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23i. e zyy. 












Hi. e . 277. 




GoirrE]srrs or this volume. 




DifTerence between Man and Brutes — Mind-Langnage and Soul-Lan- 
guage — Origin of Language: A Gift of the Creator, a Hnnuut In- 
vention, or an Evolution — Nature and Value of Myth — Origin of 
Myth: The Divine Idea, a Fiction of Sorcery, the Creation of a 
DettigniDg Priesthood — Origin of Worship, of Prayer, of Sacrifice 
— Fetichism and the Origin of Animal-Worship — ^Religion and My- 
thology 1 



Qnich^ Creation-Myth — Aztec Origin-Myths — The Pipages — Montezn- 
ma and the Coyote — The Moquis — The Great Spider's Web of tho 
Pimas — Navajo and Pueblo Creations — Origin of Clear Lake and 
Lake Tahoe — Chareya of the Cahrocs — Mount Shasta, the Wig- 
wam of t)te Great Spirit — Idaho Springs and Water Falls — How 
DifTcrences in Language Occurred — Yehl, the Creator of the Thlin- 
keets — The Kavcn and the Dog 42 



Sun, Moon, and Stars— Eclipses — The Moon Personified in the Land 
of the Crescent — Fire — How the Coyote Stole Fire for the Cahrocs 
— How the Frog Lost His Tail — How the Coyote Stole Fire for 
the Navajos— Wind and Thunder — The Four Winds and the Cross 
— Water, the First of Elemental Things — Its Sacred and Cleansing 
Power — Earth and Sky — Earthquakes and Volcanoes — Mountains 
— How the Hawk and Crow Built the Coast Range — The Moun- 
tains of Yoecmite 108 





Rdlee Assigned to Animals — Auguries from their Movements — The Ill- 
omened Owl — Tutelaiy Animals — Metamorphosed Men^ — The 
Ogress-Squirrel of Vancouver Island — Monkeys and Beavers — 
Fallen Men — Tlie Sacred Animals — Prominence of the Bird— An 
Emhlem of the Wind — The Serpent, an Emblem of the Lightning 
— Not Specially connected with Evil — The Serjxsnt of the Puehlos 
— The Water-Snake — Ophiolatry — Prominence of the Dog, or the 
Coyot« — Generally though not always a Benevolent Power — How 
the Coyote let Salmon up the Klamath — Dansc Alacabre and Sad 
Death of the Coyote 127 



Eskimo Witchcraft — The Tinneh and the Koniagas — Kogans of the 
Alenta — The Thlinkeets, the Haidahs, and the Nootkas — Paradise 
Lost of the Okanagana — The Salish, the Clallamu, the Chinooks, 
the Cayuses, the Walla Wallas, and the Nez Percys — Shoshone 
Ghouls — Northern California— The Sun at Monterey — Ouiot and 
Chinigchinicb — Antagonistic Gods of Lower California — Coman- 
ches. Apaches, and Navajos — Montezuma of the Pueblos — Moquis 
and Mojaves — Primeval Race of Northern California 140 



Gods and Religious Rites of Chihuahua, Sonora, Durango, and Si- 
naloa— The Mexican Religion, received with different degrees of 
credulity hy different classes of the people — Opinions of different 
Writers as to its Nature — Monotheism of Nczabnalcoyotl — Present 
condition of the Study of Mexican Mythology — Tezcatlipoca— 
Prayers to Him in the time of Pestilence, of War, for those in Au- 
thority — Prayer used by an Absolving Priest — Gennineness of the 
foregoing Prayers — Character and Works of Sahagun 178 



Image of Tezcatlipoca — His Seats at the Street-comers — Various 
Legends about his Life on Earth— Quetzalcoatl — His Dexterity in 
the Mechanical Arts — His Religious Observances— The Wealth 
and Nimblenesa of his Adherents — Expulsion from Tula of Quet- 
zalcoatl by Tezcatlipoca and Huitzilopochtli — The Magic Draught 



— Htwrnac, or Voraac. King of tbe Toltcoi. and the Misfonunt-tt 
Uninght npon liini and hiK ncnpip by Tczrntlipnm in Alirioux dl*' 
pitiw — tjiii'txnli-oiill in f'lifilitla -Diifcrin;; Arooiitilit of tlie Birth 
attil Lite iif QiiPtJMlwiall— HiH lrt_MilU* Clianu'lcr -Hp Jrow up tlu> 
Mrxii-4i(i <.'atrn<)er— Tncidontft of his Exile and of liiit .lounioy |o 
Tlu|ialla, as n^laUxl ainl rumiiieuled up<ml»y varioiiswrileni— Bnu>- 
Heur'^ itU'afalHHit ttiL- <jtiPtxuU-«Kitl MytliM l^uvtuil<.'uiitl (.'uii-sitlcreii 
m Suu-Ciixl by Tylur, uiii] an a Pawa-Hrro by ilrinton — Hclfm — 
(Kimoiicoti— The <\kI ices —Long DiiMiuaaiou ot tlic QttctzalcoatI 
Mytb* by J. G. MUUer 237 



VBTtont irroUDts of the Birth, Origin. anJ lJcri^atiull of tin: iianu- of 
llir Mexican War Uod, 1luitzilu]«>H:htii, uf his Tornjile, Iinaijc. 
Ceremonial, KeMtivalo, and hiti <le|mty, or ptt;,T. pHyiol—'-'lttvif.'i'ro 
— Boturini — AcuMta — Nolin — JSaliu^if — Hcrn.'ni^Tiir«iuriiiada -J. 
ii. MtUlor's Summary uf tlio Uuitzl]o|Kii'htli Mjthti, their *)ri;^iii, 
Relation, and Sign ifirat ion — Tylor — Coilcx Vaticnnu::* — TluUic, 
iiod of Wat«!r, ewpeciiilly of Rain, and of Mounlaine— riavifxefi. 
<)araa, and IxlHlxiKrhitl — Prayer in time of Dmught— riiiniir^io, 
Motolioia, McndieUi, and the Vatiiun Coclex on the Saerifirrf to 
Tlaioc -The Decora tioiia of litH Viettnia aud the places of their 
Executiou' -(tothering Kiwhcw for tlic Scr\'ice of the Wutrr (io<) — 
Di^hway Kobberica by the fric^ttt iit this time^Dceoniti/uiK und 
ImpIcmentM of the IVieRta —I'uDiflhmcntn for Ceremonial OfTmceti 
— Thr WhirljuwKof Pantitl&n — ImafjCH of the Mountain)* in honor 
df Uw Tlaloc Fcfttival — of tJie vomi»j< Rain and Mutilation of the 
taugOBof the Mottntaina—ttcncrol Prominence in the cult of Tla- 
li»c, of th« Number Four, the Crom, and the ):>nakc 




Tbe Mottter nr all- nourishing CiiMldctM un«1fr viiriouH ntimca and in 
rarimi>t aHpcrta— Ifi'r Fejwt in the KliTVRiiLb Az(<?r month Och- 
panixtJi — FeittivuUof tbe F.iglith nmnth, HueytecuUhuitl, nntlof the 
Fourth, UaoN'tozoztIi — The deification of women t}mt died in 
ehtlil-hhtk — Tlie tioddenn uf Water nndcr vimous noinea and in 
vmrioaa aapect* — Ccrcmonieit of the Buptiam ur lustration of rlill- 
dr»n — The Roddem of I^ve, her various nnnioit und unjiects— Rite* 
o( CAnfefwion ami abAoIntion — The tUtd of tin' and hiH variuiw 
IUUiie»— H» fewtivak in the tenth month Xotollveli and in the 
eighteenth month Vzcali; also hin quadrieimial festival in ihr 
latter month— The KTenl fentival of every fifty-two ycare; (i;:liliux 
the new fire— The L^mI of Hadeii. and Teoyaoniique, collector uf ihu 



flonls of the fallen brave — Deification of dead rulers and heroes — 
MixcoatI, God tii hunting, and his feast in tlw fourteenth month, 
Quecholli — Various other Mexican deities — Festival in the second 
month, TIacaxipehnaliztIi, witli notice of the gladiatorial sacrifices 
— Complete Synopsis of the festivals of the Mexican Calendar, fixed 
and movable — Temples and Priests. M9 



Kerennes of the Mexican Temples — Vast number of the Priests — Mexi- 
can Sacerdotal System — Priestesses — The Orders of Tlamaxcaca- 
yotl and Telpochtillztli — Religious Devotees — Baptism — Circum- 
cision — Commnn ion —Fasts and Penance — Blood-drawing — Human 
Sacrifices — The Gods of the Tarascos — Priests and Temple Ser- 
vice of Michoacao — W(»ship in Jalisco — Oajaca — Votan and (juet- 
zalcoatl — Travels of Votan — The Apostle Wixepecocha — Cave 
near Xustlabuaca — The Princess Pinopiaa — Wwship of Costahun- 
tox— Tree Worship 430 



Maya Pantheon — Zamn^ — Cukolcao — The Gods of Yucatan — The 
Symbol of the Cross in America — Unman Sacrifices in Yucatan — 
Priests of Yucatan — Gnatemalan Pantheon— Tepeu and Uutakan— 
Avilix and Hacavitz — The Heroes of the Sacred Book — Quiche 
Gods — Worship of the Choles, Mancbes, Itzaes, Lacandones, and 
others — Tradition of Comizahual — Fasts — Priests of Guatemala- 
Gods, Worship, and Priests of Nicaragua — Worship on the Mos- 
quito Coast — Gods and Worship of the Isthmians — Phallic Wor- 
ship in America 461 



Aboriginal Ideas of Future— General Conceptions of Souls— Future 
State of the Aleuts, Chepewyans, Natives at Milbank Sound, and 
Okanagans — Happy Land of the Salish and Chinooks — Conceptions 
of Heaven and Hell of the Nez Perc^ Flatheads, and Uaidahs — 
The Realms of Quawteaht and Chayber^Beliefa of the Songhies, 
Clallams, and Pend d'Oreilles— The Future State of the Califor- 
nian and Nevada Tribes, Comancbes, Pueblos, Navajos, Apaches, 
Moquis, Maricopas, Yumas, and others — The Sun House of the 
Mexicans— Tlalocan and Mictlan — Condition of the Dead — Jour- 
ney of the Dead — ^Future vi the Tlascaltecs and other Nations .... 510 






Naiive IjOnguagesin Ailrance of Soctttl Ciutotna — (!liAmct«ri«lie ludi- 
vidnality of American Tonj^ies — Krei^ueiit Ocruntmce of L<iiik 
Wunla ^KdlttpHcuLloiiM, Frvquoiitutiveit, uiiil J>uuIh — lutcrtritNiI 
Languages — GeHtiini'Lunguogu — Sl&vu and ('hiuixik Jar^oHM — 
Pacific Slalen LanguAgtu — The Tiuueh. Aztec, and Mixyu Tuujjucs 
Thp [<argiT FHinilies lulanij — Language ah aTi»t of OriBiii — Sinii- 
Uritiex in Unrelated LanKimj^'^ — Plan of this Inventigntion. 551 

CiLU*TER n. 


Distinction between Eskimo and American — Eskimo Pronnnciation 
and lierlffiHion — DUIecbi itf the Koiiiaf^ aiiil Aleut^i — Lau^ita^e 
of the ThIinkcctK^Hyi"'th<'1iral Adiiiitius— The Tiiiiirh t-'Hinily 
and ita DialeiTtM — EaHtcru, Wcatcrn, Coutral, niul Smitheni Divi- 
MJoos — C'hcjM^wyaii I)ct-leri»ion — Oratorical I>i»)»lay iti the Ki>et;ch 
ul the KtitchiiiH— DialeetA iif the AtiialiH iuid IJgaleiiu-K (\)iii|>»red 
-Speciiuen of the KoIUhaucTviij^ito— Tacitlly CiuttiiraU — HQ»|iah 
Tocabnlaiy — Apncitu Diulucts - - Li[iaii I»nl's Pniyur — Navaju 
Word* — Comparative Vucal)uUiry of the Tiiiuott FatuUy 574 



Th« flaiiloh. hn Oonittruction and Conjufjration — The Nans Lnngnoge 
and itM Ditilmta— lirllueuola and Chini^yun (^tnfMiriimiiH — The 
No)ilka Ijiiipia^^ of Vanwms'er ImUiuI — Nimuiiiio Tcu dniimand- 
uumtH and Loni'it Prayer- -Axtec Aiialn};ie» — Fraser aii-l Thompwnn 
River Lan^aogefl — The Neptlakajiamuek fimiiiiiiar anil Lonl'a 
Pmyer — Sonnd Laiigiiop;* — Tlw Salidli Family— Flalheiw! Grani- 
mtu and Lord'a Prayer — The Koot«nai— The Sahaptin Family — 
Nei PerwS Grammar— Yakima Lord's Prayer— Sahaptin State and 
SLkve LAOguaKeu- The Cliinook Family— Oruui mar <tt the Chinook 
Lftagiuge — Aztec Affinities— The Chiiiimk Jari^n G04 



'OtTongtm — Yakon. Klamath, and Palaik Compan'iioiu — 
kHiTer and Wintovn Vocabularies — Weey ut, Wishowk, Wei tupek. 



and Ehnek Comparisons — Languages of Humboldt Bay — Potter 
Valley, Knssiau and Eel Kirer Languages — Ponio Lan;:piuges — 
Gallinomero Grammar — Trans- Pacific CompariHonH- Chociiyem 
Lord's Prayer — Languages of the Sacramento, Sun Joaij-.iiii, Xapa, 
and Sonoma Valleys — The Olhone and other Languages of San 
Francisco Bay — Kunsien and E«lene of Monterey— Santa Clara 
Ijord's Prayer — Mutsun Grammar — Languages of the Missions Santa 
Cruz, San Antonio de Padua, Soledad, and San Miguel — Tatche 
Grammar — The Dialects of Santa Cruz and other Islands 635 



Aztec-Sonora Connections with the Shoshone Family — The Utah, Co- 
manche, Moqui, Kizh, Netela, Kechi, Cuhuillo, and Chcmehuevi— 
Eastern and Western Shoshone, or Wihinasht — The Bannack and 
Digger, or Shoshokee — The Utah and its Dialects—The Goshutc, 
Washoe, Paiulee, Piute, Sampitche, and Mono — Popular Belief as 
to the Aztec Element in the North— Grimm's Law — Shoshone, Co- 
manche, and Moqui Comparative Table — Netela Stanza — Kizlt 
Grammar—The Ix>rd'8 Prayer in two Dialects of the Kizh — Cheme- 
huevi and Cahuillo Grammar — Comparative Vocabulary 060 



Tncca of the Aztec not found among the Pueblos of New Mexico and 
Arizona — The Five Languages of the Pueblos, the Queres, the 
Tegiia, the Picoris, Jemcz, and Znfti — Pueblo Comparative Vocabu- 
lary — The Yuma and its Dialects, the Maricopa, Cuchan, Mojavc, 
DiegueAo, Yanipais, and Yavipais — The Cochimi and PericiS, with 
their Dialects of Lower California — Guaicuri Grammar — Pater 
Nostor in Three Cochimi Dialects— The Langnagea of J^wer Cali- 
fonua wholly Isolated 680 



Pima Alto and Bajo — Pdpago — Pima Grammar — Formation of Plurals 
— Pcraonal Pronoun — Conjugation — Classification of Verbs— Ad- 
verbs— Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections — Sjittax of 
the Pima — Prayers in different dialects — The Opata and Eudeve — 
Ettdevo Granmiar— Conjugation of Active and Passive Verbs- 
Lord's Prayer — 6pata Grammar — Declension — Possessive Pronoun 
— Conjugation— Ceri Language with its Dialects, Guaymi and Te- 
poca— Ceri Vooabularj- 694 






The CWhitA and ite Dulccts- Cahiui (! ram mar— Dialectic Diflerencefl 
of the Msyo. Yaqui, and Tehuec« — l'onii>iiniti\<: Vonilmlary — 
Cahita Lord's i^rayer^Tbe Taraliiunoni mid iti* I'iiilectH— The 
TanhDiuaraGraiumiir— Tarahuiuara Lord's Pmytir in twu DutlvcU 
—The Concha, the Tobowi, tht' .rultmc. the Piro^ tlie Suriiii, the 
Chinana, the Tuhar, tfao Irritila— TeJHtio — Tejano l*nuumar — 
Specimen of the Tejiino — Tlie Tepohuaoa— Tepehuomi Graimiiar 
and Ixml'ii Prayer — Acaxd« ami it« I)inlect«, the Tnpiu, KaliaiUi 
and Xixtmc — The Zo^'atcc. CazvAiic, MnzapiH Iluitcole. Ciuochi- 
chile. Cuhktlnn, Tlaxomnlt^^i-. Tecuexe, and Tepecauu — The Cora 
and itft Dialectfl, tlie Mimtidcat, Teacuneitzca, and Ateocari—Cont 

/-r ^Tnipjir , ^ , 




SahuA or Aztec, Cluchime(.^ and Toltec lan^isgcH ideutical— AnflhuBC 
the oboriginAl wat uf the Aztoc Tonguv — The Aztec the oldcbt 
langoagc in Aniihuac — Beauty and Richucss of die Aztec— Teitti- 
Biony of the Mifniooaries and early writers in its favor — Specimen 
from Paredes' Manual — (Grammar of the Aztec Lunf^agc— Aztec 
Lord's Prayer — Tlie Otomi a Monoiiyllahic Lunguu^ of Aniihuac 
— RelationBhip claimed with the Chincae and Cherokee — Ot<nui 
Gmmmar — Otomi Lord'n Prayer in IHfTcrent I>ialecl« 723 


Tbe Patne and itK Dialectit— Tlie Meco of Guanajnato and the Sierra 
Gordo- -The Tnroitrn of Mit-honcnn and itR Graranior-The Matlal- 
tdacaand it>i(»rainiruir— TheOcuilter^The Miztecand ita Diulerta 
— MiitttMrGnuninar — The Aiuu8(;i), Choclio, Mazalcc, I'uicatoc, Clia- 
tino. Tlajwinetf, Chinantce, and Popoluca — Tbe Zapotoc and its 
Grammar— Tlie Mije— Mije Grutiimar and Liird'fi Prayer— The 
Hnave of Ibe Uthraus of Tchnantepoc — Hnave Nmnerats. 742 


Tbe Maya-Qitiri)^, the Laiiguiigcn uf the t'^i^ili/f^l Nations of Central 
Ainerica— Enumernlion of tbe McmbcrH of this P'amiU— Hypothet- 
ical Analogies with Lanj^a^s of the Old World— Lord's Prayera 
in the Chaiialml, fhiainuiec, Choi. Tzendol, Zixiue, and Zotzil — 
Puknnnhi (imniniar — The Mame or Znlclopalikap— Quich<J Gram- 
ir— i.'aUrhiiim.'I I^tird'a Prayer — Maya Gramuiar— Tutonac Grain* 
tf— Totonac DialccM — Huaatec Grammar 7&9 






The Carib an Imported Langu&ge — The Mosquito Language — The Poya, 
Towka, Seco, Valieute, Rama, Cookra, Woolwa, and other Lan- 
guages in Honduras — The Chontal — Mosquito Grammar — Love 
Song in the Mosquito Language — Comparatire Vocabulary of 
Hondnras Tongues — The Coribici, Chorotega, Chontal, and Orotifla 
in Nicara^pia — Grammar of the Orotins or Nagrandon — Comparison 
between ^e Orotifia and Chorot^a — The Chiriqui, Guatuso, Tiri- 
bi, and others in Coata Rica — Talamanca Vocabulary — Diversity 
of Speech on the Isthmus of Darien — Enumeration of Languages 
— Comparative Vocabulary 782 






DimmxKCW mrrwRint Mut amd Hnrrni— Mind LjunoujiaK and Sorr-LAM* 
orAai — OiuGiM or LANotTAUK: A Gift or -rax CntATOB, a Udmav 
tvfKSTtov, OK AM Etolutiok— Natcbi xsu Valck oy Mira — Obioi?! of 
Mtth: Tbk DrvDCB Idka, A Fiction op Hohomt, Tbb Cbkatiox op a 
DmoiTDto pBtsnuooD—OBiuix op WouKutP, OP Pbatkr, or Sacuuicr — 
FmcHinf AKD THB Obioix op AKUUt.-WouaBip~}iiu<ioioii ako Mt- 


Hitherto we have beheld Man only in hi« material 
orpanisTTi: as a wild though intellwtual animal. We 
have watohetl the intercourse of unciiltiu'ed mind with 
its environment. 'We have seen how, to clotlic himself, 
the savotie robe the beast: how, like animals, primitive 
mttti winMtnicti< his habitation, prtn-ides IIkkI. rtrars a 
rnniily. exercises authority, holdB property, wa^res war, 
indulge?? in amu.-vment«, gratifies social instincts; and 
that in all tlii**, the savage is but one remove from the 
brute. Ascending the scale, we have exiunined the first 
itageB of human pitjgress and anal>zi'd «n incipient civ- 
ilmitioii. We will now pitss the fmntier which seijarates 
mankind from animal-kind, aiid enter the domain of the 
inimat<.'nal and snpt'rnutural; phenomena which philos- 
Opli^ purely jHwitive cannot explain. 



The primary indication of an absolute HUiwriority in 
man over other animuln is the fticuUy of speech; not 
those mute or vocal symlwlfi, expreesive of passion and 
emotion, displayed alike in bnitea and men; but the 
power to wepamte idetu*, to generate in the mind and 
embody in words, sequences of thought. Tnie, upon the 
threshold of this inf[uiry, as in whatever relates to 
primitive num. we finri the brute creation liotly pursuing, 
and disputing for a share in this progressional power. 
In common with man. animals |X)ssess all the organs of 
sensation. They see, hear, feel, taste, and smell. They 
have even the organs of speech; but they have not 
speech. The source of this wonderful faculty lies further 
back, obfjcured by the mists which ever settle roimd the 
immaterial. Whether brutes have souls, according to 
tile Aristotelean theory of soul, or whether brute-soul is 
immortal, or of quality mid destiny unlike and inferior 
to that of man-soul, we see in them unmistakable evi- 
dence of mental faculties. The higher order of animals 
pasaess the lower order of inteUectuiil jK-roeptions. Thus 
pride is manifested by the capari.soned horse, shame by 
the Ijeaten dog, will by the stublwrn mule. Brutes 
have memory; they manifest love and hate, joy and 
sorrow, gratitude and revenge. They are courageous or 
cowardly, subtle or simple, not merely up to the meas- 
ure of what we commonly term instinct, but with evi- 
dent exercise of judgment; and, to a certain |X)int, we 
might even claim for them foresight, as in laying in a 
store of food for winter. But with all this there seems 
to be a lack of true or connected tliought, and of the fac- 
ulty of al»straction, whereby conceptions are analyzed 
and impressions definetl. 

They have also a language, such as it is; indeed, all 
the varieties of langiuige e-ommon to man. Wliat ges- 
ture-language Ciin l)e more expressive than that employed 
by the horse with its ears and by the dog with its tail, 
wherein are manifestations of every shade of joy, sor- 
row, courage, fear, sluune, and anger? In their brutish 
physiognomy, also, one may read the huiguagc of the 


emotions, which, if not so delicately picturecl as in the 
face of man, is none the less distinctive. Kor are they 
without their vocal language. Every fowl and every 
quadruped possesses the power of communicating intelli- 
gence by means of the voice. They have their noi.'ie of 
jzhidness, tlieir signal cry of danger, (heir notes of 
jinger and of woe. Thiis we »ee in brutes not only in- 
telligence but the power of communicating intelligence. 
Hut intelligi*n:x» is not thought, neither is expression 
speech. The l.ingunge of brutes, like tliemselves, is soul- 

The next indication of man's suixiriority over brutes, is 
the faculty of worship. The wild beast, to escape the 
rfonn, Hic.*( howling to its den; the suvage, awe-stricken, 
turns and prays. The lowest mivn |)erceive8 a hand be- 
hind the lightning, hears a voice abroad upon the storm, 
for which the highest brute has neither eye nor ear. This 
c*«ential uf hiunanity we see primordially displayed in 
mythic phenomena: in the first struggle of spiritual man- 
hood to find expression. Language issvinbol significant 
of thought, mythology is symbol significant of soul. The 
one is the first di.stinctive sound that separates the ideal 
from the material, the other the first respiration of tlie 
Boul which distinguishes the immortal from the animal. 
Language is thought incarnate; mythology, soul incar- 
nate. The one is the instrument of thought, as the other 
is tlie essence of thought. Neither is thought; Ijoth are 

^-cloeety akin to thought; separated from either, in some 
form, perfect intellectual manhood cannot develop. I 
do not mean to say with some, that thought without 
Bpeech cmmot exist; unless l»y speech is meant any form 
of exprcFwion symbolical. emotionHl, or vucal, or unless 
by thought is meant something mon* than mere self- 

L iXMisciousneKH without sef|uence and witliout al)straetion. 
There can \m no dou})t that speech is thn living breath 
of thought, and that the exercise of speech reacts uixm 
the mental ojid emotional faculties, in brutes is found 
neither speet-h nor nu-th; in the deaf and dumb, thought 
and belief ore shadowy and undefined; in infants, 


thought is but as a fleetii^ cloud passing over the brain. 
Yet for all this, deaf mutes and children who have no 
adequate form of expression cannot be placed in the cate- 
gory of brutes. The invention of the finger-alphabet 
opened a way to the understanding of the deaf and dumb ; 
but long before this is learned, in every instance, these 
unfortunates invent a gesture-language of their own, in 
which they think as well as speak. And could we but see 
the strangely contorted imagery which takes possession 
of a gesture-thinker's brain, we should better appreciate 
the value of words. So, into the mouth of children 
words are put, round which thoughts coalesce ; but evi- 
dences of ideas are discovered some time before they can 
be fully expressed by signs or sounds. Kant held the 
opinion that the mind of a deaf mute is incapable of 
development, but the wonderful success of our modern 
institutions has dissipated forever that idea. 

The soul of man is a half-conscious inspiration from 
which perception and expression are inseparable. Na- 
ture s}:)eaks to it in that subtle sympathy by which the 
immaterial within holds converse with the immaterial 
without, in the soft whisperings of the breeze, in the 
fearful bellowings of the tempest. Between the soul 
and body there is the closest sympathy, an interaction in 
every relation. Therefore these voices of nature speak- 
ing to nature's offspring, are answered back in various 
ways according to the various organisms addressed. The 
animal, the intellectual, the spiritual, whatsoever the 
entity consists of, responds, and responding expands and 
unfolds. Once give an animal the power to speak and 
mental development ensues; for speech cannot continue 
without ideas, and ideas cannot spring up without intel- 
lectual evolution. A dim, half-conscious, brutish thought 
there may be ; but the faculty of abstraction, sequences 
of thought, without words either spoken or unspoken, 
cannot exist. 

It is not at all probable that a system of gesture-lan- 
guage was ever employed by any primitive people, prior 
or in preference to vocal language. To communicate by 


fflpns requires no little hUiII and implies a degree of arti- 
fice nnd forethoiiglit tar Iwyoiul lliat nxiuired in vocal 
or emotional language. Long before a child arrives at 
the jioint of intelligence necessary for conveying thought 
by »g]is, it is well advanced in a vocal language of its 

In m^lhology, language assumes personality and inde- 
pendence. Otlcn the significance of the word becomes 
the essential idea. Zeus, from meaning simply sky. be- 
comes god of the sky; Eas, originally the dawn, is mode 
tlie goddess of the opening day. Not the idea but the 
expression of tlie idea Ix^omes tlie deity. And so, by 
the'^e creations of fancy, tlie imagination expands; in 
the emlxHiiment of the idea, the min<l enlarges with its 
own creation. Then yet bolder metaphors are thrown 
off like soap-bubf)!es, which no sixiner take form in 
wonis than they are also deified. Thus soul and thought 
and sjK-ech act and react on one another, all the evolu- 
tions of conception seeking vent in sound or si)eculation; 
and thus language, the expression of mind, and mythol- 
ogy, the expression of soul. l>ecome the exjwnents of 
divine humanity. 

But what then is Language, what i.s Ahih. and whence 
are they? Broailly. the tenn langiKige may be ajv 
plied to whatever .social Iwings employ to communi- 
cate piiwiion or sentiment, or to intluence one another; 
wluitever is made a vehicle of intelligence, ideographic 
or phonetic, is language. In this category may be placed, 
as we liave seen, gestures, both instinctive and artificial; 
emotional expreission. displayed in form or feature; vocal 
flounds, such as the cries of birds, the howling of beasts. 
Ind<H*fl, language is everywhere, in everything. AV'liilie 
li.'ilening to the rippling brook, tlie i-oarin"; sea. the niur- 
iQuring forest, as well .'ls to the nt\]\ Miiall voi(x^ within, 
we are but i-eading from tlie voeabulary of nature. 

Thus construed, the principle iUHsumes a variety 
of shapes, and may Ijc followed through successive 
■tapes of development. In fact, neitlier form nor feature 
ean he set in motion, or even 1cf\ in a stjitc of repose, 


without conveying intelligence to the observer. The' 
countenance of man. whether it will or not, ^jerpetunlly 
speaks, and spea-ks in most exquisite shades of siciiifi- 
cance, and with expression far more delicate than that 
employed by tongue or pen. The face is the reHex of 
the poul; a transparency which jrlows with light, divine 
or devilish, thrown ujx>n it from within. It is a }>or- 
trait of individual intelligence, a photogi-aph of tlie inner 
being, a meiLsure of innate intelligence. And in all 
pertaining to tlie action.s nnd piussions of mankind, what 
can Ije moi-e expressive than the language of the emo- 
tions? There are tlie soft, silent wooings of love, the 
frantic fury of hate, the diuicing delirium of joy. the 
hungry cravings of desire, the settled melanclioly of dead 
hopes. But more definitely, language is articulate 
human s]ieech or s^Tnbolic expression of ideas. 

How man first learned to speak, and whence the power 
of speech was originally derived, are questions concern- 
ing which tradition is uncommunicative. Even mv'tliol- 
op^'. which attempts the solution of suix^matural mys- 
teries, the explanation of all phenomeiia not otherwise 
accounte<i for, has little to say as to the genesis of this 
mast potential of all human ix>wers. 

Many theories have Ik^u advanced concerning the 
origin of language, Some of them are exploded ; others 
in various stiiges of modification remain, no two phi- 
lologists thinking exactly alike, llie main hypotheses 
are three; the subordinate ones are legion. (JbWous- 
ly, speech must Ix; either a direct, annpleted gift of the 
Creator. Anth one or more independent beginnings; or a 
human invention; or an evolution fmm a natunU genu. 

Sclxleicher conceives primordial language to be a sim- 
ple organism of vocal gestures; Gould Rrown believes 
language to be partly natural and partly artificial ; Adjmi 
Smith and Dugald Stewart give to man the creation and 
development of speech by his own artificial invention. 
According to lleroditus, the Phrygians and the Eg>-])tians 
disputed over the question of the antiquity of their lan- 
guages. Psommetichus thereupon confided two babes to 


the care of goats, apart from every human sound. At 
the end of two years they were lieaixl to pronounce tlie 
word hekos^ the Phrygian for bread. The Phrygians 
therefore claimed for tlieir Iftuguage the seniority. 

In ancient times it waa thought that there was some 
one primeval tongue, a central language from which all 
the languages of the earth radiated. The S^>'thic, 
ICthiopic, Chinese, Ureek, Latin, and other languages 
advanced claims for thb seniority. Plato believed lan- 
guage to be an invention of tlie go<l.s, and by them given 
to man. Orthodox religionists did not hesitate to atlirm 
tliat Hebrew, the language of Paradise, was not only 
given in a perfected state to man, but was miraculously 
preserved in a state of purity for the chosen Israel. 
After the dispersion from Halx;!, such nations as relapsed 
into Ijarbarisni became Ijarlwiric in speech. And in the 
roota of every dialect of both the old world and the 
new. tiie Fathera were able to discern Hebrew analogies 
sufficient to confirm them iji their dogma. Indeed other 
belief wa*? heresy. 

There were others who held that, when gesture-lan- 
guage and the language of the emotions were found 
insulficient for the grovsnng necessities of man, by com- 
mon consent, it was agreed that certain objects should be 
repreicnted by certain sounds, and tliJit so, when a word 
had l>een invented for every object, language was made. 

Another doctrine, called by Mr. Wedg^vood, its enthu- 
siastic advocate, 'onomatopieia,' and by Professor Max 
Muller the 'Ijow-wow' theory, explains the origin of 
language in the etlbrt of man to imitate the cries of 
nature. Tims, for dog the primitive langiiageless man 
would say lx>w-wow: to the rivulet, the wind, tlie birds 
and beasts, names were applied which as far as possible 
were but repi*oductions of the sounds made by these ele- 
ments or animals. 

Thus philology up to a comparatively late period waa 
a speculation rather than a science. Philosophers sought 
to know whence language came rather than what lan- 
guage is. But when the great discovery concerning tlio 


Arian and Semitic families was made, oomimrative 
philologists went to work after tlie manner of practical 
investigators in other branches of study, by collectuig, 
claftsifN'ing and comparing vocabularies, and there- 
fi-oin utrikiug out a patli batrkward to original trunks. 
Catalogues of languages were published, one in 1800 by 
Ht.'rv!i«, a S{»uiisb .lesuit, C4;intaining throe huiidn."*] dia- 
lects. foUowetl hy ^Vdulung and Vator't* MithridatcSj from 
1806-17. But not until Sanscrit was made a subject of 
European study did it Ijeoome apparent that aflinities of 
tongues are puliject to the laws that govern affinities 
of blood. Then it was that a sunilarity was discovered, 
not only lietween the Sanscrit and the Greek and Latin 
tongues, but lietween these langua^^a and the Teutonic, 
Celtic, Iranic, and Indic, all of which became united in 
the great Arian family. At the siime time, the ancient 
language of the Jews, the Arabic, and tlie Aramaic — 
which constitute the Semitic family — were foimd to be 
totally different from tlie Arian in their radical stnic- 
ture. From these investigations, philologists were no 
less convinced that the Indo-Kui*oi>ean languages were 
all of the Kiune stock, than that the Semitic idioms did 
not belong to it. Tlie doctrine of the Fathers thei-efore 
would not sttind; for it was found that all languogea 
were not derivations from the Hebrew, nor from any 
other kno\vn central tongue. 

Then too, the sulwrdination of tongues to the laws of 
evolution became ap|KUvnt. It wjw discovered that lan- 
guage was in a state of constant change; that, with all 
its variations, himian speech could be grouped into fami- 
lies, and degrees of rclationship ;iscertained ; and that, by 
the comparison of vocabulai'ies^ a classidcation at once 
morphological and genealogical could Ix; made. Varieties 
of tongues, jm nuuilK?rlesa as the pli:is*'s of humanity, 
could be traced biick towards their l»egiiinings luid ix'solved 
into earlier forms. It was discovered that in the first 
order of linguistic development, words are monosyllahic. 
In this rudimentary stage, to which the Chines*.^, Tilx'^tan, 
and perhaps the Japanese belong, roots, or sounds ex- 


rive only of the material or Hiib.slnntial parts of 
are used. In the second sUige, culled tl»e poly- 
synthctic, aggregative, or agglutinate, a modif^-ing ter- 
mination, significjint of the rolationa of ideas or things 
to each other, if* ultixed or glued to the root. To the 
a^lutinate languages belong the American and Tiira- 
Luimi fiuniliea. In the third, called tlie intkn^tional 
letage, which compri-ses only the Arian and Semitic fauii- 
flied, the two elements are more perfectly developed, and 
it is oidy in this stage that language can attain the 
highest degree of richness and I'elinement. 

While these stages or conditions ai*e recognized by all, 
it is claimed on one side that although settled languages 
retain their grammatical character, every agglutinate 
language miLst unco have l>eeu monasyllabic, or radical, 
I and every iuHectional language once agglutinate; and on 
tlie other side it is averred that the assertion is iucajxible 
of proof, for no historical evidence exists of any one 
ftyjK; ever having piissed from one of these stages to 
another. Now if speech is a perfected gift of the Crea- 
tor, how happens it that we find language in every stage 
of development or relapse, from the duckings of ThUn- 
kectK to the classic lines of Ilomer and of Shakspeare? 
In his physiological structure, so far as is known, Man is 
neither more nor less perfect now than in the days of 
Adam. How then if language is an organism, is it, im- 
Hke other organisms, subject to extreme and sudden 
change? In animated nature tlieiv are two principles; 
one fixed and finished as an organism, subject to per- 
petual birth and dectvy, but incftpa}>lc of advancing or 
retrograding; the otlier, elemental life, the genu or cen- 
tre of a future development. The one grows, the other 
unfolds. We have no evidence that instincts and 
orgnnic functions were more or less iwrfect in the Ikj- 
ginning tlian now. If therefore huiguage is an instinct 
or an oi^mism, a perfect gitt of the Creator, how can it 
exist othorwifit! than in a concrete and perfect state like 
other instincts ami organisms/ 

The absurdity that human speech is the invention of 



primitive man — that upon some grass}' knoll a company 
ot" hulf-clail barbarians met, and without words invented 
words, without Bignificjuit sounds produced sounds sig- 
nificant of every object, tlierein by mutual consent 
originating a language — may \je net aside. Of all con- 
jectures concerning the origin of language, the hypothesis 
that words are an artificial invention is the least tenable. 
And what is most surprising to us, at the present day, 
is that such men as Locke and Adam Smitli and Dugald 
Stewart could for a moment have entertsiined tlie idea. 
Obviously, without langinige there could 1^ no culturcj 
and witliout culture, words never could liave l>een in- 
vented. Wonlrt art* the synibolH of object.s and ideas. 
Certain worIh may 1)0 arbitrarily KeUtrted, and, by the 
tacit agreement or general concurrence of society, may 
be made to signify certain things. And in this sense 
words may originate con\'entionally. But though words 
may have been conventionally selected, they were never 
selected by conventions. We then have the discoveries 
of modern philologists, not only to positively deny tlie 
infallibility of the common-origin theory, but to bring 
forward a nunil>er of otlier claimants for tl»e greatest 
antiquity, as well entitled to a hearing as the Hebrew. 

Diversity in the origin of speech does not of necessity 
imply diversity in the origin of race. Tluis with a 
unity of race, circuujstances may be conceived in 
which independent tongues may have arisen in different 
localities-, wheivas with a diversity of nice, but one lim- 
guftge hyjjothetically may have Ix^en given to all. A 
common origin is probable, a diversity of origin is jxjs- 
sible; neitJier can lie proved or disproved. The radical 
differences in the structure of the three great types, the 
monosyllabic, the agglutinate, and the inilectional; and 
tlie inherent heterogeneities of the several families of the 
saiiie tyjje, as of the Chinese and Siamese, of the American 
and Turanian, or even of the Arian and Semitic, would 
seem to present insiuTOountal)le obstacles to the theory 
of a conmion origin; while on the other hand the won- 
derful mutations of types and trunks, the known trans- 



formations of Inngiiage, and the identificntiona by some 
philolrjgifltflj of the same stock in each of tlic three pro- 
gressional stages, render the theory of a unity of ori- 
gin in lanjruage equally probable. Therefore the ques- 
tion of unity or diversity of tongues, as we sjieak of 
unity or diversity of race, can be of but little moment 
to iw. Language shown the connection bet^veen nations 
widely se^Kirated, leads us back beyond tradition into 
the obscure jmst, follows the sinuosities of migrations, 
indicates epochs in human development, jwints towards 
the origin of peoples, serves as a guide in following tlie 
radiation of races fix>m common centres. Yet a simi- 
larity in the soimd, or even in the construction of two 
words, does not necessarily imply relationship. Two 
totally distinct langiuiges may have borrowed the same 
word from a third language; wliich fact would never 
e»*tabli»h relationship between the lx)rrowers. When 
like forms are found in difierent kmgua^es, in oi-der 
to estaljlish a relationship, historical evidence must be 
applied as a test, and the words followed up to their 

?itripped of technicalities, the question before us is 
reduced to a few simple propositions. All men sj^eak; 
there never yet was found a nation without articulate 
language. Aside from individual and abnormal excep- 
tions, no primitive trilje has ever l>een discovered, where 
port of the people spoke, and pjiil were speechless. Lan- 
guage is as much a part of man, as any physical con- 
rtitiient; yet unlike pby.sical organs, as the eye, the ear, 
the hand, langujige is not l>orn with the individual. It 
\» not in the blood. The Caucasian infant stolen by 
Apaches, cannot converse with its own mother when 
restored to her a few years after. 

Therefore speech is not an independent, perfected gift 
of the Creator, but an incidental acquirement. Further- 
more language is an attribute of society. It belongs to 
the people and not to the individual. The child before 
mentioned, if dropped by the Apaches among the bears 
and by them nurtured and reared, is doomed to mutism 



or l)ear-lan^agp. Man wai* made a social being; speech 
was uuule a.s a means oi" communicating intelligence be- 
tween social beings; one individual alone never could 
originate, or even preserve a langrua^. 

iiiit how then liapixins it, it' man did not make it, and 
Ood did not give it him. that human sjieech is universal? 
With the oi^anifsm of man t!ie Creator iinpliint.s the 
organs of si>t!ech. Witli the elemental and projrro.s.sional 
life of man tlie Creator implants the germ of s|)eech. 
In common with tiie element of progress and civili/ation, 
i.aiatc from the Ix'ginning, sjK'erh hius develoiM'd by slow ^^ 
degrees through tliousanda of cycles juid by viirious stages, ^M 
marcliing steadily forward with the forward march of 
the intellect. Comi>arative philology, in C4jmmon with 
all other sciences, accords to man a remote antiqmty. 
Runsen estimates that at least twenty tliousand years are 
re<juired for a language to pass from one rudimentary 
stage to another. 

The mind receives impressions mid the soul intuitions, 
and t*) tlirow them off in some form is an alx*«>hite neces- 
sity. Painful impressions tend to produce iH^iily contor- 
tions mid dotorouH sounds; pleasant imprewsions to ilhi- 
mine the features and to make musical the voice. And 
not only is tliis compressed emotion destined to find ex- 
pression, but to impress itself u|>on othei's. Amotion is 
essentialiy f^ynipathetic. Why certain objects ave repre- 
sented by certiiin sounds we can never know. Some 
thiTik that Ix'tween every word and the object or idea 
which it represents, tliere was in the first instance an 
intimate relatioiwhiji. By degrees certain natural ar- 
ticulations IxH^ame associotetl with certain ideius; then 
new names were suggested by some fancied analogy to 
objects alreiuly named. Everything else being e^piat^ 
similar conditions and causations produce similar im- 
pressions and arc expressed by similar sounds. Hence a 
certain unifonnity l^etween all hurnan tongues : and a ten- 
dency in man to imitate the wumds in natui-e. the cries 
of animals, the melodies of winds and waters, accounts 
for the origin of many words. 



From giving expreesion in some outward form to our 
inwiird emotion there is no escape. Lot ua now apply 
to the expression of feelinfi; and emotion the some law 
of evohdion wliich iroverns all social and intellectual 
phenomena, and fixtm a lan^uajje of exclamHtion.s. we 
have first the inono^iylliibic noun and verb, llien auxil- 
liaries, — adverbs, luljeetives, prejx)Hitioa9 and pro- 
nonns. — and fijially intlections of parts of speech by 
which the finer shikles of meaning may be expressed. 

The spontaneous outburs-ts of feelinji;, or the meta- 
phorical expressions of emotion, arising instinctively 
aiid at^ting almost simultaneously with the conception 
or impression made uj^ou the mind, develop with time 
into settled fonns of speech. Man sjx^aks as bii-ds 
Hy or fishes swim. The Creator supplies tlie oi*gjins 
and irajdants the instinct. Si)eech, tliough intiiitivc, 
i» more than intuition; for, ah we have seen, speech 
is a social ratlier tiian an individual attribute. Dar- 
win i)erceives in language not only a sjwntaneous gen- 
eration, but a natural selection of grammatical fonns; 
the best words, the clearest and shortest expressions, 
continually displacing the weaker. So words ore made 
to tit occa-sions, and dropped a^ soon an better ones can 
1)6 fomid. 

Laniruoges are not inherited, yet langiuige is an in- 
heritance. LauiTuacre is not artificially invented, yet 
languages nxv hut conventional agi-eements. Languages 
are not a concrete perfected gift of the Creator, yet the 
gemi of language is ineradicably implanted in man, and 
was there implanted by none but man's Creator. This 
then is Language: it is an acquisition, but an acquisi- 
tion from necessity; it is a gilt, but. when given, an 
undevelo|K»<l gvnii; it is an artilice, in so far ixa it is 
dcvelo{)ed by the application of individual agencies. 

Here, for a while, we will leave Language and turn 
to Mythology, the viythm * fable* and logos 'speech' of 
the (irtH-ians. 

Under aiiulysis m^^lhology is open to broad yet sig- 



nifirant interpretations. As made up of legendary ac- 
counts of places and personages, it is history ; as relating 
to the genesis of the gods, tlie nature and adventures 
of divinities, it is reli^on; placed in the category of 
science, it is the science of fable; of philofioi»hy, the 
philosophy of intuitive beliefs. A mass of fra^nentary 
ti'uth and fiction not open to rationalistic criticism: a 
system of tradition, genealogical and i)olitical, conibund- 
ing the siilyective M'ith the objective; a i>artition wall of 
allegories, built of dead facts cemented with wild fan- 
cies, — it l(x>ins ever between the immeasurable and the 
niejvsurable pJist. 

Thick black clouds, portentous of evil, hang threaten- 
ingly over the savage during his entire life. Genii 
murmur in the flowing river, in the rustling brtuicLcs 
are felt the breathings of the gods, goblins dance in 
vaix)ry t%nlight. and demons howl in the darkness. 

In the myths of wild, untutored man, is displayed 
that inherent desire to account for the origin of tbings, 
which, even at the present time, commands the pro- 
foundest attention of philosophy: and, as we look batrk 
upon the absurd conceptions of our savage ancestry with 
feelings akin to pity and disgust, so may the speculations 
of our own times appear to those who shall come after us. 
Those weird tales which to us are puerility or i>oetry, ac- 
conling as we lo regard them, wore to their believ- 
ers history, science, and religion. Yet this effort, which 
continues from the Ix'ginning to the end. is not valueless; 
in it is emixxlied the soul of human progress. Without 
m^ythology, the only door at once to the ideal and inner 
life of primitive peoples and to their heroic imd historic 
past would be forever closed to us. Nothing so reflects 
their heart-secrets, exposes to our view their springs of 
action, shadows forth the sonrces of their hopes and 
fears, exhibits tlie models after which they moulded 
their lives. 

Within crude poetic imagery are enrolled their re- 
ligious beliefs, are laid the foundations of their systems 
of worship, are portrayed their thoughts conceniing 



caiu»ations and the destinies of majikind. I'ndcr sym- 
bolic veils is shrouded their ancient iiationni Hpirit, nil 
that can be known oF their early history and popuhir 
ideoa. Thus are explained tlie fundamental lawn of na- 
ture ; tliua we are told how eartii sprang froni chaos, how 
men and iK'Owts and plants were made, how heaven was 
peopled, an<l earth, and what were the relative powers 
imd Huccetwivc dynasties of the ^Is. Hci-oes are made 
godf*; gods are materialized and hrought down to men. 

Of the value of mythoU)j;y it is unnecessary here to 
upeak. Never wjis tliere a time in the history' of phi- 
losophy when the character, customs, and beliefs of 
nU»ri^inal man, and everytbinjr appertaining to liim, were 
held in such Ingh esteem by st^holars as at present. As 
the ultimate of human knowledjje is approached, tlie in- 
(juirer is thrown bjick upon the past; and more and more 
tl»e fact Ix.'comea apjKirent, that what is, is but a re- 
production of what has beenj that in the earlier stages 
of human development may be found the counterpart of 
every ph;u*e of modern social life. Higher and more 
heterogeneous as are our jiresent systems of [xjlititts and 
j)hilos*»phy, every principle, when trajfked to its Ij^n- 
liing, proves to Imve been evolvedj not originated. 

A.s there never yet wits found a [HH>pUr without a lan- 
guage, HC) every nation has its m^-thologj', some popular 
and attractive form for preserving historical tradition 
and presenting ethical maxims; and as by the range 
of their vocabularies we may follow men through all 
the stages of their progress in govermnent, domestic 
a&in and raecluinical arts, so, by beliefs expressed, we 
may determine at any given cprjch in the history of a 
nkce their ideal and intellectual condition. AVithout the 
sulistancc there can be no shadow, without the object 
there cjin \te no name for it; therefore when we find a 
language without a word to denote pro|x*rty or chastity, 
we may 1)0 sure that the wealth and wtjmen of the trilnj 
arc held in common ; and when in a system of m\ tliulogy 
certain imiwrtant metaphysiad or jesthetic ideas and at- 
tributes are wanting, it is evident that tlie intellect of 


its composers has not yet reached beyond a certain low 
point of conception. 

MoreoveFj as in things evil may be found a spirit 
of good, so in fable we find an element of truth. 
It is now a recognized principle of philosophy, that no 
religious belief, however crude, nor any historical tra- 
dition, however absurd, can be held by die majority of a 
people for any considerable time as true, without having 
in the beginning some foundation in fact. More espe- 
cially is the truth of this principle apparent when we 
consider that in all the multitudinous beliefs of all ages, 
held by peoples savage and civilized, there exist a con- 
currence of ideas and a coincidence of opinion. Human 
conceptions of supernatural affairs spring from like intui- 
tions. As human nature is essentially the same through- 
out the world and throughout time, so the religious 
instincts which form a part of that universal humanity 
generate and develop in like manner under like con- 
ditions. The desire to penetrate hidden surroundings 
and the method of attempting it are to a certain extent 
common to all. All wonder at the mysterious; all 
attempt the solution of mysteries; all primarily possess 
equal facilities for arriving at correct conclusions. The 
genesis of belief is uniform, and the results under like 
conditions analogous. 

We may conclude that the purposes for which these 
fictitious narratives were so carefully preserved and 
handed down to posterity were two-fold, — to keep alive 
certain facts and to inculcate certain doctrines. 

Something there must have been in every legend, in 
every tradition, in every belief, which has ever been en- 
tertained by the majority of a people, to recommend it 
to the minds of men in the first instance. Error abso- 
lute cannot exist; false doctrine without an amalgam of 
verity speedily cnunbles, and the more monstrous the 
falsity the more rapid its decomposition. Myths were 
the oracles of our savage ancestors; their creed, the rule 
of their life, prized by them as men now prize their 
faith; and, by whatever savage philosophy these strange 



conreits were eliminated, their effect u^xtn the pop\ilar 
miml was vital. Anaxagoras, ftocratea, Protagorjis, and 
E|nciinis well knew and boldly proclaimed that the 
pxls of the Grecians were disreiputahle characters, not 
the kind of d<»ities to make or govern worlds; yet so 
deep rooted in the hoArt.^ of the i>eople were the maxims 
of the past, that for these expressions one heretic was 
cast into prison, another exix'llod frnm Athens, and 
another forc^ to drink the hemlock. And the leas 
a fable presents the appearance of probability, the more 
grotedcjue and extravagant it is, the less the likelihood 
of itfl having originated in pure invention; for no ex- 
tnivagantly absurd invention without a particle of truth 
could by any ]x)a**ibil!ty have be?n palmed off ujwn a 
people, and by tliem accepted, revered, recited, preserved 
a-* veritable incident or solution of mystery, aiui handed 
down to tliose most dear to them, to be in like manner 
held as sacred. 

Therefore we may be sure that there never was a 
myth without a meaning; that mythology is not a bun- 
dle of ridicidous fancies invented for vulgar amusement; 
that there is not one of stories, no matter how 
silly or absurd, which was not founded in fact, which did 
not once hold a significance, **And though I have well 
w«'ighed and considered all this," concluded I^ord Bacon, 
nearly three huiuh-ed years ago, ''and thonjughly seen 
into the levity which the mind indulges for allegories 
and illusions, yet I cannot but retain a high value for 
the ajicient inythology." Indeed, to ancient myths has 
been attributed the preservation of shattered fragments 
of lost .sciences, even as some have allt^ed that we are 
indebted to the writings of Democritus and Aristotle for 
modem geographical discoveries. 

That these ductile narratives have sufiered in their 
transmission to us, that thi\>ngh the magnifying and 
refracting influences of time, and the ignorance and 
nmiiticisni of to whom they were first recited, we 
rt'cc'ive them mutilated and distorted, there can be no 
doubt. Not one in a thousand of those aboriginal 



beliefs which were held by the people of the Pacific 
Coast at the time of its first occupation by forcigners, has 
been preserved. Aad for the originality and purity of 
such as we have, in many ijistances, no one can voucli. 
Infatuated ecclesiafitics who Haw in the native fable in- 
disputahlc evidence of tlie prt\sfnce of an ajMistU*, or the 
iuturpusitionof a tutelar)' saint in the affairs of beniglited 
lieatbendoni, <HmId but render the narrative in accord- 
ance witli tnt'ir prejwssessions. The dcisirc of some to 
prove a certain origin for the Indians, and the contempt 
of others for native character, also led to imperfect or 
colored narrations. But happily, enough has been pre- 
served in authentic picture-writings, and by narrators 
whose integrity and intelligence are above susjncion, to 
give us a fair insight into the native psychological struc- 
ture and beUef ; and if the knowledge we have is but in- 
fniitesimal in comparison with what has been lost, we 
may thereby leani to prize more highly such as we have. 
Again wc come to the ever- recurring question — 
Whence is it? Whence arise belief, worship, 8U}>e!'8ti- 
tion? AV'hence the striking likeiiess in all nu^icrnatural 
conceptions between nations and ages the niofit di\C'rse? 
Why is it that so many peoples, during the successive 
BtJiges of their progress, have their creation myth, their 
origin mytii, their ilootl mytlt, tlieir animal, and plant, 
and planet myths? This coincidence of evolution can 
scarcely be the result of accident. Mythologies, then, 
being like languages common to mankind, uniform in 
substance yet varying in detail, what follows with re- 
gard to the essential system of their 8U[x.'niatural con- 
ceptions? Is it a perfected gift of the Creator, the 
invention of a designing priesthood, or a spontaneous 
generation and natural development? So broad a ques- 
tion, involving ajs it does the weightiest matters ctm- 
nected with man, may scarcely exjxKit exactly the wune 
answer froiii any two poxsons. Origin of life, origin of 
mind, origin of l)elief, are as much problems to the 
profoundcst philosopher of to-day, as they were to the 
first wondering, bewildered savage who wandered 
through primeval forests. 





Life is delineii by Herbert S|iencer as "the coljrdina- 
tioii of actions, or their contimious adjitstment:" by 
ewes AM "a serie^s of tlefniite aiid successive changes, 
Ilx>tli of structure ami coniiiosition, which take place 
ftithiii iin individiml without destroying its identity;" 
Iby Schvlling a« "tlie tende»icy to individuation;" by 
IRichcraud as "a collection of phenomena which succeed 
each other during a limited time in an organize<l l)ody;" 
id by Dc Bhiinvilleas ''tlic two-foUl internal movement 
d( comjwsition and decomposition, at once general and 
Icuntiiiuous." Accoixling to llume, Mind is hut a bundle 
of ideals luid impressions which are the sum of all knowl- 
sdge. and coiise«juently, "the only things known to exist." 
the iK>sitive ))hilosophy of Augustc Comte, intel- 
ctuai development is dlvidetl into three phases; namely, 
Jie Supernatural, in which the mind seeks for sujx^r- 
nataral caases; the Metaphysical, wherein abstmct 
DrcGH are set up in place of su^x^rnatural agencies; and 
fthe Positive, which inrpiires into the laws which engender 
^phenomena. Martineau, commenting u[>on intuition and 
the mind's place in nature, charges the current doctrine of 
.evolution with excluding the element of lite fnim devei- 
loping orgjuiisms. Until the origin of mind, and the rela- 
tion of mind to its envii*onraent is detcnnined, the origm 
|£>f the Hn[x'rnatural must remain unaccounted for. Yet we 
{may follow the principle of worship back to very uetir 
[its MtHirce, if we are unable entirely to account for it. 

We linvc seen how the inability of brutes to fonn in 
itlie mind long sequences of thought, prevents sjjeech; 
no, in primitive six^ietie^, when successions of unreconled 
eventx are fongotten before any conception of general 
rlaws can l>e formed thereiVoni, iwl> theism in its grossest 
form iKfiUre to prevail. Not until the earlier stages of 
are iwisse<l, and, from a multitude of w>n*elative 
oft^rei)eated exix'riences^ general deductions made, 
can tlicre be any higher religious conceptions than that 
of an indei)endent cause for every consecjuence. 

Hy some it is allt^^cd that the religious sentiment is a 
divine idea perfected hy the Creator and implanted in 



man ns part of hin nature, before his divergence from 
a primitive centre. Singularly enough, the Fatliers of 
the Church referred tlie origrin of fable as well iis tlie 
origin of fact to tlie Hebrew Scriptui-es. Supported hy 
the soundest ^^oplli^l^y, they saw in every ni_>iJi, Grecian 
or Ixvrljrtrian, a biblical clmracter. Thus the Grtek 
Hercules was none other than the Hebrew Sampan; 
Arion was Jumdi. and Deuwdion Xoidi. Other luytho- 
Uwrical characters were supposed by them to have been 
incarnated fiends, who disappeared after working for a 
time tlieir evil upon men. 

There have been those who held m\ihs to be the 
fictions of sorcery, as there are now those who believe 
that forms of worship were invented by a desifming 
priesthood, or that mythology' is but a collection of tales, 
phymcal, ethical and historical, invented by the sages 
and ancient wise men of tlic nation, for the purpose of 
overawing the wicked and encuumging the good. Some 
declare that religion is a factitious or accidental social 
phenomenon; others that it is an aggregation of organ- 
ized human experiences; others that it is a bundle of 
sentiments which were originally pi-ojected by the im- 
agination, and ultimately lulopted iis entities; others 
that it is a feeling or emotion, the genesis of which" is 
due to Hin'munding circumstances. 

Many believe all mytliolugical personages to have been 
once real human heroes, tlie foundations of whose his- 
tories were laid in truth, while tlie structure was reared 
by fancy. The Egyptians infonned Herodotus that their 
deities — the last of whom was Orus aon of Osiris, the 
Apollo of the Grecians — were originally their kings. 
Others affirm that myths are but symlwlic ideas deified; 
that they are but the embodiment of a maxim in the 
form of an allegory, and that under these allegorical 
forms were taught history, religion, law and morality. 

Intermingled with all these hypotheses are elements 
of truth, and yet none of them api>ear to be satisfying 
explanations. All imply that religion, in some fonn, is 
an essential constituent of humanity^ and that whatever 



Eitfi origin roid functions, it has exercised from the earliest 
[ages and does yet exercise the most powerful intluencc 
|ui»n man; working like leaven in the lump, keeping 
ltl»e world in a fennent, stirring up men to action, hand- 
ling and disrupting nations, uniting and dividing com- 
liDumtieH, and fonnmg the nucleus of uumljerless socie- 
I ties and institutioiwi. 

In uverv society, small and great, there are undoubt- 
edly certain intellect of quicker than oi-dinary jwrcep- 
lion, which seize upon occaaioiiSj and by a skillful use 
of means obbiin a mastery over inferior minds. It is 
thus that politiail and social, as well as ccclesia'^tical 
I power arises. Not that the leader creates a want — he 
[18 but the mouth-piece or ligent of pent-up human in- 
ledncte. One of these instincts is dependence. That 
I we are created subordinate, not absolute nor unpp- 
Btrained, is a fact from which none can escape. Tlirti'- 
|dom, constant and insurmount^ible, we feel we have 
inherited. Most naturally, therefore, the masses of 
'mankind seek from junong their fellows some embodi- 
' ment of power, and nmging themselves under the ban- 
I Tier of leaders, follow blindly whithersoever they are 
led. Perceiving the power thus placed in their hands, 
[tliese l>orn lemlers of men are not slow to invent means 
for retaining and increnaing it. To the inquiry of the 
child or unsophisticated savage, who, startled by a peal 
of distiint tbvnider, cries, "What is that?"' the explana- 
I tion 18 given: ''That is the storm-god speaking." "I 
am afniid, protect me!" implores the supplicant. "I 
will, only olx-y." is the reply. The answer is HuOicient, 
cariosity is satisfied, and terror allayed; the barbarian 
teacher gains a devott'C. In this manner, the su[)er- 
utructurc «f creeds, witchcrafts, priestcriiftfl, may have 
ftri.ien; some gods may thus have I^een made, fonns of 
worship invented, and intercourse opened with beings 
BUiiernal and infernal. Then devotion advances and 
EbeooiDefl an art; professors by practice become experts. 
Meanwhile, craft is economized j the wary Sharajin rain- 
rdoctitr — like the worthy clergyman of ciWlized ortho- 


dox\% who refused to pray for rain "while the wind 
was in that quarter" — ^watches well the gathering ripe- 
ness of the cloud before he attempts to burst it with an 
arrow. And in the end, a more than ordinary skill in 
the exercise of this power^ deifies or demonizes the 

But whence arises the necessity for craft and whence 
the craft? The faculty of invention implies skill. Skill 
successfully to play upon the instincts of humanity can 
only be acquired through the medium of Uke instincts, 
and although the skill be empirical, the play must be 
natural. Craft alone will not sufiice to satisfy the de- 
sire ; the hook must be baited with some small element 
of truth before the most credulous will seize it. If 
religious beliefs are the fruits of invention, how shall 
we account for the strange coincidences of thought 
and worship which prevail throughout all myths and 
cults? Why is it that all men of every age, in 
conditions diverse, and in countries widely sundered, 
are found searching out the same essential facts? All 
worship; nearly all have their creation-myth, their 
flood-myth, their theory of origin, of distribution from 
primitive centres, and of a future state. In this regard 
as in many another, civihzation is but an evolution of 
savagism; for almost every principle of modern phi- 
losophy there may be found in primitive times its 

The nature and order of supernatural conceptions are 
essentially as follows: The first and rudest form of be- 
lief is Fetichism, which invests every phenomenon with 
an independent personality. In the sunshine, fire, and 
water, in the wind and rock and stream, in every 
animal, bird, and plant, there is a separate deity ; for 
every effect there is a cause. Even Kepler, whose in- 
tellect could track the planets in their orbits, must needs 
assume a guiding spirit for every world. It is impos- 
sible for the mind to conceive of self-creative or self- 
existent forces. 

In time the personalities of the fetich-worshiper be- 


come to Bome extent jrenenilized. nomojieneous iipjjear- 
nnces are grouped into chi.sseH, and etioh cluss reierred 
to a 8epiirate deity, and hence Polytheism. Pantlieism 
then comes in and makes all created eubstjvnce one with 
the creator; niitin*e and the universe are God. From the 
inipersonatinj!; of the forces of nature to the creation of 
inia;j;inary deities there is hut a step. Every ^^rtue and 
\*ice, every giKxl and evil Ijecomes a personality, under 
the dii-ect governance of which lie certain passions and 
events; and thus in place of one gotl for many individ- 
uals, each individual may liave a multitude of his own 
I)ersonal gods. The tlieogony of llesioil was hut a sys- 
tem of uiaterializiHl love and hate; while, on the other 
han*l. the gtxls of Homer, although jK^i-sonating human 
jwu^iimK, were likewise endowed with moral iKjrceptions. 
Jn them the blind forces of nature are lighted up into a 
human-d i vi ne intelligence, 

III Monotheism the distinct personalities, which to the 
wivjige underlie every apiH*arance, Ixxjome wholly gen- 
eralixed. and the origin of all phenumena is referred to 
one First Cause. The subtle and philosophic Greeks 
well knew that God to Imj God must be omnipotent, and 
omnipotency is indivisible. That the Aztecs could be- 
lieve and practice the absurdities they did is less «n ob- 
ject of wonder, than that the intellectual jihilosophers of 
Athens could have tolerated the gods of Homer. In- 
deed, the religion of the more cultivated Greeks apjjears 
to ti8 monstrous, in proportion as they were superior to 
other men in i)oetrv. art. and philosophy. 

(*om[>arative niythologists e.xplain the origin of wor- 
ship by t\vo apparently oppugnant theories. The first is 
that wliatever is seen in nature strange and wonder- 
ful, is detmed by primitive man an object wortliy of 
worship. The other is, that uikiu certain noted indi- 
viduals are fastened metaphorical names, syinliolic of 
Home <)uality alike in them and in the natural object 
after which they are called; that this name, which at 
the fin*t was Init the surname of an individual, after its 
poMwiwor hi dead and for^tten. lives^ revciis to the 



plant or animal whence it came, becomes impersonal, 
and is worsliipetl by a conservative [X)sterity. In other 
words, one theory fastens u\>on natural phenomena, 
human attributes, and worshij^w nature mider covering 
of thoee attributes, while the other worshijjs in tlie 
natural object only the memory of a dead and forgotten 
man. I have no doubt that in both of these h^iwtheses 
are elements of trutli. 

In the earlier acts of worsliip the tendency is to 
afwimilate the object wornhij^d and the character of the 
wor.slu|K^r, atid also to a-ssign Iiabitations to deities, 
behind man's immediate environment. Every people 
has its heaven and hell ; the former moat penerally lo- 
cated beyond tiie blue sky, and tiie latter in the dark 
interior caves of the earth. Man in nature reproduces 
himself; invests api)earjmces witli attributes analoj^-ms 
to his own. This likono^<s of the fliii>ernatund to the 
natural, of gods to man, is the first advance from fetich- 
ism, but as the intellect advances anthropomorphiym 
declines. As one by one the netux^st mysteries are 
solved by science, the emptiness of superstition becomes 
apiMirent, and the wonderless wonder is refen*ed by the 
waking mind to general laws of causation; but still cling- 
ing to its first conceptions it places them on objects more 
remote. Man fixes his eyes upon the planets, discovers 
their movements, and fancies their controlling spirit also 
controls his destiny; and when released by reason from 
star-worship, as formerly from fetichism, again jui ad- 
vance is made, always nearing the doctrine of uiuversal 

In one tersely comprehensive sentence Clarke gives 
tlie old view of what were calK-d natural i-eligions: 
"They considered them, in their souiv-e, the work of 
fraud; in their essence, oorru|it sn|)ei-stitions; in, tlieir 
doctrines, wholly false; in their moral tendency, abso- 
lutely injurious; and in their result, degenerating more 
and more into greater evil." 

And tliis view seems to liim alike uncharitable and 
imreasonable ; ''To assume tliat they are wholly evil is 


Fdiarespectfiil to human nature. It supposes man to be 
the easy and universal dupe of fraud. But tiiose reli- 
Igionj* do not rest on such a sandy foundation, but on the 
1 feeling of dependence, the sense of accountability, the 
Ireeopiitiou of spiritual realities very near to this world 
[of matter, and the need of looking up and worshiping 
t some imaeen power hi^^her and Iwtter than ourselves. 
AVe shall find them always feelinfi; after God, often find- 
ing him. We shall »ee that in their origrin they arc not 
'tlie work of priestcraft, but of liuman natui-c; in their 
c*»ence not suixirstitions, but relijriona; in their doc- 
trines true more freirjuently than; in their moral 
tendency good rather than evil. And instead of dogen- 
eratinj; toward something worse, they come to prepare 
tlie way for something better." 

Tlie nearest case to delilienite invention of deities, 
was, perhaps, the promulgation ils objects of worship by 
Uie Roman pontiffs, of such aljslractions a8 Hope (Spes), 
Fear (Pallor), Concord (Concordia), Coiu^i^e (Virtus), 
, etc. How far these gods were gods, however, in even 
' tlie onlinary heathen sense of the word, is doubtful. In 
any case, they were but the extension of an old and ex- 
igent principle — the personification of divine a*ii)ects or 
qualitiea; tliey added no more to what went before than 
i a new Siunt or Virgin of Loretto does to the Catholic 
f Church. 

" It wiw a favorite opinion with the Christian a(X)lo- 
giMts, Euaebius and others," Rays Gladstone, "that the 
pagan deities repre.-H'nted deified men. Others consider 
them to signify the jxjwcrs of external nature jwrsoni- 
fied. For others they are, in many caaes. imiJenona- 
tions of human pa-ssions tind pro|X'nsities, reflected back 
from the mind of man. A fourth mode of interpreta- 
tion would treat them as copies, di.stortcd and depraved, 
of a primitive system of relipon given by God to man. 
The Apoetle St. Paul 8peak.s of them as devils; by which 
I fae may perhaps intend to convey that, under tlie names 
I and in connection with the worship of those deities, the 
[worst influences of the Evil One were at work. This 



would rnthor he a pulyective Uian an objective dewrip- 
tion; aiid would ratlier convey an rtccount of the pnic- 
ticnl working of a corrupted religion, than an explanation 
of it.s origin or its early courwi. Ah l>etween tlie other 
four, it seems probable that they all, in various degi-ees 
and manners, entered into the composition of the later 
pagani^^ra. and also of the Homeric or Ohinpian KV'stem. 
That H^stem, however, waw j)i"ofoundly adverse to mere 
Nature-worship; while the care of departments or prov- 
inces of external nature were assijnied to its leading 
personages. Such worship of natural objects or ele- 
mentiil powers, as prevailed in connection with it. was 
in general liKral or Hecondary. And the deification of 
heroes in the age of Homer was rare and merely titular. 
We do not find that any cult or system of devotion waa 
attached to it. " 

L?o humanly divine, so im|x)tently great are the gods 
of Homer; so tlioroughly investetl with the poxsions of 
men, clothed in distiuctive shades of human character; 
such mingletl virtue and vice, love and hate, courage and 
(xjwardice; animal passions uniting with noble senti- 
ments; bai^e and vulgar thoughts mth \oi\y and sub- 
lime ideas; and all so wniuglit up by his inimitable 
fancy into divine and BU[:>ematural beings, as to work 
most powerfully uj^on t!ie nature of the people. 

These concrete conceptions o!' his deities have ever 
been a source of consolation to the savage; for, by thus 
bringing down the goils to a nenrer level with liimself, 
they could Ik; more materially iiropitiated, and their pro- 
tection purchased with gifts and sacrifices. Thus the 
Greeks could obtain advice through oracles, the Hindoo 
could i>as8 at once into eternal joys liy thwwing himself 
under the car of Juggernaut, while the latter-day oiTender 
calls in the assistance of the departed, buys foi-giveness 
with charities, and compounds crime by building 

The diihcultv is, that in attempting to establish any 
theory concerning the origin of things, the soundest 
logic ia little else than wild speculation, ^lankind pro- 


gresa unconsciously. "We know not what problems we 
ourselves are working out for tliose who come after Ufi; 
we know not by what process we arrive at many of our 
oonclu«ion»; much of tlmt which is clear to ourselves ia 
never understood by our neighbor, and never will be 
even known by our ixist(.'rit\ . Evenb* the most material 
are soon forfrotten, or elue are nia<le spiritual and [ire- 
servcd a^ myths. Blot out the process by which science 
arrived at results, and in every achievement of science, 
in the steiun engine, the electric telegraph, we should soon 
have a heiiven-descencUsl agency, a g(xl ibr every ma- 
chine. AN'here m^iliology ceases and history begins, ia 
in the annals of every nation a matter of dispute. 
What at first apftears to be wholly fabulous may contain 
some truth, whereas much of what is held to bo true is 
mere fable, and herein excessive Hkeptioisra is as un- 
wii«e a-s excessive cixnlulity. 

Historical facts, if unrecorded, are Boon lost. Thus 
when Juan de Ofwite penetnited New Mexico in 1596, 
Fray Marco de Niza, and the cxperlition of Coronodo in 
1540. ap^K'ar to have been entirely forgotten by the 
Cilx)lnn>*. Fathers Crespi and Junipero Serra, in their 
overland explorations of 17(J1>, preparatory to tlie estab- 
lishment of a lino of Missions along tlie Califoniian 

ix)anl, could find no tnices, in the minds of the natives, 
of Cabrillo's vuynge in lo4'J, or of the landing of Sir 
Kraueis Drake in 1570; although, so impressed were the 
I in the latter instJiiice, that, actxirding to the worthy 
diaplatn of the ex|KHlilion, they desinnl ''with submis- 
sion and fear to worshij) us as gods." Nor wui we think 
civilized memories — which nscrilK* the plays of Sliuke- 
speare to Hacon, and pjircel out the Iliad of Homer 
among nunilxjrless imrecorded verse-makers — more te- 
nacious. Kretierick Augustus AVolf denies that a Homer 
ever existed; or. if he did, that he ever wrote his poem. 
a.s writing wa<» at that time not generally known; but he 
claims tliat snatches of history, descending orally from one 

jei-ation to another, in the end coalesced into the 

itchlesrt Iliad and Odyssey. The event which bo 



strongly impressed the father, becomes vagiie in the 
mind of the wn, and in the third generation is either 
lost or becomes legendary. Inddents of recent occur- 
rence, contemiwrary perhaps with the narration, are 
sometimes so misinterpreted by ij;noraiice or diistorted 
by prejudice, as to place the fact strangely at variance 
with the recitftl. Yet no incident nor action falls pur- 
poseless to the ground. Unrecorded it may Ix;, unwit^ 
nessed, unheard by beings material; a thought-wave 
even, lost in space invisible, acting, for aught we know, 
only upon the author ; yet so acting, it casts an influence, 
stamps on fleeting time its reconl, thereby fulfdling its 
destiny. Thus linger vajxjry conceits long after the 
action which created them has sunk into oblivion ; unde- 
fined shadows of substance dejxirted ; none the less im- 
pressive lx?cause mingled with immortal imagery. 

Turn now from outward events to inner life; from 
events grown shadowy with time, to life ever dim and 
mysterious alike to savage and sage. Ever> where man 
beholds much that is incomprehensible; within, aromid, 
the past, the future. Invisible foi*ces are at work, in- 
visible iigencies play upon his destiny. And in the 
creations of fancy, which of necessity grow out of the 
influence of nature U|x)n the imagination, it is not 
strange that mysteries darken, facta and fancies blend; 
the past and the future uniting in a 8Ui)ematural 

We are never content with positive knowledge. From 
the earhest workings of the mind, creations of fancy 
play as importiuit a i>art in ethical economy (i» positive 
perceptioiLs. Nor docs culture in any wise lessen tliese 
fanciful ci-eations of tlie intellect. In the iwlitical arena 
of civilized nations, wars and revolutions for tlie en- 
forcement of opinion concerning matters Ix^yond the 
reach of positive knowledge, liave e^pialed if they have 
not exceeded wars for empire or a.scendancy. In the 
social and individual afl'iiirs of life we are governed 
more by the ideal than by the real. On reaching the 
limits of positive knowledge, reason pauses, but fancy 



overleaps the boundary, and wanders forward in an end- 

lleas waste of H^KX-ulatioTi. 

The tendency of intellectual progress, according to 
the philosophy of Herlxjrt Spencer, in from tlie concrete 
to the aJistract. fi-om the honiojieneous to tlie hoteroge- 
9pus^ from tl»e knowahle to tlie unknowable. Priinor- 
ly nothing was known; afi sui^erMtitions and prioKt- 
cnift grew rank, everytliing liecanie known ; tlu-i'e wa** 
not a problem in the natural or in the HujK'rnatural 
world unriolvable b\^ relijrion. Now, when mmie ele- 
nienttt of a(>Ht)lute knowkilire are beginninjj to iij)i)earj 

' we discover, not only that little is positively known, but 
that much of wliat ha^^ ])een hitherto deemed pjist con- 
trovertingj ih, vnuler tlie present rt'i^iine of tbought, 
absolutely unknowable. Formerly ultimate religious 
knowledge wa.-* attJiined by the very novices of religion, 
and ultimate 8cientilic knowledge wa« explained thmugh 
their fanatical conceptions. Not only were all tlie mys- 
teries of the material universe easily solved by the 
FatherM, but heavvn was measured and the phenomena 
of hell minutely described. Now we are just begin- 
ning to oompi*eliend that ultimate facts will pr-obably 
ever remain unknowable fjwts, for when the present 
ultimate is attained, an eternity of undiscovered truth 
will still lay stretched out before the searcher. Until 
the finite becomes infinite, and time la()»es into eternity, 
the reahn of thought will remain mitilled. At present, 
and until the scope of the intellect is materially en- 
larged, such theories as the origin of the universe — 
held by atheistj* to be self-existent, by pantheists to have 
been (*lf-<Teatefl, and by theists to have been origiiiated 
by an external agency — must remain, as tliey ai-e now 
ajlmitted to Ije, f[uestions Ijeyond even the oomprehen- 
flion of tin? iTttelletrt. Likewise scientific idtimates — such 

\ as tlie (pialitics of time and space, tlie divisibility of mat- 
ter, the co-ordination of motion and rest, the correlation 
of forces, the mysteries of gravitation, light and heat — 
arc found to l>e not only not solvable, but not conceiva- 

' ble. And, as with the external, so with the inward 



life; wc cannot conceive the nature, nor explain the 
origin and durution, of consciousness. The endless spec- 
ulationR of biology and psychology only leave impres- 
sions lit once of tile strength and weakness of the mind 
of niiui; strong in empirical knowledge, impotent in 
every attempt rationally to [xnietrnte the unfathomable. 
Nowhere in mythology do we find the world self-created 
or self-existent. Some external agency is ever brought 
in to jxjrfonn the work, and in the end the structure of 
the ujiiverse is resolved into its original elements. 

Primowiial man finils himself surrounded by natural 
phenomena, the o])erations of which his intelligence is 
capable of grasping but partially. Certain api^etites 
sharpen, at once, certain instincts. Ilunger makes him 
acquainted with the fruits of the earth; cold with the 
skins of bcitsts. Accident supplies him with rude im- 
plements, and imparts to him a knowledge of hi.« jiower 
over animals. But as instinct merges into intellect, 
strange powers in nature are ielt; invisible agents wield- 
ing invisible wea^wns; i*ealities which exist unheanl and 
move unseen; outward manifestations of hiildt-n strength. 
Htuuanity, divine, but \v\\d and wontlei'ing, half-fed, 
Imlf-clad, ranges woods primeval, hears the roar of bat- 
tling elements, sees the aucient forest-tree sbiveniHl into 
fragments l>y heaven's artillery, feels the solid earth rise 
up jji rum?jling waves Ix^neath his feet. He receives, as 
it were, a blow from withiji the darkness, and flinging 
hima'lf ujwn the ground he l^egs protection; frt)m what 
he kiiowH not. of whom he knows not. **Hury me not, 
tumultuuus heavens," he cries, "under the clouds of 
your displetusure!" ''Strike me not down in wrath, 
fierce flaming fire!" ''Earth, be finn!" Here, then, is 
the origin of prayer. And to render more eft'ectual his 
entreaties, a gift is offered. Seizing u\xm whatever he 

Erizes most, his fijod, his raiment, he rushes forth and 
urls his propitiatory offering heavenward, earth wjird. 
whithersoever his frenzied fancy dictates. Or, if this 
is not enough, the still more dearly valued gift of human 
blood or human life is offered. His own flesh he freely 



lacerates; to Rave his own life he gives that of his 
enemy, his slave, or even liis cliikl. Hence arises sac- 

And here also conjiirings oomtnence. The necessity 
is felt of opening up some mtercourse with these mys- 
terioiw powers; relations commercial and social ; calami- 
ties and casualties, pei-Munal and public, must be traced 
to causes, and the tormenting demon Ixjught oft'. But it 
is clearly evident that these elemental forces are nut all 
of tJiem inimical to tlie happiness of mankind. Sun- 
shine, air and water, the l>enigii inHuences in nature, 
:ire as powerful to create, a.s the adverne elements rti*e to 
destroy. And as these forces appear conHioting, jMirt 
productive of life and enjoyment, and part of destruc- 
tion, decay, and death, a se|Miration is made. Hence 
principles of gootl and evil are discovered; and to all 
these unaccountable forces in nature, names and proper- 
ties are ^iven, and causations invented. For every act 
there is an actor — for every deed a doer; for every 
power and jMLssion there is made a god. 

Thus we see that worship in some form is a human 
necessity, or, at least, a con.staiit accompaniment of hu- 
manity. Until perfect wisdom and limitless |>ower arc 
the attributes of humanity, adoration will continue; for 
men will never ceitse to reverence what they do not un- 
derstand, nor will they cease to fear such elements of 
rtriMOiTth as are beyond tlieir control. The form of this 
conciliat*)ry homa^ apixjara to arise from comnion hu- 
man instincts; for, throu»;hout the world and in all 
agdfl, ft similarity in primitive religious forms has existed. 
It is a giving of somuthing; the barter of a valuable 
wniething for a something more valuable. As in his 
civil (xjlity all crimes may Ixi coni|Mtunded or avengetl, 
so in hLs woi>ihip, the savage gives his pride, his pro[>- 
erty, or his blood. 

At first, this spirit jx>wer is seen in everything; in 
the storm and in the soft evening air; in clouds and 
catanicts, in mountains, rocks, and nvers; in trees, in 
reptiles, beasts, and fishes. But when progressive man 


obtaini* a more perfect mafltery over the bnite creation, 
brute woivliip ceases; ai? he becomes familiar with the 
cauwes o^ some of the foi-ces in nature, and is Ix-tter able 
to protect^If from them, tbe fear of natural objects 
Is lessened. Leaving tJie level of the brute creation he 
mounts upward, and sek^ting from his own species some 
Uving or dead lieix), be endous a king or comnide with 
superhimian attributes, and worships his dead fellow 
as a divine Ix'ing. Still he tunus his thoughts to subtler 
creations, and carves with akillfid Hngers material images 
of supernatunil forms. Then comes idolatry. The great 
principles of cjiusation !x?ing determined and emlxxlied 
in perceptible forms, adorations ensue. Cravings, how- 
ever, increase* Aa the intellect expands, one idol after 
another is thrown do\N-n. Alind assumes the mastery 
over matter. I'Vom gods of wood and stone, made by 
men's fingers, and from suns and planets, carved by the 
fingers of omnipotence, the creature now turns to the 
Creator. A fonn of ideal worsbip supplants the mate- 
rial form; gods known and tangible are thro^vn aside 
for the unknown Uod. And well were it for the intel- 
lect could it stop here. But, as the actions of countless 
material gods were clear to tlie primitive priest, and by 
him sat isfjic tori ly explainetl to the savage masses; so, in 
this more tidvaiiced state men are not wanting -who re- 
ceive from their id&il god revelations of his actions and 
motives. To its new, unknown, ideal god, the partially 
awakened human mind attiiches the positive attributes 
of the old, material deities, or invents new ones, and 
starts anew to tre^id the endless mythologic cirele ; until 
in yet a higher state it discovers that both god and attri- 
butes are wholly beyond its grasp, and that with all its 
progress, it has lulvanced but slightly beyond the first 
savage conception ;— a power altogether mysterious, in- 
explicable to science, controlling phenomena of mind 
and matter. 

Barbarians are the most religious of mortals. While 
the busy, overworked brain of the scholar or man of 
buflincfis is occupieii with more practicKal affairs, the list- 



lesft mind of the savage, thrown iia he is upon the very 
b(»soxn of nature, is filled with iniiumt'rable conjectures 
and interrogatories. His curiwrity, like that of a chiM^ 
w proverliial, and iw superstition is ever the resource of 
ignorance. qiietT fancies and fantasms concerning life and 
death, and gods and devils float continually througli his 
I unenlightenetl imagination. 

Ill-protected IVoni the elements, his comfort and his 

noertain food-supply depending upon them, primitive 

aan regards nature with eager interest. Ijike the 

sts, his forest comjmnions, he places himself as far as 

(able in harmony with his environment. Ho migrates 

the seasons; feasts when food is plenty, fsistH in 

Ifcmine-time; hiLsks and gamlmlsin the Hun.sluue, cowers 

loenenth the fury of the storm, crawls from tlie cold into 

[his den. and there quasi-torpidiy remains until nature 

jreleaHes him. In it theiefore .ntiiuige that savage intel- 

llect peoples the elements with sui>ernatural ix>wers; tliat 

iGod is even'where, in everything; in the most trilling 

^accident and incident, as well a.H in the sun, the w.;a, the 

grove ; that when evil comes God is angry, when fortune 

sniles God is favorable; and that lie S[)eaks to his wild, 

'untutored iK-ople in signs and dreams, in the tem(«?st and 

in the sunshine. Nor does he withhold the still, small 

'Voice, which breathes uj^m minds mast darkened, and 

[into breasts the most savjige, a sjiirit of progress, which, 

[if a people lie left to the free fulHllment of their destiny, 

[jB sure, sooner or later, to ripen into full development. 

We will now glance at the origin of fetichism, which 

indeed may be called the origin of ideal religion, from 

the (rthf-r -standpiiiut; that which arises from the respect 

' men feel for tbe memory of their departed ancestors. 

Tlie first conception of a dualty in man's nature haa 

'been attributed to various c;vus*es; it may be the result of 

r* combination of cause.**. 1'liere is the shadow upon 

the ground, separate, yet inseparable; the reflection of 

.tlie form ujion the water; tlie echo of the voice, 

[the adventurer of fancy jwrtrayed by dreams. Self 

VuL. u. t 




is divifflble from and inseparably connected with this 
other self. llerefix)m arise innumerable superstitions; it 
was iwrtentous of misfortune for one's clothes to be 
8tep[)ed on; no food must be IcH uneaten; nail clippinga 
and lucks of liair must not fall into the hands of an 
enemy. Catlin, in sketching his |n»rtraits, often nurmw- 
ly esai|xtl with hLs life, the Indians believing that in 
their likenesses he carried away their other self. 
And wlien death comes, and this other self departs, 
whither lias it gone ? The lifeless body remains, but 
where is the life? The mind cannot conceive of the 
total cxtinjfuishment of an entity, and so the imagina- 
tion rears a local habitation for every departed spirit. 
Every phenomenon and every event is analyzed under 
this hyix^thesis. For every event there is not only a 
cause, but a jiersonal cause, an independent agent behind 
every consequence. Every animal, every fish and bird, 
every rock and stream and plant, the rii>eninj; fruit, 
the falling rain, tlie uncertain wind, the sun and fltars, 
are all j^ersonilied. There is no disease without its god 
or devil, no fish entangled in the net, no !x>tust or bird 
that falls Ix'fore the luniter, without its si>ecial sender. 
Sava|:e.s are more afraid of a dead man than a live 
one. They are ovenvlielmed with terror at the thought 
of this unseen jKiwer over them. The spirit of the de- 
parted is omnipotent and omnipresent. At any cost or 
hazaifl it must be propitiated. So fowl is phiced in tlie 
grave; wives and slaves, and horses and dogs, are slain, 
and in spirit sent to serve the ghost of tlie dejKirted; 
phantom messengers are sent to the region of shadows 
from time to time; the messengers sometimes even vol- 
unteering to go. So boats and weajjons and all the 
proi)erty of the deceased are burned or dejxjsited with 
him. In the hand of ttie de:ul child is pL'tccnl a toy; in 
that of the dejMirted warrior, theHymlx)lic \n\^ of (>eace, 
which is to o|)en a tr:m(|iiil entr.uice into his new alwde; 
clothes, and ornaments, ami paint, are conveniently 
placed, and tlnis a pro|ier [lersonal ap(>earance guaran- 
teed. Not that the things themselves are to be used, 



but the Bouls of things. The body of the chief rots, 
as does the material subKUince of the articles buried 
with it; but the soul of every article follows the soul of 
its owner, to 8er\'e its own peculiar end in the land of 

The Chinese, grown cunning with the great antiquity 
of their burial customs, which i*e(iuire money aud food 
to be deposited for the benetit of the deceased, spiritiml- 
ixe the money, by making an imitation coin of paste- 
board, while tlio food, untouched by the dead, is finally 
eaten by thimiw»lvL's. 

But whence arises the Btrarige propensity of all prim- 
itive nations to worship iinirniils, and jilants, and stones, 
things animate ami inanimate, natural and supernatural? 
Why is it that all nations or tribes select from nature 
aome object which they hold to be sacred, and which 
they venerate as deity? It is the opinion of Herbert 
Spencer that *'the rudimentary form of all religion \a 
the propitiation of dead ancestors, who arc suppised to 
be ^11 existing, and to be capable of working good or 
evil to their descendants." It istheuniversalcustora with 
savage tribes, as the character of their members Ix^oornes 
developed, to drop the real name of individuals and 
to Bx u|)on them the attribute of some external object, 
whose name only they are afterwards known. Thus 
l'0irift runner is called the ' anteloiie,' the slow of f<x)t, 
the * tortoise,' a merciless warrior, the * wolf,' a dark- 
eyed maid may lie likened to the 'raven,' a majestic 
nuUnm to the 'cypress.' And so the rivulet, tlie rock, the 
dawn, tlie sun, and even elements invisible, are seized up- 
, on as metaphors and fasteiietl ujwn individuals, according 
to a real or fancied resemblance between the t|ualitiee 
of natiu*e and the character of the men. Inferiority 
and Ixi-seness. alike with nobleness and wise conduct, 
perpetuate a name. Kven in ciWlized societies, a nick- 
name often takes the place of the real name. School- 
boy* are quick to distinguish ^peculiarities in their fel- 
lows, and fasten upon them significant names. A dull 
iwholar is called ' cablMige-head,' the girl with red ring- 


lets, ' carrots.' In the family there is the greody 
*pig,' the darUng 'duck/ the Uttle Mainb.' In new 
countries, and abnormal communities, where strangers 
from all partM are pi*omiscuously thrown together, not un- 
fre{|uently men live on terms of intimacy i'or years with- 
out ever knowing each other's real name. Among miners, 
such a[)peHations lis 'Muley Hill,' 'Sandy/ 'Sliorty/ 
'Saj*sarras .lack,' otlen serve all the |>ur|)0.«OM of a name. 
In more refined circles, there is the !iy|>«)critical 'cro- 
codile/ tiic sly 'fox/ the gruff 'iKjar.' We say of the 
horse, * he is as lleet as the wind/ of a rapid account- 
antf *hc is as quick as lightning.' These names, which 
are used by us hut for the moment, or to fit occjusions, 
are among rude nations |K.'rnianent— in many instanoen 
the only name a iktsou ever receives. 

Sometimes the nickname of the individual l)ecor] 
first a family name and then a tribal name; as wl 
the chief, * Coyote/ becomes renowned, his children 
love to call themselves *Coyotes/ The chieftainship 
descending to the son and grandson of Coyote, the 
name becomes famous, the Coyote family the domin- 
ant family of the trif»; members of the trilie, in Uieir 
intercourse with other triljes. call themselves 'coyotes/ 
to distinguish themselves from other tribes; the head, 
or tail, or claws, or skin, of the coyote ornaments the 
dress or axioms tlie Uxly ; the name Ixicomes trdial, and 
the animil the symbol or totem of the tribe. Aller a 
few gentiratlous have passed, the great chieiYiiin, T'oyote, 
and his iinuiediate progeny are forgotten; meanwhile 
the bwist !)tH*oines a favorite with the i>eople; he begins 
to be regarded as privileged; is not hunte<l down like 
other beasts; the virtues and exploits of the whole 
Coyote clan become identified with the brute ; the af- 
fections of the people are ci?ntered in the animal, and 
finally, all else being lost and forgotten, the descendanta 
of the chieflain, Coyote^ ore the offspring of the veri- 
table bea*rt, coyote. 

Concerning image-worship and the material represen* 
tation of ideal beings, Mr. Tylor believes that '* when 



man has got some way m dovelojnng the relifnoiis ele- 
nwmtin liim, he begins to catch at the device of setting up 
A puppet, or a stone, as the symlxjl and representative of 
the notions of a higher being which are floating in his 

Primitive huiguages cannot express abstract quahties. 
For every kind of animal or bird or phmt there may be 
a name, but for animals, plantH, and birds in general, they 
have no name or conception. Therefore, the abstract 
quaUty becomes the concrete idea of a god, and the de- 
scendants of a man whoi<e symbolic name was ' dog/ 
from being the children of the man become the child- 
ren of the dog. 

Hence also arise monsters, Ijcings compounded of 
bird, and fish, sjihinxes, mermaids, human-headed 
lirntes, wingt*d animals; as when the descendant of tlie 
' hawk ' carries off a wife from the * salmon ' tribe, a totem 
representing a fish with a hawk's liciui for a time keeps 
alive the occurrence and finally Ix'comes the deity. 

Thus realities become metaphors and metaphoi's reali- 
ties; the fact dwindles into shadowy nothingness and 
the fancy springs into actual Ixiing. The historical inci- 
dent becomes first indistinct and then is forgotten; the 
metaphoriciil name of the dead ancestor is first respected 
in the animal or plant, then worshiped in the animal 
or plant, and finally the nickname and the ancestor both 
are forgotten and the idea becomes the entity, and the 
veritable object of worship. From forgetfulnesa of primo- 
genitor and metaphor, conceiving tlie animal to be the 
very ancestor, words are put into the animal's mouth, the 
tea)*ing8 of the ancestor l>ecome the sayings of the bnite; 
■ hence mythological l^ends of talking bettsts, and birds, 
and udse tifthes. To one animal is attributed a miracu- 
lous cure, to another, assistance in time of trouble; one 
animal is a deceiver, imother a betrayer; and thus 
tlirough their myths and metaphors we may look back 
into tIk' wuI of savagism and into their soul of nature. 

That this is the origin of some phases of fetichism 
there can be no doubt; that it is the origin of all reli- 


gionif, or even the only method by which animal and 
plant worahip originates, I do not believe. While 
there are undouljtedly general principlea underlying all 
religioiii! crmceptione, it doefl not necessarily follow, that 
in every instance the methods of arriving at those funda- 
mental principles must be identical. As with us a cluld 
weeps over a dead mother's picture, r^arding it with 
fond devotion, so the dutiful barbarian son, in order tihe 
better to propitiate the favor of his dead ancestor, saoifr- 
times carves his image in wood or stone, which sentiment 
with time lapses into idolatry. Any object which strikes 
the rude fancy as analogous to the character of an indi- 
vidual may iKicorne an object of worship. 

The interpretation of myth can never be absolute and 
positive ; yet we may in almost every instance discov^ 
the general purport. Thus a superior god, we may be 
ftlmost sure, refers to some potent hero, some primitive 
ruler, whom tradition ho^ made superhuman in origin and 
in power J demigods, subordinate or inferior beings in 
power, must bo regarded ns legendary, referring to cer- 
tain influential persons, identified with some element or 
incident in which the deified personage played a con- 
spicuous part. 

Although in mythology religion is the dominant ele- 
ment, yet mythology is not wholly made up of religion, 
nor are all primitive religions mythical. " There are 
few mistakes" says Professor Max MUller "so widely 
spread and so firmly established as that which makes us 
oonfonnd the religion and the mythology of the ancient 
nations of the world. How mythology arises, necessarily 
and naturally, I tried to explain in my former lectures, 
and we saw that, as an affection or disorder of language, 
mythology may infect every jmrt of the intellectual life 
of man. True it is tliat no ideas are more liable to my- 
tliologtoal disoaso than n'ligious ideas, because they 
tranwHtnd IhoNO n^gions of our oxjierience within whidi 
limgiiiigt* luiN its natural origin, and must therefore, ac- 
eonliiig to tlioir vorv nature, iro satisfied with metaphori- 
cal ox pivssioiiH. Kyo hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither 


I hath it entered into the heart of man. Yet even the 
[jreligions of the ancient nations are by no means inevi- 
ftubly and altogether m^ihological. On the contrary, as 
pft di8eAsed fnune pre-.snpjxwes a liealthy fnune, so a 
|in\'thological rehgion pre-supposes, 1 hclievc, a lieahhy 

The universal secretj* of supernatural Ixjinps are wrap- 
[ped up in probable or possible fable; the elements of 
physical nature are imjx^rsonatcd in allegories, and 
[arrayed in forms perceptil)le to the imajrination; deities 
[are sometimes introduced into the machinery of the 
[Bupematural in order to gratify that love for the mar- 
[veloufl which every attempt to explain the mysterious 
[forces of nature creates in the ijrnorant mind. Yet 
[it cannot truly be 8aid that any fonn of religion, much 
any relij^ion was wholly invente<I. Kanatica somc- 
Itimeii originate doctrines, and the Church sets forth its 
[dojjina*. but there must be a foundation of truth or the 
^edifice cannot stand. Inventions there undouljtudly 
[bavc been and are. but inventions, sooner or later fall 
llo the ground, while the essential principles underlying 
ileligion and mythology, though momentarily overcome 
[or swept away, iwv sui*e to remain. 

Every one of the fundamental ideas of relipon is of 
[indigenous origin, generating spontaneously in the 
Ifcuman heart. It is a characteristic of mythology that the 
|pre«ent inhabitants of the world descended from some 
IHobler race. From the nobler impulses of fancy the 
rnvagc derives his origin. IUh higher instincts teach 
ILim, that his dim distant past, and his inij>enetrable 
jliiture, are alike of a lighter, more ethereal nature; that 
[bis earthly nature is base, that that whicli binds him 
|ta eajth is the lowest, \\\est part of himself. 

The tendency of positive knowlege is to overthrow 
|«upen«tition. Hence as science develojw, many tenets of 

fcblished religions, pali>ably erroneous, are di'op]x»<l, and 
Ithe more knowledge becomes real, the more real know- 
Jkdge is denied. Superstition is not the eftect of an 
i^ctive imagination, but shows rather a lack of imagination, 


for we see that the lower the stage of intelligence^ and 
the feebler the imi^nation, the greater the superstition. 
A keen, vivid imagination, although capable of broader 
and more complicated conceptions, is able to explain the 
cruder marvels, and consequently to dispel the coarser 
phases of superstition, while the dull intellect accepts 
everything which is put upon it as true. Ultimate reli- 
gious conceptions are symbolic rather than actual. Ul- 
timate ideas of the universe are even beyond the grasp 
of the profoundest intellect. We can form but an ap- 
proximate idea of the sphere on which we live. To form 
conceptions of the relative and actual distances and 
magnitudes of heavenly bodies, of systems of worlds, and 
eternities of space, the human mind is totally inadequate. 
If, therefore, the mind is unable to grasp material visible 
objects, how much less ore we able to measure the invisi- 
ble and eternal. 

When therefore the savage attempts to solve the prob- 
lem of natural phenomena, he first reduces broad concep- 
tions to symbolic ideas. He moulds his deity according 
to the measure of his mind ; and in forming a skeleton 
upon which to elaborate his religious instincts, proximate 
theories are accepted, and almost any explanation ap- 
pears to him plausible. The jwtential creations of his 
fancy are brought within the compass of his comprehen- 
sion; symbolic gods are moulded from mud, or carved 
from wood or stone ; and thus by segregating an infi- 
nitesimal part of the vast idea of deity, the worshiper 
meets the material requirements of his religious con- 
ceptions. And although tlie lower forms of worship are 
abandoned as the intellect unfolds, the same principle 
-is continued. We set up in the mind 8\Tnbols of the ulti- 
mate idea which is too great for our grasp, and imagining 
ourselves in possession of the actual idea, we fall into 
numberless errors concerning what we believe or think. 
The atheistic hy|x)thesis of self-existence, the pantheistic 
hypothesis of self-creation, and the theistic hypothesis of 
creation by an external agency are equally unthinkable, 
and therefore as postulates equally untenable. Yet un- 




derlyiTifr all. liowever ^ttoks or »ui)er.stitiou» the tlogma, 
is one tundaraentul truth, niuuely, that there is a prob- 
lem to be solved, an existent mysterious universe to be 
accounted for. 

Deep down in every human breast is implanted a 
religiosity as a fundamental attribute of mans nature; 
a conscioueness that l>ehind viyible api)earanccs is an in- 
visible power; underlying all conception is an instinct 
or intuition from which there is no escape, that beyond 
mut<Tiul ;ictualitieH j)otential agencicH are at \v<Mk; and 
thnjiighciut all U^iff, froui the i*tupidi;st fetic.hisin to the 
nwst exalted monotheism, as part of these iuKtinctive con- 
victions, it is held that tbe U'lngw, or lieing, who rule 
man's destiny may l>e pn»pitiattHl. 

The first cry of nature is hushed. From time im- 
memorial nations and peoples have come and gone, 
whence and whitlier no one knows; enteruig existence 
unannounced tliey disapi^ear and leave no trace, save 
^rhai>s their impress on the language or the mythology 
Of the world. Thus from historic fact blended with the 
religious sentiments springs the M^ihic Idea. 

In the following chapters, I have attempted, as far as 
practicable, to classify the Myths of the Pacific States 
under appropri ate heads. 1 n making such a classification 
there is no dil!iculty, except where in one myth occur 
two or more divisions of the subject, in which case it 
becomes necessary, either to break the narrative, or 
make exceptions to the general rule of clasnilying. I 
• have invariably adopted the latter alternative. The 
divi«ons which I make of Mytholi)gy are as follows: 1. 
Origin and Knd of Things; II. Tliysical Myths; III. 
Animal M^-ths; IV. Gods, Sui)ernatural Beings, and 
Worship; V. The Future State. 



QniCBJE CBiATtoN-MTTH— Amo OBiaxv-MrrBB— Thb Papaoob— Mov 

lu. AND THS CoTOTi — Thx Uoqdis — The Gbkat Spidsb's Wbb ov thb 
FiHAs— Natajo AMD VcKBjjo Cbkationb — Obioih ov Clxab Lakx AKD 
Lake Tahob— -Chakkta or thk Cahbocs— Moumt Shasta, ths Wn>. 
WAM or THE Gbxat Spibtt— Idaho Spbinob and Wateb Fau.b — How 


Thlinkebts— TsE Batik and the Doo. 

Of all American peoples the Quiches, of Quatein&- 
la, have left us the richest mythological legacy. Tlieir 
description of the creation as given in the Popol Vuh, 
which may be called the national book of the Quiches," 

1 In Vienna in 1657, the book now beat known as the Fopol Tnh 
was first brought to the notice of European schoUrs, under the ioUowii^ 
title : Las llidimas del Origen de los Inaioa de esta Frovincia de Ouatentala, 
traducidas de la Lengua Quiche ai CasteUano patv mas Comodidad d» lot 
Minialros dd S. Eiyingtiio,por tl B. P. F. Fmncisco Xinienu, cura doet r i n en 
por el real patronato del Pw^lo de S. Thomas Ckuila. — ExactamenU tegwi 
el texto espaHol dd manuscrUo original que ae haUa en la hiblioUea de to 
Universidad de Ou<Uemala, publicado por la primera vet, y aumentado oom , 
una iniroduceion y anotacUmett par tl Dr C. Scherxer, What Dr Bcherzer 
says in a paper read before the Vienna Academy of Sciences, Feb. 20th, 
1856; and repeats in his introduction, about its author, amounts to this: In 
the early part of the 18th centuir Francisco Ximenez, a Dominican Father of 
^at repute for bis learning and his love of truth, filled the office of oorate 
in the little Indian town of Chichicastenango in the hishlands of Gnatemala. 
Neither the time of his birth nor that of his death can be exactly aso«iainod, 
but the internal evidence of one of his works shows that he was engaged 
upon it in 1721. He left many roanuscri{>t8, but it is supposed tut 
the unpalatable truths some of them contain with regard to the ill-treatment 
of the Indians by the colonial anthorities sufficed, as previously in the case 
of Las Casas, to ensure their mrtial destruction and total suppression. What 
remains of them lay long hid in an obscure comer of the Convent of the 
Dominicans in Guatemala, and passed afterwards, on the supression of all 





is, in its rude strange eloquence und poetic orip;inality, 
one of the nirest relics of aborij^inal thouglit. Althougli 
obliged in reproducing it to condense soniewhut, 1 have 

the r^tifrioiui orders, into the libnuy of the UnivemitT of San Carlos (Gna- 
t«nuUA>. Here I>r. tkhcrz«*r dixt-ovfrt'cl thctn in JtinB IHTtl, mid citre- 
fttllr (vpicd, and afterwardii pnbliithed av abcive the iinrticuUir IrcutiiM) 
Tritu which we «re now conwrnrd. TbU, ac(\>rtliii({lo Kiitlii'r XiiufUfZ hiio> 
■rtl, and nrwmUng to ila inlerniU eviilence, i» n IrauHlutinn u{ a /i'mi/ t-opy u( 
an ori){iiial liook, written by oue or more Qnirhf^A, in th<« l^niche luntjiittge, in 
Boman letttTK, nftt*r the ChriHtimut hal u<.*L'iipit>tl GuiLt^tuuila, aud after the 
leal origiiutl Popol Vuli — Katioiuil honk — bad W^ti lost or destroyed— lile- 
raUj, wait DO man to be seen — and vrritt^ii to rtuUic- thnt Icmi Itook. ' Qnino 
tnuadar todos hia historian <i It Mm dti fHton mdioH, y timbi<'n trrulndrin 
en ta lei^^ coatelUna.' 'E^ito vKcriinreinoa ya i-n Lt Iry do Diux en 1a 
cvutiandad, loa fuuMreinon. pnrtiuB ya no hay libro comnu, originaj donda 
■WfJo, Aiwriiej, //W. Iiitt. Uuot., -pp. 1,4,5. ' Voili e*> q«e nous t'mroiis d#. 
jrais ^qn'on n nromnlftat;) la panile de Uien, et en dedans dn Christian] Htne; 
notu le rc^prodnirotiH. parve qu'on ne roit plux c« Livre iinliouitl.' ' Yiio 
x<chi-ka tzibah chumn chic u chabal IHoa. pa ChiistinQoil chit-: x-rhl-k'- 
alfrzah, rumal lua-hubi chic ilbal re l*opo-Vuh,' Jira.-uieur Jf. Jiourfr'ttr<j, J'oixU 
Vtih, p. 5. Tbe evidence that the author watt Quiche will W foniid id 
tha Bumermia paasa(>ea soottcred through the narrative in which ho 
■peaks oi the Qruchu uation, and of the anoeatoia of that nation as 'our 
pfcple, * our ani>estorB, ' and so on. Wo piuui now to wbnt the Abb'- Hras- 
aeor de Bourbours ban to say about the book. He Hnyc that Ximcnei 
'diseorervd thia document, in the laxt yoara of ibo 17th centaiy.' In 
18S5, at Goatemala, the abb(< Hint aaw Ximrnez' mannscript otmtAininfl thU 
voric. Tha manaacript eoalaiued the Quit:hc text and the Spauiah curotv'ti 
tranalation of that text, nraaseur de IJuurbourg copied buth at that time, but 
he waa dhaaitiaAed with the tiuuuUtiuu. behevInK it to be full of fuultH owiuc 
to tha prvjudicee and the ignorance of the Of^ iu which it was mode, ns well 
ai dlaflgun-d b^ abridiciucuts and omisaions. Bo in 18U0 be flvttled himself 
aaoiw the? Quicht'H nud by tha help of nativea juiued to hla own practical 
loomwhte of tbcir lani^u^. h« elaboratvd a now aud literal tnmsltitiuu, 
(mari litt'-rali^ ijii'il n iti: poaafble dc la fuiru). We neem Justified thin l>u 
tha whole iu taking thia docnmeut for what Xiuient^x and it<i own eiridruco 
declare it to hn. uauit-ly. a n-prudut-tiun uf nu ulder work vr budy at Quirhe 
traditional iuxtor^', vrntt«:n bivimse tliat fthU-r wurk had bet-u lust ntid wiis 
Itkly to W fur^utteu, uud wrilti-n by a Quicht- nut lun^ after the SmniHh 
anonttfat One C4>n»eqaenrc uf Ibc lost ftu't would weem to 1>e tbnt n tingi- of 
Mlhal axpmauon haw, cuutii-iuUHiy or uucuuiu-iuuHly to the (juicb J who 
W W to, iadueiwed the form of the uiu-mlive. But thtatm coinc-ideucos luay be 
l^cJIf aecidrntal, the mote aa there are also striking n)»embluuceiit tu exprva- 
aiosaiB tha Srandinavian Edila and tn the Hind(x> Yndii. And fven if they 
be BoC aecideuiat. 'much n-maioa,' adopting the luui^uufie and tbu coDcltr- 
noa ai ProfeAxor Max lllullcr, ' in these Anirrimn tnulitinnn irhirh is ao 
di0tfrent from an\tbiim elite in the national litt-rutnrt^s of othtT cnuntriea. 
fiukt we mar aofi-ly treat it aa the ccauine growth of the intellnctnal soil of 
Aiit'Ti''.'i.' ''I'itiM jr<it» a Herman Workiihi'p, vol. i,, p. 328, Fur the fore- 

r'll aa further iufumiation on tne anbiect aec: — Branjunir tin HttuT~ 
Vuh, pp. h-M. 105-231: *'ii firviif dt» Sourtt* df I'Hut. Prim., 
pp. nj-i ; jitat. tiea Sat. f 'ii-., lorn, i., pp. 47-<il; .YiniRHet, Higt. Irnl. tiuut., 
■p. 6-13; SeJtn-iwr. in SUiunybtrlehie 'It jikndemit dfr WinBmjAo/ttn WUn, 
W^ T^h.. 18G6: //r/pa' SpanM Conauett. vol. ir., pp. 4&&-4i. Profeiisor 
X&lbr in bia oaaay on tha Popol Van, hna in one or two plaf«>a niimnder- 
•tood the turtattve. There waa bo anch creation of man oa that he ^ree 
aa the acoond. while hia third erration is the aecond of tha original. 
Again, ha makea tha four Quichtf aaoe&ton to be the progenitm <4 


endeavored to give not only the substance, but nlflo, as 
far as possible, the jxicuUar style and phraseology of the 
original. It is with tliis primeval pictui-e, whose simple 
silent sublimity is that of the inscrutable post, that w^H 
be^n: — ^" 

And the heaven was fomiedj and all the signs thereof 
set in their angle and aligtnnent, and lis I)oundaries tixed 
towards the four winds b^- the Creator and Former, and 
Mother and Father of life and existence, — he by whom 
all move and breathe, tlie Father and Cherisher of the 
peace of nation.s anil of the civilization of his jieople, — 
ho whose wisdom !uls prtyected the excellence of all tliut 
is on tliK earth, or in tlie lakes, or in the sea. fl 

l^luilti tlie first word and the first discourse. There^ 
was as yx^t no man, nor any animal, nor bird, nor fish, 
norcrawlish, nor any pit, nor ravine, nor green herb, 
nor any tree; nothing was but the finnament. Tlie face 
of the earth had not yet appeared. — only the ix?aeeful sea 
and all the space of he^tven. There was nothing yet 
joined together, nothing that clung to anyihingelise; no- 
thing that balanced itself, that made the least rustling, 
that made a sound in the heaven. There was nothing 
that stood np; nothing but the quiet water, but the sea, 
calm and alone in its boundaries : nothing exiirted j no- 
thing but immobility and silence, in tlie darkness, in the 

all b'J6ffl both tphiti and Itlneki while they vBre thf pftrents of tlte 
and kiudird nteft onlv. Tht^ oourae of tfao lt>(;enil briu^'H im to ItibM 
mtrange blood, villi w^icti these four ancPNton nnd thr-ir jteojile worec 
kt mr. Tlie nnmtive it. however, itself ito c<Mifuse<l and cuatradictoiy 
ftt pointe, that it l« olmoitt {mpofuibli- to avoid tincb thingii: and. u • 
vbolo. th« ri^wH of Fnifef<«or MCilU-r on tho Popol Vuh wrni joAt nml well 
ooiuidered- nnldwin. Ancient AiMfrici, pp. 191-7, BiTe» a mere dilution of 
Profenor MOllrr's e«winy, nnd that without acknowledfrmeiit. 

s The original Qnich^rmnn as followR: 'An- u tzihoxtr vneca cntziniu-oe. 
-M ni cfaamam-oc, ea tzinoQH'; ra ea zUanip, ca ea lolintp, oa tolona tmrh b . 
pa onh. Yfte cat« nabe tab. nnbe uchan.— Ma-habi-oc bun rinulc. ha 
ohicop; tziqitin, car. tap, ebe, nbRh, liul, civon, quim, qtohelali: xn-nloqo 
eab qt^. Mavi cabu n racb uien : xa-utuquel remanio palo. u pah < 
jtmofael. Mu-babi nakila ea mulobic. ca cotzobic: hnnta ca zilobic; ca i 

ca ban'tah. ca cotx oa ban-tab pa cub. X-ma qo-Ti iialdla t^dic vaoaUo; : 

remiinic ha, xa lianic palo, xa-ntnqnel remanio; z-ma qo-vi "-^Vf" qolla. 
Xa ca cbamsnio, oa txinioio cbt K<*ktUD, chi A^nb.* 

This pa«si^;e in rendered by the AbW ItritKHour de Bonrboorg thns: ' Vol* 
ci le ructt comme qnoi toot etoit en rupous, tuot trtait oalmo et lilcncieui 





Alone also the Creator, the Former, the Dominator, 
tlie Feathered Serpent. — those that engendei-j those 
that give being, they are upon the water, like a 
growing light. Thej are enveloped in green and 
blue; and therefore their name is Oucuniatz.* Lo, 
now how the heavens exist, how exists also the 
Heart of TTeaven: such is the name of God; it is 
thus that he is called. And they spftke; they con- 
sulted together and meditated ; tliey mingled their woixls 
and their opinion. And the creation wa.s verily after 
this Karth, they said, and on the instant it was 
fanned; like a cloud or a fog was its beginning. Then 
the mountains rose over the water like great lobsters; 
in an in.stjint the mountains and tlie plains were visilile, 
and the cypress and the pine appeared. Then was the 
Gucumatz filled with joy, crying out: Blessed l>e thy 
coming. O Heart of Heaven, Hurakan, Thunderbolt. 
Our work and our labor has accomplished its end. 

The earth and its vegetation having thus apiJearcd, it 
was peopled with the various forms of anijnal life. And 
the Makers said to the animals: Speak now our name, 

toat ^tait imniofiilc. toat L-toit pniidbl^, ot viA^ t^t^it I' icnmoDfut^ des cit'Ui. 
ToiU done la iirptni^re parole et )i* premi^-diHoouni. 11 ii'^' uToit puK f>ni:ore 
on mml homm«. pan ttn aoima]; pun d'oiw^at. de poi»8ous, dVon-TiH8<>H, 
i» bais, de pirrre, ne fondrifres. d*> rarins, d'hert>e oxx be bucitgeti : aualprapiit 
le eirl ex^Btait. Ln fao« d« U terre He se manifeslait pivs enrart*: ^m\v la 
mer poinble ^tail et toot I'evpsce des cieiu. II ii'y iivitit fiJciirH rifii qui fit 
(«irr» ri.-i< -iiii «" rrampono&t k anire chone; rien qui se bii]on»;At, qni fit (le 
lu nt, Qoi fit (eotondre) on AondaiiH Ic ci^l. II n'y avait ricn 

#rii .1' ; (iin'y nvnit) i^neVf'UV ixu«ibl«i. qne U mprcafme i-tRenle 

cui . -f.^ l>»ritci>; car il d't avait nfn qui oxistAt. €<• nV'tait que I'liumoliili- 
l*»t lu MJU'nre dann lea t«ni?hre8, tUnn In nnit." I'npol I'u/i.p. 7. 

Aiul hy Franciflco Xiin<>npz tints: Est*.- 1-« sn s*r difho cnando cstiibii «iif<- 
peuo en dUina. enailenda, mu iDOTcrito. »in cosn i^ino vncio el delo. V esta 
m U pritnera palabra y «lc>cucuciii : aun no hnbia hombrca, auimalca, pajaroii. 
pc*c«ilo. (.auKri-jo. pato, piedra, hoya, bnrrancA, pijrv ci mont^. aino solo 
~ ' Stt el uiflo; DO w> majQifMUbu la faz de In lierra; aino qne aolo estalu el 
repreaado. y todolo del oiclo; nan nohabin coftit nlgnna juntn, maonaba 
k, id Miaa aignna so meneabo. ni cosa qiir hirir^m mal, ni vona qne biciora 
"ealt," (aato as raido en «i ciolo). ni babia ooan quo eataviefic tuinidn ?u 
pif ; ao)o H Bgaa r^prnuidfl, solo la mar aoaegada, aolo ella reprcaann. ni co^ix 
alcana habia nae estnviea<>; *olo eslaba en sflendo, y sosiego on la obacu- 
hdad, y la miefu^.* Hint. Ind. Uuat., pp. 6-4. 

1 •(Jurunuttt, litt'rnlciuent acqicnt empltun^, et dans nn scna plus t'tcndo, 
Mmt rvrHii de cuulcun brillaotea, de vert on d'aznr. Lea plumes du guo 

qnvCoU offrfot i^f^alcroout lea deux teintcfl. C'cei cxactzacDt la niimo 

1dkn»*> quft ijutUttlcohHatl daiXA la langne ueucaino.* Brasamtr dt Jiourbcurg, 
0W. dea Sat. V'to.. torn. L, p. GO. 


honor uf. us ^-oar mother and &ther; invoke Hnnkan, 
the Li^ditning.flafih. the Thunderbolt that etzikee, the 
Heart of Heaven, the Heart at the Earth, the OealDr and 
Former. Him who begets, and Him who gives being, — 
.Speak, call on us. salute us! So was it said to the animah 
Hut the animals oould not answer; they oould net ^leak 
at all afler the manner of men : thev ooald only ckK^ 
and cnjak. each murmunng after his kind in a difierent 
manner. This displeased the CreatDrs, and they aud to 
tlie'animals: Inasmuch as ye can not pndse us, n^Aer 
call u[xin our names, your flesh shall be humiliated; it 
shall tie broken with teeth: ye shall be killed and eaten. 

Again the gods took counsel together; they determined 
to make man. So they made a man of clay; and when 
they had made him. they saw that it was not good. He 
was without cohesion, without oonsirfence, motionleaB^ 
stren^hless. inept, watery ; he could not move his head, 
his face looked but one way ; his sight was restricted, he 
oould not look behind him ; he had been endowed with 
lan^ua^e. but he had no intelligence, so he was consumed 
in the water. 

Again is there counsel in heaven: Let us make 
an intelligent being who shall adore and invoke us. 
It was decided that a man should be made of wood 
and a woman of a kind of pith. They were made; but 
the renult was in no wise satisfactory. They moved 
alxjut jKirfectly well, it is true; they increased and mul- 
tiplied; they [K»pled the world with sons and daughters, 
little wcxKlcn mannikins like themselves; but still the 
h(«irt and the intelligence were wanting; they held no 
memory of their Maker and Former; they led a useless 
existence, they lived as the beasts live; they forgot the 
Heart of Heaven. They were but an essay, an attempt 
at men; they had neither blood, nor substance, nor 
moisture, nor fat; their cheeks were shrivelled, their feet 
and lijinds dried up; their flesh languished. 

Tlien was the Heart of Heaven wroth; and he sent 
ruin and destruction upon those ingrates ; he rained upon 
thern night and day from heaven with a thick resin; 




and the earth was darkened. And the men went mad 
with terror; they tried to mount uix)n the roofs and the 
hoiwet* fell; they tried to chmb the trees and the trees 
shook them far From their branches; they tried to lude 
in the caves and denaof the earth, but these closed their 
holes against them. The bird Xecotcovach came to tear 
out their eyes; and the Camalotz cut oft' their head ; and 
tbe Cotzlwilam devoured their flesh; and the Tecuin- 
Mam hmke and bniised their bones to powder. Thus 
were tliey all devoted to chasti>*emcnt and destruction, 
save only a few who were presened ns memorials of the 
woo<Jen men that had been; and these j»ow exist in the 
woods as little ai»es.* 

Om« more are the gods in counsel; in the darkness, 
in the night of a desolatetl universe do they commune to- 
gether: of what shall we make man? And the Crea- 
tor and Fonner made four jKrfeot men; and wholly of 
yellow and white maixe was their fleslj c<jm|K).sed. These 
^vere the nmnes of the lour men that were made: the 
name of the first was Balum-Quitze; of the second, Bnlam- 
Agab; of the third N[ahucutah; and of the fourth, Iqi- 
Bolom.' They had neither father nor motlier, neither 
were they made by the ordinary agents iii the work of 
creation; but their coming into existence was a miracle 
extraordinary, wrought by the sj^ecial intervention of 
him wlio is preeminently The Creator. Verily, at last, 
were there found men worthy of their origin an<l tht-ir 
dufttiny ; verily, at last, did the goils look on l)eings wlio 
could see with their eyes, and handle with their hands, 
and understiind with their hearts. Grand of counte- 
naneo and broiwl of limli the four sires of our nice sttKxl 
up under the white rays of the morning star — .sde light 
M yet of the primeval world — ^st<xxl up and looked. 
Their great clear eyes swept rapidly over all ; they saw 

i X laoft nuubltu^ >U>ry U Lere introiliicVd wbicli bos nothing to do vith 
CiTati»ti. atul wbic-b U omitUKl for ihc prosrut. 

> fiakut*'(^Uir' . tho tiKcrwitbUieKwectBmile; BaVtui-A^iah. UieUgerof tbe 
mcbl; Mahueutal: tbe tUiitiagtxbhiM] oamc; Iqi'liatavi, tlie ti^ir of tbo uioou. 
' Ti'U" «Ht U Kigniflcution Uttt-nile que Ximonez n doimec <l4> ecu qantrc nonu.* 
Anuantr dt BouriKnirn, I'opol Vuh, p. 199. 


the woodj and the rocks, the lakes and die aea. the 
mrxintairu and the vallers. and the heavens that were 
ahrjve all : and thev comprehended all and admired ex- 
oeeinuly. Then they returned thanks to those who had 
made the world and all that therein wa^ : We isSer up 
ourthankii. twice — ^\ea verily, thrice! We hare received 
life: we fpeak. we walk, we ta^e: we hear and undo'- 
.«tan-i : we know. Wh that which is near and that whidi 
is far oS: we aee all things, great and analL in all the 
heaven and earth. Thanks then. Maker and Forma*, 
Father and Mother of our life! we have been created; 
we are. 

But the gods were not wholly pleased with this thii^; 
Heaven they thought had overshot its mark : these mat 
were t«jo peiiect : knew, understood, and saw too modi. 
Therefore there was counsel again in heaven : What shall 
we do with man now? It is not good, this that we see; 
these are as zO'is : they would make themselves equal 
with as: lo. they know all things, great and aualL Let 
us now o»>ntract their sight, so that they may see only a 
little of the surface of the earth and be content. There- 
u^m the Heart of Heaven breathed a cloud over the 
pupil of the eyes of men. and a veil came over it as 
when one breathes on the i:ice of a minor: thus was the 
globe of the eye darkened : neither was that which was 
far off clear to it any more, but only that which was near. 

Then the four men slept, and there was counsel in 
heaven: and four women were made. — to Balam-Quitze 
was al>^ted L'aha-Paluma to wife: to Balam-Agab, 
ChomiLa: to Mahucuth. Tzununiha: and to Iqi-Balam, 
CakLvaha.* Xow the women were exceedingly fair to 
W>k ujaju: and when the men awoke, their h^rts were 
glari 'r>;cause of the women. 

Xext. as I interpret the narrative, there were other 
men created, the ancestors of other peoples;, while the 

< •''.K~-z*]^Lr.t. th-elaliiiuwawri'r'.owni-'.fl or '."n-.^ra^-a.the IvaatifalboaM 
or ;i* !>ei"tif'ilw:iitr; 12. liie Siinie way. TTrt: >.~<iA-t uiat mean «Kh«T the house 
or ti.^ -wiirz <A tZJ: hinin'.:n;-b'rvU: acd '.'li-irrVi. either ih* house or the 
•w\S^t f.i. \L.''. uu ^Thicfa Are a Idpii of parrot]. Brasxw tU Bovrhomrg^ Papcl 



first fcnir were the fathers of all the hnuiches of the 
Quiche race. The different tribes nt first, liowevor, lived 
together amicably enough, in a primitive state; ami in- 
creased and midtiplied, leiulinji: happy lives under their 
bright and morning star, precursor of the yet nnsi'cn nun. 
They had as yet no worship save the brcathinj^ of the 
instinct of their soul, an yet no altars to the gods; 
only — and is there not a whole idyl in the simple words? 
— only they gazed up into heaven, not knowing what they 
had come ao far to do!' They were filled witli love, 
witii ol»e<r»encej and with fear; and lifting their eyes to- 
wardn heaven, they made their re(«: — 

Hail! Creator, Former! thou that heareat and 
Innder-^tandest us! abjuidon ua not. forsake us not! 
ij thou that art in heaven and on the earth, O Heart 
'Heaven, O Henrt of Earth! give us descendant** and a 
i?rity as long as the light endure. Give us to walk 
Iways in an open road, in a path without snares j to 
happy, quiet, and peaceable lives, free of all ixproach. 
wafl thus they siwike, living tranquilly, invoking the 
2tiim of the light, waiting the rising of the sun, watch- 
tho star of the morning, precursor of the sun. Hut 
sun came, and the four men and their descendants 
grew uneasy : We have no person to watch over us, they 
kid. nothing to guard our sntuIkjIs. 8o the foiu- men and 
leir [Ktjple set out for Tulan-Zuiva," otherwise called 
je Seven-caves or Seven-ravines^ and there they re- 
vived gods, each man as head of a family, a god ; though 
luch as the fourth man, Iqi-Balam, had no children 
1(1 founded no fimiily, his god is not usually taken into 
le account. Balam-Quitze received the god Tohil ; Ba- 

' ' Are tnA-bnbi chi tzuknn, qui coon : xari chi cfth chi qui pacAba qui vooh ; 

Avi qn'etnmtn x-« be-rj nnht i-qoi bnuo.' ' Mors ils ne servaieDt pus tiKuro 

» •ontFaoLcnt poiDt (lea aaivb des dienx) ; sealcmcnt ila taurunieutluurs 

iTcn le dA, et ils DC Mvaient ee qa'iU t'taiont tciius fnirr tii loin.' 

rdr Ronrbourtj, I'opol Vuh, p. 2U9. It is right to adJ, however, thftt 

■ givM a nmch mora nroiuic tnm to tho possAjie: 'No cabian de 

a, tino que IcTonLobAn tiu caraa ol ci«lo j no kc nabiitn nlojar.' Ilut. 

. Gmt, j>. M. 

> Or ac Ximcnez, Hint. Fnd. Quai., p. 87, writen \l, — Tulatuk, (laa aiete 
I y siela barrancas). 
Tot. m. t 



lam Agab received the god Avilix; and Mahucutah re- 
ceived the god ilttcavitz; all ver>' powerful gods, but Tohil 
seems to have been the chief, and in a general way, god 
of the whole Quich(5 nation. Other people received gods 
at the sjune time ; and it had been for ail a long march 
to Tulan. 

Now the Quiches had as yet no fire, and a^ Tulan 
was a much colder climate than the happy eastern land 
they hod left, they soon began to feel the want of it. 
The god Tohil who was the creator of fire had some in his 
possession; so to him, as was most natural, the Quiches 
applied, and Tohil in someway suppiied them with fire. 

Hut shortly after, there fell a great rain that extin- 
gui.'^hed all the fin?a of tlie land; and much hail also fell 
on the heads of the }X>oplc; and IxHmuse of the rain and 
the hail, their fires were utterly scattered and put out. 
Then Toliil created fire again by stiimjiing with his 
sandal. Several times thus fire failed them, but Tohil 
always renewed it. Many other trials also they under- 
went in Tulan, famines and such things, and a general 
dampness and cold, — for tlie earth was moist, tliere being 
as yet no sun. 

