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Bor 




. Cau Ski// 

^ HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 
or Tn 

PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN 
ARCHiEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

GIFT OP 

LOMBARD C. JONES 

(A.B. Z887, M.D. 1890) 

FALMOUTH. MASSACHUSB1*TS 

ReoeiTed December 7, 1919 



to.... 



/•-ti*> 1'^"^ ^. ^** 




THE 



Natives of Sarawak 



AND 



British North Borneo 

Basfd chiefly on the MSS, of tlu late Hugh Broohe Low 
Sarawak Government Service 



HENRY LING ROTH 

AUTHOR OF 

The Aborigines of Tasmania/* ** The Peasantry of Eastern Russia," &c. 



WITH A PRBFACB BV 



ANDREW LANG 



OVER 880 ILLUSTRATIONS 



In Two Volumes— Vol II 



LONDON 

TRUSLOVE & HANSON 

143 Oxford Street & 6 Sloank Street 

1896 



0«.. %^. ^ 7<fB^ (^) 






PRINTED BY 
TRUSLOVB AND BRAY 
WEST NORWOOD SB 



CONTENTS. 

VOL. II. 

Pack 

Contents of Vol. II iii. 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Habitations i 

CHAPTER XVIL 
Weaving, Dyeing, and Dressmaking, Tribal Dresses, Dress in 

Detail 29 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Fashionable Deformities 77 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Painting and Tatuing 83 

CHAPTER XX. 
War and Weapons ... ... .. 96 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Head-Hunting ... 140 

CHAPTER XXII. 
The Sumpitan and other Poisons 184 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
Peace, Slaves and C.\ptives, Human Sacrifices, Cannibalism 202 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
Government, Trade, Mining, Mensuration, Natural Produc- 
tions 224 

CHAPTER XXV. 
Boating, Swimming, Riding 246 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
Music '. 257 

CHAPTER XXVII. 
Language, Names, Colours 267 

CHAPTER XXVIIl. 
Archaeology, Jars, Alleged Native Writing, Negritoes ... 279 



IV. 



Contents. 



APPENDICES. 

I. 

Vocabularies. 

Sea Dyak, Malay, by H. Brooke Low ... i. 

Rejang River Dialect, by II. Brooke Low xlv. 

Malay, Kanowit, Kyan, Bintuhi, Punan, Matu, by H. Brooke 

Low .. xlvii. 

Malay, Brunei, Bisaya, Muriit Padass, Murut Trusan, Dali 

Dusum, Malanau, by C. de Crespigny xciv. 

A Collection of 43 words in 24 different Districts, by Rev. C. Hupe ... xcix. 

Collection of nine words in eight dialects, by Ch. Hose ciii. 

Kayan, by R. Burns civ. 

Sadong, Lara, Sibuyau, by Sir Sp. St. John cix. 

Sabayau, Lara, Salakau, and Lundu, by Rev. W. Gomez ... cxiv. 

Sea Dyak (and Bugau), Malau, by Mr. Brereton cxvi. 

. Milanau^ Kayan, Pakatan, by Sir Sp. St. John cxix. 

Ida*an, Bisaya, Adang (Murut), by Sir Sp. St. John cxxiv. 

Lanun, by Sir Sp. St. John cxxx. 

Sarawak Dyak, by Rev. W. Chalmers .. cxxxii. 

Iranun, Dusun, Bulud Opie, Sulus, Kians, Punans, Melano, 

Bukutan, Land Dyaks, Balaus clvii. 

11. 

Ethnographical Notes Translated from Dr. Schwaner's 
** Borneo : " 

I. The Barito River Basin clxi. 

II. The Kahaijan River Basin cxcix. 

Notes from Mrs. Prver's **A Decade in Borneo" ccviii. 

„ „ Prof. KCkenthai/s ** Forschungsreise" ccix. 

Note on Burials ccxi. 



Note on Skull Measurements 

Bibliography 

INDEX 

List of Subscribers 



III. 



IV. 



... CCXK 

... ccxii. 
...ccxviii. 
ccxxxviii. 



Aiaff af'oHg'- palm leaf roof 







H 



H.a 
^hleUI 






CHAPTER XVI. 
HABITATIONS. 

Land Dyak houses — Twelve in a row — Separate houses — Description of parts — A house at Stang — 
Dimensions — Description — Detached houses— Single blocks — Lower verandahs — Poor buildings 
— Dirt — Position of the Stang house — House antus — Langs — Middens — Tributes — Cradles — 
Tabu — Jungle treasure houses — Rotan and gomuti palm fibre — Smoked roofs— Pillows— Flooring — 
Absence of streets - Sea Dvak houses — Long houses — General description — Bilieh or private 
apartment — Life in — Utensils — Fire-places — Tempuan or general thoroughfare — ^Women work 
here — Ruai or verandah — Open on all sides — Fire-places — Stores and treasures — Heads and 
charms. &c. — Tanju or open-air platform — For paddy drying — Sadau or loft — Shifting quarters — 
Searching new grounds — Marking-out — Omens — Collective labour — The exodus — The ensilan — 
A large Sibuyau house— Stockades — The longest Sea Dyak house on record — Plainness — 
Cleanliness— Smells — Incised doors — Slab bark walls — Roofs — Malanau houses — Lofty 
buildings — Kayan houses— Chiefs' slab seats— Reason for high posts — Low rooms — Large 
houses on Baram river — Good workmanship — Omens — Co-operation — Quick erection — Little 
furniture — Raised seats — Kenniah close packing — Dusun houses — Vermin — Second story — A 
neat clean house — Bambu roofs — Whole houses of bambu— Kiau houses — Vermin — New houses 
— Omens — Murut houses — Poor specimens— Low roofs — Origin of barrack houses — Not 
conducive to progress — Paths — Curious means of communication — Near bouses ~ Over hills— 
Bridges — Elegant constructions— Tree trunks. 

The late Mr. Noel Denison has given us many accounts of houses built by 
the Land Dyaks. "The houses of the Singhi Dyaks are constructed in 
blocks of perhaps twelve in one row, the platform in front being common to 
all, the verandah which is closed in front is supported on straight posts, the 
wall behind and before being upright." (Denison, ch. ii. p. 19.) 

At Tringus : ** The houses are all separate, but run so close together that 
they touch ; the connection from the platform in front of the houses, which are 
all distinct, is by means of bamboo batangs or bridges, though the platforms 
often approach one another so closely that no bridges are required (ibid, 
ch. iv. 39) • . . . the names of the various parts of a Dyak house vary 
a little with the various tribes. The platform in front of a house is called the 
tanju ; the verandah awach ; the sloping roof, which can be raised or lowered 
from the end of the house roof, or is perhaps a continuation of it, is the 
kumban (window). On entering a house, the door tiban of which is generally 
made of bilian or some other hard wood, we come across a passage between 
the iire places called the ladang, while the Are place itself is called apuk. 
There are often two fire places right and left. The shelves above, used for 
storing household goods, wood, etc., are called piyu ox pyu ; the room itself is 
the arun ; the raised seat at the end of the room, used as a sitting divan and 
sleeping place for strangers, is the jangan at Tringus, and bakowse at Gumbang. 
I have written that there are sometimes two fire-places; it happened to be so 
B Vol. a. 




V. 

< 



Habitations. 3 

in the house I was describing; in other houses I found only one fire-place to 
the left of the door, the piyu being on the right." {ibid, ch. iii. p. 39.) 

" At Stang there was a house like that of the Sibuyaus. The house is 
some 90 feet in length with 8 doors, and stands about 4 feet from the ground. 
There is a verandah in front 24 feet broad running the whole length of the 
building and behind this is another verandah 15 feet in breadth. This latter 
is covered by the roof which slopes down to within 3 or 4 feet of the tanju, 
and is supported by a split bamboo wall. Behind the outer verandah is a 
passage li feet in breadth, running parallel the whole way with the verandah, 
terminating at each end in a wooden door, and into this passage the 8 doors 
of the house all open. Between this passage (which is the thoroughfare 
through the house) and the inner verandah, firewood, etc., is stored, and light 
is admitted by the roof being made to rise and fall in the usual Land Dyak 
manner. The roof slopes down at the rear of the building as low as it does 
in front, while the side walls constructed of attaps come down as low as 
4 feet from the ground. The rooms are small and there is a door of 
communication between each of these, so that there is no difficulty in passing 
from one room to another. The whole of the front verandah is surrounded 
by a split bamboo fence 5 feet high, erected to keep out fowls and protect the 
children from falling over. This (and one a little smaller at Sign) is the best 
Land Dyak house I have seen and it should be taken as a pattern by all our 
Land Dyak tribes." {ibid, ch. vii. 74.) ** While on the subject of the village I 
may here mention that some of the Simpoke houses are constructed differently 
from those of the Stangs, etc., many of the houses are detached, and have no 
front verandahs, and are built higher from the ground." {ibid, ch. vii. 76.) 
** The houses of the Lanchang Dyaks and in fact of the whole Bukar tribe 
stand in blocks some 160 feet in length, raised about four feet from the 
ground. The roof slopes down at the back of the house till it reaches and 
rests on a boarded wall three feet high, the roof opening over every room 
forms the windows, admitting light and air in the Land Dyak fashion. In 
front, the roof is the same, and rests on a boarded wall or partition which 
encloses the inner verandah twelve feet broad, and outside of this there is 
another verandah or platform, ten feet broad, generally a foot or two lower 
down. The bamboos of which these are constructed are most slovenly and 
loosely placed and the whole building has in fact a most forlorn and wretched 
appearance. In some of the rows or blocks, in front of every door a portion 
of the roof is continued over the outer verandah to form a small fowl-house 
or coop, but this is not universal. The Bukars are the only Dyaks I have 
met who feed their pigs in the verandahs ; this is done in the lower verandah. 
The interior of a house is divided into three compartments fifteen feet in 
breadth. The first compartment entered from the door has a fire-place on 
each side with a passage between into the next compartment, which may be 
said to be in the same room, there being nothing to mark the separation but 
a thick bamboo joist in the floor. This second compartment, which is used 
as the sleeping or lounging place, is about twelve feet in length. In the third 
compartment, also twelve feet long, are stored the household goods — ^jars, 
guns, swords, charms, gongs, baskets, cloths, etc., etc., and here under the 



H. Ling Roth.— Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N. Borneo, 



raised roof a portion of the floor is railed off for storing bottles, jars of arrack, 
oil, etc., etc. The sides of the houses are all of planking and the floors of 

lantis. The above account of a 
Bukar Dyak house describes 
the habitation of Pengara Gud- 
dus." (ibid, ch. viii. p. 83.) 

"The effluvium arising from 
the accumulation of dirt and 
refuse in this village was really 
fearful. The houses being built 
on the level ground, there is 
no natural drainage, and the 
Dyaks have made none for 
themselves." (ibid, ch. viii. 
p. 84.) ** Around the houses 
the filth, offal, refuse and mud 
create such a stench that it is 
at times unendurable." (ibid, 
ch. viii. p. 85.) 

" In one thing the Grungo 
excel every other tribe of 
Dayaks I have ever seen, and 
that is in dirt; their houses 
were dirty, their mats were 
dirty, and their little children 
could only be described as posi- 
tively filthy." (St. John i. 147.) 

The Rev. Mr. Chalmers thus 
describes the Land Dyak vil- 
lage of Staang near the left 
branch of the Sarawak river. 
" It is built on a high, steep hill, 
and the houses are reached by 
a rugged path, which consists 
of steps cut into the face of the 
hill, strengthened by pieces of 





NiBONG Palm. Oncosperma filamentosa. 
(Blume's Rumph. 96 1. 83-103 ; Mart Nat. Hist. Palm lii. 312 1. 150-153.) 



The Nipa Palm. Nipa fruticans. 
(Martin's Nat. His. Palm iii. 305 1. 108.) 



Habitations. 



bamboo. Here and there huge masses of limestone rock tower above the 

surface ; but in general the hill is covered with a dense undergrowth of ferns 

and shrubs, and above these rise jungle and fruit trees in abundance ; the 

latter consisting of plantains, durians, and many kinds of palm, as cocoanut, 

sago, nibong, nauh, pinang, etc. As one ascends, there is heard the 

unceasing dash and ripple of streams innumerable over their rocky descents, 

and every now and then one comes upon a bamboo seat and panchur. As the 

village is neared, a cluster of fine 

yellow bamboo (biilu gading) comes in 

view, and close by this is a small 

but tolerably lofty bamboo stage, on 

which are placed Antu offerings, to 

which a ladder is sometimes attached 

to help the Antm in their ascent to 

get their dinners. They pay no 

worship to the bamboos, but the place 

is sacred, and here they generally 

await the bird omens before Setting 

out on their journeys. The houses are 

few or numerous according to the 

population, and each house contains 

from three to four langs or family 

apartments. They are built on posts 

from four to twenty feet from the 

ground, and are entered by means of 

ladders (notched trunks of trees) or 

by an inclined plane of bamboo. At 

Tabiah there is one ascent of this 

latter kind at least 200 feet in length. 

. . Among the posts below the houses, 

the dogs, pigs, and fowls quarrel and 

flourish, the ground there is little else than an immense midden : it receives 

all the dirt of the house, and this is rendered still more unsavoury by that of 

the pigs, etc., so that the thick Rottan mats which are laid over the floors of 

lantei are quite necessary to keep down the stench. 

" Each family or lang pays a tribute of two passus of rice or three rupees 
in money to the Government. A lang consists of a married couple and their 
family ; the Orang Kaya, widowers, widows, bachelors, and unmarried women 
pay nothing. Each lang has a separate ramin or apartment in one of the 
long houses, and the children and unmarried girls of the family sleep in this 
room (which is sometimes pretty large) with the heads of the family ; the lads 
of the village as soon as they are old enough to work on the farms, have to 
take up their quarters at night in the panggah or head house." (Occas. Papers.) 
" One or more cradles, formed of the hollow stem of the sago-palm, or 
a block of wood, in which a cavity has been made, slung from the beams of 
the house by ropes attached to both ends of it, adorn the room." (Low, 
p. 280.) " When a new bUtang, or row of houses, is built, those who live therein 




Rbjang House Ladder. 
(Brooke Low.) 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit N. Borneo. 



may not eat some kinds of jungle vegetables, or fish with tuba, or seek rattans 
in the woods, till the house has been doctored, a pig killed, and a feast held." 
(Chalmers in Grant's Tour.) 

** The Lanchangs had just repaired and in many instances entirely rebuilt 
their houses, they had consequently put them under pamali for four days, two 
of which had already expired." (Denison, ch. viii. p. 84.) 

" A man being told to make a regular flight of steps to his house instead 
of the old notched ladder replied, * No, that would be pamali.' " (Chambers, 
Miss. Field, 1867, p. 69.) 

**The Sikongs and neighbouring tribes and besides them the Gumbangs 
construct small houses in the jungle, in which they keep their most cherished 
valuables. This is done as a precaution against fire, and I noticed that 
these houses were only fastened by a rough wooden bolt." (Denison, ch. v. 
p. 52.) ** The Goons and Tabiahs have also this custom." {ibid, ch. vi. 62.) 
" For binding the timbers of a house together rotan is largely used." 
(Crossland.) "The gomuti palm is likewise much in request for the same 
purpose. The cordage it produces from the hairy-like filaments, which are 
interwoven round the stem and about the axils of the leaves, is of excellent 
quality, and of great service, on account of its durability." (Low, p. 40.) 

In the Upper Sarawak Dyak 
houses **the whole room looks 
black from smoke, which has 
no other escape than the door 
and one large window. This 
latter is merely a large hole left 
in the roof, and in rain must 
be shut with a shutter made 
of palm-leaves. The room is 
lighted by the fire from the 
hearth, and by a little torch 
made from the gum of a tree 
put into bamboos, and used 
as oil. The sleeping- place is 

Design Burnt|on a Rotan Mat (tekar rotan)^ before the fire, on mats spread 

Muruts of Upper Labut River in North Borneo. Total ^^^ ^t night ; pillowS Stuffed 
length of mat, 8ft. loin. ; width, 3ft. 2*in. ; length of o ^ r 

decorated portion, 2ft. sin. With grass, etc., are made use 

(Edinboro* Mus.) of, and coverings made of the 

rinds of certain trees." (Houghton, M.A.S. iii. 199.) 

*' The floor is always formed of strips split from large bamboos, so that 
each may be nearly flat and about three inches wide, and these are firmly tied 
down with rattan to the joists beneath. . . . they form with a mat over them 
an excellent bed. . . . When, however, a flat, close floor is required, excellent 
boards are made by splitting open large bamboos on one side only, and flatten- 
ing them out so as to form slabs eighteen inches wide and six feet long, with 
which some Dyaks floor their houses. These with constant rubbing of the 
feet and the smoke of years become dark and polished, like walnut or old oak, 
so that their real material can hardly be recognised." (Wallace i. 121.) 








en 



> I 

:^ s 
w s 



8 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit.N. Borneo. 



" In describing Peninjau Mr. Hornaday remarks : " The houses stand 
just wherever they can find standing-room, with no order or regularity 




be 

c 

9 



o "S 



g £ 



S E 



5^ 

P3 



whatever, not a sign of anything like a street nor even a good path anywhere. 
They were of course built along the side of the mountain, usually with the 



Habitatiam, g 

open side uphill, and all were elevated on posts which were from six to eight 
feet high on the upper side, where they were the shortest." (p. 485.) 

The following description of a Sea Dyak village house is by Mr. Brooke 
Low, and is based on earlier accounts of the houses of the Undups by the 
Rev. W. Crossland : — 

" A Sea Dyak Village is a terrace upon posts varying in length according 
to the number of houses of which it is composed, and as the various houses 
are built according to a single scale and measurement and by a combination 
of labour, they rarely fail to present a uniform and regular appearance. 

" There is always a ladder at either end of the terrace by which to ascend, 
and sometimes one or more towards the centre of the ianju or open-air plat- 
form. The roof is thatched throughout with the same material — shingles or 
palm leaves— if the latter, the nipa (duan apong) leaves are used where procur- 
able, and where not the pandanus (duanbira). The flooring in some villages is 
made of palm trees split into laths (nibong = wild varieties of areca ?) ; in other 
cases of cane, or bamboo, or even twigs. The laths of split bamboo allow a 
delicious current of air to permeate the apartment. The outer walls are of 
plank, the inner of bark. No nails are used, the beams or rafters are lashed 
together with rattans or secured by wooden pegs. The posts are innumerable 
and of hard wood. The village is surrounded at its base by a wooden palisade 
which is itself protected by chevaux defrise of pointed bamboo. The village is 
divided by a plank walling into two main portions, the front and the rear. 
The former partakes of the nature of a very wide verandah, and is open 
throughout its entire length. The latter occupies the rear of the entire 
building and is sub-divided into apartments, one for each family. Between 
the plank wall and the edge of the ruai is the iempuan or footway, a narrow 
passage running through the centre, so that a person may walk from one end 
of the village to the other without encountering any obstacles. 

*' Every family thus possesses a compact little residence to themselves, 
comprising a bilieh or room where they can enjoy privacy when they like, a 
iempuan or thoroughfare where they pound their rice and pile up their fire- 
wood, a ruai or verandah where they receive visitors, a tanju or open-air 
platform where they air their things and lounge in the cool of the evening, and 
a sadau or loft where they keep their tools and store their paddy. 

" The bilieh or private apartment is furnished with a swinging door which 
opens outwards, and is closed by means of a heavy weight suspended to a 
thong to the inside. The door can be secured when required by means of a 
bar. If the room be unusually large, it may have two doors for the sake of 
convenience. Figures are sometimes carved or painted on the door — saurians 
among others, grotesque images of supernatural beings, and indecent carica- 
tures of the human person.* There is no window such as we understand, but 

1 "THe inner walls of the houses of the Benoas were ornamented outside with grotes<jue 
figures— some representing the inevitable crocodile, in various positions; another, a man being 
swallowed by a crocodile." (Bock, p. 137.) " Another of the carvings represented a Dyak riding 
on an animal meant for a boar ; while on a third wall was depicted a Dyak returning from a head- 
hunting tour, with a head in his left hand. Further down the room was hanging suspended against 
the wtdl a small model of a house, somewhat resembling a Noah's ark, from the door of which 
protruded a carved serpent, which was represented to me as being a valuable medicine for the 
stomach.'* (ibid, p. 138.) 



10 H. Ling Roth.— Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



a portion of the roof is so constructed that it can be raised a foot or two by 
means of a stick to let out the smoke or to admit the fresh air. If the neigh- 
bours are near relations or intimate friends, as is often the case, a hole is cut 
in the wall which separates the room to avoid the necessity of a roundabout 
way into one anothers' apartments, and some villages are so arranged that 
one can traverse the entire length of the rear section of the building, by means 
of these apertures, without appearing on the verandah at all. There is 
no furniture in the room— none, in fact, being required. The floor is the 
occupiers' table, and they squat to their meals. But there are plenty of mats 
to sit upon, and baskets to pack their clothes in. Their cups and plates are 

hung in rows upon the walls as much for orna- 
ment as for use. Their valuables, such as old 
jars, gongs, etc., are ranged on three sides so as 
to present the most imposing appearance of 
wealth. But the room is stuffy and untidy, and 
no wonder, seeing that there is but one for each 
family, and this one is used as a kitchen as well 
as a mess room, as a nursery as well as a bed 
chamber. There can be no absolute privacy 
unless the door is barred to exclude the neigh- 
bours. Boys and girls keep running in and out, 
and the dogs are always on the watch in the 
tempuan to spring in whenever the door swings 
open. The floor is swept after a fashion, but the 
room is never deserted, and the roof is simply 
black with soot. The refuse is thrown into the 
piggery and poultry yard, which occupies the area 
or waste space under the house. Very little 
stench, if any, reaches the apartment from the 




Slab Door of Undup House. 

The upper pivot is fastened by rotan 
to the post B, but the lower pivot 
drops into a socket let into A. 
The door is held closed 



from the 
inside by a bar of wood which is ground, as the floor is raised too high above it 
dropped into c^hes pegged to the ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ j^y j^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ fire-place is 

(From a skctchby Mr. crossiand.) ^^g Q^ly real picce of fumiture in the room. It is 
built either to the right or to the left of the door set up against the wall of the 
tempuan and resembles an open cupboard, the lowest shelf resting upon the 
floor, and the upper shelves being of lattice-work instead of plank. The 
former is boarded all round and filled with clay. This is the fire-place, and it 
is furnished with a few stones between which the pots are set.* The shelf 
immediately above the fire is set apart for smoking fish and meat, etc. The 
shelves above this again are filled with firewood, which, being thoroughly 
dried, is ready for use. The women, who do all the cooking, have also to 
keep these shelves supplied from the pile in the tempuan. As the smoke from 
the wood fire is not conducted to the roof by means of a chimney, it spreads 
itself throughout the loft and blackens the beams and rafters until it finds its 
way out by the open window. 

« Elsewhere Mr. Brooke Low in his notes says : " They make a paiaa, or raised platform, and 
under it light a fire and heap it with dry twigs, and fill the platform with split wood for drying as 
bekal (fire-wood). From the fire they take brands for other fires." 



Habitations, 



II 



" The tempuan or general thoroughfare is between the bilieh and the ruai. 
It is three feet in width and is paved with wood. It is furnished with a ladder 
or notched stick by which to reach the loft, a family mortar where the women 
pound their paddy with wooden pestles to free it from the husk, and a pile 



Trnr' 



PANGANG 



DILIKS 



iha^L 



where: jars 



OR PRIVATE 



fLAC*. 



S( GONQS 



ARE PLACED 



APARTME 



4>-- 



NTS 



TEMPUAN OK COMMON PASSAG El 
O O O— 



mn 



RUai OR COMMON VLRMNDAH 



PANTAK 
O— 



TANJU OR DRYING PLATFORM 

UNCOVERED 



DiAGRAMATIC PlAN OF Sea DyAK HOUSE. 

(F. W. Leggatt.) 




K Rrtt Place 

Diagram of Section of Sea Dyak House. 
(From a sketch by Mr. Crossland.) 

or two of firewood reared by the men for use inside. This passage is also 
used by the women to winnow their rice in, feed their dogs, and attend to 
their chickens, and by the men to wash the dirt off their feet when they come 
home from their work. The wall of the tempuan is sometimes elaborately 
painted in various patterns, and the spears of the family are thrust into the 
skirting board so as to be handy. 



12 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N, Borneo. 



" The ruai or verandah is in front of the tempuan and is as nearly as 
possible the same size as the bilieh, from which it differs principally in being 
open on all sides and without any partition. It is therefore a cooler and 
more agreeable place and as such is frequented by both sexes for the purposes 
of conversation, discussion, and indoor pursuits. Female visitors are usually 
received in the bilieh, but male visitors are invariably received in the ruai and 
only enter the bilieh when invited to do so to be introduced to the women 
and to share the meals. They sleep in the ruai along with the boys and 
bachelors, and sit there all day when they have nothing better to do, con- 
versing with the head of the family and chewing betel. The floor is carpeted 
with thick and heavy mats of cane interlaced with narrow strips of beaten bark. 




Inside View of Undup Shingle Roof. 

Shingles about 3oin. long and 4in. to i4in. wide, 

according to splitting jKjwer. They are tied on 

with rotan through a single hole only. 

(From a sketch by Mr. Crossland.) 




Diagram to show method of laying 
on an Undup Shingle Roof. The 
lowest row A overlaps from left to 
right ; B overlaps from right to left ; 
C overlaps same as A. 
(From a sketch by Mr. Cross and.) 

Over these are spread other mats of 
thinner and finer texture. There is 
a small fireplace between this and 
the next ruai for the men to warm 
themselves at when they get up, as 
they usually do, in the chill of the 
morning, before the sun has risen 
above the trees ; the fire is allowed 
to go out in the middle of the day, 
but is revived towards the evening 
when it is getting dark, but still 
too early to light the torches.* 



* " As a rule the houses are provided with a couple of sHding doors, and they seldom have more 
than two openings which serve as windows, whatever the number of occupants. Three or four 
families, or more, reside together in the same habitation. Internally, the house is divided longi- 
tudinally by a bamboo partition. One of the long compartments so formed serves as a sleeping place 
for the unmarried youths and men, and as a general living-room for all the occupants ; while the 
other compartment is sub-divided into a series of smaller* rooms for the married members of the 
family and the women. In front of the door of the long room, adjoining the ladder, is often an open 
platform or balcony of bamboo or wood, which is used for various domestic purposes— drying rice, 
or laying * the clothes to dry.' " (Bock, p. 197.) 



Habitations. 



13 



** Some ruais are provided with a panggan or bedstead with plank sides in 
one corner of the room for the men to sleep in, but this is not always the 
case. If the head of the family has made it for his own use and if he be a 
chief or rich man he will fix his gongs of various kinds around it for the sake 
of show ; his weapons will be within reach and his war dress will hang from 
the roof where it can be seen to the best advantage — a skull cap of wicker 
work with its nodding plumes, and a skin jacket decorated with the tail 
feathers of the war bird of the tribe. But the most valuable ornament in the 
ruai by far is of course the bunch of human heads which hangs over the fire- 
place like a bunch of fruit ; these are the heads obtained on various warpaths 
by various members of the family, dead and living, and are handed down from 
father to son as the most precious heir-looms, more precious even than the 
ancient jars which they prize so highly. The next ornament of paramount 
importance is the bag of charms which is fastened to the centrepost and 
which is in like manner handed down from generation to generation, and 
about which there is a great to do if any of the charms are lost or stolen. 
Other posts are often adorned with trophies of the chase, horns and such like 
of deer and wild cattle, and the heads of animals such as bears, monkeys, and 
crocodiles killed by the young boys. The empty sheaths of the swords and 
knives of the family are suspended on wooden hooks, while the naked blades 
are placed in racks above their heads. 




Diagrams to show method of Undup nipa palm thatching. A stakes to hold on ridge 

capping ; B ridge capping a piece of wood ; C nipa thatch. 

(From sketches by Mr. Crossland.) 

" The tanju or open-air platform is in front of the ruai and is railed at the 
edge, but the rail is often so slight that it is unsafe to lean against it. The 
flooring is usually of ironwood the better to stand exposure to the weather. 
It is used as a lounge in the evening, the view from it being extensive and the 
breeze refreshing. While the sun is shining the paddy is put out to dry as are 
the clothes and a variety of other things. The family whetstone and dye vat 
are kept here under the eaves of the roof. 



14 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 




" When the roof is completed the 
ridge is closed by bending over it 
sheets of bark, which are kept 
down by long horizontal pegs 
driven through the bark beneath 
the ridge. At intervals also logs 
of wGKxl tied at top are plac^ 
astride the ridge to keep the bark 
in its position." 
(From a sketch by F. W. Leggatt.) 




" The sadau or loft is used to stow away the 
baskets and agricultural instruments during the 
season they are not in use. The paddy is stowed 
away here in tubs of bark and also the seed for 
next year's farm. Young women often sleep 
here and so do the young men and boys who 
are unprovided with curtains when the mosqui- 
toes and sandflies are troublesome down below. 
They burn a fragrant bark to keep off the mos- 
quitoes. 

** Whenever it is deemed expedient by the 
Sea Dyaks to shift from one locality to another, 
or to abandon an old habitation in favour of a 
new one, a general meeting is convened to 
consider the proposition and the desirability of the measure is fully discussed. 
If a move be decided upon a few experienced men are deputed to select a site 
and to report on its adaptability.* If there be no reason 
to be dissatisfied with the choice, others are sent to hear 
whether the birds they venerate are for it or against it. 
Three days in succession they visit the spot and if the 
bird omens be favourable they proceed to work at once, 
and on the following morning the men turn out in a body 
with axes and choppers to hew down the jungle which 
is then left to dry. Another general meeting is thereupon 
convened to determine the question of the tium or chief- 
tainship, the measurement of the timbers, and the 
sequence of the rooms. It is customary to place the 
richest people in the centre of the village that they may exercise hospitality 
to all comers, and the boldest at either extremity so that they may defend 
the approaches if called upon to do so. The next move 
is to appoint an evening for the people to meet at the 
site of the new village. The ground is then cleared 
and measured out and pegs are put in where the posts 
are to stand. A piece of bamboo is then stuck in 
the ground, filled with water and the aperture covered 
with leaves, a spear and a shield are placed beside it, 
and the whole is surrounded by a rail. The rail is to 
protect the bamboo from being upset by wild animals 
and the weapons are to warn strangers not to touch it. 
NiPA Leaf jj- ^j^^j-^ jg much evaporation by the morning the place is 

are strung^'on *a stick with considered hot and unhealthy and is abandoned. Half- 
rotan, care being taken that a-dozen people or SO remain to keep watch and beat 
eyoverap. ^j^^.^ tomtoms all night to frighten away evil spirits. 

Their friends return early in the morning and if all is well they set to and dig 
the holes, commencing with the chief's quarters and working simultaneously to 

* Suitability consists in rising ground, nearness to a good supply of water and of firewood. 
(Crossland. Miss. Life, 1887, p. 162.) 



Diagram to show how 
the sticks of nipa thatch 
are tied on to the roof. 
(Sketch by Mr. Crossland.) 




Habitatiom. 



15 



left and right of him. Every family must kill a fowl or a pig before the holes 
can be dug, and the blood must be smeared on the feet and sprinkled on the 




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lis 



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posts to pacify Pulang Gana, the tutelary deity of the earth. The posts must 
be planted firmly, for if one were to give way subsequently it would be 
regarded as a disastrous event and the house would be abandoned. All 



i6 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



combine to labour collectively until the skeleton of the village is complete, 
and then every family turns its attention to its own apartments. When the 
building is sufficiently advanced to receive them they pack up their valuables 
and convey them by water if practicable, halting on the way until they obtain 
a favourable omen, when they proceed rejoicing.* Their valuables and cotton 
stuffs may not be moved into the house before themselves, they must be taken 
with them ; this is required by custom. Before the village can be occupied 
a pig must be killed and its entrails examined and if the reading be unsatis- 
factory it is abandoned. After everything is settled a cup of iuak (toddy) is 
passed round. 

** When a family proposes to leave the village and remove elsewhere it 
must give an ensilan (propitiatory gift ?) or be responsible for the consequences 
if a death ensue ; a fowl, or a bit of iron, or a pig if the village be a large one 
is usually given." 

The large Sibuyau habitation in Lundu has been thus described by Sir 
Jas. Brooke : ** The common habitation, as rude as it is enormous, measures 
594 feet in length, and the front room, or street, is the entire length of the 
building, and 21 feet broad. The back part is divided by mat partitions into 
the private apartments of the various families, and of these there are forty-five 
separate doors leading from the public apartment. The widowers and young 
unmarried men occupy the public room, as only those with wives are entitled 
to the advantage of separate rooms. This edifice is raised twelve feet from 
the ground, and the means of ascent is by the trunk of a tree with notches cut 
in it — a most difficult, steep, and awkward ladder. In front is a terrace fifty 
feet broad, running partially along the front of the building, formed, like the 
floors, of split bamboo. This platform, as well as the fi"ont room, besides the 
regular inhabitants, is the resort of pigs, dogs, birds, monkeys, and fowls, and 

presents a glorious scene of 
confusion and bustle. Here the 
ordinary occupations of domestic 
labour are carried on — padi ground, 
mats made, &c., &c. There were 
200 men, women, and children 
counted in the room and in front 
whilst we were there, in the middle 
of the day ; and, allowing for those 
abroad and those in their own 
rooms, the whole community can- 
not be reckoned at less than 400 
souls. Overhead, about seven feet 
high, is a second crazy storey, on 
which is stowed their stores of 
food and their implements of 
labour and of war. Along the 




Hooks. 

Made out of natural forms with gutta. 

(Hose Coll.) 



» The old women carry the fire, the younf? ones rice boiled in bamboo. The old men carry 
their precious jars, the wives the clothes and mosquito curtains, the smaller fry whatever they can. 
(Crossland, ibid.) 



Habitations. 17 

large room are hung many cots, four feet long, formed of the hollow trunk of 
trees cut in half, which answer the purposes of seats by day and beds by 
night." (Keppel i. 51.) 

Sir Spencer St. John measured a Sibuyau house on the Lundu as 534 feet 
long containing 500 people, (i. 7.) It is of either of these two houses that I 
think Mr. Marryat writes " the town was surrounded by a strong stockade* 
made of the trunks of the kneebone [nibong] palm, a wood superior in dura- 
bility to any known. This stockade had but one opening of any dimensions." 
(p. 73.) Another house also of the Sibuyaus on the Senange branch of the 
Simunjan river " is partially fortified with logs of trees," and is 257 yards = 
771 feet long. (Mundy i. 232.) This house is the longest Sea Dyak house 
on record. " Most of the Sibuyau village-houses are raised about eight feet 
above the ground ; but some are twelve, and others again only four or five. 
Externally, they are all weather-beaten, gray, and wholly unpicturesque- 
looking structures, but sometimes are very prettily surrounded by banana and 
cocoanut trees. Within, they are clean enough, because all the dirt and litter 
falls of itself through the slatted floor ; but the ground underneath is usually 
covered with litter, perpetually wet and mouldy from the water thrown down 
through the floor above, and, being the favourite resort of the pigs of the 
village, often smells horribly. Sometimes the pigs are kept in a sty underneath 
the long-house. As a matter of course, the old villages are the most foul 
smelling." (Hornaday, 467.) Elsewhere the same traveller records on the 
Simunjan (p. 356) : '* Each door was one wide board with a projecting point 
at the bottom for it to turn upon in lieu of a hinge. On one of the doors 
nearest us I noticed a figure of a crocodile rudely carved in low relief. The 
outline was very good, but no time had been spent in working out the details. 
The side of the house, which was enclosed, and also the ends, were made up 
of wide slabs of bark lashed to the framework. The roof was of attap or large 
square sections of palm-leaves sewn together and lashed to the rafters in 
courses, like shingles." 

The Rev. Mr. Horsburgh, who lived among the Balaus, thus describes 
the roof material : " The roof and partitions are composed of attaps, a kind of 
thatch. ... It is made of the leaves of the Nipa, a palm which grows in 
the mud on the banks of the rivers, and differs from most other palms in 
having no trunk, being merely a collection of fronds proceeding from one root. 
Each frond consists of a stem or midrib about twenty or thirty feet in length, 
on each side of which grow a series of leaves, two or three feet long, and two 

' " Some villages are intrenched and provided with a strong palisade formed of the trunks of 
nibong palms, which shelters them from any sudden attack in case of unexpected hostilities." . . . 
On the upper Doeson the palisades consist of iron wood. " There also the habitations of the Dyaks 
are raised much higher above the ground, that is, on posts twelve to fifteen feet high, and they are 
moreover of very considerable dimensions, as 140 feet long and more; the walls and the roof 
consisting merely of tree-bark Such a large habitation will contain twelve or fifteen families, so 
that occasionally they shelter forty or fifty individuals. The Pari, or Parei Dyaks. celebrated for 
the bold incursions they make on their neighbours as well as the savageness of their customs, and 
who live inland toward the Koti river, have, it seems, houses which are several hundred feet long 
and which shelter 400 or 500 individuals. It thus comes about that their villages consist of only one 
or two sheds of equally colossal dimensions." (S. MQUer ii. 359.) 

g Vol. a. 



i8 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

or three inches broad. To form attaps, the Dyaks cut off these leaves, and 
double them over a stick a yard long, making them overlap each other, so as 
to be impervious to rain. They then sew or interlace them all firmly with 
split rattans ; thus forming a sort of leaf-tile, at once strong and light, and 
well adapted for excluding both sun and rain." (p. 16.) 

** The natives of Sarawak depend a great deal on the various barks of 
those trees from which it can be stripped in quantities without splitting. 
They house their paddy in the bark of the Impenit tree, and one good coil or 
strip can easily hold a ton of paddy ; again, they greatly depend on the Ramin 
tree for covering the tops of the roofs of their houses, as it is perfectly water- 
proof and very durable ; the bark of the Baru tree is strong and handy for 
fastening things together and lasts for several months, thereby dispensing 
with the use of rattan, which naturally every year grows scarcer in the 
country, and therefore more expensive." (S.G. 1894, p. 121.) 

" The (Milanows) houses were formerly built on posts of hard wood, 
raised about 40 feet from the ground, for protection against their enemies. 
Several of these houses still stand, but they are never replaced or rebuilt now, 
as, under Sarawak rule, peace and order have been restored." (Crocker, 
Proc. R. Geogr. S., 1881, p. 199.) But in Sir Sp. St. John's time the houses 
were still " built on lofty posts, or rather whole trunks of trees, as a defence 
against the Seribas." (St. John i. 35.) 

" On the way up to Mukah I stopped at Lelac, where are the remains of a 
long Milanow house. The iron wood posts are still standing, although great 
forest trees have grown about and among them. Menjanei, one of my 
Milanow chiefs, who was with me, said that his great grandfather, named 
Bugad, was the chief of Lelac, and in consequence of the inconstancy of his 
wife, he called in the aid of the Kyans and destroyed the place, and all his 
own people who happened to be at home. The ruins are 96 fathoms (672ft.) 
in length." (Hose, Proc. R. Geogr. Soc, xvii., 1873, p. 133.) 

Capt. Mundy incidentally refers to the Milanow village of Palo, then 
recently destroyed by the Kanowits, which, ** like Rejang, is, or rather was, a 
collection of houses built on the summit of immense piles, forty feet from the 
ground." (ii. 124.) 

On the Limbang river, Sir Sp. St. John finds " the old posts of the 
houses are removed ; being of iron wood they will last for a century. In fact, 
in many of the villages they have them, descended, it is said, from a long line 
of ancestors, and these they remove with them wherever they may establish 
themselves. Time and wear have reduced many of them to less than five 
inches in diameter, the very heart of the tree, now black with age and 
exposure." (ii. 32.) 

As to the Kayan houses on the Baram river, he says : ** Siiigauding's house 
was of a similar construction to those of the Sea Dyaks, . . . with small 
doors about two feet above the floor, leading into the inner rooms." (ibid, 
i. loi.) 

*' Every Kayan chief of consideration possesses a kind of seat in a huge slab 
cut out of the buttresses of the tapang tree ; and this seat descends from 
father to son, till it is polished and black with age. Singauding gave me one, 




Ctl ^ 

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20 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

measuring ten feet six inches by six feet six inches." (ibid, i. 102.) " I looked 
about the house to-day, and though it is boarded all through, and, therefore, 
more substantial than those of the Sea Dayaks, yet it did not appear so bright 
and cheerful as the light yellow matted walls of the latter. I never saw so much 
firewood collected together as in these houses : on a fine framework, spreading 
partly over the verandah and partly over their rooms, many months' supplies 
are piled even to the roof." (ibid, i. 109.) 

The Kenowit village, where afterwards a fort was built, and where Messrs. 
Steele and Fox were murdered, is thus described by Sir Sp. St. John : '* The 
village consisted of two long houses, one measuring 200 feet, the other 475. 
They were built on posts about forty feet in height and some eighteen inches 
in diameter. The reason they give for making their posts so thick is this : 
that when the Kayans attack a village they drag one of their long tamuis or 
war boats ashore, and, turning it over, use it as a monstrous shield. About fifty 
bear it on their heads till they arrive at the ill-made palisades that surround 
the hamlets, which they have little difficulty in demolishing ; they then get 
under the house, and endeavour to cut away the posts, being well protected 
from the villagers above by their extemporized shield. If the posts are thin 
the assailants quickly gain the victory ; if very thick, it gives the garrison time 
to defeat them by allowing heavy beams and stones to fall upon the boat, and 
even to bring their little brass war pieces to bear upon it ; the Kayans will fly 
if they suffer a slight loss." (ibid, i. 38.) 

This building would appear to be the same as that mentioned by Sir H. 
Keppell (Meander i. 177.) and by Captain Mundy, who says : " I could just stand 
upright in the room, and looking down at the scene below might have fancied 
myself on the top-mast cross-trees." (ii. 125.) 

On the Baram river the ** houses usually stand about 20 feet above the 
ground, on huge posts made of billian and other hard woods, and sometimes 
are 400 yards [sic] in length, and often hold over a hundred famihes ; a shingle 
roofed verandah runs along the front of the house for its entire length, and 
from this there is a door leading to each room in the house, the said rooms 
each measuring some 7 yards in length by 3 in breadth, and containing five 
people on an average. Excellent workmanship is displayed in the construction 
of these houses, which are very massive throughout, the floors (to mention one 
item) being usually of planks about 30 feet long and 4 feet wide, with a 
thickness of 2 inches. All the parts of the house are made ready for putting 
together, and then on a given day, when the omens have been consulted, every 
man, woman, and child lends a hand, each contributing in one fashion or 
another a measure of assistance towards the labour of erecting the structure, 
and while this is proceeding a few small boys are told off to beat gongs and 
make a noise in order that bad omens may not be heard after a good augury 
has been obtained. 

" These long houses are sometimes erected in two or three days, all 
labouring to the greatest extent of their capacity, while the chief keeps order 
and gives directions, and the amount of work which is crowded into so short a 
space of time is wonderful to contemplate. The furniture of these dwellings 
consists of a fire-place, a few rude stools, and chairs carved out of one solid 



Habitations. 



21 



block of wood, are sometimes to be seen ; huge slabs of wood, measuring 8 
feet by 7 feet, are used for seats, and a description of shelves are sometimes 
put up in order to provide beds for the young unmarried men ; mats, very 
neatly made of rattans, serve as sleeping mats, and to cover the floor ; and the 
firewood is all stacked ready for use in the empty space above the room." 
(Hose, xxiii. J. A. I. 161.) 






1 "il 




L_ 


Ml 


ll| 


''"■"", I'- 
ll . ' I.. 


it 


•.,|.'.||. ..,.|]J.... 



Diagram to show 
how panelling is 
made of bark or 
planks for parti- 
tion. 

(From a sketch by Mr. 
Leggatt.) 



"The cross piece is fixed to the 
upright post A 6 by rotan, which 
is first attached by a running knot 
below the cross piece that is round 
A. and close up under C D as 
shown by E F ; the end is then 
carried in front over C from E 
to G, then behind B to H, down 
in front of D to F ; this process 
is repeated several times and 
then the rotan is taken behind A 
to E. crossing A B diagonally to 
H, and behind B to G, crossing 
A B again diagonally to F." 
(F. W. Leggatt). 





Post Rammers. 

About 6ft. long 

and loin. wide at 

bottom. 

(Crossland.) 



Diagram to show how post holes are made. 
A hole about 4ft. deep, i8in. wide at top, 
about i2in. at bottom ; B scuppet; C post to 
be set up, about gin. in diam. ; D roller. The 
scuppet is rammed down with a twisted 
motion and water poured into the hole ; the 
resultant mud cloggs inside, the scuppet is 
drawn out and the mud removed. 
(From a sketch by Mr. Crossland.) 



Bishop McDougall mentions the raised seats of poHshed wood, round the 
Kyan rooms (Mrs. McDougall, p. 158) : " Kiiiah houses are packed close 
together, and there are originally three in a row, without any intermediate 
space. The floor is only four feet from the ground, and anyone can jump in." 
(Brooke Low.) 

** The houses [at Tambunan] are roofed with bamboo, and frequently 
the roof is horizontal, making these dwellings look like cages. . . . The 
people are sadly infested with lice.'* (Witti Diary, 29 Nov.) Mr. Hatton 
complains he '* had to bend almost double to walk about in a Dusun's house. 
The roof was covered with the smoke and dust, and there being no chimneys 
to conduct away the smoke from the cooking-fires, it curls up and 
hangs about the house, and finds its way out through holes in the roof." 
(Hatton, p. 165.) **The Danas people have a kind of second story to their 
houses to which they climb in the wet season, when all the lower part is 
under water. They told me that in the wet season the whole of the plain was 
a sheet of water for more than a month." (Hatton Diary, nth April.) *' The 



iLt 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 




Diagram to show Undup method of building the Tanju (platform). 

A main post ; B beam ; C cross piece ; D joists ; £ lanties of nibong 

palm (if rich), of bambu (if poor). 

(From sket«b by Mr. Crossland.) 



V 



Bungal Ida'an (Dusun) house in which we lodged was the best I have ever 
seen among the aborigines : it was boarded with finely-worked planks ; the 
doors were strong and excellently made, with a small opening for the dogs 
to go in and out; everything looked clean — quite an unusual peculiarity. 

The flooring of 
beaten-out bamboos 
was very neat, and 
free from all dirt, 
which I have never 
before noticed in a 
Dayak house, where 
the dogs generally 
render everything 
filthy. As this was 
the cleanest, so I 
think my friend the 
Bisayan chief's 
house on the Lim- 
bang was the dirtiest 
— to describe its abominations would turn the reader's stomach." (St. John 
i. 248.) " The dwellings which, near the coast, are generally of atap or thatch 
made from the leaves of the 
nipa palm, are here (among 
the Dusuns) nearly entirely 
of bamboo, the roof being 
thatched with atap of cocoanut 
or the sago palm." (Burbidge, 

p. 255-) 

" The Dusun long house is 
built like those of the Muruts 
and Bissayas on the Limbang 
with the single exception that 
the floor is not so high above 
the ground and that the front 
is open or nearly open while 
the front of the Murut houses 
is closed, and besides the doorway there is a narrow opening along the 
whole length of the building which serves as a window and can be used as a 
loophole against the enemy when attacked. Nor did I see any stockaded 
Dusun house in North Borneo. The house is completely built out of neat 
bambu, the main entrance is at the end of the house. On the left is a 
verandah roofed over against sun and storm ; on the right are the long 
rows of chambers for women and married people ; the unmarried have no 
chambers. Above the property of the inhabitants is stored. ... At the 
end of the house is a raised platform for visitors. (De Crespigny Bed. Zeit. 
N. F., V. 335.) Elsewhere the same traveller says everything is kept as clean 
as a new pin." (Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc. ii., 1858, 344.) 




Cuts in Posts 

For supporting beams, cross pieces, &c. Cut as A when 

the cross piece is left in the round and as B when the cross 

piece is cut similarly to C. 

(From a sketch by Mr. F. W. Leggatt.) 



Habitations, 



n 



Among the Kiaus Sir Sp, St. John discovered a '* house better 
arranged than the ordinary Sea Dyak ones. Instead of having the whole floor 
on a level with the door, they had a passage leading through the house : on 
one side the private apartments ; on the other, a raised platform on which 
the lads and unmarried men slept. We found this very comfortable as the 
dogs were not permitted to wander over it." (i. 312.) "Some of the tribes 
in the Tawaran have followed the Malay fashion of living in small houses 
suitable for a single family." (iJtrf, i. 374.) 



< 




PRIVA7 


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RTMEN 


TS 






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PATH 


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PUBLIC ROOM 






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HEARTH 






HEARTH 




— 



Plan of Large Dusun House at Kiau. N.W. Borneo. 
(After Burbidge, p. 96.) 

'' Dusuns are decidedly of a social turn of mind, assembling in small 
working-parties, after the day's toil is done, at each other's houses. Light is 



SLEEPING ROOM 


SLEEPING f^OOM 








LARGE PUBLI 


HEARTH 
C ROOM 




VERANDAH 



Plan of Dusun Cottage. N.W. Borneo. 
(After Burbidge, p. 85.) 



admitted by windows and small doorways in the plank sides ; the shutters 
have rattan hinges. In some houses the whole of one side of the public 
apartment is open. As there is no special outlet for the smoke, the roof and 
nearly everything inside is black and dirty. A house lasts from five to seven 
years when it falls or is pulled down, the plank sides being used again for the 



24 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit N. Borneo. 




new one. Some of these planks are of great age, and it is wonderful how 
smooth they are considering the tools at their command. The floors are 
made of bamboo ; the bamboo is split from end to end when 
green, then each joint is cut through in many places ; after 
this operation the bamboo is forced open and laid flat on 
the ground, heavy stones being placed on it to keep it so 
until dry, when it remains perfectly flat and soon becomes 
beautifully polished, but, I am sorry to say, affords a 
splendid covert between the tiny cracks for numerous 
specimens of most disgusting insects. The bugs which 
infest these floors, at times become sufficiently troublesome 
for the Dusuns even to take an interest in their ever- 
increasing numbers. It is no uncommon sight to see a 
Dusun who is patiently working at a rope or fishing-net, 
suddenly jump up and commence scratching himself; then 
he walks to the fireplace, on which he proceeds to boil 
some water in his small earthenware cooking-pot; this, 
when ready, he pours over these bug-infested planks, and 
once more proceeds with his occupation. As most Dusuns 
at home wear the chawat, their interest in these pests may 
be well understood. . . . The fire is made on a mud 
hearth, and has a light bamboo framework built over it, for 
drying rice and placing a few earthen cooking-pots." 
(Whitehead, p. 105.) 

"Among the Dusuns, on building a new house, to 
insure the inmates from devils and bad luck, a long ceremony 
is held over a pig. This animal is tied down and a nice 
tray is placed over it to keep off the sun ; the priestesses and 
the female occupants of the new house stand in front of 
the pig with the household bunches of charms, and coco- 
nut-shells filled with water, with which the pig is sprinkled ; 
after nearly an hour's incantation, accompanied by the 
klicking of small flat pieces of metal held by the women 
in their hands, the pig is taken by the men into the new 
house and there killed, and afterwards forms part of the 
evening's feast." (ibidf p. no.) 
S!SI D As we have seen above, Mr. De Crespigny has referred 

to the Murut houses ; in the same paper he also refers to 
stockaded Murut houses (p. 328) but he describes none. 
For the only account of a Murut house we must tender our 
thanks to Mr. O. F. Ricketts : ** Murut houses are of the 
most temporary description ; in the case of the interior 
tribes it is owing to the fact that they shift their locality 
about every year in order to take up fresh land for their 
^^1 paddy ; but in the case of those in the lower river it would 

appear to be to save trouble as the land they cultivate is 
always close to them, being planted in alternate years. A 






li 



2 

!2S 



a. 



,^^ 



Habitations. 25 

house that is 250 to 300 feet long containing about 30 doors is the largest 
built and is the exception, generally being half that size ; the plan is much 
the same as those of other tribes, one half length ways being divided into 
rooms for the families, the other half forming a verandah but closed in, a 
space being left all along the wall about a foot wide for lights ; this can be 
closed by a plank which slides over the aperture. The roof is generally too 
low for a European to walk under upright and the floor requires treading with 
caution, though the Muruts themselves stump over it as if it was solid brick." 
(S. G., No. 347, p. 214.) 

It will have been observed that by far the larger portion of the natives 
live in long houses where by means of their large numbers the people are 
better placed for withstanding attacks. As Sir Sp. St. John remarks of 
Pangalan Tarap, that much harassed village : " The detached house system, 
so progressive with security, does not answer in a country exposed to 
periodical incursions." (ii. 29.) It seems, however, to have been the opinion 
once that the life in these long houses was better than that in detached 
ones. Thus Bishop Chambers wrote in 1859 : " I am persuaded that this 
social and communal life has had a great influence in preserving the 
people from barbarism ; and that the consequent shame of doing anything 
condemned by their code of morality exercises a very powerful influence in 
preserving them from acts of fraud, baseness and cruelty." (Miss. Field, 

1859* P- 58.) 

But a more intimate knowledge of this life in the long houses has not 
confirmed the Bishop's opinion. As a Batang Lupar correspondent of the 
'* Sarawak Gazette " put it as recently as 1894 (p. 67) : '* The practice of 
herding together in long houses prevents mental and moral improvement and 
hinders advance in gardening and planting and agricultural development 
generally." 

" The Land Dyaks carry their paths straight over the mountains, irre- 
spective of height or difficulty of ascent, the idea of making a d6tour round the 
base never seems to have struck them." (Chalmers O.P., p. 5.) ** The object 
of the paths, until recently, has seldom been to connect the villages, and 
render communication between them easy, but this has generally been 
fortuitously brought about by the paths leading to the farms of the neighbour- 
ing tribes meeting each other." 

"All the paths of the Land Dyaks are formed of the stems of trees, raised 
two feet above the ground, on supports placed under them. Sometimes larger 
trees are employed, but the usual size is about three inches in diameter ; the 
bark from the upper surface, as they lie in their horizontal position, together 
with a portion of the wood, is cut off, so as to leave a flat rough surface for 
the foot of the wayfarer ; in good roads, and where bamboos are abundant, 
these canes are employed, two large ones laid parallel with each other, 
forming the breadth of the path; but as bamboos more readily decay 
than the wood of which the more common path is made, these, though much 
preferable when new, and in dry weather, are more troublesome when old 
and decaying, or from the slippery surface of the bamboo on rainy days." 
(Low, p. 285, &c.) 



26 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



These bambu paths are called batangs, and most writers have given 
accounts of the awkwardness they experience in walking along the top 
of them. Sit Charles Brooke describes these paths as *' an introduction 
to a new style of walking, resembling tight-rope manoeuvring more than 
any other. Some of these trees were six or eight feet above the ground." 
(i. i8.) 

*' In some of the Land Dyak villages the custom prevails of carrying the 
batangs and bamboos which constitute the road immediately under the houses 
and verandahs, thus laying the unwary traveller open to receiving slops and 
refuse on his head through the lantis above, besides keeping the path always 
dirty." (Denison, ch. viii., p. 87.) 

'* It is no easy matter to move about at any time in a Land Dyak village, 
where the paths are but batangs, and where filth, offal, and dirt surround you 
on every side; in the dark it was simply out of the question" {ibid^ch.ni,, p. 30.) ; 
but Mr, Grant mentions once (p. 7), that "cocoa-nut leaves were laid down 

where the path was dirty, and over 
these we passed till we arrived at the 
Orang Kaya's house." 

Miss Coomes tells us that once at 
Lundu : " Mr. Gomez proposed a walk 
round the village, there being what he 
called a good road. In front of the 
Dyak houses there is indeed a very 
good path, being in some parts three 
feet wide, beneath a grove of palm- 
trees ; but, beyond that, it puzzled me 
sadly to find any path at all. Mr. 
Gomez led the way; and, although a 
tall stout man, he was often hidden by 
the long grass. I had to fight my way 
through the bushes, and returned, after 
an hour's ramble, wet to the waist." 
(Gosp. Miss., 1858, p. 119.) Mr. Burbidge speaks of "a rather rough walk 
through long grass, in which ugly concealed logs were plentiful." (p. 60.) " In 
carrying a path along the face of a precipice, trees and roots are made use of for 
suspension ; struts arise from suitable notches or crevices in the rocks, and if 
these are not sufficient, immense bamboos, fifty or sixty feet long, are fixed on 
the banks or on the branch of a tree below. . . . When a path goes over 
very steep ground, and becomes slippery in very wet or very dry weather, the 
bamboo is used in another way. Pieces are cut about a yard long, and 
opposite notches being made at each end, holes are formed through which pegs 
are driven, and firm and convenient steps are thus formed with the greatest 
ease and celerity. It is true that much of this will decay in one or two 
seasons, but it can be so quickly replaced as to make it more economical than 
using a harder and more durable wood.'' (Wallace i. 122, 124.) Mr. Grant 
(p. 49) likewise refers to pegs being driven into the mountain paths. On the 
Jagui mountain, Mr. Denison says : " The climbing was of the steepest 




Dyaks using Axe-adze. 

(From a sketch by Mr. H. H. Everett, in Mr. Homaday's 

•• Two Years in the Jangle.") 



Habitations. 



27 



description, being simply a series of steps or pieces of wood placed zig-zag 
along the sides of the hill, like ladders, and occasionally perpendiculariy. We 
counted no less than 2,476 of these steps, some of which were the roots of 
trees, and I may describe my progress as an eternal getting upstairs." 
(ch. iii., p. 31.) 

There are many bridges, and they ** are generally very picturesque. 
They are made where the river is narrow, and where two trees, one on each 
side, overhang the stream. Amid the branches of one is placed a long thick 
bamboo, which reaches to the branches of the tree on the other side ; but if 
it prove too short, two bamboos are lashed together with rattans and creepers. 
This is the footway. Next, long thin bamboos are suspended from the upper 
branches of the trees, the lower ends being tied to the footway before made, 
and fixed crosswise below it. Rattans and creepers are also brought into 
requisition, to strengthen and steady the bridge ; these are the suspenders. 
Another bamboo is tied along the suspending bamboos, on each side the 
footway, to serve for railings. The general appearance of this primitive 
bridge, with a rapid stream running under it, is very pretty, especially as the 
banks of the rivers are in 
general beautifully lined 
with trees and masses of 
rock. By a sloping ladder 
of the usual description, 
the bridge is connected 
with the banks on each 
side of the stream, but 
the whole thing is more 
picturesque to the eye 
than safe for the person 
of the novice in jungle 
travelling." (Grant, p. 

33-) 

Mr. Denison speaks 
of a bridge amongst the 
Grogo Dyaks "which was 
constructed of jungle 
wood and bamboo and was 138 feet in length and most skilfully put together." 
(ch. iii. p. 28.) Mr, Wallace says *' some of these bridges were several 

hundred feet long and fifty or sixty high The bridge is partly 

suspended and partly supported by diagonal struts from the banks, so as to 
avoid placing posts in the stream itself, which would be liable to be carried 
away by floods." (i. 114 and 122.) Sir Hugh Low describes the bridges 
(p. 286) and Sir Sp. St. John remarks on their lightness and elegance and also 
on their apparent flimsiness (i. 139), Mr. Burbidge complains that ** the only 
bridges across the streams were formed of a single tree-trunk, often a very 
slender one not perfectly straight, so that when a particular part of it was 
reached in one's journey across, it had a treacherous knack of turning round 
and landing one in muddy water up to the neck. The natives are used to 




Sba Dyak Abode and Bridge. 
(Sir Chas. Brooke's " Ten Years," i. 220.) 



28 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



such slender makeshifts for bridges, and, being barefoot, are as sure-footed 
as goats.'* (p. 60.) 




Undup Bambu 

Design. 
(Crossland Coll.) 




Design on Bambu Box. Leaf 

This design is made the reverse wrapped round 

way to those below ; the black dragons' blood. 

portions still represent the natural J real size. S.E 

outer skin of the bambu. Borneo. 

(Amsterdam Mus. (Leiden Muft.) 








Designs on Bambu Boxes. } real size. 

(Crossland Coll.) 

For method of engraving, see p. 241. 








CHAPTER XVII. 

WEAVING, DYEING, AND DRESSMAKING. TRIBAL DRESSES. 

DRESS IN DETAIL 

WEAVING, DYEING, AND DRESSMAKING.— Weaving-Dyeing— Weaving— Eye for colour 
— Native cloth — Cotton — Jacket making— Petticoat making— Lanun cloth— Chawats — The 
Artocarpus— 'The Kulit tekaiong — Antiaris toxicaria -Bark cXoihs—Artocarpus elastica — Lamba fibre 
(Curculigo latifolia) — A jacket made of a towel — Great variety in dress. 

TRIBAL DRESSES.— Land Dyaks : Sauhs, Serambo, and Singe general dress— The Ramhi— 
Method of fastening petticoat — ^Tringus dress— Curious head dress— the Seladan. Sea Dvaks : 
Love of finery - Ornaments — Batang Lupars — Drowning through weight of ornaments. 
Malanaus: General dress. Dusuns: General dress— Breast cloth. Muruts: General dress. 

DRESS IN DETAIL. — Corsets— /?aiwW {rawai)—Tinchien—Tina-lumiet—LaLnd and Sea Dyak 
corsets — Jackets : Varieties of. Petticoats : Ornaments to — Expensiveness — Shortness of— 
Chawats: Description —Tribal disposal of — Variations of— Trousers coming in. Hip Lace: 
Description— Value of. Mat Seats. Rain Mats. Head Dresses : Great varieties of— Beads — 
Labongs — Selapoks-Ba.Tk fillets— Hair dressing— Ba/o»j?— Heads having— Hair cut to look fierce 
— Flowing hair— Grotesque caps — d la Chinoise — Flowers— Children's head shaving— Hairpins — 
Coloured beads — Cloths — Sou'westers — Monkey skins. Ear Ornaments: Grunyong - Ear lobe 
extensions — Ugliness of — Langgu—Tinggu — AnimaXs' teeth — Heavy brass earrings — Tusok 
pendUng— Buttons — Discs or ear plugs— Verdigris. Necklets, Armlets, Leglets : Beads — 
Porcelain — Shell— Tapang wood — Animal teeth necklaces — Charms— Siw/ai Ungan—Rangki — 
Tumpa—Kongkong rekong — Tinchien—Tunjok — Ngkrimoks^Selong—Lukut sekala — Spiral collars. 

WEAVING, DYEING, AND DRESSMAKING. 

'* The cloth which the Balaus weave is of two kinds, striped and figured, the 
former for their jackets, and the latter for their bidangs or petticoats. The 
former is made by employing successively threads of different colours in 
Stretching the web ; the latter is produced by a more difficult and elaborate 
process. After the web has been stretched (for which, in this case, undyed 
thread is employed) the work-woman sketches on the extended threads the 
pattern which she purposes shall appear on the cloth, and carefully notes the 
intended colours of the various scrolls. Supposing she intends the pattern to 
be of three colours, blue, red, and yellow, she proceeds as follows : — She 
takes up a dozen or a score of the threads of the web (according as the 
exigencies of the pattern will permit her) and wraps a quantity of vegetable 
fibre tightly round those parts of them which are intended to be red and 
yellow, leaving exposed those portions which are intended to be blue. After 
she has in this manner gone over the whole web, she immerses it in a blue 
dye, which, while it takes hold of the exposed portions of the threads, is 
prevented by the vegetable fibre from colouring those portions which are 
intended to be red and yellow. After it has been dried the vegetable fibre is 
cut off; and when the web i3 now stretched out the blue portion of the 



30 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 



pattern is seen depicted. In a similar manner the red and yellow colours are 
applied, and thus the whole web is dyed of the required pattern. The weft 
is of one uniform colour, generally brown." (Horsburgh, p. 43.) 




DusuN Loom. 
(Brit. Mus.) 



Of the Sea Dyaks Mr. Thos. S. Chapman writes : " At present there are 
only two kinds of looms, the tumpoh, at which the weaver sits on the floor 
and uses the hands only; and the tenjak, at which the weaver sits on a 
bench, and uses hands and feet, the latter working treadles. The cloths are 



Weaving, Dyeing, and Dressmaking. 



31 



much better and closer woven in the tumpoh looms. Both looms are 
picturesquely clumsy, and the work slow. . . . The natives here do 
certainly seem to me to blend their most brilliant dyes by instinct. I once 
watched a woman arrange the coloured threads for a tartan, and she 
evidently worked neither by rule nor pattern, indeed, she consulted me now 
and then, but I evading to give any advice, she finished her design and the 
tartan eventually turned out charming, to my great admiration. Then there 
is no lack of industry among our native women weavers (for women only, as 
a rule, weave out here) and no lack of energy in learning the craft, which is 
tedious enough even when learnt : but their love for their old fashions and 
customs stands much in the way of improvement." (S.G., 109.) 





Gasieng inggar, Dyak Noisy Spinning Wheel. 
(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Model of Cotton Gin. 

S.E. Borneo. 

(Leiden Mus.) 



Speaking of the Sea Dyaks generally Sir Spencer St. John says : " All 
their clothes are made from native cloth of native yarn, spun from cotton 
grown in the country." (i. 29.) " The women manufacture a coarse cloth ; 
making and dyeing their own yarn, beating out the cotton with small sticks, 
and, by means of a spinning-wheel, running it off very quickly. The yarn is 
not so fine as what they can buy of English manufacture, but it is stronger, 
and keeps its colour remarkably well ; and no cloth wears better than Dayak 
cloth.*' (ibid, i. 74.) 

*' They grow their own cotton and weave it, but they never manufacture 
enough in the piece for a garment. The fabric is however particularly strong 
and serviceable, especially in the dense woods and tangles. ... I have 
often worn them myself, and found these cotton stuffs of the greatest service 
as a protection from thorns." (Bishop McDougall, T.E.S. ii. 28.) 

Referring more particularly to cloth-making among the Skarans, Mr. 
Leggatt has communicated the following to me : ** The method of making a 
jacket is about as follows, and refers to a Httle girl's jacket (aet 7), but as the 
female jackets are all made on the same principle, this one will serve as a very 
good example. The strip of cloth is about 56 inches long, and about iij^ inches 
wide at one end, and 10 J inches at the other (it is characteristic of these cloths 
that they are all slightly narrower at one end than at the other). Two pieces 
of about 10 inches deep each are first cut off to make the sleeves, which come 



32 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 





Diagram to show how a jacket is made from a 
piece of cloth (see text). 



to about five inches wide each at the 
shoulder end, while at the wrist end, 
in order to make them narrow, a 
triangular piece (a) is cut off one 
side only, so that when sewn together 
the seam does not run straight. 
The piece of cloth, now about 36 
inches long, is folded over in half 
(b c) and a hole (d) cut out for the 
neck, and from this hole the front 
part is cut straight down to e, forming 
the opening of the jacket. The cut 
edges are hemmed much the same as 
European hemming. The sides are 
then sewn together by cross stitches, 
in much the same way as we lace up 
boots with a single lace. Under the 
armpits, both in the sleeve and the 
jacket, a ventilation hole is made by 
simply leaving the parts unsewn. In 
order to fasten the jacket in front, 
a thorn, or wood, or bone pin is 



skewered through the cloth on one side, and some thread let into the edging 
of the other side is slightly twisted round the peg much as a halyard is made 

fast. Now buttons are frequently used, but they do 
not make button-holes, nor loops, but twist the thread 
round the button, holding the thread, when doing so, 
very like a sempstress when she is sewing on a button." 
The dyeing by the Skarans is similar to that 
described by Mr. Horsburgh. ** It takes several months 
to dye and weave a piece about 45 inches in circum- 
ference. These petticoats are woven in circular pieces, 
same as our pillow cases are manufactured; they are 
then cut into two, so that two petticoats are made out 
of the one original piece. The ends are properly sewn 
together, in the European style, and not sewn together 
in the same way as the sleeves are attached to the 
jacket body. The backs of the jackets appear to 
bear a sort of tribal badge in the pattern, and, in the 
case of the Sekrang and Saribas, this pattern is worked 
into the cloth while it is being woven, the thread of the pattern being 
put through at the same time as the warp. In the case of the Balaus, 
the pattern is made on another piece of cloth, and a piece of the back of 
the jacket cut out and the badge piece fitted into its place. The dye 
on the back of the jackets is made very faint, or that part of the 
jacket is left undyed, in order to leave a light background for the dark 
badge." {ibid.) 




Skewer acting as button. 
Sakaran Dyaks. 



Ljttle GrRi-'s Jacket. 

From Batang Lupar The 
pattern is m red and black, 
with a few stitohea in yellow 
irregularly placed in four of 
the centres of the lozenges. 
Dyed msty brown, but left 
natural greyish white where 
the pattern has been em- 
broidered on, 
tLeiJtgjitt Coll.) 





Bark Cloth Jacket 

Pattern formed by indif(o dyed 
threads which do ?iot go through 
the cloth. On the inside the 
pattern is the same, but not so 
elaborate, that is. it is made in 
single and not double lines. 
The threads forming the pat- 
tern are to strengthen the bark. 
Along the bottom a piece of 
brown dyed bark is tacked on. 
It is hemmed in ordinary Euro- 
pean fashion with brown bark 
and white native thread. 
(Brit. Mus.) 






inoioo TMniAO 



SCWN w<TK IMOiQO 



Vol. 2 




I 



■St a 

§-. 

g SI'S 

1^ it ^ 
ffl ^^ .. - 

ffi ill 
Fa 

o t^ 



5^ C 






Weaving, Dyeing, and Dressmaking. 35 

** Spinning and weaving is practised but little by the Kayans, but almost 
all the other races in Borneo manufacture some kind of cloth. The patterns 
of these cloths are very artistic, the dye used being made from the fruit of the 
rattan, the juices of various roots, and the sap of some trees. The yellow dye 
used by the Dyaks is known as Intamu and the red as Jeranang'' (Hose, 
J. A. I. xxiii. 165.) 

" The Lanuns also furnish a cloth which is highly prized among every 
class of inhabitants in Borneo ; it is a sort of checked black cloth, with narrow 
lines of white running through it, and glazed on one side. This was formerly 
made entirely of native yarn. It is also worthy of notice that this cloth is 
dyed from indigo grown on the spot." (St. John i. 259.) 

Of the Hill Dyaks, Sir Hugh Low writes : " Their dress, when they have 
property sufficient to obtain one, is the long cloth, or chawat,^ the manufacture 
of the Sakarran Dyaks ; but poverty more frequently compels them to supply 
its place with a rough substance made of the bark of several trees, particularly 
that of the genus Artocarpus, which produces the bread-fruit.'' (p. 240.) 

" There is the tree Kulit Tekdlong, which the Dyaks pound until it 
becomes soft in texture and then manufacture into the bajus (jackets) and 
chawats (so familiar to those who have lived in Dyak districts), and very pleasing 
to the eye too are these garments, in hue reminding one of the colour of a new 
saddle, whilst in length of time they wear quite as well if not better than a 
garment of * bazaar cloth.' " (S.G. 1894, p. 121.) Evidently this note has 
brought the following from a correspondent on the Batang Lupar : " Tekalong 
bark in former days, when cloth was not to be had, was always used by Dyaks 
for their chawat (waist -cloths) ; it is even now used by Dyaks in the ulu, or 
heads of the rivers, where cloth is expensive and by persons who cannot afford 
to buy cloth. Dyak puah (blanket, or night covering) is still much in use, but 
the old kibong (mosquito curtains) composed, as the puah, of the Tekalong bark 
have been given up. A Tekalong tree has somewhat the appearance of the 
Padalai fruit tree. When the tree is large, long strips of bark, let us say up 
to ten feet, can be obtained ; but when the tree is small and like babas growth 
of course only small strips can be got. When small the tree is called 
Temeran.'* (S.G. 1894, p. 146.) 

** The bark the Sea Dyaks employ for caulking is very tough, and, beaten 
out, serves to make useful and comfortable coverlets, as well as waist-cloths 
and head-dresses." (St. John i. 70.) 

"The inner bark of a tree called ipoh by the Dyaks and tajam by the 
Kayans, and which appears to be identical with the Upas tree of Java (Aniiaris 
toxicaria), is used for clothing, and the young tree is grown for this purpose in 
Dyak gardens ; the bark is not pulled off until a year after the tree has been 
felled." (Brooke Low.) 

" The Kayans use the bark of a tree to make coats and waist-cloths, and 
I have even seen a mosquito curtain formed of this material." (Hose, J.A.L 
xxiii. 165.) 

> The two chawats in the Leggatt collection are 66 inches long, width at front end 12 inches 
and at back end lof inches ; length of fringe 10 inches. There is much European material in these 
two specimens. 



36 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



** Among the Muruts the bark is peeled off a tree in broad strips and is 
very united and flexible ; it is then hammered all over with a heavy wooden 
instrument, which has a flat surface on one side cut in deep cross lines like a 
file ; this breaks up the harder tissues of the bark and reduces it to a very 
pliant, though by no means united, texture. The bark being full of rents and 




The warp threads on the right dyed light green and red before putting 
on the loom. The cloth itself is dyed a dark brick red. To prevent 
the edges fraying a double chain stitch in alternate green and white 
thread is run along the bottom. The whole blanket is made by sewing 
on to it a similar piece of cloth with same pattern, but left handed, 
giving a total width of about 35in. ; length, 6ft. 6in. 
(Leggatt Coll.) 



Weaving, Dyeing, and Dressmaking. 37 

holes, this difficulty is overcome by transverse darning : one of these coats^ now 
before me has no fewer than 270 transverse strings on the back alone, each 
thread penetrating the outer surface only, and assists to work out a cross 
pattern for ornamentation. The size of a strip of bark for a baju is about five 
feet by eighteen inches. This after being prepared is folded in half: the half 
for the front of the jacket is divided right down the centre ; the sides are 
stitched up, leaving holes for the arms; from the back of the neck hang 
narrow strips of bark or long streamers of coloured wool. The bark is mostly 
reddish brown ; but the best kind is white, the texture being more united and 
requiring little or no transverse stitching, but is occasionally ornamented with 
coloured patterns in wool. The sewing-thread is made from pine-apple leaves, 
which plant was growing in a semi-wild state on some hills near, the fruit 
being apparently valueless to the Muruts." (Whitehead, p. 75.) 

Mr. Burbidge says of the bark cloth ^ chawats of the Muruts that it **is the 
produce of Ariocarpus elastica. The inner bark is stripped off and soaked in 
water, being afterwards beaten to render it soft and pliable. Of this, chawats 
or loin-cloths and jackets are commonly made by the Muruts on the La was 
and the Limbang rivers, and it is also still used by the Dusun villagers on the 
Tampassuk, notwithstanding their skill in preparing, weaving, and dyeing 
the Lamba fibre." (Burbidge, p. 155.) 

Mr. Burbidge speaks of Dusun. ** . . . netting needles of wood, 
similar in principle to our own, and of weaving instruments, by means of 
which a strong and durable cloth is made from the macerated fibre of a 
species of curculigo called lamba by the natives.* This is afterwards dyed 
with native grown indigo. ... I noticed a small basket of true cotton of 
excellent staple, but it is not much used, lamba fibre being obtainable in any 
quantity from the jungle without any trouble, and its fibre is more readily 
worked with the help of rude implements. For sewing thread we found our 
hostess using the fibre of pine-apple leaves (Ananassa saliva), which serves the 
purpose well." (p. 252.) 

Of this lamba amongst the Dusuns, Mr. Whitehead says : ** The lengths 
of fibre which run in parallel lines along the underside of the leaf are 
separated and tied together. . . . The fibre is wound round a stick, and 
when sufficient has been obtained is woven into a hard cloth on the small 
Dusun looms." (p. 180.) " He gave an old woman a towel which she folded 
in half, sewed up the sides, leaving holes for her arms, cutting a slit in the 
middle for her head, and in a few minutes was wearing this novel garment." 

(p. 189.) 

Mr. Witti noticed among the Dusun that ** the homespun of these people 
is not uniform bluish gray but striped with black." (Diary, Nov. 20th.) 

« Mr. Von Donop notes the bark coats on the Papar Mountain; he says they won't stand 
washing. (Diary, 24 May.) At Pomatum " I was shewn a small shrub called Home, the leaves of 
which closely resemble that of a young cinchona succirubra in appearance. It is used as a dye in the 
place of indigo. The leaves are boiled and the thread or cloth is immersed in the liquor. The plant. 
they told me, was ready for plucking three months after planting." (ibid, Diary. March 4th.) 

• Sir Sp. St. John remarks that the men had broad belts of bark worn over the chawat like the 
Sagais of the eastern coast, (ii. 129.) 

* Elsewhere (p. 155) he calls it " Curculigo lati/olia, a yellow flowered broad leaved weed, often 
seen in great abundance on old cultivated plots near the houses." 



HEM (front; 




\ 



i 



If 



HEM CBflCK) . .. 



DusuN Short Coat Hem. 

Beginning at the left the thread in the 
hem at the bottom comes out in front at o, 
goes in at ft, out at oo, then back in again 
at the first n*. out at the second oo, and in 
at the second ti, and so on. 



SEAM 



Sbam on the side of the same coat, sewn 
with two threads. 



Seam of a Dusun Coat. 

Made with native thread. The coat is of coarse pahn leaf (?) 

fibre, the sleeves of European (?) woven cotton. It is 

hemmed with European tape in ordinary European style. 




Seam on a very rude thick bark jacket fron Kina Balu. 

Indigo Thread nm through a Dusun bark coat 
to strengthen it. 




Seam of a bark jacket in which 

the back is made in two pieces. 

From Long Bl^h. 



Seam on a Rejang River Dyak coat. 



;»-^j^r^i 



SU^^Sfe— 



Joining of a piece of loin cloth of the Rejang River Dyaks. 

From the top downwards on the surface the thread comes out at 

and goes in at i, then out at oo and in at second /. out again at 

same oo and in at ii, out at o and in at ii again, and so on. 



I > . ( 
-8- •>■>,* 

Strengthening Threads 

of a bark coat made into a 

pattern of little crosses. 




Double Thread Seam 

on a bark cloth ; also ornamental double thread running through 
without seam. From Long Bl^h. 




Seam on a Rejang 
River Dyak coat. 







Seam of a Dusun shroud. The ends of the 

cloth are overlaid and first one end a sewn 

and then the other end h by separate native 

thread. 



Seam on a Dyak cloth coat. 



Note. — All the above examples I have taken from articles in the British 
Museum. Mr. Crossland informs me the Undups make a true needle 
out of thin brass wire. 



Tribal Dress. 3^ 

Lieut. De Crespigny found the Muruts with " good cotton out of which 
they made coarse cloth." (Bed. Zeit. N.F. v. 325.) While of this people 
Mr. O. F. Ricketts writes : " Weaving is very little done and only by the 
people of the far interior." (S. G., No. 347, p. 214.) 

The dress of the peoples varies in every detail throughout the country. 
It will therefore be the better way to take first general descriptions of the 
dresses of the various tribes and to supplement these with details of the 
special articles of clothing and ornament. 

TRIBAL DRESS. 
Land Dyaks. 

**The men of the Sauh tribe as well as those of Serambo and Singhi 
generally wear a dark blue or black head-cloth, and sometimes also a cloth of 
Malay pattern, a necklace of two or three strings of beads, the only colours 
used being red, white, black, and yellow. On great occasions brass wire 
rings are worn half way up the arm to the elbow, and above this armlets of 
the rotan ijuk which are replaced by silver armlets among the upper classes 
when in full dress. Round the waist is worn a cloth called the chawat by the 
Malays, and the taup by the Land Dyaks; this is a long cloth twisted round 
the waist the ends being allowed to hang down before and behind. The 
chawat or taup is generally of black or dark blue cloth, and sometimes of 
scarlet colour, but, in jungle wear and among the poorer Dyaks, this is often 
changed for the inside of the bark of the Artocarpus. Among the Dyaks this 
tree is known as the bayu, among the Malays the temarang. (Denison, ch. iii. 
p. 25.) 

*' On the right side the Land Dyak suspends a small basket, often very 
prettily plaited, to which is attached a knife in a bamboo sheath, the latter 
sometimes tastefully carved and colored. The basket, knife, and fittings are 
called the tunktn, the basket itself is the tambuk and holds the siri leaf and is 
made to contain two round little cases for lime and tobacco called dekan, and 
a piece of the inner bark of the bayu tree, while the knife in its sheath 
hanging on the outside of the tunkin is called the sinda, A sword ox parang is 
worn on the left side, the one in general use is that called buco by the Dyaks 
and tundiik by the Malays, another parang used is the bye of the Dyaks and 
kamping of the Malays. Ear-rings consisting of a single ring of broad 
flattened wire or else pieces of thin round bamboo J of an inch in diameter, 
and some two inches long, ornamented with the black thread-like bands of 
the lemmun creeper, are worn through the lobes of the ear. A jacket of 
some coarse cloth often of Sea Dyak manufacture completes the costume, 
which may in fact apply to all Land Dyak tribes visited by me, though I 
may add that on festive occasions, the head-men sometimes wear a necklet 
or hobut of wire, on which are strung opaque beads of a dark green and blue 
colour, with which are mixed kejang, deer and bear's teeth. The armlets or 
mannu are made of brass wire and rotan twisted together, and very neat they 
arc. Ear-rings, shibUf are worn of wire twisted round in a coil and hanging 
from the ear by single bend of the same. 



40 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N, Borneo. 

" The women of the above mentioned tribes wear a necklace of two or 
more strings round the neck, red, yellow, and black coloured beads being 
used. On festive occasions this becomes a heavy mass of bead-work, as it is 
worn in many coils. Round the arms, between the shoulders and elbow, 
armlets are worn, made of the red wood of the heart of the tapang tree, which 
becomes hard on exposure to the atmosphere. Brass rings cover the lower 
portion of the arm from the wrist to the elbow, but never above it. The 
dress is a sarong or waist-cloth called the jammu made of coarse cloth 
generally of Sea Dyak manufacture, and brass rings are worn on the legs 
below the knees. Round the waist hanging loose over the loins partially 
covering the jammu, are coils of split rotan fastened together by small brass 
rings; these coils of rotan are called rambi (uberi by the Sennah Dyaks) and 
are made of the rotan padina stained black, which colour is the only one in 
use amongst these tribes. Bands of small fine brass chains some three 
inches in breadth (sabit) are worn round the loins mixed with the rambi, and 
at feasts silver coins are worn on the edge of the jammu, and as a kind of 
belt round the loins. I must not forget to mention that the jammu is 
fastened round the waist by a string of rotan, or twisted lengths of the ijuk 
fibre from the No palm or other substance. This string is worn loosely next 
to the skin, round the waist, the jammu is drawn round to the hip and then 
folded back across the body, the string is then pulled over it and this keeps 
the cloth in its proper place and position round the waist, {ibid, ch. iii. p. 26.) 

** I now come to describe the dress of the women of the Tringus tribe, 
and in describing them I include also the Gumbang women and those of the 
other tribes I am about to visit, who all wear nearly the same attire. The 
body is naked to the waist ; below this is worn a short jammu or waistcloth, 
generally of a dark dirty-blue colour, with frequently a red border or edging. 
On great occasions, and even in general wear, silver coins are often fixed to 
the end of the edging. The rambi of thin narrow split bamboo is worn in four 
or five coils round the waist, and is stained red and not black as with other 
tribes. This is allowed to hang loosely over the loins, and mixed with it are 
very fine brass chains called sabit, which are worn in coils to a thickness of 
three or four inches. The ankles are ornamented with brass rings, which are 
also worn above the knee, between the wrist and elbow, and above the latter 
nearly to the armpit. Bracelets of the kima shell, which when long worn 
resemble ivory without its yellow tinge, are in constant use ; sometimes as 
many as four of these bracelets (besides the brass ones), are worn on each 
arm, say two below and two above the elbow. The neck is graced with thick 
coils of red or black beads. Unlike the other Dyak tribes I had visited, the 
women of which went bare-headed, these Dyaks and the Gumbangs wore a 
peculiar and fantastic head covering made of beads, strung perpendicularly 
on a circular wire frame, about eight inches high, made to fit the head at its 
base, but tapering upwards to the top (which is open) to about one half the 
circumference of its base. When worn by the priestesses, or bilian as they 
are called, these head-dresses are closed at the top, when they are often 
surmounted with a tuft of feathers or hair. The beads are always of the same 
colour, viz. : red, yellow, black, and white. These curious head coverings are 



Tribal Dress. 41 

called burang by the Gumbang and Tringus tribes, though, I believe, they are 
also known as segubak and sipia by other Dyaks ; they are worn by the women 
of every tribe from Gumbang to the Sadong, the Land Dyaks of which district 
also make use of them. The Singhis, Serambos, and Sauhs are the only 
tribes without the burang, and these are again the only tribes who wear the 
seladan. Among the Dyaks I am now about to visit, a cloth skull cap, fitting 
close to the head, made of blue cloth, wdth a little red trimming, is much 
affected by the women." {ibid, ch. iv. p. 40.) 

" The chawat is generally of blue cotton, ending in three broad bands of 
red, blue, and white. Those who can afford it wear a handkerchief on the 
head, which is either red with a narrow border of gold lace, or of three 
colours like the chawat. The large flat moon-shaped brass earrings, the heavy 
necklace of white or black beads, rows of brass rings on the arms and legs, 
and armlets of white shell all serve to relieve and set off the pure reddish 
brown skin and jet black hair." (Wallace i. p. 104.) 

Sir Hugh Low speaks of the young men covering " the upper portion of 
the arms with rings of the black iju, or horsehair-like substance, plaited very 
neatly. This, to the eye of an European, is the most becoming of all their 
adornments, the dark black of the material contrasting agreeably, but not too 
decidedly, with the brown colour of their skins. . . . Amongst the tribes 
on the western branch of the Sarawak river, the dress of the women is 
increased by the addition of an article called by them Saladan, It is made of 
a bamboo, split, flattened, pared thin, and dyed black : being thus prepared, 
it is fitted to the body, and secured in its form and position by brass wires 
passing across its breadth, which also serve for the purposes of ornament ; 
they are placed at the distance of about one inch apart from each other. 
Girls begin to wear it at the age of five or six years, and as it is made on the 
body it is only removed by destroying it when a larger one is needed.* This 
curious article of dress is confined to the tribes of Sarawak called Singhie, 
Sow, Serambo, Bombuck, and Peninjow, who in their dress also differ from 
the other tribes of the Hills in this, that their women wear no beads for 
ornament, and the men only those of two colours — black and white. Trans- 
parent beads are not esteemed by any of the tribes I have visited ; small and 
opaque ones alone being valued by them. The colours most in demand are 
the two above mentioned; but yellow and red are also much sought after. 
The girls of the tribes on the western branch of the Sarawak river never wear 
the brass wire above the elbow-joint of the arm, nor have I seen them 
use the white bracelets so common in the others of the southern river, 
the use of which amongst these tribes is apparently confined to the men." 
(Low, p. 240.) 

Sea Dyaks. 

" Love of finery is inherent in the young of both sexes ; the elderly are 
less fond of it, and often dress very shabbily and save up their good clothes 
for their offspring. The ordinary male attire consists of a sir at or waist-cloth, 

' See infra for difference between the Land and Sea Dyak corsets. 



42 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



a labong or head-dress, and a takai buriet, or seat mat ; the full dress consists 
of the above with the addition of a klambi or jacket, and a dangdong or shawl. 
The ornaments are grunjong, laitggu, tinggu, kongkong, rekong, simpai, tumpa, 
tinchien, ngkrimok or unus. The female attire is very simple, consisting of a 
bidang or short petticoat when at home, and a klambi or jacket when out of 
doors. By way of ornament the women wear in addition to the finger rings, 
necklaces, and bracelets which are described later on, other ornaments 
peculiar to their sex, styled balong, tiisok penckieng, tina, ranghi, luniiet or tinchien, 
selong and gelang ghirieng, all of which are described in due order.'' (Brooke 
Low.) 





Tanjong takup, or 
Shell Vine Leaf. 

Worn by little 

girls. 
(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Little Girl's Girdle and Shell. 
W. Borneo. 
< Leiden Mus.) 

The dress of the Batang 
Lupar people is thus 
described by the Rajah as 
being very "plain, and their 
costume is far from graceful. 
Boots of brass wire are attached to their legs from ankle 
to knee, a scant cloth around the middle, and strings of 
brass rings, beads, and wires encumber their bodies all 
the way up to their breasts ; bead bracelets are around 
the neck, and armlets of brass encircle the wrists, to 
correspond with the leggings. This is full dress ; but 
when in mourning, they cast off these ornaments and 
use stained rattans around the waist instead, to be 
replaced by the finery when a head is brought into the 
country, for gaieties prevail on such occasions. How 
they can clamber hills and mountains, and work at 
farming, with such a weight attached to their bodies, is a 
marvel. Several have been drowned in consequence of these weights, when 
their small boats have swamped. They also sleep in this gaudy paraphernalia, 
and one has some cause to pity the bed-fellows of these brazen images." 
(ii. i68.) Mr. D. S. Bailey writes from Simanggang thus : "A girl from 
Rantau Panjai, in the w/«, was being conveyed to her wedding feast, when 
the boat upset, and, as is usual in such cases up river, the enormous weight 
of her brass ornaments carried her to the bottom immediately." (S.G., 
1895, p. 14.) 



Side view. 

Malanau 
Gold Buttons 

Worn along the sleeves 

of women's jackets. 

Weight, Joz. 

(In the possession of Mrs. 
F. K. O. Maxwell.) 




•s 



I if 

O Jl X 

I 



44 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

Malanau. 

His Highness has given the following description of the dress of one of 
this tribe : ** His skull-cap of many hues had long feathers standing upright 
from it ; a maias (orang utan) skin jacket hung over his shoulders. He was 
further adorned with feathers both before and behind, and sundry strings of 
beads hung dangling about. A breast-plate of tin, with the edges slightly 
carved and perforated with holes, was attached to the jacket ; his under- 
garment consisted of a red cloth, and his legs were free of any incumbrances. 
The ends of the red cloth were long, and prettily embroidered with beads; the 
short sword of his country, with the convex and concave blade, hung at his 
waist, and human hair, stained various colours, fastened to the hilt, the belt 
being composed of beads." (i. 302.) 

The Dusuns. 

*' The Dusun women have perhaps one of the most picturesque dresses of all 
the Bornean tribes ; they wear a fairly long petticoat of home-made cloth, dyed 
indigo blue ; above this skirt and over it for a few inches are coils of black and 
red rattan ; below these hang rows of red beads, closely threaded to a depth 
of six inches or so ; sometimes numerous brass chains hang above the beads. 
The bright metal cylinders worn by the Patatan women were seldom worn by 
the Dusuns round Kina Balu. Until they are mothers, a strip of blue trade- 
cloth is worn over the breasts, which is kept in its place by numerous coils * 
of red rattan ; these coils, like those round the waist, are tied together in 
quantities of six or eight. The women file their teeth like the men ; their 
eyebrows are shaved into narrow arched lines ; as a rule, the right ear only is 
pierced. Their coiffure is simple, the hair being tied in a knot on the top of 
the head, through which a bone hair-pin, attached to a string of beads, is 
stuck, the beads being wound round the base of the knob. Some of the 
women wear coils of thick brass wire round their wrists and ankles, one old 
dame having a pair of solid brass anklets, several pounds in weight, which she 
always wore. A cowl is worn during field work, as a protection from the sun. 
Children run naked until about four years of age.'* (Whitehead, p. 106.) 

The Muruts. 

"Their usual dress consists of the *chawat,' though some of the more 
civilized wear jackets and head-cloths in addition, and some even trousers. 
The hair is worn long, parted in the middle, and then tied in a knot at the 
back of the head with a pig's tusk, sometimes ornamented with a tuft of hair 
or a tassel at the largest end, passed through the knot as a hairpin ; often a piece 
of bone (see p. 59) somewhat arrow-shaped and slightly carved is used for the 
same purpose. They wear no brass earrings as many other tribes doj the usual 
thing i& a piece of bamboo, or rather a section, about a quarter-of-an-inch 
deep, and in circumference rather smaller than a cent piece, into which a 
piece of mirror is fixed ; this forms the earring, which is inserted into the 

« This strip is mentioned by Sir Sp. St. John (i. 248, 306), Mr. Von Donop (Diary, aand May), 
and Mr. Burbidge (p. 156). 



Dress in Detail, 45 

lobes of the ears. Some of the interior tribes wear a large round earring 
either of bone or ivory with a knob of agate in the centre, about three- 
quarters-of-an-inch long. These have rather a curious appearance and in 
circumference are about the size of a half-crown. Bead necklaces are much 
worn by the men, some of them being of considerable value, consisting of 
large agates ; few wear bracelets or amulets, and these are generally of inferior 
quality. The women are short and dumpy, and one who is good-looking is 
very much the exception ; they wear the short petticoat, reaching from the 
waist to the knees; in the lower river most of them wear jackets, in the 
interior nothing else. They have the same necklaces and earrings as the men, 
and, in addition, bracelets of beads and strings of beads on the head to as 
many as six rows ; these fit the contour of the head, and if continued to the 
top of the head would form a cap : the hair is smoothed down and the end is 
brought up and passed through inside the strings of beads, forming a long 
loop a little to one side of the head. Brass rings round the waist, so common 
amongst the Dyaks, are unknown ; the only ornament is a belt of several 
strings of small beads worn just over the petticoat." (O. F. Ricketts, S.G. 
No. 347, p. 214.) 

*' The native women inland wear short sarongs of Lamba cloth, reaching 
from the waist nearly to their knees, and a profusion of stained rattan coils, 
brass wire, coloured beads, and other trinkets around their waists, and heavy 
rings of brass on their legs, or coils of brass wire on their plump and dusky 
arms. The younger ones wear a strip of dark cloth across the breast. . . . 
The hair is often gracefully wreathed up with a string of red or amber coloured 
beads, sometimes with a strip of the pale yellow nipa leaf, in its young state, 
and the contrast is very effective." (Burbidge, p. 156.) 

DRESS IN DETAIL. 
Corsets. 

Regarding the curious corset referred to in the above descriptions, there 
are several varieties among the various tribes. At Si Panjang (Land Dyaks) 
the women "wore brass wire over and mixed with their rotan rambisJ" 
(Denison, ch. v. 56.) The Serins (Land Dyaks) wear the rambi of black and 
red rotan mixed." {ibid, ch. vii. 78.) Madame Pfeiffer describes the Land 
Dyak corset, called raway or sabit, " as 7 to 9 inches long, and covered with 
innumerable brass or lead rings and weighing 15 to 20 lbs." (i. 79, 88.) The 
Rev. W. Chalmers says : " The stays are made of the bark of some tree, orna- 
mented with brass wire," and that " it does not improve their looks, however 
much it may add to their comfort, as it gives the body somewhat of a barrel-ly 
appearance." (Miss. Field, 1859, P- 148-) Mr. Hornaday thus describes this 
garment : " The tinchien is the body ornament of the Ulu Ai and Ngkari 
women. It is composed of some eight or ten parallel rows of large brass rings 
long enough to encircle the waist. They are strung on rattans and connected 
with one another by a network of cane inside. The ends of the band are 
furnished with a pair of vertical plates of the same metal, the outer edges of 
which are curled, the one inwardly, and the other outwardly, so as to catch 



46 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



one another, and effectively lock in the body. The rings (with the exception 
of every ahernate one, which is an ordinary finger-ring), are long and broad, 
and rudely engraved a variety of patterns. These rings cost eight shillings a 
string, and a complete set of ten would cost five pounds. 










^ 



Chain Band, taii 

mulong. Of antique 

pattern; worn over 

the rawai. 

(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Ring of a rawai made of rotan with fine brass 
wound round. 
(Canterbury Mus.) 





Senawir. Brass Hoop and 
Silver Coins. 

Worn on top of the rawai. 
(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Front of Woman's Girdle. 

With brass clasp, and made of brass 

rings strung on rotan. W. Borneo. 

(Leiden Mus.) 




-^^ 



Girdle of glass and shell beads, called entelo. Worn hanging on to the end of the rawai. 

(See pp. 51, 53.) 
(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Dress in Detail. 



47 



.«i8 



** The Una are slender hoops of crimsoned cane, worn round the waist, 
and look like whalebone when coloured black, as they invariably are in 
mourning costume. 

" The lumiet is the rawai of the 
Malohs (Malaus) and is a much 
esteemed body ornament of the Saka- 
rangs. It is composed of a series of 
cane hoops covered with an infinity 
of diminutive brass links. A few of 
the hoops are made larger than the 
rest so as to hang loose on the hips. 
The series that encase the waist and 
the stomach fit close and are pinned 
together with brass wire ; they some- 
times are worn up to the nipples, but 
not every woman can afford to be at 
such great expense." (Brooke Low.) 
**The Dusuns, a tribe of Dyaks on 
the north coast, wear immense rings 
of solid tin or copper round their hips 
and shoulders." (Marryat, p. 79.') 

" These curious corsets were models 
of rigidity and closeness of fit, and 
being brightly polished, gave the 
young ladies quite a substantial air." 
(Hornaday, p. 485.) 

A writer in the Field, Dec. 6, 1884, 
says : " I had the opportunity of 
examining carefully a Sea Dyak brass 
corset, which differs from the Land 
Dyak one, in so far that the brass wire 
is wound horizontally round the waist, 
and therefore moulds itself to the 
shape and movements of the body in 
a more pleasing manner than the Land 
Dyak corset, in which the wire is 
placed perpendicularly, and always 
remains stiff and rigid. The latter 
must be for the wearers uncomfortable 
to a degree, as they can hardly bend 
the body at all, while the former is 
not such an impediment to motion, and rather enhances the gracefulness 
of an elegant figure. Those brass corsets are rarely taken off, and when 
they are the operation of doing so is somewhat ludicrous for lookers on, 
but not so by any means for the unfortunate wearer, as I once had the 
occasion of judging. The girl I saw had to hang by her hands to a bar of 
wood, whilst a friend slipped her brass cuirass inch by inch upwards and over 




si's 5 
n't) B-o 



48 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



her head." They will not part with these corsets. Mr. Hornaday gives a 
similar account of the method of taking them off. (p. 450.) 

Jackets. 

" Land Dyak jackets, or bajus, whether the fighting padded ones, or the 
ordinary ones, are without sleeves, the shoulder, however, being so cut that it 
sticks out like the scales of an epaulette.'* (Grant, p. 17.) 

Among the Sea Dyaks, ** the klambiy or jacket, is manufactured from yarn 
spun from their own cotton. There are several kinds of these, but the one 
known as the klambi burong is considered the best. In all of them the sleeves 
are open in the armpit, and the pieces sewn together with twine. The edges 




Man's Jacket. 

Open in front. Made of three pieces of peculiarly-woven (?) cloth of brown cord, laced 
together at the edges. Lappets to fall like epaulets over the shoulders, their lower ends 
slashed, and beneath them are smaller lappets of cotton originally red and blue. 

Length, 4ft. lin. 
(Brit. Mus.) 



Dress in Detail. 



49 



are bordered with scarlet cloth. There is another kind much worn by the 
Sakarans, which resembles a waistcoat more than a jacket, being without 
sleeves. The Ulu Ais manufacture a coarse white jacket striped with blue. 




Dyak Man's Jacket. 

Of woven light brown fibre with pattern painted or printed on, 

joined in front and at sides, leaving neck and arm holes. 

(Brit. Mus.) 

The klambi subang manufactured by the Sarebas is of finer and closer texture 

than any other, and is in consequence far more expensive. The thread of 

which it is wrought is procured from the Malays, and is of a red colour. The 

£ Vol. 2 



50 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



lower portion of the back is embroidered with gold and silver thread, with a 
fringe of silk depending from it. 

"The klambi, or jacket^ wtJm by the women, is, if anything, larger than 
that worn by the men. The patterns are precisely the same, but the texture 
is finer. The Sarebas women wear another jacket dyed a ruddy brown with 
mangrove bark, with a square embroidery on the back, and a fringe of hawks' 
bells." (Brooke Low.) 

** The jackets are ornamented with fringe." (St. John i. 29.) ** The 
women's jackets among the Sakaran reach nearly to the knees, and are brown 
in colour; among the Balaus they are bright red, and reach to hips only; and 
among the Sarebas they are nut-brown, and reach to knees. The dresses of 
the Sarebas are the best embroidered, as they are cleverest in all needlework." 
(Leggatt.) **The dandong, or shawl, is worn slung over the shoulder." (Brooke 
Low.) 




Undup Girl's Slebvsless Jacket 

of unufual shape. 

(CrgMland CoU.) 



White Bark Balau Jacket 

Made for Land Dyaks. Neck and 

arm-holes bound with black cotton. 

(Canterbary Mus.) 



H. LINQ ROTH. NATIVES OP SARAWAK AND BRIT. NORTH BORNEO. 










li-^ 



ai 



*,>r 



■fkm 



PATTERN ALONG BACK RIM OF 8EA-DYAK WOMAN'S 

JAOKET; WORKED ON ENQUSH RED CLOTH. 

(lEQQATT OOLL:). 



BORDER DOWN 
FRONT OF THE 
SAME JACKET. 



Dress in Detail, 
Petticoats. 



51 



The Land Dyaks woman's petticoat or ** bidang is of the size and shape 
of a kilt. A belt holds it round the waist, and it descends to the knee." 
(Grant, p. 17.) ** Silver coins are freely worn round the edges of the jammu 
(petticoat) of the Sering and Simpoke women." (Denison, ch. vi. p. 76.) 







. . WMirt 



End of a Piece of Cloth 

to show how they arrange their 
colours. 




(Brit. Mus.) 



Pattern on Undup Woman's 

PeXTlCOAT. 
(Crossland Coll.) 



i 






I L 



n": 



i 



^*^l 



1:^ 



I '111 '^^^h 
. ,^i A'i ■'' '■V ■'> V ■ 



LOW IM.» = »< 

Rejang River Dyak Cloth. 
(Brit. Mus.) 



S! 
I 



The Rev. Mr. Horsburgh relates : ** On 
one occasion I saw the daughters of 
several Sakarran chiefs clothed in loose 
dresses composed of shells, beads, and 
polished stones, arranged with great care 
and considerable taste. The dress, which 
was very becoming, hung as low as the 
knee, and as the young ladies walked 
along, the stones of which it was com- 
posed rung upon each other like the chime 
of distant bells. These dresses are very 
expensive, costing some seventy or eighty 
reals a-piece (about £12), and are therefore 
not common." (p. 11.) ** In the wealthier 
Undup tribes the women wear round their petticoats strings of silver coin, the 

united value of which, in many cases, will amount to above £10 

To an European fresh arrived the dress looks scanty ; but, when he lives 
amongst them and has seen their walks and their work, he cannot but admit 
that it is admirably adapted to their condition." (Crossland, Miss. Life 1865, 

P- 655.) 

**The Sea Dyak bidang is a short petticoat reaching from the waist to the 
knee, and is kept in its place by being folded over in front and tucked in on one 




O 



•a 



« c 

■*^ u 
0) o 

:2 « 

•si 

g-2 8 

M -g g ^ 

I ^5 I 

> g o d 

< £ 

n « 



II 






ll 



O 

G 



^ 

•S 

^ 



Dress in Detail. 



53 



side. It is manufactured from their own cotton fabric, which is first partially 
dyed and then worked into a variety of patterns to which the most fanciful 
names are given. The bidang worn in mourning is stained a deep indigo blue, 
and is called kain baloi. A lighter shade is worn out of mourning, especially 
by the Ulu Ais, and is often adorned by them with small cowries or pearl 
buttons, and fringed with grunongs or little tinkling bells." (Brooke Low.) 

" The Kayan women's frock covering is more capacious in drapery than 
those used by the Dyaks." (Brooke ii. 225.) 







m^w. 



8Lue 
Mpmn, 



Border of the Sarebas Woman's Petticoat. 
Illustrated on opposite page. 



" The dress of the Kayan women is a cloth reaching from the hips to the 
ankles, tied at the hips, but open all down one side, leaving room for them to 
walk easily. They wear a string of beads round the waist.** (Hose, J.A.I, 
xxiii. 167.) 

Of the Ida'an young women's petticoats Sir Sp. St. John says: 
" They were larger than usual, a practice that might have been followed with 
advantage by their elders." (i. 248.) 

Mr. Witti remarks on the scantiness of the petticoats of some Mount 
Dulit Dusuns — ** regular female kilts, which do not incommode them in 
climbing steep hill-sides or ascending a ladder." (Diary, 16 Mar.) 

Among the Adang Muruts the ** petticoats are of the shortest, sometimes 
not eight inches broad, and are scarcely decent." (St. John ii. 115.) "A 
few of the young girls have petticoats composed entirely of beads on a 
groundwork of cloth or perhaps bark." {ibidy ii. 129.) 



54 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 







Pattern of Sea Dyak Woman's Petticoat. 

Dyed in shades of brown varying in intensity, with a few more reddish lines running through. 
Method of dyeing same as that described on p. 29. Width (top to bottom), r8Jin. ; 

circumference, 46in. 
(Leggatt Coll.) 

Chaw ATS. 

**The sirat, called chawat by the Malays, is a strip of cloth a yard wide, 
worn round the loins and in between the thighs so as to cover the front 
and back only ; it is generally six yards or so in length, but the younger men 
of the present generation use as much as twelve or fourteen yards (sometimes 
even more), which they twist and coil with great precision round and round 
their body until the waist and stomach are fully enveloped in its folds. It 
requires considerable practice to enable one to dispose of so much cloth 
gracefully about the person, but more time is spent by these young dandies 
of the forest than one would imagine, in order that they may appear to the 
best advantage ; and the Ulu Ais seem to excel all other tribes in the skill and 
taste which they display in the disposal of this personal attire. One end is so 
arranged as to fall over the coils in front and dangle between the legs ; the 



Dress in Deiait. 55 

other is hitched up behind so as to hang at the back like a long tail, or is 
looped up at the hip to droop on the right thigh. The former plan is adopted 
when no takai buriei (seat mat) is worn, so as to cover the hindquarters as 
much as possible. A practised eye can tell in a moment to what tribe or 
section of a tribe an individual belongs, not merely by the length of his waist- 
cloth and the way in which it is wound on, but also by its colour and the 
fashion in which it is decorated at its extremities. White, as being the 
plainest and most unpretending, is worn in mourning and during outdoor 
labour ; it is cheap and will wash. Dark blue, however, is the commonest 
throughout the country when out of mourning ; it wears better, shows the 
dirt less, and is singularly becoming. Both kinds are sometimes bordered at 
the edges with scarlet flannel. Prints and shawl patterns are affected by the 
young men of the Ulu Ai and Ngkari tribe ; crimson, and saffron, and orange 
by the young of the Lamanaks and Sakarang tribes. A klapong sirat, or 
tail flap, is often worn by the elder men of the latter tribes ; it is of a dull 
white colour with a fringe to it, being made of home-grown cotton ; it is 
prettily and fancifully embroidered with coloured thread and is sewn on to 
either end of the sirat to hang before and behind. The younger men and boys 
prefer the fringes, kabu sirat, manufactured by the Malays, or ornamental 
borders of coloured flannel." (Brooke Low.) 

Among the Kiaus Sir Sp. St. John found " chawats were decreasing, 
and trousers coming in." (i. 320.) Among the Main Muruts the chawats 
" are often absurdly small, not even answering the purpose for which they are 
intended." (ii. 129.) 

Hip Lace. 

A garment perhaps mentioned by Mr. Horsburgh (supra p. 51) is described 
by Sir Sp. St. John as worn by Si Obong, the wife of Tamawan, a Kyan chief: 
"The most curious part of her costume is what I must call a hip-lace of beads, 
consisting of three strings, one of yellow beads ; the next of varied colours, 
more valuable ; and the third of several hundred of those much-prized ones 
by the Kay an ladies. It is difiicult to describe a bead so as to show its 
peculiarities. At my request, she took off her hip-lace and handed it to me ; 
the best appeared like a body of black stone, with four other variegated ones 
let in around. It was only in appearance that they were let in ; the colours 
of these four marks were a mixture of green, yellow, blue, and gray. 

** Were I to endeavour to estimate the price in produce she and her 
parents had paid for this hip-lace, the amount would appear fabulous. She 
showed me one for which they had given eleven pounds* weight of the finest 
birds' nests, or, at the Singapore market price, thirty-five pounds sterling. 
She had many of a value nearly equal, and she wore none that had not cost 
her nine shillings." ' (i. 119.) See illustration, p. 46. 

7 Round the waist the women wear fonr or hve coils of large stone beads — red. blue, and 
yellow— which form a support to the sarong, or petticoat. Curiously enough, while various 
miraculous and valuable Qualities are attributed to most of their personal ornaments, these waist- 
bands seem to be the only articles valued as heirlooms The women attach great value to these 
rows of beads, especially if they are not new : and when I wanted to buy a set, the answer was that 
it had be«n in the family so long, and dated back to so remote a date (tempo doelo), that they could 
not part with it. Sometimes they tried to recount the pedigree of the article, but could never get 
further back than their great-grandmother. (Bock, p. 18S.) 



56 



H. Ling Roth.— Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



Mat Seats. 

** The takai buriet, already referred to, is a small mat which is tied round 
the waist with strings so as to cover the hindquarters and furnish the wearer 

with a clean portable 
seat at all times, and at 
all seasons. The mat 
is of split cane and 
woven into an endless 
variety of patterns and 
decorated in a variety of 
ways, use being made of 
coloured flannel, nassar 
shells, and European 
pearl buttons for this 
purpose. Sometimes a 
bear's skin or a pan- 
ther's skin is cut to the 
required size and worn 
in lieu of a cane one, 
and when this is set off 
with the requisite bead- 
work of the country it 
forms a most handsome 
ornament to the per- 
son." (Brooke Low.) 
Mr. Hornaday (p. 392) 
says the **mats are 
shield-shaped of many 
colours, and one was 
ornamented by a border 
of cowries sewn on close 
together all the way 
round." The Rajah 
also mentions them. (i. 
302.) 

** The Dyaks [} Du- 
suns] here all eat 
monkeys and preserve 
the skins, which they 
fasten round their 
waists, letting the tails 
hang down behind, so 
that in the distance 
Seat Mat of Saribas Dyaks. they look like men with 

Worn to prevent owner sitting upon damp places, thorns, &c. . -i ., /tt ..^ y-w- 
ornamented with black, yellow, and white woollen cloths or flan- tails. (riatton, Diary, 
nel and European porcelain buttons. Length, 23in. ; width, i4in. 18 Mar ) 
(Edinboro' Mus.) 




Dress in DetaiU 



57 



Rain Mats. 
" On their backs the (Balow) men and women carry a neat mat basket 
suspended round the forehead, and when it rains a mat covers the head and 
the basket, and throws off the rain from their persons." (Sir Jas. Brooke, 
Mundy i. 237.) 

Head Dresses. 

The Tringus head-dress has already been 
described. Among the Si Panjangs "the 
hilian or female doctors or prophetesses wear 
a strange cover to the burang, or bead head 
covering. It is of wood, circular, made to fit 
the top of the burang, and prettily ornamented 
(inlaid) with tin. A short stick covered with 
the feathers of the enchalang or horn-bill is 
stuck in the centre and gives the whole a very 
curious effect. I have seen this covering to 
the head-piece in no other tribe." (Denison, 
ch. V. p. 56.) The Serin Dyaks also wear the 
conical head-dress of the Tringus. {ibid, ch. xiii. 
p. 78.) Mr. Wallace notes the conical hat. 
(i. p. 107.) "The Lanchang men and women 
wear a large round hat (see p. 63), fitting tight 
round the head by a band on which is raised 
the flat cover about two feet and more in 
diameter." (Denison, ch. viii. p. 84.) " Some 
wore a small cap of red cloth, ornamented 
with pearls, shells, and brass leaflets and with 
a long feather of the beautiful argus bird. 
Others had a piece of bast tied round their 
heads like a bandage, the ends of which were 
frayed out and looked like cocked-up feathers. 
A man so got up looked very funny : above — 
all decoration, below — nakedness ! " (Pfeiffer, 
p. 88.) Sir Hugh Low (pp. 179, 240) and 
Mr. Grant (p. 17) also refer to the bark head- 
dress dyed yellow.* "Some of the Ballau 
young men wear head-dresses composed of the 
hair of their enemies, dyed red." (Horsburgh, 

p. II.) 

" The Semproh, Sebongoh, and other 
tribes on the southern branch of the Sarawak 
river, are fond of ornaments of opaque and 
very small beads which are worked into very 

* Mr. Bock noticed it among theTanjoeng (p. 131) dyed 
red, blue, or yellow. 




Dyak Conical Cap. 
Made of closely-interwoven crim- 
son-dyed palm leaf. Wooden 
glug at the apex (aj into which is 
x^ a tuft of long white feathers 
with black stripe. Diam., yin. ; 
height, 2iin. 
(Brit. Mus.) 



58 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 

pretty head-dresses. This ornament is made of the strung beads of various 
colours, disposed in broad transverse bands: they are about four or five 
inches in breadth, and open at the top, so that they resemble a broad 
fillet.'' • (Low, p. 241.) 

" The labong, or head-dress, is a piece of cloth a yard or two in length 
and wound round the head in the style of a turban, but so disposed that one 
end stands up straight from the forehead. But there are various ways of 
wearing, binding, coiling, &c., whereby one tribe may be distinguished from 
another. A white labong is frequently the sign of mourning. Saffron and 
orange are favourite colours among the Lamanaks and Ngkaris ; black 
prevails among the Sarebas settled in Kajulan. The Ulu Ais affect shawl 
patterns and buntas, and the Sakarans of Gutabai use Javanese handkerchiefs 
edged with scarlet and yellow. By others, young as well as old, a kind of 
cap called selapok is much worn. It is made of plaited rush or cane, 
sometimes coloured and sometimes plain, as well as coarse or fine ; and is 
shaped either to fit closely to the skull or to resemble an ordinary square cap. 
(See p. 60.) Fillets or head-bands of the same material and variable quality 
are also worn with an open crown and bordered with scarlet cloth. The 
Kinahs wear bark cloth round their caps (as we wear crape round our hats) 
to show they are in mourning." (Brooke Low.) 

It is I think of the Sarawak Dyaks that Mr. Marryat writes : ** Their 
hair fell down their backs, and nearly reached their middle : it was prevented 
from falling over the face by a fillet of grass, which was ornamented with 
mountain flowers.'* (p. 11.) 




Silver Hairpin. Baram River. 
(Peek Coll.) 

" The Sea Dyak women make no attempt to part their hair but push it 
over the forehead and gather it into a knot at the back of the head — a plain 
or fancy one as the occasion may warrant. They use no oil of their own 
manufacture, but all who are able to afford the luxury may obtain it from the 
Malays. The hair is not so long as it might be, and is frequently cut short 
during dangerous illness. The circumstances of their lives are not favourable 
to a luxuriant growth. They have in common with the men their full share 
of exposure to all weathers, together with hard work out of doors as well as 
in doors. Flowers are worn in the hair as ornaments — red and green bqing 
the favourite colours. The balong is a chaplet of odoriferous berries worn by 
marriageable girls. 

• The hair is straight and black and is kept cut rather short by both sexes, but if permitted 
would grow to a great length. ..." The chiefs adorn their heads with the feathers of large 
birds, which are stuck erect in a bandage encircling the head, in a manner precisely similar to that 
adopted by the aboriginal natives of South America. The chiefs of a friendly tribe, which visited 
Sambas in 1833, were all thus decorated." (Earl, pp. 258, 262.) 



Dress in Detail. 



59 



** The men dress their hair in a variety of ways. The genuine Ulu Ai 
fashion is to let the back hair grow long and flowing, and to keep the front 
either shaved or close cropped. The Ngkasi style is to shave in front and to 
keep the back hair close cropped, to shave again across the back of the head 
but to leave two parallel rows of hair and a tiny lock beneath them in the 
centre. The Kayan method of dressing the hair is, however, fast becoming 
the fashion among the dandies of all the tribes, e.g., to permit the back hair 
to flow to its full length over the shoulders and to grow the front hair over 
the forehead long enough to form a Grecian fringe. When it is inconvenient 
to have the back hair streaming over the shoulders, they twist it and tuck it 
carefully into the turban.*' (Brooke Low.) 

