plFi>t, OBed ft>r 
mounriiijr luid tnnKfprrln^ dliiuac^ui. 
Ilnlr oomiMBKii, n arirlntf uttMchod lo tbf^ 
luridaafonDof tliA retr'^. And presolDff out- 
iTud affirtiut Iho I'nver part of tho uther, 
thni tondlnj to t»p tha Inn iporL By 

DT tha paojut, by wiiicli 


Oomplina. knm'riln. Thi^ lait of iba 

4rt' ; Iha UtC t»™Ter it night to ba raollad 
Mfter BiiniM. CiilLed (dao Comp^tapy. 
Complgt«ii»l Bn , -pIB-lsn'nl-iiii. A 
term oni^od to tbe flrti polyglot rdltlDn 

Alsila de H^lurei. in Spain, !&I4-I61I, 
by CordlDil Xlmenei. 
OompIaTliiiit, 'yi um. An opmlnir In 
Uie nnf of tha itrlam or anCnunn-lun al 
undent Eomui bouus, l»ft for thn pnr- 
pnno ofsdmlttbie ]|«til and coUoodng tha 

Oompo, "pO. A eoncreln hbrI flir tba 
outiidn Df^brlck hou»e^ an u tn frita 
thorn UioDppairHlice of >tane. NauL, the 
moDlhly portion of vaffoa paid to a ohlp^a 

Oompone, 'ni. In Jin. dddiihishI of 

inonerow. Rordnra ooinpoD«, > bnrdH 
ronnd tha sbleld compoaed of ani^Iar 

Ltid In K compnaltor'a oompo^nj(-BtJo] 
and uiri>D nhJch he amzigeB the types. 
CompOBisg-attok. -itlk. In priadnj 
an adJiuUhlo IneTmmDnt in wbtab typi 

pounded. In Aral 

m appUad 

..jmpoHd of the Tnwui, Dodc, Corln- 
thlun and Ionic It la oslled ol» tiie 
BomoD or tba ItaBa order. aAnh,tha 
knoet or polnteil arota. la thlp-bnUdiu, 

Bot belonging- 10 ■■ 
C oarrlaffa, n ndln 

_B ot^er OompoiltB^ 
ay oarrlwo made Dp of 
IflanntolBMea, u, nnt, 

xnnd ud third. C. m 

m be tneunirad exAatlrbyananiberBX' 
sedlng ontty, aa ebySorl, toUutOU 

id mind. Ron com po. in 
D sound mind. 
Compost, 'post A mliturc 
Im-Jllilng land. A Fom|>osll 

Compoblitor. -pS-U'iar. 

1 drlnlu vlth an 




Ck>xnpote, 'pot. Fruit 8t«w«d or pre- 
served iii sirup. 

Oompound, 'pound. In the E. Indies, 
tliH inolosure m which isolated houses 

Compounder, -pound'er. One who 
compounds; one who mixes different 
thin^. One who attempts to brings par- 
tics to terms of af^eement: one who 
brings about or enters into a compromise. 
One who compounds with a debtor or 
felon. In £ng. Hist, a member of one of 
the two seotlons into which the Jacobite 
party divided diortly after the BctoIu- 
tion. , 

CSomprador, -prt'dflr. In the Chinese 
open ports, a naiiye trading manager for 
European merohants and residents. 

Comprint, 'print The surreptitious 
printing of a woric bekmging to another ; 
a work thus printed.* 

OompsoflrnatllxiB, komp-sog'nath-us. 
▲n extinot reptile (G. Longipes), ord. 
Dinoiauria, oocurring in the liuiographio 
slate of Solenhofen, and remarkable for 
the singular aiBnitiM whieh it exhibits to 
the true birds. 

Ooxnte, Aucrnste, k5mt. A French 
philosopher, b. 1795. d. 1857 ; noted as 
the founder of the Sdtool of Positive Fhil- 

Comptroller, kon-tr51'ler. A control- 
ler ; an officer appointed or elected to keep 
a oounter-r^rister of accounts. 

OomuB, kO'mus. In Myth, tho god of 
revelry, depicted as a drunken young man 
with a tcMTcn In his light hand. 

Concave, oonOcftv. Hollow| 
and curved or rounded, tu 
the inner surfiioe of a spherical 
body. A surfktce is ooncavt 
when straight lines drawn Concave, 
from point to point in it fall 
between the surface and the spectator, 
and convex when the eurlbce comes be- 
tween him and such lines. C. lens, a lens 
having either one or both sides concave. A 
concave leaf has its edge raised above the 

Concentrator, 'sen-trip^ter. An appap 
ratus for the separation of dry, oomminnt- 
•d ore, according to the gravi^ of its par- 
ticles by exposing a foiling sheet of ore 
dust to intermittent puffs of air. 

Oonoepdon, 4hdp the-fin. The name of 
several 8. and 0. American towns, the 
principal being in ChiU, cap. of prov. of 

jutias jjsaw ; pop, IS, 724 

-Ber4e^JiA, A imulffU In- 

strument, the principle of whidi is rimilsr 
to that of the a<)tordion. 

Concerto, -chftr'tA. A piece of muslo for 
a concert ; a species of composition, usn- 
aUv in symphonio form, written for one 
prmclpal tnstmment, with accompani- 
ments for a foil orchestra. 

ConcettUm, -set'tizm. T)ie use of af- 
fected wit or concettL 

Conch, kongk. A marine shell, especially 
that of the Btrombus gigas, sometimes 
called fountain sheO. A spiral shell used 
by the mythologicBl divinities called Tri- 
tons as a trumpet. Theextwnal portion 
of the ear, more especially the hoDow part 
of it. In Ardi. tilie plain ribless surfoce of 
a vault or pendentive; the semi-dome o^ 
an apse ; the apse itseUl One of the in- 
habitanta of the Bahamas and neighboring 

Conchifera, kong4df er^ That larm 
class of acephalous molktsoous animds 
which are iMt>tected by shells consisting of 
two pieces, commonly known by the name 
of bivalves. They include the Lamelli- 
branohiata and the Brachiopoda. 

Conchoid, 'koid. The name of a curve 
of the 4th <Mrder, given to it by its inventor, 

Conchology, -kolVJi. The department 
of zodlogy which treats of the shells with 
which the bodies of manymollusca are 

Oonohometer, -kom'et-er. An instru- 
ment for measuring molluscous shells and 
the angle of their spire. 

Conoiergre, kon-sy&rzh. One who at- 
tends at the entrance to an edifice, pubUo 
or private ; a door-keeper to a hotel, house, 
prison, Asc.; a Janitor, male or female ; a 

c3onclave. konld&v. A private apart- 
ment, partioularlv the place in which the 
cardinals of the K. C. Church meet for the 
election of a pope. The meeting of the 
cardinals shut up for the election of a pope; 
hence, the body of cardinals. 

Conclaviflt, -ist. An attendant whom 
a cardinal is allowed to take with him into ' 
the conclave. 

Concord. A town in Middlesex Co.. 
Mass., ^ m. N. W. of Boston, celebratea 
as the scene of the first battie in the Rev- 
olutionary war. A city, cap. of N. Hamp- 
shire ; pop. 18,848. 

Concordfuace, -kord'ans. The state of 
being concordant; agreement; harmony. 
A b<x>k in which the principal words used 

■i, in any work, as the Scriptures, Shako- 
■peare, &o.f «t« acnaisQd alghabetically* 


coRMpond Witt the »^: »«•*.* be- ormercenarrltillan mlUUry idTontnim 

ComnUttioiioftuVA, -cfl'thon-roi. A fan OoTutoctoT, -dnli'ttT- A leader ; % rnldfi : 

wtatek U IguUsd by tba oaninuilDii of Out one oho gnea befOn or tosampsDrea ind 

"iBMIng; Bhows tba my. A ehlaf , one wbo lends 

11a. In Romin rttee the tntelur " •™>'- J'''* ^Ireelor of a ohordB or oc- 

of OoDsoid, u> whom CamlUat '"Mtra. The pmoB who.tlend. lo tt» 

-. 1- oflflsengoTs La ad omnlbuAT « railway (jala 

of lbs FHawof OrMim{»ftBniard Will- bwiMtlitfty plpea and rnmi "hlih II u 

tarn III. or EiiBluidTTn the auruiury ^",9 ** 5"- * "^7 "T^'** t™'^^ 

Wtleof S«ief, ini. The henaol«»ini """' T """'" f"""*. "" ^^ I^T*" "' 

(sUnct with the anldde of Daka Lonla »<*"} eommnnlaUon. 

HenrfJoaeplideBoBrbaii.IBSO, CDudurrlta, km 

Oondeiia^, -den'aw. A pnenmatloeii- ors ofcoppcr, ™nt 

gtoeoraymwelnwlilclislrfceooiprceaed. proportion of wasn. 

iTSMi iBwhleh aqneoiiaoraplritLoiM Oondylura, -dim 

fUNinB Der«daced lo « llqnld fbrm 
bjlnjortlooo'" ""-'■"<- "'-"'^ - 
In tt* eenden 

OOBS, kon. A soltd Acnrs rialns etraigbt I 
peringto* polnl. Om of the A | 
. (*ell8.'™'niehUlbnmiiiMlnelho ^1 

tuneofravB iunn- Cone. 
lUlhBrtysof Ugtt 

'a glaes. 

Cone-alieU, 'diet. Tbe nw 
tiie shells or the molLudis then 
tbe gutenpodoue gen. Cddust 
nJdSiord. PeotiiilbnnchtBtd. 

OmtlBiXXCL, kon'fU-on, One of 
order of eeoulBn, celled elso I 
ersotcd Into e oonfrAternlty by l*opi 
OlemertlV. IDIMI. The prtnclpol cm 
of this eesodWloD woj to deliver ChrlsUai 
prisonere from the esBwiTiB. 

OonfEureation. -h'r«-s"sbon. Tb 
»leiaD<udan of marriage amoDS the Ro 
ZQaDa hy a ceremoDj In which the gnxdi 

Qf coDflnulDgareatabllelilTie. 

Irue, ««6y naw artdanoe; the not o'tcor- 
roboratlnB, reuderlog TaUd or raHIVliig. 
rhe caremony of laying on of bands by 
> bishop In the (dmUelaa of baptized per- 
MinB to the enjoyment of ChrlBttan 1 '"' 
legve. prai:tii^ in (he Qreek, £. Q. 

'- nr the burning of any i 

Oonflnent, 'Bfi^nC. A ta-il 
Oonftatomltr. -l^t«r'nJ 
ertiood ; a Bode^ or body i 

naaoo ongaeeo in a confederacy ; an all] 
One who took eldevtih the Confederal 

Mlowed their attempt to aeoede from ll 
'Unloli. Opposed tol^flTAL 
Oonftrrlte, -fer'Tlt A fossil plant, o 
cuninif dfleOr in the ehnlk formation, ai 
pirently aUtoa te '^~ --«-•** — ,-* 

■iMi, bnioir ■ 
■HnBllopao- ■ 
tREurlKileat 1 
■aeh lid* 

whlub til a 

penitent, kneelln; irHhout, oiakea oo 


be Aloo of duiger, and adheres to 
^oe of pertecntJon and tortin. 

K priest who heare confeailon 
lea pQwv to grant absoludon, 
ataon, -flK'a-ra"»hon. Eitar- 
Qgiiro, or shapeofathlnKasre- 

rebitlTe poBltton 01 
alilne. '■ 

philosopher oni 

place, teaching and nniing 

writings, which fOrm 9 

lo Beihg. 

Confl'i , 
Danire. hi 

— -" - dlflUlUH 

iri bypi 

. gallon o 

aTa to depart; ftrfr 
n act of roepBot pep- 
on separating or tak- 
aconinwy. C. d'6Hre 

dean and chapter to ehooae a bishop. 

Convener, -jS'ner. A thlnit of the aams 
kind or neai^ sOlod ; snedflcBlly, a plant 
or animal belon)[lng to the same genos. 

Oonsvr. kong'ger. C. vnlpirls, » torg* 
voradoos Bpedes of sea eel. 

Coniri^ry, 'Jl-B.rl. A laiTfcss or distribu- 
tion of Horn, oil, or wioo, arterwards of 
I money, among the people or eoldloiy of 

\ iiuiBionaoDiiIttav^niiwaawiliBU. 


-ConsiuS, -tjfl, A DlfftBarfl of aijtmciiy 
•mnng Iho K/imsns tiiortehlll p«rt of "■ ■ 

Phir. s gHOao. 
Oongloinsr^te, -g1om'«^»t. A nm 

OoagrmtlQBJit, -clA'cli 
rice that promoleiSie be 

Oonso, tAnp^jio. A aeetS 

nod botpditlDlIy^kulorcfi 

The fDbtli\tMiiU 

OonKO, kon^'lcS. Tbe nsonnA lowwi 

^uall^ofblAcfc t«a. belnff the third plalc- 

jilg froiD a pLuit during t£a Hnaan. 
Ocm«o-8Dake, a muna given to nna oi 

two of the lunpbmiansnrtho Duu. Aiiipbl- 

CSonKregatlOii. 'gr^gll">hoii. Tbe aot 
qf brin^n^; toother- or buumbHog, A 
«inF«tlaa or UKinblagfl of Bfipomie 
tbtn^L Ad vuemblyorpAV^Tip. espiHilal- 
l» SB metnWii,-— '-- •-- 

FBUelqil, t 

A[lpDblUll b^ 

mmuaUo wdCTi £o. At OiA>rd ind Com- 

tnnlnwUdi Ongmig of dogreei, ^., 
U tawuHted. la Bcotlmd, an ippoUit 

fcnngd fldth iboat tba mlddJs nt the letli 

OoDgT^ratiOnallst. -gr<>-gJi'ihon~a]-iBt. 
Ode who belongs to i CoiiEreiiilionsI 
dumb or aodety ; ana who holda that 
Maait onUreli eiompt fcom 
u Jorlsdlctloll, and tbo gOT- 

rtonera, depnttea, lie.; psrdcutar];r: ' 
meatingofBOTerelgn prlnccaoroftberep- 
mmtto™ of HBTMI oonrta, for (ha nnr- 
oofla of UTsnging bJteniBtloiu] nfnln. 
The tarm appHod to throe dMBrantly con- 
MHated bodlei of reprsBeiitiitlves nf the 
pmojfie 1^0^ barf gawefdtd eaeh other In 

Oonereve, William. _ Sir, 

bearing hie niuna: b. IT 
Conio. knn'lki. Thai i 
cti^ of eurves which u 


Oonlrostrea. -mt'cnii. A eectton or 

stBTJin^ horphllls, Mr<lB of ;Hrtdliio, Jco, 
Coulte. kflnlt. Amlnersl nHmrrtiietDaa- 

BliaDreUlsotmalD Suany nod loelind. 
OonJUKBitn, kon-JO-ES'ia. A tribe nf 

erofln-sponMl AIgs*, diallngnlBhed from *!» 

Confervaon' t'y their eadoohrome, or col- 

olherwlse rllti-ou'd, uA not sqnilly'dir- 

OoimaiiS'ht, Than'utcrTy ofths 
N. provtQced of Irthujd. bavlng HTcnd 

Connsotlcat, ken -Dtt'e-kat Oin'ofthe 
ort-bi.d New England DrKastanBlatuBof 
the American Dnlon, Dmalolng B. New 
Ynrk on lbs W.; una, 4,130 tq. m.; iiop, 
0!B,1(W). Principal rttka, Hartlbrd, tbe 
mp.. New HiToii, Norwich, BrtSfB- 

&n;'ohlefrl"r™°CoqncoaBHt, HoUMlonta 
and ThaniM,- all eniprrlai; biti( L. 1. 

ilo Ij-m Island He 
, li, I4nm. 
ConiiBctliis-rad, -i 

a the plibin with the 
TbesDtalde rod which 


7 'Ui« ends of kIb 


A fish found on Uis Nen 
I. Csllcd Hao Blue Piiroh. 

I ipHilal knovJeil^ of HI] 

it any ait, pkrtioulirir of phti 
onoid. knn'old. A noHt; 


Ooniiueror, koDir' 

■n oplthet mppUnJ 

a a rlotiB7. The C, 

t of EDgUodln IDM- 

1, kAn'rad. Ths nuna of aenral 

jiTOMlpH of Odimuiy. C. I. (Ooniit of 
rnnoonls). elected ampsrnr Bll, n. >U. 
C. II. sleeted King vrQananj 102^ and 
drowned Bmnaror lOiT; D. 1089. OlIIL 
edvmnwarllSe.D. 1153. C. IT., »n al 
Viederlok IL, •esumed Qifl title t^M; d. 

itJBposneMFdby bl> unele Uanfred,' eap- 
tnml and bnhouled, 12IK. 
OoTuaiwnliiity. -Mnu-Bwdn'E-a. The 

freui B^lty or rolaUon by uurrls^. 

Oonaoilpt, 'ukrlpt. One uomnnleorily 
■umiljBdfor mlllt»rT or natjil .ervloe. 

Oiniaecmtloil, -ee-kri'ehon. Thesetor 
BeTomonj of aepimtlnff IVcim a common 
to e «Kflrail lue, or of deralJng nod dedl- 
caUnr > pereon or thitie to tba tervloe and 
voruilp of Ood, by oertaln r1t«e or eoloiD- 
alllea. In neeklnjt of the nncdent Bomen 
empSTOTa, deUvtJon ; Ilia onramony of 
* de apbtneoiiU of an anperor. In tbe 

E. O. ChuToh, —■ '— "~- — 

rebderln^ veoe 

toe preaervl]]^ uijtldDir frttta losi, dnciy. 
WHflta or Injury. A ereenbonia fbr pre- 
BerTlne exelitii end otlior tendn- plento- 
Oonaerre, -tarr. a swcetmant made 
mfl/H loMpltmtedJalat at lhil(1>sUed wllb 

«. rootE, fHiiU, Afl., In 
'. One (o whom gaodi 

e of JubUcq bi ■ BplAtlul 

ev«y dliKweui Muhop. held in mlhednl 
Dhunhea. for Ibe Irtel of « ' ' ' ' 
»»«.. An uwuihly of j 
ooILeffOofoBrdlnalH At Borne 

United BtatH. renowHhlgi or nnion at 
n meednif of peaton and delo^t^B ofm 
Lne An adrlsory ooimoil in eDdesUaticel 
■' ThPnhlefftiDded leonrMy 
* P"^^ eenL lotereeL d^l Uara, -lu'tadd mJ'ri. 

indll, wilh II»rcier™a,^iMalll«a^ AO; 

of Edward Slnfford, 

If Jud^ of DlL 

mUteoribetdng'speiKiii, Iba pBrJiunimt, 
tbe privy -ooflDdl, or of odt general cod- 
ytaaoaotthORtateiotihaBagioia- The 
Dffioe lA horodltary In the fiuDltj of Errol. 

Ihe" onino. 'coinnuuidcr-bi^J of Hid 
HBiy- and the hfgheAt Jadge In oU ques- 
tionn of i^vAl^ nod baDor. ThU offlue 
vpBsmpvwBealn 10!7. Nnpnleon ri^-e^ 
MhUshM tt In Ikver of the Prinoe of Wn- 
gtmi, but h« bud do ngooeBaar, C ofH 
castle titM the keeper or governor of ■ 
e»t]e belDDKlnr lo the king or t lOfU 
nobis. CsDKtuCtn!! in Great BrlUIn nt the 
preiHiDt dav hre of l«o frnduB : hUih oon- 
MBbles Uld DOttv Donsd^lea or UlhlDK- 
man. tn the D.'H. oonsuMu Hre loin 
or rUx officers of the peoot Invetled with 
poven to eiacDte Livll u well u crimloBl 

OoDKtHJUie, kAo'Etaai. A hendBome 
an of Baden it thehabdoTLalie V., pop. 
aUO. LikeC. abeiotKUIimdrainiuitlD 
ehtwt of wnter. bet. BwlUerland and Ba- 
den, 49 m. In lactilli by Hoi. In width. 

viirmoned to cooatdpi the c 
XVIII., Greporj 511., and Senefllot 
Tin. tolhepuiHiT.Bnil prommnoenpon 
thadostrloHof JobnUDU. It wucom- 
pOBSd of IbnEiDpsar Slglamond, Pope 
jofafl ZZni.. IS prbesi. 19) counti. ^ 
oij^ittlB. t pftMktoha, £0 arebblBhope, 91 
bMupa. (00 prelatH Bud deotora. uidaht. 
4,000 prlesU. It prononnral against all 
three olaJioanu lo Iba p»i«oy, p|wt«! 

Conataiu I.. FlaTlna Jnliiu. Third 

Iteil the euverei^ty of Italy. AMita and 
W. Illyrtcnm, fel, and. by the delKal 

Unu. beramo sovereign of the entire Weet- 
em eiui>lrB ; hit tynmnv resultrd in a re- 
volt in whii'b ho wse klUed, WW. C. IL, 
Flavlni llervllui. n. SSO. a. bin Ikthar 
Cnnalaiilinelll.. BBempxrornf the Hut, 
Ml. Defeated by the Snnueni and also 
by the Anha at a«. be ubibltod Buoh 
avariei> and cmelty Hat he "aa aiaaeil- 

Conatantlike. ki'm'stan-tln, Tho name 
of IS emKrora of Home and tho Eiut. 
C. 1. (Tbo Cnst) wu the flrat Gfarletlaa 
emperer of Rome ; B. 27S, «. his IhUicr C«n- 

bittht'in whkhhe AufeBled hiis Ifval Mu- 
entlua, C. elahned to have Bean ■ cron Ed 
Uie >kT, which he Inltntretcd u an omen 
of victory ; he soon aiterwKrd Hnbraoed 
Christlaidiy, and made tt the religion -if ' 
the etate. In SSS the Conndl of Nloa 

condeDin«l;lD S^he removed theeeil 
ofthe empire lo Byzantium, ohanfflntf ft* 
nametalN>nitant]0Dp1e;i>.SST. V. II., 
•Idetteonof the above, e. to theiover' 
elitntrofSpaln.Oan]. Britain and anoftlan 
ofAl^rji;l>ewu delated and efiln by 
hie hntherConHsni, S4D. C.I[I.(((a%-iia!, 
emperor of the Eaal. b. 013, crowned «l, 
B. ill. C.rV.(P<«onBtnB), crowned em. 
peror of the Eoit MB, n, A8S. C. V. 
nrowiicidT4B, n. 7TB. C. VI. (Flavins) 1. 
his Dilhor Len IV. TSO. nnder the reaeney 

canned his mnrd^.TTB. "c. VTI. (Por- 
phyragenlluB). crowned aos. o. WW. C. 
VIII., cmwniKl M«, o, within a few 
montht. C. IX.. n. Ml: >hsred the 
throne with bis brother Baall until the 
brother'a death. 1IK»: n. 109S, 0. X. 
(Monomacbas) became emperor thrcngh 
hie morrlaf^e wlthZaa,dangh1^afO. IS. 
The lebism botweeo Uie Soman and On»k 
lAurchee bevan In hit retn ; d, IOM. C. 

XI. (Dncas), crowned l&tf, n. lOflT, a 

XII. was crowned ml, but never artn- 

IBiMlT'f. WsbrotherJohnVII..14*S: killed 
14fiS, ivhen ConBtuatlnQ[ple witfl itormed 

Oonatantbie, FlaviuH Jnliiia. A 

flp 409 ; coaqmered Spain and Gau!', tnd 
Hied Ui Dooil » At^el. '^■^vu v^ohvi^ 




by GonBtantiaB, general to the emperor 
Honorlus. C. was ezecated, 411. 

Ctonstantine. The name of Ibnr kings 
of Scotland. G. I. reigned 45&-479 ; C. 
II., 858-871 ; C. III., 908-948; C. IV. was 
a usnrper who was captured and killed by 
the brother of the rightftil king, Kenneth, 

Oonstantinople. Cap. of the Turkish 
empire tn Europe, and chief Moslem city 
of tne world ; situated on the Bosphoros, 
a narrow strait connecting the sea of 
Marmora and the Euxine, also dividing 
Europe and Asia. G. was the ancient 
Bjrzantlum, founded by Byzas, 666 b. o. ; 
destroyed by Severus, it was rebuilt by 
Gon Stan tine the Great, a. d. 828, and 
made capital of the Roman empire : aften:- 
ward the cap. of the Eastern or Byzantine 
empire, until stormed by the Turks, 1468, 
since which time It has been the cap. of 
the Turkish empire ; pop. 626,000. 
» Ck>n8tantius, k5n-stan'shus. Father of 
Gonstantine the Great ; b. 267. Distin- 
guishing himself as a soldier, he was de- 
clared Gsesar in 292 and pieced in com- 
mand of Gaul, Spain and Britain; he re- 
conquered Brit^, disastrously defeated 
the Alemanni and obtained tiie title of 
Augustus In 806 ; D. at York 807. 0. II. 

gilavius Julius), son of Gonstantine the 
reat, was prodalmed Giesar 820 and as- 
sumed the purple 887. In the division of 
the empire C. iolocted the East as Ids 
■ share ; d. 861. 

Oonstant White, 'stant whit. A pois- 
onous* pigment prepared from the sul- 
phate of barytea, used in water-color 

Constellation, -stel-la'shon. A group 
of the fixed stars to which a definite name 
has been given. The names have mostly 
their origin In the mythology of the 
Greeks, derived and modified from the 
Egyptians and the East; and the stars 
forming each configuration are ranged and 
named in order of brilUancy by letters of 
the Greek alphabet Ursa Major, the 
Great Bear, in the northern, and Orion in 
the southern hemisphere, are the most 
important of the constellations. The con- 
stellations are divided into northern, 84 ; 
southern, 45 ; and zoddacal, 12. 

Oonstrictor, -strikt'er. That which 
draws together or contracts. Spedfioally, 
a muscle which closes an oriifce of the 
body. A name applied to the larger class 
of serpents which envdop and crush their 

prejr, as the ilxM oonstrictor.' 

Chnaubatanti&ttoxi, -sub-Btan'«hi-i"- 
'wUk 22« oaf OH 0/ the body of our bless- 

ed Saviour with the sacramental elemeiiti ; * 
impanatlon. A dogma of theLatheian 

Ckmsnl, 'soL The chief magistrate of the 
Soman republic. Invested with r^sl au- 
thority for one year. Two were annually 
chosen in the Gampus Martlub. At first 
they were selected from patrician funilles, 
but in the year of Rome S88 the people ob- 
tained the privilege of electing one of the 
consuls from their own body, and some- 
times both were plebeians. In French Hist, 
the title given to the three supreme mag- 
istrates of the French republic, after the 
dissolution of the Directory i n 1 799. G<m- 
sular government was al>olished in 1804, 
and Bonaparte, the first G., was pro- 
claimed emperor. In modem uai^^, a 
person commissioned by a sovereign or 
state to reside in a foreign country as an 
agent or representative. 

Oontaxini, -ta-re'ne. A noble Tone* 
tian family which gave to the state 6 
doges and other eminent public serrants. 
During the administration of Domenioo 
O. II. Gandia was surrendered to the 
Turks after a si^e m which they lost 
100,000 men. 

Oontemporary, -tem'po-ra-ri. One 
who lives at the same time with another. 

Oonti, k5n'te. The titie of a branch of the 
French Bourbons, descendants of Armand 
de Bourbon, vounger brother of Prince de 
Gondd; b. 1629, d. 6660. 

Continent, 'ti-nent In G^M>g. a gi«at 
extent of land not disjoined or Int«v 
mpted by seas, as, the Elastern and West* 
em contments. In reality there is no true 
continent, a continent dmering from an 
Island only in extent Land, as contain- 
ing, inclosing, or bounding seas and rivers. 

Ciontinental, 'al. A native or inhabl- 
tan t of a continent, specifically of the conti- 
nent of Europe. In Amer. Hist, a sol- 
dier belonging to th^ army of the con- 
federated states in the Revolutionary war. 

Contortionist, -tor'shon-Ist One who 
practices wry motions or twistlngs of the 

Contonme, -tor-na. A term in Her., 
used when a beast Is represented stand- 
ing, passant, couront, &o., with Its &oe to 
the sinister side of the escutcheon. 

Contraband, 'tra-band. Illegal or pro- 
hibited traffic. Articles hj law ptbhllnted 
to be Imported or exported. 

Contrabcuuso, -bas's5. The largest 
of the violin species of instromenta, of 
"vrMdi It forms the lowest. bass ; the 




■danofl, -dflEns. A duioe in 
he partoen are amnged &ce to 
n opposite lines. 

Ito, -tral'tft. In Mosio, the hi^- 

a or amale adult, or the lowest of 

D or boy, eaUed also the Alto, or 

CMMessed hr a num. Counter-tenor. 

son who smga with Uiis voice. 

be, 'trSt. Having cogs or teeth 

3^ parallel to the axis ; nsbd chief- 

I -meels in dookwoi^ 

, ken'tr. In Her. an i^pellation 

I bearings on aoeonnt of their oat 

e aUeld oomhr ary and opposite 

ontre-bonds, o<Hitre-(dievron ; oon- 

, Ac 

itemps, -ten. An unexpected 


lom. -tfi'zhon. The act of 

and Dndslng, or the stote of being 

. The act of reducing to powder 

particles by beating In dorg. a 

dram, kd-nnn'dnun. A riddle 
h some odd resemblance is pro- 
irdisoovery between things qnite 
the answer involving a pnn. 
^nns. A gen. of gasteropodons 
:s,'the type of the fam. ConidaB. 
3B. forms part of the Buccinoid 
ttie Pectinibranchiate ord. of gas- 
a. In Bot a term denoting that 
laflorescenoe called a strobUus or 

LeooezLt, kon-va-les'ent. One 
s recovered health after sickness. 

Okt, 'voit. A community of per- 

voted to religion ; abody of monks 

w A house for persons devoted to 

; an abliey ; a monastery ; a nun- 

ntiole, -ven'ti-kl. An assembly 
artng, especially a seo^t assembly. 
Ing of dissenters from the estab- 
fanrch of England for rdigious wor- 

atio^ 'shon. The act of coming 
r; a meeting; an assembly. 
ooaUtion. A formal, recognized, 
itory meeting for civil or ecclesias- 
irposes ; particalarly an assemblv 
litea or representatives for consal- 
n Important concerns, civil, politi- 

nMEione, -ver-sa'tsi-o'^nS. A 
p for conversation, particularly on 

rt, 'vert. A person who is con- 
Drosn (»e opinion or practice to 
; wfK> reooano00 a reHgioua sy%- 


tem or party, and cmbracGS another ; ap- 
plied particularW^ to those who change 
their religious opmionA. In monasteries, 
a lay fliar or brother admitted to the ser- 
'Vloe of the house, without orders, and not 
aDowed to sing in the choir. Fkt>selyte la 
sometimes used as a synonym for con- 
vert, but is strictly confinnl to one who 
changes his religion ; and profU'lytism does 
not, Uke oonvenlon, necessarily imp^ 

Ck>nvez, 'veks. Rising 
or swelling into a spherical 
or roundM form; gibbous, 
opposed to concave. 

Con veaco - o o n c a ▼ e, 

'6-kon-kav. Convex on one side and con- 
cave on the other. 

Oonvexo-convex, -veks. Convex oo 
botii sides, as a lens ; otherwise termed a 
double-convex lens. 

Oonveyancer, -v&'ans-er. One whose 
•ccnpation is to draw conveyances of 
property, deeds, Ac 

Oonvlct, 'vikt. A person found gruilty 
of a crime, either by the verdict of a jury 
or other l^^al decision. 

ConvocatioxL, -va-ka'shon. The act of 
calling or assembling by summons. An 
assembly of the clergy to consult on eo- 
clesiastical affairs. 

Oony, kd'ni. A rabbit ; a quadruped of 

the gen. Lepns. In Scrip, a species of 

Hyrax included in a special order of 

Oony-wool, -w^I. The for of rabbits 
used in hat roanufbcture. 

Cooie, k6'i. The cry or call of the Aus- 
tralian aborigines. 

Cook, James, Oapt. An English sea- 
man ; B. 1728 ; d. 1779, murdered bv the 
savages of Hawaii; he circumnavigated 
the globe and discovered many unknown 

Cook Inlet. On the Alaskan coast, 180 
m. N. and 8. by 70 m. in width. C. 
Islands, a Pacific group, bet. Tahiti and 
the Tonga Archipelago. C. Straits, sepa- 
rates the two islands which form ITew 
Zealand, All the above were discovered 
by and named for Capt. James Cook. » 

Cook, knk. One whose occupation is to 

Srepare victuals for the table; who 
resses meat or vegetables for eating. 
Cook-house, 'hous. An erection on a 
ship's deck for containing the caboose or 
cooking. apparatus ; the^dley. 
Cookie, 'i. A kind of small swvet-bfoed 
for eating at tea ; a Yrasu 


Thl> Inula I 

Coolie. 'I 

Tlint whlcli awli ; i 

ibe i:. In din, 


,. A dry inusi 

OoCip. kap, A lattiDcd box (<>r i 
Ooopsr, James Fen i more. 

" LiuiUier BloolElng " BsrlcB I 

Oopal. ke^sl'. ' 

Intod with tpirit 
beaaUnil Irannpiu 

OopaJia, lln. tllgli^itc res . 
reita, reeeoihHnp impal resin In ippesr- 
■d^f^ ADd aoaie of its ctmtactfTis1Sc&, 
OcPAn, -pin' An midantcltj'cifOnite'' 

l>. C. Ameiim, now In ndiiB : naoBt 

'QiplD 6IJ0 fl. Id leogth. 
Cope. ksp. 

Dt, whUs the uliHB- . 

leDDBor.Dte Tart- 

. _. ;loiCT"f''"'<'ti™* 

or£Dg1aj]d. AnyOADg sprud or eitend- 

dveorthssfcr, lie roof or coveringofa 


Oopeck. ku'nct. A Raesloii ooId, ivortb 
Ui. hiiiidriHltli put of 1 lUver rouble. Ui* 
upproxlinElsviiliiiiDrvblcJilsTOconti. . 

OopraihBe6Ji,-pcn-h6'B*n. C«.. ofDo»- 
luuk, s fordfieil c> ty. locited on Uie tsludi 
ar^aoJftni] and Apiqk ; pop. 227,000. 

Copepoda, -po'p6-da, An ot4. oC 

muiiiB o-u&ucca. TLoBe spf^ieB whkh 
haTotwoDvtB aocTosply set logeLherM 
to oppear one, form the fiimfllos Cycloptdu, 
NoUdi-lphldiB uiil Hu^ukcUdu; tliose 
wlildi buTD trra or mote eyei, the AunDlH 
PanieffldiE Bod Calinldra: wMla Uivaa 
with two >ei7 i)(8tinct BCBBlIe eyos nooiU- 
tnte Iho ftmlly Corjii^de. 
OopemiouB, NloholAB, A PmKidiii 
EntroDotDff. Atnn^^ nf tlie aodgdUA 

fc'S, ■«", 

OopUime, kc 

Lystem was orl^tnallj 
bod lon^ been n?]nted. 
i-ua. Tlie niuno elvm 
oniM-klngs In the Bflu-'oer. t^xci 





eable of the metals, more elastic than 
except steel, and the most sonoroiia 
pt anmilniam. 

peras, -as. Sulphate of iron or green 
ol, a salt much used in dyeing Dlack, 
lakiof ink, and in medicine as a toidc 
ny qiii&y made by the decomposition 
on pyrites. 

L, -hed. A poinonous Amer- 
aerpent, the TrigonooephaluA contor- 
. -wnMh glyes no waniing of itA attack. 
06, a secret foe ; a name given during 
oiTil warofthe United States by the 
to the peace party. 

tlver. One of the lorg- 
HfBrltishN. America, emptying into 
Atluitio Ocean N. of BearXake. 
pV^plate, -pint A plate of polished 
Mr, on which concayo linos are en- 
'ed or corroded, according to some 
Mated ISgnre or design. A print or 
reasion from a copper-plate. 

per-smith, -smith. One whose oo- 
itfm is to manulkcture copper uten- 

pcnuwcnn., -werm. A worm-like 
toak, the Teredo Nayalis, or ship- 
D, that frets garments, and a name 
n to a worm that breeds in one's hand. 
pioe, 'pis. A wood of small growth ; 
lod cut at certain times for Aiel. 
ra, 'ra. The dried kernel of the oo- 
nat, from which the oil has been ez- 
md. It is used as on ingredient of 

^' ^-_^ 

ITMibyter. kft-pres'bi-ter. A deri- 

nembCT' of the same church presbytery 

I another. 

rUUe, kop'ri-d j. A ftm. of ooleop- 
as Insects, so called from the typiod 

raUte, 'ro-nt The petrified itecal 
tor cUefiy of extinct lizards or sanroid 
JB. In form they resemble oblong 
>1m, varying from 2 to 4 Inches in 
lb, and from 1 to 2 inches in diameter ; ' 
e are much larger, as those of the ich- 

XOphAgi, ko-profa-il. A sec of 
dlloom beetles, which live in and upon 
inng of animals. 

HRjdboner, kop'spin-er. An Amerl- 
(■Tention, comoinlng the qualities of 
tiuoatle and mule in one frame, capa- 
if apbining double the quantity of the 
'•pudle "^th one-oalf the power, 
b, kept. A desoendaht of the andant 
ptfan race, belonaing to the Jacobite 
ttUxmojAiyaite CbaetUuu, who Jiave / 

for eleven centuries been in poseeedon ctf 
the patriarchal chairof Alexandria. 

Ck)iytio, kop'tik. The language of the 
Copts, an andent Hamitio tongue, used In 
Egypt Hn within the but three or fonnr 
centnriee, but now superseded as a Uving 
language by Arabic. It is still used by the 
Copts in religious servioea, but after b^ 
ing read is explained in Arabic There ia 
an extensive Coptic Christian literature. 

OopyinflT-xnaohlne, 'i-lng-ma-shfin. A 
machine for copying any piece of 'vritlng « 
with perfect aocurapy. 

Copyrierht, -rit. The exclusive privi- 
lege which the law allows an author of 
printing, reprinting, publishing and sell- 
ing his original work. Intemauonal copy- 
right is an arrangement by which the 
copyright of an author residing in one 
countn^ is protocttHl in such oountries as 
are parties to the arrangement. 

Coonette, ko-ket'. A vain, airy, trifling 
girl, who endeavors to attract the admira- 
tion of males from a desire to grati'^ 
vanity ; a jilt 

Coquilla-nut, -kwilHa-nut The seed uf 
the palm Attalea ftinlfera, one of the oo- 
coa-natgroni> extensively used in turaery, 
and especially for making umbrdUh 

Coquito, 'kf'-td. The Jubsa spectabOis. 
a very bfAutifUI S. American palm, allied 
to the cocoa-nut, from the sap of which 
palm honey is made. 

OoraciadaB. -ra-sl'a-dfi. The roHers, a 
fom.of fissirostral, birds, ord. Insessores, 
including the sub-ihmilies Coradanaa, 
Todinae, EuryUdminn, and Momottoa. 
The gen. Corocias is the type. 

Cknacle, 'ra-kl. A 
boat used in Wales and 
on the Irish coast by 
fishermen, made by 
covering a wicker frame 
with leather or oilcloth. 
Ck>rall, 'ra. An In- 
dian pattom sUk hand- 

Coral, 'raL A gen-^ 
oral term for the hard' 
calcareooB skeleton se- 
creted by the marine _, , .., 
codenterate polvps for *i8hainan wffli 
their Bupport and habit- Corado. 
ation (poqrptdom). The ooral-prodndng 
zodphytes are usually compound anhnals. 
yonng bods sprouting lh>m the body of 
the parent pol]^ and remaining connected 
with it on the same spot even after it la 
dflid. Oonl U iMHcky % vom 


ReitUoniL JJ 

dilefiymths Mtdttumm 
Oarallina. -Vai. A eto. of roH-tpond. 
:il,-n.-, »lth culdareoasJoluIDd hnnds. llu. 

cl^™A term^ppmT^lddWle'^j or 
the zo-^h>'toB juia polywK, Tbv poLyjd- 

OoraUillltB. -In-It. A foull ptriypldun 


bV tha Umum ( 
0D\y iBllcd a cw 

I red ur brli!bt Don]. 

.^ '''iMth I^und In Ihsol^kftr- 

luUlana, dlSeiliig (tain r»»Dt teeth In be- 

Oorban. kor'bui. In Jewiib Antlg. > 
lolenm c<ni>H;n»ion of anythlDK to Ood. 

sloDi. An liil«irllctioD oF one's self l^om 
glvlag or Too<dv1ii(5 Bome jhU-dciilBF tbtng, 

ferlngs are depoBll«d, 
OortMlI, 'b<^. A buket, lo bo filled with 
BBrtb ujd A«t up^n ft perapet. toBhefUr 
BoMten rrum Uio flre of Wlwen. In 

CSorbel-atepa. etvpa luLa ° 

t^iag IS8 enblB feet 
Oordal,'i>L)nHer. isMnEartlioinull* 

or robe of ceUte, rqidaar Mlk uidgoM 

Corday d'Aimana, CharlotM, kii'- 
GrBodduclilCT of Uia dnmUM 
rnsille ; a. IsSonmaOr. Fnaae. 17*9; 
me to nalrlotlg d«Mmtlon trf M* 
odU« oYHint. IheobUlned Mmu U 
boaNbyaDTdUus, md while U a* 
arbiuiilln>blm*lMM UMerauaputa 
1 BUbhed film to tha heart, 11B8. Bba 
B gnlllDtlned, prMcnlng her fiirtltala 

\ Tha nBmeapplladla 
rnincB to tiia swotost bnumb of Trwid*. 

girdle or' bnottul lurd, Tba name u- 
Bnoiod bv DBS or the Putilu poU^ 
elubB In tliB Ume of the rovoloUon, wUeb 
nnoiberod llanun and Maistunaa![ IM 

Ooidlcepa, kor'dl-aapB. i 
orwhlcharofOuDd o 

Andeg la BonCb America but prapwlf 
■ppllcable onlf to lU Innermoit and high- 
Cordon, 'don. In Fort, a rovoratoM 
Jutting heforetbo rampart and the batln of 
the pnr^ietor betweeD the vail ThlehUta 
Hliipc, and tha parapet wbloh Is parpan- 
dleulnr. A serlei ormlUlarv poau or aat- 

plww.'lo ]>rer«itIhB putage ofpaiMHlt 
other ibon thnte entitled to paia, Ui 




lOfdiyy^ Om, of the Span 
i 0., on the CMadalqaiTer, in 
; O. wu cimtared by the 
i 11. and ooocq^ed by them tlU 
Dtalnfttlie remains era Moorish 
niUt in the 8th oentory ; pop. 
'. CS^. of a prov. of same name 
peotine Bepabllo, 8. America ; 

r, 'dt'ToAf. A thick cotton 
)d or ribbed on Hie surftce. C. 
broeted ^vitfa loes laid tt^rether 
tpe or marshy puces. 
1, kord'wftn. Spanish leather ; 
tanned and dressed. 

Ml, 'wnd. Woodcut and piled 
the cord, in distinctiou lh>m 
I: properly, wood cat to the 
I SBei. 

The heart or inner part of a 
rtioalarly the central part of 
Ining the kernels or se^s. In 
e Bnmber of hours each parly 
ir«»lL before being reUevea. 
10, k5-reg'on-as. A gen. of 
r fish, including the yendace, 
«d, the powan or firesn-water 
la pollan and the white-flsh^ by 
rded as the finest of all fish. 
ICtontb -r^-spond'ent. In I^aw, 
xmdent, or one opposed, along 
ter or others, to the plaintiff; a 
fed with adultery, and made a 
ioit fi)r dissolution of marriage. 

r'ibo. A Grecian island, one of 
group ; area 287 sq. ni. ; pop. 
Lndentty called Goroyra; the 
ibr centariesbeen an important 
loo; the Corinthians, Byzau- 
nans, Venetians and the British 
id it ror this purpose. The cap. 
irtiiied dly, rriuk an excellent 

rSD, kor hi'drS. The heart of 
; a star of the first magnitude 
itdladon of Hydra, 
ko-rin'na. A Theban poetess, 
of Archelodoms ; a suooessftil 
r of Pindar, winning flye prizes 
he entered. 8ho Uyed about 
Only firagments of her writings 

klirlnth. An ancient Greek 
be Morea, 5 m. fi*om Athens, 
eoording to tradition, by Bisy- 
tfth. son of ^olus ; it was a 
M diy 657 e. c, and took a 
•t in me history of Greece down 
., when it was completely de 
Oie £omaa geaenL h. JuiUi' 

mius. it baing considered the bead of the 
the Affhifian League. Rebuilt by Jiillaa 
Ctesar, and mada the op. of Aohaia. it 
anin became an Important eeatM. St. 
rvaX established a ehardi there, and twt> 
Qfhiamo^t important cfilatlee were ad- 
dressed m it. It afterward psined into 
the possession of the Yenetbms, was cap- 
tured by the Turks, and retaken by eani 
power, losing both prestige and commer- 
cial importanoe. At one time hailnff » 
nop. of 7O,00U, it is now a yfllag^of S,oOO. 
isthmus ot O. connects the Morea witih 
the Oredaa mainland, 90 m. In length. 
Ooxlxitfa. A Tillaffe In Aloom Oo., Miss., 
noted for an obstmate two di^s' battle, 
Oct 8-4, 1889, between the Federals un- 
der Oen. Boseorans, and the oonftderatea 
under Oen. Tan Doth. The latter num- 
bered 80,000, and Aade the attack ; the 
former had but 90,000, but held the field. 
Federal loss, 9,800 ; Confederate, 9,808. 

Oorintfaian, ko-rin'-^ 
thi-an. Pertaining to 
Corinth,a celebrated ci^ 
of Greece, noted ftnr the 
magnificence of its ardk- 
itecture, its luxury and 
Ucentionsness. The C. 
is the most delicate of 
all the orders, and en- 
riched with a profusion 
of ornaments. The cap- 
ital is usoally ad<Nmed 
with <^ye leayes aat 
acanthus. A gay, Ucen" 
tious person. A mem- 
ber of the aristocracy. 
Two epistles written by 
St Paul to the Church 
of Corinth, about a. n. Corinthian Order. 
57 or 58. From I Cor. 
y. 9, ithasbeen coi^jectored that a prevloaa 
epistle is lost 

Goriolaxxiia, Oaius KaiocuL A legen 
dary Boman genial, the subject of - 
Shakespeace*s tragedy. C. atta&ed his 
surname firom a great ykrtory oyer th^ 
Corioli; afterward made the. subject c! 
iealous distrust, he joined the Yolsd, and 
led them against Bome. Faltering in hij 
purpose through the intercession of his 
wife and mother, he was slalii by Tullus 
AnfldJBg. - 

Oozk. A spedes of oak, Onerous Buber, 
haying a tmok. rough bare, for whien It 
is enmyated. It yields bark every six or 
eight years for 180 years.- The ouier 
biok of 0e tree or epIuhloMm, of which 
stopples for bottles ana euftus we% tnaite^ 
Thto back te iko >raxM^ X<» «Aik» %«qaBM^ 



bUok. Wh.noiMl»d,»i 

•aberio. anil cenln tdda 1 1 

mthlafljfflnn- tar, t. a. 

.Qberln. MDOBUtooork, 

iTinelj of u- OeriDw pBUiMr; i, IT>T, o. 18*1. HK 


■' LMlJnil™eiit,"ln thaeli. ofBL Loobi, 
(-^ Munlrh, Ilia bj m ft. 

Oorinm, U'rl-nm. L«> 

tbcrn body-nmor. »(.rr 

\£S i.otwoflh»tnetorlMUi In rtlherJ«»o( 

bylhsEomuis uid ..tbti 

nBtlgnjof aoHnollj. Tbf 

' if^^S3l ' boiM. There *re two dioia ud two 

CovoofC, being krye, Hfe ud pletnr- 

Oork^fbull. 'ran-iO. A rnlnenL; i >p«- 
cIba flf AmlAntbus, resfimbUnff TCSetAble 
eark; tlieU«ht«Cafillm]]ier>la. 

Oork-jMlnt, '>k4t A ^eereleHtsek- 
«tt pedded with oo^, defllgned to buoy 
up ■ person In the »«t*r. 

Oor LeOnU, kor lo-a'nla. ThB IJnii'n 
Heart; Bnotber nmnefiir Be^lui. a 

Oom. kdrn, A >bi«1e leed of oereiJ 
plADU, M wbait, lye, barle; and maiie ; ■ 

end, in bulk or quumy. In this eenu 

gnlD. but In Knglaad II la ir«°«^lr op- 

C" d to wheat, rye, oits and barlfv, in 
Uand onlflo oatz. andlc the Unlled 

Com. A bard eicFeeoanco or Indnrution 
orthBBkln on name put or tbe feet. 
Oom-lMetle, 'b«-lL The Cucujus tes- 

CombTBah, 'braeb. J 

belovi, and the* ihoet when the hone la 

•- 'half yean old. 

, jet A wind (natninMBt, blown 

with the inonth, oiigii»dif Hrpemtlne In 

"" — ""■■ ■ ilu Id dJanietcr from 

- ' - U-IiUlM. 

panf oreamby. Ths fbtmar tlt& df the 

""-——' ■""■ ' — ■-- trow of 


capofpapertwlalsdat Uh end,lii«liMi 
— "-"-raliHAMeair-" •- '•— 

of ■ hone, the lower part «f bl> pwtan. 
Oom-axoliAiiae, kcsn'eka-ehw. A 

place vthera grain la sold or bartend. 
Oom-lly, 'llf. A DBme glren to aerenl 

IneeoU of thesenaraCUotftpaaadOKilBlt, 

bm. Mutdd*, from the I11J1U7 thaf Inffiet 

Ooni-liasUiitr. -h 

affiled : apedllailir, the highest part of 
an enbiblatnre reaUng on the Meie. 
Wben plain It !• called a ooptng. O. ring, 

alnla, Cha hlghei 
Com-ontter, 'knt-e 

shire, England. The 

lawei Oomiufr-houBe, 

cnttbjg n 

-atedl-renrbdrBinatJat; b, Itoe, b. 1081. 
ta tragedlea are aa Ihmosa Is EVaoee aa 
^iiakeepeare^a Id EngUnd. 
OoraeliA, Tbe most renowned of Ro- 
auo aatroBS, danrliMr of Belplo AMek- 
aunAdatthartttht t>ro QnHnbl, Tlb«- 

beglnning of the prei^, lAi. Legl! 
the tnde of | 

rnlng^iona. A 
r la gnuolated. 
ident lan^nage of 
in langoage abont 

Jawa^ Gieat Brltabi were repeilad la 
184A, andforelgD grain admitted on |i^ 

ooioruoopu t 

lOOpiK. kor-Bfl-tft'iii-*. In CUw. 
■ nruUied born ornflaidnr with 
Sowen Md griln, ths sjinbol of 

Tallla, Charlaa. KaiqulB. A«.i>.IHI>lS. HuMDi' 
4U1 Amcrioddurlnif t1ieltflvnluth>n, 
fter KalDlng- htstiI minor riclorhi 

. uid LAAyells, St Vnrktown, Oct. 
Ha wba ofuwBrd iiiirH>lDli>d 
, a«f«Ur,f 


« B»filb -, Ih™ insd* Vlow 
QonnDy hedl«l. 

aaadel. Tho S. K-nouiot iiin- 
1, betweeo FcHnt CnHmere ind 

aaadal-wood. ko-rA-mu'dfl- 

du eniot ot CarotnnndeL 

fltw«eD U» bed moldlnguid rrmat- 
ItcandatiorB brand, yerClcal pn>- 
[<Si». ItttolBtltgcoaMjnaM- 
wudto bOUUlf Ibe lU] arndn fnm 
B. Aniooy 
In AoM. 

n 0^ ifa« 

nerred dnrfnff totitl ct]lp»eii «f 

r rejflon of f^lorerl prom- 
A orowii or drcLat HUFpevdixl 
■cfT of chncrJiei to hald rapm 
iolemn Donuioni; «lIod hIk 
Among lUo KomnnM crown 
u n rewurd lor illAIlnt'nlnLad 
rTicB^ AjiecuUflrphnioof the 
AllL C. boruUd. tba Nonh- 

initnllB. th« Bontbem Crown, 

jnd ud ovH. TboHorUis 

S longer mAmbfln of th« ronl Aioitlrlxik 
amhandappemraH. 'rbnUf n duka 

or^ marqall hES Ji 

Xva tiis lenvi^i', . 

Burroundfd v\Kh poaria onlj-; thuluf h 

bvnn baa bnc Aix pMrld. 

CoToao-nata, tri'uVnula. Tbn seeds at 
■ Iropbad Aoierton nalm, tho PhyleteptM 
iDocracarpa, whoM iiitrdaDed nlbnmflp ta 
known u vugotabLa Ivar^^ < 

Corporal. kor'no-raJ. Tbo lowest non- 

liaOy. Tbo Bblp'l corpnnr fa lbs »np9- 
rior of tba flnt-cIsM warliiBg patly (tB- 
cen, ud itiendn to no»M millan niKlar 


slon orDnarmy. C. d'umes ilia lar^t 

lialiUlU!, tlio main body of on nrmy dtirap 
lip for batUo betwcrn tba wlaii. C. lie 
(■■Mflu, post ocouplfd by * body of men 
on waich, nlw tbo bodv whirii oocuptet II. 

irlth A vlewof holntf broughl: fonrtird If 
IhelrnldshonldbercnutreS. C. dlplomit- 
imic, tliobody of niinlstws. C. l^sh- 

lun?, (1. volant, s body of troop* In- 
tendod forrapfd movements. 
GorpVA, korps. The d«adf>ody of nhn- 

Oorpiia Christl. A festival of Ihe K. 
C. Churcb, «lcbrated Thorsday after 

Oorpoaola, koi'pns-L A mlouta psrll- 

nute animal cfillgeiiersllj loclosiDe grann- 
Ur matter, and aometlmei a splierolda] 
body called a nadeas ; as, blood wupna- 
dest chyl« oorpnscJea. 
Oorral. -rll'. A pen or Inclosnra tor 


a maglBtraio post 
Oorre^o. Antonio AJlegrl. k«r- 

the same religious MrBi 

M from each other. The co'ered w 

looftheAnslj^Uo n^dioce. 

OorScorplonlB. Blior-pl-6'qla. A nam( 
for AnUrea, a star of the first ma^nltiLda 
In tlio zodiacal ooostetlatlon e< 

Ooralva. 'se-ka. A French Island In 

the Medltemtneui. 

Ibe SMfM of BoiiUMo;4Slqr 

].; pop, VHfiiS. Ajiedo, tha siIl, 
ted IS IheblrtbDlaceof Napot«nl., 
tbe Island ai the pluo of hia llrsi 

Ooivelet. kors'let. A caW 

,1»Uy» of cities, _. 

PirHmiiePt orgeat Britain. 
CortM, HmwadO. A BpBdabadTeii- 
tnrer; II.1485.D. IMT. OelAnted asth* 

cooqoeror of Meiloo, 

Oortez, 'tei. Bark, aa ofalng; houB, 
an onler onverlnK. The ooitei or plants 
consists of an Inner flbioiu layo- eallad 
tbe liber or endopbliBam, a middle cda- 
lar layer, the mesophknin, and an oatcf 
corty layer, the eplphlmom, on the ar- 
terior of which Is Ibe epIdennH or euUda. 

OortlData. 'U-ki-ta. The barked corals, 
" illj Inclndlnit the polype (hrrnlng ti^- 
orol of iMmnioroe. The apedes prop 

e apedes prop- 

Oortile, kort1-l&. A amalt court, InokMid 
by the dlvlsIoDB of a building. The o»a 

n'dnm. The earth all- 
1, as muna native In a orystalllns 
I. In hardnoM It la oeit to the dU- 
d ; the amethyst, ruby, eappbbe. 

^1. It Is nearly pure anhydrous 
ilna, and Its apeol&i gravity la uearif 
times that otviater. 

in T.. Dpiiui, a jiaeaoaporton theBa7 of 
Betaniaa ; pop. SS,tni>. 
Oorvette- kor-vot'. A flnah-deoked vo- 
te}, ihlp-rlaged, but without ■ qoartir- 
aeol,an&lDlvtait'sn.lYOQe Uerolpma. 


'ti-da. Tho crows, n flim 

piKwn I. ftoni istb ^Ul hiB ubdlcstlan. ' 

Danrin, Tlioiiiaa. Aji eloquent Am^r- 
loB BUtcsDiui ; H. Id Ky., ITm, d. Id 
WubinjItOD. ISeS. Hd terved In the 
BMe Leglilutiire. both hDueag of Cad- 
greai, bb SiKTetvy of ttab Treuuiy nod 

Oorybaut, ko'ri-bint. A priest of Cy- 
bd« wh* wlebTQled tho myaliriefl with 

Oorynlda. -rinl-di. A hm, of hy- 
dnld enlaiiHTMei. Tbc body omibu 

:iltlur ofailii^ polrpltJ^, or of fl^vural 
WdtCd t» k ewMlrct, uhlch ninully de- 

. Tolopa a firm outer byor or polypary. 

Oorypliodon, -rirA-don. A sen. of I'j- 

Ihe olppbBDl4 ODd tap1t«, fhnod In tba 
EocvflO JbrmatloD J of Jijif land and Frafioe. 
Ooryotldsa. -rlitl-de. A bm, or sbort- 

(ddtndol custom wl 

-;toW; orth 
a the sino ol 

r wblcta III order U 

lncini«jlT>bly (treat or ppoinngpd 
tiuii. C. ipwd, thBtlooDDCelvabl 
™io .t vfhfch coonlad bodlee n 
Oosmocony. -mng'oii-l. The i 

CoBmoUtTT, -I 

OooiDopolitaii. - 

OoBmoroma. -t 

Itor «hi>wfoc the position ol 
uiy (rtveii time, with reipe. 

'L^^ ; a klnf^ E>r qnf^D eoDSOFt. . 

O088. koa. Id InAla, a road-meunn, 

OosaaDk. 'eb):. One of a nu-Uke peopla, 

OoBaaa, 'im. PlBln India tanalln. 
CoaeaniiB, -«o'nuB. A gen, of ooleop- 

teraiia InaeMa, dun. CurcnHoEliiie, of 

wh!di C. llncnriB l> tbo type. 
OoHus, 'bus. a sen, of molhn, IXiti. 

up., Pnnta Araou and Mattra, 
line imall piu li 


OottagB-piano, pl-l-no 
right piano. 

Oottiaa. '. 


smbHDg ^ne Tool, Rrowtof Iz 

llbrwy, Ibaiidsd fc* Bin Eob«t 

CdUod aitf In tba ITth «taiu]r> added to 

^- *-'^ tan ud mndiob, iad baAds^ 

sl«B nir lk« bnaaflt of fii* fl 

to aS bOYlDA 41ld DATvtQD r^T""*l* (AlDOp 

Tngnlfli ud tbe omelg). lbs plKcal 
bfilOff cotjledoiurj. 

ymihae. kSih-l. Bed-dme ; ■ vltit n 
oelTedkboDtbAd-tiinfl; oppawd lalerw 
laugaax, lOit'Btz. A thras-muud Ua- 

TlfHwi. mOl A piece or timber ..._ 
%«noTe In It, B the alidn In nhhsb the 
^■Manofathectre run. (ha Dprighi 
kMtlortaaadgmteDrilDloe, A«. Onci 
aa Ala Baaantifthe slwa In > thutr 
artb* (fM* lualaded betwan the tlil 

lonllsr. kOl-Ur. Ai] Inni blude or knli 
turn 1 1 il tnto the bann of i phi« fOr tl 
porpoae of outtliig tho KTannd In front < 
bft plowHhAre. 

IvnltQ^-HAb, k^lt'er-neb- A popnli 
Buna tw the Hm-blrd atberwdne knowni 

if the tiee (Dfpl«rii odoraU), ord. 


jmt of n' h 
■aftiehed i] 

Xqnl weight, power, or agency MJtlng to 
etfoaltlan to Hiythlni;. A weight to bal- 
MUe tlie TlbmdDK pArti of mKhloery 
upon th^ ault \ bIbo. a welehC by which 
ft l«Ter uled upon hy an intnmltttllt 

Ooanter-flory, -OO-rt. In Her detiei 
that flowers with whLeh vj ordlnen 
edomed fltBDd Dppoelle each oth^ u 

OountBi-JiTltaat. -h'-ltant. In H 
a siibatanco employed to prodaee an i 
flclal or etnondary dleaaHjln order to 
lleve tbe primary one. The eommoi 

■a of a fbrma order 

L already eiJatlng fbr gn 
CDTlty or more Bore IdeatlflcBtlon 
ore or InBcrlptlen atampfld oo 

Oountaiiiaiui,- pin. A bed-corc 

<%iuntorplot. -plot. A plot or ar 

Ootutterpoiiit, -point. In Mue' 

alH as meaning the art of mualoal eoj 
ftltlon genortlly, 

Oonuter-poltite. In Her. when 
chevronB meet witb their potnia la 

OooIkterpTOOf. -pref In Eiigr. an 
prcaalon yleMed l^ a newly printed ] 

O^intenonnd, -ro 
Connteiacarp, -Urp 

parapet and gitOa. 
Coimtarslarn. -eln. A private nlgnal 

6ven u joldlers on gnard, with order* to 
t no man pees DDleas he Bnt gIVM tint 

Fort, the ei- 




oarl or count, or a lady possossod of the 
6^\ty In her own right 

Country, kun'tri. A tract of land; a 
kingilom. Rural porta of a region, as op- 
posed to cities or towns. Land, as op- 
posed to water. 

County, koun'ti. Originally, the dis- 
trict or territory of a count or earl. Now, 
i( district of a state or kingdom, separated 
from the rest of the territory for certain 
purposes in the administration of Justice. 

Coup, kd. A French terra for stroke oi* 
blow, and used to convey the general idea 
of promptness and force. 

Coupe, -pa. The front seats of a French 
diligence ; the front compartment of a 
first- clflDBs railway carriage. A four- 
wheeled carriage carrying two inside, 
with a seat for the driver on the outside. 

Couped, knpt In Her. a term used to 
express that the head or any limb of an 
anunal is cut off from the trunk : in con- 
tradistinction to erased, which Indicates 
that the head or limb is torn off. 

Couple-close, kop'1-klos. In Arch, a 
pah* of spars for a roof; couples. In Her. 
the fourth of a chevron, never borne but 
in pairs except there is a chevron between 

Coupllngr-box, - i n g - 
boks. In Mach. the box or 
ring of metal connecting 
the contiguous ends of two 
lengths of shaft. 

Coupon, kd'pon. An in- 
terest certificate attached 
to transferable bonds given Viiair 
for a term of years. One />,.„«m„„ v^^ 
of a series of tickets which Co°P»ng-l>o^- 
binds the issuer to perform some service, 
or give value for certain amounts at dif- 
ferent periods, in consideration of money 

Courant, -rant'. In Her. ahorse, hound, 
or other beast represented running. A 
piece of music in triple time; also, a 
kind of dance, consisting of a time, a step, 
a balance, and a couple. A drculating 
gazette ; the titie of a newspaper. 

Gburap, -rap'. A distemper in the E. In- 
dies, in whicn there is a perpetuiU irrita- 
tion and eruption. 

Courier, 'rC-er. A messenger sent ex- 
j)res8 with letters or dispatches. A trav- 
eling servant whose especial duty is to 
make all arrangements at hotels on the 
journey. A frequent titie of a newspaper. 

Cfoarse, k5rs. In a general sense, a 

moving^ or motion forward In any dlreo- 

tion; a conttnuouB progression or adyanoe. 

The direction of motion ; the line in 
which a body moves. In pedestrianiam 
and horse-racing, the ground or diatanoe 
to be covered. The chivge of one mounted 
knight or champion against another in the 
llsta. The period occuided by a revolution 
of the moon, or of the earth round the 
sun. The continual advance or progress 
of anything. The part of a meal served at 
one time. 

Courser, 'ear. A swift horse ; a runner ; 
a war horse. One who pursues the sport 
of coursing hares. One of the gen. of 
grallatorial birds (Cursorius), belongirg 
to the plover tribe, Gbariaarlad». One 
of the order of bifda called Coraorea or 

Court. kOrt. An indoaed iuiooyer«d area, 
behind or in firont of a hoaae, or snrround- 
ed by buildings ; a oourt-yard. A palace; 
the place of residence of a king or aovfflr- 
eign prince. All the surronndlDgs of a 
sovereign In his regal state; tiie body of 
persons composing the retfame or council 
of a monarch. 

Courteaan, 'S-san. A woman yrbo pros- 
titutes herself for hire. 

Court-eruide, 'gid. A directory or book 
containing the addresses of the nobility 
and gentry. 

Court-house, 'hous. A house In which 
established courts are held. 

Court-martial, -mfir'shal. A court con- 
sisting of military or naval officers, for the 
trial of military and naval olTenses, the 
members acting both as judge and Imy. 

Court-plaster, 'plas-ter. Silk varnished 
over with a solution of isinglass, often per- 
ftimed with benzoin, used for coverings 
slight wounds. 

Coury, kou'ri. A superior catechu made 
in India from the nuts of Areca Catechu. 

Cous-COUS, kdz'koz. A &vorito W.Af- 
rican dish, consisting of millet-flour, flesh, 
and theleaves ofthe Adansonladigitata, 
or baobab. 

Cousin, kuz'n. In a general sense, one 
collaterally related more remotely than a 
brother or sister. Specifically, the son or 
daughter of an uncle or aunt. In the sec- 
ond generation they are called second 
cousins. A title given by a king to a no- 
bleman, particularly to those of tiie €k)un- 

Cousin, Victor, koo'zAng. A distin- 

fulshed French philosopher ; b. 1792, ». 
867. He was the fuunoer of Syatematio 

Cousin-firerman, -jer-man. A consin tf 

Cow, kou. TbB j^enenl bina applied to 

Uieftm^Mnf the gen-BoBorSr B<* 


Ooatean, ko-ts', A ihort dagger lo use 

dnring the middle i««3 ; ■ banger. 

Cow-boy, Twf. A pswon who bu chai^ 

OouUlOmG»OIWO»,koo-Wlllt. A mem- 

ofcilUe. Tbe Dume glTsu to a buud at 

ber ofthebluodyKredthlriumyfraW, his 

uiaruuderi durlne the American Kevoln- 
tioi.,«holiifesl«rib8BemnJ ground be- 

uiocliiUi being RobcapletTovid Si. Just; 

B. 17M. guUluUned Jd^ 23, nai. 

tween the BHBhh wid American Unes. and 

Couvade, -rid. A sbigular custom prev- 
Uent uaoag Boma Qf flie primlUfe racM 

DDw-hunMncr lm.'l,..T,i.l„i. Th. u^ 

In al]part« of tbe world. After 

to IbOM I.L. , _- 

League lud CoTenut In Sootland. and 
_. ^..... .. ,B „ijg jjjrgHii^ resialod. the 

I joined In the SoIsd 
pTmnnt In So-"---' — ' 
e wbo tordbli 
of Charles 11. 

'n-ti7- One of the oldnt 
'"— "T. E. of Birmingham, 

urUest refbrmen : 

OoTU^imiiit, -point A fleli 
gitbBr ; as s covey of parDldceg. 

OowhB««. 'a], Tha hsirs of the pod ol 
a legumlnons plant, Mucuna prnriens. 
They eaaUr penetrate Ibe akin, and nro- 
duee an Intolerable lb 
l^ored medicinally ai 

Oowlith, 'leh. A pbnt fliun< 
iCTof IheOregon. The ro-- ' 

sweet- potato. 
Oowl, kouL A hood, eapeelall}' a monk's 
■---■, A covering fw the top -of a cUim- 
whlch turns with the wfnd, A wire 

■.. Theyar 

:mblea bi taaie thg 

Gvn* Monui 

Cowper, WUUam. An EniUih poet. 
tor<- hla'rt.'ulh. 
Crabba, Oeorse An Eoglisb poet: b. 

Oow-pox. 'pol". Tlio varcine dJuue 

genulns oow-l-OK to Ihe human Bubjeet. 
uid of conferring, In > grcU mKjortC)' ol 

fiDrAe'a heel, 1a said to pouesa the Bimie 

Cowry, 'A A tmill gutcropodona ihell, 
tho CyprnA iDonel*, iwd fbr oolii 1& paH4 
ofAfrk* andAftla. Tht/yvaej Iq T&lue. 
In Indt* a,0(PO lo T,OW are tquil to a ru- 
pee (CO oenUI, -vrblle la the Interior of 
itrha (00 are wwtb about thaauDB. The 
name Is alu glien lo other liutOt of the 
gtn. Cj-piia. 

Ooxcoml3. koka'kOm. The umb reeem- 
bHcEthator iioock nhkh BoemedfoolB 
wort fbrmerlf ta tlielr CAfia; hence qaed 
uftcD tor theoKp Itaelf. AfDp; a vain, 
■hour ftOoir. The name glnai tn a 
bsclaled ntlet7 of Cdoefai ortBtalii. 

'" ' "leperaonwhoslBOra 

rioan prajria 
loui Idraoi)- 
laine or B B. 

Ibniier^ used In tJie iniauhcture of hats. 
-Orftb, kn^. Apopnlar nameforaU Uie 

matn^B iDeflku, Doaa«tloDa ftumed hi 
the plQiniLch of tlio cnyflah, fonuerl; vJqad 
putfili'rLHl In Etfach repute aa aotadda. 
To mLuli n cnib. In rowlus, to mlai a 

Crab-apple, 'np^. A wild appla ; alao a 

III I ill I eiillh;.lp,l apple, 
CrabnaatcliBr, 'liaeh-ar. A spedee of 

bltti't-D , Uio 1 1 criidlaa Ylreeoens, Indlgenons 

Crabronidce. tra-brO'nl-dS. A fhm. of 

Crocldce, krus'l-d 

i' Bwom. Tba 

Decapoda, oomprtring manr »ner>. The 
aomuion large edible crab [>«Dn|ta to the 
fflD. CaDoer ; tho snuQ edible crab to the 
niL Orchma; thalon|f-Ajiii«dctabtii the 

-am. Gor7sta;tta«hermlt-enibtotbogaa. 
Fagnrna, and the land-crab lo the Een, 
Qeoandnua. Cancer, a algn Ih the zodiac. 
A Mine givm to twIoui maohlnee, used 
tn bulldlDi opeiMlona (br nlalng wel^ita, 
and Id kMSIng and dtubarglng Tesaeb. A 

a* yMiB lo lU fiilleit aUtttthtAm tt 6 

duck. (Anaa acuta). 
g, SHght abmpt r«pon 
ted. The bnnnied (kli 
Und of cake used for 
a from Uw relbse oftal' 

CracUiuv, ' ILig. SHght abmpt rvporta 
tViiquoDily reputed. The bnnnied skin 
ufroMtl^K ' "- 

.. ^if ihe FoUi 

ri Auelrlan cjtj, o 

Crag, feriig. A alMp, f „ 

gull rooli ; n rough brokeD J 

o'id^ lllioc^ne linlod, Bub^r£ 
Tldad Into throe mambfr 

DrBfT, the red crag sod t.., 
lowtt or coriilline oniB. Cra« 

hlllB, In'wydi spredj^loDB ' 

west or n'i^-wflBt, while 
the oppualle Me Is a sloplnn decdlTlW. 
The rook on which Edinbnrgta Oattl* 
Elands present* a dne emuopls. 
Oraka, krOk. Crei. agen. of mlantnT 
, cnUaUK^BltMif.tkm.BsUldB. 'niabart 

known spcdn It tli4 corng a t* or lui£- , er^^r l!;« nlixf-.-^ prvmibmv 
.. _ . .!_ _^_ ,.. ._.. i._. .J Crank, Lnuk. An 

Cnunplt 'pll. Alibrfa nriii"l;>l ■! t:." 

eBiurihB P'lliljanI nf ■ nninl : a I.t < f 

bm Willi finuJl >iilki4 In it. tt -■ ■ :<l>..' 

AulfUHl to tho t 

•ppuntiu BttA [n tbv nialn^ i 
Ormmp-rliig'. Immp'rlmr. 
K III* Kngliih •ovwrfDT 

Ontnk-plit. 'nlB. [n a rinn nrin*. Un 

CrBii»-(ly, '( . ._ _. 

Tl|.all.l». T. olenrva ii tlio wuU-lLr 
Onusnn. kranir'tMn. Th" Flhrlir 

CnmfoBnomy, kr;i'nt'nc'n<~>-iii\. 

OBBlOMOpr. -m'kii'Tii An i'lnn 
IkaofttwiilLiillirltliUuiiinr iif di> 

, Tlw fterj fnm wWeh 

„...,. tin nJIflu: aymbnl Inlha lllcli- 
luiliofr^cnllud.MaUol b«aii» dlM- 
bwllrnnt lul^md Inbiny. 
Otspo. krap. A lUn. tiuapanat Mnff, 
nuduot nwftDi emniiKd uil twtalcd oa 

Ch'AvmA, H&rcii« t^^¥iI^^_ IctiU'iAl 

bHliK I'l-HTjiiid Poni(«^v; Khlrh d«- 
Btroj'ed (he Mnalnrtal power; a. TM. D. 

;iIMii1n> Ilu1<.'iip. 

Cratlppiu. A eclrbnted MTtlkna 
liKllnMinlin-artba rrriinUIlca. tkiurisbtd 
st»iit Nl n. .'. Il«wn« thi) twhn «f 
<:ii»-n<, v.'bii |>rDDOun<.'«l hitii (he ablcU 

Or&Tat. kn-ntt'. A nevk-clolh : no arU- 

d. Tticnna*. An Annlru 
II. tn Vtw Turk, m4, d. tn Idn- 
r. Ammg tiU w«iki m th* 

IroDn ■tntas'af Beethorel In B«toa Mu- oUldreD ofiXKir mnoBi irbo Iutb 
WMUin|rtoii (t the <'»pltol. Kichmond, Crecy (Cr«K»y), lirt»'( ■ " 

■nn |M|wr. 

«floa|^mll., _. 

tednvluKHpoii IJUHif,Ta|ihtc 
OMUn-kTSin. TlHi butynuoi 
MiUkrwiloli -■ — ■-- •' — --»■— 

ai«ditPoiialer, kru-il^ roa-gTi. Ain«]« 

Thiibsiit "' irtrtnB money on land In Knnoa, the 

- '"fiynitBl of IhB lian litlBK l>y u iuiiuiiE7 

; Credit UobiUer.nin-b^lrJ 

whteh orlielBUiMl In Ii'tsDn In 18H, Iti ob- 

)But9 betpff to undertakd Irmdln^ finlar- 

prites of M kinds on IhQ piindple of 

liniCM HnblUt;. A elinllir erhnmo In the 

United BUtflk tUcIi Innilvrd the nputA- 

.. ..isvnn """ of B nnmber of public men. 

chcMP Credo. krv'dA. Thscr»il. isuklorsmw 

or ihort Intl'Oiprvlo.'ofthoK.CChHrch. 

Creed, lavd. A brirf iummmy of tha 

>Zdu^- A]™,.toJlo Cr,,.d. Any i^-slUB of prtn- 

OieMoto. kro'.-»ot, A .Lbstmeo ex- ™?^i^':l': h* .rt"" '"'"•'« "^ ■*■ 
Ifnclod from wood t»r,frenenillyobt»lned, «'i»ii "J"''- » nvmii. 
howDviT, thini tho pmduoiB of Ibu de- Creek Tnriinm a TS. American tribe 

erfl] I nntlM-utlc porUoortof Flnrlcla, Goinviniuid Alabama, 

- • ■ — ' -~ "■- Tfiillkflof Uie ti 

tided with flret 


oainjiidgn buinit rteni'l')' deft»t*d by Ocd. 

,„ __ J«Saon;lutheSemlnokMrM-of)BI8U»y 

™;rr^ were thealltonof tho whllee. Theym 

'•ly, the no, peacafWly located In lb* lodlu 

IT tot the daeser, krdp'er. One vha ereefa; tlwt 

__ _ llkflofUie«b- 

»„n_aa it 1- formed in tte B'^J' 


d tnflde 

Iff plant 


il aUDOiin]; ibe BUndvd ItMiruiil 

fliedoniiboeto prevent fUpiiinir 

naler. Tha popular name of u tu 
birds (Cfrtliladit) wbicb renemb 
<ivoodpecten, ui too joruifT^ iiuu uiu luiru i^ Dwuji, 

mnomofbomingtliodrad. Ut.1 Ndson. A TurklBh mUlbuj mmlc- 

ooa muo a. v^ii...,,., *uo «.,..™ ^. , , , '"'"«" "' l'""'""*" In Oielbrm of 
.iBiiK ntbrcatury, by lbs ArnsM "laiinioon. i 
', and by Smdoiirlns la the ISlb ™"^*' ^ j*tj 

nrr*; BDd''tbo l^rt HBi 

ftm.,(buiul in apoD)^, ud nuwrvd ta [„„,„ ^ 

W"™"""- PIIIJI fUSbfnrlod 

Onnellatod, 'ool-lit-»l. FunHihod l,n plvota/nd ourl.'doa 

™h^"l^.'^:f™?£i"'"'"''"""™''''' CrBtoeeoiis Period. la GwL U« up- 

0»enll»l>rn«,-nl-liTmi<^Afen.offl8liei. fow ,hu Torllary and abovo tto OoHW. 

Creole, 'fil. 

-lilHTia, A een,o 
b tbs ^It-hesd or pildcn Diaid,'aud 



natlyo of OiB W*|8t Indies tw^,i„l tdlutalntliB'vIjiej'ofthiAlpi. 
"n"^ naa^a ofthu W C^**"". lirWiini. A falsobood ; a Or«- 

Croon. In Uytb.Klnitot Corinth, wbo indaUarwere 

1'"?.''.T^2''?^,.';.^™.''J Cretonne. tro-b,n-. A ooioo cloth 

prlntid on ono aide wlCb ptotorial anl 

GreuM, ktla. A d«pb of CenMl 

lendasll]', thai a Cralaa 

betrothed h 

hayiag abandoned Uedf 

"indaoinuble dreea whio 
e »nd desiioyed thopalaco with < 
von and tbs rcnialndW of lila turn 

Oraon. InMyUi, King ofTbpbos, whonf "kf(f™7Arcnt 

tarltories wen nvBg<^ by tbo ilphlni. <;. arrou a |[b>- 

eff^red hia erowo to whoever would solve dtr na deep ai 

thflrlddlca andlbnacluar tbo country oT the glaoFor It 

the Snblni, n fMt which mu ancom- thick. Abreach 

pllshed by <£dlpiil, wlia became King of in the embanli- 

Onpon, 'pon. A 9no stntT msAe of 

Gufat ; pop, abt. a80.0l»._ 

nated D 

The erepotift or Kapica consist altogethc 
of silk. 

OrepusmilarlBi, -poe'ku' 
of Eepldoptcrous Inaecta 


Oiewel, krf- | 

9 occupylns an woratod or 
tween the butter- thread of allk 

'ent The Incrouing or Orlbb&ffe, 

flgure of Uu new moon, giiua U aaii, Gonunt^ kOiaAn. 


pLired with ibe whole pock by two, thnw, 
trtmOT yer^uat. t'. lH>Ard, a board UMd 

Olicetua. kri-s.-'t"«. Tbe ininiitor, 1 

Orlckat, krtit'- ^^-s,^ . 

rt. An liMet _.>^bBV 

wd. OrOKptu*. Tlun ■» it^eni ■)» 

.,,,^Uckrt. An op«i-^ gime pli; eil wltl 

Oli<*rt-<illb, -klub. An u»Ml»tlon or 
fuLud Jor filHyliLX cHcket, 
Orlmen, Tie, kri-tiTu'l. A penlnanl 

Orlsper. krtsp'o 
Crispin, kris'j>i 

O^pln, St. 

