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In pursuance of a general plan involving the produc- 
tion of a series Of WOrks on the western half of North 
America, I present this delineation of its aboriginal in- 
habitants as the first. To the immense territory border- 
ing on the western ocean from Alaska to Darien, and in- 
cluding the whole of Mexico and I JentraJ America. I give 
arbitrarily, lor want of a better, the name Pacific States. 
Stretching almost from pole to equator, and embracing 
within its limits nearly one tenth of the earth's surface, 
this last Western Land oilers to lovers of knowledge a 
new and enticing held ; and. although hitherto its several 
parts have been held somewhat asunder by the force 
of circumstances, yet are its occupants drawn by nature 
into nearness of relationship, and will be brought yet 
nearer by advancing civilization; the common oceanic 
highway on the one side, and the great mountain ram- 
parts on the other, both tending to this result. The 
characteristics of this vast domain, material and social, 
are comparatively unknown and are essentially peculiar. 
To its exotic civilization all the so-called older nations 
of the world have contributed of their energies; and 
this composite mass, leavened by its destiny, is now 
working out the new problem of its future. The modern 
history of this West antedates that of the East by over 
a century, and although there may be apparent hetero- 


geneity in the subject thus territorially treated, there is 
an apparent tendency toward ultimate unity. 

To some it may be of interest to know the nature and 
extent of my resources for writing so important a series 
of works. The books and manuscripts necessary for the 
task existed in no library in the world; hence, in 1859, 
I commenced collecting material relative to the Pacific 
States. After securing everything within my reach in 
America, I twice visited Europe, spending about two 
years in thorough researches in England and the chief 
cities of the Continent. Having exhausted every avail- 
able source, I was obliged to content myself with lying 
in wait for opportunities. Not long afterward, and at 
a time when the prospect of materially adding to my 
collection seemed anything but hopeful, the BiUlolcca 
Imperial de Mejico, of the unfortunate Maximilian, col- 
lected during a period of forty years by Don Jose Maria 
Andrade, litterateur and publisher of the city of Mexico, 
was thrown upon the European market and furnished 
me about three thousand additional volumes. 

In 1869, having accumulated some sixteen thousand 
books, manuscripts, and pamphlets, besides maps and 
cumbersome files of Pacific Coast journals, I determined 
to go to work. But I soon found that, like Tantalus, 
while up to my neck in water, I w r as dying of thirst. 
The facts which I required were so copiously diluted 
with trash, that to follow different subjects through this 
trackless sea of erudition, in the exhaustive manner I 
had proposed, with but one life-time to devote to the 
work, was simply impracticable. In this emergency my 
friend, Mr Henry L. Oak, librarian of the collec- 
tion, came (o my relief. After many consultations, 
and not a few partial failures, a system of indexing the 


subject-matter of the whole library was devised, suffi- 
ciently general to be practicable, and sufficiently partic- 
ular to direct me immediately to all my authorities on 
any given point. The system, on trial, stands the test, 
and the index when completed, as it already is for the 
twelve hundred authors quoted in this work, will more 
than double the practical value of the libraiy. 

Of the importance of the task undertaken, I need 
not say that I have formed the highest opinion. At 
present the few grains of wheat are so hidden by 
the mountain of chaff as to be of comparatively little 
benefit to searchers in the various branches of learn- 
ing; and to sift and select from this mass, to extract 
from bulky tome and transient journal, from the archives 
of convent and mission, facts valuable to the scholar 
and interesting to the general reader; to arrange these 
facts in a natural order, and to present them in such a 
manner as to be of practical benefit to inquirers in the 
various branches of knowledge, is a work of no small 
import and responsibility. And though mine is the 
labor of the artisan rather than that of the artist, a forg- 
ing of weapons for abler hands to wield, a producing 
of raw materials for skilled mechanics to weave and 
color at will ; yet, in undertaking to bring to light from 
sources innumerable essential facts, which, from the 
very shortness of life if from no other cause, must other- 
wise be left out in the physical and social generalizations 
which occupy the ablest minds, I feel that I engage in 
no idle pastime. 

A word as to the Nations of which this work is a de- 
scription, and my method of treating the subjeot. Abo- 
riginally, for a savage wilderness, there was here a dense 
population; particularly south of the thirtieth parallel, 


and alon«; the border of the ocean north of that line. 
Before the advent of Europeans, this domain counted 
its aborigines by millions; ranked among its people 
every phase of primitive humanity, from the reptile- 
eating cave-dweller of the Great Basin, to the Aztec and 
Maya-Quiche civilization of the southern table-land, 
— a civilization, if we may credit Dr Draper, " that 
might have instructed Europe," a culture wantonly 
crushed by Spain, who therein " destroyed races more 
civilized than herself." 

Differing among themselves in minor particulars only, 
and bearing a general resemblance to the nations of east- 
ern and southern America; differing again, the whole, 
in character and cast of features from every other people 
of the w T orld, we have here presented hundreds of 
nations and tongues, with thousands of beliefs and 
customs, wonderfully dissimilar for so segregated a 
humanity, yet wonderfully alike for the inhabitants of 
a land that comprises within its limits nearly every phase 
of climate on the globe. At the touch of European 
civilization, whether Latin or Teutonic, these nations 
vanished; and their unwritten history, reaching back 
for thousands of ages, ended. All this time they had 
been coming and going, nations swallowing up nations, 
annihilating and being annihilated, amidst human con- 
vulsions and struggling civilizations. Their strange 
destiny fulfilled, in an instant they disappear; and all 
we have of them, besides their material relics, is the 
glance caught in their hasty flight, which gives us a 
few customs and traditions, and a little mythological 

To gather and arrange in systematic compact form all 
that is known of these people; to rescue some facts, 


perhaps, from oblivion, to bring others from inaccessible 
nooks, to render all available to science and to the 
general reader, is the object of this work. Necessarily 
some parts of it may be open to the charge of dryness; 
I have not been able to interlard my facts with interest- 
ing anecdotes for lack of space, and I have endeavored 
to avoid speculation, believing, as I do, the work of the 
collector and that of the theorizer to be distinct, and 
that he who attempts to establish some pet conjecture 
while imparting general information, can hardly be 
trusted for impartial statements. With respect to the 
territorial divisions of the first volume, which is con- 
fined to the Wild Tribes, and the necessity of giving 
descriptions of the same characteristics in each, there 
may be an appearance of repetition; but 1 trust this 
may be found more apparent than real. Although there 
are many similar customs, there are also many minor 
differences, and, as one of the chief difficulties of this 
volume was to keep it within reasonable limits, no delin- 
eation has been repeated where a necessity did not ap- 
pear to exist. The second volume, which treats of the 
Civilized Nations, offers a more fascinating field, and 
with ample space and all existing authorities at hand, 
the fault is the writer s if interest be not here combined 
with value. As regards Mythology, Languages, Antiq- 
uities, and Migrations, of which the three remaining 
volumes treat, it has been my aim to present clearly and 
concisely all knowledge extant on these subjects; and 
the work, as a whole, is intended to embody all facts that 
have been preserved concerning these people at the time 
of their almost simultaneous discovery and disappear- 
ance. It will be noticed that I have said little of the 
natives or their deeds since the coming of the Euro- 


peans; of their wars against invaders and among them- 
selves; of repartimientos, presidios, missions, reserva- 
tions, and other institutions for their conquest, conver- 
sion, protection, or oppression. My reason for this is 
that all these things, so far as they have any importance, 
belong to the modern history of the country and will 
receive due attention in a subsequent work. 

In these five volumes, besides information acquired 
from sources not therein named, are condensed the re- 
searches of twelve hundred writers, a list of whose works, 
with the edition used, is given in this volume. I 
have endeavored to state fully and clearly in my text 
the substance of the matter, and in reaching my conclu- 
sions to use due discrimination as to the respective value 
of different authorities. In the notes I give liberal quo- 
tations, both corroborative of the text, and touching points 
on which authors differ, together with complete references 
to all authorities, including some of little value, on each 
point, for the use of readers or writers who may either 
be dissatisfied with my conclusions, or may wish to in- 
vestigate any particular branch of the subject farther 
than mv limits allow. 

I have given full credit to each of the many authors 
from whom I have taken material, and if, in a few in- 
stances, a scarcity of authorities has compelled me to 
draw somewhat largely on the few who have treated par- 
ticular points, I trust I shall be pardoned in view of 
the comprehensive nature of the work. Quotations 
are made in the languages in which they are written, 
and great pains has been taken to avoid mutilation of 
the author's words. As the books quoted form part of 
my private library, I have been able, by comparison 
with the originals, to carefully verify all references after 


they were put in type; hence I may confidently hope 
that fewer errors have crept in than are usually found 
in works of such variety and extent. 

The labor involved in the preparation of these volumes 
will be appreciated by few. That expended on the first 
volume alone, with all the material before me, is more 
than equivalent to the well-directed efforts of one person 
for ten years. In the work of selecting, sifting, and ar- 
ranging my subject-matter, I have called in the aid of a 
large corps of assistants, and, while desiring to place on 
no one but myself any responsibility for the work, either 
in style or matter, I would render just acknowledgment 
for the services of all; especially to the following gentle- 
men, for the efficient manner in which, each in his 
special department, they have devoted their energies and 
abilities to the carrying out of my plan ; — to Mr T. 
Arundel-Harcourt, in the researches on the manners 
and customs of the Civilized Nations; to Mr Walter M. 
Fisher, in the investigation of Mythology ; to Mr Albert 
Goldschmidt, in the treatise on Language: and to Mr 
Henry L. Oak, in the subject of Antiquities and Aborig- 
inal History. 






Facts and Theories — Hypotheses concerning Origin — Unity of Race — 
Diversity of Race — Spontaneous Generation— Origin of Animals 
and Plants — Primordial Centres of Population — Distribution of 
Plants and Animals — Adaptability of Species to Locality -Classifi- 
cation of Species — Ethnological Tests — Races of the Pacific — First 
Intercourse with Europeans 1 



General Divisions — Hyperborean Nations— Aspects of Nature — Vegeta- 
tion — Climate — Animals— The Eskimos — Their Country — Physical 
Characteristics — Dress — Dwellings — Food — Weapons — Boats — 
Sledges — Snow-Shoes — Government — Domestic Affairs — Amuse- 
ments — Diseases — Burial — The Koniagas, their Physical and Social 
Condition— The Aleuts— The Thlinkeets— The Tinneh 33 



Habitat of the Columbian Group — Physical Geography — Sources of 
Food Supply— Influence of Food and Climate — Four extreme Classes 
— Haidahs— Their Home — Physical Peculiarities — Clothing— Shel- 
ter — Sustenance — Implements — Manufactures —Arts— Property- 
Laws — Slavery — Women — Customs — Medicine — Death — TheNoot- 
kas — The Sound Nations — The Chinooks — The Shush waps— The 
Salish — The Sahaptins 150 



Groupal Divisions; Northern, Central, and Southern Calif ornians, and 
Shoshones — Country of the Calif ornians— The Klamaths, Modocs, 
Shastas, Pitt River Indians, Eurocs, Cahrocs, Hoopahs, Weeyots, 



Tolewahs, and Rogue River Indians and their Customs— The Teha- 
mas, Pomos, Ukiahs, Gualalas, Sonomas, Petalumas, Nap-is, Sus- 
cols, Suisunes, Tamales, Karquines, Tulomos, Thamiens, Olchones, 
Runsiens, Escelens, and others of Central California— The Ca- 
lmillos, Diegueiios, Islanders, and Mission Rancherias of Southern 
California — The Snakes or Shoshones proper, Utahs, Bannocks, 
Washoes and other Shoshone Nations 322 



Geographical Position of this Group, and Physical Features of the Ter- 
ritory — Family Divisions; Apaches, Pueblos, Lower Californians, 
and Northern Mexicans — The Apache Family: Comanches, Apaches 
proper, Hnalapais, Yumas, Cosuinos, Yampais, Yalchedunes, Ya- 
majabs, Cruzados, Nijoras, Navajos, Mojaves, and their customs 
— The Pueblo Family: Pueblos, Moquis, Pimas, Maricopas, Papa- 
gos, and their Neighbors — The Cochimis, Waicuris, Pericuis, and 
other Lower Californians — The Seris, Sinaloas, Tarahumares, Con- 
chos, Tepehuanes, Tobosos, Acaxees, and others in Northern 
Mexico 471 



Territorial Aspects — Two Main Divisions; Wild Tribes of Central Mex- 
ico, and Wild Tribes of Southern Mexico — The Coras and others in 
Jalisco — Descendants of the Aztecs — The Otomis and Mazahuas 
Adjacent to the Valley of Mexico — The Pames— The Tarascos and 
Matlaltzincas of Michoacan — The Huaztecs and Totonacos of Vera 
Cruz and Tamaulipas — The Chontales, Chinantecs, Mazatecs, Cui- 
catecs, Chatinos, Miztecs, Zapotecs, Mijes, Huaves, Chiapanecs, 
Zoques, Lacandones, Choles, Mames, Tzotziles, Tzendales, Cho- 
chones and others of Southern Mexico 615 



Physical Geography and Climate — Three Groupal Divisions; First, the 
nations of Yucatan, Guatemala, Salvador, Western Honduras, and 
Nicaragua; Second, The Mosquitos of Honduras; Third, the na- 
tions of Costa Rica and the Isthmus of Panama — The Popolucas, 
Pipiles and Chontales — The Descendants of the Maya-Quiche Races 
— The Natives of Nicaragua — The Mosquitos, Poyas, Ramas, Len- 
cas, Towkas, Woolwas, and Xicaques of Honduras — The Guatusos 
of the Rio Frio — The Caimanes, Bayamos, Dorachos, Goajiros, 
Mandingos, Savanerics, Sayrones, and Viscitas living in Costa Rica 
and on the Isthmus 68i 


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Facts and Theories — Hypotheses concerning Origin — Unity of Race — 
Diversity or Race — Spontaneous Generation — Origin op Animals and 
Plants — Primordial Centres of Population — Distribution of Plants 
and Animals — Adaptability of Species to Locality — ClassotcatiON 
of Species — Ethnological Tests — Races of the Pacific — First Inter- 
course "with Europeans. 

Facts are the raw material of science. They are to 
philosophy and history, what cotton and iron are to 
cloth and steam-engines. Like the raw material of the 
manufacturer, they form the bases of innumerable fabrics, 
are woven into many theories finely spun or coarsely 
spun, which wear out with time, become unfashionable, 
or else prove to be indeed true and fit, and as such re- 
main. This raw material of the scholar, like that of the 
manufacturer, is always a staple article ; its substance 
never changes, its value never diminishes ; whatever 

G 7 7 

may be the condition of society, or howsoever advanced 
the mind, it is indispensable. Theories may be only for 
the day, but facts are for all time and for all science. 
When we remember that the sum of all knowledge is 
but the sum of ascertained facts, and that every new 


fact brought to light, preserved, and thrown into the 
general fund, is so much added to the world's store of 
knowledge, — when we consider that, broad and far as our 
theories may reach, the realm of definite, tangible, ascer- 
tained truth is still of so little extent, the impoitance 
of every never-so-insignificant acquisition is manifest. 
Compare any fact with the fancies which have been 
prevalent concerning it, and consider, 1 will not say 
their relative brilliance, but their relative importance. 
Take electricity, how many explanations have been 
given of the lightning and the thunder, yet there is but 
one fact; the atmosphere, how many howling demons 
have directed the tempest, how many smiling deities 
moved in the soft breeze. For the one all-sufficient 
First Cause, how many myriads of gods have been set 
up; for every phenomenon how many causes have been 
invented ; with every truth how many untruths have 
contended, with every fact how many fancies. The 
profound investigations of latter-day philosophers are 
nothing but simple and laborious inductions from ascer- 
tained facts, facts concerning attraction, polarity, chemi- 
cal affinity and the like, for the explanation of which 
there are countless hypotheses, each hypothesis involving 
multitudes of speculations, all of which evaporate as the 
truth slowly crystallizes. Speculation is valuable to 
science only as it directs the mind into other \v ise-undis- 
coverable paths ; but when the truth is found, there is 
an end to speculation. 

So much for facts in general ; let us now look for a 
moment at the particular class of facts of which this 
work is a collection. 

The tendency of philosophic inquiry is more and more 
toward the origin of things. In the earlier stages of 
intellectual impulse, the mind is almost wholly absorbed 
in ministering to the necessities of the present ; next, the 
mysterious uncertainty of the after life provokes inquiry, 
and contemplations of an eternity of the future command 
attention ; but not until knowledge is well advanced 


docs it appear that there is likewise an eternity of the 
bast worthy of careful scrutiny,— without which scrutiny, 
indeed, the eternity of the future must forever remain 
a sealed book. Standing as we do between these 
two eternities, our view limited to a narrow though 
gradually widening horizon, as nature unveils her mys- 
teries to our inquiries, an infinity spreads out in either 
direction, an infinity of minuteness no loss than an 
infinity of immensity ; for hitherto, attempts to reach the 
ultimate of molecules, have proved as futile as attempts 
to reach the ultimate of mass* Now man. the noblest 
work of creation, the only reasoning creature, standing 
alone in the midst of this vast sea of undiscovered truth, — 
ultimate knowledge ever receding from his grasp, prima] 

causes only thrown farther hack as proximate problems 
are solved.- man. in the study of mankind, must follow 
his researches in both of those directions, backward as 
well as forward, must indeed derive his whole knowl- 
edge of what man is and will be from what he has been. 
Thus it is that the study of mankind in its minuteness 
assumes the grandest proportions. Viewed in this light 
there is not a feature of primitive humanity without sig- 
nificance; there is not a eustom or characteristic of siv- 
age nations, however mean or revolting to us. from which 
important lessons may not he drawn. It is only from 
the study of barbarous and partially cultivated nations 
that we are able to comprehend man as a progressive 
being, and to recognize the successive stages through 
which our savage ancestors have passed on their way to 
civilization. AVith the natural philosopher, there is little 
thought as to the relative importance of the manifold 
works of creation. The tiny insect is no less an object 
of his patient scrutiny, than the wonderful and complex 
machinery of the cosmos. The lower races of men. in 
the study of humanity, he deems of as essential import- 
ance as the higher ; our present higher races being but 
the lower types of generations yet to come. 

Hence, if in the following pages, in the array of 


minute facts incident to the successive peoples of which 
we speak, some of them appear small and unworthy of 
notice, let it be remembered that in nature there is no 
such thing as insignificance ; still less is there anything 
connected w T ith man unworthy of our most careful study, 
or any peculiarity of savagism irrelevant to civilization. 

Different schools of naturalists maintain widely differ- 
ent opinions regarding the origin of mankind. Existing 
theories may be broadly divided into three categories; 
in the first two of which man is considered as a special 
creation, and in the third as a natural development from 
some lower type. The special-creation school is divided 
on the question of unity or diversity of race. The first 
party holds by the time-honored tradition, that all the 
nations of the earth are descended from a single human 
pair ; the second affirms, that by one creative act were pro- 
duced several special creations, each separate creation being 
the origin of a race, and each race priinordially adapted 
to that part of the globe which it now inhabits. The third 
theory, that of the development school, denies that there 
ever were common centres of origin in organic creation ; 
but claims that plants and animals generate spontane- 
ously, and that man is but the modification of some pre- 
existing animal form. 

The first hypothesis, the doctrine of the monogenists, 
is ably supported by Latham, Prichard, and many other 
eminent ethnologists of Europe, and is the favorite 
opinion of orthodox thinkers throughout Christendom. 
The human race, they say, having sprung from a single 
pair, constitutes but one stock, though subject to various 
modifications. Anatomicallv, there is no difference be- 
tween a Negro and a European. The color of the skin, 
the texture of the hair, the convolutions of the brain, 
and all other peculiarities, may be attributed to heat, 
moisture, and food. Man, though capable of subduing 
the world to himself, and of making his home under 
climates and circumstances the most diverse, is none the 


loss a child of nature, acted upon and molded by those 
conditions which he attempts to govern. Climate, peri- 
odicities of nature, material surroundings, habits of 
thought and modes of life, acting through a long series 
of ages, exercise a powerful influence upon the human 
physical organization; and yet man is perfectly created 
for any sphere in which he may dwell; and is governed 
in his condition by choice rather than by coercion. 
Articulate language, which forms the great line of de- 
marcation between the human and the brute creation. 
may he traced in its leading characteristics to one com- 
mon source. The differences between the races of men 
are not specific differences. The greater part of the 
flora and fauna of America, those of the cir cum polar 
regions excepted, are essentially dissimilar to those of 
the old world; while man in the new world, though 

7 > 

bearing traces of high antiquity, is specifically identical 
with all the races of the earth. It is well known that 
the hybrids of plants and of animals do not possess the 
power of reproduction, while in the intermixture of the 
races of men no such sterility of progeny can be found; 
and therefore, as there are no human hybrids, there are 
no separate human races or species, hut all are one fam- 
ily. Besides being consistent with sound reasoning, this 
theory can bring to its support the testimony of the 
sacred writings, and an internal evidence of a creation 
divine and spiritual, which is sanctioned by tradition, 
and confirmed by most philosophic minds. Man, 
unlike animals, is the direct offspring of the Creator, 
and as such he alone continues to derive his inherit- 
ance from a divine source. The Hebraic record, con- 
tinue the monogenists, is the only authentic solution of 
the origin of all things; and its history is not only fully 
sustained by science, hut it is upheld by the traditions 
of the most ancient barbarous nations, whose mythology 
strikingly resemhles the Mosaic account of the creation, 
the deluge, and the distribution of peoples. The Semitic 
family alone were civilized from the beginning. A pe- 


culiar people, constantly upheld by special act of Provi- 
dence from falling into paganism, they alone possessed a 
true knowledge of the mystery of creation. A universal 
necessity for some form of worship, a belief inherent in 
all mankind, in an omnipotent deity and a life beyond 
the grave, point to a common origin and prophesy a 
common destiny. This much for the monogenists. 

The second hypothesis, that of the polygenistsj holds 
that there was not one only, but several independent 
creations, each giving birth to the essential, unchangeable 
peculiarities of a separate race; thus constituting a di- 
versity of species with primeval adaptation to their 
geographical distribution. Morton, Agassi/, Gliddon, 
and others in America, stand sponsors for this theory. 
The physiological differences of race, they say, which 
separate mankind into classes, do not result from climatic 
surroundings, but are inherited from original progenitors. 
They point to marked characteristics in various peoples 
which have remained unchanged for a period of four 
thousand years. In place of controverting divine reve- 
lation, they claim that .Mosaic history is the history of a 
single race, and not the history of all mankind; that the 
record itself contains an implied existence of other races ; 
and that the distribution of the various species or races 
of men, according to their relative organisms, was part 
of the creative act, and of no less importance than was 
the act of creation. 

The third hypothesis, derived mainly from the writ- 
ings of Lamarck, Darwin, and Huxley, is based upon the 
principle of evolution. All existing species are develop- 
ments of some preexisting form, which in like manner 
descended by true generation from a form still lower. 
Man, say they, bears no impress of a divine original that is 
not common to brutes; he is but an animal, more perfectly 
developed through natural and sexual selection. Com- 
mencing with the spontaneous generation of the lowest 
types of vegetable and animal life, — as the accumulation 
of mold upon food, the swarming of maggots in meat, 


the infusorial animalcules in water, the generation of 
insect life in decaying vegetable substances, — the birth of 
one form arising out of the decay of another, the slow 

and gradual unfolding from a lower to a higher sphere, 
acting through along succession of ages, culminate in the 
grandeur of intellectual manhood. Thus much lor this 
life while the hope of a like continued progress is enter- 
tained for the life to come. \\ Idle the tendency of variety 
in organic forms is to decrease, argue these latter-day 
naturalists, individuals increase in a proportion greater 
than the provisional means of Bupport. A predomi- 
nating species, under favorable circumstances, rapidly 
multiplies, crowding but and annihilating opposing spe- 
cies. There is therefore a constant struggle for existence 
in nature, in which the strongest, those best fitted to live 
and improve their species, prevail; while the deformed 
and ill-favored are destroyed. In courtship and sexual 
selection the war for precedence continues. Throughout 
nature the male is the wooer; he it is who is armed for 
fight, and provided with musical organs and ornamental 
appendages, with which to charm the fair one. The 
savage and the wild beast alike secure their mate over 
the mangled form of a vanquished rival. In this man- 
ner the more highly favored of either sex are mated, 
and natural selections made, by which, hotter ever pro- 
ducing better, the species in its constant variation is 
constantly improved. Many remarkable resemblances 
may he seen between man and the inferior animals. In 
embryonic development, in physical structure, in material 
composition and the function of organs, man and animals 
are strikingly alike. And, in the possession of that 
immaterial nature which more widely separates the 
human from the brute creation, the l reasonable soul ' 
of man is but an evolution from brute instincts. The 
difference in the mental faculties of man and ani- 
mals is immense ; but the high culture which belongs to 
man has been slowly developed, and there is plainly a 
wider separation between the mental power of the lowest 


zoophyte and the highest ape, than between the most 
intellectual ape and the least intellectual man. Physi- 
cally and mentally, the man-like ape and the ape-like 
man sustain to each other a near relationship; while 
between the mammal and the mollusk there exists the 
greatest possible dissimilarity. Articulate language, it 
is true, acting upon the brain, and in turn being acted 
upon to the improvement of both, belongs only to man ; 
yet animals are not devoid of expedients for express- 
ing feeling and emotion. It has been observed that no 
brute ever fashioned a tool for a special purpose; but 
some animals crack nuts with a stone, and an accident- 
ally splintered flint naturally suggests itself as the first 
instrument of primeval man. The chief difficulty lies 
in the high state of moral and intellectual power which 
may be attained by man; yet this same progressive 
principle is likewise found in brutes. Nor need we 
blush for our origin. The nations now most civilized 
were once barbarians. Our ancestors were savages, who, 
with tangled hair, and glaring eyes, and blood-besmeared 
hands, devoured man and beast alike. Surely a re- 
spectable gorilla lineage stands no unfavorable compari- 

Between the first and the last of these three rallying 
points, a whole continent of debatable land is spread, 
stretching from the most conservative orthodox3 r to the 
most scientific liberalism. Numberless arguments may 
be advanced to sustain any given position ; and not un- 
frequently the same analogies are brought forward to 
prove propositions directly oppugnant. As has been ob- 
served, each school ranks among its followers the ablest 
men of science of the day. These men do not differ in 
minor particulars only, meeting in general upon one 
broad, common platform; on the contrary, they find 
themselves unable to agree as touching any one thing, 
except that man is, and that he is surrounded by those 
climatic influences best suited to his organization. Any 
one of these theories, if substantiated, is the death-blow 


of the others. The first denies any diversity of species 
in creation and all immutability of race; the second 
denies a unity of species and the possibility of change 
in race ; the third denies all special acts of creation and, 
like the first, all immutability of race. 

The question respecting the origin of animals and 
plants has likewise undergone a similar flux of beliefs, 
but with different result. Whatever the conclusions 
may be with regard to the origin of man, naturalists of 
the present day very generally agree, that there was no 
one universal centre of propagation for plants and ani- 
mals; but that the same conditions of soil, moisture, 
heat, and geographical situation, always produce a simi- 
larity of species; or, what is equivalent, that there were 
many primary centres, each originating species, which 
spread out from these centres and covered the earth. 
This doctrine was held by early naturalists to be irrecon- 
cilable with the Scripture account of the creation, and 
was therefore denounced as heretical. Linnams and his 
contemporaries drew up a pleasing picture, assigning the 
birth-place of all forms of life to one particular fertile 
spot, situated in a genial climate, and so diversified with 
lofty mountains and declivities, as to present all the 
various temperatures requisite for the sustenance of the 
different species of animal and vegetable life. The most 
exuberant types of flora and fauna are found within the 
tropical regions, decreasing in richness and profusion 
towards either pole ; while man in his greatest perfection 
occupies the temperate zone, degenerating in harmony of 
features, in physical symmetry, and in intellectual vigor 
in either direction. Within this temperate zone is placed 
the hypothetical cradle of the human race, varying in 
locality according to religion and tradition. The Cau- 
casians are referred for their origin to Mount Caucasus, 
the Mongolians to Mount Altai, and the Africans to 
Mount Atlas. Three primordial centres of population 
have been assigned to the three sons of Noah, — Arabia, 
the Semitic ; India, the Japetic ; and Egypt, the Hamitic 


centre. Thibet, and the mountains surrounding the Gobi 
desert, have been designated as the point from which a 
general distribution was made ; while the sacred writings 
mention four rich and beautiful valleys, two of which are 
watered by the Tigris and Euphrates, as the birth-place 
of man. It was formerly believed that in the beginning, 
the primeval ocean covered the remaining portion of the 
globe, and that from this central spot the waters receded, 
thereby extending the limits of terrestrial life. 

Admitting the unity of origin, conjecture points with 
apparent reason to the regions of Armenia and of Iran, 
in western Asia, as the cradle of the human race. De- 
parting from this geographical centre, in the directions 
of the extremities of the continent, the race at first de- 
generated in proportion to distance. Civilization was for 
many ages confined within these central limits, until by 
slow degrees, paths were marked out to the eastward and 
to the westward, terminating the one upon the eastern 
coast of Asia, and the other upon the American shores 
of the Pacific. 

Concerning the distribution of plants and animals, 
but one general opinion is now sustained with any de- 
gree of reason. The beautifully varied systems of vege- 
tation with which the habitable earth is clothed, springing 
up in rich, spontaneous abundance ; the botanical centres 
of corresponding latitudes producing resemblance in gen- 
era without identity of species; their inability to cross 
high mountains or wide seas, or to pass through inhospi- 
table zones, or in any way to spread far from the original 
centre, — all show conclusively the impossibility that such 
a multitude of animal and vegetable tribes, with char- 
acters so diverse, could have derived their origin from 
the same locality, and disappearing entirely from their 
original birth-place, sprung forth in some remote part of 
the globe. Linnaeus, and many others of his time, held 
that all telluric tribes, in common with mankind, sprang 
from a single pair, and descended from the stock which 
was preserved by Noah. Subsequently this opinion was 


modified, giving to each species an origin in some certain 
spot to which it was particularly adapted by nature ; and 
it was supposed that from these primary centres, through 
secondary causes, there was a general diffusion through- 
out the surrounding regions. 

A comparison of the entomology of the old world and 
the new, shows that the genera and species of insects are 
for the most part peculiar to the localities in which they 
are found. Birds and marine animals, although unre- 
stricted in their movements, seldom wander far from 
specific centres. With regard to wild beasts, and the 
larger animals, insurmountable difficulties present them- 
selves; so that we may infer that the systems of animal 
life are indigenous to the great zoological provinces 
where they are found. 

On the other hand, the harmony which exists be- 
tween the organism of man and the methods by which 
nature meets his requirements, tends conclusively to 
show that the world in its variety was made for man, 
and that man is made for any portion of the earth in 
which he may be found. Whencesoever he comes, or 
howsoever he reaches his dwelling-place, he always finds it 
prepared for him. On the icy banks of the Arctic Ocean, 
where mercury freezes and the ground never softens, the 
Eskimo, wrapped in furs, and burrowing in the earth, 
revels in grease and train-oil, sustains vitality by eating 
raw flesh and whale-fat; while the naked inter-tropical 
man luxuriates in life under a burning sun, where ether 
boils and reptiles shrivel upon the hot stone over which 
they attempt to crawl. The watery fruit and shading 
vegetation would be as useless to the one, as the heating 
food and animal clothing would be to the other. 

The capability of man to endure all climates, his om- 
nivorous habits, and his powers of locomotion, enable 
him to roam at will over the earth. He was endowed 
with intelligence wherewith to invent methods of migra- 
tion and means of protection from unfavorable climatic 
influence, and with capabilities for existing in almost 


any part of the world ; so that, in the economy of nature 
the necessity did not exist with regard to man for that 
diversity of creation which was deemed requisite in the 
case of plants and animals. 

The classification of man into species or races, so as 
to be able to designate by his organization the family to 
which he belongs, as well as the question of his origin, 
has been the subject of great diversity of opinion, from 
the fact that the various forms so graduate into each 
other, that it is impossible to determine which is species 
and which variety. Attempts have indeed been made 
at divisions of men into classes according to their pri- 
meval and permanent physiological structure, but what 
uniformity can be expected from such a classification 
among naturalists who cannot so much as agree what is 
primeval and what permanent ? 

The tests applied by ethnologists for distinguishing the 
race to which an individual belongs, are the color of the 
skin, the size and shape of the skull, — determined gen- 
erally by the facial angle, — the texture of the hair, and 
the character of the features. The structure of language, 
also, has an important bearing upon the affinity of races ; 
and is, with some ethnologists, the primary criterion in 
the classification of species. The facial angle is deter- 
mined by a line drawn from the forehead to the 
front of the upper jaw, intersected by a horizontal line 
passing over the middle of the ear. The facial angle 
of a European is estimated at 85°, of a Negro at 75°, 
and of the ape at 60°. Representations of an adult 
Troglodyte measure 35°, and of a Satyr 30°. Some 
writers classify according to one or several of these tests, 
others consider them all in arriving at their conclusions. 

Thus, Yirey divides the human family into two 
parts: those with a facial angle of from eighty-five 
to ninety degrees, — embracing the Caucasian, Mongo- 
lian, and American; and those with a facial angle of 

7 / O 

from seventy -five to eighty -two degrees, — including 
the Malay, Negro, and Hottentot. Cuvier and Jaquinot 


make three classes, placing the Malay and American 
among Jhe subdivisions of the Mongolian. Kant makes 
four divisions under four colors: white, black, copper, and 
olive. Linnaeus also makes four: European, whitish; 
American, coppery; Asiatic, tawny; and African, black. 
Buffon makes live divisions and Blumenbach five. Blu- 
menbach's classification is based upon cranial admeasure- 
ments, complexion, and texture of the hair. His divis- 
ions are Caucasian or Aryan, Mongolian, Ethiopian, 
Malay, and American. Lesson makes six divisions ac- 
cording to colors : white, dusky, orange, yellow, red, 
and black. Bory de St Vincent arranges fifteen stocks 
under three classes which are differenced by hair: Euro- 
pean straight hair, American straight hair, and crisped 
or curly hair. In like manner Prof. Zeune designates 
his divisions under three types of crania for the eastern 
hemisphere, and three for the western, namely, high 
skulls, broad skulls, and long skulls. Hunter classifies 
the human family under seven species; Agassiz makes 
eight ; Pickering, eleven ; Desmoulins, sixteen ; and 
Crawford, sixty-three. Dr Latham, considered by many 
the chief exponent of the science of ethnology in En- 
gland, classifies the different races under three primary 
divisions, namely: Mongolidae, Atlantidce, and Japetidoe. 
Prichard makes three principal tj 7 pes of cranial conforma- 
tion, which he denominates respectively, the civilized 
races, the nomadic or wandering races, and the savage 
or hunting races. Agassiz designates the races of men 
according to the zoological provinces which they respect- 
ively occupy. Thus the Arctic realm is inhabited by 
Hyperboreans, the Asiatic by Mongols, the European 
by white men, the American by American Indians, the 
African by black races, and the East Indian, Australian 
and Polynesian by their respective peoples. 

Now when we consider the wide differences between 
naturalists, not only as to what constitutes race and 
species, — if there be variety of species in the human 
family, — but also in the assignment of peoples and indi- 


viduals to their respective categories under the direction 
of the given tests; when we see the human race classi- 
fied under from one to sixty -three distinct species, 
according to individual opinions; and when we see that 
the several tests which govern classification are by no 
means satisfactory, and that those who have made this 
subject the study of their lives, cannot agree as touching 
the fundamental characteristics of such classification — 
we cannot but conclude, either that there are no abso- 
lute lines of separation between the various members of 
the human family, or that thus far the touchstone by 
which such separation is to be made remains undis- 

The color of the human skin, for example, is no cer- 
tain guide in classification. Microscopists have ascer- 
tained that the normal colorations of the skin are not the 
results of organic differences in race ; that complexions 
are not permanent physical characters, but are sub- 
ject to change. Climate is a cause of physical differ- 
ences, and frequently in a single tribe may be found 
shades of color extending through all the various transi- 
tions from black to white. In one people, part occupying 
a cold mountainous region, and part a heated low- 
land, a marked difference in color is always perceptible. 
Peculiarities in the texture of the hair are likewise no 
proof of race. The hair is more sensibly affected by 
the action of the climate than the skin. Every degree 
of color and crispation may be found in the Euro- 
pean family alone; and even among the frizzled locks 
of negroes every gradation appears, from crisped to 
flowing hair. The growth of the beard may be cul- 
tivated or retarded according to the caprice of the indi- 
vidual ; and in those tribes which are characterized by an 
absence or thinness of beard, may be found the practice, 
continued for ages, of carefully plucking out all traces 
of beard at the age of puberty. No physiological de- 
formities have been discovered which prevent any people 
from cultivating a beard if such be their pleasure. The 


conformation of the cranium is often peculiar to habits 
of rearing the young, and may be modified by acci- 
dental or artificial causes. The most eminent scholars 
now hold the opinion that the size and shape of the skull 
has far less influence upon the intelligence of the indi- 
vidual than the quality and convolutions of the brain. 
The structure of language, especially when offered in 
evidence supplementary to that of physical science, is 
most important in establishing a relationship between 
races. But it should be borne in mind that languages 
are acquired, not inherited ; that they are less permanent 
than living organisms ; that they are constantly changing, 
merging into each other, one dialect d} : ing out and an- 
other springing into existence; that in the migrations of 
nomadic tribes, or in the arrival of new nations, although 
languages may for a time preserve their severalty, they 
are at last obliged, from necessity, to yield to the as- 
similating influences which constantly surround them, 
and become merged into the dialects of neighboring 
clans. And on the other hand, a counter influence 
is exercised upon the absorbing dialect. The dialectic 
fusion of two communities results in the partial disap- 
pearance of both languages, so that a constant assimilation 
and dissimilation is going on. " The value of language," 
says Latham, " has been overrated;" and Whitney 
affirms that "language is no infallible sign of race;" 
although both of these authors give to language the first 
place as a test of national affinities. Language is not a 
physiological characteristic, but an acquisition; and as 
such should be used with care in the classification of 

Science, during the last half century, has unfolded 
many important secrets ; has tamed impetuous elements, 
called forth power and life from the hidden recesses of 
the earth; has aroused the slumbering energies of both 
mental and material force, changed the currents of 
thought, emancipated the intellect from religious tran- 
scendentalism, and spread out to the broad light of open 


day a vast sea of truth. Old-time beliefs have had to 
give place. The debris of one exploded dogma is scarcely 
cleared away before we are startled with a request for 
the yielding up of another long and dearly cherished 
opinion. And in the attempt to read the book of hu- 
manity as it comes fresh from the impress of nature, to 
trace the history of the human race, by means of moral 
and physical characteristics, backward through all its 
intricate windings to its source, science has accomplished 
much; but the attempt to solve the great problem of 
human existence, by analogous comparisons of man with 
man, and man with animals, has so far been vain and 
futile in the extreme. 

I would not be understood as attempting captiously to 
decry the noble efforts of learned men to solve the prob- 
lems of nature. For who can tell what may or may 
not be found out by inquiry? Any classification, more- 
over, and any attempt at classification, is better than 
none; and in drawing attention to the uncertainty of 
the conclusions arrived at by science, I but reiterate 
the opinions of the most profound thinkers of the day. 
It is only shallow and flippant scientists, so called, 
who arbitrarily force deductions from mere postulates, 
and with one sweeping assertion strive to annihilate all 
history and tradition. They attempt dogmatically to set 
up a reign of intellect in opposition to that of the Author 
of intellect. Terms of vituperation and contempt with 
which a certain class of writers interlard their sophisms, 
as applied to those holding different opinions, are alike 
an offense against good taste and sound reasoning. 

Notwithstanding all these failures to establish rules 
by which mankind may be divided into classes, there 
yet remains the stubborn fact that differences do exist, 
as palpable as the difference between daylight and 
darkness. These differences, however, are so played 
upon by change, that hitherto the scholar has been un- 
able to transfix those elements which appear to him 
permanent and characteristic. For, as Draper remarks, 


" the permanence of organic forms is altogether depend- 
ent on the invariability of the material conditions under 
which they live. Any variation therein, no matter how 
insignificant it might be, would be forthwith followed by 
a corresponding variation in form. The present invari- 
ability of the world of organization is the direct conse- 
quence of the physical equilibrium, and so it will con- 
tinue as long as the mean temperature, the annual supply 
of light, the composition of the air, the distribution of 
water, oceanic and atmospheric currents, and other such 
agencies, remain unaltered; but if any one of these, or 
of a hundred other incidents that might be mentioned, 
should suffer modification, in an instant the fanciful doc- 
trine of the immutability of species would be brought to 
its true value." 

The American Indians, their origin and consanguinity. 
have, from the days of Columbus to the present time 
proved no less a knotty question. Schoolmen and scien- 
tists count their theories by hundreds, each sustaining 
some pet conjecture, with a logical clearness equaled 
only by the facility with which he demolishes all the 
rest. One proves their origin by holy writ; another 
by the writings of ancient philosophers ; another by the 
sage sayings of the Fathers. One discovers in them 
Phoenician merchants; another, the ten lost tribes of 
Israel. They are tracked with equal certainty from 
Scandinavia, from Ireland, from Iceland, from Green- 
land, across Bering Strait, across the northern Pacific, 
the southern Pacific, from the Polvnesian Islands, from 

7 */ 

Australia, from Africa. Venturesome Carthaginians were 
thrown upon the eastern shore ; Japanese junks on the 
western. The breezes that wafted hither America' s primo- 
genitors are still blowing, and the ocean currents by which 
they came cease not yet to flow. The finely spun webs of 
logic by which these fancies are maintained would prove 
amusing, did not the profound earnestness of their re- 
spective advocates render them ridiculous. Acosta, w 7 ho 
studied the subject for nine years in Peru, concludes 

Vol. I. 2 


that America was the Ophir of Solomon. Aristotle re- 
lates that the Carthaginians in a voyage were carried to 
an unknown island ; whereupon Florian, Gomara, Oviedo, 
and others, are satisfied that the island was Espafiola. 
" Who are these that fly like clouds/' exclaims Esaias, 
" or like doves to their windows ?" Scholastic sa^es 
answer, Columbus is the columba or dove here prophesied. 
Alexo Yanegas shows that America was peopled by Car- 
thaginians; Anahuac being but another name for Anak. 
Besides, both nations practiced picture-writing; both 
venerated fire and water, wore skins of animals, pierced 
the ears, ate dogs, drank to excess, telegraphed by means 
of fires on hills, wore all their finery on going to war, 
poisoned their arrows, beat drums and shouted in battle. 
Garcia found a man in Peru who had seen a rock with 
something very like Greek letters engraved upon it ; six 
hundred years after the apotheosis of Hercules, Coleo 
made a long voyage; Homer knew of the ocean; the 
Athenians waged war with the inhabitants of Atlantis ; 
hence the American Indians were Greeks. Lord Kings- 
borough proves conclusively that these same American 
Indians were Jews: because their " symbol of inno- 
cence " was in the one case a fawn and in the other a 
lamb; because of the law of Moses, " considered in ref- 
erence to the custom of sacrificing children, which ex- 
isted in Mexico and Peru ;" because " the fears of tumults 
of the people, famine, pestilence, and warlike invasions, 
were exactly the same as those entertained by the Jews 
if they failed in the performance of any of their ritual 
observances;" because "the education of children com- 
menced amongst the Mexicans, as with the Jews, at an 
exceedingly early age;" because "beating with a stick 
was a very common punishment amongst the Jews," as 
well as among the Mexicans; because the priesthood of 
both nations "was hereditary in a certain family;" be- 
cause both were inclined to pay great respect to lucky 
or unlucky omens, such as the screeching of the owl, 
the sneezing of a person in company," etc., and because 


of a hundred other equally sound and relevant argu- 
ments. Analogous reasoning to this of Lord Kings- 
borough's was that of the Merced Indians of California. 
Shortly after the discovery of the Yosemite A^alley, 
tidings reached the settlers of Mariposa that certain 
chiefs had united with intent to drop down from their 
mountain stronghold and annihilate them. To show 
the Indians the uselessness of warring upon white men, 
these chieftains were invited to visit the city of San 
Francisco, where, from the number and superiority of 
the people that they would there behold, they should 
become intimidated, and thereafter maintain peace. But 
contrary to the most reasonable expectations, no sooner had 
the dusky delegates returned to their home than a coun- 
cil was called, and the assembled warriors were informed 
that they need have no fear of these strangers: " For," 
said the envoys, "the people of the great city of San Fran- 
cisco are of a different tribe from these white settlers of 
Mariposa. Their manners, their customs, their language, 
their dress, are all different. They wear black coats and 
high hats, and are not able to walk along the smoothest 
path without the aid of a stick." 

There are many advocates for an Asiatic origin, both 
among ancient and modern speculators. Favorable 
winds and currents, the short distance between islands, 
traditions, both Chinese and Indian, refer the peopling of 
America to that quarter. Similarity in color, features, 
religion, reckoning of time, absence of a heavy beard, 
and innumerable other comparisons, are drawn by en- 
thusiastic ^advocates, to support a Mongolian origin. The 
same arguments, in whole or in part, are used to prove 
that America was peopled by Egyptians, by Ethiopians, 
by French, English, Trojans, Frisians, Scythians; and 
also that different parts were settled by different peoples. 
The test of language has been applied with equal facility 
and enthusiasm to Egyptian, Jew, Phoenician, Cartha- 
ginian, Spaniard, Chinese, Japanese, and in fact to nearly 
all the nations of the earth. A complete review of 


theories and opinions concerning the origin of the In- 
dians, I propose to give in another place ; not that intrin- 
sically they are of much value, except as showing the 
different fancies of different men and times. Fancies, I 
say, for modern scholars, with the aid of all the new rev- 
elations of science, do not appear in their investigations 
to arrive one whit nearer an indubitable conclusion. 

It was obvious to the Europeans when they first 
beheld the natives of America, that these were unlike 
the intellectual white -skinned race of Europe, the bar- 
barous blacks of Africa, or any nation or people which 
they had hitherto encountered, yet were strikingly like 
each other. Into whatsoever part of the newly discov- 
ered lands they penetrated, they found a people seemingly 
one in color, physiognomy, customs, and in mental and 
social traits. Their vestiges of antiquity and their lan- 
guages presented a coincidence which was generally 
observed by early travelers. Hence physical and psy- 
chological comparisons are advanced to prove ethno- 
logical resemblances among all the peoples of America, 
and that they meanwhile possess common peculiarities 
totally distinct from the nations of the old world. 
Morton and his confreres, the originators of the Amer- 
ican homogeneity theory, even go so far as to claim for 
the American man an origin as indigenous as that of 
the fauna and flora. They classify all the tribes of 
America, excepting only the Eskimos who wandered over 
from Asia, as the American race, and divide it into the 
American family and the Toltecan family. Blumenbach 
classifies the Americans as a distinct species. The 
American Mongol idae of Dr Latham are divided into 
Eskimos and American Indians. Dr Morton perceives 
the same characteristic lineaments in the face of the 
Fuegian and the Mexican, and in tribes inhabiting the 
Rocky Mountains, the Mississippi Valley, and Florida. 
The same osteological structure, swarthy color, straight 
hair, meagre beard, obliquely cornered eyes, prominent 
cheek bones, and thick lips are common to them all. 


Dr Latham describes his American Mongolidoe as exer- 
cising upon the world a material rather than a moral 
influence ; giving them meanwhile a color, neither a true 
white nor a jet black; hair straight and black, rarely 
light, sometimes curly; eyes sometimes oblique; a broad, 
flat face and a retreating forehead. Dr Prichard con- 
siders the American race, psychologically, as neither 
superior nor inferior to other primitive races of the 
world. Bory de St Vincent classifies Americans into 
five species, including the Eskimos. The Mexicans 
he considers as cognate with the Malays. Humboldt 
characterizes the nations of America as one race, by 
their straight glossy hair, thin beard, swarthy com- 
plexion, and cranial formation. Schoolcraft makes four 
groups; the first extending across the northern end of 
the continent; the second, tribes living east of the Mis- 
sissippi; the third, those between the Mississippi and the 
Rocky Mountains; and the fourth, those west of the 
Rocky Mountains. All these he subdivides into thirty- 
seven families; but so far as those on the Pacific Coast 
are concerned, he might as reasonably have made of 
them twice or half the number. 

All writers agree in giving to the nations of America 
a remote antiquity ; all admit that there exists a greater 
uniformity between them than is to be found in 
the old world; many deny that all are one race. 
There is undoubtedly a prevailing uniformity in those 
physical characteristics which govern classification ; but 
this uniformity goes as far to prove one universal race 
throughout the world, as it does to prove a race peculiar 
to America. Traditions, ruins, moral and physical pecu- 
liarities, all denote for Americans a remote antiquity. 
The action of a climate peculiar to America, and of 
natural surroundings common to all the people of the 
continent, could not fail to produce in time a similarity 
of physiological structure. 

The impression of a New World individuality of race 
was no doubt strengthened in the eyes of the Conquerors, 


and in the mind of the train of writers that followed, by 
the fact, that the newly discovered tribes were more like 
each other than were any other peoples they had ever 
before seen ; and at the same time very much unlike any 
nation whatever of the old world. And so any really 
existing physical distinctions among the American stocks 
came to be overlooked or undervalued. Darwin, on the 
authority of Elphinstone, observes that in India, " al- 
though a newly arrived European cannot at first distin- 
guish the various native races, yet they soon appear to 
him entirely dissimilar; and the Hindoo cannot at first 
perceive any difference between the several European 

It has been observed by Prof, von Martius that the lit- 
erary and architectural remains of the civilized tribes of 
America indicate a higher degree of intellectual eleva- 
tion than is likely to be found in a nation emerging 
from barbarism. In their sacerdotal ordinances, privi- 
leged orders, regulated despotisms, codes of law, and 
forms of government are found clear indications of a 
relapse from civilization to barbarism. Chateaubriand, 
from the same premises, develops a directly opposite 
conclusion, and perceives in all this high antiquity and 
civilization only a praiseworthy evolution from primeval 

Thus arguments drawn from a comparison of parallel 
traits in the moral, social, or physical condition of man 
should be received with allowance, for man has much in 
common not only with man, but with animals. Vari- 
ations in bodily structure and mental faculties are gov- 
erned by general laws. The great variety of climate 
which characterizes America could not fail to produce 
various habits of life. The half-torpid Hyperborean, 
the fierce warrior-hunter of the vast interior forests, the 
sluggish, swarthy native of the tropics, and the intelli- 
gent Mexican of the table-land, slowly developing into 
civilization under the refining influences of arts and 
letters, — all these indicate variety in the unity of the 


American race; while the insulation of American na- 
tions, and the general characteristics incident to peculiar 
physical conditions could not fail to produce a unity in 
their variety. 

The races of the Pacific States embrace all the va- 
rieties of species known as American under any of the 
classifications mentioned. Thus, in the five divisions 
of Blumenbach, the Eskimos of the north would come 
under the fourth division, which embraces Malays and 
Polynesians, and which is distinguished by a high 
square skull, low forehead, short broad nose, and pro- 
jecting jaws. To his fifth class, the American, which 
he subdivides into the American family and the Tol- 
tecan family, he gives a small skull with a high apex, 
flat on the occiput, high cheek bones, receding forehead, 
aquiline nose, large mouth, and tumid lips. Morton, 
although he makes twenty-two divisions in all, classifies 
Americans in the same manner. The Polar family he 
characterizes as brown in color, short in stature, of thick, 
clumsy proportions, with a short neck, large head, flat 
face, small nose, and eyes disposed to obliquity. He 
perceives an identity of race among all the other stocks 
from Mount St Elias to Patagonia ; though he designates 
the semi-civilized tribes of Mexico and Peru as the 
Toltecan family, and the savage nations as the Appala- 
chian branch of the American family. Dr Prichard 
makes three divisions of the tribes bordering the Pacific 
between Mount St Elias and Cape St Lucas : the tribes 
from the borders of the Eskimos southward to Van- 
couver Island constitute the first division; the tribes 
of Oregon and Washington, the second ; and the tribes 
of Upper and Lower California, the third. Pickering 
assigns the limits of the American, Malay, or Toltecan 
family to California and western Mexico. He is of the 
opinion that they crossed from southeastern Asia by way 
of the islands of the Pacific, and landed upon this con- 
tinent south of San Francisco, there being no traces of 
them north of this point; while the Mongolians found 


their way from northeastern Asia across Bering Strait. 
The Californians, therefore, he calls Malays; and the 
inhabitants of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, 
Washington, and Oregon, he classifies as Mongolians. 
Californians, in the eyes of this traveler, differ from 
their northern neighbors in complexion and physiog- 
nomy. The only physiological test that Mr Pickering 
was able to apply in order to distinguish the Polynesian in 
San Francisco from the native Californian, was that 
the hair of the former was wavy, while that of the latter 
was straight. Both have more hair than the Oregon- 
ian. The skin of the Malay of the Polynesian Islands, 
and that of the Californian are alike, soft and very 
dark. Three other analogous characteristics were dis- 
covered by Mr Pickering. Both have an open coun- 
tenance, one wife, and no tomahawk ! On the other hand, 
the Mongolian from Asia, and the Oregonian are of a 
lighter complexion, and exhibit the same general resem- 
blances that are seen in the American and Asiatic Eskimos. 
In general the Toltecan family may be described as of 
good stature, well proportioned, rather above medium size, 
of a light copper color ; as having long black obliquely 
pointed eyes, regular white teeth, glossy black hair, thin 
beard, prominent cheek bones, thick lips, large aquiline 
nose, and retreating forehead. A gentle expression about 
the mouth is blended with severity and melancholy in 
the upper portion of the face. They are brave, cruel 
in war, sanguinary in religion, and revengeful. They 
are intelligent ; possess minds well adapted to the pursuit 
of knowledge; and, at the time of the arrival of the 
Spaniards, were well advanced in history, architect- 
ure, mathematics, and astronomy. They constructed 
aqueducts, extracted metals, carved images in gold, 
silver, and copper; they could spin, weave, and dye; 
they could accurately cut precious stones; they culti- 
vated corn and cotton; built large cities, constructing 
their buildings of stone and lime; made roads and 
erected stupendous tumuli. 


Certain ethnological zones have been observed by 
some, stretching; across the continent in various latitudes, 
broken somewhat by intersecting continental elevations, 
but following for the most part isothermal lines which, 
on coming from the east, bend northward as the softer 
air of the Pacific is entered. Thus the Eskimos nearly 
surround the pole. Next come the Tinneh, stretch- 
ing across the continent from the east, somewhat irreg- 
ularly, but their course marked generally by thermic 
lines, bending northward after crossing the Rocky 
Mountains, their southern boundary, touching the Pa- 
cific, about the fifty-fifth parallel. The Algonkin family 
border on the Tinneh, commencing at the mouth of the 
St Lawrence River, and extending westward to the 
Rocky Mountains. Natural causes alone prevent the 
extension of these belts round the entire earth. In- 
deed, both philologists and physiologists trace lines of 
affinitv across the Pacific, from island to island, from 
one continent to the other; one line, as we have seen, 
crossing Bering Strait, another following the Aleutian 
Archipelago, and a third striking the coast south of San 
Francisco Bay. 

It is common for those unaccustomed to look below 
the surface of things, to regard Indians as scarcely 
within the category of humanity. Especially is this the 
case when we, maddened by some treacherous outrage, 
some diabolic act of cruelty, hastily pronounce them 
incorrigibly wicked, inhumanly malignant, a nest of 
vipers, the extermination of which is a righteous act. 
All of which may be true; but, judged by this stand- 
ard, has not every nation on earth incurred the death 
penalty ? Human nature is in no wise changed by culture. 
The European is but a white-washed savage. Civilized 
venom is no less virulent than savage venom. It ill 
becomes the full grown man to scoff at the ineffectual 
attempts of the little child, and to attempt the cure of 
its faults by killing it. No more is it a mark of benev- 
olent wisdom in those favored by a superior intel- 


ligence, with the written records of the past from which 
to draw experience and learn how best to shape their 
course for the future, to cry dow 7 n the untaught man of 
the wilderness, deny him a place in this world or the 
next, denounce him as a scourge, an outlaw, and seize 
upon every light pretext to assist him off the stage from 
which his doom is so rapidly removing him. We view 
man in his primitive state from a wrong stand-point at 
the outset. In place of regarding savages as of one 
common humanity with ourselves, and the ancestors 
perhaps of peoples higher in the scale of being, and 
more intellectual than any the world has yet seen, we 
place them among the common enemies of mankind, and 
regard them more in the light of wild animals than of 
wild men. 

And let not him who seeks a deeper insight into the 
mysteries of humanity despise beginnings, things crude 
and small. The difference between the cultured and the 
primitive man lies chiefly in the fact that one has a few 
centuries the start of the other in the race of progress. 
Before condemning the barbarian, let us first examine 
his code of ethics. Let us draw our light from his 
light, reason after his fashion; see in the sky, the earth, 
the sea, the same fantastic imagery that plays upon his 
fancy, and adapt our sense of right and wrong to his 
social surroundings. Just as human nature is able to 
appreciate divine nature only as divine nature accords 
with human nature ; so the intuitions of lower orders of 
beings can be comprehended only by bringing into play our 
lower faculties. Nor can we any more clearly appreciate 
the conceptions of beings below us than of those above 
us. The thoughts, reasonings, and instincts of an animal 
or insect are as much a mystery to the human intellect 
as are the lofty contemplations of an archangel. 

Three hundred and thirty-six years were occupied in the discovery of the 
•western border of North America. From the time when, in 1501, the adven- 
turous notary of Triana, Rodrigo de Bastidas, approached the Isthmus of 
Darien, in search of gold and pearls, till the year 1837, when Messrs Dease and 


Simpson, by order of the Hudson's Bay Company, completed the survey of the 
northern extremity, which bounds the Arctic Ocean, the intervening territory 
was discovered at intervals, and under widely different circumstances. Dur- 
ing that time, under various immediate incentives, but with the broad princi- 
ple of avarice underlying all, such parts of this territory as were conceived 
to be of sufficient value were seized, and the inhabitants made a prey to the 
rapacity of the invaders. Thus the purpose of the worthy notary Bastidas, 
the first Spaniard who visited the continent of North America, was pacific 
barter with the Indians; and his kind treatment was rewarded by a success- 
ful traffic. Next came Columbus, from the opposite direction, sailing south- 
ward along the coast of Honduras on his fourth voyage, in 1502. His was 
the nobler object of discovery. He was striving to get through or round 
this tierra firme which, standing between himself and his theory, persistently 
barred his progress westward. He had no time for barter, nor any incli- 
nation to plant settlements; he was looking for a strait or passage through 
or round these outer confines to the more opulent regions of India. But, 
unsuccessful in his laudable effort, he at length yielded to the clamorous 
cupidity of his crew. He permitted his brother, the Adelantado, to land and 
take possession of the country for the king of Spain, and, in the year follow- 
ing, to attempt a settlement at Yeragua. 

In 150G-8, Juan de Solis with Pinzon continued the search of Columbus, 
along the coast of Yucatan and Mexico, for a passage through to the southern 
ocean. The disastrous adventures of Alonzo de Ojeda, Diego de Nicuesa, and 
Juan de la Cosa, on the Isthmus of Darien, between the years 1507 and 1511, 
brought into more intimate contact the steel weapons of the chivalrous 
hidalgos with the naked bodies of the savages. Yasco Nunez de Balboa, 
after a toilsome journey across the Isthmus in 1513, was rewarded by the 
first view of the Pacific Ocean, of which he took possession for the king 
of Spain on the twenty-fifth of September. The white sails of Cordova 
Grijalva, and Garay, descried by the natives of Yucatan and Mexico in 
1517-19, were quickly followed by Cortes and his keen-scented band of 
adventurers, who, received by the unsuspecting natives as gods, would have 
been dismissed by them as fiends had not the invasion culminated in the 
conquest of Mexico. During the years 1522-24, Cortes made expeditions to 
Tehuantepec, Panuco, and Central America ; Gil Gonzales and Cristobal de 
Olid invaded Nicaragua and Honduras. Nufio de Guzman in 1530, with a 
large force, took possession of the entire northern country from the city of 
Mexico to the northern boundary of Sinaloa; and Cabeza de Yaca crossed 
the continent from Texas to Sinaloa in the years 1528-36. Journeys to the 
north were made by Cortes, Ulloa, Coronado, Mendoza, and Cabrillo between 
the years 1536 and 1542. Hundreds of Roman Catholic missionaries, ready 
to lay down their lives in their earnest anxiety for the souls of the Indians, 
spread out into the wilderness in every direction. During the latter part of 
the sixteenth century had place, — the expedition of Francisco de Ibarra to 
Sinaloa in 1556, the campaign of Hernando de Bazan against the Indians 
of Sinaloa in 1570, the adventures of Oxenham in Darien in 1575, the voy- 
age round the world of Sir Francis Drake, touching upon the Northwest 


Coast in 1579; the expedition of Antonio de Espejo to New Mexico in 1583; 
Francisco de Gali's return from Macao to Mexico, "by way of the Northwest 
Coast, in 1584; the voyage of Maldonado to the imaginary Straits of Anianin 
1588; the expedition of Castano de Sosa to New Mexico in 1590; the voyage of 
Jnan de Fuca to the Straits of Anian in 1592; the wreck of the ' San Agnstin ' 
npon the Northwest Coast in 1595; the voyage of Sebastian Vizcaino towards 
California in 1596; the discoveries of Juan de Onatein New Mexico in 1599, and 
many others. Intercourse with the natives was extended during the seven- 
teenth century by the voyage of Sebastian Vizcaino from Mexico to Cali- 
fornia in 1602; by the expedition of Francisco de Ortega to Lower California 
in 1631; by the journey of Thomas Gage from Mexico to Guatemala in 1638; 
by the voyage round the world of William Dampier in 1679; by the reckless 
adventures of the Buccaneers from 1680 to 1690; by the expedition of Isidor 
de Otondo into Lower California in 1683; by the expedition of Father Kino 
to Sonora and Arizona in 1683; by the expeditions of Kino, Kappus, Mange, 
Bernal, Carrasco, Salvatierra, and others to Sonora and Arizona in 1694-9; 
and by the occupation of Lower California by the Jesuits, Salvatierra, 
Ugarte, Kino, and Piccolo, from 1697 to 1701. Voyages of circumnavigation 
were made by Dampier in 1703-4; by Rogers in 1708-11; by Shelvocke in 
1719-22, and by Anson in 1740-4. Frondac made a voyage from China to 
California in 1709. 

The first voyage through Bering Strait is supposed to have been made 
by Semun Deschneff and his companions in the year 1648, and purports to 
have explored the Asiatic coast from the river Kolyma to the south of the 
river Anadir, thus proving the separation of the continents of Asia and Amer- 
ica. In 1711, a Russian Cossack, named Popoff, was sent from (he fort 
on the Anadir river to subdue the rebellious Tschuktschi of Tschuk- 
tschi Noss, a point of land on the Asiatic coast near to the American 
continent. He there received from the natives the first intelligence of the 
proximity of the continent of America and the character of (he inhabitants; 
an account of which will be given in another place. In 1741, Vitus Bering 
and Alexei Tschirikoff sailed in company, from Petropaulovski, for the oppo- 
site coast of America. They parted company during a storm, the latter 
reaching the coast in latitude fifty-six, and the former landing at Cape St 
Elias in latitude sixty degrees north. The earliest information concerning 
the Aleutian Islanders was obtained by the Russians in the year 1745, when 
Michael Nevodtsikoff sailed from the Kamtchatka river in pursuit of furs. 
A Russian commercial company, called the Promyschleniki, was formed, and 
other hunting and trading voyages followed. Lasareff visited six islands of 
the Andreanovski group in 1761; and the year following was made the dis- 
covery of the Alaskan Peninsula, supposed to be an island until after the 
survey of the coast by Captain Cook. Drusinin made a hunting expedition 
to Unalaska and the Fox Islands in 1763; and, during the same year, Stephen 
Glottoff visited the island of Kadiak. Korovin, Solovieff, Synd, Otseredin, 
Krenitzen, and other Russian fur-hunters spent the years 1762-5 among the 
Aleutian Islands, capturing sea-otters, seals, and foxes, and exchanging, with 
the natives, beads and iron utensils, for furs. 


A grand missionary movement, growing out of the jealous rivalries of the 
two great orders of the Catholic Church, led to the original occupation of 
Upper California by Spaniards. The work of Christianizing Lower Cali- 
fornia was inaugurated by the Jesuits, under Fathers Salvatierra and Kino, in 
1697. When the Jesuits were expelled from Mexico in 1767, their missions 
were turned over to the Franciscans. This so roused the jealousy of the 
Dominicans that they immediately appealed to Spain, and in 1769 obtained 
an edict, giving them a due share in the missions of Lower California. The 
Franciscans, thinking it better to carry their efforts into new fields than to 
contend for predominance at home, generously offered to cede the whole of 
Lower California to the Dominicans, and themselves retire to the wild and 
distant regions of Upper California. This being agreed upon, two expedi- 
tions were organized to proceed northward simultaneously, one by water 
and the other by land. In January, 1769, the ship ' San Carlos,' commanded 
by Vicente Vila, was dispatched for San Diego, followed by the ' San Antonio, ' 
under Juan Perez, and the '-San Jose,' which was unfortunately lost. The 
land expedition was separated into two divisions; the first under Rivera y 
Moncada departed from Mexico in March, and arrived at San Diego in May; 
the second under Gaspar de Portola and Father Junipero Serra reached 
San Diego in July, 1769. Portola with his companions immediately set out 
by land for the Bay of Monterey; but, unwittingly passing it by, they con- 
tinued northward until barred in their progress by the magnificent Bay of 
San Francisco. Unable to find the harbor of Monterey, they returned to 
San Diego in January, 1770. In April, Portola made a second and more 
successful attempt, and arrived at Monterey in May. Meanwhile Perez and 
Junipero Serra accomplished the voyage by sea, sailing in the • San 
Carlos.' In 1772, Pedro Fages and Juan Crespi proceeded from Monterey to 
explore the Bay of San Francisco. They were followed by Rivera y Mon- 
cada in 1771, and Palou and Ezeta in 1775; and in 1776, Moraga founded 
the Mission of Dolores. In 1775, Bodega y Quadra voj^aged up the 
Californian coast to the fifty-eighth parallel. In 1776, Dominguez and Es- 
calante made an expedition from Santa Fe to Monterey. Menonville jour- 
neyed to Oajaca in New Spain in 1777. In 1778, Captain Cook, in his 
third voyage round the world, touched along the Coast from Cape Flattery 
to Norton Sound; and in 1779, Bodega y Quadra, Maurelle, and Arteaga 
voyaged up the western coast to Mount St Elias. During the years 1785-8, 
voyages of circumnavigation were made by Dixon and Portlock, and by La 
Perouse, all touching upon the Northwest Coast. 

French Canadian traders were the first to penetrate the northern interior 
west of Hudson Bay. Their most distant station was on the Saskatchewan 
River, two thousand miles from civilization, in the heart of an unknown 
wilderness inhabited by savage men and beasts. These coureitrs des bois or 
wood-rangers, as they were called, were admirably adapted, by their disposi- 
tion and superior address, to conciliate the Indians and form settlements 
among them. Unrestrained, however, by control, they committed excesses 
which the French government could check only by prohibiting, under penalty 
of death, any but its authorized agents from trading within its territories. 


British merchants at New York soon entered into competition with, the fur 
princes of Montreal. But, in 1670, a more formidable opposition arose in the 
organization of the Hudson's Bay Company, by Prince Rupert and other 
noblemen, under a charter of Charles II. which granted exclusive right to all 
the territory drained by rivers flowing into Hudson Bay. Notwithstanding 
constant feuds with the French merchants regarding territorial limits, the 
company prospered from the beginning, paying annual dividends of twenty- 
five and fifty per cent, after many times increasing the capital stock. In 
1G7G, the Canadians formed the Compagnie du Nord, in order the more suc- 
cessfully to resist encroachment. Upon the loss of Canada by the French in 
1762, hostilities thickened between the companies, and the traffic for a time 
fell off. In 1784, the famous Northwest Company was formed by Cana- 
dian merchants, and the management entrusted to the Frobisher brothers 
and Simon M'Tavish. The head-quarters of the company were at Montreal, 
but annual meetings were held, with lordly state, at Fort William, on the 
shore of Lake Superior. The company consisted of twenty-three partners, 
and employed over two thousand clerks and servants. It exercised an almost 
feudal sway over a wide savage domain, and maintained a formidable com- 
petition with the Hudson's Baj 7 Company, with which they were for two 
years in actual war. In 18 i3, they purchased, from the partners of John 
Jacob Astor, the settlement of Astoria on the Columbia River. In 1821, they 
united with the Hudson's Bay Company; and the charter covering the entire 
region occupied by both was renewed by act of Parliament. In 1762, some 
merchants of New Orleans organized a company which was commissioned 
by D'Abadie, director-general of Louisiana, under the name of Pierre Li- 
gueste Laclede, Antoine Maxan, and Company. Their first post occupied the 
spot upon which the city of St Louis is now situated ; and, under the auspices 
of the brothers Chouteau, they penetrated northwestward beyond the Rocky 
Mountains. In 1808, the Missouri Fur Company was formed at St Louis, 
consisting of the Chouteaus and others; and an expedition under Major 
Henry was sent across the Rocky Mountains, which established the first post 
on the Columbia River. Between the years 1825 and 1830, the Rocky Mount- 
ain Fur Company of St Louis extended their operations over California and 
Oregon, but at a loss of the lives of nearly one half of their employes. 
John Jacob Astor embarked in the fur trade at New York in 1784, purchasing 
at that time in Montreal. In 1808, he obtained a charter for the American Fur 
Company, which was, in 1811, merged into the Southwest Company. In 1809, 
Mr Astor conceived the project of establishing a transcontinental line of 
posts. His purpose was to concentrate the fur trade of the United States, 
and establish uninterrupted communication between the Pacific and the At- 
lantic. He made proposals of association to the Northwest Company, which 
were not only rejected, but an attempt was made by that association to antici- 
pate Mr Astor in his operations, by making a settlement at the mouth of the 
Columbia River. In 1810, the Pacific Fur Company was founded by Mr 
Astor, and an expedition dispatched overland by way of St Louis aud the 
Missouri River. At the same time a vessel was sent round Cape Horn to 
the mouth of the Columbia; but, their adventure in that quarter proving 


unsuccessful, the company was dissolved, and the operations of Mr Astor 
were thereafter confined to the territory east of the Rocky Mountains. 

Samuel Hearne, an officer of the Hudson's Bay Company, was the first 
European to reach the Arctic Ocean through the interior of the continent. 
He descended Coppermine River to its mouth in the year 1771. The Upper 
Misinipi River was first visited by Joseph Frobisher in 1775. Three years 
later, one Peter Pond penetrated to within thirty miles of Athabasca Lake, 
and established a trading post at that point. Four canoe-loads of merchan- 
dise were exchanged by him for more fine furs than his canoes could carry. 
Other adventurous traders soon followed; but not long afterwards the inevi- 
table broils which always attended the early intercourse of Europeans and 
Indians, rose to such a height that, but for the appearance of that terrible 
scourge, the small -pox, the traders would have been extirpated. The 
ravages of this dire disease continued to depopulate the country until 
1782, when traders again appeared among the Knisteneaux and Tinneh. 
The most northern division of the Northwest Company was at that time 
the Athabascan Lake region, where Alexander Mackenzie Mas the man- 
aging partner. His winter residence was at Fort Chipewyan, on Athabasca 
Lake. The Indians who traded at his establishment informed him of the 
existence of a large river flowing to the westward from Slave Lake. Think- 
ing thereby to reach the Pacific Ocean, Mr Mackenzie, in the year 1789, set 
out upon an expedition to the west; and, descending the- noble stream which 
bears his name, found himself, contrary to his expectations, upon the shores 
of the Arctic Sea. In 1793, he made a journey to the Pacific, ascending 
Peace River, and reaching the coast in latitude about fifty-two. The first 
expedition organized by the British government for the purpose of surveying 
the northern coast, was sent out under Lieutenants Franklin and Parry in 
1819. During the year following, Franklin descended Coppermine River, and 
subsequently, in 1825, he made a journey down the Mackenzie. In 1808, 
D. W. Harmon, a partner in the Northwest Company, crossed the Rocky 
Mountains, at about the fifty-sixth parallel, to Fraser and Stuart Lakes. 
The accounts of the natives given by these travelers and their companions 
are essentially the same, and later voyagers have failed to throw much addi- 
tional light upon the subject. John Meares, in 1788, visited the Straits of 
Fuca, Nootka Sound, and Cook Inlet; and, during the same year, two ships, 
sent out by Boston merchants, under Robert Gray and John Kendrick, 
entered Nootka Sound. Estevan Martinez and Gonzalo Haro, sent from 
Mexico to look after the interest of Spain in these regions, explored Prince 
William Sound, and visited Kadiak. During the same year, the Russians 
established a trading post at Copper River. In 1789, Joseph Billings visited 
the Aleutian Islands, and the Boston vessels explored the Eastern coast of 
Queen Charlotte Island. In 1790, Salvator Fidalgo was sent by the Mexican 
government to Nootka; and Monaldo explored the Straits of Juan de Fuca. 
In 1791, four ships belonging to Boston merchants, two Spanish ships, one 
French and several Russian vessels touched upon the Northwest Coast. The 
Spanish vessels were under the command of Alejandro Malespina ; Etienne Mar- 
chand was the commander of the French ship. The ' Sutil y Mexicana ' en- 


tered Nootka Sound in 1792; and during the same year, Vancouver commenced 
his explorations along the coast above Cape Flattery. In 1803-4, Baron Von 
Humboldt was making his searching investigations in Mexico; while the 
captive New Englander, Jewett, was dancing attendance to Maquina, king 
of the Nootkas. Lewis and Clark traversed the continent in 1805. In 1806, 
a Mr Fraser set out from Canada, and crossed the Rocky Mountains near 
the headwaters of the river which bears his name. He descended Fraser 
River to the lake which he also called after himself. There he built a fort 
and opened trade with the natives. Kotzebue visited the coast in 1816; and 
the Russian expedition under Kramchenko, Wasilieff, and Etolin, in 1822. 
Captain Morrel explored the Californian coast from San Diego to San Fran- 
cisco in 1825; Captains Beechey and Liitke, the Northwest Coast in 1826; and 
Sir Edward Belcher in 1837. J. K. Townsend made an excursion west of the 
Rocky Mountains in 1834. In 1837, Dease and Simpson made an open 
boat voyage from the Mackenzie River, westward to Point Barrow, the far- 
thest point made by Beechey from the opposite direction, thus reaching the 
Ultima TItule of northwestern discovery. Sir George Simpson crossed the 
continent in 1841, Fremont in 1843, and Paul Kane in 1845. Kushevaroff 
visited the coast in 1838, Laplace in 1839, Commodore Wilkes in 1841, and 
Captain Kellett in 1S49. Following the discovery of gold, the country was del- 
uged by adventurers. In 1853-4, commenced the series of explorations for a 
Pacific railway. The necessities of the natives were examined, and remnants 
of disappearing nations were collected upon reservations under government 
agents. The interior of Alaska was first penetrated by the employes of the 
Russian-American Fur Company. Malakoff ascended the Yukon in 1838; 
and, in 1842, Derabin established a fort upon that river. In 1849, W. H. 
Hooper made a boat expedition from Kotzebue Sound to the Mackenzie 
River; and, in 1866, William H. Dall and Frederick Whymper ascended the 

I have here given a few only of the original sources whence my informa- 
tion is derived concerning the Indians. A multitude of minor voyages and 
travels have been performed during the past three and a half centuries, and 
accounts published by early residents among the natives, the bare enumera- 
tion of which I fear would prove wearisome to the reader. Enough, how- 
ever, has been given to show the immediate causes which led to the discovery 
and occupation of the several parts of this western coast. The Spanish 
cavaliers craved from the Indians of the South their lands and their gold. 
The Spanish missionaries demanded from the Indians of Northern Mexico 
and California, faith. The French, English, Canadian, and American fur 
companies sought from the Indians of Oregon and New Caledonia, peltries. 
The Russians compelled the natives of the Aleutian Islands to hunt sea- 
animals. The filthy raw-flesh-eating Eskimos, having nothing wherewith to 
tempt the cupidity of the superior race, retain their primitive purity. 

We observe then three original incentives urging on civilized white 
men to overspread the domain of the Indian. The first was that thirst 
for gold, which characterized the fiery hidalgos from Spain in their ecu- 


quests, and to obtain which no cruelty was too severe nor any sacrifice of 
human life too great; as though of all the gifts vouchsafed to man, material 
or divine, one only was worth possessing. The second, following closely 
in the footsteps of the first, and oftentimes constituting a part of it, was 
religious enthusiasm; a zealous interest in the souls of the natives and the 
form in which they worshiped. The third, which occupied the attention of 
other and more northern Europeans, grew out of a covetous desire for 
the wild man's clothing; to secure to themselves the peltries of the great 
hyperborean regions of America. From the south of Europe the Spaniards 
landed in tropical North America, and exterminated the natives. From the 
north of Europe the French, English, and Russians crossed over to the 
northern part of America; and, with a kinder and more refined cruelty, no 
less effectually succeeded in sweeping them from the face of the earth by the 
introduction of the poisonous elements of a debased cultivation. 

Fortunately for the Indians of the north, it was contrary to the interests 
of white people to kill them in order to obtain the skins of their animals; 
for, with a few trinkets, they could procure what otherwise would require 
long and severe labor to obtain. The policy, therefore, of the great fur- 
trading companies has been to cherish the Indians as their best hunters, to 
live at peace with them, to heal their ancient feuds, and to withhold from 
them intoxicating liquors. The condition of their women, who were considered 
by the natives as little better than beasts, has been changed by their inter- 
social relations with the servants of the trading companies; and their more 
barbarous practices discontinued. It was the almost universal custom of the 
employes of the Hudson's Bay Company to unite to themselves native 
women; thus, by means of this relationship, the condition of the women has 
been raised, while the men manifest a kinder feeling towards the white race 
who thus in a measure become one with them. 

The efforts of early missionaries to this region were not crowned with that 
success which attended the Spaniards in their spiritual warfare upon the south- 
ern nations, from the fact that no attention was paid to the temporal necessi- 
ties of the natives. It has long since been demonstrated impossible to reach 
the heart of a savage through abstract ideas of morality and elevation of char- 
acter. A religion, in order to find favor in his eyes, must first meet some 
of his material requirements. If it is good, it will clothe him better 
and feed him better, for this to him is the chief est good in life. Intermix- 
tures of civilized with savage peoples are sure to result in the total disappear- 
ance of refinement on the one side, or in the extinction of the barbaric race on 
the other. The downward path is always the easiest. Of all the millions 
of native Americans who have perished under the withering influences of 
European civilization, there is not a single instance on record, of a tribe or 
nation having been reclaimed, ecclesiastically or otherwise, by artifice and 
argument. Individual savages have been educated with a fair degree of suc- 
cess. But, with a degree of certainty far greater, no sooner is the white man 
freed from the social restraint of civilized companionship, than he immedi- 
ately tends towards barbarism ; and not unfrequently becomes so fascinated 
with his new life as to prefer it to any other. Social development is inherent: 
Vol. I. 3 


superinduced culture is a failure. Left alone, the nations of America might 
have unfolded into as bright a civilization as that of Europe. They were 
already well advanced, and still rapidly advancing towards it, when they 
were so mercilessly stricken down. But for a stranger to re-create the heart 
or head of a red man, it were easier to change the color of his skin. 




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General, Divisions — Hyperborean Nations — Aspects or Nature — Vegeta- 
tion — Climate — Animals — The Eskimos— Their Country— Physical 
Characteristics — Dress — Dwellings — Food — Weapons — Boots — 
Sledges — Snow-Shoes — Government — Domestic Affairs — Amusements 
— Diseases — Burial — The Koniagas, their Physical and Social Con- 
dition — The Aleuts — The Thlinkeets — The Tinneh. 

I shall attempt to describe the physical and mental 
characteristics of the Native Races of the Pacific States 
under seven distinctive groups; namely, I. Hyperbo- 
reans, being those nations whose territory lies north of 
the fifty-fifth parallel; II. Columbians, who dw r ell be- 
tween the fifty -fifth and forty -second parallels, and 
whose lands to some extent are drained by the Columbia 
River and its tributaries; III. Californians, and the In- 
habitants of the Great Basin; IV. New Mexicans, 
including the nations of the Colorado River and northern 
Mexico; V. Wild Tribes of Mexico; VI. Wild Tribes of 
Central America; VII. Civilized Nations of Mexico and 
Central America. It is my purpose, without any attempt 
at ethnological classification, or further comment con- 
cerning races and stocks, plainly to portray such customs 
and characteristics as w r ere peculiar to each people at the 
time of its first intercourse with European strangers; 
leaving scientists to make their own deductions, and 
draw 7 specific lines between linguistic and physiological 
families, as they may deem proper. I shall endeavor to 
picture these nations in their aboriginal condition, as seen 


by the first invaders, as described by those who beheld 
them in their savage grandeur, and before they were 
startled from their lair by the treacherous voice of civilized 
friendship. Now they are gone, — those dusky denizens 
of a thousand forests, — melted like hoar-frost before the 
rising sun of a superior intelligence ; and it is only from 
the earliest records, from the narratives of eye witnesses, 
many of them rude unlettered men, trappers, sailors, 
and soldiers, that we are able to know them as they 
were. Some division of the work into parts, how- 
ever arbitrary it may be, is indispensable. In deal- 
ing with Mythology, and in tracing the tortuous course 
of Language, boundaries will be dropped and beliefs 
and tongues will be followed wherever they lead ; but in 
describing Manners and Customs, to avoid confusion, 
territorial divisions are necessary. 

In the groupings which I have adopted, one cluster of 
nations follows another in geographical succession; the 
dividing line not being more distinct, perhaps, than that 
which distinguishes some national divisions, but sum- 
ciently marked, in mental and physical peculiarities, to 
entitle each group to a separate consideration. 

The only distinction of race made by naturalists, upon 
the continents of both North and South America, until 
a comparatively recent period, was by segregating the 
first of the above named groups from all other people of 
both continents, and calling one Mongolians and the 
other Americans. A more intimate acquaintance with 
the nations of the North proves conclusively that one 
of the boldest types of the American Indian proper, the 
Tinneh, lies within the territory of this first group, 
conterminous with the Mongolian Eskimos, and crowding 
them down to a narrow line along the shore of the Arctic 
Sea. The nations of the second group, although exhibit- 
ing multitudinous variations in minor traits, are essen- 
tially one people. Between the California Diggers of 
the third division and the New Mexican Towns -people 
of the fourth, there is more diversity; and a still greater 


difference between the savage and civilized nations of 
the Mexican table-land. Any classification or division 
of the subject which could be made would be open to 
criticism. I therefore adopt the most simple practical 
plan, one which will present the subject most clearly to 
the general reader, and leave it in the best shape for 
purposes of theorizing and generalization. 

In the first or Hyperborean group, to which this chap- 
ter is devoted, are five subdivisions, as follows: The Eski- 
mos, commonly called Western Eskimos, who skirt the 
shores of the Arctic Ocean from Mackenzie River to Kotze- 
bue Sound ; the Koniagas or Southern Eskimos, who, com- 
mencing at Kotzebue Sound, cross the Kaviak Peninsula, 
border on Bering Sea from Norton Sound southward, 
and stretch over the Alaskan 1 Peninsula and Koniagan 

1 Of late, custom gives to the main land of Russian America, the name Alas- 
ka; to the peninsula, Aliaska; and to a large island of the Aleutian Archipelago, 
Unalashka. The word of which the present name Alaska is a corruption, is 
first encountered in the narrative of Betsevin, who, in 1761, wintered on the 
peninsula, supposing it to be an island. The author of Neue Nachriehten von 
denen neuentdekten hisuln, writes, page 53, ' womit man nach der abgelegen- 
sten Insul Aliiksn oder Alachschak Tiber gieng. ' Again, at page 57, in giving 
a description of the animals on the supposed island he calls it ' auf der Insul 
Alaska.'' ' This,' says Coxe, Russian Discoveries, p. 72, 'is probably the same 
island which is laid down in Krenitzin's chart under the name of Alaxa.' 
Unalaschka is given by the author of Neue Nachriehten, p. ^4, in his nar- 
rative of the voyage of Drusinin, who hunted on that island in 1763. At page 
115 he again mentions the 'grosse Insul Alriksu.' On page 125, in Glottoff's 
log-book, 17C4, is the entry: 'Den 28sten May der Wind Ostsiidost; man kam 
an die Insul Alaska oder Aliiksu.'' Still following the author of Neue Nach- 
richten, we have on page 166, in an account of the voyages of Otseredin and 
Popoff, who hunted upon the Aleutian Islands in 1769, mention of a report 
by the natives ' that beyond Unimak is said to be a large land Alaschka, the 
extent of which the islanders do not know.' On Cook's Atlas, voyage 1778, 
the peninsula is called Alaska, and the island Oonalaska. La Perouse, in his 
atlas, map No. 15, 1788, calls the peninsula Alaska, and the island Owvdaska. 
The Spaniards, in the Atlas para el Viage de las goletas tSutil y Mexicana, 
1792, write Alasca for the peninsula, and for the island Unalaska. Sauer, in 
his account of Billings' expedition, 1790, calls the main land Alaska, the 
peninsula Alyaska, and the island Oonalashka. Wrangell, in Baer's Stalis- 
tische und ethnographische Nachriehten, p. 123, writes for the peninsula Alaska 
and for the island Unalaschka. Hohnberg, Ethnographische Skizzen, p. 78, 
calls the island Unalaschka and the peninsula Aljaska. Dall, Alaska, p. 529, 
says that the peninsula or main land was called by the natives Alayeksa, 
and the island Nagun-alayeksa, 'or the land near Alayeksa.' Thus we 
have, from which to choose, the orthography of the earliest voyagers to this 
coast — Russian, English, French, Spanish, German, and American. The 
simple word Aliksu j after undergoing many contortions, some authors writ- 
ing it differently on different pages of the same book, has at length become 
Alaska, as applied to the main land; Aliaska for the peninsula, and Una- 


Islands to the mouth of the Atna or Copper River, 
extending back into the interior about one hundred and 
fifty miles ; the Aleuts, or people of the Aleutian Archi- 
pelago; the IMinkeetSj who inhabit the coast and islands 
between the rivers Atna and Nass; and the Imneh, 
or Athabascas, occupying the territory between the 
above described boundaries and Hudson Bay. Each of 
these families is divided into nations or tribes, distin- 
guished one from another by slight dialectic or other 
differences, which tribal divisions will be given in treat- 
ing of the several nations respectively. 

Let us first cast a glance over this broad domain, and 
mark those aspects of nature which exercise so powerful 
an influence upon the destinies of mankind. Midway be- 
tween Mount St Elias and the Arctic seaboard rise three 
mountain chains. One, the Rocky Mountain range, cross- 
ing from the Yukon to the Mackenzie River, deflects south- 
ward, and taking up its mighty line of march, throws a 
barrier between the east and the west, which extends 
throughout the entire lenoth of the continent. Between 
the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific, interposes another 
called in Oregon the Cascade Range, and in California 
the Sierra Nevada; while from the same starting-point, 
the Alaskan range stretches out to the southwest along 
the Alaskan Peninsula, and breaks into fragments in the 
Aleutian Archipelago. Three noble streams, the Macken- 
zie, the Yukon, and the Kuskoquim. float the boats of the 
inland Hyperboreans and supply them with food ; while 
from the heated waters of Japan comes a current of the 
sea, bathing the icy coasts with genial warmth, temper- 
ing the air, and imparting gladness to the oily watermen ' 
of the coast, to the northernmost limit of their lands. 
The northern border of this territory is treeless; the 
southern shore, absorbing more warmth and moisture 
from the Japan current, is fringed with dense forests; 

lashka as the name of the island. As these names are all corruptions from 
some one original word, whatever that may be, I see no reason for giving 
the error three different forms. I therefore write Alaska for the mainland 
and peninsula, and Unalaska for the island. 


while the interior, interspersed with hills, and lakes, 
and woods, and grassy plains, during the short summer 
is clothed in luxuriant vegetation. 

Notwithstanding the frowning aspect of nature, ani- 
mal life in the Arctic regions is most abundant. The 
ocean swarms with every species of fish and sea-mam- 
mal ; the land abounds in reindeer, moose, musk-oxen ; in 
black, grizzly, and Arctic bears ; in w r olves, foxes, beavers, 
mink, ermine, martin, otters, raccoons, and water -fowl. 
Immense herds of buffalo roam over the bleak grassy 
plains of the eastern Tinneh, but seldom venture far to 
the west of the Rocky Mountains. Myriads of birds 
migrate to and fro between their breeding-places in the 
interior of Alaska, the open Arctic Sea, and the warmer 
latitudes of the south. From the Gulf of Mexico, from 
the islands of the Pacific, from the lakes of California, 
of Oregon, and of Washington they come, fluttering and 
feasting, to raise their young during the sparkling Arctic 

The whole occupation of man throughout this region, 
is a struggle for life. So long as the organism is plenti- 
fully supplied with heat -producing food, all is well. 
Once let the internal fire go down, and all is ill. Un- 
like the inhabitants of equatorial latitudes, where, Eden- 
like, the sheltering tree drops food, and the little 
nourishment essential to life may be obtained by only 
stretching forth the hand and plucking it, the Hyper- 
borean man must maintain a constant warfare with 
nature, or die. His daily food depends upon the suc- 
cess of his daily battle with beasts, birds, and fishes, 
which dispute with him possession of sea and land. 
Unfortunate in his search for game, or foiled in his 
attempt at capture, he must fast. The associate of 
beasts, governed by the same emergencies, preying 
upon animals as animals prey upon each other, the 
victim supplying all the necessities of the victor, oc- 
cupying territory in common, both alike drawing sup- 
plies directly from the storehouse of nature, — primitive 


man derives his very quality from the brute with which 
he struggles. The idiosyncrasies of the animal fasten 
upon him, and that upon which he feeds becomes a part 
of him. 

Thus, in a nation of hunters inhabiting a rigorous 
climate, we may look for wiry, keen-scented nien, who 
in their war upon wild beasts put forth strength and 
endurance in order to overtake and capture the strong; 
cunning is opposed by superior cunning; a stealthy 
watchfulness governs every movement, while the intelli- 
gence of the man contends with the instincts of the brute. 
Fishermen, on the other hand, who obtain their food 
with comparatively little effort, are more sluggish in 
their natures and less noble in their development. In 
the icy regions of the north, the animal creation supplies 
man with food, clothing, and caloric; with all the requi- 
sites of an existence under circumstances apparently the 
most adverse to comfort; and when he digs his dwelling 
beneath the ground, or walls out the piercing winds with 
snow, his ultimate is attained. 

The chief differences in tribes occupying the interior 
and the seaboard, — the elevated, treeless, grassy plains 
east of the Rocky Mountains, and the humid islands 
and shores of the great Northwest, — grow out of neces- 
sities arising from their methods of procuring food. 
Even causes so slight as the sheltering bend of a coast- 
line; the guarding of a shore by islands; the breaking 
of a seaboard by inlets and covering of the strand with 
sea- weed and polyps, requiring only the labor of gather- 
ing; or the presence of a bluff coast or windy prom- 
ontory, whose occupants are obliged to put forth more 
vigorous action for sustenance — all govern man in his 
development. Turn now to the most northern division 
of our most northern group. 

The Eskimos, Esquimaux, or as they call themselves, 
Innuitj 'the people,' from inuk, 'man,' 2 occupy the 

2 The name is said, by Charlevoix 'to be derived from the language of the 
Abenaqui, a tribe of Algonquins in Canada, who border upon them and call 


Arctic seaboard from eastern Greenland along the en- 
tire continent of America, and across Bering 3 Strait to 
the Asiatic shore. Formerly the inhabitants of our 
whole Hyperborean sea -coast, from the Mackenzie River 
to Queen Charlotte Island — the interior being en- 
tirely unknown — were denominated Eskimos, and w r ere 
of supposed Asiatic origin. 4 The tribes of southern 

them " Esquimau tsic. " ' 'L'originede leurnomn'est pas certain. Toutefois 
il y a bien de l'apparence qu'il vient du mot Abenaqui, esquimantsic qui veut 
dire "niangeur de viande crue." ' See Prichard's Physical History of Man- 
kind, vol. v., pp. 367, 373. ' French writers call them Eskimaux.' ' English 
authors, in adopting this term, have most generalty written it " Esquimaux," 
but Dr. Latham, and other recent ethnologists, write it "Eskimos," after 
the Danish orthography.' Richardson's Polar Regions, p. 298. 'Probably of 
Canadian origin, and the word, which in French orthography is written Es- 
quimaux, was probably originally Ceux qui miaux (miaule)tt) .' Richardson's 
Journal, vol. i., p. 340. 'Said to be a corruption of Eskimantik, i. e. raw- 
flsh-eaters, a nickname given them by their former neighbors, the Mohicans.' 
Seemeinn's Voyage of the Herald, vol. ii., p. 49. Eskimo is derived from a 
word indicating sorcerer or Shaman. ' The northern Tinneh use the word 
UskeemL' Doll's Alaska, pp. 144, 531. 'Their own national designation is 
"Keralit." ' Morton's Crania Americana, p. 52. They ' call themselves "In- 
nuit, " which signifies "man." ' Armstrong's Narrative, p. 191. 

3 It is not without reluctance that I change a word from the commonly 
accepted orthography. Names of places, though originating in error, when 
once established, it is better to leave unchanged. Indian names, coming to 
us through Russian, German, French, or Spanish writers, should be presented 
in English by such letters as will best produce the original Indian pronun- 
ciation. European personal names, however, no matter how long, nor 
how commonly they may have been erroneously used, should be immedi- 
ately corrected. Every man who can spell is supposed to be able to give the 
correct orthography of his own name, and his spelling should in every 
instance be followed, when it can be ascertained. Veit Bering, anglice Vitus 
Behring, was of a Danish family, several members of which were well known in 
literature before his own time. In Danish writings, as well as among the biogra- 
phies of Russian admirals, where may be found a fac-simile of his autograph, 
the name is spelled Bering. It is so given by Humboldt, and by the Didionnaire 
de la Conversation. The author of the Neue Nachrichten von denen neueidelekten 
Insaln, one of the oldest printed works on Russian discoveries in America; 
as well as Midler, who was the companion of Bering for many years; and 
Buschmann, — all write Bering. Baer remarks: 'Ich schreibe ferner Bering, 
obgleich es jetzt fast allgemein geworden ist, Behring zu schreiben, und auch 
die Englander und Franzosen sich der letztern Schreibart bequenit haben. 
Bering war ein Dime und seine Familie war lange vor ihm in der Literatur- 
Geschichte bekannt. Sie hat ihren Namen auf die von mir angenommene 
Weise drucken lassen. Derselben Schreibart bediente sich auch der Historio- 
graph Midler, der langere Zeit unter seinen Befehlen gedient hatte, und 
Pallas.' Statisti sche und ethnograpldsche Nachrichten, p. 328. There is no 
doubt that the famous navigator wrote his name Bering, and that the letter 
'h' was subsequently inserted to give the Danish sound to the letter 'e.' 
To accomplish the same purpose, perhaps, Coxe, Langsdorff, Beechey, and 
others write Beering. 

4 ' Die Kadjacker im Gegentheil niihern sich mehr den Amerikanischen 
Stammen und gleichen in ihrem Aeussern gar nicht den Eskimos oder den 


Alaska were then found to differ essentially from those 
of the northern coast. Under the name Eskimos, there- 
fore, I include only the Western Eskimos of certain 
writers, whose southern boundary terminates at Kotzebue 
Sound. 5 

Eskimo -land is thinly peopled, and but little is 
known of tribal divisions. At the Coppermine River, 
the Eskimos are called Naggmliormutes, or deer -horns; 
at the eastern outlet of the Mackenzie, their tribal 
name is Kittegarute ; between the Mackenzie River and 
Barter Reef, they go by the name of Kangmali Innuit; 
at Point Barrow they call themselves JVmvungnmtes; 
while on the Nunatok River, in the vicinity of Kotzebue 
Sound, they are known as Nunatcmgmutes. Their vil- 
lages, consisting of live or six families each, 6 are scattered 
along the coast. A village site is usually selected upon 
some good landing-place, where there is sufficient depth 
of water to float a whale. Between tribes is left a spot 
of unoccupied or neutral ground, upon which small parties 
meet during the summer for purposes of trade. 7 

The Eskimos are essentially a peculiar people. Their 
character and their condition, the one of necessity grow- 
ing out of the other, are peculiar. First, it is claimed 
for them that they are the anomalous race of America — 
the only people of the new world clearly identical with 
any race of the old. Then they are the most littoral peo- 
ple in the world. The linear extent of their occupancy, 
all of it a narrow seaboard averaging scarcely one hundred 

Asiatischen Volkern, wahrscheinlich haben sie durch die Vermischung mit 
den Stammen Amerika's ihre urspriingliche Asiatisehe aussere Gestalt und 
Gesichtsbildung verloren mid linr die Sprache beibehalten.' Baer, Stat. u. 
etlni. Xachr., p. 124. ' lis ressemblent beaucoup aux indigenes des iles 
Curiles, dependantes du Japon.' Laplace, Circumnavigation de VArtemise, 
vol. vi., p. 45. 

5 'The tribes crowded together on the shores of Beering's Sea within a 
comparatively small extent of coast-line, exhibit a greater variety, both in 
personal appearance and dialect, than that which exists between the Western 
Eskimos and their distant countrymen in Labrador; and ethnologists have 
found some difficulty in classifying them properly.' Richardson's Jour., 
vol. i., p. 303. 

6 For authorities, see Tribal Boundaries, at the end of this chapter. 
? Collinson, in London Geographical Society Journal, vol. xxv. p. 201. 


miles in width, is estimated at not less than five thou- 
sand miles. Before them is a vast, unknown, icy ocean, 
upon which they scarcely dare venture beyond sight of 
land ; behind them, hostile mountaineers ever ready to 
dispute encroachment. Their very mother-earth, upon 
whose cold bosom they have been borne, age after age 
through countless generations, 8 is almost impenetrable, 
thawless ice. Their days and nights, and seasons and 
years, are not like those of other men. Six months of 
day succeed six months of night. Three months of 
sunless winter; three months of nightless summer; six 
months of glimmering twilight. 

About the middle of October 9 commences the long 
night of winter. The earth and sea put on an icy 
covering; beasts and birds depart for regions sheltered 
or more congenial ; humanity huddles in subterraneous 
dens ; all nature sinks into repose. The little heat left 
by the retreating sun soon radiates out into the deep 
blue realms of space ; the temperature sinks rapidly to 
forty or fifty degrees below freezing; the air is hushed, 
the ocean calm, the sky cloudless. An awful, painful 
stillness pervades the dreary solitude. Not a sound is 
heard ; the distant din of busy man, and the noiseless 
hum of the wilderness alike are wanting. Whispers 
become audible at a considerable distance, and an insup- 
portable sense of loneliness oppresses the inexperienced 
visitor. 10 Occasionally the aurora borealis Hashes out in 
prismatic coruscations, throwing a brilliant arch from 
east to west — now in variegated oscillations, graduating 
through all the various tints of blue, and green, and vio- 
let, and crimson ; darting, flashing, or streaming in yellow 
columns, upwards, downwards ; now blazing steadily, now 

8 ' Im nordwestlichsten Theile von Amerika fand Franklin den Boden, 
Mitte August, shon in einer Tiefe von 16 Zoll gefroren. Richardson sah an 
einem ostlicheren Punkte der Kiiste, in 71° 12' Breite, die Eisschicht im 
Julius aufgethaut bis 3 Fuss unter der krautbedeckten Oberflache. Hum- 
boldt, Ko.vnos, torn. iv. p. 47. 

9 Silliman's Journal, vol. xvi., p. 130. Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., 
p. 13. Armstrongs Xar., p. 289. 

io ' Characteristic of the Arctic regions.' Silliman's Jour., vol. xvi., p. 143. 


in wavy undulations, sometimes up to the very zenith ; 
momentarily lighting up in majestic grandeur the 
cheerless frozen scenery, but only to fall back with 
exhausted force, leaving a denser obscurity. Nature's 
electric lantern, suspended for a time in the frosty 
vault of heaven; — munificent nature's fire -works; 
with the polar owl, the polar bear, and the polar 
man, spectators. 

In January, the brilliancy of the stars is dimmed 
perceptibly at noon; in February, a golden tint rests 
upon the horizon at the same hour; in March, the 
incipient dawn broadens; in April, the dozing Eski- 
mo rubs his eyes and crawls forth; in May, the snow 
begins to melt, the impatient grass and flowers arrive 
as it departs. 11 In June, the summer has fairly come. 
Under the incessant rays of the never setting sun, the 
snow speedily disappears, the ice breaks up, the glacial 
earth softens for a depth of one, two, or three feet; cir- 
culation is restored to vegetation, 12 which, during winter, 
had been stopped, — if we may believe Sir John Rich- 
ardson, even the largest trees freezing to the heart. Sea, 
and plain, and rolling steppe lay aside their seamless 
shroud of white, and a brilliant tint of emerald over- 
spreads the landscape. 13 All Nature, with one re- 
sounding cry, leaps up and claps her hands for joy. 
Flocks of birds, lured from their winter homes, fill 
the air with their melody ; myriads of wild fowls send 
forth their shrill cries ; the moose and the reindeer flock 
down from the forests; 14 from the resonant sea comes the 

11 At Kotzebue Sound, in July, Choris writes: ' Le sol etait emaille de 
fleurs de couleurs varices, dans tous les endroitsou la neige venait de fondre.' 

Voyage Pittures<jue, pt. ii., p. 8. 

12 ' In der Einikle der Inseln von Neu-Sibirien finden grosse Heerden von 
Rennthieren und zalillose Lemminge noch hinlangliche Nahrung.' Hum- 
boldt, Kosmos, vol. iv., p. 42. 

13 4 Thermometer rises as high as 61° Fahr. With a sun shining through- 
out the twenty-four hours the growth of plants is rapid in the extreme.' 
Seenuuin's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 15. 

14 ' During the period of incubation of the aquatic birds, every hole and 
projecting crag on the sides of this rock is occupied by them. Its shores 
resound with the chorus of thousands of the feathery tribe.' Beechev's Voy., 
vol. i., p. 349. 


noise of spouting whales and barking seals ; and this so 
lately dismal, cheerless region, blooms with an exhuber- 
ance of life equaled only by the shortness of its dura- 
tion. And in token of a just appreciation of the 
Creator's goodness, this animated medley — man, and 
beasts, and birds, and fishes — rises up, divides, falls to, 
and ends in eating or in being eaten. 

The physical characteristics of the Eskimos are: a 
fair complexion, the skin, when free from dirt and paint, 
being almost white; 15 a medium stature, well propor- 
tioned, thick-set, muscular, robust, active, 16 with small 
and beautifully shaped hands and feet; 17 a pyramidal 

15 ' Their complexion, if divested of its usual covering of dirt, can hardly 
be called dark.' Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 51. 'In comparison 
with other Americans, of a white complexion.' Mc(Julh>h's Aboriginal His- 
tory of America, p. 20. 'White Complexion, not Copper coloured.' Bobbs' 
Hudson's Bay, p. 50. 'Almost as white as Europeans.' Halm's Travels, 
vol. ii., p. 263. 'Not darker than that of a Portuguese.' Lyon's Journal, 
p. 224. ' Scarcely a shade darker than a deep brunette.' Parry's 3rd Voy- 
aye, p. 493. ' Their complexion is light.' Ball's Alaska, p. 381. 'Eye-wit- 
nesses agree in their superior lightness of complexion over the Chinooks.' 
Pickering' s Races of Man, U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., p. 28. At Coppermine 
River they are ' of a dirty copper color; some of the women, however, are more 
fair and ruddy.' Hearne's Travels, p. 166. ' Considerably fairer than the In- 
dian tribes.' Simpson's Nar., p. 110. At Cape Bathurst 'The complexion is 
swarthy, chiefly, I think, from exposure and the accumulation of dirt.' 
Armstrong's Nar., p. 192. 'Shew little of the copper -colour of the Red 
Indians.' RiclMrdson's Pol. Beg., p. 303. 'From exposure to weather they 
become dark after manhood.' Ricliardson's Nar., vol. i., p. 343. 

16 'Both sexes are well proportioned, stout, muscular, and active.' See- 
mann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 50. 'A stout, well-looking people.' Simp- 
son's Nar., pp. 110, 114. 'Below the mean of the Caucasian race.' Br. 
Hayes in Historic. Magazine, vol. i., p. 6. ' They are thick set, have a de- 
cided tendency to obesity, and are seldom more than five feet in height.' 
Figuier's Human Pace, p. 211. At Kotzebue Sound, 'tallest man was five feet 
nine inches; tallest woman, five feet four inches.' Beechey's Voy., vol. i., p. 
360. 'Average height was five feet four and a half inches.' At the mouth 
of the Mackenzie they are of 'middle stature, strong and muscular.' Ann- 
strong's Nar., pp. 149, 192. Low, broad-set, not well made, nor strong. 
Hearne's Trav., p. 166. ' The men were in general stout.' Franklin's Nar., 
vol. i., p. 29. 'Of a middle size, robust make, and healthy appearance.' 
Kotzebue's Voy,., vol. i., p. 209. 'Men vary in height from about five feet to 
five feet ten inches.' Richardson's Pol. Jteg., p. 304. 'Women were gen- 
erally short.' 'Their figure inclines to squat.' Hooper's Tuski, p. 224. 

17 'Tous les individus qui appartiennent a la famille des Eskimaux, se 
distinguent par la petitesse de leurs pieds et de leurs mains, et la grosseur 
enorme de leurs tetes.' Be Pauw. Rechrrclies Phil., torn, i., p. 262. 'The 
hands and feet are delicately small and well formed.' Richardson's Pol. 
Reg., p. 304. ' Small and beautifully made.' Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. 
ii., p. 50. At Point Barrow, 'their hands, notwithstanding the great amount 
of manual labour to which they are subject, were beautifully small and well- 


head; 18 a broad egg-shaped face; high rounded cheek- 
bones; flat nose; small oblique eyes; large mouth; 
teeth regular, but well worn ; 19 coarse black hair, closely 
cut upon the crown, leaving a monk-like ring around 
the edge, 20 and a paucity of beard. 21 The men fre- 

formed, a description equally applicable to their feet.' Armstrong's Nar., p. 

