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Natural History 


Suona ^ib'man oi "Cfet dBnglis^ Cgjtinpabxa/* 



Volume I. 



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PIAR -7 i9l7 


Since the publication of the ^^ Natural Hibtort'' Division of the Engush GYCLOPiEDiA, 
our knowledge of the laws which regulate the various phenomena of life has been largely 
increased. In the Supplement which is being prepared, the principal discoveries and the 
results of recent investigations — embracing the many facts which have accumulated, the 
hypotheses that have been started, and the various theories that have been established — 
will be carefully set forth, so far as they serve to illustrate the progress of this great 
department of Science. 

In the current numbers of the Re-issue, a reference {See Supplement) is made at the 
end of those articles to which it is intended to add further information. 

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AABD-VARK {Oryeteroput, Geoffiroy), in Zoology, a weam» of 
animalH belonging to the class Mammalia, and order Edentata, 
The Oryeteroput is now separated from the Myrmecophaga, or 
Ant-Eaters of Linnsras, with which it had been formerly associated. 
In its anatomical stmoture it bears a much doser relation to the 
armadillos than to any other quadrupeds, not even excepting the 
ant-eaters, with which it was formerly associated. Like these animals , 
the Oryeteroput is provided with large and powerful oJaws, for digging 
up roots and insects, and for forming subterraneous burrows ; and, 
like them, has neither incisors nor canine teeth. Its molar teeth, 
however, are altogether peculiar, both in form and structure, and 
have no resemblance to the teeth of any other known animal. Of 
these there are five large ones on each side (both in the upper and 
under jaws), which are always permanent ; and a variable number of 
from one to three smaller ones, placed in front of the others, and appa- 
rently representing the false molars of ordinary quadrupeds. The first 
of the lai^ molars is smaller than any of the other four, and of a 
cylindrical form, somewhat compressed or flattened on the sides; the 
second is rounder; the third and fourth are each composed of two 
similar cylinders, as it were, soldered together; and the last is a 
simple cylinder, like the first and second. Immediately in front of 
these are the small or false molars, which, falling annually, vary in 
number according to the individuaL Properly speaking, the teeth 
of these animals are destitute of real roots, and are therefore, like 
the tuAa of the elephant, and the indsors of the rodentia, capable of 
being indefinitely increaised, by the deposit of new matter on the 
under extremity, to counterbalance the continual wear of the upper 

In the form of the extremities the Oryeteroput resembles the 
armadillos still more nearly than in the nature of its dental system. 
The legs are remarkably diort and stout ; the feet plantigrade (that 
is to say, the animal walks upon the whole sole of the foot^ as in man 
and the bear, instead of bringing the point of the toe only in oontaot 
with the ground, as may be obs^n^ed in the dog, horse, &c.) ; and the 
toes, of which there are four on the fore feet and five on the hind, are 
armed with extremely laige and powerful claws, flattened horizon- 
tally, and scooped or hollowed out on the under surfiice, so as to form 
a most efficient instrument for digging and burrowing beneath the 
surface of the earth. This process is still further feusilitated by the 
oblique form of the anterior extremities, arising from the unequal 
length of the toes ; the two interior being considerably longer uian 
the others, and the whole Himinialimg gradually from tile index (or 
toe corresponding with the fore-finger) outwards. In other parts of • 
its anatomy the Oryeteroput resembles both the armadillos and the 
ant-eaters, and particularly in the form and structure of the stomach 
and alimentaiy canaL The reader who is desirous of further informa- 
tion upon these subjects may consult Cuvier's ' Logons d' Anatomie 
Compap^' and his great work, * Sur les Ossemens Fossilee,' ftx)m 
which the details here given are for the most part abridged. 

The only species of this curious genus with which soologista are at 
present acquainted is the Aard-Vark {Oryeteroput Capenti^ It is an 
animal extremely conmion in some parts of SouUiem Africa, though, 
from its nocturnal habits and extreme timidity, it is not so frequentiy 
seen as many others which are in reality scarcer. Its colonial name 
of a&rd-vark, or earth-pig, by which it is known among the Dutch 
^habitants of the Cape of Good Hone, is derived as well from its 
habit of burrowing as from the general appearance which it beacs^ at 


first sights to a small, short-lagged pig. This animal, when full ^wn, 
measures about three feet five inches from the snout to the origin of 
the tail ; the head is eleven inches long ; the ears six inches ; and the 
tail one foot nine inches. The head is long and attenuated ; the upper 
jaw projects b^nd the lower, and ends, as in the common hog, in 
a truncated caUous snout, having the nostrils pierced in the end of 
it ; the mouth is small for the size of the animal, and the tongue fiat 
and slender, not cylindrical as in the true ant-eaters, nor capable of 
being protruded to such an extent as in these, animals: it is^ however, 

Amrd-Vark {Oryet^rcfut OaptntU). 

covered in like manner with a glutinous saliva, which firmly retains 
the ants, upon which the animid lives, and prevents those which once 
come in contact with it frT>m escaping afterwards. The ears are large, 
erect, and pointed; and the eyes, which are of moderate size, are 
situated between them and the snout, about two-thirds of the distance 
from the extremily of the latter. The body of the aard-vark is thick 
and corpulent; the limbs short and remarkably strong; the hide 
thick, tough, and nearly naked, having only a few stiff hairs, of a 
pale reddish-brown colour, thinly scattcured over it, excepting on the 
flips and thighs, where thev are more numerous than ekewhere. The 
tail is about half the length of the body and head tog^ether, and, like 
the body, is nearly naked ; it is extremely tiiick and cylindrical at the 
base, but decreases gradually towards tiie extremity, and ends in a sharp 

Thus formed, the aard-vark is in all respects admirably fitted for the 
station which nature has assigned to it in the grand economy of the 
animal kingdom. It feeds entirely upon ants, and in this respect 
fulfils the same purposes in Southern Africa which is executed by the 
PangoUnt in Asia, the Myrmecophaga in America, and the SAiema in. 

These insects raise mounds of an elliptical figure, to the height of 
three or four feet above the suzfboe of tne ground ; and so numerous 

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ftre these gigaatio ant-hills in some parts of Southern Africa, that they 
are frequency seen extending over the plains as far as the eye can rrach, 
and so close together that the traveller s waggon can with cJUfficulty pass 
between theuL They abound more especially in the Zeurevelden, or 
sour districts, so called from producing a kind of sour grass ; are seldom 
found on the karroos or downs, and never in very dry or woody districts. 
By constant exposure to the rays of a powerful tropical e\m they become 
so hard and indurated on the outer surmce that they easily support the 
weight of three or four men, and even a loaded waggon will sometimes 
pass over without crushing them. Litemally these mounds are of a 
spongy structure, something resembling a honeycomb, and are so oom- 
pletely saturated with animal oil that ^ey inflame without difficulty, 
and are an excellent substitute f6r Wood or ooal. 

Wherever ant-hills abound the aaid-Vaii: is sure to be fpxmd at no 
great distance. He constructs a deep burrow in the immediate vicinity 
of his food, and changes his residence only after he has exhausted his 
resources. The facility with which he burrows beneath the surface 
of the earth is said to be almost inconceivable. We have already 
seen how admirably his feet. and claws are adapted to this purpose; 
and travellers inform us that it is quite impracticable to dig him out, 
as he can in a few minutes bury himself at a depth far beyond the 
reach of his pursuers ; and, further, that his strength is so great as 
to require the imited efforts of two or three men to drag him from his 
hole. When fiiirly caught, however, he is by no means retentive of life, 
but is easily dispatched by a slight blow over the snout. The aard- 
vark is an .extremely timid, harmless animal, seldom removes to any 
great distance from his burrow, being slow of foot and a bad nmner, 
and is never by any chance found abroad during the day-tima On 
the approach of night he sallies forth in search of food, and, repairing 
to the nearest inhabited ant-hill, scratches a hole in the side of it just 
sufficient to admit his long snouts Here, after having previously 
ascertained that there is no danger of interruption, he lies down, 
And, inserting his long slender tongue into the breach, entraps the 
tots, which fly to defend their dwdOdngs upon the first alarm, and, 
hiounting upon the tongue of the aai^-vark, get entangled in the 
glutinous saliva, and are swallowed by whole scores at a time. If 
unintermpted, he continues this process till he has satisfied his 
appetite; out on the slightest alarm he makes a precipitate retreat, 
and seeks security at the bottom of his subterranean dwelling. Hence 
it is that these anirnaln are seldom seen even in those parts of the country 
in which they are most numerous. Like other nocturnal ftniwiala^ which 
pass the greater part of their lives in sleeping and eating, they become 
exceedingly fat, and their flesh is consiaerMl to be a wholesome and 
palatable food. The hind-quarters, particularly when out into hams 
and dried, are held in great esteem. 

AARD-WOLF {Protdet, Is. Geof.), in Zoology, a genus of digitigrade 
carnivorous mammals, founded by M. Isidore Qeoffiroy St. Hilaire, for 
the purpose of giving a place to a new and singular quadruped brought 
some ^ears ago from Cafiraria by the traveller Delalande. This 
genus IS interesting to the zoologist, as forming the intermediate link 
which connects the civets with the dogs and hysenas — ^three genera 
which have hitherto stood, as it were, insulated from surrounding 
groups, and widely separated from one another. The dogs and hyaanas, 
indeed, had been united a short time previous, by the discovery of an 
intermediate species in the same locality which has since produced the 
Ptoteles; but it is this latter species alone, which, utdtmg the cha- 
racters of all these three genera, enables us to trace their natural 
affinities, and to assign to th^m their proper position in the scale of 

To the external appearance and osteological structure of an hysena 
this truly singular animal unites the head and feet of a fox, and 
the intestines of a civet. lU teeth are remarki^ble : the permanent 
canines are tolerably lai:ge,'but the" molars are small, and separated 
by intervals. It has five toes on the fore feet, and four only on the 
hind ; the innermost toe of the fore foot is placed, as in the dogs, at 
some distance above the others, and therefore never touches the ground 
when the animal stands or walks. The legs also are completely digiti- 
grade ; that is to say, the heel is elevated, and does not come into 
oontact with the surface, as in man and other similarly formed animals, 
which walk upon the whole sole of the foot, and are thence said to be 
plantigrade. It is of great importance to remark the difference between 
these two modifications of the locomotive organs, because they have a 
very decided and extraordinary influence upon the habits and economy 
of animal life. Digitigrade animate, whidi tread only upon the toes, 
and carry the heel considerably elevated above the ground, have much 
longer legs than plai^tigrade animals, and are, therefore, espedally 
fitted for leaping and running with great ease and rapidity. Accord- 
ingly, it wiU be observed that the horse, the stag, itie antelope, the 
dog, and other animala remarkable for rapidity of course, partake 
strongly of this formation ; and even tiieir degree of swiftness is accu- 
rately measured by the comparative elevation of the heeL Inattentive 
observers sometimes misapprehend the nature of this peculiar con- 
formation of the extremities of digitigrade animals, and are apt to 
confound the hough with the ankle, azid to mistake for the knee what 
is really the heel of the animal Thus we have heard it said that> in 
the hind legs of the horse, the knee was bent in a contrary direction 
io that of man. This is bv no means true : a little attention to the 
viccession of the different joints and articulationfl^ iriU show that what 

is called the cannon-bone in the horse, and other digitigrade animals, 
in reality corresponds to the instep in man ; and that what is generally 
mistaken for the knee really represents the heeL 

In the particular case of the ProteUs the natural effect of the digiti- 
grade formation is, in some degree, lessened by the pec\iliar structure 
of the fore legs, which, contrary to the general rule observable in most 
other animals, are considerably longer than the hind. In this respect, 
also, the Protelea resembles the hyeenas ; and in both genera this 
singular disproportion between the anterior and posterior extremities 
abridges the velocity properly due to their digitigrade conformation. 
This genus contains but a single speciea 

Aard.Wolf {Ptrotele$ LaUmdii^ 

The Aard-Wdlf, or Earth-Wolf (Protdea LaJUmdii, Is. Geof. ; Viverra 
cristatat Sparr.), is so called by the European colonists in the neighbour- 
hood of Al^oa Bay, in South Africa, tiie locality in which M. Delalande 
procured his specimens of this animal. The size of the aard-wolf is 
about that of a fWl-grown fox, which it further resembles in its pointed 
muzzle ; but it stands higher upon its legs, its ears are considerably 
lai^r and more naked, and its tail shorter and not so bushy. At first 
sight it might be easily mistaken for a young striped hysena^ so closely 
does it resemble that animal in the colours and peculiar markings of 
its fiir, and in the mane of long stiff hair which runs along the neck 
and back ; indeed, it is only to be distinguished by its more pointed 
head, and by the additional fifth toe of the fore feet. The fur is of a 
woolly texture on the sides and belly, but a mane of coarse stiff hair, 
six or seven inches in length, passes along the nape of the neck and 
back, from the occiput to the origin of the tail, and is capable of being 
erected or bristled up, like that of the hyaena, when the animal is 
irritated or provoked. The general colour of the fur is pale cinereous 
(ash-coloured), with a slight shade of yellowish brown ; the muzzle is 
black and almost naked, or covered only with a few long stiff mous- 
taches. Around the eyes, and on each side of the neck, are dark 
brown marks ; eight or ten bands of the same colour pass over the body 
in a transverse direction, exactly as in the common striped hysana ; 
and the arms and thighs are likewise marked with similar transverse 
stripes. The legs and feet are of an uniform dark brown in front, 
and gray behind. The long hairs of the mane are gray, with two 
broad rings of black, the second of which occupies the point ; those 
of the tail are similarly marked, and equally long and stiff; whence 
it appears as if the mane and tail were clouded with an alternate 
mixture of black and gray. The ears are gray on the interior surface;, 
and dark brown on the outer. 

In its habits and manners the aard-wolf resembles the fox : like 
that <^y>iTnft.1, it is nocturnal, and constructs a subterraneous burrow, 
at the bottom of which it lies concealed during the daytime, and only 
ventures abroad on the approach of night, to search for food and satisfy 
the other calls of nature. It is fond of the society of its own species ; 
at least, many individuals have been found residing together in the 
same burrow ; and, as they are of a timid and wai^ character, they 
have generally three or four different entrances to their holes ; so tiiat, 
if attacked on one side, they may secure a retreat in an opposite direc- 
tion. Notwithstanding the disproportionate length of their fore legs, 
they are said to run very fast ; and so strong is their propensity to 
burrow, that one of M. Delalande's specimens, perceiving itself about 
to be run down and captured, immediately ceased its flight, and began 
to scratch up the ground, as if with the intention of making a new 

M. Isidore Geoflfroy St. Hilaire has bestowed upon this species the 
name of ProUles Laiandiif but Sparrman and Levaillant mentioned 
the aard-wolf long before the date of M. Delalande's journey ; and 
the former has not only described it with tolerable accuracy, but has 
even ascertained its true generic characters. (Sparrman's ' Travels,' 
vol ii, p. 177.) 

In the ' Second Voyage' of Levaillant, vol ii, p. 860, mentiop is 
likewise made of this animal under the appellation of * Loup de Terre, 
which is a simple translation of its colonial name, aard-wol£ 

Sparrman mentions having found ants in the stomach of the Prddeif 

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6 ABDdfEK. 

and these inaocta, it may be obaerred, are also a faTourite food of 
the bear. 

ABDOMEN, the Bdly, finom abdo, to hide, becauBe it oonoeals or 
hides its oont6iit& The last syllable is only a termination. The 
Lower Bdly, Itrnu Venter, Alvus, Gutter, &c. ko., are synonymouBL 

The human body is divided by anatomists into three portions — ^the 
oead, the trank, and the eztremitiee. The head and trunk enclose 
cavities which contain the organs or the instruments by which the 
most important functions of the living body are performed. The trunk 
forms two cavities, the superior of which is termed the Thorax or 
• Chest, and the lower constitutes the Abdomen. 

In the artificial skeleton nothing is shown, because nothing remains 
except the mere framework of we body, or the bones ; but in the 
natural state, when the soft parts remain as well as the bones, there 
is a complete partition between the cavity of the chest and that of the 
abdomen {jig, L, 1, 2). This partition is effected by means of an organ 
which is termed the Diaphragm (Jig. L, 1, 2), a name derived from a 
Qreek word signifying to divide. The dif^hragm is composed partly 
of membrane, but chiefly of muscle (Fig. IL) It is placed transversely 
across the trunk at about its 
middle portion, dividing it 
into two pretty nearly equal 
halves (Pig. L) But the dii^ 
phragm is a moveable body ; 
it is, in £EUjt, one of the main 
ofgans of respiration : its chief 
function consists in alternately 
increasing and fiitninijihiTig the 
capacity of the thorax and 
abdomen, for the purpose of 
respiration. But since tne very 
partition which separates these 
two cavities from each other is I 
perpetually changing its rela- 
tive position — ^nowencroaching 

upon the one, and now upon 2 • 

the other — ^it is obvious &at 
their natural ci^Muaty must be 
constantly varymg. 

The cavity of tibe abdomen 
is bounded above by the 
dii^hragm (Fig. L, 1,2), below 
by the bones of the Pelvii or 
basin (Fig. L, 3, 3), which 
may be considered as belonging 
to the bones of the lower ex- 
tremities, before and at the 
sidesby the abdominal muscles, 
behind partly by the muscles 
of the loins, and partly by the 
bone of the spin& The Spine Fio. I. 

is composed of a number of 

separate bones, each of which is termed a Vertebra. The vertebrsd are 
finnly united together, and by their union form what is commonly 
called the back-bone, termed by anatomists the Spinal Column, or the 
Vertebral Column. 

The cavity of the abdomen is lined throughout by a thin, but dense, 
finn, and strong membrane, termed the Peritoneum, from a Greek 
word signifying to extend aroimd. 

We have thus spoken of the abdomen as a cavity, but without 
explanation this mode of expression may occasion misconception. 
During the state of life there is 
no cavity. The abdomen is always 
completely full Ithas been stated 
that the diaphragm alternately 
enlarges and diminishes the space 
proper to the abdomen; but the J 
abdominal and lumbar muscles, | 
which form so large a part of the I 
boundaries of the abdomen in \ 
front, at the sides and behind, in 
like manner, alternately contract 
and relax. The consequence is, 
that a firm and uniform pressure 
is at all times maintained upon 
the whole contents of the abdo- 
men, so that there is always the 
most exact adaptation of the con- 
taining to the contamed parts, yiq. II.— DUphragm, remored ftromitu 
and of the viscera one to the natural situation between the Chest 
other, not the slightest space or and Abdomen, 
cavity ever intervening, either 

between the walls of the abdomen and its viscera, or between one 
viseus and anothen By the cavity of the abdomen, therefore, is not 
meant what the expressioii might at first view seem to denote, namely, 
avoid or emp^ space; but the term is merdy employed to mark 
the extent of the boundary within which the abdominal viscera are 


The abdomen, for practical purposes, is artificially mapped out into 
the fallowing regions. 

Two imaginary lines are drawn across the abdomen, one of which 
is supposed to extend from about the seventh rib on one side to the 
Mime poiat on the opposite side (Fig. III., 1, 1). The second line is 
supposed to extend f^m the fore part of ihe lurge bone of the pelvis 
to the same projecting point on the other side (2, 2). These lines mark^ 
out three large and distinct spaces (8, 4, 5). The space above the 
upper line is termed the Epigastric Region (8). The space below the 
lower line is termed the Hypogastric I&gion (5). The space included 
between the two lines is termed the Umbilical Region (4). 

Two lines are next supposed to extend verticallv, one on each side, 
from between the seventh rib to the prominence formed by the large 
bone of the pelvis (Fig. III., 6, 6). By these vertical lines the three first 
regions are still further 
subdivided in the follow- 
ing manner : — The right 
and left parts of the 
Epigastric Region form 
two distinct regions (7,7) ; 
these are termed theright 
and left Hypochondriac 
Regions (7, 7); while the 
oentral part retains the 
name 01 the Epigastric 
Region (8). In like man- 
ner the right and left 
parts of the Umbilical 
Region form two distinct 
regions (8, 8), which are 
termed the Lumbar Re- 
gions (8, 8), while the 
central part retains the 
name of the Umbilical 
Region (4). Moreover, 
the right and left parts of 
the Hypogastric Kegion 
are at the same time each 
divided into two, which 
are termed the Iliac Re- 
gions (9, 9), while the 
central part is termed the 
Region of the Pubis (5). 

The term Abdomen, 
as applied by entomolo* p^^ j^j^ 

gists to Insects, has a ' ' 

somewhat different signification from the same term when applied 
to other animals, being u^ for the whole portion of the body 
of an insect belund the corselet (tJwrax), and mcluding the back as 
well as the belly. It consijBts, in most cases, of a number of rings 
without any jointed members for locomotion, and uniformly encloses 
a portion of the intestines, though sometimes but a very small one. 
These rings, or very short hollow cylinders, are severally united with 
each other by a joint, by a membrane, or sometimes by an intimate 
junction, the exact line of which is not very apparent. The rings in 
some cases, as in the grub of the chameleon-fly, slide into one another 
like the tubes of an opera^lass. Each ring is technically termed a 
segment (tegmentum), virtually composed of two principal pieces, which, 
when distinct, are termed arches ; the upper the arch of the back, the 
under the ardi of the belly. In some cases these two portions are not 
distinct, but, when they are so, the two borders usually come into 
contact When they do not, but remain free, one usually, more or 
less over^ps the other, as in bees. In caterpillars, grubs, and wingless 
insects, such as the flea, where the joining of the corselet with the 
abdomen is not apparent, the abdomen may always be known by the 
legs never being jointed with it ; and in caterpillars it usually consists 
of all the body behind the six fore legs^ which are always on the 

ABDOMINALES, in Zoology, the name of a group of fishes, to which 
different naturalists have attached a more or less extensive signification, 

Salmon, glTen as a spedmen of the fiunily of Abdominalea. 

according to the particular principles of their several systems. The 
classification of fishes given by LinnsBua is founded qpon the presence 
and position of the ventral fins (thoee of the belly) in relation to the 

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peetoral (those of the breast) ; and these he regards as analogous to 
the fore and hind members of quadmpeds, and to the wings and feet 
of birds. Linnaus includes, in his order Abdominales, all those species 
which have the ventral fins plaoed behind the pectoral, or upon the 
abdomen, the cartilaginous fishes alone excepted; which, i^rthe 
example of Bay, Willoughby, and Artedi, he very properly considers 
as forming an order apart This arrangement is not now genmdly 
adopted, but the term AhdomindUs denotes a family, or suMi vision, 
of malacopterygious (or soft-finned) fishes, only ; and, in this restricted 
sense, includes the g^reater number of the fresh-water species, as wdl 
as those which, like the salmon, periodically migrate from the ocean 
to deposit their spawn in fresh-water lakes and rivers. M. Cuvier 
subdivides this family into five subordinate groups, all of which he 
has defined by appropriate and imequivocal characters. He denomi- 
nates these sub-families, Cyprinoldes, SUuroldea, SaUnonoUkSf Clupeoldea, 
and Ludolda respectively, from the carps, silures, salmonai, herrings, 
and pikes, the typical genera from which their characters are severally 
ABELE TREE, in Botany, the English name of the PopuUu alba, 


ABELMOSCHUS^ in Botany, a genus of the Mallow tribe^ usually 
referred to H%bi»cus. [Hibiscus.] 

ABERDEVINE (Cardudis spinus, Cuvier; FringUla ligurina, 
Ranzani), sometimes called the Siskin, a well-known song-bird, 
which has some resemblance to the green variety of the canary- 
bird, but there is considerable difierenoe in individual birds with 
respect to the brightness of colouring. The colours of the male 
in fill plumage are as follows : top of the head, black ; ear coverts, 

Aberdevine, or Siskin (OardwlU tpmus), 

dusky; a line above the ey^ ; sides of neck, throat, and chest, lemon 
yellow ; back and shoulders, dark olive green, with obscure dusky 
dashes; qnins, brown, with an oblique yellow bar and another 
above, produced by the yellow edging of the greater coverts ; flanks, 
dusky, vnth a few brown dashes; rump, yellow, slightly washed 
with green ; two middle tail feathers, dark brown, the rest yellow, 
tipped with brown ; bill and legs, brown colour. Length, ii inches. 
Ta&, short and forked The plumage of the female is less bright and 
decidedlv marked 

Sepp has delineated the nest of the aberdevine in the deft of an 
oak, built with dry bent mixed with leaves, and profusely lined with 
fealJlers ; the base neatly rounded, and the feathers projecting above 
the rim, and concealing the eggs, which .are blueish-white, speckled 
with purplish red, like those of the goldfinch. Temminck, again, 
says it biulds in the highest branches of the pine. 

It breeds in the north of Europe, and only visits Britain, (Germany, 
and France in the autumn and winter. It is represented in some 
books as very irregular in its migration, particularly to this country; 
but we suspect that this opinion has arisen from irregular obser- 
vation, for, since our attention has been directed to the subject, we 
have remarked its arrival about Lee, in Kent, to be almost as regular 
as the departure of the swallows, which takes place about the same 
time. During its winter stay with us, the aberdevine feeds chiefly on 
the seeds of the birch and alder. 

As a cage-bird it is frequently paired with the canary, to produce 
what are turned mule-birds ; but it is, besides, a livdy and persevering 

ABIES, in Botany (the Fir), a genus of trees of the Coniferous tribe, 
well-known for the valuable timber which is produced by many of the 
spedes. It was formerly considered a part of the genus Pinut ; but 
modem botanists have made it a distinct genuQ. The English appd- 
lation is the Saxon /icrA-w^ic^ fir-wood, 

Oen&ic Character. 

Flowers monosdous. 

Malet. Catkins simple, solitary, terminal, or axillary. Stamens 
obtuse, and often callous at the apex, terminated by a jagged 

FemaUt. Catkins somewhat cylindrical ; their scales two-flowered, 
imbricated, and having frequently at their base externally a bractea, 
which is either very short or lengthened beyond the scales themselves, 
and terminated by a taper point. 

Cones more or less cylindrical ; the scales imbricated and woody, 
but not thickened at the extremity; seeds ending in a membra- 
nous wing. 

Embryo about the length of the seed, with several dosely-packed 

Trees of various sises, usually with a straight, conical, undivided 
trunk, from which proceed spreading, horizontal, or drooping branches, 
arranged in a pyramidal manner. Leaves either solitary, or collected 
in little fascicles, deciduous or evergreen. 

From Pinui (the Pine-Tree) Abies (the Fir-Tree) is obvioudy 
disting^shed by its more pyramidal form, and br its leaves arising 
singly from aroxmd the stosi, not by twos or threes, or a greater 
number, from out of a membranous shrivelling sheath, as well as by 
the characters in the fructification above described Its species form 
four very natural tribes, of the first of whidi, the Silver Fir may be 
taken as the representative ; of the second, the Norway Spruce ; of the 
third, the Larch ; and of the fourth, the Cedar of Lebanon. As most 
of these are interesting, either for the excellence of their wood or as 
objects of ornament, we shall briefly notice those that are at present 
best known. Those who wish for further information should consult 
Mr. Lambert's 'Monograph of the Genus Pinus,' L. C. Richard's 
' Mdmoire sur les Conif^res,' Michaux's ' Histoire des Arbres Forestiers 
de I'Am^rique Septentrionale,' Loudon's 'Arboretum et Fruticetum 

Sect. I. — Silyer Fibs. 

Zeave$ growing tingly rov/nd the branchet, and aU twned towarde 
one tide. 

Abies PiceOf the Silver Fir (Abies pectinata, De Candolle; Pinus 
Picea, Linxueus). Leaves arranged like the teeth of a comb, some- 
what emaiginate, of a whitish colour imdemeath. Cones erect, 
with very blunt closely-pressed scales, which are much shorter than 
the taper-pointed inflexed bracts. It is a native of the mountains of 

Silver Fir {AInes Picea). 

the middle and south of Europe, in stony, dry, exposed ntuations. 
Its favourite district seems to be on the Pollino and in the forest of 
Rubia, in the kingdom of Naples, where it is found in all its grandeur, 
often growmg from 180 to 150 feet in height, and richly meriting the 
name putcherrima (most beautiful), appli^l to it by, VijqgiL This tree 
is readily, known by its leaves having their points all turned towards 
the sky, and being mealy undemeatib, as well as by its long, erect, 
stalkless cones, of a greenish-purple colour, bristling with reflexed 
taper points of the bracts that subtend the scales. It is the Sapim 

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of the French. Planks of indifferent quality, on account of their 
Bofbieaa, are sawn from its tnmk, which also yields Burgundy pitch 
and Strasbui^g turpentine. For its successful cultivation in this 
country it requires strong land, such as wiU suit the oak, and a 
sheltOTed situation ; it will then become a very lai^ tree. From a 
communication to Mr. Lambert^ it appears that trees hav&been felled 
which, at 100 years of age, contained six loads, or 240 cubic feet, of 
timber. It is said by some to grow slowly for the first fifteen years, 
but afterwards with great rapidity. A plant in Wobum Park is 
recorded to have grown for 110 3^ears at the rate of one foot in height 
and nearly three and a half cubic feet per annum. Its trunk some- 
times arrives at 150 feet in height^ and six feet in diameter. 

Antiquarians, not considering that this plant is the real Abiet 
jmUA/errima of Virgil, and of the Roman authors, have lost themselves 
in vain attempts to reconcile the declaration of Csesar (' De BeL Gal,' 
v. 12), that he found in Britain all the trees of Gkul, except the beech 
and abies,' with the well-known fact that fir-wood is abundant in our 
ancient mosses, and has been met with even beneath the foundations 
of Roman roads. What Csesar meant was, no doubt» that he did not 
meet with the silver fir in Britain. Of the pine he says nothing, and 
therefore it is to be presumed that he found it. ^ 

Abies Sibirxca, the Siberian Silver Fir (Pinus Sihirica and Pinut 
Pickia of the gardens). Scarcely anything certain has been pub- 
lished of this tree, which, according ,to Linnaeus, Mr. Lambert^ and 
others, is Uie same as the Abies pieea. Gmelin describes it as a native 
of aU parts of Siberia as far as 58** N. lat. in mountainous regions, 
especially in the upper country lying between the Irtish and the Ob, 
where it forms dense woods. 

Abies grandiSf Great Califomian Fir (Pmus grcmdis, Douglas and 
Lambert). Leaves long, narrow, very blunt, whitish beneath, all 
turned one way. Cones oblong, erect, rather curved, with very broad, 
uneven, downv scales, which are longer than the bractese. Found, by 
Mr. Douglas, m low moist valleys m northern California, where it 
attains the height of 200 feet The wood is soft, white, and of inferior 
quality. Cones from three to four inches long ; bracts very shorty 
jagged, two-lobed, with a short intermediate point. 

Abies baUamea, the Balm of Gilead Fir {Abtes balsamifira, Michaux ; 
Pimu baUamea, Lambert). Leaves flat, silvery-white beneath, either 
emaiginate or entire at the point, all curved towards the upper side. 
Cones cylindrical, oblong, erect, purple, with rounded, even, undi- 
vided soalee. Found, along with Abies nigra and Abies alba, in the 
coldest parts of NorUi iijnerica, but fdways in detaphed indivi- 
duals, never in large masses. It extends also along the ridge of the 
Alloghaniee as far as the crests of the mountains of North Carolina. 
It forms a small slender tree, rarely more than iO feet high, with a 
diameter of from 12 to 15 inches. The cones are four to flve inches 
long, and about an inch in -diameter. ' Its wood is lights of a pale 
yellow oolour, and but slightly resinous ; it is of litUe value, and is 
chiefly split up into staves for fish-barrels. The English name has 
been given in consequence of a resemblance between the clear trans- 
parent greenish-yellow turpentine, which is obtained from numerous 
cysts in its bark, and the Balm of Gilead of the shops. The turpentine 
is commonly known under the name of Canadian Bajsam. In 
England this is a small tree of very ornamental appearance when 
young; on the skirts of plantations, but it rarely acquires any 
considerable sixe. 

Abies nobilis, Large-Bracted Fir {Pinus nobilis, Douglas and Lam- 
bert). Leaves very numerous, falcate, all turned one way, of 
nearly the same colour on both sides. Cones oblong, erect, with 
rounded brood scales concealed by the long wedgeHBhapied two-lobed 
jagged scales, which are bent back, and terminate abruptly in a rigid 
elongated point. It is a majestic tree, forming vast forests upon the 
mountains of northern California, where it was found by Mr. Douglas. 
The timber is said to be of excellent quality. The cones are about 
six inches long. 

Abies Fhttefi, the Double Balsam Fir {Pinus Frateri, Pursh and 
Lambert). Leaves linear, emarginate, silvery-white beneath. . Cones 
oblong, squarrose. Bracts somewhat leafy, inversely cordate, mucronate, 
reflexed. A native of the mountains of Carolina and Pennsylvania. . 

Abies Webbiana, Webb's Fir {Pinus WObicma, Wallich and Lam- 
bert; Pinus spedabilis, Lambert). Leaves linear, solitary, flat> all- 
spreading, and turned one way, silvery-white beneath, with a deep 
notch at the extremity. Cones oblong, erect^ obtuse, with very broad, 
rounded, even scales. According to the account of Captain Webb, 
who first discovered it^ this remarkable species attains the height of 
80 or 90 feet, with a diameter near the groxmd of $ or i feet. Its 
wood seems to be valuable. From what has been reported of its 
general appearance, it is probably one of the most interesting species 
that has yet been discovered. Inhabiting the colder regions of northern 
India, and found among plants which are more Siberian in their 
character than Indian, there can be no reasonable doubt of its being 
well able to withstand the rigour of the winters of this country. 

Abies Oanadentis, the Henuock Spruce Fir (Michaux ; Pifnus Cana- 
densis, Lambert). Leaves flat, arranged irregularly in two. rows; 
when young downy, as well as the young slender branches. ' Cones 
veiy small, ovate, sharp-pointed, with rather acute, even, entire scales : 
seeds very smalL — The most northerly situation in which this tree is 
found 10 about Hudson's Bay, in lat 51**. Near Quebec it forms 

extensive forests ; in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Vermont, and the 
upper part of New Hampshire, it is extremely common ; but in the 
middle and southern states of North America it is confined to the 
Alleghanies and their dependent ridges, where it inhabits the sides of 
torrents and the bleakest situations. It is a noble enpecies, rising to 
the height of 70 or 80 feet, and measuring from 2 to 3 feet in diameter. 
It appears to be of slow growth, not arriving at its full dimensions in 
less than 200 years. When from 25 to 80 feet high its form is exceed- 
ingly elegant, but when old its huge limbs are apt to be rent and 
broken \fj winds and snow ; and their naked stumps, sticking out 
beyond the young and verdant foliajro, give the trees an air of decre- 
pitude and decay. The wood is of little value, being neither sound 
nor durable. The bark is valuable for tanning ; mixed with oak-bark, 
it is said to be much better than oak-bark alone. 

Abies Brwnoniana, the Deciduous Silver Fir (PiMU Brwrwniana, 
Wallich ; P. dwmosa, Lambert). Leaves fiat, all turned 
oneway, serrulate towards the points, covered beneath 
with a miUL-white bloom. Cones terminal, erect^ 
ovate, blunt> very small, with lax, ovate, very blunt 
scales. — ^Fbund in the northern parts of India in the 
provinces of Nepaul, Bootan, and Gossain Than. It 
IS a tree 70 or 80 feet high, with a clear trunk of 
from 15 to 20 feet, and a spreading very branchy 
head. The wood is of bad quality, bdng liable to 

Abia reUgiosa, the Sacred Mexican Fir (Pinus 
reUgiosa, Humboldt and Kunth). Toung branches 
quite smootii. Leaves arranged in two rows, sharp- Cone of it Brmo^ 
pointed, covered beneath with a glaucous bloom. nimCa. 

Found by Humboldt, on the lower hiUs of Mexico, at an elevation 
of iOOO feet Deppe and Schiede found it upon the oold moun- 
tains of Orisaba, at the highest limit of arborescent vegetation. It 
is described as a lofty tree, reMmhMng Abies picea and Abies balsamea, 
frx>m which it is distinguished by its shisurp-pointed leaves. The flowers 
are unknown. The branches are used for adorning the churches in 
Mexico. According to Mr. Lambert, the cones are like those of the 
cedar of Lebanon, but smaller, and almost black. 

Abies htrteUa, the Hairy Fir {Pinus hirtdla, Humboldt and Kunth). 
Young branches covered with hairs. Leaves arranged in two 
rows, flat> acute, covered with glaucous bloom beneatL Known 
only from the incomplete account*of Humboldt, who found it on the 
mountains of Mexico, growing at an elevation of between 8000 and 
9000 feet He describes it atf a small tree, three or four times as high 

Abies Smithiana, the Indian Silver Fir {Pinus Smithianei, Wallich). 
Leaves slender, foiu>comered, whitish beneath, a little turned towards 
one side, dark green, from one 
inch to one .and a half long: Cones 
from four to six laches in length, 
erect, ovate-oblong, with obovate, 
rounded, even scales. A native of the 
slopes of the HimalayaMoimtains. It 
is a tree of enormous size, with nearly 
opposite branches, covered with short 
down, and so arranged as to form 
generally two rows. 

Sbot. IL— Spbuob Firs. 

Leaves gromng singly round the 
branches, and aU spreading equally, 

Abies exedsa, the Norway Spruce 
Fir (De Candolle; Pinus abies, Lin- 
nseus). Leaves scattered, some- 
what four-cornered, mucronate. 
Cones cylindrical, pendulous, with 
blunt^ wavy, slightly-toothed scales. 
It is a native of the mountainous 
parts of the north of Europe, where 
it sometimes constitutes, as in Nor- 
way, the principal timber. It is 
found all over Siberia as high as 70° 
N. lat, in which region it is a certain 
sign of the presence of springs of 
fresh water, for it is only seen in 
moist and springy places. When 
growing singly in rich soil, separated 
from other trees, this forms one of 
the most beautifiil objects that can 
be imagined, with its long drooping 

branches touching the very ground. Gone of the Indian SilTer Fir. 
and its regularly pyramidal figure :' 

but in other situations, in plantations where the trees are crowded 
and deprived of their lower branches by want of light and air, it 
becomes, after nine or ten years, an inelegant plant of little value 
except to be cujb for poles. When in perfection (and occasionally 
it %rrives at its greatest perfection in this country), it acquires a 
stature of 150 feet Its wood is of a white oolour, of a fine eveo 

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grain, and yeiy durable : in the market it is known under the name 
of White Deal or Christiama Deal In Norway it arriyes at maturity 
in 70 or 80 years. Trees of such an age are what are usually out 
down for exportation, tmd each yields on an average three pieces of 

elasticity. It ib employed for the yards of ships ; and in America^ in 
districts where the oak is scarce, also for their knees ; floors are 
occasionally laid with it^ but it is not well adapted for this usage, as 
the planks are apt to split. From its young branches is extracted the 
Essence of Spruce, so well known as a useful antiscorbutic in long 
yoyages. According to Mr. Lambert, the curious Dwarf Spruce, called 
Pinut elambrcuUiana, is probably a yarieinr of Alnet fidgrck 

Abiet DouglaiU, the Douglas Fir {Piim» tcue^oUa, Lambert; 
Pimu JhvgUuU), Leayes spreading equally, de^ green, whitish 
beneath, obtuse. Cones cemuous, oyate-oblong, with rather uneyen 
cartilaginous scales, much shorter than the bracts, which are three- 
toothed, the lateral teeth bein^ membranous, with the intermediate 
ones much longer and more n^d. According to Mr. Douglas, the 
disooyerer of this gigantic spemes, it is found in immense forests in 
North-West America from 49^ to 52" N. lat The trunks yazy from 
two to ten feet in diameter, and from 100 to 180 feet in height. 
Occasionally it arriyes at still greater dimensions. It is an eyeigreen 
tree, with an erect taper trunk, which when old is ooyered with a 
rugged bark from six to nine inches thick, abounding in a dear 
yellow resin, and making excellent f ueL The young branches have 
their bark filled with receptacles of resin, as in theBalm of Qilead. 

Norway Spruce Fir {Abiea exeelsa). 

timber, eleyen or twelye feet long. The Spruce is readily known by 
its leaves of one uniform dull green colour, spread equally roimd the 
branches, and by its long pendant cones. 

Ahia orierUalu, the Oriental f^ (Pinus orieniaUa, liinnfisus and 
Lambert). Leaves very short, uniformly imbricated, quadrang^ular, 
with a callous point Cones ovate, cyUndrioal, pendulous, their 
scales somewhat rhomboid. To botanists this is luiown chiefly by 
a figure published by Mr. Lambert after a drawing by Aubriet, the 
draughtsman who accompanied Toumefort in his journey to the 
Levant It was found by that traveller in the mountains south-east 
of Trebisond, above the convent of St John. It has been subsequently 
met with by Russian botanists in the woods of Mingrelia, and was 
seen near Teflis by Sir Gore Ouseley ; but little has been added to 
our knowledge of the species. The young branches are said to be 
hairy. The leaves are very short and dense. The cones are small 
and pendulous, of an ovate, tapering figure. 

Abie$ alba, the White Spruce Fir (Michaux; Pinua alba, Lam- 
bert). Leaves rather glaucous, spreading equally round the branches, 
four-cornered, somewhat pungent Cones narrow, oval, tapering 
towards the point, with even undivided scales. Found along with 
Abies nigra in the colder regions of North America. Accordmg to 
Michaux it does not advance so far to the northward as that species, 
from which it is known not only by its smaller sise, the trunks rarely 
exceeding 40 or 50 feet in height but also by the bluish oast which 
characterises the foliage, and which gives it a much lighter appearance 
than the sombre Abtea nigra. Dr. Richardson, however, states that 
it was the most northerly tree observed in Franklin's first Polar 
Journey. The timber is of inferior quality. fVom tJie fibres of the 
root, macerated in water, the Canadian Indians prepare the thread 
with which they sew together the birch-baik that forms their canoes. 
Its resin is also used to render the seams water-tight The bark is 
said to be occasionally used for tanning. 

Abiet nigra, the Black Spruce Fir (Michaux; Pityv* nigra and 
rubra, Lambert). Leaves spreading equally round the stem, short, 
four-cornered. Cones ovate-oblong, obtuse, with ragged rounded 
scales. It is a native of the most indement regions of North America, 
especially iu swampy situations snd in the yalleys between ridges of 
low hills, where the soil is deep, black, and humid In such situations 
are found the finest forests of this species, and there, although the 
trees are fo crowded together as often not to be more than four or 
five feet apart, the timber arrives at the height of 70 or 80 feet, with 
a diameter of from 15 to 20 inches. The firs in the Isndscapes of 
northeiTi scenery illustrating Franklin's first ' Polar Expedition ' are 
of this spedes, which, however, Dr. Richardson did not observe 
higher than 65** N. lat The trunk is remarkable for the perfect regu- 
larity with which it diminishes ttom the base upwards. The head is 
of a regularly pyramidal figure, the branches spreading almost horizon- 
tally, and not inclining towards the earth, as in the Norway Spmce. 
The timber is of great value, on account of its strength, lightness, and 

Cone of DoQglas Fir. 

The timber is heavy, firm, of as deep a colour as yew, with very 
few knots, and not in the least liable to warp. The growth is exceed- 
ingly rapid. 

A considerable number of plants of this important spedes are now 
scattered among the parks and woods of this country, some hundreds 
having been raised and distributed by the Horticultural Sodety ; it 
appears to suit this climate perfectly, and to be likdy to prove more 
valuable than even the larch itself, bemg evergreen, end fully as hardy. 

Ahie» Mendedi, the Mensies Fir (Pivmi Metmetii, Douglas and 
Lambert). Leaves very short, rig^d, rather sharp-pointed, whitish 
beneath, spreading reg^arly roimd the stem, very dedduous. Cones 
oblong, composed of very lax, ragged, retuse, ovate, thin scales, much 
longer than the narrow, serrated, concealed bracten. Buds ovate, 
acute, covered with resin. It is a native of Northern California, where 
it was found by Mr. Douglas, who describes the wood as being of 
excellent quality. 

Sect. III.— Larohb. 
Leanset growing in clusUrt ; deciduout, • 

By some botanists this section is considered essentially different 
from Abies; but the want of any dear diBtinctive characters, either 
in the mode of growth or the oigans of fructification, induces us to 
concur with Linnrous, Jussieu, and Richard, in considering the Larch 
as belonging to the same genus as the Spruce. The leaves of the 
former are dustered or fasdculated, meidy in consequence of the 
imiversal non-development of lateral branches; so that the leaves 
themselves make their appearance without a perceptible central axis. 
This is proved not only in the Cedar of Lebanon, but even in the 
Larch itself, by numerous cases where the branches being less abortive 
than usual, lengthen enough to display their real nature. 

Abies Larix, Richard ; the Common Larch Fir (Pinm Ixmx, Lin- 
nssus; Lairix Ewropofa, De Candolle). Leaves clustered, dedduous. 
Cones ovate-oblong, blunt It is a native of the mountains of the 
middle of Europe, of Russia, and of Siberia. In the latter country it 
is the commonest of all trees, delighting in dry elevated situations, 
where it forms vast forests, sparingly intermixed with pines. Its 
trunk grows very erect, with graceful drooping branches, gradually 
diminishing from the base to the apex, and giving it a regularly 
pyramidal form. In the spring, when its young leaves have just burst 
into Ufe, it has a peculiar bright yellowish-green tint, which is possessed 
by no other tree of our foresla. The Larch has been now for many 

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ymn extennyely oiiltiT»tod upon barren exposed Imd, both in England 
and Scotland, and it has been found one of the nkost profitable of all 
trees to the planter, provided the land be well drained ; but it will 
not Buooeed in swampy situations. It grows with great rapidity, is 
subject to yery few accidents, transplants with but litUe risk, and 
iroduoes timber of great excellence imd value, not only for domestic 
it for naval puiposes. In moimtainous districts in Scotland the 



thickened at the margin. Hount Lebanon and the range of Taurus 
are the native spots of this most stately and magnificent tree, which 
compensates for its want of height by its huge wideHq>reading arms, 
each of which is almost a tree in itsdf. According to Labillurdiire, 
a French traveller in Syria, the largest of those now remaining on 
Lebanon is at least nine feet in duoneter. The trees are held in 
great veneration, and a holiday is set apart for the Feast of Cedars. 
Its growth is far from being so slow as some imagine ; on the oon- 
trary, the observations of those who have cultivated it with care prove 
that it will vie in rapidity of growth with almost any forest tree. 
Cedar^wood has the reputation of being indestructible; instances 
have been named of its having been taken from buildings uninjured 
after a lapse of two thousand years. But it appears highly probable, 
from some interesting observations made at Tangier by lir. Druxnmond 

The Larch {AhUa Larix). 

Duke of Athol has planted it in immense quantities ; and it ajipearB, 
from a report of that nobleman to the Horticultural Socie^, that in 
situations 1500 to 1600 feet above the level of the sea, he has felled trees, 
eighty years old, which have each yieldedsix loads of the finest timber. 

From the boiled inner bark, mixed with nre-flour and afterwards 
buried for a few hours in the snow, the hardy Siberian hunters 
prepare a sort of leaven, with which they supply the place of common 
leaven when the latter is destroyed, as it fre(^uently is, by the intense 
oold to which hunters are exposed in the punuit of game. 

The bark of the Larch is nearly as valuable to the tanner as oak-bark ; 
it also produces the substance called Venice turpentine, which flows in 
abundance when the lower part of tne trunk ox old trees is wounded. 
A sort of manna, called Brian9on Manna, is exuded from its leaves 
in the form of a white fiooeulent substance, which finally becomes 
concreted into small lumps. 

It is believed that this species was the frlrvs of the ancient Qreeks. 
The orig^ of the more modem word larix is uncertain. 

Ahia miicroearpa, the Bed Larch Fir (Pinus microcarpa, Lam- 
bert). Leaves clustered, deciduous. Conesoblong, small; their scales 
erect, dose-pressed, the upper ones much smaUer than the lower. 
This is a graceful tree, with much of the habit of the common Larch, 
from whidi its very small cones, of a bright purple in the summer, 
readily distinguish it It is a native of Korth America. This tree is 
by no means so well adapted to the planter^s purposes as the common 
Larch, growing very much smaller. The wood is so heavy that it will 
scarcely swim in water. 

Abie$ pendula, the Black Larch Fir (Pmus pendula, Lambert). 
Leaves clustered, deciduous. Conesoblong, with numerous spreading 
scales, which gradually diminish from the base to the apex of tne cones. 
Branches weak and drooping. It is a native of North America, where 
it is found growing in a rich clay soil, mixed with sand, in cold 
mountainous districts. When cultivated in this country it is an 
elegant tree, having a good deal of resemblance to the common Larch, 
but being of a br^hter green colour, and much more graceful. The 
leading shoot will often begin to droop at the height of 16 or 20 
feet horn the ground, and, after gradually acquinng a horizontal 
direction, will bend towards the earth so as to form a natural arch 
of great beauty. The wood is less valuable than that of the common 

Sboc it. — Cedabs. 

Ahia CednUf the Cedar of Lebanon Fir (Pkim Oednu, Linnsras 
and Lambert). Leaves clustered, evergreen. Cones oblong, very 
obtuse^ end, with broad dosely^paokea scales, which are a little 

The Cedar of Lebanon [AUes (kdrua). 

Hay, that the indestructible cedar-wood iras the beautiful, hard, deep- 
brown timber of Thi^a artievlata, the Sandarac Tree. The wood of 
Ahie$ oednu produces deal of very indiflTerent quality. 

Abiet Jkodara^ the Sacred Indian Fir {Pitim Deodaniy Lambert). 
Leaves evergreen, in clusters, acute, triangular, stiff Cones 
growing in pairs, stalked, oval, obtuse, erect; the scales closely 
packed, veiy oroad, and nearly even at the margin. It is a native of 
the mountains of Hindustan, near the town of Rohilcund, on the 
mountains of Nepaul and Tibet, at a height of 10,000 or 12,000 feet, 
and also in the woods of Almora. It is a large tree, with a trunk 
about four feet in diameter, resembling the Cedar of Lebanon, frx>m 
which it dififers in having its cones upon stalks, and its leaves longer 
and more distinctly three-sided, and also in the quality of its timber. 
The Hindoos are said to call it the Devadara, or God Tree, and hold 
it in a sort of veneration. Its wood is extremely durable, and so 
resinous that laths made of it are used for candles. Spars of it have 
been taken out of Indian temples, known to have been erected from 
200 to 400 years, uninjured except in those parts which originallv 
were sap-wood. This tree has been extensively cultivated in Englanc^ 
and seems to be realising the favourable anticipations which were 
formed on its first introduction. 

To the species now enumerated, the following almost unknown kinds 
have to be added : — 

AhU$ Kmapferi (PinuM Kom/pferi, Lambert). A native of Japan, 
found wild upon the mountains of Fako. 

AHa TkvmbtrgU {PkMU O^wibergii, Lambert). A scarce plant 
in Japan. 

Ah%e$Mowi (Siebold). Found in Japan, as well as the two following. 
Its wood is in great estimation for its whiteness and fine grain. 

Ahiet Torano (Siebold). 

Alne$ Araragi (Siebold). Wood brown ; used for various domestic 

The genus of resinous plants called AhUs, which we have thus 
describ^ comprehend many forest trees of great importance ; and 
it will be, therefore, proper to add a few remarks on their cultivation. 
Some of them, such as the Larch, the Norway Spruce, the Silver Fir, 
and the Balm of Gileod, are raised in the nurseries annually in the 

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open ground, in laige quantities, for the supply of our plantations ; 
others, such as the Cedar of Lebanon and the Douglas Fir, are 
procured in much less abundance, and are treated with more care, 
being usuallj kept in pots until thej are finally committed to the 
earth in the situation they may be subsequently destined to occupy. 

All the species are propagated by seeds; they may also be propa- 
gated both by inarching and by cuttings ; but it is found that plants 
so obtained are either yeiy shortiived or stunted, unhealthy, and 
incapable of becoming yigorous trees. In some of the species, such 
as the Balm of Oilead and the Silver Fir, the scales of the cones readily 
separate from their axis, so as to render the extraction of the seeds a 
simple and easy operation ; but in others, such as the Larch and the 
Spruce Fir, the scales will neither separate nor open : in such cases it 
is necessary to dry the cones as mudi as possible, then to split them 
by means of an instrument passed up their axis, and afterwards to 
thresh the portions so separated till the seeds can be sifted out. 

Like other resinous seeds, these are perishable unless sown within 
a few months after the cones have been gathered; they will, however, 
keep much longer in the cone than if separated ; wherefore, they should 
always be imported in that state. 

It IS usual m the nurseries to sow them in the spring in beds of light 
soil, in which no recent manure has been mixed ; they are buried at 
various depths, according to the force of the vital energy of the species. 
This has been found by experience, as it is said, to be one inch deep 
for the Silver Fir; half an inch for the Spruce, Balm of Oilead, and 
Cedar of Lebanon; a quarter of an inch for the Larch; and lees for 
the American Spruce ; it is, howisver, probable that these depths are 
of veiT little importance. In order to protect the surface of the beds 
from being dried while the young seeds are sprouting, it is generally 
overspr^id with a thin laver of long straw, which is removed as soon 
as the crop begins generally to appear. During the first season the 
seedlings remain undisturbed ; the only attention they receive being 
to keep them from weeds. In the following spring the young plants 
are taken up carefully, and their roots, being a little shorten^ are 
imbedded in rows about six inches apart, where they remain for one 
or two years. After this Uiey are transplanted into quarters, in rows 
a foot or nine inches apart, the plants being about six inches from 
each other. Having remained in this situation for a year, they are 
fit. to be transferred to the plantation, or they may stand two years 
in the nursery quarters, and then be taken up and replaced in a 
situation of the same kind, if circumstances should render such a 
proceeding desirable. On no account, however, should they be 
allowed to remain in the quarters more than two years at a time 
without 4)eing taken out, of the ground, because they are apt to form 
long and strong shoots, which are destroved in the process of trans- 
plantation, so that the life of many must he either materially injured 
or wholly sacrificed. 

None of the firs should be transplanted at a height exceeding three 
feet, for the reason last mentioned ; and the Ltm^ is the only kind 
that will remove advantageously even at this size. The Spruce and 
its allied species may be removed more successfully when fix>m a foot 
and a half to two feet high. To this there is no other exception than 
that of plants that have been constantly reared in pots, as the Cedar 
of Lebanon ; these may be safely removed at any size, if the trans- 
plantation is carefolly attended to, because their roots are iminjured 
in the operation. It should however be remembered, in finally 
planting out large firs which have been always kept in pots, that 
it is absolutely necessary that their roots should be spread out among 
the earth as much as may be practicable without straming or breaking 
them ; because, while in pots, they necessarily acquire a spiral direction, 
which they will not afterwards lose unless it is destroy^ at the period 
of final transplantation ; and, if they do not lose it, they are apt to be 
blown over by high winds, on acooimt of their roots not having pene- 
trated into the eurth far enough in a horizontal flirection to form the 
requisite stay to support the trunk and head. 

Where great importance is attached to the raising the seeds of rare 
species of fir, it has been found a very beneficial practice to place them 
between two turfs placed root to root, the one upon the other, and to 
watch them till the seeds begin to sprout; they are then to be sown 
in the usual way, when every seed will usually succeed. 

No trees are more impatient of pruning than these. They exude, 
when woimded, so large a quantity of their resinous sap as to become 
weakened even by a few incisions ; and, if they have sufiiered many, 
they are long before they recover from the e£fects. So great is their 
symmetry, and so uniformly will their branches form under favourable 
circumstances, that it will rarely happen that a necessity for the use 
of the pruning-knifevcan arise. The great rule to be observed in their 
management is to allow them ample room for the extension of their 
branches; if this is attended to, their beauty is not only ensured, but 
the rate at which they will form their timber will be a full recompense 
for the space they may occupy. 

ABIETINEiB. [Coiofebji]. 

ABOMA, a large species of serpent^ which inhabits the fens and 
morasses of South America, the Boa cenehria of Linnaeus. [Boidji.] 

ABORTION, a term used in botany and horticulture. In Botany, 
abortion is employed to express the absence of an organ in relation to 
an ideal type. Thus the flowers of ScrofiMLariacea and Lamiacea 
have their s^ials and petals arranged with the number five. According 

to a very general law the stamens equal in number the petals and 
sepals, but in this case they do not. In the majority of instances the 
stamens are but four : hence it is scdd that one stamen is aborted or 
there is an abortion of one stamen. The want of harmony betwem the 
parts of the flower generally is thus spoken o£ In other instances, 
where the ovules are numerous and the seeds only one, two, or three, 
the remaining ovules are aborted. 

In Horticulture, the premature development of the fruity or any 
defect in it, is called abortion. 

ABOU-HANNES (NutMniv* IhU, Cuvier; TawtaUm ^tkiopictu, 
Latham), an African bird, which has occasioned much discussion 
among the learned as to its identity with the ancient Ibis. The 
attention of Bruce was attracted, during his stay in Upper Egypt> by 
some birds called by the natives Abou-Hannes, whose forms reminded 
him of the ibis, as represented on Egyptian monuments, and repeated 
observation confirmed him in the opinion of their identity with the 
ibis of the ancients. This identity was subsequently corroborated by 
the distinguished naturalists, Qeofroy and Savigny, who accompanied 
the French expedition into Egypt> and procured anumber of specimens. 
M. Savigny published his observations in a small work (' L'Histoire 
Nat et MythoL de I'lbis'), now very scarce, and Baron Cuvier also 
gave a memoir on the Egyptian ibis in the ' Annales du Museum' for 
1804, in which he has deariy proved, from the comparison of a mummy 
ibis with a stufied specimen, that the true ibis is not the TaiUaliu Ibu 
of Linnteus, that being a much larger bird, but is really a species of 
curlew. This bird appears to be also a native of regions very remote 
frt)m Eigypt. 

Herodotus attributes the veneration of the Egyptians for the ibis, 
to supposed services rendered them by the biixl in freeing their 
coun^ fh>m winged serpents. That the ibis, however, could not feed 

True White Ibii {yumeniua J6m]. 

upon serpents appears nearly certain from anatomical inspection. The 
bill, for example, being long, slender, considerably curved, blunt on 
the edges, and expanded and roundish at the point, could neither 
divide nor pierce serpents ; and indicates rather an aptitude to dabble 
in marshy and moist grounds. 

On the other hand. Baron Cuvier found, in the mummy of the ibis, 
remains of the skin and scales of serpents, and hence it has been 
inferred that the birds might have been serpent-eaters. This inference, 
however, is at variance with the observations made in Egypt by M. 
Savigny on a great number of individuals, in the crops of which he 
uiiiformly found land and fresh-water shells {CydoatomcUaf AmpuUaruE, 
Plcmorbis, <fec.), and these shells were ^ways entire when their 
inhabitants had not been previously digested. 

It does not appear that the ibis breeds in Egypt; but, on the 
testimony of the inhabitants, it arrives as soon as the waters of the 
Nile begin to rise, augmenting in numbers as the waters increase, and 
diminishing as they subside, and disappearing when the inundation 
terminates. These birds, on their arrival, repair to the low lands, 
which are first covered with water; but when the waters become 
deeper and spread wider, the birds betake themselves to the higher 
lands. They afterwards approach the river, where they establish 
themselves by the sides of the canals and on the small dykes, with 
which the greater part of the cultivated grounds are surroimded. • 

The bird in question sometimes lives solitary, sometimes in small 
troops of from eight to ten. Its flight is lofty and powerful, and it 
utters at interyals hoarse cries. When it alights on a fresh piece^ of 
land, it remains for hours together occupied in tapping the mud with 
its bill, in search of worms, &c. It walks leisurely step by step, and 
has not been observed to run, Hke our curlew {Nwneniut arquataf 
Latham), to which it otherwise bears some resemblance. 

The Egyptians call the bird Ahou-Menzd, which literally means 

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'Father Siokle-Bill,' the bill being curred like a uokle. The 
iEthiopian name, Ahott-Hmmei, means ' FatherJohn,' becaiifle, as 
M. Dnmont suppoeeSi the bizda arriye about Stw John's day. 

Tbe following is the earliest account that we have of the ibis, from 
an eye-witness (Herodotus, iL 76) : — ** The ibis is all over very black : 
it has the legs of a crsne, and a beak considerably curved : its sise is 
about that of a enx. Such is the appearance of the black ibis, which 
fights sgalnst the serpents. But the other ibis, which is more of a 
domestic bird (for there are two kinds), has the head and sll the neck 
bare of feathers : it is of a white colour, except the head, neck, and 
the extremitiee of the wings end tail, all which parts are very black. 
As to its legs and beak, it resembles the other kind of ibis." The 
bkck ibis, according to Herodotus, devoured the winged serpents 
which yearly attempted to make their entry into Egypt from Arabia. 
It is needless to add that these winged serpents are a fable. Strabo, 
who himself was some time in Egypt, gives the following account : — 
'* The ibis is the tamest bird of all : in form and sise it is like tiie stork. 
But there -are two varieties of colour, one of which is that of the 
stork, and the other is all black. Every street in Alexandria is filled 
with them, partly to the benefit of the citizens, and partly not The 
bird is useful so far as it devours all kinds of vermin, with the 
garbage of the shambles, and the refuse of the eating-houses, &a" 
Here Strabo makes no distinction between the two, except in colour, 
and he describes both species as living on all kindis of garbage. He 
has probably confounded the real ibis snd the stork. 

ABOU SCHOM, the Arabic name of a species of fox (C7aftif 

ABRAMIS. [Brbam.] 

ABRAXAS, a genus of nootonal Lcpidoptera, to which belongs 
the common Magpie Moth, A. grouuUmaict. The caterpillar of this 
moth attacks the leaves of gooseberry and currant bushes at the 
b^cimiing of the summer. It is of a ydlowish white colour, with an 
orange stripe on each side, snd oov/ered with black spots. The 
chrynlis is black, relieved at its pointed end with orange circles. 
The expanded fore-wings of the perfect insect measure about one inch 
and a half across. The wings are of a yellowish white colour, variously 
jotted with black. The fore-wings have a band of pale orange. The 
body is orange, spotted with black. The sggs are deposited on currant 
or gooseberry leaves in July or August, and the caterpillars are hatched 
in September. To get rid of the attadks of these creatures, they may 
be picked off, or dusted with the powder of white hellebore, or the 
leaves of the plants attacked may be burned. 

ABRAZITE {ZeagimUej Gtioumdine), a mineral belonging to the 
group of aluminous hydrated silicates, with alkaline and lime basest 
It contains, besides sUica and water, about 26 per cent of alumina, 
with 14 per cent of lime snd potash. 

ABROCOMA. [Habboooma.] 

ABBOMA (from a and fipAfta, ' not fit for food,' in opposition to 
Theobroma, 'food for gods'), a genutf of plants belonging to the 
natural order ByUneriactas. The species consist of small trees, with 
hairy lobed leaves and extra-axillary or terminal few-flowered 
peduncdes at the tops of the branches. 

Abroma tmgutta is a handsome tree, with drooping purple flowers, 
seated on peduncles opposite the leaves. It is a native of the East 
Indies. The fibrous tissue of the bark of this plant is manufactured 
into cordage. 

ABRUS (firom afifisy soft), a genus of plants belonging to the 
pi^Hionaceous division of the order LeffwrninomE. The calyx is 
bluntly 4-lobed, with the upper lobe broadest The legume is 
oblong, compressed, and 4-64eeded. There is but one species, A. 
preccUmua, which is a delicate twining shrub, with abruptly pinnate 
leaves, bearing many pairs of leafleta It is a native of the East 
Indies, but is also found in the tropical parts of Africa snd America, 
where perhaps it has been introduced. The seeds of the commoner 
variety are red, with a black spot, whilst other varieties produce 
various coloured seeds. These seeds are in much request as ornaments 
amongst the inhabitants of the countries where they grow. They are 
strung as beads, with shells, and other hard seeds. Tney are brought 
to Europe from Guinea and the East and West Indies. They are used 
frequently as beads for rosaries ; hence the name preccUoriuB given to 
this species. The leaves and roots of this plant secrete the sweet 
substance which characterises the liquorice plant (Qlyeyrhiea glabra). 
In the West Indies it is called Wild Liquorice, and used for the same 
purposes as the common liquorice. The seeds have been accused of 
possessing narcotic properties, but this is an error. When swallowed 
they are very indigestible. 

ABSORBENT STSTEM. The delicate vessels which in the bodies 
of vertebrate animals are engaged in carrying the food and other 
matters into the circulation, have this nameu It^oonsists of two 
principal divisions, which may be r^mrded as two different sets, 
given off frx>m a common stem. One of these takes its origin in the 
walls of the slimentary canal, more especially the small intestines, and 
is called the ' lacteal ' system, fr«m the white colour of the liquid it 
takes up ; whilst the other commences in the substance of the body, 
more especially the skin and neighbouring parts, and is called the 
'lymi^tic' system, from the colourless fluic^ called lymph, which it 

The Ladeals are the smalT system of vessels by which the chyle, or 


nutritive part of the food, is conveyed from the intestines to the left 
subclavian vein, in which it is mixed with the blood. They have their 
origin in the viUi of the small intestines, which are short hair-Hke 
processes, each consisting of a fine net-work of lacteal vessels siu*- 
roimded by capillary arteries and veins. On the outside the villi are 
covered with cells, which absorb the chyle before it is conveyed to the 
loops of the lacteals in the interior of the villus. From the villi the 
chyle is carried, between the layers of the mesentery, through 
numberless converging branches, to the thoracic duct, the main tnmk 
of the absorbent system, which, at the part where ike chief lacteal 
branches join it, is dilated into what is ciJled the Receptaculum ChylL 
The villi have no visible apertures for the entrance of the chyle, but 
the walls of the lacteal vessels themselves are extremely thin and 
permeable, and tiieir canals are furnished with numerous and delicate 
valves, like those of the veins [Ciboulation of thb Blood], to 
prevent the fltud which they contain from descending again to 
their absorbing extremities. In their passage through the mesentery 
the lacteals traverse numerous mesenteric absorbent glands, where 
they communicate with veins, and the fluid contained in them 
is exposed to the influence of the blood, from which it acquires 
colouring matter and fibrine. 

The LymphatieM consist of minute branched tubes of extremely 
delicate membrane, whose extremities are arranged in a more or less 
dense net-work in every part of the body. From this net-work they 
gradually converge into a succession of branches of increasing sise, and 
terminate in two main trunks, called the right and left great Lymphatic 
Veins, through whidi the lymph is poured with the chyle from the 
thoracic duct into the right and left subclavian veins. The lymphatios 
also communicate with the veins at some other parts of their course, 
chieflv near their minute extremities, and more rarely by larger 
branches. They have in their interior numerous delicate valves formed 
of crescentic folds of the lining membrane, like those of the veins and 
of the lacteals [Circulation of the Blood], and, like them, pre- 
venting the retrograde course of the contained fluid. The valves of 
the lymphatics, however, are much more closely set than those of the 
veins, so that, when full of fluid, Uie spaces between them being most 
distended, they give tiiose vessels s knotted or beaded appearance, by 
which they are easily distinguished from veins of the same sise. In 
the course of the larger lymphatios there are numerous glands of the 
same nature as those found in the course of the lacteaLs. They are 
called Lymphatic Glands. To each of these there pass two or more 
lymphatic vessels, which on entering them become extremely tortuous, 
and after varied convolutions and anastomoses, terminate in nearly the 
same number of branches, which again pass frx>m the gland, and pursue 
their course towards the main trunk. These glands attain their fullest 
development in man and the mammalia. They are far less numerous 
in birds, and are entirely wanting in the fish and amphibia. ^ The 
function performed by these glands is somewhat obscure, but it has 
been recently suggested by Professor Bennett, of Edinburgh, that their 
function is to prepare or produce the colourless corpuscles of the 
blood. [Blood.] He arrives at this conclusion from having observed 
that in cases where these glands or the spleen are inflamed, or in a 
condition of increased action, that the colourless corpusdes of the 
blood can be seen under the microscope to be in larger quantity than 
is normal. (Bennett, On Zeucocythemta,) 

ABSORPTION, one of the first and most essential of the functions 
of animal and vegetable tissues. Both animals and plants grow and 
perform other vital functions through the agency of materials derived 
nom without. The passage of all substances from the exterior to the 
interior of their IxKlies is effected by the function of absorption. 
This function is performed in all cases by the aid of animal or 
vegetable membrane.' This membrane is always in the form of the 
wallB of cells or the walls of vessels formed out of ceUs. Whether the 
function of absorption be performed in animals or plants, there are 
certain general conditions of the membrane or cells through which it 
takes place, that are necessary in all cases. In the first place, as 
liquids are found to pass through the walls of cells and membranes, 
it is necessary that they should be permeable. This is found to be 
the case in all organised bodies, and in proportion to the permea* 
bility of the tissue is the activity with which absorption is performed. 
In certain parts of plants, as well as animals, the cells become almost 
impermeable, and these are the parts which cease to grow or to perfonr 
active functions. Such are the duramen or heart-wood of trees, and 
the nails, hairs, horns, and teeth of animal bodies. 

During the performance of the various functions in which absorption 
is required, both liquids and gases pass through the ceU-membrane 
or cdl-wall Liquids containing salts in solution pass into the plant 
and animaT in the supply of food for nutrition. Gases, including the 
vapour of water, are also absorbed by the cells of plants as a nutritive 
process, and by those of animals during the performance of the 
respiratory function. This transmission of fluids through organic 
membranes is sometimes referred to as a peculiar vital proper^ of 
animal and vegetable tissues; but it seems to depend considerably on 
the physical properties of the fluids and tissues. Organic membranes, 
when separated from the living structure, have the power of absorbing 
fluids, and if two fluids of different densities are s^Murated by a mem- 
brane, the flow through the membrane will be greater from, the thinner 
fluid to the thicker wan the contrary. This action, which has been 

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called £ndo9mo»U [Endosxosib], seoms to be a modification of that 
very general law of attraction by which solids are attracted towards 
each other, as w^ as liquids and gases, and which lies at the 
foundation of those phenomena attributed to capillary attraction. 
Although It would appear as the result of this law that there must 
be two currents, the one passing out and the other in, this does not 
always take place, as the perpetual remoyal, for the purposes of the 
system either of the plant or of the animal, of the matter absorbed, 
prevents the action of the outgoing current^ which has been called 

The cells and surfaces which carry on absorption in the VegetdbU 
Kingdom vary according to the circumstances of the plant In the 
simpler plants, such as the lower forms of AlgoB, which consist of one 
or only a few cells, the whole of the cells are equally employed in 
absorbing. But as we ascend to plants where the Tegetative and 
reproductiYe organs are distinct, there we find absorption performed 
more abundantly by the former. In the higher forms of phanerogamic 
plants the active duties of absorption are performed by the roots ; the 
loose tissue at the ends of the fibrils of these organs being remarkably 
adapted for the performance of this function. The same power is 
also possessed by the recently formed tissues in the stems of these 
plants, and thus the food — ^the sap — ^is carried from the soil to the 
branches of the plant, which are covered with leaves. The cells of 
the leaves are adapted to the exhalation of the fluid which has been 
absorbed below, and thus a perpetual demand for new supplies ia 
created. Not that the leaves are always exhaling ; in moist states of 
the atmosphere and at night they probably also absorb. This function 
is also undoubtedly performed by the stems of the leafless Euphor- 
hiaeea and by the Cadticece, whida, possess very small roots, and will 
even grow without them. 

Absorption in the Animal Kingdom, although performed upon the 
same general principles, and being adapted to attain the same general 
ends, presents more various modifications of form and greater com- 
plication than in the vegetable kingdom. In the first place, the nature 
of the fluids taken up differs, more especially in the class of cases where 
that function is adapted to nutrition. Plants derive their food from 
the mineral kingdom. .Animals obtain their food from plants. Plants 
live on carbonic acid, ammonia, water, and various salts. Animals live 
on substances elaborated out of these compounds in the cells of plants. 
In the next place, animals receive their food into an interior sac or bag 
called a stomach, whilst plants plunge their absorbent cells into the 
soil from which they derive their nutriment. In the higher forms of 
aiiimals, a system of vessels called absorbents [Absorbent Stbtbh] 
is made subservient to the ends of the function of absorption — an 
arrangement which is found nowhere to exist in the vegetable 
kingdom. In the lower animals, as in tho sponges and some of 
the infusoria, the function of absorption is performed by contiguous 
cells almost as simply as in plants. In certain parts also of the higher 
ftninmla^ we have absorption carried on in the same way as in the cells 
of cartilage, and in the contiguous cells of the mucous and cutaneous 
membranes. In none of the invertebrate animals have we any special 
absorbent system at alL In the animal kingdom the circulating 
system has tiie power of absorption in even a greater degree than the 
absorbents themselves. From the structure of the walls of the veins, 
arteries, and capillaries, and the knowledge of the fact that there is 
constantly passing through them a dense liquid — the blood — we should 
expect that these organs would offer the necessary conditions for absorp* 
tion. This has been proved by direct experiment. M.M. Tiedemann 
and Omelin found that when such substances as gamboge, madder, 
camphor, musk, and assafoetida, which are easily detected by their 
oolour and odour, were introduced with the food into the stomach, 
they were seldom found in the chyle in the time that they had found 
their way into the blood, and some of them even into the lu^e. It 
was also foimd that if poisonous substances were introduced into the 
intestines, ond secured in one place by two ligatures, and eveiy other 
part cut away but the artery and vein, they exerted the same 
influence on &e system, and in the same time as usual; whil^ if 
the intestine was treated in the same manner, and all parts cut away 
but the laeteals, the evidences of absorption were deferred for a much 
longer period than usual From these experiments and others it would 
appear that tho laeteals are adapted for receiving only a certain class 
of compounds, more especially of an oleaginous and albuminous 

That part of the absorbent system called Lymphatics were at one 
time supposed to be engaged in conveying to the blood the used-up 
matters from all parts of the body preparatory to their final expulsion 
from the system. The nature, however, of the dear fluid lymph which 
is contained in them does not support this opinion, and as this lymph 
has a composition very like to the blood without its red corpuscles, 
it is infeired "tiiat the office of the lymphatics is to assist in the 
preparation of materials for the blood. These materials being 
scattered all over those parts of the system on which the lymphatics 
are distributed, it is to the blood-vessels that the office must be 
assigned of taking up effete matter, and carrying it into the blood. 

That the general cutaneous and mucous surfaces of the body will 
both exhale and absorb, are well-known facts. The skin, through its 
penpiriferouB glands, which perform their function through the agency 
of cdli^ exhales moisture, whilst it is also a powerful absorbent surface. 

It is proved by direct experiment, that the human hand is capable of 
imbibing, in a quarter of an hour, an ounce and a half of warm water, 
which, for the whole body, is at the rate of biz or seven pounds per 
hour. An interesting narrative is on record of a ship's crew who 
were exposed at sea for several days in an open boat; they had 
consumed all their water ; they had no fluid of any kind which they 
could drink; they soon began to suffer from thirst; the feeling at 
length became intolerable, and the drinking of sea-water was found 
only to increase its intensity. When nearly exhausted, they were 
exposed, during several hours, to a heavy shower of rain. As soon 
as their clothes became thoroughly wet their thirst began to abate, 
and before the rain had ceased their thirst was gone. They did not 
£eu1 to profit by this experience. From this time each man, as soon 
as he began to feel thirsty, dipped his shirt in the sea-water and wore 
it next his skin, which had invariably the effect of removing his thirst, 
the absorbents taking up the particles of water, but rejecting the 
saline matter dissolved in it. The mucous surfiEice of the lungs is con- 
stantly engaged in throwing off the vapour of water and carbonic add, 
and absorbing oxygen gas. It is also through the pulmonary surface that 
poisons are introduced into the blood, which result in the production 
of disease, as small-pox, measles, scarlet fever, and others. The different 
relations of absorbing surfaces to poisonous substances is an interesting 
subject. Thus, poisons which may be introduced with impunity into 
the stomach wiU destroy life when applied to the minutest wound in 
the skin, as in the case of the poison of venomous serpents, and 
the Woorara poison. This has been proved not to depend on any 
decomposition taking place upon the surface of particular membran^ 
as the Woorara has been introduced into the stomach and bladder, 
and when rejected has been foimd to retain its primitive destructive 

ABUTILON (afivrCKov, the Qreek for mulberry-tree, which the 
species of this genus resemble), a genus of handsome plants, belonging 
to the natural order Malvaeea, The species of this genus, amoimting 
to about 80, have been removed from Sida. They have a naked five* 
cleft calyx, with a multifid style, capsular one-celled carpds, 6-80 
in a whorl Several of the species are cultivated in this country. 
A. striatum blossoms freely nearly all the year round, when turned 
out under a wall in Hampshure. A. viHfolium, A, venoaum, A, rvfi- 
nerve, and A. poeonifiorwn, are also tolerably hardy species. The 
plant known as Bencao de Decs, in the province of Rio Janeiro, in 
Brazil, is \he A, escvknivm. It has large purple solitaiy axillary 
flowers, which are dressed and eaten with their viands by the 
inhabitants of Rio. In cultivation the species require a light rich 
loam and peat-soil, and should be propagated by striking cuttings in 
sand in a close frame or under a glass in summer. 

ACA'CIA, the name of a plant belonging to the order LegwnUnoaoSt 
mentioned by Dioscorides, as a useful astringent thorn, yielding a 
white transparent gum. The account given by this Greek author, 
meagre as it is, accords so well with the gum-arabic trees of modem 
Egypt, that we can scarcdy doubt their identity. Accordingly it is 
to these, and to others closely related to them, that the cla8si(»d name 
is still applied. 

Amonigst modem botam'sts the Acada is a very extensive genus of 
trees or shrubby plants, inhabiting the tropical parts of both the Old 
and New World, and, in a very few instances only, extending into 
temperate latitudes ; although over the whole of Australia, and its 
dependent islands, the spedea are spread in much abundance. There 
are nearly 800 species. 

Gtmeric Character. — ^Flowers polygamous. Calyx, with either fou* 
or five teeth. Petals, either four or five; sometimes distinct from 
each other, sometimes adhering in a monopetalous corolla. Stameus 
varying in number from 10 to 200. Pod not separating into many 
joints ; juiceless, two valved. The species are extremely variable in 
the structure of their leaves and flowers. Some of them have true 
leaves that are twice or thrice pinnate, with a multitude of minute, 
shining, or at least even, leaflets ; others have in a perfect state no 
leaves properly so called, but in their stead the leaf-stalks enlai^, . 
and assume the appearance, and no doubt also the functions, of true 
leaves : species of the latter description are known by their spurious 
leaves being expanded vertically, instead of horizontally as in leaves 
of the ordinary construction. By these very remarkable points of 
difference in stmcture the species may be conveniently separated into 
two great subdivisions. 

I. Leaves pinnated in various degrees. About 200 species known. 

Acacia Catechu (WUldenow), ^e Catechu Acacia {Mimosa caieehu^ 
Linufflus). Spines growing in the place of the stipules ; when yoimg. 
straight, but afterwards becoming hooked. Leaves in ten divisions : 
leaflets in fh)m 40 to 50 couples, linear, downy ; With one depressed 
gland at the base of the leaf-stalk, and from two to three between the 
upper di'^ions. Flowers arranged in <^lindrical spikes, which grow 
two or three together. It is a tree witn a tolerably high and stout 
stem ; and is found in mountainous places in the East Indies, espe- 
cially in Bengal and Coromandel It is moat common in Canara and 
Bahar. Its unripe pods and wood yield, by decoction, one of the sorts 
of catediu, or terra-japonica. [Catechu.] 

Acacia Arahica (Roxburgh), the Gum-Arabic Tree. Spines growing 
in pairs. Branches and leaf-stalks downy. Leaves in from four to 
six divisions ; leaflets in from ten to twenty couples, oUong-lineari 

Digitized by 





with a gland between the lowest, and often between the outermost 
diviaiona Heads of flowers growing in threes upon stalks. Pod 
neoklaoe^haped. It is an inhabitant of the East Indies, Arabia, and 

Acacia Catechu. 

Abyssinia, where it forms a tree 13 or 14 feet high, of inelegant 
appearanoe ; easily recognised by its long curved pods, which are 
diyided into a number of round compressed joints, byTneans of con- 

Acacia Arabica, 

tractions between the seeds. This is one of the plants that yield the 
usefal substance called Qum-Arabic, which is procured by wounding 
the bark ; after which the sap runs out, and hsurdens into transparent 
lumps, of various figures, very similar to the concretions found upon 
the bark of the cherry-tree in this country. Qum-Arabic is also pro- 
duced abundantly by some of the species nearly related to this, such 
as A. NUoiica, or vera, found in Egypt; A. Fhreribergii, a native of 
Dongola ; A, tortUis, a common plant in the west of Nubia, Kordofan, 
and Arabia, especially upon Mount Sinai ; and A. Seyal, an inhabitant 
of Upper Egypt, Nubia, and western Arabia. It is supposed that 
Gum-Arabic is collected indifferently from aU these, and that the 
gums of Jidda and Bassorah, Qum-Thur, and East India Gum, are 
only picked samples. Qum-Senegal is the produce of a distinct 
■pedes, called A, Senegal, foimd in Arabia and the interior of 

Aeaeia diteolor (Do Candolle), the Purple-Stenyned Acacia (Mimosa 
ditcdlor, 'Bot Bepositoiy*), has no spines; the leaves have five pairs 
of pimua. It is a middle-sized tree, foimd in the southern parts 
of Australia and in Van Diemen's Land, where it, in common with 
many others of the same genus, is called Wattle. It appears better 
adapted than most oiher Aush^an species to support our winters. 
Hear London it succeeds perfectly well, aU wmter long; in the 

open air, if wrapped round with mats, and it is to be presumed that 
there is no obstacle to its being almost naturalised in Devonshire 
and Cornwall and the west of Ireland. It is readily known by its 
bluish stems and leaves, which are slightly stained with dull purple, 
and form a strong contrast with its long erect bunches of yellow 

Acacia pvheseent {* Hortus Kewensis'), Downy Aoada. No spines. 
Leaves with from three to ten pairs of pinnsa. It is a native of the 
east coast of Australia. In this country it is one of the most beautiful 
of green-house plants. If allowed to grow freely in the border of a 
good conservatoiy, it attains the height of 10 or 12 feet ; and in 
January and February produces a vast abundance of yellow blossoms, 
which weigh dovm the slender graceful branches, and perfume the air 
with a weak but pleasant odour. 

Acacia Julibritsin (Willdenow), Silk-Tassel Acacia {Mimosa Jvlibris- 
tin, Scopoli). No spines. Leaves with from eight to twelve pairs 
of pinnsB. It is a native of Persia and of the Levant Its specific 
name is Latinised from two Persian words— ^wZ, a rose; and ebnuchim, 
silk. In the coimtries where it grows wild it becomes a small tree, 
remarkable for its light airy foliage, and for the great beauty of the 
clusters of lilac flowers, the long and slender stamens of whida stream 
in the wind and glitter in the sun, like a number of silken tassels 
artificially fastened to the bougha This species is now oommonly 
cultivated in the warmer parts of Europe. 

Acacia aearUhocarpa (Willdenow), Prickly-Fruited Acacia. Spines, 
from the place of the stipulse, gro^nng in pairs, and hooked. Leaves 
in from six to eight principal divisions. It is a native of Mezioo, 
where it forms a small tree, with flesh-coloured flowers. 

The Black Wood.of Van Diemen's Land is the timber otAoaeia 
mdofnoxyUm ; and the astringent Jurema Bark of Brazil is the produce 
of Acacia jurema. 

II. Leaves pinnated in the young plant; in the old, consitting ofnotkmg 
hut the verticaUy distended leaf-stalks, called PhyUodia, About 100 

Acacia decipiena (' Hortus Kewensis'), Paradoxical Acacia. Stipules 
spiny, deciduous. Phyllodia either triangular or trapezoidal; their 
midrib nearest the lowest side, and lengthened into a spine ; a single 
glandular tooth on the upjper edge. Flowers in nearly solitary com- 
pound heads. This species is remarkable for the blunders to which 
it has given rise. When botany was only a science of names, its 
flowerless branches were taken for the leaves of a kind of fern ; and, 
at a later period, when botanical geography was as yet unheard of, it 
was believed to be a native of the north-west coast of North America. 
«It is an inhabitant of the south-west coast of Australia, where it forms 
a bush of singular aspect. In this countiy it is cultivated in the 
green-house, and it flowers in March, April, and May. 

Acacia Sophorce (' Hortus Eewensis '), Fragrant Acacia. Phyllodia 
narrow. Heads of flowers in dense slender racemes. Pods long, 
curved, tapei>pointed,a little con- 
tracted between the seeds. It is 
a native of the south side of 
Australia and of Van Diemen*s 
Land. In this country it is a 
very ornamental greenhouse plant, 
which, if planted in the open 
border, will grow as high as eight 
feet. Few plants are more worthy 
of a permanent station in a good 

Acacia longifoUa (Willdenow), 
Long-Leaved Acacia. Phyllodia of 
a narrow lanceolate form, tapering 
to each end. Spikes of flowers 
axillary, growing in pairs, on short 
stalks. It is foimd very commonly 
on the eastern coast of Australia, 
especially in the neighbourhood 
of Port Jackson, whence it was 
introduced into Great Britain, 
among the first of the natural 
productions of that remarkable 

CuUivation. — The species of this 
genus are increased artificially in 
two diffbrent ways. Most of them 
may be multiplied by cuttings 
struck in silver sand, placed under 
a bell-glass, and kept in a warm 
I)lace, to which no direct solar 
light has access. Such of them, 
however, as do not increase vnth 
sufficientcertainty by this method, _. ^ . 

A. Jtdihrissin for instance, have Fragrant Acacia, 

the power of producing shoots from pieces of their root plaeed in 
earth in a hot-bed ; and by these the nurserymen generally propagate 
them. Their seeds also are veiy often received, and frvm tiiese they 
can, of course, be multiplied in all cases. 
ACACIA, FALSER or Locust Tree, [Bobinia.] 

Digitized by 





ACADIOLITE, one of a group of minerals of doubtful identity, 
oompoeed of nearly 50 per cent, of silica, with alumina, lime, soda, 
potash, and water. 

ACALEPHuE (firom heaX'h^j a nettle), SeorNeUUi, a class of 
marine invertebrate animalB, belonging to the sub-kingdom Radiata. 
It is now made to include a large number of animals, of which the 
genus Meduta of Linnaeus may be taken as a type. 

The genus Meduaa was placed by Linnaus m the second section of 
his Verme8f yiz. MoUtuea. The MoUtuea were divided into six 
sections in the 'Systema Natune ; ' and in the last of these, consisting 
of those molluscous forms which had a central mouth below, Meduaa 
stood as the first genus, followed hjAtteriag and JSchinut. The third 
section of Vermei (Tetiaeea)^ with Chiion at its head, immediately 
followed. In this arrangement Meduaa came between Nereis and 
Aatencu ; but in the body of the work' it stands between Sepia and 

The following is the Linnsean definition of the genus Meduta : — 
Body gelatinotis, orbiculate, depressed. Mouth beneath, central 

The genus contained 12 species, and these consisted not only of 
true MeduatE, but of such genera as Porpita and VdeUa. 

The AeaUpka of Guvier (his third class of Zoophytes) comprehend, 
to use his own terms, Zoophytes which swim in the sea, and in whose 
organization may be perceived vessels, which in truth are most 
frequently nothing but productions of the intestines, hollowed in the 
parenchyma of the body. 

Cuvieor^s first order of Actdepha, or Sea-NetUea, consists of the 
Sifnple AcalepJuB, which he characterises as floating and swimming in 
the sea by means of the contractions and dilatations of their body, 
their substance being gelatinous, without apparent fibres. The sort 
of vessels which are seen in some are hollowed in the gelatinous sub- 
stance ; they often visibly come from the stomach, and do not give 
place to a true circulation. 

The genera contained in this order are the great genus Meduaa, 
Linn., with its subgenera Porpita and Vdella. 

The great genus Meduaa is characterised as having a disk more or 
less convex above, similar to that of a mushroom, and called the 
umbrelkL Its contractions and dilatations concur to the motivity of 
the animal The edges of this umbrella, as well as the mouth, or the 
suckers, more or less prolonged into pedides, which take its place, in 
the middle of the lower surface, are furnished with tentacles of veiy 
different form and size. These different degrees of complication have 
given rise to very numerous divisions. 

The ArachnodemuUa form the second class of M. de Blainville's 
Aetinotoariek He observes that this class corresponds exactly to th€^ 
genua Meduaa of Linneeus. 

The following is IL de Blainville's definition of this genus : — 

Body free, r^^ularly oval or circular, subgelatinous, covered with 
an extremely fine skin, which is but little or not at all distinct, 
sustained or not by a solid subcartilaginous part, and provided with 
very diversiform radiated appendages. 

Intestinal canal limited to the stomach, and provided with a single 

Ovaries multiplied, radiated, and opening in the interior of the 

M. de Blainville goes on to state that their form, which is regular, 
is nearly always circular (the Veldlat alone being oval), sometimes 
discoid or spheroidal, but most frequently hemispherical, which 
causes them to resemble our umbrellas, and has given rise to the 
distinction of their body by that name. This body is sometimes 
furnished in addition, in its circumference, with more or less long 
cirrhi, to which the name of tentacles, or better, of tentaculiform 
oirrhi, has been given. 

The lower surface of the umbrella, he observes, is sometimes entirely 
naked, but in other cases is provided with numerous and dispersed 
tentaculiform suckers, as in the Porpita and VeLdUs, or else with very 
diversiform appendages, capillaceous at least at their extremity, whidii 
Boologists have termed arms, whence the denomination oi Brachideoua 
which they have given to some species. These appendages or arms 
are sometimes free from their base, but in other cases are united, 
which unity produces a sort of peduncle, which has originated 
the designation of Pedunculated for tiiose species that are so pro- 
vided. In the middle of the lower surface of the umbrella of these 
Meduaa is sometimes a species of peduncle formed by a probosddi- 
form prolongation of the buccal orifice, and they are then called 
Prohoaeideoua ; but in the greater number of cases, the middle of 
the lower part of the umbrella is occupied by a more or less con- 
siderable mass, attaching itself to the body by foiir roots, in the 
form of a cross, so as to divide the buccal orifice into four semi- 
lunar parts. This pedimcle, terminated by more or less numerous 
capillaceous divisions, has caused the name of Pedunculated, or 
Polyatomatoua, to be applied to those Meduaa which are provided 
with it. 

The first subdivisions of the Araehnodermata established by M. de 
Blainmlle depends on the existence or absence of a solid piece for the 
support of the umbrella or body of the animal, and consists of the 
Cfirrhigrada, which are provided . with that support, and of the 
Pulmograda, which are without any such support. These orders, 
observes 11 de Blainville, are farther distinguished ' by the very 

different nature of the appendages with which t|ie umbrella is 
furnished on the buccal surface. 

The difficulty of examining the Aealepha is, from the ver^ nature 
of their texture, considerable, and that of preserving them m spirit 
great It is not, then, to be wondered at that a great portion of their 
organisation remained for a long time in obscurity, and that much 
relating to it still remains to be cleared up. To observe them with 
anything like a satisfactory result, they must be studied on the spot, 
and while they are alive ; and thus it is that several points relative to 
their organization and habits, and their generation especially, have 
only lately been cleared up. The possibili^ of fairly preserving them 
in spirit is shown in the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in 
London, where, in the department comprehending the first division 
of the reparations of Kat Hist, in spirit, several of the Acalephans, 
(No. 64 to 78 A, both inclusive) are to be seen so preserved. In the 
following remarks the structure of the typical Meduaa will be more 
especially referred to. 

The disk presents a uniform cellular appearance internally, and the 
cellular substance is very soft. In its mass no fibre has hitherto, we 
believe, been traced, and indeed the quantity of solid matter in the 
whole animal must be very smalL Those who have taken Meduaa 
out of the sea, and laid them upon a dry board or dry stone, must 
have observed how soon they sink into a sort of deliquescence. 
Spallanzani came to the condusion that the sea-water penetrating the 
organic texture constitutes the greater part of the volume in the 
Meduaa, some of which when newly taken out of the sea weighed 50 
ounces, though their dried remains gave a weight of little more than 
5 or 6 grains. A fine muscular membrane appearing, when examined 
with a magnifying glass, t6 be composed of numerous fieshy fibres 
disposed in, small bundles, radiating as regards the axis of the Meduaa^ 
and adheriiig closely to the gelatinous substance of the disk, may be 
seen in some species stretch&g over a given extent of the lower suHiace 
of the umbrella, a little within its outer margin. Portions of the disk, 
or umbrella, have been cut from these animals whilst they were alive : 
those portions which had no part of this muscular membrane attached 
to them exhibited no signs of motion ; in those, on the other hand, 
whose coimection with the muscular membrane was preserved, the 
reciprocal contraction and dilatation were continued for some time. 
Those Pvlmograda which have cilia around their margins. have also 
circular vessels running along their bases, and most of the projectile 
and extensile tentacles and filaments have sacs and canals with con- 
tained fiuids at their roots. If these cilia may be regarded, and they 
doubtiess may be, as one of the causes, and a principal one, of loco- 
motion, the pensile tentacles of the Meduaa may be viewed as ancillary 
at least to that faculty, though tiiey probably are principally employed 
as nutrient organs. They are hollow and simple, and appear to 
increase in their extensibility in proportion to their connexion with 
the appendages of the digestive cavities, or when furnished with a 
veside at their base. Suckers are found at the extremities and along 
the sides of these tentades in several of the genera, so as to enable 
them more securely to catch the floating destined prey, or to assist in 
anchoring the Meduaa when it would rest, as we have reason to 
believe it occasionally does. 

Nervoua Syatem and Senaea, — ^We are not aware of any quite satis- 
factory demonstration of a nervous system in the Acalephans. Dr. 
Grant indeed (' Zool. Trans.,' vol i) notices a structure in Cydippe 
which in his opinion can only bdong to that system ; but Eschscholtz, 
whose labours in investigating the organization of this class were not 
small, failed to discover nerves in the lai^est which he examined. 
That they enjoy sight has been a question. Ehrenberg has endeavoured 
to show that Meduaa aurita possesses eyes in the form of small red 
points visible on the surface of the eight brown masses which are 
round the circumference of the umbrella ; and he has compared these 
so-called eyes to those of certain Jtotifera and Entomoatraca. He con- 
siders the glandular body at the base of the pedide to be an optic 
ganglion, and notices its connection with two filaments that decussate 
about the middle of their course ; and he views these as constituting 
part of a nervous cirde, situated, for the greater part of its extent, 
directiy along the bases of the row of tentacles surrounding the 
umbrella, and so forming a sort of outer wall of the circular vessel or 
appendage of the intestinal cavity which runs round the maigin of 
the umbrella. He also describes another nervous cirde, formed 
of four ganglion-hke masses. These he states to be disposed round 
the mouth, and to be each coxmected with a corresponding group of 

But the general opinion seems to be that touch is the only sense 
possessed by the Acalephans, as far as proof has hitherto gone. That 
they are sensible to light, though the evidence in favour of their 
possessing sight properly so called may not be deemed condusive, will 
be generally admitted. It is said that some of the smaller tribes have 
been known to shun a bright lights and to sink into deep water to 
avoid it 

The chief seat of the touch appears to be in the tentacula and cirrhi 
with which the majority of Acalephans are furnished. Many of them, 
as we have ourselves observed, make no sign when wounded extensivdy 
in the umbrella or disk. 

Muacvlar Syatem, — In most of the spedes of PuUnoyrade Meduaa 
distinct muscular fibres exists which present the peculiar markings 

Digitized by 




obfleired on the fibres of Toluntary xnueoleB. Where these csanot be 
seen, tissue consisting of a granular substance exists which possesses 
the peculiar power of contraction. Professor K Forbes says^ that he 
has "paralysed one side of a JRhizoBtowui Aldrcvamdif whose disk 
measured more than a foot across, by removing with a scalpel the 
bands of that hal^ whilst the other side contracted end expanded as 

Skixostoma eerulea (CaTier). 

usual though with more rapidity, as if the animal were alarmed or 
suffering:'' The tentacles or most species nure capable of wonderful 
extension and retraction, moyements which must be effected by means 
of muscular tissue. 

Food and Digutum,-^The food, small fishes and marine snimals, 
both living and dead, is probably conveyed to the mouth not only by 
the tentacles end dniii with which the greater part of the Medutce are 
furmshed, but also by contractions in the timbrella or disk itsell 
Fishes of some size have been found dead and entangled in the tentades 
of Medu$<E, kflled most probably by that benumbing or stinnng qualitv 
which has obtained for them ihe name of Sea-Nettles, mfessor E. 
Forbes, speddng of the habits of Sartia tubfdotOf says, "being kept in 
a jar of sslt water with small Crustacea they devoured these animals, 
80 much more highly oiganised than themselves, voraciously, appa- 
rently enjoying the destruction of the unfortunate members of the 
upper claBses with a truly democratic relish. One of them even 
attacked and commenced the swallowing of a Lizsia odoptmeUUa, 
quite as good a Medusa as itself. An ammal which can pout out its 
mouth twice the length of its body, and stretch its stoma(Ui to corres- 
ponding cUmensions, must indeed be ' a triton among the minnows,' 
and a very terrific one too." 

By the investigations of M. Milne-Edwards principally, we now know 
that all the Pidmoffrada have gastric cavities, but all have not mouths 
in the ordinary acceptation of the word. In Bhwutoma, for instance, 
the only communication between the stomach and the outer sur£sce is 
carried on through numerous branching canals in the pensile arms. 
In most cases a system of vessels is observed proceeding directly from 
the stomach, partly nutritive and partly respiratoiy, but there does 
not appear to be any distinct blood-vessels. From the recent researches 
of Vm, Leuckart, and E. Forbes, it does not appear that any special 
blood-fluid exists amongst the spedes they have examined. 

BeproducHveSyHemmd Devdopment. — The majority of the Acalephn 
have very distinct r^roductive glands. In the Pulmograda they are 
placed either on the surface of the sub-umbrella, or on the inner and 
upper part of the cavity of the peduncle. In most cases these animals 
appear to be bisexual, though the two sexes are often united in the 
same individual; but Milne-Edwards, Wagner, and Will have observed 
individuals vrith sperm-odls only, and with germ-cells only. Although 
probably in all cases reproduction takes place by conjunction of these 
cells, the Medata^ Uke some other lower animals, have the power of 
nrodudng their offiipring by germination. This fsct was fint made 
known by Sars in 1836. PVofeesor E. Forbes, in his great work on 
the British Naked-Eyed Meduss, says, " I have observed four modes 
of propagation by germination among the Medusae. 1. Qermination 
from the ovaries, as observed by Sars. 2. Qermination from the 
peduncular stomach. 3. Germination from the walls of a tubular 
proboscis. 4. Qermination fr>om the bases or tubercles of the four 
marginal tentacles in Santa proUfera," In order to suggest the naturo 
of thii mode of reproduction, Forbes has the following passsge: — 
"What strange and wondrous changes t Fancy an elephant with a 
number of little elephants sprouting from hie shoulders and thighs, 
bunches of tusked monsters hanging epaulette-fiAshion from Ids flimks 
in every stage of advancement. Here a young pachydenn almost 
amorphous, tiiere one more advanced, but all ears and eyes ; on the 
right shoulder a youthfrd Chuny, with head, trunk, toes, no legs, and 
a shapeless body ; on the left, an infant better grown, and struggling 
to get away, but his tail not suffidentiy oiganised as yet to permit of 
libwty and free action ! The comparison seems grotesque and absurd, 
but it really expresses what we have been describing as actually ooouz^ 
ring among our Naked-Eyed Medusn 1 " 

The history of the development of the ova is not less interesting. 
When first produced they are retained in the interior of the oreatnre 
until they are oovered with cili% when they pass out^ and are found in 
the water resembling)^. 1. In the course ox a littie time it attaches 
itself to some fixed object, and then puts out four arms. In the 
first stage we have an infusorial animalcule ; in the next> ^. 2, we 
have a x^tifer or hydroid polype. Not only have we the resemblance to, 
but some of these forms have been shewn by Steenstrup ('Alternation 
of Qenerations ') to have been mistaken for permanent states of other 
animals. The first four arms are succeed^ by four more^ Af'^* &t 
tlus stage germs or buds frequentiy grow from, its side, fig. 4 : the 
polypiform body then lengthens, and at last becomes wrii^ed. Jig, 5 : 
depressions appear, and the elongated body is out ud into a series of 

horiiontal dices, from the edges of which tentades grow. Jig, 6 : 
layer escapes, and presents itself in the form of a young Medusa, fig, 7. 
Such is the histoiy given bv Steenstrup, in one of the common forms 
of Pulmograde Medusa, and such with modifications appear to be the 
changes which each ovum of the Medusa passes through before it 
becomes a Ailly devdoped animaL 

Power of Swinging,— i:he name Aealepkaf Sea-Netties, suggests this 
property. It is not, however, improbable that thii ftmction is possessed 
only by a few spedes. Some possess this property in a remaikable 
degree^ as the Oyanea capillaia, which is a terror to bathers in our 
teas. At most two or three others possess it in relation to the human 
skin. ^ It is probable they exert greater power over their prey or their 
enemies amongst the lower clftssea The stinging power is supposed 
to redde in small capsular hairs, which are founa in the tissues of 
the AcaUpha as well as in AcUnus and other polypes. 

Photpkoretcence, — On whatever property this phenomenon depends, 
there is no doubt that it is possessed in a high oegree by almost every 
spedes of MeduscB, The circumstances, however, on wMch it depends 
seem to be littie known. On some occadons the Aealepha with other 
marine ereatures will give out abimdance of light, whilst at other times 
not a glimmer can be observed. ^ 

The Aealepha have been divided into four fSamilies : the Pvlmograda, 
the Oiliograda, the Cirrhigrada, and the Phyeograda. The following 
is the arrangement of the PtUmograda given by M. de Blainville, who, 
by intercalating the genera of P^ron and Leeueur, and of Eschsohdts, 
the existence of whidi he is fieu: frx>m guaranteeing; gives us the follow- 
ing synoptic table : — 


Sect. 1,— Simple, 
Genera : Sudor a, Sphyra, Phorcynia, EuLymene, Charybdaet. 

Sect. IL^TeiUacfdated. 

Qenoa : Beremcef ^quorea, MetOTiemOf PoUxtna, ^gina, CSmma, 
FoveoUOf Eurylna, Pegatia, ObeUa, 

SscT. IIL-Sub-Proboecidean, 

Genera: Oceemia, AglamrOf Melicerte, Oylacie, ThamHumHat, Tima, 

SsoT. lY.— Pro^cseuiAm. 

Genera: Oritkyia, Cferyonia, Saphenia, Diamaa, Limche^ Pctvcnia, 

Lytimorea, Sthenonia, 

SsoT. Y,—BrachuUtmt and Pedimeuiated, 

Genera: Oeyrik, Oaeeiopeei, Aurdia, Mdiiaa, Svagoreif Oep^ 
ShiMoetoma, Chryeaora, Pelagia, 

We now proceed to Uj before the reader examples of these stvefal 

Digitized by 




SBcnox L 

Generic CharacUr, — ^Body yery much depreeaed, diaooid, umple, 
without tentacular drrhi, without either pedundea or appeudagea, 
and offering within only ramified canala opening (s'abouchant) by four 
large trunks, in the form of a croaiy into a amall central cavity without 
extmnal werture. 

Example, £udora tmdulota (Pdron and Lesueur). 

there was a membrane on the lower rorface, and he inquires whether 
thia was not perhaps B<)me remains of the stomachal cavity. 

Cuvier united this genus with the Qerycnia, Eschscholts places it 
in his family Berenicida, and unites Eurytde with it. 


Oeneric Character. — ^Body hemispherical, sub-conical, or even semi- 
elliptical, furnished on its circumference with foliaceous subtentaoular 
lobes, hollowed below by a great stomachal excavation with an aperture 
as large as itsell 

Exunple, Charybdcea peripkyUa (P^r. and Lea.). 

Section U. 

Oeneric Character. — Body slig^y diversiform, Aimished at its 
circumference with a cirde of filamentous tentacular cirrhi, often 
very long, and more or less numerous, a good deal excavated below, 
with a median orifioe often at the exia^mity of a sort of circular lip, 
which is more or less projecting or provided with tentacular fringes. 

Stomachal appendages linear, numerous, or sacciform and not 

Example, jBquorea cyanea {F6r. and Les.). 

ira6i/a<.— South Seas. 

Eudora mtditlota, 

a, view of the upper tide ; h, in profile, or with the edge of its disk towards 
thespecUtor; 0, view of the knrer side. 

M. de Blainville remarks that he only knows this genus from the 
characteristic and short description given by P^ron and Lesueur. He 
doubts whether this Medusa has not a mouth ; for he thinks that the 
centre of the reunion of the four laige trunks of the canals ought to 

Charifhdaa per^pkftta, 

be Tsgaxded as a stomach. He further inquires whether the individual 
figured was complete. He layi that Id licsueur informed l)im that 

JBjuorea eyansa, 
a, the animal complete ; b, a portion thereof. 

M. de Blainville divides this genus into the following sections : — 


Maxginal cirriii very numerous; stomachal appendages equally 
numerous and linear. 

A Lip simple. 

Qenus jEquorecL 

B. Lip fringed. 

Qenus MeBonema. (EscL) 

* * 

Marginal cirrhi as well as the stomachal appendages sufficiently 
numerous, or not numerous. 

C. Cirrhi sufficiently numerous, originating opposite to the trian- 
gular stomachal appendages. 

Qenus Polyxena, (Each.) 

D. Cinhi and sacciform stomachal appendages few. 

Qenus jBgina. (Esch.) 
We have selected a genus of the first subdivision for illustration. 


Oeneric Character — ^Body hemispherical, provided at its circum- 
ference with tentaculiform cirrhi which are bulbous at the root ; veiy 
much excavated beneath, and having in its middle a free pedunculiform 
stomachal cavity dividing itself into daviform canalsy and terminated 
by a simple buccal orifice. 

Digitized by 



Examplfi, Thamnantioi cymbaUHdea. (Med, cym. Slabber. ; Dumcea, 
eymb,, Ltm.) 



ThaumatUitu eymbaUndea, 

Placed by F^ron among his OceanicB. 

BabUcU. — Coasts of Europe ; Holland. 

Qenerie Character, — Body hemispherical, depressed, furnished on its 
droomference with a circle of tentaculiform drrhi, which are short 
and numerous ; not much ezcayated beneath, and prolonged into a 
very thick conic peduncle, which is ^tirely exserted, and terminated 

Tima flavilahri»» 

by a plicated enlargement ; buccal orifice at the centre of four labial 
appendages; stomachal cavity in the enlargement of the peduncle, 
and giving origin to four ascending canals, and communicating with a 
mai:g^ial canal 

Example, TimaJlavUabrii, 

ffabitat.—The Azores, 

Sbctiok IV. 

Diancea (Quoy and Gkum.) 

Generic Chairacter. — Body hemispherical, furnished on its circum- 
ference with a Small number of tentaculiform cirrhi ; excavated beneath 

Qenerie CfKarader. — ^Body subhemispherical, with neither cinhi nor 
tentaculiform marginal cilia ; rather deeply excavated beneath, with a 
long, median, probosoidif orm prolongation, having at its root six or 
ei^t braohideous appendages, furnished with radidfoEm sadkers. 
Four ovaries. 

Example, Fawmia Octonema. (Orithyia OetonemOf Lam.) 

JJoMtoe.— South Seas. 



Oeneric Character, — ^Body subhemispherical, furnished on its cir- 
cumference with very fine, short, and numerous tentacular cilia; 
rather deeply excavated beneath, and provided with a long proboscidi- 
form prolongation, having at its base eight bifid and findy divided 
appendages. Four ovaries, in the form of a cross. 

Example, Lymnorea triedra, (DiaMsa triedra, Lam.) 

ira6tta<.— South Seas. 

Favonia oetontma. 

and provided at its middle with a strong exserted proboscidiform 
^pendage, with four bradddeous appendages at its eztzemity. 

I^fmmorea triedra, 
a, the disk Men tnm above. 

SscmoN V. 


Qenerie Charaeter, — ^Body subhemispherical, lobated, aurioukted, 
famished on its circumference with a few tentaculiform oiirhi ; eight 
inferior i^Mrtures at the extremity of a fistulous pedunde piamed 

Digitized by 





with four rery airong and foliaoeous arms. Four oyariei. Stomach 
with ceeiform appcodages. 
Example, Pdagia Lcikhe, Each. (CyameaLabiekt, Quoy and Oaim.) 

Felagia Labieht. 

Cfenerie Cfhetraeter. — ^Body circular, hemispherical, provided on its 
circumference with lobes or festoons intermingled with auricles, largely 
excayated below, with four semilunar orifices, produced by four roots 
of insertion of a considerable pedunculated mass, afterwards divided 
into eight very complex bracbideous appendages furnished with fibril- 
lary suckers, without a median prolongation. Four ovaries, in the 

Species having a peduncle of insertion for the root^ with radical 
appendages, besides those of the arms. 


Species havixtg a very short peduncle of insertion, without radical 
appendages, besides the four bifid arms. {Evagora, F6t.) 

We have given an illustration of the first. The specnes grows to a 
very large size. 


Cfaurie Charaeter. — ^Body circular, hemispherical, festooned, and 
provided with at least twenty-four tentaculiform drrhi on its circum- 
ference ; excavated internally into a considerable cavity with sacciform 
appendages ; communicatmg externally by a single orifice, pierced in 
the centre of a median pedimcle, provided with distinct brachideous 
appendages. Four ovaries. 

Example, Cktytaora l^Uea. 

ShUottoma Ouvieri, 

shape of a cross. Stomachal cavity very laige and vascular at its 

Example^ JSAtsoffonui (hmeri, 

^oMof.— European Seas. 

K do Blainville separates the genus into two dirisioiis. 

Okryaaara luUa, 
a, one-foorth of the disk or umbrella, teen from below ; ft, disk without its 

The Pulmograde Medusas have been recently studied with great 
care by Pkx>fe88or E. Forbes, and he proposes to divide them into two 
groups according as their eyes or ocelli are covered or destitute of this 
protection. When any of the more common forms of Medusce are 
examined, as the species of Jthixoatoma or Pdagia, it will be found 
that the maigins of the ocelli are protected by more or less compli- 
cated membranes, hoods, or lobed coverings. This character accom- 
panies another of great importance, that is, the possession of a 
complicated anastomosis and ramification of the vessels. In the case 
of Tkawnantuu and other genera it will be found that the ocelli are 
either absent or entirely naked, and this condition is accompanied 
with a verjr simple vascular system. Hence Professor Forbes proposes 
the followmg classificatiotL 

L SrsaANOFTHALiCATA {<rrrfav6sy covered). 
Qenera. AwtUa, P^ron; Meduea, Eschscholts; Pelagia, P^n and 

Digitized by 





Lesueur; CkryMaarOf P^ron; RhizotUmOy Cuvier; Cotttopeo^ P^ron; 
OyaMt€^ P^ron. 

II. Otmnofhthalicata (yvyat6sf naked). 

1. YeaselB branched ( WiUtiadce). 
Oenii& WiOtia, Forbes. 

2. Veflflelfl simple. Ovaries convoluted, and lining the pedunculated 
stomach (OceanicUe). 

Qenera. Twria, Lesson ; Sapheniciy Escbscholtz ; Ocecmto, P^ron. 
8. Vessels simple, eight or more. Ovaries linear, in the course of the 
vessels on the sub-umbrella {jBquoreadce). 

Genera. Stomchraehium, Brandt ; Polyxenitiy Escbscholtz. 

4. Vessels simple, eight. Ovaries as many as the vessels, small, in 
the course of the sub-tunbrella {Cfirceadce), 

Qenus. Circe, Mertens. 

5. Vessels simple, four. Ovaries four, in the course of the vessols 
on the sub-umbrella {Oeryoniadoe). 

Genera. Qtryonia, P^ron ; Tima, Escbscholtz ; Oeryonoptis, Forbes ; 
TkawmanHoi, Escbscholtz ; StabberiOy Forbes. 