BhoeuiiilLcm; B. 

mulyrdniii M a < 
CrtM-croM, 'ki 

AlAtas by children 

CTdttendeu. John Jordan, An Ameir 
SttUt lAjgir 

teolncky. RMppoinUil u 
Lh thrj close of PrraWent Hll- 

znel, krIi'L A roEurhDcfiH oD tbe iur- 
e nfidaM which douds In IrtiBpurcncj. 
>ak. krc'ik. Tha low, hArah bdudA ut- 
<'>1 by ■ fr«« or nvGD, or a ilka loond. 
Croatia, kro-a'abo-a. Anandvotkinj^oui 
of cvutnu EurofK', ai^olnln^ nad dvpen- 

tila. governed l^ a viceroy, oallfH) th> 
Ban. Cap. Agiam, pop. ubt. i,20lt,000. 
CrDObei, kro'aliH. A spcdeaofknltUnf 
pfrtormoA by incaiitiof a&mHll liooki tl|a 

{omgiMiit Ilia ttma fiuDUlcB CnwodDtdat 


AlUgitorls uid Oaililldiv. af which the 
erooHllle or KgTpt. tha AiiutIchq alliga- 
tor, uid the Tpdum g^riH are renpvctjrely 

cUifE of Lydi 
u : D. fi^, I 

. ; AUflHrtuAted Mf<, by w 

Btopped dlbpuBon to the open. Bome- 

OnunweU. OllTer. Lord Protenior 
of the CommoDHialth. Tho dsBcundant 
of B nobte Envllnh tiaoily. v. at )(unt 

lu the ^ritanB, and r^nteicd Parliament In 

oiill' WMjfe. Hd rapiifiy i™e to the 

Cromwell, Hlcbard. Soa and b. lo 
Ua fcthor, Ollvfr. B. IftfB. n. 1712. Ho 
nslgied the ProliTtorahlp In ICW. 

Oromwell. Thomas. Sari of Eaaax. 
Art T t pj flifth BUtesman, d. 14b0; beheaded 

DP a Ailae c}iarirp -of 1 
hpld Urn ntHM cf prii 
1l™ry vril, 
Oronstadt, krAD'nUl 

xik, kriik. Anr bnid, to 
ly bvnt or ourvM liintTtub 

-al itatTofablshnpar 

._ jphonl'a laa. Thi 

Iron chain wUh Ita appruDrlituhoakB. bi 

A Bmalf curved CDbe mpp 

l>><:k ; hcner, falL^ in aa' underUklnt. 
Croppy, '1. A (wreon whoss r*n hurt 

Cross, krvs. A nlbbrt. conilstliix of two 

lar, atid 1"« trtM.flrte, behfbynianT ■ 
athorlOM to be tho most honontj; 
haxzii In all heraldry. A mixlnr of hreedi 
1 produdnp »-' — '- 

csoqusT . M 

IiiqulilUm, who iniMla > tow btfbn Ida 
lualHllnra to rtpftind Ui« (.luliolin lUth, 
thoivli with thn lou ot lurtuno nnd 11(0. 
OnquBt. kni'kk. An np«n->lr Rune 
pliyud witli « rni11«C, halln, pf^ iir |ioBt«, 
elAt Mrimof ln>n]i.x'i» .ir ari-li.*. It 

be rilvlil.^l Intn p»riii:'«, or lilay e»uli for 

Oioquatt*. -Xrt. A Med, )brcr-mut 
tall, inulu of clilrkMl. m.'iil. und linllar. 


Orotalu*, -lu.. .Thorn 

fUckoo-,11 lfeD.Of t.trd(, 

ord. Sc 

dun. CuouU.ln;. 

Croupisr, krfi'pi'^T. Or 

tepdi ud cultotts tlH n 

■oney ot 

IWTiv >itl H tho lowur I'Dil 



Otow, kru. A |!m«n] nu 

Tie fern 

luff ofn alfllT coTTTlnff Abraaadrak. 

Into fbur equal parta or quadruita. 

QrotalldB, krA-tal-l-dS. A hm. ot\ea- 
oinoui mptaU, end. OpUdU, dlTlded 

Into asrwal f«Btn, ot which Cmtalui ud 

OrMmlo, tM-16, A TuUih mulaa ta- 


treatrvnt In uia 
iDperlal Trenaury of VlenniL, Isoompoaftd 
oT eight platea uf gulil, four luga and Ibbr 
■mall, oamuntsil by hlnffca. Tls laija 
ptitea vo Btadded with predoaa atou^ 



nd luiah.Inii L'brltt 
flaming H«niphLni, 

plAGpd nUernwUlj 
ivlDg In thsmlil- 

drvle with jvoiUiiiB llku ttauM ofi 

rasnt^ «'kb plflit fii'Tin'-ili'-lb. 
whloh rifto ad mont' qujirli'r-druli-H 
DDder a dniiUu lli^Tir-di'-lls. The 
wJlMlhclta™, '" ""i^"' 

Oiowu-BlasB, 'gl«. Thn flnps 
irlth fur mnptric Ln'lruui 
Crown-piece, 't>ri. A titiiM 
OKnni-prliice.'|<rlnf>. Thi' prjni^ 

Crown-wheel. 'whi'I. A Kh« 
■Hth ect (t rWbt iini;lon Hith lis pi 

(bow'B-feet. kwi'fit. Tbo k 
broogitoulbyiMtn undfrund nrau 

- aaibalUrortholttik-ominui, 
Qrosier. krA'zM-iT. An or- 

m flwUt^d cmsH or cruclflx, 
boma Itj or berbra lui nrch- 

The mm^cr l< olbn nonfounded 
wllh Itia bishop'i nulnnl 
>Uir, irbkb in quftu iHinlmlkr, 


Omolble, 'ai-bi. A mpldnir pot^ hia 
of aarth, nod m tnnparcd >nd hskcd u 
eadura oilreiiio liuat wlthuut fininE, nil 
Sir meltinE aroi, meUJn, /cc. liruelb] 
■» aom^jmim inida of uthcr mntarin 
u htoefc-lMd, plHUiui, rtav, *o. A h 
loir place »t Iho bottom of a ohcmlcalfi 

Oniaiflx, 'al-Bks. A runrespatntten or ■ 
CFoaa »1Ui the llgn™ of Chrtal cmolfled 

Oraat. 'at A tIbI or nnall glaaa txitila 

Orypt, krii.t. A lubtomuiBin cell or 

temiuTt orboJ'let!'' Tbat part of"! «iU»- 
droloreliTirchbiiiiiatbthDlIoar, eet apart 

THpptaale fbr wcrplSon prcunt In the 

aTd'iDyrUo. In AnaLa'uttiaround'rd ei- 
CTCKil^co, In wblch tba rnmmoItliinB or 
tho artorK-a tcmlnae.. lo tbo wrUcsL put 
of the UdncYS. 

CTyptooephalQa. krlp-td-Mfal-oa. A 
gao.of ooLSDptflroaa Lijvf>cti, &ni. Crjai> 



A K-C ..Tc-I. ... 

Ural to nlJ thcXyn, Ibu Drill Ii 
hcmivpr, cann.'ircd. 
OlTptoplutBTU, -tofa-^.i. 

jiBlcdhj »fertfrlD numDcr of plane 
a bent Is Iho Vnnli^s' ' 

luA crTBtnl, jk TJiriety or cnltAmui apai, 

orOFTiUllHd (vtnamu nrUiiic. 
OrrataUlna, -[n. A m-iUlllEed rock, or 

DUB pirUallT cryBUIIIiea, uenultij. In 

Chsm. » old nim« for loillue. 
OiTBtallotd. -old. Tbo ntinii! frlT^n to 
, HlnUon, of iBmlne throueh membmnpB. 

morpliW, u>d oiaUit'xHd, aro ciyntslloids! 
Tliir \tb opposed to colloMa, \rhleb bivt 
■olUl1> poTmnnllnB power. 
OrratallomstiT, -om'et-ii. The art 

OMnobranolilata. ten-vbrnnuk-fa"- 
B. VrnidrrllnovCT-iiimhtomlljofinol- 

ber. The scicj wo wparklp, and Iho di- 

OteuodaotyloB, -d^'tll-iii. A gw. of 

Otonoldei, -id'd'C-1. The Bd or.1, of fMall 
flihra. uiDordliiK lo the cluoUcalloii of 
AffaaptE. locJudliif tbs pcrdb, floqudor 

Oteaomya, 'O-inlfl. A iion. of rst-llke, 

Otenophora. -orfi-m, 

cb m » typo. They ( 

mftrml irlilch never dovalopioond, 
Oab. tub. Thej-onof of thadoR, lion, 
kMr or flu ; ■ i>nppy : ■ whelp. A. yooDg 
her or glrt~lM watampt. 


Cuba. Tho iBT^eat uid moat luportAnt 
or tlia W. lodloi. oiled tho " Queen ol 

een m,; bmultTi frooi il to B.S m.' ™W 

ri'sa of in^lnal BboUtion ; chief dtlofi and 
Ihicrbi PrinclpcrCardsniiaudManiMil™; 

vollil IxHly -Hith al: 

In Arilh.tho product of ; Cub 
innibFr mulllplled Into it- 

niiinbcr vhlch. mnltlpllal Into lUeir, ud 
thon Into the product. uroduci'B the cube; 
DC which IwIm malMplInl InUi It^ir, pin- 

ia So\. ti^iQcA. en \aai!in^'i^'3m. 


. • 


OnouTbit, Icn-blt. A chemical vMsel 
mftde of copper, glau, tin, or Btoneware, 
and nsed in distillation. This vessel, with 
its coyer, constltates the alembic. 

Ouonrbitao8B, -ll"s6-6. An ord. of pol- 
vitetolous dicotyledonous plants, compre- 
nonding the melon, gourd, cucumber, col- 
ocjnth and bryony. 

Oudbear, knd'b&r. A powder used in 
dyeing violet, purple and crimson, pre- 
pared from lichens. 

Cuddle, 'dl. A hug ; an embrace. 

Coi bono, ki b5'nd. For whose benefit ? 
Popularly, for What use or end ? 

Cuinafire, kwln'^. The making up of 

-. tin into pigs, dbc., for carriage. 

Cuirass, kwi-ras'. A breastplate ; a piece 
of defenrfve armor covering the iKxly from 
the neck to the girdle. The 1st and 2d 
liife Guards and Royal Horse Guards 
Blue are the only cuirassiers in the British 

OuiX^Bouilly, kwer-bo-il-li. Leather 
■oftened and impressed with ornaments, 
Used for shields, girdles, sword-sheaths, 
coffers, pen-cases, shoes and many other 
articles ; also, in the 16th century, for 
hanging? for rooms. 

Ouisll, kwis. Defensive armor for the 
thighs, originally of buff leather, but later 
of iron or steel. 

Cklisixie, kwe-zSn'. A kitchen ; the 
cooking aapartment. Manner or style of 
cooking; cookery. 

Cujas, JaOQues, koo'zhds. A French 
iorlst ; b. 1520, d. 1600. Ilallam eulogises 
nim as the '* greatest of civil lawyers.'* 

Ouldee, kul'dS. One of an ancient order 
of monks in Scotland, Ireland and ^Yales, 
supposed to have been founded in the 6th 
century by St. Columba. 

Cul-de-sac, kul'de-sak. A street or pass- 
age closed at one end ; a blind alley. 
Milit. an army hemmed in at the rear and 
flanks, and having no exit but by the front. 

Culicidsd, ku-lis'i-de. A sub-fam. of 
dipterous insects, fam. Tipulida). The 
:i gen. Culex comprehends the common gnat 
~ and mosquito. 

CuUdt, knl'et. Broken glass brought to 
the glass-house for the purpose of being 
melted up with fresh materials. 

CMUoden. A moor in Scotland, near 
Inverness, celebrated for the total defeat 
of Prinoo Charles Edward Stuart by the 
TZngWah uider the Duke of Cumberland, 


Calm, kolm. Anthradt* shale, an Im- 
~ pcmaooal. 

Culmination, kul-mi-na'shdh. The 
transit of a planet over tlie meridian, or 
highest jwint of altitude for the dky. 
Top ; crown. 

Cult, kult. Homage : worship. A system 
of iviigious bi'lief, esi>ecially the rites and 
ceremonies em ploy oa in worship. 

Culverin, 'vcr-in. A long piece of artil- 
lery, serving to carry a ball to a great dis- 

Cidvert, 'vert. An arched drain carried 
under a road, &c., for the passage of 

Cuma, ku'ma. The first Greek settle- 
ment in Italy, 1050 b. c, in the Campagna, 
near Baiffi. 

Cumana, koo-ma'na. The first citr 
founded by Kuropeans in America, 1528, 
in Venzuela ; present pop. abt. 10,000. 

Cumberland. William, Duke of. 
Second son of George II., of England, b. 
1T21. i>. 1765. He commanded the English 
army at its defeat by the French at Fonte- 
noy, 1745, and the same year defeated 
Prince Charles Edward Stuart, at CuJlo- 
den, Scotland. 

Cumberland Gap. An importaat 
strategic defile in the mountains dividing 
Kentucky and eastern Tennessee, sucoeas- 
fUlly occupied by the Union and Confed- 
erate forces in the late Civil War. 

Cumberland Mountains. A branch 
of the Appalachian range, dividing Vir- 
ginia, Tennessee and Kentucky, and ex- 
tending through Tennessee Into Alabwna. 

Cumberland River. A oonsidenble 

stream, which, rising in Kentucky and 
running through a portion of Tennessee, 
re-enters Kentucky and empties into the 
Ohio ; length 600 m. 

Cummer-bund, knm'er-bund. A doth 
girdle or waist band worn in Hindustan, 
sometimes embroidered and ornamented 
with lace and pearls. 

Cumshaw, 'sha. In the East, a present 
or bonus ; originally applied to that paid 
on ships which ent^^ the port of Can- 

Cuneiform, ka-nd'i-fbrm. Having the 
shape or form of a wedge; spedflcally, 
the epithet applied to nie inscriptions 
found on old Babylonian and Persian 

Cupola-furnace, -fer-nas. A fUmaee 

for melting iron. 
Cuppinsr-erlass, kup'ing-glas. A glass 

vessel to be applied to the skin in the 

operation of cupping. 
Ouitrite, ka'prit The red oxide of eep* 



Oatt^valTS. kap'i 

id With DTJiD^ [welf DfiuLaini 

Omarl. kn'n-r<" A rcatiindB snbn 
toatMtut ot Oir uneaun citnuit cif S 
BOa toitnm. a»d V tl>R S. Anierli^ 
Ham St poltoBlnr Iheir arrows, i 
mv<»li'Iivduced wlih comiuritli- .... 
ninl^lnto th« aUmentAiy caJia]. but ir 
- ■ fntrodaottd Inio * pnDcture bo iu to mix 
with the blood, llie etTEicta htd luatuitly 

Oorate. 'iBt. A. rlerg;^iiii In Eplscnjial 
dhtirehoii vmpLoffd fa pctrorm dlvlnn nor- 
yUMiniSmf^tntlbaiummbsai. pstmid, 

■dpendtory ud perpetual. 

«aperlntendfiDC4oruriv[hlii|,', u anxilvor- 
■IQ', pHbHc Ubiuy. rn'osuQui, Aa. 
tbrlw, knr'bi. An AlHisn iniuii»i of 
am^tr. '"rrtoj from T| to 18hi11™«. 
wa A.r lit nttmea In tha ula el pum- 

thJ i".rf jT^enMlW" 
Ourmn. JohnPhtlpot. A dliUngulili- 
od Irlnh tdToraCa noil BUlannui, the moat 
elomiaiit omlor at big day ; r. ITH, n. 

OoTTanoy. tnr'nD-al. That which in In 

I dKK^kMMu'u 





currency, gold, silrer and copper coin. 
Paper earrenOT*, that which passes car- 
rentraa » aabsotuto for money or a repre- 
■entatlTe of it. 

Chxrlvw, kerlQ. Nnmeniaa, a gen. of 
grtflatoitel Mrda of the 
sam^ fiunfljas the snipe 
and woodcock. 

Curling', korl'ing. A 
winter amusement, 
ogriginoting in Scotland, 
on the ice, in which con- 
tending parties slide 
large smooth stonee of 
a OTCular form from one 
ouu-k, called the tee, to 

Cnrrent, 'rent. A body of water or air 
moving in a certain direction. The set of 
a eurrent is that point of the compass to- 
ward which the water runs ; and the drift 
is the rate at which it runs. Electric cur- 
rent, the passage of electricity from one 
. pole of aa apparatus to another. 

Oarride, M-kl. A chaise or carriage with 
two wheels, drawn by two horses abreast. 

Olirricillilin, -rik'ii-lum. A race-course; 
aplace for running, &c. A speoiAed course 
of study in a unircrsity, school or the 

Ouxry, 'ri. A sauce much used in India, 
containing cayennc-pcpcr, garlic, tur- 
meric, coriander seed, ginger, and other 
a^ng spices. A stew of fish, fowl ^bc, 
cooked with curry-sauce. 

Ourry-coxxib, -kfim. A comb "with very 
short metal teeth, for cleaning horses. 

Cuxxy-powder, -pon-der. A condiment 
used for making curry, composed of tur- 
meric, coriander seed, ginger, and cay- 
enne-pepper, to which salt, cloves, carda- 
moms, pounded cinnamon, onions, garlic, 
and scraped cocoa-nut may be added at 

CSursores, ker-sOV@z. The runners, an 
ord. of birds, fom. Struthionidte of most 
ornithologists, ord. Ratltse of others), so 
named tram their remarkable velocity in 
running. The order comprises the ostrich, 
cassowary, emu, rhea, and apteryx. A 
name given to those spiders which make 
no webs, but catch their prey by swill 
pursuit, such as the wolf-spider. 

Oursorius, 'ri-ns. A gen. of grallatorlal 
birds, the sub-fam. Gursorinte of some 
naturalists, belonging to the plover tribe, 
indnding the black-bellied courier, the 
brazen-winged courser, and the cream- 
colored courser or swift-foot. 

Onrtottoa^ keH-i^aboa, .The diffarenoe 

between a planet's true distance from tht 
sun and the curtate distance. 
Curtein, ker-tfin. The pointless sword, 
curled before the kings of England at 
their coronation, and emblematically oon- 
sidered as the sword of mercy. 

Curtis, Georgre Tioknor. An Amer- 
can jurist and writer on political economy; 
B. in Mass. 1812. 

Curtis, Georffe Williaxn. An Amei>> 
lean j>olitical economist, author and edit- 
tor, for some years editor of "Harper's 
Weekly,*' and previous toMhat editor o/ 
" Putnam" and ** Harper's Magazine;" b. 
in R. I. 1824. 

Curule, kQ'r51. Belonging to a chariot. 
Privileged to sit in a curule chair. 0. 
chair or seat, among the Romans, an em- 
bellished chair or seat of ivor>', gold, Ac, 
S laced in a chariot, wherein the chief of- 
cers of Rome were wont to bo carried in- 
to council. It was also a mark of distinc- 
tion for dictators, consuls, pnrtors, cen- 
sors and ediles, who were from this cir- 
cumstance called curule magistrates. 

Curvilixiead, kerv-i-lin'e-ad. An In- 
strument for describing curves. '^ 

Curvilinear, -er. Having a curve line ; 
consistiAg of cuirve lines; bonnded by 
curve lines. 

Cushew-bird, knsh'&-berd. Ounuc 
pauxi, a bird resembling the cnrassow, 
and sometimes called the galeated ouru- 

Cushixiff, Caleb. An American jurift 
and statesman ; b. in Mass., 1S0(^ d. UB79. - 
He filled the civil positions of member 6f 
Congress, Commissioner to China, U. S. 
Attorney-General and Minister to 8pain, 
and was a brigadier-general in the Mexiosn 

Cusp,kusp. The 
point or horn of ■< 
the crescent, 
moon or other 
luminary. InAfi- 
trol. the first en- 
trance of any 
house in calcula- 
tion of nativities. 
In Math, the ter-| 
minal point or* 
corner formed by 
two branches of 
curves meeting. 
In Arch, a term applied to the points of 
the small arcs or fonations terminating the 
Internal curves of the tre-foiled, dnqne" 
foUed, Ac., heads of Gothic windows and 
panels; iUBo, the p«&!S«dX qI «. \K}is^Kil 




Ifi'di-iL Tho ulirlnn nf pra- 
In Uiu ahupe qf > uUinlnl. 

OuModlan, -in. Onn wU" hM thn nn 
or fliubHl]- uf allbnry, public tiuUdlug. 

OuBtom-houwi. 'tnm-linmi. Tbahoiinp 

hh°rFtliiicii<Iuin> IK piM. Thuvhale 
«j-Hrn. hym«nj of vridcli thociiitoms 

under eeD.MiuMi 

Outohsrv-, 'b-t1. Io tun E. IniitM, ( 
ttourt of Junllce or public offic. 
ffntliliart, Bt. An Anclo-Suon monk. 

dutlvle, ku'd-hl. Tb« outerrnoat 

or Itic hody, ejioept the nolla ; Ibe e| 

■ •^ tbo liarltof splsnt; Ibeouter p 
of th« epidemilt. AlhbiiUnform 
Iha iQT^ce or liquor. 
Ontlaaa, totTw, a broid cnrrlnu ( 
used hy CAvebj ; ji hanger, aa^d b, 

Oatlar, 'Icr. A maker of dmler in k 
■bd other eunlDi InstnimenU, Om 

Oatlerlacen, -l-ii'FA-f'. A hm, o' 
furolil alga'. rvpr»enl«L by the gen. 

ObUat. lei. A pinvor ml orm^ 
KaBunlly s nvt of the rib wttb tlu 

sir girdl« ; i>aa 

u dlstlnpulnlied Cutler. 

on InolMir, A ^miiU bwt used bf sblpa ol 
Wir. A vewel rtwed nearljr Uke s ifcop, 
itith one mMl Md m itrrieht randtog-bow- 

employml fcr the prsraiUDti orimnrellng 

10(1, jcSm mslm-brlck, 

In I 

Bub"lAiico of a ciyital, deatroylng or leu- 
Cuttar-bax, -hfir. Tbe bu of ■ boring 

W applied to thofii 

, patolJiig, TU-nlabLng, 

for poUahln^wnoi 

Ontwal, '»>!. In the K. Indies thocblef 

Ont-water, 'ws-ier. The fore part of a 
ship's prow. Ttie tower portion of the 
pier of* bridge, (Ormod nlQi BU ancle d I 

acHon of Sia iralfiT, loo; *e. 
Cnvier, OeoTKea Ohrstieil Jjbo- 
pold Daffobsrt. Boron. An emi- 
nent Freni^h nalumUsI : n. ITM. n. MSA 
}ll« principal "wotI 

Animal Klng- 

MoUuHn, ^ 

. irtv,.<ia^ -^ ,M^^-^ - .- tj thu aeeeptod 

\ \iuVtoCTAfAji£U^ f^^^s Hq rifto pab- 

OnTpli iKayphi. Albert, kotp, A 
C^OO. The cap, ur I'i'ru at ttiri lllliii i 

Lima. Prvii«nt pop. Ai^ A't 
Owt. Anabbr«viDll«n'>rh[ 

p. A [ihotoerspli ot^- 

Oybele. eIb'E>-lc. Tn Mvtb. >li>o known 
uOneii, litaf'S. OnniuKi VwM; diiiBbfrr 
of CWuKor Ur»im»lp4id Tww, wlfu of 
(>Mnrii. anil nintbur «r .Tanllrr M'l otb.T 
df)lL«i; hL?n<» rulJr;! "^KihiT rif Ikf 
G^M3^" Bhols (rcm-TiJly rcnmwnlnVtn n 

chariot dr»»ii li» 11 -■ - - -- - 

with M.crKl hrnMUl, 

Orblnni. 'bl-iim. A 

Oycladsa, nlkln-dc 

pljIB Uflln. A InnR- pcrEnil nf yeftrt : u 

D BdI. m tana emjilK/ni 

In Ibr tlipojy of »n1nl leaf Drini^flnHBt, 
to cipnM ■ (iinitilMt IDn of Ibe tpln. 

Mrtflrtlfl f.rpli', ■ paiori <* 19 faun, aflv 

spi'r4vilof^y»n.irtKE the domlslai 
or Siudaj leUen return to their former 
place. Atxaprocoed In tlie Ibrmer ordor, «» 
eonllngtotho Jolhuiealvhdu-. C. of 1d- 
dtctloD, ■ period onST»n, ilthaeodor 

filrmonUBiiT toi, to i<ty the tnkUeriwbo 
were oblteeu to ««r»0 on Ij- for that period. 
OycUcm llUlE-a. A Ikm. of leltmmemaa 

tob^i,eMles (Cosaidi) ud Chrytomelr. 
C^obranchlttt* . IIA-bnuink'i -a-ti. 
Anord. of f^Pteropodi, eohalstlii^ priui- 

CycloRTaph, -rnl. An biatnunaat Ijt 
^N-rlhlni.' the iKt of drcloi. 

CTcIoid.'klold. ^"j^^r-^ 
A nirvu gen /^ f \ \ 
H«e<t by « / V J \ 

point In ihe / \ ■' , _^ 

phuifarariKla CjdoM. 

IS rolled Blond > ilnlgbt Use. ud kept la 

Oycloidat 'o-i. Tbo * 

Cflona, laolud- 
n Ddiuo mb 

OTcIopedia. -klo-pO'df-o. A work oon- 
ulnlnK deflnltlfHia or uconnbi of tbo prin- 
iflial inbjeita In oas or aU bnnohei ot 
Htenoe, Art, or lounlng. 

Cyelops. -klAno. In Mfth. a nue at 
fiiuiUi, bavlnebnt one cyo In tbe centre of 
the forebeid : tbev were thff armoieni of 
.'opller, forfrlRK his thunderbolu heneatk 
Mount Etna, under direction of Tiiloin. 
Homer TBrioi tills accnnnt. detcrihlni- ch* 
C. uiiglgaDtlo triboof lawleiscunlbsli, 
who were destroyed by Apollo. 

dlTUediatA rauY B«a«V n vnUfis UM. 


Anulte. Lyn m 
^liodei^preM. »H'LD-dpr-i>i 

■^■SSZ'h mX'S J"™" of »' 

fBCti-ail Ufa flat Fu/bcs. 
Crlindrold. -dmM. A -"Hil IkmIv, re- 

Mmbllnirnncht cvliiidrr,but tunlntthe 

1MK09 sMIptLial. 
Ojrllndro-osivBl, -drii-ii ir'val. In 

Omi. n Wrm .p].ll«l lo » shot iavlnB m 

ej-llndrlaa] Iwdy tmiL OElval lirsil. 

the cornice, tiiopraflln of which IS&FIIrcc 

«ro tiHichrd uul ehlltcd with in iron 
mil hrld In the rlrbt hnnil, KhtlMlie 
CfintullBinpiiDrtedlntbulcft l>/a«rd. 
CymothoadM, al-tnu-thu'D-iIi'. A ftm. 
Driau|ioi1uil9 iTMlmwMS ndlimliko the 

ElllquiwniiuiD>-Bp«li'!i of nnh. 
CymiT. Uiu'il. Thn sitnc ilvcii lo 
IhnnfrlvH by the Welnh. [n lln wider 
sppHisUcm, that jxirtlon of the Cdlla noa 
vThlcb at one tluiu oiniplnl nil Britain, 
and -xnif (X[ie]le<l ftvm Ibo llislibiidi bv 
tht GadhcHo tlcotn, mod fhiin t ho IaitIuiA 
of Proltand and Esuland tiy the Baiona 

Iho andi'nt Rrltalnn. The Wtlsh, Btecou 

Cynanthropjr, nl-naii'ihru-pl. AHndof 

ouentn; litwIplMof Antlmheow 

g hnlt flnd°r; a°^llwor'af^ 

OTnictlB, -Ik'tle. A rn. a 


}. Thcri 



■ Cynipidffl. -I].'l-d*. Tlo eall-fllwi, i 

vbleb prodac 
»M.iD, ■.■'iiiui-'ii.j, t.dii<Ht (ralte or anl-iiaiiD, 
The irxil ns?d )n themannnu^iiroorint 
Is FniiB«cl hy Iho Tynlpi gatlie tlnclorla 

Cyuoaeplialas. "I -n<i-fef"»-hif. Tha 
ven. ofbaboona having ahead Ahnpodllkfl 

OynoKale, -nog'B-ID. Agnn. of mam- 

OynoBTaphy, Bln-og'tn-fl. Ahlstoryot 

Botl. XInda BIS tlso called Ogee. 
CtFmapben, -ten. An ajipAmtnA 
Mepboae Jbr iveelrlag U '"•' 

■hiriat, uul 8 lunrtliwlKP, like thubra 
buica ninadUiG CWrli) t or Obiriea'a W 
[I dontiin* tlH pole-eUr, imi the eya 

Ir dlmtad (sit; bBUw. uiydilng I 
nromfly (Oncta nWanslon ; acenl*rol 

Oynthlo, alD'Uil-l. Id Myth, anc al 

gen. of Asddldrc, ODdap^en. or JtDld 

OyprsM, 'pres. Tie popular m 

S^'c»]ar,BndC.dlad^ or Uti^'dgoua 

able tot Ita ibimUllty. The cnfflDa In 
wMeli tbe AthoDlui taeropa weredonoBlli^ 
WDTB mado of the firfit Ht>od(fBH aqa tMima 
■athoritJoa beHcFo that um i^phcr-wood 

fbr tli« iead, ryprraa hrancbea having 

Oyprlan, 'prt-an. A Cypriot; a lewd 

Crpciau, St., Tliaaoliis CnaiUns 

Ofvr- " ■ - - . 

abl. a™ , . 

CypridlnidEO, -dtn'l-do. 

fOmUy, whlcli c 
ronch. bleak, bi 
Oypria. 'prla. 

4a!acopt«y§^] Abdom!- 
'prlDna In the tj^AofUie 
btlna tlw oarp, f^ld-fieh, 

. ((nn.of mtniiW fresh- 

Oyprna, 'prAs.A An Important Mcdl- 
tfin-aD«an IclBiid, lylQ^ bctwevn tiyrla and 

. AaUMhiDr, (onnorly balonglne tn Tur- 
key, hnt alnee ISTS. nnder &e Berlin 
treaty, DootiDlfld by QL Britain : pop. abt- 


Cyvaelidn, alp-iGl'l-iti?, A flun. of In- 
9»aorlal birds, nub-iinl. >lMlruilrei. Id- 
sludlij; Uie ewlfu and theli' coniicncn. 
BccldcB tlusnn. Cypieliu, the bmily In- 
c^defl tba N- AmDricaa awnllow and U» . 

CyreaaJc, a1-re-Dil'lk. PprtalnlnK Is 
(.ijTPnB a Grcrfi colony on the north 
cfMiat of AtHca. beioi^rlnfr (o Ih^edionlof 
E[ilcdr(iui phlloIophFrf ftiunded i>y Arb- 
Uppaa, a dlwlple of BocntoB. at (.'ynne. 

Oyril. St. Elahop of JcruulciD, qf plaw ha f fi bcHcved la havo been » 
naUfe ; n. aiS.n. SMi. In ullp. A ■coond 

SID, prcndMlBttbe Ooandl of^phogiH, 

Council or AntlDch!' the aamc year. A 
Uib'd Ht Cyril (ConabintlDel, n. In Th«- 

Oyiilllo, al-ril'Ik. The lerm inpHod to an 
idphabel ailoptad by all Ihi' ^faFonhi peo- 

auperaadBd Ui° OlairoHtlii andaoDiaonu 
alllDa am inadlfl(<d trom Ihe Qteitolltju. It ■ 
wBB bronnht into Ksntral uBc by St. 
Cyrll'i pu^, Clement, first blahop ot 
CfTiia, Thfl Oreat. jMao known >a tha 

daiiehl^rorAatyages, KtagofModla; a. 
aht. 6<jn n, o„ aaoonded the throne <tf 
Media MS, conqnered Lydia, Eabylqnaod 

tho Pewlan Kingdom. C. waa klUed iB 
jinlniMloDOf Pcythla, OSSf. o.; CpM 
the Vnonger, aon ot Darlue Nothna, Kinf 
nr Perata, rtmltiid agahist his brotlii* ix- 
taierun, Hho a. hla futlier. and vas d» 
r«lfldiuidkmod;B.abt.470n. o.,D.aM. 

Cyet, elat. Tn Fbyalol. a holm' orgaa 
wltlithln walls, as the urlnaiy bladder or 
the gall bladder. In Pathol, a bladder- 
like W or Teelolo vhl^h Inrlodee mor- 
bid muUerlnsnlaial bodlei, 

CTstiden.-ld'li-e. A ftm. offasEll ecblO' 
oderma, ooodrrids In fliB ailarlaa and car- 
bon I feiona strata. 

Orthere, e^-thC're. A frcn. of nilruts 

insrino habll, and funnd tbull In 'the 

OmX.iiT. AklBE; a chief. A Mis rf . 
tha Emperor of Rnaafa. flrst adnnwdln 
UTebyfianU.,vhfa^l»d hlmaalfCBr 



Omicrma. d-n-fiu. -Tha xrft» at the 

ASUnnndn' Alennder I. of EumLi, bnf 

Joined In the nvoH of liBI , and >u alMt- 

Oearlna. -r."ii». A ilil...f ilw l^mprow 
■or i; 11 Alii. 

His eon. Priow Ladl.lF^u^ a. 1S29, mar- 

rlfd a daiiKht.T of Qnsno OhrlBllm of 

Caorowita. zfA-rtW Tb» till, of the 

dpilD. ai.a nuilo hULou.o In lingliMl. 

Osemy. Oeoifre. luir'no. Tho ms of a 

OaartorTiOLi, ohor-f^riB-k.. A i.oW« 

PoIWi rjinlly of VLTT indent rmoTrn snil 

Mflotho Icadornblp of bit canntjrmen 

roy.1 bLMd.^o, B, IBM, I.. IttW. U 
cdlwl tba l>u|{u«Bcltii of Poluid. and the 

in Ih.'lr ruvolt again.t tlie T^rk^ eapturtd 

8]ocU-d governor anil rcooimliod as prinoo 
ortterrlibythoBultsn. Daring the In- 

<^n'^f'klni,S?rn"S[ns.i.. iSl, d. I6«'; 

Tustarofitguienlof fodoliauid proil- 

imionof RuiL^hy Nupsleon, C. waseom- 

dtnt of tha Diet. Jdom Goorge, eon of 

pelled to abandon ewvia, and on Ma «- 

18Sl."""He b«smo' Mtalster of Foreign 

Prince HOoKb. 

nod, formed 
of thstoDfue leitDBt 
ii|i[>or tcetll, and then IbretngnDTOcallaed 
bruMh, Uia loft pilita balnKnued topre- 
nntltaesoafWlbroDghtba i "^ 

D taUowB ■ wblaperM, i 

piulna tbe Up 
" "»t of Uie 

lo'eyliablelt Uhds tho 
: a rapid 

Daotylettiridn, dak-tl-tetb'ri-de. A 
tarn, of unphlblan lertebrau, campTidnf 
~~i1y onegen., nnd, so """ "" "" '""^ 

Dactyll, 'I 

. In Chias. A 

C3aas. 4ntiq. (hbalau 

.habWDgMonnt Ida tn IHuTgU, 

to whom thodlHbTerroflroa and tbo*rt 
ofnort^lnirltisiiaiTltibd. Tbey ware sec- 

timci eonfciLjiided lylth tha Cor^banlea. 
DactylioKniphy, -ai'i-6g"n-B. The 
art of gem engraving. A deseHptJon of 
engmvvd flnger-rlnge and prvdous stones. 
SactylloloKy, -or'o-ll. Tho selenM 
which lieats of tbe blitery and QuailUoa 
E,DI»the2d| offlnger-rlngB. 
iwerlngto ro. I DactylolORy. -oi'o-Jl. The art of oom- 

Saotylaiiteroua, -oii'i 

:'a. It contains the flying goriiard or 

DsdalnB. dSdVI&i. In Uyth. an ar- 

LaUrlnth, and Invontod tho aaw, auger, 

libytLntb by >nnoa, King of Oeto, he 
m&ao himaelfu-ki^ri, jind ojxiouipanlad by 

fliirht. loorus f4.'IL Into tLe sea. ainoe 
knoivn as the Idarian,1>ntn, landed BofSy 
Apollo!™' " ''° ° " ' 
DttKheBtaii. That portion of W, Ash 

CsuoMus ; ETOa n.OOU sq. m. ; pop. abt. 
l,«»,0(ia, prl^^r Tartar uomada. 


Itagoa. Ai'eon. Tlin natlnnal a^td of i 
PhUlalliK^s, rc[;rpseiiUi<l nith tbo Dpp«r 
part of n moD ana tho tail (itifinh. HLb 

Arfidod. Ho had a fuuiulo comlatlvp 

Xtalkokn, dr-ko-kil. The i^ (pi-clalljr 

wnpfiblpcd bj tha artlBuia of Japan. Ili> 

^prcMDtedassIttbieon aMH orrire, 

fill nf sUtw, rice, cloUi. u 

DaimlO, 'mi-fi. Tbo ilUi 
frudal lords tn Japan, 
with a decree tssneJ In 1S 

Basnam, Lotiia JaoQuea U&iide, 

worlt In Ihc dolry. 


»»i--'.";.T'» ^ 



«tnod. The 
ohlufsmtBt Chs 
Uph txbla,w1Ui 
hucliiEB be- 
hind snd oftan 


n iliurndlrs name tat the I poUtlclu, ud held tb* oflloe ot fl>aW»/ 
Kin, Hu In held Is be de- uF tbo OonmoBweUdi ud BeinUiy d 
the Hun-i^ldi'iM, anil u[ the^vaauir; D, I^T* 
U« person tl] the utMbntee I Oallaa, OMmn * n*>1" Bon ot Ui« ' 
\ atMve.B.ln Peon., ITK.tleetodtAttatr. 
S. 8eD>(e, ISSI.AUornw-Geiienlof PeUL, 

uid In 1^ (lecUd Vtce-Pn»ldsnt of tb> 
U. S. B^nt u MlnbUr la Qt. Britllla, 

Dallas. A Tlllue or PalukI Cn., Ky., 

Ml Ihf t-edenils ucdirGgo. SUennim 

the Conl«]^ralf> under Gens. Hood 

Iludec. ThulatlT floBU^ reDHled . 

DaJmatla, d;ll-mD'iihD-iL As Aastilu 

- -he E. ehore or ths AdrliHo; 

iq. m.; pop. ibt. aM.WO. Cv- 

DEdmatdca. dul-met'l-ba. TheTestmenE ' 

biBhope auder tbo chaJuble^ knd from k 
very early period by the popee when oD- 
cluisn ponUaodl;, IlconeWofnlonf 
robe vlth lancer lud fUlW Bleeni this 
Ibo lunls. The hldea m left ptrUnU]' nn- 
dosed. It hu km^tudlnit itripe* h«- 
rbre and behind, cheee etrlpee orifftuIlT 
belce black but la Uier tlmea red. A 

En^Unrt on bJiih oociuhiiia u > enpv 

Dolrlad, 'ri-ad. One of % tribe ofth* 

In Irebmd, Hhleh oocnpled the 

lern put ot the Coonty of ADtrla. 

Damajava^, di-ma-Ji'yiir. The nam* 

nml'i>;*!-<'l aTn «iib9tl°nu for oak bukud 


imp. 41.<HH). Ysnkluii 

DakOit, da-liolL One of o dam of rob- 
ben In Inlli who iilunJ^' In bund-, bill 
Kld.>m ate HU?. The h<m> n-sH dw ap- 

Sle-1 tn trirat.4 who InfrhWl the rivm ho- 
leen Cidoulta und Bnrhimpore, but are 
■nw Bupiimned. 
Dakota. Alerrltorj-ofther. B.. TT. of 

UlnnMoaawlN. ' " -■ 

150,1X11) BO. I 

the oap..Te 

Orrcnvmoil aro the i>rlndiia1 towna ; the 

MiBBOurl, Obe; enno and Kebraska, cblet 

I>alai'-lamB, -BTi-ma. One of th" two 
lama popes of Tibet and MonenHs (his (Ct- 
low-pope hcllie Tcsho-lamnl, eirJi «o- 
uremu in t&i own district When he dies 
edert bj- a biff, generally of four 

_. ._. ...e»««) dalnl f* mpponed loliavr 
entered. The lialal reoldca at Potala near 
Ijiesa. In Tibet 
Dalber, dll'ke. An Irish soiulda ro- 

Sallaa. jjexandAT janie*. An 

jlintrlBin MuleeiiiM, B. In Jamaloa, ITW. 
ImmlealPd to I'enn. 1TX1 : beeama rtie- 
" - ' ' 1 lawyw ud EspubUou 

' of tho ^t 

I'an. A mbblt-llka aninul 
\lynx. tupposed to be tba 

Daman. A Portujiueso town In Indlk, 
10* m. N. of ISonihav. nolal QJ uontalnlnc 
the bmous Templu of Fsnls ; pop. abt 

K. Ills "Summanot . 

lus'kiLs. An sndert - 

now cap. of a Turkish puhiuio of saOM 

Damascua Blade, -bUd. a B iwr4 

a »arlopit*d appea«no« of 
Qua Unu M ulot*. flbniu, cirou«a,tB- 

tflriftcpil or paraUi?!, ACr, 1 
nt DhleHy nl Dsmspni. 

I San 


lorljr ftbrlMl- 

', ^{]Q and Elnly !^p^iit. 
Samietta. dnm-o-et'ti. An F^ptlin 

: Dmi) m nr-reiiln, 'iiuir-f!-!:ln, A icm 
rcacmbllDi; in?|>fil, pro^nced by vajiot: 

Damn. Ttaa necrstlnn emiilnycd b 

Damooleau. -o-kle'-iui. Krlatinj; I 
Damoalcs, > fluitaret. via, buiDK h 
toUcll IMnnyailu, Tyrsiil or^rmcuso. m 
' plooed by the lAtter lukdi-r fi fwunl sui 
Haded over bla head by n j^Jn^lc^ luL 

ly OBB of nnlnenoe, throsleiiu.tnlih ej 

Da^^on. One ortba tndJdonnry hi'roi 

I KngUab dr- 


IDampter, WlUiam. An 
' Sampler AfoUpelago. 

ampler J 


I Sana, Trancla. 

Daoaidea, In Myth, tbi M dupehlen 
or llnnuiM. n'ldL-k&K wllb bis tmtlat 
Kl!i[ituii of E^ypt, TTipyirera UL mU-f 
rii'd t<^ Tha pons of Ejn'ptua, and by eon- 

DBiib7. Francis. An cmlnerii Iriel 
Danoe. iljinr>. A Urdy niTdiHi or unnu 

H'hiiih danulnslfl rpfniLiit«d, l>. ofdeat^ 
which n Rt:clpU)D d^rures promlnomly 

Uie thmoo o( which pfty «™ offeroil him, 
but arcllDcl: n. im. Berml of ths 

SandT. 'dl, A boalmu of (ho GmiiKM. 
ArnajinbnlnCuitidlDua a.1 to drn«. A 

pri'W ibo liijoldlKiiu ilio pulp, and to bur 

or Mr\pc tho pappr. 
Danebios. ''-bnur. A Dnnljih m^sr el 

knl|thl)in.Ml. InnUtutfd about lilB, lUdVfr 

vlvi.,l In li;il». 
I}aiigeiNslgiiaL dlD'jsr-nI^-na]. Tho pIk- 

^'i^dtompalBlglit "' '' 

Daniel. In flcrlp. nnn of Iha frrmter Hs- 

tatM Snlhgr Je»-fih eaptl-M to lUbv- 
lon In tho M jaa of Kinif Joholiklm^ 
rol^. Ilo Ivcanio dkinoiiFt fbrhls^ftoi 
prophpry and *l#iidy dorollon to his re- 
(won, bi-lnit idirfe governor of Babylon 

tothe ktnK hlmartf by Diini. tho fecde. 

Saata. dun bil, liaJ.v> pimtrKt nan 

Ilontoii. Oteorge Jaoquea. A Fri'iic 
Jncnbin, ■- il.'*. BiifUulInwl hi- ordiT i 
Kubi-Kj^iTii-, 1TU4, 

l«iBlh«.-inOin,;MvlpraWu ■ 

fmportann^, nnd cmplnyciiln the laai 

Bapbnla, 'ni-n. Tha watiir-neii. « p 

gf inliiiitn rniitBceann, onL Clsdocc 

diT, Itniii<italDpod&, 
Saphllia. In Myth. thononnrMeraii 

a Bk'Ubm uh^phurd, untt iDvi.'DtDr of ji 

torn] |M»(iy. 
Saiby, dnrlii. A uWtenvr'e IddI, hi 

raFflwUntrucrillnc. HandculTi. 
Saxbor, QeorgBa. Archhinhopof r 

K'hatby IhcComrBBidiiU, 1971. 
SaidanalleB, Tho. The Btralt i}. 

aonciiprt InKpiptln 1S1.1, md ■ norl of 
thofouilim, now In reholllon nnJer (be 
Ifudenlilp of El Mabdi. the FuIh iMo . 


and thdncfl coUed a duio- Any very puru 

irdW ooln. 
Daiien, Oulf of. As arm ar the Car- 

IblHm Hra. (J. AiiK^riui;. letbniDS of D., 

C. .luiDdca. " luii"™. 

SoiiuB I, (Burnaiiisd HysttiapiB). 

Klnjt of I'oralu ; a. Canibyaes, 021 a. c. 

■nm tongliiiaiinh, depnsed [be 
•I Sotrdlaciie, ond b«9uiia KIdr oT 
, 4lHi.. c; r.405. D. l[I., called 

flpld. s'lnHni, dauirhlDTotr 
of tbo Hives of Alexander. 
Daxler, Felix O. C. 

Damlsy, Hennr EKoort, Iiord. 

noble, of tbt 

'er. Ono who throws a iart ' 

One wha or that whlflb eprlnn Ibrward. 
A Ren. (Plotss) ofireb-Ciotsd birdi oTtli* 
IxUuan tribe, resenitjUnit tbe snlli. An 
nrd. (Jaoulstorce)ori^rd> onntatiil^r thl 
ting-Behpra, bce^ators and jacaman, 
from their boblt of dartliij; on Ihrfr prey. 

Sftsviu, Obral^ns. 1^ ^Dgllah Datnp 

1 pabtldtt. 

' lw-UDn,"'Dcipnliily kaawn " 'he K 
thm thnij. 

Dasb-bokrd, dmb'bOrd A hiwrd or 
nrua Tiltused an the lure lart et u Tchkle 

' SMh-pot. 'pat An ippnntns Jbr 'leul- 
SiflnB U.8bloKDrBbr/Bri1nEndKht,aml 
jmiBntliiirlBrlii thn maclilnery. 
Daah-irlieal, 'whi'l. A name applied 
10 two rylillllers retoltlne iratnst mcll 
■atherJji a clslera, nB«lfiir»Ml;lnBwoveii 
goodsby AlleniAtfly dipping IhoiD In Iba 
inner uil dublnf thflin a^nFt th*^ jildeA 

SlHypiibB, -rip'l-di'. A cmnll Fiirn. nl 
•denuu iDunmalfl, caioprtiiltiFtbeiiiUdi. 
imiiidmo. ont-eatH- uDdthe nlitypag DT 
iock-blU. ^ 

Bumrs. 'tl-Qr. The bmnh-lailrtl opos- 
•anu.s gro. of plnntlgmdu martuplela. 
AMUd In Aostnlli, BO mined in oniitrul 
to tbsopMtnm«DftlniN*WWorM,ithloh 
tuvaniEcd'tiillsMim^wbntllt: n'* 

Mttzla -ti'ri-B. Th«i»piilaffli 

Daun. I«ODold Joaepb IIQwla, 
Count -von. An Auiirlun mcM-Mir- 

Fr.-d'wtek th» Orrii lithe baltlMafKo- 

Xtni-ufPrttBCB prior m tho Itevolutlon r 
Dauphlne. 'fiin. The wjfa or luLy g 

Dauv. A S. AlHcui irbn. the E^db 

DaTsnant, WlUlain. Blr. An Eng 
llnh dtnuialiJil, ulii lo havo been tlm nsl 

>. imiA. u. 16Se. 

IK or I m 

t, poet and 

David I, Kln((iirflDoiland.i. hlibrothT 

(pavldBrnM|''(ioii of the rrtil Eoberi 
Bnim, rrUred to Franco on hisfBthtr'i 
duttb. ^vtio via n. by Ikllol. 18)B,<bDt le- 
turned Id lM:j and rrioaTerf^ tala thitmBj 
In ftlB ho WM (JpfiMteil tnA cratnrod 
while Iniadtag eniclMiit HiTlinnrlaoiwd 
iBtb Toner of London tm 136Y u. IBII. 

DBTid, Jaoguealioiii*. An en^insat 
Frrni'hjulnttT n. 1143, D. Inrxl[i),182IL 

Davidlit. diMd-isL Odo of s iwct » 
caltod torn DuTld GMFCd, vho, In tba 
16lh century, Rive out thil ImmiiUw 
Mi'SPlnh, rpjeetinl innniieo, ud denied - 

33aviB, CniarlM Hamr. Bear Ad- 
miraL A American duvhI ortirpr h. 
1n Mw.s,. Or)' : •^mmmAfi lb? Winds- 
ii(]ipl floUII. duiing IhB CivH Wnr. ud 
■«i. miypoiDipd Hiipprintenrtont of Die Ni- 
lloDul Obsurvekiry. ISU ; u. I9>B. 

Huvia. JSflerBOn. An Amwl™n »!- 
oilqd nt Welt Pirinr. BDrv«) TyamnlOi 
oredIL aod rfBlgcpd tn bwoine n pknter 
In MiMlulppl. KIrcttd to the lower 
honsDofConenisi.. hetookulondinit p»rt 
In BlIdebiilBB. ll» tonmBmitA 'CwL\%'ai 

rfflellDM rhfl anpt^jilinfit hr IVnLdnit 
Toik o( lidit*u>T p'Drnl nf ¥oliint«T«, 

luthorilUw. ]!U.<<iti-<l to tho r. B. f>fDi 
In IS4T, ho Tu MfriaLpli.-d Pi^rMnrv < 
Wur, IJW, Mill Hi llio <:U>Kn of IVi^ln 
la tha Spnuo. Taklnir n 1<'u<Une part 1 

. releuga] on hsll. sod unii Inclimal (n iht 
Act of Uencnl AiiiiiHIv, Dec. 25, l§e8. 
tie nov rrildm lii H. Mli«l>»l[ipl. 

Davla, John. An Knf-ll^h ntclnior : 
B. IMI. Ila <lliwiir«nul Urn tlralt whtdi 

Int. white noi'kiuic > S'. W. jiuuga to In 
dli ; ho wu klUcd <n .lapui, Idna. 
IteTla Strait. Tho jnfrant dtvldlni 

GroonLiii.i ; IW m 
DaTit. liav'lt Onao 
two pn.jaoariK plcoa 

tho boats by mcruiA o 
thaiTa and pullpy „ „ 

tlah^laTft, n Bpar with Uavits. 

a roller or oIk'Svo al lis (^d luwd for 1 
ins tho andior. 

SavouBt, Louis Nioolaa. dth-Tc 

ABont&lt oBd l-rinoo of BohmOhl. 
■ Davy. Hnmphiey. Sir. Bart. A 

Blatlnitnlsho.1 KnellnhehninlrtandQiliiral 
phlloiophiir ; B. ina, D. IMiP. 
Dayy TOnoB, aa'vf jrini, Tho spirit of th» 
Incti'i'. fliooDi-an; fi]>f«ll1c^y» lu&aenive 

Davy-lamp. -lamp. A limp whose 
Tloniof:! AurroniidLsl with win-. 1aTenl«d 

rroin eiplni^i or nro-dsrnp. Called alio 

eotl of a ^ta^ doal^ed 

■"- ^ blanqiiln. To 

Q paluqnlu 

aun. Thin hi IcnnDd lG« day, and mntD- 
tutra what aatmnotncn call (ho artiflcial 
day. ThoiBTlodnrnherovolutinnor the 

ca])i'<l the natar^ day. Tho Babjlonlaua 
boinin tho day at hiio-rMng ; the Jowb at 
«un-H>ItlnR: [he K|iyptlansat inldnlEht, 
an do the Brldah. French, Sl<aiUsh, Anuz- 

Xhiyfly. 'III. The papntar name o(, lb* 
- idled V-ainao. thouKh they way sr*-' '- 

the tuval and pupal Mala far Hwil 
yeira. In thoir perfect form they eilataiilr 
from a few houra to a few flay., taking no 

Daysman, dta'man. 
Dayabai. dl'>tar. Th 


in nmplre or a^ 



IIl.d«'knB. A pnaen In the lowMt 
of the holr nnltra. Theoffloeof 

ven^t.'iSwJ^ oEoiSjafSSt; 
t th'efca.H of (;hrlMlan^ and dta- 


primltlTe chdruZu A 

BeBd-beat, dad'Mt. 

DeiUl-lMAd, 'hsd, InRiTiiidliig.thDfitn 
leneUi of uetal given to a tan gan, con- 
iBlnlDflr tba dnhtfi, whkrh rlsf,'^ 10 the nur- 
Am ofthe liquid mctsl. Whun rwlcd the 

Ct-offlco, An jthloe which has lojtlL 
« «^ AQtborlty, fiv upAO oftimo oraai 
•asruiiee. Dod-klMroftlcc. b denirt 

Xtead-marfh. 'inircL. A pl<>ce cf sol 
HUD Iiiualc Itlayorl At Hincnd prooiiBHlODB 
«p«ola^y tho»iQ t>f niUltory aioa. 

SMd-reckonluK, -rok-n-lni;. Tha ul 

evDipaM. rocUllod bytbo allou'ancoa l^r 
drift, iHj-wsy. «^. 
Doad Sea. Tbo. A lako or PaloBtme, 

WH. ud tbqro la no pi<rc?ptlble oiiUoL, 
iihboiuh the Jordan Ittds U ftvHn tho X. 
ItlslllSlfwtbclowtho luYfloftheMed- 
IteiTlneiui. It Is ^viKtillv hcHovcd lliut no 
KtIiib thlntt cui cslM 111 in watoni, but 
this Is dlapulcd hy (ume whu luxlnt thM 

DMLflMM, d;f 'aEi. Incapndty ofpprrelv- 
in^ Bounds; waot oftboaimso ofbairltig. 
HmrlULD^efla to hear, 

Dmui. den. An (wlestoetloal i^DTFrnor or 
d^nllir;, id uillcd bttaneo «ch dli»wae 
WM dlTid«d Into detiDcriei. oub oimprla- 
iac tui pwlifaei, witb ■ d«ui pmulnc 
OTBr fiAch, A dena or TiUey. 
' SMHDrBxy, 'h4. TbeoOa or the i*rma» 

ormlaiui. Tho hauuocjuriadlcUon^tfi 
Hout mute, deTmUt A poKui who I* 

Seath's-hend, doths'hod. The ahull of 
Ihfl lor^'pst flpwlos of Iftpldoplpmiis Insirct 
by the vulear as the forerunner of death 

AjiytJdng which 




A. UMMlatum, >rhoi»o ticking is suppoMd, 
by BupcrHtitiou.s aud iniorant people, to 
p'roj[,^noi4ti(»te death. It belon^^ to the 
gen. Anobiiim. The ticking is tho call of 
the sexes to each other. 

Sebaucll. dr'-baeh'. Excess in eating or 
drinking; intem'perunci' ; gluttony; lewd- 
ness. An act of debaucher}-. 

Deborah. A Hebrt*w prophetess and 
judge, who lived in the 13tJi eentury b. c. 
Bhe took an active jiart in delivering her 
country fW)in the Canaanites under Siscra, 
and is the reputed author of '* Judges v." 

Debauchee, de'bo-she. A man given to 
inteinp<>nince or bacchanalian excesses ; a 
man habitually lewd or profligate. 

Debris, du-bre. Fragments; rubbish; 
ruins. In Geol. any ucoumnlation of 
broken and detached matter, as that which 
ari.oes from tho waste of rocks, or a drifted 
Jieap of animal and vegetable matter. 
Debtor, defer. The person who owes 
another either money, goods, or services ; 
one who has received from another an ad- 
Yantsge of any kind. 

Debut, d&-b&. Beginning or entrance 
n]>on anything; first attempt; hence, 
first appearance before the public, as that 
of an actor or actress upon tne stage. 

Debutant, -tAn. One who makes a d6- 
but : a man who makes his first appear- 
ance before the public. 

Debutcmte, -tant A woman appearing 
for the iirst time before the public. 

Deca-, dek'a. A prefix, from the Greek, 
signifying ten. 

Decade, dek'od. The sum or number 
of tun ; an aggregate or group consisting 
of ten ; fipecitically, an aggregate of ten 

Decagon, 'a-gon. A plane figure having 
tn<.' bi<les and ten angles. Wh^n all the 
fides and angles are equal it is a regular 

DecafiTamzne, dA-ka-gram. A French 
W(>ight of ten grammes, equal to &.644 
drams avoinliipois. 

Decagyn, dek'a-Jin. A plant having ten 

Decahedral, -hO'dral. Having ten sides. 

Decalitre, da-ka-lu-tr. A French mea- 
sure of oapacitv, containing ten litres, or 
610.27 cubic inches. 

Decalogue, dek'a-log. The ten com- 
mandments or precepts given by Ood to 
Moses at Mount Sinai, originally written 

on tvr9 tsblea of stone. 
JJooameron. de-kam'e-ron. Tbe angU- 
cised jumte of the celebrated ooUeetlon of 

tales by Boccaccio, which oonaiflta cf IW 
•tories, ton of which ore told on etch of 
ten days by seven ladies and three gentle- 
men who had fled from Florence (oa conn- 
try house during Uie plague of^84S. 

Decametre, dft-ka-in&-tr. A Frmeh 
measure of length, 10 metres, equal to 
8*2.8 feet 

Decandria, de-kan'drl-a. The 10th 
class of plants in the artificial sjrttem of 
Linneus, having 10 stamens, and one or 
more pistils. It inolndes Dlanthiu, 
Lychnis, Ccrastium, Saxifraga, Sedum, 
Oxalis, &c. 

Decanter, -kan'ter. A vcMel used to 
decant liquors, or for receiying decanted 
liquors ; a glass vessel or bottle used for 
holding vrinc or other liquOTS. 

Decapitation, -kap'i-t&''Bhon. The act 
of iM'heading. 

Decapod, dek'a-pod. One of an order of 
crustaceans having ten feet. One of that 
division of the cuttle-fishes which hare 
ten prehensile arms. 

Decapoda, do-kap'o-da. The highest 
order of crustaceans, so called ft'om having 
five pairs of legs. They are subdivided Into 
Brachyura, or short-tailed decapods, the 
crabs; Macrura, or long-tailed,. indadtng 
the shrimp, lobster, nrawn. crayfish, Ac., 
and Anomura, of wnlch tne hermit-crab 
is an example. One of the two divisions 
of the dibranchiate cuttle-fishes (die 
other being tho Octopoda). 

Decastyle. dek'a-stll. A portloo or oolon- 
nade often columns. 

Decoan, The. That portion of Ilindo- 
Stan H. of the Vindhya Mountains. 

Decatur, Stephen. Com. An Amer- 
ican naval oflle«T;B. in Md. 1779, killed 
in a duel with Com. Barron, at Bladens- 
burtr, Md., 1S20. As a midshipman he 
distinguished himself in cutting out 'the 
cai>tured Philadelphia flrom under the 
guns of the Tripolitan forts, 1808 ; In 1612, 
with the frigate United States, he cap- 
tun-d the British fiigato Macedonian, af- 
ter a nanguinurv battle ; in 1815, whUo In 
coiuniund of the President he was at- 
tacked by four British vessels and com- 
pelled to surrender; in the same year, 
with a strong flotilla, he broke tho power 
of the Algerian cruisers. 

Decedent, dG-sud'ent A docoased per- 

December, -sem'bcr. The 12th and last 
month in the year, in which the soil 
touches the tropic of Capricorn, at the 
-winter aolstice, being then at his greatest 




Deoemvirate, 'ver-at. The offloe or 

term of office of the ^ecemvlra or ten 

maglstrateA In Rome, who had absolute 

. sat&ority^for two years. A body often 

men in authority. 

Decenxiary, -sen'na-rl. A period often 

Decennial, 'ni-al. Continuing for ten 
years ; consisting of ten years ; as, a de- 
cennial period. Happening every ten 

• years ; as, decennial gamts. 
Decentralization, 'tral-iz-a"8hon. The 

act of distributing what has been central- 
ized or brought to a common centre. 

. Deciduate, -sid'u-at. A term applied to 
those mammals, aa Man, the Quadrumana, 
Gunivora, Insectivora, Cheiroj^tera, and 
Eodentia, which throw off deoidua after 
parturition; or to the placenta of such ani- 

■ Deciduous, -us. Falling ; not perennial 
or permanent. In Bot. applied to trees 
whose leaves &11 in autumn and to the 
leaves or other parts of the plant which do 
80 felL In Zool. applied to parts which 

• lUl off at s certain sti^o of an animal's ex- 
istence, as the hair, horns, and teeth of 

' certain animals. 
- DeoifiTam, des'i-gram. The anglicized 

form of decigramme. A French weight 

of one-t9nth of a gramme. 
Decil, dd'sil. An aspect or position of 

two planets when they are a tenth part of 

the zodiac distant from each other. 
Decillion, 'li-on. According to English 

notation, a million involved to the tenth 

power, or a unit with sixty ciphers an- 
'nexed ; according to the French notation, 

a thousand involved to the eleventh power, 

• or a unit with thirty-three ciphers an- 

Decixnal, des'l-mal. Any number ex- 
pressed in the scale of tens ; specifically, 
and almost exclusively, a decimal fraction. 

Decimitre, da-si-mS-tr. A French mea- 
Bure of length equal to the tenth part of a 
metre, or 8.98T10 inches. 

Decimo-sexto, des'l-m5-seks'^to. The 
size of one fold of a sheet of printing paper 
when doubled so as to make sixteen leaves. 
Written usually IGmo. 

De<^xis, Cains KEessins C^uintos 
TraJ anus. Emperor of Kome, 249-261 , 
notea for his persecutions of Christians. 

^„^__, dek. A horizontal platform or 
floor extending from side to side of a ship. 
A paek of pla^g cards. 

Deck-beaon, 'b«m» A strong transverse 
I^eoe of timber atreUMng actoBB a ihlp 

from side to side, to 8\>pport the deck and 
retain the sides atthefr proper distance. 

Deckle, '1. In paper-making, a thin frtnne 
of wood serving to regulate the width of 
the sheet. The rough or raw edge of paper, 

Deck-passeng'er, 'pas-en-jer.« A pas* 
senger who remains on the deck of a ves- 
sel, and is not privileged to go l)elow, or 
only to a cabin of an inferior description ; 
a steerage passenger. 

Declinator, 'lin-at-er. An instrument 
used in ascertaining the declination, as in 
dialing, of a plane, and in astronomy, of 
the stars. 

Decliner, de-klln'er. One who declines. 
In dialing, the name given to a dial which 
cuts either the plane of the prime vertical 
circle or the plane of the horizon obliquely. 
Called also a declining dial. 
Declinometer, dek-ll-nom'ct-er. An in- 
strument lor measuring the declination of 
the magnetic needle, and observing its 

Decoction, de-kok'shon . The act ofboil- 
ing a substance in water for extracting 
its virtues. The liquor in which a sub- 
stance has been boiled; w:ater impr^- 
nated with the principles of any animal or 
vegetable substance boiled in it. » 

Decollation, -kol-la'shon. The act of 
beheading ; the state of one beheaded. It 
is especiwly used of St. John the BaptisL 
of a festival of the R. 0. Church instituted 
in his honor, and of a painting which rep- 
resents his beheading. 
Decolorimeter, 'or-lm"et-er. An In- 
strument for estimating the decolorizing 
power of charcoal. 

Decolorization. -kurer-iz-a"shon. The 
process of depriving of color. 
Decortication, -kor'ti-ka"shon. The 
act of stripping off bark or husk. 
Decorum, -k5'rum. Propriety of speech 
or behavior ; decency. In Arch, the suit- 
ableness of a building, its parts and 
ornaments, to its place and uses. 
Decoy-bird, -kol'berd. A bird or duck 
employed to draw others into a net or sit- 
uation to be taken. A person employed 
to decoy others into some snare. 
Decretal, -kret'al. An authoritative 
order or decree ; specifically, a letter of 
the Pope determining some point or aues- 
tion in ecclesiastical law. A book of de- 
crees or edicts ; a body of laws. 
Decubation, -ku-b&'abon. The act of 
lying down. 

Decombence, -kum'bens. Th« poBtiif» 
of lying down. 


Deoupla, dak'li-jil. A Dumber 

Detmrloii. d3-ka'ri-«n. An all 

Boman armv win ejmmoiiiled 

De tueto, dfi-ftik'tfl. AotiuQy ; in diet ; 

\ cwmpliiia^ demand, 

10 who defends by ep- 
— -'□talus, BUijparta, 

la ldi!)n of Eug- 

ns or tij- argiuni 
onfcpted by ^p& I-i 

DeflUation. -lll'lt-. 

Tbe pn>ceBa roroxldidog labetaniwa bj' 
iiii?BnB of nlire la called deflo^nUon. 
DeflagPBitor, -grit-or, A g»lviinte fa- 
atrumout for prodnclDgthe combuatlea of 

he diaphragm 

beautteA ; portlcnlBFly, 

Seforciant, -rsn'l-iiit. In law, one 
who ket-DB out of poHosslon the righUU 

I>«fintudeT, -frad'er. One vrbu t^ei 
tram another lilti rl^ht by deoGndaD, or 

embcBler : a pemiktor. 
Sefter-dar, ileripr-dar'. Tha MlnlMsr 
of F^muicB m4 Hljli'TrtMiirar of tiM , 
1 ToAleliEjBiAn. 

> Swnd, de-gts. Tbs acotb owl of tbe 
drtumCercmec of uv elnile^^uifl <:drcuDi- 
' fr»iioe of flrerr draA bot^ff eappoflcd to 
bsaiTlded tnbi MO «iul paa, esUcil de- 
cn«. AdegMW of latitude iatbaSniKIi 
-pvt of ttie gvtb'B dmumftrcDrx norlh or 
mtaih ofOiaeqiutor. uid*degn>e of Idq- 
gltuda tha wne port of tbe mirfira wt 
otwntof iny fflTeii u^rMlui, ineuar^d 
ODllkclrDbi pMjiel 10 the eijuatar. Dc- 

Tbe Ongrea 1i lub-dlvidcd into ^xty mln- 

Thui. «• 12' !!0" lOHUia 4S dfKTBB"] 
IS minDtee wd SO uqiiiAs. Id Ale. b 

[> the idgheit powf r iindET which lh"mi- 
knovD quaaUly npiieun. In music, id 

Hsls. In Artth, three fleuro Uki^n lo- 

Iw.Beo cnnslsu of two dejtrei'ii, A rll- 

■Inimiiat. Id unlverelUea. >'mu-k o?dl>- 
tlnctlon conreiTe<t on ttudcnte, mi^Enben 
w dlfitlii^ltibed smjigere, na a t«llmoiiy 
oTproflcltuijyorBaQEnArkof rcufh^t. Thu 
dt4rr«iB MTB bBchulor, jnaattr and doof^^r, 
-JDeliiwiBiuie. -hi 

Dei^atia, 'l«ri"Hhl-B. B>'tlieF 

Seljudidum. Jil-dl'sht-um. tn lav 
IhaiuiiCTnentotiiod; a nhraaa appHed t 
the old enion trlnl by urdeal. 

Beinadida, ili-iiak'rl-diL A iron of tb 

IktinoaaurlA, -nrj-rn'ri-u, A Rroup n 
AhbII colossal llzdTrii, reiwmblinir th 

Sute between the itralhinna birds and lb 
■41. The m^joHty. *s Mt«iilo8Burni. 
wbloll (llajned to JO feet la luiffth, were 

Delpafous, ilc-lii' 
DelpnoBophlst, A 

slewed u > mid. The auppoaed dJ?los 
flualltit" of a juipin (tnd. 
Dqlaalra. 1nMyih.,dMae')itfrar'Eneo>, 
KIni; at XMli, and wirt; of IEmcuIu. 

by^vlnffhiiuthepolBonedvblrtof Neu^ 

BeJenner, lU-zha- 

oflUediiy, with moat aao wlna ; aiunei. 
De Jura, di JCi-n:, By li^bt ; according 

Sekabrlat, dek'a-briat. Anomberofs 
milituy ooniplracy which broko out In St. 
Petaraburi' bee. 26, IfW. on Itae uoea- 

I>e Ealb. John, Baron. A nobis 

Brenkhut; fli* 
ice It Is now Died 

Selabeclieii, de-ls-bish'64. j 

Delabeoboi or BoCtk-lcaei. • 



gen. of trees, ord. Stnrouliaeec. D. ni- 
pestriAf or bottle-troc of Australia, is re 
markablo for the form of the trunk, which 
bulges out in tho shape of a barrel. The 

' stem abounds in a resinous nutritious 
substance, resembling ^um tra^^acanth, 
vrhicli is use<l by tlie abori^nes for food. 

Delacroix, Ferdinand Victor Eu- 
gene, d'lah-krwa. An eminent French 
painU'r ; b. 17U9, u. 1^(V). 

Delaine, de-lan^ A muslin made orif?- 
inally of m'OoI, but now generally of cot- 
ton and wool. 

Delaroche, PanL A celebrated histor- 
ical painter, founder of the iilclectic 
school ; B. in Franco, 1797, d. 18!i6. 

Delavifime, Jean Frangois Oasi- 
znir, d'lah-yan\ A French poet and 
dramatist ; b. 1798, d. 1848. His stirring 
song "■ La Parisienne,'' was the popular 
ahr of the Bevolntion of 1 88U. 

Delaware. One of tho 18 states of the 
American Union^ named ft*om Lord de 
la Warr, Governor of Va., 1610. It is 
bounded N. by Penn., £. by the Atlantic 
and D. Bay, 8. and W. by Maryland; area, 
2,120 sq. m.; pop. 146,608. Chief towns, 
Dover, the can., Wihnington, Lewes, 
New Castle and Smyrna. D. Bay is a 

- largo estuary of the~Atlantic, separating 
tho state team N. Jersey; lengtn 65 m., 
breadth 18 to 80 m. l^ith D. river, a 
considerable stream, it affords open 
navigation foi tho largest ships to rnil- 
adelphia, 120 m. from the sea. D. river 
rises in the Catskill Mountains, N. Y. 
State, and running as the boundary line 
between that state and Ponn. for some 
distance, then forms the boundary be- 
tween Penn. and N. Jersey, emptying into 
D. Bay, 40 m. below Philadelphia. It is 
navigable for small craft to Trenton, N. J. 

Delectation, -lek-t&'shon. Oreat plea- 
sure ; delight. 

Delegate, del'6-gat. A person appointed 
and sent by another or by others, >vith 
powers to transact business as his or their 
representative ; a deputy ; a commission- 
er ; an attorney. 

Delenda, du-len'da. Things to be erased 
or blotted out. 

Delesseria, do-Ies-seM-a. A gen. of the 
Ceramiaccse, or roso-spored algaB. 

Deletion, dfi-lG'shon. The act of delet- 
ing, blotting out, or erasing. An erasure; 
a passage deleted. 

Delf, delf. Earthenware, covered with 
wbite^la^ng in imitation of chinaware or 

poroeMa. Spelled bIbo Delph. 
IMfti, dUf. A dty of the Netherlands, 9 

m^ N. W. of Rotterdam, formerir noted 
for Its pottertGt. WiUfaun, Prinee ot 
Orange,- was aseasslnated at D., 1564. 
Pop. 28,107. 
Delhi. Cap. of a prov. of the same name 
in llindostan, and the ancient cap. of Uie 
Mogul Emph-e, 880 m. N. W. of CalcuttA, 
on tho Jumna Kiver; pop. 160,420. D. 
is fame<l for its magnificent temple, Jumna 
Musjid, and palaces. 

Deliac, du'li-ak. A kind of scolptnred ' 
vase ; also beautiflil bronze and silver. 

Delian, -an. Of or pertaining to Deloe, 
a small island in the ./Egean Sea, now 
called Dili. D. problem, in Math., thd 
duplication of the cube : so called beomse, 
when the plague was raging at AUiens, 
the oracle of Apollo at Delos rolled to a 
deputation that the plague would bo stayed 
when they doubled the altar of the god, 
which was a cube. The problem has en- 
gaged the attention of some of the greatest 

Delille, Jacques, d'Hel'. A distin- 
guished French poet ; b. 1788, d. 1818. • 

Deliquescence, del-i-kwes'ens. Spon- 
taneous liquefaction in the air. 

Delirium, de-Hr'i-um. A temporary dis- 
ordered state of tho mental &cuUics occur- ' 
ring during illness, either of a febrile or <^ 
an exhausting nature. Violent excite- 
ment ; wild enthusiasm ; mad rapture. 
D. tremens, an affection of the brain 
which arises fi-om the inordinate and pro- 
tracted use of ardent spirits. 

Dell, del. A small narrow valley ; a rar 

Delia Crusca, la kruslca. An academy 
founded at Florence in 1582 for promoting 
the purity of tho Italian language. 

Delos. Ono of the islands of the Cyda- 
dcu group, in tho Grecian Archipelago, an- 
ciently sacred to the worship of Apollo, and 
the reputed birthplace of A. and Diana. 

Deloul, de-lol'. A dromedary. 

DelpMnaptera, del-fin -ap^te-ra. A 
gen. of cetaceans, fam. DelphinidsB, in- 
cluding the right whale-porpoise, or D. 
Peronii, tho D. Commersonii and D. bore- ■ 


DelpMne, 'fin. Pertaining to a dol- 
phin. Pertaining to the Dauphin of 
France. D. editions of tho classics, 
a set of Latin classics, prepared by 
thirty-nine scholars under the snperin- 
tendenoe of Montausier, Bossuet and 
Huet, for the use of tho son of Louis XIY., 
called the Grand Dauphin. They are 
now valudess except n>r tiieir Indices 




'oetaceans, fein. Delphinidje. 1>. 
B. the lar^rent species, is frfim 8U 

LU8, 'ous. The dolphin, a gen. 
lalia, ord. Cetaoea. 

ft. The Greek letter anRwerlng 

ifrUsh D. The island furmiHl hy 

tal dci>oeitj} between the mouths 

^ile, was named Delta by the 

and the naioe has since been ex- 

> tile idluvlal tracts at the mouths 


. Delta- 


un, de-lQ' 
[n Soman 
a. temple 
a basin or 
re persons 
U> saerifloe 

Acbarch ^ , 

I with a Deltoid, 

font or baptismal basin. 
'eanAndTe,d*lulc'. An eminent 
ilosophcr and inventor ; n. 1727, 
agland 1S17. lie invented the 

barometer and iniprove<l the 
ieter, but hiH fame rests upon his 
rlLDubllshed in England, 1773 : 
, Pnysical and Moral, on the 
►f the Earth and of Man," in which 
lonyofthe Mosaic history witli 
3 maintained. 

del'tij. Any overflowing of wa- 
Dimdation ; a floo<l ; specifically, 

flood in the days of Noah. 
an^, do-lunMung. The native 
Prionodon gracilis, a quadruped, 
the civets, hut probably forming 
ting link between them and tlio 
idng destitute of scent-pouches. 

letization, dii-mag'net-iz-u"- 
he act or process of depriving of 
: t>r mesmeric influence. 
hi, dem'urk. The rul«»r or mag- 
'a dome ; the mayor of a modern 

iskl, Henry, Gen. A noble 
1791, 1). 1SC4. Ho distinguished 
n the revolution of 1831, and 
le Hungarians, 1849. Kossiitli 
1 him commander-in-chief, but 
garian officers reftised to 8er^-c 
Im. -Ho accepted a subordinate 
1 and was deroated at Temesvur. 

A Bnbdivision of ancient Attica 
odem Oroooe ; a township. 

r. d6-mw'ter. A Greek goddess, 
iding in some respects to the 

I^tln lUirt^s, the goddess of agricultore. 
She was the mothi'r of liacelius. 

Demetrius. Known as " The False De- 
metrius," claimed t«> bo tl»e son of Ivan 
IV., Czar of Musrovy, inva4le<l Uussiaat 
the head of a Polish arm v. IMH, and on 
the death of ](f>ris s. to the thrope. He 
was killed in a revolt. 1C()6. An(»ther D. 
the False rluimeil tlie Musoovit«< throne m 
the rival of JSahil 11. ; h(> In'siegfil Mos- 
cow, but wa.s ttssa.Hsinate<l by his own sol- 
diers, IfiUJ. 

Demetrius Nioator, Son and s. of D. 
Hoter, King of Svria, who only secured 
the crown after <lethroning ISelus, who 
had usur]>e<l it, 140 k. c. He was defeated 
and made prisoner by the Parthians, and 
on his release was murdere<l at Tyre.126. 
1). Soter, fhther of the above, son of 8e- 
leucus PTiilojiator ; «. abt. Is5 b. c, pro- 
claimed King of Syria, 161, and waskflled 
in battle with Belus, 150. 

Demetrius Phalereus. An eminent 
Gri'ck orator. philoso]>herand statesman ; 
B. 84r) ]{. c, u. 2s4. He was am>oiuted 
governor •f Athens bv C'assanaer, 816, 
and for 10 years ruled with justice and 
Mis<lom. When Athens was c:iptured by 
D. Poliorcetes, he found refuge at the court 
of Ptolemy, King of Eg}'pt. 

Demetrius Poliorcetes. Son of Antl- 
gonus, one of Alexander's generals, re- 
ceived his surname tnym his military suc- 
cess in capturing cities ; b. 885 b. c, d. 
abt. 2S3. 

Demi-grod, dem'i-god. Half a god ; an 
inferior deity ; a fabulous hero, produced ' 
by the intercourse of a deity with a mor- 

Demi-groddess, -es. A female demi- 
Demi-island, -Mond. A peninsula. 

Demijohn, -jon. A glass vessel or bot- 
tle indosod in wicker-work. 

Demi-rep, -rep. A woman of doubtftil 
reiMitation or suspicious chastity. 

Demi-rilievo, -re-le-v«. In Sculp, half 
relief, or the condition of a figure wiien it 
rises from the plane, as if it had been cut 
in two and only one half fixed to the 

Demiux^re, -erj. The name given bv the 
Gnostics to the creator of the world of 
sense. He was chief of the lowest onl«r 
of spirits oraK)ns of the neroma, and, 
mingling with Chaos, he evolred fh)m it 
a corporeal animated world. He could 
not, however, impart to man the tmo soul 
or pneuma, but only a sensuous one, 
psyche. He was fdso regarded as tha orl- 

glnofav)!. Iniuinial 



PrinUuR 'raymmanAi InohH far 1I(J 



Deml-mt. -vniL - 1 

th* mux 

9f Ilw Kcn-n vaatM 




In wlilrh W nlsm lil> 

•ru-lcgA tn 


Senaln, d^-w'. A. tova m dept 

gf Nonl, F»noe, Ounons (i« ths dofMl ot 

Sttml-wolf. -vuir- 

RnJ brtwii'n a il»i; luii 

of AlbaMTlo, Iw Iba Fnrach under Uu- 
sliol Vllbn, ITH; pop. ibt. 10,000. 


r«-.l. ThB 


or Ui« «UI» li VMli-'l 




■ynhiD r>r nrlndftlaii fauld by oni> oT Ibo 
two (real inBtloi) pirtjoi luto whloh Uut 
snuntry 1*dl*l<l«l. 

li«¥H (a dVmnvmcy. A ninnlvr of UiB 
1>miocratlo |iarty In tho UnltMl Statos. 
Semoorltiu, dv-mAk'n-iHii. A Ortet 
pUlufifllilUT: B. tn Thrtdo »bt.4"ftu. c!.: 
nlobrmUil Rw Ills xtndy of Iha nstarsl 
■0laiBH.imd u (he prornuJfatur of tlie 

.Wn. dP-m.Venr'gon. A mj-iv- 

tvrfuuii dli-lnlly In Vafpai mythoW-y, 
Ylvwed » »n ulijMl of U'mir rulUir tUon 
orv\H-«hl[i, T>y (MJiue rcmrdvd (utheau- 

inoun iiioidi'lin, to whiHiepfii'll all tbe Jn- 

Dsmolaelle. dJl.iiin'a-»:'L A youne k- 
dv;a<laniH'): alady'auuld. Ablrd.the 

Bemon, iir-'nion. A aidrit hniillnir i 


ry wloked or crtip] 



... ..."^rby a demm. an cvll'.i.lrll. or 

bytcreibid >plrltusl iKiag of Knprrlor 

Sita. nho malnUlIi that Uio do>l'i9n'iil 
ultimately bo aari-d. 
Bemotic, -innt'lk. Topnlar; pratalnlnfi to 
theooinniiin [iroiilc: ipodfiiialty apviapA 
to (he id]>hnbet UJfe<i by tho iK^pla of an. 
di-nt. Fiivnt, aa oinCradl>tlni.-ul>^«l from 
Uiatii»dby 'l>''l>ri'"fy™•'^BUod (lie 

The moot pni 



IF Alhcni 

IJemotloB, 'I'-ta, A city of Kuroi 
Turkey, Ti Ri. ». or Adiianople, nolt 
the asylum of Charl« XII., of Bm 
titer his dcfaaC at Pnltonj pop. 

