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5 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



THE NATIVE TRIBES 



OF THE 



TRANSVAAL. 



PREPARED FOR THE GENERAL STAFF, 
WAR OFFICE. 



1905 



LONDON : 

PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, 
BY HARRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTIN'S LANE, 

PRINTERS IN ORDINARY TO HIS MAJESTY. 



(Wt. w. 3331 350 10 I 05— H & S 7269) 



P^o5 
742 



G7/V5 



PREFACE. 



This Report has been compiled under the 
orders of the General Officer Commanding-in- 
Chief, South Africa, by Bt.-Major R. H. Massie, 
D.A.O.M.G., from the latest information avail- 
able. It is particularly requested that any errors 
or omissions may be pointed out to the Director 
of Military Operations, War Office. 

CHAS. E. CALLWELL, 

/or Major-General^ 
Director of Military Operations. 

War Office, 

^th October, 1905. 



(7269) 



81S7JS2 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER 
I. 



II. 
III. 
IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 



IX. 
X. 
XI. 



General outline 

(A) Earliest known distribution 

(B) Modern History — Redistribution 

(C) Present population ... 
The tribes of the Western Division. 
The tribes of the Central Division 
The tribes of the N.W. Division 
The tribes of the Northern Division 
The tribes of the Eastern Districts 
The tribes of the S. E. Districts 
Administration 

(A) Organisation of the Native Affairs 

(B) System of Land Tenure 

(C) System of Taxation . . . 
Native Wars ... 
Bantu Ethics and Sociology... 
Native languages — Orthography 



Department 



PAGE 

5 
5 
8 

12 

15 

32 

39 
44 
73 
91 
94 
94 
96 

99 
100 
119 
134 



I. 

II. 

III. 

Index 



APPENDICES. 

Notes on some native strongholds 

Native Missions 

List of Authorities consulted 



139 
144 
149 

150 



Map showing native locations and the positions of the kraals of some of the 
principal chiefs. 



CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL OUTLINE. 

(A.) Earliest Known Distribution of South African 

Natives. 

There are many proofs of the antiquity of man in South 
Africa, though it has not yet been determined whether it has 
been the home of human beings as long as Europe. It is 
surmised that the Bushmen were the earHest inhabitants. 
These were a yellow-skinned race, pigmies in stature, and very 
low down in the scale of civilisation. Next came the 
Hottentots, another yellow people, but of medium size, and 
vastly superior in every way to the Bushmen. Whence they 
came is unknown, but it is thought they are the offspring of 
some male intruders* of a light brown or yellow race, who took 
to themselves women of Bushman blood. 

Then, at a period not exactly known, but believed to be 
some hundreds of years before the commencement of the 
Christian era, a gradual pressure of the Bantu tribes of Central 
Africa, into the southern part of the Continent, began to 
take place. Though these tribes crossed the Zambesi so long 
ago, it is certain that they did not extend South of the 
Limpopo, until a much later date. The traditions of all the 
tribes south of that river, none of which can be more than a 
few centuries old, point to a distant Northern origin, and in 
some instances, particulars are given which prove the tradi- 
tions to be in that respect correct. 

It is, however, tolerably certain that they had advanced as 
far south as Mashonaland, at a comparatively remote period, 
for as far as can be mferred from the scant indications afforded 
by the archaeological remains and terminology associated with 
the Zimbabwe ruins, the inhabitants of that portion of the 

* A theory has been advanced thai the Hottentots are descended from 
the soldiers of an Kgyptian army who penetrated far south of the Equator 
in prehistoric times, and never returned to Egypt ; these are supposed to 
have taken to wife Bushmen women. 



6 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

country were not Bushmen or Hottentots, but Bantu, 
when those monuments were built by the civiHsed peoples — 
Sabaeans and others — who came there in quest of gold. The 
very word Zimbabwe is pure Bantu, meaning a Royal 
residence. 

Towards the close of the fifteenth century of our era, when 
Europeans first had communication with natives of South 
Africa, the belt of land comprising the lowest and the second 
terrace along the Western Coast from about Walfisch Bay 
southward to the Cape of Good Hope, and thence eastward to 
the Bashee River, was occupied, though thinly, by Hottentot 
tribes. The same people were to be found along the lower 
courses of the Vaal and Modder Rivers, and along the banks 
of the Orange, from tlie junction of the Vaal to the sea. They 
were not known eitner on the eastern side of the continent 
or elsewhere in the interior. 

The Bantu at that time occupied the choicest parts of the 
country, north of a straight line from ^Valfisch Bay to Port 
Natal, and extended south of that line into the territory, now 
known as Basutoland, and also along the eastern coast as far as 
the Bashee River. They were not to be found in the remain- 
ing portion of South Africa. 

Bushmen roamed over the entire country south of the 
Zambesi from sea to sea, and were the only inhabitants of the 
rugged mountains and arid plains between the Hottentot and 
Bantu borders. As they could hold their own fairly well 
against the Hottentots, they were more numerous along the 
west and south coasts than along the eastern, where the Bantus 
had better means of exterminating them. 

The Bushmen are however now practically extinct ; the pure 
Hottentots are very few in numbers, and found only in 
Namaqualand, and along the lower reaches of the Orange 
River, and the above-mentioned " Bantu " tribes form the vast 
majority of the natives of South Africa of to-day. The term 
" Bantu " is a native word meaning " people." It has of late 
years come to be applied to all the peoples south of the 
Zambesi, who are neither Bushmen nor Hottentots, but speak 
various forms of a now extinct language, and are therefore 
assumed to belong to one racial group. As they never had a 
common ethnical name, they were all conventionally comprised 
under the general designation of Bantu, by which is therefore 
to be understood "peoples of Bantu stock and speech." 

The Bantus are not full-blood negroes like those of Upper 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. / 

Guinea and Soudan, but a Negroid people, that is, a mixture 
of two or more elements, of which the substratum is the Negro, 
and the later infusions mainly Hamitic (Galla) and, to a less 
degree, Semit'ic (Arab). The mixtures took place at different 
times and in varying proportions, the result being that the 
Bantus themselves show nearly all shades of physical and 
mental characters, intermediate between the pure negro, or 
Ethiop, and the much higher Hamitic or Semitic (Caucasian) 
types of mankind. 

Tribes occupying for many generations such a large extent 
of country as Africa, south of the Zambesi, naturally developed 
differences, which would alone be sufficient to account for the 
dissimilarities now existing between the various tribes, but an 
influx of Asiatics also took place on the east coast at some 
remote period ; these mixed with the people of that part, and to 
them may be traced some of the sharper distinctions which are 
now observable. 

It will be sufficient here to classify the Bantu tribes in three 
main groups, though it should be remembered that there are 
many trifling differences between the various branches of each 
of these. 

In the first group are placed the tribes along the eastern 
coast, south of the Sabi River, and those which in recent times 
have made their way from that part into the highlands of the 
interior. The best known of these are the Amaxosa 
Abatembu, Amampondo, Amabaca, Amazulu, Matabele, 
Amaswazi, Amatonga, and the Magwamba or Matshangana. 
This group can be termed the " Coast Tribes," though some 
members of it are now far from the sea. It is also known as 
the " Zulu-Xosa " or more commonly " Zulu-Kaffir " group. 
The Amatonga, the Amafingo in Cape Colony, the Mashona 
and Makalanga in Rhodesia, and several other smaller tribes 
now resident in the Transvaal, though belonging to this group, 
are considered to be vastly inferior both to the Amaxosa, 
Amazulu, etc., and to the tribes of the Bechuana-Basuto family 
described below. They may be regarded as representing the 
first wave of Bantu migration to the south of the Zambesi, 
where they were afterwards reduced, dispersed and enslaved by 
the superior Bechuana, Basuto and Zulu-Xosa tribes in later 
times. In fact, their customs vary so greatly, and they have 
so little racial or social coherence, that it is only their common 
or similar speech which enables them to be reckoned as 
Bantus at all. 



8 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

The second group includes the tribes that a century ago 
occupied the great interior plain, and came down to the ocean 
between the Zambesi and Sabi Rivers. It includes the 
Bechuana tribes, i.e., Baralong, Baharutsi, Bangkwaketsi, 
Bakwena, Bamangwato, all sections of the Makalanga, and the 
whole of the Basuto, north and south. This group can be 
termed the " Interior Tribes." 

The third comprises all the Bantu living between the 
Kalahari and the Atlantic Ocean, i.e., the Ovampos, 
Hereros, etc., but these need not be described here, as they 
are not in British territory. 

The individuals who compose the first and second groups 
vary in colour from deep bronze to black. Some have 
features of the lowest Negro type, while others have prominent 
and in rare instances, even aquiline noses, good foreheads, and 
comparatively thin lips. These extremes sometmies occur in 
the same family, especially on the east coast, and are no doubt 
due to a strain of Asiatic blood. 

From the foregoing it will have been gathered that at the 
commencement of the historic period of South Africa, i.e., 
about 400 years ago, the native tribes were distributed 
somewhat as follows, over what is now British South Africa : — 

East and south-east coast. — (Country up to the foot of the 
Drakensberg) : Coast tribes classed as Zulu-Kaffirs above. 

The i7iland plateaux, comprising what is now the Transvaal, 
Orange River Colony, Eastern Bechuanaland, Rhodesia, 
Transkei territory and Basutoland : Bechuana-Basuto tribes. 

The remainder of the present Cape Colony and Western 
Bechuanaland, Hottentots and Bushmen. 

Bushmen were also scattered all over the country in small 
groups, mostly in barren inaccessible tracts, but were more 
numerous in the west than in the east. 

The later redistribution of these tribes and the causes which 
led to it, will now be briefly described. 



(B.) Modern History — Redistribution of the 
Transvaal Bantu. 

Not much is known of the course of native history during 
the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, though 
traditions exist among the people of various internecine wars, 
by which no doubt all the tribes of the interior were consider- 
ably scattered and weakened, and were therefore less able to 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 9 

resist the incursions of the "Mantatis" and of the Zulus which 
commenced early in the nineteenth century, and of the Boer 
" Voortrekkers," who, after driving out the Zulus, began to 
annex and settle in the Transvaal in 1837. 

The "Mantatis" took their name from Ma Ntatisi the 
chieftainess of the Basuto tribe, said to be the original 
Batlokwa, which till about 182 1 dwelt in or near the present 
district of Harrismith, O.R.C. At this time Chaka, the 
famous Zulu chief, was engaged in exterminating all the 
tribes in his proximity, and one of the latter, to escape from 
his power, crossed to the west of the Drakensberg, and there fell 
upon the Batlokwa tribe of Mantatisi. The Batlokwa being 
severely defeated, fled bodily northwards, taking with them 
many people of kindred Basuto tribes then living in the 
northern part of the Orange River Colony. Mantatisi was 
thus soon at the head of an immense horde of Basuto, and 
with these attacked the Bechuana tribes, who inhabited the 
country immediately north of the Vaal River, and created 
great havoc among them. She pursued a career of conquest 
till about 1824, when her people received a check from the 
combined opposition of various tribes. The Mantatis then 
broke up into two parties, one of which under a chief named 
Sebetwane, travelled north-west and conquered Barotseland 
where they became known as the Makololo, and the other under 
Mantatisi herself returned to the Basutoland border. 

The invasion of the Mantatis was the first great disintegrating 
force experienced by the Bechuana inhabitants of the 
Transvaal. 

The next visitation to be suffered by these unfortunate tribes 
was that of the Zulus. 

These people have always been the most formidable enemies 
of the other sections of the Bantu race, and so powerful did 
they become under the military despotism of Chaka in the 
first three decades of the nineteenth century, that at the time 
of the death of Chaka in 1828 the Zulu empire comprised the 
whole of Zululand Natal and parts of Basutoland, together 
with most of the land between the Caledon and the Limpopo 
Rivers, that is the present Transvaal and the Orange River 
Colony. 

From 1828 to 1840 the Zulus were ruled by Dingaan, who 
maintained the same military organisation with little abatement 
until his final defeat in 1838. It was during this period that 
the " Great Trek " of Boers from the Cape Colony took place, 



10 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

which caused a general dislocation of the Bantu populations 
between the Orange and the Limpopo and laid the foundations 
of the supremacy of the white men over the native races 
throughout the continental plateau. 

After crossing the Orange, the pioneer trekkers had ramified 
into two columns, one continuing the northern route to and 
beyond the Vaal, while the other under Piet Retief passed 
eastward over the Drakensberg into Natal. Both of these 
columns came into collision with the Zulu forces, and thus 
began the struggle with the tribes, which was continued down 
to the year 1879, when Ketchwayo, last of Chaka's successors, 
and Sekukuni, the powerful chief of the Bapedi in the 
Transvaal, were finally overthrown by the British, and the 
Northern Boer state thus saved from utter ruin. 

Piet Retief's party in 1837 met with a great disaster at the 
hands of Dingaan's Zulus, over 700 of his people, including 
many women and children, being then treacherously massacred. 
But although this disaster had been preceded by several other 
reverses, Dingaan Avas defeated before the close of the same 
year with great slaughter on a northern branch of the Tugela, 
which was named the Blood River in memory of the event. 
From this blow, by which 3,000 of his best men had fallen, 
Dingaan never recovered, and after another crushing defeat, 
in which the Boers were joined by his rebellious brother Mpande 
(Panda) he fled northwards and was assassinated by one of 
his own captains in 1840. 

Piet Retief then set up the first Republic of " Natalia " at 
Pietermaritzburg, where his party of Boers remained until 
the British annexation of Natal in 1842-1843. 

Meantime the northern pioneer column had already ad- 
vanced (1835-1836) in large numbers to the region beyond 
the Vaal, hence called the Transvaal, most of which had been 
overrun by Zulu predatory hordes, by whom the former in- 
habitants had nearly all been exterminated or scattered. By 
far the most important of the Zulu conquerors was Umzilikau 
(usually known as Moselikatse). This redoubtable chief was 
one of Chaka's most renowned warriors, who having given 
some offence to the King, left Zululand at the head of a strong 
impi, and marching in a north-westerly direction across the 
O.R.C. and Transvaal, conquering all the tribes he met with, 
and ravaging their country as he went, finally set up for himself 
in the Marico District on the Bechuanaland frontier. 

It was here that Moselikatse was interviewed by Dr. Andrew 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. II 

Smith, leader of the first EngHsh scientific expedition to 
South Central Africa in 1835. Concerning this expedition the 
Rev. J. S. Moffat writes: — "The Matabili then occupied the 
country now forming mainly the Marico and Rustenburg 
Districts in the Transvaal. The expedition remained some 
weeks in the dominions of Umzilikazi, and met with every 
facility, and Dr. Smith persuaded the Chief to send messengers 
to Capetown. They were treated with great consideration and 
returned to their master with presents and with an impression 
of the character of the English people which has never been 
entirely effaced. It was, however, a severe trial to the faith 
of the Chief and of his people that the emigrant Boers were 
permitted by the Government to leave the Colony, and to 
encroach upon his territory and that of the other chiefs, who,. 
like him, had always sought to be on friendly terms with the 
English." 

Here Moselikatse was attacked and utterly routed by the 
pioneer trekkers under Maritz and Potgieter in 1837, and being 
now also threatened by his hereditary foe Dingaan, he with- 
drew beyond the Limpopo, and founded the late Matabele 
Kingdom* about the year 1839 or 1840, leaving the Transvaal 
in the hands of the trekkers. 

The Boers were thus left masters of the situation, and 
proceeded to annex the whole territory formerly ruled by the 
Matabele, but as they were too few to hold the whole country, 
the original Bechuana-Basuto tribes who had been driven west 
and north by the Zulu invaders, now rapidly returned to occupy 
their former homes, and so it happens that the majority of 
the Transvaal Natives still belong to the Bechuana-Basuto 
family. 

When, therefore, the Transvaal first entered on its career as 
a civilised state, its native inhabitants were chiefly of the 
Bechuana-Basuto family, but the Coast Tribes were also 
represented by fragments of Magwamba and other eastern 
tribes in the north, while a proportion of Zulus still remained, 
who had migrated from Zululand either during or before the 
days of Chaka. 

The Boers waged various small wars (hereafter described) 
with different native tribes up to the British annexation in 
1900, and it was their practice, after having defeated a tribe, 
to break it up as far as possible, by "apprenticing" a number 

* The late Lobengula was Moselikatse's son and successor. 



12 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



of its members to burghers all over the country. Certain 
tribes also were settled by the Boer Government in defined 
locations, but during the late war some of these took the 
opportunity of moving to more favourable localities, and their 
places of residence are in some cases not settled even now, 
though the work of locating them is being actively pushed on 
by the present Administration. By these various disturbing 
agencies the tribes have become so much scattered, that it is 
scarcely possible to describe any one tribe as a whole, portions 
of several tribes being found in almost every district. In 
order therefore to arrive at a just estimate of the native 
inhabitants of this colony at the present time, it will be 
necessary to examine in some detail the tribes and sections of 
tribes now found in the various Administrative Districts as at 
present organised. 



(C.) The Present Native Population of the 
Transvaal. 

According to the returns of the census of 1904, the total 
resident native population of the Transvaal is 811,753 men 
women and children. These are distributed as shown below in 
the various administrative divisions and Districts : 



Division. 



Western 



District. 



fRustenburg... 

I Zeerust 

I Pilansberg ... 

-J Lichtenburg 
Potchefstroom 
Wolmaransstad 

.and Christiana 



Native Population. 



Men. 



5.946 

4,715 
4,209 
2,461 
5,837 

abtl.SOO 
24,668 



Women. 



6,953 
6,070 

4,849 
2,328 
6,221 

2,000 



28,421 



Children. 



io,7S3 

11,552 

8,050 

5,006 

12,629 

3,015 



51,095 



Total. 



23,652 
22,337 
17,108 

9,795 
24,687 

6,515 
104,094 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



Division. 


District. 


Native Population. 




Men. 


Women. 


Children. 


Total. 


Central ... 


f Pretoria 

1 Krugersdorp 

-{ Boksburg 

Hamanskraal 
L Heidelberg 


18,719* 

1,680 

630 

6,268 

5,884* 


7,933 
1,260 

548 
8,331 
3,701 


20,397 
3,290 
1,649 

13,275 
7,215 


47,049 
6,23ot 

2,827t 

27,874 
16,800 






33,181 


21,773 45,826 


ioo,78ot 


North- ^ 
Western / 


r Warm baths... 
< Nylstroom ... 
P. P. Rust 


2,322 
2,451 
6,616 


4,501 

3,659 

14,235 


6,230 

4,967 

16,157 


13,053 
11,007 
37,008 




1 11,389 22,395 


27,354 


61,138 


Northern . . . 


r Pietersburg 

j Spelonken ... 
-{ Haenertsburg 
1 Shivasa 
IBlauwberg 


15,134 
29,434 
13.893 
17,981 

5,300 


22,491 
33,430 
18,067 
24,748 
6,741 


33,594 
41,778 
24,790 
27,024 
7,210 


71,219 
104,642 
56,750 
69,753 
19,251 






81,742 


105,477 


134,396 


321,6155: 


Eastern 


r Sekukuniland 

Sabi 

-{ Barberton ... 
1 Pokwani 
IMiddelburg 


9,550 
7,331 
7,067* 
5,416 

2,999 


16,441 
7,242 
6.336 
5,837 
3,163 


23,316 
16,026 

8,383 
10,346 

7,907 


49,307 
30,599 
21,786 

21,593 
14,069 






32,363 


39,013 


65,978 


137,354 


South- \ 
Eastern / 


' Wakk erst room 
Pietretief .. 

- Standerton 

1 Ermelo 
I Carolina 


3,470 
5,000 

6,405* 

3,186 

2,800 


4,549 
7,542 
3,859 
3,127 
2,203 


11,446 

15,900 

5,286 

7,859 
4,140 


19,465 
28,442 

15,550 
14,172 

9,143 






20,861 


21,280 


44,631 


86,772 


Grand Total 


202,704 


236,359 


366,175 


811,753 



* Preponderance of men due to numbers from other districts, working in 
towns, etc. 

t Natives in the labour districts not included. 

+ Not including about 12,000 men away at work in the labour areas. 



14 THE NATIVK TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



Natives Temporarily Employed in "Labour Districts." 

The principal " Labour Districts " are : Johannesburg and 
the Witwatersrand generally, Heidelberg, Klerksdorp, Vereeni- 
ging, Pretoria and Middelburg. 

The number of natives employed at these centres on the 
30th June, 1904, was 133,283 as against 116,913 in June, 1903. 

Of this number* 29,6x5 were Transvaal natives. Of the 
remainder, considerably over 50 per cent, were from Portuguese 
territory ; Cape Colony, Natal and Zululand provided another 
30 per cent. ; and the rest belonged to Basutoland, the Orange 
River Colony, Bechuanaland, Rhodesia, Swaziland, British 
Central Africa or Damaraland. 



Classification. 

The detailed history and classification by tribes of the 
resident native population will now be proceeded with. For 
the sake of convenience the tribes will be grouped according 
to the administrative "Divisions" in which they are respectively 
found. (Details of these Divisions are given on pp. 94-5.) 



* It is not quite clear whether any of these have been included in the 
foregoing census figures for the various districts. In the case of the 
northern division, it is however stated that 12,000 were away in other 
districts at work, when the census was taken. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE TRIBES OF THE WESTERN DIVISION. 

The total number of natives in these districts was found by the 

as 



Census 


of April of I 


504 to be 


104 


,094, 


distributed 


follows : 


Rustenburg 
Pilansberg 
Marico ... 
Lichtenburg 
Potchefstroom 


.. 23,652 
.. 17,108 
■• 22,337 

•• 9>795 
.. 24,687 










Wolmaransstad 
Total... 


• • 6,515 


len, 


wom( 






.. 104,094 n 


m and child 



The vast majority of these people are of pure Bechuana 
descent and speak the Bechuana language, and the small 
percentage who are classed here as Basuto, differ so slightly 
from the Bechuana as to be indistinguishable from the latter. 

As stated in the foregoing chapter, all Bechuana and Basuto 
probably spring from common ancestors, who formed one 
section of the original Bantu migration, but as a distinction 
between the two nations is drawn by the natives themselves, 
an attempt has been made here to classify the various tribes 
accordingly. 

Historical Sketch of Tribes. 

T/ie Baralong. 

Though this family is not now very numerously represented 
in the Transvaal, it appears to be the most ancient of the 
Bechuana race, and from it are believed to be descended, not 
only all the Bechuana tribes now found in the colony, but also 
the various branches of the Baharutsi (Barotsi) nation, from 
whom in turn spring the Bakhatla, the Bapedi (Sekukuni's) and 



i6 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



several other important tribes. The history of the tribes is 
therefore worthy of being given at some length. 

The descent of the various tribes hereafter mentioned from the 
Baralong is shown in the following diagram : — 

BARALONG. 
(Main tribe.) 



Baralong 



Baharutsi 



Baharutsi 
I 



Bakhatla 









U5^ 



o ^ 

^ 






I PQ N 



m 



Pi 



is a. 

3 3 



m m 



Pretoria district. 



The Baralong take their name from their earliest recorded 
chief Morolong, under whom, according to tradition, they 
migrated from a country in the far north, probably the region 
of the lakes, about 1400 a.d. After four generations they 
reached the Molopo River and settled their first permanent 
residence somewhere near Mafeking. Here for many years the 
tribe enjoyed peace and increased in numbers and wealth, 
reaching the zenith of its prosperity in the days of the chief 
Tau, about the 14th in descent from Morolong. Sections of 
the tribe had at various times migrated eastwards and north- 
westwards, but their loss was made good by recruits from alien 
tribes such as the Batlaping and Batlaro, who had submitted to 
the Baralong. 

On the death of Tau — which took place about 1760 — 
however, the power of the Baralong ceased, as owing to internal 
dissensions, the tribe broke up into various clans, each of 
which followed one of the sons of Tau, while the Batlaro and 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OE THE TRANSVAAL. 1 7 

the Batlaping took advantage of the confusion to reassert their 
independence. 

Though they were no longer united, the various sections of 
the Baralong appear to have lived in close proximity to each 
other, and made their headquarters at Khunwana (the present 
Kunana location) where they remained till the Matabele under 
Moselikatse fell upon them and drove them out. A period of 
wandering followed, during which the Baralong came into 
collision with the Makololo (who were on their way to 
Barotsiland which they afterwards conquered), and with the 
Bataung under Molitsane, both predatory hordes from the 
country now called Basutoland. There were at that time four 
clans of the Baralong, under the chiefs Matlaku, Tawane, 
Sehunelo and Matlabe. Sehunelo moved south and settled at 
Thabanchu in the Orange River C'olony, where he was joined 
later by Tawane and Gontsi (2nd son of Matlaku who had 
been killed by Molitsane) and their people. Matlabe and his 
■clan remained in their own country for a time and assisted 
Moselikatse in driving back Molitsane, but eventually joined 
his brethren at Thabanchu in about 1835. In 1837 he guided 
the Boer commando under H. Potgieter to Marico, and after 
the defeat of Moselikatse by the Boers, was allowed to settle 
at Machaviestad near Potchefstroom where Gontsi's and 
Tawane's people rejoined him. The 4th clan now under 
Moroko, remained at Thabanchu. 

In 1847 Tawane moved to Litlokana, near Mafeking, his 
descendant being the present chief Badirele, successor to 
Montsiwa, whose location is now in the Bechuanaland 
Protectorate. 

President Burgers in 1874 entered into a treaty with 
Moshete, " paramount chief of the Baralong " (during whose 
minority Gontsi had been acting as chief), by which the latter 
ceded to the South African Republic " all territorial rights 
northward and north-westward of the Vaal appertaining to 
the said Baralong " under certain conditions. Montsiwa, 
however, not recognising Moshete's right to dispose of 
Baralong territory without consulting him, protested, and a 
dispute ensued between Montsiwa on the one side and Moshete 
and Matlabe on the other, which culminated in hostilities in 
1 88 1. Both sides enlisted white volunteers who were promised 
farms after the war. After nearly a year's fighting, Montsiwa 
was defeated and sued for peace, and Moshete granted the farms 
promised. By the London Convention of 1884, the western 

(7269) B 



l8 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

boundary of the 'J'ransvaal was readjusted, so that Moshete's 
territory, now the Kunana location, fell within the borders 
of the republic, while Montsiwa's remained outside. Moshete, 
how^ever, still retained his paramount rights over the latter. 

Matlabe, who had been at Potchefstroom since 1853, moved 
to Polfontein in the Lichtenburg District in 1875. During the 
late war (i 899-1 902) he and his people returned to Potchef- 
. stroom, but they are now to be definitely located at Polfontein. 
The present chief of this section is Ramolekana, who is about 
twenty years of ag^. 

Besides the above mentioned tribes, branches of the 
Baralong are to be found scattered among many of the other 
Transvaal tribes, as for instance the Bakhatla, the Bantwane 
of the Pretoria District and many others. 

As will presently be shown too, all the branches of the 
Baharutsi ("Barotsi'') are sprung from the Baralong stock. 



TJie Baharutsi. 

This tribe is believed to have split from the main body of 
the Baralong after their arrival at the Molopo River about the 
fifteenth or sixteenth century. The Baharutsi seem, after the 
Baralong, to be the oldest race, and from them the following 
tribes are said to be directly descended, viz. : — 

The Bakwena, 

The Bakhatla, from whom spring the Bapedi (Sekukuni's 

people). 
The Bahananwa (Malabokh's people, etc.). 
The Bafiring (Rustenburg District). 
Other Basuto-Bechuana tribes, not residing in the 

Transvaal, including probably the Basuto of Basuto- 

land. 

In former days the Baharutsi were a great and powerful 
people, brave in war and feared by other tribes, many of which 
were tributary to them. Up to within the last few decades, 
none of the above mentioned tribes, wherever living, were 
allowed to gather in their crops until the Baharutsi chief 
had given his permission. This right exercised by the 
Baharutsi was called " Go loma thotsi," which means " To bite 
the pumpkin," the pumpkin being the earliest crop grown by the 
natives. 

Like all other Bechuana-Basuto tribes, the clans of the 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 1 9 

Baharutsi adopted various animals as their tribal emblems or 
totems. The eland was their first selection, but this was 
afterwards replaced by the Great Monkey. 

The first division of the Baharutsi people took place after 
the death of their third recorded chief, Molope, who left two 
sons, Mohurutsi and Kwene. The former remained chief of 
the main tribe which took its name from him, while the latter 
separated from his brother and called his people Bakwena, 
choosing the crocodile (Kwene) as his totem. 

Mohurutsi had two sons, Motebele and Motebyane, and the 
latter, though the younger, succeeded in ousting his brother 
and became chief of the tribe, making his headquarters where 
Heidelberg now stands. Little is known concerning the nine 
chiefs who followed him, but Manyane, the eldest son of the 
ninth, was driven away and moved to near Zeerust, where his- 
people remained till the advent of the Matabele forced them 
to fly to Taung in Bechuanaland. 

In 1837, Moilo, the then chief of the Baharutsi, assisted the 
Boers in driving out the Matabele, and also a few years later 
in their wars against other tribes in the Transvaal ; the Boers 
therefore rewarded him by allowing him to reoccupy the land 
originally held by the Baharutsi, which is now known as Moilo's 
location, in the Alarico district. Moilo died in 1893. During 
the rule of Moilo's successor Sebogodi, Khopane, leader of 
another section of the Baharutsi, invaded the location and laid 
claim to part of it, and on the death of Sebogodi in 1877, the 
Government recognised his son Ikalafeng as chief, but also 
granted Khopane a portion of the location, which is still 
occupied by his people. 

Ikalafeng died in 1893, and his son, Pokliisho, being a 
minor, his uncle Israel Moilo acts for him. 

Khopane died in October, 1904, and has been succeeded by 
his son Tom Mokhatla. 

Besides these branches of the Baharutsi, there are also 
sections under chief Sebogodi at Mochudi in l^echuanaland, 
and at Vinkrivier near Zeerust under a petty chief named 
Thebe. 

Tlie Baktve/ia. 

The Bakwena take their name from Kwene (the brother of 
Mohurutsi, founder of the Baharutsi), who left the main tribe 
about the beginning of the sixteenth century. This race has a 
large number of representatives at present in the Transvaal, 

(7269) B 2 



20 TllK NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

formed into several independent tribes, besides a number ir* 
Basutoland and British Bechuanaland. Of the Bakwena tribes 
living within the Transvaal, the following are the most worthy 
of notice : — 

a. The Bafokeng. 

b. The Bamakhopa. 

c. The Bamolimosana. 

//. The Bakubung or Bakhofa. 
f. The Baphalane. 

a. The Bakwena — Bafokeng. — This section has a curious 
tradition to the effect that they originally came from the north 
of the Sahara Desert from the direction of Egypt as part of the 
great Baharutsi nation, from which they separated under 
Kwene. ^Vhen and where they broke away from the main 
Bakwena tribe is not recorded, but it must have been long ago, 
for their present chief traces his descent for thirty generations 
back to a chief named Nape in an unbroken line., Diale, the 
twenty-fourth chief after Nape, succeeded in throwing off the 
yoke of the Baharutsi, of whom the Bafokeng have since lived 
independent. The annals of the tribe are very warlike, many 
bloody wars being recorded in their traditions against the 
Bechuana tribes, Bapo, Bamatau and Batlokwa. Sekwati 
inflicted severe loss on them, and Moselikatse reduced them to 
subjection for a time, but Mokhatle, who was their chief at the 
time, was of assistance to the Boers and received a grant of 
land as a reward. 

The present chief is Molotlegi, alias August Mokhatle, 
grandson of Mokhatle. His tribe is the most numerous in the 
Rustenburg district, amounting to nearly 12,000 .souls. 
Missionaries have been among them for over fifty years and 
they are nearly all Christians. The headquarters of the chief 
is at Fokeng (Bierfontein 432;. 

b. Bakimna — Bamakhopa. — These people appear from their 
traditions to be an offshoot of the Baharutsi, closely connected 
in early times with the Bafokeng. Their history, like that of 
the latter, is a succession of wars with other sections of the 
Bechuana, during which they changed their habitation several 
times. The inevitable Moselikatse eventually descended upon 
them and a portion of the tribe submitted to him and lived 
under his protection in Marico, while the remainder dispersed 
to other districts. On the advent of the Boers they turned 
against Moselikatse and became the servants of the Boers. 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 21 

Mamokhale, who was then their chief, after a time resented 
his treatment by the Boers and fled with most of his people 
to the neighbourhood of Basutoland, whence he returned in 
1868 to Losperfontein (the present Bethanie Mission Station), 
where the tribe still dwells. Johannes Otto Mamokhale, the 
present chief, a great-grandson of Mamokhale, is still a 
minor, and one Daniel More acts for him. His people in 
Rustenburg district number about 4,000 and are nearly all 
Christians. 

c. Bakwi'fia — Bamolimosaiia. — This tribe is descended from 
Tau, the Baralong Hero, and its ancestors are supposed to 
have followed the Baharutsi, when the latter became detached 
from the parent tribe. Four clans of the Molimosana are 
found in the Transvaal, viz. : — 

The Baramanemela, who are really the elder branch but 
artr subject to the Banatau section. Present chief 
Molehi or Ramaubane, a petty chief only. 

The Maake, who are recognised as the elder branch. 
Present chief Andries Lekhwali, known as Ratsegaai, 
who lives at Hartebeestfontein 517 in the Rustenburg 
district. 

The Bamatau, located in the Pilansberg under chief Tabe 
Masilwane, known as Herman Selon. Though 
numerically weak in the Transvaal, this clan has 
many members in the Orange River Colony, who all 
pay tribute to Herman Selon. Some Bamatau are 
also in the Potchefstroom district. 