6. Vessels simple, four. Ovaries in the substance of the peduncle 

Genera. Sania, Lesson; BovgainttUea, Lesson; Liatia, Forbes; 
Mooderia, Forbes ; Eu/phyea, Forbes ; Steenatrttpici, Forbes. 

This arrangement applies to the British genera only, the species of 
which, with figures, are described in Professor Forbes's 'Monograph of 
the British Naked-Eyed Medusad/ published by the Bay Society. 

The second order of the AcaJ^pha are the CiLioaRADA, of whiq^ De 
Blainville gives the following definition : — 

Body gelatinous, very contractile, free, diversiform, evidently binary 
or bilateral, sometimes appearing subradiated, provided with a kind 
of straight ambulacra, formed by the approximation of two series of 
vibratory cilia. 

Intestinal canal complete, or provided with two orifices, a mouth 
and a vent 

The term OiUograde has been given to these MeduscB on account 
of the minute oigans called Vibratile Cilia, with which they are 


De Blainville, whose amended arrangement we take, observes that 
SYstematists have hitherto agreed to imitate Gmelin more or less on 
the subject of the place of the CUiograda in the animal series, that is 
to say, in making them a genus approximating to the MedutcB ; and 
he instances Lsmciarck, Cuvier, Latreille, and Oken, as not having 
expressed any doubts on the subject. 
1. BerSe, 

a. Species whose cilia are smaller than the uiterstioeB which separate 
them. (Genus, Berde of Escbscholtz.) 

Example, Berde ovata. Those found by Browne seldom exceeded 
three inches and a half in length, or two and a half in the largest 
transverse diameter. "This beautiful creature," says Browne, ' Jamaica,' 
T). 384, " is of an oval form, obtusely octangular, hollow, open at the 
larger extremity, transparent, and of a firm gelatinous consistence ; it 

Serde ocata. 

contracts and widens with great facility, but is always open and 
expanded when it swims or moves. The longitudinal radii are 
strongest at the crown or smaller extremity, where they rise from a 
▼eiy beautiful oblong star, and diminish gradually from thence to 
the maigin : but each of them is furnished with a single series of short, 
delicate, slender appendices or limbs (the cilia) that move with great 
celerity either the one way or the other, as the creature pleases to 
direct its flexions, and in a regular accelerated succession from the top 
VA& Hm. Diy. vou i. 

to the margin. It is impossible to express the liveliness of the 
motions of those delicate organs, or the beautiful variety of colours 
that rise from them while they play to and fro in the rays of the sun ; 
nor is it more ea^ to express the speed and regulari^ with which 
the motions succeed each other frx>m the one end of the rays to the 
other." Dr. Browne frequently met with tiiese animals to the north 
of the western islands (West Indies). 

fi. Species whose cilia are twice as long as the interstices. 
(Genus, Medea, Eschscholte.) 

Example, Berde r^fetcem. 

y. Species whose ^ia are situated in two ambulacral ridges. 
(Genus, Pandora, Escbscholtz.) 

Example, BerSe PUmingii. 

2. Cydippe, 

Body regular, free, gelatinous, divided into eight sections, more or 
less distinct, by as many double longitudinal rows of vibratoiy cilia. 
An internal cavity, with a large buccal (?) aperture, whence issue, and 
are prolonged more or less below, a pair of long appendages, which 
are retractile, and also furnished with vibratory cilia. 

Example, Cydippe pileiu ; Medusa pileus, Gmelin ; Berde pUeut, 
Lamarck; Plewohrachia, Fleming; Eucharit, P^ron, who really 
established the genus ; but Escbscholtz having transferred the last 
name to a genus of Ciliobranchians, De BlainvUle prefers following 
him, to avoid greater confusion. [Beboe.] 


BerSe {Cfydippe) pileus, 

8. CaUianira. [Calliaitiba.] 
4. MnemuL 

Bodv smooth, oval, elongated vertically, very much compressed on 
one siae, and as if lobated on the other. Buccal opening between the 
prolongation of the sides ; conical appendages, on which the rows of 
vibratoiy cilia are ranged. 

Example, Mnemia fieteroptera, CaUianyra heteroptera of Chamisso, 
thus described by Chamisso and Eisenhardt : — Body hyaline, cylin- 
drico-tubular, dilated at one extremity, with a transverse mouth, into 
which it was impossible to penetrate. A laige cestoid wing on each 
side, with vibratory cilia on its edges ; six intermediate smaller wings, 
of which the four inferior (buccal) are lanceolated, ciliated on titie 
edges, and attached to the base of the body ; two superior cestoid 
wings uniting themselves to the two large lateral ones, which P^ron, 
according to the desoribers, erroneously regarded as branchisa. 

5. Cdtymma, [Caltvma.] 
6. Axiotima, 

Body a little elevated, a little compressed, or subcircular, prolonged 
to the right and left into a sort of appendages, bearing the series of 
cilia towards their terminal half only, and up to their end. Mouth 
.small, entirely deprived of labial appendages. 

Example, Axiotima QaXdis, Escbscholtz. Locality, South Seas, 
near the equator. 

7. Sucharis (Escbscholtz). 

Body oval, sufficiently elevated, slightly compressed, or subcircular, 
covered with papillae, with the ambmacra of natatory cilia extended 
from the summit to the base. Mouth smsll, provided with two rather 
long pairs of appendagea 

Example, Eucharis Tiedmanni, Escbscholtz. Locality, seas of 
Japan. This name had been employed, as we have seen, by P^ron, to 
distinguish another genus of Ciliograda, and should not have been 
transferred : for in all such cases confusion must be the consequence. 
The student must now remember that the Eucharis of P^ron and that 
of Escbscholtz represent two different generic forms. 

8. Ocyrde, 

Body gelatinous, transparent, vertical, cylindrical, provided above 
with two lateral musculo-membranous, bifid, thick, wide lobes, and 
with two fleshy ciliated rib-like elevations, with two other ciliated riba 
upon the edges between the lobes : aperture provided with four ciliated 

Example, (kyrde crystaUina, Rang, who founded the genus. Do 


Digitized by V^UOQIC 




Blainville thinkfl that it bears much resemblance to the last species of 
CaUianira — CaUianira kexagona f 

9. AleynOe, 

Body gelatinous, transparent, yertica], cylindrical, with eight 
ciliated ribs, hidden in part under the vertical natatory lobes. Aper- 
ture provided with four ciliated appendages. 

Example. Alcyn6e vermictdaiii, Rang, who established the genua. 
Locality, coasts of BrasiL 

10. Cettrni, 

Body gelatinous, free, regular, very short, but extended or prolonged 
on each side into a long riband-Hke appendage, bordered on each 
angle with a series of vibratory ciUa, thus forming four ambulacra^ 

Ouium Veneris, 

two on each side. Mouth inferior and mesial, aocompanied by a pair 

of long, ciliferous, retractile and simple appendages. 
Example, Cettwn Veneris, Leeueur. 

Although there is not much 
resemblance between this singular 
genus and the typical forms of 
Ciliograda, yet they are connected 
by a succession of intermediate 
links. If we refer to the genus 
CaUianirOf we shall find that its 
globular body is so extended 
laterally as to have a wing-like 
appendage on either side. In 
other genera these lateral ap- 
pendages are still more extended, 
until the globular body in the 
centre is entirely lost The ali- 
mentary canal of Cestwn runs 
across the middle of its length, 
and from it extends, as from the 
stomach of the Medusce, a series 
of gastric canals which carry the 
nutriment to all parts of the body. 

The third order is the Cirrhi- 
ORADA. They are thus called from 
the cirrhi which are attached to 
the disk upon which their oi^gana 
are disposed. These cirrhi are, 
some of them, tubular, and are 
furnished with suckers. The 
ciecal appendages are attached 
to their base, in which are pro- 
duced the ova, which pass out at 
the mouth of the cirrhi. The 
following is De Blainville's defi- 
nition of the order : — 

Body, oval or circular, gela- 
tinous, sustained in the interior 
of the dorsal disk by a solid sub- 
cartilaginous part, and provided 
on the lower surface of the disk 
with tentactiliform cirrhi, which 
are very extensible. 
1. VdeUa, 
Body membranous, oval, veiy 
much depressed, convex, swollen, 
sustained above by a transparent 
y , ,, . oval subcartllaginous piece, 

" " ^' marked with concentric striae, and 

ff, upper side ; h, lower side. surmoimted by a vertical and 

oblique crest, concave below, with 
a sort of mesial nucleus, offering a central mouth at the extremity 
of a proboscidiform prolongation, surroimded by tentacular cirrhi of 
tw9 kinds, the external being much longer *h*^n the internal ones. 

De Blainville observes that Imperato and Colimma would appear to 
be the authors who first noticed the animals which constilHite thi£ 
genus, established, at first, under the name of PhyUidoce, by Patrick 
Browne, and figured by him in his 'History of Jamaica,' tab. 48, fig. 1. 
Forskahl, who gave a very good description of it, arranged it under his 
genus HolothwicL Loefling made it a Medusa, denominating the species 
known to him Medusa VeUUa, a name adopted by Linnasus in the 
' Systema Naturs.' Dana (' Soc Roy. de Turin,' 1766) proposed the 
name of Armenistartu for it ; and Lamarck published it under the generic 
appellation of Velella, by which it is now generally known to naturalists. 
This form is widely difilised, and has been found in the seas of 
Europe, America, Asia, and Australasia. One of the species, V. livfibosa, 
is often taken on the southern coasts of England. The animals are met 
with far at sea, and often huddled togetiier, young and old, in con- 
siderable masses. Sailors are said to fry and eat theuL 

The PhyUidoce labris ccendeis, the SaUy-Man of Browne, appears to 
be the VdeUa cyanea, of Lesson and Gamot^ and one at least of the 
species which gave rise to the Medusa Velella of Linnaeus and Qmelin 
(Lamarck quotes the last name as well as Browne's PhyUidoce, as 
synonyms of his VeUUa muUca). 

2. HataruL 
Body oval or circular, sustained by a subcartilaginous, compressed, 
elevated pieoe, with a muscular, moveable, longitudinal crest above^ 
concave below, and provided in the 
middle with a free proboscidiform 
stomach, and with a single row of 
marginal tentaculiform suckers. 

E^hscholtz established this genus 
for some very small cirrhigrade animals, 
whose back is sustained by a subcar- 
tilaginous piece, not elevating itself in 
the dorsal cavity, and which only offer 
mai^al cirrhi on the central surface. 

JZotenamftrate. highly magnified. 5« ?^^!' after observing that 
Forskahl has figured with his HoLothwria 
spirants {VdeUa limbosa of Lamarck) some very small animalw, which 
M. Eschscholtz himself regards as closely approximating to his 
Bataria cordata, says that it seems possible that the Batarice may be 
only degrees of development of Veldla. Example, RcUaria mUrata, 

8. Porpita, 
Body membranous, regular, circular, depressed, slightly convex above; 
internal cartilaginous support circular, with its surface marked by con- 
centric striae crossing 
radiated striae, cover- 
ed on its upper sur- 
face by a delicate 
membrane merely. 
The body is concave 
below, and the infe- 
rior surface is frir- 
, nished with a great 
i number of tentacula^ 
j I of which the exterior 

I ones are the longest^ 
and furnished with 
small cilia, each ter- 
minated by a glo- 
bule : they sometimes 
contain air; and the 
internal ones are the 
shortest, the most 
simple, and the most 
fleshy. In the centre 
of these tentacula is 
the mouth, in form of 
a small proboscis, 
which leads to a 
simple stomach, sur- 
rounded by a some- 
what glandular sub- 

Cuvier, from whom 
a great portion of the 
above description is 
taken, says, in the 
last edition of the 
' R5gne Animal,' that 
there is but one 
species (PorpHa gi- 
garUea) of a beautifrd 
blue colour, from the 
Mediterranean, and 
other warmer seas. 
Lamarck, who esta- 
blished the genua 
for on animal which 
had been placed among the Medusa by Linnseos, gives four species* 

Porpita gigantea, 
a, upper side ; b, lower side. 

Digitized by 



but De BlainTiUe and MM. Chamisso and Einenliardt ooincide with 

Cuvier in believing that they are all referable to one, though the 

former admits that the fact Ib still 

Kunewhat doubtful He observes 

that Boflo's species, Hclothuria 

appendictUaiiif (Porpita appefidictt- 

lata. Lam.) was evidentlvestablished 

on an impaired animal Eschscholtz, 

under the name of Porpita Mediter- 

ranea, conjoins three of Lamarck's 

spedesy and describes three new 

ones, taking for his character the 

proportion of the cartilaginous VxotXe ot Pwpita glandifera. 

disk, and especially that of the marginal cirrhL 

Oeoffraphical I)utributum.^Like that of VeteUa, very wide. Bosc, 
who met with them at sea, says the animal has the appearance of a 
24-eou8 piece borne along by the waves. Examples, Porpita gigarUea, 
and P. gUmdiftra, 

L Polj/bi-achionia, (Guilding). 

Dorsal support (sustentaculum) cartilaginous, naked, flattened, 
rounded, radiated, concentrically striated; mantle (pallium) narrow, 
firee, surrounding the support; arms numerous, parallel, of various 
lengths, elon- 
gated, afi&xed 
beneath, with 
a power of 
taking a de- 
clining posi- 
tion for the 
purpose of 
taking prey. 
Mouth below, 
central, purse- 
shaped, exten- ' 
sale. Tentacula 

many, varying [ 

in form, sue- : 

torial, cover- 
ing the whole 
ventral sur- 
fece. Eggs, 
Tery small, 
nestled among 
the tentaoula. 
Example, Po- 

This genus 
has been esta- 
blished by Jlr. 
Guilding, who 
describes the 
support as 
broad and 
vitreous, the 
body as ceru- 
lean, the ten- 
tactda as pal- 
lid, and the 
arms, which 
are in a triple 
series, glandu- 
lous, the glan- 
dules being 
The diameter 
of the mantle, 

exclusive of Polybraehionia Linn€tana, enlarged 

^e arms, is ^^ ^pp^r side ; J, lower side, 

stated to be 

eleven and a half lines. Mr. Guilding states that the animal is 
wonderfully beautiful, swimming, or rather floating on the serene 
surface of the Caribean Sea in calm weather, and embracing its prey 
by the sudden downward application of some or all of its arms, 
which are easily broken by attrition. 

We think there is hardly enough to warrant a generiQ separation in 
this case; the species bears a strong resemblance to the Porpita 
cceruUa of Eachscholtz. Mr. Guilding observes that the Medusa 
porpita of the 'Anucnitates Academicse' seems nothing more than 
the central disk of some species deprived of all thp 9igan8 of the body. 

The fourth order is the Phtsoqrada. The structure of the 
creatures belonging to this order were but little known till the 
publication of Mr. Huxley's researches, in 'Philosophical Transac- 
tions ' for 1849. They are allied to the preceding oraer both in the 
conformation of the gastric organs and in their means of locomotion. 
The principal difference between this and the preceding families i^, 


that we here lose the radiate form, and observe in the creatures which 
belong to it a lateral symmetry. This order is now made to include 
the genus Phyaalia and its allies, which are possessed of an air-bag, 
by means of which they float through the ocean, and also the various 
forms of DipkydoB. These two forms were included by Cuvier in his 
division of Hydrostatic AcalephcB. Before referring to their arrange- 
ment, we shall give the principal results of Mr. Huxley's researches 
into the anatomy of these creatures, as given by him in the 'Report of 
the Twenty-First Meeting of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science.* We shall speak first of the DiphydcB. If one of;, 
these creatures is examined, it will be found to consist of two trans-" 
parent crystalline pieces, which look, when taken out of the water, 
Ukc morsels of cutglass. One or both of these pieces contains a wide 
cavity, lined with a muscular membrane, by the contraction of which 
the animal is propelled through the water. The attachment of the 
posterior piece to the anterior is very slight, and when detached it 
will swim about independently for hours together. It was tills cir- 
cumstance which led Cuvier to suppose that the two pieces were two 
independent animals, and in this he has been followed by the majo- 
rity of zoologists. He describee the two individuals as always together, 
one including itself in a hollow of the other (I'un s'emboitant dans 
un creux de I'autre), an arrangement which nevertheless permits their 
separation without the destruction of life. They are, he observes, 
gelatinous, transparent^ and move very nearly like the Medusas, The 
including individual (I'emboltant) pit>duces from the bottom of its 
hollow a chaplet (chapelet) which traverses a demi-canal of the inclu- 
ded individual (l'emlx>it^), and would seem to be composed of ovaries 
and of tentacula and suckers like those of the preceding genera. 
Cuvier then goes on to state the divisions estabhshed by MM. Quoy 
and Gkdmard, according to the relative forms and proportions of the 
two individuals. Thus in the Diphyea, properly so called, the two 
individuals are nearly alike, pyramidal, and with some points round 
their opening, which is at the base of tho pyramid. In the Calpes, 
the included individual has still the pyramidal form, but the inclu- 
ding individual is very small and square. In the Ahyles, the included 
individual is oblong or oval, and the including rather smaller and bell- 
shaped. In the CvhoideSf it is the included individual which is small and 
bell-shaped ; the including individual is much larger and square. In 
the NaviculeSf the included individual is bell-shaped; the including 
individual laige also, but slipper-shaped (en forme de sabot). Cuvier 
concludes by remarking that there are many other combinations. 
There are two prominent forms of Diphyda, the Monogastrie and the 
Pdygastric, In the former a single polype is developed in a special 
cavity of the anterior piece. In tibe polygastric a long chain of such 
polypes, each enveloped in a littie tnmsparent braot> occupies a 
similar position. These polypes have no oral tentacles ; but a long 
thread-like tentacle, bearing lateral branches, which are terminated by 
small sacs, is developed from the base of every polype. The small 
prehensile sac has a peculiar form, but is only a dilatation of its 
pedicle. It is much thickened on one side, and contains a great number 
of the stinging hairs to which we have before alluded. The repro- 
ductive oigans are medusiform bodies, which are developed by 
gemmation from the pedicle of the polype. 

In the Polygastric JDipkydos new polypes are continually being 
produced by gemmation at the attached extremity of the polype- 
chain, and in all the species the same gemmation is continually going 
on among the prehensile and reproductive oigans. 

The structure of the other forms of Physograda are modifications of 
a common type, in the main identical with that of the IHphyda^ 
The great difference is in the absence of the air-oigan, or float The 
same continual multiplication of parts by germination goes on among 
the PhyssophoridcB as among the JHphyda, and the structure and 
mode of development of the young oigans are the same. Great variety 
is presented by the reproductive organs, from the form of mere sacs 
to that of freeWimming bodies precisely resembling Medusas, and 
developing the generative elements only subeequentiy to their 
liberation. In Physalia the female organs are free-swimming medusi- 
form bodies, while the male organs are simply pyriform sacs. 

As a general conclusion it may be stated that the Physograda are 
essentially composed of two membranes, an outer and an inner, which 
are called by Mr. Huxley 'foimdation membranes,' since every oigaa 
is formed by the modelling into shape of one or other or both of these; 
commencing as a simple process, or diverticulum, and assuming its 
perfect form by a gradual change of development. The stomach has 
no walls distinct from those of tiie general varieties. The reproductive 
organs are always developed externally. The stinging hairs, or thread- 
ers, are found in all the species in the greatest abundance. 

The following is the arrangement of these creatures according to 
M. de BlainviUe :— 



Natatory organ simple and lamellar. 

1. Physalia, 

Generic Character.— Body oval, rather elongaiBd, more narrow and 
proboscidiform anteriorly, hydatiform in the middle, attenuated and 
obtuse posteriorly; mouth star-shaped and terminal; anus lateral; 
a foot u fonn of a crest or oblique laminai directed from before 

Digitized by V^UOQIC 



backwards; branchisB very anomalous, and composed of a great number 
of diversiform cirrbous productions ; organs of generation terminating 
at tbe anterior third of the right side hj two closely approximated 

Example, Phi/tcUia AretJtuta, 

This is the Arethuta of Browne ; Medusa CaraveUa of Miiller and 
Eschscholtz ; Phytalui Pdagicut of Liamarck ; the Portuguese Man-of- 
War of English yoyagers. This Phytalut is an inhabitant of the warm 
seas, but a shoal of them are sometimes driven into our bays, 
particularly on the south-west coast 

Example, Bhizophyta planottoma, P^ron. {Bkiaophyta P&onii, 
Each., ' Acaleph./ p. 148, No. ii, t. lZ,fig. 3.) 

Species whose tentaouliform productions are covered with cirrhiform 
fihunents. Natatory organs mJmown. (Qenus Epibulia, Esch.) 
Example, Bhizophyta JUtformit. {Phyaophm^ JUtformitf Fonk.) 

Phffialut Pelagiem / the crest not txpanded. 

* * 

Locomotive organs complex and vesicular. 

2. Physsophora, 

Generic Character. — Body more or less elongated, cylindroid, 
hydatiform in its anterior part, provided below with two series of 
vesicular diversiform bodies, vnih. a regular aperture, and behind with 
a variable number of very diverse cirrhiform productions, two of 
which are longer and more complex than. the others; mouth at the 
extremity of the hydatiform part ; anus terminal 

Example, Phyuophora Muzonema. 

M. de BlfdnviUe states that the PhyssophoroB differ from the Phytalice 
in swimming or floating in a vertical position, the air-bag being 
above and the cirrhiferous productions below. The distinction of the 
species appears to him to depend especially on the number and form 
of the natatory organs. 

8. JHphyio. 

Generic Character. — ^Body cylindrical, elongated, contractile, mus- 
cular, composed of three parts, the anterior part vesicular, the middle 
part bearing on its lower part two hollow natatory organs, placed one 
before the other, and the third part (which is the longest) provided 
above with a fibrillo-capillaceous plate, and below with cirrhiform 
productions ; mouth terminal 

Example, Diphyta tmgvlaru (Quoy and Qaimard; 'Astrolabe, 
Zoologie '). 

4. Bhixophyta. 

Generic Character. — Body free, transparent, very contractile, very 
much elongated, swollen at one extremity into a sort ofaeriferous 
bladder with a terminal orifice, provided throughout its length with 
scattered tentaculiform productions mingled with cirrhiform filamenta 

This genus is divided by M. de Bloinville into two sections. 

Species with simple tentaculiform productions. Natatory organs 
hollow. (Qenus Rhisophyta,) 

1. Jthiaophytaflliformit; 2. Physaophora Mwumima, 
• * * 
Species provided with two sorts of locomotive organs, the Ulterior 
ones hollow, the posterior solid. 

5. Apclemia, 
Generic Character. — Body very much elongated, cylindrical, vermi- 
form, provided anteriorly with many hollow natatory organs in two 
rows, and behind with solid squamous organs, between which come 
forth tentaculiform cirrhi, fumifdied with vermiform suckers. 
Example, Apolemia Urania^ 

6. StephanonUcu 

Generic Character. — ^Body in general very much elongated, cylin- 
drical, vermiform, covered throughout its extent, except in the lower 
median line, with squamous natatory organs, fall and di^rlBed in 
transverse bands, between which come forth, and especially inferiorly, 
long, very much diversified cirrhiform productions, mingled with the 
ovaries. Orifices of the intestinal canal terminaL 

Example, Slephanomia Amphitridcs, P^ron et Lesueur ('Voyage 
aux Torres Austr.,' p. 45, pL 29, fig. 6). 

7. Protomedea. 

Generic C haraeter. ^-Body free, floating, cylindrical, fistulous, very 
long, provided above with an imbricated assemblage of gelatinous 

Digitized by 




bodies (in two aHemate rows) which ore fUll and hippopodiform, 
and throughout the rest of its length with filamentouB^ cirrhoua, 

transverse aeriee, and with a yariable number of filamentoua 
diverBiform productions. Mouth and anus terminal 
Example, Jthodophysa Udianthut, 

1, a portion of Apchwtia Urania, 
a^ a part ttill more highlj magnified ; h, a tingle tucker. 

diTersiforin productions. Mouth proboscidlform, at the extremity of 
a tort of veaieular stomach. 
Example, ProUnnedca lutea, 

8. Bhodophyicu 
Gmtric CharacUr. — ^Body shorty cylindrical, fleahy, swollen above 

Mkodophfta EelUnUhus, 

into an auriferous bladder, and provided below with a variable number 
of gelaftizioas bodies, which are full, costiform^ forming a single 

Cfueuhatiu cordiformit. 

Prciomedea IvUa, 

Diphyda whose anterior part has but a sin^^e cavity (Monogastric). 

1. Cucuhalm. 

Body provided with a lar^e probosoidiform exsertile sucker, with a 
bxmch (grappe) of ovaries at its base, lodged in a large bingle excavation 
of a natatory anterior cordiform organ, receiving also the posterior, 
which is also cordiform and hollowed 
into a cavity with a posterior and sub- 
oval orifice. 

Example, Cttcubalua eordiformU, the 
only species cited of the genus esta- 
blished by MM. Quoy and Gaimard. 
Length, two lines. Differs from the 
other Diphydotf first, in having the 
nucleus much less hidden and sunk in 
the anterior natatory body, which has 
moreover only one large cavity in which it is plunged ; secondly, in 
having the oviferous production very short ; and, lastiy, in the mode 
of locomotitn, for the animal always swims vertically. 

2. (hcuJOm, 

Body furnished with a great exsertile proboscidifonn sucker, with 
a bundi of ovaries at its base, lodged in a deep excavation, the only 
one in the anterior natatory 
organ, i|i form of a hood, in 
which the posterior i3 inserted 
(s'emboite); the latter is te- 
tragonal, and pierced behind 
with a rounded terminal orifice. 

Example, CucuUuiDorei 
(Quoy and Gaimard). 
lity. New Guinea. 

8. Cfymba {NaceOe). 

Body furnished with a laige 

exsertile and proboscidifonn 

sucker, having at its base a Oueullus Doreyonut. 

mass of ovariform oi^ans, 

lodged in the single and rather deep cavity of a naviform natatoiy 
oigan, receiving and partially hiding the posterior natatory organ, 
which is sagittiform, pierced behind with a rounded orifice crowned 
with points, and hollowed on its free border by a longitudinal gutter. 


Digitized by V^nOU 





Example, Cymha sagittata (Quoy and Oaimard) ; NacdU tagittata 
(De Blainyille). Locality, Straits of Gibraltar. 

Cfmba $agittata, 

H. de BlainTille remarks that he ought to observe that M. Eschscholtz 
says that this genus, to which he imites the two following genera, 
possesses an anterior natatory oxgan with two cavities, and of these 
the natatory cavity projects in the form of a tube. M. de Blainville 
further observes that this genus does not differ from the CucvUif 
except in the form of the natatory organs ; in fact» the disposition of 
the nucleus in the bottom of the single cavity into which the anterior 
oiigan is hollowed, and the penetration of the posterior oi^an into this 
■ame cavity are absolutely the same as in the two preceding genera, 
as 11 de Blainville has been able to satisfy himself from, the examina- 
tion of many individuals preserved in spirit. 

4. Cvho\dt8, ^ 

Body nudeiform, provided with a large proboscidiform sucker, 

surrounded by an 

hepatic mass, having 

fi at its base an ovary, 

whence proceeds a fili- 
form ovigerouB produc- 
tion, contained in a 
large, single, hemisphe- 
rical excavation of an 
anterior, cuboid, nata- 
tory organ, much 
^ larger than the pos- 
terior one, which is 
tetragonal, and nearly 
entirely hidden in the 

Example, CvboUa vUreua (Quoy and Gaimard). Locality, Straits 
of Gibraltar. 

This again, according to M. de Blainville, is a genus scarcely 
distinguuuiable from the preceding genera^ and only by the form and 
proportion of the natatory organs. 

5. Ermeagona. 

Body nucleiform, provided with a laige exsertQe sucker, haying at 
its base an assemblage of ovaries, whence proceeds an oviferous pro- 
duction. Anterior natatory oigan enneagonal, containing with the 
nucleus in a single (?) excavation the posterior organ, which is much 
smaller, with five points, and canaliciuated below. 

Example, Bnneagona hyalina (Quoy and Gaimard). 

OuboXdei titrtuM, 
a, naturtl size ; ft, magnified. 



Enneagona hyalina, 
1, 1 a, 1 h, JSntteagona hyalina under different aspects ; 1 e, visceral part ; 
I df nnoleas. 

6. Amphiroa, 

Body nucleiform, of considerable volume, furnished with a probos- 
cidiform stomach, having at its base a bimch of ovaries, prolonged 
into along filament, contained in an anterior, polygonal, short, natatory 
organ, cut squarely, with a single cavity in which the posterior organ, 
which is equally shorty polygocued, and truncated, is inserted. 

Example, Amphiroa alata (Lesueur). Locality, Seas of Bahama, 

DiphydcB whose anterior part is furnished with two distinct cavitieB. 

1. Cdtpe. 
Body nucleiform, without an exsertile proboscis, having a sort 
of aenferous vesicle, and at its base an ovary (?) prolonged into a 
long cirrhigerous and oviferous production. Anterior natatory 
oigan short, cuboid, having a distinct locomotive cavity ; posterior 
natatory ozgan yery long, truncated at the two extremities, not 

penetrating into the anterior organ, and provided with a round 
terminal aperture. 

Example, Calpe perUagona (Quoy and Gaimard). Locality, Straits 
of Gibraltar? 

Amphiroa alata, 
1,1a, Amphiroa alata ; 1 i, its nnelens extracted. 

Cb/jM pentagona, 
1, Oaipe pentagona (profile) ; 1 a (under aide) ; 1 i, nnoleni. 


Body nucleiform, inconsiderable, with a very long dirhigerous and 
oviferous production. Anterior natatory body much shorter than the 
other, subcuboid, with a distinct cavity for the reception of the anterior 
extremity of the posterior natatory body, which is polygonal and 
very long. 

Example, Ahyla trigona (Quoy and Gaimard). Locality, Straits of 

Abyla trigona, 
1, Ahyla trigona ; 1 a, posterior part ; 1 h, anterior or visceral part 

8. Diphyet, 

Body nucleiform, indistinct, situated in the bottom of a deep cavity, 
whence proceeds a long tubular production, furnished throughout its 
extent with proboscidiform suckers, having at their root granular 
corpuscles and a cirrhiferous filament Natatory bodies nearly equal 
and similar; the anterior with two distinct cavities, the posterior with 
a single one, with a round aperture provided with teeth. 

Example, Diphyet Bory (Qiloy and Gaimard) ; Diphyes campaiMdifara 

Doubtful species, or those with one part only. 

1. Pyramid 
Body free, gelatinous, crystalline, rather solid, pyramidal, tetragonal, 
with four unequal angles, pointed at the summit, trimcated at its base, 

Digitized by V^Uijy It: 



with a single rounded aperture communicating with a singla deep 
cayity, towards the end of which is a granular coipusde. 
EiLample, Pyrcmit tetrag<ma (Otto). 


Diphyet Sory. 

1, the entire animal (profile) ; 1 a, anterior part of the same; 1 h, posterior 
part ; 1 c, animal magnified ; 1 d, posterior part of the same. 

If. Eschflcholtz makes this organised body a species of his genus 
Eudaxia, which comprehends Cucvhalm and CwvMi of Quoy and 
Gaimard, admitting that the two nata- 
tory organs are intimately united so as 
to form, apparently, but one. 

2. Praia. 

Body subgelatinous, rather soft, 
transparent) binary, depressed, obtuse, 
and truncated obhquely at the two 
extremities, hollowed into a cavity Pyrami* tetragona. 

of little depth, with a round aperture nearly as large as the cavity, 
and provided with a laige canal or furrow 

Example, Praia dubia (Quoy and 

8. Telragona. 

Body gelatinous, transparent, rather solid, 
binary, of an elongated, paralldopiped, tetra- 
gonal form canaliculated below, truncated 
obliquely anteriorly, pierced behind by a gaping 
orifice fiinushed with symmetrical points, and 
leading into a long blind cavity. 

Example, Tetroffona hitpidum (Quoy and 

TOroffona hitpidum, 
1, ntrayona hxMpidwn; 2, 3, 4, details of the same. 

4. Svlcvleolaria. 
Body subcartilaginoua, transparent^ elongated, cvlindrold, traversed 
throu^out its Icoogth by a very large furrow, bordered with two 

membranes, truncated at the two extremities, with a posterior aper- 
ture, with appendicular lobes on its circumferenoe, and loading mto 
a very long and blind cavity. 

Example, SulaUeolaria quadrivalvit (Lesaeur). Locality, Mediter- 
ranean (ISrioe). 

SulcuUolaria quadrivalvu, 

A genus characterised by De Blainville, who found it established in 
the figures of Lesueur, from those figures ; but the foimer is stronglv 
inclined to believe that the genus is foimded on the part of an anima^ 
and not on an entire one. 

5. Oaleolaria, 

Body gelatinous, rather firm, perfectly regular, symmetrica], sub- 
polygoniJ or oval, compressed on the 
sides and furnished with two lateral 
rows of extremely fine cirrhi A large J 
posterior aperture pierced in a sort of 
diaphragm with appendicular lobes, 
binary above, leading into a luge 
cavity with muscular walls. An ovary 
at the anterior superior sur£EU», 
coming out by a mesial and bilabiated 

Example, GaleotariaauitraliSfBerMet 
aut^ralit (Quoy and Gkdmard). 

6. Rotacea, 

Body free, gelatinous, very soft, transparent^ suborbicular, with a 
single terminal aperture at one of the poles leading into an oval cavity 
which co^imimicatee with a depression, whence proceeds a drrhiger- 
ous and oviferous production. 

Example, Jtosacea CetUetuU (Quoy and Gaimard). 

OaUolaria mutraUt. 

Sotaeea OtuimtU. 

7. NoctUuea, 

Body free, gelatinous, transparent^ spheroidal, reniform, with a sort 
of infundibuliform cavity, whence proceeds a proboscidiform contractile 

Example, Noctiluca miliarit (Lamarck). 

M. Surriray, a doctor of medicine, while investigating the cause of 
the phosphorescence of the sea-water at H&vre, appears to have beeo 
the first who observed and 
called attention to the genus 
NoctUnca, which he described 
and figured in the memoir 
that he communicated to the 
class of sciences of the French 
Listitute. Its size hardly 
equals that of a small pin's 

head, a nd it is as transpa- KceWuca maioHi, 

rent as crystal; he found it 

very common in the basins at H&vre, sometimes in such abundance 
as to form a considerably thick crust (croilte asses ^paisse) on th« 

Digitized by V^UOQIC 




mirface of the water. It has also been obeerred in England as the 
cause of phoephoresoence in the ocean. 

8. DoUolum, 

Body gelatinous, hyaline, cylindrical, truncated, and equally atte- 
nuated at the two extremities, which are laigely opened and without 
apparent oigans. 

Example, DoUdwn MediUrrcmewn (Otto). 

11 Otto describes the oigamsm on which he has established this 
genus as swinmiing by ejecting and absorbing the water by means of 
the alteniate dilatation and contraction of its two orificea M. 
Belle Chiaje ('Mem.,' tom. iii) seems inclined to believe that the 
DoUolwn of Otto is merely a fragment of a species of ffolotkuna, 
which he names ffolothwria inhcerent. De Blainville observes that if 
Otto's description of the motion, &c., above stated, be correct, it is 
probable that the animal is a true Biphore, 

"Among the genera," says De Blainville, "ineertce sedit, which, 
wrong or rights have been connected with Phyuophora or Diphyes, 
without even being very certain that they are anirnals, we shall cite 
the following genera intentionally omitted in our work." 

Oupiditet (Quoy and Gaimard), placed among the. PhyuopkorcSf 
whose capsules are disposed on each side of a very long axis, 
established on an organised body, figured pL 87, fig. 4 — 16 in the 
zoological part of the ' Voyage of the Urania' l^ot having met 
with this animal in their second voyage, MM. Quoy and Gumard 
doubt (' Astrolabe, Zoolog.,' t. iv. p. 53 n.) whether it is an incom- 
plete Phystophora or a St^honumiae {Stephanomia t) with hollow 
natatory organs. Cuvier places the genus between Hippopm and 

Polytoma (Quoy and Qaimard, 'Zool. of ihe Uranie,' pi. 87, fig. 12, 
18), which may be defined to be an oval mass of p'lobular trivalvular 
corpuscles (corpuscules globuleux conmie trivalves), and which 
MM. Quov and Qaimard conceive to be rather a Biphore than a 

Tetragona (p. 10), (Quoy and Qaimard, 'ZooL of the Uranie,' pL 86, 
fig. 11). This the authors themselves ('Astrolabe,' iv. p. 108) have 
recognised as being nothing more than the posterior point of viphya 

RacemU (Delle Chiaje, Cuvier), figured by Delle Chiaje, ' Mem.' tab. 
50, t 11, 12, and described as a globose vesicle endowed with a very 
quick motion, and disposed towards an ovate shape ; but» observes 
De Blainville, the figures and description are too incomplete to affbrd 
a supposition of what it is ; in fact, Delle Chiaje confines himself to 
stating that his Bacemii ov(Ua executes all the rotatory and rapid 
motions at the surfieu>e of the water, and that those of each vesicle 
are so lively that it has been absolutely impossible to perceive 
the aperture with which, according to Delle Chiaje, they are pro- 
vided. Cuvier only adds to the description of Delle Chiaje, who 
also places RacemU near the PhyMtophorcef a small membrane with 
which each veside is furnished. SL De Blainville concludes by 
observing that he had seen a drawing; by M. Laurillard, which had 
been taken at Nice from one of these organised bodies while alive, 
and that he supposed that it might well be a mass of eggs of 

Belationa of the Acalephce to the other InvertebrtUcL — Mr. Huxley, in 
his memoir before referred to, proposes to consider the Acalepfue in 
some new relations. The presence of stinging hairs in these animals, 
in common with the ffydroid, Sertvlarian, and Anthozoic Pclypee, 
he regards as a fact of primary importance. He endeavours to show 
that this fact, combined with the radiate polype form, and the compo- 
sition of the body of two distinct membranes, forms a very good 
positive character for a group embracing the Hydr&id and Anthozoic 
Polypes, and the AcaUphce. He proposes to give the name of Nemor 
tophora {* thread-bearers ') to this group, in allusion to the charac- 
teristic presence of the ' thread-celL' Frey and Leuckart had, how- 
ever, applied the term C(deTUer<Ua to the same group. It will admit of 
subdivision into two equivalent subclasses: one including the 
BydrOfd Pclypei, the ZHphyda, Phyuophorida, and Medutidof, in 
which the stomach is not distinct from the common parietes, and 
the reproductive organs are external; the other, embracing the 
Anthowoic Polypes and BerOida in which the stomach is distinct 
from the common parietes, and the reproductive organs are intemaL 
The author proposes the terms Anacioa and JBcioa for these 
two divisions. These groups mutually represent each other as 
follows : — 





On these grounds Mr. Huxley proposes to break up the class Radiaia 
of Cuvier into four groups. Supposing the Ccdenteraia to form a sort 
of central group, we have, on we one hand, the Atcidiant and the 
BryoMoa leading to tiie MoUueca ; on the other, the Echinodermt and 
the Eniowoa leading to the Amvuiosa: whi]i# the Pot/ygattriOf Sponges, 

and Oregartnado! conduct us towards the lowest plants. These rela- 
tions may be thus represented : — 




Asoidians. Bryosoa. Echinodermata. Entoioa. 


Ansecioa. Moios^ 


Polygastrica. Spongiadse. Gregarinadtt. 

Fossil Impbxssiohb of MsDU&sf 

Mr. Babbage, in his paper ' On Impressions in Sandstone resembling 
those of Horses' Feet,' December, 1886, in which he noticed those in 
the channel of a stream on the extensive moor called PwU-y-Duon, 
about seven miles from Merthyr Tydvil, to which his attention was 
drawn by Mr. Guest of Dowlais, and the analogous casts in the old 
red-sandstone of Forfarshire, there called Kdpies' Feet> described 
some observations made by Sir C. Lyell, on impressions left by 
Medmce on the rippled sand near Dundee. On amoving the gelati- 
nous body of the animal, a circular space was exposed, not rippled, 
but having around half the border a depression of a horse-shoe fonn. 
These marks, however, were not considered by Sir C. Lyell as identical 
with those called Kelpies' Feet^ but merely so far analogous as to 
invite further observations, and to make it desirable to possess 
drawings of the impressions which diflferent species of Medusa leave 
when thrown by the tide upon a beach of soft mud or sand. (* GeoL 
Proc.,' voL ii.) [See Sdpplembnt.] 

ACANTHA'CE^, an order of plants belonging to the Monopeta- 
lous division of Dicotyledons. Its type is the genus Acanthus. The 
species are herbaceous or shrubby ; they are extremely common in 
every tropical country. Many of tiie species are mere weeds ; others 
bear handsome flowers with gaudy colours, but seldom with any 
odour; a vexy small number have been occasionally employed 
medicinally as emollients or diuretics. 

The roots of Acanthacea are either annual or perennial. The 
stems are usually four-cornered when young, but afterwards become 
nearly round ; their inside is occupied by a large proportion of pith, 

Analysis of Aeanthaeem, 

which is enclosed in a thin layer of imperfectly formed wood ; and at 
each joint there is a slight tumour with an articulation, bv which 
they are readily known from both Scrophviariacece and Verbenacece. 
Their flowers are often enclosed within large, leafy, imbricated 
bracts (1). The calyx (2) is usually composed of either four or five parts, 
which overlap each other, and occasionally grow together at the 
base. ^ The corolla (8) is monopetalous and irregular. The stamens (4) 
are either two or four, but in the latter case are of unequal lengths. 
The pistillum (6) is superior and turcilled. The seed-vessel (5) con- 
tains two cells, which burst when ripe, often with elasticity, and 
expose a few roundish seeds hanging to the cells by curious-hooked 

The stems of all the species emit roots veiy readily from their 
tumid articulations ; on which account gardeners universally inovase 
them by cuttings of the full-grown branches. They are always easy 
to cultivate, provided they are not kept in too cold or too dry a 
situation. The annual kind» freely produce seeds, by which they are 
readily multiplied. 

The most common genera are Justicia, Acanthus, RueUia, Thunberffia^ 
BarUrick, Eranthemvm, Lankesteria, and Benfreya. 

(Brown's Prodromus Flora Nova HoUandia: Bartling's Ordines, 
NaiuraUs ; Lindle/s Introduction to the Natural System ; and Nees von 
Esenbeck's Exposition, in the third volume of Dr. Wallich's Planta 
Asiatica RoHores.) 

ACA'NTHION, in Zoology, a genus of Rodentia, estoblished by 
11 F. Cuvier, and embracing two species, which are only known, at 
present, by tiieir osteology. In the number and form of their teeth« 

Digitized by 





these animalfl agree in all respects with the oomznon poztsupine 
from which, indeed, 
thej only differ in the 
general form or outline 
of the cranium, and the 
comparative develop- 
ment of the bones of 
the fBice and skuU; 
characters which have 
no very assignable in- 
fluence upon the habits 
and economy of animal 
life. There has been 
some difference among 
zoologists as to the use 
of this term. Thus, 
AcantMon of F. Curler 
is Acantherium of J. E. Gray, whilst the Accmthion of Gray includes 

Skull of AcanthioB. 

BkoU of Poronplne. 

both the genera Eystrix (Porcupine) and AccmthUm of F. Cuvier. 
(Waterhouse, Jtodentia.) 

ACANTHODEHMA, a fossil genus of fishes, from Glaris. (Agassiz). 

ACANTHO'DES, a genus of fossU Ganoid fishes, established by M. 
Agassiz. The species occur in the carboniferous strata near Edin- 
burgh. (Agassiz.) 

ACA'NTHOPHIS (from AKca^a, athoni, and itpis, a snake), in 
Zoology, a genus of venomous serpents, allied to the vipers, but dis- 
tinguished by having a single series of plates beneath the tail, except 
towards the veiy extremity, where they are, in some cases, separated 
into two small rows. The bodies and tails of these animals are 
elongated and cylindrical ; their heads roimd, obtuse, rather promi- 
nent over the eyes, and covered in front with nine or ten polygonal 
plates. The back and upper surface of the tail are coverea with 
reticulated scales of a rhomboidal form ; the breast and belly are 
covered with single transverse plates, as is likewise the tail, excepting 
towards the very extremitv, which is sometimes furnished with a 
double row of plates, as in the common viper. The tail is terminated 
by a little spur, or homy excrescence, which has suggested the name 
of AcaiUhophtM (that is ' thorn-snake ') for this genus. It springs out 
of the very end of the tail, and does not appear to be of the same 
utility as the two homy spurs which grow upon each side of the anus 
in the Pythons and Boas, and which, being retractile, or capable of 
being erected and depressed at will, execute important functiona in 
the economy of these animals. 


The head of the AcofiUhophu is broad and compressed, the mouth 
capable of great distension, and furnished, on each side, besides the 
retractile poison-firngs common to all the family of truly venomous 
serpents, with a double row of sharp curved teeth. The species of 
this genus are of small size, reside on the surface of the diy land, and 
feed upon frx>gB, lizards, and small mammals. They are viviparous, 
and secrete themselves in rat-holes, or beneath the roots of trees. 
They never strangle or crush their prey by coiling themselves round its 
body,, but expect a more speedy and certain victory from, the deadly 
effects of their poison. The species best known are— 

The AcaiUhophit eeratiiniu, first described by Merrem, and so 
named f^m the general similarity which it bears, at first sight, to 
the CeratteSf or Homed Viper, in its short body, large flat heid, and 
eyes surmounted by prominent scales. The length of this species is 
about fifteen inches, of which the tail measures rather more than a 
fifth pert ; the body is thick in proportion to its length, having a 


circumference of two inches and a half in the middle, frx>m whence it 
gradually tapers towards either extremity. The native country of 
this species is unknown. 

AMnihophit oeroitiniu. 

The Accmthophii Brovmii is briefly described by Dr. Leach, and 
figured in the firat volimie of the * Naturalist's Miscellany.' The 
specific name is g[iven out of compliment to Mr. Robert Brown, the 
celebrated botanist^ from whose manuscripts the brief description of 
Dr. Leach was taken. The body is said to be of a unifomi dark 
brown, the under lip whitidi, the upper with a transverse groove in 
ftont^ the tail smaU and rather abroptly contracted at its junction 
with the body, and the apex compressed laterally. This is probably 
the Death Adder, or Tammem, referred to by Mr. G. Bennett^ in his 
' Wanderings in New South Wales.' It is a hideous and exceedingly 
venomous roptile. 

ACANTHOPTERY'GII (from Akco^o, a thorn, and wr/pwl, a wing), 
in Zoolo^, one of the three primary divisions, or natural orders, of 
fishes. The fishes aro divided into three orders— the Chondroptayffii 
(ftt)m x^f'Spof, cartilage, and vr^pv^ a wing or fin), or cartiiaginoua 
fishes, without a solid bony skeleton ; AeaiUliopterygiif fishes having 
bony dLeletons with prickly spinous processes in the dorsal fins; 
and Malacopierygii (fiaXaK6s, soft, and irr4pv^, a wing), fishes with 
bony skeletons indeed, but with soft articulated radii in the dorsal 
fins. These divisions wero first emploved by Willughby and Ray. 
Cuvier divides the Acanthopterygious Fishes into fifteen natural fami- 
lies, which he c^ after the names of their typical or most common 

1. Percid<B, including the common Perch, the Sea-Perch, the Barber 
of the Mediterranean, the Weevers, the Staigazers, and the Sea-Pike. 

2. TrigUdOt which include the Gurnards, the Flying-Fishes, the Bull- 
Heads, we MlUer^s-Thumb, and the Sticklebacks. 

8. Scicenida, which include the Maigres, the Stone-Perch, the Drum- 
heads, the Bed-Throats, and a nimiber of other fishes leas known. 

4. Sparida, including the Sea-Breams, the Spanish Bream, the GiH- 
Head, and Black Bream. 

5. Menidce, a small family whose species are not much known. 

6. Squamipennea, including the duetodons and other curious fishes^ 
as the Ck)achmen, the Horsemen, and others. • 

7. ScmberidcB include the Mackerel, the Tunnies, the Sword-Fishes, 
the Pilot-Fishes, the John-Dory, and the King-Fish. 

8. Tcenidce, ^i^filnd^rg the Scabbaid-Fish, the Hair-Tail, Bed-Band- 
Fish, and others, 

9. Theutyea, including the Jjancet-Fishes, and some other genera 
remarkable for their powerful cutting spines. 

10. AnahadcB include the Climbing Perch and other allied freeb 
water fishes. 

11. MugiUdm include the Gray MuUeti the Bamando of Nice, and 
some others. 

12. CMiioda include the Blenpiee, the Gobies, or SeapGodgeons, and 
the Dragonet* 

18. Zophiada include the Anglers, the Fiahing-Frog, or SearDevil, 
and the IVog-Flshes. 

14. labrida include the Wrasses, or Bodk-Fiabes, the < Old THves of 
the Sea,' the Captains, and the Scams. 

15. PittvlaHda, include the Pipe-Mouths, the Snipe-Fish, the Se» 
Trmnpet, or Bellows-Fish. 

ACANTHUHUS (from Sicoytfo, a thorn, and ohpd, a taQ), a genus of 
Acantiiopteiygious Fishes. It contains a great number of species, 
many of which are remarkable for the beauty of their external forma, 
and the variety of their colours. They are distinguished from proxi- 
mate genera by the form of the body and tail, which are exceedingly 
compressed ; by their trenchant teeth, denticulated like a very fine 
comb ; but above all by the moveable spines, edged and sharp like a 

Digitized by V^UOQIC 




lancet^ with which they are aimed on each aide of the tail, and with 
which they inflict dangeroua woundB upon the hands of those who 
touch them incautiously. It is this circumstance that has acquired 

Outtodon OkirurgUHt. (Blooh.) 

for the Aeanthmri the names of Doctors and Lancet-Fishes, by which 
they are well known to the English aailora and colonists. These 
AniTTiftU have the mouth small, and the muzzle rather advanced. They 
are among the small number of fishes which live entirely upon 
vegetable substances, feeding only upon Fuci, and other marine 
plants; their intestinal canal is consequently longer and more 
complicated than in other spedes, and their flesh has a peculiar 
flavour, very different from that of fishes in general The duigerous 
weapons with which nature has provided these otherwise harmless 
fiahes are well calculated to defend them from the attacks of 
their enemies. They abound in all the tropical aeas, both of the 
East and West In<ues, and are never known to advance beyond 
the tropics ; consequently they are unknown in the more temperate 

ACAN^THUS. Under this classical name have been described, by 
ancient authors, at least three totally different plants. Ftrsthr, a 
prickly tree with smooth eveigreen leaves, and small round saffron- 
coloured berries, frequently alluded to by Virgil ; this is oonjeotured 
to have been the HoUy. Secondly, a prickly Egyptian toee, described 
by Theophrastus as having pods like those of a bean ; it is probable 
that this was Uie Acacia Arabica. Thirdly, a herb, mentioned bv 
Dioscorides, with broad prickly leaves, which perish at the approach 
of winter, and again sprout forth with the return of spring. It is said 
that the idea of the Corinthian capital of Qreek oolumns was taken 
from some of the leaves of this Aeanthut. To this latter plant the 
name is now applied. The word, in aU casea^ alludes to the prickly 
nature of the leaves or stems. 

In modem botany Aeanthut is a genus of herbaceous plants found 
in the south of Europe, Asia Minor, and India, belonging to the 
natural order AearUhoMJe, 

The commonest spedes is Aeanthut moBit, or Brankursine, a native 
of many parts of the South of Europe, growing in shady moist places, 
among bushes. Its stem is about two feet high, and is covered from 

the middle to the top with fine laige white flowezfl^ slightly tinged 
with yellow. The leaves are huge, sof^ deeply cut^ hairy, and 

ahining, and surround the lower part onlv of the stem. Both the 
leaves and the roots, whidi are perennial, abound in mudlage, which 
has caused them to be substituted in domestic medicine for l£e maiah- 
mallow. It is this roedes which is usually supposed to have given 
rise to the notion of the Qredan capital But it wpears, fi^om the 
investigation of Dr. Sibthorp, that it is nowhere to be found, dther 
in the Qreek islands, or in any part of the Peloponnesus ; and that the 
plant which Dioscorides must have meant was the Aeanthut tpinotutf 
still called Acoytfo, which is found, as he describes ii> on the borders of 
cultivated grounds, or of gardens, and is firequent in rocky moist 
situations. This spedes differa firom A. moUit in having a dwarfer 
stem, flowers tinged with pink instead of yellow, and spiny leavee, 
much more deeply cut. Both the one and the other are half-hardy 
perennials, incrcwsed by division of the summit of the root They 
have been long cultivated in the gardens of Ghreat Britain, but periaL 
if not protected from severe frost 

A'CANUS, a fossil genus of fishes, firom Glaris. (Agassis.) 

ACA'RIDiE, a division of Araehnida [Abachnida], whidi oompre* 
hends the small apider-like animals popularly termed Mites (ileort), 
as well as Water-Mites and Ticks. Some of these are wanderers on 
land or in water ; others are fixed upon various animals, whose blood 
or humours the^ suck, and even insinuate themselves beneath the akin, 
and often multiply prodigiously. 

These minute animalfl are not considered by modem na^bnralists to 
rank amonff insects, on account of their structure being very different, 
jtnd frx>m their having, in most cases, like spiders, eight feety while no 
insect has more than six feet Their mouths, in some, are furnished 
with jaws {mandUmla), dther having pincers or clawsi, but concealed 
in a projection of the oreast-plate {ttenmm) in form of a lip ; in others 
it is in the form of a syphon or sucker ; and in others it presents a 
simple cavity. 11 Latreule makes four divisions of the AcaridcB : — 
1, Mites {Tromhiditet) ; 2, Ticks {lUcinUet) ; 8, Water-Mites (ffydraeh- 
neUce) ; and 4, Flesh-Worms (Miervphthira), 

All the creatures now embraced in this fionily were induded by Lin- 
nsBus under his genus ilcems, and the whole of the spedes are populariy 
called Mites, or AearL They are all vexy minute, some being almost 
miorosconicaL They are very generally distributed. Some are paradtic, 
whilst others are free. The itch is now well known to owe its exist- 
ence to a creature of this tribe. Others live naturally in the human 
skin, whilst beetles and other insects are very liable to be attacked 
bv them. They are found on the leaves, fruit, flowers, and bark of 
plants ; and on all kinds of providons^ as flour, dried meat^ dried 
cheese, and putrid animal matters. 

Amongst the tme Mites {Tromhiditet, Latreille), the following com- 
mon forma are placed : — 

The Domestic Mite (Acamu damettieutf De (}eer), is very commonly 
found in collections of insects and stuffed birds, and is exceedingly 
destructive to cabinets. Camphor has some effect in destroying thu 
pest» but is not powerful enough to prevent it altogether. Moistening 


Domtstio Mite {Aaarut domttticut.) 

the specimens with a weak solution of corrodve sublimate, is said to 
prove an effectual preventative. The species found in flour and on 
food is called A, Farina, 

The Itch Mite {Aearut JScahiei, Fabridus, Sarcoptet Oalei, L.) is a 
microscopic animal, found under the human skin in the pustules of 
a well-known cutaneous diseasa It has a remarkable suctorial appa- 
ratus, by means of which it secures its hold under the epidermis of 
the skin, into which it has the power of penetrating. This animal is 
most effectually destroved by sulphur ; uul indeed this is a specific 
for the diseaso which the Aeanu produces. 

Itoh Mite {Aaamt SeMtL) 

The Sugar Mite {Aeanu taeeharinum) is found in the brown sugar 
of commerce. Thirty-five out of thirty-six specimens examined oy 
the analytical commisdoners of ' The Lancet^' bought in the shops of 
London, in 1850, were foxmd to oontain these creatures. 

The Bed Spider of the hot-houses is the Aearut teilariut. It is the 
nest of hot-houses and green-houses. Though so small as scarody to 
be seen by the naked eye, its effects on plants are vexy obvious. These 
creatures live upon the juices of the plant which they attack, and also 
prevent the function of the leaves from being properly performed. They 
are best destroyed by sulphur. The mode of applying itis to sprinkle the 
sulphur on the hot pipes or on plates ; afterwards^ the planta ahoold 

Digitized by 





be syringed. Other n>ecie8, as A, kortentii, A, holoiericeut, A, ffenicth 
lattu, attack Yarious plants, and the best 
way of treating them is the same as the 

The Sparrow Kite (Acartu pa$tennut, 
Fabrioiiia) is distinguished by the remark- 
able size of its third pair of legs. 
Geofflroy called ii^ the Bat Tick, and • 
Latreille foimerly placed it in his genus 

A vexy interesting form of these crea- 
tures is that first described by Dr. Simon, 
of Berlin, as inhabiting the sebaceous 
sacs and hair-follicles of the human skin. 
He called it an Acanu, but Professor Sparrow Mite. 

Owen regards it as a lower form of one of the higher dlvieions of 
Araeknida. He names it Demodex FoUicvlorwn. It has also been 
described in this country by Mr. Erasmus Wilson, under the name of 
£niomon FoOicfdortmL It has an elongated body, with eight short 
legs, and is foxmd veiy commonly in the sebaceous follicles of the 
nose. In its parasitical habit it resembles some of the lower forms of 
the Onutcicea, as the CyiMthoe and Bopyrut; and, perhaps, through 
the Tardigrade^ it has a relation with the Rotiferct, 

The Ticks (JJiantte*, Latreille) are, some of them free, some parar 
sitia The latter have no eyes. They embrace the genus Ixodes, which 
are well known from attaddng cows, horses, dogs, and even tortoises. 
They bury their suckers so deeply in the skin, that they frequently 
cannot be taken away without tearing the flesh. They deposit a 
prodigious quantity of eggs, which are discharged from the mouth. 
The genus Argot is found on pigeons and other birds. The A, Penicus 
is the Tenomous bug of Miana. 

The Water Mites (ffydrachndke) live only in the water. They are 
often parasitic on aqiiatic insects. Dugte has recently made some 
important observations on the development of these mites, in which 
he shows that in theis earlier stages of growth they have but six legs. 
If this be correct, it will probably lead to the rejection of Latreille's 
fourth division, theiftcropA^Aira, which are characterised by possessing 
six legs, as they are probably only earlier stages of some of the higher 

ACARUa [Acawdjl] 

ACCIPENSER. JBturionidjl] 

ACEPHALOCYST, one of the sunpleet forms of Entotoa, also called 
Eydatid. [Entozoa.j 

ACER, a name given l^ the Romans to a tree called MapU by the 
En gl i s h . It is now applied to a genus of arborescent or shnibby 
plants, niany of which are extremely valiiable for the sake either of 
their timber or of their ornamental appearance. It is the type of the 
natural order AceracetE. It has the following characters : — ^Flowers 
green and inconspicuous, either containing stamens only, or pistik 
only, or both united, upon the same individual. Calyx divided into 
five lobes, of uncertain length. Stamens occasionally five ; more fre- 
quently vaiying fix>m seven to nine. Leaves in all cases simple. 
Fruit double ; each division containing one single^weded cavity, and 
extended at the back into a kind of wing, called Kty in English, or 
Samara by botanists. 

1. Acer obUmgwn, Oval-Leafed Maple, an e ve r gree n tree, of rapid 
growth, native of the northern parts of India, both in Nepaul 
and Kumaon. It is probabh^ confined to the hot valleys of those 
regions, for it has beeoi found incapable of supporting the climate of 

2. iloer Umgatwn (Wallich), the Polished Maple. Leaves oblong, 
taper-pointed, slightly serrated, shining, green beneath. Flowers white, 
in branched erect thyrses. Keys broad, short, smooth. It is found 
in the woods of the higher mountains of Nepaul, and also in the Alps 
of Sirmoor, where it acquires a trunk thirty or forty feet high, and 
fix>m three to four feet thicL Its growth is slow ; its timber is said 
by Dr. Wallich to be used by the inhabitants of Nepaul for rafters, 
beams, and similar building purposes. 

8. Acer Tataricwn (Linnsus), the Tartarian Maple. Leaves heart- 
shaped, oblong, unequally serrated, usually undivided. It forms an 
ornamental tree, or rather laige bush, frrom fifteen to twenty feet high, 
often met with in gardens and plantations. Its native oountries are 
the southern provinces of Russia in Asia, whence it extends as far 
as Hungaiy, there finding its most western limit. From its keys, 
deprived of their wings, the Calmucs form, by the aid of boiling water, 
an astringent beverage^ which, mixed with an abundance of milk and 
butter, forms a favourite article of their diet. The wood is hard and 
white, mixed with brownish veins. 

4. Acer striatum, the Striped-Bark Maple {A, Peiuuylvanieum, 
Linnaeus). Leaves roundish, finely serrated, divided at the upper end 
into three nearly equal tapering lobes ; when young, covered with a 
mealiness, which is gradually thrown off as they increase in sise. It 
is a native of North America, from Canada to the high lands in Georgia. 
In those countries it forms a considerable part of Uie undeigrowth of 
the woods, among sugar-maples, beeches, birches, and hemlock-spruce 
firs. It rarely exceeds eight or ten feet in height, except in a vexy few 
favourable situations, wh^ it win occasional^ grow double that height. 
Its wood ii Tii7 whiter and is used by the North Americans for imay- 

ing cabinet-work ; its shoots afford food to various animals, especially 
to the moose-deer, in winter and spring, whence it has acquired the 
name of Moose- Wood. In Europe it is occasionally seen in planta-' 
tions, where it is remarkable for the bright rosy tint of its yoimg leaves 
in spring. When ctdtivated, it fr^uently grows to thrice its native 
size^ in consequence of being grafted upon the Sycamore Maple. 

forms of the lesTes of Spedes of Maple. 

Z. A, Tatarieum. II a vod h. A, Oretieum. 

10. A. MOfMpe«ni/antrai. 7 a. A, ojm/tM. 8 a. A, obtu$ahim, 

4. A, ttriatum. 5. A, barbaium, 

5. Acer harhaium (Michaux), the Bearded Maple. Leaves heart- 
shaped, three-lobed, nearly equally serrated ; the lobes of nearly equal 
sise, or the lateral ones much the smallest ; nearly smooth beneath. 
It is a native of deep pine and cedar swamps in Jersey and Carolina, 
where it forms a small tree. 

6. Acer tpicatwn, the Spike-Flowered Maple {A, mofUcmwn, Alton). 
Leaves heart-shaped, smooth above, downy and glaucous beneath, of 
an oblong figure^ with about five unequal, tapering, coarsely and 
unequally serrated divisions. It is a native of the United States and 
Canada. The red colour of its keys in the autumn forms its principal 

*!, Acer opuhu (Alton), the Queldres-Rose-Leaved Maple. Leaves 
more or less heart-shaped, roundish, five-lobed, smooth beneath. It 
is a small tree^ ten or twelve feet high, foxmd in France, especially in 

^, Acer fibimatmi^ (Willdenow), the Neapolitan Maple. Leaves 
heart-shaped, roundish, five-lobed, woolly beneath ; the lobes either 
obtuse or pointed, and coarsely serrated. Flowers in drooping corymbs. 
Hungary, Croatia, and many parts of Italy, produce this beautiful 
spedes. On all the hills and lower mountams of the kingdom of 
Naples, in Camaldoni, Castellamare, and the Abruxzi, it is found 
abundantly, growing usually to the height of forty feet ; it is extremely 
striking, with its x^ddish-purple branches, in uie wood of Lucania, 
between Rotonda and Rubia ; and in the Basilicata and Calabria it is 
said, by Tenore, to acquire colossal dimensions. It is certainly very 
m'ngiilar that so fine a tree as this, occupying so laige a tract of 
country, frequently visited by English tourists, should be ' almost 
unknown in this country ; and yet, although it is perfectly hardy, and 
very easily multiplied, it is scarcely ever met with in any but botanical 
collections.* There are two forms of the leaf— one with blunt, and the 
other with pointed lobes. 

9, Acer campettre (Linna)us), the Common Maple. Leaves heart- 
shaped, with three or five deep segments which are not serrated, but 
generally two-lobed or three-lobed, and narrow at their base ; downy 
beneath — at least, when young. Branches covered, when old, with a 
corky baik. Flowers in erect, branched, downy corymbs. Keys short, 
smooth, with nearly parallel edges, diveiging at right angles. Found 
in eveiy hedge-row in England, and sprrad over the greater pert of 
Europe. It is said not to be indigenous in Scotland, and on the conti- 
nent it does not approach the north nearer than the southern provinces 
of Sweden. It advances as far to tfie eastward as the range of the 
Caucasus, where it disappears. In England ^is is either a bush or 
a small tree, of inelegant appearance, and its wood is of little value^ 
exoept for the use of the torner, who makes it into cups, bowli^ &c. 
The Common Maple is sometimes planted by formers upon bad land, 
for the purpose of fencing ; for which, however, it is ill adapted. 
. 10. Acer Monepettulammn (Linnseus), the Montpellier Maple. Leaves 
deciduous, veiy slightly cordate, and downy at the base, with three 
peifBctly entire^ neaily equal, diveiging lobes, slightly hairy beneatl^ 

Digitized by 


«^ ACER. 

It U found in dry stony situations in Languedoc, Dauphiny, Provenoe, 
and Piedmont; it even occurs as far north as the departments of 
the Rhine. 



33. A. LohelH. 
23* A. triocarpon. 

20. A, taceharinwm, 
18a. A^caudatunu 

24. A, rvbrum, 

6. A, spicstum. 

lb. A, opulut, 15. A, tttrculiaeeHm, U, A, obtusaium, 

11, Acer Oraicum (LinnsBOs), the Candian Maple. Leaves ever- 
green, variable in form, wedgenshaped at the base, leathery, glossy, 
smooth, with three entire or serrat^ lobes, of which the side ones are 
the shortest^ sometimes undivided. It is a native of the mountains 

of Candia and the Qredan Archipelago ; it is frequently cultivated in 
the South of Europe. 

12. Acer heterophyUum (Willdenow), the Variable Maple. Leaves 
eveigreen, ovate, unequally-serrated, entire or occasionally three-lobed, 
very glossy. This is the plant sold in the English nurseries under the 
name of A, OreUcum, It is rather delicate, and is a native of the 

18. Acer pieudo-platamu (Linnseus), the Sycamore Maple. Leaves 
heart-shipped, coarsely and unequally seirated, glaucous and downy 
on the veins beneath ; with five lobes, of whidi the lower ones are 
generally the smallest This noble tree is scarcely met with in a 
truly wild state beyond the limits of middle and southern Europe : it 
is occasionally seen on the lower ridges of the Caucasus, and does not 
appear to extend much farther eastward. In Italy it is said to arrive 
at its greatest degree of perfection, acquiring the height of 50 and 60 
feet Its English name has originated in an erroneous notion that 
this is the sycamore of Scripture— a totally different tree, the Fiau 
Spcamorut, It flourishes in many parts of England : many varieties 
are known to gardeners. 

14. Acer macrophyUum (Pursh), the Broad-Leaved Maple. Leaves 
deeplv heartahaped, not serrated, divided into five deep, spreading, 
alightly-lobed segments, the middle one of which is often narrow at 
its base, and the lower ones generaUy smaller than the others ; when 
young slightly downy, when old shining and perfectlv smooth : is a 
native of the north-west coast of North America, wnere its timber 
is used. 

15. Acer atercuUaceum fWallich^, the Shady Mi^le, is a large tree, 
with a trunk often three feet in diameter; found in NepauL 

16. Acer viUoeum (Wallich), the Shaggy Maple, is a very large tree, 
found on the Himalaya Mountains, approaching the limits of perpetual 
snow in Sirmoor and Kumaon. 

17. Acer oMliratum (Wallich), the Curve-Keyed Mc^le, is a laige 
tree, native of the r^ons towards the Himalayas, in Kumaon and 

IS, Acer ca/udatwn (Wallich), the Long-Pointed Maple. It is a native 
of the highest regions of Nepaul, of Sirmoor, Kumaon, and Srinaghur. 

19, Acer PkUanofdet (Linnseus), the Norway Maple. Leaves heart- 
shaped, veiy smooth, except at the axils of the veins ; five-lobed, the 
lobes taper-pointed and diverging, with a few taper-pointed diverging 
teeth. This is a fine tree, with very handsome gloeirp^ deep-green 
leaves, for the sake of which it is a great deal cultivated. The noi&em 
and midland parts of Europe, and the north of Asia, as far as the Ural 
Mountains, produce this species. In the Russian Empire it passes 
from the state of a shrub, in the northern provinces, to that of a 
handsome tree with a trunk two feet thick, in the more southern 
districts. Its wood is valued for turners' work. From its ascending 
sap a kind of coarse sugar has been procured, in the same way as 
from the A, eaocharinwm, in America. Two varieties are known to 
gardeners ; one, the Silver-Striped, in which the leaves are slightly 
stained with white ; and the other, the Cut-Leaved, in which the 
leaves are deeply and irregularly jagged. When the foot-stalks of the 
leaves are broken they exude a nulky fluid. 

20. Acer taecharinum (Linnaeus), the Sugar Maple. Leaves heart- 
shaped, glaucous beneath, vexy smooth, except at the axils of the 
veins ; five-lobed, the lobes taper^pointed, and very coarsely toothed 
Flowers in nodding corymbs. Keys not much c^veiging. From a 
iitUe to the north of the Saint John, in Canada, to the woods of Upper 
Virginia, and probably still farther south, this species prevails ; and it 
forms a large portion of the vegetation of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, 
Vermont^ and New Hampshire, sometimes becoming as much as 80 feet 
high. In the autunm the woods of those coxmtries are dyed of a 
crimson hue by the changing leaves of the Sugar Maple. The wood 
is hard, and has a satiny Tustire, but it is readily attacked by insects, 
and is not of much value, except when its grain is accidentally waved, 
and then it is in request for the cabinet-makers. The younger Michaux 
states, that it may be at all times known from that of the Red Maple 
by a vexy simple test If you pour a drop or two of solution of 
sulphate of iron upon the wood of the Sugar Maple, in a minute it 
becomes of a greenish cast, while that of the Red Maple becomes deep 
blue. The saodiarine matter contained in its ascending sap is the 
principal cause of this species being in so much request From this, 
obtained by tapping the trunk in tne spring during the Epace of six 
weeks, a vexy considerable quantity of a fine brown sugar is procured ; 
as much, it is said, as 88 lbs. per tree. The Sugar Maple does not 
generally succeed vexy well in England, where it is rarely seen ; and 
even when in health does not attain a height of more than fifteen 
or sixteen feet 

21. Acer nigrwn (Michaux), the Black Sugar Maple. This plant is 
a native of wTnilar situations with the last, of which perhaps it is 
only a variety. 

22, Acer Lobdii (Tenore), LobeVs Maple, is found among the 
mountains in the nox-bh of the kingdom of Naples. 

2Z. Acer eriocarpon (Michaux; A. datycarpwn, Willdenow), Sir 
Charles Wager^s Maple is found in most parts of North America on the 
eastern side, where it is commonly called White Maple. It grows with 
great rapidity, and is extremely common in the plantations of all 
Europe, where it is remarkable for the deep crimson hue of its leaves 
in autumn. Its wood is lights and of little or no value except to the 

Digitized by 





turner. It is said to make excelleiit charcoal for gunpowder. The 
nnraeiTmeii UBuallj call this species the Cut-Leaved Scarlet Maple. 

2i. Acer rubmm (LimiflBus), the Bed or Scarlet Maple. The deep-red 
colour of the flowers in the spring; and of the keys and leaves in 
autumn, have given rise to the name of this species, which Ib found, 
from Canada to Florida, growing in swamps along with alders. Its 
wood is used by the Americans for articles of furniture, and is also in 
request for the stocks of rifles— for which, when it Ib what thev call 
' curled,' its toughness renders it well adapted. Two varieties of this 
species are cultivated in this country, under the names of A. coedneum 
•ad A, imUrmedimk, 

25. Acer eireinatum (Pursh), the Curled Maple, grows on the north- 
west coast of North Axnerica, and is a small, scrubby, worthless tree. 

(hUUeaUon, — ^The hardy maples, which are the only kinds of any 
importance in tlus country, are all increased either by seeds or layers. 
The Buropean spedes readily yield their keys, which should be gathered 
when fully ripc^ and immediately buried in heaps of river sand, where 
they may remain till the following February; they may then be sown 
in beds; rather thinly, and, when one yeat* old, should be transplanted, 
and treated like ottier forest trees. They ought never to be headed 
back, as oaks and Spanish chestnuts are. From layers thev all make 
exoeUent plants very rapidly. They are occasionally budded upon the 
common sycamore, but this mode is little practised in EnglancL 

ACERAS, a genus of Orchidaceous plants, of which one species, the 
A. cmikropopharct, is found growing in Ghreat Britain. It is a small 
plants firam 8 to 12 inches in height. It has a long lax spike of 
greenish yellow flowers, the parts of which are so arranged as to give 
them the appearance fk the small figure of a man : hence tlus plant 
has been called the Man-Orchis. 

ACEBATHEIUUM. Some Fossil Hhinaeerata have been thus 
named by Kaupi 

ACEBDESE^ in mineralogy, a hydrous sesquiozide of Manganese, 
called also MamgemUe, Vaneties of it have been called NewkirkUe and 

ACERACEiE, an order of Poln>etalous Dicotyledons. Their flowers 
•re unsymmetrical, their stamens hypogynous, their fruit is wioged, and 
their petals have no appendages upon them. The species are all trees or 
shruba^with opposite stalked ezstipulate leaves, and are found exclusively 
in the north of Europe, Asia, America, and India. A sweet mucilaginous 
sap is common in these plants, from which sugar can be manufactured. 

1. Uniseziua Flower. 3. Stamen on Disk. 8. Stamens separate. 
«. Petal. 5. Blsexnal Flower. 6. PittiL 7. Fruit. 8. Seed. 
9. Embryo. 

ACERVULAltlA, a genus of Fossil MadrephyUioea, 

ACHILLEA, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
OompatUaf consisting of 60 or 70 spedes, foxmd exclusively m the 
colder diinates of the northern hemisphere. This genus is found in 
the suborder Oarymbifera, and is distingmshed by the florets of the 
duk being hermaphrodite and tubular, and the tube being plane, 
c omp r es s e d, and two-winged. The fruit is compressed, and has no 
pappus. Thete are five British species. A. Ptarmiea is an abundant 
plant, and on account of its strong odour is called Sneeaewort 
A. milUfoUftm has got its specific name from the segmented character 
of its leaves. It is called in English Millefoil and Yarrow. This 
plant has the tome and stimulant properties of the sub-order to which 
it belongs in a slij^t degree, and on that account has been employed 
as a remie^ in some dis eas es, but its medical properties are very feeble. 

ACHILLE^UM, a genus of Fossil SpongiadcB, of whidi two spedes 
ocemrinthe cretaceous strata of England. (Ooldfuaa) 

AUUlME^ES (from a, prefix, and x«<)<a> "winter), a genus of plants 
bdonging to the order ^^BfiKroceee. The spedes of this genus are very 
numerous, and, although not useAil, they are many of them exten- 
sivdy cultivated, on account of the beauty of tiidr flowers. In con- 
sequence of their general culture, a great many varieties of the spedes 
are becoming known. After flowenng, the stems die down ; and the 
tubers should be dug up, and kept free from frost and wet till Januair, 
when, by planting them in succession, flowers may be obtained till 
the summer. They may be planted in a mixture of loam and leaf- 
mould, with a litde silver sand. They can be placed out in the 
summer, but require shading on hot days. 

ACHIHUS, a genus of flat-fish, bdonging to the sub-branchiate 
dividoQ of MalfeejpierygU. In external form these fishes resemble the 

oommon sole^ Like the Pleuronectet in general, they have the body and 
tail very much compressed, and the eyes both on the same side of the 
head; but they are easily distinguished from all other genera of 
flat-fish by the total want of pectoral fins. 

Aohirut marmoraiui. 

The spedes of Achirut have no air-bladder, and consequently remain, 
for the most part, at the bottom of the sea ; being, in fact^ ungifbed 
with the facmty of increasing or diminishing their specific gravity, 
which the poasesdon of this important oxgan bestows upon ordinary 
fishes. Their power of locomotion in o&er directions is however 
condderable ; and, notwithstanding the disadvantages of their form, 
and the oblique direction in which this necessarily compels them to 
move, their motions are firequentl^ very rapid. Their habits, as 
fMT as at present known, are similar to those of the Plewroneetet, ■ 
They are found in the warmer regions both of the East and West 
Indies, but not in deep water, or in ntuations far removed from land ; 
they abound along the shores, and furnish a plentiful and wholesome 
food to the inhabitants. 

Various spedes of A chirm have been enumerated by coologists, the 
most remarkable of whidi appeara to be the Adurvs marmoratui of 
Lac^pMe. The fiesh Ib of a delicate flavour, and highly esteemed : it 
inhabits the coasts of the Isle of France. The Achirut pavcnicm is 
distinguished by the beauty of the spots, which, like the eyes on the 
peacock's tail, cover its body ; and the il. fatcictiUUiu and A. biUneaiue 
are easily recognised by the characten firom which they respectivdy 
derive their names. The former is found on all the coasts of America 
and the West Indies : the latter inhabits the shores of China, and 
feeds upon small Crustacea and moUusca. 

ACHLTA, a genus of Cryptogamous plants, bdonging to the order 
CkmfenHicecB, It Ib oomposed of a single tubiform cdl, which expands 
at the end into a large cdl, which is cut off from the lower portion 
of the tube by the formation of a partition. In this enlarged cell a 
circulation of granular partddes has been observed. In the course of 
time cdls are formed in this enlarged cavity, and fill it up. The parent 
cdl eventually bursts at some spot, and allows of the escape of the 
endosed cells ; but before this takes place the cdls in the interior move 
about, and, after their escape, exhibit for a considerable time an active 
movement They are good examples of the Zooepore, They soon 
attadi themsdves to some fitting object, and grow into little plants, 
like their parent. A similar process goes on in most of the Al^ but 
is not so easily observed as in this case. 

The only species of AcKLya which has been described is the A, 
prdUferOf whicn is foxmd paradtic upon fish and other aquatic Aw^malff , 
This plant is more espeddly devdoped on fish and aquatic reptiles 
kept in confinement It was first observed on gold fij£, but severd 
writers have described it as existing on other animals, as the Stickle- 
back, Water Salamander, Frog, and Newt. 

(i2eporfo (myotony, Bay Sodety, 1845 ; Lindley's VeffeUOU Kingdom.) 


ACHBAS, a genus of tropical plants bdonging to the natural order 
SapotaeecB, It has a cdyx divided into six parts ; a corolla monope- 
talous, divided into six lobes ; stamens twdve, of which six are sterile 
and six fertUe ; and an ovarium, with from six to twdve cdls. The 
fruit resembles an apple, with from one to twdve seeds, contained in 
hard bony nuts, which have a shining coat, and a long hard scar over 
the whole of their inner angle. 

The genus contains only one spedes, whidi yidds a copious milky 
fluid when wounded. Its leaves are entire, leathery, undivided, ahining, 
of a lanceolate form, without stipules. The flowen are laige^ white, 
bdl-duqped, and grow ^singly from the axils of the leaves. This is 
called, XQ the West Indies, the Si^>odilla Hum. The fruit in sise and 
shape resembles a bergamot pear ; like the medlar, it is only eaten in 
a state of decay ; before that period it is austere and uneatable, but in 
the proper state it Ib so rich and sweet as by some to be conddered 
only inferior to the orange. 

ACHYBA'NTHESy a genus of plants bdonging to the order Atna^ 
ranUieecB. A. atpera and A. frwticoea are used in Lidia as remedies in 
dropsy: A, globiUtfera ib used in Madagascar as a remedy in syphilis. 

ACIDA^PIS, a genus of fossil Onutaeea, of the group of TrUohitet ; 
found in the Wenlock limestone. (Murchison.) 


ACONI'TUM, a genus of plants bdonging to the natural order 
iZcHMmcMlacM. Fh>m veiy early times it nas borne the same nams^ 

Digitized by 




and has been known for the dangerous properties of many of its speoies. 
They are all hardy herbaceous plants, many of them of great beauty; 
and are so easily cultivated, that one of them, A. Napdlut, is found in 
dvexy cottager's garden. The English call them Wolfs Bane. From 
all other ranunculaceoua plants Aeonitum is at once known by its 
having the very large uppermost segment of its calyx overhanging the 
petals and other parts in the form of a helmet 

The conmion species, A, Napdlutf is one 

of those in which the greatest degree of 

virulence has been found to reside. It is a 

native of alpine pastures in Switzerland and 

other mountainous parts of Europe. Its 

leaves are very dark green, deeply cut into 

from five to seven long segments. The 

stem is about three feet high. The flowers 

are in long, stiff spikes, and of a deep blue 

colour; they appear from May to July. 

All the parts of this plant are extremely 

acrid, especially the roots, which are 

scraped and mixed with food to form a 

bait for wolves and other savage ftnimftln, 

Poisonous properties are probably found 

^ in all the species of the genus. A. cam- 

maruMf A. lycoctonuftif and A, arUhora are 

certainly equally dangerous. None of 

them however, noi^l. Napellua itself, can 

be compared for fatal energy with the 

dreadful Bikh of Nepaul, the Ac<mitum 

feroXf which seems to possess the con- 

AeonUumTfapellui. centrated power of all the European 

• species. 

ACO'NTIAS (from Akow, a javelin), the name of a genus of serpents 

established by Cuvier, for the purpose of diBtingmshing certain species 

hitherto placed with the genus Anguit, or common sna^ke. This genus 

is characterised by the absence of all the bones which represent the 

extremities in the genus AnguU, while it retains the structure of the 

head conmion to these 

animals and to the 
lizards, and has the 
body similarly covered 
with small scales only, 
without the homy 
plates which guard its 
\mder surface in the 
common serpents, and 
protect them firom in- 
jury in the various 
rapid motions which 
they perform. The 
species of Actmtiat 
seem thus to afford a 
link between the com- 
mon snakes and true 
. As might naturally 
' be expected from this 
conformation, the pro- 
gressive movements of 
the species of Aconticu 
are very different fipom 
those of common ser- 
pents. Thev do not 
glide along the surface 
like these animals, but 
boldly carry their heads 
and breasts erect ; and 
if closely pursued de- 
fend themselves cou- 
rageously, and dart 
with the velocity of an 
arrow against their 
. ^. ^, assailant Though 

AeontuuM^Uagn.. dreaded in their native 

countries, because confounded with their venomous congeners, these 
animals are perfectiy harmless, and neither possess the means nor 
have the desire of being injurious. They have no poison fangs, 
and their cheek-teeth are so small as, in some species, to be barely 
perceptible^ Their habits are gentle ; and they are so timid that 
they generally fly at the least noise, or, upon the slightest appear- 
ance of danger, conceal themselves imder some shrub or tuft of 
grass, or even buiy themselves under-groxmd when no other refuge 
is at hand. 

They are, generally gpeaking, of a small size ; and, as their mouths 
are not susceptible of the enormous dilatation possessed by the true 
serpents, thev are incapable of swallowing any animal approaching to 
their own dimensions, and feed upon worms and insects. Different 
speoieB of Acontuu are foimd in almost every part of the old world. 
The arid pla^ of Syria and Palestine produce a species which has been 

mentioned by the prophet Isaiah (xxxiv., 15), under the Hebrew 
denomination Kippot, improperly translated ' the great owl ' in our com' 
mon version of the Sacred Scriptures, but which the learned Boehart 
(' Hierozoioon,' pars post lib. liL cap. xi) has* shown^to reifer mors 
properly to tiie AeonHat, or Anguii jaeuku, the Dart Snake of the 
Greeks and Romans. Other speoies inhabit Asia Minor, Elgypt, and 
Persia; India and China have also their AomUioi; and the Cape of 
Good Hope produces a spedes without eyes. 

Of the common Egyptian Acontias many faUes are reoorded by 
ancient authors, principally arising from oonfounding this really barm- 
less species with the more deadly and venomous Morpents of the same 

ACORI'K^ ACORIDKfi, or ACORA'CKfi, a small natond oider 
of Endogens, with the following essential character : — ^The fiowen are 
hermaphrodite, surrounded witii scales. The spathe is leaf4ike^ but 
not rolled up. The stamens are complete, placed opposite the scales, 
and have two-celled anthers which are turned inwanis. The ovaries 
are distinct The fruit is baccate, juicy at firsty but finally juioeleas. 
The seeds have the embryo seated in the axis of a copious albumen. 
The rootstock is jointed ; the leaves sword-shaped, and embracing each 
other in the bud. Such is the character given this order, whi<£ was 
first separated from AraeecB bv Agardh, and the separation was after- 
wards adopted by Schott, Link, and Lindley. The genera assigned to 
this order by Lindley were Aconu, Opmnottaehpt, Ttipittra, and A»pi- 
dislra. The two last genera are now assigned by the same author to 
the order Liliacea. Tbis small group of plants in its geographical 
distribution is confined to the eastern hemisphere. None of them 
have the acrid properties of some of the AracecB, The Scorns CakuMU 
is a British plants and has slightiy aromatic properties. — {Lindley, 
Vegetable Kingdom.) 
ACORN, the English name of the frrdt of the oak. rQucB0XJ8.1 
A^CORUS, the botanical name of the plant that producee the arag 
called in the shops Calami aromoHcut. It is the tjrpe of the natunS 

order Acoracece, It is found 

abundantly in the fresh-water 

marshes of many parts of 

1 England. It has a perennial, 

creeping, horizontal stem, as 
thick as the finger, the whole 
of the under side of whic^ 
sends down roots into the mud 
or earth, in which the plant 
uniformly grows. From this 
spring many deep-green 
sword-shaped leaves, about 
three feet long. In the midst 
of all is a leai-like stem, from 
below the point of which 
protrudes a cylindrical or 
rather conical spadix of 
greenish flowers, which are so 
closely packed together that 
the stalk is not to be seen. 
The leaves when bruised are 
fi-agrant; for which reason 
thby were formerly employed 
to strew the floors of rooms, 
or of churches, under the 
name of rushes. This prac- 
tice is still maintained in 
some places, where the plant 
is common, as at Norwich, the 
cathedral of which dty is 
strewed with sweet rushes 
upon certain high festivals. 
The flowers are so seldom 
produced, that it is a common 
belief that they never are 
borne. Calamtu anmuUicut 
is slightly aromatic^ and is 
' occasionally used as a stimu- 

AeonuCMamut, lant; but is of very Httie 

importance. The part em- 
ployed is the dried creeping stem, or, as it is improperly called, root 

ACOTYLE'DONES, or ACOTYLEDONE^E, the name of the first 
dass in Jussieu's ' Natural System of Botany.' It is derived from tiie 
circumstance of all the plants which it comprehends vegetating with- 
out the aid of the seed-lobes called cotyledons. Such plants are also 
in all cases destitute of flowers, and are in fact the same as what 
LinntBus called Oryptogamia. They are also called CeUmlaret, 
ACOUCHY, a small species of Cavy. [AaouTLl 
ACRITA (from AKpiros, indistinct), a division of the dass Radiata, 
adopted by Owen, and applied to the Accdephce, the PoUyp^era, 
except the Bryozoct, the Potygattricot and certain forms of Aitosoo, 
in none of whidi are the indications of a nervous system dedded, and 
they constitute the lowest forms of the radiate group of i^nima1«_ 

ACROCHOHDUS (from ixpoxopiin', a wart), a genus of serpents 
discovered in Java by the trayeller Homstedt It is eMJly distingiiiihed 

Digitized by 






from oihfln of the iimoziofiB fionilj of wi^f>ent8 by the XDnumersble 
small Boales which ooyer every part of the head and body both abore 
and below, and which in preserved specimens, or when the live 
a>mn^1 distends the 

Jeroehordw Jopameut. 

lungs and body with 
air, aanmie the appear- 
ance of so many granu- 
lated warts or tuber- 
desL This circmn- 
stance has suggested 
the name of Acroekor- 
dm. The head of the 
aoroehord is flat, the 
month is provided with 
a double row of small 
sharp teeth, but with- 
out poison-fangs, and 
the throat is capable of 
enonnous dilatation. 
The tongue is short 
and thid[, the vent 
simple and without the 
homy spun which are 
common to many other 
genera of serpents. 
The only species of 
which much is known 
is ^ the AerockorduM 
Jm mA e m of Lac^pMe 
and others. This 
animal averages firom 
six to ten feet in 
lengthy and the body 
grows gradually thicker 
from the head to the 
vent» and there sud- 
denly contracts^ so as to fonn a veiy short slender tail. In 
the thickest part of the body, inmiediately above its junction 
with the tail, the individ^ial procured by Homstedt, of which 
the entire lei^h was eight feet three inches, measured three 
inches in diameter, whilst Uie greatest breadth of the tail did not 
exoeed half an inch, and its length was scarcely a ninth part of 
that of the whole body. This individual was a female, and, when 
opened, was found to contain five young ones perfectly formed, 
and about nine inches in length. It was caught in a plantation of 
pepper-trees, and the Chinese, who accompanied Homstedt, cooked 
and ate its flesh, and reported it to be of a most delicious flavour. 
The stomach contained a quantity of half-digested fruit, from which 
it has been inferred that thu serpent is frugivorous. Cuvier, however, 
doubts on this point. 

ACROCUXIA, a fossil genus of Gasteropoda, allied to the NeriUdce, 
It occurs in Palaeozoic str^ (Phillips.) 

A'CRODUS, a ^us of fossil Placoid fishes, established by H. 
Agasmit. The species occurs almost ezdusively in the lias and oolite. 
One British species (A. minimut) is referred to the keiiper series by M. 
Agassiz. It occurs at Aust Cliff in the bone-bed. The others abound 
at Lyme Regi s. Bati i, and Stonesfield. 

ACRO'OASTEB, a oenus of fossil fishes. (Agassiz.) 

ACROGENS (frcmi itpos, the topmost, and ywydw, to produce), in 
Botany, one of the primairclasses of the Vegetable Kingdom, accord^ 
to the Natural System. This class, with identical limits, is also known 
by the following designations : — 

AcotyUdom (Jussieu), so named from the fiiot of the absence of 
cotyledons amongst this dass of plants. 

ExembnfonaUB (Richard), designating the absence of any regular 
embryo in the reproductive odls, or sporea 

CUOMlcura (De CandoUe), denoting the general absenoe of vascular 
tissue and the prevalence of cellular tissue in these plants. 

AgamuB, of various authors, implying the absence of the necessity of 
the union of two cells in order to reproduce a new individual 

Oryptogamia (Linnaus), intended to convey the idea that if two 
cells were neceasaiy to the reproduction of the new plant in this class, 
it was not obvious, as in the Fhsenogamoua plants. 

The Acrogau, as equivalent to the above exprdtadons for the same 
dafli, embrace all those plants which are included in the above defi- 
nitionsL This term itself is, however, only applicable literally to those 
plants which, destitute of flowers, jpoaaess a stem growing in a manner 
distinctive horn those called JSxogent [Exoobnb] and Endogem 
rEKDOOEn]. It has been thus restricted by Lindley in his * Vegetable 
Kingdom,' and he places the stemless flowerless plantain another class, 
called l%aaog€ni. The structure of the stem, however, is at beet an 
artificial character, and the adoption of the terms for the daases 
expressive of its characters, has rather been accidental than necessary. 
On this account it is perhaps better to regard the ThaUogem as a 
section of Acrogens than an independent and equal group. 

The stems of Aerogem differ much in appearance from those of 
Exogens and Endogens. The wood is not secreted firom lavers of 
tissue, which have the power of reproducing regular lonee of wood, 

as in Exogens, or a regular arrangement of vascular and cellular 
tissue, as in Endogens. There is generally but a single ring of vascular 
bundles even in the Ferns. These vascular bundles do not go on 

Chnoophora exeelta, an acrogcnoos Btem. 

increasing in size, but are all developed together. The lower part of 
the stem does not continue to increase in size, and its growth is deter- 

Portion of oatiiido of stem of Chnoophora ezcelsa, 

mined by the development of new vascular bundles in connection 
with the leaves of the point or upper part of the stem : hence their 
name. In the Liverworts and Mosses there is oaly a simple vascular 
bundle in the centre of the steuL In Itoetet ioo there is a ring of 
vascular bundles. Science is very deficient in good observations on 
the structure of the stems of these plants. 

The reproduction of the Acrogens is not so simple as was at one 
time believed. The recent researches of Suminki, Hofl^eister, and 

Digitized by 





oihen, nhow that in the Fenu and many other Acrogens the spore is 
but a tranaitionaiy condition^ which results in the production of two 
sets of cells, by the union of whioh alone oan a new indiyidiial be 
produced. [Plants, Reproduotiow iif.] 

External portion of an Acrogenoua ttem. 

Section of Btcm of AUophUa vettita. 

Till ne of an Aorogenous item. 

The following is an analysis of the alliances and orders found in the 
class of Acrogens, according to the system adopted by Ldndley in his 
' Vegetable Kingdom.' Thus 

Asexual (?) or flowerless plants, Acrogens. 

Stem and leaves distinguishable. True Aoroosns. 

Stem and leaves indistinguishable. Thallogens. 
Alliances of Thallooens. 
AlffdUt. — Cellular flowerless plants, nourished through their whole 
surface by the medium in which they vegetate ; living in water, or very 
damp places ; propagated by zoospores, oolourod spores, ortetraspores. 
/'ttf?^a^--Cellular flowerless plants, nourished through their 
thallus (spawn or mycelium); living in air; propagated by spores 

oolourles or brown, and sometimes endosed in aad ; destitute of 
green gonidia. 

LichenaUt. — Cellular flowerleas plants, nourished throng^ their 
whole suiface by the medium in wnich they vegetate ; living in air; 
propagated by spores usually enclosed in asd, and always having 
green gonidia in their thallua 

Natural Ordert ofAlgaUt. 

1. DiatimaeecB, — Crystalline angular fragmentaiy bodies, brittle, 
and multiplying by spontaneous separation. 

2. ConfervauoB. — ^Vesioular filamentaiy or membranous bodiei^ 
multiplied by zoospores generated in the interior, at the expense of 
their green matter. 

8. fueacecB, — Cellular or tubular unsymmetrioal bodies, multiplied 
by simple spores formed extemallv. 

4. CeramiacecB. — Cellular or tubular unsymmetrical bodies multi- 
plied by tetraspores. 

5. Charaeece. — Tubular symmetrically-branched bodies, multiplied 
by Bpiral-ooated nucules filled with starch. 

Natural Ordert o/Fv/ngalet. 

6. JBymenomyetUt, or Agarieaeea.^Qu(am generally quatemate on 
distinct sporophores ; hymeniiun naked 

7. OatUramyeeUi, or Lycoperdacea, — Spores generally quatemate 
on distinct sporophores ; hymenium enclosed in a peridium. 

8. ConiomyeeUit or Ureainaeea, — Spores single, often septate on 
more or less disUnct sporophores; flood of the fruit obsolete, or 
mere pedundes. 

9. byphomyeeUt, or Botrytaeea. — Spores naked, often septate; 
thallus flocooee. 

10. Aic&myceUi, or Hdvdaota, — Sporidia oontained (generally eight 
together) in ascL 

11: Phyaomyodet, or ifttcoracecBL— Spores suxrounded by a vesioalar 
veil or sporangiiun ; thallus floocose. 

NatwraL Orden oflAehendUi. 

12. Oraphidaeea, — ^Nudeus breaking up into naked spores. 
18. CoUemacea. — ^Kudeus bearing asoi ; thallus homogeneous, gela- 
tinous, or carfeilsginoua 

14. ParmdiacetB. — Nudeus bearing asd; thallus heterogeneous, 
pulverulent^ or odlular. 

Alliances of Acrogens. 

MuicaU$, — Cellular (or vascular) spore-cases immersed or calyp 
trate, i. e. either plunged in the substance of the frond, or enclosed 
within a hood, having the same relation to the spores as an involucre 
to a seed vessel 

LycopodaUa. — Vascular; spore-cases axillary or radical, one- or 
nym^-celled ; spores of two sorts. 

Ftlicale$. — Vascular; spore-cases maiginal or dorsal, one-oelled| 
usually surrounded by an elastic ring ; spores of but one sort 

Natwral Ordert of Mutealet, 
1. Hepaticoi. 

15. JUcciaeeee, — Spore-cases valvelees, without operculum or elaters. 

16. Marchantiacea, — Spore-cases valvdess, or bursting irregularly, 
without operculum, but with daters. 

17. JungermawUaceoL — Spore-cases opening by a definite number 
of equal valves, without operculum, but with daters. 

18. EquisetacecB, — Spore-cases pdtate, splitting on one nde^ without 
operculum, and with an elater to eveiy spore. 

2. Mueci, 

19. ilncJresacsa;.— <Spore-oa8es opening by valves^ with an operculum, 
without elaters. 

20. ^ryooecs.— Spore-oases valveless, with an operculum, without 

Natural Orden of LycopodaUa, 

21. Lycopodiaeea, — Spore-cases one- to three-celled, axillazy, repro- 
ductive bodies similar. 

22. ifar«tf«ica».— Spore-cases many-celled, radical (or axillary), 
reproductive bodies dissimilar. 

Natural Ordera of FUiealea. 

28. OpKiogloaaaeece, — Spore-cases ringlees, distmct^ two-valved; 
formed on the margin of a contracted lei3l 

24. Polypodiaeea, — Spore-cases ringed, dorsal or maiginal, distinct, 
splitting irregularly. 

25. .Dana;a6e(P.---Spore-caBes ringless, dorsal, connate, splitting 
irregularly by a ventral cleft. 

(Lindle/s Vegetable Kingdom ; Schldden's Principlea of Scientific 
Botany, translated by Dr. Lankester; Henfre/s Report <m ike Higher 
Oryptogamoua Planta, at the Twenty-first Meeting of the British 

ACRO'QNATHUS, a genus of fossil Cydoid fishes, found in th« 
chalk of Sussex. (Agassiz.) 

ACRO'LEPIS, a genus of fossil Ganoid fishes, found in the ma|<^ 
nesian limestone of Durham. (Agassiz.) 

Digitized by 





ACROTTERIS (ftom tucpos, a pointy and wrfyu, a fern), a genus of 
Ferns allied to Atplenivm, 

ACROSALE'NIA, a genus of Focunl E^^modennata, (Agassiz.) It 
occurs in the Isle of Sheppy. 

ACBOSTICHON (firom axpos, a point, and rrlxos, a row), a genus 
of Feins, meet of which require stove heat in cultiyaidon. The whole 
of the species now referred to this genus are extra-European, being 
inhabitants of the West and East Indies, and Australia. 

AGROTE^MNUS, a genus of Fossil Q^noid Fishes. il./Vi5a is found 
in the chalk of Sussex. (Agassiz.) 

ACT'.£A. Under ihe name of Htcrri, the Greeks described a medi- 
cinal plant, which the modems haye ascertained to be what is now 
called Sambueua Ebulus, rSAMBUons.] Linnasus applied the name to 
a genus of perennial herbaceous plants found in various parts of 
Europe, and the north of Asia, and America, belonging to the natural 
order S4MMineulaee(B, and only in a slight degree resembling the 
species intended bv classical authors. The genus thus understood is 
kiiown from all others of the Ranunculus tribe by its anthers being 
turned inwards, so that when they burst the pollen may immediately 
fall upon the stigma, while its flowers have only four sepals and 
four petals. The properties of all the species are nauseous and 
deleterious, as might be expected from their affinity to the poisonous 

One species, Aei€Ba tpicaUi^ a common European plants is found 
occasionally in the north of Torkshire among bushes ; it is popularly 
called Black Baneberries and also Herb Christopher. It has purplish- 
black juicy fruits, which would be dangerous from their tempting 
appearance, if the fetid odour of the leaves did not prevent their 
being touched. 

Another* species, the A, eimieifuga, a Korth American plants derives 
its name from the belief that its fetid leaves have the power of driving 
away bugs. 


ACTINI'ADib, a family of Helianthoid Polypes, having for its type 
the old genus Actinia/ the Sea Anemoniet. It has the following 
characters. Animal single, fleshy, elongate or conical, capable of 
extending or contracting itself, fixed by its base, but with the power 
of locomotion ; mouth m the middle of the upper disk, veiy diltttable, 
siuTOunded by one or more 

rows of tentacula ; oviparous "•• *• 

and viviparous ; marine. 

The internal structure of 
the ActtnitB has been care- 
fully investigated by Spix, 
Tesde, and others. They pos- 
sess an alimentary cavity, 
with a single aperture, 
very lanm at tiie lower end, 
and so uastio and contractile 
that it can easily be turned 
inside out The cavity is 
surrounded with flat muscles, 
running lengthwise and 

P««J1«L ^ . , Smtll Leathery iUiimal-noirer 

The egg oigan iovantm), {AoHnia coriacea), 

according to Teale's obser- 

vations m Actinia coriacea, ^^^' *• 

forms elongated masses ' 

attached along the inner 
border of a series of organs 
called leaflets, flg. 2, A A. 
" Each ovary is composed of 
several folds or plaits, which, 
when unfolded, show this 
structure to be about three 
times the length it assumes ^ 
when attached to the leaflet. ^ 
By carefriU^ spreading out 
these folds, the ovary, with 
the assistance of a lens, is 
seen to consist of two very 
delicate layers of membrane, & 

envelc^ing a closely com- Vertical seetloii of the above, to show its 

pacted layer of ova. After ^^^ The ■kta**'*** **'^**^"' 
«ivelopii^theova,themem.***; The bate; by which the aaimali. fixed 
branous layers are placed m ^ the rocks, 

apposition, and form a kind c. The three rows of feelers (tentacula). 
of mesentery, by which the d. The mouth. 
ovary is attached to the in- e. The stomach, 
temal border of the leaflet" /. Longitudinal museles. 
The AetiniacUe propagate all ff- Point in which they unite, 
the year round, although * *• The orarles, which open by their OTi- 
perhaps in some species ttie ^^^ *°^ *^« "tomach. 

ova are d€poeited most abtmdantly in autumn. The ova are roundish, 
and like those of polypes in general, are moved by means of vibratHe 
cilia, which cover their surfkce. After being discharged from their 
parent they move about actively for swnd days, during which they 
undeigo some change in form. They thX relax their activity, the cilia 
Hat. mSfT. DIY. YOL. L 

ma. The ovaries greatly magnified. 
h. The oviduct. 
e. Eggs. 
d. Ditto, with the first appearance of the 

«. Ditto, farther advanced. 
/. Ditto, ditto. 

Fxo. 4. 

are absorbed, they attach themselves to a spot^ and pass through a 
series of forms, before arriving at maturity. 

Although Spix has described in Actinia coriacea a nervous syBtem, 
this has not been confirmed by more reoent observers. 

The habits of the A ctinim have been studied by the Abb^ Dioquemare 
and others. *. The forms of ActinioB vaxy according to their contraction 
or expansion, presenting in- 
numerable varieties. Their Fto« S. 
expansion is said to be amore 
certain indicator of fine 
weather than the rise of the 
barometer; but this cannot 
be practically taken advan- 
tage of except during summer, 
as the cold of winter drives 
iheActimcB from the shore to 
the deeper waters, where the 
temperature is more equable 
and mild. On ftli««g»Ticf their 
place of abode, some abandoir i 
themselves to the mercy of | 
the waves, others creep along 
the bottom, turning them- 
selves inside ont^ and making 
use of their tentacula as 
feet When they find a 
suitable place, they fix them- 
selveai, often so firmly, that 
they cannot be detached 
without tearing their bodies. 

Our distinguished y^n giiaii 
naturalist, Ellis, has given a 
very minute and, so far as it 
goes, an accurate account of 
these M^iTwoJ" in the 'Philo- 
sophical Transactions,' voL 
Ivii, part of which it may be 
interesting to quote : — 

"The lower part," he says, 
''of these bodies have a com- 
munication with a firm, 
fieshy, wrinkled tube, which 
sticks fast to the ro<^ and 
sends forth other fleshy tubes, 
which creep along them in 
various directions. These are 
full of difiiarent sizes of these 
remarkable animals, which rise 
up irregularly in groups near 
to one another. 

"This adhering tube, that 
secures &em hst to the 
rock or shelly bottom, is 
worthy of our notice. The 
knobs that we observe are 
formed in several parts of it 
by its insinuating itself into 
the inequalities of the coral 
rock, or by graspiog pieces of 
shells, part of n^ch still 
remain m it^ with tiie fleshy 
substance grown over them. 
This shows us the instinct of 
nature, that directs these 
aniTnals to preserve them- 
selves from the violence of 
the waves, not unlike the 
anchoring of mussels, by their 
fine silken filaments that end 
in suckers; or rather, like 
the shelly basis of the Serpula, 
or worm-shell, the tree-oyster, 
and the slipper-bamadle, fta, 
whose bases conform to the shape of whatever substance they fix 
themselves to, grasping it fast witti their testaceous daws, to with- 
stand the fiuy of a storm. 

" When we view the inside of this animal dissected lengthwise, we 
find a little tube leading from the mouth to the stomach, from whence 
there rise ei^t wrinkled small guts, in a circular order, with a yeUowish 
soft substance in them ; these bend over, in the form of arches, towards 
the lower parts of the bulb, from whence they may be trooed downr 
wards to the nairow part of the upright tube, till they come to the 
fleshy adhering tube, where some of them may be perceived entering 
into a papilla, or the beginning of an animaj of the like kind^ most 
probably to convey nourishment till it is provided with daws : the 
remaining part of these slender g^ts ore continued on their fleshy tube, 
without doubt, for the same purpose of producing and supporting 
more young ones from the same common parent 

DistribuUon of the nerves at the base of 

the Aetiniw, according to Spix. 
o. The nervous ganglions. 
h. Nerves, 
c Nerves of eosmumieatio& between the 

d. The longitudinal musdes. 

Fxo. 5. 

Longitudinal Muielei, with the fiselers 

Digitized by 




''The many lon^tadinal fibres Uiat we diBCOver lying pftraUel to 
each other, on the inside of the semi-transparent skin, are all inserted 
m the several claTvs roond the animal's mouth, and are plainly the 
tendons or musdes for moving and directing the daws at the will 
of l^e animal : these may be likewise traced down to the adhering 

A strong light incommodes the Actinia, noise startles them, they 
are a£fected by odours, and fresh water causes them to die. These 
various feelings originate in their great irritability, which appears to 
increase accordmg to their sufferings. They can support a temperature 
as low as 45**, and up to 140% Fehr. ; but beyond these extremes they 
perish. They, are often left expomd to the air during spring-tides ; 
but in such cases they always retain a great quantity of water, which 
they squirt out with force when molesteid. 

These singular creatures have a power of reproduction equal to that 
so well known in the Fresh-Water Polyp (Polypui viridia, Bory., Mydra 
viridis). They may be cut perpendicularly or across, and eadi cutting 
will give origin to a new animaL The young AcHma are seen issuing, 
already formed, sometimes from the mouth ; and sometimes the base of 
the old animal is dissevered, a portion remaining attached to the rock, 
where it continues to live, increasing in sise, beooming more and more 
rounded, while, in a short time, a mouth, stomach, and tentacula are 
formed, presenting a complete ilc^io. At length, the side-portions 
of this base give out globules^ which are detached, fix themselves upon 
adjacent rocks, whore they grow, and produce a new colony like the 

parent a-niTnal. 

The ActinicB feed upon small crustaceous and molluscous animals 
and fishes, which they seize with their tentacula^ and afterwards 
disgoige what they cannot digest They are foimd in every sea, some 
suspended from the vaults of sub-marine reefis, others covering the 
more exposed sides of rocks with a sort of flower-like tapestry, and 
some confining themselves to the smooth sands, on the surface of 
which they spread out their tentacula, and even withdraw under the 
sand when danger threatens. Each spedes, indeed, generally selects a 
peculiar haunt Some of the spedes have the power of stinging, like 
the AcaUphcBf which depends On their poeseesing in their structure 
the same organ as the Aealepha, and other forms of polypes, and known 
under the name of Thread-Cells, or Stinging Hairs. 

Many of the spedes are used as food in tropical countries, on the 
coasts of which they are more numerous than in colder oUmatea. 

The genera comprising the family AcCvniadce form several natural 

A, Such at have the tentacula reduced to the form of tuberdet, 
A single spedes, constituting the genus Ditcotoma of Leuckarty 
belongs to this division, which cannot be regarded as certainly 
established, the genus referred to having been founded on a specimen 
preserved in alcohol, which alters materi&Qy the forms of seapanemonies. 
Ehrenberg asserts that it is his Acttnia brevicirrhata, which has yeiy 
small and numerous tentacula. Ex. JHecoioma mmmiforme. 

JBdwardsia vutita* 

B, Such Sea-Ajiemonies aa have iimple tentacula, 
following are the prindpal genera :-^ 

Of these the 

1. MinyaSf Cuvier {AeHmiata, Blainville), Free AeHmce having more 
or lees globose bodies inflated at one end, and having at the other a 
disk covered by a great number of very short tentacula. Cuvier placed 
this genus among the Behinodermata, but the observationa of Lesoeor 
and Quov, who have seen the living animal, place it without a question 
amonff tiie true AcHmadce. As many of the usuallv fixed spedes are 
capable of swimming and of inflainng their suctorial disks, it is by no 
means sure that sudi is always the habit of Miniyae ; indeed, we 
have observed an allied and undeeoribed animal which inhabits the 
Mediterranean, swinmiing at the sur&oe of the sea in winter, but 
vdien confined in a glass of vrater it atUiered to the sides in the maamer 
of anil c^Miia properly so called. 

Exanvple, Mim/yoM cyanea. 

2. MoecAataf Benieri, vermiform and free, and, according to Da 
Blainville, incrusted with adhering substances. It is said to live fioating 
in the sea. Both Ehrenberg and Ihi jardin have supposed that there 
was some mistake regarding this genua, and that it might have been 
founded on specimens of A cHnia (Oribrina) hdlie. It is more probably 
however identical with the Edwardtia of M. de Quatref ages (' Annales 
des Sdenoes Naturelles,' 1842), founded on some remarkable vermiform 
Aeiiniada whidi are invested with a sort of tube to which sand and 
gravd adhere. Three spedes of Bdwardtia have been discovered by 
the author of the genus on the west coast of France, and a fourth in 
the Qredan Ardtipelago by FMfessor £. Forbes^ the habits of which 
are very remarkable. It can move up and down freely in its mem* 
branous tube, and when kept for some time in sea-water, the tube 
having been ix^uied, it came out of it altogetiier and moved about 
twisting its body in the manner of some AnneUdee. On being supplied 
with sand and graved it pro4>9eded to construct another tube, rolling 
itself up in the sand and secreting glutinous matter for the membraaoos 
lining. It ei^ voradoualy, and attacks such animals as come within 
reach of its tentacula. It lives buried in sand, and in placee a few 
inches below sea-leveL 

8. IkumUhue, Forbes ('Annab of Natural History,' voL r,, 1840.) 
A single spedes only is known. • 

The body is free, and tapers 
posteriorlv to a pointy which is 
probably buried m the soft mud 
among which it lives. The mouth 
is round, and surrounded by nu- 
merous long filiform tentacula. 
The lUtanthue ScoHcue was found 
in four fathoms of water in Loch 

4. Actima, Linnsras, now re- 
stricted to such spedes as hav^ 
simple tubular retractile tenta^ 
oula, and adhere by a broad base. 
Ehrenberg has separated such 
Actinice as have a glandular 
epidermis, under the name of 
Oribrina, From the glands 
protrude long filaments, the uses 
of which are unknown. The 
tentacula of all the spedes are 
(oontraiy to the suppodtion of 
Ehrenborg) perforated at thdr 

extremities. The subgenus IhiaiUhue SeeHnu, 

Adamsia has been constituted, 

by Professor R Forbes, for the reception of the curious paramtical 
Actinia maoulata, which envelopes the mouths of dead shells, generally 
sdecting such as have been previously invested by the Alcyonidium 
echinatwn. As such shells are frequently inhMiited at the same time 
by the Hermit Crab, not a few naturalists have mistaken the ooind- 
dence for some necessary and mysterious friendship of the zoophyte for 
the crustacean. 