18 ' The head is of good size, rather flat superiorly, but very fully devel- 
oped posteriorly, evidencing a preponderance of the animal passions; the 
forehead was, for the most part, low and receding; in a few it was somewhat 
vertical, but narrow. Armstrong's Nar., p. 193. Their cranial character- 
istics ' are the strongly developed coronary ridge, the obliquity of the 
zygoma, and its greater capacity compared with the Indian cranium. The 
former is essentially pyramidal, while the latter more nearly approaches a 
cubic shape.' Dall's Alaska, p. 376. 'Greatest breadth of the face is just 
below the eyes, the forehead tapers upwards, ending narrowly, but not 
acutely, and in like manner the chin is a blunt cone.' Bichardson's Pol. 
Beg., p. 302. Dr Gall, whose observations on the same skulls presented 
him for phrenological observation are published by M. Louis Choris, thus 
comments upon the head of a female Eskimo from Kotzebue Sound: ' L'or- 
gane de l'instinct de la propagation se trouve extremement developpe pour 
une tete de femme.' He finds the musical and intellectual orgaus poorly 
developed; while vanity and love of children are well displayed. ' En gene- 
ral, ' sagely concluded the doctor, ' cette tete femme presentait une organiza- 
tion aussi heureuse que celle de la plupart des femmes d'Europe.' Voy. 
Pitt., pt. ii., p. 16. 

19 'Large fat round faces, high cheek bones, small hazel eyes, eye- 
brows slanting like the Chinese, and wide mouths.' Beechey's Voy., vol. i., 
p. 345. 'Broad, flat faces, high cheek bones.' Dr Hayes in Hist. Mag., vol. 
i., p. 6. Their 'teeth are regular, but, from the nature of their food, and 
from their practice of preparing hides by chewing, are worn down almost to 
the gums at an early age.' Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 51. At 
Hudson Strait, broad, flat, pleasing face; small and generally sore eyes; 
given to bleeding at the nose. Franklin's Nar., vol. i., p. 29. ' Small eyes 
and very high cheek bones.' Kotzebue's Voy., vol. i., p. 209. 'La face 
platte, la bouche ronde, le nez petit sans etre ecrase, le blanc de l'oeil 
jaunatre, l'iris noir et peu brillant. ' De Pauic, Becherches Phil., torn. i., p. 262. 
They have ' small, wild-looking eyes, large and very foul teeth, the hair 
generally black, but sometimes fair, and always in extreme disorder.' 
Brownell's lnd. Paces, p. 467. ' As contrasted with the other native Amer- 
ican races, their eyes are remarkable, being narrow and more or less ob- 
lique.' Richardson's Nar., vol. i., p. 343. Expression of face intelligent 
a ad good-natured. Both sexes have mostly round, flat faces, with Mongo- 
lian cast. Hooper's Tnski, p. 223. 

20 ' Allowed to hang down in a club to the shoulder.' Bichardson's Pol. 
Beg., p. 305. Hair cut 'close round the crown of the head, and thereby, 
leaving a bushy ring round the lower part of it.' Beechey's Voy., vol. i., 
p. 345. 'Their hair is straight, black, and coarse.' Seemann's Voy. Her- 
ald, vol. ii., p. 51. A fierce expression characterized them on the Mackenzie 
River, which ' was increased by the long disheveled hair flowing about their 
shoulders.' Armstrong's Nar., p. 149. At Kotzebue Sound ' their hair was 
done up in large plaits on each side of the head.' Beechey's Voy., vol. i., p. 
330. At Camden Bay, lofty top-knots; at Point Barrow, none. At Copper- 
mine River the hair is worn short, unshaven on the crown, and bound with 
strips of deer-skin. Simpson's Nar., pp. 121, 157. Some of the men have 


quently leave the hair in a natural state. The women 
of Icy Reef introduce false hair among their own, wear- 
ing the whole in two immense bows at the back of the 
head. At Point Barrow, they separate the hair into two 
parts or braids, saturating it with train-oil, and binding 
it into stiff bunches with strips of skin. Their lower 
extremities are short, so that in a sitting posture they 
look taller than when standing. 

Were these people satisfied with what nature has 
done for them, they would be passably good-looking. 
But with them as with all mankind, no matter how high 
the degree of intelligence and refinement attained, art 
must be applied to improve upon nature. The few fin- 
ishing touches neglected by the Creator, man is ever 
ready to supply. 

Arrived at the age of puberty, the great work of im- 
provement begins. Up to this time the skin has been 
kept saturated in grease and filth, until the natural color 
is lost, and until the complexion is brought down to the 
Eskimo standard. Now pigments of various dye are ap- 
plied, both painted outwardly and pricked into the skin; 
holes are cut in the face, and plugs or labrets inserted. 
These operations, however, attended with no little solem- 
nity, are supposed to possess some significance other than 
that of mere ornament. Upon the occasion of piercing 
the lip, for instance, a religious feast is given. 

bare crowns, but the majority wear the hair flowing naturally. The women 
cut the hair short in front, level with the eyebrows. At Humphrey Point it 
is twisted with some false hair into two immense bows on the back of the 
head. Hooper's Tuski, p. 225. ' Their hair hangs down long, but is" cut 
quite short on the crown of the head.' Kotzebue's Voy., vol. i., p. 210. 
Hair cut like ' that of a Capuchin friar.' Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 51. 
21 Crantz says the Greenlanders root it out. ' The old men had a few 
gray hairs on their chins, but the young ones, though grown up, were beard- 
less.' Ber.chey's Voy., vol. i., p. 332. 'The possession of a beard is very 
rare, but a slight moustache is not infrequent.' Seemann's Voy. Herald, 
vol. ii., p. 51. 'As the men grow old, they have more hair on the face than 
Red Indians.' Richardson's Aar., vol. i., p. 343. ' Generally an absence of 
beard and whiskers.' Armstrong's Var., p. 193. ' Beard is universally want- 
ing.' Kotzebue's Voy., vol. i., p. 252. 'The young men have little beard, 
but some of the old ones have a tolerable shew of long gray hairs on the 
upper lip and chin.' Richardson's Pol. Reg., p. 303. 'All have beards.' 
Bell's Geography, vol. v., p. 294. Kirby affirms that in Alaska 'many of them 
have a profusion of whiskers and beard.' Smithsonian Report, 1864, p. 41G. 


On the northern coast the women paint the eyebrows 
and tattoo the chin ; while the men only pierce the lower 
lip under one or both corners of the mouth, and insert 
in each aperture a double-headed sleeve-button or dumb- 
bell-shaped labret, of bone, ivory, shell, stone, glass, or 
wood. The incision when first made is about the size 
of a quill, but as the aspirant for improved beauty grows 
older, the size of the orifice is enlarged until it reaches 
a width of half or three quarters of an inch. 22 In tat- 
tooing, the color is applied by drawing a thread under 
the skin, or pricking it in with a needle. Different 
tribes, and different ranks of the same tribe, have each 
their peculiar form of tattooing. The plebeian female of 
certain bands is permitted to adorn her chin with but 
one vertical line in the centre, and one parallel to it on 
either side, while the more fortunate noblesse mark two 
vertical lines from each corner of the mouth. 23 A fem- 
inine cast of features, as is common with other branches of 
the Mongolian race, prevails in both sexes. Some trav- 
elers discover in the faces of the men a characteristic 
expression of ferociousness, and in those of the women, 
an extraordinary display of wantonness. A thick coat- 
ing of filth and a strong odor of train-oil are inseparable 
from an Eskimo, and the fashion of labrets adds in no 
wise to his comeliness. 24 

22 ' The lip is perforated for the labret as the boy approaches manhood, 
and is considered an important era in his life.' Armstrong's Nar., p. 194. 
'Some wore but one, others one on each side of the mouth.' Hooper's 
Tuski, p. 224. ' Lip ornaments, with the males, appear to correspond with 
the tattooing of the chins of the females.' BeccJiey's Voy., vol. i., p. 384. 

23 ' The women tattoo their faces in blue lines produced by making 
stitches with a fine needle and thread, smeared with lampblack. ' Richardson's 
Pol. Beg., p. 305. Between Kotzebue Sound and Icy Cape, 'all the women 
were tattooed upon the chin with three small lines.' They blacken 'the 
edges of the eyelids with plumbago, rubbed up with a little saliva upon a 
piece of slate.' Beecliey's Voy., vol. i., p. 360. At Point Barrow, the 
women have on the chin 'a vertical line about half an inch broad in the 
centre, extending from the lip, with a parallel but narrower one on either 
side of it, a little apart. Some had two vertical lines protruding from 
either angle of the mouth; which is a mark of their high position in the 
tribe. Armstrong's Nar., pp. 101, 149. On Bering Isle, men as well as 
women tattoo. 'Plusieurs homines avaient le visage tatoue.' Choris. Voy. 
Pitt., pt. ii., p. 5. 

24 ' Give a particularly disgusting look when the bones are taken out, as 


For covering to the body, the Eskimos employ the 
skin of all the beasts and birds that come within their 
reach. Skins are prepared in the fur, 25 and cut and 
sewed with neatness and skill. Even the intestines of 
seals and whales are used in the manufacture of water- 
proof overdresses. 26 The costume for both sexes consists 
o£Jong stockings or drawers, over which are breeches 
extending from the shoulders to below the knees; and 
a frock or jacket, somewhat shorter than the breeches 
wkh sleeves and hood. This garment is made whole, 
there being no openings except for the head and arms. 
The frock of the male is cut at the bottom nearly 
square, while that of the female reaches a little lower, 
and terminates before and behind in a point or scol- 
lop. The tail of some animal graces the hinder part of 
the male frock; the woman's has a large hood, in which 
she carries her infant. Otherwise both sexes dress 
alike; and as, when stripped of their facial decorations, 
their physiognomies are alike, they are not unfre- 
quently mistaken one for the other. 27 They have boots 

the saliva continually runs over the chin.' Kotzebue's Voy., vol. i., p, 227. 
At Camden, labrets were made of large blue beads, glued to pieces of ivorj\ 
None worn at Coppermine River. Simpson's Nar., pp. 119, 347. ' Many of 
them also transfix the septum of the nose with a dentalium shell or ivory 
needle.' Richardson's Nar., vol. i., p. 355. 

25 ' These natives almost universally use a very unpleasant liquid for 
cleansing purposes. They tan and soften the seal-skin used for boot-soles 
with it.' Whymper's Alaska, p. 161. ' Females occasionally wash their hair 
and faces with their own urine, the odour of which is agreeable to both sexes, 
and they are well accustomed to it, as this liquor is kept in tubs in the 
porches of their huts for use in dressing the deer and seal skins. ' Richard- 
son's Pol. Rea., p. 304. ' Show much skill in the preparation of whale, seal, 
and deer-skins.' Richardson's Nar., vol. i., p. 357. They have a great 
antipathy to water. ' Occasionally they wash their bodies with a certain 
animal fluid, but even this process is seldom gone through.' Seeinann's 

Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 62. 

26 ' During the summer, when on whaling or sealing excursions, a coat of 
the gut of the whale, and boots of seal or walrus hide, are used as water- 
proof coverings.' Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii , p. 53. At Point Barrow 
they wear 'Kamleikas or water-proof shirts, made of the entrails of seals.' 
Simpson's Nar., p. ]5G. Women wear close-fitting breeches of seal-skin. 
Hooper's Tuski, p. 224. ' They are on the whole as good as the best oil- 
skins in England.' Beechey's Voy., vol. i., p. 340. 

27 The dress of the two sexes is much alike, the outer shirt or jacket 
having a pointed skirt before and behind, those of the female being merely 
a little longer. ' Pretty much the same for both sexes.' Fhjuier's Human 
Race, p. 214. 

Vol. I. 4 


of walrus or seal skin, mittens or gloves of deer-skin, 
and intestine water-proofs covering the entire body. 
Several kinds of fur frequently enter into the composi- 
tion of one garment. Thus the body of the frock, 
generally of reindeer-skin, may be of bird, bear, seal, 
mink, or squirrel skin ; while the hood may be of fox- 
skin, the lining of hare-skin, the fringe of wolverine- 
skin, and the gloves of fawn-skin. 28 Two suits are 
worn during the coldest weather; the inner one with 
the fur next the skin, the outer suit with the fur out- 
ward. 29 Thus, with their stomachs well filled with fat, 
and their backs covered with furs, they bid defiance to 
the severest Arctic winter. 30 

In architecture, the Eskimo is fully equal to the 
emergency ; building, upon a soil which yields him little 
or no material, three classes of dwellings. Penetrating 
the frozen earth, or casting around him a frozen wall, 
he compels the very elements from which he seeks 
protection to protect him. For his yourt or winter 

28 ' They have besides this a jacket made of eider drakes' skins sewed 
together, which, put on underneath their other dress, is a tolerable protec- 
tion against a distant arrow, and is worn in times of hostility.' Beech- 
ey's Voy. vol. i., p. r 340. Messrs Dease and Simpson found those of 
Point Barrow 'well clothed in seal and reindeer skins.' Loud. Geog. Soc. 
Jour., vol. viii., p. 221. ' The linest dresses are made of the skins of unborn 
deer.' Ricltardson's Pol Beg., p. 306. ' The half-developed skin of a fawn 
that has never lived, obtained by driving the doe till her offspring is pre- 
maturely born.' Whymper's Alaska, p. 160. Eskimo women pay much 
regard to their toilet. Richardson's Nar., vol. i., p. 355. 

29 Their dress consists of two suits. Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., 
p. 52. ' Reindeer skin — the fur next the body.' Armstrong's Nar., p. 149. 
' Two women, dressed like men, looked frightfully with their tattooed faces.' 
Kotzebue's Voy., vol. i., p. 191. Seal-skin jackets, bear-skin trowsers, and 
white-fox skin caps, is the male costume at Hudson Strait. The female 
dress is the same, with the addition of a hood for carrying children. Frank- 
lin's Nar., vol. i., p 29. At Camden Bay, reindeer-skin jackets and water- 
proof boots. Simpson's Nar., p. 119. At Coppermine River, 'women's 
boots which are not stiffened out with whalebone, and the tails of their 
jackets are not over one foot long.' Hearne's Travels, p 166. Deer-skin, hair 
outside, ornamented with white fur. Kirby in Smithsonian Rept., 1864, p. 
416. The indoor dress of the eastern Eskimo is of reindeer-skin, with the 
fur inside. ' When they go out, another entire suit with the fur outside is 
put over all, and a pair of watertight sealskin moccasins, with similiar mit- 
tens for their hands.' BUliman's Journal, vol. xvi., p. 146. The frock at Cop- 
permine River has a tail something like a dress-coat. Simpson's Nar., p . 350. 

30 ' Some of them are even half-naked, as a summer heat, even of 10 J is 
insupportable to them.' Kotzebue's Voy., vol. i., p. 205. 


residence he digs a hole of the required dimensions, 
to a depth of about six feet. 31 Within this excava- 
tion he erects a frame, either of wood or whalebone, 
lashing his timbers with thongs instead of nailing them. 
This frame is carried upward to a distance of two or three 
feet above the ground, 32 when it is covered by a dome- 
shaped roof of poles or whale-ribs turfed and earthed 
over. 33 In the centre of the roof is left a hole for the 
admission of light and the emission of smoke. In ab- 
sence of fire, a translucent covering of whale - intestine 
confines the warmth of putrifying filth, and completes the 
Eskimo's sense of comfort. To gain admittance to this 
snug retreat, without exposing the inmates to the storms 
without, another and a smaller hole is dug to the same 
depth, a short distance from the first. From one to 
the other, an underground passage-way is then opened, 
through which entrance is made on hands and knees. 
The occupants descend by means of a ladder, and over the 
entrance a shed is erected, to protect it from the snow. 34 
Within the entrance is hung a deer-skin door, and ante- 
rooms are arranged in which to deposit frozen outer gar- 
ments before entering the heated room. Around the 
sides of the dwelling, sleeping- places are marked out; for 
bedsteads, boards are placed upon logs one or two feet in 
diameter, and covered with willow branches and skins. 
A little heap of stones in the centre of the room, under 
the smoke -hole, forms the fireplace. In the corners of 
the room are stone lamps, which answer all domestic 

31 ' Down to the frozen subsoil.' Richardson's Pol. Beg., p. 310. ' Some 
are wholly above ground, others have their roof scarcely raised above it.' 
Beechey's Voy., vol. ii., p. 301. 

32 ' Formed of stakes placed upright in the ground about six feet high, 
either circular or oval in form, from which others inclined so as to form a 
sloping roof.' Armstrong's Nar., p. 149. 'Half underground, with the 
entrance more or less so.' DaWs Alaska, p. 13. 'They are more than 
half underground,' and are 'about twenty feet square and eight feet deep.' 
iSeemann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 57. 

33 ' The whole building is covered with earth to the thickness of a foot or 
more, and in a few years it becomes overgrown with grass, looking from a 
short distance like a small tumulus.' Bichardson's Pol. Beg., p. 310. 

31 A smaller drift-wood house is sometimes built with aside-door. ' Light 
and air are admitted by a low door at one end.' BicJtardson' s Nar., vol. 
i., p. 245. 


purposes in the absence of fire- wood. 35 In the better class 
of buildings, the sides and floor are boarded. Supplies 
are kept in a store house at a little distance from the 
dwelling, perched upon four posts, away from the reach 
of the dogs, and a frame is always erected on which 
to hang furs and fish. Several years are sometimes 
occupied in building a hut. 30 

Mark how nature supplies this treeless coast with 
wood. The breaking-up of winter in the mountains of 
Alaska is indeed a breaking- up. The accumulated 
masses of ice and snow, when suddenly loosened by the 
incessant rays of the never-setting sun, bear away all 
before them. Down from the mountain -sides comes 
the avalanche, uprooting trees, swelling rivers, hurry- 
ing with its burden to the sea. There, casting itself 
into the warm ocean current, the ice soon disappears, 
and the driftwood which accompanied it is carried north- 
ward and thrown back upon the beach by the October 
winds. Thus huge forest-trees, taken up bodily, as it 
were, in the middle of a continent, and carried by the 
currents to the incredible distance, sometimes, of three 
thousand miles, are deposited all along the Arctic sea- 
board, laid at the very door of these people, a people 
whose store of this world's benefits is none of the most 
abundant. 37 True, wood is not an absolute necessity with 
them, as many of their houses in the coldest weather 

35 ' The fire in the centre is never lit merely for the sake of warmth, as 
the lamps are sufficient for that purpose.' Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. 
ii., p. 58. 'They have no fire-places; but a stone placed in the centre 
serves for a support to the lamp, by which the little cooking that is required 
is performed.' Jiidtardson's Nar., vol. i., p. 348. 

36 ' On trouva plusieurs huttes construites en bois, moitie dans la terre, 
moitie en dehors.' Choris' Voy. Pitt., pt. ii., p. ft. At Beaufort Bay are 
wooden huts. Simpson's Nar., p. 177. At Toker Point, 'built of drift-wood 
and sods of turf or mud ' Hooper's Tuski, p. 3-43. At Cape Krusenstern the 
houses ' appeared like little round hills, with fences of whale-bone.' Koize- 
but's Voy., vol. i., p. 237. ' They construct yoiuts or winter residences upon 
those parts of the shore which are adapted to their convenience, such as the 
mouths of rivers, the entrances of inlets, or jutting points of land, but always 
upon low ground.' Beechey's Voy., vol. ii.. p. 300. 

3" 'I was surprised at the vast quantity of driftwood accumulated on its 
shore, several acres being thickly covered with it. and many pieces at least 
sixty feet in length.' Arpisfrong's Nar., p. 104. 


have no fire; only oil -lamps being used for cooking 
and heating. Whale-ribs supply the place of trees for 
house and boat timbers, and hides are commonly used 
for boards. Yet a bountiful supply of wood during their 
lonir, cold, dark winter comes in no wise amiss. 38 Their 
summer tents are made of seal or untanned deer skins 
with the hair outward, conical or bell-shaped, and without 
a smoke -hole as no fires are ever kindled within them. 
The wet or frozen earth is covered with a few coarse 
skins for a floor. 39 

But the most unique system of architecture in America 
is improvised by the Eskimos during their seal-hunting 
expeditions upon the ice, when they occupy a veritable 
crystal palace fit for an Arctic fairy. On the frozen 
river or sea, a spot is chosen free from irregu- 
larities, and a circle of ten or fifteen feet in diam- 
eter drawn on the snow. The snow within the 
circle is then cut into slabs from three to four 
inches in thickness, their length being the depth 
of the snow, and these slabs are formed into a 
wall enclosing the circle and carried up in courses 
similar to those of brick or stone, terminating in a 
dome -shaped roof. A wedge- like slab keys the arch; 
and this principle in architecture may have first been 
known to the Assyrians, Egyptians, Chinese or Es- 
kimos. 40 Loose snow is then thrown into the crevices, 
which quickly congeals; an aperture is cut in the 
side for a door; and if the thin wall is not sufficiently 

38 ' Eastern Esquimaux never seem to think of fire as a means of imparting 
warmth.' Simpson's Nar., p. 346. 

39 Their houses are ' moveable tents, constructed of poles and skins. ' 
Brovonell's hid. Races, p. 469. 'Neither wind nor watertight.' Beediey's 

Voy., vol. i., p. 361. At Cape Smythe, Hooper saw seven Eskimo tents 
of seal skin. Tuski, p. 216. 'We entered a small tent of morse -skins, 
made in the form of a canoe.' Kotzebue's Voy., vol. i., p. 226. At Cop- 
permine River their tents in summer are of deer-skin with the hair on, 
and circular. Ilearne's Travels, p. 167. At St Lawrence Island, Kotzebue 
saw no settled dwellings, ' only several small tents built of the ribs of whales, 
and covered with the skin of the morse.' Voyage, vol. i., pp. 190-191. 

40 ' In parallelograms, and so adjusted as to form a rotunda, with an 
arched roof.' Silliman's Jour., vol. xvi., p. 146. Parry's Voy., vol. v., p. 
200. Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., p. 44. 


translucent, a piece of ice is fitted into the side 
for a window. Seats, tables, couches, and even fire- 
places are made with frozen snow, and covered with 
reindeer or seal skin. Out -houses connect with the 
main room, and frequently a number of dwellings are 
built contiguously, with a passage from one to another. 
These houses are comfortable and durable, resisting 
alike the wind and the thaw until late in the season. 
Care must be taken that the walls are not so thick as to 
make them too warm, and so cause a dripping from the 
interior. A square block of snow serves as a stand for 
the stone lamp which is their only fire. 41 

" The purity of the material," says Sir John Frank- 
lin, who saw them build an edifice of this kind at 
Coppermine River, " of which the house was framed, 
the elegance of its construction, and the translucency of 
its walls, which transmitted a very pleasant light, gave 
it an appearance far superior to a marble building, and 
one might survey it with feelings somewhat akin to 
those produced by the contemplation of a Grecian tem- 
ple, reared by Phidias; both are triumphs of art, inimi- 
table in their kind." 42 

Eskimos, fortunately, have not a dainty palate. Ev- 
erything which sustains life is food for them. Their 
substantials comprise the flesh of land and marine ani- 
mals, fish and birds; venison, and whale and seal 
blubber being chief. Choice dishes, tempting to the 
appetite, Arctic epicurean dishes, Eskimo nectar and 
ambrosia, are daintily prepared, hospitably placed before 
strangers, and eaten and drunk with avidity. Among 

41 * These houses are durable, the wind has little effect on them, and they 
resist the thaw until the sun acquires very considerable power.' Richard- 
son's Nar. t vol. i., p. 350. 

42 The snow houses are called by the natives igloo, and the underground 
huts yourts, or yurts, and their tents topeks. Winter residence, 'iglut.' Rich- 
ardson's Pol. Reg., p. 310. Beechey, describing the same kind of buildings, 
calls them 'yourts.' Voy., vol. i., p. 366. Tent of skins, tie-poo-eet; topak; 
toopek. Tent, too-pote. Ibid., vol. ii., p. 381. 'Yourts.' iSeemann's Voy. 
Herald, vol. ii., p. 59. Tent, topek. Dall says Richardson is wrong, and 
that igloo or iglu is the name of ice houses. Alaska, p. 532. House, iglo. 
Tent, tuppek. Richardson's Jour., vol. ii., p. 378. Snow house, eegloo. 
Frunklin's Nar., vol. ii., p. 47. 


them are : a bowl of coagulated blood, mashed cranberries 
with rancid train-oil, whortleberries and walrus-blubber, 
alternate streaks of putrid black and white whale-fat; 
venison steeped in seal -oil, raw deer's liver cut in small 
pieces and mixed with the warm half-digested contents of 
the animal's stomach ; bowls of live maggots, a draught of 
warm blood from a newly killed animal. 43 Fish are some- 
times eaten alive. Meats are kept in seal-skin bags for 
over a year, decomposing meanwhile, but never becoming 
too rancid for our Eskimos. Their winter store of oil 
they secure in seal -skin bags, which are buried in the 
frozen ground. Charlevoix remarks that they are the 
only race known who prefer food raw. This, however, is 
not the case. They prefer their food cooked, but do not 
object to it raw or rotten. They are no lovers of salt. 44 
In mid -winter, while the land is enveloped in dark- 
ness, the Eskimo dozes torpidly in his den. Early in 
September the musk-oxen and reindeer retreat south- 
ward, and the fish are confined beneath the frozen cov- 
ering of the rivers. It is during the short summer, 
when food is abundant, that they who would not perish 
must lay up a supply for the winter. When spring 
opens, and the rivers are cleared of ice, the natives follow 
the fish, which at that time ascend the streams to spawn, 
and spear them at the falls and rapids that impede their 
progress. Small wooden fish are sometimes made and 
thrown into holes in the ice for a decoy; salmon are 
taken in a whalebone seine. At this season also rein- 
deer are captured on their way to the coast, whither 
they resort in the spring to drop their young. Multi- 

43 They are so fond of the warm blood of dying animals that they invented 
an instrument to secure it. See Beechey's Voy., vol. i., p. 344. 'Whale- 
blubber, their great delicacy, is sickening and dangerous to a European 
stomach.' Koizebue's Voy., vol. i., p. 192. 

44 Hearne says that the natives on the Arctic coast of British America are 
so disgustingly filthy that when they have bleeding at the nose they lick 
up their own blood. Travels, p. 161. ' Salt always appeared an abom- 
ination.' 'They seldom cook their food, the frost apparently acting as a 
substitute for fire.' Collinson, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxv., p. 201. 
At Kotzebue Sound they ' seem to subsist entirely on the flesh of marine ani- 
mals, which they, for the most part, eat raw.' Koizebue's Voy., vol. i., p. 239. 


tudes of geese, ducks, and swans visit the ocean during 
the same period to breed. 45 

August and September are the months for whales. 
When a whale is discovered rolling on the water, a 
boat starts out, and from the distance of a few feet a 
weapon is plunged into its blubbery carcass. The har- 
poons are so constructed that when this blow is given, 
the shaft becomes disengaged from the barbed ivory point. 
To this point a seal-skin buoy or bladder is attached by 
means of a cord. The blows are repeated ; the buoys en- 
cumber the monster in diving or swimming, and the inge- 
nious Eskimo is soon able to tow the carcass to the shore. 
A successful chase secures an abundance of food for the 
winter. 45 Seals are caught during the winter, and con- 
siderable skill is required in taking them. Being a warm- 
blooded respiratory animal, they are obliged to have 
air, and in order to obtain it, while the surface of the 
water is undergoing the freezing process, they keep open 
a breathing -hole by constantly gnawing away the ice. 
They produce their young in March, and soon afterward 
the natives abandon their villages and set out on the 
ice in pursuit of them. Seals, like whales, are also 
killed with a harpoon to which is attached a bladder. 
The seal, when struck, may draw the float under water 
for a time, but is soon obliged to rise to the surface 
from exhaustion and for air, when he is again attacked 
and soon obliged to yield. 

The Eskimos are no less ingenious in catching wild- 
fowl, which they accomplish by means of a sling or net 
made of woven sinews, with ivory balls attached. They 
also snare birds by means of whalebone nooses, round 
which fine gravel is scattered as a bait. They ma- 

45 ' During the two summer months they hunt and live on swans, geese, 
and ducks.' Richardson's Nar., vol. i., p. 34ti. 

46 ' Secures winter feasts and abundance of oil for the lamps of a whole 
village, and there is great rejoicing.' Richardson's Pol. Reg., p. 313. ' The 
capture of the seal and walrus is effected in the same manner. Salmon and 
other fish are caught in nets.' Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 61. 'Six 
small perforated ivory balls attached separately to cords of sinew three feet 
long.' Lease cfc Simpson, in Lond. Geog. tioc. Jour., vol. viii., 222. 


noeuvre reindeer to near the edge of a cliff, and, driving 
them into the sea, kill them from canoes. They also 
waylay them at the narrow passes, and capture them in 
great numbers. They construct large reindeer pounds, 
and set up two diverging rows of turf so as to represent 
men ; the outer extremities of the line being sometimes 
two miles apart, and narrowing to a small enclosure. 
Into this trap the unsuspecting animals are driven, when 
they are easily speared. 47 

To overcome the formidable polar bear the natives 
have two strategems. One is by imitating the seal, upon 
which the bear principally feeds, and thereby enticing it 
within gunshot. Another is by bending a piece of stiff 
whalebone, encasing it in a ball of blubber, and freezing 
the ball, which then holds firm the bent whalebone. 
Armed with these frozen blubber balls, the natives ap- 
proach their victim, and, with a discharge of arrows, open 
the engagement. The bear, smarting with pain, turns 
upon his tormentors, who, taking to their heels, drop 
now and then a blubber ball. Bruin, as fond of food 
as of revenge, pauses for a moment, hastily swallows 
one, then another, and another. Soon a strange sensa- 
tion is felt within. The thawing blubber, melted by the 
heat of the animal's stomach, releases the pent-up whale- 
bone, which, springing into place, plays havoc with the 
intestines, and brings the bear to a painful and ignomin- 
ious end. To vegetables, the natives are rather indiffer- 
ent; berries, acid sorrel leaves, and certain roots, are 
used as a relish. There is no native intoxicating liquor, 
but in eating they get gluttonously stupid. 

Notwithstanding his long, frigid, biting winter, the 
Eskimo never suffers from the cold so long as he has an 
abundance of food. As we have seen, a whale or a moose 
supplies him with food, shelter, and raiment. With an 
internal fire, fed by his oily and animal food, glow- 

47 Near Smith River, a low piece of ground, two miles broad at the beach, 
was found enclosed by double rows of turf set up to represent men, narrow- 
ing towards a lake, into which reindeer were driven and killed. Simpson's 
JS'ar., p. 135. 


ing in his stomach, his blood at fever heat, he bur- 
rows comfortably in ice and snow and frozen ground, 
without necessity for wood or coal/ 8 Nor are those pas- 
sions which are supposed to develop most fully under a 
milder temperature, wanting in the half-frozen Hyper- 
borean. 49 One of the chief difficulties of the Eskimo 
during the winter is to obtain water, and the women 
spend a large portion of their time in melting snow over 
oil-lamps. In the Arctic regions, eating snow is at- 
tended with serious consequences. Ice or snow, touched 
to the lips or tongue, blisters like caustic. Fire is ob- 
tained by striking sparks from iron pyrites with quartz. 
It is a singular fact that in the coldest climate inhabited 
by man, lire is less used than anywhere else in the world, 
equatorial regions perhaps excepted. Caloric for the 
body is supplied by food and supplemented by furs. 
Snow houses, from their nature, prohibit the use of 
fire; but cooking with the Eskimo is a luxury, not a 
necessity. He well understands how to utilize every 
part of the animals so essential to his existence. With 
their skins he clothes himself, makes houses, boats, and 
oil-bags; their flesh and fat he eats. He even devours 
the contents of the intestines, and with the skin makes 
water-proof clothing. Knives, arrow-points, house, boat, 
and sledge frames, fish-hooks, domestic utensils, ice-chisels, 
and in fact almost all their implements, are made from the 
horns and bones of the deer, whale, and seal. Bow- 
strings are made of the sinews of musk-oxen, and ropes 
of seal-skin. 50 The Eskimo's arms are not very formidable. 

48 'Ce qu'il y a encore de frappant clans la complexion cle ces barbares, 
c'est 1' extreme chaleur de leur estomac et de leur sang; ils echauffent telle- 
ment, par leur haleine ardente, les huttes oil ils assemblent en hiver, que les 
Europeans, s'y sentent etouffes, comme dans une etuve dont la chaleur est 
trop graduee: aussi ne font-ils jamais de feu dans leur habitation en aucune 
saison, et ils ignorent l'usage des cheminees, sous le climat le plus froid du 
globe.' De Pauw. Recherche* Phil., torn, i., p. 261. 

49 'The voluptuousness and Polygamy of the North American Indians, 
under a temperature of almost perpetual winter, is far greater than that of 
the most sensual tropical nations.' Martin's British Colonies, vol. iii., p. 524. 

50 ' The seal is perhaps their most useful animal, not merely furnishing 
oil and blubber, but the skin used for their canoes, thongs, nets, lassoes, and 
boot soles.' Whymper's Alaska, p. 161. 


Backed by his ingenuity, they nevertheless prove suffi- 
cient for practical purposes; and while his neighbor 
possesses none better, all are on an equal footing in 
war. Their most powerful as well as most artistic 
weapon is the bow. It is made of beech or spruce, 
in three pieces curving in opposite directions and in- 
geniously bound by twisted sinews, so as to give the 
greatest possible strength. Richardson affirms that 
" in the hands of a native hunter it will propel an 
arrow with sufficient force to pierce the heart of a 
musk-ox, or break the leg of a reindeer." Arrows, as 
well as spears, lances, and darts, are of white spruce, 
and pointed with bone, ivory, flint, and slate. 51 East 
of the Mackenzie, copper enters largely into the com- 
position of Eskimo utensils. 52 Before the introduction 
of iron by Europeans, stone hatchets were common. 53 

The Hyperboreans surpass all American nations in their 
facilities for locomotion, both upon land and water. In 
their skin boats, the natives of the Alaskan seaboard from 
Point Barrow to Mount St Elias, made long voyages, 
crossing the strait and sea of Bering, and held commercial 
intercourse with the people of Asia. Sixty miles is an 
ordinary day's journey for sledges, while Indians on 
snow-shoes have been known to run down and cap- 
ture deer. Throughout this entire border, including 
the Aleutian Islands, boats are made wholly of the 
skins of seals or sea-lions, excepting the frame of wood 

51 They have 'two sorts of bows; arrows pointed with iron, flint, and 
bone, or blunt for birds; a dart with thro wing-board for seals; a spear 
headed with iron or copper, the handle about six feet long; and formidable 
iron knives, equally adapted for throwing, cutting, or stabbing.' Simpson's 
Nar., p. 123. They ascended the Mackenzie in former times as far as 
the Ramparts, to obtain flinty slate for lance and arrow points. Richard- 
son's Jour., vol. i., p. 213. At St. Lawrence Island, they are armed with a 
knife two feet long Kotzebue's Voy., vol. i., pp. 193, 211. One weapon was 
'a walrus tooth fixed to the end of a wooden staff.' Beechey's Voy., vol. i., 
p. 343. 

' j2 At the Coppermine River, arrows are pointed with slate or copper; hatch- 
ets also are made of a thick lump of copper. Hearne's Travels, pp. 1G1-9. 

53 ■ The old ivory knives and flint axes are now superseded, the Russians 
having introduced the common European sheath-knife and hatchet. The 
board for throwing darts is in use, and is similar to that of the Polynesians.' 
Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 53. 


or whale-ribs. In the interior, as well as on the coast 
immediately below Mount St Elias, skin boats disap- 
pear, and canoes or wooden boats are used. 

Two kinds of skin boats are employed by the natives 
of the Alaskan coast, a large and a small one. The 
former is called by the natives oomiak, and by the Rus- 
sians baidar. This is a large, flat-bottomed, open boat; 
the skeleton of wood or whale-ribs, fastened with seal- 
skin thongs or whale's sinews, and covered with oiled 
seal or sea-lion skins, which are first sewed together 
and then stretched over the frame. The baidar is 
usually about thirty feet in length, six feet in extreme 
breadth, and three feet in depth. It is propelled by 
oars, and will carry fifteen or twenty persons, but its 
capacity is greatly increased by lashing inflated seal- 
skins to the outside. In storms at sea, two or three 
baidars are sometimes tied together. 54 The small boat 
is called by the natives Jeyak, and by the Russians bai- 
darJca. It is constructed of the same material and in 
the same manner as the baidar, except that it is entirely 
covered with skins, top as well as bottom, save one hole 
left in the deck, which is filled by the navigator. After 


54 The 'baydare is a large open boat, quite flat, made of sea-lions' skins,' 
and is used also for a tent. At Lantscheff Island it was ' a large and prob- 
ably leathern boat, with black sails.' Kotzebue's Voy., vol. i., pp. 202, 216. 
' The kaiyaks are impelled by a double-bladed paddle, used with or without 
a central rest, and the umiaks with oars.' Can 'propel their kaiyaks at the 
rate of seven miles an hour.' Richardson's Jour., vol. i., pp. 238, 358. At Hud- 
son Strait they have canoes of seal-skin, like those of Greenland. Franklin's 
Islar., vol. i., p. 29. Not a drop of water can penetrate the opening into the 
canoe. Midler's Voy., p. 46. The kyak is like an English wager-boat. 
They are 'much stronger than their lightness would lead one to suppose.' 
Hooper's Tuski, pp. 226, 228. Oomiaks or family canoes of skin; float in six 
inches of water. Simpson's Nar., p. 148. ' With these boats they make long voy- 
ages, frequently visiting St. Lawrence Island.' Ball's Alaska, p. 380. ' Frame 
work of wood — when this cannot be procured whalebone is substituted. ' Arm- 
strong's Nar., p. 98. Mackenzie saw boats put together with whalebone ; ' sewed 
in some parts, and tied in others.' Voyages, p. 67. They also use a sail. 'On 
decouvrit au loin, dans la baie, un bateau qui allait a la voile ; elle etait en 
cuir.' Choris, Voy. Pitt., pt. ii., p. 6. They 'are the best means yet discov- 
ered by mankind to go from place to place.' Langsdorff's Voy., pt. ii., p. 43. 
' It is wonderful what long voyages they make in these slight boats.' Camp- 
bell's Voy., p. 114. ' The skin, when soaked with water, is translucent; and 
a stranger placing his foot upon the flat yielding surface at the bottom of 
the boat fancies it a frail security.' Beechey's Voy., vol. i., p. 346. 


taking his seat, and thereby filling this hole, the occu- 
pant puts on a water-proof over-dress, the bottom of 
which is so secured round the rim of the hole that not 
a drop of water can penetrate it. This dress is pro- 
vided with sleeves and a hood. It is securely fastened 
at the wrists and neck, and when the hood is drawn over 
the head, the boatman may bid defiance to the water. 
The baidarka is about sixteen feet in length, and two 
feet in width at the middle, tapering to a point at either 
end. 55 It is light and strong, and when skillfully han- 
dled is considered very safe. The native of Norton 
Sound will twirl his kyak completely over, turn an 
aquatic somersault, and by the aid of his double-bladed 
paddle come up safely on the other side, without even 
losing his seat. So highly were these boats esteemed 
by the Russians, that they were at once universally 
adopted by them in navigating these waters. They 
were unable to invent any improvement in either of 
them, although they made a baidarka with two and 
three seats, which they employed in addition to the 
one-seated kyak. The Kadiak baidarka is a little 
shorter and wider than the Aleutian. 56 

Sleds, sledges, dogs, and Arctic land-boats play an 
important part in Eskimo economy. The Eskimo sled 
is framed of spruce, birch, or whalebone, strongly bound 
with thongs, and the runners shod with smooth strips of 

*5 The 'kajak is shaped like a weaver's shuttle.' Richardson's Pol. Beg., 
p. 308. 'The paddle is in the hands of an Eskimo, what the balancing pole 
is to a tight-rope dancer.' Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 56. 

56 'The Koltshanen construct birch-bark canoes; but on the coast skin 
boats or baidars, like the Eskimo kaiyaks and umiaks, are employed.' Rich- 
ardson's Jour., vol. i., p. 405. If by accident a hole should be made, it is 
stopped with a piece of the flesh of the sea-dog, or fat of the whale, which 
they always carry with them. LangsdorjJFs Voy., pt. ii., p. 43. They strike 
' the water with a quick, regular motion, first on one side, and then on the 
other.' Cook's Third Voy., vol. ii., p. 516. ' Wiegen nie liber 30 Pfund, 
und haben ein diinnes mit Leder iiberzognes Gerippe.' Neue Nachrichten, 
p. 152. 'The Aleutians put to sea with them in all weathers.' Kotzebue's New 
Voy., vol. ii., p. 40. At the Shumagin Islands they ' are generally about 
twelve feet in length, sharp at each end, and about twenty inches broad.' 
Meares' Voy.. p. x. They are as transparent as oiled paper. At Unalaska 
they are so light that they can be carried in one hand. Saner, Billing's Voy., 
p. 157, 159. 


whale's jaw-bone. This sled is heavy, and fit only for 
traveling; over ice or frozen snow. Indian sleds of the 
interior are lighter, the runners being of thin flexible 
boards better adapted to the inequalities of the ground. 
Sledges, such as are used by the voyagers of Hudson 
Bay, are of totally different construction. Three boards, 
each about one foot in width and twelve feet in length, 
thinned, and curved into a semicircle at one end, are 
placed side by side and firmly lashed together with 
thongs. A leathern bag or blanket of the full size of 
the sled is provided, in which the load is placed and 
lashed down with strings. 57 Sleds and sledges are 
drawn by dogs, and they will carry a load of from a 
quarter to half a ton, or about one hundred pounds 
to each dog. The dogs of Alaska are scarcely up to 
the average of Arctic canine nobility. 58 They are of 
various colors, hairy, short-legged, with large bushy 
tails curved over the back; they are wolfish, suspicious, 
yet powerful, sagacious, and docile, patiently performing 
an incredible amount of ill-requited labor. Dogs are 
harnessed to the sledge, sometimes by separate thongs at 
unequal distances, sometimes in pairs to a single line. 
They are guided by the voice accompanied by a whip, 
and to the best trained and most sagacious is given the 
longest tether, that he may act as leader. An eastern 
dog will carry on his back a weight of thirty pounds. 
The dogs of the northern coast are larger and stronger 


57 ' They average twelve feet in length, two feet six inches in height, two 
feet broad, and have the fore part turned up in a gentle curve.' ' The floor 
resembles a grating without cross-bars, and is almost a foot from the level of 
the snow.' Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 56. At Saritscheff Island 'I 
particularly remarked two very neat sledges made of morse and whalebones.' 
Kotzebue's Voy., vol. i., p. 201. ' To make the runners glide smoothly, a 
coating of ice is given to them.' Richardson's Pol. Jieg., p. 309. At Norton 
Sound Captain Cook found sledges ten feet long and twenty inches in width. 
A rail-work on each side, and shod with bone; ' neatly put together; some 
with wooden pins, but mostly with thongs or lashings of whale-bone.' Tliird 

Voy., vol. ii., p. 442, 443. Mackenzie describes the sledges of British Amer- 
ica, Voyages, pp. G7, G8. 

58 'About the size of those of Newfoundland, with shorter legs.' DalVs 
Alaska, p. 25. 'Neither plentiful nor of a good class.' Whymper's Alaska, 
p. 171. 


than those of the interior. Eskimo dogs are used in 
hunting reindeer and musk-oxen, as well as in drawing 
sledges. 59 Those at Cape Prince of Wales appear to he 
of the same species as those used upon the Asiatic coast 
for drawing sledges. 

Snow-shoes, or foot-sledges, are differently made ac- 
cording to the locality. In traveling over soft snow 
they are indispensable. They consist of an open light 
wooden frame, made of two smooth pieces of wood each 
about two inches wide and an inch thick; the inner 
part sometimes straight, and the outer curved out to 
about one foot in the widest part. They are from two 
to six feet in length, some oval and turned up in front, 
running to a point behind; others flat, and pointed at 
both ends, the space within the frame being filled with a 
network of twisted deer-sinews or fine seal-skin. G0 The 
Hudson Bay snow-shoe is only two and a half feet in 
length. The Kutchin shoe is smaller than that of the 

The merchantable wealth of the Eskimos consists of 
peltries, such as wolf, deer, badger, polar-bear, otter, hare, 
musk-rat, Arctic-fox, and seal skins ; red ochre, plumbago, 
and iron pyrites ; oil, ivory, whalebone ; in short, all parts 
of all species of beasts, birds, and fishes that they can se- 
cure and convert into an exchangeable shape. 61 The arti- 
cles they most covet are tobacco, iron, and beads. They 
are not particularly given to strong drink. On the shore 
of Bering Strait the natives have constant commercial 

59 The dog will hunt bear and reindeer, but is afraid of its near relative, 
the wolf. Browmll's lnd. Races, p. 474. 

e0 ' An average length is four and a half feet.' Wliymper's Alaska, p. 183. 
' The Innuit snowshoe is small and nearly flat, ' ' seldom over thirty inches 
long.' 'They are always rights and lefts.' Ingalik larger; Kutchin same 
style; Hudson Bay, thirty inches in length. DalVs Alaska, pp. 190, l'Jl. 
' They are from two to three feet long, a foot broad, and slightly turned up in 
front.' Seernann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 60. 

61 ' Blue beads, cutlery, tobacco, and buttons, were the articles in request.' 
Beechey's Voy., vol. i., p. 352. At Hudson Strait they have a custom of 
licking with the tongue each article purchased, as a finish to the bargain. 
Franklin's Nar., vol. i., 27. 'Articles of Russian manufacture find their 
way from tribe to tribe along the American coast, eastward to llepulse Bay.' 
Richardson's Pol. Reg., p. 317. 


intercourse with Asia. They cross easily in their 
boats, carefully eluding the vigilance of the fur com- 
pany. They frequently meet at the Gwosdeff Islands, 
where the Tschuktschi bring tobacco, iron, tame-rein- 
deer skins, and walrus-ivory; the Eskimos giving in 
exchange wolf and wolverine skins, wooden dishes, seal- 
skins and other peltries. The Eskimos of the American 
coast carry on quite an extensive trade with the Indians 
of the interior, 62 exchanging with them Asiatic merchan- 
dise for peltries. They are sharp at bargains, avaricious, 
totally devoid of conscience in their dealings; will sell 
their property thrice if possible, and, if caught, laugh it 
off as a joke. The rights of property are scrupulously 
respected among themselves, but to steal from strangers, 
which they practice on every occasion with considerable 
dexterity, is considered rather a mark of merit than 
otherwise. A successful thief, when a stranger is the 
victim, receives the applause of the entire tribe. 63 Cap- 
tain Kotzebue thus describes the manner of trading 
with the Russo - Indians of the south and of Asia. 

" The stranger first comes, and lays some goods on 
the shore and then retires; the American then comes, 
looks at the things, puts as many things near them as 
he thinks proper to give, and then also goes away. 
Upon this the stranger approaches, and examines what 
is offered him; if he is satisfied with it, he takes the 
skins and leaves the goods instead ; but if not, then he 
lets all the things lie, retires a second time, and expects 

02 Are very anxious to barter arrows, seal-skin boots, and ivory orna- 
ments for tobacco, beads, and particularly for iron. Hooper's Tuski, p. ^17. 
Some of their implements at Coppermine River are: stone kettles, wood- 
en dishes, scoops and spoons made of buffalo or musk-ox horns. llearne's 
Travels, p. 1G8. At Point Barrow were ivory implements with carved figures 
of sea-animals, ivory dishes, and a ' fine whalebone net.' Also 'knives and 
other implements, formed of native copper ' at Coppermine River. Simpson's 
Nar., pp. 147, 156, 264. At Point Barrow they 'have unquestionably an in- 
direct trade with the Russians.' Simpson's Nar., 161. 

63 'They are very expert traders, haggle obstinately, always consult to- 
gether, and are infinitely happy when they fancy they have cheated anybody. ' 
Kotzebue's Voy., vol. i., p. 2 11. 'A thieving, cunning race.' Armstrong's Nar., 
p. 110. They respect each other's property, 'but they steal without scruple 
from strangers.' Richardson's Jour., vol. i., p. 352. 


an addition from the buyer." If they cannot agree, 
each retires with his goods. 

Their government, if it can be called a government, 
is patriarchal. Now and then some ancient or able 
man gains an ascendency in the tribe, and over- 
awes his fellows. Some tribes even acknowledge an 
hereditary chief, but his authority is nominal. He can 
neither exact tribute, nor govern the movements of the 
people. His power seems to be exercised only in treat- 
ing with other tribes. Slavery in any form is unknown 
among them. Caste has been mentioned in connection 
with tattooing, but, as a rule, social distinctions do not 
exist. 6 * 

The home of the Eskimo is a model of filth and free- 
ness. Coyness is not one of their vices, nor is modesty 
ranked among their virtues. The latitude of innocency 
characterizes all their social relations; they refuse to do 
nothing in public that they would do in private. Female 
chastity is little regarded. The Kutchins, it is said, are 
jealous, but treat their wives kindly; the New Cale- 
donians are jealous, and treat them cruelly; but the 
philosophic Eskimos are neither jealous nor unkind. 
Indeed, so far are they from espionage or meanness in 
marital affairs, that it is the duty of the hospitable host 
to place at the disposal of his guest not only the house 
and its contents, but his wife also. 05 The lot of the 

01 ' They have a chief (Nalegak) in name, but do not recognize his authority.' 
Dr Hayes in Hist. May., vol. i., p. 6. Government, ' a combination of the mon- 
archical and republican;' 'every one is on a perfect level with the rest.' 
tieemanu's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 59, 60. ' Chiefs are respected principally as 
senior men.' Franklin's JS r ar., vol. ii., p. 41. At Kotzebue Sound, a robust 
young man was taken to be chief, as all his commands were punctually 
obeyed. Kotzcbue's Voy., vol. i., p. 235. Quarrels 'are settled by boxing, 
the parties sitting down and striking blows alternately, until one of them 
gives in.' Richardson's Pol. Reg., p. 326. Every man governs his own 
family. BrowneWs lad. Maces, p. 475. They 'have a strong respect for 
their territorial rights, and maintain them with firmness.' Richardson's 
Jour., vol. i., p. 351. 

05 They are ' horribly filthy in person and habits.' Hooper's TusJci, p. 224. 
1 A husband will readily traffic with the virtue of a wife for purposes of gain.' 
ArrnstroiKj's Nar., p. 195. 'More than once a wife was proffered by her 
husband.' Richardson's Jour., vol. i., p. 356. As against the above testimony, 
Seemann affirms : ' After the marriage ceremony has been performed infi- 
Vol. I. 5 


women is but little better than slavery. All the work, 
except the nobler occupations of hunting, fishing, and 
fighting, falls to them. The lesson of female inferi- 
ority is at an early age instilled into the mind of 
youth. Nevertheless, the Eskimo mother is remark- 
ably affectionate, and fulfills her low destiny with pa- 
tient kindness. Polygamy is common ; every man being 
entitled to as many wives as he can get and main- 
tain. On the other hand, if women are scarce, the men 
as easily adapt themselves to circumstances, and two 
of them marry one woman. Marriages are celebrated 
as follows: after gaining the consent of the mother, the 
lover presents a suit of clothes to the lady, who arrays 
herself therein and thenceforth is his wife. 66 Dancing, 
accompanied by singing and violent gesticulation, is their 
chief amusement. In all the nations of the north, every 
well-regulated village aspiring to any degree of respect- | 
ability has its public or town house, w T hich among the 
Eskimos is called the Casine or Kashim. It consists of 
one large subterranean room, better built than the com- 
mon dwellings, and occupying a central position, where 
the people congregate on feast-days. 67 This house is 
also used as a public work-shop, where are manufact- 
ured boats, sledges, and snow-shoes. A large portion 
of the winter is devoted to dancing. Feasting and vis- 
iting commence in November. On festive occasions, a 
dim light and a strong odor are thrown over the scene 

delity is rare.' Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 66. 'These people are in the habit 
of collecting certain fluids for the purposes of tanning; and that, judging 
from what took place in the tent, in the most open manner, in the presence 
of all the family.' Beechey's Voy., vol. i., p. 407. 

06 'Two men sometimes marry the same woman.' Seemann's Voy. Her- 
ald, vol. ii., p. 66. ' As soon as a girl is born, the young lad who wishes to 
have her for a wife goes to her father's tent, and proffers himself. If ac- 
cepted, a promise is given which is considered binding, and the girl is 
delivered to her betrothed husband at the proper age.' Franklin's Nar., 
vol. ii., p. 41. Women 'carry their infants between their reindeer-skin 
jackets and their naked backs.' Simpson's JS'ar., p. 121. 'All the drudgery 
falls upon the women; even the boys would transfer their loads to their 
sisters.' Collinson, in Land. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxv., p. 201. 

w The ' Kashim is generally built by the joint labour of the community.' 
Richardson's Pol. lieu., p. 311. 


by means of blubber-lamps. The dancers, who are 
usually young men, strip themselves to the waist, or 
even appear in purls naturalibus, and go through num- 
berless burlesque imitations of birds and beasts, their 
gestures being accompanied by tambourine and songs. 
Sometimes they are fantastically arrayed in seal or 
deer skin pantaloons, decked with dog or wolf tails 
behind, and wear feathers or a colored handkerchief on 
the head. The ancients, seated upon benches which en- 
circle the room, smoke, and smile approbation. The 
women attend with fish and berries in large wooden 
bowls; and, upon the opening of the performance, they 
are at once relieved of their contributions by the actors, 
who elevate the provisions successively to the four cardi- 
nal points and once to the skies above, when all partake 
of the feast. Then comes another dance. A monotonous 
refrain, accompanied by the beating of an instrument 
made of seal-intestines stretched over a circular frame, 
brings upon the ground one boy after another, until 
about twenty form a circle. A series of pantomimes then 
commences, portraying love, jealousy, hatred, and friend- 
ship. During intervals in the exercises, presents are 
distributed to strangers.. In their national dance, one 
girl after another comes in turn to the centre, while the 
others join hands and dance and sing, not unmusically, 
about her. The most extravagant motions win the 
greatest applause. 68 

Among other customs of the Eskimo may be men- 
tioned the following. Their salutations are made by 
rubbing noses together. No matter how oily the skin, 
nor how rank the odor, he who would avoid offense 

68 ' Their dance is of the rudest kind, and consists merely in violent 
motion of the arms and legs.' Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. 63. They 
make 'the most comical motions with the whole body, without stirring from 
their place.' Kotzebue's Voy., vol. i., p. 192. Their song consisted of the 
words: ' Hi, Yangah yangah; ha ha, yangah — with variety only in the inflec- 
tion of voice.' Hooper's Tuski, p. 225. When heated by the dance, even 
the women were stripped to their breeches. Simpson's Nar., p. 158. 'An 
old man, all but naked, jumped into the ring, and was beginning some in- 
decent gesticulations, when his appearance not meeting with our approba- 
tion he withdrew.' Beechey's Voy., vol. i., p. 396. 


must submit his nose to the nose of his Hyperborean 
brother, 69 and his nice to the caressing hand of his polar 
friend . To convey intimations of friendship at a distance, 
they extend their arms, and rub and pat their breast. 
Upon the approach of visitors they form a circle, and sit 
like Turks, smoking their pipes. Men, women, and chil- 
dren are inordinately fond of tobacco. They swallow 
the smoke and revel in a temporary elysium. They are 
called brave, simple, kind, intelligent, happy, hospitable, 
respectful to the aged. They are also called cruel, un- 
grateful, treacherous, -cunning, dolorously complaining, 
miserable. 70 They are great mimics, and, in order to 
terrify strangers, they accustom themselves to the most 
extraordinarv contortions of features and bodv. As a 
measure of intellectual capacity, it is claimed for 
them that they divide time into days, lunar months, 
seasons, and years ; that they estimate accurately by the 
sun or stars the time of day or night; that they can 
count several hundred and draw maps. They also 
make rude drawings on bone, representing dances, deer- 
hunting, animals, and all the various pursuits followed 
by them from the cradle to the grave. 

But few diseases are common .to them, and a deformed 
person is scarcely ever seen. Cutaneous eruptions, re- 
sulting from their antipathy to water, and ophthalmia, 
arising from the smoke of their closed huts and the glare 
of sun-light upon snow and water, constitute their chief 
disorders. 71 For protection to their eyes in hunting and 

G9 ' C'etait la plus grande marque d'amitie qu'ils pouvaient nous donner.' 
Choris, Voy. Pitt., pt. ii., p. 5. 'They came up to me one after the other — 
each of them embraced me, rubbed his nose hard against mine, and ended 
his caresses by spitting in his hands and wiping them several times over my 
face.' Kolzebue's Voy., vol. i., pp. 192, 195. 

70 ' Their personal bravery is conspicuous, and they are the only nation 
on the North American Continent who oppose their enemies face to face in 
open light.' Richardson'' s Jour., vol. i., p. 244. ' Simple, kind people; very 
poor, very filthy, and to us looking exceedingly wretched.' McClare's J)is. 
JV. W. Passage, in Lond. Qeog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxiv., p. 242. ' More bold and 
crafty than the Indians; but they use their women much better.' BelVs 
Geog., vol. v., p. 294. 

71 ' Their diseases are few.' Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. ii., p. G7. 'Dis- 
eases are quite as prevalent among them as among civilized people.' Ball's 


fishing, they make goggles by cutting a slit in a piece of 
soft wood, and adjusting it to the face. 

The Eskimos do not, as a rule, bury their dead ; but 
double the body up, and place it on the side in a plank 
box, which is elevated three or four feet from the 
ground, and supported by four posts. The grave-box is 
often covered with painted figures of birds, fishes, and 
animals. Sometimes it is wrapped in skins, placed upon 
an elevated frame, and covered with planks, or trunks of 
trees, so as to protect it from wild beasts. Upon the 
frame or in the grave-box are deposited the arms, 
clothing, and sometimes the domestic utensils of the 
deceased. Frequent mention is made by travelers of 
burial places where the bodies lie exposed, with their 
heads placed towards the north. 72 

The Koniagas derive their name from the inhabit- 
ants of the island of Kadiak, who, when first discovered, 
called themselves Kanagist™ They were confounded 

Alaska, p. 195. ' Ophthalmia was very general with them.' Beechey's Voy., 
vol. i., p. 345. 'There is seldom any mortality except amongst the old 
people and very young children.' Armstrong's Nar., p. 197. 

72 At Point Barrow, bodies were found in great numbers scattered over the 
ground in their ordinary seal-skin dress; a few covered with pieces of wood, 
the heads all turned north-east towards the extremity of the point. Simp- 
son's Nar.; p. 155. ' They lay their dead on the ground, with their heads all 
turned to the north.' ' The bodies lay exposed in the most horrible aiid dis- 
gusting manner.' Dease and Simpson, in Bond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. viii., p. 
221, 222. ' Their position with regard to the points of the compass is not 
taken into consideration.' Secmann's Voy. Herald, vol ii., p. 67. ' There are 
many more graves than present inhabitants of the village, and the story is 
that the whole coast was once much more densely populated.' Ball's Alaska, 
p. 19. Hooper, on coming to a burial place not far from Point Barrow, 
' conjectured that the corpses had been buried in an upright position, with 
their heads at or above the surface.' Tuski, p. 221. 

73 Kadiak ' is a derivative, according to some authors, from the Russian 
Kadia, a large tub; more probably, however, it is a corruption of Eaniag, 
the ancient Innuit name.' Dall's Alaska, p. 532. Holmberg thinks that the 
word Kadiak arose from Kikchtak, which in the language of the Koniagas 
means a large island. ' Der Name Kadjak ist off 'enbar eine Verdrehung von 
Kikchtak, welches Wort in der Sprache der Konjagen "grosse Insel" be- 
deutet und daher audi als Benennung der griissten Insel dieser Gruppe 
diente.' Ethnographwche Skizzen uber die Volker des Russischen Amerika, p. 
75. 'A la division Koniagi appartient la partie la plus septentrionale de 
1' Alaska, et l'ile de Kodiak, que les Busses appellent vulgairement Kichtak, 
quoique, dans la langue des naturels, le mot Kightak ne designe en general 
qu'une lie.' Humboldt, Essai Pol., torn, i., p. 347. Coxe affirms that the 
natives 'call themselves Kanagist.' Russian bis., p. 135. And Sauer says, 


by early Russian writers with the Aleuts. English 
ethnologists sometimes call them Southern Eskimos. 
From Kadiak they extend along the coast in both di- 
rections; northward across the Alaskan Peninsula to 
Kotzebue Sound, and eastward to Prince William Sound. 
The Koniagan family is divided into nations as fol- 
lows: the Koniagas proper, who inhabit the Konia- 
gan Archipelago; the Chugatshes™ who occupy the 
islands and shores of Prince William Sound ; the Agleg- 
mutes, of Bristol Bay; the Keyataigmutes, who live upon 
the river Nushagak and the coast as far as Cape New- 
enham ; the Agulmutes, dwelling upon the coast between 
the Kuskoquim and Kishunak rivers; the Kuskoqidg- 
mutes, 15 occupying the banks of the river Kuskoquim; 
the MagemuteSj in the neighborhood of Cape Romanzoff ; 
the ITwichpagmiites, Kwichluagmutes, and Pashtoliks, on 
the Kwichpak, Kwickluak, and Pashtolik rivers; the 
ChnagmuteSj near Pashtolik Bay ; the Anlygmntes, of Go- 
lovnin Bay, and the Kavidks and Malemutes, of Norton 
Sound. 76 " All of these people," says Baron von Wran- 
gell, " speak one language and belong to one stock." 

The most populous district is the Kuskoquim Valley. 77 
The small islands in the vicinity of Kadiak were once 
Well peopled ; but as the Russians depopulated them, and 
hunters became scarce, the natives were not allowed to 
scatter, but were forced to congregate in towns. 78 Sche- 
likofF, the first settler on Kadiak, reported, in that and 
contiguous isles, thirty thousand natives. Thirty years 
later, Saritsheff visited the island and found but three 

' the natives call themselves Spo-oo-it.' Billing's Ex., p. 175. 'Man verstand 
von ihnen, das sie sich selbst Kanagist nennen.' Neue Nachr., p. 114. 

74 TschugatscTies, Tschugatsi or Tschgatzi. Latham, Native Races, p. 290, 
says the name is Athabascan, and signifies 'men of the sea.' 

75 Kuslcoquvimutes, Kuskokwimen, Kuskokioigmjuten, Kusckockwagemuten, 
Kasch kukchwakmuten, or Kuskutchewak. 

™ The termination mute, mut, meut, muten, or mjuten, signifies people or 
village. It is added to the tribal name sometimes as a substantive as well as 
in an adjective sense. 

77 ' Herr Wassiljew schatzt ihre Zahl auf mindestens 7000 Seelen beiderlei 
Geschlechts und jeglich en Alters.' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 127. 

73 'Es waren wohl einst alle diese Inseln bewohnt.' Holmberg, Ethn. 
Skiz., p. 76. 


thousand. The Chugatshes not long since lived upon 
the island of Kadiak, but, in consequence of dissensions 
with their neighbors, they were obliged to emigrate and 
take up their residence on the main land. They de- 
rived their manners originally from the northern nations ; 
but, after having been driven from their ancient posses- 
sions, they made raids upon southern nations, carried 
off their women, and, from the connections thus formed, 
underwent a marked change. They now resemble the 
southern rather than the northern tribes. The Kadiaks, 
Chugatshes, Kuskoquims, and adjacent tribes, according 
to their own traditions, came from the north; while 
the Unalaskas believe themselves to have originated in 
the west. The Kaviaks intermingle to a considerable 
extent with the Malemutes, and the two are often taken 
for one people ; but their dialects are quite distinct. 

The country of the Koniagas is a rugged wilderness, 
into many parts of which no white man has ever pene- 
trated. Mountainous forests, glacial canons, down which 
flow innumerable torrents, hills interspersed with lakes 
and marshy plains; ice-clad in winter, covered with 
luxuriant vegetation in summer. Some sheltered inlets 
absorb an undue proportion of oceanic warmth. Thus 
the name Aglegmutes signifies the inhabitants of a 
warm climate. 

Travelers report chiefs among the Koniagas seven 
feet in height, but in general they are of medium 
stature. 79 Their complexion may be a shade darker 

79 The Malemutes are 'a race of tall and stout people.' Wliymper's 
Alaska, p. 159. ' Die Kuskokwimer sind, mittlerer Statur, schlank, 
riistig und oft rnit grosser Starke begabt.' JBaer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 135. 
Dixon's Voy., p. 186. ' Bisweilen fallen sogar riesige Gestalten auf, wie 
ich z. B. einen Hauptling in der igatschen Bucht zu sehen Gelegen- 
heit hatte, dessen Lange 6% Fuss betrug.' Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 80. 
The chief at Prince William Sound was a man of low stature, ' with a 
long beard, and seemed about sixty years of age.' PortlocJcs Voy., p. 237. 
A strong, raw-boned race. Meares' Voy., p. 32. At Cook's Inlet they 
seemed to be of the same nation as those of Pr. Wm Sd , but entirely differ- 
ent from those at Nootka, in persons and language. Cook's Third Voy., vol. 
ii., p. 400. They are of ' middle size and well proportioned.' Dixon's Voy., 
p. G8. ' They emigrated in recent times from the Island of Kadyak, and 
they claim, as their hereditary possessions, the coast lying between Bristol 


than that of the Eskimos of the northern coast, but it is 
still very light. 80 The Chugatshes are remarkable for 
their large heads, short necks, broad faces, and small 
eyes. Holmberg claims for the Koniagas a peculiar 
formation of the skull ; the back, as he says, being not 
arched but flat. They pierce the septum of the nose and 
the under lip, and in the apertures wear ornaments of 
various materials; the most highly prized being of shell 
or of amber. It is said that at times amber is thrown 
up in large quantities by the ocean, on the south side of 
Kadiak, generally after a heavy earthquake, and that 
at such times it forms an important article of commerce 
with the natives. The more the female chin is rid- 
dled with holes, the greater the respectabilit}^ Two 
ornaments are usually worn, but by very aristocratic 
ladies as many as six. 81 Their favorite colors in face- 
painting are red and blue, though black and leaden 
colors are common. 82 Young Kadiak wives secure the 
affectionate admiration of their husbands by tattooing 
the breast and adorning the face with black lines; while 
the Kuskoquim women sew into their chin two parallel 
blue lines. The hair is worn long by men as well as 
women. On state occasions, it is elaborately dressed; 
first saturated in train-oil, then powdered with red clay 
or oxide of iron, and finished off with a shower of white 
feathers. Both sexes wear beads wherever they can 
find a place for them, round the neck, wrists, and ankles, 

Bay and Beering's Straits.' Richardson'' s Nar., vol. i., p. 364. 'Die Tschu- 
gatschen sind Ankornmlinge von der Insel Kadjack, die wahrend innerer 
Zwistigkeiten von dort vertrieben.' Baer, Stat, u: Ellin., p. 116. 

80 Achkugmjuten, ' BewohnerderwarmeiiGegend.' Holmberg, Ethn.Skiz., 
p. 5. ' Copper complexion.' Lisiansky's Voy., p. 194. 

81 ' They bore their under lip, where they hang fine bones of beasts and 
birds.' Staehlin's North. Arch., p. 33. ' Setzen sich auch — Zahne von Vogel 
oder Thierknochen in Kiinstliche Oeffmmgen der Unterlippe und unter der 
Nase em.' Nene Nachr., p. 113. 

82 The people of Kadiak, according to Langsdorff, are similar to those of 
Unalaska, the men being a little taller. The}' differ from the Fox Islanders. 

Voy., pt. ii., p. 62. 'Die Insulaner waren hier von den Einwohnern, 
der vorhin entdeckten ubrigen Fuchsinsuln, in Kleidung und Sprache ziem- 
lich verschieden.' Neue Nachr., p. 113. 'lis ressemblent beaucoup aux 
indigenes des iles Curiles, dependantes du Japon.' Laplace, Circumnav., 
vol. vi., p. 45. 


besides making a multitude of holes for them in the 
ears, nose, and chin. Into these holes they will also 
insert buttons, nails, or any European trinket which 
falls into their possession. 83 

The aboriginal dress of a wealthy Kadiak was a bird- 
skin parka, or shirt, fringed at the top and bottom, with 
long wide sleeves out of which the wearer slipped his 
arms in an emergency. This garment was neatly sewed 
with bird-bone needles, and a hundred skins were some- 
times used in the making of a single parka. It was 
worn with the feathers outside during the day, and in- 
side during the night. Round the waist was fastened 
an embroidered girdle, and over all, in wet weather, was 
worn an intestine water-proof coat. The Kadiak breeches 
and stockings were of otter or other skins, and the boots, 
when any were worn, were of seal-neck leather, with 
whale-skin soles. The Russians in a measure prohib- 
ited the use of furs among the natives, compelling them 
to purchase woolen goods from the company, and deliver 
up all their peltries. The parkas and stockings of the 
Kuskoquims are of reindeer-skin, covered with em- 
broidery, and trimmed with valuable furs. They also 
make stockings of swamp grass, and cloaks of sturgeon- 
skin. The Malemute and Kaviak dress is similar to 
that of the northern Eskimo. 84 

83 ' They wore strings of beads suspended from apertures in the lower 
lip.' Lisiansky's Voy., p. 195. 'Their ears are full of holes, from which 
hang pendants of bone or shell.' Meares' Voy., p. xxxii. ' Elles portent 
des pedes ordinairement en verre bleu, suspendues au-dessous du nez 
a un til passe dans la cloison nasale.' D'Orbvpiy, Voy., p. 573. ' Upon the 
whole, I have nowhere seen savages who take more pains than these peo- 
ple do to ornament, or rather to disfigure their persons.' At Prince Wil- 
liam Sound they are so fond of ornament ' that they stick any thing in their 
perforated lip; one man appearing with two of our iron nails projecting from 
it like prongs ; and another endeavouring to put a large brass button into it. ' 
Cook's Third Voy., vol. ii., p. 370. They slit the under lip, and have orna- 
ments of glass beads and muscle-shells in nostrils and ears; tattoo chin and 
neck. Law/sdoiif's Voy., vol. ii.. p. 63. 'Die Frauen machen Einschnitte 
in die Lippen. Der Nasenknorpel ist ebenfalls durchstochen.' Baer, Stat. u. 
Ethri., p. 135. 

81 The Kadiaks dress like the Aleuts, but their principal garment they call 
Kondgen; LangsdorJjTs Voy., pt. ii., p. 63. Like the Unalaskas, the neck 
being more exposed, fewer ornamentations. Saner, Billing's Voy., p. 177. 
4 Consists wholly of the skins of animals and birds.' Portlock's Voy., £>. 


The Chugatshes, men, women, and children, dress 
alike in a close fur frock, or robe, reaching sometimes 
to the knees, but generally to the ankles. Their feet 
and legs are commonly bare, notwithstanding the high 
latitude in which they live; but they sometimes wear 
skin stockings and mittens. They make a truncated 
conic hat of straw or wood, in whimsical representation 
of the head of some fish or bird, and garnished with 
colors. 85 

The Koniagas build two kinds of houses ; one a large, 
winter village residence, called by the Russians barabara, 
and the other a summer hunting-hut, placed usually upon 
the banks of a stream whence they draw food. Their 
winter houses are very large, accommodating three or four 
families each. They are constructed by digging a square 
space of the required area to a depth of two feet, placing 
a post, four feet high above the surface of the ground, at 
every corner, and roofing the space over to constitute a 
main hall, where eating is done, filth deposited, and 
boats built. The sides are of planks, and the roof of 
boards, poles, or whale-ribs, thickly covered with grass. 
In the roof is a smoke-hole, and on the eastern side a 
door-hole about three feet square, through which en- 
trance is made on hands and knees, and which is pro- 
tected by a seal or other skin. Under the opening in 
the roof, a hole is dug for fire ; and round the sides of 
the room, tomb-like excavations are made, or boards put 
up, for sleeping- places, where the occupant reposes on his 
back with his knees drawn up to the chin. Adjoining 

249. A coat peculiar to Norton Sound appeared 'to be made of reeds 
sewed very closely together.' Dixon's Voy., p. 191. ' Nahen ihre Parken 
(Winter-Kleider) aus Vogelhauten und ihre Kamleien (Sonimer-Kleider) aus 
den Gedarmen von Wallfischen und Robben.' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 117. At 
Norton Sound 'principally of deer-skins.' Cook's Third Voy., vol. ii., p. 
484. 'Ihre Kleider sind aus schwarzen und andern Fuchsbalgen, Biber, 
Vogelhauten, audi jungen Remithier and Jewraschkenfellen, alles mit Seh- 
nen genaht.' Neue Nuchr., p. 113. 'The dress of both sexes consists of 
parkas and camleykas, both of which nearly resemble in form a carter's 
frock.' Lisiansky's Voy., p. 194. 

8i ' Una tunica entera de pieles que les abriga bastantemente ' Bodega y 
Quadra Nav., MS. p. 66. 'By the use of such a girdle, it should seem that 
they sometimes go naked.' Cook's Third Voy., vol. ii., p. 437. 


rooms are sometimes made, with low underground passages 
leading off from the main hall. The walls are adorned 
with implements of the chase and bags of winter food; 
the latter of which, being in every stage of decay, emits an 
odor most offensive to unhabituated nostrils. The ground 
is carpeted with straw. When the smoke-hole is covered 
by an intestine window, the dwellings of the Koniagas 
are exceedingly warm, and neither fire nor clothing is re- 
quired. 80 The kashim, or public house of the Koniagas, 
is built like their dwellings, and is capable of accommo- 
dating three or four hundred people. 87 Huts are built by 
earthing over sticks placed in roof- shape ; also by erect- 
ing a frame of poles, and covering it with bark or skins. 
The Koniagas will eat any digestible substance in 
nature except pork ; from which fact Lord Kingsborough 
could prove incontestably a Jewish origin. I should 
rather give them swinish affinities, and see in this sin- 
gularity a hesitancy to feed upon the only animal, except 
themselves, which eats with equal avidity bears excre- 
ments, carrion birds, maggoty fish, and rotten sea-ani- 
mals. 88 When a whale is taken, it is literally stripped 
of everything to the bare bones, and these also are 
used for building huts and boats. 89 These people can dis- 

86 ' Plastered over with mud, which gives it an appearance not very unlike 
a dung hill.' Lisiansky's Voy., p. 214. Sea-dog skin closes the opening. 
Jkingsdorff's Voy., pt. .ii., p. 62. The Kuskoquims have ' huttes qu'ils 
appellent barabores pour Fete.' D'Orbigny, Voy., p. 574. ' Mit Erde mid Gras 
bedeckt, so dass man mit Recht die Wohnungen der Konjagen Erdhiitten 
nennen kann.' Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 97. 'A door fronting the east.' 
Sauer, Billing's Voy., p. 175. At Norton Sound 'they consist simply of a 
sloping roof, without any side-walls.' Cook's TJiird Voy., vol. ii., p. 484. 
Build temporary huts of sticks and bark. Portloek's Voy., p. 253. 

87 ' In dem Kashim versammelt sich die mannliche Bevolkerung des 
ganzen Dorfes zur Berathschlagung uber wichtige Angelegenheiten, iiber 
Krieg und Frieden, etc' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 129. 

88 ' Le poisson est la principale nourriture.' D'Orbigny, Voy., p. 574. 
'Berries mixed with rancid whale oil.' 'The fat of the whale is the prime 
delicacy.' Lisiansky's Voy., pp. 178, 195. 'Meistentheils nahren sie sich mit 
rohen und trocknen Fischen, die sie theils in der See mit knochernen Angel- 
haken, theils in denen Bachen mit Sacknetzen, die sie aus Sehnen fiechten, 
einfangen.' Neue Nachr., p. 114. They generally eat their food raw, but 
sometimes they boil it in water heated with hot stones. Meares' Voy., p. xxxv. 
The method of catching wild geese, is to chase and knock them down im- 
mediately after they have shed their large wing-feathers; at which time they 
are not able to fly. Portlock's Voy., p. 265. 

89 ' Ich hatte auf der Insel Afognak Gelegenheit dem Zerschneiden eines 


pose of enormous quantities of food; or, if necessary, 
they can go a long time without eating. 90 Before the 
introduction of intoxicating drinks by white men, they 
made a fermented liquor from the juice of raspberries 
and blueberries. Tobacco is in general use, but chew- 
ing and snuffing are more frequent than smoking. Sal- 
mon are very plentiful in the vicinity of Kadiak, and 
form one of the chief articles of diet. During their 
periodical ascension of the rivers, they are taken in 
great quantities by means of a pole pointed with bone or 
iron. Salmon are also taken in nets made of whale- 
sinews. Codfish are caught with a bone hook. Whales 
approach the coast of Kadiak in June, when the inhab- 
itants pursue them in baidarkas. Their whale-lance is 
about six feet in length, and pointed with a stone upon 
which is engraved the owner's mark. This point sep- 
arates from the handle and is left in the whale's flesh, 
so that when the body is thrown dead upon the beach, 
the whaler proves his property by his lance-point. 
Many superstitions are mentioned in connection with 
the whale-fishery. When a whaler dies, the body is 
cut into small pieces and distributed among his fellow- 
craftsmen, each of whom, after rubbing the point of his 
lance upon it, dries and preserves his piece as a sort of 
talisman. Or the body is placed in a distant cave, where, 
before setting out upon a chase, the whalers all congre- 
gate, take it out, carry it to a stream, immerse it and 
then drink of the water. During the season, whalers 
bear a charmed existence. No one may eat out of the 
same dish with them, nor even approach them. When 
the season is over, they hide their weapons in the 

In Mav, the Konia^as set out in two-oared baidarkas 

Wallfisches zuzusehen und versickere, dass nach Verlauf von kaum 2 Stunden 
nur die blanken Knochen auf dem Ufer lagen.' Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 91. 
90 The Kadiaks 'pass their time in hunting, festivals, and abstinence. 
The first takes place in the summer; the second begins in the month of De- 
cember, and continues as long as any provisions remain; and then follows 
the period of famine, which lasts till the re-appearance of fish in the rivers. 
During the period last mentioned, many have nothing but shell-fish to sub- 
sist on, and some die for want.' Lisianski/*s \'oy., pp. 209, 210. 


for distant islands, in search of sea-otter. As success 
requires a smooth sea, they can only hunt them during 
the months of May and June, taking them in the man- 
ner following. Fifty or one hundred boats proceed 
slowly through the water, so closely together that it is 
impossible for an otter to escape between them. As soon 
as the animal is discovered, the signal is given, the 
area within which he must necessarily rise to the surface 
for air, is surrounded by a dozen boats, and when he 
appears upon the surface he is filled with arrows. Seals 
are hunted with spears ten or twelve feet in length, upon 
the end of which is fastened an inflated bladder, in order 
to float the animal when dead. 

The Kuskokwigmutes are less nomadic than their 
neighbors; being housed in permanent settlements dur- 
ing the winter, although in summer they are obliged to 
scatter in various directions in quest of food. Every 
morning before break of day, during the hunting-season, 
a boy lights the oil-lamps in all the huts of the village, 
when the women rise and prepare the food. The men, 
excepting old men and boys, all sleep in the kashim, 
whither they retire at sunset. In the morning they 
are aroused by the appearance of the shaman, arrayed 
in his sacerdotal robes, and beating his sacred drum. 
After morning worship, the women carry breakfast to 
their husbands in the kashim. At day-break the men 
depart for their hunting or fishing, and when they re- 
turn, immediately repair to the kashim, leaving the 
women to unload and take care of the products of the 
day's work. During the hunting-season the men visit 
their wives only during the night, returning to the 
kashim before daylight, 

The Malemutes leave their villages upon the coast 
regularly in February, and, with their families, resort to 
the mountains, where they follow the deer until snow 
melts, and then return to catch water-fowl and her- 
ring, and gather eggs upon the cliffs and promontories of 
the coast and islands. In July is their salmon feast. 
The fawns of reindeer are caught upon the hills by the 


women in August, either by chasing them down or 
by snaring them. Deer are stalked, noosed in snares, 
or driven into enclosures, where they are easily 
killed. At Kadiak, hunting begins in February, and in 
April they visit the smaller islands for sea-otter, seals, 
sea-lions, and eggs. Their whale and other fisheries 
commence in June and continue till October, at which 
time they abandon work and give themselves up to 
festivities. The seal is highly prized by them for its 
skin, blubber, and oil. One method of catching seals 
illustrates their ingenuity. Taking an air-tight seal- 
skin, they blow it up like a bladder, fasten to it a long 
line, and, concealing themselves behind the rocks, they 
throw their imitation seal among the live ones and draw 
it slowly to the shore. The others follow, and are 
speared or killed with bow and arrows. Blueberries and 
huckleberries are gathered in quantities and dried for 
winter use; they are eaten mixed with seal-oil. The 
Koniagas are also very fond of raw reindeer-fat. They 
hunt with guns, and snare grouse, marten, and hares. 
A small white fish is taken in great quantities from 
holes in the ice. They are so abundant and so easily 
caught that the natives break off the barbs from their 
fish-hooks in order to facilitate their operations. 

The white polar bear does not wander south of the 
sixty-fifth parallel, and is only found near Bering Strait. 
Some were found on St Matthew Island, in Bering Sea, 
but were supposed to have been conveyed thither upon 
floating ice. The natives approach the grizzly bear with 
great caution. When a lair is discovered, the opening 
is measured, and a timber barricade constructed, with an 
aperture through which the bear may put his head. The 
Indians then quietly approach and secure their timbers 
against the opening of the den with stones, and throw a 
fire-brand into the den to arouse the animal, who there- 
upon puts his his head out through the hole and meets 
with a reception which brings him to an untimely end. 91 

9* ' Wild animals which they hunt, and especially wild sheep, the flesh of 


In former times, the Koniagas went to w r ar behind a 
huge wooden shield a foot thick and twelve feet in 
width. It was made of three thicknesses of larch- wood, 
bound together with willows, and with it they covered 
thirty or forty lancers. 92 They poisoned their arrow and 
lance points with a preparation of aconite, by drying and 
pulverizing the root, mixing the powder with water, and, 
when it fermented, applying it to their weapons-. 93 They 
made arrow-points of copper, obtaining a supply from 
the Kenai of Copper River ; lJ4 and the wood was as finely 
finished as if turned in a lathe. 

The boats of the Koniagas are similar to those of the 
north, except that the bow and stem are not alike, the 
one turning up to a point and the other cut off square. 95 
Needles made of birds' bones, and thread from whale- 
sinews, in the hands of a Kadiak woman, produced 
work, "many specimens of which," says Lisiansky, 
" would do credit to our best seamstresses." 9 ' 5 They 
produced fire by revolving with a bow-string a hard dry 
stick upon a soft dry board, one end of the stick being 
held in a mouth-piece of bone or ivory. Their imple- 

whichis excellent.' Lisiansky's Voy., p. 188. They eat the larger sort of fern- 
root baked, and a substance which seemed the inner bark of the pine. Cook's 
Third Voy., vol. ii., p. 374. 'Die Eingebornen essen diese Wurzeln (Lagat) 
roh und gekocht; aus der Wurzel, nachdem sie in Mehl verwandelt ist, biickt 
man, mit einer geringen Beimischung von Weizenmehl, siissliche, diinne 
Kuchen.' Sagoskin, Ta /< buck, in JJenkschr. d. russ. Geog. Geaell., p. 343. 

92 ' Ihre holzerne Schilde nennen sie Kujaki.' Neue Nachr., p. 114. 

93 ' Selecting the roots of such plants as grow alone, these roots are dried 
and pounded, or grated.' Suuer, Billing's Ex., p. 178. 

94 ' Die Pfeilspitzen sind aus Eisen oder Kupfer, ersteres erhalten sie von 
den Kenayern, letzteres von den Tutnen.' Baer, Stat. u. Etltn., p. 118. ' De 
pedernal en forma de arpon, cortado con tanta delicadeza como pudiera hacer- 
lo el mas habil lapidario.' Bodega y Quadra, Nav., MS. p. 66. 

95 At Prince William Sound Cook found the canoes not of wood, as at 
Nootka. At Bristol Bay they were of skin, but broader. Third Toy., vol. ii., 
pp. 371, 437. ' Die kadjakschen Baidarken unterscheiden sich in der Form 
ein wenig von denen der andern Bewohner der amerikanischen Kiiste, von 
denen der Aleuten aber namentlich darin, das sie kiirzer und breiter sind.' 
Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 99. At Prince William Sound, ' formada la canoa 
en esqueleto la forran por fuera con pieles de animales.' Bodega y Quadra, 
Nav., MS. p. 65. ' Qu'on se figure une nacelle de quatre metres de long 
et de soixante centimetres de large tout au plus.' Laplace, Circumnav., 
vol. vi., p. 48. ' These canoes were covered with skins, the same as we had 
seen last season in Cook's River. Dixon's Voy., p. 147. ' Safer at sea in bad 
weather than European boats.' Lisiansky' s Voy., p. 211. 

96 Their whale-sinew thread was as fine as silk. Lisiansky's Voy., p. 207. 


ships concordant and antagonistic laws are ever 
evolving themselves. Like all other progressional 
phenomena, they wait not upon man; they are self- 
creative, and force themselves upon the mind age 
after age, slowly but surely, as the intellect is able 
to receive them; laws without law, laws unto them- 
selves, gradually appearing as from behind the mists 
of eternity. At first, man and his universe appear 
to be regulated by arbitrary volitions, by a multitude 
of individual minds; each governs absolutely his 
own actions; every phenemenon of nature is but the 
expression of some single will. As these phenomena, 
one after another, become stripped of their mystery, 
there stands revealed not a god, but a law ; seasons 
come and go, and never fail; sunshine follows rain, 
not because a pacified deity smiles, but because the 
rain- clouds have fallen and the sun cannot help shin- 
ing. Proximate events first are thus made godless, 
then the whole host of deities is driven farther and 
farther back. Finally the actions of man himself are 
found to be subject to laws. Left to his own will, he 
wills to do like things under like conditions. 

As to the nature of r these laws, the subtle workings 
of which we see manifest in every phase of society, 
I cannot even so much as speak. An infinite ocean 
of phenomena awaits the inquirer; an ocean bottom- 
less, over whose surface spreads an eternity of pro- 
gress, and beneath whose glittering waves the keenest 
intellect can scarcely hope to penetrate far. The uni- 
verse of man and matter must be anatomized; the 
functions of innumerable and complex organs studied ; 
the exercise and influence of every part on every other 
part ascertained, and events apparently the most ca- 
pricious traced to natural causes; then, when we know 
all, when we know as God khoweth, shall we under- 
stand what it is, this Soul of Progress. 



The American Civilization of the Sixteenth Century— Its Disap- 
pearance—The Past, a New Element— Dividing line between 
Savage and Civilized Tribes— Bounds of American Civiliza- 
tion—Physical Features of the Country— Maya and Nahua 
Branches of Aboriginal Culture — The Nahua Civilization— 
The Aztecs its Representatives— Limits of the Aztec Empire — 
Ancient History of Anahuac in Outline— The Toltec Era— The 
Chichimec Era— The Aztec Era— Extent of the Aztec Language 
— Civilized Peoples outside of Anahuac — Central American 
Nations— The Maya Culture— The Prlmitive Maya Empire— 
Nahua Influence in the South— Yucatan and the Mayas— The 
Nations of Chiapas— The Quiche Empire in Guatemala— The 
Nahuas in Nicaragua and Salvador— Etymology of Names. 

In the preceding volume I have had occasion sev- 
eral times to remark that, in the delineation of the 
Wild Tribes of the Pacific States, no attempt is 
made to follow them in their rapid decline, no at- 
tempt to penetrate their past or prophesy a possible 
future, no profitless lingerings over those misfortunes 
that wrought amonp; them such swift destruction. To 
us the savage nations of America have neither past 
nor future; only a brief present, from which indeed 
we may judge somewhat of their past; for the rest, 
foreign avarice and interference, European piety and 
greed, saltpetre, steel, small-pox, and syphilis, tell a 
speedy tale. Swifter still must be the hand that 
sketches the incipient civilization of the Mexican and 

Vol. II. C 


so greatly desire, and fondle it as if it were a real 
child. 104 Two husbands are also allowed to one woman ; 
one the chief or principal husband, and the other a 
deputy, who acts as husband and master of the house 
during the absence of the true lord ; and who, upon the 
latter s return, not only yields to him his place, but 
becomes in the meantime his servant. 

But the most repugnant of all their practices is that 
of male concubinage. A Kadiak mother will select her 
handsomest and most promising boy, and dress and rear 
him as a girl, teaching him only domestic duties, keeping 
him at woman's work, associating him only with women 
and girls, in order to render his effeminacy complete. 
Arriving at the age of ten or fifteen years, he is married 
to some wealthy man, who regards such a companion as 
a great acquisition. These male wives are called achnut- 
schik or schopans. im 

A most cruel superstition is enforced upon maidens 
at the age of puberty ; the victim being confined for six 
months in a hut built for the purpose, apart from the 
others, and so small that the poor inmate cannot straight- 
en her back while upon her knees. During the six 
months following, she is allowed a room a little larger, 
but is still permitted no intercourse with any one. 
Daughters of principal men obtain the right of access to 
the kashim by undergoing a ceremonial yielding up of 

104 'Images dressed in different forms.' Lisiansky's Voy., p. 178. 'The 
most favoured of women is she who has the greatest number of children.' 
Saner, Billing's Voy., p. 176. 

105 ' Der Vater oder die Mutter bestimmen den Sohn schon in seiner friih- 
sten Kindheit zum Achnutschik, wenn er ihnen madchenhaft erscheint.' 
llolmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 121. ' Male concubines are much more frequent 
here than at Oonalashka.' Langsdorff's Voy., pt. ii., p. 64. They 'are happy 
to see them taken by the chiefs, to gratify their unnatural desires. Such 
youths are dressed like women, and taught all their domestic duties.' Sauer, 
Billing's Ex., p. 176. 'Ces peuples sont tres adonnes aux plaisirs des sens 
et meme a un vice infame.' Choris, Voy. Pitt., pt. vii., p. 8. 'Of all the 
customs of these islanders, the most disgusting is that of men, called schoo- 
pans, living with men, and supplying the place of women.' Lisiansky's Voy., 
p. 199. This shameful custom applies to the Thlinkeets as well. ' Quelqiies 
personnes de l'Equipage du Solide ont rapporte qu'il ne leur est pas possible 
de douter (pie les Tchinkitaneens ne soient souilles de ce vice honteux que 
la Thc'ogonie immorale des Grecs avoit divinise.' Marchand, Voy. aid. du 
Monde, torn, ii., p. 97-. 


their virginity to the shaman. 106 Marriage ceremonies 
are few, and marriage engagements peculiar. The con- 
sent of the father of the intended bride being obtained, 
the aspirant for nuptial honors brings w r ood and builds a 
fire in the bath-room ; after which, he and the father take 
a bath together. The relatives meanwhile congregate, 
a feast is held, presents are made, the bridegroom takes 
the name of the bride's father, the couple are escorted to 
a heated vapor-bath and there left together. Although 
extremely filthy in their persons and habits, all Indians 
attach great importance to their sweat- baths. This pecu- 
liar institution extends through most of the nations of our 
territory, from Alaska to Mexico, with wonderful uni- 
formity. Frequently one of the side subterranean apart- 
ments which open off from the main hall, is devoted to 
the purposes of a sweat-house. Into one of these 
caverns a Kadiak will enter stripped. Steam is gen- 
erated by throwing water upon heated stones. After 
sweltering for a time in the confined and heated atmos- 
phere, and while yet in a profuse perspiration, ' the 
bather rushes out and plunges into the nearest stream or 
into the sea, frequently having to break the ice before 
being able to finish his bath. Sometimes all the occu- 
pants of the house join in a bath. They then clear the 
floor of the main room from obstructions, and build a 
hot fire under the smoke-hole. When the fire is reduced 
to coals, a covering is placed over the smoke-hole, and 
the bathers proceed to wash themselves in a certain liquid, 
which is carefully saved for this and other cleansing pur- 
poses, and also for tanning. The alkali of the fluid 
combines with the grease upon their persons, and thus a 
lather is formed which removes dirt as effectually as soap 
would. They then wash in water, wrap themselves in 
deer-skins, and repose upon shelves until the lassitude 
occasioned by perspiration passes away. 

106 t D er Schamane hat seiner Obliegenheit gemass oder aus besonderem 
Wohlwollen sie der Jimgfersckaft beraubt und sie ware unwiirdig vor der 
Versammlung zu erscheinen, wenn sie ihre erste Liebe irgend eineni Anderen 
und nicbt dem Schamanen gezollt liatte.' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 133. 


Festivals of various kinds are held ; as, when one vil- 
lage is desirous of extending hospitality to another village, 
or when an individual becomes ambitious of popularity, 
a feast is given. A ceremonial banquet takes place a year 
after the death of a relative; or an entertainment may 
be announced as a reparation for an injury done to one's 
neighbor. At some of these feasts only men dance, and 
at others the women join. Upon these occasions, presents 
are exchanged, and the festivities sometimes continue 
for several days. The men appear upon the scene nearly 
or quite naked, with painted faces, and the hair fan- 
tastically decorated with feathers, dancing to the music of 
the tambourine, sometimes accompanied by sham fights 
and warlike songs. Their faces are marked or fantasti- 
cally painted, and they hold a knife or lance in one 
hand and a rattle in the other. The women dance by 
simply hopping forward and backward upon their toes. 107 
A visitor, upon entering a dwelling, is presented with a 
cup of cold water; afterward, fish or flesh is set before 
him, and it is expected that he will leave nothing un- | 
eaten. The more he eats, the greater the honor to the 
host; and, if it l^e impossible to eat all that is given him, ! 
he must take away with him whatever remains. After 
eating, he is conducted to a hot bath and regaled with a 
drink of melted fat. 

Sagoskin assisted at a ceremony which is celebrated 
annually about the first of January at all the villages 
on the coast. It is called the festival of the immersion 
of the bladders in the sea. More than a hundred blad- 
ders, taken only from animals which have been killed 
with arrows, and decorated with fantastic paintings, are 
hung upon a cord stretched horizontally along the wall 
of the kashim. Four birds carved from wood, a screech- 

107 'Their dances are proper tournaments.' Sauer, Billing's Ex., p. 176. 
They are much addicted to public dances, especially during winter. Whym- 
per's Alaska, p. 1(55. ' Masks of the most hideous figures are worn.' Lisi- 
ansky's Voy., p. 210. 'Use a sort of rattle composed of a number of the 
beaks of the sea-parrot, strung upon a wooden cross,'— sounds like castanets. 
LangsdorflFs Voy., pt. ii., p. (54. ' Die Tanzer erscheinen, eben so, mit Wurf- 
spiessen oder Messern in den Handen, welehe sie iiber dem Kopfe schwing- 
en.' Baer, Slat. ii. Ellin., p. 118. 


owl with the head of a man, a sea-gull, and two 
partridges, are so disposed that they can be moved by 
strings artfully arranged ; the owl flutters his wings and 
moves his head; the gull strikes the boards with his 
beak as if he were catching fish, and the partridges com- 
mence to peck each other. Lastly, a stake enveloped in 
straw is placed in the centre of the fire-place. Men 
and women dance before these effigies in honor of Jug- 
jak, the spirit of the sea. Every time the dancing 
ceases, one of the assistants lights some straw, burning 
it like incense before the birds and the bladders. The 
principal ceremony of the feast consists, as its name 
indicates, in the immersion of the bladders in the sea. 
It was impossible to discover the origin of this custom ; 
the only answer given to questions was, that their an- 
cestors had done so before them. 

The shaman, or medicine-man of the Koniagas, is the 
spiritual and temporal doctor of the tribe; wizard, sor- 
cerer, priest, or physician, as necessity demands. In the 
execution of his offices, the shaman has several assistants, 
male and female, sages and disciples; the first in rank 
being called kaseks, whose duty it is to superintend 
festivals and teach the children to dance. When a person 
falls sick, some evil spirit is supposed to have taken pos- 
session of him, and it is the business of the shaman to 
exorcise that spirit, to combat and drive it out of the 
man. To this end, armed with a magic tambourine, he 
places himself near the patient and mutters his incan- 
tations. A female assistant accompanies him with groans 
and growls. Should this prove ineffectual, the shaman 
approaches the bed and throws himself upon the person 
of the sufferer; then, seizing the demon, he struggles 
with it, overpowers and casts it out, while the assistants 
cry, " He is gone! he is gone!" If the patient recovers 
the physician is paid, otherwise he receives nothin 

y 108 

108 ' Les sorciers et chamans jonissent d'une grande faveur dans cette re- 
gion glacee de rAmerique.' D'Orbigng, Voy., p. 574. ' Schamane und alte 
Weiber kennen verschiedene Heihnittel.' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 135. ' Next 
in rank to the shamans are the kaseks, or sages, whose office is to teach chil- 


Colds, consumption, rheumatism, itch, boils, ulcers, syph- 
ilis, are among their most common diseases. Blood-let- 
ting is commonly resorted to as a curative, and except in 
extreme cases the shaman is not called. The Koniagas 
bleed one another by piercing the arm with a needle, 
and then cutting away the flesh above the needle with a 
flint or copper instrument. Beaver's oil is said to re- 
lieve their rheumatism. 

"The Kadiak people,'' says Lisiansky, "seem more 
attached to their dead than to their living." In token 
of their grief, surviving friends cut the hair, blacken the 
face with soot, and the ancient custom was to remain in 
mourning for a year. No work may be done for twenty 
days, but after the fifth day the mourner may bathe. 
Immediately after death, the body is arrayed in its best 
apparel, or wrapped with moss in seal or sea-lion skins, 
and placed in the kashim, or left in the house in which 
the person died, where it remains for a time in state. 
The body, with the arms and implements of the de- 
ceased, is then buried. It was not unfrequent in former 
times to sacrifice a slave upon such an occasion. The 
grave is covered over with blocks of wood and large 
stones. 109 A mother, upon the death of a child, retires 
for a time from the camp ; a husband or wife withdraws 
and joins another tribe. 110 

The character of the Koniagas may be drawn as peace- 
able, industrious, serviceable to Europeans, adapted to 
labor and commerce rather than to war and hunting. 
They are not more superstitious than civilized nations; 
and their immorality, though to a stranger most rank, 
is not to them of that socially criminal sort which loves 
darkness and brings down the avenger. In their own 
eyes, their abhorrent practices are as sinless as the ordi- 

dren the different dances, and superintend the public amusements and shows, 
of which they have the supreme control.' Lisiansky' s Voy., p. 208. 

109 < The dead body of a chief is embalmed with moss, and buried.' Sauer, 
Billing's Ex., p. 177. 

110 ' In one of the small buildings, or kennels, as they may very properly 
be called, was a woman who had retired into it in consequence of the death 
of her son.' Lisiansky' 's Voy., p. 184. 


nary, openly conducted avocations of any community are 
to the members thereof. 

The Aleuts are the inhabitants of the Aleutian 
Archipelago. The origin of the word is unknown; 111 
the original name being Kagataya Xoungns, or ' men 
of the east,' indicating an American origin. 112 The na- 
tion consists of two tribes speaking different dialects; 
the Uhalaskans, occupying the south-western portion of 
the Alaskan Peninsula, the Shumagin Islands, and the 
Fox Islands; and the Atkhas, inhabiting the Andrean- 
ovski, Rat, and Near Islands. Migrations and intermix- 
tures with the Russians have, however, nearly obliterated 
original distinctions. 

The earliest information concerning the Aleutian Is- 
landers was obtained by Michael Nevodtsikoff, who 
sailed from Kamchatka in 1745. Other Russian voy- 
agers immediately followed, attracted thither in search 
of sea-animal skins, which at that time were very plen- 
tiful. 113 Tribute was levied upon the islanders by the 
Russians, and a system of cruelty commenced which 
soon reduced the natives from ten thousand to but little 
more than one thousand. 

The Aleuts, to Langsdorff, " appear to be a sort of 
middle race between the mongrel Tartars and the North 

111 ' The word Aleutian seems to be derived from the interrogative parti- 
cle allix, which struck strangers in the language of that people.' Kotzebue's 

Voy., vol. iii., p. 312. The Unalaskas and ' the people of Oomnak, call them- 
selves Cowghalingen.' 'The natives of Alaksa and all the adjacent islands 
they call KagataiaJcung'n.' Sauer, Billing's Ex., p. 154. ' The inhabitants of 
Unalashka are called Kogholaghi; those of Akutan, and further east to Uni- 
mak, Kighigusi; and those of Unimak and Alaxa, Kataghayekiki. They can- 
not tell whence these appellations are derived; and now begin to call them- 
selves by the general name of Aleyut, given to them by the Russians, and 
borrowed fioni some of the Kurile Islands.' Coxe's Iiuss. Lis., p. 219. 

112 Yet, says D'Orbigny, Voyage, p. 577: ' Si on interroge les Aleoutiens 
sur leur origine, ils disent que leurs ancetres out habite un grand pays vers 
l'ouest, et que de la ils sont avances de proche en proche sur les iles desertes 
jusq'au continent americain.' 

113 Trapesnikoff took from an unknown island in 1753, 1920 sea-otter 
skins. Durneff returned to Kamchatka in 1754, with 3,000 skins. In 1752 
one crew touched at Bering Island and took 1,222 Arctic foxes, and 2,500 
sea-bears. Cholodiloff, in 1753, took from one island 1,600 otter-skins. 
Tolstych in one voyage took 1,780 sea -otter, 720 blue foxes, and 840 sea- 
bears. Coxe's Iiuss. Lis., pp. 43, 44, 49, 51, 53. 


Americans."* John Ledyard, who visited Unalaska with 

Captain Cook, saw "two different kinds of people; the 
one we knew to be the aborigines of America, while 
we supposed the others to have come from the opposite 
coasts of Asia.' 114 Their features are strongly marked, 
and those who saw them as they originally existed, were 
impressed with the intelligent and benevolent expression 
of their faces. 115 They have an abundance of lank hair, 
which they cut with flints — the men from the crown, 
and the women in front. 110 Both sexes undergo the 
usual face-painting and ornamentations. They extend 
their nostrils by means of a bow-cylinder. The men 
wear a bone about the size of a quill in the nose, and the 
women insert pieces of bone in the under lip. 117 Their 
legs are bowed, from spending so much of their time in 
boats; they frequently sitting in them fifteen or twenty 
hours at a time. Their figure is awkward and uncouth, 
yet robust, active, capable of carrying heavy burdens and 
undergoing great fatigue. 118 

The hat of the Aleut is the most peculiar part of his 
dress. It consists of a helmet-shaped crown of wood 
or leather, with arr exceedingly long brim in front, so as 

114 Sparks, Life of Ledyard, p. 79. 

115 \ great deal of character. Langsdorjf's Voy., pt. ii., p. 32. 

116 ' Rather low of stature, but plump and well shaped; with rather short 
necks; swarthy chubby faces; black eyes; small beards, and long, straight, 
black hair; which the men wear loose behind, and cut before, but the women 
tie up in a bunch.' Cook's Third Voy., vol. ii., p. 510. 'Von Gesicht sind 
sie platt und weiss, von guter Statur, durchgangig mit schwarzen Haaren.' 
Keue Kachr., p. 150. 'Low in stature, broad in the visage.' Campbell's Voy., 
p. 112. Hair ' strong and wiry;' scanty beard, but thick on the upper lip. 
Sauer, Billings' Ex., p. 151. 

117 ' Les femmes aleoutes portaient aux mains et aux pieds des chapelets 
de pierres de couleur et preferablement d'ambre.' D'Orbigny, Voy., p. 579. 
' None are so highly esteemed as a sort of long muscle, commonly called sea- 
teeth, the deidaHum entcUis of Linnasus.' Langsdorjf's Voy., pt. ii., p. 40. 
'Women have the chin punctured in fine lines rayed from' the centre of the 
lip and covering the whole chin.' They wear bracelets of black seal-skin 
around the wrists and ankles, and go barefoot. Saner, Billings' Ex., p. 155. 
' Im Nasen-knorpel und der Unterlippe machen beide Geschlechter Locher 
und setzen Knochen em, welches ihr liebster Schmuck ist. Sie stechen sich 
audi bunte Figuren im Gesicht aus.' Keue Nachr., p. 169. ' They bore the 
upper lip of the young children of both sexes, under the nostrils, where they 
hang several sorts of stones, and whitened fish-bones, or the bones of other 
animals.' Staehlin's North Arch., p. 37. 

lls 'Leur conformation est robuste et leur permet de supporter des tra- 
vaux et des fatigues de toute sorte.' D'Orbigny, Voy., p. 577. 


to protect the eyes from the sun's reflection upon the 
water and snow. Upon the apex is a small carving, 
down the back part hang the beards of sea-lions, while 
carved strips of bone and paint ornament the whole. 
This hat also serves as a shield against arrows. The 
Fox Islanders have caps of bird-skin 7 on which are left 
the bright-colored feathers, wings, and tail. 119 As a rule, 
the men adopt bird-skin clothing, and the women furs, 
the latter highly ornamented with beads and fringes. 120 
The habitations of the Fox Islanders are called Ullaa, 
and consist of immense holes from one to three hundred 
feet in length, and from twenty to thirty feet wide. 
They are covered with poles and earthed over, leaving 
several openings at the top through which descent is 
made by ladders. The interior is partitioned by stakes, 
and three hundred people sometimes occupy one of these 
places in common. They have no fire-place, since lamps 
hollowed from flat stones answer every purpose for cook- 
ing and light. 121 A boat turned bottom upward is the 
summer house of the Aleut. 122 

119 At Shumagin Island, their caps were of sea-lion skins. Mutter's Voy., 
p. 46. On the front are one or two small images of bone. Cook's Third Voy., 
vol. ii., p. 510. A wooden hat, 'which in front comes out before the eyes 
like a sort of umbrella, and is rounded off behind.' Langsdorff's Voy., pt. ii., 
p. 38. ' Einigo haben genuine Miitzen von einem bunten Vogelfell, woran 
sie etwas von den Fltigehi uud den Schwanz sitzen lassen; — sind vorn mit 
einem Bretchen, wie em Schirm versehn uud mit Barten von Seebaren— ge- 
schmiicket.' Xeae Xachr., pp. 151, 152. 

120 On a feather garment, 'a person is sometimes employed a whole year.' 
'The women for the most part go bare-footed.' Langsdorff's Voy., pt. ii., pp. 
36, 39. ' Seams covered with thin slips of skin, very elegantly embroidered 
with white deer's hair, goat's hair, and the sinews of sea animals, dyed of 
different colours.' tiauer, Billings' Ex., p. 156. ' Ihr Pelzkleid wird fiber den 
Kopf angezogen, und ist hinten und vornganz zu. Die Manner tragen es aus 
Vogelhauten; die Weiber hingegen von Bibern und jungen Seebaren.' Neue 
Xacltr., p. 152. ' Boots and breeches in one piece.' Campbell's Voy., p. 113. 