The Bamatlaku, whose present chief is (rasibone, living 
in the Marico district on the Pella Mission .Station. 

These clans take their names from the four sons of 
Molimosana, the founder of the tribe. Their history 
resembles that of most of the other tribes in that they were 
successfully raided by the Bapedi and Moselikatse, and 
finally settled in locations or were allowed to purchase them by 
the Boers. 

d. The Bakwcna — Bakubung.—lL^\\\<, tribe is also called 
Bakhofa, meaning " The Ticks," a sobriquet which was given 
them for their reputation of annexing and " sticking to '' all 
cattle that they could lay hands on. 

After being decimated by Moselikatse, these people were 
further broken up by the Boers, and one section left Potchef- 
stroom for the Orange River Colony fifty or sixty years ago. 



22 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

This is the clan now under Solomon Ratheo Monakhotle, 
whose grandfather brought them back and purchased the 
farm Elandsfontein 665 in Rustenburg district, which is their 
present habitation. 

The other section under chief Matope live on the farm 
Cyferfontein 953, in the same district. 

Monakhotle's people number about 500 souls and Matope's 
some 200. 

t'. The Bakivena — Baphalaiie. — The name Baphalane is 
derived from Phala, the Rooibuck Antelope, which animal 
abounded in the neighbourhood of the settlement of these 
people, and by the chase of which they used to live. After 
separating from the parent tribe of the Bakwena, these people 
moved eastward to the Waterberg district, where they waged 
a desultory war with the Bamapela, a tribe of Zulu extraction, 
for some years with varying success. The incursions of the 
Matabele, however, so reduced them that the Bamapela were 
eventually able to drive them out of the district. 'Fhey then 
retired to their present location, Ramakok's Kraal (307) in 
the Pilandsberg, so as to be near their allies, the Bakhatla. 
The present chief is Bethuel Ramakok, whose tribe numbers over 
2,000 souls : 600 more of the same tribe are in the Rusten- 
burg district and some 400 in Marico under chief Stephen, 
besides many more in Bechuanaland under chief Mochudi. 

The Bakhathx Tribe. 

This important tribe takes its name from an early chief 
named Mokhatla, and much evidence goes to prove the 
correctness of the contention that it is a true branch of the 
Baharutsi nation. 

On the death of Mokhatla, the tribe broke up into two 
sections, viz. : — 

a. The Bakhatla of Khafela (Linchwe's people of the 

Bakhatla Reserve in Bechuanaland, of whom a 
number are however located in the Pilandsberg 
district). 

b. The Bakhatla of Mosetla, from whom are descended 

not only the Bakhatla under Solomon Makapan, 
vSjambok, etc., in the Pretoria district, but also the 
Mutsha tribes and the whole of the Bapedi 
(Sekukuni's people, etc.). 



I 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OK THE TRANSVAAL. 23 

a. The Bakhatla of Kliafela. — To this section belong 
Linchwe, the powerful chief of the Bakhatla location in 
Bechuanaland, and Ramono Pilane, who is the most impor- 
tant chief in the Pilandsberg. Khafela is the name of the 
earliest recorded chief under whom these people left the 
leadership of Mokhatla, and travelling eastwards, first settled 
near the junction of the Aapies with the Crocodile River, 
whence they shortly moved to near Saulspoort (Modderkuil 
565, Dist. Rustenburg). They successfully fought many of 
the kindred Bechuana tribes in the vicinity, but it is recorded 
that they were defeated by the " Basebetwane on their way 
to the Botletle river," by whom is probably meant the Basuto 
conquerors of Barotseland. This must have been in about 
1824. The Bakhafela did not try conclusions with the 
Matabele, who appeared shortly after, but submitted to 
Moselikatse, whom they served as cattle herds till the advent 
of the Boers. Being harshly treated by the latter, they fled in 
1852 and took refuge with Sechele, a Bakwena chief on the 
Western Border. The latter shielded them but was attacked 
and put to flight by a Boer commando. The Bakhafela then 
settled at Mochudi, the present Bakhatla reserve in Bechuana- 
land, and, owing to their refusal to pay tribute to Sechele, a 
desultory war broke out between them and the Bakwena, 
which lasted from 1875 to 1878. The Bakwena were defeated, 
and Linchwe, who had by then succeeded to the chieftainship 
of the Bakhafela, thus acquired his present location by right of 
conquest. 

Linchwe then bought for his brethren who had remained in 
the Transvaal the farms on which they are now living in the 
Pilandsberg and Rustenburg districts, and appointed his 
brother Ramono to be chief over them. 

Some members of this section of the Bakhatla are also now 
living in the Heidelberg district ; they were most likely 
captured by the Boers in 1852 and removed there as 
"indentured servants.'' 

b. The Bakhatla of Mosetla. {Bamoset/a).— AW the chiefs 
belonging to this section of the Bakhatla are now living in 
other districts, and will be referred- to later on. The 
manner in which they are connected is shown by the following 
table :— 



2J. 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL 

Mokhatla. (Founder of the Bakhatla.) 
I 
Botlolo. (Eighih in descent.) 



Mokhali. 

i 

I 
Phulane. 



Mosetla. 



Solomon Makapan. 
Present chief of the 
Bamosetla in Pre- 
toria District. 



Tabane. ' 



Liale. 



Modise. 

I 

I 
Mumise Motsipc 
(S ) a m b o k). 
Present head of 
the Bamakau, lives 
in Pretoria Dis- 
trict. 



Le Lellateng. 

1 
S e k u k u n i 
Bapedi tribes 
i n Eastern 
Districts. 



Setsidi. 



Robert M u p i . 
Present chief of 
the Mutsha, lives- 
in Pretoria Dis- 
trict. 



The Bapliirivg. 

These people are an offshoot of the Baharutsi, and take 
their name from a chief called Phiri, under whom and his 
successors they wandered about the Potchefstroom and 
Lichtenburg districts till they met with the usual fate at the 
hands of Moselikatse and later of the Boers. Eventually they 
settled at the farm Rietfontein (402), District Rustenburg,. 
which was bought by their chief Mabalane in the seventies. 
The present chief is Philip Mabalane, and his location is 
known as Mabalstad. 

All the foregoing tribes are pure Bechuana, and, as has been 
shown, came from the north originally, and settled in the 
Transvaal without having, except for a few brief excursions in 
some cases, penetrated further south than the \'aal River. 

Some tribes will now be noticed whose forefathers, though 
no doubt of Bechuana stock in the first instance, made their 
first long halt in what is now the Orange River Colony, and 
have only been inhabitants of the Transvaal from comparatively 
recent times. These are the tribes correctly described as 
Basuto, though the name is generally applied to the Bapedi 
and others, who are in fact of pure Bechuana extraction. 

* Tabane is also believed to be the ancestor of the Bavenda chiefs of the 
Zoutpansberg, he having moved to that part with some of his people, and 
established himself as ruler of the Bavenda tribe. (See the tribes of the 
Zoutpansberg.) 



THE NATIVE TRIUES OF THE TRANS\AAL. 



The Batauiii^. 

This tribe is probably an offshoot of the Bataung of 
Molitsane, a chief who hved on the borders of Basutoland, 
and whose people made various raids into the Transvaal. 
Their records are not clear, but it seems that some land in or 
near their present locality was many years ago granted to them 
by the Bakwena as a reward for assistance rendered in tribal 
wars. They were attacked by the Makololo in the north- 
westward march of the latter, temporarily enslaved by the 
Matabele, and liberated by the Boers, who, however, afterwards 
so oppressed them that they returned to their original home in 
the Orange River Colony. They returned eventually to their 
present abode, Brakfontein (898), District Rustenburg, and 
were allowed by the Boers to pay purchase money for the land. 

The present chief is Molifyane Sefanyetso, and the tribe 
numbers 757 souls. 

The Bathkiva {or Batokiva). 

There are two tribes of this name, of which one is in the 
Zoutpansberg, and the other in the Pilandsberg district, a 
branch of the latter being at Gaberones in Bechuanaland. 
The two tribes claim relationship, though their traditions are 
not identical. The Zoutpansberg tribe is believed to have been 
a portion of the Makololo, who, starting from near Basutoland, 
raided the Transvaal en 7-011 fe to Barotseland between 1820 and 
1824, so it is reasonable to suppose that the tradition of the 
Pilandsberg Batlokwa, who say they came " from the north- 
east," refers to the time of the original Bantu invasion, and to 
deduce the theory that that these peoples are true Basuto and 
not Bechuana. The tribal records of the Pilandsberg tribe 
only go back for something less than 100 years, and according 
to these the tribe first settled in Potchefstroom district, 
whence they were driven b)- the Bakwena to the neighbourhood 
of their present location. The Matabele and the Boers 
successivel)' broke up and enslaved the people, so that at 
present there are four sections (besides those in the Zoutpans- 
berg), viz. : one under chief (iaberone in Bechuanaland and 
three in the Pilandsberg district under chiefs Sidumedi 
Matlaping, Sibulawa Matlaping, and Motsatsi Tlolwe respec- 
tively. The followings of the three latter total 3,600 souls. 

The Batlokwa have the reputation of being skilled workers 



26 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

in copper and wire, of which they make bracelets and other 
ornaments. They acquired their skill during their early days 
in the Transvaal, when they lived in close proximity to a 
copper mine, which they learned to work. 

There are several other tribes of the true Basuto race, which 
will be touched on when dealing with the districts where they 
.are found. 



The Bapo and the Batlako. 

(Not to be confused with the Batlokwa.) 
These two tribes are believed to have been originally one, 
the Bapo, thoug now numerically much weaker, being the elder 
branch. 

The ancestors of these people are said to have come "from 
Zululand," but this is open to doubt, as their migration must 
have taken place long before the rise of the Zulu power, when 
a great variety of tribes occupied the Natal country and north- 
eastern Orange River Colony, which tribes were afterwards 
completely exterminated by the Zulus. It is not therefore by 
any means certain or even probable that the Bapo are of Zulu 
extraction, and they are more likely indeed to be of the true 
Basuto race. Be this as it may, they had been in the Western 
Transvaal, waging the usual desultory warfare with the 
Bakwena and other Bechuana tribes for some generations 
before the arrival of Moselikatse. That redoubtable warrior 
scattered the tribe in all directions, and though a good number 
of the people afterwards rallied round their chief Mokhale, 
the Boers picked a quarrel with the latter, who fled to 
Basutoland with the majority of the tribe ; some Bapo, 
however, took refuge with neighbouring tribes, while a few 
remained with the Boers. After twenty years' residence in 
Basutoland, Mokhale returned and bought the farm 
Boschfontein (381) in the Rustenburg district, where his 
grandson Darius Mokhale now lives with 1,200 of the 
tribe. 

Diederick Mokhale, uncle of Darius, quarrelled with his 
nephew and moved to the farm Bultfontein (714) in the same 
district with some 300 followers, while another considerable 
party, also adherents of Diederick, are settled in the 
Pilandsberg district. 

The early history of the Batlako is very similar to that of 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 27 

the Bapo, but unlike the latter, they avoided dispersal by the 
Matabele by submitting at once to Moselikatse, whom they 
followed as allies (or slaves) when he was driven across the 
Marico by the Boers. They soon returned to their former 
habitation in the Pilandsberg, but again left under pressure 
from the Boers, and joined Sechele in his retreat in 
Bechuanaland, whither he had been driven in 1852 (see 
Native Wars). The Batlako were only quite recently brought 
back to the Pilandsberg by Mutlu-Mabi, their present chief, 
who bought for them the farms Mabiskraal (629), Vlakfontein 
(305), and Turflaagte (272), on which they now reside, 

Mabi's people number over 2,000, not including a few 
Matabele who fled to them in Lobengula's time. A small 
section of the Batlako, about 350 in number, under the 
headman Sibolayu Tlogwane, are also settled on the farm 
Ruigehoek (426) in the Pilandsberg district. 

The Bamalete. 

This small tribe, numbering only about 400 souls, is a 
portion of the Bechuana tribe of the same name at Ramoutsa, 
Bechuanaland, whence it came to the Marico district in or 
.about 1890. The chief's name is A'lukhubua. 

The Bakuliil>eiig. 

No records are available bearing on the history of this tribe, 
Avhich is about 1,000 strong (total population) and resides in 
the Marico district under Chief David Molete. It is, however, 
considered probable that they belong to some branch of the 
Bakwena. 

The Bathiung. 

This small tribe, which numbers less than 300 souls, is 
located in the Marico district under the petty chief Joseph 
Laban. Its origin is not known, but it is thought; to be kindred 
to the Batlako and Bapo. 



The actual numbers and distribution of the tribes of this 
Division are given in the following table : — 



28 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 





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THE NATIVE TRIliES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 29 



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b -o "a "G 13 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



Present Condition of Tribes. 

The tribes of the western districts are as a rule far more 
civilised and progressive than those found in most other parts 
of the Transvaal. This is probably due to their having been 
the longest in direct contact with white people, and also to the 
presence of European missionaries among them continuously 
since the days of Livingstone and Moffat. A large percentage 
of these people profess Christianity, many speak English well, 
and some of the headmen and chiefs can even read and write. 
Most of them wear some sort of European clothes and the 
chiefs are generally well dressed. 

The chiefs and people are reported to be law-abiding and 
contented, their only grievance being that they are not allowed 
to purchase more land under present regulations. Large 
quantities of wheat, mealies and kaffir corn are grown by 
these natives, and they are well off for cattle, though these 
are now affected by " Rhodesian red water,'' which will probably 
greatly reduce the herds. 

The men, as a rule, go very readily to work at Johannesburg, 
returning to plough in October and reap in May. 

The villages or stads of the principal chiefs contain well- 
built square stone houses, a contrast to the miserable straw 
huts of the northern and eastern tribes. 

Politically the most important tribe is the portion of the 
Bakhatla located in the Pilandsberg. Ramono Pilane, the chief 
(who is the brother of Linchwe, the real head of the tribe, 
whose headquarters is at Mochudi in the Bechiianaland 
Protectorate) is of no great importance of himself, and is. 
merely a headman of Linchwe's, who appointed him to rule 
the Pilandsberg Bakhatla on the British annexation of the 
Transvaal. Linchwe still claims authority over these people, 
but this is not recognised by the Transvaal Government. If 
Linchwe ever became hostile, it is probable that he would take 
up his position in and about the Pilandsberg with all his people,, 
as his location at Mochudi is too readily accessible from the 
western railway. His people are far more warlike in disposition 
than any of the other Bechuana tribes, they are reported to be 
good shots and the Mochudi section have a number of rifles. 
The Pilandsberg section also probably sent the best of their 
firearms acrr;ss the border to Mochudi before giving up the- 
remainder at the general disarmament in 1903. The Pilands- 



THE NATINK TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 3 1 

berg has, moreover, man)- military advantages from a native 
point of view, which are described elsewhere. 

A rising on the part of Linchwe is, however, most 
improbable. He and his people actively assisted us throughout 
the late war, and many scouts were recruited from the tribe, so 
that their loyalty is practically assured, and they are so well off 
under the present rcgiiiie that they are not likely to endanger 
their prosperity for the sake of any petty grievance. 

The Baharutse in Moilo's location are a peaceable people, 
fully occupied by the care of their cattle, and the cultivation of 
their very fertile lands. There are two large " towns " or 
" stads " each of about 7,000 inhabitants, under Israel Moilo 
and Tom Mokhatla respectively. The stads are named 
Linokana and Gopanestad, at the former of which there are 
four blockhouses built during the late war. Moilo is not of 
much influence and is not considered trustworthy. Tom 
Mokhatla is the son of Khopane, who was a very good chief 
and only died recently. His influence can be traced in the 
superior bearing of his section of the tribe. 

These people are extremely well off, and it is thought that 
nothing short of actual compulsion by another tribe would 
make them rise in rebellion. There is, moreover, no suitable 
position for defence in the location. 

There is a German missionary, Mr. Jensen, at Linokana, 
who, besides a large farm, has a church and school where 
English is taught. He has some influence over the natives, 
having assisted them to buy land. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE TRIBES OF THE CENTRAL DIVISION. 

The total native population of these districts was returned in 
April, 1904, as 100,780, distributed as follows :- - 



Pretoria District 


... 47,C49 


Hamans Kraal District 


... 27,874 


Krugersdorp District ... 


6,230 


Boksburg District 


... 2,827 


Heidelberg District ... 


16,800 



Total ... ... 100,780 

Exclusive of the numbers classed in the lists given hereafter 
as " various," the majority of these people belong to tribes of 
the Bechuana-Basuto family, some account of the history of 
which has been given in the foregoing description of the tribes 
of the western division. It should, however, be noted that 
here the custom prevails of calling these tribes Basuto and not 
Bechuana, though by descent they truly belong to the latter 
nation ; this will henceforward be followed in their classification. 
The remainder are of Matabele or Zulu extraction. 



The Bechuana-Basuto Tribes. 

Of the tribes here called Basuto, the various sections of the 
Bakhatla are the most numerously represented, and next in 
importance are sections of the Bakwena and Baralong. It is 
unnecessary to give any further particulars of the history of 
these people than are contained in the preceding chapter. 

The history of the Bapedi tribe, which, as has been .shown, 
is really a branch of the Bakhatla, will be found in the de- 
scription of the tribes of the eastern division. 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



33 



The Zulu or Amandebele Tribes^ (iisually known as Maiabele.') 

The people known as Matabele are undoubtedly of Zulu 
descent, and came from Zululand early in the 19th century. 
Though some of them state that their forefathers migrated 
northward before the days of Chaka, it is most probable that 
they are descendants of a branch of the Amahlubi tribe which 
was driven out of Zululand by Chaka, and of which the best 
known section is the people of Langalibalele, whose location 
was on the Natal-Basutoland border, and who rebelled against 
the Government and was captured in 1873. The several tribes 
to be considered under this heading take their names from four 
sons of a chief named Musi. These sons of Musi, whose 
names were Nzunza, Manala, iVI'Hwaduba, and Matombeni, 
alias Yahalala or Kekaan, quarrelled amongst themselves for the 
chiefship, with the result that the tribe split up into the four 
sections now found in the Transvaal, thus : — 

Musi 

I 



Manala 

I 
Nyumba Ma- 
bena. Present 
chief of Manala 
section in Pre- 
toria district. 



Kekaan 

I . 
Kekaan tribes of 
Zoutpansberg, Wa- 
terberg and Pre- 
toria districts. 



M'Hwaduba 

I 
Bahwaduba peo- 
ple of Pretoria 
district. 



Nzunza 

I 

Mapoch tribes 
of Eastern and 
Pretoria dis- 
tricts. 



Manala Section. 

The four sections of the tribe having arrived near the present 
site of Pretoria, continued to fight among themselves ; the 
Nzunza section proved the strongest, and having worsted the 
others, moved off eastwards, while the Manala section remained 
at its present chief location, where the VVallmansthal Mi.ssion 
now stands. They suffered severely at the hands of Moselikatse, 
who scattered them considerably. This probably accounts for 
the scattered condition of the tribe at the present time. 

These people have intermingled much with the neighbouring 
Basuto tribes, from whom they are scarcely to be distinguished, 
though there is no doubt as to their original Zulu extraction. 

Their present chief is Nyumba Mabena, who lives at 
VVallmansthal, Hamanskraal, with a following of about 4,000. 
He also has nearly 2,000 people living on several farms nearer 
Pretoria. 

(7269) c 



34 THE NAflVl:] TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



Kckaan Section. 

The majority of the people belonging to this section are 
located in the Zoutpansberg and Waterberg districts, in the 
description of which a sketch of their history will be found. 

In this division they are represented by one tribe of some 
1, 800 souls, under the chief Karel Kekaan, who lives at the 
farm T^eeuwkraal, Hamanskraal District. 

Bahwaduba Section. 

Mhwaduba, the first leader of this section seems to have 
avoided quarrelling with his brothers, and to have settled 
peacefully with his people at Wonderboom Poort, where they 
lived for many years. They then moved to Bultfontein, in 
the north-east part of the Pretoria district, where they were 
attacked by Moselikatse, who carried away many of the people 
besides much cattle. After the departure of Moselikatse 
they re-assembled at a spot since allotted to them by the Boer 
Government as Zwaartbooi's location — adjoining the location of 
the Bakhatla-Bamosetla. The chiefs and people have inter- 
married freely with the Bakhatla, and have lost all traces of 
their Zulu origin. 

The present chief is Amos Mathibe (native name Lipunu) 
who has nearly 3,000 people in Hamanskraal and some 300 in 
Pretoria District. 

Nzutiza ('■ MapokKs ") Section. 

For a full description of this tribe see "the Eastern Division." 
The small section under the chief Fene Mahlangu, dwelling 
at Bultfontein, Hamanskraal, split from the main tribe when 
it was attacked by Moselikatse, and first moved to the 
Waterberg. After a number of years' residence there they 
moved to their present location, which was finally allotted to 
them by the Boer Government. 

Mixed Tribe under Paledi Mathibe. 

l"he chief Paledi Mathibe, who has a mixed following of 
over 5,000 people in Pretoria district, belongs to a tribe called 
Bantwane, which is akin to the Maloi people of Sekukuniland, 
who are said to be descended from a tribe of the same name 
in Basutoland. Early in the 19th century the Bantwane dwelt 
in the Waterberg, whence, being scattered by Moselikatse, they 
moved to north of Pietersburg. They returned southward 
about the time of the arrival of the Boer Voor-trekkers and 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 35 

for some years lived on good terms with the latter. When the 
Boers, however, wished to capture a Bakhatla chief, father of 
the present Skep Maluka, the Bantwane harboured him, thereby 
incurring the enmity of the Boers, and when a few years later 
they refused to join the Republican commandos in the cam- 
paign against the Bapedi, the Boers attacked them, whereupon 
the Bantwane fled to Sekukuni. After the conclusion of the 
Sekukuni war they were allowed to occupy their present 
location, where they have since dwelt. The people now under 
Paledi Mathibe include representatives of a variety of tribes, 
chiefly of Bechuana or Basuto extraction. 

Unclassified Natives. 

No attempt has been made to classify the large native 
population of Heidelberg district, as they are not formed into 
regular tribes and have no chiefs in authority over them. 

Most of the Transvaal tribes are represented here, being 
descended either from fugitives from Moselikatse's raids or 
from "indentured" servants, whom the Boers captured in wars 
with various tribes and distributed throughout the country. 

The term *' Oorlamsch " is applied to the descendants of the 
slaves of the Zulu and other invaders, who were in some cases 
taken over by the Boers. These people are mostly found in 
the towns and villages. They are all able to speak Cape 
Dutch, and there are some clever artizans and mechanics among 
them. 

Present Condition of Tribes. 

The natives of these districts, having been for many years in 
contact with white people, have acquired a certain amount of 
civilisation ; many of them wear clothes, and the use of ploughs 
and modern agricultural implements is common among them. 

In the large locations most of the natives have been con- 
verted to Christianity, either by European missions or by 
emissaries of the Ethiopian Church, who are active amongst 
the tribes. The Native Commissioner, in his last annual report, 
considers that the moral improvement of natives due to 
" conversion " is not very apparent. The " Ethiopian " 
preachers are said to be inclined "to introduce irrelevant 
subjects touching on politics " into their general teaching, which 
cannot but unsettle the natives. 

During 1904 a faction-fight took place between two sections 

(7269) c 2 



36 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

of the Bakhatla, under the chief Skep Maluka and chieftainess 
Lehau respectively, in which two men were killed and 30 
wounded. Lehau has in consequence since been removed to 
the Waterberg Division. In June of the same year there was 
also a dispute amongst the followers of the chief Nyumba 
Mabena, some of whom wished to have a headman named 
Makerran as their chief. This has, however, been satisfactorily 
settled. 

With these exceptions the tribes have given no trouble to 
the Administration and have been generally obedient to 
authority. 

The present distribution of tribes in this division is shown in 
the following table : — 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



37 



a 
!2 

11 
o 

a, 
E 

3 

2 


Li-. 

IS 
u 

o 

c 

1 

_u 
')^ 

Q 
o 


" Sjamhokstad," Hoek- 

fontein, 394. 
Scattered. 
Schildpadfontein. 
Scattered. 
Bultfontein. 
Scattered. 
Makapanstad (Goedge- 

waagd). 
Scattered. 




1% 


Scattered. 

Kwarrieslaagte, 356. 
Tambootie Laagte. 
Doornpoort. 




Pretoria 

Hamanskraal 

do. 
Pretoria 
Hamanskraal 
Pretoria 
Hamanskraal 

Pretoria 




c 

E 


Pretoria 

do 

Hamanskraal 
do. 






00 ro 
"^ 


tT N OS on 
Oi U^OO 

to 


[l4 


ooLotJioooQ 1 
ro r^ N •-■ " ' 




88 


180 
1,000 

125 

200 


\ 
00 




Chief. 


Mumise Motsipe 

_ a/ias Sjambok ... 
Robert Mupi, native name 
Sibis 

Skep Maluka 

Solomon Makapan 

j" Jonathan Otto Mamok- 
-| hali More (Rustenburg 
( district) 


6 
S 

g 
■3 

t 

w 

c 

r! 

E 

•o 

CS 


rula 

Headman Obed More 
Headman Daniel Mamok- 


hali 

Paledi Mathibi 

/Mashung 

,Jempc Namane 






Basuto Tribes. 
Bakhatla (Bamakau) ... 
do. (Mutsha) ... 

do. do. 

do. (Bamosetla)... 

Bakwena (Bamakhopa) 






Baralong, Bakwena, 
andBapedi 

Bapedi 





38 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



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CHAPTER IV. 

THE TRIBES OF THE WATERBERG, OR NORTH- 
WESTERN DIVISION. 

There are 61,138 natives in this division, distributed as 
follows : — 

Piet Potgietersiust District ... 35,965 
Warmbaths District ... ~1 

Nylstroom District ... J o^ ' j 

61,138 

The majority of these people are of Zulu extraction, and of 
the Zulu tribes here found, these descended from Kekaan, the 
son of Musi {see Central Division) are the most numerously 
represented. 

Kekaan Tribes. 

The two principal branches of this family are those at 
present under the chiefs Shikwane and Valtyn Makapan 
respectively, of which the former has the larger following. 
These two chiefs are descended from two great grandsons of 
the original Kekaan, who fought for the chiefship of their 
section of Musi's tribe. The fight apparently took place at or 
near the site of the present Zebedela's Location, some thirty 
miles south-east of Piet Potgietersrust, which is still occupied 
by Shikwane, his ancester Khupa having defeated and driven 
away his brother Khaba. The latter after his defeat moved 
with a portion of the tribe to a place a few miles north-west of 
Piet Potgietersrust, where his descendant, Valtyn Makapan, now 
dwells. This Makapan must not be confused with Solomon 
Makapan, the Bakhatla chief of Pretoria District, with whom he 
is in no way connected. 

Shikwane has nearly 10,000 people, and Makapan over 
9,000. 



40 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

Of the same family also are the two petty chiefs, William 
Maraba and Charlie Eland, who live round the locality known 
as Makapan's Gat, about twenty miles east of Piet Potgietersrust, 
with a joint following of some 4,000 souls. 

It is not known when or why they left the main tribe. 

This branch of the Kekaan tribe is called by the natives 
Letwaba, and three other sections of it are found in the 
Pietersburg District under the chieftainess Mashashaan and the 
chiefs Jack Eland and Jonathan Maraba. 

Mapela Tribes. 

Next to the Kekaan tribes in numbers and importance are 
the people under Hans Masibi and Hendrik Backeberg Masibi, 
whose locations are contiguous to and immediately north-west 
of that of Valtyn Makapan. These people used to be called 
the Bamapela when the Boers came first to the Transvaal, after 
a chief who died about 1825 ; they are also known as the 
" Black Matabele " in order to distinguish them from the 
people of Musi, previously noticed, with whom they have no 
connection. There is not much doubt that they belong to the 
original Zulu stock, or that, in about 1600 a.d., their 
ancestors were settled somewhere near the present Leydsdorp, 
though whether, as some say, they were dropped there by the 
original Bantu immigrants on their way south, or whether they 
subsequently moved up from the direction of Zululand, is not 
clear. Be this as it may, their forefathers settled in the 
Transvaal long before the rise of Chaka in Zululand, and it is 
therefore probable that they were the first people of Zulu 
extraction to take up their abode in this colony. 

The name of the chief under whom they settled at 
Leydsdorp was Langa (" The Sun "), after whom these tribes 
are still sometimes called " the people of Langa." This chief 
moved with his tribe across the Woodbush Mountains and 
dwelt on the Pietersburg Plateau for many years. Mapela, 
from whom the tribe takes its name, who was the sixth in 
descent from Langa, and became chief towards the end of the 
1 8th century, led the people southward from Pietersburg 
to their present location. He died in 1825. Under his 
successor, the Bamapela, together with Makapan's people, 
suffered severely at the hands of the Boers in retaliation for 
their treacherous massacre of a party of emigrants in 1854, 
and in 1858 the Boers again severely chastised them. (See 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 4I 

" Native Wars.") In 1877, Masibi became chief; it was after 
his death, by suicide, in 1890, that the tribe spht up into its 
present two sections under his two sons Hans and Hendrik 
Backeberg Masibi. These two could not agree, so both were 
recognised as chiefs by the Government, and the tribe and 
location divided between them. 



Present Condition of Tribes. 

The tribes of this division have always had a reputation for 
turbulence and treachery, and they are still somewhat sullen in 
their demeanour. Shikwane's tribe is the only one in the 
Transvaal which is officially suspected of having concealed 
rifles at the time of the general disarmament in 1903. 

Valtyn Makapan is a quiet man, but has not much influence 
as a chief. 

The Mapela people appear to have acquired a respect for 
the Boers, owing to the severe lessons taught them by the 
latter in bygone days, for not only did they systematically 
assist the Boers during the war 1899- 1902, but Hans Masibi 
actually waged war against Valtyn Makapan, owing to the 
latter's pro-British proclivities. Hans Masibi is a brutal and 
depraved chief, much addicted to drink, very cruel and greatly 
feared by his tribe. He is, however, a strong man, and has 
his tribe well in hand. After the late war he was sent to 
Pretoria, and kept under observation there for six months, and 
this treatment may shortly have to be repeated. 

Backeberg Masibi has all the vices of his brother, but lacks 
Hans' strength of mind and personality. 

These people, though naturally a fine race, are deteriorating 
through drink and disease. They are somewhat discontented, 
and would probably need but little provocation to give trouble, 
and the intricate and broken nature of the portion of the 
Waterberg which they inhabit might render their chastisement 
a matter of some difficulty. 

The emissaries of the " Ethiopian " and other Churches have 
been active among them of late years, and to their teaching 
may no doubt be attributed the unsatisfactory bearing of the 
natives. Of the native churches, the Native Commissioner of 
the division says in his report for 1904 : "Their teachings are 
a travesty of Christianity, and tend to become nothing less 
than rabid political organisations." That Christianity has not 
made much impression on them is apparent from the fact that 



42 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

polygamy is far more prevalent among these people than 
among most other tribes. 

Their occupations are stock raising and agriculture, but their 
cattle have suffered considerably from Rhodesian Redwater. 
Their crops are 75 per cent. Kaffir corn, the remainder being 
mealies. Their methods of cultivation are still very primitive. 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



43 









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a's Location, 
west of Pie 
tersrust. 

n's Gat, east o 
Potgietersrust. 

do. 
i Location, north 
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west 1 


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CHAPTER V. 

THE TRIBES OF THE ZOUTPANSBERG, OR 
NORTHERN DIVISION. 

The total native population of this, the largest division of the 
Transvaal, was found by the census of 1904 to be 321,615, 
distributed as follows in the various Districts : — 



Haenertsburg District ... 
Pietersburg District 
Spelonken District 
Shiwas or Sibasa District 
Blauwberg District 


■■ 56,750 
.. 71,219 
.. 104,642 
•• 69,753 
•• 19.251 


Total 

The tribes represented are, in order 
and importance : — 

I. Basuto, 
II. Bavefida, 
III. Sha?igaa?i, 
IV. Zuht, 


.. 321,615 
of numerical strength 

and 



of which the two first-named could each probably muster about 
30,000 able-bodied male representatives, and the third about 
half that number. The Zulu tribes form a very small pro- 
portion of the whole, and are found only in the Pietersburg 
District. Their fighting men total some 2,000 only. 

About 12,000 of the total number of adult males are now 
usually away in other districts, at work in mines, in towns, etc. 
This number is likely to increase 

A small clan of half-castes, the " Buys People," also exists in 
this division, and some families of Bushmen, called Vaalpens, 
lead a nomadic existence in the remotest portions of the 
Blauwberg District. 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 45 



I. The Basuto Tribes. 

There are a number of tribes in this division who call 
themselves Basuto, and the majority of them have a far better 
title to the name than the tribes known by it in other parts of 
the Transvaal, for their traditions chiefly point to their having 
come either from the north or from Basutoland, and contain 
no proofs of a direct connection with the Bechuana families of 
the Baralong, Baharutsi, etc., from which many of the other 
so-called Basuto are descended. 

It may thus be conjectured that the forbears of these people, 
though no doubt of the same section of the original Bantu as 
the Bechuana, and as the other " Basuto " tribes descended 
from them, left the parent tribe at an earlier date than any of 
the latter, so that their descendants may be considered to 
represent a distinct ' nation, fairly homogeneous in language, 
traditions and customs, of which all the branches call them- 
selves Basuto. The exact connection between these Transvaal 
Basuto and those of Basutoland cannot be definitely deter- 
mined, nor is it known for certain whether the latter are indeed, 
as is generally supposed, descended from an offshoot of the 
Bechuana-Baralong family {see " Western Division ") ; but in any 
case the tribes now under consideration would appear to be 
the elder branch, and can thus claim to be the original 
Basuto. 