■Ztenir, ■mf. A. puUnilar ilM of paps 

m'lKht of the u wu redua 

t tbe flsona of 

Denary, dei'a-rl. 
Sendzacliate. 'dc 

mratu: agile mntal „ 

shrubp or parta of idanta. 
DmdnwpKbB. -(Inui'p|.d«. A Dun. ofS. 

ftnifs, iKTforalHl anflportoaiiBiitly ereot. 
Dendnrpeton, -drer'pC--tan, A gen. 

dvtiTijjIned tW>m tticth aad bonoa Ibqad 
in thu cavity of a stirillarla from ths aod 

Dandrlt*. 'drIL A atnno or nlnua) on 
•>rtn whleb arofl|nire»FQKmbUnKihnib>, 
tjw*, or nlo>Kl^ duo to arborescBBt Brja- 
EalllntlDn, niiembUng froBt-mrrk on wtn- 
dc»wa, attributable to tbo presfiooa of the * 
h^ilroua oilde gf manEaniAe. 

DendrooolaiPtM. 'dTa.k<>.|ap"lfi.^ Th< 
h'."k-WIIe.l cterixTK.i J^- ■-—-■ 

Xtandrodna, -dnn. Ths nune| 
allyiilvi'n to a fiimitl >r<'i>. DfTerU 
SendrolEteiu, -ilmra-imt. ' 

kanmiroo flun. 
Dendrolite. -tt, A pacrltled 

Dendrologry, 'o-ii. a 

rtondraiEieter, -dr 
iDentofvorious fon 
Jiotiibt and diameter 

Id tt^ 

itural hUtory of 

\ ^\»Ta&(^»aQt 

. Thay b^nitotha 


SendiQplila, -fli. A g 
■nd imt venuDiDue. 

-•^(Botiijlntin! tMlod 

heKdA symbol^ the 
miDta, aid th<j hud 

Senlm. 'Jm, A cut 
CenlH, St. Tba e 

cation drilUni;. 
Usbop ol T-ai 
n [ler 

Senia, Bt AIowd In dppt. flrtheSt^nc 

bnrla] plaoe of Freniih 

Demnark. A lOnedum ofS. 
I Brchlpel^n, 


ora. The prlndnB] 
lOaat, Lulnml, ¥d 
■nd the farolgn dopen 

Croix, St. John and a _ .. 

cop., bdo— "-"■■-■-°-'*°' — -' -5 

. Tho 

. KOnna uid 

DenoTO. - -■ 

DentaUdn.-Ul'l-dC. Twth-shclln. nnun, 
■ofidrrlbmnFhbiUi ninllusks, uinMstiug of 
Iho rtnp-lo gen. IJenlsHum. 
Dentafy, 'tn-rl. The bone In tho lower 
Q lower Jaw of 

IlQiitelle, <: 

ngioni fi 

Dflntiole, 'U-bl. A imill tooth or 

^v<^tiDit pOlDt. 

Dentlfoctor, -fftk-t«r. A mnchbi 
and pobt?, nacd In d«i»tal surger}'. 
Sentlflice, -Ms. A jiuwdcr uau 

QenUlBTS, -m<. A lotion for nlii 
SentUe. 'ta, A Boiidl toolh llks th 
DeutUoqay, 'o-kvd. Ths pnctli 

DentiroBtreB, -H-roa'tnii, A sub-ard. 
of Inai^Anurlol tiLrd^ lucludlng Ihv buuher 
birds, ihrlkca. &v. 

for scmplBE tho tcBlh! 
Dentist, 'tl>t. Oat oho mtkea It Ua 
biislncu to clfliD sod Htnot. rcp^r and 

nracljcea denial Bnrgery and merhiiilcal 
Dentolliiffual, 'to-llng-fwat. A eon- 
HODun t nrouDDriDed ^y appTylng thp lon^« 
b>tliutou(h,ort9 lg<! goniSnmedtalaIr 

SeDTeT. Cnp. or Colorado, on the B. 
Plutts nrer. m m. V. oftho Mlulaalppl- 
FoundiHl ISSa, It baa a pup. of 4S,0D0, 

Doodata, dfi'S-dil. A elft or offering to 
God;atf ~ "■ ■ ■"■' 

powor o 

oiiuru,.;. ohlorlde of I 


of Jeremy Bentham 
ethlffl". founded on th 

Departar, -plrt'tr. 
Dephlefrmator, -I 

principle of Judging 



A place of deposll 


■ building IW IhH nr^mmoda 
rteller of piiHwnRvrK by tallwiy. 

•rg itrpnaltsd ; or ■ HtafloD whiir 

DepresaariEt, -ptfs-i'ri-a. A 
duNnill ■iiil'chWKx'VTDUHld 

DepuratiiHi, -]>itr-u'i>hnii. Tl 
liiiri^nic Ilnld^ iVnm hcteriiai'ni 


nk d*r-mMi'tBr-i. A 
itrlcted U> ths enrwlgi 
lu'U-da. Abm. 

prluclpll Kmen are DnmatM, Aslbn- 

Ilu^ Mnnlnms ird Atti^eiius. 
Deimobranchlata, 'ino-bnmek'l-a"U. 

A bin. ni futeropoda, mora commoDj; 

cuUi-il NudlbrmicbiHt'L 

Se ftuincey, Thomaa. 

«ef . » most orlelnB] Ihinkor wd brilUiiBt 

ap'O-U. A pa 

. Derby, der-bl. A 

Enhnin, Snirpy, II 

Derby-das', -de. The dar on which the 

Derby swmpstakea Is run, flieWedneads)' 

before Whlurandoy. 
Derby, Bdward Oeofbey Smith' 

Stanley, 14tli Earl of. A diaUn- 

dflSC^Dded 1W>in Che blood-nt^al of Eng- 
lind and BroUand ; n. 1:99, d, 1869. Ho 

rta CiTiMryaHvaa, 8. a^'IBuMell u 
Prime Mlnlaler, IBM. 
Serceto, dslr'se-Ui. In Myth, a Syrian 

Iho ijilDQlpal horfle- 

__,__ _. ..... ja dlatin^iiehedlVoE 

Ibe oaUcIt, epMannll or Kartstda. It.- 
jIh) lalita mileron, the epldcrnili bolug 




llesaix, lioals Oharles Antoiue, 
da-Mi'. A French general ; b. 1766, killed 
ftt Marengo, 1800. He foucht nndcr 
Moreao, 1796-97, and under Boniq>arto in 

Besatir, de-sa'tlr. A book which pro- 
fosses to be a c()il<>(>tion of tlio writiiitrs of 
fifteen old Persian jirophcts, toirrthcr 
with the book of ZonKisU'X. Soiim* ini- 
thoritius ascribe it to a Parsi-f who lived 
is the 4th century of the iK'irini. 

Descartes, Bene, du-kurt'. A eminent 
yrench mutheinaticiun and philosopher ; 
B. 15J)0, i>. in Swoden, 1(»5;», 

Describent, do-skrib'uut. Tn (room, tlic 
line or surface ftvm tho motion of which 
a surface or solid is suppoKod to l>o gener- 
ated or described. 

Desert, doz'ert. A region in Ms natural 
state ; a wilderness, sandy, stony, or 
rocky expanse, almost destitute of mois- 
ture and yegctatiozu 

Deserter, de-zert'er. A person who for- 
sakes his cause, his post, his party or 
flriend. A soldier or seaman who quits the 
service without permission. 

Deshabille, -za-boL Undress; a loose 
mornllig dress. 

Degiocation, -sik-ka'shon. The act of 
Tnakfng dry ; the state of being dried. 

Destemator, 'sig-nat-cr. One who 
desii^nates or points out. In Kom. 
Antiq. an officer who assigned to each 
person his rank and place in public shows 
«nd ceremonies. 

DesUverisation, -sirycr-iz-a''shon. 
The process of depriving lead of the silver 
present in its ore.' 

des'man. The mnsk-rat. 

Desmlne, 'min. A zeoUtio mineral that 
crystsllises in little silken tofts. aooon> 
paoyiog spinellane in the lava or extinct 
voksanoes. It is a silicate of alumina and 
Ume. Called also Btilbite. 

unL, -md'di- 
Qin. ' A gen. 
of plants, ord. 
The best 
known species 
is D. gyrans, 
the semaphore 
. l^UuiU remark- 
Able for the pe- 
.ealiar rotatory 
movement of 
Its leaflets, 
which move in 
ways ; two of them ma/ beat rest and the 

Semaphore Plant, 
nearly all conceivable 

others revolving, or all three may bemov- 
ing together. The movements are most 
obvious when the plant is in a hot-^ouse, 
with a strong sun shining. 

Desmodiis, 'mo-dus. A gen. of bats, 
including tho true vampires. 

Desxnology, -mol'o-jL The brancJi of 
anatomy M'hich treats of tho ligamcnti 
nn<l hiiM'ws. 

Des Moines, do-moin'. Cap. of Iowa, 
at the junction of thu Do.) Moinos arid 
lia(M*oon rivers, Va) m. N. of Davenport ; 
pop. *2ii,4o><. Albo thu name of a county 
and river in Iowa. 

Desmo'iilins, Camille, du-moo-];.hn. 
A French writer and revolutionist; h. 
1 762 ; guillotined, 1794. He was a school- 
mnst<>r of Robcispiorro, and tiio bosom 
friend of Dauton. Giving earnest sup- 
port to the most extreme measures 
against the Girondists, ho agreed with 
Dan ton in opposing Kobespierre^s bloody 
programme, and suffered death on the 
same scaffold. 

De Soto, Hernando, A Spanish ex- 
plorer ; B. 1500, D. in Louisiana, 1542. He 
served nndcr Pizarro in Peru, and after- 

/ward commanded an expedition which 
landed on the Florida coast, and from 
there marched inland, discovering tho 
Mississipni Biver, on the banks of wU«h 
De tioto aiod of fever. 

Desperado, des-per-il'dd. A desperate 
fellow ; a person urged by fkurions JNI»- 
sions ; one fearless or regardless of saMy. 

Desquamation, d^S-skwa-m^'shon. A 
scaling or exfoliation of bone ; the separa- 
tion of the cuticle in small scales. 

Dessalines, Jean Jacques, dspss- 
len'. The first emperor of Hsyti, an Af- 
rican negro, b. abt. 1780 ; assassinated by 
Christopher and Petion, 1 90ft. He was tbo 
favorite officer and s. Toussaint rOnver- 
tnro in the bloody Dominican Insnrreo- 
tion, proclaiming mmself emperor in ISOi. 

Dessert, de-zert'. A service of Ami ts and 
sweetmeats, at the close of the entertain- 
ment; the last coarse at the table. 

Dessiatine desa-o-tln. A Russian huid 
measure— 2.702 English acres. 

Destiny, 'ti-nL In Class. Myth, tho 
ParciB or Fates : tho powers which pre- 
side over human life. 

Destraotioni8t,d6-6trak'a]ion-ist One 
who delights in destroying. One who be- 
lieves intiiie final oompfete destrnotlon 
or annihilation of the winced. 

Desuetude, dos'wo-t&d. The oessation 
of use; disuse; disoontiQiuuioe of X" 
tioe, castom ot twAAon. 


DotootlTa, dS-lefcttr. A ipedsB of po- 
Un o!n<»r. vbano Eipit^al duty It la Id do- 
Icflt DffbTiMS and bpitri^ena aiinilndn. 
Ills diiOw dlBar ftmn ihote of the ordi- 

nni<l!"a^dhMa (nncLn^ "th°bX^n^ 
vriTiiluiUii to jiiBtifl) mthcr tbui dlnwtly In 
Ike i.roniDtlun of ivltne. TIiotd Dra ilrui 

luck, As. Thud.tfDt 
Uie itrlklDg nbn.1. iix 
riBlitniimbcr- ■- ' 

rloni m-der Gf«^ JI, of England, 

Deuce, dOiL Tvo; t'carO. « dto yrttb 
two B^Hitfi ; a term nfr«d la ffsmlDi;;. 
Dentero-canonioal. dO'iprD-tui'iicni'- 

Ik-id. * A tcrni nppHffll m iKwks of Bcrip- 
turu admlUcd law Itao uumd aftfr tbo 

uf pblluaciiiliy wbleh dunles Itbortr of bc- 
tloQ lo uiw, huldb;! that tbs wni li nol 
IKtsbiitt^ Inrlndbly doUrmlnedby jno- 
llTuai spviddcully. [b the iDhDlulla pbll- 
osopiiy, t)io doQtrinu tlwl onr baman wll) 
Is ilrimiilDed by a inutlFs whlcli divine 

2>eterslTe, -lerslv. A inofllulne which 

ifetiliold. Cap. DrUppo-Detmold, Osr 
many, noted for the battle feoHht Baa by, 
A. n. 6, In 1 

made by tba InBamioitluD o 
.nertaln aomliaiitililii bodlog, « 

ItilniliiatlDK gabl. 
Betonc, -tnr'. A ronndBbnol 

or drcnltcms iny ; a devlatliii 

In OeoL ' 


frain anlid bodlea by attritiun ; Detmiatlng 
dMut«rn>twl mnliiHiilB of Tabo. 
nMka,aadyuTia]detilCai. De- 
Wlus may ooodat ef clay, Kind, inofid. 
Tnl>bly ftaein«DtA. or nay admlitarc o 
Betrolt, da-tml. The ahlef ODmnier 

the B. BItbt, wfiloli lopnratM tbo Slate 

DetUnffer. A rlUage of Bnvaria, on the 
Main, IS m, from AKhalfanliiiTv, noted 
M ibe MODS oflliB doAat of the Frenoh 

Deucalion. In Myth, a son of Frame, 
thellii. wlio TriJUIinl FyrThn, ^uj^hter of 

vlTora of the E^blnn deloge, nnnpoaeil 
to hace DoeUTTCd Ifltt n. c, 
□eatemnomy. In Script. Uie Oth book 

;n by lilDseei wiUi the eiiwpttou of 
— '"flt chapters. 

Anything flinolftilly conodisd, u a plo- 
turu, plecs of I'Ui broidery, or out of n icar- 
meot. An cmbleia Intended lorepreient 
nfunily. person. iwClau, or qneli^.wltli 

a mvtnphoriunl idmUltudfl betireon thu 
tbln^ repreavntln^ and reproaented, no 
Iho flffTira of a plow ropreBentln^ ncrl- 
cultiir.'. Henoe &a motto attaoW to, or 

Devil, devn. In TheoL an evil spirit or 
bdng; fipcdllcBJly, the Qvjl one, reprc- 

namo puiialDrly given In Taajtaar'- 
maranplaT anlmo] (naByiimH nnt 


! Dew-point, pstat Thu di-grw indi- 

KlnsMVclpposittd It 'mIm Willi Uil 
I dogrL'D ofllit biimidttr >f tLi« atinoopboiT. 

Devil's D&TQlns-iieeclle, Uz dura* 

Itovil-wonhip, 'll-wer-Bhlp. Tboivor 
ihip pAld to aa evil Bplrit, ■ tnoli^uit 
defly, or the [Mr«ODlM-«TU piinulpleln 

the utuinpdan thtt the g«Ml ae\ty duel 

tlut the IHWLTS of evil ma ua lolgtitjr u 
tin powem of I5DO.L 

Devonian, du-vo'nl-ui. Oforperbilniiig 
to l>uvonHlilro In tln^lAtid, In tinoL a 
torm applliMl to a nn-at portlun of the 
pilieoiolc strala of tliat BMtlon, and fM- 
niorfy UKHlumj'niinvmom wiUi old reiL 
■udlUiie,s9 uccupyiuK an luurmeillstii 

If^Tons rocka. Modeta iroolujiliita, how- not d>c tho tormsu Iduntira], 
tb« coodEUoDn under which th« auala 
mre d^poalteJ bi-lnf Tory dlffereDt. 
Demnpoit. dtv'on-iiurt. A Email urft- 
lBg-tal.18. nttoJ up wllh drawera anil other 

Dewkn. dQ-an'. In tho £ut Indldi, tho 

whlcbcanws tb ' |ihi"" °f>W '>f I>o1t 
lied Uuht to rotsta to tho right. l)a.i 
trine, utxtFu^gluoofio, tajiuHi Kdd. loollo , 
acid, cluohouliia, jvo dcEtro-cviDpouodB. 
Dextro-8'l<i(MM. -tHaki'M. In (^hi^ 

oIho ir^iie. TrLilt, honey, etoreh, diahvdc, 
urine, i^hcBtuut and roff auj^. uooordiDic 
to Itfl or%lti. It has Ua uama from Eu 
prop^Tlj of Lumlng the plane uf poLarlxa 
tlon to the right. 

Dey, diL The title of the old gowraora 
of AIeIots, Tunii and Tripoli, under tlw 
protwdon of the Bullau of Turkey 

D. F. Ahhrevlatlonrotdaftinaorllilei.d» 

D, a. AbhrotliUon for Dd patla, bj 

the gnue of God, 
Dbamlaclil. One of the lofUut of 

the lliuialiyaa, Id lilnduilui, hL £8,080 ft. 
Dhole. dOL The UnKaleis nun* ror the 

Willi doK of Indli ICbda dukhimeula), Id 

bLm between a wi^ aod JaokaL Uhimla 

eicqit the ele)diaBtud rUnaoeroa. 
Dbotee. dfi'ifl. A lonK mrro^^^of 

natdd of pantaloonfl. 
Dhow don. An Arab teaael, t 

permont claw In a do^'a fboC 
De Witt, John. A dlatlneulshod Hob 
lander; n.lB25, aausalnattiJ by a mob, 
ieT-2. nowas ft dtnrdy riirubllowi, and 
Wttprly opposod to tho bnuM of Orou^e, 
AaOranil Prote8torheailminlj"lcT.d the 
■nb^oftilneoDnbvwIth viEor ami n-li- 

. ll.^of »:n?lMiX Loul* SIV. of Froncf 
o^i^nun a large part of lIollaDil, < 
In? I^ojiubir dlikMhtoht aicalnat 

and Dlo^tholder, Do Witt bnlQK ahun 
tar (hli muidored with hU br 
Comdina by a mob. 
■ Dewlap, Tar. Tlie Mi of elan 
huiga from tho throat of ojccd aod < 
The Utah on the thiwt becomea S 

Slare Dhow 

with ono maat ; employed In mcnuitlla 
trading, and also In onrrylog slanM from - 

Dim, d)v A canmwn rttatal In Ogltl» 
nlace and pawul nama, almifrtnc 
tlaolc, » DbWIo CUnMi """l-,^,^^ 




Diablerie, di-2b'le-re. Misohief ^ devil- 
ry. Inoantation , witchcraft. 

Sdaboliam, di-ab'oMzm. Th« actions of 
the devil ; conduct worthy of a devlL 
PoBsetwion by tho ditvll. 

DiacoxiAte, -ak'on-at Tho ofilco or dig- 
nity of a deacon. A body of dwusons. 

Diaoope, 'o-nv. In Gram. tmeBlR ; a 
cutting a word in two and innprtiiigono or 
more words between thoni , as, "of whom 
be thou ware.'* A gen. of fishes, sec. 
Aeenthopterygii, tun. Percidte. 

Diaooustics, -kous'tllcs. The science of 
refracted sounds. Galled also Diaphonics. 

PiadeTn, -dem. Anciently a head-band 
or ffllet worn by kings as a badge of roy- 

Parthian Diadem. Diadem of Constantine. 

fllty, embroidered with gold or set with 
pearls and precious stones. Anything 
worn on the head as a badge of rovalty ; a 
«rown. In Her. an urch arising from the 
rbn of a crown or coronet, and uniting 
with other arches to form a centre which 
serves to support the globe and cross or 
flenr-do-Us as a crest. 

Diaffometer, -gomVtcr. An electrical 
apparatus for ascertaining tho conducting 
power of oil, as a means of detecting its 

I>iaflroxuU.,-ag'on-al. In 
Oeom. a right line drawn 
between the oppoRite 
angles of a quadnmteral 
figure, and dividing It 
into two equal parts, 
called tho 

Diagrapll, 'a-graf. An instrument for re- 

1»rodncing, without its being necessary to 
Luow dra>ving or perspective, the figure 
of objects before the eyes. 

DiaL 'aL An instrument for showing 
the nonr of the day from the shadow 
thrown by a Ftilo or gnomon uj)on a grad- 
uated sarfacc. When the shadow is cast 
by the sun it is called a sun-dial. Tho face 
of % watch or other time-keeper, on which 
the time of the day is indicated. A miner*s 
compass. Anvphie or face on which a 
poSb ter or index roFolvei, moves back- 
ward and forwardf or osoinates. KVght 


It is sometimes 
diameter, and sometimes the 
A light woolen cloth for men's 

or nocturnal dial, an instrument ftxr show . 
ing the hour by the shadow of the moop. 

Bialeot, 'a-lekt The form or idiom ol 
a language peculiar to a province or to a 
limite<l region or people, as distinguished 
ih>m the literary kmguage of the whoio- 
j>eople. The Greek language is remark- 
able for four dialects— the Attic, Ionic, 
Doric and Eolic. 

Dial-plate, -plat The plate of a dial, 
on which the lines are drawn to show the 
time of the day. The ihce of a dock or 
watch, on wmch the time of the day is 
shown. Any kind of index -plato. 

Dial-work, werk. That portion of fhe 
motion of a watch between the dial and 
movem ent-plate. 

Diaxnagnetib, a-mag-neV'ik. A sub- 
stance which, when magnetized and aus- 
I>ended freely, points east and west. 

Diamond, -mond. A mine- 
ral, gem, or precious stone, 
of the most valuaUe kind, re- 
markable for its hardness, as 
it cuts all other minerals. 
When pure, the diamond is TM-„ft_,» 
usually clear and transparent, /^??Si-J!l\ ' 
but it is sometimes colored, CB™l»nt). 
the colors being white, yellow, bine, 
green, black, &c. It consists of pure car- 
bon ; when placed between the poles of a 
powerfal battery It is completely burned 
to carbon dioxide. One of the largest 
diamonds known is that belonging to tho 
Bajah of Mattan, in Borneo, wdghing 86t 
carats. The Koh-i-noor, now belonging 
to the crown of Great Britain, originally 
weighed about 800 carats, but it has been 
reduced to 108| carats ; the Orlow dia- 
mond, belonging to tho Emperor of Eus- 
bia, M'eighs 195 carats ; and the Pitt or 
K<^ent diamond, among the French 
crown jewels, 186^. Avery small print- 
ing letter. A geometrical figure, other- 
wise called a rnombus. One of a set of 
playing cards marked with the figure of a 
diamond. A glazier*s tool for ci^ttlnff 
glass. Diamonds so used are uncut, and 
so mounted as to act upon tho glass by ft 
curvilinear edge of the crj-stal. Black 
diamond, a term applied colloquially to 
coal. Diamond edition, on udltioii 
of a work 
printed in 
very smail 
type. Dia- 
mond &et,in 
Arch, a spe- 
cies of mind- 
ing consist- 

i \eU V&\«t- T^texQiQnd Fret. 



•mine tiKli otbi 


J)lc»-1>0S. 'boka. A box from wblc: 
■re thrown In KU 

mdAOtloa, -d^'Uks. The adtaae 
Dldac^I, 'ul. An uiinu] hulDg t 

DlokaiiB. Oharlaa. An EngU! 

._.... l^io'iij^i" ■" 

ber cr tha flnt ColoiiW " 
Psnn., 17U^ ha dnfbd ine reioluaDiu 
4' 'Ibmied br tut bftdy, and m ■ membtr of 

papen, but bft declined to Blmi the llecU- 
n^on of Independence, cnnnldering Ibe 
step premilore. Hit •' FttAat Letlen," 
ns3, urg»d Uie •doptlon of the new con- 


of deni 

J birds, c 

Uuof tho erowi 

MHnpned 10 tlu 
Biotator, dik'ti 

ZMctlonafy, 'ntioii 
the <rord> of ■ lane 
nhfibetieal order, 
deflnitloDH of their 
Tix«bolary. Any " 

or branch of a inbjoct, under vorda or 
faudi uTHifn'd ilphibetlcolly. 
IMotTophyUniu. -tt-onl-lum. a pro- 
TlHlonnl fon. Intended to Include all fiiBHll 

Sloynodoii, dlil'nA-don. A fOuill Ren, 

-■•— '-naJjoaiurHniiliifi, AfHc«,<uppMed 

•r trluaUi iige, w-i"-"- ■•— '- 

vblcb profeau! 

toeflo? trfitjM(«J^ oomMnlngL 

tor* tAs o&vMten of tha aurd, srooodOB, 

Diderot Senia. dii-dro'. A noted 
French phOosopher: B, 17IS,D. JIM. He 
la considered the chief ot tbo wbool of 

DldodocaJiQdTal, ill-<lij'd<'k-a-hu"dn]. 

Die, dl. A BDialloabenHriiadDnltafHoM 
from one to six, uaed In ^mln^. AJiy 
cnMc body ; n a»t Ublet. In Areb. the 

Dieman, Anthony Van. A I>ii4sh 

luvlgntor; u, 1IMI3, II. 1U6. HewuTl«»- 

, .L. Dutch EMt Indies, HM-a, 

dlBoovered Van We- 

ld vUh Tas 

ao'alud, n< 

fnue, on tbe English Cbani 


tw«eD Engluid uid Fnucn ; y 
I>l«-«lnkn.<U'alru!k-et. An 

dies tfbr itampiniT or emboHln^ 
IMbbItSB, 'eil'r^'. Theniune. 

mudUvval hytnn ob Iha laet , ^ -. 

Kbilbly nnnpnflvl hy Tlioujoa of Culimo 
tie ISth CL-ntury. 

IllM.'et. Feod or victuals. A mm 
u •rdltnllAiH or 'IfU-^tes, buld.'n 
day today forlei^alatlvc. pullUnJ, ec 
uthal or municipal pnrpoiws. su-ctHciiJIy, 

.tbslt'glsbltve and sdmlDlsmdi-o iis»rn- 
blKs In Iho Qenma Empire, Aastj 

IHetetiaB, -ft'lks. Tlint dcpnrCn 
medlciuo vhleti rplou^ lu tha dint. 

I>i«a flt KoD Droit. Lit. '■<] 

the ball which holds the liquid be heated, 
the elutlclty ortheetuiflDedDir vlllii^e 
Itrlseln tbeopbniitlo bfMioh proportkaiiil 
I,, the cicoM of elaetlcllj, or of he«. 
DigeBt, dijHt, A collemloii or body of 
Rumait ]a»s, ■rrUKod under proper tfUei 
by order of the £mperor Jnsdalon ; tba 
Pandects. Any eollecaoD, compllalloii, 

posed under proper heads o- '"*— 

i CtUlfomia tribe, 
~ ilaalu of th* 

>mui Mytb. 
ttes: d" — 

IhKtt, dij'lt. A Auger. 

a IlDBOr's bresdUi, or J lutu. m jtoinm. 

the 19th put ofUie dlaincter oftba aim 

orniDOD. In Arlth. u>y loteeoruDder 10. 
Blsitalln. -i-lln. A n«eUble ilkaU, 

tboBctlvu principle arUlfludis porpum, 

or foxglove, a strong poison. 
SigitlKTade. -l-grid. An animal that 

Di»lyiili, dl'trllf. In Arch. aproJeeHnr 
hce v/lth with two panels or chunala 

Siliedron, -hS'dron. A Bgan wllii 

Sllett&nta. dll-e-ianl'. An admirer of 

DUnvlal, i! .. 

flood or delnn, mora «p«l>Sr to lbs ' 
deluee In Noah's days. EAotid or pro- 
duced by snyeitraordlurymsliofwvCer. 

fli^l deposits' the result of uy nousiiil 
nr eitnordlnary nub ot water. The term 
Is now nrely Deed, the dapiieft« gronped 
nnder It being assigned to the post-pflo- 

Slme, dim. A sliTer ooln of the ITnlled 
BtatesoflheTsloeoflOnaita; the teatli 
or* dollu. 

Diauaa,, dlm'*- 

I ernamantsd In the loom by nleed si 
) or Dioey flgnres ; It is nrnly dyed, 
r I Dimpla, 'pV A. imA -ulaaA ( 




rion in th« cheek or chin ; a slight in- 
terra ption to the uniform rounded flow 
of the fa^al lines, appearing especially in 
youth and in smiling. A slight indenta- 
tion on anyr surface. 

Dingrle. A Beai>ort of Co. Kerry, Ire- 
land, 40 m. N. W. of Killamey; pop. 

DinffO, dlng'go. Tho Australian dog 
(Ganis Dingo), of a wolf-like appearance, 
and extremely florce. 

Dinner^ din'ncr. The principal meal of 
the day, corrcMponding with the deipnon 
of the Greeks and the coena of the Romans. 
An entertainment. 

D i n o r nis, di- ,.-''^\ 
nor'-nis. A gen. or 
esrtinct cursorial 
birds, of gigantic i 
size, which formerly 1 
inhabited New Zea- \ 
land. The largest V 
must have stood at \ 
least 14 feet in height, \ 
and probably more. By "^v.,^ 
the natives they are called rooa. 
It is supposed they became 
extinct in the 17th or 18th cen- 
tury, as traditions are sttll our- 
rent concerning them. 

I>inotheriuxn,-n6-th6M-nm . 
A gen. of extinct gigantic mam. , , 
mals occurring in Uxe strata of Dinomis. 
the tertiary formation. The 
remains have been found in Hesse Darm- 
Madt, also in sereral parts of France, Ba- 

Dinotherinm restored. 

Taria and Austria. The largest species 
hitherto (yscovered (D. gigaDteum)is cal- 
• cnhitcd to have attained the length of 18 
feet It had a proboscis and two tusks. 
Kaup regards it as intermediate between 
the mastodons and tapirs, and terrestrial, 
while Blainville and Pictet regard it as 
allied to tho sea-cows. 

Diocese, '6-s*5s. The circuit or extent o f 
a bishop's jurisdiction; an ecclesiastical 

dtviBioa ot& kingdom or state, subject to 

tbe Mutbortty of a biahop. 
JO^ooletian, Gains Valerius Auxe^ 
•OOM IXtooletUamM A Roman general; 

B. abt. 945 A. D., proclaimed emperor hy 
the imperial gnard after tiie assassination 
of Numerianus, 284. D. divided the em- 
pire with Maximian, and governed Asia 
and Egypt In ^ he signed an edict 
against the Christians, abdicated i>ower 
804, and d. 818. 

Diootahedral, -ok'tarhe^dral. InCiys- 
tal. having the form of an octahedral prism 
with tetrahedral summits. 

Diodon, 'd-don. A Unnsean gen. of 
teleostean fishes now giving its nfino to a 


Diodon Hystrix. 
fiun. Diodontidffi, ord. Plectognathi. They 
live on crustaceans and sea-weeds, for the 
trituration of which their mouth is admir- 
ably adapted. The fiimily includes the 

DiOBcia, -d^shi-a. The 22d oUms of plants 
in the artificial system of linnsens. It 
comprehends such genera as have male 
or stamen-bearing flowers on one plant, 
and female or pistil-bearing flowers on an- 
other, as willows. 

Diodoms Sicoliui. A Sicilian histo- 
rian who lived in the first century b. o. 
He published his universid historr^ In 40 
books, brought down to the year 60 b. o., 
but of these only 15 are extant 

Diogrenes. A distinguished (>nlc; b. 
in Sinope, Asia Minor, b. c. 421, n. at 
Corinth, 826. He spent most of his life 
in Athens, where he Uved upon alms, and 
taught his philosophy from a tub. 

Diogrenes Laerttiui. An Epicurean 

{)hilosopher ; b. in Cicilia. He wrote the 
ives of the philosophers in 10 books. 

Diofirenes-orab, di-oj'en-ez-krab. A spe- 
cies of Ccenobita, found in the W. Indies; 
so called flrom its selecting a shell for its 

Dioeenee-onp, -kup. A term applied 
to the cup-like cavity of the band, formed 
by bending the metacarpal bono of the ^ 
little finger. 

Diomedea, -o'm6-ds"&. A gen. of birds, 
ord. Longipennes, including the various 
species of ubatross. 

Dioxnedes. In Myth. King of Thrace, 
fton of Mare and Ciyrene, who fed . his 
\Mn«m on \i\m\«a[i^«ek\i. Hereiilea kUtod 




Dioxnedes. Son of Tydeus and Deip- 
yle, Kin^ of ^tolia, aud one of the he- 
roes of the Trojan war. He was a favorite 

'of Mtnenra, who bade him attack and 
wound both Mars and Venus. 

IDion. A noble Syracnsan, son of Illppa- 
sina, a fiivorito disciple of Plato, and relat- 
ed to Dionysius the Elder, who admired 
his abilities, and freely consulted him ; b. 
abt. 410 B. c. After the accession of 
Dionysius the Yonnper, D. fell into dis- 
prace, reimired to Athens, and«oon after 
led an army against Syracuse, which cap- 
tured the city after a'three days' assault. 
T>. was assassinated 854. 

Dionasa, di-d-ne'a. 
A gen. of plants, 
ord. Droseraceap. 
Only one species is 
known, D. muscip- 
ula (Venus fly-trap) 
a native of Caro- 
lina and Florida 
The bristles on th 
leaf are remarkably 
irritable, and when 
touched by a fly or 
other insect the 
lobes suddenly 
dose on it. It is 
Bald to digest the 
ibod thus captured 
by means of a fluid 
which dissolves it 

•exactiy like ordinary gastric juice. 

Dion Cassius. A Roman historian of 
the 2d century a. d. He spent 12 ytan 
on his history of Rome. 

Dionysius I. Dictator of Syracuse, 
known as The Elder ; b. abt. b. c. 480, d. 
869. D. II.(The Younger) son and 8. of the 
above, B. abt. 889, died in exile at Corinth 
abt. 835. He was driven from his throne 
by Dion, but recovered possession ; was 
deposed a second time and exiled to Cor- 

Dionysius (of Halicamassus). A 

Greek historian and critic; b. 70 b. c, d. 
abt. 1 A. D. He wrote in Greek at Rome 
his '' Roman Antiquities,'* muchofwhich 
is preserved. 

Dionysius (The Thraoian). A 

teacher of rhetoric at Ro'iie, whose " Art 
of Grammar " was authority for several 
centuries. He flourished abt. 60 b. o. 

Dionysos, dl-o-ni'sos. In Greek Myth. 
the effeminate god of -wine, called also 
Bakchos by the Greeks, and Bacchus by 
the Romans. 

Diophantine, -fan'tin. Of or pertain- 
ing to DiophaBttis of Aleundrio, tbaflnt 

Venus Fly-trap. 

Greek writer on algebra, who flourhhod 
according to some about the middle of the 
4th century, acoorrling to others abont 
the end of the ('th. D. analysis, that 
branch of algebra which treats of indeter- 
minate (juestions. 

Diopsis, -op'- 
sis. A gen. of 
dipterous in- 
sects, fam.Mos- 
cida^. A gen. 
of turbelhulan 


Diorama, -5- 
ru'ma. A mode 
of painting and ''' 
of scenic exhibi- 
tion, ])roducing 

a greater degree Diopsia. 

of optical illu- A'*"*""- 

sion than the panorama, and suitable as 
woll for architectural and interior views 
as for landscape. A building in whidi dio- 
ramic paintings are exhibited. 

Diorite, 'o-rit. A tough crystalline trap- 
rock, consisting of hornblende and a trl- 
clinic felspar albito or oligoclase, either 
mctamorpnic or volcanic in origin. 

DioscToides, PecUmius. A notsd 
Greek physician of the 1st centary ▲. d. 
His " De Materia Medica" was a text book 
for more than 1,800 years. 

Diota, -O'ta. In Anc. Seulp. a sort of yass 
with two handles, used for wine. 

Diphda, difda. The star Beta of the 
constellation Cetas. 

Diphthonsr, 'thong. A coalition of two 
vowels pronounced in one svllable. Im- 
proper aiphthong, a union of two or more 
vowels in the same syllable, only one ot 
them being sounded. 

Diphires, dl'fi-^z. A gen. and tun. ot 
coelenterato animals, ord. Caiycophoride. 

Dipleidoscope, -pirdo-sk5p. An in- 
strument for indioatmg the passage of the 
sun or a star over the meridian, by the 
coincidence of two images of the object, 
the one formed by single and the other by 
double reflection. 

Diploe, dipld-S. The soft medullanr 
substance between the plates of the skolL 

Diplomat, -Id'mat. A minister, of- 
ficial agent or envoy to a foreign court ; a 

Diplomatics, 'iks. The science of dip- 
lomas or of ancient writings, literarr and 
Srablic documents, letters, <fec., which has 
br its object to decipher old writings, as- 
certain their authentiolty, ^.; pwBO^- 

Dlpldplil. dl-|jri'pl-ii. A 
flTB In wlileh the nulflot 
double or eToa Iilpre. 


leotds, MusrldiD ud Vu- 

Dl^optenw, -u. a k^d. or fouti ^n- 

ola fliQU. fintr ipadee, belon^if to th4 
jrid T«d MndMoDf ■ 

L, d1p-lc1-1^0n, A MAAltlf 

m which wpgari to b« fbr._. 
Mt bodlsunllwllntlieuilddlt 
Uljr mMore bodioi 


gdmttks marsupuTininimsl, found In the 

Dlieotory. dl-r.*'to-rt. A book oooUlii- 
iDir dlrwlloDB for public woF^IP or »- 
llglons wrvlcos. A book contt&lnft ta 
alphabetical tlitt of the Inhabltsnta of ■ 

Itli «m«I to the kangaroo, bal much 

city, Viwn, and the like, with their plaiju 


gShn U Ihat MndlUoii to which hublt- 
nil Unintirda of ■ nerroat 4Dd UDEUlne 

MTfw, aiHJ la whlcb liey mimlftiil in UB- 

power of the French Republic IWWW. 

?ss'^.«'i;.ats ?^Z'^. "^ 

of dlreoton ; dlrootorate. 
BilVM, dar'Jfi. In the B. India, ■ n. 

, .. — ^ ii betow It from the 
.aporincpmbentwelKht-commonlv UB«d 
over llntfla uiil Oat-fojed op^nlo^. 
mwdplloe, 1-pUn. ErlDoillgn: in- 
■tntotlonj tnlntag. Bulo of eavemnisnt. 
8ii>|ertloa to nils. CorrecUnn ; puntub- 
menl Inflicted by miy of eorrertlon mii 
tnlnlng : [DntrncUon by moana at mlafor- 
tniwanillbolHip. In Uia R. C, Ch, hod- 
- U/nunlshinfn[|DmcU>loiia ileHnquflntj 
-or Uut uutdbI morttBciUan irblob npui- 

iliacLp^Lne, two booki dmvD an far tb"!! of the BcolA Chunh— lb« 
flrat by Knoi uirt ftiur athcr mjiilil«» In 

bLvo'f ia:8, In whloh Andrew Msl<rtll»task 
> kadlnur port. Thla ia bUU appnlfd to w 

Disobidlft, -kid'- 

lfl!8 oppendajM. 
Dlsdplas of T 

Chiiat (Oomp- 

cedcd, und bli ton, Ee.. Al«andsr Camn- 
bfll, both natira of Irekud. TIi« mt 
nambora nearly Uinie-aa»rlBrn.r»lnlUkHi 
Dommnnlcanl*, m»t of tbain being la lb* 
S. and W. 8tot«. 
Dlsooboluo. -kob'D-taa. In Claai. Aa- 

llq. ■ liTOMW o 

a qnofl-player. Tbi 
nuns given bj 
Curler to bis Sil 
ftmlly of Boft- 
flnned teleoatflau 
flahM. Ths lump- 
flah (CyclDptema 


whlob tbe leech bfr 



DiaoovTt u re, -kar'ert-Qr. Freedom 
ofawAouu from theoorertnre of shiu- 

DiflCraae, -krfis. A rftre ore oonsisting of 
antiiiiooy and nilver, fouod In metamor- 
phic strata, alone or aasooiated with otiior 

Tyson », Icuii. A quoit ; a piece of Iron, 
oopner or stone, to bo thrown in play, 
uKod by tlio ancients. A disk. 

DisinfBotant, -in-fekt'ant An afirAit 
for <lestrovtni; the power or means of prop- 
af^ating diseases which spreaii by infec- 
tion or contaffion ; anything that purifles 
the air lh>in noxious matters or removes 
odors or hurtftil organic substances 
from the ground, water, Ae. The more 
common are chlorine, bromine, sulphur- 
ous add, nitrous acid, chloride of lime, 
carboHoadd, &c. 

Disk. A quoit ; a circular piece of stone, 
iron or copper, used in games. Any flat, 
drenlar plate or surfkoe, as of a piece 
of metal, the fltce of the sun, moon, or 
a planet In Hot the name given to 
markings on the woody fiber of certain 
treea, aa the oonifsrs, as seen in a longitu- 
dinal section of the wood. 

Dlak-ooapliiiflr, diskHcu-pl-ing. In 
Maoh. a ooupUng oonsisting of two disks 


keyed on the connected ends of two 
shafts. In one are recesses, into which 
corresponding projections on the othor 
are recdved. 

Dispart, dis'pfirt. In Oun. the difrorenoe 
between the semi-diameter of the base 
ring at, the broech of a gun, and that of the 
ring at'th(^ swell of the muzzle. 

Dispart-siffht, -sit. In Gun. a piece of 
metal - cast on the muzde of a piece of 
ordnancie to make the line of sight parallel 

~ to the axis of the bore. 
Dispensation, -pen-a'shon. The 
granting of a license, or the lioenso itself, 
to do what is forbidden by laws or canons, 
or to omit something which is oommand- 
«d. Tbto pope haspower to dispense with 
tie eanon§ of the VMvroh, but has no right 

t^ffrant difipeuiatioDt to the injury of a 


Dlspermoos, dl-«perm'ns. In BoL con- 
taining two seeds only ; as, umbellate and 
atdlate plants are dlspermous. 

Disposltor, dis-poz'it-er. A disposer. 
In AstroL the planet which is lord of the 
dgn where another planet is. 

Disraali, Bei^amln, diz-rAKe. An 
English statesmen and author, b. ISnS, 
D. i8S8. lie was of Jewish descent, and 
ft>r years was the leader of the ('^>nsOTva- 
tlve party in the Ckimmons, holding the 
offlcc of Prime Minister in 1868-70, and 
1874-76. In the latter year he was created 
Earl of Boaconsfield. 

Disruption, dis-mp'shon. The act of 
rending asunder; breach; dilaceratlon. £c 
des. the term applied to the rupture which 
took place in the Established Church of 
Scotland in 1848, when 474 ministers and 
professors demitted thdr charges. The 
controversy proceeding the rupture lasted 
for 10 years, having originated in the pass- 
ing of the Veto Act. 

D is se ct ion, -sek'shon. The act of cut- 
ting in pieces an animal or vegetable for 
the purpose of examining the structure 
and uses of its parts; anatomy. 

Dissiflrlit, -sit. An eyesore; anything 
offcndve to the sight. 

Dissyllable, 'sil-la-bl. A word of two 

Distaff, 'taf. The staff to which flax or 

tow is tied, and from which the thread is 


Distance, 'tans. An interval between two 
objects; the length of the shortest line 
whidi intervenes between things that are 
sepfuvte. Contrariety ; opposition. The 
remoteness which respect reqnuires or re- 
serve inspires. In Music, the interval be- 
tween two notes. In horse-racing, a length 
of 240 yards from tile wire or winning- 
post, at which point is placed the distance- 
post. Mean distance of the planets, a 
mean between their aphelion and peri^ 
helion distances. Proportional distances 
of the planets, the distances of the several 

Slanets fW>m the sun, oompared with the 
istance of any one of them considered aa 
unity. Real distances, tiie absolute dis- 
tances of those bodies as compared witii 
miles, leagues, Ac. Accessible distances 
may be measured bv tiie application of 
any lineal measure. Inaecessible distances 
cannot be measured but by means of trig- 
onometrical rules. Lino of distance, in 
persp. a straight line drawn from the c^e to 
the prindpal point of the plane. Point of 
distance, that point in the horizontal Una 
which is at the same distance frmn the 
prtnc&i^ V<^^ ** ^^ ^^ ^ ^i'^o*™ the 



same. 'Angular distanvo. the angle of sep- 
aration which the directions of two iMdies 

Distance-8i8r]ial,-Rig-nal. In Rail, the 
most distant of the scries of signals under 
the control of a signal-man. 

Disthene, dl'sthcn. Kyanitc ; a miner- 
al so-called on account of its unco ualhard- 

■ ness, and because its crystnls nave the 
property of being electriiled both positive- 
ly and negatively. 

Distich, dis'tilc. A couplet ; a couple of 
verses or poetic lines making complete 
sense ; an epigram of two verses. 

Distillation, -til-a'shon. The volatili- 
zation and subsequent condensation of a 
liquid by means of an alembic, or still and 
reflrigerator}', or of a retort and receiver ; 
the operation of extracting spirit fW)m a 
substance by evaporation and condensa- 
tion ; rectification. Distillation Is of great 
Importance, not only in obtaining spiritu- 
ous liquors, but also in procuring essences, 
essential oils, &c. Dry distillation, the 
distillation of substances per se, or witii- 
out the addition of water. 

Distillery, 'e ri. The building and 
worlis where distillation is carried on. 

Distoxnan 'to-ma. A gon. of trematode 
or suctorial parasitical worms or flukes, 
inhabiting various jiarts in different ani- 
mals. AH present the strange phenome- 

. non known as alternation of generation. 

Distraint, -trant'. A distress or dis- 

District Court, 'trikt kort. A court 
which has cognizance of certain causes 
within a defined district. 

District-JudgB, -juj. The judge of a 
district court. 

District Parish, par-ish. In England, 
an ecclesiastical division of parishes for 
all pnrjjoscs of worship, the celebration of 
marriages, christenings, Ac. In Scotiand, 
similar divisions ore called quoad-sacra 

District School, skol. A school with- 
in a certain district of a to^vn. 

Disunion, dls-An'yon. Separation ; die- 
junction. A breach of concord and its 
effect, contention. The separation or 
withdrawal of any state tram the federal 
union of the Ignited States. 

Ditetrahedral, dl-tet'ro-he'dral. Hav- 
ing the form of a tetrahedrol prism with 
dihedral sommits. 

Ditheism, -thO-izin. The doctrine of the 
<>xi8tence of two gods, especially that on 
trhlch the oJd Porsfan religion was 

founded, or the opnoaition of good and 
evil principles ; diuuism ; Mankheism. 

Dithyrambio, dith-i-ram'bik, A hyms 
in honor of Bacchus or sonao of the other 
Greek divinities ; dJtb>TamD. A n^ 'poem 
written in wild, enthofiiaado etrains. 

Ditrigrlsrph, (Btri gflt An tntervalb*- 


i"JWi' v^.'/'-'.'r/'/',',--"^^ • 


tween two columns, admitting two 
triglyphs in the entablature ; used In the 
Doric order. 

Ditrihedria, -he'dri-a. A gen, of span 
with six sides or planes, formed of two trig- 
onal pyramids Joined bttse to base, vritE- 
out an intermediate column. 

Diuma, -em'a. A-it^otion of lepidopter- 
ous insects, corresponding with the Lin- 
ntean gen. Papilio, or butterflies. Also ap- 
plied to insects that do not live more tbMi 
24 hours, os-the Ephomone. 

Diurnal, 'ol. Relating to a day ; per- 
taining to the daytime ; happening every 
day; performed in a day. Gonstitnting 
the measure of a day; as, the diurnal 
revolution of the earth ; iw apfriied to 
another planet, oonstitnting the measure 
of its own day. In Med. an epithet of 
diseases whose exacerbations ore In the 
daytime. D. arc, the apparent arc de- 
scribetl by the heavenly bodies in conse- 
quence of the rotation of the earth. D. 
motion of a planet, the number of degreea, 
minutes, Ac, which a planet moves in 
twenty- four hours. D. flowers, open only 
during the day. Flowers which endure 
but for a day, as the flower of TIgridia. 

Divan, -van\ Among the Orientals a * 
court of iustice or a council. A council- 
chamber ; a reception room In palaces and 
houses of richer citizens. Any council as- 
sembled. . A coffee-bonse where smoking 
is tho principal enjoyment. A cushioned 
seat ; a kina of sofa. A book, especially 
a collection of poems hy one and the same 

Divertisement, -vert'iz-ment Di- 
version ; amusement A short ballet, or 
other entertainment between tho acts of 
longer pieces. 

Diver/ vet. Ou* ^\i» ^NWk\«kft >«\»» 


mBEEtlNXG.-? LUfP 

rlilli.i nt thr-B _ , 

miy hn lalM. Ihr ifnU-ii mod iitilllRix 
IMT«Mttun. -Tntl-lfir. Ttif trf 
MrfifilDK ur drjitlviae. Ii ' 

Irt »f Mw ntnUD fnini tfariH of 

rldar. -i-M'er. A pdr <>r ■Diull " 
wei, iikmI iiir d^TlfUiHr Unn, dtsci 

CiTl-dlTl. 'vWl'vl. ^ Thf nmiive i 

Hil lU lUlii. Tha litUr ive «in«aln 
MltlD(<nt uid mnUIn ■ Ww prupnm 
or UiiDls ind K*Ulc KfcL. 
IMvldllBl. 'Tbl'h-^. In Aiilh. and A 
nn" uf ilir M^ml inrtaof oillvldfmlftT 
wJikh iw^b iviMnM Ib^rn or Irrni of I 


DlVlnrdmu. ■nv'Lnn-iln'n. A ilrru of 
liidln-raWKT luwHl by prnfumlnnni .IWat, 
harlmi ■ hud-plam of mtitiil nirnlBbpd 
with nlrnriK IftnM i-rni ukI two jJlatile 
■l|HvitntnninUlnBntiMil]>nrtlr. WcUtlit* 
are MtwhFil lu (lie i^d» MM] ghnM of the 

altncbt^ Ihroutrh which trnh air 
. .Slvlaor.dl-rlz'rr. In Artth.ihr i 

tbu \naii ill mn 
'Divemtir. '«-. 

^ h^al diHoluttun of 

II., i;!>4. n. l-'-a. Ili-m MoBtor 

Uiy nf tho V. K. Tnwui}- and a'niajoc- 

Dlxon'B Entranoe. A i>tnlt lim m. 
Iimir. bPl. yiipen CharioKc Island and 
Prlnpe at WbIpb AirhlpWaeo, Jf. W. 

lifelMl, Jth'oL AnAmWinwnrd rtimt 
fvini niniintain ; ■% DJrh^-f] Modu, tha 

Djereed. Jisif d'. A blunt)arclin u»dln 

Clrlpnul milllary tparO. 
Do, dA. In MiifLi% the nnm.' ciTcn hj 

ih<' Itallrii» uid Knicllih lo th,: Km of tha- 

•yllahlM UH'd In tnTmlistlun. 
lie. AnabbrcTlatlonordlttn. 
Doasta. dA-u'ts. An InDirinr Indian er- 

dcnt aplrlt, often drugfifd. 
Doab. 'oh. In - - - 

K. IndlH. n 

Sobeniner'a Idunp, iiob 

limp. AooDbiifADas for jvodudng vi Ip- 
Btutan««uHg1it, produoed by throwlDga 
jet oflydioganirmniin Bnanuy plmilniini, 
vh«n uieinetuiiiatantly beooiaflsnxltiat, 
u4 then wta fin ts tlo gu. 
Dobhaah, 'huh. In ths E. IbiILm. u 

DooetoB. ds-su"!!^ Aa lu 

lined Ihst Chrlit noted 


ibflldluy openEtDiii 
I otuMihieorj. An 
I ; B doBker^eiiKlii* 
Hied bmiuw niai 
tliln vlie bf Cha a 

Doctor-fliti, 'flsh. 

chfoe or I 

Acaathunia. CUlidiilnag 

Doctrlnains. 'I 
nalivnm.iled lo< 

. Tbojiams orld- 
ly LIlxTal prtn^pliA. 

iins who thmrlies wlthont a suBU 
?rol; meuillnrKy, Thp urt of iscer- I f^nl rvir^il to praoUoal eoDrfdenadnt ; 

', or of (Mis pwulnliig to phyalolon'- i Doddait, rtod'ert. The hont idck n«M 

The pUeeivfaciv a crlmluJ In playlniF tliflmi«ei>f riodilsrt. thaoUtict 

. nlaooon thonlde of ■ belDKIodrivaii wooden InU to sneornn 

ik of t river tor ItiB boundwloj oteoslj. 

" Dpddiid«e. PhlUp. A dimognlalwd 

J>OCkyaTd, ySrd. A jKrd or mji^fizlne 

Doctor, ter. A lacher: one nktHed 
In ft prolbBalon. In a unlTerstly ona vho 
hu HHod all Ibo dsgrces ofafoeulty, 
Thoaegreeli often raetelyhonorBry, hut 
U cooftered on pbTslduii u n uronwlon- 
■] dwree. A psion duly llunsed to 
pmotwe medklna. A tartn applied to Ta- 
rloiu niBoliMilaU eontrivuM* Ar pailtinn- 

anthorof Lvldoio 
Sodecacon dO-dak'»«o|. A ngnlar 
polynoD coDilatlng of twetn aqnal aldfi 

idUOglB, * 

kdeaacjni -Jlu. In JE \ ' - 

iL ■ plant haTlDff ^^^ J*i.% 
.elvestifc. ^%X7 

znslnlDg to a dndoeahe- ^^ V 

Dodo, dOnin. An exilnet gen. ofbtrda' 
(DIdni), ord. Columlw, and onnatltollng 
anowfiunlly. DIdldu. It wu a maailTe. 
eIubhj' Wtd, target Oum i mi^h, ™-t- 


tho sun. Tlio dog-devs ]ut tor forty 
Myt, twenty before nnfl twontt sfter tho 
IwliHillrUipeitrmrlus, baglnnliiR oo the 
8cl of July sotk eDdln; llUkof Au^hL 
Dce-&Mb, 'Bih. A uma gina u hv- 

' av e!|thlh nut of Ik ellver, !n ydIud luilf s 
ftirthiog. AnyamiJL pioMof loonBy. A 

Sokmeh, dok'me. A Ponee rMepUcto 

tower, on lie FT>ted ton or whteh bodies 
ire expo>od till they drop Uirough iou> 
UMboayotlbetower. 6lmilw iliiietBrfli 
■refoond Dou Lake TlUaua, Peru. 

DoIabeUa, doU-bel'lB. A gen, of teo- 
ttbrancbiste moUoatLil, tilled to tlie bw- 
bvefl (AplyfilA). < 

I>ol&bra. do -lit' 

Soli capax, d6'II ki'nski. In Lmr, 

Doltohun. 'iT-lnin. A gen, of o 

uokllonn, ollted to theSidpie, uid like tlieia 
eihlMlbiK lnlM«al«it brm* of ilb •- the 


DoU.dol, Aimill 

Imi^ in [be li 

form fortbomniiB*! 

Elrl or womm more 

'^mirkable Rn 

\n'A>t OiB^ biUlUgeD 

DoUar.'ler. A rfl 

fr or gold coin 

United Slst«, ol th 

The Eoglhh namo 

f " ™'" "f l^] 

HIngnpore' tko Ft^pplDO Isbinds, *&• 
Tbo value of a dollar, tbo unit eiiiplo/cd 
in reckoning inonc}- In Uie United gtstel. 
SoUinBsr, Jotaiin Jo«eph Ignaa. 
AncniUient German 17W, 

CaltaoHcs -wbo refused to scce|>t the d(^ 
afterwirds founded tho tMd Cihollo sett. 
ZtolmAn, 'nun. A long robe, open In 

toneS at (he nr^t. warn bv the Turk! 
orer tiidr otber giruif nts. A gnrment of 
tlie naUue of a wide Jacket, worn by 

althongb BftBrwA 
Deed as altars. 

tidy of Dokm, III till? 1!. U. CD, the Vir- 
gin MuT, » au1»l 11 ''rrtnuit of bf " 
rtiw at Iho poufdo or put Lord. 
Dolpbljl, dol'fiu. Ths poimlnr ni 
-ecvvriil FpndrsorDrlpliinu.v sffcii. 

dolplUn proper, tlio botUiwinncl daiphJB, 
UiB gTsmpni, Ao. The oommon dolphin 
Ib peoulbirlr agOe, nod oftoQ ruUaws rlit 
in Idcge hcrdji, exoeqtlnff amv^nc,'' pii 



DilddiD Been 
■emallj' el> 

Soim, dom. A Utle 
Ejven to Oh popet oiu 
C. dtenHvUBudsa 
la Portonl Hid Bm 

Dom-boa. 'but Lit. doom-boot ; U 
""oaoflhoklngdt "' 

nnlraded with 

vlth B block (doak uid polntod vp of tLo , 

■Jw!ol>lni^ TliOTjlgiiropromliKnl^llitlia 
history of tlio InquUlain, tod ft wiam^wp 
.,.K ,Yrt|. 

dlcry of Christ. 
Dominica, One of the losocBn] rroop 
onv. I.lBkndB, bdoDgtiii;tnOt.Brltdn; 

Domiaicide, dn-ioin'l-sid. Tha net of 
murderlD^ainobtor. Oaa vho tlUs hli 

'1-qE. a hood or cnpo tbp- 
t-iDbsr by prlefltB whsD oJ&< 
idifloes. A haod worn bv 
cltid r.boinliisB In laij. A 

on, don. A tills In Spain, formn-lr 
ivca to noblomen and nentlemBii onlj-, 

™ of hTgh lEnjiortanco or 1 fjhllD^ poeltlocL. 

r of B oollego. 

ItsMi »uc?Lia,rlalng'ln tho ti:o' 
and impWlnB into the Boa of i 

B. 1883,11.1401. 
Donotiat, ' 

Doaatus, liis" 


ChornawMoot Inftiirblo, bnl hiu 
Knd becornfl praDtluHJty etUDcL a 

Sfmaufvertli, d^a'nQ-YBlrt. A 


1 fur tho Yletorv, ITM, 
AkB of Msrlborouzh o>-ei 

r Uuihal Boult b; llii 

Douagid. Tba H. yf. oo. of Ir 

Sonlzettl, a-oetano, di>iild-<iA 
ITBS.V. ISIS. """ ™ ""'" 
Donjon, 'Jon. The prlndnal tc 

Sonkey, donjt'ki;. An 


and «ra UB<^ for pnmpln? «»ter Into 
twilerg. rulBlng heavy weights, Jto. 

r»oly,di>ll. In tlieE, IndlMnbaml 
«halr. MTriad on men's ihonldcrs 
pole.!, naod Ibr convoying poraona, cs 
cislly tlis ikk ; ■ pilnn^uln ; a Utler. 

XHxmuday, dams'da. Tbe day of fl 

Bor, dor. Tho bluk-bwtls or C 

I>OTado. do-rii'do. 

R.'ml.lini the dolphin of Iho i 
Dora, Fanl OiiataT, do-r 
Eulshol JVencb urun and 

log both thB French 

lAlnlng to JXrrU of 
the T>oiianalnOreBi>n. 

dlnli-^t chsractirlicJ by {^^^T 

n'aj ■°h'<,n™ appUeil to 1 [ T ff 
■ny dIalMt Willi HlnillM 11 
DbaiwiWrisasi. ospudW- I 

ly 10 Ihe BmttUh, III I I 

11,0 orbits of Mara order. 
Jijpllor. The lypl- 
.;en. ofllBDortdB. 
Doris. In Mytli. dnngbUr of Oi^ojinnn and 
Totlij-9, End mother of tha bn Nerrirtss by 

Dorking. dcirk'lDe- A apeciea of barn- 
door fowl, dlat]ngiilBh«d by having fl™ 

Domtok, 'nlk. A eEnrBdllnpn afBtont 
fbbric, principally ofled for table-clotts. 


bwnal, 'rrl. A iHiBiiln- fv ■ hMM ol 

miiiliT ur rurintii «t Ihu buck i*t a flirone 

bort (SoTdtlebt). Onn of tba uMnt 
ritkoi or llollniHl, uu m Inland 1u Ote 
MI-HUP, silt. lOni. from Bottcrcttm. Not- 
nl u UH- pboo of mni'ltnic ofthnflrptu- 
thrir ri'lcaM lhHnl<uiiMidiuniiintlnn;al- 
•n.ftirtbeliirftllWDrtha «]Dbnit«<l ftvnod, 
miH-lll. wMrh tipprDTSil a» CllvlnlsUo 
diHilrlnr Mul n^M AnntnlaalnD ; pop. 

tfaHr finindcr, TkoalUii^u 

tn IhiiillliH.'ilUliInillmi of their' 
Dot. dni, Ttao fortuiK 

MSKIII. tB Uh lit 

Dooar Bible. Ao'l 

a libvIM 
nmpiiin-v HUketlDIHd 
rh. of whlab Uh Km 
t urtnwa Bt BlHlnu iB 

„. --ih'l-l**. Tbe 1i 

iiiiif li>:il in»lri™™t of tlw vtol Uod. 
Itenble-CTOwn. -ki 

I EwlUli 
I., (^tb 


phrwo un°St™HonJlj- 1 
tlmo, A rtmpln ft,™ 
XJoable-TaoU, 'J-riil 

PlMhi, nuaUloeuDlsb AmcfriDin SlaC 
orldnallydoablstbcTiiliii) of tbe pMo 
'L'he doublnOD orBpidn fi of IDA ivhIb. T 

Slfllrialj.orlSljinldolliin'. ""' 
SonbB. doulK A ilapt. ofFmnee, Imnl 
tug ^"itzcrluiil. wllb tbL' Jaa ModdiK 
iin the E. Cnp. BfsiuicDn ; [lop, vol.lii 
Done, d5k. A gei ' 

Held oFFlHldca, 
DousIbb, Stephen Amold. 

Abntaiuii IjDcvbjia 

lao, hev 

his EiicHuhil coinpcUlor, Mr. LIecqId. 
StniTO. doo'to. A river iclili:h tlJD3 In 
Araeon, Bjniln, tranmcs Portupil, nml 
cmptlFi iaui the AUutUc new Oporla ; 

Souronconll, d6-rA-k«-]l. Tho nBHre 

ftun. of Coll 

In Kent 

Jf plgHIl 


. Tbs euilE In ■uppMed la 

iregniblo; pop.Sliill. 

. of lbs StaWof Delinrr, 

cr Cochpon, the oldrsl 

(icmn nr NilrUi Era ; avHuge ^dlb 23 m 
Ddu (Daaw), OvTard, dnw. A -Ilii 

Dowdy, 'dl. J 
Joining titgcthor 

DoTB'kiB. dl 

A •rdb-fooUd 1;1H1, ^v 1 

the blnpk guillcmcil, "' ' 

SovBr'a-powder. dA'rerz- 
cojnnouDd nf Ippcocuuiliii, 
Hiilptiata of potoah. 

Sown. A ni. In Ulstor. N. 
tnvKned by the tinarm Mnn 
"--yrnpatrick ; p.)p. 2Ift.8ei. 

3AB.IS.V. Vc! Va*- J 

eelobrflt'*d for pmdndnf^ thu r«<fn csUed 
drTVun'[i-hUKKl> and Ibr Uin oxa nntl Im- 
znfiido nroportlonn nf on InilLvlduBt nt Or- 
dUvi. diFHirm'M by a hnrrlnin* tn 19(11. 

ft. hlirh In l-un. It Ku hD]k>w tnoldc nod 
BiosRdiil b/ a (iUlrcii». 
Dreuibenftl*, Ths. dHli'kn-I?li, A ro- 

Oreokjqf nbootaawe. Tgr. tniy. 
Draco. draHiG. Th« nrsfn>n< > conMf tin 
Hon of the nortliPm liemlsphwi', t — ■-'- 

Draoo. The lint UtoIvw at AltieDi 
tyhiM- KnAe wu pvMlshiid «« h. r. Tl 
' ■nil popnlu-ly mW 1 

IiMre bean vrfftan In blood. 

Mun. ^STliylng of 1 
OeOTife lg probibly m lu .mih. 
the triumph of (lie ChrtBUan bero oi 
fvll. A lien, of Hinrlinj< lUrsco), im 

poDtr A spiteful, wnlcbfu] woman ; ■ 

In UoL the popular namoof a c^n. of 
■potalmu plimu, DrUDDtlnm, A rsos of 
curler plf^eona of the aame stock as tb« 
POBlIUI ud Ba(dad carrier. In Snip. 
dragon aomednua Blgnlflee a Ivm flsb « 
««rpcnt, and aomeOmea a Tsnomont land 
Borpent. Itlaal»ltwdfi>r tbederll. 

Sraaronade, dcw-on-td'. OneofH Hrin* 
nf piTscTuUonri of FreuohProtcatantB In 
lbs rclirn of I.011U XIV., whlnh drore 
tbiiuiianilflof ProlnBtaDtaoatofFrBnaB. 

DraattO-fly. -fli. The ponnlar nama of 
a Dim. of JDAKti. LIbrllulldiP. Tbrv an 
"tmng, nwifl of niBhl and voracloua. 

Drai^xm. dra-jtun. A^cavalty* aoLdltr. 
Aklodof plgnin. 

Drain-trap, 'trap. A mntrivanoa to 

Draka, drik. ThsmHlo of theduck. Ths 
lilvrr sbllllnEor the reliin of Queen Etba- 
betli, havlnc a martlot, |iopularl.r imIM 
a drake, as the mint-mark. A BpedM at 
ft] dhA \a uufftnt. 

bdergiLFDieft wurb on the UgM 
part of the body. Clmt of 
cBHd or Alldln^ bortfl. 

Itroj-M over I 

nil unnttJDipliiUKl iDvuton of England. 

iiianricdliithehiitUe,16S3.whl.- ■ 
cA the BpanLih AirnidA. 
Drake, Samuel Oaidlikei. 
Icon AnttoiLvyud Author; h 
lTJi.D. ISTT. llewuttaetDtlio 

» or firnr« ofohtKts on ■ 
*, by man. orTlnB. uid 
th B peDotl, eompusesT Ao. 
Ion of priztiB andhlaokdbi & 


SramatdB peiaoiuB. ' 
I>raneavllle. A Tlllwre 

. 2,500 ContedorotcB ui 
fonaa belnff vIctoiiouFi. 
SfrRper, Johs. William. A disti: 
gulabed sbemlBl, uhyitoluidiit nnil autho 
s. In En^laml. IfiM ; i^T&iliiatT'd at tj 

- UDlvsraltj' ofPenn. hocune b profess. 
Id Hsmrten-Braiiey roiltgo, Vs., ifu- 
wnnl In the N. Y. Collfite. IIo ™ ai 
Ihor of sopral stondinl wic ntlflc Korh 

Drawlng^rooni. -rSm. 

Drawins-alate, -ilit. A flnf^gnlnad 
compact clay, ufluaUy fOuod iD oonoection 
with m^tamorphlo root, ai elav'ilate, 
Knelns, Ae. It la lometlniM oallad black- • 

Draw-Unk. Ilagk. AUnk brooDnnit- 
lnif twocvriagcflof attain together. 
Dnty, drO. A. low eart or carriage on 

iluaiBtkeTjnil.Rovrs thmucb Auntrin 
and Hnnni?, and empttet into the Uui- 
nbe ofar Eaaig ; kngth, TAO ui, 
XtoavldlBIl, drB-lU'l-ni. Otor pcrtuln 
iDg M DraTtda, an uld proTlnco of Indin ; 
' Awcif caJly. apblted in n nunlly of tonp o4 
■pokenlnS. fndto, Ceylon, &e. If hi 
dades Tamil, Tetugu, CuarcM and Mul- 
abar, ^ 

Srawbridse, niri]. 

letdovn tondni 

Siawee. -a'. Tho p*r»on 

STBirar.'ar. Hawhedraw.iWIIof ■ .. 
Oaan or im Drd«r for the wnnent of 
noMf. A lUdlw Ivx la» Mds, dMk, 

naed to deepen riyera, dooka, 
I>repano,Capa (Drepmnr ~ ~ ' 

Undon V.-waatorSMlY, w 
Carthaglnlr-- ■----■ ■*-- ' 

which the 

& B 

Cap. of the Kingdom of Sax- 
my ; on bolb gldca the Elbe, 

ofl^^elpilg. KotL'd for i|a niag- 
lacf B and Ita picture ffallciy j 
u of Naiiolton^in'Gatoit vlcto- 

ISl.OUil men. oriir the allied 

I fuU-dresB parUea, 

Drill, drtl. A 
flir boring hnloi 

InguMien. In'Airrl. a row of aeeda 4a 
posited In ttit «*!&■, tl»,'Ou\«»^' 


IMIl-lMnr. 'b'l. A sniiill boo EMimill; 
RiAi]^ of ft thin Mlp ot »l«c], naod for ha 
nunxMD ur npliUy lumlnK a drill 

Drlil-luUTaw. 'hi-nV a iwuill huruw 
unplnj-ol la drill liusbuudry. 

Willi var or inon'orilln lor borlDg hoK^ Id 
mi^, and dtalf^fuunl u vvTtl<nl h rkon 
till or iinlvomul- 
Srill-Mivsaiit. 'Hur-Jint. A nnn-cotn 
iiiUwloni'daniiH'rH'faoinslnicut d n in 
(lii,>lr dnlU'H mi Imlns them to m Ulary 

Drink, tlrinik. Urinnr to bo tnillowed 
ons-Hiil.) to bu "<■ h. ., h «,- 

toxieatlnK llqiio 

neatia poutorla. 
Drlnlilnv-liorii. 'inn-horn. A horn an- 
oleDtly uiedundrlDkiDg-vsuel. A cnp 


Dromedary, d 


KQTinro. A illtorinf-etoDO, Aunlliarly 

DriTOr-ant, drtr'oMnt. Anommi 
ooni^ A Hlnjnilar- AfHcan ftpHdce, boudi: 
tntm its ilrtvlD^ boftiro itabnoBtoTor 

DrivinK-Bprlng', 'InK-npring. 

Biivliig-wlieel, -vihc<l. A <rb»l t 
othrin. The Inreo wheel in h loeomoi 

Stok, Droime, drof. AbnoTBiUo: 
to tho ond ol s barpoon line. 
Uroger^ Oroghor, drfi'gtr. A ii 
1^. IndUa eMtOag mlt. 

thiintho-wortliiB-bee. The dmnos malw 
tio honoy, but uter Uvljw a fovr w««kA 
tiDd Ininrfiniating lbs ijueen they in 
killrd or driven Avm the hlro. Antdlerj 

The Untetllubu of thp boirpijie, whleh 

I DrODKO. dronietro. ' 
I offl)--c»lcbldBblrdB(I 




•t ■ Jonp nwroi. 
Ucb pusenffert rida an od a 
lie natoB i* nowkppUal Ion- 

ter, dFD-um'el-cr. An in«Im. 

icciiRlDlaff the quanUty of dQu 

tDmt oonaei^HS on abody tinos«d u tlit 

open ilr during Ihe olghl. JT" " "" ■"■""""J "• 

Sronet, Jean Baptdats, Ooont ^'^it.r^"- .1 

— — __ . . _ I ebony, apnwt and dbbcd. 

" 1 the eadoairp, tbe 

oonntlng noDierom lodg« or groTU 1b 

Earope, Amerla ud AuetnllL 
Druideu. -«. A ftoiftle drald. 
Drum, drum. A nunlBl Inimimeiitor 

ninslc In tbe form of shoUow cyllndwof 

Drum. A Celtic wor<1 e[giitbinc > round 
Lnul), nrld«e, Bumjillhtll, It cntmlDtu 
tho compoBiaoD ur uioiiy plnce-punel. u 
DmmcoDdra, l>rum{:lfl£a, Ih-iunoab, sod , 

Drum-flsb. 'Bab. Tbc jnpular ntqia of 
s R«a. of flsh<« |Pog«nia8), ouned from 
the OKtrBDrdhiaiy nolao tb«y mako ander 

UkM, 'mood lit A Terjr 

Dtber of hydroKOD, In a atate of Ignldoii, 
upon a bull of lime. Called altDbiyaldiim 
tli;bt, ]lm«-baU light, Ume %bt. 
Drunkard, drunck'erd. Oos glieti to 

lo babltually or (rB]ueBtly la dmnk. 

onJ^° ' 
Id LoDdoDJAalit 1^, 

DruBua, K. Llvliu. A 

Roman, who renewed tlifl propasala ni- 
i;udlng Uis Agnrian lawi. Hhloh pmred 
Iktal U th« Griodii. 
DryfUiUl, InH^So. WTmiJ™^;^!:*^ 

•d. Tlity wn BU|n.>r1gr In thu l[aiui- 
tA TAFllriilDT (»4-p, [KTUhln^ «ltb thpm. 
Srytleii, John. An rmlDnii Kg^llih 

9nrit«. ilrMi. l''rMin*iita »t j>niia>^\ nt 
AhKll w«h1 In vhlrli Ih>- Mmrtiiru of [hu 

br l.ii^i.*!. IKTkP. ikf. 
Ih7'4aia«. 'ni-Tii. A nurv irhn sltpndi 
■iidrwliis.^liU.lwllhcHitUiBlirrut Ono 
whu >.taiulK lu smilluT In * nimiio'liiil alm- 
BarrrlBtlaniJiiplu thatormlry-nuTM; tn 
unit, tliii)!, (U luflirlor ulfl«r nhu In- 

Siy.plle. 'pfl. 

nith eii«Dr >na v 
eblellr uiuyl In tU 

Ihuoitr. • 

■ in India' to 
miie ofunlu 

)r being divided into Ih 

iblln. Tbe up. [ 


poi>. 827,6 
Dubois. GkdUai 

Duboqiio, i 

ymnco u Prime Mln- 
'fdrlt'ana. ri!|tent. 
ak'. A CO. und OXj of 

ths UlMlaalpid, 

Dnctaen, dnoh'u. ' 

■ liEmiil* Bovtrilgn ofi 

DaotUlDieter, -tU-l 

I>aotUlt7. 1-tl. Tha pnpai^ or acM 

bodlid. luu-tlcniAHf metals, whiefa randerm , 
Ibam capjLbla of balQ^ eiUbdfd br draw- ' 
in^p thtir Ihlckn^ or diun«t«r bda^ 

Albnny ; n-aa PlMtol Statu Senator, Mayor 
of Albany and U. S, Senator, ISM. \\p 
rounded Dudley Observatory at Albany ; 

Dadley. Tho chief Iron mioitlkctarlDg 

I>aanna, -en's a. 1 
inir on tio Qnoon c 
fbmalfl, holding * nil. 

I>iier, John. An A: 

■BDiirfcable pscuHarlty thallie ventricle! 


by > deep noteh st the spei. Tha tkbte 
monoBld seeou to h.™ origbMad troi 
tbe Angoog or tbe nuitee, Uie» imlnul 
■npK"*'"S Oiemselvfli fn t lemC-upright 

Ihika. diik. In Gt 

jffulsbed Frenel. , 

B, l«n, D. 1742. He i1er«ti^ the Unloli 
SDd Eogltib, nnd captured Klo de Jineln 

DuKoeaoUii, Bertrand Cnmtnbloof 
I'mnw, and Mngng tho Mat mllllMy 
Mmmuidtriofthenie; b. 18U, d. 1391). 
Ho tuice drovB tbe Kngrllsh out of n*4rlj 

:b defeicea and captu. " ' ■' " 

lntb«i>lrin)n runntni^rrom top to boltorn. 
lod In bFiOK played by one ptecCnua. tlw 
left hand belDii employed either to twonif 

DulcdiilM, 'sln^fst A follower of I>al- 
rlnUB, t layman of LomMnly. In the 14th 

Holy Ghost, sinning that the Father bad 
reigned tin Cbrlst'B IncamatJon, and that' 
tho SoD'a reign tennlnatiid In ism. He 
WM Jl"""^ by a KTMl nany people U, 

burned by order of aement IV. 
Dulla. dull-a. An Infertor kind of n-or- 
ihlp or sdoration. at that paid to aolDta 
inif mgela In Ibo E. C. Churfh. 

th. Oip. ef Bt. Louts 

»t the V; end of Lake e 

immerclal metropoUa o: 


Dninaa, Alexandre, doo-mfih' (The 
Elder). A dlttdngolehed French drama- 
Hat, noioHst moil radleal BUteaman ; b. 
im, D. 1$11. Hie ion (The YoDDget): 


>v s >■ 



ir^rrs-oe* * 

".fTI ,^*SBCi^' 

7;- _:_:.:rr^.« »tti 

•i?.- ■■ IS-: i.CJOCL 

- - -. ^ ' 

^■.■^'V:---« ^2.i:7.t*a -rnj: =l 


«.• ■ J' 

J :» 

»lt t •■■• •I'f.H- '■'(•*'', '-f 'I.' l'/*,r %f fi 

un -.t §,.".' -.i-'t t'l.-u,!*/', ,f ']' f' :.* ',t *•,'• 

bttitui i / ' II, m '•'■il l''.V» |i«,|t ;#»,* t .V/>. 

||it*ii> il-'ii'lr'' f 'if Muli'ilffi II., niiir* 
f|M<f| If Mn«-IiI'Mi, 'I lifiiii- '*r (MNritor; 
||*MiiMi«'l nM llif I'-ir Mhlfi 10 

UiiiirHii. Adn-iii, VlHiiMini A Mrll 
liltHilmlnih H llill, ii lMl»i. lliiwiiiiA 

: -.: 1 ■ .-nz^ui the 

■ _■ :-■_■.■■.'. :■" i^«. 

.'i.v :.j£.ry rank, 
. :-: ^ ^.".i; ofaftun- 

• _■ •.- r. A ::■-• raJx-r of a sect 
■ r:_-::.i:::.g in rhiladelpMk 



Wrl*l*-;j aj-.o i 
I>u nkirk, A :: .'im-i^-nt soaiH>rt of Franoe, 
utrofitrly fortilk<l. I;i dtpt. Le Xore, 40 m. 
N. W. of Lllk-. 1). was burned by the 
I'liitCllnli, iHhH, liiid cai)tiiro<l by them, 
jCiTiH, iMitHff r<a^U>r^'(l to (Vance throogfi 
piirnluuMt, 100*2; i>op. abt. 45,000. 

13uiiOifl. Jean, Connt de Lon^^e- 
Tille (known as "Ths BaeUrd of (Ir- 


The SaxDUB and Bamriana raptand It 
AlffU 18, 1M(, ui<l ft »H trten by th» 
Frusslani, April IS. IBU. 
Dupuytren, QulUauma, Baxon, 

econ; B. lIIT.'n. JiS5. 
Duqueane. Al)iub«m, HamiiilB, 

Ho BQoiculTely defCatM tiib Swa- 
Dntcta and Danes. wlnntDK ftmnil 
J over thG cpbbratod Dutch adml- 

nl. lis Kapi 

ir L^UBlB, lOTB, the 

' or Charlci 

Saodedmal, dn-o-rtes'l-mal. One of a 
tvelT^ ° d>!uwl ilao Cn>MMiilllpUcallon. 