Here also the language of all the families was confused 
so that no one of the first four men could any longer un- 
derstand the sjjeech of another. This alst) niiide them 
very sad. Tliey determined to leave Tulan; and the 
grtyiter jjart of them, under the guartlianship and direc- 
tion ofTohil, m»t out to see where they should take up their 
alxMle. Tlipy continued on tlieir way amid tlie nwst 
extreme hanlshipa for want of food; sustaining them- 
selves at one time ujwn the mere f^maW of their staves, 
and by imagining that they were eating, when in verity 
and in truth, they ate nothing. Their heart, indeed, it 
is again and again said, was almost brt)ken by affliction. 
Poor wanderers! tliey had a cruel way to go. many for- 
ests to pierce, many stem mountains to overpass and a 
long pa.ssagc to make through the sea, along the shingle 
and jwhljlea and drifted sand, — the sea being, however, 
parted for their passage. 



At last they came to a mountain that they named 
Hacavitz, after one of their gods, and here they rented,— r 
for here they were by pome menns given to understand 
! that tlK^v hliould isee the »un. Then indeed, was filled 
I ,with an exceeding joy, the heart of Balam-Quitxe, of 
|Biilam-Ajr!ib,ofMahucutoh,and of Iqi-JJaUuu. It seemed 
^to them that even the face of the morning star caught a 
I new and more resplendent brightness. They shook their pans and danced for very gladness: sweet were 
tlieir tears in dancing, very hot their incense — their pre- 
cious incense. At last the sun commenced to advance: 
the animals. Hmall and great, were full of delight; they 
[raised tliemselves to the surface of the water; they tlut- 
[tered in the ravines; they gathered at the edge of the 
(mountains, turning their heads togetlier toward that 
[part from which the sun came. And the lion and the 
Ifiger roared. And the fir.'^t bird that sang was that called 
f the Queletzu. All the aiiimals were beside them.selvcs at 
je t*ight; the eagle and the kite beat their wings, and 
fevery bird. lx>th small and great. The men prostrated 
ltherns<.:lves on the ground, for their hearts were full to 
klhe brim. 

And the sun, and the moon, and the stars were now 
all establislietl. Vet wilm not tlie mm then in the be- 
iginning the wime as now; his heat wanted force, and he 
ivas but as a reflection in a mirrf>r; verily, say the histo- 
[ries, not at all the same sun as that of t^vday. Never- 
Jtlieless he dried up and warmed the surface of the earth, 
[And answered many good ends. 

Another won<ler when the sun rose! The three tribal 
Lgods, Tohil, Avilix, and llacavitz, were turned into stone, 
were also the gods connected with the lion, the tiger, 
lihe vii»er. and other fierce and dangerous animals. I'er- 
jliaps we should not l>e alive at this moment — continues 
Ltlie chronicle — (H?causc of the voracity of these Herce ani- 
Itimls, of these lions, and tigers, and vijiera; jx^rlmiw to- 
rduy our glory would not Ix; in existence, had not the sun 
^caused this petrification. 

And the people multiplied on this Mount Hacavitz, 



and here they built their city. It is here also that they 
began to sing that aong calietl Kamucu, 'we see.' They 
sang it, though it made their hearts ache, for this is what 
they siiid in singing: Alas! We ruined ourselves in 
Tulau, there lost we miuiy of our kith and kin, they still 
remain there, left Iwhiml! We indeed have seen the 
sun, but they— now that ins golden light be^ns to ap- 
pear, where ave they? 

And tliey worshiped the gods that had beoome stone, 
Tohil, Avilix, and Hacavitz; and they offered them the 
blood of beasts, and of birds, and piei-ced their own ears 
and shoulders in honor of these gods, and collected the 
blood with a siK)nge, and pressed it out into a cup before 

Toward the end of their long and eventful life Ba- 
lam-Quitzo, Halani-Agab, \[ahucutah, and Iqi-Hahim 
were impelled, apparently by a supernatural vision, to 
lay Ixifore their gods a more awful offering than the life 
of seiiselefis Ix-asts. Thoy bi!gan to wet their altars 
with the heart's blood of liumaii victims. From their 
mountain hold tliey watched for lonely travelers l>elong- 
ing to the suri'oundiug tribes, sei/x^d, over|>owered, and 
slew tlieni for a siu'rifitv. Man after man wius missing in 
tlie neigliboring villages; and tlie jK'ople said: Lo! the 
tigefs have curried them away,— for wherever the blood 
was of a man slain, were always found the tnu^ks of 
many tigers. Now this was the craft of the priests, and 
at Inst the tribes lx»gan Ui suspect the thing iin<l t(» fol- 
low the tracks of the tigers. But the trails hjul InMin 
made purposely intricate, by steps returning on them- 
selves and by the obliteration of steps; and the moun- 
tain region where the altars Avere was already covered 
with a thick fog and a small rain, and its paths flowed 
with mud. 

The hearts of the villagers were thus fatigued within 
them, pursuing unknown enemies. At last, however, it 
became plain that the gods Tohil, Avilix and Ilacavitz, 
and their woi-ship, were in some way or other the cause 
of this bereavement: so the people of the villages con- 


8pii*ed against them. Many attacks, both openly and 
by msea, did they make on the gods, and on the four 
men, and on the children and j)oople connected with 
them; hut not once did they succeed, tso great was the 
wisdom, and power, and courage of the four men and of 
their deiticii. And these three gods [Xitrified, as we 
have told, could nevertheless resume a movable shape 
when they plcase<l ; which indeed they often did, as will 
be seen hereafter. 

At last the war was finished. By the miraculous md 
of a horde of wiusps and hornets, the Quiches utterly de- 
feat*.'d and put to the rout in a general battle all their 
enemies. And the triljes humiliated tliemselves before 
the face of Bidam-Quitze, of Balam-Agab. and of Mahu- 
cutah: Unf(»rtunates that we are. tliey said, spare to us 
at least our lives. Let it be so, it was answered, al- 
though you lie worthy of death; you shall, however, be 
our tributaries and serve us. as long as the sun endure, 
as long as the light shall follow his course. This was 
reply of our fathers and mothers, upon Mount Ha- 
ritz; and thereailer they lived in great honor and 
peace, and their souls had rest, and all tlie tribes served 
them there. 

Now it cnme to pass that the time of the death of 
BiUam-Quitz*!', Balam-Agab. Mahucutah, and hp-Balam 
drew near. Xo botlily sickness nor suffering cjinie upon 
them ; but tliey were forewarned that their death and 
tbcir end was at hand. Then they called their sons 
and their descendants round them to receive their last 

And tlie heart of the old men was rent within them. 

In the anguish of their heart they witig the Kamucu, 

the old sail song that they had sung wlien the sun first 

(pone, when the sun rose and they thouglit of the friends 

they hod h.'fl in Tulan, whose face they should see 

no more for ever. Then they took leave of their 

'wives, one by one; and of their sons, one by one; of 

loch in pirticular they t<xjk leave; and they said: 

[We return to our people; already the King of the 



Stags is ready, he BtretchcH himself through the heaven. 
Lo, we arc about to return; our work is done; the days 
of our life aix' complete. Uememl>cr us well; let us 
never pass from your memory. You will see still our 
houses and our mountains; multiply in them, and then 
go on upon your way and see (igain the places whence we 
are come. 

ik> the old men took leave of their sons and of their 
wives; and Halam-Quitze sjwike again: HchoMI he siiid, 
I leave you what shall keep me in remembrance. 1 
have taken leave of you— and am filleil whli sjidness, 
he added. Then instantly the four old men were not; 
but in their place was a great bundle; and it was never 
unfolded, neither could any man find seam tberein on 
rolling it over and over. So it was called tiic Majesty 
Enveloiicd ; and it lx;came a memorial of tliese fathers, 
and was held very dear and precious in the sight of the 
Quiehus; and they burned incense before it." 

Tliusdiwl and disappeared on Mount Haeavitx Balam- 
Quit»5, Balum-Agali, .Mahuoutah, and bp-Balam, these 
first men who cjinie from the east, from the other side of 
the sea. Ix>ng time liad they been here when they 
died; and they were very old, and surnamed the Ven- 
erated and tlie Saerifiecrs. 

Such is the Quiche account of the creation of the 
earth and its inhabitants and of the first years of the 
existence of mankind. Although we find here described 

> Tbc follawiag i>assago in a letter from the Abbe Br&siwurcl« Boarbourg, 
to Mr. liiifu of Copenhagen, benhng date 'ioth. October, 1S5'^, umy be unrful 
in thi» coQutfctiuu:— ' On »iitt quo liv coutnmo tolt^i|iio ct moxicAino i-tnit do 
cooMorver, cuntmu chez lee chrttieiifl, les rvUciites doA h^roii de In patrie; on 
euvelopiMil loiirs us Btvcc dc8 piorrcs pri-riciisi'a ibiim iin paqnot d'titoffe* 
auqui-'l on donuait lo noin do Tlrt«|niimli.)li; ct-n pa<\nf-t-i di-incuraient k jii- 
niaiii Urnit'-H ct i»i leu di-'pouit au fond Acs BanctimiiTS oil on las iionftcn-ait 
comuiu dea objr-cta inicri^«.' ymtctUrt Annntfi drs \'»y>if)rs, 1858, toin. iv., p. 
268. One nf tln'su 'buudlos,' voH K)^'*^& up to tbe Obriittinusby a TUms- 
Itt>u Horac Udio ufliT thr> ronqiK-Mt. It was reported to contiiiu the rtMuains of 
Ctujiaxtli, the rhiff {•••d of Tlascidn. The native hUtorinu, Camargo. dv- 
•orilWB it aH foItowH: ' Qmtud ou dvtit Ic pAiiuet oil se tronvaieiit Il's cendres 

de I'idole Camaxtlp, ou y truuva Bu>titi uu pniiQct de chavunx blonds, . 

on x tmnvn kiihm nun i'meraudt>, vi do Heo o«Ddreii on nvtiit fidt une pAt«, 
ou Ics pi-trii«.-int nv< v !<• winu dos enfauta quv I'uo nvuit HacriflL^.' HCi. dt 
Ttaxcallan; in Souotiiit Atamlta dm Voy., toui. xcU., 1843, p. 178. 



in the plainest and least equivocal terms a supreme, all- 
powerful Creator of all things, there are joined with 
liim in a somewhat perplexing manner a number of 
auxiliarv deities and makers. It may be that those 
whose faith the Vo\y6\ Vuh represents, conceiving and 
8peakin^ of their supreme god under many aspects and 
a» fulfilling many functions, came at times, either un- 
ooHsciously or for dramatic effect, to bring this one 
great Being upon their m^^hic stage, sustaining at once 
many of his different parts and charactei's. Or per- 
haps, like the Hebrews, they believed that the Creator 
hail made out of nothing or out of his own essence, in 
some mysterioits way, angels and other beinjjs to obey 
and to a«sist him in his sovereign designs, and that 
theae *were called gods.' That these Quiche notions 
R'tnn f(KtUshtiess to us, is no argument as to their adapta- 
tion to the life and thoughts of those who jjelieved them; 
for, in the words of Professor Max M iiller, " tlie thoughts 
of primitive humanity were not only different from our 
thoughti?, but different also from what we tliink tlieir 
thoughts ought to have been."" 

Yet whatever be the inconsistencies that obscure 
the Popol Vuh, we find them multiplied in the 
Mexican cosmogony, a tangled string of meagre and 
apparently fragmentary trmlitions. There appear to 
have been two principal schools of opinion in 
Andhuoc, differing as to who was the Creator of 
tlic world, as well .is on other points, — two veins of 
tnulitiun, perhaps of common origin, which often seem 
to run into one, and are oftener still considered aH one 
by hi^itorians t*» whom these lieathen vanities were mat- 
ten* of little importance. The more advancetl S(^htx>l, 
ascribing its ins|iinition to Toltec souix^os, seems to have 
tl(mrit*lufl nota})ly in Tezciico, especially while the fa- 
mous Nezahualcoyotl reigned there, and to have hiul 
[-very definite monotheistic ideujt. It tiiught, as is 
in unmistiikable terms, that all tilings had been 

MSmCux's Mytkotogif oftht Aryan .Vutlons, vol. i., p. 333. 



made by one GkxI. omnipotent and in^dsiblc; and to 
this school were probably uwinjr the many gentle and 
beautiful ideas and rites, mingled with tlie hard, coarse, 
and prosaic cult of the mass of the people." 

The other school may be considered as more distinc- 
tively national, and afl representing more particularly 
the ordinary Mexican mind. To it is to Ix* ascribetl by 
far the larger \mrt of all we know aU^ut the Mexic^-in 
religion." According to the version of this school, Tez- 
catlipoca, a god whov-te birth and adventure.'* are set 
fortli Iiereaftor, was the creator of the material heaven 
and earth, though not of mankind; and sometimes even 
the honor of this jjartiul creation is disputed hy othcra 
of the gods. 

One Mexican nation, i^iin, according to an ancient 
writer of their own blood, affirmed that the eartli had 
been created by chance ; and as for the heavens, they had 
always existed." 

i> Even Biippoaing there wero no special hiotorical reasoiia for making UiU 
distinction, it flo«>m!4 cnnvonient that fiach a divigion aboitld b« niadv in k 
eouQtry where tho ditKiuetiou of claAsoH wan ho ranrkod an in Mext<'u. As 
Beadc pats the oa»k>, Mariryiom of Jfiin, n. 177, ' In Ihone coiiutrUm whura 
two diittiiift {.'Ijis^-H u[ muQ cxiitt. ttiu auv lutvUectual nml leamLvl, Uieutber 
illiterate aud di^griuk-d, them will b« in reality two religion*, though uutni- 
noUy then may bo only oae. ' 

■' ' Lea pretoci et lea noblcti da Mexico nviiiout pt-ri prenqae toiiti loni d# la 
pri»c do oette villd, et cetu qui avuit?ut ucUupiH- au luuNsacrti H'^tiuent rt-fa- 

Si^M danA den Uenx JnocoessibleR. Ce furentdouc prutique lunjuiint Ut^o nvna 
u p(>aplo HanK udnoation et livren aui: plus groiisiut-eH 8np('nliliou>i tj^ni Innr 
flrpnt lea n'dta nn'ilji nuns out tmn)>niiH; Ldn miKHiunnjiircii, d'aillenre, 
ttv.uent piuH d'inturut k couiiaitre 1i*h ntta^o^ qu'iU voulAicut dii-muiuor do la 
masse du petipld qn'i^ couipn^ndm lu Buns plua i\pvv qno la juirtiR Milair^o 
ds la ti.ttion poiivMit y uttic-bcr.' T^rnatiX-d/mftartu, hs-itii aur la Th<ogonU 
Mezieniiir, in .\ouoil.ra Annnles dfv Voy., t«m- Ixxxv., 1840, p. 274. 

>' Thin laHt tilflt4>U)ent retttti on the aathority of Domingo Mqnox Citmorgo, 
a native of th« c-ily of TL-iM!ala who wrutu about 15St>. See bin HitU. tUi 
Ttiixciilaa aa translated by T«Tnaai Oompiuw in tlifl \iniitUr» Amuties 
thrn Vd'j., toiu. nHn., 18t3, p. liO. ' Lm ludleu* ii« cntyuii'iit paa quo le 
innntle f ut t'-lu crt;ii, ni:iis jMnHaicnt qu'il etait Iv [irmluit dn haxard. lis 
dituiitait miMMi (|Ui< lo8 rienx svuiviit toitjonre f^xifttt'.' 'ErtUtK, puvfl, idcanza- 
ron c<m r.Uriditd el VKnliMlem origen y prinoipio de todii t-l Umvemo, porque 
aai«Dtan que el clnlo y la tierra y ciuuito tn cUhh xe India «k obm <iv la 
|HHleiMMA luauo de un Dion Suprt>ino y union, i quiuii daban el noinhro do 
TltKiuo Nahunque, qu« qniure <u;cir, rriador de toiCui Ihh cosbm. LlamaUanJe 
taiiiuien Ip:ilnfiiiobu:doni, qiiy qiiiore dftrir, imt qui*u vi*-iroo« y aomoa, 
y fue la I'lnina dcidad que ndnriirun en aqanllnfl priniitivoK tii^mpov; y 
«an deapuoHqur- Hv introiluju la idrdatrfa y ef fnlw) ciilu>, lo tiruviTon Hi^tn- 
pre Huperinr n toduH »uti iliiisf'tt, y Ic- invocaban levitntando lua ojiMi al cielo. 
En esta creeuuia se maiituvierou coustuitea hastA la llegadn de Iqa e*- 

chucalfopoca makusobift. 


From the fi*ainnonts of the Chimdlpopoca manuwript 
given by tUv AhU' liraswiir do lioiirlwiirg we learn that 
the Creator — whoever he may have been — produced liis 
work in successive epochs. In tlie ftign Tw^Iitli, the 
earth was created; in the sign Acatl was made the fir- 
mament, and in the sign Tec[)atl the animals. Man it is 
added, wa« niaile and tiuiiniiteil out of atihcs or dust by 
i}(id on llie Htventli da}', Kliecatl, but fini^ihcd and per- 
fected by Uiat mysterious jxjrsonagc^ Quctzalcoatl. 
However this account may he reconciled with it.selfor 
with others, it further appcjirm that man wivs four times 
made and four times destroyed." 

mBoIm, «nno Aflrma Hf^rrera, na nolo Ida mf jioiiii^fl, Rinn tAmbinn log de 
HiduMcaD.' Vejftia, Itbttoria Antlijaa tU Mnlot, torn, i., n. 7. ' Log Tultectts 
alcanaaruii y Hnpieron la crcaciuD del mauiiu, y rittiui c>l Tinqiift Mtihanc^Ud lo 
cri6 y Iju deniiw (mmas que hay en ii, como tion p1;mUis, iiioutt^ ftiiiiunti-x, 
■rek, Afftu y pecON; nximiamo iinpioron coinn c.ri6 Dion al hnmbru y nna ma- 
ger, de domle Ion hombret tlescondierou y »e multiplicAroii, y nobre culo 
ftdadra mndua Ubalan que por eBcatuir prulijidnd no kg puuun afjiu.' IxUil- 
■wtitf, lUiacioruat, in Kiiig>iborongh, rul. ix., p. 321. ' Liioft Chadur, quo rn 
IcoffOA Indiuui Ibirau Tluquu Xaknkqii«, qtic>rit>Ddo Akr ik i<nl«ndi!r, c^ne eitta 
Salo, Padertwo. y ClPiuetitiHttuno Dio*.' IMari'ii, IiIm de una Ilia., p. 79, 
' CoofcMinan ln*iMHKi(--an(*t< a vu Hapri^tnu DioH, SeAor. y buzednr df todo, j 
art* rm ' I ' J ' ' il que veiipratuui. mirnndn al civ\», lliiiiutnilale criidor del 
oiclayt' r/vf, m-il.tjen , A»c.m.. lib. ii., cap. !•'>, p. 85. '1.1 diosque 

M llam^l— • t.i....ta:)a. (TezcattipnrA), deoian quer^ni criaaordcl liflo y d« la 
ticTra y em todopoderooo.' Suha^un. Ifitt. Anl. Mf^r.. torn, i., lib iii.. n. ^41. 
* TexcatlipocA, Qneoto era il maKnoor Dio, cho in qno' pai>iii Rt edorava, 

dopo il Din inruibiJe. o Siiprptno E-<H/>ro. di cat abbiam rauioimto Kra 

iJ Iho dt'Ilfl l*rovidoii7ji, Tanima drl Mondo, il Creator del Cirlo o delta T«'r- 
r&, ed ilSigDor di lutlo le cotte.' t'lavi-irrn, >U/rlt Ai^h-a tUt Mfsxin'i, torn, ii., 
p. 7. * Lft enocion del oielo t df> lu tierra aplicabim a diversoi dioses. y al- 
tcano* k Texeatltpaca y a Uzilopucbtti, 6 b%'uu oitoi, Oc«lopuc-btli, y do los 
pnndpttleadeHoidco.' .Vkndifta, llift. Kdc.. p 81. 

^ * liODiqae l« ciel o( In terre it'etaitint faite. quutre fois dt-ja rhommo avoit 
ciu form.?. . . .de oendrea Dieu I'avait form'' ct aniiuu.' Thi^ (.''>r/<-j: Chinuilfto- 
, Of C/Umalfopoea MS.. nrt*r Jlrassettr (fa lUnaitourij, Jlisi. ika Nut. Viv., 
i., p. 53. TDin Codt'X (.'hiinnlptipnca, so railed by tliw Abtw- Untsfi'nr de 
org, is an anonyauun mauiiscript in the Mcxicau laujjnaj^f. Wluit 
ly know o( this iouch-tulk«l-o( dociimcnt is litUe, and will be b<i*t 
L the ori^inat furia. The (uUowinK i^ the lirst iioUce I tiud ot ihiit 

rt, with tta appart«uaQC«s, bviug ilt^turiui's description of it a» 
at one tioio by him. Catdlogtj, pp. 17 18. ' Una hiatoria de lu» 
dr Culhuican, y Mvxico en. Icngua K&huatl, y pa}>cl Kuroftj^u do 
' Anonyiu'). y ti<?u» adadida una Br^vc Itelapton de ]>>h Dioscr, y Kiton 
OriiliUd'i'l eu lengUA Castellana qiie CHL-ribio cl Itnckilk-r Don Ptdiu 
,«. lodio L'lLzique I^neflciado, qan mh del I'artido de 'rzumpnhiikiiin. 
i todo rxiptaolo dn ]«tra de Don t-Vmondo de Alba, y Ic falta la (irimera 
' WtUi reijanl lo Uio turm S'ahuaU u»ed in thia (.'atatixnie, nve id p. !)>'■: 
t ICanaacTitoa L-n IcjiKoa NUioatl. que en este Catalugo itu citnii, hi; cuti- 
eade mt en lenj^na Mexicana!' Tbia mftntucript, or a copy uf it, fell into 
the handa of Uie Abbi- Braasenr da Donrbonrg in the city ul Meiico. in tbe 
yaar 1850, BrasKur de Bour'jourj, ItibJlolhi^iu Mevtieo-GucUenKititHM, Intro- 




This may perhaps be looked upon as proceeding from 
what I liave called for convenience tlie Toltecan school, 
though this particular fragment show8 traces of Christian 
inliuence. What follows seems however to l)elong to 
a distinctively Mexican and ruder vein of thought. It 
i.s gathered from Mendieta, who wa.s iu<lebted again to i 
Fray Andres de Ohuos, one of the earliest miwionariea 
among the Mexicans of whom he treats; and it is de- 
cidedly one of the most authentic accounts of such mat- 
ters cxtunt. 

The Mexicans in mast of the provinces were agreed 
that there was a god in heaven called Citlalatonoc. and 
a gpddess called CitluUcuc;" and that this goddess had 
given birth to a Hint knife, Tecpatl. Xow she had many 
«ons living with her in heaven, who seeing this cxtnvor- 
dinary thing were alarmed, and Hung the Hint do^vn to 
the earth. It fell in a place willed Cliicomoztoc. that 
is to sjiy the Seven Caves, and there immediately 
sprang up from it one thousand six liuiidred gods. 
These gods being alone on the earth, — though as will 
hereafter appear, there had been men in the world at 
a former period,— sent up their messenger Tlotli, 
the Ilawk, to pray their mother to emjwwer tliera 
to create men, so that they might have servants as be- 
came their lineage. Citlalicue aeemed to be a little i 

durluta, p. ixi., and the learned Al)b(i tlpspribes it an followa: — ' Oodwt 
Ch-tmilpopocn (Coni«i in), oouti'iitint \s^ EjioqiieH, diten HUtuire d«tt Ho- 
Idls et rHttiCuirt> des H(ip'aniu(*<t ds Culhtincan el do Mextai, h>xte Mexi- 
oain (corrigi^ d'aprfes celui da M.^Kiibin), aveo tin esw de trtiducliou frnn- 
^ftisB en reganl. gr. in 4^— Munnicrit de 93 ff., copit* vi tradnit par Ic sif^na- 
taire de la biViliotht*<]iii>. Vest la copie dii doitnmpnt mnraQM nil n 13. 
fi^Tiii., dn mt'il»i,'nu ilu Botnrini, souit lo titro de: HixturU do Inq Reyiioti de 
Colhaar-in y Mexiro, fltc. Ce rtncMimetit, oii ponr I.i premiere foin j'ni sonk-vj 
lo vailf* enif^iuAtiijiii} ijiii reooavmit \ti-i Hymhule^ de In mtigion et d<» rbinlotre 
da Mf>xiqne i>t le pins tmportjint dt> tons rpux cini ntmH nninnt irni^'-s des nn- 
nales aatiqucs mexjciunes. II roaferme chroDoloftiqiiemont rhistoire ff^olo* 
gtqne du monde, pnr li'iif-A de VJ nnn, k commoncer de pins de dix miUe ana 
avant Vhre chr-ticnni*. suivant lea calt^als m'*xicAini.' M., p. 47, 

•* Othprwifif- callod. afcording to Clnvig*Tx>, the god Om^huHH, and tho 
ffoddeiw Oni-rihu'tU. Temniut-OompanH wiy«; ' L«t nonis d'finict^uftli tl 
d'OmocihuatI n** sf trouvttnt miller piirt ailleuri dnn-t la mythologie m(?xicaint>; 
mruH on pcinmiit [cb expliqner ]\xr IVtvninlogie. OniPHignitiedenx en iDeii- 
t-'ulD, rt louH l**H auteiirt sunt fl'ar(*or(t pour traduire litu'ratemctit tear uoju 
par denx tteigneurii vi duux diuuea.' NvavtUa AntuUsi des Vvy., torn. Ixxxvi., 
1840. p. 7. 


fled of these sons of hers, bom in bo strange a 
iner, and she twitted them cruelly enough on what 
I they could hardly help: Hud you been what you ought to 
i-Jinvebeen, she exclaimed, you would still be in niycom- 
[ pany. Neverthelests Mho told them what to do in the mat- 
ter of obtaining their desire: Go beg of Mictlanteuctli, 
Lord of Uncles, that he may give you a bone or some ashes 
mf the dead that an? with him; which having received 
[you shall saeritice over it, sprinkling blooil from your 
[own bodies. And the fallen gods having consulted to- 
gether, sent one of their nund>er, ealltMl XolotV^ down 
to hades as tlieir mother hiul advised, ile succeeded 
I in getting a Iwne of six feet long from Micthintcuctli ; 
Fttnd then, war\- of his grisly Iiost, he t<x>k an abrupt dc- 
p:irture, running at the topof hissjx'cd. Wroth at this, 
I the infernal chief gave chase j not c^iusing to Xolotl, how- 
lever, any more serious inconvenience than a hasty fall 
) in which the bone was broken in pieces. The messenger 
Ipathered up what he could in all haste, and despite 
I his stumble mtulc his escape. Reacliing the earth, 
I he put the fnigments of bunc into a basin, and all the 
[gods drew bl<K>d from their bodies and sprinkled it into 
' the vessel. On the fourth dav there was a movement 
[ftfunng the wetted bones and a Iwy lay there before all; 
in four days more, the blood-letting and sprinkling 
I being still kept up, a girl was lifted from the ghiistly 
rdiflh. The children were given to Xolotl U) bring up; 
^And he fed then on the juice of the maguey." Increas- 

1* XolnS, ■ Mrrant or page.'— .Vjftna, VocabiiUtrlo en len^ua CaBldkma Jf«s(- 
tvtMa. Not 'oyo* u soma ftchoUasta bare it. 

■^ Litently, in lh» earliest oopv of the mvth tbnt I have neen. the mUk of 
tttUMif, ' la lecbe de cardo, ' which term hati been ropent«;<1 blindlj. and 
»nUy without any idsA of itA omnniii^, by the variuufl nriti^rx that haro 
'•->1 Tb« old anthariti>?N, however, and OHftedally Mtmdicta, from 
,U.p the Il'^tuiI, were iu tbi; habit of cuIUul; tbu niugui^y u thiatio; 
1 ih.' treoipnduu* pricklcHof tho Mvxicnn plant may lay gtwMl olaim 
trnpuwlancasitat tlit S(_-ottinh emblem. * Maguty, que t-B el cnr- 
icaa la ml«l.' Mrmlifia, JVvd. Kcltn, p. 110. 'Moil o» un urbol 
1 o rarUD uik' ro l^n^un dtf liM Islaii *» llama ma^'.'V.' 3/o(of[nfa, llist. dt loa 
ijnd.. in JeattrUrrt/t. CrJ. lb Dor., tout, i., p. 2-1;). * I't MtiuInitinL(s«ogIiono le 
uoRUe di qoesto albtTo. £i (.lordo ch» ai t«imuno lii, couio noa le rigno, et 
FcUMBMlla nWRanN.' UrInHimr fatta ptr un QvntU'hut/mo tiei Styftor Cotieatt In 
tAMMHfo Viagyi, torn, iu., ful. 3(17. 


ouo:k and end of things. 

ing in Rtature, they Ixv-ame man and woman; nnd from 
them arc* the ixx)i)le of the present day dc-icendt'd, who, 
even as the primoixlial hone was broken into unequal 
pieces, vary in t^v/X'. imd Hhui>e. The name of this first 
man was Iztacinixoiuitl, and the name of hin wife llan- 
cucitl,''' and they had six s<m8 born to them, whose de- 
(((XMuhints, witli tlieir god-masU^rSj in prticess of time 
moved eastward from their original home, ahnost uni- 
versally dej«rilK>d as having been towards Jalisco. 

Now there liud binm no sun in existence for many 
years; so tlie gods Uung iLs,stMnblwl in a phiee cJilled 
Teotihuiu^m, six leagues from Mexico, and gathered at 
the ttim^ round a great fin;, t4)ld tlieir devotees that he 
of thfin who sliould first east hinist^lf into that fire, 
bIiouIcI liave the honor of biMtig transformed into a sun. 
So one of them called Nanahuatzin, — either as moat 
say. out of pure bravery, or as Sahaguu relates, Ijecauae 
hia life hod become a burden to him through a syphilitic 
disease, — thnig himsolf into the fire. Then the gods 
began to peer tlirough the gloom in all directions for the 
expected light and to make bets as to what part of 
hetwen he sliould first appear in. And some said Here, 
and some said There; hut when the sun rose thev were 
all proved wrong, for not one of them luwi fixed upon the 
cast." And in that same hour, though they knew it 

^ Motolinia in Icatbalcrla, Col. torn. i.. pp. 6-10, says this first mau and 
womau were begotten between lb? rain and tlie dnst of the r artti — * engendrada 
d« In Uavia y del poWo Ae In tierm' — itod iu other ways adds to thep«r- 

filexity; so tliit I nm well inclined lo R^roe with Mailer, ArnfrilMnlKi/te Um- 
lil'u)nfn, p. 5IS, when he Hant lht>Kc <-iiHuiogcmi<-til nu-ths HispInT uiiirks of 
locnl origin nod uf tlic HiibHetpieut fii)>i<in of Hpventi lci;fm1s into hh inccn- 
grnnti--* whnld. ' Ann diuMor ftlunge vou Vtfr(U)hiedpnliHiU*ii in dii>tw>n Kos- 
uoKouit-n iat vrsichtUtih, doSH viele I^ikidmythfn Lit^r wie in I'tru unabhkii- 
gi^ vun pinniidpr cntAtauden diti mua AiUMorlich tiiit cinandvr vCTbniid. die 
oIk-f iu iiiar)cher1ei Widentpr&ch«n anob uocb apftter ihre nrsprfingUche Un- 
abhiluKigkeit zu erkt^nneu geb«n.* 

>* Ut'Tf, as rWw-berr in thiH lef^ftnd ve follow Andres de Olmoa' account aa 
given by Montlicbi. Sahi»f{nu, howtiver diff«» from it a good deal in places. 
At this point for etamplR, he meutionK some nntabl? pflroonn^eit who gtieaMxl 
light about the riung of the sun : — ' Otros se pUKl«n>n k mtnir I'u'ja e\ oiionte, 
y digeron aqu{, de rata part« La d« aalir v\ B'>1. El dtchu du ei>toH f nO rerda- 
deio. Dicen qn« los que miraron ;K-i» *•! Orient*', fucrtjn Quelaalcoatl, que 
iambien bv llBniaEciitl, y nlro que w llama Tntcc. y pnr ntro norabra AnaoaUy* 
toca, y por otto nombre TtiiU'\i<:tf>7.ratlinncA, y ntrtm que se Uaman Uiuiiz- 
eoa,' or as in Kingtfbu.uuj^h'H i-dition, Mex, Anliq, vol. vii., p. 19G. 'yot 




not, the decree went forth that tliey should all die by 

The sun had risen indeed, and with a plory of the 
cruel fire alx)ut him that not even tlie eyes of the gods 
could endure; but he moved not. There he hiy on the 
horizon ; and when the deitica sent Tlotli their messenger 
to him. with oi*ders that he should go on upon hi« way, 
hirt ominoiLS answer was, that he would never leave that 
place till he had destroyed and put an end to tliem all. 
Tiien a great fear fell upon soine, while others were moved 
only to^nger; and amongthe latter wiia one CitU, who im- 
mediately strung his bow and advanced ag-ainst the glit- 
tering enemy. By quickly lowering his head tlie Sun 
avoidetl the first arrow shot at him; but the seciind and 
thin.1 had attiiined his body in (piick succession, when, 
filleii with fury, ho seized the last and launched it back 
ujjon his assailant. And the bravo Citli laid shaft to 
rtring nevermore, for the arrow of the sun pierced his 

Then all was dismay in theas,Membly of tlie gods, and 
despair filletl their heart, for they saw that they could 
not prevail against the shining one; and they agreed to 
die, and to cut thcrawlves open through the brettst. 
Xolotl was appointed minister, and he killed his 
companions one by one, and last of all he slew himself 
also."* So they died like gods; and each left to tlie sad 
and wondering men who were his servants, his garments 
for a memorial. And these servants made up, each 
party, a bundle of the raiment that had been left to 

atro nombn Anaofttl 7 T«>n, 7 por otro notnbro TlatAricU^zcatUpncn, y otroi 
que ae Ihuiuui Uimizcou, que una iimmt-rabluti; y cu»tro luu^t-reH. la una no 
UuBft TiaouNUi, lautra Ttmii, In h*rc«.*ra TIacocuh, In lhiiuUi Xi>ct>)'ut].* A'uAo- 
ftm, iHaf. (im,, tola. ii.. lib. viii., ]>. 218. 

* Bnidea (liffcronuca of autburitiea alreo^ly noti(»-«l. I mi%y add that Sa< 
baqnn describes the pcnoatge who became tho Rnn,--A<i well at him who, 
01 va »bMl\ soon see. bBCatne tb^ mooa, — on beloogia^ before bis tmufor- 
nrttOH* to thf! namb«r of ihe gt>d<t, and not ws ono of tho men who 6etved 
lhM&. Fiirthrr. in recounting the denth of tlie gods. Hnhagitn KaVH that to 

th* Air, f^-atl, Q-v ' ' ■ '. was nll'iU-d tUi* tAsk of killisiK tho rL-jtt; uurdocm 

H appear tbitt i^ ki[l<-<1 hiuindf. Ah to \-iloU, he playn quite ft 

eamrdlj pirt in : . . ixii tryia^ to elude bin deutb, be tramiformetl bim- 

v'f into TitrinuH UititKM, Mid wu oDly at tint taken aud killed under tho fonn 
o< a lUh callMl Jxo:oU. 



them, binding it abovit a stick into which they had >>od- 
ded a small ^reeii rstone to serve jus a lieart. 'l^hose bun- 
dles were called tlaquimUldi^ and each bore tlie name of j 
that god whose memorial it way; and tliese things were 
more reverenced than the ortlinary gods of stone and 
wood of the country. Fray Andres de Olmos found one I 
of these relicjii in Tlalmanalco, wrap[)ed up in many' 
cloths, and half rotten with beiujr kept hid so loufi." 

Immediately on the death of the gods the sun be- 
gan liii* motion in the heavens; and a man called Te- 
cuzisUn^atl, or Teacocizteciitl, wlio, when \anahuatzin 
leaped into the fire, had retired into a cave, now 
emerged fi-oiu bis rajucealment as the moon. Otliers 
• say that instejid of going into a cave, this TecuziH- 
tecatl, had lea^ied into tlie fire after Nanahuatzin, 
but that, the heat of the fire l>eing somewluit aKited, 
he had come out le*s brilliant than the 8un. Still 
another variation is, that the sun and moon came 
out e<iually bright, but this not seeming gixid to the gods, 
one of them took a rabbit by tiie heels and slung it into 
the face of the moon, dimming its lustre with a blotch 
whose mark may be seen to this day. 

Alter the gods had died in the way herein related, 
leaving their garments behind as relics, those servants 
went aijout everywhere, bearing tliese relics like bundles 
upon their shoulders, very sad and pensive and wonder- 
ing if ever again they would see their depiirted gods. 
Xow the name of one of these deceased deities was Tez- 
catlipoca, and his servant having arrived at the sea 
coast, was favored with an apparition of his master in 
three different shapes. And Tezcntlipoca spake to his 
servant saying: (>ome hither, thou that lovest rae so well, 
that 1 may tell thee what thou hast to do. Go now to 
the House of t!ie Sun and I'etoh thence singers and in- 
struments so that thou nuiyest make me a festival; but 
first call upon tlic whale, and upon the siren, and upcm 
the turtoLse, and they shall make tlioe a bridge to the sun. 

» ThialciQd of itiol niiswfrra cvidenUy lo Uie mv»t«riou& 'Envclopti ' of 
the Qaiohii myth. S«e also nuta 0. 



Then wiifi all this done; and the messengcor went 
acruss tlie sea ujwn liis living bridge, towards the House 
of Uie Sun, singing what he hiu\ to say. And the Sun 
heard tiie w»rr^, and lie stniitly charged his j>eoplc and 
servants, saying: See n(nv that ye make no response to 
tliis chant, for whoever replies to it must be taken away 
by the singer. But the song was so exceeding s^veet 
that some of them could not but answer, and they were 
lured away, l^earing with them the drum, teponaztU, and 
the kettle-drum, veveti. Such was the origin of the 
festivals and the dances to the gods; and the nongs sung 
during these dances they held as prayers, singing them 
alwayn with great accuracy of intonation and time. 

in their oral ti-aditions. the Tezcucans agi*eed with the 
ujiuttl Mexican account of creation — the falling of the 
flint from heaven to earth, and so on— but what they after- 
ward sbowe<l in a picture, and e.\plained to Fray Andrea 
deOimos ;\s the manner of the creation of nmnkind, wan 
this: The event took place in the land of Aculma, on 
tlie Tezcuciin lx)unddry at a distiince of two lejigues from 
Tezcuoo and of five from Mexico. It is said that the 
nun. Ixnng at the hour of nine, civst a dart into the earth 
at the [jIiuh> we have mentioned and nimle a liole; from 
tbia hole a mim came out, the first man and somcwhtit 
imf»erfoct wiUial, as there wo-s no more of him than from 
tlie arm-pitin up, much like the conventional European 
cherub, only without wings. After that the woman 
came up out of the hole. The rest of the story wjis not 
considered projKn* for printing by Mendietaj but at any 
rate from these two are mankind descended. The name 
of the lir*it man was Aculmaitl, — that is to say, acuUi, 
shoulder, and maitl, hand or arm, — and from him the 
town of Aculma is said to take its name." And this ety- 
mology wems to make it probable that the details of this 
m^yth lire derived, to some extent, from the name of the 

• Bw'!"^ thf Cbimiilpopoca nuuiascript, tlje MirliVfit «nmmAri«i oi tb*< 

y ii-mylbH lite to bo (oomi in .VAm/i<frj. Jfvd. Kclrs., pp. 77-81; 

rn.. u»iu. i., lib. iii.. n. *2;{3, torn. ii.. lib. vii.. pp. 24ft-250; 

b-Kuri.ii. i-i-'i i(t u/vt liUI.. pp. 37-43; Tonjwmuula, \fonarq. Ind., toin. i.. pp. 

Xl-A, toffl. U.. pp. 76-S; Cbviijero, Storia Anl. del Mfuiit)0, Uun. ii., pp. 8-10. 



place In which it was located; or that the name of the 
first man belonging to un early phase of the language, 
has been mKsiuKierrttood, and that to the false etymol- 
ogy tlie details of the myth are owing. 

As already stated there had been men on the earth 
previous to tiiat final and perfect creation of man from 
the bone supplied by Mictlanteuctli. and wetted by the 
gods with tlieir own blood at the place of the Seven 
Caves. These men liad been swept awa^-^ by a Buoces- 
sion of ^reat destructions. With regard to the number of 
these destructions it is hard to speak pasitively, as on no 
single point in the wide range of early American reli- 
gion, docs there cxi;*t so much difference of opinion. All 
the way from twice to five times, following different 
accounts, has tlie world l)een desolated by tremendous 
convulsions of nature. I follow most closely the version 
of the Tc7x;ucan historian Ixtlilxochitl. as being one of 
the earliest accounts, as, prima facie, from its origin, 
one of the most aullientic, and as being supfwrted by a 
majority of respectable historians up to the time of Hum- 

Of the creation which ushered in the first age we know 
nothing; we are only told by Boturini, tliat giants then 
began to appt^ar on the earth. This First Age, or 'sun,' 
was called the Sun of the Water, and it was ended by 
a tremendous Hood in which every living thing perished, ^ 
or was transformed, except, following some accounts, one ^| 
man and one womnn of the giant i*ace, of wiiose escape ^1 
more hereafter. The Second Age, called the Sun of 
tlie Karth, was closed with earthquakes, yawnings of the 
earth, and the overthrow of the highest mountaias. 
Giants, or Quinam -s, a powerful and haughty race still 
appear to be the only inhabitants of the world. The 
Thini Age was the Sun of the Air. It was ended by 
tempests and hurricane.**, .so destructive that few indeed 
of the inhabitants of the earth were left; and those 
that were saved, last, according to the Tlascaltec ao- 
oount, their reason and speech, becoming monkeys. 

Tlie present is the Fourth Age. To it appeor to be- 



long the fulling of tho goldoss-lwrn Hint from heaven, 
the liirlli of the «ixt^*u hundred heroes from that tiint, 
the birth of mankind from the lx)ne brought from hades, 
tlie tranwfonnatiouof Xanuhiiutzin into tbe nun, thetnuis- 
fonnalion of Tivx^Jitewitl into the moon, and the death of 
the sixteen hundred heroes or gods. It is called the 
Sun of Fire, imd iu to be ended by a universal conilagra- 

Connected with the great flood of water, there is a 

M IjflUjorhUl. Bint. Chi^-h'imra in Kin[t**Minta']h'ii Mfx. Antiij., toI. ix., pp. 
SINMt. The suae aathor. in tuB Rflarionfs. lb. pp. 321-2, either throufiffa 
hin own amtaMtieM or tlut u( n transriiWr. truunpoiKS the iiecuDd aod 
tliinl Kgm. Tn see that it is on oToreigbt of some sort, we have but tu patw 
to th^ Mnnunary be giTe« ivt the end of tli«ite name RHacionts, If:, p. 45tf, 
wkivrv th'; i\f'(s>nnt is Af^iii foiiud in Mrint ocroiiment with tho TcrKioD given 
to the text, Caouu^, Ifud. d« TUu. in SmtvfiUs Annalfs tl«ti Toy., torn. 
leix., 1H13, p. 13i, giTing an we mar HtippoM> th« Tlascnltec vornon of the 
Ki-neral Msncnn myth, agrv^-* with Ixtlihudhitl as to the vholf nnuiber of 
A^OB. followine. howeTer, the order of the error above noticed in the litla- 
donai. Thtt TluKC(ilt«c historiikti, iuor«ov«r, iiQlnuK thiit only two of these 
Amm !> Mid tUiit the fUird and fourth derttruL-iioiiH ore yet tu come. 

IC Tf (i(>ans, Xoao-'Ofs Annat^/t den Voy., torn, bucxri.. 1H40. p. 5. 

adopts :„. il....\tltec a<.'i.'onnt aa the ceneral Mexicau li-aditiou; ho in fol- 
bwed br Dr. PrichnrJ, JiMirk^s, vol v., pp., 300-1. Dr. Piic-hard citea 
Baulfara as KUpporting the Mine opioion, bat erroneoostr. as Unuiiord. Am. 
A»tiif.,n. IttS. follow* Hoinboldt. lloturini. Mm de \tna iUsi., p. 3. and Cliivi- 
gitro. fitnria Aiil. drl Mfmxm. totn. U., p. 57, afrree exactly with the text. Tha 
Abb.' Brmweorde UoaiboOTR also accepts the version of three pafit deHtruo- 
tiouv ifittt^tdaSovromdt r Hi-it. Prw\.. pp. 'l''>-7. ProfehNor .1. a. Mid- 
Irr AnirriktioitKtu [TrrtEtjUmfn. pp. 510-12, mlmits thiit tht- veniiuu o( tliri^ 
l< I' tionttand one to come, as tfiven in the text, and in the orrler there 

in tuM to be* the most ancient Mi'xifmu vcniiua;' though he decidi*H tu 

fojJuHi HtUtiVxtldt, and adopt« what be calU the * latefit and fnllfsl form of the 
lOTlh . ■ 'I'bc Sf}v:-)imotif dme Tavi>le drl ('odirf M*-Jti'itiii> [ Vutitraiio 1 «-«>iitradiphi 
j;. ■• - - -'!,T flrMt two pflHt destnictionM, and farther on fmir, KliiiHfui'rtrtiih'g 
' vol. v., pp. lfj:t-7; ai dttt-i hIhii tho Erfilu: dtH'iuh-x Trflrr'uino- 

<■■ •'•., i»p. I31-A Kintj«tx>roat[h himself seems to fftvor th« idea of 

I: l-^tnietioas and four ii«e» in tdt; »ee .Ifrj. Aiditj.. viil. vi., p. 171, 

h ■ ..lira. //l«f. Mfx., fol. 297-d; Leon y Gama. Don Pirdna. parte i., 

pp. &4-6; Hiimbohlt. Vm/x., tom.ii., pp. 118-129; Preiicott, C'o/ifl. o^" .Vea:., 
toL i., p. fil; 0.ilh»tin, in Am. Klhnnl. Sor, TmnMu^, to!, i., p. 325.— de- 
leribe loac paot deHtmcttona and one yet to come, or Ave K[ft*, and 
tkl Chimalpopoca MS , seo note 13. aeemx nlno to favor \.h\^ optnion. 
I^bUt, Meodiata, If\M. fiifai., p. 81, dec1are<t that the Metic^UK lieliere in 
Aw inn,*, or Aitea, in timet past; hnt them) fninn wt*rt< of inft-rinr quality, no 
thai ih« Mil prodticcd its (mits only in a crude and imperfect state. The 
oomeaneiioe waa that in everr ease the iuhabitanta of the world died tbroneb 
the ouag of diren things, ^ifi present and aixth San was Kn<Kl. however, 
iMi VMlvr ita iudneoee all things were prodxieed propi^rly. Torqtiemmla — 
who Imhi, indeed, twen all rdont^ nppmpriatiii)^, bv whole chaptent, the ko 
low laadtted work of Mendieta: and that, if we believ>:i loazljidct-ta. /fUf, 
irSr,. JVbfMtMdet Atd^ir., pp. xxx. to xlv.. under rirenmHtunr^eH nf peculiar 
taBpi|iid»-M)f coone g^rea ohto (tvc natt Ai;eH, repeating Mendietji word for 
«Dffd with the csDeption of a riagle 'la.' j/onorg. /nd., torn. ii.. p. 70. 



Mexican tradition presenting Rome analogies to the ston- 
of Xoah and his ark. In of the i>ainted nianu- ■ 
Hcripts 8up{wsed to relate to thiii event, a kind of boat is^| 
represented Jioating over the waste of water, and con- ^^ 
taining a man and a woman. J'^ven the Thusoaltecs, the 
/ftpotecs, the Mizteca, and the people of Michoncan are 
Kaid to have had such pictures. The man i« variously 
Cidletl (-'oxcox, Teofnpjictli, Tezpi, andNata; tlie woman 
XocliKpietzal and N'ena.* 

Tlie following ha-s Ix^n usually accepted as the ordi- 
nary Mexiciui version of thid myth: In Atonatiuh, the 
Age of Water, a great flood covered all tlie face of tlie 
earth, and the inhahitint-s thereof were turned into 
(islicj*. Only one man and one woman e«^i)ed, saving 
themselves in tlie hollow trunk of an ahaJtuete or bald 
cypress; the name of the man lx;ing Coxcox, and that of 
of his wife Xochi«|uetiuil. On the waters abating a little 
they grounded their ark on the Peak of Colhuacan, the 
Ararat of Mexico. Here they increased and multiplietl, 
and children Ijegan to gatlier about them, children who 
were all born dumb. And a dove came and gave them 
tongues, innumerable languages. Only fifteen of the \ 
descendants of Coxcox, who aftenvard Ijecame heads of i 
families, spake the same language or could at all under-^| 
stand each otlier; and from these fifteen are descended" 
the Toltecs, the Aztecs, and the Acolhuas. Tliis dove 
is not the only bird mentioned in these deluvial tra- 
ditions, and must by no means Ix* confounded with the 
birdH of another palpably Christianized story. For in 
Michoacan a tradition was preser\'ed, following which 
the name of the Mexican Noah wa-s Tezpi. With Ijetter 
fortune than that ascribed to Coxcox, he was able to 
save, in a spacious vessel, not only himself and his wife, 

•• Profeawur J. O. MQUer, AnurikanisrM UrrrlUjinfuii, p. 508, remartts of 
these iwo ptreooagoi*: ' lUrin oontiHch int der cbielumeki»ch« Coxcox. der 
ftchon bei aer Flntntui^ K^nunnt wunle, drr Tezpi Afx Mnchoakiincr. Diu 
tut auch tintprQiiKtii'li fin WiUMergott uml Finrli^fioll, dunim trftgt tT nuch den 
NainoD Cipa<^Ui, Fisdi, Tt<ocipacLli. ^ottlicber FikcIi. Hat»baetoiuc«ti<oci- 
puctli, ulter Fiscligott vun aiieeretn FleiMcb. Durum utt aucb seine Omttin 
cine PQAnzengt'ttUn iiiit Xamen Xucbiquclzal d. b. gt.>flui^'lt<! Bbuiie.' 



alno his children, several animals, and a quantity of 
grain for the coumion use. When the waters begtui to 
subt^ide. lie sent out a vultiux} that it migltt go to and 
fro on the earth and bring him word again when the dry 
land bciran to appear. But the vulture fed upon the 
carcasses that were strewed in every part, and never re- 
turned. Then Tez])i (*ent out other birds^ and among 
the.He was a iiumming-bird. And when the sun began to 
cover the earth with a new verdure, the humming-bird 
rt»turned to its old refuge bearing green leaves. And 
Tw-pi saw that his vessel was aground near the moun- 
tain of Colhuacan and he landed there. 

The Mexicans round Cholula hmi a special legend, 
connecting the escape of a remmuit from the great del- 
uge with the often-mentioned story of the origin of tlie 
people of Anahuac fmm Chicouioztoc, or the Seven 
Caves. At the time of the aitaclysm, the country, ac- 
coniing to Pedro de lo» Kios, was inhabited by giants. 
Some of these |)eri.sbed utterly; others weiv changt'd in- 
to iishe«; while seven brntbers of them found siit'ety by 
closing themselves into certain caves in a mountain 
called Tlaloc. When the waters were assuaged, one 
of the giants. Xelhua. surnamed the Architect, went to 
Cholula and began to build an artificial mountain, 

a monument and a memorial of the Tlaloc that 
ni sheltered him and his when tlie angry waters swept 
through all the" land. The bricks were made in Tlama- 
nalco. at the foot of the Hierra de Cocotl, and i)asse<l to 
Cholula from hand to hand along a tile of men — whence 
tboflecame is not said — stretching l>etween the two places. 
Then were the jealousy and the anger of the goda 
aroused, n*t Uie huge pjTainid rtist^ slowly up, threaten- 
ing to reach the clouds and the great heaven itself; and 
the gO(.l« launched their fire u^wn the builders and slew 
many, so that the work was stopped." But tlie half-fin- 

» flMurM. Wm rf*- uwi HUt. pp. 113-4; [tl.. CfOdhfo. pp. 39-40; Clavi- 
fwn, Blmia Ant. >H Mnutim, torn, i., pp. l*20-;i0, torn, ii., p. (i; Splr^iatione 
4A TatMlf tM Ci-iic* M'vi'nno [Votivuuo] Uv. vii., iu Alivn<borou//i'i .V<j- 
vW., Tnl. ▼.. pp. 114-5; firtwUi Carrfrl, io ChurrhUVn Col. Voy., vol. ir.. p. 
491; UumlfOUU, rue*, tom. )., pp. 114-15, torn ii-.. pp., 17&-8i Tifhr't Ana. 



ished structure, ftftenvfiixlfi iledicaU^l by the Cholult 
to Qiietziilcoatl, htill reiimiiiH to nl»)w how well Xelhua,] 
the giant, de.served hU Kurname of the Architect. 

hwK, pp. 276-7; ff*m /m. jn Pmtyttt, C^mquigta dt -Vfjf/w, torn. iii.. pp. 1-IOJ 
A careful oompurisuu uf tliu paMwueH (pveii h1k>v« will Kbow ibat this v-ho1»| 
Btory o( the escape of Coicox iiml his wi(e in q Ixwt from a greitt Jelujj;e,T 
and of the diatriniitiou by a t>ird of difftTfut Inii^iianes to their de*c*^u(I-1 
outs, rests on tho interpretation nf certain Azteo pniudnicrs, eoutoiuiiig hujj- 
po3«d pictaref) of a doud. of Coxcox and hi* wili-, of a canoe or rude vrsttel 
of some Idud, of tha inoantain Culhimi-an, whirti van the MexicAU Arantt, 
and of n binl dtatribatioK Unguajji^i to u imiulier of men. Not oue of 
the eftrlicflt writuni nn Mtixk'au u>'tholoffy, nunc uf those perst^iDAlly fu- , 
miliar with the natives mid with their om) traditioiis as existing nt lh«| 
time uf, i>r imuiudiatvly Hftvr thn cuiiqiieHt, Reuiua to haro kuuwu thi* 
legetid; Olmas, daU i^^'iu. Mottdinia, MeiidiuUt, IxUilx<K'hitI. and CtuuurKO^ 
Krte all of th<>m Kilout with rvgurd in it. Tliintc fuct» luuttt giru rim: to g;niv»| 
BlupicioiiK with nit^^rd to the ncrnracy uf the coiumoiily rtrc*!])!^^ version, | 
uutwitliKlanding itM apparently itiipUtrit rf<cfptinn up to thi^ titiic by the most I 
critical hiiit'irtans. Tbe8« xoMpicions uill not be IcKHf ut*d liy th<> r^«ultof' 
the n*iie(irrhen of Dnn .losh Fernando llamire'X, T'lnuw-rvator of th« ^lexican 
Natiouid MiUieuiu, a (^rntlemrin not less remarkable fur h\* fF^iiiiliarity with 
the lan^B^UDilantitiuitieti of Mexico tlum for the moderation iind caluiuesii of 
his critical jadgmeuta. us far a<i the)^ are knowQ. lu a commuuit^'atiou dated 
April. 185S, to Garcia y Cnhaw, AtUt-n fi^*tjrari<.-o, E^^mi'itv^r* r H'iM'>ri<ii dr h /fe-j 
pubikn Mjiavvi, entiegi* 2tf, speakinfi at the celebrated Mexican picture] 
there for the first time, as he cUim», accurately given to the pnblie.— SiKQenra'* 
copy of it, as given by Gomelli Carerri, that given by ClaviKero in his Storia 'M 
JtRAsioa. that given by Hnmboldt in his Atlas PUtortHtfue. and that Kivea by 
Kingsborotigh being all incorrect, — Seaor llamitez says :— The autbority ol 
writers K) competent na Sigflenza and Clavigero imi>o»ed silence on the in- 
crednlooa, and aftar the illiiKtrinnH Baron vou Hnraboldt added his irresistibr 
authority, adopting tU.-it iiiti-rjip'tatiuu. n'ib<.idy d(.>ul)ted that "the tnidittu 
of thu Hebrews wutu futiud iiuiuiit* thu pi'ouU- uf AjUL-ricQ;" that, as Ihi; wiat 
Huron thought, " their Coxcox, Teocipact}!, or Tezpi 18 the Noah, Xiantma, 
or Uimua nf the AxiHtic: f [uuilins ;" and that "the Ourro of Cnlbnacau is the 
Ararat of the Uexicaiis." Ciraud and magtufif^eut thought, bat unfortuuutely- 
only a deliiaiun. The blue Mquure No. 1, with itn buudit ot obHCore Uuea 
of the same oolor. cannot reprenent thw ttTrfBtrial glulw rovf^red with the 
wut^m of ttiH Aood, be4!HUHe we Khimld have li> Hupjxmfi a re|>etitioQ of the 
name deluge in the figure Xo. iO. where it is re[iri»dn[^K(l with RomH of ita 
principal necidenta. nfither, fur the uauie reiutuu, do thu humaia heiubi and 
the head;t of bird^ which appear to float there, denote the BubtnerEing of tnea 
and animalo, for it wmld bu nerpManr^- to give (h<f Kitmo (Mptauatiuii to thoM 
wen in group No- Uil. It might bo argued that thi^ group to the loft (oC^ 
No. 1), made up of a humnn hr^ud plat'^'d nnder the huad of a Hnl, teprn- 
aented phonetically the namp Coxcox. and denoted the Axlec Nnab; but the 
group on the rigbt. formed of a woman's head with other symbidic figures 
above it, evidently does not express the name Xochiquetzal, which is said ' 
have been that of hiD wife. . . . .Let u.h now pass on to the dove giving tonga 
to the iirimitivc men who were born mule. The commas which serm t*' 
come from the beak of the bird there represented, fonn ouu of the most com-' 
plex ami varied nymbols, is respect to th«-ir phuuetic fopct, wliieh are fonnd' 
in our hieroylypbic writing. lu counectiuu with au;muti-d beiuy* they 

deaignate genurifally the einiHaiou of the voiee In the grouji before oti ther 

denote pur(>ly aud mmply that the bird was singing or ft]>eakiug — to whomr 
— to the group of persoos before it, who by the direction of their faces and 
badies show clearly and diHtiut-tly the attention with which lliey linti 
Consequently the designer of the hcfore>meiitiuued drawing for Cla' ' 

4t>-ned, ^H 
vigeru, ^1 



Yet another record remains to im of a biiditionol 
(exicuii deluge, in tlio foUowinjr extnict from tl»e Chimal- 
popoca \[anu«cript. Its words seoin to have a familiar 
sound ; but it wovdd hanlly Ije scientific to draw from 
such a fragment any very sweeping conclusion as to its 
relationsliip. wliether that Ije Quiche or Christian: — 

When the Sun, or Age, Nahui-Atl came, there hod 
poaeed already four hundrnd years; then came two hun- 
dred yean*, then seventy and six, and then mankind 
were loat and drowned and turned into fishes. The 
waters and the sky drew near each otlier; in n single 
day all was Itwt; the day Four Flower consumud ;dl 
that there was of our Hesh. And this year was the year 
Ce-Calli: on the first day, Nahui-Atl. all was liwt. The 
very muuntains were swallowed up in the llm)d arid the 
waters remained, lying tranquil during fifty and two 
spring-times. But before the tlood l)egan, TitltwMihuiui 
had warned the man Nata and liis wife Nena, saying: 

pn-oconpi«d Tiih the Moa of ajgnifyin;! by it tho pretended confusion of 
toagu««, chiutged with his ptmril the htKitirii^ Inith, giving to thfuc- flguren 
oppoMtv dircetioua. Exnmiiiiiip littciitivcty thi; iuvxitctiliideii xuid <■ m>ra of 
ue gnvfttftod the jieucil iu all hiHt<irii-iit ungravin^fi n.-biting to jSIrxit^o, it in 
UMto thnt tbejr ore no lesH uiimerou}) niiil tH^riiiiiH than thofte of the (wii. Tfa« 
'ions f^TCD to thu ancicut Mexican paiiitiu}^ hj anh-iit iiungiiia- 
*iijr by Jove of novelty or l»y the i^iiiht of Hj-Ht*ni, justify to n <'*r- 
,1- .. the iliiitnut AUd dlut'uvor with vliirh the' btst and uiiMi dititin- 

I I iiiitoruuiof theConqaeBt of Mfiioo i W. H. Prencott; hAn treated tbift 
> -r !i>^- und precioaa cUtw of hiKUirirad docunifutM. Rcunr Komirez gain 
on ibiu lit 8um« biigtb to bii ronrhutinnH, irhii'h rednre tho nriuinnl jiniiit* 
ing to A umpla tveord of a wnndfrinu vt thuMuxirjniH unions; tbi* mkcKof the 
Xexieaa TAiley,— that jonrney Wginmng %t a jilace 'not more than nine 
mOM from the gntternof Mexico,'— a rocoiY) baring ubwhitelr no connection 
«1tlMT with the inytbic-iil <lcln((e, already d«8crtbe<1 w oik of the four di-otruc- 
ttona of thf vrorhl, or with any other. The bird fspoakitip iti thf* picture, he 
flone«ta with a 'vrc'.l-knnvn Mexiean fftbla given by Torqiif>iiiii(in, in which a 
Nrd u describc^l iih sp^^kinc from n tree to the liHidcra of tho ]tl<'iionns at a 
c«rt«ia HtjuD of thfir loiRmtion. ninl r«|tpfltini{th« work Tihui, thnt in to wiy, 
*LoCa«f{o. A. littU> bird called thf Tihuiltrli'in, withacrythattbtivnlgnrittill 
tolcrprel in a lomewbat ntmilnr iwoiie. in well knowu in Mexico, and is per- 
kapa at tho bottum of tb« tradition. It inuv be adde<l Uiat Torquemada gives 
» patuUvl m>uii!H.>ni)t. possibly that nnder uiacuBBJon, aa hisaathority for tho 
AOfT. Thf boat, tlie tuotintttin, and the other adjuncts of tho piutnrc are 
fiplalTi-d in a like aioiplc way, as the hierofjlyphicft, for the moHt pnrt, of 
tmriocw jToper nnmca. Our space hyre will not permit fnrther dt'taiU,— 
Aof^^ ■n^rUh'T Toldioe wJU contain thin piclxire nnd a further diKcnxHion of 
%m wIdiHl. — bat I may nmark in concluding thiit tho moderation with 
vhkSi BcdUv Bamin'X dioeaasM the <]aefltion. rh well an hi» groat experience 
and laaming in mutters of Mi-xicau antiquity, laem to claim for bis views 
Ibe m n oom oonaidcrativn of futaru atadunta. 



Make now no more pulque, but hollow out to yourselves 
a grejit cypress, into which you nUaW enter when, in the 
month Tozoztli, the waters sliall near the sky. Then 
they entered into it, and when Titlmyihujui had shut 
them in, he said to the man: Tliou shalt eat but a single 
ear of inai'/e, and thy wife hut one also. And when 
they liad finished eating, each an ear of maize, they pre- 
pared to set forth, for the waters remained tranquil and 
their lo-^ moved no longer ; and opening it they Ijegan to 
ace the fishes. Then they lit a fire, rubbing pieces of 
wood together, and they roasted fish. And behold the 
deities Citlallinicue and Oitlallatonac looking down from 
above, cried out: divine Lord! what is this fire that 
they make there? wherefore do they so fill the heaven 
with smoke? And immediatdy Titlactdiuan Tetzcatli- 
poca came down, and set himself to grum!)le, saying: 
What does this fire here? Then he seized tlie fishes and 
fashioned them l^ehind and before, and changed thcni 
into dogs.*' ■ 

We tuni now to the traditions of some nations situated" 
on the out.skirts of the Mexican Kmpire, tniditions dif- 
fering from those of Mexico, if not in their elements, at 
least in the ox)mbination of those elements. Following 
our usual custom. I give the following legend tielonging 
to the Miztecs just as they themselves were nocua- 
tomeil to depict and to interpret it in their primitive 
scrolls: — ^ 

In the year and in the day of obscurity and darkness, 
yea even before the days or the years were, when the 
world was in a great darkness and chiioy, when the earth 
was covered with water and there was nothing but mud 
and slime on all the face of the earth, ^behold a god 
became visible, and his name was the Deer, and his sur- 

» Bnuwetir do Boorb«>nr<f, //U(. dcs T^at. Civ., torn. 1., pp, 42&-7. 

« Fr. tiregorio Gtiniiti, Ori ,en dt log Iivt., pp. 327-9. Icok this nuratiTe 
from a book hu fuuml iu n convont in Cailiipa. a tittle Indiim town abont a 
league and k bnlf «4>utli of Oa)»oa. The book hod been coiupiled by ifa« 
TJoar of that ounveut, auil— ' excritu con bus t'tgnras, como los luaiott An KqnH 
B«ino Mixtrco liui t^uUn en aiu Libroii. b Perguninos arroUadoii. con U Atn 
elararini) de In ipii« Mi^niflrjtluiu \oa Fi^nima. en qae contabun sa Ori(;en, 1» 
Creacion del Uuudo, i i)iluviu Geuerul. 



fiame was the Lion-Snake. There appeared also a very 
icautiful goddess called the Deer, and surnamed the 
iTijrer-Snake.* Tliese t^vo gods were the origin and be- 
[:gining ol' all the gods. 

Now when these two gods became \'isible in the world, 

ley made^ in their knowledge and omnipotencej a great 

;k, upon which they built a very 8iun})tiious palace, a 

aasterpiece of skill, in which they made their abode 

ii[)on eartli. On tbe highest part of this building thei*e 

[was an axe of cupj)er, the edge being uppermost, and on 

this axe tlie heavens rested. 

This rock and the palace of the gods were on a moun- 
rtain in the neighlwrhotHi of the town of Apoala in the prov- 
tlnce of Miztecii Alta. The rock wjis c^ille<l The Place 
lof Heaven; there the gods first alxMle on eartli. living 
[many years in great rest and content, as in a linppy and 
[delicious land, though the world still lay in obscurity 
Und darkness. 

Tlic father and mother of all the gods being here in 

ftlieir place, two sons were Iwrn to them, very handf^ome 

find very learned in all wisdom and arts. The first was 

[called tlie Wind of Nine Snakes, after the name of the 

May on which he was lx>m; and the second was called, 

fin like manner, the Wind of Nine Caves. Very daintily 

indeed were these youths brought up. Wlien the elder 

wished to amuse himself, he took the form of an eiigle, tly- 

mg thus far and wide ; the younger turned himself into 

a small beast of a serpent sha[)e, having wings that be 

used with such agility and sleight that he became invis- 

ble, and Hew thn^ugh i-ocks and walls even as through 

the air. As they went, the din ami clamor of these 

brethren was heard by those over whom they passed. 

They took tliese figures to manifest the |HJwer tbat was in 

tht>m, iMith til tran.sfonning themselves and in resuming 

again their original 8ha|)e. And they abode in great j)eace 

in the mansion of their jiarents, so they agreed to make 

■ * Que Kp*i¥rieroD vitiiM»in«nt« nn Diott, que tUTO por Xntnliro un Cifrvo, 
I DoCMwreDoinlire t'vJtlpra de Imih; i iiua DiMta mni liniiu, i ImruiCMa, que sn 
Xoalm loe un CUrvo * por sobreDombre Cukbm dr TUjrt.' (iktrcia. Jd., 




a sacrifico and an oftbrinjj; to thp.«e gods, to their father 
and to mother. Then tliey took eacli a censer of 
clay, and put fire therein, and jx>urcd in ground heleiio 
for incx^nso; and thi8 ottering wa^f the first that had ever 
been mode in the world, Xext the brothers made to 
themselves a garden, in which they put many trees, 
and fViut-ti-ees, and Jlowers, and ix>.«e.s, and odorous herbs 
of ditteivnt kinds. Joiuwi to thi.s gartlen they biid out 
a very beautiful meadow, which they fittwl up with all 
things necessary for offering siw^rifioe to the gcxls. In 
this manner the two liretliren left their purents b<iUHe, 
and fixed tbemftelves in this garden to dreaa it and to 
keep it, watering the ti-eex and the }iliint.s and the twlor- 
OUH herl*s. multiplying them, and burning incense of 
powder of beleuo in censers of clay to the gods, their 
father and motlier. They made al<ti vows to these g*xls^ 
and promises, praying that it might eeem good to them 
to shape the firmament and ligliten the darkness of the 
world, and to establish the foundation of the earth, or 
rather to gather the waters together so tliat the etirth 
might appear. — an they hod no place to rest in save only 
one little garden. And to make their prayers more ob- 
ligatory uyton the gods, tliey pierced their ears and 
tongues with Hakes of flint, sprinkling the blood that 
dropped fram the wounds over the trtH^s and ]>liint8 of the 
gai-den with a willow l>ranch, as a sacred and blessed 
thing. After this sort they employed themselves, jxist- 
poning pleasure till the time of the granting of their de- 
sire, remaining always in subjection to the gods, their 
father anil mother, and attributing to them more power 
and divinity than tliey really iKwsessed. 

Fray (Jarcia here makes a break in the relation, — that 
he may not weary his readers with so many absurdities, 
— but it wotdd appear that the finnament was arranged 
and tlie earth made fit for mankind, whoaUiut tliat time 
must also have made tbeir api>earance. For there ciune 
a great ileluge afterwards, wlierein perishe*! many of the 
$Km» and daughter.^ that hiul l)eeu Ixjrn to tlie gods; and 
it is stud that when the deluge was passed tlie human 


race was restored 08 at the first, and the Miztec king- 
dom populated, aoid the heavens and tlie earth estab- 

This we niay suppose to have been the traditional ori- 
pin of the common ixHiple; hut the governing family of 
Mizteca proclaimofl themselves the descendantH of two 
youths bom from two majestic trees that stoofl at the en- 
trance of tlie jK)r}re of A|)oala. and that maintained them- 
-Neives there despite a violent wind continually rising 
from a cavern in the vicinity. 

Whether the trees of tliemselves produced these youths, 
or whether some primeval .^'jsir, ti,s in the Scandinavian 
I «tory, gave them Hhajie and blooil and hivath and sense, 
1 we know not. We are oidy loM that soon or late tl»e 
[youths »e|«iratcd, CJich jJ:oinjr his own way to conquer 
[lundfi for himself. The bmver of the two coming to the 
1 vicinity of Tilantonjro, armed \ntli buckler luid bow, was 
[much vexed and oppresjied by the ardent raya of the 
1 8un, which he t*x3k to be the lord of that district striv- 
tin^r to prevent his entrance therein. Then the young 
[Warrior rfrung his bow, and advanced his buckler before 
[him, and drew 8haft« from hi.«j quiver. He shot there 
I against the jrreat light eve»i till the going down of the 
iMnie; then he ttxjk poases-sion of all that huid, seeing he 
ihnd grievoiwly wounded the sun. and foired liim to hide 
[K'hind the mountains, Uikiu this story is founded the 
Ikirdsliip of all the caciques of Miztetta, and upon their 
tdc«oeiit from this mighty archer their ancestor. Kven 
ilo iWia day, the chiefs of the Miztecs blazon as their 
trms a plumed chief with bow, arrows, and sliield. and 
[tlie Hun in front of him setting Ix^hind gray clouds.™ 
Of the origin of the Za|X)tecs, a pet>pk' lK)rd('ring on 
Miztecis, Burgoa says, with a touching simplicity, 
|that he could find no account worthy of belief. Their 
[iifitoric4d paintings he ascribes to the invention of the 
Jevil, aihnning hotly that these people were blinder in 
ch vanities* tluin the E^vptians and the Chaldeans. 

nj9urv«s. 0*og. Deaerip.t tomL, fol. 128, 17G. 


OBiom A\D t:nd of things. 

Some, he said, to lioast of their valor made themselves 
out the sons of lions and divers wild Ix^asts; others, 
grand lords of ancient linca^, were produced by the 
gi-eatei^t and most shoily trees; while still others of an 
unyielding and obstinate nature, were descended from 
rocks. Their Imiguage, wMiiinues the worthy Provincial, 
striking suddenly and by un umlirected shot the very 
center of mythological interpi-etation, — their language 
wa8 fidl of metaphors; tliose who wished to jtersuaile 
spake always in (mrables, and in like maimer |)auited 
their historians.* 

In Guatemala, according to the relations given to F»i- 
ther Ger6nimo Roman by the natives, it was believed 
there was a time when nothing existed but a certain 
diWne Father called Xchmel, and a divine Mother called 
Xtmana. To these were horn thi-ee wms,'' the eldest of 
whom, lille<i with pride and presumption, set about a 
creation contrary to the will of his parents. But he 
could create nothing save old vessels fit for mean usee, 
8uch as earthen |iot.s, jugs, and things still niore despicable ; 
and he was hurled into hades. Tlien the two younger 
brethren, calleil rc8i)cctively Hunchevan and Hun- 
avan, prayed their ixvrents for ixmnission to attempt the 
work in which their bi-other hml failed so signally. And 
they were granted leave, being told at the same time, 
that inasmuch as they had humbled themselves, they 
W'ould succeed iti their undertaking. Then they made 
the heavens, and the earth with the plants thereon, and 
fire and air, and out of the earth itself they made a man 
and a woman, — presumably the parents of the human 

According to Torquemada. there was a deluge some 
time after this, and after the deluge the peojile continued 
to invoke as god tlie great Father and the great Motlier 

» liary'M. Gtt»j. Dtgcrip., M. 196-7. 

>' One of the Lax Casnit MSB. gives, nccunliuf; to Helps. ' treoe hijcw ' in* 
Htfail of 'Irt's hijfx;' thn latUT. huwevpr, being the correct reading, as iht 
li»t nf namet) in the same manuscript iihovB, and an Father BomAxi mrm it. 
See ncitc 33. 


already' mentioned. But at last ft principal woman " 
among thera, liuving recviveil a revelation frtmi heaven, 
trtii^ilit tht'in the tnie nmne of God, and how that name 
should be atlorcd; all this, however, thev afterward for- 

In Xicaragua, a country where the principal language 
was a Mexican dialect, it was believed that ages ago 
the world destroyed by a flood in which the most 
|Mirt of mankind iJerishtHl. Aftenvard the teotes, or 

Ib, restocked the earth as at the l^eginning. Whence 
came the teotes, no one knows; but the names of two 
of thrm who t<x)k a princi[ml part in the civatiun were 
Tamagostat and Ciimttonal.^ 

Leaving now the Central American region we pass 
nortli into tlie Papago country, lying south of the Gila, 
witli the river Santa Cruz on the east and the Gulf of 
California on the west. Here we meet for the first time 
the coyote, or prairie wolf; we fnid him much more than 
an animal, something more even than a man, only a 
little lower than the gods. In the following Papago 
m^'tb"^ he figures as a prophet, and as a minister and as- 
eistant to a certain great hero-god Montezuma, whom we 
are destined to meet often, and in many characters, aa a 
central ligure in the myths of the (Jila valley: — 

The Great Spirit mode the earth and all living things, 

" This tndition, says the Abbe BmsAeur de Bourboorg, Jiist. dev Nat. 
Od.. torn, ii., pp. 71-5. kas iudubitably ri.'fi.>r<ruce tu n queen whose memory 
bu become uttnched to very ninuy plac^'H in Gii.itenmlft, and Central Amen- 
m Kenenlly. She «ru caU^ AUt, Gmndmoth^'r; and from her the volcano 
ofAtitUn. received the name .U'tUjl-hutjii, by which it i* still known to the 
kborifpnoe. This Atit Uvtxl during fonr cf-nturJt's, and from her are descended 
all the n>>'nl and princely fjunltjea of Oanteuiala. 

o ft„mait. litpiiWi'ii itf lot Jntlios Ocdflfttiales. part 1, lib. 2, eap. 15, after 
Gisreia. ifrUfut tit (im tud., pp. 329-30; Jmh fagaa. Jliitt. Apolo<f<ftica, MS., 
eip. 235, aiter Ihlpa' SfYin. Comj., vol. ii.. p. MU; Torqutmaita, Monarq. 
isii.. torn, ii., pp. 53-4; Jirasneur de Bourbowy, Hist, deg .Vuf. V'w., torn, ii., 
pp. 74-6. 

»* The flmt of lhe«j two uamei ts nronponaly spelt ' Famngoztad ' by M. 
Tmukax-Compoiu. Mr. Uqnier, and the Abbe 11ra8»ear de Bonrboiuigi the 
two Uttrr p^rbnpH led aatrny l^ the error of M. Tcmanx-Compaua, an error 
which ftnt app^fAred in that ^cntlelIUlu'8 trunMlution of Oviedo. Oviedo, 

kl. Oct., torn, iv.. p. 40. I'ri r \UtrUp-, dec. vi., cap. 4. 

stThia tradiliun waa 'gathered priucipalljr from the relations of Con 
Oslen, the inteUigent chief of the ccutnu pApngos.' Davittaon, in IwL A^. 

hyi . \m&. pp. 131-^. 



}jefope he made mini. And he defended from heaven, 
digging in tlic earth, found clay such iw the ixjtters use, 
which, having again ascended into the sky, he dropj)ed 
into the hole that he .had dug. Immediately tliere cume 
out Montezuma and, with tlie a.sf*i.stuuce of Montezuma, 
tlie rest of tl»e Indian trilxjy in order. Last of all came 
the AiHiches, wild froin their natal hour, running away 
as fji«t as they were creute<l. Those first days of the 
world were happy and ])eaceful days. The sun was 
nearer the earth than he is now; his grateful niys made 
all the seasons etjual. and rendered gannents unneces- 
sary. Men and Ijeasta talked together, a common lan- 
guage made all hrethren. But an awful destruction 
ended this happy age. A great flood destroyed all desh 
wherein was the hreath of life; Montezuma and hia 
friend the Coyote alone esaiping. For Ijefore the tlood 
begim, tlie Coyote prophesied its coming, imd Montezu- 
ma took the warning amd hollowed out a boat to him>*elf, 
keeping it ready on the topmost simimit of Santa Ho«a. 
The Coyote also prepai-ed an ark; gnawing down a great 
cane by the river bank, entering it, and stopping up the 
end with a certain gum. So when t}ie wiiters rost; the»e 
two saved themselves, and met again at last on dry land 
afler the flood had pjissed away. Naturally enough Mon- 
tezuma wiLs now anxiou.s to know how nuich dry land 
had Ixfu left, and he sent the Coyote ofl'on four succes- 
sive journeys, to find exactly where the sea lay toward 
eiu;h of the four winds. From the west and from the 
south, the ans^ver swiftly came: The sea is at hand. A 
longer search was tliat made towards the east, but at last 
there too wius the sea found. On the north only was no 
water found, though the faithful messenger almost 
wearied himself out with searching. In the meantime 
the Great Spirit, aided by Montezuma, had again re- 
peopled the world, and animals and men began to in- 
creiise and multiply. To Montezuma luul Ixtu allotted 
the care and government of the new riu^e; but pufled up 
T^nth pride and self imiwrtance, he neglected the most im- 
portant duties of his oneix>us position, and suifered the 



I most diHgraceful wickedness to puss unnoticed among the 
people. In vuin the Great t?pirit came do\vn to earth 
[ and remonstrated -with l»is vieetrcrcnt, who only worned 
I his lawn and advice, and ended at lawt by breaking out 
[into open relx'llion. Then uideed the Great Spirit was 
I filled with anger, and he returned to heaven, pushing 
^baek the sun on his way. to that remote part of the nky 
the now occupies. Hut Montezuma hardened his heart, 
[and collecting all the triljes to aid him, net about build- 
ing a house that should reach up to heaven itself. Al- 
reiuJy it had attained a great height, and contained many 
apartments lined with gold, silver, and precious stones, 
I the whole tlireatening soon to make gaxl the l)oa.**t of its 
[architect, wlien the Grciit Spirit launched his thunder, 
[And laid its glory in ruins. Still Montezuma hanlened 
I himself; proud and iuHexible. be answered the tluuulerer 
out of the haughty deliance of his heart; he ordered the 
[temple-houses to be desecrated, and the holy images to 
be driiggeil in the dunt. he made them a stx)flr and by- 
word lor the very children in the village streets. Then 
the Great Spirit prepared his supreme punishment. lie 
iBent an insect Hying away towai*d8 the east, towards an 
J unknown land, to bring the Spaniards. When these 
I came, they made war u^xtn Montezuma and destroyed 
fhim. and utterly diasIjMited the idea of his divinity.* 

M Thp IcKf adnn' Montr zatiui, wfaom ve shall tnf et so often in the inythol- 
l«e7 «t Uie tiila voUev, must uot be confouudrd irith tlie two Mexican mon- 
I AKhs ol tlw mnie titlo. The tinnie itaeli would nvem, in the absence of proof 
\io the eontnrv. to hATe bcc^ carried into Arizon> and N«w Mexico ay the 
fipuniftnU nr ttcir Mexican ottpTidiuitii, and t« have become ({radaally mwoci- 
I atril in ib«- mindii uf Home of the Xow Mexican and nrigfaboriug tribea, with 
[ B Tofnie. mythical, and departed grandetir. Tho name Mmttexnins becnuiB 
I tba.«. to a»« Mr. Tylor'tt worda. tluit of the great * Bomebody * ot the trfbe. 
^Tliia being once ttie case, nil the lesser berora would be i^vdaaUy absorbed 
l-ln llie tCTfaler. ai^ their uanicA foip^tuu. Their dfT^da 'nuuld become his 
ldee<U. ibetr fame his fame. There i& t-vidcnee enough ihiit this is a general 
llend(?U07 of tmditiou, CTcn In historical tiiuea. The pages of Mr. Cox's 
Itrholafly and comprehensive work. Thr Mythrtiofiy oftht Aryan S'aliims, term 
Lvith etatuiile^ of it. In Pemia, deeds of every kin^ and date are referred to 
Wnlar. In lltiHiria, htiildinga of every uo are declared to be the work 
larf Peter the (irt-at. AU uviT Rnrnpe, in Gmnany, Prnuce, Spain, Switxer- 
llaod. EngUnd, Scotland. Irvlaiid, the exploits of Uie oldeat myttiologioBl 
I'beroea tlsuriuK in the HoKtui, EdrhiH, and Nibvluugen Lied have been aacnbed 
' I the folk-lore nud balliiilH of t}ie people to llnrbflroiwa, Charlpiungne. Voab- 
3, Charlm V., Williani Tdl. Arthur. lUibin Uiwd, Wallace, and tit. Patrick. 



The Pimas,'^ a neifrhboring nnd closely allied people 
to the Papapos, say that the earth was made by a cer- 
tain Chiowotmahke, that ia to say Earth -prophet. It 
appeared in the beginning like a spider's weh, stretching 
far and fi-agile across the nothingness that was. Then 
the Earth-prophet flew over all lands in the form of a 
butterfly, till he came to the place he judged iit for hifi 
pur|Jose. and there he made man. And the thing vfos 
after this wise: The Creator took clay in his hands, and 
mixing it with the sweat of his own lx>dy, kiiemlu*! the 
whole into a lump. Then he blew upon the lump till it 
Avos fille^i with life and began to move; and it l>ecarae 
man and woman. This (*reator hod a son ailknl £?zeu- 
klia, who, when the world was Ix^ginningto l)e tolerably 
peopled, lived in the Oila valley, where lived also at Uie 
same time a great j)roplK't. whwse mune has Ikvii forgot- 
ten. Upon a certain night when the prophet slept, he 
waa wakened by a noise at the door of his liouse, and 
when he looked, a great Kagle st^xxl l)eforc him. And 
the Eagle sjjidve: Arise, thou that healest the sick, thou 
that shouldest know what is to come, for Ijehold a deluge 
is at Iiand. But the propliet laughed the bird to scorn 
and gathered his rolx^s about him and slept. After- 
wards the Eagle came again and warned him of the 
waters near at hand; but he gave no ear to the bii-d at 
all. Perhaps he would not listen l^ecause this Eagle had 
an exceedingly bad reputation among men, being re- 
jMJfted to take at times the fonii of an old woman that 
hmtl awa3' girls and children to a certain clift' so that 
they were never seen ngiiin ; of this, however, more anon. 
A third time, the Eagle came to warn the prophet, and 
to say tliat all the valley of the Gila slioidd be laid waste 
with water; but the prophet gave no heed. Then, in 




The ennnAction of Uie ttani« of BIoatoEoma with andent baildtneR and leg«nd- 
an- adveulnrcii in thf« mytLoIagy of tfae Oila vnlley senmii to be simply an- 
oUi«r (fxauijitv of tlic Kaiue kiud. 

n I nni inilvbtfrd fur tlinse tmrticiilare of the belii^f of the Pimiui to the 
IdndneMof Mr. .T. H. Stout of tht* Pima agency, -who procured luft a per- 
sonal interview with fi\o chiffH of thtit natiim, and their wry iuti-lligent and 
obli{{iD{{ ioturpreter, Mr. Walker, at tiun FranciMX), in October, lUl'S. 



tlie twinkling of an eye, and even a*i the flapping of the 
fK:igle't« wing;* died awa^' into tlic night, there came a 
jpeal of thunder and an awfid crasli; and a green mound 
[of water rehired it>telf over the plain. It seemed to stand 
'upriglit for a second, tlien, cut inwssantly hy tlie light- 
lint;, ^coaded on like a grut beast, it Qung itt«elf u|)on the 
prophet's hut. AVhen the morning Itruke lliere was noth- 
ing to be seen alive but one man — if iiidee*! he were a 
man; Szcukha, the »on of the Creator, had saved himself 
b>- tltiating on a ball of gum or resin. On the waters fall- 
' ing a little, he landed near tlic mouth of the Salt River, 
upon a mountain where there is a cave that ciin still be 
, seen, together with the tools and utensils Szeukha used 
[while he lived there. Szeukha was very angry with 
I the Great Eagle, who he probibly thought liad had more 
to do with bringing on the Hood than appt^ai*8 in the 
[narrative. At aiiy rate the general reputation of tiie 
I bird was sufficiently bad, and Szeukha prepared a kind 
f of rope ladder fnim a very tough species of tree, mneh 
like woixJbine, with the aid of which he climl>ed u[> to 
the cliff where the Eagle lived, and slew liim.* Looking 
.about bore, be found the mutilated and decaying Iwdies of 
a great multitude of thase that the Eagle had stolen and 
taken for a prey; and he raised them ail to life again and 
^jt'iit them away to repeople the earth. In the house or 
(den of the I'^agle, he found a woman that the mon.ster had 
[taken to wife, and a child. These he sent also upon 
[their way, an<l from these are desccndwl that great |xh)- 
ple called liuhtxNim. ' unelents or grumlfathers.' wiio 
were led in all their wanderings by an cugle, azid who 
eventually passed into Mexico.^ One of these Hohocam 

1" For the killing of this Qn>st EaK^e Szttiklin liiid to ito a Iciud of wn- 

ancc. which wax nvrr-T to scrutrb hiuiM-lf with hiii tiailH, but iilwnj'8 vnt'h a 

Rlick. Thi« cQntom in nUH ol»erv«i by all Piiikih; nnd n Int of wood. 

red eTrry fourth day, ia rarried for thiH purpoiw; Ktunk in their I'lnff hair. 

' With th« ntfttler, ui v%ith my»e]f, thin rUum^ will probably mil ii]> xouie- 

g more than H mere muipieioii uf Bpuni^h iaduviirti tint^iiig thi> incidents 

rtlur Jef^nd. Tlie PimfiH themselves, hnwevi<r, tittu-rtfd thitt thiK triulitiun 

lcxi>Sr<3 lunoDg tbfm \f*ng hvtare the arrival uf tliu B[iaiiiHnlit aud u'lut nut 

Inodiflcd ibTfby. One tnet thikt 8eeniH to spe-nk for the romjMimtive purity 

I tbeiT tnulitioDs iv thut the name u( Mutitezuma is niwhvru to be fuuud iu 

, lUthoagL Cremony, Apacivs, p. 102, Btates the contrary. 



named Sivano, built the Caaa Grande on the Gila, and in- 
fixed the ruins of thij* structure are called after hia name 
to thirt day. On the death of Sivano. his son led a 
l)raiicli of Uie Hohocam to Salt Kiver, where he built 
certain etUficeH and dug a large canal^ or acequia. At 
\ant it cjuiie alxmt that a wunian ruled over the Hohocam. 
Her tliKHie was cut out of a blue Htone, and a mysteri- 
OU.S bird wofi her constant attendant. Thej*e Hohocam 
were at war witli a jHXiple that lived to the east of them, 
on the Rio Verde, and one day the bird wanie*i her tliat 
tiie enemy waa at hand. The warning wqa diMregarded 
or it cmne too late, for the eastern jieople came down iji 
tliree bands, destroyed the cities of the Hohocam, and 
killed or drove away all the inhabitant*. 

Most of the Pueblo tribes call them.selvea the descend- 
ants of MonteMinui;*" tlie NfiKpiis, however, have ft quite 
diffi'n.Mit ft»)ry uf their origin. Tliey believe in a great 
Father living ivhere the sun risej^; and in a great Moth- 
er, whose home is where the siai goes down. The fa- 
ther is thu fnthur of evil, war, jK!.Ktilene«, and famine; 
but tmm the Mother are all joys, |)t'ace. plenty, and 
health. In tlie lieginning of time the Mother produced 
fnjm her western home nine nice.s of men in the follow- 
ing primar)' forms: First, the Deer race; second, the 
Sajid race; third, the Water race; fourth, the Bear race; 
fifth, the Hare nice; sixth, the Frairie- wolf race ; seventh, 
the Rattle-snake race; eighth, the Tolmcco-plaiit race; 
ttn<l ninth, the Reetl-grasa race. All tliese the Mother 
plaee<l ivs|)ectivelv on the spot^ where their villages now 
stand, and tnmsfonned them into the mcnwlio built the 
pre-sent Pueblos. Tliese race-distinctions are atill sharp- 
ly kept up: for they are Iwlieved to be realities, not 
only of the past and present, but also of tlie future ; every 
man when he dies shall be resolved into his primeval 
fomi; shall wave in the grass, or drift in the sand, or 
prowl on the prairie as in the beginning." 


* Ongn'* Cmu im im Q/tSt iVafriw, toI. 1.. p. aSS. 

«i Tot Bfotek la Sckookn/l'g AnA., vol. 1t„ pp. SK-6. 



The Navajos, living north of tlxe Pueblos, say that at 
one time all the nations, Navajos, Pueblos, Coyotei'os, 
and white people, livefl together, underground in tiie heart 
of a mountain near the river San Juan. Their only 
food was meat, which they had in abundance, for all 
kinds of game were closed up with them in their cave; 
but their light wjih dim and only endured for u few 
hours each day. There were happily bvo dumb racn 
among the Navajos, flute-players w!io enlivened the dark- 
ness with music. One i)f these striking by chance on 
the roof of the limbo with his ilute, brouglU out a hol- 
low sound, upon which the elders of t!ie triljcs deter- 
mined to Iwre in the direction whence the sound came. 
The flute was tlien »et up against the roof, and the Rac- 
coon eent up the tube to dig a way out ; but he could 
not. Then the Motli-wonu mounted into the breach, 
and Itored and Ixjred till he found himself suddenly on 
tlie outside of the mountain and surrounded by water. 
Under these novel circumstances, he heaped up a little 
mound and set himself down on it to observe and pon- 
der the situation. A critical situation enough ! for, from 
the four comers of the universe, four great white Swans 
bore down upon him, every one "with two arrows, one 
onder either wing. The Swan from the north reached 
him first, and ha\dng pierced him with t^vo arrows, drew 
them out and examined their points, exclaiming as the 
result : He is of ray race. So also, in succession, did all 
the others. Then they went away; and towards the di- 
rections in which they departed, to the north, south, east, 
and west, were found four great arroym^ by which all 
the water flowed off, lea\dng only mud. The worm now 
returned to the cave, and the Raccoon went up into the 
mud, sinking in it mid-leg deep, as the marks on his fur 
fihow to this day. And the wind began to rise, sweep- 
ing up the four great arroyos, and the mud was dried 
sway. Then the men and the animals began to come 
up frwn their cave, and their coming up required sever- 
al days. First came t^ie Navajos, and no sooner had 


Tot. IZL, t. 




ttiey reached the surface then they commenced gaming ] 
zi patok, t\mr favorite game. Then came the Pueblos 1 
and other Indians who crop tlieir hair and build houses. 
Lastly came the white people, who started off at ont^e for j 
the rising sun and were IokI niglit of lor many winters. 

While nations lived underground they all spake] 
one tongue; but with tlie light of day and the level of' 
earth, came many language.s. The earth wa.s at this 
time very small and the light was quite as scanty as it 
had l)een down below; for tiiere was in* yet no heaven, 
nor sun, nor moon, nor stars. So another coimcil of the 
ancients was held and a committee of their number ap- 
pointed to manufacture these luminaries. A lai^e house 
or workshop was erected; and when the sun and mooa j 
were ready, they were entnisted to the direction and fl 
guidance of the two dumb fluters already mentioned. " 
The one who got charge of the sun came very near, 
through his clumsiness in his new office, to making a 
Phaethon of him.self and setting fire to the earth. The 
old men, howevoj, cither more lenient than Zeua or lack- 
ing his thunder, contented themselves with forcing the 
offender back by puffing the smoke of their pijies into 
his face. Since tlien the mcreaaing size of tlie earth 
haa four times renderefl it necessary that he should be 
put back, and his course farther removed from the world 
and from the subterranean cave to which he nightly re- 
tires with the great light. At night also the other dumb 
man issues from this cave, bearing the moon under his 
arm, and ligliting up such ixirt of the world as he can. 
Next tlie old men set to work to make the heavens, in- 
tending to broider in the stai's in Waiitiful patterns, of 
bearSj birds, and such tilings. Hut just an tliey had 
made a beginning a prairie-wolf rashed in, and crying 
out: Why all this trouble and embnndery? scattered the 
pile of stars over all the floor of heaven, just as they 
still lie. 

When now the world and its firmament had been fin- 
ished, the old men prepared tw'o earthen linages or water- , 
jars, and having decorated one with bright colors, filled 




ith trifles ; while the other was left plain on the out- 
side, but filled within with flocks and herds and riches 
of all kinds. These jars Ireing covered and presented to 
the Navajos and Pueblos, the former chose the gaudy 
but palln* jar: while the Pueblos received the plain and 
rich vessel; each nation showing in its choice traits 
which cha^;u^terize it to this day. Xext tliere arose 
among the Xavajns a great gambler, who went on win- 
ning the goods and the persons of his opjwnents till he 
bad won the whole trii^e. Upon this, one of the old 
men became indigniuit, set the gambler on Ins liow- 
string and shot him off into si>ace,^-an unfortunate pro- 
ceeding, for the fellow returned in a short time with fire- 
firms and the Spanianls. tjct me conclude by telling 
how the Xavajos came by the seed they now cultivate: 
All the wise men Txnngone day assembled, a turkey-hen 
e flying fivmi the direction of the morning star, and 
»k fnim her feathers an ear of blue corn into the 
midst of the comiiany; and in subsequent visits brought 
all the other seeds they possess." 

Of Bome tribes, we do not know that they possess any 
other ideas of their, origin than tbe name of their firat 
^ |pocf$tor, or tlie name of a creator or a ti*adition of his 

The Sinaloas. front Culiacan north to tbe Yaqui River, 
have dances in honor of a certain A'Lriseva, the mother 
of the first man. This first man, who was her son, and 
called Vairubi. they hold in like esteem." The Cochimis, 
of Lower California, amid an apparent multiplicity of 
gods, say there is in reality only one, who created 
Leaven, earth, plants, aninuvls, and man.** The Pericues, 
also of Lower California, call the creator Niporaja, and 
»y that the heavens are his dwelling-place. A sect of 

*• Tm BroerJc in SchnntnytfV m Arrh., vti\. it., pp. 8l)-Ul); unci Eaton, lb., 
pp. 218-fl, The ljitt«T oeconnt cliffum it Wtk- fruni tbnt pven in the text, and 
uiftk«« tlw foUowing addition : After the NaTajoB cimie up from th? cnvt, there 
eaaw ■ Uin« vhen. hy th« lerooitj of KiAQts end nipAcious animals, their 
atmben were r^dnced to three — an old man, nu old woman. i;nd a yonng 
VOOML The atock waa repl«tiiBhed by tbe latt«r bearing a child to the ann, 

» MlbOM, UM., pp. 18,10. 

« davlftn, BlOfia dtUa Cat., torn i., p, 139. 



the same tribe, add that the stars are made of metal, anji 
are the work of a certain PurutJibui; while the moon has] 
been made by one Cuciinumic.** 

The nations of Los Angeles County. California, believe] 
that their one pod, Quaoai*, came down from heaven;] 
and, after reducinjr chaos to order, put the world on the] 
back of seven jpants. He then ci'eated the lower ani-J 
mals, and lastly a man and a woman. These wore made 
separately out of earth and called, the man Tobohar. and 
the woman Pabavit." ^ 

Hugo Reid, to whom we are mainly indebted for the 
mythology of Southern Californi:i, and who is an excel- 
lent authority, inasmuch as his wife was an Indian womavrfl 
of that roimtry, l)esi(ie3 the preceding gives iis another 
and diftert-nt tradition on the siune subject: Two great 
Beings made the world, filled it with gnws and ti*ee«, and 
gave form, life, and motion to the various animals that 
people land and sea. When this work was done, the 
elder Creator went up to heaven and left his brother 
alone on the earth. Tlie solitary god left Ijelow, made to 
himself men-clnldren, that he should not be utterly coni- 
panionless. P'ortunately also, al>out this time, the moon 
came to that neighliorhood ; she was very fair in her 
delicate beauty, very kind heartwl, and she GUed the 
place of a mother to the men-childreii that the god had 
created. She watched over them, and guarded tliem 
from all evil things of the night, stjinding at the door of 
their lodge. The children grew up very happily, lay*^ 
ing great store by the love with which their guardians 
regarded them; but there cmne a day when their heart 
saddened, in which they began to notice that neither 
their gtxl-creator nor their moon fo.ster-:nother gave them 
any longer undiviilod aflW^tion and care, but that in- 
stead, the two great ones seemed to waste much preciou^f 
love upon each other. The tall god Ix^an to srteal out 
of their lodge at dusk, and spend t!ie night watches in 
the company of the white-haired moon, who, on 

u Clavigtro, Slorta dtUa Coi„ torn. 1., pp. 136-7. 
« Uugo IMd, in L09 Angttm Star. 



Jother hand, ditl not seem on these occatiiona to pay such 
rab^A^rbiug attention to her sentinel duty as at other tinica. 
The children grew tuul at thiif, and bitter at the heart 
pvith a boyish jealousy. Hut worse was yet to come: 
one night they were awakened by a querulous wail- 
ig in their lodge, and the earliest dawn showed them 
a straujre tiling, which tlioy aftenvardw canic to know 
watf a new-lx)rn infant, lying in the doorway. The god 
id the moon had eloped together; their Great One 
aati returned to his plmxf Ixjyond tlie a-ther, and that he 
light not \k* Hopanitvd from his panunour, he had apix>int- 
%\ her at the same time a lodge in the great iinnament; 
where she may yet l>e seen, with her gauzy robe and 
hining silver hair, treading celestial patlis. Tlie child 
sft on the eartli was a girl. She grew up very soft, 
v^ry bright, very beautiful, like her mother; but like 
her mother also, so fickle and frail I She was the 
of woman-kind, from her are all other women 
ieecended, and from the moon ; and ixs the moon changes 
they all chaxige, say the philosophers of Los An- 

A much more prosaic and materialistic origin is that 
vAocorded to tlie moon in the traditions of the Galluio- 
er08 of Centi-al California." In the l)eginning, they 
m.y, there wa.s no light, but a thick darkne;« covered all 
the citrth. Man stumbled blindly ag-ainst man and 
against the animals, tlie birds clashed together in the 
air, and confuRJon reigned everywhere. The Hawk 
happening by chance to lly into the fiux^ of the Coyote, 
lliere followed mutual apologies and afterwards a long 
discufitiion on the emergency of the situation. Deter- 
mined to make some effort toward abating the public 
oil. the two set about a remedy. The Coyote gathered 
a great heap of tulos. rollwl thorn into a ball, mid gave It 
to the Jlawk, togetlier with some pieces of tUnt. Gather- 
ing all together as well as he could, tlie Hawk flew 
straight up into the sky, where he struck fire witli the 

« Ih9» SM, lb. 

^ BnMftB BiTH- Volley, Sonoma Conoty. 





flints, lit his hull of reeds, and left it tliere, whirii 
along all in ii tierce red glow as it continues to the pres- 
ent; for it is the sun. In the same way the moon was 
made, but as the tules of which it wa,s constructed wcroJ 
rather damp, its light haa been always somewhat uncer-J 
tain and feeble.*" 

In northern California, we find the ^fattoles." who 
connect a tradition of a destnictive Hood with Taylor 
Peak, a mountiun in their loctility, on which they 
say their forefathers took refuge. As to the creation^ 
they teach that a certain Big Man began by making^ 
the naked earth, silent and bleak, with nothing off 
plant or animal thereon, save one Indian, who roamed 
about in a wofuUy hungry and desolate state. Sudden- 
ly theiv rose a terrible whirlwind, the air grew dark 
and thick with dust and drifting sand, and the Indian 
fell ujwn his face in sore dread. Then there came a 
gi*cat calm, and tiie man rose and looked, and lo, all the 
earth was perfect and peopled ; the grass and the trees 
were grec-u on every j)laui and hill; the beasts of the 
fields, tlie fowls of tlie air, the creeping things, the things 
that swim, moved everywhere in his wight. There is a 
limit set to the numlier of the animals, which is this: 
only a ixjrtjiin numlxT <jf animal spirits are in exi.stcnce; 
when one \k",\A dies, his spirit irninediatt'ly takes up its 
abode in another Ixxly, .so tbat the whole number of ani- 
mals is always tlie same, and the original spirits move in 
on endless circle of earthy iiumoi*tality." 

We pass now to a train of myths in which the Coyote] 
again appears, figuring in many itnjwrtunt and some- 
what mystical r61es, — figuring in fiict tus the great Some- 
body of many tribes. To him, tliough involuntarily as 
it appears, are owing the fish to >je fovmd in Clear Lake. 
The story runs that one summer long ago there was a 
terrible drought in that region, followed by a plague of 
grasshopijers. The Coyote ate a great quantity of th 

« PtMcers' P«Tu>, 3fS. 

>• Hnmboldt Coimty, 
II fouxn' Fcmo, Ud. 



pperp. and drank up tho whole lake to quench his 

After this he lay down to sleep oft* the effect*^ of 

hut extraordinary repast, and while he Blept a man came 

k-up from the gouth country aiul thru8t hiin through with 

ia ^[X^a^. Then all the water he had drunk llowed back 

irough his wound into'the lake, and with tljc water the 

_ shoppers he had eaten; and these injects became 

ftfae?, the same that still swim in CleaP Lake.^ 

The Californiana ui most cases describe themselves as 

originating rrom the Coyote, and more remotely, from 

Jie very miil tliey tre^id. In the huiguage of Mr. 

*owers, — whtt*4e extendtid personal investigations give 

lini the right to speak with authority, — '* All the abo- 

iginal inhabitant of California, without exception, 

elieve that their first ancestors were created directly 

the earth of their respective present dwelUng- 

places, and, in very munv cases, that these ancestors were 


Tlie Potoyantes give an ingenious account of the 

Itransformation of the first coyotes into men : There was 

age in which no men existed, nothing but coyotes. 

IVhen one of these animals died, his body used to breed 

[ft multitude of little animals, much as the carcass of the 

iuge Ymir. rotting in Ginnunga-gap, bred the maggots 

dX turned to dwarfs. The little animals of our story 

rere in reality spirits, which, alter crawling about for a 

time on the dead coyote, and taking all kinds of shapes, 

aided by spreading wings and lloating oft" to the moon. 

iTbitt evidently would not do; the earth was in danger 

beooming depopulated; so the old coyotes took coun- 

togetlier if perchance they might devi.Me a remedy. 

lie result was a general onler that, for the tinictocome, 

bodies should be incinerated immediately alter death. 

1U8 originated the cu.stom (jf Ijuruing the dead, a 

'eujttom still kejjt up among these j)tH)ple. We next learn, 

— what indeed might have been expecUnl of animals of 

h wisdom and jjarts, — that these primeval coyotes 

» PmnV Pfmw, MS. 
'*Powtrw' Pvmo, MS. 


began by degrees to assume the shape of men. At first, ' 
it is true, with many imperfections; but, a toe, an ear, 
a hand, bit by bit^ they were fjradually builded up into 
the i)erfect form of man looking upward. For one ^ 
thing they still grieve, however, of all their lost estate, — -^ 
their tails are gone. An acquired habit of sitting uj>- 
riglit, has utterly erased and destroyed that beautiful 
member. Lost is indeed lost, and gone is gone for ever, 
yet still when in dance and festival, tJie Potoyaiite 
throws off tlie weary burden of hard and utilitarian care, 
he attaches to himself, as nearly as may be in the ancient 
place, an artificial tail, and forgets for a happy hour the 
degeneracy of the present in sinmlating the glory of the 

The Californians tell again of a great flood, or at least I 
of a time when the whole country, with the exception of^ 
Mount -Diablo and Reed Peak, was covered with water. 
There was a Coyote on the peak, the only living thing 
the wide world over, and there was a single feather tos.s- 
ijig about on the rippled water. The Coyote was look- 
ing at the feather, and even as he looked, flesh and 
bones and other feathers, came and joined themselves 
to the first, and became an Kagle. There was a stir on 
the water, a rush of broad pinions, and before tiie 
widening circles reached the island-hill, the biitl stood 
beside the astonished Coyote. The two came soon to be 
acquainted and to be good friends, and they made occa* J 
sional excursions together to the other hill, the Eagle ™ 
flying leisurely overhead while the Coyote swam. After 
a time they l)egan to feel lonely, so they created men ; and 
as the men multiplied the waters alxited, till the dry land h 
came to be much as it is at present. | 

Now, also, the Sacramento River and the San Joaquin 
began to find tlieir way into the Pacific, through the 
mountains which, up to this time, hful stretched acro^ 
the mouth of San Francisco Bay. No Poseidon clove fl 
the hills with his trident, as when the pleasiint vale of ™ 
Temjjc was fonned, but a strong curtlmuakc tore tlie 

i*Joluuion, ill Sthootcrafl's Arch., lol. iv., jip, 21i4-5. 




rock apart and opened the Golden Gate between the 
waters within and those without. Befoi'e tliis there had 
exiifted only two outlets for the drainage of the whole 
country ; one was tlie Russian River, and the other the 
San Juan." 

The natives in the vicinity of Lake Tahoe, ascribe 
itfl origin to a great natuml convulsion. There was 
a time, tliey say, when their tribe jxxssessed the whole 
earth, and were strong, numerous, and rich; but a day 
came in which a people rose up ntronger than they, 
and defeated and enslaved them. Afterwards the 
Great tfpirit sent on immense wave across the conti- 
nent from the wa. and this wave engulfed both 

le oppressors and the oppressed, all but a very small 
lant Then the Ui-skiiuutters made the remaining 
people raise up a great temple, .so tliat thevj of the 
ruling cuL*ite, should have a refuge in cjlhc of another flood^ 
and on tlie top of tliis temple the masters worshiped a 

iluinn of |)er[)etual fire. 

Ilalf a moon had not elapsed, however, before the 
earth was again troubled, this time with strong con- 
vuhiions and thunderings, \i\)on which the masters took 
refuge in their great tower, closing the ixx>ple out. 
The poor slaves tied to the IIumlx>ldt River, and 
getting into canoes paddled for life i*n>m the awful sight 
behind them. For the land was tossing like a troubled 
eea, and casting up tire, smoke, and ujahcs. The Homes 
went up to the very heaven and molted many stars, so 
that they rained down in molten met^il upon the earth, 
forming the ore that the white men seek. The Sierra 
was mounded up from the bosom of the earth; while 
the place where the great fort stood sank, leaving only 
the dome on the top exposed above the waters of Lake 
TaJioe, The inmate* of the temple-tower clung to this 
dome to sivc themselves from drowning; but the Great 
Spirit walked iipon tlie waters in his wrath, and took 
the oppressors oue by one like pebbles, and threw them 
fkr into the recesses of a great cavern, on the east side of 

lA //. It. fJ. in //r«perian Mwj., vol. iU., ISS'J, p. 320. 


the fake, called to this day the Spirit Lodge, where 
waters shut them in. There must they remain till a 
last great volcanic burning, which is to o\-ertum the 
whole earth, shall a^ain set them free. In the depths of 
their cavern-prison they may still be heard, wailing and 
mooning, when the snows melt and the waters swell iii 
the lake." 

We again meet the Coyote among the Cahrocs of J 
Klamath River in Xorthern Califoniia. These CahrocaJ 
believe in a certain Chareya, Old Man Above, who made 
the world, sitting the while upon a certain stool now in 
the possession of the high-priest, or chief medicine-man. 
After the creation of the earth, Chareya first made fishes, 
then the lower animals, and lastly man, upon whom waa _ 
conferred the power of assigning to each animal its re- f 
(^x?ctive duties and position. The man determined to 
give each a bow, the length of which should denote the _ 
rank of the receiver. So he called all the animals f 
together, and told tliein that next day, early in the 
morning, the dii«trlbutiun uf bows would take place. ^ 
Xow tlie Coyote greatly di«ired the longest lx)w; and, f 
in onler to Ije in first at the division, he determined to 
remain awake all night. His anxiety susUuned iiini for 
some time; but just before morning he gave way, and 
fell into a sound sleep. Tlie consequence was, he was 
lout at the rendezvous;, and got the shortest bow of all. 
The man took pit^' on his distress, however, and brought 
the matter to the notice of Chareya, who, on considering S 
the circumstances, decreed that the Coyote should l^ecome ™ 
the most cunning of animals, as he remains to this time. 
The Co30te was very grateful to the man for his inter- 
cession, and he l>ccmne his friend and the friend of his 
children, and clid many things to aid mankind as we 
shall see hereafter."^ 

The natives in the neighborhood of Mount Shasta, in 
Northern California, say that the Greiit Spirit made this 
mountain first of all. Boring a hole in the sky, using a 

« IVtvhteorth, iu Jftttchin-js' Col. J/oy.. vol. U., 1858, pp. 35a-«. 
« Powcn' Pomo, MS. 


large stone as an auger, he pushed tlo\ui sjiow and ice 
until they had reached the desired height; then he 
stepped from cloud to cloud down to the great icy pile, 
and from it to the eartli, where he planted the fin*t trees 
by merely putting his finger into tlie soil here and there. 
The sun iK'gan to melt the snow; the snow produced 
■water; the water ran down the sides of the mountains, 
refreshed the trees, and made rivers. The Creator 
gathered the leaves that fell from the trees, blew upon 
them, and they became birds. lie took a stick and 
broke it into pieces; of the small end he made fishes; 
and of the middle of the stick he made animals, — the 

, griKzly bear excepted, which he formed from the big end 
of hia stick, ap|wjinting him to be miister over all the 
others. Indeed this animal was then so large, strong, 

! and cunning, that the Creator somewhat feared him, and 
hollowed out Mount Shasta as a wigwam for himself, 
where he might reside while on earth, in the most per- 
fect security tpid comfort. So the smoke was soon to be 
eeen curling up from the mountiiin, where the Great 

, Spirit and his family lived, and still live, though their 

" irth-iire is alight no longer, now that the white man 
in the land. This wa.s thousands of snows ago, and 

^there C4une after this a late and seveiv spring-time, in 
which a memorable storm blew up from the sea, shaking 
tlie huge lodge to its base. The Great Spirit commanded 
his daughter, little more than an infant, to go up and 
bid the wind to be still, cautioning her at the srune time 

'in liis fatherly way, not to put her head out into the 

, hla«t, but only to tlinist out lier little red ann and make 
mgn before she delivered her message. The eager 

■roild hastened up to the Iiole in the roof, did as she 
was told, and then turned to descend; but tlie Eve was 
too jftrong in her to leave without a look at the forbidden 
world outiude and tlie rivers and the trees, at the far 
ucean and the great waves that the storm had made as 
hoary a^ the forests when the snow is on the fire. She 
Ktopped, she put out her head to look; instantly the 
stoi*ni took her by the long hair, and blew her down to 



the oarth, clown the mountain side, over the smooth ice 
ajid soft t<now, down to the land of the grizzly bears. 

Now the grizxly bears were Bomewhat different then 
from what they are at present In appearance they 
wei-e !uucli the same it is true; but they walked tlieii on 
their hind lejrs like men, and talked, and carried clubs, 
using the fore-limbs aa men use their anns. 

Thei-e wiw a fiimily of thcjse grizzlies living at tlie 
foot of the mountain, at the place where the child was 
blown to. The fatlicr was returning from the hunt 
with his club on his shoulder and a young elk in his 
hand, when he saw the little shivering waif lying on the 
Bnow with iier iiair all tangled alwut her. The old 
Grizzly, pitying and wondering at the strange forlorn 
creature, lifted it up, and carried it in to his wile to see 
what should be done. She too was pitiful, and she fed 
it from her own breast, bringing it up quietly as one of 
her family. Bo the girl grew up, and tiie eldest son 
of the old ( Jrizzly married her, and tlieir off>*pring was 
neither grizzly nor Ui-eat Spirit, but man. Very proud 
indeed were the whole grizzly nation of the new race, 
and uniting their strength from all parts of the country, 
they built the young mother and her family a mount- 
ain wigwam near that of the Great Spirit; and this 
structure of theirs is now known as Little Movmt Shasta. 
Many years passed away, and at the old grandmother 
Grizzly became very feeble and felt that she must soon 
die. She know that the girl she hnd adopted was the 
daughter of the Great Spirit, and her conscience troubled 
her that she had never let him know anything of 
the fate of his child. So she called all the grizzlies 
together to the new lodge, and sent her eldest grandson 
up on a cloud to the summit of Mount Shasta, to tell 
the father that his daughter yet lived. AVhcn the 
Great Spirit heard that, he was so glad that he immedi- 
ately ran dowii the moimtain, on the south side, toward 
where he hiid been told his daughter was; and Fuch 
was the swiftness of his pace that the snow was melted 
here and there along his course, aa it remains to this 


day. Tlie prizzlies bad prepared him an honorable 

reception, and as he approached bis daughtei's home, he 

found them standing in thouwiiids in two files, on either 

side of tlic door, with their clubs under their arms. He 

had never ]nctured his daughter as aught but the little 

child he had loved so long ago; but when he found that 

»*he was a mother, and that be had been betrayed into the 

creation of a new race, his anger overcame hiin ; he scowled 

«> terribly on the poor old grandmother (Jrizzly that »he 

died upon the Ppot. At this all ti»e Ixiara »et up a fear- 

. ful howl, hut the exasperated father, taking liis lost dar- 

|lingonhis shoulder, turned to the armwl host, and in his 

jry cunwtl them. Peace! he said- He silent for ever! 

iLet no articulate word ever again pass your lipa, 

seither stand any more ui>right; hut use your bands as 

et, and look downwanl until T come again! Then he 

Irove them all out; hedroveout also the new race of men, 

lut to the door of Little Mount l^hasta. and passed 

away to hie mountain, carrying liis daughter; and her 

hira no eye has since seen. The grizzlies never spoke 

|again, nor stot»d up; save indeed when fighting for their 

life, when the Great Spirit still permits them to stand as 

[in the old time, and to use their fists like men. No Indian 

[tracing iiis descent from the spirit mother and the grizzly, 

[is here deflcribed, will kill a grizzly bear; and if by an 

chance a grizzly kill a man in any place, tlnit spot 

ames mcmoniblo, and every one that pasties casts a 

|f«tone there till a great pile is thrown up." 

Let us now \)Si£m on, and going eiust and north, enter 
I the Shoshone country. In Idaho tliert? are certain famou.s 
[Soda Springs whose origin the Snakes refer to the close 
[of their happiest age. Ijong ago, the legend runs, when 
[tlie cotton-wixKls on the Big River were no larger than 
irrows, all red men were at peace, the hatchet was 
lever>'where buried, and hunter met hunter in the game- 
f lands of the one or the other, with all hospitality and good- 
will. During this state of things, two chiefs, one of the 

M JbarOn MUkr'i l{/t Anoitiftt tU Modoc», pp. 235-23C, 242-A. 



Shoshone, the other of the Comanche nation, met one 
day at a certain spring. The Shosiione had been suc- 
cessful in tlie chase, and the Comanche very unlucky, 
which put the latter in ratlier an ill humor. So he got 
up ft dispute with tlie other as to the importance of their 
respective and related tril^>es, and ended by making an 
unprovoked and tresichemus attack on the SlioahonCj 
striking him into the water from iK'iiind. when lie had 
Btooj^ed to drink. The murdered man fell foi*ward into 
the water, and immediately a stran^je commotion was 
observable there; great bubbles and spirts of gaj^ shot 
up from tlie Ixittom of the jxwl, and amid a cloud of 
vapor tliore an>se also an old white-hainxl Indian, armed 
with a jKHiderous club of elk-horn. Well the assa-ssin 
knew who Rt<^>od before him ; the totem on the breast 
was tliat of Wankanaga, tlie father lx)th of the Shoshone 
and of the Comanche nations, an ancient famous for liis 
brave deeds, and celebrated in the iiieroglyphic pictures 
of both peoples. Accursed of two nations! cried tlic old 
man, this day hast thou put death between the two 
greatest peoples under the sun; see, tlie blood of this 
Shoshone cries out to the Great Spirit for vengeance. And 
he dashed out the brains of the Comanche with liis club, 
and the murderer fell there beside his victim into the 
spring. AfltT that tlie spring Ixxuime foul and bitter, 
nur even to this day cjui any one drink of its nauseous 
water. Then Wankanaga, seeing that it hod been defiled, 
took his club and smote a neighlxiring rock, and the rock 
burst forth into clear bubbling water, so fresh and so 
grateful to the palate that no other water con even be 
compared to it." 

Ptwsing into Washington, we find an account of the 
origin of the falls of Palouse River and of certain native 
tribes. There Hved here at one time a family of giants, 
four brothers and a sister. The sister wanted some 
bcAver-fat and-ehe l^egged her brothers to get it for her, 
— no easy task, as there was only one beaver in the 

» RuteUm'tAdven. in Mex., [>p.S44-{!. 



KHintry, and he an animal of extraordinary size and 
;:tivity. However, like four gallant fellows, the giants 
Bt out to find the monster^ soon catcliing aight of him near 
he mouth of the Paloase, then a peaceful gliding river 
rith an even though winding channel. They at once 
ive chase, heading him up the river. A little distance 
' np-ytrenm they succeeded in striking him for the first time 
with tlieir spears, but he shook himself clear, making in his 
struggle the first rapids of the Palouse, and dashed on 
up-stream. Again the brothers overtook him, pinning him 
to the river-lx;d with their weapons, and again the vigor- 
beast writhed away, making thus the second falls 
the Palouye. Another ch;vse, and, in a tliird and 
ital attack, the four spear-shatls are struck again through 
broad wounded biwk. There is a liust stubborn 
{»tniggle at the siwt since marked by the great falls called 
Lputaput, a tearing of earth and a hushing of water in the 
death-flurry, and the huge Beaver is dead. The 
brothers having secured tlie skin and fat. cut up the body 
md threw the pieces in various directions. From these 
pieces have originated the various tribes of the country, 
the Caynses. the Xez Percy's, the Walla Wallas, and 
on. The Cayuses sprang from the beaver's heart, and 
T this reason they are more energetic, daring, and suc- 

_^ ul than their neighlx)rs.*' 

' "In Oregon the Chincwks and neighboring i>eople tell 
iof a pre-human demon race, called L'lhaipa by the 
hinooks, and t^huiab bv the Clalloms and Ijummia. 
he Chinooks say that the human race was created by 
tolapoe, the Coyote. The first men were sent into 
tlie world in a very lumpish and im|x»rfect state, their 
mouth and eyes were closed, their hands and feet im- 
roovable. Then a kind and powerful spirit called Ika- 
nam. took a sharp stone, o[)ened the eyes of the,se poor 
creatures, and gave motion to tiieir hands and feet. He 
taught them how to make canoes as well an all otlier 
implements and utensils; and he threw great rocks into 

• WUkB^ Sar. \n V. 8. St. St., vol. W., p. 4»6. 



the rivers and made falls, to obstruct the salmon in their 
ascent, so tluit they might be ejLsily caught.'^^ 

Farther north among the AhU of Vancouver Island, U 
perhaps the «)mmonest notion of origin is that men at ™ 
first existefl as birds, animals, and fishes. We are told of 
a certain (^uawteaht. represented somewhat contradictori- 
Ij, as the first Aht that ever lived, thickset and hairy- 
limbed, and as the chief Alit deity, a purely supernatural , 
being, if not the creator, at least the maker and shaper fl 
of most things, the maker of the land and the water, ™ 
and of the animals that inhabit the one or the 
other. In each of these animals as at first created, there 
resided the embryo or essence of a man. One day a 
canoe came down the coast, piuldletl I>v two pei'sonages 
in the. at that time, unknown form of men. The ani- 
mals were frightened out of their wits, and fled, each 
from his house, in such haste that he left behind 
him the human essence that he usually carried in his 
body. These embryos rapidly devcloi>e<i into men ; they 
multiplied, made use of the huts deserted by the niiimals, 
and became in every way as the Ahts are now. There 
exists another account of the origin of the Ahts. which 
would make them the direct descendants of Quawteaht 
and an immense bird that he married, — -the great Tliun- 
der Bird, Tootooch, with which, under a difterent name 
and in a ditVerent sex, we shall iK-come more fmntliar 
presently. The flapping of Tootooch's wings shook the 
hills with thimder, tootah; and when she put out her 
forked tongue, the liglitning quivered across the sky. 

The Aht^ have various legends of the way in which 
fire was first obtained, which legends may be i"educed to 
the following: Qua\\'teaht withlield fire, for some reat»on 
or other, from the creatures that he had brought into the 
world, with one exception; it was always to be found 
burning in the home of the cuttle-fish, idhoop. The 
other beasts attempted to steal this fire, but only the 

' « /VoncWrf'a Nar., p, 258; Cox'n Advm.. toI. i., p. 317; 0»66*' Ctdnook 
Vocab,, pp., 11-13; Id., ChUam and Xwnml VtKOb.. pp. 15-29; Parkxr'n Jftt- 
plor. Tour, p. 139. 




T gucceedt'd: he hid a little of it in the joint of his 
hind leg, and escaping, introduced the element to general 

Not all animalc. it would appear, were produced in the 
general ci-eation; the loon and tbe crow had a special 
origin, being metamorphosed men. Two fishermen, 
being out nt sea in their canoes, fell to quarreling, the 
one ridiculing the other for his ^mall success in fishing. 
Finally the unsuccessful man became so infuriated by 
the taujiU of Iii.s com[Kinion that he knocked him on the 
heaid, and stole IiIh fish, cutting out his tongue Ixffore he 
(Muldled off, lest by any chance the unfortunate should 
recover his senses and gain the shore. The pretiuution was 
^ell taken, for the tnutihited man reacluKl tlie land and 
tried to denounct; his late comjianion. No HOund how- 
ever could he utter but something resembling the cry of a 
loon, upon which the Great Spirit, Quawtcaht, l^ecame 
00 indiscriminatingly angry at the whole affair that he 
changed the poor mute into a loon, and his assailant 
into a crow. So when the mournful voice of the loon 
ifi heard from the silent lake or river, it is still the poor 
fisherman that we hear, trying to make himself under- 
stood and to tell the hard story of his \vrong8.'^ 

The general drift of many of the foregoing myths 
would go to indicate a wide-spread belief in tlie theory 
of an evolution of man from animals.'^ Traditions are 
not wanting, however, whose teaching is precisely the 
reverst\ The Salish, the Nisquallies, and the Yakimas 
of VVoj^hington, all hold tliat beasts, fishes, and even 
edible roots are descended from human originals. One 
account of this inverse Darwinian devolopmont is this: 
The «K>n of the Sun — whoever he may have Ux^n — caused 
eertiiin individuals to swim through a lake of magic oil, 
a liquid of such Circean potency that tlie unfortunates 

a Sw-oat't Scnta, pp. 176-^, 203-14. 

o IV) Oxe exftmplofl alrea'ly given of this ve maj add the cam of tli« Uai- 
dftht of Qm«n Charlott* Island, of wboin Mr. Fool«, Q. I'har. Id., p. 130, 
Mj*; * Tbtir deaoent ffom tho crovg in quite grarely afflrmcd ami stcudfaatly 



immeraed were transformed as above related. The" 
peculiarities of organism of the various animals, are the 
results of incidents of their passage; the be;ir dived, and 
is tlierefore fat all over; the goose swam high, and ia 
consequently fat only up to the water-line; and so on 
through all the list." fl 

Movinj: north to the TacuUies of British Columbia,^ 
we find the Musk-rut an active ligent in the work of 
creation. The Hat earth, following the Tacully coHmog- 
ony, was at first wholly covered with water. On the 
water a Musk-rat Hwam to and fro, seeking food. Find- 
ing none there, he diveil to the bottom and brought up a 
mouthful of mud, but only to spit it out J^rain when he 
came to the surface. AU this he did again and again 
till quite an island was formed and by degrees the whole 
earth. In some unexplained way this earth became 
afterwards peopled in every part, and so remained, until 
a tierce fire of several days' duration swept over it, de-f 
stroying all life, with two exceptions; one man and one™ 
womtm hid themselves in a deep cave in the heart of a 
mountain, and from these two has the world been since 

From the Tacully country we pass north and west 
to the coast inhabihKl by tlie^ Thlinkeets, among whom 
the myth of a gn?at Hird, or of a groat liero-deity, whose 
favorite disguise is the shape of a. bird, lussurnes the most 
elalwrate proportions and importance. Here the name 
of this great Somebody Is Yehl, the Crow or Raven, 
creator of most things, and especially of the Thlinkeeta. 
'Very dark, damp, and chaotic was the world in the 
beginning; nothing with breath or body moved there 
except Yehl; in the likeness of a raven he brooded over 
the mist, his black wings beat down the vast confusion^ 
the waters went back before him and the dry land 
appeared. The ThUnkcets were placed on the earth — 
though how or when does not exactly appear — while the 
world was still in^ darkness, and without sun or moon 

•* AfuJerwfii in LLtrd's Xut., vol. U., p. 240. 
** Jlarmon'i Jour , pp. 30J-3. 



or stars. A certain Thlinkeet, we are further informed, 
had a wife and a sister. Of the wife he was devour- 
ingly jealous, and when employed in the woods at his 
trade of building canoes, he had her constantly watched 
by eight red bird« of the kind chilled kun. To make 
assurance surer, he even used to cot)p her up in a kind of 
box every time he left home. All thin while Ins sister, 
a widow it would apjx'ar, was bringitig up certain sons 
she liad, fine tall fellows, rapidly approacliing manhood. 
The jealous uncle aiuM not endure the thought of their 
being in the neighborhood of his wife. So he inveij^led 
them one by one, time after time, out to sea with him 
on pretense of fishing, and drowne<l them there. The 
poor mother was left desolate, she went to the sea-shore 
to weep for her children. A dolphin — some say a wliale 
— aaw her there, and pitied her; the Ix^ast told her to 
swallow a small |K'bble and drink .some sea-water. She 
did 80, and in eight months was delivered of a child. 
Tliat child was Yehl, who thus took upon himself a 
hmnan shaije. and grew up a mighty hunter and nota- 
ble archer. One day a hirge bird appeared to him, hav- 
ing a long tail like a magpie, and a long glittering bill 
as of metal; the name of the bird was Kutzghatushl, 
tliat is, Crane that can soar to heaven. Yehl shot the 
bird, skinned it, and whenever he wished to tiy used to 
clotiie himself in its skin. 