121 ' Round the sides and ends of the huts, the families (for several are 
lodged together) have their separate apartments, where they sleep, and sit at 
work; not upon benches, but in a kind of concave trench, which is dug all 
around the inside of the house, and covered with mats.' Cook's Third Voy., 
vol. ii., p. 512. ' When they have stood for sometime, they become over- 
grown with grass, so that a village has the appearance of an European church- 
yard full of graves.' Lanf/sdorff's Voy., p. 32. ' In den Jurten wird niemals 
Feuer angelegt und doch ist es gemeiniglich sehr warm darinnen, so dass 
beide Geschlechter ganz nakkend sitzen.' Xeue Xachr., p. 150. 

122 'A bidarka or boat is turned up sideways, and at the distance of four 
or five feet, two sticks, one opposite to the head and the other to the stern, 
are driven into the ground, on the tops of which a cross stick is fastened. 


Raw seal and sea-otter, whale and sea-lion blubber, 
fish, roots, and berries are staple articles of food among 
the Aleuts. To procure vegetable food is too much 
trouble. A dead, half-putrefied whale washed ashore is 
always the occasion of great rejoicing. From all parts 
the people congregate upon the shore, lay in their win- 
ter supplies, and stuff themselves until not a morsel re- 
mains. November is their best hunting-season. THiale- 
fishing is confined to certain families, and the spirit of 
the craft descends from father to son. Birds are caught 
in a net attached to the end of a pole ; sea-otter are shot 
with arrows; spears, bone hooks, and nets are used in 
fishing. 123 After the advent of the Russians, the natives 
were not allowed to kill fur-animals without accounting 
to them therefor. 124 

Their weapons are darts with single and double barbs, 
which they throw from boards; barbed, bone -pointed 
lances; spears, harpoons, and arrows, with bone or stone 
points. At their side is carried a sharp stone knife ten 
or twelve inches long, and for armor they wear a coat 
of plaited rushes, which covers the whole body. 125 An 

The oars are then laid along from the boat to the cross stick, and covered 
with seal skins, which are always at hand for the purpose.' Lisiansky's Voy., 
p. 152. 

123 ' Among the greatest delicacies of Oonalashka are the webbed feet of a 
seal, which are tied in a bladder, buried in the ground, and remain there till 
they are changed into a stinking jelly.' Kutzebue's Voy., vol. ii., p. 165. Al- 
most everything is eaten raw. Uook's Third Voy., vol. ii., p. 520. The sea- 
dog is caught with nets, killed when asleep, or enticed on shore by a false 
cap made to resemble a seal's head. LUviiibky's Voy., p. 205. 

124 ' L'Aleoute peut tuer les phoques et les oiseaux, sans etre oblige d'en 
rendre compte a, la compagnie.' Choris, Voy. Pitt., pt. vii., p. 4. 

12 ^ 'Die Spitze selbst wircl theils aus Obsidian oder Lavaglas, theils auch 
aus Trachyt verf ertigt. ' Kittlitz, Beise, vol. i. , p. 2G8. Spear-handles are feath- 
ered, the points of sharpened flint. Xeue Nachr., p. 102. ' Arrows are thrown 
from a narrow and pointed board, twenty inches long, which is held by the 
thumb and three lingers. They are thrown straight from the shoulder with 
astonishing velocity.' Lisiansky's Voy., p. 205. 'Les amies defensives con- 
sistaient en une cotte de joncs tresses qui leur couvrait tout le corps.' 
D'Orbigny, Voy., p. 579. 'No such thing as an offensive, or even defens- 
ive weapon was seen amongst the natives of Oonalashka.' Probably they 
had been disarmed by the Russians. Cook's Third Voy., vol. ii., p. 515. 
' Wherever any one has fixed his habitation, nobody else dares to hunt or 
fish.' Staehliri's Nor. Arch., p. 37. For birds they point their darts with three 
light bones, spread and barbed. Sauer, Billings' Ex., p. 157. 'Indeed, 
there is a neatness and perfection in most of their work, that shews they 
neither want ingenuity nor perseverance.' Cook's Third Voy., vol. ii., p. 514. 


Aleut bear-trap consists of a board two feet square and 
two inches thick, planted with barbed spikes, placed in 
bruin's path and covered with dust. The unsuspecting 
victim steps firmly upon the smooth surface offered, 
when his foot sinks into the dust, Maddened with 
pain, he puts forward another foot to assist in pulling 
the first away, when that too is caught, Soon all four 
of the feet are firmly spiked to the board ; the beast rolls 
over on his back, and his career is soon brought to an 

Notwithstanding their peaceful character, the occu- 
pants of the several islands were almost constantly at 
war. Blood, the only atonement for offense, must be 
washed out by blood, and the line of vengeance be- 
comes endless. At the time of discovery, the Unimak 
Islanders held the supremacy. 

The fabrications of the Aleuts comprise household 
utensils of stone, bone, and wood ; missiles of war and 
the chase; mats and baskets of grass and the roots of 
trees, neat and strong; bird-beak rattles, tambourines 
or drums, wooden hats and carved figures. From 
the wing-bone of the sea-gull, the women make their 
needles; from sinews, they make thread and cord. 126 To 
obtain glue for mending or manufacturing purposes, they 
strike the nose until it bleeds. 127 To kindle a fire, they 
make use of sulphur, in which their volcanic islands 
abound, and the process is very curious. First they 
prepare some dry grass to catch the fire ; then they take 
two pieces of quartz, and, holding them over the grass, 
rub them well with native sulphur. A few feathers are 
scattered over the grass to catch the particles of sulphur, 
and, when all is ready, holding the stones over the grass, 

12G They make ' baskets called ishcats, in which the Aleutians keep all 
their valuables.' Lidansky's Voy. f p. 181. ' Thread they make of the sinews 
of the seal, and of all sizes, from the fineness of a hair to the strength of a 
moderate cord, both twisted and plaited.' >Sauer, Billings' Ex., p. 157. Of the 
teeth of sea-dogs they carve little tigures of men, fish, sea-otters, sea-dogs, sea- 
cows, birds, and other objects. Lanr/sdorff's Voy., pt. ii., p. 40. 

127 ' Wollen sie etwas an ihren Pfeilen oder sonst eine Kleinigkeit leimen, 
so schlagen sie sich an die Nase und bestreichen es mit ihrem Blute.' Neue 
Nachr. p. 173. 


they strike them together ; a flash is produced by the con- 
cussion, the sulphur ignites, and the straw blazes up. 1 - 8 

The Aleuts have no marriage ceremony. Every man 
takes as many women to wife as he can support, or 
rather as he can get to support him. Presents are made 
to the relatives of the bride, and when she ceases to 
possess attractions or value in the eyes of her proprietor, 
she is sent back to her friends. Wives are exchanged 
by the men, and rich women are permitted to indulge 
in two husbands. Male concubinage obtains throughout 
the Aleutian Islands, but not to the same extent as 
among the Koniagas. 129 Mothers plunge their crying ba- 
bies under water in order to quiet them. This remedy 
performed in winter amid broken ice, is very effectual. 130 

Every island, and, in the larger islands, every village, 
has its toyon, or chief, who decides differences, is ex- 
empt from work, is allowed a servant to row his boat, 
but in other respects possesses no power. The office is 
elective. 131 

The Aleuts are fond of dancing and given to hospitality. 
The stranger guest, as he approaches the village, is met by 
dancing men and dancing women, who conduct him to 
the house of the host, where food is given him. After 
supper, the dancing, now performed by naked men, con- 
tinues until all are exhausted, when the hospitalities of 

128 Sauer, jBi/Zings' Ex., p. 159; CampbeTs Voy., p. 59. 

129 ' Comme les feimnes coiitaient cher en presents de nanqailles, la plu- 
part desAleoutes n'en avaient qu'une ou deux.' D'Orbigny, 1 r oy., p. 579. Pur- 
chase as many girls for wives as they can support. Sauer, Billings' Ex., p. 
160. 'Objects of unnatural affection.' Id., p. 160. 'Their beards are care- 
fully plucked out as soon as they begin to appear, and their chins tattooed 
like those of the women.' LanysdorflTs Voy., pt. ii., p. 48. 'The Russians 
told us, that they never had any connections with their women, because 
they were not Christians. Our people were not so scrupulous; and some of 
them had reason to repent that the females of Oonalashka encouraged their 
addresses without any reserve; for their health suffered by a distemper that 
is not unknown here.' Cook's Third Voy., vol. ii., p. 521. 

130 ' It often happens that a mother plunges her noisy child into water, even 
in winter, and keeps it there till it leaves off crying.' Lisiansfcy's Voy., p. 202. 
' Schreyt das Kind, so tragt es die Mutter, es sey Winter oder Sommer nak- 
kend nach der See, und halt es so lange im Wasser bis es still wild.' yeue 
Nachr., p. 1G8. 

131 'Have their own chiefs in each island.' Cook's Third Voy., vol. ii., 
p. 510. 'Generally is conferred on him who is the most remarkable for his 
personal qualities.' Coxe's Russ. Bis., p. 219. 


the dwelling are placed at the disposal of the guest, and 
all retire. 132 - A religious festival used to be held in De- 
cember, at which all the women of the village assembled 
by moonlight, and danced naked with masked faces, the 
men being excluded under penalty of death. The men 
and women of a village bathe together, in aboriginal 
innocency, unconscious of impropriety. They are fond 
of pantomimic performances ; of representing in dances 
their myths and their legends ; of acting out a chase, one 
assuming the part of hunter, another of a bird or beast 
trying to escape the snare, now succeeding, now failing — 
the piece ending in the transformation of a captive bird 
into a lovely woman, who falls exhausted into the arms 
of the hunter. 

The dead are clothed and masked, and either placed 
in the cleft of a rock, or swung in a boat or cradle from 
a pole in the open air. They seem to guard the body 
as much as possible from contact with the ground. 133 

In their nature and disposition, these islanders are 
sluggish but strong. Their sluggishness gives to their 
character a gentleness and obsequiousness often remarked 
by travelers ; while their inherent strength, when roused 
by brutal passions, drives them on to the greatest enor- 
mities. They are capable of enduring great fatigue, and, 
when roused to action by necessity, they will perform 
an incredible amount of work, suffering the severest 
cold or heat or hunger with the most stoical calmness. 
They are very quiet in their demeanor; sometimes sit- 
ting in companies within their dens, or on their house- 

132 Those of the inhabitants who have two wives give their guests one, or 
a slave. New Nadir., p. 171. 'In the spring holidays, they wear masks, 
neatly carved and fancifully ornamented.' Sauer, Billings' Ex., p. I»i0. 

1:ri ' On avait soin de le disposer de maniere ace qu'il ne touchat pas la terre. ' 
D'Orbigny, Voy., p. 579. ' Embalm the bodies of the men with dried moss and 
grass.' Saner, Billings' Ex.,]}. 101. Slaves sometimes slaughtered. Langsdorjf's 
Voy., pt. ii., p. 48. 'Bury their dead on the summits of hills.' Cook's Third 
Voy., vol. ii., p. 521. ' When a man dies in the hut belonging to his wife, she 
retires into a dark hole, where she remains forty days. The husband pays the 
same compliment to his favorite wife upon her death.' (Joxe's Russ. J)is., p. 
218. ' Die Todten werden begraben, und man giebt dem Mann seinen Kahn, 
Pfeile und Kleider mit ins Grab.' ' Die Todten umwinden sic rait Riemen 
und hangen sie in einer Art holzerner Wiege an einen auf zwey Gabelen 
ruhenden Querstock in der Luft auf.' Neue IS'achr., pp. 101, 154. 


tops gazing at the sea for hours, without speaking a word. 
It is said that formerly they were much more gay and 
cheerful, but that an acquaintance with civilization has 
been productive of the usual misfortune and misery. 134 

It does not appear that the Russians were behind the 
Spaniards in their barbarous treatment of the natives. 135 
Notwithstanding their interest lay in preserving life, and 
holding the natives in a state of serfdom as fishers and 
hunters, the poor people were soon swept away. Father 
Innocentius Yeniaminoff, a Russian missionary who la- 
bored among the islanders long and faithfully, gives them 
the highest character for probity and propriety. Among 
other things, he affirms that during a residence of ten 
years in Unalaska, there did not occur a single fight 
among the natives. Proselytes were made by the Rus- 
sians with the same facility as by the Spaniards. Trib- 
ute was levied by the Russians upon all the islanders, 
but, for three years after their conversion, neophytes were 
exempt; a cheap release from hateful servitude, thought 
the poor Aleut; and a. polity which brought into the folds 
of the church pagan multitudes. 


The Thlinkeets, as they call themselves, or Kolosches, 
as they are designated by the Russians, inhabit the coast 
and islands from Mount St Elias to the river Nass. 
The name Thlinkeet signifies ' man,' or l human being.' 

134 ' Naturellenient silencieux.' D'Orbigny, Voy., p. 578. ' Sie verrichten 
audi die Nothdurft und das Ehegeschaft ohne alle Scheu.' Keue Nachr., p. 
150. ' A stupid silence reigns among them.' ' I am persuaded that the sim- 
plicity of their character exceeds that of any other people.' Lisiansky's Voy., 
pp. 182, 183. 'Kind-hearted and obliging, submissive and careful; but if 
roused to anger, they become rash and unthinking, even malevolent, and in- 
different to all danger.' Langsdorff's Voy., pt. ii., p. 32. ' To all appearance, 
they are the most peaceable, inoffensive people, I ever met ■with. And, as to 
honesty, they might serve as a pattern to the most civilized nation upon earth.' 
Cook, vol. ii., p. 509. 

135 ' To hunt was their task; to be drowned, or starved, or exhausted, was 
their reward.' Simpson's Jour., vol.ii., p. 229. ' They are harmless, wretched 
slaves,' whose race will soon be extinct. Kotzebue's 1'oy., vol. iii., p. 315. The 
Russian hunters ' used not unfrequently to place the men close together, and 
try through how many the ball of their rifle-barrelled musket would pass.' 
Saner, Billing's Ex. App., p. 56. 'Of a thousand men, who formerly lived in 
this spot, scarcely more than forty remained.' Langsdorff's Voy.. pt. ii., p. 235. 
' La variole, la syphilis, voire meme le cholera depuis quelques annees, en em- 
portent une effrayante quantite.' Laplace, Circumnav., vol. vi., p. 51. 


Kolosch, 136 or more properly Kaluga, is the Aleutian 
word for ' dish,' and was given to this people by Aleut- 
ian seal-hunters whom the Russians employed during 
their first occupation of the Island of the Sitkas. Per- 
ceiving a resemblance in the shape of the Thlinkeet lip- 
ornament, to the wooden vessels of their own country, 
they applied to this nation the name Kaluga, whence 
the Kolosches of the Russians. 

Holmberg carries their boundaries down to the Co- 
lumbia River; and Wrangell perceives a likeness, real 
or imaginary, to the Aztecs. 137 Indeed the differences 
between the Thlinkeets and the inhabitants of New Cal- 
edonia, Washington, and Oregon, are so slight that the 
whole might without impropriety be called one people. 
The Thlinkeets have, however, some peculiarities not 
found elsewhere; they are a nation distinct from the 
Tinneh upon their eastern border, and I therefore treat 
of them separately. 

The three families of nations already considered, 
namely, the Eskimos, the Koniagas, and the Aleuts, are 
all designated by most writers as Eskimos. Some even 
include the Thlinkeets, notwithstanding their physical 
and philological differences, which, as well as their tra- 
ditions, are as broadly marked as those of nations that 
these same ethnologists separate into distinct families. 
Nomadic nations, occupying lands by a precarious tenure, 
with ever-changing boundaries, engaged in perpetual hos- 
tilities with conterminous tribes that frequently annihi- 
late or absorb an entire community, so graduate into one 
another that the dividing line is often with difficulty de- 
termined. Thus the Thlinkeets, now almost universally 
held to be North American Indians proper, and distinct 
from the Eskimos, possess, perhaps, as many affinities to 
their neighbors on the north, as to those upon the south 
and east. The conclusion is obvious. The native races of 
America, by their geographical position and the climatic 

136 Kaluga, Kaljush, Koljvsh, Kalusch, Kolush, Koloseh, Kolosh, Kolosches. 
Marchand calls them Tchinkitane. Voyage aut. du Monde, torn, ii., p. 3. 

137 See Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., pp. 15, 16. 


influences which govern them, are of necessity to a cer- 
tain degree similar; while a separation into isolated 
communities which are acted upon by local causes, re- 
sults in national or tribal distinctions. Thus the human 
race in America, like the human race throughout the 
world, is uniform in its variety, and varied in its unity. 

The Thlinkeet family, commencing at the north, com- 
prises the Ugalenzes, 1 ' 38 on the shore of the continent 
between Mount St Elias and Copper River; the Ya- 
kutats, of Bering Bay; the Chilkats, at Lynn Canal; the 
Hoodnids, at Cross Sound; the Hoodsinoos, of Chatham 
Strait; and, following down the coast and islands, the 
Takoos, the Auks, the* Kakas, the Sitkas™ the Stikines. uo 
and the Tangass. The Sitkas on Baranoff Island 141 are 
the dominant tribe. 

Descending from the north into more genial climes, the 
physical type changes, and the form assumes more grace- 
ful proportions. With the expansion of nature and a 
freer play of physical powers, the mind expands, native 
character becomes intensified, instinct keener, savage 
nature more savage, the nobler qualities become more 
noble; crueltv is more cruel, torture is elevated into an 
art, stoicism is cultivated, 142 human sacrifice and human 
slavery begin, and the oppression and degradation of 
woman is systematized. "If an original American race 
is accepted," says Holmberg, "the Thlinkeets must be 
classed with them." They claim to have migrated from 
the interior of the continent, opposite Queen Charlotte 

The Ugalenzes spend their winters at a small bay east 

138 Ugalachmiuli, Ugaljachmjaten, Ugalyachmutzi, Ugalukmutes, Ugalenzi, 
Ugalenzen, Ugalenzes. 

139 They ' call themselves G-tinkit, or S-chinkit, or also S-chitcha-chon, 
that is, inhabitants of Sitki or Sitcha.' Langsdorff's Voy., pt. ii., 128. 

1 4 " The orthographic varieties of this word are endless. Stickeen, Siekin, 
Stakhin, Stachin, Stikin, Stachine, Stikecn, JStikine, Stychine, are among those 
before me at the moment. 

141 At the end of this chapter, under Tribal Boundaries, the location of 
these tribes is given definitely. 

142 A. Thlinkeet boy, ' when under the whip, continued his derision, with- 
out once exhibiting the slightest appearance of suffering.' Lisiansky's Voy., 
p. 242. 


from Kadiak, and their summers near the mouth of 
Copper River, where they take fish in great quantities. 
Their country also abounds in beaver. The Chilkats 
make two annual trading excursions into the interior. 
The Tacully tribes, the Sicannis and Nehannes, with 
whom the Chilkats exchange European goods for furs, 
will allow no white man to ascend their streams. 

Naturally, the Thlinkeets are a fine race ; the men bet- 
ter formed than the boatmen of the north ; 143 the women 
modest, fair, and handsome; 144 but the latter have gone 
far out of their way to spoil the handiwork of nature. 
Xot content with daubing the head and body with filthy 
coloring mixtures; with adorning the neck with copper- 
wire collars, and the face with grotesque wooden masks; 
with scarring their limbs and breast with keen-edged 
instruments; with piercing the nose and ears, and filling 
the apertures with bones, shells, sticks, pieces of copper, 
nails, or attaching thereto heavy pendants, which drag 
down the organs and pull the features out of place; 145 

143 'Leur corps est ramasse, mais assez bien proportionne.' Marchand, 
Voy., torn, ii., p. 46. ' Very fierce.' Portlock's Voy., p. 291. ' Limbs straight 

and well shaped.' Dixon's Voy., p. 171. ' Stolze gerade Haltung.' Holmberg, 
Mhn. Skiz., p. 16. ' Active and clever.' Lisiansky's Voy., p. 237. 'Bigotea 
manera de los Chinos.' Perez, Nav., MS. p. 14. 'Limbs ill-proportioned.' 
Kotzebue's New Voy., vol. ii., p. 49. ' Tres superieurs en courage et en intelli- 
gence.' La Perouse, Voy., torn, iv., p. 54. 

144 The women ' are pleasing and their carriage modest.' Portlock's Voy., 
p. 291. When washed, white and fresh. Dixon's Voy., p. 171. ' Dunkle 
Hautfarbe.' Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 16. ' Eran de color bianco y habia 
muchos con ojos azules.' Perez, Nav., MS. p. 14. As fair as many Euro- 
peans. Langsdorff's Voy., pt. ii.. p. 112. 'Muchos de ellos de un bianco 
regular.' Bodega y Quadra, Nav., MS. p. 43. 

146 ' Leur chevelure, dure, epaisse, melee, couverte d'ocre, de duvet d'oi- 
seaux, et de toutes les ordures que la negligence et le temps y ont accumulees, 
contribue encore a rendre leur aspect hideux.' Marchand, Voy., torn, ii., p. 
46. 'A more hideous set of beings, in the form of men and women, I had 
never before seen.' Cleveland's Voy., p. 91 . The men painted ' a black circle 
extending from the forehead to the mouth, and a red chin, which gave the 
face altogether the appearance of a mask.' IJsianksy's Voy., p. 146. ' Pour- 
raient nieme passer pour jolies, sans l'horrible habitude qu'elles ont adoptee.' 
Laplace, Circunmav., torn, vi., p. 87. ' That person seems to be reckoned the 
greatest beau amongst them, whose face is one entire piece of smut and grease. ' 
Dixon's V^y., p. 68. ' Us se font des cicatrices sur les bras et sur la poitrine.' 
La Perouse, Voy., torn, ii., p. 223. ' Um aus dem Gesichte diese fette Farben- 
masse abzuwaschen, gebrauchen sie ihren eignen Urin, und dieser verursacht 
bei ihnen den widerlichen Geruch, der den sich ihm nahenden Fremdling fast 
zum Erbrechen bringt.' Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 20. 
Vol. I. 7 


they appear to have taxed their inventive powers to the 
utmost, and with a success unsurpassed by any nation 
in the world, to produce a model of hideous beauty. 

This success is achieved in their wooden lip-ornament, 
the crowning glory of the Thlinkeet matron, described 
by a multitude of eye-witnesses; and the ceremony of 
its introduction may be not inappropriately termed, the 
baptism of the block. At the age of puberty, — some say 
during infancy or childhood, — in the under lip of all free- 
born female Thlinkeets, 146 a slit is made parallel with the 
mouth, and about half an inch below it. 147 If the incision 
is made during infancy, it is only a small hole, into which 
a needle of copper, a bone, or a stick is inserted, the 
size being increased as the child grows. If the baptism 
is deferred until the period when the maiden merges 
into womanhood, the operation is necessarily upon a 
larger scale, and consequently more painful. 148 When 

146 Meares, Voyages, p. xxxi., states that at Prince William Sound, 'the 
men have universally a slit in their under lip, between the projecting part of 
the lip and the chin, which is cut parallel with their mouths, and has the ap- 
pearance of another mouth.' Worn only by women. Dixon's Voy., p. 172. 

147 'About three tenths of an inch below the upper part of the under lip.' 
Vancouver's Voy., vol. ii., p. 280. 'In the centre of the under-lip.' Lanus- 

do7]tt''s Voy. t pt. ii., p. 115. 'Fendue au ras des gencives.' La Perouse, Voy., 
torn. ii.. p. 224. ' In the thick part near the mouth.' Dixon's Voy., p. 187. 
' When the first person having this incision was seen by one of the seamen, 
who called out, that the man had two mouths.' Cook's Third Voy., vol. ii., p. 
3G9. ' In their early infancy, a small incision is made in the center of the 
under lip, and a piece of brass or copper wire is placed in, and left in the 
wound. This corrodes the lacerated parts, and by consuming the flesh grad- 
ually increases the orifice, until it is sufficiently large to admit the wooden 
appendage.' Vancouver's Voy., vol. ii., p. 408. 'Les femmes de Tchinki- 
tane out cru devoir ajouter a leur beaute naturelle, par l'emploi d'un orne- 
ment labial, aussi bizarre qu 'incommode.' Marchand, Voy., torn, ii., p. 48. 

148 ' Simply perf orated, and a piece of copper wire introduced.' Dixon's 
Voy., p. 187. 'Les jeuues filles n'ont qu'une aiguille dans la levre infe- 

rieure.' La Perouse, Voy., torn, ii., p. 2'26. ' On y prepare les petites filles 
aussit )t qu'elles sont nees.' Id., torn. iv.. p. 54. 'At first a thick wire.' 
Langsdorjf's Voy., pt. ii., p. 115. When almost marriageable. Kotzebue's Veto 
Voy., vol. ii., p. 51. ' The children have them bored at about two years of 
age, when a piece of copper-wire is put through the hole; this they wear till 
the age of about thirteen or fourteen years, when it is taken out, and the 
wooden ornament introduced.' Pcrtlock's Voy., p. 289. ' Said to denote ma- 
turity.' Whymper's Alaska, p. 100. ' Se percer la levre inferieure des l'en- 
fance.' ' D'agrandir pen a pen cette ouverture au point de pouvoir jeune 
fille y introduire one coquille, et femme mariee une enorrne tasse de bois.' 
Laplace, CircAonnav., toni. vi., p. 87. ' Never takes place during their in- 
fancy.' Dixon's Voy., p. 1S7. 'When the event takes place that implies 
womanhood.' Lisiansky's Voy. t p. 243. ' Wenn zum ersten Mai beim Mad- 


the incision is made, a copper wire, or a piece of shell 
or wood, is introduced, which keeps the wound open and 
the aperture extended ; and by enlarging the object and 
keeping up a continuous but painful strain, an artificial 
opening in the face is made of the required dimensions. 
On attaining the age of maturity, this wire or other 
incumbrance is removed and a block of wood inserted. 
This block is oval or elliptical in shape, concaved or 
hollowed dish-like on the sides, and grooved like the 
wheel of a pulley on the edge in order to keep it in 
place. 149 The dimensions of the block are from two to six 
inches in length, from one to four inches in width, and 
about half an inch thick round the edge, and highly pol- 
ished. 150 Old age has little terror in the eyes of a Thlin- 
keet belle, for larger lip-blocks are introduced as years 
advance, and each enlargement adds to the lady's social 
status, if not to her facial charms. When the block is 
withdrawn, the lip drops down upon the chin like a piece 
of leather, displaying the teeth, and presenting altogether 

chen sich Spuren der Mannbarkeit zeigen, wird ihre Unterlippe durch- 
stocheu und in diese Oeffnung eiue Knochenspitze, gegenwartig doch hau- 
figer ein Silberstift gelegt.' Hvlmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 21. ' Pues les parecid 
que solo lo tenian los casados.' Perez, Nav., MS. p. 15. 

119 ' Concave on both sides.' Vancouver's Voy., vol. ii., p. 280. ' So lange 
gie unverheirathet ist, tragt sie diesen; erhalt sie aber einen Mann, so presst 
man einen grosseren Schmuckvon Holz oderKnochenin die Oeffnung, welcher 
nacli innen, d. h. zur Zahnseite etwas trogfdrmig ausgehdhlt ist.' Hobnberg, 
Eihn. Skiz., p. 21. 'Une espece d'ecuelle de bois sans anses qui appuie con- 
tre les gencives.' La Peroase, Voy., torn, ii., p. 224. Pieces of shell resem- 
bling teeth. Meares' Voy., p. xxxi. 

1j0 ' As large as a large saucer.' Portlock's Voy., p. 289. 'From one cor- 
ner of the mouth to the other.' Vancouver's Voy., vol. ii., p. 280. ' Frequently 
increased to three, or even four inches in length, and nearly as wide.' Dixon's 

Voy., p. 187. 'A communement un demi-pouce d'epaisseur, deux de dia- 
mc-tre, et trois pouces de long.' La Perouse, Voy. torn, iv., p. 54. 'At 
least seven inches in circumference.' Meares' Voy., p. xxxviii. 'Mit den 
Jahren wird der Schmuck vergrossert, so dass er bei einem alten Weibe iiber 
2 Zoll breit angetroffen wird.' Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 21. From two to five 
inches long, and from one and a half to three inches broad. Ladies of dis- 
tinction increase the size. ' I have even seen ladies of very high rank with 
this ornament, full five inches long and three broad.' Mr Dwolf affirms that 
he saw ' an old woman, the wife of a chief, whose lip ornament was so large, 
that by a peculiar motion of her under-lip she could almost conceal her whole 
face with it.' 'Horrible in its appearance to us Europeans.' Langsd< >rff' s 

Voy., pt. ii., p. 115. ' Es una abertura como de media pulgada debaxo del 
labio inferior, que representa segunda boca, donde colocan una especie de 
roldana elfptica de pino, cuyo diametro mayor es de dos pulgadas, quatro 
lineas, y el menor de una pulgada.' Sutil y Mexicana, Viage, p. 126. 


a ghastly spectacle. 151 This custom is evidently associated 
in their minds with womanly modesty, for when La 
Perouse asked them to remove their block, some refused ; 
those who complied manifesting the same embarrassment 
shown by a European woman who uncovers her bosom. 
The Yakutats alone of all the Thlinkeet nation have 
never adopted this fashion. 

Their dress 7 which is made from wolf, deer, bear, or 
other skin, extends from the shoulder to the knee, and 
consists of a mantle, or cape, with sleeves, which reaches 
down to the waist, and to which the women attach a 
skirt, or gown, and the men a belt and apron. A white 
blanket is made from the wool of the wild sheep, em- 
broidered with figures, and fringed with furs, all of native 
work. This garment is most highly prized by the men. 
They wear it thrown over the shoulder so as to cover the 
whole body. 

Vancouver thus describes the dress of a chief at Lvnn 
Canal. His " external robe was a very fine large gar- 

151 ' Une enorme tasse de bois, destinee a recevoir la salive qui s'en echappe 
constamment.' Laplace, Circumnav., torn, vi., p. 87. ' L'effet de cet ornement 
est de rabattre, par le poids de sa partie saillante la levre inferieure sur le 
menton, de developper les charmes d'une grande bouche beante, qui prend 
la forme de celle d'un four, et de niettre a de convert une rangve de dents 
jaunes et sales.' Marchand, Voy., torn, ii., p. 49. ' She is obliged to be con- 
stantly on the watch, lest it should fall out, which would cover her with con- 
fusion.' Lisiansky's Voy., p. 244. ' The weight of this trencher or ornament 
weighs the lip down so as to cover the whole of the chin, leaving all the 
lower teeth and gum quite naked.' Portlbck's Voy., p. 289. ' L 'usage le plus 
revoltant qui existe peut-etre sur la terre.' La Perouse, Voy., torn, ii., p. 
226. 'Always in proportion to a person's wealth.' 'Distorts every feature 
in the lower part of the face.' Dixon's Voy., p. 68, 172. 'In running 
the lip flaps up and down so as to knock sometimes against the chin and 
sometimes against the nose. Upon the continent the kaluga is worn still 
larger; and the female who can cover her whole face with her under-lip 
passes for the most perfect beauty.' ' The lips of the women held out like a 
trough, and always filled with saliva stained with tobacco-juice, of which 
they are immoderately fond, is the most abominably revolting part of the 
spectacle.' Kctzebue's New Voy., vol. ii., p. 52. 'Dadurch ensteht eine im 
selbigen Maasse ausgedehnte Lippe, die hochst widerlich aussieht, ura so 
mehr, da sich nun mehr der Mund nicht scliliessen kann, sondern unauf- 
horlich einen braunen Tabaksspeichel von sich gibt.' Holmberg, Ethn. Hkia. t 
p. 21. ' So distorts the face as to take from it almost the resemblance to the 
human; yet the privilege of wearing this ornament is not extended to the 
female slaves, who are prisoners taken in war. ' Cleveland's 1 r oy., p. 91. ' Look 
as if they had large flat wooden .spoons growing in the flesh.' Langsdorff^s 
Voy., pt. ii. p. 115. ' The sight is hideous. Our men used jocosely to say, 
this lower lip would make a good slab to lay their trousers on to be scrubbed. ' 


ment, that reached from his neck down to his heels, 
made of wool from the mountain sheep, neatly varie- 
gated with several colors, and edged and otherwise dec- 
orated with little tufts or frogs of woolen yarn, dyed of 
various colors. His head-dress was made of wood, much 
resembling in its shape a crown, adorned with bright 
copper and brass plates, from whence hung a number of 
tails or streamers, composed of wool and fur, wrought 
together, dyed of various colors, and each terminating 
in a whole ermine skin. The whole exhibited a mag- 
nificent appearance, and indicated a taste for dress and 
ornament that we had not supposed the natives of these 
regions to possess." 

The men make a wooden mask, which rests on a neck- 
piece, very ingeniously carved, and painted in colors, so 
as to represent the head of some bird or beast or myth- 
ological being. This was formerly worn in battle, prob- 
ably, as La Perouse suggests, in order to strike terror into 
the hearts of enemies, but is now used only on festive 

A small hat of roots and bark, woven in the shape of 
a truncated cone, ornamented with painted figures and 
pictures of animals, is worn by both sexes. 1,13 Ordinarily, 
however, the men wear nothing on the head ; their thick 
hair, greased and covered with ochre and birds' down, 
forming a sufficient covering. The hat is designed espe- 
cially for rainy weather, as a protection to the elaborately 

Dunn's Oregon, p. 277. ' On ne commit point d'explication plausible de cette 
mutilation, qui, ehez les Indiens, passe pour un signe de noblesse.' Mofras, 
Explor., torn, ii., p. 336. 

*S2 ' Die Mannertracht unterscheidet sich in Nichts von der der Weiber ; sie 
besteht namlich aus einem bis zu den Knieen gehenden Hemde.' Holmberg, 
Ethn. Ski?., p. 18. Some of their blankets ' are so curiously worked on one 
side with the fur of the sea-otter, that they appear as if lined with it.' ' Some 
dress themselves in short pantaloons.' Lisiansky's Voy., p. 238. 'Las mu- 
geres visten honestamente una especie de tunica interior de piel sobada.' Sutil 
y Mexicana, Viage, p. cxvii. ' Se vestian las mugeres tunicas de pieles ajusta- 
das al cuerpo con brazaletes de cobre o hierro. ' Perez, Nav., MS. p. 15. ' Usual 
clothing consists of a little apron.' Kotzebue 's New Voy., vol. ii., p. 49. 'Their 
feet are always bare.' Langsdorjps Voy., pt. ii., p. 114. 

li3 ' Usan sombreros de la corteza interior del pino en forma de cono trun- 
cado.' Sutit y Mexicana, Viage, p. cxvii. 1*heir wooden masks 'are so thick, 
that a musket-ball, fired at a moderate distance, can hardly penetrate them.' 
Lisiansky's Voy., p. 150. 


dressed hair. 154 Besides their every-day dress, they have 
a fantastic costume for tribal holidays. 

For their winter habitations, a little back from the 
ocean, the Thlinkeets build substantial houses of plank 
or logs, sometimes of sufficient strength to serve as a 
fortress. They are six or eight feet in height, the base 
in the form of a square or parallelogram, the roof of 
poles placed at an angle of forty-five degrees and cov- 
ered with bark. The entrance is by a small side door. 
The fire, which is usually kept burning night and day, 
occupies the centre of the room; over it is a smoke- 
hole of unusual size, and round the sides of the room 
are apartments or dens which are used as store-houses, 
sweat-houses, and private family rooms. The main room 
is very public and very filthy. 155 Summer huts are light 
portable buildings, thrown up during hunting excursions 
in the interior, or on the sea-beach in the fishing-season. 
A frame is made of stakes driven into the ground, sup- 
porting a roof, and the whole covered with bark, or with 
green or dry branches, and skins or bark over all. The 
door is closed by bark or a curtain of skins. Each hut 

li4 Pluck out their beard. Langsdorff's Voy., pt. ii., p. 112. ' lis out de 
la barbe, moins a la verite que les Europeens, mais assez cependant pour qu'il 
soit impossible d'en douter.' La Perouse, Voy., torn, ii., p. 229. ' The -women 
in general are hair-dressers for their husbands.' Pwtlock's Voy., p. 290. 

15i ' Der Eingang, ziemlich hoeh von der Erde, besteht aus einem kleinen 
runden Loche.' Holmberg, Ellin. Skiz., p. 25. ' lis se construisent des maisons 
de bois ou de terre pour l'hiver.' Laplace, Circumnav., vol. vi., p. 87. ' The 
barabaras of the Sitcan people are of a square form, and spacious. The sides 
are of planks; and the roof resembles that of a Russian house.' Lisiansky's 
Voy., p. 239. ' Habitan estos Indios en chozas 6 rancherias de tablas muy 
desabrigadas.' Sutil y Mexicana, Viage, p. cxvi. At Sitka the roof 'rests upon 
ten or twelve thick posts driven into the ground, and the sides of the house are 
composed of broad thick planks fastened to the same posts. ' Langsdorff's Voy., 
pt. ii., p. 129. 'Dans l'interieur des terres, des habitations bien construites, 
spacieuses et commodes.' Marclmnd, Voy., torn, ii., p. 74. 'Shanties on a 
large scale.' Whymper's Alaska, p. 100. 'Their huts are made of a few 
boards, which they take away with them when they go to their winter quarters. 
It is very surprising to see how well they will shape their boards with the 
shocking tools they employ; some of them being full 10 feet long, 2 % feet 
broad, and not more than an inch thick. ' Porlloclcs Voy. , p. 292. ' High, large, 
and roomy, built of wood, with the hearth in the middle, and the sides divided 
into as many compartments as there are families living under the roof.' Bich- 
ardson's Jour., vol. i., p. 410. ' Lebt in Schoppen aus Balken gebaut. wo 
an den Seiten fur jede Familie besondere Platze abgetheilt sind, m der Mitte 
aber Feuer fur alle zusammen angemacht wird. So prlegen gemeiniglich 2 
bis G Familien eine einzige Scheune einzunehmen.' Baer's Ellin, u. Stat., p. 97. 


is the rendezvous for a small colony, frequently cover- 
ing twenty or thirty persons, all under the direction of 
one chief. 150 

The food of the Thlinkeets is derived principally from 
the ocean, and consists of fish, mussels, sea-weeds, and 
in fact whatever is left upon the beach by the ebbing 
tide— which at Sitka rises and falls eighteen feet twice 
a day — or can be caught by artificial means. Holmberg 
says that all but the Yakutats hate whale as the Jews 
hate pork. Roots, grasses, berries, and snails are among 
their summer luxuries. They chew a certain plant as 
some chew tobacco, mixing with it lime to give it a 
stronger effect, 157 and drink whale-oil as a European 
drinks beer. Preferring their food cooked, they put it 
in a tight wicker basket, pouring in water, and throw- 
ing in heated stones, until the food is boiled. 158 For 

166 < Vingt-cinq pieds de long sur quinze a vingt pieds de large. ' La Perouse, 
Voy., torn, ii., p. 220. ' Roof in the whole with the bark of trees. ' Kotzebue's New 
Voy., vol. ii., p. 53. 'Las casas en que estos habitan en las playas son de 
poca consideracion y ninguna subsistencia.' Bodega y Quadra, Nav., MS. p. 
49. ' A few poles stuck in the ground, without order or regularity.' Dixon's 
Voy., p. 172. • Gebaude besteht aus langen, sorgfaltig behauenen Brettern, 
die kartenhausartig iiber einander gestellt, an zahlreichen in die Erde ge- 
steckten Stangen befestigt, reeht eigentlich ein holzernes Zelt biklen. Es 
hat die Form einer langlichen Barake mit zwei Giebeln.' Kittlitz, lieise, vol. i., 
pp. 220, 221. 

157 All kinds of fish; ' such as salmon, mussels, and various other shell-fish, 
sea-otters, seals and porpoises; the blubber of the porpoise, they are remark- 
ably fond of, and indeed the flesh of any animal that comes in their way.' 
Porthole' s Voy., p. 2D0. ' Vom Meere, an dessen Ufernsie sich stets ansiedeln, 
erhalten sie ihre hauptsachlichste Nahrung; einige Wurzeln, Graser u. Beer- 
en gehoren nur zu den Leckerbissen des Sommers.' Holmberg, Ethn. tikiz., p. 
22. Cakes made of bark of spruce-fir. mixed with roots, berries, and train- 
oil. For salt they use sea-water. Never eat whale-fat. Langsd< >rff's Voy., 
pt. ii., p. 131. At Sitka, summer food consists of berries, fresh fish, and 
flesh of amphibious animals. Winter food, of dried salmon, train-oil, and 
the spawn of fish, especially herrings. Lisiansky's Voy., p. 239. ' Sus ali- 
mentos se reducen a. pescado cocido d asado ya fresco 6 ya seco, varias hier- 
bas y raizes.'' Bodega y Quadra, Nav., MS. p. 50. They chew 'a plant which 
appears to be a species of tobacco.' Dixon's Voy., p. 175. ' Sont couverts 
de vermine ; ils font une chasse assidue a ces animaux devorans, mais pour les 
devorer eux-memes.' Marchand, Voy., torn, ii., p. 52. "Tagliche Nahrung 
der Einwohner — sind haupsachtlich Fische. doch haufig auch Mollusken und 
Echinodermen.' Kittlitz, Reise, vol. i., p. 222. 

1)8 ' Le poisson frais ou fume, les ceufs seches de poisson.' Marchand, 
Voy., torn, ii., p. 62. ' Is sometimes cooked upon red-hot stones, but more 
commonly eaten raw.' Kotzebue's New Voy., vol. ii., p. 53. 'Not so expert 
in hunting as the Aleutians. Their principal mode is that of shooting the 
sea animals as they lie asleep.' Lisiansky's Voy., p. 242. They boil their 
victuals in wooden vessels, by constantly putting red-hot stones into the 


winter, they dry large quantities of herring, roes, and 
the flesh of animals. 

For catching fish, they stake the rivers, and also use 
a hook and line ; one fisherman casting from his canoe 
ten or fifteen lines, with bladders for floats. For herring, 
they fasten to the end of a pole four or five pointed bones, 
and with this instrument strike into a shoal, spearing a 
fish on every point. They sometimes make the same in- 
strument in the shape of a rake, and transfix the fish with 
the teeth. The Sitkas catch halibut with large, wooden, 
bone-pointed hooks. 159 

The arms of the Thlinkeets denote a more warlike 
people than any we have hitherto encountered. Bows 
and arrows; hatchets of flint, and of a hard green stone 
which cuts wood so smoothly that no marks of notches 
are left; great lances, six or eight varas in length, if 
Bodega y Quadra may be trusted, hardened in the fire or 
pointed with copper, or later with iron; a large, broad, 
double-ended dagger, or knife, — are their principal weap- 
ons. The knife is their chief implement and constant 
companion. The handle is nearer one end than the 
other, so that it has a long blade and a short blade, the 
latter being one quarter the length of the former. The 
handle is covered with leather, and a strap fastens it 
to the hand when fighting. Both blades have leathern 
sheaths, one of which is suspended from the neck by a 
strap. 160 

water. Portlock's Voy., p. 291. ' Das Kochen geschieht jetzt in eisernen Kes- 
seln, vor der Bekanntschaft mit den Russen aber wurden dazu aus Wurzeln 
geflochtene Korbe angewandt. Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 23. 

159 To their fishing lines, bladders are fastened, ' which float upon the surf ace 
of the water, so that one person can attend to fourteen or fifteen lines.' Langs- 
dortf's Voy., pt ii., p. 134. ' lis pechent, comme nous, en barrant les rivieres, 
ou a la ligne.' La Perouse, Voy., torn, ii., p. 232. ' For taking the spawn, they 
use the branches of the pine-tree, to which it easily adheres, and on which 
it is afterwards dried. It is then put into baskets, or holes purposely dug in 
the ground, till wanted.' Lisictnsjq/'s Voy., p. 239. ' Su commi alimento es 
el salmon, yes ingenioso el mc'todo que tienen de pescarle.' SutUy Mexicana, 
Viage, p. cxvii. 'Their lines are very strong, being made of the sinews or 
intestines of animals.' IHxon's Voy., p. 174. ' Die Riesenbutte, die in Sitcha 
bisweilen ein Gewicht von 10 bis 12 Pud erreicht, wird aus der Tiefe mit gros- 
sen holzernen Angeln, die mit Widerhaken aus Eisen oder Knochen versehen 
sind, herausgezogen. Die Angelschnur besteht aus an einander gekniipften 
Fucusstangeln.' Holmberg, Ethn. Shiz., p. 32. 

jco ' Bows and arrows were formerly their only weapons; now, besides their 


They also encase almost the entire body in a wooden 
and leathern armor. Their helmets have curiously 
carved vizors, with grotesque representations of beings 
natural or supernatural, which, when brilliantly or dis- 
mally painted, and presented with proper yells, and 
brand ishings of their ever-glittering knives, are supposed 
to strike terror into the heart of their enemies.. They 
make a breast-plate of wood, and an arrow-proof coat of 
thin flexible strips, bound with strings like a woman's 
stays. 101 

When a Thlinkeet arms for war, he paints his face 
and powders his hair a brilliant red. He then orna- 
ments his head with white eagle-feathers, a token of 
stern, vindictive determination. During war they pitch 
their camp in strong positions, and place the women on 
guard. Trial by combat is frequently resorted to, not 
only to determine private disputes, but to settle quar- 
rels between petty tribes. In the latter case, each side 
chooses a champion, the warriors place themselves in 

muskets, they have daggers, and knives half a yard long.' Kotzehue's New 
Voy., vol. ii., p. 55. Their weapons were bows, arrows, and spears. Dixon's 
Voy., p. 67. ' Leur lances dont l'ancienne forme n'est pas connue, est a 
present composee de deux pieces: de la hampe, longue de quinze on dix- 
huit pieds, et du fer qui ne le cede en rien a celui de la hallebarde de parade 
dont etoit arme un Suisse de paroisse.' Marchand, Voy., torn, ii., p. 68. 
Knives, some two feet long, shaped almost like a dagger, with a ridge in the 
middle. Worn in skin sheaths hung by a thong to the neck under their 
robe, probably used only as weapons. Cook's Third Voy., vol, ii., p. 373. 
1 Las armas ofensivas que generalmente usan son las flechas, lanzas de seis y 
ocho varas de largo con lenguetas de fierro.' Bodega y Quadra, Nav., MS. p. 
46. ' The daggers used in battle are made to stab with either end, having 
three, four or Ave inches above the hand tapered to a sharp point; but the 
upper part of those used in the Sound and River is excurvated.' Port- 
lock's Voy., p. 261. ' Principally bows and arrows.' Langsdorff's Voy., pt. ii., 
p. 131. ' Sus armas se reducen al arco, la flecha y el punal que traen siempre 
consigo.' Sutil y Mexicana, Via<je, p. cxvii. 'Comme nous examinions tres- 
attentivement tous ces poignards, ils nous firent signe qu'ils n'en faisaient 
usage que contre les ours et les autres betes des forets.' La Peronse, Voy., 
torn, ii., p. 172. ' Der Dolch ist sehr breit und hat zwei geschliffene Blatter 
anf jeder Seite des Griffes, das obere jedoch nur ein Viertel von der Lange 
des unteren.' ' Beide Blatter oder Klingen sind mit ledernen Scheiden ver- 
sehen.' Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 28. 

1G1 ' A kind of jacket, or coat of mail, made of thin laths, bound together 
with sinews, which makes it quite flexible, though so close as not to admit 
an arrow or dart.' Cook's Third Voy., vol. ii., p. 372. ' Fur den Krieg be- 
sitzendieKaloschenauchvon Holz gearbeitete Schutzwaffen : Brustharnische, 
Sturmhauben und seltsam geschnitzte Visire, mit grellen Farben bemalte 
Fratzengesichter darstellen.' Kittlitz, Heise, vol. i., p. 216. 


battle array, the combatants armed with their favorite 
weapon, the dagger, and well armored, step forth and 
engage in fight; while the people on either side engage 
in song and dance during the combat. Wrangell and 
Laplace assert that brave warriors killed in battle are 
devoured by the conquerors, in the belief that the brav- 
ery of the victim thereby enters into the nature of the 
partaker. 162 

Coming from the north, the Thlinkeets are the first 
people of the coast who use wooden boats. They are 
made from a single trunk ; the smaller ones about fifteen 
feet long, to carry from ten to twelve persons; and the 
larger ones, or war canoes, from fifty to seventy feet 
long; these will carry forty or fifty persons. They have 
from two and a half to three feet beam ; are sharp fore 
and aft, and have the bow and stern raised, the former 
rather more than the latter. Being very light and well 
modeled, they can be handled with ease and celerity. 
Their paddles are about four feet in length, with crutch- 
like handles and wide, shovel-shaped blades. Boats as 
well as paddles are ornamented with painted figures, 
and the family cpat-of-arms. Bodega y Quadra, in con- 
tradiction to all other authorities, describes these canoes 
as being built in three parts; with one hollowed piece, 
which forms the bottom and reaches well up the sides, 
and with two side planks. Having hollowed the trunk 
of a tree to the required depth, the Thlinkeet builders 
fill it with water, which they heat with hot stones to 
soften the wood, and in this state bend it to the desired 
shape. When they land, they draw their boats up on 
the beach, out of reach of the tide, and take great care 
in preserving them. 163 

162 < They never attack their enemies openly.' Kotzebue's New Vby., vol. 
ii., p. 55. ' Les guerriers tues ou faits prisonniers a la guerre, passent egale- 
nient sous la dent de leurs vainqueurs qui, en devorant une proie aussi dis- 
tinguee, croient y puiser de nouvelles forces, une nouvelle energie.' Laplace, 
Circumnav., torn, vi., p. 155. 

163 ' Bien hechas de una pieza con su falca sobre las bordas.' Perez, Nav., 
MS. p. 17. 'On n'est pas moins etonne de leur stability: malgre la legerete 
et le pen de largeur de la coque, elles n'ont pas besoin d'etre soutenues par 
des balanciers, et jamais on ne les accouple.' Marchand, Voy., torn, ii., p. 72. 


The Thlinkeets manifest no less ingenuity in the man- 
ufacture of domestic and other implements than in their 
arms. Rope they make from sea- weed, water-tight bask- 
ets and mats from withes and grass; and pipes, bowls, 
and figures from a dark clay. They excel in the work- 
ing of stone and copper, making necklaces, bracelets, and 
rings ; they can also forge iron. They spin thread, use the 
needle, and make blankets from the white native wool. 
They exhibit considerable skill in carving and painting, 
ornamenting the fronts of their houses with heraldic 
symbols, and allegorical and historical figures; while in 
front of the principal dwellings, and on their canoes, are 
carved parts representing the human face, the heads of 
crows, eagles, sea-lions, and bears. 104 La Perouse asserts 
that, except in agriculture, which was not entirely un- 
known to them, the Thlinkeets were farther advanced in 
industry than the South Sea Islanders. 

Trade is carried on between Europeans and the in- 
terior Indians, in which no little skill is manifested. 

1 Las regulares canoas cle que se sirven son de pino, y no tienen mas capaci- 
dacl que la que basta para contener una familia, sin embargo que las hay su- 
mamente grandes.' Bodega if Quadra, Nav., MS. p. 48. ' Rudely excavated and 
reduced to no particular shape, but each end has the resemblance of a butcher's 
tray.' Dixon's Voy., p. 173. ' Their canoes are much inferior to those of the 
lower coast, while their skin " baidarkes " (kyacks) are not equal to those 
of Norton Sound and the northern coast.' 11 hymper's Alaska, p. 101. At 
Cook's Inlet, ' their canoes are sheathed with the bark of trees.' LitdansJcy's 
Voy., p. 188. These canoes ' were made from a solid tree, and many of them 
appeared to be from 50 to 70 feet in length, but very narrow, being no 
broader than the tree itself.' Heaves' Voy., p. xxxviii. ' Their boat was the 
body of a large pine tree, neatly excavated, and tapered away towards the 
ends, until they came to a point, and the fore-part somewhat higher than the 
after-part; indeed, the whole was finished in a neat and very exact manner.' 
Forth >ck's Voy., p. 259. 

164 < Ont fait beaucoup plus de progres dans les arts que dans la morale.' 
La Perouse, Voy., torn, ii., p. 233. Thlinkeet women make baskets of bark of 
trees, and grass, that will hold water. Langsdorff's Voy., p. ii., p. 132. They 
have tolerable ideas of carving, most utensils having sculptures, representing 
some animal. Portlock's Voy., p. 294. ' Ces peintures, ces sculptures, telles 
qu'elles sont, on en voit sur tous leurs meubles.' Marchand, Voy., torn, ii., 
p. 71. ' De la vivacidad de su genio y del afecto al cambio se debe inferir 
son bastantemente laboriosos.' Bodeya y Quadra, Nov., MS. p. 48. ' Tienen 
lana blanca cuya especie ignoraron.' Perez, Nav., MS. p. 16. 'Masks very 
ingeniously cut in wood, and painted with different colors.' A rattle, ' very 
well finished, both as to sculpture and painting.' ' One might suppose these 
productions the work of a people greatly advanced in civilization.' Lisiansky's 
Voy., pp. 150, 241. 'Found some square patches of ground in a state of 
cultivation, producing a plant that appeared to be a species of tobacco.' Van- 
couveVs Voy., vol. iii., p. 25G. 


Every article which they purchase undergoes the closest 
scrutiny, and every slight defect, which they are sure to 
discover, sends down the price. In their commercial 
intercourse they exhibit the utmost decorum, and con- 
duct their negotiations with the most becoming dignity. 
Nevertheless, for iron and beads they willingly part with 
anything in their possession, even their children. In 
the voyage of Bodega y Quadra, several young Thlin- 
keets thus became the property of the Spaniards, as the 
author piously remarks, for purposes of conversion. Sea- 
otter skins circulate in place of money. 165 

The office of chief is elective, and the extent of power 
wielded depends upon the ability of the ruler. In some 
this authority is nominal ; others become great despots. 166 
Slavery was practiced to a considerable extent; and not 
only all prisoners of war were slaves, but a regular slave- 
trade was carried on with the south. When first known 
to the Russians, according to Holmberg, most of their 
slaves were Flatheads from Oregon. Slaves are not 
allowed to hold property or to marry, and when old and 
worthless they are killed. Kotzebue says that a rich 
man " purchases r male and female slaves, who must 
labor and fish for him, and strengthen his force when he 
is engaged in warfare. The slaves are prisoners of war, 
and their descendants; the master's power over them is 
unlimited, and he even puts them to death without 
scruple. When the master dies, two slaves are mur- 
dered on his grave that he may not want attendance in 
the other world ; these are chosen long before the event 

165 < The skins of the sea-otters form their principal wealth, and are a sub- 
stitute for money.' Kotzebue's Veto Voy., vol. ii., p. 54. ' In one place they 
discovered a considerable hoard of woolen cloth, and as much dried fish as 
would have loaded 150 bidarkas.' Lisiansky's Voy., p. 1G0. 

166 « Le Gouvernement des Tchinkitaneens paroitroit done se rapprocher 
du Gouvernement patriarchal.' Marchand, Voy., torn, ii., p. 83. ' De su 
gobierno pensamos cuando mas, oiendo el modo de someterse a algunos vie- 
jos, seriaoligarhico.' Bodega y Quadra, Xac, MS. p. 50. ' Though the toyons 
have power over their subjects, it is a very limited power, unless when an 
individual of extraordinary abilities starts up, who is sure to rule despotically.' 
Lisiansky's Voy., p. '243. ' Chaque famille semble vivre dime maniere isolee 
et avoir un regime particulier. ' La Perouse, Voy., torn. i\\, p. 61. ' Ces Con- 
seils composes des vieillards.' Laplace, Cireuuinav., torn, vi., p. 155. 


occurs, but meet the destiny that awaits them very phil- 
osophically." Simpson estimates the slaves to be one third 
of the entire population. Interior tribes enslave their 
prisoners of war, but, unlike the coast tribes, they have 
no hereditary slavery, nor systematic traffic in slaves. 

With the superior activity and intelligence of the Thlin- 
keets, social castes begin to appear. Besides an hered- 
itary nobility, from which class all chiefs are chosen, the 
whole nation is separated into two great divisions or 
clans, one of which is called the Wolf, and the other the 
Raven. Upon their houses, boats, robes, shields, and 
wherever else they can find a place for it, they paint or 
carve their crest, an heraldic device of the beast or the 
bird designating the clan to which the owner belongs. The 
Raven trunk is again divided into sub-clans, called the 
Frog, the Goose, the Sea-Lion, the Owl, and the Salmon. 
The Wolf family comprises the Bear, Eagle, Dolphin, 
Shark, and Alca. In this clanship some singular social 
features present themselves. People are at once thrust 
widely apart, and yet drawn together. Tribes of the same 
clan may not war on each other, but at the same time 
members of the same clan may not marry with each other. 
Thus the young Wolf warrior must seek his mate among 
the Ravens, and, while celebrating his nuptials one day, 
he may be called upon the next to fight his father-in- 
law over some hereditary feud. Obviously this singular 
social fancy tends greatly to keep the various tribes of 
the nation at peace. 107 

Although the Thlinkeet women impose upon them- 
selves the most painful and rigorous social laws, there 
are few savage nations in which the sex have greater 
influence or command greater respect. Whether it be 
the superiority of their intellects, their success in ren- 
dering their hideous charms available, or the cruel pen- 

107 Tribes are distinguished by the color and character of their paint. Kot- 
zebue's New Voy., vol. ii., p. 51. They ' are divided into tribes; the principal of 
which assume to themselves titles of distinction, from the names of the ani- 
mals they prefer; as the tribe of the bear, of the eagle, etc. The tribe of the 
wolf are called Coqiiontans, and have many privileges over the other tribes.' 
Lislansky's Voy., pp. 238, 242. 


ances imposed upon womanhood, the truth is that not 
only old men, but old women, are respected. In fact, a 
remarkably old and ugly crone is accounted almost above 
nature — a sorceress. One cause of this is that they are 
much more modest and chaste than their northern sis- 
ters. 168 As a rule, a man has but one wife ; more, how- 
ever, being allowable. A chief of the N"ass tribe is said 
to have had forty. 

A young girl arrived at the age of maturity is deemed 
unclean; and everything she comes in contact with, or 
looks upon, even the clear sky or pure water, is thereby 
rendered unpropitious to man. She is therefore thrust 
from the society of her fellows, and confined in a dark 
den as a being unfit for the sun to shine upon. There 
she is kept sometimes for a whole year. Langsdorff 
suggests that it may be during this period of confine- 
ment that the foundation of her influence is laid; that 
in modest reserve, and meditation, her character is 
strengthened, and she comes forth cleansed in mind as 
well as body. This infamous ordeal, coming at a most 
critical period, and in connection with the baptism of the 
block, cannot fai]l to exert a powerful influence upon her 

It is a singular idea that they have of uncleanness. 
During all this time, according to Holmberg, only the 
girl's mother approaches her, and that only to place food 
within her reach. There she lies, wallowing in her 
filth, scarcely able to move. It is almost incredible that 
human beings can bring themselves so to distort nature. 
To this singular custom, as well as to that of the block, 
female slaves do not conform. After the girl's immure- 

168 « The women posses a predominant influence, and acknowledged supe- 
riority over the other sex.' Meares' Voy., p. 323. ' Parmi eux les femmes 
jouissent d'une certaine consideration.' Laplace, Circumnav., torn, vi., p. 87. 
They treat their wives and children with much affection and tenderness, and 
the women keep the treasures. Portlock's Voy., p. 290. The Kalush ' finds 
his filthy countrywomen, with their lip-troughs, so charming, that they often 
awaken in him the most vehement passion.' Kotzebue's JYejo Voy., vol. ii., 
p. 5G. ' It is certain that industry, reserve, modesty, and conjugal fidelity, 
are the general characteristics of the female sex among these people.' Langs- 
dorff's Voy., pt. ii., p. 133. ' Quoiqu'elles vivent sous la domination d'hom- 


ment is over, if her parents are wealthy, her old clothing 
is destroyed, she is washed and dressed anew, and a grand 
feast given in honor of the occasion. 169 The natural suf- 
ferings of mothers during confinement are also aggra- 
vated by custom. At this time they too are considered 
unclean, and must withdraw into the forest or fields, away 
from all others, and take care of themselves and their off- 
spring. After the birth of a child, the mother is locked 
up in a shed for ten days. 

A marriage ceremony consists in the assembling of 
friends and distribution of presents. A newly married 
pair must fast for two days thereafter, in order to insure 
domestic felicity. After the expiration of that time they 
are permitted to partake of a little food, when a second 
two days' fast is added, after which they are allowed to 
come together for the first time; but the mysteries of 
wedlock are not fully unfolded to them until four weeks 
after marriage. 

Very little is said by travelers regarding the bath- 
houses of the Thlinkeets, but I do not infer that they 
used them less than their neighbors. In fact, notwith- 
standing their filth, purgations and purifications are 
commenced at an early age. As soon as an infant is 
born, and before it has tasted food, whatever is in the 
stomach must be squeezed out. Mothers nurse their 
children from one to two and a half years. When the 
child is able to leave its cradle, it is bathed in the ocean 
every day without regard to season, and this custom is 
kept up by both sexes through life. Those that survive 
the first year of filth, and the succeeding years of applied 
ice water and exposure, are very justly held to be well 

The Thlinkeet child is frequently given two names, one 
from the, father's side and one from the mother's; and 
when a son becomes more famous than his father, the 

mes tres-f^roces, je n'ai pus vu qu'elles en fussent traitees d'une maniere 
aussi barbare que le pretendent la plupart des voyageurs.' La Perouse, Voy., 
torn, iv., p. 61. 

loo < Weddings are celebrated merely by a feast, given to the relatives of 
the bride.' Kotiebue's New Voy., vol. ii., p. 57. 


latter drops his own name, and is known only as the 
father of his son. Their habits of life are regular. In 
summer, at early dawn they put out to sea in their boats, 
or seek for food upon the beach, returning before noon 
for their first meal. A second one is taken just before 
night. The work is not unequally divided between the 
sexes, and the division is based upon the economical 
principles of civilized communities. The men rarely 
conclude a bargain without consulting their wives. 

Marchand draws a revolting picture of their treatment 
of infants. The little bodies are so excoriated by fer- 
mented filth, and so scarred by their cradle, that they 
carry the marks to the grave. No wonder that when 
they grow up they are insensible to pain. Nor are the 
mothers especially given to personal cleanliness and de- 
corum. 170 

Music, as well as the arts, is cultivated by the Thlin- 
keets, and, if we may believe Marchand, ranks with 
them as a social institution. "At fixed times," he says, 
"evening and morning, they sing in chorus, every one 
takes part in the concert, and from the pensive air which 
they assume while singing, one would imagine that the 
song has some dee]5 interest for them." The men do the 
dancing, while the women, who are rather given to fat- 
ness and flaccidity, accompany them with song and tam- 
bourine. 171 

Their principal gambling game is played with thirty 
small sticks, of various colors, and called by divers 
names, as the crab, the whale, and the duck. The 
player shuffles together all the sticks, then counting out 
seven, he hides them under a bunch of moss, keeping 

170 'lis ne s'ecartent jamais de deux pas pour aucun besoin; ils ne cher- 
chent dans ces occasions ni l'ombre lii le mj'stere; ils continuent la conver- 
sation qu'ils ont commeiicee, conmie s'ils n'avaient pas un instant a peidie; 
et lorsque c'est pendant le repas, ils reprennent leur place, dont ils n'ont 
jamais etc eloign;' s d'une toise.' La Perouse, Voy., torn, ii., p. 2-1. 

171 'Ont un goat decide pour le chant.' Marchand, Voy., torn, ii., p. 75. 
' The women sit "upon the f round at a distance of some paces ire m the dancers, 
and sing a not inharmonious melody, which supplies the place of music.' 
Lanusdorff's Jo//., pt. ii., p. 114. ' They dance and sing continually.' Lisi- 
anslcy's Voy., p. 240. Besides the tambourine, Captain Belcher saw a Casta- 
net and ' a new musical instrument, composed of three hoops, with a cross 


the remainder covered at the same time. The game is 
to guess in which pile is the whale, and the crab, and 
the duck. During the progress of the game, they pre- 
sent a perfect picture of melancholic stoicism. 172 

The Thlinkeets burn their dead. An exception is 
made when the deceased is a shaman or a slave; the 
body of the former is preserved, after having been 
wrapped in furs, in a large wooden sarcophagus; and the 
latter is thrown out into the ocean or anywhere, like a 
beast. The ashes of the burned Thlinkeet are carefully 
collected in a box covered with hieroglyphic figures, and 
placed upon four posts. The head of a warrior killed in 
battle is cut off before the body is burned, and placed 
in a box supported by two poles over the box that holds 
his ashes. 173 Some tribes preserve the bodies of those 
who die during the winter, until forced to get rid of 
them by the warmer weather of spring. Their grandest 
feasts are for the dead. Besides the funeral ceremony, 
which is the occasion of a festival, they hold an annual 
'elevation of the dead,' at which times they erect mon- 
uments to the memory of their departed. 

The shamans possess some knowledge of the medicinal 
properties of herbs, but the healing of the body does 
not constitute so important a part of their vocation as 
do their dealings with supernatural powers. 

To sum up the character of the Thlinkeets, they may 
be called bold, brave, shrewd, intelligent, industrious, lov- 

in the centre, the circumference being closely strung with the beaks of the 
Alca arctica.' Voy., vol. i., p. 103. 

172 They lose at this game all their possessions, and even their wives and 
children, who then become the property of the winner.' Kotzebue's New Voy., 
vol. ii. ; p. G2. ' Ce jeu les rend tristes et serieux.' La Perouse, Voy., torn, 
ii., p. 1:35. 

173 Upon one tomb, ' formaba una figura grande y horrorosa que tenia 
entre sus garras una caxa.' Sutil y Mexicana, Viage., p. cxviii. 'The box is 
frequently decorated with two or three rows of small shells.' Dixon's Voy., 
p. 176. ' The dead are burned, and their ashes preserved in small wood- 
en boxes, in buildings appropriated to that purpose.' Kotzebue's New Voy., 
vol. ii., p. 57. ' Nos voyageurs rencontrerent aussi un morai qui leur 
prouva que ces Indiens etaient dans 1' usage de bruler les morts et d'en con- 
server la t«He.' La Perouse, Voy., torn, ii., p. 205. ' On the death of a toyon, 
or other distinguished person, one of his slaves is deprived of life, and 
burned with him.' Lisiansla/s Voy., p. 241. 

Vol. I. 8 


ers of art and music, respectful to women and the aged ; 
yet extremely cruel, scalping and maiming their prisoners 
out of pure wantonness, thievish, lying, and inveterate 
gamblers. In short they possess most of the virtues and 
vices incident to savagism. 

The Tinneh, the fifth and last division of our Hyper- 
borean group, occupy the l Great Lone Land,' between 
Hudson Bay and the conterminous nations already de- 
scribed; a land greater than the whole of the United 
States, and more 'lone,' excepting absolute deserts, than 
any part of America. White men there are scarcely 
any; wild men and wild beasts there are few; few 
dense forests, and little vegetation, although the grassy 
savannahs sustain droves of deer, buffalo, and other 
animals. The Tinneh are, next to the Eskimos, the most 
northern people of the continent. They inhabit the un- 
explored regions of Central Alaska, and thence extend 
eastward, their area widening towards the south to the 
shores of Hudson Bay. Within their domain, from the 
north-west to the south-east, may be drawn a straight 
line measuring over four thousand miles in length. 

The Tinneh, 174 may be divided into four great families 
of nations ; namely, the Chepewyans, or Athabascas, living 
between Hudson Bay and the Rocky Mountains ; the Ta- 
cidliesj or Carriers, of New Caledonia or North-western 
British America; the Kutcliins, occupying both banks of 
the upper Yukon and its tributaries, from near its mouth 
to the Mackenzie River; and the Kenai, inhabiting the 
interior from the lower Yukon to Copper River. 

The Chepewyan family is composed of the Northern 
Indians, so called by the fur-hunters at Fort Churchill 
as lying along the shores of Hudson Bay, directly to their 
north; the Copper Indians, on Coppermine River; the 
Horn Mountain and Beaver Indians, farther to the west; 
the Strong-bows, Dog-ribs, Hares, Red-knives, Sheep, 

174 Called by Gallatin, in Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact., vol. ii., p. 17, Atha- 
pasca, the name ' first given to the central part of the country they inhabit.' 
Sir John Richardson, Jour., vol. ii., p. 1, calls them 'Tinne, or 'Dtinne, Ath- 


Sarsis, Brush- wood, Nagailer, and Rocky- Mountain In- 
dians, of the Mackenzie River and Rockv Mountains. 175 

The Tacully 176 nation is divided into a multitude of 
petty tribes, to which different travelers give different 
names according to fancy. Among them the most im- 
portant are the Talkotins and Chilkotins, Nateotetains 
and Sicannis, of the upper branches of Eraser River and 
vicinity. It is sufficient for our purpose, however, to 
treat them as one nation. 

The Kutchins, 177 a large and powerful nation, are com- 
posed of the following tribes. Commencing at the Mac- 
kenzie River, near its mouth, and extending westward 
across the mountains to and down the Yukon ; the Lou- 
cheux or Quarrellers, of the Mackenzie River ; the Yanta 
Kutchin, Natche Kutchin, and Yukuth Kutchin, of Por- 
cupine River and neighborhood ; the Tutchone Kutchin, 
Han Kutchin, Kutcha Kutchin, Gens de Bouleau, Gens 
de Milieu, Tenan Kutchin, Nuclukayettes, and Kewi- 
carguts, of the Yukon River. Their strip of territory is 
from one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles in 
width, lying immediately south of the Eskimos, and 
extending westward from the Mackenzie River about 
eight hundred miles. 178 

abascans or Chepewyans.' ' They style themselves generally Dinneh men, or 
Indians.' Franklin's Nar., vol. i., p. 241. 

175 Richardson's Jour., vol. ii., pp. 1-33. 

176 ' Les Indiens de la cote on de la Nouvelle Caledonie, les Tokalis, les 
Chargeurs (Carriers) les Schouchouaps, les Atnas, appartiennent tous a la 
nation des Chipeouaians dont la langue est en usage dans le nord du Conti- 
nent jusqu'a la baie d'Hudson et a la Mer Polaire.' Mqfras. Explor., torn, ii., 
p. 337. 

177 Are 'known under the names of Loucheux, Digothi, and Kutshin.' La- 
tham's Kat. Races, p. 292. 'They are called Deguthee Dinees, or the Quar- 
rellers.' Mackenzie's Voy., p. 51. 'On Peel's River they name themselves 
Kutchin, the final n being nasal and faintly pronounced.' Richardson's Jour., 
vol. i., p. 378. They are also called Tykothee-dinneh, Loucheux or Quarrellers. 
Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., p. 83. ' The Loucheux proper is spoken by the In- 
iians of Peel's Eiver. All the tribes inhabiting the valley of the Youkon un- 
lerstand one another.' Hardisty, in Smithsonian Rept., 1866, p. 311. 

178 Gallatin, in Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact., vol. ii., p. 17, erroneously ruled 
:ke Loucheux out of his Athabasca nation. ' Im aussersten Nordosten hat 
ins Gallatin aufmerksam gemacht auf das Volk der Loucheux, Zanker-India- 
aer oder Digothi: an der Miindung des Mackenzie -Flusses, nach Einigen zu 
lessen beiden Seiten (westliche und ostliche); dessen Sprache er nach den 
Reisenden fiirfremd den athapaskischenhiclt: wori'iber sich die neuen Nach- 
icht( n noch widersprechen.' Buschmann, Spuren der Aztek. Sprache, p. 713. 
Franklin, Nar., vol. ii., p. 83, allies the Loucheux to the Eskimos. 


The Kenai 179 nation includes the Ingaliks, of the Lower 
Yukon; the Koltshanes, of the Kuskoquim River; and 
to the south-eastward , the Kenais, of the Kenai Penin- 
sula, and the Atnas, of Copper River. 180 

Thus we see that the Tinneh are essentially an inland 
people, barred out from the frozen ocean by a thin strip 
of Eskimo land, and barely touching the Pacific at Cook 
Inlet. Philologists, however, find dialectic resemblances, 
imaginary or real, between them and the Umpquas 181 and 
Apaches. 182 

The name Chepewyan signifies 'pointed coat,' and de- 
rives its origin from the parka, coat, or outer garment, so 
universally common throughout this region. It is made 
of several skins differently dressed and ornamented in 
different localities, but always cut with the skirt pointed 
before and behind. The Chepewyans believe that their 
ancestors migrated from the east, and therefore those of 
them who are born nearest their eastern boundary, are 
held in the greatest estimation. The Dog-ribs alone refer 
their origin to the west. 

The Chipewyans are physically characterized by a long 
full face, 183 tall slim figure ; 18i in complexion they are darker 
than coast tribes, 185 and have small piercing black eyes 


179 Tnai, 'man;' Tnama Ttynai, Thnaina, Kinai, Kenai, Kenaize. 

180 See notes on Boundaries at the end of this chapter. 

131 Besides the ' Umkwa, ' being outlying members of the Athabaskan 
stock,' there are the 'Navahoe, the Jecorilla, the Panalero, along with the 
Apatsh of New Mexico, California, and Sonora. To these add the Hoopah 
of California, which is also Athabaskan.' Latham's Comp. Phil., p. 393. 

132 William W. Turner was the first to assert positively that the Apaches 
spoke a language which belongs to the Athabascan family. Buschntann, Spu- 
ren der Azte.'c. tiprache, p. 316. 

13:J Face 'oval.' Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., p. 180. 'Broad faces, projecting 
check-bones, and wide nostrils.' Id., vol.i.,p. 242. Foreheads low, chin long. 
Martin's Brjt. C<1., vol. iii., p. 524. An exact compound between the Usque- 
mows and Western Indians. Barrow's Geoa. Hudson Bay, p. 33. 

lsl Generally more than medium size, lleume's Trav., p. 305. 'Well pro- 
portioned, and about the middle size.' Martin's Brit. Col., vol. iii., p. 524. 
'Long-bodied, with short, stout limbs.' Boss, in Sinithsoniait Bept., 1866, 
p. 304. 

185 'Dingy copper.' Martin's Brit. Col., vol. iii., p. 52G. 'Swarthy.' 31ac- 
Icenzie's Voy.'. p. cxix. Dingy brown, copper cast. Hearne's Trav., p. 305. 
'Very fresh and rod.' Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., p. 180. 'Dirty yellowish 
ochro ting'. 1 .' Ross, in Smithsonian Be)>t., 18C6, p. 304. 

'36 ' Small, line eyes and teeth." Franklin's Nar., p. vol. i., 242. 


flowing hair, 187 and tattooed cheeks and forehead. 188 Al- 
together they are pronounced an inferior race. 189 Into 
the composition of their garments enter beaver, moose, 
and deer-skin, dressed with and without the hair, sewed 
with sinews and ornamented with claws, horns, teeth, and 
feathers. 190 

The Northern Indian man is master of his household. 191 
He marries without ceremony, and divorces his wife at 
his pleasure. 192 A man of forty buys or tights for a spouse 
of twelve, 193 and when tired of her whips her and sends 
her away. Girls on arriving at the age of womanhood 

18 7 'Hair lank, but not always of a dingy black. Men in general extract 
their beard, though some of them are seen to prefer a bushy, black beard, to 
a smooth chin.' Mackenzie's Voy., p. cxix. Beard in the aged 'between two 
and three inches long, and perfectly white.' Franklin's Nar., vol. ii , p. 180. 
' Black, strait, and coarse.' Martin's Brit. Col., vol. iii., p. 524. ' Neither sex 
have any hair under their armpits, and very little on any other part of the 
body, particularly the women; but on the place where Nature plants the 
hair, I never knew them attempt to eradicate it.' Hearne's Trav., p. 306. 

183 Tattooing appears to be universal among the Kutchins. Kirby, in Smith- 
sonian Bept., 1864, p. 419. The Chepewyans tattooed 'by entering an awl 
or needle under the skin, and, on drawing it out again, immediately rubbing 
powdered charcoal into the wound.' Hearne's Trav., p. 306. 'Both sexes 
have blue or black bars, or from one to four straight lines on their cheeks or 
forehead, to distinguish the tribe to which they belong.' Mackenzie's Voy., 
p. cxx. 

189 Women 'destitute of real beauty.' Hearne's Trav., p. 89. 'Very infe- 
rior aspect.' Richardson's Jour., vol. ii., p. 8. Women nasty. M^ackenzie's 
Voy., p. 126. ' Positively hideous.' Boss, in Smithsonian Bept., 1866, p. 304. 

190 A Deer-Horn Mountaineer's dress ' consisted of a shirt, or jacket with 
a hood, wide breeches, reaching only to the knee, and tight leggins sewed to 
the shoes, all of deer's skins.' Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., p. 180. The cap con- 
sists of the skin of a deer's head. Mackenzie's Voy., p. cxxii. 

191 As witness this speech of a noble chief: ' Women were made for labor; 
one of them can carry, or haul, as much as two men can do. They also pitch 
our tents, make and mend our clothing, keep us warm at night; and, in fact, 
there is no such thing as traveling any considerable distance, in this country 
without their assistance.' JJearne's Trav., p. 55. 

192 An Indian desiring another one's wife, fights with her husband, princi- 
pally by pulling hair. If victorious, he j)ays a number of skins to the hus- 
band. lL>oper's Tuski, p. 303. 

w 'Continence in an unmarried female is scarcely considered a virtue.' 
' Their dispositions are not amatory.' ' I have heard among them of two sons 
keeping their mother as a common wife, of another wedded to his daughter, 
and of several married to their sisters. Ross, in Smithsonian Bept., 1866, p. 
310. Women carry their children on the back next the skin, and suckle 
them until another is born. They do not suspend their ordinary occupa- 
tions for child-birth. Mackenzie's Voy., p. cxxii. ' A temporary interchange 
of wives is not uncommon; and the offer of their persons is considered as 
a necessary part of the hospitality due to strangers.' Id., p. xcvi. Women 
are 'rather the slaves than the companions of the men.' Bell's Geo(j., vol. 
v., p. 293. 


must retire from the village and live for a time apart. 194 
The Chipewyans inhabit huts of brush and portable skin 
tents. They derive their origin from a dog. At one time 
they were so strongly imbued with respect for their ca- 
nine ancestry that they entirely ceased to employ dogs 
in drawing their sledges, greatly to the hardship of the 
women upon whom this laborious task fell. 

Their food consists mostly of fish and reindeer, the 
latter being easily taken in snares. Much of their land 
is barren, but with sufficient vegetation to support nu- 
merous herds of reinder, and fish abound in their lakes 
and streams. Their hunting grounds are held by clans, 
and descend by inheritance from one generation to an- 
other, which has a salutary effect upon the preservation 
of game. Indian law requires the successful hunter to 
share the spoils of the chase with all present. When 
game is abundant, their tent-fires never die, but are sur- 
rounded during all hours of the day and night by young 
and old cooking their food. 195 

Superabundance of food, merchandise, or anything 
which they wish to preserve without the trouble of car- 
rying it about wjih them while on hunting or foraging 
expeditions, is cached, as they term it; from the French, 
cacher. to conceal. Canadian fur-hunters often resorted 
to this artifice, but the practice was common among the 
natives before the advent of Europeans. A sudden ne- 
cessity often arises in Indian countries for the traveler 

194 They are harsh towards their wives, except when enceinte. They are 
accused of abandoning the aged and sick, but only one case came to his 
knowledge. Franklin's Nar., vol. i., pp 250, 251. 

195 Beeatee, prepared from deer only, ' is a kind of haggis, made with the 
blood, a good quantity of fat shred small, some of the tenderest of the flesh, 
together with the heart and lungs cut, or more commonly cut into small shiv- 
ers; all of which is put into the stomach, and roasted.' Hearne's Trav., p. 144. 
'Not remarkable for their activity as hunters, owing to the ease with which 
they snare deer and spear fish.' Mackenzie's Voy., p. cxxiii. The Deer-Horn 
Mountaineers 'repair to the sea in spring and kill seals; as the season ad- 
vances, they hunt deer and musk oxen at some distance from the coast. 
They approach the deer either by crawling, or by leading these animals by 
ranges of turf towards the spot where the archer can conceal himself.' Do 
not use nets, but the hook and line. Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., p. 181. 'Nets 
made of lines of twisted willow-bark, or thin strips of deer-hide.' Richard- 
son's Jour., vol. ii., p. 25. Curdled blood, a favorite dish. Simpson's Nar., 
p. 324. 


to relieve himself from burdens. This is done by dig- 
ging a hole in the earth and depositing the load therein, 
so artfully covering it as to escape detection by the wily 
savages. Goods may be cached in a cave, or in the 
branches of a tree, or in the hollow of a log. The camp- 
fire is frequently built over the spot where stores have 
been deposited, in order that the disturbance of the sur- 
face may not be detected. 

Their weapons 1% and their utensils 197 are of the most 
primitive kind — stone and bone being used in place of 

Their dances, which are always performed in the 
night, are not original, but are borrowed from the South- 
ern and Dog-rib Indians. They consist in raising the 
feet alternately in quick succession, as high as possible 
without moving the body, to the sound of a drum or 
rattle. 198 

They never bury their dead, but leave the bodies 
where they fall, to be devoured by the birds and beasts 
of prey. 199 Their religion consists chiefly in songs and 
speeches to these birds and beasts and to imaginary be- 

196 The weapons of the Chepewyans are bows and arrows; stone and bone 
axes and knives. Harmon's Jour., p. 183. The bows of the Deer-Horns 'are 
formed of three pieces of fir, the centre piece alone bent, the other two lying 
in the same strait line with the bowstring; the pieces are neatly tied together 
with sinew. Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., p. 180. In preparing for an attack, 
each Coppermine Indian paints his shield with figures of Sun, Moon, or 
some animal or imaginary beings, each portraying whatever character he 
most relies upon. Heame's Trav., p. 148. In some parts hunting grounds 
descend by inheritance, and the right of property is rigidly enforced. Simp- 
son's Nar., p. 75. 

197 ' Their cooking utensils are made of pot-stone, and they form very 
neat dishes of fir.' Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., p. 181. Make fishing-lines and 
nets of green deer-thongs. Mackenzie's Voy., p. cxxvi. 

198 'They are great mimics.' HicJiardson's Jour., vol. ii., p. 13. Men dance 
naked; women dressed. A crowd stand in a straight line, and shuffle from 
right to left without moving the feet from the ground. Ilearne's Trav., p. 335. 
'The men occasionally howl in imitation of some animal.' Mackenzie's Voy., 
p. 35 

199 ' They manifest no common respect to the memory of their departed 
friends, by a long period of mourning, cutting off their hair, and never 
making use of the property of the deceased.' Mackenzie's Voy., p. cxxviii. 
The death of leading men is attributed to conjuring. They never bury the 
dead, but leave them, where they die, for wild beasts to devour. Heame's 
Trav., p. 341. The Chepewyans bury their dead. When mourning for rel- 
atives they gash their bodies with knives, liichardsun's Jour., vol. ii., pp. 
21, 22. 


ings, for assistance in performing cures of the sick. 200 
Old age is treated with disrespect and neglect, one half 
of both sexes dying before their time for want of care. 
The Northern Indians are frequently at war with the 
Eskimos and Southern Indians, for whom they at all 
times entertain the most inveterate hatred. The Copper 
Indians, bordering on the southern boundary of the Es- 
kimos at the Coppermine River, were originally the 
occupants of the territory south of Great Slave Lake. 

The Dog-ribs, or Slaves as they are called by neighbor- 
ring nations, are indolent, fond of amusement, but mild 
and hospitable. They are so debased, as savages, that 
the men do the laborious work, while the women employ 
themselves in household affairs and ornamental needle- 
work. Young married men have been known to exhibit 
specimens of their wives' needle-work with pride. From 
their further advancement in civilization, and the tra- 
dition which they hold of having migrated from the 
westward, were it not that their language differs from 
that of contiguous tribes only in accent, they might nat- 
urally be considered of different origin. Bands of Dog- 
ribs meeting after a long absence greet each other with a 
dance, which frequently continues for two or three days. 
First clearing a spot of ground, they take an arrow in 
the right hand and a bow in the left, and turning their 
backs each band to the other, they approach dancing, and 
when close together they feign to perceive each other's 
presence for the first time; the bow and arrow are in- 
stantly transferred from one hand to the other, in token 
of their non-intention to use them against friends. They 
are very improvident, and frequently are driven to can- 
nibalism and suicide. 201 

200 < The Northern Indians seldom attain a great age, though they have few 
diseases.' Martin's Brit. Col., vol. iii., p. 525. For inward complaints, the 
doctors blow zealously into the rectum, or adjacent parts. Hearne's Trav., 
p. 189. The conjurer shuts himself up for days with the patient, without 
food, and sings over him. Franklin's ]\ar., vol. ii., p. 41. Medicine-men or 
conjurers are at the same time doctors. Hooper's Tuski, pp. 317, 318. 'The 
Kutchins practice blood-letting <id libitum.' Jones, Smithsonian Bept., 186G, p. 
325. ' Their principal maladies are rheumatic pains, the flux, and consump- 
tion.' Mackenzie's Voy., p. exxiv. 

201 According to the report of the Dog-ribs, the Mountain Indians are 


The Hare Indians, who speak a dialect of the Tinneh 
scarcely to be distinguished from that of the Dog-ribs, 
are looked upon by their neighbors as great conjurers. 
The Hare and Sheep Indians look upon their women 
as inferior beings. From childhood they are inured to 
every description of drudgery, and though not treated 
with special cruelty, they are placed at the lowest point 
in the scale of humanity. The characteristic stoicism 
of the red race, is not manifested by these tribes. Social- 
ism is practiced to a considerable extent. The hunter is 
allowed only the tongue and ribs of the animal he kills, 
the remainder being divided among the members of the 

The Hares and Dog-ribs do not cut the finger-nails of 
female children until four years of age, in order that 
they may not prove lazy ; the infant is not allowed food 
until four days after birth, in order to accustom it to 
fasting in the next world. 

The Sheep Indians are reported as being cannibals. 
The Red-knives formerly hunted reindeer and musk- 
oxen at the northern end of Great Bear Lake, but they 
were finally driven eastward by the Dog-ribs. Laws 
and government are unknown to the Chepewyans. 202 

The Tacullies, or, as they were denominated by the 
fur-traders, 'Carriers,' are the chief tribe of New Cale- 
donia, or North-western British America. They call 
themselves Tacullies, or 'men who go upon water,' as 
their travels from one village to another are mostly ac- 
complished in canoes. This, with their sobriquet of 

cannibals, casting lots for victims in time of scarcity. Simpson's Nar., p. 
188. ' Instances of suicide, hy hanging, frequently occur among the women.' 
Harmon's Jour.,]). 198. During times of starvation, which occur quite frequent, 
the Slave Indians eat their families. Hooper's Tush i, p. 303. ' These people 
take their names, in the first instance, from their dogs. A young man is the 
father of a certain dog, but when he is married, and has a son, he styles him- 
self the father of the boy. The women have a habit of reproving the dogs 
very tenderly when they observe them fighting. "Are you not ashamed," 
say they, "to quarrel with your little brother?"' Franklin's Nor., vol. ii., 
pp. 85, 86. ' Whether circumcision be practiced among them, I cannot pretend 
to say, but the appearance of it was general among those whom I saw.' Mac- 
kenzie's Voy., p. 36. Dog-rib Indians, sometimes also called Slaves, ' a name 
properly meaning 'strangers.' Gallatin, in Am. Arch. Soc. Trans., vol. ii., p. 19. 
202 ' Order is maintained in the tribe solely by public opinion.' Richard- 
son's Jour., vol. ii., p. 26. The chiefs are now totally without power. Frank- 


1 Carriers/ clearly indicates their ruling habitudes. The 
men are more finely formed than the women, the latter 
being short, thick, and disproportionately large in their 
lower limbs. In their persons they are slovenly; in 
their dispositions, lively and contented. As they are 
able to procure food 203 with but little labor, they are 
naturally indolent, but appear to be able and willing to 
work when occasion requires it. Their relations with 
white people have been for the most part amicable ; they 
are seldom quarrelsome, though not lacking bravery. 
The people are called after the name of the village in 
which they dwell. Their primitive costume consists of 
hare, musk-rat, badger, and beaver skins, sometimes cut 
into strips an inch broad, and woven or interlaced. The 
nose is perforated by both sexes, the men suspending 
therefrom a brass, copper, or shell ornament, the women 
a wooden one, tipped with a bead at either end. 204 Their 
avarice lies in the direction of hiaqua shells, which find 
their way up from the sea-coast through other tribes. 
In 1810, these beads were the circulating medium of the 
country, and twenty of them would buy a good beaver- 
skin. Their paint is made of vermilion obtained from 
the traders, or of a pulverized red stone mixed with 
grease. They are greatly addicted to gambling, and do 
not appear at all dejected by ill fortune, spending days 
and nights in the winter season at their games, frequently 
gambling away every rag of clothing and every trinket 
in their possession. They also stake parts of a garment 
or other article, and if losers, cut off a piece of coat- 
sleeve or a foot of gun-barrel. Native cooking vessels 

Un's Nar., vol. i., p. 247. 'They are influenced, more or less, by certain 
principles which conduce to their general benefit.' Mackenzie's Voy., p. cxxv. 

203 ' Many consider a broth, made by means of the dung of the cariboo 
and the hare, to be a dainty dish.' Hdrmon*s Jour., p. 324. They ' are lazy, 
dirty, and sensual,' and extremely uncivilized. 'Their habits and persons 
are equally disgusting.' Domenech's Deserts, vol. ii., p. G2. 'They are a tall, 
well formed, good-looking race.' Nicolay's Ogn. Ter., p. 154. 'An utter con- 
tempt of cleanliness prevailed on all hands, and it was revolting to witness 
their voracious endeavors to surpass each other in the gluttonous contest.' 
lnd. Life, p. 15G. 

204 r il ie women ' run a wooden pin through their noses.' Harmon's Jour., 
p. 287. At their burial ceremonies they smear the face 'with a composition 


are made of bark, or of the roots or fibres of trees, woven 
so as to hold water, in which are placed heated stones 
for the purpose of cooking food. 205 Polygamy is prac- 
ticed, but not generally. The Tacullies are fond of their 
wives, performing the most of the household drudgery 
in order to relieve them, and consequently they are very 
jealous of them. But to their unmarried daughters, 
strange as it may seem, they allow every liberty without 
censure or shame. The reason which they give for this 
strange custom is, that the purity of their wives is there- 
by better preserved. 200 

During a portion of every year the Tacullies dwell in 
villages, conveniently situated for catching and drying 
salmon. In April they visit the lakes and take small 
fish; and after these fail, they return to their villages 
and subsist upon the fish they have dried, and upon 
herbs and berries. From August to October, salmon are 
plentiful again. Beaver are caught in nets made from 
strips of cariboo-skins, and also in cypress and steel 
traps. They are also sometimes shot with guns or with 
bows and arrows. Smaller game they take in various 
kinds of traps. 

The civil polity of the Tacullies is of a very primitive 
character. Any person may become a miuty or chief 
who will occasionally provide a village feast, A malefac- 
tor may find protection from the avenger in the dwell- 
ing of a chief, so long as he is permitted to remain there, 
or even afterwards if he has upon his back any one of the 
chief s garments. Disputes are usually adjusted by some 
old man of the tribe. The boundaries of the territories 
belonging to the different villages are designated by 

of fish-oil and charcoal.' When conjuring, the chief and his companions 
'wore a kind of coronet formed of the inverted claws of the grizzly bear.' 
lad. Life, pp. 127, 158. 

205 The Tacullies have ' wooden dishes, and other vessels of the rind of 
the birch and pine trees.' 'Have also other vessels made of small roots or 
fibres of the cedar or pine tree, closely laced together, which serve them as 
buckets to put water in.' Harmon's Jour., p. 292. 

20t; ' i n the summer season both sexes bathe often; and this is the only 
time, when the married people wash themselves. ' The Tacullies are very fond 
and very jealous of their wives, 'but to their daughters, they allow every lib- 


mountains, rivers, or other natural objects, and the 
rights of towns, as well as of individuals, are most gen- 
erally respected; but broils are constantly being occa- 
sioned by murders, abduction of women, and other 
causes, between these separate societies. 207 

When seriously ill, the Carriers deem it an indis- 
pensable condition to their recovery that every secret 
crime should be confessed to the magician. Murder, of 
any but a member of the same village, is not consid- 
ered a heinous offense. They at first believed read- 
ing and writing to be the exercise of magic art. The 
Carriers know little of medicinal herbs. Their priest or 
magician is also the doctor, but before commencing his 
operations in the sick room, he must receive a fee, which, 
if his efforts prove unsuccessful, he is obliged to restore. 
The curative process consists in singing a melancholy 
strain over the invalid, in which all around join. This 
mitigates pain, and often restores health. Their winter 
tenements are frequently made by opening a spot of 
earth to the depth of two feet, across w T hich a ridge-pole 
is placed, supported at either end by posts; poles are 
then laid from the sides of the excavation to the ridge- 
pole and covered with hay. A hole is left in the top for 
purposes of entrance and exit, and also in order to allow 
the escape of smoke. 208 

Slavery is common with them ; all who can afford it 
keeping slaves. They use them as beasts of burden, and 

erty, for the purpose, as they say, of keeping the young men from intercourse 
with the married women.' Harmon's Jour., pp. 289, ^92, 293. A father, whose 
daughter had dishonored him, killed her and himself, hid. Life, 184. 

207 ' The people of every village have a certain extent of country, which 
they consider their own, and in which they may hunt and fish; but they may 
not transcend these bounds, without purchasing the privilege of those who 
claim the land. Mountains and rivers serve them as boundaries.' Harmon's 
Jour., p. 298. 

208 Mackenzie, Voy., p. 23S, found on Fraser Kiver, about latitude 55 J , a 
deserted house, 30 by 20, with three doors, 3 by 3% feet; three fire-places, 
and beds on either side; behind the beds was a narrow space, like a manger, 
somewhat elevated, for keeping fish. ' Their houses are well formed of logs 
of small trees, buttressed up internally, frequently above seventy feet long 
and fifteen high, but, unlike those of the coast, the roof is of bark: their 
winter habitations are smaller, and often covered over with grass and earth; 
some even dwell in excavations of the ground, which have only an aper- 
ture at the top, and serves alike for door and chimney.' Nkolay's Oyn. r ler., 
p. 154. 


treat them most inhumanly. The country of the Sican- 
nis in the Rocky Mountains is sterile, yielding the occu- 
pants a scanty supply of food and clothing. They are 
nevertheless devotedly attached to their bleak land, and 
will fight for their rude homes with the most patriotic 

The Nehannes usually pass the summer in the vicin- 
ity of the sea-coast, and scour the interior during the 
winter for furs, which they obtain from inland tribes 
by barter or plunder, and dispose of to the European 
traders. It is not a little remarkable that this war- 
like and turbulent horde was at one time governed by a 
woman. Fame gives her a fair complexion, with regular 
features, and great intelligence. Her influence over her 
fiery people, it is said, was perfect; while her warriors, the 
terror and scourge of the surrounding country, quailed 
before her eye. Her word was law, and was obeyed with 
marvelous alacrity. Through her influence the condi- 
tion of the women of her tribe was greatly raised. 

Great ceremonies, cruelty, and superstition attend 
burning the dead, which custom obtains throughout this 
region, 209 and, as usual in savagism, woman is the suf- 
ferer. When the father of a household dies, the entire 
family, or, if a chief, the tribe, are summoned to present 
themselves. 210 Time must be given to those most distant 
to reach the village before the ceremony begins. 211 The 
Talkotin wife, when all is ready, is compelled to ascend the 
funeral pile, throw herself upon her husband's body and 
there remain until nearly suffocated, when she is permitted 
to descend. Still she must keep her place near the burn- 
ing corpse, keep it in a proper position, tend the fire, and 

209 ' Quelques peuplades du norcl, telles que les Sikanis, enterrent leurs 
morts.' Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., p. 339. 'The Sicaunies bury, while the Ta- 
cullies, burn their dead.' Harmon's Jour., p. 196. They ' and the Chimmesy- 
ans on the coast, and other tribes speaking their language, burn the dead.' 
Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 236. See also Dunn's Oregon, pp. 79, 80; lnd. Life, 
pp. 128, 136; Domemch's Deserts, vol. ii., pp. 362, 363. 

210 They fire guns as a warning to their friends not to invade their sorrow. 
Mackenzie's Voy., p. 139. 

211 'In the winter season, the Carriers often keep their dead in their huts 
during five or six months, before they will allow them to be burned. ' Har- 
mon's Jour., p. 249. 


if through pain or faintness she fails in the performance 
of her duties, she is held up and pressed forward by 
others; her cries meanwhile are drowned in wild songs, 
accompanied by the beating of drums. 212 

When the funeral pile of a Tacully is fired, the wives 
of the deceased, if there are more than one, are placed 
at the head and foot of the body. Their duty there is 
to publicly demonstrate their affection for the departed ; 
which they do by resting their head upon the dead bosom, 
by striking in frenzied love the body, nursing and bat- 
tling the fire meanwhile. And there they remain until 
the hair is burned from their head, until, suffocated and 
almost senseless, they stagger off to a little distance ; then 
recovering, attack the corpse with new vigor, striking it 
first with one hand and then with the other, until the 
form of the beloved is reduced to ashes. Finally these 
ashes are gathered up, placed in sacks, and distributed 
one sack to each wife, whose duty it is to carry upon her 
person the remains of the departed for the space of two 
3'ears. During this period of mourning the women are 
clothed in rags, kept in a kind of slavery, and not al- 
lowed to marry. ^lot unfrequently these poor creatures 
avoid their term of servitude by suicide. At the expir- 
ation of the time, a feast is given them, and they are 
again free. Structures are erected as repositories for the 
ashes of their dead, 213 in which the bag or box contain- 
ing the remains is placed. These grave-houses are of 
split boards about one inch in thickness, six feet high, 
and decorated with painted representations of various 
heavenly and earthly objects. 

The Indians of the Rocky Mountains burn with the 
deceased all his effects, and even those of his nearest 
relatives, so that it not unfrequently happens that a 
family is reduced to absolute starvation in the dead of 

212 ' She must frequently put her hands through the flames and lay them 
upon his bosom, to show her continued devotion.' Parker's Fxplor. Tour, p. 
239. They have a custom of mourning over the grave of the dead; their 
expressions of grief are generally exceedingly vociferous. Jnd. Life, pp. 
185, 186. 

213 ' On the end of a pole stuck in front of the lodge.' Lord*s Nat , vol. ii., 
p. 237. 


winter, when it is impossible to procure food. The mo- 
tive assigned to this custom is, that there may be nothing 
left to bring the dead to remembrance. 

A singular custom prevails among the Nateotetain 
women, which is to cut off one joint of a finger upon 
the death of a near relative. In consequence of this 
practice some old women may be seen with two joints 
off every finger on both hands. The men bear their 
sorrows more stoically, being content in such cases with 
shaving the head and cuttinc; their flesh with flints. 214 

The Kutchins are the flower of the Tinneh family. 
They are very numerous, numbering about twenty-two 
tribes. They are a more noble and manly people than 
either the Eskimos upon the north or the contiguous 
Tinneh tribes upon their own southern boundary. The 
finest specimens dwell on the Yukon River. The women 
tattoo the chin with a black pigment, and the men draw 
a black stripe down the forehead and nose, frequently 
crossing the forehead and cheeks with red lines, and 
streaking the chin alternately with red and black. Their 
features are more regular than those of their neighbors, 
more expressive of boldness, frankness, and candor ; their 
foreheads higher, and their complexions lighter. The 
Tenan Kutchin of the Tananah River, one of the largest 
tribes of the Yukon Valley, are somewhat wilder and 
more ferocious in their appearance. The boys are pre- 
cocious, and the girls marry at fifteen. 215 The Kutchins 
of Peel River, as observed by Mr Isbister, " are an ath- 
letic and fine-looking race; considerable above the av- 

214 Women cut off a joint of one of their fingers. Men only cut off their 
hair close to their heads, but also frequently cut and scratch their faces and 
arms. Harmon's J oar., p. 18 1. With some sharp instrument they 'force back 
the flesh beyond the first joint, which they immediately amputate.' Macken- 
zie's Voy., p. 148. 

215 ' The men are completely destitute of beard, and both men and women, 
are intensely ugly.' Jones, in Smithsonian Jiept., 18G6, p. 320. 'They re- 
minded me of the ideal North American Indian I had read of but never 
seen.' Whymper's Alaska, p. 239. Distinguished from all other tribes for 
the frankness and candor of their demeanor, and bold countenances. Simp- 
son's Nar., p. 100. ' Males are of the average hight of Europeans, and well- 
formed, with regular features, high foreheads, and lighter complexions than 
those of the other red Indians. The women resemble the men.' Richardson's 
Jour., vol. i., p. 379. 


erage statute, most of them being upwards of six feet in 
height and remarkably well proportioned." 

Their clothing is made from the skins of reindeer, 
dressed with the hair on ; their coat cut after the fashion 
of the Eskimos, with skirts peaked before and behind, 
and elaborately trimmed with beads and dyed porcupine- 
quills. The Kutchins, in common with the Eskimos, 
are distinguished by a similarity in the costume of the 
sexes. Men and women wear the same description of 
breeches. Some of the men have a long flap attached to 
their deer-skin shirts, shaped like a beaver s tail, and 
reaching nearly to the ground. 216 Of the coat, Mr 
Whymper says: " If the reader will imagine a man 
dressed in two swallow-tailed coats, one of them worn 
as usual, the other covering his stomach and buttoned 
behind, he will get some idea of this garment." Across 
the shoulders and breast they wear a broad band of 
beads, with narrower bands round the forehead and 
ankles, and along the seams of their leggins. They are 
great traders; beads are their wealth, used in the place 
of money, and the rich among them literally load them- 
selves with necklaces and strings of various patterns. 217 
The nose and ears r are adorned with shells. 218 The hair 
is worn in a long cue, ornamented with feathers, and 
bound with strings of beads and shells at the head, with 
flowing ends, and so saturated with grease and birds' 
down as to swell it sometimes to the thickness of the 
neck. They pay considerable attention to personal clean- 

216 « Tunic or shirt reaching to the knees, and very much ornamented with 
beads, and Hyaqua shells from the Columbia.' Kirby, in Smithsonian Bept., 
1864, p. 418. The Tenan Kutchins are ' gay with painted faces, feathers in 
their long hair, patches of red clay at the back of their head.' Whymper's 
Alaska, p. 239. Jackets like the Eskimos. Richardson' s Jour., vol. i., p. 221. 
'Both sexes wear breeches.' Simpson's Nar., p. 103. 

217 'The Kutch-a-Kutchin, are essentially traders.' Kirby, in Smithsonian 
Bept., 1864, p. 418. Appear to care more for useful than ornamental articles. 

Whymper's Alaska, p. 213. ' Dentalium and arenicola shells are transmitted 
from the west coast in traffic, and are greatly valued.' Bichardson's Jour., 
vol. i., p. 31)1. 

218 Some wear 'wampum (a kind of long, hollow shell) through the sep- 
tum of the nose.' Hooper's Juski, p. 270. They pierce the nose and insert 
shells, which are obtained from the Eskimos at a high price. Franklin's Nar., 
vol. ii., p. 84. 


liness. The Kutchins construct both permanent under- 
ground dwellings and the temporary summer-hut or 
tent, 219 

On the Yukon, the greatest scarcity of food is in the 
spring. The winter's stores are exhausted, and the bright 
rays of the sun upon the melting snow almost blind the 
eyes of the deer-hunter. The most plentiful supply of 
game is in August, September, and October, after which 
the forming of ice on the rivers prevents fishing until 
December, when the winter traps are set. The reindeer 
are in good condition in August, and geese are plentiful. 
Salmon ascend the river in June, and are taken in great 
quantities until about the first of September; fish are 
dried or smoked without salt, for winter use. Fur- 
himting begins in October; and in December, trade 
opens with the Eskimos, with whom furs are exchanged 
for oil and seal-skins. 

The Kutchin of the Yukon are unacquainted with 
nets, but catch their fish by means of weirs or stakes 
planted across rivers and narrow lakes, having openings 
for wicker baskets, by which they intercept the fish. 
They hunt reindeer in the mountains and take moose- 
deer in snares. 220 

Both Kutchins and Eskimos are very jealous regard- 
ing their boundaries; but the incessant warfare which is 
maintained between the littoral and interior people of the 

219 The Loucheux live in huts ' formed of green branches. In winter their 
dwellings are partly under ground. The spoils of the moose and reindeer 
furnish them with meat, clothing, and tents.' Simpson's Nar., pp. 103, 191. 
The Co-Yukon winter dwellings are made under ground, and roofed over with 
earth, having a hole for the smoke to escape by, in the same manner as those 
of the Malemutes and Ingaliks. Whymper's Alaska, pp. 175, 205. Their mov- 
able huts are constructed of deer-skin, ' dressed with the hair on, and sewed 
together, forming two large rolls, which are stretched over a frame of bent 
poles,' with a side door and smoke-hole at the top. Jones, in Smithsonian 
Rept., 1866, 321. 

220 The Loucheux are ' great gormandizers, and will devour solid fat, or 
even drink grease, to surfeiting.' Hooper's Tuski, p. 271. 'The bears are not 
often eaten in summer, as their flesh is not good at that time.' Jones, in Smith- 
sonian Rept., 1H66, p. 321. Some of their reindeer-pounds are over one hun- 
dred years old and are hereditary in the family. Richardson's Jour., vol. i., p. 
394. ' The mode of fishing through the ice practiced by the Russians is 
much in vogue with them.' Whymper's Alaska, p. 211. 

Vol. I. 9 


traducida literalmentc la palabra, significa nada-quieto, cuya idea pudiera- 
mos expresar dicicndo pcrcgrino 6 errante.' Pimcntel, Cuadro, torn, i., p. 
118; Ntixcra, Discrtacion, p. 4. 'Son etymologie mexicaine, Otomitl, sig- 
nifie la Heche d'Oton.' Brasscur de Bourbourg, Hist. Nat. Civ., torn, i., 
p. 158. 

PlPlLES; — A reduplication of pilli, which has two meanings, 'noble' and 
'child,' the latter being generally regarded as its meaning in the tribal 
name. Buschmann, Ortsnamen, pp. 137-8. So called because they spoke 
the Mexican language with a childish pronunciation. Juarros' Hist. Guat., 
p. 224. 

Pokomams; — 'Pokom, dont la racine poh designe une sorte de tuf blanc 
et sablonneux .... La termination om est un participe present. De Pokom 
vient le nom de Pokomam et de Pokomchi, qui fut donne a ces tribus de la 
quality du sol oil ils batirent leur ville.' Brasseur de Bourbourg, Hist. Nat. 
Civ., torn, ii., p. 122. 

QUICHES; — 'La palabra quiche, kichC, 6 quitze, significa muchos drboles.'' 
Pimcntel, Cuadro, torn, ii., p. 124. 'De qui beaucoup, plusieurs, et de die, 
arbre; ou de queche, quechelah, qechelah, la foret.' Ximencz, in Brasseur 
de Bourbourg, Popol Vuh, p. cclxv. 