I>iiodecIiiiO, -mo. A liook In whkh a 
Bboet la folded Into twelve IcavoB, The 
■Ize or s book cunalBtinir tt aheete M 
folded ; usually Indicated thus; ISino. 

Saodenuni. -do'Dnm. The fl™i por- 

I>aoUtenLt, -llt'er-al. 
Ifltten onl; ; hlUteral. 
Suhh Scotoa, John. 


Dunee, l^GS. p. ISOS. 

^b^M Aqnlnae. 
""I""*"". St. A 


ohtalned greal poHUail fiifluenoo, which be 

Bnperre. Victor Out. Baron, doo- 
nam'. A Frencli admiral ; a, ITTB, d. 
Bral Encilsh ahlps, 
the fleet wblcll 
nd compfilled the 
MneenBtuns. ISSO. 

pmhanlod Al^en 

J>nppsl (I>7bboI or Dnppeln). 

ntsd from the Island of AlecD by nnc 
.tnilt, noted as the scene of M.eml . .. 
culiiai7 hnltlcB. The Danes dereated the 

I>nrand. Aaher Brown. An Ameri- 

can ecgrovcrimd palnte 



I>iirbBT, der'har. An 

the palaces offtenatJTe prinoea 

r India. 

Aa&te levee held by 

the gova 


end of India, or by 


prineee anoffldalr«- 


I>urOT Albreoht d( 

pncraver nnd iiafnler 


n 15S8. 


Dttwa.liir' * 

Ki Alllndn ^ 




consort ofll ^ 

Ctae'V^ ^ 

«,*"fel^w' ^ 





paml to the it~- 
lldafJuno) '-— 
and the Pal 


tlH-iHYB»<irill«iIrR'U..f UioillM Itno- ] 
•ton mkI Aiinlrliui uriuy br the Fnucb 
nnlrrlini. M.nliT, 1SI)S. 

Bn. of jitoutJi. nnl. k. TWiCJli^l Dyad, ilT'iul. Twnnnlta tnsUdu 

- liHiiw, rivrt 'lu- — i«a ■ ■ 

'iliuidA, Ihc luily ^T^pJ j^ D^i^^/ blJilnir with oI^ktIkhIIu. la o^ulviJ^b' 

njKH.'lf*. in n kifty uw ^^Jiri^S' *"" "Wiuri of hy<ln>(,-«B. 

MoJurKnir •^l"[™ ^ffil^KW. I>rauB, <lv.iu». In llind, MyUi. o 

teiU tnii. nf lh« nlu Vl^^Vt U"> rliTOcnlul dlvliiIUw of Ihe Vedai 

{,1111 of Ihv brlKbt Kky. Mh DUDS bcdngoii]- 
iwclva KiUi time uf tliB llreck Zcui 
tbroufh the rotitdyu, ta ablnct mid the 
LMId Jujillor, wUch la merctv Draat 
Bttrr or Xmi \M*T, aOvir Uy tut or Zcaa. 
lis niw urlinuUr tba akT rniiu wblsh »li 
lUlB. He gmve |iliicti lo elIi ftoa IndrL 
Dye, dl, A culoricg- U<jDor ; italn j tinge. 
Dye-wood, 'wud. A iiEiianl nuns ftw, 
anip' wiHul frum rhich dye Is extrAeted, 
Dyaaotiiiometei', -tuk'tlfl-om"eta'. 

„ _, ,._^ power uflaloscopi'e. 

DwiKht. Timothy, a dlaUn^nlidiea Dynamica, Ikn. Tlio Mlenco whlcb 

Ainrrieim tbuolui;lui ; ■. In Mua., ITM, IuvcmII^uIhi Ihunctlonofforcii. 

D. IHIK. Dynamism. 'nuiii-liDi. Tba doetrlne of 

Duster, dnil'n'. One n-ho or Ihnt wblch Lvibulu, iJutnU bubeUncalniolTeilbne. 

«Uy«ft™nliiit. AbIcv* AliirUtoYcr- Dynamite. -It. An c.ploslve enbaHnoe 

«»[ iTuni to |m.lwl the .lotldnt,-. eonsl.llufr of. Ulic-uui eortb Impiwn.Itd 

Dutoh, durh. OriBfniHy lbs iioimnnlo wllh iillro-Blyu.-rlii*. Tbo objnjtof the 

Ttct : the OtTinsn pcoiami cciwnUly— mixtilni Is U •llmlniMi the nunoepUbnitr 

BOHDnly nppllrtllotfioiK-oiilpoflluUiiid. ofnllni-Blyiwrine to ellBbt shock, mid » 

Tbo iMcnws spoken lu iluUiunL to 6dUU(« Ita oirrtiwo wllhont deitroy- 

Duteh-Sold. 'g!M. An tUluynf 11 want liw Its iiiitotilvs thFToe. Tbs disruntin 

oomiFr snd li line. Cdled also MnchWk flnvoot d}-nunilv livstlniated st ahont 

BnifTonibac. olcht llitiiii Ihot of pnni»iwdw. Chsrooal, 

Dutcli^aitieral, -mln-cr-sl. Copper saml and siw-iluht are employed >s sob- 

to a jiernlbiF line of paloUnK 
Ulouf Its lil-^— ■' — • — 

piled Dynamometer, -na-moi 
llol- otjiui'lally tlutof iiiim, snlm 

land, charoatnlEoil by the a 

anW.'Msofalowc-Jiiiniclor.wlHoraiWnk- DyiiB»Ud«. dMias'U-dJ. A Dim. of Is- 

ln(r, litiMih™' slioiiH, Ae , but rulswl to ini'lllecini U^ollos, Including the olenhant- 

tho hlphwt lapularlty Ijjr perfMUou of bM.^]t, hLmuleii-U-otlo and allas-boctlB. 

oSi^-rti, -om'YiT. Oneofti.«Romm l>78nomy. dis Wd. Hod leirfsbUon; the 

ofllemorina^stniuuidtiid iDtbesauic fnaelruent oriind luivs. , ... , 

pnbUo funeUoM. Dysodile, 'ii-illl. A spoi'les nf «m1 whlcK 

Dux, daks. A Imd.T ; a chief; Bpedfl- ""'" " '''■"'' '"*"' "'"" I'"'""'"'- 

cslly, the head ]—" ' - -' .i.--,.— 

In a publls sch» 

Dwato, dwii — _ , 

jolor. Tbs dtMdly nl)chleliJi>ta, vblcb pas- Dyaphoula, -ffi'ol-L ObstnieilaDoflbr 

Munu JtupsQ'iiw or poliauoui propecuu. orsiia otaewch. ^ 



Pwaprl guttuwM. When >lumud It 


• ol«ar.*i!(l lo as feet it MB botiBd. 

J^- ,. 

Dalreetal, dzlg'?e-l*. Tie wild ox ol 

Dytl«cid£6 ai-U.'rt-a4: Ali™.ofp«.- 

AsiB (Eqou. hemloBus). belle.e.1 to b< 

the Jiemlonos of Herqdolas and rllnT. It 

the goo. DydBcuo (wsttr-bwUo) is tho 


EIS the id Towfl and the l»]i letter of tlia 
EDRllBh alphabet. It occun more 
frequently than any nther Mua of the 
Alphabet. llH lon^ or iiatured ADUnd coin- 
It baa aleo inoUicr prindp^ louild. a 

a Bound like > In name, aa In there, where, 
&C., and the obficureaouud which fa heard 
in her. Ae a final letter it Is eeoeraUy 
siloDl : bat It serves tu Icnglben the eoond 
of the preceding TOWf 1, or tO ludlrjale that 
the preceding vowel Is to hive Its ' 
nound, SB In mane, Muo, ^nme. A 

Bliieie « ^g, n/ln de^^Eateem, need ; 
Hheu It Dccura nith t and 1, as In mean, 
hear, aelffe, deedve, it often bae the same 

one vowel Kood ie heard, l< called ■ dl- 

iD tbe calendar It l> thelinb er the domin- 
tolletten. As an ■bbreriadonlt itande 
Jk East, aa in chart* ; In the eomblnaUon 
e. g., for exempli j^ralia. fhr example; 

sic. Is the Uilrd note or degree of the dia- 
tonie Bcale, anawering to the mi of the 
Italians aed Fnnoh. Also, ihe key bar- 
ing IbDr abarpa in Ita signature ^the key- 
note of Ibe church mode caHed FbrygUn. 

End. An elementlo Anglo-Saiou nam«, 
(lgniQrlDghapp7,fartDnate,aa in Edward, 
happy pregvrer; Edwin, b^ipy oc" 

XiaKli>-liawk, -hgk. Horphnoi, i gen. 

BMrle-Owl, -odL One of a aob-bin. 
oWta, the moat remarkable of whieh lit 
gnat hoTBed owl 

B^le, J'gL AoDlla, a gen. of raptorial 




a chased circle of ^uld, liavintir on its upper 
ci^e oi^htBtrawlHfrry lca<'uH, and between 
each puir a pearl ruisi'd on a Rpire higher 
than the lciive.<<, caji, «\:<'. 
Ear, Or. The or^an of hearing, contained 
iKirtly in the HubMtancu of the temiioral 
bon*.', un<l partly projt!*;tin;^ cxtiTnuUy be- 
hind the joint of t ho lowir jaw. Anytiiing 
ri'St'inbliiitr an ear. A sjnko or hoad of 
corn or^rain; thutjiartof the cereal ])lanta 
whioh (N)ntuins the llowers and ^eed. 

Earldom, Mum. Tho seigniory, juris- 
dietion or dignity of an earl. 

Eamest-moiiey, er^nost-mun-i. Money 
paid to bind u buz^ain or ratify and prove 
a sale. 

XSar-rinfiT, Mng. A i)endant ; an orna- 
ment, sometimes set with jewels, worn at 
the ear, by means of a rin^*- passing through 
tho lobe. Among Orientals ear-rings have 
been worn by both sexes from the earliest 
times. In England they were worn by the 
Romanized Britons and by Anglo-Saxons. 
After the 10th centnry the fashion de- 
clined, bat it was re-introduced into Eng- 
land in the 16th century. In the 17th 
century ear-rings were worn by male fops. 

iESarth, erth. Tho i>articles which com- 
pose the mass of the globe ; more jtartic- 
uUrly tho particles whit^h form the mold 
da the eorrace of the globe ; any indefinite 
portion of that matter, as wo throw up 
earth wiUi a spado or plow. This sub- 
stance being considered by ancient philos- 
ophers as simple, was called an element ; 
and in popular language m'c still hear of 
the four elements — fire, air, earth and 
■water. The terra<iueous globe which we 
inhabit. It is the 8d planet in order from 
the son, its orbit embracing those of Mer- 
cury and Venus, but being within tho or- 
bits of all the other ]thinets. 

SSajrth-closet, 'kloz-et. A night-stool or 
convenience, in which the fieoes are re- 
ceived in a quantity of earth. 

Sartliexiware, 'en-war. Crockery ; any 
household utensil made of clay hardened 
In the fire. 

Sarth-flax, 'flaks. A fine variety of as- 
bestos, whose long flexible filaments are 
so delicate as to resemble flax. 

Earth-house, 'hous. Tho name given 
to the underground buildings known as 
Plots* dwellings, freauent In Scotland, oc- 
GOilonally thirty or rortybolng found In 
the samo locality. Querns, bones, deers* 
horns, plates of stono or slate, earthen 
yessels, cups and implements of bone, 
stono oelts, bronze swords, and the like, 
are oooaslonally found in connection "with 
ibem. Yety similar structures ooonralso 


Earthquake, 'kw&k. A shaklziff, trem- 
bling, or concussion of the earth ; sodie* 
times a slight tremor; at other times a 
violent shaking or convulsion ; at other 
time:i a rocking or heaving of the earth. 
The shock generally comes on with a deep 
rumbling noise, or >vith a tremendous ex- 
nlosion rei>embling the discharge of artil- 
lery, and the ground is rais<Ml vertically 
at "the center of the disturbed tract. There 
is little doubt that ei'U'th<inakes and vol- 
canoes are due to the operation of tho in- 
ternal igueou.s forces of tho earth. I*rol>- 
ably the most destructive earthquake of 
moilern times was that which nearly de- 
stroytnl Lisbon in IT-W, by which from 
80,0U<) to 44),000 persons perished, although 
it lasted only six minutes. Nearly haU 
that number are supposed to have per- 
ished in the eorthquako of 1883, in which 
some isla:ids 8. of Asia were completelf 
submerged and others ixartially swallowed 

Earth-shine, 'shin. In Astron. a name 
given to the faint lino visible on the part 
of the moon not illuminated by the sun, 
due to tlio illumination of that portion by 
tho light which the earth reflects on her.. 

Earth-worm, 'werm. The common 
worm found in the soil, a type of the class 
Annelida (ord. Oligoohflpta). The name is 
common to all the species of the gen. 
Lumbricus. E. oil, a medicinal oil ob- 
tained from the common earthworm, and 
used in earache. 

Ear-trumpet, er'tmm-pet. A contriv- 

anco for tho benefit of deaf persons. It 

magnifies sound. 
Ear-wax, 'waks. The cerumen, a thick 

viscous substance secreted by the glands 

of the ear. 

Earwiflr, 'wig. The popular name of 
certain species of Forflcula, which are or- 
thoptcrous insects, fam. Cursoria. 

Easel, ez'el. Tho wooden frame on which 
painters place pictures whilo at work upon 
them. E. pieces, the smaller pieces which 
are pain tea on tho easel, as distinguished 
from those which are drawn on walls, 
ceilings, &c. 

East, Sst The point in the heavens 
where the sun is seen to rise at the equi- 
nox, or the corresponding point on the 
earth; the point of the compass in a di- 
rection at right angles to that of north and 
south. One of the four cardinal points, 
llie eastern parts of the earth ; applied to 
Asia Minor, Bvria, Chaldoo, Perslajl Indi^ 
China, &c Empire of the £a§t, founded 
895 ▲. D., when Theodosius the Great di- 
vided the Boman empire between hbi 



£CX?B II0M3 

sons, AixMuIios and IIonoriaB. The rae- 
tropulis vr&i» Oonfltantinople. The western 
divisiun, whose capital was Itome, was 
colled the Empire of the West 

XSastlake, Charles Iiook, Sir. An 
English historical painter; b. 1798, i>. 

Xiast India Ooznpany, Tha An 
English commercial association incorpo- 
rated in Queen Elizabeth's reign, 1600, 
and given the monopoly of all ti^o £. of 
the Cape of Good Iiope ; abolished 1838. 

XUurter, Cs'ter. A festival of the Chris- 
tiun church observed in commemoration 
of onr Saviour's resurrection. Easter is 
the first Sunday after the full moon which 
happens upon or next after the 21st of 
March ; and if this happens upon a Sun- 
day, Easter-day is the Sunday after. 

JESaster-day, -d&. The day on which the 
festival of l^ter is celebrated. 

Sast Biver. A strait connecting N. Y. 
Bay with Long' Island Sound ; 18 m. long. 

Saiiy-oliair. &cM-char. An arm-chair, 
sometimes >vith rockers, padded for rest- 
ing or reposing in ; a chair for rediningin. 

XIau Cfareole, kro-ol. A highly esteemed 
liquor made in Martinique by oistilUng the 
flowers of the mammce apple with spirit 
of wine. 

San de Ooloffne, de kO-lAn. A per- 
fumed spirit conflisting of spirits of wine 
flavored Dv different essential oils blended 
so as to yield a fragrant scent. 

Bau de Ijuoe, lus. A solution of 
ammonia, scented and rendered milky by 
mastio and oil of amber ; used in India as 
an antidote to the bites of venomous ser- 

Eau de Vie, vd. The Fk«no1i name for 
brandy; spedflkwlly, the coarser and less 
purified varieties, oognao being the best 

Eauz Bonnes, 6-bdn. A popular 
French spa, dept Basses ^r6n6es, 80 dl 
8. £. of Oleron. 

Bbanchoir, a-bash-wfr. A large chisel 
used by statuaries to rongh-hew their 
work. A great hatohel or beating instm- 
mentoflod by rope-makers. 

Ebb. The. reflux of the tide ; the return 
of tidewater toward the sea ; opposed to 
flood or flow. 

Bbeliana, e-bdli-aaz. A Oerman sect 
whieh had its origin at Konigsberg in 1884 
under the leadership of Arehdeaoon Ebel 
and Dr. Dfestel, professing a doctrine 
called spfaritoal marriage. The leaders 
wiB» in 1889 tried and condemned. The 
sect li po^Uarlly named Huoker, or hyp- 
oeritea. . 

Bberhard, Jobaxm. Anffost. 'A 
Ocrmon philosopher; B. 1789, v. 1809. 
Ue wrote in defease of Ilebnitx and in op* 
position to Kantlsm. 

Ebionlte, £'bl-on4t One of a sect of 
JcMish Christians who denied tlie divinity 
of Christ and rejected parts of the New 
Testament. They were pronounced her- 
etics by Justin, Irenasus and Origen. It 
is thought St. John wrote his gospel in 
the year 97 against them. 

Bblis, eb'les. In Mohammedan Myth. 
an e\il spirit or devil, chief of the fldlea 
angels or wicked jinns. liefore his lUl 
he was called Azazel or Ilharis. Uall of 
E., the hall of demons ; pandemonium. 

Bbonlto, 'on-i t A hard bhMk com pound 
obtained by blending caoutohouo or gv^ 
ta-percha with va- 
riable proportions 
of sulphur. Called 
also vulcanite. 

Bbony, -L The 

popuktf name of 

various plants of 

different genera, 

having wood of a 

dark color, but the 

best known ebony 

is derived from 

plants of the gen.^ 

Diospyros, ord. 

EbenaoeaB. The 

most TaluaMe eb- 
ony is the heartwood 

Bbri0ty,d-bffi'e-tl. Dmnkenneu ; Intox 

ication by siriritoooa liqoors. 

Ebullition, -bol-U'shon. Theoperatioa 

of boiUng ; the agitation of a Uq«or by 

heat, which throws it up in onbUea. 

Eborna, -ber'na. A gen. of spiral, onl 

valve, gasteropodona moUoaks. 
EbnmiHoation, 'nl-fl-kft'^shon. The 

conversion of substances into others 

i^hich have the appearance of ivory. 
EbnminflB, -nVniL A snb-ihm. of the 

ftm. of mollasks TnrfalnoIlidA, having the 

gen. Bbnma for its type. 
Ecarte, ft-k2r-tft. A game of cards for 

two persons with 83 cards, those from 

two to six being excluded. 

Eooaleobion, ek'kal4e o'^bi-on. A con- 
trivance for hatchiog eggs by artifldal 

Eooe lunno, 'se hd'mO. A name given 
to paintings which represent our Saviour 
erowned with thorns and bearing the 
reed, partlciUariy to « uoVkVA \i&sdd^ \fi 

of tlM Dioepyroii 

_.... Jn III* Kolniwfci 

imUiu lb« jiDppiu«il Dlrrulnr orbit of « 
lilfinpt Alniit Iha Hrthf bnt wlthtbePArHi 
i-. 1. ... — ntPT. A ctrolo <l«a1bed 
lia <•! >n clllptlal orUt, 

nicnl rantrivMrL-. ftweon- 
. 'iwcif^r'ln'licli™. "* 
■Kit. In Mh-]i. b term 

p. The bwid of 

itrto.mnd within nhirb itrevg 

^trlarod Ib iLttAchoil to It. 

\K'ti-». An saspmbly; _. 
bbly ot tha people of AtliBBS, U 
r tttx clUzeii Imd ■ right to st- 

i« Old Te^tmneut. i>la«<l bctweoD tlifi 

BocIeaioloST. -oL"o-a. The «de 
■DtiqulUeK u (pnU^ to churcLi 

Xioderon, 'de-ron. Tho outer la 
tlio JntctniinDot; Um epItbeUiil li 

of the ak]p ; the eododfrm Ib the c 
Annaa %er. 
£oheneia, -o-nS'it. A icn. of ts\ 

eccimlod by a liiailDACad disk, by 
of H'hich [hey attach Ihamsolvee lu 

riy S&ted 

^ umbUog a larj^ bcd^ehoe, nuHj aUtod 
to tha OrnlthorhytiehiK- One BnaoleB (E^ 
li>-strU), Ib iwpaWly known at the Per. 

n Myth, danj-'i'i^'' of Tar- 
aaented aa half woman and 
'mb. A $ta. of B. Amtrf- 

ho. In M.vlh. dangfater ofOis Ati 

Bhe was deprived of speech bj Juno. 
Ecila, a-se'bali, A dty of Sevtlle. B] 

Eahometrr, e-kom'ct-ri. TheartorHt 
Tho Brtofoonstmoangwnhalo {mdHB 

EclBiTclasem«nt. i-kUr^a-nin, Bi- 
ninnitinn ; Ihe otearlDjT op ofaaytUiigMil 
before un'Icrstood, 

SclBjnpBy. ekOimp'ii. A Saehfaut of 
llpt before Uie eyes; renU codtuMx 

— avmptomolio of epllepej ; hmce, Fplle))- 

Eolat, i-hli. Abiint. u ot anplaoae; 
acclunatlon ; spprobidun. BrilWer of 
ouccess; splendor ofefl«t; loner. 

Boleotlc. ck-lek'tlk. One who (Mloira 
an eelegtlo method In pbllotiophy. adeDBB, 
reli^rlon and the like; apeotflcsllr, a M- 
lower of the anolent ^ocUo phlkAAnlir. 
A Christian who bellerfd the doslri»of 
Plato oonformible (otliil tuMt ofUMnw 




Sclipsareon, u-klip-e&'rc-on. An In-, 
strument for explaining the phenomena 
of eclipses. 

Eclipse, -klips'. An Interception or ob- 
struction of tne light of the sun, moon or 
othor luminous body, by the intervention 
of some other body either between it and 
the eye or between the luminous body 
and ths^t illuminated by it. The number 
of eclipses of the sun and moon cannot be 
fewer than two nor more than seven in 
one year. Darkness. 

Ecliptic, -kUp'tik. A great circle of the 
sphere supposed to be dirawn through the 
middle of. the zodiac, making an angle 
with the equinoctial of about l8» 27', the 
sun's greatest declination. It is the ap- 
parent path of the sun, but as it is the 
earth which moves, the ecliptic is the 
path among the fixed stars which the earth 
in its orbit appears to describe to an eye 
placed in the sun. In Oeog. a great circle 
on the terrestrial globe, answering to the 
falling within the plane of the celestial 
ecHptic. Phine of the ecliptic, an imagi- 
nary plane which passes through the ecUp- 
tie, and is indefinitely extendi. 

Eoorche, a-kor-sha. In painting and 
Sculp, the subject, man or animal, flayed 
or deprived of its skin, so that the musoa- 
lar system is exposed. 

ISctoparasite, ck't5-pa'ra-slt. A pant- 
sitio animal infesting the outside of ani- 
mals, ns opposed to endoparasite, which 
lives in the body. 

Ect3rpe, 'tip. A production of, or close 
resemblance to, an original; opposed to 

Ectypogrraphy, -og'ra-fl. A method of 
etching in which the ones are in relief in- 
stead of being sunk. 

Ecuador. A republic of S. America, 
lying on the W. coast directly under the 
equator,* bounded N. by New Granada, 
E. by Peru and Bolivia, 8. by Peru, and 
W. bv the Pacific; area, 208,000 sq. m.; 
pop. 1,726,000; chief cities, Quito, the cap., 
ana .Ouayaqnil, the principal seaport; 
principal mountains, the Andes, two of ttie 
nighest peaks of which — Chimborazo and 
Gotopaxi — are within its limits; thero are 
no lu'ge rivers but several considerable 
feeders of the AmasBon. 

Eczema, 'ze-ma. An eruptive disease of 
the skin, preceded by redness, heat and 
itching. E. epizo5tioi, foot and mouth 

Edaphodont, e-daf 5<Iont One of a 
fbssil chimicroid fishes, fh>m the groen- 
sand chalk and terOar^ strata. 


Edda, ed'da. A book containing a sja- . 
tem of old Scandinavian mythology, vntb 
exploits of the gods and heroes and some 
account of the religious doctrines of the 
ancient Scandinavians. 

Eden, 'den. The garden In which Adam 
and Eve were placed by Ood ; hence, a de- 
lightfhl region or residence. 

Edentata, -den-t&'ta. Thatord.of mao^ 
mols to which 
sloths, ant-eat- 
ers, armadilloeB, 
&c.f belong. 

-dent'at. A 
animal having no 
fore teeth, as the 

Edfirar. King of England, somamed 
"The Peaceable," s. his brother Edwy, 
948; D. 975. St. Dunstan was his chief 
political adviser. £. Atheling, grandson 
of King Edmund Ironsides, was proclaim 
e<l King on the death of Edward theO>n- 
fessor, but submitted to WiUiam tiieOon-. 
queror ; b. 10S8, d. 1120. E., King of Scot- 
land, was nephew of E. Atheling: b. 
lOCl, D. 1107. 

EdgrehiU, ej'hil. An eminence in War- 
wickshire, Eng., 7 m. N. W. of Banbury, 
noted as tiie scene of the first and lode* 
cisive battle of the civil war, Oct 28, 164S. 

Edgre-tool, ej'tfil. Any instrum^it hav- 
ing a sharp edge. 

Edgeworth, Tffaria. An eminent Eb- 
gUsh novelist ; b. 1767, d. 1849. 

Edfiringr, 'Ing. Lace, firinge or trimming, 
added to a garment. In Hort. a row of 
small plants set along the border of a 

Edible, ed'i-bl. Anvthing that may be 
eaten for food ; an article of food. 

Edifice, ed'i-fis. A building; a stmetnre; 
chiefly applied to elegant large structures. 

Edile, e'dH. In Roman Antiq. a magis- 
trate whose diief business was to super- 
intend buildings, especially public edi- 
fices, temples, bridges, aqueducts, Ac, 
and who had also the care of the highways, 
public places, weights and measures, «&e. 

Edinbnrflrh, M'n-bHih. Gap. of Scotland, 
on the Firth of Forth, 867 m. N. W. of 
London ; pop. 208,400. 

Editio princeps, -di'shi-6 prin'seps. 
The earliest edition of a book ; the first 
printed edition. 

Editor, ed'it-er. A person who superin- 
tends, revises, corrects and pre^jarea «. 
book, neN7ftpap«t ot -ms^cBoKsL^ tost v^^ 

MS. .E. 

brother AlhtllUl 

1 King at Kntilud, 
U ar<M; >.«»,■. 


CuDls the OrcU. tbe Diolih KlnE, lo 
divide Gr^»t Hrluiii, bot vns sAAualiiat- 

Edom. In Berin. the cuunCn orer vMih 
Ewu ruled, a itrJp 100 byJOiD. bel.8. 
Fil«tl» ud Uw^wl S« : up. Boznh 
(BOW BuilnliX Ako Qia HStton bet. tlie 
lUdtttnuau ud Oolt gf Akib4li on Uu 
B«d 8«* (Mnaea). 

■drlo^thalMM**, M-a(-tb*i"iiiA-ti. 
One ot the gnM dliisIiHIi of the Cnu- 

lud. Oribeni S belonged to the Au^lo- 

(.ofAUtwl thB Srwt, erown'ed Mil, », 
K5. E. II.. '-the U)>rtyr,"CTest-Ennd- 
>DD of the fftrmer, h. hia bther EdfAr, ^S; 
H5iieetnat«d by direction othie elep-moiJier 
Elfr1d«,m^ B.^III.^^'tfie^CoiifeaMir," 

iota; 1 

■huki." s.h!>l1Uher,Hem7lIl 
ISOT, E. II.. Ua ion,!, ia Tiuei 
tho ar>t to uiame the tfUo of Prtr 

the throne. He s. his t^er, 1R01 

red by BofFT de Mortimer, 
bla qneerj, lubeUa of PrHnce. 

Isn. E. III. 

York, gnat-mat-gnDAioi 

by ordcToflhclx uneK Klcluird, Dnkoof 
(/loucesler, memuH Ulctara III. Id the 
~ ■ ■ ■ ■ lof Ihonwne- 

bwatne ureildcni of FiliioBlaa CeDeEe, 

N. J., im. B. n». 
EdwliL Ad Aoelo-SaioiikbwofSronh- 

ombrli, ton ind I, or MH^ B. mbt. BM, 

srovoed <1T. killed In buttle, <8S. 
Ed-WT, fd've. An Eu^Hsh ktnr of the 

Anerlo-Suon line, ■. his niele ££s(l, OSK, 

Bel, a A tam. of lelBoaleu Dihes be- 
longing to the tpodnl eeoUon ot the lilib- 
copleryirll. The name li ilio ^jtUtd to 
other fiih« belonglnc to dlelbiet geoan. 

Beltiuol^ 'bnk. A hHkot he catching 

•otldUed the hthsI tti 

sljIslicB; thus^tl 

dil title of Turks, n 
■ultsn'g Ant phygtclii 

the hnbH of ciUlln^ their lkt}i«ra Afl«Ddi. 
EKSaJi. -ji'i-a. A l^rm ■ppHed la tb 

part of the M^ttmnun olhcxwlieiaU 

the Archipelago. 
Eger, 'gw. Ib But * toHp «v1y tn 

Ee«rla. -Jo'ri-a. One of the smrili uter 
oiaa IwlwesB the orbiti of Uira mi Jn 

Bgeria. in Hvtll. invmi.h ofArinlL <i 
Itai;, vhwe Oaof 

> PompUlut, 

le ivtndpol ob- 

»■> mined by N|- 
, KcooriUnf to OtI 
U his d«th >be WO) 

eo violently thit Dlum chuged her Intu 

Em, ^. Thebnly fhrmodlnthefeniili 

of ill ulnulB (wtth the eieeptlini of a tt' 

of Ibe iDwau bpe, whicb we reprodnsed 

byeswmmtloB « dlv-'--' ■ ■-■-■- '- 

Impregnation, the 4 

Amu teke* plane. 

the jelka of c«t beaten up witl 
■nd the y^UU oteggt "hipped, w 
■ddlUoB of wine or BplrlU. 

•rtheCHyptMbek ot 
Sgnumt, Lamorel. Count of. A 

the SputBh omltT of Cbarles V. he da- 
ftued the rnnob, IGST-W, bat Ineming 
tba uiiiiltr of PbiUp IL, tlinni^ his len- 

Egypt, (-Pp. A oonntrflotheNll 

lommisn E. by Ibe R«l 8™ nnd Iithmn'i 
ofSaei, W. byBirauidtlieamt Sev Nnbta; uw, sbt 180,000 sq. m. 
Prtm^ dtlei, Cairo, tbe ap., Almn- 
drlit, DualetU, Sno, KhBtDun, Bocatt* 
and Port Bsld, the litter betDg the Hedl- 
ternuiean port of tbe Sua CiiuL Tbe 
Nile le the ooly rlrer ot oobteqaenoe, end 

the Nile eitwd framBjrene to Cidru. uid 
from the tniotlo Tslle;. Pop. abt. S,EO0|- 

EgyptolosT. -tolVjI. The sdeDoe of 
Egyptian antiquities; that branch of 
knowledge that treat, of Ibo ancient kn- 
llsloiy, ic., of Egypt 

Bider, !■ 


Iti ■^!«Jor -.ail 

nicls licid In Walca In udont tiin«s, ic- 
yised by Ibn Tudor BOTerrlgna tokd AgjiJii 
papulir H henror tha 'Wulah live In mj 

BkidarinotUf , Op. of Iba Counckt 
Kiusln : imy. sbt. li,S«0. 
Ekaterinoalav. Cup. ori^nvt. of un» 

960 m. S. E/of Odem; ponrS^SS! 
BtroDgly fortUtd. 
EtooUM. ol-vo-nt. A eWM, moHln 
VQiicIy or ne [>b«Uiie. The prsdomiDaDH 

55g. j;- c..^.,Ty.,i. ..»»;. S&.,^'Si.S!SKrs 

finiidcur of lU iiiKbinloI opcmUoiiL In Sl&iaa. t'-loln. Tbe liquid ptUtdpl* •( 

fonliig'vut btrwlii or HmeBtnne and of Bl&ud, 'land. 

mwltb E. blue,BbrIllluit|il|tuiiintcon- AM«n tpedei 

HMriK nf Ihe hjdral*d protMldB of <!o|>- (Oeii anam)- ths 

HjrmlisdirtthsDilDntDqnHiUtyoflrDi;. ianfomor " 

S. pBNil8,»«n«.1«iofi«niif Mjaspw. K. ]„pM su 

thwD, tb« AcuU Tcro. K. vulture^ the unly 

cm tovu, whon It li protected u & sizoofal 
tll« dasert. Called alao Pbaraoti'B LcA or unaTiTf 
fbrmliv tbi 
TmpljinjTuio IhTo" 

„__. _ _, ._. EUnd. 

formlDK tbe only FosmopollUn 
^'[If.-™?. j?*^'' nifinber of the gionn, of wbleb the blioli. 

Elaphomyoea, eLm-toni'\-iit. A. gea. 

Tbiiy vrra once nevdcl B9 (phrodldM; 

■pparlUoD. Elands. G-lip'l-dS. A fllm. Df Ysnonl- 

Bidounuiioil, -dou-rl'al-on. A rsprs- out niTwnu, Inclmllng the ^enen Bnne*- 

Blffht, ftt. OneofthaurcUul numbers. Zaaunobraiichli, -lu'mS-brEiii't^l-l- 
A ByniholrepTMenanifBlghtniilti, M 8or AnonLof i!i-lil'», Inolndlnc the Ihirkl, 

Xiis'titeaiiiiio, 'i^n-mA, Tho bIio of B £la>imMlati.-don. Atuh-i;<in.ofthng«. 

tienlaiTM. Written genrrslly lamo. DlBOimothlinii Aelltlcspsde", theAlHoiBl 

.maRistriito lowborn lbs keeping of the BUamotherium, -thu"rl-nm. An 

pamt vol IntruKed. eiUnol gen. of munioitU, raltind Uj- 

XiSlA^n, ii'lt-ben. A town of BuoBy, eoins to Ihe hone hmlly. by athanta 

« W. 0fM««berr, theblrthplioe the rhlnooeroi, being lnlwin«dl«IB b»- 

«/■ JArdn LBther, 1*88, md where h» t"«™ U«iB. 

— ._^__>._^ AMinrt-Ai, A ftB. of. 




ooleopteroQS insects oorresponcUng to tli« 
linnaean gen. Elater. 

Elatexlte, €-lat'cr-It An elastlo mineral 

£lba. An Italian island In the Mediter- 
ranean, off the coast of Tuscany, 18 m. 
lon^', by 3 to 12 in. wido. Notwi as the 
T:Iaco of banishment of Napoleon I. after 
his first abdication, 1814. He remained 
on it only ten months. 

!Elbe, clb. A river of N. Germany, rising 
in tho Biesengebirgo Mountains, and 
emptying into the German Ocean 70 m. 
below Hamburg ; length 850 m. 

£lberfeld. A mannfiictnring city of 
Khenish Prussia, on the Wapper, 15 m. 
N. E. ofDusseldorf; pop. abt. 90,000. 

£lbtirz, dl-boorz'. The highest peak of 
the Caucasus Mountains ; 18,626 ft. 

Slcesaite, -sS'sa-It. One of a sect of 
Gnostics, which arose among the Asiatic 
Christians in the reign of Trajan. 

"Elchlngen, -ahdng'gn. A Bavarian 
village, 8 m. N. £. of Ulm, on the left 
bank of tho Danube, noted as the sceneof 
the victory by the French under Marshal 
Ney over the Austrians, 1806. 

Elder, eld'er. A person advanced in life, 
and who, on aocoont of age, experience 
and wisdom, is selected for office. Among 
the Jews, the seventy men associated wlu 
Mosee in the government of the people 
were elders. In the first Christian 
■ ditirehes the word includes aposUes, pas- 
tors, teachers, presbyters, bishops or over- 
seers. Peter and John called themselves 
elders. The first oonnoils of Christians 
were called presbyteria, eoandls of elders. 
Among some modem seets the title Is ap- 
plied to ministers ; among others, to the 
nighest lay officer. 

El Dorado, el A6-r&'d6. A country that 
Orellana, the lieutenant ot Pizarro, pre- 
tended that he had discovered in S. Amer- 
ica, and which he thus named on account 
of the quantity of predous metals in 
Manoa, the capital, ifis relation was soon 
discovered to be a figment. The word 
has become a proverbiu term for a region 
represented to bo unusually rich. 

Eleanor rof Gxdenne). Queen Begent 
of England during the absence of her son, 
Bichard Coeur do Lion, In the crusades : 
B. 1122, D. 1204. E. was daughter and 
heiress of the hst Duke of Aquataine, and 
was married to Louis VII. of Fraaoe, 
1187 : divorced 1162, she married Haary 
II. orEniHand, her extensive posseesioBS 
In France Mng the oaose of the protracted 
wars between tbe two coontriet. 

Bleoaropane, 'c-kam-pfln^'. The com- 
mon name of Inuhi Heleninm, aoomposite 
herb. It is an aromatio bitter. 

Elector, (^-lekt'cr. One who elects or baa 
the right of choice ; a person who has by 
law or conntltutlon the right of voting for 
any f^mctionar}'. 

Eleotrepeter, -lek-trep'ct-er. An in- 
strument for ehanging the direction of 
electrical currents. 

Electric, 'trik. Containing electricity or 
capable of exhibiting it when excited by 
friction. E. apparatus, tto various things 
necessary for conducting electrical exper- 
iments and illustrating the laws of electric 
action. E. ctrcnit, plates of copper and 
dnc, with the acid solution which renders 
them active, and a wire connecting the 
uninmicrsea ends of the plates. £. cur- 
rent, a stream of electricity traversing a 
closed circuit, or passing by means of con- 
ductors firom one body to another. E. 
battery, a number of electric iars connect- 
ed with each other. E. machine, an ap- 
paratus capable of exciting a great quanti- 
ty of electricity and exhibiting its effects. 
Thev are of a great variety of forms. 

Electricity, -tris'i-ti. The branch of 
natural philosophy which investigates the 
attractions and repulsions, the jwoduo- 
tion of light, the elevation of temperature, 
explosions and other phenomena attend- 
ing the friction of vitreous, resinous and 
metallic surfhces, and the heating, oooUng, 
evaporation and mutual contact of a great 
number of bodies. Electricity is positive 
and negative, the first like that evoked on. 
^ass by rubbing with silk, and the latter 
hke that evok<^ on sealing-wax by rub- 
bing with flannel. Similarly electrified 
bodies repel, and disslmiburly electrified 
bodies attract each other, while neutral 
bodies are attracted by tlM)se which are 
electrified. Besides friction there are 
other sources of electricity. After cleav- 
age or pressure certain laminated min- 
erals exnibit electric excitement at the 
surfaces cieft or pressed, ono of these 
being always positive, tho other negative. 
Many other bodies, not minerals, possess 
the same property. 

Electro-biology, 'trr»-bi-ol-o-ji. That 
branch of science which treats of the 
electric currents developed in living or- 

Mectro-ohemifltry, -kem-is-tri. That 
science which treats of the igenoy of elec- 
tricity and galvanism In effeoting <Aeml- 
oal changes, divided intA cVwteQKS^^^^^ 
deetro-metaUxLTgy. ■ 


prvditA iDsunl 

ni thi 

— ITOhl "■- —■■■—'— 

Elootroffr&pliy, -tro 

iiit.uBKilvuik Uttiry. or 

io[^ 1b umployed lo produce 

idiaae, 'tro-fSn. j 
t prodadaE woods, 
'timeA, bye[«c(ricoum 

tnunpflt-tinuA, byeu 


Auother or pollfthed 


Blaetro-pUte, 'tr^-piit. ArticlM a«t«d 

ifMk ifFTO' or other mctiil ij the prooeH 

cllk threufB. On pi 

ttiuirl. Tht«li« %^ 
wojianpeiwded "s^.. 
1/ Ihu goM-louf Guld ki 

ooaiUlloB tttw'o pines of aald-h< Oiad 

to A braMrod uicl hang luHlao n dir ffbu 
Klobo. I( u eteciHi; Iwdf ba bnmitt 
MM-Oietniitrnni^iiHiidnetloB WkMplnoe. 
To Bad iriha ]«™ ■» padttrelT or iw- 
•lively ihargrd in eleotriflod gisu rod ll 
brought neu j If posttlTdy ^luir'd, tbo 
IntTM will diverge mUI more ; IT aenavdy. 
thflr •riU (oUiDM. 

X3ectio-1dnt, -Itnt. An irt by vUeh 
dni«lDgs nro Inieed by Oio kUod of alee- 
IHdty on a cohp«r plstF, fOr ue 1B flie 

X^sotrotyiM, -lip. The Kt of pndBdic 
cupliMofwood-ooli, typefcic, lynmuis 
of the electric deposition of oopi«r npon 
A znuld lukcn from the odgioaL A oopy 

mber. InMlnanL 

H nMlve allny. 

ythe ndaitt, 


Uferont geld or 
of golj osad 

p>rt ofBUvH. 

Elegy, A plslntlve potm, or ■ fl ni« l 
ton 10 elegise verse. 

Sloment, -ment. In Chem. one of tbeM 
elinple enbsUnoM whioli hlltaerto bsie 
resisted resoluttoD by chemleil uislyilt ; 
nne of the ultlnut«, Indecompouble oon- 
EUlneiiti of «T klod of mitler. Tbeflnt 
or simplest ralM « prinelplei of u art or 
"clencD ; rodlDUMlii. In Bcholutio Phlkis- 

uutednl voiid— Are, ur, pwth mid wntiT, 
wblch were suppoeed to be ultioute tode- 
eompoB^le principles. 
BlaphMlt. -bnl. Tbc popnbr nuns of 
>g«a. coDitlCuUng a eub-flun. offlva-Med 

Kboaddlso oisoimfllH^ umprahendlD^ 
I ipedei, EHephss (Glumndon) Indkoi 
ud Hephis (Loxodon) AiHoamu, tiM 
fomur loliOUtlns Indte, Uia littfr Afthm. 

■ble rell- ^'^ of AfHan EtephuL 
(laD* uitli|gltl«. Amani tlMt 
immfDAe av>aa «l«pluot front 
•lo|>« leads to in utiniW rock an. w 
trMtL.Iharoorof whtcblsMpportcd lif 
iiilli»18n.hliti. It [1 cut iiplnln aput- 

UHDU. •rbkll eODtalU IVlil iDllflCl of 

otdnn ud unlnuib In Ulndn Mfib., lu- 

ll pvti 01 Aftlca tha 

_. ber dughUT I^o- 

rirofldljiff priMt wH termed 

artli« lilM wu M oStsH that oodU not 
Ml of brfBK iirDRMl bj tha godi. 
Eleutheropoml, e'lu-thfr-o-pA"inL A 
ftub-DTd. at cbondropteryfUa IUIhh, 1n> 

morator, eW-rtt-n, A mmielo -hdrfi 

lOr taiab; per»Da or ^oa4t fhnn b Urwv 
atfay vt ■ bulldlDf to k btfbw, A 

gnln. maJ. Id., Id i mtU. ' A boUdliiii 
conblnln; niRlHJilaal •IsnUn. H^acWIr' 
> enln wureboOM. 

Blere. i-l&i. A pnollj oub bconftit ap 
or pmtdcted bj uotbflr. 

KLeran, e-Wn. Th« iDin of Urn uid 
ontr A aymbol nprnendudoToii nnttB, 
u II or il. In erlokct, t£* nnmbw at 

Blf , sir. A nndsiug apMt ; ■ tttrj ; ■ 
gobUn; 40 iDu^nirybeinrueleDtlf inp- 
poted tolnhnUt unftfiquantcd planiL ud 
Id Tmrlooa mjt In aJTect m i w i ml , A 

tlra pcriDD; a dinrf ; haec, m pet nnnu 



naladed u 

BlfHUTOW, '«-ffl. Tha B 
(ITOD to ths fliDt UTOW-hB 
in nH at an Hrl; puW •' 

' '. YTOre auppoflcd io ba ahot by J^lrifa. 
I SU-land, 'lud. TbanslonoftliotlT* 
' I VHifla and Klsoardiua, Thomaa 

'1 Bruce. 7th SotI of. .' " — ' "- 

i daotnded from the royal I 
B. mi, D. 1S4I, Whfloln 
•ervlaa In Turkey and Om 
- celebrated colleflf 

* (JoolJh n 

Wntir DHUT rnlDa, the moat 

knann u (he EMn mlrUea. Jw 
AamaU KUotJc Ha. Bth earl, RTieOl, d. IS«8. n > 
:. Eevpt. eon- ' or-fenenlarCaBad**DdTlM«irof 


SO. InSciip.aUtb-pcleetiiidllia/adc* 

An. DraUlMia I SUJalL (.TlM TUhUX^. «>« *l 


buen tnuielub 

XUOt, John ^Tbe An>it]« at (h* In- 
dliu>). Al BrgUih cfcrit)''"". «■ "*>*■ 

bnt part ; u tba i'ltte 
BUWibeth. Qhhii of 
oTIlriirryin. uidAuz.o>K;..-/n. 

eoniuinmiilnl ibe eiUblltbiDDiit 

XlixAlntlun. -lti'*-b«Ui"iii. 
Inr to QDfen EUiabeth. E. •rohluictu 
.^. _.__, __ ....... —'.-fciura ol I 

* II., King . 

wUb of Lonlt, Ludgnn of Thurini 
iVn, D. 1!81. Bho wu ■ 




Itltluund In Europe uK 
It li «]l»d the Moose or Mwae-drm-. 
BlkB, Cygnni [crui. tba wUd Bwui 01 

mi. el, A. mounn asf<l ohleUr far msu 
' uriDE cloth. Tho EhkIIiIi ctr li *i In., 

- "- ■ — -iQ Scotch S7.S, una tin 

Hlndtulu, o^brAtflJ fbr I 
BUlptto, -Up'tlk. A flmt I 


'mto-fTr, A popular nan« 
for > molairlc ipp««™B08 hmu pllylINt 
■bout Ih* Dijuti of • BUp. (Ul«d •!» 
^... J........ .,.. — -ndnnipnunl 

ElogiMt, o'1o-]lit. Ong Hbo prononiMM 
' pADf^iryrlc, npedallj apoD Che dead; 

Slohtm. -hiu. ODeorthanunHorOod, 
occurrehcelQ tbeBIUe. Itli 
>r tlie ims Ood uid at blu 
Jehovjih It u»fd onlf «f the 

let. The epithet ippUedbillM 
Titer of the Elohlitlc puaigee 


ElonKatioa, -li 


on the furtC"; i 

> "ortM dl>l»^ 
Mrrtchlnfi: of the ll^meii 

of Bpluiet hvmflw 
the ^>-# offt Bpe«tBt4r 

n lie orhStln Sore, 
oned by the 

merlytbo plsce wbero lbs IMoMi tp}r- 
erniucnt collMtol duel fri>tn vsieli. 

Kronbeiv. theeuplHiiiedeceue of Shilk*- 

■peere'A tregfldy of Huii1«1. 
EloLlnl. thelSthmanthoftbeJewiih 

dill yeu. uid the 8th of the uxUtlMtOmi, 

eorreipoDdlDi nearly to our Augnit 
Slntil&tloii, -lQ'trl-*"ihoa. TheopMV- 

tlonot^ioWDCi, »nd (ubltUKe, (Ur- 

of betlle. __» ,— __ 

FBrntlliod — ^S£."f ^-->~-. 

dydorlo, el-l-dDr'Ik, A msUiod of paiiit- 

Tu^^i- ^^n^S^ 

iiig wlLh Dll ud -Kutet, In irhlch tlio work 

hM the freriiBeM of w«Mr orian and the 

.p^Cu'y. AfllHiHr ' 

niiUonnaH of oil pelDttng. 

."buttle* EmbMtled UoMIiw. 

My«ia«l«, .i'«J«. A misU Ihm. ef 

be«a deteoutd. 

mcQt. E. molding. In Arab. Indented Ulw 


Smber, "ber, A ■mill Ktb eoa. 

Xmber-dayg. -dii. The Wednodir, 

heithen wotM; they wtn Tulouelj 1o- 

rood-SyIn eeplember. m^BfterSt. Ln- 

Elytrina. el'i-trtn. The osnie glren lo 

oli'e d«y In Deeember, •ppolnted In the 
Church of Engknd for lu5ag ulA IblU- 

Elievir, el-rt'ver. Of or bslonjlng to 

the Elicrlr ftmlly. K. edlUoni of tbe 

cluMloi. *c„ pubHihod bj- the ELiorirfiun- 

feiown bIso u the Er»t northern dlier 

imio 168V, bighlj prized for uxancy 
ud elegonw. A pecaltBT ent of typfl. 

indluon.gen.Colymtiut.ord. Satatona. 

Bmberlzlda. -li'l-do, A fun, of unin 

Em. en. In printlnf. the nntt of .n«.- 

tree, ' Itlncg°dM°^e*b"tln«>, the°tnDw^ 

titke, yeltov-baminer. roed-ejjeiTnw uid 

the ortoliD, enteemcd for Ihedellcaey 0( 

lU flenh. By wme nnliiniHiitl they m 
eluslfled u leub-lkm. nltho t'ringlftlde, 

h^'^O^r ^ JTta PhMo«. ."yllem™ hl^ 
enppoHS lh«t all eilsteoces proceed hy 
inflceselvi' dlsenitegcnienU from one be- 
ing, which 1. GmT" 

Emancipation. i-iiiM'.l-pi".hoo, The 

Mt of HltinE fr« from BliTery. egMec- 
tlon.dTllreiiniliitsDTdlsabUlilea.Ae.; lib 

Bmblsm, iJleni. A work of trt rrpn- 
leulingonelhlajtlolhocya icd UioUm 

tolhenndenUndlng; » painted or ecnl^. 

obilons history, orBoggntlnEHiineDioiil 

free. BiUBedbythoToteeer thBBUM 

It the doae of the BebeUloa. 

Bit of deprirtngi mile of the ptrU whloh 

eipnrgiUni HHne paru from ■ bouk. writ 

InnerlioD of davK, oionthB or yeati la an 

■DCDUnt of time, to produce regnlirily. 

TboGreeke nude u«ofthe lunar y«r ol 
SM dayn. and to adjuil il lo the tohr year 

the eoelgn of roy^ljr ; promodon to »t 


ecconil or third year. 

cned 1 o thai It nilgbt pierce u enemy^e 

£mbraTOn.-bri'- ^t l_j f«zn- 

Embft«y, T).^A The pobHn function 

fnTwall or ™i|St ^^j^BI^^ 

non 1'^ Anti^'and ^^^^K^^£ 
crenelle of an <!"-^^|BHh 

aI^. *^*ot\bW- l^^^ 



ment of the aucrture of a door or window 
Inside the wall. 

Sxnbossment, -bos'ment The act of 
Torm\ng iinituberanoca upon, or stato of 
\tcinj; raibo«0«d. A promloenco, like a 
Immm ; a Jut Kellef ; naini; work. 

Embrocado, -bro-k&Md. A iiaas in feno- 

Smbroidenr, -broi'dc-ri. Work in ^M. 
Rilver, Rllk, or otlier thread, formed by tha 
needle on cloth. 

Embryo, 'bri-A. The flmt radimenta of 
an aniinal in the womb, before the seTeral 
members are distinctly formed, after 
which it is called % ietas. In Bot. the 
rudimentary plant contained in the seed, 
produced by the action of the pollen on 
the OTulo. 

Sxnerald, 'e-rald. A precious stone 
who!^ colors are shades of^ffreen. It is a 
little harder than quartz and is composed 
of 67 to 68 per cent of silica, 15 to Id al- 
umina, 12 to 14 glucina, and minute 
quanties of p<>roxide of iron, lime and 
oxide of chromium. The emerald and 
beryl are rarieties of the same species. A 
size of printinj^ type. 

SmeraldL Gkreen, grSn. A durable 
green pigment prepared firom the arseniate 
of copper. 

Xbneritos, €-mer'it-us. A soldier or 
other pubUo/^ctionanr of ancient Rome 
who had senred out his time and retired 
from service. Hence, one who has been 
honorably discharged from public service. 

Eznenion, -mer'shon. The act of ris- 
ing out of a fluid or other covering or sur- 
rounding substance. In Astron. the re- 
appoarance of a heavenly body after an 
cciipfte or occultation. 

Bxnerson, Ralph Waldo. An emi- 
nent American poet and essayist ; b. in 
Mass. 1803. 

Emery, em'e-ri. An amorphous variety 
of corundum and sapphire extensively 
used in the arts for grinding and polishing 
motals, hard stones and glass. Its com- 
I>oflttion isalumlna82, oxide of iron 10, sili- 
ca 6, lime H. Kazor-strop paper is made by 
raidng the finest emery powder and a little 
finely powdered glass with paper pulp. 

Hnieti04,6-mot'ik. A medicine that pro- 
vokes vtHulting. 

ZSmeute, o-m&t A seditious commotion; 

a riot. 

■ Emigrant, emM-grant One who re- 

movej Ilia habitation, or quits one country 

or fvgion to settle In a^otker. 

JBk^:^:re, i-nO-grk, Oaib of the dd 

French noUM who bMsoM t t iag em d■^ 
ing the revolution of 1769. 

Sminential, em-iHEien'shi<«l. In Alg. a 
term applied to an artificinl kind of eqna* 
tion, which contains another emin^tiy. 

Emir, C'mir. The title gtreo W Mohara-* 
medans to all independeot chlen. When 
associated with other worda it denotea the 
heads of certain departments in Turkey. 
Thua the caUpha atyle themselves £mir-al 
Mumcnin, Prinoe of the Faithfhl ; £mir-al 
Qmrah, Prinoe of FHnoea, is tha title of 
the govemora of the different jprovtocea, 
&«. The title is also given toaU deaoeod- 
ants of Mohammed, through his daughter 

EmmanoeL In Bcrip., a title of the 
Saviour, alluding to His incarnation. 

Emmanuel (Tha Great). King of 
Portugal; b. 1469, n. 1621. He was 
brother-in-law of Charles Y. of Bpain. 

Emmet, em'met An ant or iilsmire. 

Emmet, Bobert. An Irish patriot ; n. 

17S0, executed 1808. 

Emmet, Thomas Addia Brother of 
the above ; b. 1764 ; tock. an ai^ve part 
in the insurrection of 1798, and was im- 
prisoned 8 years. In 1814 emigrated to 
If. Y. , and became attorney-general of the 
State ; d. 1827. 

EmoUient, 6-mol1i-ent A medicine 
which softens and relaxes living tissues 
that are inflamed or too tense. Emol- 
lients proper are oils, cata|daams, fomen- 
tations, &c. 

Empaiatio, em-past'ik. Andent inlaid 
work resembling modem buhl ; marquet- 
ry. It consisted of pressing threads or 
mies of one metal into another. 

Empasm, -pazm'. A powder used to re- 
move any disagreeable odor ftt>m the per* 

Emperor, 'per-er. The sovereign of an 
empire ; a title of dignity superior to tlutt 
of king. 

Empidas, empM-d€. A group of dipter- 
ous insects, which are at the same time 
vegetable fe(Miers and carnivorous, prey- 
ing on ephemero, phryganeie, tipu£uto, 

Empire, om'plr. The territory ta 
countries xmder dominion of an em- 

nr or other powerftil sovereign ; nsnal- 
tcarttorr of greater extent than a 
Icingdom. The population ot an empire. 
.Supreme control; governing influence. 
£. State, the State of New York, so called 
firom the enterprise^ of its people, i^ 
weaMh, populadon, *Jbc. £. City, Ifew 

BmpTiean. -ni-nr'an. Tbo hi^liwit 
heaTen, where the pijro eli-ineut of flro 
wM BDppas«dby the "--■-—-' 1-' 


Eilclielr&. k«]'1->. A&n. of IbOuoiI 
of very simple onranlutjom. The; ll< 

I fouU attrnt tOoBi !□ th 

A after jDhAnn Fnox EhoIlp. of 

Himbdii!. vho esUbUihed iu pntnlldty. 
Baotm.tB-ktiT. AgntajonMinun); iih>I 
1^ Itie aiidltDT« ^bcn tbqj oUl fur a reiM.-ll- 
ttonofsporttmlvpiirt. Oar nie of till* 
voH Is nnknowB tn U» Frenidi, vbo KH 
tlie word Ug (twtiw) IT the; wlih > npod- 

BlUTatltaM. ra'krm-OM. A Bune gf*a 



■nnh RnrnpHatiofl ; jiI"o % penou whoK 

IHH-'ofiuiy pwaoii oroyect. Thali'-blrh 

EfZlotd. O-nc'liI- An «plc puotu wrlUaii 
InLitin hf whldh ^ntiu, re- 

-jet'lks. That brwialt 
VI Bvivuw k- uKjii lu Featlgst£« tha taw5 n^ 
ulsHng: rihfs^cal or meclualoal ttma, m 
oppMed lo vital. 


_ , imenl EngBue 

in an} egre& ctnppllcat uir 

ed tia bv whteh anv er 
fSrtlspiodiuwd. UB sonon thn 

X^iKlaud. Church of. ' 

EnKlauta. loglln-tl. In Ho. bimtni: 

Bngliah, Inrtllih. One of lie Low a«r- 

- -- ~ -iLip of langasees, aod Ibat Bpoktt 

■- of EnKlMd add th« do- 

Mooty. It 


^Uod, liiK^luid. Tha 
J8 bland (tf at Britald, boi 
Seotlani E. bj the North ..,., .. . ,, 
W J«, tba AtlutlB Ooain and Irinh 8», 
e. I7 Uie XogUah Chanfiol ; area aj,S12 
•J. m. : nop. At M,000,0«. Tha prln. 
opal cttlea an LoDdoD, the cup,, LI^i^f- 
PoaU Maoobaaler, Laeda, BlnDlnghud, 
HdU, BiMd, S'sirovUe-on-iyna isd 
Mulllelii ; eUef tiTta, Thamas, Seiorii, 
a^t, fiaraer. Oii«, Medway. Tync, 

bfl dominant and ntamr 
— — ountry, and tho imnwdtoto 

TautoDio aa renrda fta ffammar and' 

porticlea, OB wfU B4 tbo gnat prapor- 

tloDof wDrdslnd^raBO, ytoCpanapAM 


- chtef aaur-cfla from wuoh 

coDtrlbatioiiB have bean raeafvad ara 
an-French^FrcoiohAiidthaotfaar fii>- 
ilan^naRea. Latin and Greek, bccldej' 
bqUoDarroux Celtia, O^tnau, Bntdi, 
iw. Penlan, Hindu, ChlneH, Turk- 
i>u, Malay, American. Ao. A grrat 
many of Iho tanns borrowed from the laat- 
mantloDed lu^acssare oomea of arUelri 
of trado. Ah a collecflva nouQ^ tho peojjb 
of England. In printing, asko of type. 
Bngraver. -grit'rr. Ona nho fbgnivcs ; 

ana mammak, nun. MnataUdai, aab-bm. 
Latrine, conalatlng of oily ona apedas. 

itahedraL an'nfr«-feon-ls- 
ne-nw. Ilaviig «£ Ikoaa: Bald of a 
cryatal or other aoUd Bgtin boandad hj 


luiior-mawor. 'wr-iaa-a-. a nan 
^ndiuUT ehiuifuv the oolor vflU f^pthovK, 

Bntomold, 'lo-miild. An oblsot iatiif 

UUindclustfliatlonorDie InKt 
Bvcta. EitwnolonF formerly deoK 
1 utlaitlatrd uliu&. 
Butomophaca. -oCii-gii. A grc 
h7m«oopt«r<jUB InMoU wboBO Iatth „ 
Atrfcoof-— >- — 

lO-trOp, A card on 
1 oljJectA Are tTbBirc ' 

rioiu Agnnis or ptdan^. by 
1 rerolTB npldlj' ; ■ tbsunul 
i'cSi. TheelduC unorSc 


th« opooBiunB, 

niipUvd to a JjUnt gntwing ia tha tntOivr 
nruilmuJ or v^eUble BtmctiL t. Qaa- 
emlly, howsTsr, rfulriclBd to pL- u gnnr- 
IsK VDorlnUTliis uiiiiiili,lH «1I|C to 
thsAtgaorFunirt. ThsfDraut' tauDM 
orpcnoni with dbordovd Moii.,.nh« U u 
Alia, Iintothifi feneialli, ud the -bbu 
nuulte £ififlta Ul-deuied teMh. Othn' 
lUsBuea ftro referred to the gmwUt of on- 

thodlBeuoliiDiLndbykltllDp tfappvutlo. 

yejeA Ihrougli the ulr. 

w pAruit^] antoulft whliA 

neut parrujuod duiiiig eiujk litar- 

[lOIU. -tr dA. BotimD otmelTea.. 





o lbs iksT* of tlw 

ihealaoB, EiKlatle to tbe, t-le'ihiBi. 
Lu Horip. letlen writun bj St. Piuil la tli* 


Bphialtee. -ii-Mi'iet. The nl«btiii«re. 

Bphesus. vf^-aikn. A niittnl city of Asia 
Minor, cap. of loniA, novr in niin^. It 
WM oel«*brated tar it5 temple of I>ijuia, 
oooflfdertHl one of the T wi»nd«*rA of the 
world ; al.v> a.* tlio st-at of oov of the flr»t 
7 ChriritJan rhuirhi-s, founded by m. Paul. 
It wasAituaU-d a\)t. ■i'yui. ». £. of dofiyroa. 

Ellhod, 'fod. In Jowi.<«h AntU]. a epeclos 
of VMtuifMit worn by thit faiirU priest over 
the second tunic. A frinlle nt one piece 
with the C'phod, fSutvnfd it to the ImxIv. 
Joat lUrave the girdle. In the middle of the 
ephod, and kiined to it by little gold 
cnains, re«te<I the square breoAt-plate with 
the rrim and Thummim. A similar vest- 
ment of an inferior material seems to have 
been in use in later times among ordinary 

Bphor. 'for. One of the Ave magistrates 
chosen by the ancient Spartans as a check 
on the regal jiower and the senate. 

Spio, 'plk. A narratiye poem of elevated 

Spioarp, 'pi-karp. In Bot the outer 
akin of fruits, the fleshy substance being 
the niesocurjt, and the inner iK>rtion the 

Epictetus, ^-plk-te'tus. A celebrated 
Koman stoic philosopher, b. 60. v. in ban- 
ishment at Nicopolis, abt. 124. 

Epictiras, 'e-ku'rus. A Greek philos- 
opher, fotmder of the Epicureans, b. abt. 
840, i>. 270 B. 0. 

Epicurean, -ru"an. A man devoted to 
sensual pleasures or luxuries, e8i>ecially a 

Spidemic, -pl-dcm'ik. An Infectious or 
contagious disease, which attacks many 
people at the same period and in the same 

Epidermis, -dcrm'is. The cuticle or 
scarf-skin of the body. In Bot. the exterior 
cellular coating of the leaf or stem of u 

Epifiraatrium, -pl-gas'tri-nm. The 
upper part of the abdomen. 

Epifirlottis, -glot'is. A cartilaginous 
plate behind the tongue, which covers the 
glottis (luring the act of swallowing. 

Epifironation, -pig'on-&'^i-on. A loz- 
enge-shaped piece of stiff material which 
forms part of the dress of the Pope and 
of bishops in the Greek Church while 

Epiflrram, 'pl-gram. An interesting 
thought represented bappily in a few 
woroB, whether verse or prose ; a pointed 
or aatitbetlcal sayimg. 

BpUogne, 'pl-iof . In Shec the elpriiK 
partofadiaeiNme, tn vUeh theprin^il 
matters are reea|ritiilBtod. In the dnaa, 
a speech or short poem by one ^f ^ 
actors after the play. 

Epimarhingt. -ina-1d"n«. A ■nb-AuB. 
of blender-biUed (tnniroetral) birds, ftm. 
Upupidc, resembttng birda of pandiaait 
the luxiulance and brillianey of their 
plumage. The gen. Ejdmaehoa (|diune- 
birds) is the t>-pe. 

Epiphany, ^pira-nl. An mpoannee 
or a becoming nuuiifest. A Chnraan fes- 
tival celebrated on the 6th day of Jannmy, 
the I2th dav after Christmaa, in oommem- 
orationof tlie appearance of oar SaTioor 
to the magians or wise men of the East, 
or to commemorate the appearance of the 
star to the magians. 

Epiphyte, 'pi-ftt A plant growing npoa 
another and rooting among the aoil that 
occupies its snrfhoe, as a moaa, Hchen, 
fern, &c., but whieh does not, Uka a paia- 
site, derive noorishmentfrom the plant on 
which It grows. Many orehMaeeoaa pits 
are epiphytes. 

Epirus, e-pi'ras. A pror. of aae. 
Greece, di\ided firom Illrrla by the Ott- 
anuian Mountains, and from Thnanaty bj 
the river Pindus, now the Tnrklah pror. 

Episoopaoy, e-pisncd-parsL GoTen- 
ment of the Church by uiree distinet or- 
ders of ministers — deacons, jwieata and 

Episcopalian, -pa'li-an. One who be- 
lougs to an episcopal church or adheres ta 
the ei)iscoi>al form of church govemnMBt 
and discipline. 

Epistle, M. A writing commnnloatby 
intelligence to a distant person ; a lettsr 
missive; applied particularly In dig^fled 
discourse or in speaking of the letters of 
the apostles or of the ancients. 

Epitaph, e'pi-taf. An Inscription on a 
tomb or monument in honor or memoiy 
of the dead. A brief descriptive sentence 
in prose or verse, composed as if to be 
inscribed on a monument. 

Epithalajniiim, -thal-ft'^mi-um. A 

nuptial song or poem, in praise of a bride 

and bridegroom, and praying for thfllr 

Epitiiet, e'pi-thet An adieotiye ezpres- * 

sing some real quality, applied to a penoa 

or thing. 
Epitome, 6-pi'td-mi. An abridgment ; a 

brief summary or abstract of any book or 

Epizoon, e-pi-z6'on. A termappUedtf' 




those parasitio aBunftl a whioh Hye upon 
the bodies of other animalB. 
X*pizootic, 'pi-zo-ot'^ik. Amturain or 
postilcDoe among animals. It differs from 
enzootic in not being confined to a dis- 
trict, and l^m epidemic in affecting only 
the lower animals. Foot-and-moum dis- 
ease, pleuro-pneamonia,&o.,are examples. 

£ Pluribus TTnuin, 6 ploo're-bas &'• 
num. Lit. '*One from many." The motto 

ofthu United States. 

Epoch, o'pok. In Chron. a fixed point of 
time, from which succeeding years are 
numbered. In Astron. the date at whioh 
a he:ivenly body has a given position. An 
arbitrary fix^ date, for which the ele- 
ments used in computing the place of a 
Slanet or other heavenly body at any other 
ate are given, 

£pos, e^pos. An epic poem, or its fiible 
or subject ; an epopee. 

XIprouvette, a-pro-vet. An instrument 
for ascertaining the explosive force of 
gunpowder, or for comparing its strength. 

£p80ni, ep'sftm. A town 15 m. S. W. of 
London, England, noted for its horse- 
races ; pop. 7,250. 

XSpsozn-Mtlt, -salt. The sulphate of 
magnesia, a cathartic prepared from sea- 

Bqiiailt, e'kwant. In the Ptolemaic 
system of astronomy, an imaginary drole 
used tor determining the motions of the 

Equator, -kwa'ter. In Astron. that im- 
aginary great circle in the heavens, the 
plane of which is perpendicular to the 
axis of the earth. It is everywhere 90** 
distant ftom the celestial poles. 

SUmatorial, -kwa-t5-M-aL An astro- 
nomical instrument, contrived for the 
purpose of directtng a telescc^ upon any 
celestial object of which the right as- 
cension and the declination are Known, 
and for keeping the object in view for any 
length of time. 

SSqaerxy , 'kwe-rf . An officer of nobles 
or princes who has the care and manage- 
ment of their horses. 

£f<iues, S'qwez. In Roman Antiq. one of 
ttie 2d order ef citizens called Equites ; a 
knight. A gen. of teleostean fishes, fun. 
Scia'nidffi, including the belted and spot- 
te<l horseman. 

XSquostxiail, -oues'trl-an. A rider on 
horseback ; specifically, one who earns his 
living by i»enorming feats of agility and 
<-l-:ill on horseback in a circus. 

XSquestxlenne, -en. A female rider or 
peifonder on horsebaek. 


iteral, -lat'er-al. A A 
actly corresponding to / V 
in length, or a figure / \ 
il sides. / X 

brist. 'kwil'f-brist. i \ 

EqaidflB, 'kwl-de. The horse fun., ord. 
Ungulata, sub-division Pra^ssodactvk^ 
divMed into two groups— one ineloAhg 
the asses and zebiis (gen. Asinus), the 
other comprising the mie horses (gen. 

Equilateral, -lat'er-al. 
side exactlj 
of equal 

Equilibrist, >kwii'ibrist. 
One who keeps his balance in Equilat- 
unnatural positions and haz- eral. 
ardous movements, as a rope-dancer. 

Equinia, -kwln'l-a. A dangerous conta- 
gious disorder, originating in the horse, 
ass and mule, conununlcable to man; 
glanders in man. 

Equinoctial, -kwi-nok'shal. In AstroiL 
the celestial equator, so called because, 
when tiie sun is on it, the days and nights 
arc of equal length in all ports of the world. 

Equinox, -noks. The precise time when 
the sun enters one of the ecuinoctial 
points, or the first point of Anes, about 
the 2ist of March, acd the first point at 
Libra, about the 28d of September, miUdnff 
the day and night of equal length. Callea 
respectively the vernal and autumnal equi- 
noxes. Equinoctial gale. 

Equitation, e-kwit-a'shon. The act or 
art of riding on horseback ; horsemanship. 

Equites, ek'wi-tC'Z. An order of Roman cit- 
izens originally forming the cavalry of the 
army, said to have been instituted by Rom- 
ulus. About the time of the Gracchi (1S8 
B. c.) the Equites became a distinct order 
in the State, and Judges and farmers of the 
revenue were selected from their ranks. 

Equivocation, 'O-ka'^shon. Ambiguibr 
of speech ; the use of expressions suscept- 
ible of a double signification, with a view 
to mislead ; prevarication. 

Equuleus, -kw^'le-us. The Horse's 
Head, a northern constellation consisting 
of 10 stars. In Rom. Antiq. a rack Aw 
extorting confessions, at first used acoinst 
criminals, but afterwards against Chris- 
tians. E. Picloris, the Painter's Horse or 
Easel, a southern constellation consisting 
of eight stars. 

Equus, 'kwus. The horse, a gen. of ani- 
mals, ord. Equidse. 

Era, 'ra. In Chron. a fixed point of time, 
from which any number of years is begun 
to be counted, as the Christian era. A 
succession of years proceeding from a fixed 
point, or comprehended between two fixed 
points, as the era of the Seleucides ended 
with the relgu ot KuMoOassA. 


Cdud*. flonDBolM tiUh L. Ontirlo bf 
theNtNiu*Glv>r;«i«,I,B(»H|.n. A 
l> <»iiiihiIh1 with tlde-wMer b7 Ihsbto 
Caulud thi HadKHi rarer, ud t^tto 
Otahi Ouul, Ohio imd HtoaltdppI rlnn: 
ud OD the Cu^lu dOa, by the WrUnd 
OuuL Uko Ontario ind IheSt. La wmiaL 
Itt* inclHed an tbe S. hj VntmOn, E. b; 
Nov York ud Feniiiylniili, 6. by Obis, 
ml W. br Hlddgu ; Ita Iiiiie:^! la ibi, 
M'< m.. lU brMdth from 10 to SB m. 

A all; orPenniylTxaU on Like E., 

klp'ment. Tlw gmiai 
hne-plMflbr wMeh Ui* 
.1—1- „a ti„ TlbrMtoTT 

dn«, Thomas. Z.oTd. A dis- 
d5b«l S™wh tawycr iDd UMtaaun ; 

thlng wbli^ m.)- bfl uft- "^^^W 

BO, D. 18ia. 

», i-ri'ilii An ln»ct In ths lunl 

Utkm. e-ru-dl'thon. LtmtlKE; 

Ewn^iKL The, -ken- E«a^lt■u. 
F«-U. Tbx Ml«bral*d 

liaciius, 'l-lh«-(l"n«. The red- 


n- of pHaerlneblrdA. bm. 

I to the Flohl*l|?eblr«e taii«e, nymbolof one's birth and flfgnll)-, 

i^|_Sim>n)' «nil Bohemia. Eadma, BookBof, M'llTM. Twol-mki 

1 (Bdom). C'wn. EUlo.t mb of Ihe (f„nnerlT four) of the Old TfliUni<-nt. 

«nh laue. brother of Jnoob, ud The othen arc new DalM Em ud Kelie- 

iKror the Eilomltei; n. aht. 1^ n. c. mtili. 

illop. H-kol'Inp. A fku. orhinlvH- Bakajr. n'ket. A teriD lor > lata gfo- 

hfO-ilih, whoao shell ii ncularly In. imHcn] Ibnnitlon In the >Dp«rfl(dal dilfc, 

•^ jnnenlly consisting of i long linear rtdgs 

» Msatsbean. irilh llnea Te«niMlnir of «ll or bowMer-olay ; their ammtement 

HiUIBei ol Kallop ihalla. oreriappliw took idace probablr Dndar watA am: 

Bapadjm, Fti'iHi-rton. A )i>nir snnni or 
fpinlnh larFDtlnn, ue«] by font-ialdlsra 

Xspartero. JoBoMm Baldamero. 
Sokeof Viotory, - - ■ 

?e. 'pl-nn-ij. Tho piwlioo OP 
■ioplnvU],.iit or eplet; tbe pmoHoe of 

Eapousal, -tjoue'hI. Tlin Bot of e»pou>- 

AbIh, Qreonlandana AmoiiaL 
Egaulre. -kwir'. Properly, a ehleid-bmr- 

■tDwed n|ion InlMar JudECi, tod niiTSll)' 
eiren to profualoniil uia JJttroiy jat^D ; 
In tlieiid(lre»oaorluttFn(K|iilrelnputu 

ami by tU 

A elty of nhonfah rnmlj, noted 

eniployliiE B.OOn men ; pop. 43,9)1). 

Ajiubalnnwofa porly anpenriinpa fooDd 
nt thn bpee of Iho iK-ilas ohbo blnik. used 
to Knr rliolnlfrinr of rIus bubbles tn the 
minu&gtUTeofartlflclal pearls. 
XmtUBE, ea-aiiu'. A JawiilL Hot n- 

Bmaex., Ebx\ ot. A tttle of (he EnilUi 
houBD or Dcvor^ui. Three ot theH i» 
renoiTnixi ; Wultor. n. IHO, n. ISTS. H> 
was a favnrlle of Queen EUabrth. Bob- 

ISOl. IlDwunlsonftivoriteofBlliuiMli, 
butlneuirlniiber dlapleuun, ittempUd tg 
locdle a KTolt. Kobnt, Lie ion, b. IWl, 

forces In tbocontuilnlUi Charles 1., rutin- 
InK artrr bis rtclnry i>t EdgehllL 
BHtBiii4r. ChBTles Sector Comted', 

ao.dieilby tl 

tEuUlotlnallH. H« <rM 

on of ITtO-Dl bo unno- 
ored lo save the Urea of 

books nf Scrlplnro and of the hen- 
iDD of tbe bwk, held lo bare Ihu 
written Ule In Ihe reign of XrTifs or early 
in that of bis son ArlaierxeaLoq^DunDt, 
and soppoaed to bo tbe oomposldon of 

EstlTBl.'-tW'aL. Porlalalnit lo >iiinDi«r. 
Satolle, Aa-tatl. tn Her. a star with sli 
th'wBfilgbt.' '""' ' ""^ ™' " 
Brtolloo 'e. Id Her. a lUp ivlUi four 
ystn til ■ " ■ ■ 

BtuBre. l-U-ihir. A plwe of dom«- 

[Ifl fiirnttarB mpplltd wdb ihelvw, H a 

nlrlf^-bo^ird. a vhil-nat. A<. 
Btanin. et'i-Dln. Tbaeur04innii>orUi« 

lbs Htur by tb« obKrvBtloD of which Etlmarcb. 
BrtdLny WM led lo the iUtwverj' -*-'■- --■ -- 


BtMopB XutUI, a'tbl-^ 
BlBolc Dxlile of Iron ; Iron Aaely] 
Sthlopa Mineral, r 

Ethulc, 'nik. A lieaUiai ; ■ pagu. 
£M)lm<wi;aplier, -nog'n-ftr. On« vba 
---'''—' - -itlmDgrtphj, f-" —^' ' — ■" 

Jio hydntgeD o 

tiMt br nloohoUs n^ole. 
Ethloa, ath'Iki. Tbe idtnce of hi 
duty, Tbowboleof ths moral sde 
'— '-ItoginDrtl phllonophy. lnl«rml 
_.., ;w£lls or poBtlal law, civil lav 
htMeff . prokna, dTll itul paHUcal. 

' », »tliB-o'p*-ah. TbeDami . 

msriy giTvQ to Alt Tttiman aa sad Ti^nalr bark an 

deflnal wotlon of 0, AHaa, now known '" 

u AbyHlula, KindoAii, SlI^ te ' 



.. dobuluihuliwixiii 
llirm h.'omiiBr. 

Suohm, Icr, A ewne of CArda ; a mofl' 
}flm] fi>rm nf ^cart^s [iJajh^ by two, three, 
or tout player* wlUi Uuj Uiirtj-twu high- 

BnoUd, DHiIkl. A noted nutheoixUiilu 


4k pb]k)S0]iher, pupil of 

teui of phllojophy which iDakoi humun 
btpplnou lU hlKheit nt^wt. doclndnK 
"■-» •'■H prodBceon of hspplDeai In [hu 

BoKena, Piinse, c 
. Engine ae Suvoy). 1 
Aooiiniader orbu day 
D. In Vlonnt 1T86. E 
In the Fnucn Army, hi 
Mui HTTleo, and In 
Tnrka «id I^aooe wo 
tetmptad HriM of iHn 


Biwanle, oe-Uu'oi). lEutfrnle Uirkdi 
GuuniiD). DsiuhtBrofOondida lIonU' 
Jd, u.lwlftiDrNipoleaD IIL; B. In Gnn. 
(dn, ^poln. lfI2S; orowned innpreuofUw 
Froncli, 1853; anr>olni«d Regent while ha 
hnilunit wmiriih Ibo unny, IBJO; flodW 
Eniilsnd ilUir the lose of (lio bsltlo o(8f 
rtnn, ud sUU mskea that country ba 

KuKenlna, il-Je'Dc-Qg. Thenunooribla' 
pn[tt^, tbe DiOBt noBid being E. III. (Eep 
ninlofPlMl, who i. LaduBlI., lliB,n, 
IIM. Tho on[br»k ninlaM lb* vfte^, 
lod by Arnold of Brr«AlB, aociiiT«a dnrimr 
hli inndfloue. E. IV, (Oibrlole Ccod^' 
miTo), ..Msflio v.. 1481: D. 144T. The 
K-Jiindi uceuloDed by tha nctlan of Uk 
Council orB&sleoQonjTod tn hia ponOfl- 

Euffublne, 'gd-hin. Of or bdonglnK to 
tbe uioieni Eueubium (now GnbWo), 
or to the Mven tnbleta discovered then In 
1444. TbMe IsblcU. allad the K UUh, 

ne'Dez. A &ToritflgeDenl 
PoDtua, Cappidoda t ' 



n Olus. Mytb. • 
'" ' — lUM It wi» 

IS, bishop of Cy- 

tlm, dlsi^lpk-sof; 

Diture tmm the Hon. wd thi 

^iunacll, fl'Quk, A caelmi 
EnamphaiuB, -om'tht-ni. 

Bnpatrled. 'pst-rii 

■ nClCDt BrlAtfflTm?y u, auinjia, ■■, puvih 

were Toatfld tbo prlrUoi^eB ud povfln of 
Baphsmlam, 'r^m-Imi. In Hhst • 

XuphoniutB, -mn. 