Now Yehl had grown to manhood, and he determined 
to avenge himself upon his uncle for the death of his 
bmlhers; so he opened the box in which the well-guard- 
ed wife was shut up. Instantly the eight faithful birds 
flew off and told the hu.sband, who set out for his home 
in a munierous mood. Most cunning, however, in his 
psUence, he greeted Yehl with comjx>sure, and invited 
him into his Ciuioe for a short trip to sea. Having 
paddled out some way, he flmig himself on the young 
man and forced him overboard: Then he put his canoe 
•bout and made leisurely for the land, rid as he thought 
of another enemy. Jhit Yehl swtuu in quietly another 
way, and stood up in his uncle's house. The baffled 




munlerer was beside himself with fiirVj he imprecated 
with a potent curse a deluge u\X)n all tlie earth, well 
content to perish himself bo he involved his lival in 
the common defttructioUj for jealousy if? cruel as the 
grave. The IUhxI cnme. the wattM-H rcKse and rosej but 
Yehl clothed himself in his bird-skin, and soared up 
heaven, where he struck his Ix'ak into a cloud, and 
mained till the waters were assuaged. 

After this affair Yehl had many other adventures, so 
many that "one man cannot know them all," as the 
Thlinkeets say. One of the most useful things he did 
was to supply lijiht to mankind — with whom, as appea^8^ 
the eiu*th hml Ijeen again jieopled after the deluge. Now 
all the light i]i the world wa.s stored away in three 
boxes, among the riches of a certain mysterious old 
Chief, who guarded his treasure closely. Yehl set 
his wits to work to secure the boxes; he determined to 
be bom into the chiefs family. The old fellow had one 
daughter ufxm whom he doted, and Yehl transfiirming 
him.seir into a blade of grass, got into the girl's drinking- 
cup and was swallowed by her. In due time she gave 
birth to a son, who was Yehl, thus a second time Ix^rn of 
a woman into the world. Very proud was the old chief 
of his grandson, loving him even sis he loved his daugh-fl 
ter, so that Yehl came to be a decidedly pixViUkI chiM. 
He fell a crying one day,. working himself, almost into a 
fit; he kicked and scratched and howled, and turned 
the family hut into a little i>andemoniuni as only an 
infant plf^iie can. lie screiuned for one of the three 
lx»xes; lie would have a box; nothing but .a Imjx shoidd 
ever appease him! The indulgent grandfatlier gave him 
one of the lK>xes; he clutched it, stojuxMl crying, and 
crawled off into the yard to play. Playing, he. contrived 
to wrench the lid off. and Kt! the beautiful heaven was 
thick with stars, and the box empty. The old man 
wept for the loss of Iuh stars, but he did not scold his 
grandson, lie luved liiTu tix) blindly fur that. Yehl had 
succeeded in getting the Htars into tlie firmament, and 
he proceeded to repeat his successful trick, to do the like 


by the moon and sun. Ah may be imagined, the diflRculty 
was much increased; etill he gained his end. He first 
let the moon out into the sky, and some time afterward, 
getting possfe&iion of the box that held the sun, he 
changed himself into a raven and tiew away with his 
greatest prize of all. When he set up the Waxing light 
in !ieaven, the people that saw it were at first afraid. 
Many hid themselves in the mountains, and in the 
forests, and even in the water, and were changed into 
the various kinds of animals that frequent these places. 

There are still other feats of YeVil's replete with the 
iiappie-st consetpiences to mankind. There was a time, 
for instance, when all the fire in the world was hid away 
in an island of tlie ocean. Thither fiew the indefatigable 
deity, fetching back a brand in his niuutli. The dis- 
tance, however, was so great that most of the wood was 
burned away and a part of his beak, before he reached 
the Thlinkeet shore. Arrived there, he dropped the 
embers at once, and the sparks flew about in all direc- 
tions among various sticks and stones; therefore it is 
that by striking these stones, and by friction on this wood, 
fire is always to be obtained. 

Light they now luid, and fire; but one thing was still 
wanting to men;- they ha<l iu> fresh water. A personage 
ttUed khanukh" kept all the fresh water in his well, 
in an island to the east of Sitka, and over the mouth of 
tlio well, for its Ix'tter custody, he had built his hut. 
Yehl act out to the ishuid in his boat, to secure the water, 
and on his way he met Klmnukh himself, paddling along 
in anotlier Ixwt. Khanukli sjKtke first: How long 
haflt thou been lining in the world? Proudly Yehl 
amiwered: Before the world stood in its place, I was 
there. Yehl in his turn questioned Khannkh: But how 
long hast thou lived in the worldj To which Khanukh 
replied: Ever since the time that the liver came out from 

* This Khiumkh wtu Uie nrng«nit«r of ihe Wolf family u( Dio TliHnk(>(t8 
ncs •« Yelil was that of the Kaven family. The iuflavnce of Uiio wolf-dcily 
wmrnM to kwTe be«n oeiieratly malicn. but oxcapt in cotuectioa with Uiis 
vAtfiadt b« id little mentioDed ia the ThUokMl mjrtha. 


ORioiy AKD E!n> OP THrniGS. 


below." Then said Yehl : Thou art older than I. Upon 
this Khanukh, to show that his po^ver was as great as 
his age. took off his hat, and there rose a dense fog, so 
that the one could no longer see the other. Yehl then I 
became afraid, and cried out to Khanukh; but Khanukh " 
answered nothing. At last when Yehl found himself 
completely helpless in the darkness, he began to weep M 
and howl; upon which the old sorcerer put on his hat ■ 
again, and tlie fog vanished. Khanukh then invited 
Yehl to his house, and entertained him handsomely with 
many luxuries, among which was fresh water. The 
meal over, host and guest Rat down, and the latter began 
a long relation of his many exploits and adventures. I 
Khanukh listened as attentively as he could, hut the 
story was really so interminable that lie at fell 
asleep across the cover of his well. This frustrated 
Yehl's intention of stealing the water wliile its owner 
slept, so he resorted to another stratagem: he put some 
filth vmder the sleeper, then waking him up, made him 
believe he had bewrayed himself. Khanukh, whose own 
nose abhorred him, at once liurried off to the sea to wash, 
and liis deceiver as qiuckly set about securing the pre- 
cious water. JustasAU-fatherOJin, the Raven-god, stole 
Suttung's mead, drinking it up and escaping in the form 
of a bird, so Yehl drank what fresh water he could, M 
filling himself to the very Ijeak, then took the form 
of a raven and attempted to fly off through the chimney 
of the hut. lie stuck in the flue however, and Khanukh 
returning at that instant recognized his guest in the 
struggling bird. The old man comprehended the situa- 
tion, and quietly piling up a roaring fire, he sat down B 
comfortably to watch the choking and scorcliing of liis 
crafty guest. The raven had always been a white bird, 
but so thoroughly was he smoked in the cliimney on this 
occasion that he has ever since remained the sootiest of 

^ ' S«'it der Zeit. entgcRnpto Khiiniikli, ftls von iint<n die Leber herans- 
kftTO.' Ilotmltmj, Kihn. Sk'n., p.fll. Whut \A mcAnt by Uie term * die Leber,' 
literally the particulwr gliiuJ of the body cAUed in Eng'iBh 'tbe liver," I 
cannot flay; neither Holniberg or any cue elbe, u (or v* my kuowlcdge g<MM, 
■attempting aoy explanation. 



■\s. At last Khanukh watching the fire, became 
drowsy' nnd fell atjleep; so Yehl escaped from the island 
with the water. Hq flew back to the continent, where 
he scattered it in every direction; and wlierever small 
drops fell there are now springs and creeks, while the 
large drops have produced lakes and rivers. This is the 
end of the exploits of Yehl; having thus done every- 
thing necessary to the happiness of mankind, he returned 
to his habitation, which is in the east, and into which no 
other spirit nor any man c^n possibly enter. 

The existing difference in langujige between the Thlin- 
kecta and other people is one of the coni*e<|uences of a 
great flood,— i>erhap3 that Hood already descriljcd as 
having been brought on through the jealousy of the 
canoe-builder. Many persons escaped drowning by 
taking refuge in a great floating building. When the 
waters fell, this vessel grounded upon a rock, and was 
broken into two pieces; in the one fragment were left 
those whose descendants speak the Thlinkeet language, 
in the other remained all whose descendants employ a 
different idiom. 

Connected with the history of this deluge is another 
myth in which a grejit IMrd figures. When the waters 
rose a certain mysterious brother and sister found it 
neoessary to part The name of the brother was Chethl, 
that is, Thunder or ^Lightning, and the name of the 
sister was Ahgishanakhou. which means the Under- 
ground Woman. As they separated Chethl said to her: 
SlRter, you shall never see me again, but while I live 
you Hhall hear my voice, Jhen he clothed him.self in 
the akin of a great bird, and Hew towards the south- 
west. His sister climbeJ to the txip of Mount Kdgecomb, 
nhich is nwir Sitka, and it o|)ened and Hwallowed her 
up. leaving a great hole, or cniter. The world itself is 
un immense Hat plate 8Up[K)rtcd on a pillar, and inider 
tlie world, in silence and darkness, this Under-ground 
Woman guards the great pillar from evil and malignant 
powers. She has never seen her brother since she left 
the upper world, and she shall never see him again; but 



still, when the tempest sweeps down on Edgecomb, the 
lightning of his eyes gltJims down her crater- window, 
and the thundering of his wings re-echoes tliruugh all her 
subterraneim hulls."* 

The Koniftgiis, north of the Thlinkeets, have their 
l^endary Bird and Dog, — the latter taking the place 
oocupied in the mythology of many other tribes by the 
wolf or coyote. Up in heaven, according to the Koni- 
agas, there exists a great deity called Shljam Schoa. 
lie ci-eated two pcrsonjiges and sent them down to the 
earth, and the Haven accompanied them carrying light. 
This original pair made sea, rivers, mountains, forests, 
and such things. Among other places they raatle the 
Island of Kadiak, and so stocked it that the pi-eaent 
Koniagas assert themselves the descendants of a Dt^.* 

The Aleuts of the Aleutian Archij)olago seem to dis- 
agree upon their origin. iSome say that in the Ix^nning 
a Bitch inhabited Unalaska, and that a great Dog .>nvam 
across to her fi\>m Kadiak; from which pair tlie human 
race have sprung. Others, nmning the bitcli-mother of 
tlieir race Mahakli. de.scril>e a certjiiii Old Man, called 
Inighdudakh, who came fn»m the north to visit this 
Mahakh. Tlie result of this visit wius the birth of two 
creatures, male and female, with such xui extraordinary 
mixing up of the elements of natun' in them that they 
were each half man half fox. The name of the male 
creature was Acagnikakh, and by the other creature he 
became father of the human race. The Old Man how- 
ever seems htinlly to have needed any help to people the 
world, tor like the great patriarch of Thcssaly, he was 
able to create men by merely casting stones on the earth. 
He flung also other stones into the air, into the water, 
and over the land, thus making beasts, birds, and tiflhes. 
In another version of the narrative, the iirst father of the 

. 14. B2-SS: 

" Barrett. latwird'a TVwu., pp. 54-7; IIotn\b«rg, Bfftn. SkU., pp. 14, 62 
Bur. Stat. u. m>i., pp. UJ-lOO; £*aU'a Alaska, pp. 4-il-22; Ma'i^ts t'l 
/a>'., pp 452-5; l{i:hirJson'$ ./our., vol. i.. p. 405; Jtfdj/n'.'s IJ.C.. p. 272. 

« Avr. Stat. u. mim., p. U6; LxMeawk^a Vau., pp. 197-8; DalVa Aliuktk^ 
p. 4J5; Uolmberg, Klftn. sUm., p. KO. 

In the lefrends of the Tinneh, living inland, north-east 
of the Ivoniiigas, tlie familiar Bird and Dog again appear. 
These legends tell us tliat the world existed at first as a 
jfreat ocean frequented ouh- hy an imiuenM; Bird, the 
l>eating of whos« wiuga was thunder, and its glance light- 
ning. This great flying uioiiator descendetl and touched 
the waters, ui^n which the earth rose up and appeared 
above them; it touched tlie earth, and theriifruui came 
t'very living creature, — except the Tinueh. who4)we their 
<»rigin to a Dog. Therefore it is that to tliiH day a dog's 
tiejih 18 an alwniination to the Tinneh, as are also ull 
who eat such flesh. A few years before Captain Fnink- 
lin's visit they almost ruined themselves by following the 
advice of some famitic refonner. Convinced by him of 
the wickedness of exacting labor from their near rela- 
tions, the dogs, they gut rid at once of the sin and of 
all temptation to its recommission, by killing every cur in 
tlieir possession. 

To return to the origin of the Tinneh, the wonderful 
Binl before mentioned made and presented to them a 
peculiar arrow, which tiiey were to preserve for all time 
with great care. But they would not; they misappro- 
priated the facred shaft to some common use, and imme- 
diately the great Bird flew away never to return. With 
it«4 departure ended the Golden Age of the Tinneh, — an 
0^ in which men lived till their throats were worn 
ttirouph with eating, and their feet with walking.'^ 

Ik'loiigiug to the Northern-Indian branch of the Tin- 
neh we find a narrative in whlcli the Dog holds a promi- 
nent phioe, hut in wliich we find no mentiiin at all of 
the Binl: The earth existed at first in a chaotic state, 
with only one hunnui inhabitant, a woman who dwelt ui 
a cave and lived on berries. While gathering those one 
day, she encountered an animal like a dog, which followed 


'la, K«y. PitL, pt, vii , p, 7; KitUthue'a foj/., vol. ii., p., 1S5. 

m'$ itrttjon, pp. lOJ. H itrxj; SchovicraJVa Arch, toI. t., p. 173; 

r** Voy., p. cxnli.; VnSnidiH's Sar., toI. i., pp. tM9-50. 


her borae. This Dog possessed the power of transform- 
ing bini.self into a hand»onie >'Oung nmn, and in thiti 
shape he became the father by the "woman of the first 
men. In course of time a ^ant of »ucb lieigbt that Iuh 
head reached the clouds, arrived on the scene and fitted 
the earth for its inhabitants. He reduced the chaoe to 
order; lie established tlie land in its boundaries, he 
marked out with his staff the position or coui-sc of the 
lakes, ponds, and rivers. Next he slew the Dog and tore 
him to pieces, as the four giant-s did the Beaver of the 
Palouse River, or as the creating -Esir did Aurgclmir. 
Unlike the four brothers, however, and unlike the sons 
of Bor, this giant of the Tinneb Ui^l the fragments not 
to create men or things, but animuU. The entrails of 
the dog he threw into the water, and every piece became 
a fish; the llesh he scattered over the land, and every 
scrap l)ecamc an animal ; the bits of skin he sowed upon 
the wind, and they became birds. All these spread over 
the earth, and increased and multiplied; and the giant 
gave the woman and her progeny power to kill and eat 
of them according to their necessiticB. After this he 
returned to bis place, and he has not since been heard 

Leaving now this division of our subject^ more par- 
ticularly concerned with cosmpgonVj it may not be amiss 
to forestall possible criticism as to the disconnected man- 
ner in which the various myths are given. I have but 
to repeat that the mythology with which we have (o 
deal is only known in fragments, and to submit that a 
broken statue, or even a broken sherd, of genuine 
or presumably genuine antiquity, is more valuable to 
science and even to poetry, than the most skillful ideal 

Further, the absence of any attempt to fonn a con- 
nected whole out of the myths that come under our 
notice cannot but obviate that tendency to alter in out- 
line and to color in detail which is so insen8ibly natural 
to any mythographer prepossessed with the spirit of a 

^ JJeantt'a Jowmy^ pp. C43-3. 


system. In advancing lastly the opinion that the dis- 
connected arrangement is not only better adapted toward 
preserving the original myths in their integrity, but is 
also better for the student, I may be allowed to close the 
chapter with the second of the Rules for the Inter- 
pretation of Mythes given by so distinguished an au- 
thority as Mr. Keightley: "In like manner the mythes 
themselves should be considered separately, and detached 
from the system in which they are placed j for the single 
mythes existed long before the system, and were the prod- 
uct of other minds than those which afterwards set them 
in connection, not unffequently without fully under- 
standing them." " • 

^ KrigUiejf's Myth, of JncietU Orteee and Italy, p. 14. 


Bun, Moom, ako Stabs — Ecupses Thk Moon Fkbsohifikd ur tbk Land 
OP THB Cbescknt— Fibs — How the Coyotb Stole Fibb tob thk Cahboob- 
How THE Fboq Lost Hia Taxi<— How thk Cototk Siolk Fibx na 
THE Nava/os— Wind and Thitndkb— Thk Foob ■Wnnw and thb Cbo» 
— Wateb, the Fibst of Elbuental Teinob— Its Sacbed and Ci.KAira- 
iNo PowEB— Eaeth and Set — Eabthquakbs and Volcanoes— Houn- 
tains — How the Hawk and Cbow Boilt thk Coast Bahok — ^Tbx 
Mountains of Yoseihte. 

Fetichism seems to be the physical philosophy of man 
in his most primitive state. He looks on material things 
as animated by a life analogous to his own, as having a 
personal consciousness and character, as being severally 
the material body that contains some immaterial essence 
or soul. A child or a savage strikes or chides any object 
that hurts him, and caresses the gewgaw that takes his 
fancy, talking to it much as to a companion. 

Let there be something peculiar, mysterious, or danger- 
ous about the thing and the savage worships it, deprecates 
its wrath and entreats its favor, with such ceremonies, 
prayers, and sacrifices as he may deem likely to win 
upon its regard. In considering such cases mythologic- 
ally, it will be necessary to examine the facts to see 
whether we have to deal with simple fetichism or with 
idolatry. That savage worships a fetich who worships 
the heaving sea as a great living creature, or kneels to 
flame as to a hissing roaring animal ; but the Greeks in 
conceiving a separate anthropomorphic god of the sea or 



t-ho fire, and in representing that pyd by figures of 
ttfri'nt kuuls, were only idolaters. The two thinjis, 
Iwwevor, are often so merged into each other that it 
becomes difTieuU or im[xissihle to siiy in many instances 
whethtT a purticular object, for example the sun, is 
rejrarded tis the deity or merely as the rei>re8entation or 
symlxjl of the deity. It is plain emmj^h. however, that 
a tolerably distinct element of fetichism miderlies much 
of the Indian mythology. Speaking of this mythology 
in the mass, the Korth American Review say^: '^ A 
mysterious and inexplicable power resides in inanimate 
things. They, too, can listen to the voice of nian^ and 
inlluence his life for evil or for good. Lakes, rivers, and 
waterfalls are sometimes the dwelHiig-pIact; of spirits, 
but more frecjuently they are themselves living beings, to 
be prf>pitiate<l hy prayers an<l ofterings." ^ 

The explicit worship of the sun and more or less that 
of other heavenly bodies, or at leiwt a recc^ition of 
some suiKTnatui-.d [Kiwer ix*si(h'nt in or connected with 
them, was widely spreiwl thixjugh Mexico, as well among 
the uncivilized as among the civilized tribes. The wild 
Chichiniet'.Mor that iH.>rtion of the wild tril>es of Mexico to 
which Alegre applied tliis name, owned the sun us their 
deity, as did also the people of the Nayarit country.* 

In what we may call civilized Mexico, the sun was 
definitely worshii)ed under the name of Tonatiuh, the 
Snn in his substance, and under that of Xaolin, the Sun 
in his four motions. lie was sometimes represented by 
a human fjioe sm-romided with rays, at otlier times hy a 
full-length human figure, while again he often seems to 
be confused or connected with the element fire and the 
god of fire. Sahagun, for instance, usually si^eaks of 
the festival of the month Izcalli as appertaining to the 
goil of fire, hut in at least one place lie describes it as 
belonging to the sun and the fire.^ The sun, it is toler- 

1 SarlhAm. Rrv., toI. cUK, p. 1. 

> Altgr*, //ixf. C'unp. lit Jtmts, torn, i., p. 379; Aposi^'v^s Afanex, p. ft8. 

t AdCa^wv HU. (Mn., torn. i.. lib. ii., pp. 74-G, 'iOO-lH; Bxplicadon dr{ 
Cairn TdttrtoHO'Hmi'ivtiM. partu ii., Um. x., in Ki}V}atiorou<ih'a ilex. Antiq., 
tqL t^ p. 139; SpUyaiiont dcUe Tavolt del L'oUux Jbr&aoarto f VaiioanoJ tar. 



ably certain, held, if not the highest place, one not far 
removed from that position in the Mexican p;intheon. 
Braaaeur de Bourbourg, Tylor, Squier, and Schoolcraft 
agree in considering Pun-worship the most radical reli- 
gious idea of all civilized American religions.* Pro- 
fessor Miiller considers the sun-god and the supreme 
Mexican Teotl to be identical.* i)r. Briiiton, as we shall 
see when we come to notice the mythology of lire, while , 
not denying the prominence of the 8iin-cult, would refer ■ 
that cult to a basal and original fire-wor.sbip. Many ™ 
interpreters of mythology kco also the [KTsoniti cation of i 
the sun in others of the Mexican gods besides Tonatiuh. fl 
More especially does evidence seem to point stnmgly in ™ 
this direction in the cnsc of Quctzalcoatl, as vnW be seen i 
when we come to deal with this god. ■ 

The Mexicans were much troubled and distressed by ™ 
an eclipse of the sun. They thought that he was much 
disturbed and tossed about by something, and that he 
was becoming seriously jaundiced. This was the occa- 
sion of a general panic, women weeping aloud, and men 
howling and shouting and striking the hand upon the 
mouth. There wo-i an immediate search for men with 
white hair and white fiices, antl these were sacrifice<l to the ^ 
sun, amid the din and tumult of singing and musical in- ■ 
struments. It was thought that should the eclipse become ™ 
once total, there would l>e an cud of the light, and that 
in the darkness the demons would come down to tlie 
devouring of the people.* Kingsltoroagh's Afrx.Antiq.,Yoi. v., pp. 178, 18I-!1; MmdUta, 
Bid. Sda., pp. 80-1; CUivioero, Storia A»t. del Maadco. torn. ii.. pp. 9, II. 
17, 84-e. 

* Srasseur de Bourbourg, Uisl. da JVoJ. Civ., torn, in., p. 301 ; Bra»srur dt 
BoMT^fOmTi], iiwitrt LtUrta, p. IW; Tytor's /Vim. Vvlt., yol. ii., pp. 259, £62 
-3: 8quitr'8 8trpeM JSymbot, pp. IS-iO; SchooUraft'a Arrh., vol. iii., p. 60, 
TOI. It., p. 639, Tol. v.. pp. 20~S7. toI. vi., pp. 694, 620, KW. 

> Miiiur, AnurrikaniscM UrrtlhjlotKn, p. 474. 

^ 8aJM;mn. li'tst. </Vn., tODi. li., lib. vii., pp. 244-6. In Camp«ch«, lu 
1834, M. Wtildcck witnpsscd an po1ips(> of thn moon ilnrinif whiuh thi* Ynra- 
tccM conducU'd themselves much sh tlu-ir fathciH might hiiVL- doii« in their 
geotile ilays. bowltiig frtKhtfiilly aud lunkiD;; everj' efTort to part the ceK-htiiU 
combataots. The only appareut advuuue luade on the old customs wiis the 
firing off of moalceta, * to prove * in the words of the itarcastic nrtist. ' that the 
Yucatccfi of to-<1ay are not atrangen to the prugreaa of civilization.' Waldtek, 
Voy, J'iU., p. 14. 

eojIpses, and their effect on man. 


Tlie TIascaltecs, regarding the sun and the moon an 
husband and wife, believed eclip-ses to be domestic quar- 
rels, whose consequences were likely to be fatal to the 
world if peace could not be miide I^eibre thingH pixKeeded 
to an extremity. To sooth tiie rulHed spirit of the 8un 
when he was eclipsed, a human sacrifice was ofiered to 
him of the ruddiest A^otims that could be found; and 
when the moon was darkened she was appeased with 
the bloodof those white-complexioned persons commonly 
known in* Albinos.' 

Thf idea of averting the evil by noiae, in case of an 
eclipwe eitlier of the sun or moon, seems to have Ixjen a 
cotriirion one among other American trilKis. Alegre 
a^^TilHiM it tr> tlie natives of Sonora in general. Rihas 
telU how the Sinuloas held that the moon in an eclipse 
was darkened witli tlie dust of battle. Her enemy had 
oome upon her, and a terrible fight, big witli consequence 
to thoeie on earth, went on in heaven. In wild excite- 
ment the (X'ople heat on the Hidvt* of their houses, en- 
oouniging the moon and shooting tlights of arrows up 
into the sky to distract her adversary. Much the same 
^as thi.-* wits alfHj done by certain Califomians.* 

With regard to an eclipse of the moon the Mexicans 

to Imve htul rather special iden£ as to its efiects 

apon unborn children. At such timen, women who were 

[with child became alarmed lest their infant should be 

Limed into a mouse, and to guard against such an uii- 

iesiratjle consummation they held a bit of obsidian, iztli^ 

lin their mouth, or put a piece of it in their girdle, so 

[that the child should be \yovn perfect and not lipless, or 

Ijioseless, or wry-mouthed, or squinting, or a monster." 

pTbeae ideas are probably connected with the fact that 

Jthe Mexicans worshiped the moon under the name of 

Meztli, as a deity presiding over human generations. 

T CaMortfo, Jl'tst. d» TUuuaHan, in NouvtUts Aiuwdta dfs Voy., 1B43, torn. 
bseni . p. 1^. 

' *Ategr*, inM. Vomp. d< Jews, ton. ii., p. 218; Rihas, Hist, dclcw rnitm- 
pHtm, p. aoa: Ad^v/u. in Jiobiaaonn Li/*- in Vol.. pp. 296-300. 

■ JmAoj/ua, Hid. (/en., torn. U., lib. viii., p. 2&u. 



This moon-god is considered by Clavigero to be identical 
with Joaltocutli, god of night.*" 

It is to the Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg, however, that 
wc must turn for a truly novel and Cyclopean theory of 
Mexicmi hmolatry. He sees back to a time when tlie 
forefathers of American civilization lived in a certain^ 
Crescent Land in the Atlantic; here they practiced 
Sabaism. Througli gome tremendous physiciU catas- 
trophe their country was utterly overwhelmed by the 
sea; and this inundation is considered by tlie abbe to 
be the origin of the deluge-mytlis of the Cent pal -Ameri- 
can nations, A remnant of these Crescent people saved 
themselves in the seven principal islands of the Lesser 
Aaitilles; these are, he explains, the seven mythical 
caves or grottoes celebrated in so nian>' American legends 
as the cradle of the nations. The saved remnant of tlie 
people wept the loss of their friends and of their old land, 
making the latter, with its crescent shape, memorable for- 
ever by adopting the moon as their god. " It is the 
moon," writes the great Ami'-ricnniftte, •' male and 
female, Luna ami Lunus, jiersonified in the land of the 
Crescent, engulfed in the abyss, that I l>elieve I see at 
the comTnencement of this amalgam of rites and symlwls 
of every kind." " I confess inability to follow tlic path 
by which the abbe has readied tiiia conclusion; but I 
have indicated its whcre«lx)utfl, and futui-e students may 
Ix; granted a further insiglit into this new labyrinth and 
the sulflleties of its industrious Daedalus. 

The Mexicans had many curious ideas alK)ut the Ktars, 
some of which have come down to us. Tliey particularly- 
reverenced a certain group of three calleil mitimilhyazUi^ 
in. or in the neighlwrhood of, the sign Taurus of the 
zodiac. This name was tlie same as that of the sticks 
from which fii*e was procured : a resemblance of some 

>* ErpWeacUm del Codex TrUerinno-Hempnms, part, ii., Iain, x., in Kinff»- 
Aorcu.7A't Mex. Antiq., vol. t.. p. 139; Spifgaxione dfUe Tavott dtl Codim MnU 
oano (Valirnnn), tav. xsvi., iu KiyvjxlKtrowjh'a Mrj. Ardiq., vol. v., p, 17B; 
Sa^Mgun, Hist. Oen.. turn, il., lib. Tii., p. 250; Clavigero, Storia Ant. dtl MfSiia>, 
tom.'ii., pp. 9-17. 

<■ BrOMMur d« Bovrbour^, Quatrt Ldin$. pp. 1&5-6. 


kind being supposed to exist between them and these 
Ftars. Coniiecte^l n^ain with this was the burning by 
every male Mexican of certain marks upon his wrist, in 
honor of the saine stars; it being believed that the man 
who died without these marks should, on his arrival in 
bailee, be forcwl to draw tire from his wrist by boring 
ujwn it 08 on a fire-stick. The planet Venus was wor- 
shiped as the first light that api)eared in the world, as the 
god of twilight, and, according to some, as being identical 
with Quety-alcoiitl. This star has Ikh^ii further said to 
borrow its light fn>m the moon, and to by four starts. 
Its first twinkle was a Iwd augury, and to be closed out 
of nil doors and windows; on appearing for the third 
time, it began to give a steady light, and on the fourth 
it shone forth in all its clearness and brilliancy. 

Comets were called each ciilalinpopom, or the smok- 
ing star; their appearance was con-sidered as a public 
disa?fter, and as announcing pest, dearth, or the death of 
some prince. The common people were accustomed to 
Bay of one, This is our famine, and they believed it to 
cast down certain dart^, which falling on any aninuil, 
bred a maggot that rendered the creature unfit for food. 
AH posHible precautions of shelter were of course taken 
by j»er«ons in jjositions exposed to the intiuenco of these 
noxious rays. Besides the foregoing, there were many 
rtars or groups of stars whose names were identical wiUi 
thoee of certain gods; the following seem to V)elong to 
this clasis: Tonacatlecutli or Citlalalatonalli, the milky 
way; Y/JicatecutU, Tlahvizcalpantecutli, Ceyacatl, Achi- 
tumetl. XiicupajicaUjui, Mixcoatl, Tezcatli^xxyi, and Con- 

I have alreatly noticed a prevailing tendency to con- 
nect the worship of fire and that of the sun. Tlie rites 
of a perpetual fire are found closely connected with 

^Sl^Mcadtm deBr Tawile Hrt CofHee MrxtraHO, part. L, lUD. U., put. ii.,. 
Itm. xir., in Kinr/tfjortmyh'g Mfx. Anli*j., vol, y., pj>. IM. 140; SptftfOiUme 
itUe Toirtf* <M Cfidler Mrximno fVaticanoJ, tav., ttu., xxii.. lb., vol. V., pp. 
176, 181; SaJui^n, JM. Urn., Unn. ii., lib. vii., np. 350~*i5'i; Camwv/o, 
WtL A Ttaaraank, in youitUen Annala tltjt Vny., I84:i, torn, xcvlii., (i. 103; 
Toi. m. S 



a Run-cult, and, whichever may be the older, it ia certain 
they are rai'ely found apart. "What," sayaTylor. "the 
sea is to Water-worsliip, in some measure the Sun is to 
Fire-worship."" Brinton would reverse tlii» and give 
to fire the predominance: in short, he say«, the «un 
"ia always spoken of as a fire;" "and without danger 
or error we can merpe the consideration of its wor- 
ship almost altogether is this element."" This sounds 
rather extravagant and is hardly needed in any caae; 
for sufficient reason for its deification can always be 
found ill its mysterious nature and awful powers of 
destruction, as well as in its kind and constantly 
renewed services, if gratitude have any jwwer in mak- 
ing a god. The mere guarding and holding sacred 
a particular fire probably originated in the importance I 
of possctaing an unfailing source of the element, and in 
the difficulty of its production if allowed to die out, 
among men not possessed of the appliances of civiliza- 

When we come to review the gods in general, those 
connected with fire will be pointed out as they appear; 
for the present, let it suffice to say that nian^' American 
peoples had such gods, or had ceremonies suggesting 
their existence and ret^oguition, or laj^tly, hod legendM of 
the origin or procuivinent of the fire they daily used on 
the altar or on tiie hearth. In the Puebloa of New 
Mexico, and more esiiecially among the Pecof*. nacrcd 
jterpetual fire-s were kept up by sjiecial corrmiand of 
their tnulitiouary god and ruler Montezuma; but tliese 
fires were not regarded as fetiches." The Mexican 
fire-god was known by the name of Xiuhtecutli, and 
by other names ap[)ertaining to the difierent as^xicts 
in wliich he was viewed. While preserving his own H 
well-marked identity, he was evidently closely re- 

Mendieta, WM. Ed'-a., p. SI. Ttio word ttcuUi U of frequent occiurcnoo u s 
terminatioD in the u&tnes of Moxioim gods. It sigiufics ' lord ' and is vritUm 
with Tbrions siic-UinRs. 1 follow thut RiT«n by Molina's VocabalAry. 

n Tytor's Prim. Cult., vol. ii., p. 259. 

>* BrirOon's Myths, p. H3. 

\^Ward, in Ind. Af. lUpt.. 18W, p. 193. 



latod alpo to the 8\m-god. Mnny and varione, even 
in domentic life, were the wreiiionies by which he 
was rpcogiiized ; the mogt important ritual in connection 
with hit* w^rvice bein^, ixTliup-s, the liphtinjr of tho new 
fire, with which, as we shall ^ee, the beginning of every 
Mexican cycle was solemnized." 

There are various fables scattered up and down nmong 
the various tribes regunling the origin or nither llio pro- 
curing of fire. We know how the (^uich^rs received it 
fr<«n the Ktanip of tin* Katidal of Toliil; how, from the 
home of the ciittle-fiMh, u dwr brought it to the Ahts in 
a joint of hiH leg; how from a distiint island the great 
Yehl of the Thlinkeets fi'tclied the bnuid in his l^ak 
that tilled the tlint and the fire-.stick with seeds of eter- 
nal fire. 

The Cahrocs hold thut, when in the beginning the crea- 
tor Chareya raude lire, be gave it into the custody of two 
old hags, lest the Cahrocs should steal it. The Cahrocs, 
baling exhnupted every means to procure the treasure, 
applied for help to their old friend the (Joyote; who, 
having matuFely considered how the tlicft might best 
be acoain])liahed, set about the thing in this way: 
From the bind of the Cahroca to the home of the old 
women he Rtationcd a great company of animalin. at 
Convenient distances; the strongest nearest the den of the 
old l*eldjmies, the weakest farthest removed. Last of 
all he hid a (>ahroc in the neighborhood of the hut, and, 
having left the man precise directions how to act. he 
trotted up to the door and asked to be let in out of the 
Qokl. 8u«pecting nothing, the crones gave him ad- 
mittance; BO he lay down in front of the fire, and made 
hinuielf as i^oinfortable as [lossible, waiting for the further 
action of his human accomplioe without. In good time, 
the man made a furious att:ick on the house and the old 
furies nislied out at, once to drive oft' the invader. This 
WM the Coyote's opportimity. Instantly he seized a 

W 5ata<7W>v Hhll. Om,, torn. t.. lib. L, p. 16; Torqwmada, Monarq. Tnd^ 
n. iL, pp. 60-7; Bnsaeur di Bourbottrjj, Hid. da Nat, Cio., totft. ut, pp. 




half-burnt brand and fled like a comet down the trail ; and 
tlic two hag^s. seeiiip how they had been outwitted, turn 
after him in immediate and furious chase. It had goni 
hard then witli the hopes of the Cahrocs, if their four 
lepged Prometheus had trusted to his single speed ; b 
jufit an he began to feel the pace tell on him, and just 
the wierd women tliought they were about to recover 
the l>randj tbe Cougar relieved him of it. Great was 
the satisfaction of our wise Coyote, as he sank down,, 
clearing Iuh wooty eyes and throat, and catcliing hisi 
breath, to .si^e the great lithe cat leap away with Ihej 
torch, and the hag« gmush their choppy gums as they, 
rushed by, hard in pursuit, on the dim trail of 8i)iu*ks, 
Tlie Cougar passed the brand to the Hear, the Bear to 
his neighbor, and so on to the end. Pown the long line 
of carriers, the panting crones plied their withered old 
legs in vain; only two mishaps occurring among all the 
animals that made up the Jile. ITie squirrel, last in the 
train but one, burned his tail so badly that it curled up 
over his back, and even scorched the skin alxjve his 
shoulders. Liurt of all, the poor Frog, who received tho^ 
brand when it had burned dov\ni to a very little piece, 
hopped along so heavily that his pursuers gained on !iim, 
gained fast and surely. ■ In vain he gathei-ed liimself forfl 
every spring, in vain he stretclied at every leap till the 
jarreil muscles cracked again. He was caught. The 
smoke-dimmed eyes stood out fi-om his head, his little 
heart thumjied like a club against the lean Hngers that 
closed u[K)n his Ixxly — yet that wild cmak was not the 
croak of despair. Once moi*e for the hoi>e of the Cah- 
rocs! one more struggle for the Coyote that trusted 
him in this great thing! and with a gulp the plucky 
little martyr swallowed the fire, tore himself from thefl 
hands that held him, loapwl into a river, and diving 
deep and long, gained his gaol; but gained it a mourn- 
ful wreck, the handsome tail, which, of all his race, 
only the tadpole should ever wear again, was utterly gone, 

left, like that of an O'Shanter's mare, in the witch's. 

grasp; only the ghost of himself was left to spit out oii 



flome pieces of wood the precious embers preserved at so 
great a cost. And it is because the Frog spat out this 
fire ujwn these pieces of wood tliat it can always be 
extracted again by rubbing thera hard leather." 

The Xavajos have a legend as to the prociiring oC fire, 
that has many analogies to the foregoing. They tell 
how, when they first gained the earth, they were with- 
out fire, and how the Coyote, the Bat, and tlie Squirrel 
agreed to procure it for tliera. The object of their de«ire 
seems to have been in tlie possession of tiie animals in 
general, in some distant locality. Tbe Coyote, having 
attached pine splinters to his tail, ran (juickly through 
tlie fire and Hed with his lighted prize. Ik'ing keenly 
pursued, however, by the other animals, he .**oon tired; 
upon wliich the FJat relieved him. and dodging and 
Bitting here and there, carried the splinters still farther. 
Then the S^juirrel came to the assistance of the Bat. and 
pticceeding him in his office, contrived to reach the 
hearths of the Navajos with the coveted emlxjrs.'* 

The natives of Mendoc^ino county, California, believe 
that lightning is the origin of fire, that a primeval bolt 
hurled down by the Man Above fell upon certain wood, 
from which, consequently fire can always be extracted by 
nibbing two pieces together.'* 

From fire let us t4irn for a moment to wind, whose 
phenomena, as might becxpectedj have not been allowed 
to pus8 wholly unnoticed by the mythologies with which 
we have to deal. When we come to examine ideas 
connected with death and with the soul of man and its 
futnre, we shall find the wind, or the air, of^en in use as 
the best name and tigiire for the expression of primitive 
conceptions of that mysterious thing, the vital essence or 
spirit, llie wind Urn iw often considered as a god. or at 
least as the breath of a god, and in many American 
languages the Great Spirit luid the Great Wind are one 
au(i the Mune both in word and signification. The name 

" Poit<n' Porno, US. 

« Katon, in Sehootrraft^g Arch.. »ol. W.. pp. 818-19. 
.' i'omo, US. 



of the pod Hurnkan, mentioned in Qmch6 myths, rti 
sigiiifieh the St<^mi in many a Luigua^ strange to li 
wor^hiperH, wliile in Quiche it may be traiiRlated Spirit,' 
or Hwiftly moving Spirit;"* and the name of the Alexi- 
can fjod Mixooatl is said to >>e to this day the corruci^ 
Mexican tenn for the whirlwind." f 

An intcrenting jioint here arises with regard to the 
division of the hejiven« into four quartern and the naming 
of these lUVn* the names of the wind. Dr. lirinton 
believes this fttct to be at tlie bottom of the sacredness 
and often occurrence of the number Joui- iu m> many 
early legends, and he connects tlicse four winds and 
their emlxxliment in many quateniions of deities, with 
the Kicrednesa of the cross and its use among widely 
wparated nations, to whom its Inter Christian mgnilictt- 
tion was utterly unknown.^ ■ 

If we may supix>se tluit the Great Spirit and the wind " 
are often represented under the form of uu enormous bird, 
we must connect with tliem, as their most inse|>aiuble 
attributes, the thunder and the lightning; the first, as 
we have so often seen, is the nistling or stridor of the 
wings of the bird, the second is tlie dashing of IiIh eyes. 
The Rjiven of the Koningas is not, however, as among 
most other tribes of the great Northwest, tlie author of 
these things; but their principal deity when he is angry 
sends down two dwarfs, who thunder and lighten 
according to his commaml." Of the god ITunikan, 
whom we have noticed as the etymon of the wonl hurri- 
cane, the Poix)l A'^uh says: '" The flash is the iirst sign 
of Hurakan ; the second is the furrow of the tlash ; the 
third is the thunder-lx)lt that strikes;"** and to the 
Mexi(ian god, Tlaloc, are abso attached the same three 


*) Bnusivr dt BavriMumj. S'U BxitI* 4«» Sowres de I' IHM. Prim . dv MetLme. 
p. lOl. 

•' Jirasseur do S(w*otiry. Bist Nat. Civ., torn. Ui., p. 4*5; Brinton** Myths, 
p. 51. 

" lirinlon'n .Viflhg, pp. 66-98. 

■» isnnu>n-x Mifihg, pp. m-m. 
« I!ntmlKrff. PAhn. sUt., p. HI. 
« XiTnenfx, JFvit. Ind. OwU., u. 6; 

J p. 6; Brasaevar de Bmirbourg, Popot TvA, p, 9", 
» Oama, Dog Fitdraa, pt. ii., p. 76. 



Tirninpf to water, we find it regarded among many 
ribes as the fir«t of elemental things. It is from a pri- 
meval ucetin of water that the earth is generally sup- 
poaed to come up. Water is obviously a first and chief 
notirisher of vegetable life, and an indispensable prere- 
quisite of all fertility; from this it is but a short step to 
saWng, that it is the mother of those that live by the 
earth'* fertility. ''Yoiir mother, Chiilchiuhtlicuc, god- 
de«B of water," is a phrase constantly found in the mid- 
wife's mouth, in her address to the child, in the Mexican 
watthing or baptismal ser\iec.* 

The nse of water more or less sanctified or set apart or 
made worthy the distinction *holy;' the employment of 
this in a rite of avowed purification from inlierent sin, 
at tiie time of giving a name, — baptism, in one word, — 
runs back to a period far pre-Christian among the 
Mexican, Maya, and other American nations; as 
ftncient ceremonies to l>e hereafter descrilxMl will sliow. 
That man seta out in this life-journey of his with a 
terrible bias toward evil, with a sad ami pitiful liability 
to temptation, is a point u\xyn which all religions are 
practically unanimous. How else could they exist? 
Were in in Itorn |K*rfect he would remain i>erfect, other- 
wise the first element of perfection would l>c wanting; 
and perfection admits of no sujwrlative, no greater, no 
god. Where there is a M'ligion then, there is generally 
» consciousness of sin voluntary and involuntary. How 
shall I be cleansed? how shall my cbiM lie cleansed from 
this great wickedness? is the cry of the idolater as well 
Ba of the monothcist. Is it strange that the analogy be- 
tween corporal and spiritual pollution should indei^en- 
dently suggest itself to both? Surely not. Wa^h and 
be clean, is to all tlic world a parable needing no inter- 

•I iUkn-TWi. BImL Ottk., torn, it, lib. vi., p. 107. 

n Siogalorij apt in thin rnnnoction nrc tlip winewnrclft tbnt OnrWlfl, Paat 

•id .^•■mt Cmrfiffm. book 1., p. S:i3, puti inUi thn mouth of Utii invthical 

, fljmifl BailllltllU- " Striji th^'SHlf. f^n inXi-t thf> iwith, or wero it iiitu tlieiiinpid 

t And ronniiu; brook, ntul iixr-Tv vanh inrl b<i clean; tboii vilt nlep oat 

k ft {HtrcruMft better man. XhisooiuciouHncaaof perfect outer porcmeia. 



The ceremonial use of water followed the Mexican 
through all h'lH life; though for the present we shall 
only notice one more custom connected with it, the last 
of all. Wlien a iKxly was buried, a vaae of clean, Hweet 
water was let down into tlie tomb: briglit, clear, life- 
giving and preserving water, — hope and love, dumb and 
inarticulate. Htrotohing vague hiuid toward a resurrection. 

The Mexiwm rain and water god wa.s Tlaloc, fleiider 
of thunder and liglitning, lord of the earthly jxinulise, 
and fertilizer of wirth ; bin wife was the Chalchiubtlicue, 
alreiuly mentioned.* Like Tluloc was Quiateot, tlie 
Nicaraguan rain-gtid, master of thunderbolts and genenil 
director of meteon>k»gical plicnomena.'^ 

The Navajus puffed tobiux;o fimoke HlraJght up toward 
heaven to bring rain, and those of them that carried a 
corpse to burial were imclean till washed in water.** In 
a deep and lonely canon near Fort Defiance there is a 
Hpring that thij* tribe hold sacred, approaching it only 
witli much reiercnce and the performance of certain 
mystic ceremonies. Tiiey say it was once a boiling 
ftpring^ and tbat even yet if approached heeillessly or by 
a t)ad Indian, its waters will aeethe up and leap forth to 
ovenvhelm the intruder.^^ 

The /ufiis had also a sacred spring; sacred to the rain- 
god, who, a.s we see by implication, is Montezuma the 
great IViehlo deity himself. No animal might ta-ste of 
its sacretl waters, an<l it wa^i cleansed annually with 
vessels also sacred, — most ancient vases \\u\t had been 
transmitted from generation to generation since times to 

that to thy "kin thero now adheres no foreign ftpeck of imperfection, how it 
ndlatea in on thee with canning n]rm>>olic influonc*'*, tt> the rery soul!. . . . 

It rcmunfl a religions duty from oldeiit tiuiR in tht East tvun the dull 

Cikglish feci Rom«thing of this; thoy h«ro a Bajing, " olenulibess !& near of 
kin to Godliness. " ' 

«> Clarifero, Shtria Ant. dft jl/c«rifO. (om. ii., pp. l.>-16, ' Era cono8ciat« 
eon alhri n.->mi (itDuii (>Rnrp»sivp. i qtiali n HijnHtioiY.Rno i divemi rffctti, efaa 
cutoQano l'iicqu<<. o le divenie nppH.reuz<f, cojori. vhv formatto col loro moto. 
I TlancaUesi In cbiumnvano MaUulcn«jv. cwk, TwtiU di goiiBk tarchinn.' 
8e6 rUo M&Uer, Rrvi-u yi Jtfrx , torn, tii., p. 89. 

" OiArdo, Ilist, Ofn.. torn, iv., pp. 4fl, S5. 

M Tm Brotck, ia 5cAo<4cra/(* Arch , toI, iv., p. 91 j firtsK ia Ind. Aff. 

RtjA,. i«67. p. 3r.e. 

SI Backvs, in Hchoolcraft's AreK.^ toI. it., p. 313. 



which even tradition went not buck. Tliese vessels were 
kei)t ran;;eil on the wail of the well. The iro'c!;, the 
rattlesnake, and the tortoise were depicted u^wn them, 
and were sacred to the great (mtron of the phwx*, whose 
terrible Ughtning sliouUl consume the sacrilegious hand 
that touched these hallowed relicw.*" 

We liave Kocn how the Californian tribes Ix'lieve 
thi-'niwlves detJCendcd from the very earth, how the bodi- 
U'j^s luiceMor of the Tezcucans came up from the soil, how 
the <iuateniaUi?ei<, Papajros, and Pimiw were molded 
from the clay they tread, and how the Nuvajos came to 
light frtnn the boweln of a gresit mountain near the river 
San Jtian. It seems long ago and often to liave come 
into men's mind that the over-arching heaven or 
something there and the all-producing earth are, as it 
were, a father and mother to all living creatures. The 
Comanches ctdl on the earth as tlveir mother, and on the 
Great Spirit as their father. The ^[exiwm8 used to 
pray: Be pleased, our Lonl, that the nobles who may 
die in the war be peacefully and pleasingly received by 
the sun and the earth, who are the father and mother of 
all." It was probably, again, with some reference to the 
motherly function of the earth that the same jjeople, 
when an earthquake came, took their children by the 
hcail or hand, and lifted them up saying: The earth- 
quake will make them grow.^ Sometimes they siwcified 
a particular part of the eartli as closer to them in this 
relation than other parts. It iw said that on the tenth 
day of the month Quecholli, the citizens of Mexico and 
those of Tlatelolco were wont to visit a hill called Caca- 
lepec, for they said it was tlicir mother." 

Atf to the substance, arrangement, and so on of the 
earth and sky there remain one or two ideas not already 
triven in ctmnection with the general creation. The 
Tlascaltecs, and perhajw others of the Anahuac i>eoples, 
believed that the earth was flat, and ending with the seu- 

» \rhijrpl'. iu Pae It. It, E^pt., yoI. iii., p. 3D. 
S) ShIm^^'*, //M. tien., turn, li., lib. vi., p. 411. 
»SalUguit. ill*t. O'^n., toin. it., lib. t., np.. pp. 21-2. 
MMUyu. J/U. (/fiu. toa. L, lib. ii.. p. 70. 



(»hore. was >W)me up by certain divinities, who when 
fatigued relieved each other, and that nti the l)urden was 
shifted from shoulder to Bhoulder earthquakes occurred. 
Theneaand bUv were considered as of one material, the sea 
l)eing more highly condensed ; and the rain was thought 
to fall not from clouds but from the very Rubstnne^ of 
heaven itself* The Southern Californian.s Ix^lieved that 
when the Creator made tlie world ho lixe<l it on the back 
of seven giants, whose movements, as in tlie precedinj; 
myth, cau^ earthquakes.^ The sky, according to ccr- 
fciin of the Yucatecs, was held ui> by four brothers called 
each of them Bacab, in addition to their several names, 
which seem to have l>een Kan, Muluc, Tx, and Cauac. 
These four^ God had placed at the four corners of tlie 
world when he created it, and they had escaped when all 
else were destn.)yed by Hood.** 

In the interior of the earth, in volcanoes, subterranean 
gixls were often supposed to reside. The Koniogaa for 
example, lield that the craters of Alaska were inhabited 
by beings mightier then men, and that these sent forth 
fire and smoke when they heated their sweat-housea or 
cooked their food.* 

The rugged majesty of hills and mountains has not 
been without its cfll^ct on the reverontiul mind of the 
American aborigines, Dii*e(^t worship was unusual, but 
several incidents have alreiwly informed the reader 
that a kind of siinctity is often attiicliod to great eleva- 
tions in nature. A prixlilwticHi for hills and mounds as 
huidnuirks ami fanea uf truditlnii, a!id hh places of wor- 
ship, wa-s as common among the Americjuis as among the 
people of the old world. The Choles of the province of 
Itza had a hill in their oonntry that they regarded as 
the god of all the mountains, and on which they burned 
a perpetual iire." The Mexicans, praying for rain, were 

M Camamo, ISst. d« ThuMillan, in NouveUe*. Aniutka da Voy., 1834, lorn, 
xcriii.. p. 103. 

^ Iteid, in Los Atvjelta Star. 

» I/tnda, Rel. dt ion Coaaa di Yucatan, p. 30C. 

» Jl'itfHfjtr.7, Ethn. 5Wi.. p. 141. 

"> VUlagutiem, Iliit. Conq. cfe Itta, pp I51~a. 



iHtoinpfl to vow that they would make images of the 
inUuii-H if t!»eir petitioiiH were fftvorably received;** 
and, in other jxnntK connected with their religion to nhow, 
as has appeared and will ap|)e:ir Wh with them and 
with other |)eople, their i-ecognition of a divinity abid- 
ing on or hedging aix>nt the great peaks. Whjit wonder^ 
indeed, that to the rude and awe-»truck mind, the ever- 
Iffcstinji; hills seemeti nearer and liker heaven than the 
common-place level of earth? and that tlie wild man 
Bhould kneel or go t*oft\y tticre, iw in the peculiar pre- 
wnce of the Great Spirit? This is liardly a new feeling, 
it seems an instinct and custom as old as religion. 
' Where went Abraham in that awful hour, counted to him 
for rightoousnctis through all the centuries? Where 
wnoked the thunderings and lightnings tliat heralded 
the deliver^^ of the Law, when tlie Hon of Amram talked 
with Jehovah face to face, as a man talketh witli his 
friend? Whence saw a greater than Morcs the kingdoms 
of the world and the glory of them ? whence, in the all- 
nights that came after, did the prayers of the Christ 
aneend? and where stixxl he when his raiment became 
a» no fuller on earth could wliite it, Moses and Elias 
talking with him. and I'eter so sore afraid? 

Where hills were not found conveniently ^tuated for 
purposes of worship, they seem to have lx>en counterfeit- 
ed after man's feeble fashion: from high-place and 
mound, fmm pynmiid smd teocalli. since the nioming 
Stars suri^ togetlier, the smoke of the altar and the 
cenaer has not ceased to ascend. But the day Ijcgins 
to broaden out. and the mists of the morning Hee 
away, though the liills be not lowered, God is lifted 
up. Yet they have their glory and their charm still 
even to us, and to the savage they often appear aa 
the result of a special and several creation. We remem- 
ber how the Great Spirit made Mount Shasta as his 
only worthy abiding-place on earth; and I give here 
another legend of a much more trivial sort than the first, 

«■ Sahajun, Hi^. Otn.. torn. i.. lib. ti., p. 1T7. 




tellinfr how. not Mount Shiusta alone, but all the mount- 
ains ol* ('ulifornia were built and put into position: — *'* 
At A time when the world was covered witli water there 
existed a IhiwU and a Crow and a very small Duck. 
The latter, after divinj; to the bottom and bringing up a 
beakful of mud, died ; wliereu[X)n tlie C*row and the llawk 
took eaolt a half of the mud that liad been bi-ought up, 
and sot to work tu make the mountains, lieginning at 
a place called Teheechaypah Pass, they built northwards, 
the Hawk working on t!ie oiL'*tern range and the Cn)w 
on tlu* western. It was a long and wtniry toil, but jn 
time the work wn» finished, and or they laid the last 
[X'ak the workers met at Mount Sluista. Then tlif Hawk 
saw that there liiul been fold play K)mewher(.\ for the 
western range waa bigger than his; and he charged the 
Crow with stealing some of his mud. But the smart 
bird laughed a hoarse guifaw in the face of his eastern 
brotlier, not even taking the trouble to disown the theft, 
and chuckled hugely over his OAvn success and western 
enterprise. The honest llawk was' at his wits' end, and 
he stood tltinking with his head on one side for quite a 
long time; then in an absent kind of way he picket! up 
a leaf of Indian tobacco and l>egan to chew, and wisdom 
came with chewing. And he strengthened himself 
mightily, and fixed his claws in the mountains, and 
turned the whole chain in the water like a great floating 
wheel, till the range of his rival had changed places with 
his, and the Sierra Xevada was oi» the east ajid the 
Coast Range on the west, as they remain to this day. 

This legend is not witliout ingenuity in its way but 
there is more of human interest in the following pretty 
story of the Yosemite nations, as to the origin of tlie 
names and present appearance of certain peaks and other 
natural features of their vallev: — 

A certain Totokunida was once chief of the people 
here; a mighty hunter and a good husbandman, hia 

<■ PovBtn' Pomii, MB. ThU \n a tradition nf thr Yocuts, a Califommn 
tribe, occiipjrituf the Kem nii<l Tultiro l)rtNiii<i, the middle Sail Joaquin, and 
(he nuiooa streaaiB nuioing loUi Likke Tnlare. 



tribe never wanted food while ho attended to their Wfi- 
fare. But a change came; while out hunting one din", 
the young man met a spirit-maid, the guardian angel of 
the valley, the Ix-autiful Tisayac. She was not ns tl»e 
dnnky beauties of bis trilje, hut white and fair, with n»U- 
ing yellow tresses that fell over her shoulders like sun- 
shine, and blue eyes with a light in them like the sky 
where the sun goes down. AVliitc, eloudlike wings were 
folded Ix'hind her shoulders, and her voice was sweeter 
than the sung of birds; no wonder the stmng cliiof loved 
her with a mad and instant love. He reached townrd 
her, but the snowy winjis lifted her above his sight, and 
he Mood again alone u[)on the dome, where she had been. 

No more Totokunula led in the cluisc or heeded 
the crops in the valley; he wandered here and there 
like a man distraught, ever seeking that wontU^rful shin- 
ing vision that hail made all else on earth ^talc ami un- 
profitable in hia sight. The land began to languish, 
nus**ing the industrious directing band that had tcmlcd 
it eo long; the pleasant garden l)ecame a wilderness 
where the drought laid waste, and the wild l)eaM. spt)iled 
what wai* left, and tiuigbt his cubs to divide the prey. 
U hen the fair spirit returneti at hist to visit her valley, 
fhe wept to ftee the desolation, and she knelt upon the 
fl(jine, praying to the (Jreat Spirit for succor, (iod 
heiinl, and stooping from his place, he clove the dome 
ujKin which she stood, and the granite was riven Ix-neath 
her feet, and the melte*! snows of the Nevada rushed 
through the gorge, lx.'aring fertility up»n their c(m)1 Jjosorn. 
A beautiful lake w:w ibrmed between the cloven walls of 
the mountain, and a river issued from it to fin-il the 
valley for ever. Then sa»ig the binls us of old. laving their 
hodies in the water, and the odor of llowers rose like a 
pleasant incense, and the trees put fortli their buds, and 
the corn shot up to meet the sun and rxistlcd when the 
breeze crept through the tall stalks. 

Tisji\ ac moved away as she ha<l come, and none knew 
whither she went; but the people called the dome by 
her name, as it is indeed known to this day. After her 


departure the chief returned from his weary tjuert;' and 
as he heard that the winged one had visited, the. valley. 
ihe old madness crept up into his eyes and entered, 
seven times worse than at the first, into his empty soul 
he turned his hack on the lodges of his people. His last 
act was to cut with his hunting-knife the outline of his 
face upon a lofty rock, so that if he never returned his 
memorial at least should remain with them forev^*. He 
never did return from that hopeless search^ but the 
graven rock was called Totok6nula, after his name, 
and it may be still seen, three thousand feet. high, guard- 
ing the entrance of the beautiful valley," 

Leaving this locality and subject, I may remark that 
the natives have named the Fohono Pall, in the same 
valley, after an evil spirit; many persons having been 
swept over and dashed to pieces there. Ko native of the 
vicinity will so much as point at this fall when going 
through the valley, nor could anything tempt one of 
them to sleep near it; for the ghosts of the drowned are 
tossing in its spray, and their wail is heard forever above 
the hiss of its rudiing waters." ■ 

43 Hitlchinga' Cal. Mag., vol. iv., pp. 197-d. 
*4 Uutchinga' Cal. Mag., toI. W.. p. 243. 

IB6LCB AmaemTD to Akimae*— AirontnB niou theib MoTmiiNTK— TnR Tlx^ 
ommhsdOwl— TtmLAKT Akimaia— MrrAMOBraoAKD Mkv— Thk Oorbm- 
r — Tb> Sached AKEMAxa— Proiuncnck or tbk Bird— An IImbi^u of 
I TUM Wnii>— Tub Sewsxt. am Embucji h*- thk Litmniis;*.)— Not 8pk- 
W cutXT ccnoirona) wrm Evn^—Tnic SniprsT or thk FccbijOs — Tni 
L — GE]iaRALj.y TBOuoa ^oT axwats a Bknetolest I*owke— How tub 
L CoTOTE LET Saljiox DP TOB Kj.amath— Dakse 2Xauabbk asp Sao 
' The reader must have already noticed the strange rSles 
filled by animals in the creeds of the Native Races of the 
Pacific States. Beasts and bii'ds and fislies fetch' and 
carry, talk and act, in a way that leaves even i^^sop's heroes 
in the shade ; \vhite a rnysteriouH and inex plicable induenc« 
over human dwliny is often accorded to them. It is of 
oourwe impossible to 8ay precisely how much of all this is 
metaplioriciil, and ' how much is held as fi<))>t'rly and 
literally true. Prtilxibly the pro|X>rtion varien all the 
way from one extreme to the other among different 
nations, and among i>eople8 of different stages of culture 
in the 8:ime nation. They spake • only in jxirt, these 
priest"* and prophets of barbaric cidts' and we can under- 
rtand only in port; we cannot solve the dark riddle of 
the past ; we can oftenest only repeat it, and even that in 
a more or less imperfect manner. 

The Mexicans had their official augurs and sooth- 


sayers, who divined much as did their brethren of clasmc 
times. The people also drew omen and presage from 
many things: from the howling of wild beasts at night; 
the sin^ng of certain birds; the hooting of the owl; a 
weasel crossing a traveler's path; a rabbit running into 
its burrow ; from the chance movements of worms, bee- 
tles, ants, fro^j and mice ; and so on in detidl.* 

The owl seems to have been in many places considered 
a bird of ill omen. Among all the tribes visited by Mr 
Lord, from the Fraser River to the Saint Lawrence, this 
bird was portentously sacred, and was a favorite decora- 
tion of the medicine-men. To come on an owl at an 
unusual time, in daylight for example, and to hear its 
mystic cry, were things not desirable of any that loved 
fulness of pleasure and length of days.^ In California, 
by the tribes on the Russian River, owls were held to be 
devils or evil spirits incarnate/ 

We often find an animal adopted in much the same 
way as a patron saint was selected by the mediaeval knight. 
The Hyperborean lad, for example, when he reaches man- 
hood, takes some beast or fish or bird to be his patron, and 
the spirit connected with that animal is supposed to guard 
him. Unlike most Indians, the Eskimo will have no 
hesitation in killing an animal of his tutelary species; 
he is only careful to wear a piece of its skin or bone, 
which he regards as an amulet, which it were to him a 
serious misfortune to lose. Prolonged ill luck some- 
times leads a man to change his patron beast for another. 
The spirits connected with the deer, the seal, the salmon, 
and the beluga are regarded by all with special venera- 

_The Mexicans used to allot certain animals to certain 
parts of the body; perhaps in much the same way as 
astrologers and alch^-mists used to connect the stars of 
heaven with different substances and persons. The fol- 
lowing twenty Mexican symbols were supposed to rule 

I Sahajun, Itist. Oen., torn, ii,, lib. v.. pp. 1-14, ap. pp. £6-6. 

* Ixtrd's Naturalist in Vancouver Jslan!, vol. ii.. pp. 3:i--4. 
' Voicers' Porno, MS. 

* ValVs Alaska, p. 14.^). 



over the various raeral)era of the human body: The sif^n 
of the deer, over the right fool; of the tiger, over the 
left foot; of the eagh>, over the right hand; of the 
monkey, over the left Imnd; of death, — represented by 
a skull, — over the Hkiill ; of water, over the hair; of the 
liouae, over the brow; of rain, over the eyes- of the dog, 
over the nose; of the vulture, over the ripht ear; of the 
rabbit, over the left ear; of tlic eartlifjuake, over the 
tongue; of flint, over the teeth; of air, over the breath; 
of the rose over the breast; of the cane, over tlie lieart; 
of wind over the lungs — aa appears from the plate in the 
Codex Vaticanus, tlie Italian interpreter giving, how- 
ever, "over the liver;" of the praas, over the intostiues; 
of the liwird, over the loins; and of the serjiont over the 

Sometimes the whole life and being of a man waa 
Bwl)I)OJ*tHi to \>o U>und up in the bundle witl» that of some 
animal. Thus, of the Cruatemaltecs, old Gage quaintly 
enough writes: '' Many are deluded by the Devil to Ikv 
lieve tliat their life depMuh^th upon the life of such and 
such a beast (which they take unto them as their familiar 
spirit) and think that when that IjeOKt dieth they must 
die; when he is cha.«*xl their hearts pant; when he is 
faint they are faint; nay it happeneth that by the devil's 
delusion they appear in the shaj»e of that lK.a*t."* 

Animals are sometimes only men in disjruise; and 
thii* is the idea often to be found at the bottom of that 
ncredness which among particular tribes is ascribed to 

rticular animals. 

The Thlinkeet will kill a bear only in case of great 
sity, for the bear is supposed to be a man that has 
the shape of an animal. We do not know if they 
think the same of the albatrioss, but they certainly will 

> Codtai Fnftoontu fXtn.), in KintjM^ortfWfh'B Met. Antiq., vol. i!., plate 75; 
iSp^jaeinne dtlU Tavalt dti CodUf ittrimno fVaH^noJ, in Ktngiiorough'B 
Mta. Altiq., toI. v.. p. 107. tav. Ixiv.^ KxpUinalion of the Cmicz Vatioinua, id 
Kbi^iharow^^B JAs. AjU'ui., toI. t{., pp. ',f33>3, plutu Ixxv. It viU be seen 
Ibftt I h«T« trusted mure to Itio pUt« it»oU tlmo to tliit> lUiliim exploaatioti. 
As to Kinoriwnmi^'R tnuialatioD of Lbut explauution, it ia uulluu^ out a glo«8 
■ilb addmons to uid omiwioDa from the urigiu&l. 

• Oogt't JVew Sttrcey, p. 334. 
Toe m. s 



not kill this bird, believing, like mariners ancient and 
modern, thut euch a misdeed would be followed by bad 

Among the natives seen by MrLord on Vancouver Is- 
land, ill-luck is supposed to attend the profane killing of 
the ogress-squirrel, and the a)njurer8 wear its skin as a 
strong chann among their other trumpery. As tradition 
tells, there once lived there a monstrous old woman with 
wolfish teeth, and finger-nails like claws. She ate chil- 
dren, this old hog, wiling them to her with cunning 
and oily words, and many were the broken hearts and 
empty cradles that she left. One poor Rachel, weeping 
for her child and not to be comforted because it was not, 
cries aloud: Oh, Great Spirit, Great Medicine, save my 
eon, in any way, in any form! And the great, good 
Father, looking down upon the red mother pities her; 
lo, the child's soft brown skin turns to fur, and there 
slides from the ogress's grip no child, but the happiest, 
liveliest, merriest little squirrel of all the west—but 
bearing, aa its descendants still bear, those four dark 
lines along the back that show where the cruel claws 
plowed into it escaping.* 

Where monkeys are found, the idea seems often to 
have occurred to men, to account for the resemblaacc of 
the monkey to tlic man by making of the first a fallen 
or changed form of the latter. AVc have already seen 
how the third Quiche destruction of the human race ter- 
minated tlnis; and how the hurricane-ended Sun of the 
Air in Mexican mythology, also left men in the apish 
state. The intelligence of beavers may have Ix^n the 
means of winning them a similar distinction. The Flat- 
head says tliese animals axe a fallen race of Indians, 
condemned for their wickedness to this form, but who 
will yet, in the fulness of time, be restored to their hu- 

As we shall see more particularly, when we come to 

T ffoimbertj, JCthn. StHx., p. 30. 
< Lord'M fi'at., vol. U., pp. 62-4, 
* Cott'M Adptn., vol. i , p- 2C3. 



!eal with the qtiestioji of the future life, it was a com- 
mon idea that the soul of the dead took an animal siiaije, 
sometimes inhabiting another world, sometimes this. 
The Thlinkeets, for example, believed that their Hhannins 
iu«ed to have interviews with certain spirits of the dead 
that appeared to them in two forms, some as land ani- 
mals, some OvS marine."' 

The Californians round San Diego will not eat the 
flesh of large game, believing such animals are inhabited 
by the souls of generations of jx^ople that have died ages 
ago; 'cater of venison!' is a tenn of i*eproach among 

The Pimos and Mnricopas had, if Bartlett'fi account 
be correct, some curious and unusual ideait regjinling 
their future state; saying that the several parts of 
tlic Ixxly should Ikj chan*??d into separate animals; the 
head would jwrlm^vs take the form of an owl, the feet 
become wolves, and so on." Tlie M(Kjuis supjwsed that 
at death tliey should be severally cbanired into animals 
— bears, deer, and such beasts; which indeed, as we 
have already seen, they believed to have been their ori- 
pnal fonn." 

Different reasons are given by different tribes for 
holding certain animals sacred ; some of these we have 
already had occasion to notice. Somewiiat different 
from most, however, is that given by the Northern- Indian 
branch of the Tinneh, for not eating the flesh of foxes, 
wolves, ravens, and so on. This tribe are accustomed to 
abandon the Ixxliea of their dead wherever they happen 
to fall, leaving them to the maws of kites or of any other 
animals of prey in the neighlwrhood ; therefore nothing 
but the extrcmcst necessity can force any member of the 
nation to make use of such animals as food.^' 

Certain natives of Guatemala in the province of Acaliln, 
called by Villagutierre Mozotecas, kept deer in ao tame a 

M DoWb iUodhs, pp. 4212-3. 

« ScAookraffM Arrh . toI. t.. p. 215. 

« BttrUm'tPm. Nar.. yol. ii., p. 229. 

** Tin Brofrk, in Schcoiinfl's Arch., vol. it., p. 86. 

» Iharm'$j0vm0i/, p, 341 . 



state that they were easily killed by the lea^t active soldiers." 
Thc«e deer were held as sacred by the inhabitants; for, 
tradition told them that their g;reatest god had visited 1 
them in this figure." The Apaches preatly respect the 
bear, neither killinfr him nor tasting his tlesh.. They, 
think that there are spirits of divine origin within or 
connected with the eagle, the owl, and all birds perfectly 
white. Swine, they hold to be wholly unclean/* Some] 
animals are sacred to particular gods: with the Znfiis,] 
the frog, the turtle, and the rattlesnake were cither con- 
sidered as specially under the protection of Montezuma, 
— here considered as the god of rain, — or they were them- 
selves the lesser divinities of water." M 

It is sometimes nccessnrv to guard against being mis- ^ 
led by names. Thus the natives of Nicaragua had gods 
whose name was that of a rabbit or a deer; yet these 
animals were not considered as gods. The identity of 
name went only to say that such and such were the gods 
to be invoked in hunting such and such animals," 

The reiider umHt have already noticed how important 
ia t!ie |)art assigned to binlH in uur mythology, especially 
in creation-myths. A great bird is the agent of the chief 
deity, perhaps tlie chief deity himself. The sweep of J 
luH wings is thunder; the lightnings are the 'glances of^| 
hiH eyes." (^hiijewyansj Thlinkeets, Atnas, Kolt.schanes, ^ 
Kenai. and other nations give this being great prominence 
in their legends. 

Brinton believes* this bird to be the emblem of the wind, 
to be '* a rt^lic of the cosmogonal myth which explained 
tlie origin of the world from the action of the winds, un- 

li VtUtigutiem, /fiirf. Cfinq. Kia, p. 43. 
i« Ch<irU<m. in Schoolrra/fe Arch., vol. t., p. 209. 
. >' Whipple. Ewttank. and Tumer'a Bept., pp. 3»-10, in Pae. J2. R, Rept., 
vol. iii. 

u OvUdo, Higt. Gtn., torn. W,, pp. M-5. 

'* Swinbamc, Atvtdoria, has found as allied idea worthjof his imbUm« 

'Ciwt forth of henven, with feet of awfnl ffold. 
And plutnpl^tiH wing« that moke the briffht air blind. 
Lightning, with thnnder for n buiiud behind, 
Iluntiug through fleldd uufurrowiMl &ud unsovu — * 



der the imnge of the bird, on the primeval ocean;"*' and 
hid view is probably correct in many cag*is. 

The savaire is ever ready to be Bnutten by natural 
powers. Ignorant and i\^i\[ni with wonder, is it unnatural 
t-hat he should regard, with a 8uix.*rKtitious awe and re- 
tipcct, the higher and more peculiar animal gifts, relating 
them to like physical powei*s, and managing to mix and 
confuse the whole by a strange synthesia of philosophy? 
•Birds tlew, the winds tlew; the birds were of the kith of 
the winds, and the winds were of the kin of the gods 
who are over all. Poor, weary, painted man, who could 
only* toil dustily along, footsore and perhaps heartsure, 
with Mtrange longings that venison and bear-meat could 
not satisfy, — was it very wonderful if the throbbing 
music and upward flight of the clear- throated and swift- 
winged were to him very mysterious and sacred things? 
" All living beings," say the north-eastern Eskimos, 
" have the faculty of soul, but especially the bird." l^Vom 
the flight and song of birds, the Mexican divined and 
Rliiulowed forth the unborn shapes of thu to-come, lie 
died too, if he died in an odor of warlike sanctity, in 
the stn>ng faith that his soul shouUl ultimately take the 
form of a bird and twitter through the ages in the purple 
shadows of the trees of panulise." 

The Kailtaa on the south fork of the Trinity in Oali- 

«» Srintim'ii Myths, p. 205. Tho N^rw Mief t« akiD to ibis:— 
'Tfaeginiit Hi-RUtl^ir, 
At lh« end of bi.'avt-n, 
BitR iu an e«g)«'« fortn; 
'Tim said that from hiH wingfl 
Tfa« cctid vindB KWBep 
Over all the nationB. 

Vu/ttirwivfTs maal; GrenTiUo Pigoti't 
ttaiul&tion. In ScaiuJiivivtan Mythalony. p. 27. 

8oottt P'tmle. chap. t.. in the ' Song of the Tempest.' which he traUHl-itcii 
ftom Honui'a mouth, shows thnt the some idea is still (ouod io the ShctLand 

Bt«-rn «Bfiln of tho for north-west, 
Thnu that bcftr<>(it in thy grasp the thunderbolt. 
Thou whose nii*t)in({ pinions stir ocenu to madneu,.. . 
Cease thou the waving of thy pinions, 
Xietthe ocean n-tK>K« iu h<T diukMtri'ntjthi 
CassA Ihou tiio tmshiiiK of thine eyes. 
Lot the IhnDdt-rbult tileep in the armury of Odin.* 
B tfoAo^H. Hid. Otn,, torn, i, Ub. iii., p. 2G5; Clavigero, StoHa Ani. del 
' o, turn, il., p. 6. 



fomia, thongh they do not turn the floiil into a bird, do 
say that tui it leaves the body a little bird carries it up to 
the spirit-land." 

The Spaniards of Vizcaino's expedition, in 1G02, 
found tlie Galifornians of SantJi Cataliiia Island venenit- 
ing two great black crows, which, according to Seilor 
Galan, were probably » species of I)ird known in Mexico 
aa reij de los 2opUoteSy or king of turkey-biiZ74irds; ho 
adding that these birds are still the objects of respect 
and devotion ainonp most Californian tribes.*' 

As another symlwlj sign, or iy\yG of the supeniatiiral, 
the serpent would naturally suggest itself at an early 
date to man. Its stealthy, subtle, sinuous motion, the 
glittering fascination of its eyes, the silent deathly thrust 
of its channeled fangs, — what marvel if the foolishest 
of men, like the wisest of kings, should say '' I know it 
not; it is a thing too wonderful for me?" It seems to 
be immortal: every spring-time it cast off and crept from 
its former skin, a crawling unburnt phoenix^ a new ani- 

Schwartz, of Berlin, aftirins, from deep research in 
Greek and Gennan mythology, that the paramount 
germinal idea in this wide-spread seri)ent-emblem is the 
lightning, and Dr. Rrinton develops the same opinion at 
ftome length.** 

Tlaloc, the Aztec rain-god, held in his hand a scr- 
pent-shajxjd piece of gold, representing most prolmbly 
the lightning. Hurakan, of the Quiclie legends, 
is otherwise the Strong .Seri>ent, he who hurls 
below, referring in all likelihood to storm powcra as 
thunderer.* This view being accepted, the lightning- 

« Pouien' Porno, MS. 

«* Tor^uematta, ifonarq. Jnd., torn. L, p. 713: 'Tbe entire tribos of th« 

tfon fo* the Coudor or YeUow-h.eiiilL>d Vulture.' taylur, in Val. Farmtr, Maj 
S5tb, 1860. 'Cutbartefl Califcrulauiia, tbo Inrgcst rapooiona bird of North 
Amftrifo.' Baird'a Birds of y. Am.. ]». 5. 'Thi« bird U an objort of gnwt 
TDUomlion ur wnrtbin atniing the ludmii tribcn of oronr portion of ths 8tAt6.' 
Held, in Ims Anijcla Afar. 

" Jlrinton's Myths, p. H2. 

*i Torquematia. .Wbruin;. Ind , torn, ii., pp. 46-71; Claviyrro, Storia Ant. M 
Masico, torn, ii., pp. 14-15; Oama, Dos riedrtu, pt, ii., pp. 76-7. 




it is the type of fruitfulness ; the thunder 

jnn being inseparably joined with the thick, fer- 
tilizing summer showers.^ Born, too, in the middle 
hi'aven, of a cloud mother and of an Ixion upon whom 
science c^innot yet place her finger, amid moaning breeze 
and threatening tempest, the lightning is surely also 
akin to the wind and to the bird that is their symbol. 
The amalgamation of these powers in one deity seems to 
lie what is indicated by such names as Quct'zalcoatl, 
Giicumatz, C'ukulcan, all titles of the God of the Air in 
diiVerent American languages, and all signifying ' Bird- 

In a tablet on the wall of a room at Palenqiie is a 
cross surmounted by a bird, and supported by what ap- 
pears to be the head of a serpent: "The cross," says 
Brinton. " is the symbol of the four winds; the bird and 
j»erpent, tlie rebus of the air god, their ruler. " 

it does not appear that savages attach any special signi- 
ficance of evil to the snake, though the prepossessions 
uf early writers almost invariably blind them on this 
point." This rule is not without its exceptions however; 
the ApOL'hea hold that every nittlesnake o^mtainH the 
soul of a bad man or is an emissary of the Kvil Spirit.* 
Tlie Piutes of Nevada have a demon-deity in the form 
of a jwrrpent still sup|io.«e<l to exist in the waters of Pyra- 
mid Lake. The wind when it sweeps down among the 
nine islands of the lake drives the waters into the most 
fantiistic swirls and eddies, even when the general surface 
of the lake is tolerably placid. This, say the Piutes, is 
the devil-snake causing the deep to boil like a pot; this 
is the old serpent seeking whom he may devour; and no 
niitivc in possession of liis five sober wita will be found 
steering toward thase troubled waters at such a time." 

In the Pueljlo cities, among the Pecos especially, there 
existed in early times an immense serpent, supposed to 
be sacred, and which, according to Bome accounts, was 

« Malltr. AmrHkanlsche UrrrtUfiowm. p. 600. 

n Tylor'tPrim. (V/.. vol. ii , p. 217. 

»Ciartlon. in >VAoo|fwiffj Arvh.. vol. v.. p. 200. 

m VlrgtMa CU^ ChronieU, In 6. F. DaU^ £og Pod, at Aug. X2th* IfiTJL 



fed with the flesh of his devotees. Gregg heard an 
'* honent runchero" relate how, one snowy morning, he 
hod oome upon tliis terrible reptile's trail, *' large as that 
of a drajgiiiifi ox;" the ranchero did not, pursue the in- 
vestigation further, not obtruding his scienw, such aa it 
was, upon his religion. This serpent was supposed to 
}je speciully connected with Montezuma, and with rain 
phenomena: it is often called " the great water-snake.*' 
it was described to Whipple "as being as large round 
as a man's body; and of exceeding great length, slowly 
gliding upon the water, with long wavy folds" like the 
Nahaiit sea-seriient, — to MoUhausen, as being a great 
rattlesnake, [X)Sse8Sor of power over seas, lakes, rivers and 
rain; us thick as many men put together, and inucli 
longer than all the snakes in the world ; moving in great 
curves and destroying wicked men. The Pueblo In- 
dians pmyed to it for rain and revered its mysterious 

A ])eople, called hy Ca^taneda Tahus. apparently of 
Sinidoa in the ncighlwrhoixl of Culitican. n.'giudcd cer- 
tain large scri)ent« with sentiments of great veneration 
if not of worship.^' These re[>tilefl .seem also to have 
been reganied with ctmsideniblc ruvorcnce in Yucatan. 
In 1517, Bcrnal Diaz noticed many figures of serpents in 
a temple lie saw at CamfK-che. Juan de Grijalva, also, 
found at the stirae time many such figures at Charapoton, 
among other idols of clay and wood." i 

We have already spoken of the Mexican Tlaloc and of 
the fi'equent appearance of the serpent in his worship; 
it does not appear, however, not>vithstanding Mr Squier'a 
assertion to the contrary, that that the serpent wan actu- 
ally worshiped either in Yucatan or Mexico. Bernal 
Diaa, indeed, says positively in one passage, speaking of 

>• Orel's ComrJ'patries, toI- i., pp. 271-3; Whipple. Snebvik. and Tun^tr' a 
Kept., pp. 38-'J, in Fac. R, It. Krpl., vol iii.: Jf6//Aai(«w. Tagtituh, p. 170; 
Itomeneeh'a Ijenrts. vol. i., pp. l(il-5. Cortiiin UUt truTelcrH deny nil Ui« 
far«0Diiigu 'AotioQ and fable;' ineaninR, probobly, th»c Uiey saw nothing 
of it, or that it <I(h.-h uut exist at prvsvnt. Waiul, iu hui. A0. Rept., 1864, p. 
193: .t/riincH Tv}o Thutaojul Milea. p. :^51). 

1) (Ua{/ifiedn, Voj/. Ut Cibola, In Ternaw^ompans, FoyoffM, MiieL, tom, 
ix.. p. 160. 

itHtnuU Diiu, Jlisl. Coitq., foL 3, B. 






town called Tenayuca, that " they worshiped here, in 

Itheir chief temple, three serpents;'* but the stout soldier 

ras nut one to make fine distinctions between gods and 

}ieir attributes or symbols; nor, even with the bestin- 

[tentions, was he or any other of the conquistadores in a 

[position to do justice to iUa faitli uf 'gentiles.'** 

We shall hereafter find the seijient closely connected 
irith Quetuilcoatl in many of his manifestutions, as well 
[as witli otbers of the .Mexican gutls. 

From the serpent let us turn to the dog, with his rela- 

ItioHB tlic wolf and coyote, an animal holding a respecta- 

l>le place in American mythology. We have seen how 

aany tribes derive, figuratively or literally, their origin 

om him, and how often he Ijccomcs legendarily impor- 

it as the hero of some adventure or the agent of some 

ieity. lie is generally brought before us in a rather 

evolent aspect, though an exception occurs to this in 

[ llie case of the Chinooks at the mouth of the Columbia. 

With thei#e the coyote figures as the chosen medium for 

lUje action of the Evil Spirit toward any given malevo- 

Jlent end. — as the form taken by the Evil One to coun- 

|teract »ome beneficence of the Good Spirit toward the 

yr Indian whom he loves.'* 

Very different from this is the character of that Coyote 
' the Cahrocs whose good deeds we liave so of\en had 
^occasion to set forth. One feat of his yet remains to be 
llold. — how he stocked the river with salmon. Chareya, 
[the creator, had mmle salmon, but he had put them in 
lifae big-water, and made a great fish-diuu at tbe mouth 
lef the Klamath, so tlmt they could not go up: and this 
[dam was clu.«ed with sumethingof the nature of a white 
FBianV ke> . wbieh key was given in charge Ut two old 
IkagBv not wholly unfamiliar to us, to keep and watch 
fftver it night and day, so that no Cahroc should get near 
it. Now lish U'ing wanting to the Cahn.K>, they were 
Hjrely pushed by hunger, and the voice of women and 

« Bnsi Dim. UlM. Cattq.. la\. 136; Sclioolcraft'i Arek., vol. t.. p. 106. 
« £«tra Ifat.. vuL ii , p. dlS. 



little children was heard imploring food. The Coyote 
dctvmiin&d to help them; he Bwore by the stool of Chii- 
re^Tv that before another moon their lodges should drip 
with salmon, and the very dogs be satished withal. 8oj| 
he traveled down the Klamath many days' journey till" 
he came to the mouth of the river and saw the big-water 
and heard the thunder of its waves. Up he went to the 
hut of the old women, rapped, and asked hospitality for 
the night; and he was so polite and debonair that the 
crones couUl fl iid no excuse for refusing him. He 
enteriMl ihe place and threw himself down by the fire, 
warnung himself while they prepared salmon for supper, 
which they ate without oftering him a bite. All night 
long he lay by the fire pretending to sleep, but thinking 
over his plans and waiting for the event that .should put 
him in ijosjwssion of the mighty ki'v that he saw iHuigin^ 
so high al>f>ve his reach. In the morning one of the" 
hags took dinvn the key and started «fl' toward the dam 
to get some iisb for breakfast. Like a Uie C-o^'Ote 
leaped at her, hurling himself between her feet; heels 
over he^d she pitr.he<|, and the key tlew far from her 
hands. liefore slie well knew what luid hurt her thftd 
Coyote stood at the dam with the key in his toeth,' 
wrenching at tiie fastenings. They gave way ; and with ft 
great roar the green water raced through, all ashine with: 
salmon, utterly destroying and breaking down the dam,^ 
flo that ever after iish found free way up the Klamath. 

The end of the poor Coyote was rather sad, considering 
his kindness of heart and the many services be hod ren- 
dered the Cahrocs. Like too many great personages, he 
grew proud and puffed np with tlie adulation of flatterers 
and sycophants. — proud of his oounigc and cunning, and 
of the success that had crownwl his great enterprises for 
the good of mankind, — proud that he had twice deceived 
and outwitttnl the guardian hags to whom Chareya had 
entni.-ttwl the fire ami the salmon. — so i)roud that ho 
detenninetl tt> have a dance through heaven itself, ha' 
ing chosen as his partner a txrtain star that used to 
quite close by a mountain where he spoilt a good 


his time. So lie ci\Ued out to the star to take him hy 
the pnw and they would go round the world together for 
anight; but tlie star only Imighctl, and winked in an 
excessively provokinj; way from tiine to time. The 
Coyote persisted anjrrily in his demand, and barked and 
barked at the :*tar all round heaven, till the twinkling 
thing grew tired of his noise and told him to be quiet 
and hu should be taken next night. Xext night the star 
came quite up close to the clltl* where the Coyote stood, 
who leaping w:ls able to catch on. Away they danced 
together through the blue heavens. Fine sjwrt it was 
for a while; but oh, it grew bitter cold up there for a 
Coyote of the earth, and it wa« an awful sight to look 
down to where the broad Klamath lay like a slack lx)w- 
string and the Gahroc villages like arrow-heads'. Woe 
for the Coyote! his numb paws have slipped their hold 
' on his bright companion; dark is the partner that Iciida 
the dance now, and the name of him is Death. Ten 
kmg anows the Coyote is in falling, and when he strikes 
the earth h& is " smtished as tlat as a willow-mat". — 
Coyotes must not dance with stars.** 

» Poterr'B Porno. UR.; Bo«cana. in Hofiiivian't Lift in Cal., pp. 35!>-26i. 
[ devcriWfl crrU'ii oth«r f'.iIifurniuDii 03 wonhiping (or their chief god ■ome- 
■ in the furtu of ■ Htaffud uoyoto. 



BiEiKO WTITIHC&A7T ~ Thb TimntH AHD THK KomAou— KtrauH cw vn 
Alxuts— The THUKuna, th> Hudahs, ahd thb Nootxas— PixAMn 
Ijost'of THK Oeanaoans — Thb Saush, thb Cluxaioi, thb Ghimoos^ 
THE Catcjbes, the Waij^ Wai<i.ab, and thb Nkz Fkbc£b — Shoshohb 
Ghouls — Nobthbbm Galifobnia — The Sim at Montbbbt- — Ouior axd 
GHnnocHiNicH — AMTAaomsTio Gods or Lewis CiuroBNtA — Coiuir- 


We now come to the broadest, whether or not it 
be the most important, branch of our subject, namely, 
the gods and spirits that men worship or know of. 
Commencing at the extreme north, we shall follow 
them through the various nations of our territory 
toward the south. Very wild and conflicting is the 
general mass of evidence bearing on a belief in 
supernatural existences. Not only from the nature 
of the subject is it allied to questions and matters 
the most abstruse and transcendental, — in the ex- 
pression of which the exactest dialectic terminology 
must often be at fault; much more the rude and stam- 
mering speech of savages — but it is also apt to call up 
prejudices of the most warping and contradictory kind 
in the minds of those through whose relation it must 
pass to us. However hojieless the task, I will strive to 
hold an equal beam of historical truth, and putting away 
speculations of either extreme, try to give the nak^ 
expression of the belief of the peoples we deal with, — 



[however stupid, however absurd, — and not what they 
it to believe, or may be supposed to believe, accord- 
fto the ingenious fl|)eoulation8 of different theoriflts. 
?he Eskimas do not api>ear tti rew)gnize any supreme 

[deity, but only an indefinite numlxn* of snjK»rnatural 

Ibeings varying in name, power, and chanwtter — the evil 
fle^ming to preduminato. They carry on the person a 
small ivory imaii:^^ rudely Civrve<l to represent some ani- 
mal, as a kind of talisman; these are thought to further 
Hucoess in hunting, fishing and other pursuits, but can 
hardly be looked upon with any great reverence, as they 
tire generally to be bought of their owners for a reasona- 
ble price. All suix»matural business is tninsocted through 
the medium of shamans;— functionaries answering to the 
medicine-men of eastern Indian tribes; — of these there are 
both male and female, each practising on or for the bene- 
fit of liis or her own respective sex. The rites of their 
black art differ somewhat, according to Dall, from those 
of their Tinneh neighljors, and very much fi*ora those of 
the Tschuktschi and other Siberian tril^es; and their 
whole religion mny be summed up as a vague fear finding 
ltd expression in witchcraft.' 

The Tinneh, that great people stretching north of the 
fifty-fifth parallel nearly to the Arctic Oc^aii imd to tlie 
Pacific, do not seem in any of their varioiLs tribes to have 
% single expressed idea with regard to a supreme power. 
The Ixiucheux branch recognize a certain jiersonage, resi- 
dent in the moon, whom they supplicate for success in 
starting on a liunting ex|^e<lition. This l»eingonce lived 
Among them an a jxwr ragged boy that an old woman 
had found and was bringing up; and who made him- 
aelf ridiculous to his fellows by making a jMiir of 

[Very large snow-shoes; for the |)eople could not see what 

atarveiing like him should with shoes of such 

size. Times of great scarcity troubled the hunt- 

i, and they would often have faretl badly had they not 

invariably on such occasions come acro«» a new broad 

) Armtlromt't Sar., pp. 102, 197; TiichardMin's Pat, Hta., pp. 319-20. 325; 
JHdUrrfiM'i Jwr., vul. i , pp. 3&8. 385; DoH'n Alaska, pp. lU-5. 



trail that led to a head or two of freshly killed pftme. 
They were glafl enough to get the game and without 
scruples an to itA appropriation; Btill they felt curious as 
to whence it came and how. Suspicion at last pointing 
to the lx)y and his great shoes, aa being in some way 
implicated in the affair^ he was watched. It soon 
became evident that he was indeed the benefactor of the 
Loucheux, and the secret hunter whose quarry had so 
often replenished their empty pots; yet the people were 
far from Kung adequately grateful, and continued to 
treiit him witli little kindness or respect. On one occa- 
sion they refused him a certain piece of fat — him who liad 
siMifttm saved their lives by his timely lM»unty! That night 
the lad disapiKMired, leaving only liiscluthes lH>hind, hang- 
ing on a tree. He returned to them in a month, however, 
appearing its a man and dressed as a man. He told 
them that he hiid taken up his home in the moon; that 
he would always look down with a kindly eye to their 
success in hunting; but he added, that as a punishment 
for their shameless greed and ingratitude in refusing him 
the piece of fat, all animals should be letm the long win- 
ter through, and fat only in summer; as has since been 
the case. 

According to ELearne, the Tinneh believe in a kind of 
spirits, or fairies, called nariletui^ which people the earth, 
the sea, and the air, and are instrumental for both good 
and eviL Some of them believe in a good spirit called 
Tihugun, 'my old friend,' supposed to reside in the sun 
and in tlie moon; they have also a l>ad spirit, Chuisain, 
apparently only a personification of death, and for thifl 
reason called bad. 

They have no regidar order of shamins; any one when 
the spirit moves him may take upon himself their duties 
and pretensions, though some by happy chances, or pecu- 
liar cunning, are much more highly esteemed in this re- 
ganl than others, and are supiMrted by voluntary con- 
tributions. Tlie conjurer often shuts himself in his tent 
and abstains from food for days till his eartlilygrossness 
thins away, and the spirits and things unseen are con- 




strained to appear at his behest. The younger Tiiineh 

care for none of these things ; the strong limh and the 

■ keen eye, holding their own well in the jostle of life, 

• mock at the terrors of the invisil)le; hut as the pulses 

I dwindle with disease or age, and the knees strike together 

in the shadow of impending death, the sharadn is hired 

to ex|>el the evil things of which the patient is iwsvsesscd. 

I Among the Tacullies, a confession is often resorted to at 

j.thi« eta^j on the truth and accuracy of which depend 

the chances of a ix^covery. As Harmon says, " tlie crimes 

which they must friMjuently confess discover something 

[>f their moral character and therefore deserve to be 

[•mentioned ;'* hut in truth I cannot ineiiti<in them ; Iwth 

witii women and witli men a (iUhiness mid iH^stinlity 

worse than the sins of Sodom and (Jomorrah defy the 

; etoraiich of description. The same thing is true of the 

[tedious and disgusting rites performed by the Tinneh 

lans over the sick and at various other emergencies. 

[They blow on the invalid, leap alx>ut him or upon him, 

[shriek, sing, groan, gesticulate, jind foam at the mouth, 

kwith other details of hocus-pocus varying indefinitely 

with tribe and locality. The existence of a soul is for 

Lthe most part denied, and the spirits with whom dealijigs 

[are had are not spirits that were ever in or of men; 

neither are they regarded by men with any sentiment of 

love or kindly respect; fear and self-interest ai'e the 

bonds — where any bonds exist — that link the Tinneh 

with powers supernal or infernal.^ 

The ICtmiagas have the usual legion of spirits haunt- 
ling water, earth, and air, whose wrath is only to be ap- 
[peawt'd by offerings to the shainnns; and sometimes, 
Itliough very rarely, by human sacrifices of slaves. They 
[have also a chief deity or spirit, called Shljam Schoa, 
t&nd a power for evil called Eyak.^ 

• //brJlafy, in Smiltuonian Repl.. 18M, pp. 318-19; Jart-ia' Religion, Tnd. If. 
I^ifi.f p. 01; AVnm v»((, in If'/tymprr'a Ahekn, p. 345; Unckrntle'a Vay., p. 
ICXXtUi.; Sihf-ntirrtft'fi Arch., toI. v.. p. ITK; Hostt. in JSmithgonian Jirpl., I860. 
1^. 3il*-7; Frantcfin'it ,Vur., toI. i., pp. 24<>-7; llaruion^a Jmir., p. 3W); JIaop- 
[<r'« Tiuuti. p. 317; Hil*artUon'it J<>vr., \-ol. t., pp. 365-6; iMiVs AttuJea, pp. 
tK-9J; Whvmper't Atojtka, pp. 231-2. 

»Bi4mUrg, SUM. 8kU., pp. 140-1; Sawr. IiUUn:fx- Ex., p. 174. 



Of the Aleuts, it is aiud that their rites showed a much 
higher reUgioiis devulopnient tlian was to be found among 
any of their neighbors; tlie lalx>rs of the RiLssian jiripjrts 
have, liowever, Ussn suix^essfiil enough among them to 
obhteratc all remembrance of auglit but the outlines of 
their ancient cult. They recognize a creator-god, but 
without worshiping him; he had made the world, hut 
he did not guide it; men had nothing to do any longer 
with him, but only with the lesser higans, or spirits, to 
whom the direction and care of earthly affairs have lx?en 
committed. The stars and the sun and the moon were 
worshiped, or the spirits of them among others, and 
avenged themselves on those that adoi-ed them not. The 
offended sun smote the eyes of a scolfer with blindness, 
the moon stoned him to death, and the stars constrained 
him to count their number— hopeless ta^k that always 
left the victim a staring manijic. The shamiina do not 
seem to have enjoyed that distinction among the Aleuts 
that tbeir monopoly of mediation between man and the 
invisible world gave them among other nations. They 
were generally very poor, living in want and dying in 
misery; they had no part nor lot in the joys or .sorrows 
of social life; never at feast, at wedding, or at a funeral 
was their face seen. They lived and wandered men Ibr- 
bid, driven to and fm by phantoms that wt»n^ tluMr man- 
ters and not thuirsluvc^s. Thi; AUuit.s luwl no {iin'nianent 
idols, nor any worshiping-plaoes built with hands; near 
every village wjls some sanctiHud high place or rock, 
eacred as a Sinai against tht; foot of woman or youth, 
and whoever profaned it became immediately mad or 
sick to de^th. Only the men and the old men visited 
tlie place leaving there their offerings of skins or feathers 
with unknown mysterious ceremonies. 

The use of amulets was universal; and more than 
shield or spear to the warrior going to battle was a belt 
of aea-weed woven in magic knots. What a philosopher's 
stone was to a Roger Bacon or a Pai-acelsus, was the 
tkJdmkee^ a marvelous pebble thrown up at rare inter- 
vals by the sea, to the Aleutian hunter. No beast could 




resist its attraction ; he that carried it ht\A no need to 
chase hia prey, he had only to wait and strike as the 
animal walked up to it? death. Another potent charm 
was grease taken from a dead man's Iwdy; the spear- 
head toudied with this was sure to reach a mortal spot 
in the whale at w^hich it was hurled. 

There ore dim Aleutian traditions of certain religious 
night dances held in the month of December. Wooden 
idols, or figures of some kind, were made for the occasion 
and carried from island to island with many esoteric 
ceremonies. Then was to be seen a marvelous sight. 
The men and women were put far apart ; in the middle of 
each pJirty a wooden figure was set up: certain great 
wooden masks or blinders were put on each person, so 
contrived that the wearer could see nothing outside a 
little circle round hia feet. Then every one stripped, 
and there upon the snow, under the moonlight, in the 
bitter Arctic night, danced naked before the image, — say 
rather before tlie pod, for as they danced a kugan 
descended and entered into the wooden figure. Woe to 
hira or to her whosi^ dritVw(x>d mask ffll, or was lifted, 
in the whirl of that awful dance; the .start! of the Oorgon 
was not mure fatal than a glant^e of tlu; demon that 
p08Be4«sed the idol : and for any one to I(K>k on one of the 
Opposite sex, however it came a^niut, he might be even 
oomited an one dead. When the dance was over, the 
idolfl and the masks were broken and cast away. It 
may be added that such masks as this were needed, even 
by prophets in their interviews with the great spirits 
that know all mortal consequences; and that when a 
man died such a mask was put over his eyes — naked 
and sliivering soul, face to face with the darkest kugan 
of all we will shelter thee what we can.* 

The Thlinkeets are sjiid not to Ixilicvc in any supreme 
being. They have that Yehl, the Raven, and that Kha- 
nukh, the Wolf, whom we are already to some extent 
acquainted with ; but neither the exact rank and charac- 

* ti'OriATm, Vcm., pp. 579-80; Coxt't. ifiwj. 7/w., p. 217; iWi'f Maska, 
pp. StfS. 389; Sm Batvarofl's Hoi. Race*, vol. i., p. 93. 
Tin. UL. U. 



ter of these in tlie su|x;rnatiiral world, nor even their 
OOtnpftrative raiik, can be establislied above contradiction. 
Thus Yehl is said to be the creator of all beings and 
thingR, yet we liave not furpatten how Khanukli wrung, 
from the unwiiling Wyys of him tlie confession : Thou 
older that I. It is again said of Yehl that hia power 
unlimited f but alas, we have seen him hel]) in the 
ma-^c darkness raided by Khanukh, and howling as a 
frightened child might do in a gloomy corridor. The 
nature of Yehl is kind and he loves men. while the re- 
verse is generally considered true of Khanukh ; but Yehl, 
too, when his anger is stirred up sends sickness and evil 
fortune. Yehl existed before his birth upon earth; he 
cannot die nor even become older. Where tlie fiources 
of the Xass are. whence the east-wind comes, is Nass- 
shakleyehl, the liome of Yehl; tlie east-wind brings 
news of him. By an unknown motlier a son was lx)m 
to him, who loves mankind even more than his father, 
and provides their IVwkI in due seasi^n. To ctmchidc the 
matter, Yehl is, if not the central figure, at lewst the 
most prominent in the Thlinkeet pantheon, and the 
alpha and the om«ra of Thlinkeet i)hil(isopliy and thi«l- 
ogy is summed up in their favorite aphorism: As Yehl 
acted and lived, so also will we Uve and do. After 
Yehl and Khanukh, the Thliukeets l)eheve in the brother 
and sister, Chethl and Ahgishanaklioii, the Thunder or 
Tliundcr-bird, and the Under-ground Woman. Chethl 
is a kind of great northern rukh that snatches up and 
swallows a wlude without tlifficult\', wliilc his wings and 
eyes produce thunder and lightning as already described; 
his sister Ahgishanakhou sits alone Ixdow and guards 
the Irminsul that supports the world of the Xorth-we«t.' 
The Thlinkeeta liave no idols, miless the little images 

^ In Hotmberg'R account of thene Thlin1ce«t fiupeniiitnnil nnwrnt, nntbing 
in BAtd of the nan or moon ah indicntiti^ tli(> |K>HapKHton tif Uf» by thpta or m 
any qmilities not materiiO. Bnt Donu. The Orto»n Trrriiniy. p, i!S4, and 
Dixou. I'oijaiie UnunfUtte World, pp. 1&9-90, drtreribo at least some tribe or 
tribes uf tlie TblinkoctK nnd many tribea of the Boidalis, that conftidrr thi; &ud 
to be a grcnt spirit muviDg over the c«rth once evviy day, nniinatine aoi] 
keepLni; alWo nil nrpAtureH. and, apparcmtly, a» being the origin of mS', the 
moon is a aubordinato and night watcher. 



•ometiraes carried by the ma;;iciait8 for channing with 
may be called Uy that naniu; tliey liave no wornliip 
nor priesU, unless their »ore«rerH and the rite*i of them 
may tx; entitled to these a[)iieilation8. Tlie«e Horccrere 
or simmans seem to be mueh res|>ectei.l ; their wortls and 
actiontt are jrenemlly believed and acquieHced in by all; 
though the death of a patient or victim, or 8U])|)Of*ed vic- 
tim, is sometimes avenged upon them by the relatives of 
the deceased. Sliamanii^m is mostly hereditary ; as a natu- 
ral courae of things the long array of apparatus, masks, 
dresses, and so on, is inherited by the son or grandson 
of tlie deceased conjurer. The young mai» must, how- 
ever, prove himself worthy of his jxisition before it be- 
oome8 asHured to him, by calling up and communicating 
witli spirits. The future shaman retires into a lonely 
fore^ or tip some mountiin, where he lives rctired, feed- 
ing only on the roots of the patiax-fvorruiutn, and waiting 
for the spirits to come to him, which they are generally 
Bupjwsed to do in from two to four weeks. If all go well 
the meeting takes place, and the chief of the spirits sends 
to the neophyte a river-otter, in the tongue of which 
animal is supposed to be hid the whole jiower and secret 
of shamanism. The man meets the beast face to face, 
and four times, each time in a different fashion, he pro- 
nounces the syllable ' Oh !.' U|»n this the other falls in- 
stantly, reaching out at the same time its tongue, which 
tlie man cuts oft* and preserve.s; hiding it away in a close 
place, for if any one not initiated sliouUl look on this 
iali.snian the sight woidd drive liim mud. The otter is 
»kinnctl hy the new shaman and the wkin kept for a sign 
of his profession, while the flesh is buried; it was un- 
lawful to kill a river-otter save on such occasions as 
have been described. If, however, the spirits will not 
vifflt the would-be shaman, nor give him any opportunity 
to get the otter-tongue as described ulxjve, the neophyte 
visits the tomh of a dead shamjin and keeps an awful 
vigil over night, holding in his living mouth a finger of 
the dead man or one of his teeth; this constrains the 
spirits very powerfully to send the necessary otter. 



liglits; thoy nre^ 
The other tuofl 

When all these thinjjs have been done the shaman 
turns to his fiunily emaciated and worn out, and his ne 
powers are-immediatcly put to the test. His reputatio: 
depends on the number of spiriU at his command. Th 
spirits are called yek, and to every conjurer a certai 
number of them are attached as familiars, while the 
are others on whom he may call in an emei-gency; in- 
deed every man of whatever rank or pi-ofession is 
attended by a familiar spirit or demon, who only aljan- 
dons his charjfe when the man becomes exceeilingly bad. 
The world of spirits in general is divided into three ^ 
classes: keeyek, taJceeyek, and Ukeeyek. The lirst-class,S 
' the Upper Ones/ dwell in the north and seem 
to be connected with the northern 
the spirits of the l>rave fallen in battle, 
clawes are the spirits of t base that died a natural death, 
and their dwelling is called lahinkuu. The takeeyck, ^ 
' land-spirits,' ap{)ear to the shamans in the form of landfl 
animals. With regard to the tekeeyek, 'sea-spirits' 
which apj>ear in the form of marine animals, there ia^ 
some dispute among the Thlinkeets as to whether thea 
spirits wei'e ever the spirits of men like those of the othetj 
two classes, or whether they were merely the souls of j 

The supreme feat of a conjurer's |X)wer is \6 throw one 
of his liege spirits into the Ixnly of one wlio refuses to 
believe in liis power; upon which the possessed is taken 
with swooning and fits. The hair of a shaman is never 
cut. As among the Aleuts, a wooden nuisk is !iecessary 
to his safe intercourse with any spirit: separate masks 
are worn for interviews with st^parate spirits. When 
shaman sickens, his relatives fast for his recovery; whei 
he dies, his body is not burned like that of other mer 
but put in a 1k>x which is set up on a high frame. Th« 
first night following his death bis body is leil in tha 
corner of his hut in which he died. On the second 
night it is camwl to another corner, and so on for four' 
nights till it has occupied successively all the comers of 
the yourt, all the occupants of which arc supposed to fast 



during this time. On the fifth day the body is tied 
down on ft board, ftnd two ))oncs that the dead man had 
often used in his rites when alive are stuck, the one in 
his hair and the other in the l)ridge of liis nose, llie 
heiui is then covered with a willow basket, and the body 
taken to its place of sepulture, which ia always near the 
pea-shoro; no Thlinkeet ever [msaea the K|X)t without 
dropping a little tolHiecct into the water to conciliate the 
manes of the mighty death* 

The Haidalis believe the great solar spirit to lie the 
creator and supreme ruler; thovdo not however confuse 
him with the material sun, who is a sliinin^ man walk- 
ing n>und tlie fixed eju*tb ai»d wearing a **nnliated" 
crown. Sometimes the moon is also connected in a con- 
fusetl indefinite way with the great spirit. There is 
aji evil spirit who. acconling to Dunn, is provided 
with Ikoofs and horns, though nothing is said as to the 
fashion of them, whether orthodox or not. The llaidahs, 
at legist those seen by >[r Poole on Queen Charlotte Is- 
Umd, have no worship, nor did they look uiwii themselves 
a8 in any way responsible to any deity for their actions. 
As with their northern neighbors, a belief in goblins, 
spectres, and sorcery sceius to 1^ the sum of their religion. 

* JtfJnArrg, ICthn. Skit., pp. &J-73; Dali'a Alaska, pp. 421-3; KoUtbvt'a 
Xtie Vouat;e, vol. H., p. 58; Dunn's Ottjon, p. ^'.0; JieniJtl'M Altx. Arch., 
pp. 31-3. Thiit liiKt traveler g:ivv« U8 a vormtiun ui the liiHtorr of Yi^hl and 
Knannkli, whirb in Uiit iirew-nt' d in hiH own wcnU: — 'The KItnlcits iln not 
believe ill our Supreme IteiuK. but iu a buft of good mid evil (tpiritM, ubove 
wbotD iin* tovrrriuu; tvrn lofty beiuga of Bodlike mu^uttido, who iirv tlio imii' 
rip*! o>^cct« of Indian reverence. Tbr-se ore Yethl iiml KHUUKh--two 
brotbcmt; tho fonurr tlie lienefactor uid woU-wiKher of niuukind. but of u 
rtry wbimucal aitd nnrrliiible unture; tbe lattt^r th)> tftt-m LivH of War, teiri- 
blo in his vrath, bnt n true patron of every fearleiw bruve. It itt be who 
•endfl epidemics, bloodHbol nud war to tb()«e wbo hnve cUHplratifd bim, 
vhile it •rrnu to he Ihp [irinnpiil function of Vt>tbl to croHtt tbf KinitttKr par- 
pow of his dark-tninded brother. Yethl and KnDnt*h lived fonuerly on 
eartll, and were bom of u wonmn of u bupvniHluntl nice now imnst'd away, 
■boat the orifnii AD'1 nstar^ of whirb many condirtiof; k'gi-uds urv told, hard 
to Ctiniprebend. "When Yethl walked on earth and was quite youdk bu itc- 
uoirMl grt»t akill in tbe Ufie of tho bow and arrow. H<: uhc*^ to kill lat^o 
Dinli. Msame their itbape itnd fly abont. HiH favorite binl wa<t tbe raven; 
hMM it* name, " Yethl," whicb URnirlos "raven" in tbo Kliukil liiu^nuge. 
Ba had also the fog* ami clondi at hiH rninmnnd. an-.! ho would oftfii draw 
Hum nroand him to encnpe his enemies. His hrotber'^name, Kauuuli. Hij^i- 
Am " wolf," i!OliM<iaenUy "niveu"" and "•wolf" are the names of the two 
Smb ot the Klinkita, who are supposed to be the founders of tho Indian 




With some at least of the Haidnlia there was in < 
cnce a rite of this sorcery attended by cireimistanccs of 
more than ordinary biirl>arity and ferocity. When tiiol 
Bfthnon season is over and the pix>visions of winter havoi 
been stored away, feastijig and conjuring bejrin. Th«i 
chief — who seems to l>e the principal sorcerer, and indeed 
to possess little authority save from his comioctiun witi: 
the preter-human powers — goes olV to tlie loneliest aJid 
wildest retreat he knows of or can discover in the mount* I 
ains or forest, and half starves himself there for some 
weeks till he is worked up to a frenzy of religious in- 
sanity and the 7iatvloks — fearful beings of some kind not 
human — consent to communicate witli him by voices or 
otherwise. During all this observance, the chief is called 
taamish, and woe to the unlucky Ilaidah who happeni 
by chance so much as to look on him during its continu- 
ance; even if the tajunish do not instajitly slay the in- 
truder, his jwighbors are certain to do so when the thing 
comes to their knowledge, and if the victim attempt to 
conceal the aftair, or do not himself confess it, the most^ 
cruel tortures are added to his fate. At last the inspired^ 
demoniac returns to his village, naked save a lx>ar-skin 
or a ragged blanket, with a clinplet on his head amd a 
red band of alder-bark alx>ut his neck. He sprijigs on 
the first person he meets, bites out and swallows one or 
more inouthfuls of the man's living flesh wherever he 
can fix his teeth, then rushes to another and another, 
rcjx'ating his revolting meal till he fulls into a torpor froraj 
his sudden and half-masticated surfeit of flesh. Kot 
some days after this he lies in a kind of coma, '' like an I 
over-gorged beast of prey," as Dunn says; the same 
observer adding tliat his breath during that time is 
" like an exhalation from a grave." Tlie victims of thia 
ferocity dare not resist the bite of the tjiamish; on the 
contrary, they are sometimes willing to offer themselvea^ 
to the ordeal, and are always proud of its scars.' H 

The Nootkas acknowledge the existence of a great per- 

' 2>unn'j Ow>n, pp. 25.1-9; Scovler. in Land. Otog, Soe, Jour., toI. ri,, i 
223; £ancroft'3 jVat Icact^ Tol i., pp. 170-71. 



called Qtmbootze, wha^e hnliitation is apparently 
the sky, but of whose nature little is known. When 
I* storm begins to rage dangerously the Nootkaa climb to 
Ithe top of their houses and looking upwards to this great 
*god, they beat drums and chant and call upun his name, 
imploring him to still the tempest. They fast, as some- 
thing agreeable to the same deity, before setting out on 
the hunt, and, if their success warrant it, hold a feast in 
his honor after their return. This festiA'al is held usually 
in December, and it was fonnerly the custom to finish it 
with a human sacrifice, an atrocity now happily fallen 
into disuse; a hoy, with knives stuck through the super- 
ficial fiesh of his arms, logs, and sides, being exhibited as 
a substitute for the ancient victim. 

Afntlose is a famous hol>-goblin of the Kootkas; he is 
a very Caliban of spirits; his heail is Ukc the head of 
something that might have l>cen a man but is not; his 
uncouth bulk is horrid with black bristles; his monstrous 
teeth and nails nre like the fangs and claws of a l)oar. 
Whoever hears his terrible voice falls like one smitten, 
and his curved claws rend a prey into morsels with a 
single stroke. 

The Nootkas, like so many American peoples, have a 
tradition of a supernatural teacher and benefactor, an 
old man that came to them up the Sound long ago. His 
canoe was copper, and the paddles of it copper; every 
thing he had on him or about him was of the same metal. 
He landed and instructed the men of that day in many 
things; telling them that he came from the sky, tliat 
their country should be eventually destroyed, that they 
should all die, but after death rise and live with him 
above. Then all the |ieople rose up angry, and took his 
canoe from him. and slew him ; a crime from wliich their 
descendants have derived much l>enefit, for copper and 
the use of it have remained with them ever since. Hugo 
images, carved in wood, still stand in their houses in- 
tended to represent the form and hold in remembrance 
the visit of this old man, — by which visit is not improb- 
ablv intended to be signified an avatar or incarnation 



of that chief deity, or great spirit, wor8hii)e<l by many 
CaUfoniiaii triben as 'tlie Old Man above.' 

The Ahts regard tlie moon and the sun a^ their 
highest deitien, the moon being the husband and the 
sun the wife. To the moon chielly, as the more 
powerful deity, they pray for what they re<|uire; and to 
botli moon and sun, as to all j:ix)d deities, their prayers 
arc aiidivssed directly and without tlie intervention of 
the sorcerers. Quawteaht — which seems to be a local Aht 
modification of Quahootze — who mailo most things 
that are in the world, wa^ the first in teach the people to 
worship these hnninarios who, over all and seeing all. 
are more powerful thiui him.self, tliough more distant 
and less active. There is iilso that Tootooch, tlmnder- 
bird. of which so much has lx.'en already said. 

The Kootkas, in general, Ix'lievc in the existence of 
numberless spirits of various kinds, and in the efficacy 
of sorcery. As in neighlioring nations, the shaman 
gains or renews his inspiration by fasting and solitai*^" 
meditation in some retired phux*, re-appcarhig at the end 
of his vigil half-starved and half-insane, but filled with 
the black virtue of his art. lie does not generally col- 
lect a meal of living human flesh like the toamish of the 
preceding family, but he is satisfied with what his teeth 
can tear from the corpses in the burial-places. Old 
women arc admitted to a share in the |K)wers of sorcery 
and prophecy and the interpretation of omens and dreams; 
the latter a most ini|>ortant function, as few days and 
nights jMiss over a Nootka house that do not give occasion 
by some vision or occurrence for the otfice of the sibyl or 
the augur.* 

» JetuUt'a JVar.. p. 83; Scouler, In Lond. Ototj Soc. Jour., toI. si., pp. S98- 
4; Ho/rag, Exphr., torn. i.. p. 845; Siitil y .Vexiiwna, V\agt, p. 136; JiMinv* 
V'iy.> p. '^70; flulchiuta,' Cat. Jfa?.. vol. v., pp. 2U'i-4; Marat's V'ana. W., pp. 
4.33-ill, l'i5; Btrrtt-I^nrujr<r»Trao., pp. 51-3; Sproat'n Scfnra, pp. 40, loO- 
8, 167-75. m^-tl: Cook's Toy. to Far:, vol. ii.. p. 317. An illnictniting 
BtroQ^ly the Nmvtka u\ean with reitartl to the tuiuctily of the moon Bud Ban, 
an well an the connection of tho sun with the flro. it may be well to mil utteiii> 
ttonto the tvro following eTutonit;—' El TAy(([ chief] DopntidebitceTiuodems 
magored sia rer entommunte ituuiiimdo el ditiuu de UlanA* SutU y Mnfi- 
eana, I'm)/-, p. li-i. ' Girls at puberty , .are kept parliculnrly from the minor 
fire' Bancroft' a Not, Jittcc3,yiA.i.,f. 197. In txiia connection it may be wei)- 



The Okanapraiis believe in a pood spirit or master of 
life, called Kloniehuiiikillanwaist or Skyappe; and in 
a bad spirit Kiahtsamah or Chacha; l^oth movin^r con- 
stantly tlirouph the air. so that nothing can be done 
^v•^tllo^t their knowledge. The OkanajraiiH have no wor- 
ship public or private, but before engaging in anything 
of ini[K)rtanoe tliey offer up a short prayer to the pood 
Bpirit for assistance; again on state occasions, a pijie is 
pasaefl round and each one smokes three whiffs toward 
the rising sun. the siiine toward the setting, and the same 
ref*[x?ctively tcnvard tlie heavt;n above and the earth 
beneath. Then they have tlieir great mythic ruler and 
l»en>ine, 8(NHnalt, whose story isintiniatoly cumieoted with 
a kind of Okanji«;aa full or [Mtnidise lost. I^ong ago, so 
long ago that the sun waa (|uite young and very small 
and no bigger tlian a .'<tar» there wius an island far out at 
eca called Suniahtumiwhoolah, or the White Man's 
Island. It was inhabited by a white race of gigantic 
etature, and governed by a tail fair woman cnlled ?kx>ra- 
alt; and she was a great and stixmg 'medicine.' this 
Scoiualt, At last the peace of the island was destroyed 
by war, and the noise of battle was heard, the white men 
tighting the one with the other; and Scouialt was exceed- 
ingly wroth. She rose up and said : lo. now I will drive 
th^se wicked far from me; my soul shall be no longer 
vexed concerning thera, neither shall they trouble the 
faithful of my people with their strivings any more. 
And *<he drove the rebellious together to the uttennoet 
end of the island, and broke oil' the piece of land on 
which they were huddled, and pushed it out to sea to 

tiA«t«<l thnt Mr Lord, S'tUaratUt, vol. ii., p. 257. xnw luuong th« tiootltu 
«bile ut Fort llajH-n, n Tcry pocnliar lutliim " mL-iliciui.-." a solid pi^ce of 
natlvo ou|>i>rr, hiuutner(>d flat, oval it WuuJd appear ftoui the dettcriptiou, and 
twijiLefi wilU curious dLVJcoH, cyva of alt Ml/i'tt iiAug vupcciaUj couspicoottH. 

, Tb^ nildAou-B«iy traili>ni roll It aii " Indiau roppor," mid t>aid it wai oiiIt 
•xJailnt^ oil eiLrotirOinuT)' uociiBiuriK, aud timt itit v:ilu*.> to llu> tribn wiui i^sti- 

' nated at fiftvm MlavirH or two haiidri'dbliiQk< tH. TIuh " iiicdtciiiR" whr pre- 
mrtrtti io au *!lab<>ratcly oniKni('iit<'rl wu<xloii cjutf, nnd bclntitn^K to thr tribe, 
not to the rhi<'f. wiia guardrd by the lUfdiciuc-mt-'U. Biiiiilar fthvctH of cun- 
prr nr« dc0cril>ed hj Sclioolcnift aa in um* among certaitt of lhf> V««ponc 
abociflilie*: IIav Umjt all b« iutcuded for kymbolii of tha son, sach as that 
nufnotil by the Pernvioiu? 



drift whither it would. This floating island was lapsed 
to and fm many days and buffeted of the winds oxceed- 
ingly, so tlint all the people thereon died «ave one man 
and one woman, who, seeing their island was ready to 
sink, nuule themst^lve:* a oainxj and gat them away to- 
ward the west. After |wi^^ldlit»g day and night for many 
snns, they came to certain islands, alienee steering 
thpouy;h them, they came at last to where the mainland 
was, being the territory (liat the Okanagans now inhobit; 
it was, however, much smaller in thosc^ days, having 
grown much since. This man and woman were so sorely 
•weather- Ix'atcn when they landed that they found their 
orijrinal whitenesa quite gone, and a dusky reddish color 
in its j)lacc. All the people of the continent arc de- 
scended from thi.s pair, and the dingy skin of their storm- 
tossed ancestors has l>ecoinc u characteristic of the race. 
And even, as in time jwist the wrath of the fair Scomalt 
loosed the island of their ancestors from its mainland^ 
and sent it jidrift with its bunlen of sinful men. so in 
a time to come, the deep lakes, that like some Hannibal's 
vinegar soften the rocks of the foundations of the world, 
and the rivers that run for ever and gnaw them away, 
shall set the earth atloat again; then shall the end of the 
world be, the awful itsoickifjhj* 

The Salish trilx^s believe the sun to be the chief deity. 
and certain ceremonies, described by Mr Ixird as having 
taken place on the death of a chief, seem to indicate that 
fire is in some way connected with the great light." Tlie 
chief is ex oflicio a kind of priest, pi-esiding for the most 
part at the various observances by which the deity of the 
sun is realized. There is the usual l)elief in .■«)rcerv 
and second sight^ and individuals succeed, by force of 

» lions' Advm., pp. 287-9 

u 'Tb(> bravest woman of the tribe, one used to nnying unmnnition to 
the wnrrior when eugnged in fight, bnred her brcatit to tliu ptfrnon nbu for 
eourage nnd condnrt wns docmM fit uncccssor to tin.' depaiicd. Fnini the 
brout he out a BranII piirtion. which Ik* Ihrtw luto the firt. She thpii cnt a 
■mall pieee from the fthoaldpr of the wftrrior, which was ahto throvt) into 
the flr«. A piw* of bitter root, with n piece of meat, were next thrown into 
the Are, all Iht-iw beinu intended iiA ofFcrJngs to the Snu, the t\tnly of the 
Pliitheiwl*,' Tiibnit. in Lortt's iVn/,. toI. ii,, pp. 2;i7-8. for rofereooes to the 
Tvmiuuiug mattt:r of th« paragmph nee Id., vol, ii., pp. 337-43L 260. 



special pifts for fnstin;; and lonely meditation, in having 
themitelves ticcoinited conjurers, — an honor of duhioiis 
profit, an lucdicinc-men are conAtuntly liable to be shot 
by an enraj^ed relative of any one whose death they may 
be Hupixwovl to have bix>ught alM>ut. 

The ClaUiim.s, a coast tribe on tlie mainland opposite 
the stmth end of Vancouver Island, have a principal 
good deity called by various names, luid an evil spirit 
called Skoocoom; to these some add a certain Teyutlma, 
' the genius of good fortune.' The medicine-men of the 
tribe are supposed to have much iniluence both for good 
and evil witli these spirits and with all the demon race, 
or seJifiiab as the latter are sometimes called. I»t this 
tribe the various conjurers are united by the bonds of a 
secret society, the initiation into which is attended by a 
gootl deal of cei-emony and expense. Three days and 
tiiree ni<rhts mu»t the novice of the order fftst alone in a 
mysterious lod^ prepared for him, round which during 
all that time the brethren alreiuly initiated sing and 
dan{'«. This period ela|jrtetl, during which it would »eem 
that tlie old nature has Ijeen killed out of Iiim, he is 
taken up like one dead ami soused into the nearest cold 
iroterf where he Ls washed till he revives; which thing 
they call ''washing tlie dejui," When his senses arc 
sufRciently gathered to lum, he is set on his feet; uiwn 
which he runs off into the forest, whence he soon reap- 
pears a perfect medicine-man, rattle in hand and decked 
out with the various ti'uppings of Iiis profession. He 
then jiarts all his worldly gear among his friends, himself 
henceforth to be supported only by the fees of his new 

Ikiimuu, the creator of the universe, is a powerful deity 
among the Chinooks, who have a movmtain named af^r 
him from a belief that he there turned himself into stone. 
After him, or before him as many say, comes Italapas, 
the Coyote, who created men alter an imiierfect fashion,'^ 
taught thera how to make nets and catch salmon, how to 

■I Kant't IKufid., im. 218-9; OUib'a ClaHam and Lummi Koca6., p. 15. 
WTluiivt)!., ip. ds^-C 



make a fire, and how to cook ; for this the first frirfts of the 
ti»hing sciison are always sacred to liim. and his fifiiiru is 
to be found carved on tlie head of almost every Chinook 
canoe on the Columbia. They have a fire-spirit, an evil 
spirit, and a body of familiar spirits, tanutnoicas. Each 
person has his s^)ecial spirit, selected by him nt an early 
age. sometimes by fasting and other mortification of the 
flesh, sometimes by the adoption of the first object the 
child or young man sees, or thinks he sees, on visiting 
the woods. Thewi spirits have a f;reat effect on the 
imagination of the Cfiinooks, and their supix)sed direc^ 
tions are followed under pain of mysterious and awful 
punishments ; jjeople converse — '' particularly when in the 
water" — ^with them, apparently talkiufr to tliemstdves in 
low monotonous tones. Some Fay that wlien a man dies 
his tamanowa parses to his son; but the wliole matter 
is darkoiR'ii with much my.stery and secrecy; the name 
of one's lamiliar spirit or guardian never being mentioned 
even to the nearest friend. A similar custom forbids 
the mention 4»f a dead man's name, at least till many 
years have elapsed after the Iwreavement. 

TlieCliinook medicine-meu are ix>ssessed of the usual 
powers of converse and mediation with the spirits good 
and evil; there are two classes of them, employed in 
all cases of sickness. — the eiaminvas, or priests, who in- 
tercede for the Houl of the patient, and. if necessary, for 
its safe passage to the land of spirits, — and the keeldHeSj 
or doctors, sometiuies women, whose duty it is to ad- 
minister medical as well as spiritual aid.*^ 

With the Cayuses and the Walla-AValloa any one may 
become a medicine-man; among the XezPerci's tlieofHce 
belongs to an hereditary order. Women are sometimes 
trained to the profession, but they are not believed to 
hold such extreme iK)wers as the males, nor are they 
mui-dered on the supjxised exercise of some fatal inilu- 

Oibbs', Ctatlam aiul /.u/riini Vo<n.*>., pp. 16, 
Tfflor't JHrint. Cuit., vul. ii., p. 253. 