A large number of species ot Actima have been described, but many 
of them not with suffident distinctness, and it is probable many more 
will be ultimatdy ascertained. The following are common species on 
the British coasts : 

The Stout-Armed Animal-Flower {Actinia eraeaicomii, Miiller) is 
three inches broad, with a leathery unequal envdope of an orange 
colour; the tentacula in two ranges, umially marked with a rose- 
. coloured ring. Its abode is commonly in the sand. 

The Purple Animal-Flower {Actinia Jlieeembrytmthemum) has a soft 
skin, findy striated, usually of a beautiful purple, often douded with 
greeiL The tentacula, to the number of a hxmdred, vary much in 
colour. When the tide retires this spedes may be seen ornamenting 
the searrocks with its beautiful colours — "purple, violet, blue, pink, 
yellow, and green, like so many flowers," says M. I^miouroux, ''in a 

The White Animal-Flower {Actinia IHanihus, Ellis) is four or 
more inches broad, of a white colour ; the margins of the mouth are 
expanded into lobes^ all f urmshed with innumerable tentaoulm There 
is an inner row of these, stUl larger. 

In his ' British Zoophytes,' Dr. Johnstone enumerates twenty spedes 
of the genus Actinia, as foux^in the British islands. It ia, however, a 
question whether all these aR roally different q>edes; as few animals 

Digitized by 




have a greater tendea<^ to 
of tlUia genuB. 

asBuxne different forms than the members 

Btoat-Armed Animal-nower {A, cnmioomis). 

Pnrpls Animal-Floirer {A. nuitwibryanthemum). White Animal-Flower 

{A. DiatUhut). 

6. Anihea, Jolmstone, incladeB saoh Aetiniai as have not the power 
of retraotizig their tentacula. Several of the species grow to a large 

Example, Jn^Aea TM^ Johnstone, 'Brit Zoophytes,' p. 222, fig. 88. 

6. AeiinolobcL, Blainyille {Metridium, Oken), species in which the 
oral disk is divided at the margin into more or less rounded lobes, 
which bear short simple tentacula. 

Example, A, diantkut, 'PhiL Trans.,' vol Ivil, tab. 19, fig. 8. 

7. Capnea, Forbes, of which one species onlj is known. The disk 
is round, with sereral drcles of exoeedinglv short tubercular i«tractile 
tentacula, and the body it^in part invested with a peculiar epidermis, 
which is divided at the margin into eight lobes. 

Example, C. sanguinea, ^'AnnaLs of Natural History/ voL viL, 
pi 1, % 1.) Irish Sea. 

Otpnta ianguinosn, 
0. 8ea-AnenumU»lwvingfM>reorUupiv^^ 

8. Actiiieria, Quov and Gaimard. Such as have the entire disk 
covered bv very small villose ramified tentacula. 

Example. A. viOota, Quoy and Qaimard. ('Voy. Astrolabe, Zooph.,' 
pi 49, figa. 1, 2.) Tonga islands. 

9. Aetinodaidron, Quoy and Qaimard. Species having very long 
arboreeoent tentacula disposed in one or two series on the oral disk. 

Example, A. dU:y<nkMeun^ (' Voy. Ast,' pi 48, figs. 1, 2.) This 
aniinal is more than a foot in height, and secretes a stinging mucus. 

10. Thcdauianthui, Leuckart One species only is known, the 

T. otter f an inhabitant of the Red Sea, figured in the plates to Riippell's 
'Voyage.' Its tentacula are numerous^ short, and pinnate. It is 
probably identical with the Epidadia of Ehrenberg. 

11. ffeterodactyUif Ehrenberg. The tentacula are of two sorts, 
some simple and others pinnate. 

Example, ff. HempriML Bed Sea. 

12. Me^aUeHtf Ehrenberg, founded on an animal from the same 
locality with the last, and characterised by having all the tentacula 
arborescent, but the internal ones ate the larger and more pinnate, and 
have their extremities hollowed into a sort of so<±et 

Example, MegdUetU ffempricML [See Supplsmknt.] 

ACTrNOCAMAX, a division of Betemnites, proposed by the late Mr. 
liiller of Bristol, upon the supposition that the species which he 
ranked in it had no true alveolar cavity or phi^gmacone. The 
correctness of this view is doubtful The species belong to the 
cretaceous strata. [Belemkite.] 

ACTINOCARPUS (from cucrly, a ray, and Jcopr^Jj, a fruit), a genus 
of plants belonging to the order AlitmacetB. One of the species of 
this genus, A. damatanium, is a British plants though rare. Like the 
order, it is an aquatic plant, and has cordate^ oblong, floating leaves, 
with white flowers. Another specieii^ A. minor, is sometimes found 
cultivated in our gardens. 

ACTINO'CERAS, a genus of Fossil Cephalopoda, separated from 
Orthocerat by Mr. Stokes. The species belong to the Pal»oBoio strata. 
A. SUnmsii occurs in Irebmd. 

ACTINOCRINITES, a genus of Crmoidea [Encbinites], con- 
taining many species. It occurs in Silurian and Carboniferous 
strata. (Miller^ 

ACTI'NOLITE, a crystallised mineral of a green colour, a variety 
of hornblende, found in primary stratified rocks, and occasionally in 
trap-rocks. The name is derived from ljcr\p, a ray of light, and 
KlBos, a stone, from the crystals being arranged in tiie form of rays. 
It occurs in masses or asbestiform. 

ACU'LEUS, or PricJde, in Botany, is a hard, conical, often curved 
expansion of the bark of some plants, such as the rose, and is intended 
either for their defence against enemies, or to enable them to hook 
themselves upon their neighbours, so as to gain a more fr«e access to 
light and air, or for other purposes unknown to us. The prickle is 
composed entirely of cellular tissue, which is at first soft and flexible, 
and onlv acquires its hardness and rigidity when old. In some respects 
it may be compared to a hair, from whioi it chiefly differs in its lai^ge 
sise and greater permanence. Care must be tsJLen by the young 
botanist not to coxiifoimd the prickle with the spine or thorn, which 
is of a totallv different nature. [Spots.] They may be distinguished 
by the prickle breaking readily from the bark, and leaving a dean scar 
behind ; while the spine cannot be torn off without rending through 
the bark into the wood itsel£ Leaves are often metamorphosed into 
spines, but never into aeuUL 

ADAMANTINE SPAB, a simple mineral, more commonly deno- 
minated Conmdum by mineralogists, the name given to it in India, 
from which country it was first brought to Europe. The first 
specimens of it were sent by Dr. Anderson, of Madras, to Mr. 
Benr, a lapidary in Edinbuivh, as the substance used in India to 
poliui masses of crystal and all other precious stones, except the 
diamond. It was examined by Dr. Black, who ascertained its peculiar 
nature^ and from its great hardness he called it Adamantine Spar. 
With the exception of the diamond, it is the hardest substance 
known. It contains about 90 per centb of alumina, a little iron, and 
a little silica, is usually of a pale grey or greenish colour, but is also 
found of various tints of red and brown. It is usually met with in 
rough ill-defined crystals, in granite, and sometimes in primary 
limestone, and is found in Chma, many parts of India, and occa- 
sionally in different parts of Europe. Emery, the well-known 
substance used in the cutting and polishing of glass, in polishing 
steel, making razor-straps^ and similar purposes in the arts, is a 
granular variety of Corundum, usually veiy much mixed with iron 
ore. It is chidiy imported from the Isle of Naxos, in the Grecian 
Archipelago, but is also foxmd in Saxony. The SappMre is a 
remarkable instance how the mysterious chemistry of nature in the 
mineral kingdom produces from the same elements substances the 
most different in external form ; this beautiful precious stone yielded 
by the analysis of Chenevix 94 per cent, of alumina; and Tennant 
foxmd in emery, when freed firom its admixture of iron, 92 per oent 
of the same earth. The sapphire is, after the diamond, the most 
valuable of gems; it is usuallv dark blue, but also occasionally colour* 
less, and the predous stones called by li^idaries Oriental Ruby, Oriental 
Topaas, OrietUal Am«thytt, and Oriental Emerald, are red, yellow, violet^ 
and green Sapphires, distinguishable from the other gems of the same 
name which have not the prefix Oriental, by their greatly miperiar 
hardness and greater specific gravity. Sapphires are found in gravel 
and sand in the island of Ceylon and in Pegu, but they have never 
been seen in a matrix. They are also occasionally found in gravel in 
different parts of Europe^ and thev have been met with of a clear 
blue colour and cnrstallised, in the lava of Nieder Meodig, near 
Andemach on the Rhincu 

ADANSONIA, so called in honour of Michael Adanson, the French 
naturalist, is an extraordioary tree foxmd in Africa within the tropics, 
particularly in Senegal, where it is called Baobab, 

Digitized by 





The celebrated traveller Humboldt conBiden it as the 'oldest 
organic monument of our planet,' in consequence of the calculations 
of Adanson that specimens, still found on the north-west coast of 
Africa, are probably 5000 yean old ; these calculations are, however, 
>pen to many objections. 

In appearance, Adanaonia is unlike any other known tree: the 
enormous dimensions of its trunk bear a striking disproportion to 
the other parts. It is not unusual to find a trunk not more than 
12 or 16 roet firom the root to the branches, with a circumference 
of 76 or 78 feet The lower branches are very long, and at first 
horizontal, extending perhaps 60 feet ; the conse<^uenoe of which is 
that thiy bend down to the ground, entirely hidmg the trunk, and 
giving the tree the appearance of a huge mass of veidure. The wood 
is very soft, even when in perfection, and is subject to a disease, which 
may be compared to the very malady of which its celebrated dis- 
coverer died — a sort of softening of all the hard parts, so that the 
least storm is sufficient to overthrow and dismember its enormous 
bulk. A curious practice prevails among the negroes of hollowing its 
trunk out into chambers, and therein depositing the bodies of male- 
factors, or of persons to whom the usual rites A sepulture are denied. 
In this situation the bodies become dried up, and soon acquire the 
state of perfect mummies. 

Adanioma belongs to the natural order Bamhaeemf among which it 
is at once known by a broad tube of stamens and deciduous calyx, 
combined with a woody dosed fruity containing a soft pulp. 

The onlv species is Adamonia diffUaiOf the Monkey-Bread, Sour 
Qourd, Lalo Plants kc, of the African negroes. The leaves are deep 

Leaf and flower of Adan$onia di^Uata, 

green, and divided into five unequal parts, each of which is of a 
narrow lanceolate figure, and radiates from a common centre, the 
outermost divisions being the smallest The flowers grow singly in a 
pendulous position from the bosom of the leaves, are very large, 
white, crumpled at the edge, and have the petals Very much reflexeid. 
The stamens are very numerous, and are collected into a tube, which 
spreads at the top into a sort <k umbreUa-like head, from the midst 
of which arises a slender curved style, terminated bv a rayed stigma. 
The fruit is an oblongs dull green, downy body, eight or nine inches 
long, containing several cells, in each of which there is a number of 
hard shining seeds immersed in a soft pulp, which is scarcely jmcf. 
From this pulp the negroes prepare an acidiilous drink, much used m 
the fevers of uie country. The bruised leaves, in a dry state, form a 
substance called lalo, which they mix with their food and imagine is 
useful in checking, or coimteracting, the effects of profuse perspi- 
ration. Like the rest of the order, Adaruonia is emollient and 
mucilaginous in all its soft parts. [See Supflbmint.] 
' ADAPIS, in Zoology, the name of a genus of Fossil Pachydermatous 
(thick-skinned) mammals, described by M. Cuvier, in his great work 
' Sur les Ossemens Fosdles,' voL iiL p. 265. The word is found in 
Qesner, as a synonyme of the common rabbit (not, as stated in the 
reference to Cuvier just given, of the ffyrax), and is appropriated to 

the present genus, from the presumed similarity in size, oiganizatioii, 
and habits, which probably existed between the hedgehog (Eyrax 
and the f osidl spedes. 

Skull of the Foiitt Adt^it. 

The remains, upon which IL Cuvier has founded this genus Adafus, 
the only specimen which he was able to procure during a period of 
twenty-five years devoted to researches after fossil bones, consist of 
three fragments of skulls, found in the plaster quarries of Mont- 
martre, Paris, celebrated for the enormous quantity and variety of 
the remains of extinct animals which they have produced, and which, • 
in the hands of M. Cuvier, have effected such improvements in the 
kindred sdences of zoology and geology. The first of these fragments 
is a head, nearly perfect on the side, imbedded in the mass of gypsum 
which contained it ; and exhibiting the dentition nearly in a perfect 
form. The general outline of this skull dosely resembled that of the 
hedffehog, but it was about one-third larger : there were four incisor 
teeth in each jaw, trenchant or edged and oblique ; followed, on each 
side, by a canine tooth, of a conical form, but in other respects 
differing little fixnn the molar teeth in length and figure. Of these 
latter there appear to have been seven in eadi side of eadi jaw. Two 
other fragments procured by M. Cuvier — one a })ortion of a lower 
jaw, another of an upper jaw — served to complete his description, by 
supplying some of the back teeth which were wanting in we more 
perfect roedmens. 

ADDA, the Arabic name of a small spedes of lizard (Scineut offici- 
TidUt) odebrated by the eastern physicians on account of its pretended 
efficacy in the cure of elephantiasis, leprosy, and other cutaneous 
diseases, to which the Arabs and inhabitants of Egypt are peculiarly 
subject ; and of which, according to Bruce, they are more afraid than 
of the plague itself. 

The Adda, as described by Bruce, is about six indiee and a half in 
length ; the body and tail are cylindrical, the latter thick at the base, 
and ending in a very sharp point; the head is conical, and the mouth 
provided with two rows of small feeble teeth ; the face is covered 
with five black lines, whidi cross one another like a net; the body is 
of a light straw colour, crossed with eight equidistant bands of black, 
and the scales are so finely polished that thev almost appear as if they 
had been varnished. The adda is found in Arabia, "Emit, and Nubia ; 
it is particularly abundant in the ndghbouriiood of the andent Meroo 
(near the Kile, about 17^ N. lat) ; and, in shorty throughout every 
part of the sandy deserts of Asia and Africa, wherever the dighteet 
traces of moisture exist '' It burrows," says Bruce, ** in the sand, 
and performs the operation so quickly, ina,t it is out of sight in an 
instant, and appears rather to have found a hole than to have made 
one : yet it oftoi comes out during the heat of the day to bask itself 
in the sun ; and, if not very mufihfrightened, will take refuge behind 
stones, or in the withered, ragged roots of the absinthium, dried in 
the sun to nearly its own colou^ 


ADDER, a name of the common viper. [YiferidaI 
ADELFORSITE, a variety of mineral, induded under Heulandita, 
ADELO'CRIKUS, a fossil genus of Crinoidea, from North Devon. 

ADHEiSION, in Botany, is applied to the union of parts which arc 
separate in other plants, or in younger states of the same plant 
Many of the characters which cause uie diversity of appearance in 
the vegetable kingdom originate in the adhedon of a few very simple 
oigans ; and what we are accustomed to oondder parts* of extremely 
different nature, only seem so in consequence of the way in which 
such adhedon occurs. Thus, the stem of a tree is not a homogeneous 
mass of vegetable matter, perforated by holes, or filled by little 
cavities caused by the extrication of air in it when in a soft state, but 
is produced by the adhedon of certain dementary bodies, oalled 
Cellular Tissue and Vascular Tissue [Tissues, Vegetable], arranged 
in a definite manner, which varies in every spedes ; ndther is a leaf, or 
a fruit, or a fiower, a mere mass of pulp, or an expandon, like the honi 
of an animal, but also consists of these same dementaiy oigans in 
a state of adhedon. 

Digitized by 






Gnided bj these fsMstSy modem botanists haye made use of this 
property of adhesion to explain the nature of ererj organ that plants 
bear, and there are few anomalies that are not due in a great measure 
to the union of contiguous parts. 

Some leayes are said to be stem-dasping, or amplezicaul, when their 
baoe partially surrounds the stem (fig. a); while some stems are said to 
be perfoliate, when they seem as if they pierced through the leaf, as 
in Bu/pUMTwa^ roimd^iliwn (fg*h)\ but the latter differ ftom the 
former only in this, that in the first the lobes at the base of the 
leaf embrace the stem without adhedng, while in the second they not 
only dasp the stem but grow together where their margins come in 
ccittact Some leayes are hollow, as in the Pitcher Plant, and these 
were formerly thou^t to be special organs with which no analogy 
oould be diB^yered; they are now known. to be leayes which haye 
rolled up so that their opposite margins come in contact and adhere. 
Other leayes, growing from opposite sides of a stem, adhere in conse- 
quence of their bases becoming connate (fig, c), as in the honeysucMe ; 
and finally there acD others, many of which grow in what botanists 
call a wh(nl, that is to say, all round a stem upon the same plane, and 
adhere by their margins into a sheath (fig. cQ, as in Catuarinek 

In other organs adhesions of a similar nature occur. 

In the calyx, all the sepals, or parts^ are often distinct^ as in the 
RammcuUu ; but they also often adhere by their edges, into a sort 
of eup» as in the cherry. In the corolUb the petals are either all 
■eparate, as in the rose, or they adhere by their edges into a cup or 
bell, as in the different heaths^ Camponulaf andthelike. 

Similar adhesions take place between the stamens. In tiie rose tiiey 
are all distinct firom each other ; in the geranium they slightly adhere 
st the base (fig. e) ; in the mallow they adhere into a tube, except 
near the upper extivmity, where they are not united, and haye their 
ordinary appearance (fig, f) ; in other plants they grow together ioto 
a soHd tube in which no trace of separation can be discoyered, as in 
thegenus Ouarea (fig. g). 

Fmally, in the pistil there are certain parts called carpels, each of 
which is a hollow body tenninated by a style and stigma. These 
carpels are hollow, because they are formed of a flat oigan, doubled 
up so that its edges come in contact and adhere to each other. 
Sometimes onl^ one carpel is present in a flower, as in the cherry 
(fig- A) ; aometimes seyeral, as in the rose (fig. «). In the Ntgdla, the 
styles of the carpels are all distinct (fig. k), but in the lily and 
the myrtle (fig, I) the styles of the carpels adhere so completely that 
there seems to be but one. In the apple, the calyx sebms to grow 
from the top of the frnit ; this is caused by the carpels haying at a 
yery early period adhered to the inside of the calyx, which afterwards 
grows WTth their growth, and, finally, leayes its extremities in a 
withered state near the top of the curpels : in the cherry, on the 
contraiy, no adhesion eyer takes place between the cupel and 
the calyx ; and, consequently, when the frxut is ripe, there is no trace 

of the latter upon its upper end. In the raspberry, the fruit is 
enabled to slip like a thimole from off the receptacle, because the 
carpels all adhere by their sidea 

(De Candolle, TKSorie SUmentaire de la Botaniqw; Lindley, IfUro- 
duietum to Botany ; Schleiden, PrincipUs of Seieniifie Botamu.) 

ADIANTUM (iSlayrov), a genus of Ferns, so called by Uie Qreeks 
because the leayes are of mick a nature that water will not readily 
moisten them. The plant described by Hippocrates and his successors 
under this name appears to haye been the A, CapUhu Veneritf or 
the Maiden-Hair Fern — a rare European spedes, occasionally met with 
on moist rooks, and old damp widls, eyen in this countiy. From 
other genera of the same tribe it is known by its size, or masses 
of roi^oductiye partides, being situated ui)on the mai^gin of the 
leayes, and coyered oyer by a thin curyed scale which separates from 
the leaf by its inner edge. 

The number of spedes is yery considerable, probably not far 'from 
80 or 90, aiid, as is the case in all extensiye genera of Ferns, 
comprehends eyery degree of diyidon of the leayei^ from perfect 
simplidty to the most compound conditions. All those in which tho 
leayes are much diyided are remarkable for the yery delicate elastic 
stalks on which the broad leidiets aro attached ; it is to this circum- 
stance that the name of Maiden's Hair has been giyen to the European 
spedes. The genus is scattered oyer all the world, from Europe to 
New Zealand^ but is not found in any high latitudes in either 
hemisphere. By far the greater part of the spedes inhabit damp 
tropical woods. 

A. Capillua Veneris is a dark-green stemlees plants found in damp, 
rough rooky places, by the side of water-courses, and on the edge of 
wells, whero the air is keen and dry. Its leayes, which aro from six 
to fifteen inches high, haye a blackish-purple highly-polished stalk, 
diyided into a great number of yery slender ramifications, frt>m the 
extremities of which proceed the thin, delicate, wedgo«haped leaflets, 
which aro notched irregularly upon their upper edge, and haye the 
most graceful appearance imaginable when growing a little aboye 
the eye, and gentiy agitated by the wind. Wonderful medicinal 
properties were once ascribed to this spedes, but they hftye long since 
been discoyered to haye no existence except in the exag^^eration of 
fanciful practitioners. All that can be discoyered in it is a slight 
but pleasant aromatic flayour; the French occasionally use it in 
slight coughs. CapiUaire is prepared by pouring boiling syrup upon 
the leayes of this spedes, or of A. peaaium, an American plant of 
larger growth and far lees diyided leayes ; a little flayour is afliarwards 
giyen with orange-flowers. 

ADINOLE, a laminated yariety of Fehroar, sometimes called 
Fusible Homstone, Leelite, and Petro-silex. [Fsuspab.] 

ADIPOSE TISSUE is usually associated with Areolar Tiseue 
[Arbolab Tibsus], the two being gencnndly known coUectiydy as 
CelMar Tistue. U must be distinguished from Fat [Fat], adiposo 
tissue being a membrane of extreme tenuity in the form of dosed 
cells or yedcles, while fat is the material contained within them. The 
membrane of the adipose yedcle does not exceed the 20,000th of an 
inch in thickness, and is quite transparent ; it is moistened by watery 
fluid, for which it has a greater attnu^on than for the fat it contains. 
ESadi yedde is a perfect little oigan, yarying, when fiilly deydoped, 
tram the 800th to the 800th of a line ; mmute capillaries may be 
obseryed on their external Boittce, (Fig. 2). When fat-yemcles aro 
deponted together in large numbers, as is usually the case, they assume 
a more or less regular polyhedric form from their mutual pressure. 

Fio. 1. 

When tiie fiivt traces of fiitt appear is not accurately known. In a 
well-formed fiye-months' human fcstus, Valentin found in the subcuta- 
neous cellular tissue of the sole of the foot not merdy fktcells, such 
as occur in. adults, yaiying frx>m the ordinary size to the 125th or 
100th of a line, within and around which wero numerous small yedcles 
(fig.h <^)f hut other forms which throw more light on their structure 
and deydopment In some the surrounding cell-membrane was much 
moro distinct than as it occurs in adults (h). In othen there appeared 
to be a depontion of fat, not occupying tne whole space of the cell (c) ; 
the remainder of the cell haying oft«i a striped or streaky appearance, 
and forming a lateral projection; this is seen in c, and m a more 
marked degree in d and e. In other fat-cdls there were obseryed to 

Digitized by 





be two vesicles, separated by a septum, against which they wore 
|>artial]y flattened hv pressure (g), or merely separated by a constriction 
m the external walls, as in f. This form leads us to oondude that 

Fio. S. 

fat-oellB increase by division. The fat-vesicle of the human subject 
contains Margarin, a solid fat^ and OUin, a fluid fat These sometimes 
separate spontaneously, presenting a very beautiAil microscopic 
appearance. The margann collects in a spot on the inner surface 
of the cell-membrane^ and presents the appearance of a small star, 
whilst the olein occupies the remainder of the vesicle, unless when the 
quantity of ftt in it is rather smaller than usual, in which case we 
may observe a little aqueous fluid between the olein and ^ 
ceU-membrane. (Fig, 1, h.) 

The chemistry of the substances Margitrin and Olein is somewhat 
complicated, but the Amotion of the adipose tissue cannot be explained 
without it These two substances, with Stearin, are the most widely 
distributed fats in the oiganic kingdom, but th^ are not the only 
ones. The^ were formerly regarded as salts formed by fatty adds with 
OHycervn, Recent investigations have however diown that this view 
re(juires a slight modification. Berzelius thinks that glycerin does not 
exist ready formed in the neutral fats, but that it is a product of the 
formation of soap ; and he considers the base of the neutral fats to be 
the oxide of a radical ^C, HJ which he terms Lipyle, Glycerin is then 
formed fh>m two eqmvalents of the oxide of Upyle, wiui three equi- 
valents of water: 2 C, H, + 8 H 0=C« H. 0. If to this we add 
one equivalent of watw, we obtain the usiud formula. 

According to this view, which w supported by Redtenbacher, 
Varrentrap^ and Mulder, the base of every neutral fat yielding glycerin 
is a compound which is represented bv d, H, 0. 

The most important of the fatty acids are : — 

Stearic Add C^, H„ 0, -h H 

Maigaric Add . . . . C^ H^ 0, -h H 
OldcAdd C^H^O^ + HO 

These are universally diffused in plants and animals ; and, combined 
with the oxide of lipyle (C, H, 0), they form the neutral fats-nrtearin, 
maigarin, and olein ; and tms is the form in which they most commonly 
occur in the oiganic kingdouL Sometimes^ however, a more powerful 
base (potash, soda, Ac.) removes the oxide of lip|vle, and there are 
then formed compounds of the &t^ adds with alkaues. 

In connection with this subject, Mulder observes that " when salad- 
oil is conveyed into the stomach, it mav pass unchanged into human 
fat^ for both consist of maigaiin and olein, altiioug^ in different propor- 
tions ; and as margarin and olein are found in many v^etables used 
for food, nothing is more simple than to assume that these substances 
are directiy transferred, without change, into the fats of the animal 

'' But if these same vegetables aie eaten by a sheep, the olein and 
margarin must undergo some diange in the body of the animal, since 
mutton-fat contains a large amount of stearin. In this case the change 
is easily understood, for 2 eq. margaric add (C^, H^, Oq) = 1 eq. stearic 
add (Cos Hm Os) -i- 1 eq. oxygen. Thus, from two equivalents of 
margaric aod one equivalent of stearic add is produced, and one 
equivalent of oxygen is given oflEl In all probability such a deoxidation 
of the maigaric acid in the food of the sheep is really effected ; a^d 
on the contrary, when mutton-&t is used for food by man, stearic add 
is most probably converted into margaric add by the alMorption of 
oxygen." It is now believed by our first phydologbts, that the neutral 
fats taken as food do not directiy form fatty tissue^ but that they enter 
the blood in a saponified state. In fact the alkaline character of the 
bile as it enters the duodenum renders it impbadble'for the fat to 
enter the blood without undeigoing this change. ' If it be saponified, 
we readily understand how compounds of fat^ adds and soda should 
exist in the blood and in various parts of the body. When a soda- 
soap however exiifts in the blood, it cannot form a neutral fat^ such 
as maigarin or olein, without combining with glycerin. This leads 
to the inquiry, in the first place, whether these soaps meet with 
glycerin ; and secondly if they do, whether the glycerin would combine 
with the fatty adds and form neutral fats. There is good reason for 
believing that both these questions may be answered in the negative, 

for the glycerin set f^ when the soda^oap is formed, is most probably 
at once decomposed ; and further, glycerin will not remove the soda 
from the fatty add and form a neutral fat 

It has been suggested by Mulder, that although (^yoerin will not 
enter into this combination, the oxide of lipvle in a nascent state may 
do so, and that in this manner the fatty acids may be converted into 
neutral fats, and deposited in the cellnlar tismie, and other parts of the 
body. We have already shown that (according to the opinion of 
Berzelius) fflyoerin is tlie oxide of the radioid (C, H,) lipvle. The 
second oxide of this radical exists in lactic add, wmch is supposed by 
the great nujority of diemists to be present in most parts of tiiebody. 
When lactic add (C^ H. 0^} is sublimated, we obtun a white subli- 
mate, the compontion of which is C, H, 0, ; while the composition of 
the oxide of lipyle is C, H, 0. 

It may happen that there are causes of deoxidation at work in the 
system, by which some of the substances usually oooverted into lactic 
acid are xnade to produce oxide of lipyle, which in the nascent state 
unites with the fatty adds, forming neutral fats. 

Hence in all probability the neutral fats are not deponted directly 
and unchanged in the cdlnlar tissue, but are first saponified, and 
entering tiie blood as maigarate and oleate of soda, are again reduced 
to neutral fats by the influence of lactic add. 

The next question for our consideration is the formation qffat — a 
subject which has given rise to much angiy and intemperate discussion 
between the leading chemists of France and Germany. Dumas, who 
may be regarded as the representative of the French sdiool, maintains 
that all the fat of animals originates in and is obtained fixmi plants ; 
while Liebig, on the contrary, maintains that a })ortion of it is formed 
by the animal itself, from starch, sugar, and gum. The goose was the 
anixnal respecting whidi the dispute originated. When fattened with 
Indian com, the starch must, according to Liebig, have been changed 
into fat, because he had found but a minute quantity (about 1 part 
in 1000) of fat in that kind of grain. Dumas however extracted 9 per 
cent of fat from Indian com (or ninety times as much as Liebig), and 
thus he foimd in the food which the goose had eaten much more fiat 
than had to be accounted for. The actual fact is, that the amount of 
fat in this grain is so variable that no condudon can be drawn from 
the experiment Liebiff quotes many examples of substances which, 
although they contain little fat, are well known by experience to be 
especially fit for fattening the animal body. Rice, peas, beans, and 
})otatoes are all known to pos se ss this property ; yet rice gives only 
0*2 to 0*8 per cent of matters soluble in ether (the ordinary means of 
determining the amount of fat^ ; peas 1*20 to 2*1 ; beans 0*70, and 
dried potatoes 0*85 per cent Thus any animal that has eaten 1000 
pounds of one of these substances ma^ obtain from them 2 to 8, 12 to 
21, 7, or 84 pounds of fat respectivdy. He makes the foUowing 
calculations : — ^Three pigs to be fattened in thirteen weeks require 
1000 pounds of peas, and 6825 pounds of boiled potatoes, the latter 
being equal to 1688 pounds of dry potatoes. These contain in all 26 
pounds of fiat, the peas yielding 21 pounds, and the potatoes 6. One 
fattened pig gives on an average 50 to 55 pounds of fat, the three 
yidding 150 to 165 pounds. Each pig before fattening contains on an 
average 18 pounds of fiat— that is, 54 pounds for the three. If to these 
54 pounds be added 26 pounds contained in the food, we get 80 })ounds ; 
and if we subtract these frt>m 150 to 165 pounds, there is a remainder 
of 70 to 85 pounds of fat produced from the starch, ftc., of the food. 
Liebig's opinion is further strengthened by the droumstance that some 
fats are undoubtedly produced in the body, as, for instance, the fats 
peculiar to the bram, ChoUtterin, Oeiine, Phoeenine, &c. To obtain 
these from other fiat requires just as much a new arrangement as if 
they were produced frt>m starch ; hence, in a sdentific point of view, 
there is nothing improbable in tiie suppodtion that animals are able 
to produce fiats. 

With regard to the formation of fat in plants, it is worthy of obser- 
vation that all seeds which yield oU on pressure — as the castor-oil seed, 
hemp-seed, &c. — contain starch in their eariy stases, this starch 
disappearing as the oil increases, and when the seed is completely 
developed not a trace of the starch remaining^ This renders it 
probable that these fatty matters are formed firom starch. From their 
ultimate compodtion it is obvious that whenever fats are produced 
frt>m any substance there must be produced at the same time dther 
highly oxidised compounds^ or else that oxygen must be itself liberated. 
Liebig observes that if frt>m the formula for starch, C|, H^q 0|o , we 
take nine equivalents of oxygen, there will remain in 100 parts — 

C,, 79-4 

Hxo 10-8 


The empirical formula for fat which comes nearest to this is C„ H,o 
0, which gives in 100 parts — 

C.j '. 78-9 

H,o n-6 


According to this formula on equivalent of starch, in order to be 
converted into fat, would lose one equivalent of carbonic add and 
seven of oxygen, or (expressed in symbols) C^, H„ 0^= C^i H„ O 
+ C 0,-h 7 0. 

Digitized by 





The mme point is also clearly shown hj contrasting the ultimate 
composition of starch and fat 

Staroh. HomanFat. (Cherreul.) 

Carbon . . . 44*91 . . . 7900 

Hydrogen . . 611 . . . 11-42 

Oxygen . . . 48*98 . . . 9*58 

Ab we are not acquainted with any constituent of plants which con 
take up the oxygen thus liberated in the formation of fat, we must 
regard this as one of the sources of the oxygen given off by plants. 
Vulder has given the following scheme as iUustrative of the mode in 
which starch may poasibly be conyerted into fat or oil in the vegetable 
kingdom i— 

C H 
To 7 equiv. of starch . . . . 84 70 70 
Add 8 equiv. of water ... 88 
















And we have .... 

Which are equal to 
1 equiv. of maigaric acid 

1 equiv. of oleic acid 

2 equiv. of oxide of lipyle 
69 equiv. of oxygen 

Making as before 

As to the mode in whidi fat is deposited, there is reason to believe 
that it is immediately formed out of the blood, without any glandular 
apparatus for secreting it, bv the capillary arteries of the adipose 
veaides. By chemical amdysis, the materials of fat, like those of all 
the other seicretiona^ are found to be contained in the blood. 

As diffused over the bodv, the adipose membrane consists of mannon 
which vary considerably m their magnitude and shape. In some 
places they are rounded, in others pear^iaped, and in the median line 
of the abdomen, egg-shaped. The distribution of the membrane is 
exceedingly unequair There is, in general, a considerable layer imme- 
diately beneath the skin ; and espedallv between the skin and the 
abdominal muscles, where it occasionaUy accumulates in enormous 
TnTiiwofl, Between the folds of the membranes which form the omentum 
and meeenterv there is usually a large quantity; also around the 
heart and the kidneys ; on the face, and especially on ike cheeks, and 
in the orbits of the eyes ; in the palms of the hsmds, the soles of the 
feet ; the pulp of the fingers and toes, the flexures of the joints, the 
fibres of muscles, and the sheath of vessels. In most of these organs 
it never entirely disappears, whatever be the degree of leanness to 
which the body may be reduced ; while in the cranium, the brain, the 
eye, the ear, the nose, and several other organs, there is none, what- 
ever be the degree of corpulency. 

The functions of the adipose tissue are manifold and apparent 

1. It fills up interstices, and acts as a kind of pad or cushion for the 
protection of oxgans which would be otherwise imured by the move- 
ments of the body; so essential does it appear m some parts that 
even where there is great emaciation it does not wholly disappear. 

2. By its non-C(mducthig power it assists in maintaiTiing the heat of 
the bodv when exposed to external cold. It is foimd in immense 
quantities in the animals inhabiting the Arctic Seas, as in the whale 
tribe, and also in all animals living in the colder parts of the earth. 
Z. It acts as a storehouse for fuel during times of necessity. Some 
•"iw>a1« are exposed to a want of combustible food in the winter time, 
and they aocoDiingly become fat in the autumn, and are thus supplied 
with material for Tnftfnfjifnmg their animal heat It is well known 
that fats are amongst the most important agents of food by which 
anbnal heat is maintained. Anfmalw that hybemate depend solely for 
their existence upon the fat deposited in their bodies, which ts 
gradually consumed during hybernation. 4. The presence of fEit 
seems to fiivour the development of protein tissues. It is always 
found in the ova of ftninnua before the embryo is formed. The 
administration of oik in certain diseases attended with emaciation, as 
in phthisis, has beeoi found most beneficial, and appears to act favour- 
ab&, by aswinting the development of protein tissues 

(Lebinann, Phy$iologieal Uhemutry; Kolliker, ffandXmch der OewAe- 
IcAre ; Car penters Prineipla of Phynohgy) 

ADJUTANT. [Crawbb.] 

ADCNIS, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order JZomm- 
erdaeeat and containing many species of veiy great beauty. The name 
is merely poetical AdonU is distinguished firom Raminculut by the 
want of a littie scale at the base of me petals, and from other genera 
of the order by the numerous hard, dry, sharp-pointed gndns of which 
its fruit consists. 

Botanists divide the genus into two sections, the first ef which 
comprehends all the annual kindl^ the second all the perennials. Ten 
species are spoken ot as belonginff to the first section, inhabiting corn- 
fields and similar dry exposed j^aoes, chiefly in the south of Europe 
and north of Africa. Some of them have deep oiimson flowers, as 
A, amiwmnaUM, the common Fheasant's-Eye of our gardens ; in others 
the blossoms are yellow : it is not improbable that they are fdl varieties 
of the same spedesL 

Of the peruinial kinds, A, vemaUi, which is common in gardens in 
Eoglandy ]b found in a wild state abundantiy on all the mountains 

of middle Europe. Its flowers have frt>m ten to twelve petals of a 
yellow colour, and of a brilliancy which is rendered the more «lft««ling 
by the deep green tuft of finely-divided leaves among which they 
expand. It is only a few inches high, anH is one of the early har- 
bingers of spring. Three others are described, all mountain plants, 
resembling A, vemaHt in general appearance, but perhaps still more 
beautifuL They seem to have been occasionally brought to this 
country, but to have been soon lost again. 

Nothing has been remarked as to the sensible properties of these 
plants ; they doubtless partake of the acridity so prevalent in their 

ADCyJAf a genus of plants belonging to the natural order Araliaeea, 
The only species of this genus is the A. MoichatdUna, which is a little 
inconspicuous plant foimd in woods and groves in all parts of Europe. 
It is common at Charlton and Hempstead, near London, and in many 
other spots in England. 

From a granular rooty which when dry is white as snow, arise, early 
every spring, a few leaves about four or five inches high, divided into 
three principal divisions, each of which is also three-leaved, with every 
lobe deeply cut into roundish segments. The stem that supports the 
flowers has two opposite leaves, like those of the root, only they have 
a short stalk, and consist of but three leaflets. The flowers have a 
musky smell, are pale green, and are collected in littie round heads. 
Each one consists of a superior calyx of five lobes ; there are no petals ; 
the stamens are ten ; the styles five ; and the ovarium contains five 
cells. This last ohuiges to a succulent berry, having five compressed 

In English this is called Mosohatel ; it is a pret^, interesting plant, 
much sought after by the curious for the sake of its deUoate, modest 
appearance. No known medioinal properties belong to it 

ADULABIAy a synonym of Felspar. [FxlbfabJ 

^CI'DIUM, a genus of minute parasitic plants belonging to the 
natural order Fwigi, found in great abundance in tiiis and other 
northeni countries. By some modem writers it has been combined 
with Undo and others ; but it appears diitinotiy characterised by its 
peridium, or enveloping membrane, having a tubular form, and being 
altogether distinct from the outide of the plant on which it grows. 

The species are umversally parasitic upon the leaves or flowers or 
bark of living plants, where they are generated beneath the cuticle 
Thdir structure is of the most simple kind ; <*^"^fMng of nothing more 
than a littie mass of excessively minute sporules, or reproductive 
partides, much smaller than the finest sand, molosed in a thin bag, oi 

1. jE&kUtm ctmeOUamky on a leaf, natural liae. f . Peridia, magnified. 
8. ifi^icUiMiSfrftiridtff, natural iixe. 4. Peridia, magnified. A. Spomlet. 

either a fibrous or reticulated structure, whfch in time pierces the 
cuticle under which it lies, gpradually assumes a tubulac appearance^ 
and finally bursts at the apex for the purpose of enabling the sporules 
to escape. 

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A great many spedea are found upon the weeda and trees of Europe, 
▼arying in colour, nxa, and form. Of these the two following are 
among the most common : — 

JBeidivm caneeUatvmf the Pear JSoidium. This plant is often very 
common in the latter months of autumn on the back of the leayes 
of the cultiTated pear-tree, to which it gives a singularly warted aspect 
It makes its appearance, crowded in little patches of a pale brown 
colour, which, when examined with a microaoope, are aeen to coosiBt 
of numerous oval bodies, about a line long, rather tiie broadest towaids 
the upper end. These bodies are, when young; slightly furrowed, but 
at a more advanced period they divide into tough parallel fibres, which 
open at the sides, but do not separate at the apex. Through the 
passages thus formed between the fibres fiill the sporules, or seed-like 

To inaccurate observers this species would appear an aggregation of 
the nests of some minute insect^ for which we know it to be often 
mistaken. It probably does not produce any iigurious effect upon the 
plants it attacks, for it generalhr makes its appearance late in the 
season, when the leaves have nearly completed their office for the year. 

JScidvum JBerberidii, the Barbeny Blight. The bright orange powder 
that collects upon the leaves and flowers of the common Barbeny con- 
sists of the sporules of this species, which aro dischaiged firom thou- 
sands of little tubular apertures, that spread in patches over all the 
tender parts. These apertures aro the open ends of the peridia in a 
state of maturity, and aro borderod at first by a ragged toothed mem- 
brane, which finally falls away. Thero is a popular notion that Barbenr 
bushes blight corn. The rust of com is a spedes of Puecinia [PuoonoAj, 
and it is not improbable that the spores of jScidkian from the Barbeny 
may produce Pttceinia on the coni. 

(Hendow's Jowmal ef the Rafftd AgrieuUurcd SociOy, 1841.) 

.SOA'aRUS, a wild species of Ibex, called Paseng by the Persiana 


.SOOPODIITH (from &(, a goat, and voSi^r, a little foot), a genus 
of plants bdonging to tiie order Uwhdl^era, One spedes^ JB. poda- 
graria, ia common throughout the whole of Europe, and grows 
abundantly in Great Britain. It has a stem one or two feet high, with 
furrows. The leaves aro two or three times temate ; the leaflets unequal 
at the base and acutdy senate. It has a oreejping root, and grows in 
damp places. Although well known, and havmg the names of Goat- 
Weed, Ash- Weed, Heri> Gerard, and Wild Masterwort^ it seems to possess 
no medicinal properties. Linnaeus says that it is boiled when young, 
and eaten as greens in Sweden. 

AE'LODON, the generic title applied by H.Ton Meyer to the fossil 
crocodile or gavial of Monheim. 

AEROLITES, called also Meteoric Stonei, aro bodies which have 
fiillen on the earth from the atmosphero, and aro named from &V> 
atmosphere, and \t$os, a stone. We possess historical records 
from very romote antiquity, and numerous writers in all ages have 
mentioned instanoeB of the romarkable phenomenon of stonv bodies 
having been seen to fall from the sky ; yet, till within the last fifty 
years, all such accounts wero treated as tales of the ignorant and super- 
stitious. The first man of sdence who directed attention to the subiect 
of aerolites was Chladni, a German philosopher, who, in a tract published 
at R^ and Leipzig, in 1794, upon the mass of native iron found by 
Pallas in Siberia, maintained the credibility of the traditions of that 
and other stony bodies having fiillen from the air. His sagacious 
inductions, although they fkiled at the time to make any great impres- 
don, proparod philosophers for a mora willing reception of the evidence 
as to two instances of the same extraordinary event, which were diortly 
afterwards brought under their notice. In 1796 a stone waa exhibited 
in London, weiglung 66 pounds, whidi fell at Wold Cottage, in Tork- 
shira, in Deoembor of the preceding year ; but^ although the faxst was 
attested by several credible witnesses, the posdbility of sudi an occur- 
rence was still doubted. It was remarked, however, by Sir Joseph 
Banks, that there was a great resemblance between the Torkshiro stone 
and one in his possession, sent to him from Italy, with an account of 
its having fallen from the doud% along with many others of a similar 
nature, near Sienna, in July, 1794. In the year 1799 Sir Joseph Banks 
received a circumstantial account^ accompanied by spedmeos, of a fall 
of stones from the atmosphere, which was said to have taken place 
near Benares, in Hindustan^ in the preceding December; and as 
these specimens were also neariy identical with the Torkdure stone, 
incredulity began to give way. It was not, however, till the appear- 
ance of the odebrated paper of Howard, in the ' Philosophical iVans- 
actions' for 1802, giving an account of his analysis of the Benares 
stone, that men of sdence declared their bdief in the phenomenon, 
supported, as the evidence then was, by the researches and opinion of 
so cautious and accurate an inquirer ; and a fall of stones at L' Aigle, 
in Normandy, whidi took place in the following year, at the time the 
mempir of Howard was in the hands of the public, removed all doubt 
The Institute of France deputed the cdebrated Biot to examine, on 
the spot, the whole circumstances attending this remarkable event ; 
and the result of his labours will be found in his report^ in the seventh 
volume of the * Mdmoires de I'lnstitut' He satisfied himself of the 
authentidty of the facts whidi had been narrated ; and the 
he collectea on the ground, being analysed by Y auqudin and 
yidded the same result as the analysis of the Benares stone bv Howard. 

An account of tiie droumstances that attended the fall of stones at 

Benares and at L'Aigle will convey the best idea of the phenomenon, 
not only as it occurred in these two cases, but in most other instances 
of which a circumstantial description has been preserved. They are 
always accompanied by a meteor, which at night appears like a burning 
fiery ball, surrounded by a brilliant vapour, and with a tail like a comet ; 
in the day, on accoimt of the strong light of the sun, and the smoke 
and vapour evolved, the meteor looks more like a small doud of diffe- 
rent colouTB^ and of a m'ngnlar form, which, after a powerful explodon, 
seems to burst and scatt^ its contents. 

At a short distance from Benares, on the 19th of December, 1798, a 
very luminous meteor was observed in the heavens, about dght o'clock 
in tiie evening in the form of a large ball of fire ; it was accompanied 
by a loud noise, resembling that of thunder, which was immediatdy 
followed by the sound of the feill (^ heavy bodiea On ftTMm'i^mg the 
ground, it was observed to have been newly torn up in many places, 
and in these stones were found of a peculiar appearance, most of which 
had buried themsdves to the depth of six inches. At the time the 
meteor appeared the sky was perfectly serene ; not the smaUest vestige 
of a doud had been seen since the 11th of the month, nor were any 
observed for many days after. It was seen in the western part of the 
hemisphere, and was only a diort time visible. The Ught from it was 
so ereat as to cast strong shadows from tiie ban of a window upon a 
dark carpet, and it appeared as luminous as the brightest moonlight 
Many of the stones were collected, and some of them weighed two 

On the 26th of April, 1808, at one o'dock in tiie afternoon, the sky 
being dear, with the exception of a few light douds, a ball of fire was 
observed in Normandy, in many places &x distant from each other— 
namdy, Caen, Falaise, Alen9on, Verneuil, and Pont Audemei^— which 
moved repidly from south-east to north-west; and about the same 
time, in the district of L'Aigle, loud explodons were heard, whidi lasted 
from five to six minutes^ resembling the sound of cannon and musketiy, 
and were followed by a long-continued noaae, like that of many druma 
The meteor from wmch the noise proceeded appeared not so much like 
a ball of fire, but rather like a small rectangular doud, which, durmg 
the phenomenon, seemed not to move ; but the vapour of which it 
consisted was sent out, after each explodon, in all directions. It seemed 
to be about half a league north-west from L'Aigle, and must have been 
at a very oondderable devation, as it appeared to the inhabitants of 
two villages, more than a league distant from each other, to be imme- 
diately over their heads at the same instant. Throughout the whole 
district over which the doud hung there was heard a JiimnTig noiae^ 
like that of a stone from a sling; and a vast number of stones fell to 
the ground. The n>ace on which they fdl formed an dlipse of two 
leagues and a half long by one broad, the larger diameter being from 
south-east to north-west^ the direction in wmch the meteor moved : 
the largest stones wero found at the south-east end of the dlipse, and 
the smallest at the oppodte extremity. Above 2000 wero collected, 
and they varied in weight from 2 drachms to 17 pounds and a hal£ 

ASroUtes, when taken up soon after their fall, aro extremdy hoi 
They aro generallv angular, of prismatic and pyramidal forms, the 
angles bdng rounded ; thdr broken irregular surface is coated with a 
fused black crusty like varnish, sddom exceeding a quarter of a line in 
thickness. When broken, they differ a littie in appearance ; but they 
are, for the most party composed of a collection of small spherical 
bodies, of a grey colour, imbedded in a gritty substance, and often 
interspened with ydlow spots. One of the most remarkable drcum- 
stances is the great similarity of compodtion of all the meteoric stones, 
on whatever part of the earth they have fallen. Iron is found in dl, 
and in a oondderable proportion, partiy in a malleable state, partly in 
that of an oxide, and always in combination wi^ a greater or leas 
proportion of the rare metal called nickel The earths silica and 
magneda and sulphur constitute the other diief ingredients; but 
the earths alumina and lime^ the metals manganese, chrome, and 
cobalty together with carbon, soda^ and water, have also been found 
in minute and variable quantities, but not in the same spedmena. 
The variations discovered by analysis are never, however, sumdent to 
destroy that affinity of external character by which they aro instantiy 
recognised. No new substance, nothing with which we are not already 
acquainted, has ever been discovered in their composition. Bu^ 
dthough all the constituent dements are found in different mlnerd 
substancea, no combination of them, similar to that in meteoric stones, 
has ever been met with, either among the stratified rocks of any period 
of formation, or among the unstratified rocki^ or among the products 
of any volcano, extinct or in activity. Their specific gravity is about 
8*60, but varies according to the proportion of iron whidi they contain. 
They are sometimes very friable, sometimes very hard ; and some that 
aro friable when they first fall, become hard afterwards. In size they 
vary from 2 drachms weight to 800 pounds. One of the stones which 
fdl at L'Aigle yidded by the analysiB of Th&iard, — 

Silica 46 per cant 

Magnesia 10 „ „ 

Ij?^- *« « » 

Nickd 2 „ „ 

Sulphur 6 „ „ 

and Laugier afterwards discovered the presence of dirome in it 
FVequentiy small detached portions of malleable iron are dissnmlnated 

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through the zxuuh^ and the black crust acta powerfiilly on the 

The appearance of these bodies is not periodica], nor connected 
with any particular state of the atmosphere, Aor of the weather; and 
they have fallen in all climatesy on eveiy part of the earth, at all 
■PMons, in the night and in the day. 

Chladni has compiled a yeiy copious catalogue of all recorded 
inBtanopiB, from the earliest times : of which twenty-seren axe previous 
to the Christian era ; thirty-five from the beginning of the first to the 
end of the 14th century; eighty-nine from the beginning of the 
15th to the date of the fiUl at L'Aigle at the beginning of the 
present century. Ih 1887 M. Quetelet, of BrusselSy published a 
catalop^e of remarkable meteors, and again in 1841. Mr. Henick,in 
America^ and M. Chasles, in IVance, also published lists in 1841. 
The latest accounts have been published by Professor Baden Powell, 
in the 'Transactions of the British Association,' since the year 1847. 
Numerous as the instances are in which these phenomena have 
been -witnessed they can form but a small proportion of the whole 
amount^ when we compare the small extent of surface occupied by 
thoeo ci4>able of keepmg a record of such events, with the wide 
ezpazue of the ocean, the vast uninhabited deserts, mountains, and 
forests^ and the countries possessed by savage nations. Many of 
those which occur in the night must also escape observation even 
in civilised countries. 

Among the more remarkable fastancfis to be met with in ancient 
authors, the following may be mentioned. Livy states that^ in the 
reign of Tullus Hostilius (about 654 B.O.), a uiower of stones fell 
on the Alban Mounts not far distant firom Rome. Plutarch, in 
the ' Life of Lysander/ describes a stone that fell at ^gos Potami, 
in the Hellespont^ near the modem GkiUipoli, about 405 B.a, which is 
also mentioned by the elder Pliny (iL). who says that it was to be 
seen in his time, that is, five himdred years afterwards, and that it 
was as lai^ as a waggon, of a burnt colour, and its fall was accom- 
panied by a meteor. It is also recorded in the ' Parian Chronicle.' 
The mother of the gods was worshipped at Peasinus, in Oalatia, imder 
the form of a stone, which was said to have fallen from heaven ; and 
that stone, in consequence of a treaty with Attslus, king of Peigamus, 
was solemnly brought to Rome by Publius Scipio Nasica, about 204 
years B.C., and placed in the temple of Cybele. The sun was 
worshipiied at Emesa, in Syria, under the form of a laige, conical, 
black stone, which, as the people about the temple reported, fell upon 
the earth. It was afterwaids brought with great pomp to Rome by 
KagabaluB, who had been high-priest of the temple ; and the descrip- 
tion of it, given by Herodian (v.), accords witii the appearance of 
a meteoric stoneu In China records exist of occurrences of this 
kind during a period of 2400 years. These were translated by M. 
Biot ; and to give an instance of the nature of these records we may 
state that between the years A.D. 960 to 1270 no lees than 1479 
meteors axe registered. Of course these were not all aerolites. The 
great stone at Cholula in America was asserted by the Mexicans to 
have fallen from heaven. 

One of the cases of more modem date, most circumstantially 
described, is that of the stone which fell at Ensisheim, in Alsace, 
in 1492. The emperor Mft-HTniliftTi being there at the time, ordered 
an account of the event to be drawn up. It weighed 270 pounds ; 
and was afterwards suspended by a chain in the church at Ensisheim 
far three centuries. During the French Revolution, it was carried off 
to Colmar, and many pieces were broken from it One of these is in 
the museum at the J ardin dee Plantes, in Paris ; it is identical in 
composition with other meteorio stones, and contains native or 
malleable iron. What remained of the precious relic has since 
been restored to the good people of Ensisheim, and it now stands 
near the great altar in their church. 

Besides aSrolites properiy so called, masses of malleable iron, often 
of vast sixe, have b^ found in situations, which, together with their 
composition, leave no doubt as to their b^ng of meteoric origin. An 
rmmtmmgk mass, seeu by Pallas in Siberia^ which forms the sutject of 
Chladni's tract in 1794 above alluded to, was found quite insulated, 
at a great elevation on a mountain of slate near the river Tenesei, 
removed fbom everything that could excite suspicion of its being a 
production of art, and totally different from any ore of iron seen either 
before or since that time. The tradition waa^ that it had fiillen from 
heaven, and, as such, was held in veneration by the Tartars ; but it 
was removed in 1749 to the neighbouringtown of Erasnojarsk by 
the inspector of the iron mines there. The mass, which weighed 
about 1400 lbs., was of an irregular form, not solid, but cellular, like a 
sponge, the cells containing small granular bodies of a glassy nature, 
afterwards fbund to be the sim^e mineral olivine, so common in 
basalt The iron was tough and malleable, and, according to the 
analysis of Howard, yielded 17 per cent of nickel; but Elaproth and 
John found a much smaller proportion of nickel, and Laugier found, 
by another analysis, silica, magnesia, sulphur, and chrome. The 
disagreement of such skilfrd operators shows that the mass was not 
imiform in its composition. Another vast mass of meteorio iron was 
found in South America, in the jurisdiction of. Santiago del Estero, 
U)out 500 miles north-west from Buenos Ayres, and is described in 
a memoir in the Spanish language, printed in the 'Philosophical 
Transactions' for 1788, by Don Rubin de Cells, who was sent by the 


governor of the province to examine it. It lay in a vast plain of 
above 100 leagues in extent, half sunk in the ground, and the sise ^ 
such as, estimating it by iJie specific gravity of iron, would j ' 
weight of more than 18 tons. According to the analysis of ] 
and of Howard, it contains 90 per cent of iron, and 10 of nickel 
Specimens of this mass, which were sent to the Royal Society by Don 
Rubin de Celis, are in the collection of the British Museum. A mass 
of meteorio iron at the Cape of Good Hope, mentioned by Bairow in 
his 'Travels in Africa,' as an artificial production, is described by 
Van Marum in the 'Haarlem Transactions,' a large portion of it having 
been sent to the public museum there by the governor of the colony. 
The mass, when found, was equal to about 177 lbs., but much had 
been cairied away. The i9)ecific gravity is 7*604. Tennant found it to 
contain 1*10 per cent of nickel, and a trace of carbon, and Stromeyer 
detected cobalt in it^ which last metal has also been found, by Dr. 
Turner in some meteoric iron from Buenos Ayres. Another mass 
was found in Brazil, about 50 leagues from Bahia, tiie weight of 
which was estimated at 14,000 lbs. ; a fragment of this, analysed by 
Dr. WoUaston, yielded 4 per cent of nickel Many other instances of 
similar masses of iron might be mentioned, which are evidently of 
meteorio origin; but the only instance on record of iron having been 
actually seen to fail from the atmosphere, is that which took place at 
Agram, in Croatia, in 1751. On the 26th of May, about six o'clock in 
the evening^ the sky being quite dear, there was seen a ball of fire, 
which shot along with a hollow noise from west to east, and after a 
loud explosion, accompanied by a great smoke, two masses of iron feU 
from it^ in the form of chains welded together. 

Aerolites and meteoric iron are not the only products of meteors 
which have fallen upon the earth after explosion. Numerous instancae 
are mentioned of black and red dust^ which has covered great tracts 
of land ; and it is remarkable that such dust has generally been found 
to contain small angular grains resembling augite. There have also 
been cases of the fall of a soft gelatinous matter of a red colour like 
coagulated bldod, which have given rise to the stories of the sky 
having rained blood. Such appearances have not unfrequently 
accompanied the fall of stones. On the 15th November, 1775, rain of 
a red colour fell around Ulm and the Lake of Constance, and on the 
same day in Russia and Sweden. The red water was of an acid taste, 
probably from the presence of sulphuric acid ; and the precipitate, 
which was flaky like snow, when dried, was attracted by the magnet 
In the night of the 5th March, 1808, a red dust» in some p^ces 
accompanied by rain, fell in different parts of Italy. In Apulia, there 
was first a veiT high wind with much noise, and then a reddish-black 
cloud appeared ooming from the south-east, from which there fell a 
yellowish-red rain, and afterwards a quantity of red dust It 
continued the whole of the fbllowing day and put of the succeeding ; 
the dust was examined, and was not found to be volcania Fabroni, in 
the 'Annales de Chimie,' tom. Ixxxiii, says, that near Arezzo, in 
March, 1813, the ground being then covered with snow, there was a 
ahower of fresh snow of a red colour, which continued for many 
hours, accompanied the whole time with a sound like that of the 
violent dashing of waves at a distance ; the greatest fall was accom- 
1 with two or three explosions like thunder. The red snow 
melted, a precipitate was obtained of a nankeen colour, which 
d silica, lime, alumina, iron, and manganese. 

The origin of this remarkable class of natural phenomena is 
involved in great obscurity, and many different theories have beeoi 
proposed to account for them. By some they have been supposed to 
be bodies ejected from distant volcanoes belonging to our earth,— a 
coDJeoture which is refuted by every circumstance connected with 
them. No substance in the least resembling aerolites has ever been 
foimd in or near any volcano ; they fEdl fr^m a height to which no 
volcano can be supposed to have projected them, fax less to have given 
them the horizontal direction in which meteors invariably move for a 
oonsiderable part of their course. Another hypothesis is, that 
meteoric bodies are formed in the atmosphero, which is equally 
untenable ; for, in the first place, thero is no ground for supposing, 
from any discoveries yet made in chemistiy, that the elements of 
which they are composed exist in the atmosphere ; and even if they 
did, the enormity of the volume of the atmosphero, attenuated as it 
is at the great height from which the meteors fall, which would be 
required to produce a solid mass of iron of thirteen tons weighty 
places the conjecturo beyond all credibility. A third hypothesis is, 
that they are bodies thrown out by the volcanoes which are known to 
exist in the moon, with such force as to bring them within the sphere 
of the earth's attraction. This hypothesis was so far entertained by 
Laplace, that he calculated the degree of lunar volcanic force that 
would be necessary for this purpose. He calculated that a body 
projected from the moonp with a velocity of 7771 feet in the first 
second would reach our earth in about two days and a half; but 
Olbers and other astronomers are of opinion that the velocity of the 
meteors, which has been estimated in some cases to be at first equal 
to some miles in a second, is too great to admitx>f the possibility of 
their having come from the moon. The theory which is most 
consistent with all knovm facts and laws of naturo is that proposed by 
Chladni, namely, that the meteors are bodies moving in space, either 
accumulationB of matter as originally oroated, or fragments separated 
from a laiger mass of a similar nature. This bpinion. has also been 

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ftdTinoed by Sir Humphrey Davy, at the concluaion of one of his 
impen in the 'Philosoimical Transactions' for 1817, giving an aocount 
of his researches on flame. It is idso the opinion of Sir John 
Herschel and Alexander yon Humboldt ; the latter of whom, in his 
'Cosmos,' deyotes a large space to the consideration of this highly 
interesting 8ul]!ieot 

Those who wish to inyestigate this curious subject will find it most 
ably and copiously treated in Chladni's woxlc, UAtr Pevter-MeUore, 
Hna aher die mU dentdbm herabgefaUmen Manmf Vienna, 1819, 
which is a second edition of his flnt treatise. The lAikologie Atmot- 
phirique of Izam may also be consulted ; also a good compilation by 
Bigot de Morogues, entitled Mimcire Hittorique et Phytiqtte iur Us 
CMUa det Pierra, Orleans, 1812; Humboldfs Cotmot; and the 
Qitarterly Review for December, 1852. [See SuPFLiMBirT.] 

AESCHINITE, a mineral of which the principal sslt is a titanate 
of siroonia. [TiTAinniL] 

^'SCULUS, a genus of plants belonging to tiie natural order 
ffippocattanecs. It consists of trees found in the temperate parts 
of America and Asia, remarkable for the beauty of their flowers and 
leayes, and for their fonning in some sort a type of tropical yegetation 
in northern latitudes. It must not be confounded with the iusculus 
of the Romans, which was a kind of oak. [Qusbcus.] The best 
known species is the Common Horse-Chestnut {jBtcfUue Hippoeaa- 
Ummn), a yer^ handsome timber-tree, formerly much used for 
ayenues^ and still extensiyely planted whereyer round masses of wood, 
or gay flowering trees, are required. Its bark and its nuts are also 
among the niore useful products that the hardy trees of this climate 
sfford. It is yery singular that the natiye country of this species 
should be unknown. One writer says it inhabits the northern parts 
of Asia ; another, that it is found in the cold proyinces of India ; and 
a third assigns it to the mountain-chains of Asia Minor ; while all the 
positiye infoimation that books really afford is, that it was brought to 
Vienna from Constantinople in the beginning of the 16ih centuiy, 
and was thence dispersed through idl Europe. The popular name 
of HoTM^hestnut has arisen horn, the custom among the Turks 
of erinding the nuts and mixing them with tiie provender giyen 
to horses that are broken-winded. Starch is also yielded in yery 
considerable quanti^ by the nuts; and, deprived of its bitterness by 
maceration in weak ley, has been recommended as excellent nutritious 
food for horses, goats, oxen, and sheep. The general characters of 
the Horse-Chestnut are too well known to require description. As a 
forest-tree, it is well adapted to light lands, upon which it will thrive, 
although they may be very sterile ; in tenacious olay, it is always 
stunted and unhealthy, as in the Regent's Park ; in rich alluvial soil, 
it acquires its greatest beauty. The timber is soft and spongy, and 

Uor4e-CUei»Qiut {Jitculut Sippooatttmum), 

therefore of liUle value. There are no yery old specimens in this 
country, the spedee having been introduoed, ss it is said, only 
in 1688. 

A second species, the .^eetUui Ohiotentit, is found wild in North 
America, on the banks of the Ohio, between Pittsbui^ and Marietta. 
In stature It varies from 10 to 35 feet ; and difiers from the 

common kind in having larger and much more imdulated leaves. It 
has been cultivated for some years in this country, but has never 

Besides these, a third species, uBeeuhu cornea — or, as it is sometimes 
called, JEecuhu rvhicmdoy or roHa—\B occaaioxially met with in 
gardens. Its origin is unknown. For all purposes of ornament^ tiiis 
is much superior to the co«nmon kind. 

The Buck's-Eve Chestnuts of North America belong to the 
genus Pcmek [PAyiA.] 

The flrst two species of Horse-Chestnut are propagated by sowing 
their seeds either in the autumn at such a deplii below the surfooe as 
to be secure from the attacks of mice, or else in the sprmg ; but in 
the latter case they must be preserved during the winter in heaps of 
sand. The seeds should not be placed less than six inches apart 
in the beds, because the leaves are so large as to require more than 
usual space to expose themselves to light The last species, azid th« 
varieties of the first^ not yielding seeds, are multiplied by budding 
upon the common Horse-Chestnut. 

AESHNA. In this recent genus of Xt(6a«Zuia Mr. Strickland rankv 
a fossil insect firom the Liss of Warwickshire. 

AETHOPHTliLUM, a fossil genus of plants from the Eeuper 
Sandstone. (Brongniart) 

iBTHU'SA is a genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
UtnheUiferce, which includes among its species one of the most 
poisonous plants known in Europe. 

jBthuta Cynapivm is a little annual plants found commonly in gar- 
dens and fields, resembling the common parsley so much that it haa 

JEtkuta Oynapium, 

acquired the vulgar name of Fool's Parsley. From a taper whitiah 
root arises an erect branchy stem, about a foot high, genendly stained 
with purple near the ground. This is covered by finely-cut shining 
leaves of a deep green, much resembling those of Qarden Parsley, 
from which they are laiown thus : in the true Parsley, the leaves are 
twice pinnated or divided, and the leaflets are broad, and cut into 
three wedge-shaped toothed lobes ; in the Fool's Parsley, on the other 
hand, the leaves are thrice pinnated, and the leaflets are narrow, 
sharper, and jagged; besides which, the leaves of Fool's Panley have 
a disagreeable nauseous smell, instead of the flne upomatic odour of 
Common Parsley. When in flower, JSthuea has its principal umbels 
destitute of inyolucra, while the partial umbeli are furnished with an 
involucrum, consisting of four or five narrow sharp leaves^ hanging 
down from one side only of the common stalk ; this Isst circumstance 
will distinguish it when in fiower, not only from parsley, but from all 
other Brituh umbelliferous plants. 

Many dangerous accidents have occurred from, mistaking this plant 
for parsley. The symptoms attendant upon poisoning by .^ScAiisa are, 
swimming of the head, nausea, cold perspiration, and dullineas at the 
extremities. To counteract its effects, emetics are recommended, and 
the immediate! use of weak vegetable acids, such as lemon-juioe, 
vinegari or sour wine. 

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AETO'BATES, a genuB of foasU fishes allied to the Rays. The 
species are found in the London da/ of Sheppey. (Agaasiz.) 

AOALLOCHUM. [Exoscaria; Aquilariacks ; Eaoub-wood.] 

AGAIiMATOLITE(a]8oi>a^O(2ite,jBt;<2ste»fi,Zar(2»te). This mineral is 
found in China, and is seldom brought into this country except cut 
into vaiiotis figures. Less characteristic varieties have been found in 
Transylyania and Saxony ; it is found also in Wales. Occurs massiye. 
Fracture coarse splintery, imperfectly slaty. Soft Colour white, 
with a shade of gray, green, yellow, red, or brown, none of them 
bright Streak shinmg. Unctuous to the touch. Slightly trans- 
lucent^ but in most cases only the edges. Specific gravity 2*815. 

Before the blowpipe infusible, but becomes white. Partly soluble 
in sulphuric acid, leaving a residue, chiefly of silica. 

Analysis of the Chinese variety by Vauquelin : — 

Silica 56 

Alumina 29 

Lime 2 

Protoxide of Lron 1 

Potash 7 

Water 5 


A'GAMA, in Zoology, a genus of reptiles belonging to the order 
Saurianif and £unily fyuaniant, of Baron Cuvier. 

In the form of their beads and teeth the s^ies of Agcma resemble 
the common liEards, but difier in the imbricated scales which cover 
their tails. These animals have the bod^ thick, and shorter in pro- 
portion than the generality of the saunan fSeaxiily ; the skin is lax, 
and capable of being distended or pufifed out with air at the will of 
the reptile ; the whole body, as well as the head, neck, and feet, is 
covered with minute rhomboidal or hexagonal scales, often prolonged 
in the form of little spines, and bristling when the body is inflated 
wiUi air. The head is short, broad, and flat> particularly towards the 
occiput ; the neck also is short, and the tail seldom longer than the 
body. These proportions give the Agamas much of the hideous and 
diogusting appearance of toads. Li many parts of South America 
they are called Chameleons, from their power of dilating the skin 
with air, and imitating, to a certain extent, those aninialw in the 
various hues which they are capable of assuming. In other respects 
the various species of Agamas difier so considerably from one another, 
as to have induced Baron Cuvier to arrange them in separate sub- 
genera, distinguished by the form of their scales and the presence 
or absence of pores in the thighs. Generally speaking, the Agamas 
have no thigh pores ; some however are provided, as is the case with 
many other saurian reptiles, with a row of these pores along the inner 
sur&ce of each thigh ; some species have the toes so short and rigid 
as to compel them to live entirely on the surface of the eartl^ where 
they reside among rocks and heaps of stone, and conceal themselves 
in the crevices; oHbhers again, which have long and flexible toes, ascend 
trees with great fiicility, and sport among their branches with the 
utmost security. All are of a diminutive size, and, like most other 
reptiles, feed upon insects and other small ftTiimals : one or two 
species however are reported to be herbivorous. Their geogra- 
phical distribution is vexy extensive, and embraces all the hot and 
most of the temperate parts of the known world: Asia, Africa, 
Australia, and South America have each their appropriate species, 
which often differ from one another very slightly. 

The most remarkable species are, of those without pores on the 
interior &ce of the thighs : — ^The Muricated Agama {Agama mwicatii, 
Cuvier), first described by the celebrated John Hunter in tiie 
zoological part of White's 'Voyage to New South Wales.' It is 
one of the most common lizards of that colony ; measures upwards 
of a foot in length, comprehending the tail, which is twice as long as 
the body, and, Arom the great length and perfect division of its toes, 
readily ascends trees, and lives entirely in the woods, where it hunts 
about for insects and caterpHlara Its general colour is a brownish 
gray, marked with dusky bars, which run in a longitudinal direction 
on the body, but transversely on the legs and tail The scales which 
cover the upper and outer part^ of the trunk and extremities are 
rhomboidal and carinated, or elevated into sharp-pointed ridges, 
forming parallel lines or rows of spines upon the back and sides, 
from the shoulders to the veiy point of the toiL The head is covered 
with similar scales, all directed backwards and prolonged upon the 
occiput into a crest of weak spines. The toes of all the feet are well 
separated, and furnished underneath with small pointed scales ; the 
two middle toe^ of the hind feet are nearly twice the length of the 

The AffOttia harbata of Cuvier is another roecies from the same 
locality. It is rather larger than the Muricated Agama, but preserves 
the eame relative dimensions, and lives in the forests in the same 
manner. This species is figured and described in White's 'Voyage,' 
p. 255, but was considered by Mr. Himter as a mere variety of the 

Other species of this division, having pores on the inner surface of 
the thighs, are the LeMepit {A. guUaia of M. Cuvier) of Cochin- 
China, with white ravs and spots on a bright blue ground; the 
TropidoUpu (A: wndwaia)^ of a uniform dark blue colour with a 

white cross on the throat, and which, as well as the kindred species, 
A, nigrirCoUarig and A, cydurus, described by Spix, inhabits various 

parts of South America ; the Brachylophei {A, vUtaia), which seems 
to form the connecting link between this genus and the guanas, from 
which latter it is distinguished only by the absence of teeth in the 
palate ; it is foimd in India, and has light blue bands upon a dai^ 
blue ground : and lastly the Phyiignathes (A. cocincimu), from the 
Malayan Peninsula, remarkable for its large size, uniform blue 
colour, but more particularly from being one of the very few 
species of saurian reptiles which feed upon vegetable substances. 
Baron Cuvier asstires us that it lives entirely upon fruits and nuts. 

Of the Agamas without pores in the thighs, the principal species are, 
the ^inous Agama {A, acuUata) of a vellowish gray colour with 
numerous transverse brown bands. All uie upper parts of the body 
are covered with elevated scales, forming small pointed pyramids of 
four-sides ; the body is short and thick, the tail likewise short, the 
head broad and fiat, and the b«(Uy protuberant Excepting in the 
length of the tail, and the body being covered with scales, the whole 
animal has much of the form and appearance of a fn^ or toad : it is 
found at the Cape of Good Hope, and is of larger size than the 
generality of the other species. 

The Tapayaxin i(A. crbicvlarU) of South America is very similar 
to the species last described in its form and proportions, but is 
still shorter and thicker. The extraordinary figure of this reptil* 

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approaching almost to the form of a perfect sphere, its broad flat 
head, ita skin covered with small tubercles or warts interspersed among 
the scales, and the faculty which it possesses of distending its body 
with air, and to a certain degree aswiming different shades of colour, 
have caused it to be sometimes compared to a toad, and sometimes to a 
chameleon ; but the truth is, that it has no actual relation or affinity to 
either of these ftnimiLlg, but is indebted solely to its naturally disgusting 
aspect for the calumnies which the early Spanish writers have heaped 
upon it. The Tapa3raxin inhabits the mountainous and rocky parts 
of South America, from the Isthmus of Darien to Patagonia. 

Other sub-genera and species belonging to this division of the Agamas 
are — Trapelut (A. jEgyptictu), remarkable for its change of colour, even 
more sudden than that of the true chameleon ; the A. calotet, of a 
bright blue colour with transverse white marks on the sides, from 
the Molucca Islands; the Lophyrea {A, giganteaf Kuhl), with a crest 
of long elevated spines on the neck ; and the Lyriocephaliu {A. sctUata), 
which has a simiLEur elevated crest along the back, and the tail keel- 
shaped. This latter species, in many respects a most singular reptile, 
inhabits Bengal, and lives upon fruits. 

For ample details concerning the specific differences of the A g Bm a s , 
we refer the r^er to the works of Cuvier, Daudin, and MerreuL 

A'QAM^, in Botany, is a name given bysome authors to the large 
division of the Vegetable Kingdom called Howerless Plants, and may 
be considered equivalent to the older term, Ciyptogamic [Aobooens.] 

A'QAMI {Trophia crepitans, Latham), an interesting bird, sometimes 
also termed the Qold-Breasted Trumpeter, classed by Pallas among 
Cranes, by Biisson among Pheasants, and making the first genus in 


Temminck's Alectorides. It is the size of a pheasant or large fowl, 
being 22 inches in length, but appears laiger from having a long neck, 
and from standing high on its legs. It bears some slight resemblance 
to the pheasant in the glossy iridescent green on the breast^ and in a 
space round the eyes naked of feathers ; but has a very diort tail, 
consisting of twelve black feathers, over which the long, loose, silky 
Bcapulary rump-plumes hang droopingly. Its long greenish legs 
assimilate it to wading birds {Orallatoret), but it is said not to have 
the habits of these, never visiting fens and the margins of water, and 
living wholly in upland forests and arid moimtains. It inhabits the 
forced of tropical America, and never visits the cleared groimds or the 
settlements. According to M. Monoucour, it is very gregarious, being 
foimd in numerous flocks, which walk and run, but r&rely fly, an<^ 
when they do, seldom rise more than a few feet above the surface of 
the ground. Even when pursued they trust most to their speed in 

Several naturalists have given accounts of the Agami in a domestic 
state. Its docility and attachment to man are remarkable. "The 
Agami," says Monoucour, "is not only tamed easily, but becomes 
attached to its benefactor with all the fondness and fidelity of the dog ; 
and of this disposition it shows the most unequivocal proofs. When 
bred up in the house, it loads its master with caresses, and follows his 
motions ; and if it conceives a dislike to persons on account of their 
foibidding figure^ their offensive smell, or of injuries received, it wiU 

pursue them sometimes to a considerable distance, biting their lega^ 
and testifying every mark of displeasure. It obeys the voice of its 
master, and even answers to the call of all those to whom it bears no 
grudga It is fond of caresses, and offers its head and neck to be 
stroked; and, if once accustomed to these familiarities, it becomes 
troublesome, and will not be satisfied without continual fondling. It 
makes its appearance as often as its master sits down to table, and 
begins with driving out the dogs and cats, and taking possession of the 
room ; for it is so obstinate and bold, that it never yields, and often, 
after a tough battle, can put a middle-sized dog to flight. It avoids 
the bites of its antagonist, by rising in the air, and retaliates with 
violent blows with its bill and nails, aimed chiefly at the eyes ; and 
after it gains the superiority, it pursues the victory with the utmost 
rancour, and, if not parted, will destroy the fugitive." 

The peculiar noise which these birds make, without opening the 
bill, is one of their most remai'kable characteristics. This noise is no 
doubt produced by a peculiar conformation of the oxgan of sound 
According to Pallas, the larynx, which is on the outside of the breast, 
is about as thick as a swan's quill and almost bony, becomes much 
more slender, loose, and cartilaginous when it enters within the breast, 
where two semicyrindrical canals of a membranous texture, and 
capable of being extended, proceed from it. The air-bag on the right 
side descends to the pelvis, and within the breast it is divided into 
three or four cells by transverse membranes. The air-bag on the left 
side is narrower. Vosqiaer tells us that the sound is sometimes 
preceded by a wild cry, interrupted by a call somewhat like ' scherck, 
scherck,' and then follows the characteristic noise somewhat resembling 
the cooing of pigeons. It utters, in this way, five, six, or seven times, 
with precipitation, a hollow noise nearlv resembling the syllables 'too 
too, too, too, too, too,' resting upon the last a very long time, and 
sinking the sound gradually toll it terminates. During this, the breast 
is seen to heave, as in birds while singing, though the bill remains shut 
It is, no doubt^ produced by the air pressed up from the lower air-bags 
on the light and left above descril:^ which, meeting with the trans- 
verse membranes in its passage, causes them to vibrate and soimd, and 
this is communicated to the suiroimding muscles, and by these to the 
external air. 

The Agami, like the rest of the Alectorides, builds no nest, but 
scratches a shallow place at the root of a tree where it deposits its 
eggs, from 10 to 16 in number, and of a light green colour. They are 
somewhat larger than a hen's egg, and of a rounder fonn. The do^n 
remains a long time on the young, and grows into long silky plumes, 
very close, like fiir, and it is not till they are one-fourth the size of the 
adult birds that the true feathers appear. 

Dr. Latham tells us, that " one of the Agamis, a young bird, found 
its way into a farm-yard in Surrey, and associated with the poultry. 
It was perfectly tame, and, on one occasion, acconipanied the hounds 
for three miles, and kept up with them. It was last in the possession 
of Lord Stanley, but died on its way into Lancashire." 

AQARIC-MINERAL, an earthy variety of calcareous spar, resem- 
bling chaUL It is also called ^de-Milk, [Calcareous Sfab.] 

AGARI'CIA (Lamouroux), the Mushroom Madrepore, a genus of 
coral madrepores, so called fix)m its resemblance in form to mushrooms 
{Agarici). The animal inhabitants of Agaricia are unknown, with the 
exception of a single species observed by M. Lesueur on the shore of 
St-Thomas in the Antilles. Lamarck enumerates five species, and 
Parkinson severL 

AGA'RICUS is the generic name by which aU the species of 
Mushrooms properly so called are collectively known. It com- 
prehends such plants of the fungus tribe, as have a cap (or pileus) 
of a fleshy nature, supported upon a distinct stalk, and a number of 
parallel unequal vertical plates or gills arising out of the cap, and 
inclosing the particles by which the species are reproduced ; particles 
which the vulgar call seeds, and botanists sporules. This genus, now 
divided into a large number of sub-genera, consists of not fewer than 
1000 species, inhabiting meadows, and heaths, and rooks, and masses 
of decaying vegetable matter, in the whole of Europe, and in many 
other parts of the temperate regions of the earth. Among them a 
large proportion are poisonous, a few are wholesome, but hj far the 
greater number are altogether unknown in regard to their action upon 
the human constitutioiL The species are often extremely similar ; there 
are no means of distinguishing botanically the tribes that are poisonous 
from such as are wholesome, l)ut in every case practice is requifflte to 
determine that point independently of general structure. It is for 
this reason that the use of wild mushrooms is so dangerous. Indeed 
there is this most remarkable fact connected with their qualities— a 
fact which seems to show that their properties depend upon climate 
and situation, and accidental circumstances, rather than upon any 
specific peculiarities — ^those kinds which are wholesome in one country 
are not so in another ; thus, in Great Britain, the Common Mushroom, 
Agaricus campestrU {fig. 1), the Fairy-Ring Agaric, A. prcUennaifig- 2), 
and the A. Qeorgii, are the only sorts that it is quite safe to eat ; while 
the Fly Agaric, A, mutcarius {fig. 8), and A. virtmu ''{fig. ^)j; *^ 
extremely poisonous. But in other countries of Europe it w 
different. In Rome one of the few mushrooms excluded from 
the markets by the goverrmient inspectors is the A. cam^*^**M. 1° 
France, in Italy, and especially in Russia, a usual aliment is afforded 
by a great variety of species whidh, although very common in ™** 

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country, it wovild be extremely dangerous to eat ; and, on the other 
hand, even the dangerous A, fnutcariui is a species of food in 

The following characters will serve to distinguish such Agarios as 
are poisonous or suspicious : — 

1. Such as have a cap veiy thin in proportion to the gills. 

2. Such as have the stalk growing from one side of the cap. 

3. Those in which the giUs are all of equallength. 

4. Such as have a milky juice. 

5. Such as deliquesce ; that is, run speedily into a dark watery liquid. 

6. And lastly, every one that has the collar that surrounds the 
stalk filamentous, or resembling a spider's web. 

As to the rest, the eatable lunds that can be safely employed In 
Great Britain are the following : — 

A. campestritf the Common Mushroom {fyf. 1), the species that is 
so commonly raised artificially for food. This Ib readily known in 
any state by its fragrant odour, by which alone it ma^ be always 
recognised, and the absence of which is extremely suspicious. When 
in a very young state it resembles little snow-white balls, which are 
called Buttons ; afterwards it acquires a stalk, separates its cap, and 
becomes shortlv conical, with liverooloured gills, and a white thick 
fleshy cap, marxed with a few particles of gray. At a more advanced 
age -Uie cap Ib concave, the colour gray, and the gills black ; in this 
state it is called a Flap. [Fuhgl] 

A. Georgii is like the latter, but its gills are always yeir pale, and 
its flavour inferior. It is said oocasionaQy to wei^ as much as 14 lbs. 

A, pratefuis, or oreada, the Faizy-Ring Mushroom, is so well known 
by its popular designation as to require no description. Well may it 
have gained that name ; for, in former times, there would, doubtless, 
be great dififlculty in imagining how such produotioni(4x>illd spring up 
in a few hours in the regular rings they appear in, vdthout the aid of 
some supernatural agency. The use to which this species is usuaUy 
applied is that of being powdered and mixed with rich sauces, after 
having been previously strung upon a line, and dried in the shade. 
Dr. Badham, in his work on 'The Esculent Funguses of Britain,' 
shews that a laige number of other species may be eaten with 
impunity. Great caution is however necessary, and no person 
should venture on the eating of strange species unless practically 
acquainted with their distinctions. Dr. Badham's work contains 
drawings of the species which will greatly assist those who may be 
desirous of distingnishing the edible kinds. 

Eatable Agariei, 

Poisonous Agariei, 

A'GATE, an ornamental stone used in jewellery, and for some 
purposes in the arts: it is sometimes called Scotdi Pebble. The 
name is derived from the Greek Ax*^"»»> * atone described by 
Theophrastus, and which, he says, came from the river Achates, in 
Sicfly, now the Drillo, in the Val di Noto. It is one of the numerous 
modifications of form imder which silica presents itself, almost in a 
state of purity, constituting in the agate 98 per cent of the mineral 
The silicious particles are not so arranged as to produce the tran- 
■parency of rock crystal, but a translucent, sometimes almost opaque 
■ubetance, with a resinous or waxy fracture; and a variety of shades 
of colour are produced by a minute quantity of iron. The same 
stone sometimes contains parts of different degrees of translucency, 
and of various shades of colour; and the endless combinations of 
these iiroduce the beautiful and singular internal forms, for which, 

together with the high polish they are capable of receiving, agates are 
pmed as . omamentsd stones. Although occasionally found in other 
rocks, they are most usually met with io that variety of the trap 
rocks called.Amygdaloid or Mandelstein, forming detached rounded 
nodules, not cemented to the base or mass of the rock, but eosilv 
separable from it^ and having generally a thin laver of green eartL 
interposed, and a rough irregular exterior, as if moulded on the 
asperities of the sides of a pre-existing cavity. The silicious particles 
have often, but far JBrom constantly, arranged themselves in thm layers 
parallel to the external surface of the nodule ; sometimes the nodule 
IS not solid, but a hollow space is left in it, studded with crystals of 
quartz ; and not unfrequently crystals of carbonate of lime and other 
minerals, totally distinct in composition from that of tiie agate, are 
superimposed on the quartz cxystals. 

Tlie theory of the formation of agates is a problem of great difllculty, 
and we must be much Airther advanced than we are, in our knowledge 
of the chemical processes of nature in the mineral kingdom, before 
we can expect to throw any light on this very obscure subject The 
great supply of agates is from a class of rooks to which all geologists 
now assign an igneous origin, analogous to that of lava in existing 
volcanoes. The theory divides itself into two parts ; first, the forma- 
tion of ^e cavities in which the agates are found ; and, secondly, the 
filling of these cavities. With regard to the first, we have many 
analogies from modem lavas, and from p r oc o oD e s of urt, to guide us to 
a pre&y satLef actory conclusion. Gases are evolved in great quantities 
by v6lcanoes, and u produced at the same instant with a flow of lava, 
they would rise in bubbles in the melted mass ; but in proportion as 
that became more viscid they would rise with greater difficulty to tiie 
surface, and when it consolidated would fonn cavities, the shape of 
whidi would be determined by the nature of the pressure of the 
Burrounding viscid lava. To account for the filling up of the cavities 
three theones have been proposed : one supposes die silicious matter 
to have been introduced in aqueous solution firom without, and to 
have been gradually deposited in the cavities; another, that, in 
obedience to some peculiar laws of attraction, it has separated from 
the net of tlie rook, and insinuated itself into the hollows left by the 
gases; and a third, that these hollows were filled bv the sublimation 
of the silica and other materials from the rest of the mass by the 
action of heat Each hypothesis is supported by particular cases, 
which it satisfiBotorily explains, but there are probably as many agaibst 
as in favour of each ; all of them imply conditions of chemi<»l action 
different from anything of which we have had experience. We fre- 
quently find, it is tru6, masses of silicious petrified wood in which 
hollows of the tree have been filled with agate, not to be distinguished 
from many nodules found in the trap ro^ ; and that the matter of 
the agate must have been introduced into the wood by aqueous 
infiltrations there can be no doubt: but, in this case,* the whole 
substance of the sustaining mass, the wood, is penetrated by silidous 
matter ; and the difficulty of the theory of infiltration, in the case of 
the trap rocks, oonsiBts in the absence of any trace in the rock of the 
channel by which the solution of silidous matter could have airived 
at the cavity. The following section of an agate is a good example 
of the filing up ^ 

of a cavity by - 

infiltration, for 
it is evident 
that the sili- 
dous matter, 
in whatever 
way it may 
have arrived, 
was introduced 
at the point a, 
and that there 
was a gradual 
deposition of it 

Such examples | 

would be more 
frequently met 
widi, if there 

was anything Agate, 

in the external 

coat to teU us in what direction to slit the stone : this same specimen 
might have been cut in many directions without throwing any light 
upon its mode of formation, and the section we now see was an 
aoddental cut in the right direction. An attentive consideration of 
the products of volcanoes may lead to some satisfactory condusion ; 
for although agates have not been found in lavas, cavities in them are 
often partially or entirdy filled vrith minerals distinct from any in the 
rest of the rock. , , , , , ^ . 

Agates are often found as loose pebbles in the beds of nvers, or m 
gravel, but in these cases they have been derived from the disinte- 
gration of Amygdaloids, the base of which is very often subject to 
decomporition when exposed to air and moisture, and then the silicious 
nodules fall out They vary in size from that of millet seed to a foot 
in diameter; but one, two, and three indies in diameter are the most 

common. ... -i i • 5 • i. xi. 

The stones distinguished by mmenJogists and lapidanoe by the 

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names of CameUan, Caloedony, Onyx, Sardonyx, MoohapStone, Blood- 
stone, ChrysopFBae, and Plasma, are so closelv allied to agate, that 
they may be oonveniently described under this head. In chemical 
composition they are not distinguishable, except in the case of the 
chrysoprase by its colouring matter. — Camdian, so called because 
some kinds are of a flesh colour (corruf, Latin for flesh), is that yariety 
of a unifoim colour which is of most common occuirenoe : oamelians 
are never figured or striped. The colours are shades of red and yellow, 
the deep dear red being the rarest and most yaluable. The great 
supply of camelians is from Japan, where they exist in yast quantities, 
and they are also imported from Bombay, being collected in the 
province of GKuEerat ; but the best, according to Niebuhr, come from 
the Qulf of Cambay. Many of the antique gems are engraved in 
camelian, and it is now much used for seals.— CoZoecioiiy, so called 
from having been eariy found at Cakhedon (sometimes incorrectly 
written Chalcedon) in Bithynia, opposite Constantinople, is also of a 
unifoim colour, generally of a milky white or pale yellow, like turbid 
jelly, often with an internal wavr structure in the form of stalactites, 
and very generally with a pecunar. mammillary suifiAoe. It is found 
in great abundance in the Faroe Islands, in Iccdand, in Cornwall, and 
many places of Great Britain, as well as other countries ; sometimes 
in laige masses, from which cups and other venels are formed. Pliny 
describes it as being found in the neighbourhood of Thebes in Egypt 
and as brought to Rome from Carthagei — Chut is a kind of granular 
calcedony, and forms a transition to the rock called JffamtUme, — 
Onyac In this agate the silioious particles are arranged in altemkting 
horizontal layers of opaque white and translucent blue, gray, or brown ; 
and because tiiese have a resemUanoe to the marics on the human 
naU, the stone was called from the Greek word for nail, 6rv^, It was 
known to the ancients, and was employed by them, as it is now, for 
those beautiful gems called cameos, the figure being cut out of the 
opaque white, the dark part forming the groimd, or the contrary. It 
is most valuable when the contrast of colours is strong, and when ^e 
layer is thick enou^ to give a high relief to the object to be engraved. 
In the royal Ubraiy at Paris, there ia an antique cameo out out of an 
onyx with four layers, representing the apotheosis of Augustus, eleven 
indies by nine, which is supposed to be the finest in existence. Agates 
with an onyx structure are not imcommon, particularly among odce- 
donies, but the finest are brought from India. Cameos are sold at 
Rome which are made from a thick shdl, having difierent coloured 
layers like an onyx. — Sardonyx is a variety of onyx which is supposed 
by some to have received its name from having been brouj^t from 
Sardes, in Lydia. By others it has been said that the name comes 
from Sardo, the Greek name of Sardinia, there beiDg some reason for 
thinking that the Carthaginians brought the stones from that island, 
and exported them during their occupation of it. In this the opaque 
white alternates with a rich deep orange brown of considerable trans- 
lucency, and as tins is of rare occurrence the sardonyx is of greater 
value. The finest are brou^^t from the east^ and some antique gems 
are formed of thenL — MochorSUma and Mou-Agatea are semitransparent 
calcedony, induding various ramified forms, produced by iron, manga- 
nese, bitumen, and chlorite or green earth, but sometimes also, as has 
been proved by Daubenton and MaoCullooh, produced by the presence 
of real vegetable bodies, such as Oonferva and mosses. The first are 
found in Guzerat, but received their name from having been brought 
from Mocha, in Arabia. — Bhod-StonCf or Heliotrope, is a green agate 
coloured by chlorite, with numerous bright xed spots like drops 
of blood. It is also called oriental jasper. — Chrytopraae (from 
XinwioSf golden or beautiful, and wpdirov, a leek) is a rare apple-green 
calcedony, found in Silesia, which owes its colour to the presence 
of the metal nickeL — PUuma is another scarce green semitransparent 
calcedony, but of a dark tint, which, in the opinion of MacCulloch, is 
coloured by chlorite. — Sard is a deep reddish-brown variety. 

The great supplv of the figured agates of commerce is from Ober- 
stein, in the old Palatinate^ about 80 miles east of Trevei^ and 45 miles 
south of Coblenz. When they were used as buttons, knife-handles, 
&C., the trade was more extensive than at present They are found 
in many parts of Scotland, especially at the Hill of Kinnoul, near 
Perth, where there is an amygdaloidal trap very full of fine specimens. 

A'GATHIS is the generic name given by botanists to the trees, 
known in common language by the name of Dammar and Kawrie 
Pines. These plants belong to the natural order Conferee, from all 
other spedes of which they are known, firstly, by their broad, lance- 
shaped, leathery leaves, the veins in which are numerous and neariy 
parallel, diveiging a little at the base, and converging at the apex ; 
and, secondly, by their seeds having a wing on one side instead of 
proceeding from the end. 

The Danunar Pine (Agathis loranthifolia), or the Pinui JDammara 
of LinnKus, is a laige tree found on the very siunmits of the mountains 
of Amboyna, Temate, and in many of the Molucca Islands. When 
young it has something of the aspect of a young cedar, the wood of 
which it is said to resemble. It is occasionaUy cultivated in the 
hot-houses of curious persons; but is of little value except for its 
resin, which, when pure, is white, dear, and brittle as glan, but in 
time becomes amber-coloured. 

Its timber is represented to be light and of imerior quality, wholly 
imfit for any situation exposed to wet, but answering tolerably weU 
for in-door purposes. 

The Kawrie Pine {Agathia Atutralii) grows only in New Zealand, in 
the forests of which it attains a considerable hei^t, with a straight 
dean stem, which from its lightness and toughness, has been found 
well calculated for the masts of ships. It is distinguished from ^e 
Dammar Pine by its narrower and more acute leaves, and by its more 
rapid mode of growth. 

AGATHOPHTOiLUM (from itryaOhs, good, and ^AXoy, a leaf), a 
genus of plants bdonging to the natural order LaMraeea^ one species 
of which, the A, anomoiticum, yidds the dove-nutmegs of Madagascar. 

AGATHC/TES (from iyalMrjis, goodness), a genus of plants belong- 
ing to the natural order OenHanaeece. It is distinguished bv having a 
rotate 4-parted corolla, with two pores at the boie of each segment. 
A. ^iragta is a wdl-known spedes, a native of Kepaul, Kumaon, and 
the Himalayas. The specific name is an imitation of the Sanscrit and 
Bengalee names. This plant has been known for agreat length of time 
as a remedy in India, but has oi^ recently been introduced into 
European practice. It is an annual plant, about three feet high, 
flowering in the rainy season. The whole plant is taken up, and the 
proper tmie for collecting it is just when tlie flowers begin to wither. 
When dried it has an intensdy but agreeable bitter taste, and is destitute 
of aroma. The root is possessed of the greatest bitterness. The 
bitter prindple is readily imparted to water and to alcohol [Chibatta, 
Eva. Ctc, in Abt8 ahd Sa Diy.] 

AGATE, a genus of plants bdonging to the natural order, 
AfMryllidaeea^ The spedes are known by the name of American 
Aloes, and produce dusters of long stiff fleshy leaves, collected in a 
drde at the top of a vetr short stem, and bearing flowers in a long 
terminal woody scape. With DcryanUha and Yucca it forms in the 
natural order AmairyUidacca an instance of high development both in 
Y^getation and fructifioatitfn, compared with what is more generally 
characteristic of that tribe. If a CrvMun or an AmaryUU had the 
stem elongated into a woody trunk, instead of being contracted into a 
short disk, lying at tiie bottom of a scaly bulb, the affinity between 
them and Agane would at once be obvious. 

There are many spedes of this genua^ one only of which requires to 
be mentioned. 

Agave Amerieanaf or the American Aloe, is a plant which, when full 
grown, has a short cylindrical woody stem, which is terminated by 

American Aloe {Agave America$ta), 

hard, fleshy, spiny, sharp-pointed, bluish green leaves, about aix feet 
long, and altogether resembling those of the arborescent aloes. Each 
of these leaves will continue to exist for manv years, so that but a 
small number have withered away by the time the plant has acquired 
its full maturity. It is commonly supposed that this occurs only at 
the end of one hundred years ; but this, like many other popular 
opinions, is an error; the period at wlidch the Agave arrives at 
maturity varying, according to drcumstances, from ten to fifty, or 
even seventy years. In hot or otherwise favourable climates, it grows 
rapidly, and arrives sooner at the term of its existence ; but in colder 
regions, or under the care of the gardener, where it ia frequently 

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impracticable to attend to all the circumstances that accelerate its 
deyelopment^ it requires the longest period that has been assigned to 
it. Having aoqtiired its full ^wth, it finally produces its gigantic 
flowepntem, after which it perishes. This stem is sometimes as much 
as 40 feet high, and is suirounded with a multitude of branches 
ammged in a pyramidal form, with perfect 83nzunetrY, and haying on 
their points dusters of greenish-yellow flowers, which continue to be 
produced for two or three months in succession. The natiye country 
of the American Aloe is the whole of America within the tropics, 
fiKvm the plains nearly on a level with the sea, to stations upon the 
mountains at an elevation of between 9000 and 10,000 feet. From 
these r^ons it has been transferred to almost eveiy other temperate 
coimtry ; and in Italy, Sicily, and Spain, it has already combined with 
the date and the paJmetto to give a tropical appearance to European 

Independent^ of its beauty and curiosity, this plant is applicable 
to many useM purposes. Its sap may be made to flow by incisions 
in the stem, and fdmishes a fermented liquor called by the Mexicans 
Pulque ; from this an agreeable ardent spirit^ called Vino Mercal is 
distilled. The flbres of its leaves form a coarse kind of thread, and 
are brought to this country under tiie name of Pita Flax ; the dried 
flowering stems are an almost impenetrable thatch ; an extract of tiie 
leaves is made into balls, which will lather water like soap ; the fresh 
leaves themselves cut into slices are occasionally given to cattle ; and, 
finally, the centre of the fiowering stem split longitudinally is by no 
means a bad substitute for a European razoinrtrop, owing to minute 
particles of silica forming one of its constituents. 

AQE. The term of human existence is divisible into distinct 
periods, each of which is distinguished by characters peculiar to itself. 
These charaoters, as-fer as they are external, are obvious to every one ; 
but these external characters depend on internal states which are not 
obvious, and which have been discovered only by careful and perse- 
vering research. And the curious and interesting facts which those 
researches have disclosed, show that the different epochs into which 
life 18 divided are not arbitrary distinctions, but arise naturallv out of 
constitutional differences in the system, dependent on different 
physiological conditions. The natural epochs of human life are six, 
namely, the period of infimcy, childhood, boyhood or girlhood, adol- 
escence, manhood or womanhood, and old age. The space of time 
included in the fint four of these periods is fixed. In all peroons after 
the lapse of a certain number of years, a definite change in the system 
unifonnly takes plaoe^ in consequence of which the peculiarities which 
distinguiBh one period give place to those which charaoteriBe the 
Bucoe^Ung. Thus the period of infiincy, commencing at birth, extends 
to the end of the second year, the point of time at which the fint 
dentition is completed : the period of childhood, commencing at the 
close of the second year, extends to the termination of the seventh or 
eighth year, the point of time at which the second dentition is com- 
pleted : the period ot boyhood or girlhood extends firom the seventh 
or eighth year to the commencement of the age of puberty ; that is, 
in general, in this country, in the female, frmn the twelfth to the 
fourteenth yeur, and for the male, firom the fourteenth to the sixteenth 
year : the period of adolescence extends from the commencement of 
the period of puberty to the twentieth year of the female, and tiie 
twenty-fourth of the male : the period of womanhood extends firom 
the twentieth, and of manhood, firom the twenty-fourth year, to an 
age neither determined nor determinable with any degree of exactness ; 
because the point of time at which mature age lapses into old age 
differs in every individual It differs in many cases by a considerable 
number of years ; and it differs according to primitive constitution, to 
the management of early infbncy and childhood ; according to regimen, 
exercise, occupation physical and mental, and the several other 
circumstsnees included under the general term ' mode of life.' 

It is an observation femiliar to every one, that some persons are 
older at fifty than others are at seven^, while instances every now 
and then occur in which an old man who reaches his hundredth year 
retains as great a degree of juvenility as the majority of those who 
attain to ei^ty. The period extending from the age of thirty or forty 
to thai of extreme old age is then the only variable period in the term 
of human existence ; the only period not fixed by limits which it is 
beyond the power of man materially to extend or abridge. 

The ohsnffes which take place in the system at the different epochs 
of life consist of changes in the physiosl condition of the body, and 
are intimstely ooxmected with and munly dependent on the operation 
of a principle of consolidation^ tiie influence of which, commencing at 
the fhrst moment of existence, continues, without intermission, until 
the last moment of life. By this principle the body is changed, first 
from the state of a fluM into that of a solid ; and next^ fh>m a soft 
and tender solid, into a solid which slowly, imperceptibly, but never- 
theless uninterruptedly, increases in firmness and hardness. 

When first the human embryo becomes distinctly visible, it is 
almost wholly fluid, oonsistmg only of a soft gelatinous pulp. 
[FoETiTS.]- In this gelatinous pulp solid substances are formed, whidi 
grsdually increase, and are fashioned into organs. These organs, in 
their rudimentary state, are soft and tender, but^ in the progress of 
their development, constantly acquiring a greater number of solid 
particles, tile cohesion of which progressively increases, the organs at 
length become dense and firm. As the soft solids augment in bulk 

and density, bony particles are deposited, sparingly at first and in 
detached masses, but accumulating by degrees: these, too, are at 
length fashioned into distinct osseous structures, which, extending in 
every direction, until they touch at every point, ultimately form the 
connected bony frame-Work of the system. This bony fSabric, like the 
soft solid, tender and yielding at first, becomes by degrees firm and 
resisting, fitted, as it is designed, to be the mechanical support of the 
body, and the defence of all tiie vital pigans. 

Wldle the osseous system is thus extending in every direction, and 
everywhere increasing in compactness, the progressive consolidation 
of the body is equally manifest in all the tissues which are composed 
of the cellular membrane as well as in all those which possess a fibrous 
nature. The membranes, the ligaments, the tendons, the cartilages, 
gradually increase in firmness and elastidW, and proportionally 
diminish in fiexibility and extensibility ; and this change takes place, 
to a considerable ext^t, in the muscular fibre ako, as is manifest firom 
the toughness of the flesh of animals that are used for food, the degree 
of which every one knows is in proportion to the age of the animal ; 
and firom the conversion in extreme old age, in many parts of the 
body, of muscle into tendon, a denser material being substituted for 
theproper muscular fibre. 

The steady and increasing operation of -the principle of consolidation 
is still more strikingly manifest in the depomtion, as age advances, of 
bony matter in tissues and organs to which it does not naturally 
belong, and the'ftmctions of which it immediately impairs and 
ultimately destroys. The textures in which these osseous depositions 
most commonly take place are membranes, tendons, cartilages, and 
the coverings of the viscera, but above all the coats of the blood-vessels, 
in consequence of which these higUy flexible, elastic, and moveable 
organs become firm, rigid, and immoveable. But even when not 
converted into bone, several of these structures lose their flexibility 
with advancing age, and acquire an increasing degree of rigidity. This 
is strikingly manifest in all the parts of the apparatus of locomotion ; 
in the joints, the mechanical contrivances for racilitating motion, and 
in the muscular fibre, the generator of the power by which motion is 
produced. The joints in old age are less pliable, less elastic, and more 
rigid than in youth ; flrst» because the ligamentous and cartilaginoua 
structures of which they are composed are more dense and firm ; and, 
secondly, because the oily matter which lubricates them, and which 
renders their motions easy and springy, is secreted in less quantity, 
and of inferior quality. Induration and proportionate deterioration 
take place then in the muscular flbre, the origin of the motive power, 
and in the joints the instrument by which the operation of the motive 
power is fiicilitated ; and consequently the movements become slower, 
feebler, less steady, less certain, and less elastic. 

But among all the changes induced in the body by the progress of 
age, none is more remai^ble, or has a greater influence in diminishing 
the energy of the actions of the economy, and in causing the ultimate 
termination of all those actions in death, than tiie change that takes 
place in the minute blood-vessels. The ultimate divisions^ or the 
smallest branches of the arteries and veins, the capillary vessels, as 
they are tenned, are exceedingly abundant in the early periods of life, 
and are as active as they are numerous. The capillary arteries, the 
masons and architects of the system, by the agency of which all the 
structures are built up, and all the parts of the body grow and are 
developed, are numerous and active m the early stages of life, while 
they are oanying on and completing the organisation of the firame. 
But ttom. infancy to childhood, firom childhood to youth, firom youth 
to maturity, and firom maturity to old age, the number and activity of 
these vessels progressively diminish. Their coats, like other soft 
solids, increase in density and rigidity ; their diameter contracts, many 
of them become completely impervious and ultimately disappear. 
The diameter of the capillary vems, on the contrary, emarges. The 
ooats of the veins, originally thiimer than those of the arteries, instead 
of thickening and contracting, seem rather to grow thinner and more 
dilatable : hence their fulness, their prominence, their more tortuous 
course, and their greater capacity. At the two extreme periods of 
life the quantity of blood contained in these two sets of vessels is 
completely inverted. In infancy, tiie proportion of blood contained 
in the capillaiy arteries is greater than that contained in the capillary 
veins ; in youth, this disproportion is diminished ; at the period of 
maturity, the quantity in one set, nearly if not exactly balances that 
in the other ; in advanced age, the preponderance is so great in the 
veins, that these vessels contain probably two-thirds of the entire mass. 
This dififorence in the distribution of the blood, at the different epochs 
of life, affords an explanation of several important phenomena 
eoimected with health and with disease. It shows, for example, why 
the body grows with so much rapidity at the early periods of life ; 
why it remains stationary at the period of maturity ; why it diminishes 
in bulk as age advances ; why a plethoric state of the system affects 
the arteries in youth, the veins in age ; why hsemorrhage, or a flow of 
blood, is apt to poceed in the young from the arteries, and in the 
aged firom the veins; and so on. 

The growth of the heart does not keep pace with the extension of 
the sanguiferous system, nor does its force increase with the augmenting 
density and resistance of the solids ; hence there is a disturbance of 
the balance between the forces of propulsion and of extension which 
increases with advancing age ; the diminished energy of the heart being 

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indicated by the languor and Blownen of the pulse, often not exceeding 
fifty puUations in a minute, and Bometimes sinking even lower than 
this. Hence, not only is leas blood sent to the Beveral organs, but that 
which is sent is less completely acted upon b^ the air in respiration 
on account of the diminished quantity which is transmitted through 
the pulmonary system of yesaels; hence, the diminution of all the 
Beoretions, and hence, finally, the faQure of the function of digestion, 
the source of the materials from which the blood itself is prepared and 
its losses replenished. 

Upon the whole, then, it is clear that two great changes take place 
in the physical condition of the body in the progreaa of age ; firsts a 
gradual diminution in the quantity of the fluids, both of the entire 
mass contained in the system, and of the ^proportionate quantity 
contained in each organ; and secondly, a progressiye augmentation 
and induration of the solids. With this change in the physical condition 
of the body is uniformly combined a no less important change in its 
vital action. Progressively and proportionally as the solid parts 
increase in density and rigidity, they decrease in irritability and 
mobility ; that is, they are less sensible to the influence of stimulants, 
and the power of contraction resident in the muscular fibre is less 

AOE OF ANIHALa It is often a matter of great practioal 
importance to possess some means of determining the age of animala, 
The data that exist at present are, however, very inadequate to 
determine this point. Amongst domestic animals the age may be 
judged of by the presence^ absence, or change of certain oigans in the 

The age of the horse is known principally by the appearance of the 
incisor teeth, or, as they are technically called, the nippers. Of these 
there are six in each jaw, broad, thin, and trenchant in the foal, but 
with flat crowns marked in the centre with a hollow disk in the adult 
animaL The foal- or milk-teeth appear fifteen days after birth ; at the 
age of two years and a half the middle pair drop and are replaced by 
the cozresponding permanent teeth ; at three years and a half the two 
next^ one on each side, fall and are likewise replaced ; and at the age 
of four years and a half the two external incisors of the first set drop 
and give room to the coiresponding pair of permanent teeth. All 
these permanent nippers, as we have already' observed, are flattened 
on the crown or upper surface, and marked in the centre with a 
circular pit or hollow, which is gradually defaced in proportion as the 
tooth wears down to a level with its bottonL By the degree of this 
detrition, or wearing of the teeth, the age of the animal is determined, 
till the eighth year, at which period the marks are generally effaced ; 
but it is to be observed that the external incisors, as appearing a year 
or two after the intermediate, preserve their original form propor- 
tionaUy for a longer period. After the eighth, year the age of the 
horse may be still determined for a few years longer by tibe appearance 
and comparative length of the canine teeth or tushes. These, it is true, 
are sometimes wanting, particularly in the lower jaw, and in mares 
are rarely developed at aU. Those of the under jaw appear at the age 
of three years and a half, and the upper at four; tiU six they are 
sharp-poiubed, and at ten they appear blunt and long, because the 
gums begin about that period to recede from their roots, leaving them 
naked and exposed ; but after this period there are no further means 
of judging of the horse's age, excepting from the comparative size, 
bluntneas, and discoloured appearance of the tushes. The duration 
of the horse's life seldom surpasses thirty years, though there have 
been instances recorded in which it is said to have extended to double 
that period. 

In cattle with horns, the age is indicated more readilv by the growth 
of these instruments than by the detrition and succession of the teeth. 
The deer kind, which shed their horns annually, and in which, with 
the single exception of the rein-deer, the^ are confined to the male 
sex, have them at first in the form of simple prickets without any 
branches or antiers ; but each succeeding year of their lives adds one 
or more branches, according to the species, up to a certain fixed 
period, beyond which the age of the animal can only be guessed at 
from the size of the horns and the thickness of the burr or knob 
at their roots which connects them with the skulL In the common 
sti^, the pricket or first horn falls during the second year of the 
animal's life, and is replaced by one with a single antler, and called, 
from this circumstance, the fork. This again faUs during tiie third 
year, and is replaced by the third horn, whidi, as well as the fourth 
or following pair, have commonly three or four, and 'sometimes even 
five branches. In the same manner the number of antlers goes on 
increasing till the eighth year of the animal's life, beyond which 
period they follow no fixed rule, though they still continue to increase 
in number, particularly towards the summit of the horn, where they 
are often grouped in the form of a coronet, and in this state they are 
called royal antlers. The fSallow-deer, the roe-buck, and others of this 
genus, present similar phenomena ; the number of the antlers increases 
according to certain fixed rules up to a certain period, beyond whidi 
the age can only be determined, as in the stag, by the comparative size 
and development of the burr and shaft, or that part of the horn frt>m 
which the antlers grow. In the former species, the prickets of the 
second year are replaced by homs bearing two antlen^ and already 
beginning to assume the palmated form which distinguishes them 
from the antlers of most other deer. Afterwards this palm increases 

in breadth, and assumes an indented form on the superior and 
posterior borders : these are the fourth horns, which are died in the 
animal's fifth year, and are replaced by others in whidi the palm is 
cloven or subdivided irregularly into distinct parts, so that the hoins 
of old animals frequently assume a great diversity and singularity of 
form. From this period the homs begin to shrink in size, and an 
even said to end in becoming simple prickets as in the first year. 

The homs of oxen, sheep, goats, and antelopes, which are hollow 
and permanent, are of a very different form, and grow in a different 
manner, frx>m those of the deer kind. These, as is well known, 
consist of a hollow sheath of horn, which covers a bony core or process 
of the skull, and grows from the root, where it receives each year an 
additional knob or ring, the number of which is a sure indication of 
the animal's age. The growth of 'the homs in these animals is by no 
means uniform through the whole year, but the increase, at least in 
temperate climates, takes place in spring, after which there is no 
further addition till the following season. In the cow kind, the homs 
appear to grow uniformly during the first three years of the animal's 
life; conse<}uently, up to that age they are perfectly smooth and 
without wrinkles, but afterwards each succeeding year adds a ring to 
the root of the hom, so that the age is determined by allowing three 
years for the point or smooth part of the horn and erne for each of the 
rmgs. In sheep and goats the smooth or top part counts but for one 
year, as the homs of these animals show their first knob or ring in the 
second vear of their age ; in the antelopes they probably follow the 
same rule, though we have very little ^owledge of their growth and 
devdopment in these animalsL 

There are very few instances in which the age of animals belonging, 
to other daases can be determined by any general rules. In birds it 
may be sometimes done by observing the form and wear of the bill ; 
and some pretend to distinguish the age of fishes by the appearance of 
their scales, but their methods are founded on mere hypotheses, and 
entitled to no confidence. The age of the whale is known by the size 
and number: of laminse of whale-bone, which increase yearly, and, if 
observation can be relied upon, would sometimes indicate an age of 
three or four hundred years for these animals. 