Two-thirds of the Basuto of the Northern Division inhabit the 
districts of Pietersburg and Haenertsburg ; the remainder being 
about equally divided between the Blauwberg and Spelonken 
districts. 

In character they resemble the Basuto of other parts, being 
distinguished by cunning rather than by bravery in war, and 
preferring to achieve their ends by diplomacy rather than by 
hard fighting. A reference to the account of the native wars 
waged by the late Republic will show that none of the Basuto 
tribes* ever offered very serious resistance when attacked by 
the Boers. They are, however, of considerable intelligence, and 
readily assimilate modern and civilised ideas to their own 
advantage. They use more ploughs in cultivation than the 
other tribes, and may be generally described as progressive in 
their ideas. In physique they are well-built, though not so tall 
and powerful as Zulus and Shangaans. 

* Malahokh's tribe in ihc l^lauwberg is said to he of Baharutse extraction. 



46 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

The tribal organisation is maintained by the Basuto, and 
they have several powerful chiefs, who will be alluded to later. 

Language. — Various dialects of the Sesuto language are 
spoken by these tribes, but the people of the different clans are 
able readily to understand each other. 

The Ba-Molechi are said to speak the purest form of 
Sesuto, or at any rate the oldest, the language of Basutoland 
having probably become affected by that of the neighbouring 
tribes of the coast group. 

The dialect of the Bakwebo (Mojaji's people) differs most 
from the original tongue, as it contains a considerable 
admixture of "Sivenda," the Bavenda language. 

The Bapedi tribes speak the Sepedi dialect of Sekukuni- 
land. 

The Sesuto seems on the whole a strong language, as it is 
being more and more adopted by the tribes of Zulu descent 
who live among the Basuto. 

The principal Basuto tribes found in the Zoutpansberg are 
the following : — 

The Ba-Molechi (MaHtzi's) ... In Pietersburg district. 
The Bakoni tribe ... ... In Pietersburg, Haenerts- 

burg and Blauwberg 
districts. 
The Batokwa tribe ... ... In Pietersburg district. 

The Bakwebo tribe ... ... In Haenertsburg district. 

The Banareng or Banareni tribe In Haenertsburg district. 
The Bahananwa (Malabokh's) 

tribe... ... ... ... In Blauwberg district. 

The Mutalerwa tribe ... ... In Pietersburg and Haen- 

ertsburg districts. 
Portions of several of the above tribes also inhabit the 
Spelonken district. 

Sections of the Bapedi In Pietersburg and Haen- 

ertsburg districts. 

The larger of these tribes have various subdivisions, and as 
they are not all of the same origin, it will be necessary to 
consider each tribe separately. 

The following historical notes are a pricis of the information 
concerning these tribes, which has been obtained from all 
available sources. 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 47 

The Bamoli'chi or Malitzi's Tribe. 

This tribe numbers over 19,000 souls in Malitzi's Location, 
some fifteen miles north-west of the town of Pietersburg, 
besides a number in the Spelonken. It is a conglomeration of 
a number of small clans — the Manamela, Komapies, Malekos, 
etc., ruled over by chiefs belonging to a family called 
Batlhaloga. The Batlhaloga originally came to the Zoutpans- 
berg from the direction of Basutoland and subdued the other 
tribes whom they found in possession of the tract of country 
which they now inhabit, early in the 19th century. It is 
not certain whence the latter came, but as the crocodile 
(kwene) is their national totem, it is possible that they are an 
off-shoot of the Bakwena {see Western Division). This, however, 
is not clearly proved or generally accepted as a fact, and they 
may have been there since tiie original Bantu invasion from the 
north. In any case, both in language and customs they differ 
from the Bechuana tribes far more than from the Basuto of 
Basutoland, and it therefore seems right to class them as true 
Basuto. 

Moselikatse attacked the tribe in the course of his northern 
raids, but does not seem to have been successful, as, unlike 
most of the other tribes, the Bamolechi were not dispersed in 
consequence of his visitation, and appear to have occupied the 
same locality peacefully ever since. 

The present ruler of the tribe is Seripa, whose family name 
is Moloto. He is acting for his nephew, named Sirin, a minor 
about fifteen years of age. Seripa is about forty-five years old, 
an intelligent, quiet and civilised man, and well-disposed 
towards the Government. His tribe is reckoned one of the 
most powerful in the northern Transvaal, but no trouble is 
apprehended with it, as the people are well-behaved and 
contented, and they evinced strong British sympathies during 
the war 1899-1902. 

The Bakoni Tribe. 

The several sections of this tribe all spring from common 
ancestors, who, at an early period, migrated southwards from 
the Zambezi. Keeping near the coast at first, they entered the 
Transvaal by way of Palabora, in the " low country," where 
they dwelt for some time, but eventually shifted further west, 
one portion of the tribe going to the Middelburg district, 



48 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

another to the Bokhaha country near Leydsdorp, while the 
third and largest portion moved to the present Matala's Location 
in Pietersburg district. The descendants of these three 
portions of the tribe respectively are now found as follows : — 

In the Haenertsburg district : 

The Maake Section. — This is supposed to be the elder 
branch of the Bakoni, and is called after the name of its first 
chief, who lived in the Bokhaha district near Leydsdorp. The 
first Maake was succeeded by his daughter Maale, who, about 
1858, moved the whole tribe to the east bank of the Thabina, 
near its source. There she became subject to the Nuku tribe. 
Maale died about 1876, and soon after this, owing to internal 
quarrels, a portion of the tribe joined Mojaji's people, while the 
remainder stayed where they now are. I'hey liave been there 
since 1858, and number 3,800 in all. During the late Anglo- 
Boer war Maake, the present chief, assisted by Mohlaba, a 
Shangaan chief, repulsed an attack made on them by 
Sekororo. 

The Rev. E. Thomas, of the Swiss Mission, has lived amongst 
these people since 1886 and has imparted a certain amount of 
education to them. 

Lekhali's Section. — A junior branch of the Bakoni tribe, about 
which not much is known. Their present location, fifteen miles 
north-west of Haenertsburg, was formerly occupied by Makhuba's 
tribe. They number about 2,300 souls. The present chief is 
nineteen years old, is considered unreliable and is much disliked 
by his own people, who are leaving him in numbers. 

Mahiipa's Section. — A part of the original Bakoni, first heard 
of as coming from the Bokhaha to their present location, 
" Duivel's Kloof." They have a warlike reputation, and in 1858 
fought and defeated the Shangaans. After this they also repulsed 
an attack made on them by Mojaji, to whom they, alone of the 
neighbouring tribes, refused to be tributary. Mahupa, the 
present chief, is the same who rebelled against the Boers in 
1894 ; when defeated by them he fled to Mashonaland, and only 
returned in 1902. The tribe is now living on various farms, the 
property of settlers, and its men, women and children total 2,600. 

A number of people of this tribe also live in Sekukuniland. 
i^See Eastern Division.) 

In Pietersburg and Blauwberg districts :• — 

Matala's or Matlala's Section. — Matala is the hereditary name 
of the chiefs by descent of this tribe. The last rightful bearer 
of the name died in about 1900, but his eldest son (also named 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 49 

Matala, now twenty years of age) is of weak intellect and not 
considered fit to be chief, so the power is now exercised by 
Selaki, brother of the late chief, on behalf of a younger son of 
the latter who is still a minor, fifteen years old. Selaki is much 
addicted to drink, but seems to manage the tribe satisfactorily. 
He is about forty-five, of a quiet disposition, and very friendly 
towards Europeans. His people number about 9,000 in the 
Pietersburg and nearly 5,000 in the Blauwberg district. 

These took no part in the late war. They are believed to 
be well-disposed towards the present Government, but should 
they ever be disposed to give trouble, " Matala's Location " 
would lend itself to defence, being surrounded by high hills and 
well watered inside. 

The petty chiefs Mtiba, Klein Mtiba, and Kukuna Lekhali in 
the Pietersburg district also belong to this section of the Bakoni. 
They could muster about 600 fighting men between them. 

The Batokwa or Batlokiva Tribe. 

The early history of these people is touched upon in the 
description of the tribes of the western division. If the theor>' 
there put forward, that they were originally a part of the Mako- 
lolo, be correct, it follows that they must have arrived in the 
Transvaal between 1820 and 1824, as the latter year was the 
date of the conquest of Barotseland by the Makololo. Their 
first settlement in this colony is said to have been not far from 
the present Matok's location in the Pietersburg district, and the 
name of their chief at the time of their arrival was Musima. 
His successor Kunwane divided the tribe between his two sons 
Serani and Ramakhupa from whom Masanyane (known as 
Matok) and Ramakhupa, the present chiefs of the Pietersburg 
and Spelonken sections of the tribe respectively, are descended. 

In about 1855 the tribe, owing to pressure from the Boers, 
migrated to Sekukuni's country, but returned about twenty 
years later. Trouble between the two sections ensued which 
was settled in 1879 by Sir Theophilus Shepstone's deciding 
that the two chiefs should henceforth be recognized as inde- 
pendent of each other. This arrangement has since continued 
in force, and Matok and Ramakhupa and their people still live 
in the locations then allotted to them, viz., Matok at Matokwa 
Kopjes, immediately south of the Dwars river in Pietersburg 
district on the border of Spelonken district, and Ramakhupa in 
the latter district a few miles to the eastward. Matok has 

(7269) D 



50 TIIK NATIVE TRIHKS OF THE TRANSVAAL, 

over 6,000 people, and Ramakhupa's following is also con 
siderable. 

The people of Klein Makhato, who are of the Tau tribe, 
some 1,500 in number, in the Pietersburg district, appear to give 
allegiance to Matok and are therefore mentioned here. 

The Bakwebo Tribe. 

Mo/ajt's Section. — This tribe is said to have crossed to the 
south of the Limpopo about 200 years ago. The strongest sub- 
division of it is under the chieftainess Mojaji, whose prede- 
cessors originally ruled the whole tribe. . 

The name Mojaji is passed on to the successive chieftainesses, 
the present one, Mojaji Seselwaan, being the third consecutive 
bearer of that name. 

The first Mojaji was a light-coloured, good-looking woman 
and probably had some European blood in her veins. There 
is a tradition that a European adventurer on a raid from Portu- 
guese territory once made an unsuccessful attempt to carry her 
off, and that owing to this she would never again allow any white 
people to see her. This gave rise to various stories about 
Mojaji, on some of which it is said Rider Haggard's She was 
based. She died in 1830. 

Mojaji II. was a noted character among natives throughout 
South Africa. She was especially renowned as a "rain-maker" 
and on one occasion an embassy from the Zulu king came to 
her bringing presents to entreat her to " make rain." On the 
occasion of an invasion of locusts forty or more years ago, a 
similar entreaty was made by the Zulus. She was undoubtedly 
clever and capable, though of a bloodthirsty and cruel dis- 
position. She lived in polyandry with her councillors, and the 
chief husband for the time being was also "prime minister," 
but he and her other husbands were generally murdered as soon 
as they displeased her. All civilisation was forbidden and witch- 
doctors flourished in her dominions. 

In 1888, when the Boers began to settle in proximity to her, 
Mojaji was openly hostile, and her followers burnt a number of 
farms and murdered some of the white inhabitants. The Boer 
Government, however, made a semi-peace with Mojaji which 
lasted till 1894, when the tribe again became hostile. This 
time a commando was sent to bring her to terms. There was 
no fighting, but the tribe was compelled to live in a defined 
location. General Joubert, who was with the commando, had 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 5 1 

Mojaji brought to his laager with the intention of taking her to 
Pretoria, but she was so old and infirm that, at the intercession 
of Mr. Reuter, the missionary, she was left behind. This was, 
however, the first occasion on which Mojaji was seen by a 
European. Sir 'V. Shepstone wished to see her in 1880 but 
was shown her half-sister Madokane instead, who was usually 
produced on such occasions. 

The present chieftainess succeeded Mojaji II. and is known 
as Mojaji Seselwaan. She is a light-coloured woman, about 
twenty-five years of age, and is married to a man named Mokoto. 
by whom she has an infant son. She has but little power, her 
husband being practically head of the tribe, which is over 14,000 
strong. These people, being far removed from civilised centres, 
are wilder than most Basuto tribes, but have been well-behaved 
since the annexation and show no signs of giving trouble. 

The country inhabited by them is an irregular strip, whose 
western limit is a line from the Koodoo's river southward to the 
Woodbush mountains ; thence it extends east to the Portuguese 
border along the Great Letaba river, which forms its southern 
boundary. 

Sekhopo Section. — These people take their name from one of 
the early chiefs of the Mojaji tribe, of which they are an off- 
shoot. Their history has been uneventful. The present chief, 
named Mamakubi Sekhopo, rules over some 1,700 people. 
He is about thirty-five years of age and resides near Buffels. 

Mamabolo Section (called Li-Kulube = wild boars). The 
present chief is Situmela Mamabolo. This tribe is supposed 
to haves plit from Mojaji's about the year 1800 and settled on 
the Thabina river under a chief named Manamele. Some of 
them wandered to the Lydenberg district but returned to the 
'Woodbush in 1830 and after some more vicissitudes the tribe 
was placed in a location by the Boers in 1897. The chief 
nominally also has under him the Woodbush and Haenertsburg 
mountain people, who together with his own tribe number about 
4,000 souls. 

Khupa Section. — This is a portion of Mamaholo's people, 
inhabiting the Drakensberg range between Haenertsberg and 
the Olifants river. It is a clan of no importance, numbering 
less than 400 people. A dispute is in progress as to who is the 
rightful chief. 

Miikhuhua Section. — As far as can be judged, this clan, 
which lives on the Thabina, is the original portion of the 
Mamabolo tribe, which settled there in 1800 and has since 

(7269) D 2 



52 THE NATIVE TRIIJES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

remained there. The present chief is named Raseke 
Mukhubua, and has about 3,000 people under him. 

The Ba-Nareng or Ba-Nareni Tribe. 

The Ba-Nareng are said to have entered the Transvaal from 
the north. The main body of the tribe moved straight to the 
Haenertsburg district, and is now found in three sections, 
Sekororo's, MamatoUa's and Selebul's. 

A small portion remained in the Blauwberg, where their 
descendants are now subject to Malabokh. 

Sekororo's Section. — This section of the Banareng numbers 
3,000 people, who live in the "Low Country" between the 
Selati and Olifants Rivers. The chief kraal is called Makutje. 
The name Sekororo has descended from chief to chief. 
This fact, together with that of the chief never being seen by 
the common people, and the death of the reigning chief never 
being announced, has given rise to the superstition that 
Sekororo is immortal. He is also credited with rain-making 
and other supernatural powers. 

The present Sekororo has been head of the tribe only a 
short time, his father and predecessor having died at the 
beginning of 1904. The real power is in the hands of one 
Gwariamutsi, a grandson of the late chief by another wife. 

The Sekororo family is related by marriage to Sekukuni, who 
persuaded them during the late war to attack the tribes under 
Mohlaba and Maake, because the latter had given protection 
to Mafefe, who had fled from Sekukuni. 

MamatoUa's or Mamathlole' s Section. — This branch of the 
Banareng tribe lives on the hills round New Agatha, and is 
believed to have a common ancestry with the Sekororo people. 
The earliest chief spoken of by the tribe was named 
Sekukunuku. Their history has been a warlike one. They 
obtained their present place of residence by driving out its 
former inhabitants — another Basuto tribe — and in 1840 
succeeded in repelling an attack by one of MoseUkatse's impis. 
Some years after this the Swazis fell upon them and killed 
their chief Ramatau. There was much internal fighting and 
bloodshed in the tribe till all factions united to join Makhuba 
in his rebellion against the Boers in 1894. Mamatolla, the 
present chieftainess, who had been at the head of the tribe 
since 1884, was captured by the Boers and imprisoned till the 
British occupation in 1900, when she was allowed to return to 



THE NATIVK TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 53 

her country. The people have rallied round her to the 
number of nearly 4,000, .so that she now rules a tribe of some 
importance compared with the smaller surrounding clans, and 
though an old woman, exercises considerable influence. 

Most of the land on which Mamatlola's people live has lately 
been cut up and given out to settlers, but the natives have 
made but little opposition to this. 

Selehul Section. — The least important section of the Banareng 
tribe, resident some twenty miles north of New Agatha, scattered 
over a number of farms. 

Their first chief was called Selebul or Tsolobolo, and was 
the second son of the chief Sekukunuku above mentioned. 
Two chiefs, named Selebul and Mahabata, joined in Makhuba's 
rebellion in 1894, and were imprisoned in Pretoria in conse- 
quence. Selebul died in prison in i8g6. Mahabata was 
released and now rules under the name of Selebul. He has 
about 1,000 people in all. 

The Bakhanainva {JMalabokJis) Tribe. 

It is said that these people are descended from the 
Baharutse branch of the Bechuana nation, and that their 
ancestors were brought by the first recorded chief of the tribe, 
named Lebokho, from Bechuanaland to the Blauwberg, where 
the Bakhananwa still dwell. Their totem is the " chuene " 
(baboon) but they also reverence the duiker. 

There are two divisions of the tribe at the present day, 
respectively ruled over by the chiefs Malabokh and Kivi, who 
are descended from two different wives of Lebokho's immediate 
successor. Of the two sections, Malabokh's is by far the most 
important. 

The split in the tribe dates back to the early years of the 
nineteenth century, during which a long continued struggle for 
supremacy took place between Mathome and Ramatho, the 
then chiefs of the two sections. At last, in about 1834, 
Mathome, with the assistance of Matala's and the Mapela tribes, 
killed Ramatho and many of his people, whereupon Maloko, 
son of Ramatho, invoked the aid of the Boer Voortrekkers, who 
arrived in the Zoutpansberg soon after this time. The Boers 
were willing to assist but were driven back by Mathome, so 
Maloko's section settled in the eastern extremity of the Blauw- 
berg, leaving Mathome in possession of the western and more 
fertile portion of the range. 



54 TIIK NATIVK TRIIJKS OF THF, TRANSVAAL. 

Mathome died in 1880 and was succeeded by his son 
Khamush, the present Malabokh. Kivi, who is now chief of 
the other section, is Maloko's son. 

In 1894 the Boers waged war on Malabokh, and Kivi, 
seeing an opportunity to avenge his grandfather, actively 
assisted them. As is related in the account of native wars, 
Malabokh's tribe suffered severely in the operations, and 
Malabokh himself was captured and imprisoned in Pretoria, 
being released only on the British occupation in 1900. 

As a natural consequence, Kivi did all he could to assist the 
Boers during the late war, while Malabokh's people strongly 
sympathised with the British cause. The enmity between the 
two sections is still passively maintained, and Kivi is a strong 
pro-Boer, while Malabokh, being grateful for his release from 
captivity in 1900, is thoroughly loyal. He is about forty-five 
years of age, partly educated, and has great influence over his 
tribe ; he also has a reputation as a " rain-maker." His son 
Mabea is about twenty-five years old, has been educated at the 
local mission, and can speak and write English. Malabokh's 
people number nearly 8,000. 

Kivi is about the same age as Malabokh. He is a drunken, 
low character, unpopular with his own people. His following 
amounts to about 1,500 only. 

The Bakhananwa generally may be described as an 
intelligent and progressive people of fair physique naturally. 
This is, however, becoming impaired by venereal disease, 
which is very prevalent among them. But in spite of this, a 
rapid increase in their numbers may be looked for, as members 
of the tribe, scattered in 1894, are constantly returning to 
Malabokh, The Blauwberg range is a natural fortress of great 
strength, but it is considered unlikely that these people will give 
trouble again. 

There is a branch of the Hermansburg Mission on the farm 
Leipzig 107 1 in the Blauwberg, the Rev. R. Franz in charge. 
The missionary is not popular with Malabokh or with British 
people in the district, but undoubtedly does much good 
among the natives by maintaining a hospital, only slightly 
subsidised by the Government, where natives are treated for a 
nominal fee. 

The Alutaknva Tribe. 

In this are included the followings of the chiefs Molepo, 
]\Iatabata, and Makhuba, besides the adherents of several petty 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OE THE TRANSVAAL. 55 

chiefs. These were originally all one tribe, and about 
150 years ago lived near Woodbush on the site of the present 
Lekhali's Location. Early in the nineteenth century the tribe 
split into the three sections above mentioned, who then moved 
to their present locations. 

In 1894, at the time of the Boers' campaign against 
Malabokh, Makhuba led a general revolt of the Basuto tribes 
in the Haenertsburg district. He paid dearly for his temerity, 
however, as General Joubert, the Boer Commandant-General, 
let loose a Swazi impi upon the tribes, and Makhuba himself 
was slain with many men, women and children of the tribe. 
His daughter now rules the tribe ; she is about twenty-one 
years of age (1905) and in her youth worked as a servant 
in a Boer family. The tribe numbers about 1,500 in all, and 
lives scattered over various farms in tlie Haenertsburg 
district. 

Molepo's section is the most important, numbering over 
6,000 people, and Nkwane and Mojapelo, who are sub-chiefs 
under him, together muster nearly 3,000 more. The present 
chief's real name is Moshia, and he and the above live in 
JNIolepo's Location in Pietersburg district. 

Matabata has 1,000 people in Haenertsburg and about 
600 in Pietersburg district, and the petty chiefs Chuene 
and Maja, whose joint following amounts to about 1,000, are 
also in the latter district, affiliated to the Mutalerwa tribe. 

The Bakhaha Tribe 

This is a branch of the great Bapedi tribe of Sekukuniland 
(see Eastern Division), and has several sections in the 
Zoutpansberg, of which the most important is that under 
Mpahlela, who with over 6,000 people, lives in a location in 
the south-east corner of the Pietersburg district, immediately 
north of the Olifants river. Though connected with Sekukuni 
by marriage, he has never been on good terms with him. He 
is a drunken and low class native, but is nevertheless 
considered one of the most important Basuto chiefs in the 
division. 

The only other sections of this tribe worth mentioning are 
both called Nuku. The first of these was formerly of some 
importance owmg to its connection with Sekukuni. But the 
latter chief fell upon it in 1901 and reduced it considerably, so 
that its people now number barely 1,200. The present chief, 



56 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

whose name is Mafefe, resides on the Magakal river in 
Haenertsburg district. 

The other section, under the chief Mamichi, a/ias Sekoko, 
numbers slightly over i,ooo and is located on the farm Stras- 
burg (167) on the north-east slope of the Drakensberg Range in 
the same district. 

With the exception of a few small clans, of whose history 
nothing is known, and which are of no importance, numerically 
or otherwise, all the Basuto tribes of the Zoutpansberg have 
now been noticed. 

The following is a summary of their numbers and 
distribution : — 



THE NATIVE TRIIU'.S OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



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THK XATIVK TRII'.KS OF TIIK TRANS\'AAL. 59- 



II. The Bavcnda Tribes. 

'lliis tribe, which is known to the Basuto as Batsuetla and is 
also often called Baramapulana or Makhato's tribe, is classed 
by Theal in his history as akin to the Basuto. Recent 
researches have shown that this assumption is incorrect as 
regards the tribe in general, which is now believed to belong to 
a separate division of the Bantu family, but it is understood to 
be a fact that the " royal family " or principal hereditary chiefs 
of the tribe are sprung from the Bakhatla and are therefore of 
Bechuana-Basuto race. 

The Bakhatla chief Tabane, known by the Bavenda as 
Davana (see genealogy of the Bakhatla in " Western Division "), 
is said to have migrated to the Zoutpansberg with a consider- 
able following, and from him the present chiefs are descended 
thus : — 

Tabane (Davana I.) 

I 
Davana II. 

I 
Vele I. 

I 
Toho-Ea-Ndu or Tohoyandwa. 

I 
Vele II. 



JMpefu. Shivasa I. 

I I 

Ramapulana. Ramarumo. 

I I 

Makhato. Shivasa II. 

I I 



Mpefu. (Present Sintimulla. Ramaramisa. (The Rampnta. 

chief.) present Shivasa. ) 

Makwarella (hereditary name Mpafuli or Pafuri) who is- 
chief of a considerable section of the tribe, has a different 
pedigree, being, it is said, descended from the Matabele 
chief Musi (see Central Division), one of whose sons also went 
north from the Pretoria district and established himself among 
the Bavenda. 

The Bavenda people, apart from the ruling families, are 
believed to have crossed to the south of the Limpopo about 
1700 A.I), and to have originally come from the valley of the 



60 THE NATIVE TRIBES OK THE TRANSVAAL. 

Congo. Before entering the Transvaal they probably made a 
long stay in Mashonaland, the country of the " Makalanga," 
and while there, seem to have come in contact with people of 
Arab extraction or other Semitic stock, for many individuals of 
the tribe at the present day show a strain of Semitic blood in 
their features. 

In manners and customs they differ somewhat from the other 
Bantu tribes, e.g., both men and women shave the whole of 
their heads, while the Basuto generally leave the crown of the 
head unshaven. 

The language of the Bavenda, which is called Sivenda, is not 
easily understood by other tribes, but appears to be a mixture 
of some form of Sesuto with Lukalanga, the speech of the 
Makalanga people. It is said that a tribe now living on the 
Congo speaks a very similar dialect. 

There are remnants of a tribe called Balemba among the 
Bavenda. These people are chiefly found in the Shivasa 
district ; they have rto chiefs of their own, but have distinct 
customs, which point to Semitic origin, e.g., they do not eat pork 
or the flesh of any animal killed by people of other tribes. 
They speak the Lukalanga language. 

The annals of the Bavenda only go back as far as 
Tohoyandwa (" Elephant-head "), who was third in descent 
from Tabane. This chief appears to have consolidated the 
tribe and to have raised it to considerable eminence ; his name 
is accordingly still venerated by the people. He first subjugated 
and practically exterminated a tribe called Bangona (which 
inhabited the country before the arrival of the Bavenda from 
the north) sparing only the priests, whose descendants are still 
a separate caste and engage in the worship of the spirits which 
they believe to inhabit the waterfalls of the Msunduzi river, 
near Sibasa. 

Tohoyandwa also conquered the Makalanga north of the 
Limpopo and several Basuto tribes to the south, who became 
his tributaries. He built a town named Dzada in the Njelele 
valley and established his headquarters there. Traces of this 
town still remain, and it is said that the stones of which it was 
built were brought from Mashonaland by the tributary 
Makalanga. The buildings resemble those of the famous 
Zimbabwe ruins in plan, and it is supposed that the latter 
served as a model to Tohoyandwa. 

On the death of this monarch the country was ruled jointly 
by his sons and peace prevailed for many years till Sekwati, 






THE NATIVK TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 6l 

chief of the Bapedi tribe, attacked the Bavenda and despoiled 
them of many cattle. The Bavenda, however, took refuge in 
the mountains, and when the Bapedi followed them there, drove 
them back with heavy loss. 

Shortly after this the Zulu incursions followed, and only 
owing to the inaccessibility of their mountain fastnesses did 
the Bavenda escape the fate of annihilation, suffered by so 
many Transvaal tribes at this time (1825-1835). After 
occupying the country for over two years, the Zulus left. 
Internal feuds followed which occasioned much bloodshed, 
until Ramapulana, with the assistance of the Boers, who had 
meanwhile appeared, obtained the chiefship. He did not 
reign long, however, and was succeeded by Makhato, under 
whom the Bavenda again became powerful. During the reign 
of Makhato the Boers sent two unsuccessful expeditions against 
them (1865) and, though the Bapedi, the Shangaans under 
Albasini, and the Swazis all attacked them at various times and 
inflicted some loss on them, they never admitted defeat. 

In 1898, however, the Boers broke up the Spelonken Section 
of the tribe and captured their stronghold on Makhato's 
Mountain near Louis Trichardt, whereupon Mpefu, the 
paramount chief, and many of his people, fled to Mashonaland. 
The Shivasa section of the Bavenda did not join in the 
fighting, having made an agreement with the Boers to hold 
aloof. The chief Sintimulla, however, actually sided with the 
Boers against Mpefu. The Bavenda who fled to Mashonaland 
have been gradually returning to the Zoutpansberg ever since 
the British annexation, but Mpefu himself was only allowed 
back in 1904 on condition that he would settle quietly in a 
new location to be given him. This was necessary, as the 
ground formerly occupied by him had for some years been in 
the possession of European settlers. Mpefu has accordingly 
been allotted a piece of ground some 60,000 acres in extent, 
about twenty-five miles north east of Louis Trichardt, and has 
now taken up his abode there. He is, both on account of his 
descent and through his own personality, the most influential 
chief of the Bavenda, and seems inclined to use his influence 
for good, probably owing to the fact that he has acquired a 
respect for white men after his experience at the hands of the 
Boers in 1898. 

A mixed lot of people about 5,000 in number, calling 
themselves Bavenda and living in the Blauwberg district, are also 
adherents of Mpefu. 



€2 THK NATIVE TRIHKS OK THE TRANSVAAL. 

Sintimulla, a brother of Mpefu's, is the only other Bavenda 
'Chief in the Spelonken. He has nominally a considerable 
following, but is not of much account personally in the tribe, 
having forfeited the confidence of the people by his behaviour 
in the war of 1898. 

In the Shivasa district are the powerful chiefs Ramaramisa 
(after whose hereditary name, Sibasa, the district is called), 
and Makwarella, who is also known by the name of his 
ancestor Pafuri. There are also in the same district a number 
of lesser chiefs, of whom Ramputa and Tengwe, who split 
from Sibasa recently, Lomondo, Madzibandela, Mgibi and 
Ntseauda are the principal. As stated above, these people 
took no part in the fighting in 1898, and have in fact never 
come into conflict with Europeans. They live in a wild and 
inaccessible part of the country abounding in rugged hills and 
jungles forming natural fastnesses, and having only recently 
being brought under Government control, are inclined to be 
somewhat independent. Their chiefs are, however, well 
■spoken of by the officials, who anticipate no trouble with the 
tribe. The difficult nature of their country would moreover 
be the only formidable factor to be reckoned with in a rising 
of the Bavenda, for they are by no means determined fighters, 
as has been shown by the very small number of casualties 
they sustained in their own internal wars. 

As might be expected from the remoteness of the locality 
which they inhabit, and the small amount of contact which 
they have had with civilised people, the Bavenda are by far the 
most unsophisticated of the Bantu tribes in the Transvaal, and 
the nearest approach to the primitive savage to be found in the 
Colony. 

The present distribution of the Bavenda is shown in the 
following table : 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



o 

■;o 

O 
o 


U 

o 

o 

o 

►J 


Twenty miles north-east 
of Louis Trichardt. 

No prominent chiefs in 
this district 

Seven miles west-south- 
west of Louis Tri- 
chardt. 

Two kraals near Shivasa, 
about twenty-five miles 
north-east of Mpefu's. 

Mbelo, fifteen miles 
south-east of Shivasa. 

Midway between Mpefu's 
■and Pafuri's. 

Near Shivasa. 

wScattered. 




Q 


Spelonken 

Blauwberg 
Spelonken 

Shivasa 

Shivasa 

Shivasa 

Shivasa 

Shivasa 




o 


O ^JD " '"O 0^ -^ cq li-i 
ro O ro i/^ 1-1 HH i-i U-, 
■Ln <-< za t^ •* 00 u-i M 

N w c^ « „ 


J3 OJ 


7,000 
1,200 
4,500 

6,500 

4,000 

800 

4,000 
1,500 


8 




Mpefu 

do 

Sintimulla a n d lesser 
chiefs 

Ramaramisa (Sibasa) 

Makwarella (Pafuri) 

Lomondo ... 

Raniputa and Tengwe 
Mgibi, Ntseauda and 
Madzibandela 




V , 




Bavenda 





64 THE NATIVE TRIIJES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

III. T/w Shangaan Tribes. 

Some representatives of these tribes are found in the 
eastern districts, but the bulk of them inhabit the Spelonken, 
Shivasa, and Haenertsburg. The name Shangaan is an 
abbreviation of Amachangana, meaning " the destroyers," 
which was originally applied to the predator^' hordes of 
Manukusa. Ma-gwamba, a name by which they are often 
known, was given to the Shangaans by the Bavenda and Basuto 
peoples on account of their habit of swearing by " Gwamba," 
who according to them was the first man created. They used 
also to be called " Knob-noses " from the custom of 
lacerating their faces, especially the nose, in such a manner as 
to produce a number of raised scars or knobs, but this practice 
is now dying out. 

These people are the descendants of some of the Aba-Gaza 
tribe which commenced to migrate northwards from Zululand 
about the year 1820. At this time the Zululand people had 
not yet been formed into the compact and formidable nation 
which they shortly afterwards became under the rule of Chaka, 
but some of the present Shangaan chiefs trace their descent 
from the Zulu royal house. The emigrant Abagaza had 
reached the Sabi River in Portuguese Territory, when in 1845 
they were attacked by the people under Manukusa, a Zulu 
chief who had also emigrated northwards, and many of them 
driven into the Transvaal, taking with them some of the Ba- 
Thonga tribe who seemed to have joined them en route. 
Though these have become merged in the Shangaans, the 
latter are sometimes called Bathonga themselves at the present 
time. Those that remained in Portuguese territory were sub- 
jugated and severely oppressed by the Zulus. 