29; Irving'a Aj/oria, pp. 33!M0i 



ence. For, na witli the Chinooks" so here, the reputa- 
tion of sorcerer is at once the most terrible toothers and 
tlie most dangerous to one's self tliat one can Imve. His 
i« a jwwer of life, and death ; liii* evil eve can wither and 
freeze a hated life if not as swiftly at least as surely as 
the stare of the Medusa; he is mortal, however, — lie can 
slay your friend or yourself, and death is bitter, but then 
how sweet an anod\^le is revenge! There is no strong 
I magic can avail when the hearts blood trickles down the 
avenger's shaf^, no cunning enchantment that can keep 
the life in when his tomahawk crumbles the skull like a 
potsherd, — and bo it comes about that the conjurers walk 
everywhere with their life in their hand, and are con- 
Btrained to be very wary in their exercise of their nefa- 
rious powers.'* 

The r>hoshono legends people certain parts of the 
mountains of Montana with little imjis or demons called 
ninuntbees, who are about two feet long, perfectly naked, 
and provided each with a tail. These limbs of the evil 
one are accustomed to eat up any unguarded infant they 
may find, leaving in its steiul one of their own lianeful 
race. When the mother c^mes to suckle what j*be suji- 
popes to Ije her child, the fiendisli eliangeling seizi's her 
iireiuft and Ijegins to devour it ; then, although her screams 
and the ahirm thereby given soon fon-c the malicious 
imp to make liis escape, there is no hope further; she 
die« within the twenty-four hours, and if not well watched 
in the meantime, the little demon will even return 
and make an end of her by finishing his interrupted 
meal. Tliere is another variety of thcte hobgoblins 
cnW pnkonnhs, 'water-infants,' who devour women and 
cliildren as do their brother-fiends of the mountain, and 
complete the ring of ghoulish terror that closes round the 
"sone child and mother." 

** Parkxr't Exj^. Tovr, p. 2M: ' The rbiefs Ray, that tbcv and thejr Bona 
•n> too RTcut to die of tbttuHolvcK, ADtl lUUiout^ih they umy lie tdck, and de- 
cUna, uul die, lu otlim do, yet some perstm, or Home evil nptrit iiiBtiRated 
In M>mc one, is tbe iuvitdblo caom of their death; and ih<:'n-fi~ro when a 
Mi>C or cbirf '« »>n dies, the supposed author of the deed mxtai be killed.* 

u M*>orO, ill SchiftienyXf Arch., toL t., p. 652. 

M BtttaH't Moniam, pp. Gl-«. 



The Califomian triben, taken as a. whol«, are pretty 
uniform in tlte main features of their thcogonie l>eliels. 
They seem, without exception, to have had a hazy con- 
ct^ption of a lofty, almost supreme Ijeing; for the most 
part referred to as a Great Man, the GUI Man AJwve, the 
One Above; attributing to him, however^ as is usual in 
such cases, nothing but the vaguest and most negative 
functions and qualities. The real, practical power that 
most interested them, who hiul most to do with them and 
they with him, was a demon, or body of demons, of a toler- 
ably pronounced character. In the face of divers assertions 
to the ctiect tliat no such tiling as a devil proper haa ever 
been found in savage mytliotogy. we would draw atten- 
tion to the folli)wing extract fwm the Ponio maiuiscript of 
Mr Powers — a gentleman who, Ixith by his study and by 
personal investigation, has made himself one of t lie best 
qualified autlKirities on the belief of the native Califonii- 
an, and whose dealings have been for the most jMvrt with 
t^ibl^s that have never ha*l any friendly intercourse with 
white men: — '" Of course the thin and meagre imagina- 
tion of the American savages was not equal to the crea- 
tion of Milton's miignifict-nt iin|KTial Satan, or of Goethe's 
Mephistopheles, witli liis subtle intellect, his vast powers, 
his malignant mirth; but in so far as tlie Indian fiends 
or devils have the ability, they are wholly as wicked as 
these. They are totally l>ad, they have no gi«xi thing 
in them, they think only evil ; but they are weak and 
undignified and absurd ; they are as mucli lx;neath Saltan 
as the 'Big Indian.s" who invent them are inferior in 
imaginatitrti to John Milton."" 

A definite lot^ation is generally assigned to the evil 
one as Ins favorite residence or resort; thus the CiUi- 
fornians in the county of Siskiyou, give over DevirB 
Castle, it.s mount and lake, to the malignant spirits, and 
avoid the vicinity of these places witli all i)o.ssible care. 

The medicine-man of these i)eople is a personage of some 
importance, dres.**ingin the most costly furs; lie is a non- 
com batant, not comingon the field till after tlie %ht; among 

" Power'M Porno, HS. 



otfcer diities, it is aWilutely necossary for him to vieitaiiy 
camp from which the trilje has been driven by the 
enemy, there to chant the dcatli-son^ and appease the 
anjrry spirit that wrouj^ht tliis judjanent of defeat, for 
onl^' after thiH hskA l>een done is it thought safe to light 
again the lodge-fires on the old iiearths. Once lit these 
lodge-fires are never allowed to go out during times of 
peace; it would be a bad omen, and omens are every- 
lliing with these men, and deduclble from all things. 
The [x)wer of pi*opheoy is thoroughly believed in, luid is 
credited not uidy to njiecial seers, but also to distinguiivlied 
warriors going into battle; in the latter case, as far at 
ICAst iis their own several fate is ctinceriied ; tliis, accord- 
ing to Mr Miller, they often predict with startling acx;u- 

There is a strange sacretlness mixetl up with tlie sweat- 
house and its u»e. among the Ciiiirocs, the Kurocj^, and 
many other tribes. The men of every village spend the 
winter and rainy season in its warm shelter; hut wpiaws 
are forbidden to enter, under i)eruiity ofdeath, except when 
they ivce initiated into the ranks of the 'medicines.' 
So consistent are the Indians in this matter, that women 
are not allowed even to g?ither the wood that is to be burned 
in the sacred fire of a swcat-liousc ; all is done by men, and 
tliat only with certain precautions and ceremonies. The 
sacred tire is lit every year in Septemlxjr b}' a ' medi- 
cine ' who has gone out into the forest aiid fasted and 
meditated tor ten days; and, till a certain time has 
eI^]9ed,no secular eye must Ijehold so much as the smoke 
of it under awfid penalties. The Hame once burnmg is 
never mitlered to go out till the spring I>egins to render 
further heat unnecessary and incon\'enient. 

On one only occasion is the ban lifted from the head 
of women: when a tern ale is Ixnng atl milted to the medi- 
cine nuiks, she is made to dunce in the sweat-house 
till aho falls exhausted. It does not ap^x^ar, however, 
tiiat even l»y l»ecoming a medicine can she ho\>ti to see 
twice the interior of this lodge. 

» Jtmiuin Miittr'M Uft amonffd (At ifodoc$^ pp. 21, 1U>. 2S9-00, 360. 



The admission of a man to the medicine ifl a much 
severer affair. He must retire to the forest for ten days, 
eating no meat thewliile, andonlv enough acorn- porridge 
to keejt tlie life in him; the ten days jmst. he returns to 
the sweat-house and leai>s up and down till he falls, just 
as the woman did. 

The doctors or sorcerers are of two kinds, * root doctors' 
and ' barking doctors.' To the barkiug doctor falls the 
diagnosis of a case of sickness. He, or she, squats down 
opposite tlie patient, and harks at him after the manner 
of an cnmged cur, for hours tof^ther. If it lie a poison- 
ing case, or a case of malady intlicted by some conjtirer, 
the Ixirking doctor then gt»es on to suck the evil tiling out 
through the skin or afiminister emetic*, as may be 
deemed desirable. If the case, however, be one of less 
serious proportions, the ' barker,' after having made hia 
diagnosis, retires, and the i-oot-doctor comes in. who. with 
his herbs and simples and a few minor incantations, pro- 
ceeds to cure the ailment. If a patient die, then the 
medicine is forced to return hia fee; and if he refuse 
to attend on anyone and the iwrson die, then he is forced 
to jmy to the relatives a sum equal to that which was 
tendei*od to him as a fee in the beginning of the affair; 
thus like all professions, that of a medicine has its 
draw-})iif ks rus well as advantages. 

Several Xorthern (.^alifornian tribes have secret socie- 
ties which meet in a lodge set ai)art, or in a sweat-house, 
and engfige in mummeries of various kinds, all to fright- 
en their women. The men pretend to converse with the 
devil, and make their meeting-place sliake and ring again 
with yells and whoops. In some instances, one of their 
number, disguised as the master fiend hiin.self, issues from 
the haunted lodge, and rushes like a madman through 
the village, doing his best to frighten contumacious 
women and children out of their senses. This, it would 
seem, has been going on from time immemorial and the 
poor women are still gulled by it, and even frightened 
into more or less prolonged fits of wifely propriety and 
less easy virtue. 



The ooast tribes of Del Norte County, California, live 

I in confJtant tenx)r of a malignant spirit that takes the 
form of certain animal.s, the form of a hat, of a hawk, of 
a tarantula, and so on, — but especially delights in and 
affects tliat of a »creech-ow!. The belief of the RuRsian- 
River trilies and otliers is prm;ticully identical with thin. 
Tlie Calirocs have, ns we aln':uly know, Kome concep- 

[tion (if a great deity, called Chari*ya, tlie Old Man Al^jve; 
be is wont to appear u|mn earth at tiineH to some of the 

I Tno^ favored Hore^rtTs ; he is describwl lus wearing 
a close tunic, with a medicine-l)ag, and as havinp long 
while hair that falln venerably about his shoulders. 
Practically, however, the Cahrocs, like the majority of 

I Califomian tribes, venerate chiefly the coyote. Great 
dread is aLso had of certain forest-demons of nocturnal 

* habit**; these, say the Eiirocs, take the form of bears and 

\ shoot arrows at benij!;hted wayfarers." 

Kctween the foregoing outHnes of Californian belief 

land those connected with the remaining tribes, passing 
-south, we can detect no salient difference till we reach 

I the Olchones, a coast tribe between San Francisco and 

1 Monterey; the sun here begins to be connected, or iden- 

rtifled by name, with that great spirit, or rather, that Big 
Man. who made the earth and who rules in the sky.** 

I So we find it again both around Monterey and around 

I Pan Luis Ohisjxi ; the first fruits of the earth were ottered 
ill these neigh l)Orhood8 to the great light, and his rising 

I was greeted with cries of joy." 

Father Geronimo Boscana" gives us tlie following 

w PoifitTt' Pomo, MS. 

■ AvrAffjr's I'oy., toI. ii.. p. 78. 
>> fhijnt ID IfouvtUeMAraioMv des Voy., rol. ci., pp. 316. 33S. 

■ F«th«r BoMKOa. one of U10 carliMt minaonarieB to Upper C&lifomlft, 
I liA Whioil him Um ilioit muiaacTipt hlstoiy from which the tmditinn (ollow- 
\ia^ in the test ha* beon taken, tbrouj^ the mciliniQ of a now mrc trou&la- 
I'lioii by Mr BobitkBOS. Filleil with th«- pn'jndiops of itK auo nii<l of the pixifea- 

rion of its BOtboT. it i> jrel mar\-i'lDU«ly trtitlilikc; though a iminiitAkiiif; cure 
evidenUy bwn iu«d wilh regard to tta lurmt appHrpnUj itiKignificant 
_ till, thoN sxe none of those too risible wrenchindni after conidsteucy. and 
r ^tMng p up of iMmnse which au rarely betmy the huiid of the «ophistipat4.T 
[Sa ma masir monluah manoMriptfl ou like and kindred snbjecta. There are 
\ on In* other haud fraok coofessloos of ij^noioDce ou tloubtful poiDt«, 
By mlrc aod puszled oomueiita on the whole. It is apparently the 
Vol. m.. U. 



relation of the faith and worship of the Acagchemem 
nations, in the valley and iieigliborhood of Sun Juan 
Capistrono, California. Part of it would fall naturally 
into that part of this work alloted to orij^in; but the 
whole is so intimately mixed with so much concerning 
the life, deedH, and worship of various supernjitural per- 
pona^fl tiiat it has seemed better to lit its present |x>sition 
than any other. Of the first jmrt of the tradition there 
are two versions — if indeed they be versions of the same 
tradition. We give first that version held by the serratws, 
or liighlandera, of the interior country, three or four 
leagues inland from the said San Juan Capistrano: — 

Before the material world at all existed there lived two 
beings, brother and sister, of a nature that can not be 
explained ; the brother living above, and his name 
meaning the Heavens, the sister living below and lier 
name signifying Earth. From the miion of these two, 
there sprang a numerous offspring. Earth and sand 
were the tirst fruitii of this marriage; then wera born 
rocks and stones; then trees Iwth groat and small; then 
grass and hert)s ; then animals ; lastly was born a great 
personage called Ouiot, who was a "grand captain." By 
some unknown mother majiy children of a medicine race 
were born to this Ouiot All these things happened 
in the north; and afterward when men w«re created 
they were crealetl in the north; but as the [)eople multi- 
plied they moved toward the south, the earth growing 
lai-ger also and extending itself in the same direction. 

In process of time, Ouiot becoming old, his chil- 
dren plotted to kill him, alleging that the inlirmitiea of 

loogent and the most rnluable notice in existcnco on the religion of ■ natioD of 
tho nAtivc Califonunnii. as exibtiu^ at the* time of the Spoiiish conqacst, aDd 
more wurtby of coulidcnce Uion the general run of such doenmenU of anj 
date wUatcTer. The father procured his information as follows. Ue sa;«: 
' Ood OMlgnod to mo three aged Indinns. tho youui^ost of vhoqi waa orer 
■eventy jeon of age. They knew till the ttecrctH, for two of them were 
eatpilcuws. and the ouier npfd, who were wt^ll inntructod in the myateriea. By 
^ha, endearment*, ami kindneuM, I elicited from th<>tn their ttecrels. with 
Siair expUnaUons: and by witnessing the eercmonies which they performed, 
I learned by degrccji, their m>-Kterie8. Thus, by devotiaff a portion of the 
nights to »rufi>aiid meditation, and coiU|jnriufi: their nctJunK with their dx»- 
eloiiureii, I wuh emvblcd after n long time, to acmiire a knowledge of theix re- 
ligion.' Sosctttia, in HMhsoh's Lift if) C^., p. 236. 



ag</ rtj^e him unfit any longer to govern them ur attend 
to their welfare. So they put n strong poison in his 
drink, and when he dnmk of it a wre sickness came 
upon him; he rose up und letl his hume in the 
mountnins and went down to what is now the sea-shore, 
though at that time there wn.s no sea there. Hin mother, 
whose name is the Earth, mixed him an antidote in a 
large shell, and j«et the potion out in the sun to brew; 
but the fragrance of it attracted the attention of the 
Coyote, wlio came and overset the shell. So Ouiot sick- 
ened to death, and though he told his children tliat he 
would shortly return and be with them again, lie has 
never been seen since. All the people made a great 
pile of wood and burnt his body there, and just as the 
ceremony began the Coyote leaped ujion the body, saying 
that he wotild burn with it ; but he only tore a piece of 
tlesh from the atomach and ate it and escaped. After 
that the title of the Coyote was changed from Eyacque, 
which mcan» Sub-captain, to Eno, that is to say, Thief 
and C'annil>al. 

When now the funeral rites were over, a general coun- 
cil WOH held and arrangements made for collecting ani- 
mal and vegetable food; for up to this time the children 
and descendants of Ouiot had nothing to eat but a kind 
of white clay. And while they consulted together, be- 
hoU\ a marvelous thing appeared before them, and they 
flpoke to it sapng: Art thou our captain, Ouiot. iiutthe 
fi|)ectre said: Nay, for 1 am greater than Ouiot; my 
habitation is above, and my name is Chinigchinich. 
Then he spoke further, having been told for what they 
were come together: I create all tliings, and I go now to 
make man, another people like unto you ; as for you I 
pive you power, each after his kind, to pixxluce all good 

^aad pleasant things. One of you shall bring rain, and 
ther dew, and another make the acorn grow, and 

'"others other seeds, and yet others sliall cause all kinds of 
gome to abound in the land ; and your children shall 

» nave thi» power for ever, and they shall lje sorcerers to 
the men I go to create, and sliaLl receive gifts of them, 


that the frame fail not and the harvests be mtre. Then 
Chini^c*!iini(.'h nuwle man; out of the clay of the lake he 
formed him, male and female; and the present Califor- 
nians are tlie descendants of the one or more pairs there 
and thus ereatod. 

So ends the known tradition of the mountiiineere; 
we must now j^o hiwk and tiike n[> tlif story anew at its 
bejxinninj;, iis told hy the pfuijfinos. or i>ooi)le of the valley 
of San Juan Oapistrano. These say that an invisible 
all-[X)werful Ijcinj^, ciillod Nocunia. mode the world and 
all that it contains of thinj^ t!mt grow and move. Tie 
made it round like a hall and held it in his hands, where 
it rolled about a ^ood deal at fir.'ft. till he steadied it by 
sticking a heavy black rockcalleil tosaul into it, as a kind 
of ballast. The sea was at this time only a little stream 
running round the world, and mo crowded with fish that 
their twinkling fins had no longer room to move; so 
great was the press that some of the more foolish fry 
were for etferting a landing and founding n colony, 
U|XJn tlie dry land, and it was only with the utmost 
difficulty that they were persuaded by their elders, that 
the killing air and baneful sun and the want of feet must 
infallibly prove the destruction before many days of all 
who took part in such a desperate enterprise. Tlie proper 
plan was evidently to im]>rove and enlarge their pre^nt 
home; and to this end, principally Ijy the aid of one very 
large fish, they broke the great rock tosaut in two, find- 
ing a bladder in the centre filled with a very hitter sub- 
stance. The taste of it pleased the fish, so they emptied 
it into the water, and instantly the water became salt 
and swelled np and overflowed a great part of the old 
earth, ajid made itself the new boundaries that remain 
to this day. 

Then Nocuma created a man, shaping him out of the 
soil of the earth, calling him Kjoiii. A woman also the 
great god made, presumably of the same material aa the 
man, calling her Ae. Many children were Iwm to this 
first pair, and their descendants multiplied over the land. 
The name of one of these last was Sirout, that is to say\ 



Handful of Tobacco, and the name of his wife waa Yca- 
iut, which means Above; and to Sirout and Ycaiut waa 
born a «on, while they lived in a place north-ea^t about 
eight leagues from San Juan (japistrano. The name of 
this son was Ouiot, that in to say Dominator; he grew a 
tierce and redoutable warrior; haughty, ambitious, tyran- 
nous, he extended his lordship on every side, ruling 
evervwhere as with a rod of iron; and the people con- 
spired against him. It was determined that he sliould 
die by poison; a piece of the rock tosaut was ground up 
in so deotily a way that its more external applioati(»i 
was suflicieiit to cause death. Ouiot, notwithstanding 
that he held him^'lf constantly on thealert^ having lioen 
warned of his danger by a small burrowing animal ealletl 
the cttatnuil, was unable to avoid his fuUr, a few grains 
of the cankerous mixture were dropped upon his breast 
while he slept, and the strong mineral ate its way to the 
very springs of his life. All the wise men of the land 
were called to his assistance; but there was nothing for 
him aave to <lie. His lj<xly was burned on a great pile 
with songs of joy and dances, and the nation rejoiced. 

While the people were gathered to this end, it was 
thought ailvisable to consult on the feasibility of pro- 
curing seetl and flesh to eat instead of the clay which 
had up to this time been the sole food of the human 
family. And while they yet talked together, there ap- 
[H^ireil to them, coming the^" knew not wlience, one 
called Attajen, *' which name implies man, or ratioiui) 
Jjeing." And Attajen, understanding their desires, chose 
out certain of the elders among them, and to these gave 
he power; one that he might cause rain to fall, to an- 
other that be might cause game to alKjund, and so with 
the rest, to each his [K>wer and girt, and to the Hucccssors 
of e4ich for ever. These were the first medicine-men. 

Muny years having elapsed since the death of Ouiot, 
there ttpi)eared in the siune place one called Ouiaiuot, 
reputed eon of Tacu and Auzar^people unknown, but 
natives, it is thought by Boscana, of " some distant land," 
This Ouiamot is better known by his great name Chinig- 



chinich, which means Almighty. He first manifested 
his i)r)werrt to the people on a day when they had met in 
conjrregation for some purpose or otlier; he npjioarGd 
dancing hefore them crowned with a kind of high 
crown inatle of tuU feathers .stuck into a circlet of Home 
kind, o:ii*t with a kind of [X'tticoat of feathers, and having 
his fleeh jiainted black and red. Thus decorated he was 
called the Uil)el. llavinj: danced 8ome time, Chinigc^hinich 
called out the medietne-nien, or pnpiems a>t they were 
called, among whom it would appear the chief8 are 
alwayf* numlx^red, and confinned their power; telling 
tiieni that he had (Nsme fmm the stars to instruct them 
in dancing and all other things, and commanding that 
in all their necessities they should array themselves in 
the tolxit, and so dance as he had danced, supplicating 
him by his great name, that thus they might receive 
of their i)etttions. He taught them how to worship 
him, how to build van//uec/is, or places of worship, and 
how to direct their conduct in various affairs of life. 
Then he prepared to die, and the people asked him if 
they should bury him; but he warned them against 
attempting such a tiling: If ye buried me, he said, ye 
would tread ujMin my grave, and for that my hand would 
be heavy ujxin you; Ux>k to it, and to all your ways, 
for lo, I go up where tlie high stars are, where mine eyea 
shall .see all the ways of men: and who.toever will not 
keep my o^iinniandnients nor oljwerve the things I have 
taught, behold disenw sliall plague all his body, and no 
food shall come near his lips, the bear shall rend his 
flc-ih, and the crooked tooth of the serpent shall sting 

The vanquech, or place of worship, seems to have been 
an unroofed inclosure of stakes, within which, on a 
hurdle, was placed the image of the god Chinigchinich. 
This image wa.s the skin of a coyote or that of a mount- 
ain-cat stuffed with the feathers of certain birds, and 
with various other things, m that it looked like a live 
animal ; a lx>w and some arrows were attjiched to it on the 
outfiide, and other arrows were thrust down its throat ao 



that the feathers of them api)eare(l at the month as out 
of a quiver. The whole place of the inclosure was 
sacred, and not to be approaclied without reverence; it 
does not seem that sacrifices fonned any part of the wor- 
ship there offered, but only ])rayer, and nometimes a kind 
of paiitomine connected with the undertaking deHirud to 
be furthered — thus, de-siring success in lumting one 
mimicked the actions of the chase, leaping and twanging 
one's !k)w. Each vanquech was a city of refuge, with 
rights of sanctuary exceeding any ever granted in Jewish 
or Christian countries. Not only was every criminal 
safe there whatever his crime, but the crime was as it 
were blotte<l out fi*oni that moment, and the oftcnder was 
at liberty to leave the sanctuary and walk about as 
before; it wae not lawful oven to mention his crime; all 
that the avenger could do was to point at him and deride 
him, saying: Lo, a coward, who has been forced to Hee to 
Chixiigchinich! This flight was rendered so much a 
meaner thing in that it only turned the punishment from 
the head of him that tied u\yon that of some of his rela- 
tives; life went for life, eye for eye, and tooth for tooth, 
even to the third and fourth generation, for justice' sake. 
Besides Chinigchinich they worshipo*!, or at any rate 
fearwi, a god called Touch; who inhabitetl the moun- 
tains and the bowels of the earth, ap|H»aring, however, 
from time to time in the form of various animals of a 
terrifying kind. Every child at the ag(» of six or seven 
fivod, sent to him from this g(xl, some animal as a 
■"protector. To find out what this animal or spirit in the 
shape of animal was, narcotic drinks wei-e swallowed, or 
the mihject ftwt^nl and watched in the vanquech for a 
gi\-en time, generally three days. He whose rank 
cntitU'd him to wait for his guardian apparition in the 
fiacred inclosure, was set there by the side of the god's 
I image, and on the ground before him was sketched by 
^one of the wise men an uncouth figure of some animal. 
Tlie child was tlien left to complete his vigil, lieing 
'iiramed at the same time to endure its hardships with 
lpatieiM:e, in that ajiy attempt to infringe u^kju its rules, 



by eatiiig or diinking or otherwise, would be reported to 
the god by the sprawling figure the enchanter hod drawn 
in the clay, and that in such a case the punishment of 
Cbinigchinich would be terrible. AAer all this was 
oveT} a scar was made on the child's right arm, and some- 
timea on the thick part of the leg also, by covering the 
pftTt, " according to the figure required," with a peculiar 
herb dried and powdered, and setting fire to it. This 
was a brand or seal required by Chinigcbiiuch, and was 
beades supposed to strengthen the nerves and give *' a 
better pulse for the management of the bow." ** 

TheAoagcheraenis. like many other C^alifomian tribes,** 
rt^ird the great buzzard with sentiments uf vunerationf 
while they seem to liave had connected with it several 
rites luid ideas peculiar to themselves. They called this 
bird the p(it}es, and once every year they lizid a festival of 
the same name, in which the princiiml ceremony was the 
killing of a buzzard without losing a drop of its blood. 
It was next skinned, all possible care being taken to pre- 
serve the feathers entire, as these were used in making 
the featltered petticoat and diadem, already described as 
part of the toljet. Last of all the body was buried within 
the sacred incloHure amid great apparent grief from the 
old women, they mourning as over the loss of rela- 
tive or friend. Tnulition .explained tliifl: the panes 
had indeed been once a woman, wliom, wandering in the 
mountain ways, the great gixl Cbinigchinich hmi come 
suddenly upon and changed into a bird. How this waa 
connecteil with the killing of her anew every year by 
the people, and with certain extraordinary ideas held 
relative to tliat killing js, however, by no means clear; 
for it wtis Ijclieved that as often as the bird was killed it 
was made alive again, and more, and faith to move 
mountains — that the birds killed in one simie yeai'ly feast 
in many sepanite villages were one and the same bird. 
How tliese things were or why, none knew, it was enough 

B 8«Q p. 113, of UiU Tolume, tor a ctuttom omoog the Mexicaui not nitli- 
out uulogieR to tliitt. 

Mgou |>. 131, of thin vulunie. 



[that they were a commandment and ordinance of Chinig- 
[chinich, whose ways were not us the ways of men.*^ 

The Pericues of Ix)wer CiiHfomia were divided into 
[two sects, worshiping two hostile divinitiea who made 
fa war of extenninution upon each other. Tl)e tradition 
Jexplnias that there was a great lord in heaven, called 
IXiparaya, who niiuie earth and sen. and was almighty 
land invisible. His wife was Anayicoyondi, a goddess 
who. ihougli |x>sses.sing no l^y, bore him in a divinely 

aysteriourf manner three children : one of whom, Quiuiy- 
|«yp, was a real man and bom on earth, on the Acaragui 
[mountains. Very powerful this young god was, and a 
[long time he lived with the ancestors of the Pericues, 
I whom it is almost to be inferred that lie created ; at any rate 

re are told that he was able to make men. drawing them 
[up out of the earth. The men at last killed this their 
[great hero and teacher, and put a crown of thorns U(X)n 
[his heJid.* Somewhere or other he remains lying dead 
Ito this day, and he I'emains constantly beautiful, neither 
Idoetf his body know corruption. HUkxI drijis fx>n.stantly 
I'irom his wounds, and he can K|K'ak nu more. l)eing dead ; 
lyet there is an owl that s(ieak» to him. And Ijesides tlie 
Ibefore-spoken-of god Ni|)araya in heaven, there was 
lother and hostile god cjilled Wac or Tupjiran. Accord- 
Fing to the Niparaya sect, tills Wac had made war on their 
[favorite god, and been by him defeated and cast forth of 
Ilieaven into a cave under the earth, of which cave the 
[whales of the sea were the guardians. With a perverse, 
Itliough not unnatural, olistimicy the sect that held Wac or 
|Tu{)uran to be their great pod jxirsisted in holding ideas 
I peculiar to themselves with regard to the truth of the 
[foregoing story; and their account of the great war in 
iven and its results differed from the other, as difter the 
Icpeediiof heterodoxand orthodox everywhere ; they ascribe. 
fior example, part of tlie creation to other gods besides 

B ft nil mill, in BotHnMon'M Lift In Co/., pp. 242-301. 

*t 'the Christiui kaTen, whu«o wurltitigs are I'vidcut tbrcnigb Uiia B*m' 
liv*, IcnoeaU bon Ivo viohtutiy to need poiuUsg out. 



N'ipuraya.'^ TlieCochimis and remaining natives of the 
Californian [xjninsula seem to have held in llie main 
much the same ideas with re^rd to the gods and [wweni 
above them jls the Pericues held, and the sorcerers of all 
laid the common hlowinjiH, loapings, fastingK, and other 
mummeries that make these professors of the sinister art 
so much alike ever^ivhere in our territory." 

The natives of Nevada have ideas respecting a great 
kind Spirit of some kind, as well as a myth concerning 
an evil one; hut they have no s|iecial class set apart as 
medicine-men.*-' The Utah belief seems to l)e as nearly 
as possible identical with that of Nevada." 

The C'Omanches ac^knowledge more or less vaguely a 
Supreme Spirit, but seem to use the Sun and the Karth 
as mediators with atid, in some sort, lus cuiliodimcnts of 
him. They have a recognized body of soiverers called 
p'tifarfirUeSj and various religious ceremonies and chants; 
lor the most part of n simple kind, and directed to the Sun 
its the great souroe of life, and to the Karth aa Uie pro- 
ducer and reecptjicle of all that sustains life. According 
to the Ab}>*^ Pomenw}), every Comanche wears a little 
figure of the sun, attached to his neck, or lias a picture of 
it painted on his shield ; from the ears of each hang also 
two cre.9cents, which may possibly represent the moon." 

The Apiiches recognize a supreme power in heaven 
under the name Yaxtaxitaxitanne, the creator and master 
of all things ; but they render him no open service nor wor- 
ship. To any taciturn cunning man they are accustomed 
to credit intercourse with a preternatural power of some 
kind, and to look to him as a sort of oracle in various 
emei-gencies. This is, in fact, their medicine-man, and 

" See pp. 83-4, tliis volnrae. 

•< Ventqas, ,Vo(t,-iii.t tie hi t'uL, torn, i., pp. 102-124; ClatH'jfro, St(/ria dtila 
Cat., torn. i.. pp. l35-tll: fluinin-Ul. EsMiF<M.. turn. i.. p. 314. 

•• Kiryinia CUy ChrvnUle, quoted in S. F. Daily Ev'g Post, of Oct. 12th. 
1872; Broiene't LototrVal., p. 1««. 

w iPe Smefn Lettm. j>. 41. 

Ji Parker, in Schiifil<mfl'<i AreK., toI. t., p. (id4; Whipple, Eirbonk, and 
TamT'H Itepl., pp. 3S-fi, in Par.. R. }t. Rtpl., vol. iii ; Bamim, Ojtadax^rf 
.V. .Iftj., ftp. p. 8; FiUrtf's Life and Adorn., p. 82; Ji^trcy's Arvty Lift, pp. 58. 
Uii Dotnentch. Jour, t/'un Mua., pp. 13, 131, 469. 



in cases of illness he pretends to perform cures by the 
fad nf herl>s ami ceremonies of various kinds.** 

The Naviijtts, havinj^ the iiMiial class of sorcerers, call 
theirgoo<i deity Whaillahay, and theirevil oueChinday; 
the primiiKil use of their good god seems to be to prote<;t 
them from their evil one. In f*moking they sometimes 
pulT their tobacco-smoke toward heaven with great for- 
mality; this is said to bring rain; to tlie same end cer- 
tain long round stones^ thought to be cast down by the 
clouds in a thunderstorm, are used with varioua cere- 

The sun, moon, and stars are thought to be powers 
connected with rain and fine weather; while the god Mon- 
tezuma of their Pueblo neighbors is unknown among 

All the Fueblo cities, though speaking diflferent lan- 
guages hold substantiuly tlie same faith. They seem to 

Bnt,to the statement of the existence of a great and 
good spirit whose name is too sacred to be mentioned; 
but moKt say that Montezuma is his equal ; and some, 
again, that the Sun is the same as or equal to Montezuma. 
There are, V»esides. the lesser divinities of water. — Mon- 
tezuma being oonslrlere*! in one aspect a.s the gix'at rain- 
god, and as such often mentioned as lM>ing aided by or 
being in connection with a sequent. Over' and above 
all tiiesc, the existeiic^Tof a general cfass or. body of evii 
ftpirita is taken for granted. 

ilany places in S'ew Mexico claim 1ol>e the birthplace 
of the great leader, teacher, and god Montezuma. At 
any rate he is traditionally supposed to have appeared 
junong the Puohlos before they had arrived at or built 
their present towns, t^ome traditions would make him 
either the ancestor or the creator of the some people; but 

Mjfambw, Ojeada tobrt A' Jf«z,, Ap. pp. 2-3; Bmry, in ScKooltn^Ct 
jSrA,, vol. v.. p. 313. 

n Cm/utft Wntn-n Worid, Ang. 1S73. p. S7; WkippU, Ewbank, and Tw- 
ik^t Kep(.. p. 42. in Pae. B. R. Ufpl.. vol. iii.; Tra tiroerk. in SeJtoolcraft'B 
Affk.. Tol, iv.. p. 91 : BriMol. in In/I. AJ. ltn>t . Sp^finl Com., 1867, p. &6; 
Jlriirfvn'j JbTytAj. p. \h<i; Itom'ttfch't Ofsnis. Tol. ii., p. 40J. 



the most regard him as a kind of «emi or wholly divine 
prit'Ht, prophet, leader, a»id legislator. Under itstric- 
tionH |x>intctl out in a former note,'* we may fairly regard 
him jvs at once the Melchi/xidek, the Moees, and the 
Metwiali i)f these Piiehlo desert wanderers from an Kpypt 
that lilstory is ignorant of, and who^ name even tradi- 
tion whispers not. He taught his people to huild cities 
^vith UiW houses, to construct estufas, or semi-sacred 
flweat-houses, and to kindle and guard the sacred fire. 

At Acoma, it is said by some, was established the first 
Pueblo, and thence the people marched soutliward, form- 
ing others. Acoma was one, and PecoH aiiotlier. At 
this hmt, Montexurna planted a tree ujwide down, and 
said that, on his leaving them, a strange nation should 
oppress them for many years, years also in which there 
should be no rain, but that they were to persist in 
watching the sacred fire until the tree fell, when he 
would return, with a white race which should destroy 
their enemies; and then rain should fall again and the 
earth he fertile. It is said that tliis tree fell from its 
abnormal position, as the American army entered Santa 

The watching of the fire, kept up in subterranean 
estufas, under a covering of ashes generally, and in the 
basin of a small altar, was no light task. The warriors 
took the jx^tst by turns, some said, for two successive days 
and nights, siins food, sans drink, sans sleep, sans every- 
thing. Others aflirm that tins watcliing was kept up 
till exhaustion and even death relievetl the guard — the 
last not to be wondered at, seeing the insufferable close- 
ness of tlie place and the accumulation of carbonic acid. 
The n?niains of the dead were, it wiis sometimes supposed, 
carried ofi' by a monstrous serpent. This holy fire wna 
believed to Ixj the palladium of the city, and the watch- 
ers by it could well dream of that day, when, coming 
with the sun, Montezuma shoidd descend by the column 
of smoke whose roots they fed, and should fill the shabby 

3< Bee pp. 77-8, note 36, thin vulame. 



little estufa with a glory like that in a wilderness taber- 
nacle ihey knew not of, where a more awful pillar of 
Hinoke shadowed the mystic cherubim. Hojie dies hard, 
and the dim memoricH of a great past Devcr quite fade 
away from among any jieople. No true-boni British 
banl ever doubted of Arthur's return from hi» kingly 
rest in Avalon, nor that the of Excalibar should be 
one day again as the lightning of death in the eyes of 
the hated Saxon. The herdei's on the shore of Lucerne 
know that were Switzerland in i»cril. the Tell would 
spring from his sleep as at tlie Qviwk of do*jm. " When 
Germany is at her lowest then is her greatness nearest " 
say the weirvl old hvllads of that land ; for then nliall the 
Great Kaiser rise from the vault in the KyiThauser, — Jiar- 
barooHt shall rise^ though his }.)eard l>e grown thRnigh tlte 
long stone fcible. Xeither is the Frank without his 
savior: Sing. troubadours, sing and strike the chords 
proudly! Who shall prevail while Charlemagne but 
Bleeps in the shadow of the Untersljei^? — And so our 
Pueblo sentinel climbing the housetop at Pecos, looking 
ever eastward from Santo Domingo on the Rio Grande ; 
he t(X) waits for the beautiful feet upon the mountains 
and the plumes of him — 

Who dwelt op in Ihe yellow 9un^ 
And Homiwing for diui'ii di*)tpair, 
Blid by hU tntiliiig yplluw hair 
To earth, to rule vrith love nnil bring 
Th« bleMfdnMB of peace, u 

f The Pueblo chiefs seem to Ije at the same time priests; 
they perform the various simple rites by which the power 
of the sun and of Montezuma is reeogni/ed an well as 
the power — according to some accounts — of " the Great 
3nake., to whom by order of Montezuma tbey are to U»ok 
for life;" they also officiate in certain e^'remonies with 
which they pray for rain. There are painted represen- 
^Btioiifl of the Great Snake, together with that of a mis- 
ihajjen red-haired man declared to stand for Montezuma. 
Of this la£t there was ahio in 1845, in the pueblo of 

» jMqidm mUtr'a Cat{/omUm. 



Laguna, a rude effigy or idol, intended, apparently, to 
represent only the head of the deity ; it wiis mtide of 
tanned «kin in tlie form of a brimlesa hat or cylinder 
open at tlie Ixittom. Half-way round, it was painted 
red; the other lialf was green. The green side was 
rudely niarkwl to suggest a face: two triangles were cut 
for eyes; there was no nose; a circular leather patch 
served for a muutli, and two other patches in an 
appropriate situation suggested ears. Crowning tlie 
head was a sroall tuft of leather, said to be supplemented 
hy feathers on festal occasions. A sorry image one 
ivould say, yet one looked uyyon by its exhibitors with 
apjxirently the greatest veneration; they kneeling in a 
most devoted manner, going through a form of prayer, 
and sprinkling it with a white [)owder. One of the 
worshipers said it was God and the brother of God; 
and the people bring it out in dry seasons, and, with 
dancing and other rites, invoke it for rain. 

Christianity has now effa^^ed the memory of most of 
the rites of the Pueblo ivligion, but Dr Ten Broeck 
noticed that many of the worshipers at the Christiaji 
church in Laguna carried little biuskets in their hands 
containing images of domestic animals, or of beasts of the 
chase, molded in mud or dough; it being the custom, as 
it had been there from time immemorial, for those that 
had been successfid in the chase, or in accumulating 
cattle, to bring such simuhvchres of their prosi^erity Ijefore 
the altar of God,— probably, a modification produced by 
tlic ix)verty of the |Xi«ple of a rite as old as the altar of 
Abel, to wit, theoftering of the firstlings and firstfruits to 
that Deity whose blessing had given the increase. 

It has bt'en affirmed, without much foundation or pro- 
bability of truth, that the Pueblos worshiped fire and 

» Grtfp/i Com. I'miriea, toJ. i.. pp. 271-3; DaiHs' EI Orlngo, pp. 142, 3W; 
Simpsim's Oveiiand Jottm., pp. 21-3; Th»nenfch's Itttierts, vol. i.. pp. 164-5. 418. 
vol. ii., pp. 62-3, iOl; ilMaHMn, TwjftbuM. pp. 170, 219. 2S4; Mflinet Tm 
Thoftaamd Miks on Honehaek, pp. 202. 22G; Ritxian'n Adven. in Mtx., p. 193; 
7Vn Browk, in Schootcm/Vt Arch., vul. iv., p. 73; Ward, in /not. Aff- Sept., 
1864, pp. 192-3; Emory's lieconHoisstincr, p. 30; Timor's 7*rim. Cvtt., vol. ii., 
p. 3W; Brifiion'$ Myihs, p. 190; CVownJo, in iiakluyt'a Voy., vol. iii.. p. 



The Moqiiifi know nothing of Montezuma; they l)olieve 
in a Greiit Father, living where the snn rises, and in a 
great Mother, whose home is where the gun goes down. 
Tliis Father la the father of evil, war, [X-Klilence, and 
famine; but from the motlier are all their joy, peace, 
plenty, and hewlth." 

The MoJ!ive8 tell of a certain Matcvil, creator of hea- 
ven and earth, who wius wont in time jwist to remain 
among them in a certain grand ami. This habitation 
was, however, by some untoward event broken down; 
the nations were destroyed; and Matcvil departed east- 
, ward. M' hence, in the latter days, he will opain return 
Lto oonaolidate. pi-osjier, and live with his people Ibi-ever. 
iThiB Matevil, or Mathowclia, has a son called Mawtamho, 
I who made the water and planted trees. There is also 
I an Evil Spirit Newathie.* 

From a letter just received from Judge Roselwrough, 
I am enabled to close this chapter with »ome new and 
[Valuable facts regarding the religious ideae of certain 
[tribes — not accurately Bixrcified^of the north-west por- 
[tion of UpiXT California. The learned judge has given 
I unusual attention to the sulyect of which lie writes, and his 
[opportunities for procuring information must have been 
' fre^pient during ten ^euiv of tni\"el and residence in the 
Ldij5tricts of the northern counties of California: — 

Among the tribes in the neighlx>rhood of Trinity river 
^is foiind a legend relating to a certain Waiipeck<|uemow, 
who wttH a giant, and apparently: the father and leader of 

179. Fremoftt gives an accoantof Uic birth of MoDtc7.uma: His motber wnn, 
rft U said, a wottuut of cxqditiitv bt-auty, iidmircd jukI RniiKht after hy e.1] men, 
I (bey making her preicntii of corn and nkitta ami ull ttint th4.'y hud; but the 
LliuiUdiuua b«auty would acCAjit uoUiiug of them but Uioir gifttt. In prnre^H 
[of Hnii! a Bouuin of druuaht brought on a famiuc and much distrr-Bs; ihen it 
tvaa that the rich Udj Huowed Uvr charity to be aa great in one direction k« 
lit hail becfQ wanting in unnthir. She n|H'iHHi h<'r grnuarieB and th» piftti of 
Ftb« lovna *hv hod not lovfd went tu roleavo Um hungry nhe |titied. At lant 
Pvitb nun. fertility rftumed to the earth; and on the cbaiite .\rtemia of the 
FPnebloe its tonch fell too. Bhe bore a aon to the thick Bammer shower and 
I that aon WM HontastUD*. 

n Ttn SchoohnifVM Arth., toI. it., pp. M-C. 

» Whipple. Kabnnk; aitd Ttemrr'g Rfpt. |>p. 43-3, in Pae. R. R. Rept, 

Tol. iii.; Itodl, in Ind. Aff. lifpt., 1870, p. 129. 


a pre-human race like himself. He was expelled from the 
country that lie inhabited — near the moutli of the Kla- 
math — for dis=obeying or offending some great god, and a 
curse was pronoimced ajrainst hira, st) that not even his 
descendants should ever return to that land. On the 
expulsion of these Anakim, the ancestors of the jieople to 
whom this legend lielungs came down from the north- 
west, a dii"ecti(m of niijiratiou, iKwxirding to Judge Ilose- 
borough, uniformly a<ihered to in the legends of all the 
tribes of north-west ( 'alifornia. These new settlers, how- 
ever, like their predecessors of the giant race, (luari-cled 
with the great god and were abandoned by !iim to their 
own devices, being given over into the hands of certain 
evil powers or devils. Of these the first is Omaha, who, 
possessing the shajM; of a grizzly bear, is invisible and 
gcx's a!K>ut cver\ where bringing sickness and misfortune 
on mankind. Next there is Mukalay. a fiend with a burn 
like a unicorn; he is swift as the wind and moves by 
great leaps like a kangaroo. The sight of him is nsnally 
death to mortals. There is, thirdly, a dreadful l>eing 
called Kalicknateck, who seems a faithful reproduction of 
the great thunder-bird of the north: thus Kalicknateck 
"is a huge bird that aits on tlie mountain-peak, and broods 
in silence over his thoughts until hungry; when he will 
sweep down over the ocean, snatch up a lar»!e whale, and 
cany it to liis mountain-throne, for a single meal." 

liesides the before-mentioned powers of evil, these 
Trinity people have legends connecte*! witli other person- 
ages of the same natui*e, among whom are ^Vanuswegook. 
Surgelp, Napousney, and Necjuiteh. 

When white miners first came to work on the Trinity 
River, their mlvent caused, ns may be imagined, much 
unsatisfactory speculation among the aborigines; some 
saying one thing of the whites and some anotlier. At 
last an old seer of the lloopah Valley settled the question 
by declaring that the new-comers were descendants of 
that banished Wappt^ckquemow. from whose heads the 
already-mentioned curse, forbidding their return, had 
been by some means lifted. 




The coast people in northern CnUfornia have 
a story ftbout a mysterious people called Holigates, 
to whom is ascribed an immense bed of muKsel- 
ehells and Ix)ne8 of animals still existing on the 
table-land of Point St George, near Crescent City. 
These Hohgates, seven in number, arc said to have 
come to tlie place in n lx)at, to have built themselves 
"houses alx>vc-ground, after the style of white men" 
— all this ulx)ut the time that the first natives came 
down the coast from the north. Those Hohgates. living 
at the point mentioned, killed many elk on huid, and 
many sesds and sea-lions in fishing excursions from their 
bo;vts; using for the latter ]>urpose a kind of harjxwn 
miule of a knife attached to a stick, and the whole fitsiened 
to the boat with a long line. They also sailed frequently 
to certain rocks, and loaded their little vesst^'ls with mus- 
sels. By all this tliey securAi plenty of food, and the 
refuse of it, the bones and shells and so on, rapidly 
accumulated into the great I'pkken mddd'mg still to be 
seen. One day, liowever, all the llohgates l«ing out at 
sea in their boat, they struck a huge sea-lion with tbeir 
rude haqMton, and, unable or unwilling to cut or tbmw 
off their liiu'. wen; dnigged with fearl'ul speed toward a 
great whirlixxil, c^iUwl (Miaivckquin, that lay far toward 
the nt>rtli-west. It is ibe pliicc where souls go, where 
in darkness and cold the spirits shiver for ever; living 
men suffer even from its winds, — from the north-west 
wind, the bleak and bitter Gharreck-rawek. And just 
OS the Ixxit reached the edge of this fearful place, behold, 
a marvelous thing: the rope broke and the sea-monster 
was swept down alone into the whirl of wind and water, 
while tbe Jlohfnites were caught up into the air; swing- 
ing round and round, their lx)at Hoat( d steadily up into the 
vast of heaven. Nevermore on earth were the llohgates 
seen; but there are seven stars in heaven that all men 
know of, and these stars are the seven llohgates that 
once lived where the great shell-bed near Crescent City 
now is. 

Tai. in. n 



OoiM AND RzuoiotTB BiTSs OF Cbihuahua. Soxoba, Dttbakgo, ahs 8i>- 
jLU)A — The Mexican Rkliqion, BECEirio} with siztebknt DKOBsrs or 


pooA — Pbaterb to Hih in tiue op Pestilence, op Wab, pob thou 
IN AuTHOBrrr— Pbatbb trsED bt an Absolving Pbiest— Obkcinenbss op 


From the Pueblo cities let us now pass down into 
Mexico, glancing first at the northern and north-western 
neighbors of this great people that ruled on the plateau 
of Anahuac. The Chihuahuans worshiped a great god 
called by them the 'captain of heaven' and recognized 
a lesser divinity as abiding in and inspiring their priests 
and medicine-men. They rendered homage to the sun; 
and when any comet or other phenomenon appeared in 
the heavens they offered sacrifice thereto; their sacrifice 
being much after the Mexican fashion ; fruits, herbs, and 
such things as they had, together with blood drawn from 
their bodies by the pricks of a thorn/ 

In Sonora, — the great central heart of Mexico making 
its beatings more and more clearly felt as we approach 
it nearer. — the vague feelings of awe and reverence with 
which the savage regards the unseen, unknown, and un- 
knowable powers, begin at last to somewhat lose their 

1 Soc. Mtx. Oeog., Boleiin, torn, iii., p. 22; Doc. Ili^. Mex., serie ir., torn, 
iii., p. 86. 



f vagueness and to crystallize into the recognition of a 

power to be represented and aynibolized by a god made 

1 "with hands. The oftcrings thereto begin also, more and 

I moref to lo% their primitive simple shape, and tlie hk>od, 

without which is no remission of siiw, stains tlie rude 

altar that a more Arcadian race had only heaj^d with 

iflowersand fruit. Tbe natives of Sonora bring, says Laa 

Gasas, *'many deer, wolves, hares, and birds beiorc a 

large idol, with music of many (Uites and oilier instru- 

jinents of theirs; tlien cutting open the animals through 

[tlie middle, they take out their hearts and hang them 

round the neck of the image, wetting it with the Howing 

[blood. It is certain that the only offering made in all 

[tliis province of Sononi was the hearts of brutes."^ All 

[this they did more especially in two great festivals they 

I bad, the one at seed-time, the other at harvest ; and we have 

reason to rejoice that the thing was no worse, reason to 

be glad tliat the hearts of brave men and fair women, and 

JBoft children not knowing their right hand from their left, 

[vere not adled for, as in the land of the eagle and cactus 

Ibonner. to feed that devil's Minotaur, super.'^tition. 

The people of Ourango called the principal jiower in 

R'hich they believed Meyuncame, that is to say, Maker 

[of All Things; they had another god, Cachiriiwi, whose 

iTiame is all wc know of him. They bad l>esides innu- 

[mendjle i)rivate idols, |)enates of all ^Hissible and iniijou- 

Isible figures; gome being stone, sha|KHl by nature uidy. 

In one village they worshiped a great Hint knife that 

their Hint implements of every kind might Ix' good and 

ire. They had gods of storm and goda of sunshine, 

gods of good and gods of evil, gods of everything in 

Leaven above or in the earth beneath or in the waters 

under the earth. Their idols received bloody sacrificea, 

^not always of beasts; a bowl containing beans and the 

cooked human flesh of an enemy was offered to them 

for success in war.* 

I * Liu Camt, IRH. Afxtlogitioa, US., torn. Hi., cap. 168; Smith's /fc/oflon 
mtif CobfM de Vtua, p. 177. 

> ttHoB, limt. d« loM TriumphoM, pp. 473-6; J>oe, Hist. Mtx., aerie W., torn. 


Much of the precetlinj; paragraph Ixilongs also to Sin- 
alou or cannot be exactly located more in the one province 
than in the other. Tlie Sinnlons arc said to have 
venenited alxnc all the other gods one called Cocohimme, 
which is, Ix'ing interprctetl, Death. They wonshiix-d also 
a certain Oumba,* which is Valor, oflering hini bow^ 
arrows, and all kinds of instruments of war. To Sehua- 
tob:i, that is to say Pleasure, they sacrificed feathers, 
raiment, beiuls of glass, and women's ornaments. Bam- 
usehua was the god of water. In some parts, it is said, 
there waa recognized a divine element in common herbs 
and birds. One deity — or devil, asKiboa calls him with 
the exquisite courtesy that distinguishes the theosophic 
historian — was the esi>ecial patron of a class of wizards 
closely resembling the shamans and medicine-men of 
the Tiorth. No one seemed to know exactly the powers 
of this deity, but everyone admitted their extent by re- 
oognizing with a respectful awe their eftects; effects 
brought about through the agency of the wizards, 
by the use uf bags, rattle-s, inagic stones, blowings, suck- 
ings, and all that routine of sorcery with which we are 
already familiar. This deity wa« called Grandfather or 

One Sinitloa nation, the Tabus, in tlie neighborhood 
of Culianan. reared great scM'ponts f(»r which they had 
a good deal of veneration. They propitiated their gods 
with ofteringrt of precious stones and rich stufts, but they 
did not 8iu*ri(ice men. AVith an altogether characteris- 
tic insinuation, the Abbe Domenech says, that though 
highly immoral in the main, they so highly respected 
women who devoted themselves to a life of oelibacyj 

* Apparently Utc saroo as that Vairubi Npoken of ou p. 83 of this volume. 

s Uvjas, Hist, lie /iw Triumplwa, p|i. IG, 18, 40. • A una de nnii <Uoim--ii Uaui- 
fthftn Oumba, que qiuero Hear tortaletn. £m oomo Miulo, dio» dc la ftacrm. 
Ofroc'itulo ureuH. flochaa y to<lo genero d» onoaB [Mira vl ttliz t^xito do sua 
bntiillaH. A otru lliimaTmii Schtiuluba, uuc ijuierD dt-tjir, deUite, A qnlvn 
ofreciui {ihiiiiris, inAtitiiH. citciiterlllAa dc vidrio y ndonioa inu^cril«^ti. Al diuB 
d« lax aguiiB HumtiWu BuniUKi'hua. El iiinit venemdo du ttxloii rrn Coco- 
buame, que u^iBcn muurtti.' Atrtjr'', IliM. Comp. i/p Jrsus, toiii, U., p. <5. 
'Tlicv wunihip fur Lheir iiods sui-li thiugs ut tbt>y hauo in their faounr«, as 
namf'ly. htmrlx's, oiid birdos, and niug Hongs vnto them in th«ir lungnage. 
Coronado, in Uakiuyt's V'oy., vol. iii., p. 363. 



that they held great festivals in their honor — 
lenvinp: the reader to supjiose that the Tahus had a clasa 
of female religious who devoted tliem»elve« to a life of 
chastity and were respected for that rea.son; the truth is 
found to U', on referrinp to the author (.'astanetln— from 
whom apiMia-ntly the abbe Ims taken tliis lialf truth 
and whole falsehood — that these estimable celibate w omen 
were the public prostitutes of the nation.* 

The Jfexican religion, as transmitted to us, ia a con- 
fused and clnshii»g chaos of frapjieiitfl. If ever the great 
nation of Anahuac had its He^iod or its Homer, no ray 
of hid light has reachetl the stumbling feet of i-esearch in 
that direction; no echo of his harmony has l>een ever 
heard by any ear less dull than that of a Zumarra^^a. It 
is given to few men to n^ above their age, and it is 
folly to exiM.'Ct grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles; yet it 
is haril to .suppi-Cfs wholly some feelings of regrct, in 
poring ui«in those i>onderous tomes of sixteenth and 
seventecntb century liistovy that touch ujjon Mexican 
religion ; one pities far less the inevitable suix^rstition 
and childish ignorance of the barlmrian than the senility 
of his Christian historian and critic — there was some 
element of ho|je and evidence of attainment in wliat the 
half-civilized barbarian Itnew; but from what heights of 
Athenian. Roman, and Alexandrian philosophy and elo- 
quence, had civili/jiti(m fallen into the dull and arrogant 
nescience of the chronicles of the clergy of Spain. 

We have already noticetr the existence of at least two 
j«hools of religious j>hiluso[)liy in Mexico, two average 

* * lift cAi^braiMit de gniideii fetMi en l'honnf>nr den f<>ninir8 qiii voulaient 
TJrre duos le tv Ubut. I>-h mciqneM d'un rantou nv ri uDiswiient t-t dniiHaient 
toaanTU, I'lUi upr^ t'antre, avpo In fcmmn qni nvaitpris eetle dLtcnuiimtiuii. 
Qoaad W dasM i^'init tcmiinL-e. Uk la coaduisaient dans uno petite maitHm 
qn'on AToit d.'cort'e 3i cet effet. et ila joiiiswient de m penwune. Icb cnciqnes 
d' abord H en)nill« toos c«dx qui le vonluicDt. A dutt-r de ce inoment, (-Um 
IM poQTai«'nt rit'n refuser k quicouqiie leiir offmit lo prix dxv ponr r«la. 
EUcs n'l tiicnt ^junaiit diepfliaeM do cdtc ohligfllion, int'iDO qnand plnii tard 
tUc« se iiuuinti*nt.' Ca$lafii>d9, iu TemauX'Cotnpfinit, I'oy., aerie i., tom. ix., 
pp. 150-1. * Attbnagh these men vere virv iniinoral. yet imrh wiut their re- 
ffpoctfnrnll wromni •who led ■ We of celibary, that (hey celttbnited gmnd 
futirals in tbtnr boDoar.* And there he maiei oa end. IfvmttKch'i iJmirts, 
¥ul. i.. p. 1*0. 

^ XbU Tulnme, pp. f>&-#. 




levels of thought, the one thnt of the vulgnr nnd credu- 
lous, the other that of tlie jnore enlightened nnd ivflec- 
tive. It has resulted from this that different uriters 
differ somewhat in their opinions with regard to the pre- 
cise nature and essence of that religion^ some saving one 
thing and some another. T cannot show this more sliort- 
\y and — wliat is much more imi^ortant in a subject like 
this— more exactly, than by quoting a number of these 

" Turning from the simple faiths of savage tribes of 
America, to the complex religion of the half-civilized 
Mexicim nation, we find whatwemiglitimturally expect, 
a cumbrous polytheism complicated by mixture of several 
national pantheons, and beside and beyond this, certain 
appearances of a doctrine of divine supremacy. But 
these doctrines seem to have Ix^en sjwken of more defi- 
nitely than the evidence warrants. A remarkable native 
development of Mexican theism must be admitted, in 
60 far JUS we may receive the native historian Ixtlilxo- 
chitl's account of tiie worship paid by Nezahualcoyotl, 
the poet-king of Tezcuco, to the invisible supi-cme I'loque- 
Nahuaquc, he who has all in him. the cause of causes, 
in whose star-roofed pyramid stood an idol, and who 
there received no bloody sacrifice, but only flowers nnd 
incense. Yet it would have beenmoi*e satisfactory, were 
the stories told by this .\/.tec panegyrist of his 1*03 nl an- 
cestoi-s confirmed hy other reconls. Traces of divine 
supri-'uiacy in Mexican rehgion are esiiecialiy associated 
witii Te/.catli[)oca, * Shining Mirror/ a deity who seems 
in his original nature the Sun-god, and thence by ex- 
pansion to have become the soul of the world, creator of 
heuven and earth, lord of all things, Supreme Deity. 
Such conceptions may, in more or less measure, have 
arisen in native thought, but it should be pointed out 
thnt the remarkable Aztec religious fonnulns collected 
by Sahagun, in which the Jeity Tezcatlipoca is go promi- 
nent a figure, show traces of Christian admixture in their 
material, as well as of Christian influence in their style. 
In distinct and absolute personality, the divine Sun i|^ 



f Aztec theology' was Tonatiuh" whose huge pyromid- 
' mound 8taucl» on the plain of Teotihuacnn, a witness of 
his worsinp for future ages. Beyond this the religion of 
Mexico, in its complex system, or congeries of preatpods, 
Buch as results from the mixture and alliance of the 
deities of several nations, shows the R)lar element i*ooted 
deeply and widely in other personages of its divine my- 
thology, and attributes especially to the sun the title of 

*^ It is remarkable," says Profes.sor J. G. Miiller, " that 
the well-instructed Acosta should have known nothing 
about the adoration of a hi^diest invisible God, under 
tlie name of Teotl. And yet this adoration has Ix»en i-c- 
ported in the most certain manner by others, and made 
evident from more exact statements reganling the nature 
of this deity. He liaa been sumamed Iimlnemoan, that 
is, He through whom we live, and Tloquenahuar|uc, that 
i». He who is all tilings throxigh himself. He has been 
looked ujwn as the originator and essence of all thmgs, 
and as csjxicially throned in the high cloud-surrounded 
moiuitains. Rightly does Wuttke contend against any 
conception of this deity as a monotheistic one, the poly- 
thcir^m of the people being considered — for jwlythoism and 
monotlieistn will not be yoked together; even if a logical 
concordar»ce were found, the inner spirits of the princi- 
ples of the two would still be op|)osed to each other. 
Another argument stands also clearly out. in the total 
absence of any prayers, offerings, feasts, or temples to or 
in the honor of this god. From this it is evident that 
Teotl was not a god of the common i)eople. Yet this, 
on the other hand, cannot justify us, — the so- frequently- 
occurring statements of well-informed authorities being 
taken into account, — in denying in toto all traces of a pan- 
theistic monotheism, as this latter may easily spring up 

" 1 would call attration to the fact Uiat Alvaredo, tbe raddjr haDdsoma 
8paiii«b cNTiUiin, vut calltil Tonaliiih 1>y the Mf^xicanR, jiist a8 Banuibnit waa 
coUfd Jupiter, and I'nal. Mercurina, by tb« iiooplu oi Lystrn — going \o ahow 
hov ttufetiith and nothroponiorpbic Mere the ideas connected with the sun* 
god br the llexlcaiiB. 

• T^'s rrim. CvU., toL u., p. 31L 


among cultivated jwlytlieiste && a logical result and out- 
come of their nutunil relitiion. Nezahualcoyotl, the en- 
lightened king of Tezcuco, iidored as the cause of causes, 
a god without an ininge, Tlic chief of the Totonac 
uhorigines of Ceinjjtjiilliin Inid, if we may credit the 
siK'cch put in his mouth hy has Cosoe and Uerrera, an 
idea of a highest god :uid creator. This ahstmct 
idea has also here, as in other jMvrts of America, inter- 
twined itself witli tlie conception of a sun-god. Hence 
the Mexicans nnmed the sun-god pre-eminently I'eotl; 
and that enlightened king of Tezcuco. who huilta temple 
of nine stories — symbolizing tlie nine heavens — in lionor 
of the stars, called the sun-god his father.""' 

*' To the most ancient gods, ' says Ivlcmra, ''belonged 
tlie divinities of nature, as well as a highest being called 
Teotl, (jro<l. lie was jierfet^t, independent, and invisible, 
and consecinently not repi*esented by any image, llis 
qualities were represented by expressions like these: 
He through whom we live, He who is all in liimself. 
This god coincides very nearly with the Waster of 
Life of the North Americans. In opjx>sition to him 
is the evil spirit, the enemy of mankind, who orten 
apijears to and terrifies tliem. He is called Tlacate- 
cololotl, that is to Bay, Rational Owl, and may possi- 
bly, like the Latne-foot of the Peruvians, Imj a sur- 
vival from the times when the old hunter-nations hi- 
habitcd tlte forests and mountains. Next to Teotl 


IB ifiUlfT, AvifHUanlgcKe UntU^onm, pp. 473-4. Tbfl sodden difldutcad 
receinblitDce in fonn and ttiKQi^i'ntion bi-tween tbo two Mcxionn wordft teaU 
Abd caUi {fiov Mutina, V'ucxtbtilaritn a.nd the two Grork wucd» f/irot mod 
hdia, is cuiupU-U'ly euouKli itoticvd ty Miiller. * Die Mfxiliuiii.^-h<'U Volker 
liab<:-u fiaeii Apiit.'lltLtivuiiiiit-u (iir GotI, Ti-otI, wi Ichrr, da die UuchMlabcn 
(I bluKso azu-kiacbe liUiiiuug suid, luc-rk-wiirdigt-r WoiMs suit ilcm ludofier- 
niaiiL><'beu tlicos, Doiut, Dvva, Dew, zuHiuuincnKliiuDit. I>U'»4.^ii Wort wird 
i:nr Bildtuig nuuicher OStleruamfii oder KiiUii»i^fgpniit«nde gebrnacbt. 
Hieber geb^ren di« 06tt«nuim«n Tcotlncozniiqui, Toociuuctli. Tt'oletl, 
Tt'oyaiiiiqiu, Tlozoltootl. T>fr T«'inp4'l hciunt TeoralU {vgl. Kftliii. Hiitl*', 
Kalitis CiiiH-DiO oder Hiirllicli Hiiuh (icittcH — dnx ^uttliche Bncli, TeoainoxUi, 
rrieHtvi Tfopuixqui, uiler uncb Ti'oteiiktli. fine Proscwiou Teuiienemi, 
GtiUennnriu-b. Ditxti kaiiiiiu>n lUK-b mant-be Nam«n von HUdtcn, die als 
KuILuhmiIkl- uiuKi'iericIiUf t wart'D. wi>> dan ucb et-hon frilberbckHunt Keircird^ne 
TeutUiuiictai. lui I'lurul i^-itrdt'D diu GMttT leulvit (jmntiut una «'bru ko, 
vie ans Hernal Diuz ku oft erzfthit, die Gt^Mhrten dps C<ai» welohe d&A £0- 
ZDcina Yolk ala G6ttvr b«z«icbufu wuUte.' Jd., p. 472. 



was Tezcatlipoca, that is to say. Shining Mirror; he 
was the god uf providence, the HJtil of the worKl, 
and the creator ol' lieaven and earth. Teotl was 
not represented by any image, and was probably not 
■worshiiK'd with offerings nor in any special ttinples; 
Tezcatlijxjca was, however, so represented, and that as 
ft youth, because time could have no power over hiH 
beauty and hia splendor. He rewarded the ric^hteous, 
nnd punished the unpodly with sickness and mistbrtuiie. 
lie created the world, and mankind, and the sun, and 

' the water, and he was himself in a certain degree the 
overseer thereof. "" 

The Abbe lira*^senr believes in the knowledge by the 
Xe-xicans and certain neighlxiring or related nations, of 

L<i Supreme God; but he thinks also that the names of 
It priests and legislators have oiten been u.scd ibr or 
ifounded with the one Name above every name. He 
nys: "111 the traditions that have reached us the 

j-xiame of the legislator is often confused with that 

fjof the divinity; and behind the symljolic veil that covers 
j>rimitive history, he who civilized nnd brought to light 

I in the Americans a new life, is designedly identified with 
'the Kuther of the universal creation. The writers who 

^ treat of the history of the ancient Amcrio^m nations avow 
that, at tlie time of the landing of the Spaiiianis on the 
soil of the western continent, there wiu* not one that did 
not recognize the existence of a supreme deity and arbi- 
ter of the universe. In that cdidiision of religious ideas, 
which is the inevitable result of ignonmce and sui^rsti- 

Irtion, the notion of a unique immaterial being, of an in- 
ruable power, had survived the shipwreck of pure prirai- 
ive creeds. Under the name Tloque-Xahuaque, the 

^Mexicans adored Ilim who is the first cause of all things, 
wiio preserves and sustains all by liis providence; call- 
ing him again, for the same reason, Ipalnemoaloni, He 

'in whom and by whom we are and live. This god wae 
the same as that Kunab-Ku, the Alone Holy, who was 
lored in Yucatan; the same again as that Hurakan, 

U Kemtu, CuUur-lltiKftieKlt, turn, t., pp. 111-^. 



the Voice that Cries, the Heart of Heaven, found with the 
Guatemalan nutions of Central America; and tlie same 
lastly as that Tcotl, God. whom we find named in the 
Tzcndnl and Mexican Ix)oks. Tliis "God of all purity," 
as he was styled in a Mexican prayer, was, huwuver, too 
elevated for the thoughts of the vulgar. His existence 
was recopnized, and sa^ea invoked him; hut he had 
neitiier temples nor altars, — perhaps because no one 
knew how he should be represented. — and it was only 
in the times of the Aztec monairhy that Nezahual- 
coyotl, king of Tezcuco, dedicated to him a teocalli of nine 
terracGH, without statues, under the title of tlie unknown 

Mr Gallatin says of the Mexicans: " Their mythology, 
as far as we know it, presents agi-eat numlier of uncon- 
nected gods, without nppai-ent system or unity of design. 
It exhibits no evidence of metaphysical research or ima- 
ginative |)ower.s. Viewed only us a development of the 
intt'lk'ctutd faculties of mail, it is, in every respect, vastly 
inferior to tlic religious systems of Kgypt, India. Greece, 
or Scandinavia. If imported, it must have been from 
some barlKirous country, and brought directly from such 
country to Mexico, since no traces of a similar worship 
arc found in the more northern parts of America."" 

''The Aztecs," writes Prcscott, ''recognized the exist- 
ence of a Supreme Creator and Lord of the Universe. 
But the idea of unit^- — of a lacing, with whom volition 
is action, who has no need of inferior ministers to 
execute his purposes— was too simple, or too vast, for 
their understandings; and they sought relief as usiml, 
in a phn-ality of deities, who presided over the elements, 
the changes of the seasons, and the various occupations 
of man., there were thirteen principal deities, 
and more than two hundred inferior; to each of whom 
some special day. or appropriate festival, was conse- 

1* Brassfur de Boarbounj, Hhl. des Jtfof. Civ., torn. i,. np. 4&-A. 
»* Gallftliii. in Amer. Antiq. Soc. TroMnd., toI. i,, p. 3u2, 
14 Pre4cott'4 Conq. of Mtx., Tol. i., p. 57. 



According: to Mr Squicr: *' The origina! deities of the 
Mexican pantheon are few in number. Thus when the 
Mexicans engaged in a war, in defense of the liberty or 
sovereignty of their country, they invoked the AVar God, 
under his aspect and name Iluitzlipochtli. AVhen sud- 
denly attacked by enemies, they called ujwn the same 
jgod, under his aspect and name of l*a3nalton. which im- 
fplied God of Emerjjencies. etc. In fjiet, as already clse- 
] ■where ob8er\^ed, all the divinities of the Mexican, as of 
[every other mythology, I'csolve themselves into the pri- 
pmeval God and Goddess." ^^ 

" The iKjpiilation of ('entnil America," says the Vi- 
J-comte dc Hussierrc, '* although they luid preserved the 
vii^ic notion of a siifwrior eternal God and creator, 
(known by the name Teotl. IkuI an Olympus jw numerous 
i.<ithatofthc Greeks and the Romans. It wotdd appear, — 
Jie most ancient, thou<;hr unfortunately, also tlic most 
obscure legends being followed,^that during the civilized 
?riod which preceded the successive invasions of tlie 
barbarous hordes of the nortli, the inhabitants of Ana- 
luac joined to the idea of a supreme being the woi*ship 
yf the sun and the moon, ottering them (lowers, fruits, 
'ftnd the first fruits of their fields. The most ancient 
monuments of the country, such as the pyramids of Teo- 
tihu;ican, were incontcstably consecrated to these lumi- 
naries. IjGt us now trace some of the most striking 
features of these ]^eople. Among the number of tlieir 
gods, i» found one reprasented under the figure of a man 
eternally young, and considered as the symix)! of the 
supreme nnd mysteriotia God. Two other pods there 
were, watching over mortals from the height of a celestial 
city, and charge*! with the accomplishment of their 
prayers. Air, earth, fire, nnd water had their particu- 
liir divinities. The woman of the serpent, the prolific 
woman, s!ie wlio never ^nvo birth but to twins, was 
atlured as the mother of the human raee. 'J'lie sun nnd 
the moon had their altars. Various divinities presided 
over the phenomena of nature, over the day, the night, 

u S^ttUr's SerpaU Symifol, p, 17. 



the mist, the thunder, the harvest, the mountains^ and 
6o on. Souls, the place of tlie dead, warriors, hunters, 
merchants, (ishinjr. love, drunkeuneas, medicine, ilowers, 
and many other thinjcs had their special pods. A multi- 
tude of heroes and of illustrious kings, whose a|X)theo«ifi 
had been decreed, took tlieir place in this vast |«inthcon, 
where were Ijcsides seated two lamdred and sixty divin- 
ities of inferior i*ank, to each of Mhom lieverthcless one 
of the days of the year was consecrated. Lastly, every 
city, every family, every individual, had its or his celes- 
tial protector, to whom worship was rendered. The 
number of the temples corres()onded to that of the gods; 
tiu'se teniiiles were found everywhere, in the cities, in 
the fielils, in the wootls, along the roads, and all of them 
hud priests charged with their service. This complicated 
mythology was common to all the nations of Anahuac, 
even to those that the empire had l>een unable to sub- 
jugjite and with which it was at war; but each country 
hiul its favorite gcxl. such gi)d being to it, what Huitzilo- 
pochtli, the god of war, was to the Aztecs." ^"^ 

Tlie Mexican religion, as summed upby Mr BrantzMay- 
er,'" "was a coniiwund of spiritualism and gross idolatry; 
for the Aztecs believed in a Supreme Deity, whom they 
called TeotI, God; or Ipalnemoani, lie by whom we 
live; or Tloque Naliuaque, He who has all in himself; 
while their evil spirit Iwre the name of Tlaleatcololotl, 
the Rational Owl. These spiritual beings are sui^ 
rounded by a nuini)er of lesserdivinities, who were prob- 
ably the ministerial agents of Teotl. These were 
Huitziloix>tchtli, the gfxi of war, and Teoyaomiqui, 
his s|x>use, whose duty it was to conduct the souls of 
warriors who jxTished in defense of their homes and 
and religion to the ' house of the eun,' the Aztec heaven. 
HuitzilopotchtH, or Me.vtli, the god of war, was the 
special protector of the Aztecs; and devoted its they 
were to war, this deity was always invoked before battle, 

!<• Busntrrt, t'Empirt Mtstiealn. pp. 131-3. 

" Jtntidj Maytr, iu Sckootcr^j'Va Arch., vol. vi., p. C85; sm also, Sranti 
Haycr'M ifuci«o <u it uxu, p. 110. 


fftTid recom{H?nse(l after it by the oftering of numerous 
captives taken in oonflict," 

*' The religion of tlic Mexicans," writes Seilor Cnrbnjal 
rEspinowi," plnjrinrizing ns litonilly us jxJwiMe from Clavi- 
rgero, **wiwu tissue of errors and ofcniclnnd superstitious 
ites. Siinilnr in(iniiitiert of the human niiml are in- 
spanihle from a religious system originating in caprice 
1(1 fwir, as we see oven in tlie most cultured nations 
3f antiquity. If the religion of the Mexicans be cora- 
ired witli that of the Greeks and Romans, it will be 
|fi>imd that the latter is tlie more superstitious and ridic- 
lulous and the former tlie more barbarous and sangui- 
lary. These celebrated nations of ancient Europe 
lultiplied excessively their gods lx?cau^ of the mean 
idea that they had of their power; restricting their rule 
rithin narrow limits, attribtiting to them the most atro- 
'olou.s crimes, and solemni/ing their \voi><hip with such 
exeeralile inipurities as were so justly condemned by the 
fatherR of Christianity, The gods of the Mexicans were 
Irss im]K*rfi!ct, and their wortship althuugh superstitious 
ci>ntniu<'d nothing repugmint to decency. They liad 
flcnne idea, although imperfect, of a Supreme I?eing, ab- 
Bolute, indeiMjndent, Ijelieving that they owed him tri- 
bute, mloratiuu, and fear. They had no figure wliereby 
to ix'present him, Ixdieving him to be invisible, neither 
did they give him any other name, save the generic one, 
God. which is in the Mexican tongue teotl, ivsendding 
even more in sense than in pronunciation the theos of 
tlie Greeks; they used, however, epithets, in the highes-t 
degree expressive, tosigtiily the gr;xudeur and the power 
vbieh they believed him endowed with, calling him 
Ipalnemoani, that is to say, He l>y whom we live, and 
Tloi|ue-Xahuai]ue, which means, Ho that is all things in 
himself. But the knowledge and the worship of this 
Supreme Essence wereobsouRxl by the multitude of gods 
invente*! by superstition. The |)eople believed furtlier- 
morc in on evil spirit, inimical to mankind, calling 

» Corbyui Espinosa^ Ihsl. de Mcmco, torn, i., pp. 463-9; Clavtgerv, Storia 
Ant. det ilBmiw, tom. il., pp. ;M. 


him Tliicatecololotl, or Rational Owl. and saying that 
oftentimes he revealed himself to men, to hurt or to 
terrii'v them." 

"The Mexicans and the Tczcucans," following Scfior 
Pimentel, " recognized the existence of a Supreme Being, 
of a First Cause, and gave him that generic title Teotl. 
God. tlie analogy of which with the Theos of the Greeks, 
haa heen alreotly noted by various authors. The idea of 
God is one of those that apix;ar radical to our very exist- 
ence. . . With the Mexicans and Tezcucans this idea 
was darkened by the adoration of a thousand gods, in- 
voked in all emergencies; of these gods there were thir- 
teen principal, the most notable being the god of prov- 
idence, that of war, and that of the wind and waters. 
The god of providence had his seat in the sky, and had 
in hirt caiv all hmnan aftairs. The god of the waters 
was considered as the fertilizer of earth, and Ijis dwelling 
was in the highest of the mounttiins wnere he arranged 
the clouds. The god of war was the principal protector 
of the Mexicans, their guide in their wanderings from 
the mysterious country of Aztlan, the god to whose 
favor they owed those great victories that elevated them 
from the lowly estate of lake-fi.shermen up to the lord- 
ship of Anahuac. The god of tlie wijid had an aspect 
more benign. . . .The Mexicans also worshi^x-d the sun 
and the moon, and even, it would appear, certain ani- 
mals considered as sacred. There figured also in the 
Aztec mythology an evil genius cidled the Owl-man,'' 
eince in some manner the good and the bad, mixed up 
here on earth, have to Ije explained. So the rersians 
had their Oromasdes and Arimanes, the iirst the genius 
of good, and the second of evil, and so, later, Maniche- 
ism presents us with analogous explanations."^ 

Soils, writing of Mexico and the Mexicans sa^-s; 
"There was hardly a street without its tutelary god; 
neither was there any calamity of nature without its altar, 
to which they had recourse for remedy. They imagined 

'9 Hotnbre Buho. 

N Pimttd^, Mem, gobrt la Rata ladUjma, pp. 1I~I3. 



and made their gods out of their own fear; not under- 
etandin;5 tlmt they leiisened tlie power of 8ome by what 
tliey attributed to others. . . . But for all so many as were 
their gods, and so complete aa was tlie blindneHs of their 
idolatry, tliey were not without the knowledge of a 
Superior Deity, to whom they attributed the creation of 
the heavens and the carlli. This original of things was, 
among the >[exican9, a god without name; they had no 
word in tlieir language witli which to express him, only 
they gjive it to Ix' understoocl that they knew him. pointing 
reverently towards heaven, and giving to him after their 
fusion the attribute of ineffable, with that sort of relig- 
ious tmcertainty with which the Athenians venerated the 
Unknown God. " " 

The interpreter of the Codex Telleriano-Remensis calls 
the Supreme God of the Mexicims by the name Tonaca- 
teotle.^ The interpreter says: " God, Lord, Creator, 
Governor of all, Tloque, Niuia(|. ThUticpaque, Teotlalale- 
Matlava-Tei)eva, — all tlicso epithets they be.stowed on 
tiieir god Tonacateotle, who, they said, was the god that 

[created the world; and iiim alone they painted with a 
crown lis lord of all. They never offered HJUiriHixis to 

■ this god for tliey said he cared not for sucli thingH. All 
the others to whom they sacrificed were men once on a 

I time, or demons." ** 

We have already seen from lierrera that '* the Mexi- 

icans confessed to a Supreme God, Lord, and maker of 
all things, and the said Go^i was the principal that they 
veaeratedj looking towards heaven, and calling him 

ti Satis, li'at. de la Conq. i/f .1f« . torn. i.. pp. 393-9. i3l. 

BOallatiD. m Ainer. EthnfA. !^(k.. Transact, vol. i., p. 3S0, idcDtiflca 

ttuH (Eod wiUi TrzcaLli]H>ca uf whom he nrrlteit iu the followiufc lorins: * Tcz- 

' ctttlipocA. A true iuvinible ^otl, dwelln iu hcavc-n, earth, autl bill ; alone 

[ at&etula to itu- Ki^*^rtiiu*^i)^ ot tUo MV'orKt, cives and takett away vroullU ami 

[ prcMperitr. CnlU-d oU^ THUtcua ( whcuce bin star TUl<icahuan ) . Vuder (h« 

[ BAme or Se-^ocyvtU, th« author of wnrs and diflcord.4. Accon^lia^ to lioturici, 

I 1m ia lli« gud of providence. Hti ftM-ms to bo tlio only eqaivaleut for the 

ToMualtrtaktU of tbo intenirflters of the Codices.' 

O Rrptie. M CtnJct TtUrriaivffinnmT'U, iu K'nffsbormujh'a Hrx. Anilq., 

I vol. v., p. liiS. I take th'w opportunity of cautioning thu rcod'^r n;;uiutit 

iLing!«boroa|{h's tranftlatjon of thit abovr codex, as wl-U a» ngaiuMt hin troiis- 

]«tt'>a of th(^ fipifjniione dflU 7'uiwfffW''.Wi/<.lfi'xic«no.'every«rrorthat could 

Titutd ft tnuuLolion aeeiuB to bftvu cru^t iutu these two. 



Creator of Iieaven and earth."'* In contra-distinction 
to this it may be weU to cunMider the ioUowinir extract 
from the sjime author: " Such was the blindness of the 
Mexicans, even to the natural liicht. that they did not 
tiiink like men of good judgment that all created things 
were the work and effect of some immense and infinite 
cause, the which only the Kiixt Cau^i« and true God in. 
. . . .And in Mexico alone (according to the conunon 
opinion) they hod and adored twotliousand gods, of whom 
the print^ipal were Vizilipuxtli and Tezeatlipucatl, who 
as supreme were set up in the heightof the great temple, 
over two altars. . . .Tezcatlipucatl wiis the god of provi- 
dence, and Vizilipuztli tlie god of war." ^ 

SjKjakin;; of Mexican temples"'' and pods, Oviedo says: 
''But ilontezuma had the chief [temple], together with 
three other prayer-houses, in which lie siicrificed in 
lienor of four gods, or idol.**, that he had ; of these they 
had one for god of war, as the Gentiles had Mars; to 
another they gave honor and sacrifice as god of the 
waters, even as the ancients gave to N eptune ; another they 
adored for god of the wind, as the lost heathen adored 
^tdiis; and another still they revered as their s«)vereign 
god, and this was the sun. . They hail further other 
goils; making one of them god of the maize-fields, attri- 
buting to bini the power of guarding and multiplying 
the same. a« the fable-writing poets and ancients of an- 
tiquity did to Ceres. They had gods for everything, 
giving attributes to eiicli according to their surmises, in- 
vesting them with that godheiul which they had not, and 
with which it was not right to invest any save only the 
true God.' =' 

Speaking in general terms of probably a large part of 

H S«e thin vol. j*. 57, noto 13. On pngm 55 and 56. nod in the nolo ptfr- 
tatnia^ thftvlo, will nUn bo f<.nmii many rufereiions beuitif; on the miUter 
under present diKOn^tsiou, 

'' Urrrtra, /tint, fhn., Aec. ii., lib. vii., cap. xviii.. n. 253. 

K QtfM, OvU'do calls tbem. ( spelled rufs ti>' juukI uTlteni) tb« following ex- 
planTitiuii beins Riven in glossary of Vo''<9 Ainerie^nOA EnipitaJoa jxtr Ociedo, 
appended to Uie foartli voloioe of lb« TfiM.Oen.: 'Qii: tcinplo, catia de oroci- 
oa. Ksla voz em laoy Rf nernl en cAm toda AmorioB, y may piiocipttlme&to 
en l«B ooinnrcivff do Yucatan y Mechnarnn.* 

^ Ooitdo, liitA. Oen., torn, ui., p. 503. 



^JCew S|Miin, Ton|iieniada, mxys: *' Those idolaters did 

aol deny that they had a god culled Y|)iilneiuoaloiu, that 

to say, Lord by whom wo Uve, and his nature is that 

iiH existence is in hinisclP': the which is most proper 

!C> Gtxl, who is in his essence life. But that in which 

lem people erred was in distributing thiH divinity and 

tattribnting it to many gotls; yet, in reality, and verily, 

rlliey recojrnized a Supreme God, to whom all the others 

were inferior. But for the greatness of their sins, they 

lackiMi faith and ran into this error like the other nations 

that have done so." 

AcostA, as has Wn already noticed by Professor J. 
G. Mailer, either never heard of or disbelieved in the 
existence of the name TeotI and of the idea;* connected 
therewith by so many historians." The said Acosta 
iiys: **If wee shall seeke intt> the Indian t^mcne for a 
rord to answer to this mime of God, as in Latin, Deus; 
in Greeke/rheos ; in Hebrew, Kl; in Arabike, Alia; but 
Iwee shall not finde any in the Cuscim or Mexicaine 
5ues. So as such as prejicli, or write to the Indians, 
our Spanish name Dios, fitting it to the accent or 
;>nouriciation of the Indian tongues, tlie which differ 
|jnuch, whereby appeares the small knowledge they had 
rf God. seeing they caruiot so mucli as name him, if 
[it be not by our very nan»e: yet in trueth they had 
little knowledge. . . .The Mexicaines almost in the 
manner [as the PeniviaiiH] after tlie siipreame God, 
rorsbiixKl the Sunne: And therefore they called Her- 
nando Cortez. Soime of the Sunne, for his care and 
ooun^re to compasse the earth. But tliey made their 

> ' YpalonnoAlani, que qaivro decir, Sefior por t^uien »e nve, y la aikt on 
I iit Satanlr^a.' Turiptrmniia, Mtmarxi. Intl., torn, lii., p. 30. 

"> 8ro this ^«I. p. 183. — Not, he it reiimrketl tbnt Ai-oata demeii tbo knowl- 
bjr the Mexiraiui of a Htiiirvmv Uotl: ht> ouly dc^meM Ui« exiKteuct* of 
MUil« by vhich Uie *»id ili'ilv watt ^eucTally knuwc. Tbu ix ol<'ar fn>m 
foUowiDg extnMrt rmui the I'li^. Nat. Intl.. 'p. :i33: 'Fintt, ftltfaougli the 
erne of infidelitiH bnld»'tli tlieftn natloiiit in hliudftiesse, yH in manj, 
t the liubt of tniUi and reaMiD wnrkti Minu-wbat iu tbvui. Aiid tbcr 
tXy Acknowledtie a BUproatnR Lonle uuil Author ot nil tbtn^H, wbicn 
I'lbcT cif I'rni t-Allfd VimriH'bii . Him they did wontbip, lut thv flii<if(i-Ht of 
' all, whom they did bonur in beholding the bvavcu. The bkc wcu hoc ainongeHt 

Vm. m. U 


greatest adoration to an Idol called Vitzilipuztli, the 
which in all this region they called the most piiiasant 
and Lord of all things: for this cause the Mexiwunes 
built him a Temple, the greatest, the fairest, tl»e highest, 
and the most sumptuous of all others. ... But heere 
the Mexicaines Idolatrie hath hiu more pernicious and 
hurtfull than that of the Inguas. a« we<» shall see plainer 
heereafter, for that tlie greatest jmrt of tlteir iulor.ition 
and idolatrie, was imployed tu Idols, and not to naturall 
things, although they did attribute naturall eftects to 
these IdoHs. as raine, multiplication uf cattell, warrc, and 
generation, even as the Greekes and Latins have foiled 
Idolls of Phoebus, Mercurie, Jupiter, Miner\'a, and of 
Mars. To conclude, who so shall neerely looke into it, 
eball finde this mamier which the Divell hath vsed to 
deceive the Indians, to Ijc tlie same wherewith hce hath 
deceived the Greekes and Uonians, and other ancient 
Gentiles, giving them to vnderstand that these notable 
creatures, the Sunne, Moone, Starres, and Elements, had 
jx)wer and authoritie to doe gcKxl or harme to men." *' 

Mendieta says: *' It IH to be noted for a genei*al rule 
tliat, though these people, in all the continent of these 
Indias. from the farthest parts of Xew Spain to the part* 
of Florida, and farther still to the kingdoms of Peru, 
had, iw h:us Ijeen said, an infinity of idoLs that they 
reverenced as gods, nevertheless, alwve all, they still 
held the sun aft chiefest and most powerful. And they 
dedicated to the sun the gi-eatest, richest^ and most 
sumptuous of their temples. This should be the power 
the Mexicans called Ipahiemohuani, that is to say^ 'by 
whom all live,' and Moyucuyatzin ^i>iic orjuiyotMix ayac 
y 0(|uipic, tliat is to say, ' he that no one created or formed, 
but who, on the contrary, made all things by his own 
jwwer and will.' ... So many are the fictions and fa- 
bles that the Indians invented about their gods, and so 
differently are these related in the diflfcrent towns, that 
neither can they agree among themselves in recounting 


M Aeosta, Uiai. Nai. Ind., pp. 334, 337-«. 



[them, nor shall there be found any one whosliiiU under- 

4id them. In the principal provinces of this New 

_ lin, they had, — after the mm, which was the common 

I god of tliem all, — each province, itw particular and prin- 

cijwil god. to which god alx)ve all others they otlered 

their sacrifices; as the Mexicans to Uzilopuchtli — a name 

that the Spaniards not beinj^ able to pronounce called 

jOchololjas, 'eight wolves', or L'chilol)OH; as theTezucans 

(to Tezcatlipuca; as the TIaxcalans to CamaxtU, and 

land as the Cholulans to (Juetzalcoatl ; doubtless all 

I those were famous men that perfonned some notable 

[feat«, or invented some new thing, to ttie honor and 

benefit of the state; or jxirhaps again those gave the 

people laws and a rule of life, or taught thorn trades, or 

j to oft'er up gacrifiees, or some other thing that appeared 

[good and worthy to be rewarded with gniteful acknowl- 

icdgements. . . .The demon, the old enemy, did not 

[content himself with the service that these people did 

I him in the adoration of almost every visible creature, 

[in making idols of them, both carven and jminted, but 

[he also kept them blinded with a thousand fashions of 

I nitchcratls. parodies of sacraments, and superstitions."** 

'■ It is well to remark," writes Camargo, '* that although 

the Indians had a divinity for each thing, they were 

I aware of the existence of a Supreme God that they named 

Tloqne-Xahuatiue, or He who contains all, regarding the 

same an sujierior to all the other gods." This Tliwcaltec 

Lftutliur has also preserved us a native prayer couched in 

tlie following terms: "0, all-jxjwerful gtxis, that inhabit 

' tlie heavens, even as far as the ninth, where abides yoiu* 

Lmoster and ours, the great Tlotjue-Nahuaque (this name 

lineans, lie that flccompaniea the other gods'"), — you that 

>i JfwrfWo. niM. E<lt»., pp. 88. 91. 107. 

*" TIm* iiiurprf Ution of the title Tloqiw Nahnnque is not onl^ irreconoi- 
^Ifttilc with itDnlher ({iven by the sntne author n f«ir liaps above in onr Uijl, 
V\m.i it in aUo at atter vanani.'» with thusv of alt otb«r aathorn with which I 
F*atD ao4|iiaiDtM. It mav nnt hf* amiHH harp to tnrti to the (test nnihority ac- 
laiMaitl* In mattcni of Mexican U)i<>m: Molinu, Voaifminriu, d«iu.Tib»(i the 
I All* lo mean, ' He upon whom depi-ods ihe existence of nil ihint;s, prenerr* 
Efa^ fttid mitalning tLom,'— a word u((«d also to mean tjud, or Loid. ' Tlo- 

ftf wiii'j4ue, cabe qnien c«ta el aer dc todaa las coaaa, conseraaudolaa y ans- 

•atoiuloiM: 7 diine dc nro acilor dios.' 



have all j)ower over men forsake xw not in danger. We 
invoke you, as well also as the sun XauhoUn, and the 
moon, sjxjuse of that brilliant luminary, the stan* of 
heaven aliO, and the wind of the ni^ht and of the day."'* 

According to the somewhat va^e and incomplete ac- 
count of Fray Toribio de Benavente. or Motoliiiia,— the 
latter his lulopted name and that by which he is l>e»t 
known, — another of the original and early authoritiea in 
matter oonccniing the gentile Mexicans: " Tezcatlipt>ca 
was the god or demon that they held for greatest and 
to wliurn most dignity was attributed . . . They had 
idols of stone, and of wood, and of 1>aked clay ; they also 
made them of dough and of seeds knended into the 
dough . . . Some of them were shaped like men,. . . some 
were like women ; . . . some were like wild l^easts, as liona, 
tigers, dogs, deer, and such other animals as frequented 
the mountains and plains; . . . some like snakes of many 
fashions, large and coiling ... Of tlie owl and otlier 
night-birds, and of others as the kite, and of every large 
bird, or beautiful, or fierce, or preciously feathered, — 
they had an idol. But the principal of all was the sun. 
Likewise had they idols of the moon and stars, and of 
the great fishes, and of tlie water- lizards, and of toads and 
frogs, and of other fishes; and these they said were the 
gola of the lishes . . . They had for gods fii-e, water, and 
earth; and of all these they had painted fignrej*...Of 
many other tilings they had figures and idols, carved or 
painted, even of butterHies, fie:ts, and locusta."^ 

NeKaliualcoyotl, king of Tezcuco, was he who — accord- 
ing tt» the no doubt somewhat partial account of his de- 
ficxjndant Ixtlilxochitl^ — -pushed the farthest into overt 
speech and act his contempt of the vulgar idolatry and 
his recognition of a high, holy, and to a great extent 
unknowable supreme power. This thoughtful monarch 
*' found for false all tlie gods adored by the people of 
this land, saying that they were statues and demons 

n Cwiutrgo, Hist. <f« Ttax., in ^fouveUts Aimaka da Voff., 1843, torn, xoriii., 
p. 1^1. iom. xcix.. p. 168. 

H MotolbtSa, mat. /ndftw, in iflOs&oJbete, Cof., torn, t, pp.i, 83-£l. 

■••T*.-^. -.»*« 



[ hostile to the human race ; for he -was very learned in 

[moral thin<!H^ and he went to and fro more than any 

[ other, seeking if haply lie mij^ht find light to aihnn the 

true Qod and creator of all things, as has been Reen in 

\ the diBCourac of his history, and as bear witnesH tlie sonjiH 

thtU he composed on this theme. He Kiid thai titere 

I was only One, that this One was the maker of heaven 

and eartli.thathe sustained all hehiwl nuuleand (.'nMito*U 

and that he was where wa^; no second, above the nine 

heavens; that no eye had ever seen this One, in a human 

eha|)e nor in any sha[XJ whatever; that the K4^u1s of the 

^virtuous went to him after death, while tlie souls of the 

went to another place, some most infamous sjiot of 

P«arth, filled witli honnhle hanlshi|).s and sufferings. 

[Never — lliongh there were many gods repivsenting many 

lidols — did the king neglect an opijortunity of easing 

I when divinity was disotisse<l, 'yntlotjue in naulinque y 

ipalne moalani,' which sentence sums up his oonvictions 

as alx>ve expressed. Nevertheless he recognized the sun 

|aa his father and the earth as his mother."^ 

Now it is in the face of much that has been said deny- 
[ing or doubting Ixtlilxochitl's account of the creed of 
I \€^,aJuialco\ otl that I have selected the iwssage above 
translated, fmm among other |>as«ageMti^uching the simie 
subject in the Ift^oria Chlc/u?itef:a and in tlie Jielaciones. 
I have selected it not because it is the most clearly 
wortled, or the most eUxpient, or the niostcromplete; but 

» biliUitcMU, mat. CJdehiMrro, in Kiif}»boroa:th's Jfnr. Atitiq., vol. h., p. 
tWl- * Txxio pur ialaoB k IocIom 1o» diutteu quo adonUMiii lot de esttt tiena, 
etudo (|Ui> rruu caLitaiLH 6 demoDios ent-migos del g^nero htmuuio; por 
toe may aiibio «d Uk co«u moralet, y cl que mita vMili'i buKcuido de 
d* tomu Inmbre pan certiflcane del vetdntleru Vwh y criudor du Uiiln» 

I eomth, oomo m tui vUto en el diacuno do au hihtoria, v iLiu tt-Hiimouia 

Faiu c&nttM qa« compnso en ni7A>n de tutn ocum vn v\ dfcir quo liiibiii mm 
Lpolo, y qn» •xMw trn e\ liM'cdur del riulo y dL> lit tit'ira, y HUKtentului todo lt> 
' > y r-' ' *1. V <I'it' estabtt doude jki (t^uiu »M't,'iiii(lo, Mjbrt- Um nncve 

, qn iImi, que jauiUM hu liitliiu viKto vu forum liDiiiatM, m ntTH 

, qut 1 '■ui ii jiamr \m» almuKdu U» virtuoHox dt^piu^x doiiiUfrtoH, 

^2 qne bui dt> ton iuaJ<m ihun i ulro lu^jitr, quu f m v\ mns miimo f\v bi tiemi, 
IdBtrab^joti y LM'riuH faiiirilili'M. Khih-ji jwiiuik (Hunqne Iiii1ii» mnt-bixt )d<ilo<t 
Isae rvpnuieiitiuiuii iiim:liuH diiiHed) cimiiao se ofntuiii trHt ir t\t> dHidiul. ui c>ii 

Enml ni ft\ niirtirnbtr, tUno qiin dmnn- ynllnqnf> in nanhnqan y |iiilnn moa* 
DJ. qoe itiffmOra lu t^ne eiiUi ati-nn dfclanido Soto dtN-iii qui* rfi-ou<>ciE«] 
I scd nor Mdrr>; y 11 Li tif>m por mndrc* Keu aluo the Ittladanta of the SUO* 
antbor, tn tbe Mme Tolomc. p. 4&4. 



solely on account of the sentence with which it conchides: 
Nezahualcoyotl " recognized tlie Hiin a-s ln« father 
and the earth as his mother." These few words occurr- 
ing at the end of a eidogy of the great Tezcucan by n 
confessed admirer, tliese few woi*d8 that have passed un- 
noticed amid Uie din and hidjbuh raised over the lofty 
creed to which they fonn the last article, these few words 
80 insignificant apptirently and yet so significant in tlieir 
connetition.^should go far to prove the faithfulness of 
of Ixtlilxochitl's record, and the greater or lc**s complete- 
ness of his |)ortrait of his great ancestor. Were Ixtlilxo- 
chitl dishonest, would he ever have allowed such ajxigan 
chord as this to come jangling into the other>\*ise jx^rfect 
music of his description of a jx^rfect sage and Christian, 
who believed in a God alone and all-sulhcient, who be- 
lievetl in a creator of all things without any liclp at all, 
much loss the help of his dead material creatures the sun 
and the earth? Let us admit the honesty of Ixtlilxo- 
chitl, and admit witii him a knowledge of that Unknown 
God, whom, as did the Athenians, Nezahualcoyotl igno- 
rantly worshipetl; but let us not 1^ blinded by a glitter 
of words — which we may be sure lose nothing in the 
rciwtition — as to the significance of that * ignorantly;' 
let us never lose sight across the shadow of that obscure 
Athenian altar Ut the Unknown God, of the might)' 
columns of the Acmpolis and the creirt of the Athena 
Prouuichos. Nezahualcoyotl seems a fair tyjw of n 
thuuglilful, somewhat sceptical Mexican of that better- 
instructed class which is ever and everywhere the horror 
of hypot^rites and fanatics, of tliat class never without 
its witnesses in all countries and at all times, of that 
class tAvo steps aljove the ignorant laity, and one step 
above the learned priesthood, yet far still from that simple 
and perfect truth which shall one day be patent enough 
to all. 

Turning from the discussion of a point so obscure and 
intangible as the monotheism of Xexidiualcoyirtl and the 
school of which he was the tyiie, let us review the very 
palpable and indubitable polyllicism of the Mexicans. 




It seems radically to differ little fix>m other pol>*theisras 
better known, such aa those of Or*eece, Koine, and Scan- 
dinavia; it seems to have been a jumble of jiersoniiied 
powers, causes, and qualities, develoijed in the ordinary 
way from the mytliical corruption of tliat llorid hyper- 
bolical Htyle of speech natural to all [leoples in days 
l)efore the exact deOnition of words was either ixwtsi- 
hle or nt«eftsarv; just such a jumble as the Aryan 
polytheisms weri' in the days of the Kuheinerists. and for 
too long after unfortunately; such a jumble lus Aryan 
m^-thohigj wa"* till the l)rotliers firimin K'd the van of 
the riiK'st talent and scholarship of tlie niiK'teeiith cen- 
tury into the paths of * word-.Hlinnting,' which led again 
into god or hero (^Inuiting. if the tenn may l»e invented. 
Unfortunately the philologic and mytholugic uiatorialfor 
such an exhaustive synthesis (»f the origin and relations 
of the Auiericun creeds as Mr Gox, for example, has 
given to the world on the A ryan legends, in his Mytholfx^ 
of the Aryan Katiom, is yet far fmrn com|>k'te; which fiict 
indeed makes the raison d'etre of works like the present. 
Therc is nothing for me at present but to gather, sift, and 
arrange, with such sifting 4uid arrangement a.s may be pos- 
sible, all .'icces-Mible materials relatingtothe subject in hand ; 
that done let more skilled workmen find and give them 
their place in the wall of science. For they have a 
place there, whether or no it be found to-day or to- 
morrow ; a breiich is there that shall be empty imtil they 
fit and fill it 

Tezcatliixjca seems to have Ijeen eonKidcred on the 
whole, and the patron-gfxls of different cities aside, as the 
moKt imixirtant of the Mexican gixls. We liave seen 
him identifunl in neveml of the pretvdiiig ipiotntions 
with a sn[ireme invisil)le god, and I now proceed, illus- 
trating thiH phase of his charac^ter to trunslate a-s closely 
as ixjessible the various prayers given by Sahagun as jid- 
dreined to this great deity under his various names, 
Titlftooan, Yautl. Telpuchtli, Tlamatzinc^itl, Moiocoiatidn, 
laotzin, Xccociautl; Necaoalpilli. and others; — 



0, thou almighty God, that givest life to men, and 
art called Titlacaoan, grant me in thy mercy everything 
needful to eat and to drink, and to enjoy of thy toft and 
delicate thinjrs; for in grie\'ous toil and straitnesH 1 live 
in the world. Have mercy on me, bo poor 1 am and 
naked, I tliat lahor in thy service, and for thy service 
sweep, and clean, and put light in thin poor house, where 
1 await thine orders; otlierwise let me die soon and end 
this toilful and mif^mhle life, so that my body may find 
rest and a breathing-time. 

In illness the people prayed to this deity as follows: 

God, whose name is Titlacaoan, be merciful and send 
away this sickness which is killing me, and I will reform 
my life. I^et me be once healed of this infirmity and I 
swear to serve thee imd to earn the right to live; should 

1 by hard toil gain sometliing, I will not eat it nor 
employ it in anything save only to thine honor; I will 
give a feast and a banquet of dancing in this |xxjr house. 

But tlie sick man that could not recover, and that felt 
it 80. uswl to grow desjierate and blaspheme saying: 
Titlacaojui, since thou mockest rae, why dost thou not 
kill me?=« 

Then following is a prayer to Te/XMitlipoca, used by 
the priest in timeof jxistilence: mighty Lord, under 
whose wing we find defense and shelter, thou art invis- 
ible and impali.)able even us night and the air. How 
can I that am so mea!i and worthless dare to apjiear be- 
fore thy majesty? Stuttering and with rude lips 1 speak; 
ungainly is the manner of my si)eech as one leaping 
among furrows, as one advancing unevenly; for all this 
I fear to raise thine anger, and to provoke instead of ap- 
peasing thee; nevertheless thou wilt do unto me as may 
please thee. Lord, that hast held it gcHxl to forsake 
us in these days, according to the counsel thou hast as 
well in heaven as in hades, — alas for us, in that tliinc 
anger and indignation haa descended in these dajTs 
upon us; alas, in that the many and grievous afllictions 
of thy wrath have overgone and swallowed us up, 

>* SahtuntH, Hint. (Jtn,, torn, i., lib. iii., pp. 241-fl. 




cominjj down even as ptonce, 8i>ears, and arrows upon the 
wretches that inhabit the eartli, — this is the sore pesti- 
Icncx; with which we are aiHictcd and almost destroyed. 
Alas. valiant and all-powerful Lord, the common peo- 
ple are almost made an end of and destroyed; a great 
destruL'tion and niia the [)eHtilenee already makes in 
tills nation: and, what is most pitiful of all, the little 
children tliat an; innocent and understand nothing, 
only to phiy with jiehhleH and to heap up littlt; mounds 
of earth, they too die, broken and dashed to pieces as 
ogainststonesaud a wall — a thing very pitiful and grievous 
to be seen, for there remain of them not even those in 
the cradles, nor those tliat could not walk nor aix;ak. 
Ah, Ijord. how all things Ixicome anifounded; of young 
and old Jind of me»i and women there remains neither 
branch T»or rtx>t; thy nation and thy people and thy 
wealth are levele<l down and destroyed. our I^ord, 
prrjtector of all, mast valiant and most kind, what is thitj? 
ITiine anger luid thine indignation, does it glory ordelight 
in hurling tlie stone and arrow and spear? The fire of the 
pei^tilence, made exceeding hot, is upon thy nntion, as a fire 
inahutf burning and .smoking, leaving nothing upright or 
sound. The grinders of tliy teeth are employed, and thy 
bitter whips uixin the miserable of thy people, who have 
become lean and of little suh.stnnc^'j even as a hollow green 
cane. Yea. what doest thou now, r.ord, most strong, 
compasnonate, invisible, and iiupali^idde. whose will 
all things obey, upon whose dis|)osal dejwnds the nde of 
the world, to whom all is subject,— what in thy divine 
breast hast thou ilei^reefl? Periidventure hast thou alto- 
gether forsaken thy nation and thy people? Ha^t thou 
verily determined that it utterly perish, and that there 
be no more memory of it in the world, that the j^eopled 
plar;e liecume a wooded hill and a wilderness of stones? 
Pemdventiire wilt thou iiemiit that the temples, and 
the places of pniyer, and the altars, built for thy service, 
be nwtyl and destroyed and no memory of them l*e left? 
Li it indeed possible that thy wrath and ptmishment, 
ind vexed indignation oxe altogether implacable and 



will go on to the end to our destruction ? Is it already 
fixed in thy divine tx)unsel that there is to be no mercy 
nor pity for us. until the arrows of thy fury are spent to 
our utter perdition and dcFtruction? Is it jx>»sible that 
tliis hish and chiistiscmcnt is not given for our cor- 
rection and amendment, but only for our total destruc- 
tion and obliteration; that the sun shall nevermore 
shine upon us, but that we must remain in i>er]>etual 
darkness and silence; that nevermore thou wilt look 
upon us with eyes of mercy, neither little nor much ? 
Wilt thou after this fashion destroy the wretched sick 
that amnot find rest nor turn from side to side, 
whose mouth and teeth are filled with earth and 
scurf? It is a sore thing to toll how we are all in dark- 
ness, having none understanding nor sense to watch for 
or aid one amother. We are all as drunken and without 
understanding, without hojK; of any aid; aln^.ady the 
little children |x?rish of hunger, for there is none to give 
them f(Kxl, nor drink, nor consolation, nor caress, — none to 
give tliL' brea«t to theui that «uok; for their fiithers and 
and mothers liave died and left them orphans, aiifier- 
ing for the sins of their fiitlMi-s. O our Ijitnl, all- 
iwwerful, full of mercy, our reCuge, though indeed 
thine anger and indignation, thine arrows and stones, have 
sr)rtdy hurt this iHM)r peofiU*, let it be as a father or a 
mother that rebukes cliildren, i)ulling their etirs, pinch- 
ing their arras, whipping them with nettles, pouring 
chill water ujwn them; all being done that they may 
iunend their puerility and childishness. Thy chastise- 
ment and indignation have lorded and prevailed over 
these thy servants, over this poor people, even as rain 
falling ui>on the trees and the green canes, being touched 
of the wind, drops also upon those that are l)elow. most 
compassionate Lord, thou Itnowest that the common folk 
are as children, that being whipped they cry and sob and 
repent of what they have done. Peradventure, already 
these ixK>r people by reason of thy chastisement weo]i. sigh, 
blame, and munnur against themselves ; in tliy presence 
they blame and bear ^Wtness against their bad beeds and 



punish themselves therefor. Our Lord most compasaio- 
imte, pitifiil, iiohle. mid precious, let a time \jc given the 
jwople to ivpent ; let the jja-st chastisement snflice, let it 
end here, tf* Ijej^in iij^ain if the reform endure not. Par- 
don and overlook the sins of the people; cause thine 
anger and thy resentment to cease; repress it again 
within tiiy breast tliat it destroy no farther; let it rest 
there; let it cease, for of a surety none can avoid 
death nor escape to any place, ^\^c owe tribute to death ; 
and all that live in the world are the vassals thereof; 
this tribute shall every man pay with his life. Xone 
shall avoid from following death, for it is thy messenger 
what hour soever it may \)0 sent, liuugering and 
ing ahvays to devour all that are in the world and so 
powerful that none shall escape: then indeed shall every 
man be punished according to his deeds. most pitiful 
Loni, at least take pity and have mercy upon the child- 
ren that are in the cradles, ujwn tliase that cannot walk. 
Have mercy also, O Ijord, upon the jwor and very mise- 
rable, who have nothing to eat, nor to cover themwlves 
withal, nor a place to sleep, who do not know what thing 
a liai)py day is, whose days pass altogether in pain, 
aiTliction, and sadness. Than this, were it not better, 
O Lord, if thou slioidd foi'get to have mercy u[Kin the 
soldiers and u|xin the men of war, whom thou wilt have 
need of sometime; Ijehold it is l>etter to die in war and 
go to serve food and drink in the house of the sun, than 
to die in this jtestilence and descend to hades. most 
strong Lord. pr»>tector of all, lord of the earth, governor 
of the world, and universal master, k-t the sport and satis- 
faction thou ha"^t already taken in this past punishment 
sulliee; make an eml of tliis smoke mid fog of thy resent- 
ment; quench also the burning and destro3nng fire of 
thine anger: let serenity come and clearness; let the 
small hiixls of thy people begin to sing mid to approach 
the sun; give them quiet weather so that they may 
cauj^e their voices to reach thy highness and thou mayest 
know them. O our Lord, most strong, most compassion- 
ate, Olid most noble, this little have 1 said before thee, 



and I have nothing more to say, onlv to prostrate and 
throw ra^eelf at thy feet, seeking pardon ibr tlie faults 
of this my prayer; certainly I would not remain in thy 
displeasure, and I have no other thing to say. 

The following is a prayer to tlic same deity, under his 
names Tezcatlipuca and Yoalliehecatl, for succor against 
poverty: our Lord, protector most strong and com- 
passionate, invisible, and impalpable, tliou ai-t the giver 
of life; lord of all, and lord of l>attleM, I present myself 
here before thee to say eome few words concerning tlie 
need of the poor people, the people of none estate nor 
intelligence. When they lie down at night they have 
nothing, nor when they rise up in the morning; the 
darkness and the ligiit pass alike in great poverty. 
Know, O Ijord, that thy subjects and eervanta. sufter a 
sore poverty tluit carmot be told of more than tliat it is 
a sore poverty and desolateness. The men have no gar- 
ments nor the women to cover themselves with, but only 
certain nigs rent in every j>art that allow the air and the 
cold to piuss everywhere. With grefl-t toil and wcjiriness 
tliey scrape together enough for each day, going by 
mnuutain and wilderness seeking their fcxxl; so faint and 
enfeebled are they that tlieir bowels cleave to the ribs, 
and all their body reechoes with hollowness; and they 
walk as people affrighted, the face and the Ixxly in like- 
ness of death. If they be merchants, they now sell 
only cakes of salt and broken pepper; the people that 
have something despise their wares, so that they go out 
to sell from door to door and from house to house; and 
when they sell nothing they sit down sa<lly by some fenctJ, 
or wall, or in some corner, licking their lips and gnaw- 
ing the nails of their hands for the hunger that is in 
them; they look on the one side and on the other at the 
mouths of those that pass by, hoping j>eradventure that 
one may speak some word to them. compassionate 
God, the bed on which tliey lie downi is not a thing to 
rest upon, but to en<lure torment in; they draw a rag 
over them at night and so sleep; there they throw down 
their bodies and the bodies of children that thou hast 



given them. For the misery they grow up in, for the 
filth* of their food, for the lack of covering, their fiices 
aro yellow and all their boiUe.s of the color of earth. 
They tremble with cold, and for leanness thL'>- stamper in 
walking. They go weeping, and sighing, and full of 
Badne^f). and all miftfortunes are joined to them; though 
tliey stay by a fire they find little heat. our Lord, 
moet clement, invisihle, and impali)al)le, I :*upplicate 
thee to see good to have pity ujwn them as they move in 
thy presence wfuling and clamoring and seeking mercy 
with anguish of heart. O our Lord, in whose power it 
is to give all content, consolation, sweetness, sortness, 
prosperity and riches, for thou alone art lord of all good, 
— have mercy upon them for they are thy servants. I 
supplicate thee. O LonL tliat thou prove them a little 
witli tenderness, indidgence, sweetness, and solTtness, 
which indeed they soi*ely lack and ivtiuii-e. 1 suppH- 
fSirte thee that thou will lift up their hejids with thy favor 
and aid, that thou will see good that they <--njoy some 
days of prosperity and tranquillity, so they may sleep and 
know repose, having prosperous and i>eaceable days of 
life. Should they still refuse to serve thee, thou after- 
wards canst take away what thou hast given ; they havijig 
enjoyed it but a few days, as those that enjoy a fnigrant 
and beautiful flower and find it wither presently. Should 
thin nation, for whom I pray and entreat thee to do them 
good, nrtt understand what thou luist given, thou canst 
take away the gcxxl and (xjur out cursing; so that all 
e\'il may come u|X)n them, and they l>ecome poor, in 
need, maimed, lame, blind, mul deaf: tlien indeed they 
8hall waken and know the good tiiat they luul and have 
not, and they shall call ujxin thee and lean towards thee; 
but thou wilt not listen, for in the day of ahundance 
they would not understand thy goodness towards them. 
In conclusion, I supplicate thee, most kind and l»enif- 
icent I^rd, that tiwu will sec good to give this people 
to taste of the goods and riches that thou art wont to 
give, and that proceed from thee, things sweet and soft 

^ For U frcu de 1ft comidji: Snhatpui, Hid. Gtn., torn, ii., lib. vi., p. 30. 


and bringing content and joy, although it be but for a little 
while, and a* a dix'nni that pa«se.H. For it in certiiin that 
for a long time the people go sadly before thee, weeping 
and thouglitful, because of tlie anguixh, hardKhip, and 
anxiety that fill their bodies and lieartj^, taking away all 
ease and rest. Verily, it is not doubtful that to tliis poor 
nation, needy and fihelterlcss, hapi^ens all 1 have said. 
If thou answerest my petition it will be only of thy 
liberality and magnificence, for no one is worthy to re- 
ceive thy bounty for any merit of his, but only through 
thy grace. Search below the dung-hills and in the 
mountains for thy servants, friends, and acquaintance, 
and raise them to riches and dignities. O our Ij>rd, 
most clement, let thy will Ijc done as it is oitlained in 
thy heart, and we shall have nothing to say. 1, a rude 
man and common, would not by importunity and prt)- 
lixity disgust and annoy thee, detailing my sickness, 
destruction, and punishment. Whom do 1 speak to? 
Where am I ? IjO I speak with thee, King; well do I 
know that 1 ntand in an eminent place, and that I t^ilk 
with one of great majesty, before whose presence 
flows a river through a chasm, a gulf sheer down of 
awful deptli; thi.^ also is a slip^x^ry place, whence many 
precipitate themselves, for there shall not be found one 
without error U'fore thy majesty. I myself, a man of 
little understanding and lacking siHjech, dare to address 
my words to thee; I putmyself in peril of falling into the 
gorge and cjivern of this river. 1, Ixjrd, have come to 
take with my hands blindness to mine eyes, rotteji- 
ness and shrivelling to my members, poverty and 
aflfliction to my botly; for my meanness and rudeness 
tliis it is that I merit to receive. Live and rule for 
ever in all quietness and tranquillity, thou that art our 
lord, our shelter, our protector, most compassionate, most 
pitiful, invisible, iinpal|Mible. 

This following is a petition in time of war to the same 
principal god, under his name of Tezcatlipoca Vautlneooci- 
autlmonenequi, praying favor against the enemy: O our 
Lord, most comija-ssionate, protector, defender, invisible, 



im[)alpali]e, hy wh()f*e will and wisdom we are directed 
and guvenit'd, beneath wiiose rule wo live, — 0, Lord 
of battles, it is a thing very certain and settled that war 
Ix'giiw to be arranged and prepared for. Tlie gtxl of 
the earth opens his mouth, thirsty to drink the blood 
uf them that shall die in this strife. It seeuiH that they 
wish to Ix; merry, the sun and the god of the earth 
called Tlaltecutli; they wish to give to eut and drink to 
the gods of heaven and hades, making them a banquet 
with the blood and flei^h of the men that have to die in 
this war. Already do they look, the gods of heaven 
and hades, to eee who they are that have to con- 
quer, and who to be conquered; who they are that 
have to slay, and who to be shun; whose blood 
it is that haa to be drunken, and whose flesh it is 
that has to be eaten; — which things the noble fathers 
a:id mothers whose sons have to die, are ignorant of. 
Even so are ignorant all their kith and kin, and the 
nurses that gave them suck, — ignorant also are the fa- 
thers that toiled for them, seeking things needful for 
their food and ilrink atid raiment until they reached the 
age tliey now have. Certainly they could not fotvtell 
how tliusc sons sliould end whom thev reared so anx- 
iou.sly, or that tliey should he one day left captives or 
dead u|K>n the field. See ginid, our Ijortl, that the 
nobles who die in the shock of war lje peacefully and 
agreeably received, and with bowels of love, by the sun 
and the earth that are father and mother of all. For 
verily thou dost not deceive thyself in what thou doest,* 
to wit, in wishing them to die in war; for certainly 
for this didst thou send them into the world, so 
that with their flesh and their blood they might be 
for meat and drink to the sun and the earth. Be nut 
wrotli, O Lord, anew against those of the profession of 
war, for in the saDie place where they will die have died 

» * Porqoe & la Terdod no or engaiiaiii cod ]o qtte IiaccU :' teo Sahagun, in 
Bn^lborovyk't Mex. AMig., vul. v., p. 'iG6, m the sDbstiUition of * rngaiidiR ' 
for ' ennfidUa ' deotroya Uie aeoM of the pofluge in Bnstftmuila'* ed. of tha 
Mme, Ui»L OoL, lom. U., Ub. vi., p. 13. 



many generous " and noble lords and captains, and 
vnliant men. The nobility and j;enerosity ot' the nobles 
and the greatheartedness of the warriors ia made appar- 
ent, and thou makest manifest, Loi*d, how estimable 
and ])recious is each one, so that as such he may fje held 
and iionored. even as a stone of price or a rich feather. 
Lord, most clement, lord of battles, cm(>eror of all, 
whose name is Tezcatlijxx'a, invisible and impalimble, 
we supplicate thee that he or they that thou wilt per- 
mit to die in thi.s wax* may Ije received into the hou>*e of 
the sun in heaven, with love and honor, and may Ixj 
placed and lodjrfd between the brave and famous war- 
riors ulready (lend in war, to wit, the lords (^uit/.iniua- 
quatzin, MiU7.euhcatzin, Tlmuihuepantzin. I xthUuurhavac, 
Ihuitltemuc, ChavacuetMn, and all the other valiant and 
renowjicd men that died in former times. — who are re- 
joicing with and praising oiir lord the sun, who are glad 
and eternally rich through him, and shall be for everj 
they go about sucking the sweetness of all tlowers delec- 
table and pleasant to the taste. This is a great dignity 
for the stout and vahant ones that died in war; for this 
tliey are drunken with delight, keeping no account of 
night, nor day, nor years, nor times; their joy and their 
wealth is without end; the nectarous flowers they sip 
never faile, and for the desire thereof men of high de- 
scent strengthen themselves to die. In conclusion, I thee, Lord, that art our lord most clement, 
our emjK^ror most invincible, to see gofxl that thast^ that 
die in this war be received with bowels of pity and love 
by our father the sun, and our mother tlie earth ; for 
thou only livest and rulestand art our most conipa.-fsion- 
ate lord. Nor do I supplicate alone for theillustrioiLs and 
noble, but also for the other soldiers, who are troubled and 
tormented in heart, who clamor, calling u|>on thee, 
holding tlieir lives as nothing, and who iling themselves 
without fear upon the enemy, seeking deatli. Grant 

^ Bj au error and a eolecism of BoBtAment^'a ed. tbe vords * gentes 
rojofi' aro labetitatcd (or the adjective 'gouoroHOs:' soo, ni in the prcccd- 
iD|j not^, Sahaffun, in Kiivjthor&utjh's Atex. Antiq., to1.t., p. 357, and Sahoffun, 
Jiisi. Oak., torn, ii., Kb. vi., p. 43. 



them ut least some small part of their desire, some rest 
and re|>08e ill this life; or if here, in this world, they are 
not destinetl to prosijerity, apjwint them for .senunta and 
officers of the eim. to give food and drink to those in 
hades and to those in heaven. A« ior tht^se whose charge 
it is to rule the state and to }ic tlacateccatl or tluoochcal- 
atl." make them to he fathers and motliers to the men 
of war that wander hy field and mountain. In" height 
and ravine. — in their hand is the f*entence of death for 
enemies and criminals, as also the distribution of digni- 
ies. the offices aiid the arms of war, the badges, the 
iiiiting privileges to thone that wear visors and hwnels** 
on the headj and ear-rings, pendants, and bracelets, and 
have mellow akins tied to their ankles, — with them is the 
privik-gc of ap[)ointing the fasliion of the raiment that 
every one shall wear. It is to these also to give per- 
mission to ccrttiin to use and wear precious stones, as 
chalchivetes, turquoises, and rich feathers in the dances, 
and to wear necklaces and jewels of gold: all of which 
things are delicate and precious gifts proceeding fi-om 
thy riches, and which thou givest to those that pt'rionn 
feats and valiant deeds in war. I entreat thee also, O 
Lord, to make grace of thy largess to the common 
soldiers, give them some shelter and good lo<lgingin tliis 
world, make them stout and brave, and take away all 
oownr<lice from their heart, so that not only shall they 
meet death with cheerfulness, but even desire it as a 
sweet thing, as flowers and dainty food, nor dread at nil 
the ho«»ts and shouts of their enemies: this do to them 
ae to thy friend. Korftsmiich as thou art lord of battles, 
on whoso will depends the victory, aiding whom thou 
wilt, luH^ding not that any coinisel thee,— I entreat thee, 
Lortl. to make mad and drunken our enemies so that 
without hiurt to iis iliey may cast themselves into our 
handfl. into the hands of our men of war enduring 

*■ *E«(Wir ComaatlftnteB li Capitaneftgenerolcadecyijniito:' Btutatnttitr, In 
Smkofpot. IM. Om., torn. U.. Hit. ri., n. 44. 