Tarascos; — ' Tarasco viene de tarhascue, que en la lengua de Michoacan 
significa suegro, 6 yerno segun dice el P. Lagunas en su Gramatica.' Pimen- 
tel, Cuadro, torn, i., p. 273. ' Taras en la lengua mexicana se dice Mixcoatl, 
que era el dios de los Chichimccas.'' Sahagun, Hist. Gen., torn, iii., lib. x., p. 
138. 'A quienes dieron el nombre de tarascos, por el sonido que les hacian 
las partes genitales en los muslos al andar.' Veytia, Hist. Ant. Mej., torn, 
ii., p. 105; Brasseur de Bourbourg, Hist, des Nat. Civ., torn, iii., p. 57. 

TepanecS; — Tcpan, 'stony place,' from tctl, or tecpan, 'royal palace.' 
Buschmann, Ortsnamen, p. 92. 'Tecpantlan signifie aupres des palais.' 
Brasscur de Bourbourg, Popol Vuh, p. ex. ' Cailloux roules sur la roche, 
te-pa-ne-ca, litt^ralement ce qui est mele ensemble sur la pierre; ou bien te- 
pan-e-ca, e'est-a-dire avec des petites pierres sur la roche ou le solide, e, pour 
etl, le haricot, frijol, etant pris sou vent dans le sens d'une petite pierre sur 
une surface, etc' Id., Quatre Lettres, p. 408. 

Tlahuicas; — From tlahuitl, 'cinnabar,' from this mineral being plenti- 
ful in their country. Buschmann, Ortsnamen, p. 93. Tlahuilli, 'poudres 
brillantes.' Brasscur de Bourbourg, Quatre Lettres, p. 422. 'Tlauia, alum- 
brar a otros con candela o hacha.' Molina, Vocabidario. 

Tlapanecs; — 'Y llamanlos tambien tlapanecas que quiere decir hom- 
bres almagrados, porque se embijaban con color.' Sahagun, Hist. Gen., torn. 
iii., lib. x., p. 135. From tlalpantli, 'ground;' may also come from tlalli, 
'land.' Buschmann, Ortsnamen, p. 162. Tlapallan, 'terre coloree.' Bras- 
scur de Bourbourg, Popol Vuh, p. lxiii. Tla, ' feu. ' Id. , Quatre Lettres, p. 416. 
' Tlapani, quebrarse algo, o el tintorero que tine panos.' Molina, Vocabida- 
rio. Probably a synonym of Yoppi, q. v. Orozco y Bcrra, Gcografia, pp. 

Tlascaltecs;— ' Tlaxcalli, tortillas de mayz, o pan generalmente.' Moli- 
na, Vocabulario. Tlaxcalli, 'place of bread or tortillas,' the past participle 
of ixca, 'to bake or broil.' Buschmann, Ortsnamen, p. 93. 


ToltecS; — ' Tollecayotl, maestria de arte mecanica. Toltccatl, official 
de arte mecanica. Toltecauia, fabricar o hazer algo el maestro.' Molina, 
Vocabulario. 'Los tultecas todos se nombraban chichimecas, y no teni- 
an otro nombre particular sino este que tomaron de la curiosidad, y primor 
de las obras que hacian, que se llamaron obras tultecas 6 sea como si dige- 
semos, oficiales pulidos y curiosos como ahora los de Flandes, y con razon, 
porque eran sutiles y primorosos en cuanto ellos ponian la mano, que todo 
eramuybueno.' Sahagun, Hist. Gen., torn', iii., lib. x., p. 107. Toltecs, 'peo- 
ple of Tollan.' Tollan, 'place of willows or reeds,' from tolin, 'willow, reed.' 
Buschmann, Ortsnamen, p. 76. ' Toltccatl etait le titre qu'on donnait a un 
artiste habile.' Brasseur de Bourbourg, Hist. Nat. Civ., torn, i., p. 194. 

Tollan: 'Elle est frappante par l'identite qu'elle ' presente avec le nom 

de Metztli ou le Croissant. En effet, ce qu'elle exprime, d'ordinaire, c'est 
l'idee d'un "pays recourbe" ou incline. Sa premiere syllabe tol, primitif 
de toloa, "abaxar, inclinar lacabeca," dit Molina, "entortar, encorvar," dit- 
il ailleurs, signifie done baisser, incliner la tete, se tortuer, courber, ce qui, 
avec la particule locale Ian pour tlan ou tan, la terre, l'endroit, announce 
une terre ou un pays recourbe^ sens exact du mot tollan. Du meme verbe 
vient tollin, le jonc, le roseau, dont la tete s'incline au moindre vent; de la, 
le sens de Jonquiere, de limne, que peut prendre tollan, dont le hieroglyphe 
represente precisement le son et la chose, et qui parait exprimer doublement 
l'idee de cette terre fameuse de la Courbe ou du Croissant, basse et mareca- 

geuse en beaucoup d'endroits suivant la tradition Dans sa (the word toloa) 

signification active, Molina le traduit par "tragar," avaler, engloutir, ce 
qui donne alors pour tollan, le sens de terre engloutie, abimee, qui, comme 
vous le voyez, convient on ne peut mieux dans le cas present. Mais si tol- 
lan est la terre engloutie, si c'est en meme temps le pays de la Courbe, 
Metztli ou le Croissant, ces deux noma, remarqucz-lc, peuvent s'appliquer 
aussi bien au lieu oil il a 6te englouti, a l'eau qui se courbait le long des ri- 
vages du Croissant, soit a l'interieur des grandes golfes du nord et du midi, 
soit au rivage convexe, tourne comme le genou de la jambe, vers l'Orient. 
C'est ainsi qu'on retrouve l'identification continuclle de l'idee male avec 
l'idee femelle, du contenu et du contenant, de tollan, le pays englouti, avec 
tollan, l'ocean engloutisseur, de l'eau qui est contenue et des continents qui 
l'enserrent dans leurs limites. Ajoutons, pour completer cette analyse, que 
tol, clans la langue quichee, est un verbe, dont tolan est le jmsse, et qu'ainsi 
que tulan il signifie l'abandon, la nudite, etc. De tol, faites tor, dans la me- 
me langue, et vous aurez avec toran, ce qui est tourne ou retourne, comme en 
mexicain, de meme que dans turan (touran) vous trouverez ce qui a ete ren- 
verse, bouleverse de fond en comblc, noye sous les eaux, etc. Dans la lan- 
gue maya, tul signifie remplir, combler, et an, comme en quiche, est le passe* 
du verbe: mais si a tul on ajoute ha ou a, l'eau, nous avons Tulha ou Tula, 
rempli, submerge d'eau. En derniere analyse, tol ou tul parait avoir pour 
l'origine ol, ul, couler, venir, suivant le quiche encore; primitif dColli, ou 
bien d'ulli, en langue nahuatl, la gomme elastique liquide, la boule noire du 
jcu de paume, qui devient le hidroglyphe de l'eau, remplissant les deux 
golfes. Le prefixe t pour ti serait une preposition; faisant to, il signifie 
l'orbite de l'ceil, en quiche, image de l'abime que la boule noire remplit com- 


grease and tied, the head is powdered with finely cut 
swan's down, which adheres to the greasy hair. The 
women wear few ornaments, perform more than the or- 
dinary amount of drudgery, and are treated more like 
dogs than human beings. Chastity is scarcely known 
among them. The Kutcha Kutchin, 'people of the low- 
land,' are cleaner and better mannered. 

The Kutchins have a singular system of totems. The 
whole nation is divided into three castes, called re- 
spectively Chitcheah, Tengratsey, and Natsahi, each occu- 
pying a distinct territory. Two persons of the same 
caste are not allowed to marry; but a man of one caste 
must marry a woman of another. The mother gives 
caste to the children, so that as the fathers die off the 
caste of the country constantly changes. This system 
operates strongly against war between tribes ; as in war, 
it is caste against caste, and not tribe against tribe. As 
the father is never of the same caste as the son, who re- 
ceives caste from his mother, there can never be inter- 
tribal war without ranging fathers and sons against each 
other. AVhen a child is named, the father drops his 
former name and substitutes that of the child, so that 
the father receives his name from the child, and not the 
child from the father. 

They have scarcely any government; their chiefs are 
elected on account of wealth or ability, and their au- 
thority is very limited. 226 Their custom is to burn the 
dead, and enclose the ashes in a box placed upon posts; 
some tribes enclose the body in an elevated box without 
burning. 227 

The Kenai are a fine, manly race, in which Baer dis- 
tinguishes characteristics decidedly American, and clearly 

226 ' Irrespective of tribe, they are divided into three classes, termed re- 
spectively, Chit-sa, Nate-sa, and Tanges-at-sa, faintly representing the aris- 
tocracy, the middle classes, and the poorer orders of civilized nations, the 
former being the most wealthy and the latter the poorest. ' Kirby, in Smith- 
sonian Iiept., 1864, p. 418. 

227 On Peel River ' they bury their dead on stages.' On the Yukon they 
burn and suspend the ashes in bags from the top of a painted pole. Kirby, in 
Smithsonian Uept., 1864, p. 419. They of the Yukon ' do not inter the dead, 
but put them in oblong boxes, raised on posts.' llliymper's Alaska, pp. 
207, 211. 


distinct from the Asiatic Eskimos. One of the most pow- 
erful Kenai tribes is the Unakatanas, who dwell upon the 
Koyukuk River, and plant their villages along the banks 
of the lower Yukon for a distance of one hundred and 
fifty miles. They are bold and ferocious, dominative 
even to the giving of fashion in dress. 

That part of the Yukon which runs through their ter- 
ritory abounds with, which during the summer 
frequent the water in order to avoid the mosquitos, and 
as the animals are clumsy swimmers, the Indians easily 
capture them. Their women occupy a very inferior po- 
sition, being obliged to do more drudgery and embellish 
their dress with fewer ornaments than those of the upper 
tribes. The men wear a heavy fringe of beads or shells 
upon their dress, equal sometimes to two hundred mar- 
ten-skins in value. 

At Nuklukahyet, where the Tananah River joins the 
Yukon, is a neutral trading-ground to which all the sur- 
rounding tribes resort in the spring for traffic. Skins 
are their moneyed currency, the beaver- skin being the 
standard ; one ' made ' beaver-skin represents two marten- 

The Ingaliks inhabiting the Yukon near its mouth call 
themselves Kaeyah Khatana. Their dialect is totally 
distinct from the Malemutes, their neighbors on the 
west, but shows an affinity with that of the Unakatanas 
to their east. Tobacco they both smoke and snuff. The 
smoke they swallow; snuff is drawn into the nostrils 
through a wooden tube. They manufacture snuff from 
leaf tobacco by means of a wooden mortar and pestle, 
and carry bone or wooden snuff-boxes. They are de- 
scribed by travelers as a timid, sensitive people, and 
remarkably honest. Ingalik women are delivered kneel- 
ing, and without pain, being seldom detained from their 
household duties for more than an hour. The infant 
is washed, greased, and fed, and is seldom weaned under 
two or three years. The women live longer than the 
men ; some of them reaching sixty, while the men rarely 
attain more than forty-five years. 


The Koltschanes, whose name in the dialect of the 
Kenai signifies ' guest/ and in that of the Atnas of Cop- 
per River, 'stranger,' have been charged with great cru- 
elty, and even cannibalism, but without special founda- 
tion. Wrangell believes the Koltschanes, Atnas, and 
Kolosches to be one people. 

The Kenai, of the Kenaian peninsula, upon recovery 
from dangerous illness, give a feast to those who ex- 
pressed sympathy during the affliction. If a bounteous 
provision is made upon these occasions, a chieftainship 
may be obtained thereby ; and although the power thus 
acquired does not descend to one's heir, he may be con- 
ditionally recognized as chief. Injuries are avenged by 
the nearest relative, but if a murder is committed by a 
member of another clan, all the allied families rise to 
avenge the wrong. When a person dies, the whole com- 
munity assemble and mourn. The nearest kinsman, ar- 
rayed in his best apparel, with blackened face, his nose 
and head decked with eagle's feathers, leads the cere- 
mony. All sit round a fire and howl, while the master 
of the lamentation recounts the notable deeds of the 
departed, amidst the ringing of bells, and violent stamp- 
ings, and contortions of his body. The clothing is then 
distributed to the relatives, the body is burned, the bones 
collected and interred, and at the expiration of a year a 
feast is held to the memory of the deceased, after which 
it is not lawful for a relative to mention his name. 

The lover, if his suit is accepted, must perform a 
year's service for his bride. The wooing is in this wise: 
early some morning he enters the abode of the fair one's 
father, and without speaking a word proceeds to bring 
water, prepare food, and to heat the bath-room. In re- 
ply to the question why he performs these services, he 
answers that he desires the daughter for a wife. At the 
expiration of the year, without further ceremony, he 
takes her home, with a gift; but if she is not well treated 
by her husband, she may return to her father, and take 
with her the dowry. The wealthy may. have several 
wives, but the property of each wife is distinct. They 


are nomadic in their inclinations and traverse the in- 
terior to a considerable distance in pursuit of game. 

The Atnas are a small tribe inhabiting the Atna or 
Copper River. They understand the art of working 
copper, and have commercial relations with surrounding 
tribes. In the spring, before the breaking up of ice upon 
the lakes and rivers, they hunt reindeer, driving them 
into angle-shaped wicker-work corrals, where they are 
killed. In the autumn another general hunt takes place, 
when deer are driven into lakes, and pursued and killed 
in boats. Their food and clothing depend entirely upon 
their success in these forays, as they are* unable to obtain 
fish in sufficient quantities for their sustenance ; and when 
unsuccessful in the chase, whole families die of starva- 
tion. Those who can afford it, keep slaves, buying them 
from the Koltschanes. They burn their dead, then care- 
fully collect the ashes in a new reindeer-skin, enclose the 
skin in a box, and place the box on posts or in a tree. 
Every year they celebrate a feast in commemoration of 
their dead. Baer asserts that the Atnas divide the year 
into fifteen months, which are designated only by their 
numbers ; ten of them belong to autumn and winter, and 
five to spring and summer. 

The Tinneh character, if we may accept the assertions 
of various travelers, visiting different parts under widely 
different circumstances, presents a multitude of phases. 
Thus it is said of the Chipewyans by Mackenzie, that 
they are " sober, timorous, and vagrant, with a selfish 
disposition which has sometimes created suspicions of 
their integrity. They are also of a quarrelous disposi- 
tion, and are continually making complaints which they 
express by a constant repetition of the word edmy 1 'it is 
hard,' in a whiny and plaintive tone of voice. So indo- 
lent that numbers perish every year from famine. Sui- 
cide is not uncommon among them." Hearne asserts 
that they are morose and covetous; that they have no 
gratitude ; are great beggars ; are insolent, if any respect 
is shown them ; that they cheat on all opportunities ; yet 
they are mild, rarely get drunk, and " never proceed to 


violence beyond bad language;" that they steal on every 
opportunity from the whites, but very rarely from each 
other; and although regarding all property, including 
wives, as belonging to the strongest, yet they only wres- 
tle, and rarely murder. Of the same people Sir John 
Franklin says, that they are naturally indolent, selfish, 
and great beggars. " I never saw men," he writes, "who 
either received or bestowed a gift with such bad grace." 
The Dog-ribs are "of a mild, hospitable, but rather in- 
dolent disposition," fond of dancing and singing. Ac- 
cording to the same traveler the Copper Indians are su- 
perior, in personal character, to any other Chipewyans. 
"Their delicate and humane attentions to us," he re- 
marks, "in a period of great distress, are indelibly en- 
graven on our memories." Simpson says that it is a 
general rule among the traders not to believe the first 
story of an Indian. Although sometimes bearing suffering 
with fortitude, the least sickness makes them say, "I am 
going to die," and the improvidence of the Indian char- 
acter is greatly aggravated by the custom of destroying 
all the property of deceased relatives. Sir John Rich- 
ardson accuses the Hare Indians of timidity, standing in 
great fear of the' Eskimos, and being always in want 
of food. They are practical socialists, l great liars,' but 
'strictly honest.' Hospitality is not a virtue with them. 
According to Richardson, neither the Eskimos, Dog-ribs, 
nor Hare Indians, feel the least shame in being detected 
in falsehood, and invariably practice it if they think 
that they can thereby gain any of their petty ends. 
Even in their familiar intercourse with each other, the 
Indians seldom tell the truth in the first instance, and if 
they succeed in exciting admiration or astonishment, 
their invention runs on without check. From the man- 
ner of the speaker, rather than by his words, is his truth 
or falsehood inferred, and often a very long interrogation 
is necessary to elicit the real fact. The comfort, and 
not unfrequently even the lives of parties of the timid 
Hare Indians are sacrificed by this miserable propen- 
sity. The Hare and Dog-rib women are certainly at the 


bottom of the scale of humanity in North America. 
Ross thinks that they are " tolerably honest; not blood- 
thirsty, nor cruel;" " confirmed liars, far from being 

According to Harmon, one of the earliest and most 
observing travelers among them, the Tacullies "are a 
quiet, inoffensive people," and "perhaps the most honest 
on the face of the earth." They "are unusually talka- 
tive," and "take great delight in singing or humming 
or whistling a dull air." "Murder is not considered as 
a crime of great magnitude." He considers the Sican- 
nis the bravest of the Tacully tribes. 

But the Kutchins bear off the palm for honesty. Says 
Whymper : "Finding the loads too great for our dogs, we 
raised an erection of poles, and deposited some bags 
thereon. I may here say, once for all, that our men 
often left goods, consisting of tea, flour, molasses, bacon, 
and all kinds of miscellaneous articles, scattered in this 
way over the country, and that they remained un- 
touched by the Indians, who frequently traveled past 
them." Simpson testifies of the Loucheux that " a 
bloody intent with them lurks not under a smile." 
Murray reports the Kutchins treacherous; Richardson 
did not find them so. Jones declares that "they differ 
entirely from the Tinneh tribes of the Mackenzie, being 
generous, honest, hospitable, proud, high-spirited, and 
quick to revenge an injury." 


Accurately to draw partition lines between primitive nations is impossible. 
Migrating with the seasons, constantly at war, driving and being driven far 
past the limits of hereditary boundaries, extirpating and being extirpated, 
overwhelming, intermingling; like a human sea, swelling and surging in its 
wild struggle with the winds of fate, they come and go, here to-day, yonder 
to-morrow. A traveler passing over the country finds it inhabited by certain 
tribes; another coming after finds all changed. One writer gives certain 
names to certain nations; another changes the name, or gives to the nation 
a totally different locality. An approximation, however, can be made suffi- 
ciently correct for practical purposes; and to arrive at this, I will give at 
the end of each chapter all the authorities at my command; that from the 


statements of all, whether conflicting or otherwise, the truth may be very 
nearly arrived at. All nations, north of the fifty-fifth parallel, as before 
mentioned, I call Hyperboreans. 

To the Eskimos, I give the Arctic sea-board from the Coppermine River 
to Kotzebue Sound. Late travelers make a distinction between the Male- 
mutes and Kaveaks of Norton Sound and the Eskimos. Whymper calls the 
former ' a race of tall and stout people, but in other respect, much resem- 
bling the Esquimaux.' Alaska, p. 159. Sir John Richardson, in his Journal, 
vol. i., p. 341, places them on the ' western coast, by Cook's Sound and Tchu- 
gatz Bay, nearly to Mount St. Elias;' but in his Polar' Regions, p. 299, he 
terminates them at Kotzebue Sound. Early writers give them the widest 
scope. ' Die siidlichsten siud in Amerika, auf der Kiiste Labrador, wo nach 
Charlevoix dieser Volkerstamm den Nahmen Esquimaux bey den in der Nahe 
wohnenden Abenaki f iihrte, mid auch an der benachbarten Ostseite von Neu- 
Fundland, ferner westlich noch miter der Halbinsel Alaska.' Vater, MithrU 
dates, vol. iii., pt. iii., p. 425. Dr Latham, in his Varieties of Man, treats 
the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands as Eskimos, and in Native Races 
of the Russian Empire, p. 289, he gives them ' the whole of the coast of the 
Arctic Ocean, and the coast from Behring Strait to Cook Inlet.' Prichard, 
Researches, vol. v., p. 371, requires more complete evidence before he can 
conclude that the Aleuts are not Eskimos. Being entirely unacquainted 
with the great Kutchin family in the Yukon Valley, he makes the Carriers of 
New Caledonia conterminous with the Eskimos. The boundary lines be- 
tween the Eskimos and the interior Indian tribes ' are generally formed by 
the summit of the watershed between the small rivers which empty into the 
sea and those which fall into the Yukon.' DalVs Alaska, p. 144. Malte-Brun, 
Precis dela Geographie, Vol. v., p. 317, goes to the other extreme. ' Les Esqui- 
maux, ' he declares, ' habitent depuis le golf e Welcome jusqu'au fleuve Macken- 
zie, et probablement jusqu'au detroitde Bering; ils s'etendentau sud jusqu'au 
lac de l'Esclave. ' Ludewig, Aboriginal Languages, p. 69, divides them into ' Es- 
kimo proper, on the shores of Labrador, and the Western Eskimos.' Gallatin 
sweepingly asserts that ' they are the sole native inhabitants of the shores of 
all the seas, bays, inlets, and islands of A,merica, north of the sixtieth de- 
gree of north latitude.' Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact., vol. ii., p. 9. The Western 
Eskimos, says Beechey, ' inhabit the north-west coast of America, from 60° 34' 
N. to 71° 24' N.' Voy., vol. ii., p. 299. 'Along the entire coast of America.' 
Armstrong's JS'ar., p. 191. 

The tribal subdivisions of the Eskimos are as follows : — At Coppermine 
River they are known by the name of Naggeuktoomutes, ' deer-horns.' At the 
eastern outlet of the Mackenzie they are called Kittear. Between the Mac- 
kenzie River and Barter Reef they call themselves Kangmali-Innuin. The 
tribal name at Point Barrow is Xuicangmeun. ' The Nuna-tangme-un inhabit 
the country traversed by the Nunatok, a river which falls into Kotzebue 
Sound.' Richardson's Pol. Reg. p. 300. From Cape Lisburn to Icy Cape the 
tribal appellation is Kitegues. 'Deutsche Kartell zeigen uns noch im Nord- 
west-Ende des russischen Nordamerika's, in dieser so anders gewandten 
Kustenlinie, nordlich vom Kotzebue-Sund: im westlichen Theile des Kusten- 


lancles, das sie West-Georgien nennen, vom Cap Lisburn bis iiber das Eiscap ; 
hinlaufend das Volk der Kiteguen.' Buschmann, Spuren der Aztek. Sprache, 
p. 713. 'The tribes appear to be separated from each other by a neutral 
ground, across which small parties venture in the summer for barter.' The 
Tuski, Tschuktschi, or Tchutski, of the easternmost point of Asia, have also 
been referred to the opposite coast of America for their habitation. The 
Tschuktchi ' occupy the north-western coast of Russian Asia, and the oppo- 
site shores of north-western America.' Ludewig, Ab. Lang., p. 191. 

The Koniagan nation occupies the shores of Bering Sea, from Kotzebue 
Sound to the Island of Kadiak, including a part of the Alaskan Penin- 
sula, and the Koniagan and Chugatschen Islands. The Koniagas proper in- 
habit Kadiak, and the contiguous islands. Buschmann, Spuren der Aztek. 
Sprache, p. 67G. ' The Konaegi are inhabitants of the Isle of Kodiak.' Prich- 
ard's Researches, vol. v., p. 371. ' Die eigentlichen Konjagen oder Bewohner 
der Insel Kadjak.' Holrnberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 4. 'Zu den letztern rechnet 
man die Aleuten von Kadjack, deren Sprache von alien Kiistenbewohnern 
von der Tschugatschen-Bay, bis an die Berings-Strasse und selbst weiter 
noch die herschende ist.' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 58. 'From Iliamna Lake 
to the 159th degree of west longitude.' Ball's Alaska, p. 401. 'La cote qui 
s'etend depuis le golfe Kamischezkaja jusqu'au Nouveau-Cornouaille, est 
habitee par cinq peuplades qui forment autant de grandes divisions territori- 
ales dans les colonies de la Russie Americaine. Leurs noms sont: Koniagi, 
Kenayzi, Tschugatschi, Ugalachmiuti et Koliugi.' Humboldt, Essai Pol., torn. 
i., p. 347. 

The Chugatsches inhabit the islands and shores of Prince William Sound. 
' Die Tchugatschen bewohnen die grossten Inseln der Bai Tschugatsk, wie 
Zukli, Chtagaluk u. a. und ziehen sich an der Sudkiiste der Halbinsel Kenai 
nach Westen bis zur Einfahrt in den Kenaischen Meerbusen.' Holrnberg, 
Ethn. Skiz., p. 4. 'Die Tschugatschen sind Ankommlinge von der Insel 
Kadjack, die wahrend innerer Zwistigkeiten von dort vertrieben, sich zu 
ihren jetzigen Wohnsitzen an den Ufern von Prince William's Sound und 
gegen Westen bis zum Eingange von Cook's Inlet hingewendet haben.' Baer, 
Stat. u. Ethn., p. 116. ' Les Tschugatschi occupent le pays qui s'etend depuis 
l'extremite septentrionale de l'entree de Cook jusqu'a Test de la baie du 
prince Guillaume (golfe Tschugatskaja.)' Humboldt, Essai Pol., torn, i., p. 
348. According to Latham, Native Paces, p. 290, they are the most south- 
ern members of the family. The Tschugazzi 'live between the Ugalyach- 
mutzi and the Kenaizi.' Prichard's Researches, vol. v., p. 371. ' Occupy the 
shores and islands of Chugach Gulf, and the southwest coasts of the penin- 
sula of Kenai.' DalVs Alaska, p. 401. Tschugatschi, ' Prince William Sound, 
and Cook's Inlet.' Ludewig, Ab. Lang., p. 191. Tchugatchih, ' claim as their 
hereditary possessions the coast lying between Bristol Bay and Beering's 
Straits.' Ricliardson s Jour., vol. i., p. 364. 

The Aglegmutes occupy the shores of Bristol Bay from the river Nushagak 
along the western coast of the Alaskan Peninsula, to latitude 56°. 'Die Ag- 
legmjuten, von der Mundung des Flusses Nuschagakh bis zum 57 J oder 56° 
an der Westkiiste der Halbinsel Aljaska; haben also die Ufer der Bristol-Bai 


inne.' Holmberg, Ellin. Skiz., p. 4. Dall calls them Oglemutes, and says 
that they inhabit ' the north coast of Aliaska from the 159th degree of west 
longitude to the head of Bristol Bay, and along the north shore of that Bay 
to Point Etolin.' Alaska, p. 405. Die Agolegmiiten, an den Ausmiindungen 
der Fliisse Nuschagack und Nackneck, ungefiihr 500 an der Zahl.' Baer, Stal. 
u. Ellin., p. 121. 

The Kijataigmutes dwell upon the banks of the river Nushagak and along 
the coast westward to Cape Newenham. ' Die Kijataigmjuten wohnen an 
den Ufern des Flusses Nuschagakh, sowie seines Nebenflusses Iligajakh.' 
Holmberg, Ellin. Skiz., p. 5. Dall says that they call themselves Nushergag- 
mut, and 'inhabit the coast near the mouth of the Nushergak River, and 
westward to Cape Newenham.' Alaska, p. 405. 'Die Kijaten order Kijataig- 
miiten an den Flussen Nuschagack und Ilgajack.' Baer, Slat. u. Ethn., p. 121. 
1 Am Fl. Nuschagak.' Buschmann, Spuren der Aztek. Sprache, p. 7G0. 

The Agulmutes inhabit the coast between the rivers Kuskoquim and Kish- 
unak. ' Die Aguljmjuten haben sowohl den Kiistenstrich als das Innere 
des Landes zwischen den Miindungen des Kuskokwim und des Kishunakh 
inne.' Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 5. ' This tribe extends from near Cape Avi- 
noff nearly to Cape Romanzoff.' DalVs Alaska, p. 406. 'Den Agulmiiten, 
am Flusse Kwichliiwack. ' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 122. 'An der Kwickpak- 
Miind.' Buschmann, Spuren der Aztek. Sprache, p. 719. 

The Kuskoquigmutes occupy the banks of Kuskoquim River and Bay. 
' Die Kuskokwigmjuten bewohnen die Ufer des Flusses Kuskokwim von 
seiner Munching bis zur Ansiedelung Kwygyschpainagnijut in der Nahe der 
Odinotschka Kalmakow.' Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 5. The Kuskwogmuts 
'inhabit both shores of Kuskoquim Bay, and some little distance up that 
river.' DalVs Alaska, p. 405. 'Die Kuskokwimer an dem Flusse Kuskokwim 
und andern kleinen Zufllfissen desselben und an den Ufern der sudlich von 
diesem Flusse gelegenen Seen.' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 122. 'Between the 
rivers Nushagak, Ilgajak, Chulitna, and Kuskokwina, on the sea-shore.' 
Ludgeicig, Ab. Lang., p. 98. 

The Magemutes live between the rivers Kishunak and Kipunaiak. ' Die 
Magmjuten oder Magagmjuten, zwischen den Flussen Kiskunakh und Ki- 
punajakh.' Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 5. 'These inhabit the vicinity of Cape 
Romanzoff and reach nearly to the Yukon-mouth.' DalVs Alaska, p. 407. 
' Magimuten, am Flusse Kyschunack.' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 122. ' Im S des 
Norton Busens.' Buschmann, Spuren der Aztek. Sprache, p. 766. 

The Kwichpagmules, or inhabitants of the large river, dwell upon the Kwich- 
pak River, from the coast range to the Uallik. ' Die Kwichpagmjuten, haben 
ihre Ansiedelungen am Kwickpakh vom Kiistengebirge an bis zum Neben- 
flusse Uallik.' Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 5. ' Kuwichpackmiiten, am Flusse 
Kuwichpack.' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 122. 'Tlagga Silla, or little dogs, 
nearer to the mouth of the Yukon, and probably conterminous with the Es- 
kimo Kwichpak-meut.' Latham'' s Nat. Baces, p. 293. On Whymper's map 
are the Primoski, near the delta of the Yukon. 

The Kw'ichluagmutes dwell upon the banks of the Kwichluak or Crooked 
River, an arm of the Kwichpak. ' Die Kwichljuagmjuten an den Ufern eines 


Miindungsarmes des Kwichpakh, der Kwichljuakh.' Ilolmberg, Ethn. Skiz., 
p. 5. 'Inhabit the Kwikhpak Slough.' DalVs Alaska, p. 407. 

The Pashtoliks dwell upon the river Pashtolik. 'Die Paschtoligmjuten, 
an den Ufern des Pastolflusses.' Ilolmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 6. ' Paschtolig- 
miiten, am Flusse Paschtol.' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 122. Whymper places 
them immediately north of the delta of the Yukon. 

The Chnagmules occupy the coast and islands south of the Unalaklik 
River to Pashtolik Bay. ' Die Tschnagmjuten, an den Ufern der Meerbusen 
Pastoi und Schachtulik zwischen den Fliissen Pastol an Unalaklik.' Holm- 
berg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 6. 'Den Tschnagmiiten, gegen Norden von den Pasch- 
tuligmuten und gegen Westen bis zum Kap Rodney.' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 
122. ' Am. sdl. Norton-Busen.' Buschmann, Spurender Aztek. Sprache, p. 805. 

The Anlygmntes inhabit the shores of Golovnin Bay and the southern 
coast of the Kaviak peninsula. 'Die Anlygmjuten, an den Ufern der Bai 
Golownin nordlich vom Nortonsunde.' Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 6. 'An- 
lygmuten, an der Golownin'schen Bai.' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 122. 'Ndl. 
vom Norton-Sund.' Buschmann, Spuren der Aztek. Sprache, p. 722. 

The Kaviaks inhabit the western portion of the Kaviak peninsula. 'Ad- 
jacent to Port Clarence and Behring Strait.' Whymper's Alaska, p. 167. 
' Between Kotzebue and Norton Sounds.' Ball's Alaska, p. 137. 

The Makmutes inhabit the coast at the mouth of the Unalaklik River, 
and northward along the shores of Norton Sound across the neck of the 
Kaviak Peninsula at Kotzebue Sound. ' Die Maleigmjuten bewohnen die 
Kiiste des Nortonsundes vom Flusse Unalaklik an und gehen durch das In* 
nere des Landes hinauf bis zum Kotzebuesunde.' Ilolmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 
6. ' From Norton Sound and Bay north of Shaktolik, and the neck of the 
Kaviak Peninsula to Selawik Lake.' Ball's Alaska, p. 407. 'Den Malimiiten, 
nahe an den Ufern des Golfes Schaktulack oder Schaktol. ' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., 
p. 122. The Malemutes 'extend from the island of St. Michael to Golovin 
Sound.' Wliymper's Alaska, p. 167. 'Ndl. am Norton-Busen bis zum Kotze- 
bue Sund.' Buschmann, Spuren der Aztek. Sprache, p. 766. 

The Aleuts inhabit the islands of the Aleutian archipelago, and part 
of the peninsula of Alaska and the Island of Kadiak. They are divided into 
the Atkahs, who inhabit the western islands, and the Unalaskans or east- 
ern division. The tribal divisions inhabiting the various islands are as fol- 
lows; namely, on the Alaskan peninsula, three tribes to which the Russians 
have given names — Morshevoskoje, Bjeljkowskoje, and Pawlowskoje; on the 
island of Unga, the Ugnasiks; on the island of Unimak, the Sesaguks; the 
Tigaldas on Tigalda Island; the Avatanaks on Avatanak Island; on the Island 
of Akun, three tribes, which the Russians call Arteljnowskoje, Bjatscheschnoje, 
and Seredkinskoje; the Akutans on the Akutan Island; the Vnalgas on the 
Unalga Island ; the Sidanaks on Spirkin Island ; on the island of Unalashka, 
the llillulluk, the Nguyuk, and seven tribes called by the Russians Ratykin- 
skoje, Pestnjakoic-swoje, Wesselowskoje, Makuschinskoja, Koschiginskoje, Tscher- 
now-skoje, and Kalechinskoje; and on the island of Umnak the Tidiks. La- 
tham, Nat. Races, p. 291, assigns them to the Aleutian Isles. 'Die Una- 
laschkaer oder Fuchs-Aleuten bewohnen die Gruppe der Fuchsinseln, den 


sudwestlichen Theil der Halbinsel Aljaska, und die Inselgruppe Schumaginsk. 
Die Atchaer oder Andrejanowschen Aleuten bewohnen die Andrejanowscheh, 
die Ratten, und die Nahen-Inseln der Aleuten-Kette.' Hulmberg, Ethn. Skiz., 
pp. 7, 8. Inhabit ' the islands between Alyaska and Kamschatka.' Ludewig, 
Ab. Lang., p. 4. 

The Thlinkeets, or Kolosches, occupy the islands and shores between 
Copper River and the river Nass. ' Die eigentlichen Thlinkithen (Bewohner 
des Archipels von den Parallelen des Flusses Nass bis zum St. Elias-berge).' 
Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 4. 'The Kalosh Indians seen at Sitka inhabit the 
coast between the Stekine and Chilcat Rivers.' Whymper's Alaska, p. 100. 
' Kaloches et Kiganis. Cotes et iles de l'Amerique Russe.' Mqfras, Explor., 
tom. ii., p. 335. The 'Koloshians live upon the islands and coast from the 
latitude 50 J 40' to the mouth of the Atna or Copper River.' Ind. Aff. Rept., 
18G9, p. 5G2. 'From about 60° to 45° N. Lat.. reaching therefore across the 
Russian frontier as far as the Columbia River.' Midlers Chips, vol. i., p. 334. 
'At Sitka Bay and Norfolk Sound.' Ludewig, Ab. Lang., p. 96. 'Between 
Jacootat or Behring's Bay, to the 57th degree of north latitude.' Lisiansky's 
Voy., p. 242. 'Die Volker eines grossen Theils der Nordwest-Kiiste vom 
America.' Vater, Mithrldates, vol. iii., pt. iii., p. 218. ' Les Koliugi habitent le 
pays montueux du Nouveau-Norfolk, et la partie septentrionale du Nouveau- 
Cornouaille.' Humboldt, Essai Pol., tom. i., p. 349. 

The Ugalenzes or Ugalukmutes, the northernmost Thlinkeet tribe, inhabit 
the coast from both banks of the mouth of Copper River, nearly to Mount 
St Elias. 'About Mount Elias.' Latham's Nat. Races, p. 292. Adjacent to 
Behring Bay. Prichard's Researches, vol. v., p. 370. 'Die Ugalenzen, die 
im Winter eine Bucht des Festlandes, der kleinen Insel Kajak gegenuber, 
bewohnen, zum Sommer aber ihre Wohnungsplatze an dem rechten Ufer des 
Kupferflusses bei dessen Miindung aufschlagen.' Holmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 
4. 'Das Vorgebirge St. Elias, kann als die Granzscheide der Wohnsitze 
der See-Koloschen gegen Nordwest angesehn werden.' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., 
p. 96. 'Les Ugalachmiuti s'etendent depuis le golfe du Prince Guillaume, 
jusqua la baie de Jakutat.' Humboldt, Essai Pol., tom. i., p. 348. ' Ugalenzen 
oder Ugaljachmjuten. An der russ. Kiiste ndwstl. vom St. Elias Berg. ' Busch- 
mann, Spuren der Aztek. Sprache, p. 807. 'West of Cape St. Elias and near 
the island of Kadjak.' Ludewig, Ab. Lang., p. 194. 

The Yakulats ' occupy the coast from Mount Fairweather to Mount St. 
Elias.' Bail's Alaska, p. 428. At ' Behring Bay.' Ind. Aff. Rept., 1869, p. 575. 

The Chilkat come next, and live on Lynn Canal and the Chilkat River. 
' At Chilkaht Inlet.' 'At the head of Chatham Straits.' Ind. Aff. Rept, 
1869, pp. 535, 575. 'Am Lynn's-Canal, in russ. Nordamerika. Buschmann, 
Spuren der Aztek. Sprache, p. 736. ' On Lynn's Canal.' Schoolcraft's Archives, 
vol. v., p. 489. A little to the northward of the Stakine-Koan. Dunn's Ore- 
gon, p. 288. 

The Hoonids inhabit the eastern banks of Cross Sound. ' For a distance 
of sixty miles. ' ' At Cross Sound reside the Whinegas. ' ' The Hunnas or 
Hooneaks, who are scattered along the main land from Lynn Canal to Cape 
Spencer.' Ind. Aff. Rept., 1869, pp. 535, 562, 575. The Huna Cow tribe 
is situated on Cross Sound. Schoolcraft's Archives, vol. v., p. 489. 


The Hoochinoos 'live near the head of Chatham Strait.' ' On Admiralty 
Island.' 'Eat tribes on Kyro and Kespriano Islands.' Bid. Aff. Rept., 1869, 
pp. 335, 562, 575. ' Hootsinoo at Hoodsinoo or Hood Bay.' Schoolcraft's Arch- 
ives, vol. v., p. 489. 'Hoodsunhoo at Hood Bay.' Gallatin, in Am. Antiq. 
Soc. Transact., vol. ii., p. 302. ' Hoodsunhoo at Hood Bay.' ' Eclikimo in 
Chatham's Strait.' Budewig, Ah. Lang., p. 175. 

The Takoos dwell ' at the head of Takoo Inlet on the Takoo River. 
The Sundowns and Takos who live on the mainland from Port Houghton to 
the Tako River.' Ind. Aff. RepA., 1869, pp. 536, 5G2. Tako and Samdan, Tako 
River. Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 489. 

The Auks Indians are at the mouth of the Takoo River and on Admiralty 
Island. 'North of entrance Tako River.' Schoolcraft's Arch., p. 489. 'The 
Ark and Kake on Prince Frederick's Sound.' Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact., vol. 
ii., p. 302. 

The Kakas inhabit the shores of Frederick Sound and Euprianoff Island. 
' The Kakus, or Kakes, who live on Kuprinoff Island, having their principal 
settlement near the northwestern side.' Ind. Aff. Rept., 1869, p. 562. 'The 
Ark and Kake on Prince Frederick's Sound.' Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact., vol. 
ii., p. 302. 

The Sitkas occupy Baranoff Island. ' They are divided into tribes or 
clans, of which one is called Coquontans.' Buschmann, Pima Sp>r. u. d. Spr. 
der Koloschen, p. 377. 'The tribe of the Wolf are called Coquontans.' Lisi- 
ansky's Voy., p. 242. 'The Sitka-Koan,' or the people of Sitka. 'This in- 
cludes the inhabitants of Sitka Bay, near New Archangel, and the neighbor- 
ing islands. ' Ball's Alaska, p. 412. Simpson calls the people of Sitka ' Sitka- 
guouays.' Overland Jour., vol. i., p. 226. 'The Sitkas or Indians on Baronoff 
Island.' Ind. Aff. Rept., 1869, pp. 535, 562. 

The Stikeen Indians inhabit the country drained by the Stikeen River. 
'Do not penetrate far into the interior.' Ball's Alaska, p. 411. The Stikein 
tribe 'live at the top of Clarence's Straits, which run upwards of a hundred 
miles inland.' Bunn's Oregon, p. 288. 'At Stephens Passage.' 'The Stik- 
eens who live on the Stackine River and the islands near its mouth.' Ind. 
Aff. Rept., 1869, p. 562. 'Stikeen Indians, Stikeen River, Sicknaahutty, 
Taeeteetan, Kaaskquatee, Kookatee, Naaneeaaghee, Talquatee, Kicksatee, 
Kaadgettee.' Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 489. The Secatquonays occupy 
the main land about the mouths of the Stikeen River, and also the neighboring 
islands. Simpson's Overland Journ., vol. i , p. 210. 

The Tuncjass, ' live on Tongas Island, and on the north side of Portland 
Channel.' Ind. Aff. Rept., 1869, p. 562. Southern entrance Clarence Strait. 
Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 489. The Tongarses or Tun Ghaase ' are a 
small tribe, inhabiting the S.E. corner of Prince of Wales's Archipelago.' 
Scouler, in Bond. Geo. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 218. ' Tungass, an der sdlst. russ. 
Kiiste.' Buschmann, Spuren der Aztek. Sprache, p. 806. ' Tunghase Indians 
of the south-eastern part of Prince of Wales's Archipelago.' Budewig, Ab. 
Lang., p. 192. Tongas Indians, lat. 54° 46' N. and long. 130° 35' W. Ball's 
Alaska, p. 251. 

The Tinner- occupy the vast interior north of the fifty-fifth parallel, and 
west from Hudson Bay, approaching the Arctic and Pacific Coasts to within 


from fifty to one hundred and fifty miles: at Prince "William Sound, they 
even touch the seashore. Mackenzie, Voy., p. cxvii., gives boundaries upon 
the basis of which Gallatin, Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact., vol. ii., p. 9, draws a 
line from the Mississippi to within one hundred miles of the Pacific at 52 J 
30', and allots them the northern interior to Eskimos lands. ' Extend across 
the continent.' Richardson's Jour., vol. ii., p. 2. 'Von der nordlichen Hud- 
sonsbai aus fast die ganze Breite des Continents durchlauft — im Norden und 
Nordwesten den 65ten Gradu. beinahe die Gestade des Polarmeers erreicht.' 
Buschmann, Athapask. Sprachst., p. 313. ' The Athabascan area touches Hud- 
son's Bay on the one side, the Pacific on the other.' Latham's Comp. Phil., 
p. 388. ' Occupies the whole of the northern limits of North America, to- 
gether with the Eskimos.' Ludewig, Ab. Lang., p. 14. 

The Chepewyans, or Athabascas proper, Mackenzie, Voy., p. cxvi., places be- 
tween N. latitude 60 J and 65°, and W. longitude 100 J and 110°. ' Between the 
Athabasca and Great Slave Lakes and Churchill River.' Franklin's Nar., vol. 
i., p. 241. ' Frequent the Elk and Slave Rivers, and the country westward to 
Hay River.' Richardson's Jour., vol. ii. p. 5. The Northern Indians occupy 
the territory immediately north of Fort Churchill, on the Western shore of 
Hudson Bay. ' From the fifty-ninth to the sixty-eighth degree of North lat- 
itude, and from East to "West is upward of five hundred miles wide. Lfearne's 
Jour., p. 326; Martin's Brit. Col., vol. iii., p. 524. 

The Copper Indians occupy the territory on both sides of the Coppermine 
River south of the Eskimo lands, which border on the ocean at the mouth of 
the river. They are called by the Athabascas Tantsawhot-Dinneh. Franklin's 
Nar., vol. ii., 76; Gallatin, in Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact., vol. ii., p. 19. 

The Horn Mountain Indians 'inhabit the country betwixt Great Bear Lake 
and the west end of Great Slave Lake.' Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., p. 82. 

The Beaver Indians 'inhabit the lower part of Peace River.' Harmon's 
Jour., p. 309. On Mackenzie's map they are situated between Slave and 
Martin Lakes. ' Between the Peace River and the West branch of the Mac- 
kenzie.' Richardson's Jour., vol. ii., p. 6. Edchawtawhoot-dinneh, Strong- 
bow, Beaver or Thick-wood Indians, who frequent the Riviere aux Liards, or 
south branch of the Mackenzie River. Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., p. 85. 

The Thlingcha-dinneh, or Dog-ribs, ' inhabit the country to the westward 
of the Copper Indians, as far as Mackenzie's River.' Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., 
p. 80. Gallatin, in Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact., vol. ii., p. 19. 'East from Mar- 
tin Lake to the Coppermine River.' Richardson's Jour., vol. ii., p. 3. At Fort 
Confidence, north of Great Bear Lake.' Simpson's Nar., p. 200. 'Between 
Martin's Lake and the Coppermine River.' Ludewig, Ab. Lang., p. 66. 

The Kawcho-dinneh, or Hare Indians, are ' immediately to the northward 
of the Dog-iabs on the north side of Bear Lake River.' Franklin's Nar., vol. 
ii., p. 83. They 'inhabit the banks of the Mackenzie, from Slave Lake 
downwards.' Richardson's Jour., vol. ii., p. 3. Between Bear Lake and 
Fort Good Hope. Simpson's Nar., p. 98. On Mackenzie River, below Great 
Slave Lake, extending towards the Great Bear Lake. Gallatin, in Am. Antiq. 
Soc. Transact., vol. ii., p. 19. 

' To the eastward of the Dog-ribs are the Red-knives, named by their south- 
ern neighbors, the Tantsaut-' dtinne (Birch-rind people). They inhabit a 


stripe of country running northwards from Great Slave Lake, and in breadth 
from the Great Fish River to the Coppermine.' Richardson's Jour., vol.ii. p. 4. 

The Ambawtawhoot Tinneh, or Sheep Indians, ' inhabit the Kocky Mount- 
ains near the sources of the Dawhoot-dinneh Kiver which flows into Mac- 
kenzie's.' Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., p. 84. Further down the Mackenzie, 
near the 65° parallel. Richardson's Jour., vol. ii., p. 7. 

The Sarsis, Circees, dries, Sarsi, Sorsi, Sussees, Sursees, or Surcis, 'live 
near the Rocky Mountains between the sources of the Athabasca and Sas- 
katchewan Rivers; are said to be likewise of the Tinne stock.' Richardson's 
Jour., vol. ii., p. 6. 'Near the sources of one of the branches of the Saska- 
chawan. Gallatin, in Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact., vol. ii., p. 19. 

The Tsillawdawhoot Tinneh, or Brush-wood Indians, inhabit the upper 
branches of the Riviere aux Liards. Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., p. 87. On the 
River aux Liards (Poplar River). Gallatin, in Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact., vol. 
ii., p. 19 

The Nagailer, or Chin Indians, on Mackenzie's map, latitude 52° 30' longi- 
tude 122 J to 125 J , 'inhabit the country about 52 3 30' N. L. to the southward 
of the Takalli, and thence extend south along Fraser's River towards the 
Straits of Fuca.' Prichard's Researches, vol. v.. p. 427. 

The Slouacuss Tinneh on Mackenzie's are next north-west from the Na- 
gailer. Vater places them at 52° 4\ 'Noch naher der Kiiste um den 52° 4' 
wohnten die Slua-cuss-dinais d. i. Rothfisch-Manner.' Vater, Mithridates, vol. 
iii., pt. iii., p. 421. On the upper part of Frazers River Cox's Adven., p. 323. 

The Rocky Mountain Indians are a small tribe situated to the south-west 
of the Sheep Indians. Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., p. 85. 'On the Unjigah or 
Peace River.' Gallatin, in Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact., Vol. ii., p. 19. On the 
upper tributaries of Peace River. Mackenzie's Voy., p, 163. 

The Tacullies, or Carriers, inhabit New Caledonia from latitude 52° 30' to 
latitude 56 J . ' A general name given to the native tribes of New-Caledonia.' 
Morse's Report, p. 371. 'All the natives of the Upper Fraser are called by 
the Hudson Bay Company, and indeed generally, "Porteurs," or Carriers.' 
Mayne's B. C, p. 298. ' Tokalis, Le Nord de la Nouvelle Caledonie.' Mofras, 
Explor., torn, ii., p. 335. 'Northern part of New Caledonia.' Pickering's 
Races, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., p. 33. ' On the sources of Fraser's River.' 
Ludewig, Ah. Lang., p, 178. ' Unter den Volkern des Tinne Stammes, welche 
das Land westlich von den Rocky Mountains bewohnen, nehmen die Ta- 
kuli (Wasservolk) oder Carriers den grossten Theil von Neu-Caledonien 
ein.' Buschmann, Athapask. Sprachst., p. 152. 'Greater part of New Caledo- 
nia. Richardson's Jour., vol. ii., p. 31. 'Latitude of Queen Charlotte's 
Island.' Prichard's Researches, vol. v., p. 427. ' From latitude 52° 30', where 
it borders on the country of the Shoushaps, to latitude 56°, including Simp- 
son's River.' Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 202. ' South of the 
Sicannis and Straits Lake.' Harmon's Jour., p. 196. They 'are divided into 
eleven clans, or minor tribes, whose names are — beginning at the south — as 
follows: the Tautin, or Talkotin; the Tsilkotin or Chilcotin; the Naskotin; 
the Thetliotin; the Tsatsnotin; the Nulaautin; the Ntshaautin; the Natliau- 
tin; the Nikozliautin; the Tatshiautin; and the Babine Indians.' Hale's Eth- 
Vol. I. 10 


nog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 202. ' The principal tribes in the country 
north of the Columbia regions, are the Chilcotins and the Talcotins.' Green- 
how' 's Hist. Ogn.,-p. 30 . The Talcotins ' occupy the territory above Fort Alexan- 
dria on Frazer River.' HazliWs B. C, p. 79. ' Spend much of their time at 
Bellhoula, in the Bentinck Inlet.' Mayne's B. C, p. 299. The Calkobins 'in- 
habit New Caledonia, west of the mountains.' Be SmeVs Letters and Sketches^ 
p. 157. The Nateotetains inhabit the country lying directly west from Stuart 
Lake on either bank of the Nateotetain River. Harmon's Jour., p. 218. The 
Naskootains lie along Frazer River from Frazer Lake. Id., p. 245. 

The Sicannis dwell in the Rocky Mountains between the Beaver Indians 
on the east, and the Tacullies and Atnas on the west and south. Id., p. 190. 
They live east of the Tacullies in the Rocky Mountain. Hale's Ethnog. in 
IT. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 202. ' On the Rocky Mountains near the Rapid 
Indians and West of them.' Morse's Report, p. 371. 

The Kutchins are a large nation, extending from the Mackenzie River 
westward along the Yukon Valley to near the mouth of the river, with the 
Eskimos on one side and the Koltshanes on the other. Buschrnann, Spuren 
der Aztek. Sprache, p. 713, places them on the sixty-fifth parallel of latitude, 
and from 130 J to 150 J of longitude west from Greenwich. ' Das Volk wohnt 
am Flusse Yukon oder Kwichpak und uber ihm; es dehnt sich nach Rich- 
ardson's Karte auf dem 65ten Parallelkreise aus vom 130-150' W. L. v. Gr., 
und gehort daher zur Halfte dem britischen und zur Halfte dem russischeu 
Nordamerika an.' They are located 'immediately to the northward of the 
Hare Indians on both banks of Mackenzie's River.' Franklin's Nar., vol. ii., 
p. 83. Gallatin, Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact., vol. ii., p. 83, places their north- 
ern boundary in latitude G7 3 27'. To the west of the Mackenzie the Lou- 
cheux interpose between the Esquimaux ' and the Tinne, and spread west- 
ward until they come' into the neighborhood of the coast tribes of Beering's 
Sea.' Richardson's Jar., vol. i., p. 377. 'The Kutchin may be said to in- 
habit the territory extending from the Mackenzie, at the mouth of Peel's 
River, lat. 68°, long. 134°, to Norton"s sound, living principally upon the 
banks of the Youcon and Porcupine Rivers, though several of the tribes are 
situated far inland, many days' journey from either river.' Jones, in Smithson- 
ian Rept., 1866, p. 320. ' They commence somewhere about the 65th degree of 
north latitude, and stretch westward from the Mackenzie to Behring's straits.' 
' They are divided into many petty tribes, each having its own chief , as the Tatlit- 
Kutchin (Peel River Indians), Ta-Kuth-Kutchin (Lapiene's House Indians), 
Kutch-a-Kutchin (Youcan Indians), Touchon-ta-Kutchin (Wooded-country 
Indians), and many others.' Kirby, in Smithsonian Rept., 1864, pp. 417, 418. 

The Degothi-Kutchin, or Loucheux, Quarrellers, inhabit the west bank of 
the Mackenzie between the Hare Indians and Eskimos. The Loucheux are 
on the Mackenzie between the Arctic circle and the sea. Simpson's Nar., 
p. 103. 

The Vanta-Kutchin occupy ' the banks of the Porcupine, and the country 
to the north of it.' ' Vanta-kutshi (people of the lakes), I only find that 
they belong to the Porcupine River.' Latham's Nat. Races, p. 294. They 
' inhabit the territory north of the head- waters of the Porcupine, somewhat 
below Lapierre's House.' Ball's Alaska, p. 430. 


The Natche-Kutchin, or Gens de Large, dwell to the ' north of the Porcu- 
pine River. ' ' These extend on the north bank to the mouth of the Porcupine. ' 
Bail's Alaska, pp. 109, 430. 

'Neyetse-Kutshi, (people of the open country), I only find that they be- 
long to the Porcupine river.' Latham's Nat. Races, p. 294. Whymper's map 
calls them Eat Indians. 

' The Na-'tsik-Kut-chin inhabit the high ridge of land between the Yukon 
and the Arctic Sea.' Ilardisty, in DalVs Alaska, p. 197. 

The Kukuth-Kutchin ' occupy the country south of the head-waters of the 
Porcupine.' DalVs Alaska, p. 430. 

The Tutchone Kutchin, Gens de Foux, or crow people, dwell upon both 
sides of the Yukon about Fort Selkirk, above the Han Kutchin. Id., pp. 
109, 429. 

1 Tathzey-Kutshi, or people of the ramparts, the Gens du Fou of the French 
Canadians, are spread from the upper parts of the Peel and Porcupine Rivers, 
within the British territory, to the river of the Mountain-men, in the Russian. 
The upper Yukon is therefore their occupancy. They fall into four bands : 
a, the Tratse-kutshi, or people of the fork of the river; b, the Kutsha-kutshi ; 

the Zeka-thaka (Ziunka-kutshi), people on this side, (or middle people;; 
and, (?., the Tanna-kutshi, or people of the bluffs.' Latham's Ned. Races, p. 293. 

The Han-Kutchin, An-Kutchin Gens de Bois, or wood people, inhabit the 
Yukon above Porcupine River. Whymper's Alaska, p. 254. They are found 
on the Yukon next below the Crows, and above Fort Yukon. DalVs Alaska, 
p. 109. 'Han-Kutchi residing at the sources of the Yukon.' Richardson's 
Jour., vol. i., p. 396. 

'The Artez-Kutshi, or the tough (hard) people. The sixty-second parallel 
cuts through their country; so that they lie between the head- waters of the 
Yukon and the Pacific' Latham's Nat. Races, p. 293. See also Richardson's 
Jour., vol. i., p. 397. 

The Kutcha-Kutchins, or Kot-a-Kutchin, ' are found in the country near 
the junction of the Porcupine and the Yukon.' DalVs Alaska, p. 431. 

The Tenan-Kutchin, orTananahs, Gens de Buttes, or people of the mount- 
ains, occupy an unexplored domain south-west of Fort Yukon. Their country 
is drained by the Tananah River. DalVs Alaska, p. 108. They are placed on 
Whymper's map about twenty miles south of the Yukon, in longitude 151° 
west from Greenwich. On Whymper's map are placed: the Birch Indians, 
or Gens de Bouleau on the south bank of the Yukon at its junction with 
Porcupine River; the Gens de Milieu, on the north bank of the Yukon, in 
longitude 150 ; ; the Nuclukayettes on both banks in longitude 152°; and the 
Newicarguts, on the south bank between longitude 153 J and 155 J . 

The Kewtis occupy the peninsula of Kenai and the surrounding country. 
Ind. Aff. Rept., 1869, p. 562. ' An den Ufern und den Umgebungen von Cook's 
Inlet und um die Seen Iliamna und Kisshick. Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 103. 

The Unakatana Yunakakhotanas, live ' on the Yukon between Koyukuk 
and Xuklukahyet.' DalVs Alaska, p. 53. 

' Junakachotana, ein Stamm, welcher auf dem Flusse Jun-a-ka wohnt.' 
Sagoskin, in Denkschr. der russ. geo. Gesell., p. 324. 'Die Junnakachotana, 
iin Flusse Jukchana oder Junna (so wird der obere Lauf des Kwichpakh 


genannt) zwischen den Nebenfliissen Nulato und Junnaka, so wie am untern 
Laufe des letztgenannten Flusses.' llolmberg, Etlm. Skiz., p. 6. 

' Die Junnachotana bewohnen den obern Lauf des Jukchana oder Junna 
von der Miindung des Junnaka.' Holmberg, Etlm. Skiz., p. G. 

' Die Jugelnuten haben ihre Ansiedelungen am Kwichpakh, am Tschagel- i 
juk und an der Miindung des Innoka. Die Inkalicliljuaten, am obern Laufe 
des Innoka. Die Thljegonchotana am Flusse Tkljegon, der nach der Ver- 
inigung mit dem Tatschegno den Innoka bildet. llolmberg, Ethn. Skiz., pp. 
6, 7. ' They extend virtually from the confluence of the Co-Yukuk River to 
Nuchukayette at the junction of the Tanana with the Yukon.' 'They also 
inhabit the banks of the Co-yukuk and other interior rivers.' Whymper's 
Alaska, p. 204. 

The Ingaliks inhabit the Yukon from Nulato south to below the Anvic 
River. See Whymper's Map. * The tribe extends from the edge of the wooded 
district near the sea to and across the Y'ukon below Kulato, on the Yukon 
and its affluents to the head of the delta, and across the portage to the Kus- 
koquim River and its branches.' Ball's Alaska, p. 28. 'Die Inkiliken, am 
untern Laufe des Junna siidlich von Nulato.' Llolmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 6. 
' An dem ganzen Ittege wohnt der Stamm der Inkiliken, welcher zu dem 
Volk der Ttynai gekort.' Sagosk'm, in JDenkschr. der russ. geo. GeselL, p. 
341. 'An den Fliissen Kwichpack, Kuskokwim und anderen ihnen zu- 
stromenden Fliissen.' Baer, Stat. u. Ethn., p. 120. 'The Ingaliks living on 
the north side of the Y'ukon between it and the Kaiyuh Mountains (known 
as Takaitsky to the Russians), bear the name of Kaiyuhkatana or "lowland 
people," and the other branches of Ingaliks have similar names, while pre- 
serving their general tribal name.' Ball's Alaska, p. 53. On Whymper's map 
they are called T'kitskes and are situated east of the Yukon in latitude 64 J 

The Koltschanes occupy the territory inland between the sources of the 
Kuskoquim and Copper Rivers. 'They extend as far inland as the water- 
shed between the Copper-river and the Yukon.' Latham's Nat. Faces, p. 
292. ' Die Galzanen oder Koltschanen (d. h. Fremdlinge, in der Sprache 
der Athnaer) bewohnen das Iunere des Landes zwischen den Quellniissen 
des Kuskokwim bis zu den nordlichen Zuniissen des Athna oder Kupfer- 
stromes. ' llolmberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 7. 'Diejenigen Stamme, welche die 
nordlichen und ostlichen, dem Atna zustromenden Fliisse und Fliisschen be- 
wohnen, eben so die noch weiter, jenseits der Gebirge lebenden, werden von 
den Atnaern Koltschanen, d. h. Fremdlinge, genannt.' Baer, Slat. u. Ethn., 
p. 101. 'North of the river Atna.' Ludeicig, Ab. Lang., p. 96. 

The Nehannes occupy the territory midway between Mount St. Elias and 
the Mackenzie River, from Fort Selkirk and the Stakine River. ' According 
to Mr. Isbister, range the country between the Russian settlements on the 
Stikine River and the Rocky Mountains.' Latham's Xat. Baces, p. 295. The 
Nohhannies live ' upon the upper branches of the Riviere aux Liards.' Frank- 
lin's Xar., vol. ii., p. 87. They 'inhabit the angle between that branch and 
the great bend of the trunk of the river, and are neighbours of the Beaver 
Indians.' Bicluwdson's Jour., vol. ii. p. 6. The region which includes the 
Lewis, or Tahco, and Pelly Rivers, with the valley of the Chilkaht River, is 


occupied by tribes known to the Hudson Bay voyageurs as Nehannees. 
Those on the Pelly and Macmillan rivers call themselves Affats-tena. Some 
of them near Liard's Kiver call themselves Daho-tena or Acheto-tena, and 
others are called Sicannees by the voyageurs. Those near Erancis Lake 
are known as Mauvais Monde, or Slave Indians. About Fort Selkirk they 
have been called Gens des Foux. 

The Kenai proper, or Kenai-tena, or Thnaina, inhabit the peninsula of 
Kenai, the shores of Cook Inlet, and thence westerly across the Chigmit 
Mountains, nearly to the Kuskoquim Kiver. They 'inhabit the country near 
Cook's Inlet, and both shores of the Inlet as far south as Chugachik Bay.' 
Ball's Alaska, p. 430. 'Die eigentlichen Thnaina bewohnen die Halbinsel 
Kenai und ziehen sichvon da westlich iiber das Tschigmit-Gebirge zum Man- 
taschtano oder Tchalchukh, einem siidlichen Nebenflusse des Kuskokwim.' 
Hohnberg, Ethn. Skiz., p. 7. 'Dieses — an den Ufern und den Umgebungen 
von Cook's Inlet und um die Seen Iliamna und Kisshick lebende Yolkgehort 
zu dem selben Stamme wie die Galzanen oder Koltschanen, Atnaer, und Ko- 
loschen.' Baer, Stat. u. Etlin., p. 103. 'Les Kenayzi habitent la cote occiden- 
tale de l'entree de Cookou du golfe Kenayskaja.' Humboldt, Essai Pol., torn, 
i.. p. 348. ' The Indians of Cook's Inlet and adjacent waters are called " Ka- 
nisky." They are settled along the shore of the inlet and on the east shore 
of the peninsula.' 'East of Cook's Inlet, in Prince William's Sound, there 
are but few Indians, they are called "Nuchusk." ' Ltd. Aff. Bept., 1869, 
p. 575. 

The Atnas occupy the Atna or Copper Biver from near its mouth to near its 
source. 'At the mouth of the Copper Biver.' Latham's Comp. Phil., vol. viii., 
p. 392. ' Die Athnaer, am Athnaoder Kupferflusse.' Holmbery, Ethn. Skiz.,\). 7. 
' On the upper part of the Atna or Copper Biver are a little-known tribe of 
the above name [viz., Ah-tena]. They have been called Atnaer and Kolshina 
by the Bussians, and Yellow Knife or Nehaunee by the English. ' Ball's Alaska, 
p. 429. 'Diese kleine, jetzt ungefiihr aus GO Familien bestehende, Yolker- 
schaft wohnt an den Ufern des Flusses Atna und nennt sich Atnaer. ' Baer, 
Stat. u. Ethn., p. 97. 



Habitat of the Columbian Group — Physical Geogeaphy — Sources of 
Food-Supply — Influence of Food and Climate— Four extreme Classes 
— haidahs — their home — physical peculiarities — clothing — shel- 
TER — Sustenance — Implements — Man tfactures — Arts — Property — 
Laws — Slavery — Women — Customs — Medicine — Death — The Xootkas 
— The Sound Nations — The Chinooks — The Shushwaps — The Salish— 
The Sahaptins — Tribal Boundaries. 

The term Columbians, or, as Scouler 1 and others have 
called them, JsFootka- Columbians, is, in the absence of a 
native word, sufficiently characteristic to distinguish the 
aboriginal nations of north-western America between the 
forty-third and fifty-fifth parallels, from those of the other 
great divisions of this work. The Columbia River, which 
suggests the name of this group, and Nootka Sound on 
the western shore of Vancouver Island, were originally 
the chief centres of European settlement on the North- 
west Coast; and at an early period these names were 
compounded to designate the natives of the Anglo-Amer- 
ican possessions on the Pacific, which lay between the 
discoveries of the Russians on the north and those of 
the Spaniards on the south. As a simple name is al- 
ways preferable to a complex one, and as no more perti- 
nent name suggests itself than that of the great river 
which, with its tributaries, drains a large portion of this 

1 The Nbotka-Columbvans comprehend 'the tribes inhabiting Quadra and 
Vancouver's Island, and the adjacent inlets of the mainland, down to the 
Columbia River, and perhaps as far S. as Umpqua Eiver and the northern 
part of New California.' Scoulei-, in Loud. Gtog. tSoc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 221. 



territory, I drop l Nootka ' and retain only the word 
'Columbian.' 2 These nations have also been broadly 
denominated Flatheads, from a custom practiced more or 
less by many of their tribes, of compressing the cranium 
during infancy ; 3 although the only Indians in the whole 
area, tribally known as Flatheads, are those of the Salish 
family, who do not flatten the head at all. 

In describing the Columbian nations it is necessary, 
as in the other divisions, to subdivide the group; arbi- 
trarily this may have been done in some instances, but 
as naturally as possible in all. Thus the people of Queen 
Charlotte Islands, and the adjacent coast for about a 
hundred miles inland, extending from 55° to 52° of north 
latitude, are called Haidahs from the predominant tribe 
of the islands. The occupants of Vancouver Island and 
the opposite main, with its labyrinth of inlets from 52° 
to 49°, I term Nootkas. The Sound Indians inhabit the 
region drained by streams flowing into Puget Sound, and 
the adjacent shores of the strait and ocean ; the Chinooks 
occupy the banks of the Columbia from the Dalles to the 
sea, extending along the coast northward to Gray Har- 
bor, and southward nearly to the Californian line. The 
interior of British Columbia, between the Cascade and 
Rocky Mountains, and south of the territory occupied by 
the Hyperborean Carriers, is peopled by the Shushwaps, 
the Kootenaisj and the Okanagans. Between 49° and 47°, 

2 Gilbert Malcolm Sproat, a close observer and clear writer, thinks ' this 
Word Nootkah — no word at all — together with an imaginary word, Columbian, 
denoting a supposed original North American race — is absurdly used to de- 
note all the tribes which inhabit the Rocky Mountains and the western coast 
of North America, from California inclusively to the regions inhabited by the 
Esquimaux. In this great tract there are more tribes, differing totally in lan- 
guage and customs, than in any other portion of the American continent; 
and surely abetter general name for them could be found than this meaning- 
less and misapplied term Nootkah Columbian.' SjwoaVs Scenes, p. 315. Yet 
Mr Sproat suggests no other name. It is quite possible that Cook, Voy. to 
the Pacific, vol. ii., p. 288, misunderstood the native name of Nootka Sound. 
It is easy to criticise any name which might be adopted, and even if it were 
practicable or desirable to change all meaningless and misapplied geograph- 
ical names, the same or greater objections might be raised against others, 
which necessity would require a writer to invent. 

3 Kane's Wand., p. 173; Macjk's Vane. 1st., p. 441; Catlin's N. Am. Ind., 
vol. ii., p. 108; the name being given to the people between the region of the 
Columbia and 53 ' 30'. 


extending west from the Cascade to the Rocky Mountains, 
chiefly on the Columbia and Clarke Fork, is the Sali&h or 
Flathead family. The nations dwelling south of 47° and 
east of the Cascade range, on the Columbia, the lower Snake, 
and their tributary streams, may be called Sahajrtins, from 
the name of the Xez Perce tribes. 4 The great Shoshone 
family, extending south-east from the upper waters of the 
Columbia, and spreading out over nearly the whole of the 
Great Basin, although partially included in the Colum- 
bian limits, will be omitted in this, and included in the 
Californian Group, which follows. These divisions, as 
before stated, are geographic rather than ethnographic. 5 
Many attempts have been made by practical ethnologists, 
to draw partition lines between these peoples according 
to race, all of which have proved signal failures, the best 
approximation to a scientific division being that of phil- 
ologists, the results of whose researches are given in the 
third volume of this series ; but neither the latter divis- 
ion, nor that into coast and inland tribes — in many re- 
spects the most natural and clearly defined of all' 3 — is 
adapted to my present purpose. In treating of the Co- 
lumbians, I will first take up the coast families, going 
from north to south, and afterward follow the same order 
with those east of the mountains. 

No little partiality was displayed by the Great Spirit 
of the Columbians in the apportionment of their dwell- 
ing-place. The Cascade Mountains, running from north 
to south throughout their whole territory, make of it two 
distinct climatic divisions, both highly but unequally 
favored by nature. On the coast side — a strip which 

4 The name Nez Perces, ' pierced noses, ' is usually pronounced, as if En- 
glish, Nez Per-ces. 

5 For particulars and authorities see Tribal Boundaries at end of this 

<* ' The Indian tribes of the North-western Coast may be divided into two 
groups, the Insular and the Inland, or those who inhabit the islands and 
adjacent shores of the mainland, and subsist almost entirely by fishing; and 
those who live in the interior and are partly hunters. This division is per- 
haps arbitrary, or at least imperfect, as there are several tribes whose affini- 
ties with either group are obscure.' Zander, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. 
xi , p. 217. See Stevens, m ]'<ic. J'. 7.'. Jiept., vol. i., pp. 147-8, and Mayne'8 
.11. ( '., p. 242. ' The best division is into coast and inland tribes.' Lord's Sat., 
vol. ii., p. 226. 


may be called one hundred and fifty miles wide and one 
thousand miles long — excessive cold is unknown, and 
the earth, warmed by Asiatic currents and watered by 
numerous mountain streams, is thickly wooded; noble 
forests are well stocked with game ; a fertile soil yields a 
great variety of succulent roots and edible berries, which 
latter means of subsistence were lightly appreciated by the 
indolent inhabitants, by reason of the still more abund- 
ant and accessible food-supply afforded by the fish of 
ocean, channel, and stream. The sources of material for 
clothing were also bountiful far beyond the needs of the 

Passing the Cascade barrier, the climate and the face 
of the country change. Here we have a succession of 
plains or table-lands, rarely degenerating into deserts, 
with a good supply of grass and roots; though generally 
without timber, except along the streams, until the 
heavily wooded western spurs of the Rocky Mountains 
are reached. The air having lost much of its moisture, 
affords but a scanty supply of rain, the warming and 
equalizing influence of the ocean stream is no longer felt, 
and the extremes of heat and cold are undergone accord- 
ing to latitude and season. Yet are the dwellers in this 
land blessed above many other aboriginal peoples, in that 
game is plenty, and roots and insects are at hand in case 
the season' s hunt prove unsuccessful. 

Ethnologically, no well-defined line can be drawn to 
divide the people occupying these two widely different 
regions. Diverse as they certainly are in form, charac- 
ter, and customs, their environment, the climate, and their 
methods of seeking food may w T ell be supposed to have 
made them so. Not only do the pursuit of game in the 
interior and the taking of fish on the coast, develop 
clearly marked general peculiarities of character and life 
in the two divisions, but the same causes produce grades 
more or less distinct in each division. West of the Cas- 
cade range, the highest position is held by the tribes who 
in their canoes pursue the whale upon the ocean, and in 
the effort to capture Leviathan become themselves great 


and daring as compared with the lowest order who live 
upon shell-fish and whatever nutritious substances may 
be cast by the tide upon the beach. Likewise in the in- 
terior, the extremes are found in the deer, bear, elk, and 
buffalo hunters, especially when horses are employed, and 
in the root and insect eaters of the plains. Between these 
four extreme classes may be traced many intermediate 
grades of physical and intellectual development, due to 
necessity and the abilities exercised in the pursuit of game. 
The Columbians hitherto have been brought in much 
closer contact with the whites than the Hyperboreans, 
and the results of the association are known to all. The 
cruel treacheries and massacres by which nations have 
been thinned, and flickering remnants of once powerful 
tribes gathered on government reservations or reduced 
to a handful of beggars, dependent for a livelihood on 
charity, theft, or the wages of prostitution, form an un- 
written chapter in the history of this region. That this 
process of duplicity was unnecessary as well as infa- 
mous, I shall not attempt to show, as the discussion of 
Indian policy forms no part of my present purpose. 
"Whatever the cause, whether from an inhuman civilized 
policy, or the decrees of fate, it is evident that the Co- 
lumbians, in common with all the aborigines of America, 

/ C 7 

are doomed to extermination. Civilization and savagism 
will not coalesce, any more than light and darkness ; and 
although it may be necessary that these things come, yet 
are those by whom they are unrighteously accomplished 
none the less culpable. 

Once more let it be understood that the time of which 
this volume speaks, was when the respective peoples were 
first known to Europeans. It was when, throughout 
this region of the Columbia, nature' s wild magnificence 
was yet fresh ; primeval forests unprofaned ; lakes, and 
rivers, and rolling plains unswept; it was when count- 
less villages dotted the luxuriant valleys; when from 
the warriors camp-fire the curling smoke never ceased 
to ascend, nor the sounds of song and dance to be heard; 
when bands of gaily dressed savages roamed over every 


hill-side; when humanity unrestrained vied with bird 
and beast in the exercise of liberty absolute. This is 
no history ; alas ! they have none ; it is but a sun-picture, 
and to be taken correctly must be taken quickly. Nor 
need we pause to look back through the dark vista of 
unwritten history, and speculate, who and what they are, 
nor for how many thousands of years they have been com- 
ing and going, counting the winters, the moons, and the 
sleeps; chasing the wild game, basking in the sunshine, 
pursuing and being pursued, killing and being killed. 
All knowledge regarding them lies buried in an eternity 
of the past, as all knowledge of their successors remains 
folded in an eternity of the future. We came upon 
them unawares, unbidden, and while we gazed they 
melted away. The infectious air of civilization pene- 
trated to the remotest corner of their solitudes. Their 
ignorant and credulous nature, unable to cope with the 
intellect of a superior race, absorbed only its vices, yield- 
ing up its own simplicity and nobleness for the white 
man's diseases and death. 

In the Haidah family I include the nations occupying 
the coast and islands from the southern extremity of 
Prince of Wales Archipelago to the Bentinck Arms in 
about 52°. Their territory is bounded on the north and 
east by the Thlinkeet and Carrier nations of the Hyper- 
boreans, and on the south by the Nootka family of the 
Columbians. Its chief nations, whose boundaries how- 
ever can rarely be fixed with precision, are the Massets, 
the Skidclegats, and the Cumshawas, of Queen Charlotte 
Islands; the Kaiganies, of Prince of Wales Archipelago; 
the Chimsyans, about Fort Simpson, and on Chatham 
Sound ; the Nass and the Skeenas, on the rivers of the 
same names; the Sebassas, on Pitt Archipelago and the 
shores of Gardner Channel ; and the Millbank Sound In- 
dians, including the Ilailtzas and the Bellacoolas, the most 
southern of this family. These nations, the orthography 
of whose names is far from uniform among different wri- 
ters, are still farther subdivided into numerous indefinite 
tribes, as specified at the end of this chapter. 


The Haidah territory, stretching on the mainland three 
hundred miles in length, and in width somewhat over 
one hundred miles from the sea to the lofty Chilkoten 
Plain, is traversed throughout its length by the northern 
extension of the Cascade Range. In places its spurs and 
broken foot-hills touch the shore, and the very heart of 
the range is penetrated by innumerable inlets and chan- 
nels, into which pour short rapid streams from interior 
hill and plain. The country, though hilly, is fertile 
and covered by an abundant growth of large, straight 
pines, cedars, and other forest trees. The forest abounds 
with game, the waters with fish. The climate is less se- 
vere than in the middle United States; and notwith- 
standing the high latitude of their home, the Haidahs 
have received no small share of nature's gifts. Little 
has been explored, however, beyond the actual coast, 
and information concerning this nation, coming from a 
few sources only, is less complete than in the case of the 
more southern Nootkas. 

Favorable natural conditions have produced in the Hai- 
dahs a tall, comely, and well-formed race, not inferior to 
any in North-western America; 7 the northern nations of 

7 ' By far the best looking, most intelligent and energetic people on the 
N. W. Coast.' IScouler, in Loud. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol xi.,p.218. Also ranked 
by Prichard as the finest specimens physically on the coast. Researches, vol. 
v., p. 433. The Nass people ' were peculiarly comely, strong, and well grown. ' 
Simpson's Overland Journ., vol. i., p. 207. 'Would be handsome, or at least 
comely,' were it not for the paint. 'Some of the women have exceedingly 
handsome faces, and very symmetrical figures.' 'Impressed by the manly 
beauty and bodily proportions of my islanders.' Poole's Queen Charlotte Jsl., 
pp. 310, 314. Mackenzie found the coast people 'more corpulent and of 
better appearance than the inhabitants of the interior.' Yoy. pp. 322-3; 

see pp. 370-1. ' The stature (at Burke's Canal) was much more 

stout and robust than that of the Indians further south. The prominence 
of their countenances and the regularity of their features, resembled the 
northern Europeans.' Vancouver's Voy. vol. ii, p 2G2. A chief of 'gigantic 
person, a stately air, a noble mien, a manly port, and all the characteristics 
of external dignity, with a symmetrical figure, and a perfect order of Euro- 
pean contour.' Dumt's Oregon, pp. 279, 251, 283, 285. Mayne says, their 
countenances aro decidedly plainer ' than the southern Indians. B. (,'., p. 250. 
'A tall, well-formed people.' BendeVs Alex. Arch., p. 29. 'No finer men. . . . 
can be found on the American Continent. ' Sprout's Scenes, p. 23. In 55°, ' Son 
bien corpulentos.' Crespi, in Doc. Hist. Mex., s. iv., vol. vi., p. 04G. ' The best 
looking Indians we had ever met.' ' Much taller, and in every way superior 
to the Puget Sound tribes. The women are stouter than the men, but not so 
good-looking.' Heed's Nar. 


the family being generally superior to the southern, 8 
and having physical if not linguistic affinities with their 
Thlinkeet neighbors, rather than with the Nootkas. 
Their faces are broad, with high cheek bones; 9 the eyes 
small, generally black, though brown and gray with a 
reddish tinge have been observed among them. 10 The 
few who have seen their faces free from paint pronounce 
their complexion light, 11 and instances of Albino charac- 
teristics are sometimes found. 12 The hair is not uni- 
formly coarse and black, but often soft in texture, and of 
varying shades of brown, worn by some of the tribes cut 
close to the head. 13 The beard is usually plucked out 
with great care, but moustaches are raised sometimes as 
strong as those of Europeans; 14 indeed there seems to 

8 The Sebassas are ' more active and enterprising than the Millbank 
tribes.' Dunn's Oregon, p. 273. The Haeeltzuk are ' comparatively effeminate 
in their appearance.' Scolder, in Lond. Geog. Soo. Jour., vol. xi., p. 223. The 
Kyganies 'consider themselves more civilised than the other tribes, whom 
they regard with feelings of contempt.' Id., p. 219. The Chimsyans 'are 
much more active and cleanly than the tribes to the south.' Id., p. 220. ' I 
have, as a rule, remarked that the physical attributes of those tribes coming 
from the north, are superior to those of the dwellers in the south.' Barrttt- 
Lennard's Trav., p. 40. 

9 Mackenzie's Voy., pp. 370-1, 322-3; Vancouver's Voy., vol. ii., pp. 262, 
320; Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 197. ' Kegular, and often fine 
features.' Bendel's Alex. Arch., p. 29. 

io Mackenzie's Voy., pp. 309-10, 322-3, 370-1; Lord's Nat., vol. L, p. 
229. ' Opening of the eye long and narrow.' Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. 
Ex., vol. vi., p. 197. 

11 'Had it not been for the filth, oil, and paint, with which, from their 
earliest infancy, they are besmeared from head to foot, there is great reason 
to believe that their colour would have differed but little from such of the 
labouring Europeans, as are constantly exposed to the inclemency and alter- 
ations of the weather.' Vancouver's Voy., vol. ii., p. 262. ' Between the olive 
and the copper.' Mackenzie's Voy., pp. 370-1. 'Their complexion, when they 
are washed free from paint, is as white as that of the people of the S. of Eu- 
rope.' Scolder, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 218. Skin 'nearly as 
white as ours.' Poole's Q. Char. Jsl., pp. 314-5. ' Of a remarkable light color.' 
Bendel's Alex. Arch., p. 29. 'Fairer in complexion than the Vancouverians.' 

Their young women's skins are as clear and white as those of Englishwomen.' 
Sproat's Scenes, pp. 23-4. ' Fair in complexion, sometimes with ruddy cheeks. ' 
Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 197. 'De buen semblante, color 
bianco y bermejos.' Crespi, in Hoc. Hist. Mex., s. iv., vol. vi., p. 646. 

12 Tolmie mentions several instances of the kind, and states that ' amongst 
the Hydah or Queen Charlotte Island tribes, exist a family of coarse, red-haired, 
light-brown eyed, square-built people, short-sighted, and of fair complexion.' 
Lord's Nat., vol. ii., pp. 229-30. 

13 Mackenzie's Voy., pp. 322-3, 371; Vancouver's Voy., vol. ii., p. 370; 
Dunn's Oregon, p. 283; Poole's Q. Char. M., p. 315. 

14 Scouler, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour:, vol. xi., p. 218; Poole's Q. Char, lsl., 
p. 74. ' What is very unusual among the aborigines of America, they have 


be little authority for the old belief that the North- 
western American Indians were destitute of hair except 
on the head. 15 Dr Scouler, comparing Chimsyan skulls 
with those of the Chinooks, who are among the best 
known of the north-western nations, finds that in a nat- 
ural state both have broad, high cheek-bones, with a re- 
ceding forehead, but the Chimsyan skull, between the 
parietal and temporal bones, is broader than that of the 
Chinook, its vertex being remarkably flat. 16 Swollen and 
deformed legs are common from constantly doubling them 
under the body while sitting in the canoe. The teeth are 
frequently worn down to the gums with eating sanded 
salmon. 17 

The Haidahs have no methods of distortion peculiar 
to themselves, by which they seek to improve their fine 
physique; but the custom of flattening the head in in- 
fancy obtains in some of the southern nations of this 
family, as the Hailtzas and Bellacoolas, 18 and the Thlin- 
keet lip-piece, already sufficiently described, is in use 
throughout a larger part of the whole territory. It was 
observed by Simpson as far south as Mill bank Sound, 
where it was highly useful as well as ornamental, afford- 
ing a firm hold for the fair fingers of the sex in their 
drunken fights. These ornaments, made of either wood, 
bone, or metal, are worn particularly large in Queen 

thick beards, which appear early in life.' Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. 
vi., p. 197. 

15 'After the age of puberty, their bodies, in their natural state, are cov- 
ered in the same manner as those of the Europeans. The men, indeed, 
esteem a beard very unbecoming, and take great pains to get rid of it, nor 
is there any ever to be perceived on their faces, except when they grow old, 
and become inattentive to their appearance. Every crinous efflorescence on 
the other parts of the bod} 7- is held unseemly by them, and both sexes employ 
much time in their extirpation. The Nawdowessies, and the remote nations, 
pluck them out with bent pieces of hard wood, formed into a kind of nippers: 
whilst those who have communication with Europeans procure from them 
wire, which they twist into a screw or worm; applying this to the part, they 
press the rings together, and with a sudden twitch draw out all the hairs that 
are inclosed between them.' Carver's Trav., p. 225. 

10 Scouler, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 220. 

17 Mackenzie's Voy., pp. 370-1; Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 226; Dunn's Oregon, 
p. 287. 

is Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 232; Scouler, in Lond. Geoq. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., 
pp. 218, 220, 223. ' The most northern of these Flat-head tribes is the Haut- 
zuk. ! Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. ii., p. 325. 


Charlotte Islands, where they seem to be not a mark of 
rank, but to be worn in common by all the women. 19 Be- 
sides the regular lip-piece, ornaments, various in shape 
and material, of shell, bone, wood, or metal, are worn 
stuck in the lips, nose, and ears, apparently according to 
the caprice or taste of the wearer, the skin being some- 
times, though more rarely, tattooed to correspond. 20 Both 
for ornament and as a protection against the weather, the 
skin is covered with a thick coat of paint, a black polish 
being a full dress uniform. Figures of birds and beasts, 
and a coat of grease are added in preparation for a feast, 
with fine down of duck or goose — a stylish coat of tar and 
feathers — sprinkled over the body as an extra attraction. 21 
When the severity of the weather makes additional pro- 
tection desirable, a blanket, formerly woven by them- 
selves from dog's hair, and stained in varied colors, but 
now mostly procured from Europeans, is thrown loosely 
over the shoulders. Chiefs, especially in times of feasting, 
wear richer robes of skins. 22 The styles of dress and orna- 
ment adopted around the forts from contact with the whites 
need not be described. Among the more unusual arti- 
cles that have been noticed by travelers are, "a large hat, 
resembling the top of a small parasol, made of the twisted 
fibres of the roots of trees, with an aperture in the in- 
side, at the broader end" for the head, worn by a Se- 
bassa chief; and at Millbank Sound, u masks set with 

19 Simpson's Overland Journ., vol. i., pp. 204, 233. ' This wooden ornament 
seems to be wore by all the sex indiscriminately, whereas at Norfolk Sound it 
is confined to those of superior rank.' Dixon's Voy., pp. 225, 208, with a cut. 
A piece of brass or copper is first put in, and ' this corrodes the lacerated 
parts, and by consuming the flesh gradually increases the orifice.' Vancouver's 
Voy., vol.ii., pp. 279-80, 40S. Scouler, in Bond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 218; 
Dunn's Oregon, pp. 27G, 279; Crespi, hi Doc. Hist. Hex., s. iv , vol. vi., p. G51; 
Cornwallis' Veto Eldorado, p. 106; Catlin's N. Am. Did., vol. ii., p. 113, with 
plate . 

2 f J Mayne's B. C, pp. 281-2; Poole's Q. Char. M., pp. 75, 311; Barrett-Len- 
nard's Trav., pp. 45-0; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 279, 285. 

2i Poole's Q. Char, lsl, pp. 82," 106, 310, 322-3; Mayne's B. C, pp. 282, 
283; Dunn's Oregon, p. 251. 

22 Mayne's B. C, p. 282; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 251, 276, 291; Parker's Explor. 
Tour., p. 263; Poole's Q. Char. IsL, p. 310. ' The men habitually go naked, but 
when they go off on a journey they wear a blanket.' Deed's Nar. 'Cuero 
de nutrias y lobo marino . . . sombreros de junco bien tejidos con la copa 
puntiaguda.' Crespi, in Doc. Hist. Mex., s. iv., vol. vi., p. 046. 


seals' whiskers and feathers, which expand like a fan." 
with secret springs to open the month and eyes.' 23 Mac- 
kenzie and Vancouver, who were among the earliest vis- 
itors to this region, found fringed robes of bark-fibre, 
ornamented with fur and colored threads. A circular 
mat, with an opening in the centre for the head, was 
worn as a protection from the rain; and war garments 
consisted of several thicknesses of the strongest hides 
procurable, sometimes strengthened by strips of wood on 
the inside. 2i 

The Haidahs use as temporary dwellings, in their fre- 
quent summer excursions for war and the hunt, simple 
lodges of poles, covered, among the poorer classes by ce- 
dar mats, and among the rich by skins. Their perma- 
nent villages are usually built in strong natural posi- 
tions, guarded by precipices, sometimes on rocks detached 
from the main land, but connected with it by a narrow 
platform. Their town houses are built of light logs, or 
of thick split planks, usually of sufficient size to accom- 
modate a large number of families. Poole mentions a 
house on Queen Charlotte Islands, which formed a cube of 
fifty feet, ten feet of its height being dug in the ground, and 
which accommodated seven hundred Indians. The build- 
ings are often, however, raised above the around on a 
platform supported by posts, sometimes carved into hu- 
man or other figures. Some of these raised buildings 
seen by the earlier visitors were twenty-five or thirty 
feet from the ground, solidly and neatly constructed, an 
inclined log with notches serving as a ladder. These 
houses were found only in the southern part of the Hai- 

23 Dunn's Oregon, pp. 253, 27G-7; Catlin's X. Am. Inch, vol. ii., p. 113. 

24 At Salmon River, 52° 58', 'their dress consists of a single robe tied 
over the shoulders, falling down behind, to the heels, and before, a little below 
the knees, with a deep fringe round the bottom. It is generally made of the 
bark of the cedar tree, which they prepare as line as hemp; though some of 
these garments are interwoven with strips of the sea-otter skin, which give 
them the appearance of a fur on one side. Others have stripes of red and yel- 
low threads fancifully introduced towards the borders.' Clothing is laid 
aside whenever convenient. ' The women wear a close fringe hanging down 
before them about two feet in length, and half as wide. When they sit down 
they draw this between their thighs.' Mackenzie's Voy., pp. 322-3, 371; Van- 
couver's Voy., vol. ii., pp. 280, 339. 


dah territory. The fronts were generally painted with 
figures of men and animals. There were no windows or 
chimney ; the floors were spread with cedar mats, on which 
the occupants slept in a circle round a central fire, whose 
smoke in its exit took its choice between the hole which 
served as a door and the wall-cracks. On the south- 
eastern boundary of this territory, Mackenzie found in 
the villages large buildings of similar but more careful 
construction, and with more elaborately carved posts, but 
they were not dwellings, being used probably for religious 
purposes. 25 

Although game is plentiful, the Haidahs are not a race 
of hunters, but derive their food chiefly from the innu- 
merable multitude of fish and sea animals, which, each 

. 25 A house ' erected on a platform, .... raised and supported near thirty feet 
from the ground by perpendicular spars of a very large size ; the whole occu- 
pying a space of about thirty-five by fifteen (yards), was covered in by a roof 
of boards lying nearly horizontal, and parallel to the platform; it seemed to 
be divided into three different houses, or rather apartments, each having a 
separate access formed by a long tree in an inclined position from the plat- 
form to the ground, with notches cut in it by way of steps, about a foot and 
a half asunder.' Vancouver's Voy., vol. ii., p. 274. See also pp. 137, 2G7-8, 
272, 284. 'Their summer and winter residences are built of split plank, 
similar to those of the Chenooks.' Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 2G3. 'lis habi- 
tant dans des loges de soixante pieds de long, construites avec des troncs de 
sapin et recouvertes d'ecorces d'arbres.' Mqfras, Explor., torn, ii., p. 337. 
'Their houses are neatly constructed, standing in a row; having large im- 
ages, cut out of wood, resembling idols. The dwellings have all painted 
fronts, showing imitations of men and animals. Attached to their houses 
most of them have large potatoe gardens.' thmn's Oregon, pp. 293-4. See 
also, pp. 251-2, 273-4, 290; Lord's Nat., vol. i., p. 89; vol, ii., pp. 253, 
255, with cuts on p. 255 and frontispiece. ' Near the house of the chief I 
observed several oblong squares, of about twenty feet by eight. They were 
made of thick cedar boards, which were joined with so much neatness, that 
I at first thought they were one piece. They were painted with hieroglyphics, 
and figures of different animals,' probably for purposes of devotion, as 
was 'a large building in the middle of the village. . . .The ground-plot was 
fifty feet by forty-five ; each end is formed by four stout posts, fixed perpendic- 
ularly in the ground. The corner ones are plain, and support a beam of the 
whole length, having three intermediate props on each side, but of a larger 
size, and eight or nine feet in height. The two centre posts, at each end, are 
two and a half feet in diameter, and carved into human figures, supporting 
two ridge poles on their heads, twelve feet from the ground. The figures at 
the upper part of this square represent two persons, with their hands upon 
their knees, as if they supported the weight with pain and difficulty: the 
others opposite to them stand at their ease, with their hands resting on their 
hips. . . .Posts, poles, and figures, were painted red and black, but the sculp- 
ture of these people is superior to their painting.' Mackenzie's Voy., p. 331. 
See also pp. 307, 318, 328-30, 339, 345; Poole's Q. Char. Isl, pp. Ill, 113-4; 
Reed's Nar.; Marchand, Voy., torn, ii., pp. 127-31. 
Vol. I. 11 


variety in its season, fill the coast waters. Most of the 
coast tribes, and all who live inland, kill the deer and 
other animals, particularly since the introduction of fire- 
arms, but it is generally the skin and not the flesh that 
is sought. Some tribes about the Bentinck channels, at 
the time of Mackenzie's visit, would not taste flesh ex- 
cept from the sea, from superstitious motives. Birds that 
burrow in the sand -banks are enticed out by the glare 
of torches, and knocked down in large numbers with 
clubs. They are roasted without plucking or cleaning, 
the entrails being left in to improve the flavor. Potatoes, 
and small quantities of carrots and other vegetables, are 
now cultivated throughout this territory, the crop being 
repeated until the soil is exhausted, when a new place is 
cleared. Wild parsnips are abundant on the banks of 
lakes and streams, and their tender tops, roasted, fur- 
nish a palatable food; berries and bulbs abound, and 
the inner tegument of some varieties of the pine and 
hemlock is dried in cakes and eaten with salmon-oil. 
The varieties of fish sent by nature to the deep inlets 
and streams for the Haidah's food, are very numerous; 
their standard reliance for regular supplies being the sal- 
mon, herring, eulachon or candle-fish, round-fish, and 
halibut. Salmon are speared; dipped up in scoop-nets; 
entangled in drag-nets managed between two canoes and 
forced by poles to the bottom; intercepted in their pur- 
suit of smaller fish by gill-nets with coarse meshes, made 
of cords of native hemp, stretched across the entrance of 
the smaller inlets ; and are caught in large wicker bask- 
ets, placed at openings in weirs and embankments which 
are built across the rivers. The salmon fishery differs 
little in different parts of the Northwest. The candle- 
fish, so fat that in frying they melt almost completely 
into oil, and need only the insertion of a pith or bark 
wick to furnish an excellent lamp, are impaled on the 
sharp teeth of a rake, or comb. The handle of the rake 
is from six to eight feet long, and it is swept through 
the water by the Haidahs in their canoes by moon- 
light. Herring in immense numbers are taken in April 


by similar rakes, as well as by dip-nets, a large part 
of the whole take being used for oil. Seals are speared 
in the water or shot while on the rocks, and their flesh 
is esteemed a great delicacy. Clams, cockles, and shell- 
fish are captured by squaws, such an employment be- 
ing beneath manly dignity. Fish, when caught, are 
delivered to the women, whose duty it is to prepare 
them for winter use by drying. No salt is used, but the 
fish are dried in the sun, or smoke-dried by being hung 
from the top of dwellings, then wrapped in bark, or 
packed in rude baskets or chests, and stowed on high 
scaffolds out of the reach of dogs and children. Salmon 
are opened, and the entrails, head, and back-bone removed 
before drying. During the process of drying, sand is 
blown over the fish, and the teeth of the eater are often 
worn down by it nearly even with the gums. The spawn 
of salmon and herring is greatly esteemed, and besides 
that obtained from the fish caught, much is collected on 
pine boughs, which are stuck in the mud until loaded 
with the eggs. This native caviare is dried for preser- 
vation, and is eaten prepared in various ways; pounded 
between two stones, and beaten with water into a creamy 
consistency; or boiled with sorrel and different berries, 
and moulded into cakes about twelve inches square and 
one inch thick by means of wooden frames. After a 
sufficient supply of solid food for the winter is secured, 
oil, the great heat-producing element of all northern 
tribes, is extracted from the additional catch, by boiling 
the fish in wooden vessels, and skimming the grease from 
the water or squeezing it from the refuse. The arms and 
breast of the women are the natural press in which the 
mass, wrapped in mats, is hugged ; the hollow stalks of an 
abundant sea- weed furnish natural bottles in which the 
oil is preserved for use as a sauce, and into which nearly 
everything is dipped before eating. When the stock of 
food is secured, it is rarely infringed upon until the 
winter sets in, but then such is the Indian appetite — ten 
pounds of flour in the pancake-form at a meal being 
nothing for the stomach of a Haidah, according to Poole 


— that whole tribes frequently suffer from hunger before 
spring.' 213 

The Haidah weapons are spears from four to sixteen 
feet long, some with a movable head or barb, which comes 
off when the seal or whale is struck ; bows and arrows ; 
hatchets of bone, horn, or iron, with which their planks 
are made ; and daggers. Both spears and arrows are fre- 
quently pointed with iron, which, whether it found its 
way across the continent from the Hud son- Bay settle- 
ments, down the coast from the Russians, or was ob- 
tained from wrecked vessels, was certainly used in Brit- 
ish Columbia for various purposes before the coming of 
the whites. Bows are made of cedar, with sinew glued 
along one side. Poole states that before the introduc- 
tion of fire-arms, the Queen Charlotte Islanders had no 
weapon but a club. Brave as the Haidah warrior is 
admitted to be, open fair fight is unknown to him, and 
in true Indian style he resorts to night attacks, supe- 
rior numbers, and treachery, to defeat his foe. Cut- 
ting off the head as a trophy is practiced instead of 
scalping, but though unmercifully cruel to all sexes and 
ages in the heat of battle, prolonged torture of captives 
seems to be unknown. Treaties of peace are arranged 
by delegations from the hostile tribes, following set forms, 
and the ceremonies terminate with a many days' feast. 27 
Nets are made of native wild hemp and of cedar-bark 
fibre ; hooks, of two pieces of wood or bone fastened to- 
gether at an obtuse angle ; boxes, troughs, and household 
dishes, of wood; ladles and spoons, of wood, horn, and 
bone. Candle-fish, with a wick of bark or pith, serve as 

26 On food of the Haidahs and the methods of procuring it, see Lord's 
Nat., vol. i., pp. 41, 152; Mackenzie's Voy., pp. 306, 313-14, 319-21, 327, 333, 
339, 369-70; Poole's Q. Char. Isl, pp. 148, 284-5, 315-16; Vancouver's Voy., 
vol. ii., p. 273; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 251, 267, 274, 290-1; Mofras, Explor., torn, 
ii., p. 337; Pemberton's Vancouver Island, p. 23; Parker's Explor. Tour., -p. 263; 
Reed's Nar. 

27 Vancouver's Voy., vol. ii., p. 339; Porte's Q. Char. Isl., p. 316; Macken- 
zie's Voy., p. 372-3. ' Once I saw a party of Kaiganys of about two hundred 
men returning from war. The paddles of the warriors killed in the light 
were lashed upright in their various seats, so that from a long distance the 
number of the fallen could be ascertained; and on each mast of the canoes — 
and some of them had three — was stuck the head of a slain foe.' Bendel's 
Alex. Arch., p. 30. 


lamps; drinking vessels and pipes are carved with great 
skill from stone. The Haidahs are noted for their skill 
in the construction of their various implements, particu- 
larly for sculptures in stone and ivory, in which they 
excel all the other tribes of Northern America. 28 

The cedar-fibre and wild hemp were prepared for use 
by the women by beating on the rocks ; they were then 
spun with a rude distaff and spindle, and woven on a 
frame into the material for blankets, robes, and mats, 
or twisted by the men into strong and even cord, be- 

28 The Kaiganies ' are noted for the beauty and size of their cedar canoes, 
and their skill in carving. Most of the stone pipes, inlaid with fragments of 
Haliotis or pearl shells, so common in ethnological collections, are their 
handiwork. The slate quarry from which the stone is obtained is situated on 
Queen Charlotte's Island.' Ball's Alaska, p. 411. The Chimsyans 'make fig- 
ures in stone dressed like Englishmen; plates and other utensils of civiliza- 
tion, ornamented pipe stems and heads, models of houses, stone flutes, 
adorned with well-carved figures of animals. Their imitative skill is as 
noticeable as their dexterity in carving.' SproaVs Scenes, p. 317. The sup- 
porting posts of their probable temples were carved into human figures, and 
all painted red and black, ' but the sculpture of these people ( 52° 40') is supe- 
rior to their painting.' Mackenzie' s Voy., pp. 330-1 ; see pp. 333-4. ' One man 
(near Fort Simpson) known as the Arrowsmith of the north-east coast, had 
gone far beyond his compeers, having prepared very accurate charts of most 
parts of the adjacent shores.' Simpson's Overland Journ., vol. i., p. 207. ' The 
Indians of the Northern Family are remarkable for their ingenuity and me- 
chanical dexterity in the construction of their canoes, houses, and different 
warlike or fishing implements. They construct drinking-vessels, tobacco- 
pipes, &c, from a soft argillaceous stone, and these articles are remarkable 
for the symmetry of their form, and the exceedingly elaborate and intricate 
figures which are carved upon them. With respect to carving and a faculty 
for imitation, the Queen Charlotte's Islanders are equal to the most ingenious 
of the Polynesian Tribes.' Scouler, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., rol. xi., p. 218. 
'Like the Chinese, they imitate literally anything that is given them to do; 
so that if you give them a cracked gun-stock to copy, and do not warn them, 
they will in their manufacture repeat the blemish. Many of their slate-carv- 
ings are very good indeed, and their designs most curious.' Mayne's B. C, 
p. 278. See also, Bunn's Oregon, p. 293; Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., p. 337, 
and plate p. 387. The Skidagates ' showed me beautifully wrought articles 
of their own design and make, and amongst them some flutes manufactured 
from an unctuous blue slate .... The two ends were inlaid with lead, giving 
the idea of a fine silver mounting. Two of the keys perfectly represented 

frogs in a sitting posture, the eyes being picked out with burnished lead It 

would have done credit to a European modeller.' Poole's Q. Char. Isl., p. 258. 
' Their talent for carving has made them famous far beyond their own country. ' 
Bendel's Alex. Arch., p. 29. A square wooden box, holding one or two bushels, 
is made from three pieces, the sides being from one piece so mitred as to 
bend at the corners without breaking. 'During their performance of this 
character of labor, (carving, etc.) their superstitions will not allow any spec- 
tator of the operator's work.' Heed's Nar.\ hid. Life, p. 96. ' Of a very fine 
and hard slate they make cups, plates, pipes, little images, and various orna- 
ments, wrought with surprising elegance and taste.' Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. 
Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 197. ' lis peignent aussi avec le meme goiit.' Bossi, Souve- 
nirs, p. 298; Anderson, in Hist. Mag., vol. vii., pp. 74-5. 


tween the hand and thigh. Strips of otter-skin, bird- 
feathers, and other materials, were also woven into the 
blankets. Dogs of a peculiar breed, now nearly extinct, 
were shorn each year, furnishing a long white hair, which, 
mixed with fine hemp and cedar, made the best cloth. 
By dyeing the materials, regular colored patterns were 
produced, each tribe having had, it is said, a peculiar 
pattern by which its matting could be distinguished. 
Since the coming of Europeans, blankets of native man- 
ufacture have almost entirely disappeared. The Bella- 
coolas made very neat baskets, called zeilusqua, as well 
as hats and water-tight vessels, all of fine cedar-roots. 
Each chief about Fort Simpson kept an artisan, whose 
business it was to repair canoes, make masks, etc. 29 

The Haidah canoes are dug out of cedar logs, and 
are sometimes sixty feet long, six and a half wide, 
and four and a half deep, accommodating one hundred 
men. The prow and stern are raised, and often grace- 
fullv curved like a swan's neck, with a monster's head 
at the extremity. Boats of the better class have their 
exteriors carved and painted, with the gunwale inlaid 
in some cases with otter-teeth. Each canoe is made of 
a single log, except the raised extremities of the larger 
boats. They are impelled rapidly and safely over the 
often rough waters of the coast inlets, by shovel-shaped 
paddles, and when on shore, are piled up and covered 
with mats for protection against the rajs of the sun. 
Since the coming of Europeans, sails have been added 
to the native boats, and other foreign features imitated. 30 

29 Mackenzie's Voy., p. 338; Lord's Nat., vol. i., p. 63; vol. ii., pp. 215-17, 
254, 258; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 251. 253, 291, 293. 'They boil the cedar root 
until it becomes pliable to be worked by the hand and beaten with sticks, 
when they pick the fibres apart into threads. The warp is of a different ma- 
terial — sinew of the whale, or dried kelp-thread.' Reed's Nar. 'Petatitode 
vara en cuadro bien vistoso, tejido de palina fina de dos colores bianco y negro 
que tejido en cuadritos.' Crespi, in Doc. Hist. Mex., s. iv., vol. vi., pp. 6-17, 

30 Pool's Q. Char. Isl., p. 2G9, and cuts on pp. 121, 291; Mackenzie's 
Voy., p. 335; Simpson's Overland Journ., vol. i., p. 204; Vancouvi r's Voy., vol. 

ii, p. 303; Sutily Mexicana, Viage, p. cxxv; L<>r<i's Nat., vol. i., p. 174; Heed's 
Nar.; Catlin's N. Am. Ind., vol. ii., p. 113, with plate. The Bellabellahs 
4 promised to construct a steam-ship on the model of ours .... Some time after 
this rude steamer appeared. She was from 20 to 30 feet long, all in one 


Rank and power depend greatly upon wealth, which 
consists of implements, wives, and slaves. Admission 
to alliance with medicine-men, whose influence is greatest 
in the tribe, can only be gained .by sacrifice of private 
property. Before the disappearance of sea-otters from 
the Haidah waters, the skins of that animal formed the 
chief element of their trade and wealth; now the po- 
tatoes cultivated in some parts, and the various manu- 
factures of Queen Charlotte Islands, supply their slight 
necessities. There is great rivalry among the islanders 
in supplying the tribes on the main with potatoes, fleets 
of forty or fifty canoes engaging each year in the trade 
from Queen Charlotte Islands. Fort Simpson is the great 
commercial rendezvous of the surrounding nations, who 
assemble from all directions in September, to hold a fair, 
dispose of their goods, visit friends, fight enemies, feast, 
and dance. Thus continue trade and. merry-making for 
several weeks. Large fleets of canoes from the north also 
visit Victoria each spring for trading purposes. 31 

Yery little can be said of the government of the Hai- 
dahs in distinction from that of the other nations of the 
Northwest Coast. Among nearly all of them rank is nom- 
inally hereditary, for the most part by the female line, 
but really depends to a great extent on wealth and ability 
in war. Females often possess the right of chieftainship. 
In early intercourse with whites the chief traded for the 
whole tribe, subject, however, to the approval of the several 
families, each of which seemed to form a kind of subordi- 
nate government by itself. In some parts the power of the 

piece — a large tree hollowed out — resembling the model of our steamer. She 
was black, with painted ports; decked over; and had paddles painted red, 
and Indians under cover, to turn them round. The steersman was not seen. 
She was floated triumphantly, and went at the rate of three miles an hour. 
They thought they had nearly come up to the point of external structure; 
but then the enginery baffled them ; and this they thought they could imi- 
tate in time, by perseverance, and the helping illumination of the Great 
Spirit.' Dunn's Oregon, p. 272. See also, p. 291. 'A canoe easily distanced 
the champion boat of the American Navy, belonging to the man-of-war Sar- 
anac' Bendel's Alex. Arch., p. 29. 