The Spelonken branch of the Shangaans owes its existence 
to a Portuguese adventurer, named Joao Albasini, who, having 
come into the country a few years previously by way of 
Lydenburg, settled at Pisang Kop, near Louis Trichardt, in 
1 86 1, and having great influence with the natives, was appointed 
to the native Commissionership of the district by the Boer 
Government. He soon built up a regular chieftainship for 
himself, and having persuaded a number of the down-trodden 
Bathonga in Portuguese territory to come across the border and 
live under his protection, was before long the absolute ruler of 
a large and powerful tribe. The influx of Bathonga continued 
for the next ten years, during which time Albasini led his 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OE THE TRANSVAAL, 65 

people against the Bavenda, and engaged in various small 
wars with other tribes, which were at the time of frequent 
occurrence. Albasini was dismissed from the Boer Government 
service in 1868, but was recognised by the British administra- 
tion after the annexation of 1877 and apparently continued to be 
chief of the tribe till his death in 1885. Though he was an 
unscrupulous man, who had in many ways sunk to the level, of 
the native, there is no doubt that it was largely owing to his 
influence and ability that the Northern Transvaal was 
preserved to the white man. Members of his family are still 
resident in Pietersburg. 

Under the late Government the native Commissioner of the 
Spelonken was always considered chief of the Shangaans ex- 
officio, in consequence of which they had no regular chiefs in 
this district to this day, but are ruled by a number of 
Indunas, of whom there are 103 at present in the District. 

There are now over 41,000 Shangaans in the Spelonken and 
Shivasa districts under these Indunas. The latter, however, 
owe a sort of allegiance to Minga, who is nominally chief over 
them all. Minga is a very old man, but seems still to exercise 
a real influence over the people. His head kraal is some eighty 
miles from Louis Trichardt in a north-easterly direction, about 
thirty miles south of the Limpopo River, and is reached by the 
" Eastern Hunting Road." 

Mavamba, another considerable Shangaan chief, resides on 
the same road, about twenty miles short of Minga's kraal. He 
is a good type of his race, intelligent and very well disposed 
towards Europeans in general and the British in particular. 
In 1898 he assisted the Boers against Mpefu with 800 men,, 
who did excellent service. 

Sikundu, who resides between Minga and Mavamba, is 
perhaps the most influential Shangaan next to Minga. 

The above-mentioned chiefs are of some note, and resj)ected 
by the Shangaans, but the tribal system is not followed by 
these people, each small clan recognising only its own Induna 
or headman as its chief. 

In the Haenertsburg district there are two tribes of 
Shangaans : the Nkuna or Ba-Nkuna and the Baloyi, the first 
of which is by far the stronger and more important. 

Ba-Nuna Tribe. — Chief Mohlaba. Number of adult males 
in tribe about 1,500. 

The Ba-Nkuna, like the Shangaans of the Spelonken and 
Shivasa,.. migrated northwards from Zululand about 1830 and 

(7269) E 



66 T]\V: NATIVK TKIUF.S OV TIIK TRANSVAAL. 

first settled at Bik-ni, near the junction 'A' iht Limpopo and 
Olifants Rivers in Portuguese territory under a chief named 
Ripje. Manukusa with a Zulu Impi followed and defeated 
Ripje, but allowed him to remain where he was a tributary. 
Ripje was succeeded by Shiluvan or Silubana, father of the 
present chief. Manukusa wished to remove Silubana's people 
further north into Portuguese territory, but they fled via 
Komatipoort to near Leydsdorp in the Transvaal and settled 
under the protection of Maale's Basuto tribe in 1855. About 
1858 they moved to the headwaters of the Selati and remained 
there till 1868, when they were attacked by the Basuto tribes 
of Mafefe, Mukhubua, Sekororo and Maale. Silubana there- 
upon retired into Mojaji's territory and remained there till 1873. 
Albasini (known by the natives as "Juwawa") now wished 
him to join his people and attacked him when he refused, 
driving him back to Maale's country where he remained three 
years. While here, the tribe divided into two parties with one 
of which Silubana moved to the left bank of the Letsitele 
River, where he died in 1882. In 1886 the two parties 
reunited under Silubana's son Mohlaba. 

This chief is now about thirty-five years old. He is 
educated, progressive and trustworthy, and is universally liked 
and respected by his white neighbours. He joined the chief 
Maake in repelling an attack made on them by Sekororo in 
1901. 

His people are mostly found on the " Harmony Proprietary 
(Company's " farms, which lie between the Selati and Thabina 
Rivers and extend as far as the (Ireat Letaba. 

Baloyi Tribe. — Chief Mamitwa. Number of adult males in 
tribe about 500. 

This tribe formed a portion of the following of Manukusa 
and came from Zululand with him, settling at }]ileni in 
Portuguese territory. On Manukusa dying, his two sons Mzila 
and Mawewe fought for the chiefship. Mzila (who was the 
father of Ngungunyan, the well-known chief of the Shangaans 
in Portuguese territory, who rebelled against and was defeated 
by the Portuguese in 1897) was beaten and fled to Mojaji's 
country with part of the Baloyi tribe for a time, but afterwards 
returned and deposed Mawewe. A portion of the tribe, 
however, remained in Mojaji's country under an Induna of 
Mzila's, named Nkame, who is the ancestor of the present 
chief Mamitwa. The latter has a rival in his cousin Ngwakata 
and they carry on a sort of joint rule, but Ngwakata's claims 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 67 

^re not recognised by the (Government as he Hves in Mojaji's 
Location. 

Another petty chief of the Baloyi, named Makuba. Hves, with 
an unimportant following, on the Lebombo on the Portuguese 
Tjorder, and there are also a number of petty Shangaan chiefs 
or indunas whose male followers total aljout 400 living indepen- 
dently in the Haenertsburg District. 

The Shangaans generally are known among natives as 
" Mabundhlela," which signifies " pioneers." Having always 
teen w^ell disposed towards Europeans, they were encouraged 
by the late Government to settle on the banks of the Great 
Letaba, in order that they might act as a buffer between the 
Basuto tribes living to the north and south of that river 
respectively. 

The Shangaans are a stalwart race, and approach more 
nearly to the Zulus in physique than any of the other northern 
tribes. They alone wear an imitation of the Zulu head-ring, 
which with the Zulus denotes the proved warrior. The Shangaan 
ring is, however, removable and larger than that of the Zulus, 
which, being partly composed of the growing hair of the wearer, 
■cannot be taken off. 

In this and in other ways the Shangaans try to pose as 
Zulus, probably because they recognise them as a superior 
race. They nevertheless hate the Zulus as their oppressors 
in former times. 

Though they have engaged in various inter-tribal wars in 
the past, and have on occasion assisted the Boers against other 
tribes, the Transvaal Shangaans have never fought against 
Europeans, and it is very unlikely that they will ever wish 
to try conclusions with them in the future. They are a peace- 
loving people and, though not lacking in courage, more given 
to trading than warlike pursuits. They are industrious 
cultivators, ready to adopt progressive ideas, very intelligent 
and on the whole likely to benefit quickly from civilisation. 

The so-called " Knob-nose Location," which was allotted 
to the Shangaans by the Boers, is unhealthy and deficient in 
water ; many of the people therefore prefer to S(]uat on outside 
farms even if they have to pay rent for their occupation. 

The present distribution of the Shangaans in the Zoutpans- 
berg Division is shown in the following table : 



(7269) 



68 



THK NATIVK TRIBKS OF THE TRAN.SVAAL. 







t/! tr. 


cA '/■. 'j; t/2 


•-a o ex i 












C t/)c = 


















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"^ 5-5 5 
V . =■ = X ?i 








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nee. 


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-east 
ardt. 

Kraal 
-east 
ardt. 


n the 
ina rive 
s I.ocat 

Murchi: 
rountry 
ards to 
border, 




3 
o 






Trich 

hief 

north 

Trich 

hief 

north 

Trich 


; Betwee 

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Mojaji' 

In the 
and c 

eastw 
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vamba, 
petty chie 


Mohlaba . 

Mamitwa . 
Mamukolol 
Makuba ... 
Mahohk) 
Nkabe . 










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< 



THE NATIVE TRII'.ES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 69 



IV. The Zulu Tribe. 

The Letivaba Tribe. — The only representatives of the Zulu 
Nation proper now found in the Zoutpansberg are the members 
of the Letwaba family, living in the Pietersburg District in 
Mashashaan's Location. They are the descendants of some of 
Kekaan's tribe (see N. Western Division) who migrated further 
north than the remainder. 

The Letwaba people are now in three sections under the 
chieftainess Mashashaan, chief Jonathan Maraba and chief 
Jack Eland respectively. 

Mashashaan's people number, according to the census of 
1904, 5,094 souls, J. Maraba's 5,671, and J. Eland's 3,512. 

2,000 to 3,000 fighting men miglit be mustered from the 
whole tribe. 

There are no records available concerning these people 
especially, but it is natural to suppose that their history is 
bound up with that of the Kekaan Tribes of the Waterberg, 
and that their future policy and behaviour will follow that 
of the latter, the more important branch of their race. Like 
most Zulus in the Transvaal, the Letwaba are fast losing their 
national characteristics, and are becoming more and more 
merged in the neighbouring Basuto tribes 



The Buys People. 

The Bantu tribes found in the Zoutpansberg have now all 
been enumerated. In order to complete the description of 
the inhabitants of this division, however, mention must be made 
of the Buys People, who, though not numerous or important, 
or readily distinguishable from the Bantu by their appearance 
or manners, are yet undoubtedly of European extraction. 

They live on the farms Mara, Buysdorp, Buyshoek and 
Buysplaats in the Blauwberg District, and are the descendants 
of a renegade Dutch colonist, Schoonraad or Conrad de Buys, 
who in the early days of Moselikatse fled from justice in the 
Cape Colony and proceeded north to the Limpopo, where he 
adopted the customs of the natives and quickly acquired great 
influence over them. He had married a native girl in the 
Cape Colony, by whom he had three sons ; Conrad, Gabriel and 
Miguel, the latter of whom is the present chief of the tribe. 
His wife having died while on the Limpopo River, be went into 



70 THE NATIVl<: TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

Portuguese territorj- where he married a European woman. As 
he did not return, his sons gave him up for lost and decided 
to further explore the country. This they did for a number 
of years, moving from {)lai:e to place with their native wives. 
They settled for some time at the place now known as Schoe- 
mansdal, and then moved to near Louis Trichardt, after which 
they dwelt at Buyskop near ^Varmbaths for a number of years. 

^Vhen the Boer Voortrekkers came to \\'armbaths they were 
joined by the Buys People, who had b)' this time largely increased 
in numbers. They accompanied the trekkers to Schoemansdal, 
and after remaining there for some years, moved to their 
present place of residence, which in 1888 was granted to them 
by the South African Republic Executive Council, conditionally 
on their remaining faithful to the Boer Ciovernment. 

This land has now been properly surveyed and is being 
transferred to the Commissioner for Native Affairs as Trustee. 

Numbers of aboriginal natives also reside on this land. 

Miguel Buys has always been regarded as the head of the 
Buys People. 'I'hey now number about 200 souls. 

They speak Cape Dutch as well as the local dialect of 
Sesuto. 

The Buys People have never shown hostility towards white 
people, either British or Dutch, and mindful of the white 
blood in their veins, have always refused to submit to native 
chiefs. 

In the late war, however, they readily assisted the Boers with 
labour and by " commandeering " other natives for them. 

The J aalpeiis. 

This name (signifying " Dusty-bellies," and given them by the 
Boers owing to their colour, cau.sed, it is said, by their habit 
of crawling along the ground when stalking game) is applied to 
a few families of wandering aboriginal Bushmen who still 
survive in the remotest parts of the Waterberg and Blauwberg 
Districts along the JNIagalakwin River. They probably do not 
number more than a few hundreds in all, live entirely by hunt- 
ing and trapping, and are very little seen or known. 

Present Condition of Tribes. 

Considering the large native population of the Zoutpansberg,. 
and the variety of tribes represented in the 1 )ivision, the quiet 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF TIIK TRANSVAAL. 7 1 

manner in which the people have settled down since the late 
war is as remarkable as it is satisfactory. 

With the exception of one slight disturbance between the 
circumcised and the uncircumcised portions of the Shiwasa 
section of the Bavenda tribe in 1 904, and a few faction fights 
in other tribes in none of which many casualties occurred, 
and which in each case were easily suppressed by the personal 
influence of the officials, the tribes have given no trouble 
whatever since the annexation of the 'I'ransvaal. 

During May and June, 1904, rumours were certainly current 
that something approaching a general rising of the natives 
of these districts was imminent, but careful investigation 
revealed no Just ground for these rumours, and it would seem 
likel)' that the> were set on foot by interested persons, for their 
own ends. 

More importance attaches to the recentl)' formed native 
Society, styled the "Native Vigilance Association," which 
has some hundreds of adherents, chiefly educated natives, 
including some members of the Ethiopian Church, and of which 
the headquarters is established at Pietersburg. 

" The ostensible objects of the Association," writes the 
Native Commissioner of the Zoutpansberg in his Annual 
Report for 1904, "are to watch native interests and to make 
representations of such and any grievances the people may 
have to the Government. That such is not the only object 
has been clearl) manifested since the Association came into 
vogue. A newspaper, styled Leihlo h Bahatsho (" The 
Native Eye ") was started under its auspices, which revealed the 
tone of the Association at once. The true object of the body 
would now appear to be a campaign, headed by the educated 
section of the people, to agitate and demand, inter alia, 
rights and privileges, that are at present kept out of the 
reach of natives, for the reason that they are not capable 

of enjoying them A general agitation such as the 

Native Vigilance Association would care to make, could not 
possibly have a good effect upon the whole population, for 
at least 90 per cent, or more are totally uneducated, and 
are not fit for or capable of enjoying the whole privileges of 
a citizen. The propaganda of the Association is disseminated 
by means of their paper, circulars, etc., largely amongst every 
section of the natives, all of which can only be read by a small 
proportion, who interpret the contents to others." 

'i'he progress •r civilisation of the natives in these districts 



■^2 THE NATIVP: TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

as a whole cannot be said to be rapid as compared with 
that of those inhabiting the Western Districts, for instance. 
The tribes here cleave to their ancient manners and customs, 
witch-craft flourishes, and progress in methods of cultivation 
is but slow. The wearing of some sort of European clothing 
is, however, becoming more general, and the influence of 
missionaries more apparent. 

On the whole, the Zoutpansberg tribes may be considered as 
well under control, and unlikely to give trouble under present 
circumstances. 



I 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE TRIBES OF THE EASTERN DISTRICTS. 

The total native population of these districts is approximately 
as follows : — 

Lydenburg (including Sekukuniland) ... 49,307 

Sabi 30,599 

Middelburg ... ... ... ... 14,069 

Pokwani ... ... ... ... 21,593 

Barberton ... ... ... ... 21,786 

Total (according to census--, 1904) 137, 354 

This total probably includes about 30,000 adult males of all 
races, who can be classed as fighting men. 

In normal years 5,000 to 6,000 of the men are usually away 
at work in other districts. This number increases in bad 
seasons and diminishes in good ones. 

The tribes represented are :■ — ■ 

I. Basuto ; 

II. Swazi ; 

III. Shangaan ; 

IV. Zulu. 

The Basuto tribes are considerably more numerous than the 
other three tribes put together. The number of Swazis is 
roughly equal to the combined total of Zulus and Shangaans. 



T/ie Basuto Tribes. 

The principal Basuto tribes found here are : (a) Bapedi ; {U) 
Bakoni ; (r) Baphuti. The Batau {d) must also be placed here, 
as, though they are not really of Basuto extraction, they have 
for so many years been closely allied with the Bapedi that they 
are now quite identified with the latter- 



74 



THF NATIVI-: TRIHES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



{a) The Bapedi. — Foremost among the Basuto of these parts 
is the great Bapedi tribe, commonly known as Sekukuni's and 
l)erhaps the best known in the whole Transvaal. 

It has been stated (in the description of the tribes of the 
western division) that the Bapedi chiefs are descended from the 
Bakhatla — a Bechuana tribe. The manner of their descent is 
shown in the followins; tree : — 



I 
Modise (ancestor of 
Chiefs of Bakhatla 
Bamakau, Pretoria 
district). 



Tabane (Bakhatla chief, see Western Division). 

I 
Liale 



Le Lellatenj 



Moramotshe. 



Mampuru I. 
(ancestor of Ba- 
Khaha tribe ir. 
Zoutpansberg. ) 



Kocope. 

(Murdered by 

Tulare. ) 



Tulare. 



Malakutu. Matsebe. Petedi. Motole. Makopole. Sekwati- 

(Poisoned (Killed by (Killed in battle by Moselikatse. ) 

by his 

Matsebc. ) brothers.) 



Mampuru II. Sekukuni I. 
( Hanged by Boers ir, I 

1883.) I 



Malakutu II. Sekukuni II. 
(Present chief (Present chief. ) 
Pokwani district.) 



Makeveteng. 
(dead) 



KJiolokweC'Geluk.") 



Kholane. 
(dead) 



William (a minor) (for 
whom Marichani 
acts as regent). 



At a date not exactl>- known, but which must have been near 
the beginning of the eighteenth century, Liale left the main 



THF NATIVl': TRIHKS OF THE TKANSVAAI.. 75 

Bakhatla tribe in tiie Pretoria district, and, taking a section of 
the people with him, moved eastward and settled in the 
northern part of the Middelburg district, near Fort Weeber. 
It appears that Basuto tribes were already living in that district, 
but Liale's people quickly obtained the mastery over these. 
They then took the name of Hapedi and adopted the " Duiker " 
antelo{)e {Pkufi) as their totem. A\'ith the majority of 
the Bapedi this has now been replaced by the porcupine 
{/iiiku). 

Moramotshe, grandson of Liale, quarrelled with his brother 
Mampuru, with the result that the latter crossed with his 
following to the north of the Olifants river, where his descen- 
dants, the " Nuku " Bakhaha now dwell. (See " Tribes of the 
Zoutpansberg Division.") 

Kotopc, the next chief of the tribe, was soon murdered' by 
his younger brother Tulare, who then became paramount chief 
over the Bapedi and the surrounding tributary tribes, I'his 
chief successfully raided the Basuto and Bechuana peoples in 
the north and west and before long became very powerful. 
His name is still revered by the people as the greatest warrior 
of their tribe. He died in 1824 on the day of a solar 
eclipse. 

Tulare's son and successor, Malakutu, raised the Bapedi to 
still greater eminence, for he not only defeated the Zulu 
" Mapokh " tribes in his own neighbourhood, but also, it is 
said, raided the country as far south as the Vaal River, 
returning home with large herds of captured cattle. He had 
barely ruled for two years, however, when he was poisoned by 
his brother, Matsebe, who in turn was shortlj- afterwards killed 
by his other brothers. 

Petedi then succeeded, Mokopole, another son of Tulare, 
moving to Lydenburg, where he made himself chief of the 
Bakoni people inhabiting that part. Moselikatse then appeared, 
and the brothers joined forces to oppose him, but the Bapedi 
were utterly defeated by the Zulus at Olifantspoort on tlie 
Steelpoort River ; all their principal chiefs were killed, their 
kraals were burnt and the tribe completely broken up and 
scattered m all directions. Sekwati, a young son of Tulare, 
fled with a number of Bapedi to the Zoutpansberg, but 
returning four years later to his old home, managed to reassem- 
ble the remnants of his tribe, and also attracted and absorbed 
the fragments of many other tribes — notably the Batau — which 
had- been dispersed by the Matabele. By his efforts and 



76 THE NATIVE TKIliES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

diplomacy the Bapedi became thus again the most powerful 
tribe in the Eastern Transvaal, and Sekwati himself became 
second in renown to no native chief in South Africa but 
Moshesh, his great contemporary in Basutoland. 

The prosperity of the Bapedi was checked about 1840 by 
the incursions of the Swazis under Chief Umswazi, who 
overcame Sekwati and occupied his country for several years, 
only withdrawing in 1846 after having sold it to the Boers for 
IOC head of cattle. The Boers then began to settle in the 
Lydenburg district, and as a natural consequence collisions 
occurred between them and the Bapedi, in which the latter 
suffered severely. It was about this time that Sekwati first 
took up his abode near Thaba-Mosigo in the Luluberg, which 
has since been the headquarters of the tribe. It is related that 
even at that time the Bapedi were in possession of a 
considerable number of firearms, which had been obtained by 
the tribesmen who had sought employment a: the eastern 
seaports. 

Further fighting took place between the Boers and the 
Bapedi in 1S52, in which Sekwati was again worsted, and in 
1857 he was glad to enter into a treaty with the Republic, by 
which his territory was defined, and he bound himself to keep 
the peace. Sekwati died in 1861. 

His successor was Sekukuni I., who managed to drive away 
JVIampuru, the rightful heir. He was not long restrained by 
his father's treaty with the Boers, but indulged in cattle raiding 
and other excesses which led to the war of 187 5- 1877 with 
the Republic. On the British occupation in 1877 Sekukuni 
professed friendship with the (iovernment, and a peace was 
patched up, but the attitude of the Bapedi continuing defiant, 
the expedition under Sir (iarnet Wolseley was despatched 
against them in 1879, a large body of Swazis accompanying the 
force. As is related in Chapter IX the Bapedi were then 
completely subjugated, and .Sekukuni himself taken prisoner. 
Mampuru, who had taken refuge with the .Swazis in 1861 and 
accompanied them in 1879, hereupon assumed the chiefship of 
the Bapedi, and on the release of Sekukuni from, prison refused 
to relinquish his position, or to submit to the rule of the Boers, 
who had meanwhile regained their independence. Mampuru 
eventually fled to the Mapokh chief Nyabel for protection, and 
with the latter's assistance surprised and killed Sekukuni in 
18S2. The Mapokh war ensued, in which Nyabel and 
"Mampuru were captured, and the latter was hanged by the 



T5IK NATnr-; TRIHES of the TRANSVAAL. 7J 

Boers. Malakutu, the present chief, son of Mampuru, escaped 
north of the Olifants River, but was afterwards allowed to 
return to his present location, where he is still recognised as 
chief of his section of the tribe. 

Sekukuni's son,* the present paramount chief, being yet 
unborn at the time of his father's death, the chiefship was 
exercised by his uncle Kholokwe, to whom the Boer Govern- 
ment allotted the territory known as " Creluk's Location." 
Kholokwe himself died in 1893, and a part of the Bapedi then 
set up his son Makeveteng as chief, the young Sekukuni being 
still too young to rule. This did not please Turmetsyane, 
widow of Sekukuni I., so she made a petition to the Boer 
Government on behalf of her son's rights, in consequence of 
which a compromise was arrived at and the territory was divided 
between Makeveteng and young Sekukuni, both of whom 
were recognised as chiefs — Turmetsyane still acting for the 
latter. 

In 1900 Sekukuni, who was now of age, seized the oppor- 
tunity afforded by the relaxation of the Boer rule to make an 
effort to obtain the sole chiefship of the Bapedi. He 
accordingly fell upon Makeveteng and his adherents, and drove 
them out of the territory. They took refuge with Mampuru's 
son Malakutu, who, when Sekukuni's people pursued them 
lured them into an ambush and killed 100 of them, whereupon 
the remainder retreated. 

About this time also, Sekukuni persuaded Sekororo's and 
other kindred tribes in the Haenertsburg district of the 
Zoutpansberg to attack Maake and Mohlaba, two chiefs in the 
same district, who had given asylum to Mafefe, whose life was 
sought by Sekukuni, but the Bapedi were repulsed with some 
loss. 

On the annexation of the Transvaal, the British Government 
confirmed the division of the Bapedi territory between 
Sekukuni and Makeveteng, and the latter therefore returned 
to his country, where he died in 1904, being succeeded by 
Kholane, his younger brother. Kholane has also since died, 
leaving a son "William" — a minor — on behalf of whom 
Marichane rules. 

There are thus still two distinct factions in the main Bapedi 
tribe, headed by Sekukuni and Marichane respectively, and no 

^' The present Sekukuni was born some time after his father's death, and 
there are doubts as to his p.irentage. 



7S TII?: NATIVE TK1I5ES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

love is lost between them. It is impo.ssible to accurately 
estimate the relative strengths of the two parties, but 
Sekukuni's is understood to be slighdy the stronger. As far as 
can be gathered, Malakutu and his following are on the side of 
Marichane, which is but natural considering the events of the 
last few years which have just been recounted. 

Sekukuni is now (1905) about twenty-four years of age : he 
is fat, indolent, dissolute and unreliable, and of very weak 
character. His mother, Turmetsyane, still exercises the real 
authority over the tribe. Paswane is their chief adviser, and a 
very shrewd man. 

William, the young chief of the other section, is said to be 
a very promising and intelligent youth, and it is possible that 
when he attains his majority, the question of making him 
paramount chief in place of Sekukuni may be considered. 

As far as can be gathered from the present somewhat 
imperfect classification of the tribes of these districts, the 
Bapedi tribe proper numbers about 29,000 souls (exclusive of 
the Zoutpansberg section). The majority of them live in the 
Sekukuniland and Pokwani districts, the remainder being located 
in the north of the Middelberg district. 

Sekukuni, Marichani, and Malakutu are the principal Bapedi 
chiefs, and each of these has a number of lesser chiefs under 
him. Taking the figures obtained at the census of 1904, their 
total followers are respectively :— 

Sekukuni about ... 5,5co 

Marichani ... ... ,, ... 8,500 

Malakutu ... ... ,, ... 8,500 

Other Bapedi, not im-" 



mediately under the ^ „ ... 6,coo 

above chiefs. 



Total ... 28,500 

Of these the Bapedi proper, probably less than one-half are 
on the side of Sekukuni as opposed to the Marichani 
faction. 

Sekukuni, however, numbers among his adherents a con- 
siderable proportion of the Bakoni, Baphuti, and Batau tribes 
which will now be mentioned. 

{/>) The Bakoni. — As explained in the description of the tribes 
of the Zoutpansberg, the Bakoni found here are of the same 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 79 

stock as those now living in tlie Pietersburg, Blauwberg and 
Haenertsburg districts of that division. They appear to have 
been established in the Lydenburg district before the arrival of 
the Bapedi, but to have submitted to and become absorbed in 
the latter readily enough, for it is related that they made 
■common cause with them against Moselikatse. 

In later times, the majority of the Bakoni seem to have 
espoused the cause of Sekukuni's faction, and it is probable 
that they would still support that chief should occasion 
arise. 

Of the Bakoni chiefs given in the ensuing tables, none are 
of any importance personally, and the large numbers of the 
tribe shown as without chiefs, are in effect to be included in 
the following of Sekukuni. 

The total number of these eastern Bakt^ni is about 13,500, 
all of whom live in the Sekukuniland district. 

(c) The Baphuti. — In the Sekukuniland district are living 
nearly 5,000 people belonging to a tribe called Bahputi or 
Baphuti. No details of their history are available from which 
any direct connection can be established between them and the 
Baphuti of Basutoland (who are said to be of Zulu extraction). 
It can therefore be presumed that they are " Ba-phuti,"/>., '' The 
people of the Duiker," which points to the fact that they 
represent the section of the original Bapedi who retained that 
animal as their tribal emblem when the remainder adopted the 
porcupine. For this reason it would probably be more accurate 
to classify them with the Bapedi proper. 

There is only one considerable Baphuti chief, Nkwane by 
name, who has about 2,000 followers of his own, the remainder 
of the tribe being ruled by unimportant headmen. 

It is considered that the majority of these people favour the 
Marichani faction of the Bapedi. 

{d) The B a- Tail. — This tribe, which is known as the "lion- 
tribe" from its totem "Tau" = " the lion," comprises neariy 
13,000 people in the Sekukuniland and Pokwani districts. It 
has no connection with the Ba-matau tribe (which is a section 
of the Bakwena) in the western division, but its chiefs trace 
their descent back to a section of the Swazis of Swaziland, 
whence their forefathers seem to have migrated 10 their present 
abodes at a very early date. Soon after their arrival in these 
parts they subjugated certain Basuto tribes whom they 
found living there, but themselves became tributary to the 
Bapedi, shortly after the appearance of the latter. They early 



80 THE NATIVK TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

adopted the language and customs of the Bapedi, and have since 
become so completely identified with these people, that it is 
natural to place them here, and not with tht Swazi tribes with 
whom they no longer have any connection. 

When Sekukuni I. became chief of the Bapedi, the Ba-tau^ 
then under Makhali, attempted to throw off his rule, but were 
unsuccessful. Makhali died in 1874, and was succeeded by 
his son Tseke, the present chief, who seems to have still 
cherished a grudge against Sekukuni, for when that chief was 
murdered by Mampuru in 1882, he refused to join in the 
attack on Nyabel, who was sheltering the latter, though sum- 
moned by the Boer Government to assist with his tribe. For 
this he was fined ^100 by the Boers. 

It follows therefore that Tseke (who is sometimes known by 
the name of his father, Makhali) is now a partisan of 
Marichani's. 

He has about 5,500 people, living in the Pokwani district. 

Paswane, the Patau chief next in importance, is on the 
contrary a strong supporter of Sekukuni's, and acts as his 
chief councillor. 

He and his people, who number some 1,800, live in the 
Sekukuniland district. In this district are also : — 

Makhomane with over ... ... 1,500 people. 

Komane „ ... ... 1,300 ,, 

Ntwane „ ... ...1,100 ,, 

and three or four petty chiefs whose joint followings total 
about 2,000 people. Most of these would also probably take 
vSekukuni's part. 

In addition to the tribes just enumerated, there are also some 
representatives of the Bakwena, of the Maleo or Maloyi (a 
Basutoland tribe), of the Li-Kulube section of the Bakwebo (see 
Zoutpansberg) and possibly of many other tribes, now merged 
in the Bapedi, whose identity has been lost. There are now 
moreover large numbers of people, notably in the Sabi district, 
whose tribes have not yet been determined, and who are therefore 
classed simply as Basuto. These are partly descended from 
tribes who settled in these districts at the time of the original 
Bantu invasion from the north, and partly from survivors of the 
Zulu and Swazi massacres of the early nineteenth century in 
the Northern Orange River Colony and southern and south- 
eastern Transvaal, who sought safety in the wild mountains and 
forests south if the Olifants river. 



1 



I 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 8 1 

There are several chiefs of these unclassified Easuto in the 
Sabi district, with considerable followings, the principal oi 
whom are : — ■ 

Kobeni, who has over 5,000 people ; Tabakulu, . Mrehi. 
Maklufi, and Motele, each of whom has over 2,000 ; Sitlari. 
who has about 1,800 ; and three others who have some 4,occ 
l)eople between them. 

The following table shows the principal Bapedi and other 
liasuto chiefs, with the strength of their respective followings 
according to the census of 1904 : — 



(7260) 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OK THE TRANSVAAL. 



■5 c 



O 



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THE NATIVK TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



83 



" 00 _ i; 
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j= c § 2 -'^ 

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(7269) 



F 2 



84 



II li: NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL, 



o 
o 

s 

'o 
o 

CJ 


Locality of Chief Kraals. 


Ilermansburg 1035. 
P^landsfontein 167. 

do. 
Waterhoutboom 523. 
Vooruitzicht 363. 
Welgevonden 364. 
Buffelsfontein 1218. 
Salique 594. 


-In Town Location. 






Dislricl. 


Sabi 

do. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do. 

d.. 

Sekukuniland 
Middelburg 
Barberton 


Numbers. 








Fighting 
Men, 


OOOOOOOQ 
000lo»^"^00 


000 


8 





Chief, 


Kobeni 

Mapuku 

Diamond 

Zwaartbooi 
Tabakulu ... 

Maklufi 

Sitlari 

Mlitele 

Various petty chiefs 

No chiefs 

No chiefs 

Grand Total 


'J 


1 




Other Basuto Tribes - 





THE NATIVE TRIIJES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 85 



Swazi Tribes. 

I'he bulk of the Swazis found in this part Uve in the district 
of Barberton, where they settled about the year 1865, having 
lied from Swaziland to escape the wholesale " killing-off " which 
took place on the death of the great Swazi chief Umswaziv 
■'I'hey found the district practically uninhabited, as a Basuto 
tribe which had formerly dwelt there, had been exterminated 
-some years before by the Swazis under Sapusa. 

The Barberton Swazis are ruled by two chieftainesses, both 
widows of Umswazi, named Nomqcisa or Nompete, and 
Nyanda (known as Mac- Mac) respectively. The former lives 
near Nelspruit, and the latter near Kaapmuiden. 

The total number of Swazis in this district is nearly 20,000, 
and they have a number of petty chiefs j all of these are, how- 
ever, subject to one or other of the above royal widows. 

In the Sabi district are nearly 6,000 Swazis under the three 
chiefs, Ngulube, Sitorom, and Msikiza, and in Sekukuniland 
over 2,000 under Shopiane, Malikalik and Nkobe. These and 
the few in Middelburg district are probably descended from 
some of the followers of Umswazi who remained there when 
the latter withdrew his victorious forces in 1846. 

These Swazis, though, like their confreres in Swaziland, they 
have somewhat deteriorated since the days of Umswazi, still 
show signs of having once been a conquering race. They have 
a great contempt for the Basuto, whom they refer to as "dogs," 
and are decidedly superior to the latter in physique and per- 
sonal courage, though not their equals in cunning. They 
have never taken part in any war against Europeans, but have 
on the contrary more than once proved themselves valuable 
allies to both Boers and British against other tribes. 

The following is the distribution of the Swazis in t e 
•t.astcrn districts : — 



86 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TR.\NSVAAL; 





Num 


jers. 


Plac 


e of Residence. 


Chief. 




1 




Fighting 
men. 


Total. 


District. 