«i ■lt<trU&' see Sahaijvn, ia KinaiUtarwqh's Mem, Anilq., vol. t., p. 3S8, 
giran ' buQaa ' in BtuUnumte's Swtagtat, Jiui. Gen., torn, ii., lib. vi., p. 45, 

Tat. m. i« 



BO much Imrdnhip and poverty. our Lord, since 
thou art God. aU-ix)werful, all-knowinp, dusposer of all 
thiiigw, able to make this land rich, prasperous, praised, 
honored, fumed in the art and feataof war^ able to make 
the warriors now in the field to live and be prasperous. 
if, in the davH at hand, thou see good that they die in 
war, let it be to go to the houtse of tlie 8un, amon<; all 
the heroes that are there and that died upon the battle- 

The following pniyer is one mldrcased to the principal 
deity, under his name Tezc4itU|K>c%i Teioct)iani Tehima- 
tini, asking favor for a newly elei'tcd ruler: To-day, A 
fortunate day. the sun has rifien u\yoti us, warming us, 80 
that iu it a precious stone may be wrought, and a hand- 
some sapphire. To us has apix?ared a new light, has 
arrived a new brightness, to us has been given a glitter- 
ing ftxe to rule and govern our nation. — has W'u given 
a man to take upon his shoulders the alTairK and troubles 
of the state. lie is to be the image and substitute of 
the lords and governors that have already passed away 
from this life, who for some days labored, bearing 
the burden of thy jxiople, possessing thy throne and 
Beat, which h the princi^ml dignity*^ of this thy nation, 
province, and kingdom; having and holding the same 
in thy name and person some few days. These have 
now de(Mirted from this life, put oft' their shoulders the 
great load and burden that so few are able to sufter. Now, 
Lord, we mar\'el that thou hast indeed set thine eyes 
on this man, rude and of little knowledge, to make him 
for some days, for some little time, the governor of tliis 
state, nation, province, and kingdom. our Ijord, most 
clement, art thou jienui venture'! in want of jK»rsons and 
friends? — nay verily, thou that hawt thereof more tlum 
can be a)uuted! Is it, peradventure, by error, or that 
thou dost not know him ; or is it that thou hast taken 
him for the nonce, while thou seckest among many for 

* 'D^niditd.' Sahoffun. in King^torough'M MfX. Antig,, vol. T.. v. 359, 
nJHprintcd 'diligenria' in Bniitaiuentfl'ft Sahaffun, Ili^.Otn., torn. iL, UK 
Ti., J). 46. 



icr and a better than he, unwiee, indiscrete, un- 

pTdfitiiblc, a superfluous man in the world. Finally, we 
jfive thanks to tliy inajeHtv l^r tlie favor thou ha*! done 
u«. What thy desijnis therein ai'e thou alone knowest; 
porliaps Ijeforehaiid thiH olhoe ha.s been provided for: 
thy will be done as it is <K?toniiined in thy heart; let 
this man serve for some days and time's. It may be 
that he will fill this office defectively, giving und 
fear to his subjects, doing things without ctamsel or con- 
aideration, deeming himself worthy of tlie dignity he 
has, thinking that he will remain in it for a long time, 
making a sad dreaai of it, making the occupation and 
dignity thou ha«t given him an occasion of pride and 
pi-esumption. making little of everybody and going about 
with pomp and jmgeantry. Within a few days, thou wilt 
know the event of all, for all men are thy spectacle and 
tlieatre, at which thou laughest and makest thyself 
merry. I*erha[>s this ruler will lasc his otfice 
through his chiUliHhncss, or it will hap^Kti through his 
CJirelessnesa and hi/iness; for verily nothing is liidden 
from tliee, tliy sight makes way through stone and 
wood, and thine hearing. Or perhajis his arrogance, 
and the se<:ret (wasting ctf his thoughts will destroy him. 
Then thou wilt throw him among the lilth and nyxm the 
dung-hills, juid his reward will Xxi blindness, and shri vei- 
lings, and extreme jioverty till the hour of his death, 
when thou wilt put him under thy feet. Since this poor 
man is put in tliis risk and j)eril, we supplicate thee, 
who art our Lord, our invisible and imjmlpable pnitec- 
tor. under whose will and pUyisurc we aiv. who alone 
disposer of and provides for all. — we supplicate thee 
that thou see good to deal mercifully with him ; inas- 
much as he is needy, thy subject and servant, and blind; 
deign to provide liim with thy light, that he may know 
what he has to think, what he has to do, and the road 
he has to follow, so as to commit no error in his office, 
contrary to thy disposition and will. Thou knoweai 
what is to happen to him in this office both by day and 
night; we know, our Lord, most clement, that our 



ways and deeds are not so much in our hands as in the ' 
hands of our ruler. If this ruler after an evil and [ler- 
verse fashion, in the place to which thou haat elevated 
him. and in the seat in which thou hast put him, — which 
is thine. — where he manages the affairs of the jieople, 
as one that washes (ilthy things witli clean and clear 
water, (yea i»i the sjune seat holds a similar clean.sing 
office the ancient god, who is father and motlier to thy- 
self, and is g(xl of fire, who stands in the midst of llowers. 
in tho midst of the place bounded hy foiir walls, who is 
covtiri^il with shining feathers that are as wings), — if this 
ruler-elect of ours do evil with which to pnjvoke thine 
ire and indignation, and to awaken thy chiistisement 
against himself, it will not \ni of his own will or seek- 
ing, but by thy i)ermiseion or by some impulse from 
without; for which I entreat thee to see good to ojx-n his 
eyes to give him light; open also his ears and guide him, 
not so much for his own stike as for that of those whom 
he has to rule over and carry on his shoulders." I sup- 

*> This donbt/nl and inTolvei] it«nt«iiee<, vitb the eoutamed ulause touching 
tlw nature of the firtr-f^od, rnus exat-tly n^ toMovfn iu the tvu v&rjiu^ tnlitioiu 
of thf! original: ' Si hI^iuiu ct»ta HviuHH 6 mu\ hechb hieiiini en la [U^^uidod qne 
le hAbeiK (Lulo, y en la klHu eu que 1e hHliciH jint^Hto, que ^ vneAtrn. ilondfl 
CHtk triitamlu U>* ne^^iiot^ jxinulHre!*, rniiiu (ini«<u lava (;i»taK ttiU'iiLti ctm agnn 
luuy olura y inuy Hiupiti; eu \a qiial hJHh y ilii^nidtul tiene p1 miHiDQ odcio de 
lavur Yue«(ro padre y madre de UmIok 1i« Picst-K, tl Ditw anti^uo que « el 
Dioa del faego, que e«t4 en medio d(rl itU»frj^i« o*Tcfl de qnntro paredes. y 
eftt& oabierto oon ptamu re«plHnd<*<.-ici>t«'K ijuo »u>n conm ubui, lo que eat« 
elccto hioieso mnl becfao, oon que prnvnqa« vufntni int ^ indigniioioii, ^ deft- 
piert« TueotrocaHtiuiiuotiCraHi. noneride an aU>udrio 6 dtf «n qtiprvr. aino d« 
▼neatrapenniwon, o deiilf^nn ntm Hiig«iition vnt-Htm, li de otrn; por lo cnal OS 
aaplicn c^n^ais pur bifu du abrirlu loit ojoa j dnrle luubre v nbhrle laa oreju, 
7 goiadle 4 eHtu pubru clu^^to, do tanto por lo uue el vs. sino principnliDPOte 
por agoelluH k qujouc-^ h& ilt- re)jir y llevar i oueetas.' Sahni/tin, in Kiivju- 
oorotign'x Mr-x. Antitj., vol. v., pp. 3GU-\M]l. 'Si lOfuna oosn aviefta m oial 
hechu bidQre. en la diguidad que le bAbeia dado, t en la silU cu que lo 
liabeis imuxto que ea vae«t», dotide estA trauuido los nei^cios popuiarcs, 
como quien laba cosas audaa. oon a^piamtiy olara y muy limpia. en fa coal 
ailla y diKOidad tiene el miamu ofluio de labar vuestro padre j madre, de 
todoft lofl <tio8e8, el dios antii^m. que en el dioa do1 fnogo qne ostA en medio 
da laa floroa, y en luudici del albt>r^e c#reudo do cnatro poredca. y cstf 
oubierto con pfninna retsplandecji^nteB que Hon huiuu jUa»; lo qne esto eleoto 
iiiciore uud hvi-ho i-iui que provo^i^ue viietUra ira ^ indignacion, y despierte 
Tueatro caatJRo cntitra af, no aerA de sn alvpdrin de 6 ttu qaercr, slno de vne*- 
tra penuiaton, 6 d» nl^una otra au^eittion vncatra, 6 de <itr(); pur lo roal o* 
•npnoo teuaais pnr hinn de abirle loa DJntt, y darle lux. y ubridle tnmbiwu Ua 
orejiu, y gtund a eato nobre electo; nu tanto por lo qne ea kU ainu principa]- 
mente por aipipUiia C qnien ha de ri^r y llerar aoneatas:' Bnstamente't 
Sakagun, HiM-. (im., torn. U., lib. vi., p. 48. 


now, trom the banning, 
him with what he is to conceive in his heart, and the 
rooil be is to follow, inasmuch a.s thou hast made ofhun 
a wat on whirh to seat tliyself, and also as it were a 
flut« that, being played ujkui, may signify thy will. 
Muke him, Lord, a faithful imjige of thyself, and i»er- 
mil nut that in thy throne and hall he make himself 
proud and haughty; but ratlier see good, Liiril. that 
quietly and prudently he nde and govern those in his 
(iiar'^u who are conmion people: do not |>ermit him to 
insult and oppress his subjects, nor to jrivc over without 
reason any of them to destruction. Neither ix.*rmit, 
Ijord. that he spot and defile thy throne and hall with 
any injustice or oppression, for in so doing he will stuin 
ahio thine honor and fame. Already. O Lord, hits this 
poor man iu;cepted and received the honor and lordship 
that tliou hoHt given him; already he |)oysesseM the glory 
and riches thereof; alreiidy thou hast adorned his hands, 
feet, head, ears, and lips, with visor, ear-rings, and brace- 
lets, and put yellow leather ujwn Lis ankles. Permit it 
not, O LA>rd, that these decorations, badges, and omaiuents 
be to him a cause of pride and pivsiuiiption; but rather 
that he serve thee with humility and phiiiniess. Jhiy it 
please thee, O our Lord, moat clement, that he rule and 
govern this, thy seignory, that thou luist conuuitled to 
him. witii all prudence and wistlom. May it please thee 
that he do nothing wrong or to thine oifense ; deign to 
walk with him and direct him in all his ways. Hut if 
thou wilt not do this, ordain that from this day hence- 
forth he Ije abhorretl and di.stiked, and tliat he die in 
war at the hands of his enemies, that he depart to the 
houne of the sun; where he will lie taken care of Jis a 
precious stone, and hit* heart esteemed by the sun-lord; 
lie living in the war like a stout and valiaiil man. Tbis 
would Ix* nmcb Itetter than to \k^ dishonoretl in the world, 
to Ik* dislike<l and alihornxl of Iuh {Mx>pte for his faidls or 
defects. O our Lonl. tliou that providest to all the 
things needful for them, let this thing lx;done as I have 
eiitrvoted and supplicated thee. 


The next prayer, directed to the god under his nnmft 
Tezcjvtlipoca Titlacaojimo<:|uefiueloa, is to ask, after the 
death of n ruler, that another may be given: our 
Ijord, already thou knowest how our ruler is doii(\. 
already tliou hast put him under thy feet; he is gathered 
to his place; he is jrone by the road that all have to go 
by, and to the house where all have to lodge; house of 
perpetual darkness, whore there is no window, nor any 
light at all; he is now where none shall trouble his rest. 
He served thee here in bin uiHco during stune few days 
and yeai*s, not indwMl williout fault and uftense. Thou 
gnvest him to taste in tins world somewhat of thy kind- 
ness and favnr, piussing it befoiv bis fiuu- as a thing that 
passes (piiirkly. This is the dignity and i>Oice that thou 
placedst him in, that lie served thee in for some da}'8, as 
biis Ifeen said, with nigbs. tears and devout prayers lie- 
fore tliy majesty. A his, lie is gone now where our 
father and mother the gotl of hades is, the god that 
descended head foremost l>elow the fire,** tlie god that 
desires to carry us all to his place, with a very impor- 
tunate desire, with sucli a desire as one has tliat dies of 
hunger and thirst; the god that is moved exceed injily, 
both by day and night, crying and demanding that all 
go to him. There, vni\i this god, is now our late-de- 
parted ruler; be is there witli all his ancestors that were 
in tlie iirst times, that governed this kingdom, with 
Acamapicbtli, with Tyzoc, with Avitzotl, with the Iirst 
Moctheeuzoma, with Axayaeatl, and with those that 
came last, as the second Moctheeuzoma and also Moc- 
theeuzoma lliiuicamina.** All these lonls and kings 
ruled, governed, and enjoyed the sovert-ignty and royal 
dignity, and thn^ne and seat of tliis empire; they 
ordered and regulate<l the affairs of this tliy kingdom, — 
thou that art the universal Innl and emperor, and that 
neediest not to take counsel with anotlier. jUrcady bad 

M See tills volume p. CO. 

<i Soiuc o( U]fSf luiuieii are (lifT^reiitly spi'lt iu Ki>iUKlK>rongfa'8 ed.. J/w. 
Aniiq., vol. T., p. 3(>2.: ■ Upii ill- Ion qiinloK inC- rnnitipit'litU, otro fne Tiiorir, 
Dtro AvitzoU, otro «1 priuif r<> Mtitezuzoiiiu. otro Axsxyncn, x ]ok ijiie lUiom & 
la pftrte hiin maerto, romo el segundo Mulezuzouia, y tnuibien YlUijcflmina)' 



these put off the intolerable load that they ha<l on their 
shoulilers. leaving it to their KUccesMJr. our liitt-* ruler, m 
that for 8ouie days lie bore up this lordship and kingiluin ; 
but now he has |)aj«ed on aller Win prwlwx'j^xors to the 
otlier M'orUL For thou didst ordain liiin to go. and did8t 
call him to give tiianks tor being unloaded of w great 
a bunlen, (piit of m» sore a toil, and lell iu ]>eace and 
rvA. fxirne few davH we have enjoye^l Inni, but now 
forever he is absent fi-oin us, never more to return to 
the world. Peradventure hns lie gone to any place 
whence he can return htTc. «o tlmt his subjects may see 
his face again? Will he uonie again to tell us to do this 
or that? Will lie ooine again to look to the consuls or 
governors of the state ? Penuhentuix' will they see him 
any more, orheiir his decree and commandment? Will he 
come any more to give consolation and comfort to his 
principal men and his consuls? Alas, there is an end 
to hia presence, he is gone for ever. Alaa, tbat our 
candle ha.«i been quenched, and our lij:ht. that the axe 
that shone with us is lostaltogetber. Ail hissuitji-ctsand 
inferiors, he has letl in orphanage anil without shelter. 
Perad venture will he take care henceforward of this 
city, province, and kingdom, though this city bo de- 
cttruyed and leveled tu the ground, with this svignory 
and kingdom? () our Ijonl. nn>st t'lenM'nt, is it a fit 
thing tbat by tlu> ahscnct' ni^ him tliat diiMl shall vxmui to 
the city, seigiiory, and kingdom Home misfortune, in 
which will Ik? destniyed, undone, and artVigbtt'd the vas- 
KiU that live tbeivin? For while living, lie who has 
died gave sludter under his wings, and kept his feathers 
spread over the |)e<jple. Great danger runs this your 
city. Heignory, and kingdom, if another ruler be not 
elected immediately to be a shelter thereto. Wliat is it 
that thou art resolved to do? Is it goorl that tliy |ieople 
l>e in darkness? Is it good tbat they Ixiwitliout lu^nd or 
tthelter? Is it thy will tbat they I* leveletl down and 
destroyed? W*oe for the jxnir jind the little ones, thy 
servants, that go seeking a father and mother, Kime one 
to shelter and govern tliem, even jls little children that 


go weepingj seeking an absent father and mother, and 
that grieve, not finding them. Woe for the merchants, 
petty and ixxjr, that go alx)ut by the mountains, deserts, 
and raejuiowHj woe aleo to tlie siul toilers that go about 
seeking herbs to eat, roots and wood to bum. or to sell, 
to eke out an existence withal. Woe for the |xx)r sol- 
diers, for the men of war, that go alwut seeking death, 
that abhor life, that think of nothing but the field and 
tlie line where battle is given, — upon whom shall they 
call? who shall take a captive? to whom shall they pre- 
sent the same? And if they themselves be taken cap- 
tive, to whom fihall I hey give notice, tliat it may be 
known in their land? Whom shall they take for father 
and mother, so that in such a case favor may be granted 
them? Since he wliose duty it was to see to tliij*. who 
was as father and mother to all, is already dead. Tliere 
will I>e none to weep, to sigh for the ojiptives, to tell 
their relatives alx>nt them. Wiw for tlie jxjor of the 
litigants, for those that have lawsuits with tlK>se that 
would take their estatiw. Who will judge, make i)eace 
among, and dear tlieni of their disputes and quiu'rels? 
Behold when a child Ix-eomes dirty, if his mother clean 
him not, he must remain filthy. And those that make 
strife between themselves, that beat, that kn<.>ck down, 
who will keep peace Ix-tween them? Those tliat for all 
this go weeping and yhedding tears, who shall wi|)e away 
their tears and put a stop to their laments? Pei-adven- 
ture cfui they apply a remedy to themselves? Those 
de.serving death, will they i>eradventiu^ pass sentence 
ujx>n themselves? Wlio shall set up the thi*one of 
justice? Who shall possess the hall of the judge, 
since there is no judge? Who will ordain the 
things that are necessary for the good of this city, 
seignory, and kingdom? Who will eleet the H|x^ial 
judges that have cliarge of the lower people, di-^trict by 
district? NVho will look to the sounding of the dnmi 
and fife to gather the |H^ople for war? who will ix)llect 
and leml the soldiers and tlextercms men to battle? 
our Lord and pmtector see gotxl to elect and decide upon 



LBomc person sufficipnt to fill your throne and bear upon 
[his shoulders the mm biu'den of the ruling of the state, 
[to gladden and cheer the common jieople, even aw the 
[mother caresses the chil<l, taking it in her lap; wliowill 
[make music tu the tix>uhled l>et;s** so that they may be 
[at rest? O our Lord, most clement, favor our ruler- 
elect, whom we deem fit for this ofiicx*. elect and choose 
fhira «o tli;it Ik* may hold this yom* h)i\lship and govern- 
ment; give him as a loan your throne and seat, so that 
he may ndt* over this seijiuory and kingdom a.s long as 
'he lives; Hit hiui from the lowliness luid humility in 
^'hich he is, and put on him this honor and dignity that 
.we think him worthy of; our Lord, most clement, give 
light and splendor with your hand to this state and king- 
dom. What has l>een said I only come to projwse to thy 
j majesty ; although very defectively, na one that is drunk- 
'en, and that staggers, almost ready to fall. Do that 
whicli may hn-st serve thee, in all aiad through nil. 
What follows is a kind of greater exc*>mmunic^tion, 
|or prayer to get rid of a ruler tluit abused and misused 
[bis ix)wer and dignity': O our LoihI, most clement, that 
dTest shelter to every one that ap]»roaches, even as a 
of great height and l)readth, thou that art invisible 
and impalpable; that art, as we imdeistand, able to 
,peue!rate the stones and the trees, seeing what is con- 
Itiiined therein. For this .same reason thou see.^t juid 
knowest what is within our hearts and readest our 
^tliotights. Om- sold in thy presence is as a little smoke 
ror fog that risi's from the earth. It cannot at all Ije 
hidden fronj thee, the deed and the manner of living of 
Lany oue: for thou see.'<tnnd kuowest his st.nvtj* and the 
'■ouRy's of his pride and ambition. 'I'hou knowest that 
our ruler ha.H a cruel and hard heart and abuses the 
■ dignity th:»t them hast given him, as the drunkard abuses 
rhis wine, iw onv drunken with u so[M)rific;*^ that is to wiy 
tliat the riches, dignity, and abundance that for a little 

M • Obcju,* in Bunt tineQto'x <yl. S'thayim, ifUt. *Jtn., Uon. U., lib. vi., p. 
S3; ■ftlw^tt' in JCmp'-mnntfik's Mrx. Jnai/.. vol. v.. P. 364. 

cr • V cQino el loco de loa belcfioe.' Hahoffun, Jmt. (Jen,, torn, li., lib. ri., 



while thou hast given him. fill him with error, haughti- 
ness, and unrest, and tliuthe tfeconies a f'uol, intoxicated 
with the poison that makes him niiul. His piijs[x?rity 
causes him to despise and make httle of every one; it 
seems tliat his heart is covered vr'ilU sharp tiiorns and 
also his face: all of which is made ap]KiixMit hy liis man- 
ner of living, and hy his manner of talking; never say- 
ing nor doing anything that gives plea«ure to any one, 
never caring for any ime, never taking counsel of any one; 
he ever lives lus hcotiis goixl to him and as the whim 
directs. onr Lord, nuwt clement, prutetitor of all. 
creator and maker of nil, it is ti.K> certain that tliis man 
ha.s destroyed himself, has actcfl like a child ungrateful 
to his father, like a drunkard without reiuson. The 
favors thou hast accorded him. the dignity thou hast set 
him in, liave occimioned his perdition. Besides these. 
there is another thing. exee<'(Hngly hurtful and repre- 
hensil)le: he is irreligious, never praying to the gods, 
never weeping fx?fore them, nor grieving lor his pins, nor 
sigliing; fix)m this it comes about that he is as headstrong 
as a dninkard in his vices, going about like a hollow and 
empty person, wholly senseless; he stays not to consider 
what he is nor the oiBce that he fills. Of a verity he 
dishonors and aftrants the dignity and thi-one that he 
holds, which is thine, and which ought to Ik* much 
honored and i-evereut^-d ; for fnjui it depends the justice 
and rightness of the jiidicatm-e tliat he holds, foi'tlu^ sus- 
taining and wortliily dirtH-ting of thy nation, tlnju !)eing 
emperor of all. lie should no hold his jwwer that the low- 
er people he not injured and oppressed hy the great; from 
him should fall punishment and humiliation on those 
that res|Kx:t not thy jkower and dignity. Hut all things 
and i^eople sulVer loss in that he liUs nut his office aa he 
ought. The merchants suft'er also, who are those to whom 
thou givest the most of thy riches, who overrun all the 
worlds yea the mountains and the unjK^pled places, 
seeking through much sorrow tln^gift-s. favors, and dain- 
ties, the which thou givcst sparingly and to thy friends. 
Ah, Lord, not only does he dishonor thee as aforesaid, 



but also when we are gathered togetlier to intone thy 
sonjw, putheied in the place where we sohcit thy mercies 
and fri!^. in the pltice where thou art praised and prayed 
to, where the «ul iiillicted one» and the jx>or gather com- 
fort and strength, where very cowards find spirit to die 
in war, — in this so holy and reverend place thiw num 
exhihits his dissohitonoss and hurts devotion ; he troiiblea 
those that serve and praise thee in the pla<!e wliere thou 
jralhereM and raarkest thy friends, a? a slieplienl marks 
his tliX'k.** hfijice tiiou. Lord. Iiearest and knowestto be 
true uU tliat 1 have now said in tliy prewnce, there re- 
mains no more but that thy will lie done, and tlie good 
plwisure of thy heart to the remedy of this affair. At 
leiist. O Loni. puni.'^h this man in such wise that he be- 
come a warning to others, so that they may not imitate 
his evil life. Let the punishment fall on iiini from thy 
hand that to tliee seems most meet, he it sickness or 
tmy otiier alHiction; or deprive him of the lordship, so 
that thou mayest give it to another, to one of thy friends, 
to one humhle. devotetJ, and jxMiitent; for many such 
thou hast, thou tliat lattkest not persons such as are 
netTessary for this oftire, iViends that ho()e, crying to thee: 
thou kniiwest thosL- f(»r friends ajid servants tliat weep 
and sigh in thy presence every day. Elect some one of 
ihew that he m:iy hold the dignity of this thy kingdom 
andseignory: nmke trial of some of And now, 
O Lord, of all the aibresaid things which is it tliat thou 
wilt grant? Wilt thou take from this ruler the lonlship, 
dignity, and riches on which he prides himself, and give 
thern to another who may Ix' devout, i>enitcnt, humble, 
ol>e»lient. capable, and of good imderstauding? Or. [kt- 
adventure, wilt thou be served by the falling of this 
proud one into poverty and misery, as one of the poor 
rustic* that C4in hardly gather the wherewithal to eat, 
drink, and clothe himself? Or, peradventure, will it thee to smite him with a Bore punisliment so that 

* Both tditon of Bohngnn agree hen in iimuk Iba word 'obejiui.' At 
•Imm vm unknovn in Mrxiro it is too rriilfnt tbiit oth<:r hauda tfaan Mexi- 
can MT* been cinployvd iu the comtniction of ttuA simik'. 


all hi>s body may slirivel up, or his eyes be made blind, 
or his members rotten? Or wilt thou Ije pleai»ed 
to withdraw him from the world through death, and 
send him to hades, to the houae of darkness and oljscur- 
ity. where his ancestors are. whither we have all to go, 
where our father is, and our mother, the god and the 
goddess of hell. our Lord, most clement, what is it 
that th^' heart desires the most? Ijct thy will be done. 
And in tliis matter in which I supplicate thee, 1 am not 
moved by envy nor hate; nor with any such motives 
have I come into tl»y presence. I am moved only )yy 
the robbery and ill-treatment that the i)eople sufl'er. only 
by a desire for their i>eace and pntsi)erity. I would not 
desire, Lord, to provoke against myself thy wrath and 
indignation, 1 that am a mean man and rude; for it is 
to thee, Lord, to penetrate the heart and to know the 
thoughts of all nioi*tals. 

The following is a form of Mexican prayer to Tezcat- 
lipoca, used by the officiating confessor after having heard 
R confession of sins fi-om some one. The jxxuliarity of 
a Mexican coiifcssion was that it could not lawfully have 
place in a man's life rnoix* than once ; a man's first aUsolu- 
tion and remission of sins was also the last and tlieonly 
one he hod to hope for: — our most compassionate 
Lord, protector and favorer of all, thou now heaixi 
the confession of this poor sinner, with which lie has 
published in thy presence his rottenness and unsavori- 
ness. Perhaps he has hiddeii some of his sins Ijefore 
thee, and if it \ye so he has irreverently and oftensively 
mocked thy majesty, and tlirown himself into a dark 
cavern and into a deep ravine;" he has snared and en- 
tangled himself; he ha.s made himself wortliy of blind- 
ness, shrivelling and rotting of the members, poverty, 
and misery. Alas, if this poor tdnner have attempted 

*> ' Si es osf ba becho burla de V.M., y con desacato v grande ofooia, ae 
ha nnojado & unit Lniiui, y on mm profnnda barranca:' Bostame&te'R nl. of 
SaKarjuiu IHst. Om., torn. ii.. lib. vi., p. 58. Hie same passaf^e rans as toU 
k>w» iu KJugBbimtHfjli'ii ed. : ' Si ^k ohi hn hechobnrlA dc vuitttra tnngartJid, y 
con de« y Mniiulc ofvnsa d^ viicHtra niaut^tnd sori nrrojado eu uun sUna, 
y eu unu [>rofuuda barruui-u:' KiwjsUtruuijh'a Mcx. AiUiq., vol. v., p. 367. 



nny f^ich andncity as to offerwi thus before tliv majesty, 
before thee that art lord and empemr of all, that kecpest 
A reckoning with all. he has tied himself up, ho has made 
liim»elf vile, he has mocked himself. Thou thoroudilv 
see^t him, for tliou seest all things, Ixnng inWsiblc and 
-without Iwdily parts. If he have done this thing, he has, 
of his own will, put himself in this peril and risk: fop 
this is a place of very strict justice and very strait judg- 
ment. This rite is like very clear water with wliich 
thou washest away the faults of him that wholly con- 
fesses, even if he have incuri*ed de.stniction and 
shortening of days; if indeed he have told all the 
truth, and have freed and untietl himself from hin «ina 
and faults, he has received the [)ardon of them and of 
what tlu'v have incurred. This poor man is even as a 
man that has slipped and fallen in thy presence, oftend- 
ing thee in divers ways, dirting himself also and casting 
him.««elf into a deep cavern and a Iwttoinless well/' lie 
fell like a |xx>r and lean man, and now he is grieved and 
discontentetl with all the jHi-st; his heart and UlhIv are 
imined and ill at cji-se; he is now filU*d with heaviness 
for having done what he did; lie is innv wholly ileter- 
miried never to offend thee again. In thy presence, O 
Lord, 1 speak, tiuit knowest all things, that knowest 
also that this poor wretch did not sin with an entire 
liberty of free will; he was pushed to it and inclined by 
the nature of the sign under which he was born. And 
since this is so, our Lord, most clement, protector and 
helper of all, since also this pot>r man hiis gravely offend- 
ed thee, wilt thou not remove thine anger and thine in- 
dignation from him? Give him time, Lord; favor 
and jjardon him. inasmuch as he weeps, sighs, and soIis, 
looking Ijefore him on the evil he has done, and on that 
wherein he has ofl'cnded thee. lie is sorrowful, he sheds 
many tears, the sorrow of his sins afllicts his heart; he 
i« not MOiTy only, but terrified also at thoughts of them. 
This being bo, it is also a just thing that thy fury and 

>■ 'Pocft' is mispriuted for 'poca' in Bostameute's ed., Sakagun, U\d. 
Oca., torn, ti., lib. v., p. &8. 



indijSTinfion ngninst him be appeased and that his sin« 
bo thrown on one yide. Since thou art full of pity, 
Lord, see good to pardon and to cleaufse hira; grant him 
tlie pardon and remisnion of his sins, a thing that de- 
R^eutls from heaven, as water very clear mid very pure 
to wash away sins," with which thou washest away all 
the Main ntu\ inijmrity that sin causes in the soul. See 
good, Lord, that this man go in peace, and commajid 
him in what he has to do; let him go to do |>enance for 
and to weep over his sins; give him the counsels neces- 
sary to his well living. 

At tiiis ix)int tlie confessor ceases from addressing the 
god and turns to the j)enitent. wiying: U my brother, thou 
Jiast come into a phice of much jx.'ril, a j)lace of travml 
and fear; thou bust come to a steep chai^m and a sheer 
ntck, where if any one fall hi^iHliall never conuMip again; 
thou liJLst come to the very phice where tlie snai-esiuid the 
nets touch one another, where tl)ey are set one u[Mjn an- 
other, in such wise that no one may jwiss thereby without 
falling into some of them, and not only snares and nets 
but also boles like wells. Thou hast thrown thyself down 
the banks of the river and among the siuires and nets, 
whcncx? without aid it is not possible that thou shouldst 
escape. These thy sins are not only snares, nets, and 
wells, into which thou hast fallen, but they arc also wild 
bciusts that kill and rend both l>ody and soul. Perad- 
vcnturc, hast thou hidden some one or some of thy sins, 
Aveighty, huge. fdth\'. unsavory, biildcn something now 
publislied in lieaven, earth, and hades, something that 
now stinks to the uttennost part of the world ? Thou 
hast now presented thyself before our most clement Lord 
and protector of all, whom thou didst irritate, offend, and 
provoke the juiger of, who to-morrow, or some other 
day, will take thee out of this world and put thee under 

* ' Com qat! (Iriiriundo dM cielo, oomoftriuolariiiinwy panatuupor 1 
peondoH: Sahatfmi, in KtivKhorowjh's Mea. Aiiliq., vol. v., p. SoS, 

Im peondoH:^ Sahatfmi, in Ktivjahorowjh's Ifex. Aiiliq., v'of. v., p. 3&S, See 

alao !i<iJia'jvn, HM. Ofn., torn, ii., lib. vj., p. 60. 

Th« quftlityof mercy ik not strain 'd 

It dn>]>r>#tb AH the f{cntle rain from heAven 

ITpuu toe place beneulb: Merfhant »/ Vaiire, meL, it. 



his feet, and pend ihce to tlie universal house of hadea, 
I where thy father in and thy mother, the god and the 
goddci^ of liell. whose mouths are always open desiring 
to (twallow tliee and aa many as may be in the world. 
In that place Hliall lie given thee whatsoever thou didst 
merit in this world, according to the divine justice, and 
to what thou hast earned with thy works of poverty, 
miwry. and sickness. In divers manners thou wilt be 
tormentetl and aftlioted in the extreme, and wilt be soaked 
in a lake of intoler.'il)lc torments and miseries; but here^ 
at this time, tliou hji>t hml pity uixm thyself in sjieaking 
and communiojiting wttlt our Lord, with hitn that sees 
all the secreta of every heart. Tell therefore wholly all 
that thou host done, as one that Hings himself into a 
deep plaof, into a well witliout lx>ttum. When thou wast 
created and sent into the world, clean and gowl tbou 
wast created and sent; thy father and thy mother (Juet- 
zalcoatl ibrmed thee like a precious stone, and like a 
head of gold of much value; when thou wast lx>rn thou 
, wast like a rich stone and a jewel of gold very shining 
^and very polished. But of thine own will and vuhtion 
thou host defiled and stained thyself, and rolled in 
iilth, aiid in the uncleanness of the sins and evil deeds 
that thou hast ct»mmittc<l and now confessed. Thou 
liast acted as a child without judgment or understand- 
ing, that pla\ ing and toying defiles himself with a h«Uh- 
sonie tilth ; so ha-st thou acted in the matter uf tlie sins 
that thou hast taken pleasure in, but hast now confessed 
and alt(»gether discovere*! before our Lord, who is the 
protector and purilier of all sinners. This thou shalt 
not take for an occasion of jesting, for verily thou hast 
come to the fountain of mercy, which is like very clear 
water, with which filthincsses of the soul arc washed 
away by our Lord God, the protector and favorer of all 
tliat turn to him. Thou hast snatchwl th^'scdf from 
hades, and hast returned iigain to come to life in this 
world, as one that comes from luiother. Now thou hast 
been Ijorn anew, thou hiust begun to live anew, and our 
Lord God gives thee light and a new sun. Now once 


more thou iK'giimest to radiate and to fdune anew like 
a very preeiouH ai|(J clear stone, issuing ironi the belly 
of the matrix in whicli it wo^ civfttod. Since this is 
thus, see that thou live with much circumspection and very 
advisedly now and liencefonvai'd. all the time that thou 
ma^'CHt live in this world under the {)ower and lordship 
of onr Lord Ood, most clement, !)eneficent, and munif- 
icent. Weep. 1» sad, walk humbly, with submission, 
witli the head low and Iwwed down, j)raying to (iod. 
Look that pride find no place within thee, otherwise thou 
wilt displease our Lord, who sees the hearts and the 
tlioughts of all mortals. In what dost thou esteem thy- 
self? At how much dost thou hold thyself? What is 
thy fouuflation mid root? On what dost thou support 
tlivself? It ifl clear that thou art nothin;:. canst do no- 
thing, and ai't wortli nothing; for our Ijord will do with 
thee all he may <Jesire and none shall stay liis hand. 
Perailventure, must lie show thee those things with 
whi('h lie torments and ai!licts, so that thou mayest see 
tliem with thine eyes in tinw world? Nay verily, for the 
tormentH and liorrible Bufferings of his tortures of the 
other world are not visible, nor able to be seen by thase 
that live here. Perha|js he will condemn thee to the 
universal house of hades; and the hous<' wl»ere thou now 
live.Ht will fall down and be destroyed, and }>e as a dung* 
hill of filthiness and uncleanness, thou havitig l>een ac- 
custuuied to live therein with niiR'li siitisfaction, waiting 
to know how be would disiiosc of thee, he our Lord and 
hel]x*r, the invisible, incorjKJix'al and alone one. Tlierefore 
I entreat thee to stand up and sti-engtlien thyself and to 
be no more henceforth as thou hast been in the past. 
Take to thyself a new heart and a iicw manner of living, 
and take good care not to turn again to thine old sins. 
Consider that thou canst not see with thine eyes our 
Lord God, for he is in\nsiblc and imjmlpablc, he is Te»- 
catliiKKMi, he is Titlacaoa, ho is a youth of ixirfect per- 
fection and without spot. Strengthen thyself to sweep, 
to clean, and to arrange thy house ; for if thou do not 
this, thou wilt reject fi*om thy oomjiany mid fixjm thy 



hou9e, and wilt offond much the very clement youth that 

is ever walking througli our houses, and thn)iigh our 

streets, enjoying and amusing himself, — tlie youth tliat 

labors, seeking his friends, tocomiort tlioin ami to comfort 

himself with them. I^o conclude. I tA\ thue to go and 

learn to Hweep, and to get rid of the liUh iiiul sweepings 

of tliy house, and to cleanse everything, thyself not the 

leaj«t. Suc'k out also a slave to immolate him before God ; 

make a fe^Lst to the principal men, ami let them sing 

thi; praises of our L(5rd. It is moreover (it tliat thou 

^jouldst do penance, working a year or more in the house 

'^)f God; there thou shalt bleed tliyself, and prick thy 

body with maguey thorns; and, as a penance for the 

adulteries and other vilenessea that thou hast committed, 

thou shalt. twice every day, pass osier twigs through 

holes pierced in thy body, once thi*ough thy tongue, and 

once through thine ears. This j>enance shalt thou do 

not alone for the carnalities alwve mentioned, but also 

for the evil and injurious words with which thou haflt 

insultc<l and affronted thy neighlwrs; a.s also for the 

ingratitude tliou shown witli i-eference to the gilts 

be**tt^wed on thee by our Lord, and for thine inhumanity 

toward tliy neighlkirs, neither making offerings of the 

goocls that were given thee by God, nor sharing with 

the |»oor the tenijionil I>enefit8 given by our I^ord. Thou 

jdialt burden thyself to otter pa|)er and coi>al; thou shalt 

give alms tt) t\w nee<ly and the lumgry, to tluxse that 

have nothing to eat nor to drink nor to cover tliemselves 

witJi ; even though thou thyself go without focnl to give 

it away and to clothe the naked: l<x)k to it, for their 

flesh is like thy flesh, and they are men as thou. Care 

most of all for the sick, the}' are the image nf G(h1." 

TheTC remains nothing more to l»e said t*> thee; go in 

peace, and entreat Gotl to aid thee to fulfill wluit thou 

art obliged to do; for he gives favor to all. 

The following prayer is one addressed to Tezcatlipt)ca 
by A recently elected ruler, to give thanks for his election 

s . , , . * mikynnut-Db] & \os cnfermos porqae sou ioisgca de diem.' Sahagwit 
tfuf. (Ml,, kim. ii., tib. tL, p. GS. 

Toe m. i» 



aiid to ask favor and light for the projjer performance of 
his office: our loi-d, most clement, invi.sihle and im- 
palpahle protector and governor, well do I know that 
thou knowest nie, who am a |KH>r man, tjf Imv iltrstiny, 
born atid hmiight up among Tilth, and a man of smiill luid mean jiidgmf'nt, fidl of many defects luid 
faults, a man that knows not himself, nor considers who 
he is. Tlioii liast bestowed on me a great l^neiit, favor, 
and mercy, witliout any merit on my part; thon hast 
lifted me fixjm the dung-hill and set me in the royal 
dignity and thi-onc. Who am I, my Loi-d, and wliat is 
my worth that thou shouldst put me among the num- 
ber of those that thou lovest? among tlio numIxT of 
thine owjuaintuiice, of those tliou lioldcst for chosen 
friends and worthy of all honor; born and brt)ught up 
for thrones and royal dignities; to tliis end thou hast 
created them able, prudent, descended fn>m noble and 
generous fathers; ibr this end they were created and 
educattnl; to be thine instruments and images they were 
borij antl bajitized under the signs and constellations that 
lords are Ijorn under. They were Ixjrn to rule thy king- 
doms, thy word being within them and speaking by their 
mouth. — -acconling to the desire of the ancient god, 
tlie fatlier of all the gods, the god of fire, who is in the 
pond of water among turi*etj* suiTounded with stones like 
roses, who is called Xiiditecutii, who determines, exam- 
ines, and settles the business and lawsuits of the nation 
and of the common people, as it were washing tlicm with 
water; in the comiMiny and presence of this god the 
generous personages aforementioned always are. 
most clement Lord, ruler, and governor, thou hnM done 
me a greivt favor. Perhaps it has been through the in- 
tercession and through the tears shed by the departed 
lords and ladies that had charge of this kingdom.'^ It 
would be great madness to suppose tliat for any merit 
or courage of mine thou hast favored me, setting me 
over this your kingdom, the government of which is 

M ' I^ofl paHwlnH HcKorra y sertons que tanctOD cargo de eflte reino.' Saha- 
irun. Hid. Otn., torn, ii., Jib. vi., p. 71. 



somctliing very heavy, difficult, and even fearful; it is 
as a lmj!X' Ijurdon, civrried on the shoulders, and one that 
with grcrtt difficulty the past rulers bore. ruHnjr in thy 
name. O our Ijord, most clement invisible, and impal- 
jvxhk*, ruler and provernor, creatoi* and knower of all 
things and thoughts, beautifier of thy creatui*e8,^ what 
shAli I say more, poor me? In what wine have I to 
rule and govern this thy state, or how have I to 
Ciirry this burden of the comniun people? I who 
am i»!ind and deaf, who do not even know myself, nor 
know how to rule over m\'Helf. I am aocu.stomed to 
walk in filth, my faeulties fit me for seeking and seUing 
edible herbs, and for carrying and seUing wo(h1. What 
I de-serve, O Lonl, is blindnt's.-* i'or mine eyes and 
rfiriveling and rotting for my limbs, and to go dressed 
in mgs and twitters; tliiH is what I <le.sei*ve and what 
ought to Ik' given me. It is I thiit need to be ruled and 
to lx> carried on some oneV l>ack. Thou htist many 
friends and ac<iuaintanccs that may be trusted with thifl 
load. Since, liowever, thou has alre^wly determined to 
set me up for a scoff* and a jeer to the world, let thy will 
be d<me and thy word fulfilled. Penulventure tliou 
knowest not who I am; and, after having known me, 
wilt seek another and take the government from me; 
taking it again to thyself, hiding again in thyself this 
dignity and honor, I>eing alreiuly angry and weary of 
bearing with me; and thou wilt give the guvermnent to 
another, to some close friend luid actjuaintance of thine, 
to «>me one very devout toward iIuh;. that wiv|js and 
sighs and so merits tliis dignity. Or, jmtiuI venture, 
this thing that happened to me is a divam, or a 
walking in sleep. O Ijonl, thou that art present 
in every phice. that knowest all tlioughts, that dis- 
tributest all gifts, be pleased not to hide from me thy 
wonls and thine inspiration. I do not know the road I 
have to follow^ nor what 1 have to do, deign then not 

** * AdomftdoT d« hm CTtAtnnu:* Sahagun, in Kingnharotttjh's }frz. AiUtq.^ 
voL v., p. 37r. ' Adonuulord« lu lliiiM.' SahoQun, Jfigt. Otn., torn, ii., Uo. 

TaTDRAL beings, A?rD WOBSUiP. 

to hide from uie the light and the mirror that have to 
guide rue. Do not allow me to ctiuse those I have to 
rule and carry on my shoulders to lose the road and to 
wander over rocks and mountainH. Do not allow me to 
guide them in the trackn of rabhits and deer. Do not 
permit, Lonl, any war to be raised ajrainst me, nor 
any pestilence to come u|x>n those 1 govern; for I should 
not know, in such a case, what to do. nor wheiv to take 
tliase I have u|x>n my shoulders; alas for me. that am 
incapable and ignorant. 1 would not that any sickness 
come uiH)n me, for in that case thy nation and jK-ople 
would lie lost, and thy kingdom desolated and given up 
to darkness. What sliall 1 do, Ijortl and creator, if 
by chance I fall into souie disgraceful Heshly sin, and 
thereby ruin i\ny kingilom? what do if by negligence or 
sloth I undo my subjects? what do if through my fault I 
hurl down a precipice tho^ I have to rule? Our Lord, 
most clement, invisible and impaljiable. 1 entreat thee 
not to separate thyself from me; visit me often; visit 
this poor house, for I will be waiting for thee therein. 
With great thirst I await thee and demand urgently 
thy word and inspiration, which thou didst breathe into 
thine ancient friends and acquaintances that have ruled 
with diligence and i-ectitude over thy kingdom. This is 
thy tlirone and honor, on either side whereof an' seated 
thy senators and principal men, who ai-e as thine image 
and very |)erson. They give sentence and s|jeak on the 
affairs of the state in thy name; thou usest them as 
thy flutes, sjieaking from within thorn and placing thy- 
self in their faces and ears, fawning their mouths so that 
tliey may sjx'ak well. In this jilace the merchnnti* mock 
and jest at our follies, with which merchants thou art 
8i>ending thy leisure, since they are thy frieuds and ac- 
qiuiintances; there also thou inspii-est and breathest upon 
thy devoted ones, who weep and sigh in thy presence, 
sincerely giving thee their heart.** For this rea-son tliou 

* The pn-L'iau farci.' of miirb of this Hentenne it ih Uftrd to UUil**rMbui<L It 
ReeUM to Hhovf, nt uuy n\to, tUiit thf DicrrhautM vrf.K ttnppooed to be Tory 
intimnta witli and (.Mpi>ciiillr fitvontl hy thiH deitv. Tlw original rand u 
follows: * £u esto ttignr burfan y hen Ae nuotitras WberiMi Um negociuitea. 


[ndomest them with prudence aiid wisdom, so that they 

kLy look as into a mirror with two faces, where every 

e*fl image is to be seen;" for tliis tliou givest them a 

[very clear axe, without an^^ dimness, whoso l)rig]itness 

flashes into all |ilaoos. For this cause also tliou givest 

tliem gifts iiiul previous jewels, hanging them I'n)iii tlieir 

necks and ears, even like material ornimients siieli lisare 

the juicfichtl, the ifiildl, the fln-pihnii or lieud-tassel, the 

liuitU^iiemU or tamied strap tluit kirds tie round their 

l-wrisU," the yeUow leather bound on the ankles, the 

jbemls of gold, and the rich feathers. In this place of 

Jthe good governing and rule of thy kingdom, are merited 

ly riches jmd glorv, thy sweet and delightful things, and tranquillity, a ix^aceablo and contented life; 

ill of which come fnmi tliy hand. In the same place, 

tly, are also meritcii the ailvci-se and wearisome things, 

' sickness. p(»verty, and the shoi-tncssof life: which things 

are sent by thee to thos*? tiiat in this condition do not 

ftiltill their duty. our Lord, most clement, knower of 

thoughts and giver of gifts, is it in my hand, that am n 

mean man. to know hou to rule? is the maimer of my 

life in my hand, and the works that 1 have to do in my 

NOtfice? which indeed is of t!iy kingdom ami dignity and 

Dot mine. What thou mayest wish me to do and wiiat 

may l»e thy will and disj)osition, thou aiding me I will 

do. The roiul thou uiavest show me I will walk in; 

timt thou mayest inspire me with, and put in my 

heart, that I will say and speak. our LonL most 

clement, in thy hand 1 wholly ])lace iu\'self, for it is not 

pQeKi[>le for me todirwt or govi'in myself; I ain blind, 

darkness, a dung-hill. .See good, O Lord, to ^ve me a 

h iiix|>tniix V inHnflaii^ & vnostros dovotos, <iul> Uoniii y suttpi- 
prt-Ht tjuiiiy oidandu vordiul «u corftxoii.' SnlvKfun, JliM.Otn., 

eon kw qOAlnt entals voa liot^'iindoofl, porqiir son Ttieetros ftiiii);;t>a y rtiestroa 
.- - ■ ' V nil' - ■ - ... 

1 ... _ ;'•. u.. 1'. 73. 

'• " Fnrtt qiK' vtiui onmo en cmjmJo <Ic doH hazcd. ditnde Mt rvprearnta la 
Jtni'^11 di* f^iilu uiu»'. Sfihi'/un, ilty,i. 'ien,, lont. ii., lib. vi.. f>, 73. 

'irt'jcmst [iar-riuyB|; Trnl'-li,hvt^uti: i\v iudio | li]>-<irnAJii«nt3: 

■II u; Miiljiia ^ivfi) »Ut> .l/(i(r>rrfi-u(/ to umili, il f{"'*l Irnw-let 

■' * Uiud; HiiHtivmiuit*- trauiilut«Ti tlii; word m Uif Miuiie wiiy. 

■'Ai* uihtitioiu'd ill Ui« l4ixt vriui nitrd U> tie tliu briMvlet 

liM '"i., torn, li-, lib. vi., p. 74. 



little lip^ht, though it be only as mucli as a fire-fly gives 
out, going nl)ont at night; to light me in this dream, in 
this life asleep that endures as for a day; wliere are 
many things to stumble at, many things to give occasion 
for laughing at one, many things like a rugged road that 
has to Iw gone over by leaps*. All this ha« to hup[)en in 
the pttsition thiiu hast put nie in, giving nie thy seat and 
dignity. Lord, most element, I entreat thee to visit 
me with thy light, that I may not err, that I may not 
imdo myself, that my vassals may not cry out against 
me. our Lord, most pitiful, thou hast ninile me now 
the hack-piece" of thy chair, also thy tlute; all without 
any merit of mine. 1 am thy mouth, thy face, tliine 
ears, thy teetli, and thy nails. Although 1 am a mean man 
1 desii*e to say that 1 unworthily repi^-sent thy ix?ri<)n, 
and thine image, that tlic words I shall s|)eak have to 
be eHtet'tned as thine, that my face has to be held as 
thine, mine q\q:< as thine, and the punishment that 1 
fihaU intlict wn if thou haflst inflicted it. For all this 
J entixiat thee to put thy spirit within me. and tliy words, 
so that all may o)>oy them and imne contradict.'* 

Now with regard to the measure of the genuineness of 
tlie prayers to IWnUUiKJoa, just given, it seems evident 
that either with or without the otpuseious connivance of 
Father Hemardino de Sahagun. their historian, a certain 
amount of s^>]ilii.stir4iti4)ii and mhiptation to Chrislian 
ideas has crept into theui ; it ap]K'ars to l>e just as evi- 
dent, however, on the other liand, that they contain ft 
great deal that is original, indigenous, and cli a riiet eristic 
in regaiti to the Mexican religion. At any rate they 
purport to do so, and as evidence hearing on the matter, 
presented by a hearer and eye-witness at Orst hand, by 

9* ' Eapal^ar de mMtra silla.' S^xho'jttn, UIM. Oen.. lorn. U., Uh. vi., p. 7A. 

*> ' He ihut clfbvt*n-d this jtrn^'er Wforc Tezoutlipucii, Btood ou Lit* ft-et, 
hia feet close toycthi-r. bendirii; luniRelf to»7u-ds Ibe «ai1b. Tbosc that were 
Yery dfvaut -v-vrv utvkftl. Befurr llivj- l«'puii Iho prayvr Ihcy oir«'ri-<l tujHiI to 
the fire, ur ftome tftbLT Hiivritlt)', uiiil if Uuir wren> covt-rcilwi(ho I'laukct, tlicjr 

C" id Uie kuo( u( it roiiuci t'l tli^ br^iiHt. )ui that Ihc^y wero uokc-d lu fiuut. 
a upokr* IhiN priiyer higiiiittiii^ on tht'ir oidves, and kept Iht! kmil of lb* 
bUnket on the liliuulder ' ^nJ4a'juH Hist. Gm., turn, ii., lib. \i., p. 76. 



a man of strongly luithenticated probity, learning, and 
above nil. of strong synipjithy witli the Mexican people, 
beloved and trusted by tliose of tliem with whom he 
came in contact, and admitted to the familiarity of a 
friend with their tniditions and habits of thought, — for 
u!l these re;won9 his evidence, however wc uiuy esteem 
it, must 1)6 heard and judged." 

■< Father Benuurdina de SahngnD, a Kpanigb FrancUcau, waa one of ibo 
flnrt pit-ftchKn sent to Mi-xico; wht-re hv wns much tmnluyvil in the in* 
struclion of iho untive yunth, working fur the moat part lu tli« pruviuce of 
Tezcui'o. WliilH tlicro,' iu tbo city of Tei)oi)pnl<^». iti the latt4>r |tfii-t uf the 
aixtef&tli oMitury. Itc b«ititu the work, lir-st known to um iim lh« ftisturia 
Omerat tk la* (.'o»« </c A'urcd t^sfui'm, fnim whit-U thf iibovt? pniyers have 
been tnuulat^il, aud from which wt.' tthull «lniw ]tirK<--ly for furlhor infumin- 
tiuu. It wniiltl bu' bard to iua^nc u work of Mnch u uhumt-tcr ronHtmcttril 
afl«r m b«llc-r fiuihioa of wnrkiug thnu his. Outheriug the priucijtol mittvea of 
tlio town in w hivh hu [-nrritiU on hi^ luburs, hv iiitluoed Iheni to iippuiut liim 
a nmiiWr tif iH-rsmu.. the most Itrarueil and t- xpehenoed in the lbiun« <i( which 
1m wltthMl t(i writf. ■ITii-tw* Icanu'd M''Aicnu» bring oo1tt?etL'<1. FwlhiT tiahu. 
gan WW) uccn>^loiii<'d to gi>t t)i«<iii tn pniut dnwn in thrir iulivi,> fat^tiion tho 
rarious IcurutlH, drUiilHof binlory aikil inyLlinitvy. >ii>d nt> on tlnit hv wiuitudiut 
tbe foot olthe said pioturcsthew leuniecl Mi-xii-uns wrote out the pxplonntions 
of the mmt' in the Mt^^xicuu ton^^iie; and tblfi c-xplmmtioii the Fnlbcr ISnbA- 
gttn translata-d into SpimiKh: Ihnt trunHliition purports to Xm what wa now 
r««d AH the Hist'friii lifiurtil. Hi-rt- followtt ii Intiixliition of tht^ Prologo of 
bift work, in which he d>?KcribeH all the forej^oing in his own way: "AU 
vrrili^nt lalMir the \>fHt that- they cun to iimke th«-ir wnrlcH niithoriltLtivv; KOluo 
by witneHKj'M worthv of f«ith. ulht-rB liy thf writiiiics nf prnvioHrt writt-rs held 
worthy of b<-liff, utnern hy the tewiiuouy of iUm Sacred StTiptiirwt. To me 
art* wuDtin^ nil tht'Hi< fuiiiiduliunx to uuikc nuthoriliiiive whnt I h»ve vritteu 
iu tbe*e twelve iHwkx [of the Wduria '/Vntm/]. I have uo other fuundii- 
tiou. bat to i^t?t d"v,ii ht-n' th«i relnljon of (he diligence that 1 nmde to know 
the truth of idl thnt is written in the in twelve lioiiks. As I have (uiid in other 
proUij;ue« to this work, 1 wa« eommHuded in nil licly ubedienre by my chitf 
pr«'Ittt(> to write in the Xli'sienn liingnuK*' Ihiit wiiieh nppeurrd to me to bo 
afu*fnl for the doetriiu-. wunship, und timinlennuct^ of l*hriKtlanity among 
theMi oatireB of New Spain, awl for the aid of the workers nod luinisterB that 
lAUfcht ihtiu. Having reccivi-i] ihiH coiumiinduicnt, 1 made iu the Spoiiijih 
lu))(UJitie a luiniite or menmntndiini of all tht- mutters that I hud to treat of, 
whii'-h uuitlera ure wbiit in written in the twdvr Ijookn, . . . .which were begun 
in the piicidu of Tepeopideo. which i»^ in the province of (.'ulhaocaii or Tc£- 
cvQft. Ihe work wasduno in the foUuwini; wiiv. In the nforeitaid pueblo, I 
p>t lo){eth<'r all tbf) prinripnl men, together with the lord of the pineo, who 
w-ftn ejilled Dun Dieuo de Mendoza. of ijTefltdisiiuetior undrtbility. wellosperi- 
*n'- ' '' -lii-*, mililnry, j»oIitiriil, and even rrlutiiifi to idolatry. 

Til' ;;:er, I net before thciii whul 1 prnpiijicd to du, and 

pr.iv : -' ;., ^! iiiL me able and espcrieneetl perwnw, with whom I 

nii|{ht convi'Tw and ettme to an imderritandiiiK on Hueh (|ui'Htionii an I ini|{ht 
pro].' -■^, '11h y uiwwered me that they would tidk tlie mutter over and givo 
th>:: I't another day; and witli thlM they took their diipartnro. Bo 

on '\ the lord nnil hiK jiriueipal nieu cnmc, nnd having conferred 

lOfc< III' r (Mill jo'cttl holonmity. at, they were iicrnslt)ui«l at that time to do, 
f(h*y rtwiMe iMit tt II or twelve of the jiriiiripiil old men, and told inc that with 
|]t«ni>- i nil 'lif r-oumtuniento and thnt thcHe would iUMtruet mv in any matters 
J kIj . !>■ of. Of thetu' there were ni« many ii.<i four iutitructrd in Ijattn, 

io » i. lite f(/w ycoTM hvfurt), bud luyKelf tuiitcht gnuumar iu tbu oullo({e 


of Banta Cm/., in TlalU-lolco. With th<.*iic appointed imncipnt men, iucltid- 
ing Ibe four instmt-lwl iu gnuumnr, I talktHl lu&uy Aaya cluriuy ubutit two 
yenn, fuUowiu^ the urdor of the tuinulu 1 kw] alKndy modu out. Un nil th« 
snbjt-clH ou wliioh we ccmft-rrcd (hey [{ftve me pinnrvB. — which wetv tJie 
writings Hucittntlj* iu two auioii^ Ibt'in, — and Uieae the graiuiuiirinue iut^r- 
pr«tetl to lan in thfir liitiguut{<>, writing tliu inter^ir'^tAUon at th<i foot of 
the pictiuv. Evva to thia day I hold tku oritouulH o( thi'so. . . W'livu I went 
to till? rhaptcT. with which wii» tttdi-d the sc-vm yi-urs" lt>nii »if Fmy Frauci»- 
CD Toril — uo thut had imposiHl th'H charge of thitt work ii|>on uie — I vks re- 
moved from TcjH-'dpidro, currying nil uiy wrilinga. I went to rusidti ot Saut- 
iugd dt'I TlidtcloVo. Tht^n- I linnitiht togothi-r the priiicipiil int^n, net lH-f<<r« 
them tho mutter of my wriiiugK, und uitked thorn tu ap]Htint uie Humc »bk- 
TirincipAl m4<n, with wham I might vxamiuti and tjdk over the writingft I hud 
urouKnt fmni TepfnimlcH*. TK« govfruor, with lh« ulculdftt, apmiinted uie 
KB many lut tM^hl or t^n principal mr>ti, M<lt>ct4<(l from nil the moHt alilt^ in their 
luigaaffe, mid in iIih things of thi-ir itiilii|intii-H, With Ihei^H and with four 
OTava ooUc^ianH, all trilinyniisl**. '»nd Uvinif (or the 8pfti?e of ft year or more 
secliidM in Ih" fcillcgo, jtU timt }uid Wen bronght ^-nlten frum Ti'penpnloo 
was clfiirly pin'^ndt^d nnd addwl to; and tho wlmlp via» rt'wrilt«*n in Kninll 
letters, for it w«k written with mnob hattto. In this scmtiny or t>xiimiuutinn, 
he* thut worki^l thi^ hiirdeHt of nil the rolIiiginnH Wittt Mnilin .lurohltn, trbo 
WHS then rt'i'lor of Ihu colh^g*', nn inlinhitnnt uf the wunl of Snntti Ana. I, 
having dono nil nn ntmre naid in Tlall^hdro, wt-tit, tnktng with me all m^ 
writingsi, to reside in S.111 1-'runcinco de llexico, where, by inyst-lf , for the spai^ 
uf thrf I- yL-iira. I examined over and ovi>r nguin the MTi'tings. emended them, 
divided them into twelve books, nud each book into elmpti-rs and punigriiphn. 
After this. Fiitbi,-r Mi^nirl Nnvnrro being provindftl, and Fnther OieKu do 
Mendozn couimi?isiiry-geuond in Mexico, with their favor I ha<l all the 
twelve books clenrly cnpit^l in a good hand, as bIao the rosiUla and the 'Vxn- 
(area [whioh veere other workn on which Snhagan was engaged}. I made 
out also an Art of the Mc-xioan UmgunKe with a TocabalBrf-appendix. Uow 
thf* Me\i*anfi added to nnd emended my twelve book* [of the llbdnrta tstnt- 
rol] in many things ndtile they M'ere bt-iug copied out in full; so thai the flrat 
si^ve tliniiigh which my work pas.-k.'d wan that of Tepeopnlco, the wcnnd 
that ufTliiltelolco, the third tlxnt of Mexico; ondinall thetM-AiTiitiniesrolk-gi. 
ate gnunmanunH tuid been employed, 'llie chief and nnwt h-umed waa An- 
tonio Vftleriivno. u resident of AztctipilZiiU-t ■ ; iiuolh r, litllw Ie>.,-t thrui the ftnrt. 
WBK Alouito Vegerauo. rosident of Cuaiihtitlan : nnt)thei w.-is iliirlin JoiKibila, 
al>ove mentioned; another I'edro de Kiiutt Duentiveutum. resident of (..'aanh> 
titlan; all expert in threo lauguagen. Lnliu. Si>aniHh, and Indum [Mexiean]. 
The ftcribeH that muda out the clcnr copien uf all the workw aro Diego 
DeiiTiwlo. rt-sident of the ward of Sun Martin, Mnt(>o Sevi-rino. re*4ideiit of Xo- 
chimilo, (tf lh«- piirt of I'llac The clear «opy beintj' fully ninde out. by tho 
favor of th*' fath'TK idrnvi- iiieiititimsl and the rxpi-nditure of }inrd cash on Ih* 
aeribes, the nntlior tlirreuf usked of the delegate Father Frnik'i*i'o de Itivera 
that tho work Ut Hulnnitti'd to three or four r«dit!ii>nB, ko that ther might giva 
on opinion oit it, and th'it in the proviueial chapter, whieh vnm eIow> nt hand, 
they might iiHend and rt-port on the mutter to the iiKKemblr. K]><\(king rui 
the thing might nppi-Hr to Ihein. And theHu n<jHirted in the aiweiiibly that 
the wrltingH were of innrh value and deaer^-ed siich mipport as was ueressary 
towanl thyir eo'iipletion. Hut t^» pionitf of the nnxi-nibly it aeemed that it 
was contrary to their vows of povf rty to (tpeud money iu cotiyiiig tJie*i: writ- 
ings; HO ther commanded the author to dinmiiui hie A('rir>*>s, and that he 
nlone with hU own hand ahonld do what copying he wanlcil done; but as he 
wan more than sevunty yearn old, nnd fur the tn'mbling of his hand not abl< 
In write anythin;{. nnr able to proeure a diK]>fn«>itinu from thia moodntc, 
titure wuH noihin'4 done with the writing for iiinnt than tivn yean. Doriiag 
thitt interval, and at the next chnpter. Father Miguel Navarro WM elei^aa 
by the gcneml chapter for cutdo^ cuKtodiutu. and Father Alonio de Eacalotui. 
for proviiicinl. l>nring this time the author made ft aummury of uU tit* 
books oad of all tho chapters of each book, oud prcdofcoM) whiiireiii was said 



with breritv nil thai (be bookn contoini'il. This vinminHrr Father Migne! 
yaTurro mill hU rouipaiiiitii. Father (ifninimn dtt Mt'titliptii, CArrifil to Hpiuu, 
Mul tbnA iu Kpain thu tliiiip^ that hml bi'oii wriltDD uUont thin laiiH ituide 
tliatr appeamnre. In tlur mi-an time, Iho father nrnvinrial tonk all the 
books of (ho author itu<l <U)4]ifi-Ht-<l iln-m thntiigh ull thi> pntvinoi', where they 
ven fteen by uiuQy rf Ui^«ji)h aud uppraveil for very nrei-iouH aii<1 Talnablc. 
After some yttart, lh« geiit^mt chuirfer luet-tiug again, Futhor Miffiiel KaTam\ 
at thf |>iHiUoii of the author, turned with n-tmnreg ti) et>Hert agnin the Haid 
books: Thii'h, trttm thnt eollecting, caoiR «-itbin nboiil n venr into th» 
llftDdiiof the authitr. During thnt tiiiiu uuthiiiK wim done iu l)ieni. nur was 
tbem any one to help to ^ift th^ni tmii'«lat''d into the vcrnariilur S|>niiiHh, 
until th» delepitc-genemi Knthcr RiKlri^o du SeqQcra canio to tlteKf pnrtA, 
fLx-w AodwEks innrh pleiivd with them, and comnumded the Author to tmnslute 
tbeni into SpuniKb; )iroriilint; nil thnt wnti neccsBary to their heiiig re-writtcn. 
the klexicnn Untfua^ in one calumn nnd the Kpanish in another, ko thiit they 
night be sent to S|>nin: for tho most illuKtriotix St-iior Don Juan dc Ovando. 
endent of the t'ounoil of Indies, hud inijuirpd after them, he knowing of 
Bin liy reawm of th:- HiiiuuKir)* that the wiid Father MiffUi-l Nuvarro had 
enried to Spaiu. ns ahuve dnil. And till the abovv-suid ia to show Ihut this 
woifc hu be«u eximiiiu-d and approved by luany. and dnrise many yeant 
htm pMsed through uiauv troubles aud mitiiortnutrs Wfuro reaohing the place 
it now baa:' Snloujiui, lilsi. Otn., toiu. i., lib. i., Pnilodto, pp. iii. vii. As to 
the dnte at which Mahngun wrot« he Bays: 'TbeBc twelve books and the Art 
■□d th« Tocabuliuy-iippeodix were flnishtd in a cleur copy iu Ih* your 1569; 
bat not tranriated Jut'.» Sponi-ih.' So/.nirin, Ifltl. Otn.. torn. ii.. lib. i,, Intro- 
dacdoo, 11. XT. The following; wunty Aketoh of the life of Sahflftan, in taken, 
nft*-r ItuNlanjaute. from the \hnfd>'iim Stnijim of Father Bttaucourt: 'Fa- 
ther UernivrOiuii HAhii^in, imtive f>f SuIuikou, took the robe iu the eouvuut 
of SahuiuiuoL, b<-in'^ u Htudcut cf tliiit uuiversity. lie pushed into this ]iro> 
vium- [Mexico] iutbeyt-nr I JiD. iu Ihc L-omiwuv of Fiitber Antouio de <.'iudad 
Boflrigo. \Vhtlu a youth he ww* eii.l:>wod wilb n beauty and gnwu of ]tervon 
QtAt correMpouded uilU tliiit of hiH >toid. From his ttiDdere^t yearn hu yraA 
TUT}' ob«ci^uut, fM-lf-euutaiiied. aud yiven to prayr. Father Alartiu de Ta- 
l«uciu held xn-ty olotiu L-ouioinniou vitli hitu, owing to which he rqw liim 
ttuuiy tiniejt ftnalohed np into au oi'Kta>ty. Sahagiin was very cxaot iu liiK at- 
l4<nibin>-e in dm rb'>ir. even iu liix old a^-e. hw never was absent at luatiuB. 
Hh was gMntle, humble, eourtcouN in hJH couvente with all. He whs 
e1<^<^ ' - -Tty with thft Icarnvd Father 4uan dc Gaooo, as pmfetwor tX 

Tliii < tho culle^fl of Santa Crux; wh«n ha ihona like a lii^ 

on .> i>-u, for he Wits (K'rfed in nit the sciences. Bis possesnon 

of th« ilfkici.u language was of a perfectUMa that has newr to thin ilay 
bdiog tsjiialed: hi* wnjt4> lu^uy 1>ook)t in it that will b« mentioned iu tho 
i^atUfi^'tie of uuthuM. H>-' had to Htri%'e with much oppoititiou, for to Hotup 
it dill not S4*em |{ood V\ wTite mil in (he liingniif^e of the ^leiieiins their 

... . ,,.,.a ),.«,( \\ shoiildgivw r>cra»i(;n for their being perw-Vered iu. He 

ihf honuT of iJod ngniuHt idolatry, and nought camestlT to 
> iiri-itiau fnith n|>on the converted. He affirmed a* a minis* 
U:f ul luQvU rxperieiu!'-. that duriog the SrHt twenty yearn [of hiii life in the 
nitvioce) the fervor M the natives wiui very great; but Ihut aftt-rward they 
ink^Iineil to idolntn- ne very Itikewann iu the faith. 'I'his he savb 

In the I»ook of hiK / t I hiivo. in which I biinit nmch. During the 

tint twenty veArv of .1. - 1,. , .11 the province] he was guardinu of s(mie con- 
Tcut*: bat aVt^r thnt he ilettired not t^i takf upon himself any ufUoe or guar- 
dLuuihip for tuorr than forty year^, no that he could occupy himKi-tf in 
Drniohin:;. c^nfe-ftuug. and writing. t)tiriug the Kixty aud one years thai 
bo Uvet) in the pntvjnce, for the mnttt part iu college, without resting a juingle 
day, ! ! • ■'. ' ,v^ jn civilization n-iXtX go-xl customs, teaching them 

. rMbli >r. lun'iic. and other things in the service of God 

and ' 1 ... --. ;^l ou till the year when, the approneh of death 

hoc- mnt lo ev*!ry one, he entered the ho^pitul of llvxii^n; where he 

dletl ■■•■'■■ d of Uclobcr. There assembled to his funeral the coUe^aiiSt 



tfRilin^ tlii>ir bfttts, ftod the nntivra abeddinif U>ani, and the mt'nibent of thA 
diflffi'-iit rt-li^iitiiH hnnsoH ^viuk praisc« to<.t(Kl niir Lurcl fur ttiirv holy <li:ittb, 
vt wliifb liie iiiftrlyrolo^'y trenlR.— GoDEajin. 'i'Drtineniiitla, l>i'w. lUiii|iiiieo, 
and iiiniiy utUerx. lu tbv libninr u( iSiUiur Eiiuiuru, in thf luauiiHoni'toftbe 
TnrriaTta i-nlU'ctioD, J linv« iviul the nrtii-U- rt-Intiii^ to I'utbiT Subupin: in it 
u Inr^r catAlogae of work^ tbat be wrotu bt iovt-u. 1 remetuber only Uie (ol- 
luiA-in;{: Historia Otnrral d< taa cosaa r/r Au> I'a Ktrpatia; Ariv de (vr'-mcVfta 
ntrxirnnti; f)iicinnario triiingut th w/xi/'"/. /<i(i», y iiiexiiitnn; Htmum't 
pitrn ti"!" tl n>'»> en tntxifano, (poseo aniiquc sin iionilirc dt' imtor) : PostU- 
Ittg 6 nurivintUtritfa at evajvjelia, para lag Kiijwji sifi*7niir-> tlr dia ih prfitpto; 
^fyUfrin t/e los primen* pobtadorea /raneiscnt\oa en JUoaric",* Saimfidia de la 
trlr/u dt Criato, de &» i4rgm y de h$ sankv, que MsatMv /cw imlioit. y jirrtrp- 
iiM piim lo» oifadoit; Eacala ejiiiritaal. t^nv txLv 1a iitiou-rn otm q^uu *e im- 
priiui'f f^Q Mexico en lu impreuta que trnjo UiTcaii C'orU-A de K»j'Hna.' .StiAo- 
ipin, llixl. Urn., torn, j., pp. vii.-ix. Ah to ibt- manmr iu wbicb tht' il'\*- 
Utritt (i-ftiral of &dlm|i!UD. ' wbom,' says Prescott, JAx., vol. i.. p. Ii7, 
'I bavfl followod as tbe bi^beut nullidrily ' in ninttpre of Mi-xii-uii rv- 
Ugioii,— at last «iw tbe ligbt of publicntioa, I give Prwicolt'H iwiimui, 
if«.. vol. i., p. 88. OK fXQft Hate iu uue p.-iiit. for which see tbe corrwlitiu 
in bmcketa:— ' At leuntb, towiird the cKi»e of th« hwl wnturj-. ibe ijxlefAli- 
gable Mudoz BU(x:ofdc-d iu disiutcrriuK tbe Iouk loitt mniitit^-npt from lhi'< 
place Inidition had ii.s«iHHi'd to it, — tht libmry of a oi.nv*?iit at Tiilosa. in Na- 
vurre. tin:- iiurlhiTii i-xlrtiuity of Hiiuiu. With bit* iihuhI mdor. hv Intx^cnbei 
tho whotu u-ork witb bitt own ImiiUH, mid added it lo the inentiniohle ooll«c- 
tion. of wbicb. altm! hv wuh dcHliuLtl not to rr-ap tbe tiill benefit buniielf. 
Prom thiii transcript L/>rd Kiiijf»lioroUKb wan emibled lo prncurB Ihi* copy 
which W(U jtabliahud in l%:ii\, in the ttixih volume of bis nin<aiitieent cunipiU* 
ttOQ. [It van published in twoparlK. in tbe tlflb uud scveiilL volntiu-.'iuf tbat 
oomjiilaliuti. and the ixiict dnteof the |>ubli^-iitiim wh» 18jl. 1 In it be eipreMos 
OU hiiue>il Kiili>ifii('ttiin at bein^ tlie tirst to ^ive babn^uu'it work tg Ibe world. 
But in tUismifiMijiitioube wuHUii.Hlalifii. 'I'bc very yuor preci-dioK. au e<iitioa 
of iti, with nunotationK, Hp|>eart>d iu Slt-xieo. in three volume* Svo. It waa 
prepared by Huntauinnte, —a wliular t<) whuh<- editorial aelivit;!^ hi* coautry 
in larj^ely tudebtwl, from a eopy of tbe Munuz iuauu)^-rit>t wbiobediue into 
hill poHMt imiun. ThuH thin r<^uiRtkable work, which wa* dt-nied iW- bomm 
oftuepresH during tbe authur'H lifetime, after jHUKKiiig tuto obliviijn. renp- 
peATod, nt the diuttmre of nearly three centiincs, not iu bi^uwu i-uiiutry. hut 
m foreign biuilet widely n-inute from encb other, iiud that uluiiwl ajuiuttjtu&- 
vaaiy. . . .Saba^jrun dividwl his hintorj' into twelie bookx. The tin»t rltvcn 
■ra occnpieit wHth the eocini iuHtitutiona of ^Iexie4>, aiid the last witU tbe 
OooqncAt. On tbo rcligiou of the conntTj- he >» piirticularly fall. Uis ^eat 
object eridentlr wu, to (Ove a elcnr view of it» mytbolocv, and of the "bur- 
densome ritouJ vhtch bvlon};;ed to it. I(e)it;iou euten-d no ititiuintt-ly into 
the most [nivatc concenifl and nmtf:e<i of tbe Aztccti. that H^tluii^rnn'ti work 
miut be n t«xt-hook for eTery ntndent of tbeir aniitjnitieit. Toixiueinnda 
KVniled bitnselt of a mamLwrtpt copy, which fell into hi" IminU before it was, 
sent to tipaiu. to eurieh bin uwu puffea,— u t-ircunmtaucr more furtnunte for 
his rcodon than for HfthtignnV reputation, vrho^e vrork, now tbat it in pub- 
Uehed. loses uiDch of the oriKittality and int«rcfit wbieh would olberwi«r 
Rttacb to it. lu one resitect it is iuvalnuble; at* prewnting a compU-te col- 
lection of the viuiouit foriUM uf prayer, aeeouimfdiited to evi-rj- potistiblc emet- 
poucy, in u»p by the MexieauH. Tbev are oflrn elntbed in diyiiibed and 
Deautifid Jaui;uaHO. »howinK that Bubliine specnlalivo tenets are qiiitr« com- 
pBtiblt) with the tnoKt de^mditiif praetiees of hnpcrtititioD. It is niarh U* be 
rcfcn-tted that we have not tht- oii{hteen liyuiDn. inserted by the author in hia 
biMik. whifh would biivr partic-nlar inlL-resl, us the only sperimeu of dt-To- 
tional (MH tr>- presened of tbe A/ttej4. The hiernnlyphieaf pointings, which 
Acrum|Hiniod the t^-xt are iduo niinsinR. If Ibey havti osca[»ed the hands of 
(auatieifni, both may reappear at some future di»y.* As msr haTtf liwa 
nolired, the eibtiouaof Bahagnubv bulh Budljunaute and Kin^Kliotioiigh bnro 
been couxtatilly nsed together ana collatetl doiiog the eonrst of this prMrnt 



work. They differ, ospeciuMy in mauy minor poinU ol typoRrnphT, Bnstft- 
iu«nle*s being Ihe roorwcftrflcsKly t-diti:^! in 1hi» rt-siiect. N'otwilhstaudinn. 
fauwevrr, the opiuion to the coutnur of Mr liarriKst', HiiBtumnutt^'ii edition 
is on the wbulct tbv luoru complete; Kin^borutii^h Luvin^ uvuwt^dly umltted 
divera piuta o( ihe. uriKiunl wliich he thoD^bt unimportant or urn Die resting, 
— ft fniih nliu> of llunltiiuaute'it, bnt to a k-^er exteot. Fortouotoly wliAt u 
absent in liie une 1 bnve ftlwajn fonnd in the other: nnit indited, ns a whole, 
•u>l nil eircuu'istaiiceti beiiip cou«i(kTed, they n^ce toli-niWy weU. The erit- 
icisni uf ilr Uarrisse. juMt n-f-Tred to, fuiwhh follows, Hih. Am. Vel.. p. 'JOH, 
note '>J: ' JliMiiria ti*Hf.rfd 'If las Cusuu de ^Viwivi Kitjuiiia; Mexlt-o, li vrtln., 4to, 
mi9 ( nlJted nnd caHtrnled by Uttstamcnte [ Bimtiimiiule ] in Hneh a mannt^r aa 
to rci|iiire for a perfret uuderstaoding of that dry but iiuportnut worl:, the 
mtoliufi^uf tlio iHtrttt alM> published iuvots. r. and Ti.[v. nndvii.]. <>f Kingja- 
bomiiKli'i* Atdiijuilirn. ) ' Wu arc not yet done, however, with ixUtiuns of Snhn- 
(ton. A third eUilioii of pait of bia work bus s«cu theli^ht. It iHBiiKtntuantfi 
hiuuelf that altotuptH to Mti|M-raede a part of bin flntt e<litioD. Ho ufiirniK, thiU 
book xii. of that t\rHt tsliliuu of Mb, aa of course also book xii. of Kiiip«bon>ut;li'a 
•ditiou, ill ftpurionit and hn* been garbled and i^ottaed by t^pnniith handa 

Suite away from the ongiuul afi writtt^li by Sahagiiu. Kuirlly how or vfaea 
lid romiption took place he does not hIiow; but ht> leiivi^K it tu bu inferred 
that it wiu iuini»liat4>ly after the oritnnal niaQusiTint bad Wen tftk<tn from 
ita author, nnd thjit it wad ilouo IteninHe ihut twelfth book, u'liirh trt'Ats more 
imnediately of Hip Ton'Mi-'-st. rpflprt«'d too hiirdly on thn <'onqneriir8. Hns- 
tanuuite baring pronin-d, in n miinner now to bo i^nvcn in his own words, a 
eorreet and nennine fopy of tbe twi^lfth liook, a copy vritton ami sifjued 
by the hand of Sahnffim liiuDw^lf, proce^led in 1^41) to fi^ve it to the world 
□ndrr the extrruirdinary title of hi Ajyiri'-iim tlr Swutnt Smortt tU fiuaflafupt 
i/e ,l/«ii-o. mmvn^Mi'ht am In r^^fvliirinit 'IpI inytimruUi urii'it'nx' qwt presfntti h. 
Juan Bant ittn Sfiiiidz, fujulmutitsf en el tfntinuima <lrl I'. Fv. Iternnrdino Sufuu 
]Piaj 6 tea. IfiMorht Orhjioal d^ rste Ks'-ritor. q'u nltfra la pufilirada a iSl'.' rn 
it tqmivorxujo cfmc'ifto <h err la uniai y oritiUvMiUidiiho aittyr. All uf which 
nenna to Bur that he. Itaetaninnte, hnTin^ already pnblitthud in 18*29-30, a 
complete edition of Snhtiftnn'H /fiVfcrri/i ffenrral, in twelve books, acoorditig 
to the best moDiiaehpt b':' oould then And, has fonnd the twolftU book of (hat 
biitory to be Dot genninc, ban found the Ki>niiin<' 'iritnnal of i^iiid twilflh 
bo<^, nnd now, in IKlii, pahiiKh'-H aiii.l g<'nnine twelfth book under the a\ ove 
Otnotdiuary naiup, iniuininrh a« it contttins Korae reference to wUnt in 
uppoaed ui Im! npperiDosl in every religions Moxican'a mind, to wit, the 
niinicnloaa npiKdraticu of the UlcMed Virgin to a cortain nHtivtt Mexican, 
la Apiiri<'iou u<; uuiMtrii Seiiora do Ouadolnpe de Mexioo. UuMtjuniaulit'it own 
MVonni of »U1 tU^ foreyoiuy. being tranjiliited from the above-uieutioued .Vra, 
StU^rri tie ^iwul'iluiK, |ip. iv., viii.. xxiii., mnn ns, follows: * Aa he fSuluignn] 
wrot*' with 111' '■' ■'■' •■•■■•'■^ projtor to tmth. ond (la thia wan imt pU,n»iiij^ to the 
kMdn of th'-- ' :nient. nor even to aome of bi!4 bn^tlRT frium, bit wiia 

dMpfriit^l of ti I IV' The5ic were sent to 8j>Aiu, and onlered to b« stored 

awLty iu th» arcbiti(.ii ol the convent of San t'rancisco Ais Tolotui de Niivarra, 
ao tniit mi one ahoiild nviir be able to n.-iul Iheui; tbfirtt tlipy Iny hid for more 
Ihn4( two (n-iilurit-H. Duriun the reign of Carlom iii.. ScfiorMniio]! was com- 
iui<ir«ti>iit'il Ui wril« tbt; bisl<iry of the New World. But lie found bimaclf 
ihttboul thiK Work [of Saliai;un'8j ao neccitsary to Iiih purpose; and \xv wna 
igiiunuit of iia wbcreaboata, till, rcadiui^ llu' indi-i of thn Bi1>Iioteoa FrHucia- 
caitA be cniur to know about it, and, fumixlK-d by the gov^muicnt with nil 
powera, Uo look it unt of the Kaid nionanter}'. t.'olonci I). Diego Uaroi'a 
Paru^a tiiiTlnt> come tn Matlrid at the aiim« time, to pnbliitb the works of SeAor 
VaytJik. tbtti gentleman controctwl i> fritfndship willi ^[nno]t whf> allowed him 
to «'«>iiy lh<j two thick vobimef) iu which Hrilint:iiii'H wurk wiis ■written. .. 
Th<-«0 two voliiinca, then, thit Colonel PaucM Iwd copitHl, worvwhiit wjm held 
to b* vilely the work of Fitlir-r Snluignn, ondnsauen e§te.-meii; still it do«>a 
not upp*-ftr t-i l»e proved by iitt'-Htation that thiavaatbe author's ori.i;iniU ou- 
tnintitk hiit^trr. Had it liccn no. the cirenmataiioe vnuld hardly have been 
left without ueflnitn mentioD, whun the relation was given Dl the way in 


which the book v&h Rot hold of, and when tiie gaorontM of tho exAduesg of 
thft oapy WM iiriHiir>-<l. I, tcwliiy. posMjaa ad origiuiU manuHoript, written 
nltogf|hi*r niiu (timii'i) by tliv huiid ut Father Sflhiigtiii; iti whtub i» to be 
uoUiil lit) fHwiitial Tarintiuu iu curtaUi uf tbt* cbuptfni which I dov urcHrut, 
from tbnftr* thnt 1 b(-fur>; }(tihli»h(Kl in tlio twflflh lx>(.ik ot hiit IMnrvi (.ime- 
ral; whirh in thu book tTcatiug uf the ('viiqmiit. Ktihagna wrotu Ibin moDa* 
Bcript in theyeiir 1585. that i* to May, tivw yt^ant bof<»r« hiw dfuth, aod hs 
wnttc it unthuiil duubt uuiltir a [jreiiHuUmeuL of the alteratiims that hin work 
would Kiiffrr. Hf b)ul already made altaratiotift therein hiinni-lf, nitice he 
c<)nf«-HH(>K (thny arehiH wonlH; thatcertnindttfBcbtcxigtvdiiitherii, thHtirertain 
thiD[^t hud bef n pnt iuto the tinriHtivff uf that Cooquntt that ttbauld nut hare 
bet- u put there. vhiW uther thiu^ vvrv \vtt out that ohould uul h»ve been 
omittod, Therttfore [says Buf^cantanl*:^], thttt nnfogrnph mannacript diM^ovfra 
the nlterntioDS tluit his writing nndf-rwi-nt and m'rvn uh good ren»(>n to donbt 
the anthfiitieity and fxnptnc'iH of the test iwpn by Miifioz. , . .DorinR the rc- 
volutiiin of Miulrid, in May, IHtW, cnu^t'd by tho (.■ntrnnrp of the Fn-iK-b and 
the rpmciTftl of thf roynl family* to Mnynniir*, the office of the »ecre-t.iry of the 
Acadciuy of HiKtory wb« robbed, and from it wt-re taken vorions baudlctt of 
the works of Father Siihagun. These an old hiwyer of the coart bought, and 
among tbum one entitled: H'laehn de la eoHqtdsta de eila \ueva JCmafia, oomo 
Ui oaatartm hs soltludos indios que at kattartm prexnlea. Convertiw en kngtia 
apatiola llaiva ^ inkllijUflt y h{t»\ enmrndada m tMt afio de 1585. Unfortu- 
nately there had only remained [of the lieiadon. etc., i?!] a ainglt vuluinn 
of mano-soript, whiub Scilor I). Jos4.' Gom^z do la Corttua, ex-ooant of that 
title, bonght. gtnng therefor the ftnm of a hundred dollars. He allowud 
me tho n^e of it, and I have luado an exact copy of it, a<Mint; noten 
for tho better iinderstondin^ of the CoHqnest; the b«fore<uu-iiriout.>(3 
being aUo^ethor written, an I hnvc aaid, and signed by thft hniids of 
Father KabAKUn. Thiit portion, which the ttiiid ex-connt hatt cerliHi-d to, 
indaecH uh to beliovc Utat the ulhirr workx of SiOui|;uu, n-hitin^ Ih/th to 
the Coutiuett and to the A|Miri('ioii (huulalutuuta have iM-eit adtiltrritlird 
becftUHii thev did liltltt hifiior to the fii^t Conquerors. That they have at 
all ei>m(« to Iw diHCUtMf'd Mith iMitrttrrity, hiu* b<*n because a kuowlt-dtie td 
them was gf nurnlly Meatt«;i^>d. and la t^uch a way thiit it wax no lunger poH^^i' 
ble tO' keep theui hidden; ur. perhnpn, beeauitethe fuoUon inter4!tit*-d in their 
concealnimit Imd disappeared. In proof of the authemii'ity uiid iilentily of 
thia manntiTipt, we refer to Father ItpLiitirur in Iuh Chronirln of the prc» 
viuce of the Santo EvHU^elio de Mexieo, makiu); a eutnlognv of the illattri- 
0118 men thereof; H]M>akiug of Saha^un, be wiyH on page 139: "The ninth 
book thnt thi« writ<-'r eompoited wan the Conquest of Mexico by Cort^; 
which book afterwanl, iu the year 1;>B5, he re-wnile and iMni-iided; the 

tL'tuended ] original oftliiM I KawKifined with his hand in thepiM-owion of Scnor 
>. Junn FruneiKco df Moutenmyor, president of the Royal Andieueia. who 
carried it toSjuiin with the inti^ntiiui of h!;vin${ il printed; and of this I have 
a traiinlatiou nliereiu it in Muid that the ^furqubi uf Villn-MHurique, vieeroy 
of Mexico, took from hiiu [Kaha^ini] the twelve books aikl sent thciu to hit 
nii^esty for the royal chnmicler." ' BuKtamante lantly ffivM a c-ertifieate of 
the aathenticity of the mnnttKri-int under diKmnNion and published, by hiiQ. 
The certificate Is signed bv Jo»te (hmih-z di> la Cortina, and runs as follows: 
•Mexico. iBt.^pril, 1*H0. I certify that. Win^- in Miulrid in the year 18^. I 
bought from I). Lorenzo Ruiz de Artieda, thn*ugh the agency of my friend 
and companion. I). Josl' Mukso Vahhute, inctnlter nf the Spaniah AcAdeuiies 
of bmi^iage and of hiHtnr^', the <inVii>al mannacript of Father Saha^un. of 
which mention in mude in \ixM work by his Excellency Sciior V. C&rloft Marfa 
BuHtHUiautu, UH coustatvd by the rett-iplH of the Heller, and by other doca- 
mcuU iu my poMeasiDn.' So much for TtiiHtamante'A new )x>Niliou b» a 
reeditor of a part of Sahogun's IliMor'ia Otneml; wo have utattd it iu hi« 
owu wonbi. nnu iu tho«e of hih own witneesoi as brought forward bv him. The 
chiuitft'H refetre<l to do not involve any matter bearing on mythology; it may 
be not out of place to my however, that the evidence m favor of Bniitauuuitt-'s 
new viewH Mems strong and truth-like. 



Iiuox or Tezcatupoci — Hu at thk Stoeet-coknkbs — ViBiops 
Ledcxiw aboct hw LirK on EAimi— Qctetjulooati.— Hw I>KXTKiiirr ts 


Axn \n(U.£iim or his AoBBiiitm — Kxi'uuiox prom Tvlla or QniT- 

— HuKXAu, o« Vksiac, Kiso of the Toltecs, AXU THK &[|isFUUTI;SB8 
nocanr upob nuc A?n> his rsoPtiE or Tbbcati,u-<x:a in vAniocs 
MsaviBBa — QcrrxALooATi. in Cholcla — Dotkrinii Aa:ousT» or thb 
Ban AKD liirs ob Qcktulooati. — Hia Obkixb Cuabactbk— Hk dbbv 


OOAXL Mmu BT i. G. lliijd^». 

In the preceding chapter I have given only tlie loftier 
view of Tezcatlipoca'B nuture, which even on tliiw side 
cannot be illuKtrntwl witliout ninny inconsislvncicr*. AVe 
pass now to relationn e\ndeTioiiif; a much meaner idea 
of his character, and Hhowinj^^ him wliom we have seen 
called invi>«il>le, almighty, and l>ene(icent, in a new and 
much le«< im[xj;*ing liji:iit. We piiHB, in fact, ft-oni the 
ZeuH of Plat^j and Socrates to the ZeuB of Hesdod and 

Let us glance fii-st at the fashion of his representation in 
the temple**, though with little hope of seeing the particular 
fitness of many of the trappings an<l symbols with which 
hia statue was decoiiUe^l. Hla principal image, at least 



in the city of Mexico, was cut out of u very shining black 
stone, culled itzU, a variety of obsidiun, — a stone valnetl, 
in [»nsideration of its capabilities of cleavage, for making 
those long splinters, nsetl as knives by tlie Aztecs, for 
sacrificial and otlicr purposes. For these uses in wor- 
ship, and perhaps indeed for its manifold uses in all re- 
gards, it was surnanied teoieti, divine stone. In places 
where stuiic was less convenient the imajie was matie of 
wood. The general idea intended to be given was that 
of a younji; man ; )> y which the immortality of the god 
was set forth. The ears of tlie idol were bright with ear- 
rings of gold and silver. Through his lower lip was 
thrust a little cr\T!tal tube. i>prhaps six inches long, and 
through the hollow of tliis Uilte a feather was drawn; 
sometimes a green feather, sometimes a blue, giving the 
transparent ornament the tint at one time of an eme- 
rald, at another of a tuiTjuois. The hair — carved from 
the atone, we may suppase — was drawn into a queue and 
bound with a ribbon of Imrnislied gold, to the end of 
which ribU^n, hanging down Ix'hind, was attached a 
golden ear with certain tongues of ascending smoke 
painttni thereon; which srnoko w;w intended to signify 
the prayers of those sinners and iilllicted that, commend- 
ing themselves to the god, were heard by him. U|Km 
his he;ul wei-e many plumes of red an<l green feathers. 
From liis ntn^k there hung down in front a great jewel of 
gold that covered all his brea«t. Bracelets of gold were 
u^wn his arms, and in Ins navel was set a precious green 
stone. In his left hand there Mashed a great ciixiular 
mirror of gold, bordered like a fan with precious feathers, 
green and i\zure and yellow ; the eyes of the god were 
ever fixed on this, for therein he saw rctlected all that 
•was done in the world. This mirror was called itlacfm^ 
that is to say, the 'looker-on,' the 'viewer.' Tezcatliix)ca 
was sometimes seated on a bench covered with a red 
ch)th, worked with the likeness of many skulls, having 
in liis right liand four darts, signifying, according to some, 
that lie punished sin. To the top of his feet were at- 
tached twenty bells of gold, and to his right foot tlie fore- 



foot of a cloer, to «how tho exo^vdin*; swiftness of this 
deity in all Iiih ways, lliiiing tlie winning Jiliick Iwdy, 
wna ft great cloftk, curionsly wi-ouglit in bliu'k and white. 
ndorne<l witli ft'iithoiv, and frin^atl aUmt with n».s(^tte.s of 
ttuve colors, itnl, whito, and hliu^k. Tliis gtxl. who«c 
decorations vary a little with diiferent writers — varia- 
tioHH j>rL)brthly not greater tlian those really existing 
among the ditVerent fi;j;ures n^iresenting in diiVercut 
phicem tl»e Nunc deity — IiimI a kind of cluij^;! built 
to hold him on the top of his temple. It W4is 
a dark chamljcr lined with rich cloths of many 
colors; and from its obscurity the image looketl out, 
8e:ited on a jjedestjil, with a costly canopy immediately 
overhead, and an altar in front; not apjKiruntly aii 
altar of Kticrilicc, but a kind of ornamental table, like a 
Christian altar, covered with rich cloth. Into tlii.s holy 
of holie.s it was ni»t lawful for any but a priest to enter. 

What most of all, however, nmst have 8erved to bring 
the worship orTe7i'atli]«Kmpr»»minentIy lieforethe jieople, 
wen.' the seats of stone, built at the c<»rner8of the streets, 
for the accommodation of this god when he walked in- 
viwbly abni;ul. Mortal, Uirn of woman, never sat there- 
on; not the king himself might dare to use them: sjicred 
they were, sacred for ever, luid always sh:ulowed by a 
canopy of green boughs, reverently renewed every five 

Lower and lower we must now descend from the idea 
of an almighty god, to t^ike up the thivad of various 
legends in which Tezcatlijwjcii iiguresiu an anything but 
creditable light. We have already seen him descril>ed 
ai* one of those hero-gods whom the iiew-lx>rn Sun was 
instrumental in destroying;^ and we may suppose that 
he then ascendefl into heaven, for we find him aiter- 
word descending thenoe, letting himself down En' a 

I Aeotta, UiM. -V'H. fnd., pp. 353-4; Claiioero, Storia Ant.dtt yffsico. lom. 
U,, p. 7; Daran, IliM. Ant. de In jVitrivi Espo/Ui, MS., qnoU'd in Squkr'n S'oit» 
fri fiaiaJein, • ■•"■• Trifn 27. pp 117-^; Sahujun, Hist, iitn., Itrni, i., lib. iii., p. 
Xl3; JHk'I' Viftrx T'eUfriftm^lltmenslH, l«m. iU amj xwx., ill h'iwKh 

borougk* ', i., tuI, v., rp. 13'J, H4-5; Spirijiuvme deiU TticfinlrlCoilicr 

HUosbo, tnv. ill)., Km-js'ioroutjh'g JUtx. Antiq.^ Tol. v., pp. 185, 18ti. 

I Bm tbij> TDlamo p. 6i. 



royn* twinod from spiderH web. Rambling through the 
world lu; cftiiie to it place calliHl Tulla. whore a certain 
Quotzalooatl — another, mHiording to Sahagun, of the hcpo- 
godis jiiNt ivftTrtnl to--liiul U-en niling for mjuiy years. 
The two ongagoil in a game of ball, in the course of 
whicli Tezcatlipoca sudilenly transformed himself into a 
tiger, ocea-sioning therel)y a tivmendous panic among the 
spectnt(irs, nianv of whom in the haste of their tliglit 
precipitjited themselves down a ravine in the neighbor- 
hood into a river and were drowned. Tezcatli|xx;;i then 
lK»gan to jx^rsecnte Quetzalooatl from city to city till he 
drove him to Chohila. Here Qiietzalcoatl was held aa 
chief god, and here for some time he wnji.'yife. But only 
for a few yciirs; his indefatigable and powerful enemy 
forced him to retreat with a few of his adherents toward 
tlift sea, to a plat^e called Tlillapa or Tizapan. Here the 
himtod Quetzalcoatl diedj and hia followers inaugtn-ated 
the custom of burning the dead by burning bis Inxiy.' 

n^lie f4>regoing, from Mendieta, gives ua a glimpse, from 
one jM)iut of view, of tliat gn^at {personage (^uetzalcoatl, 
of whom we shall know much more anon, and whom in 
the meantime we meet again and again a« the op[K>nent, 
or ratlier victim of TexcatrnxK'a. Let us consider Saha- 
gun's version of the incidents of this strife: — 

QuetAitwatl wjw, from very ancient times, a<lored as a 
god in Tulla. He had a very high cu^ tliere, with many 
steps up to it, steps so nari-ow that there was not room 
for a whole foot on any of them. His image wii.i always 
in a recuml^ent position and covered with blankets. 
■ The face of it was very ugly, the heiwl large and fur- 
nished with a long beard. The adherents of this god were 
all devoted to the mechanical arts, dexterous in working 
the green stone called chalchiuite. and in founding tlie 
pi-ecious metiils ; all of which arts had their Ix^ginning and 
origin with the said Quetzalcoatl. He hiul whole houses 
made of chalchiuites, others matle of silver, others of 
white and red shells, others of plasiks, others of tui'quoises, 

* Mmdieia, Hisl. EcUs., p. 82. 

i Temple; see Ibis vol.. p. l^i, note 2f^. 



and others of rich feathers. Ilis adherents were very 
light of foot and swill in going whither they wished, 
and they were called tlanqttacemUhiiftne. There is a 
mountain called Tzatzitepctl on which Quet7-alcoatl used 
to have a crier, and the people afar oft' and scattered, 
and the people of Anahnac, a hundred leagues distant, 
heard and underat<xxl at once whatever the said Quet- 
zalcoatl commanded. And (Juetxidcoatl was very rich ; 
he had all that was needful lH»th to eat and to drink ; maize 
was abundant, andaheailof it wasas muohaaa man could 
carry clivspcd in his arms; puinpluns measured a fathom 
round ; the stalks of tlie wild ainarinth were so large and 
thick lljat iJCoi)lc clinilKHl ihcin like trees. Cotton was 
sowed and gathered in of all colors, red, scarlet, yellow, vio- 
let, whitish, green, blue, blackish, grey, orange, and tawny; 
theffe colors in tlio cotton were natural to it, thus it grew. 
Further it is siiid that in that city of Tulla. there 
abounded many sorts of birds of rich and many-colored 
plumage, the xinhiototl, the quetziiltotML the zctquan, the 
tiatihqmchol^ and other birds that sang with much sweet- 
less. And this Quetzalcoatl had all the riches of the 
world, of gold and silver, of green stones called chalchi- 
uites, and of other precious things, and a great ahuiulance. 
of oocoa-nut trees of divers colors. The vassals or »id- 
herents of Quetzalcoatl were also very rich and wanttnl 
for nothing; they were never hungry; Ihtiy never hurked 
maize, nor ate tlie small ears of it, but I)iirniHl them like 
wood to heat the baths. It is said lastly that Quetzal- 
coiLtl did |)enance by pricking his legs an<l drawing blood 
with the spines of the maguey and by washing at mid- 
night in a fountain ctilled xkapoi/a]^ this custom the 
priests and minist<.'rs of the Mexican idols adopted. 

There came at last a time in which the fortunes of 
Quetzalcoatl and of his people, the Toltccs, began to fail: 
for there came aj^ainst them three sorcertTs, godi* in dis- 
guise, to wit TczcatUpoca, Uuitzilopochtli, and Tlacave[>an, 

> Or psrluupa xipacoya, sa in KiogKborongb's ed. of Sahagun, Mrx. Atdiq., 
vol. vu., p. 108. 

Tou m. IB 



who wrought many deceits in TuUa. Tczctitlipoca especi- 
ally prepared a cunning trick; he turned liimsclf into u 
hoary-hcadtni old man. and went to tlie house of Quet- 
zalcoatl, saying to the servants there, I wisli to sec and 
Hpcak to your master. Then the servants said, Go away, 
old man, thou canBt not m^ our kinj:, for he is sick, thou 
wilt mnioy him and cause him heaviness. ButTezcatli- 
poca iuHi-ste*!, I must see lain. Then the servants bid 
the Horwrer tt) wait, and they went in and told Quetzal- 
coatl how an old man without affinned tliat he would 
see tlie king and would not be denied. And Quetzal- 
coatl answered, Let liim come in, Ix'hold for many dajs I 
have waited for his coming. So TezcatUpoca entered, 
and he said to the sick god-king, How art thou? adding 
further that he had a medicine for him to drink. Then 
Quetzalcoatl answered, Thou art welcome, old man, be- 
hold for many days 1 have waited for thee. And the 
old sorcerer spake again, How is thy body, and how art 
thou in health? I am exceedingly sick, said Quetzalcoatl, 
all my botly is in jxiin, I cannot move my hands nor my 
feet. Then, answered Tez<xitiii>oai, behold this medicine 
that I have, it is good and wholesome and intoxicating; 
, if thou will drink it. thou shalt Ije into.vicated and healed 
and ejised at the heart, and thou shalt have in mind the 
toils and fatigues of deatli and of thy deiMirturc." Wliere, 
cried Quetzalcoatl, have I to go? To Tullantlapallan, re- 
plied Tezcatliixxjrt, where there is another old man wait- 
ing for tliee; he and thou shall talk together, and on thy 
return thence thou shalt be as a youth, yea. as a boy. 
And Quetzalcoatl hearing these words his heart was 
moved, while the old sorcerer, insisting more and more, 
said, Sir, drink this medicine. But the king did not wish 
to drink it. The sorcerer, however, insisted, Drink, my 
lord, or thou wilt be sorry for it hereafter; at least nth 
a little on thy brow and taste a sip. So Quetzaleoiitl 
tried and tasted it, and draiik, saying, What is this? it 

* T ftcordaraooa hi do los trabftjos y fatf gu da 1a mnerto, 6 do rn^itra idii. 
JRoffwborou'jh's .Vr-x. ^rifi^., toI. tu., p. 100. Y nconlunitfua ha I(m tnlu^osy 
faltgM do la tnaerie, 6 do Tuestra lida. Sakagun, UiM. Om., torn, i., lib. Hi., 



seems to be a thing very good and savory; already 1 
feel myself healed and qnit of mine inftrmity; ah'esidy I 
am well. Tlien the old sorcerer said again, Drink once 
more, my lord, sinet it is good; so thou shall lje the 
more |)erfectly healed. And Quetzalcoatl drank again, 
he miuje himself drunk, he began to weep sadly, his heart 
was eased and moved to depart, he could not rid himself 
of the thought that he ratist go; for this was the snare 
and deceit of Tezcatlipoca. And the medicine that (Quet- 
zalcoatl drank was the white wine of the country, made 
from the magueys that are called tetowtl. 

So Quetzalcoatl, whose fortunes we shall hereafter fol- 
low more particularly, set out upon his j<»urney ; and Tez- 
catlipoca proceeded further guilefully to kill uumy Toltees, 
and to ally himself liy marriage with A'tiinac, wh(» was 
the temporal lord of the Toltecs, even as Quetzalcoatl waa 
the spiritual ruler of tluit jXHiple. To accomplish tht^se 
things Teicatli[Kxyi took the appeanuice uf a (Kxir for- 
eigner, and presented himself naked, :u* was the custom 
of such people, in the market-platui of Tulla. selling green 
chilly pepi>er. Now the i^ilace of Vemac, the greiit king, 
overlooketl the market-plmie, and he had an unly daugh- 
ter, and the girl, looking hy chance* among the buyers 
and sellers, saw the disguised god. She was smitten 
trough with love of him. and she began to sicken. 
^emac heard of her sickness and he inipiired of the 
"Vporacn that guarded her as to what ailed his daughter. 
They told him as they could, how for the love of a 
jDcddler of pepper, named Toveyo. the princess had lain 
Ia.own to die. The king immediately sent a crier \i[njn 
*% lie mountain Tsatzitepcc to nuike this proclamation : 
rToltecs, seek me out Toveyo that goes about selling 
^^i^n pepper, let him be brought before me. So the 
people flought everywhere for the handsome i)ep^H.T ven- 
<3«r; but he waa nowhere to Ix; found. Then, alU'r they 
<5ould not find him, he appeared of his own accord one 
^ay, at his old place and trade in the market. He was 
brought before the king, who said to him, Where dost 
t.\iou belong to? and Toveyo answered, I am a foreigner 



dome here to sell my green pepper, \y\iy dost thou 
delay to cover thyself with hrceches and with a hhinkot? 
Riid Vomac. Tovcyo unsworcd that in liis country such 
things were not in fashion. Vemnc continued, My 
daughter longs after tliee, not willing to lie comforted 
by any Toltec; she is sick of love and thou must heal 
her. But Toveyo replied, This thing can in no wise Ix?, 
kill me first; I desire to die, not Ix'ing worthy to hear 
these words, who get my living by selling green pepjKjr. 
I tell thee, said the king, that thou inuyt heal my daugh- 
ter of this her sickness; fearnot. Then they took the 
cunning god, and Wivshwl him, and cut his hair, and dyed 
all his body, and put I>peeche8 on him and a blanket; 
and the king Yomac said, Get thee in and see my daugh- 
ter, there where tliey guard her. Tlien the young man 
went in and he remained with the princess and she be- 
came 8t>uud and well; tluis Toveyo l>ecome the son-in- 
law of the kini: of TuUa. 

Then Ixjliold all the Toltecs being filled with jealousy 
and offfuded, spake injurious and insulting words against 
king Veuiac, saying among themselves, Of all the Toltecs 
can there not to be found a man, that this Vemar marries 
his daughter to a iKxldler? Xow when the king heard 
alt tlie injurious and insulting wonls that the jx'Ople 
spake against him, he was moved, and he 8p<jke to the 
people saying, Come hither, l^ehold I have heard all 
thesu things that ye say against me in the matter of my 
son-in-law Toveyo; dissimulate then; take him deceit- 
fidly with you to the war of Cacatei^ec and Coiitepec, 
let the enemy kill him there. Having iieard these words 
the Toltecs armed tliemaelves, and collected a multitude, 
and went to the war, bringing Toveyo along. Arrived 
where the fighting was to take place, they hid him witli 
the lame and tlie dwarfs, charging them, as tlie custom 
was in such cases, to watch for the enemy, while the 
soldiers went on to the attack. The Imttle began; tl»e 
Toltecs at once gave way; treacherouslj' and guilefully 
deaertinr 'I'rtv^^i'o and the cripples. loa\-ing them to 1^ 
»ir post, thfA i-eturtied toTuUaand told 



the king how they had left Toveyo and his companions 
alone in the handa of the enemy. Wiien the king heard 
the treason he was glad, thinking Toveyo dead, for he 
■was ashamed of having him for a son-in-law. Afijiirs 
had gone olhenvisej however, with Toveyo from what 
the plotters suppo«ied. On the approach of the hostile 
army he consoled his deformed companions, saving, Fear 
nothing ; the enemy come against us, hut 1 know that I 
bhiiW kill them all. Then he rose up and went fonvard 
against them, iigainst the men of Coatepec and Caciitepec j 
he put them to tlight and slew of them witliout nmnber. 
When this ciune to the ears of Vemac, it weighed upon 
arid terrified him exceedingly. lie said to his Toltecs, 
Let us now go and receive my son-in-law. tM^ they all 
(went out with king Vemac to receive Toveyo, bearing 
the anns or devises called queimhtptinecayull^ and the 
ninelds called xiucfdmali. They gave these things to 
Toveyo, and he and his comrades received them witli 
Ldancing and the mu.sic of ihiles, with tnunipli and re- 
dicing. Furtliennore. on reaching tlie palace of the king, 
ipluraes were put upon the heads of the conquerors, and 
all the body of each of them was stained yellow, and all 
Itlie face red; this was the customary reward of those 
Fthat came hack victorious from war. And king 
Vcraac said to his son-in-law, I am now satisfied with 
what thou hast done and the Toltecs are satisfied; thou 
bast dealt very well with our enemies, rest and take thine 
■CflM. But Toveyo held his peace. 

And af\cr this, Toveyo ndonicd all his Ixxly with the 

rich featliers called tocivUl, and commanded the Toltecs 

ito gather together for a festival, and sent a crier up to 

the top of the mountain, Tzatzite[x«, to call in the 

strangers and the people afar off to dance and to feast. 

A numl»erless multitude gathered toTulla. AVhen they 

were all gathered Toveyo led them out, young men and 

[girU, to a place calle<l Texcalapa, where he himself began 

JAnd led the dancing, playing on a drum. He sang too, 

Ivingingcacli verse to the dancers, who sang it after him, 

Llhough tltey knew not the song before hand. Then was 



to be seen there a marvelous and terrible thing. From 
sunset til! midnight the l>eat of the countlt^ss feet grew 
faHter and faster; the tap, tap, tap of the drum closed 
up and ixiuixmI into a continual i-oll; the monotonous 
floug rose higher, wilder, till it burnt into a roiir. The 
multitude became a mob, the revel a riot; the )x?op1e be- 
gan to press U|xm and hustle eacli other; the riot became 
a ixuiic. There wa.s ii fearful gor)ie or ravinu tln^re, with 
a river rushing through it called the Texcaltlauhco; a 
stone bridge led over the river. Toveyo broke down 
this bridge as the people fled; grim oor\pheus of this 
fearful revel, he saw them tread and crush each otlier 
down, under-foot, and over into the abysff. They that 
fell were turned into rocks and stones ; as for them that 
©scaped, they did not see nor think that it was Toveyo 
and his soi-ceries hiul wrtnight this givat destruction; 
they were blinded by the witt:hcrai\ of tlie god, and out 
of tlieir senses like drunken men. 

Far from l»eing satisfied with the slaughter at Texca- 
lapa, TezcatliiHx^a proceeded to hatch further evil agjnnst 
the Toltecs. He took the ap])earancc of a certain val- 
iant mull called Teiruioa, and commanded a crier to sum- 
mon all the inhabitiuits of TuUa utuI its neighborhood 
to come and help at a certain i>icce of work in a certain 
flower-garden (said to have lx.'en a garden belonging to 
Quetzidcoatl.). All the i)eoi)le gathered to the work, 
whereupon the disguised god fell u\ion them, knocking 
them on the head with a co(t.^ Those that escajx*d the 
coa were tixxlden down and killed by their fellows in 
attempting to e»c!ii>e ; a countless numl^er was slain ; every 
man that h:id come to the work was left lying dead 
among the trodden flowers. 

And after this Te7jcatlipoca wrought another witch- 
craft against the Toltecj*. He called himself Tlacave- 
pan. or Acexcoeli, and came and sat down in the midst 
of the market-place of Tulla, having a little manikin («aid 

■ • Hoe of tramt •wond- 
f£ntpl<a<lu3 Por Op* 

tosUdo. omploado por los indioi {»» 
">gnB dc (.'aim.) i'tv* ApurteaHU 
ITtst.Otn,, loni,I».,p.696. 




to have been Huitzilopocbtli) dancing upon his hand. 
There was an instjint uproar of all the buyers and 
sellers and a rush to see the miracle. The [xjople crushed 
and trod each other down, so that many were killed there; 
and all this happened lujuiy times. At XaA the god- 
Boroerer cried out, on one such occasion, What is this? 
do you not see that >ou ai*e befooled by us? stone and 
kill us. So the jjeople took up stones and killed the 
«ud floroerer and his little dancing manikin. But when 
the body of the .sorcerer had lain in the market-place for 
some time it Ix'gan to stink and to taint the air, and the 
wind of it jxiisoned many. Then the dead sorcerer spake 
l^n, saying. Cast tliis Ixxly outside the town, for many 
'ftltecs die Ijecause of it. So they prepared to cimi out the 
body, and fastened ro[W8 thereto and pulled. But the 
talkative and ill-snielling corpse was so heavy that tliey 
could not move it. Then a crier mnde a pn)cliiinalion, 
aaying, Come all ycToltocs, and bring ropes with you, that 
we may dnig out and pet rid of this ]>estiUn»tial canvass. 
All came juviinlingly, bringing ro|>e.s, and the mjieswere 
fastened to tlie body, and all pulled. It was utterly in 
vaiiL. Uoije after roi)c broke with a sud<len snap, and 
thoee that dnigged on a njpc fell and were killed when it 
broke. Then the dead wizard looked up and said, 
Toltecs, a verse of a song is needed; and he himself gave 
them a verse. They repeated the verse atler hiiu, and, 
singing it, pulled all together, so that with shouts they 
hauled the Ixtdy out of the city; though still not without 
^nany roju-s breaking and many persons l>eiiig killwl as 
"before. v\ll this being over, those Toltees that remained 
unhurt returned every man to his place, not reinemlier- 
in{! anything of wlmt had happened, for they were all aa 

Other signs and wonders were wiY)uc]it by Te7,catli- 

puca in his role of sorcerer. A white }>ird called Yz- 

■taoeuixtli, was clearly seen Hying over TuUa, traasfixed 

"^^ith a dart At night also, the sieri-a chilled ZacatejxH; 

burned, and the tlivmcs were seen from far. All the 

pfKjple were stirred up and affrighted, saying one to an- 


other, Toltecs, it is all over with us now; the tim 
the end of Tulla is come ; alas for lis, whither shall we 

Then Tezcatliixx^i wrouirht another evil nixin the Tol- 
tecs: he rained down stones upon thorn. There fell also, 
at the same time, a great stone from heaven called iech- 
aifi] and when it fell the pod-»orcerer t<x>k the ap]x;ar- 
ance of an old woman, and went about selling little ban- 
ners in a place called CMiapultepecuitlapilco, other%viHe 
named Vetzinco. Mnny then lieoame mad and bought 
of these hannera and went to the place when> was tlie 
stone TtHrhcAtl, and there got lliemwlvcs killed; and no 
one wuK ftiniid to say su much a^, Wliat is this that hap- 
pens to us? tliev were all niml. 

Another woe TezcatliiKxm brought upon the Toltecs. 
All their victuals suddenly became sour, and n(»onewas 
able to eat of tlieni. The old woman, alwve mentioned, 
took up then her abode in a place called XiMihitla, and 
began tu roiust maize; and the odor of the i*oasted maize 
reached all the cities round alx)nt. The starving people 
set out immediately, and with one accord, to go where the 
old woman was. They reached her instimlly, for here it 
may be again said, that tlie Toltecs were exceedingly 
light of foot, and arrived always immediately whitherso- 
ever they wished to go. As for the Toltecs that gathered 
to the sham sorceress, not one of them escajtcd, she killed 
them ever^' one.* 

Turning, without remark for the present, froniTezcat- 
Upoca, of whoso life on earth the preceding farrago of 
legends is all that is known, let us take up tlie Hanie 
period in the history of Quetzalcoatl. The city of Cho- 
hila was the pUice in which this got! was mast honored, 
and towards which he was 8upj)08ed to l>emost favorably 
inclined; Gholula being greatly given to commerce and 

" XochUta, garden; mw Ah^Uvi Vocaltulnrio. Pirlmim lliat f{&n)eu belong 
iuu to <2u«tulooBtl, whiah liftd been klrcAdy ao faUd lu tb<.> Toitros. Se« Uiw 
VL'lumc p. 24C. 

lom. i . lil'. iii.. fir- 
ing t' 
poiiii to. 


»fl„ pi>. 118-13; Sah/)*jun. //I'jrf. (7«i.. 

ra uiAt tu alniMt aH priitit of gpeU- 

■d in prefvrcuca tu the, in sath 



handicraft^ and the Cliolulana considering Qiietzalcoatl 
to be the god of merclmndise. As Acosta tells: *' In 
Cholula, which is a ooinmonwealtli of MexicOj they 
worshipt a famous idoll which wiw the }j;od of niurdmn- 
dise. being to this day greatly ii\\(^n to trafiieUe. They 
called it Quetzaalcoalt. This idoll was in a great place in 
a temple very hie: it had about it. goldc, silver, Jewells, 
very rich feathers, and habite.s of divers colours. It 
had the forme of a man, but the visage of a little bird, 
with a red bill, and above a combe full of wartes, hav- 
ing ranckes of tccthj and the tongue hanging out. It 
carried vjion the head, a pointed myter of painted paper, 
a sithc in the hand, and many toyes of golde on the legges; 
with a thousand other f(X)lish inventions, where<jf all 
had their significations, and they worshipt it, for that hee 
enriched whome hee plea.sed, as Memnon and Plutus. In 
trueth this name which the Choluanos pave to their god, 
was very fitte, although they vnderstood it not: they 
called it Quetzaalcoalt, signif\ ing colour of a rich feather, 
for euch is the divell of covetoutinesse. "*" 

Motolinia gives the following confused account of the 
^J:>irth as a man, the life, and the atxjthcosis of this god. 
iThe Me.vican Adam, called Iztacniixcoatl by some writ- 
fers, married a second time." This second wife, Chima- 
matl by naune, bore him, it is said, an oidy son who was 
[jcallcd Quetxacoatl. This son grew up a chaste and tem- 
ite man. He origiimted l)y bis preaching and i)rac- 
Itice thecustora of fasting and self-pimishmeut; and from 
Ithat time many in that coiuttry U'gan to do this jien- 
lle never married, nor knew any wonum, Init lived 
IreHtrainedly and chastely all his days. The custom of 
Ifiacrilicing the ears and the tongue, by drawing blood 
[from these members, was also introduced b^ him; not 
ifor the service of the devil but in penitence for the sins 
[of his speech and his hearing: it is true that al\envard 
I the demon misappropriated these rites to his own 
[and worship. A man called Chichimecatl fastened a 

H Aro^a, Ifut. Xat. Ind.. n. 3S-1. 

u As to Uu ftnt wife and her laatily see Uub vol. p. 60, 



leather strap on the ami of Qiietzalcoatl, fixinp it hij^ 
up near the shoulder; Ohicliimecatl was from tliat time 
called Aoo'huatl, and from him, it is said, are descended 
tliose of Colhua, ancestors of Mont*iJtunia and lorfls of 
Mexico and C^oluai^an. This Quetyjileoatl is n»>w held 
as a deity and called the gotl of the air; everyvliere an 
infinite juimlior of temples has iK'cn raised to him, and 
everywliere his statue or pictin*e is found. '^ 

Acconling to the account of Mendieta, tradition varied 
much as to the fiicts of tho Ufe of tjuctzalaiatl. St>me 
said lie was the son of Cumaxlli. god af hunting and 
fishinjr. and of Camaxtli's >vifi' ('himahua. Othei's make 
mention only of thenanieof Cluinahna, saying that as she 
wna sweeping one day slie found a small gret'n stone 
called chalcliiuite, that she picked it up, Ijecame minicu- 
lonsly pregnant, and gave birth to the stiul QuetTudooatl. 
This god witH worshijjed a-s a prineipid deity in Cliolula, 
where, as well as in Tlaxcala and Huejotzingo, tiiere 
were many of his temples. We have ah-endy liad one 
legend from Mendieta," giving an account of the expid- 
sion fromTuUa and death of Quetzalcoatl ; the following 
from the same soiuxie gives a different and more usual 
version of the said expulsion : — 

Quetzalcoatl cjmie from the parts of Yucatan (although 
some said from Tulla) to the city of Cholula. lie was 
a white man, of jiortly person, hroad hrow, great eye», 
long black liair. and large ixnmd lieard; of exceedingly 
chaste and quiet life, and of great moderation in all 
things. The people had at least three reamais for the 
great love, reverence, and devotion with whitth they re- 
gartled him: first, he hiuglit the silversmith's art, a craft 
the Cholulans greatly prided themselves on ; second, he 
desirefl no sacrifice of the bhxKl of men or animals, but 
delighted only in offerings of bread, roses and other 
flowers, of [K'rfuines and s\vect odoi*s; third, he pro- 
hibiU^d and forbade all war and violence. Nor were 
these qualities esteemed only in the city of his chiefest 

>• iittnlinia. HiM. IndUf. in Icu^taieeta, Cot., torn, i., pp. 10-11, 
U Sep UuH vol., p. 240. 



[labors and teachiiifjH; fn)iii all tlic laiui came pilj^rinis 
land devotees to the shrine of tlie gentle god. Kven 
I the enemies of ChoUiln wmie and went secure, in fulfill- 
ing their vows; and tlie lonls of distant lands luul in 
[Chohda tlieir uliai^ls and idols to the common objet't of 
devotion and esteem. And only Qnctzolcoatl nmonji all 
[tiie gods was prei-minently cilled Ijortl ; in siK:h sort, that 
[t^-hen any one swore, si^injr, IJy Our Loi\i, he meant 
, Quetzalcoatl and no other; though there were many 
[other highly esteemed podn. For indeed the service of 
( this go<l was gentle, neitiier did he demand hard things, 
I but light; and he taught only \'irtiie, al>horring all evil 
and hurt. Twenty years this good deity remained in 
Clholula, then he iKVft*ed away by the roafl he hail come, 
'Car^^■ing with him four of the [trincipal and most virtu- 
ous youths of that city. He jnurnoyed for a hundred 
and fifty leagues, till he came to tlie sea, in a distjvnt 
lpn.)vince called Goatzacoalco. Here he took leave of 
his comjMinions and sent thoni back to their city, in- 
JBtructing them to tell their fellow citizens that a day 
jsbould come in which white men woidd land upon their 
by way of the sea in which the sim rises; 
?thren of his and having l>eards like his; and that 
tthey should rule that land. The Mexicans always waited 
tfor the accomplishment of this prophecy, and when the 
'Spaniards came they took thern lor the descendants of 
" their meek and gentle prophet, although, as Mendieta re- 
marks with some sarcasm, when they came to know them 
and to exi)erience their works, they thought otherwise. 
Quetzalcoiitl is further i-e^wrted by Mendieta to have 
Biifted in drawing up and armngiug the Mexican Calen- 
Idar, a sacretl book of thirteen tables, in which the reli- 
IgiouK rites and ceremonies pnjiwr to each day were set 
Ifbrth, in amrnvtion with the appnipriate signs. It is 
[•aid that the gcxls having created miinkind, bethought 
1 tliemselves that it would be well if the i)eople they had 
[made hud some writings by which they might direct 
tliemselves. Now there were, in a certain cave at Cuer- 
nuvacO; two personages of the number of the gods, and 



they were mun and wife, he Oxomoco and she Cipacto- 
nal; and they were consulting together. It api>eared 
good to the old woman that her descendant Quetzalcoatl 
should be consulted. The Chohilan god thought the 
thing of the calendar to be good and i-casonable; »o the 
the three set to work. To tlie old woman was i*esi)ect- 
fuUy allottetl the privilege of choosing and writing the 
tirst sign; she painted a kind of water -seriX'nt called 
cipactli, and called the sign Ce CipftclH, that is '* a. ser- 
(X-Mit." Oxomoco, in his turn wi-ote " two canes/' and 
tlu;ii QuiitzjiloAjatl wrote 'three houses;" and so they 
went on till the whole thirteen signs of each table were 
written out in tlieir oi-der.^' 

Let us now tjike up ;igain the narrative of Sulu^un, at 
the point where Quetoilctjatl, after drinking the potion 
prepared by Te/Atatliiioca, prepares to set olV ujwn his 
journey. Qnetziilcoall, very heavy in heart for all the 
misfortunes that this rival god was bringing upon the 
Toltccs, burned his beautiful liouses of silver and of shell, 
and ordered other precious things to be buried in the 
mountains and ravines. He turned the cocoa-nut trees 
into a kind of trees that are called mizqultl; he com- 
manded all the birds of rich plumage, the quetzallototl, 
and the xiuhtotl, and the tlautpiechol, to tly away and 
go into Aniihuac, a hundred leiigues distant. Then he 
himself .set out upon his road from TuUa; he travelcHj on 
till he came to a place called Quauhtitlan. where was a 
great tree, high and very thick. Here the exile resteil, 
and ho aeked liis servants for a mirror^ and looke^i 
at his own face. What thoughts soever were working 
in his heart, he only said, I am already old. Then he 
named that place ^'evequauhtitlan. and he took up stones 
and stoned the great tree; and all the stones he threw 
sJink into it, and were for a longtime to Em; set;n sticking 
there, from the ground even up to tht^ topmost brant^hes. 
Continuing his journey, liaving tlute-players playing 
before hiiu, lie cjuric to a plm^e on the road where he 
was weary and sat down on a sttme to rest. And looking 
» Mertdida, Hiat. £^'es., pp. 8:. 86. 92-^, 97-8. 



toward Tulla, he wept bitterly. His tears marked and 
ate into the stone on which he sat, and the print of his 
hands, and of his back parts, was also found therein 
when he resumed his journey. He called tliat place 
Teraacpalco. After that he readied a very great and 
wide river, and he comnmnded a nUme bridge to lie 
tlirown across it; on that bridge he crossed tliu river, 
and he nainod the place Tepanoaya. Ooing on upon 
his way, Qucty-droatl came to luiother placo, where cer- 
tain sorcen'rs met and trietl to Htop him, saying. Whither 
goest thou? why dost thnu leave thy city? to whi)H*> care 
wilt thou commend it? who will do penance? QuetzakxKitl 
replied to the said sorcerers. Yc ctin in no wise hinder 
my going, for I must go. They asked him further, 
Whither goest thou? He said, To Tlapalln. They con- 
tinued, But to what end goest thou? He said, I am 
called and the sun chills me. So the sorcerers said. Go 
then, but leave liehind all the mechanical arts, tlie melt- 
ing of silver, the working of precious stones and of ma- 
aonrv. the painting, feather- working, and otiier crafts. 
And of all these tlie sorcerers desjxjilcil Quetsialcoatl. As 
for him, he cast into a fountain all the rich jewels that 
he had with him; and that fountain was called Cobcaa- 
pa, and it is so named to this day. 

Quetzalcoatl contiime<l his journey; and there came 
another sorcerer to meet him, saying. Whither goest thou ? 
Quotz;iIr<Kitl wild, To 'i'lapalla. The wi/jinl said, Very 
well; but drink this wine that I have. The traveler 
ttnuwere*!, Xo: T cjinnot drink it; I cannot so much as 
tA(4c it. Thou must drink, wiid the grim magician, were 
it hut a drop; for to none of the living can 1 give it; it 
intoxicates all. so drink. Then Qiietznlco.itl tcxik the 
wine and rlnuik it through ^ cane. Drinking, he made 
himself drunk; he slept u|x>n the road ; be liegan to snore; 
and when be awoke, he looked on one side and on the 
other, and tore his hair with his bauds. And that place 
was called ( 'OchtoeJi. 

Quetzalcoatl going on upon his way and passing Ix*- 
tween the sierra of the volcano and the snowy Hierra, all 


his servants, beinjr hump-backed and dwarfs, died of cold 
in the pass between the said niountainH. And Qiiet- 
zalcoatl bewailed their deatli bitterly and sang with 
weeping and sighing. Tlien he saw the other snowy 
eierra. which is called Poyaiditecatl and in near Teca- 
machalco; and so he pjissed by all the cities and places, 
leaving many signs, it is said, in all the mountains and 
iXKuls. It is Hiiid fLirther that he hjul a way of cn^ssing 
the sierras whereby he amused and reste*! himself at the 
same time: when lie came to the top of a muuntuin he 
nwetl to sit down, and so seated, let himself ^^lide down 
the mountain-side to the bottom. In one phtcc he built 
a court for ball-plaVj all of scjuared stone, and hero he 
used to phiy the game called tlachfliJ^ Through the midst 
of this court he drew a line called the telcoti; and where 
that line was made the mountain is now oiiened with a 
deep gash. In another place he ciist a dart at a great 
tree called a jjochiUi, piercing it throuph witli the dart 
in such MHse that the tree looked like a cross; for the 
dart he threw was itself a tree of the smne kind." Some 
say that Quetzalcoatl built certain subterranean houses, 
called ink(lfUMi/ro\ and further, that he set up uiul Iwd- 
anted a great stone, so that one could move it with one's 
little finger, \et a multitude could not di.splace it. Many 
other notable things remain that (^tioty^lcoatl did among 
many ]x?oples; he it was that naiuwl all the places and 
woods and mountains. Traveling ever onward, he clinic 
at htst to the h^eu-shore, and there commanded a raft to 
lie mtule of the snakes called aKUhpechtVi. Having Si'uted 
himself on this rail iis in a canoe, he put out to sea, and 
no man knows Iiow he got to Tlapallan." 

Tonjuenuula gives a long and valuable account of 
Quetzalcoatl, gathered from^niany sources, which cannot 
be overlooked. It runs much as follows: — The name 

» Spo this vol. p. 213. 

1* Tlachlli, jiii-Ku du [wlola con taa nalgas; el lugat do&de Joegan ami. 
JHol Uvl . I 'iMtilnUario . 

17 TUis luHt vlauiR' is lo bu found ouly iu BasUmante'a ed.; iee Sahofflm, 
Ifvt. <Jti\., turn. i.. Ub. iij., p. 268. 

1" Kitvjaborouith'a Mex. Atiliq., vol. vii., pp. 114-5; Sahaffxtn, IIlsl. Oen., 
torn, i., Ub. it!., |>p. 25S-9. 


QuetzalcoatI means Snake-pluraage, or Snake that ha** 
plumage, — and the kind of snake referred to in this 
name^ is found in the province of Xicalanco, wliich is 
on the fiontier of the kingdom of Yucatan as one goes 
thence to Tabasco. Tliis god Quetztdcoatl was very cele- 
bratetl among the people of the city of Cholula, and held 
in that place for tlie greatest of all. He was, according 
to credible histories, high priest in the city of Tulla. 
From that place he went to Cholula, and not, as Bishop 
Bartolom<5 de las Casas sa^'s in his Apologia, to Yucatan ; 
though he went to Yucatan Jitlorwards, as we shall see. 
It is said of Q,uetzalc<->utl that he was a white man, large 
boflied, broad-browed, great-eyed, with long black hair, 
and a beard heavy and rounded.'* lie was a great arti- 
ficer, and very ingenious. He taught many mechanical 
arts, especially the art of working the precious stones 
called chtilchiuites, which are a kind of green stone 
highly valued, and the art of casting silver and gold. 
The people, seeing him so inventive, held him in great 
estimation, and reverenced him as king in that city; and 
BO it came about that, though in temjwral things the 
ruler of Tulla was a lord named Iluemac,** yet in all 
spiritual and ecele-siastical matters QuetzalcoatI waa su- 
preme, and as it were chief pontiff. 

It is feigned by those tliat seek to make much of their 
god that he had cert;iin pahices made of gre^^'ii stone like 
emeralds, others made of silver, others 'of shells, red and 
white, others of all kinds of wood, otiiers of turquoise, 
and othei-s of precious fwUhers. He is said to have l>eeu 
very rich, and in need of nothing. His vassals were 
very oljcdient to him, and very light of foot; they were 
called tlan(iuacemilhuiquc. When they wislied to pub- 
lish any command of QuetzalcoatI. they, sent a crier up 
upon a high mountain called Tziitzitepec. where with a 
loud voice he pi-oclaimed the order; and the voice of 
this crier was heard for a hundred leagues distance, and 

)* ' Era Humbm bianco, crecido de rticrpu, aiirha la frente, 1d« oJos ftnn- 
(l^A. I<^ coh^llnA InrKOK, y ncgron, la hArlxi ^niudc y rt-ilapdn.' Tonp»ntHid(it 
JIamaro, Ind., torn, ii., p) 47. 