31 Scolder, in Load. Geog Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 219; Macfie's B. C, pp. 
429, 437, 458; Simpson's Overland Journ., vol. i., p. 20G; Lord's Nat., vol. i., 
p. 174; Anderson, i,i Hist. Mag., vol. vii., p. 74; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 279, 281-3, 
292; Sutil y Mexicana, Viage, p. cxxv. 


chief seems absolute, and is wantonly exercised in the 
commission of the most cruel acts according to his pleas- 
ure. The extensive embankments and weirs found by 
Mackenzie, although their construction must have re- 

7 ~ 

quired the association of all the labor of the tribe, were 
completely under the chief's control, and no one could 
fish without his permission. The people seemed all equal, 
but strangers must obey the natives or leave the village. 
Crimes have no punishment by law ; murder is settled for 
with relatives of the victim, by death or by the payment of 
a large sum ; and sometimes general or notorious offenders, 
especially medicine-men, are put to death by an agree- 
ment among leading men. 32 Slavery is universal, and as 
the life of the slave is of no value to the owner except as 
property, they are treated with extreme cruelty. Slaves 
the northern tribes purchase, kidnap, or capture in war 
from their southern neighbors, who obtain them by like 
means from each other, the course of the slave traffic be- 
ing generally from south to north, and from the coast in- 
land. 33 

Polygamy is everywhere practiced, and the number of 
wives is regulated only by wealth, girls being bought of 
parents at any price which may be agreed upon, and 
returned, and the price recovered, when after a proper 
trial they are not satisfactory. The transfer of the 
presents or price to the bride's parents is among some 
tribes accompanied by slight ceremonies nowhere fully 
described. The marriage ceremonies at Millbank Sound 
are performed on a platform over the water, supported 
by canoes. AVhile jealousy is not entirely unknown, 
chastity appears to be so, as women who can earn the 

32 Mackenzie's Voy., pp. 374-5; Tohnie and Anderson, in Lord's Nat., vol. 
ii., pp. 240-2, 235; Macjie's B. C, p. 420; Simpson's Overland Journ., vol. i., 
p. 205 ; Dixon's I *oy., p. 227. ' There exists among them a regular aristocracy.' 
' The chiefs are always of unquestionable birth, and generally count among 
their ancestors men who were famous in battle and council.' 'The chief is 
regarded with all the reverence and respect which his rank, his birth, and 
his wealth can claim,' but 'his power is by no means unlimited.' Benders 
Alex. Arch,., p. 30. 

33 Dunn's Oregon, pp. 273-4, 283; Barker's Explor. Tour., p. 263; BendeVs 
Alex. Arch., p. 30; Kane's Wand., p. 220. 


greatest number of blankets win great admiration for 
themselves and high position for their husbands. Abor- 
tion and infanticide are not uncommon. Twin births 
are unusual, and the number of children is not large, al- 
though the age of bearing extends to forty or forty-six 
years. Women, except in the season of preparing the 
wi nter supply of fish, are occupied in household affairs 
and the care of children, for whom they are not without 
some affection, and whom they nurse often to the age of 
two or three years. Many families live together in one 
house, with droves of filthy dogs and children, all sleep- 
ing on mats round a central fire. 34 

The Haidahs, like all Indians, are inveterate gamblers, 
the favorite game on Queen Charlotte Islands being odd 
and even, played with small round sticks, in which the 
game is won when one player has all the bunch of forty 
or fifty sticks originally belonging to his opponent. Far- 
ther south, and inland, some of the sticks are painted 
with red rings, and the player's skill or luck consists 
in naming the number and marks of sticks previously 
wrapped by his antagonist in grass. All have become 
fond of whisky since the coming of whites, but seem to 
have had no intoxicating drink before. At their annual 
trading fairs, and on other occasions, they are fond of 
visiting and entertaining friends with ceremonious inter- 
change of presents, a suitable return being expected for 
each gift. At these reception feasts, men and women 

34 ' Polygamy is universal, regulated simply by the facilities for subsist- 
ence.' Anderson, in Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 235. See pp. 231-5, and vol. i., 
pp. 80-00. The women 'cohabit almost promiscuously with their own tribe 
though rarely with other tribes.' Poole, spending the night with a chief, was 
given the place of honor, under the same blanket with the chief's daughter — 
and her father. Poole's Q. Char, Isl., pp. 312-15, 115-16, 155. 'The Indians 
are in general very jealous of their women.' Dixon's Yoy., p. 225-6. ' Tous 
les individus d'une famille couchent pele-mele sur le sol plancheye de l'habi- 
tation.' Marchand, Voy., torn, ii., p. 144. ' Soon after I had retired. . . .the chief 
paid me a \isit to insist on my going to his bed-companion, and taking my 
place himself.' Mackenzie's Voy., p. 331. See pp. 300, 371-2. Parker's Ex- 
plor. Tour., p. 263. ' On the weddingday they have a public feast, at which 
they dance and sing.' Dunn's Oregon, pp. 252-3, 280-00. 'According to a 
custom of the Bellabollahs, the widow of the deceased is transferred to his 
brother's harem.' Simpson's Overland Journ., vol. i., p. 203-4. 'The tempo- 
rary present of a wife is one of the greatest honours that can be shown there 
to a guest.' tiproat's .Scenes, p. 05. 


are seated on benches along opposite walls ; at wedding 
feasts both sexes dance and sing together. In dancing, 
the body, head, and arms are thrown into various atti- 
tudes to keep time with the music, very little use being 
made of the legs. On Queen Charlotte Islands the wom- 
en dance at feasts, while the men in a circle beat time 
with sticks, the only instruments, except a kind of tam- 
bourine. For their dances they deck themselves in their 
best array, including plent}^ of birds' down, which they 
delight to communicate to their partners in bowing, and 
which they also blow into the air at regular intervals, 
through a painted tube. Their songs are a simple and 
monotonous chant, with which they accompany most of 
their dances and ceremonies, though Mackenzie heard 
among them some soft, plaintive tones, not unlike church 
music. The chiefs in winter give a partly theatrical, 
partly religious entertainment, in which, after prepara- 
tion behind a curtain, dressed in rich apparel and wear- 
ing masks, they appear on a stage and imitate different 
spirits for the instruction of the hearers, who meanwhile 
keep up their songs. 35 

After the salmon season, feasting and conjuring are 
in order The chief, whose greatest authority is in his 
character of conjurer, or tzeetzaiak as he is termed in 
the Hailtzuk tongue, pretends at this time to live alone 
in the forest, fasting or eating grass, and while there is 
known as taamish. When he returns, clad in bear-robe, 
chaplet, and red-bark collar, the crowd flies at his ap- 
proach, except a few brave spirits, who boldly present 
their naked arms, from which he bites and swallows 
large mouthfuls. This, skillfully done, adds to the repu- 
tation of both biter and bitten, and is perhaps all the 
foundation that exists for the report that these people are 

35 * The Queen Charlotte Islanders surpass any people that I ever saw in 
passionate addiction' to gambling. Poole's Q, Char. JsL, p. 318-20. See pp. 
186-87, 232-33. Mackenzie's Voy., pp. 288, 311. The Sebassas are great 
gamblers, and 'resemble the Chinooks in their games.' Dunn's Oregon, pp. 
25-7, 252-9, 281-3, 293. 'The Indian mode of dancing bears a strange 
resemblance to that in use among the Chinese.' Poole's Q. Char. Isl., p. 82. 
Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 238; Parker's Kxplor. Tour, p. 203; Ind. Life, p. G3. 


cannibals ; although Mr Duncan, speaking of the Chim- 
svans in a locality not definitely fixed, testifies to the 
tearing to pieces and actual devouring of the body of a 
murdered slave by naked bands of cannibal medicine- 
men. Only certain parties of the initiated practice this 
barbarism, others confining their tearing ceremony to 
the bodies of dogs. 30 

None of these horrible orgies are practiced by the 
Queen Charlotte Islanders. The performances of the 
Haidah magicians, so far as they may differ from those of 
the Xootkas have not been clearly described by travelers. 
The magicians of Chatham Sound keep infernal spirits 
shut up in a box away from the vulgar gaze, and pos- 
sess great power by reason of the implicit belief on the 
part of the people, in their ability to charm away life. 
The doctor, however, is not beyond the reach of a kins- 
man's revenge, and is sometimes murdered. 37 With their 
ceremonies and superstitions there seems to be mixed 
very little religion, as all their many fears have refer- 
ence to the present life. Certain owls and squirrels are 
regarded with reverence, and used as charms; salmon 
must not be cut across the grain, or the living fish will 
leave the river ; the mysterious operations with astronom- 
ical and other European instruments about their rivers 
caused great fear that the fisheries would be ruined ; fogs 
are conjured away without the slightest suspicion of the 
sun's agency. 38 European navigators they welcome by 
paddling their boats several times round the ship, mak- 
ing long speeches, scattering birds' down, and singing. 39 

36 Scolder, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 223; Duncan, in Mayne's 
B. C, pp. 285-8, and in Macfie's Vane. Isl., pp. 434-7; White's Oregon, p. 
24G; Simpson's Overland Journ., vol. i., p. 205; Hutchings' Gal. Mag., Nov. 1860, 
pp. 222-8; Ind. Life, p. G8; Heed's JS'ar.; Anderson in Hist. Ma<)., vol. vii., 
p. 79. 

37 The Indians of Millbank Sound became exasperated against me, 'and 
they gave me the name of " Schloapes," i. e., "stingy:" and when near them, 
if I should spit, they would run and try to take up the spittle in something; 
for, according as they afterwards informed me, they intended to give it to their 
doctor or magician; and he would charm my life away.' Dunn's Oregon, pp. 
246-7. See pp. 279-80; Poole's Q. Char. Jsl, pp. 320-1. 

3 s Lord's Sat., vol. ii., pp. 32^4, 53-4; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 267, 274-5. 
39 I Vancouver's Voy., vol. ii., pp. 385-9. 


Ordinary presents, like tobacco or trinkets, are gladly re- 
ceived, but a written testimonial is most highly prized by 
the Haidahs, who regard writing; as a great and valuable 
mystery. They have absolutely no methods of recording 
events. Although living so constantly on the water, I 
find no mention of their skill in swimming, while Poole 
states expressly that they have no knowledge of that 
art. 40 

Very slight accounts are extant of the peculiar methods 
of curing diseases practiced by the Haidahs. Their chief 
reliance, as in the case of all Indian tribes, is on the in- 
cantations and conjurings of their sorcerers, who claim 
supernatural powers of seeing, hearing, and extracting 
disease, and are paid liberally when successful. Bark, 
herbs, and various decoctions are used in slight sickness, 
but in serious cases little reliance is placed on them. To 
the bites of the sorcerer-chiefs on the main, eagle-down 
is applied to stop the bleeding, after which a pine-gum 
plaster or sallal-bark is applied. On Queen Charlotte 
Islands, in a case of internal uneasiness, large quantities 
of sea-water are swallowed, shaken up, and ejected through 
the mouth for the purpose, as the natives say, of 'washing 
themselves inside out.' 41 

Death is ascribed to the ill will and malign influence 
of an enemy, and one suspected of causing the death of 
a prominent individual, must make ready to die. As 
a rule, the bodies of the dead are burned, though ex- 
ceptions are noted in nearly every part of the territory. 
In the disposal of the ashes and larger bones which 
remain unburned, there seems to be no fixed usage. 
Encased in boxes, baskets, or canoes, or wrapped in 

40 Poole's Q. Char. Isl., pp. 109-10, 11G; Anderson, in Lord's Nat., vol. ii., 
p. 242. 

41 At about 52° 40', between the Fraser Elver and the Pacific, Mackenzie 
observed the treatment of a man with a bad ulcer on his back. They blew 
on him and whistled, pressed their fingers on his stomach, put their fists into 
his mouth, and spouted water into his face. Then he was carried into the 
woods, laid down in a clear spot, and a fire was built against his back while 
the doctor scarified the ulcer with a blunt instrument. Voy., pp. .'531-33; 
Dunn's Oregon, pp. 258, 284; Poole's Q. Char, hi., pp. 316-18; Duncan, in 
Mayne's B'. C, 289-91; Reed's Nar., in Olympia Wash. Stand., May 16, 1868. 


mats or bark, they are buried in or deposited on the 
ground, placed in a tree, on a platform, or hung from a 
pole. Articles of property are frequently deposited with 
the ashes, but not uniformly. Slaves' bodies are simply 
thrown into the river or the sea. Mourning for the dead 
consists usually of cutting the hair and blackening anew 
the face and neck for several months. Among the Kai- 
ganies, guests at the burning of the bodies are wont to 
lacerate themselves with knives and stones. A tribe 
visited by Mackenzie, kept their graves free from shrub- 
berv, a woman clearing that of her husband each time 
she passed. The Nass Indians paddle a dead chief, gaily 
dressed, round the coast villages. 42 

The Haidahs, compared with other North American 
Indians, may be called an intelligent, honest, and brave 
race, although not slow under European treatment to be- 
come drunkards, gamblers, and thieves. Acts of unpro- 
voked cruelty or treachery are rare; missionaries have 
been somewhat successful in the vicinity of Fort Simp- 
son, finding in civilized liquors their chief obstacle. 43 

42 At Boca de Quadra, Vancouver found ' a box about three feet square, and 
a foot and a half deep, in which were the remains of a human skeleton, which 
appeared from the confused situation of the bones, either to have been cut to 
pieces, or thrust with great violence into this small space.' . . . . ' I was inclined 
to suppose that this mode of depositing their dead is practised only in respect 
to certain persons of their society.' Voy.. vol. ii., p. 351. At Cape North- 
umberland, in 54° 45', 'was a kind of vault formed partly by the natural 
cavity of the rocks, and partly by the rude artists of the country. It was 
lined with boards, and contained some fragments of warlike implements, 
lying near a square box covered with mats and very curiously corded down.' 
Id. , p. 370 ; ( 'ornwallis' New El Dorado, pp. 1 06-7. On Queen Charlotte Islands, 
' Ces monumens sont de deux especes: les premiers et les plus simples ne 
sont composes que d'un seul pilier d'environ dix pieds d'elevation et d'un 
pied de diametre, sur le sommet duquel sont fixees des planches formant un 
plateau; et dans quelques-uns ce plateau est supporte par deux piliers. Le 
corps, depose sur cette plate-forme, est reconvert de mousse et de grosses 
pierres '....' Les mausolees de la soconde espece sont plus composes: quatre 
poteaux plant 's en terre, ft Cleves de deux pieds seulement au-dessus du sol 
portent un sarcopha^e travaille avec art, et hermetiquement clos.' Marchand, 

Toy., torn, ii., pp. 135-6. 'According to another account it appeared that 
they actually bury their dead ; and when another of the family dies, the re- 
mains of the person who w?-s last interred, are taken from the grave and 
burned.' Mackenzie's Voy., p. 308. See also pp. 374, 295-98; Svnpson's Over- 
la, >>l Journ., vol. i., pp. 203-4; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 272, 276, 280; Mayne's B. C, 
pp. 272, 29:!; Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 235; Macfie's Vane. Isl, pp. 440-41; Dall's 
Alaska, p. 417. 

43 On the coast, at 52 J 12', Vancouver found them 'civil, good-humoured 
and friendly.' At Cascade Canal, about 52" 14', ' in traffic they proved them- 


The Xootkas, the second division of the Columbian 
group, are immediately south of the Haiclah country; 
occupying Vancouver Island, and the coast of the main 
land, between the fifty-second and the forty-ninth paral- 
lels. The word nooika is not found in any native dialect 
of the" present day. Captain Cook, to whom we are in- 
debted for the term, probably misunderstood the name 
given by the natives to the region of Nootka Sound. 44 

selves to be keen traders, but acted with the strictest honesty;' at Point 
Hopkins 'they all behaved very civilly and honestly;' while further north, at 
Observatory Inlet, ' in their countenances was expressed a degree of savage 
ferocity infinitely surpassing any thing of the sort I had before observed,' 
presents being scornfully rejected. Voy., vol. ii., pp. 281, 269, 303, 337. 
The Kitswinscolds on Skeena River ' are represented as a very superior 
race, industrious, sober, cleanly, and peaceable.' Tnd. Aif. Ilept., 1869, p. 
563. The Chinisyans are fiercer and more uncivilized than the Indians of 
the South. Sproat's Scenes, p. 317. ' Finer and fiercer men than the Indians 
of the South.' Mayne's B. (J., p. 250. ' They appear to be of a friendly dis- 
position, but they are subject to sudden gusts of passion, which are as quickly 
composed; and the transition is instantaneous, from violent irritation to 
the most tranquil demeanor. Of the many tribes .... whom I have seen, 
these appear to be the most susceptible of civilization.' Mackenzie's Voy , p. 
375, 322. At Stewart's Lake the natives, whenever there is any advantage 
to be gained are just as readily tempted to betray each other as to deceive 
the colonists. Macfie's Vane. Isl., pp. 166-68, 458-59; Lord's Xat., vol. i., 
p. 171. A Kygarnie chief being asked to go to America or England, refused 
to go where even chiefs were slaves — that is, had duties to perform — while 
he at home was served by slaves and wives. The Sebassas ' are more active 
and enterprising than jthe Milbank tribes, but the greatest thieves and rob- 
bers on the coast.' Damn's Oregon, p. 287, 273. 'All these visitors of Fort 
Simpson are turbulent and fierce. Their broils, which are invariably at- 
tended with bloodshed, generally arise from the most trivial causes.' Simp- 
son's Overland Journ., vol. i., p. 203. The Kygamies 'are very cleanly, fierce 
and daring.' The islanders, 'when they visit the mainland, they are bold 
and treacherous, and always ready for mischief.' Scolder, in Lond. Geog. Soc. 
Jour., vol. xi., p. 219. The Kygarnies 'are a very fierce, treacherous race, and 
have not been improved by the rum and fire-arms sold to them.' Dull's Alaska, 
p. 411. Queen Charlotte Islanders look upon white men as superior beings, 
but conceal the conviction. The Skidagates are the most intelligent race 
upon the islands. Wonderfully acute in reading character, yet clumsy in 
their own dissimulation . . . . ' Not revengeful or blood-thirsty, except when 
smarting under injury or seeking to avert an imaginary wrong.' . . . . ' I never 
met with a really brave man among them.' The Acoltas have 'given more 
trouble to the Colonial Government than any other along the coast.' Poole's 
Q. Char. Isl, pp. 83, 151-2, 185-6, 208, 214, 233, 235, 245, 257, 271-72, 289, 
309, 320-21. ' Of a cruel and treacherous disposition.' Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. 
Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 197. They will stand up and fight Englishmen with their 
fists. Sproat's Scenes, p. 23. Intellectually superior to the Puget Sound 
tribes. Reed's Nar. 'Mansos y de buena indole.' Crespi, in Doc. Hist. Mex., 
s. iv., vol. vi., p. 646. On Skeena River, 'the worst I have seen in all my 
travels.' Doicnie, in B. G. Papers, vol. iii., p. 73. * As rogues, where all are 
rogues,' preeminence is awarded them. Anderson, in Hist. Mag., vol. vii., 
pp. 74-5. 

44 ' On my arrival at this inlet, I had honoured it with the name of King 
George's Sound; but I afterward found, that it is called Nootka by the na- 


The first European settlement in this region was on the 
Sound, which thus became the central point of early En- 
glish and Spanish intercourse with the Northwest Coast ; 
but it was soon abandoned, and no mission or trading 
post has since taken its place, so that no tribes of this 
family have been less known in later times than those 
on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The chief tribes 
of the Xootka family, or those on whose tribal existence, 
if not on the orthography of their names authors to some 
extent agree, are as follows. 45 The Nitinats, Clayoquots, 
and Nootkas] on the sounds of the same names along the 
west coast of Vancouver Island ; the Quackotts and Ne- 
witteesf* in the north ; the Coiuichins, Ucletas, and Comux, 
on the east coast of Vancouver and on the opposite main ; 
the 8aukaulutuchs 4n , in the interior of the island; the Clal- 
lums* 8 Sokes, and Patcheena, on the south end ; and the 
Kwantlums and Teets, 49 on the lower Fraser River. These 
tribes differ but little in physical peculiarities, or manners 
and customs, but by their numerous dialects they have 
been classed in nations. No comprehensive or satisfac- 
tory names have, however, been applied to them as na- 
tional divisions. 50 

tives.' Cook's Voy. to Pae., vol. ii., p. 288. 'No Aht Indian of the present 
day ever heard of such a name as Nootkah, though most of them recognize 
the other words in Cook's account of their language.' SproaVs Scenes, p. 315. 
Sproat conjectures that the name may have come from Noochee! Noochee ! 
the Aht word for mountain. A large proportion of geographical names origi- 
nate in like manner through accident. 

45 For full particulars see Tribal Boundaries at end of this chapter. 

46 ' The Newatees, mentioned in many books, are not known on the west 
coast. Probably the Klah-oh-quahts are meant.' SproaVs Scenes, p. 314. 

47 There are no Indians in the interior. Fitziciiliam's Evidence, in Hud. 
B. Co., Rept. Spec. Com., 1857, p. 115. 

48 The same name is also applied to one of the Sound nations across the 
strait in Washington. 

49 The Teets or Haitlins are called by the Tacullies, ' Sa-Chinco ' strangers. 
Anderson, in Hist. Mag., vol. vii., pp. 73-4. 

50 Sproat's division into nations, 'almost as distinct as the nations of 
Europe ' is into the Quoquoulth (Quackoll) or Fort Kupert, in the north and 
north-east; the Kowitchan, or Thongeith, on the east and south; Aht on the 
west coast; and Komux, a distinct tribe also on the east of Vancouver. 
' These tribes of the Ahts are not confederated; and I have no other warrant 
for calling them a nation than the fact of their occupying adjacent territories, 
and having the same superstitions and language.' SproaVs Scenes, pp. 18-19, 
311. Mayne makes by language four nations; the first including the Cow- 
itchen in the harbor and valley of the same name north of Victoria, with the 
Nanaimo and Kwantlum Indians about the mouth of the Fraser River, and 


Between the Nootka family and its fish-eating neigh- 
bors on the north and south, the line of distinction is 
not clearly marked, but the contrast is greater with the 
interior hunting tribes on the east. Since their first in- 
tercourse with whites, the Nootkas have constantly de- 
creased in numbers, and this not only in those parts 
where they have been brought into contact with traders 
and miners, but on the west coast, where they have re- 
tained in a measure their primitive state. The savage 
fades before the superior race, and immediate intercourse 
is not necessary to produce in native races those ' baleful 
influences of civilization,' which like a pestilence are 
wafted from afar, as on the wings of the wind. 51 

The Nootkas are of less than medium height, smaller 
than the Haidahs, but rather strongly built; usually 
plump, but rarely corpulent; 52 their legs, like those of 

the Songhies; the second comprising the Coraoux, Nanoose, Nimpkish, Quaw- 
guult, etc., on Vancouver, and the Squawmisht, Sechelt, Clahoose, Ucle-tah, 
Mama-lil-a-culla, etc., on the main, and islands, between Nanaimo and Fort 
Rupert; the third and fourth groups include the twenty-four west-coast tribes 
who speak two distinct languages, not named. Mayne's Vane, is/., pp. 213-51. 
Grant's division gives four languages on Vancouver, viz., the Quackoll, from 
Clayoquot Sound north to C. Scott, and thence S. to Johnson's Strait; the 
Cowitchin, from Johnson's Strait to Sanetch Arm; the Tsclallum, or Clel- 
lum, from Sanetch to Soke, and on the opposite American shore; and the 
Macaw, from Patcheena to Clayoquot Sound. * These four principal lan- 
guages . . are totally distinct from each other, both in sound, formation, 
and modes of expression.' Grant, in Loud. Geog. iSoc. Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 295. 
Scouler attempts no division into nations or languages. Lond. Geo. ISoc. Jour., 
vol. xi., pp. 221, 224. Mofras singularly designates them as one nation of 
20,000 souls, under the name of Ouakich. Mot'nis, Explor., torn, ii., p. 343. 
Recent investigations have shown a somewhat different relationship of these 
languages, which I shall give more particularly in a subsequent volume. 

51 See Sproat's Scenes, pp. 272-86, on the ' effects upon savages of inter- 
course with civilized men.' ' Hitherto, (1856) in Vancouver Island, the tribes 
who have principally been in intercourse with the white man, have found it 
for their interest to keep up that intercourse in amity for the purposes of trade, 
and the white adventurers have been so few in number, that they have not 
at all interfered with the ordinary pursuits of the natives.' Grant, in Lond. 
Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 303. 

52 ' Muy robustos y bien apersonados.' ' De mediana estatura, excepto los 
Xefes cuya corpulencia se hace notar.' Sutil y Mexieana, Viage, pp. 55, 124. 
' The young princess was of low stature, very plump. ' Vancouver's Voy., vol. i., 
p. 395. Macquilla, the chief was five feet eight inches, with square shoulders 
and muscular limbs; his son was five feet nine inches. Belcher* 's Voy., vol. i., 
pp. 110-12. The seaboard tribes have ' not much physical strength.' Poole's 
Q. Char. Isl., p. 73. 4 La gente dicen ser muy robusta.' Perez, Pel. del Viage, 
MS., p. 20. 'Leur taille est moyenne.' Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., p. 313. ' In 
general, robust and well proportioned.' Meares' Voy., p. 249. Under the com- 
mon stature, pretty full and plump, but not muscular — never corpulent, old 


all the coast tribes, short, small, and frequently deformed, 
with large feet and ankles; 53 the face broad, round, and 
full, with the usual prominent cheek-bone, a low fore- 
head, flat nose, wide nostrils, small black eyes, round 
thickish -lipped mouth, tolerably even well-set teeth; the 
whole forming a countenance rather dull and expression- 
less, but frequently pleasant. 54 The Nootka complexion, 

people lean — short neck and clumsy body; women nearly the same size as 
the men. Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., pp. 301-3. 'Of smaller stature than 
the Northern Tribes; they are usually fatter and more muscular.' Scouler, in 
Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 221. In the north, among the Clayoquots 
and Quackolls, men are often met of five feet ten inches and over; on the 
south coast the stature varies from five feet three inches to five feet six inches. 
Grant, in Loud. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 297. 'The men are in gen- 
eral from about five feet six to five feet eight inches in height; remarkably 
straight, of a good form, robust and strong.' Only one dwarf was seen. Jew- 
UVs Nar., pp. 60-01. The Klah-oh-quahts are ' as a tribe physically the finest. 
Individuals may be found in all the tribes who reach a height of five feet 
eleven inches, and a weight of 180 pounds, without much flesh on their 
bodies.' Extreme average height: men, five feet six inches, women, five feet 
one-fourth inch. ' Many of the men have well-shaped forms and limbs. None 
are corpulent.' 'The men generally have well-set, strong frames, and, if 
they had pluck and skill, could probably hold their own in a grapple with 
Englishmen of the same stature. Sprout's Scenes, pp. 22-3. 'Rather above 
the middle stature, copper-colored and of an athletic make.' S park's Life of 
Ledyard, p. 71; Prichard's PesearcJies, vol. v., p. 442. ' Spare muscular forms.' 
Barrett- Lennard's Trav., pp. 44; Gordon's Hist, and Geog. Mem., pp. 14-22. 

53 Limbs small, crooked, or ill-made; large feet; badly shaped, and pro- 
jecting ankles from sitting so much on their hams and knees. Cook's Voy. 
to Pac, vol. ii., pp. 301-3. 'Their limbs, though stout and athletic, are 
crooked and ill-shaped.' Meares' Voy., p. 250. 'Us ont les membres infe- 
rieures legerement arques, les chevilles tres-saillantes, et la pointe des pieds 
tournee en dedans, difformite qui provient de la maniere dont ils sont assis 
dans leurs canots.' Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., pp. 343-4. 'Stunted, and move 
with a lazy waddling gait.' Macfe's Vane. 1st, p. 428. 'Skeleton shanks. . . . 
not much physical strength. . . .bow-legged — defects common to the seaboard 
tribes.' Poole's Q. Char, lsl., pp. 73-4. All the females of the Northwest 
Coast are very short-limbed. ' Earo es el que no tiene muy salientes los to- 
billos y las jmntas de los pies inclinadas hacia dentro . . . . y una especie de 
entumecimiento que se advierte, particularmente en las mugeres.' Suiil y 
Mexicana, Viage, pp. 124, 30, 62-3. They have great strength in the fingers. 
Sproat's Scenes, p. 33. Women, short-limbed, and toe in. Id., p. 22; Mayne's 
B. C, pp. 282-3. 'The limbs of both sexes are ill-formed, and the toes 
turned inwards.' 'The legs of the women, especially those of the slaves, 
are often swollen as if oeclematous, so that the leg appears of an uniform 
thickness from the ankle to the calf, ' from wearing a garter. Scouler, in Lond. 
Geog. Soc. dour., vol. xi., p. 221. 

54 'The different Aht tribes vary in physiognomy somewhat — faces of the 
Chinese and Spanish types may be seen.' 'The face of the Ahts is rather 
broad and flat; the mouth and lips of both men and women are large, though 
to this there are exceptions, and the cheekbones are broad but not high. 
The skull is fairly shaped, the eyes small and long, deep set, in colour a 
lustreless inexpressive black, or very dark hazel, none being blue, grey, or 
brown .... One occasionally sees an Indian with eyes distinctly Chinese. The 
nose. . . .in some instances is remarkably well-shaped.' ' The teeth are reg- 

Vol. I. 12 


so far as grease and paint have allowed travelers to ob- 
serve it, is decidedly light, but apparently a shade darker 
than that of the Haidah family. 55 The hair, worn long, 

ular, but stumpy, and are deficient in enamel at the points,' perhaps from 
eating sanded salmon. Sprout's Scenes, pp. 19, 27. 'Their faces are large 
and full, their cheeks high and prominent, with small black eyes; their noses 
are broad and flat ; their lips thick, and they have generally very fine teeth, 
and of the most brilliant whiteness.' Meares' Voy., pp. 249-50; Barreit-Ben- 
nard's Truv., p. 44. ' La fisonomia de estos (Nitinats) era differente de la de 
los habitantes de Nutka: tenian el craneo de figura natural, los ojos chicos 
muy proximos, cargados los parpados.' Many have a languid look, but few 
a stupid appearance. Sidil y Mexicana, Viage, pp. 28, 30, 62-3, 124. 'Dull 
and inexpressive eye.' ' Unprej^ossessing and stupid countenances.' Poole's 
Q. Char. Isl., pp. 74, 80. The Wickinninish have 'a much less open and 
pleasing expression of countenance ' than the Klaizzarts. The Newchemass 
' were the most savage looking and ugly men that I ever saw.' 'The shape 
of the face is oval ; the features are tolerably regular, the lips being thin and 
the teeth very white and even: their eyes are black but rather small, and the 
nose pretty well formed, being neither flat nor very prominent.' The women 
'are in general very well-looking, and some quite handsome.' Jeicitt's Nar., 
pp. 76, 77, 61. ' Features that would have attracted notice for their delicacy 
and beauty, in those parts of the world where the qualities of the human 
form are best understood.' Meares' Voy., p. 250. Face round and full, some- 
times broad, with prominent cheek-bones. . . .falling in between the temples, 
the nose flattening at the base, wide nostrils and a rounded point. . . .forehead 
low; eyes small, black and languishing; mouth round, with large, round, 
thickish lips; teeth tolerably equal and well-set, but not very white. Re- 
markable sameness, a dull phlegmatic want of expression; no pretensions to 
beauty among the women. Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., pp. 301-2. See por- 
traits of Nootkas in Belcher's Voy,, vol. i.,p. 108; Cook's Atlas, pi. 38-9; Sutil 
y Mexicana, Viage, Atlas; Whywper's Alaska, p. 75. 'Long nose, high cheek 
bones, large ugly mouth, very long eyes, and foreheads villainously low.' 
'The women of Vancouver Island have seldom or ever good features; they 
are almost invariably pug-nosed; they have however, frequently a pleasing 
expression, and there is no lack of intelligence in their dark hazel eyes. ' Grant, 
in Bond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., pp. 297-8. 'Though without any pre- 
tensions to beauty, could not be considered as disagreeable. ' Vancouver's Voy., 
vol. L, p. 395. 'Have the common facial characteristics of low foreheads, 
high cheek-bones, aquiline noses, and large mouths.' 'Among some of the 
tribes pretty women may be seen.' J)[uyne\<t B. ("'., p. 277. 

55 'Her skin was clean, and being nearly white,' etc. Vancouver's Voy., 
vol. i., p. 395. 'Reddish brown, like that of a dirty copper kettle.' Some, 
when washed, have 'almost a florid complexion.' Grant, in Bond. Geog. Soc. 
Jour., vol. xxvii., pp. 297, 299. ' Brown, somewhat inclining to a copper 
cast.' The women are much whiter, 'many of them not being darker 
than those in some of the Southern parts of Europe.' The Newchemass 
are much darker than the other tribes. Jewitt's Xar., pp. 61, 77. 'Their 
complexion, though light, has more of a copper hue ' than that of the Hai- 
dahs. Scoukr, in Bond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 221. Skin white, with 
the clear complexion of Europe.' Meares' Voy., p. 250. The color hard to 
tell on account of the paint, but in a few cases ' the whiteness of the skin 
appeared almost to equal that of Europeans; though rather of that pale effete 
cast. . . .of our southern nations. . . .Their children. . . .also equalled ours in 
whiteness.' Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., p. 303. 'Their complexion is a 
dull brown,' darker than the Haidahs. 'Cook and Meares probably men- 
tioned exceptional cases.' S})7'oat's Scenes, pp. 23-4. ' Tan blancos como el 
mejor Espanol.' Perez, Bel. del Viage, MS. p. 20. 'Por lo que se puede in- 
ferir del (color) de los niiios, parece menos obscuro que el de los Mexicanos,' 


is as a rule black or dark brown, coarse, and straight, 
though instances are not wanting where all these quali- 
ties are reversed. 50 The beard is carefully plucked out 
bv the young men, and this operation, repeated for gen- 
erations, has rendered the beard naturally thin. Old 
men often allow it to grow on the chin and upper lip. 

To cut the hair short is to the Nootka a disgrace. 
Worn at full length, evened at the ends, and sometimes 
cut straight across the forehead, it is either allowed to 
hang loosely from under a band of cloth or fillet of bark, 
or is tied in a knot on the crown. On full-dress occa- 
sions the top-knot is secured with a green bough, and 
after being well saturated with whale-grease, the hair is 
powdered plentifully with white feathers, which are re- 
garded as the crowning ornament for manly dignity in all 
these regions. Both sexes, but particularly the women, 
take great pains with the hair, carefully combing and 
plaiting their long tresses, fashioning tasteful head-dresses 
of bark-fibre, decked with beads and shells, attaching 

but judging by the chiefs' daughters they are wholly white. Sutil y Mexicana, 
Viage, p. 125. 'A dark, swarthy copper-coloured figure.' Lord's Nat., vol. 
i., p. 143. They ' have lighter complexions than other aborigines of America. ' 
Greenhow's Hist. Ogn., p. 116. 'Sallow complexion, verging towards copper 
colour.' Barrett-Lennard's Trav., pp. 44-6. Copper-coloured. Spark's Life 
of Ledyard, p. 71. 

56 ' The hair of the natives is never shaven from the head. It is black or 
dark brown, without gloss, coarse and lank, but not scanty, worn long. . . . 
Slaves wear their hair short. Now and then, but rarely, a light-haired native 
is seen. There is one woman in the Opechisat tribe at Alberni who had 
curly, or rather wavy, brown hair. Few grey-haired men can be noticed in 
any tribe. The men's beards and whiskers are deficient, probably from the 
old alleged custom, now seldom practiced, of extirpating the hairs with small 
shells Several of the Nootkah Sound natives (Moouchahts) have large 
moustaches and whiskers.' SproaVs Scenes, pp. 25-7. 'El cabello es largo 
lacio y grueso, variando su color entre rubio, obscuro, castano y negro. La 
barba sale a los mozos con la misma regularidad que a, los de otros paises, y 
llega a ser en los ancianos tan poblada y larga como la de los Turcos; pero 
los jovenes parecen imberbes porque se la arrancan con los dedos, 6 mas com- 
unmente con pinzas formadas de pequenas conchas.' Sutil y Mex'icana, Viage, 
pp. 124-5, 57. ' Hair of the head is in great abundance, very coarse, and 
strong; and without a single exception, black, straight and lank.' No beards 
at all, or a small thin one on the chin, not from a natural defect, but from 
plucking. Old men often have beards. Eyebrows scanty and narrow. Cook's 
Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., pp. 301-3. 'Neither beard, whisker, nor moustache 
ever adorns the face of the redskin.' Lord's Nat., vol. i., p. 143; JewitVs Nar., 
pp. 61, 75, 77. Hair 'invariably either black or dark brown.' Grant, in Lond. 
Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 297; Means' Voy., p. 250; Maynes' B. C, pp. 
277-8; Macfie's Vane. 1st., p. 442; Spark's Life of Ledyard, p. 71. 


leaden weights to the braids to keep them straight. The 
bruised root of a certain plant is thought by the Ahts to 
promote the growth of the hair. 57 

The custom of flattening the head is practiced by the 
Nootkas, in common with the Sound and Chinook fami- 
lies, but is not universal, nor is so much importance at- 
tached to it as elsewhere ; although all seem to admire a 
flattened forehead as a sign of noble birth, even among 
tribes that do not make this deformity a sign of freedom. 
Among the Quatsinos and Quackolls of the north, the 
head, besides being flattened, is elongated into a conical 
sugar-loaf shape, pointed at the top. The flattening pro- 
cess begins immediately after birth, and is continued 
until the child can walk. It is effected by compressing 
the head with tight bandages, usuallv attached to the 
log cradle, the forehead being first fitted with a soft pad, 
a fold of soft bark, a mould of hard wood, or a flat stone. 
Observers generally agree that little or no harm is done 
to the brain by this infliction, the traces of which to a 
great extent disappear later in life. Many tribes, in- 
cluding the Aht nations, are said to have abandoned the 
custom since they have been brought into contact with 
the whites. 58 

The body is kept constantly anointed with a reddish 
clayey earth, mixed in train oil, and consequently little 
affected by their frequent baths. In war and mourning 
the whole body is blackened; on feast da}\s the head, 
limbs, and body are painted in fantastic figures with va- 
rious colors, apparently according to individual fancy, 
although the chiefs monopolize the fancy figures, the 

57 Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., pp. 304-8; Sutil y Mexicana, Viage, pp. 
120-7; Sproat's Scenes, pp. 20-7; Meares' Voy., p. 254; Macfie's Yanc. Jsl., p. 
442; Jewitt's Nar., pp. 21, 23, 02, 05, 77-8; Grant, in Zond. Geog.'Soc. Jour., 
vol. xxvii., p. 21)7; Mayne's B. <'., pp. 277-8; Barrett-Lennard's Trav., p. 44. 

58 Mayne's B. C, pp. 242, 277, with cut of a child with bandaged head, 
and of a girl with a sugar-loaf head, measuring eighteen inches from the 
eyes to the summit. Sproat's Scenes, pp. 28-30; Grant, in Lond. Geog. S> *'• 
Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 298; Scolder, in Bond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 222; 
Meares' Voy., p. 240; Macfie's Vane. Jsl., p. 411; Sutil' y Mexicana, Viage, p. 
124; Lord's Nat., vol. i., p. 171; vol. ii., p. 103, cut of three skulls of flat- 
tened, conical, and natural form; Kane's Wand., p. 241; Jewitt's Nar., p. 7l ; 
Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. ii., p. 325; Barrett-Lennard's Trav., j). 45; Gordon's 
Hist, and Geog. Mem., p. 115. 


common people being restricted to plain colors. Solid 
grease is sometimes applied in a thick coating, and carved 
or moulded in alto-relievo into ridges and figures after- 
wards decorated with red paint, while shining sand or 
grains of mica are sprinkled over grease and paint to 
impart a glittering appearance. The women are either 
less fond of paint than the men, or else are debarred by 
their lords from the free use of it; among the Ahts, at 
least of late, the women abandon ornamental paint after 
the age of twenty-five. In their dances, as in war, 
masks carved from cedar to represent an endless variety 
of monstrous faces, painted in bright colors, with mouth 
and eyes moveable by strings, are attached to their heads, 
giving them a grotesquely ferocious aspect. 59 The nose 

59 At Valdes Island, 'the faces of some were made intirely white, some 
red, black, or lead colour.' Vancouver's Voy., vol. i., pp. 307, 341. At Nunez 
Gaona Bay, 'se pintan de encarnado y negro.' Sutil y Mexicana, Viage, p. 30. 
At Nootka Sound, ' Con esta grasa (de ballena) se untan todo el cnerpo, y 
despues se pintan con una especie de barniz compuesto de la niisma grasa 6 
aceyte, y de almagre en terminos que parece este su color natural.' Chiefs 
only may paint in varied colors, plebeians being restricted to one.' Id., pp. 
125-7. ' Many of the females painting their faces on all occasions, but the 
men only at set periods.' Vermilion is obtained by barter. Black, their 
war and mourning color, is made by themselves. Macfie's Vane. Id., p. 442. 
' Ces Indiens enduisent leur corps d'huile de baleine, et se peignent avec 
des ocres.' Chiefs only may wear different colors, and figures of animals. 
M 'ras, Explor., torn, ii., p. 344. 'Rub their bodies constantly with a red 
paint, of a clayey or coarse ochry substance, mixed with oil ... . Their faces 
are often stained with a black, a brighter red, or a white colour, by way of orna- 
ment .... They also strew the brown martial mica upon the paint, which makes 
it glitter.' Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., p. 305. 'A line of vermilion extends 
from the centre of the forehead to the tip of the nose, and from this "trunk 
line " others radiate over and under the eyes and across the cheeks. Between 
these red lines white and blue streaks alternately fill the interstices. A sim- 
ilar pattern ornaments chest, arms, and back, the frescoing being artistically 
arranged to give apparent width to the chest.' Lord's Nat., vol. i., p. 143. 
' They paint the face in hideous designs of black and red (the only colours 
used ) , and the parting of the hair is also coloured red.' Mayne's B. C, p. 277. 
1 At great feasts the faces of the women are painted red with vermilion or 
berry-juice, and the men's faces are blackened with burnt wood. About the 
age of twenty-five the women cease to use paint. . . .Some of the young men 
streak their faces with red, but grown-up men seldom now use paint, unless 
on particular occasions . . . The leader of a war expedition is distinguished 
by a streaked visage from his black-faced followers.' Sproat's Scenes, p. 27-8. 
The manner of painting is often a matter of whim. ' The most usual method 
is to paint the eye-brows black, in form of a half moon, and the face red in 
small squares, with the arms and legs and part of the body red; sometimes 
one half of the face is painted red in squares, and the other black; at others, 
dotted with red spots, or red and black instead of squares, with a variety of 
other devices, such as painting one half of the face and body red, and the 
other black.' Je.miWs Nar., p. (J4; Meares' Voy., p. 252; Barrett-Lennard's 
Trav., p. 4G; Spark's Life of Ledyard, p. 71. 


and ears are regularly pierced in childhood, with from one 
to as many holes as the feature will hold, and from the 
punctures are suspended bones, shells, rings, beads, or in 
fact any ornament obtainable. The lip is sometimes, 
though more rarely, punctured. Bracelets and anklets 
of any available material are also commonly worn. 60 

The aboriginal dress of the Xootkas is a square blanket, 
of a coarse yellow material resembling straw matting, 
made by the women from cypress bark, with a mixture of 
dog's hair. This blanket had usually a border of fur; it 
sometimes had arm-holes, but was ordinarily thrown over 
the shoulders, and confined at the waist by a belt. Chiefs 
wore it painted in variegated colors or unpainted, but 
the common people wore a coarser material painted uni- 
formly red. Women wore the garment longer and fast- 
ened under the chin, binding an additional strip of cloth 
closely about the middle, and showing much modesty 
about disclosing the person, while the men often went 
entirely naked. Besides the blanket, garments of many 
kinds of skin were in use, particularly by the chiefs on 
public days. In war, a heavy skin dress was worn as a 
protection against arrows. The Nootkas usually went 
bareheaded, but sometimes wore a conical hat plaited of 
rushes, bark, or flax. European blankets have replaced 
those of native manufacture, and many Indians about 
the settlements have adopted also the shirt and breeches. 61 

60 ' The habit of tattooing the legs and arms is common to all the women 
of Vancouver's Island; the men do not adopt it.' Grant, in Land. Geog. Soc. 
Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 307. ' No such practice as tattooing exists among these 
natives.' Sproat's Scenes, p. 27. 'The ornament on which they appear to set 
the most value, is the nose-jewel, if such an appellation may be given to the 
wooden stick, which some of them employ for this purpose. . . I have seen 
them projecting not less than eight or nine inches beyond the face on each 
side ; this is made fast or secured in its place by little wedges on each side 
of it.' Jewitt's Nor., pp. 65-6, 75; Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., p. 344. Cook's 

Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., pp. 304-8; Sutily Mexxcana, Viac/e, jDp. 30, 12G-7; Mac- 
fie's Vane. 1st., p. 442; Whymper's Alaska, pp. 37, 74, with cut of mask. 
Mayne's B. C, p. 268; Kane's Wand., pp. 221-2, and illustration of a hair 

61 ' Their cloaks, which are circular capes with a hole in the centre, edged 
with sea-otter skin, are constructed from the inner bark of the cypress. It 
turns the rain, is very soft and pliable, ' etc. Belcher's Voy , vol. i., p. 112. The 
usual dress of the Newchemass ' is a kootsuck made of wolf skin, with a 
number of the tails attached to it. . . .hanging from the top to the bottom; 
though they sometimes wear a similar mantle of bark cloth, of a much coarser 


The Nootkas choose strong positions for their towns and 
encampments. At Desolation Sound, Vancouver found a 
village built on a detached rock with perpendicular sides, 
only accessible by planks resting on the branches of a 
tree, and protected on the sea side by a projecting plat- 
form resting on timbers fixed in the crevices of the 
precipice. The Nimkish tribe, according to Lord, build 
their homes on a table-land overhanging the sea, and 
reached by ascending a vertical cliff on a bark-rope lad- 
der. Each tribe has several villages in favorable loca- 
tions for fishing at different seasons. The houses, when 
more than one is needed for a tribe, are placed with 
regularity along streets; they vary in size according to 
the need or wealth of the occupants, and are held in 
common under the direction of the chief. They are con- 
structed in the manner following. A row of large posts, 
from ten to fifteen feet high, often grotesquely carved, 
supports an immense ridge-pole, sometimes two and a 
half feet thick and one hundred feet long. Similar but 
smaller beams, on shorter posts, are placed on either side 
of the central row, distant from it fifteen, twenty, or 
twenty-five feet, according to the dimensions required. 
This frame is then covered with split cedar planks, about 
two inches thick, and from three to eight feet wide. The 

texture than that of Nootka. ' JewlWs Nar., pp. 77-8, 21-3, 56-8, 62-6. ' Their 
common dress is a flaxen garment, or mantle, ornamented on the upper edge 
by a narrow strip of fur, and at the lower edge, by fringes or tassels. It 
passes under the left arm, and is tied over the right shoulder, by a string be- 
fore, and one behind, near its middle .... Over this, which reaches below the 
knees, is worn a small cloak of the same substance, likewise fringed at the 
lower part. . . .Their head is covered with a cap, of the figure of a truncated 
cone, or like a flower-pot, made of fine matting, having the top frequently 
ornamented with a round or pointed knob, or bunch of leathern tassels.' Cook's 
Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., pp. 304-8, 270-1, 280. ' The men's dress is a blanket; 
the women's a strip of cloth, or shift, and blanket. The old costume of the 
natives was the same as at present, but the material was different.' Sproat's 
Scenes, pp. 25, 315. 'Their clothing generally consists of skins,' but they 
have two other garments of bark or dog's hair. ' Their garments of all kinds 
are worn mantlewise, and the borders of them are fringed' with wampum. 
JSpark's Life of Ledyard, pp. 71-2; Colyer, in hid. Aff. Rept., 1869, p. 533; 
8utUy Mexicana, Vi'uge, pp. 30-1, 38, 56-7, 126-8; Mares' Voy., pp. 251-4; 
Grant, in Land. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 297; Lord's Nat., vol. i., pp. 
143-4; Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., pp. 344-5; V/liywpers Alaska, p. 37; Green- 
how's Hist Ogn., p. 116; Macfie's Van. lsl., pp. 431, 443; Barrdt-Lennard' s 
Trav., p. 46. See portraits in Cook's Atlas, Belcher's Voy., Sutil y Mexicana, 
Atlas, and Whymper's Alaska. 


side planks are tied together with bark, and supported 
by slender posts in couples just far enough apart to re- 
ceive the thickness of the plank. A house like this, 
forty by one hundred feet, accommodates many families, 
each of which has its allotted space, sometimes parti- 
tioned off like a double row of stalls, with a wide passage 
in the middle. In the centre of each stall is a circle of 
stones for a fire-place, and round the walls are raised 
couches covered with mats. In rainy weather, cracks in 
the roof and sides are covered with mats. No smoke or 
window holes are left, and when smoke becomes trouble- 
some a roof- plank is removed. The entrance is at one end. 
These dwellings furnish, according to Nootka ideas, a 
comfortable shelter, except when a high wind threatens 
to unroof them, and then the occupants go out and sit 
on the roof to keep it in place. Frequently the outside 
is painted in grotesque figures of various colors. Only 
the frame is permanent ; matting, planks, and all utensils 
are several times each year packed up and conveyed in 
canoes to another locality where a frame belonging to 
the tribe awaits covering. The odor arising from fish- 
entrails and othe^ filth, which they take no pains to re- 
move, appears to be inoffensive, but the Nootkas are often 
driven by mosquitos to sleep on a stage over the water. 62 

62 On the east side of Vancouver was a village of thirty-four houses, ar- 
ranged in regular streets. The house of the leader 'was distinguished by- 
three rafters of stout timber raised above the roof, according to the archi- 
tecture of Nootka, though much inferior to those I had there seen, in point 
of size.' Bed-rooms were separated, and more decency observed than at 
Nootka Sound. Vancouver's Voy., vol. i., pp. 316-7, with a view of this vil- 
lage; also pp. 321-5, description of the village on Desolation Sound; p. 338, 
on Valdes Island; p. 326, view of village on Bute Canal; and vol. iii., pp. 
310-11, a peculiarity not noticed by Cook — 'immense pieces of timber which 
are raised, and horizontally placed on wooden pillars, about eighteen inches 
above the roof of the largest houses in that village; one of which pieces of 
timber was of a size sufficient to have made a lower mast for a third rate 
man of war.' See Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., pp. 281, 313-19, and Atlas, 
plate 40. A sort of a duplicate inside building, with shorter posts, furnishes 
on its roof a stage, where all kinds of property and supplies are stored. 
Sproal's Scenes, pp. 37-13. 'The planks or boards which they make use of 
for building their houses, and for other uses, they procure of different 
lengths, as occasion requires, by splitting them out, with hard wooden 
wedges from pine logs, and afterwards dubbing them down with their ckiz- 
zels.' fJeicitt's Nar., pp. 52-4. Grant states that the Nootka houses are 
palisade invlosures formed of stakes or young fir-trees, some twelve or thir- 
teen feet high, driven into the ground close together, roofed in with slabs of 


The Nootkas, like the Haidahs, live almost wholly on 
the products of the sea, and are naturally expert fisher- 
men. Salmon, the great staple, are taken in August and 
September, from sea, inlet, and river, by nets, spears, 
pots or baskets, and even by hooks. Hooks consist of 
sharp barbed bones bound to straight pieces of hard 
wood; sea- wrack, maple-bark, and whale-sinew furnish 
lines, which in salmon-fishing are short and attached to 
the paddles. The salmon-spear is a forked pole, some 
fifteen feet long, the detachable head having prongs 
pointed with fish-bone or iron, and the fish in deep 
water is sometimes attracted within its reach by a wood- 
en decoy, forced down by a long pole, and then detached 
unci allowed to ascend rapidly to the surface. Spearing 
is carried on mostly by torch-light. A light-colored 
stone pavement is sometimes laid upon the bottom of 
the stream, which renders the fish visible in their pass- 
age over it. Nets are made of nettles or of wild flax, 
found along Fraser River. They are small in size, and 
used as dip-nets, or sunk between two canoes and lifted 
as the fish pass over. A pot or basket fifteen to twen- 
ty feet long, three to five feet in diameter at one end, 
and tapering to a point at the other, is made of pine 
splinters one or two inches apart, with twig-hoops; and 
placed, large end up stream, at the foot of a fall or at 
an opening in an embankment, The salmon are driven 
down the fall with poles, and entering the basket are 
taken out by a door in the small end. This basket is 
sometimes enclosed in another one, similar but of uni- 
form diameter, and closed at one end. Fences of stakes 
across the river oblige the salmon to enter the open 
mouth in their passage up, and passing readily through 

fir or cedar. Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 299. The Teets have pal- 
isaded enclosures. Anderson, in Hist. Mag., vol. vii., p. 74. 'The chief re- 
sides at the upper end, the proximity of his relatives to him being according 
to their degree of kindred.' Macfie's Vane. Jsi, pp. 443-4; Dunn's Ore(/on, p. 
243; Belcher's Voy., vol. i., p. 112; Lord's Nat., vol. i., pp. 158, 164-5, 167, 
320-21; Seemann's Voy. of Herald, vol. i., pp. 105-6. The carved pillars are 
not regarded by the natives as idols in any sense. SutU y Mexicana, Viage, pp. 
128-9, 102; JJ'trntt-Lennard's Trav., pp. 47, 73-4. Some houses eighty by 
two hundred feet. Colyer, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1869, p. 533; Mayne's B. C, p. 
296; Gordon's Hist, and Geog. Mem.., pp. 120-1. 


an opening left in the point of the inner basket, they 
find themselves entrapped. In March, herring appear on 
the coast in great numbers, and in April and May they 
enter the inlets and streams, where they are taken with 
a dip-net, or more commonly by the fish-rake — a pole 
armed with many sharp bones or nails. Early in the 
season they can be taken only by torch-light. Halibut 
abound from March to June, and are caught with hooks 
and long lines, generally at some distance from shore. 
For all other fish, European hooks were early adopted, 
but the halibut, at least among the Ahts, must still be 
taken with the native hook. Many other varieties of 
fish, caught by similar methods, are used as food, but 
those named supply the bulk of the Nootka's provision. 
In May or June, whales appear and are attacked in 
canoes by the chief, with the select few from each tribe 
who alone have the right to hunt this monarch of the 
sea. The head of their harpoon is made of two barbed 
bones and pointed with muscle- shell ; it is fastened to a 
whale-sinew line of a few feet in length, and this short 
line to a very long bark rope, at one end of which are 
seal-skin air-bags r and bladders, to keep it afloat. The 
point is also fastened to a shaft from ten to twenty-five 
feet in length, from w^hich it is easily detached. With 
many of these buoys in tow the whale cannot dive, and 
becomes an easy prey. Whale-blubber and oil are great 
delicacies, the former being preferred half putrid, w r hile 
the oil with that of smaller denizens of the sea preserved 
in bladders, is esteemed a delicious sauce, and eaten with 
almost everything. Sea-otters and seals are also speared, 
the former with a weapon more barbed and firmly at- 
tached to the handle, as they are fierce fighters ; but when 
found asleep on the rocks, they are shot with arrows. 
Seals are often attracted within arrow-shot by natives 
disguised as seals in wooden masks. 

Clams and other shell-fish, which are collected in great 
numbers by the women, are cooked, strung on cypress- 
bark cords, and hung in the houses to dry for winter 
use. Fish are preserved by drying only, the use of salt 


being unknown. Salmon, after losing their heads and 
tails, which are eaten in the fishing season, are split open 
and the back-bone taken out before drying; smaller fry 
are sometimes dried as they come from their element; 
but halibut and cod are cut up and receive a partial dry- 
ing in the sun. The spawn of all fish, but particularly 
of salmon and herring, is carefully preserved by stowing 
it away in baskets, where it ferments. Bear, deer, and 
other land animals, as well as wild fowl, are sometimes 
taken for food, by means of rude traps, nets, and covers, 
successful only when game is abundant, for the Nootkas 
are but indifferent hunters. In the time of Jewitt, three 
peculiarities were observable in the Nootka use of ani- 
mal food, particularly bear-meat. When a bear was 
killed, it was dressed in a bonnet, decked with fine down, 
and solemnly invited to eat in the chief's presence, be- 
fore being eaten; after partaking of bruin's flesh, which 
was appreciated as a rarity, the Nootka could not taste 
fresh fish for two months ; and while fish to be palatable 
must be putrid, meat when tainted was no longer fit for 
food. The Nootka cuisine furnished food in four styles; 
namely, boiled — the mode par excellence, applicable to 
every variety of food, and effected, as by the Haidahs, 
by hot stones in wooden vessels; steamed — of rarer use, 
applied mostly to heads, tails, and fins, by pouring water 
over them on a bed of hot stones, and covering the whole 
tightly with mats; roasted — rarely, in the case of some 
smaller fish and clams; and raw — fish-spawn and most 
other kinds of food, when conveniences for cooking were 
not at hand. Some varieties of sea- weed and lichens, as 
well as the camass, and other roots, were regularly laid 
up for winter, while berries, everywhere abundant, were 
eaten in great quantities in their season, and at least one 
variety preserved by pressing in bunches. In eating, 
the}' sit in groups of Hye or six, with their legs doubled 
under them round a large wooden tray, and dip out the 
food nearly always boiled to a brothy consistency, with 
their fingers or clam-shells, paying little or no attention 
to cleanliness. Chiefs and slaves have trays apart, and 


the principal meal, according to Cook, was about noon. 
Feasting is the favorite way of entertaining friends, 
so long as food is plentiful; and by a curious custom, of 
the portion allotted them, guests must carry away what 
they cannot eat, "Water in aboriginal days was the only 
Nootka drink ; it is also used now when whisky is not to 
be had. 63 

Lances and arrows, pointed with shell, slate, flint, 
or bone, and clubs and daggers of wood and bone, were 
the weapons with which they met their foes; but fire- 
arms and metallic daggers, and tomahawks, have long 
since displaced them, as they have to a less degree the 
original hunting and fishing implements. 64 The Xootka 
tribes were always at war with each other, hereditary 

63 'Their heads and their garments swarm with vermin, which, . . . .we used 
to see them pick off with great composure, and eat.' Cook's Voy. io Pac, vol. 
ii., p. 305. See also pp. 279-80, 318-24. ' Their mode of living is very simple 
—their food consisting almost wholly of fish, or fish spawn fresh or dried, 
the blubber of the whale, seal, or sea-cow, muscles, clams, and berries of 
various kinds; all of which are eaten with a profusion of train oil.' Jeicitt's 
Nar., pp. 58-60, 68-9, 8o-8, 91-7, 103. SproaVs Scenes, pp. 52-7, 61, 87, 111-9, 
216-70. ' The common business of fishing for ordinary sustenance is car- 
ried on by slaves, or the lower class of people; — While the more noble occu- 
pation of killing the whate and hunting the sea-otter, is followed by none but 
the chiefs and warriors.' Meares' Voy., p. 258. ' They make use of the dried 
fucus giganteus, anointed with oil, for lines, in taking salmon and sea-otters.' 
Belcher's Voy., vol. i., pp. 112-13. Sutil y Mexicana, Viage, pp. 17, 26, 15-6, 
59-00, 76, 129-30, 131-5; Grant, in Loud. Geoq. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., pp". 
299-300; Mayne's B. C, pp. 252-7; Maefie's Vane, lsl, pp. 165-112; Simp- 
son's Overland Journ., vol. i , p. 239; Pembertoris Vane. Isl, pp. 28-32; 
Dunn's Oregon, p. 213; Mqfras, Explor., tom.ii.,p. 338. The Sau-kau-lutuck 
tribe ' are said to live on the edge of a lake, and subsist principally on deer 
and bear, and such fish as they can take in the lake.' Lord's Nat., vol. i., pp. 
158-9; Barrett-Lennard's Trav., pp. 48, 71-5, 76-7, 85-6, 90-1, 111-50, 197-8; 
vol. ii., p. Ill; Cornwallis' New El Dorado, p. 100; Forbes' Vane. Lsl., pp. 
51-5; Rattray's Vane. Lsl., pp. 77-8, 82 3; Had. Bay Co., Bept. Spec. Com. 
1857, p. 111. 

64 Sulil y Mexicana, Viage, pp. 57, 63, 78; Jewitt's Nar., pp. 78-81; Van- 
couver's Voy., vol. i., p. 307; Macfie's Vane, lsl., p. 413; Cox's Adven., vol. i., 
p. 100. ' The native bow, like the canoe and paddle, is beautifully formed. 
It is generally made of yew or crab-apple wood, and is three and a half feet 
long, with about two inches at each end turned sharply backwards from the 
string. The string is a piece of dried seal-gut, deer-sinew, or twisted bark. 
The arrows are about thirty inches long, and are made of pine or cedar, 
tipped with six inches of serrated bone, or with two unbarbed bone or iron 
prongs. I have never seen an Aht arroAV with a barbed head.' SproaVs 
Scenes, p. 82. ' Having now to a great extent discarded the use of the tradi- 
tional tomahawk and spear. Many of these weapons are, however, still pre- 
served as heirlooms among them.' Barrett-Lennard's Trav., p. 12. 'No bows 
and arrows.' ' Generally tight hand to hand, and not with missiles.' Fitzwil- 
liam's Evidence, in Hud. Bay Co. Bept., 1857, p. 115. 


quarrels being handed down for generations. According 
to their idea, loss of life in battle can only be forgotten 
when an equal number of the hostile tribe are killed. 
Their military tactics consist of stratagem and surprise 
in attack, and watchfulness in defense. Before engag- 
ing in war, some weeks are spent in preparation, which 
consists mainly of abstinence from women, bathing, scrub- 
bing the skin with briers till it bleeds, and finally paint- 
ing the whole body jet-black. All prisoners not suitable 
for slaves are butchered or beheaded. In an attack the 
effort is always made to steal into the adversary's camp 
at night and kill men enough to decide the victory be- 
fore the alarm can be given. "When they fail in this, 
the battle is seldom long continued, for actual hand-to- 
hand fighting is not to the Nootka taste. On the rare 
occasions when it is considered desirable to make over- 
tures of peace, an ambassador is sent with an ornamented 
pipe, and with this emblem his person is safe. Smoking 
a pipe together by hostile chiefs also solemnizes a treaty. 65 
Nootka boats are dug out each from a single pine tree, 
and are made of all sizes from ten to fifty feet long, the 
largest accommodating forty or fifty men. Selecting a 
proper tree in the forest, the aboriginal Nootka fells it 
with a sort of chisel of flint or elk-horn, three by six 
inches, fastened in a wooden handle, and struck by a 
smooth stone mallet. Then the log is split with wooden 
wedges, and the better piece being selected, it is hollowed 
out with the aforesaid chisel, a muscle-shell adze, and a 
bird's-bone gimlet worked between the two hands. Some- 
times, but not always, fire is used as an assistant. The 

65 The Ahts ' do not take the scalp of the enemy, but cut off his head, by 
three dexterous movements of the knife. . . .and the warrior who has taken 
most heads is most praised and feared.' Sproat's Scenes, pp. 186-202. ' Scalp 
every one they kill.' Macfie's Vane. 1st, p. 470, 413, 467. One of the Nootka 
princes assured the Spaniards that the bravest captains ate human flesh be- 
fore engaging in battle. Sutil y Mexicana, Viage, p. 130. The Nittinahts con- 
sider the heads of enemies slain in battle as spolia opima. Whymper's Alaska, 
pp. 54, 78; JetmWs Nar. % pp. 120 1; Lord's Nat., vol. i., pp. 155-6, 158, 166, 
171, vol. ii., p. 251-3. Women keep watch during ihe night, and tell the 
exploits of their nation to keep awake. Meares' Voy., p. 267. Vancouver's 

Voy., vol. i., p. 396; Grant, in. Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 296; 

Mayne's B. C, p. 270; Barre't-Lennard's Trav., pp. 41-2, 129-36. 


exterior is fashioned with the same tools. The boat is 
w iciest in the middle, tapers toward each end, and is 
strengthened by light cross-pieces extending from side to 
side, which, being inserted after the boat is soaked in hot 
water, modify and improve the original form. The bow 
is long and pointed, the stern square-cut or slightly round- 
ed ; both ends are raised higher than the middle by sep- 
arate pieces of wood painted with figures of birds or 
beasts, the head on the bow and the tail on the stern. 
The inside is painted red; the outside, slightly burned, 
is rubbed smooth and black, and for the whale fishery 
is ornamented along the gunwales with a row of small 
shells or seal-teeth, but for purposes of war it is painted 
with figures in white. Paddles are neatly made of hard 
w r ood, about iive and a half feet long with a leaf- shaped 
blade of two feet, sharp at the end, and used as a weapon 
in canoe-fighting. A cross-piece is sometimes added to 
the handle like the top of a crutch. GG 

In addition to the implements alread}^ named are 
chests and boxes, buckets, cups and eating-troughs, all 
of w r ood, either dug out or pinned together; baskets of 
twigs and bags of matting ; all neatly made, and many 
of the articles painted or carved, or ornamented with 
shell work. As among the Haidahs, the dried eulacho/i 
is often used as a lamp. 07 The matting and coarser kinds 

06 'They have no seats. . . .The rowers generally sit on their hams, but 
sometimes they make use of a kind of small stool.' Meares' Voy., pp. 263-4. 
The larger canoes are used for sleeping and eating, being dry and more com- 
fortable than the houses. Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., pp.319, 327, and Alias, 
pi. 41. ' The most skillful canoe-makers among the tribes are the Nitinahts 
and the Klah-oh-quahts. They make canoes for sale to other tribes.' ' The 
baling-dish of the canoes, is always of one shape — the shape of the gable-roof 
of a cottage.' SproaVs Scenes, pp. 85, 87-8; Mayne's B. C, p. 283, and cut on 
title-page. Canoes not in use are hauled up on the beach in front of their 
villages. Grant, in Land. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 301. 'They keep 
time to the stroke of the paddle with their songs.' Jeicitt's Xar., pp. 69-71, 
75; Sutil y Mcxicana, Viage, pp. 39, 133; Lord's Nat., vol. i., p. 144; Van- 
couver's Voy., vol. i., p. 338. Their canoes 'are believed to supply the pat- 
tern after which clipper ships are built.' Macfie's Vane. Ish, pp. 484, 430. 
Barrelt-Lennard' s Trav., p. 50. Colycr, in Lid. Aff. Bept., 1869, p. 533. 

67 Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., pp. 271, 308, 316, 326, 329-30. Sproat's 
Scenes, pp. 86-9, 317; Sutil y Mexicana, Viage, p. 129; Lord's Nat., vol. ii., 
pp. 257-8, which describes a painted and ornamented plate of native copper 
some one and a half by two and a half feet, kept with great care in a wooden 
case, also elaborately ornamented. It was the property of the tribe at Fort 


of cloth are made of rushes and of pine or cedar bark, 
which after being soaked is beaten on a plank with a 
grooved instrument of wood or bone until the fibres are 
separated. The threads are twisted into cords between 
the hand and thigh; these cords, hung to a horizontal 
beam and knotted with finer thread at regular intervals, 
form the cloth. Thread of the same bark is used with 
a sharpened twig for a needle. Intercourse with Euro- 
peans has modified their manufactures, and checked the 
development of their native ingenuity. 68 

Captain Cook found among the Ahts very "strict no- 
tions of their having a right to the exclusive property 
of everything that their country produces," so that they 
claimed pay for even wood, water, and grass. The limits 
of tribal property are very clearly defined, but individ- 
uals rarely claim any property in land. Houses belong 
to the men who combine to build them. Private wealth 
consists of boats and implements for obtaining food, do- 
mestic utensils, slaves, and blankets, the latter being 
generally the standard by which wealth or price is 
computed. Food is not regarded as common property, 
yet any man may help himself to his neighbor's store 
when needy. The accumulation of property beyond the 
necessities of life is only considered desirable for the 
purpose of distributing it in presents on great feast-days, 
and thereby acquiring a reputation for wealth and lib- 
eralit}' ; and as these feasts occur frequently, an unsuc- 
cessful man may often take a fresh start in the race. 
Instead of being given away, canoes and blankets are 
often destroyed, which proves that the motive in this 
disposal of property is not to favor friends, but merely 
to appear indifferent to wealth. It is certainly a most 

Rupert, and was highly prized, and only brought out on great occasions, 
though its use was not discovered. Macjie's Vane. 1st., p. 165. 

G8 Woolen cloths of all degrees of fineness, made by hand and worked in 
figures, by a method not known. Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., p. 325. Sutil y 
Mexieana, Viage, pp. 46, 136; Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 254. Sprout's Scenes, pp. 
88-9; Jeijcilt's Nar., p. 55; Macjie's Vane. Is/., pp. 442, 451, 483-5; Mofras, 
Explor., torn, ii., p. 344; Pemberton's Vane. Isl., p. 131; Cornwallis' New El 
Dorado, pp. 99-100. 'The implement used for weaving, (by the Teets) dif- 
fered in no apparent respect from the rude loom of the days of the Phara- 
ohs.' Anderson, in Hist. Mag., vol. vii., p. 78. 


remarkable custom, and one that exerts a great influence 
on the whole people. Gifts play an important part in 
procuring a wife, and a division of property accompanies 
a divorce. To enter the ranks of the medicine-men or 
magicians, or to attain rank of any kind, property must 
be sacrificed ; and a man who receives an insult or suffers 
any affliction must tear up the requisite quantity of 
blankets and shirts, if he would retain his honor. 69 Trade 
in all their prod actions was carried on briskly between 
the different Nootka tribes before the coming of the 
whites. They manifest much shrewdness in their ex- 
changes; even their system of presents is a species of 
trade, the full value of each gift being confidently ex- 
pected in a return present on the next festive occasion. 
In their intertribal commerce, a band holding a strong 
position where trade by canoes between different parts 
may be stopped, do not fail to offer and enforce the ac- 
ceptance of their services as middlemen, thereby greatly 
increasing market prices. 70 

The system of numeration, sufficiently extensive for 
the largest numbers, is decimal, the numbers to ten 
having names which are in some instances compounds 
but not multiples of smaller numbers. The fingers are 
used to aid in counting. The year is divided into months 
with some reference to the moon, but chiefly by the fish- 
seasons, ripening of berries, migrations of birds, and 
other periodical events, for which the months are named, 
as: 'when the herrings spawn,' etc. The unit of meas- 
ure is the span, the fingers representing its fractional 
parts. 71 The Nootkas display considerable taste in orna- 

to.Sproat's Scenes, pp. 79-81, 89, 9G, 111-13; Kane's Wand., pp. 220-1; 
Macjie's Vane. Jsl., pp. 429, 437; Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., p. 284; SutUy 
Mexicana, Viage, p. 147; Lord's Nat, vol. i., pp. 165-6; Mayne's B. C, 263-5. 

io Jewitt's Nar., pp. 78-80; Sproat's Semes, pp. 19, 55, '78-9, 92. Before 
the adoption of blankets as a currency, they used small shells from the coast 
bays for coin, and they are still used by some of the more remote tribes. 
Grant, in Lond. Geog, ISoc. dour., vol. xxvii., p. 307. 'Their acuteness in 
barter is remarkable.' Forbes' Vane. Isl., p. 25. 

71 The Ahts ' divide the year into thirteen months, or rather moons, and 
begin with the one that pretty well answers to our November. At the same 
time, as their names are applied to each actual new moon as it appears, they 
are not, by half a month and more (sometimes), identical with our calendar 


meriting with sculpture and paintings their implements 
and houses, their chief efforts being made on the posts 
of the latter, and the wooden masks which they wear 
in war and some of their dances; but all implements 
may be more or less carved and adorned according to 
the artist's fancy. They sometimes paint fishing and 
hunting scenes, but generally their models exist only 
in imagination, and their works consequently assume 
unintelligible forms. There seems to be no evidence 
that their carved images and complicated paintings are 
in any sense intended as idols or hieroglyphics. A rude 
system of heraldry prevails among them, by which some 
animal is adopted as a family crest, and its figure is 
painted or embroidered on canoes, paddles, or blankets. 72 
To the Nootka system of government the terms patri- 
archal, hereditary, and feudal have been applied. There 
is no confederation, each tribe being independent of all 
the rest, except as powerful tribes are naturally domi- 
nant over the weak. In each tribe the head chief's rank 
is hereditary by the male line ; his grandeur is displayed 
on great occasions, when, decked in all his finery, he is 
the central figure. At the frequently recurring feasts of 
state he occupies the seat of honor ; presides at all coun- 
cils of the tribe, and is respected and highly honored by 
all; but has no real authority over any but his slaves. 
Between the chief, or king, and the people is a nobility, 
in number about one fourth of the whole tribe, composed 
of several grades, the highest being partially hereditary, 
but also, as are all the lower grades, obtainable by feats 

months.' SproaVs Scenes, pp. 121-4. 'Las personas mas cultas dividen el 
ario en catorce meses, y cada uno de estos en veinte dias, agregando luego 
algunos dias intercaiares al fin de cada mes. El de Julio, que ellos llaman 
Satz-tzi-mitl, y es el primero de su ano, a mas de sus veinte dias ordinarios 
tiene tantos intercaiares quantos dura la abundancia de lenguados, atunes, 
etc.' Sutil y Mexicana, Viaqe, pp. 153-4, 148; Grant, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., 
voL xxvii., pp. 295, 30 1; Lord's AaL, vol. ii., pp. 24*2-4. 

72 ' They shew themselves ingenious sculptors. They not only preserve, 
with great exactness, the general character of their own faces, but finish the 
more minute parts, with a degree of accuracy in proportion, and neatness in 
execution.' Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., pp. 326-7, and At'as, pi. 40; Lord's 
Nat., vol. i., pp. 1C4-5, vol. ii., pp. 257-8, and cut, p. 103; Macfie's Vane. 
IsL, pp. 444-7, 484; Mayne's B. C, cut on p. 271. 
Vol. I. 13 


of valor or great liberality. All chieftains must be con- 
firmed by the tribe , and some of them appointed by the 
king; each man's rank is clearly defined in the tribe, and 
corresponding privileges strictly insisted on. There are 
chiefs who have full authority in warlike expeditions. 
Harpooners also form a privileged class, whose rank is 
handed down from father to son. This somewhat com- 
plicated system of government nevertheless sits lightly, 
since the people are neither taxed nor subjected to any 
laws, nor interfered with in their actions. Still, long- 
continued custom serves as law and marks out the few 
duties and privileges of the Nootka citizen. Stealing 
is not common except from strangers; and offenses re- 
quiring punishment are usually avenged — or pardoned 
in consideration of certain blankets received — by the 
injured parties and their friends, the chiefs seeming to 
have little or nothing to do in the matter. 73 

73 ' In an Alit tribe of two hundred men, perhaps fifty possess various de- 
grees of acquired or inherited rank; there may be about as many slaves; the 
remainder are independent members.' Some of the Klah-oh-quahts 'pay 
annually to their chief certain contributions, consisting of blankets, skins, 
etc' 'A chief's "blue blood" avails not in a dispute with one of his own 
people; he must fight his battle like a common man.' fproat's Scenes, pp. 
113-17, 18-20, 226. Cheslakees, a chief on Johnson's Strait, was inferior 
but not subordinate in authority to Maquinna, the famous king at Nootka 
Sound, but the chief at Loughborough's Channel claimed to be under Ma- 
quinna. Vancouver's Fby.,vol.i.,pp. 346, 331. ' La dignidad de Tays es heredi- 
taria de padres a hijos, y pasa regularmente a estos luego que estan en edad 
de gobernar, si los padres por ancianidad u. otras causas no pueden seguir 
mandando.' 'El gobierno de estos naturales puede llamarse Patriarcal; pues 
el Xefe de la nacion hace a un mismo tiempo los oficios de padre de familia, 
de Rey y de Sumo Sacerdote.' 'Los nobles gozan de tanta consideracion en 
Xutka, que ni aim de palabra se atreven los Tayses a reprehenderlos.' ' To- 
dos consideraban a este (Maquinna) como Soberano de las costas, desde la 
de Buena Esperanza hasta la punta de Arrecifes, con todos los Canales interi- 
ores.' To steal, or to know carnally a girl nine years old, is punished with 
death. Sutil y Mexioana, Viage, pp. 140, 136, 147, 19, 25. 'There are such 
men as Chiefs, who are distinguished by the name or title of Acweek, and to 
whom the others are, in some measure, subordinate. But, I should guess, 
the authority of each of these great men extends no farther than the family 
to which he belongs.' Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., pp. 333-4. 'La forme de 
leur gouvernement est toute patriarcale, et la dignite de chef, hereditaire.' 
Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., p. 346. Several very populous villages to the north- 
ward, included in the territory of Maquilla, the head chief, were entrusted to 
the government of the principal of his female relations. The whole govern- 
ment formed a political bond of union similar to the feudal system which 
formerly obtained in Europe. Mcares' Voy., pp. 228-9. ' The king or head 
Tyee, is their leader in war, in the management of which he is perfectly ab- 
solute. He is also president of their councils, which are almost always reg- 
ulated by his opinion. But he has no kind of power over the property of his 


Slavery is practiced by all the tribes, and the slave- 
trade forms an important part of their commerce. Slaves 
are about the only property that must not be sacrificed 
to acquire the ever-desired reputation for liberality. 
Only rich men — according to some authorities only the 
nobles — may hold slaves. War and kidnapping supply 
the slave-market, and no captive, whatever his rank in 
his own tribe, can escape this fate, except by a heavy 
ransom offered soon after he is taken, and before his 
whereabouts becomes unknown to his friends. Children 
of slaves, whose fathers are never known, are forever 
slaves. The power of the owner is arbitrary and un- 
limited over the actions and life of the slave, but a cruel 
exercise of his power seems of rare occurrence, and, 
save the hard labor required, the material condition of 
the slave is but little worse than that of the common 
free people, since he is sheltered b}^ the same roof and 
partakes of the same food as his master. Socially the 
slave is despised ; his hair is cut short, and his very name 
becomes a term of reproach. Female slaves are prosti- 
tuted for hire, especially in the vicinity of white settle- 
ments. A runaway slave is generally seized and resold 
by the first tribe he meets. 74 

The Nootka may have as many wives as he can buy, 
but as prices are high, polygamy is practically restricted 
to the chiefs, who are careful not to form alliances with 

subjects.' Jewilt's New.., pp. 138-9, 47, 69, 73. Kane's Wand., pp. 220-1. 'There 
is no code of laws, nor do the chiefs possess the power or means of maintain- 
ing a regular government; but their personal influence is nevertheless very 
great with their followers.' Douglas, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxiv., p. 246. 
74 ' Usually kindly treated, eat of the same food, and live as well as their 
masters.' 'None but the king and chiefs have slaves.' 'Maquinna had 
nearly fifty, male and female, in his house. JevcUVs Nar., pp. 73-4. Meares 
states that slaves are occasionally sacrificed and feasted ujDon. Voy., p. 255. 
The Newettee tribe nearly exterminated by kidnappers. Dunn's Oregon, p. 
212. 'An owner might bring half a dozen slaves out of his house and kill 
them publicly in a row without any notice being taken of the atrocity. But 
the slave, as a rule, is not harshly treated.' ' Some of the smaller tribes at 
the north of the Island are practically regarded as slave-breeding tribes, and 
are attacked periodically by stronger tribes. ' The American shore of the strait 
is also a fruitful source of slaves. Sproat's Scenes, pp. 89-92. ' They say that 
one Flathead slave is worth more than two Roundheads.' Rept. hid. Aff., 1857, 
p. 327; Mayne's B. C, p. 284; Grant, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 
296; Lord's Nat., vol. i., pp. 154-5, 166; Kane's Wand., p. 220; Sutil y Mexi- 
cana, Viage, p. 131; Maefie's Vane. M., pp. 431, 442, 470-1. 


families beneath them in rank. Especially particular as 
to rank are the chiefs in choosing their first wife, always 
preferring the daughters of noble families of another tribe. 
Courtship consists in an offer of presents by the lover to 
the girl's father, accompanied generally by lengthy speech- 
es of friends on both sides, extolling the value of the man 
and his gift, and the attractions of the bride. After the 
bargain is concluded, a period of feasting follows if the 
parties are rich, but this is not necessary as a part of 
the marriage ceremony. Betrothals are often made by 
parents while the parties are yet children, mutual de- 
posits of blankets and other property being made as 
securities for the fulfillment of the contract, which is 
rarely broken. Girls marry at an average age of sixteen. 
The common Xootka obtains his one bride from his own 
rank also by a present of blankets, much more humble 
than that of his rich neighbor, and is assisted in his 
overtures by perhaps a single friend instead of being 
followed by the whole tribe. Courtship among this class 
is not altogether without the attentions which render it 
so charming in civilized life; as when the fond girl lov- 
ingly caresses and, searches her lover's head, always giv- 
ing him the fattest of her discoveries. Wives are not 
ill treated, and although somewhat overworked, the di- 
vision of labor is not so oppressive as among many 
Indian tribes. Men build houses, make boats and im- 
plements, hunt and fish; women prepare the fish and 
game for winter use, cook, manufacture cloth and cloth- 
ing, and increase the stock of food by gathering berries 
and shell-fish ; and most of this work among the richer 
class is done by slaves. Wives are consulted in matters 
of trade, and in fact seem to be nearly on terms of equal- 
ity with their husbands, except that they are excluded 
from some public feasts and ceremonies. There is much 
reason to suppose that before the advent of the whites, the 
Nootka wife was comparatively faithful to her lord, that 
chastity w r as regarded as a desirable female quality, and of- 
fenses against it severely punished. The females so freely 
brought on board the vessels of early voyagers and offered 


to the men, were perhaps slaves, who are everywhere 
prostituted for gain, so that the fathers of their children 
are never known. Women rarely have more than two 
or three children, and cease bearing at about twenty-five, 
frequently preventing the increase of their family by 
abortions. Pregnancy and childbirth affect them but 
little. The male child is named at birth, but his name 
is afterwards frequently changed. He is suckled by the 
mother until three or four years old, and at an early 
age begins to learn the arts of fishing by which he is to 
live. Children are not quarrelsome among themselves, 
and are regarded by both parents with some show of 
affection and pride. Girls at puberty are closely con- 
fined for several days, and given a little water but no 
food ; they are kept particularly from the sun or fire, to 
see either of which at this period would be a lasting dis- 
grace. At such times feasts are given by the parents. 
Divorces or separations may be had at will by either 
party, but a strict division of property and return of 
betrothal presents is expected, the woman being allowed 
not only the property she brought her husband, and ar- 
ticles manufactured by her in wedlock, but a certain pro- 
portion of the common wealth. Such property as be- 
longs to the father and is not distributed in gifts during 
his life, or destroyed at his death, is inherited by the 
eldest son. 75 

75 'The women go to bed first, and are up first in the morning to prepare 
breakfast,' p. 52. ' The condition of the Aht women is not one of unseemly 
inferiority,' p. 93. 'Their female relations act as midwives. There is no 
separate place for lying-in. The child, on being born, is rolled up in a mat 
among feathers.' 'They suckle one child till another comes,' p. 94. ' A girl 
who was known to have lost her virtue, lost with it one of her chances of a 
favourable marriage, and a chief. . . .would have put his daughter to death for 
such a lapse, ' p. 95. In case of a separation, if the parties belong to different 
tribes, the children go with the mother, p. 96. ' No traces of the existence of 
polyandry among the Ahts,' p. 99. The personal modesty of the Aht women 
when young is much greater than that of the men, p. 315. fiproat's Scenes, 
pp. 28-30, 50-2, 93-102, 160, 264, 315. One of the chiefs said that three was 
the number of wives permitted' 'como numero necesario para no comunicar 
con la que estuviese en cinta.' 'Muchos de ellos mueren sin casarse.' 'El 
Tays no puede hacer uso de sus mugeres sin ver enteramente iluminado el 
disco de la luna.' SutU y Mexicana, Viage, pp. 141-6. Women treated with 
no particular respect in any situation. Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., p. 318. 
Persons of the same crest are not allowed to marry. ' The child again always 
takes the crest of the mother.' 'As a rule also, descent is traced from the 


From the middle of November to the middle of Jan- 
uary, is the Nootka season of mirth and festivity, when 
nearly the whole time is occupied with public and pri- 
vate gaiety. Their evenings are privately passed by the 
family group within doors in conversation, singing, jok- 
ing, boasting of past exploits, personal and tribal, and 
teasing the women until bed -time, when one by one they 
retire to rest in the same blankets worn during the day. 7G 
Swimming and trials of strength by hooking together 
the little fingers, or scuffling for a prize, seem to be the 
only out-door amusements indulged in by adults, while 
the children shoot arrows and hurl spears at grass figures 
of birds and fishes, and prepare themselves for future 
conflicts by cutting off the heads of imaginary enemies 
modeled in mud. 77 To gambling the Nootkas are pas- 
sionately addicted, but their games are remarkably few 
and uniform. Small bits of wood compose their entire 
paraphernalia, sometimes used like dice, when the game 
depends on the side turned up; or passed rapidly from 
hand to hand, when the gamester attempts to name the 
hand containing the trump stick; or again concealed in 
dust spread over & blanket and moved about by one play- 
er that the rest may guess its location. In plajing they 
always form a circle seated on the ground, and the women 
rarely if ever join the game. 78 They indulge in smok- 

mother, not from the father.' 'Intrigue with the wives of men of other 
tribes is one of the commonest causes of quarrel among the Indians.' Mayne's 
B. C, pp. 257-8, 276; Macfie's Vane, lsl., pp. 444-7. The women are 'Very 
reserved and chaste.' Heaves' Voy., pp. 251, 258, 265, 268; Kane's Wand., 
pp. 239-40. The Indian woman, to sooth her child, makes use of a springy 
stick fixed obliquely in the ground to which the cradle is attached by a string, 
forming a convenient baby-jumper. Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 259; I'emberton's 
Vane. IsL, p. 131; Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., pp. 346-7. 'Where there are 
no slaves in the tribe or family they perform all the drudgery of bringing 
firewood, water, &c.' Grant, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., pp. 298-9, 
304. No intercourse between the newly married pair for a period of ten 
days, p. 129. 'Perhaps in no part of the world is virtue more prized,' p. 74. 
Jewitt's Xar., pp. 59-60, 74, 127-9; Cornwallis' New El Dorado, p. 101. 

76 'When relieved from the presence of strangers, they have much easy 
and social conversation among themselves.' ' The conversation is frequently 
coarse and indecent.' SproaVs Semes, pp. 50-1. ' Cantando y baylando al 
rededor de las hogueras, abandonandose a todos los excesos de la liviandad.' 
Sutil y Mexicana, Viage, p. 133. 

77 Sprout's Scenes, pp. 55-6; SvMl y Mexicana, Vfctge, p. 144. 

7 8 Grant, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 299; JIayne's B. C, pp. 


ing, the only pipes of their own manufacture being of 
plain cedar, filled now with tobacco by those who can 
afford it, but in which they formerly smoked, as it is 
supposed, the leaves of a native plant — still mixed with 
tobacco to lessen its intoxicating properties. The pipe 
is passed round after a meal, but seems to be less used 
in serious ceremonies than among eastern Indian na- 
tions. 79 

But the Nootka amusement par excellence is that of 
feasts, given by the richer classes and chiefs nearly every 
evening during l the season.' Male and female heralds are 
employed ceremoniously to invite the guests, the house hav- 
ing been first cleared of its partitions, and its floor spread 
with mats. 80 As in countries more civilized, the common 
people go early to secure the best seats, their allotted place 
being near the door. The elite come later, after being 
repeatedly sent for; on arrival they are announced by 
name, and assigned a place according to rank. In one 
corner of the hall the fish and whale-blubber are boiled 
by the wives of the chiefs, who serve it to the guests in 
pieces larger or smaller, according to their rank. What 
can not be eaten must be carried home. Their drink or- 
dinarily is pure water, but occasionally berries of a pecu- 
liar kind, preserved in cakes, are stirred In until a froth is 
formed which swells the body of the drinker nearly to 
bursting. 81 Eating is followed by conversation and speech- 
making, oratory being an art highly prized, in which, 
with their fine voices, they become skillful. Finally, 
the floor is cleared for dancing. In the dances in which 
the crowd participate, the dancers, with faces painted in 
black and vermilion, form a circle round a few leaders 
who give the step, which consists chiefly in jumping with 

275-6; Pemberton's Vane. Isl., p. 134; Macfie's Vane. Isl., p. 414; Barrett- 
Lennard's Trav., p. 53. 

79 Sproat's Scenes, p. 2G9. But Lord says 'nothing can be done without 
it.' Nat., vol. i., p. 108. 

80 The Indian never invites any of the same crest as himself. Macfie's 
Vane. Isl., 445. 'They are very particular about whom they invite to their 
feasts, and, on great occasions, men and women feast separately, the women 
always taking the precedence.' Duncan, in Mayne's B. C, pp. 2G3-G; Sproat's 
Scents, pp. 59-G3. 

81 Lord's Nat, vol. i., pp. 259-GO. 


both feet from the ground, brandishing weapons or bunch- 
es of feathers, or sometimes simply bending the body with- 
out moving the feet. As to the participation of women 
in these dances, authorities do not agree. 82 In a sort of 
conversational dance all pass briskly round the room to 
the sound of music, praising in exclamations the build- 
ing and all within it, while another dance requires many 
to climb upon the roof and there continue their motions. 
Their special or character dances are man}', and in them 
they show much dramatic talent. A curtain is stretched 
across a corner of the room to conceal the preparations, 
and the actors, fantastically dressed, represent personal 
combats, hunting scenes, or the actions of different ani- 
mals. In the seal-dance naked men jump into the water 
and then crawl out and over the floors, imitating the 
motions of the seal. Indecent performances are men- 
tioned by some visitors. Sometimes in these dances 
men drop suddenly as if dead, and are at last revived 
by the doctors, who also give dramatic or magic perform- 
ances at their houses; or they illuminate a wax moon 
out on the water, and make the natives believe they are 
communing with the man in the moon. To tell just 
where amusement ceases and solemnity begins in these 
dances is impossible. 83 Birds' down forms an important 
item in the decoration at dances, especially at the recep- 
tion of strangers. All dances, as well as other cere- 
monies, are accompanied by continual music, instrumental 
and vocal. The instruments are: boxes and benches 

82 ' I have never seen an Indian woman dance at a feast, and believe it is 
seldom if ever done.' Mayne's B. C., pp. 267-9. The women generally ' form 
a separate circle, and chaunt and jump by themselves.' Grant, in Lc»id. Geog. 
Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 306. 'As a rule, the men and women do not dance 
together; when the men are dancing the women sing and beat time,' but 
there is a dance performed by both sexes. Sproat's Scenes, pp. 66-7. ' On 
other occasions a male chief will invite a party of female guests to share his 
hospitality.' Macfie's Vane, lsl., p. 431. 'Las mugeres baylan desayradisi- 
niamente ; rara vez se prestan a est<i diversion. ' Sutil y Mexicana, Viage, p. 152. 

83 ' La decencia obliga a pasar en silenck) log bayles obscenos de los Mis- 
chimis (common people), especialmente el del impotente a causa de la edad, 
y el del pobre que no ha podido casarse.' Sutil y Mexicana, Viage, pp. 151-2, 
18; Macfie's Vane. IsL, pp. 432-7; Sproat's Scenes, pp. 65-71; Mayne's B. C, 
pp. '266-7; Jeuritt's Nar., p. 389; Grant, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol xxvii., 
p. 30L> ; Cvrnucallis' JS'eui El Dorado, pp. 99-103. 


struck with sticks ; a plank hollowed out on the under 
side and beaten with drum-sticks about- a foot long; a 
rattle made of dried seal-skin in the form of a fish, with 
pebbles ; a whistle of deer-bone about an inch long with 
one hole, which like the rattle can only be used by chiefs ; 
and a bunch of muscle-shells, to be shaken like castanets. 84 
Their songs are monotonous chants, extending over but 
few notes, varied by occasional howls and whoops in some 
of the more spirited melodies, pleasant or otherwise, ac- 
cording to the taste of the hearer. 85 Certain of their 
feasts are given periodically by the head chiefs, which 
distant tribes attend, and during which take place the 
distributions of property already mentioned. Whenever 
a gift is offered, etiquette requires the recipient to snatch 
it rudely from the donor with a stern and surly look. 86 

Among the miscellaneous customs noticed by the differ- 
ent authorities already quoted, may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing. Daily bathing in the sea is practiced, the vapor- 
bath not being used. Children are rolled in the snow by 
their mothers to make them hardy. Camps and other 
property are moved from place to place by piling them on 
a plank platform built across the canoes. Whymper saw 
Indians near Bute Inlet carrying burdens on the back by 
a strap across the forehead. In a fight they rarely strike 
but close and depend on pulling hair and scratching; a 
chance blow must be made up by a present. Invitations 

84 Jewitt's Nar., pp. 39, QQ, 72-3; Vancouver's Voy., vol. iii., pp. 307-10; 
Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., pp. 310-11. 

85 Their music is mostly grave and serious, and in exact concert, when 
sung by great numbers. ' Variations numerous and expressive, and the ca- 
dence or melody powerfully soothing.' Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., pp. 310- 
11, 283. Dislike European music. Sutily Mexicana, Viage, pp. 151-2. 'Their 
tunes are generally soft and plaintive, and though not possessing great va- 
riety, are not deficient in harmony.' Jewitt thinks the words of the songs 
maybe borrowed from other tribes. Jewitt's Nar., p. 72, and specimen of 
war song, p. 1G6. Airs consist of five or six bars, varying slightly, time being 
beaten in the middle of the bar. ' Melody they have none, there is nothing 
soft, pleasing, or touching in their airs; they are not, however, without some 
degree of rude harmony.' Grant, in Loud. Ceog. Soe. Jour., vol. xviii., p. 306. 
'A certain beauty of natural expression in many of the native strains, if it 
were possible to relieve them from the monotony which is their fault.' There 
are old men, wandering minstrels, who sing war songs and beg. 'It is re- 
markable how aptly the natives catch and imitate songs heard from settlers 
or travelers.' Sprout's Scenes, pp. 03-5. 

80 Maqfie'8 Vane. Isl., pp. 430-1; Jewitt's Nar., p. 39. 


to eat must not be declined, no matter how often repeated. 
Out of doors there is no native gesture of salutation, but 
in the houses a guest is motioned politely to a couch; 
guests are held sacred, and great ceremonies are per- 
formed at the reception of strangers ; all important events 
are announced by heralds. Friends sometimes saunter 
along hand in hand. A secret society, independent of 
tribe, family, or crest, is supposed by Sproat to exist among 
them, but its purposes are unknown. In a palaver 
with whites the orator holds a long white pole in his 
hand, which he sticks occasionally into the ground by 
way of emphasis. An animal chosen as a crest must 
not be shot or ill-treated in the presence of any wearing 
its figure; boys recite portions of their elders' speeches 
as declamations; names are changed many times during 
life, at the will of the individual or of the tribe. 

In sorcery, witchcraft, prophecy, dreams, evil spir- 
its, and the transmigration of souls, the Nootkas are firm 
believers, and these beliefs enable the numerous sorcer- 
ers of different grades to acquire great power in the 
tribes by their strange ridiculous ceremonies. Most of 
their tricks are transparent, being deceptions worked by 
the aid of confederates to keep up their power; but, as 
in all religions, the votary must have some faith in the 
efficacy of their incantations. The sorcerer, before giv- 
ing a special demonstration, retires apart to meditate. 
After spending some time alone in the forests and mount- 
ains, fasting and lacerating the flesh, he appears sud- 
denly before the tribe, emaciated, wild with excitement, 
clad in a strange costume, grotesquely painted, and 
wearing a hideous mask. The scenes that ensue are 
indescribable, but the aim seems to be to commit all the 
wild freaks that a maniac's imagination may devise, 
accompanied by the most unearthly yells which can ter- 
rorize the heart. Live dogs and dead human bodies are 
seized and torn by their teeth ; but, at least in later times, 
they seem not to attack the living, and their perform- 
ances arc somewhat less horrible and bloody than the 
wild orgies of the northern tribes. The sorcerer is 


thought to have more influence with bad spirits than 
with good, and is always resorted to in the case of any 
serious misfortune. New members of the fraternity are 
initiated into the mysteries by similar ceremonies. Old 
women are not without their traditional mysterious pow- 
ers in matters of prophecy and witchcraft ; and all chiefs 
in times of perplexity practice fasting and laceration. 
Dreams are believed to be the visits of spirits or of the 
wandering soul of some living party, and the unfortu- 
nate Xootka boy or girl whose blubber-loaded stomach 
causes uneasy dreams, must be properly hacked, scorched, 
smothered, and otherwise tormented until the evil spirit 
is appeased. 87 Whether or not these people were can- 
nibals, is a disputed question, but there seems to be little 
doubt that slaves have been sacrificed and eaten as a 

part of their devilish rites. 88 


87 ' I have seen the sorcerers at work a hundred times, but they use so 
many charms, which appear to me ridiculous, — they sing, howl, and gesticu- 
late in so extravagant a manner, and surround their office with such dread 
and mystery, — that I am quite unable to describe their performances,' pp. 
169-70. 'An unlucky dream will stop a sale, a treaty, a fishing, hunting, 
or war expedition,' p. 175. Sproat's Scenes, pp. 1G5-75. A chief, offered a 
piece of tobacco for allowing his portrait to be made, said it was a small re- 
ward for risking his life. Kane's Wand., p. 240. Shrewd individuals impose 
on their neighbors by pretending to receive a revelation, telling them where 
fish or berries are most abundant. Description of initiatory ceremonies of 
the sorcerers. Macfie's Vane. Isl., pp. 446, 433-7, 451. JewiWs Nar., pp. 98-9. 
A brave prince goes to a distant lake, jumps from a high rock into the water, 
and rubs all the skin off his face with pieces of rough bark, amid the ap- 
plause of his attendants. Description of king's prayers, and ceremonies to 
bring rain. Sutil y Mexicana, Via</e, pp. 145-6, 37. Candidates are thrown 
into a state of mesmerism before their initiation. ' Medicus,' in Hulchings' Col. 
Mag., vol. v., pp. 227-8; Barrett- Lennard' s Trav., pp. 51-3; Californias, Noti- 
cUis, pp. 61-85. 