The Sarebas Dyaks' 
hair '*is cut in such a 
manner as to give to their 
features the most savage- 
looking appearance, being 
shaved from that part of 
the head near the temples 
in an arched form, so that the ends of the two arches meet in the middle 
of the forehead in a fine point : the hair is cut short in front, but left long 
and flowing behind.*' *" (Low, p. 179.) 

**The head-dress was a 
clean turban of bright 
scarlet cloth, neatly wound 
around the head, with a 
loose end falling over the 
left ear. The crown of 
the head was wholly un- 
covered, and a profusion of 
jet black locks fell over 
the top of the turban." 
(Brooke.) 




MuRUT Bone Hair Pins. 
(Hose Coll.) 



(See p. 44.) 




Women's Wooden Comb. Kina Bulu. 
(Brit. Mus.) 



(See p. 63.) 




Palm-leaf Kayan Cap. 
(Brooke Low Coll.) 





Ukit Girl's Bead Cap. 
(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Wicker-work Foundation 

OF A Kanowit Fur Cap. 

(Hose Coll.) 



** The Sarebas are rather fond of ornament, and wear grotesque caps of 
various coloured cloths (particularly red), some of them square, others peaked, 
and others like a cocked hat worn athwartships, and terminating in sharp 

^'^ " The hair is cut short below the occiput, while on the crown it is aUowed to grow to a 
great length, sometimes reaching to the knees. This long hair is rolled up in chignon fashion." 
(Bock. p. 131.) 




Plaited Hat. (See p. 58.) 
(Canterbtiry Mas.) 




Cagayan Sulu Plaited Rotan Hat. 

Partly stained with native dyes. The centre- 
line as shown is stained red ; with dark brown 
strips on both sides. The edging along the 
bottom is a lighter brown. No lining. 
Diam.. i4}in. 
(Edinboro Mus.)2 





Sakaran Men's Mat Cap. 

b., black plaits; r., red plaits. Diam. of brim, 6|in. 

diam. of hole on top, 3 Jin. 

(Lefgatt Coll.) 



CoNOiDAL Cap 

of plaited narrow strips of pale (buff) 
reed, painted with scroll and van- 
dyked patterns in dark crimson. A 
row of small pinkish white shells 
round lower edge. In centre of crown 
is stuck a tall plume (height, 2iin.) of 
small downy white feathers attached 
to slips of bambu. Height of hat, 
5}in. ; diam., 6in. 
(Brit. Mus.) 




Hemispherical Cap 

of plaited rattan, with star-shaped 
covering of coloured glass beads, 
and plume of black and white 
feathers on top. Diam., yin. 
From Dutch Borneo. 
(Brit. Mus) 




Palm-leaf Hat« 
(Leiden Mus. 




Finished Hat. 

Sambas (Dutch Borneo.) 

(Leiden Mus.) 




Hats in process of manufacture. From Sebelau, Sambas (Dutch Borneo). 

eiden Mus.) 



62 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



points on the top of the head. These head-dresses are ornamented with 
tufts of red hair or black human hair, shreds of cloth, and sometimes feathers ; 
but what renders them laughable to look at is that the hair is cut close to 
match the shape of the cap ; so when a man displaces them, you find him 







Enlarged border. 




Sadong Dyak Man's Hat. 
With domed top made of radiating crimson-coloured strips of leaf. Diam., i5in. 

(Brit. Mas.) 

bare of hair about the forehead and posterior part of the skull, cut into points 
over the ears, and the rest of the skull shewing a good crop of black bristles." 
(Keppel i. 224.) 

The hair of the Sibuyau, long and dark, ** was twisted up at the back of 
the head, the frontal arrangement being something between a braid and the 
costume a la Chinoise.*' (Mundy ii. 115.) " A fillet of plaited cane is worn 
round the head, into which the long hair may be tucked up if it should at any 
time incommode him. It is considered a shame to a woman to have her 
head shaven or her hair cut short. A woman generally wears her hair tucked 
up at the back in a loop resembling a single bow." (F. W. Leggatt.) 

** Both sexes of the Balaus are fond of adorning their hair or head-dresses 
with flowers, generally large bright red and yellow blossoms, which become 
their dark complexions exceedingly well." (Horsburgh, p. 11.) 

** The Kayan and Kenniah men wear on the top of the head only a cap 
or large tuft of long hair which hangs down the back, all the rest of the scalp 
being shaven. This way of wearing the hair is, I consider, the last remnant of 
the Chinese pigtail, and I firmly believe that the Kayans, Kenniahs, and 
Punans are all descended from a Chinese stock." (Hose, J.A.I, xxiii. 167.) 
Among the Kyan women a ** small ribbon of beads attached to some cloth is 



Dress in Detail. 



63 



often worn on the head to confine the hair so that it shall fall evenly over the 
shoulders.*' (ibid.) The Kyan women ** wear head-dresses in many instances, 
generally red turbans . . . allowing their hair to fall loosely down their 
backs, or else they wind it round the head-gear when it encumbers their 
movements." (Brooke ii. 224, 302.) Sir Sp. St. John (i. 103) says their hair 
is bound with white fillets. 

** Among the Dusuns the heads of the children are shaved for the first 
few years, after which the hair is allowed to grow. The young men do not 
shave their heads or cut their hair until they become fathers ; consequently 
many youths have fine heads of long black locks, which they generally tie up 
beneath their head-cloths (cigare).'' (Whitehead, p. 105.) ** The women use 
bamboo or wooden hair-combs made by their lovers or husbands, and this is 
their only toilet article." {ibid, p. 109.) See p. 59. 




Conical Hat. 

Formed ot four pieces of leaf overlapping, painted in red and black, with a band of scroll pattern 

and de^tated lx)rders. Dutch Borneo. (See p, 57.) 

(Brii. Mus.) 



64 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



Among the Tinagas Dusuns (Mamaguns) Mr. Witti noticed "the splendid 
heads of hair among the male population. Their hair is mostly three feet 
long and is worn tied up in a knot behind when at work or on the tramp, but 
when at ease it is loosened. It is a curious sight to see a number of men 
combing each other's hair and forming a chain in doing so. But their hair 
is by no means so thick as to support the theory of an improvement of the 
Dusun race by a mixture of Chinese blood." iDiary, 24 May.) Speaking 
of the same people, he says : ** No vanity whatever about the girls ; they are 
smutty-faced and toozle-headed. We yesterday passed a number of rustic 
damsels whose hair was quite carroty from neglect." (Diary, 29 Nov.) 

Sir Sp. St. John mentions that among some Ida'an he met with *' the 
young girls had the front of the head shaved, after the manner of the Chinese." 
(i. 249.) At Niasame, writing likewise of the Dusuns, Mr. Hatton says: "They 




Kayan Head-dress. Baram River. 
(Hose Coll.) 



Dress in Detail. 



65 



shave their heads like the Chinese, leaving a patch at the back and two small 
tufts at the ears." (Diary, 8 April.) 

** The Muruts on the Limbang river, like those seen near the coast, often 
wear their hair tied in a knot behind, and keep it in its place by a great pin, 
fashioned something like a spear-head both in size as well as in appearance, 
which is made, according to the means of the wearer, either of brass or of 
bamboo." (St. John ii. 90.) 

Their hair ** is often very gracefully wreathed up with a string of red or 
amber-coloured beads, sometimes with a strip of the pale yellow nipa leaf in its 
young state, and the colour contrast is then very effective.'* (Burbidge, p. 156.) 

The Sin Dyaks wore ** a head-cloth of common blue calico, fastened on 
by a plaited rattan, which was passed 
over the top of the head-cloth and under 
the chin." (Hatton, Diary, 18 Mar.) 
And the Dusuns of Toadilah wear ** a 
black piece of cloth round the head, 
kept on by a band of red rattans." 
{ibid, 31 Mar.) 

Mr. Witti met some Dusuns who had 
**sou'-wester" hats ** consisting of deer 
or bear skin, the hair outside." (Diary, 
16 Mar.) 

Describing the Saghai Dyaks on the 
S. E. coast of Borneo, Mr. Marryat 
(p. 79) says they ** are dressed in tigers* 
skins and rich cloth, with splendid head- 
dresses made out of monkeys* skins and 
the feathers of the Argus pheasant." 

Earrings. 

"The heavy metal earrings are, I 
believe, made in moulds, and many 
are beaten out with hammers : each 
tribe of the many scores in Sarawak 
wear different earrings. . . . What 
few metals the Dyaks possess of gold are 
bought from Malays and Chinese.** 
(F. R. O. Maxwell.) 

** The grunjong of the Sea Dyaks is 
worn in the rim of the ear, which is 
pierced along its entire length to receive 
the numerous rings of which it is com- 
posed, and it looks uncommonly pretty 
on the person ; but when it is discon- Sea Dyak Pair of Earrings (back and front), 
tinned for a time, as it often is, from Composed of penanular brass wires graduated 
«u«;«rv ^^ u.. •*«««^^;4... «« ;•» *^^.,...^:»^ in size and fastened to plaited cords, with loose 
choice or by necessity, as in mourning brass pendants attach^ at intervals in front. 

for instance, and the holes are plugged (Edinboro* Mut.) 




Vol. a. 



66 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



with wooden pegs" to keep them open, the cartilage looks hideously ugly and 
disfigured by slits and sores. The rings are of brass, and smallest at the top, 
gradually increasing in size until they reach the bottom. A very great many 
are worn in each ear by the young and vain — as many as twenty holes by the 




Dyak Brass Earring. 

Furnished with aiglettes. Real size. Weight, i}oz. 

(Leggatt Coll.) 

young men — while elderly men are content with fewer. The variety worn by 
the Ulu Ai and Ngkari are strung with white cowries, which are kept in 

1^ S. Muller met with plugs 2-3in. in diameter ; the women do not wear them quite so large, 
but embellish them with thin plates of gold in front, (ii. 352.) The Punans asked Mr. Bock for his 
empty cartridge cases to put through their ears. (p. 74.) 



Dress in Detail. 



67 




many 



Youngest Daughter of the Chief of Kanowit, 
(By Mr. B. U. Vigors, Illui. Lond. News, 10 Not., 1849.) 



their place by a ruby bead at either end of the line, and are heavier by 
far than the plain brass grunjongs used by the Sakarans.'' (Brooke Low.) 
His Highness also refers to the ugliness of the ears when the rings are 
taken out, and to their jagged, 
broken appearance, and the 
ulcerated sores and discoloured 
places to be then seen. A lady 
newly out from England 
thought they looked as though 
they had been gnawed by rats, 
(i. 108; ii. 210.) Madame 
Pfeiffer counted fifteen rings in 
one ear, the largest ring hung 
as low down as the shoulder, 
and was certainly three inches 
in diameter. Attached to the 
latter were a leaf, a flower, a 
small brass chain, and some 
other article, (p. 87.) The 
Land Dyaks told Sir James 
Brooke (Mundy i. 63) : " When 
you meet a Dyak with 
rings in his ears, trust 
him not, for he is a bad 
man." They were re- 
ferring to the Sarebas 
and Sakarans. 

The langgu of the 
Ulu Ai is borrowed 
from the Punan, and 
consists of a small but 
heavy coil of brass or 
copper. The Lama- 
naks wear larger but 
lighter ones of lead. 
Boys sometimes wear 
a narrow strip of scar- 
let as a pendant to the 
ear, or a wing of the 
golden green Chryso- 
chroa (? Buprestis) 
beetle. 

The tinggu is a 
pendant worn at each 
ear to droop on to the 
shoulder, and is only 
worn by over-dressed 





Ears of Natives [? Dusuns]. 

At Gunong Tabor on Panti River (E. Borneo), 

(After Mr. F. S. Marrymt.) 





GuTTA Ear Plugs. 

Worn in the lobe. J real size. 
From Long Wai. 

(Brit. Mus.) 



Udang, Kyan Ear 
Ornaments 

(of canines), with 
gutta knobs. 

(Hose Coll.) 



Brazen Dragon Ear- 
drop (?) Udok aso. 

Worn by Long Gelat 

Chieftain. 

(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Ulu Ayer and 

Sarebas Brass 

Earring Pendants. 

(CroMland Coll.) 




Sea Dyak 
Ear Ornament (?) 

(Brooke Low Coll.) 






Udang beta. 

(hornbill imita- 
tion.) Worn in 
ear by Kayan 
chief. 

(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Ear Ornament (?) 
(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Kayan Ear Rim Pegs (Teeth). 
From Fort Kapit, Rejang River 
(Brit. Mus.) 






Ear Ornament. 
(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Ear Pendant, 
(Brooke Low CoU.) 



Ear-lobe Plug. 

3 Jin. diam. 
Bejaju, S.E. 

Borneo. 
(Leiden Mus.) 




Ear Peg (?) 
(Brooke Low CoU.) 



Dr^s in Detail. 



69 



dandies. It is decidedly ornamental, being made of thin crescent-shaped 
plates of brass stamped and fringed with metal. (See p. 66.) These ear-rings, 
especially the heavy shell ones, oblige a man to lie flat on his back when he 
is going to sleep, it being painful to rest on the sides of the face. 

The Sibuyaus wear ** ear-rings apparently of a kind of mixed metal, and 
of very large size ; but by no means a becoming ornament, being so dispro- 
portionate to their small and symmetrical figures." (Mundy ii. 115.) 

Mr. De Windt speaks of a Kanowit (?), who, in addition to a dozen small 
rings in the lobe of the ear, had a pair of wild boar's tusks thrust through point 
outwards, (p. 69.) Sir Sp. St. John (i. 100) says: **They are tiger-cat's 
teeth, stuck through like a pair of turn-down horns." He also says the 
Kanowits ** draw down the lobes of their ears to their shoulders by means of 
heavy lead ear-rings." (i. 39.) ** The Kayans' ears are similarly pierced and 
an animal's tooth pushed through." (Brooke ii. 224.) " Kayans and others 
wear tiger-cat teeth in the tips of their ears. The points of Dians (a native of 
the Rejang river) I observed turned upwards, which is not usual, and he said 
it was an old custom revived by a chief named Hang. The Uma Lesongs wear 
two such teeth in each ear, the upper one pointing upwards, the lower one 
downwards ; those who are unable to procure the genuine article wear imitation 
ones carved out of horn or bone." (Brooke Low.) 

** In the ears of the Kayan women there are heavy brass or leaden orna- 
ments attached, and the aperture occasioned by these weights is often large 

enough for a man's hand to be passed through Those who marry 

Malays cut their ears off short and join the ends, and after a time very little 

mark is observed They have rings of ivory and beaded rings in 

their ears, and a tiger's tooth through each lobe. Hung to the women's ears 
are ponderous bits of lead or brass." (Brooke ii. 224, 225, 302.) 






Krebu, Bakong Women's Ear 
Ornaments. 

Silver, washed to represent 

gold. Diam.. ijin.; weight. 

Joz. The screw a real thread 

of metal and left handcKl. 

(Peek Coll.) 



fl 




1 



Krebu Malanau Ear Ornament. 

Silver washed to represent gold. 
Diam., lin. 
(Peek CoU.) 



** None of the Kayans or Kenniah races wear nose or lip ornaments. They 
pierce holes in the ears of their children when the latter are from two to three 
years of age. From these holes — in the case of a girl — they hang heavy weights, 
adding to them yearly, till the opening in the elongated ear-lobe is sufficiently 



70 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

large to allow of the girl inserting through it her own head ; in the case of some 
women I have seen as much as two pounds weight depending from the lobe of 
each ear. The men wear light ear-rings, and the lobes of their ears usually 
hang down about 2 inches."*" (Hose, J. A. I. xxiii. 167.) 

" The women of this and other tribes wear in their ears ornaments of 
gold or silver, which are of such an extent of surface as entirely to conceal 
that organ : like the bracelets, the pattern is stamped upon them from the 
back, and the thin plate is soldered to a small tube which passes through the 
hole pierced in the ear, and is fastened by a nut in the manner of the more 
elegant ear-ornaments of the Malayan women." (Low, p. 181.) ** Among 
the Rejang Dyaks this article is called tusok pcHdieng.'' (Brooke Low.) 

** The poor little infants* faces are horribly distorted by the discomfort 
and weight of these masses of metal, which they are obliged to wear at the 
earliest age." (Mrs. McDougall, p. 155.) Mr. Crossland once gave some 
buttons to some Undup girls : ** The buttons excited universal admiration, 
and were eagerly sought for as earrings. I tell you I can put my little finger 
into the hole without giving pain. The way they do it is : first they make a 
small hole, which they gradually enlarge by plugs of wood increased in size — 
the buttons they fasten by putting a piece of wood into the shank. The 
small buttons really look pretty, the contrast being good — the raven-black 
hair, copper-coloured skin, the rich gold of the button. The gold earrings of 
the country are of filagree work, the gold being tinged a dull red, which 
would lead those who did not know to suppose they were not really gold. I 
have a ring of pure gold from the upper country, which makes my English 
gold look like silver." (Miss. Life, 1864, p. 651.) 

** Many of the Adang Murut men and women wear round flat pieces of 
metal or of wood in the holes of their ears instead of earrings, while others 
have heavy pieces of lead, dragging the ear down to the shoulder, like the 
Kanowit tribe, I suppose to enlarge the holes to the proper proportions." 
(St. John ii. 115.) 

"The Muruts also wear many rings of lead up the rim of the ear." 
{ibidy i. 29, ii. 124.) 

IS «• A child's ears are perforated when it is only six months old, and from that day the hole is 
forcibly increased in size, till the lobe of the ear forms a loop from one to four inches or more long. 
At first wooden pegs are placed in the hole, these are afterwards replaced by a couple of tin or brass 
rings." Those who are poor use a rolled up leaf instead. " Gradually the weight is increased by the 
addition of other larger rings, till the lobe of the ear often gives way under the strain and splits. I 
have counted as many as sixteen rings in a single ear, each of them the size of a dollar. The rings 
are generaUy made of tin," they can be removed and replaced at leisure ; the slit of the ring is made 
to hang lowermost. " Among the Tring and Long Wai Dyaks, they average 30Z., 330 grains troy. 
Sometimes discs of wood, often coloured or otherwise ornamented, and varying from one to one and 
a half inches in diameter, are inserted into the openings." The helix of the ear is also pierced or slit 
in several places, and pieces of red or blue ribbon or cord are tied, or buttons, pieces of wood, and 
feathers inserted. The elongation of the lobe of the ear attains its greatest development among the 
Tring Dyaks. A Tring woman, from accurate measurements taken by me, had a total length of ear, 

71 inches ; with length of the gash in the lobe. 475 inches ; and with the distance between the level 
of the chin and the bottom of the ear, 285 inches." The men do not carry the fashion to such 
extremes as do the women. Besides this central slit in the lobe of the ear, the Tring women pierce 
one, two, or three additional holes in the loop of flesh on either side. (Bock, p 186.) 



Dress in Detail. 71 

" Among the Niasame Dusuns earrings are not at all popular." (Hatton's 
Diary, 18 April.) 

** The Mount Dulit Dusuns have earrings which dangle one below 
another, all three of brass wire coiled into a spiral. The lowermost is fixed 
into the ear lobe, and is 2^ inches in diameter ; the two smaller ones are fixed 
into the margin of the ear. ... A profusion of brass wire attached to 
the ear shell we found customary with the Dyak tribes on the left side of the 
Pagalan River. There it seems to be an ornament proper, and not a piece of 
armour as I understand it. At Salimbitan elderly females wear enormous 
earrings of brass, which purposely they never polish, the verdigris being 
considered to add to the ornament, at the same time they carry little children 
about who play with these poison coated trinkets. . . . The women on 
the Upper Kimanis wear a plug stuck through the ear lobe coloured red, 
black, and yellow, and which has the shape of an acorn.'* (Witti's Diary, 
16 March.)^' 

Necklets, Armlets, and Leglets. 

In the early portion of this chapter in the full descriptions of the dresses 
of the natives frequent reference was made to their necklaces, armlets, &c., 
and to the varieties of beads which found favour in the different districts. 

** The Sikong women seem to prefer wearing more white beads mixed 
with black in their necklaces, Tringus showing a strong partiality for red and 
black." (Denison, ch. v. p. 52.) ** The Si Panjangs wear chains of black and 
red beads (I saw a few of blue" colour) round the neck like the Gunibang and 
Tringus women, differing herein from the Sikongs and Si Baddats who affect 
black and white beads." {ibidy ch. v. 56.) ** Among the Simpoke and Serin 
women silver chains round the neck were far from uncommon, these latter 
being also affected by the men." (ibid, ch. vii. 76.) ** The Serin women also 
wear broad shell armlets." {ibidy ch. vii. p. 78.) **The Upper Sarawak 
women wear a white porcelain ring as an ornament on the upper part of the 
arm." (Houghton, M.A.S. iii. 198.) ** For ornaments, they wear bracelets 
of the red wood of the heart of the Tapang tree, which, after exposure to the 
air, becomes black as ebony, and being without its brittle qualities, is more 
durable ; and broad armlets, which are made of the shell (Kima) from the 
coast of Celebes, and which, when polished by length of use among the 

1' Mr. Bock thus describes the method followed by a native in making tin earrings : Taking a 
long, straight piece of bamboo, the hollow of which was the same diameter as it was intended that 
the earrings should be, he fixed on the top of it the half of a cocoa-nut shell, with a hole bored 
through, in which the upper end of the cane was inserted, the whole forming a tube, with a cup at 
the top. Wrapping the tube in a cloth, he melted the tin in a small ladle, and poured it into the 
cocoa-nut cup. till the tube was filled. When the tin was cool, he opened the bamboo tube, and 
took out a long, straight, round rod of tin ; which he then bent round a thick, but smooth, piece of 
wood, forming a ring, with the ends not quite meeting. (Bock, p. 67.) 

^* "The women adorn their heads and necks with little blue and white beads, the manufacture 
of Great Britain and China, which are eagerly sought after for the purpose." (Earl, p. 262.) Both 
sexes appear to place high value on their necklaces, which generally consist of cornelians 2 and 3 
inches long, mixed with small balls of gold hollowed out like our bells. The greater part of these 
cornelians found among the Dyaks would probably have been brought to them in bygone times by 
Arab merchants who then carried on trade with Borneo. (S. Miiller ii. p. 354.) See illustration on 
p. 72. 



72 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



Dyaks, resembles ivory, but never acquires its yellow tinge, always remaining 
of the purest white colour." ** (Low, p. 240.) 




VMIITE 



Sba Dyak Coloured Bead Necklace. 

Worn by men and women. The beadwork covers a piece of wrapped rope 

about fin. in diam. 

(Leggatt Coll.) 

^* The Bukkit men, as well as women, wore round the arms and neck strings of a kind of bead 
made of a small marine shell (sp. of Nassa^j, from which they cut the whorl away, leaving only the 
part round the mouth ; the columellar lip is much expanded in these shells. The traders from Passir 
and Tanah Boemboe get these shells from the coast, and exchange them for gold dust and wax. 
Nowhere else in Borneo have I noticed these Nassa ornaments, though occasionally in other parts I 
have seen a Helix Brookei worn as an ornament, or to form the tops or lids of the arrow cases. 
(Bock, p. 244.) 



Dress in Detail. 



73 



At Sambun village the Rev; Mr. Chalmers ** noticed some teeth necklaces. 
They consist of two or three rows of beads, next a row of small shells, and 
then a row of pigs' or bears' tusks fixed in a circular frame. Bears' tusks are 
valued here at at least two rupees per tusk, so that when there are from thirty 
to forty in one necklace, they form a rather expensive ornament."" (Miss. 
Field, 1859, P* ^34*) ^^^ H* Keppel met a Singie who ** was ornamented with 
a necklace of bears' teeth ; and several had such a profusion of small white 
beads about their necks as to resemble the voluminous folds of the old-fashioned 
cravat." (i. 147.) 

Mr. Grant speaks of a similar 
** necklace, to which is attri- 
buted a charm ; it is composed 
of bears' tusks and teeth, the 





Thin brass rolled into 

shape of a long bead 

by Malaus. 

(Crossland Coll.) 

points stuck outwards, and the 
intervals between their roots 
filled up with large blue beads 
of unknown origin and manu- 




Undup Bead Necklace 
Tassel Ends. 

Made of bits of red and 

yellow European cloths. 

(Cropland CoU.) 

facture ; the circle to which 

these are attached is of rattan, 

covered with red cloth. . . . 

These necklaces give a wild and 

imposing appearance to the 

wearer, but poor men do not 

often boast the possession of them. Bears are not very numerous, and each 

tooth costs somewhere about is. 6d. to 2S. sterling, or its equivalent in rice or 

paddy." (p. 43.) 

'« •' At Sabutut several of the men wore a necklace of tigers' teeth, fastened by their roots to a 
brass wire, in such a manner that the sharp points stand outward, and present a formidable defence 
for the breast. Beads and cowrie shells are inlaid among the teeth in a neat manner." (Doty, p. 298 ) 



Reed Necklace. 
On European thread ; the ends joined by piece of lead wire. 
(Leggati CoU.) 




Armlets. 
(Brooke Low Coll.) 




Simpai Dyak Man's Bracelet. 
Of hard black wood. Inside diam., 3jin. ; weight. 6^02. 
(Peek Coll.) 




Kadayan Bracelet. 

2|in. diam. ; weight, ifoz. Copper, with three silver 

wires running round. (Joint shown in illustration). 

Baram River. 

(Peek Coll.) 



Gelang. 

(The second and fourth ring appear to be made 
of European prepared metal). Baram River. 

(Peek Coll.) 




KE 



Hawk's Bell on Kayan Necklace. 
(Peek Coll.) 



Simpai Dyak Boy's Bracelet. 

Tinfoil inlaid, dark wood (like that of a palm). Internal 
diam.. z^in. ; weight, i^z. 

(Peek Coll.) 




Shell Armlet. 

Dammar seam, inlaid with cowries. 

(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Porcelain Armlet. 
((Canterbury Mus.) 



Knee Ring. 
(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Dress in Detail. 75 

The following is a list of Sea Dyak ornaments for neck, arm, and leg 
wear drawn up by Mr. Brooke Low : 

** A simpai Ungan is an armlet, or as it is literally translated, a loop for 
the arm. It is worn above the elbow-joint and is often of dark wood or 
carved ivory, but the kind most generally in use is formed from the base 
of the cone of the Kima shell (Conus Guratensis), and is grooved on its upper 
surface. The cavity is filled up with resinous substance, and studded with 
the scarlet seed of the Michelia or with a few Nassar shells. It is a most 
becoming ornament, but extremely expensive — a pair of the largest and best 
costing £6. Occasionally two are worn on each arm, but this is considered 
bad taste and is discouraged. 

" Rangki are the same as shell armlets already described under the name 
of simpai lengan, and are worn by the women. They are only worn upon 
especial occasions, and form part of the full dress of a woman of fashion. As 
they are far smaller in size, and not so well finished, they are less costly than 
those worn by the men. Some eight or nine, however, are worn upon each 
arm, the more the better in their opinion. 

** The iumpa or bracelets worn alike by men and women are of three 
descriptions, and are called tumpa gelang^ tumpa baUy and iumpa unas respec- 
tively. The first are of brass, the second of ivory, and the last of plaited fibre. 
The two first consist of some sixty close-fitting rings commencing at the 
wrist and reaching half way up the arm ; a few in the former are made to 
hang loose on the back of the hand and being engraved are styled tengkelai. 

**The tumpa bala, or tumpa godieng as they are also called, have been 
adopted by the Sea Dyaks within the last few years from the Tetaks and 
Segaus ; they are now made in china and gold in Bornean bazaars. 

[The Sarebas and Sakaran women have their arms "adorned with 
bracelets of silver very neatly made, being formed of thin plates of a broad 
and convex shape, so that they stand out from the arm ; they have the 
patterns stamped upon them from the inside, and wear them from the wrist 
up to the elbow, eight or nine in number ; they do not, like the women of 
some other tribes, wear brass wire above the elbow -joint." (Low, p. 181.) The 
Undups have silver " bracelets, reaching from the wrist to the elbow, nine in 
number, cost about eight dollars, nearly two pounds. I weighed a set the 
other day, and found there was three-and-a-half dollars' worth of silver. 
Those who cannot afford to buy silver, buy brass rings, fifty in number, for 
each arm, and some sixty ; these cost nearly six dollars.'* (Crossland, Miss. 
Life, 1865, p. 655.) ] 

" The tumpa unus are only worn by young people too poor to afford any 
other kind ; they are merely rings of plaited gomuti palm fibre worn in heavy 
masses on the wrist. 

[Sir Hugh Low considered the arm, leg, and necklets, made of the gomuti 
palm fibre with its deep black and neat appearance, more pleasing to the 
European eye than the brass or bead articles, (p. 41.) ] 

**Kongkong rekong signifies 'collar for the throat.' Necklaces of European 
beads are worn by the young of both sexes; the ends are furnished with tassels 
of minute beads or bats' fangs* They are worn loose round the throat, and 



76 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

button in front, the tassels resting on the chest. Lamanak lads are fond of a 
large gold button as well as the tassel, but this is not universal even among 
their own tribe. Frequently several necklaces are worn, especially by the 
women. These necklaces of beads seem to have superseded the more savage 
necklaces of human teeth, etc., which were the fashion a generation ago, and 
is one proof of the civilising influence of the European government. 

[Madame Pfeiffer (p. 87), Lieut. Marryat (p. 15), and Sir H. Keppel 
(i. 147) mention necklaces of human teeth.] 

" The tinchian tunjok are the rings worn on the fingers by both sexes. 
They are commonly made of brass, variously but rudely engraved and are not 
soldered at the ends ; other metals also are used but less frequently, such as 
copper, lead, tin. Gold and silver rings are procured from the Malays and 
used only by the tribes living in close proximity to them. Shell rings are less 
uncommon. 

'* The ngkrimoks are hoops of cane worn immediately below the knee-joint, 
and covered with an infinity of diminutive brass rings. The hoops, some eight 
or ten in number, are strung together with coloured rattan, to preserve a com- 
pact and regular appearance. The ngkrimoks are worn almost exclusively by 
tribes of Sakarang and Lamanak origin ; the Ulu Ais and Ngkaris use the unus 
instead, and this consists of innumerable rings of plaited fibre, worn in heavy 
masses, as many as 300 at a time upon each leg. The palm from which the 
fibre leg rings are made, is called apieng by the Dyaks and limak by the Kyans. 
" The selong are dense coils of thick brass wire, many fathoms in length, 
and of enormous weight, worn on the leg from the ankle joint to the thigh ; 
they are not worn every day, as may readily be conceived. 

** Bunches of sweet smelling leaves are often stuck in the armlets." 
(Brooke Low.) 

" The Kyans have no knowledge of the manufacture of glass or beads — a 
description of ornament of which both the Kayan men and women are ver)' fond ; 
some of the beads in their possession are very old and greatly prized by the 
owners, being valued by them from 60 to 100 dols., and the most valuable of 
which are known as Lukut Sekala. Their armlets are usually of ivory, bought 
from the Chinese and other traders, and the women may sometimes be seen 
with as many as thirty bangles of ivory rings on each forearm." (Hose, 
J.A.L xxiii. 166.) 

Sir Sp. St. John, when among the Muruts, writes : '* The girls twist about 
a couple of fathoms of brass wire in circles round their neck, rising from 
the shoulders to the chin, forming what appears a stiff collar with a very broad 
base ; it is, however, no doubt more pliant than it appears. . . . Heavy neck- 
laces of beads are worn by the men as well as by the women." (ii. 119, 129.) 

" The Dusuns at Toadilah all wear brass collars, bracelets, and anklets" 
(Hatton Diary, 31 Mar.) ; and Mr. Witti describes some other Dusuns (?) of 
whom " the men wear on a rattan string round their neck a short knife, the 
handle of which is invariably a boar's tusk. It looks quite a pretty addition 
to their scanty wearing apparel." (Diary, Nov. 22.) ** The Tinagas Dusun 
men and women alike wear the neck spiral, and the former also a closely 
fitting spiral around the biceps." (ibid, Diary, 24 May.) 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
FASHIONABLE DEFORMITIES. 

Tbbth : Filing to point — Concave filing— Flatten horizontally— Black stain — Not the efifect of betel- 
Dogs and Europeans have white teeth— Toothache — Filed down short— Black resinous juice — 
Protection to teeth— Brass studs — Incisors removed for sumpit^Filed to point— Brass wire — 
Stained black -Ground down— Caries -Brass plates hooked on — Brass plates rivetted on. 

Heads : The Milanau head flattening— Sign of beauty — Description of instrument— Tender solicitude 
of mothers— Twelve months' cure — Instrument used during sleep— Three months' cure — Female 
children only- Result on skull — Occasional deaths— Child lies on its back— Size and weight of 
instrument— Chinese coin — A Vrolik Museum skull. 

Circumcision. Kayan Mutilation. Cicatricbs. Ear Lobes. Depilation. 

Teeth. 

" The invariable Lundu custom of filing the teeth sharp, combined with 
the use of the betel-nut turning them quite black, gives the profile of the 
Lundu a very strange appearance. Sometimes they render their teeth 
concave by filing." (Marryat, p. 79.) 

" Most of the people coloured their teeth black by means of the juice 
from a climbing plant. The Balaus and Undups occasionally file their teeth 
horizontally, while the Balaus, Undups, and Skarangs file them to points. 
Until files were introduced the filing was done with a stone, or with wood, 
water, and sand. The Undups, Skarangs, and Saribus drilled holes in their 
teeth by means of a piece of steel rubbed between the hands." (Crossland.) 

Speaking of the betel chewing, Mr. Treacher says : — ** It tinges the saliva 
and the lips bright red, but, contrary to a very commonly received opinion, 
has no effect of making the teeth black. This blackening of the teeth is 
produced by rubbing in burnt cocoanut shell, pounded up with oil, the dental 
enamel being sometimes first filed off. Toothache and decayed teeth are 
almost unknown amongst the natives, but whether this is in some measure 
due to the chewing of the areca-nut I am unable to say." (Jour. Straits Asiatic 
Soc., No. 20, p. 58.) 

** Like many other races, the Land Dyaks file their teeth into points, and 
flatten them horizontally by the same means, and they also stain them black, 
for ' dogs have whiie teeth,' they say." (Grant, p. 97.) 

A writer in thv'j S. G., No. 102, says, white teeth are unpopular with 
them owing to dogs and other animals possessing that colour of teeth. 

** So among the Dusun the teeth are filed down short and blackened ; 
this does much, in a European's idea, to spoil the good looks of these people, 
but they equally abject to the long white teeth of Europeans." (Whitehead, 
p. 106.) 



78 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



Uii 




Teeth in a Borneo 
Skull. 



(Mus. Rot. College of Sur 

5 eons, obtained from the 
anthropological Institute.) 




The Rev. F, W. Leggatt informs me ** the teeth are often blackened for 
prevention of decay ; or for beauty. The blackening is done by taking a 
piece of old cocoanut shell or certain woods, which are 
held over a hot fire until a black resinous juice exudes. 
This is collected, and while still warm the teeth are 
coated with it. In the case of decayed teeth this resin 
dries as a coat of enamel or varnish, covering the nerve 
and thus protecting it. Teeth are also frequently filed 
like the teeth of a saw, and blackened, after which brass 
wire is cut into short lengths and driven in as studs into 
holes previously drilled in the teeth. Or the stud ornament may be 
adopted without filing the teeth. Another mode of treating the teeth of the 
upper gum is to file them off almost level with the gum. It is very rare to 
see a Dyak with a good set of teeth." Mr. de Windt (p. 86) and Mr. Hose 
(J. A. I. xxiii. 167) give similar reports. 

Of the Dulit Dusuns, Mr. Witti writes (Diary, i6th 
March) : ** They do not file their teeth, but break the 
upper incisors to gain a stronger blast at the sumpitan, 
or blow-pipe.^" 

Among the Rejang Dyaks : ** The upper incisors of 
both sexes are often filed into a single sharp point; a 
hole is bored through the centre of each and filled with 
brass. The enamel is scraped off with a rough stone, 
and the teeth are rubbed with leaves which stain them 

black. Thelowerincisorsareground down to half their ^r each tooth. Thi. notch i. seen 
natural size and blackened in the same fashion, but are fi"«^ with betel on au indson 

and the lower canines. 

neither pointed nor studded with metal. Caries is (No. 183. Barnard Davu coii. 

rare, and the natives seldom suffer from tooth-ache. "*' ^^' ** ***° urgeons. 

The teeth are naturally beautifully white and regular, but it is the fashion to 
disfigure them in this manner as they approach the ages 
of puberty — boys do it when they begin to care to please 
the women. They dislike white teeth and consider 
them hideous. I once saw a Sakarang wearing over his 
natural teeth a thin brass plate {lios) cut to resemble a 
row of pointed teeth ; this was worn over the upper 
incisors and hooked into the molars. I believe the boy 
picked up the notion from the Mentuaris or Malohs 
(Malaus), but I do not imagine it is common with his 
tribe, as I never saw another with it either before or 
after." (Brooke Low.) 

At Lake Padang Mr. Hornaday '* took advantage of 
their good humour to ask them about the little metallic 

1 " This singular practice we have since met with among all tribes along the shores of the 
Pagalan, excepting the Dyaks of Dalit proper. It reminds me of the frontal fitting of the teeth in 
use among the Malayans around our coasts, and also among the Dusuns who chew beetle and sireh. 
In each case the peculiarity applies to both sexes. With Dusuns it is a bad joke to ask a * fading ' 
woman how often she has had her teeth filed, the operation being performed about once every ten 
years." (Witi ibtd.) 



Tbbth in Borneo Skull. 
" A fine groove has been carved 




Tbeth in a Skull from 

Banjbrmassing, 
showing small brass pegs 
with rounded heads let into 
the two outer ones; the 
centre tooth shows hole only 
drilled to the pulp cavity. 
(No. 270, B. Davis Coll. Mus. 
Roy. College of Surgeons). 



Fashionable Deformities. 



79 




plates on some of their front teeth, which looked like gold. I found that 
each upper incisor and canine tooth was capped by a smooth plate of copper, 
held in place by a pin driven into a hole in the tooth. The Dyaks showed 
me how the hole is drilled (with a bow), and one imitated the agony they 

endure during the 
operation. He was 
a good actor, and his 
facial and bodily 
contortions and 
writhings excited 
roars of laughter.'* 
From the Baram 
river Mr. C. Hose 
writes : ** The teeth 
are filed by nearly 
all the races of 
Borneo at any age, 
brass wire is inserted." 








Dyak Tbbth filed concavely. 
(Afker Lieut. F. S. Marryat.) 



Dyak Teeth filed to a point. 
(After Lieut. F. S. Marryat.) 



and in many cases drilled with holes in which 
(J. A. I. xxiii. 167.) 

The Rev. W. Crossland informs me ''that some of the Undups obtained 
a piece of brass plate, which they filed out to look like teeth, inserting it 
over their teeth in order to look fierce, but the custom is not by any means 
universal." 

Head Flattening. 

Mr. Crocker 
found in one tribe 
only that the 
parents flattened 
the heads of their 
children, and he be- 
lieves this practice 
is confined entirely 
to the Milanaus. 
He says : ** It is 
considered a sign of 
beauty to have a 
flat forehead, and 
although chiefly 
practised on female 




MiLANAd Female Infant Head Dbformer ; 

the horizontal piece in the centre is the pad which presses on the child's 

head. 
(Brooke Low Coll.) 



children, boys are occasionally treated in the same manner. When a child is 
a few days old, an instrument is applied to the forehead, a small cushion being 
placed underneath, and under that again some green banana leaves. By an 
ingenious arrangement of strings equal pressure is brought to bear on the fore- 
head, and the final tightening is done in front by a contrivance which has the 
same effect as a torniquet. I have often watched the tender solicitude of the 
mother who has eased and tightened the instrument twenty times in an hour, 
as the child showed signs of suffering. The chief object is to get the child to 



8o 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



sleep with the proper amount of pressure on the instrument. Before the 
child is twelve months old the desired effect is generally produced, and is not 
altogether displeasing, as it is not done to the extent of disfigurement, 
which I believe to be the case amongst some of the American Indians.*' 
(J.A.I. XV. 425.) 

In forwarding me a specimen of a head flattening instrument, Mr. Chas. 
Hose writes : " The Tadal, as it is called by the Bintulu Malanaus, is only 
placed on the child's head during the time that it is asleep — the moment the 
child wakes it is taken off. Its use is first commenced when the infant is 
fifteen days old, and is continued until the third or fourth month. In the 
early stages only very slight pressure is applied, but gradually it becomes 
more and more severe. Only female children have their heads flattened in 
this way. If too much pressure is used in consequence of the frontal and 
occipital bones being approximated the parietals are prevented from joining, 
and the soft hole-like depression with which every child is born remains in the 
adult. If the child is not well looked after the board often injures the nose, 
and occasionally deaths are caused by the use of these Tadals, but not often. 
The cushion is placed on the child's forehead, and the bands being placed 
over the top and round the back of the head, the strings which hold the 
bands in position can thus be adjusted without disturbing the child lying on 
its back." The instrument Mr. Hose has forwarded is I2in. long and weighs 
9 J ozs., a weight of itself sufficient to cause compression on the soft bones of 
a child. ** The Malanaus consider flat faces more beautiful than others." It 
is curious that in the instrument sent me by Mr. Hose, as well as in the one 
in the Brooke Low Coll. and in the Dresden Museum, a Chinese coin should 
be used as a torniquet. 

Dr. A. B. Meyer suggests that a 
very symmetrical skull in the Vrolik 
Museum, Amsterdam, from Banjer, 
may be artificially deformed. 

Circumcision. 
Circumcision is practised, but it is 
not universal or obligatory. (Brooke 
Low.) • 

Kayan Mutilation. 

Particulars of the Kayan sexual muti- 
lations have been deposited in the 
British Museum. 

Cicatrices. 

The Sea Dyaks do not make any use 

of raised cicatrices to ornament the 

body, but they are proud of scars 

nevertheless, and especially if they 

are regular and symmetrical. They 

_ ,, are particularly proud of their vac- 

Aktificially-Deformbd Skull OF Malanau. . ^ 1 t . 1 1 . n 

(Dresden Museum). cinatiou marks if they show out well, 




Fashionable Deformities. 8i 

and are equidistant apart. The women often prove the courage and 
endurance of the youngsters by placing a lighted ball of tinder on the arm, 
and letting it burn into the skin. The marks thus produced run along the 
forearm from the waist in a straight line, and are much valued by the young 
men as so many proofs of their power of endurance. (Brooke Low.) 

Ear Lobe Extension. 

The extension of the ear lobes is treated of in the chapter relating to 
dress in the part devoted to earrings. 

Depilation. 

"The prejudice in favour of a smooth face is so strong that in the whole 

course of my experience I have never met with a single bearded or moustached 

Sea-Dyak, although it cannot but be manifest to a close observer that were 

they only so disposed they could produce a thicker crop than the Malay. 

This is evident especially in the case of old men and chronic invalids who by 

reason of age or infirmity have ceased to care much about their personal 

appearance and whose chins are rough in consequence with a bristly growth. 

The universal absence of hair upon the face, on the chest, and under the 

armpits would lead the superficial observer to infer that this is owing entirely 

to a natural deficiency, whereas it is due in great measure to systematic 

depilation. Chunam, or quick lime, is frequently rubbed into the skin so as 

to destroy the vitality of the follicles. The looking glass and tweezers are 

never out of the hands of the natives, and they devote every spare moment to 

the conscientious plucking out of stray 

hairs. It is likewise the fashion for 

both sexes to shave the eyebrows and ^_^^^^ 

pluck out the eyelashes. The growth ^^ 

., u • u i.1. • r*. Silver Nippers. 

upon the pubes m both sexes is often ^ , ., ,. r -^u «• r> r>- 

^ , ^ ^ - _ For demlation. Length, 2jin. Baram River, 

copious enough — some few Loweas ^p^^ ^u ^ 

object to even this, and either crop it 

close or remove it altogether. Female Sea Dyaks eradicate the hair off the 

pubes. I know a Malali at Kanowit who is bearded from ear to ear, and 

when he shaves which is every now and then, his chin and cheeks are quite 

blue ; he was a Mentuari of unmixed blood." (Brooke Low.) 

Mr. Leggatt tells me some old Sea Dyak men shave their heads. He 

knows *' one Dyak who wears a remarkably thick beard. But the hair of 

his head is also peculiar, being in thick wavy ringlets. I have never met 

with a native with woolly hair or anything resembling negro hair.*' Sir 

Chas. Brooke speaks of the ** abominable practice of plucking or shaving 

eyelashes which often brings ophthalmia and weakness of eyes " (ii. 171) ; 

and of the Kayans he says : '* their eyebrows are shaved with the lash plucked 

out which gives them a staring look devoid of expression.*' (ii. 224.) ** Both 

men and women of the Kayan and Kenniah races at the age of fifteen pluck 

out their eyebrows and eyelashes," (Hose, J.A.L xxiii. 167.) '* Among the 

Dusuns hair is seldom allowed to grow on the face, most men being provided 

with a small pair of tweezers, with which they jerk out all stray specimens, 

G Vol. 2. 




82 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



the importation of small looking-glasses by ourselves giving a fresh impetus 
to these hair-jerkers. One old man here had a long grey beard and was the 
only bearded Dusun I ever saw." (Whitehead, p. 105.) Mr. Von. Donop 
writes : ** I notice the Dusun men very seldom have any hair on their face. 
Mr. Witti tells me they are very proud of it if they have any." * (Diary, 
28 May.) 

^ " I never saw a nearer approach to a beard among the men than a few scattered hairs over 
the chin and upper lip." (Earl, p. 258.) 




Trophy. Dyak and Kayan Weapons. 
(By Mr. B. N. Vigors, Illus. Lond. News, lo Nov., 1849.) 



CHAPTER XIX. 
PAINTING AND TATUING. 

Painting : Feet and fingers — Women. Tatuing : Undups' needles and method — A new fashion 
with Sea-Dyaks — Poor art — Blocks — Needles — Inflammation — Payment — Beautiful work — 
Elaborateness — Kayan patterns — Great variety — Method of tatu-ing — Chiefs Women's thighs — 
Arms — Kayan fondness of tatu-ing — A sign of valour — Kenniah women — Curious Kanowit marks 
— Intricate patterns — Kalabits — Bakatans — Imitation beards — Malanaus — Punans — Their 
method — Dusun patterns — Sign of prowess — Sign of murder — Muruts — Sign of bravery — Sign 
of cowardice— Strange objection to copying — Mittens — Dutch Borneo patterns. 

Madame Pfeiffer says the Dyaks ** do not tatu, but occasionally colour the 
feet, nails and finger-tips a red brown." (p. 79.) 

Among the Sea Dyaks **the men never paint their bodies, but the 
women after bathing often colour themselves from the waist upwards with 
turmeric to render themselves yellow and attractive. The result is far from 
agreeable to the eye of an European, but for this they care little so long as 
their efforts to please are appreciated by the men of their own race, which 
appears to be the case.'* (Brooke Low.) **The Undups, who are only 
slightly, if at all tatued, use three needles stuck in a piece of soft wood, the 
needles being bound round together with fine cotton at a fixed distance 
from the points so as to prevent them striking too deep. A small native 
hammer is used to strike the wood with. The outline of the pattern is 
marked out with clay and gunpowder is used to make the design permanent." 
(Crossland.) 

*' Tatuing prevails to a small extent among the Sea-Dyaks, but it is by 
no means universal among them. It is besides a custom of very recent 
introduction but is steadily gaining ground, though as yet it is confined to the 
male sex. I have seen a few women with small patterns on their breasts, but 
they were exceptions to the rule and were not regarded with favour. The 
marks or patterns are found more commonly on the arms, shoulders, and 
thighs ; occasionally also on the forehead, throat-apple, chest, and ulna. 
The patterns are small, of a bright blue tint, and supposed to improve the 
appearance of the men. They have no other use or signification whatever, 
being neither distinctive of race, family, rank, nor of individual. The 
pigment employed is a solution of soot (dammar-soot), which is rubbed into 
the skin after it has been punctured. Tatuing has not yet acquired the 
dignity of a profession. Few Dyaks are really able to puncture with skill, 
although many of them can trace designs ; but as their own designs are poor 
imperfect imitations of the Kayans, they disfigure the skin rather than adorn 
it. They say they are able to eradicate the pattern by puncturing it over 



84 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



again with the acrid sap of a forest tree. The designs employed are not 
numerous, although four are in common use. The practice is simple, but 
requires practice like most things. The design is first carved on wood in 




Kayan Tatu Prickbr (3 points). 
(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Brass Tatu Needles. 

The lower one has the point tied 
round with thread to regulate the 
depth of penetration. S.E. Borneo. 
(Leiden Mus.) 




Kyan Woman's Tatu Case, Bunga nulang. 
(Brooke Low Coll ) 



Tatu Powder Dish of Bamru. 

J real size. S.E. Borneo. 

(Leiden Mus.) 



Tatu Mallet. S.E. Borneo. 
(Leiden Mus.) 




Tatu Soot Holder. S.E. Borneo. 
(Leiden Mus.) 

relievo ; it is then smeared with the sooty preparation and printed on the 
skin. The figure is then punctured in outline with a set of needles dipped in 
the ink (for such it is), and afterwards filled up in detail. More ink is poured 
on to the skin and allowed to dry into it. Rice is smeared over the inflamed 
surface to keep it cool ; if this is not done, it is apt to gather and fester. 
The limb operated upon must be kept free from wet, and must not be 
scratched however much it may itch. The operator of course requires to be 
remunerated, but as he is not a professional he is Satisfied with a moderate 
guerdon. Among the Lugats there was a certain Aman Jerin who was 
partially but beautifully tatooed in patterns of a bright blue tint." (Brooke 
Low.) 

**The Kanowit, Bakatan, Lugat, Tanyong, Tatau, Balinian are all more 
or less tatooed, both male and female. . . . The Bakatan and Lugat are 
most elaborately tatooed from head to foot." (Burns, Jour. Ind. Arch. iii. 
p. 141.) 

** The Kyan men and some of the women," according to Bishop 
McDougall, '* are tattooed in the most complicated and grotesque patterns. 




Tatu Block. 

Used by Kenniah men. } real size 

(Hose Coll.) 



Tatu Block. 

Used by Berawan men« ^ real size. 

(Hose CoU.) 




Tatu Block. 

Used by Kenniah men. } real size. 

(Hose Coll.) 



Tatu Block. 
Upper Kapuas R. i real size. 
(Prof. MoleograaffColl., Leiden Mus.) 




Tatu Block. 

Used by Lelak men. i real size. 

(Hose Coll.) 



Thrbb Tatu Blocks. 

For Kayan women's thighs 

(Brooke Low Coll.) 




Kayan Tatu Block. Kalong. 

Very light white wood ; length of imprint, 6in. Baram River. 

(Peek Coll.) 




Five Tatu Blocks. Upper Kapuas R. J real size. 
(Prof. Molengraafi Coll.. Leiden Miu.) 



86 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N. Borneo. 

When you look at them closely, the invention displayed in them is truly 
remarkable ; but at a distance, they give a dusky, dingy appearance to the 
men, as if they were daubed with an inky sponge. Nature having denied 
them beards, they try to make up for the deficiency by the quaintest 
serpentine curly locks tattooed along their faces, and always bordered by a 
Vandyke fringe, which must task their utmost ingenuity.'* (Mrs. McDougall, 

P- I54-) 

Mr. Burns says : *' The Kayan men do not tatoo, but many of the higher 
classes have small figures of stars, beasts, or birds on various parts of their 
body, chiefly the arms, distinctive of rank. The highest mark is that of 
having the back of the hands coloured or tatooed, which is only conferred on 
the brave in battle. With the women, the arms, from the elbows to the 
points of the fingers, are beautifully tatooed, as are also the legs from the 
thighs to a little below the knees, and likewise the upper parts of the feet ; 
and those of very high rank have in addition one or more small spots on the 
breasts. In tatooing the performer pricks the design or pattern with three 





Tatu Blocks. 

Used by Berawan men. } real size. 

(Hoee Coll.) 



needles, and afterwards smokes it with a dammon torch, by which process a 
beautiful dark blue is produced ; frequently inflammation of a serious nature 
follows. The operation of tatooing begins when girls are about four or five 
years of age, at first the hands and feet, and afterwards, previous to arriving 
at the age of puberty, the other parts are finished.*' (Jour. Ind. Arch. iii. 

I45-) 

Of a Kayan chief Sir Sp. St. John wrote : " He is but slightly 
tatooed, having a couple of angles on his breast, a few stars on his arms, his 
hands as far as the joints of his fingers, and a few fanciful touches about his 
elbows " ; and of the Kayan women : ** As yet, I have seen but the few 
women who bathe opposite to the ship. They are generally tatooed from the 
knee to the waist, and wear but a cloth like a handkerchief hung round the 
body, and tucked in at one side above the hip, leaving a portion of the thigh 
visible. When bathing, their tatooing makes them look as if they were all 
wearing black breeches.** (i. 99, 102.) 

" Si Obong, the Kyan chiefs daughter, had her arms much tatooed and 
she was also ornamented in that manner from just under the hip joint to 
three inches below the knee.*' (ibid, i. 121.) 



Painting and Tatuing. 



87 



The men were "slightly tatooed with a few stars and other marks." 
{ibid, i. 98.) 

" The Kayans are particularly fond of tattooing ; the women more so 
than the men. A Kayan woman is tattooed on the upper part of the hands 
and over the whole of each forearm ; on both thighs to below the knees, and 
on the upper part of the feet and toes. The pattern is so close that at a 
slight distance the tattooing appears simply as a mass of dark blue, and the 
designs — some of which are very pretty — usually consist of a multiplicity of 
rings and circles. A man is supposed to tattoo one finger only, if he has 
been present when an enemy has been killed, but tattoos hands and fingers if 
he has taken an enemy's head. The chiefs, however, often break through 
this rule, ajid have the whole of their hands tattooed if they have been on a 




Tatu Marks 

on arm of Kapuas Ka3ran 
captive woman. } real size. 

(Copied from life by the Rev. W. 
CroMland). 





Tatu Mark 

on Kayan captive woman's 
elbow. \ real size. 

Copied from life by the Rev. 
W. Crossland). 




Tatu Marks 

on arm of Kapuas Kayan captive 
woman. } real size. 

(Copied from life by the Rev. W. 
Crossland). 



Tatu Mark on Pnnan 
shoulder. 
(After Bock.) 

This pattern very common 

among the Undups. 

(Crossland. 



88 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit N. Borneo. 



single war expedition. The Kenniah women do not tattoo their thighs and 
legs as much as the Kayans, but they usually have their feet and hands and 
forearms thus ornamented. The men have designs on the underside of the 
forearm and sometimes on the thigh, and different races are characterised by 
different designs.'* * (Hose, J.A.I. i66.) 

** Some of the Kanowit men are curiously tatooed ; a kind of pattern 
covers their breast and shoulders, and sometimes extends to their knees, 
having much the appearance of scale-armour. Others have their chins 
ornamented to resemble beards, an appendage denied them by nature." (St. 
John i. 39.) 

Mr. De Windt describes some 
Kanowits as being all tatued ** from 
head to foot with most intricate 
patterns, and others representing 
birds, beasts, fishes, etc. : while 
round the face and throat the marks 
were made in imitation of a beard, 
an ornament which none of the 
tribes yet met with in Borneo pos- 
sess. . . . Jok was tattooed from 
head to foot so thickly as to cause 
his body to look at a distance of a 
light blue colour, but a very small 
portion of his face around the nose 
and eyes, being left au naturel.*' 
(p. 68.) 

Sir James Brooke speaks of a 
Kanowit chief ** profusely tatooed all 
over the body." (Mundy ii. 123.) (See 
supra illustration of tatued Kanowit 
chief, p. 29, vol. I.) ** The Kalabits 
have long lines right down the arm 
from the biceps to the hand." 
(Hose, J.A.I, xxiii. 169.) ''The 
Bakatans tattoo their faces and chests 
to such an extent that only a small 
portion of the skin of those parts is 
free from it." (ibid, p. 167.) 
Lieut. De Crespigny also says: **They tattoo themselves from head to 
foot in the most beautiful manner." (Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc, 1873, p. 133.) Of 
these same people Sir Charles Brooke says the lower parts of cheeks " instead 
of being clothed with whiskers were tattooed ; this ornament passed round 
the chin." (ii. 302.) Mr. W. M. Crocker hkewise says : *' The Bakatans are 




Tatu Marks sent me by the Rev. F. W. Leggatt. 
X and 2, Trong, ornament on breast ; 3, Trong, on 
arm or breast : 4, ornament on throat : 5, Trong, on 
breast or arm : 6, no information given ; 7. Entadu, 
on breast ; 8. Kala, scorpion on arm or breast. 

(N08. 2, 3, 4, p and 6 were copied from life by Mr. Leggatt 

himselt on the Sakaran river; Nos. i. 7, 8 were drawn for 

him.) 



* The Hon. Capt. Keppel describes a native from the Koti River (Dutch Borneo) a Kayan 
prisoner, as follows: "The lines, correctly and even elegantly laid in. of a blue colour, extended 
from the throat to his feet." (i. 87.) 




Designs of Tatu Marks. 

Collected by Dr. Wienecke (Military Surgeon) in Borneo. 

(Leiden Mus.) 



go H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

profusely tattooed even to the hands and face, the latter probably intended to 
resemble a beard." (S.G., No. 123, p. 5.) 

" The more primitive branches of the Malanaus practise tattooing, 
variously arranged in their different countries : some are nearly covered, 
others merely have anklets, bracelets, or necklaces, with a star or two on their 
breasts. The further removed they are from civilisation, the more thickly are 
they generally found to be tattooed." (Brooke i. 73.) 

After Mr. Hose's very distinct statement, "the Punans do not tatoo" (J.A.I, 
xxiii. 167.), it seems strange to hear Mr. De Windt's account of tatued Punans: 
** Mrs. Lat and her two fair daughters. We found these (unlike the Kayans) 
tattooed over the face as well as body, and each wore the short skirt of the 
Kanowit. . . . On re-seating ourselves in the ruai, L. happened to notice 
the intricate and really beautiful tattooing on the body of one of the younger 
men. The latter, seeing this, asked us through our interpreter if we should 
care to be operated upon in a similar manner, this being considered a great 
honour to a guest ; and no sooner had we accepted the offer than an old 
woman made her appearance armed with the necessary implements, and with 
the aid of a pair of very blunt needles, and a peculiar species of dye obtained 
from a tree, succeeded, after a good hour's work, in embellishing us, — L. with 
a ring on each shoulder (the sign manual of the tribe), and myself with a bird, 
whose genus it would puzzle most naturalists to determine, but which was 
popularly supposed among the Poonans to represent a hornbill, on the arm. 
Strange to say, neither L.'s punctures nor mine showed the slightest signs of 
inflammation afterwards, and the figures are far more distinct than they would 
be had Indian ink or gunpowder been used." (p. 86.) 

Among the Ida'an Sir Sp. St. John saw men with **a tattooed band, two 
inches broad, stretched in an arc from each shoulder, meeting on their 
stomachs, then turning off to their hips ; and some of them had a tattooed 
band extending from the shoulder to the hand." (i. 249, 374.) 

Lieut. De Crespigny says : **The only parties among them who tattoo are 
those who have killed an enemy. The tattoo is invariably a broad band from 
the navel up to each shoulder, where it ends abruptly. A smaller band is 
carried down each arm, and a stripe drawn transversely across it for each 
enemy slain. I am happy to say I saw but few men tattooed, but one young 
fellow had no less than 37 stripes across his arms. Upon my enquiring where 
he had been so fortunate, he pointed towards the river Labuk." (Proc. 
R. Geogr. Soc. ii., p. 348.) 

According to Mr. Whitehead (p. 106) : ** Some of the men are slightly 
tattooed with a few parallel short lines on the forearm." 

Writing of these people Mr. Witti says: ** There is nothing new about 
the Tolungun men, except that they tatoo themselves. The effect produced is 
quite the same as frequently seen on a stripped * Jack.' I told our self-pricked 
friends here that white men do the same thing, for this and that reason — 
though I am not aware really of any reason at all; however, I thus learnt that 
tatooing here distinguishes the men who have slain a foe in an inter-tribal war. 
There are five such warriors in the three houses of Bundo. The ornament 
begins below the stomach and rises to the shoulders, like the skirt of a coat, 




LoNGWAi Woman's Tatued Hand. 
(After Bock.) 




Thigh Tatu Marks on Longwai woman 
(After Bock.) 




Tatued Hand of Longwai 

girl. 

(After Bock.) 




LoNGWAi Woman's Tatued Foot. 
(After Bock). 



Tatued Hand of Tring 
Woman of Sulau Landang. 

Koti River. 
(After Bock). 



92 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

then down the upper arms ; here the two parallel broad stripes end, and the 
fore-end, on its inner side, shows a number of narrow stripes. These latter 
are more numerous if the man-slayer be at the same time well-to-do." (Diary, 
Nov. 19th.) And again : ** It struck me that nearly all the men of Tamalan 
are tatooed, even mere lads. They are marked on breast, shoulders, and arms, 
the same as our friends of Upper Sugut. But, while with those tatooing 
distinguishes the hero of an inter-tribal war, here at Tamalan it signifies 
something very different. When remarking about these signs of prowess, they 
at once said their custom was different from the people of Bundo, Kagasingan, 
Lansat, Morali, &c. ; and then we heard a tale which betrays a horrible side 
of the Dusun character, although they spoke with glee, like little children 
talking about their sport, and they laughed good-humouredly to our cross- 
questions about slowly extracting blood from their victims, or preserving their 
heads, &c. This costumbre del paes consists in the following : — When they had 
been damaged in their plantations and other property by the Sulus, they kill every 
Suluman they can get hold of. The Mahomedan chiefs, in order to keep the river 
open, then used to reconcile them by giving the aggrieved community some slave 
to dispose of; this is done by tying the slave up and spearing him through the 
thorax, which accomplished, the men in the village each take a cut at the 
quivering body. Whoever does this has a right to tattoo himself. They after- 
wards bury the dead, without retaining the skull, for the Sulu chiefs do not 
wish them to do that ! They assure us they are not the same tribe who are 
reported as catching the blood of such victims in small bamboos, on purpose 
to sprinkle it over their fields ; but they are certainly the same people of 
which the Danoa men, pointing to E.S.E., said, * Don't go there ! they are 
bad.' " (Diary, 30 May.) Mr. Hatton remarks of some Sin Dyaks (? Dusuns) : 
** They are painted and tattooed in a peculiar way" (Diary, 18 Mar.), and he 
adds they are ** tatooed with blue all down the arms, breasts, and legs." 
(ibid.) 

The Muruts appear all to tatu. The Adang Murut women, met by Sir 
Sp. St. John, were tatued about the arms and legs. (ii. 115.) "The Muruts 
here are much tatooed. Those men who have fought, or have gone on bold or 
risky expeditions, are tattooed from the shoulders to the pit of the stomach, 
and all down the arms — three parallel stripes to the wrists. A headman, or 
rather a sometime headman of Senendan, had two square tatoo marks on his 
back. This was because he ran away in a fight, and showed his back to the 
enemy. Another and braver chief was elected in his place." (Hatton, 6th 
April.) ... Of the Ghanaghana men ** scarcely a man of them was 
untatooed." {ibid, loth April.) 

Describing the Murut women, Mr. Whitehead remarks : '* Several 
Muruts were tattooed on their chests or thighs. Whilst busy drawing a 
peculiar tattoo, the Murut caught my eye and immediately covered the mark 
over. The tattoo was a peculiar one, resembling a three-legged dog with a 
crocodile's head, one leg being turned over the back as if the animal was going 
to scratch its ear. The reason the Murut gave for not allowing me to sketch 
this mark was that his wife was expecting a child, and he was afraid of my 
eye affecting her." (pp. 70, 73.) 



Painting and Tatuing. 



93 



At the present time Mr. O. F. Ricketts writes from the Trusun about the 
Muruts : " Tattooing is only carried out to a very small extent, many do not 
tattoo at all, the men have some simple design just above the knee-cap, or 




Tatued Ngadjoes (Natives of Southern Borneo). 
(After Dr. Schwaner). 



plain circles on the chest ; the women have fine lines tattooed from the knuckles 
to the elbow, which gives them the appearance a little distance off of wearing 
black mittens/' (S.S. 347, p. 214.) 

The following is condensed from Mr.C.Van Den Hamer's account of Biadju tatuing. The different 
patterns are practically only more or less elaboration of the same designs. Some have only a pattern 
(bomtet) on the calf, others the pattern {manoek)on the arm, and so on, without intending to have more 
done. The coast people have mostly given up tatuing, but the Oet Danoems. of the Uplands, still 
practice it. The boys are tatued as soon as they begin to wear the chawat There appear to be no 
ceremonies or fastings in connection with it. The operator has a small brass style with bent point, 
and a small hammer of light wood. The pattern is drawn on with dammar soot and gold dust. The 
boy lies groaning on the ground. Owing to the inflammation only a little can be done at a time. The 
style is continually dipped in soot and water, and the blood wiped away with a bunch of bast. The 
inflammation is allayed by salt, the sores turn to a whitish colour, like kotap, and then to a leady blue, 
and are indelible. The first pattern {boenter) is put on the calf, and consists of a circle of 5 cm. radius. 



94 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

with check pattern inside. It looks like a piece of plaster. Then the arms are done with five patterns 
{manoek), two inside and three outside — a spiral with a few curved lines; from the commencement of 
the spiral rays stream out with flourishes. The general form of the manoek is that of a wing. The 
smallest pattern is on the back of the wrist. To save pain they are put on on alternate sides. From 
the wrist to half up the upper arm, 2 parallel lines are drawn, with lozenge designs in between with a 
dot in the centre. It looks like a row of buttons. There are also designs {sala pimping, so/a = between) 
between the manoeks. On the wrist is the design maUn poenai doehin bambang L_ri_n_. which is also 
met with on the throat. The tones oesoek (lines of the chest) flows in three parallel lines from the 
navel up to the pit of the neck. On either side of these lines are about 29 rays (rioeng), on the outside 
of which are two lines, toeroes taekaloek (head) naga, flowing from the navel to the breast nipples. On 
each breast (?) are the naga and dragon's head, with open jaws, teeth, and tongue distinctly drawn, 
eye less so, facing each other. These have the usual surrounding flourishes supposed to resemble the 
palas, a native shrub. The manoek oesoek is put on the muscles of the neck ; it looks like the samban, 
a well-known breast ornament, which the inland youth wear on a cord round the neck. The nipples 
have circles, tamboeling tosoe (nipple), tatued round them The batang rawang are lines which run from 
the chawat, parallel with the toeroes takaloek naga, to the shoulder joint, where they join the leaf or 
wing pattern, dawen baha (shoulder). This latter pattern fills up the upper part of the arm. There 
were here nine rays and twenty-two flourishes. The boewoek sapoei is a sort of collar pattern — it has 
two adjuncts, the matan poenai and doehin bambang. Two lines, rampai baha, run from the nape of the 
neck into the hair. It is said, with some up-rountry people these lines recurve behind the ears, flow 
over the temples, and end in a curl on the cheek. Down the spine there are five parallel lines, batang 
garing (ivory) , like the toeroes oesoek . Over the whole surface of the trapezius muscle, rays, crosslines, and 
flourishes are drawn, which hang down from the collar like fringe. There are six matioek on the upper 
part of the back. An old man from the Manoehing river, uplands, had on his hips a zig-zag pattern 
called penjang (charms). On the back of the hands there are various forms, such as a crossed S with 
four dashes at the intersection, a swallow, cross. &c. Some have nothing on their hands. The Oet 
Danoem women have two parallel lines, with cross-lines, from the knee to the tarsus ; on the thigh 
they have a pattern like the sambas ; from the boenter, on the calves, to the heel there is a barbed 
line called ikoek (ekor = TBnk) bajan- on the right leg it is called bararek, and on the left leg. dandoe 
tjajah. Brave warriors have such a dandoe tjajak on the elbow-joint, with a cross, called sara pang 
matan andau. 

"According to the belief of the Biadjus tatuing takes the place of clothing, and turns to gold in 
heaven. The following account gives an idea of the cost: — the boenter costs 25 cts. ; the toekang 
langit, on the hand, 10 cts. ; the toeroes oesoek i fl. ; the two dragons 2 fl. ; the manoek oesoek 2 fl. ; the 
dawen baha, on the left and as well as on the right arm, 4 fl. ; the neck i fl. I do not know the cost 
of the other patterns. 

" It is generally mentioned in the Sangiang saga that Thnpoen Teloen, in long past times, journeyed 
through many tracts of the earth, and let himself be tatued in certain localities according to the 
customs of the country, and in this manner introduced it into these parts. Thnpoe is lord and Teloen 
the name of his slave mistress ; thus Jimpoe'n or ain Teloen means, master of Teloen." 

•' Tatuing operations commence at an early age, and the first designs are generally traced on the 
calves, arms, and chest. As the individual increases in age. the operations are continued, and are 
extended to all the other parts of the body, so that there are some men who are completely covered 
from chin to foot with lines and drawings, representing flowers arranged in festoons." (S. Muller. 
ii. 352.) " Women are not tatued." (ibid, p. 353.) 

According to Mr. Bock, among the Modangs the decoration is one of the privileges of matri- 
mony, and is not permitted to unmarried girls, (p. 67). . . . " The Tandjoengs do not tattoo as a 
rule. I only found one with a 4- on his arm. (p. 130). . . . At Benoa the men were all tattooed 
with a small mark ^^.^-. either on the forehead, the arm, or the leg. (p. 139) ... Tatooing is 
followed by all the tribes of Kotei, with the exception of those in the Long Bl6h. district ; and some 
of the designs have very great artistic merit. The marks are either on the arms, hands. feet» thighs, 
chest, or temple. The women are more elaborately " got up " than the men, and seemed proud of 
displaying their skin-deep beauty. The more intricate patterns are executed by professionals, who 
first cut out the outlines in wood, and then trace the design on the part of the body to be decorated, 
filling it in with a sharp-pointed piece of bamboo, or a needle dipped into a pigment prepared for the 
purpose from vegetable dyes. The operation is very painful, and often takes a long time to execute, 
and the marks are absolutely indelible. The tattooing takes place, in the case of men, when they 
attain to manhood ; and, in the case of women, when they are about to be married. There is an old 
woman of sixty, the marks on whose thighs were as distinct and bright as when they were first 
executed, perhaps forty or forty-five years previously. Difierent tribes, and different individuals of 



Painting and Tatuing. 



95 



the same tribe, have different methods of tattooing. In some it is the forehead or chest ; in others, 
the hands or feet ; in others, the thighs that are tattooed. The greatest slaves to this fashion are 
perhaps the damsels of the Long Wai and Tring tribes, who unite in themselves the fashions of 
nearly all the other tribes. Whereas the others are content with ornamenting only one part of the 
body at a time, a Long Wai or Tring lady must be tattooed in various parts of the body." 
(pp. 189. 190.) 

Note. — The statement in Jour. Anthrop. Inst, xvii, 322 and copied by Prof. Hain (p. 147) that the 
British Museum possess a portrait of a Tring priestess tatued should read that a plate 
taken from Mr. Bock's book has been hung up for public inspection. 




Tatued Dyaks (? Kayans). 
(After ProC Veth) 



CHAPTER XX. 
WAR AND WEAPONS. 

WAR : Causes of War— General causes — Feuds — Old quarrels— Tribute— Reprisals — Nabai's feud 
—Helens — Women an incentive —Love of robber>' under arms— 'To ease a sore heart* — 
Debts — Chivalry— War Expeditions— Formidable character— Announcing an expedition— The 
spear token— Preparations— Women's precautions while men away— The start — No hurry — 
Result of delay — Time no value — A grand sight — Camping places — Precautions — Explorations — 
War council — Traders decoyed — Retaliation— Crossing war paths — War Alarms — Defekces — 
Pagars — Tactics of the invaded — Hiding treasures — Fires — Steep hills — Cheveanx de frise— 
Ambushes — Luring on the enemy — Ambuscades — Dressing up as friends — Flank movements — 
/?a«;a«$— Stray invaders — Surprises — The Sauhs* annihilation — Prowling attacks — Dusuns 
versus Lanuns — Attacks at dawn — Kanowits' methods — Burnt chillies — Fight with Steele and 
Fox's murderers— Attacks in absence of men— Breach of hospitality— Allies killed /aw/^ de mieux— 
Homeric Combats — Fights for the slain — Saving heads — Guarding relations — Desperate hand- 
to-hand encounters — Chivalry — Excitement of Warfare — Mad with excitement — Quarrels 
amongst parties to an expedition — No mutilations — All is spoil in warfare — Original Dread of 
Firearms — Mr. Dalton's notes on war. 

WEAPONS: General War Costume — Sea Dyaks — Helmets— Jackets— Thighs unprotected— 
Kayans — Accoutrements— Spears— Lances — Wood javelins— Swords — Hill Dyaks — Sea Dyaks 
— Parang pedang — Parang nabur— Parang ilang — Good steel — Good smiths -Shields— Method of 
using— Bows and Arrows— Mr. Skertchly's remark— Undup children— Mr. Earl's statement- 
Testimony of an old Dutch soldier— Dr. Lewin's authority. 

WAR. 

The Causes of War. 

" It may be observed that their causes for war, as well as its progress and 
termination, are exactly the same as those of other people. They dispute 
about the limits of their respective lands; about theft committed by one tribe 
upon another; about occasional murders; the crossing each other on the war- 
path ; and about a thousand other subjects. ... In short, there is nothing 
new in their feelings, or in their mode of shewing them ; no trait remarkable 
for cruelty ; no head-hunting for the sake of head-hunting. They act precisely 
on the same impulses as other wild men : war arises from passion or interest ; 
peace from defeat or fear. As friends, they are faithful, just, and honest ; as 
enemies, blood-thirsty and cunning, patient on the war-path, and enduring 
fatigue, hunger, and want of sleep, with cheerfulness and resolution." (Keppel 
i. 301, 304.) According to Mr. Dalton (p. 9) : ** The Daya are, generally 
speaking, peaceable ; the petty feuds among themselves may be traced to the 
horrid custom of ornamenting their houses with human skulls, procured by 
way-laying individuals of a different tribe, and to decorating their children 
with the teeth; or to disputes about particular tracts of forests.'* Old feuds 
are a fruitful source of the wars and quarrels of the present day. ** The 



Causes of War, 97 

Sow and other Dyak tribes once made an incursion into the Puttong country 
and killed eighteen persons. This was simply the continuation of an old 
feud." (Keppel Meander ii. 17.) 

" Many of the feuds in which the Dyaks of Sarebas and Sakarran are now 
engaged, are quarrels which arose in the times of their ancestors^ ; and the 
ostensible object in carrying on of which now is, that their balance of heads 
may be settled ; for these people keep a regular account of the numbers slain 
on each side on every occasion : these memorandums have now, perhaps, 
become confused amongst the sea tribes, but amongst those of the hills, where 
fewer people are killed, and fighting is less frequent, the number to which each 
tribe is indebted to the other is regularly preserved. A hill chief once told me 
that he durst not travel into another country, which he wished to visit, as their 
people were the enemies of his tribe ; when I asked him in surprise, having 
supposed that he was at peace with everyone except the people of Sakarran, he 
told me that in the time of his grandfather, the people of the other tribe had 
killed four of his, and that in retaliation his tribe had killed three of the other, 
so that there was a balance of one in his favour, which had never been settled, 
nor had any hostilities been carried on for many years, yet all intercourse 
between the tribes had ceased, and they could only meet in a hostile char- 
acter." (Low, p. 212.) Mr. Grant reports much difficulty in settling feuds : 
'* At night we had a good deal of Bechara, in reference principally to 
the demands made upon one tribe by another, for certain fines or debts, in 
acknowledgment of supposed victories gained in the olden time. It appears 
that formerly, when a party of any tribe took some heads from another, not 
content with that, they must needs demand certain gongs and jars from them, 
in acknowledgment of their having been defeated. This was, I suppose, looked 
upon in the light of a tribute. ... At any rate, one tribe making such a 
demand upon another, causes the latter, in order to get the wherewithal to 
pay, to remember some old feud and successful onslaught on a third tribe, and 
so the wheel is set in motion, after having been at a stand-still for years. I 
have put a timely stop to all this." (Grant, p. 61.) The Muruts also have 
their feuds. They '* are not by any means a warlike race, for, taking them 
altogether, they are great cowards ; they do not organize large expeditions to 
go on the war-path, . . . though on one occasion they combined to resist 
the attack of a party of Kayans, when they killed some sixty of them. The 
worst feature in their lives are the inter-tribal feuds above mentioned, 
which have been carried on amongst them from time immemorial, and which 
they are totally unable to settle themselves. Indiscriminate head-hunting, 
simply for the sake of obtaining heads, is the exception rather than the rule, 
but when making reprisals against another tribe, they will try and get one if 
possible with the least danger to themselves, and the head, instead of being 
hung up in a head- house, as is the custom of the Land Dyaks, after having 
been feasted over, is put away with the rest in a basket in some corner of the 
house. Each house has its own feuds, and carries them on irrespective of the 

^ Mr. Hup^ refers to hostilities which broke out on account of some losses which one party 
had incurred 15 years previously when 300 people were killed (p. 314). 

H Vol. 2, 



98 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N, Borneo. 

others ; the usual way being for a small party to go and fire into an enemy's 
house, trusting to chance that they may kill some one, and then they return 
home more or less satisfied ; they sometimes lie in wait in jungle to make their 
attack on an enemy if their omens are good, and on these occasions they 
sometimes get a head, though more often from some woman or child who 
happens to be working in a paddy field. They are not particular as to whether 
they kill the individual who made the last attack on them, anyone in the same 
house, or living on the same stream, will equally satisfy them, thus compli- 
cating the cases." (Ricketts, S.G. No. 347, p. 213.) 

Of a Dusun feud, Mr. Witti writes : ** Nabai has a feud with Peluan, 
the adjacent district south-west, and that is what makes Jeludin [the Nabai 
chief] so miserable. Thus I learnt the account there is running between 
Nabai and Peluan. Killed by Nabai, 16 people, of which 6 men, 3 women, 2 
children ; Nabai paid blood-money for five people and a half, Peluan for 
two. Peluan, therefore, appears debited with eight dead and a half. The 
chronological mark here is worthily selected, it is formed by the smallpox 
epidemic. To himself, I explained he could no longer receive from Peluan 
a slave for the purpose of sacrificing it in amends for the murder of 
Ah Hok, a Chinaman, who last year went trading in Peluan, after having 
lived a while in Jeludin's house. Jeludin was in that matter offered a 
slave-woman, a short time ago, but he sent her back on the ground that 
she was not young enough. What business has this Jeludin to try and get 
his blood-thirstiness quenched on account of an outsider who went to Peluan, 
as the man went up the Kimanis entirely at his own risk ? And then, Ah 
Hok's death was brought about in retaliation for a Peluan mother and two 
children, who were murdered by Jeludin, with his own hands, in his own 
village." (Diary, 19th Mar.) Of this same feud he writes two days later : 
" Having to act as intermediary in bloody feuds like these would be repulsive 
if it were not for the sake of an experiment. I do not pretend to say for the 
sake of peace, for these tribes have so few mutual interests, that peace between 
them will ultimately have to be the object of rigorous measures on the part of 
the Government. But it will be a source of some interest if we succeed in 
accomplishing our round from one tribe to the other, each of which threatens to 
blowpipe, shoot, and behead anybody who may come from the opposite camp. 
To-day, the Dyak Ankaroi complained that two years ago Jeludin and party 
carried off his wife and two little children (girls) whilst he (Ankaroi) was absent 
from home. At Petikang, Jeludin put all three to death in that cruel manner 
called ambirus (making a spirit). Ankaroi and his friends offered Jeludin all 
they had to ransom those captives, but in vain. On that Ankaroi took an oath 
not to touch any woman until he shall have killed Jeludin. I now quite under- 
stand why my ex-officio friend is in such an awful funk, notwithstanding the long 
odds on the side of Nabai. But how can I decently ask the bereaved party 
how much he would take in cloth, brass, salt, jars, and cattle to make it up ? 
I had much sooner express my sympathy with Ankaroi by giving him a Henry- 
Winchester, latest model. As it is, the Peluan people understood me so far 
correctly, that they asked me to bring about a meeting with Jeludin, for the 
purpose of estimating the amount of blood-money, should Jeludin wish to pay 



Causes of War, 



99 



up. They make it a condition that I myself shall be present to keep the other 
party from treachery. I agreed to let Langadoi, the elder of Peluan, know 
after my return to Nabai. Ankaroi alone asks such heavy damages that I 
have but little hope. 
What I wonder at is 
which of the two parties 
has misrepresented the 
facts of the case most ?" 
(ibid, 25th March.) 

They have their 
Helens too. Thus Mr. 
Denison records: "The 
Si Baddat and Sikong 
Dyaks had been at war 
arising out of a Si Bad- 
dat going to Sikong and 
carrying off a man's 
wife, and on her resti- 
tution being demanded 
it was refused, where- 
upon Sikong took two 
heads from Si Baddat 
who retaliated by taking 
one from Sikong, but 
peace had now been 
patched up between 
these tribes.'* (Ch. iii. 
32.) 

** As the women 
have so decided a pre- 
ference for the men 
whose bravery and 
deeds of arms are 
notorious, it readily 
accounts for the mass 
of the populace being 
addicted to war. . . 




War Cap. 

Made of split bill of the hornbill bird and of 

part of its skin, claws and feathers, and with 

argus pheasant feathers. S.E. Borneo. 

(Leiden Mas.) 



It may even be doubted whether Europeans might 
not be found who would take the heads of 
their dead enemies to gain the smiles and 
embraces of beauty." (Mundy ii. 3.) As 
previously mentioned by Mr. Brooke Low, 
the women urge the men on to war. 
(See p. 363.) 

Very often the cause of war is much the 
W^) same as amongst ourselves — the mere love 
<^ of fighting. The following statement by 
WicKKRwoRK War Cap. S.E. Borneo. Admiral the Hon. H. Keppel goes far to 

(Leiden Mus.) 




loo H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borfuo. 

prove this : '* The whole country on either bank of this river is rich and 
fertile in the extreme. Fields of cotton, sugar-cane, and padi, with 
cocoa-nut and fruit-trees in variety, grow in the greatest luxuriance. Pigs in 
hundreds, ducks and poultry without number, proved that these people were 
robbers from choice, and not from necessity. In every house cotton-looms 
for making cloth were found. The coimtry at each mile improved in beauty : 
the scenery was varied by hill and dale ; while a succession of open spaces, 
cleared for cultivation, gave evidence of a dense population well able to enrich 
themselves by honest industry. Our party were informed that, if they 
continued to advance for the next four days, they would still find the country 
continue to improve." * (Meander i. 173.) 

" A Mahomedan Pakatan named Japer lost two grandchildren, so to ease 
his sore heart he went on a war expedition and massacred a tribe of harmless 
Punans." (St. John ii. 62.) 

Among the Sing6 Dyaks : " If one tribe claimed a debt of another, it 
was always demanded, and the claim discussed. If payment was refused, the 
claimants departed, telling the others to listen to their birds as they might 
expect an attack. Even after this, it was often the case that a tribe friendly 
to each, mediated between them, and endeavoured to make a settlement of their 
contending claims. If they failed the tribes were then at war. Recently, 
however, Parimban has attacked without due notice, and often by treachery, 
and the Sow Dyaks, as well as the Sing6, practise the same treachery. The 
old custom likewise was, that no house should be set on fire, no paddy 
destroyed, and that a trnked woman could not be killed, nor a woman with 
child. These laudable and praiseworthy customs have fallen into disuse, yet 
they give a pleasing picture of Dyak character, and relieve, by a touch of 
humanity, the otherwise barbarous nature of their warfare." (Mundy i. 331.) 

War Expeditions. 

** Sea Dyak warfare is far from despicable, although it is undisciplined, 
and when the command is assumed by a person of sufficient influence to 
enforce obedience, the force at his disposal becomes more formidable than it 
otherwise would be ; but this is not so often the case now as it was formerly." 
(Brooke Low.) Once " upwards of 100 boats, with certainly not fewer than 
2,500 men, had been at Sarawak a week, asking permission to go on an 
expedition." (Keppel i. 216.) Sir Chas. Brooke's force against the Kayans 
consisted " of about three hundred large boats, averaging over forty men in 
each ; besides a large portion are still behind, and will be coming up for a 
week or more." (ii. 259.) 

" It is customary to announce a coming war expedition for such and such 
a season at one of the great feasts, when the village is thronged with guests 

> "The Orang blonda (white men)" said Rajah Dinda of Long Wai, "have been killing the 
Dyaks and Malays on the Tew6h by hundreds," — referring to the Dutch war in the Doesoen district 
in 1859-64, — " because they want to take their country and collect more rice and gutta; and why 
should they object to our killing a few people now and then when our adat (custom) requires it ? 
We do not care for the instructions of the white men, and do not see why they should come into our 
country at all." (Bock, p. 2x6.) 



War Hat. 

Made of the fish scales, sewn with finely-split 

rotan on to a plaited cap. The cap is made of a 

soft, bast-like material. Diam.. 6iin. ; depth, 

4iin. ; weight. 4^2. 

(Leggatt Coll.) 



War Jacket. 



Made of thick bark furnished with fish scales ! 
The larger scales on the left hand side sewn on 
with finely-split rotan, the smaller scales with 
stronf thread (fine cord). The whole edged with 
dark blue cotton as tape. The portion covering 
the right breast is about ijin. broader than that 
covering the left breast. Dr. A. Gunther informs 
me that the scales are those of a scaroid fish. 
Psmbscarus marine. Weight. 2lb. looz. ; length. 
25iin. ; breadth, i6iin. 

(Leggatt Coll.) 

In the Brooke Low collection the hat is called 
katupu kahi and the coat baj'u empurau. 



The double thread (A) as seen on 
the outside. 





Inside of the War Hat. 

Showing (B) how the thread holds 

the scales, and (A) also how the double 

thread runs round the edgejln^de. 




Dyak War Cap. 

Made of coarsely-plaited rotan, lined inside 

with pandanus leaf ; to one side are fastened 

some hombill's feathers. Height, iTin. 

diam., yjin. 

(Brit. Mttt.) 



I02 H. Ling Roth. — Naaties of Sarawak and Brit. N, Borneo. 



from the country far and near, and when there is sure to be an unusual 
gathering of powerful chiefs. The speaker, who must be a great chief, gives 
his reason, that his people wish to put off mourning, or that his people have 

been slain and he must have some revenge, and 
he ends by inviting all present to accompany him 
on an incursion upon an ancient enemy. If he be 
a chief of any real influence he is sure to secure an 
ample following, in reality more than enough for his 
purposes, but his ambition expands as his numbers 
increase and his warpath assumes grander propor- 
tions. The women lend their assistance to induce 
their husbands and lovers to join the warpath. 
Before this, however, the chief whose mind is set 
on the business gets together a circle of chiefs 
and warriors, which before the end of the pro- 
ceedings resolves itself into a council of war. The 
expediency of the campaign and the exigencies which 
Made''ofplait^''rotJ^with demand it are then openly debated, and if the 
armadillo scales sewn on. majority or even a strong party are in favour of it, 
^^"w^c^l^S'reS'ba^r the chief who originally broached the topic, if he 
(Hose Coll.) feels confident of a following large enough to effect 





Kalupu. Dyak War Cap. 

Made of a single skin of the porcupine pushed up to a peak in the 

centre, with fur edging, inside matwork. Weight, 220Z. ; diam., yin. ; 

almost round. Baram River. 

.(Peek Coll.) 



War Expeditions. 



103 



his purpose, announces his 
intention of becoming a 
leader and the date of the 
departure for the enemy's 
country. All present are 
invited to accompany him 
and to bring their friends 
and relations. The details 
are then discussed, the 
amount of bekals (baskets) 
necessary, the route, the 
character and number of 
enemy, etc. The period 
usually selected for any ex- 
pedition on a large scale is 
that immediately after the 
seed planting or after the 
harvest ; the former time is 
preferred when available as 
they can spare the time 
better, and have three 
months clear before they are 
required to gather in the 
harvest. In the latter case 
they would probably have 
no farms at all for that 
year, as they would have no 
dry weather to dry the 
clearings, which, therefore, 
would not burn well. 

** As the time draws 
near for the expedition to 
start, a spear is sent round 
the country from village to 
village with a tembubu toli, 
to signify how many days 
are to elapse before the 
commander-in-chief is able 
to make a start ; a place is 
also mentioned where he 
will await the force.'* [His 
Highness once had some 
trouble owing to a Malay 
sending a spear round 
amongst the Sakarans. 
(i. 256.)] ** The women are 
everywhere busy preparing 




Front. 

War Dress. 

From Sarawak. Skin of the Kiman Dahau (or tortoise-shell 

Itopard), with an opening for the neck ; attached to it are 

eleven feathers of Uie hombill. Length, 47in. 

(Brit Mat.) 



104 ^* Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 

the bekak, and the produce of the gardens are taken to the nearest market to 
exchange for tobacco, chunan, gambir, etc. The men on their part have been 
busy in getting the war boats ready, launching them into the river, lashing on 
the planks and fitting them up with palm leaf awnings and bamboo floorings. 
Those who are able to purchase the material, plane the bottom of their canoes 
to make them smooth and tar them to preserve them, make figure heads for 
the bows, and paint the side planks in various patterns. They take nets with 
them to fish by the way, and dogs to hunt with if the distance is so great that 
they are likely to run short of food, but their chief support on an expedition 
of this kind is what they find on the banks and in the forest — especially the 
wild sago. The men are very busy furbishing up their arms and sharpening 
their weapons and decorating their helmets and war-jackets." (Brooke Low.) 
" As long as the men are away their fires are lighted on the stones or small 
fireplaces just as if they were at home. The mats are spread and the fires 
kept up till late in the evening and lighted again before dawn, so that the 
men may not be cold. The roofing of the house is opened before dawn, so 
that the men may not lie too long and so fall into the enemies' hands." 
(Crossland, Gosp. Miss. 1871, p. 166.) 

** If one of a war-party slips down and grazes his skin shortly after the 
setting-out of the expedition, he had better return home at once, or he will be 
brought back wounded." (Chalmers in Grant's Tour.) 

** The chief is always the first to leave the village, and as the first and 
chief part of the journey is by water, he pulls away in his canoe, and at some 
convenient distance from the village, he bivouacs for the night to beburong — 
to consult the omen birds. If the omens by birds are favourable, he proceeds 
to the tryst and there awaits the force as it dribbles in one by one or few by 
few.* When all or most have arrived the flotilla moves on uncontrolled until 
it reaches the pengkalan or landing-place, whence the overland route 
commences. There is no attempt at order or regulation as long as they are 
in the water and in their own country, every boat stopping and moving much 
as it pleases, but all trying, nevertheless, to reach the pengkalan at once. If 
this is close by there is a dash for it, but if it is several days' journey there is 
a good deal of loitering by the way to increase their stock of provisions or to 

s " When the chief of this tribe has decided to go out kidnapping and head-hunting, the people, 
women as well as men. are called together to confess. Should it appear that some youthful members 
have infringed the recognized laws of the tribe as regards marriage, or that the sanctity of the 
marriage vow has been violated, certain penalties are inflicted on the oflending parties, such as a 
fine of a fowl or a pig ; and when the offence is purged, and the moral character of the tribe is. 
according to their opinion, re-established, a ' prophet ' is sent out with twenty or thirty penitents, to 
observe omens either in the air or in the woods. These penitents are youths who appear at birth to 
have had certain marks, signs of misfortune, on them, and who. in order to get the marks to 
disappear and to prevent the evil which their presence forebodes, must atone, or go through 
penitential performances, such as depriving themselves during a certain portion of their lives of salt 
or fish, or of every kind of clothing. This party of omen observers proceed a day's march into the 
depth of the forest, and regular communication is maintained between them and the rest of the 
village, so that they can be informed of anything that happens while they are away from home. 
Should any one die in the tribe they must return to the village, taking up their dwelling in a shed 
specially built for them. As soon as the funeral is over they resume their journey, not returning 
until they have satisfied themselves that the omens are favourable for the expedition about to be 
despatched." (Bock, p. 218.) 




Front. 
Sarsbas Goat Skin War Jacket. 
Edged with red calico and yellow woollen cloth. Length, opened up as shown, 3ft. 3in. ; width, i3in. 

(Edinbro* Mus.) 



io6 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

equip themselves more fully with kejangs (deer), poles, tukahs (pegs), etc., and 
cords for hauling rapids.'* (Brooke Low.) 

** The Dyaks are never in a hurry in setting off. They cook and feed at 
leisure, and commence walking about half-past seven, and the morning meal 
keeps them going until late in the afternoon ; they certainly get over more 
ground by following this plan." (Brooke ii. 178.) Occasionally, however, 
the delay is so great that the force becomes useless for the purpose for which 
it was called together. Such a case happened on the Batang Lupar. (S.G., 
No. 161, p. 5.) This is quite in accordance with the natives' inability to 
appreciate the value of time. When on the Limbang Sir Sp. St. John notes 
(ii. 26) ** that they start with, perhaps, two days' provisions, and trust to 
hunting for food. If they find a spot where game is plentiful, they stay there 
till it is exhausted ; if the jungle produce no sport, they live on the cabbages 
taken from the palms, on the edible fern, on snakes, or anything, in fact, that 
they can find. If they come across bees' nests, they stop to secure the wax 
and honey. Time is of no value to them, as they generally start after the 
harvest, and many parties are said to have taken six months." 

"The chief brings his musical instruments with him and plays on his 
gongs and lawahs as he sweeps along. The line of advance is most irregular, 
the canoes not movmg up in a line but with wide gaps, some outstripping each 
other, others lagging behind to cook and angle, others deterred by bad omens 
and adverse dreams, obliged to halt for the day, others to dry their things 
capsized in the rapids, etc. 

" It is a grand sight to see these canoes, filled with dusky warriors, whose 
naked arms and bodies are just visible beneath the awning, pulling away with 
a uniform and vigorous stroke, each arm with its white shell bracelet, and the 
chief standing up in the stern steering the rudder with hand and foot. The 
canoes hold each from twenty to seventy men. 

"Arrived at the landing-place, a camp is formed, but the huts are not 
arranged in any military fashion, but line the banks of the river. The langkan, 
or hut is built sometimes to accommodate a whole boat's crew ; the warriors 
lie side by side, their spears are stuck in front, and their shields and swords in 
their hands, so that they can spring to their feet, arms in their hands, in the 
twinkling of an eye. The roof slants upwards from the ground and forms an 
angle with it. It is thatched with leaves and branches ; the flooring is of the 
same material with a layer of bamboo or sticks. A fire is lit hard by to keep 
off the mosquitoes and sandflies, who are often troublesome. These huts are 
meant to last a single night, or several, according to the care with which they 
have been built ; but stronger huts are reared when a stay is expected to exceed 
a few days." (Brooke Low.) '* The floors are always raised above the ground 
to preserve the inmates from the attacks of leeches which abound among the 
dead leaves." (Low, p. 245.) ** Kayans, when they make their camp, strew dead 
leaves outside the fence so that no one, not even a dog, can approach without 
being heard. Punans make their camp in a circle, each hut facing a different 
direction, so as to prevent a surprise." (Brooke Low.) These precautions are, 
however, not always efficient. " Some of the enemy had quietly walked through 
the camp at night; their tracks were seen in the morning — probably some 



io8 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

venturous spirit who wished to ascertain how strong our force really was." 
And on another occasion, on the same expedition : '* One of the enemy took a 
dexterous aim with a barbed spear as an old Dyak was warming himself before 
a fire in camp, sitting with his hands crossed to shade his face from the flames. 



'jiffMj^r 




Spear (? Fish Spear) 
(Leiden Mus.) 



Spear. 
(Leiden Mas.) 

The spear pinned both his hands together in this position, and fortunately so, 
for it kept the weapon from his chest and saved his life. The spear-head was 
cut off before it was extricated." At the camp "a halt is made of several days' 

duration, to explore the neighbour- 
hood, and to permit stragglers to 
come up. The canoes are hauled 
up and concealed in the forest, and 
the track examined." (Brooke i. 
310.) " The boats, if any, are ren- 
dered safe from any sudden night 
surprises; each party watch abreast 
their own boat." {ibid i. 294.) 

** A war-council is held, and the 
route marked, and the situation of 
the enemy discussed, and on a 
given day the march commences, 
each one shouldering his pack and 
stepping out in Indian file — ^the 
guides ahead, and closely followed 
by a few of the hardiest, boldest, 
and most experienced men at their 
heels. This line of march reaches 
many a mile if the war party be a 
numerous one. The pace is rapid 
so long as they are in neutral terri- 
tory, but slackens as soon as they 
reach the borders of the enemy's 
country. The leaders then proceed more warily as the 
enemy, if forewarned of their approach, are pretty sure 
to be posted in ambush by the way." (Brooke Ldw.) 
" It is really curious to witness their movements, 
when the order is given to go out to skirmish, —one by 
one, with a quick pace, yet steady and silent tread, they 
glide into the bushes or long grass, gain the narrow 
paths, and gradually disappear in the thickest jungle." 
(Mundy i. 262.) 




Lower Pattern. 




Upper Pattern. 



Undup Spear Handle. 

\ real size. 

(Crossland Coll.) 




Gourd. 

Trained into shape by bind- 
ing it with a cloth while 
young. Used as a powder 
flask. James Motley. 
(Kew Mus.) 



War Alarms. 109 

'* Sometimes a war-party would decoy a party of traders, and murder 
them for the sake of their heads ; while a trading party, if opportunity offered, 
never failed to act in a similar manner." (Horsburgh, p. 14.) ** At night they 
would drift down on a log, and cut the rattan cable of trading prahus, while 
others of their party would keep watch on the bank, knowing well where the 
stream would take the boat ashore; and when aground they kill the men 
and plunder the goods." (St. John.) 

"When a tribe is on a warlike excursion, it often happens that their 
track (or * trail ') is crossed by another tribe. Those who strike the trail guard 
it at some convenient spot, apprehending the party to be enemies ; they plant 
ranjows in the path, and wait till the returning party are involved amongst 
them to make an attack. If enemies, and they succeed, all is well ; but if 
friends, though no attack be made, it is a serious offence, and mostly gives 
occasion to war, if not paid for.*' (Keppel i. 302.) 

War Alarms. 

The alarm caused by the rumour of an enemy is well described by the 
Rev. Mr. Crossland : ** During the last few days we have been living a rather 
exciting life. Four men went up the country to take bees' nests. Two of 
the four went up at night and began to take the nests, when their attention 
was drawn to a series of fires on a mountain not far off, perhaps two miles ; 
at once they concluded that there was an enemy, and came down the tree, 
and set off home, leaving the greater part of their things in a hut. They 
never said a word to any of the people living near, but came straight home 
and reported there was an enemy. I happened to go to the house and heard 
the news, which for the moment alarmed me ; I could not help thinking of 
our people who were up there, and of their defenceless wives and children. I 
said I could scarcely believe it, and they had better all keep quiet. If there 
really was an enemy we should hear the tom-tom from the up country. Next 
morning a lot of the other men, with the four, went off to spy out the enemy ; 
but before they got to the river-side they saw a cobra ; this was a sign that 
they should not be eager to find the enemy, so they returned home. About 
an hour after there was a screeching and squalling cry of enemy. Men were 
rushing off from the house away from us, with spears, shields, swords, etc., to 
seek the enemy. The women began to beat the tom-tom ; I stopped them, 
told them that my ears had been open all day, and I had heard no tom-tom, 
and until I did they must keep quiet. Not long after, up came some of the 
neighbouring tribe of Sakarran, inquiring after the enemy. The men who 
had first rushed off came back from a neighbouring house, saying there was 
no tom-tom sounding. Next day men kept on going up in search of the 
enemy ; I always said, * Go if you like,' when they asked. Yesterday a man 
came saying the tribe were gathering at a house up country to resist the 
enemy, and so this morning they all went off, save one head-man, who 
laughed and said, * If there was an enemy, our people would have come home 
at once, and since they have not come I don't intend to tire myself for 
nothing ; ' so off he went to his farm with his wife and daughters. Before 
long a man came to tell me of a dream he had had. He thought he found a 



no H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N, Borneo, 

basket with a durian fruit in it. * Oh,' said I, 'then you expect to get the 
head of an enemy if the dream is true.' * I shall,' said he, 'what was your 
dream, Tuan ?' " (Miss. Life, 1867, p. 70.) 

Defences. 

When describing the houses we referred to the palisading : " The 
fortifications of the Land Dyak villages consist principally of a strong 
palisading of bamboo stakes, or sometimes of hard wood, which are 
strengthened and fastened together by split bamboos being woven amongst 
the perpendicular posts, the ends of which, sharpened to points, project 
outwards in all directions, presenting an impassable barrier of spikes, like 
chevaux-de-frise, to the invader. This pagar or fence, is about six feet high, 
and surrounds all the village, in accessible positions : two gates are made in 
it, over each of which the worked spikes are carried, and when the entrance 
is shut, it presents an uniform appearance with the remainder of the fence." 
(Low, p. 285.) ** Once Lang Endang, with his Sakarang and Balau party, 
returned without success : they found the enemy had collected in force with 
a strong pagar (fence) around them on the top of a steep mountain called 
Katimong, situated between Kanowit and Katibas." (S.G., No. 21.) "The 
waterside, the landing-places, and the approaches to the village, are all 
spiked, and also the foot of the ladder, and they dig pit-falls in the pathway. 
Their valuables they conceal in the adjoining forest, or in the vicinity of their 
farms. The moment the enemy appears the sound of the tawah begs to 
announce their condition to their neighbours, and to summon them to their 
assistance. If they are heard help is sure to arrive instanter. If they feel 
confident of their ability to repel the enemy, they keep their women at home ; 
but if there is any doubt about the matter, they conceal them with their 
treasures on the hills and flee into the forest to rejoin them at a rendezvous 
when resistance becomes hopeless." (Brooke Low.) 

On one of his great expeditions Sir Charles Brooke writes : " Although 
the enemy ran off in haste, they had time to hide many things, but our Dyaks 
allowed no leaf to pass unturned ; at a place where I had been sitting and 
bathing for hours to-day along with hundreds of Malays I was surprised to 




Parang. 

(Brit. Mus.) 



•(3 

.£3 



4) 

B 

a 

c 




o ^ 2 

^ C 0) 

2 8 o 

§ *l 
J -I 

I 

"tfl 

-a 

•c 



3 




112 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

see towards evening a few Dyaks come to take their last duck before retiring 
after their day's work ; when lo ! and behold, they traced a small line to a 
twig, and brought up a large brass gun. Such is their quickness of vision ; 
only Dyaks can kill Dyaks." (i. i88.) Later on he says : ** When clearing 
places for our night abode many found some property concealed among long 
grass and under trees." {ibid; 301.) ** If the attacked party are in no hurry 
they fire the village before they leave it ; if on the other hand they wish to 
gain time, and to divert the pursuit, they leave it for the enemy to plunder 
and burn." (Brooke Low.) Many burnt houses are met with on the 
expeditions — generally the burning has taken place when defence has been 
given up." (Brooke i. 299.) 

"The Brang people placed great reliance in the difficulty of approach up 
their steep hill ; the men quietly sat and * ate their rice,' and the women went 
to the top of the peak above the village and openly defied the invading force. 
They turned their backs to the invaders, and screamed yells of defiance." 
(Grant, p. 25.) ** On one occasion the Balleh Dyaks ascended the river 
Mujong, into an almost inaccessible part, and made a stockade on the top of 
a steep hill defended by precipitous rocks over the path of ascent." (S.G., 
No. 148, p. 8.) 

**On the Baram when attack is expected the house is fortified by a sort 
of chevaux de frise placed round it, and though this is limp, the ends of the 
bamboo being j)ointed and very sharp make it a very difficult obstacle to 
break through." * (Hose, J.A.L xxiii. 162.) 

Ambushes. 

** A favourite stratagem of defence is to entice the leading boats of the 
enemy into an ambush on shore. As everybody in the attacking party is 
anxious to be foremost in the race for heads, there are sure to be one or two 
boats so far in advance of the rest as to make it worth the defenders' while 
to put them to their mettle. Some convenient spot is selected and a strong 
defending party placed in ambush among the trees. One or two men are 
thrown out to stroll uj)on the shingly bed to lure the enemy to their 
destruction. The moment they are caught sight of, the boats give chase, and 
as the warriors leap ashore, the men in ambush spring from their covert to 
their feet and hurl stones to shatter the shields, and engage with spears and 
swords in a short but desperate conflict. As the main body is seen winding 
up the river, whooping and yelling, and crashing up in clouds of spray and 
with a rush of waters, they plunge into the thicket with the heads they have 
obtained, and are far away before the enemy have recovered from their 
discomfiture, and are prepared to follow." (Brooke Low.) 

This sort of thing happened more than once during Sir Charles Brooke's 
Expeditions, (i. 38.) 

** Another stratagem is one of ambush without luring. When the head 
of the column is close upon them (the ambush), they discharge their muskets 
[sic] , leap from their ambuscade, and engage in a hand to hand combat. 

* According to Mr. Hup^ they erect palisades 500 ft. long, 100 broad, and use up 5,000 tree 
trunks sunk into the earth some feet deep. (p. 314.) 




Kbnniah Parang Ilang. 

The sword is made of stream ore found by the Kenniahs in the Baram head-waters. The 
charms are of specific value : one looks like portion of a mason wasp's nest, another is a 
piece of stone. The usual dirk attached to the sheaths of these swords is thrust in a 
piece of attached bark, covered with yellow and black bead work. The dirk [not shown] 
Itself is ornamented on one side of the blade, into which little brass discs have been 
melted : the haft looks like English cherry-tree wood, and at the end is beautifully 
carved like some of the dish ends ^own on p. 383. Baram River. 

(Hose Coll.) 

I Vol. 2. 



114 f^• Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

The Dyaks always waylay on the right-hand side of the line of march, as that 
side of the body is unprotected by the shield, which is carried in the left hand. 
A short, but desperate fight ensues, a few heads are taken, and the defenders 
scamper off with their dead and wounded before the main body can come up. 
The invaders pause a while until reinforced, and then pursue, but the enemy 
have taken advantage of this delay to plant tukaks in the path and ranjaus in 
the water-way. Some are sure to get spiked, and another delay ensues. The 
ambuscade is by that time beyond pursuit. If the defenders are plucky, 
they form several ambuscades, and so impede the progress of the bala 
(war-party). 

** When acting on the defensive, if it is intended to entrap the invaders 
by water, it is customary for the entire force to divide into two equal portions, 
and to be hid in two branches of the main stream, sufficient distance 
apart, and when the enemy are in between, to dash out simultaneously and 
take them in front and rear. If the invading force is too numerous to try 
this, it is customary to lure the leading boats by a decoy boat into a position 
where by reason of the rapidity of the current and obstacles in the river they 
can be taken at a disadvantage, and to scamper off with a few heads after a 
desperate and hurried fight before the main body comes up. 

" It is a defensive measure to blockade the passage up the river with 
huge trunks of trees felled right across, which form a temporary barrier to 
quick progress ; stakes and tukaks are placed in all suitable places, and in 
the shallow beds to impale the feet, as the men have to tumble out of the 
canoe to haul it over the rapids, &c.*' (Brooke Low.) 

While the Meanders boats were punishing some pirates " A few select 
ruffians of this fleet lingered behind, after the main body had quitted the river, 
having dressed themselves in the spoils of their victims, and put on the broad- 
brimmed hat used by the labourers on the farms. Thus disguised, these 
miscreants stealthily dropped down the river in the small canoes which they 
found on the banks; and, imitating the Sadong dialect, they called to the 
women to come out of their hiding-places, saying that they had come to convey 
them to a place of safety. In many instances the stratagem was but too 
successful ; and the helpless women, rushing down with their infants in their 
arms, became the prey of these wolves in sheep's clothing.*' (Keppel Meander 
i. 144.) 

The ranjaus above referred to are practically calthrops and are also by 
the way used in times of peace. Thus Mr. Grant relates : ** At one part of the 
road our guides stopped to draw a lot of ranjows, or sharp-pointed bamboos, 
out of the ground. Some man had left his farm-house, and protected it from 
thieves by sticking these ranjows for some distance around it." (pp. 22, 80.) 
Sir Chas. Brooke's party once had unpleasant experiences with these articles. 
The country was ** thickly spiked by some Dyak enemy many years ago. 
These were not yet rotten, and the grass had grown sufficiently to make them 
very blind. The leading Dyaks took a start to pull them up, as only those 
can who are in the habit of resorting to such schemes of warfare. They are 
mostly of bamboo, about six inches long, and sharpened to a point, and, as a 
band is retiring from an enemy's country, these are stuck in their wake to 



Ambushes, 



1^3 



prevent any others from pursuing ; they are very simple but dangerous 
obstacles to those who have bare feet." (ii. i88.) '* Occasionally the ranjaus 
are poisoned." (Crossland.) 




Dagger. 

Said to come from S.E. Borneo. 

(Leiden Mus.) 



DopoHg Dagger. 

Used at funeral feast, Tiwah. 
S.E. Borneo. 
(Leiden Mus.) 




SwORD-SHEATH BeLT 

Knot (?) 
(Brooke Low CoU.) 



it6 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



" With lelahs or brass guns, muskets, spears, &c., they will keep their 
strongholds, while parties will go sneaking about the jungle in search of stray 
enemies : and when they have successfully resisted an attack, and see the 
enemy retreating, they will harass his rear, securing as many heads as 
possible to take home as trophies." (Grant, p. 92.) 




Kbnniah Shield. 



From Sarawak. 
(Edittbro* Mus.) 



Length, 48}in. 



Surprises. 

On one occasion the Sauhs had driven off the Sarebas and Sakarans, their 
hereditary enemies, and were in grand spirits at this their victory — a victory 
never before achieved against these foes, **But their joy was short-lived; 



Surprises. 



117 



they had reckoned too much on their security, and forgot the bitterness 
created in the hearts of their foes by their repulse and loss. It was not many 
months afterwards, on a fine sunny day, when most of them were busily 
engaged at their farms, that, with the suddenness of a flash of lightning, and 





iw^^^^^^ 




Front. Kayan Shield. Back. 

From Sarawak. On the front, along the median ridge, there is a rib of 

iron twisted at both ends. Decorated with human hair. Length, 49}in. 

(Edinbro* Mus.) 

without any warning, the Sauhs found themselves surrounded by their lately 
discomfited enemies. And that day the Sauhs were no longer victors, but 
vanquished ; between 300 and 400 dead bodies lay strewed on or around the 



ii8 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N, Borneo. 

farms. Besides the heads, the enemy carried off as captives loo women and 
children." (Grant, p. 92.) 

** As Dyak warfare consists of surprises, they do not attack a village, or a 
cluster of villages, if their approach has been discovered and the population is 
on the defensive, but they content themselves with cutting off stragglers, and 
lie in ambush at the waterside for people going to bathe or to examine their 
fish-traps, and in the forest for individuals out hunting or produce collecting." 
(Brooke Low.) Mr. Horsburgh says : " If a small war-party of six or seven 
men embarked in a fast boat, they would conceal it in the umbrageous creeks 
near an enemy's house, and then prowling about in the jungle, would pounce 
upon any unfortunate who might stray near them. Sometimes they would 
even get into the wells of their enemies, and, covering their heads with a few 
leaves, sit for hours in the water waiting for a victim. Then when any woman 
or girl came to draw water, they would rush out upon her, cut her down, take 
her head, and flee into the jungle with it before any alarm could be given." 
(p. 13.) " It was much in this way that the Dusuns drove out the Lanuns 
who had settled north of the Tampassuk. No people in Borneo could cope 
with the Lanuns in battle ; so the Ida'an kept hovering around the Lanun 
villages to cut off stragglers. At last, no one could leave the houses even to 
fetch fire-wood, unless accompanied by a strong armed party." (St. John i. 239.) 
** When old Japer was about to attack the Punans, he stripped off his clothes 
one night, and crawled up to the house. To find his way back he had let out 
some string as he went on." (ibid, ii. 62.) ** But if their approach be 
unknown, they so manage as to reach the settlement before daybreak ; gener- 
ally they draw a cordon round it at midnight, and tighten the circle before 
day-break. If the ladders are down they rush up to the house and take it by 
storm ; if they are drawn up they hurl lighted javelins into the thatch and 
fire it." * (Brooke Low.) 

** The mode of attack adopted by the Kanowits shows the system of war- 
fare of these barbarians. The first house attacked was of the largest size, 
built on piles. A body of four hundred men approached — no arms were used, 
not a spear was thrown, or an arrow shot ; but the Dyaks, covered with their 
shields, crouching along the ground, slowly marched under the house, and 
commenced cutting and burning the posts. The defenders, about fifty in 
number, with their wives and children, cast down between the crevices of the 
bamboo floor every implement they could collect, together with boiling water, 
but in vain. Their fate slowly but surely approached. The fire and the steel 
did their work. The besiegers retreated. The house fell with a dreadful crash, 
and ten men were killed, and fifteen women and children were captured, the 
remnant escaping into the jungle." (Mundy ii. 69.) Later on Sir Jas. Brooke 

> *' upon their arrival near a village, if the party be small, they take up their position in the 
bushes close to some pathway, and attack a passer-by unawares. If the party be large, they are 
bolder in their operations, and an attempt will perhaps be made to surprise the whole village. For 
this purpose they will remain concealed in the jungle, on the banks of the river, during the day, and 
at night will surround the village so completely as to prevent the escape of the intended victims ; and 
an hour or two before daybreak, when the inhabitants are supposed to sleep their soundest, the attack 
will be commenced by setting fire to the houses, and their victims are destroyed as they endeavour to 
escape." (Earl, p. 268.) 



Surprises. 



119 



records a very similar case : " The invading force of tattooed warriors was, 
however, too numerous to be long withstood, and the piles being eventually 
either hacked to pieces or burnt down, the lofty buildings fell with a crash to 
the ground, when, with the exception of a few able-bodied men, who may have 




Kenniah Shield. 
(Rdinbro' Mus.) 



escaped to the jungle, the whole tribe was made captive and carried away in 
triumph to Kanowit. The young and lovely of the women were, of course, the 
greatest prizes." (ibid ii. 124.) So Sir Sp. St. John relates of the cutting off 
of the Orang Kaya Kiei, with his family, in a farmhouse at the foot of the 
Ladan ran^e, by Kayans : ** The Kayans set fire to the rice stalks under the 



I20 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

house, and as the family rushed out they were killed ; a few, who either saw 
the fall of their companions, or were bewildered by the smoke, stayed in the 
house and were burnt to death : ten women and children lost their lives.** 
(ii. 31.) Bishop McDougall is reported to have said that chillies are burnt 
under the houses on account of the suffocating smoke they make. (Mrs. 
McDougall, p. 84.) Is it, however, an ascertained fact that chillies when burnt 
are more offensive than wood smoke ? 

During the punitive attack on the tribes who murdered Messrs. Fox 
and Steele, "the Dyaks advanced madly until they were close, and some 
underneath the house, tumbling over obstacles, dashing right and left, in 
search of some place where they might ascend. The enemy were blowing 
poisonous arrows at them. Our Dyaks commenced clambering up the posts, 
carrying their arms and spears ; and after one had got a footing, peeping 
through the crevice, or removing some fragments occasioned by the shot of 
yesterday, there would be a momentary skirmish, and down they would all go 
to the ground again. A short time after, this scene was repeated, and then 
one had entered. In about five minutes out he came, and down they all 
jumped to the ground, evidently having encountered the enemy inside. One 
foolish and daring fellow had climbed to the top of the roof: of course he was 
killed. One lot entered, and had a fight, sword to sword, with the enemy, in 
which two of our party were killed- And then a man brought a burning 
brand, and set the ends of the building on fire, which immediately after was 
blazing furiously. Now came the horrors of war indeed. Some were burnt, 
some killed, some taken prisoners, and some few escaped. So ended that 
fortification. Its roof fell with a crash, leaving only its smoking embers to 
tell where it had stood. Our Dyaks were mad with excitement, flying about 
with heads; many with fearful wounds, some even mortal. One lad came 
rushing and yelling past the stockade, with a head in one hand, and holding 
one side of his own face on with the other. He had had it cut clean open, 
and laid bare to the cheek-bone, yet he was insensible to pain for the time ; 
but before five minutes elapsed he reeled and fell exhausted. We then 
doctored him the best way we could, by tying his cheek on as firmly as 
possible, in the hope that it would unite and heal. This it eventually did, 
leaving a fearful disfigurement." (Brooke i. 353.) 