Locality of Chief Kraal. 


Nomqciza or 

Nompete 
(Chieftainess). 
Under 


1,000 


4,473 


Barberton ... 


Msoli River (near 
Nelspruit). 


Nomqciza : 
Roleka ...^ 
Muisi 

Dantyo . . . 
Duma 
M hobo bo 


1,200 


S.ooo 


f 
do. J, 


Ingwenya Mountains. 

Steynsdorp. 

Hilltop-Nelspi-uit. 

Nelspruit. 

Neikazi River. 


Mhwayi ... 
Silikana ... 








do. 
Crocodile Poort. 


and several 








— 


lesser chiefs J 






I 


— 


Nyanda 
(Chieftainess). 
Under Nyanda 
Matamu . . . ^ 


450 


1,889 


do. .. 

r 


Three Sisters (near 
Kaapmuiden). 

Schoemansdal. 


Mbudula ... 








Nomahasha. 


Maqekeza 
Huya ... i 
Mjajana ... f 
Hlupeka . . . 
and several 


(abt.)\ 
2,000 J 


8,500 


do. \ 

1 


Komatipoort. 

do. 
Hector Spruit, 
Louws Creek. 


lesser chiefs j 






I 


— 


Ngulube 

Sitorom 

Msikiza 

Shopiane 

Malikalik 


450 

350 

400 

300 

50 


1,997 
1,778 
1,938 
1,277 

330 


Sabi 
do. 
do. 

Sekukunilanc 
do. 


Lunsklip (374). 
Klipkopje (812). 
Spitzkop (39). 
Het Fort (763). 
Twickenham (701). 


Nkobe 

Mashele 


ISO 
100 

6,100 


636 
510 


do. 
Middelburg.. 


Hoepakrantz (5). 
Wonderfontein. 



I 



I 



Zu/u Tribes {Amandebele or Matabele). 

The only considerable Zulu tribe in the Eastern districts is 
that usually known as Mapokh's. These people are the elder 
branch of the Nzunza section of the Matabele, of which a small 
portion resides in the Pretoria district under the chief Fene 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OE THE TRANSVAAL. 87. 

Mahlangu. As has been related in the description of the tribes 
of the Central division, the Matabele came to the Transvaal in 
the early part of the nineteenth century (probably as fugitives 
from the territory of the Zulu chief Chaka) under the leadership 
of a chief named Musi, on whose death, Nzunza, one of his 
sons, moved eastward with a following, in consequence of quarrels 
with his brothers, and settled in the neighbourhood of Roos 
Senekal, where the Mapokh people still dwell. Their present 
chief Jafta is the lineal descendant of Nzunza. 

Under Nzunza's successor, known to the Boers as Mapokh 
(his native name was Mabokho), the tribe became a terror to 
the neighbourhood owing to the marauding propensities of its 
members. In 1863 the Boer Government dispatched a fruitless 
expedition against Mapokh, but in the following year the Swazis 
inflicted a severe defeat on him. It was not till 1882-3, how- 
ever, that the tribe was eff'ectually subdued, after a nine months' 
campaign by the commandos of the Republic. The people 
were then distributed over the Transvaal as " indentured 
servants " among the Boers, and have not since then been of 
much account. 

The Mapokh people are still a stalwart race, and are superior 
in physique and courage to their Basuto neighbours, though not 
their equals in intelligence. 

Their present chief is named Jafta, whose people, including 
those of a petty chief under him, named Gamela Kwakwari, 
number over 10,000. These all live in the northern part of the 
Middelburg district. 

About 1,800 Zulus also live in Sekukuniland, and some 700 
in Barberton district. These have no chiefs of importance, and 
those in Barberton are so much intermarried with the Swazis 
that they may to all intents and purposes be considered one with 
the latter. 

The detailed distribution of the Zulus of the Eastern districts 
is as follows : — 



S8 THE NATIVE TRIBES (JE THE TRANSVAAI, 





Numbers. 


Place of Reiiidence. 


Chief. 


Fighting 
men. 


Total. 


District. 


Locality of Chief Kraal. 


Jafta (Mapokh) 
Gamela Kwak- 


2,000 
250 


9,049 
1,006 


Midflelburg Kaffirskraal (62). 

do. ! — 


wari. 
Maime 
Xi) chiefs 
do. 


So 
300 
150 


397 
1,490 

757 


1 

Sekukuniland Indie (688). 

do. Scattered. 
Barbcrton . . . do. 


Total (abt.)... 


2,800 







The general history of the Shangaan nation is given in the 
description of the Zoutpansberg natives. The Shangaans found 
in the Eastern districts, however, arc mostly recent immigrants 
from Portuguese territory, having fled into the 7>ansvaal aftei' 
the defeat and capture of their chief Gungunyana by the Portu- 
guese in 1896. Gungunyana was the son of Mzila who suc- 
ceeded Manukusa, the original leader of the Shangaans in their 
northward march from Zululand. 

The bulk of the Shangaans here are in the Sabi district ; they 
have several chiefs, mentioned below, of whom the most in 
fluential seems to be Mpisane, who is related to Gungunyana. 
There are no chiefs of importance in the other Eastern districts. 

The people called Hlangaans or Amahlangana are a mixed 
race, being the offspring of Shangaans, Zulus or Swazis, who 
settled among and took wives of the local Basuto tribes.. The\ 
liave no distinctive features and are of no particular importance 
as they are identified with the tribes, Basuto or Shangaan, with 
which they live. 

Their name is derived from the Zulu " HIangana '" = to mix. 

The total number of Shangaans and Hlangaans in these 
districts i> nearly 11,000, made up as follows : — 



THE NATIVE TRIBLS OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



89 





Numbers. 


Place of Residence. 


Chltf. 












Fighting 
men. 


Total. 


Uislric;. 


Locality of Chief Kraal. 


Shangaans : 










M pisane 


300 


1,387 


Sabi 


New Forest (267). 


Magvvagwaza 


550 


2,500 


do. 


Rooiboklaagte (668). 


Mambatini ... 


300 


1,410 


do. 


Sandford (46). 


Matebela ... 


300 


1,406 


do. 


Boschhoek (47). 


Illupeka 


50 


220 


Barberton ... 


Louw's Creek. 


No chiefs . . . 


50 


289 


Sabi 


Scattered. 


1 llangaans : 










Matches 


200 


914 


do. 


Lothian (358). 


Njonjella 


KG 


571 


do. 


Cunning moor (271). 


No chiefs ... 


SCO 
2,400 


2,187 


Sekukimiland 


Scattered. 



Present Condition 01- Tru'.es. 

The leading factor in native politfts in these districts is of 
t-.ourse the Bapedi tribe, which is probably more likely to give 
trouble than any other in the Transvaal. The chief Sekukuni 
considers that he has a grievance in that he i.s no longer sole 
<-hief of the Bapedi, and is constantly agitating and intriguing 
against Marichani, who is recognized by the Government as a 
[)ractically independent chief. He is not personally a strong 
< character, but his mother and his councillors continually urge 
liim on to assert his dignity, and his descent from Sekwati and 
Tulare carries much weight with a large section of the tribe, so 
that unless he alienates their sympathies by injudicious be- 
haviour, his faction is likely to increase, or anyhow not to 
become less. Now that the natives have been deprived of most 
of their firearms, however, it is not easy to see how this or any 
other tribe could rise in active rebellion against the Government, 
and should these people at any time show hostility in their 
traditional manner, namely, by stealing cattle on a large scale 
and attacking unprotected farmsteads, it should be a fairly easy 
matter to bring them to book. 

The Luluberg range, in which are numerous natural strong- 
liolds wherein the Bapedi would take refuge, is, with the 
improved communications now existing, much more easy of 



90 THE NATIVE TRIBES OE THE TRANSVAAL. 

access than formerly, and we should almost certainly have the 
active support of a large number of Swazis and Zulus from the 
south, as well as of certain of the Basuto and Shangaan tribes 
from the north. The Bapedi, moreover, have never been re- 
nowned for personal courage, so that any trouble that they might 
be disposed to give, could probably be put down with b'lt a 
slight show of military force. 

Marichani, who is the present head of the other section of 
the Bapedi, is reported to be extremely well-disposed towards 
the Government, and his people most unlikely to give trouble. 

Of the other races found in these districts, Mapokh's people 
are not numerous enough at the present day to be seriously 
considered, and neither Shangaans nor Swazis have ever fought 
against Europeans in the Transvaal. Should the Swaziland 
natives ever rise, however, it may be anticipated that their 
kindred in the Barberton and adjacent districts would join them. 

The material condition of the natives of these parts is far from 
prosperous, a succession of lean years, cattle plagues and sickness 
having left their stamp upon them. Much of the country they 
inhabit is unhealthy at all times, fever is very prevalent, and 
venereal disease rampant and on the increase. Their moral 
condition is described as* deplorable. It is therefore not sur- 
prising to learn from the latest ofificial reports that their progress ■ 
in civilization is very slow. 

There are several Lutheran missions amongst these tribes, 
but they have comparatively few converts and but little influence, 
and.it maybe said that the general condition of these tribes 
contrasts unfavourably with that of most of the other native 
inhabitants of the Transvaal. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE TRIBES OF THE SOUTH-EASTERN 
DISTRICTS. 

These districts no longer form a separate administrative 
division under the Native Affairs Department ; it has not, there- 
fore, been possible to obtain any detailed information as to the 
respective numbers of the tribes, Zulu, Swazi and Basuto, which 
are here represented. 

Of the total numbers of natives, however, only a ver)' small 
proportion are of Basuto extraction, the remainder being Zulus 
and -Swazis in about equal proportions. 

Tribal organization is not regularly maintained in these 
districts ; there are no chiefs of special note, and the natives do 
not live in special locations, but all reside on farms or in the 
towns in which they are employed. 

The total population by districts is as follows : — 



Wakkerstroom 
Piet Retief 
Ermelo ... 
Carolina 
Standerton 



19.465 
28,442 
14,172 
9=143 
15.550 

86,772 



Distribution by Districts. 

Wakkerstroom. — Zulus and Swazis seem to be in about equal 
numbers here. The district appears to have been originally 
part of the Swazi dominions, and about the middle of the 
eighteenth century was inhabited by a Swazi tribe called " Nkosi 
Tshabalala," whose chief was named Mate. The grandson of 
the latter chief, named Simahla, was driven out of the district 
by Umswazi, the Swazi king, probably about 1830-40, but the 
people of the tribe remained and have since been living under 



*)2 THE NATIVK TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

the present chief Mahloi\iendhleni, a younger brother of Simahla. 
He is now about 70 years of age. 

The Zulus in this district are under Dhlangayana and various 
petty chiefs. 

J^ie^ Retief. — -This district was ceded to the South African 
Republic by the Swazis in 1868 in exchange for a number of 
cattle. At that time it was peopled almost entirely by Swazis, 
"but a few years later some Zulus immigrated who have also 
settled there. 

Sitambe is the only chief of any account in the district. 

Ermelo. — In the valley of the Vaal river and along the Kaffir 
Spruit in this district live the remnants of a Basuto tribe, which 
is said to have been a large and powerful one till it was broken 
up by the Swazis, who, in 1820, assisted one section of the tribe 
to drive out the other. The chief of the victorious section at 
that time was named Gama, and the present tribe is composed 
of the descendants of his following. 

With the exception of these Basuto, the natives found in the 
i'^rmelo district are Zulus and Swazis, chiefly the latter, under 
Sobusa and various petty chiefs. 

Carolina. — This district is jjeopled almost entirely by Swazis. 
The Komati Valley has for a very long time been looked upon 
by the Swazis as part of their territory, as they claim to have 
driven from it the former inhabitants, who are said to have been 
Dasuto. 

In the Western part of the district are members of vaiious 
tribes who have come in at various times and settled on farms. 

The only chief worth mentioning is the Swazi chief Noma- 
gahlela. 

Sta?ide7-t07i . — Zulus and Swazis seem to predominate in this 
district, but there are also a number of Basutos found there, 
members of various northern tribes who must be the des- 
cendants of "indentured servants" captured by the Boers in 
<lifferent native wars and distributed over the country. 

The natives here are not under any chiefs at all. 

The distribution of races is therefore thus :-- 



THE NATIVE TRIBE.S OK THE TRANSVAAL 



District. Tribes. Chiefs. 


Population. 


Wakkerstroom Zulu and Swazi ... 

Piet Relief . . . | do. 

Ennclo ...' Zulu, Svvazi, and Basuto... 

Carolina ...i Zulu and Swazi 

Standerton ...j Zulu, Swazi, and Various 


Mahlomendhleni 
Dhlangayaiia ... 
Sitamhc 
.Sobusii ... 
Nomagahlela ... 
Nil 


j 19.465 

28,442 

14,172 

9.143 

15.550 






86,772 



From this total, 15,000 to 20,000 figlitiuL:; men could 
probably be raised. 

The natives of these districts are to he considered rather 
in conjunction with those of Swaziland and Zululand, respec 
tively than with any of the other Transvaal tribes, for though 
they profess a sort of allegiance to the local chiefs above 
mentioned, the Zulus really look to the paramount chief of 
Zululand, Dinizulu, as their real head, while the Swazis consider 
themselves to be subjects of the Swazi Queen. It is tnerefort; 
likely that they would join in any widespread disturbance or 
political movement that might arise in Swaziland or Zululand. 
as the case might be, but on the other hand it is improbable 
that they would be affected by any native movement origina- 
ting in the Northern or Western Transvaal, as they have no 
connection with the tribes inhabiting those jiarls. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

ADMINISTRATION. 

(A) ■ Organisation of the Native Affairs Department. 

The natives of the Transvaal are administered by the Native 
Affairs Department, which has its headquarters at Johannesburg. 
The administrative head of the Department is the Commissioner 
for Native Affairs (now Sir Godfrey Lagden, K.C.M.G.), who 
has a seat on the Legislative Council of the Transvaal. The 
permanent head of the Department is the Secretary for Native 
Affairs (Mr. W. Windham), who is assisted by a permanent staff 
at headquarters. 

The Department was formed soon after the annexation of the 
Transvaal in 1900, and the present Commissioner for Native 
Affairs took up his appointment in August, 1901, but owing to the 
state of war then prevailing, he was not able to exercise complete 
supervision of the natives before the declaration of peace. Until 
that time, therefore, native questions were generally dealt with 
by the military authorities, by ^yhom certain officers were also 
appointed as temporary Native Commissioners. 

In 1902 the Transvaal was, for purposes of Native Adminis- 
tration, divided into five " Divisions," viz., Eastern, Northei-u, 
North- Western, Western and Central. Each division had a 
Native Commissioner, under whom were Sub-Native Commis- 
sioners — one for each of the " Sub-Districts " into which the 
division was divided. This arrangement continued till the 
ist July, 1904, when the staff of the Native Affairs Department 
was considerably reduced in most parts of the countr)- ; the East- 
ern and North-Western Divisions were abolished as administra- 
tive units, and those officials of the Department left there brought 
under the Resident Magistrates of Civil Districts, who now 
combine the functions of Native Commissioner with their own. 
The department, however, of course, still deals with all 
questions of policy, as regards Natives, all over the Colony. 

The District organisation of the Native Affairs Department 
i.s at present as follows : — 



•THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 95 

Northern or Zoutpansberg Division : — Head — Native Com- 
missioner at' Pietersburg, under whom are the Districts of 
Pietersburg, Spelonken, Haenertsburg, Shivasa, and Blauwberg, 
each having a Sub-Native Commissioner in charge, 

Western Division : — Head — Native Commissioner at 
Rustenburg, under whom are the districts of Rustenburg, 
Pilansberg and Marico, each having a Sub-Native Commissioner 
ill charge. The districts of Potchefstroom, Lichtenburg and 
W^ohnaransstad have no officials of the Department, but their 
native inhabitants are, for purposes of statistics and general 
administration, grouped with those of this Division. 

Central Divisiofi : — Head — Native Commissioner at Pretoria 
under whom are the Districts of Pretoria and Hamanskraal, 
each having a Sub-Native Commissioner in charge. For 
))urposes of statistics, etc., the districts of Witwatersrand and 
Heidelberg are included in this division. 

The North -Western and Eastern Divisions have been 
abolished as administrative units, and no longer have Native 
Commissioners in charge, but for statistical purposes are 
arranged in the following groups of Districts : — 

ATorth- Western : Districts of Piet Potgietersrust, Warmbaths, 
and Nylstroom. 

Eastern: Districts of Sekukuniland, Sabi, Pokwani, Middel- 
hurg and Barberton. 

Soiith-Eastern : Districts of Ermelo (including Carolina), 
Wakkerstroom, Pietretief, and Standerton (including Bethal). 

With the exception of Ermelo and Standerton, in which no 
officials of the Native Affairs Department are stationed, each 
')f the above Districts has a Sub-Native Commissioner, who is 
responsible to the Resident Magistrate of the District. 

Duties of Officials of the Native Affairs Department. 

The functions of the officials of the Native Affairs Depart- 
ment are chiefly administrative and political, but Native 
< 'ommissioners and Sub-Native Commissioners also exercise 
a limited jurisdiction under powers conferred on them, as ex- 
officio Justices of the Peace, outside of a radius of 20 miles 
from any Magistrates' court in their District. 

General Duties. — Native Commissioners are directly res- 
ponsible to the Commissioner for Native Affairs, and act 
as his representatives in their respective Divisions. They 
are responsible for the observance of all laws and regulations 



96 THE NATIVK TkllSES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

affecting natives, supervise and control the collection ot 
native taxes, and advise the chiefs in the conduct of tribal 
affairs. 

Sub-Native Commissioners assist the Commissioners generally, 
and co-operate with the Magistrates in enforcing the laws ; they 
collect taxes, issue native passes, and solemnise marriages 
between coloured persons. 

Native Commissioners and Sub-Commissioners are em- 
powered to enquire into and decide all civil disputes between 
native and native, as well as civil matters referred to them 
by white persons against any natives of a large and savage- 
tribe. 

Native Commissioners can punish any native offender against 
the criminal laws by a fine up to £io, or imprisonment u|> 
to 3 months, or lashes up to 25. Outside the above-mentioned 
limits they may deal with offences committed by any persons, 
punishable by a penalty not exceeding a ^^25 fine, or imprison- 
ment for one month. 

They have also power to inflict various penalties, not 
exceeding a ;^2o fine, or one month's imprisonment, for contra 
vention of the Game Laws. 

Each Native Commissioner and Sub-Commissioner has a 
small staff of native policemen. These act as a sort of 
intelligence agents, and are also employed in the serving of 
warrants and subpoenas, in circulating orders, escorting 
prisoners and carrying dispatches, besides assisting the Con- 
stabulary in their duties, especially in enforcing the Game Laws. 



(B) SYSTEM OF LAND TENURE. 

The question of the tenure of land by natives in South 
Africa is a most important one, as from it arise many of 
the most serious native problems of the day ; it is therefore- 
advisable to briefly describe the various conditions under which 
the lands occupied by natives in the Transvaal are held b\ 
them. 

In this Colony natives not living in towns (where they live 
in urban locations) occupy land as follows : — • 

(a) l/ocations or reserves specially set apart for them, or 
{b) Land regularly acquired and owned by themselves, or 
{c) Land, the propcrt}' of white owners, or 
{d) Crown lands. 



THE NATIVE TKIP.ES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 97 

(a) Natives living in the (lovernment locations enjoy 
common rights in regard to water, wood and grazing — the 
" garden lots " being apportioned by the chiefs. The natives 
pay no rent to Government for the use of these lands. 

The circumstances under which some of the principal 
locations were granted to natives are alluded to in the fore- 
going chapters. 

(d) Almost all the ground which is the actual property 
of the natives has been purchased at different times by tribal 
subscription and is occupied communally by tribes or portions 
of tribes. 

When the Boers first occupied the country they laid down 
the principle that no native could own land or acquire it 
by purchase. This was, however, afterwards modified in 
favour of individual natives, and in some cases missionaries 
and unofiicial Europeans were allowed to purchase land on 
behalf of natives, from which practice litigation often resulted. 

The Pretoria Convention of 1881 provided that natives 
should be allowed to acquire land, but the transfer of the 
property was to be registered in the name of the Native 
Location Commission, in trust for the purchaser. Under 
the present administration the Commissioner for Native 
Affairs is now the trustee for all lands purchased by natives. 

{c) About one-half of the whole native population of the 
Transvaal is at present living on private land, owned by 
Europeans and companies. Under the " Squatters' Law " of 
1895, not more than five families of natives are allowed to live on 
any farm or divided portion of a farm, without the special 
sanction of Government. This law has, however, not been 
enforced and is now practically a dead letter throughout the 
Transvaal, with the consequence that large numbers of natives 
are congregated on many farms in the Colony, especially in the 
Zoutpansberg, Lydenburg, A\'aterberg, and Middelburg Districts, 
thus forming unauthorised locations. 

The natives living on these private farms pay to the 
owners thereof an annual rental in labour or money, varying 
in amount, the minimum being ^i per inhabited hut per 
annum. 

(ci) Every adult native cultivator living on Crown lands is 
liable to pay to the Government an annual rental of j£i in 
addition to the poll tax. No charge is, however, made for water, 
wood or grazing, and the natives are not restricted as to the 
amount of land they cultivate. 

(7269) G 



98 THE NATIVE TKII'.ES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

As ma)' be readily imagined these various systems of 
occupation of land by natives have given and continue to 
give rise to much trouble to the authorities, and in some 
cases discontent on the part of the natives. For instance, 
some of the regular locations and reserves are too small 
in area and too poor in water and soil to support the popu- 
lation to which they were allotted; this with the rapid 
increase of the people of late years, has led to the overflow of 
natives on to lands the property of the Crown or of private 
individuals, where they have to pay rent or give free labour in 
lieu. 

Some discontent not unnaturally exists on this account 
among the natives, who are becoming increasingly anxious to 
purchase land outright. 

On the other hand, the authorities are alive to the 
obvious disadvantages likely to ensue if the unrestricted 
sale of land to natives be permitted, and are therefore 
inclined to put obstacles in the way of natives in this respect. 

The whole subject of land tenure has been minutely discussed 
by the Native Affairs Commission recently held, and the 
general conclusions arrived at are roughly these : 

(a) That natives in communal occupation of land should 

be encouraged to adopt individual tenure. 
{/>) That to natives holding land individually the right 
of permanent occupation should be assured, subject 
to forfetiure for rebellion, treason and other offences, 
or for failure to pay rent. 
(c) That " squatting " by natives on private land whether 

as tenants or otherwise should be restricted. 
(<^) That natives should in future be allowed to purchase 
land only in certain areas, with a view to individual 
occupation, and not with a view to tribal, communal 
or collective possession. 

The Commission further recommended that all land 
set apart or now to be set apart as native locations, should 
be accurately defined and delimited, and that this having 
been done, no more land should be reserved for native occu- 
pation. 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 99 



(C) TAXATION. 

The natives of the Transvaal are subject to a poll tax of ^2 
per annum per male adult, a further amount of £^2 per annum 
being levied on each wife more than one. 

It is probable that on the recommendation of the native 
Affairs Commission, this may be changed to a hut-tax of £,\ 
per annum per inhabited hut, with an additional tax on every 
wife above one. 

About ^270,000 was collected in native poll-tax during 
1903-4. 

Natives also pay a dog tax {\os. per dog per annum) and a 
fee on passes and certificates, under which heads about 
^197,340 was collected in 1903-4 in the Transvaal. 



(7269) G 2 



CHAPTER IX. 

NATIVE WARS. 

Boer Campaigns Against ^Moselikatse. 
ist Expedition^ 1837. 

The first t)rganized expedition by the emigrant Boers 
against natives was in 1837, when Commandants Potgieter and 
Maritz led a force of 107 mounted burghers, and about 150 
friendly natives, mostly Baralong and Griquas, against 
Moselikatse's Matabele, in retaliation for the unprovoked 
attacks made on them by the latter, south of the Vaal, the 
preceding year. 

Starting from near Thabanchu in the Orange River Colony, 
this small force surprised the chief kraal of the Matabele 
at Mosega in the Marico District on the 17th January, 1837, 
put their fighting men to flight, and pursued them till sunset, 
killing 400 of them. The commando then set fire to the 
kraals, where they found most of the wagons taken from them 
before, and returned south of the A'aal with 7,000 head of 
■cattle as booty. The Boers had not a single casualty in the 
•engagement. 

2nd Expedition, 1837. — A second campaign against 
Moselikatse was undertaken towards the end of 1837. The 
commando this time numbered 135 farmers, and was led 
by Potgieter and Pieter Uys. A few friendly Baralong 
accompanied them. In November, 1S37, the expedition 
found Moselikatse on the Marikwa, 50 miles north of Mosiga, 
and in a campaign — or rather pursuit — of eight or nine days, 
accounted for 400 or 500 Matabele, and captured over 6,000 
head of cattle without the loss of a man. 

This campaign had important results, for the Matabele 
retired to the north of the Limpopo and never returned. 
After the flight of Moselikatse, Commandant Potgieter issued 
a proclamation annexing the whole of the territory formerly 



THE NATIVK TRIBES OF THE TF^IANSVAAL. lOI 

overrun by that chief. This included the greater part of the 
present Transvaal, fully half of the present Orange River 
Colony and a part of Southern Bechuanaland, all of which 
had been almost depopulated by the Matabele. 

yd Expedition, 1847. — -In June, 1847, Commandant 
I'otgieter led another expedition against Moselikatse, who was 
found far north of the Limpopo. The Boers seized 1,600 
cattle, but were unable to get them away, as the Matabele 
attacked them in such force that the commando was forced 
to retire. This expedition was therefore quite fruitless. 

1st Expedition ai^ainst the Ba-Pedi Tribe, 1846. — In the 
winter of 1846 quarrels arose between the Boer settlers and 
the Bapedi people, who at this time had become a strong and 
united tribe under Sekwati, and inhabited the Lulu Mountains, 
east of the Olifants River. C'ommandant Potgieter with 150 
burghers, some Baralong, and a party of natives under a half- 
breed son of the outlaw De Buys, attacked the Bapedi and 
took from them 8,000 cattle and 6,000 goats apparently 
without loss to themselves. Peace was restored by the 
submission of Sekwati to the Boers. 

2nd Expedition against the Ba-Pedi [Seki/ki/ni) Tribe, 1852. 
— The victory of the Basuto at Viervoet, near Thabanchu, 
Orange River Colony, in 185 1, over a European commando 
under Major Warden and some Baralong allies, had a 
disturbing effect on the tribes as far north as the Limpopo, 
and more especially on the Bapedi, who were akin to, as well 
as in entire sympathy with Moshesh's people. Sekwati began 
to think that, if the Southern Basuto had successfully resisted 
the white man, he might do the same. Emboldened also by 
the possession of a number of muskets, the Bapedi, about the 
middle of 1852, became openly defiant and commenced to 
rob the neighbouring farmers' cattle. 

On 25th August, 1852, the, burghers of the Zoutpansberg 
were called out, and Commandant (General Potgieter led them, 
about 320 strong, against Sekwati. The latter, with many of 
his people, and a number of cattle, retired to his stronghold, 
the flat top of a precipitous mountain. The approaches were 
strongly fortified, and the burghers deemed it useless to try 
and take it by storm, but water was scarce on the top, so a 
blockade was undertaken in order to reduce the place by 
thirst, while a part}- swept the surrounding country to collect 
cattle. They met with some opposition, and lost one burgher 
killed, and three wounded, but secured 5,000 head of cattle. 



102 THE NATIVE TRIBES IN THE TRANSVAAL. 

and 6,000 sheep and goats. The blockade continued 
meanwhile, and the Bapedi suffered very severely from thirst, 
a great number, especially woman and children, dying for 
want of water. They showed no enterprise whatever in 
trying to break out, which they might easily have done with 
such a small investing force. On the 20th day, however, 
heavy rains fell, which somewhat relieved the besieged, and 
the burghers, who had a good number of sick, and whose 
horses were dying, decided to abandon the siege. The 
disarmament of the Bapedi — the main object of the expedition 
— was not accomplished, but Sekwati and his people had been 
sufficiently chastised to keep them quiet for some time to 
come. 

Expedition against Setyeli {Bakwena Tribe, 1852). — About 
the same time as the Sekwati war (1S52), the Boers found it 
necessary to punish Setyeli or Secheli, chief of the Bechuana 
tribe called Ba-kwena, who lived on the Kolobeng near the 
western border in the Potchefstroom district. Dr. Livingstone 
had established a mission in this tribe in 1845, and had acquired 
great influence among them. He had encouraged the chief to 
move to the Kolobeng from the location nearer Potchefstroom 
assigned him by Commandant Potgieter, so as to be further 
removed from the emigrant farmers, and at the time in 
question, the Bakwena having somewhat recovered from the 
punishment inflicted by Moselikatse, Setyeli considered himself 
quite independent. , 

A branch of the Baharutse tribe, called Bakhatla, whose 
chief was named Moselele, at this time gave great trouble to 
the Boers by continual cattle-lifting, and when the Boer 
(rovernment called him to account, fled with most of his people 
to Setyeli and claimed his protection. This was accorded by 
Setyeli, who also invited other neighbouring chiefs to assist in 
resisting the Boers. 

By order of the Volksraad, a commando of over 300 men 
was accordingly called out, and proceeded to Kolobeng in 
August, 1852, under Commandant P. E. Schol'z. The Baralong 
chief Montsiwa, who was on the footing of a burgher, was 
called upon to furnish a contingent, but failed to comply. The 
commando then moved to Setyeli's kraal without assistance. 
The Bakwena were found to have entrenched themselves in a 
strong position upon a ridge, and to have obtained the assist- 
ance from neighbouring tribes that the chief had asked for. 

Commandant Scholz demanded the surrender of ^Nloselele, 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. IO3 

but Setyeli in reply merely challenged the Boers to fight. The 
position was therefore attacked and taken after six hours' 
fighting, in which 4 burghers were killed and 5 wounded, and 
89 Bakwena killed. The next morning the position was 
found to be evacuated, whereupon the burghers pursued the 
natives to the edge of the Kalahari desert. ^loselele was not 
captured, but the burghers took 3,000 cattle, some horses, two 
wagons, 48 guns, and between 200 and 300 women and 
children prisoners, who were " indentured " to various burghers 
as servants. 

It was during this campaign that the damage to the house 
and property of Dr. Livingstone (who was absent in Europe) 
was done, which caused so much correspondence and 
controversy in England. It appears never to have been 
clearly proved whether the burghers of the commando or the 
fugitive Bakwena were the culprits. 

Expedition ai:;ainst Makapaii's People^ 1854. — In 1854, a 
Boer hunting party, led by Hermanns Potgieter, consisting of 
1 1 other white men, with their wives and families, about 20 
persons in all, including women and children, were treacherously 
murdered by Makapan's people, a clan of Matabele or rather 
Zulu race, who lived at the eastern extremity of the Waterberg 
near Nylstroom. This massacre was the signal for the revolt 
of six other neighbouring clans, who commenced to pillage the 
district. The white inhabitants had barely time to go into 
laager before their houses were in flames. Commandant 
General Potgieter at once took the field with 135 men and 
marched to Makapan's Poort, where he found the hostile 
natives ensconced in caves from which it was impossible to 
dislodge them. 

On the 25th October, this commando was joined by about 
400 burghers from Potchefstroom, led by Commandant 
General Pretorius, and a few volunteers from the Orange Free 
State. The whole force then numbered 550 men. 

The greater part of the rebellious tribes were found to be in 
a large cavern, about 2,000 feet long, and 400 feet in width. 
This was attacked, but it was so dark inside that nothing 
could be seen, and one burgher having been killed and two 
wounded, a blockade was resorted to with the object of 
starving the natives out. A part of the force, under Mr. Paul 
Kruger, meanwhile secured the surrounding country. The 
blockade lasted 25 days. Then a party of the besiegers 
entered the cavern and met with so little resistance that they 



104 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

took possession with only four men wounded. Commandant 
General Potgieter had been killed early in the siege, so that 
the total Boer casualties were only two killed and six wounded. 
Makapan's tribe was almost annihilated. It was estimated that 
900 of them were killed outside or trying to break out of the 
cavern, while more than double that number had perished of 
hunger and thirst inside. 

By this time horse sickness was making such havoc that 
the commando could not keep the field any longer, so the 
other tribes that had risen could not be attacked, but it was 
believed that the punishment inflicted upon Makapan would 
deter them from committing any acts of violence against 
Europeans for some time to come. The burghers returned 
to their farms at the end of November, 1S54. 

Expedition against the Ba-Mafela, 185S. — The Ba-Mapela, 
one of the clans that had risen in the Zoutpansberg in 1S54, 
again took up arms in the beginning of 1858. 

The outbreak began in the usual manner by the murder of 
a party of Europeans and the seizure of their property, but 
it was speedily suppressed. When a strong commando 
appeared on the scene the marauders retired to a fortified 
hill. The surrounding country was scoured, and a good deal 
of stock captured by the Boers. On the 14th April, 1858, 
Commandant Paul Kruger led a force to the attack of the 
stronghold and captured it with the loss of only one man 
killed, but a good many were wounded by the stones rolled 
down by the enemy. The Ba-IMapela lost about 800 men in 
this campaign. 



Szvazi Attack o?i Mapok/i, 1864. 