AOE OF TREES. Plants, like animals, are subject to the laws of 
mortality, and seem mostly to have a limited period for their existenca 

It is chiefly to annual and biennial plants that what may be called 
a precise period of duration is fixed ; a period determined by the 
production of their fruit, and not capable of being prolonged beyond 
that event, except by artificial means. Plants that live for a long time 
belong either to the class of Endogent or Exogtm, 

To the first of these classes belongs the PaLm Tribe, and some other 
tropic^ trees. There is scarcely any well-attested evidence of these 
plants ever acquiring any considerable age. It has indeed been 
supposed, that certain Brazilian oocoaruut palms may be from 600 to 
700 years old, and that others probablv attam to the age of something 
more than 300 years. But the method of computing the age of palms, 
whidi is either by the number of rings externally visible upon their 
rind between the base and summit of the stem, or by oomparing the 
oldest specimens^ the age of which is unknown, with young trees of a 
known age, is entirely ooiyectund, and not founded upon sound 
physiological considerations; besides which, the date-palm which is 
best known to Europeans, does not at all Justify the opinion that 
palms attain a great age; the Arabs do not assign it a greater longevity 
than frt>m two to thrae centuries Independently of this, the mode 
of growth of such endogenous trees as palms seems to predude the 
possibility of their A-ruAmg beyond a definite period of no great 
extent. The diameter to which-their trunks finally attain is very 
nearly gained before they begin to lengthen, and afterwards all the 
new woody matter, whidi every successive leaf necessarily produces 
during its development, is insinuated into the centra. The consequence 
of this is, that tne woody matter previously existing in the centre is 
displaced and forced outwards towards the drcum&rence. As this 
action is oonstantly in progress, the droumference, which in the 
beginning was soft, becomes gridually harder and harder, by the 
pressure from withhi outwards, till at last it is not susceptible c^ any 
further compression. After this has occurred, the central parts will 
gradually solidify by the incessant production of new wood, which 
thrusts outwards the older wood, tall at last the whole stem must 
become equally hard, and no longer capable of giving way for the 
reception of new matter; for what has once been formed always 
remains, and is never absorbed by surrounding parts. It is probable, 
for Uds reason, that endogenous trees, sudi as palms, attain no 
considerable age, and that the duration of their existence must be 
abeolutdy fixed in each spedes by the power they may respectively 
have of permitting the descent of woody matter down their centre. 

In exogenous trees it is quite the reverse, and to their existence no 
limited duration can be assigned. In consequence, first, of the new 
woody matter which is constantly formed breath the bark near the 
circumference of their trunk, and, secondly, of the baric itsdf being 
capable of indefinite distention, no compression is exercised by the 
new parts upon those previously formed ; on the contrary, the bark is 
incessantly giving way to make room for the wood beneath it> while 
the latter is, in consequence, only glued, as it were, to what succeeds 
it, without its own vital powers being in any degree impaired by 
compression. It is in the newly-formed wood that the greatest degree 

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of vHalitj residM: in the old wood near the centre life in time 
becomes extinct ; but aa each sucoeaBiYe layer poBaeaBes an existence in 
a great degree independent of that which preceded it, the death of 
the centr^ part of an exogenous tree is by no means connected 
with any dimmntion of vitality in the circumference. Hence it is that 
hollow trees are often so healthy ; and that trees in the most yigorous 
state are often found decayed at the heart without any external sign, 
as timber-merchants frequently discover to tiieir cost Of the many 
remarkable cases upon record of aged trees the following are among 
the more interesting :— 

At Enerdie, the birth-plaoe of Wallace, three miles to the south- 
west of Paisley, stands an oak, in the branches of which tradition 
relates that on one occasion that chieftain concealed himself with three 
hundred of his followers. However improbable the latter circumstance 
may be, it is at least certain that the tree may well have been a 
remarkable object even at the period assigned to it by tradition, 
namely, in the beginning of the 14th centuxy; and if so, this 
individual must be at least 700 years old. Its branches are said to 
have once covered a Scotch acre of ground ; but its historical interest 
has rendered it a prey to the curiosity of the stranger, and its limbs 
hare gradually disappeared tiH little remains except its trunL 

Tke Wallaoe Oak. 
Of ancient yews several autiientic instances can be named. At 
Ankerwyke House, near Staines, is a yew older than the meeting of the 
Engliah barcms at Ruiujmede, when they compelled King John to 
grant Magna Charta. This tree, at 8 feet from the ground, measures 
9 feet 8 inches in diameter; and its branches overshadow a oucle of 

The Ankerwyke Tew. 
SOT foet in dremnf erence. The yews of Fountains' Abbey, in Toikshire, 
are probably more than 1200 yean old, and to othen an age of tram 
2600 to 8000 years has been assigned. 


Even this degree of antiquity is, however, much less than that of 
the Baobab trees of Africa, estimated by Adanson at 5160 vears ; and 
the deciduous cypress of Chapultepec in Mexico, which the yoimger 
De CandoUe considers still older. 

The following list of old trees is trom Moquin Tandou's ' Terato- 
logic V^gdtale :* — 

There are known — 

Palma of 

SOO. 800 year 


800 „ 

Chirodendroa . 

327 .. 

UlmuB (Elm) 

845 „ 

CnpreMos (Cypreai) 

S8S „ 

Heder»(Ivy) . . 


448 „ 

Aoer (Maple) . 

816 „ 

Larix (Larch) . 


M8, 878 .. 

Cutanea (Chettaat) 

860, 6S6 ,. 

Citnu (Oraogea, Lemons, 


400, 800, 640 u 

Platanus (Plane) 

720 „ 

Cednu (Cedar) . 


300, 800 ., 

JogUna (Walnut) . 

800 „ 

TilU (Lime) i 


864, 880, 800, 885, 1076 „ 

Ablet (Spruee) 

. . 1800 „ 

Qnercus (Oak) . 


660, 800, 860, 1000, 1600 „ 

Olea (Olive) . 

700, 1000, SOOO „ 

Taxus (Tew) 


1814, 1466, 8588, 8880 „ 

SehnbertU . 

8000. 4000 „ 



2058, 4104 „ 

6000 „ 

Dracaena (Dragon Tree) 


6000 „ 

The way in which the age of some of these spedmens has been com- 
puted is twofold ; firstly, l^ comparing them with other old specimens, 
the rate of growth of which is known; and secondly, by cutting 
out a portion of their circumference^ and counting the number of 
concentric rings that are visible. For in exogenous trees the woody 
cylinder of one year is divided from the succeeding one br a denser 
substance, which marks distinctly the line of sepantion of the two 

In the oouive of inquiries into the method of computing the age of 
ancient trees, a discovery has been made of some importance to timber 
growers, inasmuch as it shows that those who plant for profit alone 
should not allow their trees to grow beyond a certain number of years, 
varying according to species : for it has been found that so far are 
exogenous trees from continuing always to increase in diameter at the 
same rate, that every kind diminishes in its rate of growth after a 
certain age :— the oak, for example, between its fortieth and its sixtieth 
year, the elm after its fiftieth, the insruce-fir after its fDrtieth, and the 
yew probably after its sixtietL With reference to this subject^ Pro- 
fessor De CandoUe has cooBtructed a table of rate of growth, which we 

Table of the rate oflncrease in Diameter of certain Exogenous 

Trees, expressed in lines. 




ion. til 
7Mn old. 





Yti. In. 

1 to 10 







10 . 20 







SO . 80 







80 . 40 . 







40 . 50 








60 . 60 







60 . 70 







70 . 80 






80 . 00 






90 . 100 





100 . 110 






110 . 120 







120 . 130 






180 . 140 





140 . 150 





150 . 160 





160 . 170 





170 . 180 





180 . 190 





190 . 200 





200 . 210 





210 . 220 




220 . 280 




280 . 240 




240 . 250 




850 . 860 



860 . 270 



270 . 880 



280 . 290 



290 . 300 



800 . 310 



810 . 820 



820 . 880 



Digitized by 





AOENEIOSES, in Ichthyology, a genus of Abdominal Malacoptery- 
gious fiflhea, separated from the SUwrei by Lao^pkle, and containing 
two species, both from the fresh-water lakes and riYers of Surinam. 

AGQERZEEN. [Ahtilopm, Strepticerot.] 


AGNO'STUS, the remarkable fossil genua of Oimdaeea usually found 
with A»aphu$ Buchii and other trilobites in the lower Paleozoic strata. 
(Brongniart) Called BaUut by Dalman. It abounds near Llandeilo 
and Christiania. 

AQNOTHEHIUM, a fossil genus of Mammalia. (Kaup.) 

A'GONUS, in Ichthyology, a genus of Acanthopteiygious fishes, 
first separated from the Cotti by Bloch, and afterwards adopted, by 
Lac^pMe and Pallas, under the difierent names of Atpidophortu and 
Phalangiitet. The greater number of the species belonging to the genus 
Agonut are found in the northern Pacific Ocean, particularly along the 
coast of Japan, and northward as far as Behring's Straits. They are 
all of diminutive size, never exceeding nine or ten inches in length, and 
are nowhere used as an article of human food. One species only, the 

Affonut Aeeipmterinus, 
Pogge (A. Furopanu), inhabits our own coast, as weU as the coasts of 
France, Holland, Iceland^ and even Greenland ; it is also found in the 
Baltic, but^ according to Baron Cuvier, never in the Mediterranean, 
though Brunnich expressly affirms the contrary. (Hittoire NaturdU 
de Poiuont, of Baron Cuvier and M. Valenciennes.) 

AGOUTI (Datyproeta, Illiger; Odoromya, F. Cuvier), In Zoology, a 
genus of animals belonging to the class Mammalia and onler Rodentia. 

The most prominent zoological characters of the Agoutis are found 
in the nature and conformation of the feet and toes. The toes are 
provided with large powerful daws, and yet the animals make no use 
of them in digging or burrowing; th^ are pretty long and perfectly 
separate fix>m one another, enabling them to hold their food between 
their fore-paws, and in this manner to convey it to their mouth. Like all 
other aniznals which are thus accustomed to use the fore-paws as hands, 
they have a habit of sitting upright upon their hind-quarters to eat^ 
and frequently also assume the same position when they would look 
around them, or are surprised by any unusual sound or occurrence. Their 
food is exclusively of a vegetable nature, and consists most commonly 
of wild yams, potatoes, and other tuberous roots : in the islands of the 
different West India groups they are particularly destructive to the 
sugar<»ne, of the roots of which they are extremely fond. The planters 
employ every artifice for destroying them, so that at present they have 
become comparatively rare in the sugar islands, thouj^ on the first 
settlement of the Antilles and Bahamas they are said to have swanned 
in such ooimtless multitudes as to have constituted the principal article 
of food for the Indians. They were the largest quadrupeds indigenous 
in these islands upon their first discovery. The same rule of geogra- 
phical distribution holdsgood generally in other cases, namely, that where 
groups of islands are detached at some distance from the mainland of 
a particular continent, the smaller spedes of inhabitants are usually 
found spread over both, whilst the larger and more bulky are confined 
to the mainland alone, and are never found to be indigenous in the 
small insulated lands. 

Though the Agoutis use their fore-paws as hands to hold their food 
whilst Uiey eat^ yet their toes are nevertheless rigid and inflexible, 
and their daws laige, blunt, and nearly straight. They are conse- 
quently deprived of the power of ascending trees ; and as they also 
do not construct burrows, they wander at laige among the woods, 
sheltering themsdves beneath fallen timber, or in the hollow of some 
decayed tree. Here they produce and nurture their young; bringing 
forth, according to some accounts, three or four times in the year ; 
according to outers, never having more than a single litter in the same 
season, and even that consisting of not more than two or three indi- 
viduals. It IB probable, however, from the amazing numbers of these 
animals found m all the hotter parts of South America^ notwithstand- 
ing the destruction made among them by small carnivorous am'mals, 
as well as by the Indians, and likewise frt>m the close affinity which 
they bear to the hare and rabbit of our own country, that the AgoutiB 
are tolerably prolific. The young are brought forth with their eyes 
dosed, as in the case of most of the JtodeiUia and Ckumivora ; but they 
are covered with hair, or rather small bristles of the same colour as 
the mother : they soon acquire the use of their limbs, and learn to 
shift for themsdveiL 

Tlie hind legs of the Agoutis are considerably longer than the fore, 
and their pace is tolerably rapid for a short distance. But they sddom 
trust to speed of foot for their safety, but seek for shelter and security 
in ihe first hollow tree, or under the first rock they meet with. Here 
they allow themsdves to be captured, without any other complaint or 
resistance than the emission of a sharp plaintive note. The head of 
the Agouti is lai^ the forehead and face convex, the nose swollen and 
tuberous, the ears round, shorty and nearly naked, and the eyes large 
and blade The hair is annulated in different degrees wiUi black, 

yellow, and green ; it is generally coarse and bristly, like the weak 
spines of a hedgehog, though in one species it apprMtches in finenesB 
to the frtr of the rabbit ; the tail is most commonly a mere naked 
stump or tuberde, which in the Acoudiy alone attains any apparent 
length, and is covered with a few short scattered hairs. The teeth are 
twenty la all ; namely, two incisors and eight molars, four on each 
side, in each jaw. The latter are all nearly of the same size, oval in 
fiffure, and with fiat crowns, which exhibit the different convolutions 
of the enamel as it penetrates the softer materials of which the body 
of the tooth is composed. It is impossible from mere description to 
convey an idea of the intricate figures which these convolutionB aamime ; 
and we, therefore, refer to the annexed figure, where a and 6 in the 
diagram represent respectivdy the upper and lower jaws, and the 
figures I, 2, and 8, the appearances of the teeth at different ages, or 
after different degrees of trituration : No. 8, representing the teeth 


Teeth of the Agoati, flrom CaTier*s * DenU dee Hommifiret.' 
shortly after they begin to wear ; No. 2, their intermediate state ; and 
Na 1, when very much worn. The teeth are exclusivdy adapted for 
vegetable food ; they are essentially formed for grinding and bruising, 
not for cutting and tearing. The stomach and intes^es therefore, 
which are always in harmony with the organs of mastication, are fitted 
only for the digestion of vegetable substances. The flesh of theee 
onimftlM is white and tender ; it is a very common and favourite article 
of food in South America, and is dressed like hare or rabbit The 
following flnpedes are distinctly known : — 

1. The Common Agouti (DaByfroda Aguti), sometimee called the 
Long-Noeed or Tdlow-Rumped Cavy, from its long nose and the preva- 
lent cdour of its back and shoulders, is the size of a middling hare, 
being one foot eight inches in length, and about deven or twdve inches 
hi^ at the croup. The head resembles that of Uie rabbit, the noee is 
thick and swollen, the face ui^ed, the upper lip .divided, the ean 
round and naked, the eyes large, the upper jaw considerably longer 
than the lower, and the tail a zuiked flesh-coloured stump. The hairs 
of the upper and fore parts of the body are annulated with brown, 
yellow, and black, which give the animal a speckled yellow and green 
appearance on the neck, head, back, and sides ; on the croup however 
they are of a uniform golden yellow, much longer than on any other 
part of the body, and duvcted backwards ; the breast, belly, and inner 
side of the fore-arms and thighs are light straw colour, and the mous- 
taches and feet blaoL The general length of the hair on the upper and 
anterior parts of the body is about an inch, that of the croup is upwards 
of four mdies long, and all, excepting the short coarse fur of the legs 
and feet, and that on the breast and bdly, is of a stiff harsh nature, 
partaking more of the quality of bristles than of simple hair. 

2. The Black or Crested Agouti {Datyproeta criitata), is rather impro- 
perly called the Crested Agouti by M. Qeoffroy Si Hilaire, ainoe the 
hairs of its head and neck do not exceed those of the shoulders and 
back in length. It is consideiably smaller than the Common Agouti, 
being about the size of a rabbity whilst that spedes i^proadies the 
dimensions of the hare. Its general proportions and form, however, 
are the same; but the hairs of the back and sides, instead of being 
annulated with various-coloured rings as in that spedes, are neainj 
uniform black, whilst the long hairs of the croup are perfectly so ; the 
bdly and legs are equally covered with diort dark hair. There is 

Digitized by 






not anj appearance of cresty and the tail is still shorter than in the 
Common Agouti Both this speoies and the former seem to inhabit the 
■ame olixnatee— Surinam Quiana, and Brazil; the Conmion Agouti, 

Blade or Crested Agouti {Datvproeia eristata). 

howerer, appearing to have a rather more extensiTe range, and to 
be likewise found in the West India Islands, and even as far south 

S. The Aoouchj, or Olive Agouti (Datyprocta A eueht), is considerably 
smaller than either of the foregoing spedee, and is at once distinguished 
by the greater length of its &1, which is upwards of two inches in 
length, not much thicker than a crow's qui^ and covered with short 
scattered hairs like those on the tail of a rat In other respects it is 

The Aoooohy {Jkuffprocta AcueM^. 

of the same form as the Agoutis ; has the same naked round ears, the 
same huge black era, and the same olive-green colour mixed with 
yellow and blacL The hairs of the croup are not so long as in the 
Agoutis, but are perfectly black ; and all the imder-parts of the body, 
the breast) belly, and interior of the arms and thighs, straw-coloured 
with a tinffe of red. The hair of the legs and feet is short and black, 
and that of the bodv much finer in quality than the hair of the AgoutLs. 
It inhabits some of the West India Islands, Quiana, and the northern 
parts of BradL 

4. White-Toothed Agouti (Jkuyprocta croeonata, Wagler) is a speoies 
founded by Wagler upon a specimen brought by Spix from the 
river Amazonas. It is about the same size as the Common Agouti, 
but it differs in its incisor teeth being entirely white, in having 
the tani shorter, the nails shorter, and the general hue of its fur 
much richer. 

5. l)atyproda prymnolopha is a species described by Wa^er, which 
inhabits Guiana. It is one of the most beautiful of the species, and 
is readily distinguished by the broad black band which runs along the 
hinder half of the back, and is continued to the tail 

6. The Sooty Agouti {Datyprocta fuUgiru>i<iy Wagner). This species 
is the same as the D. mgricana of Natterer and the D. nigra of Dr. J. 
E. Gray. It is readily distinguished by its black colour and laige 
size. It inhabits the northern provinces of Brazil 

7. Azara's Agouti (Datyprocta Azara\ a species inhabiting Para- 
guay, Bolivia, and the southern parts of Brazil Mr. Waterhouse says 
it is identical with Dr. Gra/s D, punctata. 

AGRDfO^IA, a genus of plants belonging to the order Botaeea, 
It is known from all the other geneiu of the same tribe by its having 
only two or three pistils enclosed in the deep tube of its calyx, from 
7 to 20 stamens, and small-notohed petals. 

The conmion species, Agrimonia Eupatoria (Common Agrimony), 
is an erect, hairy, herbaceous plant, frequent by the side of hedges in 
fields, on iiie slorts of woods, and in simUar situations all over England. 
Its lower leaves are interrupted-pinnated, with Uie leaflets of an oval 
form, and coarsely serrated. When bruised, they yield a slight but 
pleasant aromatic odom:. The stem is nearly simple, and a foot and a 
lialf or two feet high. The flowers, which are small and yellow, are 
succeeded by little bur-like fruits. 

The leaves, which are astringent and aromatic, have been foimd 
usefrd in the jpreparation of fever-drinks, and for the cure of slight 
inflammation m tne mouth or throat; on this account Agrimony is 

always reckoned one of our wild medidnal plants^ and la often 
employed as an ingredient in herb-teas. 

Oommon Agrimony {Affrimonta Ry^toHa). 


AGRIOPES (^jrriopiw,Cuvier), in Ichthvology,agenusof Acanthop- 
terygious fishes, belonging to the feunily which M. Cuvier denominates 
Jouet Cwrattiet, and which are distinguished frt)m other families of 
the same order, by having the suborbital plates extending backwards 
over the cheeks, so as to cover either the whole or the greater part of 
them, and thus defending them, as it were, with a buckler or cuirass. 
But what particularly cQstinffuishes the Agriopee from most other 
genera of fishes is, that they have only nine rays in the pectoral fins, 
a ntunber very rarely found in this class of animals. Three species 
are enumerated by Messrs. Cuvier and Valenciennes : — 

1. The Agriopus torvut. This fish inhabits Table Bay and the seas 
around the Cape of Good Hope, where it is called by the Dutch 
colonists Zee-Paard (or Sea-Horse). This fish exceeds two feet in 
length, and is oommon in the markets of Cape Town. 

2. The Warty Agriope (A, verrw!09tu\ is so called frt)m having the 
■kin of the head and body entirely covered with prominent conical 
tubeitiles, surrounded at the base with small papUls. It grows to 
the same size, and inhabits the same localities, as the preceding species. 

8. The Agrioput Perwfiamu is found in the neighbourhood of Lima, 
and grows to the length of eight or nine inches. 

AGROSTEMMA (from irypis, a field, and ^iu/ta, a crown), a genus 
of plants belonging to the 
SUeneout division of the 
order CaryophyUaceat, It 
has several species, the 
best known of which is 
the Com Cockle, which is 
now referred to the genus 
LychnU [LtohnibJ or 

AGRO'STIS, a genus 
of Grasses, consisting 
of a considexable number 
of spedes with looee- 
branoned capillary pani- 
dee of flowers, and a creep- 
ing habit Among British 
grasses, it is at once 
known by the glumes (a) 
or outer scales of each 
flower being two in 
number, unequal in size, 
of a membranous tex- i& 
ture, and containing but i 
a single floret; while the 
palesB, or inner scales^ are 
short, very thin, almost 
transparent, and two in 
number, ^e larger of ^ 

them oocasionally having ^ AgrottU alba, 

an awn at its batuc 

Two species only are natives of this country — one of which, 

Digitized by 






A, vulffarii, is found eveiywhere in dzy, exposed, barren situations, 
and is of yery little value to the farmeri except for its earliness ; the 
other, A, tUba, is equaBy abundant in marshy places, where it forms 
a Yaluable pasture. Xfnder the name of Irish Florin Grass, this 
specieB has been the object of much attention from experimental agri- 
tmlturists, some of whom haye extolled its qualities yery highly as a 
manh-fodder; but the experience of others does not confirm their 
ojunion; nor does it appear to thriye in England so wdl as it is 
represented to do in Ireland, where its yigour is such as to haye led to 
the belief that the Irish plant is a distinct speciee, called A. ttolonifera. 
In England it is best known, along with A, mdgarit, under the name 
of Quitdi, or Quicks, and is generally extirpated as a troublesome 
weed, in consequence of the rapidity with whidi, by means of its 
creeping, rooting, yiyaoioos atems, it spreads and oyeiruns pasture- 
and garden-ground. 

AI. [Bbadtpus.] 

AIR-SLADDER, a peculiar oxgan with whi^ the great minority 
of fishes are proyided, and by which they are enabled to adapt the 
specific grayity of their bodies to the yarious pressures of the super- 
incumbeat water at different depths. It is composed of a lengthened 
sac, sometimes simple, as in the common percn, sometimes divided 
into two or more compartments, by a lateral or transyerse ligature, 
as in the trout and salmon, and, at other times, furnished with 
appendices, more or less numerous according to the particular species. 
In all cases, it is composed of a thick internal coat of a fibrous texture, 
and of a yery thin external coat ; the whole being enyeloped in the 
general coyering of the intestines. 

The modifications of this organ are infinitely yaried in different 
genera and species of fishea In the greater nimiber of instances it 
has no external opening, and the air wkb. which it is found distended 
is belieyed to be produced by the secretion of a certain glandulous 
organ, with which it is in all these cases provided. This air has been 
examined, and found to consist of oxygen and nitrogen, but with less 
oxygen than common air. In freeh-water fishes, tiie air-bladder 
communicates sometimes with the oosophagus, and sometimes with 
the stomach, by means of a small tube; and it is observable, that 
in the greater number of these instances, in which it has a direct 
external communication with the intestines, the secreting glands 
above mentioned do not exist ; thus giving us strong reason to believe 
that its Amotions and uses are not tmiformly the same in all the 
different classes of fishes. A very limited number of species, among 
others the common eel, have air-bladders not only opening by an 
external duct, but likewise provided with secreting glands ; and thus 
ooeupying an intermediate station between the two larger classes, at 
least as far as the nature and functions of this oigan are concerned. 

In general, all fishes which ei^joy great powers of locomotion, and 
have occasion to pass through various degrees of superincumbent 
pressure in their rapid transitions from the sur£BU» to the bottom of 
the ocean, are provided with this important organ ; and so indispensable 
is it in their economy, that those which, for the sake of experiment, 
have been deprived of it^ have sunk helpless to the bottom, and 
there remained incapable of moving, or even of maintaining their 
equilibrium. But to fishes whose habits and oiganixation confine 
them either to the surface of the water or to the bottom of the sea^ 
and whidi, therefore, do not require to pass through different depths, 
or to enoounter different degrees of pressure, the poesession of an air- 
Uadder is by'no means so essentially requisite. Accordingly we find, 
that all the different species of rays and PUwroncetet or flat-fish, such 
as skates, soles, turbots, brills, etc., which live only upon the coasts 
and sand-banks at the bottom of the ocean, as well as the mackerel 
and others which find their food entirely at the sur&ce, have no 
air-bladder; and so small is the relation of this otherwise imi>ortant 
oigan to the general conformation of fishes, that we sometimes find it 
present in one species, and wanting altogether in another of the same 
gentis. Although it does not appear that the air-bladder is connected 
with the function of respiration in fishes, it occupies the position, and 
has the same relations, as the lungs in reptiles. It is, in fact, the 
homologue of these ozgana Fishermen are well acquainted with the 
nature and functions of the aiivbladder, or, as they most commonly 
call it, the Swim, They are accustomed to perforate this vessel wit& 
a fine needle in ood aoid other species which require to be brought 
freah to market, sometimes from a very great distance. By this 
operation, the confined air is allowed to escape^ and the fish oonstrained 
to remain quiet at the bottom of their well-boats, where they live for 
a veiy considerable period. Cod-sounds, which are brought in great 
quantities from Newfoundland, are nothing more than the salted 
air-bladders of these fishes* The Icdand fishermen, as well as those 
of America, prepare isinglass of a very excellent quality from cod- 
sounds, thou^ they are not acquainted with the method of darifying 
xt^ which the Russiana practise in preparing isinglass from the sound 
of the sturgeon. 

( Owen, LeetyiteM an ChmparoH/ve AwHtomyt toL il) 

AIR-CJSLLS, in plants, are cavities in the leaves or stems, or other 
parts containing air. In water-plants they have a vexy definite form, 
and are built up of little vesides of cellular tissue, with as much 
regulari^ as the walls of a house ; they no doubt enable the plant to 
float lliey are well seen in the structure of the VicLoria regia. In 
plants which do not floaty the form of the air^ells is lees definite; 

they often appear to be mere lacerations of a mass of cellular sub- 
stance, and their object is unknown ; well-known instances of their 
presence are the chambers in the pith of the walnut-tree, and the 
tubular cavities in the stem of the bamboo, and other Grasses. 

AIR-PLANTS are so called because they possess the power of living 
for a considerable time suspended in the air. It is however a mistake 
to suppose that tiieee plants are naturally suspended freely in the air, 
and tnat such a situation is that in which they will thrive ; they will 
only exist in air for a shorter or longer period, according to the spedes 
and to other circumstances, but in the end they wiU perish. This 
arises from tbe fact that all plants require inorganic as well as oiganic 
oonstituentfl, and although these latter dements can be eapplied from 
the air in the form of carbonic acid, ammonia^ and water, the former 

There are two different tribes to which tiie na^ of Air-Plants baa 
been applied; of which one^ containing the moas^lika TiUandtia 
utneoidet, which hangs in festoons from the branches of trees in the 
hot damp forests of tropical America, and the fragrant T. xiphioida, 
which adorns the balconies of the houses in Buenos Ayrea, is called 
by botanists BramdiacecB; the other, abounding in spedes of the moit 
different nature and appearance, is named Orchidaeece, 

Till within a few years the cultivation of Air-Plants of the Orckit 
tribe was supposed to be attended with insuperable difficulties ; and of 
the many hundreds of beautiful spedes that are found in foreign 
countries, scarcdy any were known in Europe, except from drawings^ 
bad descriptions, and imperfect dried specimens. 

The native countiy of these curious plants is wherever a climate is 
found in which heat and moisture are in excess. Within the tropics 
in Asia, Africa, and America^ in damp and shady forests, by the side 
of fountains, within reach of the ^>ray of waterfialls, perched upon the 
brandies of trees, or clinging to rocks and stones by means of their 
long and writhing roots— creeping among moss, rearing their flowers 
in we midst of brakes and other moisture-loving tribes — ^in all such 
situations they are found in abundance. The prineipel stations for 
them are the woods of Bozi) and Peru, the lower mountains of Mexico, 
the West Indies, Kada^pBuscar, and the adjoining islands, and the whole 
of the Indian Archipelago; in Java alone nearly 300 speduBS have been 

The conditions under which Air-Plants, of the kind now described, 
naturally thrive are — 1. high temperature; 2, diffused light, like that 
of a shady grove, and not direct solar light ; S, a great degree of 
dampness ; and, 4, a perfect free^fm from stagnant water sound their 
roots : for on the trunks of taaes or on stones and ro^cks no water can 
lodge, and all the moisture they recdve must necessarily be in the fomi 
of vapomr or of &lling rain. And it is to circumstances of this nature 
that the gardener has chiefly to attend. Damp, shade, heat, and good 
drainage will be his objects; the three former will cause him do 
trouble, but the latter will require him to alter entirely his usual 
mode of cultivation. Instead of considering in what kind of soil his 
Air-Plants are to be placed, he will endeavour to dispense with soil, 
and to supply its place with bits of rotten wood, chopped moss in very 
small quantities, fragments of half-baked pottery, audi as garden-polB. 
and the like. 

Another point of great importance in the cultivation of these plants 
is, securing for them a season of repose. In their native climate', 
although they have no winter, they have a period of comparative re^t 
from growth, and securing for them this repose whilst under cultui-u 
is a gr^ secret of success. It is to a knowledge of this, taken in 
coigunction with the circumstances before exjplained, that we owe the 
remarkable improvement that has taken place m the mode of cultivating 
these plants in Qreat Britain. 

(Lindley, OUervaHona in the JVaiMaeHont of tkeSbrtituUural Sodetyt 
voL I, New Series, p. 42, and the later volumes of the JBotanical 
Beffister.) pEpiPHTnBB; OBCHiDAcaLiB.] 

AIR-VESSELS, in plants, are what botanists call Spiral Veatdt. 
It is supposed by some that these are the only parts through which 
air is conveyed into the vegetable system, and it has been proved that, 
in some cases at least, the air that they contain consists of a laiger 
proportion of oxygen than atmospheric air. But it is doubtfrd whether 
the action of these vessels is more than local, and it is certain that air 
has tolerably free access to many parts, as the leavei^ for example, by 
means entirdy independent of the spiral vessels. 

AIRA, a genus of Grasses bdonging to the tribe Setieriea, and 
distinguished by possessing a lax panicle, two-flowered glumee^ the 
outer pale terete on the back, and a dorsal awn. There are several 
spedes, but that whidi is best known is A. cceapitotcL, the Tufted Hair- 
Grass. It has long and flat leaves, with a fibrous perennial root It 
flowers in the beginning of August, and reaches a height of four feei 
It grows naturally on marshy damp soils, in the form of large tufts. 
It is a wiry harsh grass, and is rejected by domestic ftnimnlw. It may, 
however, be advantageoudy sown as a cover for game, and also bv the 
side of ponds and mardies for snipe and wild fowL (Lawson, Acrot- 

AITONIA (after Mr. W. Aiton, for many years head-gardener at 
Kew), a genufl of plants bdonging to the order Mdiacea, The A. 
Caperuis is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, and is cultivated in our 


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AJOWAMS, or AJWAMS, tho ladian name for the fruits of 
XTmbeUiferouB plants belonging to the genus PtychotU. They are 
chiefly employed in yeterinary medicine. 

ALABASTEB, a white stone used for ornamental purposea The 
name is deriyed from Alabastron, a town of Egyp^ where there 
appears to have been a manufactory of small vessels or pots, made 
of a stone found in the mountains near the town. These vessals 
were employed for containing certain kinds of perfumes used by the 
ancients m their toilet, and with which it was the custom to anoint 
the heads of their guests, as a mark of distinction, at their feasts. 
There are in Horace many allusions to this custom. In like manner, 
Mary, the sister of Laaarus, poured upon the head of our Saviour, as 
he sat at supper, ''yezy precious ointment" from an alabaster-box. 
Vessels of a similar form, although not made of the white stone, bore 
the same name amongst the Greeks and Romans. 

There are two kinds of white stone to which antiquaries and 
artists give the name of alabaster : the one is a carbonate of lime ; 
the other is gypsum, or sulphate of lime. Man^ of these ancient 
perfume-yessels are inade of the compact cmtallme mass deposited 
from water holding carbonate oi lime in solution, which is found in 
many places in almost every country. When the deposition takes 
place on the ground, it forms what mineralogists call a stalagmite, 
from a Greek word signifying a drop, and it is often composed of 
layers distinguishable by <Hfferent degrees of translucency, giving the 
stone the ap|>earanoe of the striped agates, called onyx. [Agate.] 
Hence, aooording to Fliny, the alabastrites was sometimes called 
onyx. But it is easy to ascertain of which of the two kinds a vessel 
IS composed, for carbonate of lime is hard, and effervesces if it be 
touched by a strong acid ; but sulphate of lime does not effervesce, 
and is so soft that it may be scratched with the naiL The term 
alabaster is now generally applied to the softer stone. This last, 
when pure, is a beautiful semi-transparent snow-white substance, 
easily worked into vases, lamps, and various other ornament^ but it 
is seldom found in masses large enough for statuary ; and, indeed, 
artists would be unwilling to execute any great work in a material so 
veiy Liable to injury. The finest quality known is fo^nd in the 
neighbourhood of Y olterra in Tuscany, and it is cut into a variety of 
works of great taste and beauty at Yolterra, Florence, Leghorn, and 
other places in that part of Italy, whence they are sent all over the 
world, and sold at very reasonable prices. 

Alabaster is' found in Derbyshire and Staffordshire, and is manu- 
factured at Derby into small ornaments and tov& [Gtfsuu.] 

ALABAUDINE, a name for Manganese-Blende, a sulphuret of 

AL ABES, a genus of fishes belonging to the order Malacopterygii, 
and family Apodet. This genus, which consists of a single species of 
small size, a native of the Indian Ocean, resembles in most respects 
the common Conger-Eel {Murama) of our own seas. 

ALARIA, a genus of sea-weeds. [Auam], 

ALAUDA. JAlaudinjb], 

ALAUDIN^ a sub-family of birds belonging to the order 
Pasiermce, and the family Coniroetree, ia thus characterised by 
Mr. Swainson: — 

Bill more lengthened than in any of the FringiUidoi; the tip 
entire or obsoletely notched. Tertial quills considerably lengthened, 
pointed, and generally as long as the quUls. Claws very slightly 
curved ; the daw of the outer toe alwavs shorter than that of the. 
inner toe ; the hinder claw considerably lengthened^ and either nearly 
straight or very slightly curved. 

Alaudu, (Linn.) 

Bin cylindrical ; nostrils concealed. Wings very long ,* no spurious 
quill ; the firsts second, and third quills longest, and nearly equal ; 
the rest considerably graduated ; tips of the lesser quills emarginate. 
Tail forked. Head crested. (Sw.) 

The Larks are characterised by their having the hind-claw, which is 
like the fore-daws, somewhat straighty and longer than in the pipits 
and the wag-tails. The bill is strai^ht^ and rather short and strong, 
the upper mandible being arched without any notch, and not longer 
than the under. The nostrils, situated at the base of the bill, are 
oolong, and protected by small plumes and bristles directed forwards. 
The feathers on the back part of the head can be raised up at the will 
of the bird into the form of a crest 

Various spedes of larks are found in all parts of the globe, and are 
everywhere distinguished by their vigilance and their singing. They 
are peculiarly birds of the fields, meadows, and other open places. The 
conformation of their feet» except in a few instances, such as the wood- 
larl^ does not adapt them to perch upon trees. They aocordinglv 
always build on the ground, mJdng in general a rather slight though 
neat nest, and laying about five eggs, usually of a grayish white, with 
specks of a brown colour. They frequently rear two broods of young 
during the summer. 

They are almost all birds of passage ; for even in Britain, where some 
remain during the winter, the greater number flock together and 
migrate, either southward or to the sea-coast During these migra- 
tions immense numbers of them are caught in nets for the table, parti- 
culariy on the continent, where small birds are more sought after for 
this purpose than in Britain. 
" ZocalUiei, — ^Europe and America. 

^Lt*. Sw.iiuaja couBideru this as the FiasiiHMtral ty2)e. 

Example: — Alaitda arvenais. This is the AlowttCf Alouette Ordi- 
naire, and Ahuette dee Champi of the French; Zodola, Lodola 
Canterina, Lodola di Pauo, and Lodola di Montagna of the Italians ; 
Peld Lerehe of the Germans ; Hedydd and Uchedydd of the andent 
British ; and Skylark (in Sootch Lavrock) of the modem British 

The Skylark is too well known, from its inexpressibly beautiful song, 
dianted forth far up in the air when at Uberty and in its natural state, 
to require any description. 

Pood, — Insects and their larvae, with many sorts of seeds and grain. 

Neat, — On the ground. Eggji four or five, greenish white, spotted 
with brown. 

Loealiliea, — ^All the parts of Europe ; also in Asia and the northern 
parts of Africa, but not in the south of that vast continent (Temm.) ; 
the whole of Europe within the temperate zone, many parts of Asia, 
and the north of Africa. (Selby.) 

CalejuMa, (Linn.) 

Bill thick, much oompressed; i^ culmen curved and convex ; the 
commissure arched ; the tip of the upper mandible wide above and 
inflexed. Wings long or moderate; tke first quill very small and 
spurious; the second nearly equal to the third and fourth; lesser 
quills shorty emaigiaata. Tail slightly forked Lateral toes equal 
Africa. The Dentirostral type — C, magniroetris, ' Ois. d'Afr.,' pL 
198. (Sw.) 

Sub-genera : — Myrafra, Uovat — ^Bill as in Calendula, Wings short, 
rounded; greater <^iul]0 havdly longer than the secondaries and 
teitials ; the first quills spurious, half the length of the second, which 
is shorter than the third ; the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth equal, and 
longest Tail short, even. Legs long. — If, Javanic€t, 'Linn. Tr.,' 
xiii 169. (Sw.) 

Braconyx, Sw. (JBrachonyx). — ^Bill as in CalendulcL Hinder claw 
very short Wings and tarsi much lengthened Africa. (Sw.) 

Agrodroma. (Sw.) 

Bill slender, considerably compressed; both mandibles of equal 
length ; the tip of the upper one not reflected over the lower, and 
with a small notch, almost obsolete. Wings long ; the first four quills 
nearly equal ; the rest rapidly diminishing, and emaiginate at their 
tips ; tertials lengthened, pointed, as long as the quills. Tail moderate, 
even. Legs pale, long, slender. Tarsus longer than the middle toe. 
Lateral toes equal, but the outer claw shorter than the inner. Colour 
brown, lark-like. Distribution universaL The Inseesorial or pre- 
eminent ty]^e^Agrodroma rufeecent, * EnL,' 661| t L (Sw.) 
Macronyx, (Sw.) 

Bill slender, compressed, thrush-like, entire ; nostrils large, naked, 
the aperture lateral Wings short ; the primaries not longer than the 
tertiids, the first four of equal length ; secondaries long, emarginate. 
Tail moderate, even. Feet enormous. Tarsus and hinder toes very 
long^ and of equal length Lateral toes unequal, the inner shortest 
Africa. The Rasorial type— Jf . ;tor*cottt», 'Ois. d'Afr.,' pL 196; M, 
fiavigatter, Sw., 'Birds of West Africa,' ('Naturalists' Library/ Omi- 
thology, vol viL, p. 216.) 

CerthUa/wda. (Sw.) 

Bill slender, lengthened, more or less curved ; nostrils round, naked. 
Wings very long ; the first quill spurious ; the three next nearly equal 
Tail moderate, even. Feet lengthened; the lateral toes equal ; length 
of the hinder daw variable, althou^ typically short and straight. 
Africa. The Tenuirostral type—C^rtAOottda Itrngi/rotAra, ' Ois. d'Afr./ 
192; aUfoMciata, Riipp^, ' Atlas,' plate 5; a mvota^ Sw., ' Birds of 
West Africa' (vol viL, p. 216.) 

Sudi are Mr. Swainson's views as to the arrangement of this sub- 
family. [FRnreiUJDii.] The genus Anihue, Bechst, is placed by Mr. 
Swainson at the end of his sub-family MotacUliaw (Wagtails), under 
his family Sylviada (Warblers). 

Ponil La/rka, 

Dr. Buckland fiffures a lark (Alavda) among the land Mammifens 
and Birds of the third period of the Tertiary Series, in the first plate 
of the illustrations of his 'Bridgewater Treatise.' He had previously 
noticed the remains of the lark in Eirkdale Cave. (' ReUquia Dilu- 
vianss,' pp. 16, 84, plate xL, ff. 24, 26.) 

ALBATROSS (iHomedea), a genus of web-footed birds, comprising 
three spedee— the Albatross of China (D. fuliginoaa, Latham) ; thf; 
Yellow- and Black-Beaked Albatross (D, cMororynehos, Latham) ; and 
the Common Albatross {D, exvlana, Linnaeus.) The genus is princi- 
pally distinguished by the following characters : — a very strong, hard, 
long beak, which is straight to near the extremity, when it suddenly 
curves. The upper mandible appears composed of many articulated 
pieces, fiirrowed on the sides, and crooked at the point ; the lower 
mandible smooth and cut short ; the nostrils lateral, and placed like 
small rolls in the furrow of Ihe mandible ; the feet short ; the three 
toes long and completely webbed ; the wings very long and narrow. 
The name Albatross is a word apparently corrupted by Dampier from 
the Portuguese Alcatraz, which was appUed bv the early navigators of 
that nation to cormorants and other la^ sea-birds. 

The Common Albatross is the spedes which is most frequently met 
with in the seos of Southern Africa. It is the largest searbird known. 

Digitized by 





The top of the head is a ruddy gray ; the rest of the plumage is white 
with the exception of Beyeral trumverw black bands on the back, and 

Common Albatroei {Diomedea exulant), 

a few of the wing featherB. The feet and membrane are of a deep 
flesh colour ; the bill a pale yellow. 

The weight of this bird has been variously stated from 12 to 28 
pounds; and a similar difference appears to exist in authors with 
respect to the distance between the extremity of the extended wings. 
Forster says above 10 feet ; Parkins, 11 feet 7 inches ; Cook, 11 feet ; 
another says 12 feet; a specimen in the Leverian Museum measured 
18 feet ; and Ives (p. 5) mentions one, shot off the Cape of Qood Hope, 
which measured 17^ feet frx>m wing to wing. 

We can, from this circumstance, readily understand the exten- 
sive range in which the Albatross is found; not being confined, as 
Buffon imagined, to the Southern Ocean, but being equally abundant 
in the northern latitudes, though Forster says he never observed it 
within the tropics. These birds are seen in immense flocks about 
Behring's Straits and Kamtchatka about the end of Jime, frequenting 
chiefly the inner sea, the Kurile Islands, and the Bay of Pentschinensi, 
whereas scarcely a straggler is to be seen on the eastern or American 
shore. They seem to be attracted thither by vast shoals of fish, whose 
migratory movenients the albatrosses follow. On their first appearing 
in those seas they are very lean, but, frt)m finding abundance of foo^ 
thev soon become fat. Their voracity is so grea^ that they will often 
swallow a salmon of four or five pounds wei^t 

Thev do not, however, confine themselves to fish, but will prey on 
any ower sea-uiimal ; and Cook's sailors caught them with a line and a 
hook. The Kamtchatkadales take them by fieuitening a cord to a large 
hook, baited with a whole fish, which the birds greedily seize. Their 
usual food, however, seems rather to be fish-spawn and small shell-fish. 

Notwithstanding their strength, they never venture to attack other 
sea-birds, but are, on the contrary, attacked by the gulls. ** Several 
laige gray gulls," says Cook, " that were pursuing a white albatross, 
afforded us a diverting spectacle : they overtook it, notwithstanding 
the length of its wings, and they tried to attack it under the beUy, 
that part being probably defenceless : the albatrooB had now no means 
of escaping but by dipping its body into the water; its formidable bill 
seemed to repel them. 

Their fiesh is tough and dry ; but the Kamtchatkadales take them 
for the sake of their entrails, which they blow up, and use as buoys for 
their nets. They employ the wing-bones also, which Edwards says 
are as long as their whole bodv, for tobacco pipes. 

ALBIN, a white variety of ApophyllUe, [Apofhtllite.] 

ALBINOS, a word of Portuguese origin, by which the Portuguese 
voyagers denominated tiie white negroes whom they foimd on the coast 
of .^rica. These negroes were iSso termed Z^cBthiopet — a term 
signifying white negroes. Both names are now used, but the former 
popularly, to designate individuals who exhibit characters similar to 
those observed in the white negroes, among whatever race or in 
whatever country the variety may arise. 

These m'nyilw beings are distinguished frt)m other individuals of the 
human race by remarkable characters, which are invariably the same 
among whatever people or under whatever external circuxniBtances the 
variety ia found, ^eir most striking peculiarities consist in the 
coloiur of their skin and in that of their hair and eyes. 

Their skin is of a pearly whiteness, without any admixture whatever 
of a pink or a brown tint. In the snow-white skin of the fairest 
European woman theris is always some tint of a pink or brown colour, 
but in the Albinos the skin ia wholly destitute of either tinge, and is 

of a dull pearly whiteness. It is often not soft and smooth in proper 
tion to its whiteness, as is generally the case with the blonds of the 
European race ; but, on the contrary, is rough, dry, and harsh. 

The whiteness of the hair always corresponds to the whiteness of 
the skin. Not oidy the hair of the head, but also that of the eyebrows, 
eyelashes, beard, and even the soft down that covers the external 
surface of the body, has the same unnatural whiteness. 

With this whiteness of the skin and hair is cozmected a still more 
striking peculiarity, namely, a redness of the eyes. That part of the 
eye called the iris is of a pale rose colour, while the pupil is intensely 
red : in a word, the eye is exactly similar to that of many forms of 
white animals, as the white rabbit, rat, mouse, &a 

This peculiarity depends upon the absence of certain ceUs in the 
body, ca&ed pigment-cells, which, wherever present, give a more or 
less dark ooloiu* to the sur^Eiace on whioh they are developed. It is the 
formation of ihese cells in the skin and hair, and in the interior of the 
eye, that gives the various colours to these parts of the body ; and 
when these cells are absent they present the appearances observed in 
Albinos. In the skin the part which secretes these cells is the upper 
surface of the cutis, or true skin. They are mixed, however, with 
varying proportions of colourless cells. These cells together constitute, 
when they lie fiat upon the surfeu^e of the body, the epidermis, or 
scarf-skin. The cells which have not yet become hardened were 
supposed to form a soft layer, which was called the rete fnuamm, or 
mucous layer. It is in the black races of mankind that the pigment- 
cells most abound, and just in proportion as the skin is fair do we find 
them deficient in quantity or less dark in colour : but in the furest 
races these pigment-cells are found. In the same manner their 
presence in the hair produces the various shades of colour obserred 
m this appendage of the skin, and they may be very numerous in the 
hair and not so in the skin generally. The eye requiring for its function 
a dark chamber, has devdoped in its interior a large quantity of 
pigment-cells, constituting the pigmentvm rUffrum of its interior 
membranes. What is true of man is also true of the lower animals, 
and the colour of their skin and hair dependa on these peculiar cells. 

The anatomical condition of Albinism is the absence of the 
pigment-cells. In the complete Albinos they are everywhere absent 
from the skin, the hair, and the eyes. It is this which gives the 
unnatural whiteness to the skin and the hair, and the redness to 
the eyes ; this latter phenomenon resulting from the delicate blood- 
vessels reflecting the colour of the blood in them, an appearance 
which is entirely absent when the pigment^^ells are deposited as 

On the other hand it appears that there is a tendency in some 
animals which have natux^ly only a few pigment-cells to develop 
them in greater number than usual, as we see in the occasional 
presence of black sheep in a flock. Black varieties and white varieties, 
with a mixture of the two colours, are not at all uncommon amongst' 
our domesticated animals. . Of the causes which produce this pecuUar 
affection of the organs in question we are ignorant ; and the speculations 
of Buffon on this subject afford a striking example of the absurdities 
into which men, even of acute minds, fall when they substitute 
conjecture for investigation, or deem it consistent with the spirit of 
philosophy to place trust in fancy, when they are without knowledge. 
Thus, aasuming that white is the primitive colour of nature, he says, 
that this colour may be varied by climate, food, and' manners, to 
yellow, brown, or black; that these colours may, imder certain 
circmnstances, return to the primitive colour, but so much altered, 
that it has no resemblance to the original whiteness, because it has 
been adulterated by the causes that have been assigned. Nature, he 
tells us, in her most perfect exertions, made men white ; and this same 
Nature, after suffering every possible change, still renders them white; 
but the natural or specific whiteness is very different from the 
individual or accidental It is useful, occasionally, to recur to what 
was formerly considered, and is still sometimes considered, as an 
explanation of the phenomena of nature. 

Some writers represent the peciiliarities which distinguish the 
Albinos as altogether the result of disease. They found this 
opinion on the roughness and harshness of the skin, on the tender- 
ness of the eyes, and the comparative physical weakness of these 
individuals. But the harsh and almost leprous appearance of the 
skin, though sometimes foimd, is by no means universal; the 
tenderness of the eyes arises from the increased sensibility of the 
organs in consequence of the abstraction of the dark-coloured 
substance by which, in the natural state, they are defended from 
the light: and, even admitting it to be a fact, which however does 
not appear to be fully established, that these persons are physically 
weaker than other men, it would not follow that this weakness is the 
result of disease. As far as can be judged from external appearance, 
and from their accounts of their own feelings. Albinos appear perfectly 
healthy, and many do not exhibit a single mark of disease whatever. It 
is also certain that domestic animals which exhibit varieties perfectly 
analogous to those of the human Albino are free from disease. This 
peculiarity has been observed in the sheep, pig, horse, cow, dog, cat-, 
mouse, ferret, monkey, squirrel, rat, hamster, guinea-pig, mole, 
opossum, martin, "^eaaeH, roe, fox, rhinoceros, elephant, badger, 
beaver, bear, camel, buffalo, and ass; and even in the crow, blackbird, 
canary-bird, partridge, common fowl, and peacock. It is remarkable, 

Digitized by 






however, that it has never been seen in any cold-blooded animal In 
all the Tnn.Twma.1iiL and birds just enumerated, the nature and 
characters of the deviation seem to be perfectly analogous to those 
of the human Albino. The pure whiteness of their skin and other 
integumentg^ and the redness of the iris and pupil, mark the same 
deficiency of colouring matter. A white mouse, possessed by Blumen- 
bach, exhibited the same inability to bear the lijgfht which has been 
observed almost universally in the human examples; the animal 
kept its eyelids closed even in the twilight. 

The physical, intelleotua], and the moral qualities, associated with 
this singular conformation of the body, have not been stated with 
distinctness and accuracy. It would seem that the Albino is both 
physicaUy and mentally somewhat weaker than other men. All 
accounts agree in representing his physical strength as inferior to 
that of persons of the ordinary conformation. Saussure, in his 
'Voyage dans les Alpes,' exurenly states, in relation to two boys 
whom he examined with much attention at Chamouni, that, when 
they were of a proper age, they were unable to tend the cattle like 
the other diildren ; and that one of their imdes maintained them out 
of charify, at a time of life when others were capable of gaining a sub- 
sistenoe by their labour. Wafer, the old To^ager, in bu account of 
the Indifl^ Albinos in the Isthmus of Danen, while he represents 
them as being as nimble in the moonlight as the other Indians, states 
that they are not so strong and lusty. But in what degree their 
intellectual powers are coodSned, or whether indeed there be any 
decided inferiority, we have at present no means of fonning an 
accurate judgment 

Some inconvenience certainly arises from the conformation of the 
eye peculiar to Ihe Albinos. A strong light cannot be borne, and 
even the fuU glare of day appeals to excite some degree of imeadness. 
Hence the eydids are usually more drawn over the ball of the eye 
than is common with other persons, and the eyes are generally wei^ 
tender, and watery ; while vision is more agreeable and more perfect 
in twi%ht. But the inconvenience of an ordinary degree of lights 
and the advantage of imperfect darkness, have been exaggerated. 

It would seem that there is a greater tendency to the formation of 
this variety in some parts of the world than in others. It is mors 
common among the African and the Indian tribes than among the 
European people. In the Isthmus of Darien, and in some H the 
oriental islands, it is so frequent that some writers have oonoeived 
that those persons fbrm a distinot and peculiar tribe ; but for this 
opinion there is no foundation. Mr. Bowdich, however, states that 
the king of Ashantee, who seems to have considered persons of this 
description as a great curiosity, and to have indulged his taste for 
collecting them in a truly Oriental manner, had assembled about him 
nearly a hundred white negroes. Blumenbach states that he has 
himaelf seen sixteen Albinos in various parts of Qerma^; and 
examples have been not unfrequently found in Denmark, &igland, 
Ireland, France, Switserland, Italy, the Grecian Archipelago, and 
Hungary. It is common in both sexes, but it would appear to be 
somewhat more fr^uent in males than in females. 

ALBITE, a mineral of the Felspar group, in which the Pptash of 
felspar is exactly replaced by soda. It includes Perieline, Tetartine, 
CamatUe, and Cleavlanditt. It occurs maarive and crystallised. 
Primary form a doubly oblique prism. Cleavage parallel to the 
primary planes. Colour commonly white, sometimes gray, greenish, 
bluish, or red ; streak white. Fracture uneven. Hardness 6*0. Lustre 
pearlvon the cleavage planes, vitreous in other directions. Transparent, 
translucent Spedfio gnmiy 2*6 to 2*68. The massive varieties have 
a laminar structure. Found in Norway, Sweden, Dauphiny, St- 
Gothard, Scotland, and accompanying felspar in most of its 
numerous localities; fix>m this it differs ohieflv in containing soda 
instead of potash. Analysis, by Stromeyer: silica, 70*68; alumina, 
19-20; soda, 9*06; lime, 0*28. 

ALBUCA (aibtUy white), a genus of plants belonging to the natural 
order LQiacece, The species are mostly found at the Cape of Good 
Hope. They are cultivated in this country, and require the treat- 
ment of greenhouse bulbs. 

ALBUICBK. — In plants this term has been improperly applied to 
the substance which' in some seeds is interposed between the 
embryo and tiieir coal It varies very much in density, and other 
characters, and is often the most valuable part of a plant In the 
oococ^nut it is the meat, the milk being a fluid uncondensed portion 
of it ; in the ooifee-seed it is the part that is roasted ; and in com it 
is that which is ground into flour. The oil of the castoroil plant, 
and of the poppy, the aroma of the nutmeg, and the greasy nutntious 
substance that forms chocolate are all the produce of albumen. In 
the ivoiy-nut it is the hard part from which it has acquired its 

This substance in the beginning ii of a pulpy nature, and is the matter 
in which the younf embryo first makes its appearance ; in this state 
it is present in aU plants, but as the embryo, for the nutriment of 
which it is destined, increases in size, the albumen is gradually 
absorbed by it, either wholly, as in the turnip, the pea, the bean, and 
the like ; or in part only, the residue being of a consistence varying 
between softness, as in the poppy, and extreme hardness, as in the 
date-palm. FSesd.] 

Botanists mid its preitnoe in abundance, or its total or almost total 

absence, a character of very great importance in distinguishing^ the 
different tribes of plants. 

ALBURNUM, in plants, is that part of the stem of trees which 
timber-merchants call Sapwoad, It is the newly-formed unchanged 
wood lying immediately below the bark, and is always of a very light 
colour. It is the principal channel through which the crude sap i» 
conveyed from the roots into the leaves, and is, therefore, an indis- 
pensable part in all exogenous trees. [^zooEire.] It consists of deli- 
cate fibrous tissue; in which respect it differs from Rearttoood, or 
Dnramen, in which the tissue is combined with BoUd secretions, the 
nature of which varies with species. It is probably on the latter 
account that heartwood is so much more durable than sapwood ; for 
simple fibrous tissue is in itself very perishable, and it only ceases to 
be so in consequence of the presence of secretions of a less destruo- 
tible character. 

While many plants have the alburnum and heartwood distinctly 
sen>arated, there are others, technically called Whitewooded Trees, 
which consist of nothing but alburnum. This arises from their not 
forming any solid secretions which can give durability to the central 
parts ; nence all such trees are quickly perishable^ aoid are generally 
unfit for any but temporaiy purposes. 

ALCA (duvier), the Auk, a genus of Web-Footed sea-birds, which 
has a singularly-formed bill, b^ng very broad when viewed laterally, 
straight towards the base, but much curved towards the point Both 
the mandibles are half covered by projecting feathers, and furrowed 
near the point. The upper mandible is crooked, and the under forms 
a projecting angle. The nostrilB are towards the middle of Ihe sides 
of the upper mandible, being very narrow and idmost dosed by a 
membrane covered with feathers. The legs are short, and placed far 
back, so that the birds when standing have their backs nearly perpen- 
dicular. There are only three toes fully webbed, the ba^ toe beinf 
wanting. The daws are somewhat pointed. The wings are short, ana 
the first quill is as long as the second, or perhaps a UtUe longer. 

Only two n>edes are known, the Great Auk {Alea impennii), and 
the Razor Bill (Alca Torda), both natives of the British Isles. [Auk.] 

ALCEDO (Limueus), Kingfisher, a genus of birds of which the 
characteristics are : — Thib bill long, straight, quadrangular, thick, and 
pointed ; the tongue short, fieshv, flat, and slightly arrow-shaped at 
the point ; the nostrils at the side of the base of the bill running 
obliqudy, and nearly dosed by a naked membrane ; the legs with the 
shank {iar»ui) short ; the feet with three toes forward, the outer joined 
to the middle one as feu* as the second joint ; the inner one sixnilarly 
joined as far as the first joint Thehind toe is broad at the base. The 
wings have the first and second quills nearly equal, but these are 
shorter than the third, which ia the longest in we wing. 

There is only one spedes of Kingflsher {Alcedo Itpida) indigenous 
to Britain. It is the most beautiful of our native birds. More than 
sixty spedes have been described by naturalists, chiefly natives of Asia 
and Africa, and all distinguished by the splendid colours of their 
plumage. [Halotohida] 

ALOES, the Elk. [Deer.] 


ALCTONELLA (diminutive of Alcyonitm), a genus of animals 
bdonging to the Fresh-Water Polyzoa, or Aseidian Zoophytet. The 
spedes of this genus were originally regarded as plants. They are 
composed of a fleshy sponge-like mass, which consists of vertical, 
segregated, membranaceous tubes, whidh open on the sur&oe. In 
these tubes the polypes are seated, which are asddian ; the mouth is 
endrded with a siogle series of fi^orm tentacula, whidi, like those 
of the whole fiqnilv, are depressed or incomplete on one ride. The eggs 
are contained in the tubes, and are coriaceous and smooth. 

The most common spedes is the A. %tagnorvm of Lamouroux, which 
is commonly found in stagnant waters, especially when they contain 
iron in solution. The polype-mass of tins spedes is a sponge-like 
substance^ somewhat dastic, of a blackish green colour, and is 
more or lees apparently porous. It is composed ot tubes which rise 
from the base to the surf&ce, and are connected together by a firm 
transparent gelatinous substance. The walls of the tubes are composed 
of a thin pelludd colourless membrane, through which the ova in their 
interior can be easily seen. The ova are very numerous, although the 
animal itsdf is comparativdv rare, abounding at one season, and 
almost absent at another, in the same pond. 

This animal was origioally described by Trembley in 1741, and 
although he was perfecUy aware of its nature at that early period, it 
has be^ often described since both as a plant and a sponse. One of 
the best modem accounts is that of Mr. T. P. Teale, in the first volume 
of the ' Transactions of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Sodety.' 

(Johnston, BrUiA Zoophytes^ 

ALCTONIDiB, a funily of the Asteroid Polypes, oontainmg the 
genera A Icyonivm and SareodielyofL They are distinguished from the 
PeiMoiuluUB (Sea-Pens), and the OorffoniadcB (SearFans), by the polype- 
mass being tough and fiediy, without any distinct axis^ but strengthened 
by the irregular distribution of calcareous spicules. The polype-cells 
are placed in the fieshy mass, and scattered over its sur&oe. 

The best known of the spedes of this ftmOy is the AleyonUm 
digitatum, which was described by EUis under its popular name of 
Dead Man's Hand, or Dead Man's Fingers. It has been described by 
natoialists by other names, especially LolnUaria ; but this is inadmissible, 

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OB haYing been previously employed to name a plant. Aleyonium ia 
deriyed from Alcyon, the kingfisher ; and this word means sea-foam, 
of which the kingfishers were supposed to make their nests. 

The species in question ia one of the most conmion of our maritime 
productions, and is found on stones and shells and rocks, and can 
frequently be collected at the low-water mark during a spring-tide. 
It sometimes coyers the object to which it is attached as a mere crusty 
at other times it rises up in one or more conical masses. Where there 
is only one, the fishermen giye it the name of the Cow's Paps, from its 
resemblance to the teat of the cow's udder. The skin is tough, and 
when examined presents httle radiated points, which indicate where 
the tentacles of tne polypes exist The tentades are shorty obtuse, and 
ciliated on the margins. The polype-oeUs are placed just under the 
skin, at the termination of a series of aquiferous canals which run 
throughout the polype-mass. These tubw communicate with each 
other, so that many of the polypes are, as it were, collected together, 
forming a compound animal The space between the tubes is occupied 
by a loose fibrous network, forming losenge^haped compartment!^ 
with smaller meshes in them. These interstices are filled with gela- 
tinous matter, in which irregular calcareous spicule lie embedded. 
The oya are developed in the polype-tubes, and are about the size of 
a grain of sand. They are produced in spring and summer, and 
ultimately dischaiiged from the mouth of the polype. 

A second species of Alcyonitun, A. gUmarUuin, has been described 
by Dr. A. H. HassalL 

The genus Sarcodietyon has been described by Professor Edward 
Forbes. It differs from Alcycnium in the incrusting, creeping, and 
anastomosing form it assumes. Its polypes also are distant from each 
other, and placed in uniserial prominent cells. It has eight pinnated 
tentacula. Only one species hiuB been described^ & cateacUa, 

(Johnston, BrUiah Zoophytet.) 

ALCTONIDIXnd (from Alcyoniumf on account of its external 
resemblance), a genus of animals belonging to the Infundibulate section 
of the Polyzott, or Atciduxn Zoophjitea. It presents a fleshy yariously- 
lobed mass, containing in it 5-sided cells, which contain ascidian 
polypes surrounded with a double sheath. The most common species 
of this genus is the A, gdatinowm. It is one of the most common 
productions of the sea-shore, and few persons can have been at the 
seaaide without having noticed it The older botanists described it 
as a plant Qerard in his ' Herbal ' says : — " This is a ver^ succulent 
and fungous plant of the thioknesse of one*s thumbe ; it is of a dark 
yellowish colour, and buncheth forth on everie side with many unequal 
tuberosities or knots." He called it the ' Sea Ragged Staffe.' Ray 
called it a Fuctu; but Lamouroux, who first classed it amongst 
plantar has the honour of having discovered that it was studded all 
over with polypes. We are indebted to Dr. Arthur Farre for a very 
elaborate account (' FhiL Trana,' 1839) of this creature. The polype- 
m%Bs grows naturally in deep water attached to old ahells and stones. 
It is however washed upon most of our coasts after every storm. The 
mass is clustered or fingered, and rises to the height of from 6 to 
12 or 18 inches. It resembles a compact sponge, but is more pellucid 
and gelatinous. The sur&ce is smooth, but is speckled with dots 
which indicate the spots where the polypes are contained. The 
polypes are so closely connected with their cells that it is impossible 
to separate them without mutilation. The tentacles are 16 in number. 

Two other species have been described as frequent on the British 
coasts, A. hir§tUvm and A. parantium. 

(Johnston, Britith Zoophytes,) 

ALCYONIUM. [Aloyokida] 

ALDER. [Ajlnus]. 

ALECTO (one of the Furies of the Greek mythology), a genua of 
Infundibulate Polyzoa, characterised by the creeping and branched 
character of its polype-masa There are several species, all of which 
are found attached to old shells and stones, and are mostly dredged 
for in deep water. 

ALETHOTTERIS (Sternberg), a genus of Fossil Ferns, mostly 
from the Coal formation. {Pecopterit of Brongniart) 

ALETRIS, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
LUiacetE, One of the species, A. fdrinota, is the most intense bitter 
known. It is found in fields and the edges of woods veiy commonly 
in the United States, and is used in infusion as a tonic and stomachic. 
Large doses produce poisonous effects. 

AlEURITES, a genus of Euphorbiaoeous plants, many of the species 
of which are now referred to Oroton, [Cboton.] 

ALEXANDRITE, a name given to specimens of the mineral Chry- 
aoberyl, brought from the UraL [Chbtbobebtl.] 

ALGiB is the name given by botanists to the tribe of plants which 
comprehends the Sea-Weeds, Lavers, and fresh-water submersed 
species of similar habits. In structure they vary through a vast 
variety of intermediate gradations, from the state of simple microscopic 
vesicles to branched woody individuals many fS&thoms in length. 
Some of them are only visible to the naked eye when they are 
collected in heaps ; of this nature is the green and red slime that we 
find in damp walks, at the bottom of shaded walls, and in similar 
situations ; othen grow together in the bed of the ocean, and when 
they rise to the surface fonn floating banks of such extent as to 
impede the course of ships; of this kind are the Chorda JUum, or 
Sea Cat-Gut^ of Orkney, meadows of which have been seen in Scalpa 

Baj ; and the Gulf-Weed of navigators, which, according to Humboldt» 
being cairied by the Gulf Stream, forms two banks in the great buon 
of the Northern Atlantic Ocean, one of which stretches over 11 degrees 
of latitude, and the other over 4 degrees. 

The plants included imder this designation are every day becoming 
better known through the influence which the microscope and better 
methods of inveatigation an producing in every department of 
natural histoiy. Under the term Alga Linnteus included the 
Lichens and other plants as an order in the class Oryptogamia, or 
Aerogmt. The Lichens have been long ainoe sepsiated; but the 
plants that are now ordinarily called Alga present differences quite 
as wide as any that separate the orders of the class Exogent, so that 
we cannot r^aird the term Aha as of only ordinal valuer Dr. Lindley, 
in his 'Vegetable Kingdom, constitutes an alliance which he csIIb 
A Igata, and which he makes to embrace the following natural orders :— 

1. JHatomaeea, or Brittlewortai 

2. Confervacees, or Confervas. 
8. FucaceOf or Sea Wracks. 

4. Ceramiacea, or Rose TangLes. 

5. Charaoea, or Charads. 

The first of tiiese orders includes the Jktmidea, which are almost 
entirely microscopic. They are hardly oompr^ended under the 
term Alga at all [Diatomacejb ; Dwjmtdk^.] It is onlv veiy 
recentiy that naturalists have come to the condusiGn that they are 
plants. The Charads, or fifth order, present in many respects a 
much higher development than the rest, and may be justly regarded 
as not belonging to Alga, [Chabacbil] The relation of these 
groups to each other and the animal kingdom may be seen in the 
following diagram, given by Professor Harvey in his work on the 
'British Algs.' 

As Mr. Harvey is the most recent writer on this subject we shall 
follow him in this article. He divides the Alga into three sub-dassea 

1. MdanoaperfMeB, which are marine pluits of an olive green, or 
olive brown colour, having a moncociouB or dioecious fructification. 
The spores are oliveHX>lourod ; each enveloped in a pellucid akin, and 
either simple, or separating into two, four, or eight sporules. They 
possess arUheridui, or transparent^ orange-coloured, vivacious ooipusde^ 
moving by means of vibratile <n\it^ 

2. IViodotpermea, which, with one or two exceptions, are marine 
plants, mostiy of a rosy red or purple colour. The fructification is of 
two kinds : either of spores in external or immersed conoeptacles, or 
densely aggregated together and dispersed throughout masses of the 
frond; or of tetraspores of a red or purple colour, eztemal, or 
immersed in the fh>nd, and each enveloped in a pellucid skin whidi 
at maturi^ separates into four sporules. Some pooesB antberidia 
which are nUed with yellow corpuscles. 

3. ChhroapermeoB, which are marine or fi«sh-water plants of a 
green colour. The fructification is dispersed throu^ all parts of the 
frond. The spores are green, formed within the oeUs, and often at 
maturity having vibratile cilia. They produce also gemmules, or 
external vesidee^ which contain a dense^ daik^odlouxed, granular mass, 
which finally separates from the Arond. 

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The MeUmospermece include the following orders : — FucaceaSf 
Sporochnaoea, Laminariacece, IHctyotacea, ChordariacecB, Ectocar- 

The FucactCB^ which have for their type the genuB FwyiUf are all of 
them marine plants. They are of an olive brown or greeniah colour, 
and very fine in their texture. The cellular Btruoture of which all 
the Alga are composed is in these plants in a very condensed state, 
awniming a leatheiy and sometimes even a woody character. The 
base of tiieir stem or stipes forms a dense shield-like root^ whilst their 
upper part is (tften expanded into a broad foliaoeous appendage. The 
reproductive organs consist of small black or very dark spores, which 
are collected into sori or are found scattered on various parts of the 
frond. These spores are enveloped in a thick gelatinous mucus, 
which seems to be a provision for the purpose of attaching them more 
securely to the rocks on which they grow in the midst of the restless 
element to which they are constancy exposed. They are of very 
rapid growth, and only a few months serve to cover a surface of 
naked rock with a forest of various species of i^uci Kelp is manu- 
factured from the species of plants belonging to this section of A Igm ; 
the one most commonly collected for this purpose is the Fuctu 
veticuioius. Kelp is not now manufactured to any great extent in 
this country, but a few years since it was a source of great wealth in 
the Western Islands and the western shores of Scotland. [Kslp.] 
At one time the quantity made in Scotland and its acyaoent isles was 
not less than 20,000 tons annually, which sold at the average price of 
102. per ton. 

Of all the species, that which is the most common is the Fucua 
vttieulotut, great quantities of which are cast upon our ooasta, and 
which is known by its strap- 
shaped, olive-gp^een, forked divi- 
aioDS, having little yellowish oval 
uneven pods at their points, and 
by the crackling noise it makes 
when trodden upon; a drcum- 
stance whidi is owing to its stems 
having a considerable number of 
air-bladdflTB, by means of which it 
floats. The structure of the pods 
is highly curious. Externally they 
ooDsist of a hard rind, covered 
with tumours, each of which has a 
little hole in its oentre. Internally 
they contain a soft mucous sub- 
stance, in which lie, next the rind 
vid immediately below its tumours, 
a number of round balls (a). 
These little balls are composed of 
jointed threads (6) which hold 
together a great many little oval 
grains (c) enveloped in a sort of 
jelly. These grams are the spores 
by means of which the plant is propagated, and when ripe they are 
discharged through the holes in the tumours above described. 

Although, from the simple structure of the Algos, we should not 
expect that tibey would elaborate many of those secretions which in 
higher plants are found subservient to the use of man and other 
»jtimaiu as food, yet among many of these a gelatinous matter is 
secreted, which is nutritious. In Qobhland, the F. vetieulotui is given as 
provender to hogs, and hence is called Swine-Tang. Many other animals 
will also eat this plant as food, in times of scarcity. It is also collected 
in Jersey, and when dried is used as fuel The fishermen both of our 
own and the Dutch ooasts use this Fvtcui and the F, terraiua for pack- 
ing up their fish ; the latter is however preferred, as^ from containing 
less mucus, it is less likely to ferment. The Fuci were at one time 
used considerably in medidne, as well as other forms of Alg<B, but 
since the discovery of their active principle, iodine [Iodins, Enq. Cra, 
AsTS ASD So. Drv.], they have been comp«ratively little used. Accord- 
ing to Ecklon, the Laminaria huccinaliB of the Cape of Gfood Hope is 
the sea-weed that produces the greatest quantity of iodine. 

T|ie Sargauum vtOgare, or .Tropic Orape, the Fucut trntam of older 
writers, is remarkable for the immense quantities in which it occurs in 
certain portions of the ocean. It only grows within forty degrees of 
the equator, on each side, although occasionally thrown up by currents 
on our own shores. In some parts of the ocean it is so constant that 
it is said to assist pilots in rectifying their longitude. It was the 
occurrence of immense fields of these weeds that struck the sailors of 
Columbus with so much awe, and led them to suppose that Providence 
had determined to ftxistrate their course, which nearly terminated in 
the giving up of their great attempt to discover the New World. 

AUtria eaeuletUa, when stripped of the thin part, forms a part of the 
simple &re of the poorer classes of Ireland, Scotiand, Icdand, Denmark, 
and the Fnroe Isluids. 

The SporoeknacecB are a small group, composed of the Scatter-Tuft 
(JSparochmui) and three, other genera, which are remarkable for bearing 
little tufts of fine green filaments on the fixmds. They are of an olive 
or yellowish green colour : they become flaccid on exposure to the air, 
acquiring a ve^igris colour, and possess the property of decomposing 
other Alff(B with ivhich they may come in contact 

VAT. mat, DIV. YOL. L 

I\ieut teiieulotus. 

The Laminariacece, or Tangles, have a densely fibro-ceUular structure 
and their spores are collected togethw in sori on the surface of the 
frond. These plants are coriaceous or membranaceous in structore, 
and are little changed by exposure to the air. Some of them are used. 
Laminatia etculerUa is an edible spedes. It grows to the length of 
20 feet, and the midrib, stripped of its membranaceous covering, is the 
part that is eaten. L. sacchairirM, or the Sugar Sea-Belt, is said to be 
eaten by the Icelanders. In Japan it is also considered a great delicacy. 
L, digitata, or Sea-Wand, is eaten in Scotland, and is cried about the 
streets of Edinburgh as Tangle, Many of the sea-weeds belonging to 
this and other genera have been found to make excellent manure for 
grasB-land& Kdp has in many instances been used, and it has perfectly 
succeeded. It has been tried as a top-dressing, and singly or in 
oombination with other manures on com, pasture, potatoes, turnips, 
&;a, with the best effect 

To this section belongs the Chorda JUum, SeapWhiplash, or Sea- 
Whipcord, which is often found 80 or 40 feet in length. The fiond of 
this plant is hollow within, interrupted at short distances, an arrange- 
ment which appears to be for the purpose of enabling the plant to 
float in the water, and thus securing the same end as the more highly 
developed vesicles of Fiteu$ venculonu. 

The Dietyotaeeaf or Sea-Networks, are a larger section than the last, 
and are characterised by the beautifully reticulated texture of the tegu- 
ment Their fix>nds are of various forms, but all of them are ribless. 

The Chordariaeea and FetooarpaeecB have their fronds formed of 
jointed filaments, which are either fr^ee or united into a compound body 

The Fctoeairpacea are olivaceous or green marine plants; their 
fructification is monoBdous, the capsules external, and the globules 
placed between swollen ramulL It contains the genus Eoioearpui and 
two others. 

The FhodotpermecB include the following orders: — Jthodomelacea 
LaurenciaceoB, OoralUnaeecef Ddetaeriacea, Bhodymmiaeea, Orypto- 
nemiaeetE, Ceramiaeece, These orders are distinguished by their 
brilliant and littie-fSeding tints, their leaf-like fronds, and the collection 
of their spores into sori, or, if scattered, by the spores being arranged 
on a ternary plan. The Chondrus^erieput, or Carrageen Moss, belongs 
to the order Otyptonemieieecg, In Ireland it is used extensively as an 
artide of food, and has lately been sold in London as a substitute for 
Iceland Moss. It is frequently employed, instead of isinglass, for the 
mani^^aoture of blano-mange and jellies. It has a slight bitter flavour, 
which may be removed by steeping for some time previous to boiling. 

Another genus of the same order is Oelidiwn, A species of thu 
genus is said to be the substance collected by the swallows and 
used in the construction of the edible nests of Java. Strange as 
it may seem that a taste for birds' nests should exist among any 
people, yet so strong is this taste in China, that tiie trade in birds' 
nests forms a very lucrative and extensive branch of commerce. 
Burnett, in his ' Outlines of Botany,' observes, " It has been estimated 
that 242,400 lbs. of birds' nests, worth in China 284,290Z. and upwards, 
are annually exported from the Indian Archipdago." The only pre- 
paration the birds' nests undergo is that of simple drying, without 
direct exposure to the sun; iSter which they are packed in small 
boxes. They are assorted for the Chinese market into three kinds, 
according to their qualities ; and the common price for birds' nesta 
of the first sort at Canton is no less than 8500 dollars the pecul, or 
51. IBs. 1 id. per lb. ; for the second, 2800 Spanish dollars the pecul ; 
and for the third, 1600. The collecting these birds' nests, according 
to Mr. Crawfrird, is as perilous a toil as our fearful trade of gathering 
samphire ; for he says, " The nests are obtained in deep and damp 
caves, and are most esteemed if taken before the birds have laid their 
eggs. The coarsest are those collected after the young have been 
fledged. The finest nests are the whitest ; that is, those taken before 
thev are defiled by the young birds. They are taken twice a y^ear, 
and if regularly coUected, and no unusual injury offered to the caverns, 
the produce is very equal, and the harvest very little if at all improved 
by being left unmolested for a year or two. Some of the caverns are 
extremdy difficult of access, and the nests can only be collected by 
persons accustomed from their youth to the office. In one place the 
caves are only to be approached by a perpendicular descent of many 
hundred feet by ladders of bamboo and rattan, over a sea rolling 
violentiy against the rocks. When the mouth of the cavern is attained, 
the perilous office of taking the nests must often be performed by 
torch-light^ by penetrating into the recesses of the rock, where the 
slightest trip would be instantiy fatal to the adventurers, who see 
nothing below them but the turbulent surf making its way into the 
chasms of the rock." (Crawford's 'Eastern Archipdago.') 

Several other spedes of Odidiwn are made use of as food, more 
especially in the East, where they are added to dishes to render the 
hot and biting condiments more palatable. 

The Iridea edulia, Edible Dulse, is a favourite food with many of the 
Ortutaeea, as lobsters, crabs, &c. : it is also eaten by fishermen, both 
raw and roasted. It is said to resemble in flavour roasted oysters. 
The ffalymmia pahnata was at one time used as a masticatory, but 
its use has been supplanted by tobacco. It is still, however, used as 
a popular, remedy in scorbutic and other cutaneous diseases. " To 
the Icelanders it is a plant of condderable importance. They prepare 
it by washing it well in fresh water, and expodng it to dry, when it 
gives out a white powdery substanoe, which is sweet and palatable. 

Digitized by 






and coven the whole plant They then pack it in oukB to keep it from 
the air, and thus preserve it ready to be eaten, either in this state with 
fish and butter, or, according to the practice of wealthier tables, boiled 
in milk, and mixed with a little flour of 17& The cattle are also very 
fond of this sea-weed, and sheep are said to seek it with such avidity 
as often to be lost, by going too Ua from the land at low-water." 
(* Quart Rev.,' vii. 68.) From tips latter drcumstanoe it was oaUed 
Fueut ovinuSf or Sheep Dulse. In Kamtchatka it is used for makings 
fermented beverage, which is easily produced on account of the great 
qusLtity of sugar this plant oontams. 

Amongst the Sh/odymeniacea is the genus GraeUUnria, the species 
of wfaddi are also used as food, and one of them, 0, liehenoideif is highly 
valued in Ceylon and other parts of the East, and bears a great 
resemblance to 0. compreua, a species of the British coast, and which 
Dr. GreviUe says is little inferior to the firsts and has been used in this 
countiy both as a pickle and a preserve. The O. tenax, the Fucub 
tenax of Turner, is invaluable to the Chinese as the basis of an excel- 
lent glue and varnish. ** Though a smsll planty" says Dr. Greville, 
" the quantity annually imported at Canton from the provinces of 
Fokein and Tchikiang is stated by Mr. Turner to be about 27,000 lbs. 
It is sold for 6d. or 8d. per pound, and is used for the purposes to 
which we apply glue and g^um arabia The Chinese employ it chiefly 
in the manu&cture of lanterns, to strengthen or varnish the paper, and 
sometimes to thicken or give a gloss to silks or gauze." Mr. Neil^ 
thinks it probable that the gummy matter called chm-chou, or hai-tsai, 
in China and Japan, may be composed of this substance. Windows 
made of slips of bamboo, and crossed diagonally, have frequently their 
interstices wholly filled with the transparent glue of hai-tsal 

A celebrated vermifuge on the Continent is prepared from the 
SdmirUhocorton^ a genus which grows in the Meditexranean, and goes 
by the name of the Coralline of Corsica. It has a]so been recommended 
as a remedy in cancer, but is seldom used in this cotmtiy. 

TheP/ocamiiMii, or Hau>Flag {IkUa9eriacta\ is one of the most elegant 
plants of this section. It was formerly used much in the construction 
of artificial landscapes on paper, and its collection and preparation 
gave employment to many of the poor on our coasts. 

The order Cer€miacem contains six genera, one of which is the 
Qriffithtia^ a plant named after Mrs. Griffiths, who has done much to 
advance the knowledge of the order Alga in Great Britain. The 
most extensive genera in this tribe are ColaUhamnionKDA Potynj^ftonia. 
Most of the species belonging to these two genera are natives of the 
sea, and are found attached to rocks, and to shells, stones, and 
corallines which are thrown up by the waves. Many of them are also 
found parasitic upon the larger sea-alga, as the various species of 
Fuem and others. 

The Chlorotpermecg include the orders Siphonaeeof, (hnftrvacea^ 
^vaeecBy OitciUatoriacecB, NottoeacecB, and Palmellaeea 

The order Siphonacea consists of plants which are found in the sea, 
in fresh water, or on damp ground, of an herbaceous green colour. 
The frond is either compoeeid of membranaceous, filiform, continuous, 
simple, or branched tubes, or formed of a combination of similar 
tubes, forming a spongy or onistaoeous, globular, cylindrical, or flat 
body; the reproductive organs are vesides produced on the outer 
sur&ce of the tubes, filled with a dark green granular mass. This 
tribe contains four genera : Codium^ Btyoptia, Vaiueherifi, and 
Botrydium, The most interesting genus is Vaucheria, on account 
of the remarkable obaervations that have been made upon its repro- 
ductive granules by Unger and other botanists. [Vauchbbia.] 

Codivm, the Sea-Puise, is a hollow, sub-globose, dark green plants 
composed of an interwoven mass of tubular continuous filamente, the 
repx^uctive vesicles being attached to the filaments nesr the surface 
of the frond. There are two British species found on submarine 
rocks. JBryoptit has two British species, which are slso marine plants. 
The frond is membranaceous, filiform, tubular, cylindrical, glistening, 
branched ; the branches are imbricated, or distichous and pinnated, 
and filled with a fluid containing minute granules. Their numerous 
branches give them the appearance of feathered mosses — hence their 
name. Botrydimn (from Ek^rpvs), a G^|fe-Bunoh, is nothing more than 
a spherical vesicular receptacle, filled with a watery fluid : it opens 
at the apex, and has, descending from the lower part, a bunch of 
radical fibres. In structure this plant resembles Cbdtum, but it is 
much smaller, the receptacle not b^ng bigger than a grain of mustard, 
and it grows upon the ground in moist shady situations. Granules 
are contained in the watery fluid within the plant, and when the 
weather is dry, the upper part of the receptacle collapses, giving the 
plant a cup-shape. 

The ConftrvQ^cecB are for the most part green plants, but sometimes 
pink or brown. The fructification consists of a granular, coloured 
internal mass, which assumes various forms. 

The genus Conferta, although still containing numerous spedes, 
has been much reduced by the formation of new genera. It has 
however still an indefinite character, on account of the comparatively 
little attention which the order Alga has received from botanists. 
The *' filaments are articulated, free, distinct, uniform, simple or 
branched. Fruit (?), an internal, coloured, granular mass (endo- 
chrome). Colour green, rarely puiple or orange." The species of 
Conferva are found wherever there is water. In running streams 
ihev sttafih themselves to the stones at the bottom, and are so 

abundant frequently in stagnant ponds and pools as to eonoeal 
everything else. Some few of them are found in sea-water, and 
some on dry land. Some of th^ species have been found developing 
their peculiar forms under the influence of the ingredients of different 
' mineral-springs ; and one, the (kn^trca tAermaZtt, is only found in ther- 
msl springs. Under favourable circumstances they sometimes go on 
developing to an immense extent in lakes or ponds in which they 
grow. They are generally at first green, but as they ascend to the 
surface of the water, and are exposed to the air, they become whitish. 
The rapidity of the growth of these plants is sometimes very 
extraordinary, and lakes, and even the ocean itself, are covered for 
several miles with floating masses of Cknrferva several inches in depth. 
Of the various species of Cvnferva, the 0. frada, the C. criipata, 
and O, riwlarii are most abundant in this country. These plants are 
frequently called Crow-Silks, and in some parts of the country, when 
dried, they have been used for the purpose of stofi^g beds, also as 
wadding for stuffing gsrments. Dr. Lightfoot says he has seen at 
Edinburgh a kind of paper manufactured from the fibres of Conferva 
fritetci, O. agagropUa, Globe Crow-Silk, or Moor-Ball, is found with 
its filaments rolled up into the form of a ball, so that it has the 
appearance of the balls of hair oocasionslly found in the stomachs of 
animalft It is an inhabitant of lakes, but is rarely found. It is not 
fixed to anything, but floats about at the mercy of the waves. The 
balls vary in diameter from hslf sn inch to four inches. 

The genus Hydrodictyon has fiilsments which form a network with 
regular polygonal meshes, and vivipsrous articulations. There is but 
one species, the H. ulricvJUUvm, Common Water^Net, which is a rare 
plant, and found only in ditches and pools in the middle and southern 
parts of England. It is a beautiful plsnt, forming a tubular net, 
which floats freely in the water. The meshes of the net-work are 
pentagonal or hexagonal, and vary in diameter from half a line to 
half an inch, and the fiilaments from the width of a humsn hair to 
that of the oocurseet hog^s-bristle. 

The genus Mov^eotiOf named after J. R Mougeot, a German 
botanist, has articulated simple filaments, which are finally united by 
transverse tubes. The endoohrome is granulsr, at length forming 
roundish globules at the point of conjugation. This is ^ne of the 
genera of confervoid plante whose filaments are said to unite before 
reproduction takes place. That this conjugation does take place 
previous to their granules possessing any reprodac^ve power, in 
msny of the species, there can be no doubt But there are many 
species of Conferva which belong to the conjugate group of genera, 
in which the phenomenon of conjugation does not take place previous 
to reproduction. These exceptions occur more particularly in the 
genus Zygnetna. [Ztohxma.] Several species of Mottgeotia are found 
in Great Britain ; the most common is the M. gem^kxOf which is 
abundant in pools and ditches, sometimes covering a space 30 or 40 
feet in diameter, and being of a yeUowish-green or dull yellow colour. 
The filaments are exceedingly fragile. 

The genus Tyndaridea hss simple filaments, inosculating hj 
transverse tubes. The endochrome is in two roundish mannfii, which 
after conjugation unite to form a single globule. The species are 
found in ponds and ditches, mostiy oonunencing their existence at 
the bottom of the water, and after a littie time rising to the surface, 
where they form masson varying in size, of a yellowish and yellowish- 
green colour. 

The Ulvacea include plants which are found in the sea, in fresh- 
water, or on the damp ground : they are generally of an herbaceous 
green or fine purple colour, and have a thin, tender, membranaceotu, 
reticulated structure, rarely gelatinous ; they are generally furnished 
with a very minute scutate root, which is either expanded or tubular 
and continuous ; the reproductive organs consist of roundish, mostly 
quatemate granules, or minute opercular grains, which are imbedded 
in the delicate membtane of the plant This order contains about 
ten genera, of which the five following are British i—Porphyra, Ulva, 
Tetraaporot Enieromorpha, and Bangia, 

Porphyra (from wofipiiptos), the Purple Laver, has a plain frond, 
exceedingly thin, and of a purple colour. The reproductive organs 
are of two kinds: — 1, Roundish granules arranged in foun, and 
imbedded in the whole substance of the/rond ; 2, Masses of smaller 
ovate granules, which are scattered without order, chiefly towards the 
margin of tiie frond. Four species of the Purple Laver are enums' 
rated. The most common is the Porphyra laeiniatOf which has its 
fronds sggregatedand deeply cleft> the segments dilated, and variously 
out and waved. This plant is common in the sea fix>m spring to 
autumn, and grows on rocks and stones, whence it is often torn by 
the violence of the waves, and thrown on the shore. The frond of this 
plant abounds in a viscid gelatinous matter, which is said to be vei7 
nutritious. On this account this plant, under the name of Laver, is 
much eaten in many places, especially the south of England. When 
collected, it is kept in jara with salt, and when brought to the table 
is served up with lemon-juice. Dr. Lightfoot states that in the 
Western Isles it is gathered in the month of March, and that, when 
pounded and macerated with a little water, the inhabitants eat it with 
pepper, vinegar, and butter. It is sometimes stewed with leeks and 
onions. But although this plant is abundant enough, it is only ver^ 
partially used as an article of diet 

Ulva the Green Laver, has a membranaceous frond of a green colour 

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with its reproductive granules arraDged in fours. There are seven 
British species of Ulva : three growing in the sea, one in fresh water, 
and three in damp places on the land. 

U. latitnmaf the Broad Qreen Laver, has a plain, widely-oblong or 
roundish frond, waved, and of a green oolotur and tender substance. 
It is an abundant plant on the rocks and stones of the sea in sununer 
and autumn. In common with U. Ltictuca, the Lettuce Qreen Laver, 
it is gathered and eaten in the same way as the Purple Laver. It is 
also known under the name of Oyster Green. This plant is populsrly 
supposed to be good for scrofulous habits. It is sometimes applied to 
the forehead to relieve headache in fevers, and also to procure sleep. 
U. buUoBO, the Blistered Green Laver, is the fresh-water species. It 
has an obovate, saccate frt>nd, which is gelatinous, and at length 
becomes irregularly expanded, waved, and buBate. It is a veiy fre- 
quent plant in stagnant pools and ditches of fresh water, often covering 
Uie ^hole suifaoe of the water, and giving it the appearance of being 
in a state of fermentation. Microscopically examined, this is an object 
of no common beau^ ; it seems as if composed of little green balls, 
about as big as the blood-ceUs in the human blood, having no sort of 
adhesion with each other, but holding together by a transparent thin 
jelly. It is by these little green baUs, or by the matter they contain, 
that the Ulva is propagated. The ocftnmon Laver of the shops very 
nearly resembles it, but is a marine spedes. The terrestrial species 
of l/Zva are found growing on walls, roc^ the roo& of thatched houses, 
and especially in places exposed to much moisture. U. thermaUa grows 
in hot^rings at a temperature of 117** Fahrenheit. 

The genus Tetnupora, named ttom the qiiatemary arrangement of 
its granules, inhabits fresh water, and includes two British species. 
The frt>nda are tubular or inflated, and gelatinous. 

The Bntenmorpha, Water-Gut, has a tubular, hollow, membra- 
naoeouA frond, of a green colour and reticulated structure; the 
reproductive granules are arranged in threes or fours in the reticu- 
lations. Seven or eight species of this genus have been described as 
British. They are lul inhabitants of the sea» or of pools and ditches 
of salt-water, with the exception of E. intettinaliBf which is also found 
in fresh- water pools. All the species are long, varying from two or 
ihne inches to three feet in length, and whoi floating in the water 
very much resemble the intestines of an animal — Whence their name. 

Bangia was named after Hoflbnan Bang; a Danish naturalist, who 
wrote a work on the (kmderwz. It has a flat, capillary, membranaceous 
frond, of a green, reddish, or purple colour. 

The order OteiUaioriacece is composed of plants which are green or 
brown in colour, with continuous tubular filaments, seldom branched, 
though often joined together so as to appear brandied. The fructifi- 
cation consists of an internal mass divided bv transverse septa, finally 
separating into roundish or lenticular sporidia. This tribe of plants, 
like the others, is found wherever there is water, and is more abundant 
in fr-esh water than in the sea. There are however many of them 
found in the sea, and also in mineral-waters Many of the species, 
especially of OtcQitUoria, are endowed with a power of movmg so 
appuren^y spontaneous, that some naturalists have placed them among 
animals, as well as the more minute forms of plants belonging to the 
order A Iga, Captain Carmidhael, who devoted much attention to this 
subject, has made the following observations, which were published 
frtmi among his MSS. by Mr. Harvey : — " I have been induced to 
bestow considerable attention on such of the species as fell under my 
notice, on account of the singnlar motion remarked in the filaments 
hy various naturalists ; and I do confess that the result is something 
like conviction that they belong rather to the animal than to the 
vegetable kingdom. This motion or osdllaidon has been attributed 
to various causes — ^to the rapidity of growth, to the action of the 
light, or to the agitation of the water m which the specimens were 
immersed for inspection; but none of these afford a satis&ctory 
explanation. The last may be put to the proof by a very simple con- 
trivance. Let a small portion of the stratum be placed in a watch- 
glaas nearly filled with water, and covered with a circular film of talc, 
so that its edge may touch the glass ; the water will be rendered as 
fixed as if it was a piece of ice. The g^ass may now be placed under 
the microscope, and the oscillation of the filaments viewed without 
an^ risk of disturbance from the agitation of the water. Bjr following 
this course it will be speedily perceived that the motion m question 
is entirely independent of that cause. The action of light as a cause 
of motion cannot be disproved, because we cannot view our spedmens 
in the dark ; but indirectly there is nothing easier. If a watch-glass 
ehaiged as above be laid aside for a night, it will be found that by 
next morning not only a considerable radiation has taken place, but 
that multitudes of the filaments have entirely escaped from the 
stratum ; both indicating motion independent of light Rapidity of 
growth will show itself in a prolongation of the filaments, but will 
not account for this oscillation to the rig^t and left, and still less for 
their travelling in the course of a few hours to the distance of ten 
times their own length from the stratum. This last is a kind of motion 
unexampled, I believe, in the vegetable kingdom. There is another 
point in the natural historv of the Otcillatoriea, which favours the 
opinion that they are animalcules. It is the extremely linlited term 
of their existence. The commimity, if I may so call it, lives for several 
months ; but the individuals die off, and are succeeded by others with 
a rapidity to which there ib no parallel among genuine plants. If a 

small portion of stratum, say one-fourth of an inch in diameter, be left 
for three or four days in a watch-glass filled with water, the whole 
area of the glass will be found coveiod with a thin transparent pellicle 
or incipient stratum, derived from the filaments that had successively 
radiat^ and died in the course of that short period." 

There are sevcoal genera in the order (keilUUoriacece>-^8tiff(mema 
has cylindrical, cartilaginous, branched, inarticulate filaments, inclu- 
ding granules ranged in transverse dotted rings. Scytonema has 
branched, fiacdd, tough, continuous, tubular filaments, with brown 
or olive-«oloured endochrome, which is transversely striated, and at 
length separates at the strise into lenticular sporidia. Calothrix has 
erect tufted or fasciculate filaments destitute of a mucous layer, 
fixed at the base, somewhat rigid, without oscillation. The tube is 
continuous, and the endochrome is at length dissolved into lenticular 
sporidia. Many of the species of Calothrix are parasitical on other 
plants. It is to this genus that the Conferva nwea of Dillwyn belongs. 
It is the Calothrix nivea of Agardh. This plant is remarkable for its 
habitat in springs impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen. It was 
first found in the sulphur-springs of Croft in Yorkshire, by Dr. Willan. 
and has since been found bv other obanrvers. Dr. Daub^ny found it 
in many of the sulphur-springs of the Continent, and Dr. Lankester 
collected specimens at Mofiat, Harrowgate, Askem, and other places 
where there were springs impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen. 
The decomposition of this plant, probably mixed with the remains of 
other organic beings inhabiting the springs, has led to the supposition 
that the springs in which it was found contained a pseudo-organic 
matter whi(^lias beoi called by the names of Baregine, zoogene, and 
^airine. This was the opinion of the late Professor Anglada ; but 
Dr. Lankester, having been able to form glairine by the decomposition 
of the filaments of Calothrix nivea, renders it probable that there are 
no compounds in mineral-waters, except the 8alti^ which have not 
been derived from plants or animalcules inhabiting the waters. 
('Annals of Nat. Hist,' 1841 ; ' Notice of Plants and Animals found 
in Sulphureous Waters,' by K Lankester, MD.) The genus Lyngbya 
has froe, flexible, elongated, continuous, decumbent filaments, destitute 
of a mucous layer; the endochrome densely annulated, and separating 
at the annuli into lenticular sporidia. This genus was named after 
H. C. Lyngbye, a Danish botanist, and author of a work on the Alga 
of Denmark. Some of the species are vexy common. The L. muroZu 
is found almost on every damp wall or walk, forming an intensely 
green stratum of indefinite extent, which is very conspicuous after a 
shower of rain. Other species are parasitic upon some of the Fwsi 
and are found in the sea. 

The genus OtciUatoria has rigid, elastic, oscillating, simple, 
continuous filaments, which are invested by a common mucous 
matrix. The species are veiy numerous, but many of them are very 
difficult to Hinf.iTig niph, They are not all found immersed in water, 
but always occupy damp places. The 0. ieMiisnma is an inhabitant 
of the warm springs of Bath, occupying broad velvet-like patches of a 
dark green colour. Its if^^ giiUr appearance. Sir J. E. Smith observes, 
** arises from Ihe filaments being collected together into little ascending 
tufts, apJNtfently rooted in the muddy deposit of the water. Eatik 
tuft proves^ on examination, to consist of simple, reniform, even 
filaments, crowded together, and quite pellucid and equally destitute 
of joints and branches ; their diameter is not more than an 8-lOOOth 
or 10-lOOOth piurt of an inch." 

OtciUatoria dittorta, o, natural sise ; &, e, magnifled. 

The order Nogtocacea consists of plants with elliptical or globose cells 
connected in gelatinous moniliform strings. The filaments are separate, 
or several are united together in a gelatinous frond. The cells com- 
posing the filaments are of two kinds; first, a set of a bright green 
colour, which constitute the greater part of the filaments, and 
secondly, solitary cells of different form and size to the lost, destitute 
of colour, and covered with ciha. They occur at intervals m all the 
filaments, and are caUed 'connecting cells,' or 'heterocysts.' They 
probably represent the antheridia in the higher plants. Tb^ 

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lioaiocacea are chiefly found in fresh-water streamB and damp 

The Palmdlaeea are amongst the lowest forms of the Alffce. They 
consist of globose or elliptical cells, which are more or less distinct, 
and are coUected together by means of a string-layer into a fh>nd. 
The genus Protoeoecut has only one species, the P. tUvaiis. This little 
plant has gained a large share of attention on account of its being 
supposed at one time to be the cause of red snow. Now however the 
animal kingdom has put in a claim for a share in the production of 
this phenomenon. [Skow. Red.] Most of the species of MctmatoeoecuM 
are of a red colour, and give an appearance like that of blood to the 
rocks on which t^ey grow. These appearances have often been 
regarded with a superstitious eye, and looked upon as warnings or 
omens from Heaven. One of the species of PalmeUa, the P. etntefUOf 
has a dark blood-red colour, and on that accoimt has been called 'gory 
dew.' It occurs on white-washed walls, especially in damp cellars ; 
and in such situations has sometimes given occasion for alarm, on 
account of its having the appearance of stains of blood. The other 
vpecies of Palmetta have various colours, as yellow, green, and black. 
They are fotmd in fresh water streams and on rocks on the seanshore. 

(Harvey, Britith Marine Alga; Hooker, Briiiah Flora; Agardh, 
Speciea Alga/rwn ; Greville, Alga JBritannica ; Lindley, Vegetable 
Kingdom; Hassall, FreaJi-Water Algce; Burnett^ (huUnee of Botany.) 
ALGM, FOSSIL. The remains of sea-weeds in a fossil state are 
less common than their probable abundance in the ancient ocean and 
the generally marine origin of the strata might lead us to suppose. 
This arises perhaps from the cellular texture and destructible nature 
of the marine plants. Traces however of several genera occur in 
Silurian, Carbomferous, liaasic, Oolitic, Cretaceous, and later deposits. 
ALGAROBA BEAN. [Cbratoitia.] 

ALHAGI (from the Arabic Aghul or Algti^, a genus of plailts 
belonging to the natural order Legwninoia^ The species are imder- 
shrubs or herbs with simple leaves and minute stipules. The flowers 
are red, and disposed in racemes along the peduncles. 

A. Maurorvm is a native of the deserts of Egypt» Syria, Mesopo- 
tamia, and other countries of the East. This pluit yields a species of 
manna which is called Trungibin or Terengabin. It is chiefly gathered 
in the neighbourhood of Tauris where the plant grows abundantly. 
The manna is a natural exudation from the leaves and branches of 
the plants and is most abimdant during hot weather. In Arabia it is 
supposed that the manna falls from heaven on the plant. It flrst 
appears in the form of a small drop as of honey, which goes on 
increasing in size till it is about as large as a coriander seed. The 
manna yielded by this plant does not appear to be imported into this 
country. It is principally made use of a^ the present day in Persia, 
and is known by the name of Persian MamuL It is employed as food 
for cattle. Two other species, A. Camdonun and A. Nipoudenaitf are 
described by botanists, and cultivated in the greenhouses of this 
country. Tiiey also yield mamuL 

ALISMA'CEiE, a natural order of plants belonging to the class 
Endogent, It is known from all the other orders of the same division 

by its genera having the 
sepals and petals perfectly 
distinguishable from each 
other both in colour ahd 
situation, and by their 
carpels being extremely 
numeroua In many points 
they approach very nearly 
to the Crowfoot Tribe 
(Ranwnculaeea), from which 
the structure of their 
embryo «nd their endoge- 
nous ioo49 o| growth dis- 
tinguish tiiem. 

All the species are aquatic 
plants, witii rather broad- 
ribbed leaves and white 
flowers. They appear to 
be destitute of any active 
properties, except a slight 
degree of acridity, which 
» however does not prevent 
the rhizoma of some of them 
from being eaten in China. 

The order receives its 

name from the genus A litma, 

one species of .which, 

Aliema PUsiUago. a common 

Great Water Plantain {Ali»ma Plantago), . ^^ ^^j^^ ^^ q^^^ Britain, 

in wet ditches and by river sides, has had the imfounded reputation 
of being a cure for hydrophobia. Its powdered root is given in doses 
of from half a drachm to a drachm, either infused in wine or mixed 
with syrup. 

ALKANET. [Ahohusa.] 

ALLAGITE, in Mineralogy, is a variety of the tri-sHicate of 

ALLALITE, in Mineralogy, a variety of Dioptide or Pyroxene, 

ALL AMANDA, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
ApocynacefB, It was named after Frederick Allamand, a surgeon who 
travelled in Guiana, in 1769, and afterwards in Russia. He was a 
correspondent of Linnasus. 

The specie8x>f this genus are shrubs yielding ^ milky jvioe, with 
yerticillate leaves, and many-flowered peduncles of large yellow flowers. 
They are worthy of cultivation on acooimt of the beauty of their 
flowers and foliage. They are all natives of South America, azid when 
cultivated require a strong moist heat to make them flower freely. 

An infusion of the leaves of A, cathartica is said to aci as a 
powerful purgative, and an overdose to produce poisonous efiectai 

ALLANITE, in Mineralogy, a synonyme of Orthiiey which is one 
of the silicates of cerium mixed with other substances. [Obthits.] 

ALLIGATOR, a name originally given by the British Co^oniBta of 
ihe Southern States of the North JUnerican Union, to a large specie? 
of reptile closely resembling the Crocodile of Egypt, but which 
modem researches have shown to possess characters generically dififering 
from those of that animal The word is supposed to be a corruption 
of an old Indian name. According to its modem acceptation among 
zoologists, the name is no longer confined to the q>ecie8 most 
commonly found in Carolina, Louisiana, and the other Southern 
States of the Union ; but it is applied generically to all the other 
American species which agree with it in its most prominent and 
influential characters, and which have been called Caymans, Jacar^ 
&C., by the Spaniards, Portuguese, and Indians of South America. 
The characters which are proper to the Alligators, and by which ^ey 
are distinguished from the Crocodiles of the Old World, are by no 
means of such importance with respect to Uie influence they may be 
reasonably supposed to have upon the habits and economy of these 
animals as to warrant the formation of these reptiles into a distinct 
and separate genus : their manners and habits are precisely thoee of 
the true crocodiles, and if they differ in certain minor details of 
stracture, this difference should be considered not as a generic charac- 
ter, but as purely spedfia 

M. Cuvier thus diotinguishes the Alligators from the true Crocodiles : 
"The alligators have the head less oblong than the crocodiles; its 
length is to its breadth, measured at the articulation of the jaws, as 
throe to two ; the teeth are unequal in length and size ; there are at 
least 19, sometimes even as many as 22, on each side in the lower jaw, 
and 19 or 20 in the upper. The front teeth of the imder jaw pierce 
through the upper at a certain age, and the fourth from the front, 
which are the longest of all, enter into corresponding holes of the 
upper jaw, in which they are concealed when the mouth is dosed 
The hind legs and feet are round and neither fringed nor pectinated 
on the sides; the toes are not completely webbed, the connecting 
membrane only extending to their middle; and finally, the post- 
orbital holes of the cranium, so conspicuous in the tme crocodiles, 
are veiy minute in the alligators, or even entirely wanting." The 
Crocodiles, properly so called, on the contrary, have the head at least 
twice as long as it is broad ; 15 teeth on each side of the lower jaw, 
and 19 on each side of the upper. The incisor or front teeth, as in 
the alligators, pieroe through the upper jaw, at a certain age, but the 
fourth or lai^gest of the lower jaw, instead of being received into a 
corresponding hole of the upper, passes into a notch on each side of 
it; and finally, the hind feet are bordered by a denticulated fringe, 
and the toes are completely united by a swinmung membrane. 

The characters here reported as peculiar to the alligators and croco- 
diles respectively, are evidently not of sufilcient iivportance to exert 
any very sensible influence upon their general economy. Of the 
characters and organic modifications which they possess in cominon, 
the principal is the long taper tail, strongly compressed on the sides, 
and surmounted towards its origin with a double series of keel-shaped 
plates, forming two upright denticulated crests^ which, gradually con- 
verging towards the midSe of the tail, there unite and form a single row 
to the extremity. Its great sLse, and laterally-compreased form, render 
the tail an organ of the utmost importance to the crocodiles and 
alligators : it is troe that its weight materially impedes their motkns 
on dry land, but it is a most powerful instrument of progression in the 
water, and influences the aquatic habits of these animals much more 
than their webbed feet The latter character, indeed, is comparatively 
of little weight : the hind feet are only used to aarist the progression 
in slow and gentle motion, but in all sudden and violent actions the 
tail alone is the active instrument; and even when the animal is 
surprised on land, as we are assured by Adanson, it becomes a 
powerful weapon of offeiyse. The compression of the tail is not 
peculiar among reptiles to crocodiles, though so powerfully influencing 
their habits ; but the second character wmch is common to the entire 
genus, namely, the palmated or semi-palmated hind feet, is exhibited 
by no other genus of reptiles, though all are more or leas addicted to an 
aquatic life. This f&ct sufficientiy demonstrates the small influence 
which the palmated form of the extremities exerts upon tiie economy 
of these animals in general Still this character is by no means devoid 
of importance, though in proportion to its utility in aquatic pro g r o o s ion 
it renders the terrestrial motions of the animals extreme^ slow and 
awkward ; and this effect is still farther increased by the length and 
weight of the tail at one end, and by the jmatomioal structore of tho 

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neck at the other. Each of the cervical yertebrsB haa on either aide a 
specieB of fiAlae rib, and their meeting at the extremities along the whole 
zieck completely hinders the animal finom taming its head to either side, 
and renders all ita morements stiff and constrained Neither is the jmce 
of the crocodiles on land so swifb as to make them objects of fear to 
ordinary quadrupeds ; a man can easily outstrip them, and so sensible 
are these animals of their own inferiority in this respect^ that they 
immediately retreat to their more congenial element upon the most 
distant appearance of the human species. 

The ouer general characters of the crocodiles and alligators consist 
in their long flat heads, thick neck and bodies, protected by regular 
transverse rows of square bony plates or shields, elevated in the 
centre into' keel-shaped ridges, and disposed, on the back of the neck, 
into groups of different forms and numbers, according to the species. 
The mouth is extremely large, extending considerably behind the eyes, 
and furnished in each jaw with a single row of conical teeth, all of 
different sizes, and standing apart from one anotiier : these are Ixollow 
within, and never vary in number, but are successively pushed out and 
replaced by others of laiger dimensions, as the animals increase in age 
and size. The tongue is shorti and fleshy, and attached to the under 
jaw throughout its whole extent. It is consequently incapable of 
protrusion, and from its small size and backward position seldom seen 
even when the animal opens its mouth, which circumstance occasioned 
the belief so universally prevalent among the andents, that the croco- 
dile was altogether deprived of this organ. The eyes are placed on 
the upper surface of tiie skull, are much approximated towards one 
anofther, and provided each with three. distinct lids : the nostrils form 
a long narrow canal, placed at the extremity of the muzzle ; the ears 
are dosed externally by two fleshy valves, and beneath the throat are 
two small pouches or glands, wmch open externally and contain a 
muaky sub^ance^ Finally, the feet are provided with five toes before, 
long and separate, and four behind, more or less perfectly united by 
membranes : of these, the three interior alone on each foot are pro- 
vided with daws, so that the two outer toes on the fore-feet, and one 
on the hind, are constantly olawless. 

Habitt of the AUiffotor. — It is reported by Pliny, that the Egyptian 
crocodile retires to a secret cave or hiding-place, on the approach of 
winter, and spends three or four of the coldest months in a state of 
lethaigy, and without taking any food : this phenomenon, usually 
called l^bemation, is almost universal among reptiles and serpents, 
at least in temperate and high latitudes, and has been repeatedly 
observed with regard to the alligators. On the approach of the cold 
season these i^wirnnlw bury themselves in the mud at the bottom of 
some stagnant pond, where they remain concealed and inactive tiU 
the return of spring. Travellers assure us that they are never to be 
found in running streams, but that they frequent in preference some 
stagnant pend or the creeks of laige rivers. Here they may be seen 
in almost oountiess multitudes, for they are extremely numerous in 
the remote unfrequented parts of South America, protruding their 
large flat heads through the leaves of the Nymphcea, PorUederiaf and 
other aquatic plants which cover the aaifauce of the water, and 
watching for prey ; or sometimes basking in the sun or sleeping on 
the banks. They never come on shore, except during the hottest 
part of the day, and always retire to the water on the approach of 
night, during which time they are extremely active in search of 
prey. Their food oonsists principally of fish, and it is conjectured 
by some physiologists, that the musky fluid, secreted by the glands 
mider the throat, acts as a kind of bait to attract their i»ey. The 
alligators are seldom known to attack the human species, unless in 
defence of their eggs or yotmg; the females of these reptiles are 
reported to exhibit a much stronger degree of maternal afifection for 
their offspring than usually belongs to their class. They generally 
lay from fldfty to sixty eggs in <me place, of about the same size as 
those of a goose, which they oover up with sand, and leave to be 
batched by the heat of the sun; never however removing to any 
great distance. When the young ones come forth, they are about 
five or six inches long; and are immediately conducted to the 
water by the female alligator. Seldom more than half the entire 
brood live to reach the water. Many are destroyed while in the egg. 
The vultures waylay and watch the female alligator when she goes 
ashore to deposit her eggs^ which they scratch up and devour as soon 
as she retires. Nimibers of them also fall a prey to the grown males 
of their own spedee, and to various descriptions of ravenous fishes 
which greedily devour them. The Indians eat the flesh of the 
alligatotB, notwithstcviding its strong musky flavour; and even Euro- 
peans, who have suooeeded in overcoming tikeir prejudices so far as to 
partake of it^ report it to be both delicate and savoury. A single 
peculiarity of habit seems to distinguish the alligators from the real 
crocodiles : the former never leave the fresh water, whilst the latter 
are known to frequent tiie mouths of laige rivers, and even to pass 
between different islands, at considerable distances from one another ; 
and so perfectly is this chancteristic of the two sub-genera» that the 
'crocodile of the West India Islands differs from all the other American 
spedes, and exhibits only those modifications which properly belong 
to those of the Old World- 
It was only at the conmienoement of the present century that the 
different spedes of alligators were properly distinguished from one 
another, or even that tiiey were suspected to be specifically different 

from the crocodile of the Nile. This distinction is entirely duo to the 
late Baron Cuvier, and since the publication of the first edition of his 
work 'Sur les Osaemens Fossiles' little further addition has been 
made to the subject. He enimierates three spedes, which he has 
definitely characterised ; and describes a fourth, which he suspects to 
be distinct, but of which he did not at that tiJoie possess a suffident 
number of spedmens to enable him to determine the question. 