A favourite . method is to attack as the Batang Lupar Dyaks did, **a 
house of Bugau Dyaks under Dutch jurisdiction ; the attack was made while 
the men were absent at their farms. Thirty women and children were killed 
and taken captive." (Brooke i. 118.) " This sort of surprise is generally made 
about the time of sowing, weeding, and cutting the rice-crops.'* (Keppel i. 301.) 

A correspondent of the S.G. (No. 104) reports that *'a party of Poi 
Dyaks called at the house of a Kayan chief named Uniat, by whom they were 
fed and kindly treated. In return for this kindness the wretches attacked a 
party of 17 women and children, * Anak biak,* Uniat who were living by 
themselves in a farm. They killed 14 of these unfortunates, amongst them 
being the two children of their late entertainers.'* 

Sir Sp. St. John gives quite a list of treacherous attacks made in 
different parts of the country. Amongst others (i. 42) that ** before the 



Homeric Combats. 121 

Kanowit was well guarded, a Sakarang chief with fifty war boats arrived at a 
village of Pakatan Dayaks, his allies ; he took the men as his guides to attack 
some Punans, who, however, escaped ; mortified at this result he killed the 
guides, and on his return carried off all the women and children as captives." 
There is also the record of the treacherous way in which the Kayans 
possessed themselves of a Murut village in the Blait country. Some captured 
Muruts were sent as deserters into the village and at the end of six months 
they let the Kayans in at night. Their heads were also taken by the Kayans. 
{ibid.) 

Homeric Combats. 

" The great object in their combats is to obtain as many of the heads of 
the party opposed as possible ; and if they succeed in their surprise of the 
town or village, the heads of the women and children are equally carried off 
as trophies. But there is great difficulty in obtaining a head, for the moment 
that a man falls every effort is made by his own party to carry off the body, 
and prevent the enemy from obtaining such a trophy. If the attacking party 
are completely victorious, they finish their work of destruction by setting fire 
to all the houses, and cutting down all the cocoa-nut trees ; after which they 
return home in triumph with their spoil." (Marryat, p. 18.) 

This is confirmed by Mr. Brooke Low : ** In fighting, the warriors cluster 
round their chiefs and are indifferent to the fate of the others so long as the 
chiefs escape with life and limb. Similarly relatives cluster together, 
preferring to entrust their lives to the tender mercies of one another, 
rather than to a stranger ; a relative would bestride his fallen kinsman and 
protect his body from mutilation, when a stranger might decline the combat 
and leave him to his fate. They carry away the dead and wounded when 
possible ; the former they bury, but, if hurried, often so imperfectly that the 
enemy scent them out, dig them up and carry away the heads. When unable 
to carry away the dead, they have sometimes severed the head from the trunk 
and carried it away with them to bury in the forest, rather than let the 
treasure fall into the hands of the enemy." 

During a skirmish on the Sarebas river, ** Janting, with a son-in-law on 
each hand, advanced, followed by his people, and opposed the party with 
drawn swords ; one of his sons cut down his man, decapitated him, and 
Janting himself had come in contact with another, when his other son-in-law 
fell with two spear wounds, and would have lost his head, if his father had 
not most opportunely dealt a terrific blow at his adversary, and then stood 
guard over his wounded relation, while the enemy had time to make off, 
fighting indiscriminately with our people." (Brooke i. 275,) 

Admiral Keppel gives a graphic account of such hand to hand encounters : 
** Three brothers were advancing through the jungle in the usual single file, 
the second leading, when a tiger-like spring from the bush was made on poor 
Bunsie, and he was cut down. His slayer was the redoubtable Dyak chief, 
Lingire himself, near to whose residence the flotilla were advancing. A fierce and 
desperate struggle ensued between the youngest, Tujong, and a Malay, named 
Abong Apong ; he was son-in-law to the Laksimana of Paku, the chief who 
led the late recent severe foray at Sadong. Each combatant was armed with 



122 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



shield and sword : but assistance coming to his enemy, Tujong received the 
fatal blow ; before, however, the fallen man could be decapitated, a musket- 
shot fired by Tujong's party passed through the shield, and entered the body 




Kayan Shield. 



From Koti River. 
(Edinbro* Mus.) 



Length, 55jin. 



of the man who had come to Abong Apong's assistance, making him likewise 
bite the dust. Kalong, the eldest of the three, who was in rear of his 



Homeric Combats. 123 

brothers, saw the danger just in time to fall back, and bring up the assistance 
which saved his youngest brother's head, but not his life. Kalong had also 
had his share of fighting. On the night of the late action, the moon was 




Dyak Shield. Length, 33in. 
(Edinbro* Mus.) 



shining brightly, and he had chased one of the Serebas bangkongs aground. 
A young pirate chief jumped out, and invited anyone of his pursuers to single 



124 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

combat. The challenge was immediately accepted by Kalong: wading on 
shore, he was soon engaged in mortal strife with his enemy, whom he shortly 
slew. The younger brother, Tujong, was to be seen standing in the water, 
ready to take up the combat, should Kalong have been worsted.** " 
(Meander i. i66.) 

Excitement of Warfare. 

During the Kujulan expedition, ** when one party thought they had met 
the enemy, the other part of the force was perfectly mad, throwing off their 
covering, arranging their arms, and making the most fearful noise.*' (Brooke 
i. 173.) During the great Kayan expedition the same intrepid commander 
writes : ** We were now close on the rear of the leaders, who were legion, and 
their din and murmuring were audible for many miles, like an immense swarm 
of bees." {ibid i. 293.) 

On another expedition : ** There was a motley group of some hundreds of 
Dyaks congregated on all sides of my abode, dressed in war costume, and 
vociferating at the top of their voices, declaring that they would rest with their 
forefathers, or die, rather than not have the blood of the enemy. Their 
spitting and spluttering of vengeance was astonishing.** {ibid i. 351.) 

But the Dyaks do not always agree on these expeditions, and are apt to 
fall out over the booty. Sir. Chas. Brooke writes : ** On reaching our force I 
found our Dyaks were fighting among themselves, and disputing over the head 
of an enemy. They were making a fearful commotion, the boats drifting 
across each other, and men standing with drawn swords in their hands. I 
saw there was little time to lose, so rushed down the mud bank to the dingy, 
and shoved into the midst of this promiscuous m6l6e. Janting was the leader, 
vociferating in true Dyak fashion with the utmost exasperation. His temper 
was hot enough to drive him to commit any mischief when once aroused. I 
closed with his boat, placed my hand on his shoulder, spoke a few quiet words, 
asking him not to cast disgrace on the whole of the force by fighting with his 
own friends. He at once silently slunk inside his boat, the sounds died away, 
and peace was restored ; but such rows are exceedingly dangerous and 
unpleasant. No Malay attempted to interfere, and it was only by knowing the 
man that I was able to succeed without resorting to severity, when one drop 
of blood might have led I don't know where.'* (i. 277.) 

They do not appear to mutilate their enemies on the warpath, but Admiral 
Keppel says he "saw one body, afterwards, without its head, in which each 

* When the chiefs engage hand to hand, they, after the spirit of chivalry, throw these (shields) 
away ; after skirmishing with the sumpit they usually come to close quarters ; what the chiefs 
principally aim at is a surprise, but the adverse party knowing his enemy is in the field, always 
provides against this, and as one side is as cunning as the other, they usually in the end come to 
open blows ; their personal combats are dreadful ; they have no idea of fear, and fight until they are 
cut to pieces; indeed their astonishing strength, agility and peculiar method of taking care of 
themselves, are such that I am firmly of opinion a good European swordsman would stand little 
chance with them, man to man, as, except at their arms, he could not get a cut at them. The 
temper of the steel with which they make their mandows is such that a powerful man is not required 
to cut through a musket barrel at a single blow. The Diaks. in fighting, always strike and seldom 
thrust : indeed their mandow is not calculated for it, but the small sword would be useless against 
them as it would not penetrate the thick skin in front, over which, about the navel, they attach a 
very large shell. (Dalton. p. 50.) 



Original Dread of Firearms, 



125 



passing Dyak had thought proper to stick a spear, so that it had all the 
appearance of a huge porcupine." (ii. 65.) 

*' The ancient custom was, that anything by the roadside is anybody's 
when on an expedition, and this is generally adhered to." (Brooke i. 241.) 

Original Dread of Firearms. 

Originally all the natives had a great dread of fire-arms. Writing of the 
Sarebus tribes, Sir James Brooke remarks : ** They are by no means so warlike 




Shield. From Sarawak. Length, 45jin. 
(Edinbro* Mus.) 



as the others, and from their great dread of fire-arms, may be kept in subjection 
by a comparatively small body of Malays. The sound of musketry or cannon 
was enough to put the whole body to flight ; and when they did run, fully the 
half disappeared, returning to their own homes.*' (Mundy i. 236.) 



126 H. Ling Roth.— Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

" If the Dyaks, in a fortified village such as that above described, are 
enabled to resist their invaders for one or two days, they generally escape, but 
should these be assisted by fire-arms, they have little chance, as they are so 
terrified at the report of them, that they generally desert their houses, and 
seek protection in the depths of the forests and the caves of the mountains." 
(Low, p. 285.) 





Kayan Shield. From Rejang River. 
(Dublin Mtts.) 



** Pangeran Mumein justly observed, that as long as the Kayans were 
unacquainted with the use of fire-arms, it was easy to defend the country ; 
but that now the Bornean traders were supplying them with brass swivels and 
double-barrel guns, he thought that the ruin of Brunei was at hand. But the 



Mr. Dalion's Notes on War. 127 

fact is, that though the Kayans are now less frightened at the noise of heavy 
guns and muskets than they were, they seldom employ them in their expedi- 
tions in the jungle, as they cannot keep them in working order/' (St. John 
i. 87.) The Lanuns " are very fond of boasting of their courage, and say, if the 
Europeans would but meet them sword in hand, they would fight them man 
to man." ' (ibid i. 240.) 

7 •* The Dyaks entertain the greatest dread of fire-arms, believing that there is no limit to their 
range, and that an object which can be perceived, however distant, may be struck by a musket ball." 
(Earl, p. 269 ) •• They no sooner hear the report of a gun than they run deep into the jungle ; if they 
are in boats they leap into the water, and, after gaining the shore, never stop until they are out of 
hearing of the report. The most sensible of the Diaks have a superstitious idea of fire-arms ; each 
man, on hearing the report, fancies the ball is making directly towards himself; he therefore runs, 
never thinking himself safe as long as he hears the explosion of gunpowder : thus, a man hearing the 
report of a swivel five miles off. will still continue at full speed, with the same trepidation as at first. 
They have not the least conception of the range of gun-barrels. I have been frequently out with 
Selgie and other chiefs, shooting monkeys, birds. &c., and offended them in refusing to fire at large 
birds, at the distance of a mile or more ; they invariably put such refusal down to ill-nature on my 
part. Again, firing at an object, they cannot credit it is missed, although they see the bird fly away, 
but consider that the shot is yet pursuing and it must fall at last." (Dalton, p. 50.) 

MR. DALTON'S NOTES ON WAR. 

" The ravages of these people are dreadful ; in August, 1828, Selgie returned to Marpow from an 
excursion ; his party bad been three months absent, during which time, besides detached huts, he had 
destroyed seventeen campongs, with the whole of the men and old women ; the young women and 
children were brought prisoners. The former amounted to 113, and the latter about 200. He had 
with him forty war-boats, or large canoes, none less in length than 95 feet. . . . The perseverance 
of the Diaks during an expedition is wonderful ; they generally get information of distant campongs 
from the women taken prisoners (no man ever escapes to tell the tale), who soon become attached to 
the conquerors. In proceeding towards a distant campong, the canoes are never seen on the river 
during the day-time ; they invariably commence their journey about half-an-hour after dark, when 
they pull rapidly and silently up the river close to the bank. One boat keeps immediately behind 
another, and the handles of the paddles are covered with the soft bark of a tree, so that no noise 
whatever is made. (In Selgie' s last expedition, he was forty-one days before a campong was surprised, 
although several canoes were cut off in the river owing to the superior swiftness of Selgie's boats.) 
After paddling all night without intermission, about half-an-hour before day-light, they pull the boats 
up upon the banks, amongst the jungle and thick trees, so that from the river it is impossible to see 
them, or discover the least track of their route. Here ihey sleep, and feed upon monkeys, snakes, or 
any other animals ihey can reach with their sumpits ; wild hogs are their favourite food, and they are 
in abundance ;— if these fail them, the young sprouts of certain trees and wild fruit will answer the 
purpose ; nothing comes amiss to the stomach of a Diak. Should the Rajah want flesh, and it cannot 
be procured with the sumpit, one of the followers is killed, which not only provides them with a good 
meal, but a head to boot. Whilst part of the people are employed in hunting and cooking, others 
ascend the highest trees to examine the country, and observe if a campong or hut be near, which they 
discover by the smoke. Should it be a solitary hut. they surround it. and take care no one escapes; 
but should it be a considerable campong. they go much more warily to work. When the boats have 
arrived within about a mile of a campong. they prepare themselves ; about one-third of the party are 
sent forward, who penetrate the thickest part of the jungle, arriving at night near the houses ; these 
are surrounded, men are placed in every foot-path l^ing from them, for the purpose of intercepting 
all who may attempt to escape into the woods. In the meantime, the remainder of the party in their 
boats, arrive about an hour before day-light, in perfect silence, within a few hundred yards of the 
campong. when most of the warriors put on their fighting dress, and creep slowly forwards, leaving 
a few men in each boat, likewise about a dozen with the women who remain in the jungle. About 
twenty minutes before day -break, they commence operations by throwing upon the attaps of the huts 
lighted fire-balls, made of the dry bark of trees and damar, which immediately involves the whole in 
flames. The war-cry is then raised, and the work of murder commences ; the male inhabitants are 
speared, or more commonly cut down with the mandow. as they descend the ladders of their dwellings 
in attempting to escape the flames, which Selgie remarked to me. give just sufficient light to distin- 



128 H. Ling Roth. — Natives oj Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

guish a man from a woman. The women and children endeavouring to gain the jungle by the 
well-known paths, find them already occupied by an enemy, from whom there is no escaping ; they, 
of course, surrender themselves, and are collected together, with the assistance of day-light, whidh 
they manage so as to be certain of at this moment. When the signal is first given (always by the 
Rajah), the people in the boats pull rapidly ; some are placed up the river above the campong, some 
below it, and the remainder abreast of the huts, so that should any of the unfortunate beings gain 
their sampans, they are certainly cut off in the water. Their principal object is to prevent a single 
person escaping to give intelligence to other campongs, and to arrange the time so that the day 
shall dawn about ten or fifteen minutes after the slaughter begins, which enables them to take 
their stations, and fire the houses in the midst of darkness, and afterwards affords sufficient light to 
secure their prey. On moonlight nights they keep concealed in the jungle, only acting in the dark. 
Heavy rains just previous to the attack are not considered favourable, as the attaps will not bum 
readily, but a smart shower at the moment is always wished for, the noise preventing their 
operations being heard, besides they imagine people sleep soundest about an hour before day-light, 
particularly if it rains. After the women and children are collected, the old women are killed, and 
the heads of the men cut off ; the brains are taken out, and held over a fire, for the purpose of 
smoking and preserving them. The women and children are only secondary considerations ; the 
heads are what they want, and there is no suffering a Diak will not cheerfully endure to be 
recompensed by a single one. From the last excursion Selgie's people brought with them 700 heads 
—of which 250 fell to the share of himself and sons. The women and children all belonged to him 
in the first instance. ... I have been present when Selgie has taken two campongs; the 
inhabitants were surprised and the fighting consequently all on one side, but in a few instances 
resistance was offered. I did not observe them attempt to parry the blows with their weapon, these 
were either taken on the shield or contrived to meet the bamboo cap : as the men of the campong 
had no time given them to cover themselves, they were easily cut down ; the noise is terrific during 
the massacre (for it can be called nothing else), and joined in by all the Rajah's women who 
accompany him in his excursions. An old Diak loves to dwell upon his success on these hunting 
excursions, and the terror of the women and children when taken affords a fruitful theme of 
amusement at all their meetings." (pp. 48-51.) 

WEAPONS. 
General War Costume. 

** The general Sea Dyak war costume consists of a basket work hat, called 
a katapUj and a skin-jacket, called a gagong; in lieu of the latter the klambi 
taiahy a quilted jacket, is used. These form but poor defensive armour for 
the body ; reliance is placed upon the shield." (Brooke Low.) 

*' The costume of a Kayan warrior consists of a round cap {lavong), 
covered with hair of various colours, and two huge eyes to represent a face, 
with long tail-feathers of the hornbill stuck into the top; a war jacket (sifnong) 
made of a goat skin, with a butterfly worked in beads between the shoulders, 
and a large thick shell (blasung) on the breast, and the whole of the back 
covered with hornbills' feathers. Underneath this a quilted jacket is often 
worn as a protection against poisoned arrows, and a small mat about 18 inches 
long and a fpot wide, hangs behind, and is used for sitting on when in the 
jungle. He carries a spear (bakin) in his right hand, and a shield {kalavit) in 
his left, while his long sword (parang Hang) in its sheath, is fastened round his 
waist on his left side, if he is a right-handed man. He carries his rice and 
other small requirements in a description of basket (sarut), provided with two 
straps, on his back. Only chiefs, or those who are known as the bangsa rajah, 
are allowed to wear the feathers of the helmeted hornbill, which is called by 
them tebououly but they are not so particular about the feathers of the rhino- 



General War Costume. 



129 



ceros hornbill which are black and white, though a youth of no importance 
would not be allowed to wear even these. If a man has taken the head of an 
enemy, he is made much of by the women, and, if unmarried, mothers and 
fathers are anxious to secure him for a son-in-law/* (Hose, J.A.I, xxiii. 168.) 




Dyak Shield. 
(Oxford Mus.) 




Dyak Shield. 
(Oxford Mus.) 



** The Muruts were furnished with war jackets and helmets. The former 
were well padded, and thickly covered over with cowrie shells ; the latter was 
of the same material, with flaps hanging, so as to protect the wearer's neck 
from poisoned arrows." (St. John i. 90.) 

K Vol. 2. 



130 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



"The katapu, or helmet, in general use, is a round skull cap of wicker- 
work, with a rush lining and occasionally a skin covering, surmounted by 
either a metal plate or two of fanciful pattern or the scaly armour of the 
tenggolieng. The crown is decorated with the plumage of birds, and the sides 
with tufts of human hair. The rim is bordered with scarlet flannel, and 
embroidered with nassur shells. The Kyans and Kinahs wear on their head- 
pieces the tail plumes of the helmeted hornbill — each plume signifying a dead 
enemy." (Brooke Low.) See pp. 99 et seq. 





Klawang, Shield. 
S.E. Borneo. 
(Leiden Mus.) 



Kbnniah Shield. 
54m. long. 
(Hose Coll.) 



** The gagong, or Sea Dyak war-jacket, is a skin with a hole and slit in 
the neck of it to admit of the insertion of the warrior's head, the animal's face 
falling on his stomach, and its back hanging over his shoulders and reaching 
below the waist. This dress is by no means universal among the Dyaks, as 
suitable skins are not so easy to obtain. Goat skins are preferred by them to 
any other, being long haired at the shoulder, and black is preferred to white ; 
bear skins and panther skins are also in use but more sparingly. The animal's 
face is usually covered with a metal plate, or a mother-of-pearl shell, to protect 
the pit of the stomach, and the back is decorated with bunches of hornbill 



General War Costume. 



131 



feathers. The gagong is worn more for its warlike appearance than for any 
real protection it affords the wearer. It may possibly divert a wooden javelin, 
but it is no defence against the thrust of a spear. The Kinahs wear the 
mandibles of the Bucerotidae (hornbills) in pairs on the breast of their war- 
jackets of skin, to record the number of persons they have killed with their 
own hands — one pair for each person killed. See pp. 103-105. 

The klambi taiah is the baju tilam of the Malays, and is a padded or quilted 
cotton jacket, for the most part sleeveless and collarless. The striped variety 
is the one most in request. It is thick enough to be able to protect the body 
from the blow of a wooden javelin, but it is useless against a spear." (Brooke 
Low.) 





Small Shield. 

One end narrower than the other. Handle at back, cut out of the solid pale- 
coloured wood. Angular front carved with a cross, which with the ends and 
border is painted dark crimson and coated with tinfoil. The interspaces are 
painted yellow ; they are coloured with indigo and dark crimson and also 
partially coated with tinfoil. Length, 23in. ; width, S^in. 
(Brit. Mus.) 



132 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N, Borneo, 



" They have no covering or protection for their thighs or legs, but leave 
them as on ordinary occasions/' (Low, p. i8o.) "The Borneans, in fighting, 
wear a quilted jacket or spencer, which reaches over the hips, and from its 
size has a most unservicelike appearance ; the bare legs and arms sticking out 
from under this puflfed-out coat, like the sticks which support the garments of 
a scarecrow.'* (Keppel i. 155.) 

Spears. 

" Among the Land tribes, particularly those of Sadong, each family 
generally possesses a spear, the haft of which is made of balean wood, and 
towards the brass plate, which binds the blade into the handle, are carved 




Borneo Wood Shield. 

Painted red and decorated with an incised foliated design ; 

edged with cane. Length, 2iin. 

(Edinbro* Mas.) 

rude representations of the human figure in high relief. These stand with 
their backs to each other, and are from three to five in number : like those on 
the war-boats of the Sea Dyaks, these figures generally represent indecent 
attitudes. Their spears are also ornamented with sheets of tin foil, with 
which the haft of the weapon is covered, and also with the feathers of the 
argus pheasant and the rhinoceros hornbill, which latter are usually stuck on 
three little prongs, into which the handle has been cut for that purpose." 
(Low, p. 313.) See pp. 107, 108. 



spears. 133 

" The Sea Dyak slight is a wooden lance, the point of which is hardened 
in the fire. It is used as a missile and is hurled at the enemy. It is usually 
of ironwood (bilian), but the palmwood javelin, especially tmbery, is also used. 
They are showered upon the enemy at the commencement of an engagement 
before the parties are close enough to use the spear, which never, or rarely, 
leaves the hand. 




Borneo Wood Shield. 

A band of red wood down the middle with engraved ornament, and overlaid with lead-foil. 

Length, 32iin. 
(Brit. Mus.) 

"The Sea Dyak sangkoh is a long wooden shaft with a steel spear head. 
The shaft is usually of ironwood, with a spud of bone at its butt end. If it 
has no spud it is pointed so that it can be stuck into the ground. It is 
always held towards the point, rather than by the centre, and over the right 
shoulder, the butt end up in the air, and the point towards the ground. The 
blade is of steel, and is 12 inches in length, and broad towards the point ; the 
tang is not inserted in a sHt in the wood, but is bound on to the stern with 
cane or brass wire, and is very firm. The spear is used at close quarters to 
thrust with, and is held in the right hand — the shield occupying the left. 



134 ^- ^'^^ Roth.— Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

The shaft is occasionally carved, but mofe often plain. I have one in my 
collection with six or seven brass rings, indicating the number of warpaths 
made by its owner." (Brooke Low.) 

Swords. 
" The swords of the Hill tribes diflfer from those of the Sea Dyaks in 
having no wooden handle ; this part of the weapon being of iron, and a mere 
continuation of the blade. The handle of this weapon and its sheath are 





Small Flat Bast Dyak Shield. 

Painted dark-red and blacked ; with cane rim. Wooden handle at back, 
and carved slip of wood along the middle of the front. 
Length, 23in. ; width, gjin. 
(Brit. Mas.) 

ornamented with hair, instead of with the feathers of the argus pheasant. But 
this is put on sparingly, and in small tufts only at the extremities. The 
sheath is always stained red, and very rarely carved, and if such decoration 
be attempted, it amounts to nothing better than mere scratching.'*' 
(Low, p. 313.) See pp. i. 399; ii. no, in, 113. 

* "The sheath is carried by a belt made of very finely plaited rattan ; the buckle or fastening 
consists of a loop at one end of the belt, through which is passed a piece of shell, or the upper 
mandible of the hornbill, or, as I saw among the Tring Dyaks, the kneecap of a human being 
fastened at the other end of the belt." (Bock, p. 193.) 



Swords. 



135 



" The dukn, or parang pedang, is the scimitar so much worn by the 
Malays, and differs only from it in being thicker and heavier. It is formed 
after the pattern of a German cavalry sabre, and has a cross-handle of brass. 
The blade is two-edged at the point, so that it can be used for thrusting as 
well as cutting. The sheath is of some light wood, and is stained crimson 
with dragon's blood. The Undups and Balaus in particular have their 
sheaths covered with silver work, and the hilt with silver. The hollow of the 
hilt is decorated with human hair, 
and the edge of the sheath is 
adorned with a row of the wing 
feathers of the hornbill. The 
Malays wear the sword with the 
edge upwards but the Dyaks wear 
it with the edge outwards. 



Front View. 





Trabai Tern tang. 

Dyak Bambu Shield. 

(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Small Dyak Shield. 

Made of cane ; the front covered with 
plaited buff-coloured reed, rimmed with 
rotan and with a carved slip of dark crimson 
painted wood along the middle. The handle, 
which is the full length of the shield, is 
fastened through on to the slip of wood io 
front. Length, 2oin. ; width, TJn 
(Brit. Mus.) 



** The parang nabur seems to be the only really genume Sea Dyak 
weapon. The parang pedang they have copied from the Malays, and the 
parang Hang is altogether a Kayan weapon, and beyond their powers of 
imitation. The iiabur in ordinary use is a short curved sword with a bone 
handle. This style of sword is broadest at its point of curvature. It does 
not curve like a scimitar from the hilt, but is straight for some distance, and 
takes a sudden curve towards the end, and when the sword is long, as is one 
in my collection, it becomes top heavy and requires both hands to wield it 
effectually. 



136 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N, Borneo. 



" The parang Hang is the Kayan malab (mandau elsewhere), and is 
preferred to any other side arm by Malays as well as Dyaks. It is the 
ambition of every Dyak lad to be presented with one of these." (Brooke 
Low.) 




Utap. Sea Dyak Shield. 

Painted red, ornamented (? strengthened) with strips of cane. 

Length, 44jin. 

(Edinbro' Mub.) 

** The isau of the Balaus is a pretty weapon, and / am told that at one 
time custom required that it should be manufactured only from odd scraps of 
steel and iron collected at odd times, which were first twisted together, then 
welded, and afterwards beaten into shape. The handle, of hard wood or of 
horn, was strengthened and decorated with a number of rings, which were 
demanded from the inhabitants of the long village house, each family 
contributing at least one of either brass or silver. The smith is also said to 
have asked no payment for making an isau/' (F. W. Leggatt.) 



Swords. 



137 



" The Uma Bawangs are famous for their parangs, which they make out 
of their own iron ore." (Brooke Low.) 

Speaking of the Land Dyak tribe, Si Panjangs, Mr. Denison remarks 
(ch. V. p. 57) : " They left Sarawak owing to the oppression of the Malays, 
who were jealous of their skill as workers of iron (to this day the Si Panjangs 
maintain their ancient fame and their swords are much sought after 
throughout the district), and finally drove 
them out of the country." 




Inside View of an Utap Dyak Shield. 

A. handle, being of one piece with the shield ; B B. con- 
cavity to admit of fingers under the handle ; C C, two 
strips of flat dark wood let in through slits under the 
handle and fastened with rotan at ends. The shield is 
in other resp)ects similar to that figured on p. 136. It is 
46in. long and lyin. wide. In the same collection is a 
Kenniah shield, taken at the attack on Long Si Balu in 
1887 ; it is split and the split sewn up by means of thin 
strips of rotan and strengthened by a piece of square 
iron wire running along the median ridge, hooked in top 
and bottom, similarly to that of the shield illustrated on 
p. 117. 
(Hose CoU.) 




Shield of Exceptional Design. 

From Koti River, Dutch Borneo. 

(After Prof. Hain. p. 83. Amsterdam 

Mus.) 



"The Kayans make the curious complex manufacture of short swords 
{parang Hang) possessing concave and convex blades, which are capable, by 
this means, of penetrating either wood or flesh to a surprising extent ; but 
much practice is required to use them properly, as a mistake in the angle 
of cutting, would bring the weapon round and often wound the holder." 
(Brooke i. 50.) "It is made either right-handed or left-handed." (St. John 
i. 121.) " Some of the divisions of the Kayans manufacture their own iron, 
as well as short swords, which fetch as much as £10, if of superior workman- 
ship." {ibid ii. 301.) 



138 H. Ling Roth.— Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

"The Kayans are very 
good blacksmiths, possessing 
forges and anvils, and in 
former days they smelted 
their own iron ; their work- 
manship is neat and ser- 
viceable, and the engraving 
with which they adorn their 
weapons, &c., is finished and 
artistic.'* (Hose, J.A.I, xxiii. 
162.) 

Shields. 

** In action, the left hand 
of the Sea Dyak supports a 
large wooden shield, which 
covers the greater part of his 
body. It is made of the light 
wood of the plye or jelutong, 
about three feet long and 
twenty inches broad, convex 
towards the centre, and of 
the same breadth throughout, 
but cut off angularly from 
each side at the ends, so that 
its greatest length is the 
middle.** (Low, p. 212.) 

" The trabai klit klau, or 
shield, is with its handle 
hollowed out of a single block 
of wood. Its form is oblong 
and convex, with a ridge 
along its centre. It is held 
in the left hand well 
advanced before the body, 
and is not meant to receive 
the spear point, but to divert 
the spear by a twist of the 
hand. It is often coloured 
with red ochre, or painted 
some elaborate design or 
fantastic pattern. It is large 
enough for its purpose, but it 
is small compared with the 
shields manufactured by the 
From Batang Lupar. The ends furnished with strips of Sibus and Others. There 

rotan. Height, 56in. ; width, lyin. are also seen in use among 

(Leggatt CoU.) 




Bows and Arrows. 



139 



them wicker-work shields of plaited bamboo, corresponding to the wooden 
ones in length and size." (Brooke Low.) 

According to Bishop McDougall, "the shields of the Sea Dyaks were of 
two kinds: one, long in form, called Utap; another, round, called Pricei. The 
way they used the first kind of shield was this : they tried to catch the point 
of the sword upon it ; if this succeeded, it would stick in and be held gripped 
by the wood, and before the antagonist could get it out, the other fellow would 
have sliced his head off." (T.E.S. ii. 32.) 

Bows AND Arrows. 

Mr. Skertchly has remarked that it is strange for the natives to have no 
bows and arrows although they have what may be called a bow trap. Mr. 
Crossland tells me the Undup children played with bows and arrows but that 
the grown-up men had none. No writers appear to mention bows and arrows 
excepting Mr. Earl (p. 265), whose words when speaking of the sumpitan are, 
** Some of the tribes possess bows and arrows." There is an old attendant at 
the State Ethnographical Museum at Leiden who was once a soldier high up 
on the Banjer river and he is very positive that the natives shot at him and his 
comrades with bows and arrows. He was. cross-questioned in my presence 
by Dr. Serrurrier, but persisted in his statement. Dr. L. Lewin in the 
introduction to his paper on Borneo arrow poisons (Virchow's Archiv. fttr. 
Path.-Anat., 1894, p. 317) says **it would appear that formerly bow arrows 
were also used in the island." I wrote to Dr. Lewin asking his authority 
for the statement, but I am still without reply, and on Mr. J. D. E. Schmeltz 
similarly writing him, the answer was the papers had been put away and 
Dr. Lewin could not remember his authority. Under the circumstances his 
statement must be accepted with caution, and the whole question as to 
whether some of the natives do really make use of this weapon requires 
further investigation. 






Spurs and Sheaths for Fighting Cocks. 
(Brooks Low Coll.) 



CHAPTER XXL 

r . 

HEAD-HUNTING. 

The Passion for Heads : An old custom — Recent increase — Malay evil influence — Memorial of 
triumph — Pleasing to the gods — Scalps versus heads — Desire for heavenly slaves — Heads for 
burial feasts — To mollify the dead spirit— Pride — Heads from corpses — Attempts to outwit the 
Government— Preventing raids — A head "a blessing "—Enumeration of heads— Children's 
admiration. Decapitation and Preservation : Manner of decapitation — Various methods 
of preserving — Ornamentation — Origin of ornamented skulls — Meyer's remarks— Placement — 
Other bones — Brutal sport. Head Houses : General description— Comfort of— Varieties of. 
Strange Collections. Property in Heads : Division of heads— Chiefs rights and obliga- 
tions — Halves— Dividing block. Cowardly Proceedings : Women and children equally bagged 
— Cunning — Man pushed into river — Attacks on sleep)ers — Treacherous murders — A sweetheart's 
head — A relative murdered — Some fishers' fate — The "finest way possible" Model of child's 
head — The fate of slaves. Women's Influence : Legendary origin— No head no marriage — 
Various facts confirming women's influence— Pounding a head — Prisoners plead women's wants — 
Allies killed— A sole survivor — A lover's trouble. Reception of Heads : Received by women — 
Singe head feast — Balau head boat return and reception — Penyafa poles — Lundu feast — Sea 
Dyak feast — Bantings' feast— Land Dyak feast— Curious Murut feast. Mengap, the Song of 
THE Sea Dyak Head Feast, by the Ven. Archdeacon Perham. 

'* The practice of head-hunting has no doubt obtained among the Dayaks 
from the earliest times, and when carried on by the interior tribes very few 
lives were lost ; but it much retarded the progress of the country, as it 
rendered life and property insecure. The Sakarang and Seribas, within the 
memory of living men, were a quiet, inoffensive people, paying taxes to their 
Malay chiefs, and suffering much from their oppressive practices, — even their 
children being seized and sold into slavery. When the Malay communities 
quarrelled they summoned their Dayak followers around them, and led them 
on expeditions against each other. This accustomed the aborigines to the 
sea ; and being found hard-working and willing men, the Malays and Lanun 
pirates took them out in their marauding expeditions, dividing the plunder — 
the heads of the killed for the Dayaks, the goods and captives for themselves. 
Gradually they began to feel their own strength and superiority of numbers. 
In their later expeditions the Malays have followed rather than led. The 
longing these Dayaks have acquired for head-hunting is surprising. They 
say, ' The white men read books, we hunt for heads instead.' " (St. John.) 

Sir Hugh Low writes to a like effect : ** The passion for head-hunting, 
which now characterizes these people, was not formerly so deeply rooted in 
their characters as it is at present, and many of the inhabitants of Sarawak 
have assured me that they well recollect the tribes first visiting the sea with 
that ostensible and avowed object. In a limited extent the custom is 
probably as ancient as their existence as a nation ; but though other tribes 



Head-Hunting. 141 

appear to be equally addicted to the practice, there can be little doubt that it 
is a corruption of its first institution [as a memorial of triumph, ibid, p. 165] , 
unless, as Forrest says [p. 368] of the Ida'an of the north of Borneo, they consider 
human sacrifice the most pleasing to the divinity, and lose no opportunity of 
presenting it ; but having conversed with the Dyaks frequently respecting 
this practice, they gave no such reason for it, and merely accounted for it, in 
their usual method, by saying, that it was the adat ninik, or custom of their 
ancestors." (Low, p. 188.) 

'* The headmen of the village of Serin told me, though I know not what 
truth to attach to their statement, that when the Land Dyaks first settled in 
Sarawak territory from Sikong, there were no Sea Dyaks in their proximity, 
and head-hunting was unknown. It was not until after they had settled some 
time in various parts of the country, that the Sibuyau Sea Dyaks, in attacking 
them, taught them the custom of head-taking, which they have never followed 
so persistently, or with so much ardour, as the Sea Dyaks, for the simple 
reason that it was not their original custom." (Denison, ch. vii., p. 78.) 

" The Serambo Dyaks say, when they first came from Sikong, they only 
took the hair (the scalp I suppose), but a Peninjauh woman, one Si Tuga, told 
them it was no use taking hair only, the country was put to shame by this 
half measure ; why not take the whole head of their enemies?" (Denison, ch. 
ii. 14.) ** These Dyaks say they will not take a head from a corpse. On this 
account they obtained few heads during the Chinese insurrection. They tell 
a story of Tabiah Dyaks, during the insurrection, killing and taking the head 
of a (Chinese whose companions came up afterwards and hurriedly buried the 
body. Some Sakarran (Sea) Dyaks, who were following the Chinese, perceiv- 
ing the newly-made grave, opened it in hopes of getting the head, and were 
disappointed for their trouble." (ibid.) 

" The Uru Ais believe that the persons whose heads they take will 
become their slaves in the next world." (Brooke Low.) Bishop Chambers 
speaking to the Banting Dyaks of Heaven in accordance with Christian ideas 
was once interrupted by one of them to tell him of " their belief, that the 
persons whose heads had been taken in this world would in the next become 
the servants of the warriors who had taken them." (Miss. Field, 1868, 
p. 222.) The Ida'an also believe ** That all whom they kill in this world shall 
attend them as slaves after death. . . . From the same principle they will 
purchase a slave, guilty of any capital crime, at five-fold his value, that they 
may be his executioners." * (Dalrymple, p. 42.) See infra, p. 163. 

1 " That portion of their creed which obtains the greatest influence over their mode of life, 
arises from a supposition which they entertain that the owner of every human head which they can 
procure will serve them in the next world. The system of human sacrifice is, upon this account, 
carried to so great an extent that it totally surpasses that which is practised bv the Battas of 
Sumatra, or. I believe, by any people yet known. A man cannot marry until he has procured a 
human head, and he who is in possession of several may be distinguished by his proud and lofty 
bearing ; for the greater number of heads which a man has obtained, the greater will be his rank in 
the next world ; and this opinion naturally induces his associates to consider him entitled to superior 
consideration upon earth. A man of consequence cannot be inhumed until a human head has been 
procured by his friends ; and at the conclusion of peace between two tribes, the chief of each presents 
a prisoner to the other to be sacrifice i on the spot. . . . 1'he chiefs sometimes make excursions 
of considerable duration for the sole purpose of acquiring heads, in order that they may be assured 
of having a numerous body of attendants in the next world." (Earl, p. 266.) 



142 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

Sir Hugh Low (p. 335) has mentioned that " among the Kayans before a 
person can be buried a head must be obtained."' ** I once met the Orang 
Kaya Pamancha of Seribas, the most influential chief in the country. He 
was dressed in nothing but a dirty rag round his loins, and thus he intended 
to remain until the mourning for his wife ceased by securing a head. Until 
this happens they cannot marry again, or appease the spirit of the departed, 
which continues to haunt the house and make its presence known by certain 
ghostly rappings. They endeavour to mollify its anger by the nearest relative 
throwing a packet of rice to it under the house every day, until the spirit is 
laid to rest by their being able to celebrate a head feast : then the Dayaks 
forget their dead, and the ghosts of the dead forget them." (St. John i. 71.) 
The Pakatan Japer, who . had 35 people murdered to ease his heart when he 
lost two grandchildren, "denied that head-hunting is a religious ceremony 
among them ; it is merely to show their bravery and manliness, that it may 
be said so and so has obtained heads ; when they quarrel it is a constant 
phrase, ' How many heads did your father or grandfather get V If less than 
his own number, * Well, then, you have no occasion to be proud ! ' That 
the possession of heads gives them great consideration as warriors and 
men of wealth ; the skulls being prized as the most valuable of goods."' 
{ibid, ii. 27.) 

The desire for the possession of heads is well exemplified by the 
persistence with which the Dyaks still try to get permission to go head 
hunting. Mr. Denison was once present at a meeting of which he thus 
writes: ** It seems that a Sea Dyak's relative had died, and, therefore, they 
wanted a head. Some one had told them that a head belonging to one of 
the Lanun pirates killed off Bintulu was available there, and they wanted 

permission from the Resident to go and find it. R talked them over, 

and sent them all home again. Had he granted the permission they asked, 
the whole story might have been a myth, and instead of proceeding to 
Bintulu to look for an old smoke-dried skull, they might very quietly have 
picked up a fresh head without the owner's knowledge or consent— a little 
game these people are fond of playing among themselves." (Jour. Straits 
Asiatic Soc, No. 10, p. 181.) 

Sir Charles Brooke also tells us : " Our Dyaks were eternally requesting 
to be allowed to go for heads, and their urgent entreaties often bore resem- 
blance to children crying after sugar-plums. . . . Often parties of four or 
five would get away to the countries of Bugau and Kantu, in the vicinity of 
the Kapuas river, whose inhabitants are not so warlike as the Sakarang and 
Sarebas Dyaks. As soon as ever one of these parties started, or even listened 

* Mr. Dalton says the same of the Koti Kayans. (p. 9.) 

> " Nothing can be done without them [heads] . All kinds of sickness, particularly the 
small-pox. are supposed to be under the influence of an evil spirit which nothing can so well 
propitiate as a head. A Diak who has taken many heads, may be immediately known from others 
who have not been so fortunate : he comes into the presence of the Hajah and takes bis station 
without hesitation, whilst an inferior person is glad to creep into any corner to escape notice." 
(Dalton. p. 49.) " Whenever a man has distinguished himself in securing heads he is entitled to 
decorate the upper part of his ears with a pair of canine teeth of the Borneo leopard." (Bock. 
P- 187.) 



Head-Hunting. 143 

to birds of omen preparatory to moving, a party was immediately dispatched 
by Government to endeavour to cut them off, and to fine them heavily on 
their return, or, in the event of their bringing heads, to demand the delivering 
up of them, and the payment of a fine into the bargain. This was the steady 
and unflinching work of years, but before many months were over my stock of 
heads became numerous, and the fines considerable. Some refused to pay, or 
follow the directions of the Government ; these were declared enemies, and 
had their houses burnt down forthwith, and the people who followed me to do 
the work, would be Dyaks of some other branch tribe in the same river." 
(i. 142-3.) 

Feasts in general are "to make their rice grow well, to cause the forest to 
abound with wild animals, to enable their dogs and snares to be successful in 
securing game, to have the streams swarm with fish, to give health and activity 
to the people themselves, and to ensure fertility to their women. All these 
blessings, the possessing and feasting of a fresh head are supposed to be the 
most efficient means of securing. The very ground itself is believed to be 
benefited and rendered fertile, more fertile even than when the water in which 
fragments of gold, presented by the Rajah, have been washed has been 
sprinkled over it ; this latter charm, especially when mixed with the water 
which has been poured over the sacred stones, being, next to the possession of 
a newly acquired head, the greatest and the most powerful which the wisdom 
of the * men of old time ' has devised for the benefit of their descendants." 
(St. John i. 194.) 

If further evidence were wanting as to the hold which head-hunting 
maintains over the people the large numbers of heads preserved by them will 
give it. The number is still large in spite of the numerous conflagrations, 
whether the result of accident or an act of war. From Mr. Denison's Journal 
of his tour I have compiled the following figures : p. 15 — 95 and 41 heads ; 
p. 19 — 129, 27, 9, 25, 14, 12 and 16 heads; p. 24 — 9 heads; p. 27 — 2 skulls; 
p. 28 — 6 heads ; p. 33 — 5 heads ; p. 39 — 12 skulls ; p. 46 — 20 skulls ; p. 54 — 
none, but some diamonds highly valued because they had been exchanged for 
some skulls and their fixings ; p. 61 — 30 skulls ; p. 62 — 9 skulls ; p. 70 — 
14 skulls ; p. 72 — 16 and 15 skulls ; p. 73 — 13 skulls ; p. 76 — none, but a fine 
peal of gongs instead ; p. 78 — 50 skulls ; p. 84 — 41 skulls ; making a total of 
610 heads met with on his journey. After such a list it sounds strange to 
read Sir Hugh Low's remark: **But on account of the bloodless nature of 
their wars the heads are seldom numerous and frequently would not equal in 
number the heads in the possession of a single family of the Sea Dyaks." 
(p. 282.) 

From other sources I have compiled the following list : 



20 


Heads 


Hornaday, p. 356 


Sadong. 


21 




St. John, p. 157 


Peninjau. 


30 




De Windt, p. 72 




30 




Sir J 


. Brooke, Keppel i. 


55 Sibuyaus. 


32 




St. ^ 


ohn ; 157 


Bombok. 


33 




St.' 


ohn ; 157 


Sirambau 


36 




Pfeii 


BFer, p. 76 





144 H" Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



about 
over 



36 Heads 

42 
50 
50 
50 

85 



Danao Dusuns. 

Peninjau. 
Mambakut Kiver. 
Dusun village. 



numberless „ 

baskets full of ,, 

(in several houses) 

hundreds of ,, 
several great bas- 
kets full of ,, 
piled up in pyra- 
mids to the roofs „ 
500 



1000 



fWitti Diary, 24 Nov. | 

(Hatton Diary, 11 April I 

Hornaday, p. 485 

Mundy ii. 222 

Burbidge, p. 287 

Whitehead, p. 70 

Crossland Miss. Life, 1874, Katibas ; obtained on a 

p. 9^ single expedition. 

Mundy li. 218 Kimanis R. 

Burbidge, p. 64 Muruts near the Lawas R. 

Sir J. Brooke, Keppel ii. 34 Singeh. 

Wallace i. 84 Menyille. 



Marryat, p. 81 
Earl, p. 319 



Hornaday, p. 450 



Lundu R. 

Near Bruni, " on the 
authority of an American 
gentleman." 

Sentah, said to be men- 
tioned by Sir J. Brooke 
in " Mundy's Narrative." 



A correspondent of the Sarawak Gazette (Nos. 103-104), writing from 
Pulau Majang, on the Dutch border coast, after describing a feast given in his 
honour, continues : *' I have often, after looking at these grim spectres, [the 
smoked head] tried to discover in the faces of the little children around, some 
sign of disgust or disapproval of these horrid spectacles everlastingly facing 
them, as they play up and down the common flooring in every Dyak house, in 
front of the apartments of the married men. But no ; there was no sign of 
anything, but that of perfect satisfaction. Whenever I asked if the sight of 
them was not sad, the answer I received invariably was * No !' On the contrary, 
they would be glad to see more of these spectres hanging up above their own 
heads. There can be no doubt, the being allowed to retain skulls, no matter 
of what age, is, in itself, a source of great evil. The young savage does not 
consider himself entitled to the admiration of his brother savages until he has 
added his own contribution to the gory pile." 

Mr. J. B. Cruikshank told Mr. Grant a funny story about the redemption 
of a head. ** A Mahomedan named Seriflf Amit was killed by a chief of the 
Sibuyow Dyaks, who took his head. Some years afterwards Amit's relations 
came to redeem the head; they offered for it two sacred jars of the value of 
$70, but the Dyaks denied all knowledge of it. The Malays, however, 
persisted that it was there — so the Dyaks said, ' If you do not believe us, 
search the house.' This, however, was not necessary, for the Seriff, being a 
supposed descendant of the Prophet, would decidedly object to leave his head 
in an unbeliever's house. Immediately on the Dyaks denying that they had 
the head, that article fell down from the roof of the house — where it had been 
concealed — and landed at the feet of the assembled relations. It was then 
taken away, and buried at Pulo Burong ; the jars were left with the Dyaks 
and Seriff Amit has been a Kramat (or saint) ever since — happy man!" 



Head-Hunting. 145 

fp- 93«) Once Sir James Brooke " recaptured some heads from the mountain 
of Sing6 and offered them to the relatives of the original owners. They 
declined, however, taking them, alleging as a reason that it would revive the 
sorrows of their relations. It was sufficient, they said, that they had been 
brought from the mountain, and that I might dispose of them.'* (Mundy i. 330.) 

As we have incidentally seen, the Dyaks are fond of referring to the 
original owners of the heads, as they hang in their houses : " While in the 
circular building, a young chief (Meta) seemed to take great pride in answering 
our interrogatories respecting different skulls which we took down from their 
hooks : two belonged to chiefs of a tribe who had made a desperate defence ; 
and judging from the incisions on the heads, each of which must have been 
mortal, it must have be^ a desperate affair." (Keppel ii. 37.) 

Similarly, Mr. Burbidge says of the Dusuns : ** The individuality of the 
skulls seemed well-known to one old man, who pointed out several to me as 
having once rested on the shoulders of some of the Chinese settlers. . . . 
Others were pointed out as the heads of their old foes the Lanun, whom 
the Dusun people detest, saying that they formerly came up to the hills with 
the ostensible purpose of trading, but adding, that they really wanted to steal 
their children as slaves." (p. 287.) 

Methods of Decapitation and Preservation. 

" The way of cutting off the head varies with the different tribes. They 
do not always cut it off the same way. The Dyaks and Bakatans have each 
a different way, and by the manner of it it is known whether it is a pumjong 
iban or a pumjong Bakatan. The Sea Dyaks sever the head at the neck, and 
so preserve both jaws." (Brooke Low.) Sir Sp. St. John writes me saying he 
thinks the head is merely chopped off in the quickest manner possible. 

Mr. Hornaday describes some heads among the Hill Dyaks which had 
** been very carelessly taken. . . . They had been split open or slashed 
across with parangs ; and from some large pieces had been hacked out. One 
I noticed had a deep slash diagonally across the bridge of the nose." (p. 485.) 
Madame Pfeiffer says: *' They cut off the head so close to the trunk,* that one 
must conclude it is done by an extremely practised hand" (p. 89). She 
continues : " Among the men who surrounded me were many who carried at 
the side the little basket destined to receive a stolen head. It was very neatly 
plaited, ornamented with shells, and hung about with human hair. Only such 
Dyaks who have obtained a head are allowed to wear the latter decoration." 
(p. 107.) 

The Sea Dyaks ** scoop out the brains through the nostrils, and hang the 
head up to dry in the smoke of a wood fire — the fire, in all probability, at 
which they are cooking their victuals. Sometimes they tear off a bit of the 
cheek skin and eat it as a charm to make them fearless. They cut off the 
hair to ornament their sword-hilts and sheaths, &c. If the jaws drop they 
fasten them up, and if the teeth fall out, or if they extract them, they fill up 

* On the Koti river, according to Mr. Bock (p. 199). the native " finds it more convenient to 
decapitate his victim below the occiput, leaving the lower jaw attached to the body." 

L Vol. 2. 



146 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 



the cavity with imitation ones of wood. They put studs in the eye sockets, 
but do not carve the skull, as do the Kayans. They generally plug the nostrils 
with wooden stoppers. The tongue is cut out." (Brooke Low.) Mr. Horsburgh 
says (p. 28) : '*The eyes are punctured with a parang, so as to allow the fluid 




Ui o 

Q Z 

< o 

Q -) 



^■1 



contents to escape." The brains are, however, not always extracted through 
the nostrils. ** The operation of extracting the brains from the lower part of 
the skull, with a bit of bamboo shaped like a spoon, preparatory to preserving, 
is not a pleasing one." (Keppel ii. 65.) Both Sir Hugh Low (p. 214) and 
Madame Pfeiffer (p. 89) say the brains are extracted by the occiputal hole. 



Head-Hunting, 147 

Mr. Hornaday mentions a fire ** burning on a bed of earth, and above it hung 
a bundle of about twenty human heads, or rather skulls, for not a vestige of 
flesh remained on any of them. Each skull was bound round securely with 
rattan, evidently to keep the lower jaw in place. All were black and grimy 
with smoke and soot, and those at the bottom of the bundle, nearest the fire, 
were quite charred." (p. 357.) Regarding tliis drying and smoking the same 
traveller elsewhere (p. 485) refers to a collection of forty-two heads, which 
" was in very good condition, the specimens being moderately clean and not 
at all smoked.'' Mr. D. U. V'igors describes some heads ** undergoing the 
operation : and within two feet of it the Dyaks were coolly cooking some wild 
boar chops for their dinner, and inhaling the mingled perfume of baked human 
and hog*s flesh.'' (IIlus. Lond. News, Nov. 10, 1849, P* 3^-) ** This head 
cooking was the most disgusting part of the whole affair.'* (Helms, p. 189.) 

** The heads of the enemies of the Hill Dyaks are not preserved with the 
flesh and hair adhering to them, as are those of the Sakarran Dyaks; the skull 
only is retained, the lower jaw being taken away, and a piece of wood substi- 
tuted for it. These ghastly objects are hung up in the Pangah, which Admiral 
Keppel facetiously calls the *skullery,' and are often painted with lines of white 
or red all over them; they are occasionally blackened with antimony, and have 
cowrie shells placed in the apertures of the eyes, with the flat or white side 
outwards, which in some measure resembles the closed eye, the little furrows 
appearing like eye lashes." (Low, p. 303.) After the Chinese insurrection 
Mrs. McDougall describes : ** Two Chinese heads, laid side by side on a flat 
basket, with a mixture of all the various eatables before them. They had been 
smoked, the eyes taken out, and the nostrils filled out with bits of cork. Each 
head was tied in a fine rattan basket." (Gosp. Miss, 1857, P* ^^7-) 
Mr. Whitehead found among the Muruts that ** many of the heads were 
ornamented with a boar's tusk, which was stuck in the nose, the curve pointing 
upwards." (p. 71.) 

Regarding the carving, or rather the incising of patterns on the skull, 
above mentioned by Mr. Brooke Low as being a custom of the Kayans, 
Mr. C. \V. Pleyte Wzn (Amsterdam Mus.) informs me that the painted 
and engraved skulls come from the Olo Ngadju, in the south-east of 
Borneo. Thus Mr. Doty (p. 300) writing from those parts says: ** Human 
heads are suspended over us as we write. As usual they are ornamented with 
various figures, carved in the bone with a knife, and also ornamented with 
bunches of rattan." The accompanying illustrations give an excellent idea as 
to the nature of these ornamentations, and, while on the subject, I cannot 
omit to reproduce to Dr. A. B. Meyer's very pertinent remarks as to the origin 
of some of these skulls. 

** We have still to discover the exact origin in Borneo of these ornamental 
skulls. The Dresden Museum possesses four, of which two are painted and 
covered with lead or tin and come from the west (Wassink's Coll., 1854, Nos. 
828, 829), and two engraved ones from the north-west (Kessel's Coll., Nos. 
1356 and 1357). I formerly (Mith. Zool. Mus., 1878, iii. 337) described these 
two as coming from the interior of Borneo, which, however, does not agree 
with the information given in Kessel's catalogue, which at the time I had not 



148 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 

by me. By engraved I do not mean superficial incisions which may follow 
the outlines of the painted ornaments, but I mean patterns deeply carved in 
the bone. In the above-named catalogue it says : * Kapala Gatong, skulls 
which are hung up in the houses for ever as trophies; they are mostly 
ornamented and overlaid with lead. The grass [wanting] fastened to the 
sides is called daun gernang ; with regard to its signification I only know that 




Left Moiety of Cranium of Native Batta. 

East coast of Borneo. Orbits filled with gum, 

in which are stuck a large cowrie in the centre 

with small ones radiating round it. 

(Van Kessel Coll., No. 740, in Mus. Roy. College of Surgeons, 
London). 



Skull of Young Male Batta. 

From E. coast of Borneo. 

(No. 739, Van Kessel Coll., Mus. Roy. College 
of Surgeons, London). 




Skull. 

From east coast of Borneo. Roughly incised ; wooden blackened teeth. 

(No 736, Van Kessel Coll. in Mus, Roy. College of Surgeons). 



Head-Hunting, 



149 



at funerals these leaves are planted on the grave and hence probably the 

adorning of the skulls. Kessel also mentions (Z. Allg. Erd., Berlin, N.F., 

1857, iii. 393) that the branch Daun Germis or Daun Kapak is planted on the 

grave. Filet (Plantk. woordenb., 1888) does 

not mention these names. Bleeker (Afmetingen 

van Schedels Nat. T. N. Ind., 1851, ii. 513), 

refers to a bundle of long grass hanging on the 

cheek bones. I perceive from a photograph 

sent me by Dr. Stolpe that a skull in the 

Copenhagen Ethnographical Museum, overlaid 

with lead, has such leaves on the right cheek 

bone. Kessel in his catalogue says in general 

of the Dyaks of the north-west of Borneo * they 

alone ornament their weapons and skulls with 

lead and tin, which ornamentation is not found 

amongst other tribes.* As, however, just the 

two skulls, Nos. 828 and 829 (and the third one 

about to be mentioned from thence), are only 

engraved and not overlaid, they must either not 

have come from the north-west or engraving is 

also customary there. I think the former more 





Cranium of Female Dvak. 

Lower jaw of wood tied on with 
rotan, the hair is caught up under 
and inside the jaw and held there 
by finely-plaited cord of human 
hair. Face covered with tinfoil. 

(No. 738, Van Kessel Coll., Mus. Roy. 
College of Surgeons. London). 




A Very Curiously Prepared Skull. 
The lower jaw is stained inside a deep red with gum dragon, and is fastened on with pieces of rotan. 
Pieces of soft wood have been put into the places of the missing teeth (which are all absent), into the 
nostrils, and in the position of the ears ; other inequalities are filled up with a reddish brown resin ; 
the entire skull has then been covered with tinfoil, two cowry shells represent the eyes, the eye-brows 
and a small tuft of beard are made of stiff black hair, on the vertex and sides of the calvarium there 
is an ornamental, regular, and symmetrical device cut through the tinfoil and coloured red. A string 
passing through a hole in the sagittal suture for suspension in the head-house. District of Sango, 

Sambas Kapoeas. 
(No. 970, Mus. Roy. College of Surgeons, London). 



150 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 




Ornamented Skull with Mended Jaw. 
(Brit. Mus.) 



likely as I have reason for mis-doubting Kessel's statement as to their 
origin. In the Paris Museum in des Murs Coll. (Quatrefages & Hamy, Crania 
Ethn. 1882, 451, note 7, and Montano, Cranes Boughis et Dayaks, 1878, 
59) there is half a skull engraved 
and coloured red -brown to 
which apparently the other half 
in the Dresden Museum from 
Kessel belonged (according to 
Kessel's catalogue from north- 
west Borneo). The latter was 
consequently sent to Paris in 
the year 1880; it was then 
found out that the two halves 
did not fit, perhaps the other 
half of the earlier Dresden 
piece is the same as No. 740 
of the Roy. Coll. of Surgeons 
in London (Flower, Cat. 1879, 
124), which was likewise col- 
lected by Kessel. I do not 
know whether Kessel is right 
when he says that if two Dyaks together obtain one head they cut it in two 
so that each may preserve one half.* The references in the literature of the 
subject, in so far as I have been able to ascertain, give no certain indication 

as to the locality whence these orna- 
mented skulls originate. Swaving 
(Nat. T. N. Ind. 1861, xxiii. 256; 
and 1862, xxiv. 176, 178, 181), de- 
scribes four overlaid or painted skulls 
from West Borneo, but none engraved 
and none ornamented from any- 
where else ; Flower (Cat. Coll. Surg. 
^\^jj^^<tf| JHy y JSB f ^"^^ ^<^79> ^23-125) describes seven orna- 

^(|m| ^^y ^^^^HBE kS^ \ men ted skulls from Borneo, including 

the above-mentioned half: four en- 
graved ones from the N.E., E. and 
S.E. Borneo, one from E. Borneo 
engraved and at the same time 
overlaid with tin, one similar one, 
locality not certain, and one over- 
laid, locality uncertain, all from the Kessel collection. If the correctness 
of the localities given by Kessel are accepted, they certainly seem to me 
doubtful (it is already suspicious that we have specimens from ever}' 
important place in the east), it would mean that engraving and tin overlaying 
occur together, therefore perhaps they are not to be separated geographically 




Incised Pattern on Cranium of Male Dyak 

This cranium is likewise ornamented with tinfoil 

and has cowries for eyes ; the face is similar to 

No. 738. 

(No. 734. Mus. of Roy. College of Surgeons, London). 



• Kessel is quite correct regarding such division of the trophy. See p. 158. 



Head-Hunting. 



151 



and that solely engraved skulls only come from east Borneo, while the two 
Dresdener skulls of Kessel come from the north-west. I certainly do not 

know whether that which Flower 
calls carved corresponds to the 
deep chiselings of the Dresdener 
skulls. Accordingly no conclusion 
can be drawn as to the approxi- 
mate origin of the ornamented 
Dyak skulls described by Quatre- 




Frontal Bone Ornamentation. 

With tinfoil across the supraciliary region 
and above this with symmetrical carving, 
which extends along both parietals ; the 
two holes for suspension are on the upper 
part of the frontal bone. The face and 
lower parts have been stained with gum 
dragon. 

(No. 983, Mus. Roy. College of Surgeons, 
London). 




Cranium of Male Dyak. 

From S.E. coast of Borneo. Incised and 

covered with tinfoil. The false teeth are 

all of wood. 

(No. 735. Van Kessel Coll., Mus Roy. College of 
Surgeons, London). 




Skull of Bugau Dyak 

W. Borneo. 

(From a drawins by Mr. C. M. Pleyte. Curator, 
Amsteraam Ethnograph. Mus. 




LvcisED Pattern on Cranium. 
From S.E. Borneo. 

(No. 741, Van Kessel Coll.. Mus. Roy. College 
of Surgeons, London). 



fages and Hamy as Negritoe skulls from the heart of Borneo. Others 
who describe Borneo skulls generally omit to mention the origin; so for 



152 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 




example, Barnard Davis (Thes. Cran. 1867, fig. 291) describes three engraved 
skulls, Nos. 1307, 1308, 141 1, and one engraved and overlaid (No. 1406, 

fig. 83) all without mentioning 
origin and he only mentions the 
origin of one (fig. 284) overlaid 
and engraved from Sambas 
Kapuas, that is west Borneo ; 
Dusseau (Musee Vrolik, 1865, 
113) describes two overlaid with 
tin without stating origin ; then 
Stolpe describes one (Expos. 
Ethn. Stockholm, 1881, pi. 68) 
engraved and painted without 
mentioning origin. Besides the 
one ornamented with leaves 
already mentioned as being in 
the Copenhagen Museum there 
is one engraved and painted red. 
In the Catalogen der Anthropolo- 
gischen Satnmlungen Deutschlands 
there is mention of only a very 
few ornamented Borneo skulls : 
Gottingen (1874, 5^) has one 
overlaid, origin not mentioned, 
and Leipzig (1886, 139) has one 
engraved and one 
overlaid, origins not 
indicated. In Aus- 
land (1867, p. 305 
fig. i) Lungers- 
hausen illustrates 
an engraved skull 
from Sambas on the 
west coast. Per- 
haps by means of 
other accounts such 
as I have not at 
hand and by means 
of the style of orna- 
mentation it may 
be possible to loca- 
lize the origin, for it 
would be contradict- 
ing the experience 
Dyak Skull in Stockholm Museum. of Ethnography 

Side view. Were the same sort 

(From " Craiiia Ethnica •) of dcCOratioU tO be 



Dyak Skull in Stockholm Mlseum. 

Front view. 

(From " Crania Ethnica.") 




Head-Hunting. 



153 



found in fashion over the whole of Borneo. We should have to distinguish 
between engraved skulls, overlaid skulls, and skulls engraved and overlaid 
as well, and each of these three classes would be combined or not with 
painting." (The Negritos, Dresden foL, 1893, p. 72.) 

"Occasionally the heads are hung up in a net'* (Mundy ii. 115); and 
Madame Pfeiffer describes the skulls as **hung up like a garland."® (p. 76.) 
Mr. Hornaday speaks of heads hung in a semi-circle round the room. (p. 485). 
Mr. Pryer says the same on the west coast. (J.A.I, xvi. 233.) Lieut. Marryat 
thus describes (p. 13) the heads hung up in a Land Dyak pangga or head- 
house: **The beams were lined with human heads, all hanging by a small line 
passed through the top of the skull. They were painted in the most fantastic 
and hideous manner; pieces of wood, painted to imitate the eyes, were inserted 





Heads Strung in Rotan. 

Said to come from interior of Borneo. 

(Oxford Mus.) 



into the sockets, and added not a little to their ghastly grinning appearance." 
The wind rocked them about, and ** what with their continual motion, their 
nodding their chins when they hit each other, and their grinning teeth, they 
really appeared to be endowed with new life, and were a very merry set of 
fellows.*' 

The same author, in describing a Lundu head dance, says : ** The heads 
were encased in a wide network of rattan, and were ornamented with beads. 
Their stench was intolerable, although, as we discovered upon after examina- 
tion, when they were suspended against the wall, they had been partially 

• The heads obtained on these occasions are dried and brought home by the captors, and are 
then stuck up in the most conspicuous places about their houses, the teeth being sometimes extracted 
and worn round the head and neck, in lieu of beads." (Earl, p. 268.) " On the Koti river the dried 
skulls are said to be wrapped in banana leaves." (Bock, pp. 84, 199 ) 



154 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

baked and were quite black. The teeth and hair were quite perfect, the 
features somewhat shrunk, and they were altogether very fair specimens of 
pickled heads." (p. 85.) Sir Jas. Brooke (Mundy ii. 115) likewise refers to 
the use of the net by the Sibuyaus. Admiral Keppel (Meander i. 172) speaking 
of their condition among the Sakarrans says : ** In every house evidence was 
found of their fondness for human heads ; they met our senses in every 
stage of what was considered preservation, — from the old and dried-up, and 

therefore less offensive, to 
^..--^r^T' ^-^^^^ the fresh-baked, and 

therefore very unpleasant 

specimen." 

Sir James Brooke also 

refers to *'the numberless 

human skulls, pendant from 

every apartment, and sus- 
:?| pended from the ceiling in 

regular festoons, with the 

thigh and arm bones occu- 
pying the intervening 

spaces." (Mundy ii. 219.) 

Later on he refers to the 

packages of human bones 

found with the heads, (ii. 










Skull of a 

Bandjermassing Man. 

(No. 279, Barnard Davis Coll., 




Dyak Man Skull. 



(No. 1406, Barnard Davis Coll., Roy. 
College of Surgeons, London). 



Roy. College of Surgeons, London.) 222 ) 

Muruts **also cut off the first joint of the limbs, which they bring back with 
the head ; these, he said, they amused themselves with by throwing at their 

women on such occasions. I should 

quite imagine Murut brutality equal to 

even this." (Whitehead, p. 72.) At Pan- 

geran Sarfudin's, among the Dusuns, 

under Bruni rule, Mr. Witti saw **a 

human hand and forearm nailed up on 

a door-post." (26 May, Diary.) 

Among the Sea Dyaks the heads ** are 

preserved with the greatest care, and 

baskets full of them may be seen at any 

house in the villages of the sea-tribes, 

and the family is of distinction according 

to the number of these disgusting and 

barbarous trophies in its possession ; 

they are handed down from father to 
son as the most valuable property, and an accident which destroys them 
is considered the most lamentable calamity. An old and grey-headed chief 
was regretting to me one day the loss he had sustained, in the destruction 
by fire, of the heads collected by his ancestors." (Low, p. 214.) 

At Unbuckun, a Dusun village, Mr. Von Donop was shown the there 
** usual custom of displaying wisps of straw on the house tops, each of which 





Land Dyak 

Preserved Skull 

(After Mr. Marryat). 



Dried Head Tied ur 
IN Leaves. 

S.£. Borneo. 
(Leiden Mus.) 



156 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



denotes a head ; but on entering the house they were not to be seen."' (Diary, 
27 May.) 

Head Houses. 

While, as seen above, the Sea Dyaks, Kayans, and others ornament their 
dwellings with the captured heads, the Land Dyaks have houses specially built 
for their reception, and these houses form the bachelor's quarters. ** In the 
villages of all the tribes of Land Dyaks are found one, and sometimes more 
houses of an octagonal form, with their roofs ending in a point at the top. 
They always stand apart from the others ; and instead of having a door at the 
side, these, which are never built with verandahs^ are entered by a trap door 
at the bottom, in the flooring. These houses vary in size, according to the 

wants of the hamlet by which 
they are built ; but are generally 
much larger than ordinary 
domiciles. The term by which 
theyaredistinguished is Pangah 
Ramin, being the Dyak word 
for an ordinary house. The 
Pangah is built by the united 
efforts of the boys and un- 
married men of the tribe, who, 
after having attained the age 
of puberty, are obliged to leave 
the houses of the village; and 
do not generally frequent them 
after they have attained the age 
of eight or nine years. A large 
fire-place of similar construc- 
tion to those of the ordinary 
residences, is placed in the 
centre of this hall, and around 
its sides are platforms similar 
to those used by the women in the other dwellings of the village." (Low, 
p. 280.) Sir Sp. St. John (i. 130), however, says: "They are circular in 
form, with a sharp conical roof. The windows are, in fact, a large portion 
of the roof, being raised up, like the lid of a desk, during fine weather, 
and supported by props ; but when rain or night comes on, they are 
removed, and the whole appearance is snug in the extreme, particularly 
when a bright fire is lit in the centre, and throws a fitful glow on all the 
surrounding objects. Around the room are rough divans, on which the 
men usually sit or sleep." 

7 •• Nearly every village has its special symbol, in recognition of the distinction which its 
inhabitants have gained in successful head-hunting, consisting, generally, of a large wooden post 
placed in a conspicuous position in front of the village, ornamented with some local device or crest. 
At Long Wai this crest is merely a ball, with a spike on the top. At Dassa and Langla, it was a 
monstrous head ; at Long Puti, a figure representing a crowned Rajah in a very inelegant attitude." 
(Bock, p. 220.) 




Serambo Head House. 
(After Capt. Sir E. Belcher, p. 26). 



Head-Hunting. 



157 



Mr. Collingwood's description is very much like the last one. (p. 237.) 
The comfort offered by the head house is attested by Mr. Wallace, who 
describes it as **a circular building attached to most Dyak villages, and 
serving as a lodging for strangers, the place for trade, the sleeping-room of 
the unmarried youths, and general council chamber. It is elevated on lofty 
posts, has a large fire-place in the middle, and windows in the roof all round, 
and forms a very pleasant and comfortable abode." (i. 103.) Mr. Denison 
makes frequent references to these head houses, and mentions variations in 
their size, build, cleanliness, and comfort. " At Grogo the head house was 
clean but surrounded by filth and refuse, (ch. iii., p. 24.) Among the Aups 
it was insecure, he dared not enter it. (ch. iii., p. 33.) At Tringas it was 
small and dirty; it was not round but irregular, but it had the fire-place in the 
centre, (ch. iv., p. 39.) At Si Badat 
the two head houses are constructed 
with higher roofs, not round, but irre- 
gular in shape, small and dirty, (ch. v., 
p. 46.) At Sign it was remarkably lofty 
and steep ; it was new, clean, and 
comfortable, (ch. vii., p. 73.) At Jinan 
it was in ** good order, square in shape 
(the first of the kind I had yet met 
with), constructed of planking, with 
split bamboo floor and a narrow ve- 
randah ontwosides." (ch.viii.,p.83.) 
At Lanchang there **are four head 
houses ; some of these panggas are 
circular in shape not large, but, with 
a very high steep pitched roof, the 
upper portion of which is perpendi- 
cular and made of attaps, and the 
lower part of planking. The head 
house, however, in which I stayed 
was large square and parallelogram 
shaped, and perhaps twelve feet from the ground with a low pitched 
roof. The walls were constructed of planking, and instead of the roof 
being made to be raised as is the case with the Land Dyak house in 
general, narrow doors were introduced at irregular distances. There were 
six of these besides the entrance door, and they opened on a small narrow 
verandah of split bamboo {lantis) two feet broad which ran round the whole 
building. The floor was made of lantis, there was as usual a cooking place 
in the centre of the room and a few raised sleeping places." (ch. viii., p. 83.) 
**The head house [at Mungo Babi] which I occupied was clean, and 
differently constructed from that of Lanchang, being circular in shape, with 
the perpendicular straight pitched roof, and windows as usual of attaps which 
could be raised or lowered at pleasure." (ch. viii., p. 84.) The Dusuns 
would appear to have head houses, for Mr. Burbidge speaks of a ** little flat 
topped hut which served as a head house." (p. 287.) 




Pangah, or Land Dyak Head House. 
(After Sir Hugh Low, p. 281.) 



158 H. Ling Roth. — Natives 0] Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

Some of the Dusuns do not preserve the heads of their enemies. (De 
Crespigny, Proc. R. Geogr. S. ii. 348.) The Bakatans and Ukits^donot 
value heads (Brooke i. 74), but will take them out of revenge. (St. John ii. 
66.) 

Strange Collfxtions. 

In connection with this mania for human head collecting, these people 
also occasionally add that of an animal to their store. Mr. Hornaday found 
the skull of a young orang utan amongst the human heads, (p. 485.) Sir Sp. 
St. John mentions, amongst a batch of heads, ** the skull of a bear killed 
during a head-hunting expedition/' (i. 157.) Mr. Witti, in the Langsat 
country, remarks: "Curious that in sifting the human heads I came on the 
skull of a sun-bear {ursus malayanus) " (Diary, 26 May) ; and at Tambunan, 
"In most villages the skulls of monkies are preserved ; in others, those of deer 
or pigs ; in many, only the lower jaws of deer, the carapaces of land tortoises, 
the bladders of goats, and the drum-sticks of fowls." (Diary, 29 Nov.) Mr. 
Whitehead enumerates the skulls of monkeys, deer, pigs, rats, &c., &c. (p. 109.) 
In 1869, Mr. A. Hart Everett, at a Singg^ village says: ** I lit upon a veritable 
tiger's skull, preserved in one of the head-houses (panggah). It was kept with 
other skulls of the tree-tiger, bear, muntjac deer, &c., in certain very ancient 
sacred dishes, placed among the beams of the roof, and just over the fire-place. 
It was so browned and discoloured by soot and dirt, and the Dyaks were so 
averse to my touching it, that I was unable to decide whether it was a fossil 
or a recent skull." They said it came in a dream to them, and had no 
recollection of its first arrival. " The dish on which it lay was of a boat-like 
form, and was of camphor-wood, and quite rotten. On a second visit I made 
an attempt to purchase it, but the people were so horrified at the idea of its 
removal, that I reluctantly desisted. The chief of the village declared that, in 
consequence of my having moved the skull on my last visit, the Dyaks had 
been afflicted by heavy rains, which had damaged their farms ; that once, 
when a Dyak accidentally broke a piece of the bone, he had been at once struck 
dead with lightning ; that its removal would bring about the death of all the 
Singghi Dyaks, and so forth. Afterwards the Rajah of Sarawak kindly 
endeavoured to persuade the Dyaks to part with it to him ; but they begged 
that he would demand anything rather than this skull, and he therefore did 
not push the request."* (Jour. Straits Asiatic Soc, No. 5, p. 159.) 

Property in Heads. 

Property in the heads seems to vary in different tribes. "When two or 
more tribes of Land Dyaks combine to attack another tribe, and one head 
only is obtained, it is divided, so that each may have a part ; in honour of this 
moiety, all the same ceremonies are observed, as if they had a whole head." 

" The Bukkits do not go head-hunting. (Bock, p. 244.) 

• " Among the heads is a small bowl, carefully tied up with cord. On enquiring its use and 
meaning we were told that it is a challenge from a rival Dyak Kampong of the Mempawa region. 
This seems to be an emblem chosen by common consent, as a warning for any village receiving it, 
to look out for their heads." (Doty, p. 300.) 



Head' Hun ting. 159 

(Low, p. 304.) Speaking of the Sea Dyaks the same authority says : ** These 
trophies are not, as amongst the land-tribes, the general property of the village, 
but the personal property of the individuals who capture them, though the 
honour of the tribe is augmented by their being in the village/' (p. 214.) On 
the other hand, however, Mr. Brooke Low, discussing these people, says : 
" The head does not, in an expedition, belong to the person who takes it. It 
belongs to the chief, and if there are several it is distributed among the leading 
chiefs. If only one head is obtained, and there are many claimants to the 
honour of salauing it, it is broken into pieces, and a fragment given to each ; 
but this is not popular with the Dyaks, and it is more usual for the most 
powerful chief to keep it. But the chief who salais a head undertakes a great 
responsibility, as he by that act aspires to be a war chief, and must lead the 
people on the warpath. They look up to him, &c. They do not mind his 
keeping the head as long as he gives them an opportunity of cutting off others. 
When brought home the head is hung up in the verandah of the house outside 
the chief's apartments, along with the smoke-blackened cluster of heads 
depending from the sloping roof and overhanging the fireplace." 

Admiral Keppel, describing a collection of skulls, continues : ** Among 
other trophies was half-a-head, the skull separated from across between the 
eyes, in the same manner that you would divide that of hare or a rabbit to get 
at the brain — this was their division of the head of an old woman, which was 
taken when another (a friendly) tribe was present, who likewise claimed their 
half. I afterwards saw these tribes share a head." (ii. 37.) 

Among the Dusuns Mr. Witti was shown a sort of natural clearing in the 
jungle, where ** there is a stone block *° on which the division of skulls is made. 
These Dyaks are said never to go beyond quartering a head, smaller shares 
being made up in kind. On that block could be seen stains of blood. Near 
by is a rude scaffold which serves to exhibit the trophies. But the queerest 
feature of that spot was a young sugar plant, sprinkled with blood, and care- 
fully fenced in, — why not a forget-me-not ? " (Diary, 26 March.) 

Cowardly Procedures. 

** Among the Dusun the men that took heads generally had a tattoo 
mark for each one on the arm, and were looked upon as very brave, though, 
as a rule, the heads were obtained in the most cowardly way possible, a 
woman's or child's being just as good as a man's."" (Pryer, J.A.I, xvi. 233.) 
** The maxim of these ruffians [Kayans] is, that out of their own country all 
are fair game. * Were we to meet our father, we would slay him.' The head 
of a child or of a woman is as highly prized as that of a man ; so, as easier 
prey, the cowards seek them by lying in ambush near the plantations." (St. 
John ii. 66.) The Mount Dulit Dusuns told Mr. Witti (Diary, 16 Mar.) that 
they had no skulls in their houses or elsewhere, but they say the Limberan 

'® Mr. Hup^ (p. 720) mentions a stone used for preparing the skull, and refers the reader to his 
report for details, but I have not succeeded in tracing them. 

" "The possession of a human head cannot be considered as a proof of the bravery of the 
owner for it is not necessary that he should have killed the victim with his own hand, his friends 
being permitted to assist him or even to perform the act themselves." (Earl, p. 267.) 



i6o H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 

people, a day's journey off, '* collect the crania of their enemies. That is to 
say, whatsoever cranium they can get hold of somehow, providing it was 
procured by violent death. Thus, such a skull might be stolen and yet 
genuine." In trying to make a settlement between Jeludin and the Peluans 
(see supra.y vol. i. p. 98) Mr. Witti found that the latter would not count as 
against themselves heads obtained on head hunting excursions, but only those 
of people who had been making peaceful visits, &c. In fact "the sporting head 
hunter bags what he can get, his declared friends alone excepted." (Diary, 
25 Mar.) 

The cowardly method in which heads were taken is illustrated by many 
an anecdote. Admiral Keppel, when a Dyak was naming the individuals to 
whom the heads originally belonged, says, "the skulls, the account of which 
our informant appeared to dwell on with the greatest delight, were those 
which were taken while the owners were asleep — cunning with them being 
the perfection of warfare." (ii. 37.) 

** Here are a couple of extracts from Mr. Hatton's Diary : ** Only seven 
days ago a head was taken at a tree bridge over a torrent. A Dampas man 
was walking over a felled tree (which in this country always constitutes a 
bridge), when four Sogolitan men set on him, pushed him down the steep 
bank and jumping down after him took his hand and head and made away. 
I saw the victim's head and his hand in a house not far from the scene of the 
murder. (18 March.) ... A great many people have left owing to a 
fright of the Muruts, who made a raid here about seven months ago. The 
people from Lebu came down on Danao at night and firing a volley from their 
sumpitans into the sleeping house, they rushed in, took seven heads from one 
house and three from another, one a woman's. During the fight one of the 
Lebu men fell, and his head still new% hangs in the Danao house. The 
method of attack of these Muruts and indeed of all the tribes, is cowardly in 
the extreme. It ought to be called head stealing not head hunting. They 
wait in the bush watching the house all day, and about 3 o'clock in the 
morning, whenlevery one is asleep, they enter the house, take as many heads 
as possible and decamp at full speed." (11 April.) 

The following treacherous head murder " is related by Sir Chas. Brooke : 
" A party of five Malays, three men and two women, left Sakarang to go to 
Saribus for the purpose of meeting some of their relations. Thus they met 
a boat's crew of Dyaks while in Saribus, and spoke together, saying they 
were traders, and they were also seeking for fish. When the Malays were 
leaving Saribus to return, the Dyak boat followed in their wake, entered this 
river together, and on the following day proceeded to carry out their sly and 
murderous design. In the morning they offered their swords for sale, and 
sold or exchanged one, permitting the Malays to make an exceedingly 

i« •• A year after my arrival on the coast, the entire population of Slaku, a town situated a few 
miles distant from the mouth of the Sambas river, was cut oflf during a night attack by a powerful 
tribe of wild Dyaks from the north-west coast ; and although the town, which was occupied chiefly 
by Chinese, contained large quantities of rich merchandize, they were contented with the iron and 
trifles, with which, together with the heads of their victims, they departed unmolested to their 
homes." (Earl, p. 269.) 



Head-Hunting. i6i 

profitable bargain ; they then proposed fishing with a hand net on the mud 
bank, and persuaded a Malay named Limin (who was well known and 
considered a brave man) to separate from the others, to cast the net ; this 
was done for some time, and they were successful in bagging fish, and were 
going further and further from the boats. At length the net fouled on a 
stump at the bottom, and one of the Dyaks immediately off sword and 
dived down, as poor Limin thought, to clear it, but instead of doing so the 
wily rascal twisted it firmly round and round, came up to take breath, and 
then again dived, and again twisted it in divers ways round the stumps ; he 
then rose, and said he could not clear it, but asked Limin to try. Limin 
unsuspectingly took off his sword, dived, and on approaching the surface 
breathless, the two Dyaks struck and decapitated him without a sound. 
They then took his head and returned to their boat. A third [sic] Malay was 
persuaded to administer some cure to a Dyak's foot, which was bleeding 
slightly ; while the Malay was leaning over and looking to the wound, one of 
them chopped off his head from behind. After this the women were 
decapitated. They lost one head, which tumbled into the water, but the 
other four, with all the property belonging to the Malay party were taken and 
carried away to Sadok." (ii. 124) 

A still more dastardly head murder is mentioned by Sir James Brooke 
(Mundy ii. 66) : A young Sitakow Dyak went up country with a Chinese 
trader and on his way up made the acquaintance of a young woman of the 
Saribas (Dutch) country. He kept company with her and on his return he 
again visited her. Then he slew her and ran off with the head. ** Had he 
been on a war path and taken the head of an enemy, though that enemy 
were a woman, he, as a Dyak according to the Dyak code of morality, 
incurred no guilt ; but on the contrary, if he tempted and deceived this 
woman and treacherously murdered her even as a Dyak, he would be 
considered guilty amongst Dyaks." 

** An atrocious case happened many years ago up the Batang Lupar, 
where a young man started on an expedition by himself to seek for a head 
from a neighbouring tribe. In a few days he came back with the desired 
prize. His relatives questioned him how it was he had been away so few 
days, as they had never been able to do the same journey in double the time. 
He replied gravely that the spirits of the woods had assisted him. About a 
month afterwards a headless trunk was discovered near one of their farms, 
and on inquiry being made, it was found to be the body of an old woman of 
their own tribe, not very distantly related to the young fellow himself. He 
was only fined by the chief of the tribe, and the head taken from him and 
buried.*' (St. John, i. 69.) 

The cool matter-of-fact way in which those who have taken heads behave 
is quite extraordinary. They cannot possibly have any idea as to the wrong 
they are doing. At Bintulu, writes His Highness: *'A fine young Kayan 
chief sat near me, an independent-looking fellow, and head of a long house 
many miles further inland. One of the inhabitants lodged a complaint 
against this young fellow for having killed two of his people about a year ago, 
and asked me whether he might demand a fine of the tribe. I gave him 
M Vol. a. 



i62 H. Ling Roth. — Nativea of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

permission to do so, according to the custom which had been in vogue 
previous to the country coming into our possession. On inquiring of the 
young chief if such had really taken place, he said, ' Oh yes ; my brother 
killed them and took their heads while they were fishing a little way below 
our house." He evidently looked on it as a natural consequence, because 
their heads were required for a Kayan holiday, as wild deer's flesh might be 
required to satisfy hunger. There was no use in lecturing or reasoning, and 
I was not in a position to command, so the matter was permitted to rest." 
(ii. 223.) 

** In 1857, when all the Europeans were making their escape from the 
Chinese, who attacked and occupied Sarawak, the bishop collected the 
women and children and non-combatants, and embarked them on board a 
native craft to sail away to another river where there was a mission-station. 
It was a dreadful night, and all the poor creatures were huddled together 
below vainly endeavouring to keep themselves dry, as the deck, being native 
fashion, was made only of matting and laths, and leaked throughout. The 
closeness and steam below, during the night, were most trying; but there 
was besides a horrid stench, which the bishop's wife and others said they 
could not possibly endure any longer ; so as soon as ever the vessel was 
brought to in smooth water, a search was made ; and a Chinaman's head 
was found beneath the place where Mrs. McDougall and her children were 
sitting : it was in a Dyak basket or Tambuk, and it plainly belonged to a 
young Dyak who was on board the boat. On being questioned about it, he 
proudly said it was his, and that he procured it in the 'finest way possible.' 
He was prowling about the fort at Sarawak, which the Chinese had taken 
and occupied, and while they were in it and had myself in their hands there, 
he went into one of the rooms, lately occupied by the English commander of 
the fort, and saw a Chinese admiring his own face in a broken looking-glass 
hanging on the wall. The man did not see him ; but his bare neck and 
stooping head were in so tempting a posture for decapitation, that the Dyak 
could not resist the temptation, he whipped out his sword, smote off the head 
at one blow, popped the coveted trophy into his basket, and walked away 
through the Chinese outside, while the headless trunk of their comrade was 
yet quivering on the floor of the inner room." (Bishop McDougall, T.E.S., 
ii. 30-) 

Mr. Witti mentions two heads being taken from children. (Diary, 
24 Nov.) The Sibuyaus showed Sir J as. Brooke several heads, but they said 
they only took heads of women when enemies. (Keppel i. 86.) Mr. Whitehead 
relates that he once saw ** a small wooden model, resembling somewhat the 
shape of a man, which I at first took to be a Murut household idol; but when 
I enquired of our host what this peculiar model really was, they answered that 
it was the model of a child which they had killed on one of their expeditions, 
but, as the skull would not keep, they carved out this as memento of their 
bravery." (p. 70.) Elsewhere (p. 76) he again refers to dummy wooden 
skulls among these people." 

^' "It is said that some of the tribes consider the heads of women and children to be more 
valuable than those of the men, but this is merely hearsay ; and though perhaps, on some occasions, 



Head'Hunting, 163 

" During the famine in Sooloo, in 1879, ^ great many slaves and captives 
were taken over to Booloongan and there sold, and in most cases the purcha- 
sers cut ofi their heads for that reason. The number of slaves and kidnapped 
people so taken over was estimated at 4,000." (Pryer, J.A.I, xvi. 233.) Mr. 
Hatton speaks of a captive at Sinorant being killed for the sake of his head. 
**The unfortunate was a slave of Datu Serikaya, of Tandu Batu, in the Labuk. 
This man was sold to Degadong, the Dusun chief, of Tanaorunn, for gutta, 
paddy, and a gong. Degadong, getting tired of his slave, sold him to some 
travelling men of Sinorant, who took him home to their village and made him 
work in the fields. He tried to escape, and so the savages took his head ; 
and his skull, still white, hangs in the house, on a line with those which were 
taken ten years ago." (Diary, 11 April.) 

** A hundred years ago, it was reported that the Ida'an were in the habit 
of purchasing Christian slaves of the pirates, in order to put them to death for 
the sake of their heads. If it were ever true, I believe it is not so now, as we 
never noticed dried skulls in any of their houses, except at Tamparuli ; and if 
they had been given to any such practice, the Bajus, who never missed an 
opportunity to malign them, would have mentioned the subject to us." (St. 
John i. 345.) Mr. Burbidge was once told *' that a party had been out head- 
hunting for a fortnight, but had failed to pounce upon any Murut of another 
tribe ; so to end the suspense they had seized one of their own slaves, who had 
in some way offended them, and had made a scapegoat of him." (p. 65.) 

Women's Influence. 

From all accounts there can be little doubt that one of the chief 
incentives to getting heads is the desire to please the women. It may not 
always have been so and there may be and probably is the natural bloodthirsti- 
ness of the animal in man to account for a great deal of the head taking. 
Mrs. McDougall relates an old Sakaran legend which says that the daughter 
of their great ancestor ** who resides in heaven, near the Evening Star, 
refused to marry until her betrothed brought her a present worth her 
acceptance. The man went into the jungle and killed a deer, which he 
presented to her; but the fair lady turned away in disdain. He went again, 
and returned with a mias, the great monkey [sic] who haunts the forest ; but 
this present was not more to her taste. Then, in a fit of despair, the lover 
went abroad, and killed the first man that he met, and throwing his victim's 
head at the maiden's feet, he exclaimed at the cruelty she had made him 
guilty of ; but, to his surprise, she smiled, and said, that now he had 
discovered the only gift worthy of herself." (p. 64.) As is the nature of 
legends this one is of course only an after-explanation. Sir James Brooke 
writes of the Sintah's collection of heads : ** The heads were clearly stated to 
be the heads of enemies : they would take no others. If a white man, 

the helpless portion of the community may be accidently made victims, I am convinced that the 
practice is not general, the women and children being more frequently retained as slaves." (Earl, 
p. 268.) Noticing some men guarding women in the fields, Mr. Doty (p. 289) remarks : •* This brought 
to our minds the remarks of some writer, that the Dyaks are very careful to defend their females, 
hence in their system of head-taking, the heads of females are more highly valued than those of the 
men, inasmuch as it requires more artifice and bravery to obtain them." 



164 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

Chinaman, or Malay were to come into their country, they would not kill 
him for his head, but if they quarrelled and fought, and he was killed, they 
would then secure the prize for the ladies ! They would rather not kill a 
stranger Dyak who came as a friend amongst them. It was absolutely necessary 
to be the possessor of one head previous to marriage. If a man wanted to get 
married and could not procure an enemy's head, he accompanied a party of 
perhaps fifty or one hundred men a long way into the interior, and then 
attacked anybody for the sake of the head. The chief, Cimboug, was 
particularly examined on this point, and insisted it was only on such an 
occasion they made these excursions, and then always a long way from 
home ! " 

Sir Jas. Brooke was told by the Sibuyaus (Keppel i. 55) ** that it is 
indispensably necessary a young man should procure a skull before he gets 
married. On my urging them that the custom would be more honoured in 
the breach than in the observance, they replied, that it was established from 
time immemorial, and could not be dispensed with. Subsequently, however, 
Sejugah allowed that heads were very difficult to obtain now, and a young 
man might sometimes get married by giving presents to his lady-love's 
parents. At all times they denied warmly ever obtaining any heads but those 
of their enemies ; adding, they were bad people, and deserved to die." After 
the burning out of the robbers of the Mambakut River, Capt. Mundy writes 
(ii. 222) : ** No aristocratic youth dare venture to pay his addresses to a 
Dyak demoiselle, unless he throws at the blushing maiden's feet a net full of 
skulls ! In some districts it is customary for the young lady to desire her 
lover to cut a thick bamboo from the neighbouring jungle, and when in 
possession of this instrument, she carefully arranges the cadeau d'amour on 
the floor, and by repeated blows beats the heads into fragments, which, when 
thus pounded, are scraped up and cast into the river, at the same time she 
throws herself into the arms of the enraptured youth, and so commences the 
honeymoon. The usual practice, however, is to guard the skulls, pickling 
them with care, as from the extreme heat of the climate, constant attention 
is required to preserve them. This account was given by a native to Mr. 
Brooke and Captain Maitland." 

Among the Dusuns the possession of a head appears to be a certain 
method of ingratiating oneself with the fair sex.'* (Pryer, J.A.I, xvi. 233.) 
According to Mr. Everett's reports (S.G., No. 78) when two Dyaks were tried 
for the murder of a Chinaman and a Dyak both of the prisoners pleaded 
guilty and threw themselves entirely on the mercy of the court, the only 
defence they had to make, being that they were incited by the women to 
obtain heads. A correspondent of the same paper (S.G., No. 104) writes : 
** At this moment there are two Dyaks in the Kuching gaol, who acknowledge 
that they took the heads of two innocent Chinese with no other object in 
view when doing so than to secure the pseudo affections of women, who 
refused to marry them, until they had thus proved themselves to be men." 

The influence of the women is alleged in the following case. A young 
chief ** longing to see the world took with him thirteen young men ; he 
travelled on till he reached a Kayan tribe with whom his people were friends, 



Head-Hunting. 165 

and stayed with them for a few months. One day their hosts started on a 
head-hunting expedition, and invited seven of their guests to accompany 
them : the latter never returned, having all been killed by the Kayans 
themselves. Why or wherefore it is impossible to tell, but it is supposed that 
having failed in their head-hunt, and being ashamed to return to their 
women " without these trophies, they had fallen upon their guests.'* (St. 
John i. 42.) It must not be supposed that head hunters are always successful. 
A Kayan, one of a party of several hundred, returned half starved and reported 
he was the only survivor, (ibid, i. 118.) 

** One young fellow of about eighteen years old had been brought 
over from Saribus Fort in chains. He was now in irons here. His account 
was as follows, and it portrays the matrimonial preliminaries required by 
Dyak ladies : — His name was Achang, he said ; he had been living on Sadok 
since his house was burnt down on the lower ground. Many had then retired 
there, and were living in the midst of considerable drawbacks and difficulties, 
as water was scarce, and all the necessaries for household purposes were far 
away on the lower ground. Then he had been of late enamoured of a damsel 
younger than himself, and had been refused, in consequence of his never having 
proved himself a warrior in cooking a head. She said, * Why don't you go to 
the Saribus Fort, and there take the head of Bakir (the Dyak chief), or even 
that of the Tuan Hassan (Mr. Watson), and then I will deign to think of you 
and your desires with some degree of interest.' The young man after this 
rebuke agreed, with another lad of his own age and inexperience, to set off for 
the purpose required, and after the preparatory proceeding of dreams, birds, 
missing their road, and many other hindrances, he reached the vicinity of the 
fort, and very sensibly arranged with his companion that it would be desirable 
to find shelter in a Chinaman's house, under the plea of wishing to purchase 
some of his goods. They were kindly received, and ate their meal in peace 
with the Chinaman, and retired in the evening, with the intention of taking 
the Chinaman's head, instead of the Tuan Hassan's or Bakir's, as the first, if 
well cooked, would pass off for anybody else's. At midnight they agreed to 
strike the blow,— the time came, and the inhabitants were aroused by the 
piteous howls of the owner of the house. People rushed to the place, which 
was only twenty yards from the fort, and before five minutes were over, fifty 
people were on the spot, finding the poor Chinaman with his face gashed all 
down one side. The young fellow's companion had done this. Achang 
himself was still fast asleep, in total ignorance of what had taken place. He 
was now aroused, pulled neck and crop into the fort, and placed in chains. 
They wished to cut him down then and there, which he really deserved, but 

^* Mr. Earl refers on two occasions (pp. 2C6 and 267) to the necessity of obtaining a head to 
grace marriage. " The more heads a man has cut oflf, the more he is respected, and a young man 
cannot marry until he can produce heads procured by himself; nor can the corpse of a person of 
rank be inhumed until a fresh head be acquired by the nearest kin. Should he be of high rank, 
great rejoicings take place on his return from a successful expedition ; the heads, which probably still 
bleed, are seized by the women, who rush into the water, dip the heads and anoint themselves with 
the ensanguined water which drops from the skulls. A man of great consideration may have fifty or 
sixty skulls suspended in his premises. It has been known that two years have expired before a 
young man could be married, or in other words, before he could procure a skull." (Dalton, p. 9.) 



i66 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

it was the wiser plan to send him to Sakarang the next morning. He was 
brought over the twelve miles of road with a long chain attached to his waist, 
as if he had been a wild animal, and hungry Dyaks were following around, 
wishing to bribe his keepers, and holding a kind of auction within the 
unfortunate lover's hearing for his head. The companion, on hearing the 
Chinaman bluster so loudly, decamped, and although immediately pursued, 
could not be found. Poor Achang was left in irons for over a month, and 
then released. He afterwards became very useful in gardening and other 
occupations, and was a general favourite. A more innocent youth could 
scarcely be seen anywhere. He had slept so soundly in consequence of a 
partial deafness. The march over to Sakarang the day after the event 
brought grey hairs on his head, although he was not yet nineteen years of 
age." '* (Brooke ii. 93.) 

18 "No Diak can marry the daughter of a warrior unless he has previously taken a head or two. 
Neither will one of the great chiefs allow a marriage with one of inferior celebrity. On a proposition 
being made to wed, it is referred to the Rajah, who calls before him the lover and the father of the 
girl ; the former is asked what number of heads he has taken, the same question is put to the father ; 
if the old man can produce ten heads the young one must have five, as according to Selgie's reasoning, 
by the time the lover is of the age of the girl's father, he will, in all probability, be likewise in 
possession of ten. Should the young man not have so many, he must get them before he presumes 
to take another step in the afifair. He then musters a few friends, takes a swift-boat and leaves that 
part of the country, and will not return until the number is complete (they are often absent three 
months). To return unsuccessful would expose him to ridicule ever after. Women's heads will not 
answer the purpose ; they, however, generailly bring back with them a few young women and some 
children, as an acceptable present to the Rajah, and to attend the wife. They wend their way to 
some unprotected campong, taking advantage of the absence of the young men, and kill the old ones, 
or some poor straggling fishermen ; it makes no difference whose heads they may be, so they do not 
belong to the Rajah's friendly campongs. Having procured the desired number, they paddle quickly 
back and send immediate intelligence to the intended bride, who puts on all her ornaments and with 
her father and friends advance to meet the heads ; these are in ihe first instance alwa>s placed on a 
spot about halfway between the dwelling-places of the two partners, and near the Rajah's house. On 
the approach of the young lady, the lover meets her with a head in each hand, holding them by the 
hair ; these she takes from him and he gets the others if there are sufficient, if not, they have one 

each They then dance round each other with most extravagant gestures, amidst the 

applause of the Rajah and his people. After this ceremony, the Rajah or some warrior of his family, 
must examine the heads to see that they are fresh ; for this purpose they are not allowed to be smoked 
or the brains taken out, which destroys the smell, but must bring them in a green state in full proof 
that old heads have not been borrowed for the occasion. (I have frequently seen heads which have 
been cut off a week or more, the smell of which to me was intolerable, but to them nowise offensive.) 
The family honour of the bride's father being now satisfied, he asks the Rajah's consent, which is 
always given (the young women and children taken during the expedition are at this interview 
presented). A feast is now prepared, at which the young couple eat together , this being concluded, 
what clothes either of them may have on are taken off, and sitting on the ground, naked, the old 
women throw over them handsful of paddy, repeating a kind of prayer that the young couple may 
prove as fruitful as that grain. At night, the bride attends her husband to his dwelling. . . The 
warrior can take away any inferior man's wife at pleasure, and is thanked for so doing. A chief who 
has twenty heads in his possession, will do the same with another who may have only ten, and 
upwards to the Rajah's family, who can take any woman at pleasure. The more heads a man has 
the braver he is considered, and as the children belong to the husband, he is happy in his future 
prospects. On the contrary, a man of inferior note to think of the wife of a superior is entirely out 
of the question, perhaps such a circumstance never occurred." {ibid, 52-54.) 

" It is generally supposed that head-hunting had its origin in the fact that no man could court 
a girl without presenting her with a human head as a token of his valour ; but this idea is contra- 
dicted by every Dyak worthy of confidence, whom I consulted on the matter. From the greater mass 
of the information we gathered on this question, it would seem that this horrible custom is another of 



Head-Hunting. 167 

Reception of Heads. 

" The heads are taken, but after being used at the feast are not valued. 
Some of the divisions on the coast, after obtaining the head of an enemy, 
exhibit it in a public place, where the women, dressed in their best clothes, 
repeat incantations, and walk past in procession ; each one taps the head with 
a piece of wood. After this ceremony it is thrown away." (Brooke i. 74.) 
" Although the Millanows do not preserve the heads of their enemies, a young 
warrior will occasionally bear home such a trophy with the same sort of 
pleasure with which a young fox-hunter takes home his first brush. On this 
occasion, a juvenile aspirant to love and glory, who had accompanied the 
expedition and wished to display a prize he had won, was met on landing by 
the women, who had already spied the relic from their elevated platform on 
the bank. They descended to meet it with a stick in each hand, and began to 
play on the unfortunate head, as if it had been a tomtom. After this perform- 
ance, each in turn rushed into the river, as if to cleanse herself from the 
pollution. Although these gentle creatures did not strike with any violence, 
it was as much as the young hero could do to prevent his trophy from being 
pommelled into a jelly." (Keppel Meander i. 171.) 

Exceptionally curious treatment of heads is mentioned by Madame 
Pfeiffer : ** As they handled the heads they spat in their faces, and the boys 
banged them and spat on the ground. On this occasion, the otherwise quiet 
and peaceful faces of the Dyaks, became strongly expressive of savageness." 
(p. 89.)" As a comment on this Mr. Crossland tells me he has seen women, 
when a head was brought in, kiss it, bite it, and put food in its mouth. 

the fruits of the religious superstition which has given birth to so many other monstrosities of the 
kind. Thus, for example, when a Dyak takes a head he is only fulfilling a vow he made under some 
difficult or important circumstance ; and consequently the unhappy victim, unexpectedly attacked in 
a forest, or during an excursion, or while at work in the' fields, and falling under the blows of a 
fanatical assassin, is ofifered by him to the manes of some recently deceased parent, or to the spirit of 
the superstition to which he attributes the re-establishment of his health, or the success of an 
enterprise, or of a long journey. What does it matter to the murderer that he attains his end by an 
act of bravery and an open attack, or by treachery and foul play ? Equally what does it matter to 
him that the being he sacrifices is a young man or an old man, a middle-aged woman or a young girl, 
or even an infant. He has promised his divinities one or more heads, he owes them these, and 
without any remorse he brings them in triumph to his village. . . . The head is placed on a mat 
in the middle of the habitation, and the bilians, as well as the majority of the men who are present at 
the ceremony, dance around it with diabolical contortions. The conqueror receives exaggerated 
praises on the valour he has displayed, which do not fail to excite to the highest degree the jealousy 
of others, and decides them only too easily to merit as soon as possible, by similar means, similar 
flattering distinctions." (S. Mijller ii. 364. 365. 366.) 

*• "It really appears the Dayak character is made up of extremes. As we see them at their 
homes, ihey are mild, gentle, and given to hospitality, but when they exchange their domestic habits 
for those of the warrior, their greatest delight seems to be to revel in human blood, and their 
greatest honor to ornament their dwellings with human heads, which are the trophies of their 
inhuman barbarity. Shocking as it may appear they carry about with them tokens of the number 
of persons they have killed. This they efifect by inserting locks of human hair corresponding to the 
number of persons decapitated, in the sheath of their war knife, which is always attached to their 
pecsons, when from home. We fell in with a man this evening just returned from his labor, with a 
basket in which he had carried out the necessaries for the day, and to which was fastened a lock of 
human hair. The lock was ten inches or a foot long. He informed us that it was a token of his 
having cut off" a head during the past year." (Doty, p. 288-9.) 



i68 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

On Singe mountain, writes Sir Jas. Brooke, we found "five heads carefully 
watched, about half a mile from the town, in consequence of the non-arrival 
of some of the war-party. They had erected a temporary shed close to the 
place where these miserable remnants of noisome mortality were deposited ; 
and they were guarded by about thirty young men in their finest dresses, 
composed principally of scarlet jackets ornamented with shells, turbans of 
the native bark-cloth dyed bright yellow, and spread on the head, and 
decked with an occasional feather, flower, or twig of leaves. Nothing can 
exceed their partiality for these trophies ; and in retiring from the * war-path,* 
the man who has been so fortunate as to obtain a head hangs it about his 
neck, and instantly commences his return to his tribe. If he sleep on the 
way, the precious burden, though decaying and offensive, is not loosened, but 
rests on his lap, whilst his head (and nose !) reclines on his knees. The 
retreat is always silently made until close to home, when they set up a wild 
yell, which announces their victory and the possession of its proofs. It must, 
therefore, be considered, that these bloody trophies are the evidences of 
victory — the banner of the European, the flesh-pot of the Turk, the scalp of 
the North American Indian — and that they are torn from enemies, for taking 
heads is the effect and not the cause of war." (Keppel i. 300.) *'On 
the following morning the heads were brought up to the village, attended 
by a number of young men all dressed in their best, and were carried 
to Parembam's house amid the beating of gongs and the firing of one or two 
guns. They were then disposed of in a conspicuous place in the public hall 
at Parembam. The music sounded and the men danced the greater part of 
the day ; and towards evening carried them away in procession through all 
the campongs, except three or four just about me. The women, in these 
processions, crowd round the heads as they proceed from house to house, and 
put sirih and betel-nut in the mouths of the ghastly dead, and welcome them 1 
After this they are carried back in the same triumph, deposited in an airy 
place, and left to dry. During this process, for seven, eight, or ten days they 
are watched by the boys of the age of six to ten years ; and during this time 
they never stir from the public hall — they are not permitted to put their foot 
out of it whilst engaged in this sacred trust. Thus are the youths initiated. 
For a long time after the heads are hung up, the men nightly meet and beat 
their gongs, and chant addresses to them, which were rendered thus to me : 
* Your head is in our dwelling, but your spirit wanders to your own country ; 
your head and your spirit are now ours ; persuade, therefore, your country- 
men to be slain by us.' * Speak to the spirits of your tribe : let them wander 
in the fields, that when we come again to their country, we may get more 
heads, and that we may bring the heads of your brethren, and hang them by 
your head,' &c. The tone of this chant is loud and monotonous, and I am 
not able to say how long it is sung; but certainly for a month after the arrival 
of the heads, as one party here had had a head for that time, and were still 
exhorting it." {ibid i. 303.) 

** If the boat in which the fortunate captor sails is one of a large fleet, 
no demonstrations of success are made, lest the head should excite the 
cupidity of some chief; but if she has gone out alone, or accompanied only 



Head-Hunting. 169 

by a few others, she is decorated with the young leaves of the nipa palm. 
These leaves, when unopened, are of a pale straw colour, and, when cut, 
their leaflets are separated and tied in bunches on numerous poles, which are 
stuck up all over the boat. At a little distance, they present the appearance 
of gigantic heads of corn projecting above the awning of the boat, and 
amongst them numerous gay-coloured flags and streamers wave in the breeze. 
Thus adorned, the boat returns in triumph ; and the yells of her crew, and 
the beating of their gongs, inform each friendly house they pass of the 
successful result of their foray. The din is redoubled as they approach their 
own house. The shouts are taken up and repeated on shore. The 
excitement spreads ; the shrill yells of the women mingle with the hoarser 
cries of the men, the gongs in the house respond to those in the boat, and all 
hurry to the wharf to greet the victors. ... It has been said by former 
writers that it is stuck upon a pole, and its mouth filled with choice morsels 
of food, but I never saw this done, nor did any Dyak whom I have questioned 
know anything of such a custom. As to the opinion that they endeavour to 
propitiate the souls of the slain, and ^^i them to persuade their relatives to 
be killed also, or that the courage of the slain is transferred to the slayer — I 
am inclined to think that these are ideas devised by the Malays, for the 
satisfaction of inquiring whites, who, as they would not be satisfied till they 
had reasons for everything they saw, got them specially invented for their own 
use.*^ The grand event of the day, however, is the erection of lofty poles each 
surmounted by a wooden figure of the burong Penyala, which is placed there * to 
peck at their foes.' (See supra i. 255.) The figures are made some time previous 
to the festival, and a day or two before it are carried about to the different 
houses in the vicinity, accompanied by gongs and flags, to levy contributions 
for the benefit of the feast. The poles on which they are to be elevated are 
young trees, some of them about forty-five inches in circumference at the 
lower end, and eighty feet in length ; posts so long and so heavy, that it may 
well be matter of surprise how men, unaided by ropes and pulleys, could erect 
them. The method employed, however, is both simple and effective ; the 
posts are carried up, and laid on the platform of the house, and two 
frameworks, about twenty feet high, and thirty feet long, are erected 
parallel to, and within a yard of each other, on the ground at the end of the 
platform. These are constructed some days previously, and are so placed 
that the lower end of the post, when launched off the platform, may pass 
between them. When it is intended to erect the post, the burong Penyala, 
together with a proper amount of flags and streamers, is fixed on its upper 
end; and it is then pushed along the platform till its lower end, projecting 
beyond it, and passing between the frameworks, is overbalanced by its own 
weight, and falls to the ground. The post then lies at an angle of about 
twenty degrees to the horizon, one end resting on the ground, while its 
middle is supported by the platform. One of the Dyaks below then advances 
with a fowl in one hand, and a drawn parang in the other ; and placing the 
neck of the bird upon the end of the post, chops its head off, and smears the 

*' As we shall see, however, there is ample evidence that the heads are propitiated — different 
tribes having different customs ; the Rev. Mr. Horsburgh only knew the Balau Dyaks. 



170 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N. Borneo. 

base of the post with its blood. After this sacrificial ceremony, the signal 
for raising it is given. The Dyaks swarm upon the two frameworks before 
mentioned, and putting their shoulders under the post, while its lower end is 
kept fixed upon the ground, they mount up by degrees to the top of the 
framework, and thus gradually elevate it. The beak of the Penyala is then 
pointed in the direction of the foe whom they wish it to peck at ; and the 
mast-like pole, securely lashed to the two frameworks, stands at once a 
trophy of victory and a symbol of defiance. Eight or ten such posts are 
erected, a fowl being sacrificed on each ; and about half-way up the largest, 
which is erected first, a basket of fruit, cakes, and siri is suspended, as an 
offering to the spirits. Meanwhile, those who remain in the house still 
continue the feast, and those who have been engaged in erecting the posts 
return to it as soon as their labour is finished. The festivities are prolonged 
far on into the night, and they are resumed and continued, though with 
abated vigour, during the two following days/' (Horsburgh, pp. 28-33.) 

The Lundu called the head feast MauguL ** In one house there was a 
grand /^^^, in which the women danced with the men. . . . There were 
four men, two of them bearing human skulls, and two the fresh heads of pigs ; 
the women bore wax-lights, or yellow rice on brass dishes. They danced in 
line, moving backwards and forwards, and carrying the heads and dishes in 
both hands ; the graceful part was the manner in which they half-turned the 
body to the right and left, looking over their shoulders and holding the heads 
in the opposite direction, as if they were in momentary expectation of someone 
coming up behind to snatch the nasty relic from them. At times the women 
knelt down in a group, with the men leaning over them." (Keppel ii. 35, and 
Mundy i. 345.) 

A somewhat different account is given by Sir Hugh Low : " The feast 
held on the reception of a head is a disgusting ceremony to a European, 
though the Dyaks view it only with sentiments of satisfaction and delight. 
The fleet, returning from a successful cruise, on approaching the village, 
announce to its inhabitants their fortunes by a horrid yell, which is soon 
imitated and prolonged by the men, women, and children, who have stayed 
at home. The head is brought on shore with much ceremony, wrapped up in 
the curiously folded and plaited leaves of the nipah palm, and frequently 
emitting the disgusting odour peculiar to decaying mortality ; this, the 
Dyaks have frequently told me, is particularly grateful to their senses, and 
surpasses the odorous durian, their favourite fruit. On shore and in the 
village, the head, for months after its arrival, is treated with the greatest 
consideration, and all the names and terms of endearment of which their 
language is capable are abundantly lavished on it : the most dainty morsels, 
culled from their abundant though inelegant repast, are thrust into its mouth, 
and it is instructed to hate its former friends, and that, having been now 
adopted into the tribe of its captors, its spirit must be always with them : sirih 
leaves and betel-nut are given to it, and finally a cigar is frequently placed 
between its ghastly and pallid lips. None of this disgusting mockery is 
performed with the intention of ridicule, but all to propitiate the spirit by 
kindness, and to procure its good wishes for the tribe, of whom it is now 







g US 



CA 



g5 



172 H. Ling Roth,— Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

supposed to have become a member During the drinking the 

dancing generally commences ; this is performed with the recently-acquired 
heads suspended from the persons of the actors, who move up and down the 
verandah with a slow step, and corresponding movements of their out- 
stretched arms, uttering occasionally a yell, which rises fierce and shrill above 
the discordant noises of the gongs, chanangs, and tortewaks, to which the 
dances move. Another amusement at these festivals is carried on by two 
persons standing or walking with a theatrical air and peculiar step, and with 
canes in their hands, reciting to each other in a rude extempore verse, the 
heroic deeds of their fathers and their ancestors, to which, if they live under a 
Malayan government, and the prince has any share in their affections, they 
add his memorable achievements and exploits. I heard them once, in this 
interesting manner, recount the whole of the events of the Seniawan war, the 
arrival of Mr. Brooke, &c.*' (Low, pp. 206-208.) 

An account of a Banting Dyak Head Reception is given by Mrs. 
Chambers: "Janting, the chief man of the house, and six others united to 
give the feast to the heads of their enemies obtained in the late insurrection. 
Some days before the men of the house were busy seeking for poles of 
sufficient length, called tras, to be raised as trophies. The second morning of 
the feast, when found, they were placed on the tango or uncovered verandah. 
. . . On the tango opposite each door of the donors of the feast, a pig was 
laid bound to the lanta ; the old manang marked each with yellow, and then 
he and some old woman stepped backwards and forwards over the pig, the 
first seven times, the second six, and so on ; piggy was then fed with cakes 
and rice, which he greedily devoured, all-unconscious that his life was to be 
sacrificed the next morning at the elevation of the tras ; a procession was 
then formed, headed by the Orang Kaya, each man first dipped his feet in 
water, then took a sword in his right hand, a bunch of leaves in his left, and 
walked up and down the tango, giving the pigs a kick every time they passed ; 
one or two indulged in a Dyak yell, and hit them rather hard, which the pigs 
resented by struggling and grunting very energetically. A long procession of 
women, each carrying a small basin of rice, which she scattered to the right 
and left as she passed, headed by the old manang and a drummer, walked 
three times up and down the house. We received our share of rice. One of 
the women who came to see me a few days after, said she was so * shy,' she 
did not look about, and did not know we were there. The next morning the 
tras were raised, and the pigs killed, which was notified by the firing of a gun. 
The women who do not belong to the house go home before sunset, but the 
men remain, and generally drink arrack till their senses are quite gone. . . . 
For weeks after, the women went from house to house in procession, carrying 
a head with them, singing or rather chanting in a loud monotonous tone, and 
demanding a plate at the door of every house they visited." (Gosp. Miss., 
1858, pp. 65-73.) 

Sir Sp. St. John says of the Land Dyak head feast : ** The head feast is 
the great day of the young bachelors. The head-house and village are 
decorated with green boughs, and the heads to be feasted are brought out 
from their very airy position, being hung from one of the beams. ... An 



Head-Hunting. 173 

offering of food is made to the heads, and their spirits, being thus appeased, 
cease to entertain malice against, or to seek to inflict injury upon, those who 
have got possession of the skull which formerly adorned the now forsaken 
body. A curious custom prevails among the young men at this feast. They 
cut a cocoa-nut shell into the form of a cup, and adorn it with red and black 
dye. Into one side of it they fasten a rudely carved likeness of a bird's head, 
and into the other the representation of its tail. The cup is filled with 
arrack, and the possessor performs a short wild dance with it in his hands, 
and then with a yell leaps before some chosen companion, and presents it to 
him to drink. Thus the * loving cup ' is passed around among them, and it 
need not be said that the result is in many cases partial, though seldom 
excessive, intoxication.'* (i. 186.) 