EcmbJiTig tlieiiprighl piiuia in lorm ind 

EuiiirateB, D-frii'teoi. A targo rlvm oi 
W, deU, joined by the Tigris at EuroAb : 
I.SOO m. in length, nod urlgnble aearjy 

Biiphroayne, -fros'l-n 
dldcovbred by F«rguic 
Eupyrion, -pir'i-on. 

Knreka, -rets. Ths Piolsniation d 
AfohiinedeB wIibb he disoovmwd thi 

IIVIL, now kngw 



and JnnltM, JlsL-monid 

T)y Golrtidimldt, Februio' *. IBM. 

Bnrosa. -ro'pn. 

In Mytli. aister «f 

<Mniai. End motlier<>rMU>ar ood Rbitdii- 





ThB^ancloftha fliB 

nno-flftli tbe t\ie of 

™nf^ 'it'lflb 

nnded N. by Oio WlilH 

*» >i.d AttMc C 

■man, E, bl Atta. B. (ry 

ttte MedllerTia™. 

71= 18- S. I>t„ and B" 

jylBit bcl. SB' and 

SK W. and W a 

YK. lone. lugutBrn- 

Mllty; B*l((iBm, DtSmarlt, Grtat'^lJla' 
OrewM, Hotlaod, Italy, Portoi^ and 
Bp^trlnedoim; Anatria, Gennsny, Rub. 
■b and Torfcay, mnplree. Itunirinodlvli- 
tniu indoda IhsOemianODcun. tlioM^- 
itemnsan, BalUo, Soilne, Irlab. Nnrlli, 
'WUte, ud aaaa of Mannura nnd Antf. i 
IH priDdpal Island! are Qroat Britain, i 
Inlmd. BardMa, Hldly. Conica. Malta. 
Cuidla, Zealand, Kon Zernbla anil Spttt- 
. tMrgen. Its moiuutn ranges Indnde Ihii I 

Alps, Pyreneei. Carpathians, ApiWDlnea. 
BalbaD and llarti, «ltb ttao ir^ tanri 
dlTlding II from Ada En tha N. and^ 
CancMnshiUiBS. Itiohlof rivers are the 
Thames, Bevom aydo, ahannon, 
nK,iibe,pnleper,tnlgn,Dnditor, lililna 
Ithono, Peine, Tigus, Quadnlquiver and 

oanip Constraco, CumberJiind nnr; West- 
inoreland, with Lqogb Kea^li and Lodhs 

BarylftimlnBB.-rl-lii-nii'n 6. Aaub-fhm.ot 
da. fitnnigg nns of ths cannecting Ibilu 
elosely Billed to tha todiea. * "t*™! 

EiUTptorlda, -rtp-te'ri-da. An eitliMit 
■"•^ onl. of imsraDBans. ord. Marutomata, 
-..uoely allied lu the klng-orabs. 

Bniebian. -ae' A fuDoirer ocona 
■- ildlng the opinions of EusebiBs.the b.tbtt 

uead of Ihu somi-Arian or mnderau party 
atlhoCuunclUfNice. '^^ 

EuasliiiU. Fampliill. Q-se'be-Is. A 
celuhrated divine, honored with tbetltla 
■slher of EMlesiaslical History:" a. M 
niu.!«S, D. aliLM). IlewasblihDp 
iH Djs native dty A-om S14 tiU his death, 
Snatachltui, -sU'ki-an. 
inglo Eiistaehl. alhinan) 

nnvl tiy Iha Hysod of (UulKdmi 


IIOIII1P9 tyain Indbi tmdor [heDoJiiD ut 
piim.0 « lB.ll*n ...nnw. ud Is mod u * 
plKiarnt. It Is ILn inigasilii milt or uoi- 

XTanselloaL E-nn-Jrl'Ik-s], CDotnlnml 
In cbupwpQlH, or litur Ursl boitlia iff tbe 

A tcmi nppHud M ■ Bvt'llon In Iha I'rat- 

priDciplM on Bcriiitnro iitnp«. Appllml 
In Gfimiuir to PrDteBlimtB ludlitlDitiilBhud 

flunstjoial Pntcitnnt' church !£uin«l In 
Frnuln In 1311. E, AUIiDcr. an aneacls- 

of KD cnnghlenod Protostaqtlsill ugllll!! 
tba oncroMhioanta of Poppiy ond ffiiMi- 

Bvaa»ellat, Isl. A writar nftha biBlnrj- 
or dnotrlncg, prorepts, nrtlaDS, Ute and 
duth or the Sarfour; ipeclflcallj, SS. 

npjhAr to haTo been 

Dut not baTJnff a cbarse^ hlaj-inH 
piff<?d in nileslouaiT work of *ny klr 
X-TaDKeUatary. "uii. A eoloct! 
piiffsiwue ^iiu thD Goapols, u a lf« 

to prouh 

Id or Itouli 

profocltor ot tha hiimim raca. 
Sre. Tba eloao »r tbo Aaj ; tbi 
Eveotdon. ^vrik'tbon. In Aatron. 

moat cDoaldtnbla of Iha 1 

by tba ution oribe ann ih 
Its ffanenl and oonMdbt fwt 
b tha vqintlaiiDr thai 

.boat ST day) 

Holland an dSpal, I. Ed 
iKflthdr : a. tm. D. 1 

verdure thraiwh all i 


Brlotlon, -vlL' 

lat'lng'. Eternity; OB 

EvoIbUoii, -la'sh 


Elvolute.'6-mt. In _ D 

G«>m. a rarve ftom frr" 1 J* 

which another i^nrye, jC\ \ i 

galled tba InTolote or,/\i, / 

by the and of a thr«d ^HBL/ 
(trodually wDond npon "^^^^"A 

involution. lIlLit, tbo whoollnE. ooi 
ItrirnarrJiIng, or nthar motion bywlilah 
tbo disposition of troops la chaagad. 
Nanlthflchanifa of form and disposition of 
Billet. In Mlnlocy, ibeiheoiT ofgeno*- 

of spodanii^ that later apecLas hare bovi 
davelopail by oontinuoua dUTuranltatioBof 

spodaa Blmpler and leaa dlf^^thittl, . 

man hlmsalf, may bo troc^ bade to B 




£we, u. A female sheep ; the female of 
the oTine race of animals. 

XiWer^ 'er. A kind of pitcher with a wide 
8i)out, that accompanitts a wash-hand 

XiWlnff, Thomas. An American jurist 
and statesman, b. in Ya., 17S9, d. 1871. 
He was a iiifmber of the U. 8. Senate, 
SecretttT of the Treasury, and first Secre- 
tary of the Interior. 

Xbcceresis, cgz-e're-sis. That branch of 
surgery which rdlati*s to the removal of 
parts of tiie body. 

Sxaltado, eks-fil-t&^dd. In Spanish 
Hist, a member of the extreme liberal or 
radical jioUtical party. 

iBxarch, 'ark. A prefect or governor 
under the Byzantine Empire. A title as- 
sumed for a time by the Bishops of Con- 
stantinople, Antioch, Ephesus and Ciesa- 
rea, as superiors over the surrounding 
metropolitans. A title given to inspeot<Hrs 
of the clergy, commissioned by the East- 
ern patriarchs. 

SxcalibuT, eks-kal'l-ber. The mythol- 
ogical sword of King Arthur given him by 
the Ladv of the Lake, to whom MerUit 
directed him to apply for it. 

Excellency, ek'sel-len-si. A title of 
honor given to governors, ambassadors, 
ministers, and the like. 

£xcerebration, eks-se're-bra''shon. 
The act of removing or beating out the 

Sxcerpt, ek-serpt^ An extract from an 
author or from a writing of any kind. 

Sbccise, ek-slz. A tax or duty imposed 
on certdn commodities of home produc- 
tion and consumption. That department 
of the civil service which is connected with 
the levying of such duties. In some 
States, the Board of License. 

Sxcision, -si'zhon. The act of cutting 
off; extirpation ; destruction. 

Bzcitator, -&f er. An instrunfent em- 
ployed to discharge an electrical apparatus 
In such a manner as to secure the operator 
firom the effect of the shock. 

lEzolusiomst, eks-klu'zhon-ist. One of 
a par^ of English politicians *n the time 
or Charles II. ihvorableto a bill to exclude 
his popish heirs from the throne. 

Ezcoxniniixiioation, -kom-m&'ni-ka^'- 
shqn. Expulsion fh)m the communion of 
a church. 

Bzoorlation, -k6M-a"shon. The act of 
Having, or the operation ofwearlngoff the 
skm or cuticle ; a galling ; abrasion ; the 
stBt« of being gallea or stripped of skin. 

JBateortioation, -kor'ti-ki'^shon. The 
act of striping off bark. 

Excnement, 'kre-ment Matter excreted 
and ejected ; that which is discharged 
firom the animal body after digestion ; al- 
vine discharges. 

Ezcubitorinni, -ku^bi-td'^ri-nm. A 
gallery in a church where public watch 
was kept at night on the eve of some fes- 
tival, and from which the groat shrines 
were observed. 

EzcuTSUB, -ker'sus. A dissertation or* 
digression appended to a work, containhig 
a more full exposition of some impoirtant 
point or topic uian could be given in the 
notes to the text. 

. 'e-at. Leave of absence given to 
a student in the English universities. The 
permission granted by a bishop to a priest 
to go out of his diocese. 

Ezecutioiier, ek-s€-ku'shon-er. One 
who executes or carries into effect ; espe- 
cially one who carries into effect a Judg- 
ment of death. 

Executive, egz-ek'ut-iv. Any officer 
who superintends the execution of the 
laws ; the person or persons who adminis- 
ter the government. 

XSxeoutor, -er. The person appointed hr 
a testator to execute his will or to see ft 
carried into effect. 

Executrix, -triks. A female exeoutcnr; 
a woman appointed by a testator to exe- 
cute his will. 

Sxedra, -ed'ra. In Anc. Arc. an apart- 
ment provided with seats for the purpose 
either of repose or of conversation . They 
were open to the sun and air, tmd were 
appended to the portico. 

ExfigftfliB, eks-C'-Je'sis. The exposition 
or interpretation of any literary produc- 
tion, but more particularly the exposition 
or interpretation ot Scripture. 

Exelxnans, Bexny Joseph Isidore. 
Baron, £k-s^l-m&n^ A French mar- 
shal ; B. 1776, D. 1852. He fought in Na- 
poleon's chief cam];)aigns. 

Exequatur, -c-kwa'ter. A written rec- 
ognition of a person in the character of 
consul or commercial agent issued bv the 
government to which he Is accredited. 
An authoritative recognition of any official 
document ; official permission to perform 
some act. 

Exergrue, egz-erg'. The small space be* 
neath the base line of a subject ergraved 
on a coin or medal, left for the date,' an- 
graver's name, &o. 

Exeunt, ©ta'G-xml. K N«at^"«ka«ftLN3\. ^kv 



nstlB Hlmtiirr to dvnot* I1i« IH'rlnl aX 
I, ■ISHWjJmii.. In Sure, ihp 

•iiiiiid jiaii 1 iInii|iiuiiiltlnD. In H 
•ilMntliin InrniHlHurliinlniB. 
XxbMrMUUan, rki<-lu''rt<l*"ihnn. 

S^nmation. i;kf>-hnni-i>'ah<in. Tho 
ncl.iriihDmlnB ordlt-glngup ihsi wliloh 
hu ht^n burlod. 

Bhdle. («i'il. BsnlihmFPt ; tho stute of 
brlin! eiih^lwl from one's nollv* miintij 
or pivw of nridcDW by Authorlly, uul 

olffn country for mldonco IVtr uiy «iua 
distinct Initii buBlnvH. Tho ponwn Lhd- 
Ishvd or axpellod ur who stuDduni hla 

Bxmontli. Edward Pellaw.Vta- 

181«! ■ ... 
hours bo dostTovHl tbe AI^tIah s] 
dk<ne«l Xbeir forrf>, nb'lled tho jtalac?, 
nnpelLed tbf I>cy'a 

Exodiu, 'O-dns. The pmlRntlon ol 
laive b>d^B of people from one ■:oun try 
to uiolliiir. Tho depvturo of tbe Ismd- 

MoM*. The *oond bookVlho UUl ^«s- 

Bx: nfi<>in j.f.fl'Bhl-fi. By virtue of of- 
t siwclol authority. 

o)ienoui, ud dtstlDgDUbedftoin the «ndn- 
L-enous by the retlcBlBIal vMiMlon or ■ ' 
luavea. and by tbeir eeeda havUic 
outyledons or lobes. 
EbcoTdium. cgi-or'dl-om. Tholulni 

ElKDBmDae. pks'os-mAs, Tbe ptratt 
(mars, vnpirt or liqnidf. throngh D 

EKQterloa, -to'rlks. „ 

lulotle on rhtlorte, to whldh lUmnld- 
niltt«d ; his pobllabod writiiigi. 

Exotic. fCT-ot'ic.^ Anything not nntlTO. 

eipoctoraUaii or db 

Expeotorant, -prk'to 

Experieatiallaiii. -pO-rl-en'ahnl-lun. 
Tbo<loclrtno that all knowledge or Idou 

ExplatOT. -er, Ona icha npliCH or 

Expletive. 'pli'l-iT. A word or syllalil* 

ExploelTe, -plii'alv. Anythlug with ■ 
Undcncy to usplodo. In PhlJol. a mat* 

~ lent. In Alg. the ilnni- 




an Index or representative. One that ex- 
pounds or explains anything. 

Sxpoxt, 'port. A commodity conveyed 
out of one oountay or state to another in 

'F-'T IK>st facto, post fkk'td. In law, 
done after another thing. An ex post 
facto law is a law made to visit with 
penal coiisequenees an act done belbre its 

£xpreS8, -pres'. A messenger sent on a 
particular errand or occasion. Any regn- 
101' provision made for the speedy trans- 
mission of goods or messages ; any vehicle 
or other conveyance sent on a special 
message. A railway train which travelfi at 
a specially high rate of speed. 

Kgwifflfttion, -suf-Aft'shon. A blowing 
■ or blast ft'om beneath. A kind of exor^ 

dsm, performed by blowing and slotting 

at the evil sphrit 

Extempore, ek»-tem'po-r6. Extempo- 
raneous speiUdng ; the act of expressing 
one^s self without premeditation. 

Extensor, -tens'er. In Anat. a muscle 
which serves to extend or straighten any 
part of the body ; opposed to flexor. 

Exterminatioii, -ter^min-i'^shon. The 
act of exterminating; total expulsion or 
des^nction; extirpation. In Alg. the 
process of causing to disappear, as un- 
Known quantities from an equation ; elim- 

Extern, -tern. Outward form or part ; 
exterior. A B. C. student or pupil who 
does not live or board within a eollego or 
seminary ; a ddv scholar. 

Exterritoriality, -te'ri-to'ri-al''i-ti. 
Immunity from a country's laws, such as 
that enjoyed by an ambassador. 

Extersion, -ter'shon. The act of wip- 
ing or rubbing out. 

Extinguisher, ek-sting'gwish-er. He, 
who or that which extinguishes ; specifi 
caUy, a hollow conical utensil to put ^n a 
candle or lamp to extinguish it. 

Extirpation, -sterp-a'shon. The act of 
rooting out; eradication; excision; total 

Extortion, eks-tor'shon. Oppressive 
or llle^ exiikction ; illegal compulsion to 
pay money or to do some other act. 

Extra-oonstellary, -tra-kon'stel-la-rl. 
A term applied to those stars which are 
not classed under any constellation. 

Extract, 'trakt. In Lit a passage taken 
finm a book or writing ; an excerpt. Any- 
ttttng drawn tNJua a substance by beat, 
Mutton, dlstOlstioo, or ehemioal process. 

Extradition, -tra-di'shon. Delivciyby 
one nation to another of Itigitivos vrota 
iustice, in pursuance of a treaty. 

Extrados, -tr&Mos. In Arch, the ex- 
terior curve of an arch ; the outer ciurve 
of a vousseir. 

Extrajudicial, -)&-di"shal. Ont of the 
proper court, or me ordinary course ot 
legal procedure. 

Extramnndane, mnn'dan. Beyoad 
the limit of the mat43rial world. 

Extramural, -mur'aL Without or be- 
yond the walls, as of a fortified dty or a 

Extraneous, -tr&'n^us. Foreign ; not 
belonging to a thing ; not intrinsic. 

Extratropioal,-tra-trop'ik-a]. Without 
the tropics, north or south. 

Extravagant, -trav'a-gant. One who 
is confined to no general rule. Eccles. 
certain decretal epistles of the popes, pub- 
lished after the Oementines, but not at 
first arranged and digested with the other 
PaiMd Constitutions. 

Extravasation, -sa'^shon. The act of 
fordng or letting out of its proper vessels 
or ducts, as a fluid ; efiPiision. 

Extrinsically, -trin'sik-al-Ii. From 
without ; externally. 

Extroversion, -trG-ver'shon. A mal- 
formation consisting in an organ being - 
turned inside out, as the bladder. 

Exude, -ud' To flow from a bodv, 
through the jKtros or by a natural dis- 

Exuviation, -a'^shon. In Zool. the re- 
jection or casting off of some part, as the 
deciduous teeth, the skin of Rorpents, the 
shells of crustaceans and the like. 

Eyalet, I'a-let. A Turkish government 
or prindpality under the administration of 
a vizier or pasha of the first class. 

Esras. 'as. A young hawk just taken 
from the nest, not able to prey for itself. 

Eirck, Jan Van, ik. (John of Bruges). 
One of the greatest of Flemish painters ; 
B. 1890. i>. 1440. His brother Hubert was 
also a noted artist ; b. 1866, d. 1426. The 
brothers have been pronounced the origi- 

^nators of oil painting. 

Eye. The oi^ran of vision, formed by the 
combination of two segments from a larger 
and a smaller sphere. The segment of the 
lesser sphere is composed externally of a 
strong membrane coUed the cornea, with- 
in wmch are the aqueous humor and the 
iris. The iris is a col<M:ed membrane cap- 
able of contraction and dilatation^ «>\x«<Q«tA- 
•d in the aq^ucooa \kxuaQx^ ^wNSol »» V^^ 

■bin ur Uiclit- The Jiujcrr •[•hera unisuiiu 
Uuw riMtx. OH' imliTouxt bdnr Ok hJct- 
Mlr, vliUu wbMi In the ohonild uid liuil- 
Ij-thnnHlu. Tlw •?!.■■ lira ahl|>,tliucf.-> 
of har, Uhi fbrvuimt put Id llii' buuri of ■ 

Tbe vri'nJ li uiigiUiil u> mui)' ottaur Ihlnga 

Bre-lMdl. 'biL The- bill. kLuLh,, "''■pplx 

Till] halter •rch ibdve 

_ A Khiin to ailM llie 

SItfhC- Thv <>3-iHLilecH or A tvle«coi>e, inl- 
orvAwpvuniJ tliv llk^. [d tiurK- ftguBAlbr 
D] cuJIjriuin to Cb9 ejfl. 


l,'P«». 1 

Mop*, ur uUxr op 

Jons tn nblflb tha sjreb ippUsd. 
BTeatoma, ■IAd. a luaa MlMmw 

""' "• "'^° ■"'' ''of U.a™« IMu 
irDsr of ttu ariTTt 

r.™iofW° I "':'■. ^rt^Kl^K 

Byl«i,l'loo. A town on 
«J tu. from KSniicxlH'ric. K. 
u the iceaa or (bo ^uat v 

BTslld. 'li 

ByeatriiMr. eMng' Thataudo&bfwliliili 
Ey«ooth. toth. A pointed tooUi In (b 

SFTle, -ri. A bM 
nMtgfm«gl8or . . 

EmUqI. Id Mcrlp. uneofthogTMIirS*- 
bruir prophetA, nan of tlu prlcat BoL 
»bg. wtth .IcboUUin, king of JniU, wu 
Durrled cipKvu to UoHpatunii; ■. ilit. 
ATU u.c; tba d*I? oT Ug d«th li u- 
known. Tha book of K. ooBtatu hk 




DriML wbo U 

nd aipt-dlUan ofhli wopla hooa 

'.no a? 

n li still 

riiowB on tb> 


m. ibo 

a Ita IniuAn 



* Tba 

book o* K. »- 

nneetad tilth tba Haosd 





K.) tha 


■p 19 tba <(b lotltr 
oUMad aa a siird sp 
UncnlBbM from t 

>r Uia Kaicllsb Blphs- 

by Muk pronoan 
irhn^atb. Tlie Be 

blob It h\M, oWai'Iy nHiablai 


bain; oAandoubtod. 

u In fly. mo. 13 iilimlii 
1,ul n kiilto,knWe8io.: 
Ijtib namamjIC Blamed 

torFollov;F. e! 


F. 0/1*71 sUndi 

SoolelT : F. 8. A., Fallow of tha Sudaty 
of AnttquariM, (ha ruurth 
■loteorUiadlMODia Male. In the «len- 

eortbaurab Dnalaksllottai. 

DolaylBgj dllMsrr: 
mlUlioaor Q. FaUna 

All defenH ngnintt Uin 
Table, 'bL A falenad •: 




FabliaiL, Ikb-lS-d. In Frendi Lit one 
of the metrical talee of the TrouTdrM or 
early poets of the Langne d'Oil. 

Fabulist, t-list. An inventor or writer 
of fables. 

Facade, fSEb-sM^ The &ce or front yiew 
or elevation of an edifice. 

Face, fas. The front part of an animiU's 
head, made up of the forehead, eyes, nose, 
mouth, cheeks, &c.; the visage. Aspect 
or air of the face; cast of features; look. In 
a general sense, the surface or side 
which presents itself to the view of the 
spectator : the fit>nt ; the forepart. 

Pacet, fas'et A little face ; a small sur- 
face, as the facets of a diamond. In Arch, 
aflat projection between thefintings of 
columns. In Anat. a drcumscribed por- 
tion of the Burfiioe of a bone. 

Facetiss, &-se'shi-€. Witty or humorous 
sayings or writings. 

Fcucient, fl'shi-ent In AJg. the variable 
of a quantic as distingruished fit>m the co- 

Facinoroos. -sln'er-us. Atrociously 

Facsimile, fkk-slm'i-16. An exact copy 
or likeneiSf an imitation of an original in 
all its proportions, traits and peculiaritieB. 

Faction, 'shon. A party, in poUtics, 
combined or acting in union, in opposi 
tion to the gov^nment or state. A party 
promoting discord or unscrupulously 

■ promoting their private ends at the ex 
pense of the pubnc good. In the IT, 8. 
usually applied to any active subnillvision 
of a poUtical party Tumult, disoord, 
dissension. In Bom. Antiq. one of 
the four classes, distinguished by spe- 
cial colors, into which the combatants bi 
the circus were divided. 

Factor, ier. In Com. an agent em 
ployed by foreign merchants to transact 
Dusiness. He may buy and sell in his own 
name, in which particular consists the 
main difference Detween Acton and 
brokers. An Arith. the multiplier and 
multiplicand. In Alg. any expression 
oonsiaered as part of a product. 

Factory, to-ri. A building or collection 
of buildings appropriated to the manu- 
ihcture of goods ; the place where work- 
ers are employed in fabricating goods, 
wares or utensils. In Great Britain, asso- 
ciations of traders and merchants doing 
business in the East, for purposes of 
mutual protection. 

Factotum, -tum. A male servant em- 
ployed to do all kinds of work. 

F&cnlaB, 'ii-l& In Actztm. apota on the 

sun*B diak. which appear brighter than 
the rest of his snrikoe. 

Faculty, 'ol-ti. The body of indiyid- 
uals constituting one of the learned pro- 
fessions, more especially, medicMl and 
surgical professions. In colleges, the 
masters and professors of the several de- 

Faeces, lu'sez. Excrement; also, set- 
tlings ; sediment after infUsion or distilla- 

Faffot , fog'ot. A bundle of sticks Or twigs, 
used for f^el, or for raising batteries, filling 
ditches, and other puri>oBee in fortifica- 
tion ; a fascine. A bundle of iron for re- 
manu&cture, or steel in bars. 

Fagotto, -got'to. A mu- 
sical instrument with a 
reed and mouth-piece like 
the darionet and resem- 
bling the bassoon. The 
alto-fogotto has a range of 
three octaves. 

FafiTUS, f&'gus. The 
beech, a gen. of plants, 
ord. CupnUferse. There 
are about twenty species. 

Fahrenheit, Oabriel ,, ^ 
Daniel, ftr'en-hit. A fagotto, 
disttnguishea Cterman philosopher; b. 
1090, D. 1740. He invented the tiiermom- 
eter known by his name. 

Faience, iS-i-ens'. A sort of fine eartii- 
enware ^azed with a fine varnish, and 
painted in various designs, named At>m 
Faenza in Romagna, where it is said to 
have been invented in 1299. 

Faint, funt. A fainting fit; a swoon. 
The impure spirit which comes over first 
and last in the distillation of whisky, 
much impregnated with fetid essential ou 
(ftisel oil). 

Fair, f&r. ElUpticaUy, a fair woman ; a 
handsome female. The &ir, the female 
sex ^ specificidly, the loveliest of that sex. 
A stated market, or meeting of buyers 
and sellers for trade. Among the most 
celebrated fidrs in Europe are those of 
Frankfort-on-the-Main and Leipzig in Ger- 
many, of Nijni-Novgorod In finssia, of 
Lyons in France. A festivid in behalf of 
a religious or benevolent object. 

FairLsle. An isUmd in the N. Atlantic, 
bet. the Orkneys and Shetland, the scene 
of the disastrous ^vreck of the Duke of 
Medina Sidonia, with the remaining ves- 
sels of the defeated and scattered ^iianiah 
Armada, 1588. 

Fairfiaaiy Thomas, I^ord. An Ea 
gliali general, who eiMntnanded tiio Fw 

miiWn, n. I 
hit Ufa in Tim' 

fakir, fa'kcr. An Orient, 
tKKBbiK iiionk. They Are tUl 
luia iadirt nixm thumiujlvM 
tortumi BniTaiartianUiinA. 

ILppUfSl tli B&DBthAwklTA Df C. 

IcrfvLlJi'W.'liT, trlnkati, Ac. 
wltb u nllicli^]' Furniil point 

PolUuid Island!. An Bncllah ertiuii 
In ttie S. Atlsnlla, nbt. 300 m. S. E. of thn 
StniitBofUagaUnn: jnp.lau tbim 1,000. 

Fall, M. The net of rlmpplng IW>m i 
higher U> n lovtsr [iluDe by gnrtly : do- 

from InM; aDtumD. TbUwhlcb IUIh. 

) KAinUST 

Ituli ; ilHi. tbs ■noMur of Um wbt lB iia 
uif^A. auk tha iwt of k MUa h 
vblch Uis power li applied In hetaUat. 

Fallinc-aickueM, Inr-alk-neL m 
piilli'lMvl II dliuwe In wfilcli thapBttat 
nudrluily iata hlseanaea nod BdlB. 

7Blllna>-atar, 4tir. Ueleon wUoh ^ 

Sivr u luDilnoaa points nhoodiu or dart' 
II,' through tha aty, and tboimd by 
lone tndni of lliilit lW are ballered to 
mnilit uf aniall oasmlcil bodU* which m- 
lu-pur AtmonphoFflUDder thalnflnciwaef 
this (.■arlli's itlraotlon, Ignlta ana «ra »»- 
nnriEcd Id mnKflaebiu of thq MeOon Tf 
'alociqr wilt 

nlao (4ll9d tha Failow-ohit, 
PaUBlver. AdtyanilBemortofBrft- I 
lul i!o Us*!., Kinoqlhof T.itnto- '"-'- ' 
tan. S. W. of Boeton; Ithu ei 

fdnnlty lo 

Want of verwlly ; ni 
PaUBtto, M'jsot-tA. 

Fald ciimeii, bl'si 
fraurl, forgrry. 

alllnr, et-mD'yar. An Indnub 
» oompanfon. A demon euppoH 
nd at a call ; h Dunlllnr splrlf. U 
■■'"■""" " employed Itiaji 




arose in Holland in 1556. They taught 
that religion consists wholly in love, inde- 
pendently of any form of truth held and 

Family, 'mi-li. liie ooUective body of 
persons who live In one house and under 
one head^qr manager; a household, in- 
cluding parents, children and servants, 
and as the case may be, lodgers or board- 
ers. The parents and children alone. The 
children as distinguished from the parents. 
The descendants from one common pro- 
genitor ; a tribe or race ; kindred ; lineage. 

Famine, 'min. Scarcity of food ; dearth ; 
' a general want of provisions. 

Fan, fan. The name of various instru- 
ments for exciting a current of air by an 
instrument made of palm -leaf, feathers. 

Super, or taffeta, mounted on sticks. In 
Lach. any contrivance of revolving vanes 
or disks, as for winnowing grain, cooling 
fluids, urging combustion, £c. 

Fanatio, fo^iat'ik. A person affected by 
excessive enthusiasm, particularly on re- 

' Ugious sutgects. 

Fandango, -dang'gd. A lively dance, 
in triple time, common in Spain and Span- 
ish Ajnerica. It was originally a dance of 
the Moors. 

Fane, f3n. A temple ; a place consecrated 
to religion ; a church. 

Fanfare, Ikn'fSr. A flourish of trumpets, 
as OB the approach of some oersonage. 
A short, lively tune played witn bunting 
horns, to inspirit the nunters. An osten- 
tatious parade or boast ; bravado. 

Fan-foot, 'f^t. N. African lizard, gen. 
P^odaotyliiB2macb dreaded in Egypt for 
its venom. The poison is said to be in- 
lected by the teem but to exude fi*om the 
lobules of the toes. Itis so much dreaded 
as to be popularly termed Abou-burs, or 
flither of leprosy. A name given by col- 
lectors of moths to the gen. Polypogon. 

Fan^, fimg. The tusk <^ a boar or other 
animal by which the prey is seized and 
held ; a long pointed tooth, as the hollow 
poison ikng of a serpent. 

Fan-liflrlxt, ftmlit Properly, a vdndow 
in form of an open fim situated over a 
door, but now used for any window over 
a door. 

FanninflT-miU, 'ing-mil. A machine 
for leaning seeds from chaff, husks, &c. ; 

Fanon. 'on. A headdrees worn by the 
Pope wnen celebrating mass pontifically. 
The handkerchief used by the priest dur- 
iBg the e^bration of mass. The white 
Hnen cloth in which the lai^r m^ke theh* 

oblations at the altar. The lappets of the 
miter. A church banner carried in pro- 

Fantoccini, -to-chS'nfi. Pappetsmade 
to perform by coiiceaied wires or strings. 
Dramatical representations in wiifch pup- 
pets are the performers. 

Fan-tracery. 'tr&s-er-I. Elaborate geo- 
metrical carved work, which spreads over 
the surface of a vaulting, rising from a 
corbel and diverging like the folds of a 

Faraday, Michael, f3r'ah-d&. An 
eminent Lnglish physician, chemist and 
electrician ; b. 1791, d. 1867. 

Faradisation, fiu-'a-diz-u^shon. The 
medical application of the magneto-deo- 
trio currents, which Faraday discovered 
in 1887. 

Faroe, ISn. A dramatic composition, of 
a broadly comic character, differing from 
a comedy chiefly in its grotesqueness. 

Farcy, nu*'sL A disease of horses in- 
timately connected with glandors, the two 
diseases generally running into each other. 

Fardingr-basr, fSrd'ing-bag The flrst 
stomach of a ruminant aolmal, where 
neen food lies until chewed over again ; 
the rumen. 

Fazina, fo-rl'na. A soft, tasteless pow- 
der, obtained by trituration of ^the seeds 
of cereal and leguminous plants, and of 
some roots, as the potato. Fossil tkrina^ 
a carbonate of lime, light as cotton, and 
easily powdered. 

Fanner, fum'er. One who forms ; an 
agriculturist ; a husbandman. F. g^ieral, 
in France, under the old monarchy, « 
member of a |»1vikged association which 
fumed oortain branches of the revenue. 

, Tkr-nSz. An illustrious Italian 
itoiily. Aleasandro F. was elected Pope, 
under the titie of Paul III. A. F., son of 
the Duke of Parma, b. 1530. d. 1592, was 
one of the foremost generals of his age, 
saving under Don John of Austria, and 
made governor of the Low Countries on 
the latter's death. He obliged Henry IV. 
to raise the seige of Paris during the war 
of the French, and afterwards defeated 
him in the fleld; he also defeated the 
Prince of Nassau. 

Faro, fu'rd. A game at cards in which a 
person plays against the bank. 

Faro-bank, -bangk. A bank or estab- 
lishment, against which persons phiyat 
the game of foro ; a place j()r gambling. 

Faroe Islands (Ferro), f&'ro. A group 
of 22 small islands In tVi(&'K.O«»u\.^tiic^^ 
176 m, N. "W. ot t\ift SVkfiWLsiAv 

TkniahaT, O^orge, 

Faioioularia. flis-Bftt'o-ls' 
. of pxtlnel polyios. fiiin. Tubullporidje, « 
ciirriDEln tbe corslUm ong DrSnntlk. 

la I'lnt. ii ftgsot! 
bundle of sniiiU 
.tkli. of wood, 
□wd tn rulsinE but- , 

IQlktnjF ponpflLg. 

BWaoioIaria. V-o-Wrt-t. -A gm. 
moDuBka, taia. Mojiddc. 
Vaatlhit. B«m; diulpated; tndc 


throe centurteB. Btflad Prfmltlie Fatten 
■n JneUn, Thoopnlhii, btibop of AsUid, 
Imiteiis, blBhop or LyoB. demvtif 
Alsxandrb, Crpriui. btitiop of CkirtiM 
OrigBD of Aleiandrli, OroKOtT n^t- 
tnqnis INonrriun. biBhop of AloaaML 
TertmiliuiDH of Cuiluice. and tha ft* 
ikore nuned. TtaeOtthenaftliefciiuat^ 
Bfth optitmive u« nngAd In tivo (iiM^ 
Jibe™ of tho an-ek iind Litbi CbvA. 
The hmior m Enublas t^ OnaMK 
AUunulas. Bmdl Iha Orcrt, bMntt it 
CMmii. UnKorr Nutsnieniu, QtaWT 
M[ Hyiu. Cjrlt; blnhop BtSmSS, 
ObrjBwUini, pntrlaicta of (' — -■ — *■ '• 




Epkihanlus, bishop of Salamis In Oypmg, 
Cyril, bishop of AlezaiMlria, Ephraiin, the 
Syrian deacon of Edeesa. The latter, 
Lactantias, Hilary, bishop of Poiotiers, 
Ambrose, arohbishop of Milan, J«x>me, 
the translator of the Bible, Angnstin, 
bishop of Hippo. Adoptive &ther, one 
who adopts the children of another. Pnta- 
tive f&ther, one who is onhr reputed to be 
the fhther ; the supposed father. 

Father-in-law, -in-la. The fltther of 
one's husband or -wife." 

PaihoiZL, 'urn. A measure of length con- 
taining 6 feet. 

Fatixnide, &t'i-mld. A descendant of 
Fatima, daughter and only child of Ma- 
homet. A fine of caliphs, the Fatimtte 
dynasly, was founded in 909 by Abu- 
Mohamraed Obeidalla, who gave nimself 
oiit as grandson of Fatinut, and continued 
tm the death of Adhed, the 14th Fatimite 
caUph, in 1171. The meipbers claimed 
poutiflcal attributes. 

7at-lut6, l&t. A mixture of pipe-day 
and Ilnseed-oil for filling joints, &c. 

7aun. ikn. In Rom. Mvth. a demigod or 
rural aefty, diffi^ing little from the aatyr. 
The form was principally human, with a 
ah(»t goat's tail, pointed ears, and prokct- 
ing IwMrns; sometimes also wiui cloven feet. 

Fauna, 'a. A collective word signifying 
all the animals peculiar to a r^^ion or 
epochs and also a description of them ; 
correspiHiding to flora in respect of plants. 

Faust, Joihann (Fast), fowst. One 
of the three reputed inventors of the art 
of pHrlnttng by movable types ; a citizen of 
MentK, B. abt. 1400, d. 1460. 

Faust, John (Dr.Faustos). A ede- 
lA^ated astrologer of the latter part of the 
15theentury, the hero of numerous tales 
and dramas, from the superstitious legend 
tiiat he sold himself to Satan for 24 years, 
was served by Mephistopheles, Satan^s 
emissary, who carried him to his master 
sttbe ex^rfration of the contract. 

FauteuU, f5-tnl. An arm-diair ; an easy 
chair. A seat in the French academy. 
Iht>it de ihuteuil, the privilege formerly 
enjoyed by gentlemen of rank at the 
French Court of sitting on a fiiuteuil in 
luresence of the king, corresponding to 
ttify droit de tabouret enjoyDdby ladies. 

FauvBtte, -vet'. A twm introduced 
£rom French works, applied to the spedes 
of aoft-biUed birds or warblers, such as tiie 

FKUE.*pas, i)fi. A fiilse step ; a breach 
ofBUUUi^rs or moral conduct-; more ^tae- 
tedi^ a laiMe from «kMtl^. 


Favose, -v6so'. Hav- 
ing pits, depressions 
or cells, like thoso of 
a honeycomb. 

Favosite, fh'vo-sit. 
A gen. of fossil con^B 
common to the Siluri- 
an, Devonian and 
Carboniferous sys- 

Favre, Jules. A French statesman and 
orator, b. 1809, n. 1878. He was one of 
the prlndpal leaders in the establishment 
of the repubUo after l^apoieon III. surren- 
dered to the Ctermans at Sedan. 

Fawn, tan. A young 
deer ; a Duck or doe 
of the first year. 

Fay, ti, A fldry ; an 

Feast, fSflt. A samp- 
tnous repast or enter- ! 
tainment. A festival 
In conmiemoration of 
some event, or hi 
honor of some person- Fawn, 


Feather, feth'er. A plume; one of the 
dermal growth which form the covering 
of birds. Those which cover the body 
aro called tiie plumage. In founding, a 
tUn rib east on iron framing. A lAlp in- 
serted longitudinally Into a shaft or arbor, 
and projecting so as to fit a groove In tha 
eye of a whed. 

Feathering, -ing. The uniform turning 
of the blade of an oar horizontally, when 
raised from the water. In Arch, an ar- 
rangement of small arcs separated by pro- 
jecting cups, used as ornaments in tha 
molding of arches, &c.y in OotMo ardii- 
tecture; foliation. 

Feather-weiffht, -w&t Scrupulously 
exact weight, such as that a feather would 
turn the scale, when a Jockey is weighed 
or wdghted. The lightest weight that 
can be placed on a horse. 

Febrifaclent, fe-brl-fa'shi-ent. That 
which produces fbver. 

FebriftlfirB, -fuj. Any medicine that 
mitigates or removes fever. 
Febris, fu'bris. Fever. 

Febronianisxn, -brd'ni-an-tem. In R. 
0. Theol. a system of doctrines antagonist 
tic to the admitted daimS of the pope, 
asserting the independence of national 
ehurdies, and of bishops within their own 

February, feVr^-ttrxV. 'TaibTttsftA^AHSB* 




Mooml month In the year, introduced into 
the KoDian calendar by Numa. In oom- 
mon yeorft, this month contains twenty- 
eight days ; in the bissextile or leap-year, 
twenty-nine days. 

]^bruu8, -us. In Clans. Mvth. an old 
Italian divinity, whose worship was cele- 
brated with Imttrations in the month of 

Pecial, fT/shal. A member of a college 
of ancient Uoman priests, whose provinoe 
it was when anv dispute arose with a for- 
eign state, to demand satisfaction, to de- 
termine the circnmstanoes under whioh 
war might be commenced, to perform the 
Tarious religious rites attendant on the 
declaration of war, and to preside at the 
formal ratification of peace. 

Veoit, 'sit A word which is placed on 
one*8Work, as a statue, Ac., along with 
the name of the maker or designer ; as 
BtradoariuB fecit, 8traduarius made it. 

Veonla, fe/kti-la. starch or lluina, called 
also Amylaceous F. The green coloring 
matter of plants; chlorophyll. 

Fedellnl, fSl-del-e'nS. A dried Italian 
paste in pipe form, smaller than vermicelli. 

VMeral, fe'der-al. An appllation in 
America, given to those politicians who 
wanted to strengthen the fceduR or general 
fovemment compact, in opposition to 
others who wished to extend tue separate 
authority of the several states. In the 
American civil war of 1861-5, the term 
Federals was applied to the Northern 
partywho strove to retain the states in 
the Union, in opposition to the Confed- 
erates, who deaiml to secede. 

Pederatioii, -a'shon. The act of unit- 
ing in a league. A league ; a confederacy. 
A federal goverment, as that of the U. S. 

Feed, ftd. Food ; that which is eaten ; 
pasture ; fodder. In Mach. as much ma- 
terial as Ib suppHed at once to a machine 
to make It act. In Mech. any contrivance 
for giving to a machine a regular and uni- 
form supply of material to be operated on. 

Feeder, 'er. One that gives food or sup- 
])!{&» nourishment. One who ftttens cat- 
tle for slaughter. A fountain, stream or 
channel that supplies a main canal Avith 
water. A branch or side railway or canal 
connecting with the main Hue. In iron- 
founding a lai^e head or supply of fluid 
iron to a runner or mold in heavy cast- 
ing». In mining, a short cross vein paao- 
ing into A lode. 

Feed-water, 'wa4er. Warm wat«r sup- 
plied to the boiler of a steam-engine by 
the feed-pump throngb the feed-pipe. 

Fe^ee lalands (Fiji), fe'je. An En- 
glish group of 800 islands in the 8. Padflc, 
66 inhabited ; pop. abt. 150,000. 

Feeler, 'er. An organ of toadi la In- 
sects and oth«« of the lower animals. 

Fee-tail, n'm. An estate limited to a 
man and the heirs of his bodj, or to him- 
self and particular heirs of his body. 

Feint, font. An assumed or fhlse appear- 
ance ; a pretence of doing something not 
intended to be done. 

Fel-bovinixni, feI-b6-Yl'niun. *Ox-gril, 
or bills bovina, an extract of wUeh is wed 
by painters to remove the gi^aiJiinaii of 
colors, Ae. 

FelidaB, f&^-dS. A fkm. of carnivora in 
which the prodaoeons instlnctareaeh tiidr 
highest develomnent. Tliey are nmoog 
quadrupeds what the FaloonidflB am 
among birds. The spedea are naoMroaa, 
but none are fbnna in Australia.- -Ilta 
ftmily comprehends the d<Mnestle oat, the 
wildcat, the Hon, t^rer, leopard, lyaz. 
jaguar, panther, cheUh, oonoe, eaiEMia^ 
serval, ocelot, Jcc 

FelinSB, -B'nd. The cat Ikinily ; a . s«V 
fkm. of theFelidae, comprisini^ tha caMi^ 
lions, tigers and lynxes. 

Felix, fe^likz. The name of four popes. 
F. I., B. Dionysius, 269 ; d. in prisoh aad 
was canonizea. F. II., s. LIbains, 198^ 
D. 865; was canonized. F. III., s. BiAf 

Elicins, 488, j>. 492. F. lY., s. John L, 
26, D. 580. 

Felizian, -lik'si-an. One of a Spanish 
religious sect of the latter part of tne 8th 
century, who sided with the Archbishop 
of Toledo in the Adoptlan controversy. 

Fell, fel. A scam or hem sewed down 
level with the cloth. In weaving, the line 
of termination of a web fbnnea by the 
last weft-thread driven up by the lay; 
the line to which the warp is at any in- 
stant wefled. 

Fellah, la. An Enrptlan <« Syrian 
peasant or agricultural laborer, ^efly 
applied by the Turks in a contemptuous 


Felloe. nr>. One of tne curved pleoes ef 
wood which form the circular rim of a 
cart or carriage wheel. 

Fellow, Mo. A companion ; an asso- 
ciate. One o' the same kind. An equal 
in rank ; a peer ; a compeer. One of k- 
pair. An appellation of contempt ; a man 
without good breeding or worth. A 
member of a college that shares its reve- 
nues ; or a memb^ of any innnipnisiai 

F^Uow-oraft, -kraO. A IVeemaaoa xtf- 

Felo de ae, rt-ns an se. In hw, on« who 
tommils feloDr hy lutcids. 
Felon, fel'on. In bw. ■ person wbohu 

Biui.i theforTefture of londi or ftooiii. or 
FeUcar, 'ipdr. A mlasral cnnilatlDg of 

Feme-sot*. -gel'. An nnnuirlHl iromu 

Femioide. 'l-rid. ThsMlllngDravnHnu. 
^ IT, fD'mer- In Tcrtobrato uiliiuls, 
rsEhono of thelotr or [lolrlo extrom- 


h ftndi! otTi ■ 

Fence, tins. That n 

riltgod wllh two 
the Uddlurtsneii 
Female, K'mll. Among nr 

id t^nn ftirUt 

IWn« ' 

■ad rwolTM tbepoUen of tlia 


^. ^hslrtof^- 

'eou, CBpecdallj by theiword; iklllln 
dug or iword-play ; honce. flg, iklU ta 
rumen t and T«pBrt«e. A pnrchaHr or 

.. a guard, guide orgjmgo to r«gu]aU 
Doer, 'er. 0ns who Uacta« or pno- 
botse good at leaj^g fonow. 
nder. fcnd'f r. A ntsnttl employed to 
ider ooola uf dre from rolling Jorward to 

Fenelon, ISn'a-IAng. 

ipnbllo. Itpropsiiatrdltspirraiildlyo''"' 
»laod, ■» wslL ai In I'-e largo lowiiii of 

t_rltaln having ooniWenible Irtshekinoo*,. 
In IsaB.iaafianfllSKHiiB'SeiAKOiTOJj* 
««TCrtl abortlva all«m?l» »*. ■rtA'vtt.'i 
twe OTthTMniaa »«« aWKa^Xi*. ^ 

Vuiulit wllL oiuullv llllla Bi 
Feuka, fi'nKkt. The roAii 

tK! : rlrtcr brulbcr of INitvr tliu Grunt 
Ferw. r^'rf . The third order of Mamnu- 
lUwwardlnelo Llblutu^, plmccd botweau 

Tsr-de-Iuioe, fl 

D^d. Tbs u 


Verdlnand. f Ar'il 

Mverul Eunipoui maniroDi, US XMomuf 

Amtrli, B. ITOa ; a. hJa ftlhcr Fran'git'l., 
ISU; sbdlcntcd In hyoi of tbo preaent 
MOpomr, Fraocii Joaeph, IMS. F. V. 
iThe Calluillc), of CoalQe ud Leon. 
Min of Ju»n of ArifTon, m, IsibcLM, heir- 
--!0fC.l*C»: tlio wtr were erownert BOY- 
-■— ifCindA. UTS; eaUbltahedthe 
DD. UW ; took OnnBrii ftom the 
MoorB, .nd scat Columbua lo Americi, 
lUI-a ; dofoatod the French In Italy Iti 

Yarn, nhoie klnf hid Billed hlmHlf vfDi 
Tnmat. The [elgn of F. and Igibellali. 
the moat Rrlorioua la BponlBh hiatDry, bnl 
was nuLTTDd bj relleloiiB Intolrnuiee, F. 
I., ll.iuid III. of BotiemlB ■ndOermui] 

Charlei V., n, 1G03 ,''■. hlB brother 1556. o 
IMl. F. II., emndBon of V. 1., n. ISIS, 
orownedkliiff of U. lAIT ; hit peraf-'cutlon 


uul ilio Iho BiTodas, bntpMoemaOiiini 
aeourMl by the treaty of Wntphalli. wtM 
eecuml lo l>rota>tuB full rellziooiM 
ecsllon. F. IV.. ofNsplei, and!., oflh 
Two Hidllo.. «>n or ChATl*, III., n 

with liapnloon. who placed Uurst on th 

under the naue of the Two SldUta : i 
leSB. Ho WH K tyiut uddstaaledb 
hU aDb>ieu. F. II. (Bomba), aon ud i 
of Fiwda I.; a. ISIO, erownal 18M, i 
189*. Uia cbamcln' vH Inhmoiu. F.I 
dT Portninl, ion uid B. of bli Iktbcr F«ti 
(The Cruel), IBffI B. 1»~ ■■ •- 

brolh w" llom Podro \'', 

S^xWory, fo'ra-i 

^ ■. k 

Intheabapeuriridnid I 
ehoBtHiUi aroof.Hke ' 
top for contain hie ths 
roflcs of BilntB. Itte 

Parln, tu'rl-e. Id Boman Antlq. M 

day«, duTlE 


ita me Romani loiiMBi 

and Blayes onloyed a ceai 
They were dfrMeil InM 


Don from kiba 

ortadlvldiud>,lhs M 

Ferine. 'rln. A wDd beait; i 

Yeringeo. fo-rlng'itB. The lu 
Id Kngllabmen by the Hlndui. 

tation dlSi^ri In klnU accordlog to tl 

It. Vinous fcrEneDEatEoli la produced h 
tbegrowth ofthoyi^at plant; laotlofb 

llquldof'oommon bluo moU. In Ttont 
formentatfon the Biiifor iBoonTertoi III 
oarbonio add and aloohcl. Iwtle ttanBd 
tation tekeaplaeolnTnllk la thoproABaa^ 
becomlnl anur, vrluiilheingarljeoBTtf 
ed into laotlo add. Acstana ftanBaalatH 


uUF.aadTLQvanrlsprodDood. TuIf 
I \6 itrobqbly dtie to tbe growth oft 

mi)lewn«d with WBUr.durlDswblGb oils 
inuBUrdia produtwd. 
Pern, fnni, OnBofspwop of TMonlB 

stod at from ^M to «,(l 


rnlniof NlnaTrhimd SAbjIon. it Perw- 
polis, Ao. BDmedmeH It appoBrii m * 
winnH dnlo; itothera tik dHinl-fliftiro 
oriSn god, »tlh uipuidsd "idgi, ud Id 

fDn. rtrabldic. 

Parrara, tor-ri'rg. A b™* 
cicellGDtqDalilr.Duned iher 

nli«tb«r ba wBi o Spaniud oi 
not dFtennlDbd. Tlii! gonul 
■ -Lsdo. 

Bfl tba bJrthplooa 

Ferrloalolte. -rl-ki 

one, tnnt&lDlii^ 

ProdHdpg or 
fk'iaiDg Iron. F. coBin oontidn ubuodamH 

Ferrol. fiilr'rill. A .tronel* fortiBrt 

iSin. S. W. ot C>po OitoeiJ. Only w«r 
reHcli DTB permltltid lasQter [Is harbor. 
Fsrrotype, 'r6-ap, A term uppUfd to 
' itDgrapliicprooBBteaiD whlcrh tbeultsof 
r. — ,1... princEpol Bfl*nw. A pholu' 

gfitih tAkpEi on Japu 

n Vrodo apd 

Itting. In lie 
pandfDff tbo <n 

gcrrumlnatiQn. ^rn'min-l" 
HlduiDg or snltlDe of meUII. 

Ferry, M. A tbhpI In whlob 
and icitoda ire eonvfyed OT«r . 

'ra-lii. Tha (ooptrr nf Ihno 

Piwae. In Hot. i bund or cbiUo oomprU- 
IniF the center third part or tliG ewiutob«in; 

Faaae-point, 'point Tho oxwjt otntor 
DtlhB esculchMO. 

Festival, 't| 

ff stfiring or rJutkUiif . 

day ofjoy, dvU or relli,-laiu. 
form dFpBDatag'cur»ii>. In Amh. ■ ccnlp- 
FeatuB, Poxcbu. The 'Bsdm.iv nnwttr 



Fetiches of Dahomey. 

or of fludva, appointed 62, before whom 
the AiM)Aile Paul was charged by tlie Jews 
with troaAon ; n. abt. 81. 

Fetation, fe-ta'fthon. The formation of 
a ft'tii9. 

Fete, f;U. A feast ; a holiday ; a festival 
day. Ft't<» d«* Dim, a frast of tho It. C. 
Clj. In hiuior f»f thti rt-al i»rc'Scnoe In the 
Kurlmri>t. kt'pt on tlio Thurs<lay after 
Trinity Sunday. 

Fete-chaxnpetre. -shan-patr. A festival 
in tho f>iK'n uir ; a rural untertalnmeut. 

Fetich, fu - 

ti>h. Any ob- 
ject, aniinato 
or inanimate, 
natural or arti- 
ficial, ro^farde<l 
as havinff mys- 
terious |H)wur8 
rcsidinjf in it 
or as bein^'the 
or habitation 
of a deity. Fe- 
tichism pre- 
vails in Africa. 
Each tribe 
has a fetich 
iJi common, but every individual may 
have one of his own, to which he offers up 

Erayers, and which, if these are not heard, 
e punishes, throws away or breaks. 

Feticide, 'ti-sld. In Medical Jurispru- 
dence, the destruction of the fetus in the 
womb, or the act by which criminal abor- 
tion is produced. 

Fetlock, fet'lok. A tuft of hair growing 
behind the pastern joint of horses. The 
joint on which the toiir grows. An instru- 
ment flited on the leg of a horse when in 
pasture to prevent Us running off. The 
fetlock is used In heraldry ; thus, some 
branches of the Scotch family of Lockhart 
have for arms a man's heart within a fet- 
lock, signifying that one of its heads ac- 
companied Sh* James Doughis when he 
set out with Bruce*s heart for Jerusalem ; 
and a falcon within a fetlock was a badge 
of Edward IV., for the duchy of York. 

Fetlock-Joint, -Joint. The Joint of a 
horse's log next to the hoof. 

Fetlow, 'lo. A whitlow or felon in cat- 

Fetor, jfo'ter. Any strong offensive 
smell ; stench. 

Fetter, fet'er. A chain for the feet 

Fvttle, a. The ststo of being in Ugh 
condition or order. 

Fietos, tytOB. The jovmg of Ttviparsiia 
animals in the womb, and of ovfparonsn- 
imals in the egr, after it is pertsetlr 
formed, before which time it Is adled em- 

Fetwa. fot'wi. In Turk. Law, the writ- 
ten decision of a miifti on some legal poUit. 

Feudalism, fud'al'izm. The system of 
holding land by military services. 

Feudary, arri. A tenant who holds bis 
lands by feudal service ; a feudatory. X/x 
ancient officer of tiie Encdlsh Court of 

Feu de Joie, fh-d-zhw^. a LonflT*. or a 
firing of guns in token of joy. 

Feuilla^, -yazh. A bunch or row of 


FeuilUms, -yanz. A religious order, 
founded by Jean de la Barriers in 1677 ;m 
called fh)m the Convent of Feuillant Id 

Feuillant Clut>. A French poHtieil 
society, formed 1791, daring the Kevota- 
tion. Its leaders held ministerial power 
only a month, 179S, and were oTertuofm 
by the Jacobins. 

Feuilleton, fw€l-ton. That part «f • 
French newspaper devoted to li^ht hfeeta- 
turo or criticism. 

Fever, f«!'ver. A diseased stote of the 
system, characterised by an aooeknJid 

Sulse, inereaseof heat, deranged ftmettsat,- 
Iminished strength, and citen with ex- 
cessive thirst. 

Fez fez. A red head* 
dress fitting closely, 
with a tassel of blue at 
the crown, much worn 
in Turkey and N.AfHca 

Fea (Fas). Cap. of an 
ancient kingdom of that 
name, now a walled city 
and cap. of the prov. of F., Morocco, SO m. 
8. E. of Tangier. The city id deem«<i 
sacred by the Mohammedans, ani onlv 
good Moslems are permitted to enter ft"; 
pop. abt. 62,000. 

Fiacre, f5-a-kr. A small four-wheeled 
carriage; a hackney-coach. 

Fiance, fin-sa. An affianced or betrotfasd 

Fiants, fl'ants. The dung of the fox or 

Fiasco, fS-asacd. A fkUnre in a mnsicsl 
performance ; an ignominious fliilnrecen* 
erally. • 

WiB,iLtl'at A decisive or effectfye^pooi' 
mand. In Law, a short order or wamit 

^STPtian vni 
Turkiah Fet 




by ajudge for niAking out and allowing 
certain prooesaes. 

Pib, fib. A lie or falsehood ; used as a 
softer expression than either. 

Fiber, fl'ber. A gen. of rodent mam- 
xnois, fain. Castoridce. the only known 
speoies being the musk-rat, or F. zibethi- 
cus. A thread or filament; one of the 
hair-like bodies of which the tissues of 
aniinaLs and plants are partly constituted. 
The slender root of a plant. 

Fibril, 'bril. A small fiber; the branch 
of a fiber ; a very slender thread. 

Fibzilla, 'la. One of the components of 
fiber : specifically, one of the hairs from the 
epidermis which covers the yonng roots 
of plants. 

Fibrin, 'brin. A peculiar organic com- 
pound substance fooQd in animals and 
vegetables, procured in its most charac 
teristic state from f\'esh blood by whip- 
ping it with a bundle of twigs. It also ex- 
ists in chvle, forming the chief part of 
muscular desh, and is composed of carbon, 
Bltrogen, hydrogen and oxygen, being 
olosely allied to albumen and caseine. 

Pibrocartila«re, 'br6-k«r"ti-lftj. The 
substance intermediate between the proper 
cartilage and tho ligament which oonsti- 
tutes the base of the ear, the rings of the 
trachea, the ep^lottis, &c. 

fibroin, -in. The principal chemical 
oonstituent of silk, cobwebs and the horn/ 
skeletons of sponges. 

Fibrolite, 'bro-lit. A mineral eomposed 

of silica and alumina. 
Zicthtelite, fish'tel-it. A mineral resin 

found in the Fichtelgebjrge, Bavaria. 

Piohu, fi'sho. A light piece ot dres* 
worn by ladles, covering the neck and 

Fictor, fik'ter. Any artist who works- 
in wax, clay or other plastic material, as 
contradistinguished from one who works 
tn solid substances. 

Fiddle, fid'l. A stringed instrument of 
music, the finest of solo instruments and 
the leading instrument in the orchestra. 
Naut., a contrivance to prevent things 
from rolling off the table m bad weather. 

' Fiddle-bow, -bo. The bow strung with 
horse-hair with which the player draws 
sounds from tho violin. 
Fiddler, 'ler. One who plays on the vio- 
lin. In the IT. S. the popular name of a 
small crab tidth one large claw and a very 
•naall one. 

Fides, fi'dcz. In Class. Myth, the god- 
dsBS or iUth, oommonly rsprssented with 

her hands closely ^joined. An asteroid be- 
tween the orbits of Mars and tTapiter. 
Fid-haxnxner. fid'ham-mer. A tool con- 
sisting of a fid at one end and a hammer 
at the other. 

Fidioula, fi-dik'u-la. A small musical 
instrifment in the shape of a lyre. 

Fidonia, -dd'ni-a. A gen. ot lepidopter- 

ous insects, fam. (>eometridie. 
Fiduciary, -du'shi-a-ri. A trustee. One 

who depends on faith for salvation ; an 

Fief, fbf. A fee ; a feud ; an estate held 

ofa superior on condition of military or 

other service. 

Field, Cyrufl W. An American mer- 
chant, B. in Mass. 1819. The organizer of 
the Atlantic Cable Company. 

Field-artillery, feld'ar-til-e-ri. Light 
ordnance appHcablo to the active opera- 
tions of the field, including officers, men 
and horses. 

Field-book, 'bnlc. A book used in sur- 
veying, enjrineering, geology, Ac, in 
which are noted angles, dfistances, observa- 
tions, Soo. 

Field-cricket, 'krik-tt. Acheta campas- 
tris, one of the most : oisv of all the onok- 
ets, larger and rarer than the house-erisket. 

Field-duok, 'dak. The litUe bustsrd 
Otis tetrax. 

Fielder, 'er. A cricket or base-ball play- 
er who stands oat in the field to satoh and 
stop balls. 

Fieldfare, 'l&r. A bird of the gen. Tar- 

Field-grlass, -glas. A binocular tele- 
scope or opera-glass of great power. A 
small achromatic telescope. That one of 
the two lenses forming the eye-piece of 
an astronomical telescope or compound 
microHCope which is the nearer the object 
glass, the other being the eye-glass. 

Fieldins, Henry. An eminent En- 
glish novelist; b. 1707, of a flunily allied to 
the royal house of Austria ; n. at Lisbon, 
Spain, 1754. He is known as the '' Father 
of English fiction." 

Field-marshal, -mar'shal. The highest 
rank conferred on general officers in the 
British and some other armies. 

Field-Of&oer, 'of-fis-er. A military of- 
ficer above the rank of captain and below 
that of general, as a major or colonel. 

Fiend, fend. An infernal being ; a damon ; 
the devil; a person with malicious quali- 

Fieschi, Joseph. Maroo, fe-«a'ka. A. 
OoriitU&, B. 11M, >nYio %xv^q&a^ «&> \» 




fernal machine in tho 8ti««U of Faris^ 
1886, by which -Manhal Mortier and 9 
others of the suite of King Louis PhiUippe 
were killed, the king receiving tX^t 
woumis. F. vros guillotined, 188i&. 

Fiesole, Fra GKoTanni da, fe-ais-o'- 
Ik. (lU>ato Angelica), whose real name 
was Giovanni (iuido, among the greatest 
of luiy's painters ; b. 1887, d. 1465. 

FierycroMi, fi'e-ri-kros. In Scotland, in 
ancient times a signal sent as a summons 
to repair to arms. It consisted of a cross 
of light wooa, the extremities of whioh 
were set fire to and then extinguished in 
the blood of a goat. 

Fi. fa., G'tk. The abbreviation of Fieri 

FifiB, flf. A small Hate having but one 
key, and a compass of two octaves rang- 
ing upward from D on the fourth line of 
the treble clef. 

Fifty, flfti. The number whioh consists 
of five times ton. A symbol representing 
this number, as fiO or 1. 

Fi^. fig. The fruit of the fig-tree (Ficus 
Garlca). An excrescence on tho frog of a 
horse's foot following a bruise. 

Fiftieth, fiftl-eth. Ono of flflv equal 
parts into which a unit or whole is divid- 

Fifth-xaonarchy Kan. One of a sect 

* of English fimatios which sprung up in 
tho time of Cromwell, and considered him 
as commencing tho fifth great monarchy 
of the world (Ass}rria, Persia, Greece and 
Rome preceding), daring whioh Christ 
should reign on earth 1000 years. 

Fifteen, fif ten. Tho number which con- 
sists of five and ten. A symbol represent- 
ing this number, as 15 or xv. 

Fiff-apiple, fig'ap-1. A species of apple 

without core or kernel. 
Fiff'-eater, '6t-er. A bird; the greater 

petty chaps. 
Fiffhtinir-ftsh, f^t'ing-flsh. Macropodus 

or Ctenops pognax, a small fish, fiun. 

AnabasidsD. in 8iam they are kept in 

glass globes, for tho purpose of fighting, 

and on extravagant amount of gambling 

takes place about Uie result 

Fiff'-lliiell, fig'shel. The name given to 
the >nuioiu species of Pyrula, fiun. Mor- 

Fi^tree, 'trG. A tree, gan. FfcoB, the F. 
Carica, a native of the Mediterranean 
region. Tho tree in its native countries 
yields two crops of ripe finiit each season, 

FiJBrurant, 'ur-aat One who dances at 
the open in froopt of figures. An aeoea- 

Borr character on tlM atag«, who hm 
nothing to say. 

Figure, 'itar. The fwm of aaytbta^, 
as expressed b« the oDtUiM or te^ 
mtnating extremities ; IksMon. In AtMl 
a character standing for a nanibir, 
as 8, 7, 9. In Aatrol. tb« horoaeope ; the 
diagram of the aspects of the astrmoclesl 


figure, statue or 
bust on the bow 
of a ship over 
the cutwater 
and immediate- 
ly under the 

-bed. The ornamental 


er, -mak-er. A 

modeler ; one 

who practices 

the most refined 

part of the art of 

molding and casts busts, animals, IbBaye, 

Ac.; a maker of wooden anatomtal moi- 

els for artists. 

Fiflrore-fltone, -stdn. AgalnuitoHta or 
bildstein : a variety of talo-mioa, so soft as 
to be easily cut into flgrnrea. 

Filament, fll'a-ment A thread ; a fiber ; 
a fine thread, of which flesh, n^res, skin, 
plants, roots, A)0., and also some minerals, 
are composed. 

Filatory, -to-rl. A machine wUdh 
spins thread. 

Filature, -t&r. A reel for drawing off 
silk from cocoons ; a filatory. An ostMb- 
lishment for reeling silk. 

Filbert, 'bert The fruit of a eoltivated 
variety of Conrlus Avellana, or haaeL 
The oil is little inferior to the oil ot al- 

File, f n. A line or wire on which jwpera 
are strung in due order for preservation. 
The papers strung on a line or wire : a 
collection of papers arranged according' to 
date or subject for ready reference. A 
roll, list or catalogue. A row of aoldiers 
ranged ono behind another. A steel in- 
strument, having teeth upon the aarfiioe 
for cutting, abrading and amootUftg 
metal, wood, Ac 

File-cutter, 'kut-er. A maker of fllea. 

File-flslx, 'fish. A name given to cer^ 
tain fishes flrom their skins being granu- 
lated like a file ; they oonstitute the g«n. 

File-leader, 'led-er. The soldier plaead 
in front of a file. 




File-xnarohinff, 'mdroh-iog. The 
marching of a Ifhe of soldiers two deep, 
when faced to right or left, so that front 
and roar rank march side by side. 

Filiation, fil-i-ft'shon. The relation of a 
eon or child to a Ihther ; theomrelative to 
paternity. Adoption. The fixing of a 
bastard child on some one as its nther ; 

Filibuster, M-bas-ter. OriginaUy, a buc- 
caneer in the W. Indian Islands who 
preyed on Spanish commerce to 8. Amer- 
ica: now applied to adventnrers iirom the 
U. 0. who invade a foreign country. 

Filioes, 'is-^z. Sdentlflc name of the 
large groap of.oryptQgamic pbmta, known 
as fens. 

Filioite, 'i-«It A Ibseil fern or flUcoid 

^iliety, fi-Ii'e-tl The rehition of a son to 

a parent ; sonship. 

Filifonnia, flri-form-i-a. One of the 
two sections into which crustaceans of the 
order LeDnodlpoda are divided, the other 
being the Ovalia. 

Filigree, -gr£. Originally grannlu: net- 
work, the Italians who introduced it plac- 
ing beads upon it ; an enrichment on gold 
or silver wrought delicately in the manner 
of little threads or grains, or of both inter- 

FilitelSB, -i-te'le. A tribe of spiders who 
spread their threads about the places In 
which they prowl in pursuit of the\r prey. 

FiUibear, 'll-beg. A dress reaching only 
to the knees worn in the Highlands of 
Scotland ; a kilt. 

FilUpeen, -U-pdn. A present given in 
accordance with a custom borrowed from 
Germany. When a person eating nuts 
flnds one with two kernels, one of them is 
given to a person of the opposite sex, and 
whoever at the next meeting shaU utter 
the word flllipeen first is entitled to a 
present from the other. The term is ap- 
plied also to the kernel thus given. Writ- 
ten also Phillipena, Philopena. 

FillmoTe, Millard. The 18th Presi- 
dent of the U 8., B m N. T. 1800 ; sat 
Mtveral terms in Congress, was defeated 
for Governor, but elected Vice-President 
on the ticket with Gen. Taylor, 1848, and 
became President on the death of the lat 
ter 1850 ; d. 1874 at BuffiUo. 

Filly, 'U. A female or mare foal . a young 
mare. A wanton girl. 

Film, film A thin skin ; a peuide, is on 
the eye . a fine thread, as of a cobweb. 
Filter, flrter A strainer ; any substance 
'throoga whioh liquors are paaoed tov de- 


fecation. Filters, with charcoal and sand 
filling, are now largely employed for the 
purpose of filtering water lor domeatie 

Filtrate, 'trit. The liquid which has 
been passed through a filter. 

Fimaahixiflr, fim'iab-ing. Among hunt- 
ers, the dung of sevenl sorts of wild 
beasts; ftimets. 

Fiznble, 'bl. The male plants of hemp, 
which ripen soonest. 

Fimbria, 'bri-a. A flange; spedfieallr* 
in Anat. applied to the fkinged extremity 
of the Fallopian tube. In Bot. applied to 
the dentatea ring of Uie operculum of 

Fin, fin. One of 
the projecting! 
wing-like organFj 
which enable 
fishes to balance 
tiiemselves in an 
upright position, and assist in regulating 
their movements in the water, consisting 
ofatliin elastic membrane supported by 
little bony or cartilaginous ossicles. Tha 
pectoral and ventral are known as paired 
fins, and represent the limbs of other ver- 
tebrates ; the dorsal, anal and ^eaudal are 
median, vertioal, or impar fiqs, and peoa- 
liar to fishes. Applied to many things re- 
sembling a fish's fin. 

Finance, fi-nans'. The system or sdenoe 
of public revenue and expenditure. The 
income or resources o1 intuvlduals. 

Finoh, finsh. The popular name of the 
small singing bfrds, gen. Fringilla. Also 
applied to the numerous group constitut- 
ing the fSuii. FringUlidsD. 

Finery, fln'e-ri. Fineness ; splendor ; 
ornament ; showv or excessive decoration. 
In iron-works, the second fbrge at the 
mill at which the iron is hammered and 
fashioned into a bloom or squ«re bsr. 

Finesse, fi-nes'. In whlst-plajring, the 
act of playing with the view of taking the 
trick Mith a lower card than may be in the 
hand of your adversary on the left, while 
a higher card is in your own hand. 

Fineetiller, fin'stil-er One who distils 
spirit from treacle or molasses. 

Finestoif, 'stuf. The second coat of 

S bister for the walls of a room, made of 
nely sifted lime with sand and hair 
Fin-foot, fin'f^t. Heliomis, a gen. of 
S. American Urds, so called from their 
fiset being lobed. 

Finger, flng'ger One of the flvo extreme 
members of the hand, exclusive of the 
thumb; a digit. 

IH^dpldi. dl-nia'pl-L J 

rin which Ihe nMlei 
bla or eion triplo. 
Slplopoda. -plan'o-d*. On« 
dlvbloDH \A tho MjriHpoda, ly 
wlUi CliilugnMlii. 
Diploptera. 'Wr-s. A groT 

hjinunopwrour ' '- '"' 

fiUDlUei, Eumi 

Dtploptaroa, .. „ 

da flalui» four ipecfes, bdlaiigliiif 
<M rM KudMoDC. 
IHplatWOIl.dlp-la-ifi'i>ii. AjHTUlUi 

iBg only tbe ela^laj 
fllrui), important u 
ttom bBtfloen flBhn 
Vofmortr LepldosLr 
the hlgbul order of 
, IHpodldn, dl-pod'l-de. The Jerbou. 
flum. of Toddntflf Dhartetftrlzfd by tb« dii 
proportloD»t« leagth of the *"'"' "— »-- 

DttMomanlK, dlp-nn-inl'Dl-n. Tliui 
flf^ to Uut iKuidlUoD to which ) 
Ui] dninknrilt at ■ nn-fniia lUiil Miinilt 
Uiapinman ia lUhIn to rwlniu> tlwn 
t^rn, tml In whhh Vity muiinfl u ui 
amtralltbh (nr/uir Ar iUruaiUti. 

of tbocburqh. 

DlnotOlT, di-rvk'to-H. Abooliciontatn- 

' [ (llrMsUona Gir pul.Uc worabln or re- 

ioiw sen-k'o!. A book couUfnlng id 

jbode. The „ 

IKiwor of tbB Fnnob Rppublio. ITSI^M. 
qmuhtd l>f NinolooD Bonipiru. aod Cb< 
CoBialitoutiitiltihod onltiruls. Bawd 

Pinsei>«Ipliabat, -d-b-brl. CnUln brewltb K 

ud EeTd. 

1. A Nnn .„.__ , _. 

northerlj portloD <it EDn>pp; n^ 

Viasta-giaam. utrn. 

FinaiAliaa:. -Ing. lnmiiiiL«,tbeni 
nii^jit of thft flDff«ra |q|iWln;ODi 

fiMt lb( ftngwn Id [■liying. A ' 

ne., ■Qialily Flntals. 

htvob^en Irish toflltlt, 


ef bHn» Hnl- 

iml : Oltrrnio ni«ly In iliwss ormmnncM; 

llKHrnaine,. from Flu.. 
Fli.nM«<,oulof DuDba 

M«Oiimb«l (tbt 
r. ODd FXagil </ 

M«phor«.«), tMr m 

.t dlstlnica^ 

Plnlnf. nn'lDH- Tha pni«M of nnrtfj-- 

IcJrf.-r; bill others bflKc 

tbem to itT 

InK. I'lariiyinK of wind, mslt llquoni. 

been of tbe nice Ihatlc 

i 8ci)tlii^d°S 

of miBgluii or gilsUne, luwl 'to Ooti or 



Plr.fer. *Mins 

Ptoinr-pot, -pot. A >™ei III xruth 

™-*iiteiiBl«B with _ jg 

uwUlBin' nllnt4l. 

PlnistBTB. fln-k-Ulr. A dop. of 'IT. 

a«l. W. »nil e, b^ th* AII»nUc; enp. 

strict.^ to lh«KC. ^ 

QuImper. pop. Il)0,«fl. 

bnH TiJujibiB la S? 

Kalte-fi'mw. lUvlim. limit; oi-po«.l 
hilnDBlw. In Ortrni. . l«™ »ppl(ed lo 

boose mil lUp 

bulldlnK. as 

lb»* mtod* or > verb wUch •» Ibulted 

PIrduBi. An /S 

A fonntrj- of N. Enropt, ter- 

Btrlr bdoBtring lo 0wedni but now i 
BduIu itnoil aticbT ; tup. Ilclilniifbn ; 
H*aU'.4l3 >t.m.: i«p, obt. *,iW«,iloi). 

Ptal»d.6harof. A Y«t K'D, of lb. 

BalHC diTldllMC FInlwil IVnm tbo RdhIhi 

Plra. nf. Ths Scotch Ffr 

during tbo prw«s of poml.ustlijn i ««■- 

<iae\ misd wltb 

lag wM«r (n citfneiitoli Are 
■fl uf forco-pnmp, In wbioh Uia wi 


i wool 

y fromipirwaB 

FlreoMp, 'ship. 

BunbnstlblM to bt 

pOBO ot boniliig ui enemy'i 9Mp>. 

ban a high degroe of heif, 
■ Tirewwk, -werk. A pMp*ratlon 



»iiiii>t In thi> air on iNvoKionft of (>iitillc 
toU'lnf.'!*, A-«'.: iiN'i till* iiiiiiio fflrtii U* 
vnrioii.-« ciiiiiliii^lilili* |iri-|Ktr»tiiiim um^I in 
w:ir. All i-xiiiliitiuu v( ilrfworkii ; pyro- 


Fii*e-worahip 'wcr-Hhfp. Tliownmhip 
I'f til-', t'if lllL'h••^t l>i»i* III' wlilt4i wrimliiii 
U r-ii Dill tliciwliiratiiiii fif tlu'iiiiu. Intho 
< :ii> ri'ii;n<'ii I'f Imliu thi* mui ni»{H'»re 
ill till- r<iriii <if till' t:\Ml Atriii. what ^^^ltB 
\\t'1 n u'lnittl a-* a nicn" iitu'noiiM-non In 
tiiiif ill -in;: n'tranliil aa a M>ntU>ut indl- 
vlilii:il. Tiiu* ill the Vnllr hymn:* Apnl 
Is thf irrxl of tin*, coiTv:*pon"ilinir to the 
Oni'k lli-phji'stdA. Till* worship of flro 
was jinM-tii'til by tho aiHicnt Persian n or 
Mairiaii.'*. and i/ronilnuiil by the ParMOfi. 
'llii' otatilishiiiontof thin K|*>f<*ivA of U\o\- 
atry Is uxtIImiI to ZonmstiT, who taught 
tliat ill tho Min ami in thr kictimI flros of 
tt'iiiiiirH (iiMl nion* wrxTinlly dwHt, and 
tluit thrr^foro divino uoinugo wa^ to be 
I>aid to thi-so. 

Firingr-iron. 'Inff-I-crn. An Inntniment 
usi'd ill fjirriiTj- for rautorlzlnj^ ; a cauttTy. 

FirkixL, fi'r'kin. A inoa8urc of capacity, 
Immiilt tlio fourth part of a harrcl. A pinall 
woiMlcn v**}*:**'! or ru>k of no determinate 
capa<:lty; uwmI chielly for butter, tallow, 

Firm, form. A partnorsliip or association 
of two or niort> ]nTs«»ni* |!i)r rarrylnjj on a 
bu.sincRs ; a eomnii'n'ial houMv 

Firmament, 'a-nient. Tho ropion of 
th«> air; tho pky or hoavons*. In old 
Astron. tho orb of tho lixod stars, or tho 
most remote of all tlio celestial spheres. 

Firman, for-man'. A decree, order or 
irmntofan Oriental sovereljjn, issneil for 
various special i)ur|)ose8; passport, per- 
mit, lieenso or prant of privilege*. 

Firmilian, St. Bishop of Caraurea ; n. 
abt. 200, i». 2Cii). He was the friend of 
Origen and i^t. Cyprian, and suppressed 
tho Novatiim heresy. 

Firolidaa, fl-rol'i-dfi. A fJim. of paster- 
oi)odous mollnsks, ord. Nncleobranchiata 
or lletoroiMxla. 

First-day, ferst'dft. A name given to 
Die Loni's-day by Quakers and other 
Christian bodies, firom its being the first 
day of tlio week. 

First-fruit, 'frot. The fruit or produce 
first mature(l and collected in any season. 
Of these tho Jews made an oblation to 
God, as an acknowledgment of Ilia sover- 
eign dominion. In the Ch. of England, 
tho income of every spiritual benefice for 
the first year. 

First-znate, 'mat. The cliief officer of a 

inerchant veMel, next in rank to the a^ 

Firat-wuter, 'w§-t«r. Th» flirt » 
biirbest quaHhr; purest huter : ippllieii 
Iiriuci|ially to uhunonds and i>caik 

Fioh, Hamilton. An Amerion itKH- 
man. ii. In N. V. isa9, has be^n sacottt- 
Irely a member of Con^n^ess, Goreraord 
hb native Htate, and Secretaiy of btat* 
under Prosideuca Grant and Arthur. 

Fish, fish. A general name for a class of 
animala subri«tui;2rin water, the first divis- 
ion of vertebrate animala. Cetsceoos 
animals, as the whale and dtrfphfn. are 
iiopulariy called fishes, bat they breothebf 
lungs, are '\ivlparoii8, and suckle thor 
young like mammalia. Tlie term bM 
Dcen also extended to other aqnatie sol- 
nialfl, as moUusea, cmstBcea, Ac. 

Fish-carver, 'k5rv-er. A hnal knife, 
generaUy of silver, Ibr carving: fish at table; 
n fish-slice : a flsh-kntfe. 

Fisher's Hill An elevated ptatean fn 
Vlrginfa, 20 m. B. ef Winchester, noted as 
tho scene of a severe battle between the 
Federals under Gen. Sheridan and the 
(.k)nfe«lerates under Gen. Early, Sept 82, 
ISM, the latter being defeated, with 1, WO 
kiIlo<1 and wounded, over 1,000 nrisoner«» 
and IG gims ; Federal loss, abt. 8,000. 

Fish-flour, 'flour. A kind of iloar made 
by grinding dried flsh. 

Fishin^-fly, 'ing-flf. An artifiolal ily 
nseil as bait for catching fish. 

Flshinff-tackle, -tok-I. AH the appar- 
atus, as rod, Hnes, hooks, artificial fliesy 
Ac, used by an angler. 

Fishjoint, 'joint. In Rail, a splice con- 
sisting of one or more oblong p!at«B, bolt- 
ed to the sides of two rails n>eetii^ end to 

Fish-louse, Ions. A nante fbr several 
crustaceans, ord. Biphonostoma or Ichthy- 
ophtlih-a, as tho genera Argulus, GaUgus, 
Ac, parasitic on fishes. 

Fishplate, 'plat. In Rail, one of the 

plates composing a fisl^oint. 