■ ^wlUd Vemmc hj S«liiLf|Vii; seo preceding pages of tliis chapt«r. 


farther, even to the coasts of the sea: all this is uflRrmcd 
for true. Tlie fruits of the earth and tlie trees llourishetJ 
there in an extraordinary degree, and sweet mnging birds 
were abundant. The great jjontifl' inaugiu'ated a-sytsteui 
of penance, pricking his legs, and drawing blood and 
staining tiierewitli maguey thorns. He washed .ilf*o at 
midnight in a fountain railed Xi\ihpat*()va. From all 
this, it is said, the idolati'ous priests of Mexico adopted 
their similar custom. 

While Quetzjilcoatl was enjoying this good fortune with 
pomp and majesty, we are told that a great magician 
called Titlacahua [Tezcatlipoai], another of the gotls, 
arrived at Tulla. He took the tbrm of an old man. and 
went in to see Quetzalcoatl, saying to him, My lord, in- 
asmuch as I know thine intent and how much thou 
desirest to set out for certain distant lands, also, because 
I know from thy servants that thou art unwell, I have 
brought thee a certain beverage, by drinking which tliou 
shall attiiin thine end. Thou slialt so make thy way to 
the country thou, liaving perfect health to make 
the jnurney; neither shalt tluui remember at all the 
fatigtit's and toils of life, nor Iiow thou art mortal." 
Seeing all liis projects thus discovered by the pretended 
old man, (^ueti^alcoatl qnestioned him, Where have I to 
go. Tezcatlipoca answered. That it wits already deter- 
mined with the supreme gods, that he had to go to Tla- 
palla, and that the thing was inevitable, because there 
was another old man waiting for liim at liis destination. 
A" QuctzalcoiUl heard this, he said that it was true, and 
that he desired it much; and he took the vessel and 
drank the li(|uor it contained. Quetzjdcontl was thus 
easily jx'rsuaded to what Tezcatliixxia desired. I>ecanHe 
he wished to make himself immortal and to enjoy \yer- 
petnal life. Having swallowed the draught he Ixx'ame 
beside himself, and out of his mind, weej)ing sadly and 
bitterly, lie determined to go to Tlapalla. He de- 
stroyed or buried all hie plate and other proi)erty mid 

*< This agrees ill with what is relatocl nt this point by Sahagun; see Uii« 

vol. p. 2n. 



set out. First he arrived at the place. Quaiilititlan, 
where the great tree waa and where lie, Ijorrowing u 
uiirror from his aervaiits, found himself " ali-eady old." 
The name of this place was chan^rod by him to Hueliue- 
quauhtitlan, that is to say. " neur the old tree, or the 
tree of tJie old man ;" and the trunk of the ti^ee wu« filled 
witli Ktories that he cast at it. After that he journeyed 
on, his people playing Hutcs and other instruuionts, till 
he came to u mountain near the city of Thilnepiuitla, 
two leiigues from the city of Mexico, where he sat down on 
n Htone mid put lilt* hands on it, leaving marks embedded 
therein that may be seen to this day. The truth of this 
thing in Bti-ongly corrol»rated by the inhabitant*! of that 
district; I myself have questioned them uix>n the eub- 
ject. and it haa been certified to roe. Furthermore we 
have it written down accurately by many worthy authors ; 
and the name of the locality is now Temiicpalco, that is 
to say " in the palm of the hand." 

Journeying on to the coast and to the kingdom of Tla- 
palla, (Juetyjdcojitl was met by the three soi-cerers, Tez- 
catlipoca and other two with him, who hiul already 
brciught so nuK^h destruction ujxm TuUa. These tried 
to Ktop or hinder him in his journey, que:4iuairig him. 
Whither gttest thou? He answered. To Tlitpulla. To 
whom, they inc|uin*d, hast thou given the chaise of thy 
kingdom of TuUa, and who will do penance there? Jiut 
he smd that that was no longer any affair of his and that 
he muat pursue his road. And Iwing further questioned 
OK to the object of his journey, he said that he was called 
by the lord of the land to which ho wan going, who was 
the mm.'' The three wizards seeing then the detenni- 

<B Al this part of the Bt^irv Torqaeniodn Uikofi opportnofty, pui^nOiet- 
leallr, to rflinork th»t this fiibie wns vt-ry KeneniUy iranvui Mii«mit lh« 
JleucalU* Siid that wUen Futhei Bi<ruurihuu dv tiahuguu was iii tbc i;ily of 
XachiBttloo, they lukuil him where Tlapnlla vos. Sauouu rcplifd that he 
did not kDOw, u* indeeil he diJ uot I nor ctny one elBO-it beiiiK nptMin-ntlir 
vhoUy m^thicikl'). uur wen uudoralnud their qnevtion. inaxuitirh ax he hod 
been >l lh«t time oulr a littto whilo lu tho oountry— it beiuff hft; yt*iint ht-Unn 
Iw wrot« bin 1>o«>k [lKu Il'mtoria (ycM^n]/]. Suhogua uddM Umt'Uiv Mexicitns 
amiim at tJmt tiuu- divt'TH trialit of this kind. qUHdoning the Chritttiaiu to 
MM if Ihey kuew ui^thiug ol iheir ODtiqulties. rorftiemadii, JAmarf. /nrf.. 
, a., ji. «t. 


nation of Quetzalcoatl, made no further nttempt to dis- 
suade him from his pur[x»ye. hut .contentt'd tliemselves 
with taking from him all his instruments and his 
mechanical arts, so tiiat though he deiMirled thase 
things should not be wanting to tlie state. It was here 
that Quctznlcoatl threw into a fountain nil the rich 
jewels that he carried witli him; for which thing the 
fountain was called from that time Cozciuipan, that is to 
say, "The water of the striugs or chains of jewels." 
The some place is now called Coiuiimui, that is to t^ay, 
" In the snake-water,' and very properly, Ijecause the 
word Quetzalcoatl meiins '* feathered snake.'' In this 
way he journeyed on, suflering various molestations 
from sorcerers, his enemies, till lie arrived at 
Cholula where he was received (as we in another part 
say)," and afterward adored as god. Having lived 
twenty years in that city he Wiw expelled by Tezcatli- 
poca. He set out for the kingdom of Tlapalla, accom- 
panied by four virtuous youths of noble birth, and in 

" Tho paaMKe o( ToBquemado referred to I condense as foUow»:— Cer- 
tain people came from the north by wuy of Potiuco. ThefW were men of 
guod carria^te, well-dretweil iii loii>{ rubeK of bluck Uueu, upeu in front, and 
without capes, cut low ut the ueok, with short sleeves that did not conM to 
thu uibow: the ttatne, iu t&cl. iis the rutlivesi ubq to this dav in their dancev. 
Prom Pauuco they piwsed ou %'ory peuccably by doyrccH to 'rulla, where the/ 
were woU received by the inhabitants. 'Ihe country there, however, was 
already too thickly popnluti-d to suuluin Iho new-<.'<tmerB, ko these passed on 
to Chuhila where Iney h^d nn excellent reception. They brought with 
them as their chief Hud head, a penHinoRn culled <jui-tuiU'uutl. a fitir and 
raddy iHjmplexioned uuiu, with u long iH-ard. In Chulula tbexe p<^pLe 
remunied imd multipliud, and wnt eoIunit-H to iK'oplr U])inTttU(l Lower liiz- 
teca iiD'l thf- ZK]Hiteaiii country ; aud thi'HC it iti said raided tho grand 4.-dificet(, 
vhofK> reniaius are »till to bo Hccn at Micllan. Tht-Hi- followers of (^oet?jil- 
«outl were men of great knowlexl^e and cunning iu-lii<tH iu all kiuilu of &uo 
work; nut ho good ut muHunry and the uiM of the hummer, as in caiitliUR and 
in the en(;[raving and setting of preHouK st^^nieK. and in all kinda of arttstic 
lumlpture, and iu agrienlturo. QiietwdcLuitl hiid. however, two euem>r»; 
Tezcndipoca was one, and Huemact kin;^ of T<dla the other; theKP two had 
been nioxt iiiKtnniiental in (.'an^intl liini Id leave Tulla. And at Obolula, 
Uuemnc followed him up with a p^at army; and Qnetxalculal, uut wiahiox 
to engage in any war, departed for another part with most part of lita people 
— ffoing, it is said, to n land called Onoli)Uu1ro, whieh is near the sea, and | 
emfataoed what are now called Yuciitan,' Tabniiro, and Camitech^. Thra 
when Huemao oame to the place whore he hiul thon;;ht to tind QuetzalcoaU, 
and found him not. he vas wrnlb nnd luid wante and destmynd all th« ] 
conntry, and made himself lord over it and caused al»o that the people wor- 
shi]ipcd him as a gud. All thiit he did to obsonre and blot out the metnory 
of Quelzalcodtl and for the hate that he bore him. TortptemadOt Monarq, 
lad., torn. L, pp. aSi-O. 



.Ico, a province distant from Cholula toward 

thcraea a hundred and fiftv IcHgno.s. he embarked for his 
destination. Parting with his diwiple?*, he told them 
that tiiere should s\irely come to thera in after times, by 
way of the sea where the sun rises, certain white men 
^vith white Iwards, like him, and that these would l>e his 
brothers and would rule that land. 

After that the foiu* disciples returned to Cholulaj and 
told all that their nutster and go<l ha^l prophesied wlien 
departing. Then the Cholulans divided their province 
into four principiditiesand pive the jrt)vernment to those 
four, and some four of their descendants always ruled 
in like manner over thet*e tetrarehies till the Spaniard 
came; being, however, 8ulx.>rtlinnte to a central power. 

ThiH Qiietz;ileoatl was god of the air. and as such had 
his temple, of a round shape and very magnificent. 
He was made god of the air for the mildness and gentle- 
ness of all his ways, not liking the sharp and harsli 
measures to which the other gods were so strongly in- 
clined. It is to be said further that his life on earth 
was marked by intensely religious rharacteristics; n<»t 
onlv waj* he devoted to the careful oliservano^ of all the 
old customary forms of worship, but he himst^lf ordained 
and ap{x>inted many new rites, ceremonies, and festivals 
for the adoration of the gods; and it is held for certain 
that he made the calendar. He htul priests wlm were 
lied (iuc(pietzalcohua, that is to «iiy *' priests of the 
cr of Quetzalcoatl." The memory of him was en- 
i\\t\ deeply upon the minds of the |)eople, and it is 
siid tliat when barren women prayed and made sacri- 
fices to him. children were given them. lie was, as 
we have said, god of the winds, and the power of causing 
them to blow was attributed to him as well an tlie jwwer 
of calming or causing their fury to cease. It was said 
further that he swept the road, so that the^gods called 
TIaloques ot:>uld rain: this the people imagined because 
ordinarily a month or more l^efore the rains began there 
w strong winds throughout all N'ew Spain. Quetzal- 
is described as having worn during life, for the 





Bake of modesty, garments Uiat rewchwl down to tbe 
feet, with a blanket over all, wjwn with ix^d crosses. 
The Chohdan.H prej^erve*! certain green stuncs that had 
belonged to liini, regarding' tliem with great veneration 
and esteeming them a.s rolio. l'|K)n one of these waja 
carved a nionUev'H hejid, very natural. In the city of 
C-hohihi there was to i>e found dedicated to him a great 
and magnificent temple, with many steps, but each 8tep 
so narn)W tliat there waw not nxtm for a foot on it. Hie 
image had a very ugly face, with a large and heavily 
bearded head. It was not set on its feet but lying 
down, and covered with blanket.**. This, it ih said, wa.s 
done aa a memorial that he would one day return to 
reign. For reverence of his great majesty, his image 
was kept covere<l, and to signify his absence it wa« kept 
lying down, as one that sleeps, as one that lies down to 
sleep. In awaking from that sleep, he was to rise up 
and reign. The jH^ople also of Yucatan reverence<l this 
god QuetTalooatt, calling him Kukulcan, and saying that 
he came to them from the that is from \ew Si>ain, 
for Yucatan is eastward then?fii^m. From him it is t«iid 
the kings of Yncatan are descended, who call themselves 
Cocomes, that is to say *' judges or hearers."** 

Clavigero's acvoimt is i;haracteriptically clear and cora- 
preliensible. It may }ye siumned up iw follows: — 

Among the Mexicans and otlier nations of Andhuac, 
Quctzalcoatl was aa^ounted go^l of the air. He is said 
to have been sometime high-priest of TuUa. He is de- 
scribed as ha\'ing been white.^a large, broad-browed. 
great-eyed man, with long black hair and thick beard. 
His life was rigidly temperate and exemplary, and his 
industry was directed by the profoimdest wisdom. He 
amassed great treasure, and liis was the invention of 
gem-cutting and of metal-casting. All things prospered 
in his time. One ear of com was a man's load; and 
the gourds, or pumpkins, of the day were as tall as one'x 
body. No one dyeti cotton then, for it grew of all colors; 
and all other things in like manner were perfect and 

»• Torqarmada, Monanj, Ind., torn, ii., pp. 4(^2. 



abumlant. Tlie very birds in t)ie treci* »y»ng giwih songs 
a» luive never since been lieurdj and iliLsbcd hucIi nmr- 
iTelm»s beauties in the sun iis no pluuiagc of later times 
[could rival. Quetzulcoatl Iiad his laws proclaimed from 
Itiie top of the hill Tiuitzitepec, (mountain of outcry), 
[near Tulln, by a crier wliose voice was audible for three 
[hundred miles. 

All tliis, however, was put an end to, us far as Tulla 
[vaa concerned, by Tezcatlipoca, who. moved perlui(>s by 

L'aiousy. determined to remove Quetzalcoatl. ^ the 
appeared to the great teacher in the guise of an old 

lan, telling him it was the will of the pods that he be- 
Etoke himself to 'I'lapalla, and administering at tlie same 
a potion, the efl'ect of wliich was to cause an in- 

L'nse lonpin|» for the said journey. Quetzalcoatl set out 
and, having performed many marvels on the way, arrived 
in Cholnla. Here the inhabitants would not sufier him 
to go farther, but persuaded him to accept the govern- 
ment of their city; and heremaincil with them, teaching 
many useful arts, customs, and ceremonies and preach- 
ing against war and all other forms of cruelty. Accord- 
ing to some, he at this time arranged the divisions of 
the seasons and the calendar. 

Having lived twenty years in Choluln. lie left, still 
im[>ell<>d by the subtle draught, to seek this imaginary 
city of Tlapallo. He was no more seiMi of men. some 
said one thing and some another; but, however he 
might have disappetired, he was aiwtheosixed by the 
ToltecB of Chohila, who raised Idm a great mound and 
built a sanctuary upon it. A similar structure was 
erected to his honor at Tulla. From Cholula his wor- 
(thip an god of the air spread over all the country; in 
Yucatan the nobles claimed descent from him.* 

The ideas of Brasseur with regard toQuetzjdcoatl have 
their roots in and must \)g traced hack to the very hrst 
a]ip«iring of the Alexic^in religion, or of the religion or 
religions by which it was preceded; so that tn arrive at 
t)i(>*e ideas 1 must give a summary of the abWs whole 

^ Ciavtijm}, JfiM. Ani. dd ifuaico. (ip. 11-13. 



theory of the origin of that creed. He believes that m 
the seething and tliunrJering of volcan<va a conception 
of divinity and of NUjiernatural powers lirst sprang up in 
the mind of the ancestors of the Mexican}*. The volca- 
noes were aftenvaixis identified with the 8tars, and the 
mast terrific of all. Nanahuatl or Nanahuatzin,*' received 
the honors of n[K)tlieosis in the nun. Issued fr-om the 
eartli of the Crescent (Brasseur's sunken island or con- 
tinent in the Atlantic)," fxiivonified in the antique 
Quetzaleoatl. prototy(x> of priests and of sacerdotal con- 
tinence, he is thus his son and identifies himself with 
him; he (the divinity, Tylors "Great Somebody") is 
the model of wiges under the name of Huemnu and 
the prototype of kings under that of Topiltxin. Strange 
thing to find united in one being. ptM'.sonaUties30 diverse ! 
King, philosopher, priest par excellence, whose virtues 
serve as a rule to all the priests of the |)agan antiquity, 
and. side by side with all that, incontinence and passion 
deified in this invalid, whose name even. *' tlie syphili- 
tic," is the expression of the abuse he has made of the 

At the commencement of the religion two sects appear 
to have sprung up, or rather two manners of judging the 
some events. There was first a struggle, and tlien a 
separation; imderthe banner-names of Quetzalcoatl and 
TczcatliixKa the rival schools fought for the mast part — 
of course there were divers minor factions; but the 
foregoing were the principal and mast iui|)ortant. There 
is every reawin to I>elieve that the religion that took 
Quetzalcoatl for syml>ol was but a reformation ujwn 
another more ancient, that liad the moon for its object 
It is the moon, male and female, Ltnui Luntis, peraoni- 
fied in the earth of the Crcseent, engulfed in the abyss, 
that 1 believe (it is always tlie aljbo that s^xMiks) I see 
at the commencement of the amalgam of rites and sym- 
bols of every kind, religion of enjoyments and material 
pleasures, lx>rn of the promiscuity of the men and 

K See p. GO of this volume. 
" See p. 112 of this Tolume. 



[women, taken refuge in the lesser Antilles after the cata- 

Tlie religion that had taken the moon for point of 
[departure, and in which women seem to have played the 
[prinoipal rule, as prieateiwefi, attacked formally, by this 
voTv fact, a more antitiue religion, a pi-e-diluvian relic- 
tion timt apjiears to have been Sabaism, entirely exempt 
from idolatry, and in which tlie Hun received the chief 
[homage. In the new religion, on tlie contrary, it wan 
Bot the moon as a star, which wain the real object of 
Ivorship. it waa the moon-land (lune-terre), it was the 
B3on of tlie Crescent, Hhrouded under the wave^, who»e 
ieath was wopt and wh(»*e resurrection wtw afterward 
foelebrated in the api)earance of tlie isles — refuge of the 
sliiiiwrvcked of tlie grand catastroiihe — of the \jesaer 
Antilles; to the inmil)er of seven princijMil islands, sung, 
in all American legends, as the Seven Orottoej*, cradle of 

This is the myth of QuetxalcoatI, who dies or disap- 
'pears, and whose jxTsonality is represented at the 
OBtset in the isles, then successively, in all the coun- 
tries whither the civilization was carriwl of which he 
was the tlag. S(» far as I can judge at present, the priest 
who placetl himself under the .Tgis of this grand name, 
lai^tortKi solely to reform what there was of odious and 
barbirous in the cult of which the women liad the chief 
direction, and under whose regime humnn ]>lood flowed 
in waves. After the triumph of QuetziUcoatl, the men 
who bore his name took the direction of ivligion and 
society, which then made considerable progress in their 

Hut if we are to believe the same trail itions, their pre- 
ponderance !iad not a very long duration. The most 
rentiers and the most audacious among the partisjins of 
the ancient onler of things, mised the Hag of revolt: 
tliey I)ec3«uc the chiefs of a warlike faction, rival of the 
wtoenlotal, — a conquering faction, suuroe of veritable 
royal dynasties and of the ivligion of the sun living and 
victorious, in op[x)sition to the goil entombed in the 



abyB8. Quetzalcoatl. vanqtiished by Teiscntlipoca. then 
retired Ix'fore a too-powcriul enemy, and the Tolteos 
were dispersed among nil nations. Thoec of them that 
remained coalesced with the ^-ictors, nnd from the accord 
of the aforementioned three cults, there spmnj^ tliat 
monstrous amalgam of so man}' difterent ideaa and s>'m- 
bols, such as is found to-day in what remains to lis of tbe 
Mexican religion. 

For me (and it is always the ablx^ that speaks), I be- 
lieve I perceive the origin of the ntruggle. not alone in 
the diversity of races, hut principally in tbe existence of 
two currents of contrary ideas, ha\Hng hud the same point 
of departure in the events of the givat cataclysm of tlie 
Crescent Land, above referred to. Difterent manners of 
looking at these events and of commemorating them, seem 
to me to have marked from the l)eginiiiiig the starting 
point of two religions that lived, (lerliaiw. side by side 
for centuries without the explosion of their disagree- 
ments, othenvise than by insignificant agitations. Hefore 
these two could take, with regarti to ejich other, the piv- 
lx>rtion8 of a scliism or a heresy, it was necessary that 
all tilt" materials of which these rt*ligious are constituted 
hiwl bad time to elaborate themselves, and that the 
hici'oglypbics which represented their origin luul become 
sn(ficientl\' oljscure for the priesthood to keep the vulgar 
from understanding them. For, if schism has brought 
on the struggle between and afterward the violent scimi- 
ration of fatuiUesi, this separation ctui not have taken 
place till attcr the entire crejition of myths, the entire 
construction of these divine genealogies, of these poetic 
traditions, that are found scattered among all the jieoples 
of the eartli, but of which the complete whole does not 
exist, save in the history and religion of Mexico.* 

Two orders of gods, — the one order fallen from heaven 

ttThiH, in itH luttnuiuiing fmnwnsily, is th« abba's tb»orj': his «nppon> 
tlnnnl CreHot^nt Lmul was tbe cinulle of fill hnniszi ruccH anti hnnmu cn<pds. 
Oh llrt Biihmcrm'nf*' tbe aforetuiid rncus ami i-reeds spread nnd devt-Inped 
liimugh all the wiirld to thdr respectivo pnnwot lonUibiai and phnsm. Thx 
Mexican brunrb of thin devc-Io]>n)cn( he cutmidera the Ukeat to and the njoat 
closely connected vith the origiunl. 



into the abyaa, l)ccoming there the judges of the dead, 

J and being personified in one of their number, who came 

I to life again, symbolizing thus life and death,— the oUier 

order 8urvi\'ing the catnclysm and 8vmbf)li7ing tluis an 

ira|x?rLshahlc life, — such, at it>i origin, ia the duid)le 

character of the myth of Quetyaleoatl. But, in reality, 

' this god he ia the earth, he is the region swalloweil up 

by the waters, he is the van(|ui.she<l stilled under the 

weight of his adversary, under the force of the victorious 

wave; which ailversary, which imwer inop[H)Miti(int<^the 

fii'st, joining itself to tlie fire on the blazing pile of Na- 

nahuatl, is Tezcatlijxxia, is Hereules. conqueror of ene- 

t mies, is the god whose struggle is eternal lus that of the 

I ocean beating the shore, is lie in whom the light Ijccomes 

I afterward personified, and who l>eoomeH thus the Ijattle- 

fiag of the opponents of (^uetzalcoatl. To the dead god 

I a victim ia necessiiry, one that like him deadends into 

the abyss. This victim wns a young girl, chosen among 

I those that were consecrated at the foot of the pyrumid, 

land drowned; a custom long Ibund as well in Kgypt as 

iat Chichen-Itzft," and in many other countries of the 

world. But ti> the god come to life again, to the god in 

whom fire wiw personified, and iraraoi*tal life, to Quet- 

[zalcoatl when he l)ec.aine ILuitzilopochtli, victims were 

fBacrificed. by tearing out the heart — symbol of the jet 

rof tiarac issuing from the volcano — to ofter it to the C4)n- 

Iquering Bun, symbol of Tezcatlipoca, who first demanded 

I holocausts of human blood.* 

B In Tnoatui. 

H Brammr de Bfntrhmtrg, Qtiatrts LeUrta, pp. 154-7. Much of this lurt 
erspb Mcms att^rly incomprebenHible ima absurd, even \-jewod from the 
a-pointof Uic .\bb_- itnuutt-ur himself, "tiy uo ni(.-iiti.>ic-(.-rtjuu, iit all jioitita, 
Icf kftvuifc caught the exiu't ineiiuinit by iXa nutbor, I K^ve the uriuiuiil:— Denx 
iDrJres de dienx, dont lea mts, tomb<-ts du eivl Jaob I'lkblme oil iU devii'tiuvut 
I jttgM de> mortB. Be penonnifieut on ud s^^uI qai ressnacite, Hyuibulc dc la 
betdaiAmort; dootles aatiea aunivcut \ la dcstmt-tinii. sviuboU' do la 
\^n/t inpMuftble; (el est le doable ciknictm> dn mythe d« Qai<tuu-CoaU, li son 
borigtna. Umis «n n-SLliti*, w di«u, o'cut la terrc, e^e»t la n^on eii»cveli« xms 
■ flAiiK, e'est le rnincii <;toalIu sons \f poids de hoq advenuure, loaii I'effort 
\ \m vmffoe Tirturieusa ct ccIle-L-i ii'nuiKiuiui hu fuu sur lu bCiuber de Nnnfthn- 
IaU. c'«Bt TescatJipooa, c'est Hercuk, vuinquenrde va-* ctmemiit, c'cst lu dieu 
[L^pnl Ia lotto out ttemclle, rumiuo rdh- do I'Ori-iui buttaut \c rivu^e. c'est 
lltti ^^ qni flc )>«mot]ti)6« eotiaite In lumirre et 411) dt-vicut aiiiHi lu drnpC'au 
I AdTvnuurm du (^auLuil-CuotL Au dieu murt, il fulluit oue victime, com- 




MrTylur declares Quetzala)atl to have l)een tlie Sun: 
** We may even find him ifUMitiiinl with the Sun by 
name, and his history is jierhaps a more com|jact and 
perfect scries of solar myths than hanp* to tlie name of 
any single jierHonage in our own Aryan m^-thologv'. 
His mother, the Dawn or the Night, gives birth to him, 
and dies. His father OamaxtU is the sun, and was wor- 
shiix'd with solar rites in Mexico, but he is the old Sun 
of yesterday. The clouds, ])ersoniliod in the mythic 
race of the Mixcohuos, or '' Cloud-Snakes" {the Nil»el- 
ungs of tlie western hemisphere), bear down tlie old Sun 
and choke him, and bury him in their mountain. Rut 
the young (Juetziilcoatl, the Sun of to-day, rushes up in- 
to the midst of them from below, and some he slays at 
the first onset, and some he leaves, rift witli red wounds 
to die. We have the Sun boat of Helios, of tlie Kgypt- 
ian Uft, of the Polynesian Maui. (2i**^^''^*'<^^^tlr '"s 
bright career drawing toward its close, is chased into 
far laiwls by his kindsman Tezcatlii^wa. the young Sim 
of to-inormw. He, too, is well known as a Sun God in 
the Mexican theology. Wonderfully fitting with all 
thiSf one ineident at\er another in the life of Quotzixl- 
coatl falls into its phurc. The guardians of the sacred 
fire tend him, bis funeral pile is on the top of Orizaba, 
he is the hel|H'r of travelers, the maker of the calendar, 
the source of asti-ology, the beginner of history, the 
bringer of wealth and happiness. He is the patron of 
the crnrtxmen, whom be lights to bis lalx)r; as it is 
written in an ancit-nt Sanskrit liymn, ^ He steps forth, 
the splendor of the sky, the wide-seeing, the fju'-aiming, 
the shining wanderer; surely enlivened by the sun, do 
men go to their tasks and do their work.' Even bis 

me lui, deaceudae dann Tabtme: ce fat nue jeime fiUe, <:hoi«« iinrmi dcUm 
qili loi etuieDt consiurrus aa pied ile Itx {^vruiniUt, ui qu'im Doyait en 1a 
uluuueaiit soiiii I'eaa, euutuiuu qu'ou rvti'ouva lougUmpH fii Kf>\'i>to, comme 
s Clucliea-ltza, siuu qae datm bi(>u d'antres pays du juuihIp. Mum nn dipa 
r«ftAUHoit^, nil dien un qni iw pt<niiinnlflnit \o tm\, la vie ituiuorti-tlf. a f^inji- 
Coatl, dt^VRim liailtU-OpochUi. on socrillA des rirtimffa naun niitubn>, ji qui 
I'uQ urmL-hitit In (Hcur, K^mbuk du j<-t dp fljininif nortant da vnk-fln, pour 
I'offrir nil Mnleil voinqiievr, Mvmbolc dv Tez<-nt]iin>i»i qui, le premier, avait 
dtimuudt: dt-'H bulocatutca dc lUDg humain. IJ., pp. 342-3. 



jwople. the Toltecs, catcli fnim him solar qualities. Will 
it be even possible to grant to this farnoiis nu:e, in whose 
fltory the legend of Quctzalcoatl i» the lending incident, 
onythinj: more than a mythic existence?"^' 

Ur Brinton i.s of opinion tlint "that there were in 
tnith many Quetzalcoatls, for his high priest alwavM Iwre 
hi,H niune. hut he himself i.s a pure creation of the fancy, 
and all hin alli^Hi history is nothing but a myth. Ilia 
emblematic name, the Bird-Serpent, and his rebus and 
cross at Palenque, I have already explained. Others of 
his titles were, Ebecatl, the air; Yoleuat, the rattlesnake ; 
Tohil, tlie rumbler; Hueraac, the strong liand; Kanihe- 
liecntl. lord of the four winds. The same dualism re- 
a[)[)earH in him that has been noted in liis analo<>:ue;j 
ebiewhere. He is both lord of the eastern light and the 

As the former, he was born of a virgin in the land of 
Tula or Tlapallan, in the distant Orient, and waa high 
priest of that iiappy realm. Tlie morning star was his 
symliol, iind the temple of Cholula was dedicated to hira 
expressly as the autlior of light. As by days we 
measure time, lie was the alleged inventor of the calen- 
dar. Like all the dawn hen«.s, he too was represented 
an of wliite cjomplexion, clotlied in long white robes, and, 
as most of the .VzLec gfxhs, with a full and Mowing Ijeard. 
When his eartldy work was done he too returned to the 
ensty aev*ignlng aa a rea.son that the sun, the ruler of 
Tlajiailan, demanded Iiiw presence. But the real motive 
was that he had been overcome by TezcatUi)0ca, other- 
wise called Yoallichecatl, the wind or spirit of night, 
who had de^wciwlcd from heaven by a spider a web and 
prej*entei.l his rival with a draught pretended to confer 
immortjility, but, in fact, producing uncontrollable long- 
ing for home. For the wind and the light Ijoth depart 
when the gloaming draws near, or when the clouds 
spread their dark luid shadowy webs along the mount- 
ains, and [Mjur the vivifying rain ujxmi the fields. 

In his other character, he wa« begot of the breath of 

31 Tfflof'* IttMarch $, pp. 1C5-6. 


Tonacatpotl. god of our fles^ or suheistenoe, or (aceord- 
ini; to (roniuni) was the c^n ut' Iztoc .Mixcoatl, the white 
clo\id serpent, the epirit of the tornado. Messenger of | 
Tlaluc. gixl of rain, he was figunitively wiid to sweep 
the road for hiiu. since in that amnlry vinlent winds are 
the precursors of the wet seasons. Wherever he went 
all manner of winging birds Iwre hitn wHniiany, tMnhlenw 
of the whistling breezes. When he finidlv disapjx-ifcred 
in the far east, he sent back four trusty youths who 
had ever sbaretl his fortunes, 'inr'om|>;iraMy swifl andi 
light of foot,' with directions to divide the earth between 
them and nde it till he should return and resume hiit 
power. When he would promulgate his decrees, his 
herald proclaimed them from Tzatzitepec, the hill of 
shouting, with such a mighty voice that it could be heard 
a hundred leagues around. The arrows which he shot 
transfixed great trees, the stones he threw leveled for- 
ests, and when he laid his hands on the rocks the mark 
was indelible. Yet as thus emblematic of the thunder- J 
storm, he [xjsaessed in full measure its better attributes. \ 
By shaking his sandals he gave fire to men; and peace, 
plenty, and riches blesseil his subjects. Tnulitiim sa^Ti 
he built many temples to Mictlantecutli, the Aztec l*luto, 
and at the creation of the sim tliat he slew all the other 
gods, for the advancing dawn disix-rses the spectral 
shapes of night, and yet all its \ivifying power does but 
result in increiming the number doomed to HUl before the I 
remorsek'Hs stroke of death. 

His Hyinljols were the bird, the serpent, the cross wid 
the flint, representing the clouds, the lightning, the four 
winds. nn<l the thunderbolt Perhaps, as Huemac, the J 
Strong Hand, he wa-sgod of tlie Ciirtli quakes. The Za- " 
potccs worsliiixid snch a deity under the image of tht« 
number curved from a pix^cioiLs stone, calling to mind 
the * Kab ul/ tlie Working Hand, adored bytheMayaa, 
and said to be one of the iinagej? of Zamna their hero 
god. The binnan hand, ' that divine t(K)l,' iv*. it has 
been called, might well Ix; reganknl by the retloctivo 
mind as the teacher of the arts and the amulet wh9<>e 



magic power has 

^•hat vantage he has 

won for mil 
gained in bis long coinimtwith nntiire mul his fdloww."" 

Mr Hel[)s soew in yiiclzalcoatl the cla'*e^^t analojries 
with certain other great civilizers luid teachers tluit 
made their ap[x^uranee in various jmrts of the American 
continent: — ' One peculiar oireumstance, at< Humboldt 
remarks, w very mucli to \ie Jioled in the ancient records 
and traditions! of the Indian nations. In no less than 
three remarkable insti^nccs hiw sn{)erior eivili/ation been 
attributed to the sudden presence among them of per- 
sons ditfering from themselves in nppeanmce and de- 

Bohica, a white man with a beard, appeared to the 
Mozea Indians in the [)lains of Rojiota, tnuglit tliera how 
to build and to sow, fonned them into w>mniunitie8, 
gave an outlet to the waters of the great lake, and, hav- 
ing settletl the government civil and ecclesiastical, retired 
into a monastic state of ])entitcnce for two thousand 

In like manner Manco Capac, accompanied by his 
sister. Mania Oello, descended amongst the Peruvians^ 
gave them a code of atlmirable laws, reduced thorn into 
communities, imd then a-scentlefl to bis fatber. the Sun. 

Amongst the Mexicans there suddenly apiH.*ared Quet- 
zalooatl (green-feathered snake), a white and Ijearded 
man. of broad brc)w, dressed in a strange dress; a 
legislator, who recommended .severe (wnances, lacerating 
hi* own body with the prickles of the agave and the 
thorns of the cactus, but who dissuiuled his followers 
from human sacnfice. ArVhile lie remained in An;ihuac, 
it was a Saitumian reign; but this great legislator, after 
moving on to the plains of Chotula, and governing the 
Chtflulans witli wisdom. jMissed away to a distant country, 
and was never heard of more. It is said brietly of him 
that ' he ordained ssicrifices of flowers and fruits, and 
stopped his ears when he was s|xjken to of war.' " ^ 

The Ahh6 Domenech considers the tradition of the 

» BHnkm'a Mj/lhs, pp. 180-3. 

n XTelfu* 8pm. Conj., vol, i., pp. 286-7. 

m aofsm. ewEasAjrvuLJL bedggs. axd wdbship. 

Uto of QoetTaVoatl and Teacstlipoca to be a bit of mid- 
pAe sod riigbtly veiled historyt *i^ '^ tbat ilietv were 
•even! Quetz^ooaUa. Let it be retDembered in reading 
the wUb&*B venion of tbl* mfttttf tbat tbe names of plac4?s^ 
peoples, and the date? be give:* are in great part iiiytli- 
ieal and eonjcctural: — " Ailer the enfr%ncln.semeiit of tbe 
Olmecs, a nmn named Quetxalooatl Rrrivet) in tbe coun- 
try-f wbum Garcia, Torquenuida,dahagun. mid otlier S^mii- 
iah writers took to be ^nt Tbomaa. It vn» n1»> at tbat 
tiine tbat tbe tbirrl af^^e ended, and tbat tbe fuiirtb began, 
calied tfun of tbe fire, because it was siippo^cl that it wa« 
in this l&Ht stage tbat tbe world would be destroyed by 

It is in Ibis fourth period tbat tbe Mexican historian 
places the Toltecs' arrival in Xew Spain, that is to say, 
abtmt tbe third century liefore tbe Christian era. Ac- 
cording to tbe Quichi;» traditions, tbe primitive portion 
of the N^ahosA, or ancestorn of tbe Toltecf^. were in a dis- 
tant Vjtii<t, Ijeyond immeni^e sea^ and landH. Amongst 
tlie families anil trit^es tbat bore with leaj>it patience 
this long repose and immobility, those of Canub. and of 
Tlocab may l>e citerl, for they were tbe first who deter- 
mined to leave their country. The Xahoaa sailed in 
seven I>arks or ships, which Saliagim calls Chicomoztoc, 
or tbe seven gn^tton. It is a fact worthy of note, tbat in 
all ages the numlwr seven wius a saci^ number among 
the American j»eople. from one pole to tlie other. It 
was at Pdnuoo, near Tami»ico, that tliose strangoi-s dis- 
enibiirked; they e.stabli:-bed themselves at Paxil, with 
the Votanites' consent, and their state took the name of 
Huehue-Tlo[>allan. It is not stated from whence tliey 
came, but meivly that they carne out of the regiojis 
where the sun rises. The supreme command was in the 
band of a chieftain, whom history calls Qiietzalcobuatl, 
that is to sjiy. Lord jxir excellence. To his care was con- 
fided tbe holy envelope, which concealed the divinity from 
the hmuan gaze, and he alone received from it thi' 
necessary instructions to guide bis people's marcli. 
These kinds of divinities, thus enveloped, passed for 



bein^ Kure talismans, and were kKjked upon witli the 
kgreatest respect and veneration. They consisted gener- 
L*Uy of a bit of wood, in which was inserted a little 
f idol of green Ktone ; this was covered with the skin of a ser- 
' pent or of a tiger, after which it was rolled in nmnerouH 
little bands of stuff, wherein it would remain wrapixsl 
for centuries together. Such is, perhap, tlie origin of 
; the medicine bigs made use of, even in the present day, 
» by tlie Indians of the Great Desert, and of which we shall 
{it{)eak in the second volume of this work." 

Of apjxirently another Quetzalcoatl, he writes: *'The 
' IViUecs hecarae highly nourishing under the reign of 
Cfocatl Quf tzalcohuatl. a Culhuacaii prince, who preached 
a new religion, sanctioning auricular conft*ssioii and tlie 
[celibacy of the priests, lie proscribed all kinds of war- 
fare and human sacrifices. Tezcatli)>(.)ca put himself at 
the head of the dis-satisfied party, ami Ijesieged Tollan, 
I the residence of Ceocatl Quetzalcohuatl ; but the latter re- 
fused to defend himself, in order to avoid the effusion of 
blood, which was prohibited by the laws of the religion 
he himself had established, and retired to Cholulii, that 
had Wn coiislructed by his followers. Fmni thence he 
I went to Yucatan. Tezcatlipoca, his fortunate rival, after 
I a long reign became in his turn the victini of the popu- 
lar discontent, and fell in a battle that wsis given him 
by Ceocall Quetvuiicohuatls relati\e8. Those two kings 
are elevated to the rank of gods, and their worship was 
a perpietual subject of discoRl and civil war in all 
Andhuiic until the arrival of the Sptuiiards in the New 

The interpreters of the different codices, or Mexican 
paiutings represented in Kingsborough's great work, 
l^ve, as is their wont in all matters, a confused, imper- 
fect, and often erroneous account of Quetzalcoatl: — 
" Quetzalcoatl is he who Wiis born of the virgin, called 
Cbaichihuitztli, which means the precious stone of pen- 
ance or of sacrifice. He was sjived in the deluge, and 
was bom in Zivenaritzcatl where he resides. His lost 

M Jkmtmteh't Dtatrtt, toI. 1., pp. 32-S, 39 


was a kind of preparation for the arrival of the end of the 
world which they said would hapjxin on the day of Four 
Earthquakes, f*o that they were thus in daily expectation 
of that event. Quetzalcoatl was lie who they nay created 
tlie world, and they Ix-stowed on him the appellation of 
lord of the wind, because tliey said that Tonacatecotli, 
when it apjieared gi«>d to him, breathed and begat 
Quetzalcoatl. They erected round temples to him, with- 
out any comers. They Kiid that it was he (who was 
also the lord of the thirteen signs which arc here rejire- 
8cnto<l), who formed the first man. lie alone had u 
hmnan bo<ly like that of men, the other gods were of an 
incorix>real nature."*^ 

*'They declare that their supreme deity, or more pro- 
perly speaking, demon Tonacatecotle, whom we have 
just mcntioneil. wlio hy another name was called Citina- 
tonali,. . . .begot Quet/.alajiitl, not by connection with a 
woman, but by his breath alone, as we luvve ol>8erved 
alx)ve, when he sent his turjhjLsyador, as they say. to the 
virpn of Tulla. They Ijclieved him to lx> the fiod of the 
air, and he was the first to whom they built temples imd 
churches, whicli they formed [xjrfectly round, without 
any angles. They sjiy it wjus he who eftected the reform- 
ation of the world by penance, as we have already said ; 
since, according to their account, his father had cre- 
ated the world, and men had given themselves up to 
vice, on which account it had been so frecjuently de- 
stmyed. Oitinatonali sent this his son into the world to 
reform it. We certainly must deplore the blindness of 
these miserable people, on whom ^aint l*aul says the 
wrath of God has to be revealed, inivsmuch as his eternal 
trutli was so long kept buck by the injustice of attribut- 
ing to this demon that which belonged to Him; for He 
being the solo creator of the universe, and He who made 
the division of the waters, which tbeso poor people just 
now attributed to the Devil, when it apiiearcd good to 
Him, dispatched tlic heavenly ambassador to announw 

» ExpHcadon rfei Codex Trltertano-RemenaiSj parte ii,, Uuo. ii.. tu Kmg»- 
borough'B Jtf«c. Antiti,. vol. v.. pp. lSB-6. 





to the virgin that she should tie the mother of his eter- 
nal word; who, when lie found the world corrupt, re- 
formed it by doing penance and by dying upon tlie cross 
for our sins; and not the wretche<l Quetxalcoatl, to 
whom these miserable people attributed this work. 
They assigned to him the dominion over the other 
thirteen signs, which are here represented, in the i>i\n\e 
manner as they had assigned the preceding tliirteen to 
his father. Tliey celebrate*! a gifat festival on the ar- 
rival of his sign, a^* we shall see in the sign of Four 
Earthquakes, which is the fourth in order here, lieciiuse 
they feared that the world would be destroyed in that 
sign, as he had foretold to them when he disappeared in 
the Red Sea ; which event occurred on the same sign. 
As they considered him their advocate, they celebnited 
a solemn festival, and fasted during four signs."'** 

J.G.MiiUer holds Quetznlcoatl to be the representative 
national god of the Toltccs, surviving under many miscon- 
ceptions and amid many incongruities, — bequeathed to 
or a<loptcd intotlte later Mexican religion. The learned 
professor bas devoted an unusual amount of care and 
research to the interpretation of theQuetzalcoatl myths; 
and as no other inquirer has shown theniin at once so 
accurate and extensive an acquaintance witli the subject 
and 80 calm and judicious a judgment, we give his 
opinion at length, and first his summing up of tbe fable- 
history of Quetzalcoatl : — 

The Toltecs, a traditional pre-historic people, after 
leaving their origual northern home Huehuetlapallan 
(that is Old-red-land) cliosc TuUa, north of An:Ibuac 
as the first capital of their newly founded kingdom. 
Quetzalooatl wits their high-priest and religious chief 
at this place. Huemac, or Huematzin, conducted the 
civil government as the companion of Quetzalctwitl, and 
wrote the code of tbe nation. Quetzalcoatl is said to 
have been a white man (some gave him a bright red 

» SpiettaHoM delU TaooU dti Codiot Mcxicano, tav. xJi., Kingritorough'f 
Ma. Antiq., vol. v.. pp. 184^6. 

Vol, in. IS 


face), with a strong formation of body, broad forehead, 
large eyes, black hair, and a heavy beard. He ill ways 
wore a long white robe; which, accorfling to Gonmra, 
was deconUed with crosses; he had a mitre on his head 
and a sickle in his hand. At the volcano of Cotcitopec, 
or TzatxitciJec, near TuUa, he practised long and numer- 
ous ix*nances, giving thereby an example to liis priests 
and successors. The name of this volcano nieatis " tlie 
mountain of outery;" and when Quetzalcoatl gave] 
laws, ho sent a crier to the top of it whose voicej 
could be heard three hundred railea off. lie did 
what the fotmders of i*e]igion8 and cults have done 
in other countries: he taught tlie i)cople agriculture, 
metallurgy, stone-cutting, and tbe art of government. 
lie also arranged the calendar, and taught his subjects 
fit religious ceremonies; preaching sjx?ciaUy against, 
huniiui sacri(ices, and ordering otlcrings of fruits and 
flowers only. He would have nothing to do with wars, 
even covering his ears wben the subject was mentioned. 
His was a veritable golden age, as in the time of Saturn; 
animals and even men lived in peace, the soil pniduced 
the richest harvests witbout cultivation, and the grain 
grew 80 lai-ge that a man found it trouble enougli to 
carry one ear; no cotton was dyed, aa it grew of all 
colors, and fruits of all kinds abounded. Kveryl>ody 
was rich and Quetzalcoatl owned whole palaces of goldj 
silver, and precious stones. The air was tilled with the 
most ph'ju*Jint aronuL*, and a host of finely fcatiiered 
birds iilled the world with melody. 

But tliis earthly happiness came to an end. Tezcat- i 
lilKJca njse up against Quetzalcoatl and jua^inst Huemac, 
in order to sejwirate them, and to desti-oy their govern- 
ment. He descended from the sky on a rope of spider- 
web and commenced to work for his object with the aid 
of magic arts. lie first api>eared in the fonn of a hand- 
some youth (and in the dress of a merchant), drcs^>ed as 
a merchant selling |>ep|ier-ixwls, and presented himself 
before the daughter of king Huemac. He soon seduced 
the princess, and thereby o^iened the road to a general 



immorality and a total collapse of the laws. He pre- 
sented himself before Quetxalwmtl in the form of an old 
man, with the view of inducing him to depart to his 
home in Tla|uilla. Kor tins piiquse he offered him a 
drink which lie pretended woidd endow him with im- 
mortality. No Hooner had Qiielzalcoatl taken the drink, 
tlien he was «jized with a violent desire to sec hit* father- 
land. He destroyed the palaces of gold, silver, and pre- 
cious stoneSj transfonned the fruit-trees into withered 
trunks, and ordered all song-biixls to leave tlie country, 
and to accompimy him. Thus he departed, and the birda 
entertained hira during his journey with their songs. 

He first tniveled southward, and arrived in Quauh- 
titlun. in Amihuac. In the vicinity of this town he 
broke down u tree by throwing stones, the stones i-cmain- 
ing in the trunk. Farther wutli, in the same valley, 
near TlalnejMintla, or Tanepantla, he pressed hand and 
foot into a rock with such force tliat the impression has 
remained down to the latest centuries, in the same mixn- 
ner u» the mark of the shoes of the horses of ( ■a.'*tor and 
Pollux near Kegillum. The Spaniards were inclined 
to a.^ribe these and similar freaks of nature to the Apos- 
tle Thomai*. 

QuetzalcoatI now turned toward the east, and arrived 
in ChuUda, where he had to remain for a longer {H'riod, 
as the inhabitants intrusted him with the government of 
their state. The same onler of tilings which had taken 
place in Tulla, his Oi*st residence, wa.s here renewed. 
Fnitn this centre his rule spread far and wide; he sent 
oolotusts from Cholula to liuaxaynoac. Tabasco and Cam- 
pechc, and the nobility of Yucatan prided themselves on 
Uieir descent from him; men having been found in our 
time who bear his name, just as tlie descendants of Vo- 
tan Iwre the mune of Votan in Chiapas. In Cholula it- 
self he was adored, and temples were ever>'where erected 
in his honor, even by thecnemicsoftheCholuhuis. Ai\cr 
a renidence of twenty years in Cholula, he proceeded on 
his journey towiurd 1'lalpalla until he arrived at the 
river and in the province of Coatzacoalco, or GoosocoaI- 



CO. Gnasacnalco. that is Hidinp-nook of the snake — south 
of A'^era Cruz. He now sent the four j'ouths, who had 
accomjmnied him from Cholula, back to the Cho1ulan»> 
promising to ret^irn later on and renew tlie old govern- 
ment. The ChoIulanH placed the four ^ ouths at the head 
of their government, ont of love for Inni. Thin hope of 
hi« return still existed among the Mexican nationn at the 
time of CorttiV arrival. In fact, Cortes wils at lii-^theld 
to be tlie returning Quetzalcoatl. and a man was sacrificed 
to him, witli whose blood the conqueror and hi» com- 
panions were marked. Father Saliagun wns also asked, 
by everylxxly on his journey to Mexico, if he and his suite 
came from Tlapalla, Accoixling to Montezmna's account 
to CortC'8, Quetzalcoatl really did once return to Cholula, 
but after such a length of time that he foimd his sul»ject» 
married to the native women, having children, and ho 
numerous that a number of new districts had to be 
founded. This new race would not recognize their old 
chief, and refused to obey him. He thereujwn dejMirted 
angrily, threatening to return at another time and to 
subdue them by force. It is not remarkable that an 
expectation, which was a hope to the Cholulans, should 
be a divad to Montezuma and his subjects. 

According to some accounts, Quetzalcoatl died in the 
Hiding-nook of the snakes, in the Goatzjicoalco country; 
according to others, lie suddenly disapjieared towanl the 
eastj an<l a ship, formed of snakes wound 
brought liim to Tlipallii. 

A closer vimv anil criticism of this tale, in the light of 
the analogy of mytliulogical laws, shows us that Quetzal- 
coatl is the eubemerixed religious ideal of the Tolteciin 
nations. The similarity of this tale with those of Man- 
Co Capac, Botschika, Saturn, and others, is at once ap- 
parent. The opinion of Prescott, Wuttke, nnd many 
others, who held him for a deified man, fouiuler of a 
religion and of a civilization, is confirmed by the latest 
version of the fable, in wliich Quetzalcoatl is reprcsentwl 
in this chanicter. Although cuhemerism is an old idea 
with all people, as well as with the Americans, — imt- 


sonificrttion beinj; the first step toward it.^ — the general 
reaijoiifl which evenTvhere apjiear against the existence 
ofsucL founders of a civilization must also he made to 
speak against this idea of Quetzalcoatl. 

If a special value is placed u{>on tlte white face and 
the beard, it must Ije remembered that the beard, which 
ia piven to the Mexican priests, could not Ije omitted 
with Quetzalcoatl ; and the mention by some of his hav- 
ing had a white face, and by others a red, might arouse 
a suspicion that Quetzalcoatl has been represented an a 
white man on account of his white robe. 

The fable of Quetzalcoatl contains contradictions, the 
younger elements of wliich are a pure idealism of the 
more ancient. For instance, the statement that the 
earth produced everytliing sjwiitaneously^ without hu- 
man laUjr, thx's not aj^ree with tlic old version of tiie 
myth, according to which Quetwilooatl tauglit agricul- 
ture and other industries requiring application and hard 
work. The seutituental love of petuv has also been at* 
tributed to tliis gtxi in later times, during a time when the 
Toltecs liod lost the martial spirit of their victorious ances- 
tors, and when the Cholulans, given to effeminacy, dis- 
tinguished tliemselves more by cunning tlian by courage. 
The face of the god is represented, in th« fable, as more 
beautiful and atti*active. than it is depicted on the images. 
At the place where he was most woi*ehiped, in Cholula, 
the statute of Quetzalcoatl stood in his temple, on the 
summit of the great pyramid. Its features had a 
gloomy cast, and differed from the beautiful face which 
is said to have been his on earth. 

The fable shows it** later idealized elements in these 
jwints. In all other rcsiK-cts, the Toltecjin iieculiarities of 
the entire nation arc either clearly and faithfully de- 
picted in tlieir hero, as in a persoulHed ideal, or else the 
original attributes of the nature deity are recognizable. 
Where the Toltecs were, there was he also, or a hero 
identical with him; the Toltecs who journeyed south- 
ward arc colonists e*.'nt by him; the Toltecs capitals, 
TuUa and Cholula, are his residences; and us the law^ 




of the Toltecs extended far and wide^ so did the voice 
of hui crier reach three hundred miles into the country. 
The arts and welfare of the Toltecs, their riciies and re- 
UlpooB feeling, even their later unwarlike pe«oefiilna% 
■11 these attributes are transferred to Qoetaloottd. Tbe 
long rohe of the Toltecs wa« aim the dresB of their 
hero: the necktie of the bovi< of his religioos order if 
attached to his image; and. as hi« prieMs wore the 
mitre, he ia also represented with it He ia. abore all, 
depicted as the original mmlel of the Toltcc jiricjt:?, tlie 
Tlamacazque (tlie order was culled Tlamacazoujotl)^ wboie 
chief, or superior, always bore the name of QuelzaknalL 
As these onlers of his had to submit to the strictest ob- 
servances, — ^their members having to slit the tongue, 
ears and lips in honor of Quetzalcoatl. and the small 
boys being set apart for him by making an incision on 
their breasts, — so he submitted, before all others, to 
these penances on the Tzatzitipec Mountain. These self- 
intlicted punishments mii^t not be termed penances, as 
is often done, for they have no moral meaning, such as to 
do penance fur committed »ns. nor have they the mystic 
mejming of the Eivst Indian idea of tbe end of the 
world (W'cltaljsterben) and the return to the {xuitlieistic 
chaos (Urall and Umichts); all this is foreign to the 
American religion. Tliey are, on the contrary, blood- 
offerings, substitutes for the human sacrifices in tlie 
background, to obtain earthly bleKsings, atid to avert 
earthly misfortunes. As Quetzalcoatl preached against 
human Racrifices, so his priests tmder the Aztec nile, 
were very reluctant to make them. After the great 
slaughter by Cortes, in Cholula. Montezuma proceedwl 
to the great temple of BiuitziloiKXihtli, miuie many 
htmian sacrifices, niul questioned the god, who bade him 
to be of good hi'iut. and niwured him that the Cholulans 
had suffered so terrihly merely on account of their re- 
luctance to offer up human Wings. 

As the disappeamnce of the Toltecs toward the south 
and the soutli-ejtst agrees with the disappearance of 
Quetzalcoatl, so we find many traits from the end of the 



fla."=t Toltec king repi-oducetl in the end of the Toltec hero. 
[Arter the defeat of king Tlol|Hnt/,iii, hu (Tlolpintzin) 
[fleil ttouthward, toward 'riapidlti. He luiulu use of tliese 
[vords, in his hwt furowell to hlw friends : I have retired 
liowurd tiie eiwt, but witl return after 5012 ^eiirs to 
jftvenge myself on the descendants of mine enemies. 
lAfter having lived thirty years in Tlapnlla. he died. 
'Iliii law'8 were afterwaixl accepted by Nez»ilhualcoyotzin. 
The belief that Tlolpintzin stjiyed with Nezalhualcoy- 
otzin. and some other brave kinpjs, in tiie cave of Xicco^ 
after death, like the three Tells of Switzerland, but 
would at some time come out and deliver his people, was 
long current among the Indians. Everj* one will notice 
how well this agreea with Montezuma's account of the re- 
turn of Quetz;il(X)ntl, 

Quezatlcoatl cannot. Iiowcvcr, Ik> a reprei*entative and 
a national god of the Toltccs. without having an original 
nature-basis for his existence as a g<xl. It is every- 
where the ca.*»e among savages with their national god, 
that the latter is a nature-deity, who Ix'Comcs gradually 
traiisforme*! into a national god, then into a national 
king, high-priest, founder of a religion, and at last ends 
in Ijcing considered a lunnan l)oing. The older and purer 
tlic civilization of a iic<iple is, the eajidcr it is to recognise 
tl»e original esstnioe of its national god, in spite of all 
transfonnations and dinguisetf. So it is here. Behind 
the human fonn of the gixl gliuuuers the nature shape, 
and the national god is known by, jjerha[»s, all his wor- 
slupers aa also a luiture deity. From his powerful 
intluencc ujton nature, he might also be held as the 

The pure human form of this god, as it appears in the 
fable, an well as in the image, is not the original, but 
lilie youngest. Ilia oldest concrete forms are taken I'rora 
mature, to which he originally belongs, and have 
Iliuiint4iined themselves in many attributes. All these 
BjTubolize him aa the god of fertility, chielly, as it is 
^inaile apparent, by means of the Ix^neficial inHuence of 
the air. All Mexican and Kurojx^ou statements make 



him appear as the pod of the air and of tlic wind ; even 
the euhemeristic idea deifies the man Qiiety^Uw«itl into 
a god of the air. All the Mexican tribes mlored him at 
the time of the conquest as god of tlie air. and all ac- 
counts, however miu;li thov may differ on the imrticular 
points of his poetical life, agree, without exception, in 
this one respect, a-s the essential and chief iwint. Be- 
sides the s^iulxils, which are nieroly attached to the 
image, there are Uiree attributes, which represent as 
many original visible forms and exteriors of the god, in 
which he is rcprescnteil and worshij>ed: the sparrow, tlie 
flint (Feucrstein). and the 8uake. 

According to Ilerrera, the image of Quetzalcoatl had 
the body of a man, but the head of a bird, a siKirrow 
with a red bill, a large comb, and with the tongue hang- 
ing far out of the mouth. The air-irod of thow northern 
people, parallel to Quetzalcoatl, tlie Aztec lIuit7.iloi»ochtli, 
was represented with devices connected witli the Imm- 
ming-bird. in remembrance of his former hinnming-bird 
nature. This is the northern element. The gi*eat spirit 
of the northern red.skins also appear in his most esteemed 
fonn as a birtl. The Latin I'icus was originally a wood- 
pecker (^ixtcht), afterwanl anthroi>omorphized and even 
euliemerized, but he has ever the woodpecker hy his side, 
in his capacity of human seer. Several Eg\ ptian gods 
have human Ixxlies and animal heads, es|)ecially lieadsof 
birds. Birds are not alone symlx>ls of particular godlike 
attributes, as u.scd in tlie a!ithro|«imorphic times, not mere 
messengers and transmitters of the oixlers of the gods, but 
they have originally been considered as gotls themselves, 
with forms of godlike jjowers, csix?cia!ly in North 
America; and the exterior of the god of the air, the 
-fructifying air, is naturally that of a bird, a singing- 
bird. The hierogl^pbic sign among the Mexicans for 
the air is, therefoi-e, the head of a bird with tliixH? tongues. 
Wherever Quetzalcoatl stayed and ruled, there birds 
filled the air, and song-birds gave indication of their 
presence; when he de|xirted. he took them with him. 
and was entertained during the journey by their singing. 


A second ibnn of Quetzalcoatl was the flint, which 
vre have alraul y leiirned to know as a syinM and 
hieroglyphic sign for tlie air. lie wjib either repre- 
sented as a black etone. or several small preen ones, 
suppcwed to have fallen from heaven, most likely terolites, 
which were adorefl by the Choluluns in the ser\ice of 
Quetzalcoatl. Betaiuw)urt even explains tlie meaning of 
the name Quetzidcoatl, contrary to the usual definition. 
a» "twin of a precious stone." The fivble of Quuuhtit- 
lan is also connected with this stone-worship; how Quet- 
ralcoatl had overtlirown a tree by muans of stojies which 
remained fixed in it. These stones were later on adored 
a» holy stones of Quetzalcoatl. The ^tone at Tlahie|>an- 
tla, into which he pressed his hand, must uIk) have rep- 
presented the god himself. Similar ancient stone-wor- 

^shipA, of greater nature deities as well as fetiches, were 
found, in many instances, in Peru, in tlie pre-lnoji times. 
In ancient Central America we meet with the worship 

i of such green stones called chalchihuites. Votan was 
worshii)ed in the form of such a green stone, connected 
with the other two attributes. This attribute of Quet- 

lealcoatl most likely Itelongs to the south. 

The third form of Quetzalcoatlj which also belongs to 
the south, is the snake; he is a snake-god, or, at least, 
merged into an ancient snake-god. The snake is not, as 
far as I know, a direct symbol of the air, and this attri- 
bute is. therefore, not the one ]>ertainuig to hiju from 
the beginning ; but the snake represents the season which, 
in conjunction with heat and rain, conhiins the fructifj'- 
ing influence of the atmosphere, spring, the rejuvenating 

ryear. Ilowever, the very name of the god signifies, 

' according to the usual explanation given to it, " the 
feathered snake, the snake covered with feathers, the 
g;reen teathered-snake, the wood-snake with rich feath- 
ers." A wiake has consequently been added to the 
human figure of thi.s gtxl. The other name, under which 
he is ailored in Yucatan, is Cuculcan, a snake covered 

^with godlike feathers. Tlie entrance to hi.s round temple 
Mexico represented tlie jaw and fiuigH uf a tremen- 




doiis .<imkc. Qiiotzalcoatl disiipjH^artxl in Ooatzaxxwlco, 
the Stiukc-oorner (or nook), ami a fillip of wmkes hrought 
liini to Tljiinilhi. Ills followent in Yucatan woiv called 
snaki's, C<xMJfne (plural of Coatl), while ho himself bore 
the name of Coeolwin in tliis country as well a;* in Cliia- 
pas. The snake attribute signifies, in connection with 
lluitxilopochtli. also the l^eneficial influence of the atmos- 
phere, the yearly renewed course of nature, the continu- 
al rejuvenation of nature in pennfi and blossoms. The 
northern celestial pod. (Jdin, is in nifiny ways connected 
with snakes, he transformed himself into a snake, and 
bore the by-name of l^nake. 

The relationship of Tezcatli])oca and Quetzalcoatl. a.s 
given in the fable, may lie touched uix>n hero. The 
driving away of the latter by Te/.catli})oca does not, as 
may Ix; supixwcd, signify a contest lictween the Aztec 
religion and the preceding Tolteean. In such a case 
Huitzilo|«x^htli, the chief of the Aztec gods, by whose 
adoration the contrast is [lainted in the deepest colors, 
would have been a much l)etter representant. 

Quetzalcoatl no doubt preachoii against human sacri- 
fices, brought into such unprecedented saving by the 
Aztecs, yet the worslu|>ers of this god adopted the sacri- 
fice of human beings in nn extensive way during the 
Aztec rule, to which |)erifMl this jwirt of the Quetzalcoatl 
fable necessarily owes its origin. At this time tlie con- 
trast was .so slight that Quetz:dcoatl jjjirtook of the high- 
est adoration of Aztecs, not only in Cholula, but in 
Mexico anil everywhere. His priest enjoyed the liighest 
esteem and his temple in Mexico stoc»d by the side of 
that of ITuitzilopochtli. Montezuma not only calls the 
Toltec hero a leader of his foix'fathcrs, but the Aztccji 
actually consider him as a son of lluitziloixjchtli. The 
op[x>sition of the two gods. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca, 
has another reason: the dift'erence lies not in their wor- 
ship, but in their nature and being, in the natural phe- 
nomena which they represent. If the god of the beneficial 
atmosphere, the manifested god-power of the atmosphere 
of the fructifying seasons, is adored in Quetzalcoatl; then 



Tezcatlipoca is his opjxwite, the god of the gloomy lower 
L'giouH (iejftitute of life oiid germ, the god of drouth, of 
rithering, of death. 
Wherever, therefore, Quetzalcofttl rules, there are riches 
^aiid abundunee, the air \h lilled with fragrance and song- 
birds — an actual golden era; hut Avlien he goes south- 
wartl with his song-birds, he is cxixilled by Tezcatlipoca, 
drouth sets in, and the paloees of gold, silver, and pre- 
ciotis stones, symbols of wealth, are destroyed. He 
promif»eft, however, everywhere to retuni. A represen- 
tation mentioned and copied by IInmlK>Idt, shows Tez- 
catlipoca in the act of cutting up the snake. This 
has not the meaning of the acts of Hercules, of Ton- 
atiuh. of the great spirit of the Chippewas, of the Ger- 
man Siegfried, of the Celtic dragon-killers 'IVistan and 
Iwein, or of the other sun-gods, spring-gods, and culture- 
lieroes, who light and subdue the snake of the unfertile 
moisture; such an interpretation would Ix'opixis:^ to the 
nature of this god. On the amtrary, the gcxl of death 
and drouth liere fights the snake as the symbol of mois- 
ture, of the fertilization of the plant-life. 

The question now arises: if Quetzalcoatl only received 
his snake attribute in the south, and thi.s his name, what 
was his original northern and Toltecan name? We 
answer. cf>inciding with the views exprej<swi by IxtUl- 
xochitl and others, who affirm that (Juetzjilcoatl and his 
worldly oompjinion,, were one and the same 
penwn. The opposed opinion of Ternaux- Com pans, 
who states that Quetzalcoatl must have iM^en lui Olmec, 
whil« Huemac was a Toltec, actually gives the key to 
the solution of the question. Both are right, Ixililxo- 
chitl and Ternaux, lluemac is the original Toltec name 
of the Toltec national g(xl, ruler, arid author of the 
holy books, the ancient name used by the Toltecs. As 
this people succumbed more and more to southern inHu- 
enoee. and their ancient air-god in his sparrow form re- 
ceived in addition the snake attribute, on account of 
his rejuvenating influence uix»n nature, then, the new 
name of the more cultivated [K'ople soon appeared. 



The name may, thereforej be Olmec. l>ut not, the j?od; 
we may sooner Buppose thut the attributes of the Maya 
god, Votaji, have been transferred to the Toltec god. 
Both names having thus a double origin; the legend 
which found two names, miulc al^M two persons of them^ 
and placed them side by side. It is. however, easy to 
flee that they arc naturally one: lluemac has just as 
much a religious signification as Quetziilcoatl; as llue- 
matzin, he wrote the divine book, containing all the 
earthly and heavenly wisdom of the Toltecs. Quetzal- 
coatl has, in the same degree, besides his religions |xjsi- 
tion, the worldly one of ruler and founder of a civili- 
SMition. As Quetziilcoatl possesses a divine nature, so 
docs liuemac. to whom also are ascribed the three hun- 
dred years of life, and the impression of the hand in the 

Besides the attributes of the sparrow, flint, and snake, 
there are others which ascribe to Quetzalooatl the same 
pn^jwrtios, but less prominently. As gtxl of the air, 
he holds the wonderfully painted shield in liis liand, a 
BynilH)! of his iK)W(;r over tlie winds. As god of the fer- 
tili/.iag iufhieiice of the air, be holds, like Saturn, the 
sickle, s^inlxjl of the harvest — he it is tliat causes the 
grain to ripen. It useJ to hi; «aid that he prepai-ed the 
way for the water-g(Ki, for in these regions, the rains 
are always preceded by winds. It was on account of 
this intimate connection with the rain, which had 
already procured him the snake attribute, that his 
mantle was adorned with crosses. We have already seen 
that such crosses represented the rain-god with tlie 
Mayas, and are symbols of the fructifying rain. Con- 
sequently they are well suited for the god who is only 
air-god in the sense of the aii' exercising its fructifying 
and invigorating intiuence upon the eai'th. 

Another question, which has already occurre^l to us. 
must here be considered. Why did this go<l aime fi-om 
the oaxt, depart toward the east, and why should he be 
ex|)ected from the eawt? The Toltecs have, acccmling 
to almost mianimous statements, come from the north, 



fcTid e\'^n Quetziilcoatl commences liis rule in the north, 
Irin Tulla, and proceeds gradually on his journey fi'om the 
lorth to the south-east, just like the ToUecs, who trav- 
eled southwanl from Tulla. It is plain that he departs 
"for the east, because this is his home, from which he came 
and will return. His eastern origin is, no duubt, based 
fUjKtn the direiTtion of the eastern tmde-wiiids, which 
irry rain and, with it, fertility to the interior of ("en- 
Ainerica. The rains l)egan three or four weeks 
irlier in Vera (.ruz, Tampico, and Tahaseo than in 
'uebla and Mexico. Another reason, which ha.**, lunv- 
ver. a certain connection with the above, may be the 
elationship of the god of air and the sun-god, wlio often 
Burned an wpml position in nature and in wonihip. 
re know that the foundei*s of the Peruvian and Muys- 
Can cult:* come from the east, because they are .snn-gotis, 
Quetzalcoatl is not such a deity, it is true, but the ferti- 
lizing air-god is also in other places closely connected 
b*'ith tlic fructifying sun, as, for example Iluitzilopoc.htli, 
[Odin, and Brama. The smi is his eye. This connection 
[irith the sun, Montezuma referred to when ho spoke in 
le prej*ence of Cortes of the departure of Quetzalcoatl 
^Ibr the regions from which the sun comes. As the 
Bun is the eye of heaven, to whom the heart of the vic- 
tim sacrificed to the god of heaven is presented, so it is 
at night with the moon, to whom the same tribute was 
■paid at the feast of (Quetzalcoatl. 1 merely rofor to this 
here to show the conntction of the air-god with the great 
_Jieavenly bodies. 

Several other significations are attached to the idea of 
an mr-god. It is natural that the god of heavenly Idess- 
ing should also Imj the gckl of wealth. All wt-alth de^tends 
'originally u[K)n the pnHluce of the soil, uihhi the hU'KVing 
of heaven, however worldly the o]>inion of \\n* matter may 
be. (Jold is merely the symlM)! of this wealth, like tlie 
golden shower of Zeus. The iiru^ of Quetzalcoatl was, 
therefore, according to Acosta, adorned with gold, silver, 
jewels, rich feathers, and gay dresses, to illustrate his 
wealth. For this reason he wore a golden helmetj 



and Ilia scoptrc wa^ dcooniU'd with costly ntonos. The 
name view »« al«) tho basis of the myths of the ancient* 
about snakes and draj^ons guaixling trwwuros. Tlie 
fact that the mei-cliant.s of Chohihi worHlii|)ed the jr*xl of 
wealtli l>cfore all otheiH, and an their chiefdeity , reijuiret* 
no expUmation. 

His worship in Cholula was conductwl iw follows: 
Forty days before the festival, the merchants Ixjtight a 
siMjtless slave, who wits first taken to bathe in a lake 
called the Lake of i\w Gods, then dressed up as the 
g(xl Quctzalcoatl, whom he had to represent I'or forty 
days. During this time he enjoyed the same ailoration 
as was given to the g(x! : he was set uiwn a raised 
plat'p, presented with llowers, and fed on tlie choicest 
viands. He was, however, well guarded during the 
night, so that he might not escajie. During his exhibition 
through the tnwn, he danceil and sang, and the women and 
children ran out of their houses to salute him and make 
him presents. This continuetl until nine days I)efortf the 
end of the forty days. Then two old priests appiXNiched 
him in all humility, saying, in deep voice: \jojx\^ know 
that in nine days thy singing and dancing will ceiLse. be- 
cause thoti must die! If ho contirnicd of good spirit, and 
inclined to dance and sing, it was considered a good omen, 
if the contrary, a biid one. Tn the latter oa,se they pre- 
pared him a drink of bktod and cacao, which wius to ob- 
literate the remembrance of tlie past conversation. 
After drinking this, it was hope<l that lie would rt^sume 
his former good humor. On the day of the festival 
still greater honors were shown him, music sounded and 
incense was burnt. At last, at the midnight hour, he 
was sacrificed, the heart was torn out of his body, 
held up to the moon, and then thrown toward the image 
of the god. The body was cast down the steps of the 
temple, and served the merchants, especially the slave- 
dealers, for a sacrificial meal. This feast and sacrifice 
took place every year, but after a cert^un nundter of 
cycles, a^ in the divine year, Teoxihuitl, they were celc?- 
brated with much more pomp. Quetzalcoatl had, gene- 




rally, liis human Racrifices during the Aztec rule, as well 
ai* tho other goils. 

The jiowcr whicli ret'stablifihes the macrocosm, hcala 
and rejuvenates thi' miorocot<ni also: it is the general 
liealing iK)wer. With the g(xMl weather thou8an<l8 ol" 
invalids are restored, and reirewliing rains not only re- 
vive the thirsty plains of the tn)pics, l)nt man liiins4'lf. 
Thus the air-giKJ, the atmosphere. l>ec<>mes a licnling 
god, A Phoenician told Pau^ylnius that the snake god, 
*f^idapiu8, signified the health-restoring air. If this 
god of heaven is also a snake-god, like Quetzalcoatl, the 
rejuvenating and reVnvigorating power of nature is ex- 
pressetl in a clear |mrallelism. 

The snake-god is also a healing god, and even the 

Greek -Esculapius cannot dispense with the snake. 

It is, thus, not to Ix? wondei'ed at tliattlie sterile women 

,of Uie Mexican peoples directed their prayers toQuetzal- 

"I ST 

Tliis concludes the able summing-up presented by 
Miiller, and it is given as I give all theoretical nuitter, 
neither accepting nor rejecting it, as simply another ray 
of light iK'Ut in upon the god Quetzalcoatl, whose nature 
»t is not proix>sed here to eitlier explain or illustrate, 
but only to reproduce, as regarded from many sides by 
the earliest and clascst observers. 

ST MUltT, Amrrikaniache rnr^irjionfn, pp. 677-690. Boms further nutea 
mptfdlns tbU ifod from a diff^rRnt iKiinl, tatty be foaod in Bntsirur tie Bour- 
6oury, PaknqtU, pp.40 etc., C6 elo. 




or THK Mexican Wab God, Hcitzilopochtu, of hih Tempix, Imaoi, 
Cebehokiai., Febtitalb, and his deputy, OB PAGE, Patnal— Clatioe- 


— J. G. Ml'LiiBB's Summary or the Hunziix)PocHTu MiXBs, thxib 
Obioin, Rei^tion, and Sionipication — Ttlob — Codex Vatioanub— 
T1.AL0C, God or Waxes, especialxy of Rain, and or Moctntaikb — 
Clatiqebo, Gama, and Ixtulxochitl — Pbaykb in tuce or Dbocoht 
— Camakoo, MoioLiNiA, Mendieta, and the Vatican Codex oh the 
Sacbificeb to Tlaloo— The Decoeationh of bis Yicmis and the fulgbs 
or theib Execution — Gatbebing Rcsbes fob the Sebvici or the 
Watsb God — Hiobway Robbebies by the Pbibsts at this tor — 
Decobationb and Impleuentb of the Priests — Punisbhents roB Ceeb- 
MoNiAL Offences — The Whirlpool of Fantttlan — Iuaobb or the 
Mountains in honob or the Tlaloc Febtital — or the comino Raix 
AND Mutilation or the Ihages op the Mountains — Qenebal Pbohi- 


Huitzilopochtli, Huitziloputzli, or Yitziliputzli, was 
the god of war and the especially national god of the 
Mexicans. Some said that he was a purely spiritual 
being, others that a woman had borne him after mirac- 
ulous conception. This legend, following Clavigero, ran 
as follows: 

In the ancient city of Tulla, lived a most devout 
woman, Coatlicue by name. Walking one day in the 
temple as her custom was, she saw a little ball of feath- 
ers floating down from heaven, which, taking without 



thought, she put into lier bosoin. The walk being ciiiled, 
however, she could not find the hull, und wonilei-ed 
much, all the more thul s(K>n after thiH she found her- 
self pregnant. She had ali-eady many children, who 
now, to avert this dishonor of their house, eonapired to 
kill her; at which she was st)relv troubled. But, fi*oru 
the midst of her worab the pod sjKjke: Fear not, my 
mother, for this danger will I turn to our great lionor 
and glory. And lo, lIuitzilo|x>clitli. jierfect as Palhifl 
Atliena, was instantly lx)rn, springing up with u mighty 
war-shout, grasping tlie shield and the glittering spear. 
His left leg and his head were adorned willi plumes of 
green; his face, ariuH, and thiglts liarnnl terribly with 
lines of blue. He fell u[)on the unnatural children, slew 
them all, and endowed his mother with their H^HiiLs. And 
frf>ra that day forth his names were TeziduiitI, Terror, and 
Tetzauhteotl. Terrible g(Kl. 

Tins was the god who became protector of the Mexi- 
ifpivt, wlio conducted them so many years in their pil- 
grii^i^i^Jl^. And settleil them at hi^t on the site of Mexico. 
And in this city they rais<.'d hini that proud ten»ple so 
much celeljrated even by the Sijaniards, in which were 
annually held their solemn festivals, in the fifth, ninth, 
ami fifteenth months; Ix^sides those kept every four 
years, every thirteen years, and at the beginning of every 
century-. His statue was of gigantic size, in the posture 
of a man seatetl on a blue-colored ijench. from the four 
comers of which issued four huge snakes, llis forehead 
was blue, hut his face was covered with a golden mask, 
while another of the «une kind covered the back of his 
head. Upon his head he carried a beautiful crest, shaped 
like the Ix^ak of a bint; upim liis neck a collar cunsist- 
ijig of ten figures of the human heart; in his right hand, 
a lai^, blue, twisted club; in his left, a shield, on which 
appeared five trails of feathers disjjosed in the fonn of a 
crosH, and from the up|)er jMirt of Ihf shield mse a gohlen 
flog with four arrows, which tlie Mexicans pretemled to 
have Iteen sent to them from heaven to jx'rform those 
gloriouMOi'tions which we have seen in their history, llis 
VQE. m. 




body was girt with n large golden snake, and adorned with 
various lesser figures of animals made of gol<l and pre- 
cious stones, which ornaments and insignia ha*l each their 
peculiar meaning. They never deliberated upon making 
war without imploring the protection of this god, with 
prayers and sacrifices; and oflered up a greater number 
of himian sacrifices to him than to any other of the gods.' 

A diflerent account of the origin of this deity is given 
by Koturini. showing the god to havelKH»n a brave Mexi- 
can chief, ivho was af^erwarrl apotheosized: — 

While the Mexicans were pushing their conquests and 
their a<lvance toward the country now owMipied by them. 
they had a very renowned captain, or leader, c-alled 
Huit/.iton. He it was that in these long and i)eri1ous 
journeys through unknown lands, sjwring himself no 
fatigue, took care of the Mexicans. The fable ssiys of 
him that being full of years and wisdom he was one 
night caught up in sight of his army, and of all his 
people, and presented to the god Teznuhteotl, that is to 
say the Frightful God, who, being in the shaj»e of a 
horrible dragc^n, commanded him to be seated at his 
right hand, saying: Welcome, valiant captain; very 
grateful am 1 for thy fidelity in my service ami in gov- 
erning my people. It is time tliat thou shouldest rest, 
since thou art already old, and since thy great deeds 
raise thee up to the fellowship of the iinnuirlal gcKls. 
Return then to thy sons and toll them not to Iv afHictod 
if in future they cannot see thee aa a mortal nmn; for 
from the nine heavens thou shall look down prr)pitious 
upon them. And not only that, but also, when .1 strip 
the vestments of humanity frc»m thee, I will leave to 
thine adllcted and orphan i)eople thy liones and thy 
skull so that they may l>e comforted in their sorrow, and 
may consult thy relics a» to the road they have to fol- 
low: and in due time the land shall be shown them that 

' HnitzilopochtH ta dcrtvo^ from tvo vordtt; huiUUin, the hammiag-'bird, 
and opochUi, left, — ho mllod from the left focit of hJK image WmR deconted 
with huuiming-bird featlien. Clavvjero, Storia Ant. dtl Magioo, loin, ii., pp. 



T have dpstinetl for them, a land in which they fthuM 
hold wide empire, l)eing reaj)ertwl of tlie (»t!u^r nations. 

Huitzitomlid according to these inslniRtionM, and ui^er 
a BOrrowfiil interview with his i>eopie, ilisapjK'ared, 
carrie<l away hy the gods. The weeping Mexicans re- 
mained with tlie ftkuU and lx)ne8of their l>elovcd cjiptain, 
which they carried with them till they arrived in New 
Si>ain, and at the place where they built the great city 
_of Temwhtitlan, or Mexico. All thia time the devil 

:>ke to them through this ^kull of Utiitziton, of^en a-iking 
Tor the iinninlation of men and women, from which 
thing originated those l)lood\' sacrifice?*, practiced after- 
wards by this nation with so much cruelty on prisoners 
of war. This deity wjts chilled, in uarly as well as in 
later times, IIuit/iloiHxihtli. — for the principal men l)e- 
lieved that he was seated at the left }iand of TezcatlipocA, 
— a man derived from the original name Iluitziton, and 
from the word Truipoche, 'left hand.'^ 

Aoosta gives a minute description of the imiige and 
temple of this god : — 

*'The chiefest idoll of Mexico was, as 1 have sayde, 
Vitxiliputzli. It was an iraa^e of wood like to a man, 
set vpr>n a stoole of the colour of azun?, in a brankard or 
litter, at every etirner was a piece of w(.m«1 in forme of a 
Seqjent's head. The stoole mgnified that he was set in 
heaven: lliis idoll hadde all the forehead azure, anil had 
a Iwnd of azun^ vnder the nose froiri one e;ire to anuthor: 
vpon his head he had a rich plume of feathers, like to 
the bi-iike of a snudl binl. the which was coveivd on the 
toppe with golde burnished very browne: bee had in hig 
left hand a white target, with the figures of five pine 
apples, miule of white feathers, set in a crosse: and from 
above issued forth a cre.-^t of gold, and at liis sides hee 
badde fourc dnrtes, which (the Mexicaines say) had 
bet.'iie sent from heaven to do thow.' actes and jirowesaes 
which shall be sjx>ken of: In his right hand he had an 
'■sured stnfle, cutte in fashion of a waving snake. All 
tboee ornaments with the rest hee had, carried his senoe 

s JkteHni, Jdea dt vwi Hut., pp. GO-l. 



as the Mexicmnes doe shew; tlie name of A'itziliputzli 
signifies the left hand of a eltining fciither. 1 will 
Bpeakc heereafter of the prowde Temple, the sacrifices, 
feast.M and ceremonies of this gix'ut idoU. l>eing very 
notable thinps. But at this present wc will only shew, 
that ttiis idoU thus richly ap]Mireled and deckt, Vfos eei 
vpon an high Altare, in a .<iiiall jk'Wv or Itoxe, well 
covered with linnen clothes, Jewells, featlicrs tuid orna- 
ments of golde. with many rundles of fenthers, the fuiivst 
and most exquisite that could be found: hee hatl ulwaies 
a curtine before him for the greater veneration. loyning 
to the chamber or chappell of this idoU, tliere wa^ a 
peece of lesse worke, and not so well bejiutified, where 
there was anotlier idoll they called Tlaloc. These two 
idolla were alwayes togetiier, for that they lield them as 
companions, and of equal power. 

There was in Mexico, this Cu, the famous Temple 
of Vitziliputzli, it had a very gi'eat circuite, and within 
a faire C'ourt. It was built of great stones, in fashion "of 
snakes ti(^d one to another, and tlie cii-cuite vaxs called 
CoateiHintli, which is, a circuite of snakes: vj)i^)n the 
topjie of every chainl»er and onitorie where the Idolls 
were, was a fme piller wrought with small stones, hlui^ku 
as ieate, set in gcXMlly order, the ground raised vp with 
wliito and red, whieli below }jave a great Hght. Vpon 
the top of the pillar were battlements very artificially 
made, wrought like snailes [caracoles], mipp(.trti.*d by two 
Indians of stone, sitting, holding candlesticks in their 
hands, the which were like Croi.sants giirriLshcd and en- 
riched at the ends, with yellow and greene feathers and 
long fringes of the same. Within the circuite of this 
court, there were many chambers of religioiLS men, and 
others that were appointed for the service of the Priests 
and Popes, for so they call the soveraigne Priests which 
serve the Idoll. 

There wei-e foui*e gates or entries, at the east, west, 
north, and south; at every one of these gates beganne a 
faire cawsey of two or three leagues long. There was in 
the midst of the lake where the cittio of Mexico ia built, 



frtupe lai^ ciiwseies in, which did much beautify 
it; x'|>oii every |n>rtjill or entry, wilm a Gwl or Idoll, 
having the vi«^je turned to the causey, right against 
the Temple gat*i of N'itziHpiitzli. There were Ihirtie 
Kteppet* of tliirtie fa<h>me long, and tJiey divided from 
the circuit of the court by a ntreete tliat went betwixt 
them ; vpon the toppe of tliese steppes there waa a walke 
thirtie f<x)te hmnd, all plaisleix'd with chaike, in the 
midst (tf which walke was a rullisiwlo artincially made 
of very high trees, planted in order a fadome one from 
another. These trees were very bigjre, and all pierced 
with small holes from the foote to the top, and there 
were rodde8 did runnc from one tree to another, to the 
which were chained or tied many dead mens headea. 
Vpon every rod were twentic seniles, and tliese ranckes 
of i*cnllert continue fmm the ftwte to the topjx; of the ti^ee. 
Thit* PallisMuio was full of <!ead men8 sculls frcMii one 
end to the other, the which was a wonderfull nunirne- 
full «ight and full of !u)rn>r. Theae were tlie heiuls of 
ench u» had beene Bacrificed; lor after they were dead, 
and had eaten the llesh, the head wjls delivered to the 
Ministers of the Temple, which tied them in this sort 
vntil they fell oft' by imchvcIIk; and then had they a care 
to set others in their places. \ jKni tlic topj>e of the 
temple were two stJjnes or chapjjellH, and in them were 
the txTo Idolls which 1 have si)oken of, Vitziliputzli. and 
his companion Tlaloc. These C'hap|)ells wori* carved and 
graven very artificially, and so high, that to ascend vp to 
it, there was a etaire of stone of sixscore stepj>es. Before 
these Chamljers or ChapiKdls, there wius a Court of fortie 
foote sfjuare, in the midst thereof, was a high stone of 
five hand breadth, |wynted in fashion of a Pyramide, it 
was phuied there for the sacrificing of mei»; for being 
laid on their backes, it made their bodies to bend, and 
so they did ojjen them and pull out their hearts, as I 
bLuU shew heereafter. "^ 

1 ^<YMlfi. fPuit. Xit. Ind., pp. 352-3. 301-3. ArostA ({iv«a a deHcriptioD of 
tt0 vUMl«riiiKit (>f the McxicAQB And how ihcirgod VitziliuulxU, direcled Aod 
IpiSded IhetB UitfTfin, macU as ituf God u( tsrui'l dirvctcd bU t^oopli-, arrtisa 
Uw wiMariMM to tbt* Promiied Laud. TnuliUuii aImu lelK buw he bim- 



Solis deacribea thifl temple also: — 

The top of the truiicattKi pyramid on wbich the idola 
of nuitzilopochtli and TIaloc were placed was forty feet 
square, and reache<l by a stair of a hundred and twt-nty 
steps. On this [ilatform, on either hand, at the head of | 
the fltmrs, stood two sentinel-statues supportinR great can- 
dlesticks of an extraordinary fiishion. And first, from 
the jasper tiags, rose a hump-backed altar of green stone. 
Opposite and beyond was the chapel wherein behind 
curtains sat Huitzilo(x>chtU. on a throne supi)*)rted by a 
blue globe. From this, supiK>setl to represent the heav- 
ens, projected four staves with ser|x'nts' heads, by which 
the priests carried the god wlien he wa'* bruught 
before the public. The image lx)re on its head a l)inl of 
wrought plumes whose Ixjak and crest were of burnished 
gold. The feathers expix'ssed horrid cruelty and were 
made still more ghastly by twostrii)es of blue one on tlie 
brow and the other on the ntjse. Its right hand lejuied 
as on a staff upon a crooked serijent. Ujhhi the left arm 
was a buckler bearing five white plums, arnmged in form 
of a craw; and the hand grasped four aiTows venerated 
as heaven-descended. To the lefl of this was another 
chapel, that of TIaloc. Now these two chapels luid idoht 
were the same in every particular. These gods were 
esteemed brothers — their attributes, qualities, powers, 
inclinations, service, prayers, and so on, were identical 
or interchangeable.' 

Sahagun says of Huitz!lo[x»chtii, that, being originally 
a man, he wa» a sort of Hercules, of great strength and 
warlike, a great destroyer of town^ and slayer of men. 

self revealed tb«t manner of 8a«ri(Icfl mont aeceptablt to hitt wlU: — some of 
the prirKtu liuvin^ cvcmight offviulftd lilia, lu, in tbe mummgi tbrj wezo 
alt dKuA uit^u; their HtomochK Ix'iug cut opeo. iiutt their h<:UtH |>aU(?d out; 
which ritfs in wimflco wltc tbi-n-iipou udoptetl lor the service of th&t deitjr, 
and retaiued. imtil their rontiuc out by the Etoro buunieh hiubandnr, so wol 
adaut^xl to »uch foul oud bloody tarmi. I'urcfuu, Ili« /*i/;;rii»cj, vol. iv., pp. 

* .Strfis, HiM.Cany. Jfn., torn, i., pp- 396-8. This vritfi says : 'ThoSpuii&h 
ftoUUers tviUed this idol 7/wAUo/ws, ny » mrrnpt prouuiiriution : ho too Brmal 
Diiix drl CnKtillo vrit^H it. Authont differ lum-h in d>-ti«-n1iiiiK Uiim magnifi- 
oeot building. Antonio de Herrem fullowB Fmni.-i«co Luikx dv Cidmaia tuo 
oIomIj. We ahall follow Father Jmef de AooBta and tne better informed 
aathora.' Id., p. 39o. 



In war he had been » living fire, very terrible to bis 
adversaries; and tlie devise he bore was a dnigoiiH bead, 
rri(;btful in the extreme, and cjvsting iire out of its 
mouth. A great wizard be bad been, and sorcerer, tnins- 
forniinp biraseU* into the shape of divers biixls and betwts. 
While he lived, the Mexicans esteemed tliis man very 
highly for his strengtli luid dexterity in war, and wlien 
he died they honored him as a god, oftering slaves, and 

kncrilicing them in his presence. And they looked to it 
that those Hla>es were well fed and well decomted with 
such ornaments as were in use, with ear-ringsand visijrsj 
all for tlie greater honor of the gotl. In Tlaxada also 
they had a deity, called Cmnaxtli, who was similar to 
this Huitzilopochtli/ 

Gage, in a pretty fair translation of Ilerrera, describes 
this pod with TezcatlifxxMi. lie sa^'s: — 

•" The gods of Mexico (as the Indians reported to the 
first Spaniards) were two thousand in number; the 
chiefest were Vitzilopucbtli. and Tezcatlipoca, whose 
images stood highest in the temple upon the altars. 
They were made of stone in full projurtion as big as 
a giant. They were covei'ed witli a lawn called Na- 
car; they were beset with jiearls, precious stones, and 
pieces of gold, wrought like birds, beasts, fishes, and 
tluwers, adorned with emeralds, tnrquies, cbalcedons, 
and other little fine stones, so that when the lawn was 
taken away, the images seemed very l>eautiful aivd glorious 
t/) Ijebold. These two Indian idols had for a giixlle great 

^AUiken of gold, and for collars or chains alxiut their 
ks ten hearts of men made of gold ; and each of them 
3ad a counterfeit visor with eyes of glass, and in their 
necks Death i>ainted. Tliese two gods were brethren, 
for Tezcatlii»oca was the god of [irovidence, and Vitzilo- 
pucbtli, god of the wars, who was worshiped and feared 

more than all the rest." * 

Torquemada goes to some length into the legend 

« Bokagm, Oitl. Otn., torn. 1., Ub. 1.. p. 1. 

• Ofly/i Amp Svnejf. pp. llti-?; Btrrtra, Hist. Oen., torn, i., dec. ii., 
Bb. tU.. wp. xvii. 



aiid description of this god of war, Huitzilopochtli, or 

lluitzilopochtli, the ancient god and guide of the 
Mexicans, ih a name variously derived. Some say it is 
coinjx>.scd of two words: kuitziiin, ' a huinming-ljird ., and 
Uahmjyuchtli^ 'a sorcerer that spits lire/ Othera say tliat 
tlie second |)art of the name crimes not from thUmi[nicht- 
li, but fmm opuchtli, that is. 'the lelt liand;' so that the 
M'hole name, lluitzilo{)(ichtli, would mean *thefihining- 
feathered left hand.' For this idol was decorated with 
rich and resplendent feathers on the left arm. And 
this god it was that led out the Mexicans from their own 
land tuid bixjught tliein into Anahuac. 

Some held him tu Ix^ a purely spiritual being, otliers 
affirmed that he luwl Iwen Ijorn of a woman, and related 
his history after the following fjij^hiou: Near the city of 
TuUa there is a mountain called Coatejtec, that is to say 
the Mountain of the Snake, where a woman lived, tunned 
Coatlicue, or Snalvc-ixjtticoat. She wixa the mother of 
many sons called Centzuuhuitznahua, and of adau<;hter 
whose name waa CoyoLvauluiui. Coatlicue was very 
devout and careful in the service of the pods, and she 
occu])ied herself ordinarily in sweeping and cleaninji the 
sacred places of that mountain. It happened that one 
day, occupied with these duties, she saw a Utile hall of 
featliei-s Hoiiting down to her through the air^ wliieh she 
taking, as we have already related, found herself in a 
short time pregnant.* 

U^x^n this all her children conspifed against her to 

' ' Pero los miitmoH Nntnr&loK afinnAU, qao e8t« Nunibre totnarou de el 
I>io» rrincipal, uue dloR trnicrnn, el quiil tenia dew Noinbr^'B, el ono Hvit- 
ritopnc!b(n. y el otro Mciitty. v v%U- sitgiimlo. qai«re decir Ombligo d« 
UoKlier.* Torfjuenuuia, M^JUirij. fntl., Uim. i., p. 'I'M. 

" ' Acaiiti'cio, putfH, vii dio, que estando biuriondo, come dcostniiibniba, 
rib bnjar por ol Aire, una petuta peqnetm, beohn de ploiQAS, i uunen di* 
Ovillo, lii-cba de hiladu, qli« tu.' le viuri k los nionos, ]a quiil toiui**, ,v uictJd 
CDtrc toH Niibuas, h f uUle-lliii, y Ia came, dcbajo de In fnja qne If crnin i-l 
CQ«rpo (porquo ueiupri: trai^'n lujado c«tc dCDPro dc Tostidu) tiu iiuA^iiiando 
niiifpm misteno, ni fin de aqntl cnfto, Acnbo de burrer, y huacn U \f\ot» 
de tiluQiA. purft vt-t de que podrin uprovcobnrlfi cc scrvicio de huh IlktM^e, y 
no In bnU>'i. Quedo de esto iidmirftdn, y tnucbo mu de cooocer «n »l, qne 
dcsdc ntiiicl punto so avia bccbo prcfUidn.' Toripumada, itmtarq. Ind.. tenu. 
U., pp. 41-2. 




HnSy her, and came armed against her, the daujrhter 
Coyolxauhqui being the ringlentler and most violent 
of all. Then, immediately, lluitzilopochtli was born, 
fidly armed, having a shield callevl teuehiteii in his left 
■hand, in his right a dart, or long blue pole, luid all his 

I -face barred over with lines of the aame color. His fore- 
head was deooiTvted with a great tuft of" green featbern. 
hi« lelt leg was lean and feathered, and both tliighs and 
the arms barred ^vitli blue, lie then cause<l to appear 
n Pori>ent matie of torches, Offs, called xiuhrtxtt/: and 
he oniered a soldier named Tochaucalqui to light this 

I »erpent, and taking it with him, to embrace Coyolxauh- 
qui. From this ombr.\ce the matricidiil daughter imme- 
diately diwl. and lluitzilopochtli himself slew all her 

I bretiiren and took their sjx)il. enrictiing his mother 
therewith. After this he was Mirnaiiied Totzaliiiitl, tliat 
is to wiy, Fright, or Amazement, and held na a gotl, born 

I -of a mother, without a father, — a» the great god of bat- 
'tleH, for in these his worshipers found liim very favor- 
able to them. IJejsides the ortlinary image of this god, 
permanently set up in the great temple of Mexico, 
there wa** another, renewed every year, made of grains 
and seeds of various kinds, in one of the halls in the 
neighborhood of the temple the priests oolleeted and 
•ground up with great devotion a mniis of seeds, of thoama- 
rnnth and other plants, moistening the same with the 
blood of children, and making a dough thereof, which 
they simped into a statue of tlie form and stature of a 
man. The priests carried this image to the temple and 
the altjir, previously arranged for its reception, playing 
tnimpet** and other instruments, and making murh noise 
and ado with dancing and singing at the head of the 
procesmon. All this during the night; in the morning 
the high-priest and the other priests blessed and eonse- 
crated the image, witli such blessing and consecration a-s 
T^erp in use among them, 'i'his done, and the people 
embled, every i)erson that could come at the image 

•fwiched it wherever he could, as Christians touch a relic, 
and made offerings thereto, of jewels of gold and pi-e- 



cious gtones, each according to his means and devotion, 
sticking the said ofltniugs into tlie soft fresh dough of 
which the idol was confected. After this ceremony 
no one wa:^ allowed to touch the ima^ any more, nor to 
enter the place where it wa**, save only the hi^h-priest 
After that they brought out the image of the god Pay- 
nalton," — who is alf*o a war grt<l. !)ein^ vicar or Aut>-cap- 
tain of the sjiid JluitziloiKx^litli, — an iniaj^e made of 
wood. It wa« carried in the amiH of a priest who rep- 
resenteil tlie god Quety^lcoatl, and who was (letH)nited 
with ornament;* rich and curious. Before this priest 
there marched another carrying [the image of] a great 
snake, larjie and thick, twistetl and of many coils. The 
procej*«ion filetl along at great length, luid here and there 
at various temples and altars the priests offered up sacri- 
fices, immohiting human captives and ([iiails. The 
first station, or stopping-place, was at the ward of Teot- 
lachco. Thence the cortege passed to Tlatelulco (where 
I, Torquetnada, am now writing this history) ; then to 
Popotlan; then to Chapultejiec — nearly a le:igue from 
the city of Mexico; tlien to Tepetoca; then to Acacbi- 
nanco; then back ajjain to the temple whence it had set 
out; and then the image of Paynalton w:is put on the 
altar where stood that of Iluitzilopochtli, l>eing left there 
with the banner, called ezpatiiztli, that had Ijeen carried 
before it during the march: only the great snake, men- 
tioned above, was carried away and put in another ])laoe, 

' This FuynulloD, or PajnAl, vaa & kiuil of il«pat]r-gud. or BnlwHttitc for 
EniUilopochtU; u&ed in oaHeB of utgent baste lud ioiin^diate cmfr^ticjr. 
vherc perhaps it might he Uinnght there waa Dot time for the IfUgthened 
ceremonies necffisan' to the invocation of the preater war dfity, SftbAoun't 
uecoiint of PuyniJ is conriKe, aiid will throw liuLt on the rpuarui of 
Torijiiemudiit as t^iven nhove in the text. Snhni^in tmyfi, in effect: This md 
FftynalwAS a kin<l of itiib-fiiiptiiin t<i HnitzUopochtli. The Utter, oBchiel'- 
osptain, dictated the delihet'ite nndei-tAkin^ of war a^ninRt nnv pronnoe; the 
former, as Tioar to the other, lerved wh<>n it became nncxpectt^Ij peo efiB ary lo 
take np arms and make front hnrriedly against an enemy. Then it voa that 
Paynal — whose name ni^ans 'Hwift, or hurried, * — when hWn^ ou earth set 
oat in person to stir up the people to repuhte the enemy. Upua hi« dsalh 
be was deified and a feutival appointed iu hi-n honor. In this festival, his 
Imaf^, richly decorated, was carried in a loDf; proet-Haion, every one, baarsr 
of tiie idol or not, running as fast ss ho could; all of which represented the 

f>romptne«s that is many times necca«ai-y to resist the assault of a foe attack- 
ng by surprise or ambuscade. Sahagun, Hist. Gt-n., torn, i., Ub, i., p. '2. 



Jio which it belonged. And at all these places where 
'the proccKMion appeared, it was received with incensinge, 
sacrifices, and other ceremonies. 

Thii* pix)ces.sion finished, it having occupied the great- 
er part of the day, all was prepared for a sacriiice. The 
king himself acted the part of priest; taking a censer, 
he put iricenw* therein witli certain ceremonies and in- 
ocnkxl the image of the god. This done, they took down 
again tlie idol, Paynalton. and set out in march, thoHC 
going in front that hiul to Iw ?*acrificed, together with all 
things ijertuining to the fatal rite. Two or three times 
they made the circle of the temple, moving in horrid 
cortege, and then as«ended to the top, where they slew 
the victims; Ijeginning with the prisoners of war, and 
finishing with the fattened slaves, purchased for the 
occasion, rending out their hearts and casting the same 
at the feet of the idol. 

All through this day the festivities and the rejoicings 
continued, and all the day and night the prie.st8 watched 
vigihmtly tlie dough statue of UuitzilopochUi, .so that no 
oversight or carelessness should interfere with the venera- 
tion and service due thereto. Early next day they took 
^down said statue and set it on its feet in a hall. In- 
to tliis hall there entered the priest, called after Quet- 
kvalcoatl, who liiul carried the imiige of Paynalton in his 
in the procession, as before i^lated ; there entered 
the king, witli one of tlie most intimate servants, 
[called Tehua, of the god lluitzilopochtli, four other 
rgreat priests, and four of the principal youths, called 
jTelpochthitoque, out of the number of those that had 
|charge of the other youths of the temple. These mcn- 
ti<med, and tliese alone, being tissembled, the priest 
after Quetzalcoatl took a dart tipped with tlint 
rand hurled it into the breast of the statue of dough, 
IK'hich fell on receiving the stroke. This ceremony' was 
tyled, " killing the god lluitzilopochtli so that his body 
[might be eaten.' Upon tliis the priests advanced to 
JO fallen image and one of them pulled tlie heart out of 
[it, atkd ga\e the same to the king. The other priests 



cut the pasty body into two halves. One half was given 
to the people of Tlatehilco, who parted it out in crumbs 
among all their wards, and epecialh' to the young 
soldiers, — no woman being allowed to ta.ste a morsel. 
The other half was allotted to the people of that part of 
Mexico called Tenochtlitlan; it wius di\nded amonj; tbc 
four wards, Teopjin, Atza^iuulco, Quei>opan. and Moyot- 
lan; and given to the men, to both small and great, even 
to the men-children in the cradle. All this ceremony 
waa called teotpiah, that is to say, ' gixl is eaten.' and 
this making of the dough statue and eating of it waa re- 
newed once every year." 

Closely as J. G. Miiller studied the character of Quet- 
zalcoatl, his examination of tliat of lluitzilo]xx;iitli, has 
been still more minute and was indeed the subject of a 
monograph published by hira in 1847. A student of 
the subject cannot atford to overlook this study, and I 
translate tlie more important parts of it in the paragraphs 
which follow; not. indeed, either for or against the in- 
terests of the theory it supjrorts, but (or the s:ike of the 
accurate and detailed handling, relumdiing, and group- 
ing there, by a nia**ter in tills department of mvtlu)loj.i- 
cal li'iiniing, of almost all the data relating to the matter 
in hand: — 

Uiiit/ilo|M)chtli has lnvn already refent*d to as an orig- 
inal g<xl of the air mid of heaven. He agrees also with 
Quetzalcoatl in a second capital point, in Iiaving be- 
come the anthroiKnnorpliic national god of ihc Aztecs, 
as Quetwdcoiitl of the Toltecs. On their niaivhcs and 
in their wars, in the establishment of codes and towns, 
in haj> as wcU ius in misfortune, the Aztecs were 
guided by his oracle, by the spirit of his lx:ing. As the 
Toltecs, especially in their later national character, 
difler from the Aztecs, so difler their t%vo chief nationiil 
pods. If the capital of the Toltecs, Chohda, resembled 
modem llome in its religious efibrts, so the god enthroned 
there was transformed into the Imman fonn of a high- 
priest, in whom this people saw his human ideal. In 

)■ Torfpiemada, Monarq. Ind., torn, i., p. 293, torn, ii., pp. U-^, 7l~3. 



the eiime manner one niif^ht \)e led to compiirx^ the capi- 
tal of the Aztecs with ancient Rome , on iu!coinit of its 
warlike Hpirit. and therefore it waii rijjlit to make the 
national god of the Azt^Kis a war god like the Roman 

We will commence witli the name of the god, which., 
according to Saluigiin. Acosta, Toixjuemjwla, and most of 
the writen*. sijjuiiles 'on thu left side a hinnming-bird;' 
from hu'tzUhiy ' a hnmining-Inrd,' and (j/)orJilli. * left.* 
In connecting the Aztec words, the ending is cut oft*. 
The image of the god had in ivalitv, fre(jiiently, the 
feathers of tlie hiimmiiig-hird on the left foot. The con- 
nection of this bird with the g*Kl is, in many ways, ajv 
projiriate. It no doubt apjK-ared to them ;w the most 
i)euutiful of bird)*, and as the most worthy reprewentant 
jof their chief deity. Does not itn crest glitter like a 
[crown st^t with rubies and all kinds of prcciou.s stones? 
, The Aztecs have accordingl\-. in their wiiy. called the 
'himiming-bird, 'sun-beiim.' 'or sun-hair;' jw its alighting 
]ti|x>n Howers, is like that of a siui-tjcara. The chief god 
[•of the Caribs, Julucji, is also decorated with a band 
lof its feathers round the forehead. The ancient Mexi- 
cans had, as their most noble adornment, state-mantles 
'of the same feathers, 8o much praised by ('ortes; and 
even at the present time the Aztec women adorn their 
ears with these plumes. This humming-biifl decoration 
'en the left foot of the god was not the only one; he 
[had alwa green bunch of plum:ige upon Ida head, 8!iai)ed 
[like the bill of a small bird. The shield in his left hand 
decorated with white feathers, au<l the whole iuiiige 
at times wjvered with a mantle <»f feathei*s. To 
kihe genend virtues which make comprehensilde the 
jliumuiiiig-binl attribute jis a diWue one, must lie ad<i('d 
iiJie H[ieciai virtue of bravery |M:*culiar to this bird, wlilrh 
[ifl »pe<:ially suited to the war g(xl. The Rnglish trav- 
leier Rullock tolls how this bird distinguishes it.self 
[for its extraordinary courage, attacking others ten 
times its own size, flying into their eyes, and using 
tttf sharp bill as a most ditngerous weapon. Noth- 



ing more daring can be witnessed than its attack npon 
other birds of its own speciea. when it fears disturlxuicc 
during the breeding-season. The effects of jealousy 
transform these birds into perfect furies, the throat 
fiwellH, llie crest on their head, tlie tail, and the wings 
are cximndcd; they fight whistling in the air, until one 
of them falls exhausted to the ground. That such a 
martial spirit should exist in so small a creature 
shows the intensity of this spirit; and the religious 
feeling is the sooner aroused, when the instrument of a 
divine |X)\ver iipiicars in so trilling and weak a Ixjdy, 
The small but brave and warlike woodpecker stood in a 
similar relation to Mars, and is accordingly termed piais 
mart his. 

This, the most common explanation of the name Hiiit- 
zilo[)ochtli, as ' humming-bird, left side' is not followed 
by Veytia, with whom Prichard iigrees. He declares 
tlie meaning of the name to be ' left hand,' from kuii- 
zitoc. 'hand,' because Iluitzilojxjclitli. iiccording to the 
fable, alter his death, sits on the lefl side of the god 
Tezcatli|x>ca. Now, Iluitzilopochtli is in another place 
oonsidere<l as the brother of this god; he alsti stands 
higher, and can therefore scarcely have obtained his 
name from his jwsition with resi)ect to the other deity. 
Besides, hand in Aztec is proj>erly translated as nuiUl, or 

Over and above tliis attribute which gives the god his 
name, there are others which [Mtint towards the concep- 
tion of a war god. liuitzilupocbtli hiul, like Mars and 
Odin, the spear, or a l>ow. in his right hand, and in 
the left, sometimes a bundle of arrows, sometimes a 
round white shield, on the side of which were the four 
arrows sent him from heaven wherewith to i)eribrm 
the heroic deeds of his people. On these wea|X)ns de- 
pended the welfare of the state, just as on the ancUe 
of the Roman Mars, which had iiillen from tlie sky, or 
on theptiUadium of the warlike Pallas Athena. 

By-names also jwint out Uuitzilopochtli as war god; 
for he is called the terrible god, Tetzateotl, or the rag- 



ing. Tetzaliuitl, These names he received at hi« hirth, 
when he, jut*t issued from his mother's womb, o>ertlire\v 
his adi'ersaries. 

Not IcKs do Ids connections indicate ]m warlike nature. 
His youngest brother, Tlacidiuo]MUieuextotzin, was also 
a war god. whose statue existed in Mexico, and who re- 
ceived homage, especially in Tezcuco. In still closer 
relationship to him stands his brother-iu-arms, or, as 
Bemal Diaz calls him, his page, PaynaUon, that is, 
* the tieet one ;' he was the god of the sudden war 
alarm, tumnitus or general lev^e en masse; his call 
obliged all capable of lieariiig anns to rush to the de- 
fence. ITe is otherwise cfwisidered as the reprei*entant 
of TTuit7ilo[KX*htli and Hulx>itlinate to liim, for he was 
only afimall image, ils Diiiz says, and as the ending (on 
denotes. The statue of this little war-crier was alwa^'s 
placed uix)n the altar of Huitzilo{)ochtli, and sometimes 
carried round at his feast. 

Other symlwlic attributes establisli HuitziloiK)chtli as 
the general national god of this warlike jKHiple, and sym- 
bolized his perwtnal presence. On the march fi-om the 
ancient home, the priests took tlieir turn, in fours, to 
cjvrry bis wooden image, with the little Hag fallen from 
heaven, and the four arrows. The litterj ujxm which 
the image was airried, was called the ' chair of god/ 
Uo'trpdUi, and wa.s a holy Iwx, such as was used among 
the Etnisciina and KgN-ptian-s, the Greeks and the Ko- 
nuuiH, in Ilium, among the Japanese, among the Mon- 
ffolft. In America, the Cherokees are aWi found with 
»uch an ark. The ark of the covenant carried by the 
Lexites through the desert and in battle, wiis of a simi- 
lar kind. Wherever the Aztecs halted for some time 
during their wanderings, they erected an altar or a 

' mcrifice mound to their giwl, upon which they placed 
Ibix gtid's-litter with the ini;ige; which luicient oljscrv- 

I mnci:' they kept up, in later times, in their temples. 
By its side they erected a movable tent, UAerttacultm^ 
(Stiftxbtitte), in the o[)en country, as is customary 

Lainuug nonuidic people, such as the Mongols. The god, 




however, gave tliom the codes nnd usnges of n cnltiu 
people, and received ofierings of prisoners, hawks, and 

As the liead of a .spai'mw on a iniman hody joints to 
the former worship of Quetzalcoatl under the I'orm of 
a sparrow, so the humming-hird attribute on tlie image 
and in the name of Huitzilo{x)chtU, points him out as an 
original animal god. The general mythological rule, that 
auch animal attributes rel'or to an ancient worship of the 
god in question under the fomi of un animal, jwints this 
out in his case, and the sjxKiial myth of Iluitziton assists 
here in the investigation of the foundation of this origin- 
al nature. 

When the Aztecfl still lived in Aztlan, a certain 
Huitziton enjo_ved their highest esteem, as the fable 
tells. This Huitziton heard tlie vou^ of a bird, which 
cried *'tihui," that is 'let us go." He thereupon«l the j>eoplc to leave their home, which they ac- 
coixlingly did. When we consider the name Huitzi- 
ton, the nature of the story, and the mythiciil time to 
which it refers, no doubt remains ii.s to who this Huit- 
ziton is supjwsed to }jc. It is evident tliat he is none 
otiicr than the little bird itself, which, in our later form 
of the myth, as an anthropomorphic fable, is se[«irated 
from him; se^wrated euhemeristically, just us the latin 
Pieua was separated fmm his woodpecker. This Picus, 
whose songs and (light were jwrtentous, was rep- 
resented as a youth with a wotxlpecker on his head, of 
which lie made use for his seer-art; but was originally, 
as denoted hy his name, nothing else than a woodpecker, 
which was adored on tlie wooden pillar from which it 
sent its sayings. This wo(x]j)ecker pla<M?d itstdf upon the 
vevU/tim of the Salnnes, aiul guided them to the i*egion 
wiiicb has l>een named Picenum alter it. As this l>ird 
guided itfl people to their new uIkkIc, like Iluitziton, 
80 many other animal gods have lead tliose who, in 
ancient times, sought new homes. Thus a crow con- 
ducted Battus to Cyrene; a dove led tlie Chalcid- 

u See tliifl vol., p. 00, uot«. 

HtnTzrroN ant5 patnalton. 


ians fo Cyrene; ApoUo, in the form of a dolphin, took 
the CretanH to Pytho; Antinous founded a new settle- 
ment, to which a snake had pointed the way ; a bull 
carried Cadniu.s to Thebes; a wolf led the liirpiniuriH. 
The original stock of the South Ainericun [leople, the 
Mtiayas, received the divine order, through the bird Ciirn- 
cara, to roam as enemies in the territories of other 
people instead of settling down in a fixed hnbitation — 
tlii» ie an anti-culture myth. As the foundinj; of towns 
favors the birth of myths like the procoeding, so also does 
the foundinj? of convent^*, the sites of which, according 
to the numerous faljles of the Christian mediieval age, 
were pointed out by animals, — one of the renmants of 
old heathenism then existing in the (X)pular fancy. To 
resume tlie subject, Huitziton is, therefore, the humming- 
bird god, who, as oracular god. commanded the Aztecs 
to emigrate. His name signifies nothing than 'small 
humming-bird,' the ending ton twing a diminutive 
syllable, as in Paynalton. Thus the humming-bird wa.s 
the bearer, at the time of the great flood, of the divine 
message of joy to the Tezpi of the MichtHU'ans. a jwople 
related to the Aztecs. It hml been let loose as the 
water receded, and soon returned with a small twig to 
the ark." On the Catherine Islands [islands of Santa 
Catilina],^' in California, crows were adored as inter- 
preters of the divine will. From the afwve it is also 
self-evident that Huitziton and Huitzilo|X)chtU were one. 
which is the concbiaion arrived at by the learned re- 
searcher of Mexican languages and traditionn, the Italian 
Boturini. The name, myth, and attrilnitesof Huitzilo- 
pochtU point then to the humming-binl. Previous to 
the transformation of this god, by anthro[>omorphiHm, 
he wn« merely a small humming-bird. fmUz'Uon\ by 
anthropomorphism, the bird becmne, however, merely 
the attribute, emblem or symbol, and name of the god, 
^a name which changed with his form into 'humming- 
Inrd on tlie lef\,' or Huitzilopochtli. 

"SwOiisTol p.C7. 
» 8m thia vol. p. 134. 
ViH. m. 3D 



The identity of the two, in epite of the different ex- 
planations of the name, is acxrepted by \eytia, who gives 
Huitidtoc aa the name of the chief who led the Aztec 
armies during their last wanderings from Chicomoztoc, or 
the Seven Caves^ into Anahuac. Under his leadership 
the Aztecs were everywhere victorious, and for thia 
reason he was placed, aSter his death, on the left side of i 
the god Te'/ciitlipoca; flince which time he was called 

The identity of Huitziton and nuitzilo]K)chtli, ia also' 
shown by other facts iK'sides the name, the attribute, and 
the mjtitoU)gical analogy: the wime imiwrtant acts are 
ascribcsl to ix>th. We have seen that Huitziton com- 
manded the Aztecs to leave their home; according to 
another ncox)unt of Acosta, this was done on the j)ersua- 
sion of Huitzilo[xx;htli. If other Spanish authors state i 
that this was done by instigation of the devil, they mean 
none other than Huitzilo[x>chtli, using a mode of Rix?e<;h 
which had become an established one. This name became 
a common title of the devil in Germany, under the fonu 
of \' izliputzli, soon after the conquest of Mexico, as may 
be seen in the old popular drama of Faust. The fable 
further relates of Huitziton that he taught the Aztecs to 
produce fire hy friction, during their wanJerings. The 
gift of fire is usually ascribed to a culture-god. Huitzil- 
opochtli Wits Hucb a deity; he introducwl dress, laws, and 
oerenioiiie.s among bis people. The statemeiit that Huit- 
ziton had at some time, given fire to the jxiople, has no 
liistorioal meaning; there is no |)eople without lire, and 
a formerly told myth mentions tliat mtui nuwle fire even 
before the existence of the present sun. The significa- 
tion of the fable is a religious one, it is a myth in which 
the Aztecs ascribe the origin of all hunum culture to 
Huitziton their culture-god, aftcn\'ard Huitziloix>cbtli. 

This god wore also a band of huiiuui hearts and faces 
of gold and silver; while various bones of dead men, aa 
well as a man torn in pieces, were depicted on his dre8«. 
These attributes like those of the Indian Scliiwa and 
Kali, clearly point him out as the god to whom human 



crifices were made. It waa extensively believed 
^minnj; the nations composing the Mexicun Knipire that 
human sacrifices had been introduced by the Aztecs 
within the last two centuries. liefore that time onl}' 
bUxxiU'ss offerings hod been made. A myth places the 
commencement of human sacrifices in the Iburteeutii 
century, in whicli the three iirst successive cni*es thereof 
are said to luive occurred. 

The CoUnias, t}ie ruling nation at that time in the 
valley of Anahuac, are said to have fought a Ijattle with 
their enemies of Xochimiico, which wa.s decided in favor 
of the Colhuas, owing to the impetuous attack maiie by 
the tributary Axtecs in their aid. While the Colhuas 
were presenting a large number of prisoners before their 
king, the Aztecs had only secured four, whom they kept 
secreted, hut exhibited, in token of their bravery, a num* 
berofears that tliey had cut from their slain enemies, 
boasting that the victory would have been much delayed 
hod they lost time in making prisoners. Proud of their 
triumph, they erected iui altar to Huitzilopochtli, in 
Huitalu[XK;hoo, and made known to their lord, the king 
of the Colhuas, that they desired to ofler this god a 
oostly and worthy sacrifice. The king sent them, by 
the hands of priests, a dead bird, which the messen- 
gers laid irreverently upon the altar, and departed. 
The Aztecs swallowed their chagrin, and set a fra- 
grant herb with a knife of iztli lx?side the bird. As 
the king with his suite arrived at the festival, more 
for the sake of mocking the proceedings than to grace 
them, the four prisoners taken from the Xochimilcoe 
were brought out, placed upon the stone of sacrifice, 
their breasts cut o])en with the iztli. and the palpitating 
heart torn out. This sacriiice brought consternation 
upon the Colhuas, they discharged the Aztecs from 
tlieir «er\'ice and drove them away. The Aztecs wan- 
dered for some time aljout the country, and tlien, at the 
enmmand of their god, founded the town of Tenochtit- 
lan, or Mexico, on a site where they had found a nopal 
(Opuntie) growing upon a rock. 



At the second sacrifice a Colhua was the victim. 
An Aztec wnn himtin-r. on tlie shure of the lake, for nn 
animal t*) ofl'cr liis patron dtnty, when he met a Colhua 
called Xorniuiitl ; he attacks liim furiously, bears him 
down, and the defeated man is made to bleed njwn the 
sacrifice stone. 

I^>th myths are aitioU^ical, and explained by tiie 
sacrifice system (Opfcrknltiis). This is shown in the 
case of the four prisoners, of whom we shall leurn more 
in the third story. The second story personifies the 
Aztec and the Colhua jieoples in the two men, the 
second nation supplying the first with human sacrifices. 
With the sacrifice of Xomimitl, the parallelism of which 
to the four Xochimilos cannot be overlooked by any 
one, the first temple of iiuitzilopochtli, in TenochtitLin, 
was inaugurated. 

The tliird sacrifice shows still more closely the relig- 
ious ba^is (Kultusgrundlage) of the myth. Here also, 
as in the former, we have to do with a Colhua. 
The A '/.tecs offeriKl the Colhua king to show divine 
honors to his daughter and to a|X)theosi'/e her into the 
mother of their national god, declarint; that such was 
the will of the deity. The king, rejoicing at the honor 
intended for his daughter, let her go, and she was 
brought to Tenochtitlan with greitt pomp. Xo sooner, 
however, had she arrived than she w;is sacrificed, flayed, 
and one of the bravest youths dressed in her skin. The 
king was invited to the solemn act of the deification of 
his daughter, and only became aware of her death when 
the (lame from the copal gum revealed to him the bloody 
skin about the youth placed at the side of the god. The 
dauf^htcr was, however, at once formally declared mother 
of Uuit7ilo|Kxrhtli an<I of all the god.s. 

This aitiologicftl cultus-myth is easily explained. 
The name of the daughter is Teteionan, whom we have 
learned to know as the gods'-motber, and as Tocntzin. ' our 
grandmother.'^* She was never the daughter of a 

>* If some of the namea aad mytlia, mentEoiiod or alluded to from time to 
time, by Mailer and otbere, are y«t qdIchowd to the roadar, be will reiDHii' 


human king, but has been tninsfonned into one hy eu- 
heineri*ira, somewhat iis Ipbigenia is to be consideivd m* 
orijrinally Artemis. The poddess Teteionan bad her 
Hpecial festival in Mexico, when a woman, dressed as 
goddess, was sncriticed; while held on the back of an- 
other woman, her head was cut off, then she was tiaved, 
and the skin carried by a youth, accompanied by a 
nimu>rous ivtiuuu, as a present to H»itzilu|K)chtii. Four 
priHouers of war were, moreover, previously sacrificed. 

Similar to this story, told by (>lavigero. is another, 
narrated by Acosta. According; to the latter, Tozi wa« 
the daughter of the king of Culhuacan, and was made 
the first human sacrifice by or<ler of Huitzilo|xx^btU, who 
desired her for a sister. Tozi is, however, none other 
than Tocitzin, and is also shown to be ' on r grand mother.' 
According to the Aztec version, the custom of dressing 
priests in the skin of sacrificed beings dates from her — 
such representations are often seen, especially in Hum- 
boldt; the Basle collection of Mexic«u antiquities posseasea 
also the stone image of a priest dre^ised in a human skin. 
The fourth month, Tlacaxipehualitzli, this is, 'to iiay a 
man,* derived its name from this custom, which is siud to 
have been most frequent at this period of the year. 

Goddesses, or beings represejiting goddesses, are sacri- 
ficed in both of these fables. We have met with human 
sacrifices among the Muyscasin (.'entj*al .\mericji. and in 
oonnoction with many deities of the .\Ie.\icauB, in which 
the human victim represents the god to whom be is to 
be Hocrificed. Slaves impersonating gods were also 
uacrificed among the iwrthcrn Indians, tlie .so-called 
Indioe bravos. The j»er»(3n sacrificed is d<;voiired by 
the god, is given over to him, is already jMirt of him, 
is the g<xl liimself Such was the ojwe with the slave 
that personatctl Quetzalcotitl in tlie merchants' festival 
in (_'hohda. 

The critic is only able to admit the relative truth of 

ber the tmpoMdbility of uijr ftirangement of tbe«e mixed aud far-luvoUed 
Imgewiat hj wbiRh. witbont itifinito verbinge, tbw troubl« codM b« wUolty 
, obviated. Ill g<XKl tune, nud with wbnt cleamewlK possible, the litt of soda 
aad lagtadi vlll be made m iieurlj as umj bo complete. 


the rocontnewii of the period in which tlie origin of Mexi- 
can human Hacrilicei' is placwl by tliesu throe injths. \V« 
ah^eady know that human sacrifices are very ancient ii) 
all America, and tliat they liave only been put juside at a 
few places by humane efforts ; as in Peru to some extent 
by ineansof the Ineaa. We have met with them through- 
out all South America. 

The statement so generally made that the Toltec 
Quetzaleoatl preached against human sacrificeaj certainly 
implies the previous existence of sucli sacrilicus. This 
statement about Quetzaleoatl also {joints out tbu way to 
the assimilation of the vaiying accounts, fables, and 
myths. In very ancient times hinnan saLTifiw-s pre- 
dominated every whuiv. The Toltecs, like the Incas, 
endeavonni more or less to abolish them, and, even if not 
altogether successful, they reduced them considc'rably. 
The Aztecs reTntivdiiced them. In the East Indicfi, 
these sacrifices date bock to the era before the Hood, and 
the Greeks there met with remains of anthropophagy, 
the brusis thereof. 

Brahmanism sought to exterminate these ancient sac- 
rifices, and the Vedas forbid them, a prohibition which, 
in connection with the custom of jnx'lending to sacrifice 
human beinj??, gives evidence of a former use of actual 
sacrifices. The later sect of Shiwaits again inti-oduced 

However ancient the national pt>litical phase of Iluit- 
cilopochtU may be, tlie nature phase is still older. 
This gwl, too, has a nature-ba-sis which not only explains 
his being, but throws light upon his further unfolding 
as a national or wiu* god. All s^^urchei's who do not 
begin with this basis, see nothing but inexpliwiblc rid- 
' dies and contradictions before them. 

This natin-e-basis is first seen in the myth alwut his 
birth. In the neighljorhood of Tiilla there was a place 
called Coatepec, where lived a god-fearing woman, 
calletl Coatlicue. One day, as she wits going to the 
temple, according to her custom, a gaily colored ball of 
feathers fell down from heaven; she picked it up, and 




in her bosiom, intending to decorate the altar 
therewith. A» «he wiw on the point of producing it for 
this purpose, it could not IfC found. A few day.s ufter- 
wurd she wow aware of IxMug pregnant. Her childix'n, the 
CentzunhuitznaluuLs, also noticed this, and, in order to 
avoid their own disgrace, they determined to kill lier Ix;- 
fore she was delivered. Her sorrow wiw liowever, mirac- 
uloiLsly consoled by a voice that made itself heard from 
within her womb, saving: Fear not, mother, 1 will save 
thee to thy great honor, and to my great fame! The 
brothers, urged on by their sister, were on the point of 
kilhng her, when, behold, even as the armed Athena 
sprang from her fathers head. Iluitzilopochtii wa.'* born; 
the shield in his left hand, the spear in his right, the 
green plumage on his head, and humming-hii'd feathers 
on his left leg; his face, arms, and legs lx;ing, moreover, 
!»tri[ie<l with blue. At once he slew his opiionents, 
phnidered their dwellings, and brought the s|>«)ils to his 
mother. From this lie was called Terror and tlie Fright- 
ful God. 

If we dissect this myth, wc notice tliat anotlier mother 
appears than the one formerly sacrificed in his honor, Te- 
teionan. Two mothers present nothing remarkable in 
mythology,! have only to mention Aphroditcand Athena, 
who according to different account.v. Imd diiVerent fathers. 
."Vj long as the formation of m3ths goes on, funndcd upon 
fresh conceptions of nature, somewhat different ideas 
(for wholly different, even here, the two mothers are 
not) from distinct points of view, are always possible. 
[t is the anthropumorphisin of the age that ilxes on the 
une-sidod conclusion. Teteionan is Huitxiloi)ochtli's 
mother, l) she is the motlier of all the g(xls. The 
mother, in this instance, is the Floni of the A/tecs, eu- 
liemerizetl into a gixl-fearing woman, Ooatlirue, fir C'oat- 
lantana, of whose worship in Ooatepec and Mexico we 
we liave already spoken. 

The second point prominent in the myth, is the 
close connection of Iluitzilopochtii with the botanical 
kingdom. The humming-bird is the messenger of 



epring, Rent by the south to the north, by the hot to 
the teinpenite regiun. It is tlie means of iVuclilying the 
flowere, its movements causing the trnnsfer of the pol- 
len from the stamens to the germ-slielLs. It sticks its 
long, thin little bill deep into the tloAver, and rummag- 
ing beneath the stamens, drinks the nectar of the flower, 
while prumotinjr the act of plnnt-i-eproduction. In the 
Latin myth also, Mars stands in close connection with 
Flora: Juno gives him birth with Flora's uid, without 
the assistance of Jupiter. In our raytholojry of the 
north, Thor is on a friendly footing with Nanna, the 
northern Flora. We are already acquainted also with 
a fable of the Pimas, according to which the goddess of 
maize l>ecame pregnant by a raindrtjp, and boi-c the 
forefather of the jieople. he who built the great hoiises. 