1. The Alligator {Orocodilus Lucius, Cuvier) properly so called, 
which inhabits the fresh waters of the Carolinas, tiie Mississippi, and 
other southern parts of the United States, and of whose fierceness and 
voradty Bartram has related such extraordinary accounts. It grows, 
according to Catesby, to the length of 14 or 15 feet, the head being 
one-seventh of the entire length, and half as broad at the articulation 
of the jaws as it is long. It appears to be more fierce and voradous 
than the South American species, often attacks men and quadrupeds 
whilst bathing or crossing the rivers, and is even said to prefer the 
flesh of the negro to all other food ; probably because the slave is 
more exposed to its attacks than his master. The alligators prey 
chieny by night ; they assemble in vast numbers, besetting the mouth 
of some retired creek into which they have previously driven the fish, 
and bellowing so loud that they may be heard at the distance of a 
mile. To catch the fish they dive imder the shoal, and having 
secured one, rise to the surface, toes it into the air to get rid of 
the water which they necessarily 
take in along with it, and catch it 
again in its descent. When how- 
ever they succeed in capturing a land 
animal, which is too laige to be 
swallowed at a single mou^ul, thev 
oonceal the body beneath the bank 
till it begins to putrefy, for as their 
teeth are not formed for cutting 
or masticating, they are unable to 
tear the tough flesh in its fresh state ; 
it is then dragged on shore and 
devoured at leisure. When about 
to lav, the female digs a deep hole 
in the sand, and depodts her 
eggs in layers, separated from one 
another hy intervening strata of 
leaves and dry grass. It would * 
appear that she lays only one batch 
of eggs during the same season, 
though in the hotter parts of South 
America, if the report of Laborde . 

is to be depended on, the Cayman, I ^ 

or alligator of Surinam and 
Cayenne, lays at two or even three * 
different periods of the year; but Oerrical rutca of Alligator, 
as each batch is said to consist of only twenty or twenty-five eggB, it 
is probable that the whole does not exceed the number usually 
asdgned to the common alligator. The female of this latter spedes, 
it is said, never loses sight of her nest till the young are hatched, and 
for months afterwards affords them the most unremitting care and 

This spedes is frequently found up the Missisdppi hi^er than the 
Red River. In general, the alligator of North America buries himself 
under the mud, at the bottom of the swamps and matahes which he 
inhabits, as soon as the cold weather fairly sets in, and continues in a 
lethargic sleep till the return of spring. During the very severe frosts, 
sensation is so completely suspended, that the b^^dy of the animal may 
be cut into slices without dispelling his lethargy ; yet it is never actually 
frozen, and the partial return of a few hours' bright sunshine is at all 
times suffident to restore suspended animation. It is particularly in 
the rivers, lagoons, and swamps of Florida, G^igia, South CaroUna, 
and Louisiana, that the alligator reaches his greatest dimensions. 
Bartram foimd immense numbers of alligators and fish in a mineral 
spring near the Musquito River, in Flori<^ though the water, at ita 
exit from the earth, was neariy at the boiling point, and strongly 
impregnated with copper and vitriol 

Beddea the characters common to all the American crocodiles, this 
spedes exhibits the following modifications which distinguish it from 
others : — The snout is flattened on its upper surfoce, and slightly tuned 
upwards at the extremity; the rides of it are nearly parallel, and the 
nose forms a regular parabolic curve. It was this similarity to the 
head of a pike that gave to the present spedes the name of Orocodilus 
LueiuB, or the Pike-Headed Crocodile. The internal rim of the orbits 
is large and protuberant, but without being united by a transverae crest 
as in the CrocodUus Mclcropc, or Spectaded Alligator. The external 
openings of the nostrils are separated by a long knob ; the skull has 
two shallow, oblique, oval pits, in the bottom of which are two small 
holes. On the back of the neck are four principal plates, elevated in 
the centre into keel-shaped ridges ; and in front and rear of these 
respectivdy, two smaller ones of similar fonn. The back exhibits 
18 transverse rows of similar plates, the flrst with only two crests or 
ridges, then two with four, afterwards three with six, then six with 
eight, then again two with six, and finally, the last four rows with four 
crests each. The ridges or crests on the body are of nearly equal siz^ ; 

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those of the tail are much lai^r, and amount to 88 in all, 19 before I species shows not the slightest trace of those postorbital perforatioas, 
the union of the two lateral series, and as many afterwards. The whidi are so conspicuous in the oroeodile of the Nile^ and moze or 
eol nir is a deep greenish-brown aboTe, and light-yellow on the under { less dereloped in all tha other species* 

Trcnk cf the lame ; Tcntnl upeet 

Ontline of the head and uUerior parts of 
Cyoeodilut Luciu$, seen ttom ahore. 

sur&oe of the body ; the sides regularly marked with alternate bands 
of both these colours. 

2. The Cayman {CrocodUut palpebroBut^Cnvier) is at once distinguished 
from all other species by the bony structure of the eyebrows, which 
fonn Utrge knobs of the size of a man's fist ; and by the small extent 
of the membrane connecting the toes of the hind feet, which in 
prepared specimens can soanely be recognised. The skull of this 

This is the oommon species of Surinam and Ouiana : it is there 
called Cayman, a word most probably of natire origin, whilst the 
following species, which is likewise found in the same countries, though 
its more appropriate locality would appear to be Brasil and Buenoci 
Ayres, is distinguished by the name of Crocodile. The Cayman does 
not attain so laige a size as the other species, nor will he venture to 
attack a man on diy land, or even in the water, so long as he keeps hia 
legs and arms in motion. The female deposits her eggs in a single 
layer, and after covering them slightly with sand, abandons them 
to the vivifying influence of the tropical sun, wiUiout taking any 
further charge either of them or of the young progeny. 

8. The CrocodUut trigonatut of Sdhneider is a species of crocodile^ 
exhibiting all the peculiar characters which properly Hinfit^g^iiBh the 
alligators of America, and yet suspected to be of African origin. It is 
even so closely allied in form and general characters to the CavuMUh 

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that Baron Cuvier hM desoribed it as a mere vsrietj of that speciea. 
The principal diatinctiou between this and the foregoing species consists 
in a ridge which rises in front of the orbits, and runs towards the 
■nout^ and a small notch in the posterior border of the skull ; the 
second row of cervical plates is lai^r thfm the others, and towards its 

Oerrical PUtes of the Cayman Cenrical Plates of C.iyigonaiw, 

{C. palp^rotui.) 

middle are two or three small scales, with irregularly diiposed crests; 
the ]ai;ge ridges assume the form of scalene triangles, which gives the 
whole animal a rough and bristly appearance ; there are 16 transverse 
bands on the back, the number of plates appearing to vary according 
to the species, and from 19 to 2^ on the tail, 9 or 10 before the junction 
of the lateral ridges, and from 10 to 17 afterwards. Nothing whatever 
is known of the manners or habits of this species or variety. 

4. The Jacar^ {OrocodtUu scUroptf Schneider) appears to be spread 
over the whole of tropical America, but is more especially nimierous 
in Brazil, where it attains a very large size, snd is found in all the rivers 
and lakes. Its head is more attenuated than 
in the alligator of North America ; the sides 
converging towards the snout^ so as to form 
very nearly an isosceles triangle ; the surface 
of Uie bones of the skull has a rough scabrous 
appearance, as if arising from disease ; the 
orbits of the eyes are surrounded by large 
prominent rims of bone, and these are. con- 
nected together by an intermediate ridge, 
giving the whole very much the appearance 
of a pair of spectacles; finally, the skuU is 
pierced by two very smiall holes behind the 
orbits. The cervical plates are remarkably 
large; they are arranged in four transverse 
bands, of which the first two contain four 
each, and each of t^e others two. The 
transverse bands of the back vary according 
(o age, and it would even seem according to 
the individual ; they most commonly consist 
of two rows, vrith two plates each, four with 
six, five with ei^t» two with six, and four 
with four. The colour of the animal is 

greenish-brown above, marbled irregularly — — ^ 

with diflTerent ihades of green, and pale Cervical Plates of the Jacar* 
gpeenish-yellow below. TWs species grows ^ ' ** •^'^'•^ 

to the size of from 14 to 18 feet in length ; the whole length is from 
eight to eight and a half times that of the head. 

The Jacur^, according to Azara, are never known to attack men, or 
even dogs, in passing the rivers, unless it should happen to be near the 
place wha« they have deposited their eggs ; and even then, they are 
never known to prey upon the body, contenting themselves with the 
fish and water-fowl which they find so plentiful in their own element 
During the night they are exceedingly active, and always keep in the 
water, showing only their heads above the surface, but towards the 
middle of the day they come ashore to enjoy the heat of the sim ; 
they Uien sleep profoundly, but always retreat to the water on being 
disturbed. The eggs are about the size of those of a goose ; they are 
white, and much sought after by the free Indians, who also eat the 
flesh of the Jacar^ itself, though it has a strong musky smell, and 
scarcely any juice. The female deposits her eggs in the sand in a 
single layer, and covers them with straw or leaves ; few of them, 
however, escape the quick eye of the vulture, and even many of the 
young fiiU a prey to the fuU-grown nudes, which at the period of 
their first appearance, in the hottest part of summer, are puticularly 
fierce and ravenous, the marshes which they inhabit being then dried 
up, and tlieir food difi&cult to obtain. This species appears to have 
pretty neariy the same range towards the south of the continenty that 
the aOigator, or pike-headed crocodile, has to the north. According 
to Azara it is never found beyond 82* of south latitude. Many 

interesting facts regarding the habits of this species are recorded in 
the narratives of Prince Maximilian, Spix and Martius, and other 
Brazilian travellers. [Cbooodilia, Sufplbmekt.] 

ALLIUM, a very extensive genus of bulbous Monoootyledonous 
plants, belonging to the natural order LUiacete* The spedee are 
all remarkable for having, in a greater or less degree, the odour of 
garlic, and for the agreeable stimulating efifects that acoompany it 
For this reason some of them have been objects of cultivation from 
the highest antiquity. 

As 'a genus. Allium is known among other ZUiaeetBf by the 
flowen growing in round heads or umbels, bv the perianth being 
deeply divided into six spreading lobes, and by having a capsule with 
three angles, three valves, and ^ree cells, sometimes so deeply lobed, ' 
as to have the appearance of six cells. The number of species is vtery 
considerable; they are almost exclusively natives of the northern 
hemisphere, and are principallv found wild in the meadows and groves 
of Europe, in the north of Asia, and the north of I^ypt ; a small 
proportion only inhabiting corresponding latitudes in North America. 
Many of them are handsome flowering plants, but as they are mora 
important on account of their useful properties, we shall confine 
ourselves to some account of the kinds commonly cultivated in the 

Allium CepcLt the Common Onion, is too well known to require 
description. It is not certain of what country it is a native, but it 
has from time inmiemorial been cultivated in Egypt Its varieties 
are not very numerous, considering that it is slmost exclusively 
increased bv seed : the most remarkable are the Blood-Red Onion, 
which is the most pungent; the Strasbuig Onion, which is the 
hardiest; the Silver^kinned Onion, which is the smallest, and the 
most fitted for pickling; and the onions of Portugal and Tripoli, 
which are the largest and the most delicate. In this country 
the bulbs do not generally arrive at the lai^ge size of those imported 
from Portugal and Spain; but skilful gardenen have nevertheless 
succeeded in procuring them fully as fine. Their method has been 
to take the small onions of a late-sown crop of the previous year, and 
to plant them in rows in the beginning of April, laying them on the 
sunace of the soil, each surrounded with about a himdful of decayed 
and nearly dry manure. All the time that is usually lost in seed- 
sowing is thus avoided, and the moment the bulbs push forth new 
roots, they find themselves in the midst of an abundant store of 
food, which continues to supply them with nutrition during the 
whole of the growing season. As they advance in size, the soil round 
the bulbs is frequently disturbed by the hoe, for the sake of ex^sing 
as much as possible the carbonaceous matter of the manure to the 
action of the atmosphere. This process is only discontinued when 
the leaves b^in to turn yellow ; the bulbs are then allowed to ripen 
as usuaL 

AUium sehcmopratum, the Chive, is a little tufted plants with 
slender, cylindrical, taper-pointed, dark-green leaves ; its flowen are 
arranged in a smsll compact round head, and are of a purplish or 
pale violet colour ; the bulbs are small, long; and white, and grow in 
dense, matted tufts. It is a native of the mountainous regions of 
Europe, from Lapland to Italy ; and is found here and there in Great 
Britam. It is more employed by the French for their cookery than 
in this country. 

AUium JUtuloium, the WeUih Onion, is a native of Siberia, and is 
supposed to have gained its English name from having been imported 
originally from Q^many, with the name Walsch, or foreign, attached 
to it It is a perennial, and cultivated chiefly for the purpose of 
being sold in the markets when very voung, at which time its flavour 
is ddicate ; its hardiness enables it when young to brave our spring 
cold better than the common onion. 

AUitun Asealonieum, the Shallot^ a native of Asia Minor, is in many 
respects similar to the chive, from which it is known by its larger 
leaves, its smaller and more deeply-coloured flowers, and by its 
stamens having alternately throe pomts on the filaments. It more- 
over produces bulbs of sufficient size to be fit for use, and accordingly, 
while the leaves only aro employed in the chive, the bulbs aro the 
parts sought for in the shallot These multiply abundantly, so that 
every year, whrni the crop is taken up, thero is plenty of small bulbs 
whidi can be reserved for planting the succeeding season, while the 
fine fully-formed ones are selected for the kitchen. To obtain the 
bulbs in the greatest perfection, they should not be buried in the 
earth, as is the common practice, but merely placed on the surface of 
the soiL 

Allium »aiivum, Qarlic, has been found wild in Sicily, and some 
parts of Provence. Its stem is simple, erect, and furnished with flat, 
narrow, pointed leaves ; the flower^eads have usually a number of 
little bulbs lying among the flowers, which are white or pinkish ; the 
bulbs are remarkable for the development of the greater part of the 
axillary buds of their scales ; these buds grow rapidly, and acquiro a 
bulbous state, and form what aro called the cloves of the garlic, which 
are the parts employed in cooking. 

AUium ophiotcorodon, Rocambole, or Spanish Shallot^ is very 
slightly different from garlic, being chiefly distinguished by its larser 
size in all the parts, and by the upper part of its stem being generally 
twisted spirally just before flowering. It is a native of most parts of 
the south of Europe. 

Digitized by 






Allium porrvm, the Leek, has, like mftiiy other cultiTated plants, I 
disappeared iu a wild state, so that its origin is unknown. It is a 
broaid-leaved succulent species, not oapable of forming a bulb, because | 
the leaves do not perish till the plant itself dies away, but producing 
instead a cylindrical body composed of the tender, colourless bases 
of the leaves, which are rolled round each ol^er in a compact manner. 
As the ezoellenoe of the lo^ depends entirely upon the large size 
of this part^ the attention of the cultivator is exclusively directed to 
that before all other considerations. It has been found that no 
method is so successful as to sow tiie seed early in a light and well- 
manured soil, and then, when the young ledcs have arrived at the 
thickness of the little finger, or even sooner, to drop them into holes 
about 2^ or 8 inches wide, and 6 inches deep, in the bottom of which 
some very fine manure has been deposited. 

• ALLOCHROITE, in Mineralogy, a variety of Gaznet, charaoterised 
with other minerals by possessing free silica. [Garhet.] 

ALLOMORPHITE, in Mineralogy, a variety of Heavy Spar, whibh 
it a sulphate of barytes. 

ALLOPHANE, a mineral belonging to the group of Clays whibh 
contain a huge proportion of water. It occurs reniform, botiyoidal, 
globular, ana massive. No deavage. Colour blue, green, brown. 
Fracture conchoidaL Hardness S'O nearly. Lustre vitreous, trans- 
parent» transluoent. Specific gravity 1*852 to 1*859. It is found at 
Baalfold in Thuringia, at Schneebexg in Saxony, and other pkces. 
Its analysis, by Stromeyer, gives :— Silica, 21 '922; alimiina, 82-202; 
lime, 0*780 ; sulphate of lime, 0*517 ; carbonate of copper, 8*058 ; 
hydrate of iron, 0270 ; water, 41*801. 


AJjLUVIUM, a name given to those accumulations of sand, earth, 
and loose stones or gravel brought down by rivers, which, when 
spread out to any extent^ form what is called Alluvial Land. The 
word is derived from the Latin verb alluere, signifying 'to wash upon,' 
as the sea does upon the coasts, or a river upon its banks, and is 
chiefly used as a term in geology. Many geologists restrict the 
expression to such water-worn materials as have been deposited either 
recently or within the historical era, and which do not include the 
remains of extinct species of organised bodies : but as there are 
similar aocumulations of transported materials, belon^;]ng to almost 
every geological period in the history of the earth, it is an unwar- 
ranted restriction of the term to confine its use to the recent period 
only. There is, no doubt, thia distinction between modem alluvia 
and those of ancient periods, that in the latter, besides the remains 
of extinct species of animals and plants, there is more frequently a 
consolidation into stone. To these last accumulations of water-worn 
materials some geologists apply the name Dilwimm, which is objection- 
able, because it expresses, not a particular state of the materials, 
but a theory of their formation ; that is, that they were produced 
by a deluge, — some indeed go so far as to assert that they were 
accumulations from the Mosaic fiood. The word Alluvium might be 
conveniently used as a general term, and we might say Ancient 
Alluvium and Modem Alluvium, as the French geologists say Terraint 
de Tramport—Aneieni and Modema. We might go farther, and say 
Secondary and Tertiary Alluvium, and the Alluvia of particular 
groups of strata. 

In treating of this subject we have to consider three operations : 
1, The disintegration and decay of the superior crust of the earth by 
the action of meteoric agents, of tides, currents, and streams ot 
running water ; 2, The transportation of the loosened materials by 
streams and currents ; and 8, The deposition of the matter at the 
bottom of rivers, lakes, estuaries, and the ocean. The surface of the 
earth is subject to unceasing changes from the operation of three great 
classes of agents, namely, the meteoric, the aqueous, and the igneous. 
Under the first of these classes are comprehended, the air of the 
atmosphere, the vicissitudes of heat and cold, moisture and rain, lig^t, 
electricity, and the wind : under the second class, running water of 
every kind on the surface of the land, the tides, waves, and currents 
of the sea as they strike against its shores : the third class comprehends 
volcanoes and earthquakes, which will be discussed under another 
head. It is the second class with which we have chiefly to do at 
present, and we shall only briefly touch upon the first as subservient 
to the subject with which we are occupied. 

All rocks, and indeed almost all mineral substances, have a greater 
or less tendency to combine with the oxygen of the atmosphere^ 
espeoiallv when under fiEivourable circumstances of heat and moisture, 
and prooably also of electricity and light : carbonic acid and water 
also are absorbed by rocks in considerable quantity ; and the efiect of 
these oombinations, whether chemical or mechanical, is to loosen the 
cohesion between the partides of the stohe, and induce a tendency to 
disintegration. This separation of the parts is very much accelerated 
by those sudden expansions and contractions which are occasioned by 
vidssitudes of temperature, and especially during frost, when the 
imbibed moisture is converted into ice. This slow and silent work of 
waste is unremittingly going on wherever rocks are exposed to the 
weather. No snecies of stone is exempt ; and even granite, which in 
general is so little subject to change as to be proverbially a symbol of 
endurance, and is selected for our bridges and other great works of 
architecture^ under particular circumstances of constitution and 
exposure, is remarkably disposed to disintegration. " The granite of 

some parts of Finland," says Mr. Strangwaya^ "is so liable to decom- 
position, that a great boulder of it may often be seen with a hole cut 
in it laige enough to admit a cart and horse ; and the stone, though 
at a sm^ distance it seems calculated to last for ages, ia cut down 
and shaped away with the same ease, and much in the aame manner, 
as a hay-rick." The same agents sometimes give mora marked prooti 
of their destruottve power, when lighlziing shiven a pinnade of rock, 
or when a mass of water, enclosed in a cleft and converted into ice, 
rends, by its great expansive force, vasts blocks asunder. The effect 
of these several indefatigable agents, all working together, with graviir 
in their favour, is a system of universal decav and degradation, whi(i 
may be traced over the whole surface of the land, from the mountain- 
top to the seasihore. The wind, thou^ it may sometimsa detach 
partides, is diiefly instrumental in transporting to a distanoe matter 
already separated. Every drop of rain that faUs, as soon aa it touchea 
the ewth becomes an instrument of destraction, and the minute 
fragments which eveiy shower washes away are hurried along the 
streams into a river, and are either deposited at a lower levd, or are 
transported to the sea : thus, a solid body which once formed a part 
of a mountain-top among the Andes, after being swept along for 
thousands of miles through the bed of a river into the waten of the 
AUantic, ma;^, by ocean-currents, be deposited at the bottom of the 
Qulf of Mexico, while the fragment with which it was once united 
may be carried far into the deptiis of the Pacific. ' 

To this assertion of the constant waste of the land, and the 
conduil^ons which are drawn from it, it has been objected, that we 
can hutUy discover any diange in the shapes and altitudes of moun- 
tains, that the forms of many lands have continued unaltered since the 
earliest records, and that even productions of human art exposed to 
the action of the weather for many centuries have undergone no 
perceptible decay. No doubt the prooess is dow, if compared with 
the progress of events in which the human race has had concern, but 
no one will deny that riven are loaded during every flood with solid 
matter; and, as the matter so suspended can onlj be derived from 
the land, it necessarily follows that a continuance of the process muat 
in time wear down the loftiest mountains, where the rocks are not 
protected by a covering of turf horn the action of the destradave 
agents. Of the rapidity of this vraste we have no means of judging; 
and any attempt to express our conjectures by figores would be little 
better than an idle occupation. It is almost within our own time 
that anv accurate measurements of heights have been made : and aa 
two estimates of the same mountain, made with all the accuracy of 
which our instruments are capable, often give a diflerence of several 
feet, we aro not even now able to leave behind us data by which posterity 
may mark the progress of this spedes of geological change; for the 
removal of such a mass of matter as should <iimini>>i the height 
of a mountain by three or four feet, by ordinary agents, may require 
thousands of yean for its accomplishment. If Mont Blanc, by our 
most accurate measurements, be now 15,744 feet above the level of 
the sea, and if the geologisti, many centuries hence, by newly-diicovared 
methods not liable to error, should find it only 15,740, it would be 
impossible for hyn to know whether the difference was to be set 
down to geological change, or to the imperfSection of the instromenta 
of his ancestors. 

In geological speculations we must lay amde all condderations as to 
time : we have only to do with that dement when our inquiries relate 
to man ; and if we ara to be guided by andogy in our reasonings, we 
must be satisfied that a space of time of vast duration must have been 
requidte to produce any great amount of geologicd dumga We lee 
even in many chemicd processes, that long-continued action gives 
birth to substances which could not otherwise be obtained, — aa, for 
example, crystala of felspar are formed if the heat be maintained for 
some weeks, but not otherwise; and long-continued action in the 
great laboratory of Nature has no doubt been an equally powerful 

Although we can, in strictnesB, only say that certain geologicd 
events must have preceded others, we are not warranted in with- 
holding any length of time for the accomplishment of the change, 
\nerelv because we are imable to form a conception of an indefinite 
period : it would be as irrationd as if we wero to withhold our assent 
to some of the established truths in astronomy, merdy because we are 
incapable of forming an idea of indefinite space. It has been 
eloquently add by Playfair, that ** It affords no presumption sgainsi 
the reality of the progress of decay that, in respect of man, it is too 
slow to be immediatdy percdved. The utmost portion of it to which 
our exj)erience can extend is evanescent in comparison with the 
whole, and must be regarded as the momentary increment of a vast 
progresdon, circumscribed by no other limits than the duration of the 
world. Time performs the office of integrating the infinitesimd parts 
of which this progresdon is made up ; it coUects into one sum, and 
produces from them an amount greater than any that can be assigned." 
But slow and silent as the work of these agents of destruction is, we 
have only to direct our view towards those parts of Uie earth where 
the machinery of Nature is to be found on its grandest scde, to be 
sendble of the prodigious effects which their unceasing operation 
must produce in the long lapse of ages. 

The force of water, when directed against any obstade in its course, 
is veiy considerable, even by its own wdght done, especially if it be 

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flowing oTer a highly-inclined Burfaoe ; but its destractlTe power is 
greatly augmentea if it be loaded with sand and grayeL In floods, 
▼eiy considerable blocks are carried by the stream to great distances ; 
for it must be remembered that these sre much more easily moved in 
water than on land, in consequence of the law in hydrostaUos, that a 
solid body ftilly immersed in water weighs so much less tlum it does 
in air by a sum equal to the weight of the mass of water which it 
displaces. If the water flows with a velocity of 8 inches per second, 
its force, when free from suspended matter, is sufficient to tear up 
flne day ; 6 inches per second, fine sand ; 12 inches per second, fine 
gravel ; and 8 feet per second, will tear up beds of loose stones of the 
size of an egg The flood occasioned by the bursting of the banier of 
a lake in the valley of Bagnes near Martigny, in the Vallais, moved at 
first with the tremendous velocity of 88 feet per second, afterwards 
diminished to 18, and 11 ; and at the end of its ooursey when the 
water reached the Lake of Qeneva, it was still runnins; at the rate of 
6 feet per second. From the barrier to this pointthe fiJl is 4462 
feet ; the distance is 45 miles ; and the mass of water passed over this 
laige space in 54 hours. It swept along houses, bridges, and trees; 
masses of rock equal in dimensions to houseai, wluch it tore out of an 
ancient alluvial soil, were carried a quarter of a mile down the valley. 
A flood which happened in the noiih of Scotland in 1829 afforded 
numerous examples of the power of running water to transport large 
blocks of ston& In the river Nairn, a fragment of sandstone rode, 
14 feet long, by 8 feet wide, and 1 foot thick, was carried above 200 
yards down the river. The river Don forced a mass of 400 or 500 
tons of stones^ many of them 200 or 800 pounds weight, up an indined 
plane, rising 6 feet in 8 or 10 yards, and left them in a rectangular 
heap, ^at 8 feet deep, on a flat groimd. The small rivulet called 
the College, in Northumberland, swollen by a flood in August, 1827, 
carried several masses of stone^, weighing from a half to thne-quarters 
of a ton, two miles down its course ; a lazge block, weighing nearly 
tiro tons, was transported to the distance of a quarter of a mUe. 

Thus it appears that the instruments of waste employed by Nature 
are far more powerftil in their effects than is generaUy supposed. It 
is also evid ent that such powers, unremittingly exerted, must, after a 
long period, cause changes in the configuration of the earth's surface^ 
and we shall now proceed to point out some of the efibots which are 
produced by the working of this powerfal machinery. 

The cause of the formation of valleys is a subject of great co ntro v e rs y 
among geologists. Some ascribe their formation to ezteaordinary floods^ 
waves^ or deluges, which in their sudden passage scooped out the land ; 
others, to the gradual efiidct of those natural ag^ts of whose existence 
and power we have had experience. It may fairly be presumed that^ 
when the continents were raised out of the sea, their surfaces did not 
present a uniform plain, but were broken by numerous ridges and 
mequaliUes, and tnat the ridges themselves were travened by 
numerous fissures, one of the efibots of the power by which th^ 
were raised. The first rains that fell, and the first springs whici 
btust forth, would neceasarilv collect in the lowest levels, and thus 
the diraction of the great truxuc of a river would be determined; and 
it might also happen that other clefts— depressious at a higher level — 
would communicate with this main channel But that every such 
great depreasion would have a direct communication with the sea, and 
that sudi a combination of subordinate valleyB ss compose a river- 
system could have been formed by the breaking up of the earth's 
crust, either by elevation or subsidence, can hardly, we think, be 
maintained by any one. A river^ourse, or system, may be not inaptly 
compared to a picture of a great troe, whose branches gradually 
diminish in sisei, but increase in number, aa ihay recede from the 
stem. The great trunk of the river is divided into many branches^ 
which spring from it at various distances from one another; and these 
again are subdivided into an infinity of smaller ramifications^ each 
diminishing in size as it increases in distance from the main trunk — 
a regular communication being kept up between every point and the 
line of greatest depression; ''forming together a system of valleys 
communicating with one another, and having suck a nice adjust- 
ment of their declivities, that none of them join the principal valley 
either on too high or too low a level" Some idea may be formed A 
the extent to whmh the surface of the land has thus be«i frurowed by 
ineans of the subordinate streams that feed a great river, from whii 
^ede says of the tributaries of the Isar, wluch, flowing from the 
Tyrolese Alps^ snd pMsinff by Kunioh, joins the Danube some miles 
above Ftasao. This river is fed on its right bank l^ 488 streams, on 
its left by 800; thefozmer joiningthe main bed by 59 (Aannels, the latter 
by 44. But the Isar is only one of the 84 great branches of the Danube, 
and holds only a fourth rank among them ; snd even the Danube is a 
river of the third magnitude in the physical history of the earth. 

We have direct proofii of the power of watir to wear a channel in 
the hardest rocks in almost every country, and even in a remarkably 
short time^ A stream of lava, poured out from ^tna in 1608, floweol 
serosa the bed of the Simeto, the laigest river in Sicily, which flows 
along the base <^ the mountain and mils into the sea near Cataniiu 
The stream has now out a passsge through the hard rock^ which is 
only a litae less compact than basalt^ to the depth of from 40 to 50 
feet^ and from 50 to several hundred feet wida 

The Nertnlddl^ a river of Hindustan, has worn a ohannel in a 
basaltic rock to the depth of 100 feek Ftofeasor Sedgwick and Sir 

VAZ HHT. Dry. YOU !• 

Boderiok Hurchison state, that in the enormous masses of horisontal 
coarse conglomerate, found in many of the valleys of the Eastern Alps^ 
rivers have often scooped out goiges to the depth of 600 or 700 feet; 
and that in the valley of the Inn, near Innspruck, snd in that of the 
Drave, between Elagenfrirt and Marburg^ there are splendid examples 
of these phenomena. 

The rock over which the water of the Niagara is precipitated at its 
celelnated FaUs is undergoing a daily waste ; so that the cataract has 
receded nearly 50 yards in the last 40 years. The river below the 
Falls runs in a channel above 150 feet deep, and 160 yards wide^ for a 
distance of 7 miles, where it emeiges into a plain ; and this channel 
has evidently been formed by the same operation as that which is now 
in progress. Sir Charles Lyell computes, from this and other data, 
that the FsUs have been 80,000 years in wearing this channel The 
waste is accelerated by the action of the water at the Falls on an 
under-bed of soft clay, which being washed away leaves the superin- 
cumbent limestone steta unsupported, when tiiey fall down in huge 
mnsnoo. A slmilsr effect is produced, even in mountains of considerable 
elevation, when the superficial water, or undeiground springs, obtain 
access to an inferior bed of soft materials^ and ^adually wash it away. 
This took place in 1806 at the Bossberg, near the Lake of Zug m 
Switserlan^ a mountain more than 5000 feet above the level of the sea. 
The stony Tnassos which were imdermmed were inclined at an angle 
of 45**; and thus slid down, covering the valley below with an 
enonnous heap of hlockB ot stone and earth, and overwhelming seyeral 
villages, in which above 800 persons perished. 

There are many valleys and narrow defiles, which, on aooountof deep 
lakes that occur in tiiem, the bazrien by which they are indosed, and 
the levels of the a4Joining country, could not have biMn formed by the 
action of the waters now passing through them, however much we may 
suppose them to have been swollen by floods. In such es ses , elevations 
and subsidences of the land, brougjht about bv those subterranean s^ts 
which give rise to earthquakes^ must be looked to ss the most rational 
explanation. But there is perhaps not one of these which has not 
been subsequently modified m a considerable dsgree by the action of 
running water operating during a long period. 

The wearing and transporting powers of rivers depend upon the 
volume of water, the quantity and sise of the solid matter suspended^ 
and the velooiiy with which it moves. A river generally runs with 
greatest rapidil^ in the higher parts of its course, where indeed it 
often consists of a succession of torrents and cataracts for msnv miles^ 
but it has not vet acquired its fall destructive force, because the mass 
of water is still comparatively small, nor has it yet become loaded 
with solid matter. In the lower part of its course, long before it 
joins the sea, it has usually reached a level country, and there its 
velocity becomes greatly retarded. The Senegal hi Africa does not^ 
aocordmg to Adanson, fall more than 24 feet from Podor to the see, 
a distance of 60 lesgues. The destructive force is« thus lessened by 
the <iimiiii«hA.i Telocity, snd by the consequent inability of the stream 
to drag itsheavyartiUeiy along with it It is, therefore, in the middla 
part of its course that a river commits the greatest wsste^ has 
acquired a considerable volume, has become loaded with solid matter, 
and, from the indinaticn of tiie ground, still possesses power to wield 
its more mighty weapons of destruction. 

The increase of the vdlume of water in rivers during the flood- 
seasons is often prodigious. The bed of theMississippi,at Natches, sbout 
800 miles above New Orlesns^ measuring slong the course of the river, 
scarcely exceeds a mile hi breadth when the water is low; whereasmtha 
flood-season the mass of water is nearly 80 miles wide. The Orinoco^ 
at St-Thomai^s, 200 miles from its embouchure^ is aoout 84 miles wide 
m the dry season; but when flooded, its waters^ according to Dupens^ 
stretch out to the enormous breadth of 70 miles. 

The loss of destructive power, by diminished ydodty in the level 
country, is sometimes compensate^ in a considerable degree^ by the 
effects inoduced by the weight of the great volume of water impmgmsr 
certain parts. This will be better undsratood by the annexed 

When the river, in its oblique coutm at the entrance of the pI^Siv 
strikes agamst the bank a, it roeedily forms a steep or vertical cliff 
which turns off the water in its downward oouzse into sn opposite 
dueotion. The river now &Ua with its whole force against the pdnt c^ 
whid^ m its turn, becomes predpitoui^ and deflects the water towsrds 
the point a; snd in this manner the process is repeated* sA short 
intenrsl^ producing a series of salient and re-entering anglesL 

The diagram represents a river after the process of erosion has ood> 
siderably advanced; at first the course would be much less tortooos. 
If the oounixy be composed of rock, both banks are usually steep; 
but if the ground consist of looser materials, the spaces between the 
precipitous parts of the banks— that is, between the salient angles— 

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consist of flat) fertile, aUuTial land, with a grayelly bottom, the gradual 
creation of the stream. - Sometimee the course of we riYcr is so tortuous 
that two points, A and m, may be within a few hundred yards of each 
other, and yet^ following the line of the stream, they may be some 
miles asunder. In this case, the narrow neck of land is acted upon 
doubly ; for the force of .the water is directed against it on each side. 
In time this isthmus is breached, and the river either flows entirely 
through the new channel, or, dividing, forms the land A into an island. 
Sudi tortuous courses, when they are cut through solid rock, as in 
the case of the Moselle, whose banks are sometimee 600 feet high, are 
among the strongest proofb of the destructiTe power of running water, 
for no sudden deluge, however powerful, oould hare scooped out such 
a trough ; and that a deft of such a nature should be occasioned by 
any disruption of the earth's cnut, is not less improbable. More 
sudden and therefore more striking instances of the waste of the land 
occur where a river flows through a lake^ and by its wasting action 
causes a breaking-down of the bairier. We have already aUuded to 
the bursting of a lake in the valley of Bagnes in Switaenand. That 
flood was produced by the melting of ice, which, falling in successive 
seasons from neighbouring glaciers, had formed so continuous a mass 
as to dam up the water of a stream which flowed in the bottom of the 
valley. If the barrier of a lake consist of strata of rock, supported by 
beds of clay or sand, and if, by any change of drcumstancee, .the 
running water get access to this inferior bed, and gradually wash 
it away, the superincumbent rock, thus undemiined, suddenly breaks 
down, and devastation and ruin overwhelm the country below. 

The distance to which the detached fragments are carried depends 
upon the volume of water, and the nature of the ground over wmch it 
flows. The torrents from the south-western Alps, rushing over a steep 
uninterrupted dope, transport large blocks to the sea; but a river 
that runs through a long stretch of levd countiy deponts the grosser 
matter in the upper part of its course^ and oairies to its mouth only 
that which is more eadly hdd in suspendon. The larger stones, after 
being detached from their parent rock, hove therefore to undergo an 
intermediate process of abradon, by bdng rubbed against each other 
in the bed of the stream before their partides are findlv committed to 
the deep. If a river pass through a lake^in its course, the solid matter 
will be depodted in that trough until it has filled it up ; and if the 
lake be very large, even the lighter particles will have time to fall, 
and the water will flow out dear from the other extremity. The 
Lake of G^eva affords a remarkable instance of this process ; for the 
Rh6ne^ where it enters, is extremely tnibid ; but at Qeneva^ where it 
leaves the lake, it is beautifully tnmsparent. At the upper end there 
is a tract of alluvial land nearly 8 miles in length, which has been 
gradually formed by the depodts from the river ; and some measure 
of its progress is obtained by the change in the dtuation of the town 
of Port Vallaia, which was once at the water's edge, but in the oourae 
of about 800 years has been left a mile and a half inland. Other 
torrents, on botii ddes of the lake, likewise pour in laige quantities of 
solid matter ; and thus, dthough from its great depth a long period 
must elapse if the present order of nature remains undisturbed, the 
Leman Lake will be converted into green meadows, and cattle will 
graze where there are now 160 fkthoms of water. Nor is this an 
extravagant expectation, or more than has taken place elsewhere in 
past time& The vast fertile valley between the Vosges Mountains 
and those of the Black Forest, through whidi the Rhine flows for 
above 100 miles, between Strasburg and Worms, without fSslling more 
than two feet in a mile, is in great part covwed wil^ alluvium, and is 
filled to an unknown depth under the soil with sand and gravel 
dmilar to that now transported by the Rhdne. There is every reason 
to bdieve that this valley was at one time the site of a lake far larger 
than that of (Geneva, and probably quite as deep. 

The Rhine, in the higher part of its course, is filling up the Lake 
of Constance, where a oondderable tract of alluvid Uma has been 
formed ; and, after issuing pure from the lower end, it appears fix>m 
the observations of Hammer to have carried on the work of destruc- 
tion so powerfully in the comparatively short distance between the 
Lake of Constance and the bottom of the falls at Sdiaffhausen, as to 
have supplied materials sufficient to fill up several lakes beitween 
Schaffhausen and Strasburg, beddes the gx-eat lake bdow Strasburg 
already spoken of. There are numerous inBtanofis of this gradual 
filling up of lakes, espedally in the courses of the greater rivers, as in 
the Danube between Ulm and Neubuig above Vienna, and most 
eminently so in the case of the St.-Lawrence. Simond states that 
the river Lint, in Switaerland, is perpetually filling up its old channel, 
and overflowing into a new one, m consequence of the mass of 
rubbidi and stones brought down from the Glarus Mountains ; and 
that the level of the Lake of Wallenstadt had been actually raised 10 
feet in the previous 60 years by this accumulation. If the river does 
not meet with lakes in its course, and flows over a great extent of 
country having a slight degree of inclination, the transported matter 
very often so accumulates as to raise the bed of the stream itself. 
One of the most striking instances of tills kind is affbrded by the Po, 
the common receptacle of the waters of the numberless torrents 
which rush down on both ddes of it, loaded with spoils from the 
Alps and Northern Apennines. The effect of this has been that the 
river has frequently stufted its course ; and, to prevent the damage 
that ensues from such events, the inhabitants of Lombardy have 

protected thdr lands by embankments, which confine the river to \\m 
chaimel. This, however, is a work of incessant labour, and deoeptiye 
security, for the accumulation of matter in the bed goes on with 
unremitting constancy ; and, to prevent the water fr^m overflowing, 
the matter must be taken fr?om the bottom and thrown upon .the 
banks, sometimes as mudi as a foot in a season. The effect of thia 
has been, that in the lower parts of its course the Po runs on the top 
of a high mound, which even overtops'the houses in Ferrara. 

In a mountainous country where the land rises rapidly from the 
diore, the rivers descending over a steep bed sweep all the contents 
into tiie sea. If the neighbouring sea be deep, and tne tides be strong, 
an estuaiy or inlet is formed at the mouth of the river— that is, the 
sea forms a deep indentation into the land, of a triangular shape, 
forming what Rennell and other geographers have fancifully called a 
'negative ddta.' If, on the other hand, a low didving diore, and the 
absoice of strong tidd currents &vour the gradual and tranquil deposit 
of the solid matter brought down by the river, an extendve level of 
alluvid land is formed. In this case the main river, at a distant point 
inland, often divides itself into two streams, whidi, graduallv diverging 
until they reach the sea, indoee a triangular space of land having the 
form of the fourth letter of the Qreek alphabet. A, and hence called a 
deU€L The mass of water does not^ however, long continue divided 
into two streams only ; the process of separation is repeated severd 
times, and thus the ddta is traversed by severd channels, and the 
great river empties itself into the sea hymaaj mouths, as may he seen 
hy the inspection of the Nile and Ghuoges m any map of Egypt or 
Hindustan on a tolerably large scde. In this way a delta is formed at 
the mouths of the Rhine, RhAne, Po, Danube, Wolga, Nile, Indiu, 
Ganges, Orinoco, and many others. The magnitude of the ddta, 
generally, dthough not dways^ corresponds to the volume of the 
waters by which it has been created. The head of that of the Rhine 
is about 90 miles distant ftom the generd line of sea-ooast of Holland ; 
and dthough the name of the main river is almost lost by the fsub- 
dividon of its waters and the junction of other rivers, we indude 
within the Rhine delta the whole of the low-land from the neighbour- 
hood of Calais to the north-eastern diores of the Zuyder Zee, which 
makes the base of the triangle neariy 200 miles. The head of the ddta 
of die Ganges is 220 miles frx>m the sea, its base is 200 miles long, 
including we space occupied by the two great arms of the Ganges 
whidi bound it on either dde. The tract in the lower part of this 
ddta, called the Sunderbunds, a wildemeas infested by tigers and croco- 
diles, is, according to Rennell, equd in extent to the prindpdity of 
Wdes. The whole of a depodt within a delta, as well as much above 
and on eadi dde of it, is therefore an encroachment of the land upon 
the sea, and in many riven this growth of the land is in a steady pro- 
gress of advancement; as, for example, the dty of Ravenna, formerly 
a seaport of the Adriatic, is now 4 miles inknd. There are causes, 
however, which often prevent the frurther increase of a delta after it 
has advanced a certain length : such seems to be the case with the delta 
of the Nile, which does not advance with the rapidity that might be 
expected from the quantity of matter brought down by the river. 
[Nile, in Gboo. Drv.j 

Great as is the amount of new land thus formed, it is insigiuficant 
in comparison with the quantibr of solid matter carried down by rivers, 
and deposited in the depths of the sea. It is impoedble to form any 
estimate of this upon which reliance can be placed, because no accurate 
observations have been made to supply the data. To come to anything 
like a satis&ctory condudon, it would be neoeasazy to have a verticd 
section ol the river at a given point, obtained by numerous soundings, 
so as to get the profile of the bed, and by observations at different 
seasons to get the mean hei^t ; we must also have the results of expe- 
riments throughout the year, to sscertain the mean velodty, and the 
volume of solid matter contained in a given bulk of the water. The 
quantity of mud and sand poured by the Ganges into the Bay of 
Bengd is so great, in the flood-season, that the sea recovers its trans- 
parency only at the distance of 60 miles fix>m the coast Sir Charles 
LyeU, in his 'Prindples of Geology,' makes a cdoulation (founded upon 
the computations of Higor Rennell) as to the mean quantity of water 
disdiarged by the Ganges into the sea, by which he shows that, sup- 
posing the water to contain one hundredth part of solid matter, a maBS 
equd in bulk to the greatest of the Pyramids of Egypt is brought down 
by the Ganges every day. The* sea is discoloured for many leagues 
frx>m the mouths of the Orinoco, and the solid contents, swept by ocean- 
currents through the GKilf of Paria, after bdng partiy depodted on the 
shores of Giuana and the island of Trinidad, are carried into the Carib- 
bean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. By the observations of Colond Sabine, 
it appears that the muddy waters of the river Amazonas may be distin- 
gddied 800 miles horn its moutiL The great badn of the Amasonas, 
which is drained by that mightiest of rivers and its vast and countless 
tributaries, embraces an area, according to Humboldt, only onedxth 
less thm the whole of Europe, and through this the main stream flows 
for nearly 3400 miles. The river, at the point where its waters unite 
with those of the Atlantic, is, according to the same illustrious traveller, 
40 miles broad. 

If a river loaded with sand encounter a marine current at its mouth, 
the effect frequently is to throw up a great sand-bank or bar, oft^ to 
the detriment of the navigation in the adjoining sea, and sometimes 
to the entire destruction of a harbour. If such sand-banks be thrown 

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up opposite to the delta of a great river, they accelerate its formation, 
for uie matter brought down, in place of being carried hr out to sea, 
Lb deposited in the intermediate space, and the sand-bank in time 
becomes united to the delta. 

An eztensiye waste of the land is in constant progress along every line 
of coast which presents an abrupt fisuse to the sea. The amount and 
rapidity of that waste depend upon a variety of circumstances : — ^the 
nature of the rocks of which the diffli are composed, according as they 
are capable of long resistanoe, or are easQy acted upon by the weather 
and the sea ; the force of the tides and currents ; the greater or less 
frequency of storms ; — all these aooelerate or retard the destructive 
force of ihe ocean. In this case also, as well as in the action of running 
water on the land, the force is greatly augmented when the water is 
chazged with solid matter. The violent surge of a tempest dashing 
agaii^ a diff detaches laige blocks, and sweeps them away ; but the 
next returning wave hurls them back again against the cliff, and thus 
a powerful artillery is supplied by the knd for its own destruction. 
When we look upon a map of the world, and see the irregular form 
and indented line of coast of every continent and island, we have before 
us the most irresistible proof of the powerfcd force of the waves, and 
that the line of the shore must have been formed, in a great di^p^ee, 
by the action of the sea. 

The east and south coasts of Qreat Britain, from the nature of the 
rocks of which they are composed, and from the violent storms to 
which they are exposed, are extremelv subject to decay. The Shetland 
and Orkney Iskmds are laid open to the whole violence of the waves of 
the Atlantic, and the ocean-current runs in the Pentland Frith, in 
ordinary spring-tidea^ at the rate of I04 miles an hour, and about 
18 miles during stonns. The steep clifib on the shores of the 
Shetland Ialan£ are hdlowed out mto caves, so that the sea enters 
in some places to the depth of 250 feet» lofty arches are worn in pro- 
jecting rocks, and almost every promontoiy ends in a cluster of pillars, 
obeliakB, and towers, the last fragment of extensive continuous strata. 
In stormy winters, vast blocks are moved from their seat, overturned, 
dashed into the sea, or carried considerable distances up acclivitie& 
In this case, even, rocks of the hardest composition have been unable 
to withstand the force with whidi they have been assailed. Islands 
have been wholly destroyed, and the remains of others rise like the 
ruins of a Palmyra in the desert of the ocean. Representations of 
these have been given by Dr. Hibbert in his description of the Shet- 
land Idandsy and tiie following i^ a copy of one x>f the most striking. 

' In the year 1795 a village on the coast of Eoncardineshire was swept 
away by a storm in one n^t, and the sea penetrated 150 yards inland, 
where it has maintained its ground ever since. Almost the whole 
coast of Yorkshire, from the Tees to the Humber, is in a state of 
constant decay, especially between Flamborough Head and the Spurn 
Pointy the rate of encroachment at Owthorpe being at present about 
four yards in a year. An inn at Sherringham, on the Norfolk coast> 
built m 1805, 70 yards from the sea, in 1829 was separated only by a 
small garden from the edge of the diffi There is now a depth of water 
suffident to float a frigate at one point in the harbour of that place, 
where, cmly half a century ago, there stood a cliff 50 feet high, with 
houses upon it. The whole site of andent Cromer now forms a part of 
the Qerman Ocean. Dunwidi, once a flourishing and populous town, 
and the most considerable sea-port on the coast of Suffolk, has been 
gradually swept away, so that there now only remain about twenty 
houses. The church of Beculver, on the coast of Kent, was nearly a 
mile inland in the reign of Henry VIII. ; it is now little more than 60 
yards from the water's edge. 

The whole coast of Sussex has been incessantly encroached upon by 
the sea from time immemorial ; tracts of 400 acres have been carried 
away at one time ; and the old town of Brighton, which stood between 
the site of the present cliff and the sea in the reign of Elizabeth, has 
been wholly destetiyed. The projecting foreUnd of Beachy Head is 
falling away rapidly : in the winter of 1852 many large portions gave 
way aod ful into the ae&, among which were some of a picturesque 
form, known as the Charleses, which were mudx visited by tourists. 
By the undermining of the sea on the coast of Dorsetshire, in 

1792, a portion of land 000 yards from east to west, and a mile and 
a quarter from north to south, sunk 50 feet in 24 hours. The island 
of Heligoland, off the entrance of the river Elbe, has been reduced to 
the fourth part of ito size within the last 500 years, and since 1770 has 
been divided into two parts, the channd between them being navigable 
by large ships. Nowhere has the sea made greater inroads man on the 
coast of Schleswig. The island of Nords&and, in the earlier part of 
the 18th century, was separated from the main-land by a narrow 
stream, and was 50 miles long and 85 broad, populous and highly 
cultivated In the year 1240 a great part of it was destroyed, and at 
the end of th^ 16th century it was reduced to an area of 20 miles in 
circumference. The industrious inhabitants endeavoured to save their 
territory by the erection of lofty dikes ; but in October, 1634, a great, 
storm devastated the whole island, destroyed 1840 people, and 50,000* 
head of cattle ; and three small idets, which have since condderably 
diminished, were all that remained of the once fertile and populous 

It would be superfluous to give, in this plaoe, farther instanoes of 
the like nature : those we have already mentioned have all ocpuned 
within the histoijcal era ; others, however, still more remarkable in 
extent) date from a much earlier period of the earth's history, and the 
evidence of their occurrence is supplied by the identity in compodtion 
of the oppodte portions of the separated lands. There is every reason 
to believe that England once formed a part of France : the di£b on 
the oppodte ddes of the channd are identical with those at the Straito 
of Dover ; and between Folkestone and Boulogne a submarine chain 
of hills is, in some places, only 14 feet bdow the surface at low water. 
From the (German Ocean to the Straits the water becomes gradually 
more shallow, diminishing, in a distance of 200 leagues, from 120 to 
18 fathoms ; and in the same manner, frt>m the Struts to the mouth 
of the English Channel, there is a gradual incresse of the depth of the 
water, so that at the Straits there is a ridge with a fdl to the west and 
to the east. In the wearing of the ddes, and consequent widening of 
the Straits, which is now going on, we see only an advanced stage of a 
work of destruction which has been many thousand years in operation. 
That Sicily was at one time united to Italy was a tradition in the time 
of ViigU e ^neid,' iii. 414) :— 

* Th* Italian ahote 

And fair Sidlla'a ooaat vera one before 

An earthquake oanaed the flaw : the roaring tides 

The paaaage broke that land from land diridea ; 

And where the landa retired the mahing ocean ridea.** 

Dryden's 2Van«. 

AH modem obeervationB on the structure of the oppodte shores, 
the bottom of the intervening sea, and the violence witn which it is 
often agitated, give every degree of credibility to the tradition. But 
as Sicily is in that part so frequently convulsed by volcanic fires, it is 
very probable that subterranean movements have greatly contributed 
to the formation of the Straits of Messina. In like manner, there is 
every reason to believe that the idand of Ceylon was at one time united 
to the continent of Hindustan. [Adam's Bridge, in Oeoq. Div.] 
Humboldt is of opinion that the Caribbean Sea was once mediteira- 
nean, indosed by a circuit of land, of which St.-Domingo, Jamuca, and 
Cuba» are the principal renudns ; and the whole form of the land from 
the promontoiy of Yucatan, through the above-named idands to 
Trimdad, and the coast of Cumana, with its deeply-indented shores, 
the numerous idets and shoals, give countenance to the coi^ecture, 
and justifies the belief that we see in the West India Idands the 
monuments of the irresistible force of the waves of the Atlantic, 
co-operating with subterranean agency, through an indefinite succes- 
don of ages. 

To what, it may be asked, does all this lead ? If such a constant 
destruction of the land be a part of the system of Nature, it necessarily 
follows^ that, if her laws continue to endure, the whole of our preeent 
continents must in time disappear under the sur^eice of the sea. 
Undoubtedly to that, and to no other ooncludon must we arrive ; but 
such a transference of the land which now rises above the surface of 
the sea is in perfect accordance with what geology tells us has been 
the economy of Nature in times past All the stratified masses of 
which the crust of the earth is composed, however high their podtion 
may now be, must at one time have been at the bottom of the sea ; 
and the materials of which they are composed must have constituted 
the component parts of other rocks, which, in a former condition of 
the earth's sur&oe, must have been acted upon and abraded by similar 
agents. In every (^reat group of strata we find beds composed of 
luge water-worn fragments, materials supplied, most probably, by 
rivers which had a rapid descent to the sea; but as such water- 
courses form but a small proportion to those which traverse low and 
level countries, and carry only the finer partides to the sea, so we 
find that the beds of conglomerates bear only a small proportion to 
those strata the materiaJb of whidi are in a comminuted state — an 
additional fact in support of the doctrine, that the formation of strata 
in past times took place imder circumstances andogoitf to those which 
are now in progress ; that is, that the laws of Qie material world 
have continued unaltered. But renovation as well as decay is a part 
of the economy of Nature ; and the same subterranean forces which 
raised our present continents, may, in after 1^^ repeat th« DinooBau 

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Mid other Alps and other Andes may be produced from the materiaU 
which are now washed from our shores, and are accumulating in 
the unfathomable depths of the ocean. We can in no way conclude 
these obserrations so well as by quoting the following eloquent passage 
from the < niustrations of the Huttonian Theory:' — "How ofb^ 
these vicisBitudes of decay and renovation have been repeated, it is 
not for us to determine : uiey constitute a series, of which we neither 
see the beginning nor the end — a droumstance that aooorda with what 
is known concerning other parts of the economy of the world. In the 
planetary motions, where geometry has carried the eye so far both 
into the future and the past» we discorer no mark either of the 
commencement or the termination of the present order. It is 
. unreasonable, indeed, to suppose that such marks should anywhere 
exist. The Author of nature has not giren laws to the universe, 
which, like the institutions of men, cany in themselves the elements 
of their own destruction. He has not permitted, in His works, any 
symptom of in&ncy or of old a^ or any si^ by which we may 
estiftiate either their future or their past duration. He may put an 
and, as He no doubt gave a beginning, to the present system, at some 
determinate period; but we may safely conclude that this great 
catastrophe will not be brought about by any of the laws now existing, 
and that it is not indicated by anything which we perceive." 

ALMANDINE, in Mineialogy, the precious Garnet It is the 
mineral which is most commoiSy employed in jewellery under the 
common name of garnet It is a silicate of alumina and magnesia. 

Almanain&'Rubv is a name given to a variety of Spinell which is 
an aluminate of magnesia. [SpiinLL.] 

ALMOND. [Amtgdalub.] 

ALNUS, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order BehUacea. 
It was formerly united with the birch in the same genus, but modem 
botanists have separated it, because its fruif is wingless and its stamens 
only four. 

Several species are described in botanical works, most of which are 
found in America, between the mountains of New Granada and 
Hudson's Bay : a small part belongs to Europe, and northern and 
middle Asia. Of these, tiie only species that ne«d be noticed here are, 
the Common Alder, the Turkey Alder, and the Heart-Leaved Alder. 

Alrniu glutinoio, the Common Alder, is an inhabitant of swamps and 
meadows in all Europe, the north of Africa and AaA, and North 
America. Iti favourite station is by the side of rivulets, or in the 

Common Alder {Atwut glutinoM), 
elevated parts of marshy land where the soil is drained ; it does not 
thrive so welL^ plaoed in absolutely sts^nant water. Next to the 
charcoal froniBlacK Dogwood {Rhamnm franffula), that supplied by 
the Common Alder is of the best quality ; and thu tree is in conse- 
quence extensively cultivated in plantations for use in the manufac- 
tories of gunpowder. Its juice contains a great abundance of tannin, 
^hich renders the bark valuable for taumng, and the young shoots 

for dyeing various colours when mixed with other ingredients ; the 
veiny knots of its wood are cut into veneer by cabinet-makers for 
ornamental purposes; and its stems, hollowed ou^ are among the best 
materials, next to metal, for water-pipes and imderground purposes. 

Its foliage being laige, and of a deep handsome green, the alder is 
rather an ornamental tree ; and when old it frequently becomes «> 
picturesque object^ if unbroken or uninjured by the hatchet of the 

Several varieties of the Common Alder are met with in collections, 
and among them one, called the Cut-Leaved, which is extremely 
ornamental when yoimg : there is also another, with very much-lobed 
leaves, called the Hawthorn-Leaved, in which almost all trace of the 
usual appearance of the alder has cUsappeared. 

Alnus incanc^ the Turkey Alder, or Upland Alder, is distinguished 
from the preceding by its more erect mode of growth, and by its 
leaves being destitute of clamminess, but covered instead with copious 
white down on the under side. It is fotmd all over continental Europe, 
from Sweden to the north of Italy, and esst beyond the Caucasus, as 
far even as Tra^inf/»>i>^fr.lrR Like the Common Alder, it shows itself in a 
number of varieties, among which several are of dwarfish stature ; but 
its general character is to grow more rapidly and to acquire a larger 
size than the Common Alder. What mi^es it particularly valuable is, 
that it will grow on light land where there are neither rivulets nor 
ditches ; an important property, as it can scarcely be doubted, from its 
appearance, that it possesses wnatever usefhl qualities are found in the 
Common Alder. Botanists seem to suppose that the Turkey Alder is 
their A. obUmgattif but this is a manifest error. 

A. cordifdia, the Heart-Leaved Alder, resembles but little in 
appearance either of the preceding. It forms a rather la^e and very 
handsome round-headed tree, witii broad, deep-green, shining leaves, 
deeply heartshapcMl at the base. It grows with rapidity, and is one of 
the most interesting ornamental trees that have of late years beeo 
introduced into cultivation. Though a native of the kingdom of 
Naples, and a most distinct species, its very existence was unknown 
till within a few years. It is a perfectly hardy plant, notwithstanding 
its southern station. 

All the Aiders are increased with great facilily by layers ; they will 
also strike readily enough from cuttings, but the latter are longer in 
becoming huidsome plants. Common Aider is obtained by the nursery- 
man from seed ; which should, if possible, be sown in very light, rioi, 
damp soil, in the autumn, soon after it is ripe. If kept till the 
spring, even if preserved in sand, it loses in a great degree its power 
of vegetating ; and if not kept in sand, it will scarcely ever grow at all 

ALOE, a genus of succulent plants belonging to the natural order 
LiUaoea, It comprehends a very considerable number of species 
which diflbr from each other exceedingly in the sise, form, and surface 
of their leaves, in stature, and in the colour, size, and structure of 
their flowers. The greater part of them are mere objects of curiosity, 
and are only seen in collections of succulent plants ; but among them 
are species of much value, on account of their yielding the well-known 
medicinal drug called Aloes. 

From what particular species the resinous substance called Aloes is 
procured, and whether the difibrent samples known \mder the name 
of Hepatic Aloes, Socotrine Aloes, and Horse Aloes are yielded by 
difibrent species, or are only di£Ebrent qualities of the same species, 
are points not settied. 

Ail that appaani certain is that plants nearly related to Aloe perfo- 
Uata of Linnseusi, which some consider distinct species, while others 
pronounce them mere varie^iM of each other, are what the drug is 
prepared frouL In all probability, all the species of the genus having 
an arborescent stem and thick succulent leaves will yield the substance 
equally welL 

That which has the reputation of producing the best sloes is 
A. Socotrind, a plant having, when old, a round stem 8 or 4 feet 
high ; leaves of a sword form, 14 to 2 feet long, sharp-edged, sawed, 
hard, and pungent at the apex, often collected in clusters at the top 
of the stem ; and red flowers tipped with green, borne in clusters on 
tall stdks which rise erect from among the leaves. This is a native 
of the Cape of Good Hope, and the island of Socotra, but it is now 
commonly cultivated in the West Indie& The processes of preparing 
the drug are various. Sometimes the leaves are cut off at their base 
and plaoed in iron vessels to drain, until they have discharged all their 
juice, which is then inspissated ; in other places, the leaves are cut 
mto slices and boiled for ten minutes, after which the water in which 
they have been boiled is evaporated ; occasionally pressure is resorted 
to for the purpose of procunng the greatest quantity of juice. 

Socotrine Aloes seem to be the purest kind obtained by draining 
only; Hepatic or Barbadoes Aloes, which are obtained from the 
Aloe vulgarii, are less pure, and may be obtained by boiling or 
slight pressure; while Horse Aloes are undoubtedly a coarse prepa- 
ration of the dregs of the last-mentioned. [Aloes, in Abts i^i> 

No plants can be more easy to cultivate artificially than the Aloe 
Tribe. They are incapable of parting rapidly with water, and therefore 
require to be planted in a soil that is very slightiy retentive of moisture, 
so that they may not be gorged with it by their roots ; for this reason, 
they are potted in a compost consisting of littie more than lime rubbuh 
mixed with a small quantity of ordinary soil, and carefully drsined. 

Digitized by 






They require a gpreen-house which ia capable of being maintained 
tot a temperature of not less than 40° in the depth of winter, at 
which time they should have no water whatever ; in the summer they 
want no fire-heat» but may ba watered regularly, the supply being 
always in proportion to their rate of growth and to the temperature 
of the air ; that is to say, when in full growth and in a high tempe- 
rature, ti^ey may have abundance of water, and when growing slowly 
in a low temperature they should have but y^ little. 

AliOPECUHUS, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
Graminaeecs. It is distinguished 
from all other British grasses by 
its flowers, which grow in close 
cylindrical heads, consisting of 
two glumes of equal size and a 
keeled compressed flg^ire, in- 
closing a single pcdea, from the 
base of which arises an arista 
or beard. It contains many 

Alopecttnu pratentis, the 
Meadow Foxtail Grass, is a valu- 
able plant to the fimner. It is 
BO much larger thim any other 
British species oi Alopecurus as 
to be easily reoognised ; and from 
PkUvm pratente, which it re- 
sembles, it may be inmiediately 
known by its not having two 
palese, and by its beard proceed- 
ing from its palea and not from 
its glomes. It grows commonly 
in meadows, where it fonns 
rather a coarse but an abun- 
dant and early herbage, of ^ 
which catUe are veiy fond. 
In such situations it is in- 
valuable, but it becomes 

worthless if sown on li^t diy Meadow Foxtail Grass {Alopecttnu 
BoiL praUntU), 

A. agrettu^ Slender or Field FoxtaQ Grass, has a fibrous root, and 
blossoms in July or August Although a troublesome weed amongst 
wheat, it is useful for sowing on light sandv soils on the sea-ooast In 
such situations it grows better than even the oonmion rye-grasses. 

ALOYSIA, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
VerbenacecB, A, cUriodora is the Sweet^oented Vervain of qur gardens. 


ALPINIAy a genus of plants belonging to the natural order Zinffi- 
heracea. The species have thick tuberous horizontal roots. The stems 
are numerouB and perennial, with lanceolate leaves, having a slit ligulate 
sheath. The flowers are in panicles, or loose racemes or spikes. The 
tube of the csoroUa is short, the inner limb I-lipped. The filament of 
the stamens linear. The fruit is capsular and 8-ceUed, with winged seeds. 

A. Qalomga is a native of Siunatra, and is cultivated in the Indian 
Archipelago. Its roots arepungenty acrid, and aromatic, and are often 
substituted for ginger. They are sold by druggists under the name 
of Golofnga major, A plant related to, if not identical with, the 
A. exaUata of Meyer, the Eenealmia exaUaia of Linnteus, is called 
Corowatti in British Guyana, and is described by Dr. Hancock as 
a bitter pungent plants and when taken acting as a diaphoretic and 
diuretic, and in large doses as emetia [Galanga.] 

ALTERED STRATA. In addition to the consoUdation and 
division by cracks, joints, and fissures, to which all rocks have 
been subjected, in unequal degrees, there are special cases of 
uncommon induration, internal re-arrangement of particles, and even 
the production of new mineral ingredients, which happen in the strata 
near to rocks of igneous origin, and along certain great fractures and 
flexures. Heat is usually appealed to for these effiects, and justly; 
but in addition to mere pecvading warmth. Von Buch supposes 
▼aporisation of some ingreoients (as magnesia, which converts lime- 
Btone to dolomite), and the solution of others in hot water, to be 
necessary to explain the various contents of mineral veins. 
, ALTERNAJION OF GENERATIONS, an expresssion introduced 
into natural history by Professor Steenstrup, a Danish naturalist^ to 
designate the difitoenoe of form observable between the parents and 
mlmediate o£bpring in the lower animals, as in the Acalepha 
[AcALXFHiBl Salpa [Salfaobje], and some others. [Geitxbations, 

ALTH.£A, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
Malvaeeeg, It is kaown by its double calyx, the outer whorl of which 
has six to nine sepals, whilst the inner has five. A, oJ^Mnalis is the 
Marsh-Mallow, a plant the use of whose mucilaginous roots and leaves, 
m all cases in which emollient or demulcent substances are required, 
» of great antiquity. It is a common European plant, and is often 
found in marshes, especially near the se% in great abundance. It is a 
Ifreimial, with a carrot-shaped white fleshy root, as thidk as the 
thumb, and a foot or more long. The stems are two or three feet 
high, covered all over with a soft down, which also is found on the 
leaves, to which it gives a hoary aspect. The leaves are soft, stalked, 

often a little heart-shaped, divided into three or five shallow serrated 
lobes. The flowers are of a pale rose colour, and appear in very short 
clusters from the bosom of the leaves ; their calyx is 5-toothed, and 
surrounded with eight or ten or even more bracts. The corolla and 
other parts are like tiiose of the Common Mallow. The demulcent 
lozenges sold in the shops under the mame of PAte de Guimauve, arc 
made of Marsh-Mallow. 

MarriiOfallow {Altluea officinalis). 

AUhaa roMCL the Hollyhock, is another spedes. It is found wild 
in China, and d now extremdy common in our gardens. Linnaeus 
considered it a distinct genus, which he called Alcta, 

ALUM-ROOT, the root of Gtranivm macuUUum, It contains alum, 
and is a powerful astringent [Gebaitiuil] 

ALUM-SLATE, a rook frt>m which, as its name implies, alum is 
prepared. It is found in Germany, Sweden, &c ; and in Yorkshire a 
stratum occurs, which, according to Mr. Winter (Nicholson's 'Journal,' 
Na 25, p. 241), is 28 miles in length, extending from 10 miles to the 
southwajxl of Whitby to 18 miles to the northward ; the cliffii are in 
general precipitous, god their height is from 100 to 750 feet The 
colour of this shite is bluish-gray : its hardness varies ; fit the top part 
of the stratum it may be cnunbled between the fingers, whereas %t a 
considerable depth it is as hard as roofing-slate. The snedfic gravity 
is about 2*48. By exposure to tiie air it effloresces, and acquires ^o 
taste of alum. Alum-slate has not been accurately analysed; it 
contains silica, alumina, and, before efflorescence, probably pyrites or 
bisulphuret of iron. 

At Hurlett, near Paisley, and Campsie, near Glasgow, alum is 
manufactured from what appears to be slateHolav impresnated with 
bisulphuret of iron ; it is obtained firom old coal-pits, and having been 
long exposed to air and moisture, sulphate of iron and sulphate of 
alumina are formed, and orystaUise so as completely to destroy the 
texture of the slate. 

This double sulphate of iron atid alumina occurs in the form of soft 
delicate fibres, easily separable from each other ; it is nearly colourless, 
of a silky lustre^ and resembles asbestos in appearance. It is readily 
soluble in water ; the solution yields crystals of sulphate of iron ; and 
when potash-salts are added to the remaining solution of sulphate of 
alumina, crvstals of alum are immediately formed ; and this is the 
process of uum-making already noticed. 

ALUM-STONE, a mineral which occurs in a secondary rock at La 
Tolfa in Italy, and is there used in tibie preparation of alum ; it is found 
in small masses and veins, and according to Cordier it eidsts in most 
burning volcanoes. It is said to be met with also in Tuscany and 

This mineral is either massive or crystallised ; the former is usually 
grayish-white, and sometimes red. It is translucent, easily frangible, 
scratches calcareous spar, but is scratched by fluor spar. When heated 
by the blowpipe it decrepitates, and by continuing the heat emits a 
sulphureous sinelL 

The crystals are generally situated in the cavities of the massive 
substance; they are small, shming, sometimes externally brownish; 
their form is an obtuse rhomboid, variously modifled. 

Both varieties have been analysed— the massive by Yauquelini and 
the dystallised by Cordier ; the results are— 

Maasire. CrjBtalUaed. 

Solphnrlc add • • . S5'00 Salphwic add . • • S5-495 
Alomina «... 48*93 Alumina . • • • S9'654 
Potash .... 8-08 Potash .... 10*031 

Silifla S4-00 Water, a trnco of oxide of 

Water .... 4.00 iron and Iom . . • 14*880 

100*00 100*000 

ALUMINITE, in Mineralogy, a variety of native Sulphate of 
Alumina, also called Webtterite, It is found in reniform masses and in 
botryoidal concretions in Halle in Plrussia, Epemay in Fnaot, and at 

Digitized by 






NewhaTen in Siusex. It has a white or yellowish-white colour. It 
is Bofb and friable, and has an earthy fracture. It is occasionally 
translucent^ but more frequently opaque. It has a specific gravity of 
1*7. It IB a hydrous sub-sulphate of alumina^ and has the following 
composition : — 

Sulphiuio Acid 2327 

AlwmiTiA 29*87 

Water 46*86 

ALUMO-CALCITE, a mineral belonging to the group of Clays con- 
taining a laige quanti^ of water. It occurs in the defbs of ironstone 
veins at Eybenstock, in the Erzgebiige. It is massive^ and has a white 
colour inclining to blue. It has a white streak, a conchoidal fracture, 
and is so soft that it may be crushed between tiie fingers. It adheres 
strou^y to the tongue. The specific gravity is 2714. Its analysis by 
Kerstan gives — 

Silica 86*60 

Alumina 2*25 

Lime 6.25 

Water .... 4*90 


ALUNITE, in Kineralogy, a name for the Alum-Stone. 

ALVEOLITES (Lamarck), a genus of Fossil Polypiarui, from the 
Cretaceous and Tertiary Strata. 

AMADOU, the name of an inflammable substance occasionally 
used as tinder. It is prepared from the dried plant of the BoUtut 
igniarius, steeped in a strong solution of saltpetre, and cut into thin 
riices. This plant grows horisontally frt>m the sides of the cherry, 
the ash, and other trees. When it first makes its appearance it is a 
little round wart-like body, the size of a pea of a yellow colour, and 

BoMui iffniariut. 

of a soft yielding substance ; it gradually increases in size and hardneas 
till it becomes of a darkish-brown, azui is as large as an apple. It 
afterwards takes a horizontal direction, forms a border and becomes 
covered with numerous closely-packed tubes oniits under surface, 
i^hich are exceedingly minute. When the plant is full grown the 
tubes are of a reddish-brown colour, and of a hard woody texture ; 
and the upper surface is of various colours disposed in gray, brown, 
or clouded concentric elevated circles. The plant is perennial, and 
increases yearly in size. 

AMABANTA'CEiE, Amaranths, a natural order of Apetalous 
Dicotyledonous plants, remarkable for the dry coloured m^es of 
which all their bracts and floral envelopes are composed — a character 
by which they are principally known from Chenopodiacea, Their 
essential distinction is briefly this : calyx, diy, coloured, not fidling 
away; petals, wanting; stamens, five or more ; ovarium, quite simple, 
superior; fruit, an utricle, containing .a single seed, which has an 
embiyo curved round a central farinaceoUs albumen; leaves, destitute 
of stipules. 

The species are found chiefly in tropical countries, where they are 
often troublesome weeds. The Cock*s-Cdmb, the Globe- Amaranth, the 
Prince's-Feather, the Love-Lies-Bleeding, of our gardens, belong to 
this ord6r. 

Many of the species are used in the countries where they grow as 
pot-herbs, and mdeed none of them present any tmwholesome 
properties. The seeds of AvMur<aUkv* frumaUaceus and A, Anardhana 
are gathered as com crops in India. A large number of the species 
have a reputation for posbessing medicinal properties, hui, as is the 
case with the majority of such remedies, they seldom bear out the 
encomiums bestowed upon them by the ignorant (Lindley, * Vegetable 

Amaranthui polygawwa, 

1. A calyx and bract with stamena. 2. The aame with the piatiL 

3. The piatil opening. 4. A aeed. 

6. A aced cat down, ahowing the embryo. 6. The embryo. All magnified. 

AMARYLLIDA'CRfi, AmarylUds, the Narcissus Tribe, a natural 

Amaryllis reticulata, dlminiahed in alee. 
1. The flower cat open. 2. A atamen the natural aixe. 

order of .Monoootyledonous plants^ to which the Daffodil, the BeUadonna 

Digitized by 






Lily tfnd Guenuey Lily, the showy BnmfiTigias ond Blood-Flowen 
(Jffcefnanthui) of the Cape of Qood Hope, and the American Aloe belong. 
They are characterised by having six stamens, a highly-coloured flower, 
and an inferior ovary. The beauty of their blossoms serye as a doak 
to their poisonous properties, and shows how little the external 
appearaucee of plants are to be trusted in judging of their virtues. 
To form an opinion only ftom their aspect^ these would be pronounced 
the most harmless of juants, while in fact their bulbs are dangerous 
poiaons. The juice of that of ffionanthtu toxiearim is inspissi^ed by 
the Hottentots, who smear their arrow-heads with it ; other kinds 
are not less fatal, and even the common daffodil and snowdrop contain 
within their bulbs an acrid irritating principle which renders them 
emetic. Like many other poisonous families, this occasionallv secretes 
a kind of foocula, or flour, which, when separated from the juice that 
is naturally mixed vrith it, becomes a wholesome article of food. The 
aiTow-rL.ot of Chili is yielded by an AUtrGmeria, which belongs to 

The, species, wMch are chiefly scattered over Brazil, Africa, and 
tropical Asia, are nearly all bulbous ; a few only acquire a high degree 
of development, and lose their bulbous character, as the JhrfarUhet, 
Affove, and LiUoBo, [Aoaye.] 

AMAZON-STONE, in Mineralogy, a green variety of Felspar. 

AMBER, a carbonaceous mineral which occurs in beds of lignite, 
in Greenland, Prussia^ France, Switaerland, and some other oountrie& 
The greater portion of it comes from the southern coasts of the Baltic 
Sea, where it is thrown up between Eonigsbeig and MemeL (Ber* 
ceHus, 'Traits de Chimie,' vi 589.) 

It is also stated ('Annales de Chimie,' xvi 215) that it is obtained by 
mining at a distance of 200 feet from the sea, and at a depth of about 
100 feet, and is found in small cavities. It is occasionally met with 
(Aikin's ' Diet of Chemistry,' i 57) in the gravel beds near London, 
in which case it is merely an alluvial deposit Amber occurs generally 
in small pieces, which are sometimes colourless, frrequentiy light- 
yellow or deep-brown, and veiy oonmionly translucent; two laige 
masses have, however, been found, one of them weighing upwards of 
thirteen pounds, and the other more than eighteen. 

Amber is rather harder than common resins, which it resembles 
in several properties : it is susceptible of a good poUsh, and when 
rubbed becomes electrical ; indeed the word dechieiiy is derived from 
ffA<«r^r, the Ghreek name for amber. Its density varies fsom. 1*065 
to 1 "070. When bruised it exhales a slight aromatic odour ; and when 
heated to 448" Fahrenheit it melts, inflames, bums with a bright 
flame, and emits a smell which is not disagreeable. 

Th» subject of the origin of amber is one which has been much 
diacuased. According to Berzelius ('Chimie,' vi 589), it was origi- 
nally a resin dissolved in a volatile oil or natural balsam. The procnb 
of tiiiis opinion are, he conceives, numerous. Thus, it has often the 
impression of the branches and bark upon which it has flowed and 
solidified ; it often contains insects, some of which are so delicately 
formed, that they could not have ocouired except in a very fluid mass. 
Dr. Brewster (' Edinburgh FhiL Journal,' iv. 382) concludes, from an 
examination of the optioal properties of amber, that it is an indurated 
▼egetable juice. 

Amber consists of a mixture of a volatile oil, two resins soluble 
in alcohol and in ether, succinic add, and a bituminous body that 
resists the action of all solvents^ and which is the principal part of 

Water does not act upon this substance ; it does not even dissolve 
any of the succinic add. Alcohol takes up a soft) yellow, limpid 
resin. Cold concentrated sulphiuic add dissolves amb^ ; the solution 
baa a brown colour, and when water is added to it, the greater part 
of the amber is predpitated. Nitric add converts it into a resinous 
sabatance, and dissolves it totally. 

When amber, in the state of fine powder, is boiled in a salution 
of potash, a great quantity of succinic add is dissolved. 

According to Drapiez, tiie composition of amber is as follows :-* 

Carbon 80*59 

Hydrogen 7'81 

Oxygen 6-78 

Ashes 8-27 

Lofli 210 


The ashes consist of lime, silica, and alunmUL This analysis can only 
be oonddered as an approximation. 

Amber is employed for ornamental purposes, in the manufacture 
of necklaces, ftc. It is used also for preparing amber-vamish, for 
obtaining a peculiar oil used in medicine, and it yidds succinic acid 
employed in chemical investigations. 

AMBERQRIS, a substance of animal origin, found prindpallyin 
warm climates, floating on the sea, or thrown on the coasts. The 
best comes from Madagascar, Surinam, and Java. It has been found 
in the intestinal canal of the Phyteter mcurocephalutf mixed with the 
remains of several marine animals which have served it for food. On 
this account it has been supposed to be a morbid product analogous 
to biliary oalcoli 

Ambeigris of good quality is soli^, opaque, of a bright gray colour, 
which is darkest externally, and intermixed with yellow or reddish 
strin. When it is heated or rubbed, it exhales an odour which is 
agreeable to most persons. It is sufficiently soft to be flattened 
between the fingers. Its fracture is fine-grained, with traces of 
lamellar structure. The heat of the hand is suffldent to soften it. 
Its specific gravity varies from 0*908 to 0*920. 

When ambezgris is heated with boiling alcohol of the specific gravity 
0*888, untlL it is saturated, a peculiar substance, called Ambrein, is 
obtained as the solution cools, grouped in mamnullated, small, 
colourless crystals. The solution, by evaporation, yidds a further 
portion of ambrein, which may be rendered pure, by bdng redissolvad 
in aloohol, and then crystalUsed. 

Ambrein, thus obtained, is brilliant, white, and insipid ; it has an 
agreeable odour, whidi appears, however, to be adventitious, because 
it is diminished by repeated crystallisations; by fudon or a long- 
continued gentle heat it acquires a reshious odour. Nitric add con- 
verts it into a peculiar add, called Ambreie Acid. The oaustio alkalies 
do not form soap with it. 

According to Juch and Bouillon-Lagrange^ benzoic' add exists in 
distilled ambergris ; by the analysis of Joh^ ambergris appears to be 
composed of ambrdn 0*85, an extractive matter soluble in alcohol, 
and probably containing benzoic add, 0*025 ; watery extract with 
benzoic add and common salt, 0*015 ; with 0*11 not accounted for. 

Ambeigris is used as a perfume ; and as the alcoholic solution is the 
most odorous preparation of it, it is generally employed in that form. 

AMBLIGONITK, a mineral, consisting of phosphate of alumina 
and lithia. It has a greemsh-white colour, and oc^nirs both masdve 
and in rhombic prisms. It is found at Chursdorf, near Penig, in 
Saxony, and at Avendal in Norway. The cleavage is paralld to 
the ddes of the prism. It has an uneven fracture, and in thin 
laminie is tranduoent or transparent The following is the analysis 
of Berzelius : — 

Phosphoric Acid 54*12 

Alumina 88*96 

Lithia 6*92 


AMBLYSE'MinS (Agassis), a Fossil Fidi, from the Oolite of 

AMBLyUHUS (Agassis), a genus of Fossfl Fishes, teom the Lias 
of Somersetshire. 

AMBUKIA, a genus of plants bdonging to the natural order 
Chmopodiaeea, several of the spedes of whi(m yidd volatile oils that 
are employed as medicines m the countries where ^ey grow. 
A. anihtfrnifiaica is a native of North America, and its oil is extracted 
and used as an anthelmintic under the name of Worm-Seed Oil 

AMELANCHIER (the Savoy name of the Medlar), a genus of 
plants belonging to the sub-order Pomea {Pomaeea, Lindley),,of the 
order PoioeecB, It has a 5-cleft calyx with lanceolate petids, and an 
ovary of 10 cells, with a solitary ovule in each. The mature finiit is 8-5- 
ceUed, with one seed in each oelL The spedes are small trees^ mik 
dmple serrated dedduous leaves^ and racemes of white fiowers, 

A, wlgariif the common species, is a native of rugged plaoea 
throughout Europe. It is the AvotUa rotundifoUa of Persoon. 

A, io^iyapkm, the Qrape-Pear or Canadian Medlar, is a very com- 
mon plant in Canada ; it is also a native of Newfoundland, Virginia, 
and the higher parts of Columbia. It is a shrub 6 or 8 fSset in height, 
with a puiple fruit. 

A, ovoUm is also a shrub 6 or 8 feet high, and is a native of North 
America, throughout Canada ftom Lake Huron to the Saskatchewan 
and Mackenzie rivers, and as far as the Bocky Mountains. Sir John 
Richardson says that it " abounds on the sandy plains of the Sas- 
katchewan. Its wood, named by the Crees Mewut-^wU^iUUiek, is 
prized for making arrovra and pipe-stems, and is thence termed by 
the Canadian voyageurs 'Bois de Fldche.' Its berries, about the size 
of a pea, are the finest fruit in the country, and are used by the Crees 
under tiie name of MeesoMteootoom-meena both in a fredi and dried 
state. They make a pleasant addition to pemmioan, and excellent 
puddings very little inferior to plum-pudding." 

Another North American species is known by the name of A» 
tanffuitnea. Its fruit is of a blood-red colour. 

(Don, Dichlamydeovt PlanU.) 

AMENTA'CEuE, a name sometimes ^van to a group of plants, 
chiefly forest-trees, found in the north of Europe, Asia, and America ; 
the flowors of which are arranged in a dense cylindrical dedduous 
spike, called by botanists an AvMMtwn, Such are &e poplar, the birch, 
tne hazel, the willow, the oak, and many others. But as these genera 
are in feuit constructed in' very diBRnent manners, Amentaeeat are more 
correctly separated, by modem botanisto, into several di£forent orders. 
[CoBTijLCius ; Salioao&b ; Bbtulaoejb, fta] 

AMETHYST. This name has been applied to two predons stones 
of essentially different natures. The Oriewtal Amdhytt is a rare 
variety otAacmamtiM Spar [ADAiCAirrnri Spar] or Oorimdum, The 
Oceidental, or Common Amithyit, now to be described, is a variety 
of quartz or rock crystal, which is met with in manv parts of the 
worid, as India, Siberia, Sweden, Germany, Spain, ftc It occurs 
in various forms, as masdve, in rounded pieces, and cryHtaUised. The 

Digitized by 






primary form of the cryBtal, like, that of quarti^ ia a diglitlj obtuae 
rhomboid, but it is uraaUy found in the aeoondaiy form of a 6<«ided 
prism, terminated at one or both ends by a Cndded pyramid; some- 
times, though rarely, the prism is wanting, and the pyramids being 
then united base to oase, the secondary crystal is a dodecahedron with 
triangular faces. 

The amethyst is principally distinguished firam common quarts by 
its colour, which is occasionally of eyeiy shade of yiolet, or rather 
purplish-yiolet, and this in the perfect amethyst is pratty equal 
throughout the crystal : yery commonly the summits only of the 
crystiJ are amethystine, the lower part beinf nearly colourleai, or 
tinged with green. By long-continued heat the colour is destroyed 
and the crystals become white and opalescent Sometimes the cirstals 
are aggregated or fiasciculated ; in the Palatinate they are found lining 
geodes of agate, and in Silesia capillary ciystals occur mixed with 
micaceous iron ore. 

The crystals of the amethyst yary from diaphanous to translucent, 
and they exhibit yarious degrees of splendour, both externally and 
internally. The fracture is commonly conchoidal, and the firagments 
are of indeterminate form. Like quarts, the amethyst is sui&ciently 
hard to giye fire with steel and to scratch glass ; and has also been 
found, like it, with cayities contAiuing water; it is infusible by the 
common blow-pipe. According to Rose^ it consists of— 

Silica 97*50 

AliiTnina •2<^ 

Oxide of Iron and Manganese ... *60 

AJOCAKIA (in honour of John Amman, a distinguished botanist), 
a genus of plants belonging to the natural order LffthnuetB. The 
species are aquatic plants, with smooth opposite entire leayes, 
4-comered stems, and small pink or red flowers. They are natiyes of 
both the Kew and Old Worlds, and yery generally distributed. One 
species, A, veiictUoria, has a strong peculiar smell, and the leayes are 
yery acrid. They are used by the natiye doctors of India for the 
purpose of raising blisters, which they do in the course of half 
an hour. 

AMMODYTES, a genus of fishes belonging to the diyision of 
Apodal Malaeopteryffii and family AnamUida. The body is yery long 
and the head lanceolate. On the ba^ is a dorsal fin extending nearly 
its whole length. The anal fin is also long ; and the caudal, which is 
forked, is separated from both the dorsal and anaL Two species 
occur on the coasts of the British Islands, the Ammodyta tdoia$iiu$ 
and the Ammodytea Umceok The former is the laiger, and is distin- 
guished by the greater sise of the head, and by the dorsal fin, which 
commences in a line with the extremities of the pectorals, whilst in 
the A. lancea it commences in a line with the middle of the pectorals. 
The Sand-Ed, by which name the first species is popularly known, 
attains a length of between 12 and 15 inches. When aliye the back 
is of a dark bluish-green, and the sides and belly bright silyery-white. 
It frequents sandy shores in great numbers, but is capricious in its 
visits, more so than its congener. At the ebbing of the tide it buries 
itself with great dexterity and rapidity in the wet sands to the depth 
of from 4 to 6 inches, whence it is extracted by means of yarious 
instruments, such as peculiarly formed ffripes and sickles with blunt 
edgv, made for the purpose. It is mu<£ esteemed by fishermen as a 
bait, and is also sou{^t after on many parts of the coast as an article 
of food, being yery delicate eating when fresh, and excellent when 
dried in the sun and grilled. 

The Ssnd-Launce, Ammodytet lancea, is a smaller species, and usually 
of a more brownish hue, with a tinge of red about the head. It is 
moi« abunduit than the Sand-Ed, and has always been distinguished 
from it by the fishermen, though for a long time confounded with it 
by naturalists. The distinctions between the two species were first 
pointed out by M. Lesauyage of Caen. Both appear to be generally 
distributed through Northern and Western Europe^ In Scotland thie 

Sand-Eel is known by the name of the Homer, and in the Isle of liui 
tiie two mcies are distinguished firom each other as the Gray Gibbon 
and Red uibbon. 

(Tarrell, ^rif tt4^ttM,yoLiL; TumSl, FUhet of the Frith rf Fwih.) 
AMMONITES, a fossil genus of Cephalopodous MolUiica, allied to 
the recent genus NaiUUus, The species are known by the old Latin 
name Oonm Afnmonii, These Oormta AfnmoM$, Comes dAvmon at 
the FVenoh, were so called from a fSancied resemblance to the horns 
with which the head of Jupiter Ammon was sculptured. In the earlier 
times their orisin was ysiiously accounted for. Some thou^t them 
petrifactions ^ real rams' horns, taking the name aboye-mentioned 
m a strict and downright matterof-fact sense ; others thought they 
were the curled tails of certain animals; some took them for petrified 
marine worms rolled up ; others saw in them coiled serpents, whoice 
thmr were called Snak»«tonea. The I^ends of the saints inyested them 
with a sacred interest 

Of thoosaad makee, each one 

Was changed into a coil of stone, 

When holy Hilda pnty*d. 

And the prayer, we are told, was not only foUowjid by petri&ciion, but 
by decapitation. We beUeve that there is a similsr traditienof St 
iLsyna, who, when she found herself in a wood at Keynsham, between 
Bath and Bristol, suirounded by seipents, changed them by the fanroor 
of her deyotions into headless stones. Nor were these opinions con- 
fined to the mere yulgar. Wormius described Ammonites as petrified 
adders. Langius considered them to be either the yertebne of serpents 
or conyduted marine insects. These notions were not lost on the 
dealers ; and there are few fossil collections which do not even now 
possess what was called 'a perfect Comu Ammumii,' th^t is, an Ammo- 
nite with a caryed serpent^s h6ad ingeniously fitted on to the fossil 
shell by way of aperture. Our limits will not permit us to dwell on 
this fabulous part of the history of Ammonites nirther than to observe 
that other learned men, Torellus Sarayna, fVacastorius^ and others, 
considered them as hum Naturce, formed hy the plastic power of the 
earth. The andents held them in hi^ estimation as yery sacred and 
of the highest yalue to the dreamer. Thus Pli^ C Hist Mund,' 
xxxyi 10), ** Hsmmonis comu inter sacratissimss ^tmopise genunas, 
aureo colore, arietini oomus efligiem reddens, promittitur pnediTina 
somnia representare ;" and eyen to the present time the Indians sre 
said to ascribe extraordinary properties to thena. 

To the Boologist Ammonites are objects of great interest^ and to the 
geologist they are of the utmost consequence. " It is essy," says Ifr. 
Phillips, in his ' Quids to Geology' (8yo. 1884), '' to see howimportanl^ 
in questions concerning the relatiye antiquity of stratified rocks, is a 
knovrledge of Ammonites, since whole sections of them are characteristic 
of certain systems of rocks." (sea 82.) Dr. Buckland (' Bridgewater 
Treatise,' p. 388), thus comprehemdyely describes the range of these 
extinct cephalopodous mollusks : ''The family of Ammonites extends 
throug^ the entire series of the fossiliferous formations, from the 
transition strata to the chalk indusiye." 

According to Mr. Owen's system, the Ammonites form the fourth 
genus of hu second famijk (AmmoniHdcB) of his first order Tetra- 
frrafwAtato, of the dass Cephalopod<t, In the opinion of all natu- 
ralists this great group of fossils requires to be subdiyided. The 
GoniatiUt [Gokiatitxs] of the Palseosoic rocks haye been efiiootuaUy 
separated ; the CeraiUee of the triassio strata may be also withdrawn, 
but stiQ the number of genuine Ammonitee which remain is too 
enormous to be treated except in sections more or less founded on 
structural aiBnitie& Without discussing what may be the best 
principles for such a classification, we may refer to that of Von Budi, 
as most generally accepted by geologists. This is mainly founded on 
a consideration of the sutures, or sinuous lines at the surfiBce of the 
shell, formed by the edges of the diaphragmal plates which separate 
the chambers. 

To ittustrate this yiew of the subject we subjoin a few examples of 
characteristic Ammonitic sutures. 

ilaiSMfrfMf JtiU0v{f (Sowerby). From KeUoway rook. 

^■VTIA -^vVTW- 

AmmimiU$rrakatmiBowtithj). RomfhsUas. 

AMmmttM veMutue (PhiUips). F^om Speeten Olay. 

Digitized by ' 






The following are Von Buch's groups, with their prevalent geological 
distribution : — 

Ariete9.---The back vn usually broad, and oarinated (often a furrow 
on each aide of the keel) ; the ribs are simple and strong. The 
■utuxal line formed upon the following general model :— • 

The group of Arietet, including A. BvMamdi, A. Conyhwuri, &a, 
belongs almost wholly to the Lias formation. 

Faisiferi, — ^The back is narrow, acuminated to a sharp keel (no 
furrow on its sides) ; the ribs are elegantly and sigmoidally bent. 
The sutures differ fix>m those of Aridetf the dorsal sinuB D being 
much less deep, with divexving and not puralld sides ; the sinusL 
ia yery much deeper, and tmre are three or four smaller ones, a a' 
a", near the inner edge of the whorls. The latter whorls usually 
embrace the preceding ones. 

These AmmomUB are numerous in the Upper Lias and Lower Oolite 
formations. A, Strangwaptii of Sowerby is an example. {Amtnonita 
WaleoUn does not belong to this divisioa) 

AmaUkei. — The back is generally acute and keeled, the keel 
generally crenated ; the ribs generally a little sigmoidal ; the latter 
whorla embracing the preceding one& The sutures are in general 
form much like those of the last division, but more richly la(Sniated 
and foliaceous. 

This group belongs to the Upper Lias and Oolitic formations. 
Ammonitei amaltkeut of Schlottheim (A, Stoketii, Sowerby) is an 
example from the Lias. 

Capricomi, — The back broad, without a keeL The ribs simple, 
straight, strong, and crossing the back. Inner whorls exposed. 
The sutures often approach to those of the Arietea in respect of the 
sinus D ; but the posterior edge of D, L, and 1 range on the same 
line, and the undulations are all lower and less foliaceous than in the 
Faiciftri and AmaltheL Ammonitei planicoit<Uut (Sowerby) ia an 
example. The species are oonmion in the Lias. 

PlamUati. — The back and sides rounded; no keel; the inner 
volutions exposed. The ribs are often divided over the.dorsal region. 
The sutures are remarkably laciniated and complicated ; the sinus (L) 
extremely deep, and generally trifurcate. 

The species occur commonly in the Lias and Oolitic formations. 
Ammonitei eommwiis (Sowerby) is an example from the Lias; A, 
plieatUu (Sowerby) from the Coralline Oolite. 

Donati. — The back is broad and not keeled; the whorls often 
quadrate : the ribs are simple on the aides, but divided over the 
back, and generally bear a tubercle at the point of division. 
Ammonitei Lavcei (Sowerby) is an example from the Lias. 

Corcnarii. — The back without a keel, usually broader than the 
sides ; the ribs are straight and simple on the sides, but divided into 
two, three, or more, as they cross the back, and the point of division 
is usually sharply tuberoulate. The sutures resemble those of the 
PlannlaH. The species occur in the Oolites, as A, Humphraianui 
(Sow.) ; A, Cfowerianui (Sow.) ; and in the Lias, as A, Bechei (Sow.). 

Macrocephali. — ^The back is without keel, and round and broad, and 
the umbilicus deep. The ribs are straight on the umbilical faoe and 
simplct, but sometimes arched, and generally divided across the back. 
The sutures resemble those of the PUamUUi, but are somewhat 
differently proportioned to the dorsal and umbilical surfiitoes. The 
i^>ecies occur in the Oolite and Chalk. The Ammonitei iublcnit 
(Sow.), is a good example, from the Kelloways Rock. 

ArmaH, — The back without a keel, often broader than the sides ; 
ribs tuberculated on the 8ide& The inner whorls exposed. The 
suturea have the dorsal sinus (D) large and deep, the latmJ sinus (L) 
widely removed from it and very deep, and somewhat triftiroate. 
Occurs in, the Lias- and Oolite, and more plentifully in the Chalk. 
Ammonitei Bakoria of Sowerby is an example. 

Omati. — ^The back flat or even hollow, narrow, and not keeled; 
the broad sides joining it at a right angle, marked in general by a 
row of snuJl tubercles or the numerous fine ribs which cross the 
back and toward the inner edge unite in parcels to form acute or 
knotted ridges. (The old sheUs are often plain.) The sutures have 
the dorsal sirras (D) shallow, the lateral (L) deep. The species are 
almost confined to the Oxford Clay and Kelloways Rock : as A. 
CaUoviemii (Sow.) ; A. Jhmeani (Sow). ; A. gemmatui (PhiL), &c. 
(Von Buch riffhtly separated from these the Dentati in his original 
memoir, though they have been injudiciously reunited again.) 

Dentati. — To this group we leter Ammonitei ipUndeni, A, lautui, 
A. dentiitui, Ac of tiie Gault. The back is flat or concave, and 
margined by tubercles, or prominent ends of strong ribs, often united 
near the inner edge into tuberculated ridges, but not crossing the 
back. The sutures resemble in general form the preceding. 

FUxuoii. — ^The back narrow, with borders tuberculated or serrated 
by the terminations of the ribs, and in a young state with a tuber- 

arax. rir. diy. you u 

culated keeL The ribs are ridged or tubercled near the inner edge. 
This group is quoted from the upper Oolitic and Chalk formations, 
and A. atper and A, JUxuotui are examples. 

The classification above sketched is very far from perfect *^ It is 
difficult to define the groups, when we pass from the typical to the 
ordinary species, and there are many forms which rwise to be 
included in the formula. Still it is an admirable sketch, and when 
the Ammonitida are fully developed, according to the principles thus 
exemplified by Von Buch, we shall have them x^oognised, not as a 
genus with subdivisions, but as a femuly including many genera. 
(D'Orbigny's * Palaeontologie Frangaise;' 'Annaleedes ScL Nat,' 1841, 
N.S., xvi p. 118, also (1829) xvii 267 ; xviiL 417 ; xxix.*6.) 

Having given this i^etch, it will be necessary to meet the question 
whether the Ammoniiei were external or internal sheila. Cuvier and 
Lamarck thought that they were internal The former says (' R^gne 
Animal,* last edition), ''The smallness of the last chamber might 
induce us to believe ibat, like the Spirula, they were internal shells." 
Mr. Owen, in his arrangement above quoted, says, "Animal unknown, 
presumed to resemble the Nautilus; shell external .... The last 
chamber the largest and lodging the animal;" and probably tbw was 
the actual state of things. Dr. Buckland, in his ' Bridgewater Treatise,' 
says, " The smallness of the outer chamber or place of lodgment for the 
animal is advanced by Cuvier in favour of his opinion that Ammonites, 
like the Spirula, were internal shells. This reason isprobably founded 
on observations made upon imperfedt specimens. Tne outer chamber 
of Ammonites is very seldom preserved in a perfect state ; but when 
this happens, it is found to bear at least as laise a proportion to the 
chambered part of the shell as the outer cell of uie ifauiilui PompiUui 
bears to the chambered interior of that shelL It often occupies mora 

AmmotUtti ohtuttu, a, h, o, d, outer ehamber. 

than half^ and, in some cases, the whole circumference of the outer 
whorL This open chamber is not thin and feeble, like the long 
anterior chamber of the Spirula, which is placed within the body of the 
animal producing this shell, but is nearly of equal thickness with the 
sides of the close chambers of the Ammonite." 

It should be remembered that the specimen is appaientiy imperfect 
at the aperture. The siphon or tube of communication may be traced 
from df where it opens into the last or outer chamber, along the edge 

Ammonitit rMtraim* 

Digitized by 






of the section, e, f, g, h, «, to the very nudeiia of the ahelL The waTed 
transvene lines represent the partitions of the chambers. 

The large proportion of the outer chamber is reiy strongly marked 
in speoimens of AmmonUet rottnttvif that haTe the aperture perfect or 
nearly so. 

** Moreovei\" continues Dr. Buckland, "the margin of the mature 
Ammonite is in some species reflected in a kind of scroll, like the 
thickened maigin of the shell of the garden snail" (hourrdet of the 
French), " giving to this part a strength which would apparently be 
needless to an internal shell. The presence of spines also in certain 
species (as in AfMnonitet airmaius, A, Sowerhit) affords a strong argument 
against the theory of their having been internal shells. These spines, 
which haye an obvious use for protection, if placed externally, would 
seem to have been useless, and perhaps noxious, in an internal position, 
and are without example in any internal structoe with which we are 

Sir Henry de la Beche has proved from the mineral condition of the 
outer chamber of Ammonites from the Lias at Lyme R^gis, that the 
entire body was contained in it^ these animals having be^ suddenly 
destroyed, and buried in the earthy sediment of which the Lias is 
composed, before their bodies had either undergone decay or been 
devoured by the then existing crustaceans. 

Dr. Buddand very happily illustrates the different arrangements bv 
means of which a union of lightness and strength is secured to the shell, 
both from the external conformalion and the mode in which the trans- 
verse plates are disposed ; and as our limits will not allow us to enter 
minutely into the subject^ we must refer the reader to the ' Bridgewater 
Treatise' for the interesting details, which show that a more perfect 
■instrument for affording universal resistance to external pressure— an 
instrument in which the greatest possible degree of lightness combined 
with the greatest stren|^ was required — could scaroely be imagined ; 
and must confine ourselves to the doctor's summary : — "As the animal 
increased in bulk, and advanced along the outer chamber of the ahell, 
the spaces left behind it were successively converted into aiz^«hambers, 
simultaneously increasing the power of the float. This float being regu- 
lated by a pipe passing through the whole series of the chambers " (see 
the cut of Ammonitei dbhmu), "formed a hydraulic instrument of 
extraordinary delicacy, by whidi the animal could at pleasure control 
its ascent to the surface or descent to the bottom of the sea. To 
creatures that sometimes floated, a thick and heavy shell would have 
been inapplicable ; and as a thin shell indosfaig air would be exposed 
to various and often intense degrees of pressure at the bottom, we find 
a series of provisions to afford resistance to such pressure in' the 
mechanical construction both of the external shell and of the 
internal transverse plates which formed the air^hambers. First, 
the shell is made up of a tube coiled round itself, and externally 
convex. Secondly, it is fortified by a series of ribs and vaultings 
disposed in the form of arches and domes on the convex surface of 
this tube, and stiU further adding to its strength. Thirdly, the trans- 
verse plates that form the air-chambers supply also a continuous 
succession of supports, extending their ramificationl^ with many 
mechanical advantages, beneath those portion! of the shell which, 
being weakest^ were most in need of them." 

AmmonUei with perfieet moaths. 

Rcinecly/ Yon Buch,t Zieten,t and De Haan § are among those 

• Maris protogai NantUos et Argonaatoa, vnlgo (hmua AmmoHU, In acnro 
Coburgico et Tieino reperinndoa, dflieripdt et delineavit, ete., D. I. C. IC. £ei. 
neckc. Cobnrfi, 1818, 8to. 

t Ucber die Ammoniten la den ilteren Gebirgi^Schiehteii. Gelaaen in der 
Akademle der WiMenschaften, am 1 April, 1880. 4to. Beoneil de Planchee 
de F^trifloationt remarqnablefl, par Leopold de Bach. Berlin, 1831, folio. 

t Die Yenteineniiiffen Wartemberffs, tc. Btattgart, 1880, and following 
years, folio. 

S Specimen Philoeopblonm Inang:nrale, ezhibens Monographiam Ammo- 
niteorum et Goniatiteorum, cto. 1825. LogduAi BaUv. 

who have written treatises on this interesting genus, or haye illtu. 

The species of Ammonites are veiy numerous, and although tiie 
arrangemmt of Yon Buch is at present the best, it is probable tkt 
when more is known of the form of the aperture, it will serve u a 
leading character. 

AmmonitM with perfect mwxihB.— iOimtinued.) 

Digitized by 






The aoeompanying cut«, which are copied from De Blainyilley will 
not only give the reader Bome idea of the shape of the aperture, but 
alflo of the eztemal appearance of the shell, whUe the following, from 
Dr. Buckland'a ' Bridgewater Treatiae,' will oonvey. a notion of the 
ooncamerations in some of the species. An internal view of a Tory 
simple form of these and of the siphon or pipe will be seen in the out 

Oeologieal Dufn^ti^ioik— Professor PhillipB, in his < Guide to 
Geology/ published in 1834, since which tmie numerous additions 
hare been made, thus distributee the Ammonites among the differoit 



















In Tertiarjr StraU . 

In CreUoecnu System . . 

J ^ 

, , 

, , 



, , 

, , 

, , 

, , 






In OoUtie Syitem . 

, , 

, , 

, , 















In PriBMry StraU . . . 


Total, 228 spedet. 

CfeographieaZ DittrthuiioiL — As the Ammonites were evidently prin- 
cipal agents for keeping within bounds the moUusks, &c., the orusta* 
cttDs, and perhapa fiahea of the periods prior to the Chalk Formation, 
and belongmf^ to the latter epoch, we should eipect to find them 
"widely distributed. Accordingly, they occur in Europe, Asia, and 
America in strata apparently of the same date. In aome instances, 
the genera and eyen the species are identical Dr. Qerard found in 
the Himalaya Mountains, at an elevation of 16,000 feet^ AmfMnitei 
H^o/cotttiand AmmoniUi eommunitf fossils that are found in the Lias of 
Lyme Regis. M. Menard met with one in the Maritime Alps at an 
eleyation of 1600 toiaes. Their numbers must have be^ C^reat. 
H. Dofresne infonned Lamarck that the road frt>m Auxerre to Avalon 
in Buigundy was absolutely paved wjith them. The individual 
agency too of aome of these carnivorous instruments for preserving 
the balance of marine animal power must have been of no small 
importanoei Lamarck says that he has aeen Ammonitee of two feet 
(French) in diameter. Mr. James Sowerby and Dr. Mantell record 
Ammonites in the Chalk with a diameter of three feet ; and Dr. Buck- 
land states that Sir T. Harvey and Mr. Keith measured Ammonites in 
the Chalk near Margate which exceeded four feet in diameter; and 
this in cases where the diameter could have been in a very small 
degree enlaiged by pressure. [See Sufpluoiit.] 

AMOIBITEI in Mineralogy^, a variety of Arsenical Nickel, containing 
from 40 to 50 per cent, of mckel and 14 per cent of sulphur. 

AMCyMIJM, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
Zingiheroeta, It consista of apecies having white flowera collected 
in dose heads, which arise frt>m the base of the leaves, and only 
just raiae themselves above the ground ; the lower lip of the flower 
is very broad and large compared with the others, and the other has 
a two-lobed crest ^The seeds are contained in a looae akin, and are 
inclosed in a rather tough capsule, which is separated into three 
cells by as many membranous partitions, and finally opens into 
three valves. The leaves are of a bzoadly lanceolate or oval figure 
tapering to the point, and enwrapping the stem like a sort of'' 

A. Cardamomtttn has a root-stock creeping under the surface of the 
aoil like that of the Ginger, but it ia amaller. The stems rise 
obliquely to the height of from two to four feet. The leaves are 
alternate. Flowers in spikes, seated in lanceolate acute villous 
Bcarious ash-coloured bracts. The tube of the corolla slender. The 
anther double, with a lai^ three-lobed concave crest. The fruit a* 
capsule containing roxmdi^ angular dotted brown seeds. This plant 
is a native of the mountainous parts of Java and Sumatra, and is 
commonly cultivated in the gardens of India. The seeds are aro- 
matic, and are used by the Medays instead of the true Cardamoms, 
which are the produce of the Eletta/ria Cardanumwn. [Elbttaria.] 
Sir J. K Smith states that this plant ia the Amomwn verum of tho 
older botonistSi 


A. cmguitifoUvm is a shazp-leaved species, and a native of marahy 
ground, in Madagascar. It is cultivated in the Mauritius. It has a 
deep blood-red calyx, and the outer segment of the corolla is rod. 
The whole plant is aromatiq, and the fruit constitutes the Cardamomum 
majue of the older writers. 

A, aromatic¥m is a native of the valleys on the eastern frontiers 
of Bengal The frxut has similar qualities to those 'of the 
true Cwdamoms, for which they are often sold to the druggists of 

A, Cfrana-ParadUi has a perennial root-stalk, giving off erect fclender 
stems, 8 feet high. . The leaves are numerous and crowded. The 
capsule is large, 14 inch long, and half-an-inch in diameter. It haa a 
very strong aromatic odour and flavour. The seeds have the aame 
properties as the Cardamoms. ^ The plant is a native of Quinea, near 
Sierra Leone. The fruits are known by the name of Qraina of 
Paradiae, and Melligetta or Malagueta Pepper. 

A, grandifiarwn, of Smith, ia alao a native of Sierra Leone. It has 
large flowera, and yields seeds, which difier from those of Oraius of 
Paradise in being gray or lead-coloured, much less polished, and 
possessing a totd^v different flavour, resembling that of camphor. 
Thev may be used for the same purposes as the Cardamoms. 

The Cardamoms of commerce are the capsulea, which are gathered 
as the seeds ripen, are dried in the aun, and are then fit for aale. The 
amall capaules, or Lesser Cardamoms, are the most valuable. [Carda- 
MOMB, in Abtb AiTD So, Dnr.] 

(Ldndley, Flora Medico.) 

Digitized by 






Amomum grandifiomm, 
u. The lip and a back Tiew of the anther. 
h. A front Tiew of the anther. 

e, Oaljz. 
d. Stigma. 

AHPELIDE JS, one of the xiames of the Vine Tribe. [ Vitacjba] 
AMPHERrSTUS, a FobbU Fiah, from the Isle of Sheppy. (Eonig, 
Icon, FotsiL) 

AMPHI'BIA ^from the Greek word ifuptfiios, which dgnifies 
'having a double life' ), the name of an order of the class of lUpHlet. 
In common oonyersation we are accustomed to call all mtLmm»\^^ such 
as seals, otters, beavers, &c., amphibious, whose ozganisation disposes' 
them to resort indifferently either to the land or water for procuring 
food, and other purposes, or ifi^ose habits are at once terrestrial and 
aquatic; thus we usually denominate the Conmion Campagnol 
(Arvicola amphibia), and the White-Bellied Shrew {Sorex focUms), 
the Water-Rat, and Water-Shrew respectively, and consider them in 
every respect^ aa amphibious animals. But in this sense of the word 
every land-animal is more or less amphibious, for all resort occasion- 
ally to the water, and, with the single exception of man, all appear 
to have an instinctive power of swimming. Previous to the time of 
Linnseus, the earlier naturalists attached no more definite meaning to 
the word than that which was sanctioned by popular custom, and 
which, it will be observed, is more properly expressed by the term 
aquatic The great Swedish philosopher, however, rejected this vague | 

and improper signification, and applied the term generally to the 
third class of his system of zoology, which comprised not only all 
the animals since more properly denominated J2g)«tlei, such as the 
tortoises, lizards,* serpents, and frogs, but likewise ti^e Caitilaginous 
Fishes. Linnnus was evidently ignorant of the true characters and 
natural Hmits of this class of animals. The term Amphibia ma 
certainly very applicable to many of the genera and species which 
it embraced, but with regard to the great minority pf them it was m 
absolute misnomer. The shark and the ray are as incapable of 
existing out of the water as man^ of the common lizards are of 
living in it, and consequently neither the group which Linnxiu 
proposed to establish, nor the name by which he designated it, has 
been adopted by mote recent zoologists. The Cartilaginous F^hes 
have been refeired to the other aquatic tribes, with which their 
habits and oiganic oonformatiun naturally connect them, and the 
remainder of the dass, which stands in Qmelin's celebrated edition of 
the 'Systema Naturae' under the name of Amphibia, is admitted 
into modem systems under the more appropriate designation of 

Taken in its strict and literal sense, the term amphibious would 
applv only to such animals as have the power of living indifferentlj 
at the same time, either upon land or in water. To fulfil this 
condition it is necessary that a truly amphibious animal should be 
provided with the means of breathing in either of these elemente, 
that is, that it should simultaneously possess both lungs and gilk 
Kow there are four genera of batracluan reptiles which actually do 
possess this extraordinary double apparatus for extracting the principle 
which supports animal life indifferently from either element; and 
these, as Baron Cuvier has justly observed, comprise in reality the 
only known vertebirated animals which are truly amphibious. They 
are the Axoiotlt, the Menobranchi, and the Siretu, all of which inhabit 
the rivers and lakes of America, and the Proteut, which is found in 
subtorraneouB streams connecting certain lakes in Camiola and 
Hungary. Tlieee, then, are the only strictly amphibious reptiles ; but if 
the term is takenrin a little more extended sense, it may, without impro- 
priety, be applied to the entire order of BeptHa which M. Brongniart, 
and after mm most modem naturalists, denominate Bairachiam, 
because all these animals, without exception, breathe by means of gills 
in their tadpole state, and only aoquire lungs when they assume the 
more mature and perfect form of reptiles. In this sense the term is 
now employed by Rnglish naturalists. 