Fish-sound, 'sound. Tho swimmine 
bladder or air-sac of a fish. Isinglass n 
prepared from tho sounds of some, ethers 
aro converted into glue, and some are 

Fish-tongue, 'tung. An instrument 
nseil by dentists ftn* the removal of the 

Fish-way, 'wu. A cfmtrfvancetoenablo 
flsh to ascend a fall. 

Fishwife, 'wif. A woman wlio soils fish. 
Fissilinsuia, -ling'gwi-a. One of two 



ns of the laoertilte or Uzardt. The 
Lacertidn, the OMMiitors, the gen. 
'%, and some foasU genera, belong to 

;>ara, -eip^ir-A. In Zool 
propagsto by epontaneooA flaslon, 
polypi, InAuoria and coiain wormi. 

ped, 'sl-ped. An animal whose 
re not connected bj a membrane. 

pcnuuB, -pen'nS. The plumed 
., a small group of lepidopterous fn- 

-ros'trSz. A tribe of the 
ores or perching birds, divided into 
ections : the Noctuma, Caprlmnl- 
comprehending the night-Jars or 
ickers, whip-poor-wills, Ac, and the 
ft, Hirunoinids, tndnding the 
WB, swifts, martins, ^kc 

rellidad, -sQ-rd'Ii-de. The key- 
Impets, a tarn, of gastat>podou8 
iks, ord. Scatibranchiata. 

re-needle, fls'h&r-nCMl. A spiral 
for bringing together theHpsof a 
I, so made as to introduce a thread 
a. which is left in the place when 
edle is withdrawn. 

flat The hand clenched. The 
of a bird of prey. 

)a, fls-tu'ka. An instrument 
r piles ; a monkey. 

La, -la. A wind instrument of mu- 
ll Surg, a channel ezcaTated be- 
an Int^nal part and the aUn-eur- 
lowing no tendency to heal, differ^ 
m a sinus in being callous. 
Laria. -irt^'rl-a. Tobaone-pipe fish, 


Tobaooo-pipe Fish. 

of aoaathopterygioua fishes, tkm. 
Mnidie, or Fistularids. charaoter- 
theelongatioBof the ndal bones 
oog fistula <Mr tube. 

ina, -ll'na. A gen. ot Fungi, al- 
t Boletus, found on old trees, 
eeemed in some parts of Europe as 
d» of fiMd. When grilled it is 
r to be distinguished from broiled 

fleh. InFnr. thesUnofthepole- 
Jioihll. An Amerloan in'veiitor. 
1748k o. 1798. He baftt tb« 

first boat propelled brateni, taitod oa 
the Delaware Klver, 1T8T. 
Fltobr-liniah, ^Mtiah. A brash orhalr- 
penefl made of fhe hair of the poleeat. 

Fltchet,'eL Apolecpt; Aflmnurt 

PitB, fits. A son vpsed as a prefix In oer- 
tala surnames, aslltuenld, jntxbertMrt, 
especially of the UlBgittauite ■ena of kfnca 
or priooM of the Mood, as Htnoy, Fn- 

FltBgesald, Bdwazd, XiCHtd. A no- 
ble Irlahman, soil of thoDakeof Idtadh 
ter ; b.1788, p. In prison, ITWw He w«t 
an entfawriaatSo patriot, and Jotaied the so- 
ciety of United Irishmen, and was leadsr 
in the «*rlsing" of *»8. Arrested on « 
chaigeof IrcaMn, he died whflo awtftint 

Piuma, Iboo'ma. An Austrian aeMMKi. 
on theOnlfofQaamero,^ m.8. W. of 
Trieste ; pop. abt 18,000. 

Five, fir. The number which eaurfata of 
four and one ; the number ot the flngera 
and thumb of ono hand. A symbol r^ 
resenting the number, aa 5 or r. 

Flve-flncer, 'JBng-ger. Potaatflla rep- 
tans, a perennial plant; <ftiqinlhfli 

Flv»-wic«ni» -geck The nuMghrea 
to t wo'Bpeeiea of atar-flab, fho Uraatsr nr 
bens ana Bolaster pi^posus. The Itn of 
trumps In certain games of cards. . 

SlTakflTz. Agamoplaifedwithnball, 
sometunea eaDed liand-teuda. 

Fivva. A dleeasoor boraeV 
the atranglea. Written also vlTea* 

PIto Bimdiad^ Oomuiil d. One of 

the two IVeooh eoundla (tbe other Iteing: 
*' The Andenta ")SnTeated with MakKlTO 
powers by the Convention^ ITBo; disr 
solved 1^ Napoleon, 17M. 
nabeUom, Inm. A ftn; apoeifloab, 
sn eeelesiaatlaAl ftn andwflr n«ed to 
drive away fiiea from the obdMO dortnr 
tiha eueharii>r. Such ftna are n mark or 


lul.'.i on fUt " tK'i^uI "u'i! 
PlabellarU. D.vbrl-lr.'ri-n. A wen. <; 

Plaoeoa. Caina ValerliiB. a Ttomni 
(dk tbu upvdIUnn orjwon; n.ilit. 19,1 


Buinttsdlillngulahed _. 

ttiO nn-J, floea not only dsBlenntB tin 
country tu irhli;h tlipy buloiiE, but dciioti 
ttlOTO*OflhDofflwr(nK>mni>nd, ThiT. 

qiiUbnl. Ked 9oii. & token of defluioo U 
battlr. Whtto a»ir. n flag of tr 

BTagoUnm. -lonnm. In Bot. ini _.. . 

bntlom of lEeetctn, ud glrlnir off atlti 

luh'llko appendage exhlbltad by 
Infasorln; an Appendaga to tho legs of 

Slaseolet, 'lel-ot. A amall wind Inatra- 

mnnth-plese Inaerted In ■ bnlli. Tbe 
dODbte B«g<alst «ou|M •( two butru- 

-^ hlsfii«li 

Fla^A-Thlte. 9 — 

- whltfrlnd. WbcD 

Flamboyiat WtB 

PlBJno- bearer, 'bSr-at. ThonamoelveB 
toIbcDHinbiTgofairen.orii ummlni-bMl, 
liaiing llary nrlTnian -Colored ftathm 
round thsnecliltlie sgnriKt. Tbe IllU* - 
flune-TKVPT Inhablta tho extinct vnlano ' 
OUrifdl, la Veniciu,e,Om fset abova tb« 

udias In Icn^^ 
Xiamen, t^'men. In Kom. Aodq. the 

sscTUaofoDcputlcularilaltr, OrlgiiuU)' 
Ihf ra vero but three, Flam«D dollt, con- 
rccroltHlto JuplUr; Flunen MortlBlls ts 
Hnrs : Bod Flimtm QillrlDall^ la Qulrlmu 
nr Ttninirknii The ntimber vu ultlai»t«lj 
b« orlglDAl three »' 

r gnnliHl, aA appoHd to ■ hoidle-im 
Flattery, 'tfrrl. TheiotofonewSoflit- 
jol.'^. ' """■■' . ■ ■*■ 

FlatUuc, 'log. PreMrTlng anbnrnlshsd 
gilding by touoblng It r'"- -•-• ' — •- 
ot boim-BtioOng, In 
mixed with tnri— " — 

^attiiis-iiiill> 'Ing'RillL A n 
Ung oqt melslB by oyUudiital pi 

Flax, fluks. The comman - 
nudeorplanCa, ceo. Uoma, 
ord. Unocen, ThoBpecIci,^ 

dslnted by Haulbil it Liike Tbiuyraeoe, 

- N>d perfthed on ttag field, wllh llu ' 


Elandsia. Aodently ■ Bsiirtihli., _ 
dependent Bnrmean elBte, uow oeneO- 
nilliV two Bclgbo provlDCM. E. tud W. 
F., bsTlDgn totelpop. ef iM. 1,NW,<I — 

Fluice. flinj. A projecttn? tiga. i 
or lib, us the prowcdDe' plecns en 

» flange OB one Bide to nretenttl 
of an ruDnlng- off the Sloe. 
Ftanuel. flen'nel. AeoRntp; 

body ot B flattened tana, bwI 
Bide, and baa both eyea on e 
tho floonder, turbot, blUbnt 
Blao applied lo tbe elule nod oi 

Flatld» l-ds. 

onglng to theFulgor- 

h turpentine, leaTes tbe work 
ou. Tbe relUiiE out of metal 

lOm, In iDBtrament' 
irongh whlDh flax <b dmwB 

nut a'nd (ba°thlTeB. C^'alao Hackle, 
Heckle and Hilchel. 


Flaz-mm, 'mil. A mil 
feoturu of linen goods, 
FlBzaoed, 'sud. Tbe >e 

Flea-beetle, 'be-tl. IWerenta' 
beetles, tua. Haltlclde, eo called tr 
iMplnir powers, beUig; nrurldi 



Flag, floe. A flu etone Died fur paTlsg. 

flog. Ad eDslen or colon; a doUi on 
wbicb corUlQ fiKiireft tre palnwl or 
vrDU^ht, ]>oni«OD a ibiff, MtA enip\oyeA 
to dUtUi^tah on« compftii)', jiarty or 

FlBsahip,.'shlp. Tbe BMp wbfch bcB> 
the lU«-<imocr imd on w&la£ his fli« la dl»- 
Pl^ks-wMte, flili'wlilt. Id nulattBg, 
'blte-lnd. When kv^UML 
Mdy-wUls. BhIo nlkiua at 


utlan«n^ fPoQi BBolfaer ; ■ ituiilvd on 

BfttloDollty, party or oplDion. In ttto 

muDtljdUUngulfhed frum another. Id 
the navy, fisRa not odIv desigonte tl>« 

Jl flaj^ 1 

lad. Tb<T< 
Block S^, H >{ 
[oken of daBsnco 

batlLc. Whlleflim, 

DicandineanatiacBtlon th>t tiie flghUsg 

FlaKellom. -Hlnm. In BoL ininner 
• v.eak,cre(ipliii;br»Doh sentontlhim llii 
bottom Df tho >toin, and clilne off at tt 
citreinttyleaTesBDdrooU. In Zool. th. 
luh-llke appendix eiUblted by aim: 
Infusoria; an appoDdngo to the lega o 

Elagmlet. 'lel-et A >man wind laatni 

tlamo-bei.- .- ---. 

Chlrl^nl, In Vangu, »,M 

eyd or tha us. 

anprsaiaCT. F.CiiuaNepoe, 
Censor, built Iha celebnud 

jj HumHiHl St Lake Tlirssyi 

h«d on Uia field, wltli ths lufw 

dBpeadut EarepsHn >tste, sow c 
tntiBf tvo Bsl^flSD prDvlaoeB, E. m 
P.,lintig s taBliKip, or sbt. l.MN 

FlanKa. SmiO, A DnJectfDn edge, 

wlM^li'oriaUwsyrirTHiiges to k«p 
»n Uh nib, Pon-flsnge. s plwe of 1 
&steDfld over s sbLp> port to nrpvci 
or iit/UT mm enlerlflg wh«n tl |9 o| 

Flat-flah. 'Ilib. 


1^. A Aub-flud, ot homlp- 
, bdoDglsg lo tlu Folgor- 


' hoaB«-psii]tin 
lied wltti toninitlDC 

Flattdns-inUl, 'iDe-nlU. A BiUin>!-n>l- 
llDf ont tneuls b/ syllDdrloBl pneBnrfl' 
Fl^x, Ilka. Tha OH 


— ' •' Triie species r3 

Cud the ablTM. Culled slso Hackle, 
tie ud HstcheL 
Plaz-drBBsias. 'drea-lng. ThepnioeM' 
or tnde ofbreaklngud aonUUiig flsx. 
John. ADemlseDt EngUA 


bokn Rub 

namlsh SohooL The, in Pnlni, 
Ktuwl (suDilwl In FJ>iii)tT<>. wiv In 
IGlh MMur}', by 

Ilaiubois'. flslm'hAre. A Gnrnan m- 
uorl 111 SchlMwlK-Hnlsli^ii, on s llordor 
tha Bums, ImlBg kif shlp-]>tnl> ; pop. 

iBgcbicarof fl^vlih tlbuuiVn. Rdo- 

ipbttA of potAHlum, ptiutpbAlo and 

uid cSlorMe of 'sodlliin, ppnupatcd 
t ucId Huld. callrd floah-Ji. 

ntatot tha op of B wlnd-mlll u tin wtDl 

Inv DiT DT ddiTsriBK tho tbarU bvo ■ 
prlnUni! mKhlne, Wrluan aim Fl^v. 
Flivhtar, aiCsr. la bnwlns ud dlMI- 

FUnt, fllDL In MlDonl, b BaVapeelio ol 
qiiorli, ver7 hard, itrlkot flr« with BtotL 
ud In us imcTsdlent la g\im uid In tU Oh 

EtUry mn. Uoaor nffllna It ■ uh- 
iiofnintoratHaln natuh. Aplnil 
fllDlf atone med la s fflnt-look. 
Fllikt-slaa*. 'glu. A Biwdei of linL 
BO colled bwauso jinlvfiizAil flIntB wi 
orlglnAlly cr ' 

which, by moHBitiipidlT, coniHici nnd 
DvulBtKi Uie iiintlKn of the wbolii ; a iy, 
OoBoftbe aringBlUcbed to IheiplndloofB 
IplDnlni-wbeei, OTor whtcti the thread 
puHi to th* bobbia. Tbtbo-vhedvlikik 




Ploor, flor. The bottom or lower part of 
a building or room. A platform of boards 
or planks laid on timbers, as in a bridge ; 
any similar platform. A story in a boud- 
ing ; a saite of rooms on a level. That 
part of the bottom of a vessel which is 
most nearly horizontal. In legislative 
assemblies, the part of the house assigned 
to the members. 

Plora, flo'ra. In Bot. a work systemat- 
iaiUy desci'ibing the species ofplants of a 
country or geological period. Tne botany 
or the complete series of plants indigenous 
to any region or period. One of the small 
a&teroids between the orbits of Mars and 

Flora. In Roman Myth, the goddess of 
flowers, identical with Chloris of the 
Greeks. She was the reputed wife of 
Zephyms, and was worshipped before 
Borne was built 

Floran, flor'an. Tin ore stamped voy 
smolL An ezeieedingly small-grained tin 
ore, scarcely perceptible in the stone, 
though perliaps very rich. 

Florascope, flo'ra-skdp. An optical in- 
strument for inspecting flowers. 

Floreal, -rS-al. In the French repub- 
lican calendar, the eighth rabnth of the 
year, dating from September 22, 1792. It 
commenced April 20 and ended May 19. 

Florence. One of the first of Italian 
cities, on both sides of tiiie Amo, 187 m. K. 
Vi. of Rome, in a beautiftil Apennine 
valley. F. was anciently the cap. of Tus- 
cany, and of the Italian Kingoom from 
1865 till 1872. It has magnificent palaces, 
churches, art galleries and other public 
bnildings, ana its roll of distinguished 
dtizens Indades Dante, Petrarch, Bocrao- 
cio, Galileo, Michael Angelo, Leonardo da 
Yinei, and Leo X.; pop. 120,400. 

flozlcultlire, ild'ri-kul-tOr. The culti- 
vation of flowers-or flowering plants. 

Florida, fldr'e-da. Lit. "Land of Flow- 
ers." The 8. E. State of the U. 8., b. N. 
by G-eorgia and Alabama, E. by the Atlan- 
tic; 8. and W. by the Gulf of Mexico ; 
area, 69,268 sq. m.; pop. 142,808 whites, 
126,090 negroes rpnnclnal towns, Talla- 
hassee, the cap., rensaooia, Appalaehicola, 
Bt. Augustine, St. Mmy's, Femandina, 
JMdoonviUe, and Key W est : St. Augus- 
tine and St. Muy's on the E., and Pen- 
saoola and Tampa on the W., hove fiifr 
harbors; chief riven, the Escambia, St. 
John's, AppalachlodB, Perdido, Snwanee 
and Choconvhatohee ; lakes, St. (George, 
Macao, Kisahnee and Okeechobee; June 10, 
1861, F. formallr seceded fttnn the Union, 
but was re-Admitted in 186K. 

Florida Kesrs. A group of small islands 
and reeft, extending S. W. i^m Gape 
Florida some 900 m. Thompscm's Island, 
on which the dty of Key West is situated, 
is the chief. 

Florin, 'in. A name given to different- 
coins of gold or silver, of different values, 
and to moneys of account, in different 
countries. The English florin is 60 cents, 
the Austrian gulden or florin about tiie 
same ; the gulden or florin of C^ermanyand 
the guilder or florin of Holland, 40 cents. 

Florinean, flo-rin'e-an. One of a sect of 
Gnostics of the 2d century, so called from 
Florin us, a Roman priest, who was exeom- 
mun cated by Pope Eleutherius in 176. 

Floripondio, flor-i-pon'di-5. Datura 
sangnuiea, an inftision ih>m whose seeds 

}>repared by the Peruvians induces stupe- 
kcnon, and if used largely, ftirious deliri- 

Florist, 'ist. A cultivator of flowers; 
one who deals in flowers. One who writes 
a flora or an account ofplants. 

Floss, flos. A silky substance in the husks 
of certain plants. Untwisted, filaments of 
silk, used in embroidering on satin, &e. 
A fluid glass floating upon iron in a pud- 
ling furnace, produced by the vitriflcation 
of oxides and earths. 

Flotsam, fldt'sam. Such portion of the 
wreck of a ship and the cargo as continues 
floating on the surface of the water. 

Flounce, flouns. A strip of doth at- 
tached to a gown or dress, with the lower 
border loose and spr^idtng. 

Flounder, floun'der. A small, flat mala- 
copteiTfious flsh, fam. Pleuronectida, 
gen. rleuronectes or Platessa. A tool 
used to stretch leather for a boot front. 

Flour, flour. The meal of wheat or other 
grain, especially the flner part separated 
by bolting ; hmice, the fine and soft {ww- 
der of any substance. 

Flow, flo. A stream of water or other 
fluid ; a current. The rise of the tide. 
Abundance; copiousness, as a flow of 
spirits. Any gentle jM'Ocedure or move* 
ment, as of thought, language and the like. 

Flower, flou'er. In Bot the organs of 
reproduction in a phenogamous plant. A 
complete flower consists of stamens and 
pistils, together with two sets of leaves, 
uie calyx and corolla. 

Flower-doc^ -klok. A oontrivanet 
for measuring time by means of flowert 
that open and shut at certain hours of th4 

Flowar-pieoe, -pds. A painting or pic 
tore otflowen. ^ 

lrl:»WKETET » 

Fl0Vt«tr7, 'ret-rt. C»rv«l irgrk irpre- 
Plus, fln. A piHur« for amaks In > 

lio«tlniv»lrrlii»loDin-l»llor». A [iMMfe 
SluS, Huf, l^tl.t tlnwn or n»p inch a 

Eluld, lltl'id. A bodj whose jurtfdos 
Divvc nnil chuiee thflr rrbtlve pmldon 
wlUiuut noiianitloD ; a liquid or gu ; op- 

Fluko, flOk. Tho pu-l or in »nchor 

fljlly bandsd, eepedKllr whenlDnodulfiB, 

turoof voaes, ud DCCfiAloitally iVjrb^ads, 
broocb-atoDoa, iLDd olii«r orDUDtbt^ pur- 
poaeB- ItvoiheldlDblfh esteem by Ihe 
4DC]enl4 for tho baidb purpose, bolnic IliB 

Hate, nil t. Amnslcit wlnd-lnetramfiit 

STeVfOt^he flneora, sod ftora ona to fonr- 

moulh IdU u^ovet u>ert'iiro''it*the tide 
or the thick end of the inMrnmenl. lU 



'of '.tap, 

In orpm-bulld- 

PlnTlalUt, BriM-J-ist. 
plains Ri«loElulph«iioTn 




Fly.m. A-vli. 
cici, >vhDse dlntl 


ha>e no ooms 
(ho motion of n 

r cov-TS. Id M«h. no 
Iriou* 6e*^^ torernlate 
aehlnerj-. In w^vlw. . 

mjort. IB 


position ttbllo pHaliV tbi 

roanil the Bobbin and [wist tiu ninttlt 
la wound on the bobbin. TbM «»«•/■ 
rue which shows wUob wn ihe wtal 
blowi. A U^ht ovrlaffe ; a tai«uw «>*^ 

or other Insects, uaed braoftot. ta ■ 
tb»Ur. a galUTT ata^ at ■ iBrd,' wfatn 
the ropei for dnwlog up p*rW. t€ tt* 


aahiuf , 'flah-lDg. AoeUDE ; fba ut 
rsFtlco or (BzUlig tOt &h wttb £!«, 
rol or nrtifldj. u toil. 
sg-fox, Toks. Ptwopui rnbricolHi. 
lipvla^, the largHt of the bat tribe, 
Ji0-9umard. -nr'Dird. Agen.oT 
■a, fam. SLk^rogtmdfl] or CAtaphnota, 

nK-Iem-or, -I4-D1S'. ThonnmcflT- 

iwl leaps from tn» 

.ng-phalanaar, -fa-liui -Jar. Apopn- 

suplill IPsUurujV Aun. Ptinlaogltt- 
n«ELr1y atllcd to the truoph&laiteora. 

Lne^^quld. -tkxld. The popolir 
Bofftccn. of cepholopodom niDlliisk" 
loiulfcphea), illled to IheoUuiwriH 

■wheel, whfl. Is Mech. » wheel 

It. TheDimo under wblch Buddha 
ot^pped In China. Thl9nune|writ- 

mtappnoob that the C'blD«o. owln^ 

]-taetlL 't«tlL Tbo Atet teeth or 
)efl, which ihcy fthed. 
m,fi)in. Froth; ipnDie;thei 
oilofbnbblMftirmodan thp «ur(l 

en pn>i>erljr HhtoD 
* liay, itraw, Afl, 

ftom tbo «Dvth or from riven and 
or^eaentedln the atmosphere d< 

Fovliank. Iwigk. At h* on i] 

luf loud at a lopg distance, but ' 
Toblshea u it iB approiohed. 
Fog-ball, 'bol. A bellpUcod on 

made to rotou In front of ■ 
exoatljr slmlln. a cost-Iron 
^CloDS tormiBf put Df the 

Fov-aicSAl, 'slE-Bol. Anr stftial 
durinff tog to preTeDt ooUisloD. In 
a signal msdeb^ plaolDf detonatiiu 
der OF tATpedoea on the rails, wbli 
pIodooDtbeeDgine pooslag orer thor 

tarnlBK of danger, 
vmsiie to give nmlng tliai a irun u ap- 
BftiaohlDg. A si^rna] made on board sblp 
daring a Ibg to provent oalHsloag. or on 

Toll. foil. A leaf or thin pUtle at metal, 
aatlnlMl. Amone Jewelera. a thin leoT^ 

moke IneTn appear tnuiepareot. and ^vm 
thorn a pardciuar color. A ooat of tin 
with qolcliBDTer, laid on the hook or a 
looklng-cioBs. to oanBfl nllectlon. In ki*^ 

Ill in In Ibc liHUiy oti < 


Folx. Oaaton de, r< 

a FoUlaf people, udlMiaCBU 
ilud. DT luut IhM by Amw 

hid ll could not ba *U«iuted^ 
Folklore. 'iSr. SbtmI ■■pmlUlB 

FomkUiBiit, ffi'Dul-hft A «Ur at tbi 
flmt ma^liudfi In ibit coDBtflOiiSiiB Fbib 

Aa8tr»IU « SonOiem *"l«h, nmoh 1 

I'jiuntdoNarbonnc; i 
inmiud of Iba Frciir] 
in tbs irmt hi ' 

ITU killed ivhllo purBulng Iba tl)1ng foe. 
Foldiav-doois, 'tnK-<l>'in. Tiiodoon 
whluh iiKVI In tlio niiddlf . uid either >Ud« 

FoldlnK-inachliie, 'ing-ipii-iihi^. a 


-du-lao, n 

70 m. S. W. of Hit 

Fondiu, flin-dfl. A tnni sppHed bi tbu 
Ac. In wbleh die ealon an 'Uvid?^ 

ivUlch I 


Poley, Jolui Henry. A dl«t!niralah«l 
Irilboculptor: ii.ln llublln, 1818^ n, 1BT>. 

Foliage. tH'U-ii. Lfsveg In cenarsl. A 
cluBter of LcaTVfl) flaven uid bruichet ; 
Hrtleularljr In Arcb. tho rpproHntadoa or 
t«Tai. Unvare ud bnnehoi, Intanded to 
onitneDt uid enrich oapluUs. ttiatM, pedl- 

VtMa, Ci'U-6, A sheet of paper snca 
(bidod. AbOofcoflliel»rKe«talio.toraied 
by once doublliiK anhect of paper. In 

Font. font. The Teiiael nud la oL* 
u the repneltory of tJta bnptimnti v 


to Puck or KobiD Ooodfellow, 
Folkeatone. A forUnsd x 
A. W. ofDoTcr. Enffluid. ftoi 

TenlrfiL aumra. and baTing 
no donnl tutnro ; ■ taS- 
TtdTnlpr peiioarp fbnned of 
■ ilmpio platll, A v»h1 
dlileodod wllh ilr, u on 

of inrluulwlii ud on the 

learea of Aldrovuidl, In 

Annt B Hnls bafc In uilniil FolHela ol 

hoiIlM ; a t-land ; a mlnuta Colnmblni 

■ecreUn; <av1^. 

- -. — ,1. t)elna-at-Haraa,S3 u.B 
of Ftiin, noted kr It* TOKnlflaeBt nun 
paUceand gn>andBofSt,!IMavM. 
FontajiA. Somonloo. Ajn IMto 
arrtiltect: t. IMS, n. leoT. Under Paw 
Blilus V. ha erected the EtypUm OUIM 
In IVant of Ht. Feter'i, Koma, lESt, ul 
later bidlt the I^teren And QoirinalHt 

. FoQtsnalle, BacuAnl la Borlar dt, 

I fSnl-nmir. An emlDeot French wrUw, 
nei>boH' of Corneille ; n. la Boned ItM.t. 
nSJ. One of bis ablest works, to " Euar 

. on the Gcomolry of the InHnlte." vH 

Fontenay. A Belirlaa Tl1U(a<m. B.S. 
' battle, April Sn.lTIS, In which the^S- 
'■■■ — ' •'—- -'"- under tbsdnk«af 
.jagtniBsij deft 
h, under Manhil fiais ; 

Foolacap, ITih'kap. Paper of th* until- I 

est rmilar slio but one; soealMfrini I 

ItanneleDtivxer-inark belnit U» raMn I 

ofaRnl't bead and op. 1 




Ffit. In aniraal bodies, the lowest 
lity of the leg. The part of a stock- 
boot which received tne foot. The 
part or foundation. 

ind-moath Disease. Eczema 
:ica, a highly contagious eczema- 
QTection which attacks the feet and 
s of cattle, and occasionally spreads 
udder of milch-cattle. 
>all, 'bal. A large, light ball to be 
by the ?oot ; hence, fig. any object 
ted to many Ticissltades or changes 
Ution : as be was the foot-ball of for- 
A game played with a foot-ball by 
rties of players. 

K>ard, 'bSrd. A support for the 
I board at the foot of a bed . the 
m on which the engineer and fire- 
r a locomotive stand : a foot-plate. 
ridge, 'brij. A narrow bridge for 

ruards, 'gardz. Guards of Infan- 
rhe foot-guards in the British army 
; of three regiments, the Qrenadier, 
ream and Scots Guards. 

ifirllts, 'llts. In theaters, a row of 

|>laoed on the front of the stage and 

vel with it to light it up. To appear 

the foot-lights, to appear on the 

lan, 'man. A soldier who marches 
%t8 on foot. A male servant whose 
are to attend the door, the carriage, 
»Ie, &c.; a man in waiting. 

9<nind, 'pound. The unit selected 
Aurlng the work done by a meclian- 
t;e, representing 1 lb. weight raised 
h a height of 1 foot. 
rint, 'print. The mark of a foot, 
il. an Impression of the foot of an 
on the BurtacG of rocks, made at 
le the stone was in a state of loose 
r moist clay; aniohnite. 

"ace, 'rus. A race by men on foot. 
it, 'rot. A disease in the feet of 

p. A vain man of weak nnder- 
tg and much ostentation ; one whose 
>n la to gain admiration by showy 
ad pertness. 

,te, fo'ral-It. In Genl. a name ap- 
a tube-like marking in sandstone 
,er strata, which appears like the 
** of a worm-like animal. 
dnifera, fo-ram'ln if 'e-ra. An 
Bhlzopoda, sub kingdom Protozoa, 
fid with a shell or test, simple or 
K, usuallv perforated by pores 
luO* So far as yet known the fo- 
hn w«r« the eaniest of created be- 


Ings, the oldest knovm fossil (Eozoon ean- 
adense, of the Laorentian rocks of Canada) 
belonging to this order. 

Forbidden-fmit, for-bid'n-fr5t The 
fruit of the tree of knowledg-, prohibited 
to Adam and Eve in Paradise. In Bot. 
the fruit of the Citrus decumaoa, or shad- 
dock, when of small size. 

Forcemeat, f^rs'met. In cookery, meat 
chopped fine and seasoned, either served 
up alone, w used as stuffing. 

Forceps, for'seps. A genoml name fbr 
a two-bladed instrument on the principle 
of pinceiv or tonga, used for seiang and 
holding, and for extracting obfeots ; used 
by watchmakers, lewelors, aentiflts, ac- 
coucheurs and machinists. 

Foroe-puxnp, fSrs'pump. A pomp which 
delivers the water under pressure, so as to 
eject it forcibly or to a great elevation, in 
contradistinction to a lift-pump in which 
the water is lifted and simply runs out of 
the spout. 

Forcing, 'ing. In Hort the art of rait- 
ing plants, flowers and fruits by artificial 

Forcipation, for-sip-ft'shon. Torture 
by pinching with forceps or pincers. 

Fonl, f&rd. A place in a river or other 
water where it may be passed by man or 
beast by wading. A strelun. 

Forearm, fSr'irm. That part of the arm 
between the elbow and Mnrist. 

Forecastle, Icas-l. A short deck In a 
ship of war, forward of the foremast, above 
the upper deck. In merchant ships the 
forepart of the vessel under the deck, 
where the sailors live. 

Forefather, 'fS-ther. An ancestor ; one 
who precedes another in the line of gen- 
ealogy !n any degree. 

Forefinger, 'flng-ger. The finger next 
to the thumb ; the index ; called by our 
Saxon ancestors the shoot-finger, ftt>m its 
use in archery. 

Forefoot, 'tut. One of the anterior feet 
of a qoodrapeid or multiped. Nant. , a piece 
of timber which terminates the keel at che 

Foreground, 'ground. That part of the 
field or eacpanse of a picture which is near- 
est the egr« of the observer, or before the 

Foreigner, fo'rin-er. A person bom in 
a foreign country ; an alien. 

Foreman, f5r'man. The first or chiei 
man ; particularly, the chief man of a Jury 
who acts as their speaker. The chief of a 
set of hands, who superintends the r«tt^ 
an OTsneer *, % iav«nn\«i&A«DX« 





Fbremaat, 'mast. The mast of a vessel 
Bearest the bow, which carries the foresail 
and foretop-snil yards. 

Foremajit-nian, -man. A common 
sailor ; a man before the mast 

Forename, 'n&m. A name that precedes 

the family name or surname. 
Forenoon, 'n5n. The part of the day 

ft'oin the morning to midaay or noon. 

Foreshort e n , 

- R h o r t ' n . In 
P<Tsp. to repre- 
sent figures in 
• to convey to the 
mind the impres- 
sion of the entire 
length of the ob- 
ject when repre- 
sented ns viewed 
in nn oblique di- 
rection ; to repre- 
sent nny object 
as pointing to- 
wards the spec- 
tator standing In 
tnntot the pic- 
tare. The projecting object is shortened 
in proportion to its approach to the per- 
pendicular to the plane of the picture. 

Foreshot, 'shtft The first portion of 
liquid that oomes over in the distillation 
of low wines. It abounds in Aisel-oil. 

Foreskin, 'skin. The skin that covers 
the glans penis ; the prepuce. 

Forest, for'est. An extensive wood ; a 
tract of mingled woodland and open 
and uncultivated ground ; a district 
devoted to the purposes of the chase. 

Forestick, fore'stlk. The front stick 
lying on the andirons in a wood fire. 

Forest-marble, for'est -mfir-bl. An ar- 
gilliiceous laminated sheUy limestone, alter- 
nating with clays and calcareous sand- 
stones, forming one of the upper portions 
of the lower oolite. 

Foretop-man, f5r'top man. A man sta- 
tioned in the foretop in readiness to set 
or take in the smaller sails and to keep the 
upper rigging in order. 

Foretop-mast, -mast. The mast at the' 
head of the foremast, at the head of which 
stands the foretop-gaOantmast 

Forey, Elie Fxederic. A distinguished 
liVench marshal; b. in Paris, 1804, d. 
1873. He served with distinction In the 
war with Anstria, and in Algiers and Mex- 

ForfloulicUe, for^-fik-a'U-d^. A ftmlly of 

insects, ord. Orihoptara. To this flan, te- 
long the different species of earwigs. 

Foxve, f5ij. A ftmaoe ia whidi mrtalis 
heated to be hammered into ibmi; s 
workshop in which metal is hamratred 

Traveling Forge. 

and shaped bv the aid of heat ; a smitilor ; 
also, the works where iron is rendered 
malleable by puddling and ftfatagHag ; a 
shingling mill. For military porpoeos a 
traveling forge is used. The act 4^ beat* 
ing or working iron or steel : 
the manufkcture of metaUlc 

Forgret-me - not, for^t'- 
me-not. The common name 
of MyoBotis palnstris or boot- 
pion-grass, ord. Boraginacen, 
a very beautiftd plant, con- 
sidered to be the emblem tf 

Fbrgre-water, I5ij^wa-ter. 
Water in which a blaekimlth 
has dipped his hotirons-«« F<Hrget-m»- 
popular remedy, as a lotion, not ■ 
for aphthae, &c., and also 
drunk as a chalybeate. It contains sul- 
phate of iron. 

Fork-chuck, fork'chnk. An appendage 
to a turning-lathe, which screws on the 
mandrel, having on'the outer side a square 
holtt in which forked pieces of iron of dif- 
ferent sizes are placed when in uSe. 

Form. A liatin termination denoting 
like, in the form of ; as vermiform, wunu- 
like ; cnsiform, sword-like ; oviform, in the 
form of an eggj &c. 

Forme, for-ma. In Her. a term i^pHed 
to a cross having the arms expanding to- 
ward the ends and flatat the outer edges. 
Called also Pat6e. 

Formeret, form-er-et^ In Arch, ^e 
arch rib, which, in Gk>thic groining, Ues 
next the wall, and is conseqnently lass 
than the other ribs which divide the YSi^t- 

FormicariidflB, for'mi-ka-ri''i-dfi. "pM 
ant-birds, a fiun^ including tha iMish- 

Forreat, Bdwiu. 


Forater, John. An emlneDt English 

ISIirn- l^«- lie'wM ^lt« ™tLe 
"Londdn Efjmiiiar," imcl uithor of tef- 
umJ Irio^nplUcol worha, junoiu tbalPtlqr 
. iHduE-'TbaiJfanf Ohulia DTskaii." u( 
whom Mr. P. WM tha -nna fK«Bd ud 

fonterite, Ibn'kr-lt. A ery>Ulll»d 

8, CoBftrts 

inuwr u Bjain, Govomo 


6m"^Vm b"™""*^ 



Sort, fsrt. 

flirUaod dIww: lUiv build 


fortmed for'uxorily'igilDi 

Pttft A^jno, U-a-mD. A smull rordD 
e»iloBinBeiart^,.Tfi«, now 8«n Ac 
Vonfo do B#xiir, oowd for the i&wttoX 
doFHiSd of ita Bmoll gBFciflofl of Teiui 
unfiiBtiLji nvtrwheloilng MviU^ri Since 

rtetabtng. alW kitling four Umi^s lixtt 

Ameriran torta lo whlti Intorsnt Mliofta 
are. P BciH]r«^ud, Lo Port iEoyoL hu- 
bor, 8 C, OBptumI by the Pedorol iorceB 
Nov. i. isei. F. DonelHii. a Btnng for 

Dovor, Tunn.. ciptured by tbfl Federal 
troops Feb. 16, IS^. F Plabsr, nfor- 

■tUuti, Jul. lM8«l,Mrter)iii 
two iinrkiDB iRukn. F 1 
nriDoltHhl wurk DDUUhAiidlni: 
oa W.fndorLuDgltlsna. 
tba Tenooun KKer. 8 m. fr< 
KfD , uptnred by the Fsders 
1, lata. F. JaokBDii, an fl 
oa tha MIulMlpiil, SO m. be 

rhlUp, OD tha oppoilto ban 
ba praot agalDK Miaolt. ( 
howavor, paaaod both « 
April SB, 19B2, mptured 
ttd eompclled Ihe somndi 
r.Yiitjene, on« iX Ibt dM 

with P. 91. 
, iuppoied lo 
jm- Farniinit, 
Ih bis deet. 

rrowi, hditE F. HamU' 
l^Hohn'^ltUl riim, In 


— JKsipnP. *)'ra. N.ol 

Mmrphlnimptaredbythe redemla Jime, 
lB«i; reoaptured bybui, Forrejt. April, 
1864, many of thu mloraiL erarrliMin beinf 
kUlsd after Ibe BDirender. P PuluM.a 
dofen EiB of Suvmnah ai ver.aiptared by the 
FBderaJl AnrO 12, IMS. FortTMB Mnn- 
mo, n formidable a-ork.harinf 870 pina 
In poiillion ; llfommaodB theanlnnoa lo 
Hamploa GDida, Vi. T. Bteidmau, a 
Federal work on the Jamas KJver, Va., 18 
m. below Richmond , captured by ihe 
Oonfoderales March 14, ISJS, bat k»r re- 
taken, r. Tompklna, in N. Y. harbor, 
fadngr, HamlllDii. 

¥oTtB Tho xtFen; porUoD of a Bwsrd- 
bladto uplsr, aa opuouol Id thefoibls 
or f^hle. Yhat la vlilob one eioeli ' i 

Fort G«ai«a. Ono of tba itrangnt 

forU in Gt Brltilc, OD % peBinnila In 

Uoraj Firth, HmUand. 
Forth, A river In Scotland. IBOn. long, 

«uiptylD|t Into the North Bea thmnrh * 

broaiioslaary. tho Frith of F. 
Fi>rtleth, for'tl-eth. Ono of 40 equal 

quodenl oJ a unit divided by 4(1. 
Fortnle'lit, fort'hit. The apaee of U 

A Tntlflad plaee ; a Jbrt ; 

a ™uu. , . .uuagboW, 
Fort BoToI. Cap. of Utrtlnlque, a 

French W. Indian Inland ; pop. U,STB. 
FortDna, for-tD'na. In Romui Myth, tba 

time the chief F.ngllshtn 
Vcat Wattitr. On Moi 

iyinbol eipreialnf 40 ni 


VortWkyne. Cap. ofAlJiii Co., : 
iri m. N/K, or lbiflu»i»]I>, it Juni 
of St, JoKph'i ud St Uwr't rlicn : 

B. (bVln. A >[>wrlM or nam 

-bro'ne. A dtr o( 
UrWno, C. lair, noled for tha dgcBl 
defcfttoftheCivtaii^l&iiBby tho Komans, 

Fosaoma, -su'ril-i. An eitfnslve snb- 

AciilaU, or tttoae furnished wltk a gUng 
la lbs fomllea, Including tho g*l4«l- 
wup«, Band-wups, Ac. That groap of 
qnadrupodvirldDh cwnuinBtbaburtowln^ 

FMaorlal, 'ri-aL An antmal wbtoh dl(( 
tnto Clia earth tot a roDeat or naidaHO ; 
■ buTVirlDg anlniaL 

Poater, JObiX. A btinunt and profMmd 

DK#9ury ononectloa with tha Ibiulc 
PoumUius. 'llDK. A deaactod ur a- 

FoundUns'-liaapital, "Unr-hoa'plHL 
' ALoAjjJtal at wLilohchLldrep aea«rt«d bf 

I Foundry, 'ri. The balldlBpi and waki 
I ijrruplcJ for caaUngmetala, aa ■fesWbr 

Fount. IbDDl. A Bprln^ of mitai; a 

Fountain, 'an. A tprinr or BiitiD*) 
aourae of water. As aitlO^ ipoB(,JM 
or ehDwer of 'nter 1 al». tbaitnwtUAK 
voiblD nhloli soeh 1« prodniwd; aMm- 

Forter«liUd, -ohUd. Achlld niinwd 1 
ft vomai] not the mothor, or bred by 
man not the bUier. 

FoBter-fittber, -R'thcr. One who taki 
thflplBoeofafathorln bringing up a ehll 

FoBter-mothar, -mnlh-er. A womi 

Fotherlntray. A vUlaga et Northiu 
btrtimd Co.. EogloDd, not^d ae the h 

8«itfl, waa Imprlaoned bf EDEAbeth, at 

Foudie, Jowph, ft 

■■■."„' Z,' 

Foulard, -lir. A illk material for ladlea' 
dreaeea, orlelitallr brought (torn India ; 
■lilt hondkerohie/or oraTat. 

FoMttdatlon-rionB, fbaBd-filian-elA 
A Moat !>/• pnblls bnlldlBg, laid In pub 

1747, edUIo 

■ Triboiul, 
f tlwnmA 

Fout Svaosellata, The. Tha nam* 

Sren lofDur of tha eroiipaf ielandaof 
• V. enmnoa to the BtFoltg of ICiodte 
(■Dad the Twelve ApoBtJet. 

'ri-w-lim. Ths Sodn 


qjoyins ilie fmll of tl 
Don. Thouch I 

lo t>OTe"Kraed, noaoewu u r>ea 
d mm a oeruln unoantof luzit 
mnHmcnt, A uDli'erBaJ lauffuBffl w 
sat^bUahed, wbllo tha acvenl grou 
to ba asioolalad together nnda 
•I eoTemnient, Lile the csdiddi 
WTludorlho U. e, nf AmertaL 
•la-hand, fsr'ln-liuid, A ytbk 
n br tool borara >nd snlded bf oj 


Mw • BUTov IsUuasa b 

Iln*. line- Ou of fbu chlldr 

pMkOtt, 'p«u- As Engliah allT 
•vcth fcar pHUilw; t ftturpeiinr b 

40«twr, 'i)«(t-<r. A lane b 
I ftnr poitanr pUkn far than 

iJDth. Ou of 14 e 

[iWpiaos, '!ng-j:i:a. 
Charles Junes. 

l» or forHvn a« 
A 18a«, >t Uie tl] 

Cominoii Toi <Cuilja TiUpia). 
Tox-bat'bit. A but. Ikni. PleniAdB, ons 
*pBdea, Ih* Ptoopna ednlla, or kuong, 
ictilolDg ft tength of 4 to It Ibet fr«n ths 
Foxhound, ^ 
' Ahomia 

, ba ■ mliHl breed betnm the 

atagboQnd or tlia blDodbamid and tlua 

frak'aboD. The Ht of break- 
BiauorbelDgUroken ; apeiilBally, 
of breaUiig bread In the eelebn- 
the aucbuiat. la Arlth. and Alg. 
more n^qiiot pkrta or «, unit or 
numbar, dlatlD^rulahad aA vulgir, 
Improper, ahnple, componod, 
c and decimal fl-aetloDa. 
ViBKarla, fra-gl'rl-i. Ha Bt»wberi7 

Pnine, bmgV. Tbe Binia (iTan to two 
— ■— --'— ■- ■'^snoe, tbe one of mid 
rilvar. A Ynack aOrv 

lltB hai fbrmed tbe unit of (he Prencb 
monetUT ^tem, and baa also been 
adapted a> the untt of tairtaer bv Swln- 
erluid and Bal^lDm. It la Ailded into 

E'ranoa. One of the Onst Foven of En- 
lone. ooonpytDC the K. W, nortJon oTtba 
contlMBt; iTS. br the Engliah Cbaiinel 
and BelglWi, E. bf OtRnanr, Swttzar* 
bnd and Itak^. by the Uedltemiuian 
and Hpain, and W. br the Atlantto ; it baa 
a lenrlh from N.loS. oT ««) U..Bnda 
breadQiofg8fito6»m.;Bna iOS.T8Saq. 
Dt.; pop. S8,m41S. r.ladlTldedtntoSS 
depariznoitai all ballw named a/ter aoma 
natnnllMtnratq'vIiIshther an dlaUn- 
ralihed. OUef towna, Paria, the Mp., 
Ll'ona. Idle. Tonhmas, BoDeB, Oriaana, 
Amlana, Bhsinu, Tovn, llnitBei, 


niniir, t-imuHi-. Yiinnv, AImui mil Cbn. 
Miiiinuliiii. Pjmiii'i'*, AI|iB. Jnn, Vcn- 
011. Auvmnii-. < 'iitr il'i It. IVvrnm'n wid 
Art.-, rrliiripvl ii4nl■l^>. <-i>r>'lni, IVh- 
ut. Ih Hp'bk'. NuimHiiilliT, K<; OK^vn 
■n<llly<rr<. Thi'rr«n>u»lak«><>ril<^t'- 
■IJii^li-iirlrnifliniiiK'''. llw nhinl.:! of 
F. irv Alm-rlu. SviHVuntilB, Ailnwii ud 
thi'liJaBita or Ib'aBloB, MiiyuUi-. Niuwi- 
JUandHli- Mirfuln A)rta,ilt.PlRnuil 
Mhioi'liin. Martlnl^iH^riiUKliilnupa ud 

U, Uik.i, Vmi 

■ Ainitii*K, Kiiullct 

i, PuuillctuiRy. K* 

Ijijrili* uil Minjai'Mi iiniupi In 
uilca. Thr Malory of F, u K niUon 
u>-KinI with PhaniiiKiiul. vblif u( Iha 
Frukii and (DuniltT uftlin MiTDVlntrlin 

Pmnola, JoM Omspar Bodritfoe^ 

frin'Ihv-nh. l>lcUitor uf I-uwu»- ■. 
ITart. ■>, ISin. Ilo wu ■ yhyhlcfui b> 

{<Utvlntbe)'!>iinE"cpubu'D, lallti^tM- 
Ewng (lirtmor 1914, 


k ITOm, ( 

w of lb« tmiH^Hil liouM of 
burir. LurrilDe. tlimuitU hti tin 
wllh M Brill ThtTTM, ilauKliIiTWKi: 
ofthu Etiipemr I'hark-jt VI., ■. < 
VII. BD Euiiwriw of (Iprmiuiv, II 
lT<t!t, F, ll.uf t:crtiisn)-.ui<tl.u 
trl», Bon of tbe EinmTor I^unuld 
ITGB; wu iIoe]iir»l>:in[H'rur of A 

lau, u 

e lUW; I 

Hffl wu nuned tn tho iilriiir^]*^ i^Klnst Na- 
pitll-nn L F,l,, of FTBiici>»>ooufCluir]«. 
Coints d'AiiBonleiiio, by Lonlw of Siroj, 
B, I4«4 : he mirrled the danaliU'r at Loula 
VII,, 1,114,uia i>. him IMS: D.1.1tT. Ills 
ind nrvniuiv, hut 


M^JrSo and ill 
» ; ., his BtthiB-, I 

'''^"- OnyFria. I 

X'raiicla de Paolo, 8t. FonndR «l 
tho Minim ordiT of monlca; ■. In Cd» 

''rii, Ml«. T>. INII. oaoanlzod 1«G1. I 

FAuicla da Salsa. St. An (mlnal | 
Ihi-olOKliui, MBhop of 0«s»Ta : b. at Bain I 
niw QciwvB. IMT. d. IBM; luoebil ' 

Tot^jiac I 

Francis XavleT, St. A dp 
it, mWi-il ibo ■■ ■^"1" of tl 

Fuiuiilz"l lOJ!. Uoit^'rhlsUfo'^t^ I 

M ainlfBlonory In tho E. Indlea. 
PTBJio-tlrenr, frgn-id-rnr. 0ns of Oi 

French BUwrilla aotdien, artranlud In Ik 

war nf 1H70, uftn Ihe defeat of the niniUr I 

annv. I<)r banaxlne llu •nemy, mwIdc 

ofrdrUebin.iib!, it 
PranKlpaoo. ftan'^t-pin. A apcdn •( 

pwtry. ?'"I^!''7'r,SkS'e •'monda and 
XVank. (hinek. AmemberorthvaiHitiit 

Oimiiui Iritio or OBUrtgue oT tdbea whkk 

r. orlBln i 

B FnnH 

ofF, f. ands. hlahlh 

;th8lnlteioB< Bomt.!, 

poHHiad the tynnnlal ' 
IlsUug tlia attUUea of hla 

. 'Frank. aIdiut^oui 
:i a^: also, that wbtch 
. [ ao the BlKoatura of a p 

I nriTlKye. 

I I nankfort. Cap. of Kfutncky, 

uikfort-bl*ok, 'rsrt-blife. a ade Fnmkllnlte. 'lio-it. a 

ck [il^eut DBal Id copp^-plnte prict- poDod of Iron, kIhc ud mi 
Franks. Tb«. A nw 

inl[fort-oii-tli»JIaiii. A Doled GoDredsmdoi] of Sothia 

imun city, dd Itie riviir Main. W m. H. »ded Gaul ud Spilu UM- 

of Meli, toopdedlnlhefitli cpnlaryby In 0«ii] 481. tonndlng It 

' Fnuki. and «p. of tho KuUrn Km- France, Tbe OrienuS cal 

o from t^tS U> '4WI, afterword Ibe j>Iboo IUoU of W. Eumpa Frank 

ikHjHnnofthelltrmaBetopmr. Laiw mter, tri'ta. A monk 

bttame n ii»:inbcr of tbe >l»n««,ao .rellgtonseeubltohment. 

l8rf.«hcnit™jneJp,ratcdwl.b ^.^nwr'thepX..^ 

7^'dod ibL \\ £l dWM^wiffllibed Id llal^ 

,'. AfMcaa FnoUnaeDie. Ibii. Tbe dark lines obeerred erouing ■ 

i„ »lar BpeatniDi at rl^ht aDd:kfl to Ita 

AMoan franMnoenH ti tenglh, caooed by theibewptloD of por- 

roduoe' 0/ Hnu" Ablw or ?,f^'^i^?^J'L'?".!1''J.'L.'^'^J?'*3!^ 

'T^^lin Bay, A bar In 
HU> off lbs mast flf Biidih K, 
^wMiw Beiijainlii, i 

orerj led to tbe InveDIli 

Sto the HdeDoa of., 
prHODt knowlsdfe of 

id BUlsa- Frullk. ftaka'ln, A anhatwwe eil«tln( 
ui«i iQ Phlla,. In the buk of Iba eOBuDDD ub-lree, de- 
aa aprint«r'a ooctloDa of whlob bave Uie propertj of 

WBpaper wnicn oecurae iwnoqeae too uuuoriioor^ia,opp. yaneouver sisiano. 

■dium of "Poor KIchard'i" laying!. In preokle, ffekl, A vellow apvt In the 

I troubles prDcedlc^ and durtni the jUn, pwiicnlarly on tio bee and hmids, 

voliitloq howaa nent upon adellMle herediluTor prodoced by lbs action of 

aeinn to UnniuBd and Fraooe. He alao ihg can. Any Bmall spot or dlicoloratloD. 
Fradeiiok (Frederlo). A oame nf 

"v,V h"'*Wi~'ij numerous Europ<«D aororel^s, the moat 

^ r™mi>a noled of whom aro : F. V. of Boliomla, 

.„..,,_„„„, ..^„..™verynw, of B. lOea; dtodlneillB, 1S32, Seven kln^ 

Idenan of Blectrlclly and llKhl^nf, of th« name Mod tbe thrane of Norway 

• the ^"J^"* plaudlla of t^ "I""" ard Sweden between the year. l,Vi2 ana 

orarymBmlieroftbeuioeldlatliiguiili- y yj "iio"> hls°SLihe"''l£i8"''iil'y'Sff 

'«'•«"■ himiLeif wltti Napol™, . Brttlah flBet'un- 

aUln, Jobn, Ur, A oelebnted der Nolaon deatniyed hia Oeet mi boDi- 

rHsh naval onaaraDd Anttlo aiplorer: Iwded tale cap. InlBllhe.waa foreedls 

ITO»;d. (It Is beUered) IMT, wbfle eeda Norway to BemBdotUi, Kin j of Swe- 

k Tnage In aonli of a K. V. pia- den;D,lS86, F, rorQermany |Biiib«^ 



:l»nl f. 

the ret^lni Kiniiiror WllllBin 1. at 
OfTiDiUf . Wbo 1. Kim u King uf PtuhIb, 

„ A liW of Spoltjyl- 
noii Cn.. Vl, on tbe KinnBhumack, 06 
m. N. orRiehmbnc], nal.'^iu (lie Kencof 

T>rc. IH-IB, l»«S. uf tbn lUi d^n-ar, re- 
■ultHiKln th« d.-fi'Dl aItbcFiAfnil>nn- 
iet G«n. Burai-lilu b/ Hi! l^ofwierBtes 
nodiraen. Loe. wlUi ntoUI loaiuT over 
l*,OIJil; pop. 8,010. 

Frederlckahall. ANonregUn mnort 
on Mwlnfiitund flord. 07 m, S/K, of Cbrls- 
tluE*, »t th« BlecQ of which, 1TIB, rhnrlci 
XII. of Sweden wu klUnl by a muaket 
Ml; pop. 8,S00. 

Vnetovra, (Bt. Oeor(re>. 
Knullrt Colony "t BIpit. Irfc 
Qulno«, W. Afclrj,; pop. ia,Wl 

duRCfl olecMoU}' 

aal body (Friv 

which puHB throng 

i«eh. Tl»l er-clMlM- 
rimroh of 6collsnd), 
.rcipHun of Iho EsUb- 

Pree-clty, 'bIM. a oltr having nn lode- 

dtloi, prfndpilly cif QotaulU', wblch 
■wm millr amijl raflriiilftdEw *<*« 
ot>» Dimwnnu, baU^^BMMM 

thrM, va., lUubOH, LUMk al 

Prs«-Uit«e, iW'wiB 

ofthoBfl oompaAloB of kn^^u wd na^ 
ibunumho uuHl«ndframplnMBtaH. i 
■n« the Crnudoe, Mlllag th*HnlaaiB 1 
tbg hlghaC bidder. 

rhBTsahi', the Tempi* Dl Bo^a, te I 
Tovcrafltibel.uid neo tatbaMllta I 
>rNojih>>u-k. InnaUtT tttooklHite I 
nthuiulddleiga«loDEirflh(itlMrbe» I 
sum BMou nml I 


Trea Templar. A number or 
ginlBtloil oomtilDllIgtlw prUinlplH 
toullua with serUIn miritlc rlMs ■ 
thoss otFreeniuaDiT. wblob brut 
from the Good TempUn on the point of 
th9 IndopendeoM of euh Jooa] lod|^ tbt 
FroeTemplanmatntiinlii); tMBlndepend. 
«ioa, while Cha (Sood Templin eabonU- 
nittd tLomKlToa to & ^nad Uid^. 

Freethinker, 'ihb;;k-eT. Odo who pro- 
of tUaklii); In rellKloDi mittani ■ dulit: 

Free-trader, 'ta4d-er. 

of ci 

a tbfl Impod- 

troductiod of fbrol^ p>odL 
Freese, tttiz. To coniral ; to harden Inlo 
ice ; to ehong* rb«m a fluid to a aoUd r«m 

Freeslns-poliit. 'Ing point. That de- 
preo of a thflnnoniBtor »t which « llqold 
D«^na to freeze ; apedflcally, the temper- 

on tiftnde then 



wro; bfl 

t of meroiirT being S>° 
inlphnrlo ether *& be- 

(tree pvte of bdow with four parti of 
aTBtalllud chloride of ealdnm prodDon 
■ degree of sold wUch linka the Ihermom' 
•ler to U° below leto Fahr. 
Vrelborr. Cap. efenDtonornmeBaiiie, 
Swlturland, IT m. S. V. of Bane ; pof. 

. t, John Oharlea. AnAmoi. 
mlhtaiy oSleer. wbo won endoilng 

MoBnlite roglon ; b^Qb.. "sIS.'hb wu 
•iKteil OoTersor of CalUbmla, ISM, and 
U. fl. BanfllDT ffom that Btito. IBM. In 
ISSt wai tho ant candldato of the Repnb- 
Uoan pu-lr tor Pmtdent. bring defeated 
tF^ Jimes ftuchnosn ; In 1673 appolntsd 

I oloUi, and Ibr ilmUar parposea. 

.-■ndnajtr widening ftom 
to (he end whoBM thoaoi 

Fieiuili-poUBh, 'pot-lih. Gnm-lio dla- 
HiJred In Bplrlta of wlDO, need for ooatlng 
wood with a fine gloaaj eurbce. Uuui- 
aandarta, gnm-oopaJ, gum-BnbIc and lln- 

Tho enrfaco prodnoed on cablnet-wor^ bf 
the applkatlon of the polleh. 
Frenoh-nxtf, -tit. A flat roof «Uh 

Frenoh-wMte, 'whit, nselr pulrai^ 

performed with mlnenl and arthf plg- 

menta on freah plaaEer. 
T^tK"*"", frub'nun. A noTloe ; one 

in the ndlmoita at knowledge. A aW- 

dent of the flrat year In aonlTeral^. 
Pie«n*l, AncnaUn Jean, fra-naU'. A. 

diitlngiilihad Frenoli natniml puloaophfr ; 

a. ITH, D. 18ST. He dbeorcmf the 

double rafraotloD and polarimlaa ot llgtC 

:Rinw. fpl In Hnud. Ifjth. tha None 
; also of the frolts of 

Filar, '. 

'. In tho R. C. Ch, a name 
o tha membeta of all rellglooa 
t more eepadaUfto thoM of (ha 
idkiuit ordan— UlBon, Off 
Frandjcani ; AngnsUnea ; Do* 
- Blaok rrian i Wlllta Frlart o» 

Frlar-blrd.-beTd. Troptdorhriuhiuooi^ 
nlvnlitu, an AniOiUan bird, &m. IleU- 
phagldie. CaHod alu Leathv-head. 

mar^balaam, 'an-btl-aam. An also- 

The Ifnia 

appked to variona 
'. A dl*h of chopped 

FiioaiidBau, frvk- 

preparaUon) of reaL 
FrlonenB, IH-hai-a. 
ibklienB. nbblta, or 

dmaad with a atnmg udcq ana aiewea. 
Friotloil, (Hk'ahoa. The aet of rnbblng 
the lurbce of one bodr aolnit Chat of 
another ; atDidon. Tha i«d>tuoa nhleh 
■ DioTlngbodrDieMa wtlhfrom the anr- 
tkce on whloh It moTee. CoefBolenl of 
McUnn la the nUo that nbalata between 
the Ibroa necclMrr to dioto one anrftM 
hoiiuintallj orer uothar and the preo- 
■nre between Die two aorbDe*. Thnath* 
ooefBcdentofMotlaQllK oak DDd cwt-lrafl 


Prlotlon-balla. -bali. Balli pluied 
updorBlieivyDbtHitIa ndoca Uis frir^ 
tinn. wh[l« (hit object Is madn; h 


inLvwiaiyo^ Prig'l 
dfled. '- ' ■ 

town of 
me U, ism! 

ibl^-banked frtfrttflA, fnOh M 

^ . . oQ two <1«i]kA uid bad ■Aoih 

ipp«-deok. HUmn MgU«, liirp MuKii- 
ibLu canrlng cum as t Sush npp«p4Mk, 
ind hHvl^ a uer alflo on th« lower dc^ 

_^ ;^|,™ 

inMn; In Uie Dmtj ol Tdalt 
FrtendlT IslandB (TongB). An 
pdBHU of Uie B. Padfie. of vUcb 

friend, tnmd. One of th« Sodetr of 
Uuenten, nhlcb took IM rtH tn England 
■bout Ui« middle of the ITtb centiu?, 
through the preaching of QcDTge Foi. 


the pole the ann la fW- 
ir and biTiilble thaolhr 

Yrimaire, tri-mlx. Tbe Sd month «f 

ft«m BapteiDbnr 82, I'm. HeommmS, 
Soiember 21, and ended Dooemher ». 
Trlnce, MnJ. An ornamaDbd append- 


niv of UgthturdHiiiKtbsnrinMKi 
laulD tn uliniiit ill tbo gtoano 

llldte. MD'JII'M-dC. Thn noflhw 

. tru« Uua, Pint Uld mil uf 
, bunt- 1 Finch. 

, «nMi-bMlu, (fa« H;:)utllBB tut 

UUdm. -1I'n«. A >ub-hBi. nr Ui< 
I thi soldUnoli, HufflDDli, bulUnali 

osiwIaniiOr wtth (thsr lncnd 
mth. A samm HTD »r Uie . ., 
Lrnvfar oitalibflbh; akliidDr 

Mi. Thltwhlnhlifrliudorsnrl- 


thn, KartlD. Sir. An Kmrllnh 

ffianr ud iiavlEiitor, thn tint «h<i 

:bM. W. puwn: K. IE1R. n. in«t. 

Ut ■lIvI'lM (hoN. iddn nf lIudMtn'i 

Smn Ota W, «l»roof Rart.' 8lnUl; 

14Din., »Idt1ii>l>t.taui. 

, (Mk. I'limarlly. sn ohiImIhiiUu 

i; htiiHW tlio phiwn, to unrrunk i 
An iiiipBreual; in oulrt>K«rmi^nl 
illr. ■ liKiiw Itiiniiout worn by inia 
Mbolhir eluOim. A irown. "hi") 
Mlad, worn 1^ fiiuulM uil chll 

i«Oa,t, 'kAL A ntnlihtbodM 
ii*tnic tli» uma langtli Mtin ui 

Bah. 'dill. Ths BHna glTUi to tb 
■n of tlM toleutHn con, Ba 

Shn. I/iphUd*. Th« KTunCliii 
b nuwsbJ* tor lb* nol* 

Vrof-boppar. 'hop-w. AnhnphDmapti' 
mnrla, ■ auiall iDaaM. ord, ]IuinopUrm,r^ 
" ftiriiagxixm nf iMplu. U> 
lbUDdnn1«Tia, InilDaail ■■ K 
rotlladi " - - 

Vrond. fhHiil. In Bot ■ tann naad la 
^ ^ '«a of fflroa nsd olhir 

rtan nams of a JMi^ In 
\g thn rDlnnilr of Lonla 

if Uia hMvj llioil Impo- 

TrondMoanae. nvnd-en'ima. In Rat 


■y lu pawu 

uibir of Iho I 


VninXiguae, 'Ua-vak. 1 
fruDi Krontliiliaa (Ufnult), 




buflding. An ornament or engraving 
frontinfr the tint page of a hook. 

I^ntlet. frunt'let. A frontal or brow- 
band ; a illU't or band worn on tbo fore- 
head. In Ornith. t^o margin uf the head 
l>ohind the bill of birds. 

Frost, ft-ost. The act of frocrfnp. That 
state or touipcraturo of the iiir which oc- 
casions the conifi-lation of water. Frozen 
dew; called also hoar ft-ost and wiiito- 
frost Coldness or severity of manner or 
feeling. Black-fh>8t, a state of the atmos- 

- phero by which vegetation is frozen with- 
out any appoaranco of rime or hoar-frost. 
i7roBtin£r« 'ing. A composition rcsem- 
bliniir hoar-lhnit, made of loaf sugar mixed 
with wUtea of eggs, used to cover cake. 

'smdk. A thick fog re- 
•ambUog smoke, arising from the surface 
of tb« sea when exposed to a temperature 
mndi below fteezing-point When the 
thermometer is down to zero, the fog Ues 
doM on the water In eddying white 


VrOftwork, V«rk. The beautiftil oover- 
Inff ofboar-flrost deposited on shrubs or 
euer natural objects. 

yiwide, James Anthony, frood. An 
Xni^Uh essayist and historian ; b. 1818. 

y ni U l e BOO noe, fVuk'tes-sens. In Bot. 
tkf time when the fruit of a plant ar^ 
f|TM at maturity and its seeds aro dis- 
MI«od; the fruiting season. 

'Vrnotldor, frQk-ti-d6r. The 12th month 
of the French repnbUoan calendar, begin- 
l4Bg August 18 and ending September 16. 

VkUOtiBt, 'tist. One who classifies plants 
by their fruit. 

y AUUto ae, 'tAa. In Chem. sugar of fruit, 
• onsisting partly of cane-sugar and partly 
of inverted nnorystallizable sugar. 

9ralt, frut. In a gonoral sense, wliatever 
vegetable products the earth yields, as 
com, grass, cotton, flax, grapes, and all 
cultivated plants. In a moro limited 
■ense, the reproductive product of a plant ; 
the se«d or the i»art that contains the seeds, 
•8 wheat, r^-e, apples, pears, acorns, 
melons, Ac. 'in a still more limited sense, 
the ed'blo succulent products of certain 
plants, as the apple, orange, peach, grape, 
Derrles, Ac. In Bot. the mature ovary, 
composed of the pericarp and the seed. 

'tre. A tree cultivated for 

VSmmontation, fro-mem- 1 i ' sb on . 
Amonr tbo RomanB, a largcn of grain bo> 
atoweaon the people to quiet tbeoi whed 


Fnunenty, 'men'ti. A dish of buQed 

wheat boiled in milk and seasoned ; Pat- 

Fruznp, frump. A cross-tempered, old- 

fsishioned female. 
Frustiun, 'turn. 

In Goom. the 

part of 8 solid 

next the base. 

left by cuttingoff 

the top portion^ 

by a plane 

lei totbeba8e;or 

the part of any 

solid between the two planee, either per* 

allel or inclined to each other. 
Fratex, frO'teka. In Bot. a ebmb; a 

plant having a woody, durable atan, but 

less tha^ a tree. 

Fxy, tn. A swarm, espedalhr of Bttie 
fishes ; a swarm of any small anfnute, or of 
young people. The young of the ealuMa. 

Fuca, Strait of, foo'kab. The ooanes- 
tion between the Fadfio and tbo 0«!f 9i 
Georgia, dividing Washington Tenitoiy 
firom Vanoouver's Island. ThA Island a 
San Juan, the ownership of wrbieh biy 
caused so much controversy b^wees Gt 
Britain and the U. 8. is in the stndt of F. 

Focaoesd, fu-kft's£-g. An ord. of dg«, 
consistiug of olive-cokn«dinartiealateaea- 
wtfed. Macrocystis pjrrifers is aiM tobivf 
fh>nds fiOO to 1,600 feet long. 

Fucino, I<ake of (Ckilona). The fkUt 
lake of S. Italy, 10 m. long by 7 m. wlAe; 
in prov. of Asuzzo Ultra II. 

Foegrian, -GMi-an. AnathreorinbaUlHt 
of Tierra del Fu^o. 

Fuel, 'el. Any matter wUdi aervcB m 
aliment to fire. Anything tb^t 9trm U 
feed or increase flame, beat or oxcl tenwt 

Fuentes de Onore, foo-aln'toesdao* 
no'ra. A village in prov. SalamaBca. 
Spain. 16 m. W. of Ciudad Rodrigo, iioM 
for the sanguinary but indecfdve battte, 
May.\ ISll, between the Anglo-SjMBlik 
army under Wellington and the FttmA 
under Marshal Massena. 

Fuero. ftt-er'O. A Spanish tenn, tigtSfy- 
ing a code of law. a charter (^p iUl h n e ^ a 
custom having the force of law, a dedm- 
tion by a magistrate, the seat or joriidiD* 
tion of a tribunal. F. juzgo, m oodo el 
Siwnish law, said to be the most OMlHt 
in Europe. 

Folcnun FoToeps. AforoepevM^l 
dentists, in which one beak Is ~ 
with a hinged metal plate, 
indianrubber, whicb rests 
wbfle tti otlftv bM the iiMal I 

down ind ihoSl foonil 

■J» nluiUle, When ouwhl or iih 
11 %httn> itHlf by dlBgn^nc tlwsU . 

Ughtnlnf poDetTmUn^ Che I^Ld ATOun^j 

tod filling ■ porllon orihs miMFblii. 
Tulloa, fu'U-ks. & gen. of tnUiiorliil 

titrd^ bHlndlnt Dk smu. 
PuUsoUiUD. -U(-u-U'iid. TbsWKlucka. 

■ gab-ftm. of Ui« Inntlde, indndiDg the 

poabMtilMf «anTu-b*efcfl» Ac- 
Foller, 'it. One Khow oooquitfoii Is to 

«... ..,.1. .„ blMkamlUi'i wffli, s die; 

XadB nlue Iho 
■ggl, nbota thoH of UT oQirr bbd, imd 
' jBii t cii trv tham %f daioaiMU n f pndploci 

DtB-tt. Ajl crphMiT* . 

]?alton, Bobert. An AmnlMS elvn 

(DijIusaruKl iDisDtor; a. In P«iD.,n«6; 
D. 181S. Us in>d« the nnl pnotW ip- 
pllaUiin oTiteui to nivlgitloD, 16VT. 

X'oin, ftun. The Pliieiili, one of the fbar 
(ymlwllul ulnuls inppoKd to pnelda 
over tb> deUlnlei of tha Chlneu Empln. 

FiunaxM«, m'lui-nl. A bote from 
whEoh imoke iHuea la a iDlphDr-uiliiA or 

?Dinaalt7, 4i1-td. Tendeoer to etntt 
Fun, fun. Bport; mlithflil droiUtyl 

X'uiiainbiillrt. m-nui'bMiit. A np* 
FoucIulL Cf. of the Partngnmtiliij 

'd4-ra«nl. th* nM; 
the lower part of the bod^ at vhl«fa ona 
rits; alntLeodftHorthfliiUcltBM; tb* 


t»lld«. C— - 

Piuid7. Bay of. 

W. AMa. It i> Ught and Da- 
-■■ tended as toodlhr IB- 

* Bninawtek fKm Nan BeoUi; 


the dead. 
Fonsl, fUD% An ord. of KiotTledonon* 
or cryptoganioaa plaola. B.Olli) bdnf ' 

of maahroomg, toad^etools and almllar 
plants. sIbo mlorotooplo planu grovrtng 
upon other plants, ahdaabstADooH known 

drr-rot, A% F. dUfteftom other planCa 
lo btlng nltfDfenons and Jn InhjillDg oxr- 
gen und gililiig out oirlwnfc acid gu. 
PnnaidgH 'ti.d«. A &m. ofMnp)* r«d 
tingie lamellatrd ootala naembUng a 


ae, -«n-]lii, A. n 

certain UniB '■^ "' «r ™iuior mr • ^^^^^ mnjiio •Icohol, wHfh prnanm 

mput nre ud heat ma^ bs miide lud FoBileer, -fir'. Proiwly, ■ ■oMIfir umed 

malntilnod, MtormelHng-oreiorineUls. "I'll » '■"'H; » Boldliir wlio bore lb«- 

1— u — .t- vji_ -f . .. ._.' .r.n. u iHiUogiilBbad ftDm ■ pUama 

of severe TuBion, fu'iJioii. The mt or oftnUau 
of iiieltlDgomnderlDgflQM t^Tnoit. TLe 

, jven-bird stale of belne melted or dlBsnJred bj bort. 

iob-Oun.oflflanJroBlEBllinessoilalblrd*. Point of fnrioo of jneUls, the degree « 

lUD. CerUildB or creepara. Iie«t at wtiidi tbey melt or Hqno^, 

ITazoie, Gl-tA'rl, Great eidtement i en- Tustl&ii. fut'tlu. A muH tirtlled 

Omsfaem. . stoff of cotton or colton and linen wttlia 

Vurtitr, ier'l-«r. A dealer In or dreaser P<'e like velvet, but eborter. It is^odw 

offilra loDewbomakeaoraellafurgoodB. eordnroj-, moleakdn, voliaUao, Ae. . Ail 

Plu»uol«bild. Cap. Bf diatrkt of tafl'ted styie of writing ; a wdin, aljl. ; 

aame nama, prea. Bengal, India, on the -E""""'! „, , , ^ , 

Gangea ; pop. BO.OOO. Putnrlat, fa'tilr-iet. In TbeoL one irt» 

Pnrtrt, Walter. One of the Wumvl- hold, tbai the p™pb«lM of Uio pible u. 

rate, the other* b«lBE William Tell and Jjet to be fUlflUed. 

AnoldofMelclithal, vilio wrealedBwlIi- Pumo, -!«'. In hrrterr, aepUnt appBM 

•rluid ftvm AnaMa, 1M1, to tba laga of hones. 

Tnrr.n'rf. Is daae. Myth, one of Uie Fylfot, fll'fot. Apfeobarly-ftinnedcTOM, 

Uire«*TniglDC delClea, Tlilphone, AlecCo introduced Into Korope, about tbe Sib 

udIfegcra,dang:hterBorEirthDrNlKlit. centnry, (rom India or CMna, where II 

repreaenled aa nsrttil viniied maldena, vss employed as a myadaajmlwl among 

wla serpentfl twisted In their hair, and rell^na devotees. It was often na«d la 

blood dripplDB from their fyes, dwelling deooratlon and embrolderj' In the middle 

Inthedepibe of Tartama, and dreaded by ages. 

Koda and men. PyBabad. Andent cap of Onde. BiltU A taba lllbd with eombnaQ- India, on the Gogra : pop. 10S,T0a. 


GIB the ;ili lettn- In tfa« EiwUata alplu- 0«baidln«, gatiHUn. A eiwna ftoiA 

lural mnta iod llii. anft m wnint Muni 0«briol. la Scrip, the uigrf Mnl with 

t(orohard) TUsMundo. jhiwhitlhe z;SS«to«,no™.4u.BblTthdrj,SiUn 

S! t l^en^nLilil^w S^e Srt I ^P""- "'* " ""T' "»«•»' o^'™^ " 

tnmt. a la tllant beron c ■( the be- Oablook. Oek. A 1U» ipor fitted en to 

Eefwe n 1 . \8 genarrily pronouuoBd ; ml chs aAnUvs la igbaag. 

It hu fotmded ItMlf before the h. u In """y- f^'IO. A dlptereuB Ineeot, ga. 

Ibiwhl, hrirtl, high In wonl. erlgliijllT <Eslrus, whkh ■tlnm csttle md depoalU 

bii(niilnswlthw,iu.dt«m«r«.d from the la fKIrt In their .kin ; o^lod .iMihcnar; 

Osoua Inte the ffrenoh. g h»> heen In- ww known by the nune hreem. 

Mrted b^bra the v, henoe, gnud uid Oadliallo, -hjlllc. Of or pertilnlnc to 

w«d. jtumiitee mnd wMTinl. Aiinnm- lint Ijniochotlhe CelHo i»ce cnmprWiiK 

enl. wu ucleatlr uied todeaats«iO, ihf Inenf Irrlud.Uw OHbofBcoUud 

■bA with 1 dub orrr It, 40,000, In the ud the Uui of the Iile oTMu ; u dl>- 

(slsndir Itli the 7th DomlDlosllMter. In Ungalalied from the Crmtio hruah, cam' 

nusic, theStti note ind damlnnnt or the prislnc the Webb Hid BretoBi, theCom- 

Bonnil rule of a. aOtd also sol: lbs kiweet J^ uid poimUy ell the MrHett C»ltlo In- 

Boleoflhegmv-henehonlitntheGald- bnWtmta of Briutai. Inlud wu the 

onlu iriteinCTniiMol; nBHMof the bom* or tbe OulheUsbnBdi, whtneelt 

tretilo iSaf, which ti ■Hto' on the O or jpr«,d u> Beotlud In the «h centarT, ■ 

■econd UneorthetKhtetb^. nhrtlnn nndir Uie nimanr R«>Ui uiutlnv 
Oab. gab. InMMD-engJnH, Ihab 
th« end of the «c«ntria rod eppoil 

Oaboon. A targe ilTer of W. AM«, Gftdollnlte 'O-lln 

eoip tying into tho Atlintk JuitB. of the jng tbe appeuuiee 

•qHBlor. wnilBti ofTlIrln, dl 

Oabla.'bl. In Anb. the triuigvUr end of cerliim udlnn. 

■ bnUdlnir. from the lerel Qj^waii. 




Oaffer. pircr. An uiA rustic ; a word 
ori^innliy of respect, Imt tU*jroneratcd in- 
to u term of fiunlliuritv or contumpt. The 
foroiiiiin of as«iu]id oi Kn^'lish workmen, 
CHpi'<"l:illy UttvvifS ; an ovorseer. 

Gkifire. pfij. A plwlgo or pawn. Anything' 
tlirown down ua a toki'ii of challenge to 
coiiihut. Formerly tho cimllonper cast on 
tlu' f^Tound a frlovV, a h'aiintlet or thu like, 
which wad taken up by the accepter. 

Oatfe. Tho name firiven to several varie- 
ties of plum, as the green gage, golden 
gape, &c. 

Gaff-rein, gag'rAn. A rein intended to 
draw tile bit into the comers of the horse's 

Oaininff-twiBt, gftn'ing-twist. In 
ritled ariius, a t^pirol inclination of the 
grooves, which shortens toward the muz- 

Gainsborouffli, Tlioaias, ganza>ro. 
An eminent English landscape painter, 
B. 1727, D. 17b8. 

Gaiter, gutter. A covering of cloth for 
the leg, litting upon the shoe ; a spatter- 
dash. A shoo with cloth upper ; also a 
Bhoo which covers the ankles. 

Galactophaffist, ga-lak-tofa-jist. One 
who eats or subsists on uiilk. 

Gala^-day, ga'la-da. A day of festivity ; 
a holiday with rejoicings. 

Gala-dress, -dres. A holiday dress ; a 
p«r«on's gayest dress. 

Galatea. In Myth, a Nereid, beloved by 
Polyphemus the pyclops and by Ads. 

GalaxidaB, -laks'i-dc. A fam. of acan- 
thopteryglan fishes, formerly classed with 
the Salmonidse, much resembling common 

Galaxy, ga)'ak-si. In Astron. tho MUkv 
Way; that long, white, luminous track 
which stretches across tho heavens, and 
when fully traced, is found to encompass 
the heavenly sphere like a girdle, occa- 
sioned by a multitudo of stars so distant 
and blended as to be distinguished only 
by the most powerfhl telescopes. At sev- 
ei'iil points nro- tieen dark spots, one of the 
moat e-asily distinguished of which has 
long been Icnown as the '* coal-sack." Any 
remote cluster of stars. An assemblage 
of splendid jiersons or things. 

Galba, Servius Sulpicius. Emperor 

of IJome, «. Nero ; b. ubt. 1 a. d. ; crowned 

6S, killed by his soldiers, 69. 
Galbulinae, pal-bairnG. Thejacamars, 

a fam. of flsKirostral birda, allied te the 

trogong and kingfishers 
ChUemya, fS-lS'mi». A faa. of iawnmato 

allied to the shrews. Only two apedetare 
known, the Russian desman or made-rat 
and the French desman. Owing toa pow* 
erful musky odor which they exhale they 
are often called musk-rats. 

Galen. An eminent Greek phyridan; 
B. at Pcrgamua, 180, n. at Uom«% :nJ6. Ilia 
system of practice woa in common lua 
for 13 centuries. 

Galena, 'na. A remedy or antidote for 
poiM>n ; theriaca. Solpnate of lead : the 
prindjial ore of lead. 

Galenic, -len'ik. Renting to Galen, the 
celebrated phvddan, or his prindples and 
methods. Tne G. remedies consist of 
preparations of herbs and roots, br iHfa- 
sion, decoction. See. The chemical rem- 
edies condst of preparations by means of 
caldnation, digestion, fermentation, Ac 

Galeocerdo, gu'le-d-sor''do. A gen. of 
sharks whoso Droad-based, sharp, sentt- 
ed teeth occur fossfi from tlie lower ter* 
tiaries upward. 

Ghdeodes, 'des. A gen. of araohnidans, 
by some called Solpuga, fbrming the type 
of a distinct family, Galeodidie or sol- 
pugidip, having som'ewhat the appearanee 
of largo spiders. 