**The most important of all Murut ceremonies is the feasting of a new 
head, this takes place at the first new moon after the head has been obtained 
and the preparations cause considerable excitement in the house ; everything 
else is left to take care of itself; the farm is neglected and nothing is done 
except to prepare for the feast. The first thing is to erect three poles placed 
in a triangle some twenty feet apart varying from thirty to fifty feet in height, 
bamboos are tied to the tops of these poles and droop down some ten or 
twelve feet ; these are decorated with tassels made of some grass or rush but 
resemble fine shavings, being curled ; at the end of one of the bamboos is a 
dried gourd with a red flag tied above it, the gourd representing the head. 
Bunches of tassels are hung all along the eaves of the house and all the old 
skulls are brought out and one put over each door ; this has a most gruesome 
appearance. In the centre of the triangle formed by the three poles a mound 
of earth is raised and fashioned in the form of an alligator, the dimensions of 
which are about six feet in width in the middle, and from thirty to forty feet 
long, some three feet deep. On the day when the feast takes place all the 
inmates of the house and the guests, of whom there are not a few, they 
having been called from every place far and near, walk round and round the 
poles in two processions, the men headed by the hero of the day in one, the 
women headed by his wife if he has one in another ; whilst walking round 
they shout — the women and men alternately * Ko Kuay,* ' Ho Ta,' varying 
the note occasionally and the women come in at intervals with other words. 
During this performance there are intervals for refreshments when they all go 
into the house and gorge themselves with pork, buffalo, etc., copiously washed 
down by arrack ; in the afternoon the processions cease and the time is 
devoted to drinking bowl after bowl of arrack so that by evening there is not 
a man, woman, or child that is sober. (I may as well state here that I have 
seen children of four years old drinking raw gin.) The women when not 
occupied in drinking dance up and down the house stamping on the floor to 
the time of * Ho Ta Ho Ta ' shouted in quick succession ; this combined with 
perhaps over two hundred people all shouting, yelling and talking, the firing 
of guns, and the squealing of pigs being sacrificed for the collation, produces 
a din more easily imagined than described. The guests leaving the party in 
the evening, or rather such as are at all capable of doing so, is perhaps the 
only amusing incident, as many tumble into their boats or out of them into 



174 f^- Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borfteo. 

the mud, make oflf with some one else's boat and career wildly about the 
river singing snatches of Murut songs, or * Ko Kuay,' and finally in many cases 
landing somewhere, fall into the scrub, and pass the night there. Sometimes 
instead of an alligator between the poles a huge snake is made in concentric 
circles with the head in wood in the centre raised about four feet above the 
body ; the head is ornamented in colors.'* (O. F. Ricketts, S.G., No. 348, 
p. 18.) 

MENGAP, THE SONG OF THE SEA DYAK HEAD FEAST.** 

By the Venerable Archdeacon J. Perham. 

The principal ceremonial feasts of Sea Dyaks are connected with three 
subjects : farming, head-taking, and the dead ; and are called by them 
respectively, Gawe Batu or Gawe Benih, Gawe Pala or Burong, and Gawe 
Antu ; the Stone or Seed feast, the Head or Bird feast, and the Spirit feast. 
The first mentioned are two distinct feasts, and not two names of one ; but 
both refer to the farm. It is with the Gawe Pala or Burong that this paper is 
concerned. 

When a house has obtained a human head, a grand feast must be made 
sooner or later to celebrate the acquisition ; and this is by no means a mere 
matter of eating and drinking, although there is an excess of the latter, but is a 
matter of much ceremony, of offerings and of song. The song which is then 
recited is well-known to differ considerably in form from the ordinary language, 
and the European who may be able to understand and to speak colloquial 
Dyak may yet find the **Mengap" (as it is called in Saribus dialect) mostly 
unintelligible. But I believe the difference is only that between a poetical and 
prose language. Certain requirements of alliteration and of rhythm and 
rhyme have to be fulfilled, which, together with native metaphor and most 
excessive verbosity, are quite sufficient to mystify an uninstructed hearer. 
Another reason for the difference lies in the fact that the language of 
the Mengap remains stationary, whilst the ordinary spoken language is 
continually changing and developing new forms. But the object of this 
paper is not to discourse about Dyak poetical language, 1 only attempt to 
give a sketch of the Mengap of the Head-feast, so that the reader may have 
some idea of the meaning of what has perhaps sounded to some a mere 
senseless rigmarole. 

In Dyak life the sense of the invisible is constantly present and active. 
Spirits and goblins are to them as real as themselves. And this is specially 
true of these ceremonial feasts. In the feasts for the dead the spirits of Hades 
are invoked ; in those connected with farming Pulang Gana, who is supposed 
to reside somewhere under the ground, is called upon ; and in the Head-feast 
it is Singalang Burong who is invoked to be present. He may be described as 
the Mars of Sea Dyak mythology, and is put far away above the skies. But 
the invocation is not made by the human performer in the manner of a prayer 
direct to this great being ; it takes the form of a story, setting forth how the 
mythical hero, Kling or Klieng, made a Head-feast and fetched Singalang 

" Jour. Straits Asiat. Soc.. No. a, 1878. 



Perham's Song of the Head Feast. 175 

Burong to it. This Kling, about whom there are many fables, is a spirit, and 
is supposed to live somewhere or other not far from mankind, and to be able 
to confer benefits upon them. The Dyak performer or performers then, as 
they walk up and down the long verandah of the house singing the Mengap, 
in reality describe Kling's Gawe Pala, and how Singalang Burong, was invited 
and came. In thought the Dyaks identify themselves with Kling, and the 
resultant signification is that the recitation of this story is an invocation to 
Singalang Burong, who is supposed to come not to Kling's house only, but to 
the actual Dyak house where the feast is celebrated ; and he is received by a 
particular ceremony, and is offered food or sacrifice. 

The performer begins by describing how the people in Kling's house 
contemplate the heavens in their various characters : — 

** They see to the end of heaven Hke a well-joined box." 
*'They see the speckled evening clouds Hke a menaga jar in fulness of 
beauty." 

** They see the sun already descending to the twinkling expanse of ocean." 
They see ** the threatening clouds like an expanse of black cloth ; ' ** the 
brightly shining moon;" ** the stars and milky way;" and then the house 
with its inmates, the ** crowned young men;" and ** hiding women" in high 
glee, and grave old men sitting on the verandah — all preparing for high 
festival. The women are described decorating the house with native cloths ; 
one is compared to a dove, another to an argus pheasant, another to a minah 
bird — all laughing with pleasure. All the ancient Dyak chiefs and Malay 
chiefs are called upon in the song to attend, and even the spirits in Hades; 
and last of all Singalang Burong. To him henceforward the song is almost 
entirely confined. 

We must suppose the scene to be laid in Kling's house. Kumang, Kling's 
wife, the ideal of Dyak feminine beauty, comes out of the room and sits down 
on the verandah beside her husband, and complains that the festival prepara- 
tions make slow progress. She declares she has no comfort either in standing, 
sitting, or lying down on account of this slackness; and by way of rousing her 
spouse to activity, says the festival preparations had better be put a stop to 
altogether. But Kling will never have it said that he began but could not 
finish. 

Indah keba aku nunggu, 
Nda kala aku pulai lebu, 
Makau benong tajau bujang. 

Indah keba aku ngaiyau, 
Nda kala aku pulai sabau, 
Makau slabit ladong penyariang. 

Indah keba aku meti, 
Nda kala aku nda mai, 
Bulih kalimpai babi blang. 

Indah keba aku manjok, 
Nda kala aku pulai luchok, 
Bulih sa-langgai ruai lalang. 



176 H. Ling Roth.— Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

Kit^ bisi tegar nda besampiar untak tulang, 
Kit^ bisi laju ari peluru leka bangkong, 
Kit^ bisi lasit ari sumpit betibong punggang, 
Sampure nya kit^ asoh betuboh ngambi ngabang. 



** When I have gone to fine people, 
** Never did I return empty handed 
** Bringing jars with me. 

** When I have gone on the war-path 
** Never did I return unsuccessful 
** Bringing a basketful of heads. 

** When I have gone to lay pig-traps, 
** Never did I return without 
** Obtaining a boar's tusk. 

** When I have set bird snares, 
♦* Never did I return unfruitful, 
*• Getting an argus pheasant. 

** We have a strong one, the marrow of whose bones never wastes. 

** We have one swifter than a bullet of molten lead. 

** We have one more piercing than the sumpitan with ringed endings. 

** Sampur^ we will order to gather companions and fetch the guests to the feast." 

So Sampure is ordered to fetch Singalang Burong who lives on the top of 
a hill called ** Sandong Tenyalang.'* But Sampure begs to be excused on 
account of illness; upon which Kasulai (the moth) and Laiang (the swallow) 
offer themselves for the work, with much boasting of their activity and 
swiftness. With one bound they can clear the space between the earth and 
the ** clouds crossing the skies." So they speed on their way. Midway to the 
skies they come to the house of ** Ini Manang," (Grandmother Doctor) who 
asks the meaning of their hurried arrival covered with dirt and perspiration. 
** Who is sick of the fever ? Who is at the point of death ? I have no time to 
go down to doctor them.*' 

Agi lelak aku uchu 

Baru pulai ari tuchong langgong Sanyandang 

Di-injau Umang 

Betebang batang pisang raia. 

** I am still weary, O grandchild, 

*' Am just come back from plain-topped Sanyandang ; 

** Having been borrowed by Umang 

** To cut down the grand plantain tree."** 

They answer that they are not come to ask her to exercise her medical 
skill, but simply to inquire how far it is to the country of Salulut Antu Ribut 
(the spirit of the winds). Ini Manang, joking, gives them this mystifying 
direction. *' If you start early in the dark morning you will be a night on the 
way. If you start this evening you will get there at once." Whether this 

^* This refers to a particular performance of the Djak Manangs, i e. Medicine men [J. P.] 



Perham's Sonf^ of the Head Feast. 177 

reply helped them or not they get to their destination at last ; and the Wind 
Spirit accosts them. 

Nama siduai agi bepetang, agi malam ? 
Bangat bepagi belam-lam ? 
Dini bala bis! ngunja menoa ? 
Dini antu ti begugu nda jena baka ? 

** Why come you while it is still dark, still night ? 

" So very early in the dawn of morning ? 

" Where is there a hostile army invading the country ? 

** Where are there thundering spirits in countless numbers ? " 

They assure her they bring no evil tidings ; and they tell her they have 
been sent to fetch Singalang Burong, and desire her assistance in the matter. 
Here 1 may give a specimen of the verbosity of these recitations. Kasulai 
and Laiang wish to borrow Antu Ribut to, 

Nyingkau Lang Tabunau 

Ka Turau baroh remang. 

Nempalong Singalong Burong 

Di tuchong Sandong Tenyalang. 

Nyeru aki Menaul Jugu 

Ka munggu Nempurong Balang 

Nanya ka Aki Lang Rimba 

Ka Lembaba langit Lemengang, 

Mesan ka aki Lang Buban 

Di dan Kara Kijang. 

** Reach up to Lang Tabunau 

** At Turau below the clouds. 

** Strike out to Singalang Burong. 

** On the top of Sandong Tenyalang, 

** Call to grandfather Menaul Jugu 

" On Nempurong Balang hill. 

** Ask for grandfather Lang Rimba 

** At Lembaba in the mysterious heavens. 

** Send for grandfather Lang Buban 

** On the branch of the Kara Lijang." 

These five beings described as living at five different places all refer to 
Singalang Burong, who is thus called by many names in order to magnify his 
greatness, to lengthen the story and fill up time. This is a general feature of 
all ** Mengap." But to go on with the story : Kasulai and Laiang desire 
Antu Ribut to take the message on because they would not be able to get 
through ** pintu langit '* (the door of heaven), whereas she, being wind, would 
have no difficulty. She could get through the smallest of cracks. At first she 
objects on the plea of being busy. ** She is busy blowing through the steep 
valleys cut out like boats, blowing the leaves and scattering the dust,*' 
However at length they prevail upon her, they return and she goes forward : 
but first she goes up a high tree where she changes her form, drops her 
personality as a spirit, and becomes natural wind. Upon this everywhere 
N Vol. a. 



178 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 

throughout the jungle there arises the sound of mighty rushing wind ** hke 
the thunder of a moon-mad waterfall." Everywhere is the sound of driving 
wind and of falling leaves. She blows in all quarters. 

Muput ka langit ngilah bulan 

Muput ka ill ngilah Santan. 

Muput ka dalam ai ngilah karangan, 

Muput ka tanah ngilah sabaian, 

Muput ka langit ntilang remang, 

Nyelipak remang rarat, 

Baka singkap krang kapaiyang, 

Nyelepak pintu remang burak, 

Baka pantak peti bejuang, 

Menselit pintu langit, 

Baka tambit peti tetukang. 

Nelian lobang ujan 

Teman gren laja pematang. 

Mampul lobang guntor 

Ti mupur inggar betinggang. 

Nyelapat lobang kilat 

Jampat nyelambai petang. 

The above describes how Antu Ribut blew everywhere, 

** She blows to heavenwards beyond the moon. 

** She blows to seaward beyond the Cocoanut isle. 

** She blows in the waters beyond the pebbly bottom. 

** She blows to earthward beyond Hades. 

** She blows to the skies below the clouds. 

** She creeps between the drifting clouds, 

** Which are like pieces of sliced kapaiyang." 

** She pushes through the door of the white flocked clouds, 

** Marked as with nails of a cross-beamed box. 

** She edges her passage through the door of heaven, 

'* Closed up like a box with opening cover. 

** She shps through the rain holes, 

** No bigger than the size of a sumpitan arrow. 

** She enters the openings of the thunders, 

** With roarings loud rushing one upon another. 

** She shoots through the way of the lightning 

** Which swiftly darts at night." 

And moreover she blows upon all the fruit trees in succession making 
them bear unwonted fruit. And so with sounds of thunder and tempest she 
speeds on her errand to the farthest heaven. 

Now amongst Singalang Burong's slaves is a certain Bujang Pedang 
(Young Sword) who happens to be clearing and weeding the ** sebang'' 
bushes as Antu Ribut passes, and he is utterly astounded at the noise. He 
looks heavenward and earthward and seaward but can see nothing to account 
for it. On comes the tempest : he is confounded, loses heart and runs away, 
eaving half his things behind him. He falls against the stumps and the 

2" A kind of fruit. [J.P.] 



Perhant*s Song of the Head Feast. 179 

buttresses of the trees and against the logs in the way, and comes tumbling, 
trembling, and bruised to the house of his mistress, 

Sudan Berinjan Bungkong 
Dara Tiong Menyelong, 

which is the poetical name of Singalang Burong's wife. He falls down 
exhausted on the verandah and faints away. His mistress laments over her 
faithful slave ; but after a time he revives, and they ask him what frightened 
him so dreadfully, suggesting it may have been the rush of the flood tide, or 
the waves of the sea. No, he says., he has fought with enemies at sea, and 
striven with waves, but never heard anything so awesome before. Singalang 
Burong himself now appears on the scene, and being at a loss to account for 
the fright simply calls Bujang Pedang a liar, and a prating coward. Whilst 
they are engaged in discussion Antu Ribut arrives, and striking violently 
against the house shakes it to its foundations. Bujang Pedang recognizes 
the sound and tells them it was that he heard under the ** sebang " bushes. 
The trees of the jungle bend to the tempest, cocoanut and sago trees are 
broken in two, pinang trees fall, and various fruit trees die by the stroke of 
the wind ; but it makes other fruit trees suddenly put forth abundant fruit. 

Muput Antu Ribut unggai badu badu. 
Mangka ka buah unggai leju leju. 

** The Wind Spirit blows and will not cease, cease, 

** Strikes against the fruit trees and will not weary, weary." 

Everybody becomes suddenly cold and great consternation prevails. 
Singalang Burong himself is roused, and demands in loud angry tones who 
has broken any *' pemalC (taboo), and so brought a plague of wind and rain 
upon the country. He declares he will sell them, or fight them, or punish 
them whoever they may be. He then resorts to certain charms to charm 
away the evil, such as burning some tuba root and other things. In the 
meantime Antu Ribut herself goes up to the house, but at the top of the 
ladder she stops short. She is afraid of Singalang Burong whom she sees in 
full war-costume, with arms complete and his war-charms tied round his 
waist ; and going down the ladder again she goes round to the back of the 
house, and slips through the window in the roof into the room where 
Singalang Burong's wife sits at her weaving. Suddenly all her weaving 
materials are seen flying in all directions, she herself is frightened and takes 
refuge behind a post ; but when she has recovered her presence of mind and 
collected her scattered articles, it dawns upon her (how does not appear) that 
this Wind is a messenger from the lower world, bringing an announcement 
that **men are killing the white spotted pig." Now she entertains Antu 
Ribut in the style of a great chief, and calls to her husband ; but he heeds 
not, 

Nda nyaut sa-leka mukut, 

Nda nimbas sa-leka bras. 

** Does not answer a grain of bran, 
** Does not reply a grain of rice," 



i8o H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

(that is to the extent of a grain, &c.) The lady is displeased and declares she 
would rather be divorced from him than be treated in that way. This brings 
Singalang Burong into the room which is described as 

Bilik baik baka tasik ledong lelinang. 
** A room rich like the wide expanse of glistening sea." 

It appears that Antu Ribut does not speak and tell the purport of her 
message, for they still have to find it out for themselves, which they do by 
taking a ** tropoug,''^^ (telescope) to see what is going on in the lower regions. 
They see the festival preparations there, the drums and gongs, and thus they 
understand that they are invited to the feast. 

Before Singalang Burong can start he must call from the jungle his 
sons-in-law, who are the sacred birds which the Dyaks use as omens. These 
are considered both as spirits and as actual birds, for they speak like men and 
fly like birds. Here will be observed the reason why the festival is called 
Gaw^ Burong (Bird feast). Singalang Burong the war-spirit is also the chief 
of the omen birds. The hawk with brown body and white head and breast, 
very common in this country, is supposed to be a kind of outward 
personification of him, and probably the king of birds in Dyak estimation. 
The story of the feast centres in him and the inferior birds who all come to 
it; hence the title Gaw^ Burong. To call these feathered sons-in-law of 
Singalang Burong together the big old gong of the ancients is beaten, at the 
sound of which all the birds immediately repair to the house of their father- 
in-law, where they are told that Antu Ribut has brought an invitation to a 
feast in the lower world. So they all get ready and are about to start, when 
it comes out that Dara Inchin Temaga, one of Singalang Burong's daughters 
and the wife of the bird Katupong, refuses to go with them. On being 
questioned why she refuses, she declares that unless she obtains a certain 
precious ornament she will remain at home. She is afraid that at the feast 
she will appear less splendidly attired than the ladies Kumang, and Lulong, 
and Indai Abang. 

Aku unggai alah bandong laban Lulong siduai Kumang. 
Aku unggai alah telah laban Kalinah ti disebut Indai Abang. 

•• I wont be beaten compared with Lulong and Kumang. 

** I wont be less spoken of than Kalinah who is called Indai Abang." 

This precious ornament is variously described as a 'Mump of gold,'* a 
**lump of silver," and compared in the way of praise to various jungle fruits. 
A great consultation is held and inquiries made as to where this may be found. 
The old men are asked and they know not. The King of the Sea gives a like 
answer, neither do the birds above mentioned know where it is to be obtained. 
At length the grandfather of the bird Katupong recollects that he has seen it 
**afar off" in Nising's house. Nising is the grandfather of the Burong 
Malam** (night bird). All the sons-in-law set out at once for Nising's house. 

*^ This must be a later addition to the story. [J. P.] 

«* This is not a bird at all, but an insect which is often heard at night, and being used as an 
omen comes under the designation "Burong," as do also the deer and other creatures besides 
birds. [J.P.] 



Perham's Song of the Head Feast. i8i 

Arriving there they approach warily and listen clandestinely to what is going 
on inside; and they hear Nising's wife trying to sing a child to sleep. She 
carries it up and down the house, points out the fowls and pigs, &c., yet the 
child refuses to stop crying much to the mother's anger. ** How can I but 
cry," the child says. ** I have had a bad dream, wherein I thought I was 
bitten by a snake, which struck me in the side, and I was cut through below 
the heart." ** If so," answers the mother, " it signifies your life will not be a 
long one." 

" Soon will your neck be stuck in the mud bank. 
** Soon will your head be inclosed in roian-sega. 
*' Soon will your mouth eat the cotton threads.** 

" For this shadows forth that you are to be the spouse of Beragai's ^ 
spear " ; and much more in the same strain, but I will return to this again. 
After hearing this singing they go up into the house and make their request. 
Nising refuses to give them any of the ornaments, upon which they resort to 
stratagem. They get him to drink " tuak " until he becomes insensible, when 
they snatch this precious jewel from his turban. Soon after Nising recovers, 
and finding out what has been done, he blusters and strikes about wishing to 
kill right and left ; but at length they pacify him, telling him the precious 
ornament is wanted to take to a Gaw^ in the lower world, upon which he 
assents to their taking it away, saying that he has many more where that 
came from. They start off homewards and come to their waiting father-in-law, 
and deliver the ** precious jewel " into the hands of his daughter, Dara Inchin 
Temaga. 

Now this ornament, on account of which so much trouble and delay is 
undergone, is nothing else than a human head, either a mass of putrifying flesh, 
or a blackened charred skull. The high price and value of this ghastly trophy 
in Dyak estimation is marked by the many epithets which describe it, the 
trouble of obtaining it, and the being for whom it was sought, no less a person 
than the daughter of the great Singalang Burong. It shows how a Dyak 
woman of quality esteems the possession of it. This is that which shall make 
Dara Inchin more spendidly attired than her compeers Lulong and Kumang, 
themselves the ideal of Dyak feminine beauty. And, moreover, the story is a 
distinct assertion of that which has often been said, viz., that the women are, 
at the bottom, the prime movers of head-taking in many instances; and how 
should they not be with the example of this story before them ? 

The meaning and application of the woman singing a child to sleep in 
Nising's house is the imprecation of a fearful curse on their enemies. The 
child which is carried up and down the house is simply metaphorical for a 
human head, which in the Gawe is carried about the house, and through it 
the curse of death is invoked upon its surviving associates. In the words I 
have quoted above their life is prayed to be short, their necks to rot in the 
mud, their mouths to be triumphed over and mocked, and their heads to be 
hung up in the conquerors* houses as trophies of victory. And this is but a 

** This refers to cotton which in the feast is tied round the head. [J. P.] 
" The name of a bird. [J.P.] 



i82 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

very small part of the whole curse. It is this part of the song which is listened 
to with the greatest keenness and enjoyment, especially by the young who 
crowd round the performer at this part. 

With this ** ornament" in possession Singalang Burong and his followers 
set out for the lower world. On the way they pass through several mythical 
countries, the names of which are given, and come to '' pintu langit,'' of which 
"Grandmother Doctor'' is the guardian, and see no way of getting through, 
it is so tight and firmly shut. The young men try their strength and the edge 
of their weapons to force a passage through, but to no purpose. In the midst 
of "the noise the old "grandmother" herself appears, and chides her grand- 
children for their unseemly conduct. She then with a turn of a porcupine 
quill opens the door and they pass through. Downward they go until they 
come to a certain projecting rock, somewhere in the lower skies, where they 
rest awhile. Dara Inchin Temaga, in wandering about, sees the human 
world, the land and sea and the islands; upon which she describes the mouths 
of the various rivers of Sarawak. 

The following may be given as specimens : — 

Ut^ ti ludas ludas, 
Nya nonga Tebas ; 
Ndor kit^ rari ka bias, 

glombang nyadi. 

Ut^ ti renjong renjong, 
Nya pulau Burong, 
Massin di tigong 

kapal api. 

Ut^ ti ganjar ganjar, 
Nya nonga Laiar, 
Di pandang pijar, 

mati ari mati. 

Utd ti linga linga, 
Nya nonga Kalaka, 
Menoa Malana 

ti maio bini. 



Which may be rendered as follows : — 



" That which is like a widening expanse 

** Is the mouth of Tebas ; (Moratebas) 

** Whither we run to escape the pattering waves. 

*• That which is high peaked, 

** Is the island of Burong ; 

" Ever being passed by the fire ships. 

** That which glistens white, 

" Is the mouth of the Laiar, (Sari bus) 

** Lit up by the setting sun. 



Perham's Song of the Head Feast. 183 

** That which heaves and rolls, 

** Is the mouth of Kalaka ; 

** The country of Malana with many wives." 

Soon after this they come to the path which leads them to the house of 
Kling. As the whole of the performance is directed to the fetching and 
coming of Singalang Burong, naturally great effects follow upon his arrival, 
and such are described. As soon as he enters the house the paddy chests 
suddenly become filled, and any holes in wall or roof close themselves up, for 
he brings with him no lack of medicines and charms. His power over the 
sick and old is miraculous. ** Old men having spoken with grandfather Lang 
become young again : — The dumb begin to stammer out speech. The blind 
see, the lame walk limpingly. Women with child are delivered of children as 
big as frogs.*' At a certain point the performer goes to the doorway of the 
house, and pretends to receive him with great honour, waving the sacrificial 
fowl over him. Singalang Burong is said to have the white hair of old age, 
but the face of a youth. 

Now follows the closing scene of the ceremony called " bedenjang,'' The 
performer goes along the house, beginning with the head man, touches each 
person in it, and pronounces an invocation upon him. In this he is supposed 
to personate Singalang Burong and his sons-in-law, who are believed to be the 
real actors. Singalang Burong himself ** nenjangs *' the headmen, and his 
sons-in-law, the birds, bless the rest. The touch of the human performer, and 
the accompanying invocation are thought to effect a communication between 
these bird spirits from the skies, and each individual being. The great bird- 
chief and his dependants come from above to give men their charms and their 
blessings. Upon the men the performer invokes physical strength and bravery 
in war; and upon the women, luck with paddy, cleverness in Dyak feminine 
accomplishments, and beauty in form and complexion. 

This ceremony being over, the women go to Singalang Burong (in the 
house of Kling, according to the Mengap) with 'Uuak'' and make him drunk. 
When in a state of insensibility his turban drops off, and out of it falls the 
head which was procured as above related. Its appearance creates a great 
stir in the house, and Lulong and Kumang come out of the room and take it. 
After leaving charms and medicines behind him, and asking for things in 
return, Singalang Burong and his company go back to the skies. 

At the feast they make certain erections at regular intervals along the 
verandah of the house, called **pandong,'* on which are hung their war-charms, 
and swords, and spears, &c. In singing the performer goes round these and 
along the ''ruai.'' The recitation takes a whole night to complete; it begins 
about 6 p.m. in the evening, and ends about 9 or 10 a.m. in the morning. The 
killing of a pig and examining the liver is the last act of the ceremony. 

In Balau Dyak the word ** Mengap" is equivalent to ** Singing'* or reciting 
in any distinctive tone, and is applied to Dyak song or Christian worship: but 
in Saribus dialect it is applied to certain kinds of ceremonial songs only. 



CHAPTER XXII. 
THE SUMPITAN AND OTHER POISONS. 

THE SUMPITAN. Tube: Description— Length— Spearhead— Sight— Remarkable straightne 
Primitive boring apparatus — Tediousness — Dusun name. Darts : Variety — Length — Neatness — 
Barbed with fish bones — Butt of pith — How made to fit— War and sporting arrows — Quivers — 
How darts are held— Charms— Girdle prong. Shooting : Range— Accuracy — Exaggeration. 
Poison : Bakatan preparation a mixture — Appearance — Tasam tree and aAar creeper — Antimony — 
Antiaris toxicaria — Decaying human flesh — Dal ton's account — Hatton's account — Pali nikus or 
Rat's Upas — Punan preparation — S. M tiller's account siren tree and ratoes creeper — Ingredients 
mixed. Effects : Dalton's account — Earl's opinion— Fatal to small animals — Slow effect on 
orang utans — Kayan opinion — Weakened by exposure — Mortally poisonous — Small puncture — 
Somnolent death — Feverishness — Thirty men wounded — Effect on ant eater. Dr. Lewin's 
Experiments: Mixtures — Siren is Antiaris toxicaria: Ipoh is Strychnos tiuie ; Aker tuba is Denis 
elliptica — Effects — Difl&culty in obtaining poison — I. : The pure poison — Chemical Tests — Frog — 
Pigeon — Rabbit — Strychnine — No Brucin. II. : Description — Rabbits — Frogs — Chemical tests — 
Antiarin obtained— Frogs— Pigeon— Rabbit — Fishes. III. : Strychnine. IV. : Description — 
Antiarin — Fishes. Antidotes : Earl's opinion — Crawfurd's opinion — Man wounded — Sucking 
wound — Brandy — Liquid ammonia — Ingo — Wounds aggravated. Food: Not poisoned. 
Manufacturers : Punans — Lugats — Pakatans — Other tribes. 

OTHER POISONS. A white powder— Mixed with sirih— Arsenic — Belief in poisoning — Poison 
plants — Kapuas poisoning — Bambu spiculae — Murut poisonings. 

THE SUMPITAN. 
Tubes, Darts, and Quivers. 

** The sumpitan, or blow pipe, is a wooden tube of about eight feet in length 
and an inch in diameter, through which small poisoned arrows are blown. 
... Sometimes the spear and the sumpitan are combined, a spear head 
being lashed upon the tube of the sumpitan, thus in some degree affording the 
advantage of a musket and bayonet." (Horsburgh, p. 38.) On the Mambakut 
River, **the length of the longest sumpitan I saw was between seven and 
eight feet, and much resembled the cherry-stick pipes of Turkey." (Mundy 
ii. 226.) The Adang Muruts have sumpits " as usual of dark hard red wood, 
and had a spear-head, lashed on very neatly with rattans on one side of the 
muzzle, and an iron sight on the other.*' (St. John ii. 8g.) 

In " Sarawak " (p. 330) Sir Hugh Low was I think the first traveller to 
call attention to the fact that the little iron hook fastened at the outlet end of 
the sumpit is a ** sight." Mr. C. A. Bampfylde writing to the '* Field " 
newspaper from Fort Kapit on the Rejang, Feb., 1882, says : " Mr. Hugh 
Low is certainly correct in describing the small iron hook on the end of the 
sumpitan, or dart tube, as a sight ; I have also seen on some ' sumpitans ' a 
white backsight, made of bone for use at night." 



The Sumpitan. 



185 



I 



W 



rtwl 



" The beauty and straightness of the bore is remarkable." (Mundy ii. 

226.) " The boring of a sumpit by a skilful hand is performed in a day. 

The instrument used is a cold iron rod, one end of which 

is chisel-pointed and the other round." (Burns, Jour. Ind. 

Arch. iii. 142.) ** The bore of these blow-pipes is as clean 
and bright as that of a gun-barrel, and 
is about six feet long, and drilled 
through a log of hard wood ; the log is 
then pared down and rounded to less 
than an inch in diameter." (White- 
head, p. 75.) The most complete 
account of the boring process is that 
giveii by Mr. Crocker, who saw it per- 
formed by a Bakatan : ** A hard piece 
of wood had been selected the length 
required and reduced to the size of a 
man's wrist, this was fastened to a post 
forming a part of a raised platform to 
the house. The operator stood under- 
neath and bored upwards with a long 
piece of round iron the length of the 
sumpitan and sharpened at one end like 
a chisel. Two bits of round wood, 
about 8 inches long, were fastened by 
rings of rattans to the iron forming a 
movable handle. The iron was beau- 
tifully round and made out of native 
iron like the Kayan weapons; the rod or 
chisel in question had been in the tribe 
as long as any of them could recollect. 
The traveller is naturally astonished to 
find the holes of the blow-pipe so 
straight, when he sees the simple con- 
trivance employed ; besides a good eye 
they must be possessed of more than 
ordinary perseverance, as the method 
of boring is tedious to a degree. After 
the hole is bored a piece of rattan 
is worked through until the desired 
smoothness is obtained, when the out- 
side is reduced to the usual size and 
polished by constant rubbing." (S.G., 
No. 123, p. 6.) 
Mr. Witti (Diary, 20 Nov.) says the Dusuns calls the blow-pipe Sopok 

and not Sumpitan, but Sopok also means a spear. 

" The darts are of various sorts." (Dalton, p. 51.) " The arrow is a 

small splinter of nibong about as thick as a stocking wire, stuck into a small 



Sumpitan. 

Pattern inlaid with tin- 
foil. Length, 8o|in. ; 
bore, -f^in. ; weight, 
29 oz. 
(Oxford Mus.) 



Sumpitan, 
with concave convex 
blade bound on to the 
ejector end by two 
coils of brass wire. 
Butt end of the pipe 
encased in brass and 
encircled by a series 
of shallow grooves. 
Length, 6ft. 4iin ; 
length of blade, inclu- 
sive haft, i6|in. ; dianu 
of bore, fin. ; weight, 
44 oz. 

(Oxford Mus.) 



i86 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N. Borneo. 



hemispherical base of very light wood, so as to afford a surface for the breath 
to act upon. The point is cut sharp.*' (Horsburgh, p. 38.) Mr. Brooke 

Low describes the darts as ** made 
of the palm called apieng,'* while 
Sir Sp. St. John describes those in 
use by the Adang Muruts as "slips 
of wood, tipped with spear-shaped 
heads cut out of bamboo." (ii. 89.) 



^^3= 



SuMPiTAN Arrows with Pith Butts. 
(Brit. Mus.) 



DO] 

brc 



Wooden Bodkin with Brass Pin. 

Used for making the butts, from sago palm midribs, for blowpipe arrows (see text). 

Length, 8}in« 
(Rdinbro' Mus.) 

On the Mambakut River the 
** arrows are nine inches long, 
of tough wood, not thicker 
than moderate-sized wire, very 
neatly made, and generally 
barbed with sharpened fish 
bones .... and in 
order to give greater velocity 
to the arrow, the head of it 
is made to fit exactly to the 
size of the tube, and is 
formed of a sort of pith, or of 
very soft wood." (Mundy ii. 
226.) According to Mr. 
Whitehead (p. 75) the ** darts 
are made from the stem of 
a palm-leaf — as hard as the 
tough nebong fibre — which is 
cut into slender strips, 
tapering into a needle-like 
point and nearly a foot in 
length. The resistance to the 
air is obtained by piercing a 
small piece of dried pith (from 
a species of mountain sago- 




Bambu Quiver 
(S.E. Coast). 

Bands on upper 
irtion are dark 
Town and yellow 
rotan. The two 



is of iron. 
(BHt. Mus.) 




ends of the quiver 

.painted dark crim- , . , ., 1 • l 

son. The belt hook palm) on a brass needle, which 

is fixed in the centre of a 
small length of rattan, pre- 
viously pared to fit the barrel ; then by paring ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ .^^^ ^^^ 

the pith towards the needle a neat little cone gutta at one time. Length, with cover 

r , 1 J -*: ^ ^^«^4.u. :« ♦k^ on, i3in.; length, without cover, lojin; 

IS formed, already pierced exactly m the weight, complete with 27 darts, i^z. 

centre, the base of which, being the same (Oxford mus.) 



Bambu Quiver. 



The Sumpitan. 



187 



size as the rattan, exactly fits the barrel. 
In this cone the heavier end of the shaft 
is fixed. . . . War-arrows differ from 
sporting arrows by having a loose barbed 
point attached, either of tin or bamboo ; 
this point is besmeared with poison, and 
when shot home would remain in the 
wound with most of the poison." 

The arrows are ** carried in very 
neatly carved bamboo cases.'* (St. John 
ii. 89.) When the Kyans face an enemy 
the quiver at the side is open; **and, 
whether advancing or retreating, they fire 
the poisoned missiles with great rapidity 
and precision : some hold four spare 
arrows between the fingers of the hand 
which grasps the sumpitan, whilst others 
take their side-case.'* (Sir Jas. Brooke ; 
Mundy i. 260.) **The quiver for these 
arrows is really curious, beautifully made 
from the large bamboo, and besides, the 
darts usually contain a variety of amulets 
or charms, in the shape of pebbles, bones, 
and odd pieces of wood, with the skins 
of monkeys." {ibid, ii. 227.) Mr. White- 
head also speaks of the ** neatly made 
bamboo case, with a prong at the side 
for fixing in the chawat, and ornamented 
with rattan plaits." (p. 76.) 

Shooting. 

'' In advancing, the sumpitan is car- 
ried at the mouth and elevated, and they 
will discharge at least five arrows to one 
compared with a musket. Beyond a 
distance of twenty yards they [the 
KayansJ do not shoot with certainty, 
from the lightness of the arrow, but I 
have frequently seen them practise at the 
above-named range, and they usually 
struck near the centre of the crown, none 
of the arrows being more than an inch or 
two from each other. On a calm day the 
utmost range may be a hundred yards." 
(Sir Jas. Brooke, Mundy i. 261.) Capt. 
Mundy says : ** At twenty yards distance, 
the barb meeting the bare skin, would 




Bambu Quiver. 

The small tassel at the side is made of 
strings of variously coloured glass beads, 
with a canine tooth in the middle. On the 
same side as this tassel, that is opposite the 
belt attachment, there is a thin square strip 
of bambu which is fastened in its place by 
all the bands of plaited cane passing over 
it. The bottom of the quiver is formed by 
the natural joint. The cover is likewise 
formed by the natural joint ; on the top is 
the flattened spiral of a shell (conus) em- 
bedded in gutta. surrounded by two inches 
of small shells (nassaj. Three equi-distant 
thin square strips of bambu are found 
attached between the two bands of plaited 
rattan. On the free string from the belt 
attachment are strung a series of graduated 
opac^ue turquoise blue beads, and at the 
end IS a small gourd with a wooden plug. 
In the midst of the bead tassel on the plug 
is a small brass hawk bell. Total length, 
including cover, is^in.; length of auiver 
only, i3in. ; weight, including gourd and 
24 darts, barely 14 oz. 
(Oxford Mus.) 



i88 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



Packet containing 
SuMPiTAN Poison. 

i real size. S.E. Borneo 
(Leiden Mus.) 




I 'JJiiia 



Bambu Box containing 
SuMPiTAN Poison. 

} real size. S.E. Borneo. 
(Leiden Mus.) 



bury half the arrow in the flesh, but wouW not penetrate cloth at a 
distance of forty yards ; the extreme range may be eighty or ninety 
yards." (ii. 227.) On the Koti river the Kayans ** will 
strike an object at 40 yards, and will kill a monkey or 
bird at that distance; when the darts are poisoned, 
they will throw them 60 yards, as in war, or at some 
large ferocious animal which they seldom eat." (Dalton, 
p. 51.) Mr. Horsburgh gives (p. 38) the wounding 
distance as 30 yards. The Ukits are said to use the 
tube with deadly aim. (S.G. 169, p. 54.) A corres- 
pondent at Saratok (Dutch Borneo), writing to the 
S.G., No. 95, records good aim at 30 paces with a 
six feet sumpitan, at a target slightly bigger than a 
man's head.* See also Chapter on Hiinting and Fish- 
ing; pp. 446, 462. 

Manufacture of the Poison. 

The Bakatans told Mr. Crocker that they manufactured the poison thus : 
**They made incisions in the Epo tree (Upas) and the gutta, which exuded, 

they cooked over a slow fire on a leaf until 
it assumed the consistency of soft wax ; 
when it was required for use they grated 
the bark of a tree and mixed with it, when 
it became a potent and deadly poison. Both 
of those trees they described as being of 
large growth." (S.G., No. 123, p. 6.) ** The. 
poison looks like a translucent gum, of a 
rich brown colour ; and when dipped into 
water of a temperature of one hundred and 
fifty degrees, it began to melt immediately ; 
but on being withdrawn and placed over 
the flame of a lighted candle, it instantly 
became hard again. . . . The natives 
say also, that the juice from one kind of 
creeper is even more virulent than that of 
the upas." (St. John ii. 89.) Sir Jas. Brooke 
also refers to the sap of two sorts of creepers 
being used to mix with the original poison." 
(Keppel ii. 146.) 

Mr. Brooke Low mentions the juice of 
the tasam tree, which is dried over the fire 
until it becomes a hard paste, and is then 
softened with the juice of an akar, creeper." 
Mr. Crossland informs me he was told 




Circular Plate of hard brown wood ; 

attached rolling pin of light wood. 

Said to be used for preparing sumpitan 

poison. Poonans at Long Wai. 

(Brit. Mus.) 



1 But " E T.S." writes to the " Field " newspaper (the date of which I have unfortunately mislaid), 
saying, from his own infonnation he knew Dyaks to blow their arrows to 150 yards to a certainty, 
and he would not mind betting on their doing 200 yards This writer makes other statements which 
may be equally well doubted. 



The Sumpttan. 189 

antimony was mixed with the poison by the Undups. Mr. Burbidge writes me 
(i6th Oct., 1894) : "I was always told that the arrows for the sumpitan were 
first steeped in juice of upas (antiaris toxicaria), and then, that they were stuck 
into a portion of a decaying human body, in full sunshine, for a month or more." 
According to Mr. Dalton, with the Kyans, on the Koti river, "each man 
carries about with him a small box of lime juice; by dipping the dart into this 
immediately before they put it into the sumpit, the poison becomes active, in 

which state they blow it And darts used in war are poisoned by 

dipping them into a liquid taken from a young tree, called by the Diaks upo.'* 
(p. 51.) Mr. Hatton's account is very curious; on 31 March (Diary) he 
writes : ** To-day some men came in from collecting upas juice. I asked 
how it was obtained, and they said they make a long bamboo spear, and, 
tying a rattan to one end, throw it at the soft bark of the upas tree, then 
pulling it out by means of the rattan, a little of the black juice will have 
collected in the bamboo, and the experiment is repeated until sufficient is 
collected." Mr. Witti remarks on a tree which made itself noticeable 
through the manner in which its bole was scarred. The Dyaks call that 
tree Pali Nikiis, or ** Rat's Upas,'' although in individual appearance it has 
nothing in common with the upas proper. Its sap is said to be just virulent 
enough to poison rats. The tree is shaggy topped, and has a straight stem, 
free of branches up to 60 feet. The simple undivided leaf has an obtuse apex 
and an obvate form. (Diary, 17 March.) 

The Punans prepared poison as follows : " They had a bundle of arrows 
by their side, and as soon as the poisonous matter was hot they took a small 
quantity and smeared over a wooden plate by means of a wooden instrument 
resembling a pestle, till the plate was covered with a thick layer. Then 
taking an arrow they rolled the head across the plate, so that it became 
coated with the pasty matter. Next they made a spiral incision in the 
arrow-head and again rolled it over the plate. The arrow was then ready for 
use." (Bock, p. 73.) 

Mr. Bampfylde (as quoted above) says the two juices **are mixed 
together and placed over a fire until they congeal. Different tribes vary in 
some of the ingredients but all use the upas juice." * 

" The Bakatan and Lugat are the chief manufacturers of the sumpitan." 
(Burns, Jour. Ind. Arch. iii. 142.) The Adang Muruts, although large users, 
cannot manufacture the " sumpitan themselves, but purchase them from 
traders, who procure them at Bintulu and Rejang from the wild Punans and 
Pakatans and are therefore very dear, and highly prized, and no price offered 

* The varieties of the poisons are thus described by the traveller Mr. S. Muller: "The 
substance of which a coating is put on the point of these little bambu arrows is made of two 
different poisons, known under the name of siren and of ratoes or ipoe. Both are prepared with 
vegetable matters, although they are furnished by quite different species of trees. The poison is 
extracted by decoction from the juice of the bark, twigs and leaves of these trees, and after it has 
been allowed to rest and to ferment properly it is mixed with the juice of other trees and bushes ; 
it is then preserved for u«e The poison extracted from the sinn is much more active, violent and 
dangerous than that furnished by the ipoe, but it seems its preparation is more difficult than that of 
the latter. It comes from a lofty tree which might well be the Pohon oefas (poison tree) of Java. 
The ratoes or ipo€ on the contrary is a climbing plant which appears to be fkirly common in the 
interior of the country." (ii. 355.) 



igo H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

will induce a man to part with a favourite sumpitan.'' (St. John ii. 89.) These 
two last-named people (if they are not identical with the Ukits) seem to have 
a wide range in Borneo, and hence they must probably be numerous. But as 
almost every writer mentions the sumpitan, the weapon must have a still wider 
range than the people who alone are said to produce it, hence we may yet 
expect to hear that there exist other tribes than these who are also manufac- 
turers. 

Effect of the Poison. 

It may be that on the Koti river in Mr. Dalton's time an exceptionally 
virulent form of poison was in use by the Kayans as his report reads very 
deadly (p. 51): *'The effects are almost immediately fatal. I have been in 
Selgie's boat when a man was struck in the hand ; the poison ran so quickly 
up the arm, that by the time the elbow was green, the wrist was black ; 
the man died in about four minutes; the smell from the hand was 
very offensive." Mr. Earl writes in a more moderate spirit (p. 265) : ** The 
arrows are steeped in the most subtle poison, which destroys birds and 
smaller animals, when struck with them, almost instantaneously, a slight 
wound from an arrow on which the poison is strong, being said to occasion 
inevitable death, even to man. The effects of weapons of this description are 
always exaggerated by those who use them ; the poison, therefore, is not in 
all probability, so destructive to the human species as it is represented." 
Most travellers bear out Mr. EarPs general statement. Thus Mr. Horsburgh 
says ** the arrows are dipped again into the poison immediately before using 
and are used in hunting as well as in war, and kill not only birds and 
squirrels, but also large animals such as orang-utans. To animals the poison 
proves fatal, because they cannot pull the arrow out of the wound ; but men 
suffer little inconvenience from it, as their comrades can always extract the 
missile before the poison has been absorbed by the system. Squirrels and 
small animals drop a few minutes after they have been struck, but orang- 
utans frequently clamber about among the trees for a whole day before the 
poison takes such effect upon them as to bring them down." (p. 58.) 

According to Sir Jas. Brooke (Mundy i. 262) : ** The poison is considered 
deadly by the Kyans, but the Malays do not agree in this belief. My own 
impression is, that the consequences resulting from a wound are greatly 
exaggerated, though if the poison be fresh, death may occasionally ensue ; 
but decidedly, when it has been exposed for any time to the air it loses its 
virulence." * 

Sir Chas. Brooke refers to the effects of the poison three times in the 
course of his expeditions. On the first occasion he writes : '* Many men had 
been struck by sumpitan arrows which were most mortally poisonous." 
(i- 353') These were Kanowit arrows. On the following page he continues : 
** Before one hut there lay a line strapping fellow, having just breathed his 
last. I waited to look at the body, as he seemed only to sleep. He had been 
struck in the chest by an arrow, which left no more mark than the probe of a 

' The first poisons from Malay Peninsula experimented with by Prof. Sydney Ringer, F.R.S.. 
gave negative results. (Kew Bulletin. No. 50, p. 26.) 



The Sumpitan. 191 

pin. After receiving the wound, he dosed off to wake no more, and died 
half-an-hour after he was struck." 

Finally, when fighting the Kyans, he writes : ** Some had been wounded 
by poisonous arrows, but the only effect was feverishness.'* (ii. 297.) But 
he appears to have given details of the effects of this Kanowit poison to 
Sir Sp. St. John, who writes as follows : ** In 1859, ^^^ Kanowit tribe, 
instigated by Sherif Musahor, murdered two EngHsh gentlemen, and then 
fled into the interior. Mr. Johnson [now Sir Chas. Brooke] who led the 
attack on them, tells me he lost thirty men by wounds from the poisoned 
arrows. He found the bodies of Dayaks who had gone out as skirmishers 
without a mark, beyond the simple puncture where a drop of blood rested on 
the wound." (i. 45.) 

Of the effect of the poison on an animal we have an eye-witness in Mr. 
Motley, who, having in his possession an ant eater (manis javanica), but being 
without its necessary food, " he determined to destroy it for a specimen, and 
he accordingly got a native to administer to it one of his little poisoned darts, 
from the sumpitan or blow-pipe ; the dart, which had apparently been dipped 
in some black juice, entered the skin of the belly about a quarter of an inch, 
and in a quarter of an hour the creature was dead. It died very quietly, 
having gradually ceased to move about, and then lay for three or four minutes 
in a state of torpor ; after which, death came on with a very slight tremor, 
passing of the foeces, and protrusion of the tongue. On dissection, the aorta 
and the large artery leading to the strong muscular tail were gorged with dark 
venous blood, as was also the left ventricle ; there was no arterial blood to be 
seen anywhere, and, indeed, very little in any other part of the body, except 
in the air-cells of the lungs, where a number of vessels were ruptured ; all 
the vessels of the head and brain, in particular, were perfectly empty and 
collapsed ; the diaphragm was most strangely contracted and corrugated." 
(Motley and Dillwyn, p. 52.) 

In the Kew Bulletins, Nos. 50, 58-59, 102-103; Feb., 1891, Oct.-Nov., 
1891, and June-July, 1895, there are described the experiments made with 
poison from the Malay Peninsula, but the following account, which I have 
translated from the German, I give here, as the experiments were made with 
poison obtained from Borneo. 

THE ARROW-POISONS OF BORNEO. 

By Dr. L. Lewin (Pharmacological Private Laboratory, in Berlin.) 

Virchow*s Archiv., fQr Pathol. Anat., 1894, pp. 317-325. 

According to an eye- witness, the outer bark of the stem is removed, and 
the rest rasped and pressed, and the juice boiled down in iron saucers to the 
consistency of an extract. The upper la^er of this extract is the more powerful 
poison, and is kept by the makers for their own use; the lower layer, which is 
weaker, is sold. Before being covered the arrows are wetted with water in which 
ahar tuba has been soaked, and are then dried for half-an-hour in the sun. . . Cuts 
are made in the siren tree, which then exudes sap, which at first is not poisonous, 
but which is said to become so when allowed to lie until it has turned black. After 
being allowed to lie for a few days, it is mixed with the sap of aker tuba on a stone 



192 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

or board. It is then mixed with the ash or charcoal of poetjoe semamboe^ kaijes sitik^ 
kaijies tjaboet, moehOj kaijes sikap, rottan boeloe, koelit kapaijan and koelit doeko. Before 
being used it is said to be mixed again with the juice of aker tuba. Different 
substances are afterwards added to the preparation ; thus the sap of moehon or 
moehOf a water plant (Mai, kladi)^ is added to the siren sap, or the juice of the gadung 
{dioscorea kirsuta)^ used in Malacca, also the juice of the tuba root, and also tobacco 
water, and the mixture is boiled up (** gekocht.")^ 

Ipoh is considered to be a kind of strychnia, probably Strycknos tieuti, and Siren 
is considered to be Antiaris toxicaria, while aker tuba, as I have already stated several 
times, is Derris elliptica. 

There is also stated to be a sort of a sub-species of siren poison called Mantalat 
poison, probably named after the kampong Mantalat, which is characterized by the 
addition of the wing covers of Lytta gigantea. 

In Borneo it is difficult to get fair quantities of the poison Small bambu 
cylinders, 6 decimetres long by ^ decimetre outside diameter, cost 17 shillings; 
and much circumspection must be used, as on discovery of a purchase by the 
natives, the lives of both the purchaser and the salesman are put in danger.* 

• The few experiments made with Borneo arrow poison (most probably siren 
poison) on animals, resulted in disturbance of the respiration, and final death through 
heart failure. 

I have received fair quantities of arrow poison 

I. Brought by Mr. Grabowski, originating from south-east Borneo, called 
ipohf is a brown mass, partly crumbling and partly capable of being cut, mixed with 
sand. It is soluble in cold water with a yellow colour. The solution had a 
distinctly alkaline reaction. After acidifying it gave the following reactions: 
with potassium -ferri- cyanide a slight turbidity, and after a few hours a 
granular deposit ; with phosphotungstic acid a white precipitate ; with 
phosphomolybdic acid and picric acid a yellow precipitate; with platinum 
chloride it gave a crystalline precipitate, at first yellowish-white but afterwards 
became a reddish brown ; with bi-chloride of mercury a white deposit ; and with 
potassium sulphocyanide at first nothing, then a deposit of small crystalline 
needles. 

The test for strychnine with bi-chromate of potassium and sulphuric acid 
gave at once the characteristic violet coloration. The experiment on animals 
had at first led to the supposition that we had here to deal with the presence 
of strychnine. Frogs, after an injection with a Pravaz S3rringe, of an 
aqueous solution of '002 grammes of poison, showed, after 6-7 minutes, decided 
tetanus, which was preceded by increased reflex excitability. It became apparent 
that an extremity (limb), of which the blood supply was cut off, suffered also from 
convulsions, but that the limb did not do so if its nervous connection with the 
spinal cord was cut off. Experiment No. 5, 12 Dec, 1889. A solution of -002 
grammes of poison, dissolved in water, was injected into a pigeon subcutaneously. 
Two minutes after there was strong trembling with wing clapping. After three 
minutes it fell on its back, opened its beak, and a few tetanic convulsions followed. 
Every muscle trembled at the same time. At the end of five minutes the head was 
raised a little, then fell back and death supervened. The heart stood absolutely 
still in systole. Experiment No. 6, 12 Dec, 1889. A solution of '005 grammes of 

* From a communication by Mr. J. D. E. Schmeltz, of Leiden. [Dr. L.] 
« Mayer. [Dr. L.] 



The Sumpitan, 193 

the poison, dissolved in water, was injected under the skin of a rabbit ; 4-30 
injection ; 4-43, sudden tremblinpf of the whole body, in its attempts to get away 
accompanied by the well-known tetanic scratching of the paws on the table ; 4-44, 
tetanus and the standing up of the animal ; 4-45, it fell down, tetanic stretching 
out, opisthotonus ; 4-47, a second attack after a short intermission ; 4-48, third 
tetanic attack, death. 

To obtain the active principle the weakly alkaline solution was shaken up 
with ether. After distilling off the ether light yellow coloured sharp pointed 
crystalline needles remained, which after several re- crystallisations out of alcohol 
became colourless. They gave the reaction for strychnine and had the following 
composition : 

a The elemental analysis '1749 grammes dried at 100° C. gave '04832 

grammes C O* and '1055 grammes H' O. 
b '1454 grammes at 748*5 mm. Bar. and at 20° C. gave ii*i c. cm. N = 
8-597«N. 

Found — Calculated — 

C 75-35°/o C 75-45°/o 

H 67o°/o H 6-58% 

N 8-59°/o N 8-38% 

We have therefore to deal with strychnine which is present in the ipoh poison. 
We shall not err if we consider strychnos tieuU as the source of this poison, as in 
spite of many endeavours I did not succeed in discovering even a trace of hrttcin in 
the poison. 

II. Dyak poison {Siren) received in 2 samples from the State Museum at 
Leiden. 

The poison consists of thick, hard, dry, easily powdered pieces which form a 
grey black powder almost completely soluble in water. When hydrochloric acid is 
added it becomes turbid and the solution after long boiling with this acid shows the 
presence of a glucoside. 

Experiments on animals showed a very decided virulence. With a 
subcutaneous injection rabbits died in 10-12 minutes with the following symptoms: 
restlessness, trembling, drooping of the head, then sudden tumbling over, dyspnoea 
and apnoea. The heart stood absolutely still. The character of a poison belonging 
to the digitalis group was still better brought out with frogs in which after 
subcutaneous injection the ventricle stops in systole. 

The chemical examination of the poison was as follows: The poison was 
entirely extracted in a reflux condenser with hot 96^0 alcohol. On cooling of the 
alcohol a white mass separated out which after filtering and drying proved to be 
amorphous and free from ash. The alcohol was almost completely distilled off 
from the residue and the small quantity remaining driven off in the water hath. 
During this some more of the originally white but now yellowish mass separated 
out, besides which a resin-like substance made its appearance in small quantities, 
fluid [sic] yellow and viscous during the steaming off" but hard as stone when cold, 
and lighter than the white mass ; this substance dissolved more easily in chloro- 
form and was therefore the more easily separated off". A solution in benzol gave a 
white precipitate with alcohol. 

Of these white masses so obtained I purifled the flrst precipitate several times 
in hot diluted alcohol. It proved to be free from nitrogen and not a glucoside. 
The melting point was 57 to 58° C. Dr. ** Privatdocent ** Bistrzycki was kind 
O Vol. 2. 



194 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N. Borneo. 



enough to analyse the body and to determine its formula : '1790 grammes substance 
gave -5358 grammes C O' and '1988 grammes H* O hence : 
Found — Calculated — 

C 81-64% C 81-82% 

H 12-34% H 12-12% 

The composition is similar to that which I found in the antiaris resin which I 
obtained from the Batak poison and more similar than the composition which De 
Vrij and Ludwig obtained from this resin (C 83-9% J H 11 •9%)' 




True Upas Tree (Siren), Antiaris Toxicaria Lesch. 

Botanically it belongs to the Artocarpeae, or bread-fruit order. 

(After Rob. Brown : Plantae Javanicas Rariores, pi. 13). 

I further tried to purify this resin : — i. by washing with boiling water, drying 
and dissolving in hot alcohol; 2. by treatment with chloroform and petroleum ether. 
The elemental analyses of the substances obtained were : 

a -0971 grammes of substance gave '2886 grammes CO' and -0989 

grammes H*0. 
h 0-265 grammes of substance gave 7895 grammes CO' and -2658 
grammes H'O. 
Therefore : 

Found— Calculated to C>»H»0. 

I. II. 

C 8i-o6 81-22 C 8i-22 

H II-34 ii*i6 H 12-12 



The Sumpitan, 



195 



According to this the values have turned out somewhat lower, and with regard 
to the carbon quantities deviate still more from that of the above-mentioned investi- 
gators. 

So much of this antiaris resin which had no action on animals, and which had 
not been used up in experiments on animals, was extracted for a long time with hot 
water in order eventually to obtain antiarin. The solution was dried up, and the 
deposited crystals purified as much as possible by pressure and recrystallisation out 
of the alcohol. The body possessed the character of a glucoside. The melting-point 
was ascertained to be 2i8-22o°C, by Dr. Bistrzycki, who also carried out the elemental 
analysis. As regards the carbon the figures came out too high for antiarin, while 
as regards hydrogen they agreed approximately. The formula C^*H**0* + 2H*0 
requires y*Sg % ^1 while 8-46 % H were found. In spite of the good agreement 
of melting-points (220-6° and 218° to 220° C), the substance was still contaminated 
with small quantities of the antiarin resin, rich in carbon, which I was unable to 
remove even by further washing of the substance. A second elemental analysis 
gave too high carbon figures. 

Nevertheless, we 
have succeeded in 
determining the 
presence of antiarin, 
in a real Dyak arrow 
poison — siren poison. 
The experiments on 
animals also indicated 
this. In frogs it 
showed stopping of 
the ventricle in 
systole. 

Experiment No. 
114, 14 May, 1894. 
A small portion of the 
antiarin obtained was 
injected subcuta- 
neously into a pigeon. 
Vomiting followed in 
eight minutes, and 
this was repeated 
more frequently, then 
followed dyspnoea, 
short spasms, and 
death in 11 minutes. 
The heart stopped 
beating. Experiment 
No. 115, 15 May, 
1894. About '005 grammes of antiarin was subcutaneously injected into a rabbit, 
at 1 1 -5 a.m.; at 11 -8 the head sank on to the table, at 11 -11 clonic spasms, exoph- 
thalmos, and death. In order to determine whether any of the active principle of 
derris elliptica was present in the resinous portions, I did not omit to let it act several 
times on fishes, in the form of emulsion, without, however, witnessing any change 
in their condition of health. 




Flowers and Leaves of Strychnos*^//oA^, Strychnos tieute. 

Nat. order : Loganaceae. 

[Strychnia and Brucia are poisonous alkaloids affecting the 

spinal cord, &c.] 

(Ex Blume : Rumphias, pi. 34). 



196 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



III. Dyak arrow-poison, from south-east Borneo, from the State Museum, 

Leiden. (L Aft. Ser. 901, Nos. 9 and 10.) I may treat the two preparations 

together, although they were sent to me as siren (No. 10) and ipoh (No. 9). They 

^^,^ both contain the same active principle, 

^A^Hf fmMM^ij namely, strychnine. The Ipoh, apparently 

^QH[ Arfl^flB ^^^y ^^^' ^^^ ^" ^ bambu box, as a brown 

l#/^^p^ friable mass, while No. 10, the nominal 

J^K4' siren, was wrapped in a palm leaf. 

^^^^^^^Jsf 1/ " '^^® preliminary toxicological deter- 

^^^^^^■^r M mination on a frog and rabbit indicated 

^^^^^^^^^^k M strychnine reaction at once and it was 

^^^^^^^^^^K I besides easily determined chemically. But 

^^m ^^^1 ^^^ P^^^ preparation of the active prin- 

^^ ^^M ciple was a more difficult matter than with 

f ^ the first mentioned preparation from the 

Berlin Museum. 

I poured a little water over the large 
quantity at my disposal and this weak 
alkaline mass I shook up with ether. 
Chloroform proved itself unsuitable as it 
extracted more coloured constituents. 
After distilling off the ether the residue 
contained crystals embedded in a yellow 
Purification finally resulted only after 
repeated treatment with diluted 40% alcohol which dissolved the coloured matter 
but not the strychnine. Brucin should have gone over into the alcohol, but I looked 
for it there in vain. 



Strychnos tieute Fruit. 
The poison is in the round thick -edged 
halfpenny-like seeds (Nux vomica) ; the 
outer covering of the orange-Uke fruit is 
eaten with impunity by birds and other 
animals. 
(Ex Blume: Rumphiae, pi. 24.) 

mass which it was difficult to remove. 




Root of Tuba (Derris ElHptica). 

(Ex Blume : Rumpbias, pi. 24.) 

"Porcupines (Hystrix Crassispinis) , like the rhinoceros, feed 

upon the poisonous tuba root, which is almost certain 

death to any of the other animals in the Bornean jungle." 

(Hose, Mammalia^ p. 60). 

The elemental analysis of the substance claimed to be strychnine was as 
follows : 

a -2468 grammes of the substance dried at ioo° C. gave -6788 grammes 

C O' and '1490 grammes H* O. 
^ '2357 grammes at 764 mm. Bar. and 19° C. gave i8-i c. cm. N = 
8-87% N. 
It was therefore really strychnine we had to deal with. 



The Sumpitan. 



197 



IV. Dusun-Dyak arrow-poison from the State Museum Leiden (iii. Ser. 913, 
No. 6 and No. 8.) 

Both preparations consisted of black pieces, their solutions produced the same 
symptoms in warnj and cold blooded animals, that is the same symptoms as we 
have already reported as resulting from antiarin. 

The isolation of the chemical component parts was obtained by the same 
methods as above described, the antiaris resin was extracted by 96% alcohol and 
the antiarin by extraction with hot water from the resinous mass. The products 
obtained agreed in their chemical behaviour with the antiaris resin and antiarin. 
The melting point of the latter is 219° C. 

On this opportunity by my several experiments on fishes I endeavoured to 
ascertain whether derrid was present in these poisons, but I only obtained negative 
results." 




The Tuba Plant (Derris Elliptica). 

A climbing leguminous plant. 

(After Nalh. Wallish : Planta Asiatica rariores, pi. 237). 



igS H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 

Antidotes. 

Although according to Mr. Earl ** the Dyaks assert that no antidote is 
known, yet the preparation of the poison being similar to that practiced by 
the aboriginal inhabitants of Celebes, for which a remedy has been discovered, 
the people of Borneo are probably acquainted with it." (p. 265.) When Sir 
Jas. Brooke asked the Sakarran chief Lingi, whether many of his men were 
lost from wounds from the Kayan sumpits he was told, '* No, we can cure 
them." "This is one more proof in favour of Mr. Crawfurd's opinion that 
this poison is not sufficiently virulent to destroy life when the arrow is (as it 
mostly is) plucked instantly from the wound." (ii. 126.) A servant who 
was struck by a poison arrow had sulphuric acid and caustic applied and the 
man recovered, and on another occasion when several men were hit the 
wounds were sucked by a messmate and no harm resulted. (Mundy ii. 262, 
226.) His Highness Sir Chas. Brooke told Sir Spencer St. John that 
during the Kanowit troubles in 1859, ** One man was struck near him ; he 
instantly had the arrow extracted, the wound sucked, a glass of brandy 
administered, and the patient sent off to the boats about four miles distant. 
Two companions supported him, and they had strict orders not to allow him 
to sleep till he reached the landing-place : they made him keep awake, and he 
recovered." (i. 45.) 

Mr. Witti states, but he does not say it is from his own knowledge, at 
Peluan : ** Liquid ammonia, applied externally after free bleeding of the 
wound and internally at the same time, is a pretty sure antidote. Each of our 
men carries a vial of that drug tied round his neck. The natives themselves, 
strange to say, have no such specific, and, consequently, many of them 
succumb to both dart poison and snake bites. Some Pagalan Dyaks used to 
cut out the part hit and apply Ingo, the Chinese universal medicine. The 
fatal termination of blowpipe wounds is often aggravated by internal festering 
through the tips of the arrow breaking off after penetrating into, say, the 
abdomen. The arrow is purposely formed to facilitate this, and hereabouts 
does not end in a simple point as with our Dusuns." (Footnote, Diary, 
25th March.) 

According to Mr. Earl *'the Dyaks shew no hesitation in eating animals 
which have been killed by their arrows, taking the precaution, however, of 
removing the flesh immediately adjacent to the wounded part. The poison, 
which is called ippo throughout the island, consists of the juice of a tree, and 
its mode of preparation appears to be perfectly similar to that practiced in 
Java, and other islands where it is employed." (p. 265.) And Mr. Dalton 
writes : ** I have seen them eat of the flesh notwithstanding it was killed with 
a poisoned dart ; in such cases they boil it before roasting, which they say, 
extracts the poison." (p. 51.) 

OTHER POISONS. 

On one occasion, when on the Sekyan river, below Sikong, Mr. Denison 
with the Dyak tribes was discussing Annum, the chief of the Sikongs and his 
supposed evil propensities, regarding all of which he expressed his disbelief, 



Other Poisons, 199 

and rated them as fabrications. "The Orang Kaya repHed that some Landak 
Dyaks once sold him what they said was poison. It was a powder, white in 
colour ; and he laid it by for nearly a year, not knowing what to do with it. 
Having a violent quarrel with a Dyak enemy, who had threatened to kill him, 
he mixed some of the powder in his enemy's chalk, which he used with his 
siri, * and do you know, tuan,' said this solemn savage to me, * he was taken 
ill, and in four days he was dead.' It is but fair to add that the Orang Kaya 
at once threw away the poison ; it was not Dyak akat, he said, to kill an enemy 
in this manner, besides, having a wife and children, he dreaded keeping it in 
his possession. This story was told so naturally and coolly, with such a grave 
and earnest countenance, that I do not hesitate to believe it." (ch. v., p. 48.) 

The following is reported by Mr. F. R. O. Maxwell from the Sadong. A 
Mingrat Dyak, named Suel, poisoned the Pengara of Jenan, and nearly killed 
some other men. ** After the Mingrats had eaten sirih with the Jenans, the 
Mingrats returned the civility, and gave sirih to the Jenans, with this differ- 
ence, that, instead of pushing the bag over to the Jenans, as the latter had 
done to them, Suel made up quids from the bag at his side, and handed it to 
the Pengara first, and then one to each of the four men, and then immediately 
got up to go. They left by the opposite entrance to that by which they had 
arrived — Lanchang road, and no one knows where they went. They had not 
gone 50 yards when the Pengara, who was still sitting down, fell forward with 
his arms stretched out and his face on the mat ; he then straightened himself 
up and fell back. He said, * Suel has killed me, they have given me poison in 
the sirih,' and then he died. The other men, four in number, were then taken 
the same way, they fell down one after another and were very ill, and are still 
very ill. The Pengara turned blue in the body, his nails were yellow, and his 
eyes red, teeth clenched. The Pengara purged very much but was not sick, 
the other four men were sick as well (this probably saved them)." (S.G., 1894, 
p. 103.) 

Mr. Crossland informs me he had a case among the Undups where a 
woman administered arsenic in food to another, having obtained the poison 
from the Malays. He also states that when his people came back unwell from 
up country, they invariably believe they have been poisoned by the up country 
people. 

In August, 1874, Mr. Gueritz reported from Simanggang (Batang Lupar) 
a serious case of poison by which five persons nearly lost their lives. The 
guilty parties were two women (S.G., No. 85), but he gives no details. 

In the S.G., 1894, p. 21, I notice the following in the Batang Lupar 
notes : ** Several specimens of the Kibang upah, one of the supposed Bugau 
poison plants, are now flourishing in the fort garden. They are similar to 
the kladi but with red leaves and stalks. They do not seem to have any 
known use in this district. Another variety of the kibang api is much more 
red than these. These are, however, probably plants producing poison for 
the sumpitans." 

" I may mention that the crime of poisoning is almost unknown on the 
north-west coast, but it is very generally believed the people of the interior of 
the Kapuas, a few days' walk from the Batang Lupar, are much given to the 



200 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

practice. Sherif Sahib, and many others who visited that country, died 
suddenly, and the Malays assert it was from poison ; but of this I have no 
proof." (St. John i. 30.) 

Referring to this statement, Mr. Burbidge remarks (p. 66) : ** The nature 
of the poison used is not exactly known, but it is very generally supposed to 
be a peculiarly irritating fibre or spiculce derived from some species of 
bamboo, the effect of which is to cause a chronic state of sickness and 
depression, followed by death. Whatever it may be, it is a mechanical rather 
than a chemical irritant." 

Referring to the murder of a headman in j886 Mr. F. O. Ricketts writes : 
** Orang Kaya Abai and his followers are what are known as main Muruts. 
. . . Abai has always been overbearing and defiant and consequently has 
been at enmity with most of the other inhabitants of the river, he also bears 
the character of being a poisoner, and it is said that many have met their 
death at his hand in that manner." 

Eight years later the same Resident reports: ** There is one tribe of 
Muruts which originally inhabited a small locality near the source of the 
Trusan, but few of them left ; there are one or two houses in the lower river ; 
these are known as the Main Muruts and bear a bad character, the others 
being afraid of them ; they have the reputation of being adepts in the art of 
poisoning and one of their ways of administering it is in arrack in the 
following manner : it is the usual custom in Muruts' houses for the hosts to 
drink first, this they do, but in handing the arrack to the person they want to 
poison they slide the thumb into the liquor, the poison being secreted under 
the thumb nail ; how far this is true it is impossible to say — most Muruts are 
under the impression that it is done. The poison acts slowly, as the victim it 
is said does not die for some days. Many believe that they can be poisoned 
at a distance by charms at the hands of this tribe and consequently keep 
aloof — even those who are on fairly good terms with them avoid having much 
to do with them. Personal experience has shown that there is something 
different about these people, who seem reserved and indisposed to become 
friendly." (S.G., No. 347, p. 214.) 



Tools used in the preparation of Ipoh Poison in the 
Malay Peninsula. 







Spatulas partially covered with ipoh Poison. 

The smallest is used to spread the poison on to the arrow tip, and the next size to ladle 
the sap from the bambu trough and spread it on the largest spatulas. Batang Padang. 

(L. Wray, Kew Mus.) 



Tools used in the Preparation of Ipoh Poison. 



201 




Bambu for collecting Ipoh Sap. 

The piece of wood is to convey the sap into the bambu. Batang Padang. 

(L. Wray, Kcw Mus.) 




Bambu Trough 

in which the ipoh sap is dried by the Sakais. Batang Padang. 

(L. Wray, Kew Mus.) 



Bambu for holding ipoh Aker Poison 

(StrychnosJ. 

Near S. Maingayi, Batang Padang. 

(L. Wray. Kew Mus.) 



Protecting Sheath for Arrows. 

Hollow Bambu Receptacle for Poison. 

From Perak. 

(Sir H. Low, Kew Mus.) 



Bambu for holding Lampong Poison 

(Strychnos). 

Maingayi, Batang Padang. 

(L. Wray, Kew Mus.) 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

PEACE, SLAVES AND CAPTIVES, HUMAN SACRIFICES, 

CANNIBALISM. 

PEACE. Feasting — Symbol of good understanding — Heads, Dr. and Cr. — Peace through a third 
party — Banting and Sakaran — Peace ceremonies — Fated pigs— A sturdy chief — Meeting of 
enemies — Slaves sacrificed — Swearing over water — Salt-eating — Fowl-waving — Exchange 
of knives. Blood-Brotherhoods : Other brotherhoods. 

SLAVES AND CAPTIVES. Slave-debtors— Enemies' children adopted— Sea Dyaks kind masters 
— Sales of relatives — Ransoms — Gifts of freedom — Kayans brutal masters — Munit slaves — 
No Dusun slaves. System of Indoor and Outdoor Slaves : Origin — Descent — Curious 
succession — Marriage of slaves — Their work — Slave's property — Inheritance — Freedom — 
Introducing slaves — Support of slaves — Debts of slaves — Fire makes slaves. Slavery in North 
Borneo: Two classes — Marriage — Easy life — No slave gangs — Punishments— Maltreatment — 
Brian — Adoption — Debts — Private work — Infidel slaves — Work for wages degrading. 

HUMAN SACRIFICES. Peace-making sacrifices — Malanau sacrifices at house-buildings — 
Torture — Heart-augury — Kayan house-building victims — Kayan sacrifices for prosperity — 
Murut women not present— Purchases for sacrifices. 

CANNIBALISM. Originally widespread — "To get brave" — Reported Land Dyak cannibals — 
Circumstantial evidence — A German missionary— The Abb^ Langenhofi* — Kayans not cannibals 
— Mr. Bock's statements concerning the Trings — Mr. Bampfylde's rejoinder — Mr. Brooke Low's 
reply — Malay charge against the Dusun. 

PEACE. 

Among the Land Dyaks: ** When peace is made between them, one tribe 
visits the other, in order to feast together ; and on these occasions, whatever 
the number of visitors may be, they are at liberty to use the fruits of their 
hosts without hindrance. At their pleasure they strip the cocoanuts off the 
trees, and devour, and carry away as much as they can, without offence. Of 
course the hosts in turn become visitors, and pay in the same coin. All the 
Dyaks are remarkably tenacious of their fruit trees ; but on the occasion of 
the feast, beside taking the fruit, the visitors fell one tree, as a symbol of good 
understanding: of course it is only once that such liberties are taken or 
allowed ; at other times it would be an affront sufficient to occasion a war." 
(Sir Jas. Brooke, Mundy i. 210.) This custom existed among the Sadong 
people, the Engkrohs and Engrats, but Sir Chas. Brooke put a stop to it. 

(i. 367.) 

Among the Sea Dyaks peace is brought about by balancing the head 
accounts* and paying the difference in goods to the other tribe. ** In this 
computation the value of males is estimated at about twenty-five dollars, 
£5 4s. 2d., and females from fifteen to twenty dollars each ; when the 

1 See supra ii. 98 : the Peluan feud. 



Peace. 203 

difference is thus adjusted the two contracting tribes feast and dance 
together, and are friends until some new occasion of quarrel happens, and 
disturbs their amity." (Low, p. 213.) ** When one party is weaker, or less 
active, or less warlike than the other, they solicit a peace through some tribe 
friendly to both, and pay for the lives they have taken : the price is about 
two gongs, value 33^^ reals, for each life : thus peace is concluded. This is 
the custom with these Dyaks universally ; but it is otherwise with the 
Sarebus and Sakarran. But Sarebus and Sakarran are not fair examples 
of Dyak life, as they are pirates as well as head-hunters." (Sir Jas. Brooke, 
Keppel i. 302.) 

On the expedition against Pa Dendang in the Sakaran district, **the 
meeting of the Banting and Sakarang, who had been on terms of deadly feud 
for generations past, was far from amicable : the former, to whom I was then 
attached, denying the Sakarangs to have a single virtuous quality. They 
were cowardly traitors — crafty, false, and never to be trusted. The Bantings 
drew their boats quietly under the banks of the river, or advanced at a 
distance, when the Sakarang party were being noticed." (Brooke i. iii.) 
Sir Charles Brooke's ** arrival at Sakarang had the effect of bringing the 
Lingga and Sakarang Dyaks together ; but there was anything but love 
existing between them, and when apart, they abused each other most 
spitefully." {ibid, i. 137.) In these and many other cases it was the present 
Rajah's mere presence that kept the peace. One of his many triumphs was 
the establishment of peace between the Undups (?) and the Kantu Dyaks of 
the Kapuas river in Dutch Borneo. He says : " An assembly of about three 
hundred people was present. Sheds had been run up, and people had been 
waiting on the ground for days. At length, when all were assembled, the 
spokesman of each division made an oration, and the settlement was finally 
concluded. The first to draw a sword upon another on any future day, was 
to pay the established fine of eight jars. This was agreed to by all parties, 
and then two pigs were killed, the blood sprinkled about, and some was even 
taken home to touch the house, to wash away any evil tendencies there might 
be hanging in the atmosphere, and to appease the spirits. After this 
ceremony, they all mixed in the same circle, and told their different 
relationships, handed down through many generations, and over a large 
extent of country, on which were situated their many farming lands and fruit 
trees, some of them long since abandoned. This is the common practice of 
Dyaks, and their eyes sparkle with delight on finding a new Scotch cousin, 
several times removed, although they may have been at feud for years, and 
only an hour before would have gladly carried each other's head in a bag." 
{ibidy ii. 79.) 

The peace made by the late Rajah Muda between the Balaus and 
Sakarans is described by Sir Spencer St. John : ** After orations on both 
sides, for they all appear to have a natural gift of uttering their sentiments 
freely without the slightest hesitation, the ceremony of killing a pig for 
each tribe followed ; it is thought more fortunate if the animal be severed in 
two by one stroke of the parang, half sword, half chopper. Unluckily, the 
Balau champion struck inartistically, and but reached half through the 



204 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N, Borneo, 

animal. The Sakarangs carefully selected a parang of approved sharpness, a 
superior one belonging to Mr. Crookshank, and choosing a Malay skilled in 
the use of weapons placed the half-grown pig before him. The whole 
assembly watched him with the greatest interest, and when he not only cut 
the pig through, but buried the weapon to the hilt in the mud, a slight shout 
of derision arose among the Sakarangs at the superior prowess of their 
champion. The Balaus, however, took it in good part and joined in the 
noise, till about two thousand men were yelling together with all the power of 
their lungs. The sacred jar, the spear, and flag were now presented to each 
tribe, and the assembly, no longer divided, mixed freely together." (i. 26.) 

Whether Bishop McDougall is referring to this special peace making is not 
clear, but he says : " One of the fellows at a stroke cut the animal right across, 
but on one of the parts left a little bit of skin. This, it was disputed, would 
break the treaty, and the parties would have fought then and there but for 
the strongest persuasion ; which fortunately prevailed." (T.E.S. ii. 30.) 

Among Kanowits when peace was made, '* a pig was placed between the 
representatives of two tribes, who, after calling down the vengeance of the 
spirits on those who broke the treaty, plunged their spears into the animal, 
and then exchanged weapons. Drawing their krises, they each bit the blade 
of the other's, and so completed the affair. The sturdy chief of Kajulo 
declared he considered his word as more binding than any such ceremony." 
(St. John i. 45.) ** It is a very curious custom also, that if two men who 
have been at deadly feud, meet in a house, they refuse to cast their eyes upon 
each other till a fowl has been killed and the blood sprinkled over them." 
(tfttrf, i. 65.) Sir J. Brooke relates at Simpoke ** that enemies can neither 
eat nor drink in company, without desiring a reconciliation." (Keppel i. 309.) 

" The following are the customs observed on the conclusion of peace 
between two hostile tribes. Each provides a slave to be murdered by the 
other, and the principal person present gives the first wound, which is 
inflicted on the lower part and in the centre of the breast bone. The other 
persons of the tribe who may be present immediately follow the example, and 
fathers encourage their children to mutilate the body with their knives or 
whatever weapon they can acquire. The slaves sacrificed to peace are not 
criminals, but generally purchased for this purpose.' Besides this, presents 
are interchanged : these are provisions, gold dust to the value of a few 
rupees, and Siamese earthen jars, which are highly valued, as the priests 
use them as oracles, striking them and predicting according to the sound 
which may be elicited. Peace is generally concluded at the chief village or 
town of the most powerful tribe. It was thus that a feud which had existed 
for 5 years between the Sintang and Sakadayo Daya was terminated in 1826, 
since when they have been on amicable terms." (Dalton, p. 9.) 

Something similar used to occur on the Trusan, among the Muruts. 
" One party claimed a bangun of two slaves, one old jar, one kabok, and three 
tetawaks, to stop a blood feud ; and the lives taken were even, and according 
to Murut custom, the party last killing is required to pay a slave and a gong 
as a preliminary to making peace. It is usual with Muruts to kill the slave 

* See supra ii. 163 and infra ii. 216. 



Peace, 205 

when received as part of a bangun, (O. F. Ricketts, S.G., No. 242, p. 46.) 
The same resident writes later : '* Occasionally feuds have been settled 
between two tribes, the aggressors having made full compensation in payment 
of jars, brassware, and two slaves ; it was the custom to kill one of these 
slaves to make up for the relative lost ; on these occasions the same festivities 
as previously described would take place, as also when reprisals had been 
made, although no one had been killed, but in the latter case they would be on 
a much smaller scale, and the clay alligator or snake would be absent ; these 
are only present when a head has been taken. 

** A feud is not actually settled until peace has been made by swearing an 
oath, which with Muruts is binding. The ceremony is undertaken by the 
chiefs of the two tribes, and is generally conducted over a stream, there being 
suspended, above the log they stand on, a bamboo filled with hair charms and 
tiger-cat's teeth, the latter are set great store by and must be used; then each 
chief, as he goes through his oath, holds on to the bamboo. There is, 
however, one more test, after which the two parties feel themselves perfectly 
secure against any renewal of hostilities from each other, and that is 
when they have eaten each other's salt ; it is the place of the aggrieved 
side to ask the other's first, and this is not done usually until they 
have shifted their houses three times ; this may mean 4 or 5 years, as 
they do not move oftener than once a year and sometimes once in two." 
(S.G. No. 328, p. 18.) 

The custom of waving fowls over the heads of guests, as has been 
referred in the description of the festivals, " is supposed to conduce to good 
and friendly feeling, and to prevent either party from quarrelling and fighting." 
(Brooke i. iii.) 

At Muka, a feud during which three lives had been lost on both sides, was 
arranged by a promise to exchange knives. . . . Boling and Tama Nideng 
[the two principals] put an end to their feud. Boling stroked the breast of 
each Penan present with a naked parang, repeating some formula in the 
Penan language; he then presented Tama Nideng with the sword. The 
latter then performed the same rite on Boling with a spear, and afterwards 
presented him with it." (De Crespigny, S.G. No. 188, pp. 42, 44.) 

The curious custom of making brothers was first described by Mr. Dalton. 
** Selgie requested I would make sobat with him ; on my gladly consenting, he 
went in person and stuck a spear into the ground above his father's grave. 
This being the signal for a general assembly, each of the chiefs sent a person 
to know the Rajah's pleasure ; it was that every warrior should assemble 
around the grave by twelve o'clock the next day. Some thousands were 
present ; a platform of bamboo was raised about twelve feet above the grave, 
and on this Selgie and I mounted, accompanied by an Agi, his high priest. 
After some previous ceremony, the Agi produced a small silver cup, which 
might hold about two wine glasses, and then with a piece of bamboo made 
very sharp, drew blood from the Rajah's right arm : the blood ran into the 
cup until it was nearly full ; he then produced another cup, of a similar size, 
and made an incision in my arm, a little above the elbow, and filled it with 
blood. The two cups were then held up to the view of the surrounding people, 



2o6 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N. Borneo. 

who greeted them with loud cheers.* The Agi now presented me with the 
cup of Selgie's blood, giving him the other one with mine ; upon a signal, we 
drank off the contents amidst the deafening noise of the warriors and others. 
The Agi then half-filled one of the cups again from Selgie's arm, and with my 
blood made it a bumper; this was stirred up with a piece of bamboo and given 
to Selgie, who drank about half; he then presented the cup to me, when I 
finished it. The noise was tremendous ; thus the great Rajah Selgie and I 
became brothers. After this ceremony I was perfectly safe, and from that 
moment felt myself so during my stay amongst his people. Drinking the 
blood, however, made me ill for two days, as I could not throw it off my 
stomach. The Rajah took his share with great gusto, as this is considered 
one of the greatest ceremonies, particularly on this occasion, between the 
great Rajah and the first European who had been seen in his country. Great 
festivities followed, and abundance of heads were brought in, for nothing can 
be done without them. Three days and nights all ranks of people danced 
round these heads, after being, as usual, smoked and the brains taken out, 
drinking a kind of toddy which soon intoxicates them ; they are then taken care 
of by the women who do not drink, at least, I never observed them." (Dalton, 

p. 52.) 

" The following was observed on my initiation into the brotherhood with 
Lasa Kulan, the chief of Balaga on the Rajang, and of Tubow on the Bintulu 
river. Two days previous to that on which the bloody affair came off, the 
great hall of the chief was garnished with the weapons and gaudy skin war 
dresses of the men, and dashed with a fair sprinkling of the finery of the 
women kept more for show than use. On the day appointed, a number of the 
neighbouring chiefs having arrived, several of them commenced proceedings 
by haranguing on the greatness and power of their own selves, and of all the 
wonders they had heard of the white people, and of their satisfaction in being 
visited by one of them, of whom their fathers had heard so much but had 
never seen. Next a large pig, provided for the occasion, was killed, the throat 
cutting part of the business being performed by one of the fair sex, seemingly 
with great satisfaction to the attendant crowd of men. Next were brought 
three jars full of arrack of three sorts, severally made from rice, sugar-cane, and 
the fruit tampui. In pieces of bambu it was dealt out in profusion to all 
present, the ladies excepted. On the chief taking a bambu filled with arrack, 
we repaired to the balcony in front of the house, and stood side by side with 
our faces towards the river. The chief then announced his intention of 
becoming the friend or brother of a son of the white man, on which one of the 
attending chiefs gave me a small sharp-pointed piece of bambu, with which I 
made a slight incision in the right fore-arm of the chief, and the blood drawn 
was put on a leaf. The chief then, with a similar instrument, drew blood 
from my left fore-arm, which was put on the same leaf and mingled with the 
other. The blood was then mixed with tobacco and made up into a large 
cigar which we puffed alternately until it was finished, when my new friend 
delivered himself of a long and eloquent speech, invoking their god Tanangan, 

' Two wine glasses full would mean about 8 oz. of blood. In the days of cupping about 
10-16 oz. used to be the limit. 



Peace, 207 

the sun, moon, and stars, and rivers, the woods and mountains to witness his 
sincerity. Three times during this declamation he sprinkled the arrack on the 
ground towards the river. My speech being delivered, several of the principal 
chiefs present held forth both long and loud enough. We afterwards returned 
to the hall, and the cheering beverage went round more merrily than before, 
calling forth their good nature and social disposition. Although no toasts 
were given, still each successive bumper was accompanied by a merry and 
noisy chorus. The feast came afterwards, and the whole affair was wound 
up by music and dancing which lasted until about midnight." (R. Burns, 
pp. 146-7. Mr. Hose says of this ceremony, ** the smoke is inhaled into 
the lungs in some cases, to show the sincerity of the bo^d." (J.A.I., 
xxiii. 166.) 

Sir Chas. Brooke refers to the custom, and adds :**.... After this 
matter is consummated, the stranger is designated ' Nian,' or friend ; but it is 
not desirable to attempt such experiments, as they require a number of 
presents, and unless one has some ulterior object, it is needless, as no one 
could ever trust a Kayan's faith or word. They are false in the extreme, 
neither proving true friends nor steady enemies, and always committing some 
acts of treachery upon a weaker tribe. Their names have been extolled 
preposterously." (ii. 224.) 

Sir Sp. St. John was made blood brother of Singauding, a Kayan chief. 
The ceremony is called berbiang. The ceremony seemed to be similar to that 
Mr. Burns underwent, but instead of a sharp piece of bambu being used for 
the blood-letting, there was used ** a small piece of wood, shaped like a knife- 
blade, and slightly piercing the skiri, brought blood to the surface.'' Among 
the Kiniahs ** a pig is brought and placed between the two who are to be 
joined in brotherhood. A chief offers an invocation to the gods, and marks 
with a lighted brand the pig's shoulder. The beast is then killed, and after 
an exchange of jackets, a sword is thrust into the wound, and the two are 

marked with the blood of the pig As the Kayans believed some 

misfortune would happen to us if I went anywhere but straight on board the 
ship, or if Singauding left his house during the day, I remained quiet, and 
talked over affairs with the Malays." (i. 107, no.) 

The brotherhoods mentioned by Mr. Frank Hatton are very different, and 
more like the welcome ceremony described above by Sir Chas. Brooke. *'At 
about 12 o'clock the Dusuns commenced arriving, boat load after boat load, 
until some hundred men had collected, all armed with spears and swords. The 
chief now came up, and we at once proceeded with the ceremony. First the 
chief cut two long sticks, and then sitting down, he had a space of ground 
cleared before him, and began a discourse. When he came to any special 
point in his discourse he thrust a stick into the ground and cut it off at a 
height of half-a-foot from the earth, leaving the piece sticking in.* This went 
on until he had made two little armies of sticks, half-a-foot high, with a stick 
in the middle of each army much higher than the rest, and representing the 
two leaders. These two armies were himself and his followers, and myself and 
my men. Having called in a loud voice to his god, or Kinarringan, to be 
< See supra i. 77. efforts of memory, and i. 356, sticking fowls' tail feathers in the ground. 



2o8 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

present, he and I took hold of the head and legs of the fowl, while a third 
person cut its head off with a knife. We then dropped our respective parts, 
and the movements of the dying fowl were watched. If it jumps towards the 
chief his heart is not true, if towards the person to be sworn in his heart is 
not true ; it must, to be satisfactory, go in some other direction. Luckily, in 
my case, the fowl hopped away into the jungle and died. All my men fired 
three volleys at the request of the chief, and I gave some little presents all 
round, and sent the people away pleased and delighted. . . . The Dusun 
headman, Degadong, was very kind. He presented me with a spear, and I 
gave him a long knife. This exchange of weapons is customary after the fowl 
ceremony." (Diary, 27, 28 March.) " To-day I was initiated into the brother- 
hood of the Bendowen Dusuns. The old men and all the tribe having assem- 
bled, the ceremonies began. First the jungle was cleared for about twenty 
yards, and then a hole dug about a foot deep, in which was placed a large water- 
jar. In this country these jars are of enormous value : $30, $40, and even 
$100 worth of gutta being given for a single jar. The bottom of the jar in 
question was knocked out, so as to render it useless in future. The clay taken 
out to make the hole was thrown into the jar, and now the old men com- 
menced declaiming, *Oh, Kinarringan, hear us!' — a loud shout to Kinarringan. 
The sound echoed away down the valleys, and as it died a stone was placed 
near the jar. Then, for half-an-hour, the old man declared that by fire (which 
was represented by a burning stick), by water (which was brought in a bamboo 
and poured into the jar), and earth, that they would be true to all white men. 
A sumpitan was then fetched, and an arrow shot into the air to summon 
Kinarringan. We now placed our four guns, which were all the arms my 
party of eight mustered, on the mouth of the jar, and each put a hand in and 
took a little clay out and put it away. Finally several volleys were shot over 
the place and the ceremony terminated." (Diary, 4th April.) Two days later 
on he had to submit to a similar ceremony. On the banks of the Lilompatie, 
*' No water-jars were buried, but three stones were placed in a triangular 
fashion, and two fowls were slaughtered. The spot selected was close 
to the woodland path ; this is an important point. We fired three volleys, 
and I held the feet of the two fowls, whose bodies were allowed to rot." 
(Diary, 8th April.) 

Mr. Whitehead also mentions the ceremony. **The Melangkaps are 
anxious to make brothers of our party, and are going to sacrifice a cow to 
celebrate this occasion. Their object in doing this is to make us, by accepting 
their gifts of food and returning other like presents, vow always to be friendly 
with the tribe, and in our absence never to do them any harm. Strange as it 
may seem,' the aborigines of Borneo believe that people have power over each 
other though separated by many miles." (p. 123.) 

** The Ida'an are very strict keepers of their oath, which they take by 
pronouncing in their language some execrations against perfidy, and then cut 
a rattan : you do the like in yours ; the friendship is then cemented with all 
the district with whose oranky this oath was exchanged. They then con- 
sider you as a brother, and also everybody related to you ; if anyone knows of 
such an engagement, and pretends to be a relation of the person they will 



Slaves and Captives. 2og 

take his word for it, and behave to him in the same manner as if they were 
under an oath to himself." (Dalrymple, p. 43.) 

SLAVES AND CAPTIVES. 

Among the Land Dyaks "though slavery, in its degrading form of trading 
in the liberties of our fellow creatures, is not practised by them, the system of 
slave-debtors is carried on, though to a very small extent. In scarce seasons, 
poor families are compelled to borrow of the rich, and it sometimes happens, 
that being unable to repay the debt, they live in the houses of their creditors, 
and work on their farms. They are just as happy, however, in this state, as 
if perfectly free, enjoying all the liberty of their masters, who never think of 
ill-using them." (Low, p. 301.) 

** The slaves of the Sea-Dyaks do not in general appear to be hardly 
treated, as in their wars only such as are young are taken captive ; these, 
after living with their captors for some years, lose the remembrance of their 
families, or, perhaps, only recollect that they were destroyed, and conse- 
quently fall into the customs and practices of the people amongst whom they 
live, and from whose power they soon lose all hope of deliverance. In many 
instances children, who have been taken from the Land-Dyaks, become so 
endeared to their conquerors, that these latter adopt them as their own, and 
they are then admitted to all the privileges of the free-born of the tribe, and 
inter-marry with the sons and daughters of the other inhabitants of the 
village. Instances are not uncommon when children thus treated have 
forgotten their parents, and expressed, when the opportunity of returning to 
their tribe has presented itself to them, an unwillingness to avail themselves 
of it, thus causing to the parents who had so tenderly cherished the 
remembrance of them, infinite agony ; but, when they have once arrived at 
their native village, and experienced all the kindness of parental affection, 
these impressions soon wear away, and they are always finally glad that they 
had been restored. In the villages the slaves are not distinguishable from 
their masters and mistresses, as they live all together, and fare precisely the 
same, eating from the same dish, and of the same food." (ibid, p. 200.) 

Sir Spencer St. John says ** though it is contrary to ancient custom for 
the Sea Dyaks to keep slaves they have the habit of keeping a few slaves, and 
are generally kind masters ; but the system has been a very bad one, as many 
unfortunate people have become so in consequence of the debts or the crimes 
of their parents or grand-parents. It is scarcely right to give the name of 
slaves to these people, as on the payment of the original debt or fine they 
become free." (i. 72.) Sir Chas. Brooke refers to ** the sale of relations and 
even of children, though not common among some of the less settled Milanau 
tribes, when pressed for food " (i. 75) ; much as the Muruts used to do to the 
nobles of Brunei (St. John ii. 30), but such sales cannot be regarded as 
customs. 

** The Sea Dyak captives are generally ransomed after peace has been 
concluded between the tribes, and instead of exchanging prisoners according 
to civilised modes, they exchange captives for jars, each of which is supposed 
to represent the value of a man's life." (Brooke i. 245.) 

P Vol. 2. 



210 H. Ling Roth. — Natives oj Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

"The Sea Dyaks too often spare neither man nor woman nor child, but 
sometimes, when more humanely inclined, or when the opportunity offers, 
they carry the women and children away with them into captivity. But it is 
a remarkable fact that there are so few slaves, or persons of servile descent, 
among the Dyaks. Other tribes keep their slaves in a condition of perpetual 
servitude, but the Sea Dyaks allow their friends to ransom them, and if they 
still remain on their hands they adopt them into the tribe and enfranchise 
them. The ceremony is usually performed at a great feast, the owner 
announcing that he has freed so and so and adopted him as a brother, and 
he is presented by the chief with a spear, with which he is told to slay the 
man who dares hereafter call him a slave. They are not cruel to their 
captives, but humane." (Brooke Low.) 

A writer on the Kayans in the S.G. (No. 130, p. 28) says: "The 
difference in appearance between the master and slave is so marked as to be 
noticeable by the most careless observer. The slave is but little removed 
from the animal either mentally or physically, while the master is a well-to-do 
looking warrior who rolls about and looks as if the earth is too small for him." 

" The Muruts have slaves and will sell their children to pay their debts. 
They follow a fixed custom in not selling a slave to another person, unless 
with the slave's consent. Dusuns will not have slaves, nor will they sell their 
children, nor will they give up runaway slaves." (Denison Jour. Straits 
Asiatic Soc, No. 10, p. 185.) 

Mr. Brooke Low has summarised the laws or rules relating to the 
position of the slave on the Rejang river as follows : " OutdooT slaves become so 
either by descent, by purchase, or by an amelioration of condition from 
having been mdoor slaves. Indoor slaves become so by purchase or descent. 
In cases where both parents have been outdoor slaves the tabusan (purchase or 
freedom money) is 40 reals (= $28*80), or one picul of guns, unless the child 
is of tender years, when the tabusan is 80 catties (= $21*60). In cases where 
one or both parents have been tndoor slaves, but have become outdoor slaves 
at marriage, the children are outdoor slaves. 

" When one parent is an indoor slave and the other an outdoor slave, the 
children are divided between the owners of the parents, the first child 
following the condition of the father, supposing there be more than one child, 
e.g. : the father is indoor slave of A, and the mother is outdoor slave of B ; a 
child is born and sex being immaterial to the question, it becomes half indoor 
slave of A and half outdoor slave of B. The tabusan of an indoor slave having 
been fixed by the practice of the courts at 60 reals (— $43*20), and that of an 
ow^door slave by descent at 40 reals, it will be clear that the tabusan on 
account of this first child to A is in this case 30 reals, and to B 20 reals, 
should the parents decide on purchasing the freedom of their child, subject, 
however, if very young to reductions as above. But when two children are 
born, the first becomes mdoor slave of A and the second outdoor slave of B, 
the tabusan to A being 60 reals or ij piculs, and that to B 40 reals or i picul. 

" Where the parent is free on one side, and the other parent either an in 
or outdoor slave, the first child follows the fortunes of the father, the second 
that of the mother, and so on in succession, and this rule is unalterable. For 



Slaves and Captives. 211 

example, a claim was lately made upon a boy, whose father was an outdoor 
slave, and whose mother was a free woman. The boy was third of a family 
of five and both parents were dead. The owner of the late father claimed 
this the third child, but the friends of the boy said that before the father died 
he had declared that the second child should be slave, and that the third 
child should be free, the second child being also dead. The court decided 
that the father had no right to alter the succession, and decided in favour of 
the plaintiff.* In cases where both parents are originally slaves, and after 
children are born one parent frees him or herself, the children born after the 
event follow the above rule. 

** In cases where an indoor slave, man or woman, has become an outdoor 
one upon marriage, and has sought his or her own living, the children, so far 
as he or she is concerned, become outdoor slaves, but he or she is still liable 
to pay his or her full tabusan to the master, no reduction being made unless 
the slave has become aged. 

** The owners of ow^door slaves have a right to demand the services of 
one child to work as indoor slave until marriage, when he or she quits the 
master's house and returns to his or her position as an outdoor slave ; if a 
girl the master is on no account to receive barian (purchase-money)* from the 
husband, and if a boy the master must provide barian, or at least assist in the 
matter for the reason that the boy has hitherto worked for his master and has 
had no opportunity of acquiring property for himself. The above rule is 
seldom enforced by the owners. The owner of an indoor slave, if the slave 
be a man, is expected to provide barian when the slave marries, and in such 
a case he becomes co-heir in the slave's property at death : if the slave be a 
woman, the owner receives the barian, and is still co-heir in case of death. 
In this case the husband generally prefers to pay the tabusan and to make his 
wife free. In no case whatever may an outdoor slave become an indoor one 
except in the case of a child for a time as above. 

*' It having come to the notice of the courts that in certain cases masters 
exacted as much work from an outdoor slave as from an indoor slave, and 
that in other cases oi^^door slaves could not be induced to do any work at all, 
a rule was made by which outdoor slaves became liable to be called twice a 
year to work for their masters, twelve days on each occasion, failing which 
they would be subject to a month's hard labour on the roads. No outdoor 
slave is to be called upon to work out of his river's district. 

** The property of slaves is now strictly protected, it having been found 
that masters sometimes helped themselves as a right to their slaves' property. 
In a case lately settled at Oya, a widow, indoor slave of a pangeran (high 
Malay official), possessed three sago plantations, and complained that her 
master had felled six trees, he having no land of his own. The pangeran 

» Among the Punans the law seems a little different, the sex being of consequence ; thus there 
was the case of a freeman who had married an indoor slave and a son and daughter were bom. The 
son is free, following the condition of the father, the daughter is bond, following the condition of the 
mother. (B.L.) 

• This is rather the price for the virginity of a bride, and appears to be a Malay custom of late 
introduction. 



212 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 

pleaded that he only did what was customary ; it was held, however, that he 
was wrong, and he was ordered to pay $g — the value of the trees and the 
costs of the suit. 

" The master of an indoor slave becomes as above-stated co-heir with the 
slave's other relations in case of death if he has provided barian; if not, his 
position on this point is as the master of an ow^door slave. The master of an 
outdoor slave may become co-heir only when the slave has no children. No 
master can refuse permission to his slave to free him or herself, or his or her 
children, whether i«door or outdoor, nor can he refuse permission to a slave 
to seek a new master, but he can complain to the courts if he has reason to 
think anyone has endeavoured to entice away his slave, and the person, if 
found guilty, would be heavily fined. 

If a master seduces a slave she at once becomes free. There was a case 
in court where it was found that a master and his slave girl had lived as 
husband and wife for many years, and he had had children by her. The man 
died and his relations brought a case against the woman and her children to 
exclude them from the succession to the property of the deceased ; but 
judgment was given in favour of the defendants on the ground that, though 
no marriage ceremony had ever been performed, the man and woman had 
been recognised by all their relations as husband and wife during the lifetime 
of deceased. 

*' The fine for bringing a slave into the country from foreign parts and 
selling him or her is $ioo, and the slave is to become free. There was a case 
where a man brought a family slave into the country, whose tabusan was three 
piculs, and as no permission had been given to the man to bring him here the 
slave was allowed to seek another master who had to pay one picul only to 
the previous master. There was another case where a man was allowed to 
bring a family slave from Brunei, he having first asked permission, and the 
slave himself having been questioned by me at Brunei as to whether he liked 
to come here, and permission being obtained at the same time from the 
authorities at Brunei. 

** Where it can be proved that a master has not supported an indoor 
slave, nor called upon him or her to work for five years, the slave is entitled 
to become free. The court would, however, be very careful about giving 
judgment in the case of outdoor slaves, they being very nearly independent. 
On one occasion, one family brought a case into court against another and 
very numerous family, to compel the latter to pay the tabusan and become 
free, as the latter positively would not work when called upon, the defence 
being that they were already free, having been P. Dipa's slaves, who had 
been declared free. After a long investigation into their antecedents and 
genealogy, the case was given against the defendants, it having been found 
that since P. Dipa had left Maka none of the family had really worked for the 
plaintiffs, and that one of them had freed himself. An appeal was made to the 
then resident of the Third Division, but the previous judgment was confirmed, 
notwithstanding a letter from P. Dipa himself in favour of the defendants. 

** When indoor slaves contract debts, if such debts be trifling, amounting 
to only a few dollars, the masters are expected to pay ; when the debt is 



Slaves and Captives, 2I3 

considerable, should the master pay it, the amount is added to the tabusan, 
for which the slave is already responsible. Should the master be unable or 
unwilling to pay, the slave is assigned to work for him until the debt is paid 
oif at the rate of $2*50 a month. Slave debtors are unknown. When a 
freeman becomes hopelessly in debt, he is either imprisoned or assigned to 
his creditor to work off the debt as above, the creditor providing food and 
clothing ; or the terms of the assignment may be that he sail in his creditor's 
prahu (boat) during the whole season — $7*00 a voyage being allowed to and 
from Kuching, or $12*00 a voyage to and from Singapore. During the close 
season the debtor must work in his creditor's house, and have such reductions 
made oif his debt as may be agreed upon by the court. It has happened 
in a few cases that a relation has paid a man's debt and the man has been 
assigned to work for his relation until the debt is cleared off; no monthly 
diminution being allowed, but even in this case the term slave-debtors has 
not been used." ** Every transfer of slaves must be made before the court." 
(Brooke Low.) 

** In the old days, according to the old Dyak laws, people who were 
careless enough to set a house on fire rendered themselves liable to become 
slaves to those who had been burnt out, and this may have gone on for two 
or three generations, so that the grandchildren were slaves by birth. On one 
occasion the son of an old woman, whilst smoke-drying some fish, fell asleep 
through weariness. The fire caught the thatch and spread rapidly through 
the long Dyak house, melting the people's guns and cracking jars. A neigh- 
bour told the woman what had occurred, and she, forgetful of the altered 
state of things, at once gathered her children and said to them ** Death is 
better than slavery,'' paddled with them to the Dyak graveyard, where she ate 
and gave the children to eat tuba root, and only one child survived to tell the 
story." (Crossland.) 

This account may be well supplemented by that of Mr. Witti, as 
published by Mr. Treacher: **The late Mr. Witti, one of the first officers 
of the Association, at my request, drew up, in 1881, an interesting report on 
the system of slavery, in force in the Tampassuk district, on the west coast, 
of which the following is a brief summary. Slaves in this district are divided 
into two classes — those who are slaves in a strict and rigorous sense, and 
those whose servitude is of a light description. The latter are known as anak 
masy and are the children of a slave mother by a free man other than her 
master. If a female, she is the slave, or anak mas, of her mother's master, 
but cannot be sold by him ; if a boy, he is practically free, cannot be sold, and 
if he does not care to stay with his master, can move about and earn his own 
living, not sharing his earnings with his master, as is the case in some other 
districts. In case of actual need, however, his master can call upon him for 
his services. 

** If an anak mas girl marries a freeman, she at once becomes a free 
woman, but a brihan, or marriage gift, of from two to two and a half pikuls of 
brass gun — valued at $20 to $25 a pikul — is payable by the bridegroom to the 
master. 

** If she marry a slave, she remains an anak tnas, but such cases are very 



214 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

rare, and only take place when the husband is in a condition to pay a suitable 
brihan to the owner. 

" If an ordinary slave woman becomes enceinte by her owner, she and her 
oifspring are henceforth free, and she may remain as one of her latie master's 
wives. But the jealousy of the inmates of the harem often causes abortion to 
be procured. 

" The slaves, as a rule, have quite an easy .time of it, living with and as 
their masters, sharing the food of the family, and being supplied with tobacco, 
betel-nut, and other native luxuries. There is no difference between them 
and free men in the matter of dress, and in the arms which they carry, and 
the mere fact that they are allowed to wear arms is pretty conclusive evidence 
of their not being bullied or oppressed. 

" They assist in domestic duties and in the operations of harvest and 
trading and so forth, but there is no such institution as a slave-gang, working 
under task-masters, a picture which is generally present to the EngHshman's 
mind when he hears of the existence of slavery. The slave-gang was an 
institution of the white slave-owner. Slave couples, provided they support 
themselves, are allowed to set up house and cultivate a patch of land. 

** For such minor oifences as laziness and attempting to escape, the 
master can punish his slaves with strokes of the rattan, but if an owner 
receives grave provocation and kills his slave, the matter will probably not be 
taken notice of by the elders of the village. 

" An incorrigible slave is sometimes punished by being sold out of the 
district. 

" If a slave is badly treated and insufficiently provided with food, his 
offence in endeavouring to escape is generally condoned by public opinion. 
If a slave is, without sufficient cause, maltreated by a freeman, his master can 
demand compensation from the aggressor. Slaves of one master can, with 
their owner's consent, marry, and no brihan is demanded, but if they belong 
to different masters, the woman's master is entitled to a brihan of one pikul, 
equal to $20 or $25. They continue to be the slaves of their respective 
masters, but are allowed to live together, and in case of a subsequent separa- 
tion they return to the houses of their masters. Should a freeman, other than 
her master, wish to marry a slave, he practically buys her from her owner 
with a brihan of $60 or $75. 

** Sometimes a favourite slave is raised to a position intermediate between 
that of an ordinary slave and an anak }nas, and is regarded as a brother, or 
sister, father, mother, or child ; but if he or she attempt to escape, a reversion 
to the condition of an ordinary slave is the result. Occasionally slaves are 
given their freedom in fulfilment of a vow to that effect made by the master in 
circumstances of extreme danger, experienced in company with the slave. 

" A slave once declared free can never be claimed again by his former 
master. 

** Debts contracted by a slave, either in his own name or in that of his 
master, are not recoverable. 

** By their own extra work, after performing their service to their owners, 
slaves can acquire private property and even themselves purchase and own slaves. 



Human Sacrifices. 215 

" Infidel slaves, of both sexes, are compulsorily converted to Muhammad- 
anism, and circumsized, and even though they should recover their freedom, 
they seldom relapse." (Treacher, Jour. Straits Asiatic Society, No. 21, p. 88.) 

** Mr. W. B. Pryer, speaking for the East Coast, informed me that there 
were only a few slaves in the interior, mostly Sulus who had been kidnapped 
and sold up the rivers. Among the Sulus of the coast, the relation was rather 
that of follower and lord than of slave and master. When he first settled at 
Sandakan, he could not get men to work for him for wages, they deemed it 
degrading to do so, but they said they would work for him if he would buy 
them ! Sulu, under Spanish influence, and Bulungan, in Dutch Borneo, were 
the chief slave markets, but the Spanish and Dutch are gradually suppressing 
this traffic, (ibid, p. 90.) 

HUMAN SACRIFICES. 

We have seen above that human sacrifices used to take place at the 
burials, peace makings of the diiferent tribes, and that captives and slaves 
were killed for the sake of their heads. (See i. 157, 163, 204.) 

** Human sacrifices were common among the Milanos previous to the 
cession of the country to Sir James Brooke. At Rejang village, a young 
virgin was buried alive under the main post of a house." (Denison, Jour. 
Straits Asiatic Soc, No. 10, p. 182.) They are described as a cruelly disposed 
people, and are in the habit of putting their enemies to death by horrible 
and barbarous tortures. (Brooke i. 74.) 

Of these people it is more circumstantially ** stated that at the erection 
of the largest house, a deep hole was dug to receive the first post, which was 
then suspended over it ; a slave girl was placed in the excavation, and at a 
signal the lashings were cut, and the enormous timber descended, crushing 
the girl to death. It was a sacrifice to the spirits. I once saw a more quiet 
imitation of the same ceremony. The chief of the Quop Dayaks was about 
to erect a flag-staff near his house : the excavation was made, and the timber 
secured, but a chicken only was thrown in and crushed by the descending 
flag-staff." (St. John i. 35 ) The same writer says : ** Not many years ago, 
Rentap, the pirate chief, who formerly resided in a stronghold on the summit 
of the Sadok mountain, took a Sakarang lad prisoner. Although one of his 
own race, he determined on putting him to death, remarking — * It has been 
our custom heretofore to examine the heart of a pig, but now we will 
examine a human one.' The unfortunate boy was dragged about for some 
time by the hair of his head, and then put to death and his heart examined.*' 
(Brooke i. 64.) According to His Highness, the Kayans used to treat their 
captives very badly. ** On one occasion seven captives were tortured by 
slow degrees to death." {ibidy ii. 271.) *' On another occasion eleven 
captives were divided out among Yonghang's followers, and were carried, on 
their way up the river, into every house, where they were received with 
delight, and tortured by the women. On arriving at Yonghang's abode, one 
of them named Boyong was singled out to be a victim in the sacrifice for 
Yonghang's son, who had lately departed this life. Boyong was to be buried 



2i6 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 

alive under a Salong (a large wooden pillar) early the succeeding morning. 
Boyong, however, and one of the others, managed to effect their escape that 
night, ran into the jungle, and found their way, after twenty days' wandering, 
to the foot of the first rapids. . . . Boyong is now living, and shows the 
marks about his body where he was tortured by the Kayans. . . . The 
remaining men were all strangled by the Kayans." (ibid, ii. 272.) 

" The Kayans strenuously deny the practice [of human sacrifice] at the 
present day, but it would seem to have been prevalent amongst them 
formerly, especially on the occasion of the King or principal chief taking 
possession of a newly-built house, and also on the occasion of his death. 
They acknowledge that an instance of this most revolting custom took place 
about two years ago [1847] on the occasion of the chief Batu Dian taking 
possession of his new house. The victim was a Malay slave girl brought 
from the coast for the avowed purpose, and sold to the chief by a man who 
was also a Malay. It is said to be contrary to the Kayan custom to sell or 
sacrifice one of their own nation. In the case alluded to the unfortunate 
victim was bled to death, the blood was taken and sprinkled on the pillars 
and under the house, but the body was thrown into the river." (Burns, 
Jour. Ind. Arch. iii. 145.) 

Sir Chas. Brooke tells us: ** It is a Kayan custom, named 'Jahum,' 
when captives are brought to any enemy's country, that one should suffer 
death, to bring prosperity and abolish the curse of the enemy in their lands. 
The deed is generally performed by women, who torture with sticks, &c." 

(ii. 304-) 

** As for the presence of women at religious ceremonies, here at the 
swinging ceremonies they are always present, and also when feasts are held 
in honour of the padi spirits. So far as I had power of observing, women 
do not become spectators of human sacrifices, even though the victim be a 
woman. The Muruts never sacrifice one of their own people, but either 
capture an individual of a hostile tribe, or send to a friendly tribe to purchase 
a slave for the purpose. The Dusuns do not sacrifice human beings, even 
when they build their houses."' (Denison, Jour. Straits Asiatic Soc, 
No. 10, p. 184.) 

Capt. Forrest, however, writing in 1780, says (p. 368): **In this north 
part of Borneo, is the high mountain of Keeneebaloo, near which, and upon 

^ Mr. Hup^ writes the following (pp. 330-331 footnote) referring to the still (though secretly) 
practiced human ofiferings : " The missionary Huperts writing on 26 October. 1842 (see Barm. 
Missionsblatt, No. 7, 1848) about this, says : ' A clandestine sort of murder still exists here amongst 
the Dyaks [sic] in the interior, and still many sacrifices are offered to the devil, but secretly, and 
excepting the Dyaks hardly anyone knows anything about them. They still slaughter the fairly- 
aged slaves, whom they take into the interior without their knowing what is to come ; they dig a 
deep hole, and place the poor man bound in it, when they chop off his head and hang up the skull 
in their huts. I have this information from the mouth of two Dyaks. especially from the mouth of 
a 35 year old Dyak who now works at the mission station here ; his name is Andang and he fled to 
us, with which fact his master must need out of fear be satisfied, for the masters are much afraid 
especially as regards the Dutch Government when such shameful deeds become known. A widow 
slaughters one or more slaves in order that her husband should have servants in the spirit world. 
Only a short time ago a Dyak named Tondau killed twenty such slaves." *• See supra, ii. 163 
and 204. 



Cannibalism. 217 

the skirts of it, live the people called Oran Idaan or Idahah, and sometimes 
Maroots. ... An Idaan or Maroot must, for once at least in his life, 
have imbrued his hands in a fellow creature's blood ; the rich are said to do 
it often, adorning their houses with sculls and teeth, to show how much they 
have honoured their author, and laboured to avert his chastisement. Several 
in low circumstances will club to buy a Bisayan Christian slave, or any one 
that is to be sold cheap ; that all may partake the benefit of the 
execution." 

CANNIBALISM. 

As yet no European excepting Mr. Dalton appears to have actually seen 
any traces of cannibalism. Nevertheless there is plenty of circumstantial 
evidence that the custom must at one time have been fairly wide-spread in 
Borneo. 