Some, indeed, as Mr. Bell, Dr. Grants and other writers, separate 
the Amphibia from the Reptilei, as a distinct dass. 

The Amphibia differ essentially from the other three orders of 
Reptiles : Chdoniant (Tortoises), Sawiant (Lizards), and Opkidians 
(Scurpents). They have no ribs, or rudiments of ribs only. Their akin 
is naked, being without scales. They have feet The male has no 
external oigans distinctive of sex. In we Frog Tribe the ova are fecun- 
dated on their exclusion from the body of the female : they are shelless 
and generally laid in the water. The young, which are called Tadpola, 
when first hatched, breathe by means of branchise, or gills, veiy much 
after the manner of fishes, being in their early stage of growth quite 
unlike their parents, and, in that state, forming a natui^ passage to 
the last-named dass of animals. These branchise disappear in the 
higher Amphibians, and one order has therefore been named the 
Caducibranchiate Amphibia, which have been divided into — first, 
the Anouroui or TaUUu Batrachiafu, having no tails except in their 
young state, including the Frogs and Toads ; and second, the UrodUa 
or Tailed Batrcujhiantt such as &e Salamanders. 

Under the Perennibranchiate Amphibia are included the Pntteru, 
Siren^ Menobranchui, and AxolotL 

The following arrangement of the Amphibia or Batrachtam has 
been published bv Messrs. Dumeril and Bibron, in their elaborate 
' Erp^logie G^n^e' :— 


Four or 

Body, varied in form ; »kin naked ; moat Areqnently without either earapace or scales. 
Head, with two oecipital condyles, not carried upon a narrower neck. 
Charaetera ^ Feet, variable; as regards their presenoe, their nnmber, their proportion ; toes most frequently without elaws 
Sternum, moat frequently diatinet, never united to the ribs, which are short or null. 
^ Male organa of generation not projecting. Eggs with soft not calcareous shells. Young, subject to metamorphoaia. 

Suborders. Groups. Famlliea. 

^^^jParomllaf .... Ophiotomet 1. OcecUioidtt. 

i Distinct Phaneroglo$9M : ( Toothed : enda of toes ( Little or not dilated . < S. Bami^farmn, 

with the upper { \ Very dUated . . . S. EyUtf^rmM, 

Jaw . . ( Without teeth 4. Buffm^fonnet, 

NuU T%rynaglo9»e» 5, Pipwfonna. 

With neither hdea 

norbranehisB ArStodirei 6. 

WithsUUordis.) _. , .^ ,,. . ,, (NuU 7 

i-«* K«i^ } 2)rinuUodire§ : with branchi© . 

(^ tinet holes 

In this article we shall speak of the oiganisation and natural history 
of the Amphibia in two groups: first, the Anovrout or TaUUst 
Amphibia, and secondly, the UrodUa or TaXUd Amphibia, 

Anourous or Tailliss Aufhibia. 
SkdeUm, — ^The skull, in the Reptiles generally, is made up of the 
■ame parts nearly as that of the znammiferous animals, though the 

( Visible and persistent 

8. ProUtdu, 

proportions are different. But the lower Amphibia, which approach 
the fishes in this particular, have not the internal cavity corresponding 
so completely with the surface of the enoephalon as the other Reptiles. 
The skull is very much flattened ; and small as the cerebral cavity is, 
it is by no means filled with the brain. It is narrower and more 
elongated in the species which pass their whole lives in the water than 
it is in the Anowrviu Amphibia, or True Frogs. 

Digitized by 





The yertebral column commenoes at the posterior part of the head, 
aDd, unlike the rest of the Reptiles, the Bairachiaru, like the raysy the 
Bharks, and the mamraiferous animals, possess two condyles situated 
on the sides of the Tertebral hole. In the Tadpole the vertebrse are 
of the same calibre throughout^ but a difference takes place when the 
limbs are developed. At this period, the yertebral canal diminishes 
gradually in length, the spinal marrow contracts, and no trace of the 
canal is left in ti^e elongated coccyx. It is in the TaUlett Amphibia 
that the yertebral column is shortest, for the Frogs haye only ten and 
the Pipas but eight yertebne. 

As a general rule, the anterior extremities are shorter than the 
posterior limbs; but in some of the Frogs especially, the lower 
extremities are twice or thrice as long as the anterior feet, as might 
be expected in animals whose progression is principally effected by 
leaps. Ribs there are none ; but the sternum is highly deyeloped and 
a large portion is very often 
cartilaginous. It reoeiyee an- 
teriorly, or in its mesial por- 
tion, the two davides and 
two coraooids which fit on to 
the scapula. The whole makes 
a sort of band which sustains 
the anterior extremities, and 
an elongated disk which forms 
a support for the throat, and 
assists in the offices of de- > 
g^utition and respiration. 
Another disk extending back- 
wards, being for the insertion 
of the recti muscles, protects 
the abdominal yiscera in 
some species. The pelris is 
well developed in the Frogs, 
especially in the Pipa, and 
though apparently deprived 
of all traces of a tail after 
undergoing their last trans- 
formation, there remains, in- 
ternally, a true coccygeal piece, 
most frequently even moveable 
and elongated, but without 
anything like vertebral form. 

The bone of Uie humerus or 
arm is single, and is long m pro- o^cicwin 

portion to the bones of the fore-aim, which are united throughout thdr 
length, their duality being manifested by a simple furrow or depression. 
These bones are distinct in the reptiles generally, and the radius is 
generally rather the longest ; the ulna is prolonged backwards into a 
kind of olecranon, and sometimes this apophysis is distinct, and 
becomes a sort of seeamold-bone in the thick part of the tendon of 
the extensor musdes. The Pipas, the Tortoises, and the greater 
part of the Saurians have this conformation. The bones of the carpus, 
or wrist, exhibit nothing extraordinary in their structure ; nor do 
those of the fingers, whidi are without naUs or daws, require particular 

The bones of the well-devdoped pdvis present considerable 
differences in the various genera of Anourous Ampk&>ia, Thus in the 
Frogs (l^ma) and the Tree-Frogs {ffyla)^ the oesa ilii are very much 
eloi^ted, articulated in a moveable manner on the sacrum, and very 
mvudk approximated below towards the cotyloid cavity ; so that the 
two heads of the thigh-bones seem to be placed in contact^ a 
conformation whidx much influences the action of the posterior limbs 
npon the trunk in Uie execution of the motions of swimming and 
leaping. In the Ptpa, or Surinam Toad, the ossa ilii are very much 
widened at the point of junction with the sacrum, which is, itself, 
dilated, forming a strong union by means of a true symphysis. The 
femur, or thigh-bone^ is very much dongated, and slighUy curved in 
the form of &e letter S in the Frogs {Bona), and in the Tree-Frogs 
{ffyla) ; it 18 a little diorter in the Toads {Bfrfo), and is flattened in 
the Pip<L The bones of the l«g (tibia and fibula) are, in the Reptiles, 
generdly distinct; but in the Anounmt Amphibia, BanOf Hylay and 
jPipa, for instance, they are so soldered together as to form but a 
single articulation with the femur and tarsus, and to present the 
appearance of a single very-much-dongated bone, which some have 
erroneoody oonsideied as a supernumerary bone, or second femur. 
The knee-joint and articulating bones are so dii^sed that the feet 
have always a direction outwards. In the Reptiles generally, the 
posterior feet are more developed than the anterior limbs ; and this 
modification is particidarly observable in the Anourout Amphibia, which 
have the tarsus so much elongated as to induce some to consider the 
first bones composing it to be a fibula or tibia. The bones of the 
metatarsus coirespond to the number of toes. 

The Teeth, — ^As these are very important organs in the whole of 
the Amphibia, we shall now present an abstract of this subject from 
Professor Owen's celebrated work entitied ' Odontography.' He remarks 
that the variations which the dental system presents in the Amphibia 
are more conspicuous in the number, situation, and structure of the 
teeth, than in their form or mode of attachment Certain Batraohians^ 

he observes, are edentulous, the genus Hylapletia among the Tree- 
Frogs, for example, and the Bufonidas, or Toad Family, with the 
exception of some spedes of Bmnbinator, The teeth when present 
are described by him as g^erally numerous, simple, of small and equal 
size, and dose-set^ either in a single row or aggregated, like the teeth 
of a rasp, and he points out a characteristic condition of the dental 
system in fishes, namely, the absence of teeth on the superior maxillary 
bone, as being continued in those genera of Perennibranchiate Batra- 
chians which stand lowest in the class of Reptiles ; not only the superior 
maxillary teeth, but the bones themselves are absent^ he observes, in 
Siren, Menobrcmchua, and Proteut. In the Siren, he describes the 
lower margin of the intermaxillary bones, and the sloping anterior and 
upper margin of the lower jaw, as trenchant, and each encased in a 
sheath of firm, albuminous, minutely fibrous tissue, harder than horn. 
The bones thus armed slide upon each other, he teds us, like the blades 

of a pair of curved scissors, 
when the mouth is closed, 
and are well adapted for 
dividing the bodies of small 
fish, aquatic larvae, worms, fta 
The homy substitute for teeth 
in the lower jaw is supported 
by the bony element corre- 
sponding with the premandi- 
bular of the Lepidonren. 
[PBOTOFTSBua.] A second 
bony pieoe applied to the 
inner surface of the branch of 
the jaw (representing the 
splenial or opercular dement 
in the jaw of the oroco- 
dJe) is beset with numerous 
minute pointed teeth, set in 
short oblique rows, and di- 
rected obllqudy backwards. 
The palatal surface of the 
mouth is described as present- 
ing on each side two flat» 
thm, and moderatdy broad 
bones^ forming an apnparentiy 
sin^e, oblique^ oval plate^ 
which converges to meet its 
^ _ feUow at the anterior part of 

Common Frog. ^^ ^^ ^ ^ coiyomtiy to 

constitute a broad rasp-like surfitoe in the form of a chevron. The Pro- 
fessor regards the anterior long plate on each ride as the representative 
of the divided vomer, and it supports 6 or 7 oblique rows of small . 
pointed retroverted teeth ; the smaller posterior plate, whidi he thinks 
may probably be the homologue of the pterygoid, is beset with 4 rows 
of similar teeth ; and thus we have 10 or 11 rows on each side of the 
chevron of the palate. The greatest number of dentides (11 or 12) 
is in the middle rows; in the Ulterior and posterior rows they are 
fewer ; all are of similar size and form, corresponding with those of 
the lower jaw opposed to theuL " The condition of the dental system 
in this, the lowest of the dass of reptiles," says Mr. Owen, " is not 
without interest, independently of the absence of the superior maxillary 
teeth, and of the presence of the palatal and inferior maxillary denU 
en ccirde." If, for example^ the dense sheath of the trenchant anterior 
parts of the upper and lower I'aws had been completdy calcified and 
converted into hard dentine, the correspondence b^ween the Siren and 
the Lepidotiren would have been very striking in this part of their 
structure ; but the maxillary sheaths of the Siren being composed of 
horn, and being moreover easily detached from the subjacent bones, 
much more dosely resemble the dedduous mandibleslof the Tadpoles 
of the higher Batrachians. (Part ii, pp. 188, 189.) 

In the AxoloU also the idithyic character of the rasp-like teeth are 
aggregated in numerous rows upon the palatal region of the mouth, 
and upon the splenial or opercular element of the lower jaw ; but here, 
Mr. Owen observes, the superior maxillary bones are devdoped, and 
support teeth. The premandibular and the intermaxillary bones, he 
adds^ instead of presenting the larval condition of the homy sheath, 
have their alveolar border armed with a single row of small, equal, 
fine, and sharp-pointed dentides, which are continued above along the 
nuucillaries ; tnus, he observes, establishing the commencement of the 
ordinary Batrachian condition of the marginal teeth of the buccal cavity. 
As in we Siren, the dentigerous bones of the palate consist of two 
plates on each side ; the anterior pair, or vomers, converge and meet 
at their anterior extremities^ and the minute dentides whidi they 
support are arranged quincundally. The posterior pair of bones 
continued backwaids, according to the usual dispodtion of the ptery- 
goids, abut against the tympanic or quadrate bones ; and the dentides 
are confined to the anterior part of tneir oral surface, resembling, in 
their arrangement and anchylosed attachment^ those of the palatal 
series, of which they are the posterior termination. 

The superior maxillaries and their teeth are, it appears, wanting in 
Menobranehut [Nscturus] ; but in this form an advance to a higher 
type of dentition is perceptible by the arrangement of the teeth in a 
mngle row, both upon the roof and at the maigins of the moutiL The 

Digitized by 






intennazillary bones are produced backwardt, and the single row of 
amall pointed teeth which thej support is opposed to a siznilar series 
upon the premandibular bones below. The palatal teeth form a single 
row on each of the broad bones which correspond with those described 
by CuTier as the divided Tomer in the higher Batrachians, and extend 
backwanis upon the pterygoids^ which support a few teeth. 

The three preceding genera are perennibranohiate, sad though the 
Proteus, like them, always retains its external gills, it offers a further 
advance to the dentition of the higher BatraohiAns, and to that of the 
Amphiwma especially. Each intermaxillary bone carries on its alveolar 
border a'row of 8 or 10 minute, fine, sharp-pointed teeth, and each 
pemandibular bone is armed with a greater number of similar but 
larger teeth, arranged also in single series. The palatine bones (two 
vomers of Cuvier) support a row of denticles, similar to the inter- 
maxillary cresoentic series, and parallel with them ; but Mr. Owen 
points out that the horns of the palatal dental crescent are continued 
much farther back, terminating, as in Menobtxmehut, on the anterior 
part of the pterygoid bones. Twenty-four teeth are contained in each 
naif of the " oresoentio or chevron-shaped seriea^" as the arrangement 
is appropriatelv designated by the Professor, who adds that the 
superior maxillary bones are represented in this form by mere 
cartilaginous rudiments. 

The Ampkimwia, like the Proieui, presents the Batrachian disposi- 
tion of the teeth in a single dose-set series along the alveolar border 
<^ both upper and lower jaws. * " The upper series extends along 
well-developed maxillary and intermaxillary bonea^ and in tiie extent 
of Uie maxillary and palatal seriei^ especially in Amphiwna tridaetyUmf 
the indication of a highly interesting character in regard to the affinities 
of an extinct race of gigantic Batrachians with biconcave vertebrae is 

In the Amphiiima the palatal teeth nm in a single dose^et row 
along the lateral margins of the vomer^ forming an acute angle at its 
anterior portion, whence the series is extended backwards on either 
side nearly longitudinally, and parallel with the maxillary teeth. " Ail 
the teeth are conical, pomted, slightly curved backwards and inwards ; 
their pouxts glisten with a yellow metallic lustre," whence Dr. Mitchell's 
name ChirywiotUa. The number of teeth in Ampkiwrna meamt is 
considerably less than in Amphuma tridactylm^ 

"The MeMpome exhibits," says Professor Owen, '* the same essen- 
tially Batrachian condition of the teeth as the Amphnma ; but in their 
disposition, and in the dispontion and form of the vomer, it makes a 
near approach to the Caducibranchiate ffroup, and allies itself most 
closely with the gi^tic Newt of Japan (iSie&oUia, Bonap.), and with 
that equally mpantio extinct species of Newt so noted in palaeontology 
as the ffomoJHlwm Tuti$ of ScheuchMr. In the peraistence of the 
branchial apertures, and the more complex straotnre of tiie os byoides, 
the Mmopome however 
manifests its generic 
distinctness from the 
SiebMitk The single ; 
dosenwt series of smiJl, 
equal, conical, and 
slightiy-recurved teeth 
describes a semidrde 
on both the upper and 
lower jaws: the row 
of simUar but smaller 
teeth on the anterior 
exp«nded border of the 
divided vomer runs 
paralld with and at a 
short distance behind 
the median part of the 
maxillary series. The 
premandibular teeth 
are recdved into the 
narrow interspaoe be- 
tween the two rows in 
the upper jaw when the 
mouUi is dosed. The 
teeth of the Mencpotne, 
as of the Amphiwma, 
are anchylosed by their 
base and part of its 
outer side to a sUghUv 
devated external al- 
veolar ridge. 

"Subokk<k-^The Pe- 
rennibranchiate or Fidi- 
like Amphibia, doubt- 
ful reptiles' as they 
have been termed, .lead by so easv a series of transitions to the 
Cadudbranchiate group, in which all external tracdof the branchial 
apparatus is lost, that the artificial nature of such a division of 
the order is evident, and some naturalists have even hesitated 
whether to separate, generically, the last of the Perermibranchians 
from the spedes SithMia gigantea, with which the description of the 
dental system in the higher division of the Batrachians is here com- 

Skeleton of Daetylethra Lalandii. 
The fignres on each tide show the difference of the sternum in the Common Frog, and in the 
J>Qetylethra ; a represents the sternum of the former ; h that of the Utter. 

mencod. As regards the teeth, the difference between the great 
aquatic Salamander of the volcanic mountains of Japan and tlmt of 
the Alleghanies is very slight^ and merdy specific ; the form, disposi- 
tion, and attachment of the teeth are the same in SiAoldia as in 
Menopome; thev diffScr dightly in the relative siiEC, those of the 
Japanese Newt naving the advantage in this respect^ with a somewhat 
deeper implantation of their andiylosed base^ and the alveolar parapet 
of the intermaxillary bones is higher and is slightly incurved. There 
are 14 teeth in each intermaxmary, 72 in each superior maxilkiy, 
and 64 teeth in each vomer of the Sidtoldia ffipantetL" 

All the CaducibroMtckiaU Amphibia with tails, as the Newts and 
Land Salamanders, have teeth on the inferior maxillary and vomerine 
bones, as well as on the intermaxillaries and superior maTillsrim 

The Frogs have no teeth on the lower jaw, thou^ in some spedes 
(Ccralophryt for example) the alveolar edge of the lower jaw-bone is 
finely notched or dentated. The £^fomaa, as a general rde, aie 
toothless, but in the Bombinatora the subgenus Myladacli^ has 
teeth upon the vomer, and Sckrophryi has teeth on both the iniet- 
maxillary and maxillary bones. 

Muscular System, parUcularly as rdalimg to LoeomoUtm. — The 
musdes destined to give activity to the framework, examples of 
which are given bdow, are, like those of all the Reptiles, remarkable 
for their irritability. There are not wanting soologists who have seen 
Toads, Salamanders, Tortoiaes, and Serpent^ deprived of their heads 
and skins, but kept moist, display muscular motion for whole wedm. 
In the Auowrom Amphibia, the fVo^ especially, the musdes of the 
abdomen are more devdoped than in the other ReptileB^ offiaring in 
this particular some analogy to the abdominal structure of the 
Mammifers. But it is in the dispodtion of the musdes of the thigh 
and 1^ in the Frogs and others of tins group, that the greatest singu- 
larity is manifested. These, whether taken oo^jointiy or singly, present 
the greatest analogy with the muscular arrangement of tiie same parte 
in Man. We fina the roimded, dongated, conicd thi^ the knee 
extending itself in the same direction with the thigh-bone, and a 
wdl-fashioned calf to the leg, formed by the belly of the gastrocnemii 
muscles. It is imposuble to watch the horixontd motions of a frog in 
the water, as it is impdled by these musdes and its webbed feei, 
without being struck with the complete resemblance in this portion 
of its frame to human conformation, and the almost perfect identity 
of the movements of its.lower extremities with those of a man making 
the same efforts in the same dtuatioiL 

We have seen that the ribs are absent in the Afwurom AmpMbiOf 
and the functions of respiration, as wdl as those of deglutition, being 
carried on by means of particular musdea^ as we diall presentiy have 
to notice, those bones would have been mere incumbrances. In the 
Frogs, the muscles are not attached to the skin, whidi envdops the 

whole muscular airaoge- 
ment in a sort of insu- 
lated, inaendble, move- 
able bag: in the 
UrodHet, on the con- 
trary, the integoments 
serve as the point of 
insertion to almost all 
the active organs of 

The locomotion of 
the Anourous Atn- 
phibia on land- consists 
in walking, running, 
and leaping, in it^ 
^ various modificatioDs; 
the latter bdng the 
motion most prevdeni 
The greater part of 
them are excellent 
swimmers; snd when 
thev betake themselves 
to this exerdse, the body 
and the animd is pro- 
pelled by.themeduuuam 
of the lower extremi- 
ties done— amechanism 
admirablv adf^ted to 
this mode of progres- 
don, as well as to the 
other varices of move- 
ment whidi the necee- 
dties of the aiiimd re- 
quire. By the aid of 
these wdl-devdoped lower limbs, and the prodigious power of their 
muscular and bony levers, a Frpg can raise itself in the air to twenty 
times its own height^ and traverse, at a single bound, a space more 
than fifty times the length of its own body. 

JXgestive Oryans. — The Anourous Amphibia, in their adult state, 
are, like the greater part of the existing Reptiles, carnivorous, and 
swallow their living prey without mastication. The mouth in many 

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of them is wery wide ; so wide, indeed, in Bome (the large Frogs and 
Bipas, for infltanoe), as to wimit of their swallowing yertebrated 
animalB; bat inseeti, annelides, and mollusks form the chief portion 
of their food. They have no true fleshy lips, nor indeed have any of 
the Reptiles; but the fresh-water tortoises are furnished with folds of 
skin as a oovering for their cutting jaws, and perhaps as a more 
complete apparatus for shutting the mouth. The same conforma- 
tion is observable in the greater number of the Tadpoles of the 
Batrachians, the larger portion of which, in their adult state, have 
the lower jaw received under a soft skin which ooyers and edges the 
mandible. The branches of the lower maxillary bone are rarely 
soldered at the symphvsiB, and sometimes, as in the genera Bona 
and ff^a, there is, at tae point of junction, a mere cartilage which 
admits of a certain amount of motion. In the Frogs and the UrodUes, 
the number of pieces composing each of the branches amounts to three. 
One of these pieces correaponds with the symphysis, and is armed with 
teeth; the second serves for articulation, and the third is situated 
backwards, and prolonged below. On the palate of many of these 
Amphibia are certain processes which may be termed teeth ; but these 
are pointed, and not tubercular, as the old error of naming some of the 
teeth of foadl fishes BufcmUn might lead us to suppose. These palatal 
teeth form a part of the bones to which they are attached, as in the 
case of fishea. 

The tongue petfonns a leading part in the capture and deglutition of 
the prey. La the greater portion of this group the structure of this oigan 
ia altogether anomalous, and its insertion is equally at vanance with the 
mode adopted in the otiier vertebrated animals. It is veiy soft, fleshy 
almost throughout^ and is not supported at its base by an os hyoldes. 
Its attachment is the leyerse of that generally seen, for it is fixed in 
the concavity which is formed by the approach of the two branches of 
the lower jaw towards the symphysis. In a state of repose, and when 
the mouth ia shut, this tongue^ which has its root^ so to speak, in the 
interior edge of the anterior part of the lower jaw, has its free extremity 
in the back part of the mouth and before the aperture of the aiz^passagee ; 
but when tbe animal puts it forth, it is considerably elongated and 
thrown sharply out of the mouth, as if by an effort of expulsion. The 
end reaches to a considerable distance, as, turning on the pivot of its 
anterior fixtore, it is reversed in such a manner that the surface which 
was below wlien the tongue was in the mouth, and in a state of repose, 
ii^ when it is thrown out, above ; and when the tongue is returned 
into the month, the surface, which was an instant before above, 
r»umes its original position, and is again beneath. The organ is 
armed with a toiaciouB viscous secretion; and when it touches the 
prey, the latter acUieres so firmly to it, that it is carried back with the 
tongue into t^e mouth. There it is, in most cases, compressed, involred 
again in a glutinous sort of saliva» and almost instantly submitted to 
the act of deglutition. The motion of throwing out and retuniing 
the tongue is often performed with a rapidity which the eye can 
hardly follow. If any one will observe a toad in a melon-finune, he 
will see the ants or ower insects which come within shot of its tongue 
dimppear ; but his vision must be very acute and prompt to detect the 
action of tiie tongue. The musdes, whose office it is to move the bones, 
cartilages, and other parts of the mouth, act more especia]ly upon the 
lower jaw, upon the bone of the mandible, and upon the tongue, which, 
after being shot forth as we have endeavoured to describe, is returned 
and swallowed, as it were^ with the captured prey, and the act of 
dariutition is continued till the food is lodged in the stomach. 

The pharynx in mammiferous animals consists of that backward 
cavity of the throat, into which the lower orifices of the nostrils, the 
orifice of the mouth, the canal of the ear, the larynx, and the casophagus 
open ; but in the reptiles there cannot be said to be any true pharynx ; 
for the nostrils, as well as the glottis, open into the mouth, the oaso- 
phagos commences immediately behhid the nostrils, and the muscles 
that act more especially upon these parts and upon the tongue are 
those that b^;in the act of de|;lutition : we shall presently see that 
these same muscles are also put m requisition to force the air necessaay 
for respiration into the glottis and trachea, in order to supply the 
cftvily of the lungs. The stomach of the Arwvunmt Am^Kihitk does not 
require any particular notice ; but the maxim that the more carni- 
vorous an anunal is, the shorter and the less flexuous is its intestinal 
eanal, is well illustrated in that tribe. The TadpK)le, which lives upon 
vegetables, possesses an extremely long digestive tube ; but in its 
periect state, and when its appetite nas become altogether carnivorous, 
the intestines become very much shortened, losing four-fifths of the 
length which distinguished them when the animal was in its early staffs 
of ezirtence. The vent is rounded and wrinkled. The liver generally 
consists of three lobes, and the gall-bladder adheres to and is hidden 
in the concavity of the liver, very high up. The spleen in the Frog 
and Toad is rounded, not of large dimemdons, and situated in the 
mesial region, under the intermediate lobe of the liver. There is also 
ft pancreas, and the chyliferous veins may be distinctiy traced. The 
digestive oi^gans vary considerably in, the Tadpole. In this early stage 
they have a mouth furnished with lips, and homy cutting processes, 
that act as jaws hi the division of the vegetable food which forms their 
principal nourishment, and their intestinal canal is coiled spirally 
yithin their large rounded abdomen. The metamorphosis is complete, 
internally as well as externally, when this armed littie mouth is 
(^ged into the widely-opening gape, which reaches beyond the eyes^ 

and the animal swallows its living pr^ entire. In this their last stage 
they can endure a long abstinence. They grow slowly, and they live 
to a considerable age. The skin which edges their jaws is wo% 
and forms a sort of gum or external lip ; their under-jaw is received 
into a kind of rim or eroove, which nms along the upper-jaw, and its 
two branches are slightiy moveable towards the symphysis: this 
junction of the jaws is as complete as the shutting of a well-fitted 
lid of a snuff-box. 

OvrcuUaingSyaten^ — ^The curculation in the Anourom Ampkihia vaziea 
with the different metamorphoses which the animal undergoes. In 
the early or tadpole stsffe the whole of the blood is driven by the heart 
into the branchial vesseLs, the circulation at that period being the same 
as it is in fishes. The apparently single auricle (for according to the 
observations of Dr. Davy and of Messrs. Saint Ange and W^bert, it is 
in fact separated into two divisions), or rather the partition which 
exists at the point where the oxygenated blood arrives through the 
pulmonary veins, can hardly be said to be distinct, and the venous 
blood, which is poured into it by the large vena cava, penetrates 
finally into the single ventricle, which, by contracting, pushes the blood 
into the single arterial trunk, furnished at its base, near the valvules, 
with a sort of bulb, or contractile swelling. This artery, which 
contains the black or venous blood, is divided into two trunks, one 
directed to the right, the other to the left; and these are then sub- 
divided into two, three, or four branches, according to the number of 
the branchial leafiets : on their arrival there, they inosculate with the 
venous trunks, and ly that time the blood has assumed its arterial 
qualily and colour. These arterial veins unite successively, so as to 
form, by means of two principal trunks, the origin of one great artery, 
or aorta descendens. which is, at the point of its formation, plaoed 
near the head, to which it gives off many branches, and continues to 
descend down the vertebral column. 

But when the time of metamorphosis arrives, and when the animal 
which had been breathing by means of gills is to respire through the 
medium of lungs, an entire and necessary change takes place. In 
proportion as the branchin of the Tadpole are destroyed aftd absorbed, 
the calibre of the venous arteries, which were distributed to them, 
diminishes gradually, till they are at last entirely obliterated. The 
first of these vessels then develops itself, and receives on each side the 
whole of the blood, giving off three principal trunks — one for the 
head, corresponding to the carotid artery ; one for the anterior limbs, 
or a branchial artery ; and one, the longest of all, for the cellular lung, 
which is of consicferable volume. The rest of the principal trui& 
follows the medal line, and unites with its congener, so as to form a 
true aorta for the supply of the viscera and lower extremities^ Hrhioh 
acquire their large dimensions at this period. 

keapiraiory SytUim and VoeaL OrgaiM, — Theabsence of theribs prevents 
any application of costal influence upon the respiratory organs of the 
An/owrout Amphibia^ as is the case with the mammiferous animals ; but 
though their form, as well as the medium in which they live, is so 
totally di£forent in the early and late part of their life, the principle of 
action on these organs is nearly the same. The young may be said 
to swallow water, or at least receive it into the cavity of the mouth, 
before they force it into the branchial vessels ; and though the mode 
of breathing is so entirely changed in after-lift^ the operation consists 
in the perfect animal of a succession of deglutitions A air. 

When the Amphibia leave the ogg^ tiieir branchisB appear externally 
like littie coloured fringes on each side of the neck, and so they remain 
in the UrocUUs, as long as their lungs are not suffidentiy devdoped to 
serve for complete respiration. But in the Frogs and the Anouroui 
Amphibia the flrst stage of the animal's life endures but a short time. 
It soon assumes the Tadpole form, with an enormous belly and head, 
in one undistinguished outline, and a lon^ tail At this period the 
branohiie, or gills, are hidden, being contamed in a cavity, and then 
the water enters the mouth b^ the orifice of the nostrils, which are 
supplied with valves. When m the cavity of the mouth, which is 
well dosed on aU sides, with the exception of the throat, where are 
placed the branchial slits, the water, acted upon by the muscles which 
cover them, traverses these spaces, and bathes the branchise before its 
exit through the branchial holes. The blood which is pushed into 
these branchi» is then distributed, as it is in the fishes, and passes, as 
we have seen, fiY>m the arterial venous vessels into the arteries which 
unite to form the aorta. 

On acquiring their perfect form, and when the obliteration of 
certain points, and the development of the others, have adapted the 
Anowwu Ampkitfia for breathing air, by means of its two large 
lungs, the muscles employed in deglutition are the great agents for 
carding on the respiration. The anterior nostrils^ as we have before 
stated, open neariy straight, by means of simple apertures in f^nt of 
the palate ; the tongue is appued as a kind of stopp,4r upon the back 
noetnls, and the trachea is terminated by a glottis opening into the 
mouth. The air thus imprisoned is forced or pumped at each gulp 
through the glottis, to be distributed over the lungs. 

In the museuih of the Royal College of Surgeons are several 
preparations, illustrative of the aSration of the blood, by means of 
branohiie, in the early stage of Jtana paradoxa, and also of the mode 
of respiration in the adult forms of the same group of animala 

The activity of respiration is inereaaed in proportion to the elevation 
of the temperature of the surrounding air. M. Delaroche found that 

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Frogs exposed to a tempeFatore of 27 degrees Centigrade (80* Fahr.), 
absorbed four times as much oxygen as those submitted to a tem- 
perature of 6 or 7 degrees (42'* to 47' Fahr.) only. 

The oigans of the Toiee in the Anouroui Amphibia are only put in 
action, generally speaking, at the season of reproduction, and then 
prindpslly by the males : their croakings and <sies seem intended to 
make the one sex sensible of the presence of the other. The trachea 
is indeed very short in- the Frog ; but it is longer in the male than it is 
in the female, and the rima glottidis is also longer in the former. 
But in some Frogs the males are distinguished by peculiar membranous 
bags. Thus, the Qreen Frog has two dieek-pouches, which are inflated 
by the animal in the breedmg season, by means of two apertures dose 
to the rLma glottidis; and the chord» Tocales are very large and 
distinct in many species. The glottis bears, apparently, oonaidenble 
analogy to the upper laiynx in birds ; but m the birds the Toice 
reoeiyes its modincation onl^ from the edges of the glottis^ which 
shuts the trachea at the point where it opens into the mouth ; the 
sounds being produced by the lower laiynx, which is formed at the 
point of junction of the two branches which constitute the origin of 
the trachea. When the air-passages of the reptiles emit soundi, they 
are produced b^ the single larynx and the glottis : from the absence 
of moveable lips, and the velum palati^ or their inconsiderable 
development, those sounds cannot be much modified. Nevertheless, 
the vood powers of these animiJs vary very much, according to the 
varying mechanism manifested in each. The cries of the different 
species of Rana, from the well-known croaking of the Common Frog 
to ^e bellowing of the Bull-Frog ; the shrill trebles of the species of 
Hyla, of the males especially; the flute-like and metallic sounds 
occasionally given ou^ and the sort of seemingly ventriloquous 
grumbling which some spedes of Toads exert^ are vocal sounds 
emitted above the larynx — a sort of fSalsetto or voe$ di teito— from 
the buccal cavity, or some of the accessory sacs. 

Connected with the phaenomena of bieathing^ it should be stated 
that the naked skin of the Froge, and indeed of the Batrabhians 
generally, has the power of acting upon the air in such a way as to 
fulfil, in a great degree^ the functions of the lungs, and that aerated 
water may be made subservient to this cutaneous rei^iration. The 
experiments made on frogs which have been kept m vessels, ^d 
under water chaiged with air renewed from time to time, and on 
toads wMdi have been kept alive for months in nets sunk under 
running water, at a low temperature, without any direct access to 
atmospiieric air, prove this. These powers, the faculty of enduring 
long abstinence, their hybenation, and the age (as great as 86 years) 
to which the Aiwuroua Amphibia are said to attain, naturally lead us 
to the consideration of the stories told of the discoveiy of toads, 
'antediluvian toads' as they were once called, inclosed in solid rocks 
and in the heart of trees, where they had been supposed to have 
existed, for centuries, deprived of the possibility of access to either 
food or air, though when found they were alive and vigorous. Nor 
do these stories rest solely on the doubtful hearsay evidence of unedu- 
cated persons. Thus Smellie, in his 'Philosophy of Natural History,' 
alludes to the account in the ' Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences ' 
for the year 1719, of a toad found alive and healthy in the heart of 
an old elm ; and of another discovered in the year 1781, near Nantz, 
in the heart of an old oak, without any visible entrance to its 
habitation. From the size of the tree it was concluded that the 
aniQial must have been confined in that situation at least 80 or 
100 years. He adds, that in the many examples of toads found in 
solid rocks, exact impressions of their bodies, coiresponding to their 
respective sizes, were unifoimly left in the stones or trees from which 
they were dislodged ; and he asserts that it was said that there existed, 
when he wrote, a marble chimney-piece at Chatsworth with a print of 
a toad in it ; and that there was a traditionaiy account of the place 
and manner in which it was found. 

That frogs, toads, snakes, and lizards "occasionally issue from 
stones that are broken in a quany, or in sinking wells, and sometimes 
even from strata of coal, at the bottom of a coal-mine," may be readily 
admitted ; but, as Dr. Buckland well observes, in a paper recording 
some experiments on this subject — and to these we shall presently 
allude—" tiie evidence is never perfect to show that the reptiles were 
entirely inclosed in a solid rock ; no examination is ever made tmtil 
the reptile is first discovered by the breaking of the mass in which it 
was contained, and then it is too late to ascertain, without carefully 
^placing every fragment (and in no case that I have seen reported 
has this ever been done), whether or not there was any hole or 
crevice by which the animal may have entered the oavitv from which 
it was extracted. Without previous examination, it is almost im- 
possible to prove that there was no such communication. In the 
case of rocks near the surface of the earth, and in stone quarries, 
reptiles find ready admission to holes and fissures. We have a 
notorious example of this kind in the lizard found alive in a chalk-pity 
and brought alive to the late Dr. Clarke." The same author remarks, 
that the first effort of the young toad, as soon as it has left its tadpole 
state, and emerged from the water, is to seek shelter in holes and 
crevices of rocks and trees. " An individual, which when young may 
have thus entered a cavity by some very narrow aperture, would find 
abundance of food by catching insects, which like itself seek shelter 
within such oavitiei^ and may have soon increased so much in bulk 

as to render it impossible to go out again throu^ the nanow ap6^ 
ture at which it entered. A small hole of this kind is very likely to 
be overlooked by common workmen, who are the onlv people whose 
operations on wood and stone disclose cavities in the mteiior of sadi 

Without, then, attempting to throw discredit upon the obserrations 
published upon this curious subject by authors whose bharaetsr for 
veracity is unquestionable^ — those of Ouettard, in 1771 C M^moirB sor 
diff($rentes Parties des Sdenoes et des Arts,' tooL iv.) ; of Edwards, 1824 
(' De rinfluence dee Agens Physiques sur la Vie ') ; uid of Mr. Thomas, 
in Silliman's Journal, in addition to those above alluded to for 
example— we may conclude with Dr. Buckland, in his remarks on the 
last publication, that the several authentic and weU-atteeted cases to 
be foimd in such memoirs, "amount to no more than a repetition of 
the facts so often stated and admitted to be true^ namelv, that reptiles 
occur in cavities of stone, and at the depth of many feet in soil and 
earth ; but they state not anything to disprove the poasihihty of a 
small aperture by which these cavities may nave had oonununication 
with the external surfkoe, and insects have been admitted. The 
attention of the discoverer is always directed more to the toad than 
to the minutia of the state of the cavity in whidi it was contained." 

Dr. Buckland made some experiments on this subject which he 
commenced in November, 1825. He caused 12 droular cells to be 
prepared in a large block of ooaxse Oolitic Limestone, from Heddington 
quarry, near O^dbrd. Each cell was about 1 foot deep, and 6 inchei 
in diameter, and had a groove or shoulder at its upper margin, 
fitted to receive a circular plateof s^ass, and a otronlar date to protect 
the glass ; the margin of this douUe cover was closed round, and 
rendered impenetrable to air and water, by a luting of soft day. 
Another block of compact silioious sandstone (Pennant Qrit, of the 
Bristol coal-formation) was made to contain 12 snaaller ceUa, each 
6 inches deep and 6 inches in diameter, and each under the same 
double cover as the first-mentioned cells. A live toad was placed in 
each of these 24 cells on the 28th November, 1825, and the double 
cover of glass and slate was placed over each of them, and cemented 
down by a luting of day. Dr. Daubeny and Mr. DUlwyn, who were 
present^ ascertained and noted the weight of each toad (they had all 
been imprisoned together in a cucumb^ frame, some of them for two 
months previously), as it was immured. The largest weighed 1185 
grains; tiie smallest 115 grains; and they were dlitributed equally, 
small and large, among the Limestone and Sandstone odls. The blocks 
were buried in the euth of Dr. Buokland's garden, 8 feet deep. On 
the 10th of December, 1826, these blocks, which had remained 
unopened from the period of their inhumation, were examined. 
Every toad in the smaller cells of the Sandstone block was dead, and 
so much decayed, that they must have been dead for some months. 
The greater part of those in the larger cells of the oolitic block were 
alive. No. 1, which weighed when placed in its cell 924 grains, was 
reduced to 698 grains. Na 5, whose weight at the same period was 
1185 grains, had increased, it is asserted to 1265»grainB. Dr. Buckland 
observes, that the glass cover over tlus toad's cell was slig^tiy cracked, 
so that minute insects might have entered; but none were discovered 
therein. In another cell, the glass of which was broken, and iti 
tenant dead, there was a lai^ge assemblage of minute insectB ; and a 
similar assemblage was observed also on the outside of the glass of a 
third cell. In the cell. No. 9, a toad which weighed at its entrance 
988 graina, had increased to 1116 grains. The glass cover of this cell 
was entire, but the luting that secured it was not attentively examined ; 
and Dr. Buckland observes, that it is probable that there was some 
aperture by which small insects found admission. No. 1 1 had decreased 
from 936 to 652 grains. 

The result of Dr. Buokland's experiments was, that all the toads, 
both large and small, inclosed in Sandstone, and the small toads in 
the Limestone, were dead at the end of IS months, a fate which befel 
all the large ones also, before the expiration of the second year : these 
last were examined several times during the second year, through the 
glass covers of their cells, but without removing them to admit air; 
they appeared alwavs awake, with open eyes, and never in a state of 
torpor; but at eadi successive examination they became more and 
more meagre, till at last they were found dead. The two toads which 
when first examined had increased in weighty and were at the end of 
the first year carefully closed up again, were not exempt from the 
common annihilation, but were emaciated and dead before the 
expiration of the second year. 

when Dr. Buckland inclosed these toads in stone, he at the same 
time placed four other toads, of moderate size, in three holes cut for 
that purpose, on the north side of the trunk of an i^ple-tree. Two 
were placed in the largest cell, and each of the others in a single cell, 
the cells being nearly circular, about 5 inches deep snd 8 inches in 
diameter. These were carefully closed with pluss of wood, so as to 
exclude access of insects, and were apparentiy air-tight Every one 
of the toads thus 'pegged' in the knot^ entrails of the tree was 
f oimd dead and decayed at the end of the first year. 

Four toads were^ at the time the others were shut up, each placed 
in a small basin of plaster of Paris, 4 inches deep and 5 indies in 
diameter, having a cover of the same material luted over them : these 
were buried at tiie same time and in th^ same place with the blocks 
of stone, and on being examined at the same time with them, in 

Digitized by 






Doeember, 1826, two of the toadB w«re dead; the other two aliTe, but 
greatly emaciated. 

Dr. Buckland oondndee from the experiments generally, that toads 
cazmot live a year excluded totally from atmospheric air ; and from 
the experiments made in the larger cells in the Oolite, that there is a 
probability that those animals cannot survive two yean entirely 
excluded from food. (' Zoological Journal/ vol. v. p. 814.) 

Ahtorption of Air and Waier, Bxhalation, and Trcmtpiration. — A 
rapid process of absorption and evaporation of fluids, by th& pores of 
the skin, gives to the Anotiroiu Amphibia the power of resLsting heat. 
If a frog be plun^ into water, of a temperature of 4/^** Centigrade 
(104** Fahr.), it will not, it is asserted, live more than two minutes, 
though the head be left out so as to enable it to reroire freely; yet a 
frog will sustain the action of humid air heated to the same tempera- 
ture, for four or five consecutive hours. A sudden transition, however, 
from a low temperature to a high one, is generally speedily fatal to 
these animals. Their proper balance of animal heat is kept up by a 
regulation of the evaporation of liquid absorbed, or by the transpiration 
of the matter, the quantity of which is augmented in proportion as 
the external heat is more intense ; and the animal resists it as long 
as the moisture is not desiocated by the air. When it can no longer 
repair the loss of the moisture already taken up, by a fresh absorption 
of liquid, it perishes. The Frogs, in this particular of their organisa- 
tion, have been compared to the vessels which in Spain are called 
Alcarazas, used for ooofing water, by the transudation permitted by 
their poroua structure. Dr. Townson, who made obeervationB to 
Bome extent upon this subject, and had two frogs, which he named 
Damon and Musidora, found ^t a frog would sometimes absorb in 
half an hour as much as half its own weight in water, and, in a few 
hours, nearly its entire weight. When the animal so filled was placed 
in a warm and dry situation, it gave off this fluid nearly as rapidly as 
it had accumulated it. He contends that the Frog Tribe never drink, 
and general observation goes to prove that ^e Frogs, Tree-Frogs, and 
Salamanders do not swallow liquids, being supplied by the process 
before mentioned. The meagreness of some of these animals, in a 
state of comparative desiccation, and their apparent plumpness after 
they have renewed their supply of moisture, is very striking. K, 
when BO supplied, they are suddenly surprised, they can get rid of 
their load instantaneously. Few who have come on a frog by surprise, 
in a moist meadow, have not observed that, during its flrst leap, it 
emits a quantity <k liquid f^m its vent. " Whatever this fluid may 
be," says Dr. Townson, '' it is as pure as distilled water and equally 
tasteless. This I assert as well of that of the toad, which I have often 
tasted, as that of frogB." This fluid is the liquid absorbed, by the 
skin of the abdomen principally, and for which toads and frogs are 
ever on the look-outb The dew on the herbage is a frequent source 
of this necessary supply, and in dry seasons toads will bury themselves 
in moist sand or earth for the purpose of sucking up through their 
Bkin any aqueous particles which may be around them. The fluid 
is oontaaned in a sac, generally consisting of two lobes, situated in 
the lower part of the abdomen under the viscera, and is conducted to 
the receptacle by particular vessels, which are certainly not the ureters 
or ttrinaiy canals from the kidneys: these urinary canals have their 
nit lower down in the cloaca. Blumenbach, and even Cuvier, in his 
' Lefons d' Anatomie Compar^e,' considered this bilobated bag as 
the urinary bladder in the frog and toad ; but Townson shows that it 
has no connection with the ureter, whidt, as we have seen, has its 
posterior opening lower down in the cloaca, while these receptacles 
temunate in the front of that intestine. 

^rstn, Nervoui Spsiem, and Senta. — The brain and nervous system 
of the Anourotu Amphibia are, as in the Reptiles generally, composed of 
ui encephalon consisting of a cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla 
oblongata; a spinal oord; and the nerves which are given off 
<nnn these sources to the different organs of the body. So far the 
ajstem is modelled upon that of Mammiferous Animals and Birds, 
but the cerebellum is proportionally much less. The Reptiles have 
also a ganglionary nervous system, or a great double sympathetic 

Touek-^The naked skin and its sensibility to variations of tempe- 
rature would seem to indicate a considerable degree of perception, as 
to the physical and even chemical nature of the bodies with which it 
comes in contact But touch, properly so called, can hardly exist 
in a high state of development in the greater part of the Anourous 
Ampkihia. They have, indeed,, no nails on their toes, which are much 
longer in the frogs than in the toads ; and in many of the genera and 
species the toea are terminated by fleshy appendages, as in Pipa, 
which has also an elongated fleshy muzzle ; the Tree-Frogs (Bpla) also, 
have the extremities of their toes dilated into fleshy disks, which, like 
the acetabula of the SepiadcB, adhere by their circumference. These 
«nable the animals to walk in all directions upon flat surfoces, and to 
adhere to them even when the^ are of the smoothest nature. The 
Mnse of touch is probably more highly developed where this organi- 
sation is manifested. 

Tatte, — Probably not at all acute. The tongue, as we have seen, is 
u organ for the capture -of the prey, which is swallowed entire 
almost in the same moment that it is taken. 

StnelL — ^This sense would seem to be almost rudimentary in the 
A.mphibia. A simple opening pierced from the end of the muzzle to 

»AT. nisT. Dnr. vol. l 

the f^nt of the palate, with a fleshy and concave membrane at its 
external extremity, moving in unison with the respiratory action, is 
strongly contrasted with the intricate and beautifiil structure of the 
nasal organs which are so highly developed in the CamivoroaB 
Mammalia and Birds. 

ffearing. — ^There is a considerable diffsrenoe in the structure of the 
organ of hearing among the Anovrous Amph4bia. The Pipa, for 
instance, hss a sort of small valve upon the tympanum, somewhat 
similar to that possessed by the crocodiles^ and probably intended to 
protect the membrane agiunst the pressure ef the water when the 
animal resorts to great depths, ffyla and Mana have the tympanum 
distinctly manifested by the delicacy of its structure when compared 
with the other integuments of the head. In the Toads the tym- 
panum is not apparent. Examples of the structure of the ear may 
be seen in some of the preparations in the museum of the CoU^ge A 

Sight. — ^The precision with which a Toad measures the distanoe of 
an insect, and captures it with its tongue the moment the victim is 
within reach of that organ, shows a high and accurate development 
of the organs of sight, as applicable to short distances at least The 
pupil is, in general, round, but in the Anourous Amphibia whose 
habits are nocturnal (the toad, for instance) it is angular or linear. The 
humours vary in their proportions in the different genera, but the 
crystalline humour has been noticed of greater density and of a more 
spherical figure in the aquatic species. The orbits are generally 
incomplete, and sometimes protected, as in CenUophrys, by folds of 
thickened cuticle. 

Beproduetion, — The special reproductive tissues of the male in the 
Anourous Amphibia are situated in the cavity of the abdomen below 
the kidneys, and the deferent canals terminate in the cloaca. The 
ovaries in the females are found in the same situation with the oor* 
responding parts in the males, and are of considerable volume. Their 
free extremity forms a sort of trumpet-shaped opening, and the oviduct 
terminates in Ihe cloaca, whence the egga are excluded. Blumenbaoh 
describes the Frogs of his country as having a lar^ egg*cavity, divided 
by an internal partition into two parts, from which two long convo- 
luted oviducts arise, and terminate by open orifices at the sides of 
the heart The ovaria, he says, lie under the liver, so that it is 
difficult to conceive how the eggB get into the above-mentioned 
openings. The egg-cavity, he adds, opens into the cloaca^ The Toadsi, 
according to him, have not a large egg-cavity; but their oviducts 
terminate by a oommon tube in the doaciL 

At the season of reproduction, besides the vocal manifestations, 
there are others which visibly diBtingnish the male in many of the 
Amphibia. At each croak, the male Qreen Fro|;s project from the 
commissure of the mouth two globular bladders mto which the air is 
introduced, and the throat swells and becomes coloured. In the males 
of the Red Frog the thumbs of the anterior feet become oonsiderabW' 
swollen and covered by a black and rugose skin at this period. 
The eggs are not fecundated until after th/sy have been extruded into 
the water. These eggB are enveloped in a sort of delicate, mucous, 
permeable membrane; they are^ when excluded, most frequently 
agglomerated either in glutinous masses or chaplets, and increase 
considerably after they are plunged in the water. There are however 
some curious modifications of the disposition of the eggs in^ certain 
species of the Anourous Am^ibia. In the Toad, called by Laiurenti 
from its habits Bufo obsteiricans, the male, for instance^ alter the 
exclusion of the eggs, takej up the chaplets, and disposes them round 
his thighs, something in the form of a figure of 8. He is then 
said to carry them about till the eyes of the embryo become visible. 
At the proper period for hatching, he ooiiveys his progeny to some 
stagnant piece of water, and deposits them, when the eggs break and 
the tadpoles come forth and swim about The male Pipa, or Surinam 
Toad, as soon as the eggs are laid, plaoes them on the bade of the 
female, and in that situation they become fecundated. The female 
[see figures} then takes to the water, and the skin of her back swells, 
and forms cellules, in which the eggs are hatched, and where the 
young pass their tadpole state, for they do not quit their domicile 
till s^r the loss of their tail and the development of their legs. 
At this period the mother leaves the water, and returns to dry 

Swaxnmerdam gives the number of eggs in a female frog as 1400, 
and M. de Montbeillard counted 1800. In these eggs tiiere is a 
greenish albumen which is not easily coagulable. The yolk or vitellus 
is absorbed by the» embryo, and an abdominal dcatxix indicates the 
umbilicus in young individuals. It is not rare to meet with double 
germs in a single egg, but most of these prove abortive, though some 
produce monsters with two heads, six legs, and two tails, as well as 
hermaphrodites. In our dimatee, the early part of the spring is the 
season of mating, when the frogs and toads of both sexes quit the 
localities of their late hybernation and their ordinary haunts, and 
move instinctively to those stagnant waters whidi are proper for their 
purpose, and where they are then collected in swanna 

The yoimg of the Amphibia enter life under an entirdy different 
form from that which they are afterwards to assume ; and undergo, 
like the insects, a series of metamorphoses or transformations, till 
Ihey arrive at their perfect state. In their first stage, the young have 
an elongated body, a laterally compressed tail, and external brauohiss; 

Digitized by 





their small mouth is fiirniflhed with homy hooks or teeth for the separa- 
tion of vegetable matter, and they have a small tube on the lower lip 
by which they attach themselTes to aquatic plants, fta The extemal 
branohife next disappear, and become ooTcred with a membrane, 
being placed in a sort of sac under the throat ; and the animal then, 
as we have observed when treating of its respiration, breathes after 
the manner of fishes. The head, which is furnished with eyes and 
nostrils, is confounded with the large globular trunk distended with 
the great extent of the digestive canaJ, and it has a large tail for 
swimming. In this state it is called in English a TadpoU, and in 
French Titctrd, from the great apparent volume of the head. Soon 
the posterior limbs are gSradually put forth near, the origin of the 
tail, and are developed first ; the anterior feet then beg^ to show 
themselves ; the tail graduidly becomes leas and less, short^is, shrinks, 
and seems at laet to be absorbed ; the mouth widens, and loses its 
homy processes or jaws ; the eyes are guarded bv 'eye-hds ; the belly 
lengthens and diminishes in comparative size ; the mteetines become 
short ; the true lungs are developed, and the internal branchiee are 
obliterated; the circulation undergoes an entire change; and the 
animal, hitherto entirely aquatic and herbivorous, becomes carnivorous, 
and for the most part terrestrial. 

Mr. Thomas Wharton Jones ('ZooL Proc.,' March, 1837) observes, 
that when the right gill of the Tadpole dLra^pears, it is not, as is 
usually supposed, by the closure of the fissure through which it 
protrudes, but by the extension of the opercular fold on the right 
side towards that of the left, forming but a single fissure, conmion 
to the two branchial cavities, through which the left gill still pro- 
trades. He also remarks, that conditions analogous to those widck 
occur during several stages of this process exist in the branchial 
fissures of the Anguilliform genera, Sphagebranehtu, Monopterut, and 

PartietUair Excretwns. — The alleged venom of the Common Toad, 
so long a subject of popular belief, had been rejected by many modem 
natundists, among whom Cuvier may be particularly mentioned. Dr. 
Davy, however, found the venomous matter to be contained in 
follicles, chiefly in the true skin and about the head and shoulders^ 
but also distributed generally over the body and on the extremitiesi 
Pressure causes this fluid to exude or even spirt out to a considerable 
distance, and a sufficient quantity may be thus collected for examina- 
tion. Dr. Davy found it extremely acrid when applied to the tongue, 
resembling the extract of aconite in this respect ; and it even acts 
upon the hands. With a small residuum it is soluble in water and in 
alcohol ; acetate of lead and corrosive sublimate do not affect the 
BolutionsL It remains acrid on solution in ammonia; and when 
dissolved in nitric acid, it imparts a purple colour to it Combined 
with potaah or soda, it becomes less acrid, apparently in consequence 
of partial decomposition. It is highly inflammable as left by evapora- 
tion of its aqueous or alcoholic solutions ; and the residuum which 
appears to give it consistence seems to be albumen. More acrid than 
the poison of the most vei^mous serpents, it produces no ill effect 
when introduced into the circulation. A chicken inoculated with it 
was not affected. Dr. Davy coigectures that this ' sweltered venom' is 
a defence to the Toad from carnivorous animals ; and we have seen a 
dog, when urged to attack one without hesitation, drop the animal 
from its mouUi in a manner that left no doubt that he had felt the 
effiBcts of thifl excretion, which Dr. Davy thinks may be auxiliary in 
decarbonising the blood. 

The Toads are also said to possess, besides, two glandular masses 
(parotidB), which, when pressed, exude through small holes a yellowish 
thick humour of a musky odour. The other odours also which many 
species of Toads produce, it does not seem yet ascertained from what 
source, are very remarkabla Roeeel, author of the beautiful work on 
Frogs, compares some of these to the smell of garlic or of volatilised 
Tapour of arsenic, or even ignited gunpowder; others again, he says, 
produce an effect on the nose like the vapour of horse-radish, mustard, 
or the leaves of monk's-hood rubbed between the fingtra. In one 
instance only he states it to be probable that this emanation 
comes from the cloaca; and such seems to be the opinion of M. 
Dum^ril, who states that he has been assured that, in certain 
instances, the water in which some of these animals had been placed 
and there purposely irritated or excited, had become so acrid that the 
tadpoles of frogs and saUmanders introduced therein hardly survived 
the immersion. 

Oeographieal Dittnbution and ffabitt, — ^Warm and temperate but 
moist climates are the localities most favourable to the Ammroui 
Amphibia. Extreme cold is fatal to them, and so is extreme dry 
heat They are unable to sustain violent and sudden changes of 
temperature. In moderately warm climates, and those where there is 
a considerable degree of cold during a part of the year, they buiy 
themselves, in wioter, either under the earth or in the mud at the 
bottom of the water, and there pass the season of hybernation 
without taking food or air, till the ^ring calls them forth ; when the 
same frog wluch had passed so many months without respiration 
would expire in a few minutes if prevented from shutting its mouth 
and so supplying itself with air by deglutition. The general habits of 
the tribe may be collected from the different sections of this article, 
and from the descriptions of those forms in it which may be noticed 
in the course of this work. 

The following cuts will convey to the reader an idea of Mm« d 
the leading forms among the Anourous Amphibia in their adult state :^ 

llarsh Frog (Sana paluttris). Two-thirds natonl size. Europe 

Ceratophry* granota. Two-thirds natuni size. America, 

Common Toad (Bttfo tmlgaru). Half natural sise. Europe. 
AVith an under view of the foot. 

Bfla Ueol^r, Half natnral aiae. Sovth AiLcrica. 

Digitized by 






Eit(fy$toma mturmoratum, India* 

Kpa morutro9a, Lanrenti {Atterodaetylut, Wagler), Surinam Toad, famale, 
ndoeed. The upper fimire shows the disposition of the cells, and their situation 
in the skin, which is turned back, and the muscle seen below. The small sepa- 
r*tc flcvM ar* Tadpoles, in different stages of derelopment. 

(hfrhfnehui hicolor. South America. 

Messrs Dum^ril and Bibron {* Erp^tologie ') make the Bufoniform 
Family of the Anourout Amphibia {Anoures Phan^roghsaee) consist of 
the foUowing genera : — 

DendrobateSf WagL (ffylapUna, Boie, Tschudi) Example, Dendro- 
batea tinetorifu. (Cayenne.) 

Bhinoderma Dam. and Bibr. Example, Rhinoderma Darvnnit. 

Atdopnt, Dnm. and Bibr. Example, Atdopui JUrveieeni. (Guyana.) 

JSufo, Lanr. Example, Bufo vulgaris, the Common Toad. (Europe, 
Japan.) Messrs. Dum^ril and Bibron reoord 18 species of this 

Phryniteuty Wieg. (CkawMia, Tschudi.) Example, Phrynitcut 
nigricani, Wieg. (Montevideo.) 

BraekycephakUf Pitzing. {Bphippiferf Coot.) Example, Brachy* 
eej^udui ephippiwn, Fitzing. (Bradl, GKiyana.) 

Hylasdaeiyhtty Tschud. Example, Hyladaetyhu hdleaiut. (Java.) 

PUdropus, Dum. and Bibr. Example, Pleetroput pictus. (Manilla.) 

Bngytkma, Fitzing. (Mieropa, Wagl. ; StenocephahUf TschudL) 
Example, Bngyttoma ovale, (Surinam, Buenos Ayres.) 

Uperodon, Dum. and Bibr. Example, Uparodonmarmoratut. (Monta- 
valle, Indian Peninsula.) 

Brevicept, Merrem {Engyitoma, part, Rtring.; Syttoma, Wagl, 
Tschudi). Example, Brevioept gtbhotui. (South Africa, near the Cape 
of Good Hope.) 

Bhinophrynmt, Dum. and Bibr. Example, Bhinopbrynus dortalis, 

Oeographical Distribution of the Family. — ^Messrs. Dum^ril and 
Bibron state that the number of species of the Bufoniform Family 
known to them (1841) was 85, a much less number than that of the 
Raniform Family, which includes 51, and less still than the Hyliform, 
or Tree-Frog Family, which comprises 64. 

Nevertheless, observe these excellent herpetologists, species of this 
family exist in all the five parts of the world, where they are 
distributed in a manner not less unequal than the Raniform and 
Hyliform species, and always with a greater proportion for America, 
whilst the smallest portion of them belong to Europe, which has not 
even a single Sf>ecie8 peculiar to itself ; for the two there found, the 
Common Toad and the Green Toad {Bufo viridis, Laur.), also inhabit 
Africa and Asia, which produce moreover, the one Bufo ^antherinua 
and Brevicepa gibbosus, the other Ptectropui pictus, Engy stoma omatum, 
JBfyUxda^ylus baleatus, Uperodon marmoratum, and Bvfones cruentatus, 
scaber, biporeaius, isos, and asper. 

Oceania, which after America is, they observe, best furnished with 
Hyliform species, and where two of the Raniform Family are found, 
has not hitherto yielded more than a single Bufoniform species, namely, 
Phryniscus Australis. 

America, besides six species of Bufo, namely, strunumis, mdanotis, 
musicus, Americanus, margaritifer, ctOrbignyi, and LeschenauUii, 
furnishes Dendrobaies tinctorius, obscwrus, and pictus ; Bhtnoderma 
Darunnii; Atdopus fiavescens ; Phryniscus nigricans ; Brachycephalus 
ephippium ; and Engystomaia ovale, Carolinense, rugosvm, and microps. 

Mr. Darwin, spiking of the Fauna of the Galapagos Archipelago, 
says : ** Of snakes there are several species, but all hannless. .Of toads 
and frogs there are none. I was surprised at this, considering •how 
well the temperate and damp woods in the elevated parts appeared 
adapted to their habits. It recalled to my mind the singular stat^ 
ment made by Bory St. Vincent, namely, that none of this family are 
to be found on the volcanic islands in the great oceans. There certainly 
appears to be some foundation for this observation, which is the more 
remarkable when compared with the case of lizards, which are generally 
among the earliest colonists of the smallest islet It may be asked 
whether this is not owing to the different facilities of transport through 
salt-water of the eggs of the latter, protected by a calcareous coat, and 
of the slimy spawn of the former." (* JoumaL') 

URODtLEB, or Tailbd Amphibia. 

Under this designation the following genera are included : — PUuro- 
dHes, Walt^. ; Bradybates, Tsch. ; Salamandra, Linn. ; Pseudosala- 
mandra, Tsch. ; Ambystoma, Tsch. ; Onychodactylus, Tsch. ; Plethodon, 
Tsch. ; Cylindrosoma, Tsch. ; (Edipus, Tsch. ; Salamandrina, Fitz. ; 
Oeotriton, Bonap. ; ffemidacfylium, Tsch. ; Cynops, Tsch. ; ffyriobius, 
Tsch. ; Pseudotriion, Tsch. ; Triton, Laur. ; Xiphonura, Tsch. ; 
Megalobatrachus, Tsch. (Sicboldia, Bonap.) ; Andrias (fossil) Tsch. ; 
Menopoma, Harl. ; Siredon, Wagl. (Axolott); Amphiunui, Gard.; 
MenAranchuSf Harl ; Hypockton, Men*. {Proteus) ; Siren ; and many 

Skeleton. — The skull of the Terrestrial Salamander {Lacerta Sala- 
mandra, Linn. ; Salamandra terrestris, Aldr. and Ray) is well described 
by Cuvier as being nearly cylindrical, widened in front in order to 
form the semicircular face, and behind for the two crucial branches 
resembling those of the frogs, and containing the internal ears. But 
though the composition of Uie head resembles that of the frogs in the 
back and under parts, it differs remarkably in other parts : there is 
no girdling bone {os en ecinture), and the only representation of the 
ethmoid bone appears in a membranous state. 

Above, the cranium is divided nearly equally between the two frontal 
and the two parietal bones. The anterior part of the frontal bones is 
articulated forwards with the bones of the nose, and, laterally, with 

Digitized by 





the anterior fronUl bonee. The apophyiea liamg ftom the inter- 
maxillary bones are yeir lai^ which pUcet the external oflseouB 
nostrilB Tery far apart. The nasal bone ia placed on the upper part 
of each of them, between the intermaTillary, the frontal^ the anterior 
frontal, and the maxillary bones. The anterior frontal bone occupies 
the cheek in front of the anterior angle of the orbit, but does not 
descend into the cavity, the anterior wall of which is simply mem- 
branous Cuvier belicTed that he saw a very small lachrymid bone at 
the external angle of the anterior frontal bone. The dental part of 
the upper maxillary bone is carried backwards as usual, but without 
forming a junction with either the pterygoid or jugal bones. Cuvier 
found only two occipital bones, as in the other Batrachians, and each 
of them Was intimately united vrith a part analogous to the ospetrosum 
(rocAer). A great round hole serves for the en^ to the vestibule, and 
consequently to the fenestra ovalis. In the living animal it is closed 
by a cartilaginous plate, vdthont any stem, and entirely hidden under 
the muadea. To this bone, which occupies the place of both the occi- 
pital, lateral, and petrous bones, are attached thne others, the lower of 
which (the pterygoid), vrith its triangular figure, brings to the mind 
of the observer the three branches of which it is form^ in the frogs. 
Its anterior angle, as has been stated, does not reach the maxillary 
bone, and ia only connected to it by a ligament ; neither does the 
intenial angle reach the sphenoid bone: the external angle exists 
under the second of the three bones here noticed, namely, the inter- 
mediate bone— that to which belongs tiie facet for the articulation of 
the jaw. This bone, Cuvier remarks, is very difficult to define ; and 
he further says that he shall perhaps be considered very rash if he 
names it the jugal bone, for, Ur from being placed horizontally, and 
going forwards to join the maxillary, it lies transversely on the 
posterior border of the pterygoid bone; nevertheless, there is a 
ligament which unites it to the posterior point of the maxillary bone. 
The third and upper of these bones lies upon the preceding, and in 
the same direotu>n; it is oblong and flat, and is attached by its 
internal extremity upon the lateral occipital bone, without readiing 
to the parietal. Supposing the jugal bone to be well named, this 
would be the tympanic bone ; and, in fact, if the little plate which 
covers the fenestra ovalis had a handle (manehe), it would pass behind 
the bone of which we speak, as in the frogs it passes behind the 
tympanic bone. 

Below there is only a single sphenoid bone, which is oblong. Two 
laige triangular bones, which are manifestly analogous to those named 
vomers by Cuvier in the frogs, form the flooring of i^e nostrils below, 
and give off each a slender apophysis, which extends backwards under 
the sphenoid parallel to its correspondent. It is to these hones and 
to their apophyses that the two longitudinal rows of the palatal teeth 
of the Salamanders adhere. Between the anterior part of these bones, 
behind the intermaxillaries^ is a large oval space, which is filled by 
the membrane of the palate only; their posterior and dentary 
apophysis extends nearly as far backwards as the sphenoid bone. 
Perhaps, observes Cuvier, it is divided at certain periods into two by 
a suture, and a palatine bone may then be distinguished, but he had 
not been able to perceive one. There is in the orbit, at its anterior 
wall, a great membranous space between the maxillary bone, the 
anterior frontal, and the vomer ; and it is at the bottom of this space, 
and in^ a notch of the vomer, that the internal nostril is pieroMi on 
each side. The bottom of the orbit, on the side of tiie cranium, 
between the frontal and parietal bones on one side, and the vomer and 
sphenoidal bones on the other, is occupied by an oblong bone in which 
the optic hole is pierced, and which can only answer to the orbital 
wing of the sphenoidal bone. It is this part which is membranous 
in the frogs, anid has no existence in the serpents, in which the parietal 
and frontal bones each nipply it by halves ; here it is elevated to the 
state of a particular bone. OAie two occipital condyles are very much 
separated from each other, and placed at the two sides of the occipital 

The cranium of the European Aquatic Salamanders differs in general 
from that of the Terrestrial in having the entire head more oblong, 
(he external nostrils more approximated, the space between the 
vomers a simple small hole^ thepterygoid bone a mere plate, wide 
behind and pointed before, ko. They auo differ among themselves. 

The OS hyoldes is subject to changes in the Salamanders, as in the 
firo^ In its larva state it nas two hyoidian branches springing from the 
occipital bones, uniting forwards under the lower jaw, and a cartila- 
ginous branchial apparatus suspended at the point of union of those 
branches, and supporting four arches on each side, the first of which is 
attached to an intermediate stem, the three following to a second two- 
jointed stem, and these two pairs of stems to an unequal branch, as is 
more clearly manifested in the AxclotL The adult Aquatic Salamanders 
preserve in the bony state the branches which still are attached below 
the fenestra ovalis, and terminate forward by a truncation under Uie 
middle of the lower jaw ; but the anterior articulation of these branches 
is now become membranous. The unequal stem, in the bony state, 
supports on each side an osseous branch consisting of two joints^ 
termiaated by a cartilaginous point, and moreover, internally, another 
branch which is simple and reduced to a filament, which goes from the 
unequal stem to the second articulation of the external branch. In 
the Terrestrial Salamander, which can only pa^o & ▼oiy short time in 
the larva state, all remains cartilaginous. The two suspensive branches 

or anterior horns are delicate and flat, and do not join the cnmhun ; 
and the unequal stem with its two branches soldered on each tide bv 
their two ends, forms only a sin^^e chevron-shaped cartilage, each branci 
of which is pierced with a considerable gap. This remainder or vestige 
of the branobial apparatus does not prevent the co-existence of a laiyiiz 
and the rudiment of a sternum ; both indeed weak and membranous 
rather than cartilaginous. The shoulder of the Salamander is very 
curious on account of the close junction of its three bones into a single 
one, which has the glenoid fosset at its anterior edge, sends towacds the 
spine a square lobe slightiy enlaiged above, which is the omoplate, and 
towards the breast a rounded disk, slightiy lobated, which is oompoeed 
of the clavicle and coracoid bone, where a suture which qpparates them 
may for a long time be observed, and where there -always remaina a 
small hole. The omoplate has its spinal edge augmented by a cartila- 
ginous prolongation. The deido-coraoold is also surrounded with a 
great cartilaginous blade in form of a crescent, which crosses upon its 
congener under the breast; for the only vestige of a sternum remaining 
is a cartilaginous blade placed behind the two preceding, and vhich 
represents the xipho'id. The atlas of the Salamander is articulated 
with the head by two concave facets, and with the second vertebia by 
the face of its body, which is also concave ; for, contrary to the case 
of the frogs and lisards, all the anterior faces of the bodies of the 
vertebns are convex in the Salamanders, and all the posterior faoea 
concave; the upper part is flat The articular apophyses are horiiontid, 
and united on each side by a crest, which, Joined to tiiat of the other 
side, gives to the vertebra a sort of roof which is rectangular, bat with 
its lateral borders a little re-entering. The posterior parts of a vertehn 
lie on the anterior parts of that which follows it in lieu of spinoui 
apophyses, there is only a slight appearance of a longitudinal ridge. 
The body of the vertebra, which is cylindrical and narrowed in ita 
middle, adheres under the roof above noticed. The transverse apophyaea 
also adhere under the lateral crests, are directed slightiy backwuda, 
and divided by a fiirrow on each of their faces, so that their extoemity 
has as it were two tubercles for carrying those into which the base of 
the small rib is divided. These small rilM adjoin all the cervical, doisal, 
and lumbar vertebne, except the atlas, but are (mly two or tluee linea in 
length, and are fiar frx>m surrounding tiie trunk or reaching the stenram. 
Among the Aquatic Salamanders, the Triton Ganeri hastfie crest of the 
dorsal vertebns more elevated and sharp than the Terrestrial Salamander; 
this crest is also rather more developed in Triton alpegtru, and even in 
Triion jmnctatua and Triton paUnaitu ; but what, adds Cuvier, is veiy 
singular, it is precisely in Tritan cruta^iu that this crest is most e&ced, 
and the upper part of the vertebra neariy plain. The vertebrae of the 
tail (25 or 26 in number) in the Terresteial Salamander have crests and 
transverse apophyses like those of the back ; they become smaller and 
smaller, and, counting from the third caudal, there is under the body 
a transverae blade directed obliquely backwards, pierced with a hole at 
its base, which represents the chevron-bones of the lizards and the 
other long-tailed genera. Cuvier counted 88 caudal vertebne in the 
Trit<m alpettrU and Triton eristattu, 34 in Triton Oemeri, and 86 in 
Triton punctatw. They form, he observes, a tail flattened laterally, in 
consequence of the elevation of their upper and lower cresta The 
bones of the limbs are, says Cuvier in continuation, proportioned to 
the smalln e sB of the members themselves. The humerus has, above, 
a round head ; a littie lower, forwards, there is a compressed and obtoee 
tuberosity; and backwards, a littie lower still, another venr pointed 
one. Its lower head is flattened from before backwards, and widened 
to suit the condyles, between which is an articular head, rounded for 
the fore-arm, and above, forwards, a small fosset The Aquatic Sala- 
mander has this bone more widened above than the Terrestrial spedeib 
The fore-arm is composed of two separate bones. The radius baa a 
round upper head, a narrowed body, and a compressed and widened 
lower head. The cubit is more equal in sise, and its olecranon is vexr 
short and rounded. The carpus has 5 bones and 2 cartilages which 
occupy the place of bones, 7 pieces in all: the whole of these are 
flat, angular, disposed in a pavement-like order, and in some respecta 
announce the structure to be seen in the letk^otaurut. In the first 
rank are two, of which the smallest or radial is csrtilaginous. The 
greatest belongs to the radius and ulna; between them on the second 
rank is a single one ; then come, on the third rank, four for the meta- 
carpals. The first remains cartilaginous. The metacaipals ai« short, 
flat, and naxrowad in their middle. Cuvier found only one r^*^*^"* 
ossified on the first finger, two on the second and fourth, and tiiree on 
the third. The variety of points by which the pelvis is attached to 
the Bpii^e u, he remarks, a very singular thing. He had individuals of 
the Terrestrial Salamander in which it was suspended from the 15th 
vertebra (counting in the atias), and others in which it was suspended 
from the 16th ; and he refers to a specimen (species undetermined) 
seen by M. Schultze, 'in which it was suspended on one side to the 
16th vertebra, and on the other to the 17th. With regard to the 
Aquatic Salamanders, Cuvier found it oonstantiy suspended to the 14th 
in Triton paimatut and Triton alputrit, to the 15th in Trittm pmetatui 
and TSritcn Oetneri, and to the 17th or 18th in Triton erittaint. He had 
an individual of tiie last-named spedes, in which it was suspended on 
one side to the 17th vertebra, and on the otiier to the 18th. The 
pelvis itself is quite differentiy formed horn that of the froga The 
vertebra which supports it is like those which precede it, and has, like 
them, on each side a small rib, at the extremity of which the os ilii is 

Digitized by 






Kupended by a ligament It is cylindrioal, and widens a little on 
arriTing at the cotyloid cavity. The pubis and ischium are soldered 

together, and form, with those of the other side, from wliich they are 
distinct, a laige disk, concave above^ flat below, cut square in fix>nt 
and at the anterior puts of the sides, notched laterally and narrowed 
behind the cotyloid fosssB, and terminated backwards in a coneave arch. 

Forehand of Sieboldta. 

Skull of Jf 

_m below. 


8k«]etoD of TerrMtrial laUmsnder. a. Skull in profils ; h, from below. 

The pubis remains cartilaginous much longer than the js^^^wn, ?dth 
whidti it is united by a suture which makes a cross with the symphysis, 
And in front of this svmphysiB is a cartilage in the form of a T in the 
muscles, which recalls to the observer ttie marsupial bonsa of the 

Digitized by 






Opoasums. The upper head of the femur ia oval ; sb the internal fiaoe 
of the neck, there is a very pointed apophysifl, occupying the place of 
a trochanter : the lower head is widened and flattened from before 
backwarda. There are two bones in the leg. The tibia, which ia very 
Btout upwards, haa in front a ridge, which detaches itself from the 
upper part of the bone in the form of a slender stem, resembling the 
vestige of a fibula discernible in various Rodents, but this does not 
prevent the development of a true fibula as large as the tibia, and 
which descends a littie lower. There are 9 tarsal bones, all flat and 
disposed in a pavement-like order: the lower rank has 5 for the 
five metatarsal bones ; the four others consist of one small (tiie tibial) 
at the internal border, one great (the fibular) at the external border, 
an oblong one between them, placed obliquely and answering to the 
tibia and fibula, and one square in the middle of all the others. 
Cuvier found but one phalanx on the first finger, two on the second, 
three on t^e third and fourth, and two on the last 

Reproduction of Parts. — The power of reproducing excised or 
injurod parts has been observed in no family among the reptiles 
more carefully than in the Tailed Amphibia. Plateretti, Spallanzani, 

Murray, and others have recorded their observations with respect to 
this power; and Bonnet particularly has given most accurate descrip- 
tions and figures of his careful experiments. The arms or thighs of 
Tritons amputated sometimes on one side^ sometimes on the other, or 
both on the same side, were oonstantiy reproduced, and the tOes were 
again gradually formed and endowed with motion. The tail, too, cut 
off at various points, was renewed, pushing out by littie and littie from 
the amputated base. In one case tne same limb was reproduced four 
times consecutively in the same animal Bonnet found that this 
reproduction was favoured by heat and retarded by cold. He 
observed that the parts of excised limbe were often reproduced 
with remarkable alterations, either of defect or excess ; the deficiency 
or exuberance of certain parts taking upon themselveB very singular 
forms. In many* species of Tritons the long bones of the limbs 
detached from their principal articulation, and remaining suspended 
by some points which still caused them to adhere to the flesn, were 
found completely consolidated in a few days. The most extraor- 
dinary observation was that consequent on the total extirpation of the 
eye, which was entirely reproduced and perfectiy oiganised at the end 
of. a year. Dufay has recorded their faculty of remaining frozen up 
in ice for a long period without perishing. 

Their tenaci^ of life was strongly shown in an experiment made by 
M. DumdriL Three-fourths of the head of a Triton marmoratue was 
removed with a pair of scissors. The mutilated animal was placed by 
itsedf at the bottom of a large glass vessel in fresh water about half an 
inch deep, and which was careAilly renewed at least once a^y. The 
animal, although deprived of the fbur principal senses, without nostrils, 
without cr^ee and ears, and without a tongue, continued to live and move 
slowly. Its only commimication with externalB was carried on by touch 
alone. M. Dum^ril relates that it was evidentiy conscious of existence, 
and walked slowly and cautiously. It raised the stomp of its neck 
towards the surface of the water, and during the first days was seen 
making efforts to breathe. In less than three months reproduction 
and cicatrisation had so done their work that there remained no 
aperture for the lungs, or for food. At the end of three months, M. 
Dumdril was compelled to leave it to the care of another during an 
absence, and it died, in all probability, as he observes, from want of 
attention on the part of the person who undertook the care of it. 
This specimen is now preserved in the Paris Museum, and exhibits, as 
M. Dum^ril remarks, the singular fact of an animal having lived without 
a head ; and a proof of the possibility and neceesily, even in the Batra- 
chians, of a sort of re^iration by means of the sBn. In this animal 
M. Dum^ril states that respiration was certainly thus carried on for 
three months, ^though the stump of the amputated part presented a 
cicatrice, the smooth surface of which proved, even when examined 

by a magnifying glass, that 
there was a complete obtura- 
tion of the oesophagus and 

Dr. Von Siebold has also 
recorded his observations on 
the reproduction of wounded 
^ lost parts in the TViton ni^er. 
The following are some of 
the more remarkable genera 
belonging to the Tadled Am- 
phibia: — 

Head fiat» broad; two con- 
centric rows of teeth (the inner 
row palatine) in the upper jaw, 
and a single row only in the 
lower jaw; tongue tree in 
frx>nt; operculum situated 
about half way between the 
posterior edge of the rictua of 
the mouth and the fore-leg; 
three opercular oartilagea» between the posterior, two of which form 
tha aperture; feet fimbriated on thdr outer edge; toes four on the 

Head of Proionepeit, seen from above. 

anterior feet, and five on the posterior ; of the latter the fourth aad 
fifth are webbed and without daws. 

This is the Ahranchut * and Menopoma of Harlan ; Protonopeu of 
Barton ; Cryptobranchut of Leukardt and Fitzinger ; Salamandropi of 

There are two species known, the Protonopeii horrida and P. fuaea. 
The first species is well known. Its lengtii is about two feet ; head 
broad and flattened; mouth wide; nostrils projecting; body thick 
and stout ; tail compressed vertically, and nearly as long as the body ; 
legs stout and short; colour slaty with dark spots on the body; a 
dark line runs through the eyes. 

This is the Bellbender, Mvd Devil, Ground Puppff, and Toung A tUgator 
of the Anglo-Americans ; and FteeK-Salamander of the Germans. 

It inhabits the Ohio and Alleghany rivers. 

This Batrachian is carnivorous and very voracious ; nothing that it 
can devour is spared by it. The fishermen dread it very much, and 
believe it to be poisonous. Indeed the appearance of the animal ia 
altogether uncouth and forbidding. 

Michaux appears to have been the first traveller who discovered 
and noticed the Protonopsit, He states that in the torrents of the 
Alleghanies is found a species of Salamander, called by the inhabitants 
' Alligator of the Mountains,' and that there are some which are two 
feet in length. 

There is a well-pr es e rv ed skeleton of Pr§tonoptis horrida in the 
museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in London. 

Protonoptis AlleghtmimuiM, 
a. Month open, fbpwing the arrangement of the teeth. 


Head laige, trigono-ovate ; rostrum produced, vertex convex; 
forehead concave; noetrils, in the anterior margin of the maxilla, 
approximate; eyes very small, hardly distinguishable; no parotida; 
tongue not distinct ; palatine teeth numerous ; a crest on the anterior 
margin of the vomers; posterior feet with cutaneous appendages ; toes 
small, free, with depressed cutaneous lateral lobes ; tail rather round 
at the base, veiy much depressed in the middle and behind, head 
thickly covered with glands ; body depressed, with transverse foldj 
and a long thick cutaneous appendage on each side. 

Figures of the skuU, showing the teetii, of the skeleton of the fore- 
hand, and of some of the vertebrse, are given on the preoeding page. 

This* is tfie genus Megalobairachus of Tschudi ; but the Prince of 
Canine's name, Sieboldiaf has the right of priority. The genus belongs 
to the sub-family Andriadina of the Prince's SalamandricUe, 

SieboUUa maxima is the Salamandria m^ixima of Schlegel ('Fauna 
Japon.,' viL, tab. vi, vii, viiL), and was found by Dr. Von Siebold in 
a lake on a basaltic mountain in Japan. He brought away a male and 
a female ; but the former devoured the latter during the passage. The 
gill-aperture slit always remains open in ProUmoptiMy but in this great 
newt the slits are closed. This animal is the nearest living analogue of 
Andriae Scheuchaeri, the celebrated Homo DUvmi Tatit of Soheuchxer. 

Head rounded, convex; vertex somewhat flattened; tongue m»^ 
semi-globular, sliightiy free at each side, free and pointed behind; 
palatine teeth numerous, disposed in two rows; body grannlons; 
no parotids ; tail compressed, as long as the body ; glsmdular portf 
behmd and over the eves, and a longitudinal row of distant and 
similar pores along each side. Toes four on the anterior and five on 
the posterior feet Crests of the back and tail (in the male) separate. 

Example, Triton crietatui. 

The colour is blackish, orange-coloured beneath, sprinkled with 
round black spots ; sides dotted with white ; upper lip oveihangiQg 
the lower, but not having a distinct lobe ; body waiiy or ^^'^''^' 
lated ; tail rather smooth, compressed, sharp, trenchant above and 
below. licngth six in oh'M«T 

Male (in the;q>ring) with an acate toothed dorsaT OMst; tail with 

• Afterwards changed to Menopoma lij Dr. Harlan, Abrattehm havlnff bees 
pre-ooonpisd bj Van Haaaelt to designate a ganiu of mnllniks. 

Digitized by 






a longitadina] white siripe. In winter without a crest^ and much 
reaemhling the female. 

FemaiU, — No crest ; lower edge of the tail orange. 

Ywmg. — Olive-brown with a Bolphureons dorsal line; abdomen 
orange, spotted with black ; lower edge of the tail orange-red. 

This is the Laceria palutiris of Linnsems; Salamandra aqtuUica 
of Bay; Salamandra crutata of Schneider, Daudin, kc; Triton 
peUuMtris of Fleming ; Balamand/ra platyeauda of Rusconi ; Molge of 
Merrett ; Molffe paluMtria of Merrem ; Grotte Weuier-Salamander and 
Sufmrpf-Salamander of Bechstein ; Wcirty Lizard of Pennant ; Common 
Warty Newt and Cfreat Water-NwBt of the British. 

It is distributed over the whole of Europe, and is found in western 
and northern Asia. 

H'abiU. — The ponds and ditches of this country abound with this 
tiie laifpest Briti^ Newt, and a most voracious animal it is. Aquatic 

Triton erUtatw, male, in the spring season, seen from above. 

Triton eristatns, female, in the act of oompreMing a turned leaf upon her 
included egg. The leaves folded back represent those in which eggs have 
already been thus laid. (RusconL) 

insects, and indeed any small living animals which come in its way, 
are unsparingly devoured. It is a great destroyer of tadpoles, and 
the smafier Water-Newt (Lissotritonpunctatvs) frequently fieUls a victim 
to its ferocity and voracity. Mr. Bdl has taken them more than once 
in the act of swallowing an individual of the smaller species, which 

was BO large as to occasion great diffioidty and delay in the act of 
deglutition. In swimming, the legs are turned backwards to lessen 
resistance, and the animal is propelled principally by the taiL Every 
one has observed the Newts, or Efts, as they are called in many places, 
floating motionless at the surface of the water, with their limbs 
extended at right angles with the body, and their toes spread out 
Their progression at the bottom of the water, and on land, is per* 
formed creepingly with their small and weak feet 

Generation. — For our knowledge of this subject we are chiefly 
indebted to the observations of Rusconi Mr. Bell, in his work on 
'British Reptiles,' has confirmed most of Rusconi's observations, and 
also added some of his own. 

Rusconi enters into minute details of the actions of the male from the 
time of its first pursuit of the female to the period of fecundation, for 
which we refer the reader to the work itself. {* Amours des Salamandres 
Aquatiques, et Developement du T6tard de ces Salamandres depnis 
rCEuf jusqu* It TAnimal Parfait,' Milan, 1821,) Prior to the time of 
depositing her eggs, the female remains immoveable ; at last she moves, 
and slowly goes in search of a plant proper for receiving her < 

chooeong almost always, when present, the Polyffoman Persicaria, She 
first approaches her head to the edges of a 1^, and turns it with her 
snout m such a way that the lower surface of the leaf, which was towards 
the bottom, is turned towards her breast : then with her fore-paws she 
passes the turned leaf beneath her belly, seises it with her hind-pavrs, 
and conducts it beneath the vent, folding it at the same time, and 
forming with it an angle the opening of which is directed towards the 
tail The egg in escaping fh>m the vent would thus pass through the 
middle of the angle formed by the leaf, but the salamander stops it 
in its fall by her hind-feet, shuts up this angle with them, and thus 
forms in the leaf a fold in which the egg is held. Still on the removal 
of the feet the egg would fall to the bottom of the water; but the 
careful parent, before she quits the leaf, folds it so firmly with her 
hind-feet that the gluten with which the envelope of the egg is 
surrounded spreads from the pressure on the two internal surfiicee of 
the leaf, and prevents the folds from opening. * When several eggs 
have been laid in this manner, in different leaves, the female remains 
quiet until another male comes to caress her. Rusconi did not 
ascertain how long the period of laying continued ; but he found eggs 
OS early as the middle of April and as late as the middle of July. 

The following figures, given by the same author, exhibit the several 
stages of the evolution of the egg which was kept on its proper leaf : 
these stages are denoted }9j the dates of the days on which the 
drawings were made. Thus, the figure marked 28rd April shows the 
egg of its natural size, and the figure below it the same magnified. 

April 23. April 26. AprU 28. April 30. 

May 2. 


"**y*0 May 5.0 


The temperature of the water during the period of Rusconi's obser- 
vations varied from 22^ to 27** Centigrade (71'6- to 80*6** Fahr.) The 
globule in the centre of the ovum is white with a yellow tint, and is 
environed with a glairy matter, to which it is not attached, so that it 
can move freely in every direction. Its envelope is membranous, of 
glassy transparence, and covered with a very clear viscid matter : the 
specMc gravity of this matter appears to be less than thai of the 
globule. In three days the globule liad imdetgone the change 
exhibited at April 26. Under the microscope may be observed in the 
embryo the commencement of the parts which are to l>ecome the 
head, the belly, and the tail The globule at first becomes enlarged, 
then elongated, and its previously smooth sur&ce presents some 
smaU eminences. If it has not been fecundated, or has lost its prolific 
power, it enlarges, nevertheless, during the first days, as in ordinaiy 
cases, but afterwards changes so as to resemble a vesicle half filled 
with water : when this appearance comes on, the egg has lost its 

On the 28th of April (fifth day) the embryo has grown so long that 
it becomes bent in order to acconmiodate itself to the circumscribed 
envelope. Now the head, abdomen, and tail are easily distinguishable, 
and near the head (the larger extremity) small elevations (the rudi- 
ments of gills and fore-feet) are perceptible. These parts become 
more i^parent by the 30th, when in the concave side of th« Qmbryo 

Digitized by 






and towards the head a amall furrow ia seen which sepfiratea the head 
from the abdomen, and the rudimenta of a apine are distinctly Tisible 
along its convex border. 

By the 2nd of May the position of the embryo is changed, and the 
tail has already assumed its oar-like form. The embrro begins to 
moTe, and its heart may be seen to beat ; colour, too, oegins to be 
present This appears to be a critical state of the embryo ; for alny)st 
half of those of which the deyelopment was watched by Rusooni, died 
at this period or soon after. Srd May. On one side of the head, and 
before the two elevations which are the rudiments of the fbre-feet» 
filaments to the number of four on each side may be observed. 4th 
May. The changes of position become frequent. In that here presented 
the embryo shows the lower part of its head and trunk, which is white 
inclining to green. On the chest between the gills of the two sides, 
where tiie pulsations of the heart are seen, sxnall irregular blackish 
spots are observable. Before the two olaspers ars seen also other 
blackish spots, forming the junction of the two bands which run along 
the back, as shown in the preceding figure. The circulation of the 
blood, which is simple, and performed by a single curved vessel, is 
seen in the gills, which are of a glassy transparence, and consist only 
of a single filament without leaflets as yet 6th May. Traces of the 
eyes may now be just seen ; and the rudiments of the two leaflets are 
perceptible on the two longest gills. 6th May. The upper small figure 
shows the young Salamander, seen from above, and of tiie natural size, 
just escaped from the envelope. Before its escape, the embryo as it 
enlarges gradually dilates the envelope, which at last it tears, and so 
forces its way out As yet the eyes are scarcely defined, though they 
form two prominences on the sides of the head, and its mouth is so 
slightly traced that attentive observation is required to detect it ; for 
it IS indicated only by a slight transverse depression beneath the head, 
and between the two prominences formed by the eves, and in the 
middle of the space between the anterior border of the Ikead and the 
origin of the neck. Its fore-feet begin to separate like buds from the 
gills, which last are gradually furnished with small leaflets. 

May 6. 

8UgM of derelepment of Trit&n eriitahu after exelnsion from the egg. 

a shows the Salamander in this stage, magnified and seen from 
below ; hb are the two prominences formed by the globes of the eyes, 
and between them is the slight depression which afterwards becomes 
the mouth ; e, the hook of the right side ; <2, the gills of the same 
side ; r , rudiment of fore-feet of the same side ; / represents the same 
seen in profile, and g the same seen from above. 

Further stages of development of lYiton eriHatut, 

The middle and small figure above shews the natural size of the 
Salamander-Tadpole on the 18th of May, twelve days after its exclusion 
from the egg. By this time the fore-feet have become lengthened, and 
ar« divided at Aeir extremity like a bicuspid tooth ; these two 
tubercles elongate, and are converted into two toes. Now the eyes 
are disclosed ; the pupil black, the white speckled with various ooloiirs. 
The yellow back of the little animal has become green, and the gills 
are now furnished with leaflets, in which red blood circulates. The 
transverse depression between the eyes above noticed has become a 

very large mouth, whose extremities extend on the sides of the head 
to the eyes. The head, hitherto narrow behind, has become much 
enlarged near the origin of the giUs. The two hooks by idiich the 
animal anchored its& have diasppeared, and the opaque body has 
become so transparent thai the action of the heart and the form and 
disposition of tne abdominal viscera may be observed in the living 
animal With this advance in organisation the sluggishness of the 
animal has vanished, and its habits are now msnifeeted. It may be 
seen near the surface, hiding beneath leaves or swimming with 
rapidity. If, while it floats at resty a small aquatic insect should pass 
before it near the surfboe, it pursues it deliberately, and as soon as it 
approaches within reach, darts upon it and swallows the prsy. Here 
then we have the little Salamander in the enjoyment of aetire 
animal life. 

Farther stages of deTelopment of THton erittatut, 

a, shows the yonog Salamander at this stage, natoral sise, seen tnm. ahore ; 

and b, the same magnified, seen from ahore and in profile. 

By the 28th of May the Salamander has put on the form above 
given in the upper figures, Seen from above. About this time the 
hind-feet begin to appear, and the fore-feet are well developed ; these 
last are, as will be seen, long in proportion to the trunk. The 
following are the principal points manifested under the microscope in 
this stage : — 1, two small eminences or excrescences, extending from 
the axiUse to the abdomen ; 2, the parietes of the abdomen ti&e the 
colour of the insects on which the animal feeds ; 8, the changes of 
colour from yellow to green, during the growth of the tadpole, are 
purely accidental, and commence immediately on the escape of the 
animal from the egg ; 4, the inner toes first push forth, and this holds 
good also with regard to the hind-feet ; 5, the amylaceous bone of the 
oigan of hearing is now formed, and may be seen through the skull 

and skin; 6, at this 

period, and even sooner, 

the itnima-l begins to 

expel air from the 

mouth. The two lower 

cuts show the same 

salamander on the 

12th June ; the small 

figure represents it of 

. the natural size snd as 

seen from above, and 

the larger figure msg- 

nified and in profila 

Now the hind-feet have 

almost attained their 

<»i development) though 

the fifth toe iswanting. 

Last stage of the tadpole of TVUoh eristatuM. The lungs extend about 

half-way down the trunk, and are visible through the parietes of the 

abdomen. The longest gills, which were furxushed with only 18 or 

14 leaflets 18 or 14 days previously, have now nearly 20. 

On the 18th of July the young Salamander, as represented above, 
had arrived at the maturity of its tadpole state, and it is represented 
watching a small moUusk to ascertain whether it is living and fit for 
prey. Rusooni found that on this day the gills appeared rather shorter 
than on the day before. On the next day the leaflets at the extremities 
of the gills were obliterated, and the g^-etem itself was shortened. 
On the 27th of July the Salamander had lost even the smallest trace 

Digitized by 






lAsaotriion punetatuSf seen Irom sbove. 
Oj Male, the toes of whose hincUfeet are ftir- 
nished in the breeding seeeon with a black, 
spotted membrane, in the act of lashing his 
tail ; b, female. 

either of giUs or of branchial apertures. It respired atmospheric air 
only, and haying arrived at its perfect state, made strong efibrts to 
escape from the vessel in 
which it had undergone 
its metamorphoBis. 

In its complete state 
this species habitually 
Uvea in the water, and 
is seldom to be found on 
land unless the pond* 
which has been its abode 
IB dried up, and the 
animRl finds itself 
obliged to walk in search 
of another. 

The development of 
the Common Smooth 
Kewt {LmoiriUm pwne- 
tains. Bell; Tritonptune' 
testes, Auci ; Triton 
palM§iris, Laur.; Salci- 
mamdra pwnotata, Dand. ; 
Molffe punctata, Merr.; 
Salamandra exigua, 
Busc.; BndBfwmlAzard 
of Pennant) was also ob- 
served by Ruaconi ; bat 
it did not require parti- 
cular notice, being very 
similar to that of Triton 
eriitatni, Triton punc- 
iatmt, however, showed 
itself much the more 
brisk animal of the two; 
and the lashings of the tail of t^e male in his approaches to the 
female wero mudi more rapid. 


Head thick; eyes large ; gape of the mouth ample ; tongue broad ; 
palatine teeth arranged in two long series; parotids laige; body 
sprinkled with many small glands ; toes free ; tail rather smooth. 

Example, Salamandra maculosa, Laur. 

This species is black with yellow spots^ and has numerous prominent 
warty excrescences on the sides ; tongue very laige ; palatine teeth 
epafeolifonn; toes smooth. 

This is the Saianumda^ of Gesner; Salamandra torrtatris of 
Aldrovaiidus, Bay, and others ; Salamandre de Terre of the French ; 
and O^/Uc^ Erd-Salamander of the Gtermans. 

It ii^iabits Central Europe and the mountainous parts of the south 
of Eoropei 

The Land Salamander, unlike the Tritons, is ovoviviparous, though 
the young at first inhabit the water and undergo metamorphoses till 
they arrive at the mature state which fits them for living upon land, 
idiere they haunt cool and moist places, being not unfrequently found 
about fallen timber or old walls. Their food principally consists of 
insects, worms, and small molluscous animals. In the winter they 
retire to some hollow tree or hole in an old wall, or even in the ground, 
whCTB they coil themselves up, and remain in a torpid state till the 
spring again call^ them forth. 

The body of tiie Salamander is laigely covered with warty glands. 
These secrete a milky fluid of a glutinous and acrid nature like that 
of the toad, which, if not capable of affecting the larger and more 
big^y-orgazuaed animals, appears to be a destructive agent to some 
of those which are less highly organised. Thus Laurenti provoked 
two gray lizards to bite a Salamander, which at first attempted to 
escape from them, but being sfciU persecuted ejected some of this fluid 
into their mouths ; one of the lizards died instantly, and ttie other 
fen into convulsions for two minutes, and then expired. Some of 
tUs juice was introduced into the mouth of another lizard; it 
became convulsed, was paralytic on the whole of one side, and soon 

This is the only foundation for the long-cherished notion that the 
Salamander was ota of the most venomous of animals. Nicander, in 
his 'Alexmharmaca,' gives an appalling picture of the symptoms pro- 
duced by its bite, llie Bomans looked on it with horror, as most 
destructive ; and considered it as deadly a part of the poisoner^s 
laboratory as aconite or hemlock. Hence came a proverb that he 
who was bitten by a Salamander had need of as many physicians as 
the animal had spots ; and another still more hopeless : "If a Sala- 
mander bites you, put on your shroud." 

Not only was its bite oonsidered fatal and the administration of the 
animal itself taken internally believed to be deadly, but anything that 
its saliva had touched was said to become poisonous. Thus, if it crept 
over an apple-tree, it was supposed to poison all the fruit with its 
saliva ; and even herbs on wluch the fluid fell were believed to affect 
those who tasted them with vomiting. These fables had taken sudi 
strong hold, that it was thought wor&y of record in the ' Acta Acad. 
Kat Cur.' that a man had eaten a Salamander, which his wife had put 


into his food in the hope of becoming a widow, without suffering any 

But the grand absurdity of all was the belief that the Salamander 
was incombustible ; that it not only resisted the action of fire, but 
extinguished it ; and, when it saw the flame, charged it as an enemy 
which it well knew how to vanquish. 

Aristotle, whose Salamandra (caXaiiAvZpa) this appears to be, has 
been quoted as giving his sanction to this belief, and indeed he cites 
it as a proof that there are animals over which flame has no power : 
** the Salamandra, as they say, when it goes through fire, extinguishes 
it." (' Hist. An.,* v. 19.) iJow this is evidently only a reference to 
report ; and it is not improbable that a copious secretion of the fiuid 
above noticed might, in a rapid and short passage, so damp the fire 
that the animal might get through comparatively unhurtw ^lian 
{n. SI) says not only that it will live in the fiames, but that it attacks 
nre like an enemy. Nicander, Dioscorides, and Pliny all add their 
authority ; and the latter not only relates that they extinguish fire by 
their touch, but that they are withouttsex and produce nothing. He 
dwells on their poison as being of the worst description, and is profuse 
in his catalogue of remedies. ('Hist. Nat,' xxix. 4.) But even so 
late as 1789 there was an attempt to revive-these wondrous tales. A 
French consul at Bhodes relates that, while sitting in his chamber 
there, he heard a loud cry in his kitchen, whither he ran and found 
Ills cook in a horrible fright, who informed him that he had seen the 
devil in the fire. M. Pothonier then states that he looked into a 


Salamandra maculosa, seen f^om above, a, profile of head. 

bright fire, and there saw a little animal with open mouth and palpi- 
tating throat. He took the tongs and endeavoured to secure it. At 
his first attempt the animal, whioh he says had been motionless up to 
that time (two or three minutes), ran into a comer of the chimney, 
having loi^ the tip of its tail in escaping, and buried itself in a heap 
•of hot ashes. In his second attempt the consul was successful drew 

Digitized by 






the onimal out, which he describes as a kind of small Hard, pluDged 
it into spirit of wine, and gave it to Buffon. This appears to be yenr 
circumstantial, and M. Pothonier, whose head was evidently filled with 
preoonoeiyed opinions, may be acquitted of any intention to deceive. 

That Ihe slun of an ammal which could resist the action of fire 
should be considered proof against that element is not to be wondered 
at We accordingly find that a doth said to be made of the skins of 
salamanders was incombustible, as is noticed by Marco Polo, who 
however was shrewd enough to observe that these fire-proof cloths 
were really made of a mineral substance (asbestos, no doubt^ which 
the old writers termed Salamander^s Wool). Such most probably was 
the Salamander-Cloth sent by the Tartar king to the Roman pontiff, 
In which the Holv Napkin {Sudariwn Domini) is preserved. 

Among the ower fables may be noticed the belief that the saliva 
of the Salamander was depilatory — having the power to remove hair, 
and substitute bald places for luxuriant tresses. Martial has an 
epigram, of which this notion forms the point (lib. iL, ep. Izvi). 

Its hearty worn as an amulet^ was considered to be a prophylactic 
against fire, and it was used in medicine to eradicate leprosy. 

It could hardly be expected that the alchymists would ne^ect 
animals of which such wonders were rife ; and we accordingly find 
that Ihe power of transmuting quicksilver into gold was attributed to 
them. To this end the wretched reptiles were placed in a vessel on 
the coals, and quicksilver introduced tnrough an iron tube was poured 
upon them. This experiment was supposed to be accompanied with 
danger to the life of the operator. Those who would fiuther dwell 
on the legends connected with this subject may consult Funk's work, 
' De SalamandraB Terrestris Vita, Evolutione, et Formatione.' 

In the catalogue of Ihe specimens of Amphibia in the British 
Museum the following arrangement is adopted. The ctUialogue of 
the first suborder, the Awmtwu Amphibia, is not yet publiii^ed 
(June^ 1868). 


Suborder I. Salzbntia (including ^e Frogs and Toads). 

(Arrangement not yet published.) 

Suborder II. Qradhhtu. 


Salamandra nigra 



PlewrOoUt WalU . 
TriUmPoiretii . 

„ crittalMB ... 

„ marmoraiua 

„ aipuirit 
Nciophihalmui mmiatiu 

„ vwtdaoou 

JSuprocUu piatycephalui 
OyncpM jpyrrhigatkr 
Taricha toroia . 

„ lugubri$ 
Bradybates ventricoiUi 
Lophtnut pvnetahu 
„ palmaiut 
Ommatoiritcn viUatnt 
Seiranota penpiciUaia 

ffyndbiut ne&Wotiw 

Fam. III. 

Onychodaet^MS Japanicut 

ffderotriton ingent 

Xiphowu/ra J^enomana 

Ambyttoma CaroUna 
„ HgHnwn 

„ talpoideum 

„ opacwn 

„ pvnet^daJtwn 

„ maerodactyUm 

„ moffortium 

„ epitcopui . 

)} ^ythronotuim . 

„ ScUdemam (f) 

froniale (?) . 

Ptethodon gUainoiwn 
„ granuUUtim 

Jkimoffnathus niger 

„ fv9CU9 . 

„ awiefdatu$ 

HemiidaetyUim tcrUaiwm 
Batraehotepi attenuatui . 

tt qtuulridigitatut 

Spderpei langicaitda 

North Africa. 


North America^ East Coast. 

Corsica and Sardinia. 



North America. 





. Japan. 



North America^ East Coast. 

West Coast 

East Coast 

West Coast 
East Coast 

Spderpa cirrigtra 
„ bUineaia . 
„ gtUUhlineata 
„ rubra 
„ montana 
„ talmonea . 
„ porphyritiea 
„ BdUi 
Cfeotriton fiucut 
CEdiput variegatiu 
Bntatina BtchtchoUzii 
Axdotl . 

,, maavdata 

Order II. 
Fam. I. 
SiAMia m>axima . . 
Protonoptit horrida . 
„ futea . 

North America, East Cotst 



North America, West Gout 

ft n 




. Japan. 
. . North America, East Coai4 

Amphiwna meant 
Munenopna tridactyla 

. . North America, East Coait 

Fam. L CmxmjiDM, 

CcBcHia graeilis . 

„ tenlaeuUUa 

„ eompreaticauda 

„ rottriMia 

„ oxyura . 

„ aqualoitoma 
Siphtmopt inUrrupta . 

„ Mexicana 
lethyophit gkntinotua . 
BMmatrema bwUkUum 

Fam. L 
Lepidoiiren paradoxa 
Protoptenu amneotms 
f, rhinocryptit 

Tropical America. 

West Africa. 
Tropical America. 

Ceylon. ' 
Tropical America. 


. . Tropical America. 
. West Africa. 


. Europe. 
. . North America, East CoMi 

Order V. 
Fam. L 
Prcteut angwimu . 
Neeiurtu maeuUmu 

$» uucraUt • , , , ' ff „ 

Fam. n. SmENXDA 

Siren Laeertina Carolina. 

„ intermedia .... Texas. 
Pteudobranchiu tiriatut . . North America, East Coast 

Fossil Amphibia. 
Foesil Anourotu Amphibia. — ^Fossil Frogs have been found in the 
Coal-formation of the Rhine {Papier-Kohl) in company with the fishei 
Leueitew maeru/riu and L. papyraeeta. Two species hare be«n 
described, and there are many examples in the museum at Bodd. 
In this country specimens are to be found in the collectioiu of the 
Earl of Enniskillen and Sir Philip Egcrton, Bart 

Palteophrynot Oe$$n§ri, (Tschadi.) 

Fottil Toade, — Here may be noticed the fossil specimens from th« 
CEningen Bed»— .Som^tmKor CEHin^eiiMr, Agass. (PehpikSMi Aga»ii»H 

Digitized by 






Tflchudi), and PaUeophrynoa Oeaneri, Tschudi (See ' Claasification 
der Batrachier' of J. J. TKhudi, pp. 84, 89, tab. 1, ff 2, 8.) 

FouU Scdamandrida, — ^Few fonilB have awakened more curioeity 
than the Homo DUuvii Tetiit of Scheuchzer, who was unwearied in 
collecting oiganic remainfl, which he considered irrefragable evidence 
of the general deluge. At length he obtained from the (Eningen Beds 
(Miocene Period of Lyell) a fossil which he viewed with transport as 
the unequivocal remains of Man himself A short description of this 
specimen was published by him in the ' Philosophical Transactions' 
for 1726. He again brought forward this piece of 'good fortune' — (in 
his rapture he writes the last two words m Greek — ) in his ' Physica 
Sacra, where he tells us that previously he had only possessed two 
dorsal vertebne. Of the humamty of his prize he certsomy entertained 
no doubt. In his rapturous vision he saw in the fossil not only one 
part of the human skeleton, but many parts. No fancy could possibly 
lead astray in a case where there were appearances of bones^ and flesh, 
and even the softer parts of flesh, impressed on the solid stone. Here 
indeed was a rari^ above all rarities. He gives no bad figure 
of the fossil in tab. xlix. of the work last quoted. When we look at 
that figure, it is difficult to conceive how such remains could have 
i^peared to a physician, who must have had some acquaintance with 
osteology, to be those of man ; and we can only account for it by 
the blindness which an excited imagination and a determined adherence 
to theory can produce. The iteration and determination of Scheuchzer 
had its effect, and naturalists adopted his opinions. Qesner (1768) 
appears to have been the first who tnrew deserved doubt on the ulegea 
nature of the fossil ; for though he quotes it as an anthropolite, he 
nevertheless, having become possessed of a similar specimen, offers 
his conjecture that it was a fossil fish {SUvnu glaniSf Linn.), and the 
obsequious naturalists were now as ready to foUow him as they had 
been eager to run after Scheuchzer. 

Geroer's specimen does not appear to have been engraved, nor 
another which was said to be m the convent of Augustins at 
CEningen; but a third specimen, more complete than Scheuchzer's, 
came into the poeaession 
of Dr. Ammann of Zu- 
rich, and is now in the 
British Museum. A 
figure of this was pub- 
li^ed by Kaig, in the 
'Memoirs of the Society 
of Naturalists of Suabia.' 
Cuvier well observes 
that a comparison of 
the specimen with the 
skeleton of Man must at 
once have destroyed the 
idea that it was anthro- 
polite ; and it would be 
a waste of space to repeat 
here the details of that 
comparison which Cuvier 
so well follows out^ and 
to which we refer. ( * Os- 
semens Fossiles,' tom. v., 
pt 2, p 433, ed. 1824.) 

Kaig, after figuring 
Dr. Ammann's specimen, 
expressly stated that he 
had no doubt that the 
fossil was a SiUinu, an 
opinion which JiLger 
refuted by placing by 
the side of the figure of 
the fossil, one of the 
skeleton of SUwruigkmii, 
Cuvier disposes of this 
opinion with the same 
success as attends his 
former demonstration. ^ 
The rounded head and 
great orbits of the fossil 
struck Cuvier as strongly 
resembling the head of a 
frogor a salamander; and 
he states that^ as soon as 
he beheld Kaig^s figure, he perceived in tho vedages of tho hind-feet 
and the tail evidence in favour of the last-named genua. 

Cuvier, bemg at Haarlem in 1811, ebtained pennission to work upon 
we stone which contained the pretended anthropolite of Scheuchzer, 
for the purpose of uncovering any bones which might be still 
hidden there. During the operation, the figure of the skeleton of 
a salamander was placed before the operators; and Cuvier relates 
the pleasure which they felt, as they saw, while the chisel chipped 
ft^ay pieces of the stone, the bones which the figure had akeady 

But by far the finest head of Andria$ Scheuchzeri is figured by 
Tschndi, in his work above quoted, tab. 8 ; and many most interesting 


AnUrior ^Tt ot Andrias SohsueJkMeri, Tsehadi, 
seen from sbore. (Cnvier.) 

details tace given in tab. 4 and tab. 5. These show how neariy allied 
this gigantic Fossil Newt was to SiebMia fnaxima, 

Salamandra ogygia^ Qoldf, is 
found in the Braimkohle (Ter- 
tiary), where also TrUon Noor 
chicuSf Qoldf. occurs. Triton 
palustris {?) jotnLu of Elarg is 
from the (Eningen Slate. 