88 They brought for sale 'human skulls, and hands not yet quite stripped 
of the flesh, which they made our people plainly understand they had eaten; 
and, indeed, some of them had evident marks that they had been upon the 
fire.' Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., p. 271. Slaves are occasionally sacrificed 
and feasted upon. Meares' Voy., p. 255. 'No todos habian comido la carne 
humana, ni en todo tiempo, sino solamente losguerreros mas animosos quan- 
do se preparaban para salir a campana.' ' Parece indudable que estos salva- 
ges han sido antropofagos.' Sutil y Mexicana, Viaye, p. 130. 'At Nootka 
Sound, and at the Sandwich Islands, Ledyard witnessed instances of canni- 
balism. In both places he saw human flesh prepared for food.' Spark's Life 
of Ledyard, p. 74; Cornwallis' New El Dorado, pp. 104-6. ' Cannibalism, ail- 
though unknown among the Indians of the Columbia, is practised by the 
savages on the coast to the northward.' Cox's Adven., vol. i., pp. 310-11. The 
cannibal ceremonies quoted by Macfie and referred to Vancouver Island, 
probably were intended for the Haidahs farther north. Vane. Isl., p. 434. A 
slave as late as 1850 was drawn up and down a pole by a hook through the 


The Nootkas are generally a long-lived race, and from 
the beginning to the failing of manhood undergo little 
change in appearance. Jewitt states that during his cap- 
tivity of three years at Nootka Sound, only five natural 
deaths occurred, and the people suffered scarcely any dis- 
ease except the colic. Sproat mentions as the common- 
est diseases; bilious complaints, dysentery, a consumption 
which almost always follows syphilis, fevers, and among 
the aged, ophthalmia. Accidental injuries, as cuts, bruis- 
es, sprains, and broken limbs, are treated with con- 
siderable success by means of simple salves or gums, 
cold water, pine-bark bandages, and wooden splints. 
Natural pains and maladies are invariably ascribed to the 
absence or other irregular conduct of the soul, or to the 
influence of evil spirits, and all treatment is directed to 
the recall of the former and to the appeasing of the latter. 
Still, so long as the ailment is slight, simple means are 
resorted to, and the patient is kindly cared for by the 
women; as when headache, colic, or rheumatism is 
treated by the application of hot or cold water, hot ashes, 
friction, or the swallowing of cold teas made from vari- 
ous roots and leaves. Nearly every disease has a specific 
for its cure. Oregon grape and other herbs cure syphilis; 
wasp-nest powder is a tonic, and blackberries an astring- 
ent; hemlock bark forms a plaster, and dog- wood bark 
is a strengthener ; an infusion of }'Oung pine cones or 
the inside scrapings of a human skull prevent too rapid 
family increase, while certain plants facilitate abortion. 
When a sickness becomes serious, the sorcerer or medi- 
cine-man is called in and incantations begin, more or less 
noisy according to the amount of the prospective fee 

skin and tendons of the back, and afterwards devoured. 3fedicus, in Hatch- 
ings' Gal. Mag., vol. v., p, 223. L 'anthropophagi e a ete longtemps en usage 
.... etpeut-etre y existe-t-elle encore . . . . Le chef Maquina .... tuait un prison- 
nier a chaque lune nouvelle. Tous les chefs etaient invites a cette horrible 
fete.' Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., p. 345. 'It is not improbable that the sus- 
picion that the Nootkans are cannibals may be traced to the practice of 
some custom analagous to the Tzeet-tzaiak. of the Haeel tzuk.' Scoirfei", in 
Loud., Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., pp. 223-4. 'The horrid practice of sacri- 
ficing a victim is not annual, but only occurs either once in three years or 
else at uncertain intervals.' SproaVs Scenes, p. 15G. 


nd the number of relatives and friends who join in the 
proar. A very poor wretch is permitted to die in com- 
arative quiet. In difficult cases the doctor, wrought up 
3 the highest state of excitement, claims to see and hear 
he soul, and to judge of the patient's prospects by its 
osition and movements. The sick man shows little 
jrtitude, and abandons himself helplessly to the doctor's 
idiculous measures. Failing in a cure, the physician 
ets no pay, but if successful, does not fail to make a 
irge demand. Both the old and the helplessly sick are 
requently abandoned by the Ahts to die without aid in 
lie forest. 89 

After death the Xootka's body is promptly put away; 

slave's body is unceremoniously thrown into the wa- 
3r; that of a freeman, is placed in a crouching posture, 
heir favorite one during life, in a deep wooden box, or 
n a canoe, and suspended from the branches of a tree, 
eposited on the ground with a covering of sticks and 
tones, or, more rarely, buried. Common people are usu- 
lly left on the surface ; the nobility are suspended from 
rees at heights differing, as some authorities say, accord- 
ig to rank. The practice of burning the dead seems 
lso to have been followed in some parts of this region, 
lach tribe has a burying-ground chosen on some hill- 
ide or small island. With chiefs, blankets, skins, and 
ther property in large amounts are buried, hung up 
bout the grave, or burned during the funeral ceremo- 
ies, which are not complicated except for the highest 
fficials. The coffins are often ornamented with carv- 

89 Rheumatism and paralysis are rare maladies.' Syphilis is probably 
idigenous. Amputation, blood-letting, and metallic medicine not employed. 
[edicines to produce love are numerous. 'Young and old of both sexes are 
sposed when afflicted with lingering disease.' SproaVs Scenes, pp. 251-7, 282, 
13-4. ' Headache is cured by striking the part affected with small branches 
f the spruce tree.' Doctors are generally chosen from men who have 
lemselves suffered serious maladies. Jlacfie's Vane. IsL, pp. 438-40. 'Their 
are for rheumatism or similar pains .... is by cutting or scarifying the part 
ffected.' Jeicitt's Nar., p. 142. They are sea sick on European vessels. 
^jole's Q. Char. IsL, p. 81. Description of ceremonies. Swan, in Mayne's 
t. C, pp. 261-3, 304. 'The patient is put to bed, and for the most part 
tarved, lest the food should be consumed by his internal enemy.' 'The 
arm and steam bath is very frequently employed.' Medicus, in Hutchings' 
al. Mag., vol. v., pp. 226-8. 


ings or paintings of the deceased man's crest, or with 
rows of shells. When a death occurs, the women of 
the tribe make a general howl, and keep it up at interval 
for many days or months; the men, after a little speech- 
making, keep silent, The family and friends, with black- 
ened faces and hair cut short, follow the body to its last 
resting-place with music and other manifestations of sor- 
row, generally terminating in a feast. There is great 
reluctance to explain their funeral usages to strangers; 
death being regarded by this people with great supersti- 
tion and dread, not from solicitude for the welfare of 
the dead, but from a belief in the power of departed 
spirits to do much harm to the living. 90 

The Nootka character presents all the inconsistencies 
observable among other American aborigines, since there 
is hardly a good or bad trait that has not by some ob- 
server been ascribed to them. Their idiosyncracies as a 
race are perhaps best given by Sproat as "want of ob- 
servation, a great deficiency of foresight, extreme fickle- 
ness in their passions and purposes, habitual suspicion, 
and a love of power and display ; added to which may 
be noticed their ingratitude and revengeful disposition, 

90 The custom of burning or burying property is wholly confined to chiefs. 
'Night is their time for interring the dead.' Buffoon tricks, with a fea>t ami 
dance, formed part of the ceremony. Jewitt's Nar., pp. 105, 111-2, 13G. At Yal- 
des Island, ' we saw two sepulchres built with plank about five feet in height, 
seven in length, and four in breadth. These boards were curiously perforated 
at the ends and sides, and the tops covered with loose pieces of plank;' in- 
closed evidently the relics of many different bodies. Vancouver 's Voy., vol. i., 
pp. 338-9. ' The coffin is usually an old canoe, lashed round and round, like 
an Egyptian mummy-case.' Lord's Nat., vol. i., p. 170. ' There is generally 
some grotesque figure painted on the outside of the box, or roughly sculp- 
tured out of wood and placed by the side of it. For some days after death 
the relatives burn salmon or venison before the tomb.' ' They will never 
mention the name of a dead man.' Grant, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., 
pp. 301-3. ' As a rule, the Indians burn their dead, and then bury the ash- 
es.' ' It was at one time not uncommon for Indians to desert forever a lodge 
in which one of their family had died.' Mayne's B. C, pp. 271-2, with cut of 
graves. For thirty days after the funeral, dirges are chanted at sunrise ami 
sunset. ]\r<icjie's \ r anc. Jsl. , pp. 447-8. Children frequently, but grown persons 
never, were found hanging in trees. Metres' Voy., p. 2(58; Sproat's Scenes, 
pp. 258-63. The bodies of chiefs arc hung in trees on high mountains, 
while those of the commons are buried, that their souls may have a shorter 
journey to their residence in a future life. Sutil y Mexicana, Vht<jc, pp. 139- 
40. 'The Indians never inter their dead,' and rarely burn them. JJurrtit- 
Lennard's Trav., p. 51. 


their readiness for war, and revolting indifference to 
human suffering." These qualities, judged by civilized 
standards censurable, to the Nootka are praiseworthy, 
frrhile contrary qualities are to be avoided. By a strict 
application, therefore, of 'put yourself in his place ' prin- 
ciples, to which most 'good Indians' owe their reputation, 
Vootka character must not be too harshly condemned, 
rhey are not, so far as physical actions are concerned, a 
remarkably lazy people, but their minds, although intel- 
Agent when aroused, are averse to effort and quickly 
fatigued ; nor can they comprehend the advantage of con- 
inued effort for any future good which is at all remote. 
What little foresight they have, has much in common 
with the instinct of beasts. Ordinarily, they are quiet 
md well behaved, especially the higher classes, but when 
mce roused to anger, they rage, bite, spit and kick with- 
)ut the slightest attempt at self-possession. A serious of- 
fense against an individual, although nominally pardoned 
n consideration of presents, can really never be com- 
pletely atoned for except by blood ; hence private, family, 
md tribal feuds continue from generation to generation. 
^omen are not immodest, but the men have no shame. 
Stealing is recognized as a fault, and the practice as be- 
tween members of the same tribe is rare, but skillful pil- 
fering from strangers, if not officially sanctioned, is ex- 
tensively carried on and much admired ; still any prop- 
erty confided in trust to a Nootka is said to be faithfully 
returned. To his wife he is kind and just; to his chil- 
Iren affectionate. Efforts for their conversion to foreign 
religions have been in the highest degree unsuccessful. 91 

91 As light-fingered as any of the Sandwich Islanders. Of a quiet, phleg- 
natic, and inactive disposition.' 'A docile, courteous, good-natured people 
. . . .but quick in resenting what they look upon as an injury; and, like most 
Dther passionate people, as soon forgetting it.' Not curious; indolent; gen- 
erally fair in trade, and would steal only such articles as they wanted for 
some purpose. Cook's Voy. to Pac, vol. ii., pp. 272, 308-12, etc. 'Exceed- 
ingly hospitable in their own homes, .... lack neither courage nor intelli- 
gence.' Pemberton's Vane. 1st., p. 131. The Kla-iz-zarts ' appear to be more 
civilized than any of the others.' The Cayuquets are thought to be deficient 
in courage ; and the Kla-os-quates ' are a fierce, bold, and enterprizing people. ' 
Jewitt's Nar., pp. 75-7. ' Civil and inoffensive ' at Horse Sound. Vancouver's 
Voy., vol. i., p. 307. 'Their moral deformities are as great as their physical 


The Sound Indians, by which term I find it conve- 
nient to designate the nations about Fuget Sound, con- 
stitute the third family of the Columbian group. In 
this division I include all the natives of that part of the 
territory of Washington lying west of the Cascade Range, 
except a strip from twenty-five to forty miles wide along 
the north bank of the Columbia. The north-eastern 
section of this territory, including the San Juan group, 
Whidbey Island, and the region tributary to Bellingham 
Bay, is the home of the Nooksak, Lionmi, Samish and 
Skagit nations, whose neighbors and constant harassers 
on the north are the fierce Kwantlums and Cowichins of 
the Nootka family about the mouth of the Fraser. The 
central section, comprising the shores and islands of 
Admiralty Inlet, Hood Canal, and Puget Sound proper, 
is occupied by numerous tribes with variously spelled 
names, mostly terminating in mish, which names, with 
all their orthographic diversity, have been given gen- 
erally to the streams on whose banks the different na- 
tions dwelt. All these tribes may be termed the Nis- 
qually nation, taking the name from the most numerous 
and best-known of the tribes located about the head of 


the sound. The Clallams inhabit the eastern portion 
of the peninsula between the sound and the Facific. 
The western extremity of the same peninsula, terminat- 
ing at Cape Flattery, is occupied by the Classets or Makahs; 

ones.' Domenech's Deserts, vol. i., p. 88. The Nittinahts given to aggressive 
war, and consequently 'bear a bad reputation.' Whymper's Alaska, p. 74. 
Not brave, and a slight repulse daunts them. ' Sincere in his friendship, kind 
to his wife and children, and devotedly loyal to his own tribe,' p. 51. ' In 
sickness and approaching death, the savage always becomes melancholy,' p. 
1G2. Sprout's Scenes, pp. 30, 36, 52, 91, 119-24, 150-66, 187, 216. ' Comux 
and Yucletah fellows very savage and uncivilized dogs, ' and the Nootkas not 
to be trusted. 'Cruel, bloodthirsty, treacherous and cowardly.' Grant, hi 
Lond. Geocj. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., pp. 294, 296, 298, 305, 307. Mayne's B. C, 
p. 246; Macfie's Vane. IsL, pp. 190, 460-1, 472, 477, 484; Poole's Q. Char. IsL, 
pp. 294-6. The Spaniards gave the Nootkas a much better character than 
voyagers of other nations. Sutil y Mexicana, Viage, pp. 25, 31-2, 57-9, 63, 99, 
107, 133, 149-51, 154-6; Forbes' Vane. IsL, p. '25; Rattray's Vane. IsL, pp. 
172-3. The Ucultas 'are a band of lawless pirates and robbers, levying 
black-mail on all the surrounding tribes.' Barrett- Lennard's Trav., p. 43. 
' Bold and ferocious, sly and reserved, not easily provoked, but revengeful.' 
Spark's life of led yard, p. 72. The Teets have 'all the vices of the coast 
tribes ' with ' none of the redeeming qualities of the interior nations. ' Ander- 
son, in Hist. Mag., vol. vii., p. 78. 


while the Chehalis and Cowlitz nations are found on the 
Chehalis River, Gray Harbor, and the upper Cowlitz. 
Excepting a few bands on the headwaters of streams 
that rise in the vicinity of Mount Baker, the Sound 
family belongs to the coast fish-eating tribes rather than 
to the hunters of the interior. Indeed, this family has 
so few marked peculiarities, possessing apparently no trait 
or custom not found as well among the Nootkas or Chi- 
nooks, that it may be described in comparatively few r 
words. When first known to Europeans they seem to 
have been far less numerous than might have been ex- 
pected from the extraordinary fertility and climatic ad- 
vantages of their country; and since they have been in 
contact with the w T hites, their numbers have been re- 
duced, — chiefly through the agency of small-pox and 
ague, — even more rapidly than the nations farther to the 
north-west. 92 

92 ' Those who came within our notice so nearly resembled the people of 
Nootka, that the best delineation I can offer is a reference to the description 
of those people ' (by Cook), p. 252. At Cape Flattery they closely resembled 
those of Nootka and spoke the same language, p. 218. At Gray Harbor they 
seemed to vary in little or no respect ' from those on the sound, and under- 
stood the Nootka tongue, p. 83. ' The character and appearance of their sev- 
eral tribes here did not seem to differ in any material respect from each other, ' . 
p, 288. Evidence that the country was once much more thickly peopled, p. 
254. Vancouver's Voy., vol. i., pp. 218, 252, 254, 288; vol. ii., p. 83. The 
Chehalis come down as far as Shoal- water Bay. A band of Klikatats (Sa- 
haptins) is spoken of near the head of the Cowlitz. 'The Makahs resemble 
the northwestern Indians far more than their neighbors.' The Lummi are 
a branch of the Clallams. Bept. Ind. Aff., 1854, pp. 240-4. The Lummi 
' traditions lead them to believe that they are descendants of a better race 
than common savages.' The Semianmas 'are intermarried with the north 
band of the Lummis, and Cowegans, and Quantlums. ' The Neuk-wers and Si- 
amanas are called Stick Indians, and in 1852 had never seen a white. 'The 
Neuk-sacks (Mountain Men) trace from the salt water Indians,' and 'are en- 
tirely different from the others.' ' The Loonris appear to be more of a wan- 
dering class than the others about Bellingham Bay.' Id., 1857, pp. 327-9. 
' They can be divided into two classes — the salt-water and the Stick Indians.' 
Id., 1857, p. 224. Of the Nisquallies ' some live in the plains, and others on 
the banks of the Sound.' The Classets have been less affected than the 
Chinooks by fever and ague. Dunn's Oregon, pp. 231-5. The Clallams speak 
a kindred language to that of the Ahts. Sprout's Scenes, p. 270. 'El gobier- 
no de estos naturales de la entrada y canales de Fuca, la disposicion interior 
de las habitaciones las manufacturas y vestidos que usan son muy parecidos 
& los de los habitantes de Nutka.' Suiil y Mexicana, Viwje, p. 111. The Sound 
Indians live in great dread of the Northern tribes. Wilkes' Nar., in U. 8. 
Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 513. The Makahs deem themselves much superior to 
the tribes of the interior, because they go out on the ocean. Scammon, in 
Overland Monthly, vol. vii., pp. 277-8. The Nooksaks are entirely distinct 
Vol. I. U 


These natives of Washington are short and thick-set, 
with strong limbs, but bow-legged ; they have broad faces, 
eyes fine but wide apart ; noses prominent, both of Ro- 
man and aquiline type ; color, a light copper, perhaps a 
shade darker than that of the Nootkas, but capable of 
transmitting a flush ; the hair usually black and almost 
universally worn long. 93 

All the tribes flatten the head more or less, but none 
carry the practice to such an extent as their neighbors on 
the south, unless it be the Cowlitz nation, which might 
indeed as correctly be classed with the Chinooks. By 
most of the Sound natives tattooing is not practiced, and 
they seem somewhat less addicted to a constant use of 
paint than the Xootkas ; yet on festive occasions a plenti- 
ful and hideous application is made of charcoal or colored 
earth pulverized in grease, and the women appreciate the 
charms imparted to the face by the use of vermilion clay. 
The nose, particularly at Cape Flattery, is the grand 
centre of facial ornamentation. Perforating is extrava- 

from the Lunimi, and some suppose them to have come from the Clallam 
country. Coleman, in Harper's Mag., vol.xxxix., p. 799. Stevens, in Pac. B. B. 
Sept., vol. i., p. 428. 

93 At Port Discovery they 'seemed capable of enduring great fatigue.' 
Their cheek-bones were high.' 'The oblique eye of the Chinese was not 
uncommon.' ' Their countenances wore an expression of wildness, and they 
had, in the opinion of some of us, a melancholy cast of features.' Some of 
women would with difficulty be distinguished in colour from those of Euro- 
pean race. The Classet women 'were much better looking than those of 
other tribes.' Portrait of a Tatouche chief. Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., 
vol. iv., pp. 317-8, 320, 517-8. ' All are bow-legged.' ' All of a sad-colored, 
Caravaggio brown.' 'All have coarse, black hair, and are beardless.' Win- 
throp's Canoe and Saddle, p. 32. 'Tall and stout.' Maurelle's Jour., p. 28. 
Sproat mentions a Clallam slave who 'could see in the dark like a racoon.' 
Scenes, p. 52. The Classet ' cast of countenance is very different from that 
of the Nootkians. . . .their complexion is also much fairer and their stature 
shorter.' Jewitt's Nar., p. 75. The Nisqually Indians 'are of very large 
stature ; indeed, the largest I have met with on the continent. The women 
are particularly large and stout.' Kane's Wand., pp. 207, 228, 234. The Nis- 
quallies are by no means a large race, being from five feet five inches to five 
feet nine inches in height, and weighing from one hundred and thirty to one 
hundred and eighty pounds. Anderson, in Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 227. ' De ros- 
tro hermoso y de gallarda figura.' Navarrete, in Sutil y Mexicana, Viage, p. xciv. ( 
The Queniults, 'the finest-looking Indians I had ever seen.' Swan's V. W. j 
Coast, pp. 78-9. Neuksacks stronger and more athletic than other tribes. 
Many of the Lummi 'very fair and have light hair.' Bept. bid. Aff., 1857, 


gantly practiced, and pendant trinkets of every form and 
substance are worn, those of bone or shell preferred, and, 
if we may credit Wilkes, by some of the women these 
ornaments are actually kept clean. 

The native garment, when the weather makes naked- 
ness uncomfortable, is a blanket of dog's hair, sometimes 
mixed with birds' down and bark-fibre, thrown about the 
shoulders. Some few fasten this about the neck with a 
wooden pin. The women are more careful in covering 
the person with the blanket than are the men, and gen- 
erally wear under it a bark apron hanging from the waist 
in front. A cone-shaped, water-proof hat, woven from 
colored grasses, is sometimes worn on the head. 94 

Temporary hunting-huts in summer are merely cross- 
sticks covered with coarse mats made by laying bulrushes 
side by side, and knotting them at intervals with cord 
or grass. The poorer individuals or tribes dw r ell perma- 
nently in similar huts, improved by the addition of a 
few slabs; while the rich and powerful build substantial 
houses, of planks split from trees by means of bone 
wedges, much like the Nootka dwellings in plan, and 
nearly as large. These houses sometimes measure over 
one hundred feet in length, and are divided into rooms or 

94 ' Less bedaubed with paint and less filthy ' than the Nootkas. At Port 
Discovery ' they wore ornaments, though none were observed in their noses.' 
At Cape Flattery the nose ornament was straight, instead of crescent-shaped, 
as among the Nootkas. Vancouver supposed their garments to be composed 
of dog's hair mixed with the wool of some wild animal, which he did not 
see. Vancouver's Voy., vol. i., pp. 218, 230, 266. At Port Discovery some 
had small brass bells hung in the rim of the ears, p. 318. Some of the Ska- 
gits were tattooed with lines on the arms and face, and fond of brass rings, 
pp. 511-12. The Classets 'wore small pieces of an iridescent mussel-shell, 
attached to the cartilage of their nose, which was in some, of the size of a 
ten cents piece, and triangular in shape. It is generally kept in motion by 
their breathing, ' p. 517. Wilkes' Nar., in U. 8. Ex. Ex., vol.iv., pp. 317-20, 
334, 404, 444, 511-2, 517-8. The conical hats and stout bodies 'brought to 
mind representations of Siberian tribes.' Pickering's Races, in Idem., vol. ix., 
p. 23. The Clallams ' wear no clothing in summer.' Faces daubed with red 
and white mud. Illustration of head-flattening. Kane's Wand., pp. 180, 207, 
210-11, 224. Seemann's Voy. Herald, vol. i., pp. 108-9; Rossi, Souvenirs, p. 
299; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 232-3; San Francisco Bulletin, May 24, 1859; Ind. Aft'. 
RepL, 1854, p. 243; Id., 1857, p. 329; Stevens, inPac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 430. 
Above Gray Harbor they were dressed with red deer skins. Navarrete, in Sutil 
y Mexicana, Viage, p. xciv: Cornwallis' New El Dorado, p. 97; Winthrop's 
Canoe and Saddle, p. 32-3; Murphy and Harned, in Puget Sd. Direct., pp. 


pens, each house accommodating many families. There 
are several fire-places in each dwelling; raised benches 
extend round the sides, and the walls are often lined with 
matting. 95 

In spring time they abandon their regular dwellings 
and resort in small companies to the various sources of 
food-supply. Fish is their chief dependence, though 
game is taken in much larger quantities than by the 
Xootkas ; some of the more inland Sound tribes subsist- 
ing almost entirely by the chase and by root-digging. 
Nearly all the varieties of fish which support the north- 
ern tribes are also abundant here, and are taken sub- 
stantially by the same methods, namely, by the net, hook, 
spear, and rake; but fisheries seem to be carried on some- 
what less systematically, and I find no account of the 
extensive and complicated embankments and traps men- 
tioned by travelers in British Columbia. To the salmon, 
sturgeon, herring, rock-cod, and candle-fish, abundant 

95 The Skagit tribe being exposed to attacks from the north, combine 
dwellings and fort, and build themselves 'enclosures, four hundred feet long, 
and capable of containing many families, which are constructed of pickets 
made of thick planks, about thirty feet high. The pickets are firmly fixed 
into the ground, the spaces between them being only sufficient to point a 
musket through. . . .The interior of the enclosure is divided into lodges,' p. 
511. At Port Discovery the lodges were 'no more than a few rudely-cut 
slabs, covered in part by coarse mats,' p. 319. Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., 
vol. iv., pp. 319-20, 511, 517. The Clallams also have a fort of pickets one 
hundred and fifty feet square, roofed over and divided into compartments 
for families. ' There were about two hundred of the tribe in the fort at the 
time of my arrival.' 'The lodges are built of cedar like the Chinook lodges, 
but much larger, some of them being sixty or seventy feet long.' Kane's 
Wand., pp. 210, 219, 227-9. 'Their houses are of considerable size, often fifty 
to one hundred feet in length, and strongly built.' Eept. Ind. Aff., 1854, pp. 
242-3. ' The planks forming the roof run the whole length of the building, 
being guttered to carry off the water, and sloping slightly to one end.' Stev- 
ens, in Pac. li. R. BejA., vol. i., pp. 429-30. Well built lodges of timber and 
plank on Whidbey Island. Thornton's 0<jn. and Ccd., vol. i., p. 300. At 
New Dungeness, ' composed of nothing more than a few mats thrown over 
cross sticks;' and on Puget Sound 'constructed something after the fashion 
of a soldier's tent, by two cross sticks about five feet high, connected at each 
end by a ridge-pole from one to the other, over some of which was thrown a 
coarse kind of mat; over others a few loose branches of trees, shrubs or 
grass.' Vancouver's Voy. ,vol. i., pp. 225, 262. The Queniults sometimes, but 
not always, whitewash the interior of their lodges with pipe-clay, and then 
paint figures of fishes and animals in red and black on the white surface. 
See description and cuts of exterior and interior of Indian lodge in Swan's 
N. W. Coast, pp. 26G-7, 330, 338; Crane's Top. Mem., p. 65; Cornwallis' Xew 
El Dorado, p. 98; Clark's Lights and Shadows, p. 225. 


in the inlets of the sound, the Classets, by venturing out 
to sea, add a supply of whale-blubber and otter-meat, 
obtained with spears, lines, and floats. At certain points 
on the shore tall poles are erected, across which nets are 
spread; and against these nets large numbers of wild 
fowl, dazzled by torch-lights at night, dash themselves 
and fall stunned to the ground, where the natives stand 
ready to gather in the feathery harvest. Vancouver no- 
ticed many of these poles in different localities, but could 
not divine their use. Deer and elk in the forests are 
also hunted by night, and brought within arrow-shot by 
the spell of torches. For preservation, fish are dried in 
the sun or dried and smoked by the domestic hearth, 
and sometimes pounded fine, as are roots of various kinds; 
clams are dried on strings and hung up in the houses, 
or occasionally worn round the neck, ministering to the 
native love of ornament until the stronger instinct of 
hunger impairs the beauty of the necklace. In the bet- 
ter class of houses, supplies are neatly stored in baskets 
at the sides. The people are extremely improvident, 
and, notwithstanding their abundant natural supplies in 
ocean, stream, and forest, are often in great want. Boil- 
ing in wooden vessels by means of hot stones is the 
ordinary method of cooking. A visitor to the Nooksaks 
thus describes their method of steaming elk-meat : l L They 
first dig a hole in the ground, then build a wood fire, 
placing stones on the top of it. As it burns, the stones 
become hot and fall down. Moss and leaves are then 
placed on the top of the hot stones, the meat on these, 
and another layer of moss and leaves laid over it. Water 
is poured on, which is speedily converted into steam. 
This is retained by mats carefully placed over the heap. 
When left in this way for a night, the meat is found 
tender and well cooked in the morning." Fowls w r ere 
cooked in the same manner by the Queniults. 96 

96 The Nootsaks, 'like .ill inland tribes, they subsist principally by the 
chase.' Coleman, in Harper's Mag., vol. xxxix., pp. 795, 799, 815; Ind. Aff. ilept., 
1857, p. 328. Sturgeon abound weighing 400 to 600 pounds, and are taken 
by the Clallams by means of a spear with a handle seventy to eighty feet 
long, while lying on the bottom of the river in spawning time. Fish-hooks 


I find no mention of other weapons, offensive or de- 
fensive, than spears, and bows and arrows. The arrows 
and spears were usually pointed with bone; the bows 
were of yew, and though short, . were of great power. 
Vancouver describes a superior bow used at Fuget Sound. 
It was from two and a half to three feet long, made 
from a naturally curved piece of yew, whose concave 
side became the convex of the bow, and to the whole 
length of this side a strip of elastic hide or serpent-skin 
was attached so firmly by a kind of cement as to become 
almost a part of the wood. This lining added greatly 

are made of cedar root with bone barbs. Their only vegetables are the ca- 
mas, wappatoo, and fern roots. Kane's Wand., pp. 213-14, 230-4, 289. At 
Puget Sound, ' men, women and children were busily engaged like swine, 
rooting up this beautiful verdant meadow in quest of a species of wild onion, 
and two other roots, which in appearance and taste greatly resembled the sa- 
ranne.' Vancouver' 's Voy., vol. i., pp. 225, 234, 262. In fishing for salmon 
at Port Discovery ' they have two nets, the drawing and casting net, made of 
a silky grass, ' ' or of the fibres of the roots of trees, or of the inner bark of 
the white cedar. ' Nicolay's Ogn. Ter., p. 1 47. ' The line is made either of kelp 
or the fibre of the cypress, and to it is attached an inflated bladder.' Seemann's 
Voy. Herald, vol. i., p. 109. At Port Townsend, 'leurs provisions, consist- 
aient en poisson seche an soleil ou boucane;. . . tout rempli de sable.' Bossi, 
Souvenirs, pp. 182-3, 299. The Clallams 'live by fishing and hunting around 
their homes, and never pursue the whale and seal as do the sea-coast tribes.' 
Scammon, in Overland Monthly, vol. vii., p. 278. The Uthlecan or candle-fish 
is used on Fuca Strait for food as well as candles. Domenech' s Deserts, vol. ii., 
p. 241. Lamprey eels are dried for food and light by the Nisquallies and Che- 
halis. ' Cammass root, . . . .stored in baskets. It is a kind of sweet squills, and 
about the size of a small onion. It is extremely abundant on the open prai- 
ries, and particularly on those which are overflowed by the small streams.' 
Cut of salmon fishery, p. 335. 'Hooks are made in an ingenious maimer 
of the yew tree.' 'They are chiefly employed in trailing for fish.' Cut 
of hooks, pp. 444-5. The Classets make a cut in the nose when a whale 
is taken. Each seal-skin float has a different pattern painted on it, p. 517. 
Wilkes' Nar., in U. 8. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., pp. 318-19, 335, 444-5, 517-18. 
The Chehalis live chiefly on salmon. Id., vol. v., p. 140. According to Swan 
the Puget Sound Indians sometimes wander as far as Shoahvater Bay, in 
Chinook territory, in the spring. The Queniult Indians are fond of large 
barnacles, not eaten by the Chinooks of Shoalwater Bay. Cut of a sea-otter 
hunt. The Indians never catch salmon with a baited hook, but always use 
the hook us a gaff. N. W. Coast, pp. 59, 87, 92, 163, 264, 271; Thornton's Ogn. 
and Gal., vol. i., pp. 293-4, 301, 388-9; Jnd. Aff. Kept., 1854, p. 241; Dunn's 
Oregon, pp. 732-5; Stevens, in Pac. B. B. Bept., vol. i., p. 429. ' They all de- 
pend upon fish, berries, and roots for a subsistence,' and get their living with 
great ease.' Starling, in Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iv., pp. 600-2. The Makahs 
live ' by catching cod and halibut on the banks north and east of Cape Flat- 
tery.' hid. Aff., Bept. 1858, p. 231. ' When in a state of semi-starvation the 
beast shows very plainly in them (Stick Indians): they are generally foul 
feeders, but at such a time they eat anything, and are disgusting in the ex- 
treme. Id., 1858, p. 225; Id., I860, p. 195; Cornwallis' New El Dorado, p. 97; 
Lord's Nat., vol. i., pp. 102-5; llittell, in Hesperian, vol. iii., p. 408; Win- 
tlirop's Canoe and Saddle, pp. 33-7; Maurelle's Jour., p. 28. 


to the strength of the bow, and was not affected by 
moisture. The bow-string was made of sinew. 97 The 
tribes were continually at war with each other, and with 
northern nations, generally losing many of their people 
in battle. Sticking the heads of the slain enemy on 
poles in front of their dwellings, is a common way of 
demonstrating their joy over a victory. The Indians at 
Port Discovery spoke to Wilkes of scalping among their 
warlike exploits, but according to Kane the Classets do 
not practice that usage. 98 Yancouver, finding sepulchres 
at Penn Cove, in which were large quantities of hu- 
man bones but no limb-bones of adults, suspected that 
the latter were used by the Indians for pointing their 
arrows, and in the manufacture of other implements. 99 

The Sound manufactures comprise the few weapons 
and utensils used by the natives. Their articles were 
made with the simplest tools of bone or shell. Blankets 
were made of dog's hair, — large numbers of dogs being 
raised for the purpose, — the wool of mountain sheep, or 
wild goats, found on the mountain slopes, the down of 
wild-fowl, cedar bark-fibre, ravelings of foreign blank- 
ets, or more commonly of a mixture of several of these 
materials. The fibre is twisted into yarn between the 
hand and thigh, and the strands arranged in perpendic- 
ular frames for weaving purposes. Willow and other 
twigs supply material for baskets of various forms, often 
neatly made and colored. Oil, both for domestic use 
and for barter, is extracted by boiling, except in the case 
of the candle-fish, when hanging in the hot sun suffices ; 
it is preserved in bladders and skin-bottles. 100 

97 Vancouver's Voy., vol. i., p. 253. At Gray Harbor the bows were some- 
what more circular than elsewhere. Id., vol. ii., p. 84; Wilkes' Nar.,in U. S. 
Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 319; Kane's Wand., pp. 209-10. 

98 Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 321; Kane's Wand., pp. 231-2; 
Vancouver's Voy., vol. i., p. 234. 'They have been nearly annihilated by 
the hordes of northern savages that have infested, and do now, even at the 
present day, infest our own shores ' for slaves. They had fire-arms before 
our tribes, thus gaining an advantage. Ind. Aff. Kept., 1857, p. 327; Clark's 
Lights and Shadows, p. 224. 

99 Vancouver's Voy., vol. i., p. 287. 

ioo 'A. single thread is wound over rollers at the top and bottom of a 
square frame, so as to form a continuous woof through which an alternate 


Canoes are made by the Sound Indians in the same 
manner as by the Nootkas already described ; being al- 
ways dug out. formerly by fire, from a single cedar trunk, 
and the form improved afterwards by stretching when 
soaked in hot water. Of the most elegant proportions, 
they are modeled by the builder with no guide but the 
eye, and with most imperfect tools; three months' work 
is sufficient to produce a medium-sized boat. The form 
varies among different nations according as the canoe is 
intended for ocean, sound, or river navigation; being 
found with bow or stern, or both, in various forms, point- 
ed, round, shovel-nosed, raised or level. The raised 
stern, head-piece, and stern-post are usually formed of 
separate pieces. Like the Nootkas, they char and polish 
the outside and paint the interior with red. The largest 
and finest specimen seen by Mr. Swan was forty-six feet 
long and six feet wide, and crossed the bar into Shoal- 
water Bay with thirty Queniult Indians from the north. 
The paddle used in deep water has a crutch-like handle 
and a sharp-pointed blade, 101 

thread is carried by the hand, and pressed closely together by a sort of 
"Wooden comb ; by turning the rollers every part of the woof is brought with- 
in reach of the weaver; by this means a bag formed, open at each end, which 
being cut down makes a square blanket.' Kane's Wand., pp. 210-11. Cuts 
showing the loom and process of weaving among the Nootsaks, also house, 
canoes, and willow baskets. Coleman, in Harper's Mag., vol. xxxix., pp. 799- 
800. The Clallams 'have a kind of cur with soft and long white hair, which 
they shear and mix with a little wool or the ravelings of old blankets.' 
Stevens, in Pac. R. B. Bept., vol. i., p. 431. The Makahs have 'blankets 
and capes made of the inner bark of the cedar, and edged with fur.' Ind. 
Aff. Bept., 1854, pp. 241-2; Wilkes' Nar., in V. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 32. The 
candle-fish ' furnishes the natives with their best oil, which is extracted 
by the very simple process of hanging it up, exposed to the sun, which in a 
few days seems to melt it away.' Thornton's Ogn. and Cat., vol. i., p. 388. 
They 'manufacture some of their blankets from the wool of the wild goat.' 
Dunn's Oregon, p. 231. The Queniults showed ' a blanket manufactured from 
the wool of mpuntain sheep, which are to be found on the precijntous slopes 
of the Olympian Mountains.' Alta California, Feb. 9, 1861, quoted in Cali- 
fornia Farmer, July 25, 1862; Cornicallis' Xew El Dorado, p. 97; Bickering's 
Baces, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., p. 26. 

101 ' They present a model of which a white mechanic might well be proud.' 
Description of method of making, and cuts of Queniult, Clallam, and Cow- 
litz canoes, and a Queniult paddle. Swan's X. W. Coast, pp. 79-82. At Port 
Orchard they 'exactly corresponded with the canoes of Nootka, ' while those 
of some visitors were ' cut off square at each end,' and like those seen below 
Cape Orford. At Gray Harbor the war canoes ' had a piece of wood rudely 
carved, perforated, and placed at each end, three feet above the gunwale; 
through these holes they are able to discharge their arrows.' Vancouver's Voy., 


In their barter between the different tribes, and in 
estimating their wealth, the blanket is generally the unit 
of value, and the liiaqua, a long white shell obtained off 
Cape Flattery at a considerable depth, is also extensively 
used for money, its value increasing with its length. A 
kind of annual fair for trading purposes and festivities 
is held by the tribes of Fuget Sound at Bajada Point, 
and here and in their other feasts they are fond of show- 
ing their wealth and liberality by disposing of their sur- 
plus property in gifts. 102 

The system of government seems to be of the simplest 
nature, each individual being entirely independent and 
master of his own actions. There is a nominal chief in 
each tribe, who sometimes acquires great influence and 
privileges by his wealth or personal prowess, but he has 
no authority, and only directs the movements of his 
band in warlike incursions. I find no evidence of he- 
reditary rank or caste except as wealth is sometimes 
inherited. 103 Slaves are held by all the tribes, and are 
treated very much like their dogs, being looked upon as 

vol. i., p. 264; vol. ii., p. 84. The Clallam boats were 'low and straight, and 
only adapted to the smoother interior waters.' Scammon, in Overland Monthly, 
vol. vii., p. 278. Cut showing Nootsak canoes in Harper's 31a<j., vol. xxxix., p. 
799. 'The sides are exceedingly thin, seldom exceeding three-fourths of an 
inch.' To mend the canoe when cracks occur, 'holes are made in the sides, 
through which withes are passed, and pegged in such a way that the strain 
will draw it tighter; the withe is then crossed, and the end secured in the 
same manner. When the tying is finished, the whole is pitched with the 
gum of the pine.' Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., pp. 320-1. The 
Clallams have ' a very large canoe of ruder shape and workmanship, being 
wide and shovel-nosed,' used for the transportation of baggage, lnd. Aff. 
Kept., 1854, p. 243; Stevens, in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., pp. 430-1; Seemdnn's 
Voy. Herald, vol. i., p. 108; Pickering's Paces, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., pp. 
25-G; Winthrop's Canoe and Saddle, p, 20; Clark's lAqhts and Shadows, pp. 

™ Kane's Wand,, pp. 237-9; lnd. Aff. Rept, 1862, p. 409; Starling, in 
Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iv., p. 601; Pickering's Races, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. 
ix., p. 26. 

103 ' Us obeissent a, un chef, qui n'exerce son pouvoir qu'en temps de guer- 
re.' Rossi, Souvenirs, p. 299. At Gray Harbor 'they appeared to be divided 
into three different tribes, or parties, each having one or two chiefs. ' Vancou- 
ver's Voy., vol. ii., p. 84. Wilkes met a squaw chief at Nisqually, who 
1 seemed to exercise more authority than any that had been met with.' ' Lit- 
tle or no distinction of rank seems to exist among them; the authority of the 
chiefs is no longer recognized.' Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 
444; vol. v., p. 131. Yellow-cum had become chief of the Makahs from his 
own personal prowess. Kane's Wand., pp. 237-9; lnd. Aff. Kept., 1857, pp. 


property, and not within the category of humanity. For 
a master to kill half a dozen slaves is no wrong or cru- 
elty; it only tends to illustrate the owner's noble dispo- 
sition in so freely sacrificing his property. Slaves are 
obtained by war and kidnapping, and are sold in large 
numbers to northern tribes. According to Sproat, the 
Classets, a rich and powerful tribe, encourage the slave- 
hunting incursions of the Nootkas against their weaker 
neighbors. 104 

Wives are bought by presents, and some performances 
or ceremonies, representative of hunting or fishing scenes, 
not particularly described by any visitor, take place a/t 
the wedding. Women have all the work to do except 
hunting and fishing, while their lords spend their time 
in idleness and gambling. Still the females are not ill- 
treated; they acquire great influence in the tribe, and 
are always consulted in matters of trade before a bargain 
is closed. They are not overburdened with modesty, 
nor are husbands noted for jealousy. Hiring out their 
women, chiefly however slaves, for prostitution, has been 
a prominent source of tribal revenue since the country 
was partially settled by whites. Women are not prolific, 
three or four being ordinarily the limit of their offspring. 
Infants, properly bound up with the necessary apparatus 
for head-flattening, are tied to their cradle or to a piece 
of bark, and hung by a cord to the end of a springy pole 
kept in motion by a string attached to the mother's great 
toe. Affection for children is by no means rare, but in 
few tribes can they resist the temptation to sell or gamble 
them away. 105 

1( > 4 Sproat' s Scenes, p. 92; Simjyson's Overland Journ., vol. i., pp. 242-3; Kane's 
Wand., pp. 214-15. The Nooksaks 'have no slaves.' Ind. Aff. Bept., 1857, 
pp. 327-8; Sclioolcraft's Arch., vol. iv., p. G01. It is said 'that the descend- 
ants of slaves obtain freedom at the expiration of three centuries.' Pickering's 
Races, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., p. 28. 

105 The Makahs have some marriage ceremonies, ' such as going through 
the performance of taking the whale, manning a canoe, and throwing the 
harpoon into the bride's house.' Ind. Aff. Bept., 1854, p. 242. The Nooksak 
women ' are very industrious, and do most of the work, and procure the 
principal part of their sustenance.' Id., 1857, p. 327. ' The women have not 
the slightest pretension to virtue.' Id., 1858, p. 225; Siwash Nuptials, in Olym- 
pia Washington Standard, July 30, 1870. In matters of trade the opinion of 


Feasting, gambling, and smoking are the favorite 
amusements; all their property, slaves, children, and 
even their own freedom in some cases are risked in 
their games. Several plants are used as substitutes for 
tobacco when that article is not obtainable. If any im- 
portant differences exist between their ceremonies, dances, 
songs and feasts, and those of Vancouver Island, such 
variations have not been recorded. In fact, many au- 
thors describe the manners and customs of i Xorth-west 
America' as if occupied by one people. 106 There is no 
evidence of cannibalism ; indeed, during Vancouver's visit 
at Puget Sound, some meat offered to the natives was 
refused, because it was suspected to be human flesh. 
Since their acquaintance with the whites they have ac- 
quired a habit of assuming great names, as Duke of 
York, or Jenny Lind, and highly prize scraps of paper 
with writing purporting to substantiate their claims to 
such distinctions. Their superstitions are many, and 
they are continually on the watch in all the commonest 
acts of life against the swarm of evil influences, from 
which they may escape only by the greatest care. 107 

Disorders of the throat and lungs, rheumatism and 
intermittent fevers, are among the most prevalent forms 
of disease, and in their methods of cure, as usual, the 
absurd ceremonies, exorcisms, and gesticulations of the 
medicine-men play the principal part; but hot and cold 
baths are also often resorted to without regard to the 
nature or stage of the malady. 108 The bodies of such as 

the women is always called in, and their decision decides the bargain. See- 
mann's Voy. Herald, vol. i., p. 108. 'The whole burden of domestic occupa- 
tion is thrown upon them.' Cut of the native baby-jumper. Wilkes' Nar., in 
U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., pp. 319-20, 361. At Gray Harbor they were not jealous. 
At Port Discovery they offered their children for sale. Vancouver's Voy., vol. 
i., p. 231; vol. ii., pp. 83-4. 'Rarely having more than three or four' chil- 
dren. Swan's N. W. Coast, p. 266; Clark's Lights and Shadows, pp. 224-6. 

106 Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., pp. 320, 444; liossi, Souvenirs, 
pp. 298-9; San Francisco Bulletin, May 24, 1859. 

107 Vancouver's Voy., vol. i., p. 263, 270. The Lummi 'are a very super- 
stitious tribe, and pretend to have traditions — legends handed down to them 
by their ancestors.' 'No persuasion or pay will induce them to kill an owl 
or eat a pheasant.' Ind. Ajf. Rfpt., 1857, pp. 327-8; Kane's Wand., pp. 216- 
17, 229. No forms of salutation. Pickering's Jlaces, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., 
p. 23-4; Winthrop's Canoe and Saddle, pp. 21-2. 

108 Among to Skagits ' Dr. Holmes saw an old man in the last stage of 


succumb to their diseases, or to the means employed for 
cure, are disposed of in different ways according to lo- 
cality, tribe, rank, or age. Skeletons are found by trav- 
elers buried in the ground or deposited in a sitting 
posture on its surface; in canoes or in boxes supported 
by posts, or, more commonly, suspended from the branches 
of trees. Corpses are wrapped in cloth or matting, and 
more or less richly decorated according to the wealth of 
the deceased. Several bodies are often put in one canoe 
or box, and the bodies of young children are found sus- 
pended in baskets. Property and implements, the latter 
always broken, are deposited with or near the remains, 
and these last resting-places of their people are relig- 
iously cared for and guarded from intrusion by all the 
tribes. 109 All the peculiarities and inconsistencies of the 

consumption, shivering from the effects of a cold bath at the temperature of 
40 J Fahrenheit. A favourite remedy in pulmonary consumption is to tie a 
rope tightly around the thorax, so as to force the diaphram to perform respira- 
tion without the aid of the thoracic muscles.' Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., 
vol. iv., p. 512. Among the Clallams, to cure a girl of a disease of the side, 
after stripping the patient naked, the medicine-man, throwing off his blanket, 
' commenced singing and gesticulating in the most violent manner, whilst 
the others kept time by beating with little sticks on hollow wooden bowls 
and drums, singing continually. After exercising himself in this manner for 
about half an hour, until the perspiration ran down his body, he darted sud- 
denly upon the young woman, catching hold of her side with his teeth and 
shaking her for a few minutes, while the patient seemed to suffer great agony. 
He then relinquished his hold, and cried out that he had got it, at the same 
time holding his hands to his mouth ; after which he plunged them in the 
water and pretended to hold down with great difficulty the disease which he 
had extracted.' Kane's Wand., pp. 225-G. Small-pox seemed very prevalent 
by which many had lost the sight of one eye. Vancouver's Voy., vol. i., p. 
212. To cure a cold in the face the Queniults burned certain herbs to a 
cinder and mixing them with grease, anointed the face. Swan's N. W. Coast, 
p. 2G5. Among the Nooksaks mortality has not increased with civilization. 
' As yet the only causes of any amount are consumption and the old dis- 
eases.' Ind. Aff. Bept., 1857, p. 327. At Neah Bay, 'a scrofulous affection 
pervades the whole tribe.'- The old, sick and maimed are abandoned by 
their friends to die. Id., 1872, p. 350. 

!09 Slaves have no right to burial. Kane's Wand., p. 215. At a Queniult 
burial place ' the different colored blankets and calicoes hung round gave 
the place an appearance of clothes hung out to dry on a washing day.' Swan's 
N. W. Coast, p. 2G7. At Port Orchard bodies were 'wrapped firmly in mat- 
ting, beneath which was a white blanket, closely fastened round the bod} T , 
and under this a covering of blue cotton.' At Port Discovery bodies 'are 
wrapped in mats and placed upon the ground in a sitting posture, and sur- 
rounded with stakes and pieces of plank to protect them.' On the Cowlitz 
the burial canoes are painted with figures, and gifts are not deposited till 
several months after the funeral. Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., pp. 
323, 347-8, 509-10. Among the Nisquallies bodies of relatives are sometimes 
disinterred at different places, washed, re-wrapped and buried again in one 


Nootka character perhaps have been noted by travelers 
among the Indians of the Sound, but none of these pecu- 
liarities are so clearly marked in the latter people. In 
their character, as in other respects, they have little in- 
dividuality, and both their virtues and vices are but 
faint reflections of the same qualities in the great fami- 
lies north and south of their territory. The Cape Flat- 
tery tribes are at once the most intelligent, bold, and 
treacherous of all, while some of the tribes east and 
north-east of the Sound proper have perhaps the best 
reputation. Since the partial settlement of their terri- 
tory by the whites, the natives here as elsewhere have 
lost many of their original characteristics, chiefly the 
better ones. The remnants now for the most part are 
collected on government reservations, or live in the vicin- 
ity of towns, by begging and prostitution. Some tribes, 
especially in the region of Bellingham Bay, have been 
nominally converted to Christianity, have abandoned 
polygamy, slavery, head-flattening, gambling, and super- 
stitious ceremonies, and pay considerable attention to a 
somewhat mixed version of church doctrine and cere- 
monies. 110 

grave. Lord's Nat, vol. ii., pp. 238-9. ' Ornes de rubans de diverses coul- 
eurs, de dents de poissons, de chapelets et d'autres brimborions du gout des 
sauvages.' Rossi, Souvenirs, pp. 74-5. On Penn Cove, in a deserted village, 
were found ' several sepulchres formed exactly like a centry box. Some of 
them were open, and contained the skeletons of many young children tied 
up in baskets.' Vancouver's Voy., vol. i., pp. 254-6, 287; Ind. Aff. Rept., 
1854, p. 242; Stevens in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 429. A correspondent 
describes a flathead mummy from Puget Sound preserved in San Francisco. 
'The eye-balls are still round under the lid; the teeth, the muscles, and ten- 
dons perfect, the veins injected with some preserving liquid, the bowels, 
stomach and liver dried up, but not decayed, all perfectly preserved. The 
very blanket that entwines him, made of some threads of bark and saturated 
with a pitchy substance, is entire.' Schoolcraft' 's Arch., vol. v., p. 693; Pick- 
ering's Races, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., p. 32. 

110 'Their native bashfulness renders all squaws peculiarly sensitive to 
any public notice or ridicule.' Probably the laziest people in the world. 
The mails are intrusted with safety to Indian carriers, who are perfectly safe 
from interference on the part of any Indian they may meet. Kane's Wand., 
p. 209 16, 227-8, 234, 247-8. 'La memoire locale et personelle du sauvage 
est admirable; il n'oublie jamais un endroit ni une personne.' Nature seems 
to have given him memory to supply the want of intelligence. Much in- 
clined to vengeance. Those having means may avert vengeance by pay- 
ments. Rossi, Souvenirs, pp. 113, 295-9. ' Perfectly indifferent to exposure ; 
decency has no meaning in their language.' Although always begging, they 
refuse to accept any article not in good condition, calling it Peeshaaak, a term 


The Chinooks constitute the fourth division of the 
Columbian group. Originally the name was restricted 
to a tribe on the north bank of the Columbia between 
Gray Bay and the ocean; afterwards, from a similarity 
in language and customs, it was applied to all the bands 
on both sides of the river, from its mouth to the Dalles. 111 
It is employed in this work to designate all the Oregon 
tribes west of the Cascade Range, southward to the 
Rogue River or Umpqua Mountains. This family lies 
between the Sound Indians on the north and the Cal- 
ifornian group on the south, including in addition to 
the tribes of the Columbia, those of the Willamette 
Valley and the Coast. All closeVy resemble each other 
in manners and customs, having also a general resem- 
blance to the northern families already described, spring- 
ing from their methods of obtaining food ; and although 
probably without linguistic affinities, except along the 
Columbia River, they may be consistently treated as one 

of contempt. Seemann's Toy. Herald, vol. i., pp. 108-9. Murder of a Spanish 
boat's crew in latitude 47' 20'. Maurelle's Jour., pp. 29, 31. ' Cheerful and well 
disposed ' at Port Orchard. At Strait of Fuca ' little more elevated in their 
moral qualities than the Fuegians.' At Nisqually, 'addicted to stealing.' 
' Vicious and exceedingly lazy, sleeping all day.' The Skagits are catholics, 
and are more advanced than others in civilization. Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. 
Ex., vol. iv., pp. 317, 444, 510-11, 517. Both at Gray Harbor and Puget 
Sound they were uniformly civil and friendly, fair and honest in trade. 
Each tribe claimed that ' the others were bad people and that the party ques- 
tioned were the only good Indians in the harbor.' Vancouver's Voy., vol. i., 
p. 256; vol. ii., pp. 83-4. 'The Clallam tribe has always had a bad charac- 
ter, which their intercourse with shipping, and the introduction of whiskey, 
has by no means improved.' Ind. Ajf. Bept., 1854, p. 243. ' The superior 
courage of the Makahs, as well as their treachery, will make them more 
difficult of management than most other tribes.' Stevens, in Pac. B. B. Bept., 
vol. i., p. 4_9. The Lummis and other tribes at Bellingham Bay have al- 
ready abandoned their ancient barbarous habits, and have adopted those of 
civilization. Coleman, in Harper's Mag., vol. xxxix., pp. 795-7; Simpson's 
Overland Journ., vol. i., pp. 240-2. 'The instincts of these people are of a 
very degraded character. They are filthy, cowardly, lazy, treacherous, drunk- 
en, avaricious, and much given to thieving. The women have not the 
slightest pretension to virtue.' The Makahs ' are the most independent In- 
dians in my district — they and the Quilleyutes, their near neighbors.' Ind. 
Aff. Bept., 1858, pp. 225. 231; Id., 1862, p. 390; Id., 1870, p. 20; Schoolcraft's 
Arch., vol. iv., p. 601; Wintlirop's Canoe and Saddle, p. 58; Cram's Top. Mem., 
p. 65. 

111 Perhaps the Cascades might more properly be named as the boundary, 
since the region of the Dalles, from the earliest records, has been the rendez- 
voux for fishing, trading, and gambling purposes, of tribes from every part of 
the surrounding country, rather than the home of any particular nation. 


family — the last of the great coast or fish-eating divis- 
ions of the Columbian group. 

Among the prominent tribes, or nations of the Chi- 
nook family may be mentioned the following: the Wat- 
Mas or upper Chinooks, including the bands on the 
Columbia from the Cascades to the Cowlitz, and on the 
lower Willamette ; the lower Chinooks from the Cowlitz 
to the Pacific comprising the Walriakums and Chinooks 
on the north bank, and the Catldainets and Ckitsops on 
the south; the Cah/pooyas occupying the Valley of the 
Willamette, and the Clackamas on one of its chief trib- 
utaries of the same name ; with the Killamooks and Uhvp- 
quas who live between the Coast Range 112 and the ocean. 

With respect to the present condition of these na- 
tions, authorities agree in speaking of them as a squalid 
and poverty-stricken race, once numerous and powerful, 
now few and weak. Their country has been settled by 
whites much more thickly than regions farther north, and 
they have rapidly disappeared before the influx of stran- 
gers. Whole tribes have been exterminated by war and 
disease, and in the few miserable remnants collected on 

112 ]? or details see Tribal Boundaries at the end of this chapter. The 
Chinooks, Clatsops, Wakiakums and Cathlamets, ' resembling each other in 
person, dress, language, and manners.' The Chinooks and Wakiakums were 
originally one tribe, and Wakiakum was the name of the chief who seceded 
with his adherents. Irving's Astoria, pp. 335-6. 'They may be regarded 
as the distinctive type of the tribes to the north of the Oregon, for it is in 
them that the peculiarities of the population of these regions are seen in the 
most striking manner.' Domenech's Deserts, vol. ii., pp. 15-6, 36. All the 
tribes about the mouth of the Columbia ' appear to be descended from the 
same stock. . . . and resemble one another in language, dress, and habits. Ross' 
Adven., pp. 87-8. The Cathleyacheyachs at the Cascades differ but little 
from the Chinooks. Id., p. 111. Scouler calls the Columbia tribes Cathlas- 
cons, and considers them 'intimately related to the Kalapooiah Family.' 
Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 225. The Willamette tribes 'differ very 
little in their habits and modes of life, from those on the Columbia River.' 
Hunter's Cap., p. 72. Mofras makes Killimous a general name for all Indians 
south of the Columbia. Explor., torn, ii., p. 357; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 114-18; 
Cox's Adven., vol. ii., p. 133. The Nechecolees on the Willamette claimed 
an affinity with the Eloots at the Narrows of the Columbia. The Killamucks 
'resemble in almost every particular the Clatsops and Chinnooks. Lewis 
and Clarke's Trav., pp. 427, 504. ' Of the Coast Indians that I have seen 
there seems to be so little difference in their style of living that a description 
of one family will answer for the whole.' Swan's N. W. Coast, pp. 153-4. 
* All the natives inhabiting the southern shore of the Straits, and the deeply 
indented territory as far and including the tide-waters of the Columbia, may 
be comprehended under the general term of Chinooks.' Pickering's Races, in 
U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., p. 25. 


reservations or straggling about the Oregon towns, no 
trace is apparent of the independent, easy-living bands 
of the remote past. 113 It is however to be noted that at 
no time since this region has been known to Europeans 
has the Indian population been at all in proportion to 
the supporting capacity of the land, while yet in a state 
of nature, with its fertile soil and well-stocked streams 
and forests. 

In physique the Chinook can not be said to differ ma- 
terially from the Nootka. In stature the men rarely 
exceed five feet six inches, and the women five feet. 
Both sexes are thick-set, but as a rule loosely built, al- 
though in this respect they had doubtless degenerated 
when described by most travelers. Their legs are bowed 
and otherwise deformed by a constant squatting position 
in and out of their canoes. Trained by constant ex- 
posure with slight clothing, they endure cold and hunger 
better than the white man, but to continued muscular 
exertion they soon succumb. Physically they improve 
in proportion to their distance from the Columbia and 
its fisheries; the Calapooj^as on the upper Willamette, 
according to early visitors, presenting the finest speci- 
mens. 114 Descending from the north along the coast, 

113 ' The race of the Chenooks is nearly run. From a large and powerful 
tribe ... they have dwindled down to about a hundred individuals, .... and 
these are a depraved, licentious, drunken set.' S Lean's V. W. Coast, pp. 108- 
10. The Willopahs ' may be considered as extinct, a few women only re- 
maining.' Stevens, in Pac. P. JR. Kept., vol. i., p. 428; Mofras, Explor., torn, 
ii., p. 351; Ind. Aff. Kept., 1854, pp. 239-40; Lord's Nat., vol. i., p. 354; vol. 
ii., p. 217; De Sinel, Ilissions de V Oregon, pp. 163-4; Kane's Wand., pp. 173-6, 
196-7; Ir ring's Astoria, pp. 335-6; Fitzgerald's Hud. B. Co., pp. 170-2; Hines' 
Oregon, pp. 103-19, 236; Thornton's Ogn. and Cal., vol. ii., pp. 52-3; Dome- 
nech's Desert's, vol. ii., p. 36; Palmer's Jour., pp. 84, 87; Parker's Explor. 
Tour., pp. 191-2. 'In the Wallamette valley, their favorite country,.... 
there are but few remnants left, and they are dispirited and broken-hearted.' 
Robertson's Oregon, p. 130. 

1M 'The personal appearance of the Chinooks differs so much from that 
of the aboriginal tribes of the United States, that it was difficult at first to 
recognize the affinity.' Pickering's Paces, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., p. 27. 
' There are no two nations in Europe so dissimilar as the tribes to the north 
and those to the south of the Columbia.' Domenech's Deserts, vol. i., p. 88; 
vol. ii., p. 36. 'Thick set limbs' north; 'slight,' south. Id., vol. i., p. 88; 
vol. ii., p. 16. ' Very inferior in muscular power.' Id., vol. ii., pp. 15-16. 
'Among the ugliest of their race. They are below the middle size, with 
squat, clumsy forms.' Hale's Ethnog., in E. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., pp. 198, 216. 
The men from five feet to five feet six inches high, with well-shaped limbs; 


Hyperboreans, Columbians, and Californians gradually 
assume a more dusky hue as we proceed southward. 
The complexion of the Chinooks may be called a trifle 
darker than the natives of the Sound, and of Vancouver; 
though nothing is more difficult than from the vague 
expressions of travelers to determine shades of color. 115 
Points of resemblance have been noted by many ob- 
servers between the Chinook and Mongolian physiog- 
nomy, consisting chiefly in the eyes turned obliquely 
upward at the outer corner. The face is broad and 
round, the nose flat and fat, with large nostrils, the 
mouth wide and thick-lipped, teeth irregular and much 
worn, eyes black, dull and expressionless ; the hair gen- 
erally black and worn long, and the beard carefully 
plucked out; nevertheless, their features are often reg- 
ular. 116 

the women six to eight inches shorter, with bandy legs, thick ankles, broad, 
flat feet, loose hanging breasts. Cox's Adven., vol. i., pp. 303-4. 'A dimin- 
utive race, generally below five feet five inches, with crooked legs and thick 
ankles.' 'Broad, fiat feet.' Irving's Astoria, pp. 87, 336. 'But not deficient 
in strength or activity.' Nicolay's Oregon, p. 145. Men 'stout, muscular and 
strong, but not tall;' women 'of the middle size, but very stout and flabby, 
with short necks and shapeless limbs.' Ross' Adven., pp. 89-93. At Cape 
Orford none exceed five feet six inches; ' tolerably well limbed, though slen- 
der in their persons.' Vancouver's Voy., vol. i., p. 204. The Willamette 
tribes were somewhat larger and better shaped than those of the Columbia 
and the coast. Lewis and Clarice's Trav., pp .425, 436-7, 504, 508. Hunter's Cap., 
pp. 70-73; Hines' Voy., pp. 88, 91. 'Persons of the men generally are rather 
symmetrical; their stature is low, with light sinewy limbs, and remarkably 
small, delicate hands. The women are usually more rotund, and, in some in- 
stances, even approach obesity.' Townsend's Nar., p. 178. 'Many not even 
five feet.' Franchere's Nar., pp. 240-1. Can endure cold, but not fatigue; 
sharp sight and hearing, but obtuse smell and taste. ' The women are un- 
couth, and from a combination of causes appear old at an early age. Parker's 
Explor. Tour., pp. 244-5. 'The Indians north of the Columbia are, for the 
most part good-looking, robust men, some of them having fine, symmetrical, 
forms. They have been represented as diminutive, with crooked legs and 
uncouth features. This is not correct; but, as a general rule, the direct re- 
verse is the truth.' Swan's N. W. Coast, p. 154; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 122-3. 

115 The following terms applied to Chinook complexion are taken from 
the authors quoted in the preceding note: 'Copper-colored brown;' 'light 
copper color;' 'light olive;' 'fair complexion.' 'Not dark' when young. 
'Rough tanned skins.' 'Dingy copper.' 'Fairer' than eastern Indians. 
Fairer on the coast than on the Columbia. Half-breeds partake of the 
swarthy hue of their mothers. 

116 ' The Cheenook cranium, even when not flattened, is long and narrow, 
compressed laterally, keel-shaped, like the skull of the Esquimaux.' Broad 
and high cheek-bones, with a receding forehead.' Scouler, in Lond. Geog. Soc. 
Jour., vol.xi., p. 220. 'Skulls. . . .totally devoid of any peculiar development.' 
Nose flat, nostrils distended, short irregular teeth; eyes black, piercing and 

Vol. I. 15 


It is about the mouth of the Columbia that the cus- 
tom of flattening the head seems to have originated. Ra- 
diating from this centre in all directions, and becoming 
less universal and important as the distance is increased, 
the usage terminates on the south with the nations 
which I have attached to the Chinook family, is rarely 
found east of the Cascade Range, but extends, as we 
have seen, northward through all the coast families, al- 
though it is far from being held in the same esteem in the 
far north as in its apparently original centre. The or- 
igin of this deformity is unknown. All we can do is to 
refer it to that strange infatuation incident to humanity 
which lies at the root of fashion and ornamentation, and 
which even in these later times civilization is not able 
to eradicate. As Alphonso the AYise regretted not hav- 
ing been present at the creation — for then he would 
have had the world to suit him — so different ages and 
nations strive in various ways to remodel and improve 
the human form. Thus the Chinese lady compresses 
the feet, the European the waist, and the Chinook the 
head. Slaves are not allowed to indulge in this extrav- 


treacherous. Cox's Adven., vol. i., pp. 115, 303. ' Broad faces, low foreheads, 
lank black hair, wide mouths.' 'Flat noses, and eyes turned obliquely up- 
ward at the outer corner.' Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., pp. 198, 
216. 'Faces are round, with small, but animated eyes. Their noses are 
broad and flat at the top, and fleshy at the end, with large nostrils.' Irving' s 
Astoria, p. 336. Portraits of two Calapooya Indians. Pickering's Races, in 
U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., p. 14. South of the Columbia they have ' long faces, 
thin lips, ' but the Calapooyas in Willamette Valley have ' broad faces, low 
foreheads,' and the Chinooks have 'a wide face, flat nose, and eyes turned 
obliquely outwards.' Domenech's Deserts, vol. i., p. 88; vol. ii., pp. 15-16. 
'Dull phlegmatic want of expression' common to all adults. Xicolay's Ogn. 
Ter., p. 145. Women ' well-featured,' with 'light hair, and prominent eyes.' 
Ross' Adven., pp. 89-93. ' Their features rather partook of the general Euro- 
pean character.' Hair long and black, clean and neatly combed. Vancouver's 
Voy., vol. i., p. 204. 'Women have, in general, handsome faces.' 'There 
are rare instances of high aquiline noses; the eyes are generally black,' but 
sometimes 'of a dark yellowish brown, with a black pupil.' Lewisand Clarke's 
Trav., pp. 425, 436-7. The men carefully eradicate every vestige of a beard. 
Dunn's Oregon, p. 124. ' The features of many are regular, though often 
devoid of expression.' Townsend's Nar., p. 178. ' Pluck out the beard at its 
first appearance.' Kane's Wand., p. 181. Portrait of chief, p. 174. 'A few 
of the old men only suffer a tuft to grow upon their chins.' Franchere's Nar., 
p. 240. One of the Clatsops 'had the reddest hair I ever saw, and a fair 
skin, much freckled.' Gass' Jour., p. 244; Lord's Nat., vol. i., p. 75. For de- 
scriptions and plates of Chinook skulls see Morton's Crania, pp. 202-13; pi. 
42-7, 49, 50, and Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. ii., pp. 318-34. 


agance, and as this class are generally of foreign tribes 
or families, the work of ethnologists in classifying skulls 
obtained by travelers, and thereby founding theories of 
race is somewhat complicated ; but the difficulty is less- 
ened by the fact that slaves receive no regular burial, 
and hence all skulls belonging to bodies from native 
cemeteries are known to be Chinook. 117 The Chinook 
ideal of facial beauty is a straight line from the end of 
the nose to the crown of the head. The flattening of 
the skull is effected by binding the infant to its cradle 
immediately after birth, and keeping it there from three 
months to a year. The simplest form of cradle is a 
piece of board or plank on which the child is laid upon 
its back with the head slightly raised by a block of wood. 
Another piece of wood, or bark, or leather, is then placed 
over the forehead and tied to the plank with strings 
which are tightened more and more each day until the 
skull is shaped to the required pattern. Space is left 
for lateral expansion ; and under ordinary circumstances 
the child's head is not allowed to leave its position until 
the process is complete. The body and limbs are also 
bound to the cradle, but more loosely, by bandages, 
which are sometimes removed for cleansing purposes. 
Moss or soft bark is generally introduced between the 
skin and the wood, and in some tribes comfortable pads, 

117 ' Practiced by at least ten or twelve distinct tribes of the lower country. ' 
Toicnsend's lS T ar., pp. 175-6. ' On the coast it is limited to a space of about 
one hundred and seventy miles, extending between Caj:e Flattery and Cape 
Look-out. Inland, it extends up the Columbia to the first rapids, or one 
hundred and forty miles, and is checked at the falls on the Wallamette.' 
Belcher's Voy., vol. i., p. 307. The custom 'prevails among all the nations 
we have seen west of the Rocky Mountains, ' but ' diminishes in receding 
eastward.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., p. 437. 'The Indians at the Dalles do 
not distort the head.' Kane's Wand., pp. 263, 180-2. 'The Chinooks are 
the most distinguished for their attachment to this singular usage.' Hale's 
Ethnog., in U. 8. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 198. The tribes from the Columbia 
River to Millbank Sound flatten the forehead, also the Yakimas and Klikitats 
of the interior. Tolmie, in Lord's Nat., vol. ii., pp. 231-2, 249. 'The prac- 
tice prevails, generally, from the mouth of the Columbia to the Dalles, about 
one hundred and eighty miles, and from the Straits of Fuca on the north, to 
Coos Bay. . . .Northward of the Straits it diminishes gradually to a mere slight 
compression, finally confined to women, and abandoned entirely north of Mil- 
bank Sound. So east of the Cascade Mountains, it dies out in like manner.' 
Gibbs, in Nott and Gliddon's Lndig. Races, p. 337. 'None but such as are of 
noble birth are allowed to flatten their skulls.' Gray's Hist. Ogn., p. 197. 


cushions, or rabbit-skins are employed. The piece of 
wood which rests upon the forehead is in some cases at- 
tached to the cradle by leather hinges, and instances are 
mentioned where the pressure is created by a spring. 
A trough or canoe-shaped cradle, dug out from a log, 
often takes the place of the simple board, and among 
the rich this is elaborately worked, and ornamented with 
figures and shells. The child while undergoing this 
process, with its small black eyes jammed half out of 
their sockets, presents a revolting picture. Strangely 
enough, however, the little prisoner seems to feel scarcely 
any pain, and travelers almost universally state that no 
perceptible injury is done to the health or brain. As 
years advance the head partially but not altogether re- 
sumes its natural form, and among aged persons the 
effects are not very noticeable. As elsewhere, the per- 
sonal appearance of the women is of more importance 
than that of the men, therefore the female child is sub- 
jected more rigorously and longer to the compressing 
process, than her brothers. Failure properly to mould 
the cranium of her offspring gives to the Chinook ma- 
tron the reputation of a lazy and undutiful mother, and 
subjects the neglected children to the ridicule of their 
young companions; 118 so despotic is fashion. A prac- 

118 All authors who mention the Chinooks have something to say of this 
custom; the following give some description of the process and its effects, 
containing, however, no points not included in that given above. Dunn's 
Oregon, pp. 122-3, 128-30; Ross' Adven., pp. 99-100; Swan's N. W. Coast, 
pp. 167-8, with cut; Chamber's Jour., vol. x., pp. 111-2; Belcher's Voy., vol. 
i., pp. 307-11, with cuts; Townsend' s Nar., pp. 175-6; Hale's Ethnog., in U. 8. 
Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 216; Nicolay's Ogn. Ter., p. 150; Domenech's Deserts, vol. 
ii., p. 294; Irving's Astoria, p. 89; Cox's Adven., vol.i., p. 302; Catlin'sN. Am. 
Ind., vol. ii., pp. 110-11, with plate. Females remain longer than the boys. 
Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 476, 437. 'Not so great a deformity as is gen- 
erally supposed.' Parker's Explor. Tour., pp. 142-3, 251-2. ' Looking with 
contempt even upon the white for having round heads.' Kane's Wand.,~p. 181, 
204, cut. ' As a general thing the tribes that have followed the practice of flat- 
tening the skull are inferior in intellect, less stirring and enterprising in their 
habits, and far more degraded in their morals than other tribes.' Cray's Hist. 
Ogn., p. 197. Mr. Gray is the only authority I have seen for this injurious 
effect, except Domenech, who pronounces the flat-heads more subject to 
apoplexy than others. Deserts, vol. ii., p. 87; Cass' Jour., pp. 224-5; Brown- 
ell's Ind. "Races, pp. 335-7; Morton's Crania Am., pp. 203-13, cut of cradle and 
of skulls; Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., pp. 349-50, Atlas, pi. 26;' Fostei-'s Pre-Hist. 
Races, pp, 294-5, 328, with cut; Sutil y Mexicana, Viage, p. 124; Wilson, in 
Smithsonian Pept., 1862, p. 287. 


tice which renders the Chinook more hideous than the 
compression of his skull is that of piercing or slitting the 
cartilage of the nose and ears, and inserting therein long 
strings of heads or hiaqua shells, the latter being prized 
above all other ornaments. Tattooing seems to have 
been practiced, but not extensively, taking usually the 
form of lines of dots pricked into the arms, legs, and 
cheeks with pulverized charcoal. Imitation tattooing, 
with the bright-colored juices of different berries, was 
a favorite pastime with the women, and neither sex 
could resist the charms of salmon-grease and red clay. 
In later times, however, according to Swan, the custom 
of greasing and daubing the body has been to a great 
extent abandoned. Great pains is taken in dressing 
the hair, which is combed, parted in the middle, and 
usually allowed to hang in long tresses down the back, 
but often tied up in a queue by the women and girls, or 
braided so as to hang in two tails tied with strings. 119 

For dress, skins were much more commonly used in 
this region than among other coast families ; particularly 
the skins of the smaller animals, as the rabbit and wood- 
rat. These skins, dressed and often painted, were sewed 
together so as to form a robe or blanket similar in form and 
use to the more northern blanket of wool, which, as well 
as a similar garment of goose-skin with the feathers on, 
was also made and worn by the Chinooks, though not in 

119 The Multnomah women's hair 'is most commonly braided into two 
tresses falling over each ear in front of the body.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., 
pp. 508-9, 416, 425-6, 437-8. The Clackamas 'tattoo themselves below the 
mouth, which gives a light blue appearance to the countenance.' Kane's 
Wand., pp. 241,184-5, 256. At Cape Orford ' they seemed to prefer the comforts 
of cleanliness to the painting of their bodies.' Vancouver's Voy., vol. i., p. 204. 
On the Columbia ' in the decoration of their persons they surpassed all the 
other tribes with paints of different colours, feathers and other ornaments.' 
Id., vol. ii., p. 77. 'lis mettent toute leur vanite dans leurs colliers et leurs 
pendants d'oreilles.' De Smet, Miss, de V Oregon, p. 45. ' Some of these girls 
I have seen with the whole rim of their ears bored full of holes, into each 
of which would be inserted a string of these shells that reached to the floor, 
and the whole weighing so heavy that to save their ears from being pulled 
off they were obliged to wear a band across the top of the head.' 'I never 
have seen either men or women put oil or grease of any kind on their bodies.' 
Swan's N. W. Coast, pp. 112, 158-9. See Dunn's Oregon, pp. 115, 123-4; 
Cox's Adven., pp. 111-12; Pickering's Races, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., p. 25; 
Irving's Astoria, pp. 336-8; Domenech's Deserts, vol. ii., p. 354; Franchere's 
Mir., p. 244. 


common use among them. They prefer to go naked 
when the weather permits. Skins of larger animals, as 
the deer and elk, are also used for clothing, and of the 
latter is made a kind of arrow-proof armor for war ; an- 
another coat of mail being made of sticks bound together. 
Females almost universally wear a skirt of cedar bark- 
fibre, fastened about the waist and hanging to the knees. 
This garment is woven for a few inches at the top, but 
the rest is simply a hanging fringe, not very effectually 
concealing the person. A substitute for this petticoat in 
some tribes is a square piece of leather attached to a 
belt in front; and in others a long strip of deer-skin 
passed between the thighs and wound about the waist. 
A fringed garment, like that described, is also sometimes 
worn about the shoulders ; in cold weather a fur robe is 
wrapped about the body from the hips to the armpits, 
forming a close and warm vest; and over all is some- 
times thrown a cape, or fur blanket, like that of the 
men, varying in quality and value with the wealth of 
the wearer. The best are made of strips of sea-otter 
skin, woven with grass or cedar bark, so that the fur 
shows on both sides. Chiefs and men of wealth wear 
rich robes of otter and other valuable furs. The conical 
hat woven of grass and bark, and painted in black and 
white checks or with rude figures, with or without a brim, 
and fastened under the chin, is the only covering for the 
head. 120 

120 « These robes are in general, composed of the skins of a small animal, 
■which we have supposed to be the brown mungo.' 'Sometimes they have 
a blanket woven with the fingers, from the wool of their native sheep.' Ev- 
ery part of the body but the back and shoulders is exposed to view. The 
Nechecolies had ' larger and longer robes, which are generally of deer skin 
dressed in the hair.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 392, 425-6, 438, 504-9, 
522. ' I have often seen them going about, half naked, when the thermometer 
ranged between 30 J and 40 J , and their children barefooted and barelegged in 
the snow.' 'The lower Indians do not dress as well, nor with as good taste, 
as the upper.' Parker's Explor. Tour., pp. 244-5. The fringed skirt 'is still 
used by old women, and by all the females when they are at work in the water, 
and is called by them their siwash coat.' Swan's JS T . W. Coast, pjD. 154-5. 
Boss' Aclven., pp. 89-93; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 123-4; Domenech's Deserts, vol. 
ii., pp. 15-16, 281-2,288; Townsend's Nar., p. 178; Kane's Wand., pp. 184-5; 
Franchere's Nar., pp. 242-4. The conical cap reminded Pickering of the 
Siberian tribes. Races, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., pp. 25, 39; Cox's Adven., 
vol. i., pp. 111-12, 126-7; Hines' Voy., p. 107. Collars of bears' claws, for 


The Chinooks moved about less for the purpose of ob- 
taining a supply of food, than many others, even of the 
coast families, yet the accumulation of filth or — a much 
stronger motive — of fleas, generally forced them to take 
down their winter dwellings each spring, preserving 
the materials for re-erection on the same or another 
spot. The best houses were built of cedar planks at- 
tached by bark-fibre cords to a frame, which consisted 
of four corner, and two central posts and a ridge pole. 
The planks of the sides and ends were sometimes per- 
pendicular, but oftener laid horizontally, overlapping here 
in clapboard fashion as on the roof. In some localities 
the roof and even the whole structure was of cedar bark. 
These dwellings closely resembled those farther north, 
but were somewhat inferior in size, twenty-five to sev- 
enty-five feet long, and fifteen to twenty-five feet wide, 
being the ordinary dimensions. On the Columbia they 
were only four or iive feet high at the eaves, but an 
equal depth was excavated in the ground, while on the 
Willamette the structure was built on the surface. The 
door was only just large enough to admit the body, and 
it was a favorite fancy of the natives to make it repre- 
sent the mouth of an immense head painted round it. 
Windows there were none, nor chimney; one or more 
fireplaces were sunk in the floor, and the smoke escaped 
by the cracks, a plank in the roof being sometimes moved 
for the purpose. Mats were spread on the floor and 
raised berths were placed on the sides, sometimes in 
several tiers. Partitions of plank or matting separated 
the apartments of the several families. Smaller tempo- 
rary huts, and the permanent homes of the poorer In- 
dians were built in various forms, of sticks, covered with 
bark, rushes, or skins. The interior and exterior of all 
dwellings were in a state of chronic filth. 121 

the men, and elks' tusks for the women and children. Irving' s Astoria, pp. 
336-8; Gass' Jour., pp. 232, 239-40, 242-4, 267, 274, 278, 282. 

121 ' Their houses seemed to be more comfortable than those at Nootka, 
the roof having a greater inclination, and the planking being thatched over 
with the bark of trees. The entrance is through a hole, in a broad plank, 
covered in such a manner as to resemble the face of a man, the mouth serv- 


The salmon fisheries of the Columbia are now fa- 
mous throughout the world. Once every year innumer- 
able multitudes of these noble fish enter the river from 
the ocean to deposit their spawn. Impelled by instinct, 
they struggle to reach the extreme limits of the stream, 
working their way in blind desperation to the very sources 
of every little branch, overcoming seeming impossibili- 
ties, and only to fulfill their destiny and die ; for if they 
escape human enemies, they either kill themselves in 
their mad efforts to leap impassable falls, or if their 
efforts are crowned with success, they are supposed nev- 
er to return to the ocean. This fishery has always been 
the chief and an inexhaustible source of food for the 
Chinooks, who, although skillful fishermen, have not 
been obliged to invent a great variety of methods or 
implements for the capture of the salmon, which rarely 
if ever have failed them. Certain ceremonies must, 
however, be observed with the first fish taken; his meat 
must be cut only with the grain, and the hearts of all 
caught must be burned or eaten, and on no account be 
thrown into the water or be devoured by a dog. With 
these precautions there is no reason to suppose that the 
Chinook would ever lack a supply of fish. The salmon 
begin to run in April, but remain several weeks in the 

ing the purpose of a door- way. The fire-place is sunk into the earth, and con- 
fined from spreading above by a wooden frame.' Vancouver's Voy., vol. ii., 
p. 77. Emmons, in Schoolcraft's Archives, vol. iii., p. 206, speaks of a pali- 
sade enclosure ten or fifteen feet high, with a covered way to the river. ' The 
Indian huts on the banks of the Columbia are, for the most part, constructed 
of the bark of trees, pine branches, and brambles, which are sometimes cov- 
ered with skins or rags.' Domenech's Deserts, vol.ii.,p. 260. But 'the Chinooks 
build their houses of thick and broad planks,' etc. Id. Lewis and Clarke 
saw a house in the Willamette Valley two hundred and twenty-six feet long, 
divided into two ranges of large apartments separated by a narrow alley four 
feet wide. Travels, pp. 502-4, 509, 431-2, 415-16, 409, 392. The door is a 
piece of board 'which hangs loose by a string, like a sort of pendulum,' 
and is self-closing. Swan's N. W. Coast, pp. 110-11. 'The tribes near the 
coast remove less frequently than those of the interior.' California, Past, Pres- 
ent and Future, p. 135. ' I never saw more than four fires, or above eighty per- 
sons — slaves and all— in the largest house.' Ross' Adven., pp. 98-9; Palmer's 
Jour., pp. 86, 108; Irving's Astoria, p. 322; Nicolay's Ogn., 144, 148-9; Cox's 
Adven., vol. L, p. 327, from Lewis and Clarke; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 135-7, from 
Lewis and Clarke; Parker's Fxplor. Tour., pp. 141-5, 178-9, 245; Franchere's 
Nar., pp. 247-8; Lord's Nat., vol. i., p. 65; Townsend's Nar., p. 181; Kane's 
Wand., pp. 187-8; Hale's Fthnog. in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., pp. 204, 216-17; 
Strickland's Hist. Missions, pp. 136-9. 


warmer waters near the mouth, and are there taken 
while in their best condition, by the Chinook tribe proper, 
with a straight net of bark or roots, sometimes five hund- 
red feet long and fifteen feet deep, with lloats and sink- 
ers. One end of the net is carried out into the river at 
high water, and drawn in by the natives on the shore, 
who with a mallet quiet the fish and prevent them 
from jumping over the net and escaping. Farther up, 
especially at the Cascades and at the falls of the Willa- 
mette, salmon are speared by natives standing on the 
rocks or on planks placed for the purpose ; scooped up in 
small dip-nets; or taken with a large unbaited hook at- 
tached by a socket and short line to a long pole. There 
is some account of artificial channels of rocks at these 
places, but such expedients were generally not needed, 
since, beside those caught by the Chinooks, such numbers 
were cast on the rocks by their own efforts to leap the 
falls, that the air for months was infected by the decay- 
ing mass ; and many of these in a palatable state of decay 
were gathered by the natives for food. Hooks, spears, 
and nets were sometimes rubbed with the juice of cer- 
tain plants supposed to be attractive to the fish. Once 
taken, the salmon were cleaned by the women, dried 
in the sun and smoked in the lodges; then they were 
sometimes powdered fine between two stones, before pack- 
ing in skins or mats for winter use. The heads were 
always eaten as favorite portions during the fishing sea- 
son. Next to the salmon the sturgeon was ranked as a 
source of food. This fish, weighing from two hundred 
to five hundred pounds, was taken by a baited hook, 
sunk about twenty feet, and allowed to float down the 
current; when hooked, the sturgeon rises suddenly and is 
dispatched by a spear, lifted into the canoe by a gaff- 
hook, or towed ashore. The Chinooks do not attack the 
whale, but when one is accidentally cast upon the shore, 
more or less decayed, a season of feasting ensues and the 
native heart is glad. Many smaller varieties of fish are 
taken by net, spear, hook, or rake, but no methods are 
employed meriting special description. Wild *bwl are 


snared or shot; elk and deer are shot with arrows or 
taken in a carefully covered pit, dug in their favorite 
haunts. As to the methods of taking rabbits and wood- 
rats, whose skins are said to have been so extensively 
used for clothing, I find no information. Nuts, berries, 
wild fruits and roots are all used as food, and to some 
extent preserved for winter. The AVapato, a bulbous 
root, compared by some to the potatoe and turnip, was 
the aboriginal staple, and was gathered by women wad- 
ing in shallow ponds, and separating the root with their 
toes. 122 Boiling in wooden kettles by means of hot 
stones, was the usual manner of cooking, but roasting on 
sticks stuck in the sand near the fire was also common. 
Clam-shells and a few rude platters and spoons of wood 
were in use, but the fingers, with the hair for a napkin, 

122 ' In the summer they resort to the principal rivers and the sea coast, 
. . . .retiring to the smaller rivers of the interior during the cold season.' Warre 
and Vavasour, in Martin's Hud. Bay, p. 83. All small fish are driven into 
the small coves or shallow waters, ' when a number of Indians in canoes con- 
tinue splashing the water; while others sink branches of piue. The fish are 
then taken easily out with scoops or wicker baskets.' Thornton's Ogn. and Cal., 
vol. i., pp. 389, 288-9, 384-6, 390-1. Fish ' are not eaten till they become soft 
from keeping, when they, are mashed -with water.' In the Willamette Valley 
they raised corn, beans, and squashes. Hunter's Cap., pp. 70-2. A 'stur- 
geon, though weighing upwards of three hundred j)ounds, is, by the single 
effort of one Indian, jerked into the boat'! Dunn's Oregon, pp. 135, 114-15, 
134, 137-9. The Umpquas, to cook salmon, ' all provided themselves with 
sticks about three feet long, pointed at one end and split at the other. They 
then apportioned the salmon, each one taking a large piece, and filling it with 
splinters to prevent its falling to pieces when cooking, which they fastened 
with great care, into the forked end of the stick;. . . .then placing themselves 
around the fire so as to describe a circle, they stuck the pointed end of the 
stick into the ground, a short distance from the fire, inclining the top towards 
the flames, so as to bring the salmon in contact with the heat, thus forming a 
kind of pyramid of salmon over the whole fire. ' nines' Voy, p. 102; Id. Ogn., p. 
306. ' There are some articles of food which are mashed by the teeth before 
being boiled or roasted; this mastication is performed by the women.' Dome- 
nech's Deserts, vol. ii ., pp. 314, 16, 240-2. ' The salmon in this country are never 
caught with a (baited) hook.' Wilkes' Hist. Ogn., p. 107. ' Turbot and floun- 
ders are caught (at Shoalwater Bay) while wading in the water, by means of 
the feet.' Sloan's X. W. Coast, pp. 38, 83, 103-8, 140, 163-6, with cuts. On 
food, see Ross' Adven., vol. i., pp. 94-5, 97, 112-3; Lord's Nat., vol. i., pp. 
68-9, 181-3; Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 409-15, 422, 425, 430-1, 445, 5U6; 
Wells, in Harper's Mag., vol. xiii., pp. 005-7, with cuts; Xicolay's 0<in., pp. 
144, 147-8; Palmer's jour., pp. 84, 105; Parker's Explor. Tour., p. 244; Jrv- 
ing's Astoria, pp. 86, 335; Cox's Adven., vol. i., p. 329-32; vol ii., pp. 128-31; 
Catlin's N. Am. Ind., vol. ii., p. 113; Abbott, in Pac. E. B. Bept., vol. vi., p. 
89; Ind. Life, p. 165; Pickering's Paces, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., p. 26; 
Kane's Wand,, pp. 185-9; Franchere's \<tr., pp. 235-7; Gass' Jour., pp. 224, 
230-1, 282-3; Fedix, L'Oregon, pp. 44-5; Stanly's Portraits, pp. 59-62. 


were found much more convenient table ware. 123 In all 
their personal habits the Chinooks are disgustingly filthy, 
although said to be fond of baths for health and pleas- 
ure. The Clatsops, as reported by one visitor, form a 
partial exception to this rule, as they occasionally wash 
the hands and face. 124 

Their chief w r eapons are bows and arrow r s, the former 
of which is made of cedar, or occasionally, as it is said, 
of horn and bone ; its elasticity is increased by a cov- 
ering of sinew glued on. The arrow-head is of bone, 
flint, or copper, and the shaft consists of a short piece of 
some hard wood, and a longer one of a lighter material. 
The bows are from two and a half to four feet long ; five 
styles, differing in form and curve, are pictured by School- 
craft. Another weapon in common use was a double- 
edged wooden broad-sword, or sharp club, two and a half 
or three feet long ; spears, tomahawks, and scalping knives 
are mentioned by many travelers, but not described, and 
it is doubtful if either were ever used by these aborig- 
ines. 125 I have already spoken of their thick arrow- 
proof elk- skin armor, and of a coat of short sticks bound 
together with grass; a bark helmet is also employed of 
sufficient strength to ward off arrows and light blows. 
Ross states that they also carry a circular elk-skin shield 
about eighteen inches in diameter. Although by no 
means a blood-thirsty race, the Chinook tribes were fre- 
quently involved in quarrels, resulting, it is said, from 
the abduction of women more frequently than from other 
causes. They, like almost all other American tribes, 

123 For description of the various roots and berries used by the Chinooks 
as food, see Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 450-5. 

121 The Multnomahs 'are very fond of cold, hot, and vapour baths, which 
are used at all seasons, and for the purpose of health as well as pleasure. 
They, however, add a species of bath peculiar to themselves, by washing the 
whole body with urine every morning.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 509, 
409. Eat insects from each other's head, for the animals bite them, and 
they claim the right to bite back. Kane's Wand., pp. 183-4. 

125 ('ox's Adven., vol. i., pp. 323-4; vol. ii., p. 13; Lrving's Astoria, pp. 324, 
338; Loss' Adven., p. 90; Kane's Wand., p. 189; Catlin's JSf. Am. lnd., vol. ii., 
p. 113, pi. 210%; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 124-5; Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 429- 
31, 509; Ilines' Oqn., p. 110; Frahchere's Nar., p. 253; Emmons, in Schoolcraft's 
Arch., vol. iii., pp. 206-7, 215-16, 468. 


make a free use of war paint, laying it on grotesquely 
and in bright colors ; but unlike most other nations, they 
never resorted to treachery, surprise, night attacks, or 
massacre of women and children. Fighting was gen- 
erally done upon the water. When efforts to settle am- 
icably their differences, always the first expedient, failed, 
a party of warriors, covered from head to foot with armor, 
and armed with bows, arrows, and bludgeons, was pad- 
dled by women to the enemies' village, where diplomatic 
efforts for peace were renewed. If still unsuccessful, the 
women were removed from danger, and the battle com- 
menced, or, if the hour w r as late, fighting was postponed 
till the next morning. As their armor was arrow- proof 
and as they rarely came near enough for hand-to-hand 
conflict, the battles were of short duration and accompa- 
nied by little bloodshed ; the fall of a few warriors de- 
cided the victory, the victors gained their point in the 
original dispute, the vanquished paid some damages, and 
the affair ended. 120 

Troughs dug out of one piece of cedar, and woven 
baskets served this people for dishes, and were used for 
every purpose. rThe best baskets w r ere of silk grass or 
fine fibre, of a conical form, woven in colors so closely 
as to hold liquids, and with a capacity of from one to 
six gallons. Coarser baskets were made of roots and 
rushes, rude spoons of ash -wood, and circular mats did 
duty as plates. Wapato diggers used a curved stick 
with handle of horn; fish-hooks and spears w r ere made 
of wood and bone in a variety of forms; the wing-bone 
of the crane supplied a needle. With regard to their 
original cutting instruments, by which trees were felled 
for canoes or for planks which were split off by wedges, 
there is much uncertainty; since nearly all authorities 

126 'When the conflict is postponed till the next day,. . . .they keep up 
frighful cries all night long, and, when they are sufficiently near to understand 
each other, defy one another by menaces, railleries, and sarcasms, like the 
heroes of Homer and Virgil.' Franchere's Nar., pp. 251-4; Cox's Adven., vol. 
i., pp. 322-3: Dunn's Oregon, p. 124; Irving' 8 Astoria, pp. 340-1; Ross 1 Fur 
Hunters vol. i., pp. 88, 105-8; Domenech's Deserts, vol. ii., p. 354; Stanly's 
Portraits, pp. 61-2; Foster's Dre-Hlst. Daces, p. 232. 


state that before their intercourse with Europeans, chisels 
made of ' old files,' were employed, and driven by an oblong 
stone or a spruce-knot mallet, Pipe-bowls were of hard 
wood fitted to an elder stem, but the best ones, of stone ele- 
gantly carved, were of Haidah manufacture and obtained 
from the north. 127 To kindle a fire the Chinook twirls 
rapidly between the palms a cedar stick, the point of 
which is pressed into a small hollow in a flat piece of the 
same material, the sparks falling on finely-frayed bark. 
Sticks are commonly carried for the purpose, improving 
with use. Besides woven baskets, matting is the chief 
article of Chinook manufacture. It is made by the wo- 
men by placing side by side common bulrushes or flags 
about three feet long, tying the ends, and passing strings 
of twisted rushes through the whole length, sometimes 
twenty or thirty feet, about four inches apart, by means 
of a bone needle. 128 

Chinook boats do not differ essentially, either in mate- 
rial, form, or method of manufacture, from those already 
described as in use among the Sound family. Always dug 
out of a single log of white cedar, fir, or pine, they vary in 
length from ten to fifty feet, and in form according to the 
waters they are intended to navigate or the freight they 
are to carry. In these canoes lightness, strength, and ele- 
gance combine to make them perfect models of water- 
craft, Lewis and Clarke describe four forms in use in 
this region, and their description of boats, as of most other 
matters connected with this people, has been taken with 
or without credit by nearly all who have treated of the 
subject. I cannot do better than to give their account 
of the largest and best boats used by the Kilamooks and 

127 Pickering makes ' the substitution of the water-proof basket, for the 
square wooden bucket of the straits ' the chief difference between this and 
the Sound Family, liaces, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol ix., p. 25; Emmons, in School- 
craft's Arch., vol. iii., p. 206; Vancouver's Voy., vol. ii., p. 77; Ross' Adven., 
p. 92; Domenech's Deserts, vol. ii., pp. 241, 260; Franchere's Nar., pp. 248-9; 
Lewis and Clarice's Trav., pp, 432-5; Cox's Adven., vol. i., pp. 329-32; Dunn's 
Oregon, pp. 138-9; Catlin's iY. Am. Ind., vol. ii., p. 113, pi. 210%, showing 
cradle, ladles, Wapato diggers, Paulomaugons, or war clubs and pipes. Park- 
er's Explor. Tour., pp. 248-9; Kane's Wand., pp. 184-5, 188-9. 

12 « Swan's N. W. Coast, pp. 161-3; Parker's Explor. Tour., p. 253. 


other tribes on the coast outside the river. ' ' The sides 
are secured by cross-bars, or round sticks, two or three 
inches in thickness, which are inserted through holes 
just below the gunwale, and made fast with cords. The 
upper edge of the gunwale itself is about five-eighths 
of an inch thick, and four or five in breadth, and folds 
outwards, so as to form a kind of rim, which prevents 
the water from beating into the boat. The bow and stern 
are about the same height, and each provided with a 
comb, reaching to the bottom of the boat. At each end, 
also, are pedestals, formed of the same solid piece, on 
which are placed strange grotesque figures of men or 
animals, rising sometimes to the height of five feet, and 
composed of small pieces of wood, firmly united, with great 
ingenuity, by inlaying and mortising, without a spike 
of any kind. The paddle is usually from four feet and 
a half to five feet in length ; the handle being thick for 
one-third of its length, when it widens, and is hollowed 
and thinned on each side of the centre, which forms a 
sort of rib. When they embark, one Indian sits in the 
stern, and steers with a paddle, the others kneel in pairs 
in the bottom qf the canoe, and sitting on their heels, 
paddle over the gunwale next to them. In this way 
they ride with perfect safety the highest waves, and ven- 
ture without the least concern in seas where other boats 
or seamen could not live an instant." The women are 
as expert as the men in the management of canoes. 129 

The Chinooks were always a commercial rather than 
a warlike people, and are excelled by none in their 

129 Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 433-5. 'Hollowed out of the cedar by 
fire, and smoothed off with stone axes.' Kane's Wand., p. 189. At Cape Or- 
forcl ' their shape much resembled that of a butcher's tray.' Vancouver' 's Voy., 
vol. L, p. 204. ' A human face or a white-headed eagle, as large as life, carved 
on the prow, and raised high in front.' lioss' Adven., pp. 97-8. 'In landing 
they put the canoe round, so as to strike the beach stern on.' Franchere's 
Nar., p. 246. ' The larger canoes on the Columbia are sometimes propelled 
by short oars.' Emmons, in Schoolcraft'' 's Arch., vol. iii., p. 218. 'Finest ca- 
noes in the world.' "Wilkes* Hist. Ogn., p. 107; Parker's Explor. Tour., p. 252; 
Dunn's Oregon, pp. 121-2; Swan's M. W. Coast, pp. 79-82, with cuts; Irving 's 
Astoria, pp. 86, 324; Cox's Adven., vol. i., pp. 325-7; Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. 
Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 217; Domenech's Deserts, vol. ii., pp. 276-7; Brownell's Lid. 
Races, pp. 535-7; Gass' Jour., p. 279. 


shrewdness at bargaining. Before the arrival of the 
Europeans they repaired annually to the region of the 
Cascades and Dalles, where they met the tribes of the 
interior, with whom they exchanged their few articles of 
trade — iish 7 oil, shells, and Wapato — for the skins, roots, 
and grasses of their eastern neighbors.. The coming of 
ships to the coast gave the Chinooks the advantage in 
this trade, since they controlled the traffic in beads, 
trinkets and weapons; they found also in the strangers 
ready buyers of the skins obtained from the interior in 
exchange for these articles. Their original currency or 
standard of value was. the hiaqua shell from the north- 
ern coast, whose value was in proportion to its length, a 
fathom string of forty shells being worth nearly double 
a string of fifty to the fathom. Since the white men 
came, beaver-skins and blankets have been added to their 
currency. Individuals w T ere protected in their rights to 
personal property, such as slaves, canoes, and imple- 
ments, but they had no idea of personal property in 
lands, the title to which rested in the tribe for purposes 
of fishing and the chase. 130 

In decorative art this family cannot be said to hold a 
high place compared with more northern nations, their 
only superior work being the modeling of their canoes, 
and the weaving of ornamental baskets. In carving 
they are far inferior to the Haidahs ; the Cathlamets, ac- 
cording to Lewis and Clarke, being somewhat superior 
to the others, or at least more fond of the art. Their 
attempts at painting are exceedingly rude. 131 

130 Dried and pounded salmon, prepared by a method not understood ex- 
cept at the falls, formed a prominent article of commerce, both with coast 
and interior nations. Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 444-7, 413. A fathom of 
the largest hiaqua shells is worth about ten beaver-skins. A dying man 
gave his property to his intimate friends ' with a promise on their part to 
restore them if he recovered.''s Nar., pp. 244-5, 137; Boss' Advert., 
pp. 87-8, 95-6; Swan's N. W. Coast, p. 166; Irving' s Astoria, p. 322; Dunn's 
Oregon, pp. 133-4; Cox's Adven., vol. i., p. 333; Thornton's Ogn. and Cal., vol. 
i., p. 392; Kane's Wand., p. 185; Dornenech's Deserts, vol. ii., p. 250; Gass' 
Jour., p. 227; Morton's Crania Am., pp. 202-14; Fedix, V Oregon, pp. 44-5. 

131 Have no idea of drawing maps on the sand. ' Their powers of computa- 
tion. . . .are very limited.' Emmons, in Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iii., pp. 205, 
207; Lewis and Clarke's Trav., p. 493; Ross' Adven., pp. 88-9, 98; Kane's 
Wand., p. 185. 


Little can be said of their system of government ex- 
cept that it was eminently successful in producing peace- 
ful and well regulated communities. Each band or 
village was usually a sovereignty, nominally ruled by a 
chief, either hereditary or selected for his wealth and pop- 
ularity, who exerted over his tribe influence rather than 
authority, but who was rarely opposed in his measures. 
Sometimes a league existed, more or less permanent, for 
warlike expeditions. Slight offenses against usage — the 
tribal common law — were expiated by the payment of 
an amount of property satisfactory to the party offended. 
Theft was an- offense, but the return of the article stolen 
removed every trace of dishonor. Serious crimes, as the 
robbery of a burial-place, were sometimes punished with 
death by the people, but no special authorities or pro- 
cesses seem to have been employed, either for detection 
or punishment. 132 

Slavery, common to all the coast families, is also 
practiced by the Chinooks, but there is less difference 
here perhaps than elsewhere between the condition of 
the slaves and the free. Obtained from without the 
limits of the fainily, towards the south or east, by war, 
or more commonly by trade, the slaves are obliged to 
perform all the drudgery for their masters, and their 
children must remain in their parents' condition, their 
round heads serving as a distinguishing mark from free- 
men. But the amount of the work connected with the 
Chinook household is never great, and so long as the 
slaves are well and strong, they are liberally fed and well 
treated. True, many instances are known of slaves 
murdered by the whim of a cruel and rich master, and 
it was not very uncommon to kill slaves on the occasion 
of the death of prominent persons, but wives and friends 
are also known to have been sacrificed on similar oc- 

132 The Willamette tribes, nine in number, were under four principal 
chiefs. Boss' Advert., pp. 235-6, 88, 216. Casanov, a famous chief at Fort 
Vancouver employed a hired assassin to remove obnoxious persons. Kane 's 
Wand., pp. 173-(>; Franchere's Nar., p. 250; Irving's Astoria, pp. 88, 340, 
Cox's Advcn., vol. i., pp. 322-3; Parka? 8 Kxplor. tour., p. 253; Lewis and 
Clarke's Trav., p. 443. 


casioris. No burial rights are accorded to slaves, and 
no care taken of them in serious illness ; when unable to 
work they are left to die, and their bodies cast into the 
sea or forest as food for fish or beast. It was not a rare 
occurrence for a freeman to voluntarily subject himself 
to servitude in payment of a gambling-debt; nor for a 
slave to be adopted into the tribe, and the privilege of 
head -flattening accorded to his offspring. 133 

Not only were the Chinooks a peaceable people in 
their tribal intercourse, but eminently so in their family 
relations. The young men when they married brought 
their wives to their father's home, and thus several gen- 
erations lived amicably in their large dwellings until 
forced to separate by numbers, the chief authority being 
exercised not by the oldest but by the most active and 
useful member of the household. Overtures for mar- 
riage were made by friends of the would-be bridegroom, 
who offered a certain price, and if accepted by the maid- 
en's parents, the wedding ceremony was celebrated sim- 
ply by an interchange and exhibition of presents with 
the congratulations of invited guests. A man might 
take as many wives as he could buy and support, and 
all lived together without jealousy; but practically few, 
and those among the rich and powerful, indulged in 
the luxury of more than one wife. It has been noticed 
that there was often great disparity in the ages of bride 
and groom, for, say the Chinooks, a very young or very 
aged couple lack either the experience or the activity 
necessary for fighting the battles of life. Divorce or 
separation is easily accomplished, but is not of frequent 
occurrence. A husband can repudiate his wife for in- 
fidelity, or any cause of dissatisfaction, and she can marry 
again. Some cases are known of infidelity punished with 

133 < Live in the same dwelling with their masters, and often intermarry 
with those who are free.' Parker's Explor. Tour, pp. 197, 247. ' Treat them 
with humanity while their services are useful.' Franchere's Nar., p. 241. 
Treated with great severity. Kane's Wand., pp. 181-2; Lewis and Clarke's 
Trav., p. 447; Boss' Adven., pp. 92-3; Irving's Astoria, p. 88; Cox's Adven., 
vol. i., pp. 305-6; Dunn's Oreqon, pp. 129-30; Fitzgerald's Had. B. Co., pp. 
196-7; Stanly's Portraits, pp. '61-2. 
Vol. I. 16 


death. Barrenness is common, the birth of twins rare, 
and families do not usually exceed two children. Child- 
birth, as elsewhere among aboriginals, is accompanied 
with but little inconvenience, and children are often 
nursed until three or five years old. They are carried 
about on the mother's back until able to walk; at first in 
the head-flattening cradle, and later in wicker baskets. 
Unmarried women have not the slightest idea of chas- 
tity, and freely bestow their favors in return for a kind- 
ness, or for a very small consideration in property paid 
to themselves or parents. When married, all this is 
changed — female virtue acquires a marketable value, the 
possessorship being lodged in the man and not in the 
woman. Rarely are wives unfaithful to their husbands ; 
but the chastity of the wife is the recognized property 
of the husband, who sells it whenever he pleases. Al- 
though attaching no honor to chastity, the Chinook 
woman feels something like shame at becoming the 
mother of an illegitimate child, and it is supposed to be 
partly from this instinct that infanticide and abortion 
are of frequent occurrence. At her first menstruation a 
girl must perform a certain penance, much less severe, 
however, than among the northern nations. In some 
tribes she must bathe frequently for a moon, and rub 
the body with rotten hemlock, carefully abstaining from 
all fish and berries which are in season, and remaining 
closely in the house during a south wind. Did she par- 
take of the forbidden food, the fish would leave the 
streams and the berries drop from the bushes ; or did she 
go out in a south wind, the thunder-bird would come and 
shake his wings. All thunder-storms are thus caused. 
Both young children and the old and infirm are kindly 
treated. Work is equally divided between the sexes; 
the women prepare the food which the men provide; 
they also manufacture baskets and matting; they are 
nearly as skillful as the men with the canoe, and are 
consulted on all important matters. Their condition is 
by no means a hard one. It is among tribes that live 
by the chase or by other means in which women can be 


rf little service, that we find the sex most oppressed and 
smelly treated. 134 

Like all Indians, the Chinooks are fond of feasting, 
but their feasts are simply the coming together of men 
nid women during the fishing season with the determina- 
tion to eat as much as possible, and this meeting is devoid 
}f those complicated ceremonies of invitation, reception, 
Mid social etiquette, observed farther north ; nor has any 
traveler noticed the distribution of property as a feature 
of these festivals. Fantastically dressed and gaudily 
iecked with paint, they are wont to jump about on cer- 
tain occasions in a hopping, jolting kind of dance, ac- 
companied by songs, beating of sticks, clapping of hands, 
and occasional yells, the women usually dancing in a 
separate set. As few visitors mention their dances, it is 
probable that dancing was less prevalent than with others. 
Their songs were often soft and pleasing, differing in style 
for various occasions, the words extemporized, the tunes 
being often sung with meaningless sounds, like our tra- 
la-la. Sw r an gives examples of the music used under dif- 
ferent circumstances. Smoking was universal, the leaves 
of the bear-berry being employed, mixed in later times 
with tobacco obtained from the whites. Smoke is swal- 
lowed and retained in the stomach and lungs until partial 
intoxication ensues. No intoxicating drink was known 
to them before the whites came, and after their coming 
for a little time they looked on strong drink with sus- 
picion, and were averse to its use. They are sometimes 
>ober even now, when no whisky is at hand. But the 
avorite amusement of all the Chinook nations is gamb- 
ing, which occupies the larger part of their time when 

134 Swan's N. W. Coast, pp. 161, 171; Emmons, in Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. 
i., pp. 211-2. 'In proportion as we approach the rapids from the sea, fe- 
lale impurity becomes less perceptible; beyond this point it entirely ceases.' 
'ox's Adven., vol. ii., pp. 134, 159; vol. i., pp. 366-7, 318; Wells, in Harper's 
fan., vol. xiii., p. 602; Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 439-43. Ceremonies of 
widow in her endeavors to obtain a new husband. Wilkes' Nar., in U. 8. Ex. 
"a., vol. v., p. 124; Boss' Adven., pp. 88, 92-3; Franchere's Nar., pp. 245, 
54-5; Hunter's Cap., p. 70; Hines' Voy., p. 113; Domenech's Deserts, vol. ii., 
p. 16, 294-5; Irving's Astoria, p. 340; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 132-3; Lord's Nat., 
pi. ii., pp. 231-2; Kane's Wand., pp. 175-7, 182;' Gass' Jour., p. 275; Stride- 
nd's Hist. Missions, pp. 139-40. 


not engaged in sleeping, eating, or absolutely necessary 
work. In their games they risk all their property, their 
wives and children, and in many instances their own 
freedom, losing all with composure, and nearly always 
accompanying the game with a song. Two persons, or 
two parties large or small, play one against the other; a 
banking game is also in vogue, in which one individual 
plays against all comers. A favorite method is to pass 
rapidly from hand to hand two small sticks, one of which 
is marked, the opponent meanwhile guessing at the hand 
containing the marked stick. The sticks sometimes take 
the form of discs of the size of a silver dollar, each play- 
er having ten ; these are wrapped in a mass of fine bark- 
fibre, shuffled and separated in two portions ; the winner 
naming the bunch containing the marked or trump piece. 
Differently marked sticks may also be shuffled or tossed 
in the air, and the lucky plajer correctly names the rel- 
ative position in which they shall fall. A favorite game 
of females, called aliikia, is played with beaver-teeth, 
having figured sides, which are thrown like dice; the 
issue depends on the combinations of figures which are 
turned up. In ( all these games the players squat upon 
mats ; sticks are used as counters ; and an essential point 
for a successful gambler is to make as much noise as pos- 
sible, in order to confuse the judgment of opponents. 
In still another game the players attempt to roll small 
pieces of wood between two pins set up a few inches apart, 
at a distance of ten feet, into a hole in the floor just 
beyond. The only sports of an athletic nature are shoot- 
ing at targets with arrows and spears, and a game of ball 
in which two goals are placed a mile apart, and each 
party — sometimes a whole tribe — endeavors to force the 
ball past the other's goal, as in foot-ball, except that the 
ball is thrown with a stick, to one end of which is fixed 
a small hoop or ring. 135 Children's sports are described 

135 ■ I saw neither musical instruments, nor dancing, among the Oregon 
tribes.' Pickering's Races, in U. 8. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., p. 43. 'All extrava- 
gantly fond of ardent spirits, and are not particular what kind they have, 
provided it is strong, and gets them drunk quickly.' Swan's N. W. Coast, pp. 


only by Swan, and as rag babies and imitated Catholic 
baptisms were the favorite pastimes mentioned, they may 
be supposed not altogether aboriginal. 

Personal names with the Chinooks are hereditary, but 
in many cases they either have no meaning or their 
original signification is soon forgotten. They are averse 
to telling their true name to strangers, for fear, as they 
sometimes say, that it may be stolen ; the truth is, how- 
ever, that with them the name assumes a personality ; it 
is the shadow or spirit, or other self, of the llesh and 
blood person, and between the name and the individual 
there is a mysterious connection, and injury cannot be 
done to one without affecting the other; therefore, to 
give one's name to a friend is a high mark of Chinook 
favor. No account is kept of age. They are believers 
in sorcery and secret influences, and not without fear of 
their medicine-men or conjurers, but, except perhaps 
in their quality of physicians, the latter do not exert the 
influence which is theirs farther north ; their ceremonies 
and tricks are consequently fewer and less ridiculous. 
Inventions of the whites not understood by the natives 
are looked on with great superstition. It was, for in- 
stance, very difficult at first to persuade them to risk 
their lives before a photographic apparatus, and this for 
the reason before mentioned; they fancied that their 
spirit thus passed into the keeping of others, who could 
torment it at pleasure. 136 Consumption, liver complaint 
and ophthalmia are the most prevalent Chinook maladies ; 
to which, since the whites came, fever and ague have been 
added, and have killed eighty or ninety per cent, of the 

155-8, 197-202. 'Not addicted to intemperance.' Franchere's Var., p. 242. 
At gambling ' they will cheat if they can, and pride themselves on their suc- 
cess.' Kane's Wand., pp. 190, 196. Seldom cheat, and submit to their losses 
with resignation. Cox's Adven., vol. i., p. 332; Leims and Clarke's Trav., pp. 
410, 443-4; Wells, in Harper's Mag., vol. xiii., p. 601, and cut of dance at 
Coos Bay; Wilkes' Nar., in U. 8. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., pp. 392-3; vol. v., p. 123; 
Vancouver's Voy., vol. ii., p. 77; Ross' Fur Hunters, vol. i., pp. 90-4, 112-13; 
Dunn's Oregon, pp. 114-15, 121, 125-8, 130-1; Parker's Explor. Tour., pp. 
247-8; Domenech's Deserts, vol. ii., p. 242; Irving' 's Astoria, p. 341; Palmer's 
Jour., p. 86. 