The question, why Uuitzilopochtli should be the son 
of the gtKldess of plants, and what his real connec- 
tion with the botanical kingdom consists in, is solved by 
examining his worsiiip at the three ancient yearly feasts, 
which take place exactly at those periods of the year 
that are the most intlucntial for the Mexican climate, 
the middle of May, the middle of August, and the end 
of l)ecoml)or. As a rule, in the first half of May 
the rain Ijegiiis. Previous to this, the greatest drought 
and torpidniws reign ; the plants ap[)ear feeble and drtnip- 
ing; nature is bare, tlie eartli gniy with dry, withered 
grass. After a few days of rain, however, the trees 
apj>ear in a fresh green, the ground is aivei-ed with new 
herbs, all nature is reunimut*HL Trees, bushes, plant", 
develop their blossoms; a vajjory fragrance rises over all. 
The fruit shoots from the cultivated field, the juicy, 
bright green of the maize refreshes the eye. MUhlen- 
pfordt, who stayed a long time in these regions, gives this 
description of the season. Vijlkers statement that rain 
and water stand as fructifying principles in the first 
rank in ancient ph^'sica, and that they meet us in innu- 
merable myths, holds doubly good for the tropics. It 
requires little imagination to understand what a power- 
ful impression transformed nature^ with all its beauty 



and blessintrs, must produce in the soul of the child of 
nature. It is on this account that the ancient Tlaloc 
came to enjoy so high a rejjard among the Aztecs, nor 
has QuetxalcfHitl disdained to adorn hiH mantle with the 
crosses of a rain-god. And .so iluitziloixwhtli's first feast 
of the year, the festival of the arrival of the god, of the 
offering of incense, stands at tlie beginning of the 
season of the i-eVnvigoi-ating of nature by the rain. 'I'he 
pagan Germans used to say that Nertlnis, Fivva, Hulda, 
lierlha. Frieg, and other divinities, entered the country 
at this period. The Aztecs prepared esjxxjially for this 
feast an image of their chief god, made of edihle plants 
and honey, of tlie .siiuie size a.** the wooden imago; and 
the youths sang the deeds of tlicir gorl before it, and 
hynim* praying for rain and fertility. Offering of multi- 
tudes of (juails, and the signiiicant dance 
of priests and virgins, followed. The virgins, who on this 
day were ciUed sisters of Huitziloiwchtli, wore garlands 
of dry maize-leaves on their heatls, and Ciirriod split 
reeds in their hands; by this representing the dry sea- 
son. The priests, on the contrary, represented the 
quickene*! nature, having their li[js smeared with honey. 
Now although, according to Max von Wied, there were 
no bees in America before the arrival of the Kuropeans, the 
bees are here represented by hunmiing-birds, also called 
honey or l>ee birri.s, which, hoverii»g and humming like 
bees, gather their food fn>m the tube-sha|)ed flowers. 
This food con.'tists of a small insect that lives on honey, 
and tliey fee<l their young by letting them suck at the 
tongue covered with this liouey. The priests bore, 
further, anuther symbol of spring: each one held a staff 
in his hand, on which a flower of feathers was fixed, 
having another bunch of feathers fixed over it; thus too, 
Freya's hawk-plumage denoted the advent of the fine 
season. A prisoner had been selected a year in advance 
as a victim, and was called ' wise lord of the heaven,' for 
he penxmated the god, and had the privilq^ of choosing 
the hour of the sacrifice; he did not die, like the other 
prisoners, on tlie sacrifice stone, but on the shoulders of 



the priests. The little children were consecrated to the ! 
god of their country, at this festival, by a HmuU inci.sioii 
on the breast. 

So also Mare appeare as god of spring, he to whom the 
gm8S and tlie sacred sprinj^ time of tbe birth of aniniaL* 
(ver sacrum) were dedicated, whose chief festival and 
whose month are placed at the commencement of spring, 
at which time the Salii als*) sang their old religious songs, 
and a man personated the god. The Tyrian festival of] 
the awaking of llerculea fell also in spring, for the fuune 
reason. Thus, in the myth of the birtli of iIuitiiK>- 
pochtli, and in his first festival, spring, or the energy that 
produces spring, is mmle the basis of his being. His 
warlike attributes are api>en(]agea of the anthro]X)mor- 
]>hi7x>d national and war god. 

The w'cond great festival of the deity bikes phxce in 
the middle of August. Tlie rains which liave lasted 
and refreshed up to this time, become intermittent, and 
the fine season approaclies, during whicii the azure sky of 
the tropics jwurs its splendor and its beneficial warmth 
upon men, animals, and plants, scattered over a plain 
situated 8500 feetaix)ve the level of the sea. This is 
the twelfth muntl» there, the month of riiKj fruits. The 
idols in all temples and dwellings are decorated with 
flowers. It is now no longer the rain which is the bless- 
ing, but the blue sky wliich eherislics the variegated 
ilower-world. For this reason the image of Huitzilo- 
pochtli was blue, his head wtis wound round with an azure 
ribbon, in his right hand he held an azure stall or club, 
and he sat on an azure stool, which, according to ancient 
accounts, represents heaven as his dwelling-pbico. His 
arms and legs liati also blue stripes, and costly blue 
stones hung rountl his neck. The Kgyptian god of fer- 
tility, Khem, was also iv^iresented in blue. 

The tiiird festival of Huit7.iloiK)rhtli takes phvce dur- 
ing the winter solstice, a period which plays a gi'eat rfile 
in all worships and myths. The lx.'st-known festival of 
this kind is the one held on the 25th of December 
throughout the Roman Kmpii*e, to celebrate the birth of 




Mitlinw, the invincible snn. The Chipewas in North 
Ainc'ricji call December the montli of the small Hj)irit, 
and January that of the great spirit. The Mexicjin fes- 
tival of tliin niuntli rcpre^sented the character of the enter- 
ing se^Lsun, arul tlie new state of nature. The cukl »etf* 
in, the mountains are covered witli snow, the groimd 
dries up. the plants search in vain for their nourishment, 
many trees lose their foliuge — in a word, nature seems 
dead. And so it happened with their god. The priests 
prepared his image of various seeds kneiided with the 
blood of sacrificed children. Numerous religious purify- 
ings and penances, washings with water, blood-lettings, 
fusts, processions, burning of incense, sacrifices of quails 
and human beings, inaugurated the festival. One of 
Quelzalcoatrs priests then shot an arrow at this image 
of Huitzilopochtli, which penetrate<l the god who was 
now considered as dead. II is heart was cut out, a» 
'■with human victims, and eaten by the king, the n^pre- 
sentative of the god on earth. The lx)dy, however, was 
divided among the various quarters of the city, so that 
[every man received a piece. This was called (eoquah * the 
who is eaten.' 
'The meaning of the death of this god is, on the whole, 
evident; it corresix)nds with the death of vegetation ; and 
a comparison of the myth of his birth, with the two 
[other feaMs of Fluitzilojiochtli, leads to the same oonclu- 
Ision. This third feast is, therefore, at the same time, a 
[festival in honor of tiie brother of this g<xl, Tezcatlipoca, 
\atie god of the under-world, of death, of drought, and of 
IhungeTf whose rule commences where that of his brother 
rends. The myth gives a similar form and sense to the 
death of Osiris, who is killed by Typhon, and the death 
of IHonysos and Hercules in the Phoenician colonies. 
[Adonis lives with AphnxHte during one half of the year, 
fand with Persephone the other half; the Indian Krish- 
Ina leaves for the under-world ; thus, too. Hrahma and the 
iCehic Hun-god, Hu, died yearly, and were yearly lx)m 
|again. The festival of the self-lun-ning of the Tyrian 
leracles ia also of this kind; it takes place at tliu time 




of tlie dying off of vegetation, even if tluH shouM be in 
Uie KuniHKT. 

As n^rds the custom uf eating the guti, thin alRi 
occurs at another feast which i8 celebrated during this 
fieason, in honor of the gads of the mountains and the 
water. Small idols of seeds and dough were then pre- 
pared, their breasts were opened like those of human vic- 
titus, the heart wtiscutout, and the IkkU dintributeii for 
eating. The time at which this occurs, sliows that it 
standa in necessary connection with Ilie death of the god. 
When the god dies it must be as asju'rifice in the fashion 
of his religion, and when the anthropomorphized god 
dies, it is as a human sticrifice amid all the necessary 
usages jicrtniuing thereto: he Is killed by priests, the 
heart is torn out, and his Inxly eaten at the sacrifice 
meal, just OS wa,s done with every hiunan sacrifice. 
Could it be meant that the god, in Ix-'ing eaten, js im- 
parted to, or incoriwrated with, the perw)n eating him? 
This iu no doubt so, though not in the alistnict, meta- 
physical, Christian or moral sense, but only with regard 
to his nature-sense, (seiner Naturseite), which is the real 
essence of the gotl. lie gives his Ixnly, in seed, to be 
eaten by hisijeople, just as nature, dying at theappi*oach 
of the winter, at this very period, has stored up an 
abundance of its gifts for the sustenance of man. It 
gives man its life-fruit, or its fruit of life as a htist or 
holy wafer. As a rule, the god, during the time of sac- 
rifice, regales with the bringing sacrifices; 
and, the eating of the tlesh of the slave, who so often 
represents the god to whom he is sacrificed, is the same 
as eating the god. We have heai*d of the cu.stom among 
Bome nations of eating the ashes of their forefathers, to 
whom they give divine honors, in order to become pos- 
sessors of their virtues. The nation, we.'^t of 
the Missi8sii)pi, which worshiped the dog, used to eat 
dog-ftesh at one of its feasts. Many other |xx>ple8 
solemnly slaughter animals, consume their fiesli, and 
moreover pay divine honors to the remains of these ani- 
mals. Here the eating of the god, in seeds, is made 


dear — this ciiHtoin also existed among tlie Gre^Jts. The 

division of the jenr-gcxl by t)ie ancients, in myth and 

reHgiou8 nystem, has, for the rest, no other sen»e than 

Ihos this distribution of the Ixidy of Hiiitziiopochtli. This 

ji* done witli the Hun-huU at the festival of the Persian 

fMitIin»j«, as at the feast, and in the myth of the Diouy- 

Boe-Zagrens, of Osiris and Attys. 

The three yearly festivals, as well as the nivth of his 
birth, all tend to show the |>ositive connection of Iluit- 
Kiloix>chtli with the yearly life of the plant-world. 
The first feMival is the arrival of the god, as the plant- 
world is ushered in, with its hynms pra^in^ for rain, 
its virgins representing tlie sisters of the god and the 
inimicid dn»U|j:ht, in the same sense as the brothers and 
sister, especially the latter, are his enemies in the myth 
of his birth, and, as Tezcatlipoca, the god of drought is 
his brother. Brothers and sisters not seldom represent 
parallel contrasts in mythology and worship. The 
second celebration presents the god as the Jjotanical 
kingdom in its splendor, for which reason the Mexicans 
call the hununin^-bird the snnbeani, from the form as- 
ramed by the god at this time. The humming-bird, 
moreover, takes also his winter sleep, and thus the god 
dies in winter with the plants. The Greenlandcrs asked 
the younger Egede if the god of heaven and earth ever 
diefl. and, when answered in the negative, they were 
much surprised, and said that he nuist surely be a great 
god. This intimate connection with the plant-world is 
also shown in the birth-myth of Huitzilo|)ochtli, who here 
ftp|>ears OA the son of the goddess of plants. It now be- 
comes eAsier to answer the question of Wuttke: has the 
fable of this !)iitl» referenw merely to the making a man 
out of a got! alreiwly existing, or to tlie actual birth 
of the god? The Aztecs, it is true, were undecided on 
this |K>int. some conceding to him a human existence on 
earth, others investing him with a eonciousuess of his 
nature being. We^ however, answer this question simply, 
from the preceding: the birth of the g(xl is annual, and 
the myth has therefrom invented one birth, said to have 



taken pl(^ce at some period, while the ftnthropomorphism 
fables very prettily the transformation into a man. Of 
the former existence of a born god, the myth knows 
nothing, for it is only afterward that it raises the god 
into heaven. It has not, however, come to euhoinerism 
in the cose of lluitzilopochtli, though it has with Unit- 
ziton. In placing the god in the po-sition of s»:>n to the 
plant-goddess, the myth separates his being from that of 
the mother, consequently, lluitzilopochtli is not the plant- 
world himself, however closely he may be related to it. 
This is made clearer by following up the birth-myth, 
which makes him out to be not only the son of Coatlicue, 
but also of the force causing her fructification. The 
variegated ball of feathers which fell from heaven, ia 
none other than lluitzilopochtli himself, the little hum- 
ming-bird, wiiich ia the means of fructifying the plants, 
and the virile, fructifying nature-force manifested by 
and issuing from him in the spring. He is also bom 
with the fcather-tuft, and this 8ymlx>l of the fine sca.son 
never leaves him in any of his forms, it remains his at- 

The Tapua« in South America have, after a similar 
symbolism, the custom, at their yearly seed-sowing 
festivals, of letting mnne one hang a bimch of ostrich- 
feathers on liis back, the feathers being spread over like 
a wlieel. Tliis feather-bunch is their symbol of the fruc- 
tifying power which comes from heaven. Their belief 
that brciid falls from heaven into tliis tuft of feathers ia 
tluis made clear. In this myth we find the natural basis 
of such a birth-myth. In our northern mythology, 
Neekris, the ball, is, in the siune manner, the father of 
Nanna, tlie northern Flora. That this virile i)ower of 
heaven is made to appear as a ball of feathers, suits the 
humming-bird god. The E.stlis also imi^ined their god 
of tliundcr, as the god of warmth, in the fonn of a bird. 
In the same sense, doves were consecrated to Z«Uii, 
in Dodona and Arcadia, and a flying bird is a svmbol 
of heaven among the This force may, how- 
ever, be symbolized in another form, and give risv to a 



birth-myth of exactly the some kind. Thus, the 

bdaugliter (jf the gtxl Smiguruis, in the Phrygian myth, 

Irhid in hur iKXSom the fruit ol' an alniond-tix'e, wiiicli liad 

own out of the seed of the child of the ciirth. Agdistis: 

le fruit disiip|)cared, the daughter he^Miuie pit^niuit and 

Lbun: the beautiful boy Attes. According to Arnobius, 

|jt was the fniit of a pomegranate- tree, wliich fructified 

fanna. Among the Cliinese, a nyraph, called Puxza^ 

tthe nourisher of nil living things, l>ecamc pregnant by 

iting a lotus-flower, and gave birth to a great luw- 

jfiver and conqueror. Danae, again, becomes pregnant 

^from the golden shower of Zens — on easily understood 

symboUftm. It is always the virile nature-^xjwer, either 

bfls seen in the sun, or in the azure sky (for which reason 

PHuitxilo[wchtli is called the lord of the heaven, Ochibus 

or Huchiloboa), which puts the variegated seed into the 

woiub of the plant-world, ' at the same time bringing 

^himself forth again, and making him.self in the 

plant-world.' Tliis heavenly life-force no sooner iinds 

I ^ earthly mother-womb than its triumph is a.ssured. even 

^before birth, while developing its bud ; just as the inner 

voice, in the myth, consoled the mother, and j)rotected 

her against all her enemies. It is only after liis birtli 

ftliat the mytlt holds Huitzilopocbtli i\a a personal an- 

throiJomorphic god. 

This is the natural signification of IluitzilopochtU, 
[which we have accepted as the basis of all other duvel- 
[>pments of the god, and for this universal reason, 
lely, that the most ancient heathen gods are nature- 
tgods, mytbologic rules being followed, and that the |>agan 
treligion is essentially a nature-worship as well as a poly- 
Ttheism. The special investigation and following up of 
[the vagous vii'tues have led to the same result. Hut^ 
this view has not yet been generally accepted in re- 
llpard to this god, a few wonls ctincerning the union of 
le antbriifiomorphic national ii.s|)ect of Huitzilo{K>chtli^ 
iritti his natunil one may be added. It has been thought 
ry to make the martial of Uuitzilojxx^htli 
baidif of. the others, as with Mars. Wur is, from 



this point of view, a child of spring, Ijecause weapons 
are then reHumed after the long winter armistice. 'I'his 
is not at all the case with Huitzilopochtli, becau»e the 
rainy season, setting in in spring, when the arrival and 
birth of tlie god ai-e celebrated, renders the soft roads of 
Mexico nnstiitnble for war expeditions. Wars were 
originally children of autiunn, at which time the ripe 
fruits were objects of robljery. But tlie idea of a war 
and national god is ciusily connected with the l>asis of a 
fructifying god of heaven. This chief nature-god may 
either be god of hcjiven. as Iluitzilopochtli. as the rain- 
giving 7yeus is made the national god by llomcr, to 
whom human sacrifices were brought in Arcadia down 
to a late period, or he may be a sun-gcxl, like Baal, to 
whom prayers for rain were addressed in Phoenicia, to 
further the growth of the fruit, and who also received 
human sacrilices. The (Jeltic llu is also an ethereal 
wargtxl, properly sun-god, who received human tuicn- 
fices in honor of the victory of spring; none the less is 
Odin's connection with war, battle, and war horrors; he 
is a fire-ginl, like Moloch and Shiva, to whom human 
sacrifices were made for fear of famine and failure of 
crops. The u]>pnrent t>a.sis of such a god has not to be 
considered so much as the point that the people ascribed 
to him the chief government of the course of the year. In 
such a case, the chief ruler also iKtxmies the national god, 
the life of the nation deix-nding immediately on the 
yearly course of nature. Is the nation warlike, then, the 
national god naturally becomes a war god as well. As 
anthropomorphism connects itself with the nature-god 
only at a later period, so does his worship as war god 
and national god. In the case of Mars, as well n» of 
Picus and Faunus. the same* succession is fallowed. 
Mars, for exanjple, is called upon in a prayer which has 
been preserved by Cato, to protect shepherds and flocks, 
and to avert bad weather and misgrowth; Virgil refers 
to him as a god of planta. In the song of the Arvalisn 
brothers, he is called upon as the protector of the tJowers. 
Thu8} in his cose also, the nature side is tlie basis. The 


Chinese symbolism of the union of the two sides or 
phiLse^. is expressed in such ii manner as to miike 8]x>iir8 
and weapons representations of the perms of plants. 
This union has already' been illustrated nmon;; the 
Aztecs, in the humming-bird, the sunbeam which plays 
round the Howers, in whose little )x>dy the inteusest war 
spirit burns. Among the Egyptians, the beetle was 
placed upon the rinp of the warriorj with whom it ag- 
ntlied worltl and production. 

It remains to speak of another attribute of Huitzilo- 
pochtli, the snake attribute. Huitzilojiochtli is also a 
snake-god. We have already, when treating of the 
snakc-wonihip of the Mayaa, refon-ed to the numerous 
snakes witli wliich tliis g(xl is oomiecttHl l)y myth and 
image, and how this attribute was atldetl to the oiiginal 
humming-bird attribute, in Coatepcc, where the snnkc- 
goddess {.'oatlicuc gave him birth. If the «nakc signi- 
fies, in one case, time, in luiother, world, and in another 
instance; water, or the yearly rejuvenation of genus and 
blossoms, the eternal circle of nature, domination, sooth- 
saying, — it is quite proix-r; for all these qualities are 
ibund united in the god. Still other qualities, not 
seemingly jMissossed by him, we pass over, such as a 
connection with the earth and with the liealing power, to 
be found in other Mexican gods, or the evil principle, 
whicli is entiivly wanting. Just as the snake changes 
its skin every year, and takes its winter slet»p. so does 
Huitziloix«htli, whose mother, Flora, is, therefore, n 
snake-grxldess. Kven st» the snake represents the seed- 
corn in the mysteries of Demeter. In the Salnizii it rc- 
prcscntfi the fructifying Zeus and the blessing. It is also 
• the symlx>l of productive [wwerand heat, or of life, attri- 
bute of the life-enilowiug Shiva; among the Kgyptians it 
represents the yearly rejuvenation of germs and blossoms. 
The snake Agathodu^'mon apjiears with ears of grain and 
ptmpieSr as the symlwl of fertility. If the gtxl exhibits 
this nature of his, in spring, in the rain, then the snake 
is a suitable attribute. In India, snakes are j^enii of 
•eaSf and the Punjab, whow fertility is assured by the 

Tnu ni. 31 


yearly imuidatioiis, lias the name of enake lands (Nag- 
akhaiKla),ftnd claims an ancient worHhip. Tlie sustain- 
ing water-j;od, ViHlimi. alsu received the snake attribute. 
Amonj: the Chinese, the water could be represented by 
a sTuike. The Peruvians call the boa constrictor the 
mother of nature. 

The irlea of the yearly renewal of nature is alHO con- 
nected with that of time forever young, and the Aztecs, 
therefore, encircle their cycle with a snake as the sym- 
bol of time. The more positive signification which 
the snake, placed by the side of the humming-bird, give.-* 
to Huit//iloix)chtU. is that of a soothsaying god, like the 
snake I*vthon among the Greeks. The snake signified 
' king' among the Kgyptians, and this suits Huitzilo- 
pochtli also, who may properly enough be considered the 
real king of his people. If, as connected with Huitzilo- 
pochtli, the snake nXao represent** the war god, on ac- 
count of its spirited mode of attack, I cannot with cer- 
tainty say, but the myth as well as the worsliip places 
it in this rt^lation to the war goddess Athene. Although 
tiie idea of a national and a war god is not quite ol)scui*eil 
in tlie snake attribtite, yet the nature side is e8i)ecialiy 
denoted by it, as in the southern countries, where snake 
worship piwailcd; the reference to the southern nature 
of this god is quite evident in the snake attribute. In 
the north, moisture, represented by the siuike, has never 
attained the cosniolofqcal im|)ort which it luis in the hot 
countries of the south. There, the snake rather repre- 
sents an anticosmogonic, or a bad principle." 

Mr Tylor, without committing himself to any extent in 
details, yet agrees, as far as he goes, with Muller. Hv 
says: ''The very name of Mexico seems derived from 
Mexitli, the national war-god, identical or identified 
witli the hideous gory Huitzilopochtli, Not to attempt 
a general solution of the enigmatic nature of this inex- 
tricable comix)und parthenogenetic deity, we may notice 
the association of his principal festival with the winter- 

is jfUjer, Anurikaniacke Urrdigianen, pp, C91-C19. 



lice, when his paste idol was shot through with on 
?, and being thus killed, was divided into morsels 
and eateii, wherefore the ceremony wiis called the teo- 
quah, or ' god-eating.' This, and other details, tend to 
show HuitzilopochtU as oriirinally a nature-deity, whose 
life and death were connected with the year's, while his 
jictions of war-god may be of later addition." '* 
Of this festival of the winter solstice the date and 
irther particulars are given by the A'atican Codex an 
dUows: — 

Tlie name Pan(|uetzaUztIi. of the Mexican month tliat 
began on the first of December, metins, Ix^ing interpreted, 
' the elevation of banners.' For, on the first day of De- 
cember every person raised over his liouse a small jmper 
flag in honor of this god of battle; and the captains and 
Boldiers sacrificed those that they had taken prisoners in 
war. who, before tliey were sacrificed, being set at 
liberty, and presented with arras equal to their adver- 
earies, were allowed to defend themselves till they 
were either vanquished or killed, and thus sacrificed. 
The Mexicajis celebrated in this month the festival of 
their first captain, Vichilopuchitl. They celebrated at 
this time the festival of the wafer or cake. They made a 
a cake of the meal of bledos, which is called tztxdiy and 
having made it, they six>ke over it in their manner, 
and broke it into pieces. These the liigh priest put into 
certain ver>- clean vessels, and with a thorn of maguey, 
which re.«erables a thick needle, he took up with the 
utmost reverence single morsels, and put theni into the 
mouth of each individual, in the maimer of a com- 
munion,- — and I am willing to believe that these poor 
ficople have had tlie knowledge of our mode of com- 
munion or of the preaching of the gosiwl; or perhaps 
the devil, niust envious of the honor of God, may have 
led them into this 8U[)erslitiun in order that by this 
ceremony he might be adored and served as Christ our 
Lord On the bventy-first of December they cele- 

» Tytor't PHm. CviL, toI. U-, p 879. 


T)rated the festival of this god, — through whose inMni- 
mentality, tliey say. the earth became a*.^iin visible after 
it liad tx\?n drowned with tlie waters of the dehifie : (hey 
therefoiv kept liis festival during the twenty following 
days, in which they offered saeriliccs to him." 

The deity Tlaloc, or TIalocateuchtU, whom wc have 
several times found mentioned aa eeated l)esido Kuitzilo- 
pochtH in the gfeat temple, was the god of water and 
rain, and the fertili'/er of the earth, lie was held 
to reside where the clouds gather, upon the liighest 
mountain-topf*, especially upon those of Tlaloc. Tla^cala, 
and ToUica, and his attributes were the thundorlxjlt, the 
flash, and the thunder. It was also believed that in 
the high hills there resided other gods, subaltern to 
Tlaloc— all pa-ssing under the .same name, and revered 
not only as gods of water but also as gods of moun- 
tains. The prominent colors of the im»ige of Tlaloc were 
azure and green, thereby symboli/.ing the various shades 
of water. The decorations of this image varied a pood 
deal aca)rdiug to loodity and the several fancies of 
different worshiix?rs: the description of Gama, founded 
on the iusiKTtion of origirial works of .Mexican religious 
art, is the most authentic and complete. In the great 
temple of MexicOj in his own proper chapel, called ejie- 
oatl, adjoining that of nuitzilo|xx;htli, this god of water 
stood \\\ton his pedestal. In his lefl hand was a .shield 
ornamented with feathers; in his right wei*e certain 
thin, shining, wavy sheets of gold representing his 
thunderfxilts, or sometimes a golden seqKMit ix*pre»eiit- 
ing either the thundorlx>lt or the moisture with which 
this deity was so intimately connected. On hi.s feet were 
akiud of hulf-lxx)ts, with little l^ells of gold hanging there- 
from. Round his neck wtis a bund or Miliar set with 
gold and gems of price; while from his wrists dei>ended 
strings of costly stones, even such as are the ornaments of 
kings. His vesture wits an azure smoc^k reaching to the 
middle of the thigh, cross-hatched all over with ribbons 

"Spirptuiont (Mt% Taw^ dt\ Codice Jtfndaino fVaticoiuiJ, lav. Ixzi-u., 
In Kin'jaborovffh'f Jftx. Antiq., Tol. v., pp. 196-V. 



ilver forming squares; and in th( 
square was n circle also of silver, while in the angles 
thereof were flowers, pearl-ct)lored. with jellow leaves 
hanginjj; down. And even iis the de<x>ration of the vest- 
ure so waM that of the shield ; the ground blue, covered 
with crossed ribbons of silver and circles of silver: and 
the feathers of yellow and green and flesh-color and 
blue, eacli color forming a diwtinct band. The body was 
naked from mid-thigh down, and of a grey tint, as watf. 
also the fiu'e. This fiice hiul only one eye of a somewhat 
extriuinlinary chanu^ter: there wa.s an exterior cii-cle of 
blue, tlie interior wiui white with a black line ucros» it 
and a little Hemi-circle Ix'low the line. Kither round 
the whole eye or round the mouth wils a doubled baud, 
or ribbon of blue; this, although unnoticMjd by Torqne- 
mada, is affirmed by Gama to have been never omitted 
from any figure of Tlaloc, to have been liis most char- 
acteristic device, and that which distinguished him speci*, 
ally from the other gods. In his open mouth were to be 
seen only three grinders; his front teeth were painted 
red, as was also tlie pendant, with its button of gol()i 
that hung from his ear. His head-iulornment waa an 
open crown, covered in its circumference with white an4 
preen featliern, and from l^ehind it over the shoulder 
deix?nde(.i other plume.s of red and white. Sometimes 
the irwignium of the thunderbolt is omitted with this 
god, and IxtliUochitl represents him. in the picture of 
the montli Ktzalli, with a ame of mai/e in the one han^, 
and in the other a kind of inntrument with which lie 
was digging in the ground. In the ground thus dug were 
put maize leaves' filled with a kind of food, lik^; fritters, 
called etzaill; frotn this the month took its name.''* 

A prayer to this god has been preserveil by Sahagim, 
in which it will Ixj noticed that the word Tlaloc is used 
sumetimei* in the singular and sometimes in the plural : — 

our Lord, most clement, libend giver and lord of 
verdure and coolness, lord of the terrestrial jmradise, 

u CJax^i'irrOt Storia AM. dei Mtsglro, torn, ii., p. 14; Xcon y Oama, Aw 
Phtdrtu, pt i., p. JOl, pt il.. pp. 7li-9. 



odorous and flowery, and lord of the incense of oijptil, wc 
are we that the goda of water, thy suhjects, have hid^ 
themselves away in their retreat, who are wont to serve 
us ^vith the things we need and who are themselves' 
served with itUl and auchiH and copal. They have left 
concealed all the things that sustain our lives, and^ 
carried away ^vith them their sister the goddess of thft 
necessaries of life, and carried away also the goddes.* of I 
pepper. O our Lord, take pity on us that live; our f<»od 
goes to destruction, in lost, is dried up; for hick of water, 
it is an if turned to du«t and mixed with **pidera' wchs. 
Woe for the misonihle Ial»rer8 and for the common 
people; they are wiistpd with hunger, they go iilxint un- 
rcaigni/jible and disfigure*! every one. They are blue 
under the eyes as with death; their mouths are dry an , 
sedge; all the bones of their lx)dies may Iv counted 
as in a skeleton. The children are disfigured and yellow 
as earth ; not only those that begin to walk, but even 
those in the cradle. There is no one to whom this tor- 
ment of hunger does not come; the very animals and 
birds suffer hard want, by tho drought that is. It is 
pitiful to see the bird.s, some driurging themselves altmg 
with drooping wings, others falling down utterly and un- 
able to walk, and others still with their mouths open 
through this hunger and thirst. The animalK, O our 
Lord, it is a grievous sight to see them stumbling and 
falling, licking the earth for hunger, and panting with 
open mouth and hanging tongue. The jXHiple lot*e their 
senses and die for thirst; they perish, none is like to re- 
main. It is woeful, O our Lord, to see all the face of 
the earth dry, so that it cannot produce the herbs nor 
the trees, nor an^-thing to sustahi us, — the earth that 
used to be as a father and mother to ua, giving us milk 
and all nourishment, herbs and fruits that therein grew. 
Now is all dry, all lost; it is evident that the Tlaloc 
gods have carried all away with them, and hid in 
their retreat, which is the terrestrial paradise. The 
things, Lord, that thou wert graciously wont to give 
us, upon which we lived and were joyful, which are the 



life and joy of all the world, and precious as emeralds 
or Kipphircfi, — all these things are departed from us. 
O our Lord, god of nourishment and giver thereof, mo^t 
humane and most conijxvwionate, what thin*/ hiLst thou 
determined to do with us? Ila-st thou, i>er«dventure 
alto^ther forsaken us? Th^"" wrath and indijrnation 
shall it not be appeawd? Uast thou determined on the 
perdition of all thy ser\'ants and vassals, and that thy 
city and kingdom shall be left desolate and uninhabited? 
Penvlventure, this has been determined, and settled in 
heaven and hades. our Lord, concede at least this, 
that the innocent children, who cannot so much na walk, 
who are still in the cradle, may have something to eat, so 
that they may live, and not die in this so great famine. 
AVhat have they done that they should be tormented and 
Khould die of hunger? No iniquity have they committed, 
neither know they what thing it is to sin; they have 
neither oftVndetl the god of heaven nor the god of hell. 
We, if we have oftendwl in many things, if our sins have 
reached heaven and hmles, and the stink thereof gone 
out to the ends of the earth, just it is that we be de- 
stroyed and made an end of; we Iiave nothing to say 
tliereto, nor to excuse ourselves witlial, nor to resist 
what is determined against us in heaven ami in hades. 
Let it be done: destroy us all, and that swiftly, that we 
may not suffer from this long weariness which is worse 
thdJi if we burned in fire. Certainly it is a horri- 
ble tiling to suffer this hunger; it is like a snake lacking 
food, it gulps down its saliva, it hisse.s. it cries out for 
something to devour. It is a fearful tliitig to see the 
anguish of it demanding somewhat to eat; this hunger 
ifl intense as burning iire, dinging out sparks. Lord, 
let the thing hap{)en that many years ago we have heard 
flftid by the old men and women that have pa^sefl away 
from lis, let the heavens fall on us and the demons of 
the air come down, the Izitzimites. who are to eome to 
dcstfoy the earth with all that dwell on it; let darkness 
and obscurity' cover the whole world, and the habitation 
of men be nowhere found therein. This thing was 



knamm to the ancicnta, and they di^nilged it, anil from J 
mouth to mouth it ha.^ cutne down to u.<. all this tluitj 
has to happen when the world ends and the earth iaJ 
wearv of producing creatures. Our Lon), such |)resenti 
end wmdd be now denr to us as richer or pleasures once J 
were — miserahle that we are! See good. O Lord, tliat { 
there fall mme pestilence to end as quickly. Such 
plague u>iually comes from the god of hades; and if it i 
came there would pcradventure be provided some allow- , 
ance of food, eo that the deaii should not travel to hailea 
without any provision for the way. O that this tribu- 
lation were of war, which is originated by the 8un, and 
which hreakf from sleep like a .-itron^ and vali:uit one. 
— for then would the soldiers and the brave, the «tout 
and warlike men, Uike pleoMire therein. In it many 
die, and much blood is spilt, and the IwUtle-field is filled 
with d<^ul ixKlie.s and with the bouesjuul skulls of the 
vanquished; strewn also is the face of the eartli with 
the hairs of the head of warriors that rot: but this they 
fear not, for they know that their twuls go to the house 
of the Sim. And there they honor the sun with jo^'ful 
voices, and suck the various tlowers with great delight; 
there all the stout and valiant ones that died in war are 
glorified and extolled; there also the little and tender 
children that die in war are presented to the Sun, very 
clean and well adorne<l and shiuiuji!; like precious stones. 
Thy sister, the goddess of food, provides for thow 
that go thither, supplying them with provision for the 
way; and this pn>vision of necessm-y things is the 
strength and the soul and the slafl' of »ll the people of 
the world, and without it there is no life. But this 
hunger with whicli we are afllicteil, our most humane 
Lord, is »o sore and inlolemble that the mi.'*erable com- 
mon people are not able to sufl'er nor supjwrt it; being 
still alive they die many deaths; and nut the jjeoplo 
alone miffcr but also all the aninmls. our most 
comixi-ssionate I^rd. lonl of green things and gums, 
of herbs otlomus and virtuous, I Ixiseech thee to look 
with eyes of pity on the ixK)ple of this thy city and 


kin^om; for the whole world down to the very 
beasts is in peril of destruction, and di.sappearnuce, 
and irremediable end. ^inoe this is 8o, I entreat 
thee to see good to send Ixtek to us the food-g:iving 
gods, gods of tlie rain and storm, of the herbs and of 
the trees; so that they pertbrm again their office hero 
with UvS on the eartli. Scatter the riclies and the pi-os- 
]XTit_v of thy treasures, let the timbrels of joy tjo shaken 
lliat ore the staves of the gods of water, let them take 
their sandals of india-rublxT that tliey may walk with 
swiitnesH. Give succor, O Lord, to our liHxl, the god 
' of the earth, at least with one sliower of water, tor 
^when he has water he creates and sustains us. See 
[good, Lcjrd, to invigorate the corn and the other foods, 
ttnuch wished for and much needed, now sown and 
planted ; for the ridges of the earth sufTer sore i»eed and 
languish from lack of water. See good, Lord, that 
I the people receive this favor and raercy at thine hand, 
let them see and enjoy of the verdure and coolness that 
are as precious stones; see good that the fruit and the 
substance of t\w Tlaloca he given, whicli are the clouds 
I that ihvai: goils carry with them and that sow the niin 
{about us. See gCHxl, Ijonl, that the animals and 
Iberbs be made glail, and that the fowls and birds of 
ftorecious feather, such as the qiiechotl and the aujmin^ 
ifly and sing and suck the herbs and flowers. And let 
not this come about with thunderings and lightnings, 
^symbols of thy wrath; for if our lords the Tlalocs come 
ith thunder and lightning the whole people, being lean 
id very weak with hunger, would \k terrified. If in- 
ieed some arc already marked out to go to the earthly 
iisc by the stroke of the thunderbolt, let this deatli 
restncted to them, and let no injury befall any of 
the other people in mountain or cabin; neither lot hurt 
Income near the raagueys or the otlier trees and plants of 
le earth; for these things are necessary to the life and 
«UKt<.'naneo of the iXH>ple, poor, forsaken, and cast-away, 
who can with difficulty get food enougli,*to live, going 
about through hunger witli tlie bowels cuipty and stick- 



ing to the ribs. O our Lord, most oompaasionate, most 
generous, giver of all nourishment, be pleased to blesB 
the earth and all the things that live on the face thereof. 
With deep sighing and with anguish of heart I crv upm 
ail those that are gods of water, that are in the ibor 
quarters of the world, east and west north and south, 
and upon those that dwell in the hollow of the earth, or 
in the air, or in the high mountmns, or in the deep 
caves, I beseech them to come and omsole this poor 
people and to water the earth ; for the eyes of all that 
inhabit the earth, animals as well as men, are turned 
toward you, and their hope is set upon your persona. 
our Lord, be pleased to come." 

This is a prayer to Tlaloc. But it was not with 
prayers alone that they deprecated his wrath and im- 
plored his assistance ; here as elsewhere in the Mexican 
religion sacrifices played an important part. When the 
rain failed and the land was parched b^' drought, great 
processions were made in which a number of hiurless 
dogs, common to the country, and good to eat, were 
carried on decorated litters to a place devoted to this 
use. There the3' were sacrificed to the god of water by 
cutting out their hearts. Afterwards the carcasses were 
eaten amid great festivities. All these things the Tlas- 
caltec historian, Camargo, had seen with his own eyes 
thirty years before writing his book. The sacrifices of 
men, which were added to these in the days of great- 
ness of the old religion, he describes as he was informed 
by priests who had officiated thereat. Two festivals in 
the year were celebrated to Tlaloc, the greater feast and 
the less. Each of these was terminated by human sacri- 
fices. The side of the victim was opened with a sharp 
knife; the high priest tore out the heart, and -turning 
toward the east offered it with lifted hands to the sun, 
crushing it at the same time with all his strength. He 
repeated this, turning in succession towards the remain- 
ing three cardinal points; the other tiamacaxqueSj or 

" Sahaffun, in King^xyrowjh'a Afex. Aniiq., toI. t., pp. 372-6; SoAo^vn, 
mat. Gen., vol. ii , pp. 6t-70. 



prieste, not ceasing the while to darken with clouds of 
incense the faces of the idols. The heart wp*s lastly 
burned and tlic boily tlung down the steps of the temple. 
A priest, who hiul afterwards lxK;n converted to Christi- 
anity, told (.'arnarjio that when he tore out the heart of 
a victim and fluiijr it down, it used to jmlpitate with such 
forceas to clear itself of theground several times till itgi-ew 
csold. Tlaloc was held in exceeding respectand tlie priests 
alone had the right to enter his temple. Whoever dared 
to blaspheme j^rainst him was snpixisod to die suddenly or 
to be stricken of thunder; the tluniderbolt, instrument of 
hi« vcngennce. fla.shed from the sky even at the mo- 
ment it was clcaR^st. The snerifices oftered to him in 
times of drought were never without answer and result; 
for. as Comargo craftily insinuates, the priests took good 
care never to undertake them till they saw indications 
of coming rain ; !K?sides, he adds, — introducing, in de- 
fiance of tiec delta irUersit, a surely unnecded personage, 
if we sup|)o?*e his last statement true, — the devil, to 
to confirm these people in their errors, was always sure 
to send rain.^ 

Children were also sacrificed to Tlaloc. Says Moto- 
linia. when four years came together in which there 
was no rain, and there remained as a conse<juence hanlly 
any green thing in the iields, the people waited till the 
maize grew as high as the knee, and then maile a gene- 
nd 8uli«erii>tion with which four slave children, of five 
or six years of age, were purchased. These they sacri- 
ficed in a cruel manner by closing them up in a cave, 
which was never oi)ened except on these <H!WLsion8." 

According to Meudieta, again, children were some- 

*> Camarqo, IM. de TloKOitan. in youvtUes Annates drs Vtn/.. 1843. lom. 
BO. irp. 133, 135-7. Caiuiu-K». bviUR a TlaRcnll«c, uiuHt nf liiit wHlincH 
hsTe {MUtieal&r rv furrtioe lu Iiih imti pr<>viuo«, but iu tluM ok io othor }ilnrt<H 
h* ■»mi to be dcAcTibing |d[L-iiLTtLl Mt-ki^nn ctutoma. 

n Tbd text witbont Hayiuy dircctljr Uiat tb68« uufortuiiat« childr^Mi <ti'<>ro 
1 there ii]iv« Hppeatalo infer it: 'Cuaudo el luaiz esbiba k la rodtlla, 
, aa dia n>jui.riiHii y echaban porho, con que conijpnibati cxuuro diAon 
kyos de t^&d de cioco k MJs Ailn8. y ftncrilloihiiufoH & Tlalnc, dioH dpi 
>, poiitrndolo«m nnn cneTA, t rriTHbanln lm>ttii otro ano qiif* inunnii Io 
mo. Elite cni»l sacriQcio.* MotoiinUi, iu laubaUxta, Cct. de VtK., luui. i.. 



times offered to this god by drowning. The children 
were put into a canoe which wns ciirried to a certain jsart 
of the hike of Mexico where was a whirlixxjl, which is 
no longer visible. Here the boat wa« simk with it« 
living cargo. These gods had, according to the same 
author, altars in the neighlwrhood of [xwls e.specially 
near springs; which altars were fiirnisshod with sume 
kind of roof, and at the principal fountains were four 
in number set over against each other in the shape of a 
cross — the cross of the rain god.^ 

The Vatican Codex says, that in April a boy was 
Bacrificeii to Tlaloc and his dead Ixxly put into the maize 
granaries or maize fields — it is not oleiirly apjmrent which 
— to preflerve the food of the j)eople from siwiUiig." It 
is to Saha^un, however, that we nmst turn for the most 
complete and autlientic account of the festivals of Tlaloc 
witii their attendant sticrifices. 

In the fir^st days of the first month of the yenr, which 
month is willed in some jwirts of Mexico, Quavitlelou, 
but generally Atlo»ioalo, and begins on the second of our 
February, a great feiwt was made in honor of the Tlalocs, 
gods of rain imd water. For this occasion many chil- 
dren at the Ijrcast were purchased from their mothers; 
those being chosen that luid two whirls (remolinos) in 
their hair, and that had been been born under a good 
sign; it being stiid that such were the most agreetible 
sacrifice to the storm gods, and most likely to induce 
them to send rain in due season. Some of these infants 
were butchered for this divine holiday on certain moun- 
tains, and some were drowned in the lake of Mexico. 
Mlthi the beginning of the festival, in every house, from 
the hut to the palace, certain poles were set up and to 

*> ' Tiimbi^n teniao fdolos junto h Inn B^iaii, mAyormentd Rcrr-a <]•< Ua 
fuent«», u do buciiin hUK altArcK can bus gmdsB rubiertuH por eiiciiutt, j en 
mni^hos priiicipalt-ii fucut'i'tt ciiatru nltarcK i1i> fHtim I'l niautrH de crax luioi 
enfreute dooUoK, v allien d aKtmeobaban utiirbu vucieusu ufrccidu y iiaml.' 
Mtndieta, UUt. KtJes., |>p. K7, 102. 

O • III qtieHtn nifHe ritomnvann nd omnre li t«m]ij, a la inininfpni cobs 
nello jMKJtaUi, tiX in fiue dcUi vpnti di Kacrifi(!ikvano uu pulto bl f)io duU' «c- 

3UH, V lo iiifUcvaiin inlni il iniiiz, u line I'he unit si pUHHtAiwt) lit pmviKioD* 
i tuttn r auuu.' Spittjatione delle Tavole del Codice Mtxieaita, ut. li., in 
KiwjAorovgh'K Mrx. .'Iii^iVm vol. T., p. 191, 


BaOrificeb of children. 


these were attached strips of the paper of the country, 
daubed over with india-rubber gum, said stri|w 
being called amateteuitl ; this was considered an honor 
to the water-godM. And the fii*st place where cliildren 
were killed was Quauhtepetl, a high mountain in the 
neighlwrhood of Tlatelulco; all infants, boys or girls, 
sacrificed there were calletl bv the name of the place, 
Quaulitepetl, and were decorated with strips of paper 
dved red. The second place where cliildren were killed 
was Yoaltecatl, a high mountain near Ouadalu[K;. The 
victims were decorated with pieces of black paper, with 
red lines on it. and wore named after the place, Yoal- 
tecatl. The thirfl death-halt was mai^le at Tejietzingo, a 
a well-known hillock that rose up from the waters of 
the Inke oppsitc Tlatelulco; there they killed a little 
girl, decking her with blue j)ji|x?r. and calling her (^ute- 
zalxoch, for so was tliis hillock called by another name. 
I*oiauhtla, on the Wnuhvry of Tliuscala, was the fourth 
hill of sacrifice. Here they killed children, named as 
usual after the locality, and decorated with jhukt on 
which were lines of india-rubber oil. The fiftli place of 
Nicrifice was the no longer visible whirlixw! or sink of 
the lake of Mexico, l*antitlan. Those drowned here 
were called E|X)o;itl^ and their adommeiit epuep(tnuihqu\ 
The pixth hill of death was Cocotl,** near Chalcoatenco; 
the infant victims were named after it and decoratetl 
with strips of papier of which half the numiter were red 
and half a tawny color. The mount Yiauhtjueme, near 
Atlacuioaia. wiw the seventh station; the victim.s l)eing 
named after the place and adorned with jmi^r of a tawny 

All these miserable babes Ixjfore being carried tn 
their death were bedecked w^ith precious stones and 
rich feathers and with raiment and sandals wrought 
curiously; they put upon them paper wings (na if 
they were angels) ; they stained their faces with oil of 

w 'Whnjrc i» ilrrrivcd Iho nanio ocotrs, liy whioh the boy» of the choir of 
lfa« caUiMlml •>{ M''ii<w am now kuowu.' liunt'tHttiMte, uule to Saitaaan, Hist. 
0cn., toni. i-, lib. ii., p. B5. 



india-rubber, and on the middle of each tiny check they 
painted a round spot of white. Not able yet to walk, 
the victims were carried in litters shining with jewels 
and awavG with plinnt's; Hutes and triunfjetn bellowed 
and shrilled round the little bedizened hemU, all so un- 
fortunate in their two whirls of hair, as they passed 
along; and everywhere as the litters were bonie by, all 
the people wept. W^hen the procession reached the 
temple near Tej>et7.inco, on the east, called Tozocan, 
the priests rested there all night, watching and singing 
songs, so that the little ones could not sleep. In the 
morning tlie march was again resumed; if the children ^j 
wept copiously those around them were very gliul, say- ^| 
ing it was a sign that much rain would fall; while if ^1 
they met any dropsical |>er.sou on the roiul it was tiikeii 
for a bad otnen and something that would hinder the 
rain. If any of the temple ministers, or of tlie others 
called qnaquavUli, or of the old men, broke oil* from the 
procession or turned back to tlieir houses before they 
came to the place where the siicrificc was done, they 
were held for infamous and unworthy of any public of- 
fice; thenceforward they were called ?/wcaM/ly^^6, that is 
to say, ' deserters.'" 

More ludicrous than diabolical are the ceremoniea of 
the next feast of Tlaloc. In the sixth Aztec mouth, the 
month EtzalqualixtU, there was held a festival in honor 
of the gods of water and rain. Before the conunencc- 
ment of this festival the idol priests fasted four days, 
and before l:>eginning to fast they made a procession 
to a certain piece of water, near Citlaltepec, to gather 
tales; for at that place these rushes gi-ew very tall and 
thick and what part of them \\as under water was 
very white. There they i)nUed them up, mlle«l thern 
in bundles wrapped about with their blankets, and 
so carried them buck on their shouldei's. Both on going 
out for these rushes and on coming back with them, it 
was the custom to rob anyone that was met on the road; 

« Ktngs'Mron'fh'a .Vejc. Antiq., Tol. TU., pp. 37-8; Sahatjun, IlUt. Oct., ten. 
I., lib. u.. pp. a4-7. 




and as every one knew of this custom the roadR 
were generally pretty clear of stragglers atx>ut this time. 
No one, not even a king's officer returning to his 
m:vster with tribute, could hoi)e to escaixj on such 
an occasion, nor to obtain from any eourt or niagis- 
trute any indemnification for loss or injury so sustiiined 
iu goods or person; and if he mode any resistance to his 
clerical spoilers they IjcJit and kicked and dn^ed him 
over the ground. When they resiched the temple with 
tlieir rushes they spivad them out on the ground and 
phiitod them, white with green, into as it were painted 
mats, sewing them firm with threads of maguey-root; 
of tliese mats they made stools, and chairs with backs. 
The first day of the fast arrived, all the idol ministers 
and priests i*etired to their apartments in the temple 
buildings. There retired all those called thmacuztequio- 
ague9, that is to say, * priests that have done feats in 
war, that have captured three or four prisoners;' these 
although they did not reside continually in the temple, 
re-sorted thither at set times to fulfil their offices. There 
retired alw those called t//tt)uic(tzcinjintfue. that is, ' priests 
that have taken one prisoner in war;' these also, al- 
though not regular inmates of the cues, resorted thither, 
when called by their duties. There rt^tiri'd also those 
that liTQ cii\M t/aniacmqueculainime, ' i)riest singers,' who 
resided jwruianently in the temple building bec^uise they 
had a.M \ et captured no one in war, l^iwt of all those 
also retired that were called (laniacozlezcnJtotw., which 
means ' inferior ministers,' and those Iwys. like little 
sacristiins, who were called ilamaciUoion, 'little niiuisters.' 
Next, all the rush mats that had been made which 
were called aztapUpetlall, *ja,si^red mats of rushes, or 
mats of white and green' were spread round about 
the hearths (hogares) of the temple, and the priests pro- 
ceeded to invest themselves for their offices. They 
|Wit on a kind of jacket that they hail, calJetl .vkol/i, of 
[Kiinted cloth; on the left arm they pat a kind of scarf, 
wiiytliudii', in the left hand they tix)k a bag 4>f copal, and 
in the ri^ht a censer, teniuUl, which is a kind of sauce- 



pan or frying-pan of baked clay. Tlien they entered 
the amrt-yard of the temple, took up their stntioi 
the middle of It, put live coals into their censers, at 
copal, and ofturetl incense toward the four quarters of 
the world, east, north, west, and south. This done 
they emptied the coids from their incense-pans into the 
great hrasiers that were always burning at night in the 
court, brasiers somewhat less in height than the hei^h^ 
of a man, and so thick that two men could with difficultj 
clnsp them. 

This over, the priests returned to the temple build« 
injis, calmccac, and put oft' their ornaments. Then thej 
offered l)efore the hearth little balls of dougli, called 
vevtelftfofli ; each piiest ottering four, arranging them on 
the aforementioned rush mats, and putting them down 
with great care, so that they should not roll nor move; 
and if the balls of any one stirred, it wjis the duty of 
his fellows to call attention to the m.itter and have hir 
punished therefor. Some offered instead of dough fom 
little pies or four (Hjds of green pep|)er. A careful scni-l 
tiny was also observed to see if any one had any dirt oa^ 
his blanket, or any bit of thread or hair or feather, and 
that no one should trip or fall; for in such a case he had 
to be punished ; and as a consequence every man took good 
heed to all his steps and ways during these four daysLi 
At the end of eacli day's ofterings, certain old men. ralledj 

?'iuiquncn'dt\n, came, their faces dyed black, and theicj 
leads shaved, save only the crown of the head, wher 
the hair wa.s allowed to grow long, the reverw? of tliel 
cuettom of the Christian priests. These old men daily} 
collected the offerings that had been made, dividing] 
them among themselves. It was further the custom} 
with all the priests and in all the temples, while fa.'iting^ four days, to lie wakened at midnight by the blaot 
of liorns and shell.«t and other instruments; when all 
rose up and, utterly naked, went t<i where were) 
certain thonis of mnguey, cut for the purfxise the day] 
Ijefore, and with little lancets of stone they hacked their] 
ears, staining the pn?pared thonis of nmguey nnd Ix*- 



ing their faces with the bloocl that flowed; each 
mfln staininji: matcucy-thoniH with his hUxnl in minilKT 
propttrtioucd to him devotion, some hve, otIierH more, 
others less. This done all the priests went to bathe 
themselves, how cold soever it luijrht be, attende<l by 
tlie music of marine shells and shrill whistles of baked 
clay. Everyone had a little bag Btriipped to his shoul- 
ders, ornamented with ta-nsels or strips of jjainted paper; 
ill the^ bags was curried a sort of herb ground iine 
and made up with a kind of black dyo into little longish 
pelleti?," 'n»e general body of the priests marched 
along, each one cwrying a leaf of maguey in which the 
thorriH were stuck, as in a pincushion, which he had to 
iwe. Before these went a priest witli his censer full of 
live cotds and a bag of coi)al ; and in advance of all these 
walked one carrying a boaal on his shoulder of about a 
span broad and two yards long, hollowed api>areiitly in 
aunie way, and filled with little ix)llers of wood that 
rattled and sounded as the bearer went along shaking 
them." All the priests t(.>ok jwrt in this procession, only 
four remaining behind to take care of the temple-build- 
ing, or calraecac, which was their monastery. These four 
during the absence of the others remained scatetl in the 
calmecac and occupied themselves in devotion to the 
gods, in einging and in rattling with a hollow boaixl 
iif Uie sort mentioned alwve. At the piece of water 
where the priests were to bathe there were four houses, 
called fi;ofw«jtfi\ ' fog houses/ .set each toward one of the 
(bur (piarters of the wMupiws; in the ablutions of the first 
Might one of these houses was occupied, on the second 

■ ' Ba sqaellu ta1etl>a Ilevnbau nun maoem de harinA becha & U tnanrra 
lii — tiercol de ratone«. qu« clton lUmabou yyoqualU, que «m cooflciuuHiU 
4nfe tioUi J ooD poWoa de ana yervn que elloa llaman yititll; us cumo velcilus 
iitOwriUa,' KtMvtabormnjh'i Mex. Ant'tq., to), vii., p. 51. 

t> Sttfangiui giTea two difervat accoanla of tbi» iuatrumeDt: ' Cua tuMu tau 
I«n^ MKDO don TEfM. J QDchA cuiuo UD palmo u poco luoa. Yvan deiitro d« 
ml an toblac nnaa ao&ajos, y el qao le Uovaba iva aonando cod ellaa. Llama- 
bas & esU tkbla AxochicaoAliztli, A NacaUaaoaTJU.' Th« hh-oikI dpacription 
ia: * Uaa tabia de anohura Ac. nn patmo y de largnra do doM limntN: a trfL'hos 
tTaB WUM aotiaiaa cu tmXa tibia, uiiuii {>cilaziin1i)H do tiiwlrro rolli/d^^ y atJidoa 
i U fpwma labia, y dputm do vita ivnn sooaudo Irw urn»t con Iuh olros. EjiU 
labia ae Uamaba aianhcLicaoaztli.' Kingaborough's J/t-x. ^niio., vol. rij,, pp. 
61 •oA S3. 

TOL. III. 'il 


night nnother. nnil so on through uU t!ie fmir nights and 
four houses of the fog. Here also were four tall jxjlea 
standing up out of the water. Ami the unfortunate 
bathers, naked from the outset as we remember, reached 
this place trembling and their teeth chattering with 
cold. One of their number mumbled a few words. 
which being translated mean: this is the place of 
Hnakes, the place of moj*quito9, the place of ducks, ani! 
the place of rushes. This i!«id, all Hung themgielvert into 
the water and began to splaah with their hande and 
feet, making a great noise and imitating the cries of 
various atiuatic birds.^ Wiien tlie Imthing was over, 
the naked priests took tlieir way back accompanied by 
the music of pipes and shells. Half dead with cold and 
weariness they reaciied the temple, where dniwing their 
mantles over them they flung themselves down in a con- 
fused heap on the nish mats, so often mentioned, and 
slept as best tliey could. We are told tiiat some talked 
in their sleep, and some walked about in it, and some 
snored, and some sighed in a painful manner. Tliere 
they lay in a tangled weary heap not rising till noon 
the next day. 

The first thing to be done on waking wa.s to arm; 
themselves in their canonicals, take their cen»er% 
and to follow an old pric-it called Quaquacuilti to all 
the chaix^l.s and altars of the idoU, incensing thprn. 
After this they were at liberty to eat; they squattwl 
down in groups, and to eiu-li one was given sucli food ns 
had been sent to him from lii.«own; and if any one 
took any of the ]X)rtion of another, or even exchanged hi» 
for that of another, he w»is punished for it. PunUli- 
mcnt also attended the dropping of any morsel while 
eating, if the fault were not atoned for by a fine. After 
this meal, they all went to cut down branches of a cer- 



" Tonieii&iban L voccar y & gritnr y ■ contrabnccr Ins nven del o^ 
unnt k los nnade«, otroe k nnnn nveit zancudnt dfl iif^nn que lliuna pijntiti, 
oirvn i luA nnerros ntarinoK, otroit /t 1h» gnntotaa blitncaH, otroa k liui nm*- 
Aquclldfl [Uklnliras qno dci-in el iwtmpft parece qno crau juvocaciou oi-l Pe* 
nonln parn linliUr iiqin'lltM loi^nagw tlo jiT«acD al agno.' Kingttwro^'* 
Met. Anivi., ro\. vii., p. 51. 


tain kind called acasoiall, or, where theae were not to be 
found, green canes insteatl. and to bring thorn to the 
temple in sheaves. There they sat down, every man 
with his sheaf, and waited for an arranged signal. The 
signal given, every one sprang »ip to some apjwintcd 
part of the temple to decorate it with his IxMigh.s; and if 
any one went to a place not his. or wandered from his 
companions, or lagged behind them, thoy punished him 
— a punishment only to be remitted by paying <o his 
accuser, witliin the four days of which we are now si)eak- 
ing, either a hen or a blanket or a breech-clout, or, if very 
poor, a ball of dough in a cup. 

These four days over, the festival wa« come, and every 
man Ixrgan it by eating dzuUi, a kind of maisie porridge, 
in his own house. For those that wished it tliere waa 
general dancing and rejoicing. Many decked themsohcH 
out like merry-andrcws and went about in parties carry- 
ing pot^, fioing fo)m house to house, demanding etzalli. 
They sang and danced before the door, and said, "If 
you do not give me some porridge, I will knock a hole in 
your house;" whereupon the etzalli was given. These 
revels bc^an at midnight and ceased at dawn. Then 
indeed did the priests array themselves in all their 
glory: underneath was a jacket, over that a thin trans- 
parent mantle called aianhqiiemitl^ decorated with par- 
n>t-feathers set cross-wise. lk;tween the shoulders they 
fajstencd a great round iiajx^r Hower, like a shield. To 
the nape of the neck they attacheti other Howers of 
crumple<i ijajjor of a somi-cimilar shape; these hung 
down on Uitli sides of the lu-jid like ears. The foix'head 
was painted bhie and over the paint was dusted i^owder 
of raarcaKile. In the right band was curricil a bag made 
of tiger-skin, and embi'oidei'cd with little white shells 
which clattered a« one walked. The bag seems to have 
been three-cornered; from one angle hung down the 
tiger 8 tail, from another his two fore feet, from another 
his two hind feet. It contained incense made howx a 
ctfrtaiu herb called yiaxtiuHy There went one priest 

» ' YanbtlauIU or Yaoiil, znayz moreno o uogro.' iMina, Vocahvlario, 



bearing a hollow boaixl filled with wooden rrtttlea. as 
before described. In ativat»ce of this jxM-Rona^e thure 
marclied a number of others, carrying in their arm« 
image-s of the gods made of that gum that is black and 
leapsS. called xiUi (india-rubber), these imaj^es were call e<i 
tdtdiiu, that Ls to say ' gtxls of ulli.' Other tninirfers 
there were carrying in their anns lumps of coiwil, shaped 
like sugar loaves; each pyramid having a rich feather, 
called quetzal, stuck in the peak of it like a pliinie. Iii 
this manner went the procession with the usual homM 
and shells, and the purpose of it was to lead to punish- 
ment those that had transgressed in any of tl»e point** 
we have already discussed. The culprits were marched 
along, some held by the hair at the naiK' of the neck, 
others by the breech-clout; the boy oftenders were hel<i 
by the hand, or, if very small, were carried. All theaifl 
were brought to a place called Totecco, Avhere water waa 
Here certain ceremonies were performed, paper waa. 
burned in sacrifice, as were also the pyramids of cop 
and imnges of ulli, incense being thmwn into th 
and other incense scattered over the rush mats wi 
which the place was adorned. AVhile this waa going on 
those in charge of the ctdprits luul not Ijeen idle, hu^ 
were Hinging them into the water. Great w;w the noi«! 
it ifl said, made by the splash of one tossed in, and thai 
water leaped high witli the .slux^k. As any one came to] 
the snrfjice or tried to scramble out he was jnished in orj 
pushed down again^ — well was it then for him who couldf 
awim, and by long far diving keep out of the reach 
hie tormentors. For the otiiers they were so roughly ' 
handled that they were often left for dead on the water's 
edge, where their relatives would come and hang them 
up by the feet to let the water they had swallowed run ^ 
out of them; a method of cure surely as bad as tbefl 

The shrill music struck tip again and the procession 
returned by the way it had come ; the friends of the 
punished ones carrying them. The monastery or cal- 
mecac reached, there began another four days' fast, 




called neUaccuxuxdizili; but in this the sharp religious eti- 
quitte of the firwt four da^tj' fast was not observed, or at 
least one wa« not liable to be informed ujwn or punished 
for ft breach of such etiquette. The conclusion of this 
fast was celebrated by fea-sting. Again the priests de- 
corated themselvea in festal array. All the head was 
painte<l blue, the face was covered with honey, (miel) 
mixed with a blaek dye. Over the shoidders were car- 
ried the incense-bags embroidered witli littli! wliite shells, 
— bags made of tiger-skins, as before descriljed, for the 
chief priests, and of pa|x?r painted to imitate tiger-skin 
in the case of the inferior priests. Some of these 
satchels were fashioned to resemble the bird called atzit- 
^atiloti^ others to resemble ducks. The priests marched 
in procession to the temple, and before all marched the 
priest of Tlaloc. Hehiid on his head a cmwn of basket- 
work, fitting close to the temples below and spreading 
ont above, with many plumes issuing from the middle of 
it His face was anointed with melted india-rubber 
gunr, black as ink, and concealed by an uf^ly miisk with 
a great nose, and a wig attached which fell an low a^ the 
waist. All went along mnnilfling to themselves a^ if 
thuy prayed, till they cjitnt* to the cu of TlaUxi. There 
they ((topped and spreail tule mats on the gruund, and 
diLHtcd them over with [Hnvtlered tule-leaves mixed with 
yiauhtti incense. Upon this the acting priest placed 
four round chalchiuite^, like little balls; then he took a 
anoll hook painted blue, and touched each ball witli it; 
and 09 he touched each he made a movement as if 
drawing back his hand, and turned himself completely 
round. He scattered more incense on the mats, then 
he took the board with the rattles inside and sounded 
with it^ — perhaps a kind of religious stage thunder in 
imitation of the thunder of his god. Upon this every 
one retired to his house or to his monastery and put off 
his ornaments; and the unfortunates who had been 
ducketl were carried at laj=it to their own dwellings for 
the rest and recovery that they so sorely needed. 
That night the festivities burst out with a new glory, 


tbe musical instruments of the cu itaclf were wxindedJ 
the great drums and the shrill shells. Well watcliedj 
that night were the prisoners who were doomed to death] 
on the morrow. When it came tlicy were adorned withj 
the trappings of the Tlaloc gods — ^for it wiis said tliey 
were the images of these gods — and those that were! 
killed first were said to be the foundation of the others, I 
which seemed to be s>inlx»lize<i by those who had to die 
last being made to scat themselves on those who bad i 
been fii*8t killed." 

The slaughter over, the hearts of the victims were put I 
into a pot that was piiintod l)lue and stained with ulli in 
four places. Together with this |)ot offerings were taken 
of pa|x^rand feathers and precious stones and chalchiuites, 
and a |)arty set out with the whole for that part of the 
lake where the whirljxMil is. called Pantitlan. All who 
assisted at this offering and sacrifice were pi*ovided with 
a supply of the herb called htauhmti, which is sometliing 
like the incense used in SiMiin, and they puffed it with 
their mouths over each others faces and over the faces 
of their children. This they did to hinder maggots 
getting into the eyes, and also to protect against a certain 
disease of the eyes called rjtjrnillo-o-alLdii] some also put 
this herb into their ears, and others for a certain sujier- 
atition they had held a handful of it clutched in the band. 
The [Mirty entered a great canoe Ix^longing to the king, 
furnished with green oars, or paddles, sjxjtted with ulli, 
and rowed swiftly to the place Pantitlan, where the 
whirlpool was. This whirlixxjl was surrounded by logs 
driven into the bottom of the lake like piles— probably 
to keep canoes from Ixung drawn into the sink. Tliese 
logs being reached, the priests, standing in the lx»w8 of 
the royal vessel, began to play on their horns and shells. 
Conspicuous among them stood their chief holding the 

M ' Comenzaban laego h mntAr A Iub cuptiros; BqarUott qne primpro m&t»- 
ban decUn quti emn el funtliLiti<-nto tin Ioh que emu imnK^n do los TloIoqiiMi, 
que imo udemudoB con Inn onmnifMitot do los mismus TlAloqacM que {ma 
mdenwifm) deoiatl onn s\m iiiuigrncs, y am losqae tuoriau k lu pontre iTiU)»« 
fcaentar Bobreloe que primero habUn uiaurta.' Ktng^onnttfh'M Ma. Antiq.. 
Tol. Tii-, p. W. 



pot contftining the heart-s; he flung them far into the 
whirling hollow of water, and it is said that when the 
hearts plunged in, the waters were strangely moved and 
fltirred into waves and foam. The preeious stones were 
also thrown in, and the papers of the ofiering were 
fastened to the ntakcs with a number of the chatchiuites 
and other stones. A priest took n censer and put four 
papers called teUiuitl into it, and burned them, ofl'ering 
tliem toward the whirlpool; then he threw tliem, censer 
and all, still burning into the sink. That done, the 
canoe was put alx)ut and rowed to the landing of Teta- 
macolco, and every one l)athed theix*. 

AH this tCM)k place Ixitvveen midinght and nioniing, 
and when the light began to break the whole Uniy of 
the priests went to batlio in the usual place. They 
washed the blue |Miint off their hoiuls, .save only on the 
forehead ; and if there were any offences of any priest to 
be punished he was here ducked and half drowned as 
described above. Lastly all i-ehirncd to their nioiuis- 
teries, and the green mats spread there weit; thrown 
out behind each house.^^ 

We have given the (iescription of two great festivals 
of the Tlalocs, — two being all that ai-e mentioned by 
many authorities — there still remain, however, two 
other notable oocaaions on which they were propitiated 
and honoreii. 

In the thirteenth month, which was called Teiieilhuitl, 
and which Ix^au, iK^corvling to Clavigero, on the 2-Jth of 
October, it wiis the custom to cut certain sticks into the 
nhape of snakes. Certain images jis of children weit; also 
cut out of wood, and these dolls, called heaitotont't^ to- 
gether with the wooden snake-s, were used as a founda- 
tion or centre round which to build up little effigies of 
tlie mountains; wherein the Tlalocs were honored as goda 
of the mountains, and wherein memorial was had of 
those that lijul Ik'cii drowned, or killed by thunderl>olt«, 
or whoee bodies had been buried without cremation — the 

» Kingiit o n n tgiK'a Jfnr. At^iq.% vol. vii., pp. 49-&5i Sahagun, Wxri. Om„ 
UuB. i.. Ob. U., pp. lli-lU. 


dolls perhaps representing the IxxHcs of these, and the 
snakes the thimdcrljolts. Having then tlie**e woi»dcii 
dolls and snakes as a basis, they were covered with dough 
mixed fi-oni the sewis of the wild amaranth ; over cimh 
doll certain papers wore put; round one snake and one 
doll, set back to back, there appears next to have been 
bound a wisp of hay. (which wisp wa.s kept from year to 
year and waHhtxi on the vigil of every feast), till the 
proper shape of a mountain was arrived at; over the i 
whole was tlu'ii daubed a layer of dough, of the kind 
already nientinned. We have now our image of the 
mountain with two heads looking opix)site ways, stick- 
ing out from it.s mmimit. Kound this summit ihere 
seem to have l)tH'n stuck rolls of dough repref^enting the 
clouds usually formed about the crests of high mountains. 
The face of the human image that looked out over these 
dougli clouds was daubed with melted ulli ; and to Iwth 
cheeks of it were stuck little tortillas, or cakes of the 
everywhere-pi-eseiit dough of wild amaranth seeds. On 
the head of this same iiuage wiis put a crown with feath- 
ers issuing from it.** These inuiges were made at night, 

» Thin passage relating to tho mokitig of imnges of the moDutains is «nch 
& L'baotii; jnmble in the tiriginal that ono U forcod to umb lu^ely any nn^ 
atrnrlivf iuiugliiutinii uhh may iHiKNcniH to reproduce eTi'ti a potxiprebfS«iblr 
(UKcnpliun. I ijivi' thi.> ori)jiuAl; if niiy ouv cnu maku rliytit« or rcopoD ont 
of it by a cloBtT following of tlin wofiIh of Bfthnctin, he shall not v&Dl the 
opportunity: * Al trecc niL'8 Uittuiktxtn Tfpdlhnitl. En la fiesta c^ne ae hai-ia 
en e«t« nieH ciibriah de mnaa d« bledo* unoM paloe que tonian hfchos como 
oul«bru, y hurinn imageneti de montM fnudadas mbre txnos jtnUttt heoboita 
jMhDeni de ninoit qne Uamabiin M(>oAtotonti : on In imnKctt del monti 
nusa de bledns. Potiiitnk' dt-liiDtu jtintu uniiH nmsa-t rollizas y lArguiHi 
masa de bledu* & mnncm de IwznH, y rxtOK lliunnhan Yomiio. HwHaH I 
{inAgen«» A honni dc lott mont4!8 altos donde m juoian Iiu niibes. y «n meiiiD* ' 
ria dt hja que habiiui muerlo eu OKua 6 beridos dc rayo. y do Ioh qne no i 
queiuabnu aus caerpot «ino quu Ion eutcrrtibau. KsIoh iuouIvh liaci^ 
Hot>rL> unoff Todeoa 6 roacaM Ik-c1iiis de ht-iiif ntudus cun zucuti*. y giiardal 
dp nn nno pom otw. Ln vi^Ha de rata ticstA UeTaban k lavar eetaa l. 
al rio <> H la (uentc, y quaitdo lua llevnban ivanlaa lafiando con nnoa ' 

hfrchos de brtfto cocido li coii unoB ciirHt'oleH nuuisooa. Lavabanlas ml 

raaait u urutorisa qne eataban heuhoit & la urilla del aoua que Be llama Ajnb 
calli. LavnbanlaH con luiaR ojaH de caBaa verdefl; algumts con rl aeiia qui> 
paHnba p»r hu chhe Iqk lavitbau. En acabandolas de lavar vuU-ianla« i aa 
caaa con la miKiua mueica; luego hactan sobre dias lu kaagenea deloa 
moutea como cata dicbo. Altninos hacian estai imagenea de not-be anlvs de 
nmaneocr ceroa del dia; la cnbeiut de cada nn monte, tenia dos carti-s. au» de 

Eersona y otrn de culebrn. y uutoban la cora de persona con ulH dcrre tido. j 
aclau anna tortillas preqaeAuelos do mosa de bledo>a amariltott, y poniuilai 
en laa mexillas de la cara de penona de una parte y de otaai cnwiauioa coo 



and in the morning they were carried to their * oratoriofi,' 
and laid down on beds of rushes or reeds; then food was 
offered to them, small pies or tarts, a porridge of maize- 
flour and sugar, and tlie stewed tiesh of fowls or of dogs. 
Incense was bunied before them. l»ing thi-own into a 
censer 8ha{)ed like ii hand, oh it wert^ a great H[)t}on full of 
burning coals. ' who could alford it sang and 
drank pulque in honor of their denil ones and of these 

In this fea«t four women nnd a man were killed in 
honor of the Tlalocj* and of the mount-uns. The four 
women were named respectively, Tejwxch, Matlalquac, 
Xochetecatl. and Mayavel — this last woa decorated to 
appear as the image of the magucycs. The man was 
called Milnaoatl; he stood for an image of *the snakes.' 
These victims, adorned with crowns of jmper stained with 
ulli, were borne to their doom in Utters. Being carried 
to the summit of the cu, they were thrown one by one 
on the sacrificial stone, their heai*tH taken out with the 
flint and oftered to Tlaloc, and their bodies allowed to 
slide slowly down the temple-steps to the earth — a too 
rapid descent being hindere^l by the priests. Tlie 
ooriwes were carried to a place where the hemls were 
cut ofl' and preserved, spitted on |)oles through 
the temples of each skull. Tlie Iwxlies were lastly 
carried to the wards from which they had set out alive, 
and there cut in pieces and eaten. At the sune time 
the images of the mountains, which we have attempted 
to describe, wore broken up, the dough with which 
they were covered was set out to dry in the sun, and 
was eaten, every day a piece. The pai)ers with which 
the said imi^s had been adorned were then spread 
over the wisps of hay. alxive mentioned, and the 
whole was fastened up in the rafters of the oratory that 
every one had in his house ; there to remain till required 

«no« piipeles qao llunabaD TclcoiUi; ponianlos nnos cnmnoft tm las 
lahnfai oDn sna panachoA. TBtnbif n i lo« unaeeneR do Ion miifrtm Iah poni- 
mm §ttht9 B^Dellaa rocoait da zacAt«, .v In^o eo AmaDccit- ndo ponion eKtax 
lni>n»Tif m warn ontorioa. aobre udos lerhcw de eapadafiat 6 de juncias 6 
hMM.' Stttgabopovii^'a 3ias. Antiq., vol. vu., pp. Vl-i. 



for the next year's fciuit of the same kind; on which 
occasion, and lus a preliminary to the other ceremonies 
which wc have alrt^y deacril^ed in the first part of this 
feast, the people took down the paper and the wisp from 
their private onitories, and carne<l tliem to tlie pubUc ' 
oratory called the acaucaUi, left tiie paper there, and re- 
turned with the wisp to make of it anew the image of aj 

The fourth and last festival of Tlaloc which we' 
have to descritx". fell in our Deeembor and in the six- 
teenth Aztec month, called the month Atemuztli. About 
tliis time it bejjan to thunder nmnd the moimtain-tops, 
and llie first rains to fall there; tlie conunon jXM^ple said, 
" Now couie the Tlalocs." and for love of the water they 
made vows to make images of the mountains — not, how- 
ever, as it would appear, sueii iuui^'s as have been de- 
Hcrilxnl as apjxTtaininj; to the pi-eceding festival. The 
priests were very devout at this season and very earnest 
in prayer, expecting the rain. Tliey took e.ich man his 
incense-jmn or censer, made like a great apoon with a 
long round hollow handle tilled with rattles and termi- 
nating in a snake'.s head, and offered incense to all the 
idols. Five days before the Ijeginning of the tlie 
common people Ijought paper imd ulli and flint knives 
and a kind of coarse cloth called iiequen., and devoutly 
prepared themstHves with fiistlng and penance to make 
their images of the mountains and to cover them with 
jKiper. In tliis holy season, although every one bathed, 
lie witsheil no higher than the neck, the liead waa lell 
unwashed ; the men, moreover, abstained from their 
wives. The night preceding the great was 
spent wholly, flint knife in hand, cutting out paper into 
various shapes. These papers calleii letevUI, were 8t4iined 
with uUi ; and every householder got a long ix>le, covered 
it with pieces of this paper, and set it up in his court- 
yard, where it remained all the day of the festival. 
Those that had vowed to make images of the mountAiiis 

« Kin^fhormtqb'» .V«t. Antiq., toI.tu., pp. 71-3; Sahagvn, Out. 6m., lom. 
I., lib. ii., i)i>, ir,\) \&i. 



invited pricBts to their houses to do it for them. The 
pricsb* ciune. l^eariiig tlieir drums and rattles aiid instru- 
ments of music oi' tortoise-shell. They made the images 
— apparently like human figures — out of the dough of 
wild amaninth seed, and covered them with paper. In 
some houses there wore made five of sucli images, in 
others ten, in others fifteen; they were figures that stood 
for such mountains as the clouds gather roiuid, such as 
the volcano of the Sierra Nevada or that of the Sierra of 
Tlascala. The-sc images being constructed, they were 
set in order in the oratory of the house, and before each 
one was set fooil — very small pies, on small platters, pro- 
portionate to the little unj^e, small boxes holding a little 
sweet porridge of n»aize, little c^latxwhes of cacao, and 
otlicr small green calabashes containing pulque. In one 
night they prescntcil the figures with food in this man- 
ner four times. All the night too they sang I)efore them, 
and phiyed upon flutes; the regular flutists not Ixiing 
employed on this octrasion, but certain small boys who 
were paid for tlieir trouble with something to eat. Wbcn 
tlie morning came, the ministers of the idols asked the 
master of the house for his tzotzopisUli, a kind of broad 
wooden knife used in weaving," and thrust it into the 
breasts of the images of the mountains, as if they were 
living men, and cut their throats and drew out the hearts, 
which they put in a green cup and gave to the owner of 
the house. This done, they took all the paper with 
which these images had been adorned, together with 
certain green mats that had been used for the same pur- 
pose, and the utensils in which the ofleriug of ftxHl had 
been put, and burned all in the court-yard of the house. 
The ashes and the mutilated images s«»m then to have 
been carried to a public omttiry calle<l Aiaiiliwdco, on 
the shore of the lake. Tlicn all who assisted at these 
ceremonies joined themselves to eat and drink in honor 
of the unitilated images, which were called tepienie. 
Women were allowed to join in this banquet provided 

M ' TtotsopftztU, palo anohn como cacliIUs con quo tajwu j kprietua In 
Ul* qneac tfxt<.' ifol'tna, Vwa'nUurio. 


they brought fifteen or twenty heads of maize with them ; 
they received every one his or her share of food and 
pulque. The pulque was kept in black jars and lifted out 
to be drunk with black cups. This banquet over, the 
paper streamers were taken down from the poles set up 
in the court-yards of the houses and carried to certain 
places in the water that were marked out by piles driven 
in — we may remember that our whirlpool of Pantitlau, 
in the lake of Mexico, was one place so marked — and to 
to the tops of the mountains, and left there as it would 

In taking leave here of Tlaloc I may draw attention 
to the prominence in his cult of the number four, the 
cross, and the snake ; and add that a^ lord of one of the 
three Aztec divisions of the future world, lord of the 
terrestrial paradise, we shall meet with him again in 
our examination of the Mexican ideas of a future life. 

^ Kingi^Mrough'a Mex. Aniiq., vol. vii., pp. 80-1; 8ahag%m, Hist. Gm., 
torn, i., lib. ii., pp. 176-9, 198, 210. Farther notice of Tlaloc and hii wor- 
ahip will be found in the SpitgtuioM delle TavoU del Codiot Mexioano, tar. 
zxTiii., Ivii., Ix., Ixii., in Sin-j^orough's Mex, Antiq., vol. v., pp. 179, 190-2; 
Boturini, Idea, pp. 12-3, 99, 101; Amer. Ethnol. Soc, Transad., toI. i., p. 306; 
Motolinia, IViat. ind., in IcazbaUxia, Col. de Doe., torn, i-, pp. 32, 39, 42, 44-5; 
Torquemada, Monarq. Ind., torn, i., p. 290, and torn, ii., pp. 45-6, 119, 121, 
147, 151. 212, 251-4; JTerrera, Jlist. Gen., dec. ii., lib. vi., cap. it.; Honiara, 
Hist. Conq. Mex., fol. 210; Tylor's Prim. CuU., vol. ii., pp. 235, 243; MiOer, 
AtTterikantscbe Urreligionm, pp. 600HI et passim. 



'nn MoTBSm ob AiA^ttovaamaio GuDnxai tmotB tabioch nahbs asd in 
Tuuotn AxrnTia — Hbb Fkast ix tb« Eletbnth Astec montu Ochp- 
jkXSCTLi — FDTiTjLLa or Tna Eioara uovtb, HuitTKctiLuuiTL, axd 


i:<< TABioos ABPBcn— Cbbbmonieb or thb Baptism ob LCsniAnoB or 


I^^B BxTD or cosnxgtoTt ani> ABsoLtrnox — Tbb God or putic awd his vabi- 
I^^B OVB MAHn — His rsmTUit n UK tektu noifTH XoooTi,rm akd in 
i^B mB noBTKEirTa moovtb Yzcau; auo bm gaAimiitSMiAL rcanvAi. ih 


uavtoio tub new rtBB — Tsk God or hacks, anu Teotaumiqci'E, oou^eo* 


Hovn, QoECBoLu— Vabious othbb Mgxicax t>KniB»~FnnvAL ik tbb 


BACKinrEs — CoiiPLrTK Hisopjiw or THK nBTivAtfl OP TBB SIexicas Cai^ 


f'enteotl is a pfxliloas, or accoitUng to some gxwd nu- 
thoriticA a gotJ, who iiold. uniler inuiiy naine.s und in miuiy 
chanu-'tere. a mo8t important place in tlic tHvine world of 
the Azt4-*as, and of oilier Mexican and Central Amerienn 
peoples. She was g<Kldei*s of mai/e, and consequently, 
from the importai»ce in America of this t^ain, of agricul- 
ture, and t)f the producing earth generally. Mirny of her 
various names »eem de[>cndent on the varying aspects of 
the maize at difierent stages of its growth ; others seem to 
have originated in the mother-like nourishing qualities 




of the grain of which she was the deity. Miiller lays 
much stress on tliis of her character: " The force 
which sustains life must also have creatal it. CenteotI 
wn« therefore considered as hringin;r children to light, 
and is represented witli an infant in her arras. Nebel 
gives us Huoli a representation, and in our Mexican 
museum at Bitsel there are runny iinnges in this fonn, 
made of burnt clay. Where agriculture rules, there 
more children are hrought to mature age than among 
the Imnting nations, and the land revels in a lai-ge jMjpu- 
lation. No i>jirt of the world is so well adapted to 
exhibit this diflerenoe as America. CenteotI is oonee- 
quently the great pn>ducor. not of children merely, she 
iij the great goddess, the most ancietit g<xldess."' * 

CenteotI was known, according to Clavigero, by the 
titles Tonaeajohua, 'she who sustains us;' Tzinteotl, 
' original goddess ;' and by the further names Xilonen, 
Iztacacenteotl, and Tlatlauhquicenteotl. She was fur- 
ther, according to the same author, identical with To- 
nunt/in, 'our mother,' and, according to MiiUer and 
many Spani.slj autliorities, either identiciil or closely con- 
nected with the various deities known as Teteionan, ' tbe 
mother of the gods," ' Cihuatcoatl, ' tbe snake-woman,' 
Tazi or Toci or Tocitzin, 'our grandmother,' and Earth, 
the universal material mother, f^juier says of Tiazol- 1 
teotl, that '' she is Cinteotl the goddess of maize, under | 
another av^pect." * 

She was particularly honored by the Totonacs, with 

' MMcr, Anirrikanhchf f/'iTf/it/wmen, p. 493. 

< (^lavi|jf?ni, Storia Anl. dfl Mfxiint, torn, it., pp. 10, 23, itidfod oan tlui 
Tct«ioiinii nutl Tm-it/.iii nre ' ccrtaiiilj' diftertful. J 

' Siialer'M Serpent Synibnl, p. 47. A pniiSAfff which makes th« plincd|)Al I 
mcnt of the chiiractor rtf Toci or Tocitrin mat of God'!'-^*^ ■' t^---^— Jj 
bfl coudtimc'il from Acoatn, iih follows: Wlii^Ti tht 
waudfriitLEfl. had H<>tl]cd for n tiiuo in the (etritorv of l u 
iuKtriu'ttid by thi'ir gfxl Huit/ihiponhUi to go fort^ nnd louk- 
to Aprithen»it7^, iifler hiH directions, r GodaeBS of Dtst-nrd I 
dir^ctioiiK, thL'y ««nt to thw kiiiR nf Cnlhnarflii for " 
fHieeii. Mnvfd by the houor. the fathtr wut his 
omUy nttired. to be enthroned. Bnt the vn\o" -- 
Mexica&fi slew the girl and flnyed hur, tmd cl..i 
cftUing him 'their goddess and raotherof ti> > ■■■ _■ ___^ 
Toc'cy. that is ' grand mother.* See kUo /'i " " 

p. low. 



%vhom she was the chief divinity. They greatly loved 
lier, believing that she did not demand luiman victims, 
but wa.s content with tiowera and fruits, the fat banana 
ilind the yellow maize, and small animals, such as doves, 
quails, and iiibbits. Moi-e, they ho|x^d that she would in 
the end utterly deliver Ihein fwm the cruel nece:^ity of 
such sacrifices, even to the other gods. 

With very different feidiugs, as we shall soon see, did 
the Mexicans proper approiwli this deity, making her 
temples liorrid with the tortured forms of human sacri- 
fices. It shows how deep the stain of the blooil was in 
die Mexican religious lieart, how |X)is«)ii(Kis far the iKlor 
of it had ci'ept through all tlu* senses of the As^tec soid, 
when it couhl Ije Ijelieved that the great susUiiner, the 
yellow waving maize, the very niotlier of all, must be 
fed upon the llesh of her own children.* 

To nuike couiprehensible various allusions it seems 
well here to sum up rapidly the chanicters given of cer- 

• nad^ero. Storvt Ant. dft .\ffssUv}, iom. i., pp. 16-22; Krpliincinn dd Codtx 
TeUfr'wjm>-Rrn\f7vrijt, \nm. lii., iu Kingaborouiih's ^fcx. Aniiri.. \«l. v.. p. 140; 
Spfayaiion* tiriU Tiwfr ilrl '.'<Wire J/nfitnno, tav. xxx.. It>., p. IHO; Jtumboldt, 
A4m( ['olititjtie, Uitn. i.. p. 'il7; Sehootrrtifl'H An-h.. vol. \-i,. p. (J3l. The tucri- 
fic*rs lo Centootl. if Khv he iil«Dtjcnl with Ihi- •?nrtli-mnther, are illustmted 
b* due KtAlonteDt o( Hendietu. Hist. Eoka., p. (Jl. thnt tht> M(>xiciuis painted 
tbe aarth-sodclens u a (ro^ with a blooilj niuutb iu i-very joiui of hi^r body, 
( which froff wo iihnll meet iipnin by ontl .by in a Ceatcutl ftntival > (or they 
mill that the t-iirth dvvour»rd nil thiunn - u proof alao, by the by. aiiioui; 
oth ra of a like kiud which we tthnll encuuiitor, that not to lh« Hinfluns ulono 
{a» Mr J. O. Idullor somewhtro affirmB), but to the Mexicnns nbiQ, U'tongeil 
the ifUtt of nmltipljina th« orKuu>i of their dcitios to t^xprt'itfl great jtowfrK in 
any (<iT*n direetioii. fho foUowins Dot<> fmin the .Sj-Icyniione tltll/- Tm-ol* 
del f'ml'K-j' Mtxicmto. in KintjMforfm^'g Mrx. Antiq,, vol. v., pp. 179-SO. illua- 
tratoa tbe hut point notioffl, ^vcn imnthor form nr rfliitinti of the gi^lit(.Tift of 
■■HiaunM, Mid nltu (hf> «rii;iii of tht- tiimii< iii)ph<'<1 lo the Mcxicnn 
prfaaki: ' They feigw th«t MayAgwil wh« a woman with (our hundred bri^nsts. 
wad thnt tbo gixu, on accnnut of her (mitfulueSH. rhnn^d her into the 
MafinrT, which in the vine of thnt conntry, from wliich tht-y make wine. 
> ■! oviT thcAe thirteen fltijns; but whoever chanced to W bom on 

il II oi (h-- Herb, it prrtvid nnhicky to him; for thcv say that it was 

MilMK'M i<> Uie Tlnmatuitreit«'X. who w«r« a race of dcniona dwelling nraonf^fit 
ta»in< who aevordins to thi-ir aci-ount wntulered tUriiu^h tbo fiir. fi-otn whom 
th« liiiidst«7» of thf'ir t)'mple« took their ilflnomiuation. When this sion 
aiTiT«d. parents t.'njoioed Iheir chtldrfn nnt In I>i>ave th« honne. lest any mu- 
fijftane or aDlu<*ky ncciileni ibonid befall them. They believed thiit Ihoce 
vh<i went bum iu Two CaneH, whirh in the iierond ni)^, would bir liiHi; lived, 
for they say that thit siii^ wah applietl to heavrn. Thi\v miuuifmture »o 
ut&Dy Ifaini^ fnfin thin plant CAllnl the Mn^ny, and it ia so vitry itseful in tluit 
euantry, that lh>* devil tonk occnuion lo indnce thom to bolievu thai it waR u 
god, ami tu wiirxhip and oSvT MCliflces to U,' 




tain goddesses identical with or reperabling in vflrious^ 
points tills Centeotl. ChicomecoatP was, flcc4>rding to 
Sahagun, the Ceres of Mexico, and the goddess of provi- 
sions, as well of wliat is drunk as of what is eaten. She 
was represented with a crown on her head, a vase in her 
right hand, and on her Wft arm a shield with a great 
flower painted thereon; her garments and her sandals 
were red. 

The first of the Mexican goddesses w^as, following the 
same authority, Cioacoutl, or Civacoall, the goddess of ad- 
verse things, such as jwverty, downhearted ness, and toil. 
She ap[}eared often in the guise of a great latly. wearing 
such apjlarel a.s was uwd in tite ]>alact.' ; slie was also heard 
at night in tlie air shouting and even maring. Besides Ijcr 
name Cioacoatl, which means * snake-woman,' she was 
known us Toiiuntzin, that is to say, * our mother.' She 
wa-s arrayed iu white rolx^s, and her hair was arranged 
in front, over her forehead, in liltle curls that croi^ed 
each othei*. It was a citstoui with her to carry a cradle 
on her shoulders, as one that carries a child in it, and 
aAer setting it down in the market-place beside tlie 
other women, to disappear. When this cradle waa ex- 

i SaJiagw, JfiM. Om., torn, i., lib. i., pp. 5-6; GcOatin, in Amer. SAroI, 
S<m:., IVanaad.. vdI. i., pp. 'M\. :U'J-&0. coiideosiufi from Rod commentiiic 
upuu tho ooilicvH VuUciiuub tuid IVUeriunuii aays: ' Tomtcocigtu, kUm 
TachiqaetziU (pluokiDK txHH!)> utiU ('liicouiecouatl Tsovcn aerpenta); vUe of 
TonAciOlicutli;; the cuuw) of MlvrUity, fiiiuiDL-, and misenefl of lUe — 
Amongst S.ilini^u')« Mijicriur dt-itit- s, in foiiud Civucontl, tb« * sernont wonmn,' 
■Ikj ckUed Tuuuutziu. * uur uiuUivr;' aud he, sober u'l bo ik in ^onptural 
alltudoiu, ciUIh ber Eve, and ascribes to het, as tbu iutfrprclers [of tbo 
oodicea] tu TiinutacriiLgu, all thu niiiw^riea and Adverse thingH of tbe world. 
Tbis aiuil(>(;y is, if I am vol Tni.ilnken, tbe only foiimlatiuu for all Cbu itlta- 
sioiuf ti> Eve and lier biatury, Intforc. duriiiR, aud after tlie sm. wbicb the in- , 
terprotere hiive tried to nxtmct from piiintinjis wbiidi indii-utu noUiiug of tbe 
kind. Tb«y wure certainly mistaken in aiiyin^ tlint tbt:ir I'ouacAcijiga was 
a1»o called I'hicomflconatl, aeven aerpentR, They should bare tuiid CivacoaU, 
Uie aerp«nt woman. Chicomeeoatf, intttentl of being tht* cauitc o( Kterilily. 
famine, etc., ia, ocoording to Hnhni;iin, the ^xUlt^asof abuuiluUi.-^, that wbicb 
Bnpplipa both cat^s aud drinking: probably the aaino ua TzintiMtl, or Ciu- 
t«otl, the goddess of maize (from ceniii, mnizi*), which he tlufs wA nit'Utiou. 
There is no more foundation for Oiicriblug to Tooaoacigna Uif- u»inr td Siu-bi- 
queUal.' Oama, Dtrs /'i<w/ma, pt i., p. 39. aaya in effect; fihrnwohnntl, 
or snake woman, waa suppcmed to have ^nren birth to two rbiblrun, uinlc 
aud ftunaU', whuutie auruuK the human race. It is on Uiis aocnunt that 
twins arc called in Mexico roooAua, 'aDokes,' or in the siugtilar ouhoatJ ur 
coatl. uuw Yulijurly pruuounccd coatc. 


amincd. there was found a stone knife in it, and witli 
this the priests slew their sacrificial victims. 

The goddess of Sahaguns description most resemb- 
ling the Toci of other writers, is the one that he calls 
'the mother of the ^Ih. the heart of the earth, and 
our ancestor or grandmother (ahuela).' She is de- 
^Orihed as the goddess of njedicine and of medicinal 
Lerhs, as worshiped by d(x;tors. surgeons, blood -letters, 
of those that gave herbs to produce atjprtions, and alst) 
of the di\inerfl that pronounced upon the fortune of 
children aeconling to their birth. They worshiixtl her 
al>io that cast lots with grains of m.Vr/e, those that augured 
by looking into water in a IkjwI. thttrse that cast lots with 
bits of cord tied tijgether. those drew little worms 
or maggots from the mouth or e^es, those that extracted 
little stones from other parts of the liodv; and those that 
had sweat-baths, tenuizatUis, in their houses. Tlicse lost 
always set the image of this goddess in the baths, calling 
her Teraazcalteci, that is to say. ' the grandmother of 
the baths.' Her adorers made this goddess a feast every 
year, buying a woman for a sacrifice, decorating this 
nctim with the ornaments proper to the goddess. Every 
wening they danced with this unfortunate, and regaled 
■er delicately, praying lier to eat as they would a great 
lady, and arniLsing her in every way that she might not 
weep nor be sad at the prospect of deatli. When the 
dreadful hour did come, having slain her, together with 
two others that accompanied her to death, tliey flayed 
her; then a man clothed himself in her skin, and went 
about all the city playing many pranks,— by all of wliich 
her identity with Tozi seems sufficiently clear. This 
godded was represented with the mouth and chin stained 
with ulli, and a round patch of the same on her face; 
on her head she hiul a kind of turban mmle of cloth 
rolled round and knotte<l Iji-hind, In this knot were 
Ktuck plumes which issued from it like fiames, and 
the ends of the cloth fell behind over the shoulders. 
She wore sandals, a shirt with a kind of broad serrated 

lower border, and white petticoat«. Ill her left hand 
Vol.. in. ~ 



she held a nhield with n round plate of gold in the cent 
thereof; in her right hand she huld a hroom." 

The festival in which divers of the various manifejiti 
tions of the mother-pod desa were honored, was held il 
the bqi:inning of the eleventh Aztec month, begining 
the 14th of September; Centeotl, or Cinteotl, or Cei 
teutlj or Tzinteutl, isjiowever represented therein asi 
male and not a female. 

Fifteen days l)efore Uie commencement of the festivi 
thorn that took part in it began to dance, if dancing it 
could be cjiUed, in which the feet and Ixxly were hardlyl 
moved, and in which the time was kept by rnisiiig and! 
lowering the hands to the beat of tlie drum. This wcr 
on for eight dayH, Ijeginning in the afternoon and tinishir 
witli the set of Hun, the dancers being jx^rfectly silent 
arranged in four lines, and each having both hands full 
of dowers, cut branches and all. Some of the youthaJ 
indeed, too restless to bear the silence, imitated withi 
their mouths the sound of the drum ; but all were forced f 
to keep, as well in motion as in voice, the exactest timel 
and good order. On the expinition of these eight daysj 
the medical women, both old and young, divided them-* 
selves into two parties, and fought a kind of mock Ijaltlc^ 
before the woman that had to die in thi.s festival, to 
amuse her and keep tears away ; for they held it of bad 
augury if thin miserable creature gave way to her grief,^J 
and as a sign that many women had to die in child-^^ 
birth. This woman who was called for the time being, 
* the image of tiie mother of the gods,' letl in person tli«^ 
first attack upon one of the two parties of fightere, beii 
accompanied l»y three old women that were to her lu 
mothers and never left her side, called respectively Atw, 
Tlavitezcpii, and Xocuauhtli.' The fight consiste<l in 
pelting each other with handfuls of red leaves, or leavw 
of the nopal, or of yellow fiowers called cenijxMilsucAiti, 
the same sort as had been carried by the actors in the 

* KimfBbora\uiti'it .V<v. Anlig., Tol. vil., pp. 3-4; Sahagun, BiM. Gtn^ Ion. 
i., Hb. i., pp 4^7. 

^ Or, aci-urdinK to BuHtotnHnte'H ed., Aba, Tlariteoqai, and Xoqnanrhtli.' 
SoAofrun, Uiri. Om., torn, i., lib. ti., p. 149. 



preceding dance. These women all wore girdles, to 
which were sunpended little gourds filled with powder 
of the herb called yied. AVhen the pt'lting-match was 
over, the woman that had to die wius led hack to the 
house where she was guarded; and all thiswiis repeated 
during four successive days. Then the victim represent- 
ing Toci, that is to say, 'our grandmother or ancestor,' 
for so was calli*d the mother of the gods, was led for the 
last time thrtiugh tlie market-place by the niedicid 
woman. This ceremony was called * the farewell to the 
market-place;' for never more sliould she 8i*e it who this 
day |>a.s.sed through, decorated in such mournful frip[>ery, 
mirronnded by the pomp of such hollow mirth. She 
went sowing maize on every side txs she walked, and 
having passed through the market she was received by 
the priests who took her to a house near the cu where 
she had to be killed. There the medical women and 
midwives consoled her: Daughter, Ix^ joyful and not sad, 
this night thou shalt sleep with the king, Tlien they 
adorned her with the ornmnents of the goddess To*;i, 
Ktriving all the while to keep the fact of her death in the 
back-ground, that she might die suddenly and without 
knowing it. At midnight, in darkness, not so much as 
a cough breaking the silence, she was led to the holy 
temple-top, and caught up swiftly on the shoulders of a 
man. There was hardly a struggle; her bearer felt him- 
self deluged with blood, while ahe was lieheaded with 
all despatch, and flayed, still warm. The skin of the 
thiglis was first taken off and carried, for a purixwe to be 
prtnently revealed, to the cu of CenteotI, who was the 
ivn of Toci. With the remainder of the skin, next 
taken off, a priest clothed himself, drawing it on, it would 
ap]x>ar from other rcoortis, like a glove; this prie«t 
who waH a young man chown for his bodily forces and 
raw. thus clotheti represented Toci. the gixldess herself 
The Toci priest, with this horrible jacket sticking to his 
«m*wy bust, then came down from the temple amid the 
chanting of the singers of the cu. On each side of him 
went two (lersous, who had made a vow to help him in 


this service, and behind came ftereral other pne»ts. I| 
front there ran a numl>er of princi|Mil men and poldiers." 
anned with be«f>ms of blood-f<tained graw, who Uioked 
back from time to time, and struck their nhields as if 
provoking a fi^ht; these he prttende*! to pursue witli 
grejkt fiU'y, and all that Haw thir< play (which was callc-d 
cacacaili) feared and trembled excet-dingly. On reach- 
ing tlie en of HuitziIoiM)chtli, the Toci priest s|>read out 
hiH antiH and »tood like a cros8 Wfore tlie image of the 
war god ; this he did four times and then went on to the 
cu of Centeotl, whitlier, as we remenil)er, the skin of the 
thigliH of the tlayed woman had been sent. Tliis skin 
of the thighs another young priest, representing the god 
Centeotl. son of Toci, had put on over his face like a 
mask. In addition to this loathsome veil, he wore a, 
jacket of feathers and a hood of feathers attached to thfl 
jacket. This hood run out into a peak of a spiral form| 
falling )>ehind; and the back-lx>ne or spine of tliis spin 
resembled the oomb of a cock; this hood was called ytz 
Uacofiuhqui^ that is to say 'god of fnwt.' 

The 'I'txii priest and the Centeotl priest next went to-1 
gether to the cu of Toci, where the first w^ted To 
the morning (for all tins alivady deserilied took! 
place at night) to have cert4iin tnippings put on ovu 
his horrid under- vest. When the morning broke^] 
amid the chanting of the singers, all the principfll 
men, who had been waiting bt'low, ran with greatl 
Mwiftncss up the steps of the temple carrying their! 
offerings. Borne of these principal men Jj^iui to covef J 
the feet and the head of the Toci priest with the whit< 
downy inner feathers of the eagle; others painted hifl 
face red; others put on him a rather diort shirt witkl 
the figure of an eagle wrought or woven into tlie brt^L^I 
of it, and certain painted petticoats; others beheaded] 
quails and offered copal. All this done quickly, these ' 
men toijk their departure. 

Then were brought forth and put on the Toci priest 
all his rich vestures, and a kind of sfjuare cmwn verv 
wide above and ornamented with five little banners, am 



in each comer, and in the centre one higher than the 
others. All the captives that had to die were hrought 
out and set in line, and he took four of them one after 
the other, threw them down on the sacrificial ntone and 
took out their hearts; the rest of the captives he hamied 
over to tlie other priestw to complete the work he had 
b^un. After this he »et out with the Centeotl priest 
for the cu of the latter. In advance of these a little 
way there walke<l a jiarty of their devotees, calleil 
t/cttescoitn, decorated with jiapers, girt for hreech-cloiit 
with twisted paper, ciirr_}ing at their shoulders a 
crumpled jiaper, round like a shield, and tassels of im- 
twisted cotton. On either side also there went those 
that sold lime" in the market, and the medical women. 
moving to the singing of the priest.-? and the heat of 
drum. Ilaving come to the ]>lace where heads were 
spitted at the cu of Centeotl, the Toci priest set one foot 
on the drum and waited there for the Centeotl priest. 
The two heinp cx)me together it would setm that he who 
repreHjnted Centeotl now set out alone, with much liaste 
and accompanied by many soldiers, for a place on the 
enemy's frontier where there was a kind of small hut 
built There at last was deposited and letl the skin of 
the thighs of the snerifioed woman which hml sened 
wich ghastly use. And often, it is said, it hap|H'ned, 
tliis ceremony taking ])lacc ou the Iwrder of a hostile 
t4»rritory. that the enemy sallied out iigniust the proces- 
sion, and thert* w:is fighting and many were slain. 

After this the young man who n.^presented the goddess 
Toci was taken to the house that is called Atempan. 
The king took his seat on a throne with a mat of eagle- 
skin and feathers under his feet, and a tiger-skin over 
the back of his seat, and there was a grand review of the 
anny, and a distribution from the royal treasury of 
raiment, omnments, and anns; and it was understood 
tlint those who received such arms luwl to die with them 
in war. This done, dancing was l>egun in the courts 

■ Iim<* WM mnrh lued io the prepanttion uf maize for mailing vmrioai 
AiticlM uf food. 



yard of the temple of Toci : and all who bad noa 
pre«entit, ai* atjove. repairetl thither. This dancing, as 
the finit part of the feHtivaU consisted for the most 
in kt^pin^ tinkc to the heat of the dnim with handafil 
with tiowers; so that tlje whole court looked like aBv- 
itig ganlen: and there was 80 much gaU, for the Idi 
and all tlie princes were there, tliat the «un 
tlirough all an on water. Tliis Ije^ari at mid-day 
went on for two days. On the evening of the 
dav, the priests of the goddess t'hicomecoatl. clotht^ 
with the Hkins of the captives that had dieil in a formtf 
da}% ascended a small cu called the tal>le uf Duitzilo- 
pochtli and st^iwed maize of all kinds, whiteand vellowand 
red^ and c:Llal>;Lsh-Heeili!i, ijj)on the head8 of the people 
Uiat were below. The i)eople tried to gather up these as 
they fell, and elbowed each other a good deal. The 
damiielt^ called dfxttlamacaz^ue, that nerved the ^•oddt^ 
Chioocneooatl, carried each one on lier shoulder, rolled in 
a rich mantle, seven ears of maize, striped with melted 
ulli and wrapped in white paper: tlieir legs and arnu 
were decoratol with feathers sprinkled over with mar- 
casite. The^^^ sang with the priest of their goddess 
This done, one of the priests descended from the above- 
mentioned cu of Iluitzilopochtli, carrying in his hand 
large Iwsket filled with powdered chalk and feather-down 
which he wt in a small chamber, or little cave, caHe<l cotu-^ 
tUpan^ Ijetween the temple-atairs and the temple itself. 
Tills cavity was reached from below by four or five stepfl^; 
and when the basket was put down there was a general 
rush of the soldiers to be first to necureflomeof the contents. 
Kvery one, as he got his hands fiUwl. with much ell)OW- 
ing, returned running to the place whence he had set 
out. All this time the Toci priest had been hiking on, 
and now he prutendiHl to chase those that ran, while they 
pelted him biick with the down and powdered chal 
they had in their hands; the king himself nnining 
little way and p*»lting him like the rest. After thi.-" 
fiwhiou they all run awa\- from him and left him aloiu'. 
except some priests, who followed him to a place called 





Tocititlan, when ho took off the skin of the sacrificed 
woman and hun*j it up in a little hut that was there: 
tJtking care that its arms were stretched out, and that 
the lieatl (or, surely, the neck — for have we not road 
that tlie heiul was cut ofl' the woman on the fatal ni^dit 
which tenninated her life?), was turned towanl the road, 
or Htreet. And this wan the Wt of the ceremonies of 
the fea«t of Oc!ii)aniztli.* 

The intimate connection of tlie jroddesa Xiloncn (from 
'. a yonnf; or tender ear of maize) with Centeotl is 

lown by the fact that in the cu of Centeotl was killed 
the unfortunate woman who wa« decorated to resemble 
the poddesft Xiloncn. The festival of Xilonen com- 
menced on the eleveutli day of the eigjhth iMexiean month, 
which month begins on the 16th of July. The victim 
was made to resenihle the image of the ^Idess hy having 
her face painted yellow from the nose downward, and her 
brow red. On her head was put a crown of paper with 
four corners, fi-om the centre and top of which isHuetl 
many plumes. Round her neck and over her breasts 
hung Htrinp< of precious stones, ond over these was put 
a round medal of gold. Her garments and sandals were 
curiously wrtjtight, the latter puiiitetl with red stripes. 
On her lefl arm was a shield, and in the right hand she 
held a stick, or baton, paiiiteil yelluw. The women led 
her to death dancing round her, and the priests and the 
principal men danced before them, sowing incense as 
they went. The priest who was to act as executioner 
bad on his shoulders a bunch of feathers held there in 
the grip of an eagle's talons, artificial; another of the 
priextA e-ftrrie<l the hollow Iwiard filled with rattles, so 
oAcn mentiotied. At the foot of the cu of Centeotl, this 
latter «top|)ed in frtuit of the Xilonen woman, scattered 
inoenae before her, and nittletl with his board, waving 
it from side to side. They luscended the cu, and o!ie of 
the priests cAUght the victim up, twisting her backwarrls, 
her sliouUlers against his shoulders; on wliicli living 

* JCimftf'foroHqK'M Mtt. Anliq., vol. Tit, pp. 6:»-70; Sahagun, UiM. OtA., torn. 

L. lib. ti . pp. un-^e. 



altar her heart was cut out through her hpea*<t. iind put 
into a cup. AIUt that tliere wa-s more thinciiig, in 
which the women, old and young, t*K)k purt in a IkkIv hy 
themselves, their arms imd legs dec<.»rated witli i-ed ma- 
caw feathers, and their luces painteti yellow and dusted 
with marcosite. Tliere wius aW a banquet of email 
pies called xocotamaUi, during which to the old men and 
women license was given to drink pulque; the young, 
however, being restrained from the bacchanalian part of 
this enjoyment by severe and sometiiues capital puuiab- 

Lastly, the intimate connection or identity of Centeotl 
with the earth-mother, the all-nourisher. seems clearly 
s^j-mbolized in the fetwt of the fourth month of the Mexi- 
cans, which began on the 27th of April. In it they 
made a festival to the god of cereals, under the name of 
Centeotl, and to the goddess of provisions, called Chioo- 
mecoatl. First they fasted four days, putting certain 
rushes or water-llags beside tlie images of the gods, stain- 
ing tlie white i>artof the bottom of each with blood 
drawn from their ears or legs; branches too, of the kind 
calleil (u^rAatl, and a kind of bed or mntlresa of hay 
were put before the altars. A sort of i>oiTidge of mala* 
ailletl nmz(inu)ir<i was also made and given to the \outli^ 
Tben all walke<l out into the country, and through the 
maizC'fields, carrying stalks of maize, and other berba 
called meaxUl. With these tlicy strewed the image of 
the god of cereals that every one had in his house, awi 
they put iMipcrson it and food before it of various kiml*; 
five cJii(/uic'Ue»f^^ or baskets, of tortillas, and on the top 
of each chiqinviil a cooked frog, a banket of chUin}'^ Hour, 
which they caW pinoUi ;^^ and a basket of toasted maitt 
mixed with beans. They cut also a joint from a green 
m^ze-stalk, stuffed tlie little tube with morsels of every 

>* KingxtHinntgh't Mn. Atdiq., rol. vU., pp. 60-1; S^iUt-ntn, //M. <;<«., tdK- 
i., lib. ti.. pj). 135-9: Clari(itm. Sloria Ant. drl J/esrIco, lorn. ii.. p. 76; X*-J 
qitrtnada, .Vonatjf. Intt., Uini. ii., pp. 360-71. 

11 ObiqainitI, r<>Hto«W«naHtA, Jlnlina, Vooabvtario. 

** ChiAti. u Chili. cicrtA MtntllA dt- qiin naflan uceito. Id. 

■> PinolU, la bnrina de muyz y chin, nutv^ que U deslian. 14. 



kind of the above-mentioned food, and set it carefully 
on tlie back of the frog.'* This eiu:li one did in liis own 
house, and in the afternoon all thin otl'erin^ of food was 
carried U) the cu of the goddess of proviHions, of the god- 
dess Ohioomecoatl. and eaten there in a general scramble, 
take who take could; symbolizing one knows not what, 
if not the laisser-faire and laisser-aller ^yatem of national 
oommisjiriat much advocated by many political econo- 
miHtH, savage and civilized. 

In thin festival the ears of maize that were preserved 
for 8wd were carried in procession by virgins to a cu, 
apparently the one just meutioncd, but which is here 
called the cu of Chicomecoatl attd of Centeotl. The 
maideiis carried on their slioulilers not more than seven 
ears of corn apiece, sprinkled with dro|)s of oil of ulli, 
and wnipjx'd first in [jiiix^rs anil then in a cloth. The 
legs and arms of these girls were ornamented with red 
feathers, and their faces were smeared with the pitch 
called chajfopotU and sprinkled with marcasite. As they 
went along in this bizarre attii-e. the people crowded to 
see them pass, but it was forbidden to s^ieak to them. 
Souietimes indeed an irrepressible youth woidd break 
out into words of admiration or love toward some fair 
pitch-besmeared face, but his answer came ^harp and 
swift from one of the old women that watched the 
younger, in some such fiushion as this: And so thou 
ftpeakest. raw ajward ! thou must Ix; s|)eaking, eh? Think 
first of p<*rfonning some man's fcAt, and get rid of that 
tail of hair at the nape of thy neck that marks the 
coward and the good-for-nothing. It is not for thee to 
speak here; thou art as much a woman tis I iim; thou 
hart never come out from behind the (ire I But the 
young lovers of Tenochtitlan were not without insolent 
springidis among them, much given to rude gil)es. and 
retorts like the following: Well said, my lady, I receive 
this with thanks, 1 will do what you command me, 
will take care to show myself a maji; but as for you, 

<* AppiircnO; the earth njanboliEed ta% frog (aee Uub tdI. p. 351, note -1. J 
uut beAniig ibo fmiU thM«of on her baek. 



I value two cacao-beans more than you and all your 
lineage; put mud on your body, and scnitcb yourself: 
fold one leg over the otlier and roll in tbe dust; see! 
here is a mugh stone, knoi;k your face ajrainst it; and if 
you want anytbing more take a red-hot coal and burn a 
hole in your throat to spit tlirough ; for (xod'n sake, bold 
your peace. 

This tbe young fellows said, writes Sabagun, to show 
their courage; and so it went, give and take, till tbe 
maize was carried to the cu and blef^*etl. Then tbe 
folk returned .to their houses and sanctiiied mav/e was 
put in the bottom of every granary, and it was said 
tliat it was the heart thereof, and it remaine<l there till 
taken out for seetl. c^i-emonies wei^e six'cially in 
honor of tbe goddess Cbiiximecoatl. She supplied pro- 
visions, she it was that bad made all kinds of tnaize aud 
frijoU's, and whatsover vegetables could be eaten, and all 
sorts of chia; and for this tbey made her that festival 
with offerings of food, and with songs and dances, and 
with the blood of quails. All tbe onuunents of lier attire 
were bright red and curiously wrought, and in her 
hands tbey put stalk.s of maize.'* 

The Mexicans deified, under tbe name Cioapipilti, 
all women that died in child-bed. There were ora- 
tories raised to their honor in every ward that had two 
streets. In such oratories, called ciodtaiaii^i or ciatetij}a'n, 
there were kept images of these goddesses adorned with 
certain papers called ainatdecUl. The eighth movable 
ffjwt of tbe Mexican calendar was dedicated to them, 
falling in the sign Cequiahuitl, in tbe fii*st house; in this 
fe-ast wei-e slain in their honor all lying in the jails under 
pain of death. Tliese goddesses were siiid to move 
tln-ough the air at pleasure, and to apj)ear to whom they 
would of tliose that lived upon the earth, and .-Mnnetimeii 
to enter into and posses.s them. They were ;iccustoraed 
to hurt children with various infirmities, especially parol* 

li Kingahonm'jh.'s .W«. .-inHfl., to!. tW.. pp. 43-4; Sahrnjvn. Iliat. Otn., torn. 
1., lib. li.. pp. 87-100: Clavi-HTO, Sttirin Ant. det Mestico. torn, ii., p. 67; Tar- 
tfurmadu, Stonarti. JuU.. turn. ii.. pp. 52-3. fHi-1. I'M. 15i 'J. IMl. '.Ij&^. 




118 and other sudden diseases. Their favorite liaiint 
on earlli wiis the ci-osj-road.s, nnd, on certain da\-8 of the 
year, people would not go out of their houses for lear of 
meeting them. Tliev were propitiated in their temples 
and at the crosn-roJulH hy oflerin^j* of hread kneiuletl into 
varioust Hhaiws^ — into fiji;ures of butter-llie«and tliunder- 
bolts for example, — by ofterinj^ of small tamales, or 
pies, and of toasted maize. Their imaji^es, besides 
the papers above mentioned, were decorated by having 
the face, arms, and le^^s jminted very white; their ears 
were made of gold ; tJieir hair was dressed like that of 
ladies, in little curls; the shirt was ]>;iinted over with 
black waves; the (petticoats were worked in divei-a colors; 
ihe sandals were white. 

The mother-goddess, imder the form of tlie serpent- 
woman. CioawHitl, or Cium-ojitl, or Cihuacoatl, t)r. hi^tly, 
Qnila7.tlif seems to have lx*en holil tus tlit; patroness of 
women in child-bed generally, and, esi>ecially, of those 
that died tliere. When the deUv(.'ry of a woman was 
likely to be tedious and dangerous, the midwife ad- 
dressed the patient ."Miying: Be strong, my daughter; we 
can do nothing for thee. Here are |)resent thy mother 
and thy relations, but thou alone must conduct this busi- 
nesB to its termination. See to it. my daughter, m^' well- 
beloved, that thou be a strong and valiant and manly 
woman; he like her who first bore children, like C'iott- 
ooatK like Quilaztli. And if still af)er a day and n 
night of labor the woman c^iuld not bring forth, the mid- 
wife took her away from all other persons and brought 
her into a closed room and made many prayers, calling 
\\\Km the go«1dess (/ioacoatt, and upon the gwldess Yoal- 

itl/' and upon other goddesses. If, notwithstanding 

H TiMlltiritI, BDothor name of the tnntlier-gnddniui, of ih» niothffr uf Ibt' 
, of ih« iHoUitT lA in all, of Dur Kmiiil-iiniUit'r or nti<'i'»trc»»; tiiorv piir- 
arljr that fonn of the moth(<T-KofldehH dencribeil, aiur Suha^iii (thuvul. 
3&3), u being lb« patronotM of tii<*ilj(nD« and of rtuctoni nuii of the BWfat- 
Uw. 8«hAffan spealcH in anottti^r poiuiage of Yoaltic-iU [ Kmtfsbm-imyh'a 
•X, AtUtif.. vol. T., p. 463) : La roadn de Iob Diosctt, que Mi l» Dioota de las 
■dioicoft y DifHlico*, y 4% madre da todoK uusutniB, La cual b« llaoia Yoalti- 
«ill. la dual ltcn» podcr y nutoridod xobr*^ !>>« Teainxcalas (sweat-bathH) qii* 
llaman Xtwhicnlli, cii f I t\xxai lognr vBla Duihs t» lancoaas Murabut, j oderuta 




the House of the Sun. To the eastern part of the of 
tlie f^un. as the ancients .said, were t;iken up all the 
soldiers that died in war. Wlien tlie sun rose in the 
morning these brave men decorated themselves in tlieir 
panoply of war. and accompanied him towards the niid- 
heaveu, shoutinjc and figiiting, apparently in a shaui or 
review battle, until they reached the point of noon- 
day, which was called ne/xtjUkttomUlnh. At this point 
the heroines, whose home was in the west of heaven, the 
m-yciottqaezqtie, the valiant women, dead in child-bed. who 
ranked as ctjual wltli the heroes fallen in war, met tl»ese 
heroes and relieved them of their diity as «;uards of 
honor of the sun. From noon till night, down the 
western slope of litiht, while the forenoon escort of war- 
riors were scattered through all the fields and guixlensof 
heaven^ sucking dowers till another day should call 
them anew to their duty, the women, in pano|)ly of war, 
just as the men had been, and fighting like them with 
cla.4hing shields and shouts of joy^ bore the sun 
to his .setting; carrying him on a litter of qitetzaks, or 
ricli feathei-s, called the qmitzttl-apfiiiecaiutL At this 
setting- place of the sun the women were, in their turn, 
relieved by tliose of the under world, who here came out 
lo receive him. For it was i-ejwrted of old by the 
ancients that when night began in the upper world the 
sun b<^an lo shine tlirough hiules, and tliat thereu|)on 
the dead rase up from their .sleep and l>jre his .shin- 
ing litter through their domain. At this hour too the 
celestial women, released fnxn their duty in heaven, 
Bcattercd and poured down through the air upon the 
earth, where, with a touch of tlic dear nature that makes 
tlie worUi kin, tlicy arc described as looking for spindles 
to «pin with, and shuttles to wejive with, and all tlie old 
furniture and implements of their house-wifely pride. 
This thitig, says Salmgun. " the devil wrought to deceive 
withal, far very oi\en, in the ibrm of women, he 
appeared to their bereaved husbands, giving them petti- 
coats and .shirts." 

Very beautiful was the form of address before burial 


all. however, the woman rliecl, they gavo her the title, 
mocm/uezqui, that is ' vuliant woiniin,* ami thev washed 
all her Ijody, and washed with Hoap her head and her 
hair. Her husband lifted her on his Hhoiddei*H, and, 
with her long hair flowing loose behind him, rarrie<i her 
to the place of burial. All the old midwives nccom- 
pan[(?d the lx)dy, marching with shields and swords, and 
Bliouting as when soldiers elose in the attack. They 
had need of their weapons, for the body that they 
escorted was a holy relic which many were eager to win; 
and a party of youths fought with these Amazons to take 
their treasure from them: this fight was no play but a 
very bone-breaking earnest. The burial procession set 
out at the setting of the sun and the corpse was iriterre<l 
in the court-yard of the cu of the goddesi»ee, or celestial 
women called (Moapipilti. Four nights the huRhand 
and hifi friends guartled the grave and four nights the 
youths, or rawest and most inexperienced soldiers, 
prowled like wolves aljout the little band. If, either 
from the fighting midwivea or from the night-watchers, 
they succeeded in securing the body, they in.stantly cut 
off the middle finger of the left hand and the hair of 
the head ; either of these things being put in one's sfiield, 
made one fierce, brave, invincible in war, and blinded 
the eyes of one's enemies. There pniwled also round 
the saered tomb c<»rtiun wizards, calUnl temanvirpaJUoti- 
qne^ seeking to liiw-k off and steal the whole left arm of 
the deaxl wife; fur tliey held it to he of mighty jjotency 
in their enchantments, and a thing that when they went 
to a house to work their malice thereon, would wholly 
take away the courage of the inmates, and dismay them 
80 that they could neither move hand nor foot, though 
they saw all that passed. 

The death of this woman in child-bed was mourned 
by the midwives, hut her parents and relations were 
joyful thereat; for they said that she did not go to hadea, 
or the under-ground world, but to the western part of 

Itvi cosan descoaoertodaii ea lus oaerpoi do lo* hombrca. y fortiAca Ins vomi 
li-TQaH y blauduft. 




the HoiLse of the Sun. To the eastern part of the House of 
the Still, as the ancients waiii, were taken up all the 
ftoliiiers that died in war. When the .tun rose in the 
morning these hrave men decorated themselves in their 
panoply of war. and accompanied him towards the mid- 
heaven, shouting and figliting, apparently in a sham or 
review battle, until they reached the point of noon- 
day, which was called mp't/UhtomUM. At this point 
the lieroincs, whose home was in the west of heaven, the 
mociottquezque^ the valiant women, dead in child-bed, who 
ranked as ecjurtl with the heroes fallen in war, met these 
heroes ami relieved them of their duty as guard.*? of 
honor of the sun. From noon till night, down the 
western t>\o\yn of li)iht, wliile the forenoon escort of war- 
riors were scattered throujih all the Geldti and jxardensof 
heaven^ suckint; tlowers till another day should call 
them anew to their duty, the women, in panoply of war, 
just ius the men had been, and fij^hting like them with 
clashing nliields and shouts of joy, bore the sun 
lo his settinjr; carrying him on a Utter of quetzaks, or 
rich feathers, called the qudzat-dimiiecaiutl. At this 
setting-plaoe of the sun the women were, in their turn, 
relieved by those of tlie under world, who here came out 
to receive him. For it wa.s re[XjrtHl of old by the 
ancients that when night began in the up|ier world the 
Mm Ix^n to shine through lu'wles, and tliat thereuixm 
the dead rose up from their sleep and Ijoiv his shin- 
ing litter through their domain. At this hour too the 
celestial women, released from their duty in heaven, 
scattered and poured down through the air up(m the 
earth, where, with a touch of the dear nature that makes 
tl»e world kin. they arc described as looking for spindles 
to spin with, and shuttles to weave with, and all the old 
furniture and implements of their house-wifely pride. 
This thing, says Sahagun. " the devil wrought to deceive 
nithal. for very often, in the form of those women, he 
appeared to their bereaved husbands, giving them petti- 
coat* and shirts." 

Very beautiful was the form of address before burial 


used by the midwife to the dead woman who had taken 
rat»k amon;; the m/icioaquezqne op t/uk'iofif/ttetyi : woman, 
.stroujr and warlike, child well-J>elovpd, valiant one, 
beautiful and tender dove, strong hant thou been and { 
toil-enduring as a hero; thou conquered, thou hast 
done an did thy niotlit^r the lad^' Cioiicoatl. or Quiloztli. 
Very valiantly hast thou fought, stoutly hast thou 
handled the shic'ld and the spear that the great mother 
put in thine hand. I'p with thee! hrt'ak from sleep! 
behold it Ih already day; already the I'ed of morning 
shoots through the clouds; already the swallows and all 
birds are abrosul. Rise, my daugliter. attire thyself, go 
to that good land where is the house of thy father and 
mother the Sun; thither let thy sisterH, the celestinl 
women, carry thee, they that are always joyful and 
merry and filled with delight, because of the Sun with 
whom they take pleiusure. ^ly tender daughter and 
lady, not without sore travail hast thou gotten the glory 
of tliis victory; a great pain and a hard i^enance hart 
thou undergone. Well and fortunately hast thou pur- 
chased this death. Is this, perad venture, a fruitless 
death, and without great merit and honor? Xay, verily, 
but one of much honor and profit. Who receives other 
such great mercy, otlier sucii liappy victory a.s thou? for 
thou hast gained with thy death eternal life, a life full 
of joy and delight, with the goddessei* called Cioapipilti, 
the celestial g*«!desses. Go now, my lady, my well- 
beloved; little hy little advance toward them; be one of 
them, that tbey may i*eceive thee and l>e always witli 
thee, that thou mayest rejoice and lie glad in our father 
and mother the Sun, and accompany him whithersoever 
he wish to tiike pleasure. my lady, my well-ljeloved 
daughter, thou hast left us Ijeliind, us old jieople, un- 
worthy of such glory; thou hast torn thyself fiway from 
thy father and mother, and departed. Not indeed of 
thine own will, but thou wast adied; thou ilidst follow 
a voice that called. We mart remain orphans and for- 
lorn, old and luckless and poor; misery will glorify it- 
self in ua. my lady, thou hast left ub here that we 





i go from door to door and through the streets in 

erty and sorrow; we pray thee to remember us 

rhere thou art, and to provide for the poverty tliat 

we Iiere endure. The sun wearies U8 with his great 

^^cat, the air with its coldness, and the frost with 

^HtA torment. All these things afHict and grieve our 

^Bbiserahle earthen Ixxlics; hunger is lord over us, and 

^Kpe ean do nothing against it. My well-beloved, 1 pray 

^Hhce to visit us since thou art a vaU)mus woman and a 

lady, since thou art settled forever in the place of delight 

and blesstnlness, there to live and be foiwer wilh| our 

Ivoni, 1'hou seest him with thine eyes, thou s|)eakest to 

him with tliy tongue, pray to him for us, entreat him 

that he favor us, and therewith we shall be at rest." 

Chalchihuitlicue or Chalchiuhcyeje is described by 
Clavigero as the goddess of water and the mate of Tla- 
loc. She liad other names relating to water in its dift'er- 
ent 8tatcs. as Apozonallotl and Acuecuejotl. which mean 
the swelling imd fluctuation of water; Atlacamani. or 
the storms excited thereon; Ahuic and Aiauh, or its 
motion, now to one side, now to the other; and Xixiqui- 
pUihui. the alternate rising and falling of the waves. 
The Tlasttiltecs called her Matlalcueje, tliat is 'clothed 
in u green roljc;' and they gave the same name to the 

ligliest mountain of Tlascala, on whose summit are found 
OMJ stormy clouds whicli generally burst over the city 
of Puebla. To that summit the Tlascaltecs ascended 
to jjerform their sacrifices, and offer up their prayers. 
This is the very same goddess of water to whom Tor- 
quemoda gives the name of Ilochiquetzal, and Boturini 
that of Macuilxochiquetzalli." 