Under the generic title Sola- 
mandroidei, Professor J&ger 
described a fossil reptile from 
the German Keuper, giving it 
the specific name of gigaaUeua, 
This fossil now appears to be 
identical with Mattodomavunu 
and PhytoMwnu, Professor 
Owen therefore proposes to 
designate this gigantic genus of 
extinct Batrachiuis — for to that 
order he has satisfactorily shown 
that the form belongs — ^by the 
name of Ldbyrinthodon (from 
the extraordinary structure of ^^ 
its teeth), in his pai)er ' On the ^p 
Teeth of Species of the Genus 
Salamandroidea andPhytotOMrua 
(?) of Jager^ f^m the German 
Keuper ana the Sandstone of 
Warwick and Leamington.' 

The following description of 
the teeth of thu animal, from 
the ' Proceedings of the Geolo- 
gical Society,' will afford both*, 
idea of the peculiarity of its 
structure : — 

" The plan and principle of 
the structure of the tooth of 
the Zdbynnthodon are the same 
as those of the tooth of the 
Ichthyotaurui, but they are 
carried out to the highest 
degree of complication. The 
oonveiging vertical folds of the 
external cement are continued 
close to the centre of the tooth, ^ 
and instead of being straight i 
simple lamellffi, they present a ^ 
series of irregular folds, Ln- 
creasmg in complexity as they 
proceed inwards, and re- 
sembling the labyrinthic an- 
fractuosities of the tnuUce of 
the brain; each oonveiging 
fold is slightly dilated at its 
termination close to the pulp- 
cavity. The ordinary laws of 
dental structure are however 
strictly adhered to, and every 
space intercepted by a con- 
volution of the folds of the 
cement is occupied by corre- 
sponding processes of the den* 
tine. These characters were 

presented J)y a transverse seo- ...i.^ ^^...,,4.^. -^v^. .^ |^^ 
tion of a fragment of a tooth '^'^^^rioi 8eh0uekB0rt, T»d^^ mm Inn 

of the ZabyrifUhodan Jdgeri '^•- ^^"^'^ 

from the German Keuper, which included, about the middle 
third part of a tooth, and Mr. Owen considers that the entire 
length of the tooth might be Si inches^ and the breadth at the basis 
14 inch. 

"The external longitudinal grooves, whi3 correspond to the 
inflected folds of the cement^ extend upwards from the base of the 
tooth to about three-fourths of its heignt, decreasing in number as 
the tooth diminishes in thickness, and disappearing about half an 
inch from the summit of the tooth. Each f(^ of cement peoetiatea 
less deeply as the groove approaches its termination ; and Mr. Owen 
conceives that the structure of the upper part of the tooth may be 
more simple than that of the lower, but he has not yet been able to 
extend his investigations to it 

" The dentine consists of a slender, central, conical column, or 
'modiolus,' hollow for a certain distance from its base, and radiating 
outwards from its circumference a series of vertical plates, which 
divide into two, once or twice, before they terminate at the periphery 
of the tooth. Each of these diverging and dichotomizing vertical 
plates gives off throughout its course narrower vertical plates, which 
stand at nearly right angles to the main plate, in relation to which 
they are ^generally opposite, but sometimes altematc^'Many of th« 


Digitized by 






secondary plates which are given off near the centre of the tooth also 
divide into two before they terminate. They partake of all the 
undulations which characterise the inflected folds of the cement. 

''The central pulp-cavity is reduced to a line, about the upper 
third of the tooth ; but fissures radiate from ity corresponding in 
number with the radiating plates of the dentine. One ofwese 
fissures is continued along the middle of each plate, dividing where 
it divides, and penetrating each bifurcation and process; the main 
fissures extend .to within a line or half a line of the periphery of the 
tooth ; the terminations of these, as well as the fissures of the lateral 
processes, suddenly dilating into subcircular, ovsl, or pyriform spaces. 
All these spaces constitute centres of radiation of the fine calcigerous 
tubes, which, with their uniting dear substance, constitute the dentins 
The number of these calcigerous tubes, which are the centres of minor 
ramifications^ defies all calculation. Their diameter is the jAgfh. of 
a line, with interspaces equal to 7 diameters of their cavities. 

By the permission of Professor Owen we are enabled to give a 
section of this highly complicated tooth, from his elaborate ' Odonto* 
graphy' (pL 64, A.), in which the subject is treated with minute 
detail ( part ii, p. 208, kc). 

TransTerse Section of Tooth of Lahyrinthodon J&geri (Owen) ; 2fa*todon~ 
saunu JSferi (Meyer) ; natural sise, and a segment magnified, a, pulp-cavity, 
from which the processes of pulp and dentine radiate ; (, cement. 

In connection with this subject we may call the reader^s attention 
to some facts of considerable interest^ which have lately been studied 
with much care and success, and have become of such importance as 
to constitute a distinct branch of inquiry under the name of 
Ichnology ( Ix^j, a footstep, and \6yoSf a discourse). 

This department of geological investigation is conversant with the 
phenomena of footsteps impressed by animals on the strata of the 

In 1828 Mr. Duncan's account of tracks and footmarks of animals 
impressed on sandstone in the quarry of Com-Cockle Muir, Dumfries- 
shire, appeared in the 'Transactions -of the Koyal Society of 
Edinburgh.' Dr. Buckland caused a living Emys and Testudo GrcBca 
to walk on soft sand, clay, and paste or imbaked pie-crust. He foimd 
the correspondence of tJie footsteps of the latter with the fossil 
footsteps sufficiently dose, allowing for difference of species, to render 
it highly probable that the fossil footsteps were impressed by Testudo 

In Saxony, at the village of Hessbei^, near Hildbui;ghausen, fossil 
footsteps were^ a few years ago, discovered in several quarries of gray 
Quartzose Sandstone alternating with beds of Red-Sandstone, nearly 
of the age of the Red-Sandstone of Com-Cockle Muir. Dr. Hohnbaum 
and Professor Kaup state that those impressions of feet are partly 
concave and partly in relief; the depressions are described as being 
upon the upper surfaces of the Sandstone slabs, but the footmarks in 
relief are only upon the lower surfaces, and cover the depressions. 
In shorty the footmarks in relief are natural casts formed in the 
subjacent footsteps as in moulds. On one slab, 6 feet long by 6 feet 
wide, many footsteps of more than one animal and of various sizes 
occur. The larger impressions, which seem to be those of the hind- 
foot, are generally 8 inches in length and 6 in width, and one was 
12 inches long. 

I The name of Chirotherivm was proposed by Professor Elaup as the 
provisional name for the great unknown animal that impressed the 
larger footsteps, from a supposed resemblance in the marks of both 
the fore- and hind-feet to the impress made by a human hand ; and he 
thought that they might have been derived from some quadruped 
allied to the MarsupiaLia, Dr. Siekler, in a letter to Blumenbach 
( 1834 ), gave a further account of these footsteps. Fragments of 
bones were found in the quarries where the footsteps had been 
impressed, but those fragments were destroyed. 

The existence of footprints of this kind soon became more exten- 

sively known. In his address to the Qeologioal Society, in 1840, Dr. 
Buckland says : — " Further discoveries of the footsteps of C%«rolA«- 
ritim and five or six smaller reptiles in the New Red-Sandstone of 
Cheshire, Warwickshire, and Salop, have been brought before us l^ 
Sir P. ^rton, Mr. J. Taylor, jun., Mr. Strickland, and Dr. Ward. 
Mr. Cunningham, in a sequel to his paper on the footmariLs at Storeton, 
has described impressions on the same slabs with them, derived from 
drops of rain that fell upon thin lamina of day interposed between 
the beds of sand. The clay impressed with these prints of ram-drops 
acted as a mould, which transferred the form of^ every drop to the 
lower Bur&oe of the next bed of sand deposited upon it^ so that 
entire surfeices of several strata in the same quany are respectiTelj 
covered with moulds and casts of drops of rain that fell whilst the 
strata were in procoss of formation. On the surface of one stratum 
at Storeton, impressed with large footmarks of a ChirUherwmf the 
depth of the holes formed by the rain-drops on different parts of the 
same footstep has varied with the unequal amount of pressure on 
the day and sand, by the salient cushions and retiring hollows of 
the creature's foot; and fcom. the constancy of this phenomenon 
upon an entire series of footmarks in a long continuous track, we 
know that this rain fell after the animal had passed. The equable 
size of the casts of large drops that cover the entire sur&oe of the 
slab, except in the parts impressed by the cushions of the feet, 
record the falling of a shower of heavy drops on the day in which 
this hu^e animal had marched along the ancient strand. Hemispherical 
impressions of small drops, upon another stratum, show it to have 
been exposed to only a sprinkling of gentle rain that fell at a moment 
of calm. In one sznall slab of New Red-Sandstone found by Dr. Ward 
near Shrewsbuzy, we have a combination of proo& as to meteoric, 
hydrostatic, and locomotive phenomena, which occurred at a time 
incalculably remote, in the atmosphere, the water, and the movements 
of animals; and from which we infer, with the certainty of cumulative 
circumstantial evidence, the direction of the wind, the depth and 
course of the water, and l^e quarter towards which the animals were 
passing: the latter is indicated by the direction of the footsteps 
which form their tracks ; the size and curvatures of the ripple-marks 
on the sand, now converted to sandstonei, show the depth and 
direction of the current; the oblique impressions of the lain-drops 
register the pohit from which the wind was blowing at or about the 
time when the ft"*™»^^« were passing." 

Soon after this address was delivered, Professor Owen proved the 
existence of a gigantic Batrachian at the period when the New Red- 
Sandstone was formed, and described three species of LabyriiUhodtm. 
He conduded that tl^se cpeatures produced the foot-prints that had 
been observed, and maintained the following positions : — 

1st Proof from the skdeton that Labyrinthodon had hind extre- 
mities much larger than the anterior extremities. 

2nd. That the foot-prints of Chirotherimn are at least as much like 
those of certain Toads as those of any other animala 

Srd. That the size of the known spemes of Labynnthodon corre- 
sponds with ihe sice of the foot-prints of the different spedes of 
Uhirotheriwn; e.g. Lahyrinthodon Jdgeri, with the foot-print of 
Chiroiherium HtrcvJUa (Bgerton) ; Labyrinthodon pcichyffnaihut, with 
the foot-marks of the common Oh4rotherium ; and Labyrinthodon 
leptognathua with the impressions of the smaller Batrachian figured 
in the memoir by Sir Roderick Murchison and Mr. Strickland. 

4th. Labyrinthodon occurs in the New Red-Sandstone strata to 
which Chirotherian impressions are peculiar. And 

Lastly, no remains of animals that could have left such impressions 
as those of the Chirothtriwn have been found in these strata, except 
the remains of the Labyrinthodon, 

Fore and hind-foot of the tame. 

It is true that the structure of the foot is still wantang, and that a 
more connected and complete skeleton is required for demonstratioD ; 
but the cireumstantial evidence above stated is strong enough to 

Digitized by 






produce the oonviction that Chirotherian and Labyrmthodontic foot- 
unprcflsions are identical ; and that M<utod<m$auru8, Satamandroldes, 
Phytotaurutj Chirctherium, and Labyrinthodon are one and the some 
genua, whidi ought for the fiitiu^ to be designated by the last- 
mentioned name. We owe this evidence, principidly to the use of the 
microscope in skilful and judicious hands ; and it is impossible not 
to be struck with the wonderful applicability of that instrument to 
the lai^gest of created bodied as well as to the smallest, when we look 
at the results of Professor Owen's discovery of the highly-organised 
dental structure in Lahyrinihodon, an extinct animal of a low grade, 
where it could har^ have been expected to occur. 

The reading of Frofessor Owen's memoir was accompanied by 
the exhibition of a diagram representing a restoration of two species 
of LahyriaUhodon, By the Professor^s kindness, we have been enabled 
to give a greatly reduced copy of one of them. [See the preceding 
column.] The bones which appear within the outline are those which 
were known when the paper was read. The animal is represented as 
impressing its footsteps on a shore of sand, now New Red-Sandstone. 
- There is reason for believing that this Batrachian was not smooth 
externally, but was protected, on certain parts at least, by bony scutella. 

Spedmena of the foot-prints may be seen in the British Museum 
and in that of the Royal College of Suigeons in London. 

AMPHIBOLE, a mineral belongiog to the group of silicates of 
magnesia, lime, iron, and manganese. [AuaiTE.] 

AMPHIBOLI'TE, a name sometimes given to the simple mineral 
more commonly adled Hornblende, and which was introduced by 
Haiiy, the mineralogist, who uselessly changed many names. He 
call^ Hornblende i4mpAt5o2e, because it is easily mistaken for Augite, 
another simple min^al closely allied to it m composition, tcom. 
iLfi^i^Xos, equivocal 

AMPHIDESMA, a genus of Marine Bivalve Shells, which are found 
in the sand on the sea-coast of tropical climates. The shells are oval 
or rounded, sometimes rather twisted and slightly gaping behind. 
They have two hinge teeth in each valve, and often distinct com- 
pressed lateral ones. The elastic cartilage is placed in a small 
triangular cavity just behind the hinge teetih. The animals of these 
shells are tmknown ; but they are supposed to have long e^hons, 
like the Tellens, as the shells have a broad deep inflation on the back 
edge of the submarginal scar, formed by the attachment of the 
muscles which retract these syphons, as in the Tellens, from which 
genus it simply differs in the position of its cartilage. 

Lamarck gave the name of AmphidesTna to this genus, because he 
observed that it had a ligament and a cartilage, which he regarded as 
peculiar to this genus, he having, like the rest of the zoologists before 
the appearance of the Conchological Observations in the ' Zoological 
Journal,' considered what is usually cfldled the ligament of bivalves as 
only one substance. It ia however two substances, of very different 
structure and use ; the outer, or ligament^ being inelastic, and only 
employed to keep the two valves together, is formed of fibres 
extending from the edge of one valve to the other; but the cartilage 
is elastic, and formed of perpendicular fibres, like the prismatic 
crystalline-structured shell, its use being to separate the valves from 
one another when the muscles which keep them closed are relaxed. 
When the valves are dosed, this part is compressed by their edge. 
For this purpose it is sometimes, as in the shell under consideration, 
placed in a small triangular cavity close to the hinge, when the shell 
is said to have an internal cartilage, the ligament being still in its 
visual place. In other shells it is placed, along with the Ugament, on 
the maigin of the valves, and is pressed, when the valves are closed, 
•gainst the ligament itself, which forms its outer wall. The resist- 
ance which the ligament offers is the means of opening the sheU. The 
cartilage has opaline reflections, and the cartilages of some large sheUs, 
as the mother-of-pearl shells, are sold by the jewellers imder tiie name 
of Peacock-Stone, or Black Opals. They are not so much used now 
as fonnerly, but they are still much sought after on the Continent^ 
especia^in Portugal. 

AMPHI'DETUS, a genus of Echinidce, found in the Crag of Sufiblk. 

AMPHIQENE, a mineral abundani^ in ihe lava of Vesuvius, con- 
Bisting of silica, alumina, and potash. [Lbucitb.] 

AMPHI'ON (Pander), a genus of Fossil Crustacea (THloHtes), four 
5>«cies of which have been described, from Tyrone and Waterford, by 
ColondPortiock. ' . ' ^ ' 



AMPHISB^NA (from i^trfiauta, which signifies 'an animal that 
ttjn walk m both dhrections ' ), a genus of Serpents, distinguished by 
thett bodies haying nearly the same imiform thickness from the head 
^ the extremity of the tail, by their small mouths and extremely 
ouninntive eyes, their remarkably short tails, and the numerous rings 
ofsmall square scales which completely surround this organ and the 
*»ay. A rsnge of smaU pores runs m front of the vent> which is 
ntaated nearly at the end of the taU ; the jaws alone are provided witii 
A nngle row c^ small conical teeth, t^e palate beiiig without any ; and 
•▼en those of the jaws are few and distant from one another. They 
y^^oTwxver destitute of fangs, and are consequently harmless and 
"^^^^▼«i living for the most part upon ants and other small insects, 
and mhabtting ant-hills and burrows which they themselves construct 
^^'^^ ground. The nature of l^eir food does not require these ft^iTwala 

to possess the power of dilating the mouth and gullet to the extraordi- 
nary extent that is observed in the boas, pythons, and other serpents in 
general, which live for the most part upon animals proportionally much 
larger than themselves, and in order to admit the huge mouthful have 
the upper and under jaws both equally moveable upon the cranium. 
In the Ampkishcena, on the contrary, the upper jaw is fixed to the 
skull and intermaxillary bones, as in birds and mammals, so that the 
head remains constantly in the same plane with the body — a form 
which permits the animal to move equally well either backwards or 
forwards, and which has acquired for it the name by which it is 
distinguished. [See BoiDjg, cols. 548, 549.] 

The head of the Ampkiabcena is so small, and the tail so thick and 
short, that it is difficult at first sight to distinguish one from the other, 
and this circumstance, united to the animal's habit of proceeding either 
backwards or forwards as the occasion may require, has given rise to 
the popular belief very generally spread throughout Bra^ and other 
parts of South America, the native countries of this genus, that it 
possesses two heads, one at each extremity, and that it is impossible 
to destroy the animal by simple cutting, as the two heads mutually 
seek one another in case of such a serious acddent, and soon re-unite 
as if nothing had happened. Ignorance is the parent of superstition 
and absurdity, and one wonder naturally produces twenty. It is not 
therefore surprising that, among an ignorant and credulous people, the 
singularity of the Amphisbama*8 form and habits should have given 
rise to this and a multitude of other gross fictions. " Another siiake," 
says Stedman, in his ' History of Surinam,' " which I also observed 
here, is about 3 feet long, and annulated with different colours ; it is 
coHed Amphisb(ena,£rom the supposition of its having two heads; 
and the truth is, that from its cylindrical form the head and tail so 
much resemble each other that the error is almost pardonable ; beddes 
which, the eyes are nearly imperceptible. This is the snake which, 
being supposed blind, and vulgularly said to be fed by the large ants 
already described, is in this country honoured with the name of King 
of the Emmets. The flesh of the Amphiihcena, dried and reduced to 
a fine powder, is confidently administered as a sovereign and infallible 
remedy in all cases of dislocation and broken bones ; it being very 
natundly inferred that an animal which has the power of heaUng an 
entire amputation in his own case, should at least be able to cure a 
simple fracture in the case of another." Two centuries have scarcely 
passed since opinions equally credulous and absurd were universally 
prevalent among the most enlightened nations of Europe, when grave 
and learned phydcians administered the bezoar or rhinoceros* horn 
with as much confidence as l^e simple Brazilian at the present does the 
powdered flesh of the AmpKxsbcencL 

The genus AfophUibcena, as at present defined, contains only American 
spedes, which are confined to Brazil, Surinam, and other tropical parts 
of the Continent Of these the following are the prindpal : — 

1. The A. ftUiginosa, the first and still the best-known spedes of 
the whole genus, is, like all the other Amphisbsenas, confined to the 
hotter regions of South America, and does not inhabit Ceylon or any 
other part of the East Indies, as Linnaeus and LacdpMe have errone- 
oudy supposed, and asserted on the authority of Seba. The general 
colour of this serpent is a deep brown, varied with shades of white, 
more or less intense according to the difference of the individual and 
the season of casting the old and acquiring the new external skin. It 

Amphubana fuliginota {Clothonia Johnifj, 

grows to the length of 18 inches or 2 feet, of which, however, the tail 
measures only 1 inch or 1 5 lines. The body is surrounded by upwaids 
of 200 rings, and the tail by 25 or 80 the eyes are covered and almost 
concealed by a membrane, which, added to their natoraQy diminutiye 

Digitized by 






size, has given riae to the popular opinion that the animal waa entirely 
deprived of sight ; an opinion extended with no better reason to the 
Clommon Blind-Worm {Anguit fragilu). It lives upon worms and 
insects, particulariy ants, in the mounds of which it usually conceals 
itself. The antipathy which most people entertain against serpents in 
general has given rise to a belief common among travellers, that this, 
species is venomous, but without the slightest foundAtion in reality, as 
it is entirely destitute of fangs, and its teeth in other respects so small 
as to be incapable of inflicting a woimd. 

2. A, €Ubci, so called from its colour, which is that of imiform pale 
straw without any marks or spots. The head of this species is short 
and thick, and its mouth small. The body usually measures finom 
1 foot 6 inches to 1 foot 9 or 10 inches, and is surrounded by 223 rings ; 
the tail is from 1^ to 8 inches in length, and is surrounded by 16 or 
18 rings. The tldckness of the body seldom exceeds that of a man's 
fore-finger, and is uniform throughout its whole length ; that of the 
former species, on the contrary, equals the thickness of the wrist of a 
child of 1 or 1 2 years old. The ^4 . alba inhabits the same localities and 
lives in the same manner as the A. fidiffinota, from which indeed it 
differs only* in size, colour, the proportionate length of the tail and 
body, and in having the mouth provided with a greater number of 
teeth, all, however, equally small and weak. 

8. A. ca!ca, a species mentioned by Baron Cuvier in the second edition 
of the ' R^gne Animal,' but without any detailed description. It 
inhabits the island of Martinique, and is said to be entirely deprived 
of sight, at least M. Cuvier was imable to discern anv trace of eyes. 
He supposes it^ nevertheless, to be identical with the AmpkMima 
vermiadarii of Spix, which ih&i naturalist describes as having eyes 
scarcely perceptible. 

AMPHITHE'KIUM (Blainville). This Fossil Mammal, from Stones- 
field, is now termed Thylacotheriwn by Owen. 

AMPHlUMA, a singular genus of Amphibian Reptiles, first noticed 
by Dr. Garden in 1771, in a letter to Ldnnseus. The remarkable and 
anomalous order Amphibia^ to which this genus* belongs, is more 
extensively spread throughout the New World, and exhibits a far greater 
diversity of.oivanic modification in the western hemisphere, Uian in 
all the rest of the earth together. It is here alone that the Mmoponug, 
the Amphiumcef the Axolotlt, the Menohranchi, and the Sirens, are to 
be found. I'hese singular animals aboimd in all the lakes and stagnant 
waters, and astonish the observer equally by the variety as by the 
novelty of their forms. [Amphibia.] 

The external form of the Amphiuma is very similar to that of the 
conmion eel, but the whole anatomy and physiology of the animal 
anproximates it more nearly to the Common Water-Newt (Triton 
mirmorata) than to any other known species. From this creature 
indeed it differs principally in the extreme length of its body and the 
diminutive size 6f its extremities, which rather resemble small tentaculi 
than actual legs. The only two known species inhabit the stagnant 
pools and ditches in the neighbourhood of New Orleans, and those in 
Florida, Geoi^a, and South Carolina. They bury themselves in the 
mud at the bottom of the ditches, partictuarly on the approach of 
winter, and vast numbers, of them are sometimes found in draining 
and clearing ponds, at the depth of 8 or 4 feet from the sur&ce. They 
are also capable of existing on land, but as their food in all probability 
exists only in the water, they never voluntarily abandon that elements 
The two known species, A. didaclyla and A. tridactylOf differ prin- 
cipally in the number of their toes, the one having only two, the other 
three on each foot. 

AMPHODELITE, a mineral allied to ScapoUte, from which it 
differs in possessing magnesia instead of lime. It is composed of 
silica, alumma, and magnesia^ [Soapolite.] 

AMPLEXUS (Sowerby), a fossil genus of MadrephyUiaa, remark- 
able for the simplicity of its structure and the variability of its 
general figure. It occun in the Mountain Limestone and Devonian 

AMPULLA'RIA, a genus of Fresh-Water Spiral Univalve Shells, 
which are found in the rivers and ponds of India, Africa, and South 
America. They are of a globular or rather depreawd form, are covered 
with a thick olive or black periostraca, and often banded. Their mouth 
is ovate, with the lips complete all round, and often slightly thickened 
or reflexed. The animals are somewhat similar to thC'Common Pond- 
Snail (Paludina)f but they have the front of the head nicked aad 
furnished with two slight conical horn-like processes ; and they have 
long slender tentacles, with the eyes placed on small pedicles at their 
outer base :« these horns and the tentacles often contract into a spiral 
form. But the great peculiarity of these 'animals is, that, unlike all 
other molluscous animals with comb-like gills, they have a large bag 
which opens beneath, placed on the side of the respiratory cavity, 
which they probably can fill with water; and it is this structure 
which most likely gives them the power of living for a long time 
out of water, specimens having been brought from Egypt to Paris 
alive, by only packing them in a little sawdust. Their operculum 
is formed of concentric rings with the nucleus nearly in the centre ; 
in the species which come from India, this part is generally shelly, 
but in those of America and Africa it is always homy. The Tndian 
species lay globular pale-green ^ggs about the size of small peas^ 
which are placed in clusters on sticks and other things in the ditches; 
the ^ggs when dry form most beautiful objects. Some of the African 
species are reversed, or have the whorls of the shell turned frt>zn the 
right to the left, and these have been separated into a genus, under 
the name of Lanittetf on this account It has been generally supposed 
by the geologist, that all the species of this genus are purely fr^esh- 
water, but the large Egyptian species, A. ovata, discovered by Olivier 
in Egypt, lives in Lake Mareotis, where the water is salt ; therefore 
there is no proof that some of the fossil species are not marine. 

AMPTX (Dalman), a genus of Fossil Crustacea (7Vi2o6tfet), four 
species of which have been described by Colonel Portlock, from 

XMYQDAUEM (Drvpacea of Lindley), a sub-order of the natural 
order Rosacea [Rosaceje], among which it is known by its' bearing 
the kind of fruit called a*drupe, by the stamens being numerouB and 
arising from the orifice of a tubular calyx, and bv the leaves and 
other parts of the plant yielding hydro<7anic acid Owing to the 
last circumstance, the species are all more or less poisonous, es}>ecially 
in those parts where tne prussic acid is concentrated, as the leaves 
of the common laurel, the skin of the kernel of the almond, &c. On 
the other hand, those parts in which the prussic acid exists either in 
very minute quantity, or not at all, as the succulent fruit, and some- 
times the kernel, are harmless, and are often valuable articles of. food. 
It is on this account that, while the general character of the foliage 
Ib either unwholesome or suspicious, the frnit of many of them is 
much cultivated. The peach, the nectarine, the plum, the cherry, the 
almond, the apricot, prune, damson, and bidlace are produced by 
different species of this order. 


1. An expanded flower. 
3. The same eat throagb. 
6. Stone. 


2. The same with the corolla removed. 
4. Anthers. 5. Drupe. 

» 7. Embryo. 

The bark of Amygdalea yields a gum which is similar in its 
properties to g^m arable; and an astnngent substance which. gives 
some of the species so muc^ efficacy in fevers, that their bark has been 
compared for utility to Peruvian Bark. 

AMYGDALOID, the name of a variety of the Trap-Rocks, when 
in a uniform base there are imbedded round or almond-shaped bodieai, 
consisting of agate, calcareous spar, or zeolites, like almonds in a 
cake : the term is derived from the Greek i^ivyiaXoti^t, resembling an 

AMT'GDALUS, a genus of plants, the type of the suborder 
Amygdalece, comprehending the almond, and the peach and nectarine, 
besides a few bushes, the <£ief interest of which arises from their gay 

A. communitf the Conmion Almond, is a native of Barbary, whence 
it had not been transferred into Italy in the time of Cato ; it has, 
however, been so long cultivated all over the south of Europe and 
the temperate parts of Asia as to have become, as it were, naturalised 
in the whole of the Old World from Madrid to Canton. In this 
country, it is only grown for the si^e of its beautiful vernal flowers ; 
but in the countries that have a long and hot summer, it is the frxdt 

Digitized by 






for which it is esteemed. This, which is produced in very large 
quantities, is partly exported into northern countries, and partly 
pressed for oil, or consumed for various domestic purposes. Although 
botanists distinguish only one species of eatable almond, yet there are 
many varieties, of which the principal are the Bitter Almond and the 
Sweet Almond ; of each of which the French and Italians have several 
sub- varieties distinguished by the hardness or softness of their shell, 
and'the form or size of the kernel These have all been introduced 
into Elngland, but none of them are capable of ripening their fruit in 
the neighbourhood of London, except in unusually fine hot summers, 
preceded by mild and imintemipted springs. 

A. Pertica, the Peach, once called the Persian Apple, because it was 
introduced from that country into Europe, has for ages been an 
object of careful cultivation for^the sake of its delicious fruit, and 
has almost naturalised itself in America. In the country round 
about Buenos Ayres it is one of the most conspicuous trees, and bears 
abundant and delicious fruit. In our gardens many varieties are 
known, which are classed under the two heads of peaches and nectarines 
according as their fruit is smooth or downy; of the varieties there are 
few that are not worthy of cultivation, but the best are, perhaps, the 
Bed Magdalen Peach, the Noblesse Peach, the Royal Qeorge Peach, 
and the Smith's Newington or Tawny Nectarine. For a late crop of 
peaches, the Tdton de Venus may be recommended; but not the 
Catherine, nor indeed any of the thick-skinned October peaches, 
which, however excellent in the south of Europe, seldom ripen, and 
never acquire their natural flavour in this country. For preserving, 
the Blood-Red Peach, or Sanguinole, the flesh of which is of the 
deepest crimson, is worth a place in a garden. 

AMYRI'DACE^, AmyricU, a natural order of plants consisting of 
tropical trees or shrubs, the leaves, bark, and fruit of which abound 
in fragrant resin. It is imown among the Polypetalous Dicotyledonous 
orders by its hypogynous stamens, which are twice as numerous as 
the petals, by the large disk in which the ovarium is inserted, by its 
one^eeded fleshy fruit, covered all over with resinous glands, and 
generally dotted leavea 

The species are natives of tropical India, Africa, and America. 

This order is remarkable for gelding various fragrant resins as 
Myrrh, Frankincense, and other products. The Frankincense of India 
is the produce of a species of Botwellut. Olibanum is yielded by 
jBotwdUa tenattL Myrm is obtained on the Abyssinian coast from the 
Bdbamodendron myrrha. B. OpobaUamum yields the Balm of Mecca. 
Bdellium is produced in Africa by B. Africanwn. American Elemi 
oomes from Idea Idcariba. Resin of Courina from /. ambrotuKci. 
The Gimi EHemi of commerce is said to be yielded by several species 
of Amyrit. (Lindley, Vegetable Kingdom.) 

A'NABAS (from hfofialyUf to ascend), the name given by Cuvier to 
a genus of Acanthopterygious Osseous Fishes, remarkable for the power 
possessed by the species of living for some time out of water, and 
making their way on land. Tlus power depends on a structure 
characteristic of the family of which it ia the type, part of the 
pharangeals being labyrinthiform ; that is to say, divided into a number 
of irregular lamellae, more or less numerous, forming cavities and 
Httle cells capable of retaining a certain quantity of water. This 
apparatus is so protected, that when the animals are out of their 
native element the evaporation of the contained water takes place 
very slowly, and the gUls are kept moist^ by means of which remark- 
able provision the fishes of this family are enabled to leave the rivers 
and manhes where they usually reside, and to travel over land for 
considerable distances, creeping among the herbage or along the 
ground. Although this fact has been but recently known to modem 
naturalists, the ancients appear to have been well acquainted with it, 
and Theophrastus has recorded the existence in India of certain little 
fiihes which leave the rivers for a*time, and again return to them : he 
doubtless alludes to the Anahas and its allies. 

The genus AnahaSf of which there is but one species, the Anabaa 
icandeM (Perca scandena of Daldorf, Anthias testudineua of Bloch), is 
distinguished by a well-marked character, the borders of its opercle, 
auboperde, and interopercle being denticulated, whilst the preopercle 
is not so, nor even distinctiy mai^ated. The head is round and 
broad ; the muzzle is very short and obtuse, the eye placed very near 
its extremity. The mouth is small, and laige scales cover the head. 
The body is oblong, compressed centrally and behind. The lateral 
line is interrupted at its posterior third, reconmiencing a little lower. 
The tail is somewhat rounded. The whole body is covered with large 
scales. There is a single dorsal and an anal fin, nearly equal in height^ 
and in both the spinous rays prevaiL 

In colour it appears to vary, being brown or bluish-black or dark 
green, paler beneath and having violet fins. In form the individuals 
are constant, and reach the length of 6 inches. 

This fish inhabits all parts of India and the Indian Archipelago, 
living in marshes and feeding on aquatic insects, and Dr. Cantor 
observed it at Chusan. Respecting its habits there has been much 
discussion. In 1797 a Danish gentleman, M. Daldorf, communicated 
an account of its habits to the Limuean Society of London, in which 
he stated that he had observed it in the act of ascending palm-trees 
near marshes, and had taken it at a height of no less than 5 feet above 
the Buifibce of the water, effecting its movements of ascent by means 
of its fins and taU and the spines of its operoles, in a similar maimer 

to that by which it progressed • along the ground. Another Danish 
observer, M. John, published a similar statement, adding that it ia 
called in Tranquebar by a name which signifies Tree-Climber. Other 
naturalists, who have equally observed it in its native countries, such 

Anabas seandens. 

Head of Andbett tcandens, laid open to show the peculiar pharyngeal apparatus. 

as Reinwardt, Leschenault, and Hamilton Buchanan, whilst tiiey record 
its habit of creeping on the ground and living a long time out of water, 
deny or omit all mention of its power to ascend trees. 

To the same family with Anabiu belong the genera ffdoitoma, 
Polyaca^hut, Colua, Macropodtu, Osphromenut, TnchopiUf and SpirO' 
branchu, of which the habits are as yet veiy imperfectiy known, 
though the peculiarities of their anatomy warrant us m supposing that 
they have a similar power of living out of water. 

{Linnaan TramacUoru, vol. iiL ; and Cuvier and Valenciennes, ffist, 
Nat. de» Poissont, tom. vii) 

ANABATHRA, a Fossil Tree, from Allenbank, Berwickshire, is 
thus named by Mr. Witham, and figured in * Foss. Yeg.' t 8 and t 10. 

A'NABLEFS (from AyegSXrirw, to look up), a genus of Malaoopte- 
rygious Osseous Fishes, remarkable for the curious structure of their 
eyes, which, in consequence of the division of the iris and cornea by 
transverse ligaments, have two pupils, and appear as if double, whilst 
there is only one crystalline humour, one vitreous humour, and one 
retina. There is no other example known of such a modification of 
structure among iheVertebrata. This peculiarity of the AnabUpt has 
given rise to several stories of four-eyed fish, with exaggerated 
accounts of their habits. The Anahlepi tetrt^hthalfMU inhabits the 
rivers of Guyana and Surinam. Its body is cylindrical, and covered 
with strong scales ; its head is flattened, and snout blunt. The upper 
jaw projects beyond the lower. 

ANACARDIA'CE^, Anaccurds or the Caskew Tribe, is a natural 
order of plants, consisting exclusively of woody plants, abounding in 
an acrid resin, which is easily discovered by bruising tiie leaves, but 
which is not indicated by its being collected in transparent receptacles 
in t^e leaves, as is most commonly the case. They are polypetalous 
dicotyledons, with perigynous stamens, a simple one-seeded superior 
fruit, and alternate leaves without stipules. 

Their juice is often used as a kind of* varnish, for which it is well 
adapted in consequence of its turning hard and black when dry. It 
is, however, often dangerous to use, because of the extreme acridity 
of the funtes, which are apt to produce severe inflammation in many 
constitutions. The best-known genera of the order are, in the first 
place, BhuSf or the Sumach, of which so many species are cultivated 
in our gardens ; and the PistaciaSy the nuts of which are served at 
desserts, and their juice is commonly sold in the shops under the name 
of Mastich and Scio Turpentine. Besides these, there are the Chilian 
Dwroiuu, which resemble myrties, the Mango, the fruit of which 
is so delicious in tropical countries, and the Cashew or Acajou Nut, 
Anacardivm, from which the order takes its name. 

The last, Anaeardiwn occidentale, is a small tree found all over the 
West Indies, where it is much cultivated for the sake of its bunches 
of fragrant rosy flowers, as well as of its fruit Its stem, if wounded, 
yields abundantiy a milk, which, when inspissated, becomes intensely 
black and hard, besides which, it secretes a g^um not inferior to gum 
arabia The nut is a kidney-shaped body, seated on a large fleshy 
protuberance, and being, in £Ekct, the extremely dilated disk or 
receptacle ; the latter is sometimes red, sometimes white. The nuts 
contain, in abundance, beneath the outer shell, the black caustic oil of 
the order, which, when volatilised by heaty as happens in the process 
of roasting, is apt to produce eiysipelas and other diaa^^weable 

Digitized by 






affectioiiB in the face of persoiiB standing over the fumes ; the kernel 
is a well-known wholesome article of food. In the West Indies it is 
used as an ingredient in puddings, is eaten raw, and is roasted for the 



1. Male flower. 
4. Fruit. 

Ducaua dependmt, 
2. Hermaphrodite do. 8. Back of do. 

5. Section of do. All slightly magnified. 

purpose of mixing with Madeira wine, to which it is thought to 
communicate a peculiarly agreeable flavour. In this country the 

Cashetr Nut {Anaeardium occidentale). 

Cashew Nut never flowers, and can only be cultivated as a tendei 

The Spondiaa, or Hog Plum, which is the type of the order 
Spandiacea, is referred by Lindley to this order. [Spondiaoejb ; Rhus.] 

ANAQAliLI^ a genus of plants of the natural order Primvlace(B: 
among which it is known by its flat or wheel-shaped coroUaa and by 
iU capsule opening into two halves, of which the upper fits the undei 
l^e the lid of a Iwx. A very common species is the Pimpernel, oi 

Poor Man's Weather-Qlass, so called because its flowers generally open 
at eight in the morning and dose in the afternoon, and also revise to 
expand in rainy weather. It is a little trailing plant with brick-red 
flowers, very abundant in corn-fields ; it was once thought useful in 
cases of madness, especially such as arose from the bite of rabid 
.animals, but it is in no esteem at the present day. There is a purple 
variety called by Sir J. K Smith A. cceruUa. A far more beautiful 
species is the AnagcUlia tcneUa (Bog Pimpemel), which grows in the drier 
parts of marshes, along with Pinguicula and Drosera; it has delicate 
flesh-coloiu^d flowers, in the centre of which grows a cone of stamens 
covered all over with glittering transparent hairs; these and its 
peculiarly neat appearance, entitle it to be called the queen of British 
wildflowers. Some botanists regard it as a distinct genus, and describe 
it under the name of Irastkia, One or two foreign species, with largo 
blossoms, are cultivated in greenhouses. 

ANALCIME, also called Cubidte and Sarcclite, is a mineral belonging 
to the group of hydrous silicates of alumina. It contains according 
to analyses by Rose and Connell, the following constituents : — 

Rose. ConneU. 

SiHca 55-12 55*07 

Alumma 22*99 22*23 

Soda 18-53 13*71 

Water 8*27 8*22 

99*91 99-28 
It is foimd crystallised, the primary form being a cube. The cleavage 
is parallel to the face of the cube, but is obtained with difficulty. It 
has an uneven imdulating fracture. It scratches glass, but not readily. 
It is brittle, and is of a white colour with a shade of red. The streak 
is white, and it has a vitreous but not brilliant colour. It is either 
transparent, translucent, or opaque. The specific gravity is 2*068. It 
melts into a dear glassy globule by the blow-pipe on charcoaL It 
gelatinises in hydrochloric add. It is prindpally found in the Basaltic 
and Amygdaloidal rocks of Scotland, Ireland, the Tyrol, and other 

ANAMIRTA, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
Menitpermacece, including some of the spedes of the old genus 


ANAMORPHO'SIS. (Botany.) [Metamobphosis of OBGAjra] 

ANANASSA, a" genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
BromdiacoK, found wild in the woods of South America, and now 
commonly cultivated in the gardens of rich Europeans. It is 
distinguished from tiie Bromdia, to which it was once referred, by its 
succulent fruit collected in a compact head. 

Of Ananassa tativa, the Common Pine-Apple, a great number of 
varieties are known, of which the Moscow and Common Queen, the 
Black Jamaica, and the Antigua Queen are the best for summer luse, 
the Enville and the Trinidad the laigest, the Black Jamaica the best 
for winter use, and the Blood-Red the worst for any purpose or 

The fruit is a mass of flowers, the calyxes and bracts of which are 
fleshy and grow firmly together into a single head ; it is the points of 
these parts that together form what gardeners call the jpips, that is to 
say, the rhomboidal spaces into which the surface is divided. When 
wild, Pine Apples bear seeds like other plants; but in a state of 
cultivation, generally owing to the succulence of all the parts, no seeds 
are produced, and consequently the plants can only be multiplied by 
suckers, or by their branches, which gardeners call the gills and 
crown. The latter, which surmounts the fruit, is in reality the end of 
the branch round which the flowers are arranged, and if it has any 
tendency to ramification, as sometimes happens, it becomes what is 
called double. 

The Pine- Apple was undoubtedly unknown before the discovery of 
America; its incomparable flavour soon however caused it to be 
introduced into Africa and Asia, where, in a suitable climate, ^ it 
multiplied so rapidly as to acquire as firm a footing in those oountriee 
as their aboriginal plants. In Asia it has even improved so much in 
quality, that the Birmese Pines, which have never yet reached 
England, are said to be the finest in the world. With tins exception 
it is believed that we already possess the best varieties that exist ; and 
it is undoubted that, except in the kingdom of Birma, the most 
delicious specimens of the fruit are produced id England. Within a 
recent period Pine-Apples have been imported laigely into England 
from the West India Islands, where the cultivation has in consequence 
been more carefully attended to, the quality greatly improved, and 
this branch of commerce laigely extended. P*inb-Applb, in Abts 
AND So. Div.l 

ANANCHY'TES (Lamarck), a fossil genus of ^Awwcfcrnurfo, found 
abundantly in the Chalk. 

ANAHRHICAS, a genus of Acanthopteiygious Osseous Fishes^ 
established by Linnaus, and retained by subsequent ichthyologists. 
They are very nearly allied to the Blennies, so that Cuvier remarked 
they might be regarded as Blennies without ventral fins. They have 
round smooth blunt heads; elongated bodies, covered by minute 
scales ; a single long dorsal fin, and an extended anal fin, both sepa- 
rated from the caudal; no ventrals; the mouth armed with formidable 
teeth of two kinds, conical incisors and flat grinders. One spedes, 
the Wolf-Fish, Sea-Cat, or Cat-Fish {Anarrhiccu Juput of Linnaus), ia 

Digitized by 




common in the northern seas, and in Britain is frequently taken on 
the east coast of Scotland and the Orkneys, though rare on the 
Kn gli sh shorea. Its range extends to Greenland. It grows to the 
length of 6 feet, and is a ferocious and formidable animal, destroying 
the nets of fishermen ; when caught ib defends itself to its last gasp, 
inflicting severe wounds by means of its powerful teeth and jaws. It 
lives chiefly on Crustacea and testaceous molluscs, and, like most fish 
which subsist on such food, its flesh is excellent eating, though, from 
the ugly appearance of the animal, usually rejected. It finds its way 
however to the Edinbuigh market, where, by naturalists especially, 
whose knowledge of its good qualities enables them to vanquish 
their prejudices against its aspect^ it is much esteemed. The 
Cat-Fish is of a light gray colour marked with seven or eight broad 
vertical bands of bluish gray. When old it b&comes darker. Its 
skin is covered with slima (Tarrell's Britiih Fishes.) 

ANAS, the Duck, a genus of birds under which Linnseus included 
a great number of species now separated into several genera by recent 
naturalists. [Ducks.] 

ANASTATICA, a genua of plants belonging to the natural order 
CruciferecB. One species, A. hio'ochiuUinaf is the Rose of Jericho. 
[Jericho, Bose of.] 

ANASTOMOSIS, fiom ii4, through, and arrdtia, a mouth, signifies 
the communication of blood-vessels with each other by the opening of 
the one with the other. The blood-vessels are the tubes by which 
the different parts of the body are supplied with nourishment. If the 
blood-vessels destined to nomish a part be obstructed, so that it 
cannot receive a due supply of blood, that part must necessarily die, 
or, as it is technioUly termed, mortify. But the blood-vessels are 
soft compressible tubes, liable by innumerable circumstances to have 
their sides brought so closely into contact as to prevent the flow of a 
single particle of blood through them. In order to prevent the con- 
sequences that would result to the system from the operation of 
causes thus tending to impede the circulation, provision is made for 
the freest possible commimication between the main trunks of the 
blood-vessels and their branches, and between one branch and another. 
All the branches which form such communications are called anasto- 
mosing branches, and this union of branch with branch ia termed 
ANATASE, in Mineralogy, a variety of Titanic Add. [Titanium.] 
ANATHERUM, a genus of Qrasses, belonging to the group ^of 
which species yield fragrant volatile oils. A, muricatum is the Vetian 
of the French and the Khus of the Hindoos. Its fragrant roots are 
employed in making tatties, covers for palanquins, &c. It is admin- 
istered medicinally, and has stimulating and diaphoretic qualities. 
A. nardus is also, on account of the volatile oil it contains, called 
Ginger-GrasB, or KoobeL 

ANATID.£ (Leach), the Duck kind, a group formed by Dr. Leach 
to include his genera formed from the great genus Ancu of Linnaeus. 

ANATOMT, from a Oreek term (&y«ro^4), which literally signifies 
' the seperation of a thing into parts by cutting; ' the term Anatomy 
is use& to sigmfy particularly, dissection, or knowledge acquired by 
dissection. Anatomy is at once an art and a science ; an art, inasmuch 
as the puiHuit of it requires skilful manipulation ; and a science, 
inasmudli as certain general principles are deducible from it. The 
object of anatomy is to ascertain the structure of organised bodies. 
Of the two great kingdoms of nature, the inoxganic and the organic, 
it oomprdiends the whole range of the latter. Like the oiguiised 
kingdom itself, it forms two divisions, the one including the structure 
of plants — ^Vegetable Anatomy ; tiie other the structure of animals — 
Ammal Anatomy. Animal Anatomy is divided into comparative and 
hmnan : Comparative Anatomy includes an account of the structure 
of all rlnsBoo of animal «^ excepting that of man ; Human Anatomy is 
restricted to an account of the structure of man only. Human 
Anatomy is subdivided into descriptive, general, and pathological 
Ikscriptive Anatomy comprehends a description of all the various 
parts or organs of the human body, together with an account of their 
situation, connections, and relations, as these circumstances exist in 
the natural and sound, or, as it is technically termed, the normal, 
condition of the body. The human stomach, for example, is composed 
of a number of membranes, which are united in a particular manner ; 
a number of blood-vessels which are derived from particular arterial 
trunks ; a number of nerves which proceed from a particular ]>ortion 
of the brain and spinal cord ; a number of absorbent vessels, and so 
on ; moreover, this organ is always placed in a particular cavity of the 
hody, and is always found to have certain specific connections or 
relations with other organs. The anatomy of the human stomach 
comprehends an account of all the particulars of this kind, which are 
uniformly found to concur in all humui bodies in which the confor- 
mation is regular or natural ; and so of every other organ of the 
body : and because such an exposition of the structure of Uie various 
organs include a description of all the circumstances that relate to 
their organisation, it is caJled Descriptive Anatomy. 

After the study of tiie human body in this mode has been carried 
to a certcdn extent, with a certain degree of success, it necessarily 
giTes origin to a second division of the science, that termed General 
Anatomp. It is found, that many of the circumstances which belong 
to any one organ, belong at the same time to several organs ; and that 


thus several individual circumstances are common to many organs. 
Of the membranes, for example, of which it has been stated that the 
stomach is composed, some are common to it and to the intestines, 
to the bladder, to the heart, to the air-passages, and so on. In 
like manner with respect to any one of tnese membranes, when its 
structure is carefully examined, it is found that in many points its 
organisation is exactiy similar to that of all other membranes. This 
view extended leads to further important and interesting results. 
AH the arteries of the body, whatever their situation, size, or office, 
are found to be composed essentially of the same substances, disposed 
in nearly the same order and form. All the veins have, in like 
manner, a structure essentially the same. AH the absorbent vessels, 
all vessels of every kind, all the bones, musdes, and nerves, the whole 
external covering of the body or the skin, widely as these various 
structures differ from each other, present no material difference as far 
as regards the oiganisation of each particular class. Hence various 
organs of the body are disposed into what are called common systems, 
and these common systems are said to consist of common substances 
or tissues. All the vessels, for example, are collected and arranged 
under one common class, called the vascular system : in like manner, 
all the bones are collected and arranged under another dass, called 
the osseous system ; all the musdes imder another, called the mus- 
cular system ; all the nerves imder another, called the nervous 
system, and so on. The material that enters into the composition of 
each of these systems consists of a substance of a peculiar nature ; but 
as this substance is more or less generally difinised over the whole 
body, entering as a constituent element into the various organs, it is 
termed a common substance, or tissue. What is termed the common 
cellular or areolar tissue, for example, is the substance which enters 
most commonly into the compositition of the organs of the body ; 
the muscular tissue is the substance of which the musdes are com- 
posed ; the nervous tissue is the substance of which the nerves are 
composed : and tihus, the structure of the body, analysed in this 
mode, innumerable and complex as the substances appear to be of 
which it consists, is ultimately reduced to a very few simple material^ 
by the combination and modification of which all the different animal 
substances are produced. 

Qeneral Anatomy also indudes the study of certain fluids from 
whidi the membranes or textures are formed. The following is a list 
of the fluids and textures, given by Dr. Sharpey in Quain's 'Elements 
of Anatomy : * — 

The Blood, Chyle, and Lymph. 

Epidermis Tissue (induding EpitheHum, Cutide, Nailfl^ and Hairs). 


Adipose Tissue. 

Cellular Tissue. 

Fibrous Tissue. 

Elastio Tissue. 

Cartilage, and its varieties. 

Bone or Osseous Tissue. 

Muscular Tissue. 

Nervous Tissue. 


Serous and Synovial Membranes. 

Mucous Membranes. 


Secreting Qlands. 
These textures and fluids will be treated of under their respective 

Descriptive and general anatomy, then, indude an account of the 
structure of the body as it exists in the state of health. But there is 
no organ of the body, and no tissue which enters into its composition, 
which is not subject to disease ; in consequence of disease, the regular 
or natural structure of the component substances of the body becomes 
changed in a great variety of modes. That part of anatomy whidi 
displays these diseased or morbid changes, and which deacribesaU 
the droumstanoes relating to them, is oiJled Pathologieal or Morbid 
Anatomy. We may say, then, that Descriptive Anatomy comprdiends 
an account of all the parts or organs of the body as they exist in the 
state of health ; Oeneral Anatomy comprehends an account of all the 
separate substances of which those organs are composed, not as these 
substances exist combined in organs, but as they form distinct and 
pecuUar substances ; Pathological Anatomy comprehends an account 
of all the changes of structure produced by disease, whether in 
individual organs, or in the primitive or common substances of which 
these organs are composed. 

The term Anatomy, as we have seen, is diiefly appUed to the sdenoe 
which determines the nature and relations of the various organs of 
the human body. A general term is here used in a restricted sense. 
On the other hand, when we would express the extension of the 
sdence of anatomy to the whole animal creation, we employ the 
general term with the addition of the word Comparative, This 
anomaly has doubtless proceeded from the drcumstance thati till 
within a very recent period, the study of animal structure was almost 
exclusively confined to the human subject; and that even BoologiBti 
were contented with inquiring into the functions of animals, instead 
of determining the character of the organs which were oonnaoted 
with those functions. By the term Comparative A natom/y is understood 

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the science which conveyB a knowledge of the differenoee in the 
strnoture and oiganiBation of the whole animal kingdom in all its 
olassee, orden, and speoies. 

It is evident that a scienoe possessing such an extensive range must 
be exceedingly imperfect ; especially when it is borne in mind that 
scarcely half a century has elapsed since the first attempts were made 
to simplify, by systematising, its almost infinite details. It has 
however made sufficient progress, not only to have furnished the 
most important aids to the study of human anatomy and physiolc^, 
jt>ut to have supplied a secure and broad foundation for all zoological 
knowledge, both as regards existing and extinct races. As the basis 
of modem zoology, comparative anatomy presents a subject of the 
highest interest, and the most successful methods of classification 
have been produced mainly by its aid. [Akimal Kinqdoil] 

ANBURY and CLUB-ROOT, a sort of Galls produced by msects on 
the roots of cabbages, turnips, hollyhocks, and other species of culti- 
vated plants, and popularly, but incorrectly, supposed to arise from 
peculiarities of soil, or from growing the same crop successively on 
the same field, or to be owing to variations of seasons. Nothing can 
be more simple than the disproof of all these theoretical notions. If 
we take some of the cabbages or turnips, whose roots are infected 
with anbury, and keep them in garden-pots covered over with close 
gauze, in a short time, if the plants be kept growing, the little weevils, 
evolved from the grubs in the interior of the roots, will make their 
appearance, ready to multiply their species, by depositing their eggs, 
as their parents had done, on the first turnip or cabbage they can find. 
The weevil thus arising continues to be no less, but often more, 
destructive than the grub had proved to be in feeding on the roots ; 
for it thrusts its beak (rostrum) into the seed-leaf of the turnip, and 
greatly injures the crop. When the turnip is advanced to Uie rough 
leaf, these insects either die, as most insects do, when they have laid 
their eggs, or betake themselves to some other plants such as clover, 
which is suited 4o their taste. 

It will be therefore evident, that no peculiar rotation of crops, nor 
peculiar manure for dressing the soil, can be of any avail in preventing 
anbury, or in stopping its progress when the insects have obtained a 
lodgement within the roots. The destruction of the adult insects 
before they have laid their oggs, is the only remedy, though in the 
case of so small a species it is peculiarly difficult to effect 

ANCHOVT {BnffrauhUf Cuvier), a genus of Abdominal Malacopteiy- 
gious Fishes, separated by Baron Cuvier from the C^ifpece, or Herrings of 
Linnteus, from which they are distinguished by the superior number 
of their branchiostegous rays, amounting to twelve or upwards, by 
the gape of the mouth extending behind the eyes, and by the straight 
and prolonged form of the superior maxillary bones, which form a 
small muzzle, projecting considerably b«yond the mouth. The 
genus, as at present constituted, consists of six or seven species, all 
of diminutive size, and with the exception of the Common Anchovy 
(B, encrtuiehoUu), and a nearly allied species distinguished from it by 
M. Cuvier {B. mdeUa), all inhabitants of the tropic^ seas of India and 
America. Whether Uiese latter agree with the European species in 
the savour and other qualities of the fiesh, for which it is so highly 
esteemed, is a doubtful question; at all events we are not aware that 
the fishing of the native spedes has ever been attempted either in 
America or India. 

The Common Anchovr is a small fish, not much longer than the 
middle finger, of a bluish-brown colour on the back, and silvery-white 
on the belly. The anal-fin is remarkably short, and the dorsal situated 
immediately above the ventral ; these characters will serve readily to 
distinguish it from the sprat and other kindred species, with whidi it 
might otherwise be confounded, and which are, in fact, not unfre- 
quently imposed upon the public for the real anchovy. It abounds 
in the Mediterranean along the shores of Spain,'Ita]y, and Greece; in 
the AtlantLc it is found along the coasts of Portugal and France, and 
occasionally has been taken off the shores of England and Holland. 
Considerable fisheries of Anchovies are established along the coasts 
of Provence and Catalonia; but the most productive of all is off 
Gorgona, a small island west of Leghorn. The latter fishery is carried 
on only during the months of May, Jtme, and July, at which period the 
anchovies quit the deep seas and approach the shores for the puipose 
of depositing their roe ; it is then only that they are found in the 
Mediterranean, which they enter in enormous shoals, by the straits of 
Gibraltar, at the commencement of the breeding season, and leave it^ 
after fulfilling this duty, to retire asain to the depths of the AUantia 
They are fished for only during the night, and are attracted round 
the boats by means of charcoal fires which are kept burning in the 

After being caught, the heads, gills, and entrails are separated from the 
bodies, whidi are siJted and arranged in small barrels, varying from 
5 to 20 pounds in weight : this is the only preparation which they 
undergo previous to being sent to market; and if proper means be 
taken to exclude the air they will in this state keep for a considerable 
period. If, when the banels are open, the fish are found to be small 
and firm, round-backed, with a sUveiy-white skin and red flesh, and a 
plump compact form, they are probably the true anchovy ; if, on the 
contrary, they taper very much towards the tail, are of a dark brown 
oolour without, and have flabby pale-coloured flesh, they will probably 
turn out to be the Sardine (E, maleUa), another Mediterranean species 

frequently mixed with real anchovies, or even sold separately as the 
genuine fish. 

No condiment is more generally known and esteemed than anchovy 
sauce. It was also in use among the Romans, and was one of the 
kinds of sauce called Garum, which appears to have formed an indis- 
pensable article of seaaoning in their most expensive and luxurious 


ANCHU'SA, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
Boraginacea, and to the sub-tribe AnckuaeoL The calyx is 5-fid ; the 
corolk funnel-shaped, with a straight tube, the throat being dosed by 
prominent obtuse scales ; the stamens are included, and subaessile ; 
the fruit a nut, which is depressed. The species are dueflyinhabitaotB 
of the temperate parts of the earth, either on the mountains of tropical 
regions or the temperate zone. They are aU of them rough plants, aad 
are known, as well as the species of LycoptU and Bckimm, by the oom- 
mon name of Bugloes. Some of the species have been used in medicine^ 
while others are employed in tiie arts for dyeing. Two are inhabitants 
of Great Britain. 

A. offieinaUt, Common Alkanet or Bugloss, has lanceolate hispid 
leaves, unilateral crowded spikes, ovate-lanceolate bracts^ the aegments 
of the calyx bluntish, hairy on both sides, the scales of the ooioUa 
hairy. The flowers are a deep purple. It is an inhabitant of Great 
Britain, on waste ground, but is a rare plant In the south of France, 
Germany, and Switzerland it is everywhere common, in uncultivated 
places, on old walls, and bv the road-side. The young plant ia Bom» 
times boiled and eaten. The roots contain a considen^e quantity of 
gum, and when boiled yield a demidcent drink, which was once in 
repute as a medicine. 

A. 9emperviren$f Evergreen Bugloss, has ovate leaves, with lower 
leaves on long stalks, the peduncles axiUaiy, each bearing two dense 
spikes with an intermediate flower, the segments of the calyx hairy on 
the outside only, the bracts minute lanceolate, scales of the corolla 
downy, flowers blue, salverahaped This plant is found on waste 
ground, near ruins, in Great Britain, but is rare. 

A. tindoria, Dyers' Bugloes or Alkanet, has diffbse stems, oblong 
hispid leaves, bracts longer than the calyx, the segments of the corolla 
shorter than the stamens. The corolla has a deep blood-coloured tube, 
with the limb deep blue. The root is woody, descending, and of a 
dark blood-red colour. This plant is a native of Peloponnesus, the 
island of C^rus, and the deserts about Alexandria. It is cultivated 
in the south of FVanoe for the sake of the root, which yields a fine red 
oolour to oUs, wax, all unctuous substances, and to spirits of wine. Its 
chief use is in colouring lip-salves, ointments, Ac. It is however some- 
times employed for staining wood and dyeing cotton. It is also used 
for colouring many of the beverages sold under the name of port wine, 
and the corks used for the bottles in which this fluid is sold. 

A. amgustifolia, Narrow-Leaved Bugloss, has linear lanceolate hispid 
leaves, ovate-lanceolate bracts, 6-fid calyx, with blunt teeth. The tube 
of the corolla is pale purple, the limb deep blue. In gardens it attains 
a height of two feet, but when wild it is not more than a foot high. 
It grows in Italy, Germany, and Switzerland, by roadwndee^ amongst 
rubbiBh, and on the borders of ploughed fields. 

In the cultivation of the species of this genus but little care is 
required, as they will grow in almost any soil, and are easily increased 
by seed. The A. Capennt, Cape Bugloes, requires the treatment of a 
greenhouse plant Many ef them are pretty annuals for the garden, 
as A. panictUat<i, A. Barrdi^, &c. 

ANCILLA or ANCILLA'RIA, are the names given by Lamarck to 
a genus of Spiral Univalve Marine Shells, aUied to the Olives. Like 
them they are covered with a hard shining coat, destitute of any 
periostraca, and are immured in the large foot of the animal, so that 
the middle of the back of the shell can be alone discovered They 
chiefiy differ from the Olives in the suture of the whorl, being callou/t 
and not furnished with a groove, formed by a thread-like filament 
placed at the end of the mantle, which is wanting in this genus : they 
are also furnished with a small ovate operculum. The species are 
numerous, and are chiefly confined to tropical dimates ; some have a 
small tooth, like the Unicom Shell (Monocerot), placed at the end of a 
groove crossing the front of the shelL The best-known species is the 
Ivory Shell, which with a few others differ from the rest of the genus 
in having the front of its axis deeply pierced. 

ANCYLO'CERAS (D'Orbigny). This FcasU genus of M. D'Orbigny 
includes several species of HamUn (Phillips), from the Speeton Clay 
and Lower Greensand. 

A'NCTLUS is the name of the shell which is usually called the 
Fresh- Water Limpet They are small pellucid conical shells, with 
slightly-recurved tips. The cavity is simple, and maiked with a 
horseHshoe-ahaped muscular scar near the margin, which is interrupted 
on the middle of the left side over the respiratory holes, as in the 
genus Syphonariok. Iliis animal, like the Pond-Snail (Limnta), has 
two compressed triangular tentacles, with the eyes sessile on the 
outer base ; and a respiratory cavity placed on the middle of the 
back, with an apertiuw closed by a valve opening in the middle of the 
left side. 

This genus is very nearly aUied to the Pond-Snail, from which it 
chiefly cUffers in the simple conical form of its body and shell ; and 
some species, dA Ancylm, are allied to it by having the apex bent on 

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one side, aa if makmg an approach to the spiral fonn. It has been 
placed in Bereral orders, but there is little doubt that its true situation 
is with the lung-breathing moUusoa. They are found in Europe, 
America^ and the West Indies, attached to stones and plants, and they 
will live a considerable time out of the water. They are easily known 
finom the Sypkonarug, which are the only shells they can be oonPoundod 
with, by Uieir being sinistral, rery thin, and covered with a haiiy 
ANDALUSITE, a Mineral consisting of 

Silica 89-09 

Almnina. 58*66 

Protoxide of Manganese .... 0*58 

lime 0*21 

Water 0*99 

It occmiB dystaOised ; its primary form being a right rhombic prism. 
It has an uneven conchoidal fracture. Its colour varies from a flesh- 
red to a brownish and grayish-red. It has a vitreous lustre. It 
occurs both transparent and opaque. The specific gravity is 8*104. 
This mineral is found in Spain, France, and North America. The 
above malvsis is from an American specimen. 

ANEMONE (iamiftAyn) is a genus of plants belonging to the natural 
order Jtanuneulaeecg. It consists of lowly herbs, usually perennials, 
with white, or purple, or scarlet, or even yellow blossoms, in which 
there is no distinct calyx, and which are succeeded by a cluster of 
grains, each terminated by a long silky featheiy taiL As the species 
generally grow on open plains or in high exposed situations, their 
feathery grains produce a singular shining appearance when waved by 
the breeze, whence their name, and which literally signifies Wind- 
flower, their English appellation. 

The Anemones possess, in conmion with other Rammctdacea, an 
acrid property. The leaves of A. pviaatilla will raise blisters on the 
skin ; if chewed, they produce irritation of the throat and tongue ; and 
their roots;, as well as those of j4. pratensis, a nearly related species, 
produce nausea and vomiting if administered in very small doses, on 
which account they have been strongly recommended by some medical 
men in various complainta The following are the most remarkable 
species: — 

1. A. pnUatiUot or Pasque Flower, grows wild upon exposed downs 
in various parts of England, as on the Qogmagog Hills near Cambridge, 
the heath at Newmarket, and on open chalky pastures. It has large 
ptuple flowers and finely-cut hairy leaves. 

2. A. nemorota, the Wood Anemone, is found abundantly in woods 
an over England, covering the ground with its neat white flowers 
under the shelter of bushes as early as March and ApriL It is a 
perennial plant with knobby roots, and a short stem having one 
or two smooth, bright-green, deeply-cut leaves. It is poisonous to 

8. A. pawmvna, the Peacock Anemone, a native of the vineyards in 
Provence, about Nice, and in other parts of the south of Europe. This 
is not very uncommon in gardens, where it is u«!ually, but improperly, 
named A. sUUaia, It is known by its scarlet or scarlet and white 
flowers, which are usually double, and have their divisions very sharp- 
pointed. It is one of the handsomest of the cultivated species. 

4. ii. coronariOf the Common Garden Anemone. Found in a wild 
state in moist meadows in the south of France, Italy, and Ghreece, and 
different parts of Asia Minor ; Dr. Russell speaks of it as abundant 
near Aleppo. In these places it is seen only in a single state, but even 
then sporting into a variety of colours, the principal of which are white, 
tcariet, and purple in different shades. 

5. A. tUdksta is a native of various parts of Germany, France, and 
the Levant^ and is also often seen in our gardens, where it is oilled 
A. kortama. It differs from the last in having smaller and narrower 
petals, very rarely double flowers, a greater tendency to purple in their 
colours, and much broader leaves. It is not so liable to vary as the 
last species. 


ANGEL-FISH. [Squalida.] 

ANGEXICA, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
UmiMlifarce. It comprehends several species, the principal part of 
which are to be met with in botanic gardens ; and one that was formerly 
very much cultivated as an esculent plant. This, the Angelica arehan- 
gdieOf or Arehangdiea offieinalitf is a native of the banks of rivers and 
of wet ditdies in all the northern parts of Europe ; in this country it 
grows abundantly on the banks of the Thames below Woolwich, and 
in several other places. It is a biennial plant, with a laige fleshy 
aromatic root, blackish externally, but white within; and a stout 
farrowed branched stem as high as a man. Its leaves are of a dear 
bright green, shining, and divided into a very large number of heart- 
Ihi4)ed finely-serrated lobes. The flowers are white, and disposed in 
rcmiui very compact umbels; they are succeeded by large broad- 
'winged grains of a pale yellowish-brown colour. Each partial umbel 
u surrounded at its hose by 7 or 8 pointed undivided bracta 

For the sake of its agreeable aromatic odour, this plant is much 
cuHivated on the Continent. Its blanched stems, candied with sugar, 
form a veiy agreeable sweetmeat, possessing tonic and stomachic 

^oalitiea. Its roots contain a pimgent> aromatic, stimulating principle. 

A Yery common wild species, the Angelica tyhestrit, or Wild Angelica, 
which is found all over tiie meadows near the Thames above London, 
possesses similar properties. 

Atigeliea arehangeliea^ a diminlahed dgure. 

1. A partial umbel of the natural sIkc. 2. A separate flower. 

8. The back of one of the partial umbels, showing the bracts. 

ANGLARITE, a name for the native blue phosphate of iron. 

ANGLESITE, in Mineralogy, a name for the native sulphate of lead. 

ANHYDRITE, the Mineialogical name for the native anhydrous 
sulphate of lime. It is foimd at Halle in the Tyrol, Bex in Switzerland, 
and in the Salt-Mines of Upper Austria and Sahsbuig. A specimen 
from Sulz yielded — 

Sulphuric acid . .... 56 

Lime 42 

Silica . 2 

It occurs both massive and cr3rstallised. The crystals have the form 
of a right rhombic prism. The cleavage is veiy distinct, and parallel 
to the terminal planes and their two diagonals, indistinct pazvUel to 
the lateral planes. The fracture is uneven. The colour is white, bluish, 
violet, or reddish. The streak is grayish-white. The lustre is vitreous 
and pearly on the cleavage surfaces. It is transparent and translucent. 
It has a double refraction. The specific gravity is from 2*5 to 2*9. Its 
hardness 8*0 to 8*5. The massive varieties are amorphous, nodular, or 

ANIMAL FLOWERS. [Actiwiadjb.] 

ANIMAL HEAT. [Hsat, Animal.] 

ANIMAL KINGDOM. All natural objects are referred by naturalists 
to three great divisions, called the Kingdoms of Nature, These are 
respectively called after tiie objects they include, the Mineral Kingdom, 
Vegetable Kingdom, and Anim4d Kingdom. Although at first sight 
nothing would appear easier than defi^iing these great groups, in such 
a manner as to afford an easy means of <&tinction, it is nevertheless 
one of considerable difficulty. The difficulty, however, does not lie in 
the typical object of each kingdom, as a rock, an oak-tree, and a man, 
but in applying the definition to those objects which lie as it were on 
the limits of each kingdom. The line is perhaps better drawn between 
minerals, and plants and animals, than iM^tween the latter two. It is 
usual to speak of minerals as forming the Inorganic Kingdom or 
portion of Nature, whilst plants and animals constitute the Organic 
Kingdom, The great distinctive character of the Organic Kingdom, is 
the fact of their parts originating in and being formed out of cells 
which give to them many characters by which they are distinguishe4 

Digitized by 






from minerals. Thus they are nnsymmetrioal, whilst mineralfl are 
symmetrical ; they grow irregularly, whikt minerals increase in definite 
crystalline forms. Each portion of a mineral, however small, consists of 
the same elements, whilst any part of a plant or animal may be differently 
composed to another part The line in fisust is nowhere difficult to be 
drawn, where the presence or absence of cells can be determined. 

^ The djstmotions between animals and plants present greater 
difficulties, and perhaps no mere structural or formal difference can 
be found. Looked at from one point of view, plants and animals form 
a great oiganio unity, connected together by their common modes of 
cellular growth and Actions ; and when thus regarded, there seems 
to be no necessity for drawing an absolute Une of distinction between 
one and the other. Naturalists have however regarded them as distinct, 
and the study of the two classes of objects have constituted the sciences 
of Botany and Zoology. Rude definitions of various kinds have been 
laid down to g^de the systematist in his classification of the objects 
belonging to each. Aristotle was one of the first who sought a 
distinction, and in stating that an animal possessed a mouth whilst a 
plant had no such omn, he gave perhaps the simplest and most 
generally applicable de&iition th^t ezists. But Aristotle had not the 
microscope to direct his inquiries, and by the aid of this instrument 
beings can be made apparent to which other distinctions must be 
^)plied before they can be arranged in one kingdom or another. 
I^ofessor KoUiker describes an animalcule, the Aetinophryt acl of 
Ehrenben; ('Microscopical Journal,' Noe. L and iL), in which, though 
no mouth is found, the function of digestion is carried on by an 
indentation of its skhi, temporarily formed for that purpose. Linnseus, 
with no better success, gave the following definition : " Minerals grow, 
plants grow and live, animals grow, live, and feeL" To apply this 
definition, we must define life and feeling, and this cannot be done in 
such a way as to effect the object of the naturalist. Cuvier thought 
the possession of a stomach a sufficient distinction for the animal 
kingdom, but the nature of a ftomach must first be understood, and 
here we have no absolute structural character to guide us. It was at 
one time a favourite distinction that animals have the power of motion, 
and that plants are fixed, but we know now that many plants move, 
whilst many Anitwala are fixed. One of the most recent and philoso- 
phical of physiological writers says : ** A plant is an oi^ganised being, 
whose vital powers are directed solely to the performance of formative 
operations, by which its fabric is not merely built up in the first 
instance, but is continually receiving additions during the term of its 
existence; and any movements wludh it may exhibit are destined 
solely for the furtherance of these opemtions, and must be regarded as 
originating in physical or vital f oroea. On the other hand an animal 
is an organised being, whose vital powers are not merely directed to 
the construction and maintenance of its corporeal fi&bric, but are also 
subservient to the operations of the conscious mind, which involve a 
continual disintegration of the structures that minister to them ; on 
the repair of which, rather than on the extension of the fiibric, after it 
has attained its full development, the formative eneigy is chiefly 
expended ; and of the movements which it may exhibit, though a 
part are still to be regarded as directly dep^icient (like those of 
plants) on causes inherent in its material oiiganisation, there is another 
party small though it may often be, in which the consciousness and 
spontaneity of the individual are necessarily conoezned, and which 
must therefore be distinguished as originating 'm. psychical causes." 
(Carpenter, 'Principles of Physiology.*) 

In this way the naturslist and physiologist have tried to contend 
with the diffieull^. Within the last few years chemistry has invaded 
the domain of the anatomist, and supplied him with materials for 
determining the problem of the difference of animal and vegetable life. 
The substances found in animals and plants are found in a great 
measure to be formed of four dementi^ carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, 
and nitrogen. At one time nitrogen was supposed to <^ifff.|>giiif»h 
animal from vegetable subBtance& It is now known, not only that 
plants contain nitrogen, but that they supply this and the three other 
elements to the animal system. It is foimd that these four elements 
are alwavs present in the protopUum nueleut, cy(oblatt, or primordial 
iUriele, from which the ceUs of all plants and animals are firat formed. 
Bo that they are universally necessary in plants and animals, and have 
hence been called Organie Elements, Three compounds of three of 
these elements^ carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and called cellulose, 
sugar, and starch, were at one time thought to be peculiar to plants. 
It Is now known that cellulose is present in many animals, and that 
sugar is veiy generally present in certain animal textures and fluid& 
Starch yet remains to be found in the animal kingdom, and its 
presence in doubtful structures is still regarded as evidence of their 
Teeetable nature. 

It is clear however that no single character is sufficient to mark the 
line between these two kingdoms, and that Uie collective functions 
peiformed by animals and plants, accordingly as they are more or less 
prominent in organised beings, guide the opinions of naturalists. 
The structural characters of 1^i(»l animals are so evidently different 
tram the coiresponding forms of plants, that we need not dwell on 
them here; but a view of the functions which i» and plants 
perform dependently on one another, will give the best possible notion 
of their antagonistic nature. One of the great functions performed 
by. the animal kingdom is that of Jleepiralion, During this process 

the oxygen of the atmosphere is brought in contact with carbon ia 
the blood of the animal, and the result is a union of the carbon and 
oxygen, and the formation of carbonic acid gas, which is being 
constantly thrown off from the structure of the animal— from the 
whole surface of the body in the lowest animals, fr^m the gills of those 
that live in water, and from, the lungs of those that live in air. It 
thus consumes oxygen and gives off carbonic acid. The great function 
of plants is antagonistic to this. They take from the air carbonic acid 
gas; it is a part of their food. In the tissues of the plant the 
carbonic add is decomposed. Its elements are separated ; the carbon 
is retained in the plan^ and the oxygen is set free. It thus consumes 
carbonic acid ana gives off oxygen. As far as we at present know 
there are no exceptions to this law. On tracing the supply of the 
carbon which is contained in the animal system, and which combines 
with the oxygen, we find that it is derived by the animal from the 
plants The food of the whole animal kingdom is derived from the 
vegetable kingdom; and the other three elements, as well as the 
carbon, which are found in the animal, are thus obtained. The 
animal, in like manner, throws off its nitrogen in the forai of 
excretions, more especially those of the kidneys^ which, on deoom- 
posing, yield ammonia, a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen ; and it 
is from this substance that plants |»incipally derive their nitrogen. 
Thus, whilst the animal derives the constituent of its body from the 
vegetable kingdon^ the plant derives its elements from the nuneiai 
kingdoDo. The animal takes up starch, sugar, and protein, from the 
plant, but the plant takes up carbonic add and ammonia in their 
mineral form. The tissues of the plant are engaged in converting 
mineral into organic substances, wlulst the tissues of the animal are 
engaged in converting oxiganic substanoes into mineraL 

In their relation to the great physical forces, heat lind light, we see 
the same antagonism between plants and i^T^imnlff. Light and heat are 
essential to the growth of plants. The productions found in their 
tissues are but the expression of the amount of heat and lif^t they 
have as it were appropriated. Many of the substances thus formed 
are taken into the system of n-nimA^la as food; and whilst in the system 
of the animal, the heat and the light are again set free in the form of 
the peculiar vital animal forces. 

It is then by regarding the Animal and Vegetable worlds as exhibiting 
a combination of antagonistic and dependent forces in the great circle 
of nature, that we shidl best form an idea of the real differences that 
exist between these two kingdoms of nature. Having said this much 
with regard to the nature of the Animal Kingdom, we shall now 
proceed to consider some of the methods which Eave been employed 
by naturalists to arrange the various members of which it is com- 
posed into groups, for the purpose of exhibiting the relation of one 
animal to another, and of facilitating the study of the whole. 

In a crude shape, soology, or the arrangement of animals, must have 
been one of the eariiest sdenoes that forced itself upon the attention 
of the human mind. The very necessity for finding names for the 
more obvious divisions of living beings must soon have produced a 
daasification into the natural groups of Quadrupeds, Bii^ Fishes, 
and Insects; and certain subordinate sections, as, for instance, the 
distinction between herbivorous and carnivorous beasts^ granivorous 
and carnivorous birds, harmless and poisonous reptiles, must have 
followed as a matter of course. 

We have in the Bible, and in the engraven and pictorial Egyptian 
records, the earliest evidence of the attention which had been paid to 
Natural History in general The 'navy of Tarshish' contributed to 
the wisdom of him who not only " sps^e of the trees, frtim the cedar 
of Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall," but 
"also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes" 
(1 Kings iv. 10) ; to say nothing of numerous other passages showing 
the progress that zoological knowledge had already made. 

The Egyptian records bear testimony to a familiarity not only with 
the forms of a multitude of wild animft-la^ but with their habits and 
geographical distribution. 

Although it must be admitted that Herodotus was behind the 
sdence of his day in physical knowledge, he who, despising the 
sneers of the half-learned at his wondeifuT stories, will bring to the 
perusal of his works a fafr share of sdontific acquirement^ will find 
many instances of zoological information which have been taken for 
the mere tales of this excellent traveller and historian, but which 
modem investigation has confirmed. But it is to Aristotle, justly 
termed the f&ther of natural history, that we owe the first dawnings 
of system founded on the only sure basis — ^the organisation or physio- 
logical character of animals. 

AristoUe's method was founded on a division of oigana, which may 
be arranged, firsts with reference to natural groups (kotA y4ifos or kot' 
cZSor), Birds or Fishes, for instance, which depend on a similar structure 
of parts ; secondly, according to their excess and defect (koO* ^c^xV 
icol IXAcif If'), as, for example, a division of Birds into those with long 
bills and those with short bills ; those having crests and those having 
none; thirdly, according to their analogies (iror' iafakoyltuf) ; take, for 
instance, the comparison of a hoof witii a daw, the wing of a bird 
with the fore-foot of a quadruped, a feather with a scale ; and, fourthly, 
according to their situation {narh Oiaiv) ; take, for example, animals 
which have pectoral mammae : man, apes, and dephants; and animalfl 
which have abdominal nfm-mmff* ; dog^s and cats. 

Digitized by 






The -writen who sucoeeded Aristotle, and mostly copied from his 
ample stores were : JEHan, Pliny, Athexueus, Albertus Magnus, Belon, 
(leaner, Aldrovandus, and Johnston. Although some of them recorded 
new facts they did nothing to supply any fiuther arrangement of the 
animal kingdom. 

To our countryman Ray we are principally indebted for the first 
clear zoological method. Tha/b great natundist, for originality and 
oomprehensire philosophical discernment, niay, without hesitation, 
be placed next after Aristotle himself. 

The brilliant style of Buffon fixed the attention of the civilised 
world upon the subject which his eloquence at once rendered capti- 
vating. A more severe writer might have done greater things for 
natural histoiy as a science, but Bufibn at once secured a willing 
audience, and made all Ehirope his dass. To him above all others 
may be conceded ti^e merit of malring the subject decidedly popular 
at once and for ever. The way was thus prepared for Linnaeus. 

In the last edition of the * Systema Natuns,' revised by its great 
author, the Animal Kingdom is thus arranged : — 
Heart bilocular, with two auricles. J Yi viparoua MeunmaUiL 

Blood warm, red. 
Heart unilocular, with one auricle. 

Blood cold, red. 
Heart unilocular, with one auricle. 

Circulating fluid {aaniet) cold, 


[Oviparous. Birds. 

r Arbitrary lungs.... AmpkUnet, 
I External gills Fitkea. 

I With antennsa InseeU, 

I With tentacula.... Vermes, 

L MaimmtdicL 

Heart bilocular, with two auricles. Blood warm, red. Lungs 
respiring reciprocally. Jaws incumbent, covered : teeth inserted in 
most Penis mtrans viviparas, lactiferas. Senses : Tongue, Nostrils, 
Eyes, fiarsy Papilla. Covering : Hairs, very sparing in the aquatics. 
Props (Fulcra) : Four feet, except in tiiose which are meretv aquatic, 
in which the posterior feet are conjoined in the fin of the taiL A tail 

IL Birds, 

Heart bilocular, with two auridea Blood warm, red. Lungs 
respiring reciprocally. Jaws incumbent^ naked, exserted, toothless. 
Penis subintrans absque scroto oviparas crusta calcarea. Senses: 
Touguei, Nostrils, Eves, Ears without auricles. Covering: Incum- 
bent imbricated feathers. Props : Two feet> two wings. Rump heart- 

IIL Am^^Sfna. 

Heart unilocular, with one auride. Blood cold, red. Lungs 
breathing arbitrarily. Jaws incumbent. Penes bini Eggs generally 
membranaceous. Senses: Tongue^ Nostrils, Eyes, Ears. Covering: 
CutaceouOy naked. Props : Various, nuU in some. 

IV. Fishes, 

Heart onilooular, with one auride. Blood cold, red. Gills external, 
compressed. Jaws incumbent. Penes niillL Eggs without albumen. 
Senses: Tongue, Nostrils (?), Eyes (not ears). Covering: Imbricated 
BcalesL Props : Natatorial fins. 

V. Insects, 

Heart tinilocular. Sanies cold. Spirades, lateral body pores. 
Jaws lateral Penes intrantes. Senses: Tongue, Eyes, Antenna 
on a head without a brain (neither ears nor nostrils). Covering : 
Cataphraota, sustaining an osseous cutis. Props: Feet^ Wings m 

VI. VerfMS, 

Heart unilocular, with one ventricle. Sanies cold. Spirades 
obscure. Jaws mi:dtifarious. Penes varii Hermaphroditis Andro- 
gynis. Senses: Tentacles (no head, hardly eyes, neither ears nor 
nostrils.) Covering: Calcareous, or null except spine& Props: 
Neither feet nor fins. 

This table oondudes with the following summary, which will be 
best given in the original form : — 

" Vivarium Naturse sic alit Yi plicis forms Animalia. 

"ifamma^iapilosa, in Terragndiuntur, loquentia. iivM plumosse, 
in aere volitant^ cantantesi Amphibia tunioata^ in calore, serpunt, 
aibilantia. Pities squamati, in aqua natant> popyzantes. Jnsecta 
oataphraota, in siooo exsiliunt, tmnitantia. Vennes exooriati, in 
humido paniduntur, obmutescentes." 

It is impossible to enter into the details of the arrangement of 
Linneus, without being struck with the comprehensive views of the 
author, when the imperfect light that existed at the time is considered. 

The subject was now taken up by able hands ; and Pallas, especially 
in his anatomy of the Olires, made a great advance in Comparative 
Anatomy. Among the most active and enlightened labourers in this 
department^ our own John Hunter stands pre-eminent in England and 
Blumenbach in Germany. 

Bat the time was now come when a new light was to arise ; and 
George Ouvier, guided hv his dissections, became the great leader of 
his day. The 'Anatonue Compart,' the 'Ossemens Fossiles,' and, 
ihially, the * R^gne Animal,' were the results of his acute and compre- 
hensive demonsteations. In his hands Comparative Anatomy became 
s new power among the dynamics of natural histoiy, and by its aid he 
rebuilt the extinct fossil forms that before his time lav scattered over 
the face of our earth in wild and apparentiy inextricable disorder. 

Well does this extraordinary man enunciate the valuable truth, that 

since Natural History has taken Nature for the basis of its distri- 
butions, its relationship with Anatomy ha^ become more intimate. 
" One of these sdences," aays he,'" cannot take a single step without 
the other profitiug by it. The approximatipns which the first 
establishes often indicate to the other the researches that ought to be 
made." And again, with equal truth he declares, that " the natural 
history of an animal is tiie knowledge of the whole animal Its 
internal structure is to it as much as its external form, and perhaps 

That Cuvier practised what he preached is evident from his own 
record of his mode of proceeding in constructing his system : — 

" I examined," says he, " one by one, all the roedes whidi I could 
procure; I associated those which did not diner from each other, 
except in size, colour, or the number of some parts of little importance, 
and on these materials founded what I have called a sub-genus. 

" Whenever I could, I dissected at least one spedes of eadi sub- 
genus; and if those to which the scalpd could not be applied be 
excepted, there exist in my book very few groups of this degree, of the 
organs of which I cannot produce at least some considerable portion." 

As in this work tiie various artides on the Animal Kingdom will 
be generally given subordinate to the great divisions indicated by 
Cuvier, we have added in the following page his arrangement in a 
tabular form. 

The following are the distinguishing characters of the great divisions 
of this^arrangement : — 

Vertebrate Aniftials (Animalia vertebraicL) — They have all red blood, 
a muscular heart, a mouth furnished with two jaws placed one either 
before or above the other, distinct organs of sight, hearing, smell, and 
taste, situated in the cavities of the face ; never more than four limbs, 
the sexes always separated, and a very similar distribution of the 
medullary masses and of the prindpal brandies of the nervous system. 
On examining each of the purts of this great series of animals more 
dosdy, there may always be detected some analogy even in those 
spedes which are most remote from one another; and the gradations 
of one single plan may be traced from man to the last of fishes. 

In the second form there is no skeleton, the musdes are attached 
only to the skio, which constitutes a soft contractile envelope, in 
which in many species are formed stony plates called shells, the pro- 
duction and position of which are analogous to that of the mucous 
body ; the nervous system is contained within this general envelope 
together with the viscera, and is composed of several scattered 
masses, connected by nervous filaments, and of which the prindpal 
placed over the oesophagus bears the name of brain. Of the four 
senses, the organs of those of taste and vision only can be distinguished, 
the latter of which are even frequentiy wanting. A single family 
alone presents organs of hearing. There is alwavs, however, a complete 
system of circulation, and pfurticular otgans for respiration. Those 
of digestion and of the secretions are littie less complicated than in 
the vertebrated ^tnimiLlg. We will distinguish the animals of this 
second form by the appellation of 

Mollusc<niS Animals {Animalia MoUmca.) — ^Although the general 
plan of their organisation is not so miifonn, as regards the external 
configuration of the parts as that of the vertebrates, there is always an 
equal degree of resemblance between them in the essential structure 
and the nmctions. 

The third form is that observed in insects, worms, && Their 
nervous svstem consists of two long cords running longitudinally 
through the abdomen, dilated at intervals into knots or ganglions. 
The first of these knots placed over the oesophagus, and called brain, 
is scarody any larger than those which are along the abdomen, with 
which it communicates by fileonents that endrde the oesophagus like 
a collar. The envelope of their trunk is divided by transverse folds 
into a certain number of rings, of which the teguments are sometimes 
hard, sometimes soft, but to the interior of which the muscles are 
always attached. The trunk often beurs on its sides articulated limba^ 
but IS frequently unfrunished with them. We will bestow on these 
animals the term 

Articulate Animals (AnimaUa Arti€tUata.)--lt is among these that 
the passage is observed from the circulation in closed vessels to nutri- 
tion by imbibition, and the corresponding transition from respiration 
in circumscribed organs to that efiected by trachea or air-vessels dis- 
tributed through the body. The organs of taste and vision are the 
most distinct in them, a single family alone presenting that of hearing. 
Their jaws, ^en they have any, are always lateral 

Lastiy, the fourth form, which embraces all those animals known 
under the name of Zoophytes, may be designated 

Radiate Animals (Animalia £adiat€k.)--bi all the preceding, the 
organs of sense and motion are arranged symmetrically on the two 
sides of an axis. There is a posterior and an anterior dissimilar face. 
In this last division, they are disposed as rays round a centre ; and this 
is the case even when they consist of but two series, for then the two 
faces are alike. They approximate to the homogeneity of plants, having 
no very distinct nervous system, nor organs of particular senses :^ there 
can scarcely be perceived in some of them the vestiges of a drcula* 
tion ; their respiratory organs are almost always on the surface of the 
body ; the greater number have only a sac wiwout issue for the whole 
intestine ; and the lowest families present only a sort of homogeneous 

Digitized by 










CX.A0S T. 


inolndlng Eight Orden. 

Clam IT. 


Indading 8U Orden. 

Clam III. 


Including Four Orden. 






|7J^ < Bnaehte fixed. 

Clam I. 
baring One Order. 

Clam IT. 


luring One Order. 

Clam III. 


incinding Nine Orden 

Clam IV. 


induding Two Orden. 

Clam V. 
baring One Order 

Class VI. 
baring One Order. 

Clam I. 


inelnding ThrM Orden. 


Section II. ( 

EntomoBtrAcIa, . 

dirided into Two Orden. j^ 

Clam III. f 


Induding Two Orden. (. 

Compound eyes 

placed on pedicles ' 

and moreable. 

Eyes sessila and 

Clam IV. 


Indndlng Twelre Orden. 

Class T. 


including Two Orders. 

Clam II. 


including Two Orden. 

Clam III. 


including Two Orden. 

Clam IV. 


induding Thn^ Orden. 

Clasi V. 


induding Two Orden 

OBDvn I. 

II. Quadnimana 

III. Carnlrora 

IV. Rodentia 
V. Edentate 

VI. Pachrdermato 
VII. Rumlnantia 
VIII. Cetacea 

I. Rapaoes 
II. PaaserM 

III. Scausores 

IV. GallittB 
V. Gnlla 

VI. PalmipedM 

I. Cbelonia 
II. Bauria 

III. Ophidia 

IV. Batraebia 

I. Aeantbopterygii 

II. Abdominales. 

III. 8nb-bnebiaU 

IV. ApodM 

V. Lopbobruiehll 
VI. Pleetognatbi 

VII. SfcuriouM 

VIII. SeladiU 
IX. Cjdoetoml 






















I. Cepbalopoda NautOna. 

I. Pteropoda 

I. Pulmonla 
II. Nudibrandila 

III. Inferobranebta 

IV. TectlbranchU 
V. Heteropoda 

VI. PeettnibrancMa 
VII. Tubnlibranohia 
VIII. Scotlbnnchia 
IX. Cyc^branchia 

I. TMtseoa 
II. AcephaU 

I. Bncbipoda 

I. CIrrbopoda 

I. Tubloola 
II. Doraibrancbto 
III. Abranchia 

I. Deeapoda 
II. Btomapoda 

III. Amphlpoda 

IV. Lnmodlpoda 
V. iMpoda 

VI. Branebiopoda 
VII. Pcecilopoda 

I. Pulmonato 
II. Traehearla 

L MyrUpoda 
II. Tbysanonra 

III. Parasite 

IV. SttCtoria 
V. Coleopten 

VI. Orthoptera 
VIL Hemiptera 
VIII. Neuroptera 
IX. Hymenoptera 
X. Lepidoptera 
XI. Rhipiptera 
XII. Diptera 

T. Pedicellate 
II. Eehinodenna 

I. Cariteria 
II. Parencbyma 

Clio anstralii. 








The Sea-Ear. 



Lingnla Anatina. 



Gebia slellata. 

Wbale- Loom. 

Bnncblpns (Canoer stagnalis)? 

Fhrrnns. (Spider.) 
Pbalanginm. . 


Velret Spring-Tall. 











Cerebntnla. (FtUria.) 
Planaria eomuto. 

T. Acalepha (simple) Mednsa. 
II. Hydroetatiea DIphyee. 


I. Actinia 
II. Gelatlnon 
III. Conllina 

T. Rotifen 
II. Homogenea 

Green Actlnlt. 



Wheel Animalcule. 
Globe Animalcule. 

pulp endowed with motion and Benai- 
bility. Sinoe the time of Cavier con- 
aiderable adranceB have been made, 
especiallj in our knowledge of the 
lower forms of invertebrate »^niiintt]a^ 
and many of his orden have been 
broken up and considerably modified. 

At the time that Curier was working 
at his arrangement, and almost oon- 
temponmeoosly wilii a similar move- 
ment in botany, some of the more 
imaginatiTe and philosophic minds 
began to peroeive analogies in oigans 
and parts of the animal frame, which 
previously had only been regarded 
under their distinct or individual rela- 
tions. The close connection between 
the brilliant generalisations of this 
nature which first made comparative 
anatomists acquainted with the bones 
of the cranium and the essential re- 
semblanceS) or homologies, as they 
are termed, of the component elements 
of a vertebra under their varied forms, 
for the special purposes of the indi- 
vidual, is too dosely connected with 
similar researches after resemblance 
and analogies in zoology to be omitted 
in the present sketch of the history 
of that science. Qdthe, the founder 
of morphology, or the doctrine of 
organic analogies in plants, also made 
the first step in the advancement of 
similar, or, as they have been termed, 
transcendental views, in the anatomy 
of animals. The poet's discovery c^ 
the intermaxillary bones in man, the 
first fruits of this essentially syntheti- 
cal mode of studying organised beings, 
has been succeeded by many similar 
brilliant appreciations of true analogies 
by his successors Oken and Geofifboy, 
and the disciples of their school, which 
have more than compensated for the 
less substantial results of exuberant 
imaginations, which have too often had 
the effect of deterring the sober student 
of nature from digesting the worka of 
authors from which valuable informa- 
tion is to be obtained. 

Qermany and the Netherlands have 
reason to be proud of the names of 
Uliger, Temminck, Wagler, lichten- 
stein, and BiippelL 

In our own country and time, the 
Quinary System has been brought 
forward and applied by one of our 
most accomplished Eoologists in his 
' HorsB Entomologicse,' 'Annulosa 
Javanica,' his ' Remarks on the Com- 
parative Anatomy of certain Birds of 
Cuba,' in the 16th voL of the < Trana- 
aotions of the Limuaan Socie^,* and 
his ' Illustrations of the Annulosa of 
South Afrioa,' forming part iiL of Ih>. 
Andrew Smith's valuable ' Illustrationa 
of the Zoology of South Africa.' 

Mr. MacLeay brought to bear on 
this subject a comprehensive know- 
ledge of natural history, much learning; 
and the dose astute reasoning of a 
mind of no ordinary powers. The 
system has been applied in this country, 
by Mr. Vigors, to the Birds, and by Mr. 
Bennett, to the Mammalia and Fishes. 
With certain modifications it has been 
applied, by Mr. Swainson, to the Animal 
Kingdom generally, who, in his ar- 
rangement in the several volumes of 
the ' Cabinet Cyclopedia' written by 
him, has however left out Man. On 
the continent the Quinary System has 
never found favour, and it has now few 
if any followers in this country. 

The sciences of Zoology and Com- 
parative Anatomy have been studied 
in England, since the time of Cuvier, 
with great assiduity and 

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Amongst the most Bttoceflsfiil cultiTaton of these sciences is Professor 
Owen, who, in his com-ses of lectures as Hunteiian professor at the 
Royal College of Surgeons, and in his published works, has done much 
£or their advancement. ]^ his application of comparatiye anatomy 
to the explanation of the structure of extinct animals, he has been 
scarcely less successful than Cuvier, as his works on 'Fossil Mammals,' 
* Birds and Reptiles of Great Britain,' and his papers on the ' Dinomis,' 
-the 'Mylodon/ and 'Olyptodon' testify. He has also successfully 
applied the principles of the transcendental anatomists to the eluci- 
dation of the structure of the vertebrate skeleton in his work on the 
'Homologies of the Skeleton of the Vertebrata.' Added to his great 
powers of generalisation, he possesees great industry, and his lecture 
on ' Comparative Anatomy,' his 'Odontography,' and midtitudinous 
papers, bear witness that there is scarcely any department of our 
knowledge of the animal kingdom, that does not beiu* the marks of 
his geniua Dr. J. E. Qray, as^hesd of the Zoological department of 
the British Museum, has contributed hugely to our knowledge of 
ftnimftl forms. His papers in the Magawnee and Transactions of scien- 
tific societies amount to nearly 500 separate contributions. The 
"Works of Gotdd have contributed greatly to our recent knowledge 
of bird& Edward Forbes has most industriously laboured at the 
Marine Zoology of the British Islands, and his works' on the ' Star- 
Fishes;' the 'Naked-Eyed Jelly-Fishes,' and the 'Mollusca of Great 
Britain,' have contributed greatly to extend our knowledge of these 
families ; whilst his researches on the distribution of marine animals 
in depth, have given a new direction to geological inquiries. To 
Professor Bell, Mr. Yarrell, Dr. Johnston, and Dr. Biurd, zoology 
m greatly indebted for their works on the 'Mammalia^' 'Birds,' 
'Reptiles,' 'Fishes,' and 'Crustacea,' of the British Islands. The 
natural history catalogues of the British Museum contain descriptions 
of many new species, especially that devoted to the various forms 
of Zoophytes, and which has been undertaken by Mr. Busk. One of the 
greatest contributions ever made to our knowledge of sheUs, has been 
the collection made by Mr. Ctmiing, who is now resident in London. 
We ought also to mention the labours of Mr. Darwin on the family 
of Cirripedes, the Sea-Acorns, and Barnacles. The voyages of Belcher, 
Stanley, Kellert, Ross, Fitzroy, and others have added greatly to the 
number of animal forms. 

The ' Marine Vivarium,' recently formed at the Zoological Gardens, 
Regent's Park, London, will afford great assistance in the study of the 
organisation and habits of fishes and of marine invertebrate animals. 
Here may be seen, through the walls of glass tanks, in miniature 
oceans of sea-water, the daily life of lobsters, crabs, and shrimps 
{Crustctcea)y of sea-urchins (EchmidcB), of star-fishes (Attmaa, Stelr 
irridiant), of the beautiful sea^nemones, or animal-flowers {AcHnida), 
of sea-mice (Annelida) and sea-eggSi of barnacles and sea-aooms 
{Cimpeda), and many others. 

(Those who would study the subject of the general arrangement of 
the Animal Kingdom, are referred to the following works : — Cuvier, 
JUgne Animal; Owen, Lectures on Comparative Anatomy; Grant 
Comparativt Anatomy ; Patterson, Zoology for Schools; Rymer Jones, 
OntUnet of the Animal Kingdom ; Milne-Edwards, Slemene de Zoologie; 
Carpenter, PrtneipUt of Physiology.) [See Suppucmsht.] 

ANIMAliCULES, in Zoology, is the name which has been applied 
to small *m'mftla of various classes, which cannot be distinctly seen 
without the use of a microscope, as the minute radiate animal of the 
coral, the worms found in paste, vinegar, and vegetable infusions, or 
the smaller Crustacea found in poolsi, as the Monoctdi, [InrcBOBiA ; 


ANKERITE, a. mineral found at Salzburg, in the Alps, and other 
parts of the world, consisting of the carbonates of lime, magnesia, iron, 
and mauganese in the following proportions: — Carbonate of Lime, 51*11 ; 
Carbonate of My ^Aiii<>^ 25*7 ; Carbonate of Iron, 20*0 ; Carbonate of 
Manganese, 8*0. It occurs cxystalliBec^ and its primary form is a 
rhomboid. The cleavage is parallel to the primary planes. The 
•olour is white or yellow, or brownish. 

ANNEOLiIDA (Cuvier), an extensive division or class of animals, 
established by modem naturalists partly at the expense of Linnsus's 
heterogeneous class of Worms {Vermes), It was Baron Cuvier who 
in 1802 first proposed to distinguish iheAnndida as a class, chiefly 
on account of -their blood being of a red colour, as in the leech, and 
circulating by means of a double system of complicated blood-vessels. 

The name is derived from the Latin word anmulus, a ring, because 
the animals arranged under this division always have their bodies 
formed of a great number of small rings, as in the earth-worm. Their 
external covering, or skin, is soft and pliable ; and their bodies, having 
uo bony skeleton, are soft, and in general more or less of a cylindrical 

The AnneUda are for the most part oviparous, but the leeches and 
earth-wonns deposit what are termed capsules, or membranous 
cocoons, containing many embryo young. 

There is little variety in their mode of life. Some live in fresh and 
others^ in salt water ; and others, like the Hair-Worm (jSordius), are 
amphibious. Some species construct tubes in the interior of stones, 
vr in shells, which tney perforate, or in madrepores. Some species 
Again form calcareous cases, or cement around them various foreign 
substances, particularly sand. The sedentary species are timid, and 
when taken from their retreats can neither escape nor defend tiiem- 

selves. The Errantia, on the other hand, are frequently very nimble, 
and can defend themselves well by means of their bristies. 

Although manifestly a low group of the Articulate sub-kingdom to 
which they belong, Cuvier was so led away by the importemce he 
attached to their possessing red blood, that in his latest edition of the 
' B^e Animal ' he placed them at the head of the Articulate series, 
above the Crustacea, the Arachnida, and the Insects. A very cursory 
examination would suffice to show that the Annelida represent the 
caterpillar or larval condition of the insects, and could hardly be 
regarded as higher in organisation than the perfected insect. 

The body of the Annelide is long and soft, and divided into a 
nimiber of segments which agree in having the same form and nearly 
the same size throughout. In the lower forms, the first segment is 
not modified sufficiently to demand the name of a head ; but in the 
higher forms it assumes the character of a head^ and has organs 
adapted to the performance of cephalic functions. 

In the most imperfect Aimelides the organs of motion are suctorial 
disks such as are seen in the Trematode worms amongst the Eniozoa. 
As we ascend, hairs or hooks project from the lateral segments, as in 
the Earth-Worm. In others, bundles of hairs on each side take the 
place of locomotive members, as in Aphrodita, These bristles or 
bimdles.of hairs act as their weapons of attack and defence, and they 
are generally sharp or barbed to assist in that office. 

The nervous system of the Annelidos presents a great advance on 
that of the class immediately below them, the White-Blooded Parasitic 
Worms. It embraces a double central cord or chain of small ganglia 
passing from one end of the body to the other. Most of the species 
are provided with ocelei or fixed eyes, and the cephalic segment is 
furnished with soft cylindrical tentacles which have been called 
' antennse.' These are undoubtedly oi^gans of touch, but they difier 
structurally from the antennae of insects in the absence of joints. The 
mouth is seated at the lower surface of the head, and in some species 
there is also a trunk or probosds which the creature has the power 
of pulling in at will, and lateral-curved homy jaws. The alimentary 
canal is generally straight ; in some species quite simple, in others 
having lateral pouches. The anal orifice is situated above and at the 
lower end of the body. The blood varies in its degree of redness, 
being sometimes very pale, at other times of a greenish hue. It has 
no visible corpuscles, molecules, or cells whatever. There is no dis- 
tinction into venous and arteriaL The circulating system is very 
simple, consisting of a dorsal and ventral vessel with lateral branches 
passing to the tegumentary system, the peritoneal and branchial 
systems. In the dorsal trunk the blood flows from the tail towards 
the head, and in the ventral trunk from the head towards the taiL 

The respiratory system is in some of the Annelides adapted for 
obtaining oxygen from the air, and in the rest through the medium 
of water. The branchial oi^gans or gills by which the blood is aerated 
in the water are situated externally, and vary much in position. 

These are the general features in the anatomical structure of the 
Annelides. They exhibit great variety in their passage from the 
lowest to the highest forms. They are divided by Milne-Edwards, 
who, after Cuvier, has given this family most attention, into four 
orders : — 

1. The Dorsibranchialoi or Brrantes, including the SearCentipedes 
and Sea-Mice. 

2. The TubicolcB, which include those that live in tubes, as the 

S. The Taricoke, inhabiting the earth, including the Common Earth- 

4. The Suctorice, with suctorial disks, as the Leech. 

The order DorsibranchiatcB is named from the attachment of the 
respiratory organs to the dorsal surface of the body, along the whole 
or the grukter portion of the length. All the species belonging to it 
are aquatic and worm-like. They are active m their crawling, and 
swim with facility. On account of this last &culty Milne-Edwards 
has called them Erramtes, to disting^uish them from the next fietmily, 
which are characterised by opposite habits. Their head is distinct 
from their trunk. They are fdniished with two pairs of rudimentary 
eyes. The body is sometimes very long, as in the case of the tropical 
Nereids. [Nkreib.] It hajs however in the Sea-Mice considerable 
breadth. This genus, the Aphrodita' of Linnaeus, may be taken as the 
type of the order. 

Cuvier remarks that this genus is easily recognised among the 
Dorsibranchiate Annelides by the two longitudinal rows of wide mem- 
branous scales which cover the back, and under which are hidden their 
branchiae, in the form of small fleshy crests. Their body is generally 
flattened in form, and shorter and wider than it is in the other 
Annelides. Their very thick and muscular oesophagus is capable of 
being extruded like a proboscis. They have an imequal intestine, 
furnished on each side with a great number of branched caeca, the 
extremities of which go to fix themselves between the bundles of 
biistleB that serve for feet 

Savigny's Halithcecs consist of those which have three tentades, and 
between them a very small crest ; they are without jaws. 

Example, Halilhcea aculeata (Aphrodita acuteaUt, Linn.), the Sea- 

This is a very beautiful animal, and most superbly coloured. It is 
oval, 6 or 8 inches long, and 2 or 3 iuchos wide. The scales of the baQ^ 

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are ooyered and hidden by a kind of flocky down, like tow, which 
springs upon tiie sides, and from which issue groups of strong spines, 
tnat pierce, in part, the flocky covering, and bundles of flexuous 
bristles, glittering like gold, and changing into all the colours of the 
rainbow. Cuvler says, and without exaggeration, that they do not 
yield in beauty either to the plumage of* the humming-birds or to the 
most brilliant precious stones. Lower down is a tubercle, out of which 
come spines, in three groups, and of three different sizes, and finally 
a fleshy cone. There are 40 of these tubercles on each side, and 
between the first two are two small fleshy tentacles. There are 15 
pairs of scales, which are wide and sometimes pufied up, on the back, 
and 15 small branchial crests on each side. 

Prickly Sea^ouse {Aphrodita aeuUata), 
a, Tentral view ; h, dorsal and lateral view. 

Some of the Halithaem {HaUthStM Hermionet, Say.) have no flocky 
down upon the back, and such is Aphrod/Ua ffyatrix (genus ffermione, 
De Blainv.). 

The genus PolynSe, Sav. {Eumolpe, Oken), is another subdivision. 
This genus has flocky covering on the back ; the tentacles are 5 in 
number, and their proboscis is furnished with homy and strong jaws. 
PolynOe Uevis is an example. 

Then there are the genera SigoLum and Aeoites of Messrs. Audouin 
and Milne-Edwards. 

The first of these is more elongated in form than the other 
AphrodUa ; it has cirrhi on all the feet. Such is Sigalion MathtUUg, 

The second has cirrhi, which alternate with the elytra (as the two 
rows of membranous scales which cover the back are somewhat oddly 
called, the term being already applied to the homy external wings of 
coleopterous insects), in great length ; their jaws are stronger and 
better toothed. There is a large species at the Antilles which inhabits 
a sheath or pipe of the oonaistenoe of leather. 

Here Cuvier places his ChcBtopieruSf which has a mouth devoid of 
jaws and proboscis, furnished above with a lip, to which are attached 
two very small tentacula. Then comes a disk with nine pairs of feet, 
then a pair of long bristly bundles, like two wings. The branchiae, in 
the form of plates, are attached rather below than above, and are 
placed along the middle of the body. 

Example, ChcBtoptenu pergamentaceut. This is 8 or 10 inches long, 
and inhabits a pipe of the substance of parchment, in the seas of the 
West India Islands. 

The nervous system is more highly developed in the Dorsibranchiate 
Annelides than in the other orders. It consists of a double chain of 
ganglia, but the latter are larger generally, and the cephalic more fully 
developed, to accord with their organs of special sense. There are 
also observable nerves and ganglia destined to supply the digestive 
and respiratory organs. 

Although the JDonibrcmchiata are so highly developed, they never- 
theless many of them retain the power of regenerating portions of 
their body which may be broken off; and in certain species which 
divide spontaneously a whole animal is formed from parts that are 
separated. In this respect they are related to the lower vermiform 
animals included in the ErUozoa. [Ein?ozoA.] 

The TubicoloB are characterised by having their branchise in the 
form of plumes, or of small arborisations, attached to the head or on 
the anterior part of the body ; and nearly all inhabit tubes. 

Of those which inhabit tubes, some form a calcareous homogeneous 
one, resulting probably from their transudation, like the shells of the 

mollusca, but they do not adhere to it by means of musdes ; others 
construct a tube by agglutinating grains of sand, fragments of shells, 
or particles of sand, by means of a membrane whidi they doubtless 
secrete also; there are others again whose tube is entirely 
membranous or homy. (' R^gne Animal') 

To the first category belongs the genus Serpvla. The species of 
this genus are the Tuyaux de Mer of the Frendi, and their twisting 
calcareous tubes cover stones, shells, and other submarine bodies. The 
section of these tubes is sometimes roimd and sometimes angular, 
according to the Q>ecies. 

Cuvier describes the animal as having a body composed of a great 
number of segments ; its anterior part enlarged into a disk, armed on 
each side with many bimdles of stiff bristle-like appendages, and on 
each side of the mouth a plume of branchisB in the fonn of a fan, 
ordinarilv tinted with vivid colours. At the base of each plume is a 
fleshy filament; and one of the two, that to the right or left 
indifferently, is always prolonged and dilated at its extremity into a 
disk of different configuration, which serves as an operculum, and 
closes the aperture of the tube when the animal retires within it 
Cuvier further observes that as the most common species haa tlus 
disk in the form of a funnel, some naturalists have mistaken it for a 
proboscis ; but it is not pieixsed ; and the other species have it more 
or less of a club-shape. 

The number of species of SerpuLa (Lam.), admitted into the last 
edition of ' Animaux sans V ert^bres,' is 60 recent and fossil ; and 
M. Milne-Edwards adds many more at the end of the genus ; but he 
observes that very little is known of the specific differences presented 
by these animals, and that many of the living and all of the fossil 
species are characterised in a very doubtful manner. The fossils are 
said to be found in the Tertiary, Green-Sand, Chalk (environs of 
Miinster and Maastricht), Lias, and Oolite beds, &a Mr. Lea 
describes a species, Serpvla omat<i, from the Tertiary of Alabama 
(Claibome Beds). 

Dr. Fitton records 14 named species and two uncertain species from 
the strata below the chalk, ranging from the Upper Green-Sand to the 
Kimmeridge Clay. 

Sir Roderick Murchison notices Serpulitet and Spirorbia in the 
Silurian rocks, Serpulitet longitdmut in the upper Ludlow Rock, and 
Spirorbis tenmt in the lower Ludlow Rock, and in the Wenlock 
Limestone. He also records the presence of Serpula {Serpula 
omphaloldes, Goldl) in the Devonian Rocks of Russia. 

Example, SerptUa corUortupliceUa, The tubes of this Serpula are 
round, twisted, and about three Unes in diameter. Its operculum is 
funnel-shaped, and its branchisD are often of a beautiful rod, or 
variegated with yellow and violet It quickly covers vases, bottles, or 
other objects thrown into l^e sea. 

LoeaiUy, — The Mediterranean and European Seas. 

Serpula contortupfteata. 

In other species, as for instance of the genus Galeolctria, Lam., the 
operculum is flat and beset with points. 

Cuvier notices another species from the Antilles {Serputa giganita, 
Pallas), which lives among the madi-epores, and whose tube is often 
surrounded by their masses. Its brancnise ar^ rolled into a spiral form 
when they re-enter; audits operculum Ib armed with two small 
branched horns, like the antlers of a stag. This species is the TerdteUa 
bicomis, 'Abbild. BerL Schr.' ix.iiL 4; Actinia, or Animal Flower, 

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Home, * Lect on Comp. Anat' ii pL 1. Upon this spiral rolling up 
of the branchise Savigny establii^ed his subdivision of Cymotpvre 
Serpul<B, firom which M. de Blainville afterwards established a genus. 

The genus Spirwlns, Lam., consists of those SerpidcBvrhoee branchial 
filaments are much less numerous, only three or four on each side ; 
their tube is rolled up into a tolerably regular spiral, and they are 
ordinarily very smalL 

Sahdla. — ^The species of this genus have the same body and the 
same fan-shaped branchise as the SerpuUe ; but their two fleshy 
filaments adhering to the branchise each terminate in a point, and do 
not form an operculum ; they are even sometimes absent The tube 
of the SabdUe appears, most frequently, to be composed of grains of 
sand, of day, or very fine mud, and is rarely calcareous. The known 
species are rather large, and Cuvier notices their branchial plumes as 
being of admirable delicacy and brilliancy. 