G«leopithecus. -pi-th6''kas. The ^* 
ing-Iemur, a gen. of mammals of ao pe- 
culiar a structure as to constitute a fiunlly 
(Galeopithecide) of themselves. The 
bones of the arm and leg are elongated, 
and support hiteral folds of skin aervie^- 
able as a parachute, but not as organs of 

Galerius, Gains Valerius Xax- 
fTw<f»Tiiia A Koman soldier, b. 260; 
was adopted bv the Emperor Diocletian, 
and prockdmea Caesar, 892 ; in 806, on the 
Abdication of Diocletian and Maxknian, he 
became Emperor of the West and OiHi* 
Stan tins Chlorus of the East ; n. 811. 

Galicia, ga-Ush'ya. A section in H. 
W. Spain di\ided into four provinces ; eap. 
Santiago. The people are distingntehed 
forindufitrv, probity and patriotism ; pop. 
abt. 2,000,()«0. 

Galicia and Lodomeria (Xin^- 
dom. of.) A division of Austria com- 
prehending the N. E. corner of the em- 
pire; c^p. Lorn berg; area 84,857 sq.m.; 
pop. abt. 0,000,000. 

Galilean, gal-i-ir-'an. A native or in- 
habitant of Galilee in Jndea. One of a 
sect among the Jews who opposed tiM 
payment of tribute to the Koraans. Of or 
pertaining to or invented by Galileo, the 
Italian astroBomsr, as tiie G s M s m Mi^ 

PhcenlclB, tlie blrtbplnsl t 
t ts now IncluilHl In tk 

iu Scrip. IjikoofTibfrtO! 

dlreal*d^to the porch, in tJ 
o^j_»..__ " legocth before; 


gdl bladder, a. otjilua, tbe uenlnl uU 
AklDimiHl nIF tho BurAioe of erowD-^lnflB; 

creiocnconiwlucHl by thn drijoslt ot tSii 
eng otta fnsect In tho bark or leovea of ■ 

ducal by napcdmof ojn]pidep<ffillinjflta 

Infrauri^ iiBiMcl[<fl of oak, OhHj in In- 
odorous, uhI uvu a nauaoontl^ blttt^i" and 
Dslrlngcnt taste; tbetr chief IngndleDtl 
■fa tojinln Dad i^aUlc add. Tbvy if^ also 
termia uul-gall;! or gall-Dnli. 

Qtdl, Fraiu Joaepb. a diTTiian pby- 
ftLalan, and IbundeTi wltb Bponhelin, ot 
Ilia Foleoce or ptmnolaffy ; b. In Baden, 
nS3; D. In Pirla, ISSa 

G&ll, Bt. An E. eutoo of Bwttuiland, ' 
" ofL^sCiinitsnM^ up.St." " 

louder of tho RepnhHoan party ; : 

he waa SMtetary of tho TnwArr, end 
Bflerwnrd Minlstf r Kenldent at Paris and 
lo England on Im boimd«7 

j^ u&: 

, . , Ing knU> the AtlanUo. 

QftUion, t^nn. A large ablp fbrraer^ 
■UMltf aHiBpMdB4*^&^b>la.<»Ba>iK)h 


QBlliaan ChoroK. Tlic IHlr or Uid R 
C. (Jbiirith la Fnnco. which rofuaed lo tc 

-- "id bodyof tlio clern'. Ujiillcnalaiii \i 

BiMllp fowl li Iho lypo. Including lufkevi, 

CLrldKCS, (TTDQH, TW^IbAl, LOd 'lllliDd 
■^ the K'tond nob-nrd- b«1ii47 the Co- 

ircMDted tifcow- 

UeUeipoDt uitl 
r DavoF rvudo- 

GlAUlna. Oalua SolploiitB. 

OolIlwaBp, 'll-< 
beorlnetllP K\w 

Oall-oak, nai'oi 

Oalloon, gt.\A"\ 

Bid uth( 

QallowKlaa. -glu. An snrlfDt hair- 
■ ■ ™e, a ligtt 


■Hrjrerv, Ac. Through I iB dlncomry tha 
liiTi'ndon of the d«Irla wlrgnipli W- 

Ikapr (laqujR mi bma, ha m 

la grfiKtoat aqoTET in 

i monthi. AfUr 
■public O. fnterfd 

te Dp an atlackln^ pml- 
-0'J(ni'&-ilB. GanaratHm 

Qansea. Tb« iikthI rtrrr of Indti, 
l.MI IB. lonit, ufUi n flalla antqiidllig HU 
- " -'-■-— lyofBeFiCTl- ThoHot^Ur, 

Qanymedv, 'l-moil. In CLus Mytb' 
B vmith imrrl?^ off by Jnpitar, In caeltf 
form, imd made aup-btfan.T to lb« luimur- 





Garan^an, 'an-i^an. A Javanese specie* 
f>f irlinruinon, tho Ilerpostes Jaraniciis, 
IKtssl•^^iIl? tlu' jM)wor of inllAtin^ and con- 
tntL-tiii;; it.H IxMly with great rapidity. 

G-arcilaso de la Vega, (r&r-tho-lah'Ao* 
A diMtiiiKulAlicHl Siianihh iiovt, known as 
till' Si)jinl«h "Potrarch," u. at Toledo, 
VAfi] ; I). IfCW. 

G-arda Lake. The 

Iirindpul hike of N. 
taly; Mirrounded by 
the' i)n)vliKX'» of Ver- 
ona, lirt'.scia and Man- 
tua, and on the N. by 
tho Tyrol ; ^ m. long 
by V*.\n. wide. 

Oarde-brace, rard' Garde-brace, 
bras. A pi«H;e of armor 
fastent'«l to the elbow-plates, and corer- 
inte tho enH>w and upper part of the arm ; 
uhhI in tlie 15th centtuy. 

G-ardiner, Stephen. An eminent 
Kn^fllfth prolate ; b. 1488, D. 1555. Arch- 
blitliop of Winchester, he approved the 
I'eforinntion, and was imprisoned 5 vcars 
by Kdward III.; released ob the ^ing*s 
death, Quii'Q Ifary appointed him Lord 

Garffoyle. f&r'- 

(roil. In Arch, a 

proJectiDfr si>out : 

for throwing the 

water from the 

fruttersofa build- 
in ^'. 
Oaribaldi. -ibil' 

di. A Jacket worn 


bv ladU>s, supposed to memble the colored 
sfiirt \Vorn by Garibaldi and his soldiers. 
A peculiar stylo of hat ; so named for a 
slinihu' reason. 

Garibaldi. Giuaeppe. Gen. A dis- 
tinguished Italian i patriot ; b. at Ni<^, 
1S(>T : n. at Caurera, IbSl. lie was an 
exile for several years, residing in New 
York llty and vicinity. 

Garnet, 'net. The name common to a 
group of minerals varying in oomposition, 
as alumina, lime, magnesia or some other 
base Is associated with the ailka which 
oomiHises about half the mInenU. In ad- 
dition to the coarse garnet, there are the 
oriental garnet, of crimson-red color, the 
most priEe<1 of all the vark^ties ; the gros- 
sular or olive-green garnet from Siberia ; 
the |iyrope, the topaioHte, the svicctnite, 
tho u)t*!jinite. the pyrenite, the allochroite, 
the uplome, and the coioi)honite. Naut. 
a sort of tadtie Sxed to ^bc inalD-ataj, and 
AMd t» iwgft tte W30 til aB4 9ii(. 

Gamiahee, -nlsh-fi". In Uw, a panoa 
Vrarned not to pay monoy which he ow« 
to another ))erson who is indebted to the 
I>erson giving warning. 

Garonne, ga-ron. A French river, 
principal branch of tho Gtrondo, which 
empties into tho Bay of Biscay 85 m. N. 
W. of Bordeaux. 

Garrick, David. A di8tingai.<(hed En- 
glish tragedian u. at Hereford, 1710 ; a. 

Garrison, William IJosrd. An em- 
inent American journalist and and-slavAy 
agitator ; b. in Mass., li>04 ; d. 1S79. 

Garrote, gar-rot'. A mode of espltil 
punishment in Si>ain, the vlotlm being 
placed on a stool before a post to whidi H 
aftixed an iron collar with a screw ; thb 
collar is made to cUisfi the neck and d^WB 
tighter by means of tho screw till lift 
becomes extinct. The instrument by 
means of which this imnlshment is in- 
flicted. A form of roboery by compress- 
ing the victim*s windpipe till ho beoomc* 

GarmluB, 'ru-1ns. A gen. ofinsessorfal 
bir<ls of the crow fkm., oontafninir thejayi. 

Garter, gur'ter. 
A band used to tie a 
stocking to the 
leg. Tho badge of 
the highest order of 
knighthood in O. 
Britain, the order of 
the Garter; henoo, 
also, the order It^ 
self, foundetl by Ed- 
ward III. in mem- 
or>' of the following^ 
circumstance : The 
Countess of Sails- 
bury having dropped 
her garter while 
dancing, the king 

{>ioke<l it u]> and tied 
t round his own 
leg, but, obri«-r\ing 
tho jealous glances 
of the queen, ho re- 
stored it to its own- 
er with tho exclamation, " Honi soit qol 
mal y pense '* (Shamed be he who thinki 
evil of it). Tho emt>]em of the order Is a 
dark blue ribbon oilged with gold, beorlnc 
the motto, and >\ith a buckle and pend- 
ant of gold, worn on the left lo? bekiw tb« 
knee.* The dross is of different colored 
velvets, tho collar of sroM and the star of 
silver, the two last-mentinned being in Ike 
^mofanrcer. The <M4irinal nnuiltqrW 
kQiffats WM 96^ ami thto iii itU the ; 

Insignia of th« 

iDul nnnibcr, ultboneh Uie prtncn if the 
bLuDcl itn Mniltt«d « iup«rDDm<TBr>- 
nnHnben. OrlfrlullT known as Iba Order 
ofSI.Oeoirc.ltBCIlIrctalnstfaattme. A 

- a parJbrmcr to 

Oas. i;ai. An elutlc uriftinii fluid, a 
tenn orlidnally lynonymauB 'mUh nW. hat 
ifterwarLl rostrictod tubodlfseupt'Oiied tu 
ba incapabia of bcln^rMuced to a liquid 
or solid Btits. Slace lie Uqucfbetlan ol' 

gaaca by Farwlj" ■■'" '"■ — *--" ■■ 

Kearly fc origtn 


habltlBf a nnlTal'o tticIL Tlis Rirdaa 
Bnall It * ^pe. Tha elua oomprlH* aln 

whelk!. p«iwlnU«, timpvti and oowrlo, 
Ho knotrn gularojiod baa a binlTa shell. 

Onstercstaidse.'|.dO. The Filek1»- 
yglaDflihes. reuurkablo fOr buUdlne amu 

Qastronomy, -tFon'o-ul. The art or 

Bvlng. 0»K 
Llordd. »bic 

h'J^ppon. ta 

t™?,r S 

ei-er. ""Ei 

1 ^ 



I.. (.'anado.eonlalBlnftwoo 


aln Qb. 
iintl«, Q 

Qaaaendi. Fisrre. An « 

ence IM2, u. 1(£b. " 

Inent F» 
1 », 111 ft 

gl. couinrlslnit 
•ports In wh 


,.,,.^,^,^^ ffood llTtoir; th( , 

ited ImmenMly Ibelablfi; spleortsm. 

' nfmo(t*ro i Oaatrotomy, -troi'B-ml. TheopBraUi 


- to • dly. cut1^ abbey, tol- 
lejeor maDslon.andlbrtidjiffUtDreflidenco 
or tbo gate-kefpAT, In andent tfnifla these 
honsos woTO often lar^ and tmpoaliif 
AtnioUires. of jrmt tO'eD^, and irere 

Bates. Horatio, Otm. An Amerioon 
officer la the HevoluUon ; n. In Knglanil, 
1728; u, I80fl. He cnpluKd Oai. JJuT-, 

ordbwrilTteSedb^. " * = •" ItorteKrs^to^krm^lho ronntry In timeof 
HlrUanden. A pe«t nnt il 

taUaeBu, nb-teRo'n'. A 

OatllnB-yua. cuniiHt-Bon. 

Qaah. Bsb. An lodliui nun 
tringr^Tit msdldnil ftuJt of Dh 
bryopn^ris, Khleb jlslds Jui« 
00 p<.T cent, of pure tibnl 
Juice. In addltloD & lu oia >. 

pnylig Uio^toma ofWu. 
Qancho, rf-D'nbB. A naUvo 
pa^ of U }>!iu. iifSpuiiih do 

in mbior dlipulci ori^ rfflirnd.' 
Cbuas, Sail Fiiedrich. A diiUn- 

or flpired, Iho Litja-Miii wortwl itllb 
flowcn of unvcr or ei>lil. Anj Blieht 
ojwn mnlerlal, u wire pinM, 
Qav&ml. Tbe noin de plums of Psul 

OiTlal or GueeUo Oraoodite. 
Crooadllii. obuHlcrliiKl by nairow 


ins. B. 


a, Joseph Iiouin. ' 

Chua. A div of Syiio, pnshallo of B*. 
mMi^Qs; Mm. S. W. ofJwT— " 

0«cajrcimu,)S-klr-Bl'nD>. Tha gea. oC 

GMada, rel 'id-a. 

'baboon, uvlnKAiuuTji ., ..,.„.._ ^. 

«Tflr the BLouldera, and which only grovi 

Oelaltetui Era. 

&u]lAA or Khoraafilfi. 
iparcrt and wluble. 

si auld. Its loAian 

n eetlMed the Cartka- 

Biiylhini- rcmarkHblo Bir bauti 
or uiHUlnug". Amflcisl ftema ann 
wtMLa ternicldpaato.raliBd wtlh B 
oildus for j.r.idadDK the iesitti ea 

O.J ^Titaa. 
Oemiui, Jemd 

m It dl< vi4 U 


I OemBtaom, nmz^i 

OaldtaW. jteldlna. A otinM horu. 
Formerly the word wu appHod to laen u 
veil u' hmtaa, aad waa equivalent t« 
. ^. eonuoli- 

a«eIonK. k Wr •rt TlstorU, e. Ans- 

plpes, faavtng: a 

^h9!^-dSiTn. A nrtvalslnUc 
if Franca. In hirmar tlmai 

Qeaealoeir, ]i-liA-al'o.JL . 

tlelr cfclldron In Uia ulIutiiI order of 
moooHloD. FedJip'iw ; llnrage. 
Oenaral, J«d'«->] One of the i^hlcf 
mliltiT]' olSfm or n eiiuntry i>r noytrn- 

order of monlui, or of all congrugiiUoin 

Ovneiml flirrmTilr TId snnreDiB 
«un oTtho IOuhllih«d Chumb <m'{ Pr» 
OiDrob orBwrtland. Tho hlehegt tribnna] 
artbs FrMbj'lerian thnrohss of Amori™. 

QeuerleTeSt. Tlw pctnwHiaf Tiirta; 
- -- NiBUrr* 128, d. M2. TrsdlUog 
she perCbniied iolnd«», predlortd 

it( Clovli 

sod MU Uit u 

ilH-nilv'r. 4a Alplno Imrl 

Frio« Dud FI"daiont. 1 1^15 ft. Q^ 

>ad uindp by onltr of Nipoltwi L 

IM llslIhslielgbtiifS.OOOn. 

OanehiB Khan. A TuUr eliter vb| 

nnrnetiul and tiicccttfu) nir; h. II U, r, 
Jm. Ho DVfmUl ■ gHBl purt Df V. 
ChtDi. daOvytid^ainarGiuid and BoUi*- 

n rlM« in roltiir Co., P».. and empfles 
Into Liil;c< Ontario, tli mllei below Uui>b- 
; total IcDgUi, 14S m. 

very bcantlfiilsolt ''^ 

fur, ai.d. like Ibe civet, ixm 
a^reoable porfmne- 
OenflTO.Ee-Dj'Ta. A aplrltrllii 
enln or malt, vdOi the Dddldon 
barriea. Tha word li now uaui 

Oenera. Tba leadlno bat ii 

CaEW. Lake of G. (Lcman). Ibi 
lnSwll»erlaiid,ln thaB.W, shKIc 
antnD:laDKth M m.. width 1 
Alms If (bores are N)-on, 
Oucb;, CLircDS mud UeiUerie, 
GensTa. Blbla. A oop^ of tbc 
EncU^h, prints at Geneva, 1&6I). 
mon uBsfn Enrland Ull the Tenil< 
to o rdtr of &iag ' 

Jutm wa* lotni- 

1 that B 

OenltOT, ■ 

n wbd proOrratea; a 

h--l^ht or the [djwtut 
OeillaB loci, Ju'nI-ua lO'A 

Xodoxli J jviMiiBr tp OMbipL 

n, Jen'rt 

jcllowlsh Srown flentiim. 
and l3 la frequent hbs an a lonld. 

I of tralnad nUcob 

■Hdes under <t;acLuii Drug 

^ of Bpodei Twu^Hlne c 
Un In common, V H-hlob tb 

A JtMoent prefix In nnponiid 
OHlved ftom Greek, ref^TTlnjf jo 
■Ui ; as, geognpby, ^Mjogy, j 

& periDdlcoJI^. 6. maclili.., „. 

ilKitotAbin^on! His o 
arly Unsa wo llgh oalhoj 
Oeofflvy Saint'HIUairQ, 

B. IIM, 

niisbly iireser 

nalntn^ pimJlel to 
'a ^<a l!i^lLoft<on* 

thcT^etaJs, islii a^le balla ; i 
rettmei aa carthp iiutt«r, wb 

. ddndelidiB and Carabtdic, 

ly, -od'e-sl That branch of ap- 

tanta. Oanenl or UnlToraal Q. tnoU at 
tba eartli boUi aa s dlallnit bod; In Iha 
imlvmw, aid aa oononlail wtth ■ antim 
vt heaTenly bodlea. Ifathamatlcali). aji- 
plcB matlnmatloiil trutba la Uw tgm at 
tho aartht and dfitorniliwi tho nlaUva 
poalClona of plaoaa, longltudea and latl- 
CDdea, tha IinaBinuy llnea uid slrelea, 
their maaiare, dEataiHe, Aa, Pli^alal Q. 
daacrlboa the pHndpal fStarca of tA« 
earth's ancAice. oHraatsa and Mnpcratsraa, 
and ahowB bow ihaae, wltb atbtf canan. 
Effect the mndltlonof the hnman net, 

inala and prodnctlona. Pnfltlcil G. triMa 
o r tho t Q tuiM tants an d thah- aodal rckdon*. 
eacrod or BlbUcal O. IrMtt of PaJeMlH 

lllDitradiig and elnddaUDg Serblnra 
hlstorj'. A book coDta)nln( m dncTQitloB 
SqoIoct, -oI'o-JL Tbe adence irUah 
doala with the atroctma of tho cnut of 
tho Klobii and of tba iDbamoea whtob 
compoaolt; or thoValnicoofthoinlnflnUa 
and the ralatlans which tha Hreial mb- 
Btltnent ina»«a bear to elA otbv. It 

that have taken place hi tha mnuilo and 
Inorganic fclnedtnna or natoie. .Thoreelo- 
glat oueht to be well Tened la chanilatfT. 
mtaieralof;, loalof;, botanj, eompoiatlT* 
anatomy and ererf bnooh of aotiBea n- 

Tba rocka have ba«i r-ric^^^SiFtdad In 

aooordanao with their uwiUuii and ooB- 
lan ts. Tba fln( graat OItMob Is Into on- 
Btntlfled anil sintifisd. Tb« nntlntiaed 

divisible loto '.wo firouna, metanuuphic 
ind vokanfe, aH crystalline. FoDT Sot 
atanccB enter Into their compoaltlDn— 
mica, qTiartz. fteToiiar and hombteade. Tfao 
stratified rocka have been deposltAd from 
nater, and hare been divided Into meta- 



New Ked Budstoiie. ODiltIo or Jirtusli 
■DbillvHf^ inu Ilu, w>UU iirnper, |>ui 
beckB, C'rc(lic»D^ TtTtiuy, dJ>lS«l Int 
EoccDV. Miocene. PLiDcene snd Plelsu 
«4ne, QuatntiAry or Poflt-ttrtLar^. d 
rldod Into Pnhlnorlc or I'ost-plcls 
md lltilorlfl 0- " -->■—■ -■ 

'BklUod Jn gaomeby ; i 

mnniHuda In ffenenJ ; thai 
nutbematSu irhlch tnata of U 
JUid robilioliB of nuffnltadet. 
suMt ^eneml mad ImportAot o 


Hlf-evldeDt ImUis, 


lllfr (reology «id phy«ic»l gaogrmphj. 
GeophaeiBt. -afa-jlBt. One nho pni 
tluM geDphoglam ; ono who CBta earth. 

•on of Erattt Augnetoi. E1«lor o 
over, by ^epblA, ffranddaugliterar 

]S»8, knd on th^o deltli of Qneen A^n 

ilodod tliflB. C. de 


irlct, PrincB of ■W«les, i. , 

. iifler the longett reign of MJ 
EngUah jnoamrch. Daring bis reign UC 

Qepr^, lAko IHoriooiil. A beult- 
L. Chunpliilii ; BO m. long bj A m. 

OeorKe, St. <of Cappadoda). Tb* 

pAtroij Mint of Engliiodjiod Greece, vrvs* 
plom Bnrl learned ptieat. appoinlHl Ailaii 
Bishop or Aleuuidili.SSl. llowaakUlad 
br a mob, and mnnnhed 4M. TradlUen 
uysha was named " Viotorlaua" fk-om 
havlug killed a teniblo dragon Id Aila 
Minor, flDppoflod to bo (hat mentioned br 
et. John Jn the Dook of lfeTelaIk>n, 
G«oTffe, St.. Order of. The mto ol 
several orders of Eupopeon knUhUiood, 
Bomenow eiUeel. The pHnd pal are' the . 
KuBshui military order, instlluled by 
CelhmlTie II , Iflffl ; thnt of St, G. l-POoC 
)S8»; the Hanoverian Orilor of 6L Q., 
I3M,atiiltlutofBt. O. of the Rann1i«, 
foonded by Joieph Bonaparte In N^)lef 

Floridn, V 

ezqBoxTOTii « 

__ _ I. dty ind port af DDtiT 

of WMhlngWu Co., DhWoi orColumbli, 
£m. N. WlofWuhln^ton: pop. J9.Gm 
Oeorgia, iir'Jp-Bh. A Bmbon of W. 

cap. TlUis, >riiii B,000 aq. m.. pop. *bt. 
Q«orKl&. One or the S. Btitrs of the 
.. K.'brUis Atliutli:, S. by 
hilvliiei tnloISS couDtlia. lU 

unsirtct^ 'Rome, StlSiuy*!, Colnm- 

POJlb, St. Uuy'a and AltunatlL O. wu 
m«d afttrOeorit^ II. of En^lAod. and 
LA Che Ijut organized Britirili colonr 
thin IhoU. 8.. 6»vMn«li being laldoot 
> dlj by Ofa. OBlelhorpe, 1T8S. G, 
wded Juf, IB, 1S«1 ; iru rMdmin«d 

OcoTBtan Bar (lEuiltoullik lAka). 

.An inn of Idk« Huran, on the Cuidiui 
■bore; fiObTtam. 

iba lolnt u 
arts and m 

BoU obtiJnad bj Joapaotton. 

Ik. BelitinE t 

Th* lUfun of the Ughs 

jtiiem diBtjrfeu of (Wtannj, 

and tha HteraiT lannuoo of (11 OermuiT. 
It <8 divided Into three nerloda-Old njgh 
Oerman, from Che 8ch lo Uu IZth oenta- 
ry. Middle HlgbOennu, to thsinh (en- , 
tury. ind Modem High Oermui. Ths 
flnt cmbrHDea the AllununDlo, Frwklsh 
nod other sub^dinteota. The aecond la the 
lan^ruaceof the Ulnoeflingerfl, of thobA- 
doDDl nerolo l^«DdB(Hpldenaa9ep), and 
of the hiy of tha Nibelun^en. Hooen 
Qermon Is properly tho dUlect of Buooy, 

Q«rnum-aUTer, .all'rei 
ing together lOD puta of « 

fitber et the EolwtoDa Callgnh^ ud hia 
dMOgblfr Agrlpplna wu the mother of the 

QoimuitowIL. A aubnrb of Fhlladal- 

S'lla, noted u Uieioenaor the defeat ol 
en. Waahinglon by Geo. Howe, Oct. 4, 


OermtJiy (Smplra Of). A sonlMeis- 
tlonofSUleaoocupylng the greater pnr- 
lionofK. Central Europe, bounded K by 
tho North ind Bellle Bed and DeDmarli, 
G. by Rugals, B. tiy Aaetrla wd Bwluer- 
Innd, lod W. by Tnare. Belgium end the 

Gennao »q'' "^'pop' "ahL U,OM.m, 

»,iM-lnH)'l.d«. A bm. ol 
burrawlnEUmdHeoFnbertlea, lee. Pet>- 
leeen. wUeh, viien atarmed. IMgn dealli. 
Oaphyraa. g»4fr«-*. A aliaa of the 
Aaattfaropbda, oomprlalnf the apoou' 

' Owah. gS'r*. The enullert piece ol 
OW afth part of a ahekel. ornfarly B conti! 
Oantrd, Kaurloe Btlenite, ComM. 

aerredvlUi AlatlncUoo und..- Napaleon 
J., and captured Antwerp. 1S39. 

CtarbUlm, ]er.T>ll'lna. A Beo.of email 
rfdn,Kiv&iEnloDatall, tufted at the end. 

O*rio-»axioo, -lA-u-t«'li6. A rare, rich, 

and W urtembnv: gnnd-duohlea of Heaae 
Meeklenburg-Schwerhi, Saie-Wclmar 
MeoWeabnrf-StreHti and Oidenbnrg 
dnchlea uf Bnliwwidt. Bue-UdnhigeD 
Saie-AJtanborg, Sue-Cobnrg-Outha am 
Anhall: prtnel|iaU[]«of Uppe-Datmold 
Waldeck, Bchwanburg- Budolatsdt 

Sclileli, Eeuea-Orel 

1 fechauD 

nltles m Berlll 
Br<^alflu. Leipzig. 

ce-Lorrslne. The prlnd- 

Ncn-atreltii, Olden- 

Outhj. I>Hun,Hiiinburg,uremcn,Brem- 
arha«en, Kflolgaberg, Fnntlbrt-on-lho. 
UalD andStruburg. CJUeTrtven, tiie^lMi- 



eiABTS' OAunnrAT 

lib«, Rhine, tlbo, Weaor, Main and Oder. 
The jirewTit oinplrc was formed Jan. 18, 
ISTl, whfii thu ruling monarch of rrussLi, 
Kiri^' Willhia I., wa.n crownetl hcn»ditary 
Kti]]/<>n)r of the (icrinan:*, the con^titutioh 
bclu'f iiiio^ttcvl Muy 4 of thu t^uiiio year. 

Qorxnmal. /.hftr-mJ-nnl. The Tth month 
v( ihv? la\->t >Vi'nch r«'i»il>lieun (uUeudar, 
rouitiiencin*; March 2L and ending April 

Gerxnination, jorm-l-na'Ahon. The first 
Oct vf {rrowtli by an embryo pliint : thu 
tiniv; in >vhic*!i seeds vogotato afU.'r being 
]>lantc<l or Fown. 

Oerontes, ge-ron'tOz. In Greek Antlq. 
inogistruted in Sparta who, with the 
euhori and kin/?8, were the fioprcme au- 
thority of the fitate. Tbev could not be 
elevated to the dignity before their 60th 

Qerry, Elbridgre. An American statca- 
man ; n. i:i Mass., 1744, i>. 1814. He was 
a member of the Continental Congress, 
Commissioner to France (1797), governor 
of Mass., and (1812) Vice-PrGBiddnt of the 
U. 8. 

Gexrusia, -ro'sl-a. The senate of ancient 
Bparta ; the aristocratic elemvnt of Spartan 

GervUlia, Jer-viril-a. A gen. of conch- 
ifers ur bivalves, fam. AviciilidsB, or 
wing-shells, found fossil from the carbon- 
iferous system to the chalk, inclusive. 

Qestatioxi, jest-u'shon. The act of carry- 
ing young In the womb from conception 
to delivery : pregnancy. Exercise in which 
one is borne or carried, ra on horseback, 
or in a carriage, without the exercise of 
his own powers. 

Gesture, 'tlir. A motion of the face, 
body or limbs expressive of sentiment or 
passion ; any action or posture intended 
to express an Idea or a passion, or to en- 
force an argument or opinion. 

Gethsemane. The garden at the foot 
of the Mount of Olives, near Jerusalem, 
celebrated as the scene of the agony of 
Cbidst and his betrayal by Judas. 

GettysbtLrfiT. A tovm in Adams Co.. 
Penu., 86 m. 8. "W. of Ilarrlsburg, noted 
for its proximity to the desperate thn-e 
days' battle (July 1 -8, 186») between the 
Federals under Oon. Meade, and the Con- 
federates under Gen. Lee. The latter was 
defeated, losing 80,000, including 14,000 
prisoners ; the Federal loss was upward 
of 28,000. 

Geyser, pl'zer. The name given to 
springs of hot water. The |^y sera of lee- 
lotd nniolyer nearly onie himdred; Thcjr 

arc, however, surpassed by ibusa IrUd 
have been discovered In ocnnputitfTelr 

recent times in tho Kocky Mountains, m 
the Yellowstone rt^on. 

Ghat, gat. In the E. Indies, a mm 
through a mountain ;, anmcreorcbain 
of hilLt. A landing-pkico or stafrwav A 
tho 1 Ivers of India. 

Ghazepore, gaz-e-ooor'. Cai>. of a dirt, 
of Ninic name in British Bengal, India, 
on thu Ganges ; [top. 107,000. 

Gheo, gi'. In t'le E. Indies, batter mad* 
fV-oui thu milk of tho bufi'aio, clarified hf 


Ghent, gilnt. Cap. of £. FlMiders, BjdI- 
gium, 80 m. N. W. of Brussels, at tha 
junction of tho Lys and Scheldt ; built oi 
id islands with canals dividing- tbem, aid 
connected by 800 Inldges. It dates mA 
to tho 7th century, and is snrronnded by 
a broad wall, 8 m. in circumference : pop. 
abt. 122,000. *^ *^ 

Gherkin, ger'kin. A smaK-flmited vari- 
ety of the cucumber, used for pickUnf . 

Ghetchoo, get'sho. £. Indian name fat 
Aponogcton monostaehyoa, the roots of 
which resemble potatoes. 

Ghetto, 'to. The quarter in certila 
Italian towns where Jews live. 

Ghibelline, gi'bel-In. One of a fteCkm 
in Italy in favor of tho emperor and op- 
posed to the Guelf^, or pope^s fiiction. 
They arose in the 12th century, and dis- 
turbed (Jermany and Italy for 800 years. 

Ghoont, gr>nt. A small sure-footed £. 
Indian pony, used in the mountain ranges 
as a pack or saddle horse. 

Ghost, Holy, The, goet In TheoL 
tlio third person in tho Trinity. AU vrho 
subscribe to the Athabasian Creed bellevs 
the Holy Ghost proceeds from tho Father 
and Son ; the Greek Church teaches that 
ho proceeds from the Father only. 

Ghost-moth, moth. A nocturnal lepi- 
dopterous insect, so called iVom the male 
being white and hovering with a pendn- 
lum-like motion in the twilight over ons 
spot where the female, which is red and 
gray, is concealed. 

Ghoul, ghol. An imaginary evil heing 
among Eastern nations, supposed to prey 
upon numan bodies. 

Giallolino, )yal-lo-le'n5. An oxide of 
lead or massicot, a fine yellow pigment, 
also known as Najjles Yellow. 

Giants' Causeway. A remarkablo 
basaltic formation on the N. coast of Irs* 
land, oonatituting a platform 600 ft. long 
by 850 broad and 25 ft hUgk, of dbsa)/ 19- 


beriab. pil/ber-jifa. BipM ^ 
dilate Lilk; unme&Dln^ voida. 
Bet, JIb'bi'l. A gtdlowB; ooir 
1 upright post wllii M irm pru] 


]« projHdD^'beua o 

bcoi, ril/bnn. 

1» rib wH. ^ 
, E«D. Uy]obat«a,bui:uivropvuijuiu 
ratricted ta ths ipedu Urlobat^a Ju. 
DguDomKllT longonna. lucoLor 

a or Bray bstrH. 

Km, £dward. A dlitioguUhe 

llah hlfltorian ; u. n&l, o. 1T9I. 

d, Hb'«l. A Bih ot tha ULrp i^en 

rlDus gibellB, uld to bo able u^va E 

KUtlU, clt>'J'OII-lt. A glsTo'i Blaie 
rtman'slabJrer i I faiiopi-i drud«( 

gig. A little tiling tlist fs whirled 
d In plaj ; « lop ; a "hlrllglg:. A 
r osfriago with tino pair or whrela ; k 

ilad for IMlnr; also b ahlp'. host, 
nUr ftmlsbedinthaiilli. A machine 
iBtUgoTrjtarycyUnilerfi covered with 

t«lh An leading woolen ototb. 
«Itliie, g<I'hcrl-lb. Odo ol B »>«■■ 

order founded aboDt lltS, b; Ott- 
, lord of aemMJDghim in " ' 
L England, the loale Bv 
iohHrredlbenleorSe. Ai 
tlw fuulei that of BC Ban« 

fL Anwunnnfapadty, 
h« tOluth put Dtl pint. 
Alzt, 'Oeit. A BporUva oi 

4% Ja tUHlcUud*,* 

Bmber* of 

. I Qimbal, gliu'ba]. A 
I ! tliin, or for lUBpeDdlng 

raTDoln In eqnilll^Doi. 

lu^nenileJ. ■ndnriudlaHliBtUahed. A 
vhlis or ivlndlus whlvh turns n cvUndtr 

Jca.« fj-omjt depth. A niaclilne fOr ee^ 
nUnir Kedoftom oottod. A ULbehlnolbr 

Oinxal, 't-al. A largo mnskrt ns«d |n 
Asl4 b/ the nulvedj and flrad ttom a ren. 
Some are inauntod on urrliwee. The 
CUnwo uae them eiteualrely. 

aingerbrsad-vork. 'Jer-ired-w 

atr*A,JI-nP. Th* eunelopard (Gfraf- 
r* CiiaietoiHirdilli or Gunelopirdaili Ol- 

tallMt'of Ml^la. ™hfne tbe IiflRht of 
IStoKlfeet. It Is ■ mild BDd tnoffeailvs 
nnlmal. ond In ciptlrity li very gesUs and 

OintndOl*, 'ru-dol. a ehtudcUer; ■ 

hm Mad K hikm Mj OmH i^ . b> 




pyrotechnics, a revolving firework ; a re" 
Tolvinff aiiu. 

O-irard, Stephen. An American phil- 
anthropist, u. in France, 1750 ; ». in rbila- 
delphia, 1631. Iln made n large fortune as a 
merchant i:i Philadelphia, and at his death 
left $2.()00,u00 to found a college for or- 
phan Doys, to be conducted on strictly 
secular principles. The building, one of 
the finest in the country, was begun In 
183B, and completed in 1S48. 

GMrasole, 'ra-sol. The turnsole (Ilelio- 
troplum curopffium). A transparent va- 
riety of opal, usually white or bluish- 
white, but when turned toward any bright 
liffhtit constantly reflects a reddish color 
— henco its name ; Fire-opal. 

Girdle, ger'dl. A band or belt ; some- 
thing drawn round the waist of a person 
and fastened. Inclosure * circumference. 
In Jewelry, the line which encompasses 
the stone, parallel to the horizon. In Arch, 
a small circular band or fillet round the 
shaft of a column. 

Girl, gerl. A female child ; a person of 
the female sex not arrived at puberty ; an 
unmarried young woman. In the language 
of the chase, a roebuck of two yearn old. 

Girondist, zhi-rond'ist. A member of 
a celebrated political party during the first 
French revolution, so named because the 
most talented and eloquent of their leaders 
were teom the department of La Gironde. 

Girth,, gerth. The band by which a sad- 
dle or any burden on a horse's back is 
made fiut by passing tinder his belly. Any 
circular bandage. The measure round 
anything of a cylindrical shape. In print- 
ing, one of two bands attached to the 
ronnce of a press, and used to run the 
carriage in or out. 

GKttem, git'tem. An iLstniment of the 
guitar kind strung with wire ; a cittern. 

GKtteth, 'teth. A musical instrument 
supposed to have been introduced to the 
lBraelit«s by David ttom Gath in the land 
of the Philistines. 

GiustO, jnsfto. In Music, in Just, cor- 
rect, or st^pdy time. 

Gizzard, ^'erd. The third and princi- 
pal stomadi In birds. It performs the 
hincti9n of teeth in triturating or grinding 
the food. 

Glacier, gla'shi-er. An immense accu- 
mulation of ice filling a valley an^pouring 
down its masses to vallevs veC lower. 
•They present the appearance of fh)zen tor- 
rents, frequently several miles in length, 
trftversed oy deep rents ealled erevames. 
Thoy movt gradnaUy down into th« tower 

valleys at a varying rate of 18 
inches in twenty-Tour hoars. la fb 
terofl81&-19 some Swiss glMrfon 
so iar down into the lower vaUnra 
sweep away whole viUagea. Toi 
founa in many lofty mountiin raof 
the Alps, the Andes, &e. G. theo 
tributes importimt geographiosl ^ 
to the action of glaciers, which, d 
the glacial i>eriod, covered a hurge | 
the frigid and temperate sones. 
name is also given to any theory so 
ing for the downward motion of gk 

Glacis, gl&'sis. A gentle slope or 
ing bank. In Fort, s slopiog ha 
raised as to brin^ the enemy ioi 
most direct line of fire from tbelbf 
Geol. an easy slope, like that of sh 
piled on the shore by the action of 
and waves ; less steep than a talus. 

Glade, glad. An opening or pi 
through a wood ; on open place in a 
or foi*est. An opening in ice or a 
left unfi*ozen ; smooth ice. An ever 

Gladiate, g1ad'i-&t Sword-sh^ 
the legume of a plant. 

Gladiator, -er. In Bom. Ajitiq 
who fought in public for the enti 
ment of the people. At first prto 
slaves or condemned criminals ; b 
terward freemen fought in the arei 
hire or fW>m choice. Under the e 
knights, senators and even worae 
hiblted themselves in this way. 

Gladstone, William Swart. . 
tinguished English statesman and o 
B. in Liverpool, 1809. He is at pi 
(18S4) nrime minister for the second 
succecaing the late Lord Bemon 

GlaffOl, gla'gol. An ancient Sclavoi 
phabet, principally used in seTeral' 
dioceses of Istria and Dalmatia i 
psalms, liturgies and offices .of 
church. It bears traces of having c 
prior to Christianity, and to have bee 
ginally cut on sticks in the Runic ftu 
The earliest Sclavonic manaseripl 
written in Glagol. 

Glair, glar. The white of an egg m 
varnish to preserve paintings, and 
size in gilding. 

Glaive, glav. An ancient cuttlnir " 
on, used by foot soldiers, fixed to tib 
of a pole, and differing from the I 
having its edge on the- outside corrs 

Glanders, glun'derz. In Fanie 
dangerous contagious disease of.'h* 
In Med. a dangerous c<mtagioaa H 
in the human 6al(}eot, aoeompiiajid 




pustular eraption, oommonicated by inoc- 
ulation from glandered animals. 

Olasgtyw, gl«6-go. The principal mana- 
Ikcturing and commeroiai city of ISootland, 
en both sides the river Clyde, 42 m.- 8. £. 
of Edinburgh ; pop. abt 470,000. 

Olass, glas. A hard, brittle, transparent 
artificial substapoe, formed by the fusion 
of silicious matter, such as i>owdered flint 
or line sand, together with some alkali, al- 
kaline earth, salt or metallic oxide. Al- 
though exceedingly brittle when cold, yet 
it is so ductile when heated that it may be 
epun into filaments of the greatest con- 
ceivable fineness, and these when cold are 
pliant and elastic in a high degree. Holu- 
Dle glass, a silicate of potash or soda in 
which the alkali predominates. Tempered 
or toughened glass is hardened by b^g 
immersed in a hot bath of melted wax, 
resin, oil, A«. The name Is applied to 
many objects made of glass, as looking- 
glass, hour-gkus ; also to different opti<»l 
instruments. G. of antimony, a vitreous 
oxide of antimony mixed with sulphide. 
G. of borax, a vitreous transparent sub- 
stance obtained by exposing to heat the 
crystals of biborate of sodium. 

Ohlaaachord, 'kord. The name given by 
Franklin to a musical instrument, with 
keys hke a piano-forte, but with bars 
of glass instead of strings of wire, invent- 
ed in Paris in 1785 by a German named 

G-UuBB-eye, -I. The common name in 
Jamaica for a species of thrush (Turdus 
jauaaicensis), so called flrom the glass-like 
Iris of the bird. A pulpy berry on which 
it feeds is called gUiss-eye berry. 

G'lasaite, it. One of a relislous sect 
fomided in Scotland in the early part of 
the 18th century by John Glass, a minister 
of the EstabUshed Ohnrch, deposed in 
1728 for his opinions regarding ecclesiasti- 
cal poli^. In £ngUnd and Amerfos, to 
whudi this sect spread, the adherents 
. called themselves Bandemanians, after 
Sobert Sandeman, a native of Perth, and 
son-in-law of Mr. Glass. 

(Mass-mosaio, -mft-z&'ik. A modem 
Italtea work in Imitation of thfr antique, 
fbrmed of small squares of colored glass, 
rapresenting a painting so perfectly as to 
deceive the eye, used for brooches, lids of 
""-boxes, Ac 

Ohlastonbarir-thom, 'ton-ber-i-thom. 

A vavfety of hawthorn, the original thorn. 

In popohur tradition, having been tiie staff 

' teoaght OT«r by Joseph of Arimathea 

vft«A llM Holy Land to Gbatonbory, 

£ng., where he is said to have founded 
the celetoatedabbey. 

aiaubeiHHat, glalwr-sfilt Bolphateof 
soda, a well-known cathartic. It may be 
prraared bv the direct action of snlphorio 
aoia on carbonate of soda. 

OlaiLoolite, 'koMt. A variety of scapo- 
lite, composed chiefly of the silicates of 
alumina and lime. 

Glaucoma, -k5'ma. An almost incurable 
disease of the eye, being an opacity of the 
vitreous humor. It somewhat resemUes 
cataract, especially in the gradual obscura- 
tion of vision. 

Olauoopia, 'pis. A gen. of birds. Urn. 
Corvids, the onlv Icnown species of which 
is the New Zealand crow, oidled by the 
natives kokako. 

GlauctiB, OcuB. A gen. of nndibranchiate 
gasteropodons mollnsks, popularly known 
as sea-lizards. 

GlauctiB. In Myth, a marine deity, said 
to have built the ship Argo and accom- 
panied Jason on the expedition in quest 
of the Golden Fleece. 

Glendale. A parish, also known as 
Frazer's Farm, near Malvern Hills, Ya., 
noted as the scene of a bloody bat(lo (June 
80, 1S62}, between the Federals, under 
Gens. Meade, McCall and Seymour, and 
the Confederates, under G^s. Longstreet 
and Hill. The former withdrew, naving 
suffered heavy loss. 

Glendower, Owen. A Welsh chief, a 
descendant of LleweQyn, the last native 
Prince of Wales, who revolted against 
Henry lY. and suooessAUly defended the 
mountain fastnesses t^gt^ht the English 
armies. Later he joined Harry Percv and 
Lord Mortimer, and shared in their defeat 
near Shrewsbury. Betiring to Wales, he 
maintained a successfVil revolt until his 
death ; b. 1860, n. 1415. 

Gliadine, gll'a-din. The viscid •portion 
of gluten, a slightly transparent brittle 
substance, having a sUght smell similar to 

GlireA, 'r^. Tha 4th order of mammalia, 
accoralhg to the system of Linnieus. It 
includes the pdixupiues. hares, rabbits, 
Ac., beavers, rats and mice ; guinea-pigs, 
agoutis, marmots, lemmings, hamsters, 
dormice. Jerboas, tiie paca and squirrels, 
and corresponds closely to the Kodentia 

• of Cu vier/ Their characterlstie is twe flat 
incisors in each jaw. • 

Globate, gldb'ftt Having tha fonn of a 
•globe; spharioal; sptMroidaL 

noloijy. Tbe Klance of languue; b^ 

Ltrl&t globe, tbat V hk'b cuuuiiH ihe ^\.'t,.j^ ^ 

aiobe-flsh. '^ QiottiB, gW'to. The opeDlnc it Ao op- 

'a>h Tb7' ..^mmmt^m ^ mf pan or U» truba* or wlDHplpo, ud 

■una riiDT II ^9s^^?S9ltm^E ^VnaOi lb* voqU egnla, wUch, br III I 

BmLDtoaona- iiioh*«rfL Olove, ftluv. Any Mreriar >>» tha tad, 

ds, on). Plea- "loiwiiH. or fbr tbc buH ud mtot. with ■ k]>hM 

Inf ■ ([lubulir form by Bwallowing air. Qlovef's-atitoh. 'en-tHch. In Bnrf. ■ 

OlobulB.glob'ill. Allllleglob,:; >«m«II i-Muli" "tllob employed InHwlagupi 

Ft^alti], a dreulBT or elUptlctl cnrnniclo Qluclna, ciJ-Bt'nu. Tbe only oddg (< 

lOtind In Iba bkHHl of nil uilmalg. Iba whiaX gluolDain or beirlUoiii. 

OlotniUu. 'u-IIn. A protelD body fomi> ^l-luck, Sohann Ohzistophe, Ton. 

Iwioto-globQiln, tbo moln ligl-^ienl of "1* • "■ ""I- 

tha lilosd (;labulei, anil kIbo accurrlne. O-lucose. -kta'. A Tarietjr of annr Id* 

lulled u'ltb Dlbiimen, |p the cells of the Bnctl than caDe^ncar, produead IMn 

Olochldate, KlB'Lld-it In Hot. fUr- mN"'"". *^, brthaaoOonof ^d<.«r- 

cnda of ivhlch OK bookw! luick or barbed 1'™ 
Ukoollah-hoDk. "Ix 

aiomeridn. glu-ioe'rl-do, Tbeiroai 

InT^rV.flw;].'' „T,^ f * ,r«;^' "^ Iwo varletl*. dtaaogulahed by thdr 

niieclpi, railed Iba pill-iiillllped or pill- le.o.giucuse lurnalt to tbalaO. Wbn 

worm, n-nsronaerly utrdin modldno. jieateij iiplo*>ll''lt])ei»pie»oapaiiid, anl 

Oloriule, eld'ri-nl. A circle, as of raya, la uiikI by uwka nd oDsbetloiwi a* mI- 

re;>n;Bi-nlei^ In ondent lialntlngBU BUT- oring uiatbT. 

rounding the beada of auiiu. Qlumfl, glum. In Bot. Ib< 

dlBtlBcHon Mcortej by wnin^nmnBenl on tliB ul> of tbe apiki 

W« potion or thijiBjbonorabianuuo; re- Cmmlneffl and Cji™«m 

iiown; oolebrity. ^n | Hinting, n eombl- buskor ubaffof gndq, Ihe 

oribolumlBonB hXtn'lmb^cndnilinit Olutcena. glu-U'ua. Id 

(anrealo) eacompaailng Ibe nhaleiienou, musclca uf Uia bins wUch 

FounWy, Ii Is mquautly ooDtoundad part of lbs buthx-ki. 

with the nfmbas. Oloe. Common or Impii 

ninMnnthrnT. gloB-aa'thnki. A dla- Udned by boiling animal 

«MlnhonM«l4(Mtl*.«t>*nMB4w)lV tl)* AIM IxvAi ^. «l 

1 also applied to otber TlBconn Bnb 
. Mu^nagliK.Bioluttonofuaut 
n napbtlu vltli BheUu. 
L 'ten. A too^b cUbiIa inbAtADb 
In tbe flour of whtat nnd otha 
It contribulej much to the nntri 
^ity of Hour, nnil (rivps tuniwlly ti 


D UTtbliw to exuas. 



i.oci.mlvnrous qujidm 





ling (bo formiT la (TBI 



iae, gU'ifr^rtD. Atnn 

l,uirt tlU. . .™t u. 

» hj- tho Ktlon of 8 



-gnitol. The iy\.B 

a e 


IM tna obemhal rebtlo 



rtliiza, cU-il-rt'HL A 





■»,eB-(lJ's. A gen. 

1 lb<- 

J ttom whlcb Impri 

h tho copper depnslt, 

4ipt«rini. 'to-dlp-l*r-i"nL 
r-«Bi^il- fmill fisbaocouHUi 
^Un HrlM of roo^ 

Oneiu, nb. A npedu ofrock. o , 

X, felspar and miea^ arranfiM li 
It li rich In motalUoorw, bnt con 
' " O. often oontatDi 

iBym. It la 
tains 10 foui: 

It syeElIlo cnelaB. Tbe Half 
letween this rook and nudts 
onalns In the foliation, lh« nuteriat* of 

being legregated In layerB. 

pos«l hj tho'caballBtato^SaMttL In- 

lari of mines, ouurlea. Ac. A dwvrT: a 

hour of tbe daj* by tho shadow of a gna- - 

OnoBtlOt nos'tlL One of a aact of pbl- 
lonnnbrTB that ■rage In the first ngoeof 
Ttw/held that nil natDFes. 

(UaibkjKB), JuhiMHni B. Atrie^^ Ren- 

in t*IHBlble, : 

tbr. Tlnlbtmol C. pm purlnksi of thi 

0«at, (ul- A mll-knawD hnrntd Tur 
ianni iiuwIraiHid, em. Oiin. Thry ore i 
tliu ilio otfhvtrp, but ntrnnirer, luaa tlinli 
uid rimrD (iftMlv. Thi'v rtojucnt rx^kaar 
muunUInf, and mluljiL an eamty man 
Inml. Thtit itning oMiir la j.mTPrbln 


Chlbollil, ito'br-lln. A rnodci nf rich 
taiKntry, oraBmenlrf will compliralcd 
ud ImuUfiil dflslsnB m brlHlnnl and ucr- 
ttuDCDt coUtrn; alBu a |Hinwd wonted 
docb fnr ^QTonng oludra, nCba, Ao., In 
hollatlDii nf tniKHU-y. 

Ch>blua. gri'bl-nn. The rihy. a^™' "' 
flbhustAod, Maliuvpttirr^l AbdumlnaleB, 
hm, (^yiirinldiu, Incluiting tli« inidRCODi, 

OobUn, pib'Lln. An sill or mLiclilMout 
aprtto; a irnumo 1 la rlf; iniillriauBlUp]>. 

~ tltfl'kBrt. ■ — -■'- 

a eodeon or goddaughUT. 
Oodenda, Ei'i-Acii'dt. A 

OodAtbw, ti-Ihtr. 

Qodfrey of BouiUoa. The prtmiltil 

chli'f 111 Ult flrol I'rUROde. a ean of EM- 
1100. llocopUimlJctuaalsni, iota. ' I 

Godhead, 'b»l. Oodibln: dcttr; ft 
tifllty ; divliie nUnn or enenee. 1 ^ 
in i>e«on ; a god or eoddou. | 

Oodmother, 'Dinlh-<Y. A wnmu' 
beCDinei a Bponaor fbr a ibUd In baptl 

QiMliivni, gu-danii'. In tho E. Indli 

Ood'aAon, Ad aid Bime fiira bn 

Goethe. Johann WoUgvua vcm, 
Kin fnih-U. Ths Oerman SbakeipHn; 

aomle. C«e'>- A abained or ttlMd 

used Id ootb Bnnlaltiu or ihe diatorOW 
oftbopyoswhlahoccartonmi. Cjlindciol 
tuboalD whloharfi^odeluHoafordafcad- 
iiiff llio fym ftom ml<I, dust, rffca^ and 
■nmellmcs with colored gluici bi aMt 
tbeinleniitynf Ritbt. flpucUclPS. BHihU 
fur lioniiB tlint ore apt to tst:<i (HgbT, 
Goitre, pol'ici 

Oolconda. An ancient 
dty m tlio NiBun'i dommiooa, 
unce the cap. of Dpuwerful h]n^< 

Oold. gold, A prodoaB metal of a brigU 

I Juiy by eiM«ure. and la Ibweflire wdl 
ntled (D bu uncd 119 eoln. ItmavbebnUe 
Into Imvei m pxceeAlnnly Ihin that 1 grain 
in watebt trill co»crM unareladiM. It 
may dao' be melUd aod romclted wtik 


ler ineUI, Graphic gnld, Ul ore 
m, cosBlsUiigat loUurlutn, gold 

I species ot ChineBe 
<|>. Tba popular 

yellow murklng. on'ltii wings. 
, 'flsh. A flltl nflbo gen. Cjprl- 
i« Hl£e offt pllctiar^, so nuned 
bright color. Tbef Bre rured 

I, 'foil. A Uiln ibeet of gold 

4 'liir. Oald fnilUed or besMn 

HMrsorpaliBbHltraii. Ittstbeo 

tUat uul ogulD bcDtoD. unHI It 
Md Iha usoeiur)' degree of ttdn- 

F*ad. 'ttared. AUreodfo 

■rt BqM tald over » Ihroed i 

ig ft wltJt » wbeel uid iroD bob- 

MOia H flold-wlre. 

L' A(UMpb7edwJthdBl 

^^ns, OD lane eammons, wfacufi au 
smell boles ere cnt In [he tarf H 
ftnn 1 ebxolt or ronnd. The oh 
tho;nmal9. sterllngfrDinthii first t 

tbe hole, 

Golf-olul), /klDb. A slab OKd 

being the driver, uu>tb> 

' i.mbDtUiU' 

tbciDgrl}' ft. 

(jolsoth^ The eeeue or the cnwIflxtoB 
- "'irlst, last outside of the E. gM« dt 
Boleui ; *l(o known u Ut, C>1tw7..' 
Qollath. In Berip. > Phlllttlna rlut, 
slsln by Uivld, whils still a ihepbtrd bof, 

OoUath-bOTtle. g»-n'Mh^iG-ll. Th* 
Iir luine of beetles, gen. GoHiittana, 
jkalfle Tor their loj^ tf», uul H 

OoiaaritetGoiiuulBt), 'ni9r.|t. Afbt- 
lower or Fnndi OsDw, ■ Datab dlHlpb 
ofCalvlnlntbenth csentnij. The aeet. 
Dtherwbfl nallod Dntoh RemonstnoH, 
stronirly oppoaed the dootrtnca ofAmilld' 
ns, adherlBg rigidly to thoee of Calvin. 

Gomer. EMmC son or Japbet, yonngeat 
sonof Nodh, and prDeenttor of the InlnU' 
tauts of AsU Minor and B. Europe. 

QomuU. -ma'tl. The UaUyu name fat 

Oondola. gon'ds-li. A flat-boMmned 
boat, very long and nimw, used at Ven- 

atwcheDdlD aitmrp |>olnt or peak ^^a- 

I tbebelghtafafei 

^ r Is a onrtainfld eaL 

gat. AkiDSiiU(tDraxniA:n'j« 


k-ctlvi- urtn for ttae niiirodncdTS kk 
Oood rrlday. A ftat of tiir ClirlstUii 
lilnn, kept on ih* Fridy of Pugtai' 

3oodTM)wlM4Mn.Kiid Mn^lgilm. ' ' 
Tho nrindplea of tbe xiels^ of Gggd r I 
Ti'iaiSiini. (inmbliilnilt teHtotallim iltk ; 
arudn luj'sdc litn liullnlMl loavaiM < 
fruui (ttmiuoDry, hflvlnir aacttt ilgiiL 
iiaMwardi ind iDEt^nln gmiillirtollatit 
Tlid iiirinU'n ilUTeT frum I'M* THnpbn , 
In thnt Ihty reaigoize tbo autboillT oitte 
enaA lodifi.'. ! 

Ooon, giln. & apadcii of E. Ii>4laD inab. | 

AmUf afDlUliHiil btrdl. 
Qooaa-atep. 'sUp. The krt or ■ •olAir 

inirtliiK Ilin«byr*lilii| Itae tsM alUniU- 

ly uttlioiit moAif , 
Oopher. cu'<^' Tbg uunr Rlvulrlki 

Frltlmln Ihe TnUcjrorUia 
-' Cumdi lo tD«o; bur 

ilimrMit pBBM*. A «p«tnd 

lond-torlotjc af the SsothMI 

araviilacd. [nOaafk 

* snikCtbTcX^ 

Oopher-WDod. -<r.~>d. 

« cjpre«, ptni or otJar wool 


■rak'kB. Prcpimd tobaoM,! 
<kML In tbelr brnkabi by m 

Hall. no. Onilm- 

la or Ut^AM 

bmncblilf^ It U kv pt In Jan lb Jitk aad 
(lUcniKl an mlrr-l^nU. Uliaiwortto 

n. leu; iiilddnlirKrilivdi'slhofhliiuii. 
!39. 0., Morons Anlanlu>riB>.aniiJMn 
arstHivi>, u, !i.%^ iMMme KmiHtnr, SM; I 
niurdircd by Itic umritr Plillfii|>u>, Ml. 
Qordlon Knot. The. An Inlriato . 
knot, iniilt tiy tiortlliin. Kins of Pbnftt, 
which, tho oraclB d«ln»l. coiiW onh U 


A trlmpHar-Bhsped plna »*•< 


■nnWlne. Tbat ivhli 

iscin and Dnrla cnultals: 
)or UollgiT mnWlne. ""-- 
eA: >waJlowL-d txA a 

A HnngnrliBi gw- 

>ii. 'gon. la Onok Mfth. ona of 

it M'blcli turned ths bsho^r to 
They ore re[>reunted u Uina ^- 

ItbfDu, Euryala ud Mtdnu. 

neift, -tton-fik. In And. mulu 
in Imltnttea of UtA Oorvon'i or 

a'l bend ; lued u ker-BUniH. 

inldK, -du. A ftm. or Bclnobaak 
Old. AkynuMa, comprising tlie 

iibA, ftu-conlfl and tbo rM coral 

A, eo-riHa. The Inrcest anlmsl of 
9 Und. Didlcd also tliD Groat Chlm- 

ra*eb«i closcty tlie human Ibmi 
■hOaildan navt^lor IIiuido fituaA 
me In ii» la lEa ftth ocaturv a. c. 

jbakoff, EAr-eluih-kAr. Tho pa^ 
k of B iioblo ItniBlan famU)', (he 
aisHncalshfd membora bfioe 
il. Prince a.. B, IVaS. who «-« 
ande'-in -Chief oF Iha lUsOnir nr- 
a tho UanuhianPiindmiHtleaand 
1, 18ae-5, and atlwwiird Governor 
■nd ; D. Utl. Aieundtr, Frtnao 
itlwr of the above, vas a dMIa- 
i dit>l«uUM ) ■. lixt, s. i»n. 

Ooshatf k. msTialL 

U it fumed bj omall ipeelefl of aplden. 
Ooaaypinm, -iln'i-um. Th« wKen- 
planC. ard. Ha]iiH»w. one of tbO moat Im; 

I Daltlo. Great Iwrdea 
vd In tha td mitiUT, 
... Komana or Iteda, occa- 
pled the cDJUt of tha BUbIe Sea fhun tha 
Uon to the Dannba, and aftimfd Ina- 
rm and took an Important part In anb- 
TertlnetbeKoaianEDiu^ Tka Umo- 
trnbt, ■ BHitlon of tha Waatan or Vtsl- 
Rotha, aettloUn Maaia, and applied them- 
salvei tn aertenttnre } and a pcMton oTths 
SoriptBniln their langnage^ tbeMrilett 
apcdmaa of the TaatDnlo or OotMo Mho 
of tonno. llie Eutera Ootha vera 
callnl Olt»EDths. 
Ootluunite, m'tham-it. A man of Go- 



pass, 6,800 ft. high. The sooroesof 'the 
rivers llhine, Rhone and Reuss arc in the 
vicinity of the noted St. G. hospice. 
Gothland. A southerly div. of Sweden, 
containing? 12 counties ; TK)p. 2,630,000. A 
Swedish ishind in the Baltic ; cap. Wisby ; 
poi>. 67,*K). 

Gottenblirgr. Cap. of the Swedish co. 
of same name, 2S0 ni. 8. W. of Stockholm, 
and facing the northernmost iK>int of Den- 
mark : pop. 04),0<M). 

Oou^n, Hu^h, Viscount. A distin- 
guished British general ; b. in Ireland 
1779, D. 1867. He won distinction by 
ftubjagating the East Indian Sikhs. 
Gouda, gouMa. A kind of cheese fh>m 
Gouda, in Holland. 

Gouflre, gouj. A chisel with a hollow or 
semi-cylindrical blade ; a similar instru- 
ment used in turning wood. An imposi- 
tion ; a cheat ; also, an impostor. 
Gounod, Felix Oharles. An eminent 
French musical composer ; b. 1818, n. 

GourinaB, gou-ri'nd. The ground doves 
or pigeons, asub-fbm. of the Columbidn, 
which for surpass in size all other pigeons. 
The head of O. Y ictoriffi is surmoimted by 
a handsome crest. 

Gtourmand, gor'mfind. A glutton ; a 
greedy feeder. 

Gourmet, -mlL A man of keen pahite ; 
a connoisseur in wines and meats ; an epi- 

Gously, gous'li. An old form of harp 
used by the Solavonions, whose bards were 
called Gouslas, the poetry which they 
chanted being styled gouslo. 
Gk>ut, gout. A constitutional disease giv- 
ing rise to paroxvsms of acute pain with 
a specific form of inflammation, appearing 
after puberty chiefly in the male sex, and 
returning aixer intervals. It is generally 
characterized by affection of the first joint 
of the great toe, by nootnmal exacerba- 
tions and morning remissions, and by vas- 
cular plethora. Indolence, Inactivity, and 
too tree use of tartorcous %vines, fermented 
Uqnors and very high-seasoned food, are 
the ])rincii>al causes which give rise to this 

Governess, guv'em-cs. A female vested 
with authority to control and direct; a 
tutoress ; a lady who has the care of in- 
structing and directing children. Any- 
thing regarded as feminine that governs, 
instruct, or tutors. 

Oovemor^-flre&eral, -icn"er-aL A gov- 
ernor who has under him subordinate or 
deputy governors ; a vioeroy ; as the gov- 
arBOT'f ADcnl of India. 


Qovemor,-er. He 

who or that which 

Soverns, rules or 
irects. One in- 
vested with su- 
preme authority 
to administer or 
enforce the laws ; 
the supreme ex- 
ecutive magistrate 
of a state, commu- 
nity, corporation 
or post. A tutor, 
one who has the 
care of a young 
man ; one who in- 
structs a pupil and forms his manneek 
A father ; an employer ; an elderly per- 
son. A contrivance in xnHls and vhk 
chinery for maintaining a unifomi vefo^ 
with a varying resistance. 

Governor's Island. A nmiin \tifad 
in N. Y. harlM>r, on which is ereelei 
Castle William and Fort Ck>lumbaa. 

Gowan, gou'an. Decomposed granite; 
granite rook in a soft or fragile conditloit 

Gowlee, goule. Lit. a cow-herd; tti 
name ef one of the Indian castes. 

Grab, grab. A sudden grasp or seizure; 
a catch. An implement for clntohtiif 
boring bits and the like for the purpose 
of giving power and steadiness in workr 
ing them ; also an instrument of varkms 
shapes for clutching objects for the mtt- 
pose of raising them, as for drawing pipes, 
drills, &c., lh>m artesian wells. 

Ghracchus, Caius Sempronius. A 

Boman orator and statesman who, ai 
tribune, was the originator of many ext* 
cellent laws ; b. 159 b. c, killed in a mas- 
sacre organized bv OpimiuSy 121. His 
brother Tiberius Sempronius was elected 
tribune, and was also killed in an uprising 
of the patricians against his proposal to 
distribute the public lands ; b. loS b. c., 
D. 188. 

Ghrace, gnis. Favor ; kindness ; disposi- 
tion to oblige another. In 8orip. the free, 
unmerited love and favor of Ood ; also the 
influence of the Si)irit in renewing tba 
heart and restraining fh)ni sin. VirtnooB 
afl^ection or disposition, as faith, patience, 
&c.y proceeding from di\ine influence. 
That element in deportment or langaags 
which renders it appropriate and agree- 
able ; elegance with appropriate digntty.- 
Aflectation of elegance; assumption oi 
dignity or refinement. In Greek Myfb. 
hMoty deified ; one of three goddetees te 
whose gift were graoe, lovdinesa aiKl ft- 
vor, worshipped in Gmom under thoHMM 


at Ourites, DaUBdOnUBbrUwEemiiiB. I OTmlm-tln, ETan'tJn. TbapiuwtkUidiit 
They were genenll; known u Aglalo, Un. prsjUTaf rroio Ihs on oilled Blnus- 
ThiJls and Eaphrasfne. I tla roand Id rivat-bedi. 

OxEHnilliUB, enk-Cl-ll'ns. Thegnuk1».. , Orsllaitore*. gml-it-U'rei. Otden of 
b AQb-btd. of DDDlrfMtrtJ birda« on]. Fh^- i tilnJs adaptod for wBdLbg lb wBtfir, inolqd- 
sera, faiD. Stomldc or gUrliii^, lb,- \ Ine the cracea, heronn, utorkg, plovers, 
Pandleo frscklo of India baa aoqaircil anlpce. ralla, coote, Ac. &e. Uoat modon 
grett celebrity aa a d«bvyer of locoau oaluraUatB have, faawever, Hwmtod tiia 
ani caterpillars. I herong and slorka IVom tho OnllalorM, 

Qradlent. gra'dl-ent. Thfl divrea of a"d plaoed them In an order by them- 
ir liclCiatlon of lbs ground orer >elvea, to wblob th«y el>o the nam* 
a rallw^, roador eanal pai r^^^^i^ 



Onf gnl. Th« Omnan ainilnlaBt i 
lb* EnfHah arl ud rmdi emuit. 
Oraft,(iiift. AannUahoetorMlonaf 

Onil, cril. T1» lagnidar]' MrTiaad, 
mppond to bars bean of •mnU, fhna 
■TUab onr Savknir uta lbs paaobal lamb at 
tbe liut lapper, or, aocwdliiB to other 
knoda, from wblch be dlapeoied tbe 
ulna, and *ild to bave been braagbt u 
~ ' ' ~ ~ >b of Arimitbea. who 
drops of ChiiM'i bked 

■at)oiii,iwnsbelnfaiuilUlsd to dlacOTtr 
ttbnt skalsht pgi«wtly idiuta Intboughl 
■ndaM, ana tb« Btorfes and noeois of Ar- 
ttnr and tbe KnWila oftbeKound Table 
■rs fbaoded on tUs legend of tbe gnsal of 
&a holy (bailee. • 

libera or iTMd; 

whIsE the akin la 

QTBin-lsatlMT, 1elh-er. A name for 

Oralna of PuadUa, The 

gi*mln'a-«. A m7 Import- 
muh i^ruup v/ Glunwcett, gensnlly ber^ 
baoeona, tbe bambooa (brinlns a marked 
eiosptlan to tbla mle. TbeTarloDBoercala 
and Ibe Bogsr-cene are msmbera of tldl 
OramlnlTonMU, mln-li'S-ma. Feed; 

Onrnnaoalogae, gnun'ma^. In pbo- 
BogAphy, a letter-w4Mil ; a word rapre- 
aented by a loffogram ; ae It, repreeentad 

generaj prlnelplea and of partfcalarn] 
Ib' Bpeoklng or wrlttng a language 
book eontalnlng nocb prlndplet i 
rules; sdlgesledoompilatlon of euilomi 

temperature of 4° CenClAHdr. or 
. lal to lfi.4ei4B grains troy. 
Qrmaima.'BiliM. Tbe prlndpal monn- 
tain of Ssotlaod. Ifae higheit tomniit, Ben 
HavlB, being 4.M4 ft. abors an levd. . A 
maantaln sEain In VleterU, B. Aoslralln. 

longtb of Wrfwi^TkoKramn^^ caaHr- 

^enlie. - It l3 

ID tbs Xenll, 120 : 
- -or Ita sp< 
' of tbesi 

Uelegnetta, nat ord. ZlnclberKae. a plant 
of .troplgil W. AMotThey are ehlafly 
lued In ealtlanMdMBsa and to gtre a aei7 

mogoi fleer 

Oron Chaco (El). A lone tntorio 
Hon of 8. AinericB, ociMipled by r, 
[ndlun tribs? and vaat berda of cattln 

Oruidohild, giud'ahnd. a bod 

AfkDlihtbMdlatlwiader ol 

W. of 
mens of 
id most 



Grand-duke, MQk. Tho title of tho 
Hov«T»'i;rii «if srvrral of tho states of 0«r- 
iiiany, v )n>i(l(T«*(l of a rank botwccn 
duki' nn-l kini; ; aL^) npplicfl to memberfl 
of tliM iiniK-rial iimiily of I'ussia. The 
groat Jioriied owl. 

Grandee,, frran-du'. A nobleman. In 
8|>aiii, a iiobliMiian of tho lirst rank, who 
haif tho kin^'d leave to bo covtrud In his 

Grandfather, f^rand'fu-thcr. A fiither's 
or luothi'r'd father. 

Grand-flrarde. 'granl. A piece of plate 
armor ut>wl in the 15th and itith centuries 
in tho tournament. It eovorod the breast 
and loft shoulder. 

Grand Gulf. A village of Claiborne 
Co., Miss., on the Mistrisslppi Kiver, 00 
m. above Natchez. The Confe<lerates 
fortitleil it 8tron<rly durinfif the rebellion, 
but the vrorks were captured by Com. 
Porter, May 8, 18(». 

Grand-jury, 'Ju-ri. A jury whoso duty 
it Is to examine into the grounds of aocu- 
sadon agpalnst offenders, and to find bills of 
indictment to be presented to tho court. 

Grand I<od^. Tho principal lodge or 
l^vernin^ body of Freemasons. 

Grand-master, 'mas-tcr. Tho title of 
tho bead of tho military orders of knight- 
hood, as tho Hospitallers, the Templars, 
and the Teutonic knights. The title Is 
also given to tho heads of the order of 

Grandmother, 'muth-er. The mother 
of one's father or mother. 

Grand-nephew, 'ne-vfi. The grandson 
of A brother or bister. 

Grand-niece, 'nos. The grand-daughter 
of a brother or sister. 

Grandparent, 'pa-rent. The parent of 
a i>arent. 

Grand-piano, 'pi-fi-nO. A large piano, 
of great compass and strength, and in 
which the wires or strings are jgenerally 
triplicated. They are generally in the 
shape of a harp, to correspond with the 
varyinjy lan^rth of tho strings. 

Grond-sei^nior, -s-in'yer. The sov- 
ereign or Bultaji of Turkey. 

Grandson, 'sun. The son of a son or 

Ghrand-vicar, -vi'ker. A principal vicar ; 
a French ecclesiastical delegate. 

Grand-vizier. -vi-iSr'. The chief min- 
ister ol the Turkish Empire. 

Qraaffe, gran] A fiurm, with the dwell- 
Ing'hoaso, staolM, liyrea, banui, Jbo. ▲ 


Bodctx or lodge of flomen in tin V.L, , 
fbr the purpose of promoting tiwiiitflKiti - 
of Agriculture, more espedaly tbraboBih- 
ing the restraints and burdenaimpoaeioi ' 
it br the commercial rUnnncm, and wot Mic ■ 
away with middlemen. 

Granger, granj'er. A member of a te» i 

ers' grange. A fiurmer. 

Granicus. An ancient nameofasnudl [ 
river in liithynia, on whose banks Akx- \ 
ander the Great with 80,000 soMlers de- ' 
feated tho Persian Kine Darins with 661,- . 
000, 884 B. c. 

Granilite, gran'i-nt. Indetermbui* 
granite ; granite that contains mora tin 
three constituent parts. 

Granilla, -il'la. The daat or small 
of tho cochineal insect. 

Granite, 'it An nnstratiiled loek, 
poeed genersny of quartz, felspsr Mi 
mica, united in a oonfhsod orTstaUiatiQa 
that is, witliottt regalar ammgemcttTi 
the erystals. 

Granivoroiis, grtn-ir'^-ruB. firflsg 
grain; fiBodinr or subiistiiig on seeds ; « 
granivorons birds. 

Grant, Franels, Sir. A esMjnted 
British painter; b. 1804, d. 1877. 

Grant, TJlyaaoB Slmpootn, Qm, 

Eighteenth Presidont of the U. 8. ; H. ii 
Ohio, 1823. Educated at West PolBt,hi 
served during the Mexican war, hat ft- 
signed in 1864. Yoluntering' at tho ontbrnk 
of the rebellion, he was soon oommlsiiaaed 
as brigadier-general, and rafridly mse to 
the command of the western deparlmciit, 
and in 1864 was made oomnoander-tai-ebief 
of the entire forces, and transferred to the 
East. After a series of repulses and de- 
feats lasting over a year, be forced Gea. 
Leo to evacuate Richmond, oind mi^tftA 
tho surrender of the last army of tho Cm- 
fedoracy, April 9, 1^:05. The rank of Gen- 
eral was created expressly In his honor, 
and he acted as Secretary of War flmn 
Aug. 1, 1867, to Juno 14, 1868. Skvtod 
President in November of tiiatyear,he 
was re-elected in 1879. A eaadidata ihr s 
thinl term, ho was defisatod for tho aooi- 
ination by James A. Garfield, and remov- 
ing to N. Y. city, engaged in business in 
which ho was unfortunate, the Arm of 
Grant & Ward, in which he and his three 
sons were partners, having fiiiled (Majr, 
1884) with lUbiliUes estimated at over 

Grape, grap. Properly, a duster of the 
fruit of tho vine, but commonly a singto 
berry of the vine. The casoim or hath 
at the butt of a cannoa. 


er prupflTfttorj to 
Onpaidn, smps'l-Ji. 

fl hydi^oft. fauid 

or CTilin ruM. Bromclls Plffn*. Ao. 

Nunc of the plvit: are ifnuBU. 
GraBshoppoT, lioiyfr- A ultfltoriol 

onhunliimua In.'fcl, hiu.. Or>'lII<U', ntarLy 

'ixaaa-triAaw, 'wi do, A nifu livlBg 

(jratolnpla cn-tu-la'pl-i. A eenui of 

im-ll lilvnl. B ui.dlasciL 
Oratlculo, 'tl-kal. A flmiV or dmft 

G^mtUud, Hanry. An cmlnont Irish 
Irbb ind alio ortho BriUih Pu-UimeDt. 

arftT»-dla»aT,<Ti>'di«-<ii'. OiwitIkim 


eoisapEtloii latadlKgnTH. Tlw oomnunl 
njiinfl In JunilcA at a hynMnoptaroui In- 

OraTsl, gru'vel, Bmill nones or Itaf 
mmaottiaat.or-raymttlt iHtbbUi. U 

kidDeys or bloddiir, >linllar M tond « 
gmvei; tba dluoao ouopAlunud by auob 

OlSTlcUtiOii, gm-Tid-D'ataoii. Tbc Ht 
of griTWuang or omUDg |ir»giiiBt. or 
AtBU or belnfc frntvlditpd or tuide pref- 

Oravlsiada. -tI erj'iln. A ftunlly of 


OraTttatton. ■viCB'il.oii. The Ht of 

ify wlikh bodies urn prevBoiL or drftwn, or 
hj which thty lenil to^rird tbenrntttof 
the cirtb or othir cCDler, Or tiie ctr«t of 

Ormy. ThoDUis. A glftod Enfllih poet; 

11. IJ16, D. nil, 

Qray.las. rriloif. The aamiaoii ' vUd 

L'gutly and erscefuETy^ 
QroBser, civt'er, A nomu of contPmpi 
l^rcn lo a Meidcui or Central Aiuerlcai 

Ehrsnt Britain. Unlicd Elnirdom o! 
Oreat Brltnlo aod Iri'laml, or, "TbiBdV 
leh Emplns." A potltliw] dJctaion eoT 




orlirlnal oomprislnff tbc island of Britain, 
formerly divided Into tbo IcingdoniA of 
EnfrliUKi nnd Scotland and thu principal- 
ity oi" Wnk'ft ; to this Ireland was added 
bv conquest, in a weries of invasions be- 
ginning in 1150 and ending only in 1691, 
when Limerick Mirrendeivd. The pev(?ral 
dlvisiontf of the Kinpiro with the area and 
population are : In Europe, 121,987 sq. ni., 
pop. «4,Sr.9.90«; Asia, 1,1«2,94<) sq. m., 
pop. 161,(MW,tMH) ; Africa, 223,881 eq. lu., 
pop. 1,840,000 ; N. America, 8,524,151 sq. 
m., pop. 4,372,859; O. America andW. 
Indies, 28,588 sq. m., pop. 1,286,000; 8. 
America (and islands), 164,472 sq.m., pop. 
2M,810 ; AustraUa, 8,008,890 sq. m., pop. 
2,815, T26. The government is a constitu- 
tional monarchy, the title of the present 
sovereign being Victoria Alexandrina. 
Queen of Great Britain and Ireland ana 
Empress of India. 

Great-gt), grat'go. The examination for 
degrees at sonote universities. 

Grebe, grub. The 

common name of«i 

birds, gen. Podiceps, 

fEun. Colymbids. 
QrecJBTn, gre'sizm. 

An Idiom of the 

Greek language. 

Horned Greoe. 

Qrecqtie, grek. An attachment to coffee 
pots for boldiRg the coffee grounds. The 
bottom is perforated with holes, and the 
hot water is poured through it, carrying 
with it the aroma of the coffee without the 
grounds. The name is also given to a oof- 
fee-pot Aimished with this contrivance. 

Greece. A kingdom ofS. Europe compris- 
ing two largo divisions known as Livadia 
or K. Greece, and the Morea (undent 
Pvlopenncsus), or 6. Greece, including 
several islands. The sub-divisions or 
monarchies are Attica and BuH)tia, Phocis 
and Phthiotis, Acarnania and ^:tolia. Kn- 
boeainthcN., (JorinUiand Argolis, Arca- 
dia.Laoonia, Messenia, Achaiaand KliB,the 
Gvclades and Ionian Islands ; total area, 
20.152 sq. m., pop. 1,864,254. Modern G. 
dates only from 1882, having been pre- 
viously under Turkish dominion for cen- 
turies. The principal cities are Athens 
the cap., Zeitunia, Missolonghi, Egripos, 
Nanplia, IVipolitza, Sparta, Galamata, 
Patras, 8yra and CorfU, capitals of the 
several nomarchies. The government is 
allmited monarchy, and the ruling mon- 
arch is George I., of the royol^house of 

Greek Church. That branch of the 
Christian church wfaieh separated trom 
ifae Latin or Western diorcu in the 9th 

and 10th centoiieft, and is the « ^ 

religion of Russia, Greece and the Oils- 
man Empire. The i>rindpal points of 
difference with the R. C. Cfaorch are in 
holding that the Holy Ghost proceeds 
from the Father above, in permitting tlM 
marriage of priests, in denying purga- 
torial punifthment, in holding- to ooasub* 
stontiution in the eucharist, and denying 
other than the nominal spiritnal eapnaaaaey 
of the iwtriarchs of Oonstantiiiople. 

Greeley, Horace. A dlBdogaisbed 
American Journalist and aathor b. in N. 
H., 1811, D. 1872. He was thefoandviBd 
life-long editor of the K. Y. Tribime. 

Greenback, gr€n'bak. A popalv nans 
for the paper monev of the XT. S., first fc- 
sucd in 1862 ; so caUed from the baek 4rf 
the note being of a green ookM*. The tocB 
is sometimes used to Indode the U. 8. 

Green-chaflsr, 'oh&f-er. A ooleopterm» 

insect of the genus Agestrata. 