In 1864 two clans of Zulu extraction under the chiefs 
Mapokh and Malewa took up arms in the Lydenburg 
district, and a commando was sent against them, but was 
recalled before doing anything, owing to internal dissensions 
among the Boers. Soon after this a Swazi army fell upon 
Mapokh and routed him, and then attacked Malewa and 
nearly annihilated the tribe, leaving in one place alone the 
corpses of 854 men, and 2,840 women and children. The 
Swazis then withdrew within their boundary, and it only 
remained for the Boers to collect the remnants of the hostile 
clans and assign them locations to live in. 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 105 

Fn/ificss Expedition against Kat/akter, Baraniapulann Clan of 
Bavenda Tribe {^Makhatd s), 1S65. 

In 1S65, the Zoutpansberg was again the scene of intertribal 
fighting which convulsed the whole district. Makhato, 
Katlakter, and other chiefs of the Baramapulana (Bavenda), 
took advantage of the confusion to plunder the farms in the 
neighbourhood, and the white inhabitants of the northern 
part of the district were obliged to go into laager. In July, 
1865, a commando attacked Katlakter who was giving shelter 
to certain natives that refused to give up the guns lent them by 
their Boer employers for hunting purposes. The attack 
however failed, and as a result the insurrection spread, 
mission stations were destroyed by the natives, and a general 
state of anarchy prevailed. 

Second Fruitless Expedition against Katlakter, 1865. 

A strong contingent had been sent from the Transvaal 
early in the same year to assist the Orange Free State 
against the Basuto, and the Government was unable to do 
anything to suppress the Zoutpansberg disturbances till the 
return of this force. Towards the end of 1S65 2,000 men 
were called out, but only 500 responded, and with this force, 
which was very ill-equipped, Commandant-General P. Kruger 
moved against Katlakter in the Zoutpansberg. The chiefs 
mountain stronghold, however, could not be taken, so Kruger 
retired to Schoemansdal. Here he heard that Mapela and 
other chiefs living near Makapanspoort were on the point of 
rising, and as he got no help from the unruly white inhabitants, 
he abandoned the village, which was soon destroyed by 
Katlakter's people, and withdrew to Malitzi's country, about 
36 miles distant. Thence he retreated by way of Makapans 
Poort, and, leaving a small guard at Piet Potgietersrust, 
disbanded the commando. 

Ineffectual attempts to raise a commando were made during 
the next year, the whole Zoutpansberg district meanwhile 
remaining in a state of siege ; most of the farms were 
abandoned, and their white inhabitants lived in three great 
camps, one in the north, another at Marabastad, and the third 
at Potuietersrust. 



I06 TllK NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 



Second Expedition against the Ba-mapela, \ 868. 

In January, 1868, the chief Mapela had at least 5,000 
warriors, and had occupied a position of great natural strength 
near Makapan's Poort. The Republic was nearly bankrupt, 
but with great difficulty a commando 800 or 900 strong was 
raised, and took the field in June of that year, assisted by a 
strong native contingent. Commandant-Creneral Paul Kruger 
took command. On the 13th June Mapela's mountain was 
attacked and the whole position captured, except the point on 
which the chief's principal kraal was built. Two burghers were 
killed and eleven wounded in this fight, while at least 300 of 
^Mapela's men were killed, and about 2,00c cattle and some 
guns taken by the Boers. Another attack was made two days 
later, and the kraal was partly burnt, but not wholly occupied 
or destroyed. A number of women and children were captured 
.and detained in order to bring the insurgents to terms. 

At this juncture intelligence was received from the north that 
an old feud had broken out between the most powerful of the 
clans in the Zoutpansberg Range, that they were fighting with 
each other, and that Umzila, the chief of the great Shangaan 
tribe, was preparing to attack them all. The burghers' 
ammunition was now running short, so after a little more 
desultory skirmishing round Makapan's Poort, they returned to 
their homes. Peace was not, however, formally concluded with 
Mapela till February, 1869, when the chief agreed to hand over 
all cattle that he had captured from the farmers, to leave his 
mountain and to settle in the plain. 

Attacks by Sivazis and Shangaans on Bavenda Tri(>es, 1869. 

Peace now reigned for some time between the black and 
white inhabitants of the Zoutpansberg, but the clans in the 
mountains were engaged in much strife amongst themselves. 
There was internal fighting amongst the various Bavenda clans, 
Umzila sent an army of 5,000 Shangaans, which plundered 
many of the kraals in April, 1869, and, later in the year, a 
Swazi force, assisted by Tabane, a brother of Makhato, inflicted 
very severe losses on the people of the latter, who barely 
escaped with his life. The Swazis then returned to their own 
country. 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 10/ 

Further Campaigns against the Ba-pedi, 187 5-1 879. 

Though Sekwati had been severely punished by the Boers 
in 1852, his people had not been disarmed, and theref<:)re did 
not consider themselves conquered. They behaved in an 
insolent and threatening manner towards the Boer settlers of 
Lydenburg district, which, between 1852 and i860, was an 
independent republic. In the year 1861 Sekwati died and his 
son Sekukuni became chief, and under his rule the tribe became 
more and more arrogant. A number of muskets had found 
their way among the Ba-Pedi through natives who had worked 
at the diamond fields or on the east coast, and armed with these 
they became so overbearing that many Boers had to leave the 
district whilst those that remained actually paid tribute to 
Sekukuni, who asserted his independence and laid claim to the 
absolute possession of the country allotted to his father as a 
location in 1857. 

In 1875 matters came to a head. A party of Christianised 
Ba-Pedi attacked some of the farmers and drove them off their 
land, which they claimed for their chief Sekukuni. The Boer 
Government hereupon sent a commando to enforce its disputed 
sovereignty, but no result was achieved, and the commando 
retired, leaving, however, a small garrison at Fort Burgers and 
another at Fort Weeber to keep the natives in check. 

Early in 1877 the Boer Government made a treaty with 
Sekukuni and defined his boundaries, the chief agreeing to 
become tributary and to pay an indemnity of 2,000 head of 
cattle. Soon after this, however, when a Joint Commission 
appointed by President Burgers and Sir T. Shepstone went to 
enquire into the state of affairs, Sekukuni repudiated the first 
part of the treaty and asked to be taken under the protection 
of the British. 

AVhen the Transvaal was annexed by the British, Sekukuni 
•commenced paying the fine, and by August, 1877, had brought 
in about 300 head of cattle ; he wished, however, to punish 
the natives who had assisted the Boers against him in the late 
Avar. This was not permitted by Sir T. Shepstone. After some 
months of peace and quiet the tribesmen again became trouble- 
some, forced farmers to leave by threats of violence, and 
transgressing their boundaries, attacked friendly natives, killing 
several. The reason for this behaviour was at first sight not 
apparent, but it was subsequently found to be directly traceable 
to messages received by Sekukuni from (Jetywayo, the Zulu 



I08 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

chief, by which the latter invited the Ba-Pedi to assist in getting 
rid of the white people who lived between their countries, by 
attacking them from the north while he did the same from the 
south. 

Legolana, the sister of Sekukuni, who lived close to Fort 
W^'eeber, threw off her allegiance to the Government and sent 
to her brother for assistance, and a large force of natives 
surrounded the fort. The Resident succeeded in escaping by 
night, whereupon the fort was burnt by the natives. 

A small volunteer force was hurriedly collected at Pretoria, 
and with some Zulu police made an attack on Sekukuni's 
stronghold, which was on a hill named Thaba IMosego in the 
Lulu Mountains. This attack was not successful and the force 
shortly withdrew, leaving garrisons in forts at Mamolulei and 
Magnet Heights, as a protection for friendly natives. A 
detachment of the Diamond Fields Horse was also stationed 
at Dwarsriver to furnish escorts for convoys to and from 
Lydenburg. 

In September, 1S78, Col. Rowlands assumed command of 
the operations. He had collected a mixed force of volunteers 
at Kimberley, and was joined by Major Baker-Russell's mounted 
infantry and the Frontier Light Horse under Col. Buller. He 
failed, however, to reduce the stronghold, and was forced to 
retire, owing to horse-sickness and lack of water. More forts 
were built, and garrisons left in them, as a defensive policy was 
the only possible one, the bulk of the troops and volunteers 
being required for the Zulu war. 

The Zulu war being concluded. General Sir Garnet \\'olseley 
turned his attention to Sekukuni's country. "The condition 
of affairs there," he reported in a despatch dated 30th 
September, 1879, "is a scandal; Sekukuni, being elated at the 
failure of the British to bring him to account, robs and plunders 
as he pleases, and the country is deserted by white settlers." 
At the same time General Wolseley sent a message to the chief 
that his submission w^ould be accepted if he became tributary 
to the Government, compensated those who had suffered 
through his raids, handed over the raiders to justice, and paid a 
fine of 2,500 good cattle; a military post was also to be 
established in his country. Sekukuni himself was inclined to 
accept these terms, but his indunas persuaded him to reject 
them. 

Accordingly or. 23rd October, 1879, General Wolseley formed 
a column at Middelburg, consisting of six companies 2nd Batt. 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OK THE TRANSVAAL. IO9 

2 1 St Fusiliers, six companies 94th Regiment, a detachment of 
Royal Engineers, Ferreira's Horse, and four guns of the 
Transvaal Artillery. Col. Baker-Russell \vas placed in com- 
mand of the force, which also included the two remaining 
•companies of the 94th Regiment and one company of the 80th 
Regiment who were stationed at Lydenburg. 

On the morning of the 25th November the advance guard, 
having made a night march (the infantry were carried in mule- 
wagons) seized and fortified a position within three miles of 
Sekukuni's town, and established a post there, named Fort 
Alexandra. At the same time another portion of the force 
established another post three miles off, which was named Fort 
George, and overlooked the chief's kraal. 

(leneral Wolseley moved his headquarters and the main 
body to Fort Alexandra the following day. 

A volunteer contingent had meanwhile joined from 
Rustenburg, and 8,000 Swazis were advancing to assist in the 
operations from the Lydenburg side. 

The troops and volunteers delivered a well-timed attack on 
three sides of the mountain held by the enemy, while the 
Swazis assaulted the chief kraals and some caves on the hillside. 
All the attacks were successful, and a large number of the 
Ba-Pedi were killed, including three of Sekukuni's brothers, all 
his sons and a number of indunas. Our loss was : two officers 
killed and four wounded, and a small number of casualties 
among N.C.O.'s and men. The Swazis, who behaved admirably, 
had a number of casualties. 

Sekukuni now submitted, and paid the fines imposed on him. 
He stated on surrendering that Mr. Abel Erasmus, of 
Krugerspost, had urged him to fight the British, as the 
Transvaal would soon be in Boer hands again. 

The country now settled down rapidly. Troublesome sections 
of the tribe were settled in places divided from each other by 
loyal natives, and by January, 1880, all was reported quiet. 

Expedition a^^ainst Mapokli^ 18S2-1S83. 

The Mapokh, a Zulu tribe, living in the part of the 
Middelburg district near Roossenekal, still known as "Mapoch's 
'Gronden," was in 1882 of considerable importance, and had 
been giving trouble to the (lovernment of the Republic for 
■some time past, but matters were brought to a head towards 
the end of 1882 by the murder of Sekukuni, the chief of the 



no TICK NATIVE TRIRKS OF THK TRANSVAAL. 

Ba-Pedi tribe, by Mampuru, his half-Vjrother and rival, who- 
seems to have been aided and abetted by Nyabel, chief of the 
Mapokh people. 

The Ba-Pedi, who had been at peace with the Ciovernnient 
since the Sekukuni war of 1879, called upon the Republic to 
protect them and to punish the murderer of their chief. 

Mampuru after the murder fled to Nyabel's kraal for 
protection, and the latter, when sumimoned by the Government 
of the Republic to give the murderer up to justice, refused to 
do so. 

The Transvaal was at this time in a disorganised state 
owing to the existence of various opposing factions among the 
burghers, and a serious expedition against a powerful native 
tribe would probably not have been undertaken, had not the 
Yolksraad considered it advisable to practically demonstrate 
to the British Government that they were better able then to 
cope with the native tribes than was the case in 1877, when 
their inability to restore order was the cause of the British 
annexation. 

A commando was therefore got together from all parts of 
the Transvaal and dispatched to Mapokh's country, under the 
command of Piet Joubert, the Commandant-General. No 
records exist of the exact numbers engaged, but from General 
Joubert's letters it appears that not more than 1,000 to 2,000 
burghers were ever in the field at any one time, as, though 
many more were commandeered, numbers seem to have 
returned to their homes without permission or having taken 
any part in the fighting. 

The archives of the late Republic do not contain any 
details regarding the tactics employed by either side, but the 
fighting was evidently of a desultory nature, as the campaign 
was protracted over nine months, and General Joubert com- 
plained to the Volksraad that the burghers " seemed to prefer 
looting cattle on their own account to fighting." 

Mapokh's people appear to have ensconced themselves 
among the rocks and caves of various strong natural positions 
and the Boers to have blockaded them with a view to 
starving them out. These tactics were eventually successful, 
for on the nth July, 1883, Nyabel surrendered uncondi- 
tionally, having first handed over the murderer Mapuru, 
bound hand and foot. Nyabel's two principal sub-chiefs, 
Kameel and April, surrendered with him, and more than 
10,000 of the tribe. 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. Ill 

The burghers then burned Nyabel's " Hoofdstad " or Chief 
Kraal, and " indentured " Nyabel and the whole tribe in the 
usual manner, thus scattering them all over the country. 

Mampuru was taken to Pretoria and there hanged. 

The casualties among either Boers or natives are not 
recorded. 

Expedition against David Massouw, 1885. 

David Massouw, also known as Riet Taaibosch, was chief of 
a small Koranna (Hottentot) clan living near the south-west 
border of the Transvaal. 

Though these people were few in numbers, they were 
well supplied with firearms, and in 1885 had become a menace 
to the white settlers whose cattle they constantly raided. 
They declined to pay taxes, and generally behaved in a 
lawless manner. Finally a farmer named ^^'eeber complained 
to the Government that Massouw's people had squatted on 
his farm, cut down his trees and ploughed up his land, and 
he claimed ;^2,ooo compensation for the damage done to his 
property. 

A commando drawn from Lichtenburg and Potchefstroom, 
and accompanied by some guns of the Staats Artillerie, was 
therefore sent to the spot. General Joubert himself being in 
chief command. On the 2nd December this force occupied a 
ridge overlooking Massouw's kraal, and the rebels were ordered 
to lay down their arms. This they agreed to do and the 
disarmament was actually in progress when a quarrel arose 
which led to a hand-to-hand fight, in which Massouw and a 
large number of his people, and one Boer field-cornet and 
eight burghers were killed, and several burghers wounded. 
The chiefs son and seventy-three of his people — apparently 
the only survivors — were taken prisoners and scattered over 
the country as " indentured labourers " in the usual manner. 
The kraals were burnt and all the cattle and other property 
of the tribe divided between the Government and the 
commando. 

A Basuto chief named Jong, who was known to have been 
Massouw's partner in his raids, though he had not taken part 
in the fight, was then arrested. He was shortly released, how- 
ever, on payment of one head of cattle (or one horse or six 
sheep) per head of his tribe. Of these cattle half were given to 
Weeber as compensation for his losses and the remainder were 
appropriated by the Government. 



112 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

Campaign against Malabokh, \ S94. 

jVIakhato, chief of the Ba-Ramapulana (Bavenda), Malabokh, 
chief of the Bakhanawa, a neighbouring FJasuto tribe, and 
several lesser clans, began to give trouble early in 1894. 
These clans refused to pay taxes, or to keep within their 
respective boundaries, but for some time committed no acts of 
overt hostility. In May, 1894, however, a collision took place 
between Commandant B. Vorster, Native Commissioner, and 
the people of Malabokh, owing to the refusal of the latter to 
allow a census of the people to be taken. The Government 
therefore decided to punish Malabokh, commandos were called 
out early in June from the districts of Pretoria, Waterberg, 
Middelburg, Rustenburg and Marico, making with a few 
Zoutpansberg burghers 1,500 white men in all, with one 7-pr. 
and one 9-pr. gun, and this force, which was joined by a 
contingent 500 strong furnished by Matala, Hans Masibi and 
other friendly chiefs, moved on the Blauwberg, where 
Malabokh's stronghold was situated. Commandant-Cieneral 
P. Joubert was in supreme command. The approaches to 
the stronghold are described as extremely precipitous. The 
" stad " or chief village was on a plateau near the summit of 
.the mountain, and with some adjacent caves was held in 
force by the rebels. The " stad " was, however, commanded 
by the actual summit, which does not appear to have been 
strongly held. 

After a little skirmishing had taken place, Malabokh sent a 
present of a white cow and j[,2o and asked for a two days' 
'truce in which to comply with the demands of the Government. 
This was granted and a further respite of two days from the 
17th June was also agreed to by the burghers, but the time was 
jiierely used by Malabokh to place his cattle in safety and 
prepare for active resistance. 

Fighting began on the 20th June, on which day the Waterberg 
burghers placed a mountain gun on a kopje on the north-west 
side of the mountain, losing one burgher killed and five 
burghers and six natives wounded. 

The Pretoria burghers were also engaged and estabHshed a 
post on the hill side. During the next few days other works 
were constructed round the stronghold and on the 26th the 
Rustenburg commando succeeded in mounting a 9-pr. on the 
summit, commanding the stronghold; they lost one burgher 
iind one native killed in the operation. 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. II3 

On the 28tlt a general attack was made in a thick fog, and 
the rebels, being driven from their main position, took refuge in 
the adjacent caves. On this day one burgher was killed and 
one wounded. 

A blockade was now resorted to, which put Malabokh to 
some straits, as on the 6th July he attempted to make terms for 
himself, but there was still a small supply of water available 
for the besieged. The Boer posts were within Martini-Henry 
rifle range of the caves and lost two men killed and four 
wounded during the next few days. 

No more serious fighting took place and Malabokh surren- 
dered unconditionally on 3rst July, 1894. 

The total Boer casualties recorded were six killed and sixteen 
wounded ; the losses of Malabokh are not stated, but it appears 
that most of the fighting men had made good their escape 
through the Boer lines. 

Malabokh handed over about ;£ioo in cash on surrendering 
and some rifles were found in the caves. A number of cattle 
were also captured during the operations and divided between 
the men of the commandos and their native allies. 

The people who surrendered with Malabokh were indentured 
to burghers in different parts of the country, and it was enacted 
that they should never return to the Zoutpansberg. Their 
wages were moreover liable to be handed over to the Govern- 
ment in settlement of arrear taxes. 

Malabokh himself and 183 of his men were imprisoned in 
Pretoria, where the chief was found on the British occupation 
in June, 1900. 

Punitive measures against tribes who had assisted Malabokh, 

1894. 

While the operations against Malabokh were still in progress, 
various other chiefs in the "Low Country" (Haenertsburg 
district) became so troublesome that action had to be taken 
against them, and a commando 700 strong, raised from Lyden- 
burg and Ermelo districts, was ordered to the scene of 
disturbance on loth July, 1894, while 4,000 friendly " Knob- 
noses " were ordered to co-operate. The villages of Haenerts- 
burg and Agatha were threatened by Mamatolla, a chieftainess 
of a small Basuto tribe, and Mashuti, the chief of another. No 
actual fighting took place with these people and a peaceful 
settlement was afterwards arrived at. After the reduction of 

(7269) H 



114 'I'HK NATIVK TKIBKS OF Till-: TRANSVAAL. 

Malabokh's stronghold (rcneral Joubert arrived with reinforce- 
ments and took charge. On the 21st August a slight 
engagement took place between the burghers and the people of 
Mahupa, another petty chief; one burgher only was wounded 
and Mahupa's chief kraal was burnt on the 25th August. 

Mapiet. — On the 28th the kraals of Mapiet, formerly one of 
the chieftainess Mojaji's indunas, who was in active rebellion, 
were similarly dealt with. 

Selehil. — Selebul was chief of a section of the Barareng tribe 
in the Haenertsburg and district and joined in the rebellion of 
Makhuba. He and another chief named Makabata were 
captured after a certain amount of skirmishing, and were 
imprisoned in Pretoria where Selebul died. Makabata was 
subsequently released and now rules the tribe. (See tribes of 
the Zoutpansberg.) 

Makhuba.- — I'he chief Makhuba was next summoned to 
surrender, and as he failed to comply, his kraals were burnt 
on the 29th August. A Swazi impi assisted the Boers and 
slew numbers of Makhuba's people before they were stopped 
by the Boers. Makhuba's head was brought out on a spear by 
the Swazis. 

MamatoUa, Masliiiti and Mukhiihua. — On the 5th September, 
after some negotiations, the chieftainess Mamatolla and chiefs 
Mashuti and Mahaboya surrendered near Agatha. They 
were sent to Pretoria and their people placed in locations, 
every man being fined ^5, to be paid at once in money or 
kind. 

Mojaji. — ^Rekwali, another minor chief, having surrendered on 
loth September, two forts, each manned by fifty burghers, were 
established in the district, and the remainder of the force 
moved northward to deal with the chieftainess Mojaji, who 
besides having assisted Malabokh, had a number of looted 
cattle in her possession. Though she maintained a hostile 
demeanour till the commando approached, she and her 
indunas surrendered without any fighting. Her people were 
fined ^5 each, which was collected at once, mostly in cattle. 

The total number of cattle taken from Mojaji amounted to 
nearly 9000 head. 

This concluded the operations and the commando broke up 
on September 24th, 1894. 

The rebellious tribes dealt with were all of Basuto race, but 
this did not prevent the chiefs Matala and Kivi (the latter a 
half-brother of Malabokh's) from actively assisting the Boers. 



I 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. II 5 

It is also officially recorded that the Matabele chiefs Hans 
Masibi and Valtyn Makapan gave valuable help throughout 
the operations. 

Campaign against Mpefu, 1898. 

Mpefu, the son of Makhato chief of the Bavenda tribe, had 
never been punished by the (jovernment of the South African 
Republic for the share taken by his tribe in Malabokh's revolt 
in 1894. He therefore continued to maintain his defiant 
attitude and to disregard all regulations imposed by the Native 
Affairs Department. As no measures were taken to bring him 
to reason, in 1898 he proclaimed himself an independent chief 
and commenced to collect tribute from the members of his 
tribe, wherever they might be living. Some of his own people 
paid, but when he attempted to levy taxes from the Buys 
People, who, he said, were tributary to him, they refused to 
pay and sought the protection of the (Government. 

A commando of 600 men was then raised and despatched 
to Piet Potgietersrust (then the terminus of the railway) whence 
the force marched via Pietersburg and Louis Trichardt to 
Rietvlei, close to the chief kraal of Mpefu in the Magato 
mountains. The chief was summoned to a parley but returned 
a threatening answer and prepared to fight. Seeing this, the 
Boer Commandant sent for reinforcements, including two field 
guns of the Staats Artillerie, and as soon as they arrived, 
proceeded to bombard the village. Contrary to expectation, 
very slight resistance was made, and when two hours later a 
general assault was delivered, it was found that Mpefu had 
fled northwards, taking most of his followers with him. He 
was not pursued but the kraals were burnt and a certain 
number of cattle fell into the hands of the burghers. 

The casualties among Mpefu's people are not stated, and 
the death of only one burgher is recorded, killed by a flint- 
lock bullet. 

Mpefu was afterwards found to have taken refuge in 
Mashonaland with many of his people; he returned in 1904, 
and was allotted the location which he now occupies. 

It is noteworthy that the eastern section of the Bavenda, by 
a mutual understanding arrived at with the Boers, took no 
])art at all in the fighting, while a chief of the same tribe, 
named Sintimulla, actually assisted the Boers against Mpefu. 

The tribe does not appear to have been well-provided with 

(7269) H 2 



Il6 THE NATIVE TRIBES OE THE TRANSVAAL. 

firearms at the time of the war, which fact, together with the 
employment for the first time of modern field guns against 
them, probably accounts for the feeble show of resistance 
offered. 



Conclusions to be Drawn. 

^M^en it is considered how weak in numbers and military 
experience and how ill-equipped were the Boer commandos 
that took part in these various expeditions, how deficient they 
were in discipline, dash and all military qualities except 
woodcraft and knowledge of the country — and in addition that 
the total number of Europeans in the country was until quite 
lately a mere handful compared with the hordes of natives in 
the Transvaal, the feeble resistance made in each case by the 
latter and their lack of efficient combination, cannot but 
forcibly strike one. 

Some of the campaigns were certainly very protracted, but 
this was wholly due to the small numbers of the burghers, and 
the very slight control exercised over them by their leaders. 
Never since the days of Moselikatse have any native tribes in 
the Transvaal fought Europeans in the open or otherwise than 
behind strong natural or improvised fortifications, and this is 
the more remarkable if the broken and difficult nature of the 
country in most of the territories which had to be operated in, 
be taken into account. 

On the other hand it may be said that when the Boers first 
appeared in the Transvaal, all the tribes had already been 
decimated and terrorised by the armies of Moselikatse and 
other savage invaders, and were therefore not likely to make a 
good stand against the Boers, who, besides being the first 
white people with whom they had been brought in contact, had 
acquired additional prestige in the eyes of all natives by the 
manner in which they had cleared the country of the dreaded 
Matabele. 

The Bantu peoples are however so prolific, and their 
recuperative powers so great, that it is very probable that they 
would have been able to seriously impede the march of 
civilisation in the Transvaal, had any really great native leader 
been found among them, capable of making them sink their 
petty tribal differences, and unite to . oppose the white man's 
advance. No such leader has however been forthcoming, and, 
now that the natives are beginning to feel the benefits of 



TlIK NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 11/ 

civilisation, it is nut likely that they will make any great 
combined efforts to throw off the restraints of European 
Government in order to revert to their pristine savagery. It is 
indeed difficult to conceive of any circumstances under which, 
now that the tribes are disarmed, a native rising en masse 
would be likely to take place. 

Various causes, such as the restriction cr moving of native 
locations, the imposition of heavier taxes, compulsory labour 
laws, or undue interference with native customs, might indeed 
at any time lead to isolated outbreaks, in which some loss of 
life and damage to property would occur at the outset in 
districts far removed from European centres, but any such 
risings, even if affecting more than one tribe, could without 
doubt be very easily dealt with in these days of improved 
communications, highly mobile ordnance and iirearms of 
precision. 

Inter-tribal politics and animosities have been touched upon 
in the foregoing chapters, and it has been seen how on various 
occasions certain tribes have actually assisted the Government 
in military operations against other tribes. In any future 
troubles that may arise, we may still under ordinary circum- 
stances count on the assistance of Swazis or Shangaans against 
Basuto-Bechuana or Bavenda tribes or vice versa, and even 
of some Basuto tribes against others belonging to the same 
nation. Circumstances at the time must determine whether 
it is advisable or not to actually pit one tribe against another, 
but even if it should be decided not to employ native aux- 
iHaries as fighting men, their services would be invaluable as 
scouts or spies, and in various noncombatant capacities. 

Of native tactics there are no special features to notice. 
Except possibly the Swazis and the true Zulus of the south- 
eastern districts, no Transvaal natives are likely to resort to 
shock tactics against a disciplined force. Having signalised 
their defiance of authority by the looting of stock on unprotected 
farms and possibly by the murder of their inhabitants, the 
rebels would probably rather take to the most convenient 
mountain or jungle stronghold with their spoils, and there keep 
up a more or less passive resistance till the reduction of their 
fastness by assault or starvation. Night attacks might be 
expected, raids on horses, cattle and baggage convoys would 
have to be guarded against, and in the bush-covered tracts of 
the Northern and Eastern Transvaal, where natural fastnesses 
are very numerous, the operations would probably extend over 



Il8 TlIK NATI\ !•; TRIJiKS OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

a large area and would be difficult to bring to a head. It is in 
this case that native auxiliaries would be most useful, as was 
proved by the successful employment of Swazis by the Boers 
against various Basuto tribes in 1894. 

The tactics most likely to prove effectual against South 
African natives do not differ in principle from those employed 
against any other savages, and it is therefore not necessary 
to enlarge upon them here. One maxim of native warfare is 
however, worthy of attention, namely, that if the cattle of a 
tribe can be captured, the early submission of that tribe is 
assured. A tribe about to commence hostilities will always 
send its cattle and as much grain as possible, to some place 
of security beforehand. Every effort should therefore be 
made at the outset to ascertain where the cattle have been 
concealed, and the earliest opportunity taken of obtaining 
possession of the herds, as the chief of a tribe measures his 
dignity by the number of his cattle, and these once lost, he 
feels that his prestige is gone, and that he has consequently 
nothing left to fight for. 

The general principle moreover cannot be too frequently 
reiterated, that if an expedition be undertaken against natives 
for a definite object, be it the disarmament of a tribe, the 
levying of a fine, or to obtain possession of the person of 
some individual offender, no terms must be made until that 
object has been fully attained. Natives are entirely incapable 
of appreciating magnanimity in war and usually attribute any 
leniency shown them to fear on the part of their assailants. 
The neglect of this principle in former wars has invariably 
led to further troubles with the tribes concerned, necessitating 
fresh and more extensive operations in each case. 



CHAPTER X. 

BANTU ETHICS AND SOCIOLOGY. 

There is no doubt but that with the spread of civiUsation 
and increased contact with the white races, the natives as a 
whole are gradually abandoning many of their ancient customs 
and superstitions, or that chiefs are losing something of their 
hold over the people, so that the tribal system if not a 
dying institution, may certainly be said to be on the wane. 
There is, however, in the heart of the native, a deep-rooted 
attachment for the beliefs and ideals of his ancestors, which 
it will take generations if not centuries of civilisation to 
efface, and it is quite certain that in the event of any race-war 
or native upheaval in our times, the original Bantu traditions 
would reassert themselves, and that by nine-tenths of the native 
population the teachings of Christianity and of civilisation 
would be completely set aside. 

It is therefore advisable to briefly allude to some of 
the chief points of the Bantu tribal organisation, and to 
some of the customs and practices which form an essential part 
of it, as some knowledge of this subject is of great assistance 
in dealing with all matters affecting natives, and may often 
afford the key to native problems otherwise difificult of solution. 



Tribal System. 

The tribal system itself is worthy of some attention. The 
whole organisation of the tribe centres round the chief, who 
almost invariably holds his position by virtue of his descent 
from former chiefs. In theory the chiefs power is absolute. 
The persons of his subjects, their cattle, their houses, land 
and crops are his property to dispose of at his pleasure. He 
formerly had power of life and death over all his people and 



120 THK NATIVE TKIIiKS OF Til]-, TRAXS\AAL. 

still may and does help himself to any of their [)ossessions he 
requires. Thus when men of a tribe return to their kraals with 
the wages they have earned at work beyond their districts the 
chief invariably takes a proportion of the money for himself. 
When a crop is ready for reaping, the chief gives permission 
for the harvest to begin, and receives a full share of the 
first-fruits. Though land is considered the common property 
of the tribe, the chief points out the place where each man 
may build his hut, and the latter must at any time move if 
ordered to by his chief. Cattle are, so to speak, held in trust 
for the chief by their various owners, who can use them for 
milking, ploughing, etc., but the chief may, if he wishes, claim 
for his own purposes any animals in possession of members of 
the tribe. 

The chief was formerly also the sole arbiter of justice in 
the tribe, decided all disputes and punished all offenders. 
(Under the present laws, however, chiefs have no criminal 
jurisdiction : this is a blow at their pockets as well as at their 
prestige, for all fines which they inflicted were appropriated by 
the chiefs.) By native law every member of a tribe is bound 
to bring to the notice of his chief any crime or misdeed com- 
mitted by any other member, and though mendacity in itself is 
not considered disgraceful, no native will tell a deliberate lie to 
his own chief. 

The above powers exercised by the paramount chief are 
delegated in a lesser degree to the petty chiefs or headmen of 
the small clans of which every tribe is a congeries, and again 
to the heads of the families of which the various clans are 
composed, thus forming a complete chain of responsibiHty 
from the lowest to the highest. 

Many chiefs are even at the present time credited with 
supernatural powers, such as " rain making," which naturally 
increase their influence, and the blood relations of all chiefs 
are looked upon with a respect and enjoy privileges which 
do not in any way depend upon their personal characters or 
qualifications. 

In practice, a chief is always assisted in all his duties by 
" councillors," who are often themselves hereditary, and whose 
power of course varies inversely as the personal strength of 
character of the chief. Thus, as strong chiefs are comparatively 
rare, it is as often as not the councillors who exercise the real 
power in the tribe. A few really strong chiefs, such as the Zulu 
king Chaka, have exercised their absolute powers to the full. 



THK NATIVE TRIBES OE THE TKAXSXAAL. 121 

but it more commonly happens that in peaceful times, and so 
long as he receives a sufficient share of their goods, a chief 
does not interfere to any great extent in the private affairs of 
his people. 

With the gradual curtailment of the chiefs' powers by the 
present administration, it is likely that the tribal system will 
eventually disappear and that the natives will look to the 
official representative of the Government in their locality as 
their head. The Shangaans, as has been seen, accepted 
Albasini as their head in the early days of the Republic, since 
when they have not reverted to the tribal system, but have 
been the constant allies of the white man against other tribes, 
thereby distinctly advancing the cause of civilisation in the 
Transvaal. As natives become civilised, their reverence 
for their chiefs and tribal institutions becomes less, and they 
acquire a desire for individual rather than tribal aggrandisement ; 
it is thus possible that in course of time the tribal factor may 
be entirely eliminated and with it any danger that may now 
exist of one or other of the great tribes breaking out into active 
rebellion. Such a consummation does not, however, seem 
altogether desirable, for a general fusion of hitherto antagon- 
istic tribes would then be possible, and this would constitute 
a far greater danger to the white community than is to be 
apprehended from any of the present tribes. 



Manners and Customs. 

Bantu customs are now pretty generally known, and are 
described in great detail in many eminent works. The following 
are, however, worth noticing. 