Example, SabeUa protvla, Cuv. (Protula Eudolpkii, Risso). This 
beautiful and large species, with a calcareous tube like that of the 
Serpula, has the branchiae of a rich orang& 

TerebeUa. — The species like the greater part of the SdbeUce, inhabit 
a fisuititious tube ; but it is composed of grains of sand and fragments 
of shells ; their body, moreover, has much fewer rings, and their head 
is dififerently ornamented. Niunerous filiform tentades, susceptible 
of much extension, surroimd their mouth, and on their ne(^ are 
arborescent branchise, not fan-shaped. 

Example, TerebeUa conchilega. 

AmphUrite. — ^Cuvier remarks that the spedes of this genus are 
eaaOy known by straw-like processes ranged in a pectinated form, or 
in that of a crown, in one or more rows, where they probably serve 
for defence, or perhaps as means of creeping or collecting the materials 
for their tube. Around the mouth are very nimierous tentacles, and 
on the commencement of the back on each side are branchise in the 
form of a comb. 

Cuvier's genus AmphitrUe comprehends the Peclinarice of Lamarck, 
the AmphictHes of Savigny, the Ckrytodovis of Oken, the Cistenet of 
Leach, the SaheUariai of Lamarck, the JlermeUea of Savigny, and the 
genus Pheruta of De Blainville. 

Siphostoma (Otto). — The species of this genus, which Cuvier suspects 
should be referred to this order, have on each articulation above a 
bundle of fine bristles ; below, a simple bristle ; and, at the anterior 
extremity, two packets of strong and golden-coloured bristles. Under 
these bristles is the mouth, preceded by a sucker surrounded by many 
soft filaments, which Cuvier thinks may be brandiise, and accompanied 
by two fleshy tentacles. The knotted medullary cord may be seen 
through the skin of the belly. The S^hoitOTnata live burrowed in 
the sand. 

Examples, Siphattoma diplochaitoa, Oken; & uncinaia Aud. et 
Edw. < Littoral de France, AnneL' pL ix., f. 1. 

The dose connection between the ThibicoUe and the J)ornbrancki<U<B 
is seen in the fact that the young of these orders pass through 
precisdy the same stage before arriving at maturity. It is only during 
the last stages of change that the embryoes of TubicolcB manifest their 
ultimate destination by the unequal devdopment of certain of Uieir 
segments, some of which become almost abortive, whilst others are 
disproportionatdy developed. 

The TerricolcB have a cylindrical body tapering at both ends. The 
segments of their bodies are not well marked, and the head is not 
distinct from the trunk. They have neither eyes, mandibles, cirrhi, 
nor tuberculous feet This oi-der includes two prindpal groups, one 
of which only is terrestrial, whilst the other is aquatia To the 
former belong the Common Earth-^yorm (Lumbi'iciu terrestrU), whilst in 
the latter is induded the Lob or Lug-Worm (Arenicola), As the 
Earth-Worm is so well-known we ah^ refer to its structure and 
habits to illustrate the order. 

Cuvier remarks that the Lumbrici ought to be subdivided; and 
Savigny has, in effect, subdivided the Earth-Worms into the genera 
£nterion, Hypogaswi, and Clitellio. Messrs. Audouin and Milne-Edwards 
distinguish also the genus Trophonia, 

Of these Enterum has upon each ring four pairs of small bristle-like 
processes, dght in alL 

CliUUio is stated to have two bristle-like processes only on each ring. 

SypogcBon has, besides the other bristle-like processes, one on the 
back of each ring. (This form is noticed aa being American onlv.) 

Tropktmia has on each ring four bundles of short bristle-like 
processes, and at the anterior extremity a great number of long and 
brilliant bristle-Hke processes which surround the mouth. 

Savigny described upwards of twen^ spedes, which he considers 
to be distinct, and to have been conrounded previously imder the 
name of Lambricm terrettria. M. Morren, in his ' Treatise on the 
Natural History and Anatomy of the Lwmbricw terrestrU,* appears to 
be doubtful with regard to the number of species described by 
Savigny and others, and inclines to the opinion that they are merdy 
varieties. M. Milne-Edwards (edit of Lamarck's 'Animaux sans 
Yert^bres,' 18SB,) condders the characters on which Savigny relied as 
distinctions for dividing the group into the three genera as of little 

Externally the Earth- Worm {Lumibricus terrettru, Linnseus) presents 
a body composed of numerous narrow rings closely approximated to 
each other ; at about one-third of their \en^ may be seen^ particularly 


at the season of reproduction the clitellum, which becomes at that 
time a highly important agent The colour of l^e body is reddish or 
bluish, and of a shining aspect, and the animal has the power of 
secreting a viscous substance, which forms a sort of protecting sheath 
to its body, and greatly facilitates its progress through the earth. 
The animal is eyelesai, and unprovided with either tentacle, branchise, 
or cirrhi 

JiespircUory Sytttm. — The generally received opinion is that the 
blood of the Earth-Worm is aerated by means of lateral series of 
small pyriform vesicles, analogous to the breathing sacs of the Leech, 
and opening externally by very minute pores. 

JHgesiive SytienL^The mouth consists of two lips without tentades 
or armature of any description ; but the upper lip is elongated and 
proboeddiform. The oesophagus, which is a wide membranous canal, 
is continued straight down for half an inch, and ends'in a dilated bag 
or reservoir, to which succeeds a muscular stomach or gizzard, disposed 
in the form of a ring. The intestine is constricted at each segment of 
the animal by a series of ligaments or partitions, connecting it to the 
parietes of the body, and swells out the intermediate spaces, when 
distended by the partides of earth. 

Nervous System. — The nervous system of the Earth-Worm consists 
of a double row of small ganglions dose to each other. 

OenercUive System. — Allotriandrous, or with male organs so disposed as 
to fecundate the ova of a different individual. (Owen.) It has been 
doubted whether these animals are oviparous, ovoviviparous, or vivipa- 
rous. The fact is, that after fecundation by another individual, the ova, 
which are contained in the ovary, are set free in the cavity of the 
body by the bursting of the ovary, and are gradually propelled to a 
cavity near the anus. In this spot they undergo the usual changes, 
and they may or may not emerge from the parent before the egg- 
membrane is broken. 

Organs of Progression. — ^Earth-Worms creep at a good pace by means 
of muscular contraction and dilatation acting on the rings, which carry 
on their under-dde the bristle-like processes above mentioned : these 
last operate as feet The power of elongation is condderable, and the 
anterior part of the animal acts as a sort of awl in penetrating the 

Habits, Jsc. — ^The Earth-Worm, as far as relates to its appearance 
above the surface of the groimd, may be considered almost a nocturnal 
animal. In the night-season and at early morning hundreds may be 
seen, though not one, imless they are disturbed either by moving the 
ground or pouring liquids into their holes, is to be found moving about 
in the day. The power of reproducing parts after mutilation is very 
great in this animal and the whole of the order. 

Utility to Man. — The worm-casts, which so much annoy the gardener 
by deforming his smooth-shaven lawns, are of no small importance to 
the agriculturist ; and this despised creature is not only of great 
service in loosening the earth and rendering it permeable by air and 
water, but is also a most active and powerfiil agent in adding to the 
depth of the soil, and in covering comparatively barren tracts with a 
superficial layer of vegetable mould. In a paper ' On the Formation 
of Mould,' read before the Geological Society of London, by Charles 
Darwin, Esq., F.G.S., the author commenced by remarking on two of 
the most striking characters by which the superficial layer of earth, 
or, as it is conunonly called, vegetable mould, is distinguished. These 
are, its nearly homogeneous nature, although overlying different kinds 
of subsoil, and the uniform fineness of its particles. The latter fact 
may be wdl observed in any gravelly country, where, although in a 
ploughed field, a large proportion of the soil consists of small stones, 
vet in old pasture-land not a single pebble will be found within some 
mches of the surface. The author's attention was called to this subject 
by Mr. Wedgwood, of Maer Hall, in Staffordshire, who showed him 
several fidda^ some of which, a few years before, had been covered with 
lime, and others with burnt marl and cinders. These substances, in 
evexy case, are now buried to the depth of some inches beneath the 
turf. Three fidds were examined with care : the first consisted of 
good pasture-land, which had been limed, without having been ploughed, 
about 124 years before ; the turf was about half an inch thick ; and 
24 inches beneath it was a layer or row of small aggregated lumps of 
the lime, forming, at an equal depth, a well-marked wlute line. The 
soil beneath this was of a gravelly nature, and differed very consider- 
ably from the movdd nearer the surface. About three years since 
cinders were likewise spread on this field : these are now buried at the 
depth of an inch, forming a line of black spots paralld to and above 
the white layer of lime. Some other cinders, which had been scattered 
in another part of the same fidd, were either still lying on the surfiuie 
or entangled in the roots of the grass. The second field examined was 
remarkable only from the cinders being now buried in a layer, nearly 
an inch thick, 8 inches beneath the surface. This layer was in parts 
so continuous, that the superficial mould was only attached to the 
subsoil of red day by the longer roots of the grass. 

The history of the third field is more com)>lete. Previously to 
15 years since it was waste land ; but at that time it was drained, 
harrowed, ploughed, and well covered with burnt marl and cinders. 
It has not since been disturbed, and now supports a tolerably good 
posture. The section here was turf half an mch, mould 21 inches, a 
Uyer 1 \ inch thick, composed of fragments of burnt marl (conspicuous 
firom their bright red colour, and some of considerable siae, namely, 

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1 inoL by i an inch broad, and a \ inch thick), of cinders, and a few quartz 
pebbles mingled with earth ; lastly, about il inches beneath the surface 
was the original black peaty soiL Thus beneath a layer (nearly 
4 inches thick) of fine particles of earth, mixed with some vegetable 
matter, those substances now occurred, which, 15 years before, had 
been spread on the surface. Mr. Darwin stated that the appearance in 
all cases was as if the fragments had, as the farmers believe, worked 
themselves down. It does not however appear at all possible that 
either the powdered lime or the fragments of burnt marl and the 
pebbles could sink through compact earth to some inches beneath the 
surface, and still remain in a continuous layer; nor is it probable that 
the decay of the grass, although adding to the surface some of the 
constituent parts of the mould, should separate in so short a time the 
fine from the coarse earth, and accumulate the former on those objects 
which so lately were strewed on the surface. Mr. Darwin also remarked 
that near towns, in fields which did not appear to have been ploughed, 
he had often been surprised by finding pieces of pottery and bones 
some inches below the turf. On the mountains of Chile he had been 
perplexed by noticing marine shells, covered by earth, in situations 
where rain could not have washed it on theuL 

The explanation of these circumstances, which occurred to Mr. 
Wedgwood, although it may at first appear trivial, the author does 
not doubt is the correct one, namely, that the whole is due to the 
digestive process by which the Common Earth-Worm is supported. 
On carefiilly examining between the blades of grass in the fields 
above described, the author found that there was scarcely a space of 
two inches square without a little heap of the cylindrical castings of 
worma It is well known that worms swallow earthy matter, and 
that, having separated the serviceable portion, they eject at the mouth 
of their burrows the remainder in little intestine-shaped heaps. The 
worm ia unable to swallow coarse particles ; and as it would naturally 
avoid pure lime, the fine earth lying beneath either the cinders and 
burnt marl, or the powdered lime, would, by a slow process, be 
removed and thrown up to the surface. This supposition is not 
imaginary, for in the field in which cinders had been spread out only 
half a year before, Mr. Darwin actually saw the castings of the worms 
heaped on the smaller fragments. Nor is the agency so trivial as it 
at &ni might be thought, ti^e great number of Earth-Worms (as every 
one must be aware who has ever dug in a grass-field) making up for 
the insignificant quantity of work which each performs. 

On the above hypothesis, the great advantage of old pasture-land, 
whioh farmers are always particularly imwilling to break up, is 
explained ; for tiie worms must require a considerable length of time 
to prepare a thick stratum of mould, by thoroughly mingling the 
original constituent parts of the soil, as well as the manures aidded by 
man. In the peaty field, in 15 years, about 3 4 inches had been well 
digested. It is probable however that the process is continued, 
though at a slow rate, to a much greater depth ; for as often as a 
worm is compelled by dry weather or any other cause to descend 
deep, it must bring to the surfiEtce, when it empties the contents of its 
body, a few particles of earth. The author concluded by remarking, 
that it is probable that eveiy particle of earth in old pasture-land has 
passed through the intestines of worms, and hence that in some 
senses the term 'animal mould' would be more appropriate than 
'v^etable mould.' The agriculturist^ in ploughing the ground, 
follows a method strictly natural ; and he only imitates in a rude 
manner, without being able either to bury pebbles or to sift the fine 
from the coarse soil, the work which Nature is daily performing by the 
agency of the Earth- Worm. 

The most common species of Arenvcola is the A. PUcatorumf or 
Lug- Worm, which is oommonly employed on the coasts of this 
country as a bait by fishermen. 

The genus Nats, of Linnsdus, includes a number of small Annelides, 
not well made out They live in holes which they perforate in the 
mud at the bottom of the water, from which they protrude the upper 
portion of their body, which they are incessantly moving. 

The Suctoria are characterised by ihe body of the animals being 
destitute of bristles for locomotion, completely apodous, without soft 
appendages, and furnished with a prehensile cavity in the form of a 
Bucker at each extremity. The head is not distinct, but generally 
provided with eyes and jaws. 

The principal family of this order is the BirudinidcB, which compre- 
hends not only the Leeches properly so called, which live by sucking 
the blood of various animahi, but also includes many other worms 
which derive their nourishment in a totally different way, and present 
corresponding differences in organisation. The affinities between the 
leeches and some of the Setiferous Annelidans, as various species of 
Na-eis, Lwmbricm, Planaria, &a, are so close that they hardly admit of 
being arranged in separate orders, and others of the Leech tribe may 
even be confounded with some species of Lemeoe or Epkoa. 

The ancients appear to have only known the most common species 
of Leeches. Aristotle makes no mention of them, and tiiey do not 
appear to have been used in medicine in the time of Hippocrates. 
Plmy describes them very clearly under the name of Hiruiinei and 
Sanguituga, and distinguishes two species. The Sea-Leech is dis- 
tinctly mentioned by Belon, Bondelet, and by all the writers on 
natural history since the revival of letters. More recently Linnseus 
inoreMcd our knowledge of the number of species, ofwhioh ho desoriboB 

eight in the 12th edition of the ' Systema Natune.' Midler afterwards 
discovered five or six others, so that Qmelin, in his edition of the 
' Systema Naturae,' enumerated fourteen species. Since then, Shaw, 
Leach, Dutrochet, Savigny, Milne-Edwards, and others, have found 
many more, and the introduction of new zoological methods has caused 
a necessity for arranging these various species in different genera, of 
which we shall enumerate some of those which are best known. 

The True Leeches are all destitute of branchi» or special oigans of 
respiration ; and this fimction has been supposed to be effected by 
means of the skin generally, but M. Milne-Edwards has recently 
stated (as was before observed by Cuvier) that "there exists in these 
Anndidce a series of small membranous sacs, each of which commu- 
nicates externally by a minute orifice situated on the ventral aspect 
of the body: these sacs derive from, the numerous vessels which 
ramify upon their parietes a considerable quantity of blood ; water 
penetrates into these organs, and seems to subserve a true respiratory 
purpose." But though the species of the family Himdinida are not 
provided with distinct branchise, these organs are found in a genus 
which is generally associated with the True Leeches, and which we 
shall place first in the following list of genera : — 

1. Branchdlion, Savigny, BranchiobdeUa, De Blainville, PolydorUy 
Oken. These names have been given to a worm closely resembling 
a leech in external structure (it being furnished with two suckers), 
which is found parasitic on the Toroedo in the Mediterranean and 
other seas. The Hirvdo hranchiaia, Menzies, a species observed on 
the tortoise which is found in the Pacific Ocean, has also been placed 
in this genus, though Cuvier says that it ought not to be associated 
with it 

Hirvdinidos proper. 

Section I. — Anterior Sucker teparcUed from the Body by a dittinct 

StranguUUion or Neck. 

2. Albione, Sav., PorUohdeUct, Leach and Blain., characterised by 
the body being bristled over with tubercles. Species all marine; 
seven have been enumerated ; two of them are very common in our 
seas : — 1, Albione verrucot<i, Hirudo muricata, Linnseus ; 2, Ponto- 
bdella apinulosci. Leach : both of these worms attach themselves to fish, 
particularly skates; and the latter species is commonly known to 
fishermen by the name of the Skate-Sucker. 

8. HcBmochariSf Sav. ; Jchthyohdellaf Blain. In this genus there are 
eight eyes, the body is narrow, and the jaws scarcely visible. The 
only known species is the ffcemocharis Ptacium, Hirudo Piscium, Linn., 
which lives in fresh waters, where it attaches itself to fish, particularly 

Section II. — Anterior Sucker very dightly separcUed from the Body. 

4. Oeobdellay Blain., Trochetia, Dutrochet, is distinguished by having 
an enlargement round the orifices of the genital organs. We only 
know one small species of this genus, the OeohdeUa Trochetiiy which 
inhabits our waters, and which frequently comes on land to pursue the 
Lumbrici, or Earth- Worms. 

5. Pseudobdella, Blain., has the mouth merely provided with folds 
of skin, and is destitute of teeth. Only one species is well known, the 
PteudobdeUa nigrct, Hirudo rUgra^ Linn., the Common Black licech. 

6. Hcemopis, Sav., Hypobdelki, Blain., has the mouth furnished with 
a few obtuse teeth. Three species are enumerated ; the best known 
is the Hcemopit tanguisorbaf Sav., Hirudo sanguitugaf Linn., the Common 
Horse-Leech, which is much larger than the Medicinai Leech, and wholly 
of a greenish-black colour. The Horse-Leech has been reported to inflict 
dangerous wounds by some observers, while others say that it never 
attacks vertebrate animals. M. De Blainville thinks that this discre- 
pancy has arisen from this species having been confounded with the 
foregoing, the Black Leech, which cannot penetrate the skin of vertebrate 
animals for want of teeth. Both these leeches greedily attack the 
common earth-worm. 

7. Sanguifuga, Sav., Jalrobddla, Blain. The anterior sucker has its 
upper lip divided into several segments. Its aperture is transverse, 
and it contains three jaws, each of which is armed on its edge with 
two ranges of very fine teeth, which enable these leeches to penetrate 
through the skin without rnakiug any dangerous wound. This genus 
contains the true Medicinal Leeches, eight species of which have been 
enumerated : the most common is the Sanguisuga mediciiuUis, Hirudo 
medicinalis, Linn., which is a native of all our stagnant fresh waters. 

8. Bdella, Sav., has eight eyes and is destitute of teeth : one sx)ecies 
is found in the Nile — the Bdella NUotica. 

9. NephdiSj Sav., ErpobdeUa, Blain., has eight eyes, and the mouth 
is furnished internally with only three folds of sidn. Several species 
of this genus are enumerated ; the most common is the Ncphelii 
testUaia, Sav., Hirudo vulgaris, Linn. This species has often been 
confoimded with the medicinal and other leeches; it is commonly 
foimd in fresh waters, and, like all the other species of this genus, never 
leaves the water, and is injured by the contact of the air ; so that if 
taken out of the water it quickly dies. 

Section III. — Anterior Sucker wanting. 

10. Cleptina, Sav., Olosaopora, Johnson, Gloasobddla, Blain. This 
genus has a widened body and only a posterior sucker; the mouth is 
in the form of a proboscis. Cuvier thinks it doubtful whether the 
species of this genus should be arranged with the Leech Family ; they 

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coDsiKt of little worms which never leave the water, and live fixed to 
the stem of aquatic plants, from which they perhaps derive their 
nourishment : they never swim, but crawl along. 

Besides the genera which we have enumerated, several parasitic 
worms, which Uve always fixed to the same part of some animal, have 
been enumerated among the Bimdinida?, and have been arranged 
by Blainville in the genus Epibdella. He also places several other 
species, which are without distinct articulations, in the genus Mala- 
cobdtlla. There still remain several doubtful species of Leech, and 
some have been confounded with true PlanaricB, which differ from 
Leeches in having no sucker at either end. [See Sufplembnt.] 

To this order also is referred the genus Gordiua of Linnaeus, but 
recent researches have rendered it 
highly probable that their relations are 
rather with the Eniozoa. [Entozoa.] 
(Williams, Report of the Structure of 
Annelida, 'Brit Ass. Trans.,' 1851; 
Owen, Lectures on Comparative Ana- 
tomy ; Cuvier, JUgne A nimal ; Carp)en- 
ter, PrincipleM of Phytiology ; Milne- 
Edwards, EUmens de Zoologie.) 

ANOA, a species of Ruminating 
Animals, so very imperfectly known, 
that zoologists are undetermined 
whether to cdliBider it as an antelope 
or a species of buffalo. This uncer- 
tainty arises from the fact, that though 
the animal has been noticed for many 
years, only a few fragments of skulls 
and horns have been hitherto brought 
to Europe, and even these too im- 
perfect to acquaint us with the 
zoological characters of the animal. 
Judging, however, from these mate- 
rials, ttie Anoa would really appear 

to be a species in many respects inter- Horns of Anoa, 

mediate between the bufialoes and 

antelopes, as at present defined ; agreeing with the former in the form 
of its horns, and wiUi the latter in their position. 

ANOLIS {AnoliuSf Cuvier), a genus of Saurian Reptiles, belonging 
to that section of the Iguanias which Cuvier distinguishes by having 
teeth in the palate of the mouth as well as in the maxillary bones. 
They are readily distiuguished from the Iguaifias, properly so called, 
the Basilisks, and other genera of this division, by the peculiar form 
of the antepenultimate ph^anx of the toes, which is flattened beneath, 
and furnished with a kind of pad or cushion, grooved or striated trans- 
versely, and serving to make the animals adhere more firmly to those 
substances which they grasp in walking. In this particular point of 
their structure the Anolis approach the G^koes, but it does not 
enable them to exercise the singular power of walking with the legs 
uppermost, like flies on a ceiling, which some of these reptiles possesa 
The toes, however, are much longer and better separated thaji those 
of the Geckoes, and the claws, instead of being short and flattened, 
are long, crooked, and sharp-pointed. The body and tail are long and 
slender, as are also the legs, particularly those behind, which are 
rather longer than the fore-legs. Each foot has five toes. The whole 
body and tail, both above and below, are covered irregularly with 
Bnudl round scales, which give the skin a granulated appearance like 
that of a fine shagreen. 

The Anolis are entirely an American genus, and seem, in many 
respects, to supply in the New Woild the place which the Chameleons 
occupy in the Old. The colours of their skins change with the same or 
even greater rapidity, especially on the loose skin of the throat, which 
is constantly distended when these animals are actuated by strong 
passions, eitner of fear, anger, or love, and in this state they assume an 
endless succession of ever-varying hues. They differ from the Chame- 
leons, however, in their more slender and graceful proportions, and in 
the great activity of their movements, displaying all the restlessness 
and celerity of tne common green lizard of Europe. They frequent 
woody and stony situations indifferently, climb and leap with such 
swiftness and facility that their motion has been compared to the flight 
of a bird ; and, when overheated or fatigued by their exertions, will 
stop, open their mouths, and pant like a tired dog. They are extremely 
timid and harmless, and feed for the most part upon flies and other smaU 
insects. There are two small sub-genera, <Ustingmshed from one another 
by the presence or absence of the carinated crest on the upper surface 
of the tail The first of these divisions, comprehending those which 
have this crest, consists of a number of species definitely characterised 
by M. Cuvier, but formerbr confounded under the denominations of 
Lacerta principalU and Lacerta biTnacvlata, The principal species 
Me the following : — 

1. Anoliui velifer, of Baron Cuvier, is of a beautiful dark ashy-blue 
coloiur, and perhaps the lai^B;est of the whole genus, the body measuring 
a foot in length, and the tsSl being about a foot and a half. The crest 
extends along the top of the tail for half its length from the origin, and 
is supported by from 12 to 15 rays. The loose skin beneath the throat 
extends fr^m ike chin even to the belly, and when not distended forms 
a longitudixud fold along the whole under-flur£ace of the animaL 

The food, from the observation of Baron Cuvier, would appear, at least 
occasionally, to consist of berries and other vegetable substances. It 
inhabits Jamaica and the Antilles generally, preferring the woods to 
the open coimtry, and lodging in decayed trees or small crevices in the 

AnoHus velifer, 

groimd, where the female likewise deposits her eggs. It is incessantly 
in motion, and when pleased fr^uently emits a low but acute chirp ; 
though harmless and extremely timid, it possesses a considerabfe share 
of curiosity, and allows itself to be readily caught in little rush snares, 
which children in the West Indies amuse themselves by placing in its 
haunts, alluring it from its concealment by imitating its voice. 

2. Anoliua bimaculaia, of Sparrmann, is little more than half the size 
of the former species, but willi the same general form and habits, and 
with a similar crest upon the first half of the tail. The general colour 
is a greenish blue, clear on the top of the head and neck, but mixed 
with -dark brown on the body, tail, and extremities, and marked with 
numerous small black spots on the head and sides, and two large ones 
on the shoulders, frx>m which it derives its specific name. It is found 
in North America, from Pennsylvania to the shores of the Gulf of 
Mexico, and in the Antilles. 

The second subdivision of the genus Anolitu consists of i 
without a carinated crest on the tail, but in no other respect < 
from those already described. Of tibese the principal are : — 

8. Anolwu eqtustritf of Merrem, of which tiie tail, more flattened 
on the sides than in the following sx>ecie8, still retains a slight indi- 

AnoUus eqneStru, 

cation of the crest which distinguishes those of the former division. 
The body of this species measures about a foot in length, and the tail 
is nearly a foot and a half. 

4. Anolius Cepedii, of Merrem, is a pretty little species, found 
likewise in the Antilles, about half the size of the last, of a green 
colour, with a short muzzle spotted with brown, an^ except in 
the absence of the crest on the tail, very similar to the Anoliiu 

5. Anolius lineatus, of Daudin, resembles the last species in its pure 
bright green colour, but it is rather laiger, and is marked along each 
flank with two parallel lines of oblong bkck spots, the upper of which 
passes over the arms and thighs, and the under between the shoulders 
and hips. It inhabits different parta of South America* 

6. Anolitu huUaris, of Merrem, fiLrst described bv Catesby in his 
' Natural History of Carolina,' imder the name of the Green Lizardi 
is a very beautiful species, of a greenish gold colour, particularly dis^ 
tinguished by a black band on the temples, and the elongated and 
flattened form of its muzzle. 

ANONA'CEiE, Anonadt, the Cuttard-Apple-Tribe, a natural order 
of plants consisting of tropical or subtropical trees and bushes, that 
usually abound in a powerful aromatic secreUoni which renden 

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the flowers of some highly fragrant, the leaves of others a grateful 
perfume, and the dried fruits of many so highly aromatic as to vie 
with the spioes of commerce ; among these last is the Ethiopian 
Pepper of the shops, which is yielded by the fruit of Uvaria itromcUica. 
Of others of this order, the fruit is succulent and abounds in a delicate 
juice, which renders it a pleasant article of food. Under the name of 
Sour Sop, Sweet Sop, and Custard- Apple, many kinds are cultivated 
in the West Indies and South America. FiniJly, the bark of some 
separates readily into fibres which make excellent cordage: a large 
tree called in Brazil Pindaiba, and by botanists Xylopia serieeoy is 
advantageously employed for this purpose. 

The natural order Anonacta: is Imown from all other Dicotyledonous 
orders by its flowers having the calyx and sepals arranged in threes, 
a number of carpella occupying the centre, as in a ranunculus, and by 
the curious circumstance of their albumen, which here constitutes the 
bulk of the seed, being what ia called ruminated, that is, perforated in 
all directions by twisting and crossing passages, like the nutmeg. 

The Sweet Sop (Anon/a squamosa) is often only a small bush, growing 
in all the West India Islimds, where it bears a greenish fniit covered 
with scales, and having the appearance of a young pine-cone. Its skin 
is half an inch thick, and contains an abundance of thick, sweet, 
luscious pulp. In many parts of the Indian Archipelago it is a 
favourite fruit 

for light turnery, and its fruit is good for the dessert 
A, paltutris is used for making corks in Brazil 

The root ol 

Fruit of Sour Sop {Airr.a viuricata). 

9 *- O U 

Street Sop {Anona squamosa), 
1, A caljz opened, the petals having fallen awaj, showing the arrangement 
of the stamens and carpels in the inside of the flower ; 2, a stamen ; 3, a seed ; 
4, the same cut in half, to show the mminated albumen ; 5, the embryo ; 6, a 
ripe fmit, much less than the natural sixe (the projections on its surface are 
the points of the carpella which grow together into one fleshy mass, as in the 
raspberry) ; 7, a view of the same fruit out in half. 

The Custard- Apple (Afuma reiicvlata) is an inferior kind, resembling 
the foregoins; but forming a larger tree, and having a much larger 
dark-brown miit, the surface of which is netted all over. The bulb 
is yellowish or reddish, and of about the consistence of custard. 

The Sour Sop {Anona mnriccUa) forms in the West Indies a 
picturesque small tree, resembling a laige bay-tree. The flowers are 
yellow, and have an unpleasant odour. The fruit is often as heavy as 
2 lb., or even 3 lb. ; it is covered all over with weak prickles ; its skin 
is yellowish-green, and very thin ; its pulp is more like pith, is as 
white as milk, and is sweet mixed with a most agreeable acid. 

The Cherimoyer {Anona Chenmolia), is easily known from the 
preceding by its leaves not being shining and bright green, but hoary, 
with short down, and verv blunt It forms a small tree about 12 or 
14 feet high, and is exoeedmgly valued in Peru, wherd it is cultivated 
on account of the excellence of its fruit The flowers are very fra- 
grant. The fruit heart-shaped, grayish-brown or black, when ripe, with 
a scaly rind ; it is white, sweety and rich. 

A, sylvaiica is called AraHcu do Mate in Brajdl. Its wood is used 

Sour Sop {Anona muricata)^ 

ANOPLOTHE'RIUM (from & privative, Zw\oy, and Oifp, that is, » 
beast without ofiensive arms or tusks), in Fossil Zoology, a genus of 
extinct Pachydermatous Quadrupeds, discovered and charactcsrised by 
Baron Cuvier. The bones of these singular inhabitants of a former 
world, occur in great quantities, mixed with those of the PalcBOtheritm, 
another extinct genus of the same order, likewise described by V- 
Cuvier, in the gypsum-strata or plaster-quarries in the neighbourhood of 

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Paris, and thev aro occasionally, though more rarely, met with in the 
neighbourhood of Orleans and C^enoa. Remains also of this genus 
hare been found in the fresh-water deposits at the Seafield quarries in 
the Isle of Wight 

The first character m which the Anoplotherta differ essentially from 
all other Pachydermata, whether extinct or recent^ is found in the 
number and arrangement of their teeth, which consist of 6 incisors, 
2 Gftnines, and 14 molars in each jaw, making in the whole 44 teeth. 
These, as in the human subject, are arranged in a continued and 
uninterrupted series, without any vacancies between the molars or 
incisors and the canines, a circumstance peculiar to this genus of 
animals among ihe Pachydermata, and which, besides man, it shares 
only with the qhrews and hedgehogs — Mammalia in all other respects 
widely different. The canines moreover are perfectly similtur in 
form and appearance to the incisors, and might easily be mistaken for 
lateral teetn of this description, did not their situation in the jaw, 
beyond the maxillary suture, prove their real nature. The four 
posterior molars resemble those of the Rhinoceros and Palscotheria ; 
that is to sav, they are quadrangular in the upper jaw, and marked in 
the lower with a double or triple crescent of enamel, which penetrates 
their substance and shows itself on the crowns in the form of salient 

This 'formation of the oigans of mastication, intimately connected 
as these oigans necessarily are with the food and alimentary canal, 
demonstrate most ilnequivocally that these animals fed upon vegetable 
substances, and that, in all probability, they differed but little in this 
respect from the Tapirs and Rhinoceroses at present existing. 

The second important character of the Anoplotheria which must 
have exercised a very decided influence upon their habits, arises firom 
the conformation of the extremities. These, as in Ruminating Animals, 
were terminated by two toes, enveloped in small hoofs, sometimes 
without accessory or false hoofs behind, as in the Camels and Llamas, 
sometimes with one or even two small lateral toes of this description, 
as in the Peccaries ; but the bones of the metacarpus and metatarsus 
respectively corresponding to these two toes were not united into a 
single canon, as they invariably are among the Ruminantia, and this 
is in reality the principal difference between the extremities of the 
latter AnimRla and those of the Anoplotheria, The structure of the 
carpus and tarsus is precisely the same in both genera ; the scaphoid 
and cuboid bones, wnich are soldered together into a single piece in 
all the other Ruminantia, being separate in the Camels and Llamasy 
as they invariably are in the Anoplotheria and other Pachydermata. 
These analogies prove that the Anophtherium, which its teeth have 
already shown to have been essentially a Pachydermatous quadruped, 
approached in many of its characters to the Ruminantia of l^e existing 
creation, partaking on the one hand of the characters of the Camels 
and Llamas, and on the other of those of the Rhinoceroses and 
Peccaries. In the less prominent details of organisation however, the 
different species of Anoplotheria present peculiarities which have 
induced Biron Cuvier to distribute them in three sub-genenL In all, 
the prolongation of the nasal bones deai'ly shows that the Anoplotheria 
were not furnished with trunks like the Elephants, Tapirs, and 
Palaeotheria ; and their head altogether, judging from the form of the 
skull, appears to be intermediato between that of the Horse and that 
of the Camel The first subdivision comprehends those species which 
M. Cuvier calls — 

Anoplotheria proper. They are disting^uished by having all the 
lower molars marked by double or triple crescents in a longitudinal 
direction, without salient tubercles ; and by a third or supernumerary 
hoof on ike fore-feet This division comprehends two species, differing 
from one another principally in point of size, the one {A. commwne) 

Anophtherium eommwu. 

being about the size of the ass, and the other (A, tecundaritm) about 
that of the hqg. Both these species have been found in the Isle of 
Wight These animals were low on the limbs^ probably like the 
Tapirs, but their k>ng and powerful tail, equallmg the body itself in 
length, made them still more essentially aquatic animala The great 
nse of their members, the depressed and heavy proportions of their 
Wies, and their long tails compressed horizontally at the base, must 
nave given them much of the extomal form of ue ottor; but they 
i«sorted to the lakes and marshes of the antediluvian world, not for 
^ puipose of preying upon other animals, but in search of aquatic 

plants, whilst the depressed form of their tails shows that they must 
have swum and plunged with as much ease and facility as either the 
Tapir or Hippopotamus. Like these animals their ears were probably 
short and erect, and their bodies sparingly covered with hair, as in aU 
the existing Pachydermata. • 

The sub-genus Xiphodon differs from that just described in having 
the inferior molars tuberculous, and being without the additional or 
false hoof on the fore feet It contains but a single species (A . ffracile), 
which, judging from the length and smallness of its limbs, and the 
elevation of the tarsus, must have presented in every respect a complete 
contrast to the A. commune, exhibiting the light form and graceful 
proportions of the gazelle. Its course must necessarily have been 
rapid, and probably unembarrassed by a long toil ; and, instead of 
resorting habitually to the rivers and ponds, Uke the former species, 
it must have been confined to the dry land, and, probably like the 
gazelles and antelope.^, fed upon dry aromatic herbs, and was pro- 
vided with long moveable ears to warn it of the approach of danger. 

Anophtherium ffracile. 

The third subgenus, DichoUunet, contains three species, all esta- 
blished from the observation of detached bones, and of the actual 
forma of which it is consequently impossible to give a correct idea. 
They differed from the species contained in the two former subdivisions, 
principally by having a small additional or false hoof both on the 
fore- and hind-feet ; and this character is so well marked in all the 
sub-genera of M. Cuvier, that, besides other considerations, it would 
suffice, among existing animals, to distinguish three separate genera, 
and perhaps should do so in the present instance. The Diehdbunee 
were aU of small stature: the laxgest of the three known species 
(A, leporinum) was about the size of a hare; the other two 
(A, murinum and A, oUiquum) about that of the guinea-pig, were 
in all probability the smallest of hoofed quadrupeds. M. Cuvier 
supposes them to have been the hares and rabbits of the preadamite 
world, but their whole structure seems to approximate them more 
oorrectiy to the musks of the present time, and they probably differed 
little from these animals either in form or habita. Another species of 
this genus was discovered by Mr. Pratt> in the Eocene depoeito at 
Binstead in the Isle of Wigfat» and has becu described by Professor 
Owen under the name of D, cervinunL 

( Cuvier, Ouemene Fosrilet ; Owen, British Fouil Mamm^tl^) 

ANOPLURA, afiimily of Insects, including the Aptera of Linnaeus, 
and the various fonns of PedietUtu [Pediculus] and Parasitic 
Insects of other authors. The researches which were commenced on 
this funily by Dr. Leach have been carried on by Mr. Denny, and 
resulted in the discovery of a vast number of new forms. The result 
is that it has been foimd that every animal is infested with, or, for 
some wise purpose is accompanied by, one or more creatures 
belonging to this family, having a peculiar form in each species. 
Nearly 500 different forms of these curious insecisy all formed on 
the type of the common human louse, have been described by 
Mr. Denny, in the catalogue of the specimens which at present exist 
in the British Museum. In most oases but one spedee of the parasite 
exist on one species of animal, but there are instances, as in the eagles 
and golla, in which a species of the bird is attacked by five species 
of AnoplvTo, The best series of illustrations of these insecto which exist 
are contained in Denny's ' Anoplura Britannica,' published in 1B42. 

ANORTHITE, a mineral found at Monte Somma, uid, according 
to the analysis of Rose, containing : — 

Silica 44*9 

Aliitnma 84*46 

Lime 15*68 

Magnesia 5*25 

Oxide of Iron 0*74 

It occurs crystallised, and has the primary form of a doubly 
oblique prism. The colour and streak are white. The lustre is 
vitreous, inclining to pearly on the deavage surfitces. It is translucent 
and transparent. The specific gravity is 2*65. 

ANSER, the Qoose^ a genus of birds which M. Brisson separated 
from the genus Anat of Linnnus. Brisson has been followed in this 
by Baron Cuvier, Yieillot) Lesson, Drapiez, and Fleming ; while 
Latham adheres to Linnreius and Temminok confines Amer to a 
section of Amu, [Dt70K&] 
ANT {Formica), a well-known genus of insects, which has attracted 

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attention from the earliest ages, on account of the singular economy 
and extraordinary industry manifested by the different species. In 
the present article we shall confine ourselves to a brief bat methodical 
outline of their natural history. In tracing the history of most insects, 
it is best^ peihaps, to begin with the ^ggs; but in the case of the ant, 
the laying and hatching of the eggs could not be well understood 
without an acquaintance with their wngnlaj' manner of pairing, with 
which, therefore, we shall begin. 

Pa4rmg of Antt. — It may be necessary to premise here, that, aunilar 
to bees, a community of ants, whaterer the species may be, consists of 
males, which have always four wings ; of females, much larger in size 
than the males, which only possess wings during the pairing season ; 
and of a sort of barren ieznales, which have been variously termed 
neuters, workers, or nurse-ants, and which, so fiu* as we know, have 
never been observed to have wings in any stage of their existence. 

If an ant-hill be examined any time after midsummer up to the 
close of autumn, there may be seen, mixed with the wingless workers, 
a number of both males and females furnished with white glistening 
wings. These however are neither kings nor queens in the state, at 
least so far as freedom of action is concerned, for they aro not allowed 
to move without a guard of workers to prevent their leaving the 
boundaries, and if one straggles away unawares, it is for the most part 
dragged back by the vigilant sentinels, three or four of whom may, in 
such cases, be seen hauling along a single deserter by the wings and 
limbs. The workers, so far from ever facilitating the exit, much less 
the departure of the winged ones, more particularly the females, guard 
them most assiduously in order to prevent it ; and are only forced to 
acquiesce in it when uie winged ones become too numerous either to 
be guarded or fed. There seems indeed to be a uniform disposition 
in ^e winged ones to desert their native colony : and as they never 
return after pairing, it would soon become depopulated in the absence 
of females. The actual pairing does not seem to take place within the 
ant-hill, and we have observed scouts posted all around, ready to 
discover and carry back to the colony as many fertile females as they 
could meet with. Nay, we are quite certain tiiat whole colonies have 
been thus dispersed ; and when they did not find fertile females near 
their encampment, they have gone farther and fiirther till they found 
them, and, if they had gene very far, never returned, but commenced 
a number of new estabBshments, according to their convenience. It 
is probable that, soon after pairing, the males die, as do the males of 
bees and other insects ; for, as the workers never bring any of them 
back, nor take any notice of them after leaving the ant-hill, they must 
perish, being entirely defenceless, and destitute both of a sting and 
of mandibles to provide for their subsistence. The subsequent proceed- 
ings of the females are very different, and of curious interest. It was 
supposed by the ancients that all ants, at a certain age, acquired wings; 
but it was reserved for the younger Huber, in particular, hj means of 
his artificial formicaries, to trace the development of the wmgs in the 
female from the first commencement, till he saw them stripped off and 
laid aside like cast clothes. 

This curious process, which was first hinted at by Gould in his 
interesting accoimt of ' English Ants,' we have repeatedly witnessed 
— ^the females extending their wings, bringing them over their heads, 
crossing them in every direction, and throwing them from side to side, 
till at length they are disjointed from the body and fall off 

FotmdcUion of Colonies. — Some of the females are, after pairing, 
usually captured by the working ants, and conducted back to the 
•pereat community; and others are laid hold of by straggling parties 
of from two to a dozen workers, who do not return to the parent 
community, but commence small colonies on their own account. This 
explains the common occurrence of a great number of small colonies 
being formed in the immediate vicinity of each other, while sometimes 
the parent community is thereby quite broken up, and the hill deserted 
This happens frequently in the case of the Red Ant {Myrmiea rubra) 
and the Ash-Colo\ired Ant {Formica fu8ca)f both very common species 
in fields and gardens. In the case of the Yellow Ant {P, flavfiC) agidn, 
and the Wood-Ant (F. rvfa), this rarely occurs, the parent community 
often remaining in the same spot for years together. 

When a female, after pairing, does not chance to fall in with any 
scouting parties of workers, she proceeds without their assistance to 
found a colony herself in the same manner as is always done by the 
females of the social wasps and humble-bees every spring. We have 
repeatedly verified this &ct, both by confining a single female after 
pairing, and witnessing her proceedings, and by discovering in the 
fields single females occupied in laying tne foundations of a future city 
for their progeny. We have met with these single females when they 
have just begun to form the first cell for the reception of their eggs ; 
when the eggs have just been laid ; when the eggs have been hatched ; 
and also when a few workers had been reared to assist in the common 

Ck>ntrary to what takes place in most insects, the eggs of ants are 
not, when laid, glued to any fixed place, but are found in parcels of 
half a dozen or more loosely attached, so that they can be removed at 
pleasure during the hatching. It has been shown in the ' Penny 
Magazine' (vol. i., p. 60), by a series of minute observations, that the 
female earwig moves her eggs with the utmost care from a place which 
■he judges too dry, to one which is sufficiently moist ; and m the same 
way the female ant, when she founds a colonf without assistance, or 

the nurae-ants in a community, change the situation of the eggs 
according to the state of the weather or of the day and night— a 
circumstance fiivt observed by Dr. King in the reign of King Chariea XL 
Heat being indispensable to their sucoesaful hatching, the eggs are 
carefully placed during the day near the surface of the ant-hill, bat 
so sheltered from the direct influence of the sun as to prevent the too 
rapid evaporation of their moisture. During the m^U or in oold 
weather, we eggs ure not placed eo high, to prevent the escape of the 
heat which they naturally possesa The attention to the state of 
temperature occupies much of the assiduity of the female and tlie 

When the eggs are at length hatched (and during this process we 
have already seen that they enlarge in size), the young grubs are 
similarly treated with respect to temperature, but greater care is now 
taken to preserve them from too great heat, which might prove more 
iiijurious than before hatching. 

The grubs are fed by the nurse-ants when any of these are in the 
colony, and by the mother when she is alone, by a liquid disgorged 
from the stomach, as is done in a similar way by wasps, 'humble-bees, 
pigeons, and canary birds. It consequently requires no little industry 
on the part of a solitary female to procure for herself sufficient food 
to supply nutriment for a brood of perhaps a dozen or twenty gnibn, 
which are insatiably voracioua 

When the grubs are full grown they spin for themselves cocoons of 
a membranous texture, and of a brownish-white colour, not unlike 
barleycorns in appearance, and indeed mistaken for these by early 
observers — a mistake whidi led to the unfounded notion that ants 
store up com for winter provision, though, from their always beconung 
torpid in the winter, they could have no need of this*; and even were 
this not so, they never feed on com, and would probably starve rather 
than taste it The authority of Scripture, which has been supposed 
to countenance the popular notion, is shown by the Rev. Dr. ^uris, 
Messrs. KIrby and Spence, and others, to have no foundation in the 
sacred text. 

The cocoons are treated precisely like the eggs and the gmbs with 
regard to exposure to heat; and the anxiety of the nurse-ants to 
shelter them from the direct rays of the sun is taken advantage of on 
the Continent to collect the cocoons (popularly and erroneously called 
ants' -eggs) in quantity as food for nightingales and larks. The coooona 
of the Wood- Ant are the only species chosen ; and in most of the towns 
in Germany one or more individuals make a living during summer by 
the business. 

In the case of moths, ichneumons, and other insects which spin 
themselves up in cocoons, the included insect, when the time of its 
change arrives, is enabled to make its own way through the envelope; 
but though it would appear, from some observations made by 
Swammerdam, that ants may, when forced thereto, effect their own 
disengagement this is not the usual process. It is the nurse-ants 
that cut a passage for them with their mandibles, as was first minutely 
described oy Bauron de Qeer and the younger Huber. 

Labours of the Working Ants. — ^We have already seen that workers 
or nurse-ants have to labour assiduously in placing the ^gs, the grubs, 
and the cocoons in due degrees of temperature ; tiutt they have to feed 
the grubs by a liquid di^rged from the stomach, and have to dis- 
engage the insect at its period of change from the envelope of the 
cocoon. They have also to perform the task of forming streets, 
galleries, and chambers for the habitation and protection of the 
colony, and they exhibit in the work such perseverance and skill as 
must excite the admiration of every observer. Many of their processes, 
indeed, it is not a little difficult to account for and explain, though 
these have been very carefully investigated, particularly by the younger 
Huber, in whose work, and in the ' Library of EntertcJning Knowledge 
— ^Insect Architecture ' (p. 254 et seq.), may be foimd copious details of 
the mining, masonry, and carpentry of varioiis species. We shall here 
give an instance of each of those operations. 

Mining. — There is an interesting species called the Sang^uinary Ant 
{F. sanguinaria, Latreille), reported to have been seen near London, 
but which is certainly very rare, if it is found in England. In the 
summer of 1882 we discovered several colonies of this ant on the brow 
of the heath above Godesberg, on the Rhine ; and being desirous of 
taking a number of them alive to England for the purpose of observing 
their singular maimers, we waited till the beginning of October, when 
they had ceased to work, and had retired for the winter to their 
galleries underground After uncovering the thick coping of dry 
heath-twigs and grass-stems which was placed over the subterranean 
city of the colony so as to defend it from rain and cold, we found 
several covert-ways dug into the clay, wide enough to allow two or 
three ants to walk abreast; but not an individual now n!iade its 
appearance, though some weeks previously we had observed thousands 
in all the bustle of industiy ; and we began to fear the whole had 
migrated elsewhere. Being anxious, however, to see the interior struc- 
ture, we dug in the direction of the covert-ways to the depth of about 
six or nine inches, when we came upon a number of chambers com- 
municating with each other by galleries, and from an inch to two or 
three inches in extent, in each of which a number of ants were lying 
along the floor in a half torpid state, being so sluggish that they could 
not be brought to run with their usual agility even when irritated 

The point which we wish to call attention to here is, that the whole 

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of the apartmentB which we laid open, amounting to a dozen or more 
—and there were probably as many more to which we did not pene- 
trate— must haye been dug out of the solid clay by the jaws {foaitdwula) 
of these little miners. We deemed it singular imt we could see none 
of the rubbish lying about, which must have been cleared away from 
the interior; and we can only account for this by supposing the 
colony long established, and the rubbish battered into the grass by 
the weather. 

In other instances of mining, such as in the case of the Turf-Ant 
(K catpihAm), the clay taken from the interior is built up on the 
outside, using the herbage for buttresses to support the walls thus 
formed. In the case of the Sanguinary Ants, however, we observed 
nothing of this kind, and do not think they ever employ any exterior 

Matowry, — The most common of our English ants which employ 
masonty is the Tellow Ant (P. fiavtC), whose hills are so usually fdimd 
built up in old pastures, a foot or more in height, and from 6 inches 
to 2 feet in diameter. For the materials of their building they are 
wholly indebted to the soil below, which they quarry out with great 
assiduity ; but as they have no means of tempering the day when it 
is dry, they are always forced to execute their principal works in 
rainy weather. "I was," says Dr. J. R. Johnson, "in the habit of 
visiting, almost daily, for a month, an extensive nest of Red Ants, of 
which a laz^e flat stone formed the roof. During my visits for the 
first three weeks, scarcely a drop of rain had faUen, and the nest 
Beemed considerably injured by the continual falling in of loose earth, 
which these little creatures with amazing industry removed, whenever 
it happened any of the avenues were blocked up. No attempt was 
ever made towiurds reparation ; but what was my surprise, on visiting 
my little inenda after a two days' heavy rain, to find that the repairs 
were ahready completed, and that the upper surface of their habitation 
presented as smooth a surface as if a trowel had been passed over it ; 
yet all their work they had industriously effected by kneading with 
the rain-water the loose earth into a sort of paste. From the nest 
being situated in the midst of an extensive heath, where there could 
be no supply of water, and from its remaining uiurepaired during 
the dry weather, it amounts to a full conviction that ants employ 
no other cement than water in the construction of their varied 

"I have often been surprised at the ingenuity of these little 
czeatores, in availing themselves of contiguous blades of grass, stalks 
of com, ftc, when ^ey wish to enlarge the boundaries of their abode. 
As these are usually met with in the erect position, they are admirably 
calculated for pillars ; they therefore coat them over with a fine paste 
of earth^ giving them, by additional layers, the solidity they judge 
necessary for tlie work on which they are engaged ; they then leave 
them to be consolidated by the wind, and afterwards spring a number 
of arches, from pillar to pillar, and thus form an extensive saloon. 
Should they be at any time in want of small apartments, they have 
only to prepture a quantity of moistened earth, and by placing this 
between the pillArs, and carrying it up to the roof, leaving here and there 
an aperture for entrance^ their object is completely attained." 

It is remarkable that the greater part of these masonic labours are 
performed during the iiight, or at least in gloomy weather. 

Carpentry. — The coping which we have already described as placed 
over the subterranean abode of the Sanguinary Ants, and which is 
Btill more remarkable in the colonies of the Wood- Ant (P, rufa), 
camiot be referred to any sort of carpentry, for the small sticks and 
BtrawB of which it is composed are not cut into fitting lengths, but 
collected in the vicinity of the hill and laid on it after the manner of 
thatch. The term carpentry, however, will apply most justly to those 
species which form excavations in the interior of trees, of which the 
following is an instance observed in 1832. 

We had brought into our garden in the beginning of June, a large 
piece of a willow tree, which had been very curiou^y worked out by 
the species usually called the Emmet (P, fvliginoiaf Latreille). The 
tree indeed from which it had been taken, appeared to have been 
destroyed in a great measure from the extensive excavations of these 
little carpenters. Yet the portion of the tree alluded to seemed to be 
singularly strong, when the great number of the cells and their 
peculiar structure was taken into consideration. The walls of these 
cells were literally as thin as writing-paper, though not quite so smooth 
and even, and they were seldom quite parallel, but arranged, some 
perpendicularly, and others slanting in various directions, worked out, 
It would appear, upon no previous design, but beginning at any given 
point, and only limited in extent by the worker discovering his 
approach to one adjacent. The tact with which they chisel away the 
wood with their jaws, so as to come so near the next cell without 
actoaUy cutting into it, cannot well be accoimted for on any of the. 
common principles of human mechanism. It cannot be the result of 
vision, from the workerout looking along the level of the plane,' as 
one of our carpenters would do, and thence working so as not to cut 
through it ; for the wall has, in most instances, though not in all, no 
five edge along which such a level could be taken by &e eye. Hearing 
might assist them however, supposing workers to be engaged in 
c hisrilin g on each side of Uie partition, but it would appear to be 
more from touch, or rather that modification of it danominated 
tact, which enables them to feel, aa it were, when they have 

nearly penetrated the wall, and which consequently warns them to 

It is not a little remarkable, that all the wood which is worked out 
by these ants is tinged of a black colour, giving aU their streets and 
lanes somewhat the appearance of having suffered from fire or of being 
smoked. M. Huber the younger did not succeed in ascertaining the 
cause of this black colour. We should conjecture it to arise from 
iron contained in the saliva of the ants acting on the gallic add of the 
wood, in a similar way as the same wood becomes black when cut 
with a knife. The fine glossy black of the ants themselves may 
originate from the same chemical principle, and this is rendered more 
probable from the excavations made by other species, such as the 
Dusky Ant ( P, fuaca, Latreille), not being tinged With this black 
colour. Neither are the excavations of the latter so regular in the 
form of the cells ; and the delicately thin partitions do not occur. 
We have seen several colonies of the Tellow Ant (P, jlava, Latreille) 
established in trees, though their usual habits lead them to prefer a 
hedge-bank, the dry ridge of a field, or a small knoll on a common. 
In none of these however had the workers much trouble in making 
their excavations, the trees being in every instance far gone with the 
dry rot^ and the chambers were consequently as easy to construct as 
in a knoll of sand. In the instance of tiie Black Carpenter-Ant 
( P. fuliginoaa ), on the other hand, the wood of the tree selected for 
their colony is always hard and tough, the easiness of working it being 
apparently considered a disadvantage rather than a recommendation. 
We have usually seen these colonies, therefore, in growing trees, the 
oak seeming to be preferred to all others ; the honeycomb-like work 
does not seem to stop the vegetation, the tree continuing to put forth 
leaves and shoots as before it was excavated for the use of the 
colony. In the instance which gives rise to these remarks, the willow 
tree was indeed dilapidated and shorn of its leaves and branches, yet 
was it untouched with dry rot> and the wood was hard and tough. 

Pood of Ants, — Some species of ants are carnivorous and will eat 
insects, fruits, and almost anything eaten by other animals ; but honey 
is the most universal favourite among all the species, particularly the 
excretion of the various species of Aphides;, called Honey-Dew. It is 
on this account that> wherever Aphides abound, we are always certain 
to meet with ants carefully attending their motions and greedily 
drinking the honey-dew, which becomess so injurious to plants when it 
increases in quantity so as to obstruct the pores of the leaves. It is 
stated by Huber and some other authors, that during winter the ants 
imprison some Aphides in their cells, or, at all events, take advantage 
of individuals of the Grass Aphis ( Aphis graminvm ) in the vicinity 
of their hills to obtain honey-dew. We strongly suspect there must 
be some fallacy in this statement ; for among numerous colonies which 
we have carefolly examined during winter, we always found the 
whole population torpid or nearly so, and not fhdined to touch even 
honey when we offered it to them. In the case of the Sanguinary 
Ants in Germany already mentioned, we have seen that they had 
become torpid as early as October, when the weather was still fine and 
far from bemg oold. We are therefore of opinion that the statement 
will be found as void of accurate foundation as that which represents 
ants as stQidng up com for the winter. 

MigrcUiona. — We have already seen, under the head of pairing, one 
principle in operation for spreading around a parent ant-hUl a number 
of young colonies. This indeed may be considered the main principle 
of migration; but besides this, the whole of a populous ant-hill 
which ihas been established for several years will, frt>m some cause 
beyond our means of tracing, though most probably on account of 
more convenient forage, at once desert their homes and march to a 
new station. Among the Yellow Ants, the Emmets, and the Wood 
Ants or Pismires, tins is by no means common ; but it is an every- 
day occurrence among the Red Ants, the Aah-Coloured Ants, the Turf- 
Ants, and others whose colonies never become very populous, and 
are consequently both more easily moved and more eesily provided 
with lodging. 

<' Immense swarms of ants," to use the words of Dr. Roget,^' are 
occasionally met with, and some have been recorded of such prodigious 
density and magnitude as to darken the air like a thick doud, and to 
cover the ground to a considerable extent where they settled." Mr. 
Qleditsch describes, in the ' History of the Berlin Ao^emy,' for 1749, 
shoals of a small black ant which appeared in Germany, and formed 
high colimuis in the air, risiiig to a vast height, and agitated with a 
curious intestine motion, somewhat resembling the aurora borealis. 
A similar flight of ants is spoken of by Kr. Acolutte, a clergyman*of 
Breslau, which resembled columns of smoke, and which fell on the 
churches and the tops of the houses, where the ants could be gathered 
b^ handfuhL In the German ' Ephemerides,' Dr. Charles .Rayger 
gives an account of a huge swann which crossed over the town* of 
Posen, and was directing its course towards the Danube. The whole 
town was strewed with ants, so that it was impossible to walk without 
trampling on 80 or 40 at every step. And Mr. Dorthes, in the ' Journal 
de Physique' for 1790, relates the appearance of a similar phenomenon 
at Montpellier. Hie shoals moved about in different directions, 
having a mng Hlay intestine motion in each column, and also a general 
motion of rotation. About sunset all fell to the ground, and, on 
<w |Mnming the AutVi they were found to belong to the Pormica n^/iu 
of Linnnua. 

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Warn and Expeditumt to capture Slavet. — In the Mune way as the 
bees and the wasps of different hires manifest inveterate hostility 
when they meet^ ants also of the same or of different species assail 
one another when they meet during their foraging exoursionsL Besides 
the individual skinxushes which thence occasionally arise, pitched 
battles are sometimes fought between the whole or nearly the whole 
force of populous adjacent colonies. We have never ourselves witnessed 
any very extensives battles of this kind, such as Huber describes, in 
which thousands of combatants were engaged, but we have seen as 
many as 50 of the Wood- Ants fighting most pertinaciously within the 
area of a few inches on what were supposed to be the boundaries of 
their several territories. Their bite is so sharp, and the acrid add 
which they infuse is so deleterious, that many are thus disabled or 
killed outright Huber witnessed on such occasions very extensive 

Besides these skirmishes and battles which occur among all the 
species, there are whole communities of wamor-ants, as was first 
discovered by Huber, whose history is so extraordinary as almost to 
exceed beliefl The details indeed have hitherto been credited chiefly, 
if not solely, on the well-known veracity of Huber; but in the autumn 
of 1832 we had an opportunity of verifying them both in the Black 
Forest and in Switzerland, with respect to the species which he terms 
the Amazon Ant (JP. rufetcem, Latreille), and on the Rhine with 
respect to the Sanguinary Ant. 

Both of these species make war on the ants of a different species 
from themselves, particularly the Dusky Ant (F. futea), not for the 
purpose merely of gratifying a propensity to oombat, but to make 
slaves of the vanquished to do the drudgery of the conquerors at 
home. The manner in which they proceed in this aflbir manifests, 
BO Dbut as we can judge, deep design, such as might be ascribed to the 
counsels of a cunning diplomatist They do not capture the adult ants 
and carry them into slavery, but make booty of the eggs and cocoons, 
which, after the contest is decided — and the warriors are always 
conquerors- are carried off to the Amazonian citadel, and being 
hatdied there, the poor slaves are most probably not aware but that 
it is their native colony. Huber repeatedly witnessed such expeditions 
for the purpose of capturing slaves; but though we were not so 
fortunate, we witnessed, in a great number of instances, the slaves at 
work for their warlike captors. 

The Amazons have not hitherto been found in Britain, and we 
were unsuccessful in our attempt to bring over from the Black Forest 
a nest of live ones with their slaves which we had placed in a box for 
the purpose. 

ANT-BEAR, the name commonly given to the MyrtMCophaga jvbaia 
by the English at Demerara. [Amt-Eatsb.] 

ANT-EATER {Myiyneeophaga^ Linnseus), a genus of Edentaiay dis- 
tinguished by their total want of teeth and their hairy covering. The 
latter circumstance separates them from the Pangolins (if ontf ), or Scaly 
Ant-Eaters of Africa and Asia, which they resemble closely in other 
respects, as weU in their general anatomy as in their food and habits. 
These two genera form a small but very distinct family of Cuvier's 
order EdeiUaitck, differing from the common animals comprised in that 
win giiUr group, as well as frt)m all other known mammalia, by their 
entire deprivation of the organs of mastication, and acquiring an addi- 
tional interest by the light which their osteological oonformation throws 
upon tibe structure and organisation of the Megatherivm, MegaUmyx, 
and Mylodon^ those extraordinary animals whose fossil remains have 
attracted so much of the attention, not only of the professed naturalist, 
but likewise of the public at lax^ The osteology of the skulls and 
trunks of these extinct animals presents the closest analogies with that 
of the corresponding parts in the Sloths ; so the whole construction 
of their extremities appears to have been formed after the same model 
as that of Uie corresponding organs of the Ant-Eaters. The head of 
these latter animals, indeed, is altogether different from that of the 
Sloths : not onlv does it want the organs of mastication, of which they 
are deficient only in the incisors, but the bones of the fiice, which in 
them are short and roimd like those of apes and monkeys, are 
prolonged in the Ant-Eaters, particularly in the Great Ant-Eater (M, 
iubata), te double the lengtii of tiie skulL This singular oonformation 
arises from the form of the maxillary or jaw-bones, and those of the 
nose, which form together a kind of long tube, very small in proportion 
te ite length, and almost cylindrical This prolongation of the muzzle 
is not carried te so great an extent in either of £e other two known 
species of Ant-Eaters ; but even there the construction here described 
differs only in degree, and presents, on a more contracted scale, all 
the characteristics of iJie Myrmeeophaga jvhata. 

It is in the construction of the anterior extremities however that 
these animals offer the greatest singularities, and become most 
important in their relations to the fossil species. The phalanges or 
jointe of the toes, particularly the last, which bear the daws, are 
formed in such a manner as te permit them te be bent inwards only, 
as in the Sloths ; and for this purpose they are provided with very 
powerful ligaments, which keep them, in a state of repose, bent in 
along the sole of the foot, and never permit the hand to be completdy 
opened, but only half extended, as we sometimes see in gouty or 
rheumatic people. The toes themselves axe of verv unequal size, and 
even differ in number in different spedes. The Qreat Ant-Bear and 
Tamandua have four on the anterior and five on the posterior 

extremities, whilst the smallest spedes, called, from thatdrcumstanoe, 
M, didactyla, has only two on the fore feet and four on the hind. The 
toes themselves, as in the Sloths, are united dosely together as far u 
the daws, and are consequently incapable of any separate or individaal 
motion, but the disadvantages arising from this circumstance are 
more than counterbalanced by the increased strength which it 
produces, and the consequent adaptation of the oigan te the pectdiar 
purposes of these animals' economy. The claws are all large and 
powerful, especially that of the middle toe, of which the dimensions 
are quite enormous. Nor do the Ant-Eaters, in waUdng, tread flatly 
upon the sole of the foot like the generality of mammalia : on the 
oontranr, they rest entirely upon ite outer edge, which is provided 
with a large callous pad for that purpose, whilst their toes bong bent 
inwards along the palms, the sharp points of their powerful claws are 
preserved from being injured by the friction of the hard ground In 
other respecte the Ant-EJaters are remarkable for their long cylindrical 
tengues, covered with a glutinous saliva, by means of which thev 
entrap and devour the insecte upon which they live, and from whi(^ 
they derive their names, both among naturaliste and common 
observers — Myrmecophaga literally signifying Ant-Eater. This 
tengue is protractile, and capable of being extended te a sur- 
prising distance beyond the snout ; it is nearly twice the length 
of the whole head and muzzle together, and when not extended 
is kept doubled up in the mouth with the point directed back- 
wards. The eyes are particularly small, the ears short and round, 
the legs robust and amazingly powerful, but so unfavourably 
formed for locomotion, that the pace of these animals is almost as tardy 
as that of the sloths themsdves, their greatest exertions not enabling 
them te surpass the ordinary walk of a man. The tail is always long: 
in the great spedes lax and thickly covered with very long flowing haur, 
in the other two, strongly prehensQe, and naked imdemeath. These 
spedes consequently dimb trees and reside prindpally among their 
branches, feeding upon the wild bees and termites which inhabit the 
same situations. The Qreat Ant-Bear, on the contrazy, never quits 
the surface of the earth, and confines its depredations entire^ to the 
numerous species of large ante which inhabit ite native regions, and 
famish him at all times with an abundant and easily-procured nutri- 
ment The whole genus is confined te South America, and contains 
three distinct and well-defined spedes. 

1. The Qreat Ant-Eater (M, jubata, Linn.), called Tamandua by the 
Portuguese, and Ant-Bear by the English and Spaniards, is a laige 
animal which measures, when fiill grown, four feet and a half from 
the extremity of the snout te the origin of the tail The tail itself 
is 8 feet 8 inches in length, reckoning to the extremity of the 
hair, or measured only along the stump, 2 feet 4 inches ; the head, 
184 iiiches frtim the snout te the base of the ear, and 104 inches to 
the anterior angle of the eye ; ite drcumference immediately before 
the eyes, where it is the thickest, is 14 inches, but from this part it 
gradually diminishes te the end of the muzzle, where it measures 
only 5i inches. The height of the animal at the shoulder is 3 
feet 8 inches, and at the croup cnly 2 feet 10 inches, because, being 

Great Ant-Eater {U.Jubata), 
perfectly plantigrade, it necessarily stands lower on the hind legs than 
CMfore, as may be observed in the common bear, the badger, and other 
spedes which partake of the plantigrade formation of the extremities. 
The ear is short and round, being an inch and a quarter broad at the 
base, and only an inch in length ; the eye is remarkably small, deeply 
sunk in the head, and with a naked eyelid ; the head and snout •> 
already observed, are prolonged te a remarkable degree ; they are in 
form almost cylindrical, and end in a small truncated mufzle, having 

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the nostrils and mouth placed at its extreme end ; the latter is so 
small that its whole width scarcely exceeds an inch, and the jaws are 
of equal length. The tongpie is almost cylindrical, fleshy, extremely 
flexible, and capable of being protruded to the distance of 16 or 18 
inches. The toes of the anterior extremities, four in nimiber, are of 
nnequal length, the innermost being the smallest and weakest of all ; 
the second measures 24 inches in length, and is provided with a 
powerful crooked claw nearly 2 inches long, sharp-pointed, and tren- 
chant on its under surface ; the third, which is the largest of all, has 
a similar claw 2^ inches in length ; and the fourth, or exterior toe, 
is provided with a smaller and weaker claw, like that of the innermost. 
All these claws, when in a state of repose, are kept bent inwards, and 
only extended, or rather half-extended (for the animal cannot open 
the fingers farther), when used for defence, or for breaking through 
the hard external crust of the ant-hills. 

The prevailing colour on the head, face, and cheeks of the Ant-6ear 
is a mixture of gray and brown ; that on the upper parts of the body 
and tail is a deep brown, mixed with •silvery-white. A broad black 
band, bordered on each side with a similar one of a white or light 
grayish-brown colour, commences on the chest, and passes obliquely 
over each shoulder, diminishing gradually as it approaches the loins, 
where it ends in a point. The sides, arms, and thifehs are silvery-gray, 
with a slight mixture of brown, marked with two deep black spots, 
one on the carpus, and the other on the toes ; the hind-1^^ are almost 
perfectly black, and the breast and belly of a deep brown, almost 
equally obscure. 

The habits of the Great Ant-Bear are slothful and solitary ; the 
greater part of his life is consumed in sleeping, notwithstanding which 
he is never fat, and rarely even in good condition. When about to 
sleep, he lies upon one side, conceals his long snout in the fur of the 
breast, locks the hind and fore daws into one another, so as to cover the 
head and belly, and tumslhis long bushy tail over the whole body in 
Biich a manner as to protect- it from the too powerful rays of the sun. 
The female bears but a single yoimg one at a birth, which attaches 
itself to her back, and is carried about with her wherever she goes, 
rarely quitting her, even for a year after it has acquired sufficient 
strength to walk and provide for itself. This improlific constitution, 
and the tardy growth of the young, account for the comparative 
rarity of these animals, which are said to be seldom seen, even in 
their native regions. The female has only two mammae, situated on 
the breast, like those of apes, monkeys, and bats. 

In its natural state the Ant-Bear lives excliisively upon ants, to 
procure which it opens their hills with its powerful crooked claws, 
and at the moment that the insects, according to their nature, flock 
from all quarters to defend their dwellings, draws over them his long 
flexible tongue, covered with glutinous saliva, to which they conse- 
quently adhere ; and so quickly does he repeat this operation, that 
we are assured he will thus project his tongue and draw it in again 
covered with insects twice in a second. He never actually introduces 
it into the holes or breaches which he makes in the hills themselves, 
but only draws it lightly over the swarms of insects which issue forth 
alarmed by his attack. ''It seems almost incredible," says Azara, 
" that so robust and powerful an animal can procure sufficient suste- 
nance from ants alone ; but this circumstance has nothing strange in 
it for those who are acquainted with the tropical parts of America, 
and who have seen the enormous multitudes of these insects, which 
swarm in all parts of the country, to that degree that their hills often 
almost touch one another for miles together." The same author 
informs us, that domestic Ant-Bears were occasionally kept by different 
persons in Paraguay, and that they had even been sent ative to Spain, 
being fed upon brcsad and milk, mixed with morsels of flesh minced 
very smalL Like all animals which live upon insects, they are capable 
of sustaining a total deprivation of nourishment for an almost 
incredible time. 

The Great Ant-Bear is foimd in all the warm and tropical parts of 
South America, from Colombia to Paraguay, and from the shores of 
the Atlantic to the foot of the Andes. His favourite resorts are the 
low swampy savannahs, along the banks of rivers and stagnant ponds, 
also frequenting the humid forests, but never climbing treee^ as falsely 
reported by Buffon, on the authority of Laborde. His pace is slow, 
heavy, and vacillating ; his head is carried low, as if he smelled the 
ground at every step, whilst his long shaggy tail, drooping behind 
him, sweeps the groimd on either side, and readily indicates his path 
to the himter ; though, when hard pressed, he increases his pace to a 
kind of slow gallop, yet his greatest velocity never half equals the 
ordinary running of a man. So great is his stupidity, that those who 
encounter him in the woods or plains may drive him before them 
by merely pushing him with a stick, so long at least as he is not 
compelled to proceed beyond a moderate gallop ; but if pressed too 
hard, or urged to extremity, he tiums obstinate, sits up on his hind- 
quarters like a bear, and defends himself with his powerful claws. 
Like Ihat animal, his usual and indeed only mode of assault is by 
seizing his adversary with his fore-paws, wrapping his arms roimd 
him, and endeavouring by this means to squeeze him to death His 
great strength and powerful muscles would easily enable him to 
accomplish his purpose in this respect, even against the largest 
<tnimAl« of his native forests, were it but guided by ordinary intelli- 
gence, or accompanied with a common degree of activity. But in 


these qualities there are few animals indeed which do not greatly 
surpass the Ant-Bear ; so that the different stories handed down by 
writers on natural history from one another, and copied, without 
question, into the histories and descriptions of this animal, may be 
regarded as pure fictions. For this statement we have the express 
authority of Don Felix d' Azara, an excellent observer and credible 
writer, from whose * Natural History of the Quadrupeds of Paraguay ' 
we have derived the greater portion of the preceding accoimt of the 
habits and economy of this extraordinary ftnimal. The flesh of the 
Ant-Eater is esteemed a delicacy by the Indians and negro slaves, and, 
though black, and of a strong musky flavour, is sometimes even met 
with at the tables of Europeans. 

2. The Tamandua (M. Tamandua, Cuvier), is an animal much inferior 
to the Great Ant-Beai* in point of size, being scarcely so lai^ as a 
good-sized cat, whilst the other exceeds the largest greyhound in 
length, though, from the shortness of its legs, it is much inferior in 
height. The head of the Tamandua is not so disproportionately long 
and small as that of the Great Ant-Bear. It is however of the same 

general cylindrical form, and equally truncated at the extremity, 
aving the nostrils and mouth situated in the same position, and 
equally minute, when compared with the size of the animaL Its 
whole length, froiii the extremity of the muzzle to the root of the 
ear, is 5 inches, and to the anterior angle of the eye, 3 inches ; the 
body, from the muzzle to the origin of the tail, measures 2 feet 
2 inches, the tail itself being 1 foot 44 inches more ; the height at the 
shoulder is 1 foot 3 inches, and at the croup an inch lower ; the length 
of the ear is 1^ inch, its greatest breadth an inch, and the greatest 
circiunference of the head — that, namely, taken immediately in front 
of the ears — 8^ inche& The conformation of the extremities, and the 
number of the toes both before and behind, are in every respect the 
same as in the Great Ant-Eater ; but the Tamandua differs from this 
animal particularly in the prehensile power of its tail, which makes it 
essentially an arboreal quadruped, and altogether changes the most 
striking traits of its habits and economy. The hair over the entire 
body also is of a very different texture ; instead of being long, harsh, and 
shaggy, as in the Great Ant-Bear, it is short, shining, and of a 
consistence something between the qualities of silk and wool ; standing 
out from the body like the latter, and of the same uniform length in 
every part The colours of this species, however, are by no means so 
uniform and invariable as those of the species already described ; on 
the contrary, they' differ more in the Tamandua, according to the 
individual, than perhaps in any other known aidmal in a state of 
nature. Accordingly many eminent naturalists are disposed to 
consider them as forming distinct species, rather than mere varieties 
of the same ; and it is not improbable that, when we come to be 
better acquainted with this animal in its native woods, their opinion 
may be at least partly confirmed. 

Tamandua {M. Tamandua), 

The eyes of the Tamandua are minute ; the ears small and round ; 
the body long and cylindrical ; the legs short and robust ; the tail 
round and attenuated, covered with very short hair throughout its 
greater part^ but naked underneath towards the point, and strongly 
prehensile. There are several varieties of the Tamandua, chiefly 
distinguished by differences of colour. 

The Tamandua is an inhabitant of the thick primeval forests of 
tropiod America; it is never found on the ground, but resides 
exclusively 'in trees, where it lives upon termites, honey, and even, 
according to the report of Azara, bees, which in those countries form 
their hives among uie loftiest branches of the forest^ and, having no 
sting, are more readily despoiled of their honey than their congeners 
of our own climate. When about to sleep it hides its muzzle in the 
fur of its breast, falls on its belly, and letting its fore-feet hang 
down on each side, wraps the whole tightly round with itrf tail. The 
female, as in the case of the Great Ant-Eater, has but two pectoral 
mammse, and produces but a single cub at a birth, which she carries 
about with her, on her shoulders, for the first three or four months. 
The young are at first exceedingly deformed and ugly, and of a 
uniform straw-colour. 

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This animal has a strong disagreeable odour, which is so powerful 
that it may be perceiyed at a yery great distance, particularly when the 
animal is irritated. Tamandua is the name by which it is known to 
the Portuguese of Brazil; the French call it Fourmillier and the 
English the Little Ant-Bear. 

8. The Little or Two-Toed Ant-Eater (M, didactylOy Linn.) is easily 
distinguished from the other two species, not only by ita size, which 
does not exceed that of the common European squirrel, but likewise 
by the number of its toes, four on the posterior and only two on the 
anterior extremities. The form and general proportions of its body 
resemble those of the Tamandua, only on a yery reduced scale. Its 
whole length, from the snout to the origin of the tail, is but 6 inches, 
that of the head not quite 2 inches, and of the tail 7^ inches. This 
oigan is consequently rather longer than the body ; it is thick at the 
root, and coyered with short fur, but tapers suddenly towards the 
point, where it is naked and strongly prehensile. The muzzle is not 
■o long, in proportion, as in the otiier two species ; the tongue also is 
shorter, and has a flatter form ; the mouth opens farther back in the 
jaws, and has a much laiger gape, the eye being situated dose to its 
posterior angle ; the ears are short, rather drooping, and concealed 
among the long fur which coyers the head and dieeks ; the legs are 
short and stout, and the hair yery fine and soft to the touch, three- 
quarters of an inch in length on the body, but much shorter on the 
head, l^gs, and taiL The general colour is that of straw, more or less 
tinged with maroon on the dioulders, and particularly along the 
median line of the back, which usually exhibits a deep line of this 
shade. This species is said to haye four mammse, two pectoral, as in 
those already described, and two others on the abdomen. It is 
reported, neyertheless, to haye but a single cub at a birth, which it 
conceals in the hollow of some decayed tree. The natiye countries of 
the Little Ant-Eater are Guyana and Brazil, beyond which it appears 
not to extend farther towards the south, smce Azara is not only 
unacquainted with it, but imagines from Bufifou's and Daubenton's 
descriptions that it must be the yoimgof his Tamandua. The habits 
and manners of this little animal are thus described by Yon Sack, in 
his * Narratiye of a Voyage to Surinam' : — 

Little Ant-Enfrr (.V. (lidartijht). 

** I haye had," says he, " two Little Ant-Eaters or Fourmilliers, 
which were not larger than a squirrel : one was of a bright yellow 
colour, with a brown stripe on the back ; the other was a sUyery-gray 
and darker on the back ; the hair of each was yery soft and silky, a 
little crisped ; the head was small and round, the nose long, gradually 
bending downwards to a point ; it had no teeth, but a yery long round 
tongue; the eyes were yery small, roimd, and black; Uie legs rather 
short ; the fore-feet had only two claws on each, the exterior being 
much laiger and stronger than the interior, which exactly filled the 
curye or hollow of the lai^e one ; the hind-feet had four claws of a 
moderate size ; the tail was prehensile, longer than the body, thick at 
the base and tapering to the end, which, for some inches on the imder 
side, was bare. This little animal in Surinam is called Kissing-Hand, 
as the inhabitants pretend that it will neyer eat, at least when caught, 
but that it only licks its paws, in the same manner as the bear; that 
all trials to miUce it eat haye proyed in yain, and that it soon dies in 
confinement. When I got the first, I sent to the forest for a nest of 
ants, and, during the interim, I put into its cage some eggs, honey, 
milk, and meat ; but it refused to touch any of them. At length the 
ants' nest arriycxl, but the animal did not pay the slightest attention 
to it either. By the shape of its fore-paws, which resemble nippers, 
and di£fer y^iy much from those of all the other different species of 
ant-eaters, I thought that this little creature might perhaps liye on the 
nymphs of wasps, &c ; I therefore brought it a wasps' nest, and then 
it pulled out with its nippers the nymphse from the nest, and began to 
eat them with the greatest eagerness, sitting in the posture of a squirrel 
I showed this phenomenon to many of the inhabitants, who all assured 
me that it was the first time they had eyer known that species of 
animal to take any nourishment. The ants with which I tried it were 
the laige white termites, upon which fowls are fed here. 

" As the natural history of this pretty little animal \b not much 

known, I thought of trying if they would breed in a cage ; but when 
I returned from my excursion into the coimtry, I foimd them both 
dead, perhaps occasioned by the trouble giyen to procure the wasps* 
nests for them, though they are here yery plentiful : wherefore I c&u 
giye no further description of them than that they slept all the day 
long curled together, and fastened by their prehensile tails to one of 
the perches of the cage. When touched they erected themselyes on 
their hind-1^^, and struck with the fore-paws at the object which 
disturbed them, like the hammer of a clock striking the bell, with 
both paws at the same time, and with a great deal of strength. They 
neyer attempted to run away, but were always ready for defence, when 
attacked. As soon as eyening came they awoke, and with the greatest 
actiyity walked on the wire of the cage, thou^ they neyer jumped, nor 
did I eyer hear their yoice." 

ANTAGONIST MUSCLE (from &rr2, against, and irym¥i(oiim^ to 
striye), a muscle the action of which is opposed to that of some oUier 
muscle. Muscles are the instruments by which, in the animal body, 
motion is effected. The object of each muscle lb to produce some 
specific motion. Among the yarious motions which are needed in the 
animal economy, it necessarily happens that some are directly opposite 
to others, and the muscles which accomplish these directly opposite 
moyements are said to be with relation to each other Antagonists. 

ANTELOPR [Antilopea] 

ANTENNiE, horn-like members placed on the head, and peculiar 
to Insects and Crustaceous Animals. Their functions are not well 
understood, and haye giyen rise to seyeral different opinions among 
naturalists. The term is derived from the Latin ant€y * before.' In insects 
they are uniformly two in number ; but in crabs and lobet^s there are 
more than two. They are connected with the head, always near the eyes, 
by means of a ball (oMut) and socket {torulut). They are composed of 
minute cylinders or rings successiyely added to each other, to the number 
of 30 in some butterflies, and thus forming a tube which incloses nerves 
for sensation, muscles for moving, as well as air-pipes and cells. 

The form of the antennsd is exceedingly various, some being simple 
and some feathered, clubbed, comb-shaped, in endless diversity. In 
moths, the female is distinguished from the male by the an^^ni^y* being 
more simple. In some moths and beetles the antennae are very long 
compared with the length of the body, whereas in the house-fly, and 
some other two-winged flies, they are very short. Their length does 
not depend on the number of joints, for they may be long when 
composed of only three or four piepes, and short when composed of 
ten or more pieces. 

With respect to the functions of the antennae, it is the most com- 
mon opinion, sanctioned by such authorities as Linnaeus and Bergmann, 
that they are organs of touch, and are on that accoimt often termed 
feelers ; " but," as M. Straus-Diirckheim justly remarks, " this con- 
jecture is founded upon facts imperfectly investigated, if not altogether 
false. I have made numerous researches on this subject^ and I have 
never been able to satisfy myself that insects examine objects by 
feeling them with their antennae. On the contrary, I have rarely 
observed these animals touch anything with these organs, and when 
this did happen, it appeared to be only by accident, and not at all 
from design. Many insects, besides, have their antennae so short, that 
they would be obliged to stand erect upon their heads in order to come 
at the bodies which they might thus wish to explore, and for this 
their feet are certainly much better adapted 

" Since," continues M. Straus-Diirckheim, " almost all Articulated 
Anima l s possessing a solid skin (peau) have antennae, which are furnished 

yrith nerves of an extraordinary thickness in proportion to their own 
size, there cannot remain a doubt that they are organs of some sense, 
and that too a very acute one. 

" I have said that insects are proved, by observation, to be furnished 
with an organ of hearing. The solidity of the envelope of antennae 
renders these organs well adapted to imdei^o the same vibrations as the 
air, in ihe same manner as the strings of an ^Eolian harp vibrate and 
emit yarious sounds according as they are differently struck by the air. 
In this view, however, we might infer that nature would have made 
antennae in the form of rods, consisting of a single piece, in order that 
they might be more susceptible of vibrations ; but it ought to be 
considered, that these organs would, by such a conformation, have 
been much exposed to breaking, while, in consequence of their jointed 
form, they have the advantage of regiilating the degree of vibration 
at pleasure, as may indeed be observed when insects listen with atten- 
tion ; I mean, that the joints of the antennae perform the same functions 
as the chain of small bones in the chamber of the human ear, inasmuch 
as they form a similar chain, and transmit the vibrations of the air to 
the auditory pulp." 

Professor Bonsdorff of Abo in Finland, and other naturalists, though 
opposed to the views of Linnaeus and Beigmann, have adopted the 
same opinion, and regard the antennae as organs of hearing. 

There is one other subject connected with the antennae which requires 
notice. The younger Huber has attributed to ants the use of certain 
signs made with these organs, which he terms ' antennal language,' 
understood not only among ants themselves, but also among the 
aphides, on which they depend for the excretion popularly termed 
honey-dew. The motions of the antennae, however, to which he refers 
in proof of his views, do not, so far as we can judge, authorise ua to 
<;onclude- that they are used in the way of language, any more thun 

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to theorise in the same way upon the bills of nestling birds which are 
opened to receive food, or their wings which are opened and vibrated 
rapidly while they receive it. That there is nothing peculiar in this 
alleged antennal language, so far as the aphides are concerned, any one 
who chooses may prove by taking a pin or a camel-hair pencil and 
gently touching the aphis, when it will eject the honey-dew as readily 
as in consequence of being touched with the antennas of an ant This 
we deem to be quite fatal to M. Ruber's conclusions. 

{Ifuect Miscellanies, voL iv., in the Library of Entertaining Knowledge,) 
AKTENNTJLABIA, a genus of Sertularian Zoophytes. [Sebtu- 


A'NTHEMIS is the genus of plants which includes the useful 
herb Chamomile. It .belongs to the order Compositce, and is distin- 
guished by having the scales uiat surround its flower-heads membranous 
at the border, like those of a Chrysanthemum^ from which genus it, in 
fact, differs chiefly in the receptacle of the flowers being furnished with 
little chafiy projections. 

Anthemis nobUis, or Chamomile, is frequent in a wild state on many 
of the commons near London, where it adds a peculiar richness of 
colour and fragrance to the turf. It is a dwarf plant, with finely-cut 
leaves ; its flower-heads are white in the ray, but deep yellow in the 
disk. All the parts are intensely bitter, but especially the little yellow 
flowers of the disk : for this reason the wild blossoms are far more 
efficacious than those of the cultivated sort, in which there is scarcely 
any disi, the flowers of the ray having almost entirely usurped their 
place. Besides the bitter principle for which Chamomile is so cele- 
brated, it has been found by chemists to contain camphor and tannin, 
and also a volatile oil of a beautiful blue colour. 

There is another wild plant, called Anihemis Cottday or Mayweed, 
which must not be confoimded with Chamomile, to which it bears great 
resemblance : it may be distinguished by its being an erect branching 
plant, with an exceedingly disagreeable and powerful odour. 

Anthemis tinctoria is used in France by the dyers for the sake of a 
brilliant yellow tint, which is obtained from it. 

ANTHER, in Botany, the upper part of the stamen which contains 
tlie pollen-ceOs, the function of which is to aid in the development of 
the embryo in the ovule. [Stamen.] 

ANTElERIDIA, in Botany, organs found in many of the tribes of 
Cryptogamic or Flowerless Hants. They have been observed in the 
Characese, Horse-Tails, Ferns, Mosses, and Algso, and are supposed to 
represent the anthers in Phuierogamio or Flowering Plants. In the 
oula of which they are composed certain nioving filaments are observed, 
which have received the name of Phytozoa or Spermaiozoids. Many 
of these phytozoa move by cilia attached to their surface. For the 
nature of their functions, development, and forms, see Repboduo- 
TICK, Vbqetable. 

ANTHOLI'THES (Brongniart). Some Fossil Plants thus designated 
occur in the Coal-formations of Shropshire and Northumberland. 

ANTHCPHYLLUM (Schweigger), a Fossil genm otMadrephyllicea. 

ANTHCySIDERITE, in Mineralogy, an impure silicate of iron. 

ANTHOSPE'RMEiB (from Atfeos, flower, and (nr^pfia, seed), a tribe 
of plants resembling Anthospermum (the Amber-Tree), belonging to 
the natural order Cinchonacece, It consists of the genera Coprosma, 
PhvUis, Galopina, A mbraria, and A nthospermum. They possess dioecious 
or nermaphrodite flowers ; a rotate corolla ; styles separating to the 
base, ending in an elongated hispid or plumose stigma ; the fruit con- 
aists of 2 indehiscent 1-seeded mericarps, or nuts ; the albumen of the 
seed is fleshy. The species are small herbs or shrubs, with opposite 
or verticillate leaves, and small 1-3-toothed stipules, which are adnate 
to both sides of the petioles. 

None of the species are used in the arts or medicine ; the tribe is 
however interesting as forming a link between the opposite-leaved 
Oinch<macecB and ti^e verticillate Jiubiacece, Although most of the 
AnthospermecBh&ye opposite leaves, yet several species of Anthospermum 
itself, as A. Bergiainum and A. JSthiopicum, have their leaves subver- 
tidllate. In Phyllis the leaves occur in ^horls of three or four. 
This genus has but a single species, known by the common name 
of Bastard Hare's-Ear. It may be cultivated, with other species of 
the tribe, in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand. 

ANTHOXA'NTHUM, a genus of Grasses, one species of which {A, 
odorcUum) is well known to farmers under the name of the Sweet 
Vernal Grass. It is a small annual plant, bearing its flowers in short 
heads, which are not very compac^ and broader at the bottom than 
the top. The flowerets of which it is composed are a pale yellowish- 
green; each consists of two sharp-point^ smooth glumes, within 
which are two other dark-brown hairy palese, each having an awn at 
its back ; the stamens are only two in number. This grass is of little 
importance for its nutritive qualities, but it is much esteemed for the 
sweet smell of its leaves, which causes much of the well-known 
panoe of new-mown hay. 

f'NTHRACITE, a black, light, mineral substauoe, regembling 
wosd; 90 named from Mpa^ charooal. It is also called BUndOoal, 
hficaoie it bums without flame ; and QUnoe-Ooal, from the Qerma^ 
wofd glam (lustre), because it has often a shiuing surface like graphite 
or M»rklmiii^ m it is improperly called, the substance <^ whioh penoiU 
•re iBadOb 9od to which it is vezy oloiiely allied in composition, Ja 
MMse qrfftMM of minaralogy itli dividod into lUMaive, Mij, ifid 

columnar anthracite; but these are mere accidental varieties of 
structure, and are aU of the same chemical composition, when the 

Sweet Vernal Grass {Anthoxanthum odoratum) . 
o, a flower-head magnified. 5, a floweret more magnified, 

pure anthracite is separated firom the matrix, or from the foreign 
matter with which it is mechanically mixed. Its specific gravity is 
about 1400, water being 1000; it is slowly combustible, but without 
flame, and contains from 70 to 90 per cent of carbon. Naphtha may 
be considered as one extremity of the mineral carbonaceous sub- 
stances, and anthracite as the other ; and firom the highly-inflammable 
fluid naphtha we have numerous varieties of mineral tar, or petroleum, 
bitumen, a^haltum, cannel-coal, caking-coal, slaty-coa^ &c., all dimi- 
nishing in inflammability, until at last we come to the blind-coal, or 
anthracite. If asphaltum, or indurated mineral pitch, be subjected to 
distillation, at a certain stage of the process, when it has lost a part 
of the bitumen which it contains, it resembles caking Newcastle coal ; 
continuing the distillation, it passes into a substance which is identical 
with anthracite, both in appearance and composition. The following 
is an analysis of Welsh anthracite : — 

Carbon 92-56 

Hydrogen 888 

Oxygen and Nitrogen .... 2*58 

Ash 1-68 

It is undoubtedly of vegetable origin in common with all coaL 
[Co^l; CoalPlantsJ 

ANTHRACOTHE'RIUM (Cuvier), a FossU genus of Pachyderm 
Mammals, of which many species occur in Tertiaiy deposits, especially 
in the G^yps^ous and Lignitic strata of Paris and Tuscany. 

ANTHRI'SCUS, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order 
UmbellifercB and the tribe Scandicvnea. It is known by possessing 
little or no calyx, with heart-shaped petals bent down at the point ; a 
fruit narrowed below the short beak, and without any ridges. The 
beak has flve ridges. 

A, sylvestris, Wild Chervil, is known by its terminal stalked umbels, 
and its linear glabrous fruit with a short beak. It is a common weed 
in hedges and banks throughout Europe. 

A. Cerefoliwn {Scandix Cerrfoliwn), the Gkuxlen Chervil, is probably 
an escape from cultivation in England. It is pommon 0ootigh in wwte 
places. [BOANSIX.! 

A, wlgaris has the umbels lateral tad stuJked, and an orate hisplil 
point. The leaves are slightly hairy. It is common in tha WMrt9 
places of Great Britain. (Babiagton's Mwmtl ^ BriM^ JSMofUf.) 

ANTHROPQYLLITS, a minem], conteiningt aooording te mi 
analysis \tj Gmelin \-r- 

Silica fitf 

Firotozide of Iron .IB 

ICagnasia .....•• fit 

Pkotozido of HaagaaesA 4 

Lima ....,.•> % 

Alnmina % 

Digitized by 





It occurs in cryBtalline masses with a fibrous columnar structure. 
The cleavage is parallel to the lateral planes of a rhombic prism and 
to both its diagonals. The colour varies from a brown to a yellowish- 
brown. It has a white streak and an imeven fracture. The specific 
gravity is from 3*0 to 3*3. The lustre is pearly, and inclining to 
metallic. It is translucent and transparent on the edges. It is found 
at Kongsbei^ and Modum in Norway, in the United States, and in 
other placea 

ANTHROTOLITES, the name given to Human Fossil Remains. 
Although at one time it was thought that human remains were often 
found fossilised, the investigations of modem anatomists have shown 
that in most of these cases the supposition has been false. Daubenton 
first demonstrated that some bones which had long been regarded in 
Paris as the remains of a gigantic human being belonged to a lower 
tiibe of beings. The researches of Cuvier gave a clue by which all 
cases might be tested, and most of the earlier instances brought 
forward have been referred to their correct types. 

Human fossil bones have, however, been discovered in the Belgian 
bone-caverns, with bears, rodents, &c., and are figured by Dr. Schmerling, 
in his interesting work on the bones foimd in a cavern near Li^ge. 

Dr. Buckland (* Bridgewater Treatise') remarks that frequent dis- 
coveries have been made of himian bones and rude works of art in 
natural caverns, sometimes inclosed in stalactite, at other times in 
beds of earthy materials, which are interspersed with bones of extinct 
species of quadrupeds. These cases, he thinks, may be explained by 
the common practice of mankind in all ages to bury their d^id in such 
convenient repositories. " The accidental circumstance," continues 
Dr. Buckland, ** that many caverns contained the bones of extinct 
species of other animals, dispersed through the same soil in which 
human bodies may, at any subsequent period, have been buried, affords 
no proof of the time when these remains of men were introduced. 
Many of the caverns have been inhabited by savage tribes, who, for 
convenience of occupation, have repeatedly disturbed portions of soil 
in which their predecessors may have been buried. Such disturbances 
will explain the occasional admixture of fragments of human skeletons 
and the bones of modem quadrupeds with those of extinct species 
introduced at more early periods and by natural causes. Several 
accounts have been published within the last few years of human 
remains discovered in the caverns of France and in the province of 
Li^ge, which are described as being of the same antiquity with the 
bones of hyaenas and other extinct quadrupeds that accompany them. 
Most of these may probably admit of explanation by reference to the 
causes just enumerated. In the case of caverns which form the 
channels of subterranean rivers, or which are subject to occasional 
inimdations, another cause of the admixture of human bones with the 
remains of animals of more ancient date may be found in the movements 
occasioned by running water." 

The same learned author observes that the most remarkable and 
only recorded case of human skeletons imbedded in a solid limestone 
rock is that on the shore of Ouadaloupe, adding that there is however 
no reason to consider these bones to be of high antiquity, as the rock 
in which they occur is of very recent formation, and is composed of 
agglutinated fragments of shells and corals which inhabit the adjacent 
water. Such kmd of stone is frequently formed in a few years from 
sand-banks composed of similar materials, on the shores of tropical 
seas. (* Bridgewater Treatise,* vol. i) One of these skeletons, described 
by Mr. Konig (*PhiL Trans.,' 1814) is in the British MuseimL See 
further as to the rock in which the skeletons are imbedded, ' Ldnn. 
Trans.,' 1818, voL xiL 

Dr. Lund published, some years ago, the discovery of human 
remains with those of Megatherium, &c. ; and he was of opinion 
that the former were of the same epoch as those of the latter. The 
cranium had the peculiar shape which distinguishes the ancient 
Peravian. [See SuFPLEMEirr.] 

ANTHUS (Bechstein), the Pipit, a genus of birds separated by Dr. 
Bechstein from the Linnean g^nus AtaucUif a separation followed by 
Temminck, Cuvier, Lesson, and Selby, and justly ; for though the 
Pipits have a long hind claW, and are usually coloured, like the 
larks, their bill is more slender, in consequence of which they 
never, like them, feed on grain. In the form of the head, in the 
movement of the tail, and their mode of life, they resemble the Wag- 
tails (MotaciUa) on the one hand, and on the other the Blue-Breast 
{Sylvia Suecica), 

Adhering, then, to the distinction of Bechstein, we characterise the 
Pipits by the bill being straight, slender, somewhat awl-shaped towards 
the point, having the base of the upper mandible keeled, the tips lightly 
bent downwards, and notched. The nostrils, situated at the sides of 
the base of the bill, are oval, and partly concealed by a membrane : 
feet, with the shank (tamui) generally exceeding the middle toe in 
length ; toes, three before and one behind, and with the outer toe 
adhering to the middle one as far as the first joint ; the hind claw 
rather long. The wings have the first quill very short; the third 
and fourth the longest in each wing. 

A. pratentis, the Meadow-Pipit, known also by the names Titlark, 
Titling, Common Titlark, and Moss-Cheeper, is a common British 
bird, occurring on the coasts as well as the interior of the coimtry, 
and frequenting wet meadows, moors, commons, and pasture-land. 
It usually buildi its nest on a grassy bank or beside a tufb or tur£ 

It is to this species that the young of the cuckoo are most finequentlv 

A. arhoreiUf the Tree-Pipit, Meadow-Lark, or Short-Heeled Field- 
Lark, is a larger bird than the last It is only a summer viidtani 
in the British Islands, arriving at the end of April, and departing in 
September. Its song is superior to that of the last. It frequentlj 
p^Yshes on trees. It builds its nest on the ground. 

A. obtcurtu, Dusky or Shore-Pipit, Rock-Pipit, Rock-Lark, Sea-Lark, 
Dusky Lark, is larger than the last species, has duller tints, and is 
entirely confined to the sea-shore. 

A, Spinolettck, Red-Breasted Pipit, has been observed by Mr. 
Macgillivray in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. 

A. Jtichardif Richard's Pipit, was first described an a British 
species by Mr. Vigors. (Macgillivray, British Birds.) 

ANTIARIS is the botanical name of the half-fabulous Upaa-Tree, 
of which so many idle stories were propagated some years since by 
travellers. It was said to be a large tree, growing in the island of 
Ja\ui, in the midst of a desert caused by its own pestiferous qualities; 
its exhalations were reported to be so imwholesome, that not only 
did they cause death to all animals which approached the tree, but 
even destroyed vegetation for a considerable distance round it ; and, 
finally, the juice which flowed firom its stem, when wounded, was 
said to be the most deadly of poisons. To approach the Upas-Tree, 
even for the momentary purpose of wounding its stem and carrying 
away the juice, was stated to be so dangerous, that none but criminala 
under sentence of death could be found to undertake the task. As 
is usual in such cases, this fable is founded upon certain natural 
phenomena which occur in Java. There is such a tree as the Upas, 
and its juice, if mixed with the blood in the body of any animal, is 
speedily fatal ; and there is also a tract of land in the same island on 
which neither animal nor plant can exist. But the two circumstances 
have no relation to each other : the poisoned tract is a small valley 
completely surrounded by a steep embankment, like the crater of a 
volcano, and is continually emitting from its surface carbonic acid 
gas, which is alike fatal to animals and plants ; on the other hand, 
the pnoisonous Upas-Tree is not an inhabitant of the valley, for nothing 
can live there, but it flourishes in the woods, in the midst of otiier 
trees which are unharmed by its vicinity. 

The Upas is a species of the genus AntiariSf which belongs to the 
natural order Artocarpea, a group of plants all of which abound in a 
milky juice, and many of which are poisonous. (Abtocarpejb.) A. 
toxicaria is the true Upas. It is not unlike A. macnyphylla, which 
has been found on the north coast of Australia. 


■T If- 

Aniiaris macrophylla. 
1, A head of male flowers in the iDTolucrum ; 2, the same divided perpendi- 
cularly; 3, a couple of the male flowers; 4, pistil; 5, the same divided 
perpendicularly ; 6, a fruit. 

ANTICLI'NAL, a term in Geology which expresses the fact that, 
from a given line, the strata dip in opposite directions. 

ANTIGORITE, in Mineralogv, a sUicate of lime and magnesia, a 
variety of Bronzite. [Bronzite.] 

. ANTlLOPEiE, in Zoology, a family of Ruminating Mammals, 
belonging to the Hollow-Homed group, and distinguii£ed by the 
following characters. The horns conical, bent back, cylindriood, or 
compressed, and ringed at the base. The luiee (or wrist) in the middle 
of the fore-leg. The occipital plane of the skull forms an obtuse 
angle with the frontal plane. Core of the horns thin, consisting of 

Digitized by 






denae bone, often with a dear sinus at the base within. Teats two 
or four. Feet-pits in hind-feet and generally also in the fore ones. 

Perhaps the most general character belonging to the Antelopes 
consists in the form of the horns being round and annulated, or at 
least never exhibiting the prominent angles and ridges which diHtinguish 
those of the Sheep and Gk>ats. In their particular forms and curvatures, 
however, they vary in almost every different species, as among domestic 
sheep they do even in different varieties of the same species. Some- 
times they form a single bend forwards or backwards, sometimes they 
are what is oonmionly called lyrated, or bent first backwards and 
then point forwards, in such a manner as, when opposed to one 
another, to assume the figure of an ancient Ivre, the brachia or sides 
of which instrument were frequently made of the horns of the Doreat 
or Common Qazelle, aa appears from the engravings of antique gems 
still preserved. In many of the smaller species the bony core, or 
process of the os frontis which is inserted into the hollow sheath of 
the horn itself, is almost solid, or at least the osseous substance of it 
Ib penetrated only by very minute pores. 

The possession of 'lachrymal sinuses,' or as they are vernacularly 
called with reference to the stag and fallow-deer, ' tear-pits,' is another 
cirouxnstance which distinguishes the greater number of the Antelopes, 
but which, like all their other characters, is far from being generaL 
Hany zoologists suppose these organs to communicate with the 
nostrils, so as to enable the animals to breathe freely during their long 
and rapid flights when pursued or frightened. Some even suppose 
them to be subservient to the sense of smell, and to serve for 
detecting the noxious qualities of the numerous poisonous plants 
which grow in the deserts, or spring up among the rank vegetation 
of tropical climatea It is certainly true that all these animalB possess 
a most delicate sense of smell, and that no known quadrupeds can 
surpass, and very few equal them in the course. It has been supposed 
that these oigans are used when the animal drinks. The anatomy of 
the parts dranonstrates that no internal communication exists between 
the lachrymal sinus and the nose, or indeed any other organ. The 
sinus itself is simply composed of a sac or fold of the skin, of 
greater or less extent according to the species, but always capable 
of being opened or shut at the will of the animal, and famished at 
the bottom with a gland which secretes an oily viscous substance of 
the colour and consistence of ear-wax, but which hardens and turns 
black upon exposure to the air. The precise function of these oigans 
is uncertain ; all that we know with certainty at present is, that many 
of the Antelopes which are most commonly brought to Europe and 
preserved in menageries, such as the common Indian Antelope and 
the Qaselle, make continual use of this oxgan when any strange sub- 
stance is presented to their notice, particularly if it be odoi^erous, 
and appear to derive great pleasure from protruding the lachrymal 
sinus and rubbing its interior surface against the odorous body. 

It has been already hinted that the Antelopes are not the only 
ruminants which possess suborbital sinuses : in fact, these organs are 
more universally found in the deer kind than in the present fomilv ; 
but^ on the other hand, as these are the only animals belonging to the 
hollow-homed family which exhibit this character, it thus becomes 
sufficiently appropriate, and, as far as it goes, serves readily to dis- 
tinguish the Aiitelopee from the Goats and Sheep, with which they are 
most liable to be confounded. In this respect^ as well as in the 
absence of horns in the females of many species, they form an inter- 
mediate link between the rest of the hoUow-homed ruminants and 
the cervine or solid-homed family : so nearly indeed do some species 
of Antelopes approach to the deer kind in general, and so perfectly 
similar are they in all their most prominent and essential characters, the 
horns alone excepted, that it is often next to impossible to distinguish 
the hornless females of the one genus from those of the other. 

Besides the suborbital sinus, a few species of Antelopes possess a 
different gland, which runs lengthwise between it and the mouth, in 
a direction for the most part parallel to the plane of the chaffron or 
face and nose, and secretes a dark oily substance; it is, however, 
entirely external, and has no internal opening like the lachrymal 
sinus, nor are its uses better known than those of that oi*gan. The 
former fact^ if it can be relied upon, proves at least that it is a sepa- 
rate organ, and not a mere modification of the lachrymal sinus ; and, 
consequently, it may be fairly presumed that its function, whatever 
it may he, is likewise different Another character, but much more 
generally found to distinguish the Antelopes than even the suborbital 
sinus itself^ is derived from the inguinal pores, which are sacs or deep 
folds of the skin, situated in the groin, opening inwards, and secreting 
a glutinous substance similar to that of the gltmds already mentioned. 
In the form of the upper lip, an important character among animals 
which seek their food on the ground, and in which the lips and 
tongue constitute the only organs of touch and prehension, the 
Antelopes are as variable and inconstant as in the other characters 
already described. In some species it forms a broad naked muzzle, 
as in the ox ; in others it is hairy and attenuated, like that of the 
goat; and finally, it sometimes assumes an intermediate form, and 
presents a modification of both these characters. The females are 
furnished with either two or four teats, forming a small udder; 
they usuallv bring forth but one at a birth, in a few instances two, 
and the period of gestation differs flrom five to eight months according 
to the species. 

The hair of the Antelopes is generally short and smooth, and of an 
equal length over every part of the body ; some however have manes 
along the neck and on the shoulders, composed of long bristly hair, 
either growing upright or reversed towards the head as in the Oryx ; 
and a very few species, like the Onu, are furnished with a beard on 
the chin and throat. The ears are commonly long, narrow, and 
pointed, smooth on the outside, and filled internally with long white 
hair growing in five longitudinal lines, with four naked black spaces 
between, and forming Qxe appearance which, in describing these 
animals, is usually denominated ttriaUd. The tails are generally 
shorty round, and tufted at the extremity, and many species are 
furnished with little tufts of long black hair, called scojxe, or knee- 
brushes, upon the upper part of the anterior canons, immediately 
below the carpal joint. 

Generally speaking, the Antelopes are gregarious, and unite in large 
herds, either permanently or at particular seasons of the year, but 
only for the purpose of migrating in search of more abundant and 
grateful pastun^ ; some species, however, reside in pairs or small 
families, consisting of an old male and one or more females, with the 
young of the two foregoing seasons. They are always extremely 
cautious in guarding against surprise, placing sentinels in various 
directions about their feeding ground, to warn them of the approach 
of danger whilst grazing or reposing ; and their vision and sense of 
smell are so acute, that it is only by using the greatest caution and 
circumspection that the hunter can bring them within range of the 
gun. The names by which the animals themselves are distinguished 
in all languages, ancient as well as modem, have a direct reference to 
this quickness of sight, and to the brilliancy of the large black eyes 
which form so conspicuous a feature in the Antelopes. Thus the 
word Dorcoi (dopxAs), the Greek and Roman name of the Gazelle, or 
common Barbery Antelope, is derived from the verb 94pKofuu, * to see.' 
The common English word Antelope, which zoologists have adopted 
as the generic name of the group, is a comipt form of the term 
fitfOoXtn^f emploved by Eustathius to designate an animal of this genus^ 
and literally signifying 'bri^t eyes;' and, according to the learned 
Bochart, Tabithaf the name of the disciple raised to life at Joppa^ is 
derived from TVe^, the Hebrew name of the common Gazelle, and 
alludes likewise to the beauty of her eyes. Among the Greeks and 
Romans also, as we learn from Agathias, and others. Dor ecu, Dorcalit, 
and JDamaliB, all names of different Antelopes, were common names 
of women likewise, bestowed without doubt on account of the remark- 
able beauty of their eyes ; and Prosper Alpinus, and more recent 
travellers, inform us that Aine el Czazel, * You have the eyes of an 
antelope,' is the greatest compliment which at the present day an 
oriental admirer can pay to his mistress. 

The Bushmen of the Cape often destroy vast numbers of the antelopes 
with which their country abounds, by poisoning the springs and reser- 
voirs to which they are known to resort^ nor is the flesh ever known 
to be injured by uiis mode of slaughter ; they also shoot them with 
poisoned arrows, but in this case the parts immediately around the 
wound must be cut out before the rest of the body imbibes the poison, 
which would otherwise penetrate it^ and render it imfit for food. 

Africa may be considered as the head-quarters of the Antelopes. 
Australia and Madagascar are, as far as we at present know, com- 
pletely destitute of Antelopes, as indeed they appear to be of all 
indigenous ruminants. The precise nature of the habitat frequented 
by tibese animals has nothing of a uniform character, but> as might 
naturally be expected from the different modifications of organic 
structure observable throughout the genus, differs acoording to the 
particular species. Some frequent the dry sandy deserts, and feed 
upon the stunted acacias and bulbous plants which spring up even in 
the most arid situations, where the stony nature of the ground gives a 
certain degree of adherence to the soil ; some prefer the open stony 
plains, the steppes of Central Asia and karroos of Southern Africa, 
where the grass, though parched, is still sufficient for their sub- 
sistence; some again inhabit the steep rocky mountains, and leap 
from cliff to cliff with the ease and security of a wild goat» whilst 
others are found only in the thick and almost impenetrable forests of 
tropical countries. 

Although what are popularly called Antelopes were at one time all 
referred to the genus AntUope^ their number has so greatly increased 
as to render it necessary to distribute the various species under di^erent 
genera. As by far the most extensive and available collection of these 
animals for the British student is contained in the British Museum, we 
shall follow in this article the arrangement given of these animals by 
Dr. J. K Gray in the ' Catalogue of the Specimens of Mammalia' in that 
collection, published in 1852. 

The family Aniilopea ia divided into two great divisions, the AfUe^ 
lope$ of the Fields, and the Antelcpa of the Desert. These divisions 
are recognised bv a peculiarity of the nostrils, easily perceived. In 
the Antelopes of the Fields the nostrils are bald or free fh>m hairs, 
whilst in the Antelopes of the Desert these organs are bearded within 
or covered with bristles. There are other distinctions, but these are 
the most obvious, and readily recognised 


These are again divided i&to three groups : — 

1. I%e Tnte ArUelopee, which have a light elegant body; alendet 

Digitized by 





limba; small hoofg; a short or moderate tail, covered with elongated 
hairs i^ the base; lyrate or oooical horns, placed over the eyebrows. 

2. The Cervine Antelopes approaching the deer in character. They 
have rather a heavy large body; strong slender limbs; a long tail, 
cylindrical at the base, with the hair longer at the end, often 
forming a compressed ridge. The muffle is like that of the Cervine 

3. The GodU-like Anidopes, which have a heavy body; strong legs; 
lai|^e hoofs and false hoo&; very short tail, flat and hairy above; 
]:ecurved conical horns. 

1. Tinie Antelopes. 
The horns are short, strong, lyrate, annulated, and of a white colour ; 
the nose is compressed, very high, rounded, the nostrils very close 
together; the crumen distinct; the fur soft; the skull has the nose- 
opening very large, and extended back over the eyes. 

1. Saiga Tartarica (Antilope Colus, H. Smith), the Saiga and Colus, 
is the only species of True Antelope which inhabits any part of Europe. 
The size of the Saiga is about equal to that of the fallow deer, me 
length being four feet; but the form of the body more nearly 
resembles that of the sheep, being round and heavy, mth a large 
head and short slender limbs, and the whole proportions of the animal 
want the usual grace and elegance which conmionly characterise the 
antelope tribes. The nose is large, swollen, and cartilaginous, like 
that of the elk ; it is marked above by deep transverse furrows or 
wrinkles, and, from its great size and protuberance, compels the 
animal to go backwards whilBt feeding. The nostrils are laige and 
open ; the ears of a moderate size ; the tail from three to four inches in 
length; and the lachrymal sinuses much smaller than in .the Indian 
Antelope. The hair is