Of the Hill Dyaks in general Sir Hugh Low writes (p. 304) : ** So much 
have these people been maligned, when called cannibals, that if told such a 
race of people do exist, they cannot credit it, and do not believe such 
enormities possible." Mr. Denison states: **Among Dayak and Milano tribes, 
in many parts of the country, it is the practice still to cut up and consume the 
raw heart of **a brave," killed in battle, under the idea that the partakers will 
in time become braver. (Jour. Straits Asiatic Soc, No. 10, p. 182.) Later 
on he repeats : ** I have never met with cannibals in Borneo, although I am 
sure, from all I have heard, that the practice of eating human beings has not 
long died out, and I think it very likely it may still exist in obscure and little- 
known places in the far interior." {ibid, p. 185.) In his earlier jottings he 
states : ** I was assured by the Orang Kaya, that when he visited the Meribun 
and Tincang or Jincang Dyaks, he found them to be cannibals. These Dyaks 
live on the Batang Munkiyang, near Muntong and Muntu, not far from the 
head-waters of the Sadong river, near Senankan Kujan. The Sekyam is 
descended as far as Tanjong Prin, whence you ascend Sungei Meribun, where 
these monsters are to be met with. When in their village, the Orang Kaya 
himself saw them eating a body. The custom is to take only the heads of the 
enemies, but, when an individual of the tribe dies, the body is sold, and even 
women and children partake of the flesh. The man in question was not old, 
and his corpse was exchanged for a tajow, the Dyaks seeming to relish most the 
soles of the feet and palms of the hands. These Dyaks who are credited with 
making and using poisons, treated the Orang Kaya well while he was in their 
village ; they are great cowards, and ten of these Dyaks will run from one of 
another tribe. The Malay, Abang, confirming this story, said that when he was 
collecting revenue at Muntang and Muntu, which belong to Sarawak, the 
party he was with were always on their guard against the Meribun and 
Tincang Dyaks, and at night erected fences studded with ranjows, as a 
protection against these brutes. Malays and others who frequented these 
Dyak villages were well received, and their presence was in fact sought after. 
Draham, my Malay cooly, said he had seen with his own eyes, palms of hands 
and soles of feet over the fire-place, when he was in one of their villages. I 
have made some enquiries into the truth of the above statement, and I am 



2i8 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

assured, by the Resident of Sadong, that they are untrue. ' Whatever may 
have been the propensities of these Dyaks,' says he, 'there is no foundation in 
the report that they now indulge in this inhuman practice.' Abang Pandak, 
pembakal of the Sultan of Sangouw, told me, when I met him in Sarawak, that 
the story was a fabrication, but his denial carried no conviction, as it appeared 
made from motives of contradiction, and in defence of the Raj under which he 
served ; he confessed to having heard the stories, but had never visited the 
Dyaks in question. I have since learnt from Mr. Crocker, the President of 
Sarawak, that when he was on a journey from the head-waters of the Sadong, 
to Silanteh, he put up one night at a Dyak house. Entering into conversa- 
tion with the inmates, he discovered an old Malau Dyak from the Kapuas 
district. This man, called Jamon, who had led a roving life, told him that 
the Mualangs, of Jincang, who inhabit the head-waters of the Kapuas river, in 
the vicinity of the Sekyam, are or were cannibals. Jamon went on a head 
hunting expedition against these Jincangs, and killed four of them, losing 
two of his friends. The Jincangs ate his friends, leaving only their entrails. 
These Dyaks have not only given up this practice, but are so ashamed of it, 
that the mere mention of the former custom is a grave offence."® (Denison, 
ch. v., p. 49.) 

Mr. Earl was of opinion (p. 270) that there is very little doubt that some 
of the tribes are cannibals, but the system does not obtain among those in the 
vicinity of Sambas, although these latter assert that the people immediately 
beyond them are greatly addicted to it. But he adds that such statements 
must be accepted with caution. 

Writing of the Singhi Dyaks, Sir Henry Keppel informs us : ** They seem 
to have no idea of cannibalism or human sacrifice, nor did they accuse their 
enemies of these practices.*' (i. 230.) In his second work, however, he gives 
the following account received from others by Sir James Brooke, the first 
Rajah of Sarawak : — 

" The following is the testimony of three intelligent Dyaks from the 
interior, given during several months' residence with us, in the most frank 
manner to be conceived, — as direct and unimpeachable evidence as I ever heard 
offered, sometimes when they were altogether, sometimes by individuals apart, 
in conversation with numerous persons. I examined them myself, and 
entertain no doubt of the correctness of these statements, as far as their 
personal knowledge is concerned. The witnesses themselves stated over and 

8 •• In the district of Sangau, extending several days in every direction, there are three tribes 
of Dyaks. numbering 500 lawangs, and probably 3,000 souls. Two of these tribes are several days in 
the interior, on the banks of the Skiam. One of these, the Janakang, is addicted to the horrible 
practice of cannibalism. Except this, and a single tribe on the eastern coast, we have not heard of 
any other portion of the people who eat human flesh. That the practice prevails to no inconsiderable 
extent among this tribe there is no longer in our minds the shadow of a doubt. One man with whom 
we conversed bad seen them making their meal on the human frame. They themselves confess it 
with boasting, and give as a reason for the horrid custom that it makes them courageous. How 
could we be brave, said one man, if we had never tasted human flesh. They do not eat indiscrimin- 
ately all parts of the body, but with a most horrid kind of epicurism, feast with the greatest relish 
upon the tongue, brain, and muscles of the leg. The men of this tribe file down their front teeth to 
a point like the teeth of a saw." (Journal of a tour on the Kapuas in 1840.— Jour. Ind. Arch. I New 
Ser., No. i, 104.) [Noel Denison.] 



Cannibalism. 219 

over again, with the utmost clearness, how much they had seen, and how much 
heard. There was such perfect good faith and simplicity in their stories as 
to carry conviction of their truth. 

" The three men were named Kusu, Gajah, and Rinong ; and stated as 
follows : '* * We are of the tribe of Sibaru ; which is likewise the name of a branch 
of the Kapuas River. The tribe of Sibaru contains 2,000 (or even more) 
fighting men (tikaman) and is under the government of Pangeran Kuning, 
who resides at Santang, a Malay town on the Kapuas. We have none of us 
been up to the interior of the Kapuas, where the Kayans live, but they often 
come down to Santang where we meet them. The Kayans are quite 
independent, very numerous and powerful : they are governed by their own 
Rajahs, whom they call Takuan. Some of these Kayan tribes are cannibals 
(makan manusia) ; it is generally reported, and we know it to be true. 

** * Pangeran Kuning of Santang was at war a few years ago with 
Pangeran Mahomed of Suwite (Suwight), a Malay town situated on the 
Kapuas, between Santang and Salimbow. A large force was collected to 
attack Suwite. There were Malays (Laut) of Santang and Sakadow, and the 
Dyaks of Sibaru, Samaruang, Dassar, and of other tribes ; and besides all 
these, was a party of about fifty Kayans. We never heard the particular 
name of this Kayan tribe, for we did not mix with them, nor did we under- 
stand their language. Suwite was not taken, but a few detached houses were 
captured, and one man of the enemy was killed in the assault. 

** * Kusu saw these Kayans run small spits of iron, from eight inches to a 
foot long, into the fleshy parts of the dead men's legs and arms, from the 
elbow to the shoulder, and from above the ankle beneath the calf to the 
knee-joint ; and they sliced off the flesh with their swords, and put it into 
baskets. They carry these spits, as we all saw, in a case under the scabbard 
of their swords. They prize heads in the same way as the Dyaks. They 
took all the flesh off the body, leaving only the big bones, and carried it to 
their boats, and we all saw them broil (panggang) and afterwards eat it. 
They ate it with great relish, and it smelt, while cooking, like hog's flesh. 
It was not we alone that saw them eat this, but the whole force (balla) saw it. 

** * Men say that many of these interior tribes of Kayans eat human flesh — 
that of their enemies ; most, however, they say, do not, and all of them are 
represented to be good people and very hospitable ; and we never heard that 
they ate any other than the flesh of their enemies. It made us sick to see 
them, and we were afraid (takut), horrified. 

** * This was not the only time we have seen men eat human flesh. The 
Dyaks of Jangkang are likewise cannibals. They live somewhere between 
Sangow and Sadong, on a branch of the Sangow River, called Sakiam. The 
Jangkangs had been out attacking the Ungkias tribe ; and after the excursion 
they came to our village with several baskets of human flesh, for they had 
killed two men. They cooked and ate this outside our house, but it had been 
broiled (panggang) before. 1 knew it to be human flesh, for I saw one of 
them turning the hand (with the fingers) of a dead man at the fire ; and we 
saw them eat this hand on the bank of the river, close to our house. We 
talked to them about it, and they did not make any secret of it. 



220 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N, Borneo. 

" * The Jangkang people, according to report, eat Malays or Dyaks, or 
anyone else they kill in war ; and they kill their own sick, if near unto 
death, and eat them. There was an instance of this at Santang. Whilst a 
party of this people were staying there, one of them fell out of a mango tree 
and broke his arm, besides being otherwise much hurt ; and his companions 
cut his throat (sambilih), and ate him up. None of us, however, saw this 
happen, but we heard it from the Santang people. It is likewise said, but we 
do not know it for a truth, that, when they give their yearly feast (makantaun), 
a man will borrow a plump child, for eating, from his neighbour, and repay 
in kind with a child of his own, when wanted. We do not, however, know 
personally anything beyond having seen them once eating human flesh ; but 
we have heard these things, and believe them ; they are well known.' 

** Sheriff Moksain corroborated this latter statement generally, as he 
declared there was no doubt of the Jangkang tribe being cannibals ; but he 
had never seen them eat human flesh : and Brereton likewise heard of a tribe 
in the interior of the Sadong being cannibals. There is clue enough, however, 
to settle the point ; and, without being positive in an opinion, 1 can only say 
that the evidence 1 have put down was as straightforward as any I ever heard 
in my life, and such as I cannot doubt, until it be disproved." (Meander ii. 
pp. 111-115.) 

Referring to the above charge, at the making of which he was present. 
Sir Spencer St. John remarks : ** I do not remember having heard any other 
persons actually affirm that they had seen the Kayans eat human flesh, till 
the subject was brought up last year before the present Sultan of Borneo and 
his court, when Usup, one of the young nobles present, said that in 1855 
some Muka men were executed at Bintulu, and that a few of the Kayans, who 
had assisted in their capture, took portions of the bodies of the criminals, 
roasted and ate them. This was witnessed by himself and many others who 
were then present. The Kayans had not, as a body, joined in this disgusting 
feast ; but, perhaps, some of the more ferocious may practise it to strike 
terror into their enemies." (i. 124.) 

In the Basel Evangelisch Missions Magazin for April, i88g, the editor in 
his review (Rundschau) states of the Dyaks, p. 167 : *' In some districts the 
skin of the forehead and the heart of the killed are cooked and given to the 
boys to eat in order to make them plucky and brave." This may be true. But 
when the same writer makes the following gross misstatement regarding 
Sir Jas Brooke his sayings must be taken with every reserve : ** The romantic 
story of the white rajah is to put it shortly this : In 1829 he bought a small 
piece of land on the north-west coast from the Malay rajah and then married 
the daughter of the neighbouring Sultan of Bruni and received from the 
latter an important gift of land as dowry." ! ! ! (ibid, p. 172.) 

The Abb^ Langenhofif (as to his credibility, see Bibliography) says : 
** In 1836 two Americans had undertaken the journey he made, and had 
been gone two or three weeks when the guide who had accompanied them 
returned and told the Dutch authorities that they had been killed and eaten 
by the natives." . . . **These latter," he continues (p. 512), **are cannibals; 
they eat certain portions of the bodies of their enemies, especially the palm of 



Cannibalism. 221 

the hand." Later on (p. 515) he says: **I knew I was risking myself 
among cannibal peoples." It may be true that the Abb6 got amongst 
cannibals, but he brings forward no evidence whatsoever, and, under the 
circumstances, his statements cannot be accepted. 

Then we have Mr. Dalton's statement about the Kayans: ** Many of 
Selgie's tribe are cannibals; some will not eat human flesh, whilst others 
refuse to do so except on particular occasions, as a birth, a marriage, or 
funeral." (p. 49.) He also states that on war expeditions, when food was 
wanted, a follower was killed and eaten. See supruy foot note, i. 127. 

Sir Hugh Low, writing in the forties, says of the Kayans: **They are not, 
as they have been hastily stigmatised, cannibals; nor does any race practicing 
the horrid custom of feeding on the bodies of their own species, exist on the 
island." (p. 336.) Of these Kayans Sir Chas. Brooke writes: **This tribe are 
cowardly, untruthful, and treacherous, and are capable of committing many 
horrors, but the gravest attached to the Kayans, I feel confident, is without 
foundation, namely, that of cannibalism. For, during the expedition of 1863, 
there was no sign of it, and I had abundant opportunities of making strict 
enquiries in the very heart of the country. Many reports of this description 
are spread by the enemies of a people to degrade them in the estiniation of 
Europeans. . . . Such reports are purely fabulous, and I do not believe 
any tribes are cannibals in this part of Borneo, although stories go far to lead 
one to a contrary belief. For instance, son)e Malays told me, only a short 
while ago, that on an expedition against the Engkayas, who live on a tributary 
of the Kapuas, and are under the Dutch jurisdiction, they met with pieces of 
bamboo, which these people had thrown away in alarm ; these hollow canes 
were filled with human flesh, used as provisions. I regret that I am unable, 
positively, to contradict such statements ; but it is my firm conviction canni- 
balism is not practised on any part of the island of Borneo." (i. pp. 74, 55.) 

Captain Mundy, in reply to enquiries made of the Malays, was told that 
only the Pakatans were suspected of being cannibals, (i. 209.) 

Mr. Carl Bock, in Eastern Borneo, ** noticed that the other Dyak tribes 
did not go near the Trings during their stay at Moeara Pahou, not disguising 
their fear of them, and their disgust at their cannibal practices. . . . 
Among the visitors was an old priestess, who gave full details concerning the 
religious beliefs, &c., of the tribe. This information was elicited by the 
Boegis] kapitan, and interpreted by him to a Malay writer, who took down 
the statements on the spot. These statements have since been translated for 
me. . . . This priestess, in the course of conversation, told me — holding 
out her hand — that the pahns were considered the best eating. Then she 
pointed to the knee, and again to the forehead, using the Malay word bai, 
bai (good, good), each time to indicate that the brains, and the flesh on 
the knees of a human being, are also considered delicacies by the members 
of her tribe. ... At that very time, as he [i.e., a cannibal chief] sat 
conversing with me through my interpreter, and I sketched his portrait, he 
had fresh upon his head the blood of no less than seventy victims, men, 
women, and children, whom he and his followers had just slaughtered, and 
whose hands and brains he had eaten. • . . The Bahou Trings, again, 



222 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

are the only cannibals in Koetei. According to Dr. Hollander's work, 
'Land en Volkenkiinde,' there is another cannibal tribe in Borneo, the 
Djangkangs, in Sanggouw, in the Sintang district. 

" Other tribes have human sacrifices on the occasion of their Tiwa feast ; 
not from bloodthirstyness, but from the superstition that the sacrificed serve 
the departed as slaves in their future abode. ... To the ordinary horrors 
of head-hunting — the simple murder of their victims for the sake of their 
heads as trophies, practised by all the Dyaks — the Bahou Tring tribe add the 
tenfold worse practices of cannibalism and oifering of human sacrifices ; not 
only killing their enemies according to the Dyak reading of the maxim, * Live 
and let live,* — ' Kill or be killed,* — but taking captive those that they do not 
put to death and eat on the spot, and reserving them for slavery and ultimate 
death by torture.** (Bock, pp. 133, 134, 135, 210, 218.) 

It must be remembered that Mr. Bock saw no evidences himself, and also 
that all that was told to him was translated from the native tongue through a 
Malay into Dutch ; i.e., it came to him quite second hand. It may be true 
what he was told, but it must not be forgotten savages usually reply according 
to the way in which they believe their interrogator wishes them to answer. 
Mr. Bock*s statement brought forth the following letters from Mr. C. A. 
Bampfylde (Kapit Fort, Rejang River, February, 1882) and Mr. Brooke Low 
(Sarawak, 20th September, 1887) : — 

**A11 exaggerations undoubtedly contain portions of the truth, more or less, 
this particular exaggeration being no exception. Among nearly all head 
hunters there is a custom, which, loathsome enough in itself, falls far short of 
cannibalism, as understood by the term ; and, moreover, the Tring people do 
not stand alone in the practice of this custom. After a successful raid, or on 
any occasion on which a head has been obtained, it is a custom of warriors 
to take a portion (the minutest will suffice) of the skin or flesh from the head 
and swallow it, on the supposition that it inspires bravery, and also because 
it is a traditional Penalli ; but the women and children do not indulge in the 
practice. This is the truth and the whole truth concerning cannibalism, as 
far as this tribe is concerned. C. A. Bampfylde.** 

**1 have just been reading a second time in * Head-hunters of 
Borneo,* and in connection with it, Mr. Bampfylde's remarks, together with 
Bock's rejoinder. I have been asked by the former gentleman to testify to 
his credibility, and shall therefore feel obliged if you will be good enough to 
insert these few lines for the information of the public. 

** I have been 400 miles up the Rejang River since the publication of the 
above volume, and though I had not yet read the book, 1 took it with me and 
showed the plates to the natives of the interior ; so true were they to life that 
resemblances were found in the portraiture to their own friends, and every 
detail provoked roars of laughter. 

** Mr. Bampfylde has, however, been over six years in Rajah Brooke's 
service, therefore his testimony, I feel Sure, is preferable to that of a mere 
traveller. 

** I fully believe, with Mr. Bampfylde, that the natives were poking fun 
at Mr. Bock when they declared the Trings to be cannibals. I do not believe 



Cannibalism, 223 

them to be such, for if they were I should have heard of their propensity long 
before Mr. Bock ever set his foot in Borneo, for we have occasional 
intercourse with some of the tribes of the Upper Mahakan, among whom Mr. 
Bock should have travelled instead of stopping short at Mount Pehau, which 
can be reached from the sea by steamers, and which feels the influence of the 
spring tides. Had he accomplished the ascent from this point upwards, he 
would have endangered his neck, it is true, but he would have travelled over 
new ground, and added to our knowledge. A few months ago I received a 
visit from a Long Gelat, named Bau Dias, who lives at the foot of the Mokan 
ranges, and I put the question relative to the alleged cannibalism of his 
neighbours, the Trings. He seemed surprised at my asking such a question, 
and said, 'Of course it is not true, such a practice is unknown to us at 
Mokan.' 

*' I do not accuse Mr. Bock of wilfully publishing an untruth, but I fully 
believe his credulity was practised upon by his companions to discourage in 
him any desire to penetrate further into the interior. 

** I do not think Mr. Bock will require to return any answer to what 1 
have written. I, for my part, do not wish to engage in any controversy, and 
disclaim any obligation to make further reply. Brooke Low." 

Mr. Brooke Low elsewhere (see supra, p. 145) confirms Mr. Bampfylde's 
statement, that to make them fearless the conquerors will eat a piece of the 
flesh of the vanquished. See foot note p. 218. 

Mr. De Crespigny was told by the Malays that the Dusuns were cannibals 
(Zeit. Berl. N.F., p. 330); that traveller makes no further mention of the 
subject. Mr. Alex. Dalrymple (p. 46) practically says he never heard of 
cannibalism among the Dusuns. 




Mat Pattern. S.E. Borneo. 
(Leiden Mus.) 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

GOVERNMENT, TRADE, MINING, MENSURATION, 
NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. 

GOVERNMENT. General Government : Grades of chiefs — Their duties — No arbitrary power — 
Assistance given to chiefs — Power by general consent — Decision in capital crimes — Nature's 
gentlemen — Independence of people — Tuahs hard worked — Good chief means general prosperity — 
Unpopular chiefs— Prerogatives overworked — Abuse of power — Malay interference — Five chiefs 
— A goose of a chief— No chief— Election — Village councils — Long discussions^Just administra- 
tion appreciated — Punishments — Fines — Neighbours must not be molested — Decisions sound 
and sensible — Fines — Retort in kind— Barbarous punishments. Inheritance : Grandchildren — 
Curious Malanau case. Malay Misgovernment. Law of Defiance. 

TRADE. Primitive ideas — Currencies unknown — Quick in trade — Extension of currency — Trading 
with Kayans — Taw^/s— Frauds — Kiaus v. Bajus — Malay cheats — Wealth — Hidden treasures- 
Change of fashion. 

MINING. Iron: Blacksmith — Sea Dyak forges — Iron ore~Kayan forges and metal. Gold: From 
river beds — The Malaus — Natives not gold seekers. Diamonds : Method of digging. 

MENSURATION Time : No count — Harvest seasons — Pleiades — Sun-dials — Vague measurement 
of time — And of length — A pig's measurement — Dusun cloth measurement. Counting : Dusun — 
Fair knowledge of counting. Distances : Curious methods — " So many boilings." 

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. Gutta— Rubber — Nipa Palm — Rotan — Bambu — Dammar- 
Tapang Tree — Oils. 

GOVERNMENT. 
General Government. 

" Each Land Dyak tribe has an Orang Kaya (literally, * rich man'), who 
is chief; under him is a Pangdra (or 'superior'), who wears a white jacket, 
and a Paiiglima (or 'military chief*), who wears a red jacket. Every long 
house has a Tuah (or 'elder'), who lives in the centre room, settles squabbles, 
and does the hospitality." (Grant, p. 5.) 

The Orang Kaya and Pengara, who in external aifairs is the mouth of 
the tribe, " are selected by the suffrages of the laki bint, or married men, 
subject to the approval of the Rajah's Government, one of whose officers 
publicly invests them, by giving them a jacket and head handkerchief, to be 
worn on state occasions ; moreover each long house in a village is under the 
charge of a tuah or old man, and all the tuahs act as a council to the Orang 
Kaya, The Orang Kaya and this council are the magistrates ; try and punish 
offences (chiefly by fines), and settle where the ladangs or farms for the year 
are to be made. It is the Pengara's duty to look after offenders and to bring 
them to justice. As regards its own internal affairs and minor offences, every 
tribe is perfectly independent of the Rajah's rule." (Chalmers, O. C., p. i ; 
Miss. Field, 1859, p. 80 ; Low, p. 187.) 



Government, 225 

** The Orang Kaya does not appear to possess the slightest arbitrary 
power; the office is not hereditary, and the person filling it is generally chosen 
on account of the wisdom and ability he displays in the councils of the tribe, 
and which appear to fit him for the duties of their representative, in all their 
relations with their Malayan masters, or with the neighbouring villages. The 
only real advantage which accrues to the chief of a tribe, besides the standing 
and consideration his title gives him amongst his people, is the assistance 
he receives in his agricultural operations, the whole people combining to 
construct and take care of one large farm yearly for his benefit, the produce 
of which he receives. But in many tribes, this institution is neglected, and 
has dwindled into occasional assistance, when the chief chooses to demand it, 
on the land cultivated by his family.*' (Low, p. 228.) 

** The Government of the Dyaks seems to be administered more by 
general consent than from any authority lodged in the chief. His power, 
indeed, is one of persuasion, and depends upon his personal ability, nor can 
he in any way coerce his people to obedience. Amongst the Hill Dyaks the 
laws are based on the same principle." (Sir Jas. Brooke i. 211.) "The chief 
never decides himself in capital crimes, but calls a council of the elders, and 
consults them as to the judgment or punishment to be inflicted." (Bishop 
McDougall, T.E.S. ii. 26.) So also among the Kayans, as related by the 
Rajah, when a chief allowed his people to commit some murders. His words 
are : ** I felt very angry with Balang, who had been so true a friend to us in 
other ways, and imposed a fine of twelve rusa jars (;fi20) on him as an 
example, to prevent such an abominable practice getting foot among Dyak 
tribes. This was the heaviest fine that could be imposed. He paid it down ; 
and on my meeting him a short time after, he said, * Tuah, you know it was 
not my heart that was in fault ; but I could not govern my people, who did 
this deed when I was away." (ii. 305.) Otherwise the **Kayan and Kenniah 
chiefs are much looked up to by their followers, and have great power over 
the people; they are usually very intelligent and well-behaved men, and 
have the manners of gentlemen rather than of savages."* (Hose, J. A. I., 
xxviii. 171.) 

Some of the Dusuns visited by Sir Sp. St. John paid no ** tribute, though 
many chiefs on the coast call them their people ; but it is merely nominal, no 
one daring to oppress them. Each village is a separate government, and 
almost each house independent. They have no established chiefs, but follow 
the councils of the old men to whom they are related." (i. 375.) 

** This chief of a house Tuah is usually much harder worked than his 
followers, as he has his judicial and political duties to attend, over and above 

* " The Rajah of the country of Waagoo has seventy chiefs under him, all of whom are likewise 
called Rajahs. Sedgen has fifty, whilst Selgie has more than one hundred and forty. The latter 
chief is by far the most po\\erful in this part of Borneo : he possesses an immense extent of country, 
over which he exercises the most despotic control. Selgie calculates the people under his sway at 
150,000 ; they are under strict command, and divided into three classes, one of which does nothing 
but fabricate arms, such as mandows, spears, shields, sumpits, and darts: another attends to the 
culture of paddy, making war-dresses, and articles of ornament for the women ; the third is composed 
of the finest men, selected for war ; these are marked in a particular manner, and have great privi- 
leges over all other." (Dalton, p. 48.) 

Q Vol. 2. 



226 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

the ordinary daily labour, in which he rarely has slaves to relieve him of his 
manual work, as among the Kayans." (Brooke Low.) 

'* The Serebas and Sakarrans, whose large houses or villages are often 
placed widely apart, follow different customs. With them, the head of a 
house is in himself a sort of Orang Kay a, who, adopting the name of his eldest 
child, assumes the prefix of Apai (Father) — thus, Apai Bakar, the Father of 
Bakar.'' (Grant, p. 5.) ** Upon the conduct of this chief depends the 
number of families a house contains. If he be brave and upright in his 
deahngs, numbers will settle under him ; if otherwise, he will quickly lose his 
friends, who will migrate to other houses, and he will sink to the level of an 
ordinary man." (Gosp. Miss., i860, p. 37.) 

And unpopular chiefs are to be met with. ** The ground of complaint 
appeared to emanate from the Orang Kaya, who loudly stated, evidently 
meant to reach my ear, that his tribe paid him little or none of the respect 
and deference due him as chief of the tribe, and that the ringleader was the 
Pengara. In collecting the birds' nests, for instance, the first gathering went 
to the people, the second to the Government, 200 nests of which were his 
perquisite, of these he had as yet only received 100 nests. The Dyaks also, 
according to custom, were bound to work five days for him in the year on his 
farm ; this they refused to do, and led on by the Pengara they disobeyed his 
orders, and cared little for him or his authority. The Pengara, in an excited 
but sarcastic tone of voice replied, that Murung knew how to manage his 
people if he liked, but that instead of looking after his tribe he preferred 
running about the country, and when the Dyaks wished to work for him he 
grew angry and abused them, saying he could carry on his own farm without 
their help.*' (Denison, ch. iv. p. 37.) 

As mentioned above the Land Dyak tribes " assist the Orang Kaya in 
making his farms ; in fact, it is one of the most lucrative of his perquisites. 
Mita of Sirambau had pushed his prerogative too far, and had forced his 
people to make him three farms, and from this and many other reasons, he 
had ruined his popularity." (St. John i. 157.) 

If, however, the chiefs generally are unable to abuse their power and 
position, as Sir Jas. Brooke found, there must be exceptions to the rule. '* I 
have noticed that Bindarri Sumpsu is the hereditary lord of Sabuyow, all of 
whose relations share in his privileges. This claim to authority over the 
tribe arose from the payment of some debts by the Bindarri's ancestors, long 
beyond the memory of the present generation, being since a broken tribe, 
part only are at Lundu, the rest dispersed in different places at Sadong. The 
Lundu people have always resisted any undue exactions or claims ; but those 
at Sadong, less strong, have been subjected to them. These claims have 
gradually risen in proportion to the distance of time, the weakness of the 
Dyaks, and the increased want of principle in the chiefs. At first the Dyaks 
paid a small stated sum as an acknowledgment of vassalage ; by degrees, 
this became an arbitrary and unlimited taxation, and now, to consummate 
the iniquity, the entire tribes are pronounced slaves, and liable to be disposed of. 
This fate has attended them in many instances, upwards of thirty having 
already been sold by the rapacious relations of Bindarri. Not so the Orang 



Government, 227 

Kaya Tumangong, who has maintained his liberty, and openly asserts it, with 
great vehemence declaring that whoever wishes to make his tribe at Lundu 
slaves, must first fight with them/' (Mundy i. 301.) 

Where the Malay influence is strong they have not in their election of 
chief always been able to hold their own, thus : '* A few years ago an Orang 
Kaya and a Pangdra were installed by the Rajah, and soon afterwards a 
Malay, who was sent to collect the revenue, had, after the custom of his 
predecessors, appointed a second Orang Kaya and a second Pangdra at (he 
said) their own request.. In addition to these, there was an old Orang Kaya, 
and as these five chiefs did not act together, it was a case of * too many 
cooks,' and there were complaints of too many Becharas, and much lack of 
unity/' (Grant, pp. 61, 62.) 

The same administrator on another occasion speaking of a village chief 
says : ** I was at a loss to understand why the people had chosen such a 
goose of a fellow for their chief. He had not a word to say for himself, wore 
the most common of chawatSy or waist-cloths, and a turban of bark, and he 
looked so much more up to the art of hewing timber than of holding sway 
over his fellow-men, that I began to question the policy of appointing him ; 
but beyond his being the son-in-law of the old man, and * very clever in 
holding his tongue,' no reason was assigned, so we installed him." (ibid, 
p. 54.) Mr. Denison once finding himself in a village which had no head says : 
** The men seem wanting in energy, and the sooner an Orang Kaya is 
appointed the better." (Ch. vii. p. 77.) 

In the chapter on Character the difficulties Mr. Grant had to contend 
with in getting a chief elected were set forth, but perhaps Mr. Chalmers' 
account will be also found interesting : ** Before investing, however, on one 
occasion Mr. Grant tried to see if the person elected was universally 
acceptable, by calling on all present, who were content, to hold up their right 
hand. This was a step too far in advance, and failed utterly to our great 
amusement, and that of the Dyaks also. A verbal assent was then 
demanded, and given by a thundering burst of * Suka.' The new officer then 
had his * robes of office' given him and he was exhorted to govern justly." 
(O.P., p. vi.) 

**A11 Hill Dyak affairs connected with the prosperity or welfare of the 
village, are discussed by a council of the men of the tribe, which is always 
held in the pangah, and at which every male of the hamlet may be present, 
though seldom any but the opinions of the old men are advanced — the 
younger people paying great respect to the advice of the elders at this council. 
If the chief be a man of known and reputed ability, his opinion — which is 
generally given in a long and forcible oration while the speaker is seated, 
and without much gesticulation, excepting the waving of the head — is of very 
great weight, and his arguments most frequently convince the assembly, 
unless some other opinion be advanced and supported with equal ability, 
when the approvers of each, in succession, address the members of this little 
parliament — a fair and impartial hearing being given to all — though the 
discussions are often protracted till near morning from the preceding dusk, 
when one party either yields its opinion to the other, or the minority is 



228 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N. Borneo, 

compelled to give way — these assemblies are never riotous, but always 
conducted in a quiet, grave, and business-like manner." (Low, p. 289.) 

Another account is given by Mr. Chalmers of these people : " I was much 
amused at a Bechaery or council, this morning in noticing the same different 
kinds of character among the Dyaks as among their more civilised brethren. 
At the Bechaer all was done in due order, one man speaking after another, 
and each allowed to have his say uninterrupted. There was the Pengara 
speaking with all the gravity of age and office ; another old graybeard [sic] 
illustrating and enforcing his arguments with pieces of pinang placed on the 
floor, each signifying some person discussed of; one man loud and 
opinionative, evidently a Dyak Radical ; another grave and earnest ; and the 
Orang Kaya dignified and thoughtful, only putting in a word here and there, 
but that weighty and conclusive. It was truly pleasing to witness their 
childlike confidence in the government of the Rajah." (Miss. Field, 1859, 

P-85.) 

** The Sea Dyak administration of law among themselves supplies many 
admirable precedents. Unfortunately, their ties of relationship and want of 
substantial principle, are impediments to the carrying out of justice; at the 
same time, they are peculiarly alive to the advantages of a just administration, 
which never fails to secure the aid and support of the majority. In the event 
of one tribe commencing war upon another, by killing without provocation, 
the aggressor would incur a hukum mungkal, or fine of £75, according to 
custom. In cases of adultery, the husband or wife in fault is liable to be beaten 
with sticks by the aggrieved parties, on the open ground, as their houses are 
held sacred. Their system of justice in this case is of a very beneficial 
character, as the female suffers alike with the male. Petty cases of theft are 
punished lightly, as well as all other trivial cases, but nobody is allowed to 
molest his neighbour without incurring a fine. For instance, if a party of 
people should ever damage the drinking or bathing well of another house, or 
hack at the sticks on the landing place, they would be mulcted. In quarrels 
about land, they are supposed only to use sticks, and they fall to in earnest : 
the most pugnacious keep very barbarous spiked and thorny ones for the 
express purpose, and many use bark hats and jackets to ward off the blows 
of these implements. Cases of premeditated murder are very unusual among 
them, although at one time the attack of one party on another was often 
attended by death. A few examples of heavy fines, inflicted with a strong 
hand, have greatly decreased this evil. A chief leading such a party is, in 
most cases, a man of property, and in the event of one of his followers being 
killed, he pays ajar worth £g to the deceased's parents, or nearest relations." 
(Brooke i. 60.) . 

** There is no doubt, when uninfluenced by prejudice and relationship, the 
decisions of natives are very sound and sensible. . . . Nothing artificial 
or extraneous, in the shape of gilt or tinsel, will help to gain the confidence of 
the natives. They are too matter of fact, and only admire and respect 
strength in its entirety." (Rajah Brooke's Hints, pp. 6 and 7.) 

** Punishment is usually by fine, imposed by a council of old men. In 
cases of murder, retort in kind is allowed and justified ; but, unlike the law of 



Government. 229 

the Arabs, the retaliation must be confined to the individual murderer. If one 
man kills another, a brother or friend of the deceased kills him in return, and 
the business ends; but they can likewise settle the matter by paying a fine, 
provided both parties give their consent. In all other cases fines prevail; and 
as far as I have yet heard, no severer punishment is ever inflicted for crime." 
(Sir Jas. Brooke, Mundy i. 211.) 

*' Some of their punishments are very barbarous and cruel : I have seen a 
woman with both her hands half-severed at the wrists, and a man with both 
his ears cut off." (Marryat, p. 77.) 

" The Idahan punish murder, theft, and adultery with death.*' (Forrest, 

P- 37I-) 

Inheritance. 

Property in land and trees has been described in Ch. xiv., 418 et seq. 

Among the Sakaran Dyaks the law is as follows : *' Property is divided 
equally between all the children, irrespective of sex, but if these children die 
before their parents the grandchildren inherit equally with their uncles and 
aunts; thus a man. A, has four children C, D, E and F, these all have 
children, but C dies before A, leaving, say, three children, then these three 
children will inherit equally with D, E and F, so that instead of the property 
being divided up into 4 equal portions only, it is divided up into six equal 
portions. Adopted children share equally with the other children." (F. W. 
Leggatt.) 

A very curious case of inheritance is given by Mr. de Crespigny (S.G., 
No. 42) as customary among the Milanaus : ** Balang and Biam lived happily 
together for many years in a long house, relic of old times, of which they were 
possessors of half a Strang. Before marriage Balang had taken as adopted 
children two young girls ; and, after marriage, Biam had taken as an adopted 
child one young girl. Balang became thus the pro-father of the last girl, and 
Biam the pro-mother of the two first ; all three having thus equal rights. 
There were no children born to Balang and Biam, and about 20 days ago 
Biam died. Nipiak, the sister of Biam, sent to Balang for her share in Biam's 
estate. Balang did not deny her right, but proposed that the matter should 
be settled in Court ; and the Court decided thus, after carefully taking the 
opinion of sundry Tuahs who were present, the defendant, Balang, acknow- 
ledging that the arrangement was according to adat (custom). 

" The whole estate, consisting of guns, plantations, share of a house, 
share of a slave, ornaments, and even cooking utensils, to be sold, and the 
husband to take his one-half. With regard to the share of deceased, the 
defendant, her husband, got nothing. Had there been children born to them, 
two-thirds of Biam's share would have been theirs, and one-third the inheri- 
tance of the adopted children had they been foster children {anak meninsu) ; 
but as they were not, so they were only entitled to a tanda^ although the 
Court gave them, in this case, one-ninth each, making one-third to be divided 
between them, and gave the other two-thirds to Nipiak, the sister of deceased, 
who would have had no claim at all had there been a child to inherit. 

** That which appeared so curious to me, was the fact that the husband 
was entitled to nothing at all, and only got his half of all the property which 



230 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

belonged in common to him and his wife during the lifetime of the latter. I 
found upon inquiry that she might have made a will in favour of her husband 
or others, either in writing or verbally before witnesses, but this not having 
been done, had there been no relatives at all to claim inheritance of her share 
of the property, it would have gone to the state, and the husband, even under 
such circumstances, could claim nothing. The Tuahs say that this has been 
the custom from time immemorial.'* 

The natives, in spite of their wars and feuds and disputes, governed 
themselves better than the Malays governed them. In 1850, the nephew of 
the then Sultan, with his whole party, was killed by some Bisayas when 
dunning them for an imaginary debt. There was in the time of the Bruni 
nominal control ** a system in this country called serra^ or serra dagang, or 
forced trade, but it is carried on in the neighbourhood of the capital 
to an extent unknown elsewhere. Every noble of any influence that thinks 
proper goes to a tribe with some cloth, and calling the chief, orders him 
to divide it among his tribe ; he then demands as its price from twenty 
to a hundred times its value. He does not expect to get the whole at 
once, but it enables him to dun the tribe for years after. Not content with 
taking their goods for these imaginary debts, they constantly seize their 
young children and carry them off as slaves. The tribe who killed the 
Sultan's nephew had actually paid their serra to thirty-three different 
nobles that year, and had been literally stripped of all their food, before, 
giving way to passion, they destroyed the whole party above referred to." 
(St. John ii. 46.) 

Mr. Denison relates a very similar story of Malay misgovernment. 
" Whilst Pangferan Anak Chuchu (whose property the Meri district is) was 
proceeding from Sarawak to Brunei in his schooner, he met with head-winds, 
and brought up in the Meri river; and, finding this a good opportunity for 
replenishing his exchequer, levied a tax of 20 pikuls. The people had to 
borrow these, and in borrowing had to pay for them 60 pikuls of gutta, or in 
other words had to pay $2,400 for a forced loan of $1,500. The Pangferan 
carried away plunder from the unfortunate natives to the extent of $9,000, 
leaving the population so deeply in debt that it will take them years to 
recover themselves." (Jour. Straits Asiatic Soc, No. 10, 177.) 

Babukid is a Land Dyak mode of defiance, and appears to have been first 
mentioned by Sir Jas. Brooke. ** I find it is appealed to as a final judgment 
in disputes about property, and usually occurs in families when the right to 
land and fruit trees comes to be discussed. Each party then sallies forth in 
search of a head; if one only succeed, his claim is acknowledged; if both 
succeed, the property continues common to both. It is on these occasions 
that the Dyaks are dangerous, and perhaps an European, whose inheritance 
depended on the issue, would not be very scrupulous as to the means of 
success. It must be understood, however, that the individuals do not go 
alone, but a party accompanies each, or they may send a party without being 
present. The loss of life is not heavy from this cause, and it is chiefly 
resorted to by the Singe and the Sows, and is about as rational as our trials 
by combat." (Mundy i. 331.) It would seem to have more the character of 



Trade. 231 

an ordeal. At the village of Lanchang, on the Samaharan river, there were, 
owing to Malay intrigues, five Orang Kayas, and, in consequence, there was 
much quarrelling. ** One proposed that, to settle the matter, they should 
sally out into the neighbouring countries, and the first who should bring home 
a head should be declared victor, and have the case decided in his favour. It 
was their ancient custom." (St. John i. 223.) Compare bunkit, i. 70. 

TRADE. 

The natives* ideas of trade are primitive. " Two old Dyaks were heard 
discussing the advantages of sago planting, * Ah,* said the one Apai, * but 
supposing the whole country were planted how cheap sago would be, the sale 
would hardly repay us for working and filling it.' * Yes,' rephed the other, 
* then how cheaply we could live and so we would eat the sago and sell all 
our rice.' " (S.G., No. 183, p. 109.) 

When His Highness presented Sandown, a Sakaran chief, with a rupee 
the man asked him the use of it and whether it would purchase padi. A very 
few years later this man was an active trader, and gained considerable 
riches. . . . But generally speaking ** a Dyak has no conception of the 
use of a circulating medium. He may be seen wandering in the Bazaar with 
a ball of beeswax in his hand for days together, because he can't find 
anybody willing to take it for the exact article he requires. This article may 
be not more than a tenth the value of the beeswax, but he would not sell it 
for money, and then buy what he wants. From the first, he had the 
particular article in his mind's eye, and worked for the identical ball of 
beeswax with which and nothing else to purchase it." (Brooke i. 140, 156.) 

Sir Sp. St. John found the Sea Dyaks ** exceedingly quick in commercial 
transactions ; * and most of them who did not know the value of a piece of 
money six years ago circa 1856' are now active traders." (i. 71.) The Sibuyaus 
are keener traders than the Land Dyaks {ibid, i. 208), and Lieut. Marryat found 
the Lundu Dyaks always ready for barter, (p. 78.) The proximity to, and 
the influence exercised by, Brunei where a debased iron medium of exchange 
was in use {ibid, p. 113) would have made it likely that the natives might 
have known something of a currency, but they do not appear to have 
understood or appreciated it. The Chinese, too, must have handled cash, and 
the coast nations at least might be supposed to have seen this medium. 

** Prior to the cession of the Baram district to Sarawak by the Sultan of 
Brunei, money was not used, and the trade consisted of merely an exchange 
of jungle produce for cotton goods, grey shirting, turkey red and yellow cloth. 
The district has now been under Sarawak rule for ten years, and in 
consequence of the enormous increase of trade, the current dollars and cents 
have found their way far into the interior, so that even the Punans know the 
purchasing power of dollars, and it is common now to see the dollar coin on 
necklaces worn by children." (Hose, J.A.L xxiii. 161.) 

The method of trading with the Kayans seems to have been peculiar but 
it must probably be considered Malay rather than native Bornean. It is thus 

' Mr. Earl long since pointed out that freedom of commerce would soon improve the Dyaks for, 
said he, " they are greatly addicted to commerce, and spare no pains to procure articles of foreign 
manufacture for which they have acquired a taste." (p. 272.) 



232 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N. Borneo. 

spoken of by Sir Jas. Brooke : " A trader from the coast, whether Malay or 
Dyak, when he ascends the river with his small boats, stops at an assigned 
place, and sends word of his arrival, with a description of his tribe, object, 
and cargo, to the chief, who orders a party of his people to bring the goods to 
the village ; and though this may be four or five days' journey in the interior, 
it is done without the slightest article being pilfered. The merchant entirely 
loses sight of his wares, which are carried off by the Kyans, and he is himself 
guided by a body of the superior members of the tribe. On arriving at the 
village, a house is allotted for his use, his merchandise is placed carefully in 
the same habitation, every civility is shown him, and he incurs no expense. 
After a few days* residence, he moves his goods to the mansion of the chief, 
the tribe assemble, and all the packages are opened. Presents are made to 
the head men, who likewise have the right according to their precedence of 
choosing what they please to purchase ; the price is afterwards fixed, and 
engagements made for payment in bees* wax, camphor, or birds' nests. The 
purchasers then scatter themselves in the woods to seek for these articles, and 
the merchant remains in his house feeding on the fat of the land for a month 
or six weeks, when, the engagements being fulfilled, he departs a richer man 
than he came ; his acquired property being safely carried to his boats by the 
same people. If he has a large cargo and proposes going farther into the 
interior, they carry his goods to the boundary of the next tribe, and he 
returns at the period agreed upon to receive the price of his commodities.*' 
(Mundy i. 263.) 

Sir Sp. St. John's account is very similar, but the Kayans ** were seldom 
very welcome guests at a small village, helping themselves freely to every- 
thing that took their fancy ; but this only occurred, as a Malay shrewdly 
observed, in places where they were feared.'"* (i. 124.) 

** Many Dusuns go three or four times a month to the iameh, which are 
generally held in dried-up river-beds. To the tamel they will often make a 
two days' journey, with a few articles of their own manufacture — such as 
bamboo baskets and hats, bark ropes, and, where they grow it, tobacco. 
The women are the beasts of burden and on these occasions the men often 
get drunk and fight." (Whitehead, p. 107.) 

On the other hand the Dusuns complained to Mr. Hatton of the Dampas 
men very much, saying that they stole their goods and swindled them. **The 
headman showed me a common pinfire revolver, worth about $5, for which he 
paid 40 pounds of gutta ; also a string of beads, worth about 20 cents, which 
he had purchased for 8 pounds of gutta. He complained also of the Dampas 
men's scales and weights, saying that one pikul of gutta in the Labuk country 
on arriving at Sandakan weighed two pikuls." (Hatton's Diary, 9 Mar.) 
Mr. Burbidge mentions incidentally (p. 75) that the natives adulterate the 
gutta. In Sir Sp. St. John's time the Bajus used to visit the Kiaus. The 

' "It is very important for all travellers to note that the Dyaks as they are at present know 
nothing as to payment or barter — with regard that is to the common articles of livelihood ; that they 
therefore, unless they do it from the start without asking, cannot be brought to do what is wanted 
by means of presents and that they on the contrary find it quite right if one allows one's people to 
take as many fowls and as much fruit as one requires. In the same way they know nothing about 
theft and do not hesitate to help themselves to the fruits in your garden or to the tobacco in your 
hand as fnuch as they are immediately in need of. They never take more." (Hup^, p. 722.) 



Trade. 233 

Kiaus bullied the Bajus and now the latter ** seldom visit these distant 
villagers, who are thus compelled to take their own produce to the coast, to 
be cajoled or plundered in their turn, which is one of the reasons why cloth 
and iron are so rare among them." (i. 312.) 

Although the Sea Dyaks **are said to be more acute than Malays, so that 
even the Chinese find they cannot cheat them after the first year. . . . the 
Malays sometimes make good bargains with them by using soft and flattering 
language, but the Dayaks often repent of being so wheedled and will claim 
justice before the courts." {ibid, i. 71.) 

**The Kayans in the Baram appear, from all I can learn, to be very 
unsophisticated in matters of trade, and their ignorance and simplicity are 
taken advantage of by a lot of Malays for their own ends, who cheat and 
swindle these aborigines to their hearts' content. The Malays, however, all 
tell the same story, namely, that it is easy to humbug the Kayans, but 
dangerous to bully them ; they barely acknowledge the rule of the Sultan, if 
they do so at all, which appears very doubtful." (Denison, Jour. Straits 
Asiatic Soc, No. 10, p. 178.) 

"The Sarawak Malay can as a rule get on very fairly well with the Land 
Dyaks, better, perhaps, than he can with Sea Dyaks up coast ; he can pejal, 
that is he can force his wares upon those who really have no real use for them 
or who are not particularly in want of the goods hawked by the Malay pedlar, 
and whilst the Dyak is turning over his mind as to whether he will purchase 
or not, the seller sits patiently by smoking and singing the praises of his 
wares ; a Land Dyak usually takes a considerable time in forming his mind 
in making a purchase, but time is of no particular object to either party, and 
the bargain completed, and the pedlar having obtained the customary cent, per 
cent., he packs up his baggage and departs to the next house or village as the 
case may be. But the present Malay system of trading with the Land Dyaks 
is rotten to the core. Dyak bintings or villages are perpetually being visited, 
and the commonest articles of trade thrust upon the Dyaks at exhorbitant 
rates, which they could purchase ever so much cheaper at any of the numerous 
Chinese shops scattered throughout the river, and which are easily accessible 
in a day's journey even from the remotest Dyak habitation; such commodities 
as waist-cloths (chawais) and petticoats (Jamos), trimmed with a little common 
Turkey red cloth, are sold previous to the rice harvest, to be repaid in paddy 
at many times their respective values, nor does it end here, the purchaser 
being expected to deliver his payment to the house of the Malay merchant, 
entailing, perhaps, a long journey on foot, or miles of boat travelling; and 
again, he is expected to fully provide for those traders stopping in his house 
such necessaries as rice, firewood, provisions, and the like, which he does 
without the slightest grumbling." (S.G., 1894, p. 98.) 

" Wealth is not so much the accumulation of cash, as the possession of 
gongs, brass guns, and jars; and if a chief is deprived of his wealth, he is also 
deprived of his power, and the people losing faith in him look out for another 
who owns * thousands.'" (Grant, p. 24.) So Mr. Chalmers states: **The 
wealth of a family is generally estimated by the number of gongs, jars, cups, 
pigs, fowls, and fruit-trees it possesses." (O.P., p. 1.) The Sennah tribe 



234 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N. Borneo. 

were considered well off, possessing plenty of tawaks-tawaks, chanangs, jars, 
etc., and boasting a splendid peal of gongs." * (Denison, ch. vi., p. 65.) The 
Bukars wealth is shown by the great amount of silver coins and ornaments 
they possess, *' sheaths of swords and parangs being covered with this metal, 
while silver coins were worn round the edge of the petticoat, and mixed with 
sabits of the same metal round the waists and loins of the women." (Denison, 
ch. viii., p. 84.) 

** The returns for their rice and gutta, the Sozongan Dusuns hoard up in 
the darkest recesses of the bush, consisting of brass in every conceivable 
shape, — that is the only thing their heart is set oh." (Witti, 19 May.) 

** Some of the things the natives of Brit. North Borneo buy are most 
expensive, sixty and seventy dollars is frequently given for a single sarong. 
Men of industrious habits can easily be overburdened with the quantity of 
goods they can acquire. Up the Labuk, where large earthenware jars are 
what the people most covet, I have seen some of the family residences 
crammed full, top and bottom, and hung up, to the roof with these rather 
cumbrous evidences of wealth. It may be said, generally, that whatever they 
want they buy, from a bundle of tobacco to a gold hiked creese [Malay sword.] 
Amongst most of the tribes, brassware of various kinds used to be much valued, 
a great deal on account of the facility with which it could be hidden in the 
forest, or even in mud at the bottom of rivers." Collecting parties found 
these hidden articles. (W. B. Pryer, J.A.I, xvi. 235.) 

'* When Mr. Low was at Kiau in 1851, beads and brass wire were very 
much sought after. When we came last April, the people cared nothing for 
beads, and very little for cloth ; their hearts were set on brass wire. We, 
however, distributed a good deal of cloth, at reasonable rates, in exchange for 
food and services rendered. We now 1858' found that even brass wire, 
except of a very large size, was despised, and cloth eagerly desired." (i. 320.) 

MINING. 
Iron. 

** Most Land Dyaks understand sufficient blacksmithery to make their 
own swords and axes — the latter are small, and, by turning them in their 
handles, can be used as adzes ; they cut down the largest trees with these 
little tools, which shows that they are not bad steel." * (Grant, p. 91.) 

* A row of goDgs of various sizes is referred to as a sign of wealth by a correspondent of the 
S.G. (No 102) at Pulau Majang in Dutch Borneo. 

' " The iron which is obtained in the interior is said to be valued by many of the wilder Dyaks 
even more than gold ; indeed the latter is only sought for as a means of procuring foreign articles for 
which they have acquired a taste. The iron must either be excellent quality, or the Dyaks must 
have discovered a method of tempering it, which sets at defiance the competition of more civilised 
nations. I have heard of musket barrels having been cut in two by a single blow of their 
swords together with other tales illustrative of their wonderful temper ; and from what I have 
personally witnessed, I am inclined to give perfect credence to them. To test the capabilities of 
these weapons I cut a twopenny nail in two and although the temper of the one employed was 
considered as rather inferior, the edge was not in the least turned. (Earl, p. 264.) " Crimata, a town 
situated to the southerly end of the Island ot Borneo, sends to Bantam a great deal of iron." (A 
Collection of Voyages undertaken by the Dutch East India Company. Translated. London, 
W. Freeman & Co., 8" 1703, p. 197.) 



236 H. Ling Roth,— Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 

The Sea Dyak ** blacksmith, with the exception of the manang, or doctor, 
is the only person in the village whose time is solely occupied by a profession 
or trade. If the blacksmith of a village be celebrated for the goodness of his 
work, he is not only employed in the manufacture of the arms and 
instruments necessary for his tribe, but those made by him sell for higher 
prices than those of his neighbours, and he is sure of plenty of employment 
and considerable profit. The smith's shop is always a little apart from the 
houses of the village, to prevent accidents from the fire ; the bellows precisely 
resemble those of the Malays, the two bamboos, or hollow trees ; a stone is 
generally the anvil, but when a heavy piece of iron can be obtained it is 
preferred. His instruments are all of his own making, and rude in their 
construction ; the vessel in which the water for cooling his work is held is a 
block of wood hollowed out." (Low, p. 209.) 

A different description of the Sibuyau bellows is given by Sir Jas. 
Brooke: *^The Dyaks, as is well known, are famous for the manufacture of 
iron. The forge here is of the simplest construction, and formed by two 
hollow trees, each about seven feet high, placed upright, side by side, in the 
ground ; from the lower extremity of these, two pipes of bamboo are led 
through a clay-bank three inches thick, into a charcoal fire ; a man is perched 
at the top of the trees, and pumps with two pistons (the suckers of which are 
made of cocks' feathers), which being raised and depressed alternately, blow a 
regular stream of air into the fire." (Keppel i. p. 65.) 

According to Bishop McDougall : "They construct a blast of bamboos, 
and by means of a lever work three or four of their cane cylinders at a time ; 
with these they blow on the iron ore, which is broken up into * nublets,' or 
small pieces, and put on a hearth until the fire renders it soft, not melted. 
In the first state the iron has become malleable and capable of being worked 
into swords." (T.E.S. ii. 29.) 

Sir Chas. Brooke is of opinion ** that the iron smelted in the interior of 
Rejang is second to none for making arms." (i. p. 50.) 

The richest specimens of iron ore come ** from the Upper Rejang. The 
Kayan tribes inhabiting this district smelt their own iron, using charcoal only, 
in their own rude furnaces, and the steel they manufacture is preferred to that 
of European make." (A. Hart Everett, Jour. Straits Asiatic Soc, No. i, 
p. 20.) 

" Commonly at every Kayan village there is a place for smelting iron, in 
all the process of which the community mutually partake. Covered by a 
shed, the rude furnace consists of a circular pit formed in the ground, three 
feet deep, and about four feet in diameter. Previous to the smelting process 
the ore is roasted and broken into small pieces. The coals (charcoal) in the 
furnace being set fire to and well kindled, the prepared ore is then placed on 
the top with alternate layers of coals. The ventilators used consist of wooden 
tubes, ten to twelve in number, about six feet long and placed vertically round 
the furnace. The bore of each is about seven inches in diameter, the pistons 
to correspond are framed of cloth or soft bark. Attached to the piston rods 
are others of considerable length, to which weights are made fast and 
balanced on the cross beams of the shed. By this contrivance the pistons 



Mining. 237 

are moved up and down, and a constant blast produced, which is led by clay 
pipes from the orifice at the bottom of each tube into the furnace. In the 
smelting operation there is no flux used with the ore, which yields about 
seventy per cent, of iron. To make iron either hard or soft as may be 
required, different sorts of wood are made use of." (Burns, Jour. Ind. Arch, 
iii. 151.) ** In a Kinah village the smithy is in a central situation. The Kinahs 
smelt their own ore and manufacture their own iron ware. I watched the 
operation and procured a few samples of the metal. There is nothing 
peculiar to describe ; there were an anvil, a couple of hammers, and a pair of 
twyers as usual, a charcoal furnace, a quantity of impure ore, and the usual 
primitive bellows. These people temper their own ore with a fragment of 
European ironware, when they can get it." (Brooke Low.) 

** As before stated, the Kayans and Kenniahs for years smelted their own 
iron, and the weapons made of that steel retain their value to the present 
day. They are great blacksmiths and skilful engravers on metal, some of their 
work bearing the closest examination. Their forge is an ingenious, if 
laborious, contrivance, consisting of several large bamboos into each of which 
a piston worked by hand forces the air; this is conducted by means of 
other bamboo tubes into one, the end of which forms as it were the mouth of 
the bellows, and in which a considerably accumulated pressure of air is 
obtained. The anvil is likewise ingenious, being provided with many points 
and small holes by means of which the smith is enabled to bend and work his 
iron." (Hose J.A.I, xxiii. 161.) 

Sir Sp. St. John procured a packet of the iron the Kayans use in smelting ; 
** it appeared like a mass of rough, twisted ropes, and is, I think, called 

meteoric iron-stone. They use, also, two other kinds Their iron 

ore appears to be easily melted."* (i. 113, 122.) 

Gold. 

*' In times of drought, styled by the natives Kamarow, or Tempo Segah^ 
the bed of the upper Sadong is searched and scraped for gold, generally with 
success ; of course the longer the spell of fine weather the better the results. 
Sadong gold is of splendid quality, and second to none found in Sarawak, 
excepting, perhaps, that found at Marup, yclept Mas Skrang/' (S.G., 1894, 
p. 98.) ** Near the very sources of the Kapuas live the Malau Dayaks,who are 
workers in gold and brass, and it is very singular that members of this tribe 
can wander safely through the villages of the head-hunting Seribas and 
Sakarang, and are never molested." (St. John i. 31.) 

• The material most used is the argillaceous spherosiderite, which, as already mentioned, is 
often present in the coal-bearing beds. Usually it is taken from the most accessible spots in the 
river beds. In these places the ore has been more or less subject to a chemical change, i.i. the 
clay-iron-stone is, in part, converted into argillaceous brown iron-ore, and is then rendered more 
easUy workable. (Possewitz, p. 432.) 

On the Doesun river Mr. Miiller speaks of villages almost exclusively inhabited by iron smiths, 
such as Troesan, Siekan Laloenianw, Roedjej, Panoeatawan. The reason being that the metal 
which they work is extracted close by the villages in the very bed of the Doesun when its waters are 
low, and principally along the right bank of the river near the affluence of the little Soengi Patakej. 
The metal is found spread in the mud of the river in masses of 5, 10 and even 100 pounds weight and 
more. (ii. 359.) 



238 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N. Borneo. 



** In connection with the consumption of gold in the Brit. North Borneo 
Territory, it may be remarked that none of the savage tribes of this part of 
Borneo seem ever to have made use of this metal, notwithstanding their 
intercourse with Malays, and in a less degree with the Chinese, during at least 
several centuries past. I have never known an instance of a Sea Dyak or 
Land Dyak, a Kyan or Bakatan, seeking gold on his own account, and manu- 
facturing it into any description of ornament, however rude." (A. Hart 
Everett, Jour. Straits Asiatic Soc, No. i, p. 19.) 





Stone Hammers 

(After Van SchcHe) 

" The stone hammers used are worthy of 
note ; they remind one of prehistoric 
times. They consist of a flat hard piece 
of quartz, tightly cla-^ped by pieces of 
split bamboo, with cross splits of rotan. 
The end of the t^ainlxK} serves as a 
handle.' (Posewilz,p J45.) Dr. fVjsewitz 
makes the above remarks and jfives the 
two illustrations under the heading; ^' Gold 
Mining: Digginj^ by the Natives.*' But 
I am informed that these hammers are 
used by the Chinese and not bv the 
natives. 






Cradle for Washing Gold. 
(? Chinese.) S.E.Borneo. 

I>IAMONn-DIGGING. 

" I limy here take the oppor- 
tunity of introducing a few 
ret narks on diamond working, 
as carried on by the natives in 
tliesf Land Dyak] districts. 
\\nien diamonds are worked in 
the solid earthy or in the bed 
iif the rivetj a shaft is sunk 
about 4 feet, for a karangan 
or bed of pebbles, which, when 
struck, is generally about 3 feet 
ill thickness. This is called 
Imbo, and is what is seen ex- 
posed in the banks of streams; 
it is useless, and is therefore 
thrown aside. Below the Imbo 
is another karangan called Pejal, 
from 9 feet to 12 feet in thick- 
ness, and in this the diamonds 
are found. The Pejal is very 




Land Dyak Implement used in Gold Washing. 

Made of heavy brown wood, painted bright red, with yellow edges and 

lines. Blade thin and flat. 

Length, 3ft. 4in. ; Width of blade, 2ft. 4iin. 

(Brit. Mus.) 



Mensuration, 239 

hard, being made up of a conglomerate of small pebbles, and is worked with a 
crowbar, it is carefully placed aside, washed in circular wooden trays, and the 
diamonds separated from the pebbles. Under the Pejal a stratum of boulders 
or large stones is met with, to which is given the name of Ampan. With this 
the shaft is abandoned, as no diamonds are found in or below it, but only mud 
and sand with perhaps a little gold. The size of the shaft varies according to 
the number of persons working : one man will sink a shaft one fathom square, 
while a party of four will not be satisfied under anything less than 4 to 5 
fathoms. The shaft is driven down the perpendicular, and should water be 
met with, the diggers work in the water and drive for the Pejal. One way of 
working, adopted both in the river and on * terra firma,' is to sink a shaft till 
the Pejal is met with, and then drive another at right angles, following the 
course of the Pejal. This is dug out and brought to the perpendicular shaft, 
where it is handed up to the surface in baskets.*'^ (Denison, ch. vii., p. 71.) 
** Diamond digging is not at present carried on in the Sadong river." 
(S.G., 1894, p. 98.) 

MENSURATION. 
Time. 

** The Land Dyaks generally take no count of days, and months, and 
years; when they do reckon time at all, they do so by what they call the Taun 
Padiy a period about equal to six of our months.'' (Chalmers, O. P., p. 7.) 

'* They make alliances by the rice harvests, and not by years of which 
they have no knowledge.'* (Pfeiffer ii. 93.) ** Sometimes they explain lapse 
of time by the height of the sun.*' (Brooke i. 58.) 

As we have seen (i. 401), the Kenniahs judge of the season for planting 
by a sort of sun dial. ** The Kayans, and many other races in Borneo, fix 
the time of the year for planting paddy, by observing the position of the stars, 
though it is more usual for Kayans to be guided by the sun. In the case of 
reckoning by the stars they consider that when the Pleiades appears just 
above the horizon as daylight breaks (five o'clock) that the right time of the 
year for sowing has arrived. But paddy may be planted and produce a good 
crop within three months ; the low country people are much later than the 
hill people, and those who plant swamp paddy even later still. The Kayans 
measure the shadow of the sun from a horizontal post at twelve o'clock; other 
shadows cross the large shadow, and the man in charge of this sun-dial has 
various scales on pieces of wood, but these, and the methods of calculation, 
together with the sun-dial, which is enclosed by a high fence, are all kept a 
close secret. But I must admit that they are able to reckon by these 
measurements how long it is to the time of planting, and I have found that 
they do not vary much one year from another. I hope some day to have all 
this explained to me.* 

7 Mr. S. Muller states the natives reject platinum as they do not understand how to manipulate 
it. (ii. 377.) 

^ " The Dyaks reckon their periods of time by the full moon, half-moon, and new moon." 
(Bock, p. 212.) 

" The Dyaks in general appear to know nothing of numbers above ten, and hence they alwavs 
give us their reckonings in this way, saying, 'one ten,' or 'two, three, four,' or 'many tens,' as the 
case may be." (Doty, p. 288.) 



240 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

'* A man wishing to describe the time he will be away, says, * I shall be 
away so many nights,' not, so many days. If asked what time you will arrive, 
he will answer, * when the sun is in that position,' pointing to the sky ; if 
wishing to indicate nightfall, he will say, * when the sun has gone under ' ; 
and early dawn, * when the sun has come up.' A man desirous of describing 
a fish he has caught, would say it was as big as his forearm, or if larger, as big 
as the calf of his leg. The graduated scale of measurements they use, are : — 
the size of the thumb ; two fingers ; three fingers ; four fingers ; the wrist ; 
the forearm ; the calf of the leg ; then the thigh or the head ; and lastly, the 
body. 

** As an equivalent for our inches and feet the natives use fingers — one, 
two, three, four ; four fingers constituting the breadth of a hand ; their span 
consists of that between the thumb and first finger, and a long span in some 
cases between the thumb and second finger, but the latter measurement is not 
generally allowed, as the following story will show. Once, while seated in a 
house talking to the chief, I was a witness of a heated dispute which took place 
between two of his followers anent the sale of a pig. A pig is sold by 
measurement, the measurement being taken (by means of a string) of the 
girth of the body just behmd the fore-legs ; and for every span's-length of 
string, a dollar has become the fixed price. Now the buyer wanted to use the 
span of the second finger and thumb ; the seller of course objected, as in a 
large pig the use of the longer span would materially decrease the price. 
After a heated discussion, both parties appealed to their chief to give a 
decision. I was anxious to see how the old chief would get out of the 
difficulty, as it was evident he did not wish to offend either of them, and, on 
the whole, I think he managed very cleverly. 

** Both the disputants sat down in front of him, and explained the point 
of contention, whereupon he said to the buyer, * now if you were pointing at 
a man ' (pointing at a man's eyes is a form of insult), ' and were to do it with 
your second finger' (at the same time pointing with his second finger), how 
foolish it would look, would it not ? ' The buyer was obliged to admit that it 
would be so. * Well, then ! ' said the chief, * the first finger is the one to use, 
and we wont adopt any new fads in this house.' The two men went away, 
satisfied with the chief's decision, and the pig was sold." (Hose, J.A.I, xxiii., 
pp. 168-170.) 

** The Dusun measuring of cloth is rather an amusing occupation. All 
cloth is measured by the fathom or dapah, which is seldom more than 5 feet 
10 inches, often less, being the length that a Dusun can stretch while holding 
the cloth between the tips of his fingers across his chest. The villagers 
invariably hunt up their longest dapah stretcher, and he measures the first 
length, which is cut off — all eyes during this operation being bent on the 
cloth to see that it is jnst slack and not stretched in the least. After the first 
length has been cut, it is best to mark an equal measure on the floor and 
work from that. The head men generally look on while this is being done, to 
see that there is no cheating by stretching the cloth, and to secure for 
themselves any lengths that may have an inch or two over." (Whitehead, 
p. 113.) The Sea Dyaks count with fingers and toes. (Brooke Low.) 



Mensuration. 



241 



The Dusuns have no ** idea of time, beyond the return of the seasons, and 
they know not even their own age/' (De Crespigny, Proc. R. Geogr. Soc. ii., 

1858, p. 347.) 

The Ida'an "are even ignorant of high numbers, and therefore when 
they go to war, being very numerous, they do not count their numbers by 
thousands, but by trees. They choose a large tree, and each man 
as he passes gives it a stroke with his weapon, when the tree falls they 
count one ; they who follow pick out another in like manner." (Dalrymple, 

p. 42.) 

This may be hardly true at the present day, as nearly all tribes can count 
well up into the hundreds. See Append. Vocabs., Chalmers' p. 145, and 
Swettenham's p. 140. According to the latter vocabulary, the Punans can 
count up to 100 and more, while the Bakatans (i.e., probably the same people) 
can only count up to ten. More evidence is wanted. See supra Age, i. 60. 

Distance. 

** One of the most difficult things in this world is to find out from a 
[Land] Dyak the distance between one place and another. He always 
answers that question by saying Takot kabura, or Takot kabula, which means, 
* I am afraid of speaking untruly'; and to remedy this evil, they are apt to 
fall into the very error they would avoid. If the road is far, you will be told 
it is very far ; if short, very short ; and so on. Their ways of reckoning, too, 
are original. You are told you have gone one, or so many divisions, and have 
so many more to go ; or that you will have to eat rice so many times between 
such and such a place ; or that if you leave a place with the sun in that 
quarter (pointing with the finger), it will be in such a quarter by the time you 
arrive at the place you are bound for. You are occasionally told you are so 
many cookings (or boilings) of rice from your destination (a cooking of rice 
may be reckoned thirty or forty minutes, but the cook will be better able to 
inform the reader on that point) ; or if near, that you can hear a gong from 
it ; or if very near that you can hear the cocks crow from it. Then you are 
either jaw (far),ya-w (very far), or jau-u-u (awfully far) from the place. On the 
present occasion our distance was, sa bagi sudah, sa bagi balum (one half 
completed, one half yet to do) ; so down the mountain we scrambled, and at 
the bottom came to another branch of the Sarawak water, called the Ayer 
Tebiak:' (Grant, p. 29.) 

"As the Dyaks have no notion of dividing time into hours, their 
methods of reckoning distances are rather original. The most common 
way is to call a place a day or half a day's journey, or to point to a 
certain place in the heavens and say they can reach their destination 
when the sun is there, or to call a village so many boils distant. A 
boil of rice may be reckoned at half an hour." (Chalmers, Miss. Field, 

1859, P- 136.) 

Among the Sea Dyaks : ** Short distances are described by arriving at 
such a place before the hair has had time to dry, or by the time for cooking 
one, two, or three pots of rice, as the distance may happen to be." 

R Vol. 2. 



242 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N. Bornco> 

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. 

It may not be out of place to give a short account of some of the natural 
productions, which have been frequently referred to in the preceding chapters. 

GUTTA. 

The Gutta ** is obtained from four or five kinds of large forest trees, 
belonging to the genus isonandra, by felling the trees and girdling or ringing 
their bark at intervals of every two feet, the milky juice or sap being 
caught in vessels fashioned of leaves or cocoa-nut shells."* (Burbidge, 

p. 74.) 

The process is thus described by Mr. Hornaday : ** The native found 
a gutta tree, about ten inches in diameter, and, after cutting it down, 
he ringed it neatly all the way along the stem, at intervals of a yard 
or less. Underneath each ring he put a calabash to catch the milk-white 
sap which slowly exuded. From this tree and another about the same 
size, he got about four quarts of sap, which, on being boiled that night for my 
special benefit, precipitated the gutta at the bottom in a mass like dough. 
The longer it was boiled the harder the mass became, and at last it was taken 
out, placed upon a smooth board, kneaded vigorously with the hands, and 
afterwards trodden with the bare feet of the operator. When it got almost 
too stiff to work, it was flattened out carefully, then rolled up in a wedge- 
shaped mass, a hole was punched through the thin end to serve as a handle, 
and it was declared ready for the trader. I have seen the Dyaks roll up a 
good-sized wad of pounded bark in the centre of these wedges of crude gutta, 
in order to get even with the traders who cheat in weight, but I have also seen 
the sharp trader cut every lump of gutta in two before buying it. If he found 
bark, you may well believe he did not pay for it at the price of gutta. The 
crude gutta has a mottled, or marbled, light-brown appearance, is heavy 
and hard, and smooth on the outside.'' (p. 433.) "The juice of ficus 
and one or two species of artocarpecB is not unfrequently used in addition 
as adulterants. It is generally adulterated with twenty per cent, of 
scraped bark — indeed, the Chinese traders who purchase the gutta from the 
collectors, would refuse the pure article in favour of that adulterated with 
bark, and to which its red colour is mainly due.** (Burbidge, p. 74.) 
** It is most deplorable to see the fallen gutta trees lying about in all 
directions in the forest. The gutta trees are a long time in attaining to 
maturity, and are not easy to propagate, except by seeds.** {ibid.) 

In the Linogu valley, on the southern slope of the Derigi, the ** people 
do not know the gutta percha tree, and of indiarubber they know but little, 
there being no great demand. When rambling in the bush the experienced 
eyes of my men noticed gutta trees of the best description.'* (Witti, 29 May.) 

^ With two sharp strokes of a mandau a deep notch was cut in the bark, from which the juice 
slowly oozed, forming a milky-looking mucilage, which gradually hardened and became darker in 
colour as it ran down the tree. The native collectors of gutta-percha make a track through the 
forest, nicking the trees in two or three places as they go, and collect the hardened sap on their 
return a few days afterwards. (Bock, p. 152.) 




Animals made out of Raw Gutta. 
(Hose Coll.) 





Cylindrical Box of 
Gutta, 

with ornaments in relief. 

Kapuas River. Height, 3}in. 

(Brit. Mus.) 



Pat, Kayan Tool for getting Gutta. 

Baram River.* 

(Peek Coll.) 




Alligator of Raw Gutta. 
(Hose Coll.) 



Gutta 

as brought to market 

from Balait River. 

gin. X 4in. x 2in. 

(Hose Coil.) 




Dyak Cap. 

Made of raw gutta. 

(Hose Coll.) 




Parang. 

Used to ring the bark of gutta-produdng trees in Pbrak, Malay Peninsula. 
(Sir H. Low, Kew Mus.) 



244 ^' Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

Rubber. 

** The Bornean gutta soosoo, or rubber,*® again, is the mixed sap of three 
species of willughbetas, and here, again, the milk of two or three other plants 
is added surreptitiously to augment the quantity collected. The three species 
of climbing plants are known to the natives as Manoongan, Manoongan putihy and 
Manoongan manga. Their stems are fifty to one hundred feet in length and 
rarely more than six inches in diameter. Their fruits are of a delicious 
flavour, and are highly valued by the natives. Here, again, the stems are cut 
down to facilitate the collection of the creamy sap, which is afterwards 
coagulated into rough balls by the addition of nipa salt. The rubber-yielding 
willughbeias are gradually, but none the less surely, being exterminated by 
the collectors. They grow quickly, and may be easily and rapidly increased 
by vegetative as well as by seminal modes of propagation." (Burbidge, p. 74.) 
** The natives use it to cover the sticks with which they beat their gongs and 
musical instruments." (Low, p. 52.) 

The Nipa Palm. 

"The nipa {Nipa fruticans, see illustration, ii. 4), though in growth 
amongst the humblest of the palm tribe, in its value to the natives of this 
island is inferior to few of them. It is found on the margins of the rivers as 
far as the salt water extends, and large salt marshes at the mouths of rivers 
are covered with it to the extent of thousands of acres ; its chief value is for 
covering houses, the leaves of which for this purpose are made into ataps, and 
endure for two years. Salt is made in some places from its leaves by burning 
them, and in others sugar is extracted from syrup supplied by its flower-stem. 
The fruit, though tasteless, is esteemed by the natives, and is said to make an 
excellent preserve. Its leaves, on luxuriant plants, are occasionally twenty 
feet long, all growing from the centre." (Low, p. 43.) 

Messrs. Whitehead (p. 32), H. Pryer (The Field, 20 Dec, 1884), and Sir 
Sp. St. John (i. 233) are equally emphatic in its praises, adding that cigars 
and cigarettes are rolled up in the fine inner leaf. 

ROTAN. 

The rotan canes are the produce of the Calamus rotang and various 
species of the same genus Calamus. They are creeping plants, the stems of 
which are coated with a flinty bark, cylindrical, jointed, very, tough and 
strong, from ^ to ij^in. in diameter, and 50 to 100 feet long, they are easily 
split and are used for the seat of chairs, wicker work, &c. Some varieties of 
dragon's blood are obtained from the plants of this genus. When used as 
cordage ** the outer and hard parts only are used, the rattans being split 
and the inner part carefully removed." (Low, p. 43.) 

Bambu. 

The bambu is the Bambusa arundinacea, a kind of reed which grows in 
clumps, the individual reeds ranging up to 60 feet in height and five inches in 
diameter. It has a hard siliceous skin, is hard and durable, and is largely 
used for furniture, water pipes, houses, bridges, &c. 

^^ It is frequently spoken of as caoutchouc, but as caoutchouc is an aboriginal American name 
for the sap, the name shoiUd not be applied to the East Indian product. (H. L. R.) 



Natural Productions. 



245 




Dammar. 

This is the largely used resin obtained from the 
Agathis {=Dammara orientalis,) **The Dyaks mix it 
with oil for paying the seams of boats.*' (Low, p. 49.) 

The Tapang Tree. 

This tree was mentioned when Honey-getting was 
described, and it should now be added that Mr. W. 
Botting Hemsley, of Kew, writing to Mr. F. W. 
Burbidge, of Trinity College Gardens, Dublin, says 
that from a hint given him by Sir Hugh Low, he 
finds ** the tapang tree is Koompassia excelsa Taubert, 
syn Abauria excelsa Beccari." 

Oils. 

** Mengkabang, or vegetable tallow [Dipterocarpus] , 
is procured in the following manner from one of the 
wild fruits of the jungle : — When the fruit, a species 
of nut, has been gathered, it is picked, dried, and 
pounded, and after being thoroughly heated in a shallow 
cauldron, it is put mto a rattan bag and subjected to a 
powerful pressure. The oil oozes from the bag, and 
being run into bamboo moulds is there allowed to 
cool, in which state it becomes hard and yellow, 
somewhat resembling unpurified bees' wax. It is 
principally used by the Dyaks and Malays for cooking, being very palatable, 
but in this country it is employed for the manufacture of patent candles, for 
which it is superior to palm oil. 

" Ratio oil is procured from another wild nut, and is expressed in a 
somewhat similar manner. It is a beautiful yellow transparent fluid, with a 
smell very much like bitter almonds, and I have little doubt that it will yet be 
found a very valuable article of commerce. 

" The press employed by the Dyaks in expressing these oils is, like many 
other of their contrivances, both simple and effective. It consists of two 
semi-cylindrical logs about 7 feet long, placed in an upright position, their 
flat surfaces being fitted together and their lower ends securely fastened to 
each other. On each of their upper ends a stout knob is cut, and a third piece 
of wood, about two feet long, nine inches wide, and two inches thick, with a 
hole cut in about a foot long and three inches wide, is put over the knobs 
so as to clasp them together. Wedges are then inserted between the outside 
of the knob and the inside of the hole, and these when driven home subject 
whatever is between the logs to a powerful pressure." (Horsburgh, p. 41.) 

Sir Hugh Low mentions several oils used by the natives, one miniak 
kapayang from a tree called pangium edule, &c. One wood oil, * miniak kruing,* 
**is extracted from the trees which produce it, by simply cutting a large hole in 
the tree, into which fire being placed, the oil is attracted. The tree probably 
belongs to the order Myrtaceae." (Low, p. 48.) 



Dammar Fruit. 

Agathis (^Dammara 

orientalis.) 

(L. C. Richard's Conifers, 1. 19.) 



CHAPTER XXV. 
BOATING. SWIMMING, RIDING. 

BOATING. Boats : Plank war boats— Large dimensions— Keel laying ceremony— Method of 
building— Preservation of planks— Over-landing— Squalls — Bandongs— Kadjangs- Paddles — Long 
hours — Speed— Distant voyages. Dug-Outs : Bintulu barongs — Unsinkableness - Surf-running — 
Fishwives' humour - Muka Regatta — Various descriptions— Method of digging out — The Baram 
dug-outs— Kanowits— Strength and elasticity. Bark Canoes. Poling: Speed— Expertness — 
Overcoming rapids— Stirring scenes. 

SWIMMING. Mermaids— Good swimmers— Stream crossing— Diving. 

RIDING. Bagu buffaloes 

Boats. 

" The Sea Dyak war boats are well constructed and good models, and very 
fast ; some will hold as many as sixty or seventy men, with two months' 
provisions. The keel is flat, with a curve or sheer of hard wood. A long one 
does not exceed six fathoms, and upon it they will build a boat of eleven 
fathoms over all. The extra length of planks which overlap, is brought up 
with a sheer. They caulk the seams with a bark which is plentiful in the 
jungle. No other fastenings but rattans are used. They paint their boats 
red and white, —the former is generally an ochre, but occasionally they use 
a kind of red seed pounded ; the white is simply lime, made from sea shells." 
(St. John i. 70.) Sir Jas. Brooke states the red paint to be an ochre mixed 
with oil. (Mundy i. 303.)- 

Lieut. Marryat describes a fine Lundu war boat *' about 
forty feet long, mounting a gun, and capable of containing forty 

or fifty men. She was very gaily 
decorated with paint and feathers. 
These war prahus have a flat strong 
roof, from which they fight, 
although they are wholly exposed 
to the spears and arrows of the 
Kayan Figure-head for enemy." (p. 83.) He also men- Ornament on 

War Canoe. t^ t i, j. ra - .^ Bow of Ilanun 

An udok aso mythological animal with ^lons a Dyak war boat sufficiently Pirate Boat. 
gibbon in its jaws. capacious to hold from seventy to (After 

(Brooke Low Coll.) eighty men. (p. 64.) ^"^ ^^"' ^'"^"''^ 

At Lundu before ** the Orang Kaya commenced to build his boat, many 
plates and dishes were carefully laden with rice and other eatables ; sirih and 
pinang (betel) were also placed so that the spirits could partake of these 
luxuries and satisfy themselves. Besides this, to the people congregated 
around the place where the boat was about to be built, arrack was served 





Boats. 



247 



out, of which they all sipped with the utmost gravity, and the few words that 
were spoken referred to their enemies, the Sakarangs and Saribus, upon 
whom their whole attention was evidently concentrated.'* (Brooke i. 39.) 

The Balau war boats are built as follows : ** The lunas, or keel plank, 
which is of the entire length of the boat, has two ledges on its inside, each of 
them about an inch from each margin of the plank. Each of the other 
planks, which are likewise the entire length of the boat, has an inside ledge 
on its upper margin, its lower margin being plain, like an ordinary plank. 
When the Dyaks have made as many planks as are necessary for the boat 
they intend constructing, they put them together in the following manner : — 
The lunas, or keel plank, being properly laid down, the first side plank is 




^' 



ia 



im^wmwrnnw^i. 




Dyak War Prahu on Skerang River. 

(After F. Marryat). 

This boat looks very much like the Ilanun war prahus off Gilolo, figured in Sir E. Belcher's 

" Voyage of the Samarang.'* 

brought and placed, with its lower or plain edge, upon the ledge of the 
keel-plank. The ledge of the first side-plank being thus uppermost, it 
becomes in turn the ledge upon which the lower edge of the second side-plank 
must rest. The ledges of the keel-plank, and of the first side-plank, are then 
pierced, and firm rattan lashings passed from the one to the other. The 
lower edge of the second side-plank is in like manner laid upon the ledge of 
the first, and these two planks are lashed together in the same way as the 
first was lashed to the keel. Thus they place the edge of each plank upon 
the ledge of that immediately below it, lashing them both firmly together ; 
and when they have in this manner put on as many planks as they wish 
(generally four or five on each side), they caulk the seams, so as to render the 
boat water-tight. Hence in the construction of their boats they not only 
employ no nails, treenails, or bolts, but even no timbers — nothing but planks 
ingeniously lashed together by rattans, and then caulked. It is true that 
these lashings are not very durable, as the rattans soon get rotten; but this 
is of little consequence, since, whenever a boat returns from an expedition, 
the lashings are cut and the planks being separated, are taken up into the 
house. When she is again wanted the planks are taken down, and the boat 
reconstructed as before." (Horsburgh, p. 36.) 



248 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

** As these planks cost the Dyaks — who are unacquainted with the use of 
the saw or any other instrument for forming them but the 'biliong' or 
adze of the Malays — no end of time, their preservation is an object of no 
small importance ; two planks only being obtained from a large tree with 
infinite labour, it being very necessary that the planks of the boat, on account 
of her construction, should all be of the same length as the bankong. These 
boats, according to their size, carry crews of from thirty to ninety men." 
(Low, p. 221.) 

While Sir Chas. Brooke was once admiring a craft which was exceedingly 
beautiful an old Dyak said to him, ** Tuan, such are our kind of pinnaces ; 
yours are of a different description and better for sea, but ours are regulated 
for land, and there we beat yours, for we can walk away with ours and build 
her again in any other direction, in the rivers on the other side of the 
mountains." (ii. 104.) 

" From the nature of these boats, and the slightness of their build, it 
may easily be imagined that they are not manageable in a sea-way, their 
length causing them to open at the seams : on such occasions, should they 
not be near enough to the land to run into smooth water, the crew all jump 
overboard, and hang by the side of the boat : this I have been assured they 
have done for many successive hours when the squalls, which are usually 
short in these tranquil seas, have been prolonged, so as to render it necessarx'. 
In this situation they take it by turns for one or two to enter the boat, and 
cook and eat their rice, until the squall is past." (Low, p. 221.) *' They say, 
when this occurs Mn places suspected to be frequented by sharks, they each 
tie a bundle of the tuba plant round their ancles to drive the devouring fish 
away." (St. John i. 68.) 

** The boats used by the Kalaka fishermen are called bandoftgs ; they are 
of crank build and may be classed as skiffs. Their dimensions as a rule are 
about 30 feet over all, by 3J feet by 3 feet ; they are sharp at the bow and 
stern, which are both higher than the gunwale of boat amidships. The crew 
use very large paddles with great strength and skill." (T. S. Chapman, S.G., 
No. 113.) 

Most of the boats are provided with awnings ** called Kadjang, which make 
a roof at once water-proof, very light, easily adjusted, and so flexible that, 
when desired, each section can be rolled up and stowed away in the bottom of 
the boat. These kadjangs are made of the long, blade-like leaves of the nipa 
palm, on the same principle as a tile roof. The leaves are each six or seven 
feet long by two inches wide. They are sewn together with strips of rattan, 
each alternate leaf overlapping its neighbour on either side, and so on until a 
section of roof is formed about six and a half feet square. This section is 
then made to bend in the middle cross-wise, at a sharp angle, so that it can 
be folded once and rolled up, or partly opened and made to stand up 
tent-wise, when it forms the very best kind of roof for such a climate." 
(Hornaday, p. 354.) 

** To propel their boats they employ paddles of about three feet in length 
— never oars, and seldom sails." (Horsburgh, p. 36.) **The Sakarans ply 
the paddles with vigour and regularity." (Sir J. Brooke, Mundy i. 235.) 



Boats. 



" It is no uncommon thing for the Dyaks 
to pull for eighteen hours, with only short inter- 
vals of rest sufficient to boil and cook their rice, 
and this, from the beautiful regularity of their 
strokes, and their being long accustomed to the 
practice, does not appear much to fag them ; in 
smooth water, and, without tides, at their regular 
stroke, they pull about six miles an hour, but 
when exerting themselves fully can double that 
rate of speed." The Dyak bankongs even beat 
the speed of the Singapore tambangs. ** Each 
tribe of the Dyaks has peculiar strokes in which 
it delights, so that in tire dark a Sarebas or 
Sakarran boat could tell whether an approaching 
one was of Lundu, of the Balows, or a Malay. 
On their cruises the Dyaks, who are not, in their 
sober monnients, friends of boisterous mirth, 
never make use of the cheering and inspiriting 
songs of the Malayan boatmen : the noise made 
by each paddle beating time on the gunwale of 
the boat is to them sufficiently enlivening, and 
they want no other encouragement to exertion 
when it is necessary." (Low, p. 221.) 

The Ida'an on the Kimanis river build 
vessels and navigate them to Java. (Dalrymple, 

p. 50.)' 

** Until the Sarawak Government curbed 
their proceedings the Sea Dyaks were known to 
coast down as far as Pontianak, and occasionally 
they had been met forty miles out at sea in their 
rattan-tied boats, some of them seventy feet in 
length." (St. John i. 68.) 



'SI 



i 



sr: 



DUG-OUTS. 

When describing pomfret fishing reference 
was made to the Bintulu barongs. Mr. Crocker 
thus describes them : ** They are particularly 
adapted for going through the surf which prevails 
on the N.W. coast in the N.E. monsoon owing 
to the shallow bars at the mouths of the rivers. 



1 It would seem at one time Sumatra was supplied with 
boats from Borneo. " A world of those Pirogues are made in 
Bandermassin, a town in the Island of Borneo, where you may 
buy one laded with bees- wax, rice, dry fish, and other products 
of the country, at a cheap rate." (A Collection of Voyages 
undertaken by the Dutch East India Co. Translated. London. 
Freeman & Co., 1703, 8 p. 202.) 



250 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



^^ 



"vp 



« 



They receive the sea broadside on, and the natives manage their craft with such 
dexterity that, although they often go to sea when a ship's boat could not live 
five minutes, they never swamp. They are about 40 feet long, the bottom 

being a simple canoe hollowed out 

of a tree ; planks are raised on 

each side fastened by wooden 

pegs : in place of knees they 

strengthen the boat by several 

thwarts connecting each plank, a 

beam runs down the middle of the 

boat fastened to the thwarts. The 

ends of the boat are square, fas- 
tened by pegs and rotans. They 

are strong and buoyant and are 

propelled by short oars fastened on 

rotan row-locks. The natives use 

a large sail, and the boats, from 

being so flat bottomed, sail with 

great speed before the wind, or 

when the wind is at all free. The 

ordinary mode of steering is by 

two large rudders, one fixed on 

each side ; these however are un- 
shipped when crossing a bar and 

a long oar substituted.'' (S.G., 

No. 122.) Sir Chas. Brooke states 

these barong look like an oval 

washing tub only a little longer 

in dimensions. The Mukah people 

** have an idea that their boats 

cannot founder in a high sea unless 

they go to pieces. They pull short 

oars with a plunging and splashing 

stroke, with more jerk than spring, 

and the tub splashes through the 

water as dry as a collier, and while 

coming in through a heavy breaking 

surf running far over their heads, 

they watch for the roll, and while in 

the trough pull with all their might ; 

but when the wave is curling to 

break, they suddenly slew their 

crafts broadside on, and so receive 
it with the exposed side well out of water. Directly it has passed, away they go 
again as fast as possible, until another roller overtakes them, when they repeat 
the same manoeuvre.* It is well known in Mukah, and other places in the 

' Mr. Hose (J.A.I, xxiii. 158) aUo describes this surf running. 





a 
o 

1 

ja 






Boats. 



251 



vicinity, that the wives close their doors and will not receive their husbands 
unless they procure fish ; and this may be an incitement to undergo such 




dangers. The women work hard themselves, and make the sagu, which is a 
remarkably dry condiment without the accompaniment of fish ; hence their 



252 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

desire for husbands, plus fish — and the refusal to admit them without that 
article." (ii. loo.) 

The Barong Race, which is the great feature of the Muka Regatta, 
is undoubtedly a sight to be seen nowhere else. ** During the race the 
crews shriek like fiends, and two men rush up and down the boat with 
buckets pouring water on the heads of the oarsmen, to prevent their going 
roaring mad I suppose. This shouting mingled with the creaking and 
splashing of the oars and the rushing sound of the water thrown up by the 
great flat bows makes the race very exciting." (Assistant Resident at Muka, 
S.G., No. 96.) 

With regard to the bore on the Sadong (?) river : ** Many native canoes 
went a short way down to meet it, and when its sullen voice was heard they 
raised loud shouts, and the next instant were whirled along with incredible 
velocity on the summit of the curling wave." (Sir Jas. Brooke, Mundy i. 214.) 




LuNDU Women in a Canoe. 
(After Lieut. F. Marryat). 

" The ordinary boats of the Balaus are long, narrow canoes, hollowed out 
of the trunk of a tree, the sides being raised by planks pinned upon them." 
(Horsburgh, p. 36.) Sir Jas. Brooke says ** their boats are carved about their 
high sterns, which distinguish them from the plain boats of Sakarran and 
Sarebas." (Mundy i. 236.) Mr. Crossland mentions a boat eighteen yards 
long which will easily carry twenty people. " It was cut out of a log, and 
therefore is all of a piece. As a rule they are not pretty to look at, but are 
safe boats, and live well in the surf" (Miss. Life, 1870, p. 219.) ; while Mr. 
Frank Hatton speaks of a Sin Dyak dug-out **of capital workmanship, being 
carved at the bow." (p. 187.) The Grogo Dyaks are good boat builders ; 
Mr. Denison mentions one of their hoa,tsjalur 6^ fathoms long. 



Boats. 253 

** The Sea Dyaks' canoes are hollowed out of a single log by means of fire 
and the use of the adze. The natives have no measure to ensure accuracy, 
but are entirely guided by the eye. Generally the canoe shows traces of the 
fire and water treatment it has received, the inner surface being soft and full 
of superficial cracks, while the outer surface is hard and close. When the 
shell has been sufficiently opened out, thwarts are inserted to prevent its 
shrinking as the wood dries. Planks or gunwales are stitched on to the sides 
to increase its volume, the seams being caulked with sago stems which are 
light and porous, and swell when wet and so 'keep out the water. Each of 
these side pieces is formed of an entire plank about 12 inches deep and about 
i^ inches thick, laced on to the body of the canoe by flaxen cords and united 
to its opposite plank by the thwarts. The largest canoes have the sides 
made still higher by means of a narrow plank laced on to the first gunwale, 
and the seam again caulked. The canoe is alike at both ends, the stem and 
stern being both pointed, curved, and rising out of the water. There is no 
keel, and the canoe draws little water. There are no ribs nor is there any 
figure head." (Brooke Low.) 




Model of a Tukau. Baram River. 
(Hose Coll.) 

" On the Baram all the races use boats, excepting those who live far 
inland and away from the large rivers, as for instance, a few of the Kalabit 
tribes. The Kayans and Kenniahs use both long and short boats — a long 
boat, cut out of the trunk of one of the large forest trees (the native name of 
which is Aroh), sometimes measuring thirty-eight yards in length, and seven 
feet in beam ; a boat of this description will accommodate a hundred men 
who sit two abreast plying their paddles on either side of the boat 
simultaneously, and thus propelled it attains a rate of speed enabling it to 
travel (at a rough calculation) between fifty and sixty miles in a day. The 
common name given to this boat is Harok ; a smaller boat propelled by about 
twenty paddles is known as a Temoi, and they also make use of various little 
dug-outs of all sizes, for travelling between their houses and rice plantations.'* 
(Hose, J.A.I, xxiii. 158.) 

On the Kanowit river His Highness describes a boat ** sixty-six feet long, 
shaped like a coffin, and totally devoid of all elegance or beauty. She 
consisted of a single tree hollowed out, and round at the bottom, but raised 
a little at her extremities. Many trees split while undergoing the twisting, 



254 H. Ling Roth.— Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

and the wood requires to be peculiarly tough to stand the hacking in the 
centre. When the hollowing out is done, a bow and stern-piece are fastened 
with rattans : they have not a nail in them ; two light planks are also tied on 
to the top, and then they are complete. Some have much speed, and are 
capable of carrying from forty to seventy men, with a month's provision 
aboard. They are adapted for passing the rapids and other impediments, 
but twist and twirl to a great extent in being hauled over difficult places. 
Although they are buoyant in the falls, they are extremely heavy, and can 
stand an extraordinary amount of bumping about. The thickness of the 
wood is not less than three inches in many parts. The crews are able to use 
a long, sweeping stroke with their paddles, which could not be managed in 
shorter boats." (ii. 243, 261.) 

Bark Canoes. 

** To make a bark canoe the native simply goes to the nearest stringy 
bark tree, chops a circle round it at its base, and another circle 7 or 8 feet 
from the ground ; he then makes a longitudinal cut on each side, and strips 
off as much bark as is required. The ends are sewn up carefully and daubed 
up with clay, the sides being kept in position by cross-pieces. The steering 
is performed with one or two greatly developed fixed paddles.'' (Brooke 
Low.) 

Poling. 

On shallow streams paddles cannot be used, and the Sebongoh Dyaks 
propel ** their boats with long canes of bamboo, which they use more adroitly 
than any other tribes I have visited ; the women are equally expert with the 
men." (Low, p. 400.) 

** Each canoe contained but two Dayaks and one passenger. Our canoes 
were small, drawing but a few inches of water, and were managed by two 
Dayaks, one standing at the stem, the other at the stern ; with long bamboos 
in their hands, they impelled us forward at a great pace." (i. 135.) 

On the Sekyam river ** we were the whole afternoon poling our way down 
stream, floating over or through the rapids, having repeatedly to stop and 
re-arrange and bind together our bamboo craft, which was at last so shattered 
and broken, by contact with stones and boulders, that to this day it is a 
mystery to me how we managed to cling to it. The skill of these Dyaks 
which alone saved us from a complete collapse, was beautiful to witness. The 
strain on the muscles of these poor fellows — as now they poled us over a rapid, 
now pushed us with their utmost strength from some huge boulder against 
which the current was forcing us apparently to utter destruction — was great in 
the extreme. With a turn of the bamboo pole they would send us through a 
pool of boiling, seething water, past a rock here, over a stone there, and then 
balancing the long bamboos across their chests, they would pause for an 
instant as the frail, trembling craft, quivering in every joint, glided swiftly 
over the rapid into the smooth, fast, flowing stream beyond." (Denison, 
ch. v., p. 55.) 

A lively account of poling under difficulties is given by Mr. Hose : 
" Giham Tipang, on the Baram, is a particularly dangerous rapid, the passing 



Swimming. 255 

of which is accomplished at very considerable risk ; the volume of water 
dashing over the rocks, and rising in waves 5 or 6 feet high, makes it 
appear impossible for a boat to pass. The * dugout,' however, is tied fore and 
aft with rattans, and dragged through the middle of the rapids by one half of 
the men, the others remaining in the boat to work with poles. The noise is 
deafening, each man shouting at the top of his voice ; and after pulling the 
boat for about an hour, the head of the rapid is reached, and immediately 
those on the rocks jump into the boat and begin paddling with all their might 
into some backwater for fear of being carried back over the rapid. For a 
moment the * dugout ' scarcely moves, but at last their united efforts tell, and 
the boat begins slowly to make way to the nearest bank. Occasionally the 
current is too strong for them, and feeling themselves carried back, they jump 
overboard, holding on to the boat with one hand, while with the other they 
grasp any rock or bush that they can clutch, thus arresting the boat. One of 
the party then takes a turn with the rattan around the rock, and so makes it 
fast until they can start again. Sometimes there is nothing to catch hold of, 
and then, seeing it hopeless to fight against the stream, everyone turns round 
in the boat, and seizing their paddles and poles, they allow the vessel to shoot 
over the fall into the seething waters below. The sensation is undoubtedly 
singular, but it does not last long. The boat is bumped about in all 
directions, and carried on at a tremendous rate for a few seconds, the water 
leaping in on either side and the men kicking it out continually with one foot. 
The moment they are over, the vessel quietly glides round to the nearest back- 
water, and once more you draw your breath freely. Having thus escaped, 
they smoke a cigarette before making another attempt to drag up the boat.'* 
(Geogr. Jour. i. 196.) 

Sir Charles Brooke had frequent experience of poling, and found the 
small Dyak boats well adapted for this kind of work, ** merely consisting of a 
few thin planks tied into a keel of hard wood. They twist and twirl as they 
are propelled by long poles, and on meeting any great difficulty the boat's crew 
jump out and lift them over. . . . Our men worked wonderfully, and some 
of the attitudes of the crews as they jumped over the rapids were very striking. 
Every muscle was distended, every pole was planted together to hold the boat 
still and steady until the time came for another spring, and another five feet 
were gained." (ii. 172.) Elsewhere he states: ** It is a stirring scene to 
behold this performance, by men who have been all their lives at such work." 
{ibid, i. 240.) 

Swimming. 

Lieut. Marryat describes the swimming of a Lundu girl in the following 
enthusiastic terms : ** She swam like a frog and with her long hair streaming 
in the water behind her came pretty well up to our ideas of a mermaid." 
(p. 75.) Mr. Wallace speaks of a Land Dyak girl 10 or 12 years old who 
swam beautifully, (i. 102.) ** The Sea Dyaks seem to acquire naturally the 
art of swimming, being taken to the river regularly from infancy and dipped 
and floated on the water." (Leggatt.) ** They are fond of the water and 
both swim and dive well. They swim hand over hand like dogs. They 



256 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

never take a header in diving, but jump into the water upright sinking feet 
first." (Brooke Low.) The Dumpas men swim Hke fishes. (Hatton, Diary, 
18 Mar.) Sir Sp. St. John saw some young Ida'an cross a stream as if it 
were no exertion at all ; they did it with the surging waters reaching to their 
armpits and with a half dancing motion, (i. 254.) The Bajus did not 
attempt to cross a stream in a direct course, but allowed themselves to be 
carried away a little, and reached the other side about fifty yards farther 
down. They carried all the luggage over, swimming with one hand and holding 
the baskets in the air with the other. Two men placed themselves one on 
either side of us, told us to throw ourselves flat on the water and remain 
passive ; in a few minutes we were comfortably landed on the opposite bank. 
{ibid, i. 257.) Where streams are crossed by walking and not by swimming, 
*.* the great difficulty," writes Mr. Burbidge, **is to keep one's legs under one 
in the strong current, and to facilitate this being done the Dusuns often 
take up a heavy stone and carry it on one shoulder." (p. 260.) 

Of their expertness in diving reference has been made in the chapter 
devoted to fishing, &c. 

Riding. 

** The Baju saddle, made of wood, covered with thin cloth, is very small. 
Instead of stirrups they have a rope with a loop in the end, into which they 
insert their big toe, and ride with the soles of their feet turned up behind ; 
and when they set off on a gallop they cling with their toes under the pony's 
belly. The Baju is essentially a non- walker. He never makes use of his own 
legs if he can possibly get an animal to carry him. He rides all the horses 
and the mares, even when the latter have just foaled. Cows are equally in 
requisition, and it was laughable to observe one of these animals with a 
couple of lads on her back trotting along the pathways, a calf, not a week old, 
frisking beside her. The water buffalo, however, appeared to be the favourite, 
the strong beast constantly carrying double." (St. John i. 234.) 



File. 

Made of fish skin gummed on to wood. S.E. Borneo. 

(Lejrden Mus.) 



CHAPTER XXVI. 
MUSIC. 

Musical Instruments : Jew's Harps— Flutes — Nose flute — Klurais— Varieties of— Scale— Violins — 
Guitars — Banjos — Harpw — Drums and gongs — Dulcimers. Musical Character of the 
People. Singing : Plain tiveness — War songs — Boat songs — Extempore songs. 



Musical Instruments. 

**The European Jew*s harp is a small musical instrument held between the 

teeth, and having a metal tongue, which, when struck by the finger, produces 

musical sounds that are modulated by the breath. In the 

Sea Dyak rudieng, the little finger of the left hand stretches 

the string loop at the left end, and the thumb and first 

finger hold the metal handle; the cross-piece is held 

between the thumb and finger, and pulls the concave inside. 

It is used by a young man to talk to his young girl at night, 

when they do not wish the mother to overhear their talk — 

they are able to understand each other in the language of 

love. The length is 3i to 4f inches; the narrow end 

is ^ to ^ of an inch wide, and the broad end f to ^ of an 

inch wide. It is a perfectly intelligible wind instrument ; 

a metal plate of unequal width, narrowest where it is 

held in the left hand, and widest where it is held in the 

right hand. The string is jerked by the tongue, which is 

likewise metal, vibrates and resounds in the cavity of the 

mouth. The sounds are modified with the breath. Other 

tribes in Borneo use a bamboo one ; this was no doubt the 

origin of the Dyak one ; the Maloh have taught the Dyaks 

the use of metal. Bamboo ones are not now in use among 

them. The case in which it is kept is a bamboo cylinder 

beautifully carved ; the ground is coloured red with dragon's So-called ••Jews' 

Made of bambu. 
From Kina Balu. a, 
case, with tassel hang- 
ing through a hole in 
the bottom ; by means 
of the string attached 
to the tassel the instru- 
ment is drawn into the 
case, b and c, front 
and side view. 

Vol. 2. 





Dyak Brass Jews' Harp, Rodiung, 
(Hose Coll.) 



258 H. Ling Roth. — Natives oj Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

blood ; girth about 2^ inches, fitted with a carved hard-wood stopper. The 
metal is not flat, but almost imperceptibly concave.'' (Brooke Low.) 

According to Mr. Hornaday (p. 468) the Sibuyau women had a similar 
" instrument, made of a piece of bamboo like a large organ-reed, the tongue 
of which was made to vibrate sharply by jerking a string attached to one 
end. The instrument was held all the while firmly against the teeth and the 
operator breathed forcibly upon the vibrating tongue of the instrument, 
thereby producing a few harp-Hke hotes." Mr. Burbidge mentions (p. 178) 
an ** instrument like the Jew's harp made of a single strip of bamboo," and 
Mr. Whitehead says (p. 108) ** a Dusun boy gave him a very cleverly made 
Jew's harp of bamboo." Mr. Hose tells us the Kayans have the Jew's harp 
aping. 

*' The gulieng is a bamboo pipe, with a plug at the mouth hole, and 
differs from a whistle in having finger holes, by means of which different 
tones can be produced. It is blown at the end Hke a flageolet, and the three 
finger holes are placed equi-distantly. Four distinct tones are easily 
obtainable upon it, the lowest when all the finger holes are covered, and the 
other three by opening the finger holes successively." (Brooke Low.) 



^' inf Y,-^ -^ '^ '"Tf^ 




Silingut. Kenniah Nose Flute. 24)10. long 
(Hose Coll.) 

**0n the Baram," writes Mr. Hose, "we arrived one evening at the 
house of Aban Lia, and on going inside I found a musician seated in the 
middle of the verandah surrounded by an audience of about forty persons. 
The instrument which he was using was a flute (silingut) made of bamboo, on 
which he played not in the usual way with his lips, but through his nose! 
The notes produced were softer and clearer than the ordinary flute (ensuling) 
which is played with the mouth, and the man was certainly a skilful 
performer. Finding, however, that much of his wind escaped through the 
other nostril, he tore out the lining of his pocket and blocked the offending 
outlet with a small plug of rag. He assured me that his nose, which was 
undoubtedly a musical one, was slightly out of order, as he had only just 
recovered from an attack of influenza, but that sometimes he was able to 
move his audience to tears." (Hose, Geogr. Jour. i. 206.) 

Mr. Whitehead tells us : ** Much to my surprise, our Murut musician 
took a small ball of tobacco from his girdle and proceeded to plug up one 
nostril ; in the other he placed the pipe, and continued to play as before. 
The Murut played really well ; perhaps the flat open nostrils of this people 
are well suited for such a performance." (p. 35.) ** Waking during the 
night, I heard some sounds almost as musical as those produced by a bagpipe ; 
it came from a Murut near at hand, who was perhaps serenading his mistress. 
I examined the instrument he used, and it was very simple to produce so 



Music. 




many notes. Two thin 
bamboos, about twelve inches 
long, were fastened very 
neatly side by side ; in one 
was cut four holes like those 
in a flute, while the other had 
a long piece of grass inserted 

(in the lower end. A slight 
' incision was then cut across 

both towards the upper por- 
tion. The performer thrust 
Vff this instrument rather deep 

J I I / into his mouth and blew, and 

11 , / then, with the aid of tongue, 

fingers, and moving the grass, 
produced some very agree- 
able and wild tunes. I 
watched him for some time 
as he sat by the side of a 
flickering fire, but beiilg tired, 
it at last lulled me to sleep." 
(St. John i. 135.) 

**The klurai is a wind in- 
strument, constructed of a 
number of tubes, placed in a 
calabash with a long snout 
which serves as a mouthpiece, 
and which are thus sounded 
together ; notes and combi- 
nations of notes or harmony 
can be produced from it. 
The finger holes are, some of 
them, placed laterally, others 
on the upper surface, and others again on the 
lower surface." (Brooke Low.) 

** Modifications of the cheng, or calabash 
pipes, are made both by the Kayans, on the 
Baram river, and also by the Dusun villagers, 
near the Kina Balu. There are distinct diff'er- 
ences between the instruments as made by each 
tribe. That from the Baram consists of seven 
pipes ; six arranged in a circle around a long 
central one, all seven being furnished with a free 
reed at the base, where they are inserted in a 
calabash -gourd. Holes are cut in the six outer 
pipes for fingering ; the central pipe is, however, 
an open or drone-pipe, the tone being intensified 



Dyak Engkruri, 

with seven reeds fitted 
into a gourd by means 
of gutta. Some of the 
notes appear to be 
F A C F— F octave 
nearly ; two holes in 
one reed noteunascer- 
tainable ; two reeds 
appear to have no 
note. Longest reed 
(one which has no 
note) to junction with 
gourd, 3iin. : diam. of 
gourd, 3fin. 
(Edinboro* Mus ) 



m 




26o H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



by fixing a loose cap of bamboo on the upper end. It is played by blowing 
air into the neck of the gourd, or by drawing the breath, according to the 
effects desired. The Dusun pipes are formed of eight pipes, four short and 
equal in length, and four long and unequal. Reeds are cut at the lower end in 
all the pipes, but the fingering is performed on the ends of the four equal short 
pipes, there being no holes cut in the pipes for this purpose, as in the Kayan 
instrument.'* (Burbidge, p. 178.) 

Mr. Hose mentions (J.A.I, xxiii. 166) a reed organ (Kuluri) amongst the 
Kayans, and Mr. Whitehead (p. 108) a species of pan pipes fixed in a gourd 
used by the Dusuns, while Mr. Hornaday speaks (p. 468) of the ** pleasing 
clarionet-like notes of the numerous reeds, made like a shepherd's pipe, which 
the Sibuyow men, women, and children were so fond of playing upon in 
concert." 

** The serunai is made of a hollow gourd, 
selaing, with a hole, and is one-stringed (segu 
cane), and is played with a bow, the string of 
which is of the same material. The performer 
sits on the ground and holds the instrument 
between his toes, the knees bending outward, 
Tanjong Busoi AND ARAN. ^ud thc soles of his feet adjoining. The sound 

The wooden disc is placed over a is that of a violin played with a bow, and is 
hollow pot. The bow is held acroM mournful, wailing, sobbing, heartrending, dis- 
it with Its arc resting upon it and , , , ° ^1 . . . • 1 1 , 

the string is struck with a wooden nnal and gloomy. The instrument IS held 

plectrum. slanting, and the sounding cup on the side of 

(Brooke Low Coll.) ^y^^ f^^^^ ^j^j^ ^j^^ ^^^^ ^.^^^j^^g ^^ ^j^^ j^^^ 

shoulder. The string must be watered with saliva to sound. The stock 
is 2 feet long, and of hardwood (bilian). The cup is 12 inches in cir- 





ZlTHBR. 

} nat. size. S.E. Borneo. 
(Leiden Mas.) 



cumference, and is a gourd shell, called geno-selaing, about the size of a 
teacup, and with a hole at the bottom. The mouth of it is covered up with 
a circular dish of soft wood, thin and close-fitting, and the seams cemented 




DYAX Bow AND FiDDLB, 
(Brooke Low Coll.) 



Music. 



261 






262 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 



with wild wax. The bow is a bent cane, and the string a spht rattan nearly 
12 inches long. There is a moveable bridge on the dish for the string to rest 
upon. Sometimes the bowl is made of cocoanut-shell. 




Primitive Violin. 

Two stringed ; sounding board of bambu, open underneath. (Probably 

of Chinese origin), as^in. long. Baram River. 

(Hose Coll.) 

*'The blikan is a rude-stringed instrument resembling a 
guitar, and was formerly much in use. It was adopted from 
the Ulus, and is more frequently found among the Sarebas 
and Kalakan Dyaks than among any others. It is furnished 
with two strings (rattan) and two keys. The strings are 
pressed with the tips of the fingers of the left hand to modify 
the tone — there are no stops — while the nails of the fingers of 
the right hand brush the strings. The stock is glued into the 
beak or bill of a bird, the kinalong or burong bilehy and the 
body is coloured red with the colouring matter of a wild- 
growing, poisonous fungus. It is 3 feet long from end to end. 
The blikan is hollowed out from the upper surface, and is 
covered with a thin plate of wood. The safe, on the other 
hand, is hollowed out from underneath, and is not closed up. 

** The btisoi is formed of a bow resting on the ground in 
a hollow vessel of earthenware or metal, and the string is 
made to vibrate with a plectrum." (Brooke Low.) 

Sir Spencer St. John speaks (i. 109) of a Kayan ** two- 
stringed instrument, resembling a rough guitar : the body was 
shaped like a decked Malay trading prahu, with a small hole 
an inch in diameter in the centre ; the strings were the fine 
threads of rattan twisted and drawn up tightly by means of 
tuning-keys ; however, the sound produced was not very 
different from that of a tightly-drawn string.** 

Mr. Hornaday mentions (p. 468) a Sibuyau fiddle " most elaborate and 
pretentious, the sounds of which were not very pleasing" ; Mr. Whitehead a 
Dusun "extraordinary long guitar with two strings" (p. 108) ; and Mr. Hose 
a Kayan sort of banjo (sapeh), and a bamboo harp (paking). (J.A.I, xxiii. 166.) 
" The satong is a cylindrical bamboo harp, or lyre, played upon with the 
fingers.*' (Brooke Low.) It is made of a joint of large yellow bamboo, 
the nine or ten open strings of which produce notes similar to those 
of a banjo, when twanged with the fingers.'* (Burbidge, p. 178.) Previous 



Satong, 
LoNG-Ki put's 
Bambu Harp. 

Length, 3iin. 
(Hose Coll.) 



Music. 



263 




to this Mr. Burbidge had referred (p. 50) to a Kadyan " native-made violin on 
a European model, a curious kind of native banjo made of a single joint of a 
large bamboo, a triangle, or its music rather, being represented by two 
or three steel hatched heads, which were laid across laths on the floor, and 
beaten in time with a bit of iron. The music so produced was of a rather 
melancholy description." 

*' On arriving at Kroo, music 

from a variety of gongs and 

drums, beaten in regular time, 

saluted our ears.'* (Grant, p. 

13.) . . . **The Dyaks 

possess gongs of all sizes from 

the deep-sounding tdwak-tdwak, 

A Maloh (Dutch Tribe) TengkZng which is used for signals in war- 

OR Wooden Drum (? Gong) with fare, and can be heard miles off. 

Drum Sticks 

(Brooke Low Coll.) ^^ ^^e diminutive channang. 

These are sold to them by 
Malays, who import them from Java. Another musical 
instrument is likewise imported from that country; it is 
a box containing a set of six or eight small gongs of 
different sizes. In beating the gongs and gundangs, or tom- 
toms, a regular time is kept." (ibid, p. 5.) 

"The Malay gong, which the Lundu Dyaks also make 
use of, is like the Javanese, thick with a broad rim, and 
very different from the gong of the Chinese. Instead of 
the clanging noise of the latter, it gives out a muffled sound 
of a deep tone. The gong and tom-tom are used by the 
Dyaks and Malays in war, and for signals at night, and the 
Dyaks procure them from the Malays. I said that the 
music struck up, for, rude as the instruments were, they 
modulate the sound, and keep time so admirably, that it 
was anything but inharmonious." (Marryat, p. 84.) 

** The gongs struck up," writes Mr. Chalmers, ** not 
unmusically, but somewhat monotonously. From their 
mode of striking them, they form no bad imitation of some 
Enghsh country church bells." (Miss. Field, 1859, P* ^o.) 

** The Sea Dyak gendang is a wooden drum, shaped like 
an hour glass, one end covered with parchment, which can be tightened or 
slackened at pleasure, by means of cords ; it is not beaten with drumsticks, 
but is struck with the fingers. . . . The Sea Dyak krumong is made of narrow 
slabs of wood or stone, which upon percussion with a wooden hammer produce 
a series of tones similar to those obtained on an harmonicon." (Brooke Low.) 

**The Kyans also have gongs (tetawak) and drums (gendang).'' (Hose, 
J. A. I., xxiii., 166.) 

'* Wooden drums, formed of hollow tree- trunks, and having goat or deer- 
skin tightly stretched over the ends, are common, and of various sizes. The 
old war-drums were made thus ; but this instrument is now nearly obsolete. 




Drum, Gendang. 

Made of hollowed 
palm wood, the upper 
end covered with a 
piece of monkey skin 
stretched and lashed 
on with cane. Muruts 
of Upper LabuK 
River. 
(Edinbro Mus.) 