136 Tofoniem Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 248; Gass' Jour., pp. 232, 275; Dunn's 
Oregon, pp. 123-8; Kane's Wand., pp. 205, 255-6; Swan's JV. W. Coast, p. 267; 
Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 654. 


whole people, utterly exterminating some tribes. The 
cause of this excessive mortality is supposed to be the 
native method of treatment, which allays a raging fever 
by plunging the patient in the river or sea. On the 
Columbia this alleviating plunge is preceded by violent 
perspiration in a vapor bath; consequently the treat- 
ment has been much more fatal there than on the coast 
where the vapor bath is not in use. For slight ills and 
pains, especially for external injuries, the Chinooks em- 
ploy simple remedies obtained from various plants and 
trees. Many of these remedies have been found to be 
of actual value, while others are evidently quack nos- 
trums, as when the ashes of the hair of particular animals 
are considered essential ingredients of certain ointments. 
Fasting and bathing serve to relieve many slight internal 
complaints. Strangely enough, they never suffer from 
diseases of the digestive organs, notwithstanding the 
greasy compounds used as food. When illness becomes 
serious or refuses to yield to simple treatment, the con- 
clusion is that either the spirits of the dead are striving 
to remove the spirit of the sick person from the troubles 
of earth to a happier existence, or certain evil spirits 
prefer this world and the patient's body for their dwell- 
ing-place. Then the doctor is summoned. Medical 
celebrities are numerous, each with his favorite method 
of treatment, but all agree that singing, beating of sticks, 
indeed a noise, however made, accompanied by mysteri- 
ous passes and motions, with violent pressure and knead- 
ing of the body are indispensable. The patient frequently 
survives the treatment. Several observers believe that 
mesmeric influences are exerted, sometimes with benefit, 
by the doctors in their mummeries. 137 

137 Doctors, if unsuccessful, are sometimes subjected to rough treatment, 
but rarely killed, except when they have previously threatened the life of the 
patient. Swan's N. W. Coast, pp. 170-185. At the Dalles an old woman, 
whose incantations had caused a fatal sickness, was beheaded by a brother 
of the deceased. Ind. Life, pp. 173-4, 142-3. Whole tribes have been al- 
most exterminated by the small-pox. Stevens, in Fac. R. R. llept., vol. i., 
pp. 82, 179. Venereal disease prevalent, and a complete cure is never ef- 
fected. Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 441), 508. Generally succeed in curing 
venereal disease even in its worst stage. Ross' Adven., p. 90-9. The unsuc- 


When the Chinook dies, relatives are careful to speak 
in whispers, and indulge in no loud manifestations of 
grief so long as the body remains in the house. The 
body is prepared for final disposition by wrapping it in 
blankets, together with ornaments and other property of 
a valuable but not bulky nature. For a burial place an 
elevated but retired spot near the river bank or on an 
island is almost always selected, but the methods of dis- 
posing of the dead in these cemeteries differ somewhat 
among the various tribes. In the region about the mouth 
of the Columbia, the body with its wrappings is placed in 
the best canoe of the deceased, which is washed for the 
purpose, covered with additional blankets, mats, and prop- 
erty, again covered, when the deceased is of the richer 
class, by another inverted canoe, the whole bound to- 
gether with matting and cords, and deposited usually on 
a plank platform five or six feet high, but sometimes 
suspended from the branches of trees, or even left on the 
surface of the ground. The more bulky articles of prop- 
erty, such as utensils, and weapons, are deposited about or 
hung from the platform, being previously spoiled for use 
that they may not tempt desecrators among the whites or 
foreign tribes ; or, it may be that the sacrifice or death of 
the implements is necessary before the spirits of the imple- 
ments can accompany the spirit of the owner. For the 
same purpose, and to allow the water to pass off, holes are 
bored in the bottom of the canoe, the head of the corpse 
being raised a little higher than the feet. Some travelers 
have observed a uniformity in the position of the canoe, 
the head pointing towards the east, or down the current 
of the stream. After about a year, the bones are some- 
times taken out and buried, but the canoe and platform 
are never removed. Chiefs' canoes are often repainted. 

cessful doctor killed, unless able to buy his life. Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., 
vol. iv., p. '394. Flatheads more subject to apoplexy than others. Domenech's 
Deserts, vol i., p. 87; Cox's Adven., vol. i., p. 126-7, 307, 312-15, 335, vol. ii.. 
pp. 94-5; Townsend's Nar., pp. 158, 178-9; Franchere's Nar., p. 250; Dunn's 
Ore /on, pp. 115-9, 127; Thornton's Ogn. and Cal., vol. ii., p. 53; Parker's Ex- 
plor. Tour., pp. 176, 191 2; Fitzgerald's Had. B. Co., pp. 171-2; Strickland's 
Hist. Missions, pp. 139-40. 


Farther up both the Columbia and Willamette Rivers, 
excavations of little depth are often made, in which 
bodies are deposited on horizontal boards and covered 
over with a slightly inclining roof of heavy planks or 
poles. In these vaults several tiers of corpses are often 
placed one above another. At the Cascades, depositories 
of the dead have been noticed in the form of a roofed 
inclosure of planks, eight feet long, six feet wide, and 
five feet high, with a door in one end, and the wdiole 
exterior painted. The Calapooyas also buried their dead 
in regular graves, over which was erected a wooden 
head-board. Desecration of burial places is a great crime 
with the Chinook ; he also attaches great importance to 
having his bones rest in his tribal cemetery wherever he 
may die. For a long time after a death, relatives repair 
daily at sunrise and sunset to the vicinity of the grave 
to sing songs of mourning and praise. Until the bones 
are finally disposed of, the name of the deceased must 
not be spoken, and for several years it is spoken only 
with great reluctance. Near relatives often change their 
name under the impression that spirits will be attracted 
back to earth if they hear familiar names often repeated. 
Chiefs are supposed to die through the evil influence of 
another person, and the suspected, though a dear friend, 
was formerly often sacrificed. The dead bodies of slaves 
are never touched save by other slaves. 138 

138 A chief on the death of his daughter ' had an Indian slave bound hand 
and foot, and fastened to the body of the deceased, and enclosed the two in 
another mat, leaving out the head of the living one. The Indian then took the 
canoe and carried it to a high rock and left it there. Their custom is to let 
the slave live for three days; then another slave is compelled to strangle the 
victim by a cord.' Letter, in Scliool craft's Arch., vol. ii., p. 71. See also vol. 
iii., pp. 217-18; vol. vi., pp. 616-23, with plate; vol. v., p. 655. 'The emblem 
of a squaw's grave is generally a camass-root digger, made of a deer's horns, 
and fastened on the end of a stick.' Wilkes' Nar. in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. v., 
pp. 233-4, vol. iv., p. 394. ' I believe I saw as many as an hundred canoes 
at one burying place of the Chinooks.' Gass' Jour., p. 274. ' Four stakes, in- 
terlaced with twigs and covered with brush,' tilled with dead bodies. Abbott, 
in Pac. R. R. llept., vol. vi., p. 88. At Coose Bay, 'formerly the body was 
burned, and the wife of the corpse killed and interred.' Now the body is 
sprinkled with sand and ashes, the ankles are bent up and. fastened to the 
neck; relatives shave their heads and put the hair on the body with shells 
and roots, and the corpse is then buried and trampled on by the whole tribe. 
Wells, in Harper's Mag., vol. xiii., p. 602. ' The canoe-coffins were decorated 
with rude carved work.' Vancouver's Vorj., vol. ii., p. 54. Strangers are paid 


There is little difference of opinion concerning the 
character of the Chinooks. All agree that they are in- 
telligent and very acute in trade; some travelers have 
found them at different points harmless and inoffensive ; 
and in a feAV instances honesty has been detected. So 
much for their good qualities. As to the bad, there is 
unanimity nearly as great that they are thieves and liars, 
and for the rest each observer applies to them a selection 
of such adjectives as lazy, superstitious, cowardly, in- 
quisitive, intrusive, libidinous, treacherous, turbulent, 
hypocritical, fickle, etc. The Clatsops, with some authors, 
have the reputation of being the most honest and moral ; 
for the lowest position in the scale all the rest might 
present a claim. It should however be said in their 
favor that they are devotedly attached to their homes, 
and treat kindly both their young children and aged 
parents ; also that not a few of their bad traits originated 
with or have been aggravated by contact with civiliza- 
tion. 139 

to join in the lamentations. Ross' Adven., p. 97. Children who die during 
the head-flattening process are set afloat in their cradles upon the surface of 
some sacred pool, where the bodies of the old are also placed in their canoes. 
Cattin's N. Am. Ind., vol. ii., p. 111. On burial and mourning see also, 
Swan's V. W. Coast, pp. 72-3, 153, 186-9, with cut of canoe on platform. 
Mofras' Explor., vol. ii., p. 355, and pi. 18 of Atlas; Lewis and Clarke's Trav., 
pp. 423, 429, 509, Kane's Wand., pp. 176-8, 181, 202-5; Cox's Adven., vol.i., 
pp. 124-5, 335-6, vol. ii., p. 157; Parker's Explor. lour., pp. 144, 151-2; 
Thornton's Ogn. and Cat., vol. i., pp. 281-2, vol. ii., p. 53; Belcher's Voy., 
vol. i., p. 292; Domenech's Deserts, vol. i., p. 255; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 119-20, 
131-2; Nicolay's Ogn. Ter., pp. 149-50; Fremont's Ogn. and Cat., p. 186; Trving's 
Astoria, p. 99; Franchere's JSar., p. 106; Palmer's Jour., p. 87; Ind. Life, p. 
210; Townsend's Nar., p. 180. 

139 'The clumsy thief, who is detected, is scoffed at and despised.' Dunn's 
Oregon, pp. 130-1, 114. ' The Kalapuya, like the Umkwa, . . . are more regu- 
lar and quiet' than the inland tribes, ' and more cleanly, honest and moral 
than the ' coast tribes. The Chinooks are a quarrelsome, thievish, and 
treacherous people. Hale's Ethnog., in U. 8. Ex. Ex., vol. vi , pp. 217, 215, 
198, 204. ' A rascally, thieving set. ' Gass' Jour., p. 304. ' When well treated, 
kind and hospitable.' Swan's N. W. Coast, pp. 215, 110, 152. At Cape Or- 
ford 'pleasing and courteous deportment. . . .scrupulously honest.' Vancouv- 
er's Vo>/., vol. i , pp. 204-5. Laziness is probably induced by the ease with 
which they obtain food. Kane's Wand., pp. 181, 185. ' Crafty and intriguing.' 
Easily irritated, but a trifle will appease him. Boss* Fur Hunters., vol. i., p. 
61, 70-1, 77, 88, 90-1, 124-5, 235-6. 'They possess in an eminent degree, 
the qualities opposed to indolence, improvidence, and stupidity: the chiefs 
above all, are distinguished for their good sense and intelligence. Generally 
speaking, they have a ready intellect and a tenacious memory.' ' Barely re- 
sist the temptation of stealing' white men's goods. Franchere's Nar., pp. 
241-2, 261. Loquacious, never gay, knavish, impertinent. Lewis and Clarke's 


The Inland Families, constituting the fifth and last 
division of the Columbians, inhabit the region between 
the Cascade Range and the eastern limit of what I term 
the Pacific States, from 52° 30' to 45° of north latitude. 
These bounds are tolerably distinct; though that on the 
south, separating the eastern portions of the Columbian 
and Californian groups, is irregular and marked by no 
great river, mountain chain, or other prominent physical 
feature. These inland natives of the Northwest occupy, 
in person, character, and customs, as well as in the loca- 
tion of their home, an intermediate position between the 
coast people already described — to whom they are pro- 
nounced superior in most respects — and the Rocky 
Mountain or eastern tribes. Travelers crossing the 
Rocky Mountains into this territory from the east, or 
entering it from the Pacific by way of the Columbia or 
Fraser, note contrasts on passing the limits, sufficient to 
justify me in regarding its inhabitants as one people for 
the purposes aimed at in this volume. 140 Instead, there- 

Trav., pp. 416, 441-2, 504, 523-4. ' Thorough-bred hypocrites and liars.' 
'The Killymucks the most roguish.' Industry, patience, sobriety and in- 
genuity are their chiefrvirtues ; thieving, lying, incontinence, gambling and 
cruelty may be classed among their vices. Cox's Adven., vol. i., pp. 115, 131, 
296-7, 302, 301-5, 321, vol. ii., p. 133. At Wishiam ' they were a community 
of arrant rogues and freebooters.' Irving' s Astoria, pp. 322, 342. ' Lying is 
very common; thieving conrparatively rare.' White's Ogn., p. 207. 'Do not 
appear to possess a particle of natural good feeling.' Townsend's Nar., p. 183. 
At Coos Bay 'by no means the fierce and warlike race found further to the 
northward.' Wells, in Harper's Mag., vol. xiii., p. 601. Umqua and Coose 
tribes are naturally industrious; the Suislaws the most advanced; the Alcea 
not so enterprising. Sykes, in Lid. Aff. Bept., 1860, p. 215. Calapooias, a 
poor, cowardly, and thievish race. Miller, in Id., 1857, p. 364; Nicolay' s Ogn. 
Ter., p. 151; Domenech's Deserts, vol. i., p. 87, vol. ii., pp. 16, 36; Warre and 
Vavasour, in Martin's Had. B., p. 83; Palmer's Jour., pp. 84, 105; Parker's 
Explor. Tour., pp. 249-50; Lid. Life, pp. 1-4, 210; Fitzgerald's Vane. Isl., p. 
196; Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iii., p. 207, etc. 

140 'They all resemble each other in general characteristics.' Parker's 
Explor. Tour., p. 229. Shushwaps and Salish all one race. Mayne's B. C, 
p. 296-7. 'The Indians of the interior are, both physically and morally, 
vastly superior to the tribes of the coast.' Id., p. 242. 'The Kliketat near 
Mount Rainier, the Walla-Wallas, and the Okanagan .... speak kindred dia- 
lects.' Ludewig, Ab. Lang., p. 170. The best-supported opinion is that the 
inland were of the same original stock with the lower tribes. Dunn's Oregon, 
p. 316. ' On leaving the verge of the Carrier country, near Alexandria, a 
marked change is at once perceptible.' Anderson, in Hist. Mag., vol. vii., p. 
77. Inland tribes differ widely from the piscatorial tribes. Boss' Adven., p. 
127. 'Those residing near the Rocky Mountains. .. .are and always have 
been superior races to those living on the lower Columbia.' Alvord, in 
Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 654. 'I was particularly struck with their 


fore, of treating each family separately, as has been 
done with the coast divisions of the group, I deem it more 
convenient, as well as less monotonous to the reader, to 
avoid repetition by describing the manners and customs 
of all the people within these limits together, taking 
care to note such variations as may be found to exist. 
The division into families and nations, made according 
to principles already sufficiently explained, is as follows, 
beginning again at the north: 

The Shushwaps, our first family division, live be- 
tween 52° 30' and 49° in the interior of British Colum- 
bia, occupying the valleys of the Fraser, Thompson, and 
Upper Columbia rivers with their tributary streams and 
lakes. They are bounded on the west by the Nootkas 
and on the north by the Carriers, from both of which 
families they seem to be distinct. As national divisions 
of this family may be mentioned the Shushwaps proper, 
or Atnahs, ul who occupy the whole northern portion of 
the territory; the Okanagam, 1 * 1 in the valley of the lake 
and river of the same name; and the Kootenais^ who 

vast superiority (on the Similkameen River, Lat. 49° 30', Long. 120° 30') in 
point of intelligence and energy to the Fish Indians on the Fraser River, 
and in its neighbourhood.' Palmer, in B. G. Papers, vol. iii., p. 84. Striking 
contrast noted in passing up the Columbia. Hale's Ethnog., in U. 8. Ex. Ex., 
vol. vi., p. 199. 

ui ' The Shewhapmuch .... who compose a large branch of the Saeliss 
family, ' known as Nicute-much — corrupted by the Canadians into Couteaux — 
below the junction of the Fraser and Thompson. Anderson, in Hist. Mag., 
vol. vii., p. 76-7. Atnahs is their name in the Takali language, and signifies 
'strangers.' 'Differ so little from their southern neighbors, the Salish, as 
to render a particular description unnecessary.' Hale's Ethnog., in U. 8. Ex. 
Ex., vol. vi., p. 205. They were called by Mackenzie the Chin tribe, accord- 
ing to Prichard's Researches, vol. v., p. 427, but Mackenzie's Chin tribe was 
north of the Atnahs, being the Nagailer tribe of the Carriers. See Macken- 
zie's Voy., pp. 257-8, and map. 

142 'About Okanagan, various branches of the Carrier tribe.' Nicolay's 
Ogn. Ter., p. 143. ' Okanagans, on the upper part of Frazer's River.' Lude- 
wig, Ab. Lang., p. 170. 

M3 Also known as Flat-bows. ' The poorest of the tribes composing the 
Flathead nation.' McGormick, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1867, p. 211. ' Speaking a 
language of their own, it is not easy to imagine their origin; but it appears 
probable that they once belonged to some more southern tribe, from which 
they became shut off by the intervention of larger tribes.' Mayne's B. C, 
p. 297. ' In appearance, character, and customs, they resemble more the 
Indians east of the Rocky Mountains than those of Lower Oregon.' Hale's 
Ethnog., in If. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 205. ' Les Arcs-k-Plats, et les Koetenais 
sont connus dans le pays sous le nom de Skalzi.' Be 8met, Miss, de V Ore- 
gon, p. 80. 


inhabit the triangle bounded by the Upper Columbia, 
the Rocky Mountains, and the 49th parallel, living 
chiefly on Flatbow river and lake. All three nations 
might probably be joined with quite as much reason to 
the Salish family farther south, as indeed has usually 
been done with the Okanagans; while the Kootenais are 
by some considered distinct from any of their adjoining 

The Salish Family dwells south of the Shushwaps, 
between 49° and 47°, altogether on the Columbia and its 
tributaries. Its nations, more clearly defined than in 
most other families, are the Flatheads, 1 * 4 ' or Salish proper, 
between the Bitter Root and Rocky Mountains on Flat- 
head and Clarke rivers ; the Pend cT Oreilks^ 5 who dwell 
about the lake of the same name and on Clarke River, 
for fifty to seventy-five miles above and below the lake; 
the Coeurs d'Alene™ south of the Pend d'Oreilles, on 
Coeur d'Alene Lake and the streams falling into it; the 
Colvilles^ 1 a term which may be used to designate the 
variously named bands about Kettle Falls, and north- 
ward along the Columbia to the Arrow Lakes; the Sjx)- 
kanes, U8 on the 'Spokane River and plateau along the 
Columbia below Kettle Falls, nearly to the mouth of the 

144 The origin of the name Flathead, as applied to this nation, is not 
known, as they have never been known to flatten the head. ' The mass of 
the nation consists of persons who have more or less of the blood of the 
Spokanes, Pend d'Oreilles, Nez Perces, and Iroquois.' Stevens, in Intl. Aft. 
R>pt., 1851, p. 207; Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 150; Catlin's N. Am. Ind., vol. 
ii., p. 108; StuarVs Montana, p. 82. Gass applied the name apparently to 
tribes on the Clearwater of the Sahaptin family. Jour., p. 224. 

143 Also called Kalispdms and Ponderas. The Upper Pend d'Oreilles 
consist of a number of wandering families of Spokanes, Kalispelms prop- 
er, and Flatheads. Suckley, in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. '291; Stevens, in 
Id., p. 119; Stevens, in Ind. Aft. Rept., 1851, p. 210. 'Very similar in 
manners, etc., to the Flatheads, and form one people with them.' De Smd, 
Miss, de V Oregon, p. 32. 

146 The native name, according to Hale, is Skitsuish, and Coeur d'Alene, 
' Awl heart, ' is a nickname applied from the circumstance that a chief used 
these words to express his idea of the Canadian traders' meanness. Ethnog., 
in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 210. 

14 ? Qitiarlpi, 'Basket People,' Chaudieres, 'Kettles,' Kettle Falls, Chualpays, 
Skoielpoi, and Lakes, are some of the names applied to these bands. 

"3 ' lis s'appellent entre eux les Enfants du Soleil, dans leur langue Spo- 
kane.' Be Smet, Miss, de V Oregon, p. 31. 'Differing very little from the 
Indians at Colville, either in their appearance, habits, or language.' Kam's 
Wand., p. 307. 


Okanagan ; and the Pisquouse^ on the west bank of the 
Columbia between the Okanagan and Priest Rapids. 

The Sahaptin Family, the last of the Columbian 
group, is immediately south of the Salish, between the 
Cascade and Bitter Root mountains, reaching southward, 
in general terms, to the forty-fifth parallel, but very ir- 
regularly bounded by the Shoshone tribes of the Cali- 
fornian group. Of its nations, the Nez Perces™ or Sa- 
haptins proper, dwell on the Clearwater and its branches, 
and on the Snake about the forks; the Palouse 151 occupy 
the region north of the Snake about the mouth of the 
Palouse; the south banks of the Columbia and Snake 
near their confluence, and the banks of the lower Walla 
Walla are occupied by the Walla Wallas ; 152 the Yakimas 
and Kliketats 153 inhabit the region north of the Dalles, 

149 ' So much intermarried with the Yakamas that they have almost lost 
their nationality.' Stevens, in Ind. Ajf. Bej)t., 1854, p. 236. 

150 < Pierced Noses, ' so named by the Canadians, perhaps from the nasal 
ornaments of the first of the tribe seen, although the custom of piercing the 
nose has never been known to be prevalent with this people. ' Generally 
known and distinguished by the name of "black robes," in contradistinction 
to those who live on fish.' Named Nez Perces from the custom of boring 
the nose to receive a white> shell, like the fluke of an anchor. Boss' Fur 
Hunters, vol. i.. pp. 305, 185-6. 'There are two tribes of the Pierced-Nbse 
Indians, the upper and the lower.' Brownell's Ind. Baces, pp. 533-5. ' Though 
originally the same people, their dialect varies very perceptibly from that of 
the Tushepaws.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., p. 341. Called Thov/a-rik-kah, 
Tsoi-rjah, ' Cowse-eaters, ' by the Snakes. 'Ten times better off to-day than 
they were then ' — ' a practical refutation of the time-honored lie, that inter- 
course with whites is an injury to Indians.' Stuart's Montana, pp. 76-7. 'In 
character and appearance, they resemble more the Indians of the Missouri 
than their neighbors, the Salish.' Hale's Ethnog. in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 
212; Domenech's Deserts, vol. ii., p. 54. 

151 ' La tribu Paloose appartient a la nation des Nez-perces et leur ressem- 
ble sous tous les rapports.' J)e Smet, Voy., p. 31. 

152 The name comes from that of the river. It should be pronounced 
Wala-Wala, very short. Pandosy's Gram., p. 9. 'Descended from slaves 
formerly owned and liberated by the Nez Perces.' Parker's Explor. Tour. p. 
247. ' Not unlike the Pierced-Noses in general appearance, language, and 
habits.' Brownell's Ind. Baces, pp. 533-5. Parts of three different nations at 
the confluence of the Snake and Columbia. Gass' Jour., pp. 218-19. 'None 
of the Indians have any permanent habitations ' on the south bank of the 
Columbia about and above the Dalles. Lewis and Clarke's Trav., p. 365. 
' Generally camping in winter on the north side of the river.' Ind. Aff. Bept., 
1854, p. 223. 

153 The name Yakima is a word meaning ' Black Bear ' in the Walla Walla 
dialect. They are called Klikatats west of the mountains. Gibbs, in Pac. B. 
B. Bept., vol. i., p. 407. 'The Klikatats and Yakimas, in all essential pecul- 
iarities of character, are identical, and their intercourse is constant.' Id., p. 
403, and Stevens, in Ind. Ajf. Bept., 1854, p. 225. • Pshawanwappam bands, 
usually called Yakamas.' The name signifies ' Stony Ground.' Gibbs, in Pan- 


between the Cascade Range and the Columbia, the former 
in the valley of the Yakima, the latter in the mountains 
about Mt. Adams. Both nations extend in some bands 
across into the territory of the Sound family. The na- 
tives of Oregon east of the Cascade Range, who have not 
usually been included in the Sahaptin family, I will di- 
vide somewhat arbitrarily into the Wascos, extending 
from the mountains eastward to John Day River, and 
the Cay use, 15 * from this river across the Blue Mountains 
to the Grande Ronde. 

The inland Columbians are of medium stature, usu- 
ally from five feet seven to five feet ten inches, but some- 
times reaching a height of six feet; spare in flesh, but 
muscular and symmetrical; with well-formed limbs, the 
legs not being deformed as among the Chinooks by con- 
stant sitting in the canoe ; feet and hands are in many 
tribes small and well made. In bodily strength they 
are inferior to whites, but superior, as might be expected 
from their habits, to the more indolent fish-eaters on the 
Pacific. The women, though never corpulent, are more 
inclined to rotundity than the men. The Nez Perces 
and Cay uses are, considered the best specimens, while in 

dosy's Gram., p. vii. ' Roil-roil-pam, is the Klikatat country.' ' Its meaning 
is " the Mouse country." ' Id. The Yakima valley is a great national rendez- 
vous for these and surrounding nations. Ross' Fur Hunters, vol. i., pp. 19, 
21. Kliketats, meaning robbers, was first the name given to the Whulwhy- 
pums, and then extended to all speaking the same language. For twenty-five 
years before 1854 they overran the Willamette Valley, but at that time were 
forced by government to retire to their own country. Tolmie, in Lord's Xat., 
vol. ii., pp. 244-7. 

i m Wasco is said to mean ' basin, ' and the tribe derives its name, tradi- 
tionally, from the fact that formerly one of their chiefs, his wife having died, 
spent much of his time in making cavities or basins in the soft rock for his 
children to fill with water and pebbles, and thereby amuse themselves. Tic- 
tor's All over Ogn., pp. 94-5. The word Cayuse is perhaps the French CaU- 
loux, 'pebbles.' Called by Tolmie, 'Wyeilats or Kyoose.' He says their 
language has an affinity to that of the Carriers and Umpquas. Lord's Nat., 
vol. ii., pp. 249-50. ' Resemble the Walla- Wallas very much.' Kane's Wand., 
pp. 279-80. ' The imperial tribe of Oregon ' claiming jurisdiction over the 
whole Columbia region. Farnham's Trav., p. 81. The Snakes, Walla-Wallas, 
and Cayuse meet annually in the Grande Ronde Valley. Thornton's Ogn. and 
Cal., vol. i., p. 270. 'Individuals of the pure blood are few, the majority 
being intermixed with the Nez Perces and the Wallah-Wallahs.' Stevens, in 
Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, pp. 218-19. The region which I give to the Wascos and 
Cayuses is divided on Hale's map between the Walla-Wallas, Waiilatpu, and 


the north the Kootenais seem to be superior to the other 
Shush wap nations. The Salish are assigned by Wilkes 
and Hale an* intermediate place in physical attributes 
between the coast and mountain tribes, being in stature 
and proportion superior to the Chinooks, but inferior to 
the Nez Perces. 155 Inland, a higher order of face is ob- 
served than on the coast. The cheek-bones are still 
high, the forehead is rather low, the face long, the eyes 
black, rarely oblique, the nose prominent and frequently 
aquiline, the lips thin, the teeth white and regular but 
generally much worn. The general expression of the 
features is stern, often melancholy, but not as a rule 
harsh or repulsive. Dignified, fine-looking men, and 
handsome young women have been remarked in nearly 
all the tribes, but here again the Sahaptins bear off the 
palm. The complexion is not darker than on the coast, 
but has more of a coppery hue. The hair is black, gen- 
erally coarse, and worn long. The beard is very thin, 
and its growth is carefully prevented by plucking. 156 

155 In the interior the ' men are tall, the women are of common stature, and 
both are well formed.' Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 229. ' Of middle height, slen- 
der.' Hale's Ethnog, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 199. The inland tribes of 
British Columbia, compared with those on the coast, ' are of a better cast, 
being generally of the middle height.' Id., p. 198. See also p. 206. The 
Nez Perces and Cayuses 'are almost universally fine-looking, robust men.' 
In criticising the person of one of that tribe ' one was forcibly reminded of 
the Apollo Belvidere.' Townsend's Nar., pp. 148, 98. The Klikatat ' stature 
is low, with light, sinewy limbs.' Id., p. 178; also pp. 158-174. The Walla- 
Wallas are generally powerful men, at least six feet high, and the Cayuse 
are still ' stouter and more athletic' Gairdner, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. 
xi., p. 256. The Umatillas 'may be a superior race to the " Snakes," but I 
doubt it.' Barnhart, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1862, p. 271. The Salish are 'rather 
below the average size, but are well knit, muscular, and good-looking.' Stev- 
ens, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, p. 208. 'Well made and active.' Dunn's Oregon, 
pp. 311, 327. 'Below the middle hight, with thick-set limbs.' Domenech's 
Deserts, vol. i., p. 88, vol. ii., pp. 55-6, 64-5. The Cootonais are above the 
medium height. Very few Shushwaps reach the height of five feet nine 
inches. Cox's Adven., vol. ii., pp. 155, 376, vol. i., p. 240. See also on phy- 
sique of the inland nations, Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 321, 340, 356, 359, 
382, 527-8, 556-7; Wilkes' Nar., An U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 475; Dunn, in 
Cat. Farmer, April 26, 1861; San Francisco Herald, June, 1858; Stevens, in Pac. 
R. R. Rept., vol. i., pp. 309, 414; Nicolay's Ogn. Ter., p. 151; Lord's Nat., 
vol. ii., pp. 105-6, and vol. i., frontispiece, cut of a group of Spokanes. 
De Smet, Voy., pp. 30, 198; Palmer's Jour., p. 54; Ross' Adven., pp. 127, 294; 
Stuart's Montana, p. 82. 

156 The interior tribes have 'long faces, and bold features, thin lips, wide 
cheek-bones, smooth skins, and the usual tawny complexion of the American 
tribes.' 'Features of a less exaggerated harshness' than the coast tribes. 


The custom of head-flattening, apparently of seaboard 
origin and growth, extends, nevertheless, across the Cas- 
cade barrier, and is practiced to a greater or less extent 
by all the tribes of the Sahaptin family. Among them 
all, however, with the exception perhaps of the Klike- 
tats, the deformity consists only of a very slight com- 
pression of the forehead, which nearly or quite disap- 
pears at maturity. The practice also extends inland up 
the valley of the Fraser, and is found at least in nearly 
all the more western tribes of the Shushwaps. The Sa- 
lish family do not flatten the skull. 157 Other methods of 

Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 198-9. 'Hair and eyes are 
black, their cheek bones high, and very frequently they have aquiline noses.' 
' They wear their hair long, part it upon their forehead, and. let it hang in 
tresses on each side, or down behind.' Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 229. Com- 
plexion 'a little fairer than other Indians.' Id. The Okanagans are 'better 
featured and handsomer in their persons, though darker, than the Chinooks 
or other Indians along the sea-coast.' ' Teeth white as ivory, well set and 
regular.' The voices of Walla Wallas, Nez Perces, and Cayuses, are strong 
and masculine. Ross' Adven., pp. 294, 127. The Flatheads (Nez Perces) are 
'the whitest Indians I ever saw.' Gass' Jour., p. 189. The Shushwap 'com- 
plexion is darker, and of a more muddy, coppery hue than that of the true Red 
Indian.' Milton and Cheadle's JS r .W. Pass., p. 335. The Nez Perces darker 
than the Tushepaws. Dignified and pleasant features. Would have quite 
heavy beards if they shaved. Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 340, 356, 359, 
527-8, 556-7, 321. The^ inland natives are an ugly race, with 'broad faces, 
low foreheads, and rough, coppery and tanned skins.' The Salish 'features 
are less regular, and their complexion darker ' than the Sahaptins. Dom- 
enech's Deserts, vol. i., p. 88, vol. ii., pp. 55-6. Teeth of the river tribes worn 
down by sanded salmon. Anderson, in Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 228; Kane's 
Wand., p. 273. Nez Perces and Cayuses ' are almost universally fine look- 
ing:, robust men, with strong aquiline features, and a much more cheerful 
cast of countenance than is usual amongst the race. Some of the women 
might almost be called beautiful, and none that I have seen are homely.' 
Some very handsome young girls among the Walla Wallas. The Kliketat 
features are 'regular, though often devoid of expression.' Townsend's Xar., 
pp. 78, 148, 158, 178. Flatheads ' comparatively very fair in complexion, 
....with oval faces, and a mild, and playful expression of countenance.' 
Dunn's Oregon, p. 311. The Kayuls had long dark hair, and regular features. 
Coke's Ro ley Mountains, p. 304. Cut and description of a Clickitat skull, in 
Morion's Crania, p. 214. pi. 48. ' The Flatheads are the ugliest, and most of 
their women are far from being beauties.' IStuart's Montana, p. 82. 

1^7 ' The Sahaptin and Walla wallas compress the head, but not so much 
as the tribes near the coast. It merely serves with them to make the fore- 
head more retreating, which, with the aquiline nose common to these natives, 
gives to them occasionally, a physiognomy similar to that represented in the 
hieroglyphical paintings of Central America.' Hale's Ethnog., in U. 8. Ex. Ex., 
vol. vi., pp. 214, 205. All the Shushwaps flatten the head more or less. 
Mayne's B. C, p. 303. 'II est a remarquer que les tribus etablies au-dessus 
de la jonction de la branche sud de la Colombie, et designees sous le nom de 
Tetes Plates, ont renonce depuis longtemps a cet usage.' Mofras, Explor., 
torn. ii.. p. 349. 'A roundhead Klickatat woman would be a pariah.' Win- 
throp's Canoe and Saddle, p. 204. Nez Perces 'seldom known to flatten the 


deforming the person, such as tattooing and perforating 
the features are as a rule not employed; the Yakimas 
and Kliketats, however, with some other lower Colum- 
bia tribes, pierce or cut away the septum of the nose, 158 
and the Xez Perces probably derived their name from a 
similar custom formerly practiced by them. Faint, how- 
ever, is used by all inland as well as coast tribes on 
occasions when decoration is desired, but applied in less 
profusion by the latter. The favorite color is vermilion, 
applied as a rule only to the face and hair. 159 Elaborate 
hair-dressing is not common, and both sexes usually wear 
the hair in the same style, soaked in grease, often painted, 
and hanging in a natural state, or in braids, plaits, or 
queues, over the shoulders. Some of the southern tribes 
cut the hair across the forehead, while others farther 
north tie it up in knots on the back of the head. 100 
The coast dress — robes or blankets of bark- fibre or 

head.' Catlin's N. Am. Ind., vol. ii., p. 108. See Domenech's Deserts, vol. ii., 
pp. 55-6, G4-5; Tolmie, in Lord's Nat., vol. ii., pp. 231-2, 249-51; Townsend's 
Nar., p. 175; Kane's Wand., p. 2G3; Ind. Aff. Kept., 1854, pp. 207-8; Wilkes' 
Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 415, with cut. Walla Wallas, Skyuse, and 
Nez Perces flatten the head and perforate the nose. Farnham's Trav., p. 85; 
Lewis and Clarice's Trav., pp. 374, 359; Gass' Jour., p. 224. 

158 Pickerings Races, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., pp. 38-9; Lewis and Clarke's 
Trav., pp. 362, 382-3. 

1: > 9 The Salish 'profuse in the use of paint.' Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Kept., 
1854, pp. 207-8, and in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 309. Nez Perces painted 
in colored stripes. Hine's Voy., p. 173. ' Four Indians (Nez Perces) streaked 
all over with white mud.' Kane's Wand., p. 291. Walla Walla ' faces painted 
red.' The Okanagan ' young of both sexes always paint their faces with red 
and black bars.' Ross' Adven., pp. 127, 294-8. The inland tribes 'appear 
to have less of the propensity to adorn themselves with painting, than the 
Indians east of the mountains, but not unfrequently vermilion mixed with 
red clay, is used not only upon their faces but upon their hair.' Parker's 
Explor. Tour, p. 229. Red clay for face paint, obtained at Vermilion Forks 
of the Similkameen River, in B. C. Palmer, in B. C. Papers, vol. iii., p. 84. 
Pend d'Oreille women rub the face every morning with a mixture of red and 
brown powder, which is made to stick by a coating of fish-oil. De Smet, Voy., 
p. 198. 

100 The Oakinack ' women wear their hair neatly clubbed on each side of 
the head behind the ears, and ornamented with double rows of the snowy 
higua, which are among the Oakinackens called Shet-la-cane; but they keep 
it shed or divided in front. The men's hair is queued or rolled up into a 
knot behind the head, and ornamented like that of the women; but in front 
it falls or hangs down loosely before the face, covering the forehead and the 
eyes, which causes them every now and then to shake the head, or use the 
hands to uncover their eyes.' Ross' Adven., pp. 294-5. The head of the Nez 
Perces not ornamented. Lewis and Clark'' s Trav., pp. 341, 321, 351, 377, 528, 
532-3; Coke's Rocky Mis., p. 304; Kane's Wand, p. 274. 
Vol. I. 17 


small skins — is also used for some distance inland on 
the banks of the Columbia and Fraser, as among the 
Nicoutamuch, Kliketats, and Wascos; but the distinctive 
inland dress is of dressed skin of deer, antelope, or mount- 
ain sheep; made into a rude frock, or shirt, with loose 
sleeves; leggins reaching half-way up the thigh, and 
either bound to the leg or attached by strings to a belt 
about the waist; moccasins, and rarely a cap. Men's 
frocks descend half-way to the knees; women's nearly 
to the ankles. Over this dress, or to conceal the want 
of some part of it, a buffalo or elk robe is worn, espe- 
cially in winter. All garments are profusely and often 
tastefully decorated with leather fringes, feathers, shells, 
and porcupine quills ; beads, trinkets and various bright- 
colored cloths having been added to Indian ornamenta- 
tion since the whites came. A new suit of this native 
skin clothing is not without beauty, but by most tribes 
the suit is worn without change till nearly ready to drop 
off, and becomes disgustingly filthy. Some tribes clean 
and whiten their clothing occasionally with white earth, 
or pipe-clay, fhe buffalo and most of the other large 
skins are obtained from the country east of the mount- 
ains. 101 

1G1 The Ootlashoot women wear ' a long shirt of skin, reaching down to 
the ancles, and tied round the waist.' Few ornaments. The Nez Perces 
wear ' the buffalo or elk-skin robe decorated with beads, sea-shells, chiefly 
mother-of-pearl, attached to an otter-skin collar and hung in the hair.' 
Leggins and moccasins are painted; a plait of twisted grass is worn round 
the neck. The women wear their long robe without a girdle, but to it ' are 
tied little pieces of brass and shells, and other small articles.' 'The dress 
of the female is indeed more modest, and more studiously so than any we 
have observed, though the other sex is careless of the indelicacy of exposure.' 
' The Sokulk females have no other covering but a truss or piece of leather 
tied round the hips and then drawn tight between the legs.' Three fourths 
of the Pisquitpaws 'have scarcely any robes at all.' The Chilluckittequaws 
use skins of wolves, deer, elk, and wild cats. ' Round their neck is put a 
strip of some skin with the tail of the animal hanging down over the breast.' 
Lewis ami Clarke's Trav., pp. 321, 340-1, 351, 359, 361, 377, 526, 528, 532-3. 
Many of the Walla Walla, Nez Perce, and Cayuse females wore robes ' richly 
garnished with beads, higuas, ' etc. The war chief wears as* a head-dress the 
whole skin of a wolf's head, with the ears standing erect. The Okanagans 
wear in winter long detachable sleeves or mittens of wolf or fox skin, also 
wolf or bear skin caps when hunting. Men and women dress nearly alike, 
and are profuse in the use of ornaments. Ross 1 Adven., p. 127, 294-8; Id., 
Fur Hunters, vol. i., p. 30(5. The Flatheads often change their clothing and 
clean it with pipe-clay. They have no regular head-dress. From the Ya- 


The inland dwelling is a frame of poles, covered with 
rush matting, or with the skins of the buffalo or elk. 
As a rule the richest tribes and individuals use skins, 
although many of the finest Sahaptin houses are covered 
with mats only. Notwithstanding these nations are rich 
in horses, I find no mention that horse-hides are ever 
employed for this or any other purpose. The form of 
the lodge is that of a tent, conical or oblong, and usually 
sharp at the top, where an open space is left for light 
and air to enter, and smoke to escape. Their internal 
condition presents a marked contrast with that of the 
Chinook and Nootka habitations, since they are by many 
interior tribes kept free from vermin and filth. Their 
light material and the frequency with which their loca- 
tion is changed contributes to this result. The lodges 
are pitched by the women, who acquire great skill and 
celerity in the work. Holes are left along the sides for 
entrance, and within, a lloor of sticks is laid, or more 
frequently the ground is spread with mats, and skins 
serve for beds. Dwellings are often built sufficiently 
large to accommodate many families, each of which in 
such case has its own fireplace on a central longitudinal 
line, a definite space being allotted for its goods, but no 
dividing partitions are ever used. The dwellings are 

kima to the Okanagan the men go naked, and the women wear only a belt 
with a slip passing between the legs. Cox's Adven., vol. i., pp. 133, 148, 
240-1, vol. ii., p. 144. Nez Perces better clad than any others, Caynses 
well clothed, Walla Wallas naked and half starved. Palmer's Jour., pp. 54, 
124, 127-8. At the Dalles, women 'go nearly naked, for they wear little 
else than what may be termed a breech-cloth, of buckskin, which is black 
and filthy with dirt.' Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., pp. 409-10, 
420, 473. The Kliketat women wear a short pine-bark petticoat tied round 
the loins. Townsend's Nar., pp. 78, 178, 148. ' Their buffaloe robes and other 
skins they chiefly procure on the Missouri, when they go over to hunt, as 
there are no buffaloe in this part of the country and very little other game.' 
Gass' Jour., pp. 189, 205, 218-19, 295. Tusshepaw 'women wore caps of 
willow neatly worked and figured.' Irving's Astoria, pp. 315, 317, 319; Id., 
Bonn ville's Adven., p. 301. The Flathead women wear straw hats, used nlso 
for drinking and cooking purposes. Be Smet, Voy., pp. 45-7, 198. The Shu- 
shwaps wear in wet weather capes of bark trimmed with fur, and reaching 
to the elbows. Moccasins are more common than on the coast, but they 
often ride barefoot. Mayne's B. C, p. 301. Parker's Explor. Tour., pp. 229- 
30; Kane's Wand., p. 264, and cut; Fremont's Ogn. and Cat., pp. 186-7; 8tev- 
sns, in hid. Ajf. Bept., 1854, p. 222; Nicolay's Ogn. Ter., p. 153; Franchere's 
Nar., p. 2G8;' Dunn's Oregon, p. 311; Coke's Bocky Mts., p. 304; Hunt, in Nou- 
velles Annates des Voy., torn, x., 1821, pp. 74-5, 78. 


arranged in small villages generally located in winter on 
the banks of small streams a little away from the main 
rivers. For a short distance up the Columbia, houses 
similar to those of the Chinooks are built of split cedar 
and bark. The Walla Wallas, living in summer in the 
ordinary mat lodge, often construct for winter a subter- 
ranean abode by digging a circular hole ten or twelve 
feet deep, roofing it with poles or split cedar covered 
with grass and mud, leaving a small opening at the top 
for exit and entrance by means of a notched-log ladder. 
The Atnahs on Fraser River spend the winter in similar 
structures, a simple slant roof of mats or bark sufficing 
for shade and shelter in summer. The Okanagans con- 
struct their lodges over an excavation in the ground 
several feet deep, and like many other nations, cover 
their matting in winter with grass and earth. 162 

102 The Sokulk houses ' generally of a square or oblong form, varying in 
length from fifteen to sixty feet, and supported in the inside by poles or 
forks about six feet high.' The roof is nearly flat. The Echeloot and Ckil- 
luckittequaw houses were of the Chinook style, partially sunk in the ground. 
The Nez Perces live in houses built ' of straw and mats, in the form of the 
roof of a house.' One of these 'was one hundred and fifty-six feet long, 
and about fifteen wide~ closed at the ends, and having a number of doors on 
each side.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 340, 351, 369-70, 381-2, 540. Xez 
Perce dwellings twenty to seventy feet long and from ten to fifteen feet 
wide; free from vermin. Flathead houses conical but spacious, made of 
buffalo and moose skins over long poles. Spokane lodges oblong or con- 
ical, covered with skins or mats. Cox's Adven., vol. i., pp. 148, 192, 200. 
Nez Perce and Cayuse lodges ' composed of ten long poles, the lower ends 
of which are pointed and driven into the ground; the upper blunt and drawn 
together at the top by thongs ' covered with skins. ' Universally used by 
the mountain Indians while travelling.' Umatillas live in ' shantys or wig- 
wams of driftwood, covered with buffalo or deer skins.' Klicatats 'in mis- 
erable loose hovels.' Townsend's Nar., pp. 104-5, 156, 174. Okanagan winter 
lodges are long and narrow, ' chiefly of mats and poles, covered over with 
grass and earth;' dug one or two feet below the surface; look like the roof 
of a common house set on the ground. Boss' Adven., pp. 313-4. On the 
Yakima River ' a small canopy, hardly sufficient to shelter a sheep, was 
found to contain four generations of human beings.' Pickering's Races, in 
U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., pp. 34, 37. On the Clearwater 'there are not more 
than four lodges in a place or village, and these small camps or villages are 
eight or ten miles apart.' 'Summer lodges are made of willows and flags, 
and their winter lodges of split pine.' Gass' Jour., pp. 212, 221, 2^3. At 
Kettle Falls, the lodges are of rush mats.' 'A flooring is made of sticks, 
raised three or four feet from the ground, leaving the space beneath it en- 
tirely open, and forming a cool, airy, and shady place, in which to hang their 
salmon.' Kane's Wand., pp. 309, 272-3. The Pend d'Oreilles roll their tent- 
mats into cylindrical bundles for convenience in traveling. Stevens, in Irul. 
Aff. Rept., 1854, pp. 215, 238, 282. Barnhart, in Id., 18G2, p. 271. The Shu- 
sh wap den is warm but 'necessarily unwholesome, and redolent. . . .of any- 
thing but roses.' Anderson, in Hist. Mag., vol. vii., p. 77. Yakimas, 'rude 


The inland families eat fish and game, with roots and 
fruit; no nation subsists without all these supplies; but 
the proportion of each consumed varies greatly according 
to localit}^. Some tribes divide their forces regularly 
into bands, of men to fish and hunt, of women to cure 
fish and flesh, and to gather roots and berries. I have 
spoken of the coast tribes as a fish-eating, and the in- 
terior tribes as a hunting people, attributing in great 
degree their differences of person and character to their 
food, or rather to their methods of obtaining it; yet fish 
constitutes an important element of inland subsistence 
as well. Few tribes live altogether without salmon, 
the great staple of the Northwest; since those dwelling 
on streams inaccessible to the salmon by reason of in- 
tervening falls, obtain their supply by annual migrations 
to the fishing-grounds, or by trade with other nations. 
The principal salmon fisheries of the Columbia are at 
the Dalles, the falls ten miles above, and at Kettle 
Falls. Other productive stations are on the Powder, 
Snake, Yakima, Okanagan, and Clarke rivers. On the 
Fraser, which has no falls in its lower course, fishing is 
carried on all along the banks of the river instead of at 
regular stations, as on the Columbia. Nets, weirs, hooks, 
spears, and all the implements and methods by which 
fish are taken and cured have been sufficiently described 
in treating of the coast region ; in the interior I find no 
important variations except in the basket method in use 
at the Chaudieres or Kettle Falls by the Quiarlpi tribe. 
Here an immense willow basket, often ten feet in diam- 
eter and twelve feet deep, is suspended at the falls from 

huts covered with mats.' Gibbs, in Pac. B. B. Bept., vol. i., p. 407. Shu- 
shwaps erect rude slants of bark or matting; have no tents or houses. Milton 
and Cheadle's N. W. Pass., p. 242. From the swamps south of Flatbow Lake, 
4 the Kootanie Indians obtain the klusquis or thick reed, which is the only- 
article that serves them in the construction of their lodges,' and is traded 
With other tribes. Sullivan, in Palliser's Explor., p. 15. In winter the Salish 
cover their mats with earth. Hale's Ethno<j., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 207. 
Flag huts of the Walla Wallas. Farnkam's Trav., p. 85; Midlands Bept, pp. 
49-50; Palmer's Jour., p. 61; Coke's Bocky Mts., p. 295; Irving's Astoria, pp. 
315, 319; Id., Bonneville's Adven., p. 301; Be timet, Voy., p. 185; Id., West. 
Missions, p. 284; Lord's Nat., vol. ii., pp. 105-6. Hunt, in Nouvelles Annates 
des Voy., torn, x., 1821, pp. 74-5, 79. 


strong timbers fixed in crevices of the rocks, and above 
this is a frame so attached that the salmon in attempt- 
ing to leap the fall strike the sticks of the frame and are 
thrown back into the basket, in the largest of which 
naked men armed with clubs await them. Five thou- 
sand pounds of salmon have thus been taken in a clay 
by means of a single basket. During the fishing-season 
the Salmon Chief has full authority; his basket is the 
largest, and must be located a month before others are 
allowed to fish. The small nets used in the same region 
have also the peculiarity of a stick which keeps the 
mouth open when the net is empty, but is removed by 
the w r eight of the fish. Besides the salmon, sturgeon are 
extensively taken in the Fraser, and in the Arrow Lakes, 
while trout and other varieties of small fish abound in 
most of the streams. The fishing-season is the summer, 
between June and September, varying a month or more 
according to locality. This is also the season of trade 
and festivity, when tribes from all directions assemble 
to exchange commodities, gamble, dance, and in later 
times to drink and fight. 163 

103 Natives begin to assemble at Kettle Falls about three weeks before the 
salmon begin to run ; feuds are laid by ; horse-racing, gambling, love-making, 
etc., occupy the assembly; and the medicine-men are busy working charms 
for a successful season. The fish are cut open, dried on poles over a small 
fire, and packed in bales. On the Fraser each family or village fishes for 
itself; near the mouth large gaff-hooks are used, higher up a net managed 
between two canoes. All the principal Indian fishing-stations on the Fraser 
are below Fort Hope. For sturgeon a spear seventy to eighty feet long is 
used. Cut of sturgeon-fishing. Lord's Nat., vol. i., pp. 71-6, 181, 184-6. The 
Pend d'Oreilles ' annually construct a fence which reaches across the stream, 
and guides the fish into a weir or rack, ' on Clarke River, just above the 
lake. The Walla Walla ' fisheries at the Dalles and the falls, ten miles above, 
are the finest on the river, ' The Yakima weirs constructed ' upon horizontal 
spars, and supported by tripods of strong poles erected at short distances 
apart; two of the logs fronting up stream, and one supporting them below;' 
some fifty or sixty yards long. The salmon of the Okanagan were ' of a small 
species, which had assumed a uniform red color.' 'The fishery at the Ket- 
tle Falls is one of the most important on the river, and the arrangements of 
the Indians in the shape of drying-scaffolds and store-houses are on a corre- 
sponding scale.' Inch Aff. Bept., 1854, pp. 214, 223, 231, 238; Gibbs, in Pac. R. 
B. Bept, vol. i., pp. 407-8. The salmon chief at Kettle Falls distributes the 
fish among the people, every one, even the smallest child, getting an equal 
share. Kane's Wand., pp. 311-14. On Des Chutes lliver ' they spear the fish 
with barbed iron points, fitted loosely by sockets to the ends of poles about 
eight feet long,' to which they are fastened by a thong about twelve feet 
long. Abbott, in Pac. B. B. Bept., vol. vi., p. 90. On the upper Columbia an 
Jndian 'cut off a bit of his leathern shirt, about the size of a small bean; 


The larger varieties of game are hunted by the natives 
on horseback wherever the nature of the country will 
permit. Buffalo are now never found west of the Rocky 
Mountains, and there are but few localities where large 
game has ever been abundant, at least since the country 
became known to white men. Consequently the Flat- 
heads, Nez Perces, and Kootenais, the distinctively hunt- 
ing nations, as well as bands from nearly every other tribe, 
cross the mountains once or twice each year, penetrating 
to the buffalo- plains between the Yellowstone and the 
Missouri, in the territory of hostile nations. The bow 
and arrow was the weapon with which buffalo and all 
other game were shot. No peculiar cunning seems to 
have been necessary to the native hunter of buffalo; he 
had only to ride into the immense herds on his well- 
trained horse, and select the fattest animals for his ar- 
rows. Various devices are mentioned as being practiced 
in the chase of deer, elk, and mountain sheep; such as 
driving them by a circle of fire on the prairie towards 
the concealed hunters, or approaching within arrow-shot 

then pulling out two or three hairs from his horse's tail for a line, tied the 
bit of leather to one end of it, in place of a hook or fly.' Ross' Adven., pp. 
132-3. At the mouth of Flatbow River ' a dike of round stones, which 
runs up obliquely against the main stream, on the west side, for more 
than one hundred yards in length, resembling the foundation of a wall.' 
Similar range on the east side, supposed to be for taking fish at low water. 
Ross' Fur Hunters, vol. ii., pp. 1G5-6. West of the Rocky Mountains they fish 
' with great success by means of a kind of large basket suspended from a 
long cord.' Domenech's Deserts, vol. ii., pp. 240-1. On Powder River they use 
the hook as a gaff. Coke's Rocky Mis., p. 283. A Wasco spears three or four 
salmon of twenty to thirty pounds each in ten minutes. Remy and Brenchley's 
Jour., vol. ii., p. 508. No salmon are taken above the upper falls of the Co- 
lumbia. Thornton's Ogn. and Cat., vol. i., p. 392. Walla Walla fish-weirs 
'formed of two curtains of small willow switches matted together with 
withes of the same plant, and extending across the river in two parallel lines, 
six feet asunder. These are supported by several parcels of poles, .... and 
are either rolled up or let down at pleasure for a few feet. . . . A seine of fif- 
teen or eighteen feet in length is then dragged down the river by two per- 
sons, and the bottom drawn up against the curtain of willows.' Lewis and 
Clarke's Trav., p. 532. Make fishing-nets of flax. Parker's Exphr. Tour., p. 
90. ' The Inland, as well as the Coast, tribes, live to a great extent upon 
salmon.' Mayne's B. C, p. 242; Nicolay's Ogn. Ter., pp. 152-3. Palouse 
'live solely by fishing.' MuLlan's Rept., p. 49. Salmon cannot ascend to 
Coeur d'Alene Lake. Hale's Ethnog., in U. 8. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., pp. 21)9-10. 
Okanagan food ' consists principally of salmon and a small fish which they 
call carp.' Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 402. The Walla Wallas 
'may well be termed the fishermen of the Skyuse camp.' Famham's Trav., 
p. 82. 


by skillful manipulations of a decoy animal; or the 
frightened deer are driven into an ambush by converg- 
ing lines of bright-colored rags so placed in the bushes 
as to represent men. Kane states that about the Arrow 
Lakes hunting dogs are trained to follow the deer and 
to bring back the game to their masters even from very 
long distances. Deer are also pursued in the winter on 
snow-shoes, and in deep snow often knocked down with 
clubs. Bear and beaver are trapped in some places; and, 
especially about the northern lakes and marshes, wild 
fowl are very abundant, and help materially to eke out 
the supply of native food. 104 

Their natural improvidence, or an occasional unlucky 
hunting or fishing season, often reduces them to want, 
and in such case the resort is to roots, berries, and mosses, 
several varieties of which are also gathered and laid up 

1G4 The Shushwaps formerly crossed the mountains to the Assinniboine 
territory. The Okanagans when hunting wear wolf or bear skin caps; there is 
no bird or beast whose voice they cannot imitate. War and hunting were the 
Nez Perce occupation; cross the mountains for buffalo. Boss' Fur Hunters, 
vol. i., pp. 148, 219, 297-8, 305. The chief game of the Nez Perces is the 
deer, ' and whenever the ground will permit, the favourite hunt is on horse- 
back.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., p. 555. The Salish live by the chase, on 
elk, moose, deer, big-horn and bears; make two trips annually, spring to fall, 
and fall to mid-winter, across the mountains, accompanied by other nations. 
The Pend d'Oreilles hunt deer in the snow with clubs; have distinct locali- 
ties for hunting each kind of game. Nez Perces, Flatheads, Coeurs d'Alene, 
Spokanes, Pend d'Oreilles, etc., hunt together. Yakimas formerly joined 
the Flatheads in eastern hunt. Bid. Aff. Rept, 1854, pp. 207-8, 212-15, 218, 
225-6. ' Two hunts annually across the mountains — one in April, for the bulls, 
from which they return in June and July; and another, after about a month's 
recruit, to kill cows, which have by that time become fat.' Stevens, Gibbs, 
and Suckley, in Pat. R. R. Rept., vol. i., pp. 415, 408, 296-7, vol. xii., p. 134. 
Kootenais live by the chase principally. Hvtchins, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1863, 
p. 455. Spokanes rather indolent in hunting; hunting deer by fire. Cox's 
Adven., vol. i., pp. 197, vol. ii., pp. 46-7. The Kootenais 'seldom hunt;' 
there is not much to shoot except wild fowl in fall. Trap beaver and carri- 
boeuf on a tributary of the Kootanie River. Palliser's Explor., pp. 10, 15, 73. 
Flatheads ' follow the buffalo upon the headwaters of Clarke and Salmon 
rivers.' Nez Perce women accompany the men to the buffalo-hunt. Park- 
er's Explor. Tour., pp. 107, 31 L. Kootenais cross the mountains for buffalo. 
Mayne's B. C, p. 297. Coeurs d'Alene ditto. Mullan's Rept., p. 49. Half of 
the Nez Perces ' usually make a trip to the buffalo country for three months.' 
Wilkss' X<ir.,in IT. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 494. Shushwaps 'live by hunting 
the bighorns, mountain goats, and marmots.'' Milton and Cheadle's V. W. 
Pass., p. 212. Buffalo never pass to west of the llocky Mountains. Lord's 
Nat., vol. ii., p. 179; Kane's Wand., p. 318; De Smet, Voy., pp. 31, 45, 144-5; 
Ind. Life, pp. 23-4, 31-41; Franchere's Nar., pp. 268-9; Hunt, in Nouvelies 
Annates d's Voy., torn, x., 1821, pp. 77-82, 87; Sluart, in Id., torn, xii., pp. 
26, 35-6; Joset, in Id,, torn, exxiii., 1849, pp. 334-40. 


as a part of their regular winter supplies. Chief among 
the roots are the camas, a sweet, onion-like bulb, which 
grows in moist prairies, the couse, which flourishes in 
more sterile and rocky spots, and the bitter-root, which 
names a valley and mountain range. To obtain these 
roots the natives make regular migrations, as for game 
or fish. The varieties of roots and berries used for food 
are very numerous ; and none seem to grow in the country 
which to the native taste are unpalatable or injurious, 
though many are both to the European. 165 

Towards obtaining food the men hunt and fish; all 
the other work of digging roots, picking berries, as well 
as dressing, preserving, and cooking all kinds of food is 
done by the women, with some exceptions among the 
Xez Perces and Pend d'Oreilles. Buffalo-meat is jerked 
by cutting in thin pieces and drying in the sun and over 
smouldering fires on scaffolds of poles. Fish is sun-dried 
on scaffolds, and by some tribes on the lower Columbia 

16 ^ The Kliketats gather and eat peahay, a bitter root boiled into a jelly; 
n'poolthla, ground into flour; mamum and seekywa, made into bitter white 
cakes; Jcarnassj calz, a kind of wild sunflower. Tolrnie, in Lord's Nat., vol. 
ii., p. 247. The Flatheads go every spring to Camass Prairie. Be Smet, 
Voy., p. 183. The Kootenais eat kamash and an edible moss. Id., Missions 
de VOregon, pp. 75-6. 'The Cayooses, Nez Perces, and other warlike tribes 
assemble (in Yakima Valley) every spring to lay in a stock of the favourite ka- 
mass and pelua, or sweet potatoes.' lioss' Fur Hunters, vol. i. p. 19. Quamash, 
round, onion-shaped, and sweet, eaten by the Nez Perces. Lewis and Clarke's 
Trav., p. 330. Couse root dug in April or May; camas in June and July. 
Alvord, in Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 656. The Skyuses' 'main subsist- 
ence is however upon roots.' The Nez Perces eat kamash, cowish or biscuit 
root, jackap, aisish, quako, etc. Irving's Bonneville's Adven., p. 301, 388. 
Okanagans live extensively on moss made into bread. The Nez Perces also 
eat moss. Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., pp, 462, 494. Pend 
d'Oreilles at the last extremity live on pine-tree moss; also collect camash, 
hitter-roots, and sugar pears. Stevens, in Lid. Aff. Rept., 1854, p. 211, 214-15. 
1 1 never saw any berry in the course of my travels which the Indians scruple 
to eat, nor have I seen any ill effect from their doing so.' Kane's Wand., p. 
327. The Kootenai food in September ' appears to be almost entirely berries; 
namely, the " sasketoom " of the Crees, a delicious fruit, and a small species 
of cherry, also a sweet root which they obtain to the southward.' Blakiston, 
in Palliser's Explor., p. 73. Flatheads dig konah, 'bitter root' in May. It 
is very nutritious and very bitter. Pahseego, camas, or ' water seego, ' is a 
sweet, gummy, bulbous root. Stuart's Montana, pp. 57-8. Colvilles cut down 
pines for their moss (alectoria ?). Kanias also eaten. Pickering's Races, in 
U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. ix., p. 34. The Shushwaps eat moss and lichens, chiefly 
the black lichen, or wliye'Jdne. Mayne's B. C, p. 301; Parker's Explor. Tour., 
p. 127. The Salish in March and April eat popkah, an onion-like bulb; in 
May, spatlam, a root like vermicelli; in June and July, itwha, like roasted 
chestnuts; in August, wild fruits; in September, marani, a grain. Bomenech's 
Beserts, vol. ii., p. 312. 


is also pulverized between two stones and packed in 
baskets lined with fish-skin. Here, as on the coast, the 
heads and offal only are eaten during the fishing-season. 
The AYalla Wallas are said usually to eat fish without 
cooking. Roots, mosses, and such berries as are pre- 
served, are usually kept in cakes, which for eating are 
moistened, mixed in various proportions and cooked, or 
eaten without preparation. To make the cakes simply 
drying, pulverizing, moistening, and sun-drying usually 
suffice ; but camas and pine-moss are baked or fermented 
for several days in an underground kiln by means of hot 
stones, coming out in the form of a dark gluey paste of 
the proper consistency for moulding. Many of these 
powdered roots may be preserved for years without in- 
jury. Boiling by means of hot stones and roasting on 
sharp sticks fixed in the ground near the fire, are the 
universal methods of cooking. No mention is made of 
peculiar customs in eating; to eat often and much is the 
aim; the style of serving is a secondary consideration. 166 
Life with all these nations is but a struggle for food, 

166 At the Dalles ' during the fishing season, the Indians live entirely on 
the heads, hearts and offal of the salmon, which they string on sticks, and 
roast over a small fire.' Besides pine-moss, the Okanagans use the seed of 
the balsam oriza pounded into meal, called mielito. ' To this is added the 
siffleurs.' Berries made into cakes by the Nez Perces. Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. 
Ex. Ex., vol. iv., pp. 410, 462, 494. Quamash, 'eaten either in its natural 
state, or boiled into a kind of soup, or made into a cake, which is then called 
pasheco.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 330, 353, 365, 369. Women's head- 
dress serves the Flatheads for cooking, etc. De Smet, Voy., pp. 47, 193-9; 
Id., Missions de V Oregon, pp. 75-6. ' The dog's tongue is the only dish-cloth 
known ' to the Okanagans. Pine-moss cooked, or squill-ape, will keep for 
years. 'At their meals they generally eat separately and in succession — 
man, woman and child.' Ross' Adven., pp. 132-3, 295, 317-18. 'Most of their 
food is roasted, and they excel in roasting fish.' Parker's Explor. Tour., pp. 
231, 107. ' Pine moss, which they boil till it is reduced to a sort of glue or 
black paste, of a sufficient consistence to take the form of biscuit.' Franchere's 
Nar., p. 279. Couse tastes like parsnips, is dried and pulverized, and some- 
times boiled with meat. Alvord, in Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 656. Root 
bread on the Clearwater tastes like that made of pumpkins. Gass' Jour., pp. 
202-3. Kamas after coming from the kiln is 'made into large cakes, by be- 
ing mashed, and pressed together, and slightly baked in the sun.' White- 
root, pulverized with stones, moistened and sun-baked, tastes not unlike stale 
biscuits. Townsend's Nar., pp. 126-7. Camas and sun-flower seed mixed 
with salmon-heads caused in the eater great distension of the stomach. 
Eerny and Brencldey's Jour., vol. ii., pp. 509-11. Sowete, is the name of the 
mixture last named, among the Cayuses. Coke's Rocky Mts., p. 310; hid. 
Life, p. 41; StuarVs Montana, pp. 57-8; Pickerinq's Races, in U. S. Ex. Ex., 
vol. ix., p. 34; Kane's Wand., pp. 272-3; Ind. Aff, Rept., 1854, pp. 214-15. 


and the poorer tribes are often reduced nearly to starva- 
tion; yet they never are known to kill dogs or horses 
for food. About the missions and on the reservations 
cattle have been introduced and the soil is cultivated by 
the natives to considerable extent. 167 

In their personal habits, as well as the care of their 
lodges, the Cayuses, Nez Perces, and Kootenais, are 
mentioned as neat and cleanly; the rest, though filthy, 
are still somewhat superior to the dwellers on the coast. 
The Flatheads wash themselves daily, but their dishes 
and utensils never. De Smet represents the Pend d'O- 
reille women as untid}^ even for savages. 168 Guns, 

107 Additional notes and references on procuring food. The Okanagans 
breakup winter quarters in February; wander about in small bands till June. 
Assemble on the river and divide into two parties of men and two of women 
for fishing and dressing fish, hunting and digging roots, until October; hunt 
in small parties in the mountains or the interior for four or six weeks; and 
then go into winter quarters on the small rivers. Boss' Adven., pp. 314-16. 
Further south on the Columbia plains the natives collect and dry roots until 
May; fish on the north bank of the river till September, burying the fish; 
dig camas on the plains till snow falls; and retire to the foot of the mount- 
ains to hunt deer and elk through the winter. The Nez Perces catch salmon 
and dig roots in summer; hunt deer on snow-shoes in winter; and cross the 
mountains for buffalo in spring. Sokulks live on fish, roots, and antelope. 
Eneeshur, Echeloots, and Chilluckittequaw, on fish, berries, roots and nuts. 
Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 444-5, 34U-1, 352, 365, 370. Spokanes live on 
deer, wild fowl, salmon, trout, carp, pine-moss, roots and wild fruit. They 
have no repugnance to horse-flesh, but never kill horses for food. The Sina- 
poils live on salmon, camas, and an occasional small deer. The Chaudiere 
country well stocked with game, fish and fruit. Cox's Adven., vol. i., p. 201, 
vol. ii., p. 145. The Kayuse live on fish, game, and camass bread. De Smet, 
Voy., pp. 30-L. 'lis cultivent avec succes le ble, les patates, les pois et 
plusieurs autres legumes et fruits.' Id., Miss, de VOregon., p. 67. Pend 
d'Oreilles; fish, Kamash, and pine-tree moss. Id., West. Missions, p. 284. 
' Whole time was occupied in providing for their bellies, which were rarely 
full.' Lid. Aff. Bept., 1854, p. 211. Yakimas and Kliketats; Unis or fresh- 
water muscles, little game, sage-fowl and grouse, kamas, berries, salmon. 
The Okanagans raise some potatoes. Q-ibbs, in Pac. B. B. JRept., vol. i., pp. 
404, 408, 413. Kootenais; fish and wild fowl, berries and pounded meat, have 
cows and oxen. Palliser's Explor., pp. 10, 72. Palouse; fish, birds, and small 
animals. Umatillas; fish, sage-cocks, prairie-hares. Lord 's Nat., vol. ii., pp. 
97, 105-6. Tushepaws would not permit horses or dogs to be eaten. Irvhvj's 
Astoria, p. 316. Nez Perces; beaver, elk, deer, white bear, and mountain 
sheep, also steamed roots. Id., Bonneville's Adven., p. 301. Sahaptin; gather 
cherries and berries on Clarke River. Cass' Jour., p. 193; Nicolay's Ogn. Ter., 
p. 151; Ilines' Voy., p. 167; Brownell's Lid. Baces, pp. 533-5; Stanley's Por- 
traits, pp. 63-71; Uatlin's N". Am. Lid., vol. ii., p. 108; Kane's Wand., pp. 263-4; 
Parker's Explor. Tour, pp. 228-31, 309; Wilkes' Nov., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. 
iv., p. 474; Hale's Ethnoj., B)., vol. vi., p. 206. 

168 Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 383, 548; Parker's Explor. Tour, pp. 230, 
312; Townsend's Nar., p, 148; De Smet, Voy., pp. 46-7, 198; Cox's Adven., 
vol. i., pp. 197-9, 358, vol. ii., pp. 155, 373, 375; Coke's Bocky Mts., p. 295; 
Palmer's Jour., pp. 54, 58, 59. 


knives and tomahawks have generally taken the place 
of such native weapons as these natives may have used 
against their foes originally. Only the bow and arrow 
have survived intercourse with white men, and no other 
native weapon is described, except one peculiar to the 
Okanagans, — a kind of Indian slung-shot. This is a 
small cylindrical ruler of hard w T ood, covered with raw 
hide, w r hich at one end forms a small bag and holds a 
round stone as large as a goose-egg; the other end of 
the w r eapon is tied to the wrist. Arrow-shafts are of 
hard wood, carefully straightened by rolling between 
two blocks, fitted by means of sinews with stone or flint 
heads at one end, and pinnated with feathers at the 
other. The most elastic woods are chosen for the bow, 
and its force is augmented by tendons glued to its 
back. 169 

The inland families cannot be called a warlike race. 
Resort to arms for the settlement of their intertribal 
disputes seems to have been very rare. Yet all are 
brave warriors when fighting becomes necessary for de- 
fense or vengeance against a foreign foe ; notably so the 
Cayuses, Nez Perces, Flatheads and Kootenais. The 
two former waged both aggressive and defensive war- 
fare against the Snakes of the south; while the latter 
joined their arms against their common foes, the eastern 
Blackfeet, who, though their inferiors in bravery, nearly 
exterminated the Flathead nation by superiority in num- 
bers, and by being the first to obtain the white man's 
weapons. Departure on a warlike expedition is always 
preceded by ceremonious preparation, including councils 
of the wise, great, and old; smoking the pipe, harangues 
by the chiefs, dances, and a general review, or display of 
equestrian feats and the manoeuvres of battle. The war- 
riors are always mounted ; in many tribes white or speck- 

1C9 The Okanagan weapon is called a Spampt. Boss' Adven., pp. 318-19; 
Id., Fur Hunters, vol. i., pp. 306-8. 'lis. . . .faire leurs arcs d'uu bois tivs- 
elastique, ou do la conic du oerf.' Be Smd, Voy., p. -48; WUkzs 1 Nar., in U. S. 
Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 48G; Stevens, in Pac. R. I\. Kept., vol. i., p. 405; Toicn- 
send's Nar., p. 93; Irving's Astoria, p. 317; I wis and Clarice's Trav., p. 351; 
Parker's Explor. Tour, pp. 10G-7, 2'63; Cox's Adven., vol. i., p. 21G. 


led war-horses are selected, and both rider and steed are 
gaily painted, and decked with feathers, trinkets, and 
bright-colored cloths. The war- party in most nations is 
under the command of a chief periodically elected by 
the tribe, who has no authority whatever in peace, but 
who keeps his soldiers in the strictest discipline in time 
of war. Stealthy approach and an unexpected attack 
in the early morning constitute their favorite tactics. 
They rush on the enemy like a whirlwind, with terrific 
yells, discharge their guns or arrows, and retire to pre- 
pare for another attack. The number slain is rarely 
lame ; the fall of a few men, or the loss of a chief de- 
cides the victory. When a man falls, a rush is made for 
his scalp, which is defended by his party, and a fierce 
hand-to-hand conflict ensues, generally terminating the 
battle. After the fight, or before it when either party 
lacks confidence in the result, a peace is made by smok- 
ing the pipe, with the most solemn protestations of good- 
will, and promises which neither party has the slightest 
intention of fulfilling. The dead having been scalped, 
and prisoners bound and taken up behind the victors, 
the party starts homeward. Torture of the prisoners, 
chiefly perpetrated by the women, follows the arrival. 
By the Flatheads and northern nations captives are gen- 
erally killed by their sufferings; among the Sahaptins 
some survive and are made slaves. In the Flathead 
torture of the Blackfeet are practiced all the fiendish 
acts of cruelty that native cunning can devise, all of 
which are borne with the traditional stoicism and taunts 
of the North American Indian. The Nez Perce system 
is a little less cruel in order to save life for future slavery. 
Day after day, at a stated hour, the captives are brought 
out and made to hold the scalps of their dead friends 
aloft on poles while the scalp-dance is performed about 
them, the female participators meanwhile exerting all 
their devilish ingenuity in tormenting their victims. 170 

110 Torture of Blackfeet prisoners; burning with a red-hot gun-barrel, 
pulling out the nails, taking off fingers, scooping out the eyes, scalping, 
revolting cruelties to female captives. The disputed right of the Flatheads 
to hunt buffalo at the eastern foot of the mountains is the cause of the long- 


The native saddle consists of a rude wooden frame, 
under and over which is thrown a buffalo-robe, and which 
is bound to the horse by a very narrow thong of hide 
in place of the Mexican cincha. A raw-hide crupper is 
used; a deer-skin pad sometimes takes the place of the 
upper robe, or the robe and pad are used without the 
wooden frame. Stirrups are made by binding three 
straight pieces of wood or bone together in triangular 
form, and sometimes covering all with raw-hide put on 
wet; or one straight piece is suspended from a forked 
thong, and often the simple thong passing round the foot 
suffices. The bridle is a rope of horse-hair or of skin, 
made fast with a half hitch round the animal's lower 
jaw. The same rope usually serves for bridle and lariat. 
Sharp bones, at least in later times, are used for spurs. 
Wood is split for the few native uses by elk-horn wedges 
driven by bottle-shaped stone mallets. Baskets and ves- 
sels for holding water and cooking are woven of willow, 
bark, and grasses. Rushes, growing in all swampy lo- 
calities are cut of uniform length, laid parallel and tied 

continued hostility. The wisest and bravest is annually elected war chief. 
The war chief carries' a long whip and secures discipline by flagellation. 
Except a few feathers and irieces of red cloth, both the Flathead and Koo- 
tenai enter battle perfectly naked. Cox's Adven., vol. i., pp. 232-45, vol. 
ii., p. 160. The Cayuse and Sahaptin are the most warlike of all the south- 
ern tribes. The Nez Perces good warriors, but do not follow war as a 
profession. Ross' Fur Hunters, vol. i., pp. 185-6, 305, 308-12, vol. ii., pp. 
93-6, 139. Among the Okanagans ' the hot bath, council, and ceremony of 
smoking the great pipe before war, is always religiously observed. Their 
laws, however, admit of no compulsion, nor is the chief's authority implicitly 
obeyed on these occasions; consequently, every one judges for himself, and 
either goes or stays as he thinks proper. With a view, however, to obviate 
this defect in their system, they have instituted the dance, which answers every 
purpose of a recruiting service. ' ' Every man, therefore, who enters within this 

ring and joins in the dance is in honour bound to assist in carrying on the 

war. ' Id., Adven., pp. 319-20. Mock battles and military display for the enter- 
tainment of white visitors. Ilines' Vot/i, pp. 173-4. The Chilluckittequaws cut 
off the forefingers of a slain enemy as trophies. Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 
375-6. When scouting, ' Flathead chief would ride at full gallop so near the foe 
as to flap in their faces the eagle's tail streaming behind (from his cap), yet 
no one dared seize the tail or streamer, it being considered sacrilegious and 
fraught with misfortune to touch it.' Tolmie, in Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 238. 
A thousand Walla Wallas came to the Sacramento River in 1846, to avenge 
the death of a young chief killed by an American about a year before. Col- 
ton's Three Years in Col., p. 52. One Flathead is said to be equal to four 
Blackfeet in battle. De Sniet, Voy., pp. 31, 49; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 312-13; 
Gray's Hist. Ogn., pp. 171-4; Parker's Explor. Tour, pp. 236-7; Stanley's Por- 
traits, pp. 65-71; Ind. Life, pp. 23-5; Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. 
iv., p. 495. 


together for matting. Rude bowls and spoons are some- 
times dug out of horn or wood, but the fingers, with 
pieces of bark and small mats are the ordinary table 
furniture. Skins are dressed by spreading, scraping off 
the flesh, and for some purposes the hair, with a sharp 
piece of bone, stone, or iron attached to a short handle, 
and used like an adze. The skin is then smeared with 
the animal's brains, and rubbed or pounded by a very 
tedious process till it becomes soft and white, some hides 
being previously smoked and bleached with white clay. 171 
On the lower Columbia the Wascos, Kliketats, Walla 
Wallas, and other tribes use dug-out boats like those of 
the coast, except that little skill or labor is expended on 
their construction or ornamentation; the only requisite 
being supporting capacity, as is natural in a country 
where canoes play but a small part in the work of pro- 
curing food. Farther in the interior the mountain tribes 
of the Sahaptin family, as the Cayuses and Nez Perces, 
make no boats, but use rude rafts or purchase an occa- 
sional canoe from their neighbors, for the rare cases when 
it becomes necessary to transport property across an un- 
fordable stream. The Flatheads sew up their lodge-skins 
into a temporary boat for the same purpose. On the 
Fraser the Nootka dug-out is in use. But on the north- 
ern lakes and rivers of the interior, the Pend d' Oreille, 
Flatbow, Arrow, and Okanagan, northward to the Ta- 

171 White marl clay used to cleanse skin robes, by making it into a paste, 
rubbing it on the hide and leaving it to dry, after which it is rubbed off. 
Saddles usually sit uneasily on the horse's back. Parker's Explor. Tour, pp. 
106, 232-4. ' Mallet of stone curiously carved ' among the Sokulks. Near 
the Cascades was seen a ladder resembling those used by the whites. The 
Pishquitpaws used ' a saddle or pad of dressed skin, stuffed with goats' hair.' 
Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 353, 370, 375, 528. On the Fraser a rough kind 
of isinglass was at one time prepared and traded to the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany. Lord's Nat., vol. i., p. 177. 'The Sahaptins still make a kind of vase 
of lava, somewhat in the shape of a crucible, but very wide; they use it as a 
mortar for pounding the grain, of which they make cakes.' Domenech's Deserts, 
vol. ii., pp. G4, 243. (Undoubtedly an error.) Pend d'Oreilles; 'lesfemmes 

font des nattes de joncs, des paniers, et des chapeaux sans bords.' 

Be Smet, Voy., p. 199. 'Nearly all (the Shushwaps) use the Spanish wooden 
saddle, which they make with much skill.' Mayne's B. C, pp. 301-2. 'The 
saddles for women differ in form, being furnished with the antlers of a deer, 
so as to resemble the high pommelled saddle of the Mexican ladies.' Fran- 
chere's Xar., pp. 269-70; Palmer's Jour., p. 129; Irving' s Astoria, p. 317, 365; 
Cox's Adven., vol. i., pp. 148-9. 


cully territory, the natives manufacture and navigate 
bark canoes. Both birch and pine are employed, by 
stretching it over a cedar hoop- work frame, sewing the 
ends with fine roots, and gumming the seams and knots. 
The form is very peculiar; the stem and stern are 
pointed, but the points are on a level with the bottom 
of the boat, and the slope or curve is upward towards 
the centre. Travelers describe them as carrying a heavy 
load, but easily capsized unless when very skillfully man- 
aged. 172 

Horses constitute the native wealth, and poor indeed 
is the family which has not for each member, young and 
old, an animal to ride, as well as others sufficient to trans- 
port all the household goods, and to trade for the few 
foreign articles needed. The Nez Perces, Cay uses and 
Walla Wallas have more and better stock than other 
nations, individuals often possessing bands of from one 
thousand to three thousand. The Kootenais are the 
most northern equestrian tribes mentioned. How the 
natives originally obtained horses is unknown, although 
there are some slight traditions in support of the natural 
supposition that they were first introduced from the 
south by way of the Shoshones. The latter are one 
people with the Comanches, by whom horses were ob- 
tained during the Spanish expeditions to New Mexico 
in the sixteenth century. The horses of the natives are 

172 ; The wliite-pine bark is a very good substitute for birch, but has the dis- 
advantage of being more brittle in cold weather.' SucUey, in Pac. B. B. Eept., 
vol. i., p. 296. Yakima boats are 'simply logs hollowed out and sloped up 
at the ends, without form or finish.' Gfibbs, in Id., p. 408. The Flatheads 
' have no canoes, but in ferrying streams use their lodge skins, which are 
drawn up into an oval form by cords, and stretched on a few twigs. These 
they tow with horses, riding sometimes three abreast.' Stevens, in Id., p. 415. 
In the Kootenai canoe ' the upper part is covered, except a space in the 
middle.' The length is twenty-two feet, the bottom being a dead level from 
end to end. Ross' Fur Hunters, vol. ii., pp. 109-70. ' The length of the bottom 
of the one I measured was twelve feet, the width between the gunwales only 
seven and one half feet.' ' When an Indian puddles it, he sits at the extreme 
end, and thus sinks the conical point, which serves to steady the canoe like 
a fish's tail.' Lord's Nat., vol. ii., pp. 178-9, '255-7. On the Arrow Lakes 
' their form is also peculiar and very beautiful. These canoes run the rapids 
with more safety than those of any other shape.' Kane's Wand., p. 328. See 
De Smet, Voy., pp. 35, 187; Jrrin i's Astoria, p. 319; Lewis and Clarke's Trav., 
p. 375; Hector, in P(dliser's Explor., p. 27; Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Bept., 1854, 
pp. 208, 214, 223, 238. 


of small size, probably degenerated from a superior stock, 
but hardy and surefooted; enduring hunger and hard 
usage better than those of the whites, but inferior to them 
in build, action, and endurance. All colors are met with, 
spotted and mixed colors being especially prized. 173 

The different articles of food, skins and grasses for 
clothing and lodges and implements, shells and trinkets 
for ornamentation and currency are also bartered be- 
tween the nations, and the annual summer gatherings 
on the rivers serve as fairs for the display and exchange 
of commodities; some tribes even visit the coast for 
purposes of trade. Smoking the pipe often precedes and 
follows a trade, and some peculiar commercial customs 
prevail, as for instance when a horse dies soon after 
purchase, the price may be reclaimed. The rights of 
property are jealously defended, but in the Salish na- 
tions, according to Hale, on the death of a father his 
relatives seize the most valuable property with very lit- 
tle attention to the rights of children too young to look 
out for their own interests. 174 Indeed, I have heard of 

173 'The tradition is that horses were obtained from the southward,' not 
many generations back. Tolmie, in Lord's Nat., vol. ii., pp. 247, 177-8. In- 
dividuals of the Walla Wallas have over one thousand horses. Warre and 
Vavasour, in Martin's Hud. Say, p. 83. Kootenais rich in horses and cat- 
tle. Palliser's Explor., pp. 44, 73. Kliketat and Yakima horses sometimes 
fine, but injured by early usage; deteriorated from a good stock; vicious and 
lazy. Gibbs, in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 405. 'La richesse pnncipale des 
sauvages de l'ouest consiste en chevaux.' De Smet, Voy., pp. 47, 56. At an 
assemblage of Walla Wallas, Shahaptains and Kyoots, ' the plains were lit- 
erally covered with horses, of which there could not have been less than four 
thousand in sight of the camp.' Ross' Adven., p. 127. The Kootanies about 
Arrow Lake, or Sinatcheggs have no horses, as the country is not suitable 
for them. Id., Fur Hunters, vol. ii., pp. 171-2. Of the Spokanes the 'chief 
riches are their horses, which they generally obtain in barter from the Nez 
Perces.' Cox's Adven., vol. i., p. 200. A Skyuse is poor who has but fifteen 
or twenty horses. The horses are a fine race, ' as large and of better form 
and more activity than most of the horses of the States.' Farnham's Trav. y 
p. 82. The Flatheads 'are the most northern of the equestrian tribes. 'Nico- 
lay's Onn. Ter., p. 153. Many Nez Perces 'have from five to fifteen hundred 
head of horses.' Palmer's Jour., pp. 128-9. Indians of the Spokane and 
Flathead tribes ' own from one thousand to four thousand head of horses 
and cattle.' Stevens' Address, p. 12. The Nez Perce horses 'are principally 
of the pony breed; but remarkably stout and long-winded.' Irviwj's Bonne- 
ville's Adven., p. 301; Hastings' Em. Guide, p. 59; Hines' Voy., p. 344; Gass' 
Jour., p. 295; Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 230. 

174 The Chilluckittequaw intercourse seems to be an intermediate trade 
with the nations near the mouth of the Columbia. The Chopunnish trade 
for, as well as hunt, buffalo-robes east of the mountains. Course of trade in 

Vol. I. 18 


deeds of similar import in white races. In decorative 
art the inland natives must be pronounced inferior to 
those of the coast, perhaps only because they have less 
time to devote to such unproductive labor. Sculpture 
and painting are rare and exceedingly rude. On the 
coast the passion for ornamentation finds vent in carv- 
ing and otherwise decorating the canoe, house, and im- 
plements ; in the interior it expends itself on the capari- 
son of the horse, or in bead and fringe work on garments. 
Systems of numeration are simple, progressing by fours, 
fives, or tens, according to the different languages, and is 
sufficiently extensive to include large numbers ; but the 
native rarely has occasion to count beyond a few hun- 
dreds, commonly using his fingers as an aid to his nu- 
meration. Years are reckoned by winters, divided by 
moons into months, and these months named from the 
ripening of some plant, the occurrence of a fishing or 
hunting season, or some other periodicity in their lives, 
or by the temperature. Among the Salish the day is 
divided according to the position of the sun into nine 
parts. De Smet states that maps are made on bark or 
skins by which to direct their course on distant excur- 

the Sahaptin county : The plain Indians during their stay on the river from 
May to September, before they begin fishing, go down to the falls with skins, 
mats, silk-grass, rushes and chapelell bread. Here they meet the mountain 
tribes from the Kooskooskie (Clearwater) and Lewis rivers, who bring bear- 
grass, horses, quamash and a few skins obtained by hunting or by barter 
from the Tushepaws. At the falls are the Chilluckittequaws, Eneeshurs, 
Echeloots and Skilloots, the latter being intermediate traders between the 
upper and lower tribes. These tribes have pounded fish for sale; and the 
Chinooks bring wappato, sea-fish, berries, and trinkets obtained from the 
whites. Then the trade begins; the Chopunnish and mountain tribes buy 
wappato, pounded fish and beads; and the plain Indians buy wappato, 
horses, beads, etc. Lewi* and Clarke's Trav., pp. 341, 382, 444-5. Horse- 
fairs in which the natives display the qualities of their steeds with a view to 
sell. Lord's Nat., vol. ii., pp. 86-7. The Oakinacks make trips to the Pacific 
to trade wild hemp for hiaqua shells and trinkets. Boss' Adven., pp. 291, 323. 
Trade conducted in silence between a Flathead and Crow. De Smet, Voy., p. 
56. Kliketats and Yakimas ' have become to the neighboring tribes what the 
Yankees were to the once Western States, the traveling retailers of notions.' 
Gibbs, in Pac. R. R. liept., vol. i., pp. 403, 406. Cayuses, Walla Wallas, and 
Nez Perces meet in Grande Ronde Valley to trade with the Snakes. Thorn- 
ton's 0<jn, and Cal., vol. i., p. 270; Hale's Ethnog. in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., 
p. 208; Cox's Adven., vol. ii., pp. 88-9, 156; Palmer's Jour., pp. 46, 54; Dun- 
niway's Capt. Gray's Comp., p. 160; Coke's Rocky Mts., p. 294; Maym's B. C, 
p. 299; Gass' Jour., p. 205. 


sions, and that they are guided at night by the polar 
star. 175 

War chiefs are elected for their bravery and past suc- 
cess, having full authority in all expeditions, marching 
at the head of their forces, and, especially among the 
Flatheads, maintaining the strictest discipline, even to 
the extent of inflicting flagellation on insubordinates. 
AYith the war their power ceases, yet they make no effort 
by partiality during office to insure re-election, and sub- 
mit without complaint to a successor. Except by the 
war chiefs no real authority is exercised. The regular 
chieftainship is hereditary so far as any system is ob- 
served, but chiefs who have raised themselves to their 
position by their merits are mentioned among nearly 
all the nations. The leaders are always men of com- 
manding influence and often of great intelligence. They 
take the lead in haranguing at the councils of wise men, 
which meet to smoke and deliberate on matters of public 
moment. These councils decide the amount of fine ne- 
cessary to atone for murder, theft, and the few crimes 
known to the native code; a fine, the chief's reprimand, 
and rarely flogging, probably not of native origin, are 
the only punishments ; and the criminal seldom attempts 
to escape. As the more warlike nations have especial 
chiefs with real power in time of war, so the fishing 
tribes, some of them, grant great authority to a 'salmon 
chief during the fishing- season. But the regular inland 

175 In calculating time the Okanagans use their fingers, each finger stand- 
ing for ten; some will reckon to a thousand with tolerable accuracy, but most 
can scarcely count to twenty. Ross' Adven., p. 324. The Flatheads 'font 
neanmoins avec precision, sur des ecorces d'arbres ou sur des peaux le plan, 
des pays qu'ils ont parcourus, marquant les distances par journees, demi- 
joumees ou quarts de journees.' De, Smet, Voy., p. 205. Count years by 
snows, months by moons, and days by sleeps. Have names for each num- 
ber up to ten; then add ten to each; and then add a word to multiply by 
ten. Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 242. Names of the months in the Pisquouse 
and Salish languages beginning with January; — 'cold, a certain herb, snow- 
gone, bitter-root, going to root-ground, camass-root, hot, gathering berries, 
exhausted salmon, dry, house-building, snow.' Hale's Elhnoq., in U. 8. Ex. 
Ex., vol. vi., p. 211. ' Menses computant kmis, ex spkani, sol vel luna et dies 
per ferias. Hebdomadam unicam per splchaskat, septem dies, plures vero 
hebdomadas per s'chaxeus, id est, vexillum quod a duce maximo qualibet die 
dominica suspendebatur. Dies autem in novem dividitur partes.' MengaHni, 
Orammatina Linquae Selicae, p. 120; SproaVs Scenes, p. 270; Lewis and Clarke's 
Trav., p. 374. 


chiefs never collect taxes nor presume to interfere with 
the rights or actions of individuals or families. 176 Pris- 
oners of war, not killed by torture, are made slaves, but 
they are few in number, and their children are adopted 
into the victorious tribe. Hereditary slavery and the 
slave-trade are unknown. The Shushwaps are said to 
have no slaves. 177 

In choosing a helpmate, or helpmates, for his bed and 
board, the inland native makes capacity for work the 
standard of female excellence, and having made a selec- 
tion buys a wife from her parents by the payment of 
an amount of property, generally horses, which among 
the southern nations must be equaled by the girl's par- 
ents. Often a betrothal is made by parents while both 

176 The twelve Oakinack tribes * form, as it were, so many states belonging 
to the same union, and are governed by petty chiefs.' The chieftainship 
descends from father to son; and though merely nominal in authority, the 
chief is rarely disobeyed. Property pays for all crimes. Boss' Advtn.. pp. 
289-94, 322-3, 327. The Chualpays are governed by the ' chief of the earth ' 
and ' chief of the waters, ' the latter having exclusive authority in the fishing- 
season. Kane's Wand., pp. 309-13. The Nez Perces offered a Flathead the 
position of head chief, through admiration of his qualities. De Smet, Voy., 
pp. 50, 171. Among the Kalispels the chief appoints his successor, or if he 
fails to do so, one is elected. DeSmet, Western Miss., p. 297. The Flathead war 
chief carries a long whip, decorated with scalps and feathers to enforce strict 
discipline. The principal chief is hereditary. Cox's Adven., vol. i., pp. 241-2, 
vol. ii., p. 88. The 'camp chief ' of the Flatheads as well as the war chief 
was chosen for his merits, hid. Life, pp. 28-9. Among the Nez Perces and 
Wascos ' the form of government is patriarchal. They acknowledge the he- 
reditary principle — blood generally decides who shall be the chief.' Alvord, in 
Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., pp. 652-4. No regularly recognized chief among 
the Spokanes, but an intelligent and rich man often controls the tribe by his 
influence. Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., pp. 475-G. 'The Salish 
can hardly be said to have any regular form of government. ' Hale's Ethnog., in 
U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., pp. 21)7-8. Every winter the Cayuses go down to the 
Dalles to hold a council over the Chinooks ' to ascertain their misdemeanors 
and punish them therefor by whipping '! Farnham's Trav., p. 81-2. Among 
the Salish ' criminals are sometimes punished by banishment from their tribe.' 
'Fraternal union and the obedience to the chiefs are truly admirable.' Dom- 
enech's Deserts, vol. [ii., pp. 343-4; Mines' Voy., p. 157; ' Stanhy's Portraits, p. G3; 
Dunn's Oregon, pp. 311-12; White's Oregon, -p. 189; Pickering's Paces, in U. S. 
Ex. Ex., vol. ix., p. 108; Joset, in Nouvelles Annates des Voy., torn, cxxiii, 1849, 
pp. 334-40. 

177 ' Slavery is common with all the tribes.' Warre and Vavasour, in Mar- 
tin's Hud. B., p. 83. Sahaptins always make slaves of prisoners of war. The 
Cayuses have many. Alvord, in Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 054; Palmer's 
Jour., p. 5(5. Among the Okanagans ' there are but few slaves . . . and these few 
are adopted as children, and treated in all respects as members of the family.' 
Boss' Adven., p. 320. The inland tribes formerly practiced slavery, but long 
since abolished it. Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 247. ' Not practised in the in- 
terior.' Mayne's B. C, p. 243. Not practiced by the Shushwaps. Anderson, 
in Hist. Mag., vol. vii., p. 78. 


parties are yet children, and such a contract, guaranteed 
by an interchange of presents, is rarely broken. To 
give away a wife without a price is in the highest degree 
disgraceful to her family. Besides payment of the price, 
generally made for the suitor by his friends, courtship 
in some nations includes certain visits to the bride before 
marriage ; and the Spokane suitor must consult both the 
chief and the young lady, as well as her parents ; indeed 
the latter may herself propose if she wishes. Runaway 
matches are not unknown, but by the Nez Perces the 
woman is in such cases considered a prostitute, and the 
bride's parents may seize upon the man's property. Many 
tribes seem to require no marriage ceremony, but in others 
an assemblage of friends for smoking and feasting is 
called for on such occasions; and among the Flatheads 
more complicated ceremonies are mentioned, of which 
long lectures to the couple, baths, change of clothing, 
torch-light processions, and dancing form a part. In the 
married state the wife must do all the heavy work and 
drudgery, but is not otherwise ill treated, and in most 
tribes her rights are equally respected with those of the 

When there are several wives each occupies a separate 
lodge, or at least has a separate fire. Among the Spo- 
kanes a man marrying out of his own tribe joins that of 
his wife, because she can work better in a country to 
which she is accustomed; and in the same nation all 
household goods are considered as the wife's property. 
The man who marries the eldest daughter is entitled to 
all the rest, and parents make no objection to his turn- 
ing off one in another's favor. Either party may dis- 
solve the marriage at will, but property must be equita- 
bly divided, the children going with the mother. Dis- 
carded wives are often reinstated. If a Kliketat wife 
die soon after marriage, the husband may reclaim her 
price ; the Nez Perce may not marry for a year after her 
death, but he is careful to avoid the inconvenience of 
this regulation by marrying just before that event. The 
Salish widow must remain a widow for about two years, 


and then must marry agreeably to her mother-in-law's 
taste or forfeit her husband's property. 178 The women 
make faithful, obedient waves and affectionate mothers. 
Incontinence in either girls or married women is ex- 
tremely rare, and prostitution almost unknown, being 
severely punished, especially among the Xez Perces. In 
this respect the inland tribes present a marked contrast 
to their coast neighbors. 179 At the first appearance of 
the menses the woman must retire from the sight of all, 

178 Each Okanagan ' family is ruled by the joint will or authority of the 
husband and wife, but more particularly by the latter.' Wives live at dif- 
ferent camps among their relatives ; one or two being constantly with the 
husband. Brawls constantly occur when several wives meet. The women 
are chaste, and attached to husband and children. At the age of fourteen 
or fifteen the young man pays his addresses in person to the object of his 
love, aged eleven or twelve. After the old folks are in bed, he goes to her 
wigwam, builds a fire, and if welcome the mother permits the girl to come 
and sit with him for a short time. These visits are several times rej^eated, 
and he finally goes in the day-time with friends and his purchase money. 
Ross' Adven., pp. 295-302. The Spokane husband joins his wife's tribe; 
women are held in great respect; and much affection is shown for chil- 
dren. Among the Nez Perces both men and women have the power of 
dissolving the marriage tie at pleasure. Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. 
iv., pp. 410, 475-6, 486, 495. The Coeurs d'Alene 'have abandoned po- 
lygamy.' Stevens, in Pac. R. R. Kept., vol. i., pp. 149, 309; Gibbs, in Pac. 
R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 406. Pend d'Oreille women less enslaved than in 
the mountains, but yet have much heavy work, paddle canoes, etc. Gen- 
erally no marriage among savages. De Smet, Voy., pp. 198-9, 210. The Nez 
Perces generally confine themselves to two wives, and rarely marry cousins. 
No wedding ceremony. Alvord, in Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 655. Po- 
lygamy not general on the Fraser; and unknown to Kootenais. Cox's Advert., 
vol. ii., pp. 155, 379, vol. i., pp. 256-9. Nez Perces have abandoned polyg- 
amy. Palmer's Jour., pp. 129, 56. Flathead women do everything but hunt 
and fight. Ind. Life, p. 41. Flathead women 'by no means treated as slaves, 
but, on the contrary, have much consideration and authority.' Hale's Eihnog., 
in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 207. 'Barely marry out of their own nation,' 
and do not like their women to marry whites. Dunn's Oregon, pp. 313-14. 
The Sokulk men ' are said to content themselves with a single wife, with 
whom .... the husband shares the labours of procuring subsistence much more 
than is usual among savages.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., p. 351; Bunniway's 
Capt. Gray's Comj)., p. 161; Gray's Hist. Oqn., p. 171; Tolmie and Anderson, 
in Lord's Nat., vol. ii., pp. 231-5; Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, p. 208; Be Smet' s 
West. Miss., p. 289. 

!* 9 The wife of a young Kootenai left him for another, whereupon he shot 
himself. Ross' Fur Hunters, vol. ii., p. 169. Among the Flatheads 'conjugal 
infidelity is scarcely known.' Dunn's Oregon, p. 311. The Sahaptins 'do not 
exhibit those loose feelings of carnal desire, nor appear addicted to the com- 
mon customs of prostitution.' Gass' Jour., p. 275. Inland tribes have a 
reputation for chastity, probably due to circumstances rather than to fixed 
principles. Mayne's B. C., p. 300. Spokanes 'free from the vice of incon- 
tinence.' Among the Walla Wallas prostitution is unknown, 'and I believe 
no inducement would tempt them to commit a breach of chastity. ' Prostitu- 
tion common on the Fraser. Cox's Adven., vol. i., pp. 145, 199-200. Nez 
Perce women remarkable for their chastity. Alvord, in Schoolcraft's Arch., 
vol. v., p. 655. 


especially men, for a period varying from ten days to a 
month, and on each subsequent occasion for two or three 
days, and must be purified by repeated ablutions before 
she may resume her place in the household. Also at the 
time of her confinement she is deemed unclean, and must 
remain for a few weeks in a separate lodge, attended 
generally by an old woman. The inland woman is not 
prolific, and abortions are not uncommon, which may 
probably be attributed in great measure to her life of 
labor and exposure. Children are not weaned till be- 
tween one and two years of age; sometimes not until 
they abandon the breast of their own accord or are sup- 
planted by a new arrival; yet though subsisting on the 
mother's milk alone, and exposed with slight clothing to 
all extremes of weather, they are healthy and robust, 
being carried about in a rude cradle on the mother's 
back, or mounted on colts and strapped to the saddle 
that they may not fall off when asleep. After being 
weaned the child is named after some animal, but the 
name is changed frequently later in life 180 Although 
children and old people are as a rule kindly cared for, 
yet so great the straits to w T hich the tribes are reduced 
by circumstances, that both are sometimes abandoned if 
not put to death. 181 

180 In the Salish family on the birth of a child wealthy relatives make 
presents of food and clothing. The Nez Perce mother gives presents but 
receives none on such an occasion. The Flatheads and Pend d'Oreilles 
bandage the waist and legs of infants with a view to producing broad-shoul- 
dered, small-waisted and straight-limbed adults. Tolmie and Anderson, in 
Lord's Nat., vol. ii., pp. 231-2. Among the Walla Wallas ' when traveling 
a hoop, bent over the head of the child, protects it from injury.' The con- 
finement after child-birth continues forty days. At the first menstruation 
the Spokane woman must conceal herself two days in the forest; for a man 
to see her would be fatal; she must then be confined for twenty days longer 
in a separate lodge. Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., pp. 426-8, 485. 
The Okanagan mother is not allowed to prepare her unborn infant's swad- 
dling clothes, which consist of a piece of board, a bit of skin, a bunch of 
moss, and a string. Boss' Adven., pp. 324-30. ' Small children, not more 
than three years old, are mounted alone and generally upon colts.' Younger 
ones are carried on the mother's back ' or suspended from a high knob upon 
the forepart of their saddles.' Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 98. Houses among 
the Chopunnish ' appropriated for women who are undergoing the opera- 
tion of the menses.' 'When anything is to be conveyed to these deserted 
females, the person throws it to them forty or fifty paces off, and then re- 
tires.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., p. 539; Townsend's Nar., p. 78; Alvord, in 
Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 655. 

181 With the Pend d'Oreilles 'it was not uncommon for them to bury th- 


The annual summer gathering on the river banks for 
fishing and trade, and, among the mountain nations, the 
return from a successful raid in the enemy's country, are 
the favorite periods for native diversions. 182 To gamb- 
ling they are no less passionately addicted in the interior 
than on the coast, 183 but even in this universal Indian 
vice, their preference for horse-racing, the noblest form 
of gaming, raises them above their stick-shuffling breth- 
ren of the Pacific. On the speed of his horse the native 
stakes all he owns, and is discouraged only when his 
animal is lost, and with it the opportunity to make up 
past losses in another race. Foot-racing and target- 
shooting, in which men, women and children participate, 
also afford them indulgence in their gambling propensi- 
ties and at the same time develop their bodies by exer- 
cise, and perfect their skill in the use of their native 
weapon. 184 The Colvilles have a game, alkottock, played 

very old and the verjr young alive, because, they said, "these cannot take care 
of themselves, and we cannot take care of them, and they had better die." 
Stevens, in Lid. Aff. Bept., 1854, p. 211; Suckley, in Pac. B. B. Bept., vol. i., 
p. 297; Domemch's Deserts, vol. ii., p. 328; White's Ogn., p. 96; Cox's Adven., 
vol. i., pp, 148-9. 

182 In the Yakima Valley ' we visited every street, alley, hole and corner 
of the camp .... Here was gambling, there scalp-dancing ; laughter in one 
jilace, mourning in another. Crowds were passing to and fro, whooping, yell- 
ing, dancing, drumming, singing. Men, women, and children were huddled 
together; flags flying, horses neighing, dogs howling, chained bears, tied 
wolves, grunting and growling, all pell-mell among the tents.' Ross' Fur 
[Hunters, vol. i., p. 28. At Kettle Falls 'whilst awaiting the coming salmon, 
the scene is one great revel: horse-racing, gambling, love-making, dancing, 
and diversions of all sorts, occupy the singular assembly; for at these an- 
nual gatherings . . . .feuds and dislikes are for the time laid by.' Lord's Nat., 
vol. i., pp. 72-3. 

183 The principal amusement of the Okanagans is gambling, ' at which 
they are not so quarrelsome as the Spokans and other tribes, ' disputes be- 
ing settled by arbitration. Cox's Adven., vol. ii., p. 88. A young man 
at Kettle Falls committed suicide, having lost everything at gambling. 
Kane's Wand., pp. 309-10. ' Les Indiens de la Colombie ont porte les jeux 
de hasard au dernier exces. Apres avoir perdu tout ce qu'ils ont, ils se niet- 
tent eux-memes sur le tapis, d'abord une main, ensuite l'autre; s'ils les 
perdent, les bras, et ainsi de suite tous les membres du corps; la tete suit, 
et s'ils la perdent, ils deviennent esclaves pour la vie avec leurs femmes et 
leurs enfants.' Be Smet, Voy., pp. 49-50. Many Kooteneais have abandoned 
gambling. DeSmet, West. 3Iiss., p. 300. ' Whatever the poor Indian can call 
his own, is ruthlessly sacrificed to this Moloch of human weakness.' Ind. 
Life, p. 42; Irving' s Bonneville's Adven., p. 102-3. 

18i Spokanes; 'one of their great amusements is horse-racing.' Wilkes' 
Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 487. Kliketats and Yakimas; ' the racing 
season is the grand annual occasion of these tribes. A horse of proved repu- 
tation is a source of wealth or ruin to his owner. On his speed he stakes his 


with spears. A wooden ring some three inches in diam- 
eter is rolled over a level space between two slight stick 
barriers about forty feet apart ; when the ring strikes the 
barrier the spear is hurled so that the ring will fall over 
its head; and the number scored by the throw depends 
on which of six colored beads, attached to the hoop's 
inner circumference, falls over the spear's head. 185 The 
almost universal Columbian game of guessing which hand 
contains a small polished bit of bone or wood is also a 
favorite here, and indeed the only game of the kind 
mentioned; it is played, to the accompaniment of songs 
and drumming, by parties sitting in a circle on mats, the 
shuffler's hands being often wrapped in fur, the better to 
deceive the players. 186 All are excessively fond of danc- 
ing and singing; but their songs and dances, practiced 
on all possible occasions, have not been, if indeed they 
can be, described. They seem merely a succession of 
sounds and motions without any fixed system. Pound- 
ing on rude drums of hide accompanies the songs, which 
are sung without words, and in which some listeners have 
detected a certain savage melody. Scalp-dances are per- 
formed by women hideously painted, who execute their 
diabolical antics in the centre of a circle formed by the 
rest of the tribe who furnish music to the dancers. 187 

whole stud, Ms household goods, clothes, and finally his wives; and a single 
heat doubles his fortune, or sends him forth an impoverished adventurer. 
The interest, however is not confined to the individual directly concerned; 
the tribe share it with him, and a common pile of goods, of motley descrip- 
tion, apportioned according to their ideas of value, is put up by either party, 
to be divided among the backers of the winner.' Stevens, in Pac. R. R. Rept., 
vol. i., pp. 404, 412. ' Running horses and foot-races by men, women and 
children, and they have games of chance played with sticks or bones;' do 
not drink to excess. Parker's Explor. Tour, pp. 237, 406. Lewis and Clarke's 
Trav, pp. 557; Franchere's Nar., p. 269. 
«« Kane's Wand., pp. 310-11. 

186 xhe principal Okanagan amusement is a game called by the voyageurs 
' jeu de main,' like our odd and even. Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., p. 463. 
It sometimes takes a week to decide the game. The loser never repines. 
Ross' Adven., pp. 308-11; Stuart's Montana, p. 71. 