Greene, M'athaniel, Geoi. An Ameri- 
can patriot, B. in R. I., 1742, d. 1786. Hs 
ranked next to Gen. Washington in tbs 
Revolutionary struggle. 

Green-ebony, 'eb-on-1. An oli ve gwa t 
wood obtained n*om the S. American trss 
Jacaranda ovalifolia, ord. BignoaiaaaSf 
used for round rulws, tumeiy, maraaetcj 
work, &c., and also in dveuig, yleldiBg 
olive-green, brown and yellow colon. 

Gtareenflnch, 'flush. An insessorial btod, 
gen. (Joccothraustes, the C. diloiia, Am. 

Green-flra8?e, 'gai. A spedea of phni^ 

the reine claude of the French. 

Greenhouse, 'hous. A building, large^ 
of glass, constructed for the purpoae aif 
cultivating exotic plants wLIoh are t». 
tender to endore the open air dorfnif tna 
colder partu Oi the year. The tomperatnre 
in winter is kept up by means of arttfldal 

Greenland. The northommost part of ' 
the American continent, separated ftom 
tho main land by Davis* Straits and the 
Atlantic, and extending to 60o N. lati- 
tude. It is under Danish jurisdiction, and 
its European population number oulf 
about 10,000. The natives ore called £s- 
Aiimaux. The principal settlements ars 
Disco, Upemavik and Frederickshavn. 

Greenlandite, 'land -it A variety of 
precious gai-net obtained fh>m Greenland. 

Green-mineral, 'min-or-al. Aoactonato. 
of oopper, used as a pigment. 

GreMU>ok. A Scotch seaport havinc «s> 

,. jnelodlnlDliodao,- 

Tten itf 1^ ChrlnUu Cluidi br t^>|le 6rw- 





Greuae. Jean Baptiste. A dtatlQ. 
ffiiiAluHl Fn'iidi iMif liter : ». 1T2A, i>. 1805* 

Grey. Charles. 2d Earl. An Kufrlish 
MalcMiiuii iiiidcr wtioM> priim' minister- 
ship I lie llefonii liiU vf ls.'tO wait puMfcd; 
II. 17tl-l, 1". I'^V}. 

Grey. Lady Jane. Gmndd:iufrhtor of 
Ili'iny VIII.. hikI lifiiuciitlu-d the on>wn 
«if KiiL'luiwI by Kdwjini VI. She w:w |H»r- 
(«iiii«U'<l a^.'tiiiist her will to us8Uiiio the 
tiiroTU!, liut was queen only a few davR, 
the pfdpKt deebirin;; in favor of l*rineA*w* 
Aiury, ICdwurd'rt si»ter. I^ly »Fnn« and 
her huslMind, Lonl (Juilfonl Dudley, son 
of the Duke of Northumberland, were be- 
headed on Tower Hill ; b. 1&B7, d. 1.V4. 


bound. A tall tlee 
dog, reiniirkable 
for the keennerts of 
its sif^ht, tlio sym- 
metrical tttren>>rth 
and bcanty of it.s 
ibnii, and its p-eut 
ileetnesA. There 
are many nub-vari- 
eties fWim the Irisli 
and Illghland breinls to the Italian prey- 
hound. It fig-ures on Epyntian monu- 
ments, and is sunposcil to bo the gazo- 
honnd of old English writers. 
Gribble, grib'l. An i.sojKKl omstaccan, 
which commits great damage bv Imring 
Into suhmergiKl timber. It is not'unUke a 

GrifBn, grirfln. In Myth, an imaginary 
animal, the fore part being rei>resente<l as 
an eagle and the lower part as a lion. It 
was snpposed to watch over mines of gold 
and hidden treasures, and was consecraU'd 
to the sun. O. male, in Her. a griffin 
without wings and having large ears. A 
8p«cies of vultnre. The beardtnl griffin is 
tn« laminwgeyer. 

Gkrillagre, griraj. In Engin. a fi^me- 
work compo.«ed of heavy beams, used to 
sustain foimdations and jirevent their ir- 

. regular settling In soils of unequal eom- 

Grille. A lat- 
tice or open 
work or grat- 
ing. A metal 
screen to in- 
close or pro- 
tect a shHue. 
tomb or sacred 
ornament. A 

gate of metal inclosing or protecting the 
entrance of a religious lionse or sacred 
balldlng. A small Bcreon of iron bars In 


the door of a nnnneiy or convontt tbroofA 
which InmatoA convene with TlaitMt;t&i 
-wicket of a nmnaateiy. 

Grimm's Law. A law diacoveral bv 

Jacob L. (irimni, the great German plm- 
ologist, fkiruiulutinis^ certain changeswUdi 
the iiiut4> i'ons4>nanta undergo in corre- 
siionding u«>nl8 In the most imporbuit 
branches of thu Ar>'an fiunily of langnageSb 

Griquaa, gK-Hcwas. S. African hatf- 
castes, <iccupy ing the banks of the Orang« 
River, resulting from the intercourse be- 
tween the Dutch scttU'Ts and Hottentot 
and Bush women. Part ore (^rlstians 
and considerably dvllfzed. They haves 
thriving settlement called Griqoatown, 
53<) miles northeast of Cape Town. 

Grisaille, grOs-ul'. A stylo of paintlw 
in gray tints employed to represent sow 
bodies in relief. 

Grisette, gri-zet'. In Franoe, a gfri or 
young married woman of the worUng- 
class ; more commonly, a helle of the 
working class given togayety and gaUao- 
try. A female servant of looso morals. 

Grist Giulia, gru'se. An eminent 
Italian contatrice; b. in Milan, 1810, d. 


Grison, grT'snn. A S. American animal (^ 
the wexsel kind but a Uttlo larger. It is 
very amusing in captivity. Called aho 

Grisons, gre'snnz. The inhabitants of 
the eastern Swiss Alps. The lai^est and 
most eastern of the Swiss caAtons. 

Grivet, griv'et A small green-gray Abys- 
sinian monkey, gen. Corcopithecas. Tba 
common hand-organ monkey Is either a 
vervet or grivet. 

Griwennick, gri-vcn'lk. A silver coin 
of Kussio, equal to 10 copecks, or aboat 

8 cents. 

Groat, gr5t. An old English coin and 
money of account, equal to fouri>ence. A 
proverbial ti>rm for a small sum. 

Grocer's-itch, gro'serz-ich. A variety 
of e<szoma impetiginoides, produced in 
gro(*ers and persons working in sogar- 
refineries by uio irritation of sngar. 

Grog", grog. A mixture of Bpiiita and 
water not sweetened; mm and water 
cold without sugar. Also a general term 
for strong drink. 

Grogrsrery, 'e-ri. A place whore gng 
and other liquors are sold and dnmk. 

Grogram, 'ram. A coarse stuff made <^ 
silk and mohair. A strong, coarse silk. 

Ghroin, groin. The boUow or depressios 
of the huuuui bo^ly in front at the Junetios 


10 thUli with the trunk. In Arch, 11 
ilMT curve mids by tie Interseodon . 

ln*the Nethertodt, B7 m. N. E. of Am- 
■terdiUD, celobnted fOr lla imlTenltyj 
pop. 41.00(1. 
Groninaeiilat, KrS-nln'Jen-taL One of 
B sub'SKt or tho Anab&pUsu, vblch took 

hu thn cbuire of hor«e9 
rroom of thfl atole ; ffrooni 
A man Dewtr jporrked < 
muTlod : t brMflfroom. 

Oxote, OearKe. Green GrOHboL 
Ad Eiielleh hlitoK- 

CbwteaqiiA, grs-Mk'. 

SraUiu. Hogii (Ce Orixit). A dl«- 
latrulaheil D— ■- '—■-- -' - " - - 

tno to four s«edi of the oluofahuel- 
nut. and A root reflombUn^ llcorlee, foe 

Cnound-pl&n. 'plu. The nprasontn- 

QTOand-rezit, 'renL Kent paid (br the 
DrivUege of building on uother nuo'e 

Oroond-winliTel. 'skwi-nl. Tho qiiin- 
M, slllcd to IhB true smiirreiB. A irell- 

Onnind-awell, 'iwri- Abroad deep 
■wall or rollln's of the eei neu tha ihore. 


Ibr IhBMdior., «bl«, to., uatd furor- 


clui'rO. An [niw- . W|jB 

oioii^"^nt. "^"^-^ --"^,.1.- 

«"ornls «ri|,'n'* JSS 


fjiiiUroft^uui*- SyH 



anada.Iiip9. ^^H 


tOusdBluiio HIdil- M^W 


ilo, wc«iigiT.mM.,^^3^B^^K 

M«x]co. nol*a »^"^* 

I'-S* "ir -^SSS' 


onck, the onilrLo- "'■"" lani'WL, 


fia. Uie tpolted gioaM, dusky gn.ii.o, Ac 

Orore. "mu 

Dent EnjUih el 
181], 0. I8T9. 

■OnJidtO, -F'du. A fern, of WBdlDf 
. -Onuita, (nT"!*. A popnlar nmnf 

W. InrJ 

Oryllldm. jril- 
ord. Orthopter*. The three prEbelp&J 
eenem ue OrylhiB, QrytloUljia luul Tri- 

tiHtoonat BffbrdoumploborUioQrJit. 

QryplUM, icrl-tS's. A gan. or tntrn lu- 
msHlbniiahlBts MvalTet, cJewily aUled Co 
tke OTiiUr.BbiiiidBDtlD Iheseoondsr)' eUnB 
ftom the Uu npwnrds to the ahnlk, bat 
■oirwly kmiHO in tertlaiy strata. 

Oxyphlte. KTint. Annbloa^ruBB!] shell, 
gen. QryjibiM, popnlarly known a» mll- 

Orypixotia, arl-tS'sis. A irrowlDe Inward 
ofthe unite. 

Gnalacum. pwii'yn-kuni. A em. ul 

.._ ' -n,. ■■-■illBodtniDOdldllB, 

»any pDidll Inlands, especlallj [ 
. Amerldi nnd AtMca. chiedy cod 

Ehiatemala, A C. Araerinn repnblii. 

by thu I'aclflo ; area. 4U, 731 nq. in,; uop. 
I,^7,n!<0, NueFaG.,ttieciip. ariQi. Avn 

«nlf^Dto^"h(.m™llike!^" ° * ' 

„. s. ot M.-„ 
Ltatli by ordvr 9t * 

OuayaqniL Cap. of dept. orsameniins 
bail ]»ri;ic[pal caintperdol dty of Ecua'lbf, 
B. AmiTliaipop. M,SYO. 

Qndsvon. pil'nn. 
nsh. (lini. Oy- 

bluok j-oby 

ifl baHi ind wood. Uaoh, that part audgeoa. 

^un, ifwaii. A B. Ameriom galllna- of a horiTonlal 

leoui bird, gen. Penslope, alHed to the nhall or siloithidi WiniBlD theoolln, iB- 
'■ '^ I dependent of the body of (ho ihill. 


II Antoine 1 

rr«ncb ptlDter ; 

». gl'ber. Tho B 

flro-wonhlpwTB, chUbi 

Bnpreme Being, Their Mcred 

tl. irwlr. Thn nama of a dis- 
hed princely ftmllj In Italy, orlgl- 

1 lbs lllh wntury, iHII, howevPT, 
lElsncapoHuaUHiilii Italy, Welt 

wilB of Charlemngae, la aaid to 
een llieflnt to bear ths name. It 

at Brunsulek— the ilnoil mid the 
vhlDh IfltCu- tha raUcnlbif Qunlly 
■In l>eloaE>. Aftor tha butUe of 
ent, fiiuuht In IIW apjnat the 
ifCDI (Ghibi4lin«l, Iho term 
Lleaded la that AusdoD In Italy 

ppoTtcd tho iKlpo, while that o( 

:iaiytoGiTmany.'" '" 

n, n-ni'ia. A l-oautlful Attyg- 

, eS. The title of tlio lialrlol 
If Oio Low Conntrtea who with- 
Ullp ir. of flpaln In his efforts to 

1, Theoai 
) ofAftlia, 

I Its legs ai 

*liB.(loorxetuwn, Paramai 
mitctdam; prlni^put riv 
n, BurlDBin, Rsnequiba, 
■ntyn. EVcnch G. coinpi 
•arilon;Bna.8S.080sn. i 

rar, eitnit. Th« 

Ooldo (O. BenI), 
Quilder, irtld'er. 


a. and ather anwiler 

^iTllortal ilivlBlDns, 

Guinea-fowl. -tbol. 

igola, Bengur 
Dahdmey, til 


Oniimrs. nfrpttr'. An Inituilon of ■ 
tlqiio loM. tai7 durable, ftmelKWiuUft 
md km enpiuisi"- A aaix grglmp. 

or lli^co tiiroucrh the c1uuid>'1 
Cabn ana Amnio, put Iba II 
(nachlDK Iho tatl of llio Ornit 


^Tjird towont Knrnpo. port lEoln^ nortb 
nnd part rotnmlng Boutborl j bj tbu 1mi»lrs, 
Qol-eal, gul'Bul. A Kjrt of clinium or 
CPDiiuit ma'Io or ]>oun<lc] Fci-sbelln mlieil 
«-lth oil, which hardert liko a atiinf, ud 
li put nrcr i shlp'a botlwn In IndlB, la 
thit worms winot pgnebnto II. 

Juniper, -)D'nl-pt 
UatUtrla qusdrlTiIvlB. b oonlltavs* trH. 

UbC>\tJ«ei1 Iter prepuliigpa 

EkLm-iesin. -r 

Oum-aaneKal. -sen't-inl, A kind of 
ttao'rlv^r Honi-eul, Id Aftiok, yleUM br 

AiWnot nr^ A^ 

Oun-boat, "but, A bo.t or SmnU •mmI 
ciMbrr, B^frum IIB llRht draught «p.bfe 
Gim-Ottrriago, tir-i). ThorarriBceor 

Chui-inetal, 'mct-l. An pJIdj-. ccnrrnll}' 
ofnlno lArU of copper jirdiinv part i>r tin, 
MBed for tbe mnnuniatura ar godhoii, Ac 

CKuUIT, 'nf. AstmnKeosrsQ Mpkcloth, 
toe mgK. etcka and packlnjr p^n«TKlly, 
made IVtiiii juif. ihD HbiT of OoFduinu 
ospgnlirfB, and miin, tbe flb«r of CruUIa- 

G-im-port, 'port. A huli< in a ihip for n 

Chm-tBokle. 'uk-l. Thn Moeksanrlpnl- 
IfijA affifFd to tbo sldea Ufa jfab^^^aniaiFfi 
aud tbo alile cfa ihip hf rnonn of nhtah 

Chuiter^ Chain. 't< 


A lognrttbiDla Line 
uu u-ujiu-L 9 H3»<:, lilted Tor perfonnlDf? 
tbB mulUpUukKon and dMalon ofODm- 
bera mecbonlcallj by tlio diddora. A 
blidlDg Bcaiti oon-<«pondljiK Id Lo^rwltlitnii 
for parformbie theM niiontiooa by inapec- 

> Qnadiuit, kwod-ra 

.Lnd of atereo^npbio j 


PDKdln oneoftbanolca. It i9 naed to 
And ttaa hour nf ths day. the tnn'a azi- 
muth, J«., aa al£D to tahe tba alutudu of 
an dhitet ia ieercm. 
OvDter'a Boale, skiU. A larga nlnln 

jiaCunll and lofisrlthmlc, of f teat ape in 
•ohiuE niKhantcilIr by meana of a aUder 

1 Folenl lbn» of li.nm 

ID ofabnye, waaDUeoftliejiroitnt 
> of hlslort; B. IBW; (Towiiod 
(Mini at Ilio bittls of LQtieii, Oer- 

ilooted by AnkBralrum, o 

Chiteiibers', Joliann. The Inrent 
tbe art of printing' v\tii mavabLe ^pm 

Qntta. 'ta. One . 
diic^, altacbed to 
Chitta Percha. p< 

Dd^r Hide o7tba 

ChlttifBT, 'f-fto-. 

; nplailt balou^Dir to 

Entflfsl . 

Chiy de LaaigacLa. A »ench kaig-ht 
aiirf Crusader who was Elected King rf 

crown, Uai, to ^larilll, Siia>B*.C™M s» 



Lion made Lim Klngr of Cyprus; ». 1189, 
# D. 1194. 

Gyle, fifl. A brflwcr'w rat. The ferment- 
ti\ wort iiMKl by vlne>far inakora. 

Gymnasiarch.jini-nu'zl-Hrk. Amaf?fA- 
trntc wIkj i*uiKTihti'ii(led tlurfryiunuHlii In 

Q3niLna8iuxn, -tim. A \)hiro whoro 
acliU'ti<'. «"X«'n;» aro pcrfornifd. Amoii^ 
the anoifiit (ircckn thofc who took jmrt 
In 8Uoh cxt'rriiK'.s wero naked or nearly so, 
bonce the nuuie. A ttchool or seminary 
prej»arat(»ry to tho nniversities. 

Gymnast, 'nast. One who teaches or 
practices >r>'mnastic exordses. 

Gymnoderinaa. 'nr)-<U"-ri"ne. A S. 
American .sul> fain, of conirostral birds, 
* Ihin. Corvidsn, nearly allied to tho trne 
crowR ; tho fruit crows. 

Gsnnnodont, -dont. Ono of a fam. 
of iilucto^nathotiA tcloostean fishes, in- 
oluainpr the spinous globe-llshes. 

GsnnnOffen, -gen. In Bot. a plant 
Mith a naked seed; a gymnospcnn. 
Among the gymnogens arc pines and lirs, 
yews, joint-flrs, the Oycadacea;, Slc. 

GymnolflBxnata, -le'raa-ta. An order 
of the Polyzoa, in which the mouth is 
devoid of the valvular structure known 
at the cpistome. 

Oymnophiona, '-fi'd-na. Huxley's 
name for a small order of Amphibia, in- 
cluding only certain vermiform animals 
which are found in various tropical coun- 
tries burrowing in marshy ground, some- 
what like gigantic earthworms. 

Qymnophth a1 m ata, -nof-thal'ma-ta. 
A tribe of Medusae, having a disk-shaped 
body, circulating vessels running to the 
margin, and the eye-specks either uncov- 
ered or wanting. 

QyAnophth a1 m 1 d m, 'mf-du. A fam. 
of lizards comprising several genera, in 
which tho eyes ore distinct and exposed, 
the eyelids being rudimentary. 

Gymnosoxziata, -no-s()'ma-ta. An or- 
der of Ptero])oda in which the body is not 
protected by a shell. 

Gymnoflophist, -nos'o-fist. One of a 
sect of ancient Hindu philosophers who 
lived solitarily in the woods, wore little or 
no clothing, ate no flesh, renounced all 
bodily pleasures, and addicted themselves 
to mystical contemplation. 

GymnotuB, -nO'tus. Aeenusofflshes, 
•ec. Apodes, or those which have no dor- 
sal fin. The only known speoles is the 
GymttOtuM tieoMeoA, or doovlo'eeL 

GynsBeeunif fin-S'sG-am. Among the 
ancients, the femalM* apartment or di- 
vi.sion of a house of oonalderatioB. A 
sort of mannflwitnrv in ancient Bome for 
making clothes kdH famiture for the em- 
p(>ror'N family, the managora of which 
were feniak^. In Bot. the pistil taken 
in a coll(>ctive sense, prcciaely as the 
stamens fonn the andrceceum, the petals 
the C4>rolla, and tho sepals Uie ci^x. 

Qynarcliy, 'ar-ki. Government by a fe- 
male or females. 

Gypaetinae, jip-a'G-tT-nt5. The bearded 
vultures, a sub-fam. of which the type is 
the gen. Gypaetos. 

GkypogreranidaB. 'o-jer-an"l-d6. A torn. 
of vultures, including a single genus, of 
which only one species, the secretary-M- 
con of S. Africa, is known. 

Gypsogrraphy, -sog'ra-fl. The art of 
engraving on gypsum. 

GypsolOffy, -sol'o-^i. That branch of 
knowledge that treats of the gypsies, 
their language, history, manners ana cus- 

GirpsoplSLSt, 'so-phist. A cast taken In 
plaster of Paris or white lime. 

Ghrpsum, 'sum. A mineral found In a 
compact, crystallized state, aa alabMter 
and selenite, or in the form of a soft ofaalky 
stone which in a very moderate heat gtTes 
out its water of crystallization, and be- 
comes a very fine white powder, exten- 
sively used under the name of plaster of 

Gypsy, 'si. One of a peculiar Tagabond 
race found in every country of Europe, as 
well as in parts of Asia, Amca and Amer- 
ica,distinguishable from tho peonlee among 
whom they rove by their bodily appear- 
ance and by their language. Their lan- 
guage, which they call Romany chlv <» 
chib or Komanes, is a Hindu dialect, 
closely allied to Sanskrit, but much cor* 
rupted by admixture with tho tongues of 
the peoples among whom thoy have so- 
1oume<l. Ethnologists generauy concur 
in regarding the gypsies as descendants of 
some obscure Indian tribe. 

Ghrpsy-xnoth, 'si-moth. The Hypo- 
gymna dispar of naturalists. 

Gyracanthus, jl-ra-kan'thns. A gen. * 
of fossil acanthopterygious fishes, Arand . 
in the carboniferous and Permian forma- 

Gyrencepliala, jl-ren-sofa-la. One of . 
the four sub-classes into which Owen has 
divided the mammalia, based on tiiestrae- 
tnre of the brain. To the G. helonir tbe 
Qoadromana, Camlvora, Artlodaetjia, 



Perissodac^la, ProboMldeft, Toxodontia, 
Sirenia, and Cetaoea^ 

Gyrfalcoxi, jer'fii-kn. A spedes of flil- 
coti, one of the boldest and most beautiful 
of tho tribe. 

G-yrinidSB, ji-ri'nl-de. A fam. of coleop- 
terous insects, sec. Pentamera, sub-sec. 
ITydradephaga or water-beetles. 

Qyrodus, 'ro-dus. A thick-toothed fos- 
sil iish found in tho oolite of Durrheim in 
Baden, as also in the chalk. 

Gsrrolepis, -rol'e-pis. A gen. of fossil 
pinoM lishes, found in tho new red sand- 
stone and tlio bone bods of tho lias. 

Gyronechiua, -ron'c-kl"na. WMrllgigs, 
a sub-fain . of aquatic carnivorous beetles. 

Gyrophora, -rofo-ra. A pen. of lichens, 
one of which is tho tripe-de-roche, on 
which Sir J. Franklin and his companions 
liyed for some time. 

QyropriatLi, ro-prls'- 
tift. A gen. of loftsil 
placoid fishes from the 
red sandstono near 

Gyroscope, 'rS-skftp. 
An apparatus, (insist- 
ing of a rotating disk 
mounted by very ac- 
curately fitted pivots 
in a ring or rinprs, ali^o 
rotating in diffoient 
ways. By means of 
this instrument the 
rotation of tho earth on 
its axis can bo ocularly 


Gyve, jiv. A shackle, usually for tha 
legs ; a fetter. 


HIS the 8th letter of the alphabet, and 
often called the aspirate,- though not 
the only aspirated letter in English. The 
sound that distinctively belongs to it is 
that which it has at the beginning of a 
syllable either before a vowel, as in hard, 
keavy, or after, w, as in where, when. 
This letter, along with most of the oUiers 
in the Anglo-Saxon alphabet, was bor- 
rowed from the Latin alphabet, into which 
it passed from the GrcoK. In music, H is 
the German equivalent for B natural, B 
being with them our B flat. As a n umeral 
in'Latin, 11 denotes 200, and with a dash 
over it 200,000. As an abbreviation in 
Latin, 11 stands for humo, hieres, hora, 
Ac.; in English, II.M.S. stands for his 
(her) majesty^s ship or service, H.E.II. 
for his (her) royal highness, II. P. for half- 

Salmkkuk, ha-bakHv^k. The name of 
one of the books of tho Old Testament, 
nitbakkuk was the eighth of tho twelve 
minor prophets, and his prophecy is ad- 
mired ror its olevatiHl, lyrical style. 

Haberdasher, 'bcr-dash-er. A dealer 
In drapery goods. 

SEabergreon, -bcr'jG-on. A coat of mall 
consisting of a jacket without sleeves, 
formed of little iron rings, and descended 
from the neck to the middle of tho body. 

Habitant, 'bit-ost An inhabitant. A 
BanTe appUed to Inhabitants of Lower 
Canada of French extraction. 

Habit-chirt, -shert. A thin muslin or 
Isee ewmcnt, wom byfamsles oyer the 
- brssst sad neck. 

Habrocoxna, -brok'd-ma. A gen. of 
mammals, ord. Eodentia, gub-wd. Hystri'- 
cidie, allied to tho cavies. 

Habromania, -bro-mi'ni-a. Insanity 
in which tho delusions are of a gaj.^iiw 

Habronexne, hab'ro-nSm. In mineral, 
having the form of fine threads. 

Hachiire, hach'ur. Short lines which 
mark half-tints and shadows in designing 
and engraving, employed in delineating 

Hacienda, i-th(>-enMa. In Spanish 
America, a manufkcturing, mining, stock- 
raising, or other establishment in tho 
country ; an isolated farm or farm-house. 

Hack, hak. A horse kept for hh^; a 
worn-out horse. A drudge or a person 
overworked: a writer employed in the 
drudgery and details of book-nuking. 

Hackery, 'o-ri. A rudo two-wheeled 
cart drawn by oxen, used by the natives 
of India. 

Haddock, hadMok. A fish of the e(Ml 
fom., but smaller than the ood. 

Hackney, 'nu. A horse kept for riding 
or driving; a pony. A coach or other 
carriage kept for hire. 

Hades, huMez. The invisible abode of 
tho dead ; the placo or 6£ate of departed 
souls ; the world of spirits. 

TTn^fth, had'ith. In Mohammedan theoL 
the body of traditions relating to Moham' 
med, now fonnVne % vocf^'^^O''^^'^*^ ^ *^^^*^ 
Koran. (Mfgodi&s VV^ ^ws» "mX "SK^rtA Na 




ooRiinit them to writing, bnt the dAn(;^r 
of tholrlN-inf;I()«t or corrupted led to their 
hein^ ploooil on r4M'^)rd. 

Hadj, haj. Tho Mohftmmcilan ]>iIgTim- 
Uffvi to Mi-cca Aiid Medina. 

Sadji, 'v. A Mussulman who haft per- 
formed his ])i1^ma^o to Mecea. The 
name is also applied to a Grcele or Arme- 
nian who tias visited tho holy sepulchre at 

HadrosauruB, ha<l-ro-sfi'rus. A fren. 
of extinct reptiles belonjrinK' to the deino- 
fMuriao division of theOrnithoscelida. It 
appears to have been tho American repre- 
sentative of tho if^uanodon of lCuroj)e, re- 
semblhif;^ it in its enormous diinenMlons, 
herbivorous habits and anatomical struc- 

SaBxna, lu'^ma. Blood ; much use<l as a 
prt»llx In words of Greek ori^n referring 
to the blood. 

HaBxaachroxne, -krom. The coloring 
matter of tho blood ; IlR'matosin. 

Haomatics, -mat'iks. That branch of 
physiolo^'y which treats of tho bloo<l. 

Hsamatilioxie, -mat'in-on. A red gl.ass 
known to the ancients and used for mo- 
saics, ornamental vases, Ac. It contains 
no tin and no (H)Ior!n^ matter except cu- 
prlc oxide. All attempts of tho moderns 
to imitate it have hitherto failed. 

HsBlxiatosis, -ma-td'sin. Tho artcriali- 
zation of blood ; sanguification, or the 
formation of tho blood. 

Sceniatozoa, 'ma-to-zo"a. A term ap- 
plied to tho entozoa which exi^t in the 
d\(.m([ of mammals, birds, reptiles, fishe^v 
and many invertebrate animals. They are 
generally micn)seoplc, without generative 
organs, and found both in the arteries and 

Haoznogrlobin, 'mo-glob-in. The fluid 
matter of a red color contained in the red 
corpuscles of tho blood. 1 1 can be resolved 
into an albuminotis substance called glob- 
ulin, and the coloring matter htematin. 

Hsexnulon, 'mfi-lon. A gen. of rcan- 
thoi>terygiou8 fishes, fam. Scirpnida*. 

Hafiz, hafiz. Having tho whole Koran 
by heart. 

Hafiz, Mohanizaed Shenus-ed- 
Deen. An eminent Persian i>oet ; «. at 
Bhii-az, abt. 130(), d. abt. 1300. His writ- 
ings liavc been translated into English. 

Halt, haft. A handle ; used chiefly of a 
knife, sword or dagger ; the hilt. 

HaflT, hag. An ng\y old woman. A witch. 
•A fhry ; ft ahe-monster. A gen. of 
HJt^inouB UmIum ftllltd to th« bunpr^y. 

Haflrada, hag-SMa. A legend, anecdote, 
or saying in tho Talmud illostrative of tbe 
law. Tho free rabblnioal interpvetatlon of 

Ha^grai, gl. The name of one of tlie 
books of the Old Testament. Haggai was 
the tentli of the twelve minor nropheti, 
and the first of those who proimesiod In 
•Terusalem after the liabylonian captivity. 
He urged the rebuilding of tho temple. 

Haffioor€u:y. ha-ji-ok'ra-si. The guv- 
ernment of tho priesthood ; a sacred gov* 
ernment ; a hierarchy. 

Haffiofirraphy, -il-og'rar-fi. The last of 
tho three Jewish diviidons of the Old Tes- 
tament. These divisions are : The Law, 
contained in tho first five books; the 
Pr«»phet8, or Nevim ; and tbe Oetuvim, 
or writings, by way of eminence. The 
latter is called by tho Greeks Ilagio- 
grapha, eomi)rehending the Psalms. Prov- 
erbs, Job, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemlah, 
Kuth, Esther, (Chronicles, CantJcIes, La- 
mentations and Ecclcsiastes. In the fi. 
C. Ch. lives of the saints. 

Haffiology, -ol'o-ji. History or descrip- 
tion of the sacred writings. That braiieh 
of literature which has to do vrith the his- 
tory of the lives and legends of the sahits. 

Haerae, The. Cap. of the Kingdom of 
the Netherlands, a prov. of Holland, 10 
m. S. W. of Leyden ; pop. 07,800. 

Hahneznann, Samuel Christiaii 
Friedricli. A distinguished German 
physician and chemist, originator of the 
homopopathic svstem of m^iool practice ; 
B. 1755; i>. in f'aris 1848. 

Haiduck, hl'diik. One of a class of 
mercenary foot-soldiers in Hungary who 
sold their services to the best bidder. 
Tho name is now given to inacers in the 
Hungnrinn courts, halberdiers of Hunga- 
rian magnates, and tho lackeys and other 
attendants in German courts. 

Haik, hak. A largo pioco of woolen or 
cotton doth worn by tho Arabs over the 
tunic but under the burnoose. Also 
written Ilyke. 

Hailstone, harstOn. A single ball or 
pellet of hail. 

Hair-bracket, hur'brak-et. In Oxi^ 
building, a molding which comes in at the 
back of or runs aft from the figure-head. 

Hair-breadth, bred th. The diameter or 
breadth of a hair ; a very small distance. 
Among tho Jews it was reckoned the 
forty-eighth part of an inch. 

Haircloth, 'kloth. Cloth made of hair 
or in part of hair ; used for covdinf the 


HalT-llne, Ha, A ilander 
lurtag ill the iKe-llnss An?. 

Hair-penDil, 'psn-eLI. A 
jKiDcil mad« or bur. 

Hali-pIn, 'pin. A pLn aaed 

Hair-powder, '[ 

Hair-aprlns', 'nininc. In -vatch-msk- 
lug, tha fine »priiig glTliig motion to the 

Allghtoat touch viU dluha^ tbo plec* 
Hair-wrm, 'verni. A flUfonn wo 

-„-^ u or» halo of ItBhl inixonncl- 

iD^lhfled^ofidarkob^t tn ■ photo- 
rn[AI« ]flilmt doTalap«d upon Iodide of 

Hale. Uatthew, 
EnKH!,hjurij,t;». 16 
Half-blood, hif hh 

tb« um« ftther u 
dlffflr«nl bnedA or 

Half-breed, 'brod. One who Is bdt 
blooded ; Bpedflcaillj' »pi,lled la the off- 
spring of Am^on Indian) ind whltea. 

Half-brother, -brath-cr. Ahrolhwbj 

Half-dime -dim' 
Half-eosle, -t-n) 

.deer gelded. 

1 of permu^Dl v«q:qI&^. 


Hftlf<leiwt)i, 'Irneth. I>bi>irliii; ml* 
tliuuj>|>rrL>lrur (tiabody.u * ixtrtnlt. 

Hidf-paoe. 'pin, Tho nntliw-plKc or a 
bi'Iw.n'l-u'ttlHbu Bt lup>\.' ■W\»n It 

Haif-P«aar, bS'tMn-nl. An Enrllali 

<l>|IJH'rnilNartbllTBlu<j DfhlLri piUIIIjr. 

HaU-Pike. liirpTk. A tuem-beaiia 

ofUu^ordlnM-ir pilie. On* form ot Ibiii 
wwpno. ciilkcliiJ(u>Bpoiitodii, vjuforrnvr- 
It cuTleil by InGuiti? olUivun ; BDnCber 
Rimi la lined Id tbe OBvy In l-unllng tlilja. 

Hklf-round. 'round. In Arcb. « iriuld- 
log wtaiiH inoflle In a nPmtolnls. It uiav 
Im elLher atiiHl orat'inin. 

Hklf-^hlft, 'gblJt In nlaylnn tha violin 

the nark ortho ln1>tTqmsnt^iw''llint the 
flrnt flngrr can rM-Illj' gtop tha noU a on 

H>lf-*overelffu, '■o-vaiin. A Britiih 
KDliI euin In v.luo 10a. 
•Half-tint, 'ilDt. Ad Initrmedlstfl color : 
DiMdls tint. 

HaliaettU, lnU-U'G-tDB. Afan.ofblnla. 
Am. FaloonldiD, eai^a group, liitfcring 
from tha trna cairlos In tlio greater i^miFtb 
«r the bill, In Elm torn aniflon'gr part of 

nawlj-kllled prey, and In Inlbrt 
Tha moat noted apoTli'n la II. I 
Ina, tbo wbllo-besilcd arna or 
the iboMn aynibol of the I'. 8. 
Ballbnt, ball-bnt. A flnh. g 
■ Kluaiu, ona of (ha Inrjieat of i 

HallctUB, -lik'tDB. A ^an. ol 



B&liOOTAplir, -Of;'"'!!- That lapM . 

A gvD. of gifltatapa.' 
both hiull and moi^ 

o Physiol, t 

cuimnooly callad 
H&litUB, 'll-tUB. 

athalnl by aewiy dl 
Hall, JoMpli. An 

Hallam, Henry. Aa Engllah blalorla 

H^llMk, SltB^Jrsena. An amlH 

Holleck. HeniT "Wager, Gen. j 

■loroia vapi 

EngUih Ihi 

ninted u 

r. Point, 1S8>, up- 
IH ™iniii«iui.-r-in-ciiia'/, Jql^, IMg, btlq; 
anporteded by Gan, Grant, Mandi, 36«: 
n.ln LoulaHlfe, Ky., 1373. 
Hallelujali, hnl-lli-IS'ya. Pnlsa yo Ja- 

Hallejr, Edmuitd. A noted EnrHih 
n.troqo^n,.r; B. ISM, r. 1748. H« «■ 
(ha Unit who accurtlrly predlot* 

Halloo, -IS'. 

.. -eo. Theavi 
All -Sum ta. 

of AU- 

Hailentioa. -ll-0'tlkii. A tra^itlae on 
flahea, or thoart of flahlnir; loblhyoln^. 

H a l ifa x, Cliailea MontaKn, Barl 
of. A celebrated l^nEllsh atataamui aad 
flniaoler; a. IWl, d, 1116. As prima 
mlnlatar ha was tha originator of the na- 
ttonal debt, wd founder of the Bank ol 

nW. Biding Co., Tork, 
r Iti woSlL DuuDhel 
riii.n, ■¥. of York ; pop. 71,800- 
ortJora Bcotla, a iSrtlDed aea- 
nsval danot of the SrlUih N. 
n flaat, and a tnuu-Allantla atom- 

IhimcD toTindlumaa. 
Hallux, 'luks. Tfa< 

Haimatuma, -ms 
lusrsaplal.. bcloDgll., 

nl AU^iatnta' and All- 

Halo, hS'lo. A luminous rinKordrde. 
cither white or oolorod, appearing rouod 
thojDnarmoon. Whan tVay n» of anHUI 

Haloeoopa, -akJp. An la 
halos, parhelia and tha Ukf 

HalUofdte, hal-tli'l-dc. ' 
tha gen. Hi^a )■ the typ 




Saltio, 'ti-o. In Lapland Mrih. one of 
the guardian spirits of Moant JSiemi. 

Salyard, 'yard. A rope or tackle for 
liuisting and lowering sails, yards, &c. 
AVritten also Halliard. 

Salysites, 'i-slts. A fossil gen. of coral, 
fain. Jfuvositidfti, peculiar to tko palaeozoic 


]Saxxi, ham. A common element in En- 
glish place-names, as Buckingham, Dnr- 
ham, die., a home. Hamlet is a diminu- 
tive. The inner angle of the joint which 
unites the thigh and the leg or an animal. 
The thigh of a hog, or other animal, salted 
and dried in smoke. 

Sam. In Scrip, the 2d son of Noah, and 
progenitor of the African race through his 
sons Cush, Phut, Mizraim and Canaan. 

Sam. Atovmofdept. Som me, France, 
86 m. S. E. of Amiens, noted for its strong 
fortress in which Napoleon III. was con- 
iined, l&4<)-46, and from which he escaped 
in disguise ; poj). alwut 3,000. 

Samadryad, 'a-drl-ad. In Greek and 
Boman Antiq. a wood-nymph, feigned to 
live and die vrith the tree to which she 
was attached. 

Samadryas, -as. A dog-faced ape (C}'- 
nocephalus hamadryas). 

^fl.TnH.1^ ha'mal. A porter in Constanti- 

Haxnartliritis, ham-ar-thn'tis. In Med. 
universal gout, or gout in all the joints. 

Hamel, 'el. The name for the bright 
Btar alpha in the constellafien Aries. 

Samiform, h:Vmi-form. In Zool. carved 
at the extremity ; resembling a hook. 

Sambux^. A free city, cap. of prov. of 
same name, in Oermany, the commercial 
emporium of the empire, on the Elbe at 
Its junction with the Klster, and 60 m. 
flrom its mouth ; pop. 854,720. 

■Saxnilcar. A famous Carthaginian gen- 
eral father of the more celebrated Hanni- 
bal ; B. abt. 800 b. c; killed in battle in 
Siwin, 220, Ho successfully defended 
Sidlv against the Eomans for 5 years, and 
flnlshod bis successful military career in 

TTw.TniltnTi The patronyomic of a noble 
tkiotiish family. James H., 2d Earl of 
Arrnii, became regent in 1542. He was a 
warm partisan of Mary Queen of Soots ; 
IK 151 o. 

Hamilton, Alexander. An eminent 
Scotch-American statesman and orator, 
B. in Nevis, 1757, killed In a dnel with 
Aaron Burr, at Weehawken, N. J., 1804. 
He wBa A momber of the Continental 


Oongress, one of the OommlssionerB whloh 
flramed the Federal Constltation and 
Secretary of the Treasury under Freal> 
dent Washington. 

Hamilton, William, Sir. The most 
celebrated metaphysician of the Scotch 
school ; B. 1788, v. 1356. 

Hamilton, William Bowaa, Sir. 

An eminent Irish scieutiat and astron- 
mer, b. 1S05, d. 1865. 

Ham i tic, ham-it'ik. Belating to Ham or 
his descendants; specifically, appellativa 
of a claims of AfHcan tongues, comprising^ 
the ancient Hieroglyphic language, Cop- 
tic, Ethiopian or Abyssinian, Libj^an or 
Berber, and the Hottentot groups. 


A beam acting as a 
tie at the feet of a 
pair of principal 

Hammer- fi a li , 
' m e r - 11 s h. A 
rapacious Ash, fam 
Squalidff) or sharks 
the balance-fish, 
called also Ham- 
mer-headed Shark. 

Hammer-oyster, -ois-ter. A bivalVe 
shell-fish found in the W. Indies, res^n- 
bling the pearl-oyster when young, but 
when mature rosembling the form of a 

Hammock, 'mok. A hanging bed, ood- 
sisting of a piece of cloth, gathered at the 
ends and suspended by cords and Hooks. 

Ham.pden, John. An English patriot 
and Parliamentary loader ; b. 1594, killed 
at Chalgrove Hill, 1643. He was a cham- 
pion of popular rights against the oppres- 
sive measures of Charles I., and suffered 
prosecution and imprisonment. 

Ham.pton Roads. A broad channel of 
C'hesapeake Bav, opening into Jamea 
liiver bet. Nor^blk and Hampton, com- 
manded by Fortress Monroe. 

ster. A gen. of 
rodent burrow- 
ing quadrupeds 
(Cricetus) of the 
rat family (Mu- 


'string. One of 

the tendons 'of the ham. 

Han, han. The Qiineso dynasty founded 
by Kau-tau, andlMfettai^ tcwsv-a. «^*tf5fcNft 


Ih^ kf ui'^ tnwury. Tli1;i v 
to iliouiia('nii'icli«iiii<.-r. 

vf lili onUvu State Iniui I iM U: 


iiHii: B. in :tltM.. ITai. I.. 
pTAhli'iit of till' Trovliicliil 

tkn Dnrlanii 

<rn^~.nV Tlnflflld Soott, Sen. Ab 
Amrrlnn nllldT; u. In IVlii.. IWtj fnmlu- 
M(hI rram Viest roint. l!44.Hnt4 thruueb 
ttu MmIcbh Kir, »|>[Biriiliil lirtKubcr-itm- 
fnil. IMl, nml ktiuI vllh ipilliinti? 
tbroDiA Uie ivhrllinii ; nnw H'nlor Miijnr- 
OvniTnl In eoDimiinil nt Ibc Pi'partmrntuf 
Us AUwth!, lwai1i|iuiTtiTS Bt Uovrnior'i 
IilnBil. In ISM be wan an nniuu<r»flil 
ciBittilnte Ihrtliv nrmklrmi?, bdUE bvMoD 
Iir (len. GinlrM. 

Bknd-bOOk. haiHl'bHk. A •null I>onk 
KUhlo-bnoli'llir trnn^Uri. 

EMUUaallOp, 'Bll-lnp. A ulniT wid 
VBHV eBil<>[>- ill wfaioh thu liAnil prvuefl t^e 
liruLlo ti> lilnJer lncHuu of B]H-viL 

HMldiOKp, hui'dJ-knp. In rndnji, in 
iill<>Hvinio/ac<-nalnBinDnnt dT llmo or 
ilEHancetn lfa#1nftrlaroom[H^(i)ni ' 
In brtiiE thnn all *»D«ir]v u |khibI 
WIHOIH)-, w MiB aitis wi-lVhl 

led The lead v 


111. A mill tar ptaliim 
Bratn, iH'jipfT, mBee, ic., taoved bj Ita 

Hand-presa. 'prea. A printluE pnd 

workLiI |.,- luBd. 
Handrail, -rSL K rail or rBlUng la ■ 

^Illi^ ralMil njion nlFDiIcr posts t.'allal hal- 

liic Blone tho ahlca tu pruU'cl (icnau 

wKeii |Hi^4lu^ to tbo fh>ut. 
KandBplka, '8|A. Atariw.lnlihtli* 

bund as a Ivver vttt raising weights, bcav- 

Inic about a winUaM, Ac. 
Sans-ohow-foo. A mllw] Chlniw 

dtv, call, uf [irov. of Chc-klane. on ths 

rnivrly vjp.oftUo kln^^m; pop. 

bi was eaccoMful In his i-trntitlo agalnrt ' 
HanoTer Ocmxt-Hotue. a v||1u< 




Taderal brigade under Gen. Fdrter, the 
Utter winning a deeisive victory. 

TTaTiBft, bans. A league ; a oonfedoraoj. 
H. towns, certain commercial dtiea in 
Germany which associated ibr the nroiec- 
tion of commerce as early as the 12th cen- 
tury. To this confedcnuy acceded cer- 
tain conmierciol cities in Holland, Eng- 
land, Fruice, Spain and Italy, until they 
amounted to aeventy-two, and for centu- 
ries the confederacy {Hanseatio League) 
ootnmaaded the respect and defied the 
power of kings. Lubeck, Hamburg and 
Bremen, the three ft-ee cities of Germany, 
are still often spoken of as ttie Hanse 

Hanselines. The loose breeches worn 
during the Ifith century. 

Sansoxn, han'srm. A two-wheeled 
hackney carriage or cabriolet. It holds 
two persons, and the driver sits on an el- 
evated seat behind the body of the car- 

ITamiTnan, han'n-man. The name of a 
fabulous monkey, the iriead of Vishnu, 
much referred to in the second or class- 
ical ago of Hindu mythology. Also, the 
name of a monkey in India to which wor- 
ship is paid. 

HapaiidSd, hap-al'i-dd. A fiun. of B. 
A meriean platyrhine monkeys. The mar- 
moset, aahoni and ouistiti are the popular 
and native names for these animals. 

Hapsbnrgr, House of. The dynastic 
line of the Austrian emperors, named from 
the OastloofH., in Switzerland, and found- 
ed by Rudolph, Count of H., who was 
elected Emperor of Germany 1278. Since 
1786 the dynasty has borne the name of 

% hfir. A syllable occurring as a pre- 
fix in person and place names, and signi- 
fying an army; thus, Harold signifies the 
leader of an army ; Hereford, ford of an 
army. It takes varioms forms, as hare, 
her, hOTC, Sec. 

ITiBCOiiilt. An 
English general ; b. 1785, d. 1856. He 
aerved with credit in the Peninsular war, 
was appointed Governor-General of India, 
1844, and subdued the Sikhs, and s. the 
Duke of Wellington aa Conmiander-in- 
Chief, 1852. 

Hazdware, 'w8r. Wares made of hron 
or other metal. 

, hftr. The common name of the ro- 
dent qtuuLmpeds, gen. Lepus, remarkable 
ftf ito fsoondily, genotdly producing 
-l&eaoribiirstAtliiMaBd IreedSog m>¥- 

eral timea in tho year. In Astron. one of 
the forty-eight ancient constellations of 
Ptolemy, situated ta the sonthem hemi- 

Hare-kangaioo, 'kang-ga-ru. A small 
kangaroo of Australia, not unlike a hare, 
but smaller in size. 

Har^d, ha'reld. An oceanic duck of the 
sub-gen. Harelda. Ita down is said to ri- 
val that of the eider. 

Harem, hil'rcm. The apartments appro^ 

C' ted to tho female members of a Alo- 
modim fUmily. The occupants may 
consist of wives to the number of four, fe- 
male slaves, who may be retained as con- 
cubines or as servants, and of female free 
slaves, with whom concubinage is ns- 

BEarfangr, har^fiinfir. The great snowy 
owl found in the arctlo regions. 

Hari, ha'ri. A name of the Hindu god 

Harleian, hiir'lo-an. A collection of 
7000 manuscripts, besides rare printed 
books, made by Secretary Harlev, £arl of 
Oxford, and his son. The collection la 
now in the British Museum. 

Harlequin-beetle, 'Ic-kwin-bML A 
coleopterous insect, so called ftom the 
mixture of gray, black and red on the ely- 

Harleqnln-duck, -dnk. A spedeaof 
duck having a beantiAilly mottied plu- 
mage, the male being fimtastically streuLed 
with pray, whence the name. 

Harlequin-snake, -snuk. A venom- 
ous S. American snake, striped with: red 
and black. , 

Harlot, 'lot A wonum who prostitutes 
her body for hire ; a prostitute. 

Harmattan, -mat'tan. A hot, dry wind 
which Mows periodically from the interior 
parts of Africa toward the Atlantic in Do* 
ceraber, January and February ; it with- 
ers vegetation, and even afTects the hu- 
man body so that the skin peels off. 

Harmonia, mO'ni-a. A small asteroid 
between the orbits of Mara and Jupiter. 

Harmonica, -mon'i-ka. A collection of 
musical glass gob- 
lets, resembling 
finger-glasses, putf 
into a revolving 
motion on their 
centers while the 
rim is touched 
by the fingor. A 
musical instrument consisting of a smoD 
boK, la ivUfih. «x« 'raaica\ \)srfajaraXa&;^ v 


nAiuioEnuuoKD «m 


dnlnn |il|K»tn ImttiUv 

I oiiil ui ik|i|>anitaii tv pinMluoc 

iHon louttlUT 
bjdniRiii K» emiw; 


bHiilou bw. 

wlildi B O-Jiae of 

Harmonirt, 'moii 
. l>n>tiii(aiiu rroni V 

11 WOrUDIbiirK, who bM- 
In Am<'riQi In l«t». Thny holit their 


fi«br w a , £cypdaa hArpi. 


HoTpolldEe. -I 

). il«odo|:liftea. 


. . ,- ,.. -, playiw nn the hsin^- 

bi-oM coin «r tha kIrd of Qumo 
Gll»tirth,i>riiu'iilniufaihltllne ami Hi* 

Enrper^ Feary. A vlllnini fn Jeffms™ 
(\i.,lV. Vlrsinia. Bt the JunirtJo" of Iha 

HbjTOOQ-SUII. 'KTin. A pun for firinf 
n liur|N>i>ii, cniployixl Id Iho whato-fiBbeij. 
Harp-Bsal, harp'itl. Tbo OresDtuid 

HarpBlchoTd, 'sl-kord. A Btrlnnd ma- 

thln^ Ilka till? horlzoDla] ^raibd pUno-rort«, 

isr-J, '" - 

Harpy-eftffle, -.'-i-'l. 

rim. rpliil.ratul for Itagrost itronjith! 
Harridan, 'ci'ti-Out. A hi^ j bd odjou 

Barrier, -cr. a omnll <1i>e oT the honnd 

Tin.™ irn -nriml bMrtiL " A hawk ofthi 
B«i. ClniitEi, illleil to tliu bmsurdB. 
Harrl-Karrl. -ka'ri. Tho MilnL-es t«nii 
tin- pie mula of «ulclils locumbsnt on 
J^IUM^ oa^akli, wban ord»ed h; got- 




ernment to perform it as a punishment 
for any offense. It is effected oy Inflicting 
two gashes across the abdomen In the 
form of a cross. 

Harrisbut^. Cap. of Pennsylvania, in 
Dauphin Co., on the Susquehanna, 107 m. 
N. W. of Phila. ; pop. 80,762. 

Sarrison, JoliXL An English mechanic 
and inventor; b. 1G98, i>. 1776. He in- 
vented the most perfect soa-chronometcr 
of hk tiuiu, also the compensation pendu- 

Harrison, Wiiliaxn Henry, Gton. 

Ninth l»rci*ident of tho IT. 8. ; b. in Va., 
1773 ; i>. one month after hi8 inauoruration, 
April 4, 1841. Ho was tho hero of the 
Indian battle of Tippecanoe, in Indiana, 
1811, and also defeated a lirititth force on 
the Thames, C'anmla, 1818 ; afterward 
elected to tho U. 8. 8enate, and sent as 
minister to Colombia, 1828-29. Was the 
imauccessful Whig candidate for the lYesi- 
dency, 1S36, and was elected 1840. 
Harrow, 'rO. An agricultural imple- 
ment, formed of pieces of timber or metal 
crossing each otnor and set with iron 

c, hart. A stag or male deer when 

ho has passed his fifth year, and tho sur- 

royal or crown antler is formed. Ilart of 

, ten, a hart with ten tines or branches on 

his horns. 

Hartbeest, 'b^st. The name given by 
the Dutch colonists to the kaama, a a. 
AfHcan antelope. 

Hartshorn, harts'hom. The antler of the 
barter sta^, formerly much used as a source 
of ammonia. A name given to tho salt 
andspiiitof ammonia. Jelly of hartshorn, 
a nutritive jelly, formerly obtained from 
tho sha\ings of the horns of harts, now 
procured from the liones of calves. 

Hartford. C-ap. of county of same name, 
also of the State of (Connecticut, on the 
Connecticut River, 30 m. N. E. of New 
Haven ; iK>p. 42,015. 

Hartz Mountains. A ran^e in N. W. 
Germany, abt. 70 m. in length by 28 in 
width. The Krocken, tho highest peak, is 
8,740 ft. above sea level. Tho rango is 
rich in minerals, but is especially note<l 
for the superstitious traditions wltn which 
many of its chief heights and valleys are 

. identified. 

The oldest American collofiro, 
fonodod 1688 ; located at Cambridge, now 
A sabnxli) of Boston. 

r, hfir^vMt-er. A machine for 
cutting grain, grasa, or other crop ; a 
mctwm ; • rtftpar. 

. . -fli. A name applied to 
aeveral largo hcmlpteroas insects of the 
Cicada group, popolarly called locosts. 

Harvest-month, -month. September. 

Harvest-moon, -mon. The moon near 
the full at tho time of harvest, or about 
the autunmal equinox, when, by reason of 
the small angle of the ecliptic and the 
moon*s orbit with tho horizon, it rises 
nearly at the some hour for several days. 

Harvest-mouse, -mous. Tho Mna 
messorius, a very small species of field- 

Harvey, William. A celebrated En- 
gUMx ]»hvsician and nnatomlst ; b. 1JS7S, n 
1(^57. fie discovered tl>e true theory of 
thu circulation of tho blooil. 

Haslet, hos'let. The entrails of a beast 

used for human food, as the heart, liver, ■ 

lights, &c. 
Hasoda, ha-so'da. In tho Turkish se- ' 

raglio, a school established for training 

young slaves of both sexes. 

Hassock, has'sok. A thick mat or bass 
on which persons kneel in church ; also 
a small footstool. 

Hastingni. A borouf^h and seaside re< 
sort in Co. Sussex, England, 54 m. S. E. 
of Tendon, noted for the battle, Oct. 14, 
1066, in which William tho Conqueror 
won tho English throne ; pop. 82,146. 

Hastiners, Warren. Tho first English 
viwToy of India ; b. 17:J2, d. 1818. His 
impeachment for malfeasance in office, 
triid and aaiuittaU fonn one of tho most 
interesting legal incidents in English his- 

Hasty-pnddingr, hast'i-pud-ding. A 
thi<'k piidilin;; iniule of milk and flour 
boilefl <iuickly together ; also, natmual and 
water boiled "t()<:other ; porrid^'o. A hat- 
ter ma<le of Indian meal sUrreil into boil- 
ing water ; mush. 

Hatchet, hatch'et. A small ax with a 
short handle, used with ono hand. An 
Indian tomahawk. 

Hatchetine, -in. A Ikttj substance oc- 
curring in argillaceous ironstone, like wax 
or spermaceti in consistence ; also termed 
Mineral Tallow. It consists of 86 carbon 
and 14 hydrogen. A soft mineral contain- 
ing 80 carbon, 20 hydro^'on. 

Hatchingr. 'ing. Bhmling In a drawing 
or engraving consisting of crossed lines ; 

HatchinfiT-apparattis, -ap-pa-rii-tus. 
An incubator for bringing forth chickens 
from egg& \ij tlhft mosMsif d %x\iAs&ai2LV«»x. 


Zatchwar. 'vii. a fiaif< nr ubli 

'. of runlico Roiiix 

U. uul COu'k.holh »r which w«n 
Auk. M. I'MU I>>- U>m. StrlDghi 

Hkttt-alwrlff, 'u->iicr-ir. An 

M«onl«r tntm thn HiilUn of Tui 
■nhnaribuateusullTwIih Uith 
"Iji't inj order ba ujucuted i 
to Itii IVirm and Impnrt" The t 
iHUBllr mIic«1 with iculd, or othc 

InaiHTU. In which the inmith 1 

liirt.™umd», Isphkijiwruiu j 

HMtbor. bS'hol. An obBBi b 
vljMl'liistniuli'iit vf wuuJ. aouudod j 
UiniDffh a ilauhUi mid. An orgAn 
(t»]i reumlillug Uiu luuCbo^ li 

Hauy, Bane Jnat, Abbe. 
huh-vri;' (>m< of thi> uirist omlDeDt I 
ofFri'iich inlnunlo^gu 1 b. 1T4S, 

BnTana. C^p. of Island of Oabn. 
on Uiu N. W. mut. foanded by , 
riiVO Vuluiiuai, mil; pop.3Sl.- . 
*«, ' 

H&Talaok, hiT'lok. A Hght GOT- 
vrlnir fbr Ihrf hund ami neojE,oaTn- 
pwal of whltu cloth. n«oa by eol- 
aUT^ arid othivA aa a protoollon 
B^lui^t »iiU'iitroki>. 

HaTsrsack. 'it^wIi. A liai; of 
Mniii); ninth ivilh a strap fltting 


or mlnot* canals whloh tnnne Iba aiiBi 
«nbn»noe of booM, oonveyfog Um BOlri- 
ent TcsaeLs to all parte. 
BaTUdar. har^-dar. Tha hlgbeM Ma- 
ouiuinlsalonad officer In tlie naoVe araki 
" " »nd Ceyloa ; a aepoy ap 

IB fr-oqumtlr ^pUad 


Hawk-mQtli. 'moth. 
Insect, bm. Spblngldc c 
Hawk's-bill. hike'hl]. Chdons w 

Hawser, baa'er, A unull oabla or a lifga 

Haydn, Joseph, hl'dn. As aialual 

m». " *""' "■ "■ 

Hayes, Isaac I, An American Anna 

fhrvoywea in 18U \^Ch I^. Kana, alio la 

Hayes. Butherfind Blxohanl. Bbia- 
twuth Prvsldent of the U. a,; a. In Oh^ 
18IT. Ijcrvod vrllb gallaDtrjln the dri 

Wnorofdhto, andlo lOTS^Mldent. 

Hay-fever. liii'i;j.vcr. A aummor flmr, 
poniilorly but cmrDcously ascribed (o tlM 
ullfiivluni of new-cut hay. 11 Is nrobiblr 
due lo the Irriuliou of pollen or vtveM^a 
spores enterin;; the noatrtla. 

Haynan. Julius Jakob. Baron 

U^ D. Tt™. Ho ™ MTSS'iSider4o^ 

Enrlan n-llcHI'in, li^. jukT is''3cciual'^ 
h™rtl™» mlclty. 
Hay-tedder, hS'tol-cr. 




. hft'td. One of the largest ialaods 
of the W. Indies, In the Greater Antflos 
frroup, E. of Gnba and Jamaioa ; length 
abt. 4<)0 m.; maximam width, 154 m. It 
is poIitioiUy divided into two republics, 
HayU proper, the W. end, cap. Port-aa- 
Prlnce, and Santo Domingo, cap. Santo 
I>oaiingo. Its principal towns are Port-aa- 
Prin(}e. Cape Haytien, Jacmel, Jeremie, 
Aux Caves, 8anto Domingo, Porto Plata 
niid Gonaives; chief rivers, Artibonlte and 
Taenia ; pop. of Hoyti proper, 581,822 ; of 
Santo Domingo, 288,419. 

Sazard, haz'crd. A game at dice reqnlr- 
in;? much calcnlation and experience, and 
almost always played for money. Applied 
to strokes in the old-fiishioneu game of 
billiards in which tho balls were pK)cketed. 

I, hed'dros. 
The covering or orna- 
ments of a woman's 
head, an important part 
of female attire, wnich 
has assumed many 
forms since early times. 

HeadinfiT, Mng. A 
drift-way or passage ex- 
cavated in the lino of an 
Intended timnol, form- 
ing a gallet in which 
the workmen labor. A Head -dress, 
preparation of equal (14th Cent.) 
parts of alam and 
green- vitriol used in brewing. 

Head-liffht, lit. A light with a reflec- 
tor placed in front of a locomotive. 

Headrxxioney, 'mon-ne. A capitation 

., 'wot-er. The part of a 
river near its source, or one of the streams 
that contribute to form a lai^r stream. 

Heawi. The after-birth or secundine of a 

, hers. A hind in the second year 
of its age. A carriage for conveying the 
dead to the grave. 

Heart, hart A mnseniar organ, which 
Is the propelling agent of the blood in the 
animal body, situated in the Uiorax of 
vertebrated aninials. From this organ the 
primary arteries arise, and in it the main 
veins termlnato. One of a suit of playing- 

Hearfe-lmm, hSm. A burning sensation 
in the BtonuMsh ; oardlalgy. 

Heart-4Mun, luim. A wheel or double 
cam. having the form of a heart, for oon- 
rertlng a uniform dronlar motion into a 
ndprotttfnir tttenurtlng moUon. 

Heart-disease, '(Uir€z. A marbid con- 
dition of the heart, either Amctional or 
organic* To the former belong palpita- 
tion, syncope and angina pectoris ; to the 
latter, hypiYtrophy of the lieart, dilata- 
tion of tiiti cavities. &e. 

Heart-wood, 'wnd. The central part 
of tho wood of exogens ; the duramen. 

Heat, htft An affection of matter be- 
lieved to consist in a certain motion or vi- 
bration of the ultimate molecules of which 
bodies are composed. An exhibition of 
energy, of whicn motion, light, gravity, 
electricity, Ac, are other exhibitions un- 
der different conditions. 

Heath, huth. A name common to plants, 
ord. KricaceflE), but more Rpocifically con- 
fined to the genera Erica and Calluna. In 
the southern promontorr of Africa thou- 
sands of acres are covered with heaths, in<« 
eluding hundreds of diffarent species. In 
Great Britain heather covers l:u^ tracts, 
and is used to thatch houses, to make 
brooms, and even becA in the Highlands. 
Sheep and cattle eat it, and bees extract 
finely flavored honey trom the flowers. 
Tho young shoots and flowers are said to 
have been anciently employed for the 
manufacture of beer. 

Heat-enffine, hct'en-jin. The name of 
heat-engine or thermo-dynamic engine 
is given to all machines which yield f<nree 
in virtue of heat. 

Heathen, hd'then. One who worships 
idols or docs not acknowledge the true 
God ; a pagan ; an idolater. In Soip. 
the word seems to comprehend all nations 
except the Jews or Israelites, as they were 
all aadicted to idolatry. The word is now 
applied to all except Christians, Jews anA 

Heathenism, -Inn. The rites or sys- 
tem of religion of a heathen nation ; pa- 
ganism ; idolatry. 

Heather, heth'er. Heath. 

Heathery, -L A place -where heaths 
g^w ; a house in wnich valuable heaths 
are cultivated. 

Heat-speotnun, het'spek-trum. An 
invisible spectrum, produced by the rays 
of the sun when a b^un of light is decom- 
posed by means of a prism. It shows that 
the blue rays have the least heat or none, 
and the rea the greatest. 

Heaven, hev'n. The blue expanse which 
surrounds the earth, and which api>ear8 
above and around us, like an immense 
arch or vault, in which the sun, moon and 
stars seem to be set ; the sky. The [»urt 
of spaco in whkSh, 3 ««% uA v;^s^>2asA\Ar 



>IqU oHba prlcUos on bU Met 

lODiain, hu'doD-lnn. 

1-tool. bB'ii, 
jog migo will I 

IiK, beVi-ri. "The iWit at y/latiun- 
rrom .^vcei. Septeniber 13, 092 A. u., 
■witnl ulopiM u the nnrnB of the 
Vom nbichthi! MDhuiDuiiMluie reckon 
■Ume, iMfrtiinlngiliilrlfl, fiii. 


rn-lio. Tis. An Molnmtttion nm 
eialBg BDnm a«|{ree OT Tuignor or 

LB, Belnrlch. An emioKit Ger 

, bdng »ui 

d (Vom <b 

in)rj.f.K» ... 

■glon^ to Ainilly 

3ByB. hi!1a-mh. Tho ia>ap[DE-him 

B<|iInB^»t, igi-n. Dfrndcnta allied to 

aotOB, -Ifirk'to'. 

M wiCiont i" 

rounil I 

(U.l%e. A Boport-of the NethiT- 
i.-"*™!!!!!!!!!!!* ifio rnlrancp lo Ihe 
in-tSH-, opp. the Tend. 40, ui. N.W. 
nitsrdnln ; pop, SO.CTe. 
n. The Auppoiril dioirhterorjupl- 
j TyDdamB or Leda, and tlie atott 

dacl«1 hy rBria. 
Trny. Hep forme 

uwlstsd In av. 

«n, n. sefl. 


ot Pham, Xi 
nJMn, Abi, U 
flBalsiu in the 1 

Dlated isluid In the S. 

<n thejil 

Hellao, 'l[-ak. la Astmn. cniiTging 
frnin lliolichtof the «IUI or puetBe tolo 
It. Tbo hcliMal rliinn of n star ]i what. 

1n^-|^^b)B,lt iniffB" tail* la bo'vialhle In ' 
the morning bofbrBBnnrisIni!. Thelell*- 
rnl lottlnL' of A ttur is when ilu inD ip- 
pronihcB to neir in to render Jllqvislbl*. 
HeUadefl. Id Myth, the OaueDliiri of 
the 8im, nnd sisters offhuclon, whowBre 
tnnuHlinta poplirtre«iutneywept«m 

A moniililn in Bnotta. 

in Orcwe, from whiDh flowed tvro ftiun- 
IjiEds Hcred to tbo Muses, A^nipue and « 
HlpuDcrepe. llie Greeks suuposel H to 
be tiiu retlilenr^eof ApnUa snd tho Muhh. 
Mt. Falmnivi, i,0(M)ft. .bqve On una level. 

EellctU, he-ltt'tls. A gen. of Aslitlo 
cQrnlvDroua qusdmpeds, allied to thtf 

Bauer's, St. Cap. of Jersey, ooeVth* 
bnsltsh chuuiel l3biid9;]Klp,S8,7iOiills 

Helleolaiul. A emitl. barran Islnnd - 

H:oHocentrio,lifi'lVo-sen"trlk. App 
ln« u Ifswn from Itao son's center. 

aslioohromy. -ILok'to-mt Thoar 
[irodueing colored photograpliH. 

HeliOBTBiph, li-o-grsf. An inslruii 

HelioUtTTT^l'i'il. Thaworel 

Heliolitea. 'll-fl-U'Vi. Arcb. urc 
■feiii. M.ll.iKirt.1*. TUpj- occur m 1 
lurian aiiil lievuDlan (yiumi. 
Hellometer, -It'om'tt-or. An li 

null, miiin tail pJiin>-U. or any ilL 
linmva D'lu.UaTuljt'cts. 
BeUopoU*. A oni'a funoui Kcynllu 
dlv.miivlnrnli.-., cl ni. N. K. ofl-liln.; 
tUu uriiilDuI uut of tlia uciont luii 

i blmsbenr.] wllb 

Bgbt fitter Mffl^. 


'Hl-CtlDK tllD . 


HelIotype,'l!H)^Ip. A photogrniihlc pro 

Helium, urn. A. Bimo imiposM tot i 
nev h)iioIhoUc«l plc'Ttii'iilary BobttAno 

epoct^um aiHil7»H fn Ibofnnn.if el"Hni 
g*B la lbs itmosphi^ra BuiToniuliug thi 

«r gasUTOpAdoDS Diollualis, Irno of tbo 
ftzD. llelkUtip. onl. Pubmiiiau. and cuui 

Hell, bcl. Tho plaoe of tlie <Ifiii1, uruf 
CDulA aft^r d«atb ; thalowcrrp^Dnaor the 

Qro^kshiulo. Tbaplnoooriuitoof pun- 
libznoat for the wttArd iftur dutb. 
HoUadotherlnm, '[a-dc-thu'M-uin, A 
AHtUgea. o/muninals Kmewbil icaciO' 

loglnfTs. Itocooninthspnos 

who nft&d the Gre«k Un^ua^ In 
a^Tos of CbrlBdiDtty. 
Halleapont, 'leg-poat. A nan 
btrtwecn KurojKf lud AaLa, do^v . 

icrlallylinprovoil (hraiiKb the reowTal 
most of tha rooka b; auboiulika UaMI 
Belm, bolm. TbB loab^mcDt by *bl 

ud Bo- "*'""■'- «■ 

uuD beliaeta did not protflct the face. T>i 
Inl the Middia Agca hKluutg wersBii 
ofitscl, ftHMimlly inlaid with gohl. a 
proTlded with bars aid Bapi In i»>crl 
fue la battk, ud to allow of bcinr D|Hia 

Helmst^heil. kM. Tba enmiw 

HelmiDtliOlIU, 'thr 
Hclimind. An Afjcbanlstan rfnr. 


jrin-bevtlu, &e. 
Bslodiu, 'lo-dui 




>pid89, -lop'I-du. A fiun.'of coloop- 

us insects, sec. Ueteromera. 

it, 'lot A slave in ancient Sparta. 

98, Arthur. An cmkicnt British 
>rian and essayist ; b. 131$, i>. 1878. 

iin^ors. Cap. of grand dnehv of 
and, European Russia, on the gulf of 
3 name; strongly fortified, pop. 84,- 

T'e-ta.amxner, hclv'ham-mer. A 
) heavy blacksmith's hammer, tilted 
le helve and oscillating on bearings. 

retic, hcl-vet'ik. Of or pcrtainine to 
[lelvotii, the inhabitants of the Alps, 

retic. A follower of Zwinglius in 
»sition to Luther. 

lachate, ho'ma-kat. A species of 
3, interspersed with si>ots of red 

ladlroxnoxneter, -dro-mom''et-er. 
nstrument for measuring the rate at 
h the blood uiovos in the arteries. 

Ladynaxnoxneter, -d!-na-mom''- 

. A contrivance for ascertaining the 

inre of the blood in the arteries or 


lastatic, -stat'ik. A remedy for 

ddng the flow of blood. 

lathenxL, -therm. A name given 
>me some zoologists to a warm-blood- 

Latin, -tin. The red coloring matter 
ebloo(l occurring in solution in the in- 
r of the blood corpuscles or cells. 

latite, -tit. A name applied to two 

of iron, red hematite and brown 
lerobaptist, 'nic-i"o-hap''tist. One 

sect among the Jews who bathed 
d, hemM. A prefix signifying half. 

In many compound words derived 

the Greek. 

doarp, -kftrp. One of the halves of 
it whicli spontaneously divides into 
as a pea. 

dcrania, -ml-kra^nl-a. A pain that 
tfi only one side of the hood. 

ddactylus, -dak'til-us. A gen. of 
Is of the gecko or llat-t')ed family. 

dgale, hc-mig'a-le. A pretty Bor- 
camivorous nuunmal of the civet 


ina, -mT'na. An ancient Boman 
•ore containing half a sextarius. about 
t English wine measure. In Med. a 
itire oqiaal to about lOMnld oanoet. 

Hexnipodius, -n^^'di-ns. A gen. of' 
rasoriai birds aUiea to the quails. 

Hezniptera, -mip'ter-a. An order of 
four-winged Insects, including plant-lice, 
boat-fly, cochineal insect, locust, bug, 
lantern-fly, &c. 

Hemisphere, hem'i-sfur. A half sphere, 
half the terrestrial globe ; half the surfoce 
of the heavens. 

Hemorrhaflre, 'or-Sj. A discharge of 
blood fh>m the blood-vessels. 

Hemorrhoids, -oidz. Painfhl tumors 
or tubercles, consisting of enlargements 
of the mucous membrane, forme<l in the 
rectum or around the anus ; piles. In^ 
Scrip., cmerods. 

Hemp-palm^ hemp'p&n. A Chinese 
and Japanese species of pelm of the fibers 
of whose leaves cordige is made, while 
hats and cloaks are made from the leaves. 

Hemuse, hu'muc The roe in its third 

Hen, hen. The female of any kind of 
bird ; especially, the female of the domes- 
tic or barn-yard fowL 

Henchman, hensh'man. A servant , • 
male attendant ; a follower. 

Hendecaeron, hen-delca-gon. A piano 
figure of eleven sides and as many angles. 

Henry. The Christian name of many ^ 
European sovereigns, of whom are : H. I. 
of England (Beauclerc, "Fine Scholar"), 
4th son of William the Conqueror, b. 106S, 
D. 1135. He usurped t&e thi-one in tht 
absence of his elder orother Robert, whom 
he imprisoned during life : he was a wise 
and moderate ruler. H. II., grandson of 
the preceding and first of the Plantagptnet 
line; b. 1122; s. Stephen, 1154; d. 1189. 
H. III., B. 1206; crowned, 1216; d. 1273. 
lie was a weak Qrrant, and his violations 
of Magna Charta caused a popular revolt, 
in which he was defeated and made pris- 
oner by the barons, 1264, but was restored 
to his throne the next year. II. IV. 
(BoHnbroke), son of John of Oaunt, bo- 
came Duke of Lancaster on the death of 
his fiither, but Kichard II. refbsed to con- 
firm his title to the estate. This led to a 
rebellion, the overtlu^>w of Richar<i and 
the croMrning of II. The repulse of tho 
Scotch invasion and tho overthrow of 
Hotspur and Glendower were the princi- 
pal public events of his reign. H. Y ., son 
of the above, b. 138^, s. his fiither, 1413 ; 
D. 1422. He was dissipated in youth, but 
reformed on ascending the throne, and his 
reign was wise and Morions. He invaded 
France as a claimant to tho throne^ 1416^ 
ttnd Nvon tkio cv«t^ ^iViAocy ^^ k!3}flMacBihi> 

--T- t^^ :-:-C' 7~ ^1*1 -a.-ViiT€d ( 

• . - ■_ — — t- •:.- ▼■ "^ ■iirt ;•-•?•€ HrditJ 

-.* - _ - —-. _:.— i»_-: IlLt. tha I 

.- - .::: — . -t-l :*•?-• "ni^zz s^v-tfal t 
.• - -SI. 1- L^i r 1- i i-c!t. it is 
- . T- 11 :• _■« I- 1-.:. -3k::c£ A'jjst 

..■ ; _ -_-^ 4^ _ .r*.:,.-. i. in Va., 

_ «- .f 

JL r.i? rr JIM after 

^ X' 

" *" 

-L i-*.^!*^ of ihe 
EvL i:> &c:oatlie 

3 . .• :':*-*-..::•- — .■ '.. ^ -• * " .: ■ -— L -. :--i.t.T; .f^ifg Tat:-' Yulcan. 
• " _••• • * " ■ ■ — - "■■•■ "--■ Sf;"Lii* rill. T.ur »i:a or camber of 

-•= -:-••- ' '• • - " --■■ H*7:LSifflrc. aTTi::. A iook in mtbo 

•— ■ : . 1 1. ..— . . ..: . ■ - ..•:■- s — * "" " , , » i 

- ■■ ^ . - -^ . . .. . . ._. . _. ... ,=.*7'S«,«rr=- -c:: -.r »j-^='S2. a plane fi^ 

!;L"..'.^" ■ . .r.",^ -^ " " ', ' ■ . . ./^. ^-. '.■.!.:>- zx fj^Ter. sil<r« an>i bla insDj 
-—''-■ T Tr ' '■/. .^ ■ ^: '*■'-". -- ■* "-" -^-^--ij^A^ liAi Laa seven 

^--. -'_:: -"*.:.■ - ■ - Hfj^JhSTTL .^j: I;. Be:, a plant whidi 

Ij.a.- .'. ■ —■>■ *." ••■' »'«>'■*' ^"^ '" '" "~ ■^' 

-■' '£.:'—' -■■... . " ■ ■"■ " •. ■ _ T-: ■■ ..7 !■ii.■*- 
■■'■ ■ ■.:-..■' * HfTloJ^-ina. -:--. irl-i. The 7th class 

-Si-r^lATciiy '."..-i-; A r-.»vomnieTit hv 

■^ I' r :i? «: ■••.lum- irovernei 

>-■•>■ ■-'. _?"-::>- a iij'.lu-i to the 

. ," "-. «.■ «. -"-x-. K-.r-.Tioj IIS. Kent, the 

- • *^. . .. •>■-«•? •'.if-^^.. West Saxons 

■ — \ ■■.--: "JA ■..*iE55*x». the East 

. ■_- " . ». -■ .» ^'.r.-li :^. I N-Ttnambwland. In 

"■ . : :.''..: ::iTr-. wj* :.o jK-rfod of history 

Jf ■;; ".. '' -■■.•■-•■. ■' " ■-"" ?•■■■-- kiSa'doms eziBtcdto- 

,',,'. ir ..■,..,■.: • ..''. ',.■,'• .'-•'•: Hertateuch. :.»:lk. The first seyen 

'./»-#i#i If \i .hi * Hi'. *'im'.i, ■ 

rafihtijii, who denietl that the worid was 
t.rbt^t:*\ hy the Son of Qod, and^alao re- 
ymUiii tku Okl Tcatamoai. 

SerlMlidm. Ib Ai 


M'od- 1 Herder. Jobann OotUtied ■ 

s, 1S09 D. r 

sUetl the Dorbui mlKntlo 
»1aiL chroDolo^ the at>Dn4i 

ImporUnt dty of Al^hantntji 
ng \tQ\at or ail nWlfl lendJi 

Imve ]j^ii<<aua or hirrt w<Kh1j BU^iru. 
Herbal. '^. A beolt coiil4iinlii; mmu 
aorl descrlpttoDS of plfuiu. or (ho cluAsea, 
■tinnn, aper^egtndqmilltleFiirfTeifCtablpB. 
A collection of pluiu drlPil uid prosorced i 

t 'Gfinnui tlmologlui and 

SeretlQ. 'ro-Uk. A persoa vbo holds 

the docuioca of Uio Bcrlpmre. Id the It^ 
C, Ch. ooe vho does not enhinlt lathe 
teichlngsofUiochunhi nFrobslwu 
Heretoff. 're-tog. In Anglo-Suoh IIidm. 
- "aider or oommonder of in army, or 




-ino-Je-nG'un. Oaoofa 
8ort of h«»rotIw, foUowoM of Ilermofrcnes, 
who hold inuttor to ho the potirco of All 
evil, niul tliat w)ulrt ari» rorined of corrupt 

Hero, htVro. in Myth, a kln»l of demi- 
jjo'l .»«i»nin;; from tho union of a divine 
>vilh a human hein;;, mortal, hut p:irtak- 
i:it? of Immortality, and aftor doalh {ilaced 
amon;^ thupxls. Th«j central ti^^nro iu 
any ri'markablo cvi-nt. Tho prludpul 
inah» charactrr in a novel or play. 

Herod (the Great), r.oman Kin^r of 
c)u«l4M ; II. at Ascalon 72 ». c, apiwintiKl 
Governor (»f Galileo 47, and Kin^ of rludea 
40. Durinjr his reipn Christ was bom, 
and tho cruel Kinf^- ordcretl tho " munler 
of tho innocents ;'' i>. 8 a. d. H. Antipas, 
son of tho i)recetlin{f, on tho death of his 
father hecam . tetrarch of (Jaliloo, and 
impriAone<l and inur<lerod John tho Bap- 
tist ; he tre^ited tho Saviour vith contume- 
ly when ho was brought before him, and 
■arrendere<l liim to tlio Jews. Deposed 
and exiled by Kmperor Caligula, 89 A. D. 

Herodlan, hc-rod'i-on. One of a i>arty 
amon^ the Jew8, tiiklng their namo from 
Herod, and represented by Matthew and 
Mark as acting inconecrt f^'ith tho Phar- 
l.seos in endeavoring to obtain from Jesus 
Christ tho materials for his accusation. 

Herodotus. Tho flrst authentic histo- 
rian of Greece, known as *' The Father of 
History." Uo lived in 5th century b. c. 

Heroine, 'rfl-In. A female hero ; i 
woman of brave spirit. Tho principal fc 
male character In a i)oem, play, novel, re 
manco, story, or tho like. 

Heron, her-nn. Agralla- 
torial bird, gen. Ardea, 
constituting with the 
storks and bitterns the 
family Ardeidu?. 

Heron (Hieron or 

Hero). An ancient 

matliematician of Alex- 
. andria, Egypt ; he livtwl 

in the flrstcentury a. d., 

and is stdd to have dis- 
covered the motive 

powiT of steam, and to 

'• Hero's fountain." 

Herpetology, -pe-tol'o-jl. A descrip- 
tion of re