264 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

being to a great extent replaced by metal gongs, of native manufacture 
certainly ; but doubtless the idea was copied from the Chinese. Nearly every 
trading prahu or boat carries one of these gongs ; and the Muruts are very 
fond of such music, and keep up an incessant din on these instruments at 
their festivals. Sets of eight or ten small such are often fixed in a rattan and 
bamboo frame, and beaten with two sticks, dulcimer fashion ; and I have 
seen similar contrivances formed of iron bars ; and even strips of dry hard 
bamboo wood in the Sulu isles, the scale in this case being similar to our own. 
It is very uncommon to hear performers playing in concert, unless in the case 
of gong-beating ; indeed, music is at a low ebb throughout the island." 
(Burbidge, p. 179.) 

" As we approach the coast the Dusuns become a tribe musical in brass ; 
the instruments being supplied from Brunei, by way of Patatan. At Mukab 
the bell-metal pans are going all day long. People further inland have 
bamboo instruments instead.'* (Witti, Diary, 25 Mar.) '* Among the Dusuns 
gongs and tomtoms of course take part in all festivities.'* (Whitehead, p. 108.) 

** As night came on the Dusuns struck up a strange kind of music on 
metal tambourines. A mysterious rhythm and tune was apparent in it, and 
when I asked if this was main-main (i.e., larking), they said no, but that a 
man was sick, and they must play all night to keep away evil spirits.'* 
(Hatton, p. 163.) 

The Musical Character of the People. 

Mr. Hornaday says (p. 468): ** The only amusements I saw among the 
Sibuyaus were of a musical character. The people of Gumbong's village, 
with whom I lived at the head of the Sibuyau, were decidedly musical, and 
scarcely an evening passed without a performance of some kind." 

Sir Chas. Brooke writes of the Kayans (ii. 301.): ** There is no doubt 
they possess a much more correct idea of music than any other natives I have 
met, and the small guitar they play and dance to is monotonous, but possesses 
harmony, and is fingered and played correctly on two or three strings." 

Mr. Hose considers that the Kayans are '* a very musical race." (J.A.I., 
xxiii. 166.) 

Mr. Whitehead (p. 109), after enumerating the Dusun instruments, 
adds : " The performance on all these instruments is, however, feeble." 

Singing. 

" When the Hill Dyaks sing, which they rarely do, it is in a low and 
plaintive voice ; but as I did not sufficiently understand the Dyak language, I 
could never learn anything respecting the composition of their songs. I 
never heard them but at night, when most of the inhabitants of the 
village were asleep. They do not practise vocal music at any of their 
festivals." (Low, p. 312.) 

When Mr. Grant left Kroo he wrote (p. 13) : *' We departed amidst the 
sound of gongs and the music of the old ladies, who were sitting in a circle 
singing a most melancholy chant in four notes. I do not suppose, however, 
they meant it to be melancholy, but it certainly was, and reminded me of the 
wail of dying people. All these old women were Borich or female doctors." 



Music. 265 

Later on he says, also of the Land Dyaks (p. 84) : " Their song is peculiar ; 
often have I heard, as I sat by my window at night, the wild and mournful 
strain of the Dyak as he paddled past in his canoe." • 

The mournful character of the song is the same amongst the Sea Dyaks : 
" The pelandai is the recitative in which the natives pour forth their feelings, 
their sorrows and disappointments, their desires and ambitions. It is full of 
feeling, and the voice is modulated to express all its shades. The utterance 
is slow at first, but is rapid towards the end. There is repetition in 
redundancy of expression and reiteration. The voice is often tremulous with 
passion, like the wail of a broken heart — a mournful cadence like the dirge of 
the dead." (Brooke Low.) 

Speaking of the musical instruments, Mr. Burbidge remarks : " The 
pentatonic scale is employed, and the music is monotonous and plaintive 
in its character. This is especially true of the women's songs, which 
are mostly of a dirge-like kind. I remember a Kadyan girl who used to sing 
sometimes during my first visit to the Lawas, and the effect at night more 
especially was extremely weird and melancholy. She had a rich mellow 
voice, rising and falling in minor cadences, and dying away sweetly tremulous 
as a silver bell." (p. 177.) 

The inland Dusuns have ** pretty songs of their own. The latter are 
specially taking when given by young girls. They also sing in chorus, when 
the melodies almost bear the character of hymns." (Witti*s Diary, Nov. 25.) 

** Very different are the Sea Dyak war songs. The bard leading the 
song, chants in a low monotonous solo, his voice rising and falling as he 
chants of love or war, and is accompanied by the whoops and yells 
(fierce, exultant, presumptuous, and cheering) of his companions, and by the 
clashing of shields and nodding of plumes as the warriors, in their excitement, 
don their feathers and seize their arms, singing of the deeds of heroes of the 
olden days and lovely women whose charms gave rise to deadly strife and 
bloody feuds. These songs have the same effect on the natives of Borneo 
that the war drum and trumpet-blast have on the soldiers of Europe. The 
tones of the minstrel are clear, and bold, and tremulous, and culminating at 
times in a prolonged chorus which the others take up with something Hke a 
prolonged yell." (Brooke Low.) 

On the Sarawak river, Mr. CoUingwood writes : *' The boatmen, as usual, 
enlivened the way with their songs, some of which were wild and musical. 
They all joined in the chorus ; and one of them, of which they appeared 
particularly fond, had a refrain which ran as follows, the staccatos being strokes 
of the oar : — 




^m^^^^^^m^^m 



-:>-i r-JEHI: N-^ZI5nH5EE5E3^i^~g 






Keeping time with their paddles, the song was cheerful and inspiriting, and 
seemed to help them along." (CoUingwood, p. 233.) 



266 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



Mr. Grant preferred his boatmen to sing, for it made them pull better ; 

when thus singing they will go on with rhymes, generally nonsensical ones, 

for an hour at a time." (p. 84.) 

I think it is of the Muruts 
that Mr. Burbidge says: **The 
songs of the boatman, on the 
other hand, are often pleasing 
and melodious. A good many 
of their songs are Mahomedan 
prayers, or chants ; but oc- 
casionally the theme is on 
secular, and often very amusing 
subjects. It is common for 
one man to strike up a song, 
improvising his subject as he 
sings, and then all the crew 
laughingly join in the chorus. 
They keep time to the music 
in paddling ; and I always 
encouraged my boatmen to 
sing, as it relieves the monotony 
of the bump, bump of the 
paddles against the side of the 
vessel, which becomes very 
tedious after the first hour or 
two.*' (p. 180.) 

When peace was made 
between Sir Jas. Brooke and 
Tamawan, the Kayan chief, 
there was a **very excited 
chorus " as Sir Sp. St. John 
drank to the friendship of the 
two nations. ** When this was 
finished, Tamawan jumped up, 
and while standing burst out 
into an extempore song, in 
which Sir James Brooke and 
myself, and last, not least, the 
wonderful steamer, were men- 
tioned with warm eulogies, 
and every now and then the 
whole assembly joined in the 
chorus with great delight." 




CHAPTER XXVII. 
LANGUAGE, NAMES, COLOURS. 

LANGUAGE. Land Dvak : Affinities with other natives' language— Prefixes— Examples of 
Sentah— The Pms or Lament— Malay stock. Sea Dyak : The letter A— Vowel endings- 
Phonetic spelling — Malay words — Dialectical differences — Malay and Hindu influences — 
Changes, how brought about. Kayan. Milanau. Dusun : Peculiarities — Different from 
Lanun and Baju. 

NAMES AND TITLES. Land Dyak names— Change of names— Adoption of children's names- 
Prefixes — Change due to fear of illness — Totem (?) names — High-sounding titles— Ejaculations- 
Names of places. 

COLOURS. Good colour sense — Poor nomenclature — Not colour blind— Table of colour names. 

LANGUAGE. 

Land Dyak. 

The following account of the language of the Land Dyaks by the Rev. W. 
Chalmers is taken from that scarce little volume of the late Mr. C. T. C. 
Grant : " Each tribe has its peculiarities of words, idiom, and pronunciation, 
but still the dialect of all the tribes of the two branches of the Sarawak 
river is substantially the same, and the dialect of several of the Sambas tribes, 
as well as that of the Land Dyaks of the river Sadong, are closely allied to it. 
Indeed, I think it can hardly be doubted, that the dialects of all the Dyak 
tribes throughout Borneo are varieties of one primitive language: their 
grammatical construction is formed on one model ; and though some of them 
have far greater flexibility, and are more highly developed than others (as, 
for example, that of the Olo Ngadjo or Dyaks of Southern Borneo),* yet in all 
the dialects with which I have met — some fourteen or fifteen — there is, in 
many instances, a radical connection which is plainly traceable. 

** In common with all its kindred of the Malayan family of languages, 
Sarawak-Dyak is rich in derivative words, which are formed by adding 
certain prefixes to the primitive words, each of which prefixes have a 
peculiar value and signification. 

**Thus — Pi, Peng, &c., denote the agent or instrument: as Kadong, to 
lie ; Pengadong, a liar ; Pang, to speak ; Punganang, a word ; usach, betwixt ; 
Pengusach, a mediator. 

*' Bi, Ber, &c., denote the quality of possession, and verbs intransitive : 
as uri, medicine ; beruri, one having medicine — a doctor ; Umbai, a betrothed ; 
biumbai, to be betrothed. 

* With regard to New Testament in this language Mr. Chalmers writes: "It seems to me to 
have no connection with that of the Land Dyaks, but I do trace a conqection with that of the Sea 
Dyaks." (Occas. Papers, p. 9 ) Is Mr. Chalmers referring to Mr. Hardeland's version ? See also 
iupra. i. 7, Mr. F. R. O. Maxwell's remark on the Land Dyak language. 



268 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

'* Ng, m, me, &c., denote a verb transitive: as puds, a lamentation; 
muds, to lament ; usach, an intervening space ; ngusach, to come between ; 
aiyag, a sieve ; ngaiyag, to sift. 

*' Tcy Ti, denote the perfect passive participle of verbs, and verbal 
adjectives : as tekunud, astonished ; tekukah, wide open, &c. 

" K and P are causative prefixes : as pipg, to make, to stand up; kudip, 
to keep alive, from udip, to live; pibuh, to drive away, from buh, to run 
away. 

** Re and Rung are frequently placed before the names of insects, vermin, 
&c. : as regqu, retamuch, worms ; repipan, a centipede ; rungupod, white ants, 
&c. Si is also often prefixed to names of persons, places, and things, and to 
adverbs, adjectives, and present participles. In Sardwak-Dysk there are no 
affixes, and the use of the prefixes is also somewhat uncertain ; moreover, 
in number and variety of application, they can bear no comparison with 
those employed in several other Bornean dialects with which I have met. 

** Now for a few examples of the language as spoken in the tribe of 
Sentah — the people with whom I am best acquainted : — 

So kih kdam ? Where do you come from ? 

Moran menug so Kuching. I have just come from Kuching. 

Ogika agach inU ? Meling. Is there any news ? No. 

Kowuk'ka ? Bayuch. Are you tired ? Not yet. 

An nokjah butan ? Will you drink some cocoa-nut water ? 

Duch sa. Never mind. 

Dum juan-kih ka umuch-ngdn ? How much further is it to your farms ? 

Duchjoh dinge. Not much further. 

Kamakih ? Where are you going ? 

Odih ka darum torun. I am going to the jungle. 

" The following is part of the Puds, or Lament, made by the female 
relatives of a deceased person — first in the house, and afterwards on the road 
to the grave. 

'* * Kun much tingge-much tiigan oku, kun much tingge boba punganang 
di oku ; meting yun ku nyadu, yun ku daan boba punganang daya sekambuch 
sepagih. Asi-asi kiech, prigiag priasi sekambuch sepagih. Yun-ma tingge ; 
burOm oku nang metak miun, metak meraman so ogi mari ! Awang ku bisa 
nupa, bisa nai ! Burom ku an bisa pijog, boda oku mun, boda oku biisan 
iimah-umah-i ! Mun butang, mun biingang. Awang ku an pijog, awang ku 
an kakat, &c.* 

'* ' Thou hast left me ! thou hast forsaken me ! thou hast ceased to speak 
to me ! henceforth I can speak to you, I can talk to you no more. We are 
desolate, we are forsaken, henceforth and for ever. Thy place is deserted. 
O that I could say, that thou wert gone to stay awhile at the farm ! for then 
thou wouldst return again. Would I could fashion you ; would I could create 
you anew ! O that I could make you stand up, that I could give you back 
your old appearance, your old likeness ! Thou art like a fallen tree-trunk, 
like a log. Would I could make you stand up, that I could make you arise 
once more ! ' 



Language. 269 

" The vocabularies printed in the Appendix will, as Mr. Chalmers 
observes, show that there is a great affinity betwixt the Dayaks of Sarawak, 
Sadong, and some Sambas tribes. This connection is not so visible in the 
dialects of others, as, for instance, the Silakau tribe, who formerly lived on a 
stream of the same name between the Sambas and Pontianak. In the 
dialects of the Sea Dayaks, there are perhaps a few words radically the same 
as their correspondents in Land Dayaks, but only a few which are not derived 
in common from Malay. In the dialect of the Dayaks of Banjermasin, I 
have also noticed words the same in form and meaning, but they are not very 
frequent." (St. John i. 194.) 

** The Sennah dialect of the Dyak language is the softest I have heard, 
and yet there is more of the guttural in it than in the dialect of the other 
Sarawak tribes. The Land Dyaks of Sarawak turn / into r; for instance, 
Bula (a lie), of the Malays, they pronounce Bura. The Sibuyows (Sea-board 
Dyaks) turn r into h guttural ; for instance, Besar (large), they pronounce 
Bessah ; Orang (man) becomes Ohang/' (Grant, pp. 24, 29.) 

Sea-Dyak Language. 

The Ven. Archdeacon Perham, than whom there is no better authority, 
tells us: ** In English we do not pronounce a final h when preceded by a vowel. 
The Hebrew names of the Old Testament ending in ah, as in Isaiah, 
Jeremiah, &c., are pronounced as though they ended in a ; and so indifferent 
are we about the h that the word Halleluiah is as often spelt without as with 
an A. These cases although they are words simply transferred into English 
from another language show the tone of our pronunciation. We have hardly 
any of our own that end in the same way ; but sirrah and hurrah are sounded 
as sirra and hurra. It may possibly arise from this that when we come to 
write new languages we may be apt to think that the addition or omission of 
a final A is a matter of no importance ; but in Sea-Dyak at least this is a 
great mistake, as will be seen I believe by examples to be quoted. When a 
new language has to be reduced to writing the only plan to adopt is to write 
it phonetically ; and no preconceived notions borrowed from other languages 
ought to interfere with the simple representation of the sound as far as our 
letters will do it. The questions with any particular word should simply be. 
How do the natives pronounce it ? and so our system of orthography and 
grammar would be built upon the facts of the language. 

** Now I believe the Sea Dyaks have no initial aspirate, but as if to 
compensate themselves for this they have a final one ; they have words 
ending in ah, thy oh or uh ; and it is necessary to write and to pronounce 
this final h in order to distinguish such words as have it from others spelt 
exactly the same with that exception but widely different in meaning. This 
will appear by examples. Muda means young, but mudah easy : Nyala is to 
fish with a cast- net, but nyalah to accuse of wrong : dara means an unmarried 
female, but davah blood : nampi is to sift rice, but nampih to draw near to : 
nyepu to blow an instrument or the fire, &c., but nyepuh to dip a thing into 
water ; bau is the shoulder, but bauh means long ; so au yes, but auh the 
sound of rushing wind or wave. Many other instances might be cited, but 



270 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

these are enough to show the final h has a real function to p)erfonn, and 
ought not to be a silent letter. 

** I do not know whether a sentimental objection is not sometimes felt 
against this final h sound as being harsh and uncouth ; but surely such an 
idea if ever entertained is altogether out of place. Once begin to alter the 
language to suit our ideas of refinement and we lose the only principle we 
have to write by ; and we moreover incur the charge of ignorance whenever 
an intelligent native who is able to read sees our writing of his language. 
But in truth this sound, if not pronounced in an exaggerated way (and the 
natives do not), is not a particularly rough sound, and not so uncouth as our 
final th or sh. 

** But further, in words ending with vowels there is a difference in the 
pronunciation of the final vowel which cannot be referred simply to a 
transposition of the accent. These final vowels have two sounds which I can 
only call a long and a short vowel sound, so that words spelt with exactly the 
same letters are only distinguished by the quantity given to the final vowel. 
Thus ngantl means to exchange, but nganti to wait for ; petJ a box, but peti a 
pig-trap; malfi to be ashamed, but main to strike; agu a privy, but agu 
foolish ; tehl sugar-cane, but tebil a kind of wart or corn on the feet ; mangka 
is a man's name, but mangka to knock against. The difference between these 
vowel sounds is not much ; but slight as it is the natives detect its non- 
observance in a moment. Before I was aware of it I remember arguing 
against a Dyak that the word for box and pig-trap was exactly the same in 
sound, thus tacitly making the foolish assumption that I knew his language 
better than he knew it himself; but I am now convinced that the rule holds 
good, at least with the vowels a, i and u ; and when it is observed what an 
amount of meaning hangs upon the right pronunciation the necessity of being 
acquainted with it will be felt. Some years ago I asked an intelligent native 
to write down a list of Dyak words. From reading Mission books he had 
been accustomed to the use of the short mark ; and without any suggestion 
from me he put the mark over every vowel that required the shortened sound. 

** This short quick final vowel sound has sometimes been mistaken for a 
k sound, and notably in the word Dyak itself. They do not call themselves 
Orang Dyak, but Orang Dya, or more properly perhaps Daia. So also tama 
to enter, and belaia to quarrel. Sometimes it has been represented by A, but 
it is not the sound of that consonant, which moreover is wanted to do its own 
work. That it is not the sound either of A or of A will I think appear by the 
following instances : — 

** Mata the e3'e; matd unripe, undressed; matah to break in two; matak 
to pull. Gaga means joyful ; gaga make ; gagah great muscular strength. 
Isd is a man's name; isa means let be; Isah a woman's name.* Nitl is to 
skin ; niti to walk over a bridge ; nitih to follow ; nitik to drop as water. 
Ngall means to dig up ; ngall to lie down or rather to lay ourself down ; 
ngalih to turn round or over. 

** It is true we make ourselves understood by Dyaks without this 
attention to h and to long sounding vowels and short sounding vowels, for 
the context will generally show what we mean, and they will know how to 



Language. 271 

reply to our inaccurate Dyak just as we could easily talk to a Frenchman 
although he spoke rather bad English ; but the question is not what will * do ' 
for the work of conversation, but what are the correct rules of the Dyak 
language. 

** From what has been said it will be seen that by no system of spelling 
whatever can the language be written phonetically with absolute accuracy 
without the use of some indicating marks. In writing or translating books 
perhaps such phonographical exactness as the difference between d and a is 
not necessary, especially if designed for the use of natives themselves, for they 
naturally pronounce their own language correctly ; but in Dictionaries the 
right pronunciation might be marked." (S.G. No. 136, p. 79). 

** The language of the Sea Dyaks, though altogether different in such 
parts as having not been adopted from the Malay, is merely a less refined 
dialect of the language spoken over all Polynesia, and its connexion with that 
of the other wild tribes, particularly those of Sumatra, is easily to be traced. 
It is not nearly so melodious in sound, or so copious in its extent, as the 
Malay, though the Dyaks do not scruple to extend it by adding foreign words 
whenever they find it necessary, so that a great portion of the words of their 
vocabulary are from the Malay ; the intercourse, which has been generally 
friendly, between the two nations has also encouraged this adoption of foreign 
terms." (Low, p. 173O As Sir Chas. Brooke says : ** Their language be^irs a 
strong resemblance to the Malayan tongue, and I have frequently found words 
from Marsden's Dictionary used in familiar conversation among themselves, 
and yet unknown to the Malays on the coast." (i. 50.) See supra i. 10, 
Mr. Maxwell's remark. 

** I need only observe, concerning the Sea Dyak language, that the 
Sibuyaus, the Balaus, the Undups, the Batang Lupars, the Sakarangs, 
Seribas, and those inhabitants of the Rejang living on the Kanowit and 
Katibas branches, all speak the same language, with no greater modifications 
than exist between the English spoken in London and Somersetshire. They 
are, in fact, but divisions of the same tribe ; and the differences that are 
gradually growing up between them principally arise from those who frequent 
the towns and engage in trade, using much Malay in their conversations, and 
allowing their own words to fall into disuse. The agricultural inhabitants of 
the farther interior are much more slowly influenced." (St. John i. 78.) 

In some correspondence I have had with Prof. A. H. Keane it would 
appear that the Sea Dyak language as we know it is practically a Malay 
dialect and that if any real Bornean element exist it will be far in the 
interior. ** I fear," he writes, ** at present (and probably for centuries back) 
Malay dominates exclusively around the whole sea board, as indeed might be 
expected from the results of the contact of the true Malays with uncivilised 
peoples in other parts of Western Malaysia. The language has developed 
somewhat independently, but still in constant contact with traders, raiders, 
rovers, &c., of standard Malay speech during the course of over 1000 years, 
that is, ever since the true Malays of Menangkabau (Sumatra) began to 
swarm over the Archipelago." Prof. Keane also notices words showing early 
Hindu influence. 



272 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

Regarding the origin of changes in words, &c., it will be noticed under 
the chapter devoted to Manangs that these sorcerers use a special jargon. 
Bishop McDougall remarks : ** A circumstance which came to my notice, 
when visiting a tribe in the interior, may account for the way in which 
dialects alter among people in such a state. I was sitting with the Chief and 
Tuahs, who were conversing with me in Malay and talking with each other 
in their own dialect, when some strange Dyaks came in. Our friends 
addressed the strangers in Malay, and spoke to each other in something I 
could not understand. Upon questioning them about it afterwards, they 
said they spoke in their war language, as they did not trust these strange 
Dyaks, and did not wish them to understand what they said. It seemed to 
me that they used a kind of slang or patter they had invented, calling things 
by wrong names ; and it is possible that, in a long-continued state of warfare 
with a succession of surrounding tribes, these war-tongues may have become 
their every-day language, and have quite changed their original dialects. 
They had many words in use for which we had no equivalents ; for example, 
for * to-morrow,* * the day after,* and so on, they had special words for each, 
of a sequence of * ten ' or * fourteen days.' In the same way they had words 
for * rice,' according as it was cooked in one way or another." (T.E.S. ii, 
p. 26.) 

Kayan. 

" Like all other aboriginal tribes of Borneo the Kayans have no alphabet, 
mode of writing or knowledge of letters, nor do they practice any systematical 
method of representing their ideas by figures. With the exception of local 
differences, all the divisions of the tribe speak the same language, so as to be 
intelligible to each other throughout their wide range on the island. The 
Kayan language is copious, pleasantly soft and comparatively easily acquired." 
(R. Burns, Logan's Jour. Ind. Arch.) ** Their language differs entirely from 
that of the Sea Dyaks or Land Dyaks." (F. R. O. Maxwell, supra i. 18.) 

MiLANAU. 

** They seem to have a common language, which is, however, much 
diversified in different rivers, causing the dialect of one place to be difficult to 
be understood by a man coming from a more distant one." (De Crespigny, 
Jour. Anth. Inst. v. 34.) 

** When residing on the north-west coast amongst the Milanows I made 
a vocabulary of some fourteen different tribes, and although in many instances 
before they came under the influence of a settled government, the people of 
one river could not converse with those of another, yet the similarity of 
language is so great that it proves unmistakably that all these tribes are 
branches of one great family ; and yet their manners and customs are in some 
instances so different that one is almost led to doubt whether this inference is 
a correct one." (Crocker, Jour. Anth, Inst. xv. 425.) 

DusuN. 

** They have no written language. . . . The language of the Dusuns 
sounds at first, from the frequency of words having the accent on the last 
syllable, and not as usual in Malay on the penultimate, unpleasant from its 



Personal Names. 273 

roughness, but after a little while it is not unmusical to the ear. Some words 
are identical with the Sulu, many with the Malay, and others very similiar to 
the latter. The prefix meng is common in their verbs, even when the words 
are different from Malay. I did not remark any affix such as are frequent in 
the latter language." (De Crespigny, Proc. R. Geogr. Soc. ii., 1858, 347, 349.) 

In the Sonzogon country ** Dusuns have the peculiarity of pronouncing 
yoya as zo za.'* (Witti, 19 May.) 

** The Lanun and Baju are entirely different from the language of the 
Ida*an I^Dusun]. I have made several vocabularies and many inquiries. At 
Kiau, we collected above 400 words ; at Blimbing on the Limbang, 300 ; 
and whilst in Maludu Bay, seven years ago, I likewise made a short 
vocabulary. These three agree so far that I may say that the Ida'an and 
Bisaya have two out of three words in common ; and on further inquiry, I 
think that the remaining one-third will gradually dwindle away, as at present 
many of the words in my Bisaya vocabulary are Malay, for which they have 
their native word. The result of my inquiries is that all the Ida'an speak the 
same language with slight local differences. We found all the tribes on the 
Tampasuk and Tawaran spoke fluently to each other, and one of our 
interpreters, who had never before visited these countries, but had been 
accustomed to the aborigines to the south, conversed freely with them. 
. . . I was certain of a great affinity between the languages, as men from 
one tribe could freely converse with those of the other, though their dwellings 
were a hundred and fifty miles apart ; but on comparing the written 
vocabularies, I found a surprising difference. Just before I left Borneo, I 
spoke to a Bisaya on the subject : he said, * Repeat me a few words of the 
Ida'an that are different.' I did so. He answered, * I understand those 
words, but we don't often use them,' and he instantly gave their meaning in 
Malay, to show that he did understand them. 

** In making vocabularies at Kiau we found the villagers very careless of 
their pronunciation ; for instance, the word * heavy ' was at different times 
written down, magat, bagat, wagat, and ogat ; for * rice,' wagas and ogas; for 
* to bathe,' padshu, padsiu, and madsiu, and indifferently pronounced in these 
various ways by the same people." (St. John i. 383, 194, 321.) 

PERSONAL NAMES. 
Mr. Chalmers gives a list of names of Land Dyaks as follows: — 

Names of Men — Of Women — 

Se Deraman. Se Kudi. 

Se Kadiung. Se Risi. 

Se Ganggak. Se Monog. 

Se Kushati. Siptiach. 

Nyaet. Se Kariim. 

Se Ngaiyo. Sisub. 

And then he continues : ** These are what are called * body names.' When 

Dyaks grow up into lads and lasses they generally take another name to 

which the word Ma (contracted from Sama — Father) or NU (contracted from 

T Vol. 2. 



274 ^' Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 

Sindfi — Mother) is prefixed ; and when they attain to middle age, this name 
is frequently put aside for another, to which the word Bat (contracted from 
Babai — Grandfather) or Milk (contracted from Somfik — Grandmother) is 
prefixed; thus, the chief man of this village (Kuap), when a boy, rejoiced in 
the body-name of Se Mara; when he became a young man he became 
Ma-Kari (the father of Kari), and now he is called Bai-Kinyum (the grand- 
father of Kinyum), Among a people who have no surnames, and among 
whom age is the great title to honour and respect, this custom would seem 
natural enough, did they get the names of Ma or iV/7, Bai or Muk from their 
own children and grandchildren respectively, as do the Malays, with whom, 
e,g., the name Pa Ismail means that the man who bears it has a son of the 
name of Ismail. [It may be observed of this custom, that, should the eldest 
child be dead, or lost, having become a slave to the enemies of the tribe, the 
parent is called after the next surviving one, or the next in seniority which 
remains with him. Thus Pa Jaguen was called Pa Belal until his daughter 
Jaguen was restored to him from Sakarran slavery. (Low, p. 197.)] Dyak 
impatience for names of honour, however, is too great to be regulated by the 
ordinary course of nature ; little boys and girls are dignified by the coveted 
titles of Ma and ATw, and the way they manage to bestow and receive them is 
this : the children of the elder brothers and sisters of a family are entitled to 
take the names — with Ma or Nu prefixed — of the children of their parents' 
younger brothers and sisters ; e.g., suppose the case of two brothers, the 
elder named Tingut, and the younger Sugu. Tingut marries, and has a son 
named Si Rida ; Sugu also marries, and has a son, whom he calls Narik ; 
upon this Si Rida loses his body-name and becomes Ma-Narik, the father of 
Narik, although he is really his cousin, and he himself still quite a child. In 
case a person has no uncles or aunts (younger than his own parents) from 
whose children he may become a M«, then he has to wait till he has a child 
of his own, and from its name he gains at length the long-desired distinction. 

^^ Bai and Muk (Grandfather of, and Grandmother of) are titles adopted, 
either when the persons who assume them have a grandchild of their own, or 
when their elder or younger brothers or sisters are beforehand with them in 
this respect, and have a spare grandchild whose name they may make their 
own with these honourable epithets prefixed. Thus, in the case supposed 
above, Sugu might become Bai, from one of Tingufs grand-children, or Tingut 
Bai from one of Sugu's, Among the Land Dyaks, relationships are counted 
up to exceedingly remote degrees, and the words kaka (elder brother or sister), 
sude (younger brother, &c.), and palunggar (cousin), are commonly so used as 
to mean any relatives, from a brother or sister who has sprung from common 
parents, down to cousins in the third and fourth degree." 

On the Barum River : ** When a child is born, the father and mother 
sink their own identity, and adopt the name of their offspring. Supposing 
a man named Jau becomes the parent of a son to whom he gives the name 
of Lahingy the former would no longer be called Jau, but Taman Lahing, 
father of Lahing. If his child were to die, he would be called Ozong 
Lahing, or Ozong Jau ; if his wife dies, he adds the prefix Aban (widower) to 
his name ; if a brother or sister, Boi, and is called Boi Lahing. Should he 



Personal Names. 275 

attain the position of being a grandfather, he becomes Laki, adding thereto 
the name of his grandchild, so if the latter is given the name of Ngipa, the 
grandfather is no longer called Taman Lahing, or by any other name but Laki 
Ngipa. A widow is called Ballo.*' (Hose, J.A.I, xxiii. 170.) 

" Among the Kayans Kum and Yong are mere prefixes ; the former is 
attached to the name of the father, after the death of any of the younger 
children, and the latter, Yong, when the eldest dies.'* (Brooke ii. 298.) 

** When Land Dyak children are young, should they be liable to frequent 
attacks of sickness, it is not an uncommon thing for their parents to change their 
names even two and three times in the course of as many years. The reason 
for so doing is, that all sickness being supposed to be caused by mischievous 
Hantu or spirits, by this means they are put off the scent, and their intended 
victim escapes their hands ; for when they come to look for him, they hear 
his old name uttered no more, and so (very rashly) come to the conclusion 
that he no longer exists ! ** (Chalmers in Grant.) The fear of spirits which 
makes them change their names may have something to do with the Bantings* 
great dislike to tell their own names ; if you ask a girl her name she refers you 
to her companion for it.** (Mrs. Chambers, Gosp. Miss., 1858, p. 70.) 

** The principal cause of the change of name in grown-up persons among 
the Kanowits is the objection people have to uttering the name of a dead 
person. Thus Adun*s name used to be Saog until a person of that name 
died, when his friends changed his name, fearing that he might die too and 
also because it was unlucky to retain such a name. But the relatives of the 
dead man would also insist on such a change, as they would not like to be 
reminded every day of the dear departed by hearing his name daily uttered.'* 
(Brooke Low.) ** Names of slaves are changed when they are given their 
freedom.** (St. John i. 73.) 

** Many of the Baram River tribes adopt the names of animals and 
common objects such as — Lang, a hawk ; Bangau, a stork ; Apoi, fire, and so 
on. Amongst the Kalabits, a chief who wishes to impress people with his 
greatness often adds the word langit, the heavens, to his other names. This 
implies that he is a very important personage, literally, that the heavens 
belong to him.*' (Hose, J.A.L xxiii. 170.) 

His Highness speaks of a Dyak whose ** right name was Egu, but he had 
been dubbed Jowing, which is the name of the poison barb of the Sumpit 
arrow.** (i. 205.) " One Balau chief was grandly designated tukong langit, 
which, interpreted, means * the walking-stick of the sky.* ** (Sir Jas. Brooke, 
Mundy i. 237.) 

With regard to these sounding titles a correspondent of the S.G. (1894, 
p. 21) writing from the Batang Lupar of the death of the chief Basek, says : 
** Old Tungkujuh Darah (* the torrent of blood,* as his title may be translated) 
has joined his many comrades in the Halls of Valhalla. In spite of his 
high-sounding title, or nam de guerre, poor old Tungkujuh was a quietly 
disposed old fellow, at least, within the last thirty years or so, and never gave 
any trouble to the Government. He is credited with having earned his name 
in the wild days long ago, when Rabong attacked Banting Hill, then the 
dwelling place or rather refuge of many Malays and Dyak families, and in 



276 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 



those stirring times when forays and expeditions used frequently to be made 
into the Undup, Bugau, and other countries by the adventurous young bloods 
of the Skarang and Saribas tribes. The chief warriors who joined in these 
gentle pastimes, now so happily entirely abolished through His Highness' 
efforts, have nearly all passed away, and old Tungkujuh is among the last of 
them. It is somewhat interesting to inquire into the origin of old titles. The 
Malay expression to confer such a title is galar, and the Dyak, ensumbar. 
These words both mean the same, viz : to ennoble. The Dyak word julok is 
apparently the substantive, signifying, a title, a nickname. It is stated that 
the custom of ensumbar is a Dyak one, and that the Malays adopted it, in 
some cases, when joining in the forays made upon neighbouring districts. It 
is pretty clear that those Dyak tribes who held to the custom of ensumbar-ing 
their bravest or most conspicuous men were the Skarangs and Saribas, 
though other tribes copied them to some small extent. The following names 
and titles, with attempted translations, have assisted me in coming to the 
above-mentioned conclusion : — 



Name. 
Basek, 
Kedu, 
A. Salleh, 
Dandi, 
A . Jilom, 
Jelani, 
Bantar, 



Ngelai, 
Lintong, 

P. Renkat, 

Bakir, 

Malina, 

Unggang, 

Cheloh, 

Linggir, 



Skarang 
Title. 
Tungkujuh Darah, 
Langendang, 
Tedong, 
Casing gila, 
Buluh balang, 
Bulan, 
Mali lebu, 
Langtabang, 



Dyaks. 

Translation. 
The torrent of blood. 
The soaring eagle. 
The cobra. 
The revolving wheel. 
The bamboo (called gadeng). 
The moon (is in vain). 
The socialist (lit : the taboo). 
The white hawk. 

Lemanak Dyaks. 
Kendawangf The snake Kendawang. 

Moa hari, The clouds (lit : the face of day). 

Saribas Dyaks. 

Bedilang besi, The iron poker. 

Bujang brani, The brave bachelor. 

Panggau, Lucky. 

Kumpang pali, The iron-like wood (of that name). 

Tarang, A shining light (lit : a lamp). 

Mali Lebu, The socialist. 

Ballow Dyaks. 
Jeritan, The jester. 

** Very probably the custom of ennobling the brave men is in use in the 
Rejang, and it would be somewhat interesting to inquire whether this custoni 
is also in use amongst the Kayan, Murut and other tribes in Sarawak 
territory." 

** Epithets of surprise are often Apai Indai, ox Aki Indai, 'Father and 
mother,' or * Oh, mother ! ' This expression seems very universal, for even 
Europeans appeal to their grandmothers in cases of distress or perplexity." 



Anggiy 



Sense of Colour. 277 

(Brooke i. 62.) The expression may, however, have something to do with 
their beHef in Grandmother Manang ; see supra i. 324. 

On the Limbang river we are told the people ** know the different villages 
by the names of the chief men, rather than by rivers or hills.'* (St. John ii. 
120.) On the Latong river, however, we are told : ** It is extraordinary how 
every stream and creek of the most minute proportions has come by a name ; 
for I have never yet seen one that the Dyaks do not call by some name or 
other." (Brooke ii. 184.) Birds are named according to a fancied interpre- 
tation of their notes (see supra i. 445). 

SENSE OF COLOUR. 

While the natives, judging from the colour patterns of their cloths and 
from the colouring of their implements, seem to have a very good colour 
sense, on the other hand they do not seem to have a good colour nomenclature, 
as the table on next page will show. In this table I have arranged all the 
colour names I have been able to find ; the abbreviations for the names of 
my authorities are Ch. = Chalmers ; St. J. = St. John; B. L. = Brooke 
Low; Cr. = Crossland ; Br. = Brereton (in St. John's vols.) ; De C. = De 
Crespigny ; Bu. = Burns ; C. = Cowie ; K. = Sir Jas. Brooke (in Keppel). 
The natives seem to have distinct names for black and white; for blue and 
green the names seem interchangeable — Sentahs, Sea Dyaks, Muruts ; but 
according to Sir Jas. Brooke, Keppel App. ii. 21, the Sau man who gave the 
information when asked what green was would not or could not give a term 
but black. When asked the colour of a green leaf he said singote, but we are 
not told whether the leaf was light or dark green, and the word singote may 
therefore have been used as Mr. Crossland tells me the Undups call dark blue 
etam, i.e. black, a word which is probably used the same as the Malays often use 
it, as for example, bisu itam = daTk blue. Mr. Brooke Low says sky blue is nemit, 
but this sounds very much like the nymit = yellow of Mr. Burns, so that either a 
sunset blue, if one may say so, must be meant or there is an error in transcrip- 
tion. For red and yellow the names seem to have more decided distinction than 
for blue and green, still there is interchangeability, thus the Kanowits say sak 
mehe for red and ntehi sak for yellow ; the Muruts say malia masia, and sia for 
red and masilo for yellow. What is curious in the naming of these two 
colours is that while the Sentahs call yellow sia, the Muruts call red sia ; the 
Sentahs call red hire (= mirah of the Malays) and the Muruts call yellow birar. 
The Sakarans call dark red or brown mansau tuai where tuai = old, which is 
the Malay method ; mansau also means ripe. The Malau for red = dadara 
and is said to be derived from dara = blood (K). Gray amongst the Sentahs 
(Ch.) = apok (= kelabu of the Malay) but there is a special word for gray hair, 
viz. berubuk (= uban of the Malay) while the name for hair is rambut (ubok, 
Malay). As shown above the Saus mix black and green and the Bakatan 
would seem to mix green = ujang arang with red arang-arang (ujang = deer). 
The fact that some of the natives distinguish gray, and that as far as we 
know, with the Bakatan exception, they do not mix up red and green, would 
indicate that they are not colour blind. 



278 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 




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CHAPTER XXVIII. 

ARCHy€OLOGY, JARS, ALLEGED NATIVE WRITING, 

NEGRITOES. 

ARCHiEOLOGY. Remnants of Hindu worship — Tradition of Hindus— Hindu articles— Figure on 
sandstone rock — Chinese articles — Mount Sobis' caves— Mr. A. Hart Everett's cave explorations 
— Negative results — Stone implements. 

JARS. Three varieties of — Values— Descriptions— A proof of riches — Sacred jars— Fortune-bringers 
— Invoking a blessing — A prophetic jar — Chinese imitations. 

ALLEGED NATIVE WRITING. Sign manual— Prof. De la Couperie's statements— Alleged 
writing on a jar — Dr. Rost's and Dr. Meyer's replies— Other inscriptions— Knotted cords — 
Indicators —Tatuing records — No native writing — Dr. H. Kern's note. 

NEGRITOES. In surrounding countries — Dr. Meyer's conclusions — Travellers reviewed — 
Quatrefages and Hamy criticised — Mr. Earl's evidence — Dalton's statement — Captive 
Andamanese — Mr. Man's notes — Quatrefages' and Hamy's negrito skull — Origin doubtful — 
Statements not proofs — Borneo recent geologically — Existence not proved. 

ARCHAEOLOGY. 

On the Samarahan River Sir Sp. St. John found ** a stone which proved to 
be the representation of the female principle so common to Hindu temples : 
its necessary companion was not to be found." (i. 227.) On the Sarawak 
river there was at one time the remnant of a Hindu stone bull ; some Malays 
and Dyaks tried to remove it but a thunderstom frightening them made 
them think its spirit was vexed so they left it in the mud. Sir Jas. Brooke 
only received the natives' permission to remove it by promising to have it 
sheltered, which he appears to have done near his bungalow, {ibid, i. 228.) 
It seems to have been charred and cracked when the Chinese burnt down 
the Rajah's house (Grant, p. 66) ; the trough with it, mentioned by Mr. 
Grant, would appear to be the stone above referred to by Sir Sp. St. John. 
Since the latter traveller wrote, other remains, ** far distant, have been brought 
to light, with some of the gold ornaments seven feet under ground, as well as 
many articles of crockery and other utensils. These articles being found 
much further in the interior, gives the subject additional interest." * (Brooke 
i. 48.) With regard to such Hindu relics His Highness remarks : ** Even 
the Sarawak Malays of the present generation can recollect the time when 
it was usually said in conversation, in reference to distant bygone dates, 
* In the days of the Hindoos,' which expression has become extinct, as the 

1 " In the parts of the country I am acquainted with, I have not heard of the existence of any 
antiquities, unless the big guna, a stone of man's length (most likely an aerolith), called Le Kuyan. 
which is kept in a house at Seun, be considered as such." (Houghton, M.A.S. iii. 199.) 



28o 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



Mahomedans of late years have been in the habit of going hadji to Mecca, 
and are now able to use the dates of the Hegira." * {ibid, p. 47.) 

*' At the mouth of the Sarawak river many articles of gold and pottery of 
unmistakable Hindu workmanship have continually been found." (J.A.I, xv. 

425-) 

The accompanying illustration is that of a ** figure on sandstone rock 
a little under life size. It is situated at the foot of the mountain of 
Santubong near a little stream. It was discovered by a Malay fisherman in 
clearing a spot of ground for his garden." (Her Highness The Ranee.) 




The Life-size Figure 

found near Santubong Mountain in 1886. "The rock is sandstone, 

said to be about ten feet high. Remnants of pottery, bits of gold 

ornaments, and Chinese coins have been found near the rock. The 

soil round about is rather swampy." 

(From a photograph lent by Her Highness The Ranee.) 

** Often would the pick or spade, used for the purposes of mineral 
exploration, reveal thick layers of pottery and china of antique, apparently 
Chinese, make. On one occasion we found a number of square paving tiles 
some four inches thick, beautifully made of pebbles, concrete, quartz, &c. : 
they had been polished, were clearly very old and made by people of a higher 
civilisation." (Helms, p. 153.) 

A visitor to Mount Sobis caves was informed by the natives that old 
jars were to be found there, but he had no time to examine the place. (S.G., 
No. 68.) Two of these caves on the Niah river and twelve others on the 
Upper Sarawak River were explored by Mr. A. Hart Everett : ** During my 
first exploration I discovered embedded at the bottom of a bed of river gravel 



> " Brazen images, ruins of temples, and other relics of Hindu worship are to be seen in the 
inland districts near Banjar Massin on the south coast, which may be accounted for by the fact 
that a colony was established at this place from Java during the period in which Hinduism prevailed 
in the latter island." (Earl. p. 274.) Mr. Bock was shown a small bronze Hindu idol. (p. 119.) 



282 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



exposed in a section on the left bank of the Siniawan river, a single stone 
celt. It was forwarded to the late Sir C. Lyell with a note of the 
circumstances of its occurrence, and was pronounced by him to be of 
Neolithic type. It is the only existing evidence, to my knowledge, of the use 
of stone by man for the manufacture of industrial implements yet discovered 
in Borneo. At present iron seems to be universally employed even by the 
rudest tribes. In cave No. xiii. a single fragment of stone apparently 
bearing marks of human workmanship, pieces of burnt bone, fresh-water 
shells {Naritina and Potamides) also bearing the marks of fire, the tooth of a 
tiger cat, with a hole bored through the base, a rude bone head, and a few 
clean chips of quartz. No stone implements properly so called were observed, 
though carefully looked for. . . . The quality of the pottery shows that 
this people had attained a fair degree of civilization. The presence of the 
marine shells seems to imply that the sea coast was within easy reach of the 
vicinity of the Jambusan Hill. The remains generally, although of slight interest 
except to the local archaeologist, belong to a ruder stage of art " than articles 
in the other caves. Mr. A. Hart Everett's concluding remarks are : ** The 
traces of man in the remainder of the eleven caves above referred to consist 
of human bones, associated, in some instances, with works of art. These 
remains occur always either just within or but a few yards removed from the 
entrances of the caves. The caves in which they lie commonly open on the 
faces of steep mural precipices. That at Ahup, where the largest accumula- 
tion exists, is at an elevation of not less 
than loo feet above the valley. The bones 
have belonged to individuals of various ages, 
they are mostly fragmentary, and they lie 
scattered on the surface, or but lightly 
imbedded in the earth without reference to 
their proper anatomical relations. Their 
condition will be better judged from the 
sample sent than from any description that 
I could give. Occasionally fragments occur 
bearing the marks of fire. The works of 
art associated with them include broken 
jars, cups, cooking pots, and 
other utensils of earthen- 
ware. The pottery is of 
excellent make, and often 
glazed and painted. Besides 
the pottery, beads and 
armlets of a very hard dark-blue glass, pieces of iron, 
manufactured gold, and fragments of charcoal have been met 
with. Similar beads are in the possession of the Land Dyaks 
at this day, but they can give no account of their origin. 

*' No tradition is extant among the natives with regard to these relics. 
No tribes in Borneo make habitual use of caves either as domiciles, or as 
places of sepulture, or for any other purpose. The character of the 




Naturally Curved Stone 

artificially rubbed flat. 

Found by Mr. A. Hart Everett in cave. 

(Brit. Mus.) 




Bead 

Found by Mr. A. 

Hart Everett in 

cave. 

(Brit. Mus.) 



Archaology. 



283 



earthenware, however, and the use of iron and gold point to a very modern 
date indeed for the people who left these signs of their presence and hence 
the subject, though curious to a local geologist, does not call for any detailed 




Stone Implement. 

Said by a London dealer to have come from Borneo, but of very doubtful origin. 

(Drawn by Dr. W. C. Plcyte Wzn. Ethnograph. Mus., Amsterdam). 

remarks here. It is very possible that the remains date no farther back than 
the Hindu-Javanese occupation of Borneo, when this part of the island with 
Pontianak and Banjar were tributary to Majapahit, or they may be of Chinese 
origin — in either case quite recent." 



284 H. Ling Roth* — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N, Borneo. 

" The general result of the exploration may be summed up as follows : — 
The existence of ossiferous caves in Borneo has been proved, and at the same 
time the existence of man in the island with the Fauna, whose remains are 
entombed in these caves. But, both froni the recent nature of this fauna, and 
from the fact that the race of men whose remains are associated with it had 
already reached an advanced stage of civilization, the discovery has in no way 
aided the solution of those problems for the unravelling of which it was 
originally promoted. No light has been thrown on the origin of the human 
race — the history of the development of the fauna characterising the 
Indo-Malayan sub-region has not been advanced — nor virtually, has any 
evidence been obtained towards showing what races of men inhabited Borneo 
previously to the immigration of the various tribes of Malayan stock which 
now people the Island." (Proc. Roy. Soc, No. 203, 1880, pp. 6, 7.) 

JARS. 

Of the Sea Dyak jars Sir Spencer St. John says : ** There are many kinds 
of sacred jars. The best known are the Gusi, the Rusa, and the Naga, all 
most probably of Chinese origin. The Gusi, the most valuable of the three, 
is of a green colour, about eighteen inches high, and is, from its medicinal 
properties, exceedingly sought after. One fetched at Tawaran the price of 
£400 to be paid in produce ; the vendor has for the last ten years been 
receiving the price, which according to his own account, has not yet been 
paid, though probably he has received fifty per cent, over the amount agreed 
on from his ignorant customer. They are most numerous in the south of 
Borneo. The Naga is a jar two feet in height, and ornamented with Chinese 
figures of dragons ; they are not worth above seven or eight pounds. While 
the Rusa is covered with what the native artist considers a representation of 
some kind of deer; it is worth from fifteen to sixteen pounds." (i. 27-28.) Of 
the Land Dyak jars Mr. Grant (p. 94) says similarly : ** These jars of supposed 
antiquity vary in value according to the marks or designs on them — the Rusa 
(deer) is sometimes worth $35, the Naga (dragon) $70, the Ningkah $150, 
and the Gust still more." 

** Ten jars and tempayans of various kinds were brought into the Batang 
Lupar via Lubok Antu during March, 1894. Amongst these were two Gusi 
jars for which it was stated the owners had paid $500 and $800 respectively. 
The owner of the latter asked $1200 for it here." (D. J. S. Bailey, S.G., 
1894, p. 72.) 

** Every Dyak tribe possesses some jars (tajows), according to their riches 
and importance. They are large brown-coloured jars, with handles at the 
sides, and sometimes figures of dragons on them. No one would suppose, 
from their appearance, that they were worth more than the common earthen 
water-pots we use in our bath-houses, but to the Dyaks they have the value 
of remote antiquity. They say their ancestors bequeathed them to them as 
the property of the tribe, therefore they never part with them, except by 
exchange for similar ones, as tokens of amity with other tribes." (Mrs. 
McDougall, p. 141.) 



Jars. 285 

Sir James Brooke thus describes one of these jars : ** Some Dyaks, lately 
from the interior, have brought one of the celebrated jars ; I do not buy it, 
since it is far too dear as a mere curiosity. It stands three feet high, and is 
narrow both at the top and bottom, with small rings round the mouth, for the 
purpose of suspension. The colour is light brown, traced faintly with 
dragons, and its chief merit and proof of antiquity is the perfect smoothness 
of the bottom. The ware itself appears coarse and glazed, and those in which 
the dragon are in alto relievo are valued at a hundred reals. They are not 
held sacred by the Dyaks as objects of worship, or as venerable relics, though 
none can be manufactured at the present time ; but are collected as a proof 
of riches, in the same way that the paintings of old masters are in Europe." 
(Mundy i. 254.)^ 

Another jar is thus described by Sir Chas. Brooke: **One very valuable 
jar, named Gusiy was brought, a common-looking article, small, and one that 
would certainly have been trampled on by strangers, but it is supposed to 
possess mysterious qualities — one of them being, that if anything be placed in 
it over night, the quantity will increase before morning ; even water will be 
found several inches deeper. It is wrapped in cloth, and treated with every 
mark of respect. People crawl in its presence, and touch and kiss it with 
the greatest care. They tell me this one is worth ;f 150, and valued most 
about Brunei and to the northward. Our Sea Dyaks do not hold them as 
valuable property.*' (ii. 282.) Nevertheless, some hold them very valuable, 
for His Highness on one occasion took from the Saribus some jars as 
hostages for their good conduct during his absence in England. On restoring 
them he writes: ** The Saribus chiefs were inwardly grateful, and blessed 
every Antu (spirit) under the sun, moon, and stars, for their good fortune in 
again receiving these jars, each of which they value as much as a child." 
{ibidy ii. 309.) 

The Rev. W. Crossland witnessed the following ceremony with a jar : 
** Two days ago I went to the Undup Dyak house opposite, and found a few 
old men gathered round a new jar which one of them had just bought. A 
chicken was caught, and one old man took hold of it, and waved it over the 
mouth and body of the jar to invoke a blessing. * This is to make the jar 
lucky, make it increase with other jars from Europe and China.' This was 
the invocation. The chicken's throat was then cut, and some of the blood 
smeared on the jar, and a feather plucked and stuck into one of the handles. 

^ A traveller writing from Pulau Majang (Dutch Borneo) writes : I took a stroll through the 
village, which consists of perhaps forty or fifty houses. Inside of the principal house was a room 
ten feet square filled with jars, great big fellows standing nearly three feet in height. They 
represented a portion of the riches of different Dyak chiefs from whom they had been confiscated. 

In the event of a house taking fire or the sudden arrival of an enemy, the jars have to be 
hurried out and buried, which entails both loss of time and risk of life 

The appearance of these jars vary but slightly : some are ornamented with a dragon or other 
reptile in alto relievo, others have a small raised figure on either side of the opening. They are 
usually of a dirty brown colour, and their value in Dyak estimation is simply preposterous. This 
will be best explained by stating that the " pate " exacted both by the Sarawak and Dutch 
Governments for a head taken, may be one or more jars. Officials in Borneo talk of heads as in 
Europe we speak of " lives." and as a punishment for taking one head or more, demand so many 
jars, in place of so much money. (S.G.. No. 102.) 



286 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

I believe that the Dyaks never acquire any possession without a sacrifice 
being offered, and though a small fowl may not seem much to give in the 
eyes of Europeans, to Dyaks it is a great gift/* (Gosp. Miss., 1871, p. 165.) 

** The old Datu of Tamparuli is the proud possessor of a famed sacred 
jar. It was a Gusi, and was originally given by a Malau chief in the interior 
of the Kapuas to a Pakatan Dayak, converted, however, to Islam, and named 
Japar. He sold it to a Bornean trader for nearly two tons of brass guns, or 
3^230, who brought it to the Tawaran to resell it, nominally for ^^400, really 
for nearly ;f700. No money passes on these occasions, it is all reckoned in 
brass guns or goods, and the old Datu was paying for his in rice. He possesses 
another jar, however, to which he attaches an almost fabulous value ; it is 
about two feet in height, and is of a dark olive green. He fills both the jars 
with water, and adds flowers and herbs to retail to all the surrounding people 
who may be suffering from any illness. Perhaps, however, the most remark- 
able jar in Borneo is the one possessed by the present Sultan of Brunei, as it 
not only has all the valuable properties of the other sacred vases, but speaks. 
As the Sultan told this with a grave face and evident belief in the truth of 
what he was relating, we listened to the story with great interest. He said, 
the night before his first wife died, it moaned sorrowfully, and on every 
occasion of impending misfortune it utters the same melancholy sounds. I 
have sufficient faith in his word to endeavour to seek an explanation of this 
(if true) remarkable phenomenon, and perhaps it may arise from the wind 
blowing over its mouth, which may be of some peculiar shape, and cause 
sou-nds like those of an iEolian harp. I should have asked to see it, had it 
not been always kept in the women's apartments. As a rule, it is covered 
over with gold-embroidered brocade, and seldom exposed, except when about 
to be consulted. This may account for its only producing sounds at certain 
times. I have heard that in former days the Muruts and Bisayas used to 
come with presents to the Sultan, and obtain in return a little water from this 
sacred jar, with which to besprinkle their fields to ensure good crops. In 
looking over Carletti's Voyage, I find he mentions taking some sacred jars 
from the Philippine Islands to Japan,* which were so prized there that the 

* Mr. Earl gives a curious account of the origin of these jars : " The relics of an ancient people 
are also to be met with in the inland parts of the west coast, and although the information I was 
enabled to collect concerning them was extremely vague I came to the conclusion that they were a 
race distinct from the Hindus of near Banjar Massin. These relics consist merely of tumuli, in 
which are sometimes found small earthen jars, and being supposed by the Dyaks to be connected 
in some manner with the ashes of their forefathers, are in all probability graves. The jars are very 
scarce, and are so highly valued by their possessors on account of their supposed oracular powers, 
that the offer of a sum equal to five hundred pounds sterling has been refused for one of them. The 
jars are consulted by their owners before they undertake any expedition, and they believe it will be 
prosperous or the contrary according to the sound produced, probably by water being poured into it. 
I much regretted being unable to inspect one of these vessels, as their materials and manu^ture 
might possibly throw some light upon the relation which the natives of Borneo bear to some other 
parts of India." (Earl, pp. 274-5 ) 

" The principal luxury of the Dyaks consists in the possession of a sort of large earthenware 
jar which they assert to have come from the Kingdom of Modjopahit, in the island of Java, 
but which seemed to me of Chinese manufacture. What confirms me in my opinion is the 
resemblance I have found between certain figures of dragons with long tails with which these jars 
are ornamented and the very similar figures as regards form and attitude which are seen on ancient 



Alleged Native Writing in Borneo. 287 

punishment of death was denounced against them if they were sold to any one 
but the Government. Some, he says, were valued as high as 3^30,000. The 
Sultan of Brunei was asked if he would take ;f2,ooo for his ; he answered he 
did not think any offer in the world would tempt him to part with it." (ibid 
i. 300.) 

It is very curious that nearly every one who has something to say about 
these old jars states that the Chinese have tried to imitate them and to palm 
them off as new to the Dyaks, >yho, however, are not to be deceived. No 
special reference is made to any particular tribe or occasion. Dr. Schwaner 
appears to have been the first to make the statement. 

For illustrations of Jars see supra i. 68 and 427. 

ALLEGED NATIVE WRITING IN BORNEO. 

In the Sarawak Gazette, 1894, p. 169, it is reported : " A rather 
extraordinary incident happened in this fthe Limbang] river with an Orang 
Kaya, Jahun, who lives some way up river. When asked to pay his yearly 
tax, he sent a message to the Resident with his tanda tangan or signature — 
which was made by putting his hand in ink and then making its impression 
on a white sheet of paper — this was then sent with a message that he would 
willingly come to the fort if he was brought as a prisoner by a policeman, 
that he would willingly pay the yearly sum, if he was threatened with 
imprisonment ; this, he said, would then show he was forced to pay and 
would prevent bad odour with the Brunei government.'' Jahun may of 
course be a Malay, or he may have learnt the method of signing his name 
from a Malay. Such signing cannot possibly be a native or Dyak method, 
for the whole circumstance points to introduced materials. 

But in his *' Beginnings of Writing " the late Prof, de la Couperie would 
make us believe that the Dyaks did once understand the art of writing. He 
states (p. 27) : ** Among the several writings which were used in Borneo two 
have left interesting relics and survivals. The Dayaks* engrave as ornaments 
some signs which they obviously understand no more. Some bamboo objects 
exhibited at the India Museum, London, bear these marks. They are 

coins of Cochinchina. However this may be, these jars appear very ancient and no doubt they are 
not manufactured at the present day, without which no doubt on account of their high price the 
Chinese would not fail to speculate in them. Among the Dyaks these jars are bequeathed from 
father to son like sacred jewels. The high value they place on these objects gives the jars great 
importance, and even if they are cracked in various parts and that some portion is wanting, or having 
been broken and are only held together by rotan bands, their price is none the less considerable. 
The Dyaks distinguish several varieties of jars which have their proper names, and of which the 
principal are : i — The Balanga, a male jar, value from 1,000 to 5.000 florins and over, according to 
its beauty and its dimensions. A balanga which I measured was 70 cm. high, 48 cm. in diameter in 
the middle, and had an orifice of 24 cm. diameter. On the shoulders were, one on each side, two 
serpent-shaped dragons with three paws bent under them. 2. — The Hattoe-Halimau, also a male jar, 
according to the Dyaks worth 500 to 2.000 florins. The two serpents with dragon heads drawn 
round the jar had four feet 3. — The Pasiran-tiaen, or female jar, and which is only valued at 100 to 
300 florins. As for this class of jar, it has much the same dimensions as the two above mentioned ; 
but as handles it has four geckoes, each with four paws. (S. Muller ii 361.) 

» The name Dyak is here used in its generally but incorrectly accepted application to all 
natives of Borneo more or less wild. 




288 H. Ling Roth.— Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

apparently the survival of an alphabetical writing anciently known there and 
afterwards forgotten. We find a similar writing on an earthenware vase from 
the same island belonging to the Ethnographical Museum of Dresden." This 
vase, as far as I can remember from a sketch communicated to me by Mr. A. 
W. Franks ;Sir Wollaston Franks] , is ornamented with two figures of the 
Chinese dragon, but not Chinese make. Dr. Kern has published some 

inscriptions found at Koutei in the same island, 
which are written in the character of Eastern 
India, the Vengi Chalukya in KaHnga, the same 
that was carried to Cambodia, to Western Java 
and elsewhere. . . ."^ Further on Prof, de la 
Couperie continues (p. 131) : '* On a former 
writing of Borneo,** the Chinese records of 977 a.d. 
give the following information. It is about a 
letter written by the native King, Hiangta of 
Puni (Western coast of Borneo), to the Chinese 
ruler. The letter was enclosed in different small 
bags, which were sealed, and it was not written on Chinese paper, but on 
what looked like very thin bark of a tree; it was glossy, slightly green, 
several feet long and somewhat broader than one inch, and rolled up so 
tightly that it could be taken within the hand. The characters in which it 
was written were small and had to be read horizontally.® 

In an appreciative review of the Professor's book in the Athenaeum 
(No. 3518, March 30, 1895) it is said the author shows that the history of 
writing ** is by no means one of progress only, from no writing to pictures, 
from pictures to phonetics, but that he has discovered not a few instances of 
graphic systems impeded or decayed, where adverse conditions, such as want 
of intelligence or want of use, caused the higher thing to degenerate — the 
honest attempt to write decaying into pictures or charms, and showing in 
one more department of the world's historj' a case of failure in the struggle 
for life. His examples from the Ainos, Lolos, and Dyaks seem certain 
enough ; his argument that Chinese writing is another example is not so 
convincing. . . ." 

The reviewer's conclusion about the Dyaks (so called) is true enough 
when the late Professor's statements only are taken into consideration, but 
unfortunately the facts on which the Professor's statements are based are not 

* I was acquainted with this inscription through a facsimile sent to my learned friends Col. H. 
Yule and Pr. R. Rost by Dr. A. B. Meyer, Keeper of the Museum. This writing is not without 
some apparent connection with one of the writings of Sumatra. . . . [D. L.C.J 

^ Over de opschriften uit Koetei in verband met de geschiedenis van het schrift in den 
Indischen Archipel. 8vo. Amsterdam, 1882, p. 18.— Also K. F. HoUe, Tabel van Oud- en Nieuw- 
Indische Alphabetten. Bijdrage tot de palaeographie van Nederlandsch Indie (800, Batavia 1882). 
No 80-1 [D.L.C.l 

" The vase and its inscription mentioned above is published in the splendid work of Dr. A. B. 
Meyer, Alterthiimer aus dem ostindischen Archipel (Leipzig, 1884, fol), p. 7 and pi. XL fig. 4. 
[D.L.C] 

* W. P. Groeneveldt, Notes on the Malay Archipelago and Malacca, compiled from Chinese 
Sources, p. 109. [D.L.C] 



Alleged Native Writing in Borneo. 289 

forthcoming. Nor does the Professor show any direct connection at all, 
between the people who are stated to have made use of the writing in past 
times and the present generation with their bambu marks, so that there is no 
evidence of any degeneration. An examination of the illustrations of the 
three writings as given below will at once convince every student that they 
are all by different peoples who have passed away and who have left us no 
proof that the present peoples now living in their respective districts are their 
blood descendants. 

I sent Mr. Charles Praetorius (who has illustrated the greater portion of 
this work) to the India Office Museum, London, in order to copy the 
inscriptions on the bambu objects — but these objects could not be found. So 
I wrote to the late Dr. Rost, formerly of the India Office, whose name is 
mentioned by the late Professor, sending him a copy of the " Beginnings of 
Writings," and this is his reply, dated 26th Aug., 1895 : 

** It is just possible that Sir Henry Yule, with whom I was up to the 
time of his death in continuous literary intercourse, showed me the facsimile 
in question and even that we exchanged opinions about it. But I have no 
recollection whatever of the circumstances and am very sorry that my name 
should have been quoted by the Professor, who, I fear, was but too prone to 
draw inferences from facts not sufficiently established." 

I then addressed myself to Dr. A. B. Meyer, regarding the vase,*® who 
answers under dates 29th Aug. and 6th Sept., 1895, thus: " I may have sent 
a facsimile to Col. Yule but I do not remember it and I cannot find an answer 
from him." Dr. Meyer also informs me that the inscription, if such it be, is 
on the bottom of the vase (see Fig. i) and that the vase is decidedly of 
Chinese make. He writes that ** it may represent remnants of a Dayak- 
writing, as we know that in Pigafetta's time the Sultan of Bruni had 10 
writers, who wrote on thin bark of trees," " but the learned Doctor carefully 
adds in his letter "this is only a supposition." 

Whatever writers the 
Sultan may have had, it 
does not follow that they 
were Dyaks or other 
natives (other than Malays 
or Chinese), any more 
than because the Emperor 
of China received the 
above mentioned letter 
from Puni, that that letter 

was written by Dyaks. . ill' y^ I I I x 

As the letter was trans- | ill 1^7^ tj JCU I ^ 

latable, it was probably 
written in Chinese. ^^^' ^' 

1* The footnote No. i on p. 28 of Beginnings of Writings is misplaced and should be placed 
after the word Dresden, as it refers not to the bajoibus, but to the vase. 

^* "He has ten scribes, who write down his affairs on thin bark of trees and are called 
chmta-tulisr (p. 114.) Pigafetta, The First Voyage round the World, by Magellan. Hakluyt Soc. 
vol. lii., London, 1874. 

U Vol. a. 




n 



^l VBX 




I 




290 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



In the Museum at Leiden there are a few good examples of designs, from 
the so-called Dyaklands in South Eastern Borneo, but there is no correspon- 
dence between these and the writings discovered at 
Koutie (Fig. 2) and decyphered by that eminent 
orientalist Dr. Kern, nor with the marks on the Chinese 
jar, nor with the^ writing (?) on the dagger from South 
Eastern Borneo of which I submit a facsimile (Fig. 3)." 
If, however, we speak of writing in its broad 
anthropological sense of a general means of ocular 
communication of thought, we shall find the natives 
have some such methods. Mr. F. R. O. Maxwell, late 
chief Resident of the Raja of Sarawak, writes me : 
** Dyak and Kayan chiefs, when sending for their 
followers, use a spear, and should it be for a war expedi- 
tion, a piece of red cloth is attached. I know of no 
nearer approach to writing. They mark days by knots 
in a piece of cord or rattan. Thus in sending to 
people t6 come in a certain number of days, say 30, 
they will send a piece of cord with 30 knots in it and 
the recipient cuts off one each day, and when the last 
knot is gone, he has to present himself. I have used 
this plan often and it is the only way I could keep 
Dyaks punctual." In Mr. Brooke Low's notes I find 
he mentions : ** The natives have a kind of symbolic 
mode of communication by temuku taliy a knotted 
string.*' 

In his Limbang Journal Sir Spencer St. John 
relates that at the mouth of the Salindong his party 
came upon a Kayan resting-place where he found marks, 
which proved that one party had returned. ** In the hut 
was picked up a woman's jacket, with a small net, left 
behind in the hurry of departure, so it is probable they 
captured her while fishing on the banks of some rivulet. 
Though certain they had obtained captives, opinions 
were divided on the subject of heads. I could find no 
traces, and old Japer agreed with me that it was un- 
certain ; but it would only be accidentally that we could 
have discovered indications. They have left a mark, 
however, to show their countrymen that they had been 
up the Salindong : it was a long pole, ornamented 
with three tufts pointing up that stream. The three 
tufts were supposed by many to show that they had obtained three heads or cap- 
tives; it might mean either. There were evidently two parties out." (ii. 68.) 



Fig. 3- 



1* [With respect to the handle and its form this dagger is especially different from the well 
known ancient Javanese daggers, being made with the handle all in one piece of iron. The 
ornamentation of one side is partly the same as that on another dagger blade from Bandjermassin, 
also in the Museum at Leiden. J. D. £. Schmeltz.] 



Alleged Native Writing in Borneo, 291 

Unless the curious unexplained signs, which Mr. Hose once found put 
up after a murder had taken place, are also a method of communication by 
signs. Sir Spencer's record is the only one I have come across. Mr. Hose 
was returning from the head waters of the Tinjar river ; he writes : " On my 
way down I stopped at Long Tisam at which place the Chinaman, named 
See Jee, was murdered last month, and I find that posts have been erected 
with wood shaving, daun isang, and seven wooden heads have been placed on 
the top of the poles. The appearance of which poles being quite new, I 
enquired of the Malays when they were put up, and find it was about the 
time of the murder. I therefore stopped at Long Merong and told Taman 
Liri, the Penghulu, to call Aban Avit and find out for what purpose these 
poles were put up. I now think that there is little doubt that Aban Avit had 
a hand in the murder." (Sarawak Gazette, 1894, p. 60.) Later on he 
writes: "Taman Liri, the Barawan Penghulu, will not give an opinion as 
regards Aban Avit being implicated in the murder of the Chinaman See Jee. 
But Taman Bulan, the Kenniak Penghulu, says that if Aban Avit put up posts 
with heads hanging to them, directly after the murder was committed, he 
does not think that this was done on account of harvest festivities. But that, 
if it is Aban Avit's custom at the end of the harvest to use heads and daun 
isang in that way, he will of course have done so in years gone by. Taman 
Liri, the head of all the Barawans, did not put up anything of this kind after 
the harvest and Aban Avit, though head of a house, is one of Taman Liri's 
followers.'' {ibid, p. 74.) We know, of course, that occasionally among the 
Muruts wooden heads are used to represent the real head trophy (see supra 
ii. 162), but in the above exhibition there must have been some unusual 
meaning, some special communications to be made to the passer-by. 

In some cases tatu-marks appear to be used as a means of communicating 
a fact. Mr. Burns says that among the Kayans tatuing is distinctive of rank 
(Jour. Ind. Arch, iii., 145). Mr. Hose tells us the different races are 
characterised by different designs (Jour. Anthr. Inst, xxiii. 166). Lieut. 
De Crespigny informs us that among the Dusuns only those who have killed 
a foe tatu themselves (Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc. ii. 348). Mr. Witti confirms 
this (Diary, 19th Nov.). At Tamalan this method, from representing bravery 
had come to represent cruel murders, for those who had sacrificed slaves 
tatued themselves, (ibid, 30th May.) Mr. Hatton states that Muruts, who 
had been on bold or risky expeditions, used to tatu and he mentions a case 
where a Murut, having run away from the enemy, was tatued on his back. 
(Hatton's Diary, 6th April.) So that we may justly conclude that tatuing 
among the natives of Borneo is one method of writing. 

Mr. Earl writes : ** I could not discover any written character among the 
Dyaks of Western Borneo, but it is said that those of the southern parts near 
to Banjar Massin possess one." (p. 277). 

It may yet be shown that the natives of Borneo have some simple 
method of communicating their thoughts to one another, something similar to 
that of the Battas or to such as is referred to by the late Prof, de la Couperie, 
or it may still be shown that they use as ornament degenerated letters, but so 
far the proofs are wanting. Perhaps these few remarks may lead those, who 



2g2 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 



are in daily communication with the natives, to make enquiries, the results of 
which would be looked forward to with interest. 




Fig. 4 
The Writing on the Bottom of the Chinese Jar, 

Referred to by Prof, de la Couperie. (See supra, Chap. XXVIII.) 

The above remarks on writing appeared in the Internationales Archiv. 
fur Ethnographie, xi. 57, when Dr. H. Kern, of Leiden, kindly added the 
following note : — 

** There can be no doubt that writing in former times was known to the 
inhabitants of some parts of Borneo, but it is equally true, as it has been 
remarked by Mr. Ling Roth, that there is no proof of any connection between 

those people who made use of 






writing and the present Dayak 
tribes. The Sanscrit inscrip- 
tions of Kutei are of Hindu 
origin, of course, and not 
produced by Dayaks. The in- 
scription on the bottom of the 
vase published by Dr. A. B. 
Meyer has quite recently been 
^^^' ^ treated of anew in the splendid 

publication, " Die Mangainenschrift von Mindoro, herausgegeben von A. B. 

Meyer und A. Schadenberg, special bearbeitet von W. Foy " (Fig. 4). The 

result is that the characters belong to one of the Philippine alphabets, the 

Mangain writing of Mindoro. 



Negritoes in Borneo. 293 

"The characters on the dagger (Fig. 3) are decidedly letters of Indian 
origin, and, if read from left to right, look like | | maya \ ma \ ya \ ma \ ma \ 
mama \ ma \ ya \ ma \ . No meaning, unless a cabbalistic one, can be attached 
to this repetition of two letters. 

** Another specimen of writing, a facsimile of which is here published for 
the first time (see Fig. 5), is found near Sanggau on a slab near the river side. 
The characters shew a debased type of Indian writing. I am sorry to say 
that my endeavours to unriddle the contents have been fruitless. The first 
word of the second line may represent prabhuh, a well-known Sanscrit word, 
but it is only with diffidence that I propose this reading. Whether the 
framers of the inscription were ancestors of the present Dayaks at Sanggau, 
is a question which cannot be settled before one will have found out the 
language of the monument." (H. Kern, 16 Febr, 1896.) 

NEGRITOES IN BORNEO. 

The question, "Are there any Negritoes in Borneo?" is one of great 
interest, and has been as yet by no means solved. 

The interest in the question lies in the fact that while in the surrounding 
countries the existence of Negritoes has been more or less proved, no 
European has yet met with a Negrito in Borneo. There are plenty of 
Negritoes in the Philippine Islands (A. B. Meyer, " Die PhiHppinen," II, 
Negritos; Dresden; fol., 1893). Mr. Alex. Dalrymple says there are none 
in Palawan, Mr. A. Hart Everett also says he could hear nothing of any 
Negritoes in that part of Palawan visited by him. They exist in the Malay 
Peninsula. In Sumatra the Kubus had been considered to have at some 
remote period intermingled with the Negritoes, while their osteology leans 
decidedly to the Malays. (Dr. Garson, J. A. I., xiv. 132). In Java and 
Madura I cannot find that Negritoes are proved to have existed, although the 
Kalangs are said to be like them. In Sumbawa there is a race of people of 
whom almost nothing is known. (F. H. H. Guillemard, ** Australasia, ii. 
1894, p. 358), but it is not stated they might be Negritoes. ** It is highly 
probable that a low and primitive race" did once inhabit Celebes, but if so, 
it has, so far as we know, completely disappeared." {ibid, p. 288.) 

It was for this reason — namely, widespread surrounding negritic popula- 
tion — that, when at the meeting of the British Association at Oxford in 1894, 
I pointed out we must suspend our judgment as to the existence of Negritoes 
in Borneo, I was told probabilities were against me, as Borneo was in the 
midst of a negritic area. Since then, I find that Dr. A. B. Meyer" had 
come to the same conclusion as I did, arguing from a somewhat different 
standpoint to that which I took up. He has gone so thoroughly into the 
matter, that I translate his statement. 

** Although for a long time past all authors were of the opinion that the 
reports of the existence of Negritoes in Borneo were not to be trusted, their 

>' Not necessarily negritic— nor is this inferred by Dr. Guillemard. 

1* A. B. Meyer. ''Die Philippinem," ii., Negritoes. Dresden fol., 1893, pp. 71-2. 



294 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

existence has lately been repeatedly asserted. Pickering (* U.S. Explor. 
Exp./ 1848, ix. 174) notices especially their absence, and Waitz — Gerland 
(* Anthr./ 1865, v. 47) express themselves as follows : * Older reports have 
mentioned Papuans which were said to have been found in the interior of 
Borneo, but W. Earl" remarks very correctly (* East Seas,' 1836,256) that 
no traveller has himself seen them, Kessel" also only heard Malay traders 
speak of them (* Z. f. a. Erdk. N.F.' iii. 379), and Marsden (* Misc.' 37) only 
mentions that a small Borneo chief spoke of woolly-haired Tammans in the 
interior ; on the other hand, Schwaner (* Borneo,' 1853, i. 64) assures us 
particularly that with the exception of the Papuans" introduced into the 
north-east of the country, there are no others. Later on Earl (* Races Ind. 
Arch.,' 1853, 146) found the existence of Papuans in the interior of Borneo 
somewhat more probable but still without sufficient foundation in fact. 
Earl's account in question is held to be credible by others, but it is practically 
a matter of individual opinion whether one believes it or not. It mentions 
that a ship's captain stranded in 1844 on the north coast of Borneo, at the 
Berau or Kuran rivers, once met, fifty miles inland, at the foot of Mount Tabur. 
17 curly headed small men ornamented with cicatrices, or at least so the man 
himself told him (Earl), and his evidence must be considered satisfactory. 
Everything else which Earl brings forward is calculated to weaken rather than 
to strengthen the case. The district in question has certainly not often been 
travelled over, but now that north Borneo has been traversed several times, 
and even Mount Kinibalu has been several times ascended, and no traces of 
Negritoes*** have anywhere been found, one must very strongly doubt the 
credibility of the statement of a ship's captain. Junghuhn (* Battalander,' 
1847, i. 220, note) considers it unimaginable that anyone could have over- 
looked such a specialised race with woolly hair and black skin in Borneo. 
Everett, who possesses a profound knowledge of north-west Borneo, leaves 
the reader in the dark as to whether he believes the statement of the captain 
or not, nevertheless he seems to be more on the side of the doubters. 
(** Nature," 1880, xxi. 588.) Giglioli (^^ Viaggio Magenta," 1875, ^^53) 
believes the statement, and adds : ** Beccari found no trace of Negritoes 
in Borneo, * cioe vide indegeni coi capelli crespi.' " Unfortunately Giglioli 

IB Earl only says that no Dyak whom he met had seen them, notwithstanding that the natives 
assert their existence ; but as they also assf rt the existence of tailed people, they must not be 
believed.— A. B. M. 

" Kessel says that in the interior, •• namely, in the north-east," they cultivate the soil. This 
statement is perfectly incredible— A. B. M. 

1^ These are Papuans from New Guinea, whom the Sulus have brought home as slaves from 
their widespread piratical expeditions, or whom they have purchased elsewhere, as, for instance, in 
the Moluccas. Schwaner says, " the few Papuans which were met in the north-east of Borneo come 
from the fatherland of the Papuans, and have been carried off by the Sulu pirates." He adds also, 
•• that the local traditions there speak against the existence of Negritoes." - A. B. M. 

" See for example Whitehead (" Expl. Kina Balu," 1893) ; compare Latham (" Essays," i860,) 
192). Treacher ("J. Str. Br. R. As. Soc," 1890, No. i, p. loi), says, " There are no Negritoes in 
Borneo." Hose (" Journ. Anthrop. Inst.," 1893, xxiii., p. 156) considers the Punans, "the nomadic 
tribes found at the head waters of all ihe big rivers in central Borneo," as the real aborigines, 
(p. 157) : "I have no doubt in my mind that this wandering race of people are the aboriginals of the 
country." The Punans are real Malays.— A. B. M. 



Negritoes in Borneo. 295 

says nothing more, and in the year 1876 when he published his ** Studi sulla 
razza negrita'* C* Arch., p. Antr.," vi. 315), he said nothing new on the above 
remark of Beccari ; it is therefore only a matter of casual observation upon 
which no value can be placed. I think this all the more, because when 
Zannetti (** Arch. p. Antr./* 1872, ii. 159), discussing a Dyak skull of Beccari's 
collection, speaks against the existence of Negritoes in Borneo, he makes no 
mention of any contrary opinion of Beccari's. Finally, Hamy (** Bull. Soc. 
d*Anthr.," 1876, 116) refers to the above mentioned captain's statement, and 
describes a skull which Jourdan had received at the Lyons Museum as a 
Negrito skull from Borneo ; he says (p. 118) that this skull fully proves the 
existence of Negritoes in the heart of Borneo. In 1882 Quatrefages and 
Hamy (** Cr. Ethn.,*' 195, figs. 212, 213) published an illustration of this skull 
as such ; it is ornamented with incised lines such as we know the trophy 
skulls collected by the Dyaks of Borneo possess. I do not consider that in 
this case the conclusion drawn from certain anatomical characters on the 
race are justified. When, moreover, the Bishop of Labuan*® informs us 
(" Tr. Ethn. Soc." N.S., 1863, ii. 25) that the traditions of the Dyaks of 
north-west Borneo indicate that a black race had preceded them, one must 
not jump to the conclusion that they refer to Negritoes ; besides, according 
to Waitz — Gerland (** Anthr.," 1865, v., i. 47), the traditions read quite 
otherwise. On what Flower quite recently supports his short statement 
(** J.A.I. ," 1889, xviii. 82), that Negritoes exist in the interior of Borneo I do 
not know for certain, but I presume it is on the map in Quatrefages' ** Hist. 
Gen. des Races Hum." (1889, to p. 343), or to the latter's references in ** Les 
Pygmies " (1887, 42), but which, as we saw above, do not stand investigation. 
How carelessly Quatrefages went about this question I may show by a single 
example. He says (/.r., p. 76), ** A Borneo, les Dayaks chassent au Negrito 
comme k la bfete fauve," and refers to Earl (*' Papuans," 1853, 147) ; but Earl 
only reproduces an account of Dalton's on certain tribes of North Borneo, of 
whom Earl says that they may perhaps be related to the above named more 
than questionable Negritoes of the ship's captain, in spite of the fact that 
Dalton himself calls them wild Dyaks. As Dalton lived eleven months on 
the Koti river, no one has the right to re-christen his Dyaks Negritoes. That 
which Earl adds to Dalton's account makes it appear as quite settled that 
these people possibly could have been Negritoes. Compare also Meinicke's 
excellent remarks on the absence of Negritoes in Borneo. (** Beitr. Eth. 
As.," 1837, p. 8.) After all this I conclude that there is no proof yet of the 
existence of Negritoes in Borneo ; all the same, we can only then judge with 
the fullest confidence when the whole interior shall have been fully explored." 
So far Dr. Meyer. I give Mr. Earl's statement in full : — 
** The interior of this large island is occupied by tribes of the brown race, 
whose warlike habits, and skill in the use of missiles, will account for the 

'• The Bishop's (Dr. McDougall's) words are : " With respect to the races of people, the 
present occupants were, he thought, the remains of a second wave of immigration. The black race 
or Papuas, he thought, came in first, and a second wave of Malay or Dyak race followed ; the 
traditions of the country refer to such an event, and people speak of a black race having been there 
before them. The present race were probably from India." (Trans. Ethno. Soc. ii.. 1863, P* 26.)— H.L.R. 



296 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N, Borneo. 

disappearance of a less civilised race from the southern and western parts of 
the island. In the year 1834, when on a visit to the western coast of the 
island, I was informed by some of the more intelligent among the natives 
that a wild, woolly-haired people existed in the interior; but the information 
was mixed up with so many incredible details respecting their habits, that I 
was led to consider the whole as fabulous ; and the subject is treated in this 
light in the narrative of my voyages, which was published soon after my 
return to England in the following year.**^ 

" During a second visit to the Archipelago, my attention was chiefly 
directed to the more eastern islands, where the field was comparatively new, 
and I had no oppqrtunity of obtaining farther information respecting the 
interior of Borneo until when again on my return to England in 1845. One 
of my fellow passengers on that occasion was Captain Brownrigg, whose ship, 
the * Premier,' of Belfast, had been wrecked on the east coast of Borneo 
during the previous year, when the European portion of the crew found 
refuge with the Rajah Mudah of Gunung Thabor, a place about 50 miles up 
the Buru or Kuran River, whence they were removed after a residence of 
several months by a Dutch vessel of war, which had been sent from Macassar 
for the purpose. Captain Brownrigg was so kind as to entertain me 
frequently with accounts of the people among whom he had been thrown, 
and who had not previously been visited by Europeans. They appear to me 
to differ in no essential particular from the other coast tribes of Borneo, 
except in being rather more advanced, as was evident, indeed, from the 
hospitable reception he met among them ; but my attention having been 
aroused by a repeated mention of * darkies ' as forming part of the population, 
I was induced to make some inquiries, when I found that he alluded to an 
inland tribe that only occasionally visited Gunung Thabor, and who were a 
short, but stoutly built, people, perfectly black, and with hair so short and 
curly that the head appeared to be covered with little knobs. This perfectly 
agrees with the general appearance of the hair of the Papuans, who keep the 
head shorn ; and I have not the slightest doubt that they were unmixed 
Papuans. He also described the skins of the breast and shoulders as 
displaying many raised scarifications, apparently similar to those of some 
New Guinea tribes, but which do not appear to be common among the 
mountain Papuans. On one occasion, a party of seventeen men, chiefly 
young and middle aged, visited the settlement for the express purpose of 
seeing the Europeans. They appeared to live on very friendly terms with 
the people of Gunung Thabor, from whom they obtained supplies of axes and 
chopping knives, giving the produce of the forests in exchange. 

*^ " The various tribes are said to differ considerably from each other, an assertion I do not 
pretend to dispute, although my own experience would go to prove the contrary, since I saw 
individuals belonging to several distinct tribes, who, with the exception of a difference of dialect, 
might be recognised as the same people, those who lived entirely on the water being much darker 
than the rest. It is said by the Dyaks themselves, that some parts of the interior are inhabited by a 
woolly-haired people ; but as they also assert that men with tails like monkeys, and living in trees, 
are also discoverable, the accuracy of their accounts may be doubted. I met with no Dyak who had 
seen either, but as a woolly-haired people is to be found scattered over the interior of the Malay 
Peninsula, their existence in Borneo seems by no means improbable." — " The £astern Seas," p. 225. 
H.L.R. 



Negritoes in Borneo. 297 

** It should be mentioned that this was Captain Brownrigg's first visit to the 
Archipelago, and he could scarcely have been aware that any peculiar interest 
was connected with this information, so that his evidence must be considered 
satisfactory. I have since searched the published accounts of visitors to the 
east coast of Borneo, but the only allusion I can find to a people who may be 
allied to the same race, is contained in the papers of Mr. Dalton, who resided 
for eleven months on the Coti River, to the south of the Burn, during the 
years 1827-28. Mr. Dalton's papers were originally published in the 

* Singapore Chronicle' of 1831 : and the following extract is from Mr. Moor's 

* Notices of the Indian Archipelago,' in which they are reprinted : — 

** * Farther towards the north of Borneo are to be found men living 
absolutely in a state of nature, who neither cultivate the ground nor live in 
huts ; who neither eat rice nor salt, and who do not associate with each other, 
but rove about some woods like wild beasts. The sexes meet in the jungle, 
or the man carries away a woman from some kampong. When the children 
are old enough to shift for themselves they usually separate, neither one 
afterwards thinking of the other; at night they sleep under some large tree, 
the branches of which hang low. On these they fasten the children in a kind 
of swing ; around the tree they make a fire to keep off the wild beasts and 
snakes ; they cover themselves with a piece of bark, and in this also they 
wrap their children; it is soft and warm, but will not keep out the rain. 
These poor creatures are looked on and treated by the Dyaks as wild beasts ; 
hunting parties of twenty-five and thirty go out and amuse themselves with 
shooting at the children in the trees with sumpits, the same as monkeys, 
from which they are not easily distinguished. The men taken in these 
excursions are invariably killed, the women commonly spared if young. It is 
somewhat remarkable that the children of these wild Dyaks cannot be 
sufficiently tamed to be entrusted with their liberty. Selgie (the Dyak chief 
of Coti) told me he never recollected an instance when they did not escape to 
the jungle the very first opportunity, notwithstanding many of them had 
been kindly treated for years.'** 

** It must be remembered that this account, as well as the extract from 
Valentyn respecting the wild tribes of Ceram, is derived from the information 
of natives, who avowedly made parties for the express purpose of hunting 
them, and who are therefore in making them appear as much as possible in 
the light of wild beasts. Neither of these accounts alludes to the wild tribes 
as being woolly-headed, but this is a point on which no native is likely to give 
information, unless the question is expressly put to them. When on the 
coast of Borneo in 1843, we had a Papuan sailor on board the vessel, who 
formed one of my boat's crew, and the peculiarity of his appearance was 
almost invariably a topic of conversation wherever we went, and if any of the 
natives we came in contact with had ever seen or heard of a people possessing 
similar peculiarities, the circumstance was nearly certain to be noticed. 

** It is probable that information connected with the existence of this 
race in Borneo, which is of considerable ethnographical interest, may be 

*' Dalton's " Notices." p. 49, G.W.E. The term " Dyaks " should probably read " Kayans." 
-H.L.R. 



298 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo. 

found in Holland, among the documents containing the reports of government 
officers who have been despatched from time to time to make researches on 
the east coast of the island, as Dr. Roorda Van Eysinga, Professor of 
Oriental Languages and Geography to the Royal Military Academy of Holland, 
states in his * Geography of Netherlands* India,' that * In the inaccessible 
parts of the island ' (Borneo) * Papuans yet reside in a savage state, 
bordering upon that of wild beasts.' " No authorities are quoted in the work, 
but as it is used as a class-book throughout the Netherlands, it cannot be 
supposed that the statement has been loosely made." (Earl's ** Papuans," 

pp. I44-M9-) 

The reference by MM. Quatrefages and Hamy (** Crania Ethnica," pp. 
194-196) to a comparison between the Negrito skull and that of the 
Andamans, induced me to turn to Mr. E. H. Man's work ** On the Aboriginal 
Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands" (Lond., 1884), where on p. 119 there 
is a footnote reference to the kidnapping of the Andamanese by Malays, &c. 
It runs as follows : — 

'* Captain J. H. Miller, in a communication to the * Nautical Magazine,' 
1842, says : * The islands in the west side of the Andamans are frequented 
during the fine season, from December to April, by a mixed and mongrel race 
of Malays, Chinese, and Burmese fishermen for beche de met and edible birds' 
nests, who are of very doubtful honesty, and it is necessary to take a few 
muskets and cutlasses just to show them that you are prepared for mischief in 
case of need. These fellows are also * fishers of men,' and to their evil deeds 
much of the hostility of the islanders may be attributed ; they carry off 
children, for whom they find a ready market as slaves in the neighbouring 
countries. I have been told that formerly they were friendly, and assisted 
these fishermen, until a large party was invited on board a junk or prow (the 
Chinese got the blame of it), and after being intoxicated, were carried off and 
sold at Acheen, and the practice is still carried on by these fellows, who land 
and carry them off whenever they can catch them. The Andamanians have 
retaliated fearfully whenever any foreigner has fallen into their power, and 
who can blame them.'" ("Sailing Directions for the Principal Ports in the 
Bay of Bengal," by W. H. Rosser and J. F. Imray.) On asking Mr. Man for 
further information, he kindly sent me the following extract : — ** Extract from 
an article entitled * One of the earliest accounts of two captive Andamanese,' 
edited from a paper by the late John Anderson, Esq., Secretary to Govern- 
ment Penang Civil Service, by his son, Capt. T. C. Anderson, B.S. Corps, 
and published in a magazine called * Indian Society,' May, 1867 : * A Chinese 
junk, manned partly by Chinese and partly by Burmans, proceeded to the 
Andaman Islands to collect beche de mer, sea slugs (a great treat in China), 
and somewhat resembling a black snail, which the Chinese dry and eat, as 
well as edible birds' nests, which abound there. The crew of the junk, which 
was lying about two miles from the shore, observed eight or ten of the 

** " Ten zuiden van het koningrijk Borneo wonen de wilden volksstammen, Doesoems, K-a-jans. 
Maroets, en genaamd. In het outoegankelijk gedeelte van bet eiland wonen nog Papoeaas in eenen 
staat van wildheid. welke aan dien der wilde dieren grenst." •' Aardrijkbeschrijving van Neder- 
landsch Indie." p. 76.— G.W.E. 



300 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit, N. Borneo. 

savages approaching the vessel, and wading through the water. Upon 
coming within a short distance of the vessel, they discharged several showers 
of arrows, which severely wounded four of the Chinese. . . . The 
Burmans gave immediate pursuit in their boat, and after much difficulty 
captured two of the savages. These were brought to Penang by the Chinese. 
. . . One of the savages was 4 feet 6 inches, and the other 4 feet 7 inches 
in height, and each weighed about 76 lbs. They had large paunches, and 
though they were so small were in good condition. . . .' 

** My father, in a work entitled * Considerations relative to the Malayan 
Peninsula,' says in a paper on a tribe called * Semangs,' * There is little doubt 
that the degenerate inhabitants of the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal 
are descended from the same parent stock as the Semangs. . . . Again 
he says of a Semang whom he saw, * This man was at the time of his visit to 
Penang, when I saw him, about 30 years of age, 4 feet 9 inches in height. 
His hair was woolly and tufted, his colour a glossy jet black, his lips were 
thick, his nose flat, and belly very protuberant, resembling exactly two 
natives of the Andaman Islands who were brought to Prince of Wales' 
Islands (i.^., Penang) in the year 1819.'" 

At the same time he wrote to me : ** I feel sure, however, that the skulls 
found in Borneo, which differ so widely from those of Dyaks, can have nothing 
to do with the Andamanese, none of whom, so far as we know, were ever 
taken beyond Penang and Perak." But how can we tell to what distance these 
kidnapped islanders were taken? We have seen Chinese and Burmese pirates 
visited the Andamans. When the great pirate fleet was destroyed (190 killed 
or drowned and 31 taken to Sarawak), releasing 390 captives (140 by death 
only), ** among the captives there were people from every part of the Eastern 
Archipelago, from Borneo, Celebes, Java, the smaller islands, and the Malayan 
Peninsula.'* (Helms, p. 212.) The wide range of the pirates, who brought their 
captives to the Sulu slave mart, is referred to by Dr. Guillemard. (op. sit, p. 92.) 
If Andamanese were carried to the Malay -Peninsula, there is every probability 
of their having been carried further east, and hence possibly to Borneo. On 
asking M. Ernest Chantre, Director of the Mus6um des Sciences Naturelles 
at Lyons, where the skull is deposited, for further information regarding its 
origin, he wrote to me under date of 24th January, 1894 : " All that I can tell 
you over and above what is mentioned in the * Crania Ethnica ' is that it was 
obtained more than thirty years ago, as coming from Borneo, but we do not 
know under what circumstances it was got. In fact, I do not possess a single 
document about it. I may, however, add that side by side with this engraved 
skull we possess another one equally small, not engraved, but blackened by 
smoke. It was purchased about ten years ago from a natural history 
merchant of the city of Amsterdam, as coming from Borneo." Further 
requests for measurements of this second skull failed to elicit any reply. The 
illustration of this engraved skull shows very characteristic Borneo tracery, 
and leaving apart the fact that we are not sure from what part of Borneo 
these engraved skulls are obtained, and also leaving apart the absence of 
mention by anyone who has seen these engraved skulls hung up by the people 
who engraved them, we must conclude that this skull must have passed 



Negritoes in Borneo. 301 

through the hands of Borneo people. But this by no means proves that the 
skull originally came from Borneo. So much for the artificial evidence. If 
the skull is so identical with that of Andamanese, as I understand MM. 
Quatrefages and Hamy appear to think — but which, as seen above, Dr. A. B. 
Meyer doubts — then it may have been introduced. If, on the other hand, 
further independent examination should show it to be only generally similar, 
then it may possibly be indigenous. It may also be accepted as a fact that if 
the skull can be proved to have been brought from far inland, we shall have 
good evidence that Negritoes exist or existed in Borneo. 

We have seen above how MM. Quatrefages and Hamy have distorted 
Mr. ^Dalton's statement, and mis-read that of Bishop McDougall. They 
further quote M. Domeny de Rienzi and Captain Gabriel Lafond. M. Rienzi 
writes (Oceanic, p. 258) : ** As to the Endamens or Agtas, with woolly hair 
and sooty colour, hardly any are met with now in Kalemantan,** although, 
originally, they inhabited this island, whence they spread over the rest of 
Malaysia. The Papuans have overcome them, &c., &c." This is, of course, 
merely a statement without any proof. Captain Lafond (Bull. Soc. Geogr., 
2nd Ser. V. 1836) says (p. 174) that the negro race exists in Borneo, and then 
adds (on p. 175) : ** As to Borneo, I did not see any black inhabitants, 
although I touched its shores twice. But while at Macassar I heard men 
worthy of credence speak of the existence of blacks in that great island, 
who lived in the mountains.*' Previously to this, however (p. 154), he quotes 
M. Walckenaer (Monde maritime, ch. xv.), who, he says, asserts that **the 
existence of the maritime negro race in Borneo has been already pointed 
out." I have not been able to refer to M. Walckenaer's book. 

In Professor Sir William Flower's ** Catalogue, Royal College of 
Surgeons" (London, 1879, p. 125), he thus remarks on skull No. 745: 

''A cranium said to be that of a Dyak It presents more 

Melanesian than Malay characters, and may be of Papuan origin, as 
Papuans are often taken to Borneo as slaves." It will be observed. Sir 
William Flower does not jump to the conclusion that Papuans are indigenous 
to Borneo. 

In this enquiry no reference is made to the presence of the Negrito in 
prehistoric times. If, as now appears to be generally believed, the negro 
family, like the rest of mankind, had its origin in the Indo-African continent 
(Keane's ** Ethnology," pp. 229, 242), it may be probable that Negritoes once 
existed in Borneo. On the other hand, Borneo is comparatively new. It 
consisted originally of a few islands, which were later on joined together, and 
ultimately took on a shape very similar to that of Celebes now, the larger 
portion of the present form of Borneo being recent geologically — tertiary and 
post-tertiary. (See Posewitz.)** As one island it probably did not exist at the 
time of the disappearance of the Indo-African continent. The only stone 
implement found so far is the neolithic one found by Mr. A. Hart Everett. 
(J.A.I, i., P.E.S., p. 39), but others may yet be found. The evidence of a 

«* Old name for Island of Borneo. 

^ •' Borneo; its Geology and Mineral Resources." Lond., 1892. pp. 259-260. 



302 H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak and Brit. N. Borneo, 

pre-historic occupation of the island is still wanting, and with it necessarily 
any trace of Negrito occupation. The existence of the Negrito in Borneo 
in the past or in the present has yet to be proved. 




Section of the stone 
implement found by- 
Mr. A. Hart Everett. 



APPENDICES. 

I. 



SEA DYAK (Rejang and Batang Lupar District), 
MALAY AND ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 

With Examples shewing the words in use. 
From the Notes of Mr. H. Brooke Low. 



Ska Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



abus 


abu 


achok 


cuchok 


ada 


ada 


adap 


macham 


adu, ngadu 


ator 


ai 


ayer 


aiam 


permainan 


aian 


tampak 


ajat 


sumpit 


ajih 




aka 


dudun 


akai! 


adoh! 


akal 


akal 


aki 




akiet 


lantieng 


aku 


sahya 


alah 




alai 


sebab 


alam 


dalam 


alau 


i buntak besar 


alau! 




alit 




alu 




ama-ama 


; 


amang 




amang 


1 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



amat 



l^nar 



ashes. 

to prick, to thrust at. 

to be born ; dim nuan ada, where were you 

born ? 
manner, way how ; nama adap pia, why is 

it done so ? 
adjust, arrange ; adu apiy trim the light ; 

adu tikaiy straighten the mat. 
water ; ai langkang, low water, 
a plaything ; to play, 
to be visible ; to come into sight, 
bag made of cane for carrying clothes, 
to enchant, to charm, to work miracles, 
bosom-friend. 

oh ! alas ! ahai indai ! oh dear ! 
understanding, cunning, deceit, 
grandfather, 
raft. 
I, me ; as a verb to acknowledge, to 

confess, 
overcome ; enda alah, not to be overcome, 

i.e. impossible, unable to do ; alah jako, 

to be worsted in an argument, 
cause, reason ; iya nadai alai, there is no 

reason why ? hati alai, how can ? &c., &c. 
in, within, 
locust. 

alau I exclamation of surprise, 
to close up. 
pestle. 
ama dulu, ama dili ; sometimes up river, 

sometimes down river. 
pia amang, perhaps so, &c., I wonder, 

suppose, 
to pretend, feign, flourish, brandish ; 

amang munch munsoh, to pretend (go 

through the actions) to kill an enemy, 
true. 



11. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sba Dyak. 



Malay 

(Colloquial). 



ambai 
ambat, 
ngambat 

ambi 

ambis, also abis 

ambu 

amboh 

ambun 



ampa 
ampit 
ampoh 
amput 

anak 



anang 



anaraja 
anchau 
andal 



' ond6 



ambil 

habis 

mengakun 

nappar 

ru 



achap 
anak 



andau, ngandau 

anga 

angat 



anggap 

angkabai 

angkong 

anjong 

ansah 

ansak, ngansak 

ansang 

anta 

anti 
antu 



jangan 



neraja 
ampar 
arap 



panas 



sukat 
bunut 
antar 
asah 

niiang 



nanti 
hantu 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



apai 



bapa 



mistress, love, keep. 

to receive, meet, go to meet (one) ; to 

await one's arrival ; to intercept (hostile 

sense), 
to fetch. 

finished, all gone, 
acknowledge, own, claim, adopt, 
to forge, 
fog, mist ; casuarina, only because of the 

resemblance of the foliage of this tree 

to a fine veil, 
husk ; ampa padiy paddy husk, 
to come in for a share, 
flooded, 
to sting ; d'amfut, stung (by bees, wasps, 

centipedes), 
child ; anak laki, son ; anak induy daughter ; 

anak ambu, adopted child ; anak menyadi, 

brother's child, i.e. nephew or niece; 

anak biak, young children ; anak hiak 

is "follower" only when contracted 

anemhiak. 
don't ; anang hegaUy don't bother ; anang 

guai, don't hurry, not so fast ; anang pia, 

don't do so. 
rainbow. 

to spread (mats) ; beranchau, spread, 
to believe, trust, to rejoice, 
a bridge ; to bridge over ; ngandau sungai, 

to bridge over a river, 
ravenous (the rabid appetite one gets on 

recovery from fever), 
hot, warm ; at angat, hot water ; tunggu 

angat, a heavy fine ; tnenoa angat, infected, 

plague-stricken country, 
to count up, reckon, 
measurement, 
horse-mango. 

to bring, take, send, convey, 
to sharpen, whet, 
to urge. 

the blossom of palms, reeds, &c. 
gay, fine, handsome ; anta bendar menyadi de, 

how gay, handsome your brother looks, 
to wait for. 
a spirit ; antu pala, the smoke-dried head of 

a person killed in war ; enda betuku antu, 

a deceiving spirit ; antu buyu, antu 

grasi, names of evil spirits ; jai antu, 

a demon, 
father ; apai orang, a father of a family. 



Sea Dyak, Malay and English Vocabulary. 



111. 



Sea Dyak. 



apai 

apai-indai 

apin 

apit 
apus 



aram 

(contr. am) 
arang 
ari 
ari 



arok 
asai 

asi 
asoh 
atas 
ati 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



bintang 
ma bapa 
belum 

tapis 
padam 



marilah 

arang 

deri 

hari 



abu 
rasa 

nasi 
suroh 
atas 
hati 



au 
auak ka 


lya 


auh 




aya 


bapa manakan 


babas 


babas 


badas 


bagus 


badi 


rughi 



star. 

parents. 

not yet ; even if ; ka apin Snggai, even if I 
didn't want to. 

to strain, squeeze. 

to extinguish ; apus an,when the day is 
extinguished, night ; apus pikul, the ex- 
tinction of the measure, full to the brim ; 
apus aiy the whole of the river. 

come on, come along. 



ni ari nemuai, ni ari humai? 
the time to visit, where's the 
farm ? mekang ari, the time is 
aku nadai ari, I've no 



kati asai tuboh nuan, how 



charcoal, 
from, 
day, time 

where's 

time to 

insufficient, &c 

time, &c. 
soot, 
taste, sensation 

do you feel ? 
boiled rice. 

to allow, to send, to order, 
upon, over, above, 
heart, mind, liver ; ati aku tusah, my mind 

is troubled ; ati aku enda nyamai, my 

mind is ill at ease, uncomfortable ; nyamai 

ati aku, my mind is at ease, free from 

anxiety or worry ; sekut ati, perplexed ; 

aku nadai jai ati Snggau taut Snggau china 

iang anjong pengeraja kitai, I have no 

ill feeling against Malays or Chinese; 

they bring wealth to us ; gagi ati, glad, 

delighted. 
yes. 
in order that . . . . let it be that .... 

let be (hence — never mind), 
noise, hum, murmur; auh bala, hum of the 

army, auh ribut, murmur of the wind, 
uncle. 



I 



badu 



berhenti 



' wood, brush, thicket, new growth, bush ; 

bulu babas, leaves, 
fine, handsome, good, nice; badas rita, 

good news, 
to come to grief, go to the wall, suffer loss; 

enggai badi ngapa, I won't suflfer loss to 

no purpose, 
to stop, end, cease ; badu nuan minta utat, 

cease asking for things ; badu enda, by 

no means, on no account. 



IV. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sea Dyak. 



Malay 
(CoUoquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



bagas 



bai, mai 

baia 

baiam 

bajai 

baka 

bakun 

bala 

ball 

baliek, maliek 
balu 

banchak 

bandau 

bangat 



bangkis 
bangkit 
bangkong 

bansu 
bantai 

bantuD 



barieng 

baroh 

baroh 



basieng 
batang 



batak 
batu 
batu 
batu pegai 



kuat 



bawa 
buaya 



riipa 

dudun 

bala 

ubah 

malik 
balu 

tikam 

biawak 

brapa 



prau papan 
banghit 
prau bertimbo 

puas, biase 
pungga 

chabut 



rendah 
bawa 



tupai pinang 
batang 



tarik 
batu 



always, continually, often ; rather zealous 
to be always doing a thing ; bagas tindoky 
constantly sleeping ; de bagas mabuk^ aku 
jarangy you are always getting tipsy, I 
rarely. 

to bring. 

(alligator) crocodile. 

to pet, to play with. 

some winged animal of Dyak mythology. 

like, like to ; baka ka udahy as formerly. 

to have a bosom friend. 

expeditionary force, a war party ; pengumg 
bala, advance guard. 

to change, alter, alter in appearance, color; 
bait moaj to change one's appearance. 

to look at, look towards. 

widowed, widow, widower; indu balu, a 
widow ; laki balu, a widower. 

to throw, to thrust. 

a large lizard. 

very, exceedingly ; enda bangat mansau, not 
particularly ripe ; kati nuan bangat manchal 
bakatu, how is it that you are so very 
mischievous like this? bangat kalalu^ 
quite too much. 

a plank boat. 

scented flower. 

a boat with a single plank fastened into 
the dugout at the water line. 

perpetually, accustomed. 

to expose to view ; bantai utai, unpack 
things. 

to pull out, root out, pull out by the roots, 
to weed ; bantun bulu mata, to pull out 
the eyelashes. 

to roll along. 

short (stature), low (hills). 

baroh, low, with prefix di (by) below, 
under; di barok bukit, under below the 
hill, at foot of; bukit baroh , low hill. 

squirrel (smallest kind). 

batang indu, main stream; in the first 
sense batang means the trunk of a tree, 
the stem ; batang, name, own name, 
proper name, real name, family name, 
i.e. stem, 

to drag. 

stone, rock. 

stone. 

security, a pledge for something in 
pawn. 



Sea Dyakf Malay and English Vocabulary, 



Ska Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



bauh 



baum 

bebakoh 

b^bas 

bedau 
bedega 
bedingah 
beduan 

beduru 

bedus 
beg, begau 
begadai 

begaiang 



begelis 

begitang 

beguai 

beguang 



bejako 

bejalai 

bejali 

bejamah 

bekalieng 

bekalih 

bekarong 

bekau 

bekejang 

bekindu 

belaboh 

belaki 
belala 



panjang 



berpakat 

bersahabat 

ketas 

masih balum 



katcho 

berbunyi 

kambieng 

bego 

besik 



bergantong 
gopo singgaut 
gampang 



bertutur 

berjalan 

berpinjam 

bertangkap 

bersain 

pusing 

sindir 

bekas 

berangkat 

berdiang 

jatoh 

berlaki 
rindu or suka 



tall (vegetation), long (hair) ; to grow up ; 

babas kami (nyau) bauh, our farm land 

(brush) has grown up ; awak ka bttah, let 

it grow long, 
to confer, deliberate, consult, take counsel, 
to become friends, 
to pull to pieces, take apart ; bSbas rumah, 

pull to pieces the house, 
still, yet, more, not yet. 
bracken. 

famous, celebrated, 
to worry, annoy, tease, vex, bother, trouble, 

persecute ; beduan dirty worry one*s self, 
to roar (a beast of prey), rumble ; prut aku 

beduruj my stomach rumbles, 
goat. 

to set up a hue and cry. 
slowly, cautiously, gently ; bejako begadai, 

to speak in a low tone, 
pierced ; maio-indu tambi di pasar begaiang 

idong, many of the Tamil women in the 

bazaar are pierced through their noses, 
to run a foot-race, 
to hang, 
to be in a hurry 

used with reference to a married couple ; 

laki beguang bini, the husband follows the 

wife to her people, 
to talk, converse with, talk to. 
to walk, 
to lend. 

to fight, to have a rough tumble, 
to accompany, associate with, 
to turn round, from side to side, change 

one's position, posture, 
to be enclosed in a case; jako bekarong, 

disguised speech, 
a vestige, remains, trail ; bekau kaki, foot- 
print, 
to leave (one place for another), to start ; 

anti tembu nya bekejang, wait until you 

have done and we will start, 
to warm one's self in the sun or before a 

fire, 
to let fall, to drop ; belaboh wong, to shoot the 
rapids ; belaboh nugal, to commence sowing, 
to take a husband, 
inclined, pleased ; agi belala bejako enggau de, 

still pleased to converse with you; agi 

belala na nuan, continue to like you. 



VI. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sea Dyak. 



belaloh 

belama 

belawa 

belelang 

beleman 

belit, melit 

belut 
benda 

bendai 

bendar 
benong 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



selalu 
berikut 
menahun 
macham- 

macham 
gulong 



tajau 

or tempian 
chanang 

benar 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



bentang 


bentang 

1 


benyut 


gregar | 

1 


bepangkang 


1 
seblah 


bepelieng | 


berblit 


beselieng ,' 




beragai 


gagah 


berandau 


bertutor 


berangkat 




berap, merap 


tangkap 


berapi 


masak 


beratong 


beranyut 




(also Dayak) 


beredup 




berekak 


enchekak 


berentak 




berimba 





to have over and above. 

always, continually, perpetually. 

to run, to follow. 

to sojourn in a strange land, to travel. 

fanciful ; aiiang beleman, don't play the 

fool ; mawh beleman, very fanciful, 
to coil round, wind round ; fnelit sirat, to 

coil the loin-cloth round, 
earth-w^orm. 
earthen-ware jar. 

a shallow gong beaten with wood ; bebendai, 
to beat a bindai 

indeed, true, very. 

while, during, middle-aged ; Benong, adverb 
of time or degree, signifies rather a 
certain point than duration ; in the 
examples given, iya benmig makai, just 
when he is very busy eating ; benong 
berapi, at the time when we were most 
engaged in our cooking, &c. ; anang ngawa 
iya benong makai, don't bother him in the 
midst of his meal ; benong berapi, ari 
ujan, it began to rain while we were 
cooking. 

bentang tali, to stretch a rope across a river ; 
bentang march, a line no one may pass, 
used when cholera is al)Out. 

to quiver, rock, shake, quake : batang benyut, 
the log rocks ; tanah benyut, to quake, of 
the earth. 

to live next to, to be a next door neighbour 
to ; aku enggai bepangkang sida nya, I will 
not be next neighbour with them. 

to meander, go a roundabout way (of river 
or road^. 

an omen oird. 

to talk, converse, discuss, gossip. 

to lift, to carry away, to levant, elope with 
a man's wife. 

to embrace, catch round, throw one's arms 
round, lock in embrace. 

to cook. 

to drift with the tide. 

to thump, creak, &c. ; the noise of the 
paddles on the thwarts of a boat when 
paddling. 

to catch by the throat, throttle. 

to ram in, drive in. 

to cut down old jungle, to clear for farming 
purposes. 



Sea Dyak, Malay and English Vocabulary, 



Vll. 



Sea Dyak. 


Malay 
(Colloquial.) 


berimbai 


bersindi 


berinsor 


surut 


berintai 


berikut 


berumpak 


beluniba 


berupai 


nampak 


beruran 


lapar 


besagu 


tikam k'atas 


besai 


besar 


besatup 


bertemu, 




berjumpah 


besibil 


telesse 


besudi 




besundang 


tuka 


betah 


lama 


betangkai 


gumpul 


betauing 


turut 


betelai 


bebisik 


betemu 




beterangau 


l">ertriah 


betingik 


bertingkar 


betis 


betis 


betu 


lukus 


betuju 


tentu 


(tuju, to point 




towards) 




betuku 


tentu 


betunga 


berjumpa, 




bertemu 


betusi 


bebisik 


also betusoi 




bidai 


klasa 


bidiek 




bilik 


bilik 


bisa 


bisa 


bisi 


ada 


bla 


sama 




sama-sama 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



to lie alongside. 

to decrease. 

in sequence, in order, in line. 

to run a boat race. 

visible ; haiif^at enda herupai^ hardly visible. 
, starvation, famine, hunger, scarcity. 

to raise up, to throw up, toss up ; hesagii 
ringka, to throw up the football. 

large, big, great. 

to encounter, meet, clash, come into con- 
tact, collision with ; sidaiya mudik kami 
undur besatup tengah at, they were going 
up river and we were going down river 
when we collided in mid-stream. 

to resemble in sound, to rhyme. 

to undergo the hot-water ordeal. 

to exchange gifts ; besundang ka, munoh ani 
enggai, I will exchange gifts (as a token 
of friendship), but I will not kill a pig 
(for sacrifice). 

of time, long ; aku enda betah nuan, I can- 
not be with you long. 

to bunch, to ear (com) ; jako betangkai, 
endless talk. 

to accompany, hang on to, follow one 
about ; kati nuan, lain betauing iya ? how 
about you, are you going to follow him 
about ? 

to whisper. 

to meet. 

cry out. 

to wrangle. 

the calf of the leg. 

scalded, burnt. 

unauthenticated ; rita eftda betuju, the rela- 
tions or narratives do not agree. 

certain, sure, trustworthy ; etida betuku antu, 
a lying spirit. 

to turn towards, to meet, have an inter- 
view with. 

to narrate. 

a rattan and bark mat (large sized). 

fortunate, successful, lucky. 

room, apartment. 

poisonous (sting, bite), potent, telling, 

effective : jako aku bisa, my words are 

cutting, 
to be, is there ? there is, to have, 
alike, equally, equal, even; bla peninggi, 

same height. 



Vlll. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sea Dyak. 


Malay 
(Colloquial). 


blah, mlah 




blaia 


berkelai, gadoh 


blanda 


(berikut) 


blansai 


karong 


bluit 


bedipat 


bok 

bong 

botoh 

brang 

brau 

brauh 


rambut 

bong 

buto 

brang 

bras 

bunyi 


buah 
buah 


buah 
sebab 



buai, muai 



budi, mudi 
buiyah 
buiyan 
bujal 

bujang 

bukau 

bulan 

buli 

buHh 

buloh, munti 

bulu 



bumai 
bungai | 
bunga ( 
bunsu 



buang 

prankap 
j takut 



bujang 

kladi 

bulan 

dapat 
buloh 
bangsa 



buma 
bunga 

bungsu 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



to split ; nulah pinang, to split the betel 
nut, the mode of divination resorted to 
in the marriage ceremony, to perform 
the marriage service, to marry (couples). 

to quarrel ; blaia higgau pangan diri, to 
quarrel with one's own friends. 

to run ; blanda kia, blanda kia, to run back- 
ward and forward ; blanda anchau tikaiy 
run and spread the mats. 

bag, sack of grass or reeds, ordinarily the 
gunny bag. 

serpentine, sinuous, winding, crooked, 
round about ; tanjong bluit, tortuous bend 
in the river. 

hair of the head only. 

war-canoe. 

penis. 

upper arm. 

rice (uncooked). 

a noise ; fiama utai nya brauh ? what is that 
making a noise ? 

fruit. 

reason, cause, ground ; nama kabuah, for 
what reason ? why ? ; kabuah nya, for this 
reason, because of this; nadai kabuah iya 
enggai, there is no possible reason why 
we should not ; nadai kabuah-buah ngaiau, 
no pretext for going on the war-path. 

to throw away, fling away, pitch away, 
toss away ; muai utai ka t/lok, muai ka 
lubok, to throw something into a pond 
or pit. 

to entrap, decoy, snare. 

moth. 

timid, nervous 

knob or bulb ; bujal iawak, the knob or 
bulb in the middle of a gong. 

bachelor. 

kladi, the cladium. 

moon, month ; bulan sigi kamariy last month. 

eddy. 

to get, obtain, procure, catch (fish). 

bamboo. 

I. — hair (body), feather, down; bulu mata, 
eye-lash. 2. — race ; orang nyelai bulu, 
men of a different race, kind, tribe, 
colour. 

to farm. 

flower. 

' youngest ; a^iak bunsu, the youngest of the 
family. 



Sea Dyaky Malay and English Vocabulary. 