187 Among the Wahowpums ' the spectators formed a circle round the 
dancers, who, with their robes drawn tightly round the shoulders, and di- 
vided into parties of five or six men, perform by crossing in a line from one 
side of the circle to the other. All the parties, performers as well as spec- 
tators, sing, and after proceeding in this way for some time, the spectators 
join, and the whole concludes by a promiscuous dance and song.' The 
Walla Wallas 'were formed into a solid column, round a kind of hollow 


Al] are habitual smbkers, always inhaling the smoke in- 
stead of puffing it out after the manner of more civilized 
devotees of the weed. To obtain tobacco the native will 
part with almost any other property, but no mention is 
made of any substitute used in this region before the 
white man came. Besides his constant use of the pipe 
as an amusement or habit, the inland native employs it 
regularly to clear his brain for the transaction of im- 
portant business. Without the pipe no war is declared, 
no peace officially ratified ; in all promises and contracts 
it serves as the native pledge of honor; with ceremonial 
whiffs to the cardinal points the wise men open and 
close the deliberations of their councils; a commercial 
smoke clinches a bargain, as it also opens negotiations of 
trade. 188 

The use of the horse has doubtless been a most 
powerful agent in molding inland customs ; and yet the 
introduction of the horse must have been of compara- 
tively recent date. What were the customs and charac- 
ter of these people, even when America was first discov- 
ered by the Spaniards, must ever be unknown. It is by 
no means certain r that the possession of the horse has ma- 
terially bettered their condition. Indeed, by facilitating 
the capture of buffalo, previously taken perhaps by strat- 
agem, by introducing a medium with which at least the 
wealthy may always purchase supplies, as well as by ren- 
dering practicable long migrations for food and trade, the 

square, stood on the same place, and merely jumped up at intervals, to keep 
time to the music.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 526, 531. Nez Perces 
dance round a pole on Sundays, arid the chiefs exhort during the pauses. 
Irving's Bonneville's Adven., pp. 101-2, 245. In singing 'they use hi, ah, in 
constant repetition, .... and instead of several parts harmonizing, they only 
take eighths one above another, never exceeding three.' Parker's Explor. 
Tour, pp. 242-3. ' The song was a simple expression of a few sounds, no 
intelligible words being uttered. It resembled the words ho-ha-ho-ha-ho-ha- 
ha-ha, commencing in a low tone, and gradually swelling to a full, round, 
and beautifully modulated chorus.' Townsmd's Nar., p. 106. Chualpay 
scalp-dance. Kane's Wand., p. 315. Religious songs. JUunn's Oreyon, pp. 
338-40; Palmer's Jour., p. 124. 

188 De Smet thinks inhaling tobacco smoke may prevent its injurious 
effects. Voy., p. 207. In all religious ceremonies the pipe of peace is smoked. 
Boss' Adven., pp. 288-9. Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 28G; IBnes' Voy., p. 184. 
• The medicine-pipe is a sacred pledge of friendship among all the north- 
western tribes.' Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Kept., 1851, p. 220. 


horse may have contributed somewhat to their present 
spirit of improvidence. The horses feed in large droves, 
each marked with some sign of ownership, generally by 
clipping the ears, and when required for use are taken by 
the lariat, in the use of which all the natives have some 
skill, though far inferior to the Mexican vaqueros. The 
method of breaking and training horses is a quick and 
an effectual one. It consists of catching and tying the 
animal ; then buffalo-skins and other objects are thrown 
at and upon the trembling beast, until all its fear is 
frightened out of it. When willing to be handled, 
horses are treated with great kindness, but when re- 
fractory, the harshest measures are adopted. They are 
well trained to the saddle, and accustomed to be mount- 
ed from either side. They are never shod and never 
taught to trot. The natives are skillful riders, so far as 
the ability to keep their seat at great speed over a rough 
country is concerned, but they never ride gracefully, and 
rarely if ever perform the wonderful feats of horseman- 
ship so often attributed to the western Indians. A loose 
girth is used under which to insert the knees when rid- 
ing a wild horse. They are hard riders, and horses in 
use always have sore backs and mouths. Women ride 
astride, and quite as well as the men; children also 
learn to ride about as early as to walk. 189 Each nation 
has its superstitions; by each individual is recognized 
the influence of unseen powers, exercised usually through 
the medium of his medicine animal chosen early in life. 
The peculiar customs arising from this belief in the 
supernatural are not very numerous or complicated, and 
belong rather to the religion of these people treated else- 
where. The Pend d' Oreille, on approaching manhood, 

189 In moving, the girls and small boys ride three or four on a horse with 
their mothers, while the men drive the herds of horses that run loose ahead. 
Lord's Nat., vol. i., pp. 71-3, 306. Horses left for months without a guard, 
and rarely stray far. They call this ' caging ' them. Be timet, Voy., pp. 187, 
47, 56. ' Babies of fifteen months old, packed in a sitting posture, rode 
along without fear, grasping the reins with their tiny hands.' Stevens, in Pac. 
B. B. Bept., vol. xii., pt. ii., p. 130, with plate; Gibbs, in Pac. B. B. Bept. t 
vol. i., pp. 401-5; Patliser's Bept., p. 73; Farnham's Trav., pp. 81—2; Bom- 
eneclt's Deserts, vol. ii., p. 64; Irving's Astoria, p. 365; Franchere's Nar., pp. 
269-71; Cox's Adven., vol. ii., pp. 110-11. 


was sent by his father to a high mountain and obliged 
to remain until he dreamed of some animal, bird, or fish, 
thereafter to be his medicine, whose claw, tooth, or feather 
was worn as a charm. The howling of the medicine-wolf 
and some other beasts forebodes calamity, but by the 
Okanagans the white- wolf skin is held as an emblem of 
royalty, and its possession protects the horses of the 
tribe from •evil-minded wolves. A ram's horns left in 
the trunk of a tree where they were fixed by the mis- 
directed zeal of their owner in attacking a native, were 
much venerated b}^ the Flatheads, and gave them power 
over all animals so long as they made frequent offerings 
at the foot of the tree. The Nez Perces had a peculiar 
custom of overcoming the mawish or spirit of fatigue, 
and thereby acquiring remarkable powers of endurance. 
The ceremony is performed annually from the age of 
eighteen to forty, lasts each time from three to seven 
days, and consists of thrusting willow sticks down the 
throat into the stomach, a succession of hot and cold 
baths, and abstinence from food. Medicine-men acquire 
or renew their wonderful powers by retiring to the 
mountains to ccfnfer with the wolf. They are then in- 
vulnerable ; a bullet fired at them flattens on their breast. 
To allowing their portraits to be taken, or to the opera- 
tions of strange apparatus they have the same aversion 
that has been noted on the coast. 190 Steam baths are 
universally used, not for motives of cleanliness, but some- 
times for medical purposes, and chiefly in their supersti- 
tious ceremonies of purification. The bath-house is a 
hole dug in the ground from three to eight feet deep, 
and sometimes fifteen feet in diameter, in some locality 
where wood and water are at hand, often in the river 
bank. It is also built above ground of willow branches 
covered with grass and earth. Only a small hole is left 

190 'L'aigle. . . .est le grand oiseau de medecine.' De Smet, Voy., pp. 46, 
205; Wilkes' Nar., in U. 8. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., pp. 494-5; Stevens, in Ind. Aff. 
i;<pt., 1854, p. 212, and in De Smet's West. Miss., pp. 285-6; Suckky, in Ear. 
R. li. Rept., vol. i., p. 297; Hate's Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 208-9; 
Ross' Eur Hunters, vol. i., p. G4, vol. ii., p. 19; Kane's Wand., pp. 267, 280- 
1, 318. 


for entrance, and this is closed up after the bather en- 
ters. Stones are heated by a fire in the bath itself, or 
are thrown in after being heated outside. In this oven, 
heated to a suffocating temperature, the naked native 
revels for a long time in the steam and mud, mean- 
while singing, howling, praying, and finally rushes out 
dripping with perspiration, to plunge into the nearest 
stream. 191 Every lodge is surrounded by a pack of worth- 
less coyote-looking curs. These are sometimes made to 
carry small burdens on their backs when the tribe is 
moving; otherwise no use is made of them, as they are 
never eaten, and, with perhaps the exception of a breed 
owned by the Okanagans, are never trained to hunt. I 
give in a note a few T miscellaneous customs noticed by 
travelers. 192 

These natives of the interior are a healthy but not a 
very long-lived race. Ophthalmia, of which the sand, i 
smoke of the lodges, and reflection of the sun's rays on 
the lakes are suggested as the causes, is more or less 
prevalent throughout the territory ; scrofulous complaints 
and skin-eruptions are of frequent occurrence, especially 
in the Sahaptin family. Other diseases are compara- 
tively rare, excepting of course epidemic disorders like 

191 Lewis and Clarice's Trav., pp. 343-4; Parker's Explor. Tour, pp. 241-2; 
Ross' Adven., pp. 311-12. 

192 The Walla Wallas receive bad news with a howl. The Spokanes ' cache ' 
their s:ilmon. They are willing to change names with any one they esteem. 
' Suicide prevails more among the Indians of the Columbia Eiver than in any 
other portion of the continent which I have visited.' Kane's Wand., pp. 282-3, 
307-10. ' Preserve particular order in their movements. The first chief leads 
the way, the next chiefs follow, then the common men, and after these the 
women and children.' They arrange themselves in similar order in coming 
forward to receive visitors. Do not usually know their own age. Parker's 
Explor. Tour, pp. 87, 133-4, 242. Distance is calculated by time; a day's 
ride is seventy miles on horseback, thirty-five miles on foot. Ross' Adven., 
p. 329. Natives can tell by examining arrows to what tribe they belong. Boss' 
Fur Hunters, vol. ii., p. 107. Kliketats and Yakimas often unwilling to tell 
their name. Gibbs, in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 405. 'D'apres toutes les 
observations que j'ai faites, leur journee equivaut a peu pros a cinquante ou 
Boixante milles anglais lorsqu'ils voyagent seuls, et a quinze ou vingt milles' 
seulement lorsqu'ils levent leur camps.' De Smet, Voy., p. 205. Among the 
Nez Perces everything was promulgated by criers. ' The office of crier is 
generally filled by some old man, who is good for little else. A village has 
generally several.' Irving' s Bonneville's Adven., p. 286. Habits of worship 
of the Flatheads in the missions. Dunn's Oregon, pp. 315-6. ' A pack of prick- 
eared curs, simply tamed prairie wolves, always in attendance.' Lord's Nat., 
vol. i., pp. 71-3. 


small-pox and measles contracted from the whites, which 
have caused great havoc in nearly all the tribes. Hot 
and cold baths are the favorite native remedy for all 
their ills, but other simple specifics, barks, herbs, and 
gums are erupted as well. Indeed, so efficacious is 
their treatment, or rather, perhaps, so powerful with 
them is nature in resisting disease, that when the lo- 
cality or cause of irregularity is manifest, as in the case 
of wounds, fractures, or snake-bites, remarkable cures 
are ascribed to these people. But here as elsewhere, the 
sickness becoming at all serious or mysterious, medical 
treatment proper is altogether abandoned, and the pa- 
tient committed to the magic powers of the medicine- 
man. In his power either to cause or cure disease at 
will implicit confidence is felt, and failure to heal indi- 
cates no lack of skill ; consequently the doctor is respon- 
sible for his patient's recovery, and in case of death is 
liable to, and often does, answer with his life, so that a 
natural death among the medical fraternity is extremely 
rare. His only chance of escape is to persuade relatives 
of the dead that his ill success is attributable to the evil 
influence of a rival physician, who is the one to die; or 
in some cases a heavy ransom soothes the grief of mourn- 
ing friends and avengers. One motive of the Cayuses 
in the massacre of the Whitman family is supposed to 
have been the missionary's failure to cure the measles in 
the tribe. He had done his best to relieve the sick, and 
his power to effect in all cases a complete cure was un- 
questioned by the natives. The methods by which the 
medicine-man practices his art are very uniform in all 
the nations. The patient is stretched on his back in the 
centre of a large lodge, and his friends few or many sit 
about him in a circle, each provided with sticks where- 
with to drum. The sorcerer, often grotesquely painted, 
enters the ring, chants a song, and proceeds to force the 
evil spirit from the sick man by pressing both clenched 
fists with all his might in the pit of his stomach, knead- 
ing and pounding also other parts of the body, blowing 
occasionally through his own fingers, and sucking blood 


from the part supposed to be affected. The spectators 
pound with their sticks, and all, including doctor, and 
often the patient in spite of himself, keep up a continual 
song or yell. There is, however, some method in this 
madness, and when the routine is completed it is again 
begun, and thus repeated for several hours each day un- 
til the case is decided. In many nations the doctor 
finally extracts the spirit, in the form of a small bone or 
other object, from the patient's body or mouth by some 
trick of legerdemain, and this once secured, he assures 
the surrounding friends that the tormentor having been 
thus secured, recovery must soon follow. 193 

193 The Nez Perces ' are generally healthy, the only disorders which we 
have had occasion to remark being of scrophulous kind.' With the Sokulks 
'a bad soreness of the eyes is a very common disorder.' 'Bad teeth are 
very general.' The Chilluckittequaws' diseases are sore eyes, decayed teeth, 
and tumors. The Walla Wallas have ulcers and eruptions of the skin, and 
occasionally rheumatism. The Chopunnish had ' scrofula, rheumatism, and 
sore eyes,' and a few have entirely lost the use of their limbs. Lewis and 
Clarke's Trav., pp. 3 11, 352, 382, 531, 549. The medicine-man uses a medicine- 
bag of relics in his incantations. Parker's Explor. Tour, pp. 240-1. The Okan- 
agan medicine-men are called tlaquillauahs, and ' are men generally past the 
meridian of life; in their habits grave and sedate.' 'They possess a good 
knowledge of herbs and roots, and their virtues.' I have often 'seen him 
throw out whole mouthfuls of blood, and yet not the least mark would appear 
on the skin. ' ' I once saw an Indian who had been nearly devoured by a griz- 
zly bear, and had his skull split open in several places, and several pieces of 
bone taken out just above the brain, and measuring three-fourths of an inch 
in length, cured so effectually by one of these jugglers, that in less than two 
months after he was riding on his horse again at the chase. I have also seen 
them cut open the belly with a knife, extract a large quantity of fat from the 
inside, sew up the part again, and the patient soon after perfectly recovered.' 
The most frequent diseases are ' indigestion, fluxes, asthmas, and consump- 
tions. ' Instances of longevity rare. Boss' Adve?i., pp. 302-8. A desperate case 
of consumption cured by killing a dog each day for thirty-two days, ripping 
it open and placing the patient's legs in the warm intestines, administering 
some barks meanwhile. The Flatheads subject to few diseases; splints used 
for fractures, bleeding with sharp flints for contusions, ice-cold baths for ordi- 
nary rheumatism, and vapor bath with cold plunge for chronic rheumatism. 
Cox's Adven., vol. ii., pp. 90-3, vol. i., pp. 24.8-51. Among the Walla Wallas 
convalescents are directed to sing some hours each day. The Spokanes re- 
quire all garments, etc., about the death-bed to be buried with the body, 
hence few comforts for the sick. Wilkes' JSfar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., pp. 
426-7,485. The Flatheads say their wounds cure themselves. Be Smet, Voy., 
pp. 198-200. The Wascos cure rattlesnake bites by salt applied to the wound 
or by whisky taken internally. Kane's Wand., pp. 265, 273, 317-18. A fe- 
male doctor's throat cut by the father of a patient she had failed to cure. 
Hines' Voy., p. 19.). The office of medicine-men among the Sahaptins is 
generally hereditary. Men often die from fear of a medicine-man's evil 
glance. Rival doctors work on the fears of patients to get each other killed. 
Murders of doctors somew r hat rare among the Nez Perces. Alvord, in School- 
craft's Arch., vol. v., pp. 652-3, 655. Small-pox seems to have come among 
the Yakimas and Kliketats before direct intercourse with whites. Gibbs, in 


Grief at the death of a relative is manifested by cut- 
ting the hair and smearing the face with black. The 
women also howl at intervals for a period of weeks or 
even months; but the men on ordinary occasions rarely 
make open demonstrations of sorrow, though they some- 
times shed tears at the death of a son. Several instances 
of suicide in mourning are recorded; a Walla Walla 
chieftain caused himself to be buried alive in the grave 
with the last of his five sons. The death of a wife or 
daughter is deemed of comparatively little consequence. 
In case of a tribal disaster, as the death of a prominent 
chief, or the killing of a band of warriors by a hostile 
tribe, all indulge in the most frantic demonstrations, 
tearing the hair, lacerating the flesh with flints, often in- 
flicting serious injury. The sacrifice of human life, gen- 
erally that of a slave, was practiced, but apparently no- 
where as a regular part of the funeral rites. Among the 
Flathead s the bravest of the men and women ceremo- 
nially bewail the loss of a warrior by cutting out pieces 
of their own flesh and casting them with roots and other 
articles into the fire. A long time passes before a dead 
person's name is willingly spoken in the tribe. The 
corpse is commonly disposed of by wrapping in or- 
dinary clothing and burying in the ground without a 
coffin. The northern tribes sometimes suspended the 
body in a canoe from a tree, while those in the south 
formerly piled their dead in wooden sheds or sepulchres 
above ground. The Okanagans often bound the body 
upright to the trunk of a tree. Property was in all 
cases sacrificed; horses usually, and slaves sometimes, 
killed on the grave. The more valuable articles of wealth 
were deposited with the body; the rest suspended on 
poles over and about the grave or left on the surface of 
the ground ; always previously damaged in such manner 
as not to tempt the sacrilegious thief, for their places of 

Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., pp. 405, 408. A Nez Perce doctor killed by a 
brother of a man who had shot himself in mourning for his dead relative; 
the brother in turn killed, and several other lives lost. Ross' Fur Hunters, 
vol. i., p. 239. 


burial are held most sacred. Mounds of stones sur- 
mounted with crosses indicate in later times the conver- 
sion of the natives to a foreign religion. 194 

In character and in morals, 195 as well as in physique, the 

194 The Sokulks wrap the dead in skins, bury them in graves, cover with 
earth, and mark the grave by little pickets of wood struck over and about it. 
On the Columbia below the Snake was a shed-tomb sixty by twelve feet, open 
at the ends, standing east and west. Recently dead bodies wrapped in leather 
and arranged on boards at the west end. About the centre a promiscuous 
heap of partially decayed corpses; and at eastern end a mat with twenty-one 
skulls arranged in a circle. Articles of property suspended on the inside 
and skeletons of horses scattered outside. About the Dalles eight vaults of 
boards eight feet square, and six feet high, and all the walls decorated with 
pictures and carvings. The bodies were laid east and west. Lewis and Clarke's 
Trav., pp. 344-5, 359-60, 379-80, 557-8. Okanagans observe silence about 
the death-bed, but the moment the person dies the house is abandoned, and 
clamorous mourning is joined in by all the camp for some hours; then dead 
silence while the body is wrapped in a new garment, brought out, and the 
lodge torn down. Then alternate mourning and silence, and the deceased is 
buried in a sitting posture in a round hole. Widows must mourn two years, 
incessantly for some months, then only morning and evening. Ross' Adven., 
pp. 321-2. Frantic mourning, cutting the flesh, etc., by Nez Perces. Boss' 
Fur Hunters, vol. i., pp. 234-5, 238-9, vol. ii., p. 139. Destruction of horses 
and other property by Spokanes. Cox's Adv(7i., vol. i., pp. 200-1. A shush- 
wap widow instigates the murder of a victim as a sacrifice to her husband. 
The horses of a Walla Walla chief not used after his death. Kane's Wand., 
pp. 178-9, 264-5, 277, 289. Hundreds of Wasco bodies piled in a small 
house on an island, just below the Dalles. A Walla Walla chief caused him- 
self to be buried alive in the grave of his last son. Wines' Voy., pp. 159, 
184-8. Among the Yakimas and Kliketats the women do the mourning, liv- 
ing apart for a few days, and then bathing. Okanagan bodies strapped to a 
tree. Stone mounds over Spokane graves. Gibbs and St \- ens, in Pac. R. R. 
Rept., vol. i., pp.405, 413, vol. xii., pt. i., p. 150. Pend d'Oreilles buried old 
and young alive when unable to take care of them. Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, pp. 
211, 238. 'High conical stacks of drift-wood' over Walla Walla graves. 
Townsend's Nar., p. 157. Shushwaps often deposit dead in trees. If in the 
ground, always cover grave with stones. Mayne's B. C, p. 304. Killing a 
slave by Wascos. White's Ojn., pp. 260-3. Dances and prayers for three 
days at Nez Perce chief's burial. Irving' 's Bonneville's Adven., p. 283. Bury- 
ing infant with parents by Flatheads. Be Smet, Voy., p. 173. Light wooden 
palings about Shushwap graves. Milton and Cheadle's Northw. Pass., p. 242; 
Alvord, in Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 655; Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 104; 
Palmer, in B. G. Papers, pt. iii., p. 83; Gass' Jour., p. 219; Ind. Life, p. 55; 
Tolmie, in Lord's Nat., vol. ii., pp. 237-8, 260-J. 

m Sokulks 'of a mild and peaceable disposition,' respectful to old age. 
Chilluckittequaws 'unusually hospitable and good humoured.' Chopunnish 
'the most amiable we have seen. Their character is placid and gentle, rarely 
moved into passion.' ' Thev are indeed selfish and avaricious.' Will pilfer 
small articles. Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 338, 341, 351, 376, 556-8, 564. 
The Flatheads ' se distinguent par la civilite, l'honnetete, et la bonte.' Be 
Smet, Voy., pp. 31-2, 38-40, 47-50, 166-74, L02-4. Flatheads 'the best In- 
dians of the mountains and the plains, — honest, brave, and docile.' Koote- 
nais 'men of great docility and artlessness of character.' Stevens and Hoeckcn, 
in Be Smet's West. Miss., pp. 281, 281, 290, 300. Coeurs d'Alene selfish and 
poor-spirited. Be Snut, Miss, de VOre'jon, p. 329. In the Walla Wallas ' an 
air of open unsuspecting confidence,' 'natural politeness,' no obtrusive fa- 
miliarity. Flatheads 'frank and hospitable.' Except cruelty to captives 
Vol. I. 19 


inland native is almost unanimously pronounced supe- 
rior to the dweller on the coast. The excitement of the 
chase, of war, and of athletic sports ennobles the mind 
as it develops the body; and although probably not by 
nature less indolent than their western neighbors, yet 
are these natives of the interior driven by circumstances 
to habits of industry, and have much less leisure time 
for the cultivation of the lower forms of vice. As a 
race, and compared with the average American aborigi- 
nes, they are honest, intelligent, and pure in morals. 
Travelers are liable to form their estimate of national 
character from a view, perhaps unfair and prejudiced, 
of the actions of a few individuals encountered ; conse- 
quently qualities the best and the worst have been given 
by some to each of the nations now under consideration. 
For the best reputation the Nez Perces, Flathead s and 
Kootenais have always been rivals; their good qualities 
have been praised by all, priest, trader and tourist. 
Honest, just, and often charitable; ordinarily cold and 
reserved, but on occasions social and almost gay; quick- 
tempered and revengeful under what they consider in- 

have 'fewer failings than any of the tribes I ever met.' Brave, quiet, and 
amenable to their chiefs. Spokanes 'quiet, honest, inoffensive,' but rather 
indolent. 'Thoughtless and improvident.' Okanagans 'Indolent rascals;' 
' an honest and quiet tribe. ' Sanspoils dirty, slothful, dishonest, quarrelsome, 
etc. Coeurs d'Alene 'uniformly honest;' 'more savage than their neigh- 
bours.' Kootenais honest, brave, jealous, truthful. Kamloops ' thieving and 
quarrelling.' Cox's Adven., vol. i., pp. 145, 148, 192, 199, 239-40, 202-3, 314, 
vol. ii., pp. 44, 87-8, 109, 145-60. Okanagans active and industrious, re- 
vengeful, generous and brave. Boss' Adven., pp. 142, 290-5, 327-9. Skeen 
'a hardy, brave people.' Cayuses far more vicious and ungovernable than 
the Walla Wallas. Nez Perces treacherous and villainous. Kane's Wand., 
pp. 263, 280, 290, 307-8, 315. Nez Perces 'a quiet, civil, people, but proud 
and haughty.' Palmer's Jour., pp. 128, 48, 53, 59, 61, 124-7. 'Kind to each 
other.' ' Cheerful and often gay, sociable, kind and affectionate, and anxious 
to receive instruction.' 'Lying scarcelv known.' Parker's Explor. Tour, pp. 
97, 105, 232, 239, 303-4, 311-12. Of 'the Nicutenmchs 'the habitual vin- 
dictiveness of their character is fostered by the ceaseless feuds.' 'Nearly 
every family has a minor vendetta of its own.' 'The races that depend en- 
tirely or chiefly on fishing, are immeasurably inferior to those tribes who, 
with nerves and sinews braced by exercise, and minds comparatively en- 
nobled by frequent excitement, live constantly amid war and the chase.' 
Anderson, in Hist. Mag., vol. vii., pp. 77-80. Inland tribes of British Co- 
lumbia less industrious and less provident than the more sedentary coast 
Indians. Mayne's B. C, pp. 301, 297. Sahaptins 'cold, taciturn, high- 
tempered, warlike, fond of hunting.' Palouse, Yakimas, Kliketats, etc., of 
a 'less hardy and active temperament' than the Nez Perces. Hale's Ethnog., 
in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., pp. 199, 210-13. Cayuses ' dreaded by their neigh- 


justice, but readily appeased by kind treatment; cruel 
only to captive enemies, stoical in the endurance of tor- 
ture; devotedly attached to home and family; these 
natives probably come as near as it is permitted to ilesh- 
and-blood savages to the traditional noble red man of 
the forest, sometimes met in romance. It is the pride 
and boast of the Flathead that his tribe has never shed 
the blood of a white man. Yet none, whatever their 
tribe, could altogether resist the temptation to steal 
horses from their neighbors of a different tribe, or in 
former times, to pilfer small articles, wonderful to the 
savage eye, introduced by Europeans. Many have been 
nominally converted by the zealous labors of the Jesuit 
Fathers, or Protestant missionaries; and several nations 
seem to have actually improved, in material condition if 
not in character, under their change of faith. As Mr 
Alexander Ross remarks, u there is less crime in an In- 
dian camp of five hundred souls than there is in a civ- 
ilized village of but half that number. Let the lawyer 
or moralist point out the cause." 

bors on account of their courage and warlike spirit.' Walla Wallas 'notori- 
ous as thieves since their first intercourse with whites.' 'Indolent, super- 
stitious, drunken and debauched. Character of Flatheads, Pend d'Oreilles, 
Umatillas. Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, pp. 207-9, 211, 218, 223, 282, 1861, pp. 164-5. 
Yakimas and Kliketats 'much superior to the river Indians.' Stevens, in Pac. 
K. R. Rept., vol. i., pp. 405, 298, 403, 416, vol. xii., pt. i., p. 139. Wascos ' ex- 
ceedingly vicious.' Jlines' Voy., pp.159, 169. The Nez Perces 'are, certainly, 
more like a nation of saints than a horde of savages.' Skyuses, Walla Wallas. 
Irving's Bonneville's Adven., pp. 101, 287, 289-90, 300. Tushepaws; Irving's 
Astoria, p. 316. Thompson River Indians rather a superior and clever race. 
Victoria Colonist, Oct., 1860. ' Indians from the Rocky mountains to the falls 
of Columbia, are an honest, ingenuous, and well disposed people,' but ras- 
cals below the falls. Gass' Jour., p. 304. Flathead ' fierceness and barbarity in 
war could not be exceeded.' Nicolay's Ogn. Ter., p. 153. Flatheads, Walla 
Wallas and Nez Perces; Gray's Hist. Ogn., pp. 171, 219. Kootenais; Palliser's 
Explor., pp., 44, 73. Salish, Walla Wallas; Domenech's Deserts, vol. i., p. 
88, vol. ii., p. 64. Walla Wallas, Cayuses, and Nez Perces; White's Oregon, 
p. 174. Walla Wallas, Kootenais; Lord's Nat., vol. ii., pp. 85, 178. Flat- 
heads, Nez Perces; Dunn's Oregon, pp. 311, 315, 326-8. Nez Perces; Catlin's 
.V. Am. Ind., vol. ii., p. 109; Franchere's Nar., p. 268. Kayuses, Walla 
Wallas; Toumsend's Nar., p. 156. Sahaptins; Wilkes' Hist. Ogn., p. 106. 
Nez Perces; Hastings' Emvjrants' Guide, p. 59. Flatheads; Ind. life, pp. ix., 
x., 25. At Dalles; 1 Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 412. Shush- 
waps; Grant's Ocean to Ocean, pp. 288-304, 313. At Dalles; Hunt, in Nouvelles 
Amviles des Voy., 1821, torn, x., p. 82; Stuart, in Id., 1821, torn, xii., p. 43. 
Pend d'Oreilles; Joset, in Id., 1849, torn, cxxiii., pp. 334-40. 



The Columbian Group comprises the tribes inhabiting the territory imme- 
diately south of that of the Hyperboreans, extending from the fifty-fifth to 
the forty-third parallel of north latitude. 

In the Haidah Family, I include all the coast and island nations of 
British Columbia, from 55 J to 52 \ and extending inland about one hundred 
miles to the borders of the Chilcoten Plain, the Haidah nation proper hav- 
ing their home on the Queen Charlotte Islands. ' The Haidah tribes of the 
Northern Family inhabit Queen Charlotte's Island. ' ' The Massettes, Skitte- 
gas, Cumshawas, and other (Haidah) tribes inhabiting the eastern shores of 
Queen Charlotte's Island.' Scouler, in Land. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 219. 
'The principal tribes upon it (Q. Char. Isl.) are the Sketigets, Massets, and 
Comshewars.' Dunn's Oregon, p. 292. 'Tribal names of the principal tribes 
inhabiting the islands: — Klue, Skiddan, Ninstence or Cape St. James, 

Skidagate, Skidagatees, Gold-Harbour, Cumshewas, and four others 

Hydah is the generic name for the whole.' Poole's Q. Char. Isl., p. 309. ' The 
Cumshewar, Massit, Skittageets, Keesarn, and Kigarnee, are mentioned 
as living on the island.' Ludewig, Ab. Lang., p. 157. The following bands, 
viz.: Lulanna, (or Sulanna), Nightan, Massetta, (orMosette), Necoon, Ase- 
guang, (or Asequang), Skittdegates, Cumshawas, Skeedans, Queeah, Cloo, 
Kishawin, Kowwelth, (or Kawwelth), and Too, compose the Queen Char- 
lotte Island Indians, ' beginning at N. island, north end, and passing round by 
the eastward.' Schoolcr&ft'sArch., vol. v., p. 489; and Kane's Wand., end of vol. 
' The Hydah nation which is divided into numerous tribes inhabiting the 
island and the mainland opposite.' Reed's Nar. ' Queen Charlotte's Island 
and Prince of Wales Archipelago are the country of the Haidahs;. . . .includ- 
ing the Kygany, Massett, Skittegetts, Hanega, Cumshewas, and other septs.' 
Anderson, in Hist. Mag., vol. vii., p. 74. 'Les Indiens Koumchaouas, Hal- 
das, Massettes, et Skidegats, de l'ile de la Reine Charlotte.' Mofras, Explor., 
torn, ii., p. 337. My Haidah Family is called by Wane and Vavaseur Qua- 
cott, who with the Newette and twenty-seven other tribes live, ' from Lat. 
54 J to Lat. 50 ; , including Queen Charlotte's Island; North end of Vancouver's 
Island, Millbank Sound and Island, and the Main shore.' Martin's Hudson's 
Bay, p. 80. 

The Massets and thirteen other tribes besides the Quacott tribes occupy 
Queen Charlotte Islands. Warre and Vavaseur, in Martin's Hud. Bay, p. 80. 

The Ninstence tribe inhabits ' the southernmost portions of Moresby Isl- 
and.' Poole's V. Char. Isl., pp. 122, 314-15. 

The Crosswer Indians live on Skiddegate Channel. Doicnie, in B. Col. 
Papers, vol. iii., p. 72. 

The Eaiganies inhabit the southern part of the Prince of Wales Archipela- 
go, and the northern part of Queen Charlotte Island. The Kygargeys or 
Kygarneys are divided by Schoolcraft and Kane into the Youahnoe, ClictaSB 
(or Clictars), Quiahanles, Houaguan, (or Wonagan), Shouagan, (or Show- 


gan), Chatcheenie, (or Chalchuni). Archives, vol. v., p. 489; Wanderings, 
end of vol. The Kygani ' have their head-quarters on Queen Charlotte's 
Archipelago, but there are a few villages on the extreme southern part of 
Prince of Wales Archipelago.' DaWs Alaska, p. 411. A colony of the Hy- 
dahs ' have settled at the southern extremity of Prince of Wales's Archipela- 
go, and in the Northern Island.' Scouler, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., 
p. 219. ' Die Kaigani (Kigarnies, Kigarnee, Kyganies der Englander) bewoh- 
nen den siidlichen Theil der Inseln (Archipels) des Prinzen von Wales.' 
Radio ff, Sprache der Kaiganen, in Melanges Russes, tom.iii., livrais. v., p. 5G9. 
' The Kegarnie tribe, also in the Russian territory, live on an immense island, 
called North Island.' Dunn's Oregon, p. 287. The Hydahs of the south- 
eastern Alexander Archipelago include ' the Kassaaus, the Chatcheenees, 
and the Kaiganees.' BendeVs Alex. Arch., p. 28. 'Called Kaiganies and 
Kliavakans ; the former being near Kaigan Harbor, and the latter near the 
Gulf of Kliavakan scattered along the shore from Cordova to Tonvel's Bay.' 
Halleck and Scott, in Lid. Aff. Rept., 1869, p. 562-4. 'A branch of this tribe, 
the Kyganies (Kigarnies) live in the southern part of the Archipel of the 
Prince of Wales.' Ludewig, Ab. Lang., p. 80. 

1 To the west and south of Prince of Wales Island is an off-shoot of the 
Hydah,' Indians, called Anega or Hennegas. Mahony, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1869, 
p. 575. 

The Chimsyans inhabit the coast and islands about Fort Simpson. Ten 
tribes of Chymsyans at ' Chatham Sound, Portland Canal, Port Essington, 
and the neighbouring Islands.' Warre and Vavaseur, in Martin's Hudson's 
Bay, p. 80. 'The Chimsians or Fort Simpson Indians.' Tolmie, in Lord's 
Nat., vol. ii., p. 231. 'Indians inhabiting the coast and river mouth known 
by the name of Chyniseyans.' Ind. Life, p. 93. The Tsimsheeans live 'in 
the Fort Simpson section on the main land.' Poole's Q. Char. Isl., p. 257. 
Chimpsains, 4 living on Chimpsain Peninsula.' Scott, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1869, 
p. 553. The Chimmesyans inhabit ' the coast of the main land from 55° 
30' N., down to 53 J 30' N.' Scouler, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 202; 
Ludewig, Ab. Lang., p. 40. The Chimseeans ' occupy the country from Doug- 
las' Canal to Nass River.' Simpson's Overland Journ., vol. i., p. 206. Di- 
vided into the following bands; Kispachalaidy, Kitlan (or Ketlane) , Kee- 
ches (or Keechis), Keenathtoix, Kitwillcoits, Kitchaclalth, Kelutsah CorKet- 
utsah), Kenchen Kieg, Ketandou, Ketwilkcipa, who inhabit 'Chatham's 
Sound, from Portland Canal to Port Essington (into which Skeena River 
discharges) both main land and the neighboring islands.' Schoolcraft's 
Arch., vol. v., p. 487; Kane's Wand., end of vol. The Chymsyan connection 
' extending from Milbank Sound to Observatory Inlet, including the Sebas- 
sas, Neecelowes, Nass, and other offsets.' Anderson, in Hist. Mag., vol. vii. 
p. 74. Mr. Duncan divides the natives speaking the Tsimshean language 
into four parts at Fort Simpson, Nass River, Skeena River, and the islands of 
Milbank Sound. Mayne's B. C, p. 250. 

The Keethratlah live ' near Fort Simpson.' Id., p. 279. 

The Nass nation lives on the banks of the Nass River, but the name is often 
applied to all the mainland tribes of what I term the Haidah Family. The 
nation consists of the Kithateen, Kitahon, Ketoonokshelk, Kinawalax (or 


Kinaroalax), located in that order from the mouth upward. Schoolcraft's 
Arch., vol. v., p. 487; Kane's Wand., end of vol. Four tribes, 'Nass River 
on the Main land.' Warre and Vavaseur, in Martin's Hudson's Bay, p. 80. 
' On Observatory Inlet, lat. 55V Bryant, in Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact, vol. ii., 
p. 302. Adjoin the Sebassa tribe. Cornwallis' N. Eldorado, p. 107. About 
Fort Simpson. Dunn's Oregon, p. 279. The Hailtsa, Haeeltzuk, Billeehoola, 
and Chimmesyans are Nass tribes. Ludewig, Ab. Lang., p. 130. See Busch- 
mann, Brit. Nordamer, pp. 398-400. 

' There is a tribe of about 200 souls now living on a westerly branch of 
the Naas near Stikeen River; they are called " Lackweips " and formerly 
lived on Portland Channel.' Scott, in Ind. Aff. Bept., 1869, p. 563. 

The Skeenas are on the river of the same name, ' at the mouth of the 
Skeena River.' Warre and Vavaseur, in Martin's Hudson's Bay, p. 80. They 
are the ' Kitsalas, Kitswingahs, Kitsiguchs, Kitspayuchs, Hagulgets, Kitsag- 
as, and Kitswinscolds . ' Scott, in Ind. Aff. Bej)t., 1869, p. 563. 

Keechumakarlo (or Keechumakailo) situated ' on the lower part of the 
Skeena River.' Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 487; Kane's Wand., end of 

The Kitswinscolds live ' between the Nass and the Skeena.' Scott, in Ind. 
Aff. Sept., 1869, p. 563. The Kitatels live ' on the islands in Ogden's Chan- 
nel, about sixty miles below Fort Simpson.' Id. 

The Sebassas occupy the shores of Gardner Channel and the opposite 
islands. Inhabit Banks Island. Simpson's Overland Journ., vol. i., p. 206. 
The Labassas in five tribes are situated on ' Gardner's Canal, Canal de Prin- 
cipe, Canal de la Reida.' Warre and Vavaseur, in Martin's Hudson's Bay, p. 80. 
Keekheatla (or Keetheatla), on Canal de Principe; Kilcatah, at the entrance 
of Gardner Canal; Eittamaat (or Kittamuat), on the north arm of Gard- 
ner Canal; Kitlope on the south arm; Neeslous on Canal de la Reido 
(Reina). Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 487; Kane's Wand., end of vol. 'In 
the neighbourhood of Seal Harbour dwell the Sebassa tribe.' Cornwallis' X 
Eldorado, p. 106. ' The Shebasha, a powerful tribe inhabiting the numerous 
islands of Pitt's Archipelago.' Bryant, in Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact., vol. ii., 
p. 302. 

The Millbank Sound tribes are the Onieletoch, "Weitletoch (or Weetletoch), 
and Kokwaiytoch, on Millbank Sound; Eesteytoch, on Cascade Canal; Kui- 
muchquitoch, on Dean Canal; Bellahoola, at entrance of Salmon River of 
Mackenzie; Guashilla, on River Canal; Nalalsemoch, at Smith Inlet, and 
Weekemoch on Calvert Island. Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., pp. 487-8; Kane's 
Wand., end of vol. 'The Millbank Indians on Millbank Sound.' Bryant, in 
Am. Antiq. Soc. Transact., vol. ii., p. 302. 

The Bellaeoolas live about the mouth of Salmon River. ' ' ' Bentick's Arms " 
— inhabited by a tribe of Indians— the Bellaghchoolas. Their village is near 
Salmon River.' Dunn's Oregon, p. 267. The Billechoolas live on Salmon 
River in latitude 53° 30'. Buschmann, Brit. Nordamer., p. 384. The Bella- 
hoolas 'on the banks of the Salmon river.' Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 258. 
'The Indians at Milbank Sound called Belbollahs.' Dunn's Oregon, p. 271. 
' Spread along the margins of the numerous canals or inlets with which this 
part of the coast abounds.' Scouier, in Loud. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 224. 


'In the neighbourhood of the Fort (McLoughlin) was a village of about five 
hundred Ballabollas.' Simpson's Overland Journ., vol. i., p. 202. 

The Hailtzas, Hailtzuks, or Haeelzuks ' dwell to the south of the Bille- 
choola, and inhabit both the mainland and the northern entrance of Van- 
couver's Island from latitude 53 J 30' N. to 50 J 30' N.' Scolder, in Lond. Geog. 
Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 224. ' The Hailtsa commencing in about latitude 51° N., 
and extending through the ramifications of Fitzhugh and Milbank Sounds.' 
Anderson, in Hist. Mag., vol. vii., p. 74. 'An diesem Sunde (Milbank) woh- 
nen die Hailtsa-Indianer.' Buschmann, Brit. Nordamer., p. 383; Tolmie, in 
Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 230. 

The Nootka Family dwells south of the Haidah, occupying the coast of 
British Columbia, from Bentinck Arms to the mouth of the Fraser, and the 
whole of Vancouver Island. By other authors the name has been employed 
to designate a tribe at Nootka. Sound, or applied to nearly all the Coast tribes 
of the Columbian Group. ' The native population of Vancouver Island. . . . 
is chiefly composed of the following tribes: — North and East coasts (in order 
in which they stand from North to South) — Quackolls, Newittees, Comuxes, 
Yukletas, Suanaimuchs, Cowitchins, Sanetchs, other smaller tribes; — South 
Coast ( . . from East to West)— Tsomass, Tsclallums, Sokes, Patcheena, Sen- 

natuch; — West Coast (from South to North) — Nitteenats, Chadukutl, 

Oiatuch, Toquatux, Schissatuch, Upatsesatuch, Cojuklesatuch, Uqluxlatuch, 
Clayoquots, Nootkas, Nespods, Koskeemos, other small tribes.' Grant, in 
Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 293. 'In Barclay Sound: Pacheenett, 
Nittinat, Ohiat, Ouchuchlisit, Opecluset, Shechart, Toquart, Ucletah, Tso- 
mass; — Clayoquot Sound: Clayoquot, Kilsamat, Ahouset, Mannawousut, Ish- 
quat; — Nootka Sound: Matchclats, Moachet, Neuchallet, Ehateset.' Mayne's 
B. C, p. 251. 'About Queen Charlotte Sound; — Naweetee, Quacolth, Quee- 
havuacolt (or Queehaquacoll), Marmalillacalla, Clowetsus (or Clawetsus), 
Murtilpar (or Martilpar), Nimkish, Wewarkka, Wewarkkum, Clallueis (or 
Clalluiis), Cumquekis, Laekquelibla, Clehuse (or Clehure), Soiitinu (or 
Soiilenu), Quicksutinut (or Quicksulinut), Aquamish, Clelikitte, Narkock- 
tau, Quainu, Exenimuth, (or Cexeninuth), Tenuckttau, Oiclela.' Schoolcraft' s 
Arch., vol. v., p. 488; Kane's Wand., end of vol. On the seabord, south of 
Nitinaht Sound, and on the Nitinaht River, the Pacheenaht and Niti- 
naht tribes; on Barclay, otherwise Nitinaht Sound, the Ohyaht, Howchu- 
klisaht, Opechisaht, Seshaht, Youclulaht, and Toquaht tribes; on Klahoh- 
quaht Sound, the Klahohquaht, Killsmaht, Ahousaht and Manohsaht 
tribes; on Nootkah Sound, the Hishquayaht, Muchlaht, Moouchat (the 
so-called Nootkahs), Ayhuttisaht and Noochahlaht; north of Nootkah 
Sound, the Kyohquaht, Chaykisaht, and Klahosaht tribes. Sproat's Scenes, 
p. 308. Alphabetical list of languages on Vancouver Island: Ahowzarts, 
Aitizzarts, Aytcharts, Cayuquets, Eshquates (or Esquiates), Klahars, Klaiz- 
zarts, Klaooquates (or Tlaoquatch), Michlaits, Mowatchits, Neuchadlits, Neu- 
witties, Newchemass, (Nuchimas), Savinnars, Schoomadits, Suthsetts, Tlao- 
quatch, Wicananish. Buschmann, Brit. Nordamer., p. 349. 'Among those 
from the north were the Aitizzarts. Schoomadits, Neuwitties, Savinnars, 
Ahowzarts, Mowatchits, Suthsetts, Neuchadlits, Michlaits, and Cayuquets; 
the most of whom were considered as tributary to Nootka. From the South 


the Aytcharts, and Esquiates also tributary, with the Klaooquates and the 
Wickanninish, a large and powerful tribe, about two hundred miles distant.' 
JewitVs Nar., pp. 36-7. ' Tribes situated between Nanaimo and Fort Rupert, 
on the north of Vancouver Island, and the mainland Indians between 
the same points .... are divided into several tribes, the Nanoose, Comoux, 
Nimpkish, Quawguult, &c, on the Island; and the Squawmisht, Sechelt, 
Clahoose, Ucletah, Mamalilaculla, &c, on the coast, and among the small 
islands off it.' Mayne's B. C, p. 243. List of tribes on Vancouver Island: 
' Songes, Sanetch, Kawitchin, Uchulta, Nimkis, Quaquiolts, Neweetg, Quack- 
toe, Nootka, Nitinat, Klay quoit, Soke.' Findlay's Directory, pp. 391-2. The 
proper name of the Vancouver Island Tribes is Yucuatl. Ludewig, Ab. Lang., 
p. 135. The Nootka Territory ' extends to the Northward as far as Cape Saint 
James, in the latitude of 52 Q 20' N. . .and to the Southward to the Islands. . . 
of the Wicananish.' Meares' Voy., p. 228. ' The Cawitchans, Ucaltas, and Co- 
quilths, who are I believe of the same family, occupy the shores of the Gulf 
of Georgia and Johnston's Straits.' Anderson, in Hist. 3Iag., vol. vii., p. 74. 
' Twenty-four tribes speaking the Challam and Cowaitzchim languages, from 
latitude 50 J along the Coast South to Whitby Island in latitude 48 J ; part of 
Vancouver's Island, and the mouth of Franc's River.' Also on the Strait of 
Juan de Fuca and Vancouver Islands, the Sanetch, three tribes; Hallams, 
eleven tribes; Sinahomish; Skatcat; Cowitchici, seven tribes; Soke; Cowit- 
ciher, three tribes. Warre and Vavaseur, in Martin's Hudson's Bay, p. 81; also 
in HazlitVs B. C, pp. 66-7. Five tribes at Fort Rupert; — Quakars, Qual- 
quilths, Kumcutes, Wanlish, Lockqualillas. Lord's Nat., vol. i., p. 165. 
' The Chicklezats and Ahazats, inhabiting districts in close proximity on the 
west coast of Vancouver.' Barret- Lennard's Trav., p. 41. 'North of the dis- 
trict occupied by the l^cletahs come the Nimkish, Mamalilacula, Matelpy 
and two or three' other smaller tribes. The Mamalilaculas live on the main- 
land.' Mayne's B. C, p. 249. The population of Vancouver Island 'is di- 
vided into twelve tribes; of these the Kawitchen, Quaquidts and Nootka are 
the largest.' CornwaUis' JV. Eldorado, p. 30. ' Ouakichs, Grande ile de 
Quadra et Van Couver.' Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., p. 335. 

In naming the following tribes and nations I will begin at the north and 
follow the west coast of the island southward, then the east coast and main 
land northward to the starting-point. 

The Uclenus inhabit Scott Island. Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 488; 
Kane's Wand., end of vol. 

The Quanes dwell at Cape Scott. Id. 

The Quactoe are found in the ' woody part N.W. coast of the island.' Find- 
lay's Directory, p. 391. 

The Koskiemos and Quatsinos live on 'the two Sounds bearing those 
names.' Mayne's B. C, p. 251. Kuskema, and Quatsinu, 'outside Van- 
couver's Island south of C. Scott.' Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 488; Kane's 
Wand., end of vol. 

The Kycucut, ' north of Nootka Sound, is the largest tribe of the West 
coast.' Mayne's B. C, p. 251. 

The Aitizzarts are ' a people living about thirty or forty miles to the North- 
ward ' of Nootka Sound. JewitVs Nar., pp. 63, 77. 


The Aids live on the west coast of the island. 'The localities inhabited 
by the Aht tribes are, chiefly, the three large Sounds on the west coast of 
Vancouver Island, called Mtinaht (or Barclay) Klahohquaht, and Nootkah.' 
SproaVs Scenes, p. 10. 

The Chicklezahts and Ahazats inhabit districts in close proximity on the 
west coast of Vancouver. Barrett- Lennard's Trav., p. 41. 

The Clayoquots, or Klahohquahts, live at Clayoquot Sound, and the Moo- 
uchats at Nootka Sound. SproaVs Scenes, pp. 22, 25. North of the Wick- 
ininish. JewitVs Nar., p. 76. 

The Toquahts are a people ' whose village is in a dreary, remote part of 
Nitinaht (or Barclay) Sound.' SproaVs Scenes, p. 104. 

The Seshats live at Alberni, Barclay Sound. SproaVs Scenes, p. 3. 

The Pachcenas, or ' Pacheenetts, which I have included in Barclay Sound, 
also inhabit Port San Juan.' Mayne's B. C, p. 251. 

The Tlaoquatch occupy the south-western part of Vancouver. ' Den Siid- 
westen der Quadra-und Vancouver-Insel nehmen die Tlaoquatch ein, deren 
Sprache mit der vom Nutka-Sunde verwandt ist.' Buschmann, Brit. Nordamer., 
p. 372. Tlaoquatch, or Tloquatch, on ' the south-western coast of Vancouver's 
Island.' Ludewij, Ab. Lang., p. 188. 

The Sokes dwell 'between Victoria and Barclay Sound.' Mayne's B. C, p. 
251. 'East point of San Juan to the Songes territory.' Findlay's Directory, 
p. 392. 

The Wickinninish live about two hundred miles south of Nootka. JewitVs 
Nar., p. 7G. 

The Son; /hies are ' a tribe collected at and around Victoria.' Mayne's B. C, 
p. 243. 'The Songhish tribe, resident near Victoria.' Macfie's Vane. Isl., p. 
430. Songes, 'S.E. part of the island.' Findlay's Directory, p. 391. 

The Sanetch dwell ' sixty miles N.W. of Mount Douglas.' Findlay's Direct- 
ory, p. 391. 

The Cowichins live 'in the harbour and valley of Cowitchen, about 40 miles 
north of Victoria.' Mayne's B. C, p. 243. ' Cowichin river, which falls into 
that (Haro) canal about 20 miles N. of Cowichin Head, and derives its 
name from the tribe of Indians which inhabits the neighbouring country.' 
Dowjlas, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxiv., p. 246. Kawitchin, 'country 
N.W. of Sanetch territory to the entrance of Johnson's Straits.' Findlay's 
Directory, p. 391. 'North of Fraser's River, and on the opposite shores of 
Vancouver's Island.' Scouler, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 224. 
'North of Fraser's River, on the north-west coast.' Ludewig, Ab. Lang., p. 91. 

The Comux, or Komux, ' live on the east coast between the Kowitchan 
and the Quoquoulth tribes.' SproaVs Scenes, p. 311. Comoux, south of John- 
ston Straits. Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 488; Kane's Wand., end of vol. 
The Comoux ' extend as far as Cape Mudge.' Mayne's B. C, p. 243. 

The Kwantlums dwell about the mouth of the Fraser. ' At and about the 
entrance of the Fraser River is the Kuantlun tribe: they live in villages which 
extend along the banks of the river as far as Langley.' Mayne's B. C, pp. 
243, 295. 

The Teets live on the lower Frazer River. ' From the falls (of the Fraser) 
downward to the seacoast, the banks of the river are inhabited by several 


branches of the Haitlin or Teet tribe.' Anderson, in Hist. Mag., vol. vii., p. 
73. ' Extending from Langley to Yale, are the Smess, Chillwayhook, Pal- 
lalts, and Teates .... The Smess Indians occupy the Smess River and lake, 
and the Chilhvayhooks the river and lake of that name.' Mayne's B. C, p. 
295. Teate Indians. See Bancroft's Map of Pac. States. 

The Nanaimos are 'gathered about the mouth of the Fraser.' Mayne's 
B. C, p. 243. — Chiefly on a river named the Nanaimo, which falls into Wen- 
tuhuysen Inlet. Douglas, in Bond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxiv., p. 247. 
The Squawmishts 'live in Howe Sound.' 3Iayne's B. C, p. 243. 
The Sechelts live on Jervis Inlet. Mayne's B. C, pp. 243-4. 
The Clahoose, or Klahous, 'live in Desolation Sound.' Mayne's B. C, pp. 

The Nanoose ' inhabit the harbour and district of that name, which lies 50 
miles north of Nanaimo.' Mayne's B. C, p. 243. 

The Tacultas, or Tahcultahs, live at Point Mudge on Valdes Island. Lord's 
Nat., vol. i., p. 155. 

The Ucletas are found 'at and beyond Cape Mudge.' 'They hold pos- 
session of the country on both sides of Johnstone Straits until met 20 or 
30 miles south of Fort Rupert by the Nimpkish and Mamalilacullas.' 
Mayne's B. C, p. 244. Yougletats — 'Une partie campe sur l'ile Vancouver 
elle-meme, le reste habite sur le continent, au nord de la Riviere Fraser.' 
Be Smet, Miss, de V Oregon, p. 340. Yongletats, both on Vancouver Island, 
and on the mainland above the Fraser River. Bolduc, in Nouvelles Annates 
des Voy., 1845, torn, cviii., pp. 366-7. 

The Nimkish are ' at the mouth of the Nimpkish river, about 15 miles be- 
low Fort Rupert.' Mayne's, B. C, p. 249; Lord's Nat., vol. i., p. 158. 

The Necultas and Qpeehanicultas dwell at the entrance of Johnston Straits. 
Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 488; Kane's Wand., end of vol. 

The Quackolls and ' two smaller tribes, live at Fort Rupert.' Mayne's B. C, 
pp. 244, 249. ' On the north-east side of Vancouver's Island, are to be 
found the Coquilths.' Cornwallis' N. Eldorado, p. 98. Coquilths, a numer- 
ous tribe living at the north-east end. Dunn's Oregon, p. 239. The Cogwell 
Indians live around Fort Rupert. Barret-Lcnnai'd's Trav., p. 68. 

The Neicittees 'east of Cape Scott meet the Quawguults at Fort Ru- 
pert.' Mayne's B. C, p. 251. Neweetg, 'at N.W. entrance of Johnson's 
Straits.' Findlay's Directory, p. 391. 'At the northern extremity of the 
island the Newette tribe.' Cornwallis' N. Eldorado, p. 98. Newchemass came 
to Nootka ' from a great way to the Northward, and from some distance in- 
land.' Jetcitt's Nar., p. 77. 

The Saukaulutucks inhabit the interior of the northern end of Vancouver 

Island. Lord's Nat., vol. L, p. 158. 'At the back of Barclay Sound, 

about two days' journey into the interior, live the only inland tribe 

They are called the Upatse Satuch, and consist only of four families.' Grant, 
in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xxvii., p. 287. 

The Sound Family includes all the tribes about Puget Sound and Ad- 
miralty Inlet, occupying all of Washington west of the Cascade Range, ex- 
cept a narrow strip along the north bank of the Columbia. In locating the 
nations of this family I begin with the extreme north-east, follow the eastern 


shores of the sound southward, the western shores northward, and the coast 
of the Pacific southward to Gray Harbor. List of tribes between Olympia 
and Nawaukum River. ' Staktamish, Squaks'namish, Sehehwamish, Squal- 
liamish, Puyallupamish, S'homamish, Suquamish, Sinahomish, Snoqual- 
mook, Sinaahmish, Nooklummi.' Tohnie, in Ind. Aff. Kept., 1854, p. 251; 
Stevens, in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 434. A Canadian trapper found the 
following tribes between Fort Nisqually and Fraser Eiver; ' Sukwames, Su- 
nah Times, Tshikatstat, Puiale, and Kawitshin.' Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. 
Ex., vol. vi., pp. 220-1. Cheenales, west; Cowlitz, south; and Nisqually, 
east of Puget Sound. Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iii., p. 200, map. 

The Shimiahmoos occupy the 'coast towards Frazer's river.' 'Between 
Lummi Point and Frazer's River.' Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, pp. 247, 
250. 'Most northern tribe on the American side of the line.' Gibbs, in Pac. 
R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 433; Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 491. 

The Lummis 'are divided into three bands— a band for each mouth of 
the Lummi River.' Fitzhugh, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1857, p. 327. ' On the north- 
ern shore of Bellingham Bay.' Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, p. 244. ' Lum- 
mi river, and peninsula.' Id., p. 250. ' On a river emptying into the north- 
ern part of Bellingham bay and on the peninsula.' Id., p. 247, and in Pac. 
R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 433. 

The Nooksaks are ' on the south fork of the Lummi River.' Stevens, in Ind. 
Aff. Rept., 1854, p. 250. Nooksahk, ' on the main fork of the river.' Id., p. 247. 
Nooksahk, ' above the Lummi, on the main fork of the river.' Gibbs, in Pac. 
R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 433. 'South fork Lummi river.' Id., p. 435. Noot- 
saks ' occupy the territory from the base of Mount Baker down to within five 
miles of the mouth of the Lummi.' Coleman, in Harper's Mag., vol. xxxix., p. 
799. Neuksacks 'principally around the foot of Mount Baker.' Fitzhugh, in 
Ind. Aff. Rept., 1857, p. 328. The Neukwers and Siamanas, or Stick Indians 
'live on lakes back of Whatcom and Siamana lakes and their tributaries.' 7c?., 
p. 329. Three tribes at Bellingham Bay, Neuksack, Samish, and Lummis, 
with some Neukwers and Siamanas who live in the back country. Id., p. 326. 
Neuksacks, a tribe inhabiting a country drained by the river of the same 
name. . . .taking the name Lummi before emptying into the Gulf of Georgia. 
Simmons, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1860, p. 188. Nooklummie, ' around Bellingham's 
bay.' Am. Quar. Register, vol. iii., p. 389; Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 714. 

The Samish live on Samish River and southern part of Bellingham Bay. 
Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, pp. 247, 250. 'They have several islands 
which they claim as their inheritance, together with a large scope of the 
main land.' Fitzhugh, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1857, p. 327. 

The Skagits ' live on the main around the mouth of Skagit river, and own 
the central parts of Whidby's island, their principal ground being the neigh- 
borhood of Penn's cove.' Stevens, in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 433, and in 
Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, p. 246. Whidby's Island ' is in the possession of the Sa- 
chet tribe.' Thornton's Ogn. and Cat., vol. i., p. 300. The Sachets inhabit Whid- 
by's Island. Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 510. Sachets, ' about 
Possession Sound.' Nicolay's Ogn. Ter., p. 143. Skadjets, 'on both sides of 
the Skadjet river, and on the north end of Whidby's Island.' Schoolcraft's 
Arch., vol. v., p. 701; Am. Quar. Register, vol. iii., p. 388. The Skagit, 'on 


Skagit river, and Perm's cove,' the N'quachamish, Snialehhu, Miskaiwhu, 
Sakumehu, on the branches of the same river. Stevens, in hid. Aff. Bept., 
1854, p. 250; Pac. B. B. Bept., vol. i., p. 435. Sockamuke, 'headwaters of 
Skagit River,' Neutubvig, 'north end of Whidby's Island, and county be- 
tween Skagit's river and Bellingham's bay.' Cowewachin, Noothum, Mie- 
missouks, north to Frazer River. Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iv., p. 598. 

The Kikiallis occupy the banks of 'Kikiallis river and Whitby's island.' 
Stevens, in hid. Aff. Bept., 1854, pp. 246, 250. 

The Skeysehamish dwell in the ' country along the Skeysehamish river and 
the north branch of the Sinaheniish.' Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 701; Am. 
Quar. Register, vol. iii., p. 388. 

The Snohomish reside on ' the southern end of Whidby's island, and 
the country on and near the mouth of the Sinahomish river.' Stevens, 
in Pac. B. B. Bept., vol. i., pp. 432, 435. 'The Sinahemish 'live on the 
Sinaheniish river (falling into Possession Sound).' Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., 
p. 701; Am. Quar. Bejister, vol. iii., p. 388. ' Sinahoumez (en 12 tribus) de la 
riviere Fraser a la baie de Puget.' Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., p. 335. ' N'quutl- 
mamish, Skywhamish, Sktahlejuin, upper branches, north side, Sinahomish 
river.' Stevens, in hid. Aff. Bept., 1854, pp. 245, 250. Neewamish, 'Nee- 
wamish river, bay and vicinity;' Sahniamish, ' on a lake between Neewamish 
and Snohomish river;' Snohomish, 'South end of Whitney's Island, Sno- 
homish river, bay and vicinity;' Skeawamish, 'north fork of the Snohomish 
river, called Skeawamish river;' Skuckstanajumps, ' Skuckstanajumps river, 
a branch of Skeawamish river;' Stillaquamish, ' Stillaquamish river and vi- 
cinity;' Kickuallis, 'mouth of Kickuallis river and vicinity.' Schoolcraft's 
Arch., vol. iv., p. 598. Stoluchwamish, on Stoluchwamish river, also called 
Steilaquamish. Stevens,, in Pac. B. B. Bept., vol. i., pp. 432, 435, also in 
hid. Aff. Bept., 1854, pp. 246, 250. Squinamish, Swodamish, Sinaahmish, 
'north end of Whitby's island, canoe passage, and Sinamish river.' Id., 
pp. 247, 250. 'Southern end of Whidby's island and Sinahomish river.' 
Stevens, in Pac. B. B. Bept., vol. i., pp. 432-3. 

The Snoqualmooks ' reside on the south fork, north side of the Sinahomish 
river.' Stevens, in Pac. B. B. Bept., vol. i., p. 436, and in hid. Aff. Bept., 1854, 
p. 250. Snoqualimich, ' Snoqualimich river and the south branch of the 
Sinaheniish.' Harley, in Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 701; Am. Quar. Beg- 
ister, vol. iii., p. 388. 

The Dwamish are 'living on and claiming the lands on the D'Wamish 
river.' Paige, in hid. Aff. Bept., 1857, p. 329. Dwamish River and Lake, 
White and Green Rivers. Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 491. On D'wamish 
lake etc. . . reside the Samamish and S'Ketehlmish tribes. 'The D'wamish 
tribe have their home on Lake Fork, D'Wamish river.' Stevens, in Pac. B. B. 
Bept., vol. i., pp. 432, 436. Dwamish, 'Lake Fork, Dwamish River;' Sama- 
mish, S'Ketehlmish, ' Dwamish Lake;' Smelkamiah, ' Head of White River;' 
Skopeahmish, ' Head of Green River;' Stkamish, 'main White River.' Stev- 
ens, in hid. Aff. Bept., 1854, p. 250. 

The Skopeahmish have their home at the 'head of Green river.' Stevens, 
in Pac. B. B. Bept., vol. i., p. 436. The Sekamish band ' on the main White 
river;' the Smulkamish tribe ' at the head of White river.' lb. 


The Seattles, a tribe of the Snowhomish nation, occupied as their principal 
settlement, ' a slight eminence near the head of what is now known as Port 
Madison Bay.' Overland Monthly, 1870, vol. iv., p. 297. 

The Suquamish ' claim all the land lying on the west side of the Sound, be- 
tween Apple Tree cove on the north, and Gig harbor on the south.' Paige, in 
Ind. Aff. Rept., 1857, p. 329. Soquamish, 'country about Port Orchard and 
neighbourhood, and the west side of Widby's Island.' Barley, in Schoolcraft* 8 
Arch., vol. v., p. 700; Am. Quar. Register, vol. hi., p. 388. 'Peninsula be- 
tween Hood's canal and Admiralty inlet.' Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, 
p. 250, and in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 435. Snoquamish, ' Port Orchard, 
Elliott's Bay, and their vicinity.' Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 598. Shoma- 
mish, 'on Vashon's Island.' lb. 'Vashon's Island.' Stevens, in Ind. Aff. 
Rept., 1854, p. 250. S'slomamish, ' Vaston's island.' Stevens, in Pac. R. R. 
Rept., vol. i., p. 435. 'The Indians frequenting this port (Orchard) call 
themselves the Jeachtac tribe.' Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 510. 

The Puyallupamish live 'at the mouth of Puyallup river;' T'quaquamish, 
'at the heads of Puyallup river.' Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, p. 250, and 
in Pac. R. R Rept., vol. i., p. 435. Squallyamish and Pugallipamish, 'in 
the country about Nesqually, Pugallipi, and Sinnomish rivers.' Harley, in 
Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 701; Am. Quar. Register, vol. iii., p. 388. Pual- 
Hpawmish or Pualliss, ' on Pualliss river, bay, and vicinity.' Schoolcraft's 
Arch., vol. iv., p. 598. Puyyallapamish, ' Puyallop River.' Schoolcraft's 
Arch., vol. v., p. 491. 

The Nisquallies, or Skwall, 'inhabit the shores of Puget's Sound.' Hale's 
Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 211. ' Nesquallis, de la baie de Puget 
a la pointe Martinez.' Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., p. 335. Nasqually tribes, 
'Nasqually River and Puget's Sound.' Warre and Vavaseur, in Martin's 
Hudson Bay, p. 81. Squallyamish, 'at Puget Sound.' Ludeicig, Ab. Lang., 
p. 177. The Squalliahmish are composed of six bands, and have their resi- 
dence on Nisqually River and vicinity. Stevens, in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., 
p. 435. Squallyamish or Nisqually, Nisqually River and vicinity. School- 
craft's Arch., vol. iv., p. 598. Fort Nisqually is frequented by the ' Squallies, 
the Clallams, the Paaylaps, the Scatchetts, the Checaylis, ' and other tribes. 
Simpson's Overland Journey, vol. i., p. 181. 

The Steilacoomish dwell on ' Stalacom Creek;' Loquamish, 'Hood's Reef.' 
Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 491. Stitcheosawmish, ' Budd's inlet and South 
bay,' in the vicinity of Olympia. Id., vol. iv., p. 598. Steilacoomamish, 
'Steilacoom creek and vicinity.' Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, p. 250, and 
in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 435. 

The Sawamish have their residence on 'Totten's inlet.' Stevens, in Pac. 
R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 435. Sayhaymamish, ' Totten inlet. ' Schoolcraft's Arch., 
vol. iv., p. 598. ' Srootlemamish, Quackenamish at Case's inlet.' lb. Quak- 
s'namish, ' Case'sinlet;' S'Hotlemamish, ' Carr's inlet;' Sahehwamish, 'Ham- 
mersly's inlet;' Sawamish, 'Totten's inlet;' Squaiaitl, 'Eld's inlet;' Steh- 
chasamish, 'Budd's inlet;' Noosehchatl, 'South bay.' Stevens, in Ind. Aff. 
Rept, 1854, p. 250. 

The Skokomish live at the upper end of Hood Canal. Schoolcraft's 
Arch., vol. iv., p. 598; Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, pp. 244, 250. Toan- 


hooch and Shokomish on Hood's Canal. Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 
491. Tuanoh and Skokomish 'reside along the shores of Hood's Canal.' 
Am. Quar. Register, vol. iii., p. 388. Toankooch, ' western shore of Hood's 
canal. They are a branch of the Nisqually nation.' Stevens, in Ind. Aff. 
Rept., 1854, p. 244; Gibbs, in Pac. R. R. RepL, vol. i., p. 431. Tuanooch, 
'mouth of Hood's Canal.' Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iv., p. 598. 'The region 
at the head of Puget Sound is inhabited by a tribe called the Toandos.' ; 
Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. v., p. 140. Homamish, Hotlimamish, 
Squahsinawmish, Sayhaywamish, Stitchassamish, 'reside in the country 
from the Narrows along the western shore of Puget's Sound to New Mark- 
et.' Mitchell and Ilarley, in Am. Quar. Register, vol. iii., p. 388. 

The Noosdalums, or Nusdalums, 'dwell on Hood's Channel.' Ludewig, 
Ab. Lang., p. 135. 'Die Noosdalum, wohnen am Hood's-Canal;' Buschmann, 
Brit. Nordamer., p. 373. ' Noostlalums, consist of eleven tribes or septs liv- 
ing about the entrance of Hood's canal, Dungeness, Port Discovery, and the 
coast to the westward.' Am. Quar. Register, vol. iii., p. 388; Schoolcraft's 
Arch., vol. v., p. 700. 

The Chimakum, or Chinakum, ' territory seems to have embraced the 
shore from Port Townsend to Port Ludlow.' Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, 
pp. 242-244. ' On Port Townsend Bay.' Id., in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., pp. 
431, 435; Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iv., p. 598. ♦ 

The Clallams, or Clalams, are ' about Port Discovery.' Nicolay's Ogn. Ter., p. 
143. ' Their country stretches along the whole southern shore of the Straits 
to between Port Discovery and Port Townsend.' Gibbs, in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. 
i., p. 429; Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, pp. 242, 244. Southern shore of the 
Straits of Fuca east of the Classets. Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 
220. At Port Discovery. Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 319. Sklal- 
lum, ' between Los Angelos and Port Townsend.' Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iv., 
p. 598. Sklallams, ' at Cape Flattery.' Id., vol. v., p. 491. ' Scattered along 
the strait and around the bays and bights of Admiralty Inlet, upon a shore- 
line of more than a hundred miles.' Scammon, in Overland Monthly, 1871, vol. 
vii., p. 278. ' S'Klallams, Chemakum, Toanhooch, Skokomish, and bands of 
the same, taking names from their villages, . . . and all residing on the shores 
of the straits of Fuca and Hood's Canal.' Webster, in Bid. Aff. Rept., 1862, 
p. 407. Kahtai, Kaquaith, and Stehllum, at Port Townsend, Port Discov- 
ery, and New Dungeness. Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 491; Stevens, in Ind. 
Aff. Rept., 1854, p. 249. Stentlums at New Dungeness. Id., in Pac. R. R. 
Rept., vol. i., p. 435. 

The Makahs, or Classets, dwell about Cape Flattery. Macaw, ' Cape Flat- 
tery to Neah Bay.' Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iv., p. 598. Pistchin, ' Neah Bay 
to Los Angelos Point.' lb. 'Country about Cape Flattery, and the coast 
for some distance to the southward, and eastward to the boundary of the 
Halam or Noostlalum lands.' Id., vol. v., p. 700; Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 
1854, pp. 241, 249; Hale, in Id., 1862, p. 390; Stevens, in Pac. R. R. Rept, 
vol. i., pp. 429, 435. 'At Neah Bay or Waadda, and its vicinity.' Simmons, 
in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1858, p. 231. Tatouche, a tribe of the Classets. Wilkes' 
Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. iv., p. 516. Classets 'reside on the south side 
of the Straits of Fuca.' Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 220; 


Mltchdl and Harley, in Am. Quar. Register, vol. iii., p. 388. Tatouche or 
Classets, 'between the Columbia and the strait of Fuca.' Nicolay's Ogn. Ter., 
p. 143. ' Clatset tribe.' Cornwallis' N Eldorado, p. 97. 'Classets, on the 
Strait of Fuca.' Greenhow's Hist. Ogn., p. 30; Stevens' Address, p. 10. Ma- 
kahs, ' inhabiting a wild broken peninsula circumscribed by the river Wy- 
atch, the waters of the Strait and the Pacific' Scammon, in Overland Monthly, 
1871, vol. vii., p. 277. Klaizzarts, 'living nearly three hundred miles to the 
South ' of Nootka Sound. Jewitt's Nar., p. 75. The Elkwhahts have a village 
on the strait. SproaVs Scenes, p. 153. 

List of tribes between Columbia River and Cape Flattery on the Coast; 
Calasthocle, Chillates, Chiltz, Clamoctomichs, Killaxthocles, Pailsh, Poto- 
ashs, Quieetsos, Quinnechart, Quiniults. Morse's Rept., p. 371. 

The Quillehute and Queniult, or Quenaielt, ' occupy the sea-coast between 
Ozelt or old Cape Flattery, on the north, and Quinaielt river on the south.' 
Simmons, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1860, p. 195. Quinaielt, Quillehute, Queets, and 
Hoh, live on the Quinaielt river and ocean. Smith, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1870, 
p. 21. The Queniult live 'at Point Grenville.' Swan's N. W. Coast, p. 210. 
' On the banks of a river of the same name.' Id., p. 78. The Wilapahs 'on 
the Wilapah River.' Id., p. 211. The Copalis 'on the Copalis River, 
eighteen miles north of Gray's Harbor.' Id., p. 210. Quinaitle, north of 
Gray's Harbor. Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, p. 249. Quinaik, ' coast from 
Gray's harbor northward.' Stevens, in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 435. Ehi- 
halis, Quinailee, Grey's Harbor and north. Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 490. 
South of the Classets along the coast come the Quinnechants, Calasthortes, 
Chillates, Quinults, Pailsk, etc. Lewis and Clarke's Trav., p. 428. The Ka- 
liouches and Konnichtchates, spoken of as dwelling on Destruction Island 
and the neighboring main. Tarakanov, in Nouvelles Annates des Voy., 1823, 
torn, xx., p. 336, et seq. 

The Chehalis, or Chickeeles, ' inhabit the country around Gray's Harbour.' 
Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. v., p. 140. On the Chehalis river. 
Nesmith, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1867, p. 8. Frequent also Shoalwater Bay. 
Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, pp. 240, 249. On the Cowelits. 'Among 

the Tsihailish are included the Kwaiantl and Kwenaiwitl who live 

near the coast, thirty or forty miles south of Cape Flattery.' Hale's 
Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., pp. 211-12. 'In the vicinity of the 
mouth of the Columbia.' Catlin's N. Am. Ind., vol. ii., p. 113. ' Cheki- 
lis, et Quinayat. Pres du havre de Gray et la riviere Chekilis.' Mofras, Ex- 
plor., torn, ii., p. 335; Swan's N. W. Coast, p. 210; Stevens, in Pac. R. R. 
Rept., vol. i., p. 435; Starling, in Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iv., p. 599. 'A 
quarante milles au nord, (from the Columbia) le long de la cote, habitent les 
Tcheilichs.' Stuart, in Nouvelles Annates des Voy., 1821, torn, x., p. 90. The 
Whiskkah and Wynooche tribes on the northern branches of the Chihailis. 
Stevens, in Ind. Aff, Rept., 1854, p. 240. Sachals 'reside about the lake of 
the same name, and along the river Chickeeles.' Wilkes' Nar., in U. S. Ex. 
Ex., vol. v., p. 140. 

The Cowlitz live on the upper Cowlitz River. Occupy the middle of the 
peninsula which lies west of Puget Sound and north of the Columbia. Hale's 
Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 211. On the Cowlitz River. The 


Taitinapams have their abode at the base of the mountains on the Cowlitz. 
Stevens, in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 435; and in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, pp. 
240, 249; Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iv., p. 599, vol. v., p. 490. Cowlitsick, 'on 
Columbia river, 62 miles from its mouth.' Morse's Rept., p. 3C8. There are 
three small tribes in the vicinity of the Cowlitz Farm, 'the Cowlitz, the Che- 
caylis and the Squally.' Simpson's Overland Journ., vol. i., p. 179. The Stak- 
tomish live ' between Nisqually and Cowlitz and the head waters of Chehaylis 
river.' Am. Quar. Register, vol. iii., p. 389; Harley, in Schoolcraft' s Arch., vol. 
v., p. 701. 

The Chinook Family includes, according to my division, all the tribes 
of Oregon west of the Cascade Range, together with those on the north bank 
of the Columbia river. The name has usually been applied only to the tribes 
of the Columbia Valley up to the Dalles, and belonged originally to a small 
tribe on the north bank near the mouth. ' The nation, or rather family, to 
which the generic name of Chinook has attached, formerly inhabited both 
banks of the Columbia River, from its mouth to the Grand Dalles, a distance 
of about a hundred and seventy miles.' ' On the north side of the river, first 
the Chinooks proper (Tchi-nuk), whose territory extended from Cape Disap- 
pointment up the Columbia to the neighborhood of Gray's Bay (not Gray's 
Harbor, which is on the Pacific), and back to the northern vicinity of Shoal- 
water Bay, where they interlocked with the Chihalisof the coast.' Gibbs' Chi- 
nook Vocab., pp. iii., iv. The name Watlalas or Upper Chinooks ' properly be- 
longs to the Indians at the Cascades,' but is applied to all ' from the Multno- 
ma Island to the Falls of the Columbia.' Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. 
vi., pp. 214-5. ' The principal tribes or bands were the Wakafkam (known as 
the Wahkyekum), the KatUmat (Cathlamet), the Tshinuk (Chinook), and the 
Tlatsap (Clatsop) .' lb. ' The natives, who dwell about the lower parts of the 
Columbia, may be divided into four tribes — the Clotsops, who reside around 
Point Adams, on the south side;. . .the Chinooks; Waakiacums; and the Cath- 
lamets; who live on the north side of the river, and around Baker's Bay and 
other inlets.' Dunn's Oregon, p. 114. The tribes may be classed: ' Chinooks, 
Clatsops, Cathlamux, Wakicums, Wacalamus, Cattleputles, Clatscanias, Kil- 
limux, Moltnomas, Chickelis.' Ross' Adven., p. 87. Tribes on north bank of 
the Columbia from mouth; Chilts, Chinnook, Cathlamah, "VVahkiakume, Skil- 
lute, Quathlapotle. Lewis and Clarke's Map. 'All the natives inhabiting the 
southern shore of the Straits (of Fuca), and the deeply indented territory as 
far as and including the tide-waters of the Columbia, may be comprehended 
under the general term of Chinooks.' Pickering' s Races, in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. 
ix., p. 25. ' The Chenook nation resides along upon the Columbia river, from 
the Cascades to its confluence with the ocean.' Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 261. 
'Inhabiting the lower parts of the Columbia.' Catlin's JSf. Am. Ind., vol. ii., 
p. 110. ' Hauts-Tchinouks, pres des cascades du Rio Colombia. Tchi- 
nouks d'en bas, des Cascades jusqu'a la mer, Bas-Tchinouks.' Mofras, Ex- 
plor., torn, ii., pp. 335, 350-1. ' On the right bank of the Columbia.' Lude- 
wig, Ab. Lang., p. 40. The Cheenooks and Kelussuyas, 4 tribes, live at 
' Pillar Rock, Oak Point, the Dallas, the Cascades, Cheate River, Takama 
River, on the Columbia.' ' Cheenooks, Clatsops and several tribes near the 


entrance of the Columbia River.' Warre and Vavaseur, in Martin's Hud. B., 
p. 81. Upper and Lower Chinooks on the Columbia River, Lower Chinooks 
at Shoalwater Bay. Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 490. Chinooks, 'north of 
the Columbia.' Id., p. 492. 'Upper Chinooks, five bands, Columbia River, 
above the Cowlitz. Lower Chinooks, Columbia River below the Cowlitz, 
and four other bands on Shoalwater Bay.' Stevens, in Id., p 703. 'Mouth 
of Columbia river, north side, including some 50 miles interior.' Emmons, 
in Id., vol. iii., p. 201. The Chinnooks 'reside chiefly along the banks of a 
river, to which we gave the same name; and which, running parallel to the 
sea coast. .. .empties itself into Haley's Bay.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., p. 
425, and map; Irving' 's Astoria, p. 335. 'To the south of the mouth of the 
Columbia.' Domenech's Deserts, vol. ii., p. 15. ' Chenooks on the Columbia.' 
Swan's N. W. Coast, p. 210. North side of the Columbia. Morse's Report, 
p. 368; Greenhow's Hist. Ogn., p. 286. Tshinuk south of the Columbia at 
mouth. Watlala on both sides of the river from the Willamette to Dalles. 
They properly belong to the Indians at the Cascades. Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. 
Ex. Ex., vol. vi., pp. 2J4-5, and map, p. 197. Banks of the Columbia from 
Dalles to the mouth. Famham's Trav., p. 85. The Upper Chinooks were 
the Shalala and Echeloots of Lewis and Clarke. Gibbs, in Pac. R. R. Rept^ 
vol. i., p. 417. In the vicinity of the mouth of the Columbia, there are, be- 
sides the Chinooks, the Klickatacks, Cheehaylas, Naas, and many other 
tribes. Catlin's N. Am. Ind., vol. ii., p. 113. 

' The Flathead Indians are met with on the banks of the Columbia River, 
from its mouth eastward to the Cascades, a distance of about 150 miles; they 
extend up the Walhamette River's mouth about thirty or forty miles, and 
through the district between the Walhamette and Fort Astoria.' Kane's 
Wand., p. 173. ' The Flatheads are a very numerous people, inhabiting the 
shores of the Columbia River, and a vast tract of country lying to the south 
of it.' Catlin's N. Am. Ind., vol. ii., p. 108. 'The Cathlascon tribes, which 
inhabit the Columbia River.' Scolder, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 
225. Cathlascos on the Columbia River, S. side 220 miles from its mouth. 
Morse's Rept., p. 368. 

Shoalwater Bay Indians: Whilapah on Whilapah river; Necomanchee, or 
Nickomin, on Nickomin river, flowing into the east side of the bay; Quelap- 
tonlilt, at the mouth of Whilapah river; Wharhoots, at the present site of 
Bruceport; Querqueltin, at the mouth of a creek; Palux, on Copalux or 
Palux river; Marhoo, Nasal, on the Peninsula. Swan's N. W. Coast, p. 211. 
'Karweewee, or Artsmilsh, the name of the Shoalwater Bay tribes.' Id., p. 
210. Along the coast north of the Columbia are the Chinnooks, Killax- 
thockle, Chilts, Clamoitomish, Potoashees, etc. Lewis and Clarke's Trav., p. 
428. Quillequeoquas at Shoalwater Bay. Map in Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iii. y 
p 200. Kwalhioqua, north of the Columbia near the mouth. Hale's Ethnog. 
in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 204, and map, p. 197. Klatskanai, 'on the 
upper waters of the Nehalem, a stream running into the Pacific, on those of 
Young's River, and one bearing their own name, which enters the Columbia 
at Oak Point.' Gibbs' Chinook Vocab., p. iv. Willopahs, 'on the Willopah 
River, and the head of the Chihalis.' lb. 

The Chilts inhabit the ' coast to the northward of Cape Disappointment. 
Vol. I. 20 


Cox's Adven., vol. i>, 302. ' North of the mouth of the Columbia and Chealis 
rivers.' Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 261, and map. 'On the sea-coast near 
Point Lewis.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav , p. 401. 

Miscellaneous bands on the Columbia; Aleis, on the north side of the 
Columbia. Gass' Jour., p. 285. Cathlacumups 'on the main shore S.W. of 
Wappatoo Isl.' Morse's Bept., p. 371. Cathlakamaps, 'at the mouth of the 
Wallaumut.' Id., p. 368. Cathlanamenamens, ' On the island in the mouth 
of the Wallaumut.' Id., p. 368. Cathlanaquiahs, 'On the S.W. side of 
Wappatoo Isl.' Id., p. 371. Cathlapootle, eighty miles from mouth of the 
Columbia opposite the mouth of the Willamette. Id., p. 368. Cathlathlas, 
'at the rapids, S. side.' Id., p. 368. Clahclellah, 'below the rapids.' Morse's 
Rept., p. 370. Clannarminnamuns, ' S.W. side of Wappatoo Isl.' Id., p. 371. 
Clanimatas, 'S.W. side of Wappatoo Isl.' lb. Clockstar, 'S.E. side of 
Wappattoo Isl.' lb. Cooniacs, 'of Oak Point (Kahnyak or Kukhnyak, the 
Kreluits of Franohere and Skilloots of Lewis and Clarke).' Gibbs' Chinook 
Vocab., p. iv. Hellwits, ' S. side 39 miles from mouth.' Morse's Rept., p. 368. 
Katlagakya, ' from the Cascades to Vancouver.' Framboise, in Lond. Geog. Soc. 
Jour., vol. xi., p. 255. Katlaminimim, on Multnomah Island. 76. Katla- 
portl, river of same name, and right bank of Columbia for five miles above 
its mouth. lb. Ketlakaniaks, at Oak Point, formerly united with Kolnit. 
lb. Klakalama, between Kathlaportle and Towalitch rivers. lb. Mamnit, 
'Multnomah Isl.' lb. Nechakoke, ' S. side, near Quicksand river, opposite 
Diamond Isl.' Morse's Rept., p. 370. Neerchokioon, south side above the 
Wallaumut river. lb. Shalala at the grand rapids down to the Willamet. lb. 
Quathlapotle, between the Cowlits and Chahwahnahinooks (Cathlapootle ?) 
river. Lewis and Clarke's Map. Seamysty, 'at the mouth of the Towalitch 
River.' Framboise, in r Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 255. Shoto, W. side 
back of a pond and nearly opposite the entrance of the Willamut. Morse's 
Rept., p. 370. Skiilutes, ' about junction of Cowlitz.' Lewis and Clarke's Map. 
Skiloots on the Columbia on each side, from the lower part of the Columbia 
Valley as low as Sturgeon Island, and on both sides of the Coweliskee Ri\er. 
Morse's Rept., p. 371. Smockshop. Id., p. 370. Trile Kalets, near Fort Van- 
couver. Warre and Vavaseur, in Martin's Hud. B., p. 81. Wahclellah, 'below 
all the rapids.' Morse's Rept., p. 370. Wakamass, 'Deer's Isle to the lower 
branch of the Wallamat.' Framboise, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 255. 
Wyampams, at the narrows. Ross' Adven., pp. 117-19. Tchilouits on the 
Columbia, south bank, below the Cowlitz. Stuart, in Nouvelles Annates des 
Voy., 1821, torn, x., p. 112. Cathlakaheckits and Cathlathlalas in vicinity 
of the Cascades. Id., torn, xii., 1821, p. 23. 

The Glatsops live on Point Adams. Hines' Voy., 88. 'South side of the 
(Columbia) river at its mouth.' Greenhow's Hist. Ogn., pp. 30, 286. ' Southern 
shore of the bay at the mouth of the Columbia, and along the seacoast on 
both sides of Point Adams.' Morton's Crania, p. 211; Lewis and Clarke's 
Trav., pp. 401, 426, and map. 12 miles from mouth, south side. Morse's 
Rept., p. 368. 'South side of the river.' Gass' Jour., p. 244. 'From near 
Tillamook Head to Point Adams and up the river to Tongue Point.' Gibbs' 
Chinook Vocab., p. iv. Klakhelnk, ' on Clatsop Point, commonly called Clat- 
sops.' Framboise, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 255; Schoolcraft's Arch-, 
vol. iii.,p. 201, vol. v., p. 492. 


The Wakiaknm, or ' Wakaikuni, live on the right bank of the Columbia; 
on a small stream, called Cadet River.' Framboise, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., 
vol. xi., p. 255. Wakiakums (Wakaiakum) 'towards Oak Point.' Gibbs Chi- 
nook Vocab., p. iv. Wahkiaeums, adjoining the Cathlamahs on the south- 
east and the Skilloots on the north-west. Lewis and Clarke's Map. Waaki- 
cums, thirty miles from the mouth of the Columbia, north side. Morse's 
Bept., p. 368. 

The Cathlamets extend from Tongue Point to Puget's Island. Gibbs' Chi- 
nook Vocab., p. iv. ' Opposite the lower village of the Wahkiaeums.' Irving's 
Astoria, p. 33 J. '30 miles from the mouth of Columbia.' Morse's Bept., p. 
368. ' On a river of same name.' Framboise, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. 
xi., p. 255; Lewis and Clarke's Map. , 

' Along the coast south of the Columbia river are the Clatsops, Killa- 
mucks, Lucktons, Kahunkle, Lickawis, Youkone, Necketo, Ulseah, Youitts, 
Shiastuckle, Killawats, Cookoose, Shalalahs, Luckasos, Hannakalals.' Lewis 
and Clarke's Trav., pp. 427-8. 'Along the coast S. of Columbia river, and 
speak the Killamucks language,' Youicone, Neekeetoos, Ulseahs, Youitts, 
Sheastukles, Killawats, Cookkoooose, Shallalah, Luckkarso, Hannakallal. 
Morse's Bept., p. 371. Naelim, 'on a river on the sea-coast, 30 miles S. of 
Clatsop Point,' and the following tribes proceeding southward. Nikaas, 
Kowai, Neselitch,Tac66n, Aleya, Sayonstla, Kiliwatsal, Kaons, Godamyou ( !), 
Stotonia, at the mouth of Coquin river. Framboise, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., 
vol. xi., pp. 255-6. 

The Killamooks dwell along the coast southward from the mouth of the 
Columbia. ' Near the mouth of the Columbia.' Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 262. 
Callimix, '40 miles S. of Columbia.' Morse's Bept., p. 368. Killamucks, 
'along the S.E. coast for many miles.' Id., p. 371. Tillamooks, 'along the 
coast from Umpqua River to the Neachesna, a distance of one hundred and 
twenty miles.' Palmer, in bid. Aff. Bept., 1854, pp. 256, 259. Kilamukes, 
'south and east of mouth of the Columbia, extending to the coast.' Emmons, 
in Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iii., p. 201. Nsietshawus, or Killamuks, 'on the 
sea-coast south of the Columbia.' Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., 
p. 211, and map, p. 197. 'Between the river Columbia and the Umpqua.' 
Warre and Vavaseur, in Martin's Hud. B., p. 81. ' Country about Cape 
Lookout.' Palmer's Jour., p. 105. ' On comprend sous le nom general de 
Killimous, les Indiens du sud du Rio Colombia, tels que les Nahelems, les 
Nikas, les Kaouais, les Alsiias, les Umquas, les Toutounis et les Saste's. Ces 
deux dernieres peuplades se sont jusqu'a present montrees hostiles aux car- 
avanes des blancs.' Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., pp. 335, 357. Killamucks, next 
to the Clatsops. Lewis and Clarke's Trav., p. 426. ' Callemeux nation.' Gass' 
Jour., p. 260. Callemax on the coast forty leagues south of the Columbia. 
Stuart, in Nouvelles Annates des Voy., torn, x., p. 90. 

The Lucktons are found ' adjoining the Killamucks, and in a direction S 
S.E.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., p. 427. 

The Jakon, or Yakones, dwell south of the Killamooks on the coast. Hale 's 
Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 218, and map, p. 197. 

The Tlatskanai are farther inland than the Killamooks. Id., p. 204. 

The Umpquas live ' on a river of that name.' Framboise, in Lond. Geog. Soc, 


Jour., vol. xi., p. 256. 'In a valley of the same name. They are divided 
into six tribes; the Sconta, Chalula, Palakahu, Quattamya, and Chasta.' 
Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 262. Umbaquas. Id., p. 262. 'Umpquas (3 tribus) 
sur la riviere de ce nom, et de la riviere aux Vaches.' JSIofras, Explor., torn. 
ii., p. 335. 'The Umkwa inhabit the upper part of the river of that name, 
having the Kalapuya on the north, the Lutuami (Clamets), on the east, and 
the Sainstkla between them and the sea.' Hale's Ethnog., in JJ. S. Ex. Ex., 
vol. vi., p. 204, and map, p. 197. Two hundred and twenty-five miles south 
of the Columbia. Ilines' Voy., p. 94. 'The country of the Umpquas is bound- 
ed east by the Cascade mountains, west by the Umpqua mountains and the 
ocean, north by the Calipooia mountains and south by Grave Creek and 
Rogue River mountains.' Palmer, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1854, p. 255; Emmons, 
in Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iii., p. 201, vol. v., p. 492. 

The Saiustkla reside ' upon a small stream which falls into the sea just 
south of the Umqua River.' Hale's Ethnog., in JJ. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 221, 
map, p. 197. Sinselaw, 'on the banks of the Sinselaw river.' Harvey, in Ind. 
Aff. Rept., 1863, p. 80. Sayousla, 'near the mouth of Sayousla hay.' Brooks, 
in Id., 1862, p. 299. Saliutla, ' at the mouth of the Umbaqua river.' Parker's 
Explor. Tour, p. 262. 

The Katlawotsetts include the Siuslaw and Alsea bands on Siuslaw River; 
the Scottsburg, Lower Umpqua, and Kowes Bay bands on Umpqua River. 
Drew, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 1857, p. 359. Kiliwatshat, ' at the mouth of the 
Umpqua.' Hale's Ethnog., in JJ. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 221. 

The Alseas, or Alseyas, live on Alsea Bay. Brooks, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 
1862, p. 299; Harvey, in Id., 1863, p. 80. Chocreleatan, 'at the forks of the 
Coquille river.' Quahtomahs, between Coquille River and Port Orford. 
Nasomah, ' near the mouth of the Coquille River.' Parrish, in Ind. Aff. Rept., 
1854, p. 287. 

Willamette Valley Nations: 'The nations who inhabit this fertile neigh- 
bourhood are very numerous. The Wappatoo inlet extends three hund- 
red yards wide, for ten or twelve miles to the south, as far as the hills near 
which it receives the waters of a small creek, whose sources are not far from 
those of the Killamuck river. On that creek resides the Clackstar nation, a 
numerous people of twelve hundred souls, who subsist on fish and wappatoo, 
and who trade by means of the Killamuck river, with the nation of that 
name on the sea-coast. Lower down the inlet, towards the Columbia, is the 
tribe called Cathlacumup. On the sluice which connects the inlet with the 
Multnomah, are the tribes Cathlanahquiah and Cathlacomatup; and on "Wap- 
patoo island, the tribes of Clannahminamun and Clahnaquah. Immedi- 
ately opposite, near the Towahnahiooks, are the Quathlapotles, and higher 
up, on the side of the Columbia, the Shotos. All these tribes, as well as 
the Cathlahaws, who live somewhat lower on the river, and have an old vil- 
lage on Deer island, may be considered as parts of the great Multnomah 
nation, which has its principal residence on Wappatoo island, near the mouth 
of the large river to which they give their name. Forty miles above its junc- 
tion with the Columbia, it receives the waters of the Clackamos, a river which 
may be traced through a woody and fertile country to its sources in Mount 
Jefferson, almost to the foot of which it is navigable for canoes. A nation 


)f the same name resides in eleven villages along its borders : they live chiefly 
m fish and roots, which abound in the Clackamos and along its banks, though 
hey sometimes descend to the Columbia to gather wappatoo, where they can- 
lot be distinguished by dress or manners, or language, from the tribes of 
Vlultnomahs. Two days' journey from the Columbia, or about twenty miles 
jeyond the entrance of the Clackamos, are the falls of the Multnomah. At 
his place are the permanent residences of the Cushooks and Chaheowahs, 
;wo tribes who are attracted to that place by the fish, and by the convenience 
)f trading across the mountains and down Killamuck river, with the nation 
)f Killamucks, from whom they procure train oil. These falls were occa- 
sioned by the passage of a high range of mountains; beyond which the 
country stretches into a vast level plain, wholly destitute of timber. As far 
is the Indians, with whom we conversed, had ever penetrated that country, 
t was inhabited by a nation called Calahpoewah, a very numerous people, 
whose villages, nearly forty in number, are scattered along each side of the 
Multnomah, which furnish them with their chief subsistence, fish, and the 
oots along its banks.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., pp. 507-8. Calapooyas, Moo- 
lallels, and Clackamas in the Willamette Valley. Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. iii., 
p. 200, map. Cathlakamaps at the mouth of the Ouallamat; Cathlapoutles 
opposite; Cathlanaminimins on an island a little higher up; Mathlanobes on 
the upper part of the same island; Cathlapouyeas just above the falls; the 
Cathlacklas on an eastern branch farther up; and still higher the Chochonis. 
Stuart, in Nouvdles Annates des Voy., 1821, torn, x., pp. 115, 117. 

The Cathlathlas live '60 miles from the mouth of the Wallaumut.' Morse's 
RepL, p. 368. 

The Cloughewallhah are ' a little below the falls.' Parker's Explor. Tour, 
). 177. 

The Katlawewalla live ' at the falls of the Wallamat.' Framboise, in Lond. 
Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 256. 

The Leeshtelosh occupy the 'headwaters of the Multnomah.' Hunter's 
Captivity, p. 73. 

The Multnomahs (or Mathlanobs) dwell ' at upper end of the island in 
the mouth of the Wallaumut.' Morse's Rept., p. 368. 

The Nemalquinner lands are 'N.E. side of the Wallaumut river, 3 miles 
above its mouth.' Morse's Rept., p. 370. 

The Newaskees extend eastward of the headwaters of the Multnomah, on 
a large lake. Hunter's Captivity, p. 73. 

The Yamkallies dwell ' towards the sources of the Wallamut River.' Scou- 
ler, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 225. 

The Calapooyas live in the upper Willamette Valley. Callipooya, ' Wil- 
lamette Valley.' Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., p. 492, vol. iii., p. 201. Kala- 
puya, 'above the falls.' Hale's Ethnog., in U. S. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., p. 217. 
Callawpohyeaas, Willamette tribes sixteen in number. Ross' Fur Hunters, 
vol. i., p. 108. Calapooah, seventeen tribes on the Willamette and its branch- 
es. Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 261. Callappohyeaass nation consists of Wa- 
comeapp, Nawmooit, Chillychandize, Shookany, Coupe, Shehees, Long- 
tonguebuff, Lamalle, and Pecyou tribes. Ross' Adven., pp. 236-6. Kalapoo- 
yahs, 'on the shores of the Oregon.' Morton's Crania, p. 213. 'Willamat 


Plains.' Scolder, in Lond. Geog. Soc. Jour., vol. xi., p. 225. Kalapuyas, 
'above the falls of the Columbia.' Domenech's Deserts, vol. ii., p. 36. '50 
miles from the mouth of the Wallaumut, W. side.' Morse's Bept., p. 368. 
Vule Puyas, Valley of the Willamette. Warre and Vavaseur, in Martin's 
Hud. B., p. 81. 

The Clackamas are on the ' Clackama Biver.' Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. v., 
p. 492. ' Clakemas et Kaoulis, sur le Ouallamet et la riviere Kaoulis.' 
Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., p. 335. 'Valley of the Clakamus and the Willa- 
muta Falls.' Warre and Vavaseur, in Martin's Hud. B., p. 81. Klackamas, 
' three miles below the falls.' Hines' Voy., p. 144. Clackamis. Palmer's Jour., 
p. 84. Clarkamees. Morse's Bept., p. 372. Clackamus. Lewis and Clarke's 

The Mollales are found in 'Willamettee Valley.' Schoolcraft's Arch., vol. 
v., p. 492. 'At the mouth of the Wallarnet, and the Wapatoo Islands. Tuck- 
er's Oregon, p. 71. 'Upon the west side of the Willamette and opposite Ore- 
gon City.' Palmer's Jour., p. 84. 

The Shushwap Family comprises all the inland tribes of British Co- 
lumbia, south of lat. 52 J 30'. 

The Atnahs, Strangers, Niccoutamuch, or Shushwaps proper, inhabit the 
Fraser and Thompson valleys. ' At Spuzzum .... a race very different both in 
habits and language is found. These are the Nicoutamuch, or Nicouta- 
meens, a branch of a widely-extended tribe. They, with their cognate septs, 
the Atnaks, or Shuswapmuch, occupy the Frazer Biver from Spuzzum to 
the frontier of that part of the country called by the Hudson Bay Company 
New Caledonia, which is within a few miles of Fort Alexandria.' Mayne's 
B. C, p. 296. ' Shushwaps of the Bocky Mountains inhabit the country in 
the neighbourhood of Jasper House, and as far as Tete Jaune Cache on the 
western slope. They are a branch of the great Shushwap nation who dwell 
near the Shushwap Lake and grand fork of the Thompson Biver in British 
Columbia.' Thompson Biver and Lake Kamloops. Milton and Cheadle's 
Northw. Pass., pp. 241, 335. ' On the Pacific side, but near the Bocky Mount- 
ains, are the Shoushwaps who, inhabiting the upper part of Frazer's Biver, 
and the north fork of the Columbia.' Blakiston, in Palliser's Explor., p. 44. 
' The Shooshaps live below the Sinpauelish Indians. ' Parker's Explor. Tour, 
p. 313. ' The Shushwaps possess the country bordering on the lower part 
of Frazer's Biver, and its branches.' Hale's Ethnog., in JJ. S. Ex. Ex., vol. 
vi., p. 205. The Atnahs or Soushwap, 'live in the country on the Fraser's 
and Thompson's Bivers.' ' They were termed by Mackenzie the Chin tribe.' 
(See p. 251, note 141 of this vol.) Prichard's Besearches, vol. v., p. 427; Busch- 
mann, Brit. Nordamer., p. 320. Shooshaps, south of the Sinpavelist. Be Smet, 
Voy., pp. 50-1. ' The Atnah, or Chin Indian country extends about one 
hundred miles,' from Fort Alexander. Cox's Adven., vol. ii., p. 361. Shoo- 
shewaps inhabit the region of the north bend of the Columbia, in 52°. At- 
nahs, in the region of the Fraser and Thompson rivers. Macdonald's Lecture 
on B. C, p. 10; Hector, in Palliser's Explor., p. 27. 'The Shewhapmuch 
(Atnahs of Mackenzie) ... .occupy the banks of Thompson's Biver; and 
along Frazer's Biver from the Bapid village, twenty miles below Alexandria, 


to the confluence of these two streams. Thence to near the falls the tribe 
bears the name of Nicutemuch.' Anderson, in Hist. May., vol. vii., p. 76. 

' The Stta Llimuh, natives of Anderson Lake, speak a dialect of the She- 
swap language.' Skowhomish, in the same vicinity. McKay, in B. C. Papers, 
vol. ii., p. 32. 

' The Loquilt Indians have their home in the winter on Lake Anderson, 
and the surrounding district, whence they descend to the coast in Jervis 
Inlet in the summer.' Mayne's B. C, p. 299. 

The Kamloops dwell about one hundred and fifty miles north-west of 
Okanagan. Cox's Adven., vol. ii., p. 156. 

The Clunsus are east of Fraser River, between Yale and latitude 50°; 
Skowtous, on the fiftieth parallel south of Lake Kamloops and west of Lake 
Okanagan; Sockatcheenum, east of Fraser and north of 51°. Bancroft's Map 
of Pac. States. 

The Kootenais live in the space bounded by the Columbia River, Rocky 
Mountains, and Clarke River. The Kitunaha, Coutanies, or Flatbows, 'wander 
in the rugged and mountainous tract enclosed between the two northern forks 
of the Columbia. The Flat-bow River and Lake also belong to them.' Hale's 
Ethnog., in U. 8. Ex. Ex., vol. vi., pp. 204-5, map, p. 297. ' Inhabit the country 
extending along the foot of the Rocky mountains, north of the Flatheads, for 
a very considerable distance, and are about equally in American and in Brit- 
ish territory.' Gibbs, in Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. i., p. 416. Kootoonais, ' on Mc- 
Gillivray's River, the Flat Bow Lake, etc' Warre and Vavaseur, in Martin's 
Hud. B., p. 82. Kootonais, on ' or about the fiftieth parallel at Fort Koo- 
tonie, east of Fort Colville.' Simpson's Overland Journ., vol. i., p. 138. 'Be- 
tween the Rocky Mountains, the Upper Columbia and its tributary the Kil- 
luspehn or Pend'oreille, and watered by an intermediate stream called the 
Kootanais River is an angular piece of country peopled by a small, isolated 
tribe bearing the same name as the last-mentioned river, on the banks of 
•v hich they principally live.' Mayne's B. C, p. 297. The lands of the Cot- 
tonois 'lie immediately north of those of the Flatheads.' Irving' s Bonneville's 
Adven., p. 70. Kutanae, Kutani, Kitunaha, Kutneha, Coutanies, Flatbows, 
'near the sources of the Mary River, west of the Rocky Mountains.' Ludewig, 
Ab. Lang., p. 98. ' Inhabit a section of country to the north of the Ponderas, 
along M'Gillivray's river.' Parker's Explor. Tour, p. 312. 'Koutanies ou 
Arcs-Plats, Pres du fort et du lac de ce nom.' Mofras, Explor., torn, ii., p. 335. 
'In the Kootanie Valley.' Lord's Nat., vol. ii., p. 178. Kootonays, south of 
the Shushwaps. Palliser's Explor., p. 44. 'Great longitudinal valley ' of the 
Kootanie river. Hector, in Id., p. 27. ' The Tobacco Plains form the country 
of the Kootanies.' Blakiston, in Id., p. 73. 'About the northern branches 
of the Columbia.' Greenhow's Hist. Ogn., p. 30. Kootanais, 'angle between 
the Saeliss lands and the eastern heads of the Columbia. ' Anderson, in Hist. 
Mag., vol. vii., p. 79. About the river of the same name, between the Co- 
lumbia and Rocky Mountains. Nicolay's Ogn. Ter., p. 143. A band called 
Sinatcheggs on the upper Arrow Lake. Ross' Fur Hunters, vol. ii., p. 190. 
The Kootenais were perhaps the Tushepaws of Lewis and Clarke. 

The Tushepaws are ' a numerous people of four hundred and fifty tents, 
residing on the heads of the Missouri and Columbia rivers, and some of 


them lower down the latter river.' Lewis and Clarke's Trav., p. 321, and 
map; Bullfinch's Ojn., p. 134. 'On a N. fork of Clarke's River.' Morse's 
Bept., p. 372. Ootlashoots, Micksucksealton (Pend d'Oreilles?), Hohilpos 
(Flatheads?), branches of the Tushepaws. Id., and Lewis and Clarke's Map. 
The Tushepaw nation might as correctly be included in the Salish family or 
omitted altogether. According to Gibbs, in Pac. B. B. Bep)t., vol., i., p. 417, 
they were the Kootenais. 

The Okanagans, or Okinakanes, ' comprise the bands lying on the river 
of that name, as far north as the foot of the great lake. They are six in 
number, viz: the Tekunratum at the mouth; Konekonep, on the creek of 
that name; Kluckhaitkwee, at the falls; Kinakanes, near the forks; and Mi- 
lake tkun, on the west fork. With them may be classed the N'Pockle, or Sans 
Puelles, on the Columbia river, though these are also claimed by the Spo- 
kanes. The two bands on the forks are more nearly connected with the 
Schwogelpi than with the ones first named.' Stevens, in Ind. Aff. Bept., 1854, 
p. 237, and in Pac. B. B. Bept., vol. i., p. 412. Oakinackens, Priests' Rapids, 
northward over 500 miles, and 100 miles in width, to the Shewhaps, branch- 
ing out into 12 tribes, as follows, beginning with the south: ' Skamoynu- 
machs, Kewaughtchenunaughs, Pisscows, Incomecanetook, Tsillane, Inti- 
etook, Battlelemuleemauch, or Meatwho, Inspellum, Sinpohellechach, Sin- 
whoyelppetook, Samilkanuigh and Oakinacken, which is nearly in the centre.' 
Boss' Adven., pp. 289-90. ' On both sides the Okanagan River from its mouth 
up to British Columbia, including the Sennelkameen River. ' Boss, in Ind. Aff. 
Bept., 1870, p. 22. ' Pres du fort de ce noni.' Mofras, Explor. torn, ii., p. 335. 
' On the Okanagan and Pisco