Marriage Customs. 

'J'he Bantu have been polygamists from time immemorial. 
With them as with other peoples, the practice of polygamy no 
doubt came into force owing to the former great excess of 
women over men, which excess had its origin in the inter-tribal 
wars of extermination when the men of a vanquished tribe 
were slaughtered wholesale, the women and girls being carried 
off by the conquerors. Nowadays the disparity between the 
respective numbers of the sexes is but slight, so, as very few 



122 THE NATI\ i; TRIIJKS OF THK TRANSVAAL. 

men ever remain single, the numl)er of polygamists* is rapidl) 
becoming less. 

A native girl is not supposed to have any say in the choice 
of a husband for herself, the marriage being al\va)'s arranged 
by her father or guardian. The chief feature of the marriage 
contract is the payment by the bridegroom elect of Lobola to 
the father of the bride. Lobola generally takes the form of so 
many head of cattle, which vary in number according to 
the status of the intending husband. By the payment of 
these cattle the girl does not become the chattel or slave of 
her husband, as, if she leaves him on account of ill-usage, he 
cannot claim the return of the Lobola. On the other hand, 
should the girl be convicted of misconduct, her father is bound 
by native law to return the whole or part of the cattle to his 
son-in law. Lobola thus acts as a useful check on both husband 
and wife, and it is one of the standing grievances of the natives 
against the present administration, that marriages by native 
custom are not officially recognised by the latter, so that if a 
native's wife desert him, he has no legal remedy. 

This grievance would appear to be a real one, as during the 
years 1903-4 only 1,240 native marriages were recorded as 
having been solemnised under Christian rites, and of these the 
majority were in the comparatively civilised central and western 
districts. These can bear but a small proportion to the 
number of marriages under native custom, and none of the 
latter are accorded any legal status. 

Lobola is, however, liable to abuse, and sometimes de- 
generates into the sale of a girl by her father, so to speak, to 
the highest bidder. Moreover, now that natives as a rule have 
fewer cattle and more money than formerly, a money payment 
sometimes takes the place o'i\\\kt Lobola cattle, especially amongst 
Basuto tribes, and this money, once paid, is seldom returned 
in any circumstances, thus making the transaction a purely 
commercial one. 

There are no religious ceremonies or observances attendant 
on native marriages and, the Lobola once paid, the bridegroom 
can take his bride to his own kraal, though this is not 
necessarily done at once. The bride's father usually sends an 
ox or two, or sheep or goats according to his means, with 
the bride as a present to his son-in-law's people. 

* Of the total adult male natives of the Transvaal, 1 1 "65 per cent, have 
more than one wife at the present time. 



THE NATIVK TRIISKS OK TllK TRAXSN AAL. 1 23. 



Death and Burial Customs. 

The natives have no definite beliefs concerning the fate of 
mortals after death, but death itself is held in abhorrence, and 
a dead body is considered unclean, so that in most tribes any 
person who has touched a corpse has to go through certain 
ceremonies of purification before he can rejoin his fellows. 
When a man dies in his hut, that hut is abandoned or destroyed, 
and on the death of a chief, the whole village is sometimes 
abandoned. So great was the dread of the presence of death 
in former times, that it used to be the custom to carry persons 
seen to be in the last extremity to a distance from all human 
habitations, and there leave them to die alone. 

The l)odies of ordinary persons used to be (and doubtless 
still are in out-of-the-way places) taken outside the village and 
left for the beasts and birds to devour. The chiefs have, 
however, always been buried, the body being " trussed " in a 
sitting posture, and it was the custom to bury his weapons and 
personal ornaments with the departed owner. His favourite 
animals such as dogs and oxen were also killed and shared his 
grave, and if he were a great chief, as man)' of his wives as 
could not escape suffered a like fate. These customs still 
continue as regards the weapons and animals, and as the law 
forbids the killing of wives, these are forced to take refuge in 
the wilds for some months, and undergo great hardships before 
they are allowed to return to their kindred. At the burial of 
a chief prayers are offered to appease his spirit and his aid is 
invoked for the future. 

Tribes usually Vjury their chiefs in the same selected spot, 
which is held in awe and not willingly approached by the 
people. 

Circumcision. 

This rite appears to have originally been almost universal 
among all Bantu tribes (except the Bavenda). Chaka abolished 
it among the Zulus, so that the Shangaans who left Zululand 
in the time of that monarch did not practise it when they came 
to the Transvaal. All the Basuto tribes practise circumcision, 
however, and both Shangaans and Bavenda, wherever they live 
in proximity to Basuto, have in later times taken to it largely. 

Every few years all the boys of a tribe who have attained the 
requisite age, 14 to 16, are circumcised together. This is 



124 iHK NATI\ K TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

made the occasion of a sort of festive gathering of as many 
people of the tribe as can be collected, lasting several weeks. 
Various rites and ceremonies, mostly of an obscene nature, are 
gone through under the direction of the witch doctors, and 
much feasting and beer-drinking are indulged in throughout 
the proceedings. 

When a chief's son of any standing is to be circumcised, 
as many youths as possible of similar age are got together to 
undergo the rite with him, and it is said that all such circum- 
cision-fellows of a chief are invariably for the rest of their 
lives his most absolutely devoted adherents. Men who were 
circumcised together are also sworn friends and will not bear 
witness against each other. 

Among most tribes a rite which takes the place of circum- 
cision is also practised on females when they attain the age of 
puberty. This is usually performed during the year following 
that in which the boys of the tribe are circumci.sed. The 
attending ceremonies last a few days only, but are of a 
peculiarly indecent and revolting nature. 

It is said that these orgies are considered as objectionable by 
natives in the vicinity who do not themselves practice them, as 
by the whites. They are not infrequently the cause of faction- 
fights between the circumcised and the uncircumcised portions 
of a tribe. 

Religious Beliefs. 

No trace can be discovered among the ancient traditions of 
the Bantu, of belief in any one universally supreme being, 
corresponding to God, and any ideas on this subject that 
are at present current amongst the heathen peoples can 
usually be traced to contact with missionaries or converted 
natives. 

The Bantu have indeed always believed in the existence of 
a variety of deities, mostly malevolent, but these seem to have 
been inextricably confused with the spirits of their own 
ancestors, certain of whom, especially those of great and 
renowned chiefs, can, so they still believe, send lightning, 
storms, and rain, good or bad harvests, and all blessings or 
calamities. It seems, though, that the spirits are more 
inclined to bring down evil than good on mortals, wherefore 
it behoves the latter to propitiate them by means of sacrifices. 
This they frequently do, by offering cattle, sheep, fowls, or 
even grain or other fruit of the harvest on altars specially 



THE NATIVE TRIHES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 1 25 

prepared for the purpose. The meat or other food is however 
eaten by the persons making the "sacrifice," as it is supposed 
that the hungry ghost is satisfied with the smell. 

The Bantu " religion " contains no belief of reward or 
punishment after death for acts committed during life, nor is 
there any regular conception of a particular place of abode 
of the spirits of the dead, but the latter are supposed to 
haunt lonely localities in the neighbourhood of their earthly 
abodes. Natives are therefore often afraid to venture near 
such places after dark in case they should meet the dreaded 
"spooks." There is also an ancient Bantu belief that the 
spirits of the dead visit their friends and descendants in the 
form of animals, each tribe regarding some particular animal 
as the one selected by the ghosts of its kindred ; this animal 
is called the " siboko " of the tribe, and is not only not 
willingly killed or eaten, but contact of any sort with it or its 
skin is avoided as far as possible. This belief is the origin of 
the various totems of the tribes, whence mauy of them derive 
their names, e.g. — 

the Bakwena = the people of the " Kwene," the crocodile; 

the Ba-Tau = the people of the "Tau," the lion ; 

the Ba-Phiring = the people of the " Phiri," the hyena; 

and so with many of the Bechuana and Pjasuto peoples. The 
Zulus, Xosas, and other coast tribes all regard the same species 
of snake as the form in which their ancestral shades appear — 
their sub-tribes are therefore named after famous chiefs, as 
are also some of the Bechuana-Basuto tribes. The latter 
however all have a distinctive totem which they reverence. 

It is from the identity of their respective totems that 
the connection between certain tribes, now living far apart, 
has been traced, and to this day, if a native meets a stranger 
and wishes to ascertain his tribe, he asks "To what do you 
dance ? " and the name of the animal totem is given in reply. 

Besides the spirits of their deceased chiefs and ancestors, 
the Bantu believe in a great variety of goblins, water-spirits 
and fairies, some of which take the forms of animals. All of 
these without exception are thought to be hostile to man, and 
are therefore to be carefully shunned. 

It will thus be seen that though the Bantu have a belief 
in various supernatural agencies, they only regard these as 
potential authors of evil, to be propitiated as such. They have 
in fact no religion in the ordinarily accepted sense of the 



126 THE NATI\'E TRIHES OF THK TRANSVAAI.. 

word, and no idea of any obligation to do good for its own 
sake, or even for fear of punishment in a future state. Of 
])urely religious observances they have absolutely none. 

" \V^iTCH Doctors." 

The belief in witchcraft is deep-seated and universal, 
and to this day forms the most powerful lever for moving 
natives in any direction. The witch-doctors are the regular 
exponents of the craft and still exercise a very great influence 
over chiefs and people. 

There are several classes of witch-doctors, some being 
specialists in "rain-making," some in " smelling-out " or witch- 
finding ; " and some having an intimate knowledge of herbal 
remedies and poisons. The greatest " doctors " usually have 
some skill in all these arts. 

The professional "smeller-out" {i.e., discoverer of persons 
who by a power obtained from demons are supposed to bewitch 
others, thereby causing sickness, death or disaster) naturally 
enjoys great power in a tribe ; he is generally in the pay of 
the chief, who gets him to " smell-out " persons obnoxious to 
himself. Such persons were in former days put to death with 
fearful tortures and even at the present time are often ill-used 
or boycotted to such an extent that they have to leave the 
tribe or starve. 

The " rain-maker's " calling is more precarious, as, though 
he gets much credit as well as material profit if rain falls soon 
after his incantations, the people soon lose faith in him when 
he fails to produce the desired downpour. 

The native herbalists are said to have a really wonderful 
knowledge of plants with medicinal and poisonous properties, 
and authentic cases are on record of cures affected by them 
of virulent sores, snake-bite and even cancer. They seldom 
however can be persuaded to divulge their recipes, which are 
passed on from father to son, and form the most treasured 
family possession. They also know of many most subtle 
poisons, by the sale of which they become rich, and by 
administering which, chiefs and other persons able to purchase 
them, sometimes rid themselves of their enemies, the latter to 
all appearance dying from perfectly natural causes. 

The most familiar " properties " of the witch-doctors are 
the " knuckle-bones," known to the natives as " daula " and to 
the Boers as "dol os." They may consist of pieces of bone, 



tup: NATIVl': TRIHKS OV the TRANSVAAL. 12/ 

or wood or stones or almost any substance. They are much in 
evidence whenever a witch-doctor is consulted, as from the 
manner in which the bones fall when thrown, he decides the 
answer to the question asked him. Natives have great faith in 
the knuckle-bones and they are thrown on all sorts of occasions. 

Though the power of witch-doctors has lessened of late 
years, owing to the advance of Christianity and civilisation, 
these people still exercise a very great influence over all 
natives, even over so-called converts, and are therefore still 
to be reckoned with as a power among the tribes. 

Of the Transvaal natives, the Shangaans, especially those 
in the Zoutpansberg, are said to practise and believe in 
witch-craft the most. Next to them the Bavenda and Zulu 
tribes are the most superstitious. The Bechuana tribes, being 
as a rule more civilised, and the Basuto possessed of more 
common sense, are in general less superstitious than the others. 

Pursuits and Occupations. 

Originally hunters and herdsmen, the modern Bantu of 
South Africa have had perforce to turn agriculturists. Their 
method cf hunting was to organise large drives in which all 
the men and boys of a tribe took part. The game was either 
surrounded or driven into a cul-de-sac and killed by spearing 
or clubbing. Considerable skill was displayed in the manage- 
ment of these drives which have now been practically put a 
stop to by the game-laws recently introduced. 

The natives, however, still employ various ingenious traps 
for animals of all sorts — a practice which is not easily checked, 
and which greatly retards the increase of the game, even in the 
reserves. 

Though now o!)liged to till the soil to support life, the 
Transvaal natives have not yet develo])ed any great skill in 
agriculture. In some few localities the missionaries have 
taught and encouraged them to grow fruits and vegetables, by 
means of irrigation, but the great majority plant nothing but 
mealies (maize) and kafifir corn (sorghum or millet), and 
little more of these than is sufficient for their own immediate 
needs. They seldom store this grain but sell any surplus 
they may have to the nearest " kaffir-store-keeper " at a cheap 
rate, only to buy it back again at famine prices when the pinch 
of want is felt. 

The usual implement of cultivation is the hoe, with 



128 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

which they merely scratch up the surface of the ground. No 
attempt is made to manure the ground, but crop after crop is 
sown till the soil is exhausted, when a fresh spot is sought. 

All the field labour was till recently done by the women and 
girls, who worked together in large parties, tilling, sowing and 
reaping all the fields of the tribe or clan in turn. It was in 
fact the duty of the women to provide all the food for the 
kraal except meat and milk, which were obtained by the men. 
The gradual introduction of ploughs, worked by the men, is 
however revolutionising this system, and where the plough is 
used, the life of the women is made much easier. Indeed the 
plough is incidentally the means of greatly decreasing 
polygamy, for many wives are desired by the native primarily 
as so many inexpensive farm labourers, fewer of whom are 
necessary when such a labour-saving implement is in use. 

The staple food of the natives is mealies — stamped or 
boiled — and milk. The latter is never drunk fresh, but is 
kept in skin bags till it ferments. Pumpkins are occasionally 
eaten and certain wild roots, herbs and fruits. Goats and 
sheep are occasionally killed for food, but cattle only on very 
great occasions, a native looking on his flocks and herds as his 
bank, and their increase as the interest on his money ; cattle are 
by far his most treasured possession. 

Cattle diseases. have latterly much reduced the natives' herds : 
the following are the numbers of stock officially estimated 
to have been in possession of natives in the various divisions 
and districts in 1904 : 



Division. 


orses. 


lU 


>> 

c 









c 








1 





U 


X 





- 


Northern 


74 


.39 


1,113 


81,321 


94,251 


213,237 


14,051 


Eastern 


125 


35 


568 


33,725 


23,826 


137,553 


11,600 


Central 


,V8 


71 


1,520 


23,420 


40,009 


47,512 


6,974 


Western 


272 


72 


786 


35,371 


31,326 


42,627 


10,950 


North-Western 


27 


16 


,361 


28,214 


30,338 


58,532 


7,130 


South-Eastern 


910 




15 


16,925 


13,084 


75,352 
574,813 


15,128 


Total 


1,726 


233 


4,363 


218,976 


232,134 


65,833 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OI- THE TRANSVAAL. 1 29 

lVea/>ons. 

The traditional weapons of the Bantu tribes are various- 
forms of spears and javeHns known as " assegais "*. There 
are different kinds of these, used for stabbing and throwing 
respectively, the former having short, stout shafts and broad 
blades, while the latter have narrow points and long tapering 
shafts. 

" Knob-kerries " (clubs or throwing sticks) are also in general 
use by the natives. They throw the lighter varieties with some 
skill, and are able to bring down birds on the wing with them. 

Bows and arrows do not appear ever to have been generally 
used by the Bantu tribes of South Africa as serious weapons of 
war, though it is related that the Bavenda tribe (see Zoutpans- 
berg division) overcame the original inhabitants of the Northern 
Transvaal by means of poisoned arrows. Though occasionally 
used in the chase by natives of remote districts, the bow is not 
much in evidence at the present time. 

Firearms seem to have been first obtained by the Eastern 
Transvaal natives from the Portuguese settlements on the East 
coast early in the nineteenth century. In the forties the Boers 
used to give out muskets and ammunition to large numbers of 
natives in the northern and north-eastern districts to enable 
them to procure ivory and skins, which they brought back to 
their employers. There came a time when the natives refused 
to give back these guns, and turned them against their owners, 
thereby causing some of the earlier native wars which have been 
described. 

Clood marksmanship with the rifle is very uncommon among 
the Transvaal natives, and as all the tribes were officially dis- 
armed between September, 1902, and January, 1903, they have 
not much chance at present of improving themselves in this 
respect. 

Firearms as under were collected from the natives at the 
general disarmament, compensation being paid for every weapon 
brought in. 



* This is nol a native word, being of Porluguese extraction. 
(7269) 



MO THE XATIVl-: TKIBKS OK THE TRANS\AAL. 



. 


Xuniljcr of am 


IS ^urrenciertd. 


Ammuni- 
tion. 


District. 














Maga- 


Other 


Other 




Number 




zine 


breech 


fire 


Total. 


of 




Rifles. 


loaders. 


arm?. 


• 


Rounds. 


East and south-cast 


213 


1.355 


7,230 


8,798 


5,985 


Zoutpanslierg 


125 


1,808 


28,909 


30,842 




Central districts... 


62 


850 


2,952 


3,664 


3,356 


North-west districts 


41 


579 


4,269 


4,907 


1,112 


West districts 


42 


1,136 


899 


2,077 


630 


Total 


483 


5,746 


44,259 


50,488 


11,083 



Compensation to the amount ol ^,61,548 wa.s paid to tlie 
natives for the above arms and ammunition. 

The following firearms were registered as in the possession of 
chiefs and headmen in the year 1903-4 : — 



Northern Division... 


206 


Eastern „ 


8 


Central „ 


9 


Western ,, 


46 


North-western 


2T 



Total 



290 



Besides the above, for which the possessors hold licences, it 
is probable that some firearms have been concealed by certain 
tribes. Zebedela or Shikwane in the Waterberg division was 
the only chief officially suspected of having withheld a certain 
number at the time of the general disarmament, but the 
Shangaans and other north-eastern tribes undoubtedly have 
opportunities of obtaining arms from natives in Portuguese 
territory, while in the western districts it is possible that the 
natives may occasionally be supplied from their kinsmen in the 
Bechuanaland Protectorate, who have never been disarmed. 
On the whole, however, it is considered that comparatively few 
natives are in possession of firearms at the present tmie. 



THE NATIVE TRllJES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 13I 



Tribal Distinctions. 

Physique. — Taken as a whole, the Shangaans are superior in 
physujue to all other tribes met with in the Transvaal, the people 
of Zulu extraction having quite lost their national characteristics 
in this as in ocher respects, and being for all practical purposes 
merged in the Basuto. 

Next come the Basuto and Bechuana, who are both moderately 
■developed people, generally well-built, wiry and active, but slight 
in figure. 

The Bavenda are decidedly inferior in physi(jue to all the 
■other tribes, being neither tall nor muscular. This may be the 
result of their allowing marriages between close blood-relations, 
which is totally opposed to the practice of all other Bantu tribes 
in South Africa. 

Dress. — In the western and central divisions and in all 
localities which border on large European centres, the natives 
have to a large extent adopted some form of European clothing, 
and their tribes can therefore no longer be distinguished by their 
styles of dress or personal appearance. In districts compara- 
tively remote from civilisation however, such as the Zoutpansberg, 
Waterberg, and Eastern I )istricts, the following tribal peculiarities 
are observed : — 

Basuto tribes. — Men. .Shave the whole of their head periodi- 
cally, and are therefore never seen but with very short hair. 
They also often gash their faces on the cheeks — one, two or 
more scars on each side according to tribe. They have no 
head-dress. By way of body-clothing they wear a roughly- 
dressed skin hanging from a waist-belt in front, to which, after 
passing between the legs, it is also fastened behind. 

Basuto women may be recognized by their hair, which is 
■closely cut on the crown of the head, the remainder on the 
forehead, neck and temples being clean-shaved, thus giving the 
.appearance of a skull-cap. Immediately below the irregular 
edge of this "cap," a line of l)lack and red is painted. 

They are fond of wearing numerous metal bangles, usually of 
plain iron, brass or copper wire of varying thicknesses, on their 
arms and ankles, and bracelets of the same material round their 
necks. Their dress consists of two dressed leather aprons 
fastened round the waist by a girdle. The hinder apron is cut 
to a point which hangs down to the level of the knees, that in 
front being square, but often ornamented with strings made of 
twisted sinews, or with coloured beads. 

(7269) I 2 



133 THE NATI\K TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

Zulus. — Transvaal Zulu men cannot readily be distinguished' 
from Basuto by their personal appearance. Their women wear 
a skirt or kilt reaching to the knee, made of leather, brayed and 
dressed very soft, Avhich is not worn by any other tribes. 

Shangaans. — As stated before the men of this race affect a 
larger variety of the well-known Zulu "head-ring." This is 
worn by all the older men, and, unhke the original Zulu article, 
is removable. They do not shave the head, nor do they now 
make scars on their faces, though they formerly disfigured 
themselves in a peculiar manner which earned them the nick- 
name of "knob-noses." They wear round their waists skins, 
with the hair outwards, after the fashion of the Zulu " Moocha." 

Shangaan women are easily identified both by their hair, 
which is worn in thin plaits, six to eight inches long at the back 
and sides, and by their pleated skirts, which are nearly always of 
a dark blue coarse cloth manufactured by themselves, and reach 
to a little below the knee. They also wear numerous bangles, 
but these are made of very thin wire, twisted and worked intO' 
patterns on a foundation of horse-hair. 

Bavenda. — Both men and women of this tribe always keep 
their whole heads quite clean-shaved. Otherwise they are not 
easily distinguishable from the Basuto, except by their poorer 
physique, as the skin loin-cloths of the men and the two leather 
aprons worn by the women are very similar to those of the latter 
people. 

Swazis. — The Swazis dress after the style of the Zulus of 
Zululand, wearing the skin "moocha"; unlike Zulus though, 
they often wear a head-dress of furs. 

In cold or wet weather the natives of all tribes who cannot 
procure a European coat of some sort, wear a blanket or skin- 
rug (" Kaross ") thrown over their shoulders, which they also- 
use as a covering at night. 

Habitatio7is. 

As in the matter of clothing, so in their style of house-building, 
the more civilised class of natives are aping Europeans, and 
near towns and villages as well as in the Western districts 
generally, round or rectangular stone huts, mud-plastered, and 
with pitched roofs of thatch, are conmionly seen. Chiefs, 
indeed, often have quite good houses of European pattern. 

The following types of huts are however generally adhered to- 
by the different tribes in the remoter districts : — 



THK NATIVK TRIIJKS OF THE TRANSVAAL. 1 33 

Basil to. — The hut is circular in plan, the walls consisting of 
fairly stout vertical poles, stuck in the ground and 4 to 5 feet 
high, interlaced with light pliable rods and reeds, the whole 
being plastered with mud and cow-dung outside. The roof is 
of grass thatch and conical in shape, with eaves projecting 
slightly beyond the walls. The doorway is very low, and is 
closed by a swinging mat or sometimes by a rough-hewn board. 
There are no windows. The floor of the hut is of carefully 
rammed earth, and the fireplace is in the middle. There is, 
however, no outlet for the smoke, except the door. A space 
round the front of the hut is usually enclosed by a high screen 
of reeds, within which the women sit and work. 

Basuto for choice build their huts on the slopes of rocky hills. 

Sha/igaans.—'T\\e Shangaan type of hut is similar in general 
■shape to the Basuto, but has much lighter walls, mostly made 
of reeds stiffened by a few poles only, and is generally smaller ; 
the roof is of higher pitch, better made, and with eaves projecting 
nearly to the ground. These differences are probably due to 
vthe fact that the Shangaans as a rule live in a hotter climate 
than do the Basuto, and are subject to heavier rainfall, while 
they usually select a plain or valley in preference to a hill-side 
for a site. 

Bavenda. — The Bavenda build huts very like those of the 
Basuto, but these people are very poor and slovenly architects, 
and spend a considerable portion of the year living in the open. 

Zulus. — The Zulus of the Transvaal build circular huts with 
vertical wails like the other tribes, but often make their roofs 
•of a beehive shape instead of the usual cones. 

Arts and Handicrafts. 

The Bantu are not artists, their only efforts in this direction 
being rude attempts at carving human and animal figures out of 
wood, the ornamentation of assegai shafts with wire-work, and 
the working of designs in coloured beads on the aprons of the 
women of some tribes. 

Their skill as handicraftsmen is not conspicuous, but is 
sufficient to keep their simple wants supplied. The smelting 
of metals appears to have been known to them from very early 
times, and they have always manufactured their own iron spear- 
heads, rude knives, and the picks and hoes used in agriculture, 
heating the metal by means of a primitive clay furnace fanned 
with bellows made oi a goat or antelope skin, and beating it 



134 TIIK NATI\K TRIBES OF THK TRANSVAAL. 

with a largt flat stone. (Joppcr has also been worked for a long 
time by certain tribes, notably the Batlokwa, but appears onl) 
to have been used for making bracelets and other ornaments.. 
Various kinds of wirework are also common in bracelets, etc. 

It is said that there are certain men in Malabokh's tribe in 
the Blauwberg who are able to make gunpowder, but the truth 
of this is doubtful. 

The greatest and most general accomplishment of South 
African natives is the dressing of leather and skins, either 
with or without the natural hair. The skin " Karosses " or 
robes made by these people are Avell known for the excellence 
of their curing and the neat manner in which the pieces are 
sewn together with sinews. 

The Shangaans appear to be the only people who practise 
any form of weaving. They make a stout coarse woollen cloth, 
usually dyed indigo with red stripes, of which the skirts of their 
women are usually made. 

Most of the Basuto tribes and some others are very skilful 
in the making of baskets. These are so closely woven of 
rushes or grass that milk or even water can be carried in: 
them. 

Clay pottery is also extensively manufactured by the women' 
of many of the tribes. They fashion pots of all shapes most 
cleverly without any sort of appliance like a potter's wheel, but 
using the hands only, manage to produce symmetrical and 
finished articles. The pots are of all sizes from small mugs 
used for drinking to enormous jars in which kaflir beer is- 
l:)rewed or grain stored. 

When instructed by Europeans, these natives are able to 
learn ordinary trades, and become fairly efficient rough 
carpenters, stonemasons and even blacksmiths, but instances 
are very rare of South African natives having acquired 
sufficient manual dexterity to make really skilled mechanics. 



CHAPTER XI. 
NATIVE LANGUAGES. 

Thk language spoken b)- the Bantu tribes is of a high order, 
subject to strict grammatical rules and adequate for the 
expression of any ideas whatever. The construction, however, 
is very different from that of the languages of Europe, as it 
is inflected principally ' by means of prefixes,, and in the con- 
struction of sentences follows certain rules depending upon 
harmony of sound. It has become broken up into many 
dialects, so that individuals from the Western coast, from the 
interior and from the Eastern coast cannot understand each 
other, though the great majority of the words used by all are 
formed from the same roots. 

In the South Eastern dialects the sound of the letter R is 
wanting, while in some others the sound of our L is never 
heard. In all are combinations of consonants which are very 
difficult for strangers to master. 

The " clicks " which occur in various Bantu dialects as now 
spoken, were no doubt imported from Hottentot or Bushmen 
sources ; the words in which they occur being chiefly those 
pertaining to the occupations of women ; it is surmised that 
they were introduced by females of Bushman or Hottentot race 
who were spared when the tribes to which they belonged were 
concjuered. There is this jieculiarity in the language, that 
some of the dialects on the opposite sides of the continent 
bear a closer resemblance to each other than to those between 
them. The tribes seem to have been scattered and mixed 
together again by violent convulsions in some long forgotten 
time. 

The Bantu language is divided by experts into three main 
branches : the Western, Eastern and Southern, which are again 
divided into sub-branches. It is, however, sufficient here to 
consider the branches of the Southern Division, which embrace 
all the languages met with among the Bantu races in South 
Africa. 



136 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

The Southern branch is divided into three sub-branches : 
•" Eastern," "Central" and "Western," and by examining the 
first two of these, all Bantu languages in British South Africa 
can be placed. 

The Eastern sub-branch includes three languages only : 
I. Zulu. 
II. Xosa. 
III. Gwamba. 

This may be called the " click " group, as its languages 
contain several different forms of "click" sounds, unpronounc- 
able by the average European. 

I. Zulu, properly called "Sizulu," is spoken in Zululand and 
also in a more or less corrupt form by the people of Zulu 
extraction now . living in the Transvaal. Its use as the 
language of a conquering and superior race extends as far 
north as the River Zambesi, and even when another language 
is the vernacular of the people, Zulu is generally understood. 
Setebele, the so-called language of the Matabele, is Zulu with 
dialectic variations. 

There are two forms of Zulu — the High and the Low — 
used by the upper and lower classes respectively. 

The language of the Swazis, called Siswazi, is merely a 
dialect of the Zulu tongue. 

II. Xosa is the oldest form of Bantu speech, and is closely 
allied to the Zulu. It is confined to the Transkei and neigh- 
bouring native territories of Cape Colony. 

III. Gwamba, Sigwamba or Sichangaan is the language 
used by the generality of natives in Portuguese East Africa, 
and also by the Shangaan tribes in the Transvaal, who are of 
the same race. It bears a close resemblance to Zulu, and Zulus 
can understand it without much difficulty. 

The Central sub-branch has four languages, of which two 
only need be touched upon here, viz. : 
I. Sesuto. 
II. Sechuana. 

These differ from the Eastern tongues in having no " clicks " 
(except in a few Sechuana dialects) and are also generally 
harsher, more guttural and less liquid in sound. 

I. Sesuto is the language of Basutoland and is also spoken 
by the Barotse north of the Zambesi, the latter having at one 
time being conquered by the Makalolo, a tribe of Basuto 
race. The conquerors have disappeared, but their language 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 1 37 

remains. Various dialects of Sesuto are largely spoken among 
the native tribes of the Transvaal, the Bapedi tongue, called 
Sipedi, being that most widely spoken and understood. 

II. Sechuana is so closely allied to Sesuto, that it is 
sometimes difficult to discern to which of these languages 
certain dialects spoken in the Transvaal belong. It is the 
language of the Baralong, Kakwena, etc., of Bechuanaland, and 
in various dialects is spoken by many tribes of the Transvaal, 
where it is generally understood. 

Sivenda, the language of the Bavenda tribe of the Zout- 
pansberg, differs materially from both the Eastern and Central 
groups of languages, and is not understood or easily acquired 
either by Zulus, Shangaans or Basuto, in View of which fact, 
the opinion held by some that it is a blend of Sesuto and 
Lukalanga (the language of the Makalanga of Mashonaland) 
■does not appear correct. It is more probably a dialect of some 
Bantu language spoken much nearer the Equator, for it is said 
that it closely resembles the speech of a tribe now living in 
the valley of the Congo. 

In general sound Sivenda is much softer than the Sesuto 
and Sechuana languages. 

The general distribution of languages in the Transvaal is 
thus : 

Noriheni Districts. — Sesuto predominates ; Sigwamba, 

Sivenda and Sizulu also spoken. 
Eastern Districts. — Forms of Sesuto almost universal. 
-5". Eastern Districts. — Sizulu and Siswazi universal. 
Central Districts. — Sesuto predominates, but some 
Sechuana dialects, and a little Sizulu are also spoken. 
N. Western Districts. — Sizulu universal, but becoming 

more and more mixed with Sesuto. 
Western Districts. — Sechuana universal. 

Orthography ok Native Names. 

The Bantu have no written characters of their own, and 
as there is as yet no universally recognized system of spelling 
native words in the Transvaal, the manner in which these are 
rendered in most current works on South Africa and on the 
maps in general use, is apt to be confusing if not actually 
misleading. 

The best known system of spelling is that inaugurated by 
the late Dr. Colenso, Bishop of Natal, which is now generally 



138 TIIF, NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

followed in that C.'olony and also in the Cape Colony. The 
system was specially devised to represent the sounds of the Zulu 
language, and for this purpose it is satisfactory. As, however, 
it uses the letter R (the ordinary sound of which is unknown 
in Sizulu) to represent the strong guttural similar to the Arabic 

r^ (kh), it is manifestly not entirely adapted for the rendering. 

of the Sesuto or Sechuana languages, wherein the English R 
frequently occurs. 

Throughout this treatise an attempt has therefore been 
made to follow the system of spelling indicated in Appendix 
IJl, King's Regulations, which seems to provide the means of 
approximately rendering all Bantu sounds except the "clicks." 

The clicks are of three kinds : (a) dental ; {/>) palatal ; 
(c) lateral, each of which has several varieties or shades, but it 
is unnecessary to describe these here. 

(a) The dental click is produced by pressing the tip of the 
tongue against the back of the front teeth, and its sound is 
like the " ts " sound often made by Europeans to express, 
sorrow or commiseration. 

(/') The palatal click is made by curling the tongue upwards 
against the palate, and its sound is exactly like that used to 
urge on a horse — "cl'ck." 

(c) The lafe}-al click is very similar to (/') but is made by 
placing the tongue in the cheek. 

These three clicks are not provided for in Appendix III, 
King's Regulations, and are, therefore, here represented by 
Colenso's method, namely, by the letter C, Q and X respectively,. 
e.g., Amabara, Ma^ekeza, Ama.rosa. Clicks are, however, not 
very numerous in the Transvaal, except along the Eastern 
border. 

It has been necessary to alter the spelling of a number of 
native names which were evidently first written by Dutchmen, 
and which would, therefore, be likely to be mispronounced at 
sight by an Englishman. For example, Secoecoeni has been 
altered to Sekukuni (OE being in Dutch pronounced as the 
English 00). 