IX. 



Sea Dyak. 



buntas 
biintau, 
ngantok 



buntis 

burai 

burak 

burit 

bum 

buruk 

but 
butang 



chapak 
chelap 



chenaga 

chiru 
chuan 



dagu 
damun 
danau 
dandong 

dara 

datai 
dedat 
dejal 

delapan 
demam 
deredai, 

ngeredai 
di 
di 
di ya or di-ia 



dia 
diau 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



beruntas 



rambu 
putih 
burit 
buru 

burok 

busok lansang 



pinggau 
sejok 



chuchi 

jerinih 
chuntu 



damun 

danau 

I sarong 

dara 

datang 
pukul 
sumbat, pakal, 

libat 
delapan 
demam 



kau 
skarang ini 



Sana 
diam 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



to disembowel. 

drowsy, sleepy, rather the sensation after 
] having lost a night's rest, not the sleepi- 
ness which comes in the early part of 
the night (ngantok), 

padi buntis^ cleaned paddy. 

tassel (necklace). 

white (colour). 

bottom, base. 

to drive away ; buru manok, drive away the 
fowls. 

rotten ; orang burok, good for nothing ; buah 
buruk, rotten fruit. 

rotten, putrid ; bau but, a rotten smell. 

penal, fineable, to render oneself liable to 
a fine, adultery {the fineable offence). 



saucer, plate. 

cold, cool, light (as applied to fines in 
opposition to angat, heavy) ; tunggu 
chelap, a light fine, 
purification ; chenagu runiah, house purifi- 
j cation. 

\ clear, transparent (water). 
i a mould, model, pattern. 

I 
I 

chin. 

brush (two years' growth). 

lake. 

to wear a sarong reaching to the feet, to 
wear a long skirt. 

maid, maiden (a marriageable but un- 
married girl). 

come. 

to beat or drum upon. 

to cork, stuff up, stop up (a hole, leak), to 

caulk. 
: eight. 

ague. 

to dry (clothes) in wind. 

you (singular number), 
at, by, in. 

' now (adv.) ; pukul brapa dia ? what's the 
time now ? directly ; diya tu, immediately, 
at this moment. 
■ there. 

to reside, live, keep quiet, stay ; dini nuan 
diau, where do you live ? diau anang 
bejakOf be quiet, don't talk. 



X. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak, 



Sea Dyak. 



dilah 

dingah 
dini ? 

dini-dini 

diri 

dudi 

duduk 
dugau 



duku 
dulu 



empa 

empai 

empalai 

empang 

emparu 

empasa 
empedu 
empekak 
empeleman 



empran 
6mpu, ng^mpu 
empurau 
enchekak 
nyekak 
enda 

endor 



enggai 
enggaii 

enggi 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 


English. 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 


lidah 


tongue ; dilah tanah, a tongue of land, 


mana ? 


promontory, 
hear; fame, distinction, reputation. 
, where ? 


beginiana ? 
di niana-mana 


how ? 

wherever, however. 




self, oneself. 




after, behind ; diidi ari, some other time. 




some other day. 


dudak 


to sit, sit down. 




to be idle, have nothing to do, idle about ; 


parang tebas 
dahulu 


puas dugau'dugauj tired of doing nothing; 

unemployed, without anything to do, 

purposeless, 
chopping sword, 
adverb of place or time, before. 



belum 
kabun 
blatt. 
putus 

ubi bandong 
empeddu 



padang 

semah 
chepak 

tida 

tempat 



tida mau 
dengan 

pun 
kita-pun 



to eat. 
not yet. 
kitchen, garden. 



laiay 



enggikami 

(see enggi) I 
fingkah ! barangkali 



I to adjust, arrange, settle ; emparu 
! adjust a difference, settle a case. 
i tapioca. 

gall-bladder. 

cluck of a hen after laying an egg, 
' mote, an insect which gets into your eyes, 
also dust getting into the eyes is called 
empclefnan, 

a plain. 
I to own ; owner ; aku empuy mine. 

a kind of fish. 

to throttle. 

not ; enda me 'tu, not if I know it ; enda 
alah, not able. 

place ; dini endor kita hulih ila ? where are 
we likely to get some by and bye ? Kati 
endor iya enda lekat ka ginto ? how did it 
manage not to stick on the hook ? Utai 
pandok nadai endor iya etida angat^ things 
cooked have no place but to be hot. 

will not, won't, to be unwilling. 

connective conjunction, with, and; also as 

verb, to use, to wear. 
^ note of possession ; enggi sapa, whose ; 
I eng^i iya, his ; enggi sapa langkau nyin ? 
\ whose is that shed ? 

ours. 

I perhaps, may be. 



Sea Dyak, Malay and English Vocabulary, 



XI. 



Sea Dyak. 


Malay 
(Colloquial). 


engkah 


simpan 


engkabalu 




engkaiyu 


lauk, saior 


engkalubang 




engkasak 


ngrebat 


engkelulut 




engkila 


jaga : 


engklait 


1 


engklaiyu 


1 


engklis 


miniak nioh 


engkraju 


tembaga 


engku 


aku pun (empu) 


engkukok 




engkuleh 


rimah dahan 


enjok 




en Sana 


ari dulu (hari) 


ensanos 


dahulu 


ensapa 


siapa pun 


ensera 


cherita 


6nsepi 


cheri 


or sepi 




J,-.ensiang 


luasi 



ensilip 
ensuroh 



entekai 

entekok 

entelah 

entemu 

6nti 

entighis 

entran 

entun, ngentun 



gadai 
gaga 



padam 
surok 



bengok 



j6kalau 

batang 
tarck, ulur 



pelehan 
suka 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word.^ 



to put, place, set, deposit. 

widowhood ; empai temhu engkabalu ^ the 

period of widowhood is not completed, 
relish, condiment (vegetable or animal food 

as an accompaniment to rice), 
a pit-fall (hole with calthrops). 
to writhe, wriggle, struggle with, offer 

resistance to. 
insect, a diminutive fly ; getah engkelulut, 

the wax deposited by a fly. 
to watch, scout, spy ; aku engkila siduai, I 

was watching them both, 
wild gambir. 

' to fade, to lose colour, tarnish, 
cocoa-nut oil. 
copper. 

mine, contr. from etiggi aku, see enggi, 
the crowing of a cock, 
tiger-cat. 
to give, 
day before yesterday. 

whose, contr. from enggi sapa, 

legend, fable, myth, story. 

to taste, feel, be conscious of, aware of ; 
htsepi asi, taste what it is like; Snsepidiri 
parai, I feel as though I were dead. 

to clear, to prune ; wemiang tapang, to 
prune the bee tree ; mensiang jalai, to 
clear the road of grass, &c. ; siang, clear 
light ; ben- or mensiang, to make clear, 
to cause to be light. 

to go out (of life or sun), to fade away. 

to crouch ; ensuroh baroh batang, to creep 
under the log ; jako ensuroh, humble, 
submissive language. 

pumpkin. 

goitre. 

a riddle, conundrum, enigma. 

tumeric. 

if; hiti benama, if it should be so. 

source of a river. 

shaft ; entran sangkoh, spear-shaft. 

to pull, haul, launch ; entun prau, to launch 
the boat. 



gadai-gadai, softly, slowly, gently, gradu- 
ally. 

glad, pleased, delighted ; gaga penapat ati 
aku, I am truly delighted. 



xu. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sea Dyak. 



gagai, ngagai 



gagang 
gaiang 
gaiyu 

galau (ngalau) 



gama 

gamal 

gandong 

ganggam 

gari 

gasieng 
gaua 



gauk 

gaum, ngaum 
gegusu 

gelang 
gelema 

gempong 
gempuru 
gemu 
genap 

genggam 
genselan 



gentieng 
gentu 
gerar 
gerigau, 

nyerigau 
getah 

getil, ngetil 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



agar 



sengkar prau 

salang 

tuah 

sinipan 



rupa 

tegoh tegah, 
telap 

tuka kain 

bergassing 
gago 



rindu 
itong 



gelang 



gumpul 



gemok 
sabilang, tiap 

genggam 



pisang kra 

gelar 

gadah 

getah 

gentu 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



to pursue, follow after, to arrive at ; nadai 

utai di gagai, I am not going after any 

thing, 
thwarts (boat^. 
to pierce, maxe a hole in. 
long-Hved ; enda gaiyu nyaua ahu, I am not 

long-lived, 
reserve, keep by, reserve for another day, 

save up ; galau nyaka pagUa, keep it for 

to-morrow, 
to touch, feel (pulse, &c.) ; rather a system 

of stroking, massage, &c., adopted by 

medicine men. 
apf)earance. 

grip; gandong prau, bulwarks, 
sturdy, firm, steady, sure (foot, &c.), 

secure ; tiang ganggam, the post is firm ; 

ganggam moa, stem, resolute face, 
a change of clothes ; nadai mai gari, didn't 

bring a change, &c. 
to spin a top. 
busy; ngaua, to bother; anang ngaua udok 

benong makai, don't bother the dog while 

he is feeding. 
gauk ka nuan, fond of you ; gauk nanya rita, 

fond of asking for news, 
reckon, include, count, 
curly (hair) ; bok gegusu, frizzled ; rambut 

bergulong, curly haired, 
bracelet, 
furtively; pindah gelema malam, in secret, 

secretly, 
to collect into a heap, 
to collect together, 
fat, stout, 
each, every ; genap taun bulih padi, every 

year we get rice, 
a handful, 
blood offering, propitiatory offering ; genselan 

padi, blood offering sprinkled at time of 

sowing, 
glen, valley, ravine, gorge, gully, 
wild plantain, 
to name, 
to make a noise; anang nyerigau, do not 

make a noise, 
sap, gum ; English gutta ; getah tungkun, 

i.e. the gutta used for torches ; dammar. 
to pick (flowers), pluck (leaves); to 

pinch. 



Sea Dyak, Malay and English Vocabulary. 



Xlll. 



Sba Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



giga, ngiga 



giliek, ngiliek 

gilieng 

ginti 

girau 

gitang 

glumbang 

grah 
grai 
grigang, 

ngrigang 
grunjong 
guai-guai 

gunggo 



iban 



idong 

iga 

ikan 

iku 

ill 

impun, 

n'gempun 
inda (?) 
indai 
indiek, 

ngindiek 
indu 



ingat 
inggap 

injun, nginjun 
ingkoh, ningkoh 



insak 



an so 



gunchang 

gulong 
kail 



guntang 
umbak 



baik 
kachoh 

anting anting 
singgaut- 

singgaut 
bayang bayang 



idong 

ikan 
ikur 
ilis 

limpan, taroh 



ma 
tinjak 

prempuan 



ingat 

inggap 

gunchang 



ingus 



to seek, go in quest of, to look for, search 
after ; noi^a menoa nyamai^ menoa grai^ 
nunoa chelap^ menoa lindap, to look for a 
comfortable, healthy, cool and pleasant 
country. 

ngiliek na pala, to shake the head in token 
of dissent. 

to roll, roll up. 

fish-hook. 

to stir round (coffee). 

to suspend, hang up. 

wave (sea), breaker; glumbang raia^ enor- 
mous rollers. 

slack, loose (fit), opposite to tight. 

well (health^ ; menoa graiy healthy. 

to trouble, disturb. 

man's earrings, 
in a hurry (adv.). 

shadow. 



the laity in contradistinction to manangs^ 
medicine men ; the Dyaks only in 
contradistinction to one of another race 
who may be addressed. 

nose. 

iga iya etuia nemu ! as if he didn't know. 

fish. 

tail. 

sea- ward, down stream ; (opposite to f////, 
interior, up stream). 

to take charge of, care of. 

even (?) 
mother, 
to tread, trample on, step on. 



otang indu, a woman, 
utai, insect ; indu guang. 



female, woman 

women ; indu 

mistress, 
to remember. 

to settle (bees), to perch, alight (birds), 
to shake; nginjun biliky to shake the room, 
to cut round, separate from the trunk, 

detach ; ningkoh bandit ttlpang, to cut 

away the buttress of a bee tree, 
mucus from the throat or nostril. 



XIV. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sea Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



insit, nginsit 



bergerak 



insor 



intu 




ibun 


inyak (?) 


nyor 


ipa, ngipa 




ipak 




patul 


ipar 
ipoh 




ipar 
ipoh 


ipoh 
irau 




upas 
susah, 


in 




tuang 


ineng 
irit 


, ngirieng 


tarik 


imp, 
isi 


ngirup 


niinuni 



ISl 



lya 



jagau 



dia 



English. 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



jai 

jaiau 

jako 


jahat 
chakap 


jala 
jalai ! 


jala 
jalan ! 


jalai 


jeraia 


jalong 
jamah 




jamoh 
jampat 


pantas 



move away from, to move, stir ; enda nsinsit 
prahu art nya, the boat doesn't move, stir 
from its place, &c. ; enda nginsit ari runtah 
diri, he does not move from his own 
house. 

recede, abate. 

to watch, guard, take care of. 

cocoa-nut. 

to wait for, to meet in the way, to waylay, 
ambush. 

like, sort, commensurate ; ipak iya^ pattd 
diay like his sort. 

brother-in-law or sister-in-law. 

(i.) a species of palm, (ii.) a fermented 
drink obtained from the palm, (iii.) any 
strong drink [essence of tuak, old tuak, 
strong undiluted tuak] . 

poison ; ipoh lajah, arrow poison. 

distress oneself; irtiu ati, anxious, uncom- 
fortable, anxiety. 

to pour out. 

to guide by the hand, to lead. 

to drag. 

to drink. 
' (i.) flesh, (ii.) the body, (iii.) to fill up, i.e. 
I make a solid body of ; isi tunggu, to pay 
' a fine. 

flesh ; pengki isi, firm flesh as opposed to 
lemi isiy muscular flesh ; hadas isi, fine 
(good) flesh. 

he, she, it, him, her. 



manok jagau, fowl marks, i.e. the markings 

by which game fowl are recognised, 
bad, evil ; jai mati (emphatic), 
love-philtre, potion, 
language, speech, talk, saying; nadaijako, 

nadai ku, he has nothing to say, never 

mind, 
casting-net. 
go ! jalai de minta sida sa bilik, go you and 

ask that family. 
i path, a way, custom ; rantau jalai, on the 

way. 
bason, 
to pitch into, jamah asi, to pitch into the 

rice, 
grip, grapple, clasp, handle, tackle, 
fast, quick. 



Sea Dyak, Malay and English Vocabulary. 



XV. 



Sea Dyak. 



janggat 

jani 

jani 

japai, nyapai 



jarai, jarang 

jari 

jauh 

jaum 

jaung 

jelu jangkiet, 

nyangkiet 
jemah 



jeput 

jibul 

jimbi, nyimbi 

jimboi, 

nyimboi 
jingkau, 

nyingkau 
jingkong 



jugau 



junggur 

jungkang 

jurieng 



ka 



ka, deka 
ka-dia 
kabak 
kaban 

kachang 
kadeka 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



kundur 

babi 

babi 

ambil 



tangan 

jauh 

potong 

r6rang 
monyet 
(monkey) 



jimor 
ambil 



tulak 
bodo 



tanjong 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



mau 
tadi 
kapala ( • 

j chabi 
kahandak 



head) 



a fruit resembling vegetable marrow. 

pig, boar. 

pig; jani >nenoa, domesticated pig; jani 
kampang, wild (or jungle) pig. 

to pick up (something that has fallen), 
lay hold of, catch hold of, to reach ; 
japai rotiy hand me the bread. 

seldom, rarely (adv.j, scarce, uncommon 
(adj.). 

hand. 

far, distant, long way. 

to sacrifice, slaughter, immolate (for a 
superstitious purpose). 

a species of spiny palm. 

a climbing animal (monkeys, &c.), tree- 
walking animals, 

ultimately, by and bye, subsequently, 
some other day, some future occa- 
sion. 

as much as can be taken up between the 
points of fingers and thumb. 

big bottle. 

to dry in sun, put out to dry. 

to reach for, fetch, get, pick up (a thing 

that has dropped), touch, 
to bend into an arch (as smambu for teladok 

prau)y to force into a circular shape, 

bend round, arch, 
to push, 
senseless, imbecile, ignorant ; kami iban 

jugau penapat, umpai tulih ka akal^ we are 

as ignorant as can be, we do not yet 

understand, 
a jutting out, promontory, 
lofty (prau). 
pointed ; jurieng mata^ sharp sighted. 



to, for, and also to express numerical 

order, e.g. sa^ dua, tiga, i, 2, 3 ; ka sa, ist; 

ka dua, 2nd ; ka tiga, 3rd. 
to want, wish, desire, 
just now, at present, 
skull, cranium, 
company, clan ; samoa kaban kalieng kami, 

the whole of our tribe. 
chiH, capsicum, bean, 
wish, desire ; nama kadeka ati nuan ? what 

is your wish ? 



XVI. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sea Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



kadua-kadua 



kaiang 
kaiau, ngaiau 

kaioh, ngaioh 

kaiu 

kak 

kaki 

kala 



kala 

kalah, ngalah 



kalalu 

kaleman 

kalia 

kalieng 

kaliti 
kamah 
kaniaia ? 

kamarau 

kamari 

(ari kamari) 
kambut 
kamerieng 
kami 
kampong 

kanan 



separu-separu i 
skeda-skeda [ 



berkaiyuk 

kayu 

gagah 

kaki 

kala 



berbalik 

(also pusing) 



telaluk 
petang 
mans6a 



dengan 

kupak 

kotor 

bila? 



kamarau 

kamarin 

kandi 
ngerin 
kita 
utan 

kanan 



some others ; half- half ; kadua nginti kadua 
nyumpit, some are angling, others shoot- 
ing with the blow pipe ; nginti enda lama 
hulih ikan mengalan^ we were not long 
fishing and we caught a nungalan fish ; 
nyumpit enda lama bulih jelu jangJnt^ we 
were not long shooting and we got a 
janghit; kadua uda, kadua bedau^ some we 

I have, got, some we have not yet got. 

i undecided ; agi kaiang^ irresolute. 

to go on the war-path, make war ; a war- 
path, expedition, campaign. 

to paddle. 

wood. 

a crow (bird). 

foot. 

ever do, ever have ; kala nuan, do you ever, 
have you ever; etida kala^ never; enda 
kala, never do, never have. 

the scorpion. 

to turn round, turn on one side, change 
one's position, reverse ; kalah kitu, turn 
round this way, to decline, set, go down 
(sun), to slope, slant ; bekalah, to change 
places ; de na ngalah ka orang, to want to 
obtain the superiority over others; to 
put in the wrong. 

excessive, too far; bangat kalalu, quite too 
much. 

dark (night) ; ari nyau kaleman, the day has 
become very dark, i.e. moonless. 

of old, ancient, former, of yore, once upon 
time ; adat kalia, ancient cu.<>tom ; ari 
kalia, from old times. 

companion ; samoa kubu kalieng kami, all our 
followers and companions. 

to peel off (skin). 

dirty. 

when ? kamaia kabua dia ? how is the fort 
getting on ? kamaia nuan datai dia ? when 
did you get there ? 

dry weather, drought, spell of hot weather, 
the dry monsoon. 

yesterday ; limai 'mart, yesterday evening. 

satchel. 

tiger fly. 

we ; kami menoa, we, in contrast to others. 

old jungle, primeval forest [kyan tuan, 

virgin forest), 
right (distinct from left). 



Sea Dyaky Malay and English Vocabulary. 



xvii. 



Sea Dyak. 



kandong, 
ngandong 

kang 

kangau, 
ngangau 

kantok 

kapa? 

karau 

kasih 

kasumbar 

kati 

katong, 
ngatong 



kebah-kra 
kebok 
kebut 
kedil 
kelaiang, 
nglaiang 

kelala 
kelaung, 

nglaung 
kelimat 

kelui, ngelui 



kembai 
kembuan 



kempang 



kempat 



kendua (contr. 

kami dua) 
kenyalang 
kenyilieng 

b 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



buntien , pregnant (woman, corn, &c.), to get into 

I the family way, to get with child, 
kandar i pubes. 

tunggah I to call, shout, call out. 

shoots, 
apa sebab ? why ? what for ? 

glap dark, dusty, misty, &c. ; agi karau-karau, 

I while it is still deep twilight, 
kasih to have pity on, be kind enough, 

kasumbar soubriquet, 

apa kati, what ? indeed, affirmative ; katipemesai 

rerga, what is the price ? 
angkat * I lift, remove, carry ; dua ikan, aku katong, 

I I carry off two fishes ; end' alah katong, 
I tuboh sepuloh, ten men could not lift it; 
katong ka rumah, katong ka ruai, carry it up 
to the house, carry it up to the verandah, 
tegal wherefore? therefore, 

tempayan a small earthen jar. 

gago to stir, bother ; anang kebut, don't bother, 

tebal dense (population), stout (cloth), 

nebrang to cross over (from one side to another) ; 

I I tumu aku kelaiang kitu, I came across 

I ' quite early. 

I kanal I to recognize, to know again. 

i larang to pass over ; aku nggai nglaung jaku tuan, 

I will not cross the words of the tuan, 
I taroh to save, keep for by and bye ; kadua ktlimat 

j makai, some of it keep to eat by and bye. 
limpas I to pass ; tya udah di kalui kami, we have 

I passed that ; superior to, surpass, past, 
I beyond ; ari chapi nglui, ari rusa ngelui, 
I pork is superior to beef, &c., to excel, 
I exceed, 
kembang swollen, to swell. 

pake, simpan to keep, treasure ; bifida tunggu enda tau di 
I kembuan, k6 tuan, the fine cannot be kept 
I the tuan says. 

to feel it in one, feel up to a thing, feel 
competent to ; kempang nuan munoh orang ? 
do you think you could kill a man ? 
Dini aku kempang fianggoftg umai pangan 
' diri! how can I take my companion's 
, farm ! etida kempang, not up to it. 
letas I to cut through ; kempat bok, to trim the hair ; 

kempat teladok, to sever; kempat iiang, to 
cleave a post, 
we two. 

kinchallang rhinoceros hom-bill. 

I green beetle (chrysochroa). 



XVIU. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sea Dyak. 


Malay 
(Colloquial). 


kepit 


! 


kerukor 


kurungan, 




sangkar 


kesa 


krengga 


kesai, ngesia 


keboh 


kesat 


sedjok 


ketas, ngetas 


kerat 


ketau, ngetau 


ngatam, 




berinah 1 


ketawa 


tertawa 


ketieng 


puki 


kia 


kasia 


kiba 


kiri 


kibong 


klambu 


kilah, ngilah 


blakang, bekas 


kilat 


kilat 


kikil 




kimbiet, 


pelok 


ngimbiet 




kini? 


kamana ? 


kini (amang) 


barang kali 


kitai 




kitu 


ka-situ 


klabu 




klai 


tanda 


klambi 


baju 


klau 


utap 


klingkang 




koiyu 




kran 


kuat 


krawang 


alun 


krebak, 


silak 


ngrebak 




krembai, 


ampar 


ngrembai 




kresa 


barang, herta 


kresiek 


pasir 


kretum 


empighit 


krieng, ngrieng 


; kras 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



to squeeze, jam, squeeze in between, 
cage. 

red ant. 

to splash (of water), brush away, ward off, 

to shake (mat, blanket), 
chilly, 
to sever, 
to reap, gather in the harvest. 

to laugh, laugh at. 

cHtoris. 

thither ; anang kia^ don't go there. 

left (contrasted with kanan, right.) 

curtain. 

behind, next to ; kilah kitu, there and here ; 
kilah nya, after that, next to that ; kilah 
ngetau^ after the harvest ; ngilah bukitj 
behind the hill, beyond, &c. ; kilah ensana, 
the day before, day before yesterday. 

lightning. 

wart. 

to embrace, cuddle. 

where to ? kini ka nuan P nok sini kau ? 
where are you off to ? whither away ? 

perhaps so ; pia kini ! may be. 

we, our, us (inclusive of person addressed). 

hither ; kitu nnan enda lanu^ come you here 
a minute. 

grey. 

token, mark, sign, pattern, mould. 

coat, jacket. 

shield. 

hoop. 

cheek. 

to be eager ; enti iya bangat kran nan kapalay 
nadai jaku, if he is very eager in with- 
holding the head, never mind. 

passage, channel. 

to part open (curtains), to lift up (petticoat), 
to open letter (box), to lift open, uncover, 
lift the cover, remove the lid (bintangj, 

to unfold, spread out (casting net), krembai 
ka kajang, to spread (an awning) ; krembai 
ka sural y open out the book. 

personal property ; anak kresa utai, small 
articles of property. 

sand. 
! bug. 

hard, powerful ; ngrieng, to prepare for ; 
krieng rekong, stiff necked. 



Sea Dyak, Malay and English Vocabulary. 



XIX. 



Sea Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial), 



krimpak 
kroh 
krubong 
krukoh 



maringka 
karoh 

krukoh 



Kuan 

kubal 

kudi, ngudi, jai, 


binchi 


rosak 




kukok, ngkukok 


kokok 


kukut 


kuku 


kumbai, 


panggil 


ngumbai 




kunye 


gigit 


kusi, ngusi 


kupak 


kusieng 


kluang 


kusil, ngusil 


getil, ngetil 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



fragment, piece of brass or earthenware. 

muddy (water). 

skull. 

scrub (one year's growth ; kyan bale, first 

year's growth after harvest). 
I wrist ; mesai kuan^ as big as the wrist. 
India-rubber; 
cursed, to hate, detest; kudi aku meda^ I 

hate to see it. 
a cock's crow, to crow, 
claws, nails, 
to think, fancy, imagine, suppose, to call; 

orang ngumbai nuan, someone is calling 

I you. 

I to chew, bite, swallow, masticate, chaw 
I up (dogs). 

; to skin, flay, peel ; nunoa nyau kusi, the 
\ country is worn out, worked out. 

bat. 

to pick (flowers or leaves, &c.). 



laban 



labang 


putch 


laboh 


jatoh 


labong 


dultar 


ladong 


1 selabit 


lagi 


iila 


laia 


bichara 


laja 


lajah 


laki 


laki 


lali 


trima 


laloh 


lebih 


lama 


lama 


lancham. 




nglancham 




landai 


rata 


landiek 


pannai 


lang 


menaul 


langgai 




langgu 




langkang 


kring 


langkau 


dango 



owing to; anti ai langkang nadaijalai fnerau 
laban bah, wait till the water is shallow, 
there is no road for the boat owing to 
the freshet. 

white ; manok labang, white fowl ; lang 
labang, white kite. 

to fall. 

head-covering, cap. 

a pack-basket. 

by-and-bye, presently. 

quarrel, dispute, case ; laia empa uhue, a 
frivolous dispute; emparu laia, adjust a 
dispute. 

a sumpit dart. 

husband, man, male. 

to receive, accept, harbour. 

more, over, in excess. 

long (time). 

to point (a pencil, stake). 

inclined only very slightly. 

clever, ready ; landiek bejaku, to speak 

fluently ; to be a dab at talking, 
a kite or kestrel, 
the long tail feathers of a bird (matwk, tagai) 

as opposed to pumpun, the shorter tail 

feathers of a bird, 
a pendant ; langgu ting^a, ear-pendants, 
shallow, dried up ; ai langkang, low water, 
hut ; langkau umai, farm house. 



XX. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sea Dyak. 


Malay 
(Colloquial). 


English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 


lanji 




a basket of a certain size ; sa lanji braUy a 
package of rice. 


lanjut 


Ian jar 


distended (breasts). 


lansiek 


tnis 


clear (sight). 

free irom trouble ; leisure, convenient, 


lantang 


senang 






comfortable. 


lapang 


padang 


an opening, open space. 


lari 


lari 


to run away, escape, to take off, away; 
lari kajari de, to take your hand away ; 
lari ka labong, off with you, &c. 


latak 


latak 


mud, muddy. 


lauang, pintu 




door. 


laun 


lambat 


long (time), late (opposite to early). 


laut 


malayu 


the sea ; the Malay word for sea is laut ; 
the Malays came from the sea and were 
therefore called by the Dayaks orang laut. 


lebu 


nasib jahat 


unsuccessful, without success, in vain, to 
no purpose, fruitless, disappointed. 


leboh 




point of time, when. 


leka, meleka 


lepas 


to let go, drop hold of. 


leka 


bighi 


sa leka jako, a single word, a seed, grain ; 
sa leka (one seed) ; leka pluru, a bullet. 


lelak 


lelah 


tired. 


lelang 


menahun 


to sojourn, wander. 


lelang 




to wander away, stray ; nyangka iya lelang, 
it may wander away, to roam. 


lemai 


lebah-hari 


evening. 


lemai-mari 




yesterday evening. 


leman 


bangsa 


customs, rites, details. 


lembaian 




wall plate ; lembaian langit, centre beam ; 
lembaian rumah, wall plate of house; 
lembaian kajang, support of kajang. 


lembau 


malas 


disinclined, to have no inclination for, 
indisposed. 


lemi 


lemout 


soft, weak, feeble. 


lempong 


ringan 


light (weight). 


lempuang 


abong-abong 


lung. 


lengan 


lengan 


the arm, lower arm, fore-arm ; mesai buah 
lengan, as large as the biceps. 


lengis 




smooth, without irregularities; paraiambis, 
all dead ; parai lengis, all dead smoothed 
out. 

sword-rack. 


lengkiang 




lepong 




swell. 


lesong 


lesong 


mortar in which rice is pounded. 


limpang, 




to turn aside, wander from the direct path, 


nglimpang 




take a wrong turning ; samoa jako tuan 
aku nggai nglimpang, I will not go beyond 
what the tuan says. 


lindap 


lindang 


shady, sheltered ; menoa lindap, shady 
district. 


lingkau 




a species of corn known as "Job's tears." 



Sea Dyak, Malay and English Vocabulary. 



XXI. 



Sea Dyak. 


Malay 
(Colloquial). 


lintan 




lis 


halus 


lita 


rabi 


lobah 


lambat 


lubok 


lubok ^ 


lulong, 

nglulong 
lulup 
lumat 


kaliling 
alus 


lumiet 




lumpong 


butih 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



lunchong 

lungat (?) 

lungau 

lungga 

lupat 

lupong 

lus 



mi 
magang 

maia 



maiau 
maioh 
makai 
mail 



malik 

manang 

manchal 



jalor 

bodoh 

pisau 

lusa 

lengis 



sikutan 



uaktu 



pusa 
banyak 
makan 
pamali 



malik 
gauk 



tripe. 

fine, thin. 

scar, mark. 

slow. 

pool. \ 

to surround, encircle ; lulong rumah, to 
encircle the house. 

touch -wood. 

fine (minced). 

rawai, women's body ring ornaments. 

a length, piece, log; brapa lumpong (kaiu 
apt) bedau, how many lengths of fire- 
wood ? sirat sa lumpong, not quite the 
length of a waist cloth ; sago dua lumpong, 
two lengths of sago (wood) ; lumping 
jari, a hand length ; lumpong kaki, a foot 
length. 

a small canoe or dug-out. 

slow. 

stupid. 

knife. 

the third day after to-morrow. 

medicine-case. 

all gone, clean gone, none left ; kati buah, 
bedau mtnoa kita? how about fruit, have 
you any still up your way ? nadai nyau 
lus, no, none, all gone ; parai ambis lus, al 
dead, not one left ; lus Batang Merandong 
art nanga nyintok ka entighis, throughout 
the length of the river Merandong, from 
mouth to source. 



load, burden (carried on the back), verb. 

to carry on the back. 

entirely, all ; ktta bedau dia magang ? are 

you still here all of you ? kajang magang, 

all hajangs, 

! time ; maia dia, about this time of day ; 

I kati maia taun kita ? benong nugal, lit. 

I what tune is your year, in the middle of 

planting ? 
I cat. 

I many, plenty, 
to eat, feed. 

tabu-ed, unlawful (opp. to lawful), pro 
hibited (opp. to permitted), mayn't (opp. 
to may) ; mali bula, may not lie ; mali 
rari, may not run away, 
to look at, glance towards, 
a medicine-man. 
mischievous. 



XXll. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sea Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



niandieng 
mangah 
manok 
mansang 



I tampak 
marah 



aiyam 
surong 



mansau 

manyi 

mar 

marik 

mata 


masak 
lanyi 
mahal (?) 
manit 
mata 


matang 




mata panas 

mau 

mauieng 

mebintang 

meda 

mekang 


mata hari 

marak 

benkok 

malintang 

meliat 

alang 


melepu 
mengalan 
menggi, enggi 
mengkang 
menoa 


timbul 

akun 
kekal 
negri 


mentas 
mentudi 
menya, 
contr. from 


dudi 

dulu kamari 


maya nya 
menyad6, made 


beradik 


menyaua 




mepan 

merarau 

merenieng 

merinsah 


pakaian,sinjata, 
pekakas 

ningok 
susah, sakit 


merong 
meruan 


kawang 
kekal 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



prominent, showy, attractive ; mandieng 
jako^ ostentatious talk. 

hot-tempered, quick-tempered, passion- 
ate, fierce, vindictive. 

fowl ; nianok sabongy game-cock, fighting- 
cock, champion. 

to go ahead, commence, advance, move 
forwards ; at mansang, to rise, of water ; 
ayer naik, opposed to surut, to fall ; 
mansang bumaiy commencement of farm- 
ing; orang or anak biak mansang bharu, 
the rising generation. 

ripe (fruit, &c.), red (colour). 

bee ; at manyi, honey. 

difficult, opposite to muda ; expensive. 

bead 

eye ; lansitk mata, clear sight ; rabun mata, 
dim sight ; tajam mata, keen sight. 

to continue to, persist, keep on ; iya matang 
minta, he keeps on asking. 

sun, 

api nggai mau, the fire will not burn. 

crooked. 

cross ways (opposed to unjor, length ways). 

to see, perceive, observe. 

insufficient, not worth while ; mekang art, 
not enough time. 

to float, buoyant. 

a kind of fish. 

to own, to belong to. 

lasting, still. 

country, region, district, place, home, 
abode ; isi menoa orang menoa, the people 
of the country are; kami metwa, we in 
contrast to others. 

kind. 

to be behind, follow behind. 

before (time) ; some time ago. 



brother, sister ; anak menyade, nephew or 
niece. 

to take breath ; sakali menyaua, a single 
breath. 

costume, equipment, accoutrement ; nyelai 
mepan, a different costume. 

to make a mid-day meal, to dine. 

to peep at, peep over, to look at. 

suffering, uncomfortable, unpleasant, tire- 
some. 

to howl (dog). 

lasting, still. 



Sea Dyak, Malay and English Vocabulary. 



XXlll. 



Sea Dyak. ! 



Malay 
(Colloquial.) 



merunsai 

merurut 

mersap 

mesai, 

contr. from 
pemesai 

mimit 



mimpi 
minta 



mmyarai 

misah 

mit 

moa 

mo-ari 



mrau 

mri 

mubok 



muda 

mudah 

mudik 

munchol 

munoh 

munsoh 

muntang 



munyi 
murai 



nabau 



naga 
nakal 



nama 
nama ? 
nampik 

nanga 



membiika 

sessat 
tangah 

sedikit 



mimpi 
minta 



tuka 
kechil 
muka 
pengarak (?) 



kasih 
buka 



muda 

mudah 

mudik 

buku 

bunoh 

musoh 

mintas 



berbunyi 



tahan 



nama 
apa ? 



muara 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



to unfold, unwrap, take off the wrappers, 
to sHp, slide, to come undone (clothes), 
astray, to wander astray, lose one's way. 
size. 



a little of quantity, slightly (adv.), (adj.), 

small, little, few ; mimit 'da, nearly ; 

mimit 'da aku parai, a very Httle longer 

and I shall be dead, 
to dream, 
to ask for, and in a religious sense, to 

pray for ; minta ari, to pray for dry 

weather, 
a kind of gong, 
to alter. 

small, little in size, young, 
face, mouth, front, 
rain-cloud, lowering clouds, storm-cloud, 

cloudy sky. 
travel by water (boat), to boat, 
to give, 
to settle ; mubok nunoa, to open up a 

country, be the first to colonize it and 

settle in it. 
young, tender, 
easy. 

to ascend (river), 
a knob, 
to kill, 
enemy, foe. 

I to cut across (country) ; ari kanan muntanfi 
' kajikangy take a short cut on the right : 

muntang tanjongy cut across the river bend. 
; to sound. 
i (of paddy) the stage when the corn begins 

to form. 



a snake of mythology; ular sawa tai nabau , 
the sawa is the excrement of the nabau ; 
, sawa is the python. 
' dragon. 

I to endure, suffer ; maioh nyamoh aku etida 
I nakal enda bikibong, there are so many 
I mosquitoes I cannot endure being with- 
I out a curtain. 

a name. 

what ? 

nampik nggau latak, to splutter with mud, 
pitch mud at. 

mouth of river. 



XXIV. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sea Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



nanyeng 

nekong 

nempoh 



nemuai 
ni, dini ? 
nikal 

ninga 
ninting 



ngaba bau 



pingingat 
keti 



mana, seni ? 
balik 



dingar 
sabilang 



ngabang 
ngadang 


jaga 


ngagai, nggai 




ngantok 
ngapa 




ngaru 

ngau 

ngaua (root 
gaua, to do 
something). 


garu 


ngelai, klai 

ngeli 

ngema 

ngemilut 

ngenong 

ngentam 

ngelalau 

ngelambai 


ngobe 
changok 
tolong 
ambil madu 


ngelaua 
ngeliat 
ngeluar 
ngentang 


mengagar 
kapada, arah 



indu nanyeng, a kind of wasp. 

to knock, to strike a light, knock at a door. 

to overwhelm, to attack with overwhelm- 
ing numbers; leboh moari nempoh kubu, 
when the clouds are overhanging the fort. 

to visit, pay a visit. 

where ? 

to turn back, double, return to the original 
point of starting, to fold over. 

to hear. 

each, every ; ninting taun, each year ; 
ninting rumahy every house; ninting ari, 
each day; ninting tuhoh^ every body, 
person. 

to smell of bad or good (breath); nyaua 
de ngaba bau sema, your breath smells 
like a sema fish ; bau ngaba, a strong scent. 

to go to a feast. 

to look out, be on the watch, to expect ; 
ngadang! look out (premonitory); enda 
ngadang nuan datai, I did not expect you 
to come. 

to go towards ; bejalai ngagai nuan, to go 
off to you. 

to nod (drowsy). 

in vain, without result ; iya bejalai ngapa he 
went in vain ; kerja ngapa, useless work. 

to scratch. 

to say yes, consent, agree. 

to hurt, bother, worry, annoy, trouble, 
ail, to mind, to interfere with ; nama 
ngaua ka iya, what ails him ? what's the 
matter with him ? anang takut, nadaiorang 
ka ngaua ka nuan, don't be afraid, no one 
will do anything to you. 

to picture, to mark. 

tooth, fang. 

to carry on back. 

to make faces, make a grimace. 

to look hard at. 

to succour, aid. 

to gather honey. 

to light up ; baka kilat ngelambai petang, like 
lightning lightens up in darkness. 

to approach. 

to stretch oneself (on awakening). 

to go beyond, to go outside. 

the Latin apud, at ; iya diau ngentang kami, 
he lives with us ; nanya ngentang iya, ask 
him ; utang ngentang aku mudik ngentang 
nuan, but ask me to go up and be at 
your place. 



Sea Dyak, Malay and English Vocabulary, 



XXV. 



Sea Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



Dgeraiap 
ngerantam 
ngerara 
ngerejang 



ngetu 
ngiar 



garu 

melarang 

masok 



berhenti 
buru 



ngidup 



idup 



to 
to 
to 
to 



to 
to 



to 



crawl (baby) on hands and knees, 
rebuke, reprimand, forbid, 
scratch (with nails, claws), 
penetrate ; ambi at nggo ngerejang lubang 
sumpit, fetch some water with which to 
wash through the sumpit. 
wait, stop. 

compel, cause, excite, urge, press, 
drive, to scatter ; ngiar ka iyapiilai, urge 
him to go away. 

keep alive, provide for, to nurse (a sick 
person) ; ngidup ka nyaua^ to save life. 



ngili ai 


hilir 


to descend a river. 


ngimbai 




to lie alongside, side by side. 


ngimbi 


kasih 


to give. 


nginjun 


gregar 


to tread heavily, shake with one's stamp ; 
nginjun bilik, to shake the room. 


nginsah 




to drag (a person by the heels). 


nginti 


ngail 


to angle. 


ngip6 


lempah 


to boil. 


ngosong 


agar 


to arrive at, to visit ; enggai aku ngosofig de, 
I will not visit you. 


ngramak 


garu 


to scratch (nails). 


ngranggar (a 


melanggar 


to collide with. 


corruption 






from Malay) 






ngrembang 




to hold on to grass or trees in descending 
a hill. 


ngrimbas 




to graze (of a bullet grazing one's flesh), 
to fester. 


ngoyum 




nguang 


presca 


to reconnoitre, explore, to pursue. 


nguiyo (root 




to suck. 


kuiyo, the 


, 




cheeks) 






ngimdan 




to follow behind, to be according to ; 
ngundan tajau, to come after a jar. 


ngutap 


kulit 


to bark (a tree). 


niang 


ramula 


late (deceased). 


ninyok 




to pry, peep through. 


nuan 


kit a, kau 


you (singular number). 


nubai 
nuba 


menuba 


to tuba, see tubai. 






nelap 




kind. 


nusok 


1 


to string ; nusok inarik, to string beads ; 



nya 

nyadi 
nyamai 



itu 

I 

jadi 
nyaman 



I 



nusok engkrimok, to string leaves together, 

to thread, stitch, 
that there ; bri nya ka akUy give that to 

me ; anang ngaga nya, don't do that ; 

ari nya, from there, 
to create, 
nice, pleasant, agreeable, comfortable. 



XXVI. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sea Dyak. 



Malay 

(Colloquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



nyamok 

uyampau ! 

nyancla 

nyandih 

nyangkar 

nyau 

nyaua 



nyaiik 
nyau ka 



nyelai 



nyelipak 
nyen 
nyepi 
nyeregu 

nyerungkong 

nygelancham 

nygensong 

nyidi 

nyingkar (sin- 
kar-^ thwarts 
of a boat) 

nyintok 



nyungkup 



padi 



nyamok 
kakan ! 



herga, suara 



pagi 
pagila 


pagi 
b6sok 


paiya 
pajoh 


krapa 
antam ; 


paku 

pala 

pambar 


paku 
kapala 


pambus, 
mambus 


micah 



lain 



nun 

cheri 

berdidi 



bersiol 

ikut 

mebintang 



sampai 



paddi 



; kaparat 



mosquito. 

how ! 

to borrow. 

to lean upon, lean one*s back against. 

to cage. 

gone, become ; menoa nyau kusiy the country 

is lost, 
(i) life, voice breath; (2) worth, value; 

bidai nyaua , value of mat ; dinga nyaua 

aku ngiar China^ hear my voice, drive 

away the Chinaman, 
to dip and fill (water gourds), 
nearly ; nyau ka lama, after a while, after 

some time ; nyau ka datai da, almost 

come, 
diflferent ; orang nydai bulu, men of a 

different race ; nyelai mepan, diflferent 

costume, 
to creep past, 
yonder. 

to feel, to taste, 
to bristle ; hulu de nyeregu asai buah nangka, 

your hair bristles like jack-fruit, 
to sit with the arms across the knees and 

the chin resting on them, 
to sharpen, point (a stake or post), 
to whistle, 
to track, 
athwart ; hatang match nyingkar sungai, a 

great many trees lie across the river. 

until, down to, up to ; nyintok ka dia, till 
now ; ari tauas nyintok ka malam, from 
daylight till dark. 

cf. sungkup. 



paddy (rice in husk) ; padi sumbar, half 
ripe paddy. 

morning. 

to-morrow ; tumu pagila, early to-morrow 
morning ; lemai pagila, to-morrow even- 
ing. 

swamp. 

to slip into ; parai di pajoh lang, dead from 
slipping into a chasm. 

fern (edible fern). 

head ; antu pala, head taken in war. 

scattered, dispersed, broken up, separated 
from. 

to break (a boil), to burst, to scatter, &c., 
as pambar. 



Sea Dyak, Malay and English Vocabulary, 



xxvii. 



Sea Dyak. 


Malay 
(Colloquial). 


English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 


pampul, 


gengam 


to clutch in one's hands ; pamptd pala, 


mampul 




to clutch at the head. 


panchur 




water-fall, a channel, drain. 


pandam 


bukut 


to hit with the fist, beat with the palm of 
the hand. 


panga 


simpang 


branch (tree, river). 


pangan 


sahabat 


kinsman, clansman, comrade, fellow to a 
pair. 


panggal 


bantal 


pillow ; any horizontal support. 


panggau 


katil 


bedstead. 


pangka, 




to strike severely. 


manka 






pangkal 




scrub, young jungle. 


pangkang, 




to live near, in neighbourhood of ; nggai 


mangkang 




akii mangkang kubu, I will not live near 



tuku, gual 



pangkong, 

mankong 
panjai 
panjong, 

manjong 
pansa, mansa 
pansap, mansap sirap 
pansut, mansut kaluar 



panjang 
triak 

lalu 



pantang. 



lantak 



pantok,mantok , gigit 



pantu 
pantup 




rhumbia 
kena 


papal, mapal 
parai 


mati 


pati 
patok 
patong 
paung 




simpang 

patok 

patong 


peda, meda 
pedis 


meliat 
sakit 



the fort ; adu ha lembaian kajang harang 
ka mangkang, arrange the horizontal 
side support of the kajang whoever is 
nearest ; enda kala hebuah sakumbang 
kami bepangkangy it never fruited as long 
as we lived there, 
to strike. 

long. 
I to shout, scream, yell, whoop ; a yell, &c. 

pass by. 

to slice off, scrape off. 

to emerge from, come .out of, issue from, 

exude, 
to drive in (nail), to prick, to puncture, 

sting ; pantang nyamok, mosquito pricks ; 

auak iya pantang, let it bite you. 
to dart at, shoot out (snakes), the young 

shoots of various plants, young leaves 
not yet opened out. 
wild sago tree, 
to hit, overtake, strike, knock against, 

come into contact with, 
to clip off, to pare off. 
to die, dead ; parai nyaua, dead of the 

breath ; parai antu, dead of the spirit ; 

parai nyabong, dead with regard to cock 

fighting, 
branch (river, tree), 
i beak (of bird) ; patok ketieng, clitoris, 
knee, 
a shoot, a cutting for planting; paung 

mulong, sago cutting, 
to see 
to hurt, sore ; pedis prut, stomach-ache. 



XXVUl. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sea Dyak. 



pedil, medil 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



tahan 
bhagi 



pedua 

pejulok 

pekat pesan 

pelaba, nglaba ' jangka 



pelieng,melieng I gulong 



pelimping 

pelulong 

pemadu 

pemai 

pemakai 

pemanah 

pemandi 

pemangah 

pemanggai 

pemanjai 

pemanyak 

pemarai 

pemedis 

pemegai 

pementi 

pemerap 

pemesa 



pemesai 

pemidick 

pemintas 

pern rat 

pemuput 

penabin 

penagang 

penama 
penapat 



penatai 
penawan 



pesaghi 



pesaka 

makan 
I elok, chanteh 



panjong 

baniak 
i kamatian 
I kasakitan 
i pegang 

' pemelok 



besar 

nasib 

pintas 

kabratan 

kipas 

demmum 



nama 
benar-benar 



I asal 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



to detain ; kapa dS medil ka utai aku ? why 

do you detain my goods ? 
to divide, 
to nick-name, 
order, command, 
to guess, surmise, conjecture ; enda aku 

fiemu pelaba^ I cannot venture to make 

a guess ; aku pelaba ngapa, a mere guess, 

surmise ; enti nemu pelaba^ if one might 

venture to guess, 
to wind round ; mdieng ai, to follow the 

windings of the river ; aku nggai bepeliengj 

I don*t want to go a round about way ; 

Ufnai aku pelieng umai iya ; my farm goes 

round about his farm, 
having angles ; pelimping, four angles -- 

square, 
to surround, encircle, to beat into a ring 

(deer, &c.). 
end, in order of time ; pemadu rumah, end 

of houses, last house, 
inheritance, heritage, that which one 

brings, 
food, 
beauty, 
bathing-place. 

asperity, fierceness, ferocity, 
a rest, a shelf, 
length. 

quantity, number, 
manner of death or cause of death, 
illness. 

a handle, thing to hold by. 
a tabu, 
girth, 
quantity ; pemesa ai pemesa arak, how much 

water, how much arak ? pemesa nuan 

tungga iya ? how much do you fine him ? 
size (sub.), 
fortune, luck, 
a short cut, a cut across, 
weight, 
a fan. 
sickness. 

a stopper, preventive ; penagang ari, some- 
l thing to prevent the rain, 
name. 
I as well as one is able ; dua ari mudik penapat 

ingaty remember with might and main, 
I in two days we go up river. 
I origin. 
I harpoon, barbed javelin, fish-spear. 



Sea Dyaky Malay and English Vocabulary, 



XXIX. 



Sea Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



pendai 

pendiau 

pendieng 



penebal 

penedat 

peneka 

penelap 

penembu 

penemu 

pengabang 

pengamat 

pengapus 



pengaroh 
pengawa 
pengeraja 



tepian, jilatong 
telinga 



blantan 
nafsu 



habis 
bijak Sana 



kreja 



pengerang 

penggau pake 

penggi, menggi 

pengiong 



pengki 



penglantang 
pengorang 
pengrieng 
pengrujak 


korang 

kuat 

pengantar 


penguan 
penindok 


bilik tidor 


peninggi 




peninjau 
penti, bepenti 




penuai 

penudah 

penuduk 


umor 
j dudi 
krusi 


penyadi 




penyalah 


ka salahan 



wharf. 

abode, place of residence. 

ear ; lubang pendieng, orifice of the ear ; 
anang tihip lubang pendieng, don't close 
the orifice of the ear ; iinsa pendieng, 
ear-drops. 

thickness. 

a cudgel, bludgeon, staff, truncheon. 

wish, pleasure, desire. 

kindness, good-nature. 
' end, finish, conclusion, completion. 

knowledge, understanding. 

an invited guest at a feast. 

truth, genuineness. 

extinction, exhaustion, end, finish ;/>^w^a/^s 
menoa, throughout the country ; pengapus 
at, throughout the river; pengapus nlu, 
throughout the highlands. 

a charm. 

work, business, occupation. 

source of wealth, means of subsistence, 
means : aku nadai jai ati enggau laut 
enggau China iya anjong pengeraja kitai, 
I have no ill feeling against the Malays 
and Chinese, they bring us wealth. 

secondary jungle, which must be cut down 
with the biltong and not the duku. 

to wear, use ; anang di penggau, don't wear it. 

to own, possess, to appropriate ; sapa 
menggi ? who owns this ? 

vedette, picket ; pengiong bala, advance 
guard, scout ;prau pengiong, reconnoitring 
boat. 

firm, as opposed to lemi, soft ; pengki isi, 
firm flesh. 

leisure, ease, convenience. 

deficiency. 

strength, hardness. 

a ramrod. 

succour, reinforcements, pursuit. 

bed-room, bed-stead. 

height. 

vice, prospect. 

forbidden, proscribed, tabu-ed, tabu, 

age, how old ? 

last. 

seat, chair. 

condition ; kati baka penyadi padi kita taun 
tu? what is the condition of your padi 
this year ? natna penyadi tua ? what is to 
become of us two ? 

fault, crime, ofTence, misdemeanour. 



XXX. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sea Dyak. 


1 MALAY 

(Colloquial). 


penyampau ! 


kakan ! 


penyangkai 


pengkalan 


penyauh 


1 


penyurieng 




pepat 


api-api 


pepat, mepat 


chin chang 


peraka, meraka 




perejok, 


melompat 


merejok 




perenieng, 


preksa 


merenieng 


, 


perok, merok 


prah 


perong 


' merong and 




kawang 


pesemaia 


, perjanjian 


pesok 


bubus 


petiinggal 


, suku pupu 


pichal, michal 


pichit 


pinchai, 


pegang, simpan 


minchai 




pindah, mindah 


pindah 


pinggai 


pirieng 


pinjar 


suapang 


pipis 


nipis 


pisa 


bisul 


pisah, misah 


ubah 


pisang 


pisang 


pisang brunai 


nanas 


pisau 


suinpit 


prai 


haliis 


pransang, 




ineransang 




prengka 


pekakas 


prut 


prut 


pua kumbu 


salimut 


puchau, 




muchau 




puchonjj 




pudut (k'wit) 


rambu 


pugar 





English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



how! how much? penyampau badas, very 

good ; penyampau ka pinta ? how much 

do you ask ? 
landing-place, 
distance ; penyauh art nanga ? how far from 

the mouth of the river ? 
leader, commander; penyurieng bala, leader 

of a force, 
fire-fly. 
to chop up, mince, hash, cut into fine 

pieces, 
to cross, 
to jump, leap, bound, spring (fishes, 

animals), 
to look at, examine, inspect. 

to squeeze, to strain ; tuaky spirit. 

a howl (dog) ; di dinga perong udok, as far 

as the howl of a dog may be heard, a 

measure of distance, 
agreement, compact, 
to have a hole in. 
first cousin 
to squeeze ; pichal tusu ifidu dara, squeeze 

the breasts of girls, 
to hold, take hold of, to keep. 

to remove, to change ; mindah ka penama, 

change one's name ; pindah kresa^ to 

inherit property of a defunct, 
place, 
musket, 
thin, 
boil. 

to change (one*s name), 
plantain, 
pine-apple, 
narrow (?) 

tanah prai, friable mould, loose soil, 
a stimulant, incentive, to stimulate, urge 

on, excite ; meransang ukiie, orang, &c., 

urge on the dogs, men, &c. 
thing, effect, appliances, instruments, 

tools, toys, 
stomach, belly, 
coverlet, blanket, 
to mutter, to speak incoherently, to recite 

an incantation, 
a very small jar, small bottle, phial, 
a tassel (necklace), 
to scrub, rub ; pugar moa, clean your face ; 

pugar pinggaiy clean the plate. 



Sea Dyak, Malay and English Vocabulary. 



XXXI. 



Sea Dyak. 



pukat, 

empelawa 
pulai, mulai 

pulau 

pumpong, 

mumpong 
pumpun 



pun 

punas 
pungkang 



pungga, 

mungga 
pupu 
pupus 
puput, muput 



putieng 



rabun 
raga 
ragum 
raia 



raja 
rambai 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



sarong, 

empelawa 
balik, pulang 

pulau 



punas 
, korangan 



bueh 

habiskan 

muput 



ujong 



sebim 
pagar 
janggut 



kaia 



rambau 

rampas 
rampu 
randau 
randau 



I uaktu 



I rampas 
j timun 
I akar 



! cobweb, lit. the spider's nest. 

to go home, go back, return, to restore, 

make restitution, 
island, jungle which has a clearing round 

it. 
to cut off, dissever (head from trunk). 

the short tail feathers of a bird {tnanoky 

tajai, kinyalang) as opposed to langgai, 

the long ditto, 
reason, why ; pirn dgi aku ka, all the more 

reason I should desire it. 
sterile, barren (animal or vegetable), 
to run sliort of, be in want of ; kami enda 

kala pungkang gar am, we are never short 

of salt. 
pungga hatangy to cut a way through. 

froth, foam ; a tax. 

to finish. 

to fan, breathe upon, blow upon, be blown 
upon ; aku nyamai, puput ka ribut, I am 
comfortable when I am fanned by the 
wind. 

end, edge ; putieng rambut, p. biliong, 
p. runtah, the point of the beard, the 
edge of the axe, the end of the house. 

dim sight, blindness. 

fence. 

beard ; forceps, pincers. 

bright, festal, large ; buah raia, plentiful 
fruit season ; pasang raia, king tides ; 
jalai raia, well cleared roads, i.e. bright 
roads. 

rich, well-born, free-born, king royal. 

cock's comb ; minta manok, enti bujang baru 
tumboh rambai, ask for a fowl, if it is a 
young cock, its comb will be just 
appearing ; anti inda dara, anti laki tumboh 
rambai, if it is a young hen, we call dara, 
if a cock the comb appears ; also a 
species of fruit. 

what time: sarambau, of the same age; 
sarambau enggo aku, my contemporary. 

to despoil, sack, pillage, loot. 

cucumber. 

creeper, parasite. 

conversation, talk, conference, discussion, 
chat ; nadai uiai ka randau, nothing to 
talk about. 



XXXll. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sea Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



rangai 



rangau 
rangkah 



rangkah 

rangki 

ranjur 



ransi, ngransi 



rantau 



rarab 



salalu 



I ran to 



gugor 



rau 




raung 
rawan 


katak 
takut 


redas 


kabun 


regas 


sigat 


remang 


awan 


remaung 
rembus 


rimo 
trus 


rempah 
rendang- 
rendang 


saior 


renga 

rentap 

rentun 


ensema 

ruboh 

chabut 


renyuan 

repa 

rerak 

retak 

ribut 


reboh ? 

pesi 

kachang tandas 

angin 


rigau 




rimba 


rimba 


rimbai 


rakit 


rimbas, 




ngrimbas 
rimpak 


pitchah 



entreatingly , in a pressing, earnest manner ; 

rangai-rangai aku ngasoh iya pulai, very 

earnestly I asked him to return ; rangai- 

rangai aku ngasoh iya nganjong pufiUj very 
! pressingly I told him to pay his tax. 
i rangau-rangau, piteously. 
, lifeless ; parai rangkah^ stiff (of a corpse) ; 

nyau rangkah bangkai, the corpse has 
; become stiff. 
, greedy. 
, kima shell, 
to pass through ; kati nuan ranjur ka S'wak, 

well did you manage to get through to 

Sarawak. 
used up, bare, stript, exhausted ; udah 

rami babas, stripped of bush ; to blame, 

suspect ; takut di ransi iya, I fear to be 

blamed by him. 
a reach on a river; besabong rantau jalai, 

to meet on the way ; kami bepansa rantau 

aiy we passed each other on the river, 
to shed (hair, leaves, blossoms, horns), to 

drop (ripe fruit), 
dead leaves, drift, dead twigs, branches, 
frog. 

nervous, apprehensive, timorous, afraid, 
a sugar-cane garden, 
active ; iya regas bendar di tanah, as active 

as can be, &c. 
light fleecy clouds (not rain clouds, moari). 
tiger, 
through. 

condiments, fruit and vegetables, greens, 
completely (adv.) ; bulih bangau burak 

rendang-rendang, we caught a padi bird 

completely white, 
rheum, cold in nose, hay fever, catarrh. 

to pluck out, eradicate. 

honey-comb. 

over grown, tangled with grass and weeds. 

to open, untie (bundle or parcel), to undo. 

a kind of native bean. 

wind, breeze, gale, squall. 

maioh utai ka rigau di rumah, many things 

that noise about the house, 
a forest-clearing, 
alongside ; prau rimbai batang, the boat is 

alongside the wharf, 
to graze (a bullet the flesh). 

to break into pieces. 



Sej Dyaky Malay and English Vocabulary, 



XXXlll. 



Ska Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial.) 



hNc;i.isn, 
To^:t!ier with Mxainj»lc's of ilie use of the word. 



rindang, . lekar 

ngrindang | 



nngat j gusar 



ringin embrang 

ringka, ringkai , 



ringka 

rintai 

rintong 

rintong 

ripih 



rita 

royak 

rugin 

rujak 

rumah 

ruman 

rumbang 

rumbau 
rumpang 



rumpong 



rungan 
runtoh 



sa 

sabak, ngabak 

sabau 

sabau 



raga 
I tekoyon*; 



cherita 
rosak 
I sulok 



rumah 
puang 



masak 



bete 
tumbung 



satu 
nangis 
perch oma 
kuah 



detained, to linger, loiter, tarry, dawdle, 
delay ; riniang duduk enggan orange I 
was detained sitting with the people ; 
rindang idnp msnyadi aku sakit^ my sick 
brother still lingers ; sigi iya ngrindang 
dirty he is simply dawdling. 

angry, vexed, anger : nama ka ringat nuan ? 
what are you angry at ? 

otter. 

to weave a rattan frame-wo k or basket ; 
nya japai, mangkok di ringkai, lay hold of 
that there, the cup in the rattan-frame ; 
mati salai, maii ringkai^ die and be 
smoked, die and be caged (curse). 

a football of cane work. 

to array, set in line, arrange in order. 

a ladle. 

snail. 

aku ripih sida^ I am for them, I am on the 
other side, I am retained for the other 
side, partizan. 

news, information, intelligence. 

torn, undone. 

a species of plant, the leaves of which are 
used medicinally. 

to ram down, force down. 

house. 

the stalk ; ruman padi, which carries the 
grain. 

deserted, empty ; rumbang bilik, empty 
room. 

barren (tree fruit), sterile (soil), unfruitful. 

to wane (moon) ; rumpang ulit, to go out 
of mourning, to abolish the ulit, the 
waning moon ; rumah rumpang, to de- 
molish the house. 

to come to a head (boil) ; nyau rumpoftg 
mata, the boil come to a head ; a species 
of dried prawn. 

kapaiy as fruit. 

to fall in, tumble in, to give way ; runtoh 
langity the sky falls ; runtoh rumah ^ the 
house is falling. 



[ one (numeral). 

I to cry, scream, cry, scream (subst.\ 
bootless. 
I gravy, juice. 



XXXIV. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Sra Dyak. 



sabong, 
nyabong 



sadau 
sajalai 



sakai 

sakali 
sakang 



sakumbang 

salah, nyalah 
salai, nyalai 



I 



salam, nyalam 

salapan ) 

samilan j 

samegat 

samembai 

sampal 

sampok 

sampu,nyampu 

samujan 

san 

sanda nyanda 

sandiek 

sanentang 

sanepa 
sangka, 

nyangka 
sangkai, 

nyangkai 
sapa? 
sarang 



Malay English. 

(CuUoquial). Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



to join forces, of cocks to fight ; matwk 
sabong, a fighting cock ; at Skerang 
nyahofig Uin at Padi, the source of the 
Skerang river joins forces with the upper 
Padi river, 
padong I loft, attic, upper room. 

the one road, to be the same, to go hand 
j in hand, agree, correspond, coincide, 
1 together in company, to keep one 
1 company ; jako tiia eitda sajalai^ our 
I languages are not the same. 
I crew, hands ; pran kami nadai sakai, our 
j boat has no crew, 
sakali \ at once. 

tulak, nyilat ! to push off, ward off, keep off, repulse, to 

avert ; aku sakang pia, 1 turned off the 

' , blow ihus; iya ka mnap akit, aku sakang 

\ pia, he wanted to throw his arms round 

me, but I kept him off thus. 

as long as, all the time ; enda kala hehuah 

sakumbang kami bepangkang, never fruited 

so long as we lived near; saknmpang 

bnlan *iu, during this month. 

salah ' to find fault with, to put in the wrong, to 

I make out a case against; adj. wrong, 
sale I to smoke, dry in the smoke ; salai ikan, 

saiai kain, sal ai pal a, smoke the fish, dry 
the clothes (over the fire), smoke a head, 
bertapok to conceal, 

sambilan nine (numeral). 

soul, spirit, 
klebar butterfly. 

collectively, all together, all at once, 
ani ani the white ant. 

buka to open by fire (boat), 

burong maiat burong samujan, a bird, 
pikul to carry on shoulder, 

jame to borrow, nyanda, 

to hang round one's shoulder, slung round 

the shoulder, to carry a child on the hips. 

sebah opposite to ; belaboh sanentang rumah^ 

drop [the anchor] opposite the house. 

at the same time, simultaneous, 
tekan to imagine, suspect. 

singga, to take passage ; nyangkai manang, to take 

singgahi manang as a passenger, 

siapa ? who ? what ? 

saranof a case ; sarang ipoh, poison case ; sarang 

burong f a bird's nest ; sarang jani, a pig's 

stye. 



Sea Dyak, Malay and English Vocabulary, 



XXXV. 



Sea Dvak. 

sareba 
sari 'tu 
sarok, nyarok 



sarugan 

sebrai 

sedi 

segau 

segieng 



sskut 



selapok 
seliah, nyeliah 



selong 

semaia 
semerai, 

nyemerai 
sempurai 
sengaioh 
sepu 
serak 



serang, 

myerang 
serangkong 
serara 
serarai 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



sama-sama 
'mi had 
menumpang 



(duan sulok) 
sebrang 



sendat, selut, 
sumpit 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



kopiah 



beyanji 
nembrang 



pengayah 
tiup 



tanggong 

cherr6 

angus 



simultaneously. 

to-day. 

to take lodging; nyarok rumah orange to 
put up at somebody's house; isa akii 
nyarok orange I had better lodge with 
someone. 

a leaf of a certain plant. 

across, opposite side. 

gambier (wild). 

oratig segau-segau, idle vagabond. 

to foul (of boats) ; bfsigiatg enda blaia, not 
sailing they fouled. 

narrow, confined (space), cramped up ; 
sfkut dalaniy uneasy (in mind), unhappy ; 
sekut atij seknt dalam^ stuffy feeling from 
cold in head. 

cap. 

to run away, move out of the way or aside, 
clear out, secrete, isolate, separate ; 
kita ka mimit nyeliah orang lain titidur, if 
you will get out of the way a little bit 
the men can go on ; nyeliah kita, clear 
out of this, you ; nyeliah ka napal, get 
out of the way of, &c., to clear away 
(the things after a meal) ; badas kayoh 
mimit ulih seliah kitai, it is better that 
we paddle a little and we shall be able 
to move out of the way ; ninga rita nuan 
datai iya nyeliah ka tafiah, hearing of your 
arrival he disappeared; nyeliah kapupu, 
to move away from the tax ; nyeliah ka 
pintUy to push aside the door. 

a wire hoop, thence brass wire of a certain 
stoutness. 

to promise. 

to cross over, to swim, to visit. 

paddy, 2 or 3 years old (?). 

paddle. 

to blow (out of a blow pipe). 

a fold, a layer, an understood period, a 
generation, time ; serak dudi, next time, 
next opportunity ; serak tUy this time ; 
rumah 3 seraky 3 storied house ; klambi 
dua seraky two folds of coats, i.e., two 
coats. 

to attack. 

to take up, to become responsible for. 
to separate, part, 
scorched (by fire), parched. 



XXXVl. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak, 



Ska Dvak. 



NfALAY 

(Colloquial). 



English. 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



serta 



serungkai 


buka 


seruri, nyeruri 


baiki 


sibali ari 


sindiri ari, Iain 




hari 


sida 




siduai 


kita dua 


siga 




sigi 


sighir 


sigi 


saji 


siko 


sikor, sikor 




orang 


siku 


siku 


silau 


silau 


silau 


jerinih 


silih 
silok 


ganti 


silu 


* 


simbieng 
simbieng 
sindap 


sirong 
kelavva 


sinera 




singkap 




sintak, nyintak 


chabut 


sirat 


chawat 


siti 


sabuti 


skali 


skali 


sligi 




sua, nyua 

suah 

suba 


puas 

dulu (time), 
kamari 


subang 
subong 


krabu 
kladi 



at same time with, together with ; sapa 
1 serta niMti ? who, together with you ? 
I serta-sertiiy all together. 

to open (a bundle), unpack. 
I to mend, repair ; seruri joIj^ mend your 
I net ; seruri atap^ mend the shingles (roof). 
I of the one time ; orang sibali ari, men of 
I our own time. 

' them, those, 3rd per.<ion, plural, pronoun. 
I you two, they two, both. 
I unsafe, dangerous, unsettled, on the alert, 
i vigilant ; siga also means wild ; metwji 
sigii, wild country, jungle. 

one seed, or things resembling seeds. 

simply ; sigi pementi kami ari klia, simply 
our tahu from times gone by : sigi iya 
ngriniang diri, he is simply dawdHng. 

siko (srt, one; iko, tail) ; of all living crea- 
I tures, on: ; iya siko sapa pcnama ? what 
; is the name of the other one ? 
^ elbow. 

i bright, dazzle (of sunlight), exceedingly. 
I clear, transparent (water), the grey of 
' the morning or dusk evening ; silau 
I tauas, peep of day. 

to exchange. 

a fish (ikan silok), 

home sick ; dara siln-ilu nubong, ka nyabak, 
the girl is very home sick, does nothing 
but cry. 

crooked, on one side, aslant. 

awry, askew. 

bathing. 

a presentiment, harbinger. 

a slice, or sheet, or layer, anything which 
presents a broad flat surface ; singkap 
pinggai, one plate. 

to draw out : sintak, to unsheathe, to 
catch with a noose. 

loin cloth. 

one, of small things. 

sa-kali, one time : sa-kali da, once more ; 
skali 'da, once more, next time, once 
again ; skali nyawa, a single life. 

a wooden javelin. 

to hand, offer, present to. 

often. 

the other day, before (time), a little while 
; ago. 

ear-ring 
I kladi, cladium 



Sea Dyakf Malay and En<^lhh Vocabulary. 



xxxvii. 



Sea Dvak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



sukat 



ukur 



sulieng 
suman 
sumbar, 
nyunibar 



sumboh 



sumiet 


tighin, lok6 


sumpieng 


pasah 


sumpit, 




nyumpit 




sungai 


sungi 


sungkit. 




nungkit 




sungkup, 




hungkup 




sup 


benghah 


suruan, seruan 





surut 



taban 
tabin 

tachu 
tagang 

taia 

tajam 

taju 

taju 

takah 

takang 



surut 



rebut 
sakit 

temparong 
tahan 

kapas 

tajam 

brian (barian) 

antara 

tahan 



English. 
Togeilier wiili Kxainples of ilie use of tlie word. 



what time; to measure, the measurement, 
I the destined period ; sukat kaki, one foot 
' long ; sukat iya graij prai, sukat iya 
tabin, tabin, for the destined period of 
his time he will be well, for the destined 
period of his illness he will be ill ; sukat 
angatj angat sukat chelap, cJulap penapat 
Qugat, for the proper length of summer 
it will be hot, for the proper length of 
winter it will be cold, 
a flute, a whistle (steamer's), fife, 
well after sickness, recovered, 
to gather the first ears of padi just us they 
begin to turn ripe ; mansang sumbar, time 
for gathering first ripe padi ; nyumbar^ 
to gather the half ripe paddy ; padi 
sumbar, first ripe years of padi. 
healed, to heal, heal up ; utai sumbch, a 

curable complaint, &c. 
I stingy. 
\ peg, screw. 
I a blow- pipe, to shoot with the blow-pipe. 

river or stream which is a tributary of a 
main river. 

to insert, to pierce, prick, hence to vac- 
cinate, occulate. 

erection over a grave. 

swollen. 

mediator, interpreter, advocate, go-be- 
tween. 

to fall (opposed to mansang, to rise), water ; 
ai tu sakali mansang, enda surut, the water 
is continually rising and does not ebb. 



to seize, carry off, run away. 

ill, poorly, sick, ailing, feverish, generally 

fever, 
cocoanut-shell. 
to stop, prevent, make to stop (steamer), 

forbid, 
cotton ; klambi taia, a padded jacket or 

coat of quilted cotton, 
sharp, keen ; tajam mata, keen sighted, 
a sort of jar. 
dower, 
between, apart, a division. 



XXXVIU. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Ska Dvak. 



Malw 
(ColltKjuial). 



ENOLIbH, 

ToK«;thtT with Examples of the use of the word. 



takar sampai 



takup i 

tal (Kat.) tahan 

talar 

talun papan 

tama 

tamang poh 

tambah tarn bah 

tambai i 

tambak 

tambit 



! 

tampal, nampal tampal 
tanipang 

tampil, nampil i tampong 



tampong 



sambong 



tampun 




tanan 


utang 


tancham 


salang, lebok 


tanchang, 


ikat 


nanchang 




tanggoi 


cherindak 


tanggong, 


angkat 


nanggong 




tangkai 


tandan 


tangkal, 


tetak, jaku 


nangkal 




tangkien, 


ikat 


nangkien 




tangkir, 


grip, tinibo 


nangkir 




tangkong 




tangkup 





a measure, to measure out, until ; takor 
amhis, until finished ; takar nyaiia parai^ 
until the hour of death. 

fellow to. 

to endure, put up with, liear (pain). 

to level, smooth, a row, even line. 

plank, board. 

to enter. 

name-sake ; tamang akii siko, a name-sake 
of mine, or my other name-sake. 

to add to. 

flag. 

to transplant, a sapling, suckling, shoot, 
seedlings. 

to close up, to shut, to tie up, to fasten 
with thongs ; tambit lauang^ shut the 
door ; taw bit moa pisau, shut up the edge 
of the knife. 

to cover, to patch (a hole in curtains); 
tampal mata, cover the eyes, to bandage. 

a plant ; tawpang tebu, a shoot of sugar 
cane ; tawpang pisang, banana shoot ; 
vaccine. 

to join on, join to ; orang nampil bala, men 
just joined on to us (forces). 

to join on to, to sew on , patch, splice on to ; 
menyadih tampong pala, lit. brothers join- 
ing heads, i.e. own brothers v. cousins ; 
tampong orang jako, add to what he has 
said. 

to impale, transfix. 

debt. 

to pierce a hole in. 

to make fast, fasten, tie. 

sun hat, umbrella, sun-shade. 

to lift, raise, to become responsible for. 

bunch (fruit) ; an ear (paddy) ; jako 

betangkai, collection of opinions, 
to notch, make a note of, treaty. 

to buckle on, gird on. 

side-plank, to wall in, fence round ; tangkir 

prau, put on the side planks of the praii; 

tangkir umaiy fence in the farm, 
horn (bird) ; tangkong tajai kinalangj the 

horn on the beak of the hornbill. 
iangknp enggau jalottg^ to invert a vessel as 

a cover. 



Sea Dyaky Malay and English Vocabulary, 



XXX IX. 



Sea Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



tanjak, nanjak 

tanjong 

tansa 

tapa 

tapak 



tarang 

tasau, nasau 

tasiek 

tasih 

tatai 

tatieng 

tau 

tauar, nauar 

tauas 

tauieng, 

nauieng 
taun 



tebahy nebah 



tebieng 

tebieng 

tebu 

tedai, teda 

tegalan 

tegar 



tegian 
teguran 
tekah 
tekang 

tekap 
tekat 
tekenyit 

tekul 



pejal 
tanjong 

! tapak 
tenipat 

tarang 

tibas 

lautan 

sewar 

tebieng 



luas 



tahun 



nnjan 

i t^pi 
I tebu 
katinggalan 

I kuat 



hadat (?) 

bogo 

tarah 



I 

; tegah 
tekejut 

tahan 



I to go against an opposing force, e.g. 
I against wind or tide. 

a point (river, coast), headland, a bend in 
the river. 

tansa pendiengy ear-studs. 

palm (hand), sole (foot). 



the whereabouts ; tapak ni rumah 

where is that house ? 
brightness, light. 



nya i 



sea. 

rent, hire, tax. 

precipice. 

to weigh down, to suspend. 

to be able to, know how, may ; etida taUy 

mayn't, 
to beat down in price, 
clear, light ; path ; (opposed to repa). 
to hang on, to tow. 

year ; taun dempa, last year ; taun padi di 
sadaUy last year's paddy ; taun ka udaJi, 
last year; taun kadai, taun padi di tanahy 
present year, this year ; taun ka ewpai, 
next year ; taun siti kamari, last year ; 
taun siti ka empai, next year or year after 
next ; taun dulu kamari, year before last. 
' to play a wind instrument ; nebah suliengy 
to play the flute, to cause the steamer 
to whistle ; tebah gefuiangy to beat tom- 
tom ; tebah tauaky to beat the gong, &c. ; 
I tebah nyauay to sing. 

steep. 

shore, bank. 

sugar-cane. 

leavings, n mains, remainder, residue. 

the burnt land prepared for seed-planting. 

strong ; tegar tulang, strong, powerful ; 
tegar nyaua, a loud voice ; tegar bland a or 
blauay swift runner. 



to plane. 

adhesive, clayey, pasty ; taiuih praiy enda 
betekangy loose soil, not clayey. 

to stutter. 

to prevent, forbid, stop. 

sudden, surprised, taken by surprise, 
astonished, frightened, startled. 

crowded, confined, prevented by circum- 
stances. 



xl. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



ScEA DyAK. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



tela, nela 



tenibu 



tempalong 

tenipap 

lempelak 
tempias 
tern pong 

tempuan 

teniu, neniu 



liat 



telanjai 
telenga 


tilanjong 
terbuka 


telis 
telok 


tilis 
tilok 


telu 
tenibrawai 


' telur 
tern bang 



sudah 



i proam 

tarn par 

! 
kampong 

tempuan 



temuai, nemuai , 
temuda I teniuda 

temuku 

tengah, nengah I tengah 



tenggau 



pake 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use o' the word. 



to see, perceive ; Ula man ! do you see ! 

di tela ari jiya, to be seen (visible from 

thence), 
naked, 
to open, come undone ; breach of a rifle, 

a window, door, 
a cut, wounded, wound, 
a recess, the recess formed in the bend of 

a river ; telok sujigai^ backwater. 

egg. 

deserted dwelling, ruins, the site of an old 
habitation. 

to finish, be at an end, end, conclude, 
accomplish, have done ; pechara udah 
temhn, udah badiiy the case has been con- 
cluded, brought to an end ; enti tembu 
laiigkaUy kadua hginti kadua nyuwpit^ if the 
shed has been finished some will fish 
and some will shoot (blow-pipe) ; anti 
temhu makai kijang kitai, wait till we have 
done eating and we will start. 

to fling (ship's lead) ; parai di kcna tcji/pa- 
I long, it would be death to be hit with 
j the ship's lead. 

I the palm of the hand, to slap ; satempap^ 
a handbreadth. 

to confront. 

to beat in (rain), exposed to the storm. 
, cluster (stars), clump (trees), cluster 
I (houses). 

■ the passage in a Dyak house from end to 
, end, I he thorough-fare. 

to know, understand, to discover, find 
by accident ; nadai temu aku^ I do not 
know ; cnda temu edupy he does not know 
how to live. 

visitor, to pay a visit. 

young jungle. 

to knot : ttdah temuku ka tali^ he has knotted 
the string. 

to traverse, pass through, go between, 
follow a beaten path and figuratively 
to follow a precedent, established cus- 
tom ; anti at langkang enda tau tengah 
vieraUy jalai orang ttengah aku, wait for 
the water to ebb, there is no way 
through for the boat, go along by me. 

to use, wear ; kati udah enggau de ? have 
you done using it ? funjai sir at laka enda 
alah enggau, the loincloth is long and so 
that it cannot be worn. 



Sea Dyak, Malay and English Vocabulary. 



xli. 



Ska Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



tenggau 

tengkani 
tengkebok 
tengkira 
lengkuang 



tengok 
tepak 



tepan, nepan 



tepang, nepang 
tepanggai 

terengkah 
tiang 
tiap, niap 



I 



bersuloh, nuloh 

plihara 
lobang 
pakaian 



ins 
uaktu 



mggapp, 
numpan 



itong 



tibar kibar 

tikai I tikar 

tikal ' lipat 

tikong, nikong padain 

tikup, nikup . tutup 

timbal, nimbal jawab 

tinchin chinchin 
tindok tidor 

tinggang 



tingik 

tingkap 

tinja 

tipan 

tipok 
titi, nili 
titih, nilih 
lisi 



I tengkar 
I jatoh 



lipat 

basoh 
kupak 
ikut 
pinggir 



tisil 


gial 


tisil 


saiat 


trabii 


telabang 


trap 


trusu 


tras 


blian 


trebai 


trebang 



to torch ; tenggau enggo apt, to light up 

fire brand, 
to feed (animals), rear (fowls, pigs, fish), 
a hole. 

personal effects, effects, 
to quiver, vibrate, swing (lamp) ; hatang 

tengkuangj the lo^ sways ; lampu tenkuang- 

kuangi the lamp keeps swinging about, 
to long, yearn, desire strongly. 
tepak kawi pindah tepak iya mumh orange at 

the time that we removed, at that time 

he killed a man. 
to settle (bees), to alight, perch (birds) ; 

lupan prau orange to get into someone's 

boat, 
to bewitch, to blight (with the evil e^e). 
aground, stranded, stuck fast, run 

aground, 
fixed, settled. 

pole, post, mast ; tiang kapal, a ship's mast, 
to count up; tiap ari, every day; tiap orange 

each man. 
to cast net, to scatter (of seed), 
mat. 
to fold. 

to suppress, smother, 
to close, shut ; anang nikup pintu pendieng^ 

do not close the doors of your ears, 
to reply, answer, rhyme, 
a ring for the finger, 
to sleep, 
to fall upon ; pami tinggang kayn^ cruihed 

to death by fall of a tree, 
wrangle, quarrel, 
to tumble down, 
morsels of food that in eating get into 

hollow teeth, 
to fold, fold up; tipan pua, fold up the 

blanket, 
to lave ; hetipok moa^ to wash one's face, 
to skin, flay, peel bark of a tree, 
to follow, 
brink, edge, frontier, border, fringe, skirt 

(jungle) ; tisi menoa^ border frontier ; 

tisi langitf horizon, 
unlucky. 

I tisil gundai, to cut off. 
shield. 

j to stumble, trip, 
iron- wood, 
to fly. 



xlii. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Ska Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



English. 
Together wiili Kxuiiiples of the use of the word. 



trumbu 
tua 



tuah 

tuai 
tiiak 
tubal (tuba) 



tuboh 

tubu 

tuchol, nuchol 

tuchong 

tuchum 
tudoh 



kita dua 



I 



tuah 

arrack 

tuba 



rebong 

tiinu 

puchuk 

sinum 
tiris 



tugal 
tujah 



tukang 
tukang 
tulat 
tulih 



tulat 



tumbit, numbit 
tumboh 



tumboh 



tumbok 
turn bong 
tunda, nunda 
tundi 



kali 

lubang burit 
turut 



snag. 

we two, us two, our two including person 

addressed ; amm tua bejalai, come and 

let us two walk, 
wind-fall, piece of luck, fortunate, God- 
send, 
old, a chief, elder, 
toddy, 
a plant, the juice of which is used to 

stupify the fish in a river ; verb to fish 

with this juice, 
body, people, person ; bisi tuboh y to be 

enciente. 
edible shoots of the bamboo, 
to burn ; nuchol umai, burn the farm, 
a peak, pinnacle, a shell ; tuchong siwpurai\ 

bracelet shell, 
to smile, 
to leak, to drop (as water). 

a dibbler used in planting, to dibble. 

to explore, examine ; tujah enggo sangkoh, 
to probe (the bottom of river) with 
spears, feel the bottom ; awbis ulu sungai 
tujah kamij we have explored the whole 
of the head of the waters. 

to open (door, window, or roofing). 

a skilled workman. 

day after to morrow. 

to acquire, obtain ; kami iban jagau penapat, 
nmpai tulih ka akal^ we are an ignorant 
people and have not yet acquired 
cunning ; jai iban enda tulih ka utai, a 
bad people cannot gain anything ; bangat 
enda tulih ka krcsa, can by no means 
obtain tools. 

to kick with heel. 

to spring out of the ground (as plant.<^), 
to grow up, to commence, begin ; dini 
endor tanjong tumboh? where does the 
river bend begin? umpai tumboh mata- 
panas, datai din, you will get there before 
sunrise ; ari ni tumboh jako ? how did 
the argument (words) originate ? 

to bury, to dig up the ground. 

the anus. 

to imitate. 

to coax, cajole, to tease, mock. 



I 



I 



Sea Dyak, Malay and English Vocabulary, 



xliii. 



Sea Dyak. 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



English, 
Together with Examples of the use of the word. 



tunga 



tunggal 
tunggu,nunggu 

tungkah 

tungkal 
tungkul 
tungkun 
tungkup, 

nungkup 
tunjok 

tunlong 
tuntong, 

nuntong 
tupi 

tusok pendieng 
tusu, nusu 

tutok, nutok 
tutus 

tuyu 



tujuh 



hukum 



uaktu 

jantong 
lunkup 



ibun 

krabu 
insap 



paloi, bodo 



to turn towards, to aim at, to have an 
object, reason, cause ; enti akii salah 
nadai tunga aku diau di menoa^ if I am in 
the wrong there is no reason why I 
should remain in the country ; kati 
tunga ? what is the reason ? nama tunga 
baka 'tu ? what is the meaning of this ? 

separately, one by one ; tunggal^ single 
(adj.) ; tunggal'tunggaly singly, one by 
one (adv.). 

to accuse, to lay a charge against ; to 
fine ; a fine ; tunggu menoa^ a fine for an 
offence against the people in general ; 
tunggu butangf a fine for an offence 
against an individual. 

what time ; tungkah aku mudik kalu, at such 
time as I go up river. 

perfidy. 

heart. 

to light (fire, cigarette), to kindle. 

to turn upside down, bottom upwards, to 
upset. 

finger, toe ; tunjok jariy finger ; tunjok kaki, 
toe. 

Brookei shell (helix). 

to reach, arrive at. 

nourish, maintain, keep, support (parents, 
&c.), of animals to domesticate. 

an ear-ring (woman's). 

the breasts ; to suck, to suckle ; at tusuy 
milk. 

to pound, bruise. 

to clip off (prepuce), to lop off (bough), to 
trim (vine) ; tutus botoh^ to circumcise. 

silly, idiotic, crazy, half-witted. 



uan nguan ibun to take care, occupy ; bcsai ai skMi, kati bisi 

, nguan prau kitai ? the river (water) is 
1 very high (great), have you anyone to 
look after our boat ? nguan runtah, to 
take care of, be in charge of the house, 
ubong benang cotton thread, 

uchu chuchu grand-child. 

udah sudah it is done, expressed completion of action 

udok asu dog 

udu kuat, kras, dras,| severely hard, strong ; udu bettdar iya be- 

bisa, kinchangi jamah, he argued very vigorously ; udu 

\ singat nya, to be severely stung ; udu at, 

water strong (current) ; udu ribut, wind 

is strong ; iidujakoy loud talk. 



xliv. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



StA Dyak. 



UJl 

ukai 

ukoi 
ular 
ulieng 
ulih 

ulit, ngulit 
ulu 



umang 
unibok 



umpan 

undai 

undur 

unggoi 

ungkup 

unjor 

unsai 

unus 

uong 

upa 

upah 

upun 

utai 

utap 



Malay 
(Colloquial). 



chob 
buka 

asu 
ular 
kamudi 
dapat 



ulu 

uma 
i niiskin 
ugut, pejal 

unipan 
udang sessar 
ilir 

bhagian 
bujor 

sinibur, siram 



nam 
umbut 
igaji 

barang, ano 



English. 
Togetlier with Examples of the use of the word. 



to try, test,- prove : alau nji^ come and try. 
denial, it is mt ; ukai benama maiohy he has 

not got many names, 
dog. 
snake. 

rudder, helm, 
to be able to, to get at ; aula ulih ulih ^ 

absolutely unable, 
mourning, to throw into mourning, 
interior (opposed to i7/), up river, up 

country, 
a farm {paddy). 
poor, 
to urge, press, importune, to force, compel, 

oblige, 
bait. 

shrimp, prawn, 
to descend (river), 
spleen. 

share, division, portion, lot. 
to stretch out (legs, &c.) ; lengthways 

(opposed to mehintang) ; alongside, 
to splash, splutter, syringe, sprinkle, to 

water flowers, 
bracelets of fine black fibre worn round 

the calf of the leg or upper arm. 
rapid, water fall, 
the cabbage of a palm, 
reward, wages, bribe ; to bribe, 
pith of a dart, 
a thing, things, 
bark canoe. 



A VOCABULARY 
Collected by the late H. Brooke Low, Esq. 

The locality not specified in the MS., but Mr. Hose informs me the Vocabulary is 
that of a Dialect of a Rejang River Tribe.— //X./?. 



English. 


DiAI-KCT OF 

Rejano KiVKR Tribk. 


English. 


Dialect of 
Rkjang KivKR Trirf.. 


alive 


gosh 


fowl 


manok 


alligator 


bahaia 


fruit 


buah 


ant 


hieb 










go 


chlb 


banana 


telui 


gold 


mas 


belly 


eg 






bird 


chiap 


hair 


soop 


black- 


lengah 


hand 


tig (1) 


blood 


lod 


head 


chauog 


blowpipe 


belaii 


honey 


tabal 


lx)at 


prahii 


hot 


bud 


body 


tu 


husband 


tau 


bone 


tulag 










iron 


besi 


child 


kuad 






coco nut 


fior 


jungle 


masrok 


cold 


dekad 






come 


l>ei (madoh) 


large 


menu 




1 


leaf 


s6la 


day 


jungiah 






dead 


tebus 


male 


baboeu 


deer 


rusa, penguin 


man 


sil 


dog 


chuo 


mat 


apil 


drink 


im org 


moon 


ghicheh, ghucheh 






: mosquito 


sebeg 


ear 


ngentok 


1 mother 


oeng 


earth 


te 


1 mountain 


jelmol 


eat 


cha 


1 mouth 


naag 


^^K 


lap 






elephant 


adon 


nail (finger-) 


charos 


eye 


mad 


night 


laiiit 






nose 


merh 


face 


kapo (au) 






father 


boeu 


pig 


changgak 


feather 


sentOl 






female 


babo 


' rain 


ujan 


finger 


jarastig 


rat 


tikus 


fire 


6sh 


rhinoceros 


agab 


fish 


kaA 


rice 


charoi 


flower 


bunga 


river 


tiu 


foot 


}H 


, root 


tingtek 



xlvi. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



English. 


DiALF.CT OP 

Rejang Rivkr Tribe. 


salt 


empoig 


sea 


laut 


seed 


kebeu 


silver 


perak 


skin 


gelo 


sky 


lahu 


sleep 


selog 


small 


mishong 


snake 


taju 


spear 


bulush 


star 


paloy 


sun 


ish 


thunder 


engku 


tin 


timah 


to-day 


nate 


to-morrow 


yakal 


tooth 


moin 


tongue 


lantag 


tree 


jihu 


waistcloth 


web 


water 


auk (ork) 


wax 


keluai 


white 


biorg 



English. 


DiALE 

Rejang Ri 

ked6l 


CT OF 

VER Tribe. 


wife 




wind 
woman 


parug 
kedol 




wood 


jihu 




yesterday 


hatab 




Numerals : — 






one 
two 


ser 
dua 


n6 (nay) 
nal 


three 


tiga (n6) 


ne (sharp) 
neh 


four 
five 


ampat 
lima 


ampat 
lima 


SIX 


anam 


anam 


seven 
eight 
nine 


tujut 
lapan 
sambilan 


tujut 
lapan 


ten 
eleven 


sepuloh, 
ne-blas 


ne-puloh 


twelve 


njll-blas 




twenty 
one hundred 


nal-puloh 
saratus 



Kanou'il, Kyan, Biniitlu, Punan and Main Vocabularies, xlvii. 



01 U CA 





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Ixviii. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 






Ci. c« cti (/) 



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Ixxxiv. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 






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Kanowit, Kyan, Bintulu, Punan and Maiu Vocabularies, Ixxxv. 









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Ixxxvi. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 









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Kanowit, Kyan, Bintulu, Punan and Matu Vocabularies. Ixxxvii. 



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Ixxxviii. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



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Kanowit, Kyan, Bintulu, Punan and Matu Vocabularies. Ixxxix. 






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xc. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



a 









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bo 



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bo 
bo 



bo 

c 






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to leak 
blow 

shallow, not < 
staff 


2 


remain 
sink (?) 
high 

tread upo 
ridge 
starling 


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Kanowit, Kyan, Bintulu, Punan and Matu Vocabularies, xci. 



Si 

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XCll. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



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3 



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bo g 
bo.i 
c c 

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c - bo 

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XCIV. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 













fi P c 



Jill ll iilllll^liiilii H 



S-S -5 






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s 




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Vocabularies of North Bornean Languages, 



xcv. 




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111 



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S.i«^ rt rt uXi Q. CL4Z X* '^ ^ -^ -^ 






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XCVI. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Q 




g 



r C 



III -!«•«• 



11 




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t:^^ b c o q 

tn tfi tn tfi Vi Vi 



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Vocabularies of North Borncan Languages, 



xcvu. 



c c 



be 

cx,^ bo to ^ ^ p< Q< 







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a 



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c 
o 

73 



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XCVllK 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarazcak. 



I 
n 

s 




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< 



o 

< 



■!i 



•c 

4) 



^5 §§--§§ 0^0.-=^ 



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tii 
o 
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o 

< 



i^ 



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06 
O 

PQ 

K 
H 

o 

o 
(/) 

sa 

«** 
u 
o 



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•D 3 



A COLLECTION OF FORTY-THREE WORDS IN USE IN 

TWENTY-FOUR DIFFERENT DISTRICTS 

Made by the Rev. Chas. Hup6, of the Rheinische Mission. 

"Karangan is American Mission at Pontiana; the others I have collected on the 
West Coast, and others I copied from Brooke in Sarawak." 



English. 



one 
two 
three 
four 
five 
six 

seven 
eight 
nine 

ten 1 

man {homo 
sapiens) 

homo 
persona 
man and 

husband 
woman 

and wife 
father 
mother 
head 
eye 
ear 

nose 
tongue 
tooth 
hair 
hand 
day 
night 
sun (eye 
of day) 
moon 

star 

fire 

water 

earth 

good 

bad 

dead 

big 

little 

white 

black. 

bird 

fowl 

pig 
fish 



Malay. 



satu 

dua 

tiga 

ampat 

lima 

anam 

tudju 

delapan 

sambilan 

sapulu 

manusia 

orang 

laki-laki 

perampuan 
(i.'ife, bini) 

bapa 

ma 

kapala 

mata 

telinga, 
kupin 

hidon 

lidah 

gigi 

rambut 

tangan 

hari 

malam 

mata hari 

bulan 

bintang 
api 
aier 
tanah 
baik 
djahat 
mati 
b{^sar 
ketjil 
putih 
I itam 
burung 
ajam.manok 
babi 
ikan 



Dugincse. 



sedi 

dua 

telo 

opa, mpa 

lima 

r>nong, na 

pitu 

harua 

hasera 

sepulu 




pitu 
walu 



I sanga 
I sapulu 

(vergleiche mensch, mas, ist, 
angenommen) 

tawu orang 



Dyak 
Pulopetak. 


D. 
Karangan. 


D. Sindin^ 
and Meratei. 


idja 
dua 
tolo 


nyeu 

duweu 

taroh 


ka-ah 
duoh 
taruh 


iipat 
lima 


ampat 
rima 


apat 
limot 


djehawen 

udju 

hanja 

djulatien 

sapulu 


inum 

idjo 

mai 

pre 

samung 


num 

tudju 

maih 

pri-i 

smui 



ti'o es ist UHverdndert aus dem Malaiischen 



horo-ani 

makonrai I 
(wife, bini) j 
ambe-ma i 
indo-na ' 
ulu 
mata 
dutjuling 



mga 

lila 

isi 

welua 

lima 

so 

weni 

mata so 

wulan. 

ulong 
bitoeng 
api 
wai 
tana 

madatjeng 
mejak 
mate 
maradja 
baitju 
mapute 
malotong 
manuk 
manuk 
babi 
baleh 



laki-laki 

bini 

bapa 

uma 

kapala 

mata 

telinga 

hidong 
ilat 

gigi 

rambut 

tangan 

hari 

malam 

matahari 

bulan 

bintang 

api 

banju 

tana 

baik 

djahat 

mati 

basar 

kitjil 

putih 

hirang 

burung 

ajam 

babi 

iwak 



olo 

hatua 

bawi (wife, 

sawa) 
apang 
indu 
takolok 
mata 
pinding 

orong 

djela 

kasinga 

balau 

lenga 

andau 

hamalem 

matanandau 

bulan 

bintang 

apui 

danum 

petak 

bahalap 

papa 

matei 

hai 

kurik 

putih 

bebilem 

burung 

manok 

bubui 

lauk 



ma 
no 



ende 



bulan 



api 

pitu 

tana 

bait 

djet 

kubeus 



manok 
manok 



nu-uh 

dari 

dajung 



mat An 



nukn 

djura 

djapan 

bok 

tangan 

ndo 

sakalupm 

matun anui 

bulan 

taing 

sepui 

pi-in 

tana 

madih 

dja-at 

kabus 

aijuh 

si-it 

bdd^ 

senget 

manuk 

siok 

pangan 

ikei 



c. 



H. Ling Roth.— Natives of Sarawak. 



English. 


D. 
Kajan. 


D. 
Sau. 


D. 
Bulau. 


D. 
Meri. 


D. 

Lundu. 


D. 
Bintulo. 


one 


dji 


indi 


siti 


si 




djia 


two 


dua 


dua 


dua 


duveh 




ba 


three 


tello 


taruh 


tigah 


tellau 




telau 


four 


ampat 


pah 


ampat 


pat 
ima 




lima 


five 


lima 


remo 


lima 




six 


anum 


anum 


anam 


nom 




nom 


seven 


tudjak 


djuh 


tudjuh 


tudjoh 




tudjoh 


eight 


saija 


moi 


delapan 
sambilan 


madeh 




madeh 


nine 


petan 


pri-i 


suoei 




supi 


ten 


pulo 


simohong 


sapulu 


pulo 




pluan 


man {homo 






, 








sapiens) 














homo 














persona 














man and 


daha 


dari 


laki 


lakei {lius- 
band, ideh) 


kneah 


manei (Aws- 


husband 










bana, hwhoV) 


woman 


do 


indu (ui/e. 


dyung 


, tarei 


dyung 


reddu 


and wife 




bini) 










father 


tamei 


sama 


apei 


tama 




tama 


mother 


inei 


indo 


indei 


tina 




tina 


head 


kuhong 


bak 


palla 


uho 


bak 


ulau 


eye 


mata 


button 


mata 


mata 


boton 


mata 


ear 






pendiang 


telinga 


kedjit 


telinga 


nose 


urong 


indong 


idong 


singota 
djillah 


nong 


urong 


tongue 






dela 


ihra 




tooth 


nipun 


djepon 


gigi 


nipon 
fok 


djapon 


nipon 


hair 


bok 


br>k 


bok 


bok 


bok 


hand 


uwau 


tangan 


langon 


tudjoh 


tangan 


agum 


day 


dau 


ungnu 


ari 


allau 




dau 


night 


dahalum 


narom 


malldm 


dillom 




kolom 


sun (eye 


mata dau 


buttanuh 


mata ari 


mata doUo 


bitamanu 


mata dau 


of day) 














moon 


bulan 


bulan 


bulan 


tukka 


buran 


bulan 


star 






pandau 


fatak 




bitang 


fire 


apui 


opui 


api 


igon 


apue 


djara 


water 


danum 


pi-in 


ai 


feh 


pe-in 


ba 


earth 


tana 


tana 


tana 


tana 


tana 


tana 


good 




pagu 


badas 


djia 




dijar 


bad 






dji-i 






djahas 


dead 


mati 


kobos 


mati 


matei 




misso 


big 






bisi 






adjar 


Httle 






met 






disi 


white 




budah 


burak 


putei 




mapo 


black 




singut 


tjilum 


metom 




itam 


bird 


manok 




bj urong 


manuk 


do-ut 


sijau 


fowl 






manok 


ahal 


siok 




pig 




sijioh 


djani 


baha 


3angan 


bakas 


fish 


masek 


ikan 


ikan 


futah 


caen 


djeing 





D. Millanau 


Hup 


e's Vocabu 


laries. 

D. Santan 


D. 


C 


English. 


D. Berang 


D. 


D. 


and Muka. 


and Sabungo. 


Bukar. 


and Gurgo. 


Sinan. 


Suuipo. 


one 


djia 


indi 


ni 


indi 


indi 


indi 


two 


dua 


duo 


dua 


dua 


dua 


dua 


three 


tellau 


taruk 


taruk 


taruk 


taruk 


taruk 


four 


mt 
ima 


pat 


am pat 


pat 


pat 


pat 


five 


remo 


rema 


rem ma 


remma 


rema 


six 


nom 


naum 


anaum 


anung 


anung 


anum 


seven 


tudjoh 


djoh 


djoh 


djoh 


djoh 


djoh 


eight 


eian 


meii 


meihi 


mii 


mi-i 


mei-i 


nine 


ulan 


pri-i 


pri-i 


pri-i 


pri-i 


pri-i 


ten 


pluan 


somong 


simahung 


simung 


simung 


simong 


man {homo 














sapiens) 














homo 














persona 














man and 


malei 


dari (hush.. 


dari {husb., 


dari {husb., 


dyah 


dyah 


husband 




dyah) 


dyah) 


dyah) 


1 




woman 


malei 


dyong 


dyong 


dyong 


dyong 


sawan 


and wife 














father 


ama 


sama 


amang 


sama 


sama 


sama 


mother 


tina 


sindo 


anu 


sindo 


sindo 


anu 


head 


ulau 


bak 


bJik 


bak 


bfik 


bak 


eye 


mata 


buttoh 


buttoh 


buttoh 


buttoh 


buttoh 


ear 




kadjit 


kapin 


kedjit 


kedjit 


kapin 
indong 


nose 


udong 


nong 


unong 


undong 


; nong 


tongue 




djeha 


djile 


irna 


1 irna 


djeha 


tooth 


nipon 


djepo 


djepo 


djepo 


djepo 


djepo 


hair 


buok 


bok 


burok 


ubok 


bok 


boks 


hand 


tudjoh 


tangan 


tangan 




1 




day 


lau 


gno 

(s. ungnu) 


ungnu 


ungnu djava 


ungnu 


gno 


night 


mallam 


narom 


mungaru 


ungnu karira 


sanarun 


narom 


sun (eye 


mata lau 


buttanuh 


buttanuh 


buttanuh 


buttanuh 


buttanuh 


of day) 










1 




moon 


bulan 


buran 


buran 


buran 


buran 


buran 


star 


bitang 


bitang 


bintu 


bintang 


bitang 


bitang 


fire 


apui 


poi (s. apoi) 


apoi 


apui 


apoi 


apui 


water 


niam 


pe-in 


umo 


aoh 


pi-in 


pe-in 


earth 


tana 


tana 


tana 


tana 


tana 


tana 


good 


dia 


muni 

(s. mundi) 


pagu 


kunna 


mundi 


pagu 


bad 




ra-as 


be-ik 


drap 


drep 


drap 


dead 


matei 


kabos 


kabos 


kabos 


kabos 


kal)os 


big 




ba-as 


ahi 


ba-as 


ahi 


ahi 


little 




pi-it 
budak 


djahek 


tju 


sjuh 


tjuk 


white 


apo 


budak 


budah 


budah 


budah 


black 


belom 


singut 


iK'his 


singut 


sin;jut 


boh is 


bird 




manuk 


manuk 


manuk 


manuk 


manuk 


fowl 


ahal 




siok 


si ok 


siok 


siok 


pig 


babui 


i-oh 




i-oh 


ich 


ioh 


fish 


djikon 


kean 


ikan ' 


ikian 


ikian 


ikian 



CI. 



Cll. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



English. 



one 
two 
three 
four 
five 
six 

seven I 

eight ! 

nine 
ten 

man {Iiomo 
sapiens) 

homo 
persona) 
man and 

husband 
woman 

and wife 
father 
mother 
head 
eye 

ear i 

nose I 

tongue 
tooth j 

hair | 

hand \ 

day 
night 

sun (eye 
of day) 
moon 
star 
fire 
water 
earth 
good 
bad 
dead 
big 
little 
white 
black 
bird 
fowl 

tl 



D. 
Budanok. 



indi 

dua 

taruk 

pat 

remo 

apum 

djuh 

mei- 

pri-i 

simung 



dari (hush., 

dyah) 
sawan 

I sama 

sindo 

bak 

buttoh 
I kadjit 
[ undong 
I djeha 
; djepu 
I ubok 

ungnu 
ungner 
karim 
buttanuh 

buran 

bitang 

apui 

pi-in 

tana 

kanna 

drap 

kabos 

ba-as 

sjuh 

budah 

singut 

manuk 

siok 

pangan 

ikian 



D. 
Stang. 



indi 

duo 

taruk 

pat 

remo 

naum 

djuh 

mei-i 

pri-i 

simong 



dyah 

dyong 

sama 

sindo 

bfik 

buttoh 

kadjit 

undong 

djeha 

rijepo 

book 

\ ungnu 
I narom 

buttanuh 

buran 

bitang 

apui 
I pi-in 

tana 

kanna 

drap 

kabos 

ba-as 
! tji-it 
\ budah 

singut 
' manuk 

siok 

pangan 

kian 



D. 

Sibugau. 



sa 

dua 

tiga 

am pat 

lima 

anam 

tudjuh 

delapan 

sambilan 

sapulu 



laki 

indo 

apei 

indi 

kapala 

mata 

punding 

idong 

delah 

gigi 
bok 

ari 
malam 

matiari 

buran 

api 

ai 

tana 

bad as 

djai 

mati 

besi 

pulih 

tjilum 

manuk 

siok 

babi 

lauk 



n. 

Tubbia. 



indi 

duo 
I taruk 

pat 

rema 

anung 

djoh 
I meihi 

pri-i 

simong 



dari Unisb , 

dyah; 
dyong 

sama 

sindo 

bak 

buttoh 

kadjit 

nong 

irha 

djepoh 

burok 



ungnu 
karom 



D. 
Sabutan. 



indi 

duo 

taruk 

pat 

remo 

naum 
I djuh 

mei-i 
I pri-i 

simong 



dyah 

dyung 

sama 

sindo 

bak 

buttoh 

kapin 

nung 

irha 

djepoh 

book 

ungnu 
narom 



buttanuh buttanuh 



buran 

bintu 

apui 

pi-in 

tana 

panat 

kabos 



^ budah 
singut 
manuk 
siok 
eioh 

I kian 



buran 

bitang 

apui 

pi-in 

tana 

kunna 

raap 

kaboi 

ba-as 

soak 

budah 

bi-i 

manuk 

siap 

da-ung 

ikian 



D. Serine. 
Gugu & Matan. 



indi 

duo 

taruk 

pat 

rema 

anaum 

djoh 

meii 

pri-i 

simong 



dyah 

dyong 

sama 

sindo 

bak 

buttoh 

kadjit 

nung 

irha 

djepo 

book 

gnu 
narom 

buttanuh 

buran 

bitang 

apui 

pi-in 

tana 

munni 

rap 

kabos 

ba-as 

so-oh 

budah 

singut 

manuk 

siok 

eioh 

ikian 



A SHORT COLLECTION 
Made by Chas. Hose, Esq., Resident of the Baram District. 

There are sixteen dialects spoken in the Baram district, the most important being 
Kayan, Kenniah, Punan, Kalabit, Narom, Sibop, Brunei Malay, and Malay. 
1 subjoin nine words as an example : — 



Knglish 


Kayan. 
baboi 


' Kcnniali. 


Punan. 


Kalabit. 

bakar 


Naroni. 


Sibop. 


wild pig 


1 
bawi 


bakas 


san 


bakas 


man 


daha 


kalunan 1 ulun 


lumulun 


ideh 


ulun 


to walk 


panoh 


massat 


malakau 


nylan 


malahau 


malakau 


a fish 


masik 


siluang 


luang 


luang 


futar 


enjin 


dog 


asau 


asu 


asoh 


uteh 


ou 


asu 


water 


atar 


sungei 


bah 


fah 


fer 


bah 


good 


sayoh 


! layar 


dian 


dor 


jeh 


dian 


no 


nusi 


naan 


bi 


naam 


naan 


abi 


a fowl 


yap 


manok 


deek 


laal 


aal 


deek 



Brunei 
Malay. 



Malay. 



bai 


babi utan 


jilama 


manusia 


jalan 


jalan 


auk 


ikan 


koyuk 


anjing 


aying 


ayer 


bisai 


bagus 


nada 


tida 


manok 


1 ayam 



(Geographical Journal^ March, 1893). 



A VOCABULARY OF THE KAYAN LANGUAGE OF THE 
NORTH-WEST OF BORNEO. 

By R. Burns, Esg. 

From Logan's ^^ Journal of the Ituiian Archipelago,'* 

The following is a Vocabulary of the dialect spoken in the district of the rivers 
Bintulu and Rajang and their branches. 



English. 



I 



Kayan. 



Englisli. 



Kayan. 



English. 



Kayan. 



earth 


tana lim 


shell 


seh 


shar|)ing stone 


batu asa 


sky 


langit 


garden 


luvo 


chisel 


panjok 


sea 


kala 


mountain 


knalang ; 


awl 


tuel 


sun 


mat in -do w 


cave 


luvong 1 


spear 


bakier 


moon 


bulan 


house 


oma 1 


crowbar 


kali 


star 


kraning 


room 


tilong 


hoe 


weying 


light 


mala 


door 


taman 


gold 


ma 1 


darkness 


lidam 


window 


batave 


iron 


titi ! 


lightning 


kilat ^ 


loft 


parong 


steel 


titi mying 


thunder 


balari 


floor 


tasu 


magnet ^ 


titi lakin 


eclipse 


sowang 


stairs 


san 


copper 


kavat bla 


heat 


laso 


railing 


krahan 


brass 


kavat nymit or 


cold 


laram 


partition 
beam 


dinding 




knymit 


cloud 


lison 


bong 


tin 


samha 


rainbow 


langi hatong ' 


boards 


liap 


medicine 


tabar 


tide-flow 


wap 


rafts 


kaso 


gun 


pulct 
lutong 


fire 


apui 


laths 


laha 


rozin 


smoke 


lison 


thatch 


apo 


camphor 


kapon 


sparks 
flame 


wur 


nails 


tapak 
talam 


opium 


pune 


mala 


table 


trees 


pohun 


ashes 


havo ' 


mat 


brat 


root 


aka 


fuel 


tyon 


mattress 


luto 


trunk 


batang 


charcoal 


lusong 


pillow 


hilan 


bark 


kul 


water 


atta 


1 curtains 


kalabo 


branch 


dahan 


river 


hungie 


screen 


dindingkalabo 


leaf 


iton 


rspn 


usan 


box. trunk 


pati 


flower, blos- 


pidang 


current 


kasi 


basket 


alat 


som 




lake 


bawang 


1 plate 


pigan 


fruit 


bua 


dew 


lipot 


cup 


pigan dui 
knoe 


orange, lime 


lavar 


fog 


ap 


knife 


pine apple 


orusan 


wind 


bahoie 


handle 


houp 


mangostin 


kitong 


storm 


ovan 


1 pot 


taring 


plaintain 
jack [fruit] 


puteh 
badok 


land 


tana 


jar 


goasi 


country 


dali 


torch 


lutong 


mango 


sapam 


village 


dolia 


candle 


lutong la 


durian 


dian 


town 


dali 


beeswax 


la hingit 


beetle-nut 


gahat 


island 


busang 


] wick 


wang 


cocoa-nut 


knoh 


cape point 


tujol 


' sieve 


ilik 


kernel, seed 


wang 


whirl-pool 


ivak 


bucket 


lima 


vegetables 


tango 


plantation ) 
field j 


luma 


scales, balance 


tibang 


yams 


uvi 




1 hammer 


tukol 


sugar-cane 


tuvo 


plane 


tana padit 


' anvil 


taranan 


salt 


knah 


wood jungle 


tuan 


file 


isa 


pepper 


lia 


sand 


hyt 


gimlet 


knivo 


ginger 


lia tana 


rock 


batu 


hatchet, axe 


asey 


oil 


tilang 



Burns' Kayan Vocabulary. 



cv. 



English. 


Kayan. 


English. 


1 
Kayan. j 


English. 


Kayan. 


journey provi- 


maso 


i frog 


jowi 


blood 


daha 


sions 




toad 


bunang 


entrails 


tanei 


sugar 


tuvlang 


lizard 


silowit 


lungs 


praha 
batuka 


padi 


Mu-i 


alligator 


baya 


stomach 


rice 


>aha 


guana 


kavok 


liver 


pley 


boiled rice 


kanan 


tortoise 


kalovi 


bladder 


na 


dried rice 


kartip 


butterfly 


langoto 


brains 


otak 


flour 


tapa 


Ifly 


lango 


spirit 


brua 


fish 


masik 


' mosquito 
small kind 


trokok 


mind 


kanip 


beef 


sin 


hamok 


love 


masi 


eggs 


tilo 


mosquito 




anger 


mano 


boat 


haruk 


flea 


koto naso 


joy 


barkam 


oar 


say 


bee 


hingit 


grief 


mahal 


gun 


ban in 


I firefly 


ada 


hope 


lay 


ball 


panglo 


' ant 


klavirang 


dumb 


hamang 


powder 


tabar banin 


birds 


manok 


deaf 


madang 


wheel 


ilier 


kite 


knahu 


blind 


pisak 


needle 


loe 


] )igeon 
owls 


poni 
knap 


cough 


nikar 


thread 


tali 


mad 


buling 


fish hook 


pisey 


sparrow 


bayong 


boil, pimple 


tuko 


tobacco 


jako 






smallpox 


klapit 


cigar 


loko 


mankind 


kolonan ' 


rheumatism 


niviksal 


surf, wave 


bangat 


man 


laki 


scurf 


key 


throne 


tagan 


woman 


doh 


itch 


ga'tan 


dress 


akave 


child 


hapang 


fever 


padam 


hat, cap 


lavong 


Ixxly 


loang 


asthma 


coat, jacket 


basong 


, head 


kohong 


, wound 


gga 


shoes 


tadok 


hair 


bok 


sick 


prah 


cloth 


kain 


, beard 


bulo 


ague 


padam bilong 
blanin 


woollen cloth 


sakalat 


eye 


mata 


lunatic 


satin 


dasu 


' face 


mang 


toothache 


prah knipan 






ear 


apang 


kindred 


paharin 


tiger 


lijow 


nose 


urong 


king 


maran 


leopard 


koli 


cheek 


pinga 


queen 


maran doh 


bear 


buang 


tongue 


jila 


lord 


hipov 
hibo' 


dragon 


nang 


mouth 


ba 


master, Mr. 


rhinoceros 


tandoh 


teeth 


knipan 


nobleman 


pan van 


deer 


payow 


neck 


kran 


slave 


dipin 


hart 


payow wang 


chin 


jan 


husband 


laki 


roe 


payow doh 


shoulder 


hone 


wife 


hawa 


mouse deer 


planok 


back 


loung 


father 


amay 


goat 


kading 


heart 


kanip 


mother 


inei 


wild hog 


bavoi 


rib 


ha 


1 grandfather 
1 ather-in-law 


huko 


boar 


bilangnyan 


hand 


kama 


ivan 


sow 


miray 


l' right hand 
left hand 


tow 


mother-in-law 


ivan 


pig 
boar 


uting 


maving 


brother 


arin 


batuan 


arm 


lipe 


brother-in-law 


hango 


bow 


hinan 


wrists 


uso 


sister 


arin doh 


pole-cat 


bukulo 


elbow 


hiko 


sister-in-law 


hango doh 


dog 


aso 


finger 


ikin 


son 


anak laki 


cat 


sing 


|, thumb 


taval 


daughter 


anak doh 


squirrel 


pinnyamo 
lavo 


'1 nails 


hulo 


1 twins 


anak apir 
anak ula 


rat, mouse 


' breasts 


usok 


, orphan 


monkey 


brok 


abdomen 


butit 


uncle 


mamo 


ape 


' poinang 


knee 


aliv 


aunt 


mamo 


mias 


orong tuan 


leg 


itat 


nephew 


nakan 


tail 


eko 


feet 


kasa 


niece 


nakan 


skin 


blanit 


' toes 


ikin kasa 


bastard 


tuyang 


snake, serpent 


knipa 


'1 heel 


tumin 


friend 


savila 


boa constric- 


panganan 


skin 


blanit 


enemy 


iow 


tor 




bone 


tulang 


God 


Tanangan 


black snake 


jilivan 


1 flesh 


sin 


Lord 


Hipoy 


worm 


halang 


' sinew 


uat 


ghost 


knito 


centipede 


diripan 


,1 reins 


uat daha 


mercy 


masi 


scorpion 
leech 


diripan kitip 


' pulse 


uat nitit 


time 


rua 


t atak 


milk 


so 


1 season 


doman 



CVl. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



English. 