Of the acciiracy of the assertions of this last sen- 
tence I am by no means certain; Ik>turini and Tor- 

uemttihi both describe their goddess of water wilh- 
t giving any support thereto. Hoturini sayn that 

n JGmgthorowtk'B Mrx. Ai^ig., vol. vU.. pp. S. 3G, vul. v., pp. 459-2; 
SmMa^um, JJitl. 0<n.. ton. i.. lib. i., pp. S-9. lib. ii.. pp. 78-9; Um. ii., ]ib. 


«i., pp. is&-t91. 

I, Storia AiU.Jel Mmieo, toaa. U., p. 16. 



she was raetnphorically willed by the Mexicans the 
goddess of the Petticoat of Precious Stone8, — chal- 
chihuites, as it would appear from otlier authorities, 
being meant, — and that she was represented with 
large pools at her feet, and symbolized by certain 
reeds that grow in moist places. She was jjar- 
ticularly honored by fishermen and others wliose trade 
connected them with water, and great ladies were ac- 
customed to dedicate to her their nuptials — pruljably, 
as will be seen immediately, because this go(.ldeKS had 
much to do with certain lustral ceremonies perfonned 
on new-lxn-n children,'^ 

Many names, writes Torquemada, were given to this 
goddess, but that of Chalcliihuitlicue wa^ the most oum- 
nion and usual ; it meant to say, ' i>etticoat of water, of 
a shade between gi-een and blue/ that is, of the color of 
the stones calieil cbalchihuites." She was the com- 
panion, not the wife of TIaloc, for indeed as our author 
affirms, the Mexicans did not think so grossly of their 
gods and giiddesses as to marry them." 

According to Sahagun, Clialchihuitlicue was the gister 
of the Thdoej*. She was honored because she had power 
over the waters of the sea and of the rivers to drown 

n BotuHni. Jdra, pp. 25-6. 

» ' The stones called chnlchiuila b; the M«xic&nii (and written Tmrioaslj 
thniehibtks, eftatcUihuis, kui) cuichihuis, by tLe chruniclera) wen estrtanrd of 
high vjUuc by all the Cvntra] American auil Mexican naCiona. Tliey vfn 
generally of RTeen quartz, jfide. or tbe ntonc known as niarfrj de Esttfrmtiio 

TbeyoddtTisof walor. aiiioDyst tbf Moxiciiun. borc tho name »j( Chatri,i%tU- 

euyt, tbe woman u( Lbe '.'Afiir/iniiKi, und the Dfune of Chalch'xuihnjHm wM 
often applied to tbe city of Tlaxcalla, from a bcanttfnl fouDtain of water 
found near it, *tbe color of which/ according to Torqcemada, *waf 
between blue and green." ' Sq\i\eT in Paiaeia, Carta, p, 110, note 15. In 
tbe tmnie work p. 53, we find mention made by Falacio of an idul ap- 
pun-utly rcprcwutiny Clinlrbihuitlii^uu: * Very near here, in a little TiUa^ 
called l.'ontiiu, in tlit* iieii;liVnirhr>od of wbieli is a lake ['■Tbi.t Inkc i.sdi«luit 
two leagilrH to tbe fidutbward of the prt-ncut cunHidc-rabk- tuwn of ii'uafrjtfffut, 
from which it tiUtea U« name, Im^^m <it Huatrput" — Uvatcoialn 1. xilnatrd 
on the flank uf the Tol^anu. Ita water lit bad; it ta deep, and fiill of ray- 
luauH. In ita middle there are two email islaudtt. The ludiaua rt^tird tor 
lake an an timrle uf niin-li nolhoritT... I learned that cerlain nft-iocs and 
mutattoH of an edjocfut putnt*" had been therp [on the iHlanila], and had 
found a great idul of htmie, in tbi- form uf a wumiiu, and some objecta wliicb 
bad been offered in saeritf'ce. Near by were found aomo Btonm called cAai- 

■' TorqumMda, Monarq. Ind , ton. u., p. i7. 


that went down to them, to raise tempests and 
whirlwinds, and to lx)ats to foniider. They 
woi-shiped her all those that dealt in water, that wont 
aliout helling it from canoes, ur i>ed(Ued jar.s of it in the 
market. They reprej*ented this godtiess ixa a woman, 
jMuntetl her face yellow, save the forehead, which was 
ol\en hhie, and hnng i*onnd her neck a collar of pre- 
cious stonea fmin w hich dei>endetl a medal of gold. On 
her head was a cit)wn of ligltt blue pajjer, with plumes of 
preen feathers, and tassels that fell to the najw of her neck. 
j Her ear-rings were of tunjiioisc wrought in masaic. Tier 
J clothing wiis a shirt, or upper lx)dy-garnient, clear blue 
I petticoiUs with fringes from which hjuig marine shells, 
I and white sandals. In her left hand she held a shield, 
J and a lejif of the broad round white water-lily, eddied titla- 
1 cuezoimr* In her right hand she held as a sceptre a vessel 
j in the shape of a cross, or of a monstnuice of the Catholic 
I Church. This godtless, together with Chicomecoatl, 
! goddess of provisions, and Vixtocioatl, goddess of sidt, 
I was held in high veneration by kings and lords, for they 
' Mud that these three 8Up|>ortod the common people so 
that they could live and multiply.^ 

Chalchihuitlicue was especially connected with certain 
' ceremonies of lustration of children, resembling in many 

I o ^MflgiMpoiwn. ninfa tH onenufar, flor de ycnui Ae asna. MoHna, Vocab- 

^^^rio. The Abb^ Bnifwenr uddit. on wtmt ntithoritT Ilmrc not been able 
^^HUnd, that tbii leaf was omnroent«d mitb ^'uUku flagx. llitii. Oes Xat. Civ., 
^^Hd- i., "p. ^24. He oUds in n not« lo this puimngt-. wbnt in ver^ tnic, that. 
^^HaiTAnt IxtlilxoflittI, et apri^ Ini Vejrtia. la dficBiK- dc-t^ f-mix itaroit t-ti' adoii-o 
^Hpqs In lorroe d'nne greDouillo, faite d'nue stnle rnicmiide, H qui, snJTaiit 
fztltlxocbiU. rxiBtait Miror? an trn)p«dc la conqiU-to dc Alcxioo. I.a fli>nle 
Vnair ador^e wtui In fonat unique d'ane gri-uouille ^tntt la tcnv.* (8ee 
tfaia Tol. p. 351. note 4.) Gomoja. JIis(. Cont/ Mtx., fol, 3at>, fcnja that tha 
flgnre of a frofE wait b«ld to W the tjuddcKti »f liKbeti: ' £titre Ion fdolos. . . fh~ 
Utu d de la niniu. A la cuul i«iiiku \n)r diuaa d«l peHcado.' Molulinia ex- 
tendt thia laat statcmcDt iin futluwH. The H«xicaUR Imd iikdrt hv myi. i\x 
Sta^foiaia. Cot. de Doe., Ujta. i , p. 'M, ' dc lofl peacadoH ^.Tandes }- de los la- 
gutos de atjua, hnata sapcxi y ratiau, t de otroK pt-ctH gnitidea, y eatoa dcviiiu 
[Oc rna lo« djows del pmcadu. l>e un pueblo d« In lagima d« Ui'xiro 
t ODos f4olo8 d« eatoa p«M?ra. que eran unos pec«« beehoa de piedni. 
; V dMpuca volrieudo per olli pidieivulea pan comer alipuioB pecva, 
revpanaUron qua babian Ilevadu rl dioa del pencado y qae no podiau lo- 
mar |m"«««.' 

I' Kiamhorough'a Mnc. Antig., vol. vii., pp. G-fi, 36; Sahoifun. Itui. Gtn., 
torn, i . lib. i., pp. 0-10, lib. ii., p. 81; Amer. Ethnol. Soe., frdnMc^ Tot. i.. 
pp. M3, 35'». 

Vou in. 34 



points baptism among Christians. It would seem tha 
two of these lustrations were practiced upon every iii-j 
fant, and the first took place immediately upon iti* birtb 
When the midwife hmi cut the umhiHc4il cord of tin 
child, then she washed it, and while wa^^hing it said 
varying her address according to its eex; My st>n, n^l 
preach now thy mother, ChalchihuitUcue, the goddess of 
water; may she see good to receive thee, to wash theCy 
and to put away from thee the filthiness that thou takt4 
fmm thy father and mother; may she see good to puriljj 
thine heart, to make it good and clean, and to insttif 
into thee good hahits and manners. 

Then the midwife turned to the water itf»elf and 8t»ke:1 
Most compassionate lady, Chalchihuitlicue, here has come' 
into the world thb thy servant, sent hither by our 
father and mother, whose nnmes arc Ometecutli and 
OmecioatI," who live on the ninth heaven, which is tbe 
place of the habitation of the gods. We know not what 
are the gifts that this infant brings with it; we kn(»w 
not what was given to it before the beginning of the 
world; we know not what it is, nor what mi*<chief aiid 
vice it brings with it taken from its father and niolhor. ^ 
It is now in thine hands, wash and cleans it as thou kium- J 
est to be neoeswiry; in thine hands we leave it. PuppBJ 
it from the filthiness it inherits from its father and i!»j 
mother, all spot and detilenient let the water CArry a^*-ay| 
and undo. See good, our lady, to cleanse and puriiyl 
its heart and life that it may lead a quiet and jHraceablel 
life in this world ; for indeetl we leave this crcattirc in 
thine hands, who art mother and lady of the gods, and 
alone worthy of the gift of cleansing that thou has heldj 
from before the b^inning of the world; see good to d<i 
as we have entreated thee to tliis child now in thy pn^-j 

Then the midwife spake again; I pray thee to roceive^ 
this child here brought before thee. This said, the mid- 
wife took water and blew her breath upon it, and gnv« 
to taste of it to the baVie, and touched the babe with i^ 

*« Se« this vol., p. 58, note 15. 



on the breast and on the top of the head. Then she 
Kiid: My well-beloved son. oi* dnuplitor, H]»proach here 
thy mother and father, ChalchihuitUcue and Chalchiliui- 
tlatonac; let now this goddess take thee, for she has to 
bear thee on her phoulders and in her arms through this 
world. Then the midwife dipjK-d the child into water 
and said: Enter, my son, into the water that is cidled 
ptajnatiac find tuspalac-^ let it wonh thee; let him cleanse 
ttiee that is in every place, let him see pood to put away 
from thee all the evil that thou hast carried with thee 
fi-om Viefore the b<^inning of the world, the evil that 
thy father and thy mother have joinetl to thee. Hav- 
ing so washed the creature, the midwife then wrapped 
it up, luUl^ef<^tinp it the while as follows: pivcious 
Ftone, O rich feather, O emerald, O si\pp!iiro, thou wert 
shaped where abide the great god and the great gtMldess 
that are a)x)ve tlie heavens; created and fonncd thou 
wert by thy mother and father, Ometecutli antl Oni(*ci- 
oatl, the celestial woman and the celestial man. Thou 
hoKt come into this world, a place of many toils and 
troubles, of intemperate heat nnd intem|)erate a^ld and 
wind, a place of hunger and thirst, of weariness and of 
tparH; of a verity we cannot say that tluH world i.s other 
tliaii a place of weeping, of sadness, of vexation, lie- 
faold thy lot, weariness and weeping and tears. Thou 
hai*t come, my well-beloved, rejx>se then and tnke here 
thy reat; let our Ix>nl that is in every place provide for 
and supj¥>rt thee. And in saying all these things the 
mid w iff spake softly, as one that prays. 

The «econd lustration or ba]itism, usually took place 
on the fifth day after birth, but in every case the astrolo- 
gers and diviners were consulte<l. nnd if tlie sign.s were 
not propitioiiH, the baptism was jK»stix)ne<l till w day of 
pood fdgn came. The ceremony, when tlie child was a 
boy. l)egan by bringing to it a little shield. lx>w, and 
arrowH; of which arrows there were four, one pointing 
toward e«ch of the four points of the world. There 
were also brought a little shield, Iww, and arrows, made 
of ptuste or dough of wild amiu-anth tfeeds^ and u l)ottage 



of bonns and toft:*tcd maize, aiid a little breech-clout and 
blanket or mantle. The ixjor in such cases had no more 
tiian the little shield, bow, and arrows, topetiier witli wme 
tamales and toiwted maize. When the child was a girl, 
there were brought to it, instead of mimic weapons, cer- 
tjiin woman's implements and tools for spinning and 
wea\'ing, the spindle and distaff, a little shirt and petti- 
coats. These things being prepared, suiting the sex of 
the infant, its parents and relatives assembled before 
sunrise. When the sun rose the midwife asked for a fl 
new vessel ftdl of water; and she took the child in her 
hands. Tlien the by-stjuiders curried all the implenienis 
ftn<i utensils already mentioned into the court-yaitl of 
the house, where the midwife set the face of the child 
towanl the west, and )i(|>ake to the child saying: 
grandson of mine, O eagle, tiger, valiant mnn, fl 
thou hast come into the world, sent by thy father and 
mother, the great I^ord and the great lady ; thou wast 
created and begotten in thy house, which is the place of 
the supreme gods that are alx>ve the nine heavens. Thou 
art a gilt from our son Quetzalcoatl, who is in every 
place; join thyself now to thy mother, the goddess of 
water, Chalchihuitlicue. 

Tlien the midwife gave the child to taste of the water. 
putting her moistened fmgers in its mouth, and said: 
Take this; by this thou hast to live on the earth, to 
grow and to flourish; through this we get all things tliat 
supiwrt existence on the eartli; receive it. Then with 
her moistened fingers she touched tlie breast of the child. 
iukI said : B<'hold the pure water that washes and 
cleanses thine heart, that removes all lilthineKs; receive 
it; may the goddess see good to purifv iumI cleanse thine 
heart. Then the midwife |)oured water u|)on the lunid 
of the child saying: O my grandst>n. my son, take this 
.water of the Lord of the world, which is t!»y life, in- 
vigorating and refreshing, washing and elwuising. 
pray that this celestial water, blue and light blue, inftv 
enter into thy l3ody and there live; I pray that it may 
destroy in thee and put away from thee all the tluii^''* 



FBATEh tu 



evil and adverse that were given thee before the begin- 
Tiinfr of the world. Into tliine hand, O goddesu of water, 
are all mankind put, bectiusie thou art our mother Chal- 
chihuitlicue. ilavinjr so washed the body of the child 
and **o spoken, the midwife said: Wheresoever tiiou art 
in this child, O thou hurtful thin<r, Ix'jione. leave it, jHit 
thyself apart ; for now does it live anew, and anew is it 
born: now again i.s it ]>urified and cleansed; nt»w a>;ain 
18 it shajwil and engendered by our mother the goddess 
of water. 

All these things being done and spoken, the midwife 
lifted the child in Ixith her hands toward heaven and 
ttid: O Lt»rd, behold here thy creature that thou hiust 
Bent to this place of |min. of affliction, of an<;iilsh. to this 
world. Give it, O Lord, tliy gifts and thine inspini- 
tion, forasmuch as thou art the great g<xi, and luist with 
theo the great gtxldess. Then the midwife stoojx-d again 
and set the child upon the earth, and raided it the second 
time toward heaven, saying: O our lady, who art 
mother of the heavens, who art called Citlalatonac," to 
thee I direct my voice and my cry; 1 pray thee to in- 
spire with thy virtue, wluit virtue soever it may Ije, to 
give and to instil it into this crcature. Then the mid- 


[■O Het> note 34. ' Etitre Irwi DindCB qne rtttos cif-gnn M«^xicHnn8 6iigieron 
', y wr maioreH, que otruH, hit^mn dos; viia lltumulit'Ditictt'cublli, que 
quirrv dreir, doH liiilul|j:<Mi, <i lutvallLTu.*,; y el <itn> lliituiiriin Oiiifi ilniull, (\ae 
niliorr Uurir. don tuu^<-rcA: Ioa tiimlcH, por olntM uiuubri-M. fiKTon ll.tniiiiloii, 
ClUiklAlunnf. qnt] quicrc dtMnr, Estrt^llu uae rL-NplaDd«n.\ 6 r4.-Ki)Iiutc]<'ci<>n(«; 
ir*l otro, Cliljuicae, qat) quit-re dorir, Faldi-IIin Ai- la EHtntlLi: .... KKtuH don 
Vitmrm flii({Uloa de eita GputiUdud. cn-mn bc-r *^1 viio Hutiibrp, y pI ntro 
lioiCvr; y eomo k doa nAtDra]frn«i iliKlintiix. y dn diHlMit<m wxus inn unmbrn* 
tnn .-.iiii" j»or los DomlireH ilirh(M pa.rc(>L>. Dy esUiH diiH DiiiHcH, (o [xir 
u- Oemoirios) tavirmn crr^dn <^Ht4>H untiimles, qnt< rfMdi>iii l-u vna 

Ci ' . I ' ■«*, MMiitJldn Bobr** Ioi» nrnr« Ciflo*, rain mit- lo fra mnu n\t ■. r mj- 

pr«tu**4l« •'U&m: y que en ■qaelLnf^iudml go^alian de ti^doH lottdel^ilfaituti^iii* 
abWa y poiwlan loaiaabMriqae^nMdvfl Miitido; yd<'rinu.qiied«Adi> nlli itrril^jin 
lift eniii nijuininii inft^rinr dol Miindo, j tiidci Aqiu-llu 
•■, iiiH<ii<-ndo t-n tndas lim Aiiiinas, qn« 4-rintiiin Uxlnit 
.:.:, litis, qtip veinoH avtr eu lodtut Ins Piiiitnnis riU'(<iii!d>-i>, 
i> J ' ': y qiip cniHnbitT) de todo. como por uatitrtilet^n l<v» ci>nvrni«. 

at . Je nqael na nnifiito Iar commi criniW. . . . Dc mittipm. quo fioKun 

lo . I tnui I'l/irij de fiitriidtfr. que t^uinn opinlun. que Icitque r(^im. 

M kI Muudo, vntii dot) (cuii^ieue & luilx-rl vu DiuH. y vuu l>iuiut. 
- r'l vuo nnt> t-m *:\ DioH Uoutbr«. obrnba m tudo v\ gvDero do 
y t>I r>tro, qiif t-m In Dioftu. crinbn, y obr.ibn cu todo el gt-ncro 
Ii-:„. :(!>.' 'i'or^utmuda, Monan/. Ind., torn. U., p. 37. 



wife stooped again and set the child on the ground, 
rained it the third time toward heaven, and said : our 
Lord, god and goddess celestial, that are in the heavens, 
behold this creature ; see good to pour into it th^' virtue 
and thy hreath, so that it may live upon the earth. 
Then a fourth and last time the midwife set the babe 
U{)on the ground, a fourth time she liDed it toward 
heaven, and she sj)ake to the sun and said : O our Lord, 
Sun, Totonametl, TlaUecutli, that art our mother and our 
father, l>ehold this creature, which is like a bird of pre- 
cioiiH pliuniige, like a zaqnan or a quechtU;''^ thine, our 
I^rd the Sun, he is; thou wlio art valiant in war niiJ 
painted like a tiger in black and gray, he is thy creatui'C 
and of thine estate and patrimony. For this he was 
born, to serve thee and to give thee food and drink: he 
is of the family of warriors and soldiers that fight on 
the field of buttle. 

Then the midwife took the shield, and the bow and 

K <^BqiiantoioU, paxaro d« pluma amarillo y rica. Jfofina, FocofnilaH^' 
AAforititiu.lo BtDtlaiDHtitn liowf Tt-r. tbin bint \h ni>l ohh in any wav ivm&ri- 
ablo fur iHuuiagu, !mt ik iJeuUPHl wilh ihe liurun (lt'Brril>eil b,v ClnvigvrD, and 
ia here tMed an aii example of a vigilnnt and active soldier. BtiRtamaiite (b 
a uul« Ui SoArtflim, Hid. Gm., torn. ii.. lib. vi., mi. lW-5) vrrit*^: Tftrwa, 
ot thin bird repeated mention hnn been ninde in this Iiint»rr. for the iDdiJUw 
TiXfNl it fur ameansMcompumMon or Kimjlfin thiir H(>f<'i-bi.-». It iftau rarlr- 
riKin)^ binl (madnigndnr), and ha.s nnlhing miUtbli' lu iti« plntnage or in ib 
voici-, Iriit only in ilK ImbitM. I'bis binl i% ou<.> of I be Initt to go to reel tl 
night find oni* of the lirHtto annninice thf> coming sun. An bonr W-forcdnf- 
broak a bird of Uii*i»;i<^H. havinc [wxtittd Ibi- iiiylii wilh luanr of hi* fri* 
lowD on any bmnvh, begins to rntl tbem. villi n uhritl cleur Doti> Hut 1)« 
keeps repeaUnK iu a glud touc tilt aorne of tbf lu n-ply. Thf tiartm it. aboal 
the aize of a Hftarrow, and vt^ry similar in color to Ibt- bnutiQ>j < i-alaudni^ 
bat more tnarvelloas iu Lta huliita. It Is a M>eiul bird, eacli trr« i-- a tovnuT 
many nests. One tMeuaplaya the part of ehic-f nndgnardH tbe rf«t: liispoit 
ia in'tbe top of tho tree, wbence. from time to tiiDf , hv tlu's froui uest to bmI 
nttering bi^ note:^; and while be is visiting a nest all within are ail4>nt. It 
be aeit any bird of another ttpeciea approaching the tree he aalliea out nrott 
the invader and ^ritb beak and nin^n compels a retreat. Rut if bes»»A 
man or any lar>>f objpi^t advaui^in>;. be fltea acreftining tn a ufighUmof 
tree, and, meeting other birdn of bis tribe fl>ins homeward, lu- obliof«tluf> 
to retire bv chau^iuK the timti of hia uute. When tho ditu^t-r ia over lir'^ 
tnrna to hw tree itud bcgius his roiinil* as t>efon>. from nir»t to iienl. Tzm*"* 
aliound ill Michoacim. nud to their obsorvattona regnrdiuR tht-m thi- IiidtiJ'* 
am doubtle^iH iudvbted for many hiiilH aud oompanBOiu ii|>)ili»l to i)o)ilt''[* 
diligent in dutv- Tht> fitirrlnttl. or Unubifutchott is a hiri*o iiqiiutie bin) *'''> 
liliiiiiiit,'c of a Waiiitfnl xfarlol i-olor. or a reddiah whitt* . t'H'cpt tlul et '^ 
nc(!k, whii^h t>t blacW. Its homo is on the aeaHthore aud by thi* rivL-r ImD^ 
where it feeda on live flah, never luucbiug doad flL«h. &e« L'iaviffiro, ts^o'^ 
AiU. M MtsHco, torn. i.. pp. tf7, 91-3. 





the dart that were there prepared, and ppake to the Sun 
after this sort: Behold ht-re the iii.strumonts of war 
which thou art served with, which thou dehghtcst in; 
iin[>art to Uiia babe tlie gift that thou art wont to give 
to thy soldiers, enabling theni to go to thine house of 
delights, where, having fiiUen in battle, they n'wt and arc 
joyfu! and are now witli thee praising thee, ^^'ill this 
poor little nolnxly ever l)e one of them? Have pity u|)un 
Liin, O clement Lord of ours. 

During all the time of these ceremonies a great torch 
candlewood was burning; and when these ceremonies 
were accomplished, a name was given to the child, that 
of one of his ancestors, so that he might inherit the for- 
tune or lot of him whose name was so taken. This name 
wad applied to the child by the midwife, or priestess, 
who |)erformed the baptism. Suppose the name given 
was Yautl. Then the midwife began to shout and to 
talk like a man to the child: O Vautl, valiant man, 
take thifi sliield and this dart; these are lor thy amuse- 
ment, they are the delight of the sun. Then she tied 
the little mantle on its shoulders and girt the breech- 
clout about it. Now all the lx>ys of the wanl wei-e as- 
sembled, and at this stiige of the ceremony they rushe«l 
into the! where the l>aptism hail taken place, and 
representing .soldiers and forra^ers, they took food that 
was there prepared for them, which was called 'the 
navel-string,' or ^ navel,' of the child, and set out with 
it into the streets, shouting and eating. They crietl 
Yautl, Yautl. get thee to tlie field of l>attle, put thyself 
into the thickest of the fight; Yautl, Yautl. thine olHce 
is to make glad the sun and the earth, to give them to 
and to drink; upon thee has fallen the lot of the 
Idiers that are eagles and tigers, that die in wur, that 


are now makin;: merrv and 

before the sun. 

And they cried again: O soldierN. men of war, come 
hither. C4)me to eat of the navel of Yautl. Then the 
midwife, or priestess, ttjok the child into the house, and 
depjirted. the great torch of candlewood being carried 


burning before her^ and this was the last of the cere- 

f Kingaboroufth'a Hex. Anti^., voL t., pp. 479-183, yoI. ■vii., pp. 151-9; 
Saha/jtm, Uisi. Gfn.. torn, ij., lib. vi,, pp. '2l&''2'il. Acconliug to Home wtt- 
Uiors, and I think Ltoturini for one, Uud biiptism wiu su])jiletu«utetl by naM> 
iog tii« child tbrou);li firo. Tbore v»a «ucli n <?ercutuuy; however, it wis 
DOtooaneetfd with tlmt of bAptiNQt. but it tooli p1ni^i> on tbit liuit night of 
«»ery fourth year, b«foro the fivo iiuliicky daya. On thf hiKt uigbt uf tfrenr 
fourth year, parents ohoHo HOfbi»ar<*nt» for thf^ir chiUlrctti boru during the 
tfareu pivcediug years, and thtwt god-fiither» and ^lHl-Illolhenl ituHwa the 
childr<'n ov^r. or tn*ar lo, or nl>oTit the fliimo of n prepared Are (rodenrlos por 
]aH Uamns d<>l fiu'^o que t^niun apim-jmlo para ^Mtn, que en el hitjn bo diM 
luMranj. TbfT also norcd the ciiildreu'ft earn, vhteb canned no ntitolt Op- 
roar (HabitL ^in voct-rin du miirba<'ho8 y ninchuchntt jxir i-l i\hu^'Tnniicrjto 
de las orejns) Bsiiiay wH be iina((iiie<l. Tbi'V clasped the childr*^ii by the 
t«mplo« and lifted tbprn np ' to maketlieni grow;' when-fore they called the 
ioost iscaiii. 'growiDK.' They finished by gtviug the little things pnlijiia 
in tiny cups, and for thift the fenst ttos cnltt^d the * dninkenne!ttt of childieo.' 
5aAa<7i(n. IfiM. Orn.. torn. i.. lib. ii., pp. 18^-192. lu the Spi't/ntioHt dttU 
T\xvoie del Ctxlke M-^xtcojio (VotJcano), tav, xxxi., in Kin'p(''orou(/h' g J/«, 
An/iq., rol. v., p. 18L, tb^re is given a description of the watt-r baptiiim dif- 
fering somewhat from tb it givou in the toxt. It runs as fullows: 'They 
took some Ucitlc ; and having a large vessel of water near them, they made 
the leaves of Che ficitio into a banch. and dippf-d it into the wate-r, with 
which they sprinkled tlic diild; and after fumigating it with incunKe. they 
^avo it-a imme. t:^kf:i) from the sign on which it was boru; and tlivy put into 
itM hand n shield mid nrrow, if it was a boy, which is wLat tbe tigiire of 
Xiuiilliitl dfMKiteH, \r]i(i hcrt; represents (hu koA uf war; Ihey a)»o nttered 
over the child certiiin pniyt-ni in the manner of dcprt'^ations, thot Iw 
might become a bmvi>, iutrrpid, and riMirn^rons iimu. The offt^ring which 
bis parratH earriifl to the tcn)[)lo the elder prie>tts took niid divideil with the 
other abildreu who wltv iu th« tunnde, who ntu with it thruugh thn whole 
city.' Mendifti, Jl'utt. A'<-/m., p. 107, nguiii di-Kcribi-s this ritf, iu snlwitAuee 
OS folldwrt: 'They had a sort of bnptiKni: thnn wh<m thu i-hild wns a few 
days old. an old wnmnn was called in, who took the child out into the court 
of the house where it wan born, nml washed it a certain number of limes 
with the wine of the country, and as many times afcain with water; then 
ehti put It name on it. and performed certain ceremonieA with thu umbilical 
cord. Thi>Nf^ nam{^ were taken from the idols, or from the feunis tbnt 
fell about that time, or from a l>cfiKt or bird.' See fniiher HxjtHctirifttt 
dn la Vi)lea:inn <lt .l/oid'iia, pt iii., in Kinifniforomuh's M^jt. Aftiq . yoI. 
v.. pp. 90-1; Tortjuematla, J/^nw^. Jmi.. torn, ii., pp. -145. 4J3-4t>8; (7a- 
vlTfro. Stnrin Ant. dei .l/ctsJc-i, torn, ii., pp. 85-9; IliifnUtldt. X'un dn 
CordilliTr.t. torn. ii.. pp. 3ll, 318; Oamtt. JJos J'lrdras, pt ii., pp. 
S9-41; PrrscM's ifar.. vol. iii.. p. 385; iirirUon't .Mvtlm, pp. 12i. i:«; 
H^iler, Amnnkan'vicht Vrrtli'/iown. }). 652; liinrt. La TWra Trtuv^-Trr, p. 
874. Mr Tylor, speakim; of Mt-xico. in his ArMhuac, p. 279. say*: 
'Children were sprinkled with water when their mimps wi-rs given 
lo them. This is certainly true, though thu tttntoiiicnt that they 
believed that the process purlHed them from or](;iniil sin in pi-obttbly 
a monkish Iic*ti<.<ii.' rnrtbcr miding, however, hns nhott-u Mr Tylor the 
InjiHlice of thif* judgment, and in liis masterly liitfst and ^Teah-*! work isee 
I'riiniiifir CuUMrr. vcd. ii,, pp, 4i'J-3G), he writf* ns follows: "J'ht* last group 
of ritus wliofti! ctitirsu llmiufih reliaious history is lo W outlined berr. takes 
in the varied dramittin ncia of ceremonial piinlicatinn or Lustmliun. With 
all thu obHcurity iiud intricacy du«^ to age-long modiflcation, \hv i<riuii(ivi> 
tiiouglitwhiob undcrli<^!*liieK«tceronionics is still open to view. It i>4lhi*trao- 
aitimi frum pniclit-al to BvrolKdic eleansinp, from removal of bodily impurity 
to deliverance from invisible, Bpiritual, and at lust moral evil, (See this vol. p. 


The goddess (or god. as floiae have it) connected by 
the Mexicans witli ciu*nal love was variously cjiUed Tla- 
zoUiXMJtl, Ixouina, Tlacl(]iiani, >vith other naineA, and, 
efi{)eciaUy it would ap|)ear in Thuscala, Xochi<iuetzal. 
She had no very prouiinent or honorable place in tlie 
mindw of tlie people and waa much more clonely allied to 
the Roman Cloacina than to the Greek Aplirodite. 
Camarpo. the TIawaltec, gives much the most agreeal)le 
and pleading account of her. Iler home was in the 
ninth he4iven, in a pleasant garden, watered by innu- 
merable fountains. whei*e she passed her time spinning 
and weaving rich stuffs, in the midst of delights, minis- 
tered to by the inferior deities. Xo man was able to 
approach her, Itut she had in her service a crowd of 
dwarfs, buffoons, and hnni'bb;it:ks. who diverted her with 
their songs and dance.'^, and acted as me.s.sengers to such 
goils tis she took a fancy to. So beautii'ul was she painted 
that no woman in the world cotdd eijual her; and the 
place of her habitation was called Imnotamuhutuiicliun} 
Xochttlycacan, C'hitamibuany, Cicuiniauimepaniuhcan, 
and Tuhccayan, that is to stiy ' the pbu-e of Tamohuanj 
the place of the tree of llowers Xociiitlificaean, where the 
9tr is purest, beyond the nine heavcTis.' It was further 
Mxd, tliat whoever had been touched by one of the 

lift). . . .In old Mexico, the first act of eorpmoninl lustzAtion took place at 
Virth. Tin* unrsc waHhed the iufaot in l)i<> nniite of the wnttr-godiless. tu ro> 
movr Ihf iriipoiity of itst>irth, to olfuriM it^hcbrt utidgiw itu kckmI and pri^ 
fi' ' \' '.' [ibUiwin^oii walcrin her ri^htbuud she WAHliod itn|{iitu, wuruiiig 
it iiin^ triuls And luiMtrit'K and hdmrx. rttid jtmyitig tho iiiv))>jble 

1}: .ij : ->'t ud upou the wiilt-r. (o cleaiisv thu child from tiin nud (oulurHB, 
■ad to dclivf r it from mitifurtiiuo. Thu n^t-oud not took {>iA<N> some four 
dajs btvr. nulwti th« lutrokif^erH postponfd it. At n frtitive ^nth^riui;. niaid 
flrcn krpi iili(tht from ihfl Hint n-ri'iuoiiy, iho uunu) uiidrcKHfd th« child Kput 
bjr the |^Ih into thin tnuX nud doleful world, Imdo it to ri-fcivu (he lif> -^nving 
«»l«r. and wnnht^l it, driving nnt evil rnim p»rh lindi and oflTeriiiu to tho 
daitics ap{ioitit('d pnyerK for virtiiu and 1'K-»Miii)^. It -nnh lh*-ii thiit lht< toy 
fnatraiDcuts of war or cnifl nr honnebold lidmr urcre pluipd in th-.- h<:>y'n or 
gtri*« band (n mtloio Biuffiilarly corresponding with nuo iikuuI iu China), 
and the other rhildrfU, iuhtrurl^d by tboir pnrputK. Rnve thti ncw-ooincrUa 
ehild-nAmr. bfrf ni;nin to l>e reidaoedby anoth<-r nt mnnlioodor wonuinbood. 
Thorr iH iiMtbirit.' tiiilikcly in th« atatcment that 1hi< child was alao inuu«4 
ttmx ti3i-i(h.ou;;hlhL> fire, bultb*.- aathority tbiH ih fiiveii on la not anfflcient. 
Thn rr i.:i>itL« rlitini'ii-r of ablution tM wi^ll hIkiwii in Mi'xico br ibi form- 
log part '.if the dnily lu^rvico of Iho )irief>tK. .\zti^r life ^nden as U bad 
b^fim, wilb thin rercmonini luHtratiuu; it waN ouu of tiiw fuiuTid rpremoDiea 
towfriuklo thv h«ad ot Ibc corpao with 1L« Joatrul water uf Lhia lift).* 



flowers that grow in the beautifnl paalen of Xochiqiiet- 
lal should love to t)»e end, should love fiuthfully.^ 

Boturini gives a legend in which this goddess figures 
in a very characteristic way. There was a man oallKl 
Yilppan, wliOj to win the regard of the gods made liim- 
EteU'a liermit. leaving his wife and his rrtntions, and re- 
tiring U) a desert place, there to lead a cluuste anil soli- 
tary life. In that de.sert was a jrreat stone or rock, 
called Tehuehuetl, dedicated to i>enitential act.'*, wliich 
nx^k V:i[H)an a.scended and took up his al)o*le u(>i>n like 
a western Simeon Stylites. The gotl't observed all tliia 
witli attention, hut doubtful of the fuinness of purixjse 
of tJie new ifcluse, they set a spy upon him in the per- 
son of an enemy of his, named Ydotl, the word yfiott in- 
deed signifying * enemy.' Yet not even the shur[K*ucd 
eye of hute and envy could find any spot in the austere 
continent life of the anchorite, and the many women sent 
by the gods to tempt him to pleai?ure were repulsed and 
bullied. In heaven itself the chaste victories of the 
lonely saint were applauded, and it Ix^gau to l)e thought 
that he w:us worthy to lje transformed into some higher 
form of life. Then Tljizolteotl, feelinj; herself slighted 
and helil for nouj^ht, rose up in lier evil lx?auty, wrath- 
ful, contemptuous, and said: Think not. ye high and im- 
mortal gods, that this liero of yours luis the force to pre- 
serve his resolutioji before me, or that he is worthy of 
any very sublime transformation- I descend to earth, 
behold now how strong is the vow of your devotee, how 
unfeigned his «wntinence! 

That day the tlowcrs of the gardens of Xochiqnetzal 
were untended by their mistress, her singing dwarfs 
were silent, her messengers undisturbed by her bchesfts, 
and away in the desert, by the lonely rock, the 
crouching spy Yaotl saw a wondrous sight: one shaped 

'^ Cnmnrtffi. in Xrmt^lr.^ AnnalfX d€S VoynfjrA, 1843, toni. xcii-. pp. 132— 
5. *On (-^I'brait obfujae anni^e nno ftHo AoIt>DnHle *-n I'liouncur fju- »'eU« 
decssw Xorhiqurtzftl, et nne foule de ]>onp](> ite n-iiiiinaait tlann son U>ni|>ln. 
On diwuit qn'flle eUit In feinnn.' de Tlnlof le du-ii dvn ciuii. et qnp Tfxcdl- 
lipncn U Ini nvnit cnlevije ct Tftvait trmmporb't' an neuvif-me ne\. M»t' 
ln<'iieyc:iti I'-ttut lu deeRfte des niagicieiuics. Tloloo rcpoUBO qu&ud Xochi* 
qaeUal lui eut Civ eulevoe.' 




but fairer ths 


woman, but tairer than eye can conceive, ad- 
vancing toward the lean penance-withered man on 
the sacred height. Ha! tlirills not tlie liermit'ts mor- 
tified flenh with something more than surprise, while 
tlie sweet voice speaks; My brother Yap|>an, 1 the god- 
dess Tlazolteotl, amazed at thy constancy, and commiser- 
ating thy hardshi|w, come to comfort thee ; what way shall 
1 take, or what path, that 1 may get up to speak with 
thee ? The simple one did not see the ruse, he came 
down from his ]>lace and liel|K'ii tlie goddess up. Alas, 
in such a crisis, what need is there to sjxiak fiu'ther? — no 
other victory of Yapjwm was destined to be famous in 
heaven, but in a cloud of shame his chaste light went 
down for ever. And thou, sliameless one, have thy 
fierce red lips had their fill of kisses, is thy Paphian 
«oul satisfied withal, as now, riu.shwl with victory, 
thou ixkwest bock to the tinkling fovnituins. and to the 
great tree of Howeix, and t4) the far-reaching gartlene 
where thy slaves await thee in the ninth heaven? Do 
thine eyes lower themselves at all in any heed of 
the miserable disenchanted victim left crouching, 
umbled on his desecrated rock, his nights ajid days of 
Fasting and weariness gone for nought, his dreams, his 
hojies dissipated, scattered like dust at the trailing of thy 
robes? And for thee, |X)or Vappan, the troubles of this 
life are soon to end; Ysiotl, tlie enemy, has not seen all 
the^K! things for nothing; he, at least, ha^ not 1x)rne 
hunger and thirst and weariness, has not watchtnl and 

aited in vain. it avails nothing to liil the pleading 

ids, they are warm I>ut not with clasping in prayer, 
and weary but not with waving the cen.ser; the flint- 
e»ige<l miuie Ix^abt down thy feeble guard, the neck that 
TIazfdttH>tl clas|)ed is smitten tlirough, the lifw she kissed 
roll in the dust Ix'side a hetwlWss trunk. 

The giKls transformed the dejid man into a .scorpion, 
with the forearms fixed lifted up as when he depiX'cuted 
the blow of his murderer; and he cmwled under the 

»ne iiiKjn whicli he had abode. Ilis wife, whose name 
Thdtuitzin, that is to say Mhe intluuicd,' still lived. 



The implacable Yaotl sovight her out, led her to the 
st^iined with her husband's blood, detuilwl pitilessly the 
circumstances of the sin and death of the hennit, and 
then smote off her head. The gods transformed the poor 
woman into that species of scorpion called the ahcran 
encendido, and she crawled under the stone and found 
her husband. And so it comes that tradition says that 
all reddish colored scorpions are descended from Tlaliui- 
tzin, and all dusky or ash-oolored scorpions from Yup- 
pan, while both keep hidden under the atones and tlee 
the light for shame of their disgrace and punishment. 
Last of all the wrath of the gods fell on Yaotl for his 
cruelty ami premmiption in excee<Hng their comniands; 
he was transformed into a sort of locust that the Mexicans 
call tiJuKirtiih/ipuIlin,^ 

Sahagun gives a very full description of this goddess 
and Iier connection with certain rites of amfession, much 
restHubling those alroiuly dest^rilwd in sj^niking of Tez- 
cjitlipoca.* Tlie goddess hail according to our author, 
three names. The lirst was TlazoUeotl, that is to say 
* the goddess of carnality.' The second name was 
Yxcuina, which signifies four sisters, called respec- 
tively, and iii order of age, Tinc4ipan, Teicu, Tlaoo, 
Xucotsi. The thiixl and hist name of this deity was 
Tlaclquani. wliicli means ' eater of filthy things,' referring 
it is said to her function of ht^ririg aud panloniiig 
the confessions of men and women guilty of unclean 
and carnal crimes. For tliis giwldess, or these god- 
desses, liad ix>wer not only to inspire and pitivoke to 
the cominisMon of such .**ins, and to aid in their ncvoni- 
plislimont. hut also to pardon them, if they were con- 
fessed to certain priests who were also diviners and tel- 
lers of fortunes and wizards generally. In this confe.<tsion, 
however, TlazolU.'otl seems not to have been directly ad- 

W liolttrinl, /(Kn. pp. 15. fiS-fl: ' Pern, no mnnna iudignadoii Io« Dio«M 
del p«cH^lu dt* Yiii>})!iii, qut? (If la inobtidiencbi, y ntntviniitTuto de Y^itll, I* 

CNinvirtiermi en Liingjostn, tpn^ Uiiinuu Ins ludioti AhiuicirJuipitlti.: ' 'uto 

w lliinmsHO L-n iidfliuiU.* Tionltroiiiiinui, ijuf qiiiow dieir, i'firi;u rii 

Cff'tn t-sit* iinimid ptiret-P que llevii cargo cnnmgrt. pmprieilad i\f L... :.j..L,.:Kut, 
que Kiuinpru riiruuD Ium lionras. qao ban qaitudo k sua ProxintOB.' 
M Bee Uiis vol, pp. 220-5. 



I, but only the supreme deity under several of liia 

les. Thus the ])erson whom, by a stretch of courtesy, 

re may call the penitent. ha\nng nought out a confessor 

Dm the cla**** above mentioned, addressed thatfunctiou- 

ry in the*»e words: Sir, I wish to fii)j)roac'h the all- 

)werful god, protector of all, Yoallieh(.vnt!, or Tezcat- 

lilXKia; 1 wish to confess my sins in secret. To this the 

^Mriz-ard, or priest, replied: Welcome, my mn; the thing 

^Biou wouUist do is for thy good and profit. This said 

^Ktrwarched the divining book, tonahimatL to see what 

^^^y Avould l>e tnttst 0])[x>rtune for hearing the confe.^sion. 

^H*hat day come, the penitent bamglit a new miit, and 

white incense called copaUi, and wood for the fire in 

which the incense was to be burned. Sometimes when 

he wjm a very noble personage, the piiest went to his 

hoiute to confess him, but as a general nile the cei-emony 

took place at the residence of the priest. On entering 

this house the penitent swept very clean a |)ortlon of the 

floor and spread the new mat there for the confessor to 

fi«it himsi'lf uiwn, and kindled the wooil. The priest 

then tbrt'w the cojmiI ii|X)n the fire and siiid: C) Lord, 

thou that art the father and the mother of the gods and 

the mo-^t anc^ient gol.^' know that here is come thy 

vaasil and servant, weeping and with great sivlness; he 

u aware that lie has wandered from the way, that he 

has stumbled, that he has slidden, that he is siHitted 

with certain filthy sins and grave crimes worthy of deatli. 

Our Lord, very pitiful, since thou art the protector and 

I defender of all, accei>t the jwnitenoe, give ear to the an- 
niish of this thy servant and vassjil. 
I At this point the confe.ssor t(u*ned to the sinner and 
said: My son, thou art come into the presence of God, 
favorer and protector of all; thou art come to lay bare 
thy inner rottenness and nnsavoriness; thou art come to 
publish the secrets of thine heart ; see that thou fall into 
^no pit by lying unto our Lord ; strip thyself, put away 
^■11 sliame before him who is called YoiiUiehecjitl and 
^j ezcatlipoca. It is certain that thou art now in his pres- 

» See Uua vol., pp. Sl2. 320. 



enoe, although thou art not worthy to see him, neither 
will he speak with thee, for he it? invisible and imi^wliwble. 
Bee then to it how thou coraest, and with what iieart; 
fear nothing to publish thy secrets in his preeence^ give 
account of thy life, relate thine evil deeds as thou didst 
perforra them; tell all with sadness to our Lord God, 
who is the favorer of all, and whose arms are open and 
ready to embrace and set thee on his shoiildei*s. Be- 
ware of hiding anything through shame or through weak- 

Having he^ird these words the penitent took oath, 
after the Mexican fashion, to tell the trull». lie touched 
the ground witii his hand and licked off the eartli that 
adhennl to it;" then he threw coiwl in the fire, which 
was another way of swearing to tell ihe truth. Then 
he set himself down before the priest and, iniusrauch as 
he held him t(i In? the image and vicar of gcnl, he. the 
penitent, Ix'gan to speak after this fashion: O oin* I>ird 
who receivest and shelterest all, give ear to my foul 
deeds; in thy presence I strip, I put away fnun myself 
what sliameful tilings soever 1 have done. Not f'lxim tliee, 
of a verity, are hidden my crimes, for to thee all thingn 
are manifest and clear. Having thus said, the ]XMutent 
proceotled to relate his sins in the order in which tlicy 
had been committed, clearly and quietly, as in a slow and 

M Other deseriptioBs of this rite are girim with addition*! d«tailB: ' Va^ 
ban uua ccrL-muuia getiRraliiimtti en todn esia tieiTn, humbreaT mnffrrra, 
mho* y uinaa, qnv qimndo ciiLmbtm i-n algnn Ingtr duudit habia iinagmM de 
loa idoloi. una a miti:bnR. \\tego tocaban en la tiefraoon fl di-du, t Iwfl* 
le Degaban a U txtcn 6 it la lengna: ft esto natnaban oomer tiiiru. huci^udoli 
en rvvpiviiria dt! ttiia ni(iw>!i, y tndoa km qne aalian de nut oaiuis, aoiujae nt 
salipwn del imt-blo. volvicudu 4 bu ciua bacinu \o iiiiKmo, y i>or loa caminoi 
(jimndo ptiHnWn dfliint? alj^D Cn it oratorio haoiiiii lo niiniuo. j ea loeur de 
jaramento osabaD esto mlsmo. que paia afirmar qiiien (Wia mdad bartu 
esta ceremonia, y loa ^ae se querian satisfacfr del que liablalio ai decia Tf^ 
dad, dftnanuUtmnle bicicso eeta e^TVDtoDia, luogo If en-inn t-otno jnrsneMo 
. . . Ti'niim Umbten coetnmbre de hacer jnmmmto dv rniuplir nlgQU* (MmI 
quo ftp obliKftlwn, y aqnel a qnien so obUfjabaii U-a <Ummuaftbo qne faiciicarD 
jnmmoDto pani oxtar i^ratiro ae sn pnlabra y v\ jnmuipnto que hncian era «0 
esta forma: Tor vida del Sol y de uaeatra acnora la tierrs qne uo falte tn h> 
que tenjio diebo. y pnro majror aeguridad romo estn tiemi ; y Inrgo tocala 
con lu» dedira i-u U Ucrra, Uegabalcm it la Itocn j lanunluft; y aai conita tirrn 
haciendo jummentn.' KintrMtorotuih's Jtfnr. Anti^., vol. ^'ii., pp. ft»-4, l'*l; 
Saharjiin. //(■rf. (r'r't., turn, ii., lib. {., ap., pp. ijl'i, 226; Chciymi, SVfiia .4n'- 
dtl Messieo, torn, ii., p. 25. 




distinctly pronounced chant, as one that walked along a 
very fitruijrht way turninj; neither to the ri^ht hand nor 
to the \cit. "When he had done the priest annwered liirn 
18 follows: My eon, thou hast spoken helbre our Lord 
God, revealing to him thine evil works; and I shall now 
tell thee what thou hast to do. When the goddesses Civn- 
pipilti descend to the earth, or when it is the time of 
the festival of the four sister goddesses of CArnality that 
are cAlled Vxcuina. thou shalt fast four da\ s aOlicting 
thy stomach and thy mouth; this feai*t of the Yxcuina 
being come, at da\hreak thou shalt do |X'nancc suitjihle 
to thy Hins.** Through a hole piercetl b\' a luaguey-thorn 
through tiie luiddle of thy tongue thou shall pims certain 
osier-twigs called tencahiratl or tlaajtL j.Mu^sing them in 
front of tiie face and throwing tliem over the shoulder 
one by one ; or thou mayest fasten them the one to the 
otlier and so pull them through thy tongue like a long 
cord. These twigs were sometimes [)a&M.*d through a 
hole in the ear; and, wherever they were jMssed. it 
would ap|»eftr by our author that there were stinietimeH 
u«e<l of them by one penitent to the numl>er of four 
hundred, or even of eight hundred. 

If the sin seemed too light for such a puniv«hment as 
the pnv^.'diug, the priest woidd say to the |x.Miitent: My 
8on, thou shalt fai<t, thou shall fatigue thy stomach with 
hunger and thy mouth with thirst, and that for four 
days, eating only once on each day and that at notm. 
Or, the priest wwdd say to him: Thou ehalt go to offer 
pa|jer in the usual places, thou shalt make ima^res covered 
I therewith in numlKT pro|)ortionate to thy dev<»ti(iii, thou 
I shalt Ding and dance before them as custom dire(*ts. Or, 
^jgidn, be would say to him: Thou hast offended God, 

n Qaiu diffurcDt versions of thU sentence are tjtvetx by Kin^>tlKmm|{h'« 
tbd Boilmnuuilc-'* editioiui rtii{>cctivel)-. That of KinfffKtnUt'/h'ii .Mrj. A-titj , 
?ol. vU.. p. 7. readii: * (juiutdo dech^nden li la tit'mi Lu DiiiwiM Ixoiiitianip, 
la«^ dfl BuAaiu 6 en uiuuvcicndo, pnnqne tui^AH U twiiiU'nria ci>nvfiiilil« 
por loa pccftckM.' That of Bm>taQuuitc, n*th<ftun. Hint. U'nt., tuiii. i,. Ii1>. i.. 
p. in. rratU: ' Cuuidu iti-»cicuiU-u A In ticrmlas ditiHfuiUamadHfi ''(ri'pj/yi/fj. li 
CB«tiilo M- linr« la fit ktii dc Iiim ilioNW dt U ninuiUdiid qtif> hi< ll»liiaii Vriui- 
•Mwx, ayouariui ciutlro diaii uUiuicndu tii fRtitiiia^tn y tii bocA, y 1U-fTii(lo«l 
dlftde M fleatAdeMlaa diouM }>fiiM"in>e, liit-^t) do mnnnna 6 uQajnaneciendu 
psim ^wt Iu4^ 1ft ptailaaeU coavenible por tus pecados/ 



tboa bast eot drank; thoa mu«t expiate the matter })e- 
ft>n* ToUichci. the gud of wine: and when thou goest to 
do penance tboa ^alt go at night. nakt>d, save only a 
piece of paper K«np n«> from thy girdle in front and an- fl 
other behind: thoa shall repeat thy prayer and then ™ 
throw down there before the f^s tho!<c two pieces of 
paper, and so take thy departure. M 

Thift cota&ataaa was held not to have been made to * 
a priest, or to a man. but to God; and, ino.'^much a.s it 
could only be heard onoe in a man's life, and. as for a U 
relafMe into sin after it there was no forgiveness, it wn.-* 
generally put off* till old age. Tbe ahsolution given by 
the priefli was valuable in a double r^ard ; the absolved 
was held shriven of every crime he had confessed, and 
clear ot all pains and penalties, temporal or spiritual^ 
civil or eoclesiartical. due therefor. Thus was the fiery 
lash of Xenle^is bound up. thus were struck down alike 
the staft' of Minos and the Fword of Themis Ix'fore the 
awful aegis of -religion. It may be imagined with what 
reluctance this last hope, this unique life-confession was 
resorted to; it was the one city of refuge, the one Mexi- 
can benefit of sanctua&ry, the sole horn of the altar, of 
which a man might once take hold and live, but no 
more again for ever." 


** ' De Mto bien w aigaye que ftonqae lubian hecho muchoA peoados rn 
tinDpo da sd jiiTentad. do m ooofenban de «Uoe hasta Ia vrjez, por no m 
obligmr k oeoftT de pe«ar *utM de U Tejes. por la opinioD qnt? tcuiau, qiir- r1 
qoe lomuiba a reiocidir eu Ids p«crulo«, nl que S6 confcMbA nun t«-z uo ttJik 
mnedio.' AlmMo'^'W/A'* J/w. -^H/^fl . vol. vii., pp. O-H: Sahtu/vtiv, Ifist, Of^-, 
torn, i., b1>. i.. pp. lO-lC. Presoott whtc&, iitx., rol. i.. p. Cti: *lt is R- 
iiurkabl« tbat Ute^y admiiiuttf>red Uie rite« of confeciion koA alMolutiua. 
Tb« fleerets ni the confrssionnl were held innolable. nod penances wen ina* 
pofted of much tbe same kind as those pnjoiiMd in the Uoiuan Ciitholie 
Church 'iliere were two n-mariuUe pMtiltaritie* in tbe Azteo it remoior. 
The fint wan. that, m tbe repetition of an oflcDce, oucc iitone<l for. wu 
deemed iueipiable, cunfi-ssiuu was uiiiilb but ouev iu n man's bfe, aii^ mu 
nsoaily dcfenvd to a late jieriod of it, vLeti tbi* iiftiitfut iinbitnleu^^l hU 
conscience, and 8clUcd,nt tmct, Ibc luui; iirrtftrtof iuiqiulv. AnulbiTjircn- 
liaritr watt, tbat prientlv ftlMoIntinn was r^-f ive<l in place oi the lecnl pniiiah- 
nteoT of offetioes, and unthorizMi hu actjiiitjil iu easv of arreit.* Mention o' 
Tbucollcotl «iil be found in Otnunm, r»>»trt. Mrr.,. fol. 3iKi: T*}r^im»nh. 
Monarq. Intt., torn. ii.. pp. 62. 79: Iferrtni. Hut. Gtn., torn, i., <W ii., lib. Vl- 
cap. XV.; CiaviijrTO, Storut Atd. tlH .Ifrwir-o, lom. ii., p. HI. They any thai 
Yxcttina, who was the ({oddeiu of itbniiie. protci-tfl adulterent. Sb«> wwt Ui« 
Itoddeaa of mlt. of dirt, nw\ of iminmtt-sty, ami the (-an<ie of all hitih. Tliry 
painted her with tu o fact:^, ur with two tliffi-rvut colon on the fuce. Six 



The Mexican pod of fire as we have already noticed 
was usually willed Xiuhtecutli. He ha<i, however, other 
ftaniCH such as Ixcxjzauhqui, tliat is to 8a\\ ' yellow-faced ;' 
and Cuecaltzin. which incan« 'llameof fire;' and Hue- 
hueteotl, or *the ancient g(xl.'^ His idol reprei*ented 
a naked tuan. the chin hlackcned with ulli. and wearing 
a lip-jewel of rnl stone. On his head was a [wirti- 
oolored i>a|x;r cruwn, with green plumes issuing from the 
top of it like flanies of fire; from the sides hung tassels 
of feathers down to the ears. The ear-rings of the iuiagc 
were of lun] wrought in mosaic. On the idol's 
back was a dragon's head made of yellow feathers and 
some little marine shells. To the ankles were attached 
little bells or rattles. On the \eCt arm was a shield, 
almost entirely covered with a plate of gold, into which 
were set in the shape of a cross five chalchiuites. In 
the right hand the god held a round pierced plate of 
gold, called the *looking-plate,' (miradororairadero) ; with 
thia he covered his face, looking only through the hole 
in the golden plate. Xiuhtecutli was held by the i>eople to 
be their father, and reganled with feelings of mingled love 
and fear; luid they celebnitetl to him two fixwl festivals 
every year, one in the tenth and another in the eigliteenth 
month, together with a tnuvahle feast in which, accord- 
ing to Clavigero, they appointed magistrates and re- 
newed! the ceremony of the investiture of the fiefs of the 
kingdom. The sacrifices of the first of these festivals, 
the festival of the tenth month. Xocotlveti, were par- 
ticularly cruel even for the Mexican religion. 

The assistants began by cutting down a great tree of 
five and twenty fathom.s long and dressing oif the 
branches, removing all it would seem but a few round 
the top. This tree was then dnigged by ropes into the 
city, on rollers apparently, with great precaution against 

waa the vifo of Miztiitlnnt^nutH. tbtt pod or bell. Bbe wu alfw the goctdefM 
ol proatitutM: nod vhf ytviiiilt.-*l uwr \bvMt t]iirU*«n «igUB, wbicb wcr«' nil lin- 
hirk;. aud Uiaii Uipy bUd tbut tboMC who vn-rv born in Ibese wgns wpuM Im 
rosuca (ir prosdtateii. Splerjtu'wne delle Tntsilf tJtl 1'odict itexicatio. {\i\lica- 
Boj, U*. xxzix.. in Klnriiio'roafik'K Utx. Aniiq., vol. T.. p. IM; Jtraagair da 
B(w«owff. Quoir* LeUrrM. tip. 301-3, 301. 

» 8w tbiK vol.. pp. ata, 2»1. 
Toi^m. U 


bruising: or Hpoiling it: and the women nxet tlie ent*»nr^ 
procession jriviniJ those that dragged cncrto to drink.' 
The tree, wliicli wa-s called aw-o^/, was received into the] 
WHirt of a cu with sliout."*. and there set up in a Iiole in | 
in the groun<i and allowed to remain for twenty days. 
On tlie eve of the festival Xocotlvetzi. they let this large 
tree or pile down gently to the groimd. by means offl 
ropes and tressles, or«. made of l>earas tied two and " 
two. probably in an X shajxi: and car|)enters dreaded it 
perfectly smootli and straight, and, where the branches 
had been let^. near the top. they fastened with ropes a 
kind of yard or cross-beam of five fathoms long. Then 
was prepared, to be set on the A'ery top of the pole or 
tree, a statue of the god Xiuhtecutli, made like a man 
out of the dough of wild amaranth seeds, and covered 
and decorated with innumerable white i\i|)er8. Into 
the head of the image were stuck 6trii>s of |wiper instead 
of hair; sashes of paper crossed the Ixxly from each 
shoulder; on the arms weropicces of \yii\)ov like wings, 
painted over with figure.s of sparrow-hawks: a nuvx- 
tle of paper covered the loins; ai(d a kind of |iaj)er 
shirt or t;ibjird covered all. ( i rent strips of pli>er. lialf a 
fathom broad and ten fathoms long, floated from the 
feet of the dongh god half way down the tree; and into 
his head were struck three rods with a tamnle or small 
pie on the top of each. The tree being now prepared 
with all these tilings, ten ropes were attached to the 
middle of it, and by the help of the above-mentioned 
tressles and a large crowd pulling all together, the whole 
structure was reared into an upripht i)OHition and there 
fixed, with great sliouting and stamping of feet. 

Then came all tbat had captives to sacrifice; 
they came «iea)rate*l for dancing, all the Ixxly painted 
yellow (wliich is the livery color of the god), and the 
face vennilion. They wore a mass of the red phnnrtjie 
of the jxirrot, arranged to resemble a butterHy. ami 
carried shields covered with wliite feathers and as it 
were the feet of tigers or eajiles walking. Each one 
went dancing side by side with his captive. Thece 





Cftphvos had the body |>iiintod white, ami thr fiioe ver- 
milion, Nive tlie cheeks which were hhiek; they were 
iiilorned with pajjers. much, apparently. »w the dough 
imiifre was. and they hiul white feathers mi the lieiid and 
Ijp-omaments of fe^ithers. At set of Hun the dancing 
cefleed; the captives were shut up in the cafpuffi^ and 
watched by their owners, not lieing even allowed to sleep. 
About midnight every owner shaved away the ]mir of 
tlie top of the heatl of ins slave, which hair, l>eing 
foAteneil with red thi-ead to a little tnft of feathern, he 
put iti a small ca^te of cane, and attiicheil to the raf- 
ten* of Ills iionse. that every one might see that he was a 
valiant man and had taken a ciiptive. 'i'he knife with 
which this sliuving wa-saceompliwhed was called the claw 
of the spiirrow-hawk. At daybreak tlie ditonied and 
shorn slaves were arranged in order in fn)nt of the place 
calletl Tzora]iantli, where the skulls of the sacrificed were 
spitted in rows. Here one of the priests went along the 
row of captives taking from them certtiin little lianners 
that they carried an<l all their niiment or adornment. 
and burning the same in a lire; for raiment or orna- 
ment these unfortunates should need no more on earth, 
Wldle they were standing thus all naked and wait- 
ing for death, there came another priest, carrying in 
hi« arms the image of the god Paynal and his 
ornaments; he ran up with this idol to the top 
of the cu Tlacacouhcan where the victims were to 
die. Down he came, then up again, an<l as he went 
up the second time the owners took their slaves by 
tlie hair and led them to the pliK'e calleil Ajxitlac and 
there lei\ them. lumiediatelv there descendwl from the 
CU thpse that were to execute the sacrifice, luNiring iwigs 
of .u kind of stu[>efying incense (^Iled yiauJUii^^ which 

*** n JaahUt i QUA pianto. il cai fanto e lanfio un cnbiln, 1« foglie Mitui^H- 
anti « quelle dt:l Soldo, mn df ntntc. i Gnri gialti. e lit rmlici' Huttile. CVml i 
flori. cutne I'altre imrti di-Utt (lijiutit, hunuu lo Bteatio udurA c itajKire dell* 
Anlee. E' aasai utile per In McdictuiL, ed \ UwUei Ueariciuu I'adoperavftQii 
aoBtoo panochia nudatUe: mn it«rrivuniii nooocft d'fus per nlciiiu ukI snper- 
iiutiotd.' Thtu ifl Uie note aiven by ClAvif^ro, Storia Ant. tlei J/essin>. lom. 
ii.. p. 77, in dauiriUng thii festiviil, uiul the Jnt'caHe UM'tl for Ntn^K-fyjiii^ the 
tieniiM; ••« ■ differaal Bou boweveis iu UiIh vol.. p. 3Jti, in wbicli Molina 


they throw by Imndfuls into tlio faws of the xnctinw 
to deaden somewhiit their agonies in the fearful death 
before them. EiOch captive was then lx}und liand and 
foot and so carried up to the top of the eu where smoul- 
dered a huge heap of live coal. The carriers heaved their 
hviug burdens in; and the old narrative pive« minute 
details about the fjrcat hole made in the sjKirklinji: embers 
by each slave, and how the a.shy dunt roHe in a cloud as 
he felt. Aa the dust settled the bound Ixxlies could be 
seen writhinp; and jerking themselves about in torment 
on their soft dull-i*ed bed, and their ttesh could Ik* heard 
crackling an*! rojisting. Now came a jwirt of the cere- 
mony recjuiring much e.Kperience and judgment; the 
wild-eyed priests Hto«>d gmppUng-hook in hand hiding 
their time. The victims were not to die in the firo. the 
inst^mt the great blisters k^gan to rise handsomely over 
their scorched skins it w;is enough, they were raked 
out The poor blackened Ixxlies were then flung on the 
'tajon* and the agonize<l soul dismissed l)y the Koerificial 
breast-cut (from nip[}le to nipple, or a little lower) ; the 
heart wiu* then torn out and cast at the feet of Xiuhte- 
cutli, god of (ire. 

This slaughter Ijeing over, the statue of Paynal was 
carried away to its own cu and every man went home to 
eat. And the young men and Iwys, all those called 
quesrpakfjfue,^ l) they had a Ux^k of hair at the nape 
of the neck, came, together with all the people^ the 
women in order among the men. and liegan at mid-day 
to dance antl to sing in the court-yard of Xiubtecutli; 
the phice wa-s so crowded that there was hardly room to 
move. Suddenly there arose a great cry, and a rush 
was made out of the court toward the place wherf was 
raised the tall tree already described at some length. 
Let U9 shoulder our way forward, not without risk to 

dtworibeii jfiafthtH m 'black maUe.' In aomc cmm. Bccordiug to Ueudi«ia, 
Hist. KrJfu.. p. UNI. there ims given lo tbo condemned ■ oertoin driuk thai 
put (h(^m liciidc lheTi)«elveB, so that thtjr went to the SMriJie* with a ghuntly 
dmnlipn merriment. 

^ ' Ctiexpaili. cabello largo que deutti n \<m innfihachoa «u el capote, qnando 
loi tnaquiUB.' Mttttna, Vocf^tulaHo. 



our ribs, and see what we can see: there stands the tall 
pole with Ktreaincrs ol' paper and the ten voYrof* hy wliioh 
it wtw raised danj^lin*; I'rom it. On the top stands the 
dough image of the fire god. with all his ornaments and 
weajions, and with the thi'ee taninles ntioking out w 
oddly aljove his hoad. Ware ohilwl we pre.<s t(K»clo«e; 
shoulder to shoulder in a thick serried ring round the 
foot tjf the [xjle stand tlie ' ca]>tainH of the youths' keep- 
ing the vountrsttTs luick with cudgels, till the word be 
given lit which all may begin to climb the siud jwle for 
the great |»ri/t' at the top. Hut the youths are wild for 
farne; old renowned henjes look on; the e^es of all the 
women of the city are fixed on the great tree where it 
shootii above the head of the struggling ci*owd ; glory to 
him who first gains the cross-lieam and the image. 
Stand back, then, ye captains, let us pass! There is a 
rush, and a trampling, and despite a rain of blows, all 
the pole with its banging ro{)eH is aswarm with cHmbers, 
thrusting each otber down. The first yotith at the top 
eeizes the idul of dough; be takes the shield and the 
arrows and tbe darts and t!»e stick alak for throwing 
the darts; he takes the tamales from tbe head of tlie 
statue, crumbles them n[». and throws tbe crum^w with 
the plumes of tbe image ilown into the crowd ; tbe secur- 
ing of wbich crumbs and plumes is a new occasion for 
shouting and scnuuhling and nsticuHs umong tlie multi- 
tude. When the young hero wnies down with the 
weajwns of tbe god wbich lie has securetl. be is received 
with far-roaring applause and carried up to the cu Tlaca- 
<)uubcan. there to receive the reward ol" bis activity and 
fctidurance, praises and jewels and a rich mantle not law- 
ful for another to wear, and tbe honor of Ijoing carried 
hy the priests to his house, amid tbe music of horns and 
Viclls. The ftrstivity is over now; all the people lay hold 
on the ro|)Cs fiustcned to the ti^cc, and pull it down 
with a crash that breaks it to pieces, together, apparuntly^ 
with all that is Icll of the wiUl-amaranth-dough image 
of Xinhtecutli.* 

» Kuvjattorough't Utst. AnUq., vol. tu., pp. 8-9. S8, 63-6; Sahagm, Bltt. 



Anotlier feast of tlio ];od of (ire was lield in the month 
Yzcalli, the eij^hteenth month ; it was ciitled jitot/aj^qui- 
anlfttfi. that is to say * our father the fire toiwts hi« food." 
An imn^e of tlie fnxl uf fire wjls made, with a fnune of 
hoojw and t;ticks lied together an the ha«i.s or model to be 
covered with hi» ornament8. On the head of this image 
was put a shininj;^ mask of turquoise masaic, bandeil 
acro88 with rows of preen chalchiuitcs. Upon the mask 
was put a crown fitting to the head l>elow, wide af)ove, 
and goi'ga^us with rich phnnage an a flower; a wig of 
reddish liair was attached to this crown so that the 
evenly cut locks fiowetl from below it, behind iunl aniuud 
tlie mai*k, a.s if they were natural. A robt? of cojslly 
featheiTs covered all the front of the image and fell over the 
ground In'fore the feet, so light tliat it shivered and floated 
with the leiLst breatli of air till the variegated feathers 
glittered and changed color like water. The hack of tlie 
image seenjH to have Wn left unadonied, concealed by 
a throne on wlucb it was Heated, a thRine covered with 
a drietl tiger-skin, paws and head comi)lete. Before this 
statue new fire was pnxUiced at midnight by boring 
rapidly by hand one stick u[x>n another; the spunk or 
tinder so inllamed was put on the hearth and a fire lit." 
At break of day came all the boys and youths witli game 
and fish that tbey had cai>tured on the preWoua day; 
walking round the fire, they gave it to certain old men 
that stood there, who taking it threw it into the tlames 
before the god, giving the youths in return certain tam- 
alos that had been made and offered for this purpose* by 
the wom**n. To eat these taniales it was neces.*iary to 
strip off thiMUiuzi»-leav;?s in which they had be<!n wrapjied 
and cooked • these leaves wei-e not thrown into the fire, 

0*^11.. Umi. [,, lib. i,, pp. Iti-Ut, lib. ii., pp. 03-4. HIS; Claaiijtro, Storio AiU, 
dci Sffxilc*', loiii, ti.. pp. lit, 76; Spie*iaiione delU Tauott rfd CwlUx Mancmo, 
(Vaticano), tav. Ivi., in Kimj^orowth s MfX. ^itfio., vol. v., p. 190. 

^ ' EttU estatTia an, adoraado no U-jon dc uii lagor que MtAtia dclanle He 
ella, & 1a> uiedia noche sooaban fuogo nuf^vo pnra qae arai«u «n nqiiPl Ingti, 
J Biicaban]9 con nnos pftlos, nnn paititu itbojo, y nobr^ «1 btttrennbnn eon 
otro prIo, como torciendole etitra Ijitt manoA run gmn jiliMi, y con aqurl 
morimicnto y rnlor bo oncf^nrliB el ftieuu, y alU )o tumnbaa oon jeiun y en- 
oendiaa en el hogur.' Kitutn!tiirtniijb's JbTec. Artiiq,, toI. tu., p. St; Saw;un. 
Hid. Om., torn. L, lib. ii., p. 161. 



Snt were all put together and thrown into water. After 
118 all tiie old men of the ward in wliirh the fire was, 
Irank puU^ne and sang before tlu; iiuo^c of Xiiihtccutti 
till night. This was the tenth day of the month and 
^^iu.s finished that fesust, or tliat jxirt of tiie feast, which 
^nriis (uilleil rawiuilnnuiif/HitliUU. 

^B On the twentieth and last day of the niontii wiw made 

^^nother statue of the fiiv god, witli a i'rame of sticks and 

hoops ivs alrcivdy described. They put on the heivl of it 

a mask with a ground of mosaic of little bits df the shell 

^^alleil tapuztil^''' comix){*ed Ix'luw the mouth of bhick stones, 

^Bmnded across the nostrils with black stones of another 

^Kortf and the cheeks made of a still diHeivnt stone called 

^^ezcapneJdli. As in the jirovious case there was a crown 

on this miusk, and over all and over the Ixidy of the 

image costly and beautiful decorations of feather-work. 

Before the tlux>ne on which this statue sat there was a 

fire, and the youths offered game to and received cakes 

from the old men with various ceremonies; the day 

t, being closed with a great drinking of jmUiiie by the old 
people, though not to the point of intoxication. Tims 
enrled tbe eighteenth month; and with regard to the two 
^^}ercm(mies Just descriiied, Sahagun says, that though 
^piot olwerved in ail parts of Mexico, they were oKserved 
at least in Tezcutw. 

It will Ije noticed that tlie festivals of this month have 
Ix-eti without human sacrifices; but every fourth year was 
nil exception lo this. In such a year on the twentieth 
and l.'tst dayofthis eighteenth month,being also, according 
to sonie^ tlie last day of the year, the five N'enionteni, or 
unlucky days, Ix'ing excepted, men and women were slain 

I as inuiges of the god of fire. The women that had to 
die carried all their appaivl and ornaments on their 
^oulders. and the men did the same. Arrived thus 
nakinl wherc they hail to die, men and women alike 
^^were decorated to resemble the god of fire ; they ascended 
H^o cu, walked round the sacrificial stone, and then de- 

** Or iapa •htli as Ilaitanunte ipeUi It. 
JfolfjM, Vooahviario, 

' TaitochUi, crml, oonchft o venon. ' 



flcended and returned to the placfi whore they were to 
be kept for the nijiht. Kacli male victim hail a i-ope tied 
round the middle of his body which was held by his 
guards. At midnij?ht the hair of the crown of the head 
of each was shaven oft* bcdbre the (ire and k(']>t for a 
relic, and the head itself was covered with a mixture 
of resin and liens' feathers. After this the dix)inod 
onoi! burned or gave away to their kee|x»rs their now 
useless apparel, and as the morning bn>ke they were 
dei'-orat*^! with pajiers and led in jirocesHJon to die, with 
singing and shouting and dancing. These festivities 
went on till mid-day, when a priest of the cu, arrayed in 
the ornaments of the pxi Paynal, came down. }>assed 
before the victims, and tlien went up again. They were 
led up after him, captives first and slaves after, in the 
order they had to die in; they suffered in the u.siird 
manner. There was then a gi-and dance of the loixis, 
led by the king himself; each dancer wearing a liigh- 
fronted i>ai>er con^net, a kind of false ntwe of hlne pa|)cr, 
eAr-rings of turtjuoise mosaic, or of wood wrought with 
flowers, a blue curiously tlowerwi jacket, and a mantle. 
Hanging to the neck of each wiw the figuif of a dog 
made of j)jvj)er and painted witli Mowers; in the right 
bund was carried a stick shaped like a chopping-knife. 
the lower half of which wiw painted red and the upper 
half white; in tlie left hand was carried a little paper 
bng of copal. Tliis dunce was begun on the top of the 
cu and finished by descending and going four times 
round tlie court-yard of the cu ; after which all entered 
the pilace with the king. This dance took place only 
once in four years, and none but the king and his lords 
could t;ike part in it. On this day the eara of all chil- 
dren born during the three preceding years were bored 
with a bone awl, and the chihlren themselves passed 
near or through the Hames of a iire as already related.'^ 
There was a further ceremony of taking the children by 
the head and lifting them up " to make them grow;" 

» See this toI., p. 376, note 37. 



and from this the month took its name, Yzcalli meaning 
' growth.' " 

There was generally observed in lionor of fire a custom 
called ' the throwing/ which was that no one ate without 
first ilinginjr into the fire ajwnvp of the fotxi. Another 
ooninion ceremony waw in drinking pukjue to llr-st 
spill a little on the edge of tlie hearth. Also when a 
porscm U'gan nj)on a jar of pukjue he ciniitied out a 
little into a Itrojwl pan and put it beside tlie lire, whence 
with another ves.sel he spilt of it four times upon the 
edge of the hearth; this was ' the libation or the tast- 


The most solemn and important of all the Mexican 
'estivaU wjia that called Toxilniolpilia or Xiuhmolpilli, 
tlie * the binding up of tlie years.' Every fifty- 
two years was cnlled a sheaf of years; and it 
was held for certain that at the end of some sheaf 
of fifty-two years the jnotion of the heavenly bodies 
should cease and the world itself come to an end. 
A.*> the p<insihie day of dewtrurtion drew nenr all the 
people rast their iinust^hold gods of wikxI and stone into 
the water, fus alt^o the stones used on the hearth for cook- 
and hniising i»ep(M:'r. They wa^ihed thoix>ugh!y their 
houften, and liw*t of all put out all Gnm. For the lighting 
of the new iire there was a place set ai)art, the summit 
of a mountain called Vixiichtlan, or Huixiichtla, on the 
boundary line Ix'twccn the cities of Itztapalapa and Col- 
huacan, about six miles from the city of Mexico. In 
the production of this new fire none but priests had any 
part, and the task fell specially ui>on those of the ward 
Copolco. On the last day of the fifty-two years, after 
the Bini hrul set. all the priests clothed themselves 
with the dre.-is and insignia of their gcnis, so as to 
Ihettwelves api)ear like very gods, and set out in pro- 

« Shyfwharowjh'a JU«s. AnNg., to), vii.. pp. .13. 83-7; Sahivjun, ffhi. Otn., 
torn. i.. lib. ii., pp U-B, Mii-Oi, Boturiai, ld4a, p. 138; SmejatioM drlU 
'PKOoUt dft Vo/tiof. MtJieann, (Vativann). inv. Ixxiv.. in KlnffAor'wjh's Mex. 
Amiiy.. vol V .pp. 19(t-7; Clttvi-iero, Storhi AtU. d'i ^frHXtrn, torn, ii., p. 82. 

** Kinjs'mniyvjh't ifex. Ajiliq., to), vii., p. HG; .^uAtu/wn, Uut. Otn., torn. 

lib.iL. ap., p. 213. 


cession for the inoiintuin, walking very slowly, wit 
much gravity imd sik'iioc, an beiitti?d the occ.'wioJi and 
the garb they woro, " walking," as they i)hrast'cl it. " like 
gods." The priej*t of the ward of Cojwlco, wliose oflSc 
it was to produce the fire, carried the instrument^' ther 
of in hi« hand, trying them fixini time to time to see thfl 
all was right. Then, a little before midnight, the moimt-* 
ain being gained, and a cu which wai* there builded forj 
that ceremony, they began to watch the heavens and 
€S{)eciaUy the motion of the Pleiades. \ow this night 
always fell so that at midnight these seven stars were ii 
the middle of the slsy with respect to the Mexican hori- 
zon; and the priests watched them to see them jwiss thej 
zenith and so give sign of the endurance of the world,| 
for amithtT (ifty and two years. That sign wa.s tlie 
signal for tlie production of tlie new fire, fit an foUowtfJ 
The bravest and finest of the prisoners taken in war wa 
thrown d<twn alive, and a board of very tir^' wood wai 
put upoii his breast; u\)on this the acting priest at tlie 
critical moment fjored with another .stick, twirling its 
rapidly between his palms till fii-o cuught. Then in-V 
stantly the bowels of the captive were laid open, his 
heart torn out, an<l it with all thelxjdy thrown upon and 

consumed by a pile of fire. All tliis time an nnful 

anxiety and suspense held possession of the people 
large; for it wa-s said, that if anything hapj^ned to pr 
vent the pro<iuction at tlie proper time of the new firej 
there would be an end of the human race, the night and] 
the darkness wotild Ikj i>er[»etual, and those terrible andj 
ugly beings the Ty/itzimitlen" would descend to devour 1 
all mankind. As the fatefid hour approached, the people \ 
gathered on the llat house-toiw, no one willingly remain- 
ing Ix'low. All pregnunl women, however, were closed 
into the grainiries, their faces Ix^ing covered with maiw- 
leaves; for it was .said that if the new fire couM iml He 
produced, these women would turn into fierce smiiiuil.'' 
and devour men and women. Children also luvl niiL-vks 

u Or ZtiUimitts u on p. 427 of this vol. 




maize-leaf put on tlieir faces, and they were kept 
awnke Ijv cries and puslics, it l>einji believed that if they 
were allowed to sleep they would become mice. 

From the crowded house-topH every eye was bent on 
Vixnehthui. Suddenly a movinji^ speck of li^rht was 
Been by those nearest, and then a great column of flame 
shot up against the sky. The new fire! and a jireat 
shout of joy went up from all the country nnmd about. 
The stars moved on in their courses; (itly and two years 
more at least had the universe to exist. Kvery one did 
penance, cutting his ear witli a splinter of Hint and 
flCftttering the bli^id toward the jiart where the fire wn«; 
even the ears of children in the crwile weit; ^90 cut. 
And now from the blazinir pile on the mountain, burn- 
ing brands of pine c;uidle-wood weiv carrie^l by the 
swiftest runners toward every quarter of the kingdom. 
In the city of Mexico^ on the temjjle of lluitzilo^wchtli, 
before the altar, there was a fire-place of stone and lime 
contjiiiiing much oopal; into this a blazing brand was 
flung by the first runner, and from this place fire was 
carried to all the houses of the priests, and thence again 
to all the city. There soon blazed gi-eat central fires in 
every ward, and it wns a thing to be seen the multitude 
of people that cauie togetlier to get liglit, and the gene- 
ral rejoicings. 

Tlie heartli-fii*es l>cing thus lit. ttie inhabitants of every 
houne U'gan to renew their hou.sehold gixls and furni- 
ture, and to lay down new mats, and to put on new 
raiment: they miwle evervtiiing new in sign of the new 
jsheaf of years ; they lx;beaded (piails. and burned in- 
oeiwe in their court-yard toward the fourquai'ters of the 
world, and on their liearths. After eating a meal of 
wild amaranth »-eed and honey, a fjist was oniered, even 
the drinking of water till noon being forbidden. Then 
the eating and drinking were renewed, sacrifices of slaves 
and captive.H were made, and the gi*oat iires renewed. 
The hwt solemn festival of the new fire was celebrated 
in the year 1507. the Spaniards being not then in the 
land; and through their presence, there was no public 


ceremony when the next sheaf of years was finished in 

Mictlan, the Mexican hades, or place of the dead, 
signifies either primarily, or by an acquired meaning,' 
' northward, or toward the north.' thoujrh many authori- 
ties have located it underground or below the earth, [ 
Tins region was the seat of the power of a god be4| 
known under his title of Atictlantecuth; his female com- 
panion was called Mictlancihuatl, made identical by fiome] 
legends with Tlazolteotl, and by others apparently with the I 
serpent- woman and mother goddess.*" There has beendis- [ 

*i K\wtAi>rowtk*r Mtae, AnGg., toU Tii., pp. J57. 191-3; Sthttrat, flW.1 
ffen., hitn. i., lib. iv., ap., pp. 346-7, ton), ii , lib. vtt., pp. HGD -t; Tonivt-4 
math, U<-mnrij. fnd., torn. ii.. pp. 29^-.i; BtAnrin\, Idtn. pp. IS-*il: ('/mi.J 
ger<t, Sioriu Ant. [M Xassten. torn. >i-< Pt>< 62, Ht-t; JVc iilKta. Hist. Kda., p. | 
101; A-o-dti. Hi^ ik tw Yidias. pp. 3U8-9. L«on y Qiima. Ihis Piedras. ptj 
i., pp. 5l-'(i>, differs aomewhAt from the text; be was anfortatut« in nercri 
having; seen tbe work" of SAhAgnn I 

" I'his vol. p. 59, The idti-rpretations of the codtcea repreRent thia Rodi 
w p(>?alinrlT boDored ia their pmiitings: They pliu>« Michltktocotle ojp[N>-J 
site to tbt' miD. to Rve if he can rt-Kciie any of those seized upon bir the lonlf I 
of th4^ di'ad. for .Michitta Mfpiitle« the dcm) Im-Iow. Ilipki* nuHobs iiiuntedl 
only two o( their Hods with the rrowti callmi Altoiitcatecontle. viz., the- Ood I 
of heaven and of abandnuce nnd this lord of the dead, whirh kind of i-iovrn | 
I have AeeD a|ioD the capluin^ In thu wiir of Oontle. £V;>fi':ii' ir»t r/rM Wrx) 
Tdlrri'ino Renunslg, pt ii., hiiu. xv., iu Kintfaborouqh'n Mrx. Antitj., vul. x.,S 
p. 140. Mitjaithiuteootli sij^uifiea tlic great lord of the dead fellow iti heU\ 
who atone after Tonacatc-coUe was painted with a crown, which kind of a ] 
crown waa Oflw] iu war «%cu after the arrival of the CbristiHUit in thoiie conn- ) 
trtea, and waa tttwn iu the war of Coatlau, as the perxoti who L'opit^d tbea* { 
ndntiniiffi Teltvlfa, wlio waa a brother of the Order of Saint PiiuiiTiic. naniMJ 
I^L'dro de la<t Kiox. Tboy painted this dotiion near the ann; for iu tbt> HauiS j 
wnya-slbfy bp-Ii«v«d th-it the ntiP(^ndnr;tpd miuIs to heaven, no Ibeyitiippnwd 1 
that the other carried tliitiu to hell. He i* here repreM'nted utth hii hxnils J 
open and Ntrrtrbed tovird the Ann, to seize nn any fxiul wliirh mitj^ht t-ncupe ] 
from him- Spi'-'cuio/w J'ile TarytltiM CotHc* ifrxirauo (Vaticano), tnv. xmv., 
in Kini/nf>'irouih'/t itex. Aniii/., vol, v., p. 182. Tbt Viitii^au Cod^x atiys fiirthrr- | 
tliat thfAe wrrf^ four ^odsor principal demons in the Jklexican bell. Miijutt* 
IninteiHitl or Zit/iniiti; YzptintcqnR, tbfl lamf< deraon, who appeared in tht 
ittrt-eUtwith the (et- lot arock;Nextep<-li)m. Hc.ittererof asbeaiand t'outetno4|a4t. 
he who dtMcends head-faremoiit. Tbenf fonr have goddi-swea, nn( an witcti, 
but as coinpaniouH. which wiia the giniple relation in which all the Jiexiru 
gm\ and Kod L-Rfies stood to one another, there ha\-ing b^-en — acctinliuji to 
nioHt antliorities — in their olympn« neither marrjini; nor piving in niamape. 
PicUing our way as well as poHtubte ncWfHH the friflhtfnl Kpfllinj^ r.f ihc iLtei- 
preler, the ninU-it and f«iiiD]ri; seim pairr-d aa follow.-*: To MiijnitUuilffoU <w 
rjtitximitt. wasjoinednKfinddett'). Slifinitecaciffnft; tn VFpnnt«'«ino, Nvim\<i(-1i'i: 
to N«xte[>p|Tia. Micnpetlacoli; and to Contcmoqne, Ohalmewioinatl 
one di-il' 'I'avnle del Co'Iiit .V'-.tlraao ( Vaticanol. to*,, iii.. iv.. in A'i/i'? 
U'-x. Atillii., vol. T., pp. 162-3; Jii)turi"i. ltl<a. pp.3U-l: Sahanni, lli>.'.. '."i . 
loni. i., lib, iii., ati. pp. 2lU>-3: KinnsfnTouuti'f Mrx. Antiq.. vol. v.. pp. lifl- 
17, uyaibat thiagud was kuuwu by the further uouie of Tzontcnioc and Acn)- 



covered and there is now to Ik* seon in tho city of Mexico 
a huge cora|X)und statue, rcpresejitinjr various deities, tlie 
most prominent being a certain goddess Teoyaomique, 
who, it scem^ to me, \s almost identical with or at 

I naoxatl. Ctavi-iero, Storks Ant. lUt 3teasi't>, torn, ii., pji. 6, 17. Oallaliu, 
Amrr. ^Itttal. Soc., TnttiSad., vol. )., pp. 350-1. huys tbiit ' Mit^ttaotfuctli iii 
apeciaity dUUu^iiiHbeil by tb4> liiLt^riireteni an ooe uf tliu crowuM ^oii». Hiii 
I Kpmt«nUtiuD in (utuil uuiU-r thv wixiH of (be slutuo uf 'iV'o^auiujuui. uud 
Gmnui fans publiB}ie(] the co]>y. Accunlmg lo biui, t1i<> tiuiof uf Itiit gu<l 
t nieatui, lh4< i'ihI of the ]i)acu of Ibe iloud. Ho prediilml over ihe funeral of 
I thfxw who t\w>\ of dixpjiHPX. T)t<> houIh nf all tboHf killed in buttle went led 
I hy Tro_v:u>nii'iiii lo the dwi-lliii;: of tbe kiiii. 'J'bt- otbfrw ftll under tlie do- 
minion of llirtantPTictli.' T"r(ntema'}a, Motuirq. tniL, tom.i., i>p. 77, U8,447. 
' torn, ii., p. -(.'8. BntMimr de Bonrboiirg niunttoiiK this ^cnl nod bit wife, 
I brino^n;; np KpvprnI intrreKtitig pointK, (or whirh, bowevrr, be mufit bear tho 
nolf rcKiMiUBibtlilr: -S'i-' iVixifl dfs Snurtfit J*" I'Jlitd. Prim., jiji. OS-'J. ' Du 
fond d(>«t nanx qni cnuTraieiit Ifl mnnde, ajontfi nn snlre dociitiirut inexirnin 
(CikI. M*-i. Trll-lirm , fol. 4. v,), le dir-ii den n'Rionn d'vti \m», .\firtUin-TturU 
Ii fait iiarf^r nn nionsilrp murin nnmnit.' i'iparMi on i'apfirJli i Mutnltfia, Jllti, 
.iMtitj. dr I'x Imti'is. part. MS. Dans ec do/uiiicnt. riii lu*u di- dpncUi il j- a 
Mqrac(/i, qai o'eet pciil-«'-ln* qu'une t-rr^ur du vopiatc. mnis qni, i>«nt-«trQ 
•vsai est Ic Bouveuir d'uuc Imii^uo perdue et qui se nUtachcmit (tit tuffic oa 
' Manat^Cftpae dn Pt-rou.): de ce moiislrc, qni a la forme dun cnfiunii, it ort'e 
I la terre {AffMiitia, Ibid.). Ne flerail-co pas la le orucudilc, image du t4--aips, 
I chez les Kf^^titrDH. et binai que I'tudiano Cbidupnllion (DitnR Ilfrap-^lltin, i., 
I 69 et 70, le crooodile cut le oymbole du uom-bant et ilfs ti'm'-bris) Ryiulwle 
\ vpktemoat do la iUfjicn da Coucluint, de VAtuftUi'! Dims I'OrcuA moxi- 
I mfn, le prince des Morlii, .Vidlan-Ttnulli, a ponr coinpagDC iru-trt-JtcViuaU, 
cwtia qui tftend lea niorta. On rapp^Us txruina, on 1a dn'Nttt^ nu 
' riaage poiut on au double visngc, parcc qu'elle avait lo TiMO^o de 
I daax eonleari), ronge avec le contour de la bourhfl et dn nrz |w-iiit en 
' noir {(\mI. }ttx. Tril-Ucm., fol. IR. v.). On Ini donnait niiKHJ le noin d« 
ria^-Jteot!, In iV'-vskc do I'ordore, ou TUtrolmvtui. la irnny*n»e d'onlnre, parce 
iia'el]« pr^idait aux nmonni et anx plaiunt InbriqupR nvoit wm tmiH Kn-ttrfl. 
L Ud la tmuTfi porwmitirw tincore avec ' lini>t'u^t, qiK-tqucfoiH reprx-Ht-ntiV eom- 
r me an chien, itott a c<anRe de aa lubrirtt*', anit ji rniiHe du nom de i.'hiumaiih- 
\ Ittfulnitioa lea Nenf-Cliieiia, qn'on hii donnait ^^denient iVod, J/cjr TtU- 
tttm., fol, 21, v.). C'est ninsi qui* dans I'ltalie nutt'-T>clnB^iqiie, duns 1« 
Kifilc e< dans I'lle do Sutuolhract:-. anU'rii-un>u]unt aux TbrnceH ft aai I'elaa- 
14m, ou odorait tine Zt^nnlLia, nne llt'ratti. d^ssc ('liifuue qui Donrriaaait 
M4 trois Ilia, aea troiit chiun^. sur le memo autt-t, douK lu dtriueurt; itout«rraine; 
Tone «t I'antre mppelaient niuai le d'^itii-onir de cea bi'lairea qui vcillaient uu 
pM des p^ramidcs, oii tUt-s up proatituaiont aux mariuu, aux marclliaudH et 
aas TOTngenm, ponr mmaHHcr rnr^pnt n^eaaaire a I Vrectinn dta torn beaux dea 
I nHa. "Tout nn ealcul den (finjw. dit Eokatein (^«r /« if'ircta lit h Coawo- 
MMrfaA^OneAoniaJfcnfi, pp. L01. l'J7), serattacheb I'adomtion Bolaire dc celte 
HBBHfa dt MS flla. Le rbjtn, lo BiriuR, rttgne dnnn Inhlrt' de cv nom, au 
^SS^^qB Vann^, durant It-M jonrH de la canit-ul)-. On cununit le vyc\v ou la 
|\ie prrntde raalro du c-bttii: »n Mtit qu'il ne »« rattacbe |>afi wMile- 
: 1 iti.*>titntiont) da Lt vit-illt- hftypte, nuila enrore it r«]l<-H de la baute 
Ai^i. ." Kn Auii'riquc le nom dc Lt d^t-sHu /x<ruiiia ae mttaelin t'^lenunt k la 
I •orisUdlntion dii Kud, »!i ou la per»onntfie eucore avec IxU-ict>ii»hifni, autrn 
I ' ' .' - i- r /Tu o et duH auionr!! olmreueii: lea uatrr>lo(^i»ii Ini nttribunient 
-urlpti'vi^iiHoifntu detfi ^;u»'^^•, et. danit lenderniers tempa. 
; . 1- ;_i.4--i- 1' ,'• uilrelo cbi'ttiiiu'nt dt-Hadult'-rfiMetdeainceKtueni (f'nd. V(X. 
I 'ttU'Unm., fol. 16, V.),' he aUo, lirinUm'» MyOit, pp. 190-7; LtonyGmna, 
DamFUdrw, pt i., p. 13, pt ii., pp. C5-0. 



n connecting link iK'tween the mother goddess and the] 
comiMinion of ificthmtecutli. Mr Gallatin says*' tliatJ 
the Mexican j!;od.s **were painted in dlflerent ways ao-| 
cording to their various attribiite.s and names: and tliej 
priests were also in the habit of" conueotinjj; with tliej 
stfttne of a god or goddess, symbols of other deities which] 
partook of a similar character. Gama has adduced 
several instances of Ijoth practices, in the j^rt of his dis- 
serbition which relates to the statue of the goddess of J 
dcatli found buried in the great Square of Mexico of j 
whicli he, and lately Mr Xebel. have given copies." Heri 
name is 'i'eoyaomic|ni, which means, to die in sacred war, 
or ' in defense of the gods,' and she is the pro[>er com- j 
panion of Iluitziloj)ochtli, the god of war. Tlie syniltoU] 
of her own attributes aii* found in the up[)er [Kirt of tlie' 
fltatne: but those from tl»e waist downwards relate to 
other deities connected with her or with HuitzilojMichUi. 
The serpents arc the syml)ols of his mother Cob uatlycue, 
and als4) of Cihuiicoluiatl, the ser[)ent woman who begat 
twin.s, male and female, from which mankind proceeded: 
the same .serpents and fe^itliers are the symlx>l of Quez- 
atlfiohnatl, the precious stones designate Chalchihuitlycue, j 
the goddess of water; the teeth and claws refer tuThdoc 
and to Tlatocaocelocelotl (the tiger king) : and tpgethur 

« Aniar. Ethnol. Soc., Tranmni., vol. i., pp. S38-0. 

*^ Speaking i>( tlic f::rcAt iiaage in the Mcxickn miutftutn of nntiqnitit^ unp* 
pfMpJ Ly some io )it> thJH Mexican utxlitcHH at war, nr of deiiUi, Tf>ovnomiqitei 
Mr Tylor tmyn, Anahtuir, pp. ti22-3: ' The xtoue known as the statue of the 
wnr-^oilili-KFi i-t a huge blork of baBolt covered wilh iuni1ptan>t>. The anti- 
qntirieH think Mint the tij^nres on it tttnnd fur ilifTercnt p>-r«innf;r8, and that 
it in three Kmls. — Huitziliipofhtli the god of war. Tt^dynoniiqiii hin »ifo. ud 
Miethiiiteuctii the t^^d of u<.'ll. It has necklaec-K of altemau- hearts Kud daid , 
men's haiidit, with deatb'.i head for n central ornament. At the butloui of i 
the blook tH a stran^'C HprnvUng flgnre, which one cannot see now, fr»t it isl 
the bftso whi<^h restB on the BTonnd; bat there are two shrtnlders imtjectinal 
from tho idol, which show pliiinly that it did not stand on the j.T.^u«d. I'iSI 
was «a|>port<'d aloft on the tops of two pillars. The fipnrc oarvvd upon tii«! 
botloiii repreKoutH n mnniiter hoMint; a kkhU id each hand, while olhietH holif J 
from his) kuceit end elbows, llift mouth in a nicre oral ring, a rommon fea-J 
tnrc of Mixicaa idols, and four tUHka project jnat above IL The new niooal 
litid down like a bridge fonuH his forehead, and a star i« placid an vHvh sid«l 
ot it. ThiH is thought iv hiive been the vouTCUtioaal repri-M-utatiun of ^ict-l 
lanleuctU (Lord of the land of the dead), the god of htll. which vas a phu*l 
of utter and eternal darknt&H. Probably each victim as he wait l«d to tli»^ 
nllar iduld look tip Wtwfen the two piUars and see the hideous god of hcU 
stiuiug dowa npou him from above.' 




with her own attributes, tlie whole is a most horrible 

Of this great oomi>ound statue of HuitziloixK^litli (for 
the mo«t |xirt under his name of Teoyaotlatohuu), Teoyno- 
mi((iie, and Mictlantecutli, and of the tliree deities sejui- 
rately Leon y Gama treats, in substance as follows, 
beginning with Mictlantecutli:" — 

The Chevalier Boturini mentions another of his 
names, Teoyaotlatohuu. and says that as director and 
chief of sacred wtir he was always accomjMinied by 
Teoyaomi(|ue, a goddess whoso business it was to 
collect the souls of those that died in war and of 
those that were sacrificed afterward as cjiptives. T^et 
these statemt'iiLs be put alongside of what ToiTjiiemada 
snys, tu wit. tliat in the great feaxt of the month llviei- 
miccniibuitl,'" divine names were ^vcn to dead kings 
and to all fiunous persons who had die<l heroically in 
war, and in tlie power of the enenu"; idols were made 
furthermore of these persons, and the}' were put with 
the deities ; for it wa** said that they had gone to the place 
of delights and pleasures there to be with the gods. 
From all this it would appear that before this image, in 
which were closely united Teoyaotlatohua and Teoyao- 
mique, there were each year celebrate<i certaiu rites in 
memory and honor of dead kings atid lords and captains 
antl soldiers fallen in battle. And not only did the 
Mexicans venerate in the temple this image of many 

• Xrfon y Gaiitn, Dob Fiedras, pt L, pp. il--l. 

> Th« U'oth month, so nuiuua bjr the TUnoKlteea and othen. Bee Tor- 
lottii, Mututri/. htii.. (uni. )i.. p. 398: 'Al deeiiuo Men dc] Knlpiidiirio 
Uaxiu llanittban hum SatrnpnH, Xoeotlhaetzi. qoe quit>re decir: Quaiida kb 
m, y wtkbn la Pnitii. y debm di> ser, por etita rii(;on. de qne ]>or aquel Tiem- 
tjo a* •cttlMbn, qne ai« en iitictitnr A|!<mU). ^ ia en lodu vhIv Mes se jNiHUn lua 
FmlA* tn tierrn trim. P«n> Ion TlucHlt«caii, v otros 1o llaraitbiiu Hacymic-ea- 
i buitl. qu« (inicre decir: Lu KirMa muor de loa Difnntosj y lltttUAVftnla nni, 
goe Mte MM solonimcabAii U meiDDria do 1t>4 DJfaiitofl, cod grandma ciu- 

w, f lUnioe, y dohlMOA Intos, qne 1a prim< rn. y af teninD Ioh cueipoe de 

■ttHttt swgro, y m tiziutbAn toda la cara; }* aui, Uh c^r^mouias, quo so hnciau 
6tt DIh, y d« Kocfae. en todo« 1cm TempUM, y faora d« elloe, «run de nincb^t 
tnMU>^ a*l^n que cada rno podia bacer aa fh^'ntiini^'nU); y en ente Ues (Ia- 
Utn niimhlf dn DiTinoe. )i«iia KeifH difnntoa, yIktodn«nqnollasP<^ninDii8 fwn- 
■UulaA, i|Ue haviiui tiiurrU) iM^^aaowunpnte en las OuermH, y rn pixler dt- niis 
«giviDi|{U*t, y leH hncittD niis IduIo«, y \oh ctAocnitau, con «u*i DioM^. diciendo, 
qiM ftriau ido ml lagar de giift dvlcilCH, y piuuiticmpiMi, en coinpania de lo? 
otowa Dioaea.' 


godp, but the judicial astrologers feigned ft constellation 
ansttfring tlioi-eto and iiilliiencin^' jx^rsoiis tx>rn uiuitr 
it. In depioting thin cxjntitellution Tctj^aotlatohua Huit- 
zilopochtli wiiK reprcsentt'*! with only half his body, as 
it were seated on a Ixiicli, and with iiis mouth oi>en a.^ 
if Hi)e]iking. His head was decorated after a jKX-uliar 
f;tshion nith fealhei-s. his armw were made like trunk.-* 
of trees with hranrlies, while from hisgiixlle there \^Wi\ 
certain herbs that fell downwards over the bench. Op- 
posite this figure was Teoyaomiquc, naked wive a thui 
robe " and standing on a iKticstal. aj^iMircntly holding her 
head in lier hands, at any rate with her head cut off, 
her ey^ bandaged, and two snakes issuing from llic neck 
where the head should have been. Between tlie god 
and the goddess was a flowering tree divided through the 
middle, tu which was attached a beam with varioUB crot»- 
pieces, and over all was a bird with the Iieiid separated 
from its body, 'i'hcrc was to be seen also the head of u 
bird in a cup, and the head of a serpent, together with 
a pot turned upside down while the contents — water as 
it would appear by the hieroglyphics attached — ran out. { 
In this form were painted these two gods, as one of 
the twenty cele-stial sign.s, sufficiently noticed by Boturi- 
ni, although us lie confesses, he bad not arranged them 
in the j)roiM'r order. Returning to notice the office at- 
tributwl to Teoyaomique, that of cx)llecting the .sduU of | 
the dead, we find that Cri.*«t6bal del (!?astillo says that 
all Uirn under tlie .sign which, with the god of war. thi« 
g(j<lde.s.s ruled, were to lx*come at an early age valorou.-* 
soldiers; but that their career was to be short as it was 

11 Ah the whole dcscrifition h<>rnni<>ti a littlft puzzling Iicto, 1 giT« the Drigfnal, 
fjtoH y tittum iHis f'ifinuf. t>. 4'Z: ' Enfi^nle de chU ti^iira eKtit Teoyuouiiqoe 
(IcHDudA. y RnbifrtA rnn koIo tin cetidnl. [Minida nobrv uttm basa. u prm-ion de 
(•itiuitra', 1* cabfrxa ntimrada iM cuorpo. arribadd ciirllo, <x>n Ids njnsvcn- 
(ladoti. y en tin Ingiir dot v boTiis v mlebnui. qao socen del tniKiuo cnello. 
Kutrc cnlaH dos fiftnraa tnik an itr1x>l de flom partido pen- meOJo. al chaI m 
JQUU iin nindcro i-on varios atrnTf««BoK, t #ucima dv il una nirc. coya (*• 
Ix-'za «tit tnnibif-n dividida dri onrriio. Se Tt* tambien otra cabesn at »t» 
dftitro dp una j cam. otra d« sitrpc, udh oUa cvn la boca pam iibajo. mltendo 
do VlU In matem que contenia wDtro, cuyn flgnra jiarece hit )u i|iie nitalos 
|»ra ivpnMU'ntfiT tl agtiu; y f|tuilm«nto ocnpan rl restodel cnMlrti [o( the rr- 

greiwDtaiiim o( the confttellation abore lututioiird io the text] otna grrogl- 
ccHi y Cguriw diferciitfit.' 




briUiant, for they were to fall in battle young. Tbese 
Bouls weiv to rise to heaven, to dwell in the house of the 
Bun, wliere were woods and jrroves. There they were to 
exist four years, at tlie end of wliich time they were to 
be converted into birds of rich and beautiful plumage, 
and to go about sucking dowers both in heaven and on 

To the statue mentioned above there was joined with 
great propriety the image of another god, i'ei^ned to be 
the god of hell, or of the place of the dead, which latter 
is the literal signification of his name, Mictlantecutli. 
This image wits engraved in demi-relief on the lower 
plane of the stone of the great comfwund statue; but it 
was also venerated separately in its own pn>iK^r ten)ple, 
called TIalxicco, that is to say, * in the bowels or navel 
of the earth,' Among the various offices attributed to 
this deity was that of burying the corpses of the dead, 
principally of those that died of natural infirniities; for 
the souls of these went to hell to present themselves be- 
fore this Mictlantecutli and l^efore his wife Mictecacihu- 
atl, whicii name Torquemada interprets as * she that 
throws into hell.' Thither indeed it was said that these 
dead went to ofler themselves a* vassals carrying offer- 
ingSf and to have pointed out to them the places that 
they were to occupy according to the manner of their 
death. This god of hades was further chilled Tzontemoc^ 
a term interpreted by Torquemada to mean ' he that 

ft|per8 h\n head;' but it would rather appear that it 
ould take its signification from the action indicated 
by the great statue, where this deity is seen lus it were 
carrying down lied toluniM'lfthe heoeJs of cnrjises to 
bury tliem in the ground, lus Boturini says. The places 
or habitations HUp|K>sed to in bell, and to wliich 
Ui^ Houb* of the deiul had to go were nine; in the last of 
which, called Chicuhnauhmictlan. the said soids were sup- 
posed to be armihilated and totally destroyed. There 
Has lastly given to this god a place in heaven, he being 
Joined with one of the planets and accompanied by Teo- 

ftianucazqui ; at hi^ fectj there was minted u body that 
Tot* m. u 



was hftif buried, or covered with earth from tlie head to 
the waiMt, while the rest stuck out uiicoveretl. It oiiij^ 
remains to \ie tmd that sucli was the veneration and rSU 
H^ious feeling with whicii were regarded all things re- 
lating to the deiul, that not onl>' there were invented for 
them tutelary gods, nuich honored by fitMjucnt fenstfi and 
Bacrilice; but the Mexicans elevated Death iti^df, d 
eating to it a day of the calendar (the (irst day of 
mxth * trccena*), joining it to the numJjer of the ccJi 
tiiil Higns; and erecting to it a sumptuous temple call' 
Tohiahuac. within the circuit of tlie great temple 
Mexico, wherein it was particularly adored with b 
cauHte and victims under the title Ce Miquiztli.*^ 

A Butiuini, Idea, pp. 3T-S, mcDtions tho goddccs Tcoyitomiqtie; os ;, 
30-1, he uattct-a tho n'H[>«L't with which Micthinlerutli nud the (lend wtie'l 
ganlctl : ' Mn rosta koIo tmtor du hi dui-iiim tcrciii. y ultima DcidMl vsXo rn. i 
Difa <itl Infirrtv), Ovroglifico, <{Xiv Dxpticu el IJiudlM^o ai-to de fei'pullnr Ifl 
maoiioii, y vl (frati renpeto. que eiitoK liiitLguoH ludion ti-uian it Ion Kfjiiilr 
cTtfTendn, k imitncioti de otrsH \Mciuui'». no tiulo que »lli asistiaii Ikh •' 
(!• ICM Difnntoti, . Hino que tuiubicu dichuv l'iirii.-ult:H urau hum DiostN . 

C, Ua dicti, ijuasi iiuJ* ^niti, cuyuH huemtoH, y c«-uix:ik dahuii ulli tii<lii_. 
, y oieitiut seanlen de el dnniiuio, quH tuvierou en uquvlla UiisuH tier 
donde se hiUlntmn Kepultddos, In que lixvian duiiiitdo cnn Uih Kiniorf-K de I 
AgrieoUura. y nun dr>feiuliiin cnn hm reHpetuK, y vUniuvucin. luutlu de kus mdl 

Teres Nuestrcm ludioti en la s^ondn Eiliid dedic-^run dun nitaes de i 

afiu llaiuddoii Micti/ihiiU, y UunftnicuythniU k In Comiiienittniriuii de lli 
Oifuntos, y eu la teircrtt exeroitaroo vnrios ncttm de licdad f» no meoorii 
prnebii i-onntnTite de que confewbiroit la initnortalidiul d^ el uhiin.' t^e (nfj 
tiKT TorffUC'iimli, Mouaro. Ind.. loin. ii.. pp. 529- 30. Of the rotnponnd id 
dlBCilBKed above, Hamboldt, Vu<it d'tf Cormllrrrs, torn. ii.. pp. J5a-7, spia' 
nt Bomc length. Uc flays: ' On distlDRne, k la pnrtie Rnperienre, Ics («-ie4 i 
deux monKtros nccoh'-R et Ton tioave, k cbnqtie fnee, denx yenx et niie tart 
ftnenle nrmee d^ rjimtro deulB. Cm flfnitw mnn^tlmenM'S u'iudiqueut peu^ 
t(re que des mnwjnen: ciir, choz h-s Mexioains. ou etoit dims I'lKumedir nwi " 
quer 1l-m idiiltti k PiMiuque du la maltidte il'iiti roi, et dniiH toat« natrv ci* 
nul« pnblique. I.o8 linis et leu pietLs ^mt caches aoxM ime draperie eutou 
d'enoriueK serpciw, et quo U-h Mtiicjiiut* dfiiinuoient B<»iw \e ijom dt '•okiuiU 
CHye, fiUtneHl i/r srrj^nif. Touh ees nix-ewioires, hurtnnt les (rani^s en lorn 
de ulumeH. iwtut iti-ulpteH uveu le plus grand soin. M. Gama. dans nil ta^M 
moire pnrticniier. n rendu tren^probable que cettc idole re])ri'fient0 le dim dif 
la guerre. Hindilr/iiorhUi, on Ttacahwpanctifxcotiin. et wi ftmiue. oppe"' 
Ttoymu'u}ni (lie vil/{tii, nniurlr. et de teotfao, ptuerrc divine), pnrceqn'i 
ctiodiiiMiit lex luiieH dt^ uiirrrient lunrU pour hi defense des tlienx, n la r*M 
en du Snteil, 1r jMimdiK ih h MexJratnx, oil ello lea tnumfuruioit t>u coliWift 
Lea ti'ten de niorts el lea niniiit^ coup^i a, dont quaire eiiloui t-ut le »rm de It J 
decRRP, rn|ipplleiit lea homblra ftacriticea fhfMjipntfirntttifliiUiJ e^librtrtdatf ( 
In quitizil'tue [eriodo de lr*-izti jonnc, ii|>i{'a 1« aolutice d'etv, ii I honuear <ls 
dien de tn Biit'rr<' et de tiii e«ini]:ngne Ttotfamifjui. Lea uinina coupeca Bltt>j 
neiU fivce bi tlKiire ile ccrtfiinf* vaaea dans lewjuel^i on lirfilott reoeeDA. C<»C 
vaaea t'toieiit anpeli-s t/-}^'j[u-aili. mcm etl /onut de CfiUl»Mt {Ar topiii. bonw I 
tlasne de fit de pite. et de jiCT/i, calebasap). Crtte idole I'taiit andplees"' 
tOQtea Bes foceit, meuie imt dwaioiu (flg. &J, oi Ton voit roimiacaU* Jiktii» 



JfixcoiUl iH the jrtxl,— ur goddess according to K)me 
good ttuthoritieH, — of liuiitiiig. The name ineHnt* 'cloud- 
serpent' and indeed neems common to a whole class uf 
deities) or lieroea somewhat resembling the Nilwlungs of 
northern European mvtliolpgy.*^ He is further sup- 
pof^i to be connected with the thunderstorm: " Mtxco- 
atl, the Cloud-Serpent, or Iztac-Mixcoatl, the White or 
Gleaming Cloud-Serpent," writes Brinton,"^ "said to 
liave l>een the only divinity of the ancient Chiclumecs, 
held in h\^\i honor by the Xahuas, NicaraguauH, and 
Otomfs, and identicjil with Tara^, »uprenie god of the 
Tara«oo8, and Camaxtli, ^od of the Teo-Chichimecs, ie 
another i)ersonirication of the tliunder-storm. To tliia 
day Uii.i in the faniiliiLr name of the tropic^il tornado in 
tlie Mexican language. He wtis represented, like Jove, 
with A bundle of arrows in his hand, the thunderbolts. 
Both the Niduias and Tanwcos related legends in which 
he figured as father of the race of man. Like other 
lords of the lightning he was worshiped as the dispenser 
of riches and the patron of traffic; and in Nicaragua 
liia imii^ie is descrilied as being 'engraved stones' pro- 
bably the supposed products of the thunder." 

itmlUR, U trirfiKur Ju iUu tiet moris. on no Hauroit doutcr qn'cllo t'toit souteniu 
«a I'mif tt*i [u>.>yen d<- tlfux coloiiut;tt »ur k-itipK-llcti re)>iisi>ifut 1l-h p;it'tit.-a luar- 
k A «t B, ditiu U>s flgures 1 <it y. D'u|>rca ceiui dibv<^»itiuii biziirre, tu 
:e I'iilolft tR> trouvoit vmijietiibiableuiout elevt-e tie riuq !i nix luvtrcH au- 

■ dn p.»vi' du Uimplc, do luuuiert* (juc k'S pri'trcs ^JTt^'/fij'/mV tntlDoieiil 

Its tnilhc-tirrawes Ti«tilii«B h I'liate], en l«% fniwint (josser iiaAlvssutui do la 
flgDr» dj* 'ifi'HatittuittJl.' 

':ii|j ta ItriUMar do Bourbiitir^. iu .VouiW^M Aniialrs drx VoyatjcM, 

. . )i|i. "iCT-S: 'Leu burns etd>-)Dt-<lf>itx qui, hodmIo uoin K'-ueriqao 

. ...... <)iifit-Mii.euhiuw. juuetituti itigruiid K>lediiiJHl]itu)-ltiu)i>i;iL>uexf- 

el fjui du Yii" ati ix* hiiVIo do iiotn' erf, obtiiirent lii uri'pondi'ninoe sur 
eAU ibeL'-i|u<i. , . , L'rfi plttK ct'lebras do ecu hmw ttuut MiKcubuiitl-Nfaxs- 
tzin (le Berpeut N'IiuIv-dx L>t lo Dnim), fond itear dt> \n ruyuali* a Ttdlitn (nu> 
ionrd' hni Tnlii), THty.t!.'itJijioca, R|>i^ialf>iiicut iidon:' i TetKcmx), tl koq fri-re 
Ui- ' Ih jeuiu-. dit CamxxUi, en pariti'uti.'r iidur.' a Tiax(?jd1iiti. fan et 

I <> ■<nn -H. KiitiK d'.tiitr>-K nniim, puriiii 1'.'k ruis d^ CTithuuciin ct cop- 

nti- .- >, ^..i-vi qae li] premier, comtne Ics prin^-ipnux fnuduteurB dc la niou- 
mhM Colt^ae. On tgnore oa iU re^iir<-ut 1« juur. Uu manuscrit ucxiciiiD, 
[Codax Chinalpopocu]. «a lett doumtut pour flU d'lirtac-Mixcobiintl ou lo 
Htrpent Blnnc H'-buliax et d'l):titc-<Chalfbiuhlicue oa \n Bl.incb0 Diiine 
uar^t fnit allrv'^iririfmcnt iillnMon iitix pny>t U:'buleux et nqaiUiqU(?8 oil iIm 
— ^- iwis^ lu-'iiiL' docurii'-'Ut njouto qu'iU viurciit pnr enu it qu'iU 

_ MBt toDips en burquti. t*out>^tro qnv Iv num d' Iztuc ou 

'f ^RkIcii. . .1 - a ilixoobtiiiti, dOiiignu tiuui uuo tmcti difforonle do 
>U« dM iDiUt^nn et plnn CQ mpport aveo la ii6tre.* 
M Brinlma MytM, p. 15t). 


In tl»e fourteenth month, cflUetl QuecholU, and begin^ 
ning, according to Cluvigero, on tlie fourteenth of Xovcm* 
ber, there was iniule with many olwcure ceremonies, a foa: 
to this g<.)d. On the mxth day of the month all assi'm-^ 
bled at the cu of Huitzilopochtli, where during four duvi 
they made arrows and darta for use in war and fo 
general practice at a mark, mortifying at the same lir 
tlicir Hesh by drawing blood, and by abstaining froid 
women and pulque. This done they made, iji honor < 
the dead, certain little mimic darts of a Imnd long, 
which four neem to have been tied together with fou 
splinterH of candlc'-\v(XHl pine; these were put on th« 
graves, and at set of sun, lit and burned, af^er wliich th 
ashes were interred on the 8[X)t. There were taken 
mai'/e-stalk of nine knots with a pa[jer flag on the tc 
that hung down to the bottom, together with a shield and 
dart belonging to the dead man, and his maxtle and 
blanket; the last two l>eing attached to the maize-stall 
The hanging flag was ornamented on either side wit 
red cotton thread, in the figure of an X; a piece 
twistetl white thread also hung down to which was 
landed a dead humming-bird. Handfuls of the whit 
feathers of the heron were tie<.l two and two 4ind fastenc 
to the burdened maize-stalk, while all the cotton thread 
used were covered with white hen's feathers, stuck 
with resin. Lastly all these were burned on a stone blc 
called the qumdicicalcallco. 

In the court of the cu of Mixcoatl was scattered muc 
dried grass brought from the mountains, upon which the 
old women-priests, or c'totilUoiiaaizque, seated themselvt^l 
cjicli with a !nat l«'fore lu»r. All the women that Iindl 
children came, eiwJi bringing her child and five fiwtet] 
^inialL'.'s; and the tiuuules were put on the mats bt-fore j 
the old women, who in return t(Mjk the children, tweed 
them in their arms and then returned them to their 

About the middle of the month was made a special 
feast to this god of the Otomis, to Mixcoatl. In the 
morning all prepared for a great drive-hunt, girding 


their blankets to their loins, und taking bowB and arrows. 
They wended their way to a mountain -sloix*, anci- 
ently Zapatepec, or Yxillantonan, above the sierra of 
Atlacuizoayan, or as it is now called, according to Busta- 
mante, Tacubaya. There they drove deer, rabbits, liarcs, 
coyotes, and other gaiue together, little by little, every 
one in the meantime killing what he could ; few or 
no animals escaping. To the moHt sucocKHful himters 
blankets were given, and every one bnmght to his hoii»e 
the heiuls of the animals he had taken, and hanged them 
up for tokens of his prowess or activity. 

There were human sacrifices in honor of this hunting 
god with other deities. The manufacturers of pulque 
bought, apparently two slaves who were decorated with 
paper and killed in honor of the gods Tlamatzincatl and 
Yzquitecatl; there were also sacrificed women supposed 
to represent the wives of these two deities. The calpix- 
quia on their part led other two slaves to the death in 
honor of Mixcoatl and of Cohuatlicue his wife. On the 
moniing of the Uu<t day but one of the montli. all the 
doomed were brought out and led round tlic cu where 
they had to die; after mid-day they were led up the cu, 
round the socrifical block, down o^ain, then bock to the 
caipulco, to be at once guauled und forced to keep awake 
for the night. At midnight their heads were shaven 
before the (ire. and every one of tliem burned there 
what goods he had, little piiper flags, aww. tol)aa*x>- 
pipes" and drinking- ves-sels; the women threw into 
llie riame their miment, their ornaments, their 
spindles, little baskets, vessels in which tlie spin- 
dles were twirled, warping-frames, fuller's earth, 
pieces of cane for pressing a fabric together, (X)rd8 
for fastening it up, maguey -thorns, mejisuring-nxls, 
and other implements for weaving; and they .sjtid that 
all these things had to be given to them in the other 
world after their death. At daybreak these captives 
were carried or a.ssisted up, each having a paper flag 

u OkSm At homo: KingiltoroM^Kt Mex. Antlq., Tol. vU., p. 76; Sahagvn, 

, ton. i., hit. ii., p. 160. 


borne before him, to the several cues of the gods thej 
were to die in honor of. Koiir that hml to die, prDhablyl 
before Mixcoatl, were, each by four bearers, e)irrio<i uj 
to a temple, bound hand and foot to represent dead deer;J 
while others were merely .issisted up the ste{is bv 
youth at each arm, so tliat they should not faint nor fail; 
two other yoiithn trailing or letting them down tlie samfl 
steps after they were dead. The preceding relat 
only to the male captives, the women being slain before 
the men, in a separate on called the ooatlan; it is saii 
that as they were forced up the stepa of it some screarae 
and otherH wept. In letting the deiul bodies of thesej 
women down the steiw again, it U also 8])ecirtlly writtenjii 
that they were not Iiurled down roughly, hut r()lletl down] 
Kttle by little. At the phice where the skulls of thaj 
dead were exposed, waited two old women called tehea-\ 
inique^ having by them salt water and bread and a mcf4\ 
or gruel of some kind. The carcofises of the victiini 
being brought to them, they dipped Cane-leaves into the 
salt water and sprinkled the faces of them therewith, 
and into eiich month they put four morsels of bread 
moistened with the gruel or mess above-mentioned. 
Then the hefuls were cut off and spitted on poles; and « 
the feast ended.'* 

In connection with the religious honors paid tothfi^ 
dead, it may i»e here Mid that the Mexican.s had a deity , 
of whom almost all we know is that he was the god of j 
thow that died in the houses of the lords or in tlie 
palaces of the principal men; he was called Macuilxo- 

M XTnTsftofWu/A'* Jfrar. Ar\Ht},. toI. tH., pp. 7I*-ff; Sahatjvm, ITiat. Oft*., lotn. ■ 
i.. lib ii . pp. Ifii-7; Torq*\«m'fila, yfi^mirn. hut,, torn, ii., pp. )4S~9, lfi]-l, 
SJBO-l; I'tacvjero, .S(«in i .|ti/. drl iUsrtir,; toiii. ii., p. T.t; Mitltfr, .Iwnriivi. 
ntirh.' (/mli/iiiiifii, pu. 483. iSfi. aud rlitewhere. Bnii3i;ar. aa his rn<;loiii ii, 
eahoux^rizeii tbis god. detajlioff the eveato of hla nif^, anil tbenriiitu: aa 
faiA policy. 118 cobetly and belienngljr as if it wera a qaestiou uf tlie nnm ^ 
a Loait XIV., or a Nniioleou I.; aw Wsi- Xnt. Ctt\, torn, i., pp. 227-35. 
Gomara. Coivf. .Vra-.. to\. 88, niul others. naakeCam&Ktle. the principal giMl (4 
^aacala, iilcutioil with Mixcoatl. Xbc Ckicbiuifc* ' hAd o&ly ouv i^^xl callei} 
Kixooati ail \ thoy k<.'pt this image or frtntn^. Thr^ heM to another und, ifi- 
▼iaible, witbout imft;.,'is called looftllioht-'CAtl.— tbntistosay. g(xlitivitiili|t4ih] 
ImpalpabK favoring, sheltmug, all-powerful, by whose powor all Iitb, Hd.' 
Sana^un, Hist. Gen., torn. U., lib. vi., p. 04. 



chitl, *the chief that gives flowers, or that takes care of 
the giving of flowers.'" The feativnl of this gixl fell 
among the movable feasts and was called Xochilhuitl, 
or ' the festival of flowers.' There were in it the unuul 
preliininary fasting (that is to say, eating but once a day, 
at noon, and tlien only of a restricted diet), blood-letting, 
and offering of food in the temple; thou<.di there did not 
occur therein anything suggestive either of a god of 
flowers or of a god uf tlie more noble dead. The image 
of tliis deity was in the likeness of an almost naked man, 
either flaye<l or painted of a vermilion color; the mouth 
nnddiin were of three tint-?, white, black, and light blue; 
tlie face was of a light reddish tinge. It hrwl acrawn of 
light green color, with plumes of the same line, and tas- 
selfl that hung down to the shoulders. On tlie hack of 
the idol wiw u device wrought in feiithers, representing 
a banner planted on a hill; alxiut the loins of it wa.s a 
bright reddish blanket, fringed with sca-Hholls; curiously 
wrought sandals adorned its feet; on the left arm of it 
was » white shield, in the midst of which were set four 
stoneH^ joined tno and two; it held a sceptre, shaped like 
& heart and tipped with green and yellow featliers." 

"Thia ieitf most not, it would Mem. be oonfoonded with ftnotber 
mealioDc-d by tiohaffuOi vU.. Coatlyaee, or Cootlyatc. or L'oiiUanlouuu, • 
goJJe — of whom we banw littU n&ve tlie fact, iticidi'UUillv luvtitiuucd. tliat 
mbm waa nMrd«il wilb gn>ak dvvutiua by tb« duaJers in flowen. Hoe A'tn?*- 
borOHi/h'$ Mex. Anli^., vol. rii., p. 42, and BaJKi^un, Hid. Utn., torn, i., lib. u., 
p. 96. 

^ KittaItiirti\$oh'it .Wnr. <4nfu}., vol.TJi.. pp. 10-11, 136; Sahatjun, liigl.Otn.. 
torn, i., lib. i.. ijii. l*J-22. lib. iv.. p. .TOS. Bodiriui, htea de una liixt., iip. H-IS. 
•pcitka of agoadfHH rall^ MHc*iiilx<x'buiiiet7ji11i; by a rnmpnriRuu of tbepiutfi- 

Slf with Dol» 2H of thta obnptrr, it will 1 Ibink be evi<U-nt tbat the rht^valiet'B 
acnilxorhiqn^tEolli i>^ idi^Dti<''«l not with MAOiiilio(-liit], but with Xui-hicinct- 
atl. the AxtiMs Vutnu. S<-«> further, on th'> r(-Inli»iiii of tbir: (;<>ddpf<». Bras' 
teur lit Bovrbovni, Ifiti. .V.iJ, I'ii',. t*iiu. iii . pp. ^SO-l; ' Hftitalcut-yt', qui 
donnail son nom iin ventiint de In moiitaKnc dn c'tt/- de Tlaicullau, i-laik 
ragnrvlee mmmo U pri^d-iM rUtj KiitkiaU' dfrt ruagieionuijii. 1.& k'^fude dlsait 
qitVlIe trait d<>veu<ie I'^poua^ d« Tliiloc. Hpri'ii an).> Xnchiquelznl cut t-tv en- 
IcT^ k ce dieo [upo thJA vol, p. 3781. CeIIe-<!i. iloiit <-lle ii't'toil, Aprrfi tout, 

Jn'nzie p«tw>iitiifl<^ili»ti diffrvnl*', t'lnit itppnli't* uutsi (*halrbiuhlyru^, ou la 
apon iiemi^ d'riucrBtidcH, rrina (|<iiilitt' dr d'-c(«tc dt-H raui. !>■ nyuilwilf! noua 
taqncl on U i\'pri'i*fut<», coming dt-c»we dt-s amourK lioiiiii^ftH, cut c'<liii d'un 
^ventiil «)mpr«^ d*- cinij fleurH, ce que reiid eorori' le unui qu'on lui donnait 
" Macoil'XcK'hiquftzalli." ' Fruitscnr, it in to be reucciWrrd, dixlingniiihffl 
b«tva«B XochiuatUal aa the guddeiis u{ boaeat love, and TUxulteo<l an the 
goddew ot lubncity. 



Orae Acatl was the god of banquets and of guests: his 
name si^iified * two cftnes.' When n man made a feart 
to Ills friends, he hiid tlie image of ihia deity carried to 
his house by certain of ita priests; and if tlie host did 
not do this, t