Magalie 1 , , u 1 . / Alakhali 

Magato j ^^^'^^^ ^^^" ^^^^'^^ ^° i Makhato 
(G being a strong guttural in Dutch). 

Certain obviously French spellings have also been eliminated 
e.g., Modjadji, Shikoane, Seseloane have been replaced by 
Mojaji, Sliikwane, Seselwane. 



APPENDIX I. 

NOTES ON SOME NATIVE STRONGHOLDS. 

Detail?.!) topographical descriptions of a number of localities^ 
which would ])robably be resorted to and defended by certain 
tribes, or used as places of concealment for cattle and suppplies 
in case of hostilities, have been obtained, and will be found in 
the Trans-caal Route Book. The following are some of the 
most important. 

In the Zoutpansberg Division. 

The Blauwberg (see Jackson Map 25). This is a lofty rangt 
of mountains, rising over 3,000 feet above the surrounding 
plain, situated in the district of that name. It is approached 
either from Pietersburg (about 68 miles) or from Piet Potgieters- 
rust (slightly over 100 miles, via Masibi's and Matala's locations).. 
Water is not sufficient for a large force on either road, but there 
is a good supply once the southern slopes of the range are 
reached. 

The Blauwberg is occupied by the Bakliananwa tribe under 
chiefs Malabokh and Kivi, the former of whoni is by far the 
more powerful. There is bitter enmity between the two chiefs. 
Malabokh's kraal is on a high hill called Leoken, near the 
centre of the range, which contains numerous caves and 
natural passages. On the west side of the hill is a very large 
cave in which many cattle could be concealed. The whole hill 
is very rocky and thickly covered with bush. 

Kivi's kraals are on the southern slopes of the eastern 
extremity of the range. 

Several native tracks practicable for pack animals ascend 
the range from the south. 

A wagon track from the west also leads to Beaule)", tlie 
headquarters of the Sub-Native Commissioner. This would 
probably be the most suitable direction from which to attack 
Malabokh's stronghold. The choice of roads from the railwa) 



140 THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

would naturally depend on the attitude of the tribes located to 
the south and east. 

Matala's Location. 

(Jackson's Map 22). About equidistant {40 miles) from 
Pietersburg and Piet Potgietersrust. Good roads for all arms 
with a sufficiency of water. 

The greater part of the location is surrounded by high hills, 
the space inside containing plenty of water. The chiefs kraal 
is within the hills. The best approaches for purposes of attack 
would be from the east. 

Though Matala's people are of Basuto extraction, it should 
be noted that they assisted the Boers against Malabokh and 
other Basuto tribes in 1894. 

MojAji's Location. 

Li Haenertsburg district (see Jackson's Map 32). This 
location is situated about 37 miles N.E. of Haenertsburg, which 
is some 33 miles by road from Pietersburg. Surrounded as it 
is on the north, west and south-west by high hills, any attack on 
on this location would be best made from the ea.st or south-east, 
which would be reached from Haenertsburg. 

The eastern portion of the location is open and fertile with 
plenty of water, while the western is sterile, rough and hilly. 
The tendency of the native population is therefore to overflow 
to the eastward, and many of the people live outside the limits 
of the location in that direction. 

There are in the Zoutpansberg Range proper and in the 
north-eastern part of the division generally tracts of almost 
impenetrable jungle, traversed by only a few native paths, which 
would doubtless be used as places of refuge by the local tribes 
in time of war for themselves and their cattle. It is doubtful, 
however, whether during the winter months when alone an 
expedition could be undertaken in those parts, they could 
•obtain enough water to maintain themselves for any length of 
time. Louis Trichardt would be the only possible base for 
operations in that part of the country. 

Li the North-Western Division the following is the only place 
worth notice : — ■ 

Makapans Gat. — (Jackson's Map 4) Approached by a fair 
Toad from Piet Potgietersrust — 18 miles. It is a deep and con- 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OE THE TRAN8\'AAL. 141 

fined valley surrounded by steep and rugged hills in the sides 
of which are several extensive caves, some of which contain 
water. This place was the scene of the fighting in 1854 between 
the Boers and the Mapela tribes when the latter suffered so 
severely (see Native Wars). Infantry could scale the hills from 
nearly every side and so command the whole valley. Some of 
the Letwaba people live in the vicinity at present (see N.W. 
districts). 

The \V'^aterberg hills west of the railway are very rugged and 
broken, and along the Magalakwin River are no doubt many 
places which natives might defend in time of war. 

The Eastern Districts. 

The Luluberg Range (Jackson Maps 10 and 11) extends 
southwards from the Olifants River nearly to Roossenekal. It 
is the headquarters of the Bapedi tribe (Sekukuni's) and has 
been the scene of various campaigns between 1846 and 1879. 
It consists of rugged and lofty mountains which are generally 
more easily approached from the west than from the east. The 
principal points which have been defended by the natives in 
former times are (a) Thama Khush (also known as Kolodie's 
Kop or Masupa), (/'') Khonoko, and (r) Thaba Mosego. 

(a) Is near the southern extremity of Geluk's location and 
was defended by the Bapedi in 1879. It could best be 
attacked from the west from Schoonoord, the headquarters of 
the Native Sub-Commissioner, whence two tracks lead up the 
mountain and near which are suitable artillery positions. 
Schoonoord is about 90 miles from Belfast via Roossenekal and 
about 80 miles from Pietersburg. 

(d) Is some 5 miles north of (a) on the farm Genekat 
Kop (122) and is important as it is probably to this mountain 
that Sekukuni and his immediate following would resort in case 
of hostilities. Paswani, Sekukuni's chief adviser, has his kraal 
3 miles west of Khonoko. It is also the highest peak of the 
Luluberg, being about 6,300 feel above sea level It is eminently 
suited for defence, as there is a good water supply on the 
mountain, and secluded valleys exist in which large numbers 
of cattle could be concealed, as well as caves for the storing of 
grain. The immediate approaches are very difficult rocky 
paths, the only one suitable for pack animals being one 
branching from the Pietersburg-Lydenburg road in a N.E. 
direction over a shoulder of the mountain. There are two or- 



142 THE NATIVE TKIISES OF THE TRANSVAAL 

three other foot tracks which ascend Khonoko from the W. 
and N.W. 

((.') Thaba Mosego, owing to the scarcity of water on it, is 
not of any great importance from a mihtary point of view. It 
is situated 20 miles north of Khonoko. This mountain is the 
sacred place of the Bapedi, who still offer sacrifices on the 
graves of Sekwati and other chiefs who are buried there. 

Besides the regular strongholds above mentioned, many 
places in and about the Drakensberg range offer facilities for 
guerrilla warfare, and would afford hiding places for natives in 
revolt. The whole of the Low country, east of the Drakensberg, 
is practically covered with thorn-bush, which is thick in parts 
Except along the rivers, however, water is too scarce to admit 
•"of any large numbers of natives maintaining themselves for any 
lencth of time. 



Western Division. 

The Pilansberg {see Transvaal Degree Sheet '■'' Rusteitbnrg") 
IS the only native location in these districts worth considering 
from a military point of view. It is a circular chain of hills, 
rising 700 to 1,500 feet above the surrounding plain, the circle 
being about 18 miles in diameter. The hills are rocky with a 
few trees ; the interior valleys mostly clothed with bush. There 
is a fairly good water supply from several streams. The 
Pilansberg is 80 miles via Rustenburg from Pretoria, the near- 
est point on the railway. Good roads for all arms all the way. 
There are six roads into the Pilansberg, an attack on which 
would present no real difficulties to a force provided with 
artillery. The place, however, has some importance as it is 
occupied by the Transvaal Bakhatla, who, owing to their 
connection with the people of Linchwe in Bechuanaland, would 
most probably be involved in any disturbance that might be 
started by that somewhat ambitious chief. 

Of the other locations in this division, the two principal ones, 
namely, the Moilo and Kunana locations, are not easily de- 
fensible, and could besides be very quickly reached from the 
western railway. None of the remaining western locations are 
•of any military importance. 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. I43 



'I'hi-: Ckxtrai, Division. 

There are no si)ecial localities to which any of the tril)es 
would be likely to retire with a view to defending them. 



Thk South-Eastern Districts. 

The mountainous borders of Swaziland might be utilized by 
revolted natives as temporary places of refuge, but it is more 
likely that they would retire into Swaziland proper. 



APPENDIX II. 

THE NATIVE MISSIONS OF THE TRANSVAAL. 

Almost every native location and native centre in the 
Transvaal has its own mission. The missionaries are of 
various denominations but include only one Roman Catholic ;. 
the majority are German Lutheran, and Swiss Presbyterian. 
The missions are distributed as follows : — 



THE NATIVE TRIBES OF THE TRANSVAAL. 145 







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148 THE NATIVK TKII'.I'.S OF l Hi; TRANSVAAL. 

This number of natives nia\' be considered as directly under 
the influence of Christianity, and it will be noticed that 
considerably more than half of them are in the western districts. 
There are of course numbers of natives, besides those 
resident on Mission Stations, who profess Christianity in some 
form or other, but the total number of so-called converts is a 
very small percentage of the whole native population, and this 
number does "not seem to be increasing very rapidly. 

The missionaries, howexer, also do an immensity of good in 
various ways unconnected with religious doctrines, teaching 
the natives better methods of agriculture, and the rudiments 
of various trades and handicrafts by the practice of which they 
<:an earn money and so better their material condition. As a 
result it is noticeable that natives living near mission stations 
usually have better houses, get more out of the ground, and 
are individually more prosperous than the others. 



APPENDIX III. 
AUTHORITIES CONSULTED. 

The Bcginnini:, of South Afnca)i History. By Dr. O. 

McC. Theal. Capetown : T. Maskew Miller. 1902. 
History of South Africa. 5 volumes. By Dr. G. 

McC. Theal. Eondon : Swan Sonnenschein and Co. 

1897-1900. 
The Boer States. By Professor A. H. Keane. London : 

Methuen and Co. igoo. 
The Modem Languages of Africa. 2 volumes. By R. iN . 

Cust. London : Triibner and Co. 1883. 
Geschichte dcr Baivciida-Mission in Nord Transvaal. 

Missionary pamphlet by W. Criindler. Berlin : 1897. 
Lc Bokaha. Missionarj- pamphlet by E. Thomas. 

Neuchatel. 1895. 
Various Parliamentary Bluebooks on South African 

Affairs. 
Annual Reports of the Commissioner for Native Affairs. 

Transvaal, 1902, 1903, 1904. 
Report hy the Commissioner for Native Affairs on the 

" Acquisition and tenure of land by natives" 1904. 
Report of the South African Native Affairs Commissiou 

190375- 
The Archives ot the late South African Republic. 
Sundry manuscript notes by the Officials of the Nali\(.- 

Affairs Department, French and German Missionaries, 

etc., kindly lent l)y the Secretary for Native Affair.-^, 

Transvaal. 



INDEX. 



A. 

PAGE 

Administrative " Divisions" and " Districts... ... ... ... 94-5 

Albasini, JoSo, becomes chief of the Shangaans ... ... ... 64 

,, ,, his character and career ... ... ... ... 65 

Arms in possession of natives ... ... ... ... ... ... 30 

Arts and handicrafts, native ... ... ... ... ... ... 133-4 

Asiatics, influx of ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 7 



B. 

Bafokeng, The. Section of the Bakwena tribe ... ... .. 20 

.Baharutsi (Barotsi) tribe, The ... ... ... ... ... ... 18 

Bahwaduba, The. Section of Zuhis .. ... ... ... ... 34 

Bakhafela, The. Section of the Bakhatla tribe ... ... ... 23 

Bakhatla tribe, The ... 22-4 

,, tribes descended fiom ... ... ... ... ... ... 23-4 

Bakhaha, The. Branch -. f the Bapedi tribe ... ... ... ... 55 

Bakhananwa (Malabokh's) tribe. The 53 

Bakoni tribe. The. Eastern districts ... ... ... ... ... 78-9 

,, ,, Zoutpansberg Division ... ... ... ... 47 

Bakubung or Bakhofa, The. Section of Bakwena tribe ... ... 21-2 

Bakulubeng, The.., ... ... .. ... ... ... ... 27 

Bakwebo tribe, The ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5° 

Bakwena tribe. The 19,80 

■ Balemba, probable Semitic origin of the ... .. ... ... 60 

Baloyi, The. Shangaan tribe ... ... ... ... ... ... 66-7 

Bamakhopa, The. Section of the Bakwena ... .... ... ... 20 

Bamalete, The 27 

Bamatau, The. Section of the Ba-moHmosana ... .. ... 21 

Bamatlaku, The. ,, ,, ,, ,, ... ... ... ... 21 

Bamolechi, The. (Mahtzi's tribe) ... ... ... ... ... 47 

Bamolimosana, The ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 21 

Bamosetla, The. Section of the Bakhatla tribe ... ... ... 23 

Banareng or Banareni tribe, The ... ... ... ... ... 5^ 

Ba-nkuna tribe, The. (Shangaan) ... ... ... ... ... 65 

■^ Bantu, Meaning of the word ... ... ... ... ... ... 6-7 



INDEX; 151 

PAGE 

Bantu, uibal system, The ■.; . .■•>;;U9-2l ■ 

Banlwane, The ... ... ... ... i.- ..-.;,. 34 

Bapedi tribe, The ... ... ... ... ... 74~8 

Baphalane, The. Section of the Bakwena tribe ... ■ .,.. 22 

Baphiring tribe. The ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 24 

Baphuti or Bahputi, The 79 

Bapo and the Batlako, The 26 

Baralong tribe. The ... ... ... ... ... ... I5"~^ 

Baramanemela, The. Section of the Ba-niolimo.sana ... ... 21 

Barotseland, Conquest of ... ... ... .•■ .■• ••• 9 

Barotse tribe, The ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 18 

Basuto, Dialects of the ... ... ....... ... ... ... 46 

Basuto tribes of the Central Division ... ... ... ... ... 32 

,, „ of the Eastern Districts ... ... ... ... ... 73 

, „ ,, of the Zoutpansberg Division ... ... ... ... 45"^ 

Ba-Tau tiibe, The. (Eastern Districts) 79 

Ba-Taung, The ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .•• 25 

Batlaung, The 27 

Batlokwa or Batokwa, The 25,49 

Batlokwa tribe, The original ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 

Batsuetla, Basuto name for the Bavenda ... ... ... ... 59 

Bavenda tribe. The ... ... ... ... ... ■• ... 59 

,, ,, Descent from Bakhatla stock of chiefs of ... 59 

,, ,, Attacked by Swazis and Shangaans ... ... 106 

,, ,, Fighting strength of ... ... ... ..., 63 

" Black Matabele," The 4° 

Blauwberg, Stronghold of the .. ... ... ... ... ... I39 

Blood River, Battle of the 9 

Boer Expeditions against the Bamapela ... ... 104, 106 

,, Bapedi loi, 107 

,, David Massouw m 

,, Katlakter (Bavenda) 105 

,, Makapan's people ... ... 103-4 

,, Malabokh I12-3 

,, Mapokh 109-11 

,, Moselikatse 100 

,, Mpefu 115-6 

,, Setyeli 102-3 

,, various tribes ... ... ... ... II5~5 

British expedition against Sekukuni ... ... ... ... ... 108-9 

Bushmen, The ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Buys people. The (half-caste tribe) ... ... ... ... ... 69-70 



Carolina district. The tribes of ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 

Cattle owned by natives ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 128 

Central division. Native population of the ... ... ... ... 32 

Chaka, The Zulu chief ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 

Circumcision ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... 123-4 

Classification of the Bantu ... ... ... ... ... ... 7 



152 



INDEX, 



Coast tribes, The ... ... 

Commissioner for Native Affairs, The .. 
Conclusions drawn from Native Wars .. 
Chuenc, petty chief 



7 

94 
II6-8 

55 



D. 

David Massouw, Boer Expedition against ... ... ... ... m 

Death and Burial Customs ... ... ... ... ... ... 123 

Descent of Various Tribes from the Bakhatla ... ... ... ... 23-4 

Dingaan, The Zulu Chief ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 

Distribution of Natives, Present ... ... ... ... ... 12-13 

Distribution and Strength of Tribes of Western Division ... ... 28-9. 

,, ,, ,, Central ,, ... ... 37-S 

N.W. „ 43 

„ ,, ,, S.E. Districts ... ... 91 

„ ,, Basuto of Zoutpansberg Division ... 57-8 

„ ,, ,, of Eastern Districts ... ... 82-4 

,, ,, Bavenda ... ... ... ... ... 63 

„ ,, Shangaans of Zoutpansberg ... ... 68 

,, ,, ,, Eastern Districts .. . ... 86 

,, ,, Swazis ,, ,, ... ... 86 

Divisions and Districts, Administrative ... ... ... ... 94-5 

Dog tax ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 99 

Dress distinctions... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 131-2 

Duties of Officials of Native Affairs Department ... ... ... 95-6 

Dzada, The ruins of ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 6o> 



E. 

vj^astern Districts, Native ropuhilion of the 

Eland, Charlie, Petty chief 

Eland, Jack, Petty chief... 

' Ermelo District, Tribes of the ... 
*' Ethiopian Church," Influence of the... 



40 
40, 69 

92 
35.41- 



F. 

Faction fight in the Bakhatla tribe 
Factions of the Bapedi ... 
Firearms surrendered by natives 1903, List of 
Franz, The Rev. R., German missionary 



• 35-l> 

• 77-S 
.129-30 

54 



Gasibone, Bakwena chief 
♦' Great Trek," The 



2f 
Ct-10> 



INDEX. 



is:> 



H. 



Habitations, Native 

Heidelberg District, Unclassified natives of th 

Hereros, The 

Herman Selon, Bakwena chief ... 

Hlangaan tribes, The 

Hottentots, The ... 

Hut tax, Proposed 



PAGl!- 

35 

}y 

21 

8S 

5 

9f> 



Ikalafeng, Bahurutsi chief 
Interior tribes, The 



I'* 
ii 



J. 



Jensen, Mr., Missionary... 



Katlakter, Ba\cnda chief, Boer Expedition against 

Kekaan, Karel, Zulu chief 

Kekaan tribes, The ... ... ..'. 

Khafela, Tiie Bakhatla of 

Khopane, Baharulsi chief 

Khupa, Section of the Bakwebo tribe... 

Kivi, Bakhananwa chief. .. 

Klein Makhato, Tau chief 

Klein Mtiba, Bakoni chief 

" Knob- Noses," The. (Shangaans) ... 

Kobeni, Basuto chief. Eastern Districts 

Kukuna Lekhali, Bakoni chief... 









105 








34 






34 


.39 
23 
19 
5' 
54 
50' 
49 
64 
81 

40 



L. 

Laban, Joseph, I'ctly chief 

Labour Districts ... 

Lagden, Sir (iodfrcy, Commissioner for Native Affairs 

Land tenure by natives, Question of ... 

Languages, Native 

Lehau, Bakhatla chieftainess 

Leihlo Lo Babatsho, Native newspaper 

Lekhali's section of the Bakoni tribe ... 

Letwaba tribe. The 

Li-Kulube section of the Bakwebo tribe 

Linchwc, Bakhatla chief 



37 

14 

94 

96-8 

135-^ 
36 
7' 
48 
60 
51,80 
30.31 



,154 INDEX. 

PAGE 

List of tribes and chiefs. Central Division .. ... ... ... 37-8 

... .' ,- .. N.W. „ 43 

,, ,, ,, Western ,, ... ... ... ... 28-9 

,, ■ ,, ■ Basuto, Eastern Districts ... ... ... 82-4 

■ ,, ,, ,, ,, Zoutpansberg Division ... 57-8 

,, ' ' ,,' ,,' Bavenda ... ... ... 63 

,, ■ ■ ,, ,, Shangaan, Eastern Districts ... ... 89 

.," ,,' .> ,, Zoutpansberg Division ... 68 

,, ,,' ,, Swazi, Eastern Districts ... ... ... 86 

,, " ,, ,, Zulu, Eastern Districts ... ... ... 88 

,, ,, ,, S.E. Districts ... ... ... ... 93 

Livestock owned by natives, Return of ... ... ... ... 128 

Livingstone, Dr., Damage to property of ... ... ... 103 

Lobengula ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ii 

Lomomio, Bavenda chief ... . . . • ... ... ... ... 62 

Luluberg, Strongholds' of the • ... ... ... ... ... ... 141-2 



M. 

Maake section of the-Bakonitribe •• ... *" ... 48 

Maake section of the Bamolimosana tribe ... ... ... ... 21 

Mabalane, Philip, Baphiring chief ... ... ... ... ... 24 

*' Mac-Mac" or Nyanda, Swazi chieftaine.ss ... ... .. ... 85 

Mafefe, Nuku chief ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 56 

Magwaniba, The. (Shangaans) ... ... ... ... ... 64 

Mahlangu, Fene, Zulu chief ... ... ... ... ... ... 34 

Mahupa's section of the Bakoni tribe ... ... ... ... 48 

Maja, I'etty chief ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 55 

Makapan's Gat, Description of... ... ... ... ... ... 140-1 

Makapan, Solomon, Bakhatla chief ... ... ... ... ... 37 

Makapan, Valtyn, Kekaan chief ...... ... ... ... 39 

'Makhato, Bavenda chief 
■Makhato, Klein, Tau chief 



Makhuba, Mutalerwa chief 

Makololo, The 

Makwarella, Bavenda chief 



Malabokh's tribe (the Bakhananwa) ... ... ... ... ... 53 

Malabokh, Boer expedition against ... ... ... ... ... 112-3 

Malakutu, Bapedi chief ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 77 

Maleo or Maloyi tribe ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 80 

Malikajik, Swazi chi.ef ... 85 

Malitzi's or Bamolechi tribe ... ... ... ... ... ... 47 

]VIamabolo or Li-Kulube section of Bakwebo tribe ... ... ... 51 

;Mamaiolla's section of Banareng tribe... ... ... ... ... 52 

iMamichi or Sekoko, Nuku chief .... ... ... 56 

.Mamitwa, Baloyi chief ... ... ... ... ... 66 

Mamokhali, Johannes Otto, Bakwena chief ... ... ... ... 21 

.Manala section of Zulus ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 33 

.Manners and Customs ... ... ... ... ... ... 121 el seq. 

.Ma Ntatisi ; The Mantatis . 9 

iMapela Tribes, The ... ... ... ... ... ... 40 



INDEX. 155 

PAGE 

Mapela Chiefs, Characters of the ... ... 41 

Mapokh's tribe ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 86-7 

Mapokh and Malew a routed by Swazis ... ... ... ... 104 

,, Boer e.xpedition against ... ... ... ... ...109-11 

Maraba, Jonathan, Kekaan chief ... ... ... ... ...40,69 

Maraba, WilHam, ,, ,, ... ... ... ... ... 40 

Marichane, Bapedi chief ... ... ... .-.. .. ... 77 

Maritz, Boer leader ... ... ... ... ... ... n 

Marriage customs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 121-2 

Mashashaan, Letwaba chieftainess ... ... ... ... ... 69 

Masibi, Hans, Mapela chief ... ... ... ... ... ... 40 

Masibi, Hendrik Backeberg, Mapela chief ... ... ... ... 40 

Matabata, Mutalerwa chief ... ... ... ... ... ... 55 

Matabele, The n 

"The Black" 40 

Matala's Location, Description of ... ... ... ... ... 140 

,, section of the Bakoni tribe ... ... ... ... ... 48 

Maihibe, Amos (alias Lipunu), Zulu chief ... ... ... ... 34 

,, Paledi, mixed tribe under ... ... ... ... ... 34 

Matlaping, Sibulawa, Batlokwa chief ... .. ... ... ... 25 

,, Sidumedi, ,, ,, ... ... ... ... ... 25 

Matok or Masanyane, ,, ,, ... ... ... ... ... 49 

Matsatsi Tlol we, Batlokwa chief ... ... ... ... ... 25 

Mavamba, Shangaan chief ... ... ... ... ... ... 65 

Minga, Shangaan chief ... ... ... .... ... ... ... 65 

Missions, Native ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 145-8 

Mohlaba, Nkuna chief ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 66 

Moilo's Location, Description of ... ... ... ... ... 31 

Mojaji, chieftainess of the Bakwebo tribe ... ... ... ... 5°"^ 

Mojaji's Location, Description of ... ... ... ... ... 140 

Mokhale, Darius, Bapo chief ... ... ... ... ... ... 26 

,, Diederick, Bapo chief ... .. ... ... ... 26 

Mokhatla, Tom, Baharutsi chief ... ... ... ... .. 19 

Mokoto, husband of Mojaji ... ... ... ... ... ... 5^ 

Molehi, alias Ramaubane, petty chief ... ... ... ... ... 21 

Molepo, Mutalerwa chief ... ... ... ... ... ... 55 

Molete, David, chief of Bakulubeng tribe :.. ... ... ... 27 

Molifyane, Sefanyetso, Faphiring chief ... ... ... ... 25 

Molotlegi, alias August Mokhatle, Bakwena chief ... ... ... 20 

• Montsiwa and Moshete, War l)elween... ... ... ... .., 17 

More, Daniel, Bakwena chief ... ... ... ... ... ... 21 

• Moselikatse, The Zulu conqueror ... ... ... ... ... 10 

,, routed by Boers ... ... ... ... ... ... Ii 

„ founds the Matabele kingdom ... ... ... ... Ii 

„ Boer expeditions against ... ... ... ... ... loo-i 

Motele, Basuto chief. Eastern Districts ... ... ... ... 81 

Mpahlela, Bakhaha chief 55 

Mpefu, present chief of Bavenda tribe ... ... ... ... 61 

„ Boer expedition against... ... ... ... ... ... 11 5-6 

Mrehi, Basuto chief. Eastern Districts... ... ... ... ... 81 

Msikiza, Swazi chief ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 85 

Mtiba, petty chief 49 



156 INDEX. 

I'AGK 

Mukhubua, chief of the Banialelc ... ... ... ... ... 27 

Mukhubua section of the Bakweho tribe ... ... ... ... 51-2 

Musi, The sons of, founder of the Transvaal Zulu tribes ... ... 33 

Mutalcrwa tribe. The ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 54-!% 

Mutlo Mabi, Batlako chiel 

N. 

Natal, British annexation of ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Natalia, Republic of ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Native Affairs Department, Organisation of the ... ... ... 94 

Native names, Orthography of ... .„ ... ... ... ... 137 

Native Vigilance Association, The ... ... ... ... ... 71 

Native wars, Conclu ions drawn from ... ... ... ... ... 116-S 

Native weapons ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 129 

Newspaper, Native (Leihlo Lo Babatsho) ... ... ... ... 71 

Ngulube, Swazi chief ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 85 

Nkobe, ,, „ 85 

Nkuna or Bankuna tribe, The ... ... ... ... ... ... 65 

Nkwane, Baphuti chief ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 79 

Nomqcisa or Nompete, Swazi chieftainess ... ... ... ... 85 

Nuku Section of Bakhaha tribe... ... ... ... ... ... 55 

Nyanda or " Mac-mac," Swazi chieftainess ... ... ... ... 85 

Nyumba Mabena, Zulu cliief ... ... ... ... ... ... 33 

Nzunza (Mapokh's) tribe of Zulus ... ... ... ... ... 34 

O. 

" Oorlamsch," The. Descendants of slaves ... ... ... ... 35 

Organization of the Native xVftairs Department ... ... ... 94 

Orthography of native names ... ... ... ... ... ... 13? 

Ovampo tribe. The ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ^ 



Paswane, Sekukuni's adviser ... ... ... ... ... ...79,80 

Physique of natives ... ... ... ... ... ••• ... 13^ 

Piet Retief, Boer leader 10 

Piet Retief district. The tribes of ... ... ... ... ... 92 

Pilane, Ramono. Bakhatla chief ... ... ... ... ... 30 

Pokhisho, Baharutsc chief ... ... ... ... ... ... 19 

Poll-tax, Native 99 

Population, 1904. Total native ... ... ... ... ... 12-13 

,, ,, Western Division ... ... ... ... ... 15 

,, ,, Central ., 3^ 

N.W. „ 39 

,, ,, Zoutpansberg Division ... ... ... ... 44 

,, ,, Ea.stern Districts ... ... ... .., ... 73 

S.E. „ 9' 

Powers of Officials of Native Affairs Department ... ... ... 95""^^ 

Punitive measures against various tribes ... ... ... ... II3~.'> 

Pursuits and occupations. Native ... ... ... ••• ••• 1^7""^ 



INDEX. 



157 



R. 



Uamakhupa, Batokwa cliicf 

Ramakok, Bakwena chief 

Ramapulana, Bavenda chief 

Ramaramisa (known as Sibasa), Bavenda chief 

Ramolekana, Baralong chief 

Ramputa, Bavenda chief 

Ralsegaai, alias Andries Lekhwali, Bakwena chief 

Ivedistribution of tribes, Causes of 

Registered firearms in possession of natives ... 

Rehgious beliefs, Bantu ... 

Retief, Piet, Boer leader 

Rifles in possession of the Bakhatki 



PAGE 

49 
22 
61 
62 
18 
62 
21 

II-I2 
130 

124-6 
10 
30 



s. 

Sebetwane, Makololo chief 
Sebogodi, Bahurutsi chief 
Secretary, Native Affairs, The ... 
Sekhopo section of the Bakwebo tribe ... 
Sekoko alias Mamichi, chief of Nuku tribe ... 
Sekororo's section of the Banareng tribe 
.Sekukuni I, chiefof the Bapedi 

,, British expedition against ... 
Sekukuni, The present chief 

,, Character of ... 
Sekukuniland, The strongholds of 
.Sekvvati, Bapedi chief ... 
Sekwati, Bakoni chief ... 
Selebul's section of the Banareng tribe 
.Seripa Moloto, chief of the Bamolechi tribe ... 
Sesuto, Dialects of 

Setjeli or Secheli, Boer expedition against 
.Shangaan tribes. The. Zoutpansberg Division 

,, ,, ,, Eastern Districts 

Shikwane (Zebedela) Kekaan chief 
Shopiane, Swazi chief eastern districts... 
Sibasa or Ramaramisa, Bavenda chief .. . 
Sibolayu Tlokhvvane, Pleadman 
Sikundu, Shangaan chief 

.Sintimulla, brother of Mpefu, Bavenda chief .. 
Sillari, Basuto chief, Eastern Districts... 
Sitorom, Swazi chief, Eastern Districts 
Sivenda, Language of the Bavenda 
.Skep Maluka, Bakhatla chief ... 
Spelling of native names... 
Standerton District, The tribes of 
Stephen, Bakwena chief. .. 
Strength and distribution of tribes. 



Western Division 
Central Divisiort 



9 

19 
94 
51 
56 

52 
76 

108-9 
77 
7« 

141-2 

76 

49 

53 

47 

46 

102 

64-8 

88-9 

39 

«5 

62 

27 
65 
62 
81 
8s 
60 

35. 3(> 

137 

92 

22 

28-9 

37-« 



158 



INDEX. 



Strength and distribution of tribes, N.W. Division ... 

S.E. Districts ... 
Basuto, Zoutpansberg Division 
Eastern Districts 
Bavenda tribe ... 
Shangaans, Zoutpansb. Div. .. 
,, Eastern District,^ .. 
Swazis, Eastern Districts 
Zulus ,, ,, 

Zoutpansberg Division 

Strongholds, Descriptions of various native 

Swazi tribes. Eastern Districts ... 

Swazis, The. Raid the Bapedi 
,, ,, Attack Mapokh... 
,, ,, ,, the Bavenda 



I'AGfc 

43 

91 

57-8 

82-4 

63 

68 

89 

86 

88 

69 

139-42 

85 

76 

104 

106 



J'abakulu, Basuto chief, Eastern Districts 
Taxes paid by natives 
Tengwe, Bavenda chief .. . 

Thebe, Petty chief 

Tohoyandwa, The Bavenda hero 
Totems or tribal emblems 
Tribal distinctions 

,, system, The Bantu 
Tribes descended from the Baralong . . . 

,, ,, ,, Baharutsi ... 

Tseke, Batau chief, known as Makhali 
Tsolobolo or Selebul, Banareng chief ... 
Tulare, Bapedi chief 
Turmetsyane, Sekukuni's mother 



81 





99 
62 




19 
60 




125-6 




131 




! 19-21 




16 




18 




80 




53 




75 




77 



u. 



Umzilikazi, see Moselikatse. 
Unclassified natives, Heidelberg District 



" Vaalpens," The. (Aboriginals) 
Valtyn Makapan, Kekaan chief 
Vigilance Association, The native 



70 
39 

71 



VV. 

Wakkerstroom District, The tribes of ... 
Weapons, Native 

William, son of Kholane, Bapedi chief 
Windham, Mr. W., Secretary Native Affairs 
Witchcraft and Witch-doctors ... 



91-2 
129 

n 
94 
126 



INDKX. 



159 



Z. 



Zimbabwe, The ruins of... 
Zoutpansberg, The strongholds of the 
Zulu invasion of the Transvaal ... 

,, Empire in 1828 

,, tribes Central Division 

,, ,, Zoutpansberg Division 

,, ,, Eastern Districts 
Zwaartbooi's Location ... 



pai;k 

5 
139-40 

9 

9 

35 

69 

86-7 

34 



LONDONi 

ruiNTm ron IT;s SIajestt's Statiovki't f'.irtrr 

EY i;aui;is()X am> sons, sr. mauhns i.ah^, 

1K1.MKK3 IN OltBIXAnV TO lIlS MajUSTK. 



(Wt. w. 3531 350 10 1 05— II & S 7269) 



P. 05 
742 



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