Kayan. 


English. 


Kayan. 
lakin 


English. 


Kayan. 


beginning 


aring 


bold 


lost 


pbat 
iva 


end 


bya 


bright 


mala 


low 


year 


doman 


broad 


brang 


mad 


buling 


month 


bulan 


cheap 


lyang 


many 


liba 


day 


dow 


clever 


haman 


meagre 


nywang 


day-light 


dow mala 


course 


kudal 


merciful 


limer 


mid-day 


dow nagrang 


cold 


laram 


middle 


tahang 


morning 


pisol 


, crooked 


kowi 


' might 


likap 


night 


malam 


customary 


barik 


mcxlest 


hy 


mid-night 


malam kag- 


dark 


lidam 


more 


la'an 




rang 


dead 


matei 


mournful 


lumo 


to-morrow 


jima 


deaf 


madang 


naked 


loang tua 


yesterday 


dow dahalam 


1 deep 


dalam 


1 narrow 


jali 


last night 


malam daha- 


defective 


hang hang 


near 


jilang 




lam 


defiled 


lumi 


, neat 


diya 


to-morrow 


jima pisol 


difficult 


baval 


new 


maring 


morning 




dilatory 


padara 


' next 


jilang 


day after to- 


duji 


distant 


su 


nimble 


ipat 


morrow 




drunk 


mavok 


noble 


sayu 






dumb 


hamang 


, noisy 


nyom 




— 1 


dry 


magang 


numerous 


liba 






easy 


malai , 


old 


aya 


Pkon 


OL'.NS. 


empty 


gohang 


open 


ovar 






enough 


tami 


outward 


tawa 


I 


akui 


equal 


pia 


pale 


nuwang 


thou, you 


ika 


even 


padit 


passionate 


laso kanip 


he. she, it 


hia 


evil 


jak 


past 


lalu 


we 


ita 


expect 
false 


haman 


perfect 


lim sayu 


ye. you 


ika 


kalok 


plain 


lani 


they 


da' a 


fast 


kiga 


polite 


^y 


who 


hey 


fat 


munang 


poor 


jak 


which 


nono 


feeble 


kangan 


pretty 


diya 


what 


none 


few 


ok 


proper 


marong 


my, mine 


akui hipon 


first 


aring 


pungent 


hanit 


they, thine 


ika hipon 


fit 


tinang 


putrid 


muvok 


his,' hers, its 


hia hipon 


foolish 


ombak 


' quick 


ipat 


ours 


ita hipon 


free 


jitua 


rapid 


kasi 


yours 


ika hipon 


future 


bya 


raw 


ata 


theirs 


daa hipon 


glad 


ikam 


ready 


ouna 


this 


ini 


' good 


saya 


red 


bla 


that 


iti 


great 


aya 


1 rich 


kaya 


all 


lim 


guilty 


hala 


right 


marong 


every 


lim lim 


handsome 


diya 


ripe 


sak 


either 


ini iri 


hard 


mying 


rough 


patong 
bilong 


some 


bali 


heavy 


bahat 


round 


other 


dap 


high 


bu 


rusty 


higan 


anyone 


lilaiia ji 


holluw 


goang 


same 


pia 
bla 


such as this 


nonana 


hot 


laso 


scarlet 


such as that 


notika 


hungry 


lou 


shallow 


ni\o 






ignorant 


magave 


sharp 


knat 




^~ 


improper 
indigent 


diyan tinang 


short 
sick 


bek 
prah 


Adje 


ZTIVEH. 


innocent 


diyam hala 


silent 


milo tua 






kind 


tigam 


, sincere 


Ian 


acid 


sam 


knotty 


buki 


^ slack 


liko 


aged 
alike 


aya 


languid 


ly 


slanting 


alan 


pia 


large 


aya 


slow 


dara 


alive 


murip 


late 


dara 


small 


ok 


bad 


jak 


lazy 


duya 


smooth 


jllura 
lima 


bald 


lasang 


left 


maving 


soft 


bashful 


hy 


less 


korang 


sorry 


mahal 


beautiful 


diya 


level 


padit 

knvan 

kahang 


spotted 


kalong 


becoming 


marong 


light 


straight 


tuto 


bent 


kowi 


little 


strong 


ley 


black 


pitam 


living 


murip 


sweet 


may 


blind 


pisak 


1 long 


aru 


swift 


kiga 



Burns' Kayan Vocabulary. 



evil. 



English. 


Kayan. 


English, 
catch 


1 
Kayan. ' 


English. 


Kayan. 


tall 


bo 


1 
sigam 


grit 


parak 
lani 


tame 


malai 


change 


patoyu i 
livo 1 


grind 


thick 


kapal 


chase 


grow 


tubo 


thin 


knipi 


choose 


mileh 


halt 


milo 


thirsty 


magang ba 


chop 


nitak 


hang 


jat 


timid 


takot 


circumcise 


knilo 


have 


teh 


tree 


Ian 


clean 


myang 


hear 


naringa 


uncertain 


diyan djam 


climb 


nakar 


help 


mahap 


unequal 


diyan pia 


collect 


mipang 


hire 


niba 


useless 


diyan non 


come 


ating 


hope 


kina 


valiant 


lakin 


comprehend 


djam 


inherit 


kalui taman 


warm 


laso 


conquer 


alia 


inquire 


mitang 


weak 


h' 


copy 


nangrua 


invade 


nasa 


weary 


knila 


cover 


nabon 


invite 


bara 


wet 


basa 


covet 


mipang 


itch 


key 


white 


puti 1 


cough 


nikar 


keep 


nymi 


wicked 


jak ! 


count 


mujap 


kill 


mamatei 


wide 


brang 


crawl 


namang 


kindle 


avat 


wise 


udi 


cut 


mitnang 


knot 


tivukang 


wrong 


hala 


dance 


najar 


know 


haman 


yellow 


nymit 


decay 


lala 


lade 


maso 


young 


minor ' 


deceive 


pakalok 


laugh 


kasiang 


zealous 


niga 


decide 


mitnang 


leak 


pisit 






delay 


padara 


lend 


mujam 


Ve 




deliver 


hom teh 


lie 


pamo 


RBS. 


descend 


nili 


live 


murip 


abide 


milo 


desire 


mon 


look 


knynang 


abuse 


avay 


destroy 


tasa 


loose 


paday 


accept 


oukapi 


devour 


nilo 


love 


masi 


accompany 


beh 


die 


matei 


make 


kna 


advise 


lavara 


dig 


knali 


meet 


pahabo 


answer 


tagulang 


disguise 


nangrua 


melt 


nilong 


arrest 


sigam 


dive 


misar 


mend 


say una 


arrive 


atang 


divide 


patular 


mix 


paJiivar 


be ashamed 


tehy 


double 


patibin 


mount 


moan 


ask 


mitang 


drag 


jat 


murmur 


lidah 


assist 


mahap 


dream 


nupeh 


nail 


patapak 


awake 


mower 


dress 


nakave 


obey 


tangaran dyn 


bake 


noyyo 


drink 


dui 


obtain 


ala 


bargain 


tira 


drown 


gnini 


occupy 


tuman 


bark 


mangang 


eat 


koman 


open 


ovar 


bathe 


doe 


ebb 


mila 


oppose 
order 


piti 


bawl 


nangi Ian 


end, done 


pahna 


teh aim 


be 


teh 


enlighten 


malaka 


overcome 


alia 


bear fruit 


tubo 


expect 


kavi 


overturn 


takala 


beat 


nukol 


extinguish 


param 
ia-ak 


own 


paju 
b.isav 


become 


murip 


fall 


paddle 


beckon 


nyap 


famish 


palau 


pardt^n 


masika 


beg 


aky j 


fast 


ipit. kiga 


part 


patular 


begin 


aring 1 


fear 


takot 


pay 


iay 


behold 


knynang 
miteh ' 


fight 


panoh 


perish 


kam 


believe 


file 


pino 


please 


ikam 


betroth 


pahawa 
katong 


find 


ala 


point 


tujol 


bind 


finish 


pahna , 


prepare 


ouna 


bite 


mat 


fish 


misey 


promise 


kalok 


bleed 


nisa 


follow 


livo 


pull 


jat 


blow 


mahar 


forbid 


asam mon 


punish 


mukum 


boil 


maro 


forget 


hado 


push 


haro 


borrow 


ujam 


forgive 


masika 


put 


dahy 


break off 


punang 


forsake 


milo tinan 


quench 


param 


bribe 


duoya 


founder 


kam 


rain 


usan 


bring 


gree 


fry 


naga 


reach 


utang 


brush 


mipa 


gape 


nivanga 


receive 


oukapi 


buy 


pavlay 


gather 


pang 


reckon ' 


mujap 


call 


muvoy 


get 


ala 


rent 


nebaka 


carry 


kna'an 


give 


mv 


repair 


say una 


cast account 


mujap 


Ko 


kaka 


reside 


milo 



CVIII. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



English. 



return 
rise 
rob 
roll 
row 
run 
say 
see 
sell 
send 
sew 
share 
shove 
sit 
skin 
sleep 
smell 
smoke 
snatch 
sow- 
speak 
stand 
starve 
steal 
stop 
swear 
sweep 
take 
talk 
teach 
think 
throw 
tie 
trust 
turn 
uncover 
understand 
use 
wait 
walk 
weep 
wipe 
wither 
wonder 
work 
wound 
wrestle 
yawn 



Kayan. 



uH 

mower 

nako 

lulon 

basay 

lap 
I korin 

knynang 
. bili 
I kato 

jinhut 

patular 

haro 

milo 

blanit 

tudo 

bun 

lison 
: nako 

nugal 

tangaran 

biti 
, lou 

nako 

naring 

mamyan 

mipa 

api 

tangaran 

cakali 

palamana 

bat 

nupot 
I kina 
! kaluvar 
I paovar 
I djam 
: tuman 

kavi 

pano 

nangi 

mipa 

lala 

dimisi 

knadoi 

gga 

payo 

nivanga 



English. 



Kayan. 



English. 



Kayan. 



I 



Adverbs. 



here 

there 

where 

before 

behind 

upward 

downward 

below 

above 

whither 

backward 

whence 

now 

to-day 

lately 

just now 



hini 

hiti 

hino 

ona 

baloung 

bahuson 

bahida 

hida 

huson 

hinopa 

baloung 

manino 

mahoup 

dowini 

maringka 

mahaupini 



long since 

yesterday 

to-morrow 

not yet 

afterwards 

sometimes 

perhaps 

seldom 

when 

much 

little 

how much 

how great 

enough 

abundantly 

wisely 

foolishly 

justly 

quickly 

slowly 

badly 

truly 

yes 

no. not 

not at all 

how 

why 

wherefore 

more 

most 

good 

better 

best 

worse 

worst 

again 



arupa 

dow dahalam ; 

jima 

diyan pa 

bya 

halak tesee 

mahapa 

mijat 

hiran 

kahom 

ok 

kori liba 

kori aya 

tami 

kahom 

udi 

ombak 
I marong 

kiga 

dara 

jak 

Ian Ian 

I 

diyan 

diyandipa 
I nonan. kori 

nanonan 
I non pohun 
I laan 

! lalu kahom 
' sayu 

lalu sayu 

sayu Ian 

lalu jak 

jak Ian 



Prepositions. 



from 
at 

^K 
with 

in 

into 

through 

out 

out of 

without 

on, upon 

under 

between 

near 

bevond 



maniti 
bara 
mutang 
dyn 
halam 
pahalam 
j mutang 
habay 
nymo 
pahabay 
huson 
hida 
tahang 
jilang 
lawat 



Conjunctions. 

and 
if 

both 
because 



wherefore 
therefore 
as 

though 
yet, also 



panga 

jivang 

koa 

lavin 

lavin non 

lavin iti 

noti 

barangka 

sica 



one 

two 

three 

four 

five 

six 

seven 

eight 

nine 

ten 

eleven 

twelve 

thirteen 

twenty 

twenty-five 



dua 

tulo 

pat 
I lima 
t anam 

tusyu 

saya 

pitan 

pulo 

pulo ji whin 

pulo dua whin 

pulo tulo whin 

dua pulo 

dua pulo lima 
whin 



Kayan Proper Names 
OF Men. 



Swift 
Leopard 



Serpent 

Tiger 

Durian 



Rock 
Sugar-cane 



Ciong 

I^erong 

Madang 

Koli 

Hajang 

Sajin 

Tamalana 

Samatu 

Knipa 

Lijow 

Dian 

Lidam 

Parran 

Lia 

Batu 

Tuva 

Lasa 

Owin 

Akan. This is a prefix applied 
to the name of anyone who has 
lost bv death one or more of 
his children, as Akan Lasa, 
Akan Kinpa. It is more com- 
monly appropriated by tlu' 
higher than by the lower 
classes. I^ki, the name for 
man. husband, is also madu 
ii«e of as a prefix to the names 
of married men to denote that 
the person to whose name it is 
prefixed is a father, as Laki 
Dian, Laki Lidam. Like the 
former word, it is chiefly 
applied to the higher order. 



Names of Women. 



Tipong 

Jilivan 

Bulan 

Pidang 

Balalata 

Sidow 

Lavan 

Lango 

Puteh 

Buah 



I 



Snake 
Moon 
Flower 

Day 



Plantain 
Fruit 



St. John's Vocabularies. 



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CXIV. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



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St. John's Vocabularies. 



cxv. 






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CXVl. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak, 



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St. John's Vocabularies, 



cxvii. 



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CXVUl. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak, 



1 s 




J3 

11 


pra kayu 
pintu 

alik 


relis 

basi 

>rauh 

>idup 

ber bakar 
berbeneh 


bjni arineh 

apai amah 

indai indu 

aki. nineh piang 

anak 

inai, tuai 

muda 

biak 

n'dun 


Women. 
Chula 
Rabi 






gronjong, tinga 
sirat 
rumah 
kavu 


1 tiang 
lAan 
tangku 
penindok 

1 tikai 


peti 

jalai 

jamban 

sankoh 

pedang 

duku 

bangkong 

bidok 

antu 

orang laki 

indu 

laki 






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sang 



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St. John's Vocabularies. 



cxix. 



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cxx. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



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St. John's Vocabularies. 



CXXI. 






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cxxu. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 






etc 



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kfin 
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bcc 


Si 


sin 

isak. mi 
sirai, ba 
siah 
asak, su 
tading 
bai 
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kadau t 

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kaban 

aril. sa> 

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11 



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St. Johns Vocabularies. 



cxxui. 



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etc a 

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CXXIV. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



i 



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Si. John's Vocabtdaries. cxxv. 



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CXXVl. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



9 



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St. John's Vocabularies. 



cxxvu. 



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CXXVIU. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 




S. 13 



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St. John's Vocabularies. 



CXXIX. 



9 OJS 



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cxxx. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



Imil I Sill:l^'^|f ill S^l i^i i rl 1 1 1 II i i 



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St. John's Vocabularies. 



cxxxi. 




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VOCABULARY OF ENGLISH AND SARAWAK DAYAKS. 
By the Rev. Wm. Chalmers. 

[ Originally printed in 1861 at the St. Augustine's College Press, Canterbury, England.] 



The Dayak Column is the Dialect spoken by the Sentah Tribe on the Southbrn 
Branch of the River SarAwak. The pronunciation of the other tribes of the same branch 
of the river varies slightly from that of Sentah, the chief difference, however, is the 
substitution of the letter "o" for the Sentah "u.'* 

The Dialect of the tribes of the Western Branch of the river is also substantially the 
same as that of those of the Southern Branch, but variations in words as well as in their 
sound is not unfrequent. Words marked "(W)" belong solely to the Dialect of this 
branch of the Sarawak River. 

W. C. 
Kuap, Sarawak, Borneo, 
January, 1861. 



System of Pronunciation. 



( a is pronounced as a in father, 
a somewhat shorter than this 



I u is pronounced as the French u. 



- c& SUIUCWllciL Sin. 

( a is pronouncec 


iiici iiiau iui:>. 

as a in sat. 


' u ,, ,, 

(fi .. .. 


,, UU lU uw. 

„ u in up. 


1 e „ 


,, a in same. 


au „ „ 


,, ow in now. 


( e „ 


„ e in 1/t, 


ai „ 


„ the English i. 


ei „ 


,, ay in lav. 


ch final ,, 


,, the German ch. 


i .. 


„ the English e. 


g is always 1 


tiard. as in ^oat. 


(o .. 


,, aw in latt'. 






- o ,, „ 


„ o in go. 






(o „ „ 


„ o in pot. 


1 




English. 


Dayak. 


EnglUh. 


J Dayak. 


able 


shaun 


advance 


1 odi ; ponu 

1 mupok ; mutik (W) 


able (physically) 


shinonu 


advance gradually 


about (future) 


an 


afflicted; affliction 


> susah-atin 


about (in number) 


sekira-icira 


afraid 


1 taruh 


above 


disombu 


after that 


rasu 


abuse (revile) 


mangu ; ngamun 


afterwards 


sekambuch sepagi 


accept 


mit; kambat 


again 


dinge; bauch 


accomplished 


jadi 


ago 


' much 


accompany 


dingan ; suah 


age 


, ashung udip 


acquainted with 


kunyet 


agree 


bepaiyu 


across (river) 


kadipah, porad (W) 


agreement 


, paiyu 
1 Isejerah 
sobak 


across; athwart 


ngiparang 


agree together 


accustomed to 


kunyet 


air 


accuse 


kiidaan 


alarm, raise an 


1 ngada 


accuse falsely 


nupu ; ngituma 


alarmed 


(guguch-atin 




( gugach (at working) 


'( gupoch-atin 


active 


ringgas {at walking) 


all 


1 periik 

, kaush-i ; kiang-kiancr 




(buke {at carrying) 


all, in ; altogether 


adrift 


aman 


alligator 


Ibuai 


add 


tambah 


also 


1 dinge ; guch 


adjoin 


bebaat 


alternately 


bekireiis 


adultery, commit 


tungach; bejorah(W) 


although 


1 semQki-kach 



Chalmers* Vocabulary. 



cxxxiu. 



English. 



always 

always (from begin- 
ning) 

ancestors 

anchor, an 

anchor, to 

anchorage 

anciently 

angel 

anger; angry 

another 

ant 

ant. white 

anoint 

announce ) 

announce (proclaim) i 

any (man) 

any (thing) 

anxious about (one 
absent) 

apart (disjoined) 

apostle 

appearance 

appeased 

approach (visit) 

arch 

arise 

around 

arms 

arrange 

arrive 

artizan 

ascend fa river) 

ascend (a hill) 

as far as 

ash of wick ; ashes 

ashamed 

ask (beg) 

ask from door to door 

ask (enquire) 

assemble 

assist 

astonished 

astonished (startled) 

astringent 

at 

attack, an 

attack, to 

ataps (thatch) 

ataps. to make 

ataps, to make stick 
(on which the 
leaves are laid) 

atone (by fine) 

auction 

avoid (a blow) 

awake 

axe, large 

axe, small 



Dayak. 



English. 



seraru; pauch 
taun 

somuk-babai 

sauh 

berlabuh 

labuban , 

jiman diu ; jiman jach > 

melaikat 

tuas; boji 

bfikun 

&ubi 

rungupod 

berangir 

daan 

seludu-tudfi (dayah) 
setudu-tudu (kayuch) 
jftbung 

renggang 

dah; penyuruch 

(thing) mun ; (person) 

rah ; (face) raun * 
munds 
tudu 
burung 
burab; mokat 
muning; krurung 
buko bums 
mishun 
menug 
tukang 
mudeuk 
maad 

/ ngah ; nilg (distance) 
\ kud (height or length) 
butup: apuk 
munguch; dasah 
mite 
nyukah 
sikyen 
nguruk : ngudung ; 

besinun 
tolong 

tekunud ; ngowa (\V) 
guguch 
kud 
di 

serang 
nyerang 
ilau 

to 



j berutang 
lelong 
saan odup l| 

burah 

kapak || 

biliong 1 1 



back, come ) 

back, go ) 

back, man's 

bad 

bag 

bald 

bald, sham 

bamboo 

bamboo, split and 

flattened 
bamboo, young shoots 

of (used as vegetable) 
banish 

bank of stream 
bark of tree 
bark, to (as a dog) 
barb of spear 
barren 
barrel 
basin 
basket, fishing 

basket for carrying 

bat, a 
bathe 
bay 
beard 

beat (strike) 
beat, with stick 
beat, with fist 
beat, against a stone 
beat out paddy 
beat with open hand 
beat, as heart 
beat a drum 
beads 

beams of house ^cross) 
beams of house (paral- 
lel) 
beak of bird 
bear, a 
beans 
beast 
beautiful 
because 
become 
become, make to 

bee 

beetle 

before (place, time) 
beginning (of any- 
thing) 

beginning, in the 

behind 
believe 
belly 



Dayak. 



pan 

punok 

(arap; bukok 
"( penyamun (rascal) 

putir; rajut 

rakas (in front) ; tunda 

betundo 

burn; buti; taring 

tertap 

umugn 

taran 

pang tubing 

kurit kayuch 

niikang 

bukid 

oboch; manang 

long 

makuk 

sikup; nobang 

Ibakol 
juach; jumoa (W), 
tambok (small) [I.] 
rangi 
kada 
mamuch 
teruk; ungilng 
gagap 
mukong 
mukong 
mutug 
kupok 
puch 
nupnp 

kamobak ; komujut 
mnk 

tumbis ; likich (W) 
parang 
parang 

tukuk 

buang 

retak 

dang 

paguch; romus; sigat 

sebab 

jadi 

bodah jadi ; bodah 

( bunyich (tree) 

] nyowan (house) 
beriang ; rukua ; 

berubut 
diu ; dawu 
tiigug 

( bungash 

( se bungash-bungash 
di kunang ; sundich 
sabach 
tain 



♦ Rev. F. W. Abe's> Vocabulary, published by Mr. Noel Denison. 
Vocabulary. 



Sec note at end ot this 



CXXXIV. I 


1. Ling 


KOTH.— 


JSattves of Sarawa 


k. 


English. 


Dayak. 


i English. 


Dayak. 


belch 


taug 




\ Body, Human - cont. 




beloved 


nyirot 




jaw 


raang 


below 


ribo ; sogan ; di dau 


, ear 


i kojit 


bell 


loching 


[ (Wy face 


jowin 


bell, hawk 


grunung 




1 hair (head) 
hair (body) 


ubok 


belt 


shishfu 




buruch 


bend 


nai rikog 




neck 


tungo 


betel-nut 


bai 




throat 


gang-gdng 


brass stand, on which 


karas 




windpipe 


kor 


betel-nut is placed 






side 


tigang 


betray 


juah 
biumbai 




shoulder 


kdwin 


betroth 




breast 


sudd 


betrothed 


I'lmbai 




belly 


tain 


between, interval 


baat ; usach 


waist ; loins 


kupong 


between, enter 


ngusach 




1 navel 


poshid ; pisod (W) 


bird 


manuk 




back 


pundk 


bite 


, kofit 




1 bottom 


kunang 


bite (peck) 


ngingut 




arm (whole) 


birtVing 


bite (peck), mark of 


berun 




li arm, shoulder to 


pupung 


bitter 


pait 




' elbow 


1 


black 


sing fit : ! 


jungot (W) 


arm, elbow to wrist 


brungd 


Blacksmith : — 


>andai 
xjran 




elbow 


sukuch 


smithy 




hand 


tangan 


smithy, go to 


odi ng-ambang 


1 fingers 


trinyu 


forge iron 


moba 




1 nails 


siruch ; silun (W) 


red-hot iron 


masak 




thumb 


sindu-trinyu 


fire-place 
anvi 


dinding 




! wrist 


brungd 


dasan 




'1 knuckles 


1 buku tangan 


hammer 


I bobah 




1 thigh 


punch 
3ites 


shafts of bellows 


tuba 




1 calf 


blow bellows 


muput 




' leg or foot 


koja ; poon (W 


wind box 


putan 
jupen 




1 knee 


' ubak karub 


tubes of wind box 




1 ancle 


1 buku sidk 


blaze 


begirod: 


bejireb 


sole or palm 


pura 


bless 


ngyen berkat 


1 heel 


tiga 


blessing 


berkat 




boil 


tanuk; rumu («w^f) 


blight (paddy) 


bangas 




boil rice 


tanuk 


blind 


< kerak 




1 boil, a 


prukis 




( komt'at 


{of one eye) 


boiling 


didich; ngigurak 


blood 


dr-yah 




bolt, a ; bolt, to 


dbut : ngdbut 


blot out 


ngutdsh 




bone 


tulang 


blow 


pooch 




1 book 


kitab 


blow pipe, see "sum- 


jupen 




born, be 


jadi 


pitan" 


1 




1 born, first 


1 penuai 


blow nose 


i suan 




1 born, last 


sebushu 


blue, see "colour" 






bore (in river) 


1 benah 


blunt 


taju 




' bore, place in which 


benahan 


blunt (notched) 


rfibang 




to await the 




blunted (point) 


papu 




i bore, to 


girik; tfibuk 


boat ) 


orud 




1 borrow 


mite minjam 


boat, small / 




, bosom 


1 pukd 


Body, Human :— 


pfirung: 


gunan; tibu 


' bother (trouble) 


owang-owang ; kakucli 


head 


ubak 




, bottle 


J serapak ; jabul (W) 


forehead 


aru 




1 bottom (of a thing) 


koja; kunang 


cheeks 


panding 
, betfich 


poup 


boundary 
bow (of boat) 


, baat 


eye 




ubak 


eye-brow 


1 buruch kuning 


1 bow (head) 


mutu 


eye-lash 


buruch kirat 


'box 


peti 


nose 


1 unugn 




1 ^^y 


anak dari ; gishu 


nostrils 


rubang unugn 


1 brain 


1 atuk 


mouth 


boba 




1 branch (of tree) 


dahan 


teeth 


jipilch ; jipon (W) 


, branch, forked 


sokap 


tongue 


jura 




1 brave 


pogan ; berasap ; 


lips 


' (bibich; 


bibin (W) 


1 


tfitiid (fearless) 


i ( tukuk (upptt lip) 


1 brass 


tambaga 


chin 


, seraka 




bread 


, roti 



Chalmers' Vocabulary. 



cxxxv. 



English. 


Dayak. 

pope; butach 


' English. 

care of, take 


Dayak. 


break 


kingat 


break string 


putud 


care of children, take 


nyudr* 


break stick 


putab 


carry 


bebuat 


break off 


kadi 


1 carry on shoulder 


gfirung 


break law 


ngirawan 


' carry as tambok 


kabich 


break promise 


putud 


carry in arms 


puku 


breast 


sudo 


carve, see "engrave" 




breasts, woman's 


shishuch 


cat 


bushing ; ngiau (W) 


breath 


ashung 


catch 


nakap 


breath, out of 


kowfik ; paiyah ; 


Catholic Church 


Ekklisia Katholika 




joro (W) 


j cave 


tang 


breathe 


ngashung 


I ceremony, a 


adat 


bridge 


teboian 


certain ; certainly 


tuntu 


bridge, long, built on 


besOwuch 


centipede 


repipan 


posts crossed 




chafe against 


gingrs 


bright ) 
brightness ) 


bringC'ung 


chafif 
chain 


aping; budang 
parik 


bring 


ngah ; toban 


1 chamber 


ariin ; romin (W) 


bring (convey) 


tud 


change 


besambi 


brittle 


rapich 


change (alter) 


berubah 


breadth; broad 


ramba 


change (money) 


tukar besambi 


broken, so as to be 


bubuch 


change (clothes) 


kabarui; m'An 


useless 




change (namej 


nyirt'sh adun 


brother 


madich 


change (position of 


terigen 


brother, elder 


kaka 


body) 




brother, younger 


sude 


channe 


alor; arong 


brethren 


sude-madich 


charcoal 


ubu 


broom 


pipis 


charm, a 


setagan 


bruise 


ttidas; butot 


chase 


bekuduch; tudak 


bufifet 


nupap 


chasm 


rubang 


bug 


ukak 


cheap 


udach 


bug, flying 


pungu 


cheapen 


tawar 


bunch 


aiyan; tundun 


1 cheat 
chew 


mujuk 


bundle 


/moas 


mupah 


(birun 


I chief of tribe 


orang kaya 


buoyant 


jangan ; tepuang 


chief of tribe, second 


pengara 


bum 


mupun ; sigdt ; 


chief, war 


panglima 




nyitungan 


' chief of a house 


tuah 


burn (person) 


raus 


1 child 
' chilis 


anak 


burnt 


sauu 


sebarang 


burning place for dead 


tinungan 


chisel 


pfifit 
kangun; situn 


burner of dead 


peninu 


choke (in eating) 


burst 


raak 


1 choose 


mien 


bury 


kubur 


church 


' ramin Sambayang 


busy 


duch poiyah 


1 ramin Allah Taala 


but 


pfik 
berumbang 


1 circumscribed (con- 


kiitich 


butterfly 


fined) 




button 


kanching; obut 


' circuit, make a 


mtining 


buy 


mirich 


clap 


nupap 


by 


bodah; dah 


. clean 


bisig 


by and bye 


te 


' cleanse 


ngushu ; ngu ; ngutosh 






, clear ^water) 
clear (affair) 


kining 


cackle (as a hen) 


nyitukak 


jowa 




( kurungan (latgc) 


clever 


bijak 


cage 


{ kariru {smail) 


climb 


jfikuch 


call 


bogan {when near) 
matau {when far) 


close (thickset) 


pishung; bringut 


call out to 


close (near) 


sinduk 


call out 


nai kiak 


close (together) 


3unet 


call upon 


nishung; tudu 


close (together), place 


jedindar 


calm 


toduch ; saiyah 


close (confined) 
close to ground 


kutich ; sekidfm 


candle 


bian 
ui 


rapat 


cane 


close up, to 


ngobut 


cane, a Malacca 


semiimu 


closed up 


papot 
benang 


canoe 


orud ' 


cloth 


care for 


paduli 

mgat ; jaga j 


clothes 


benang 


care, take 


clothes, swaddling 


putong bodung 



cxxxvi. H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



English. 


Dayak. 


English. 


Dayak. 


cloud 


abun 


comer 


sukuch 


cloud, rain 


keruman 


corpse 


tudang 


clump of bambus. a 


punan 
baga 


correct 


ngajar 


coarse 


cotton (thread) 


benang 


coax 


nyibudoh {with intent 


cough 


mokud; nyingOk 




to dtuive) 


council, a 


itong 


cocoa-nut 


butan 


counsel together, to 


beritong; minyu 


cocoa-nut water 


piin butan ; juh butan 


' take 




cocoa-nut shell 


tapurung ; boru (W) 


count 


niap 


cockroach 


randing 


country 


raich 


cold 


madud; mobus 


course, of 


tailn 


cold, a 


aun 


covenant 


laiyu 
lipong 


collapse 


kurung 


covet 


collect 


nguruk ; besinun 


cover, see "cork" 




Colour : — 




crab 


kiuch 


black 


singut 


craft 


akal 


blue 


banim 


crafty 


cherdik ; bijak 


grey 


apak 


cracked 


murang 


green 


barum 


crackle 


rutop 


red 


bire 


crank 


ringgang 


yellow 


sia 


crank, to be 


muguyung 


white 


budah ; mopuh (W) 


crawl 


gawang 


comb 


sinod 


create 


bodahjadi 


comb, fowl's 


teruping 
nyaduch 


crooked 


bedikok : rikog ; 


comfort (console) 
command, to ] 


cross (river) 


mudug 
mutash kadipah 


command, a 


semainya 


cross (hill) 


( moa darud 


commandment 




"( nyirube darud 


commit 


nai 


cross, a 


regang; tebnkaog 


come 


menug: nug 


cruciify 


masak ka regang 


come along 


jameh 


crow, to 


kukok 


come hither 


jah ; tep kamati ; 


crow, a 


kak 




di kamati 


crowded together, see 




come out through 


berambus 


"in disorder" 




come out of 


ruach : rupus 


crumple up 


nyiriuk 


come to pass 


jadi. tuk 


crush 


rtira 


companion 


dingfin 


cry 


sien 


company with, in 


beaiyo ; bepajak 


cry out 


nai kiak 


complete, to ) 


raput 


cucumber 


timun 


complete / 


1 cunning, see "crafty " 




compass, the 


padoman 


cup 


makuk 


compassionate 


siut 


curl, see "frizzle" 




complex (not simple) 


bisirat 


customs 


adat 


concave 


surok . sekibang 


curse, a 


pangu 


conceal 


chukan ; miman 


cut 


kapfig 


conceived in womb 


bite 


cut in two 


mutud 


conduit, water 


sekibang 


' cut down trees 


tabung 


conduit, mouth of 


aiyak 


cut down jungle 


nauu 


conduct, to 


tud 


i cut (lop oflf) 
cut (split) 
cut (chop) 


nyube 


confused in mind 


berishut 


mire 


conquer 


ngarah 


jupa 


conscience 


nyam-atin 


cut (in pieces) 


nyirib 


consult birds of omen 
contagion 


( ngabah kushah (day) 
\ nyimanuk (at night) 
sawit 


cut (open) 

cut oflf the top, as ear) 
from paddy -stalk 


nidi 

nyangut ; mrufid ; 
ngutum 


continually 


awet 


cut down paddy ) 


contented 


munns 


cutting paddy, knife 


kutam 


contrary to 


ngirawan 


for 




convey 


tud 






converted, be 


berubah-atin 


dam, a 


suang 


convex 


mudu ; mudug 


dam (fishing) 


jimbai; ranyu 


cook, to 


tanuk 


damp 


nyiput; diipop 


cook-house (or fire- 


apuk 


dance 


Iberejang 


place) 






t ngigar (W) 


cork, to 


nyukub; natup 


dandle 


nyando 


cork, a 


tut up 


] dangerous 


mar 





Chahners' 


Vocabulary. 


CXXXVll, 


English. 


Dayak. 


t 

English. 
Disease— continued : 


Dayak. 


dare; daring 


pogan {in war) ; puus 




dark; darkness 


karum ; mopung (W) 


enlargement of the 


band 


dash down 


khriima 


spleen 




date-fruit 


[ disjoined 


renggang 


daughter 


anak dayung 


in disorder (crowded 


kakok 


dawn 


kok siOk ; anu jowah 


close together) 




day, a 


anu 


dissolve 


ririch 


day (opposed to night) \ jowah 


distance between 


juan-i 


daily 


ni-anu-anu 


places 




dazzled 


shiu 


1 distant 


j''> 


dead 


kfibus 


disturbed (in mind) 


bepushid 


dead body 


tudang 


disturbance 


gutoi 


deadened (sound) 


puot 
bungam 


disturbance, make a 


nai gutoi ; nai dudu 


deaf 


ditch 


parit 


dear 


mar 


1 dive 


ngobu 


debt 


hutang 


divide 


berutung 


decayed 


an nfitash 


division 


utung; kutung 


deceit 
deceive 


bujuk 

mujuk ; nyibudoh 


divorce 


1 bu ; sebarai 
1 belogan (W) 


deceived 


budoh 


do (make) 


nai 


deer (large) 


paiyu 


do not 


duchnyach ; dunyach 


deer (medium) 


jerak 


manyach 


deer (small) 


pranuk 


doctor 


dukun 


deep 


turup ; au-au (very) 


1 


( barich {female) 


defend 


gerindung 


' doctor (conjurer) 


- dukun ) . . V 
(dayahberuri)^"''''*'' 


deficient 


korang 




deliver 


ruach 


doctor, to (by incan- 


barich 


demand (a debt) 


nunggu 


1 tation) 




deny 


miman 


dog 


kushong 




/ pengaroh. {applied to 


door 


tiban 


deposit, a 


] charmed stones, &<., 
\ used by the Dyak 
[ "berobat" 


doting; dotard 
down, let 


babo 
bishor; bitun 




drag 


tarik; ngajut 


descend (hill) 
descend (river) 


mun 


drag on boat 


batak 


uman 


draw, see "drag" 




deserted 


>ujam moog 
landak 


i draw out 


dimut 


desire (wish) 


dream 


pomuch ; pmoch (\V) 


desire (lust) 


lip^mg 


Dress : — 




desirous of 


gagah 


jacket 


jipo 


deser\'ing of 


patut 


' head-dress 


j bung ubok 


destroy 


niitash; rusak 


( burang (W) 


destroyed 


rusak 


petticoat 


jomfich 


dew 


abun 


! trowsers 


sinyang 


die 

different 

difficult ) 


kubus 
bukfm 
bisirat (fo»i//#-r) ; mar; 


armlets (brass) 




difficulty j 


paiyah; susah 




dig 


karech 


armlets (shell) 


kara 


dip 
diligent 


kujok; kurom 


women's leg rings 


roti 


butach; gfigach 


men's waist-cloth 


taup 


dirty 


kaich; puder 


basket 


juach ; jumoa (W) 


disabled (for work) 


mutang; bujang 


small basket worn 


tambok ; pengupa 


disappointed (balked) 


asa 


by the side 




Disease: — 


berandam 


smaJl knife worn at 


sindah 


boils 


priikich ; kibu 


side 




dysentery 


tfiki doyah 


sheath of small knife 


randung 


fever 


sungoh 


worn at side 




itch 


ku 


1 sirih-case 


upich 


looseness 


merubus ; bawosh (W) 


boxes in side tambok 


delian 


scrofula 


bagi 


ordinary parang, or 


bfiko tukin 


small-pox 


teboro 


chopping knife 




ulcerated sores 


g^ag; bfikang 


visiting parang 


penat ; bai (W) 


worms 


munam regyu 


sheath of parang 


sibong ; duong (W) 


elephantiasis, when 
tne leg is perma- 


mutud 


waist chains i worn by 


<perik 




waist wire i women 


( kawat 


nently swollen 




bead necklace 


tumbis 



CXXXVIU. ^ 


I. l^ING KOTH. — 


Natives of barawa 


k. 


English. 


Dayak. 


English, 
endure; enduring 


Dayak. 


Dress of the Barich 


taan; kukoh 


head-doth 


sepauung ; scrapai (W) 


' enemy 


punganyu ; bishirun ; 


bead-cap 


segubak ; sipla (W) 


1 


penyerang 


bead necklace 


setagi ; panggia (W) 


engrave 


mutik ; bitik (W) 


bead scarf 


semudn ; sombon (W) 


enough 


raput; sedang 


drink 


nok; mOk 


enlighten 


bodah jowah 


drunk 


mabok 


enlarge (widen) 


bodah baiyah 


drive (nail) 


/masak 


enquire 


sikyen 


drive (peg) 


( mabak 


entangle 


bekarut ; jukut 


drive away 


kushig; pibu 


; enter 


murut 


drop, a 


nititeg 


enter to a short dis-\ 




drop out or off, to 


dimbut 


tance (as a spear' 


kiiHikh mA<«iil( 


drown 


rungfid 


or splinter into i 


mllUldll IllcLSUK 


drowsy 


nunu 


the body) ) 




drum, a 
dry 


gundang 
< boduch 
1 pishfik {withered) 


enter to a consider- 
able depth 


( tfirup masuk 
- omu masuk 
( anim masuk 


dry, to 


< diiwan {in air) 


enter as far as ex- 


repuan masuk 


1 dnn {in house) 


tremity 




dry new rice in a pan, 


nyirandang 


entwine 


bukur 


to 




envy 


shinah 


duck 


itik 


equal, see "same" 




dumb 


bawa; baku 


erase 


ngutosh 


^^^^ 


tuki 


erring 


mSnyap 


dusk, see "twihght" 




espouse, see 'betroth" 




dust (ashes) 


apuk 


ever, for 


nug se tui-tui 


dust (litter) 


ronash 


European, a 


Biranda 


duty 


sedang; patut 


, everlasting 


duch bisa obo ; ha.hu 


dwarfish 


mukung 


1 every (each) 
I every (all) 


setiap-tiap 


dwell 


ruu 


periig-perug; kaush-i 


dye, a red 


semungu 


' examine (enquire) 


sikyen 
koduk 


dye, a yellov 


ttimu 


1 examine (look at) 


ear 

ear, in (as corn) 


kojit 
murai 


i exceeding 
exceedingly 


fraru 

- pushe (*« size) 

( niikung {in thickness) 


ear, full corn in 


murah 


excepting 


kiang 


ear, an (of paddy) 


aiyan ; tundun 


exchange 


besambi 


. 


/ subang {woman* s) 


exchange labour 


ngirich 


ear-ring 


(ateng {man's) 


expand (swell) 


bflngkak 


early 
earth, the 


ishan-ishan 


expense 


balanja 


ong 


explain 


bodah puan 


earth (ground) 


tanah 


extinguish 


pura 
betuch 


earth (dry land) 


di'yfich 


' eye 


ease, at 


senang 


eye-lid 


punu betfich 
buruch kirat 


ease oneself 


tfiki 


eye- lash 


easy (to do) 


senang ; mudah 


j eye-ball 


anak betuch 


eat 


man 


! 




eat sirih 


pah 


1 face 


jo win 


eaves of house 


penogang ilau 


fade 


rayu; kurung 


ebb tide 


piin surud 


faded (dry) 
I faded (in colour) 


pishuk 
x>nus; buus 


echo 


angu , 


edge (bank) 


pang tubing 


faint, to 


mujfip 


edge of weapon 


shiid 


fame; famous 


beragach 


edge, teeth on 


shiin 


family, having a large 


pupach powun 


eddy 


ulak 


famine 


seburuk 


effervesce 


ngigurak 


fall down 


robu 


egg 


turoch 


fall out, see "dropout" 




eggs, lay 


menuroch 


fall (as tree) 


rumak 


egg-plant 


tiung 


fall upon 


nyatuk ; nyondug (\V) 


elastic 


kunyoi 


fall in ruins, see "ruin" 




embrace 


(puko; dukup 
betupang 


1 fall off (as leaves) 
false 


ruruch 
kadong 




( kukun {seat on lap) 


fan, a 


kipas 


empty 


ungan; gagong 


fan, to 


nyipas 


enclose 


nyikapung 


far 


j« 


end (extremity) 


tubun ^ 


far, how 


juan-ki 





Chalmers 


Vocabmary. 


CXXXIX. 


English. 


Dayak. 
suki 


English. 


Dayak. 


far-sighted (physi- 


fish, to, by tubah 


1 nubuch 


cally) 




fish, to, by hook 


misich 


farm, a 


umuch 


first (in order) 


sebungash 


farm, to 


berumuch t 


first Jtime or place) 
first-born 


dawtl ; din 


farm, a house on 


bori 


penuai 


farm, an old 


tebai | 


first-fruits, the 


jangut 


farms, a small collec- 


sebubO 


first-fruits, gather 


nyipaan 


tion of 




first, at 


sebungash-bungash-i 


farms, large collec- 


ratau 


fit 


sedang 


tion of 




flame 


jireb 


farm, a. discontinued, 


bogag 


flee 


|bu 


after cutting the 




flesh 


ishin 


jungle 




flexible 


liat 


fast (quick), see 




float 


tepuang 


"strongly" 




flock, a (birds, &c.) 


kaban 


fasten (tie) 


rafiung : ngobut (close 


flood, a 


< piin obah 




ut) : bokosh (\V) 
mabak ; masak 


I obah krambu 


fasten (nail) 


flood tide 


pi in pasang 


fasten up by suspend- 


ngatir 


flour 


teboduk 


ing 




flow out 


nyibuuk 


fat 


gfimu 


flower 


suat 


fat (greasy) 


berinynb 




1 tura (house) [ing 


father 


sama 


fly, a 


rungu (maggot breed- 


fathom, a 


dupfich 




(ishet («r^;?so/rungfi) 


fatigued 


kowuk; mara | 


fly, a dragon 


sedanau 


fawn (as a dog) 


nan yak 


fly. a horse, or painted | ( piguring 


feast 


begawai 


fly 


1 (adfid [large) 


female 


dayung 


fly, to 


1 mukabur; timirib(W) 


feast, funeral 


man baiya 


flying fox, a 


rungowat 


feast, harvest 


man sawa 


%gy 


1 kabut 


feather 


buruch 


follow 


tundah ; suah ; 


feeble 


dfidut ; duch shinonu 




ngajach ; nodug 


feel 


nyam 


follower 


dingan 


feel (by touch) 


kap 


fold, a 


siak 


feel one's way 


gagap 


fold up, to 


ngupet 


feelings 


nyam-atin 
piasa ; ngunur 


food 


man 


feign, to (to give), see 


foot 


koja 


under "strike" 




foot (of hill) 


koja; sigun 


fence, a 


buang 


footprint 


inyuk koja 


fence, to 


bebuang 


foolish 


bodoh 


ferns (used as a 


pokuch ; baiyam 


foolish (mad) 


gila 


vegetable) 




foolish (doting) 


babo 


fever 


sungho 


foolishness 


babal-atin 


few 


nishit; nishu , 


for (because) 


Isebab 


fickle; fickleness t 


bimbang-atin ' 


forbid 


nang ; ninh : jaman ; 


fight wiih 


bekai 




jumba; mapak 


fight against 


ngirawan 


forbidden 


parich 


fight cocks 


besabung 


forest 


tarun 


file, a 1 


kikir 


forefathers 


, somuk-babai 


file teeth to 


< bertajar 


forget 


kambut 


*••%* fc^^V'^A'y %\y 


1 ngasah 


forgotten 


opung-opung 


fierce 


riikang; gauk ; 


fork, a 


garfu ; garupu 


fill 


ngisi 


forked 


besftkap 


fill rice-pot for cooking' 


nyukad 


formerly 


dawu : jiman difi 


find 


dapud 


formerly (of old) 


sarak din 


finished 


obo ; mol>i ; kub<"» ; 


fornicate 


, bejerah ; nainyung 




moko ; much 


fortress 


kota; kubu 


fine (thin) 


unuk • 


Fowl : — 


1 sink ; siap (Setang) 


finger 


trinyu 


cock 


babang 


fire 


opui 


hen 


dayung 


fire a gun 


tinyfig: mak 


chicken 


anak ungod 


fire at 


nimbak 


fragment 


^ tfiduch 


firefly 


bukarup { 


fragrant 


' buuch rfimak 


firewood 


wang ; shiru (W) 


frequently 


aw('t 


firm ; fixed 


bukut ; tegap 


freed 


merdika 


fish 


ikyen 


fresh, a, see "flood" 





cxl. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



English. 

fresh (not salt) 
friend 
frizzle 
frog 

from 
froth 
fry 
Fruit: — 

eatable fruits 

durian 

mangustine 

manggo 

sibau or rambutan 

small jungle ram- 
butan 

jack-fruit 

tampoi 

langsat 

papaya 

plantain 

naw-palm 

nipah-palm 
fruit f full-grown, but 

unripe) 
fruit, to bring forth 
fuel 
fulfil 
full 

fun, make of, or with 
fungus 
funnel 

gain 

gambir 

gap (fissure) 

gape (yawn) 

garden 

gather together 

gather (pluck) 

gather fuel 

gaze upon 

gaze upwards 

generous 

gentle 

gently (not roughly) 

gimlet 

ginger 

gird on 

giri 

give; grant 

glad: gladness 

glisten, see " twinkle" 
glory (renown) 
glory (halo) 
glory (effulgence) 
glossy 

^^ . 

go (imper.) 

go (visit) 

go back (return) 



Dayak. 

madud 

dingan ; dumpu 
menikur; buaukung 
tiikang ; beratak ; 
tegorag; sai 
so 

tegurak 
nyirara 

buah-buah-jijak 

dean 

sikuk 

muporam 

sibu 

pijuan 

tibudak ; nangka 

tapui 

lishet 

payang 

borak 

inyok 

nipah ; apong 

tuuch 

buan 

wang 

betutuk 

punoh; gugup 

berubi ; patia (W) 

kulat 

churut 

ontong 

gambir 
I rubang 

kuab 

teyah 
I b^iniln ; nguruk 

nyuked ; nupas ; 
> mutud 
' nuh wang 
I tingah 

ngigurrah 
I munich; tatich 
I munich 
I nakit 
I grodi 
, rai 

nukin 

anak dayung ; gishu 
I ngyen ; jugan 

raan-atin 

gaun-atin 
I ginaiyun (very) 
I 

beragach 
' kumakab 

jowah shiu tingah 
I nyerinyak 
' odi ; di ; metak 
I shush odi ; shush ponu 
I tudu 

mori {from far) 

maad {from near) 
, motash {from near) (\V) 



English. > 

go back from 

go down (hill) 

go down (as swelling) 

goat 

God 

gold 

gong (bass) | 

gong (medmm) 

gong (treble) 

good 

goods 

good-natured 
government 
gradually 

grasshopper 
grain, a (of rice) 
I grandfather 
grandmother 
grandchild 

I grass 

grate 1 

grate (cocoa-nut) 

grater 

grave, a 

grease; greasy 

great 

greedy 

green 

grey (hair) 

grey (ash coloured), 

see "colour" 
grieved 
grin 

grind (by hand) 
groan 
grow up 

grown up with grass 
growl 
guard 
guava 
guess 
guide, a 
gum 

gutta percha 
gums 

gun (cannon) 

pop-gun 
gun-powder 
gush out 



Dayak. 



hades 
hair (head) 
hair (body) 
half, a 

halve 

hammer 
happy 
hand 
hand, right 



sigat; 



pan 

mun 

kerung 

kambing 

Allah Taala 

berowan 

tertawak 

gong 

bunde 

paguch^ kena; 

romus 
buat; perambut 
munich 
prentah 
mupok ; mukun ; 

mutik (W) 
kadich 
ni-sirach 
babai 
somuk 
sukuch 

( uduch ; 

'( pudam 

ungosh 

nukur 

fpenukur; kukuran 

] ungosh 

kubor 

remak ; berinyab 

baas 

sibut ; bedogich ; bidi 

barum 

berubuk 



pai-pasang 



susah-atin ; ngurid 
I betujit 
I kisar ; giling 

nyideing 
. tumbu 
I jukut 
I ngfir 

nguan 

buah jambu 
I jangka 
I malim 
I putuk 

nyatoh 

samad jipuch 

(miriam 

( lela 

panah 

obat bedil 

menapus ; mtirasit 
(liquids) 

sabayan 
ubok 
buruch 
raput 

( nyiraput 

( mire nyinuuch 
bobah 
senang 
tangan 
tauch 



Chalmers* Vocabulary, 



cxli. 



English. 


Dayak. 


English, 
hinder.to, see "forbid"! 


Dayak. 


hand, left 


bait 




handjful 


ni-agum; ni-akup 


hinderpart 


budich 




{both hands together) 


hire 


gagi : pach (W) 


handkerchief, head 


( bung ubok | 
( burang (W) 


history 


susud (genealogy)', 
duda; sus€;dundan 


handle ^sword) 
handle (of vessel) 


ubak 


history, to relate a 


nuse; nyiduda 


kojit ' 


hit : 


dog 


handrail 


utag 


hit. be 


dog jokad 


hang 


( begatung 


hither 


kamati; kamanu 


( beramboi {by hands) 


hoarse | 


piau 


hang oneself 


betuku 


hold 


digung 


hang up 


tfmgid 


hold, take, of 


digen 
rubang 


hanging down 


bikidiung ; rambcftng 1 


hole 


(pensile) 


1 


hole in bed of a river i 


lubok 


hard 


riaog; semfitak 


hole, make, in 


tubuk ; karech (in 


hard (hearted) 


tunyenk ; durach 




earth) 


harlot 


perambai 


hole, make, through , 


nubot 


harvest 


ngah ngutun 


holes, in 


tubot 


harvest mid 


piaun ngutun 


hollow 


oerubang; begagong 




Ist. nyipaan (gather 


holy 

Holy Ghost 


£udus 




first fruits) 


Roh Al Kudus 




2nd. nyitfingid, or 


hook, fish 


pisich 
begagit 


harvest feast, keep 


-l man sawa 


hooked on to 




3rd. nyipidang men- 
yfipong, or 
nyisupen 

begaut: gopoh 

likas 


hope in 


harap; sabach 




honest ' 


tunggun 




honey 


juh bunyich 


haste, be in 
haste, make 


honeycomb 


Ipenubak bunvich 
\ idang btinyich 


hasten after 


bekoduch 


hop. to 1 


ngitijong 


hasten away 


betudak 


horse \ 


kuda 


hastily 


likas 


horn ' 


tandok 


hat. Dayak 


seroung 


hot 


sekisu g0nan (body) 


hate 


tuas 




paras; bongo (W) ; 
surah ; petiak (\V) 


hatred 


boji 


' 


haul up 


paad 


hot or heated, as air 


paras begungam 


have (possess) 


ogi; biun 


near hot ^ater 




head, see "body" 




hot or heated, as air 


sadak 


head-dress, see 




near large fire 




"handkerchief" 




, hot to taste | 


semarach 


head house 


jpang-ach:baruk(W) 
(balu (R. Sadong) 


House : — 
house, small, in 


ramin 
bishun 


head-hunting, go 


ngQnyu 


jungle ; 




headache 


ubak mQnam 


house, small, on I 


fbori (on farm) 


heal; healed 


buah 


farm 


\ purung (for goods) 


heap 


nambun 


house, small, near 


pungau 


hear | 


dingah; keringab(W) 


village for stor- 




ngojit (W) 


ing goods 




heart (seat of affec- 


atin 


a Dyak house, con- 


b&tang 


tions) 


, 


taining several 




heat (sunshine) 


surah 


doors 




heated, see "hot" 


1 


outside platform of 


tanyu 


heathen 


! dayah kapir 


a Dyak house 




heaven 


, shurga : rliich shurga 


verandah, or com- 


awach 


heavy 


bat 


mon room 




hell 


' opui Naraka 


private, or family 


arun ; romin (W) 


heel over 


smgit 


room 




helm 


mudich 


I fire-place 


apuk 


help 
hence 


tuning 
sfiiti 


wood-place 


(paiyuch 

( poiyo shim (W) 


henceforth ; hereafter 


repas ati 


water-place 


pawad 


here 


1 diti ; digiti ; diginu 


garret 


riingah 


hiccup 


' sedu 


below floor 


ribo 


hide 


chukan 


floor 


lantei 


high 


omu ; segatung 


how? 


munki; semuki 


hill 


danid 


' how much, or 


kiangki 


bill, a low 


i terunduk ; dug (long) 


, how many ? 


kQdu kiangki 



cxlii. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



English. 



Dayak. 



English. 



Dayak. 



how large ? 

howl fas dog) 

hamble 

hungry 

hunt 

hurricane 

husband 

hymn 

hypocrisy 

hypocrite, to act as 

I 

Idol, an (image) 

if 

ignorant 

ill-will 

impudent 

in 

in jungle 

incite 

incur 

Indian-rubber 

individually 

industrious 

infant 

infect; infectious 

inflated 

ingenuity 

inheritance 

inoculate 

instead of 

interior of a country 

interrogative affix 

interrupt (talk) 

interest (of money) 

interval of rest be- 
tween the stages of 
farm- work 

inundation 

invest with name or 

office 
invite 
iron 

iron-wood 
irresolution 
is 

is not 
island 
itchy 
itself, by (not mixed 

with others) 
Interjections :— 

expressing surprise 

expressing pain 



mutiki 

kaong; kieung 
tuktln ' temungun 
, seburiik ; pilai (W) 
nfashu; tudak 
ribut ; sobak-ribut 
bonuch 

Eujian 
ujuk 
mujuk 

aku 

berhala 

kamui 

babal ; bawa 

geraka 

duch biun mfinguch 

darum 

abong tarun 

ngajak 

dr,g 

putuk Gemuan 

sekushin-kushin 

gugach 

anak-pira 

sawit 

meruap 

akal 

pusaka 

sungkit 

ganti; besambi 

si jo 

kah 

nyirlbur 

anak 

penungfich 



i piin ubah 
( piin apuch deyuch 
bekadun ; bergelar 

ngajak 

besi 

taas 

bimbang-atin 

ogi 

meting ; doi (W) 

puloh 

ti 

shidarii 



jaw 
jealous 
"esus Christ 



jack-fruit 

jacket 
jammed 

jar (large) 

jar (small) 

jar (high) 
jar (pitcher) 



anich ; ade 
adi : adoh 

J tebudak 

( nangka 
jipo; sekindang 
serupot 

(bonda 

(ipang 

(iron; mando 
j {blane 

tajo; jabir 
I buyong 



ew 

^ew's harp 
jingle 

join together 
joint 

joists of flooring 
joke 

judge, to 

Judgment, Day of 
judgment of C^od. a 
jump over 



jump down 
jump up 
jungle 
jungle (old) 

jungle (young) 

jungle (low grassy) 
I just (man) 

just (thing) 

just ? is it (or fair ?) 

just come 

just now (past) 
I just now (future) 

jut out from 

keep (take care of) 

keep alive 

keep (put by) 

key 

kick forwards 

kick backwards 

kill 

kind ; kindness 

kindle 

kindled 
' kiss 

kite (bird) 
, Kling, a (native of 
^ South India) 

knee 

kneel 

knife (large) 

knife (small) 
' knock at 

knock off 

know 

know (person) 
I know, do not 

known, make 
, knot, a ) 

, knot, to j 

I ladder (Malay) 

I ladder (Dyak) 
laden, over- (boat) 
laden, over- (person) 
lake 

lame 



raang 

mishe; monyash {W) 

Isa Almesih 

orang Jehudi 
I traing ; setubiung 

jawun 

tubu 

bukuch turang 

geraegar 

berubi ; pat la (\V) 

hukum 
I anu kiamat 
' tulah 

melompat ; merukid ; 
menyakir {as frog) ; 
metaran 

stabung; nyungung 

menanjong 

tarun 

tuuch ; tuan ; tuan 
randam {trees, large) 

murah; tebai 
< kupai 
' tQnggun 

betul ; patut 
I pas inap 

moran menug 

tejach ; jach 

te 

nogang 

I ingat ; jaga ; nguan 
i kudip 

! kingat ; shitah 
; kunchi 

ngikak 

nigah 

sift ; nyoo (W) 
I (tatich; miinich 
t ( masi {merct/ul) 
! tung 
, sukut 

chium 

bouch 

tambe 

ubak karub 
I sedikang; bekun3nig 

buko [(W) 

' sindah 
I gutog 
, tampir 
I puan ; (redah) 
! kunyet 

fintah ; duch puan 

agach 

muku 

tengah ajan 
I tungoch 
; sarad 

gunggur-giinggur 

dunu 

(nijoug 
1 (bojang(/fm/»>^) 



Chalmers' Vocabulary. 



cxliii. 



English. 



lament over i 

lamp ' 

land 

land, a (coantry) 

land, dry (not sea) | 

land round and be- 
tween houses and 
villages i 

land round a whole ' 
village 

land near houses, hard 
and cleared of grass 

land at, to 

landing-place 

language 



large 



last 

lifting 

last night 

lath I 

laugh 

lavish 

lazy 

lead (metal) 

leaf (tree) 

leaf, a (of anything) i 

leak ) I 

leaky / , 

lean (adj.) > 

lean back or against 

learn 

learned j 

leather 

leave (forsake) 

left (remaining) 

leaven; leavened 

leech, land 

leech, water | 

lend 

lengthen out 

lengthways 

less 

let be ; let alone 

let go 

let go (a string) 

let down 

level I 

lick 

lid i 

lie 

liar, a | 

lie down 

lie down (on face) i 
lie on top of 
life ) ' 

life, principle of / 
lift up 

lift uptambok (for pro- 
ceeding on journey) j 



Dayak. 

muas 

plita; lampo 

tanah 

raich 

deyuch 

budag 

rimbang 



pukan 

singgah; ngesah { 

pangkalan 

peminyu 

/bfias; aiyuch (W) 
tebont' ; sindu-i (very) 
i pflndor (in volume) 
bidor (disproportion' 

\ ately large) ; baer 
butach; taan \ 

tugoch; kukoh i 

singomi I 

lantei 
tawuch 
pruang 
sorut 
timah 
dawun 

ni-kridean i 

I 
siret I 

manyuch: maiyuch 

menyanich 

belajar 

bisa 

kurit; unyit 

tinggO; tugan , 

kidum 

ragi; beragi 

remtituk 

remotah 

minjam 

kasawich 

tnnggfin 

korang 

biar; isah-i 

ruach 

pasan , 

bishor | 

rabak 

ngyarek , 

tutfip; gudug I 

kadong | 

dayah kadong 
goring I 

sekunyong ) (on ' 
sekudang ) back) \ 
seging (on side) 

sepuub I 

maret i 

ashung 

mokat; tunduk 
beranyuk 



English. 

lift up in arms 
light, the 
light (adj.) 

ight, to (fire) 
light upon, to 
lightning 
like as 
like to 
like as if 
lime 

ime. a (fruit) 

line, a 

lining 

lip 

litany 

litter (dust, &c.) 

little (bulk) 

little (short) 

little (quantity) 

ive 

lizard, small house 

load (gun) ) 

load (ship) / 

lock 

lodge 

loins 

long 

ong time, a 

ong time ago, a 

ong as, as 

long for, to (one ab- 
sent) 

long for, to (certain 
kinds of food) 

loose (not tight) 

loose (not tense) 
loose (not coherent) 
loose (not fast) 
look at 

look upwards 
look in a wrong direc- 
tion 
looking-glass 
loop, a 

lose ) 

ose way / 

ouse 

ouse (of fowls) 
loud 
loud (voice) 

love 
love, to 

love-bird, a 

low (in height) 

low (voice) 

ucky 

ull child f (by dangling) 

asleep ] (by singing) 
ump together 
ust \ 

ust after, to ) 

mad 



Dayak. 



sam5t ; taten 

jowah 

jangan 

tung 

map 

kijat 

nimun ; kaya ka 

nimun; mun 

minyam 

binyuch 

rimu 

didi 

turap 

bibich 

litani 

ronash ; sfipok 

shiit ; shfi ; iso (W) 

purok 

nishit : shiit ; nishfi ; 

arok (very) 
udip 
titek 

ngisi 

kunchi 

numpang 

kupong 

omu ; rambung (tall) 

tui 

much tui 

setiidun ; tian 

j&bung 

krangas 

( tundor 

I gushosh (clothes) 
kerung ; miosh ; renfik 
gushosh ; ragoch 
teguge ; kutok 
tingah 
ngigurah 
begayang 

cheremin 
sepakiit segarong 

mfinyap 

gutich 
kudub 
benah 
dor 

Mndu ka 
atin-awang 

( raan ngah 
tigf'sh 

rapat; purok 
unuk ; rundeng 
budik betuach 
nyando 
samun 
meruku 



lipong 
gila 



cxliv. H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



English. 


Dayak. 


English. 


Dayak, 


maggot 


urud 


1 mispronounced 


skioden 


maize 


jagong 


miss (aim) 


ashet 


make 


nai 


mist 


abun 


malice 


(tuas; boji 


1 mistake, to 


sabuch 


\ mftnam atin 


mix 


begaur 


malicious 
Malay, a 


grobah 
Kireing 


1 mock (tease) 


i (nfipat 

1 "( naiya {by imitating) 


man, a 


(dayah: naan 


mock (abuse) 


ngamun; mauRu 


( nyaa (W) 


modest 


mungfish; dasah 


man. a (male) 
mankind 


dan 


moment, a 


ni-kidap; ni-giru 


manusia 


1 monkey (long-tailed) 
monkey (short- tailed) 


oyung 


Manner of Action : 




kiad 


in this manner 


kumunu 




(buduch 


in that manner 


kamuti; sekfrnu 


, monkey 


terpiu 


mangustineor mango 






(bojig 


see "fruit" 




. monkey {orang-utan) 


maias 


many or much 


bogu ; aduch 


money 


wang 


many ? how 


kiang ki ; mukudu 


' monsoon, rainy 


jaiyah 


many, too 


tukod 


monsoon, hot 


roga 


marbles 


guli 


, month, a 


ni-buran 


mark, a 


tanda 


Moon : — 


buran 


mark (trace) 


arok 


' new 


buran bauch 


Marry:— 




' full 


buran turak 


betroth 


biumbai 


1 quarters 

third day after full 


bulan kudunf^ 


marry a wife 


sowan 


buran bubuk 


marry a husband 


bunan 


more (quantity) 


dinge 


marshy ground 


f ruboch; tanahrabak 1 more (comparison) 
1 tanah padak i morning 


robich; pauch 
ishan 


mat (fine) 


ilmok 


1 mommg, this 


ju-i-jach 


mat 


bumban; idash 


morning, to-morrow 


sepagi-ishan-ishan 
lishoog 


mat (coarse) 


kasa 


mortar (for paddy) 


matted 


bekarut 


1 moss; mossy 


rimut 


matter (pus) 


penunah 


1 moth 


sebunut 


matter (business) 


ftftdukayuch 
, \ tridu ptingHnang 


J mother 
1 mouldy 


sindu 
bekurat 


mattress 


' tilam 


mountain 


darud 


meaning 


ani 


! mouse 


babu 


measure ) 
measure (length) / 


1 nukud ; nakar 


1 mouth 

1 mouth of river 


bobah 
nunguch 


measuring-line 


penukud 


; mouthful, a 


ni-sikaum 


meddle with 


1 / nambang (inter/ere) 
I ( tuma (touch) 


move (shift) 
' move (stir) 


beringar 


■ 1 4\^Vl %**%^ TW * % ** 


terigen; begiring 


medicine 


1 uri 


1 move about (neuter) 


begugoch 


mediator 


pengiis^ch 
bedapud 


I much, see "many" 




meet 


mud 


tawang; jijub 


melon 


, semangka 


, mud (on river's banks) 
muday (water) 


pantei 
kSruch 


melt 


1 ririch 


mend 


1 nai kena ; nupung 
{anything broken) 


1 muddy (ground) 


/tare; mameak 
( tawang {da^) 


mention 


nyobut 


1 musquito 


prungang 
kelambu 


mercy ) 


. 


1 musquito curtains 


mercy upon, have / 
merchant 


masi 


1 muscle 


kuku 


1 dayah berdagang 


must 


tiintu 


merely 


mina; perchoma 


mustard (plant) 


sabi 


messenger 


penyuruch; dah 






middle ; midst 


baat ; raput 


'l nail, a ) i 
nail, a wooden, or - ' 
. peg ) 




middling ; moderately 


moa 




midwife 


penuding 




milk 


juh-shishuch 


! nail (human) 


siruch ; silun (W) 


mill, hand 


kisaran 


'naked 


fsetabet (woman) 
\ setagor (man) 


miscarry (child 
mischief; mischance 


ruus 


genaka; geraka 


name, a 


adun 


mischievous 


gauk 


1 name, to 


bekadun 


miser 


bidi ; bedogich 


name, have, of j 


biiin adun 


misfortune, see "mis- 




name, take, of 


kambat adun 


chance" 




narrow | 


kupit; sekidun 



Chalmers* VocabiUary. 



cxlv* 



English. 


Dayak. 


' English. 


1 Dayak. 


narrow (circum- 


kutich 


Numerals (cant.) :— 


' 


scribed) 




1 twenty 


duuch puroh 


nation (tribe) 
naturally 


bangsa 


one hundred 


1 ni-ratus 


taun 


one thousand 


ni-ribu 


near 


sinduk 


1 ten thousand 


: ni-laksa 


near-sighted 


kidu 


1 number, to 


1 niap 


nf^h 


( tungf) (/« front) 


i, 




IICCK 


\ pungo (back of) 
'kongkong; tumbis 


O 


yah 


necklace 


1 oath 


1 mangu 


( seramu (made of teeth] 


, 


1 (asih 


necessary 


patut 


obey 


pakai pfinganang 


needles 


utOsh 




( pakai prentah 


nerve, a 


uat 


obstinate 


, madud 


nest (bird's) 


sanuk; sarin 


obtain (get), see 


1 


net (fishing) 


jala; pukat 


"procure" 




net (a toil) 


jering 


offer (hold out) 


1 jugan 


never 


bufin 


oil 


inyr» 


never mind 


« duch jerah 


old (man) 


1 uyambah ; penyibaas 


\ duch isach 


1 old (thing) 


fimah 


new 


bnuch 


once 


ni-sidah 


news 


agack 




1 , ni 


nice 


sidi 


' 


ni-buah 


night 


ngarum 




j ni-bidang 


night, to- 


sekambuch 


1 


1 ni-puriing 


night, last 


singomi 


one 


1 ' ni-ikor 


night, pass the 


nyirumun 




1 ' ni-keping 


no 


indah; duch 


1 


j ni-kayu 
1 ni-lei 
\ni-turap 
odup-sadi 


noise, a 


gutoi 




noise, make a 


/ berishut ; nai gutoi 
( nai dudu 


oneself 


noise (sound) 


jawun 


' oneself, by 


sadi 


noise (of animals) 


sfik 


one's own 


odup-dupu 


noise (of falling water) 


g» 


onion 


' bang 




j yun anu 


only 


, adfi 


noon 


\ nunung repuan 


only-begotten 


I tumu 


noose, a 


seringo 


open, to 


, kuka : mbang (fruit) 


noose, to 


nyeringo 


open (not confined) 


bai^^ ; tawas (W) 


nose 


unung 
(duch; muduch 


opinion 


1 pikir ; kira 


not 


opportunity 


1 shuput 


i doch (W) : di (\V) 


or 


1 kudu 


not, there is 


meting ; doi (W) 


1 origin 


puun 


not, no it is 


bilkun 


' orphan 


(patu 


A 

not, Qo 


( manyach ; dunyach 


1 tumang (no father) 




( mba (W) 


1 order, an 


. semainya 


not, even 


semuki kun— meting 


' order, to 


1 ibodah; dah 




gfich 




( semainya 


nothing at all 


meting mani-mani 


order, put in 


mishiln 


notch (wood), to 


nyubamg 


order, that, in 


, parang 
>ukun 


notched 


riibang 


other 




(tong-i 
-Imadinati; madin 


ought 


, patut 


now 


out ) 


disopah 




Idaadin(W) 


outside / 


Numerals :— 




outside, from 


so sopah 


one 


ni ; ikan (W) 


out of, come 


ruach 


two 


duuch 


out through, come 


i rupus; berambus 


three 


taruch 


overflow Hand) 
overflow (vessel) 


. apfich dc'yuch 


four 


pat 


' robich muab ; meliris 


five 


rimuch 


overladen (boat) 


sarad 


six 
seven 


num 
juh 


overladen (man) 


'beduru 

( gOnggur-gunggur 


eight 


mai ; mOich (W) 


owl 


b<-. 


nine 


plii 


• own (possessive) 


dupu 


ten 


semung 


, oyster 


i sampi 


eleven 


( semuDg-ni 




1 




( semOng-ni ( W) 


paddle, a 


brosi 


twelve 


semung duuch 


. paddle, to 


i kayuh 



cxlvi. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



English. { 

paddy- farm on high 

dry land 
painful 
pale 

palm (of hand) 
pan (iron) 
pan (earthen) 
parallel 
pardon 

parasite (plant) 
pare off sharp edges 

of split rotan 
pare ott splii bamboos 
part, a 

pass (be current) 
pa^s away 
pass over 
pass beneath 
pass on 
pass by 
pass before 
pass through 
pass, come to (cvenhe) 
past 

past tense, sign of 
passenger, go as a 
passionate (choleric) 
pat 
patch 
patient 
pay 
peace 

peace, be at 
peck, to 
peep at 
pelt 
pen 

penitent 
pepper 
perforated 
perhaps 
perish 
perspiration 
perspire i 

pestle (for pounding ' 

paddy) 
petticuat 
phlegm 

pick up 

pick (gather) 

pickle, to 

pickled flesh, fruit, or 

fish 
pickles 

picture ! 

piece, a (part) 
pierce (stab) 
pierce through 
pig (domestic) i 

pig (wild) 
pigeon 

pigeon, wild | 

pile in layers 
pilfer 
pillow 



Dayak. 



English. 



Dayak. 



umfich padi 




^serubok {hambm) 


pid«' 


pipe 
pin 


\ supak (W) 
utosh 


puchat 


pinch, to 


kujet 


>urah tangan 


pinch, take a 


unyul 


cuali 


pith 


umbud 


belanga 


pitiful 


sifit 


tunggun 


pity upon, have 


nyibara 


ampun ; mfiap 


place (put) 
place down 


nikun; nah 


bfikach 


nah 


paid 


place upright 


mejog 




place upright in 


juman 


nguus 


ground 




utung-ni 


pJlace, a 


yfin; kah 


laku 


plain (clear) 


jowah 


manyap 


plain, a 


tanah rabak 


langkah ; kabang 


plait (braid) 


nyerat 


nyerap 


plane, a 


kfitam 


rasu 


plate 


« jaru : pinggen 


nil nan ; rowan 


1 tapak {small) 
I'ldah ; asu (\V) 


budawfi 


planking 


so 


plant, to 


per fin 


tfik ; jadi 


plant paddy, make 


noruk 


much mungam 


holes in which to 




much 


plantain 


borak 


numpang ; tambang 


play (amuse oneself) 


monh-moah 


boji 


play (jest with) 


berubi , patia (W) 


nuiot 


pleasant (scent) 


nimak 


nupung 


pleasant (taste) 


sidi 


madud-atin 


pleased 


raan 


bayer 


pledge (promise) 


naam 


damai ; selamat 


pluck, to 


, nyuked 


berdamai ; senang 


pocket 


kfindi : putir (a bag) 


nukuk 


point towards ^ 


tiju 


ngirOng 


point out / 


nabur 


l)oint, a 


tubun 


kalam 


pointed 


, dishing 


sesal 


pointed bamboo stuck 


tuka 


lada 


in the ground as a 


1 


tubt"»t 


means of defence 


1 


kudu — indin ; kudu 


poison 


rachun 


rusak 


poisoned ; poisonous 


bisa 


udaas 


poke 


kujok ; ngikir 


mudaas 


pole, when stuck up-\ 
right intheground, ' 

or r 


turus 


aruch 




jumuch 


post, a / 


tukang 


ak 


polish 


bodah nyirinyak 


' mit : shun 


pond 


dunu 


(nukuk (as fowls) 


poor 


seburuk : biitak ; kfita- 


nupaas ; nyfiked 




charata ; charata : 


l)etubach . nfibach 




ruga(W):papa(\V) 


(tubach {fruit) 


populous 


powun 


■ dilut (fish and fie sh) 


possess (hold) 


digung 


( bekashfim (fruit) 


possess (have) 


biun 


gambar; tegundo 


possessive case, sign of dupu 


ni-pirc" 


\ 


roos ; tugu (\V) 


numuk; tubuk 
nguto 


posts of a house 


pumiiud (short) 
penakap (long) 


aiyo 




pumunus (of gable) 


pongan 


see also " pole " 


j 


achang; merpati 


pot 


priuk ; temang 


punai 


pot-bellied 


1 bushung 


berapich ; beturap 


potatoes, sweet 


1 setira 


jrikrsh 
>antal 


pouch of monkey 


kuni 


poultice 


tubi mamt'Ak 



Chalmers* Vocabulary. 



cxlvii. 



English. 


Dayak. 


' English. 


1 Dayak. 


pound paddy (separate 


puch 


provisions for a jour- 


onyad 


rice from husk) 




ney 


1 


pour out 


mobas; rean 


i pull 


narik; tarik 


powder 


teboduk 


' pull down 


1 rubuch ; pat fib 


powder, to 


bodah riinduk 


pull up 


dimut : ngajut 


powerful 


.tSg!(^*>-«>) 


pull in two 

pull towards oneself 


nyiraak 
pawot 




(bisa 


in steering 


) , 


praise 


puji: parich; sidriru 


pumpkin 


krfmi 


pray, to 


sambayang 


A man is said to be 


1 


prayers (divine ser- 
vice) 
prawns 


sambayang 
udang 


punan, when having ) 
rudely refused hos- 
pitaUty of anot'ier. 
some accident befalls 


punun 


pregnant 


bite 


him ' 




prepare (arrange) 


mishun 


pungent (taste) 


semarach 


presence of, in 


• di jowin 


pungent (odour) 


pashfik 


1 di serung jowin 


punish 


nunggu 


presence of, enter 


ngadap 


punishment 


hukum ; tunggu 


presently 


te 


pure (clean) 


bisig 


press down on 


digang 


pure (clear) 


kining 


pretend (to do any-) 




pursue 


1 tudak 


thing) 1^ 
see "feign" ) 


nyimauu 


push away 


tulak 




push on 


nganyor 


pretty 


sigat ; romus 


push through 


] ton 


prevent 


jaman; nang; siut 


put 


nfmgkah 


price 


harga 


put on 


1 nah 


price, cost 


poko(k) 


put down 


nikfin ; nakit 


prick 


tubuk; nyug 


put by or away 


nikiln ; mishfm 


pride ) 


meruap ; sambuch ; 






proud ^vain) / 
proud (arrogant) 


asi-asi (W) 


quarrel 


i nai gutoi 


gruah 


quarrel (by words) 


bekarit 


Priest 


Tuan Padrl 


quarrel (by blows) 


bekai 


prisoner 


dayah takap 


quarter part, a 


pat pin" 


privy, a 


bandong 


quarter, to 


1 nyikupat 


procure (get) 


shaim; dapud 


' quick 


(likas 


prohibit, see 






repit (hurriedly) 


••prevent" 
profanity 




quickly 


' ka saich 
, (mu much 


tapat ; patia (W) 




profit 


ontong 


quiet 


' nlru 


promise 


bepaiyu ; naam 


quiet (tame) 


munich; rimon 


Personal Pronouns : 




quiet, be 


ruu 


1st— I 


aku 






me 


Oku (W) 


race 


bangsa 


mine 


ku 


radish 


! luba(k) 


2nd— thou 


(kuu 


rafters 


koshu 


thee 


mai ' {used to cUii 5 


rain 


ujen 


(kaam i and friends) 


rainy weather 


jaiya 


thine 


miiu (W) ; mu 
odilp; eiyuch 


rainbow 


ujen bukang 


3rd— he 


raise up oneself 


mokat 


him 


\ (affix) '.iyoch(VJ) 
i (affix) 


raised platform, a 


angkat 


his 


ramble about jungle 


bedandong 


ist— we ) 


kiech 


rank (smell) 


' banguch 


us ; 


kOich (W) 


rap at 


gutog 


our 


ami {affix) 


rapid 


doras 


2nd— ye 


fita; ungan 


1 rapid, a 


1 giam 


you 


ingan (W) 


rare 


saat 


your 


ta (affix) ; ungan 


rattan 


* ui 


3rd— they, them. 




raw 


mantah 


same as "he" 




razor 


sindah gumbak 


theirs, 




reach to 


niig ; tungang nug 


same as "his" 




ready 


sedia 


pronunciation (sound)' lagu ; ilmpas 
prophet , nabi 


ready, make 


1 (mishun 
"( besisat (oneself 


prostrate (lie) 


muub 


1 really 


sawu 


protect 


gerinduDg; nguan 


reap 


ngutum padi 






rebuke 


ngajar 



cxlviii. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



EnKlish. 



receive (into hand) 
receive (accept) 
recline upon 
recollect 
recollect 

recompense 
red 

redeem 
Redeemer 

regret » 

regretful of, be i 

relative (near) 
relative (distant) 
Relatives : — 
the brothers and 
sisters of one's 
father and mother 
one's father and 
mother's elder 
brother or sister 
one's father and 
mother's younger 
brother or sister 
father-in-law ) 
mother-in-law j 
step-father 
step-mother 
step-son 

son-in-law • 

daughter-in-law ) 
nephew ; niece 
cousin 
wife's elder brother 

or sister 
wife's younger bro- 
ther or sister 
adopted child 

near relatives 
relaxed (slack) 
relish, a (anything 

eaten with the rice) 
reluctantly, or, with 

difficulty 

remain 

remember 

remove 

remnants (leavings) 

rent (or "tax ") 

repent i 

repentance ) 

reserved (shy) 

resin 

resist 

rest, see " interval' 

restore (give back) 

return 

retribution 
retribution of God 
revenge 

revolve 



Dayak. 



English. 



Dayak. 



kambat 

mit 

menyanich 

( natung 
natich {a tiling I ft 

( behind) 
maras 
bin"* 
nubr»sh 
l*enubosh 

nyibnra 

sudara 
kuda 

pimfis 

si'imbah 

tuah 

damuch 

sama tin 
sindu tiri 
anak tiri 

iban 

anak senukun 

betunggal 

sikt' 



sipar 

anak angkat ; anak | 

iru 
sude-madich 
tundur 
kudosh 

< bersf-na 

( bedayah 

< rfifi (stop) 

I kidfim [be left) 
ingat ; natung 
beringar 
tfiduch 
sashuch 

sesal-atin 

tukun temungun 
damar : upach 
ngirawan 

pari 

( mori 
maad {from near) 

(motash (from near) 
maras [ (W) 

tulah 
maras 

/begiring; bekanding 

\ bepunding 



reward 

rice (in husk) 

rice (husked) 

rice (of a sticky kind) 

rice (boiled) 

rice (boiled in young 

bamboos) 
rice (boiled in the 

leaves of a herb 

called "manah ") 
rice, boiled (wrapped 
i n leaves of " manah " ) 
rich 

ridge of roof 
right 

right to l^ done 
ring (finger) 
rings (for arms, &c ), 

see under "dress" 
riot 
rise 
rise up 

rise up from sleep 
rise (the sun) { 

rising ground 
river 

river, branch 

river, main stream of 

road 

road, a bye 

road, make a > 

road, repair a / 

road, the trunks of 
trtes laid down to 
form a 

roast 

rob 

robber 

roe (fish) 

roll up 

roll about 

roll, a 

roof 

room, a 

root 

root, large, above 
ground 

roots of a bamboo- 
clump left after 
bamboos have been ' 
cut 

rope 

rope made from the 
"gomuti " or "naw" 
palm 

rotten 

rough 

round 

rows, in 

rows, place in 

rub 

rubbish, light 

rude 

rudder 



upah 
padi 
bras 
bras pulut 

\ tubi 

\ sungkoi (R. Sadong) 
pogang 

sukoi ; sungkoi 



kaya 

hung bungan 

sawn ; sedang ; betui 

tepakai 

shishin 



gutoi ; dudu 

maad 

mokat 

burah; mokat 

nushak 

terunduk ; dug (long) 

sungi ; beruach (W) 

( sukap sungi 

I grongan (\V) 
bfitang piin 
nran 
sukap uran 

nyaran 

teboian 



badang 

nyijarach ; berobut 

penyamun 

turoch iky en 

marun ; ngarung 

beraring 

bnrun 

tunyah 

arun 

bfikach ; uat 

bandir 

apung 



tarich 
ijok 



modAm 

baga 

burung 

bejerri 

besharad 

gasak ; ngireg 

siipok 

duch setabi 

mudich 



Chalmers' Vocabulary. 



cxlix. 



English. 


1 Dayak. 


English. 

sense 


Dayak. 


ruin, fall into 


1 

! (rubuch; scrukob 


akal 


1 (patfib; bigas 


senseless (in a faint) 


mijup 
bebaat 


run 


bu 


separate (divide off) 


run away 


mubu 


separate (part from) 
^ separately (by itself) 


bu 


run after 


tfidak 


shidaru 


run away, make to 


pibu ; kashig ; kushig 


servant 


butak 


rust 


1 tegar 


servant (hired) 


gagi 


rustling-noise, a 


1 garosh 


set (sun) 


murut sibung-i 






1 settle (a business) 


bodah tunggun 


sago 1 




settled 


trtnggun 


sago-palm ) 


sagu 


shade, to 


gerindung; baup 


sago, raw 


lemanta 


shadow 


sengangi 


saliva 


rujah ; royang (W) 


sebambia (W) 


salt 


garo 


shake (be unsteady) 


begugoch ; beguyut 


salt (briny) 


pidc 


shake (active) 


nugoch ; ngunyang 


salvation 


seramat 


shake (shiver) 


kamutul 


salver, brass 


talam 


shake up 


kushok 


same 

same (in height or 


ni-mun 
berikfid 


shake out (as clothes) 


( ngamui ; ngumob 
( ngumbar 


length) 




shake oflf 


tfipich 


sand 


pasir 


shallow 


boduch . dadas ; tubus 


sand-fly 


bi'is; korap (W) 


shame 


mfmguch: dasah 


sands 

sarong, a( Malay cloth) 


pasir 

fain tajong ; sarong 


shame to, give 


i ngyen mfmguch 
( pemiinguch 


Satan 


Umut Shi" tan 


sharp 


roja 


satiated 


bisoch 


sharpen 


ngasah 


satiate 


bodahpuas 


shave 


begumbak 


satisfied, see 




shaven (head) 


1 bet undo 


"appeased" 




sheath, see 




say 


nang; daan 


"scabbard" 




saying, a 


pung&nang 


sheet (of bed) 


putong 
jiri-biri 


saying 


suninang 


sheep 


scab 
scabbard 


tubu 

sibong : duong (W) 


shells (land) 


, ( brukong (large) 
\ brukyeng {stiutll) 


scald 


raus 


shell, cocoa-nut 


tapurung ; boru (W) 


scales (fish) 


sisi(k) 


shelf 


panggo 


scales (balance) 


kuti 


shepherd 


gombEila 


scar 


ant 


shield, a 


peningin 


scissors 


gunting 


shield, to. see " shade " 




scold 


boji 


shine 


nyirinyak 


t*^%^\^'W\9^\.W% 


irekara 


shining 


bringedng 


scorpion 


( Hung otich (W) 


ship 


kapal 


scrape 


ngikid ; ngiich 


shiver, see "shake" 




scrape (dirt off feet) 


ngutOsh; ngireg 


shoes 


sibong koja; kausfW) 


scrape out leavings 


garas 


shoot, to 


timbak 


scratch oneself 


gaiyu ; dodash (W) 


shoot of plant, young 


(shok 


scratch (score) 


garag 


j (tijuk {of tree) 


scratch with nails 


geraiat 


shop 


scribble 


beriro 


shore up with posts, to 


nukang 


scum 


jurak; tegurak 


shore 


deyuch 


scurf 


runuk 


shore, go on 


1 maad deyuch 


scurvy 


bagi 


short 


i kubu : purok 


search 


(jiroch; siroch 


1 tkodo(W) 


\karik(W) 


short cut, make a 


' mQtash 


sea 


laut 


shorten 


kosigfit 


secretly 


bechukan 


shoulder, see " body " 


\ 


secure (firm) 


tegap; tetap 




(ngyrais 


security for, be 


ngarun 


shout 


ngab (at getting a 


see 


kirich 




( head) 


see (behold) 


tingah 


show 


f ngah tingah 


seed (corn) 
seed (of plants) 


bin*"! 


I ngyen tingah 


ruang 


show (point out) 


tiju 


seek, see "search" 




shut, to 


(ngishugn; tuup 


seize upon 


nakap 


( ngobut 


sell 


juah 


shut up, be 


tuup 


send 


pait 


shut up (enclose) 


, kurung ; nyikapung 



cl. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



English. 


' Dayak. 


English. 


Dayak. 


shy, see "ashamed" 


! 

1 


slowly 


berati ; pedanach (\V) 


shy (reserved), see 


1 


small ^size) 
small (quantity) 


shu ; iso (W) 


"reserved" 


1 


nishu 


sick 


1 mfinam 


t smart (pain) 


mojot 


sickness 


berandam 


smell, a 


buuch 


side (of man), see 




smell, to 


' kaduk 


"body" 


1 


1 smell, give forth a 


buuch 


side, a 


ni-pire 


. smear 


1 ngut5sh 


side of, by the 


turah 


smoke 


1 ashqch 


side, inclining to one 


singit ; kumbmk (\V) 


smoke tobacco, to 


ngudut 


sieve 


aiyag 


smooth (level) 


j dedap ; rabak 


sift 


ngaiyag 


smooth (glossy) 


I nyirinyak 


sigh, see "groan" 




snake 


jipuch 


sign 


tanda 


I snare 


1 jaring 


sign, to 


nanda 


1 snare, to 


; nyaring 


silent, be 


rufi 


1 snatch 


serobut 


silk 


sutra; dasu 


' sneeze 


pasin 


silver 


pirak 


' snore 


nguddd 


sister (elder) ; 




snot 


buduk 


sister (younger) ; 




suii up 


nyiruk 


see "brother" 




so 


kamuti: sekiinu 


site (former) of village 


tambawang 


so that 


parang 


or house, or site of 




so and so 


fini 


former dwelling- 




soak 


kurom 


place of a tribe 




sodden 


rutus 


sin 


salah; dosa 


soft 


dudut; gumosh 


sin. to 


nai dosa ; nai sarah 


soft (flabby) 


renuk 


sinful 


berdosa 


soft (flexible) 


Hat 


sing 


menyanyi 


soft (moist) 


tare; tawang 


sing songs 


buding segumbang 


sojourn 


numpang 


sink 


kauum 


soldier 


f orang soldado 


sink, make to 


tfimutum : seruman 


( orang kubu 


sirih (a pepper -leaf 


bfiid 


some (a part) 


ni-kuda 


eaten with betel-nut) 




sometimes 


ogi anu 


sit down 


guru 


song 


pantun 


sit (as hen) 


ngfikup 


son 


anak dari 


skim off 


kadi 


soon 


likas; ti* 


skin 


kurit 


soot 


ing 


skin (rind) 


kubang 


1 sore 


pidc; munam 


skin, to 


ngunyit ; nyibabak 


sort 


marham; mun 


skinned (abraded) 


tebabak 


[what sort is it ? 


muki mun iti ? j 


skull 


tekurdk 


sorrow 


susah-atin 


sky 


langit 


sorry 


ngurid; ibuch (W) 


slack ) 


tundur 


soul 


semungi ; after death 


slacken ) 




it becomes a "mino" 


slander, see "blame" 




soul fa living), (i.e., a 
boay animated by 


dutin 


slant 


meringgp 




slanting 


mertang (as a tree) 


a soul) 




slave 


ulon; bfitak 


sound, see 




sleep 


bfius 


"pronunciation" 




sleepy, be 


nunu 


sound (noise) 


jawun 


slice, a 


J ni-sirib 


sound (of voices)' 


sQk ; angu (distant) 


( ni-tuding (of flesh) 


sound (of musical in- 


sura 


slice, to 


nyirib 


strument) 




slice flesh, to 


nuding 


sound (sleep) 


rurii 


slide down ) 




sour 


mashum 


slip down / 


terusap 


source (of river) 
source (origin) 


iitak pun 


slip (from its place) 


bishor;luchut; rupas 


puun 


slip (down from its 


beraring 


south 


selatan 


place) 




sow cloth 


nyit 


slippery 


jeruch 


sow paddy (broadcast) 


nabur 


slope, a \ 
slope, to [ 


tanai (ground) ' 
see "slant" 

1 


sow paddy (by plant- 
ing it in holes) 


mine 


sloping j 


space of time, a 


sukad 


slow 


(abOt; saich 1 


space, intervening 


iisach 


(beridu (W) 1 


sparing of, be 


siut 



Chalmcjs* Vocabulary, 



cli. 



English. 


, Dayak. | 


English. 


Dayak. 


spark 


buahopui; shuatopui, 


Steer 


mudich 


sparrow 


piit ' 
1 beritong; minyu . 


stem, a 


tungun ; piinamai 


speak to or with 


steps (Dyak ladder) 


tungoch 




Ijerok; ashul (W) ' 


Steps (pegs driven into 


tatuk 


spear 


( burus 


tree for climbing) . 




spear with one barb 


perambut 1 
beraiyang 


steps (notches cut in 


subang 


spear with two barbs 


trunk of tree for 




spear (sharpened 


tampun I 


use in climbing) 




bamboo) 




steps, to cut 


ngubang 


spear (sharpened 


serugich i 


stick, a (walking) 


sekud 


wood) 




stkk (to keep open 


tukang 


species 


purich 1 


window) 




spell (words) 


mengija 


stick (on which the 


rais 


spider 


tukah 


leaves are laid in 




spill 


^ bobas 


making "atap ") 




spirit (soul), see "soul' 




stick, to ; sticky 


rekat 


spirit (departed) 


mino 


stiff (inflexible) 


bogfig kukag 


spirit, evil 


umot 


St 11, be 


ruu 


spit 


ngirujah 


still (yet) 


babfi 


spittle, see "saliva" 
spiteful 


gauk; genaka 


still water 


/piin nunfir 
\ piin nunung 


splendid (in appear- 


sangun ; .gruah 


sting, a (that which 


butu 


ance) 




stings) 




splinter, a 


ibun 


sting, to 


ningut 


split in two, to 
split in two 


nyiraak ; mire 
riiak ; tepire 


stinking 


(rfishish; modnm 
trungang 


split open 


1 bubus; jeja 


stir (move) ; stirred.be 




spoon, wood used as a 


sukir 


see "move" 




spoon, a 


i sunduk , 


stir about 


karu ; nguil (W) 


spoon, to use a 


silk ' 


stockings 


si bang koja 


spout (of water) 


( aiyak 


stomach 


kuboi 


spout of a jar 


sishuch 


stoop 


mutu 


spread out 


mud 


stoop down under- 


nyerap 


sprinkle 


I musik : tapich (W) | 


neath 




spur (of cock) 


sikak 


stone 


batuch 


square 


1 pujuruch 


stop 


ruu ; muu ; moko 


squat down 


1 sedukung j 


stop at 


nyesah 


squeeze 


pishfi 


stop (close up) 


ngishugn 


squeeze out. 


( pishu (by hand) \ 
\ mu 


stopping-place by 
roadside 


garang 


squint 
squirrel 


1 nyiparang 
ipas 


stopped up (choked 
up) 


f papot (as a road) 
puneat ; betabat 
( bad fig (having no vent) 


squirt forth 


murlishit ; menapus ! 


stab 


jokad 


store-room 


sitdk 


stagger 


1 mubung 1 


storing-place (tem- 


gfidong 


stalk (of plant) 


1 tfigin 


porary) for paddy 




stammer, see "stutter" 




(made of mats). 




stand up 


1 mujog 


while being dried 




stand aside (to let pass; 


peraru; seginang 




/sobak-ribut ; raban 
(This is a violent wind 
and rain sent as a 


stand stock still 


1 nyinunung 


i 


stand, a brass (used 


par 




at meals) 




storm 


- judgment /or incest. 


stand, a brass (used 


karas 




ami requires to be 
1 stilled by means of a 
\ "berobat") 


for Strih'Pinang) 


1 




star 


i bintang 


story (of house) 


turap: takach 


stare at 


I tirek 


story (history) 


suse 


staring (adjective) 


bedunggor ; bederang 


I story, relate a 


f dundan ; nyiduda 


start 


' guguch ; gupoch 


( nuse 


startle 


bodah guguch 


straight ) 


^ ■■ V% /V/VI^ t> 


startled 


guguch 


straight line, in j 


lunggun 


stays (worn by women 


tikarh ; seladan (W) 


strain, to 


nyerinir 


of W. tribes) 




strain at 


siran 


steal 


1 noku 




( pen&mi 


steam 


ashuch piin 


stranger 


( saruch (a nexv arrival) 


steel 


balan 


stray 


manyap 


steep 


J ired ; ronyug 


stretch (be elastic) 


kunyoi 



clii. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



English. 



strike ) 

strike with stick > 

strike with fist 

strike with hand 

strike (thump) 

strike by falling up>on 

strike top of anything 

strike a mark 

strike with elbow 

strike a gong 

strike against any- 
thing by accident 
to make feints of | 

striking with sword 
see also "feign" 
and ••pretend") 

struck, be 

string, a 

string, to (as l>eads) 

stroke, to 

strong 

strong (voice) 
strongly 

or, with strength 
strong (firm) 

strong, make 

strong (lasting) 
stuffed with food 

stumble 

stump 

stupid 

stupefied (confused) 

stutter 

submit 

succeed (come in place 

of) 
suck 

suck breast 
sudden ; suddenly 
suffer (undergo) 
suffer (permit) 
sufficient ; sufficiently 
sugar 
sugar-cane 
suitable 

"sumpitan," or blow- 
pipe for arrows 

arrows of sumpitan 

quiver for arrows 
of sumpitan 
sun 

support 
sure (certain) 
sure (firm), see 

"strong" 
surety for (become), 

see "support" 
surround 
suspender, a 
sustain, see "support" 
swaddling clothes 



Dayak. 



mukong 

numuk 

nupap 

mutug 

maret ; nyondug (W) 

mabak 

dog ; oboch (W) 

nyukuch 

mi*k ; bergong 

nyandong ; natok 



ngambar (in fighting) 

ngawakl^.^. J 

ngatar \ ^ -' ' 

dog pukong 

tarich 

to 

puras 

(gfigach 
bukr* (in carrying) 

Igogah (W) 
dor 

benah {tvalk) 
nishin (carry or lift) 
tetap: tegoh 

/ bcHdah tetap 

( bodah tegoh 
tegap ; taan 
tujuonk : sindak 

(sikak ; sekukan 

( sekakong 
tfiud 

budoh ; bawn ; bakn 
berishut atin 
kaku 
tundok 
ganti 

niup 

niup shishuch 

guguch 

dog 

bodah 

sedang 

gula 

tobuch 

sedang 

sipot 

raja 
umbach 

I betuch-anu 
ngarun 
tuntu 



English. 



Dayak. 



swallow, a 

swallow, to 

sway 

swear 

swear at 

sweat 

sweat, to 

sweep 

sweet 

swell 

swift 

swift (water) 

swim 

swing, a (cradle) 

swing, to 

sT%'ing. make to 

swing by hands 

swollen 

sword 



tail (of beast^ 

tail (of a bird) 

take 

take (receive) 

take in arms 

take away 

take out 

take off (uncover) 

take hold of 

take care of 

talk, to (about busi- 
ness) 
i talk (for amusement) 
talk with 
tall 



muning; krurung 
katir 

putong bodung 



tangled 
tap 

tapioca-plant 
I tares (zizane) 
taste 

tax 

[ teach 
' teacher 

tear 

torn 

tears 
' teaze 
I telescope 

tell 

tempt (attempt) 
I tempt (try) 

tepid 



<semQngan; tepirich 

(tematok (W) 
turun 
prentah 
mangu 
nyupah 
udaas 
mudafis 
piseAn ; mipis (W) 

( nibonyich : senobi 

(sidi 

( kumbang (as seeds) 

\ bungkak 
laju 
doras 

bernang ; nangui (\V) 
aiyun 
beraiyun 
pingr-an 
beramboi 

(bungkak; gumbul 

- bfibfig 

(btl (as from a blou) 
pedang 

koi ; ukuon (\V) 
tugang 

mit ; numit ; jot 
kambat 
1 tunduk 
mokat 
dimut 

: (-y^^-^ (as a ,ui) 

' t murai (as wrapping) 

digung 
' /ingat; nguan 

\nyude (o/a fA/7/f) 

beritong 

i 



ngitong 

minyu 

omu 
I (tatich 

\ rimon (not uiid) 
' bekarut 

gutog 

I ubi bandong 
I padi babu 
, kinyam ; nyam 

( peti (to Rajah) 
I - sashuch (hire of 
' I things) 
I ngajar 
' guru 
I nyiratak 

' tubot : jeja ; teratak 
I rendang betuch 
I nQpat 
I tropong 

daan ; tanon (W) 
I choba 
,kija 

ngumat 

1 



Chalmers' Vocabulary, 



cHii. 



English. 1 


Dayak. 


English. 


Dayak. 


that 


(ajechiinu; itIa(W) 


1 /kamuti ; sekQnu ; 


(inich {distant) (W) 




sekuti.— Keiyuch, 


that, in order , 


parang 


thus I 


u-kovmng (used re- 


thatch 1 


ilau 




dundantly at the 


thatch, to 


tipan ilau 


1 


close of a sentence) 


thatch, repair i 


nyurat ramin 


thyme, wild bunga ptitung 


then (at that time) 
then (after that) 


ngflnii ; anu ati 
moko ati 


rick (of beasts) ^ ^i'^'^'^^"^ 


then, and 

then (therefore ; ex- 


rasu 

jau; garang 


pletive) 




tickle bekitik 


thence 


sonu 1 


tide, flood- piin pasang 


Theological Terms 


1 


tide, ebb piin surud 


USED IN Borneo ! 




tide, paddle against bersukul 


Mission:— j 


, 


tidings 1 agach 


baptize; baptism 


baptisa | 


tie mfifing ; ngobut (close 


charity 


masi 


1 up) ; bokosh (W) 


Christian 


Kristian 


tie two or more things | begagit 


elect, to 


mien 


together 


Ilucharist 1 Yukaris | 


tie limbs muak 


faith 


sabach 


tight tank 


grace 


kurnia; berkat | 


tight (dress) i tfikfid 


in^^el ' 


harap 
dayah kapir 


timber kayuch 
time, times (implying sidah 


Person of Godhead , 


Zat 


repetition as once. 


religion ! 


agama 


twice, three times) | 


repentance ] 


sesal-atin 


time (opportunity) , shuput 


redeem 
sacrament 


nubosh 
sacramen 


time, the (season) jS -" ''^"^ 


sacrifice 


sambileh 


i (madin 


save 


ngyen seramat 


time, present madin ati 


Saviour , 


Penubosh 


(jiman madin 


salvation 1 


seramat 


time of. at the jiman ; turap ; sarak 


sanctify 


bodah kudus 


time, that, at the kaban; tika 


Trinity 


Triniti 


(when) 


there 


dinil ; diginu ; digijech 


time, at that (then) 


ngilnu ; anu ati 


therefore 


sebab ati 


time, some future 


sekambuch tepagi 


thick 


tebar; tebar nfikung 


a short time ago, i.e., 


perajach 


thick (close) 


pishung 


a few days ago 




thief i 


dayah penoku 


a short time ago, i.e., tejach 


thin ' 


ride 


a few minutes ago 




thing, a 


kayuch 


a long time ago 


sarak difi ; jiman jach 


thing, any 


t&du kayuch 


in former times 


nun jach 


think 


kira; pikir; jangka 
boduch ashung 


Time of Day :— 




thirsty 


about 7 or 8 a.m. 


mun dowan 


this 


(ati; iti; itich (W) 


about 9 or lo a.m. 


nyengah 


\Ann; inoch (W) 


about II a.m. 


repuan 


thither 


( kamanfi 


noon nunung repuan 


(kamajech (distant) 


about 2 p.m. kumbeftng 


thorns 


roja 


about 3 or 4 p.m. turiip kumbeing 


thread 
throat 


tarich benang 
gunggong 


. . J jerah ; kowuk ; marah 
^^"^^^ benrxxli (of speaking) 


throttle 


ngukak; nyiap 




ka ; di ; as (daan di 


through 


tomus; berambus 




eiyuch. tell him) 


through, pass 


so 


to 


• sa ; 05 (ngyen sa-i 


through between two 


trusan 


1 


tingah, let him ue 


rivers, a passage 






\ it) 


throw 


shing; sheau 


toad souch 


throw out or away 


taran; saat 


tobacco 1 bako 


throw a spear 


jokad 


tobacco, Chinese , bako saun 


throw up 
throw down 


samot 
paan 


tobacco. Java |{^°fc. 


throw about in dis- 


mengarC 


1 fsama-samach 


order 




together 


- bersama ; nai powiin 


thumb 


sindu tQngan 




( (in large numbers) 


thunder 


1 dudu 


to-day 


anu ati 



cl 



IV. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



English. 



Dayak. 



EngUsh. 



Dayak. 



to-morrow 
to-morrow, day after 
three days hence 
tongue, see "body" 
too (in excess) 

tooth 

top (summit) 

top of, on the (upon) 

torch 

torn, see "tear" 
touch 

touch (feel) 
tough ' 

towards, see "to" 
trace, a ; track 
trade, to 

having transgressed \ 
bounds of pro- [ ' 
priety, or, gone V , 
beyond proper! | 
limits of anythmg I , 
translate 
trap, a spring- 
tread upon 
tread out paddy from 

the ear 
tree, jungle , 

tree, fruit i 

tremble | 

trial of, make ; take on ! 
tribe j 

DayakTribesonthe 
River Sarawak: 

On Southern Branch : 

Sempro 

Segu 

Simpok (on River 

Samarahan) 
Setang ; Sikok 

Sentah 



Kuap 
Se Bungo 

Brang 

Serin (River Sama- 
rahan) 

Sennah 
Between Southern and 
Western Branches : 

Tebia(k) 

Sumban 

Tringgus 
On Western Branch : 

Gumbang 

Sauh 

Singgi 

Serambo 

Bombok 
Peninjauh 



tepagi 
gftnuni 
guni ajech 

binah; pfishe 
(jipfich 

- jipuch bfishe (front) 
Ijipuch baum (back) 
tebung 
/ tunduch 
'(^atuch (of tree) 
siruh 

tumah 

kap 

Hat 

ardk ; inyuk ; diai (W) 
berdagang; berjaja 



tepashu 



nyiri'Ss; nyambi 

pitc" 

digang 

ngik gruguch 

tungun kayuch 
tfmgun buah 
kamutul 
kija 
bangsa 



( Dayah Beparuch 
. ( Beporoch (W) 
Bonuk : Bonok (W) 
Sapug 

, Setang: Sikog 

( Sentah ; Se Buran 
I \ Biota (W) 
, Bukuab 

( Dayah Bunguch 

'( Bi Bungo 

Brang 

Penyowah 



Sennah 



Tebla(k) ; Pidia [\V] 

Bimban 

Se ringgus 



\ Gumbang 
I Beratak 
, Singgai 
I ( Se Karuch 

( Broich (W) 

Bombok 
; Peninjauh 



trouble; troubled 
troublesome (a bother); 
trowsers 



true 
truly 



trunk (of tree) 

trust in or to 

try (attempt^ 

try a matter by means 
of ordeal by two 
lighted tapers 

turn round (body) 

turn round (revolve) 

turn over (leaves of 
book) 

tusk 

tweezers 

twilight (morning) 

twilight (evening) 

twinkle 



ugly 

ulcer, see "diseases" 

unbelieva', see 
"heathen" 

unburdened (with no- 
thing to carry) 

unclean 

uncover 

under, see " below " 

undergrowth (in old 
jungle) 

understand 

understanding, not 
clear to 

undo; unfasten 

undone; unfastened 

unfortunate 

unite (by adding to- 
gether) 
I unkind 
' unlearned 
' unless 

unmarried 
, unripe (fruit) 

unripe (not attained 
full size) 

unskilled, see 
"unlearned" 

unsteady, see "shake" 

unsteady in gait 

untie, see "undo" 

until; unto 

unwilling, see "do 
not wish" 

unyielding 



susah 

kakiich 

sinyang 

I sawu ; bonah ( W) 
jmana (W). (Used 
"i after adjectives in 
( sense of "r/ry") 
/ tungun (of living tree) 
' tunggu (of dead tree) 
] b&tang kayuch (of a 
[ felled tree) 

harap; sabach 

chuba 

bepanyut 



kimat 

bekanding 

murai 

bubut 

anggup 

abur dadad 

singomi anu 
kimirib (glisten) 
kamidil [WJ 
mukidap (trink) 
kidiap [W] 



( arap mun-i 
(duch romus 



buruch 

kaich ; pfider 
murai 

anak dudach 

puan 
bislrat 

kuka 
tebishor 
genaka 
sinun 

grobah 

duch bisa 
I kiang 
I bujang 

matah 

nyitimun (used only of 
] the fruit "durian'* 



kafig; mgbung 
menug ka 

t&ngyeSk 



Chalmers' Vocabulary. 



civ. 



English. 



Dayak. 



English. 



Dayak. 



up to (as far as) 

upon 

upset (spill) 
upset boat 
urge (incite) 
urine 
use, to 



use: useful 



valley 

vain, in (in jest or 

ynth profanity) 
vanish 
vapour 
vegetables 
vein 

vengeance on, take 
verandah 
verily 



very 

victorious 
view, a 
view, to 
village (Malay) 
village (Dayak) 
violin 
virgin 
visible, be 
visit, to 
visitor 



voluntarily (of own 

accord) 
vomit 

wag about 
wages 

wages, work for 
wait 
wall 
walk 
walk fast 
walk to and fro 
wanderer 
wanting 

war ) 

war, to ) 

go out on a war ex- 
pedition 

warm 

warm oneself at fire 



kud 

( di tunuch ; di atuch 
(di sombu 
bobas 
kureb 

ngajak; bodah 
kashing 
pakai 
guna; berguna 

"Guna" 15 also the 
tiame of a smalt house 
near a Dyak village, 
in which the magic 
stones, &c., called the 
"penKaroh" are pre- 
served. 
^See "deposit'* 

(surok tarun 
'( surok dau (a gulUy) 
i ngah tapat 
( ngan patia (W) 
m&nyap 
abun 
kudosh 
uat 
maras 
awach 
sawu 
raru, benah, bogu ; 
bonah [VV], 
mana [VV] (follow 



adjective) 

menang; alah 

tatung: kirich 
{ tingah 

kupoh ; tompok [W] 

raich 

sigitot 
I bujang tibun 

tatung; nanung 
I tudu 

dayah nftmi 
' (seruun; sfik; awfin, 
I '( angu (when distant) 
' tAksir 

i ngutah 

: kuting 

I gagi ; pach (W) 

man gagi 
I kajun 
, sindung 

ponu ; konu 
j bekQduch 

bejaruch ; bejaja 
I berambe i 

; korang 
' nyerang (make an 

attack) 
I ngfinyu, ngaiyu {to go 
out head-hunting in 
small parties) 

(surah; petiik (W) 

*( paras ; bongo (W) 
\ nyinuch | 



wash 

wash for gold 
wasp 
watch, to 
watchman 
water 

water, fresh 
water, get 
water, make 

waterfall 

wave, a 

wave about, to 

wax 

weak 

weak from old age 

weak (voice) 

wear 

weary, see "tired" 

web of spider 

weeds 

weed, to 

week, a 

weep 

weevil 

weigh 

weights (for weighing) 

well (adv.) 

well (recovered) 

well-spoken 

well-mannered 

wet 

what? 

what kind ? 

whatever 

when? 

when 

whence ? 

where ? 

wherever 

wherefore ? I 

wherefore 

whether (he goes) or 

not 
which I 

while (at same time as) 
whilst 
whirlpool 
whiskers 
whisper, to 
whistle, to 
whistle, a (musical 

instrument) 
white 
whither ? 
who? 
who ^relative), see 

"wnich" 



(ngusu; ngu 
I - mambia jVV) 

( ngutosh (by rubbing) 
melenggang 
peningat; rowuch 
nguan ; jaga ; kingat 
dayah kingat 
piin 

piin tawar 
peto 
kashing 

(giam 

i piin uman 

f umak (of sea) 

] bakat (in river) 

nyipas; mosuk 

pfitich 

duch shinonu 

menyambah 

riindeng 

pakai 

sebun5t tfikah 
uduch 
nyobu 
ni-Minggo 
slen 
bubuk 
nguti 
tanuch 
kena 

asih (after undergoing 
a doctoring) ; buuh 

mfmich bhasa 

bisah ; bisah murung 

j uni ; mani 

"(osi (person) 
muki 
tfidu-tfidu kayuch 

(thing) 
tudu-tudu pfmgS- 
nang (word) 
sinde 

komfi; kaban; tika 
s<Vaki 

diki; ki ; dikidoch 
dOnndiln kah 
uni sebab ; mani 
sebab ati 

/ an (i-di i-di) Abach 

( keiyuch duch 
ajdi (seldom used) 
buang 
semada 
poshid piin 
gumis 

begayash; benanang 
nyimboch 
seti^boi ; serubai (W) 

budah ; mopuh (W) 
kamaki 



clvi. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 



English. 



whoever 

whore, a 

whoredom, commit 
why ? see " where- 
fore •• 
wick, a \ 

wicked 

wicked (spiteful) 
wide (broad) 
wide (spacious) 
wide apart 

widen (make spacious) 
widow 
wife 
will (pleasure) 

will, to 
willing, be 
wish 

will (verb, auxiliary) 

wild (not tame) 

wind 

windpipe 

window 

window stick 

window-sill . 

wings 

wink 

winnow 

wisdom 

wise 

wish, see "will" 

wish, do not 

with 
within 
without 

without (deficient) 
wither 
withered 
witness 
woman 
wood 

wood, fire- 
word, a 
words 



Dayak. 

f t&du-tildu dayah 
'( tudu kojah dayah 
perambai 
nainyung 



English. 



Dayak. 



sumbu 

arap ; jaat (W) 

gauk ; grobah 

ramba 

baiyah ; tavvas (W) 

saut 

bodah baiyah 

oban 

sowfm 

raan 

[an ; raan {from " re " 
1 and "an" which both 
\ have same meaning) : 
\ andak 

an ; shaun 

siga 

sobak 

kor 

komban 

tukang 
, ubak kaus 
' orad : ilad (W) 

mukidap ; kidiap (W) 

napan ; naju ; nyando 

akal 

cherdik; pandai 

duch an ; ubach ; 
dare ; doria (W) 

ngah ; ugan (W) 

darum ; dang (W) 

disopah 

meting ; doi (W) 

rayu 

pisuk (dry) ; kurfmg 

tfiksi 

dayung 

kayuch 

wang ; shiru (W) 

i peminyu ; sGk 
I - pung&nang ; sindah 
! I (W) 



work ~ ) 

work, to I 

work of a blacksmith, 
do, see "blacksmith" 
work unceasingly, to 
work at intervals 
world, the (this) 
world, next 
world, the (earth) 



worms (earth) 



worms (stomach) 

worn, see "faded" 

(colour) 
worn on body, things 
worship of Ood 
worship God, to 
worship (do reverence) 
wound 
wrap 
wring out 
write 
writing, a 
wrong 

yams 

yawn 

year 

yellow, see "colour" 

yes 

yesterday 

yesterday, day before 
yet 

yet, not 

yield to (submit) 
yield up 
yolk of egg 
young 
young (person) 

youth, the 



piinganai ; kaminyang 
kurja 



ngaun kurja 

nyapai 

dunya 

akhirat 

ong 

( retamuch ; rotung 
regenda (/ar/f^) [(W) 

( tomua (W) 

fregyu (red) 
likiyuuch (W) 

ijakit (thread) 



penukas 

sambayang 

sambah; menyiimbah 

towan; kenaman (W) 

moas; morut 

mfirus 

tulis: nyurat 

surat 

sarah 

ubich ; kuduk 

kuab 

sawa 

( u-kach ; u-inu 

\ iyoch (W) 

<anu m!jach 

'( sumia ( W^ 

anu perajacn : anu diu 

babu 

(bayuch; diumboch 
(W) 

(boan (Setang) 
tundok 
ngyen 

tunanang turoch 
murah 
shu ; onak opod 

( anak kunya 

'( onak opod 



THE SENTAH (Land Dyak) DIALECT. 
Mr. Noel Dknison published a few words of this tribe, which words had been collected by the 
Rev. F. W. Abe. With the following three exceptions the Sentah words are identical with those 
collected by Chalmers. 

a person, naan; to beat, mukong; leprosy, supach.—H.L.R. 



Swettenham^s Vocabularies. 



civil. 



o 3 ci: 



OQ 



1^ 



XQ 



Sa 



9 <> 



bfi 



XI xJ SP.SS - "^ rt ♦- c rt — 



rt rt 2 s 
rt rt ^ 



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o o 
a o ^ , 



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f« fl c 2 



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9^ M 9u«:2 c 



ax: 



bcx: 2f J? _ .- bo c- ? -5 2F 5 



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CO s ^ :;:^ c 



CiO 
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tcO ft) 



si-si l-ll-gp-i 111- 2^-2^1 = sl^-l 



jj 3 C 



bc5 JS 










III! 



•oxs^iSEx>2-x-o;= 






g' ^.:^ 

O r--5 S CJ2X3 



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E<M c. 



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a-jzxi E 




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i: 


■ 23:^- 




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j: 


0^*3 -^ 


00 

3 


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s 


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u 


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xj g 5 

G O > ^ 
3 rt J« g 






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5 2 05^3 c^ 



c.S-ig.S 3 3 c c 



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t^ll 



clviii. 



H. Ling Roth. — Natives of Sarawak. 






to 

a 
o 






LSsie 



9 &«) a .^ u 






% ^ ° 
T3 



Siie 



3J5 



OlllilMll 











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